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S^arUairl) (JToUcge l.tbiacs 



'■ For the purchase ot books (oi 1 




* - •.". ry 


No. XIV. 











December, 1906 

j Y »0JriC./y ^ 



2; s-;;, /o.p 



1 y 1 


HOPE that this overgrown booklet will be found 
to justify its existence, if not its size, by providing 
a full and trustworthy account of its special subject, 
and further by setting forth in detail a typical frag- 
ment of French book-history — the story of one 
among the numerous non-religious works whose period of popu- 
larity coincided with the transition from the Manuscript to the 
Printed Book. This, and the desire to do just honour to a 
great but now negleded poem, must be my excuse for making 
so large a book concerning the twenty-one editions of a single 

I have long been interested in the Roman de la Rose and 
its bibliography; but the moving impulse towards the undertaking 
of this task was the desire to solve the puzzle of the first three — 
or, as Brunet thought, four— editions, and decide their order of 
priority. After I had got some way in working out this question 
for myself, I became aware that M. Claudin had settled the matter 
on other lines, mainly typographical ; and had his great work, and 
especially the Lyons portion of it, appeared some years ago, this 
monograph would not have been written. In the meantime, how- 
ever, I had found many other points to decide, and much interest- 

ing work to be done ; and in the case of several of the undated 
editions I have been able to fix dates more accurately, I believe, 
than has yet been done. For this purpose I have made large use 
of the method of internal, or textual, comparison, a method which 
has been unaccountably neglected in bibliography. It is a method 
which (like all others) requires caution in handling, and cannot 
always be counted on to give decisive results. But when it does 
so, the decisions are often splendidly sure and final. In the case of 
a series of editions of a work like the Roman de la Rose^ careful 
and observant search is nearly sure to be rewarded by an occasional 
important find — some minute but decisive feature showing that 
this or that edition must necessarily have preceded or followed 
some other; and thus it becomes possible by means of the editions 
with a date to fix the order of those without. An instance of this 
occurs in the puzzling edition of Alain Lotrian, O on the list, the 
last of the Quartos. Here, in the course of the interpolation of 
104 lines, first introduced by Du Pr6, appears (line 73) the mis- 
reading droit for dort\ a misreading which is inexplicable until wc 
observe that in the 1526 Quarto (N) the reading was drot^ 
obviously a mere compositor's inversion of the right letters. The 
change to droits then, was an attempt to corre6t this unintelligible 
word; and wc are quite justified — having no indications to the 
contrary — in assuming that the undated edition O is derived 
dircftly from the edition of 1526. The same feature also shows 
that it preceded the edition of Clement Marot's Recension, pub- 
lished in 1529 (Q); for there this same interpolation has been 
introduced afresh containing the very same misreading droit (besides 
others), showing it to have been copied from the Alain Lotrian 

The usually pleasant task of acknowledgement is saddened in 
this case by the recalling of irreparable loss. To Mr. Proftor I 

was indebted not only for direct information on certain points, 


given ungrudgingly and without reserve, but also for much en- 
couragement and stimulating suggestion. To M. Claudin — per- 
sonally unknown to me — I was deeply grateful for the privilege 
of seeing proof sheets of his Lyons volumes some considerable 
time before their publication; and for his permission to quote 
from them. It will be seen in my account of the earliest editions 
how much I have availed myself of his authority. 

My thanks are also due to M. Delisle, late Diredor of the 
Biblioth^ue Nationale, and to the other authorities there for 
much courtesy and helpfulness ; and to the Librarians of the 
Bibliotheque de TArsenal and the Musee Cond6 for affording me 
every convenience and assistance in visiting those Libraries. 

The Library of the Palais des Arts at Lyons was kind enough 
to allow the facsimile to be made of their precious copy of the 
Second Folio. 

The authorities of the British Museum and of the Bodleian 
have also been most kind and obliging, both in the matter of fac- 
similes and in other ways. 

Among private owners I must specially thank M. MassQn, of 

Amiens, for his great kindness in sending over his own two copies 

of the Second Folio for my inspection, and for his permission to have 

the Facsimile, Plate Xllla, made from one of them. Mr. Dyson 

Perrins was equally courteous in sending me his copy of the same 

Folio to examine. Mrs. Christie Miller was obliging enough to 

allow her fine copy of the First Folio to be brought to the 

Museum, and facsimiles made from it; and I am also indebted to 

Mr. Graves for his services in this matter. Mr. Quaritch procured 

for me the permission of Mr. Pierpont Morgan to examine his 

copies of the Second and Third Folios. Mr. G. Locker-Lampson 

welcomed me to Rowfant to see the copy of the First Folio which 

was then there. 

To M. Paul Meyer I am grateful for his good-nature in 

vii b 



turning the high-power lens of his great erudition upon an in- 
significant trifle of bad verse (p. 164). To M, Louis Polain I am 
indebted for certain references, mentioned in place^ and also for 
very material service in finding books at the Biblioth^ue Nationale. 
Also to M. Ernest Langlois for his kind reply upon certain points 
as to which I consulted him (p. 98). 

Lastly, and chiefly, is my gratitude due to the Hon. Secretary 
of the Bibliographical Society for a quite colossal sum of general 
help and particular services; of which the acknowledgment here 
is — like an LO.U. — some relief to the debtor's feelings, but in no 
way a discharge of the debt. 

I have taken the utmost pains to avoid mistakes, verifying every number and 
every reference, usually twice over. But in such a work I fear it is beyond hoping 
for that no error should be found, and I would follow the example of the printers of 
(dd, and pray the reader who may light on such to be gracious and amend the fault 
for himself. 


The original French version of the late M. Gaston Paris' 
Skistch of Mediaeval French Literature, alluded to on page 5, has 
Just been published for the first time, with corrections and addi- 
tions from his own MS. Its title is Esquisse historique de la Lit- 
tirature franfaise au moyen age^ Paris, Librairie Armand Colin, 
1 907. 

November 2ix/, 1906. 






StcTioN I. General Bibliographical Account: 

The Manuscripts n 

The Early Printed Editions 12 

The Folios . 13 

The Quartos 28 

element Marot's Recension 32 

Molinec*s Prose Version 33 

Section II. Description of the Twenty-one Editions • • - ■ 35 


Section I. General Description 71 

Section II. The Eight Series of Special Illl'strations, and the Mathhimt 
Series L.i. The Earliest Lyons Woodcuts ... .82 

Series L.ii. The Second Lyons Woodcuts ... • ^3 

Series L.iii. Recuttingi of the Second Lyon» Scricx .... 84 

Scries V.i. Virard's First Series .85 

Series V.ii. Vjrard's Second Series . . - - ^S 

Scries Lc N. The Le Noir Quartos .88 

Series P.V.i. Galliot du Pr^'s . . . 88 

Scries P.V.ii. Jehan Longis (and othcn) . 91 

The Mathitlm Cuts .... .93 


Section III. Thb Vbrse-Titles, and Illustrations in bach Edition : 

Introdudoiy 97 

Verse-Titles and Illustrations loi 

Illustrations not allotted to Verse-Titles 131 

Section IV. Table of the Illustrations in the Eighteen Editions of 

THE Poem 135 

Section V. Table of the Illustrations in the Three Editions of 

Molinet's Prose Version 138 


Section L Text of the First Fouo and prjb-Marotian Editions . 147 

Section II. ClIment Marot's Recension 157 

Section III. Molinbt's Prose Version 160 

Section IV. Pedigree of the Printed Editions 166 

Section V. Two Passages in Parallel Texts 169 

Section VI. Interpolations in the MS. followed by Molinet -174 

Section VII. The Edition of 1735 187 

Appendices : 

A. The Date of V^rard's Edition of Molinet's Prose Version '193 

B. Table showing the Relation of the Chapten in Molinet's Prose Version 

to the Sedions in the Original Poem 202 

C. Table of the Twenty-one Editions 205 

The Illustrations 209 

Facsimiles 213. 



ft HE special genius of France — if it were necessary to 
> define it in a single phrase — ought be best expressed 
k as the Genius of the Joy of Living. Whereas the 
L English temperament has an unconquered tendency 
; to ask "What is the Profit?" the French nature 
seems always to ask ** What is the Pleasure 7 " Hence in everything 
French, their philosophies^ their reUgtons, their arts, their drudg- 
eries, there is a certain breathlessness, as of things that have to keep 
up with the pace of an advancing universe, to ride always in the 
foam-crest of the foremost wave. It is this characteristic of the 
racial force that has made France the leader in so many efforts 
and at so many epochs. At one time her literature, at another her 
chivalry, at another her University, at another her military, have 
set the type and standard to civilization. Not that the first initia- 
tive or invention has often sprung from her, but that she has per- 
petually seized the one vital germ among the many doomed to 
extinction, and brought it to its fiill pcrfeCHon, developing it into 
a grace or a need of aChial human life. And if in this conneCHon 
our thoughts fly at once to her secular supremacy in the less in- 
telleChial functions of dress and cookery, are not these things, after 
all, the Little Happinesses of actual everyday life for all but a very 
few saintly or heroic souls, and if not part of the grand machinery 
of life yet among its most important lubricators? 

It is evident, however, that this determination to live at the 
topmost of a£tual life will have as its reverse side a certain careless- 
ness for durability; and it is noteworthy that almost all French 
work in art or literature has been done with the objedt of 
immediate success, apd not of enduring fame. If the splendid 
cathedrals of northern France seem aq exception, it may be 
answered that durability is a necessary accident of the finest 
architedlure, and therefore an incidental objeft to all archite£tural 
ambition. Nor, indeed, in the extreme complexities of civilization, 
would it be possible to observe this racial French chara£teristic 
often pure, or always in full action. As a general tendency it is 
visible enough. 

At present I draw attention to it ii) order to explain tWQ 
matters with regard to my present subjed, the Roman de la Rose; first 
the nature of the poem, and secondly the strange story of its vast 
temporary success and complete subsequent eclipse. 

The Roman de la Rose was written in the very opposite spirit 
to that of Dante. Jean de Meun-n-rfor it is his part in it which 
must be mainly considered-^-r-wrote with a vision completely filled 
with the things of this world,^ of life as it wa$ being lived around 
him. His tone is not so much irreligious 9!^ simply non-religious.. 
He caught up all the new ideas that were in the air. He recog- 
nized that the itch for classical nappes and mythological stories 
which had long been pedantic was now becQme popular. He took 
the latest things in science, literature, and learning, and served them» 
with a copious seasoning of his own caustic wit, in a form equally 
appetizing and assimilable to his own generation. To use another 
metaphor, he clothed the dry bones of old learning and new science 
with flesh and blood, and made them a most entertaining show of 
adtual life. And for his own„ and several succeeding generations, hia 
work fulfilled its objedts^-rabsolutely fulfilled. Lpve is the chief 
business of all generations; and the book became the text-book of 
all lovers, ^^ the coounon paternoster/* a$ Molinet calls it; and, as^ 
he says also, ^^so imbedded in the memories pf men that to re- 
write it in a new style would be like composing a new A B C.'' 


There is curious and almost pathetic evidence of this use of 
the book as a Lover's Bible, in the frequency with which we find 
copies of the early printed editions scored or marked or under- 
lined in places, precisely in the same way as religious books are 
often treated. Even bibliography develops a touch of sentiment in 
handling these tokens of long-dead loves that were once so warm, 
so living, so devout; and as we turn pages once so tenderly fingered 
and read lines once pored over by such bright and kindled eyes, 
the volume itself seems like a shrine hallowed by the devotions of 
many worshippers. Perhaps the most afFe£ting case of such a use 
of the book that I have seen is in a copy of the rare little edition 
of 1 5 1 5, not one of the choicest or most beautiful. Here, across 
the rude little woodcut representing the loves of Mars and Venus, 
the first owner has written the date '^ Jeudi 14 aout 15 16.*' Guilty 
or not, how passionate must have been the feeling that could leave 
such a memorial! At this distance of time the pathos aflFefts us 
more than the wrongdoing, even as it does in the story of Francesca 
da Rimini. 

More striking, however, even than the immense popularity 
of the book for three centuries, was its subsequent total eclipse. 
The work was at the very top of its fortunes, manuscript copies 
pouring forth in unnumbered quantities, when the invention of 
printing offered a new means of supplying the unceasing demand; 
and in something under sixty years, from about 1480 to 1538, 
twenty-one editions appeared. Six of these were issued in the last 
twelve years of that period; and the abrupt cessation of its publica* 
tion after that seems at first sight to show an unaccountably sudden 
loss of popularity. The change of taste was, no doubt, as immediate 
and as impetuous as such changes are in France. But it is evident 
that the vitality of this work, as an a£lual living book, had been 
waning for some little time. The editions of the old text published 
after 1 500 are none of them produced for the same class as the earlier 
editions, and become more and more akin to Chap-books in their 
bad paper and printing. The recension by M arot itself was more a 
resuscitation than a keeping alive, and it is noteworthy that there 


is only one edition of it in roman letter. The book already belonged 
to the past. Allegory and the old language and black letter all 
faded quickly together as the new impulse grew; and the poem, 
which breathed so much of the Renaissance spirit, and had tended 
so much to the development of the Renaissance movement, perished 
as a plant is choked and overpowered by its own seedlings. 

The poem, therefore, with this long^ breach of continuity in 
its history, comes to us as a thing from the dead past, as a buried 
monument dug up for its archaeological interest, as a ruined 
building visited for curiosity or admired for beauty, but no longer 
used for any service to living beings. It has not been, like the 
works of Shakespeare, or even of Chaucer, in England, handed 
down as living literature since its first appearing, and kept alive in 
every succeeding generation. And yet it is far from being a mere 
antiquarian relic, fit only for the le6ture-room or the colledlor's 
cabinet. It is more, even, than a mere *' classic,'' although in its 
high level of poetic art, and its sustained power it has every claim 
to rank as such. In spite of its length and its frequent tediousness, 
there is much in the Roman de la Rose which can still be read with 
a perfedtly human and everyday pleasure and interest, and passages 
which a dreamy lover might nowadays mark for their sweet and 
subtle interpreting of his own moods ; while in some of the later 
parts it seems to give pointed and pungent expression to ideas we 
usually consider absolutely modern. 

An account of the work is to bje found in every text book of 
literary history, so I will give but a very brief one here. It con- 
sists, as everyone knows, of two parts of very unequal length, 
written by two separate authors of very different quality. The 
date accepted for the first part is about 1237.^ In this year, or the 

' Jean de Meun speaks of writing his continuation. Am trespasses plus de qua^ 
rente (line 10972). He wrote not later than 1 277, as he does not mention the crown- 
ing of Charles d'Anjou as Idng of Jerusalem, which took place in that year; and 
since he extols Charles in the poem, it seems certain he would have mentioned this 
had he been writing hter. He must have written after 1268, since he alludes to 
the beheading of Conradin in that year. But the termintts a qua is more precisely fixed 


year before, a youthful poet, who tells us himself that he was 
twenty-five (1. 23 and 1. 48) began a very pretty and graceful 
allegory, a love story in dreamland, with a background of summer 
weather and bright landscape, ot gardens and garden-walls which 
arc frescoed without and full of greenery within, of roses and 
singing birds and delightful young people, who are all personifica- 
tions—or as we might phrase it to-day visualizations— of charming 
qualities and pleasant feelings. Beauty, Courtesy, and the like. 
Gaiety and happiness are in the air; the very difficulties appear 
made for the pleasure of overcoming them. All is fresh, innocent, 
buoyant, light-hearted, and in spite of the allegory full of a certain 
reality in the scenery and the situations. This part of the poem 
is only a little over four thousand lines in length; and the work 
would probably have been finished in less than the same number 
again. But here the author died; and perhaps his fragment would 
have perished, like so much else of good and bad, had not another 
poet, less romantic, but of stronger wing, been moved to adopt it 
and complete it on his own lines. It would seem to have lain un- 
known and uncopied for some forty years, when Jean de Meun,^ 
about the same age himself as the first author had been when he 
began the poem, found it, and saw in the fresh and vigorous Rose 
of Guillaume de Lorris a stock whereon to graft a Rose of his own 
of very difi^erent nature. In his hands the refined and delicate 
Damask bourgeons and spreads into a prodigious and rather coarse 
Rambler. There is some pretence and profession of following 
the plan of the original poem, which is indeed at last worked out 
to a kind of conclusion. But the whole charader of the work is 
changed. The light-heartedness has disappeared, and gives place to 
a cynical humour. The atmosphere of romance is changed for that 
of satire. In the words of M. Gaston Paris : ^ " The subjedl ot 

by the k£t that Guillaume de Lorris was acquainted with the Taumoiement J^ Antichrist 
of Huon de Mdri, written in 1235 (Gaston Paris, Littirature franfaisi au mojen age^ 
§ iii). 

^ Born about 1250. Gaston Paris, Uc. cit. 

' Gaston Paris, Mediaeval French Literature (Temple Primers), p. 122. This 


the poem, the conquest of the Rose by TAmant, is often but an 
accessory lost to sight; TAmant himself, instead of suffering and 
a<5ting, is but the benevolent ^ listener to interminable discourses 
addressed to him by Raison, Ami, Faux-Semblant, which unfold 
a kind of disordered Encyclopaedia, taken from various sources, 
but penetrated with the author's spirit, a bold, cynical, nowise 
religious, eminently bourgeois spirit, and at times quite modern. • . . 
We also find a coarse naturalism which appears again with a 
certain grandeur, in the episode where Nature confesses to her 
priest Genius, and complains that man alone in the world refuses 
to obey her with docility/* 

The strange incongruity between the two parts of the poem 
did not hinder its success, nor, hybrid though it was, did it suffer 
from the usual law of hybrids, sterility. For in the succeeding 
generations it became the parent, dire£t or indirect, of several 
works of some length and importance, chief among which was the 
Pelerinaige de Fhomme^ through the line of which it is possible to 
say that in some sense the Roman de la Rose was the ancestor of 
the Pilgrim^s Progress. For over two hundred and fifty years, first 
in manuscript and then in printed editions, it enjoyed a vast 
popularity; and in spite of the fulminations of Gerson, and the 
shrieks oiF Christine de Pisane, the healthy good sense of the public 
persisted in seeing in it more than the mere sensuality, refined or 
coarse, which is only a conspicuous feature to the eyes of the 
prurient-minded. There are, certainly, passages too outspoken for 
modern ears, and some things less pleasing even than mere coarse- 
ness. But these might be cut out, and leave the poem little 
mutilated. Although the author of the Jardin de Plaisance ^ links 
the Roman de la Rose and the Livre de Mathiolus in one condemna- 
tion, the difiFerence is vast between them; and the popular judge- 
ment was right in refusing to resign the former to the dirty-minded 

most delightful and valuable little book is, unfortunately, disfigured by the appalling 
translation. It has not, I believe, been published in French. 

^ I do not know what the original French word was. 

* F^ diiii, edition of Oliver Amoulet, Lyon, s. d. 


for whom the latter was written. It is very significant that the 
small illustration of Mars and Venus, alluded to above, which 
belonged originally to the Ldvre de Mathiolus and is in that book 
one of the less improper, was found too much so for the readers of 
the Roman de la Rose^ and is replaced in the next edition by 
another cut/ 

' See pp. 31 and 92. 





The Manuscripts. 

' REGRET that I must leave this important and 
, interesting part of the 8ut^e£t quite untouched. 
But any real study of it would involve enormous 
f labour, besides much travelling, owing to the 
I immense number of manuscripts in existence. 
The literary side of it will, I hope, be treated in M. Ernest 
Langlois' new edition, when the eagerly-awaited day of its appear- 
ance arrives. The artistic side — including the grouping of the 
manuscripts according to the subjects chosen for illustration, and 
the style of the illustrations — would be a work of very great 
interest to any one with the necessary time and knowledge, and 
I hope somebody will some day undertake it. The study of the 
manuscripts is in truth of greater importance than of the printed 
editions; for, apart from any question of the text, the aftual 
number of the manuscripts cannot be much, if at all, less than 
the number of copies left of the early printed editions. Indeed, 
if we omit the four editions of Clement Marot's Recension, the 
later of which exist in some quantities, the manuscripts are pro- 
bably the more plentiful. They could* no doubt, be traced into 
groups which might almost be called ** editions," more and more 

numerous as the work grew famous, more and more beautiful 
as it became the favourite of the rich, more and more cheaply 
written as its popularity spread downwards. Many libraries have 
no copy of any of the early printed editions, but hardly a library 
of any importance, public or private, but possesses at least one 
nxanuscript; and the student of booksellers' catalogues knows that 
a manuscript appears in them quite as often as a printed copy, at 
least of any of the rarer editions. In the British Museum there 
are thirteen manuscripts, five of the fourteenth century, eight of 
the fifteenth, the finest of all, Harley 4425, being copied as to its 
text from the third Lyons edition (Le Roy). Full accounts of all 
but one of these are found in Mr. H. D. L. Ward's catalogue. The 
Bodleian has five, all of the fifteenth century. In the Bibliotheque 
Nationale there were sixty-seven when M. Paulin Paris wrote the 
account in the Histoire LittSraire^ vol. xxiii. Several of these are 
described in the same writer's Manuscrits franfois. Three of them 
are earlier than the fourteenth century. There are eight in the 
Biblioth^ue de TArsenal; five in the Mus6e Cond6. The total 
spread over the world must be several hundred. 

The Early Printed Editions. 

In the list of these (Appendix C) it will be observed that 
there are certain omissions, as well as additions, as compared with 
the usual enumeration in bibliographical works. But having 
examined all copies, or at least all of whose identity there could 
be any doubt, in the British Museum, Bodleian, Bibliotheque 
Nationale, Biblioth^ue de TArsenal, and the Musee Cond6, as well 
as many copies in private hands, I have been able to discover no 
edition not in this list; and I am driven to believe that some of 
those mentioned by bibliographers either do not exist, or are 
merely duplicates difiFerently described. This seems to be the case 
with the third edition mentioned by Brunet (vol. iii, col. 1 172, top), 
which will be spoken of below; and of the eleven numbers in 


Dn Copinger*8 Supplement to Hain, I cannot make more than 
seven separate editions.^ 

A glance at the list will show that there is a pleasing and 
unusual straightforwardness, not to say symmetry, in the general 
sequence of the editions. In fad the plaguey little demon who digs 
pitfalls for bibliographers, and sooner or later catches every one of 
them tripping, seems to have been temporarily off duty when the 
Roman de la Rose was issuing from the various presses, although it 
must be acknowledged that in some of the details he shows signs 
of great adivity. The bibliography, as a whole, is kind enough to 
arrange itself unasked in a simple and easily-remembered scheme, 
the editions fidling naturally into four well-marked groups: 
(i) The Folios; (2) The Quartos; (3) The editions of CUment 
Marot*s Recension; (4) The editions of Molinet*s Prose Version. 
There is another point in which this work shows consideration for 
bibliographers, and that is in the numerical symmetry of the 
editions, which run into sevens as neatly as a Hebrew genealogy. 
The Folios are seven, the Quartos seven, and the other two groups 
of four and three respectively are together seven. These twenty- 
one editions, with some small variations in particular copies due 
probably to different impressions of the same edition, make up the 
whole series, as far as I can discover. They range from about 1 480 
to 1538, a period of nearly sixty years. After this there is a long 
blank of nearly two hundred yean, during which no edition 
appears to have been printed; and the next edition to that of 1538 
is the edition of 1735, edited by Lenglet Du Fresnoy. 

TAe Folios. 

In the first group, the Folios, not one of the seven bears a 
date; and the first three are also without name of place or printer. 

* Hit 5149 it Folio VIIi S'SOt S^S^ S^SZ ^?P^^ to be til Folio I (515a an 
imperfeA copy); 5151 it Folio IV ; 5154 tnd 5159 are Folio II| 5155 it Quarto I^ 
5156, 5157 are Folio III} 5158, Folio VL 


It is, therefore, only by means of the type, the woodcuts, and other 
indire£t evidence that their order can be ascertained. No less than 
five of the seven, however, are illustrated by the same series of 
woodcuts, printed from the same blocks, and by the state of these 
cuts, the gradually increasing breaks and cracks, and the gradual 
disappearance of a certain number of them, it is a comparatively 
easy and safe matter to arrange them in chronological order. But 
this method was not adopted by the earlier bibliographers, no doubt 
owing to the h6t that all these editions are rare, and that it has 
been hardly possible to find all the five editions together in any 
one library, public or private. And there has been till recently 
a great ignorance of the relation of all the early editions to one 
another, and especially of the adtual identity of the wood blocks in 
five of them. Thus in 1878 a type-imitated, so-called facsimile, was 
issued of one of these five editions, with copies of the woodcuts; 
copies which were doubtless obtained by tracing, and which in 
these days of photographic facsimile seem rather poon But the 
edition chosen for this expensive and careful reproduction was 
neither of the two earlier, which contain the complete series of 
cuts, but the edition of Jean Du Pr6, in which two of the cuts 
are missing ; and it seems difiicult to believe that the projectors 
of this facsimile edition knew of its relation to the Lyons Folios, 
or that they would not have chosen one of those for reproduction 
in preference, with the full series of woodcuts, had they known 
of their previous appearance. It was, again, from Du Pr6's 
edition also, with its incomplete series of cuts, that the well-known 
edition in the Btbliothique Elzevirienne got its imitations of these 
same cuts, also apparently traced.^ Of these woodcuts, the famous 
Lyons series, I shall have more to say direCtly; but first comes the 
question, " Which is the first edition of the Roman de la Rose ? " 
Brunet gave up the question in despair. He mentions three ^ 

^ Though these two sets of facsimiles appeared in the same year, 1878, they are, 
as far as I can make out, independent of one another, and not printed from the same 

* These appear to be really only two. See postea^ p. 22« 


editions of forty-one lines printed at Lyons, and says frankly that 
he is unable to say which is the most ancient of the three. After 
enumerating these three, however, he gives a brief notice of an 
edition of thirty-four lines, containing one hundred and seventy- 
seven (it should be one hundred and eighty) leaves. This edition 
also is without date, place, or printer's name, and Brunet has no- 
thing to say of it except void encore une Edition fort ancienne. 

It seems now certain that this is earlier than those he described 
before it, and is the real first edition. In the third volume of his 
Histoire de Plmprimerie^ M. Claudin goes at length into the typo- 
graphy of these earliest editions, and establishes on typographical 
grounds the priority of the 34-line edition. His reasons will 
be found briefly stated in the account of that edition given below 

(P* 35)* I ™^y ^^^ ^^y '^^ some time before M. Claudin*s third 
volume appeared, I had consulted the late Mr. Proctor on the 
subject, showing him my reasons on internal grounds for thinking 
this edition earlier than those of Syber and Le Roy, and that he, 
without hesitation, took the same view, on typographical grounds 
alone. After the consensus of two such experts, there is no need of 
corroborative proofs, but as the evidence of the woodcuts is interest- 
ing, and I think would be even by itself conclusive, I will give it 
here in detail, in the same form as I set it forth in the paper I 
had the honour to read before the Bibliographical Society in 
February, 1904^ 

The most superficial examination is enough to show that 
there is some very close relation between this edition, A on the list 
(Appendix C), and the two succeeding editions, B and C, especially 
with regard to the illustrations. Not only does the total number 
of woodcuts in Folios II and III correspond exactly to the number 
in Folio I, viz., ninety-two, but both series represent, cut for cut, 
the same scenes, the same figures, and the same actions. In fa£t, 
the one set is without doubt more or less closely copied or imitated 
firom the other.^ The examples of the two series reproduced show 
the imitation quite clearly. 

* The h& that several of the cuts have been reversed in the coj^ng seeoM to 

But then» of course, comes the question — which copied 
which? That the cuts in Folio I, which may be called the Ortuin 
cuts, are ruder in style than the cuts in Folios II, III, etc., which 
may be called the Syber cuts, and show less proficiency in the art 
of wood-cutting, seems plain, when the whole of the two series are 
considered together. But it is obvious to suggest, especially to 
any one familiar with the extent to which cheap and bad copying 
of famous woodcuts was carried in France a few years later than 
this, that the ruder cuts were copies by an unskilled workman of 
the more sophisticated cuts of Folio II • Indeed, some years ago, 
when I first became acquainted with the two series, and found the 
Le Roy edition universally accepted as the first, I naturally took for 
granted that this was the case. But on closer examination not only 
does the general impression negative this idea, but there are par- 
ticular indications which seem conclusive as to the copying having 
been the other way about. Thus the cuts in Folio I are habitually 
more faithful to the description in the text than those in Folio II, 
and details strictly carrying out the words of the poem are again 
and again found in the Ortuin cuts, but ignored in the Syber, 
especially where not very obtrusively shown in the former. Often, 
indeed, the Syber cuts show a certain amplification of scenery 
and elaboration of background and details; but these details are 
never drawn from the text, but are merely general heightenments 
of the picture, the wood-cutter seeming to show throughout a 
desire to improve on the rude style of the earlier craftsman, and to 
be thinking more of displaying his own technical superiority than 
of illustrating the text. Indeed in some examples, to be given 
presently, it seems hardly possible that he can have had the text 
before his eyes at all. It is remarkable, however, that the earlier 
wood-cutter, in spite of his inferior technique, has often contrived 
to give more expression to the features in his cuts than his successor, 
and in the facsimiles, §§ 1 5 and 29, on Plates IV and X, the grace 
both of the figures and the faces in the earlier representation con- 
exclude altogether the remote alternative that both followed independently a common 
series of drawings. 


trasts strikingly with the ineptness and conventionality of the 
later. Particularly noteworthy is the earlier artist's bold and not 
unsuccessful effort to give beauty to the refleftion of the face of 
Narcissus in the fountain, showing his keen interest in the story 
he was illustrating. 

Two other pairs, §§ 78 and 10 1, Plates VI and XII, have 
been selected for facsimile as the most striking examples of the 
superiority, as illustrations, of the Ortuin cuts. In the former, 
§ 78, the designer has brought into one illustration several 
different objefts or aftions, which are mentioned in the text as 
examples of the ** Force of Nature." Thus we see the bird in the 
cage, who would gladly exchange his good food and comfort for 
liberty; the fish in the trap, whose companions think he is enjoy- 
ing himself, and seek to join him; the cat, whom instinfl teaches 
to go for rat or mouse, although she has never seen one before; 
and lastly and chiefly, the objed of which the others are parables, 
namely, the young man who regards wistfully the consolation and 
repose of the monastic life, but is warned that he will find himself 
in the same position as the bird in the cage or the fish in the trap, 
and feel the calls of Nature irresistible: 

S*il ne hit de necessity 
Vertu par grant humilitd. 

Now if we compare the two illustrations, it quickly becomes 
apparent that the ruder cut is an almost anxious effort to represent 
or suggest the precise things mentioned in the text, with a naive 
determination to bring in everything, and no thought at all of 
making a harmonious pifture. What particularly strikes the eye is 
the birdcage hanging in the air with nothing to hang from; and it 
was no doubt this particular feature which offended the more sophis- 
ticated wood-cutter, and led him to try to improve the picture into 
a more connected and logical form. With this objefl he has 
changed the scene from pkin-air to indoors, and his birdcage hangs 
from the very definite joist of an undoubted ceiling. But the awk- 
ward part of the business for him is that, in order to get the ceil- 

17 D 

ing to hang the birdcage from, he has had to bring the fish in the 
fish-trap indoors as well ; and the lines which in the earlier pidure 
represent, with the simple but efficient suggestiveness of early art, 
the flowing stream in which the trap is lying, he has turned into 
the straight lines of the floor of his chamber; while in an even 
more awkward way, he is driven to depid the whole building 
representing the monastery at which the young man is staring, 
door, windows, roof and all, as also within the same chamber. 

In the second example, § loi. Plates VI and XII, the evidence 
is equally clear. The cut illustrates the story of Deucalion and 
Pyrrha, who, as the text tells fully, asked counsel of Themis how 
to re-people the earth; and were told in reply to throw behind 
them " the bones of the great Mother." This Pyrrha, with proper 
filial feeling, objeded to doing, till Deucalion interpreted the 
words as referring to Mother Earth, and her framework of rocks. 
Deucalion then cast stones from which sprang men, and Pyrrha 
others from which sprang women. The first illustrator, the artist 
of the Ortuin cuts, as usual read his text with a care which some mo- 
dern illustrators would do well to imitate; and depifts in his usual 
naive but efFedive way the upper portions of two human figures, 
plainly meant to be distinguished as man and woman, rising or 
developing out of things plainly meant for stones. The later wood- 
cutter, on the other hand, has clearly no knowledge of the story, 
and is perfectly satisfied with himself for representing two figures, 
of indistinguished sex, rising out of what may be ground or may 
be water, with all suggestion of the stones eliminated. Yet, apart 
from these details, it will be seen that the general resemblance ot 
the two cuts is extremely close; and it seems inconceivable that 
L.ii. should be the original and L.i. the copy. In fa6t, this one 
cut alone seems to me almost conclusive. 

There are many less salient instances, all to the same purpose, 
the earlier cut aiming at literal illustration of the text, and the later 
copying the general features of the earlier, and missing pointed 
details. A rather telling example is the cut representing the Dieu 
d' Amours in pursuit of the lover, § 14, Plates III and IX. Here 





Vienne; but last, and with most probability, to Ortuin, or Ortuin 
and Schenck, at Lyons, to which place the watermarks in the paper 
point strongly. M. Claudin decides finally in favour of Ortuin and 
Schenck. Mr. Procflor agreed with him, and assigned the book to 
about 1 480- 1 48 2. 

For some reason or other, perhaps because Brunet dismisses, 
it so lightly, this edition has not hitherto received so much atten- 
tion as it seems to me to deserve; not only as being the first printed 
edition of this famous poem, and giving the form of the text which 
was followed with slight variations by all the subsequent editions 
until Clement Marot's Recension superseded it; but even more for 
the sake of the woodcuts. Rude as their style is, and childish as 
the art of both designer and cutter appears in many of them, there 
is in others a very decided feeling for grace and beauty, and a 
sudden power of rendering expression in pose and features which 
seems to come more from the determined effort of the woodcutter 
than his skill, and is startling in contrast to the rudeness and 
childishness. Moreover, just as in numerous other cases the first 
printed edition of an illustrated work fixed the standard for all 
subsequent editions, so these rude and early designs were the source, 
model, and inspiration of the greater part of the illustrations made 
for the early-printed editions of the Roman de la Rose. We have seen 
how closely the Syber series followed them ; and the Syber cuts, after 
they came to Paris, were in their turn copied or imitated to a large 
extent in all the succeeding series. 

The next edition, the Second Folio, in which the Syber cuts 
first appear, and for which they were pretty evidently made, is a 
book of extreme rarity, and it is possible that there is only one 
quite perfe6t and uninjured copy in existence; that is the copy 
described at length by Mr. Quaritch in his Catalogue of Mediaval 
Literature^ and even that appears to want a leaf at the beginning, a 
leaf, however, which was no doubt merely blank, as is the first leaf 
in the Ortuin Folio.^ The copy in the Library at Lyons, described 
by Brunet, has lost the last leaf, and some former owner in a 

^ Pr^rved in Mr. Locker-Lampson*s copy. See p. 36, postea. 


manuscript restoration has attributed it to Gering. M.Jean Masson 
of Amiens possesses two copies of this most rare book, both un- 
fortunately imperfeft, but exhibiting most interesting differences 
in the first page. One copy has been very thickly coloured, and 
in this (from which the facsimile Plate Xllla was made) commance is 
spelt with an a^ and there are two misprints; in line 4 mensonges is 
zip^\tmen7ionges^ and lines 18, 19, at the top of the second column, 
are transposed. In the second copy (as in the Lyons copy from 
which the facsimile, Plate VII, was made) these mistakes have been 
correded, but otherwise the copies are identical.^ This edition is 
confidently attributed by M. Claudin to Jean Syber of Lyons, 
about 1 485-6, Mr. Proftor thought it perhaps a year earlier, 
1484. Until quite recently it has been supposed to be the earliest 
printed edition of the Roman de la Rose; although book-sellers 
have often claimed that title for its immediate successor, the 
Le Roy edition, in which the same cuts appear in their full num- 
ber. The type of this latter was identified as Le Roy's by Brunet.* 
M. Claudin would place this Roman de la Rose about 1487 or 1488. 
It is not nearly so rare a book as the Syber or Ortuin editions, and 
many public libraries have a copy. This edition has a title-page, 
with a single line of text, Le Rommant (in some copies Rommaut) 
de la Rose. 

Although on typographical grounds these two editions are 
attributed to two different printers, Syber and Le Roy, it is evident 
that there was intimate connection between them.' The woodcuts 
throughout the two are identical, and even the border to the first 
page, although in several of the cuts the Le Roy edition shows 
breaks and cracks absent or less serious in the Syber. There is the 
same number of leaves, and the same number of lines to a column; 

^ A third point of difierence which appears in the facsimile, the reading of 
vimgtiismi for quimxiismi in line 23, is only a pen and ink alteration due to some former 

' M. Claudin points out that it is not (as Brunet says) in the type of Le Roy's 
D^^maldi Sapiinciy i486, but of his Fier-^^Bras of 1487. 

' M. Claudin notes another instance of the same connection between these two 
printers, both of whom were financed by Barthil^my Buyer. 

2 I 

and in fa£t, after some trifling variations in the first few leaves, the 
two correspond page for page, in everything but the style of the 
type, to the point of facsimile. It is evident, therefore, that they 
are very liable, in mere verbal description, to be confused; and 
it is possible that there are copies of the Syber edition lying 
unrecognized even in public libraries. Nor is it, of course, im- 
possible that these twins have a third twin-brother, another edition 
with equally close resemblance of feature. Brunet speaks positively 
of an edition which he says appears to him different from the two 
preceding; and the first lines, as he prints them, present the 
curious difference of songe^ fable and mensonge without final /. This 
particular point, however, looks so like a modern transcriber's 
error, that I cannot help suspecting it may be due to incorredt 
copying, either by Brunet himself or some one who copied for 
him. There may be, probably are, differences of impression, as 
in M. Masson's two copies of the Syber. But in compiling the 
List of Editions I have thought myself justified on the whole 
in omitting this elusive spedtre, which alone of the whole number 
I have been" able neither to see nor to handle.^ 

We now come to the first edition printed in Paris. Jehan du 
Pr6, the printer of the magnificent Abbeville Citi de DieUj and the 
first Paris printer to introduce woodcuts into the printed book^ 
became possessed, we know not how,* of the blocks of the Syber 
woodcuts — so strangely inferior to most of his own purveying-— 
and produced an edition imitating the two Lyons Folios in which 
they had appeared. His edition is undated. M. Claudin, vol. ii^ 
p. 355, puts it "after 1493."* '^^^ woodcuts, however, proclaim 

^ In the Suppltnunt to Brunet, a misprint in the colophon of the Le Roy edition 
is stated very circumstantially, ^^lard \sii\ damour*^ for lart damours. But in several 
copies which I have examined, even the Bodleian with the difference in the tide, I 
cannot find this particular trait 

* Both M. Claudin and M. Rondot are very decided that Jehan Du Pr£ the Paris 
printer was a different person from Jehan Du Pr£ the Lyons printer. Here it would 
obviously be convenient for them to be the same. 

' He does not say on what ground, but no doubt it is because of the large initials 
found first in 1493. ^^^ ^^^* h PP* 2^> ^77* 


clearly that this is their first appearance in Paris, that is, that this 
edition is earlier than Folios VI and VII, in which they appear 
again. Du Pr6 follows the Lyons Folios in the number of leaves, 
150, and of lines to the column, 41. But he had the text carefully 
revised, some mistakes corre<5ted, and some words slightly moder- 
nized; and he introduces for the first time in print an interpolation 
of 104 lines, which appears in all subsequent editions till Clement 
Marot's Recension; and was even reintroduced into the second 
edition of that. Whether this was done to fill the gap caused by 
the omission of certain woodcuts, or they were omitted to provide 
room for the interpolation, or whether both causes operated, is un- 
certain.^ But the number of woodcuts instead of being 92 is only 
88. This redu£tion is due, in the first place, to the disappearance 
altogether of two cuts, one of them the large half-page cut of the 
Building of the Tower, and the other a cut which curiously enough 
reappears in the last two Folios. Further, in Du Pre's edition 
two of the three cuts, repeated in the Lyons editions, are only 
used once. The absence of these cuts naturally made the page-for- 
page and line-for-line imitation of the Lyons Folios impossible : 
and the conformity, which is extremely close in the first few pages, 
gradually becomes less and less until there is a divergence of more 
than a whole page. The inequality is then redressed by the inter- 
polation; and the conformity of line and page is maintained, with 
only trifling exceptions, till the end.^ 

Following very soon after Du Pr6*s edition come the two 
last editions which contain the Syber woodcuts, still from the 
original, most long-sufiFering, blocks. The first bears no printer's 
name, but is attributed by M. Claudin to Le Petit Laurens; 
the second, in the colophon, is stated to have been printed by 
Nicholas Des Prez: but M. Claudin notes that the type is that of 
Pierre Le Caron, whose mark is one of several found on the title- 

^ The lots of two cutS| one a large one, may have suggested the addition of the 
passage, and its length have necessitated the omission of two more cuts (repeats). 

* In one of M. Masson*s copies of the Syber, some of the missing leaves have 
been supplied from a copy of Du Pr£*s edition, which shows the close uniformity. 


page of different copies. In these two editions the form is a little 
changed from that of the preceding Folios; the number of leaves 
is 142 instead of 150; and the number of lines to the column 43 
(occasionally 44) instead of 41. Just as the Syber and Le Roy 
editions are, save for the type, facsimiles of one another, so are 
these two 43 -line editions, line for line, page for page. In only six 
or seven instances, through the whole, is a line carried backward 
or forward from one page to another. The type also, to the 
ordinary eye is extremely similar; the only really salient point, 
except to the trained eye, being the shape of the minuscule d. 
So close is the likeness that in a copy of the earlier of the two 
editions I found a facsimile leaf had been introduced made from 
the later; and this might have remained undetected had I not 
happened to want a facsimile of the same leaf for a copy of the 
later edition. The woodcuts, however, show more variation. Of 
the 85 original blocks — the total 92 of the early editions is made by 
repeats — 80 survive in the Laurens edition. Folio VI, but only 73 
in the Des Prez, Folio VII. The numbers of the illustrations are 
made the same by an increased number of repeats in the later 
edition. I alluded before to the curious fa6t of the reappearance 
in these last two Folios of one of the Syber cuts, which for some 
reason or another was not made use of by Jean du Pr6, who brought 
them to Paris, or first used them there. It is now used, not in its 
right place, but as if it were a printer*s mark, just over the achevi 
dHmprimer (Plates XXV and XXVIII). 

The earlier of these two editions. Folio VI, has been some- 
times called V^rard's first edition, being the first of those men- 
tioned under his name by Brunet. M. Claudin, however, does not 
apparently recognize V^rard's connexion with it; but merely says 
that there are two forms of the edition, one in which the title- 
page bears simply the words i> Rommant de la Rose ; and the other 
in which below this title is the mark of Jehan Petit, with a wood- 
cut border on the right-hand side.^ I therefore concluded at first 
that the only copies bearing V^rard's mark were those on vellum, 

^ The British Museum copy is of the latter, the Bodleian of the former. 


like the copy in the Biblioth^ue Nationale — the only one cited 
hy Macfarlane— which were richly coloured and gilt in V^rard's 
shop, but do not necessarily imply that he was stridly the publisher. 
Not long ago, however, I found an interesting bit of evidence 
that V6rard had a conne£tion with ordinary paper copies as well, 
in the shape of a title-page, undoubtedly of this edition, with the 
same piece of woodcut border as in Jehan Petit's copies, but with 
V^rard's mark instead of Jehan Petit's. (See Plate XXIIIa.) The 
title-page is the only part of the book belonging to this edition. 
The book itself is a copy of the first edition of Clement Marot's 
Recension, 1526, which has lost its own title. 

The last of the Folios, that of Nicolas Des Prez, must have 
followed this very soon. I have printed in the list the names of 
five publishers whose marks are found in different copies. The 
text shows signs of having been carefully revised from that of the 
preceding edition ; some mistakes were corrected, and some words 
modernized. M. Claudin places this edition 1498-1500. But the 
address given by Michel Le Noir offers a difficulty.^ According to 
Renouard {Imprimeurs Parisiens, p. 233) this address is used only 
in 1505 and 1506. He gives it thus: " Au bout du Pont Nostre 
Dame devant Saind Denys de la Chartre a lymaige Nostre 
Dame." If then Le Caron had anything to do with this edition, 
either as printer or publisher,^ it is evident that either M. Le 
Noir had this establishment at the end of the Pont Nostre Dame 
at that time in addition to his usual address *' sur le Pont Saint 
Michel **; or that this title-page was printed several years after the 
rest of the book. (The small type of the name and address, how- 
ever, is identical with that used in the body of the book.) This 
latter hypothesis suits also with the name of Jehan Ponce, to 
whom Renouard assigns only the date ** vers ijos*" M. Claudin, 
ii, 168, mentions an edition of Floretus bearing two dates and 

' M. Cbuidin does not appemr to have seen a copy of this edition with M. Lc 
Noir't name. I have a copy mjnelf, and a copy it cited in a catalogue of Roienthal*s 
in 1904. 

* Le Caron't latest date is given as ^ i sooenviron " by Renouard. 

25 B 

printers' names, 1495, M. Le Noir, and 1499, P. Levet, which 
appears to be an instance of the same kind of thing. 

This is the last appearance of the Syber woodcuts. But in the 
Lyons edition of Molinet*s prose version, there are very coarse 
re-cuttings of sixty-five of them, many of them repeated several 

I have left to the last, as holding an important place among 
the Fdlios, that which is undoubtedly V^rard's, Folio V. This and 
Du Pr6's are plainly closely related, both being in form imitations 
of the Syber and Le Roy editions. Like Du Pr6\ V6rard*s Folio 
consists of 150 leaves in double columns of 41 lines to the column; 
it has 88 cuts; and it introduces the same interpolation of 104 
lines. In fa£t, there can be no doubt that one edition is diredly 
followed by the other. M. Claudin attributes the printing of this 
edition to Etienne Jehannot, and fixes the date as slightly before 
1495 by the condition of the large woodcut L of the title, a letter 
which appears again, rather more worn, in a book dated I495«^ 
If the conjedlural date of the Du Fr6 edition as after 1493 ^^ rig^^> 
it might evidently be a doubtful question which of the two editions 
appeared first, Du Pr^'s or V6rard's. There is, however, one piece 
of textual evidence which, slight as it is, seems necessarily condu^ 
sive as to the priority of Du Pr6's. This will be found set out in 
the section dealing with the pedigree of the editions on p. 165. 
And the general probabilities point strongly to the same conclu- 
sion. It is certain that Du Pr6 must have had Folio III before 
him to know how to place his cuts so exadly. It is equally certain 
that the Du Pr6 and the V6rard are closely copied, one from the 
other. So that supposing Du Pr6 to be the copier, he must have 
been copying two different models at the same time, which seems 
extremely improbable. Again, if V6rard was copying diredt from 
Folio III, why did he omit the two missing cuts, instead of sup- 
plying them, like the others, from the inexhaustible stock of his 
own incongruities? 

There are also certain features in the V6rard Folio, which 

^ U9rdinaire dt CjUaux^ printed by £cienne Jehannot. 


seem to suggest that it was rushed out in a hurry, as if to compete 
with a rival edition. For while about a third of the woodcuts, all 
in the earlier part of the book, are evidently designed intentionally 
for the work (mainly, indeed, after the suggestions of the Syber 
cuts, but a few original in chara£ter), the remaining two-thirds are 
simply old cuts pitched in almost at random. They are drawn 
from all sorts of sources, sacred and pro&ne, and in their present 
office are often incongruous and sometimes ludicrous; as, for instance, 
where instead of Pygmalion and the Statue, we have the cut of 
Eve and the Serpent from the Bible Hystoriee (a close copy of a cut 
from Richel's Spiegel der menschlichtn Bebaltniss)^ or where Noah 
in the Ark has to do duty for Jason sailing after the Golden Fleece. 
Even the cuts appropriate to the work often appear a second time 
in most astonishing masquerade, the figure of Avarice having to 
play Narcissus at the well, and Love instrufting the Lover being 
represented by the gruesome scene of Nero's vivisedtion of his 

There are two copies of this edition in the British Museum, 
one of which is a fine copy on vellum, very richly decorated. Here 
all the cuts are thickly painted over ; and where — as in so many 
cases — the cut is quite inappropriate, the illuminator has paid 
little or no attention to it, but produced an illustration of his own 
to fit the subject. This copy therefore is a well illustrated book, 
entirely different from the paper copies, with their ludicrous in- 
congruities of illustration. And it might be suggested that the 
publisher was thinking chiefly of his vellum copies, intended for 
such treatment, and thought anything good enough for poor 
people who could only buy paper ones. But in any case it is pretty 
evident that the original intention was to design a whole set of 
cuts for a fine new edition. The first three cuts, and three or four 
beside, are original in design, and owe nothing, even of sugges- 
tion, to the Syber cuts. About sixteen or seventeen others seem to 
be founded more or less on the Syber cuts, but are not mere 
copies, and are appropriate to their subje£ts. Suddenly, before any 
more were cut, and very likely before any part of the book was 


set up-— for there is an admixture of incongruous cuts with the 
appropriate quite early in the book — some cause, which may well 
have been the appearance of Du Pr^'s edition, must have arisen to 
change the plan ; and instead of a fine book with a complete series 
of new and appropriate illustrations, such as the Quarto edition 
afterwards issued by V^rard, appeared this grotesque volume, so 
unworthy of Vcrard's reputation. The suggestion of hurry to pub- 
lish is further borne out by the curious mixture of types, which, as 
Mr. Proftor points out in his Index, implies that ** Compositors 
were setting up in both types simultaneously . • . both leaf by leaf, 
and with the types rather mixed." ^ 

The ^artos. 

If V^rard's Folio is so poor and so unworthy, the Quarto 
which bears his name makes up for it by being far the best (as well 
as the earliest) of the seven editions of that size which appeared 
at Paris within the first thirty years of the sixteenth century. It 
is somewhat curious that the Folio editions and the Quartos should 
be chronologically so clearly divided, and that there should be 
practically no overlapping. It is evident, however, from the 
cheaper style of the later Quartos that the work itself was becom- 
ing more and more " popular," and perhaps correspondingly less 
the rich man's toy or treasure. The year 1500 seems, neatly enough, 
to mark the change, though the last of the Folios must have 
been still on sale for some time after the first of the Quartos had 
appeared. The famous British Museum MS., Harlcy 4405, with 
its magnificent miniatures in the highest possible style, is usually 
ascribed to about this date. It appears, however, to have been 
transcribed from the Le Roy edition; and may very likely, there- 
fore, have been begun some years before the end of the century. 
For the seeker after Editions de luxe^ the prose version of Molinet, to 

^ Prodor, Index, ii, p. 604. 


be mentioned later, may have to some extent taken the place of 
the original. For while I can find no record of a vellum copy of 
V^rard*s Quarto, there is in the British Museum a copy on vellum 
of the V^rard edition of Molinet's Prose Version, with the wood- 
cuts — which are the same as those in the Quarto— richly illu- 
minated. The V^rard Quarto has no date; but I have shown 
reasons in Appendix A for placing it earlier than most biblio- 
graphers have done; and it seems certain it was issued in either 
1499 or the earlier part of 1500. 

The V^rard Quarto contains, beside the Roman de la Rose^ 
the Codicilk et testament de Matstre Jehan de Meun^ and the Epitaphe 
du roy Charles septiesme. Apart from these, the a£tual Roman 
de la Rose itself corresponds in arrangement exadtly to the Fourth 
Folio, Jehan Du Pr^*s, from which it was plainly copied. It 
has 150 leaves in double columns, 41 lines to a column, and 
88 woodcuts. The woodcuts, with the exception of three, are 
all plainly designed specially for the work, and are of a rather 
peculiar style. All but a very small number, perhaps three or four, 
are copied, usually very closely, from the Lyons cuts (L.ii.). But 
the copying has been done intelligently, and judicious corredtions 
introduced, showing study of the text. Thus, whereas in the Lyons 
series, the suicide of Lucrece does duty for that of Nero also, the 
V^rard illustration of this latter represents Nero as a king, and 
introduces the *Meux gar9ons" mentioned in the verse-heading 
(Plate XXXI, § 43). Again, in the cut depi^ng the three tragedies 
of Dido, Medea, and Phyllis, the last named appears as a woman, 
whereas in the Lyons series, strangely enough, she was depicted 
as a man (Plates XI and XXXI, § 76). In the copying from the 
Lyons series, more than half of the designs are, as we should 
exped, reversed; and it is quite natural to find that the reversed 
cuts are closer copies than the unreversed. The evidence of the 
cuts agrees with that of the text and the form that this edition 
was founded on Du Pre's, and not on either of the Lyons Folios; 
for the two cuts of the Lyons series which are missing in Du Pre 
have no copies here; and in the two instances where cuts, repeated 


in the Lyons Folios are only used once by Du Pr^, the same 
occurs in the V^rard Quarto, The latter, however, has improved 
on the Du Pr6 Folio by twice using separate cuts where that (as 
well as the Lyons Folios) used repeats.^ 

Three of the cuts are of different style from the rest. One 
is a cut of a writer in his study, found frequently in V^rard's 
books, and repeated again before the •* Epytaphe " at the end of 
the same volume. The other two appear, like that, to be old cuts 
pressed to new service ; they resemble one another in style, and 
though of rather smaller size, recall in faces, figures and costumes 
the illustrations to the Mer des Hystoires of V^rard, 1488, according 
to the facsimiles given in Macfarlane and in Claudin. The special 
series of cuts reappears in V^rard's folio edition of Molinet*s Prose 
Version, to be spoken of hereafter, and many of them in other 
books of V^rard*s. 

The titles of both portions of this book are in part xylb- 
graphic. In the type part of the title of the second portion there 
is a slight variation in different copies, the usual reading, audit 
Meufiy being replaced by a Meun in the British Museum copy, and 
in the copy in the Didot Sale Catalogue. Brunet cites a copy of this 
edition bearing the name of de Marnef. 

We now come to the first dated edition in the whole series 
of the Roman de la Rose. This is the second Quarto, printed at 
Paris, 1509, for Michel Le Noir. The. name of this publisher 
appears, as mentioned above, on some copies of the last of the 
Folios; and he now issues three quarto editions in fairly rapid 
succession, 1509, 151 5, 15 19* The 1509 Quarto has little interest 
or importance, and marks a distind drop in the style of publica- 
tion. It has very few cuts, and only two of them (on one block) 
specially designed. The text is copied from the last of the Folios, 
VII; but these two woodcuts are free copies of the pair at the 
head of V^rard's Quarto. In a great many of the later MSS. we 
find just one single pair of illustrations heading the work, one of 

^ There are therefore 85 different woodcuts and only 3 repeats in the V^rard 
Quarto, as opposed to 83 difierent and 5 repeats in the Du Pr6 Folio. 


which invariably represents the Sleeper; and it is possible that 
8ome influence of this tradition caused Le Noir to have these two 
and no more cut for his new and cheaper style of edition ; or we 
might imagine that, like V^rard in his Folio, he had begun with 
larger designs of illustration, and been checked by some after- 
event or consideration. In either case it marks clearly a change in 
the popularity of the book or in the public aimed at. 

The next two Quartos, however, arc more fully illustrated, 
though the general form is kept the same as in the 1 509 Quarto. 
Both have a number of extraneous cuts, made to do duty as best 
they may. A certain number in each have been chosen with 
marked appropriateness, and at first sight appear specially 
designed. They belong, however, originally to an edition of he 
Uvre de Mathiolus. One of these, the amours of Mars and Venus, 
which appears in the 15 15 edition, was rejeded from the next, 
apparently from its impropriety. This is interesting, as throwing 
some light on the view taken of the Roman de la Rose^ and the 
charadter of those who read it. The 1 5 1 5 edition has been called, 
says M. Antony M6ray, that of Francois I, having appeared 
during the first few days of his reign.^ 

Little need be said of the remaining three Quartos, except 
that in print and paper they show a still further step downward. 
The title-page of all contains the erroneous alternative name, 
Aubrement dit k songe vergier. Two of them arc not dated, the 
third, issued from the address of Philippe Le Noir, bears the date 
Feb. 7, 1526; this, therefore, must have appeared some ten 
months after the first edition of CUment Marot's Recension, the 
Privi/ige of which is dated 19th April, 1526, a^es pasques^ />., at 
the beginning of the new year. The last Quarto must have been 
issued even later than this,^ and it is somewhat surprising to find 
two editions issued in the mauvais et trap ancien langaige after 
Marot*s modernization was published. 

* He WIS crowned, at night, on the 2Sth Januirj, ind the book is dated the next 
daj, 26tk» 

' See p. 56. 


Clement Marot^s Recension. 

In the four cditiorfs of Clement Marot's Recension we find a 
new style and new publishers; and though the first edition is not 
a common book, and the second is a highly-prized book, their 
interest is less than that of the earlier editions. In the first, the 
1526 Folio, there are no new illustrations, but a profusion of old 
blocks of Vcrard's, mainly from his two editions of the Roman de la 
Roscj Folio V and Quarto I, but with a few others among them. 
Brunet mentions a copy on vellum with the cuts richly illuminated, 
there being a little revival of such work about this time. The 
publication must have been a success, as only three years after this 
edition, the same publisher. Galliot du Pr6, issued another in a 
smaller, daintier form, with a number of little cuts of a quite new 
and graceful style, a book after the new fashion of small and 
dainty books, which was just setting in. This is the only edition 
of all the twenty-one in roman type. The cuts have a certain 
resemblance to some of the scenes in a title-page frame used about 
the same time by Denys Janot, e.g.^ in the Meltadus de Leonnoys 
of 1532, on which is a monogram which appears to be J. F. I 
have not found this in any of the lists of marks of designers or 
engravers, and cannot find out what name it covers. It would be 
interesting to know, especially if it .seemed reasonably probable 
to attribute to the same hand these little cuts, which have made 
this edition of the Roman de la Rose so much sought after. The 
printing of the text is careless, and in the numbering of the leaves 
there are many mistakes. 

Two years later appears a third edition, with these same little 
cuts, but this time it is again in folio form and black letter. 
Here again it is the cuts that are most considered, and a bit of 
text, one hundred and fifty-seven lines in length, is calmly left 
out. The part omitted corresponds exaftly to a leaf in the former 
Folio of the Recension, which was therefore evidently the edition 


from which the type was set up; possibly this leaf was missing 
in the copy used. But it shows how little the text was con- 
sidered that the gap was not noticed. A curious point in this 
edition is the appearance of a very pretty cut, plainly belonging 
to the series, which had not appeared in the previous edition.^ 

The last edition of all is a sort of cheap imitation — almost 
a parody — of the little 1531 edition, but in black letter, and a 
slightly larger format. The cuts are bad recuttings, coarse 
enough for a chap-book, of those in the model. The edition bears 
two dates, sometimes 1537, sometimes 1538, but there was only 
one impression. There is also a great variety in the title-page, as 
no less than ten different publishers adopted the disreputable 
changeling. The printing is very careless, and most of the mis- 
takes of the L531 edition are blindly followed, besides a whole 
new crop in addition. The only thing to be said in favour of the 
book is that it is of nice size and shape, more convenient to open 
and handle, indeed, than the edition from which it was imitated- 
Also the general efFeft of the volume — a point everybody feels, 
but few remarked till William Morris made so much of it — is 
pretty and taking, and this is, perhaps, the reason why the book 
has so often been honoured with a binding much too good for it. 

Molineis Prose Version. 

I have left the three editions of this to the last, although it 
will be seen that in date they are all earlier than Clement Marot*s 
Recension, and the two first especially belong to a time and style 
which must have seemed remote and antiquated by 1526. I have 
shown at length in Appendix A what seem to me conclusive 
proofs that the first edition is not Balsarin's of 1503, as it has 
usually been supposed, but the much superior edition of Verard. 
The date of this, though not given in the publisher's colophon, 
seems clearly intended as 1 500 in the rhyming envoi of the author, 

' See account ofifroodcuts, p. 107, note 3} and Plate XXXIIIh, § 29. 

33 ' 

which if apparently the only addition or alteration he saw fit to 
make in a work which, on internal evidence, he must have com- 
pofted tome leventeen or eighteen years before. This edition of 
V^rard's is, naturally, far the finest of the three, and is printed and 
illustrated in a style worthy of the best days of the great publisher. 
The illustrations, except the first, are all of the series made for 
V^rard's Quarto edition of the Roman de la Rose. Not quite all are 
here used, but most of those which are appear several times, and 
the total number of illustrations is much greater. They are here 
surrounded with a separate border of tabernacle-work, which is 
found about this period in many of V^rard's books, in conjunction 
with cuts of this series.^ These books were often printed on vellum, 
and the cuts illuminated richly, and there is a vellum copy of this 
edition of Molinet's Prose Version in the British Museum^ in 
which the cuts have been so treated. 

Balsarin's Lyons edition of 1503 — which he distinctly an- 
nounces to be corrected and amended from a former edition — is a 
very slavish copy of Virard's edition in its arrangement of illustra- 
tions; but fewer cuts are used, and therefore these have to do duty 
a still greater number of times* The cuts are almost all of them 
|H>or re«cuttings of a certain number of the second Lyons series. 

The third and last edition is poor compared to V6rard*s and 
has fiir fewer cuts; but it is carefully printed. The cuts are 
l>orrowcd from various sources^ and some of them have very little 
appr\>priatenc$s« Two of them are from the MattMus series, which 
was partly drawn upon by Michel Le Noir for the Quarto of 151 5. 
M« Le Noir died in \%to^ and the present hwJk^ published in the 
next yeati bears the name of his widow. 

' See Plstt XXXIh. 





A. Folio I. Goth. Without title, printer's name, place, or date. 
[Le Romant de la Rose: Lyons, Ortuin 6c Schenck: ca. 

Printed in double columns, containing 34 lines to a fiill column. There are 
180 leaves, unnumbered, of which the first is bbmk. The signatures run from 
a 2 to s 3, the numerab being arabic ; ^ sheets a to x in eights: jr, s, in sixes. 
The initiids to paragraphs are left blank, to be filled in by hand. Illustrated bjr 
9a woodcuts, which in most copies are washed or stencilled over with colour. 
Six of these being repeats, there are 86 diflferent cuts. The first two (in order) 
are on one block (Plate I), extending across the whole page. One cut, the 
Building of the Tower, § 34 (Plate IV), is double width, and also extends 
mcfom the page* All the others are of the width of the column. 

This edition, now recognised as the First, is the one mentioned by Brunet, 
rol. iii, coL 117a (second arttde), ^ Void encore une Mit. fort andenne.** He 
gives, however, 177 leaves instead of 180. The attribution to Ortuin and 
Schenck is due, I believe, to M. Claudin, but was agreed in bjr Mr. Pro£tor. 
In vol. iii of the Hituin di tlmfriwurii #» Frmut M. Claudin goes fulljr into 
a discussion of this edition, and gives the reasons for attributing it to these 
printers. The mention of it is to be found in two separate places, p. 99, and pp. 
416 #1 //f ., especially the latter. I would refer those interested to these passages; 
but briefly, the grounds of M. Claudin's attribution are as fellows: 

For the place. — The watermarks in the paper are Lyons watermarks. One 
of the copies in the BibL N^a. bears the name of a Lyons lady as its firtt 
possessor. The woodcuts closely resemble othen feund in certain Lyons books." 

For the date. — ^In the Royal Library at Dresden is a copy of another of the 
very few books known printed in this type — an anonymous translation of 

' ka U ; i 4 misprinted 34. * See p. 8a p$tt. 


Boethius in French verse — which contains a note in contemporary manuscript 
that it was rubricated in 1481. 

For the printers. — ^Though no book in this exzSt type is found bearing Ortuin 
and Schenck's name, the same pattern of letter is used by them in two other 
sizes, one larger and one smaller. 

As against this attribution, a single book in the same type is known, printed 
by Jean Croquet at Geneva; but M. Claudin finds the type in that more 
worn, and there are additional punctuation signs. Also the book is printed in 
pages of 37 lines, not 34, as are both the Roman dt la Rost and the Boicty as 
well as one or two other works in this type. 

This edition is very rare. The following five copies I have seen: 

Paris: Bibliothique Nationale, R^. Ye. 13. Cuts uncoloured. 
do. do. do, R6s. Ye. 14. A large copy, but not quite 

perfect Cuts coloured. 

Britwell. (Mrs. Christie Miller.) From Heber coUedion. A fine copy, 
measuring lof by 7f inches; but with the corners of two leaves folded down, 
one at top, one at bottom, showing an original half inch more in height, and 
quarter inch more in breadth. 179 leaves, the first (blank) missing. Cuts 
uncoloured. Capitals filled in in red or blue. Initials of lines touched with 

Buddington. (F. W. Bourdillon.) A sound and well-preserved copy, but 
lacking one leaf (fol. r. 7, which is supplied in facsimile from Bibl. Nat. Ye. 13), 
besides the first (blank) leaf. Size, io|^ by 7|^ inches. Cuts mostly coloured in 
thick colours, some stencilled.* 

New York(?) From Mr. Locker-Lampson's collection at Rowfant, and 
J. Rosenthal's Catalogue 90. Probably the finest copy in existence, containing 
180 leaves, the first blank, but with water-mark. Size, iij- by 8 inches. Cuts 
slightly coloured. 

Besides these, M. Louis Polain has kindly referred me to the following cata- 
logued copies, which appear to be of this edition: Bourges, 213; Nancy, 153 
(imperfed); St. Omer, 2,223. ^^ which may be added Mazarine, 1292. 

In the Didot Sale (1878, No. 126) the La Valliere copy, 179 leaves, sold for 
1,650 fi-ancs. 

* In his catalogue of early German and Flemish woodcuts, Introd., p. 35, Mr. 
Campbell Dodgson says that he has ^ found no indication that stencik were ever used for 
colouring pidure woodcuts in the XV century, as has sometimes been asserted.** Prob- 
ably this remark has no reference to Lyons Incunabula. The evidence of stencilling — 
or some kind of mechanical colouring — seems clear in several of the cuts in this volume. 


B. Folio IL Goth. Without title, printer's name, place, or 
date. [Lie Romant de la Rose. Lyons, Jean Syber, ca. 


Printed in double columns, containing 41 lines to a full column. There 
should be 1 50 leaves, but the firet is missing in all copies I have seen or found de- 
scribed. The leaves are unnumbered, but have signatures from a 2 to 1 3 (with k), 
the numerals arable; sheetahas7 ff; sheets b to s, 8 ff. each; sheet t, 6 ffl The 
initials to paragraphs, with the exception of the first, are left blank and filled in by 
hand-painted capitals, though there is sometimes a lower-case letter for guide. 
The firtt inittal-»in most copies coloured or illuminated over — is a grotesque 
woodcut M, belonging apparently to the series of which seven othen appear ' 
in the B«r#r#, Ruyme itt nUUs hmmmet tt femmtty printed by Mathieu Husx and 
Jean Schabeler in 1483. The book is illustrated by 92 woodcuts, of which 7 
are used twice, so that there are 85 separate cuts. The designs are closely 
imitated, with an evident intention to improve, from the cuts in the preceding 
edition." As in that, the first two cuts are on one block (Plate VII), extending 
across the page. The cut, § 34 (Plate X) of the Building of the Tower, also 
extends across the page, being twice the breadth of the rest, which occupy the 
width of a column. 

This extremely rare edition is the same as that described in Brunet, vol. iii, 
col. II 71, from the famous Adamoli copy at Lyons.' This «opy has lost the 
last leaf, which has been supplied in manuscript, with a MS. colophon, attriburing 
it to ^ UMaric Gering,** and daring it 1479. M. Claudin attributes it to Jean 
Syber on the ground of the type.^ (Mr. Proftor thought it might have been 
printed by Mathieu Huss.) The type is praAically idendcal — with a slight 
modificadoo of f and long s — with the ^ Venetian type ** used in Ladn books 
bearing Syber^s name as printer, and the dates 1481 and i482respeAively. There 
is also a unique Vie di A£§muigmemr SnitUf Jihaim in the same type, without 
printer*s name, but dated April 18th, 1483.' 

The Saift^ Alkmin has a title-page — a simple two lines in large-sized type, 
the first dde-page found at Lyons, says M. Claudin. As the R$msm di Im 

* D, F, C, H, N, O, P. See Bicsimiles in Claudin, iii, pp. 256-9, where are also 
given the smaller corresponding capitals. There is just enough difference in style 
b e t we en the letters there shown and this M, to raise the doubt whether the Utter may 
have belonged to some series of which the others are copies. 

' For the slight difference in numbers (see p. 83, note i ). 

' See also Pdlechet, Cmi. da lmcmnmUi$ det BlhL ^L di Ljm^ art. 379. 

* HiiU di tlmprim.y iii, pp. 198 it sef^ with facsimile of last page but one. 

' The colophon of the R^mmn di Im R$si is printed in a large type not found else- 
where in the book. This type is identical with that of the Saim^ AHaim dtle, a point 
in favour of M. Cbudin*s argument which had apparendy escaped his notice. 


R$se appears to have none,^ it might be supposed that the latter was the earlier, 
iM before 1 483. But against this b the fa£t that the earlier, unelongated, f and s 
are found in the SainG ytliaim^ and the later, elongated, in the Rmun di la 
Rosi. This edition, therefore, M Claudin puts about 1485 or 1486. 

A cop7 in the possession of M. Jean Masson, of Amiens, shows certain 
differences on the first page: line i. commance for commence; line 4« menzonges 
for mensongcs; lines 18, 19, transposed (Plate Xllla). 

This edition would appear to be even rarer than the first* There is no copy 
in the British Museum, nor even in the Biblioth^ue Nadonale. I have seen 
all but the first of the following six copies: 

Lyon: Palais des arts, 134-12735, Academie (Pellechet, Cat. des InatnaHis 
di Lymt). Size, 11^x7^ inches. Lacks last leaf, as well as first (? blank). 

Amiens (M. Jean Maason). A copy with different impression of the first 
page. Seriously imperfed, and lacks last leaf, as well as first (? blank). Cuts 
heavily coloured, and portions — #^., representations of windows — cut out, and 
some transparent material, perhaps talc, pasted at the back. 

Amiens (M. Jean Masson). Another copy, lacking 3 leaves in separate 
places, including the last, as well as the first (? blank). 

New York (Mr. Pierpont Morgan). From Woodhull and Bennett coUedions, 
and Quaritch's Catalogue, April, 189a Perfedt, except for first leaf (? blank). 
Size, 1 1 by 7^ inches. Cuts coloured. 

Malvern (Mr. C. W. Dyson Perrins). Perfied, except for first (? Uank) leaf, 
and a portion at the foot of the present first leaf. Size, 1 1 by 7^ inches. Cuts 
uncoloured. Capitals filled in by hand in red (though a note by a former owner 
says they are type). Initial letter of every line touched in red. The missing 
portkm of fol. a, has removed 4 lines, in each colunm, on one side, and 3 on 
the other. The restoration has been carefully done, and the forms of the letters 
copied fi'om the type of the work. The edirion followed, however, appears to 
have been that of Nicholas Des Prez (Folio VII) as it has wiaimtieugmi in line 14, 
and 77 for f /, line 1 18. 

Buddington (F. W. Bourdillon). Perfied, except for first (? blank) leaf, and the 
first two or three leaves badly wormed. Size, ii-^ by 7} inches. Cuts un- 
coloured. Capitals filled in by hand in red or blue. The wormholes in the first 
few leaves, as well as a few in the last, have been filled in with paper, and the 
letters restored in pen and ink* But the form of the letters, many being capitals, 
has not been copied fix)m the book itself or perhaps from any copy of thb work, 
though they bear some resemblance to the letters in Folio VII (N« Des Prez). 

* No known copy has preserved the first leaf, which we may therefore safidy 
conclude to have been bbmk. Had there been a title it would surely have survived in 
some copies, as it has in so many copies of the sister edition which comes next. 


C. Folio IIL Goth. Without printer's name, place, or date. 
Title, Le Rommant De La Rofe, [Lyon, Guillaume Le 
Roy, ca. 1487.] 

Printed in double cdumnti with 41 lines to 1 full column. Containing 1 50 
unnumbered letres, the first beving nothing but the Title ts above (Plate Xlllb) 
on the refto, and bhmk on the rem. The signatures are a l to t iii.* Sheets 
a to s in eights, sheet t, 6 ff The initiab to the paragraphs, including the fint, 
are all left blank, with usualty a lower-case letter to guide the rubricator. The 
book is illustrated by 9a woodcutSi of which seren are used twice, so that there 
are 85 separate cuts. Thej are printed from the same blocks as those in the 
preceding edirion, but show more cracks and breakages, especially in the border 
lines. As in that, the first two cuts are on one block, extending acro« the 
page; and the cut $34 also extends across the page* 

This edition is almost a fricsimile copy of the preceding, the diflference 
consisting in the type, and in one or two trifling re-arrangements in the fint 
few leaves." 

This fiunous edition has been frequently taken for the first edition of the 
Rmmn di Is R»si. It is the one mentioned first by Brunet (though he does not 
malhtain that it is necessarily the first), voL iii, col. 1 1 yo-i. It has been described 
by others #^. in Jules Peat's BMUgrsphU da iditimu §rigimiUs^ with reduced 
£^imile of the first page of text. It has been long attributed to Le Roy from 
Its type, which is the same as that used by him in several books,' one of which, 
via., /MTwi-^tf/, bears a date, 20th January, i486, (/.#., 1487, new style). The 
woodcut border to the first page of text is the same as that in Syber*s edition, 
and b found, according to M. Claudin, also in an undated edition of the i^fstrt 
/Ih jfymm^ and seftions of it were used by later Lyons printers (Claudin, iii, 

P- 98)- 
This is the fint edition with a title-page.^ The initial L of the title is 

stated positively by M« Ckudin to be imitated from an initial L of the same 

* kailau In the signatures a„ a„ the numerals arc arabici all the 
lower-case gothic letters. This providbi a ready means of distinguishing this edition 
from the preceding! 

* The most co n spicuous is 00 a, verso, the woodcut ^ Pourete** being moved 
from the bottom of the cohmui to its rig^t phcc, six lines above. Besides this, there 
area very few instances of lines shifted from the foot of one column to the head of the 
next or tna verti. 

* It is not, however, precisely that of the IhOrimml it Ssfinui^ as Brunet says. 
See Qaudin, iii, loi. 

^ The Titk, both in CUudin's reproduftion and in Jules Petit*s, has Rommaut, 
as has a copy in my own possession. The Bodleian, reproduced here, Pbtc Xlllb, has 
RoMMAirr. The Bibliothique Nationale has a copy of each. 


kind found in works printed at Paris hj Pierre Levet, the earliest of which 
bears the date, 20th February, i486, (1487, new style)/ M. Claudin, there- 
fore, fixes the year 1487 as the earliest possible date for Le Roy's Rmtan Je la 
Rose. It does not, however, seem clear that Le Roy's L must have been copied 
from Levet's, and not Levet's from Le Roy's, the latter being the better letter 
of the two; or, indeed, that either was necessarily copied from the other. Except 
for the introduction of the ^ palm-branch " ornament, the forms of the two 
letters are by no means strikingly alike ; and they might easily be independent 
woodcut elaborations of a common type of penman's letters." Were it necessary 
to assume copying from one to the other, the a priori probability would be in 
£iivour of the Lyons letter being the earlier, as woodcut '* Bloomers " were used 
in that dty seven years before they are found at Paris.' This point, therefore, 
cannot I think be used for fixing the date of Le Roy's Raman di la R$se^ so 
decisively as M. Claudin would have it do. In any case, however, thb edition 
must be approximately of the same date as the Fiir^it^as^ ia. 1486-7. 

Though somewhat less rare than either of the two preceding editions, the 
Le Roy Folio has been probably the most eagerly sought after of all the early- 
printed editions, and high prices have been paid for fine copies. Thus the copy 
in the Didot sale, 1878, No. 125, with title, fetched 5,500 francs, and a copy, 
also with title, sold at Paris in 1894 for 3,000 francs; and another — 00 mention 
of the title — in 1898, for 3,980 firancs. 

There are, no doubt, a good nciany copies scattered in public or private libnuies. 
The following are those I know of: 

IVis, BibL Nat R&. Ye 1 1, with Tide, Rommant. 
P^s, Bibl. Nat. R& Ye 12, with Title, Rommaut. 

^ La Fomtaim di tmUs sciences du pbihstpbi Sydracb. See Claudin t, 432, 434. 
A very similar letter L is seen in the Cummcntatres JnBns Cesar ^ also printed in Lcvet's 
type. The date in the colophon of this, 1485, refim apparently to the year when the 
translation was made, /^m/., pp. 417 and 422. 

* The same style, unelaborated and in a miniature form, may be seen in the 
xylographic ritle to the Grant Pardon of 17th Odober, 1482, printed at Paris by Jean 
Du Pr6 (Claudin i, 221): and in a woodcut hot La MU dame pa ensi nurcj attributed 
to the press of Mathieu Huss of Lyons (A/, iit, 293). A capital L, bearing a much 
closer resemblance to Levet's than does Le Roy's, may be seen in a fiusimile from a 
book printed at Angoul^me given in Thierry-Poux, xxxvi, lo. ProAor, ii, 644, says it 
is the same as that used by Marchand at Paris. 

• Claudin, iii, 37, 38. 

^ Or other booles, as Claudin, iii, 91. In a title-page there reproduced, the Le 
Roy L has lost a detail in the lower limb. 


Chantilly, Musfe Condd, 22, with Title, Rommant. 

Lyon, Public Library (Pellechet, 378), with Tide, Rommant. 

Oxford, Bodleian, (Douce 194X ^'^^ Title, Rommant. 

New York (Mr. Pierpont Morgan), with Title, Rommant. 

Buddington (F. W. Bourdillon), with Title, Rommaut. 

Paris (Baron Rothschild, Cat. Vol. I, Na 435^ with Title, Rommant. 

D. Folio IV. Goth. Without date [ca. 1494]. 

Le rommant 'de la rofe 
imprime a Paris 
[Jehan Du Pr6*8 device] ^ 

Printed in double columns, with 41 lines to a full column. Containing 1 50 
unnumbered leaves, the first bearing on the redto the title as above, blank on the 
verso. Thesignaturesareaiitot iii(k sit); sheets a to sin eights; t, 6 C The 
initials to the paragraphs ire large decorated letters, cut on wood, of two diflRerent 
styles." These initials are first found in La Ligendi Dmrh printed by Du Pr£ 
on loth March, 1493 ('494 ^*'^)y which is no doubt the reason for M. Chiudin*s 
dating this edition of the R$m£m it U R$ii^ *^ after 1493.**' '^^^ ^ock is 
illustrated by 88 woodcuts, five of which are used twice, making 83 separate 
cuts. They are printed from the same blocks as the two preceding (Lyons) 
editions; but they show increasing signs of wear and breakage. As in those 
editions, the first two cuts are on one block, extending acro« the page; but cut 
{ 34, the other double-sized block, has disappeared for ever. The cut, { 32, 
is also absent in Du Pr^'s edition, though it reappears out of place in the last 
two Folios. (Plates XXV and XXVIII.) Two of the cuts which are used 
twice in the Lyons Folios are only used once in this edition.^ 

This edition is in form a very close imitation of the two preceding Folios. But 

* Plate XVI. 

* The one is of the pennun*s style, sometimes with grotesque faces introduced. 
The other printer's style, with scroll work or floral additions. The fbrminr occur nuiinly 
in the eariier part of the book, and are only found in the bter part when the letter 
required is not in the other series, as A, or once when two of the same initial are 
required on the same page (signature o vii verso). Of the former, penman's, series 
are found ABCLMTV:ofthe latter, printer's style, series are found BCD 
£ FGHILMNOPQSTV. (Q reversed used once for D). Specimens of both 
series are reproduced in Cbudin, i, 270, etc.: esp. 277, 278. 

* Hilt, di rim^m^ vol. ii, p. 355, an incidencid mention. The edition b barely 
alluded to among Du Pr^'s works, vcd. i, p. a8o. Brunet, Supplement, says *^avant 
1495," no reason mentioned. 

^ §§ 22 and 24) §§ 30 and 36 left without illusdratioo. 

41 O 

the redu£Uon of the number of cuts as above naturally interfered with the page- 
for-page and line-for-line correspondence; and the conformity, which is extremely 
close at the beginning, gradually becomes less and less, until there is a divergence 
of more than a whole page. The inequality is then redressed by an interpola- 
tion of 104 lines not found in the three earlier Folios,^ and after this the con- 
formity of line and page is maintained, with only trifling exceptions, to the end. 
In 1878, a ^ Facsimile Reprodudion " of this edition was issued at Paris, to 
the number of 330 copies," printed ^ par CI. Motteroz pour delarue libraire.** 
The type appears to have been cast on purpose in dose imitation of the type 
used in the original; the initial letters are copied;' and the woodcuts — made 
no doubt from tracings — are tolerable reprodudions of the originals. 

E. Folio V. Goth. Without date [1494-5]. 

Le rommant de la rose 
imprime a Paris. 
[V^rard's Device.]* 

Printed in double columns, with 41 lines to a full colunm. Containing 150 
unnumbered leaves, the first bearing on the re£to the title as above, blank on 
the verso. The signatures are a ii to t iii ; ' sheets a to s in eights ; t, 6 ff. The 
inid'ak to the paragraphs are left blank for rubrication, with sometimes a lower- 
case letter as guide** The capital L of the title-page is, according to M. Claudin 
(ii. 254), found only in books printed by £tienne Jehannot. It appears here 
with a slight break in the upper part, which is found rather worse in a book 
dated 1495/ M. Claudin therefore concludes that the Roman de la R§se was 
printed a little before this. 

Mr. Proctor distinguished three sets of types in this book, resembling founts 

^ The interpolation begins with the line ^ £t mesmement de cest amour," fol. d. 
viii, col. 2, and ends ^Selon la diuine escripture,'' fol.e i, coL i. It appears in all sub- 
sequent editions except the first and third of Clement Marot's Recension; but is not 
paraphrased in Molinet's Prose Version. It is found in three of the MSS. in the British 
Museum, all of the fifteenth century. See Ward's Catalogue of Romances, i, p. 878. 

' This is according to the register in the book itself. But I have seen a copy 
printed on vellum, of which nothing is said there. 

• The inverted Q is even used for D in the same place, d vi, col. 2. But the 
mistake of U for T on the next leaf has been correded. 

• Plate XIX. 

' g iii is misprinted as g ii. 

• Macfiu-lane (No. 125) says wrongly *' small * black * inidals." 
^ L*ordinaire de Cysteaux^ see Claudin, l$c. cit. 


of sevend difitrrent printen, among them being £tienne Jehmnnot; mnd M. 
CUudin definitely attributes it to this printer, on the ground that the capital L 
mentioned above was special to him. The book is illustrated bj 88 woodcuts, 
manj repeated once or oftener, there being 62 different cuts. Hie first two cuts, 
§ I and § 12, are phced together at the head of the first page of text, as in the 
preceding editions, but are not one block as in those. Only sixteen of the cuts 
are appropriate, and designed for the work, the remaining forty-six being an 
extraordinary mixture of old cuts from other sources, biblical or profiuie, several 
repeated three or four times.* 

This edition is in form and arrangement an almost exaA imitation of Du 
Pr^*s, Folio IV,' as that was of the second and third Folios. There are very few 
instances of a line being moved from page to page or column to column, and 
the position of the woodcuts is txsL&lj followed. The interpolation ^Et 
mesmement de cest amour" etc., is inserted in this edition as in Du Pr^*s.^ 
Both the British Museum and the BiUiothique Nationale possess copies of 
this edition on vellum, with the cuts illuminated. Another such was sold in 
the Ashbumham Libnury. The BibL Nationale has also a copy on vellum, 
with V^rard*s device, with the cuts uncoloured. (Vtiins, 1098.) 

This edition is the second under the heading ^ Editions de V^rard** in 
Brunet (iii, col. 1 172), and has therefore usually been known as V£rard*s second 
edition. There is no doubt, however, that it is earlier than Folio VI, which is 
the edition Brunet mentions as WinnTt firtt. It is Na 12$ in Macfiurlane. 

F. Folio VI. Goth. Without date [area 1497]. 

Le rommant de la rofe 
imprime a Paris. 

[Device of J. Petit; or of A. V^rard; or blank.] 
Colophon (z^ re£to) : Imprime nouuellement a Paris.^ 

Printed in douUe columns^ with 43 lines to a full column. Containing 142 
unnumbered leaves, the first bearing on the redo the title as above, blank on 
the versoi the last bearing on the redo a large woodcut, in which a scroll 


ProAor, ii, pp. 603, 604. 

* See account of woodcut^ p. 85. Those of the extraneous cuts which are re- 
peated are as follows: § 10 (60), 23 (93), H (SSt 4Sf ^\ ^6 (43, 46, 92), 28 (50), 

29 (51, 89), 33 (44* SI. 79)1 37 (78), 48 (67), 49 (65), 58 (75X 68 (71X 82 (106). 
' For the prioritj of Du Pr^*s edition to V6ard*s, see p. 26 m^m^ 

* The mi^ake of an initial U for T, on fol. d^ , has been correAcd hj a lower- 
t to guide the rubricator. 

* Plates XXUI and XXV. 


bears the tTpe-printed inscription ^^ Maiftre Jehan de meun '' in the same type 
as the rest of the book, blank on the verso. The signatures are aiii to ziiii 
(k s Iz) ; sheet a contains 8 fl^ b to g 6 ffeach, h 8 fl^ i to z 6 ffeach. The initiak 
to paragraphs are large bhck capitals, artistic, but without ornament. 

There is nothing by which to fix the date of this edition decidedly. But as 
it is quite certainly later than Du Pr^'s, almost certainly later than V£rard*s 
last described, and quite certainly earlier than the next to be mentioned, it 
must fall somewhere between 1494 and 1499; and no doubt appeared in or 
near the year 1497. 

M. Claudin identifies the type with that used in a book signed by Le Petit 
Laurens,^ to whose press he therefore attributes this edition. In addition to the 
large cut mentioned above, the book is illustrated with 87 * woodcuts of the 
series used in the second, third and fourth Folios, seven being used twice, 
making 80 separate cuts. They show further signs of wear since their use in 
Du Pr^'s edition. Of the two cuts of this series missing there, one, § 32, re- 
appears here; not, however, in its right place, but above the achivi dHmprimer 
as if it were a printer's device. But four others of the series, and in some copies 
a fifth also, have disappeared.' Another verse-title, § 95, is left without illustra* 
tion ; but the cut belonging to it is used to § 100, a verse-title without illustration 
in the previous editions. As in Du Pr^'s edition, the large double cut of the 
Tower, § 34, is absent, and the two cuts, § 22 and § 24, are used once only, 
§ 30 and § 36 being left without illustration. In the copy before me, in which 
cut § 10 is replaced by § 48, there are one or two slight variations in the text 
at the back of the cut. 

This edition is evidently founded upon Du Pr^'s, and it contains the same 
interpolation beginning Et nusmement de aste amouvy fol. e iiii v®. 

This edition is the first under the heading ^^ Editions de V^rard ^ in Brunet 
(iii, col. 1 172), and has therefore usually been styled V6rard*s first edition, even 
when his name is absent. It is No. 124 in Maciarlane. The vellum copy in 
the Bibliotheque Nationale,^ in which all the cuts are richly painted over, has 

* Uordinajre des Chrestiens. See Claudin, ii, 138, 139, where a fiicsimile reproduc* 
tion of the last page of the Reman de la Rose is given. 

* With the large final cut the number is therefore 88, the same as in the two 
preceding Folios. 

' § 2, Hayne^ here left without illustration ; § 8, Tristesse (which reappears in the 
first edition of Clement Marot's Recension, 1 526), its place taken by a repetition of § 7, 
Enuye; § 10, PapeUnrdie^ found in some copies, in others its place taken by § 48, as in 
the next edition. Folio VII; § if, Pourete^ left without illustration; § 28, Vamant 
kneeling to Dangler^ its place taken by § 82. 

* Macfiu-lane's collation of this copy gives two extra leaves in signature c On ex- 
amination I found that after c iii the binder has inserted e iiii, e iii (in this order), the 
letter e being very like the c. The same leaves occur also in their right place 


V^rard's device below the title; but in generml, as M. Claudin remarks, copies 
either have no name at all on the title-page, like the Bodleian copjr, or else the 
device of Jehan Petit, like the copy in the British Museum. M. Claudin, in faA, 
does not allude to V£rard*8 name in connexion with the edition. But I have a 
curious bit of evidence that his device was sometimes printed in place of Jehan 
Petit\ even on paper copies, in the shape of a title-page which, though it has 
been wrongly inserted in a later edition (C. M. R., 1526), plainly belongs to 
this. It bears the printed title exa^y as in all copies, but below is V£rard*s 
device, with the same piece of decorated woodcut border on the right-hand 
side as appears in copies that bear Jehan Petit's device. (Plate XXIIIa.) 

Brunet, iii, 1 172, alleges that the British Museum also has a vellum copy, as 
well as the Bibliothique Nationalej but this is an error. 

G. Folio VII. Goth. Without date. [1498 to 1505.] 

Le rommant de la rofe nou 
uellement Imprime a Paris. 
[Five variant imprints :] 

{a) Pour Jehan Petit. [With Device.]^ 

{6) Pour Pierre le Caron. [With Device.]* 

(r) pour Jehan Ponce demourant au Clou Breneau 

a lymage Noftre Dame.' 
(J) pour Guillaume eustace.^ 

{(t) Pour michel le noir demourant au bout du pont 
noftre dame 
a lymage noftre dame. 
[Large device of Michel Le Noir.] • 
Colophon: Imprime nouuellement a Paris par 

Nicolas defprez Imprimeur demou 
rant en la rue iainft eftienne a lenfeigne 
du mirouer.* 

Printed in double columns, with 43 lines to a full column. Containing 142 
unnumbered leavesi the first bearing on the reAo the title as abovC| blank or 

• Brunet, iii, coL 1173. • Ikid. 
' Brunet suppL, i, 891. No mention of a device. 

• Didot sale catalogue, 1878, Na 129. No mention of a device. 

• Plate XXVI. • Plate XXVIII. 


the verso; the last (probably) blank both sides.^ The signatures are aii to ziii 
(k=lz). Sheet a contains 8 ff.) b to g, 6 ff. each; h, 8 £; i to z, 6 ffl each. The 
initials to paragraphs are mostly smallish black capitals/ 

M. Claudin places the date 1498-1500. But he does not appear to have 
noticed the name and address of M. Le Noir, which is borne by some copies. 
The address, au bwt du Pont Nostn Dame^ was only used by him in 1505 and 
1506.' On the other hand Le Caroa, whose name is found as publisher in 
some copies, died about 1500. There seems no way out of the difficxdty except 
to suppose that the stock of copies was kept with blank title-page, and in the 
printer's possession, from some time shortly before 1500 till at least 1505, 
when Michel Le Noir took some copies, for the title-page in his copies is printed 
in the same type as the body of the book. 

In spite of the categorical statement in the colophon that the book was 
printed by Nicolas Des Prez, M. Claudin inclines to think *' that the real printer 
was Pierre Le Caron, the type being the same as his, and his name and device 
being found on the title-page of some copies. M. Claudin*s alternative sugges- 
tion seems to me more probable, viz., that Des Prez hired Le Caron's type and 
perhaps paid for its use with a certain number of copies of the book. The type, 
however, must have belonged to Des Prez at least after Le Caron's death, as it 
is used for setting up M. Le Noir's title-page. The varieties in the initial capitals 
might suggest that the printer was in a small way of business with limited 

This is the last appearance of the fiimous Lyons woodcuts (second series) and 
their condition is very perceptibly worse, and their numbers diminished since 
the previous edition, Folio VL The total number of cuts is the same as in that, 
87, but there are only 73 different cuts, 7 more having disappeared.' 

^ It is wanting in the copies I have seen or heard of, including that in the 
Bibliothique Nationale. 

' A larger-sized B L S are occasionally used ; also a pretty little ornamental D, 
containing a butterfly, which I have not found in any of the ornamental alphabets 
given by M. Claudin. Twice the capital is omitted, and a lower-case letter placed 
instead, like a rubricator's guide-letter. 

' Renouard, Imprimeurs Parisiens^ 1 893* ^^^ bridge was rebuilt by 1506. 

^ Hist, di rimprim.^ ii, 354, 355, where a fiicsimile reproduction of the last page 
of text, including the Nicolas Des Prez colophon, is given. 

' In addition to the cuts missing in the sixth Folio, here replaced by the same 
substitutes as there, the seventh Folio lacks § 10, replaced by § 48 (as in some copies 
of Folio VI); § 26, replaced by § 45; § 64, replaced by § 63; § 79, replaced by § 78; 
§ 939 replaced by § 63; § 96, replaced by § 103; § 105 replaced by § 103. Two 
cuts, therefore, are used thrice each, and ten twice. Here, as in Folio VI, § 22 and 
§ 24 are used once only, § 30 and § 36 being left without illustration ; as also is § 95, 
whose proper cut is used to § 100, a verse-title not illustrated in the earlier Folios; and 
the § 32 of the original series is placed over the achrvi d^imprimir* 


This edition is almost an exaA counterpart of the preceding, except for the 
diflference of the type and the loss of some of the woodcuts. So much so that in 
only six instances is a line carried forwards or backwards from one column to 
the next. In one place, fol. a viii, col. a, the top line, 

** Amourettes tant est propice ** 

is accidentally omitted; and certain vert>al alterations have been intentionally 
made. Otherwise the two editions correspond to the verge of facsimile. Even 
the tjrpe is very closely similar, though there are certain marked distindions. 
But in a copy of the sixth Folio I found a leaf supplied in facsimile from the 
seventh; and this had passed undeteAed in a Paris auAion room and in a first- 
rate Paris book-shop. 

H. Quarto I. Goth. Without date [circa 1500]. 

Le romant de la rofe. 
Codicille & teftament de 
maiftre Jeha de meun : 
Nouuellement Imprme a Paris.^ 
[2f, vi, rc<5to. Verard^s Device.] 

The first part, containing the Riiman ii la R%u^ is printed in double colunms, 
41 lines to a full column, and contains 1 50 unnumbered leaves, the last having on 
the redo V Grant's device,' verM> blank. There are twenty-five signatures, viz., 
the twenty*three letten of the alphabet, lower-case (kslz), and the l and 1^, 
(signs for et and rum). All contain six leaves. The first signature is a ii, the last 
l^^iiii. The initials to paragraphs are small, much-ornamented capitals.' 
M. Claudin does not mention this edition, no doubt as fiUling outside the 
fifteenth century, and I have not been able to identify the tjrpe. The edition 
has usually been dated about 150$, but is more probably about 1499 or 1500.* 

The illustrations to the Rmian ii la Rui are 88 in number, three used 
twice, making 85 separate cuts. With the exception of three, which are 
extraneoitt, the cuts are imitated diredly from the second Ljrons series, as found 
in Du Pr^*s edition. Folio IV, on which — and not on V6rard*s Folio, No. V — 
this edition is based.* This edition contains the interpolation, Et nutmtnunty etc. 

* The first three lines xylographic. Imprme {tU) in copy before me, and Dtdot 
sale, 1878 (Na 128). Brunet, iii, 1 1 73, menrions a copy with the name of de Mamef. 

* His second, see Claudin, ii, 459. 

' In the same style, but smaller, as the semi-groce«iue alphabet given by Cbuidin, 

•if 4^4^ 465- 

* See page 199 p$$t. 

* Du ?ti has SiS cuts, but only 83 separate cuts. In Vfrard*s Quarto there are 


The second portion of the book contains 42 leaves, with separate signatures, 
a to g in sixes, the first being a ii, the last g iiii. It begins with a new title: 

Le codicille & teftament 

de maiftre Jeh^ de meun 

Aucques lepitaphe du feu roy Charles 

septiesme qui trespassa audit Meun^ 

On the verso of which is a woodcut, above the first 21 lines of text. The 
^ Codicille " occupies 27 leaves, printed in long lines, not in columns, 41 lines 
to the page. It ends on the verso of e iii, with nine lines of text, followed by 
the word f Amen (in one line) and two lines, 

V Cy fine le codicille de maiftre iehan de meun 
£t commence son testament 

Below is the same woodcut as on the first leaf. The ^^testament" follows on redo 
of eiiii, with no title, and occupies 10 leaves and i page, printed in double 
columns, 41 lines to the column. At the foot of the last column (g ii redto, 
col. 2) we read: 

f cy fine le testament maiftre 
iehan de meun. £t cdmence lepy^ 
taphe du roy charles feptiefme 

At the head of the next column (g iii, verso, col. i) is a woodcut (the same as 
used before for § 35 of the Roman ie la Rose) above the first twenty-one lines 
of the poem.' The ^ Epitaphe ** occupies 4 leaves and a page, and ends on g vi, 
verso, col. ii, with eight lines, and Amen below. The last ten lines are headed: 

V Ladleur/ et le nom dicelluy 

and their initials are an acrostic, forming the name Simon Grebt The 
^^ Epitaphe " is in double columns, 41 lines to a column; but the lines of the poem, 
being long, are often turned over. The whole of this second part is printed in 
the same type, and with the same initial capitals, as the Roman de la Rose. 

This book is mentioned in Brunet, iii, 1 173, but he only counts 148 ff. for 
the first part, instead of 150. It is No. 185 in Macfiu-lane. 

85 separate cuts, because in two cases different cuts are used in place of repeats, viz., 
§ 43> where the Lyons second series unaccountably used § 52, and §51 (an extraneous 
cut) where the Lyons second series repeated § 50. See p. 85 et seq, ; and for evidence of 
Du Pr^'s being the edition followed, pp. 165, 6. 

^ The first two lines are xylographic. In the British Museum copy the last two 
words are ^a Meim." So also in the Didot sale catalogue, 1878, No. 128. 

* A line appears to be missing, following— or possibly preceding — line 13, ^De 
bo]rs mortel ferre de souflfrance,** to which there is no rhyme. 


There appears to be no copjr of this edition known on vellum, or with the 
cuts illuminated. This is somewhat striking, as of all the other editions published 
by Virard there are vellum copies, with the cuts richly illuminated, including 
the Molinet*s Prose Version, with these same cuts. Also these cuts are found 
in several other of Virard's vellum books, illuminated, f^., in the Passetimps 
di tout homme (Macfarlane, 179). Were all the vellum copies lost — might we 
fancy — in the hW of the Pont no fire Dame} 

I. Quarto II. Goth. 1509. 

Le rommant de la 

rofe nouuellement im 

prime a paris. 

[Double woodcut.] 
Colophon [h h 5 verso]: 

% Cy finid le rommant de la rofe: nouuellement Impn» 
me a Paris Lan mil cinq cens t neuf. Le penultime iour 
de feburier. par Michel le noir Libraire iure en Luniverfi 
te de paris Demourant en la grant Rue faindt Jacques 
a lenfeigne de la Rofe blanche couronnee. 
[Double woodcut.] 

Printed in double columns, 39 lines to a full column, and containing 156 
unnumbered leaves, the first having on the redo the title, as above, over a 
double woodcut, on the verso the cut of a Personage meditating. The text 
ends on the redto of the penultinute leaf, on the verso of which is the achtvt 
ttimprinur^ as above, over the same double woodcut. On the re£lo of the last 
leaf is the same cut of a Personage meditating, and on the verso the device of 
Michel Le Noir. The gatherings are of six leaves or four, very irregularly. 
There are 29 signatures, A — X, a. a. — h. h., in sixes, except D, G, L, P, S, X, 
d. d., f. f., g. g., fours. The first signature is A ii, the last h. h. iii. K is 
composed of Lz; n is somedroes used for the numeral ii ; q.ii is put for Q.ii. 
On every page that bears a signature the footline R$. di Ut roft is printed below 
the first column.* The Initiab to Paragraphs are large capitals. There is only 
a single woodcut in the text, a small extraneous cut (from Matbiolus) to the 
Verse-title § 35, on foL F.i. 

A copy of this edition now in the Public Library at Sydney, N.S.W., has 
bound up at the end the Tatamgnt maistn JehaH di Miun^ M. Le Noir, 24th 

' Rodi fim ru on P.ii. 

49 " 

April, 1 50 1, which seems to be a portion of the edition of the CodiciUe et Testa- 
ment described by Brunet, iii, col. 1680; as according to the description it 
consists of 34 leaves (out of 64) with the signatures f to I. 

The line, Amourettes tant est propice^ is omitted on Bi col. 4; showing this 
edition to be printed from Folio VII. 

K. Quarto III. . Goth. 151 5. 

Le rommant de la 

rofe. Nouuellement 

imprime a paris. 

[Double woodcut.] ^ 
Colophon [E.iii verso] : 

^ Cy finift le rommant de la rofe/ nouuellement Impri^^ 
me a Paris Lan mil cinq cens et quinze. Le . xxvi . lour du 
moys de ianuier. par Michel le noir Libraire iure en luni^^ 
uerfite de paris Demourant en la grant rue fai£t Jacques 
a lenfeigne de la Rofe blanche couronee. 
[Double woodcut.] 

Printed in double columns, 39 lines to a full column, and containing 156 
unnumbered leaves, the first having on the re£to the title, as above, over a double 
woodcut, on the verso the cut of a Personage meditating. The text ends on the 
redo of the penultimate leaf, on the verso of which is the acheve iPimprtmiry as 
above, over the same double woodcut. On the re£to of the last leaf is the same 
cut of a Personage meditating, and on the verso the device of Michel Le Noir. 
The gatherings are alternately one of 8 leaves, and two of 4, till the last, a 
single gathering of 4. The signatures are 29 in number, a to z lower-case, 
(with k), followed by i; A to £ capitals. The first is a.ii, the last £.iii. On 
every page that bears a signature, the footline Ro. de la roje is printed 
below the first column. The Initials to Paragraphs are mostly plain black 
capitals, with a few ornamental capitals. Besides the woodcuts on first and two 
last leaves, which are the same as in the 1509 edition, there are twenty small 
cuts in the text, fourteen difierent, one of which, used three times, is the same 
as the single cut in the 1509 edition to § 35. This, and six of the others, 
three being used twice, are from an edition of Le Livre de Matheobis, The 
rest are from extraneous sources, five of them being wider than a column, and 
occupying three-quarters of the width of the page.* The line Amourettes tant 
est propice is omitted on a vii coL 4 as in the preceding edition. 

' Plate XXXIIb. 

* For full details see account of woodcuts and Table, post. 


It will be observed that there is an apparent unifbrmitj between this edition 
and the last in the number of leaves and of lines to a column. The introdudion 
of nineteen more cuts, however, prevents there being absolute conformity. 
Room is made for these by (a) smaller Initial capitab to Paragraphs; (h) com- 
pression of type, especially in doing away with turnover lines. 

This edition is, apparently, extremely rare. It is not mentioned by Brunet, 
or in the Supplement to Brunet. There appears to be no copy in the Biblio- 
thique Nationale, nor is one mentioned in the Didot sale catalogue. In a copy 
of my own there is the following note by M. Antony M6ray (author of La vie 
au temps tUs Cours £ Amours^ etc.). ^Cette Edition de 1515 de Michel Lenoir 
est dite de Fran9ois premier, parcequ'elle fot faite dans Icsquinze premiers jours 
de son av^nement au trftne.^ Louis XII died ist January, 1515. Francis I 
was crowned 25th January at night. This book is dated the next day, the 

L. Quarto IV. Goth. 1519. 

Lb rommant de la rofe 

Nouuellement imprime 

a paris. 

[Double woodcut.] 
Colophon [Eiii verso]: 

Cy finid le rommant de la rofe/ nouuellement Impri^ 
me a Paris Lan mil cinq ces x xix . Le . xii . iour du moys 
dapuril. par Michel le noir Libraire iure en luniuerHte 
de paris Demourant en la grant rue faint Jacques a le* 
(eigne de la Rofe blanche couronnee. 
[Double woodcut.] 

Printed in double columns, 39 lines to a full column, and containing 156 
unnumbered leaves, the first having on the redo the title, as above, over a 
double woodcut, on the verso the cut of a Perwnagc meditating. The text 
ends on the re£to of the penuldnute leaf, on the verso of which is the achvi 
^imprimrr^ as above, over the same double woodcut. On the re£to of the last 
leaf is a small irrelevant cut, and on the verso the device of Michel Le Noir. 
The gatherings are alternately one of eight leaves and two of 4, till the last, a 
single gathering of 4. The signatures are 29 in number, a to a (Iz » k\ followed 
bjri; A to E capitals. The first is a.ii the last £.iii. Many of the pages that 
bear a signature have the /ootline Ro. di la r%f€ printed bebw the fint 


column, but there is little regularity in its use.^ The Initials to Paragraphs 
are mostly plain black capiuls, with a few ornamental letters.' 

Besides the woodcuts on the first and two last leaves, which, with the excep- 
tion of the last cut, are the same as in the 1509 and 15 15 Quartos, there are 
twenty small cuts in the text, all but five of which are the same as in the 
preceding edition of 1515.* 

This edition is an cxzSt counterpart of the 15 15 Quarto, and save for the 
difierence of the woodcuts, the two are only to be distinguished by the most 
careful examination. There are only some four instances in which column does 
not coincide with column and page with page. A minute collation, however, 
reveals some one or more trifling differences on every leaf. Also the type of 
1 519, though extremely like that of 15 15, is infinitesimally larger (about i mm. 
in a column of 39 lines), and also somewhat clearer, as if more recently cast or 
less worn. Further, the fount of 15 19 does not contain k, or the final super- 
script s, both of which appear in 1515. The line. Amourettes tant est propice^ 
is here omitted, on a^ col. 4, as in the two preceding editions. But besides this 
there is a fresh accidental omission, in the first column of text, line 18: ^e 
songe soit signifiance. This omission is followed in the three succeeding Quartos. 

M. Quarto V. Goth. Without date [1520 1]. 

* oEnfuyt le ro^ 
mat de la rofe 
aultremet dit 
le foge vergier 

Nouuellement Imprime a Paris xxix. 
[Large cut.] 

^ The first page of every gathering has it, except in the case of the Title-page, 
and of signature i, which has simply the numeral i, neither the letter i nor the foot- 

^ In the employment of these there is a general imitation of the preceding Quarto, 
and to a considerable extent the letters are the same. On signature y,, verso (§ 96), 
the capital G of Genyus has been miscopied D, and the name printed Denuysy a mistake 
which is copied in the three succeeding Quartos, J. Janot's even reading Dennys. 

' Three of the larger-sized cuts, extending across a column and a half, are 
replaced by others of the same size. The curious little cut on x. i. col. i (§ 84) is 
replaced by another apparently belonging to the same series. And one of the Matheolus 
cuts (§ 77) on t. iii verso, is replaced by a small cut of Ariadne deserted. See account 
of woodcuts, post, 

^ Large ornamental initial. The number, xxix, refers to the gatherings in the book. 
In the Didot sale catalogue, 1878, No. 130, a copy is described without this nimiber. 


Colophon [E vi verso] : 

^ Cy finift le Romant de la rofe Nouuellement imprime a 

Paris par 
Jehan ihannot Imprimeur et libraire iure en luniuerfite de 

Paris. De^ 
mourant a lymaige faindt Jehan baptifte en la rue neufue 

n oft re dame 
pres faindte Geneuiefue des ardans 
[Printer's device.] 

Printed in double columns, 41 lines to a full column, and containing 142 
unnumbered leaves, the first having on the redo the title, as above, over a large 
woodcut, and on the verso the same cut. The text ends halfway down the 
verso of the last leaf, and below is the acbevi d^imprimer^ as above, right across 
the page, and the printer's device below.^ The gatherings are (as indicated on 
the title) 29 in number, and are arranged alternately one of 8, and four of 4, 
till after signature x (with 8) when there come five of 4, one of 8, one of 4, 
one of 6. The signatures are a to z, followed by l ; ' A to E capitals. The 
first signature is a.ii, the last E.iii. The footline, Ro. de la rofe or R$. ii la r^., 
appears at the foot of the first column of every gathering except in the case of 
the title-page and signature D, and again on the third leaf of those with eight 
leaves, and of the last, E, with six. The initials to ^^ chapters *' are small black 
capitals, with a few of a larger size. Besides the cut on both sides of the 
title-page, there are three small cuts in the text, the first two of which are the 
same. All three represent a writer at a desk.' 

The date of this book must be 1520 or 1 521, as Jehan Janot, or Jehannot, 
died before 17th June, 1522, and it is printed from the edition of 1519. No 
dated book bearing the name of Jehan Jehannot alone appears to be found 
before i8th December, 1521/ 

The line 18, ^ii^ longe mt signifiance^ is omitted in first column, and also the 
line. Amourettes tant est propice^ on a.vii, col. 3. 

This is the first of the three editions which bear the misuke on the title- 
page, aultrement dit le songe vergier. ^Le Songe du Vergier** was a diflerent 
work, of which two editions had appeared earlier at Lyons and at Paris (see 
Brunct, v, 439> 

' This device diflfers somewhat from that reproduced, in two pbces, in Brunct. 
The lettering of the name Jehan Janot is different, and the two leopard supporters 
are ficing I. instead of r., besides other diflferences. 

' d iii misprinted d iiti; Iz for k. 

' See account of woodcuts, post. 

* Harri«e, Excerpts C^kmUniensM^ Avant^propm^ xliii. 


N. Quarto VI . Goth. 1526. 

^ oEnfuyt le romant 
de la Rofe aultre^ 
ment dit le fonge vergier Nou^ 
uellement Imprime a paris. xxix. 
[Double woodcut.] 
On les vend a paris en la rue faindt iaques 
a lenfeigne de la Rofe blanche couronee. 
Colophon [E. vi. verso]: 

% Cy finift le Romant de la rofe nouuellement 
Imprime a paris Ian mil cinq ces . xxvi . le . vii. 
iour de Feburier. 

Printed in double columns, 41 lines to a full column, containing 142 
unnumbered leaves, the first having on the redo the tide as above, with the 
double woodcut found in the three Quartos of Michel Le Noir, and at the 
back another woodcut from the stock of the same publisher.' The text ends 
halfway down the verso of the last leaf, and below is the achevi (Timprimir^ as 
above, extending across the page. The gatherings are 29 in niunber, as 
indicated on the tide, and are arranged alternately one of 8, and four of 4, till 
after signature x (with 8} when there follow five of 4, one of 8, one of 4, and 
one of 6. The signatures are a to z (h for k), followed by 1 ; A to £ capitals. 
The first signature is a.ii, the last, £.iii. The foodine Ro. de la rofe appears 
at the foot of the first column of every gathering except a.i which is the title- 
page, and D.i, and again on the third leaf of those with eight leaves, and also 
of the last, £, with six.' The initials to ^^ chapters ^ are plain black capitals of 
different sizes, with an occasional ornamental capital^ Besides the cuts on the 

^ Ornamented initial. The numeral indicates the number of gatherings. 

' From the Jardin de Plaisance. See p. 78 and p. 133 post. The book must have 
been published by Philippe he Noir; why did he not give his name? Although the 
widow of Michel Le Noir signs the Roman de la Rose^ M. P. V., in 1521, Philippe's 
name had appeared before this date, e.g,^ in the Saint Graal of 1523. Whatever their 
faults, the Le Noirs deserve the gratitude of bibliographers for their praiseworthy 
habit of dating their books. 

' It will be observed that this edition follows the preceding precisely in gather- 
ings, signatures, and footlines, even to the missing footline on D.i. The only differ- 
ences are that d.iii is right, and the footHnes always print rofe in fiill. 

^ B (twice), C, L, of diflS^rent sizes and styles. 


first leaf there are three small cuts in the text, the first and second being the 
same cut.^ They are in the same places as the cuts in Janot*s edition, but are 
diflferent cuts. 

Line i8, ^e ionge soit signifianci, is omitted in first column, and the line, 
Am9urettes tant at propia on a.vii, col. 3. Except for the difference of the cuts 
and of the tjrpe the edition is praAically a ^* fiicsimile " of the preceding Quarto, 

O. Quarto VI I. Goth. Without date [nVw 1528]. 

^ oEnluyt le Rom^ 

mant de la Rofe:^ 

Aultremet dit le 
longe vergier. Nouuellement Imprime A. 
Paris. XXX. 
[Large woodcut.] 

^ On les vend a Paris en la rue ncufue noj 
rtre Dame a lenfeigne de lefcu de France. 
Colophon [ verso) : 

% Cy finid le Rommant 

de la Rofe:^ nouuellemet 

Imprime a paris Pour Alal Lotrian demou 

rant en la rue neufue noftre Dame a lenfeigne 

de lescu de Fance. 

Printed in double columns, 41 lines to a full column, and containing 142 
unnumbered leaves, the first having on the refto the dtle and cut, as above, and on 
the veno an old cut from Le OievaBer Dilikeri^ <493- The text ends halfWay 
down the verso of the last leaf, and below is the acbevi J^imprimer^ as above, 
printed across the page* The gatherings are 30 in number, as indicated on the 
Title, and are arranged, at first one of 8, four of 4, alternately. After q (8), 
however, follow eleven of 4 in succession, then one of 8, one of 4, one of 6. 
The signatures are a to s (Iz for k), followed by i; A to F capitals. The 
first signature is a«ii, the Ust F.iiij nJii is misprinted m.iii and E*i mis- 
printed D.i. The fbodine Ro. ii la roft^ or, moreoften, Ro. i* la r$. appeani 

* The Afaihi§lMs figure, § 3$, see p. 93 fmt. AU three art found in the Le Noir 
^^uanosof 1515 and 1519. 
' Large ornamental initial. 


at the foot of the first column of every gathering except a i, the title-page, and 
of ky and again on the third leaf of those with 8, and of F, the last. The initials 
to ^^ chapters " are usually plain black capitals of different sizes, with here and 
there an ornamented letter. Besides the cuts on the first leaf there are three 
small cuts in the text, in the same places as in the two preceding Quartos. 
The first of these is a recutting of the cut used in the same place (§ 13) in 
Janot's edition; the second and third are a recutting of the Mathiolui figure 
used in the first and second places in the 1526 edition. 

The date of this edition can be fixed pretty certainly to 1528. The inter- 
polated passage introduced into the second edition of Clement Marot's Re- 
cension, dated 1529, shows decisive signs of having been copied from this;edition, 
which must therefore have preceded it (see note, p. 155); while there can 
be no doubt, I think, that this edition was issued later than the Le Noir 
Quarto of 1526. Reasoning a priori one would certainly have thought that 
its natural place would be in the gap between 1 521 and 1526; that the 
sequence of the cheap quartos was 1509, iS^Sj ^5^9 ['S^^]* [^S^S?], 1526; 
and that their cessation coincided, as we should have expected, with the appear- 
ance of Clement Marot's Recension. But apart from M. Harrisse's dates, 
mentioned below, there is good internal evidence that Alain Lotrian's edition 
was set up from the 1 526 Quarto, although in the earlier portion there are signs 
that Janot's edition may have been also consulted, as would appear besides from 
the employment of the same cut as his on fol. verso, where 1526 has a 
different one. I have tested a certain number of pages here and there, and 
constantly found slight but significant indications that 1526 copied or miscopied 
Janot, afid that A. Lotrian copied or miscopied 1526. While there is plenty of 
evidence showing certainly that the two latter are derived one from the other,' it 
is naturally hard to find an absolutely conclusive proof of the priority of one or 
the other. One such instance, however, occurs on q. iii, col. 3, line 8 firom 
foot. Here the word donneroyent^ rightly printed in Janot, appears in 1526 as 
donnerpyety the compositor having accidentally picked up the next letter to^, or 
a p having fallen into the box. This simple explanation of the remarkable 
word does not appear to have occurred to Alain Lotrian's printer, who attempts 

^ According to M. Harrisse books printed in the name of Alain Lotrian alone 
issued from the sign of the £cu de France "de 1528 a 1531, et de 1532 a 1546.** 
Excerpta Columbiniana^ Avant-propos^ p. xlviii. M. Renouard, Imprimeurs ParisienSj 
gives Alain Lotrian from 15 18 to 1546; but he goes into none of the details of part- 
nership, etc., discussed by M. Harrisse. 

' As the misprint of /ontaire for fontaine on o.ii, col. 4 (§ 59). A curious instance 
occiurs soon after, o.iii, coL 2, line 5, where I found in both the strange word chuhres. 
Turning to Janot I found that the word chabns is there printed with a worn a — 
originally, no doubt, a — ^that might be mistaken for «. See also antea^ Preface, p. vi. 


to put things to rights bj printing dhmrfjimt. It seems evident that this reading 
could not have sprung dired from iknniroyinty nor, on the other hand, would it 
have been altered— except by a mere accident — to tUnmrpyit. 

These three editions are, except for the differences noted, pra&'cally ^^ fac- 
similes " one of the other. In this edition there is the same omission of line 1 8 
in the first column of text: j^^ songi soit signifiana^ and further on, on a.vii. 
col. 3, of the line Anuunttes tant est propice. 

P. Clement Marot*8 Recension, I. Folio. Goth. Without date. 
[But Privilege dated 1526.] 

^ Cy efl le Romat de la roze 
Ou tout lart damour efl enclofe 
Hiftoires et audoritez 
Et maintz beaulx propos ufitez 
Qui a efle nouuellement 
Corrige fuffifantement 
Et cotte bien a lauantaige 
Com on voit en chafcune page. 
(a) ^ On les vend a Paris en la grand falle du Palais 
au premier pillier en la boutique de Galliot du pre Lif 
braire iure de Luniueriite. 
% Auec priuilege, 

{6) % On les vend a Paris en la rue Sain£t Jacques en 
la bouticque de Jehan petit Libraire iure de Luniuerli^ 
te a lenfeigne de la fleur de lis dor. 

% Auec priuilege.* 
Colophon [P cxxxix verso.] : 

% Fin du Rommant de la rofe veu z 

corrige z nouuellemet iprime a paris 

* Tide all in black. C is a large ornamental letter of ^ penmanship * style. It is 
the same (with a small piece broken off at top and bottom as well as other damages) as 
the initial to the xylographic title of Molinet*s Prose Version, V6rard*s edition (X), and 
must have been cut out of that block to be used as an individual letter. 

* In both issues the PriviUgi is granted to Galliot Du Pre. On the redo of the 
hit leaf is the mark of either Galliot Du Pre or Jchan Petit; and below the device 
are the words, V Auec priuillege. 

57 • 

Printed in double columns (except the Priviligi and Prol9gui\ with 44 lines 
to a full column. Containing 144 leaves; 4 preliminary unnumbered, for the 
Title, PriviHgiy Probguiy and TabU\ 139 numbered for the text; one 
unnumbered, with the Printer's Device on the re6to, blank on the verso. On 
the verso of the title, described above, is the Priviligiy ending thus: a frt 
fait U iiudy dixmufiifmi tour dapuril Mil cinq cis vingt fix apnspasquis. Et 
sigm. P. moyfait} On the next page is a cut,* 128x90"**", followed by the 
Preamhuk du livre^ three pages, and la TahUy another three. The text begins, 
headed by a woodcut, over which is the Verse-Title, on the top of FueilUt .i. 
The leaves are numbered in lower-case gothic letters, corredly throughout, 
except cxi. for ex. The signatures are cfp; A-X (capitals); y, z (lower-case). 
The first is ^ ii, the last z . iiii. There are 24 gatherings, as follows: «§■, 4 ff ; 
A-y, 6 ff each; z, 8. There are no footlines, but a headline on the verso of 
each numbered leaf, V Le Rommant de la Roft^ The Paragraph Initials (which 
occur not only at the ^^ chapters") are smallish decorated capitals, with several 
of larger size near the beginning. There are brief marginal analyses, and indi- 
cating signs to special passages. Many copies have red lines ruled round the 
text. Beside the large cut over the Privilige^ there are numerous small cuts in 
the text, the first having a border in four pieces; a few others in the first half 
of the book have a portion of a border on one side. The small cuts are 92 in 
number, of which 83 are different.* They are mainly from Virard's Folio (E) 
and Quarto (H), with a few extraneous cuts, also from Vdnurd's material. A 
single block is from the second Lyons series (§ 8, Tristesse). Brunet (iii. 1174) 
mentions a copy on vellum, ^^ d£cor£ d'un grand nombre de miniatures." 

Q. Clement Marot's Recension, II. Small 8vo. Roman letter. 
1529- [1530 N.S.] 

*• Lc Rommant de hi Role nou^ m 

uellement Reueu et corrige 

oultre les precedentes 



^ In some copies this name follows closely, thus; in others it is a little separated 
and below. 

• See * 8, p. 133. 

' The three pages of prologue have IF Prologue^ the three of table, f TakUy for 

* One cut is used four times, to §§ 29, 33, 50, 51; one three, to §§ 31, 81, 1 12; 
four twice, to §§ 12, 325 §§ 24, 36; §§ 26, 375 §§ 94, 104. For deuils see account 
of woodcuts, post. 


fl On Ic vend a Paris par Galliot du pre Li^ 

braire lure. ayant fa bouticque 

au premier pillier de la 

grant ialle du 

Pall ays. 


Colophon [P cccciii verso] : 

% Fin du Rommant de la rofe veu & 
corrige oultre les precedentes impref^ 
(ions. Et imprime a Paris, par maiflre 
Pierre vidoue. Pour Galliot du pre, Xu 
braire iure, tenant fa bouticque au pa< 
lays, au premier pillier. Au moys de 
Mars, mil cinq centz, xxix. auant paA 

Printed in single column, 30 lines to a full page, 412 leaves, of which eight 
are unnumbered, viz., the Tide (blank on verso), PfUgui and Table; 403 
numbered, and the last (blank on re£to, Publisher's Device on verso), unnum- 
bered. A break is evidently intended after F^ cc, to divide the book into two 
volumes if desired. It is here that the Capital-letter signatures begin. The text 
b^ns on Fueillet i, headed by a woodcut over which is the verse-title. The 
numbers are in capital letters. There are no less than nineteen misnumberings.' 
The first eight leaves have no signatures, then fblbw fifty gatherings in 8, and 
one, the last, in 4, all with signatures. The signatures are the twenty-three 
lower-case letters,* with & and p, followed by the twenty-three capitals, and 
aa, bb, and cc. The first is a i, the last cc iii. Though the gatherings are in 8, 
only the first three leaves of each have signatures. There are no footh'ncs, 
but headlines lb rommant (verK>), db la rosb (reAo), ending with the last 
verso of the Text.* The Paragraph Initials are singularly plain Roman capiuN, 

^ In a copy in the Alusii C$ndi the Publisher's Device is printed below this, a5 
well as on the verso of the following leaf. 

' Quae hie enumerare operae non pretium est. In two gatherings, k (or K) 
and 1, there is a systematic doubling of numberings, two of LXXIII and no LXXIIII, 
two of LXXV, and no LXXVI, etc 

* Kii, Kiii, capitals. A lower-case k is used in the text, f^ xv verm, and xli 

* On each page of the Pr$l$pu and TMi n a headline Lt prolooub and la 
TAILS respcdively. 


with a single decorated M at the beginning, and in six cases a four-line 
skeleton B. There are brief marginal analyses and notes. The illustrations 
are fifty-one in number, including that on the title, and the Publisher's device 
on the last leaf, which is of the same style and is used as an illustration 
in the text of the following edition. There are thirty-one different cuts,^ 
which appear to be all designed on purpose for this edition. The prettiness of 
these woodcuts have made this edition much prized. It is the only edition not 
in Gothic letters. 

On P LXXXV it siq. is reintroduced the Interpolation of 104 lines, be- 
ginning Et mismement de asU amour^ which is absent in the previous edition, P. 
See note, p. 155. 

R. Clement Marot's Recension III. Folio. Goth. 153 1. 

^ Ciy eft le Rommant 
de la Roze. 

Ou tout lart damour eft enclofe 

Hystoires et au6toritez 

£t maintz beaulx propos ufitez 

Qui a efte nouuellement 

Corrige ftiffifantement 

Et cotte bien a lauantaige 

Com on voit en chascune page. 
f On les vend a Paris en la grant (allc du palais 
au premier pillier en la bouticque de Galiot du pre 
libraire iure de Luniuerfite. 

Mil . V . C • xxxi. 


^ One is used five times, viz., on the Title, and to §§ 16, 31, 81, 1 12 ; one four 
times, to §§ 11 (suite)^ 35, 63 («//#), 107 {suiti); two three times, to §§ 12, 19, 325 
and §§43, 52, 76; eight twice, §§ i, 77; §§14, 18} §§24, 73; §§26, 37; §§34, 
36; §§38363; §§46,90; ^S7f 102. 

' C is the same ornamental letter as in the edition of 1526 (P). The name at 
foot is part of the woodcut border. Title surrounded by woodcut border rf either 
Galliot Du ?r6 or Jehan Petit. 


In other copies the lines giving the address are as follows: 
% On les vend a Paris en la rue Saint laques 
en la bouticque de Jehan petit Libraire iure de lunu 
uerfite a lenfeigne de la fleur de lys dor. 

Colophon [P C. xxxi, verso, below last column of text] : 

^ Fin du Rommant de la rofe 

veu et corrige/ et nouuellement 

imprime a Paris le . ix*. iour de 

Juing Lan mil . v^. xxxi. 
On the refto of the next {i.e. the last) leaf, is the mark of 
either Galliot Du Pre, or Jehan Petit. 

Printed in double columns (except the Pr$Ioguf)y 45 lines to m full column | 
conuining 136 leaves, 4 preliminary unnumbered (Title, verso blank. Prologue 
and TabU)j 131 numbered, comprising the text, and one unnumbered, having 
the publisher's device on the redo, blank verso. Except for the absence of the 
Prhsligi^ the preliminary portion, including the large cut heading the Pnambuli 
du livrij is the same as in the 1526 Folio of C. M. R., agreeing almost lineally; 
viz., three pages Prologue^ and nearly another three TahU. The text begins, 
headed by a woodcut, over which is the Verse-Title, on the top of ^^ Fueillet 
premier.'' The leaves, except this single one, are numbered in lower-case gothic 
letters, except that in the hundreds C is a majuscule; corre^y throughout. 
There are 23 gatherings (exactly using the letters of the alphabet), all in 6 except 
the first, which contains the 4 preliminary leaves. The signatures are capital 
letters, except y, z, which are lower-case. The first is A ii, the last z .iiii. There 
are no footlines, but headlines on the verso of each numbered leaf, Le 
rammani de la Rofe.^ The paragraph-initiak are the same small decorated 
capitals as in the 1526 Folio, with a few larger and of different style near the 
beginning. This edition also follows that in the nuirginal analyses and notes, 
and in the indicating signs to special passages. Besides the large cut over the 
ProUgue^ there are $9 small woodcuts in the text, 31 different cuts,* being the 
same series as was designed for the preceding o^vo edition, with one new cut 
apparently belonging to the series.' 

* The three pages of Prologue have Le Prologue for headline, and of Table, La 

' One cut used five times, §§ 16, 22, 31, 81, 112; three, four times, §§ 3, 43, 
52, 76: §§ 23, so, 55, 82: §§ 53, 59, 73, 102; three, three times, §§ 2, 4, 8: 
SI II (/«!>#), 35, 99- SS 30, 36, 45: wid "«"« twice, §§ 1,77: §§ 12, 19: SS I4f ao: 
SS *6, 37: SS 38* 57: S§ 47, 70: SS 61, 103: IS 66, 67: SS 94, 104- 

* For account of these cuts, see pp. 90, 91. 


This edition is imperfedt. On f^ xciii, verso, lO lines from the foot of the 
first column, between the lines 

Si sasstmbUnt it sentrejiigmnt 

(which is left without a rhyme-line), and the next, 

Par Us dens de ditraffion^ 

there is an omission of 157 lines, being exadly a leaf (f^ xcviii) of the 1526 
folio edition. No bibliographer appears to have noticed this omission. It looks 
as if the copy followed must have lacked this leaf, as there is nothing in the 
present form of the book to suggest that another leaf had been allowed for in 
calculating the making-up. 

I have a copy — from the colleAion of J. Richard — in which all the cuts and 
initials to paragraphs, besides the title-frame, are elaborately coloured amd gilded. 
(It is perhaps the same copy as is mentioned in Brunet, iii, 1 175O There was 
about this time an attempted revival of the illumination of books in this way. 

S. Clement Marot's Recension IV. Small 8 vo. Goth. 1537 and 

*• Le rommant 

de la Rofe nouuellement reueu 
et corrige oultre les pre 
cedentes Im- 
[Publisher's device.] 
{a) on les vend a Paris en la Rue Saind Jaf^s 
en la boutique de Jehan morin .md.xxxviii. 

{b) on les vent a Paris au Palays en la garlle^ 
rie des marciers par ou on va voir les prison* 
niers a la boutique de Jehan longis.^ 

^ These two will suffice as specimens of the publisher's imprints ; but copies bear- 
ing the date 1538 are found with the devices, names and addresses, of no less dian ten 
different publishers, viz., J. St. Denys, J. Longis, J. Morin, Les Angeliers, J. Andr^ 
J. Mass£ (Mac£), Fr. Regnault, G. le Bret, P. Vidoue, Poncet le Preux. I have seen 
or heard of copies bearing the date 1537 with those of the first five only. But it is 
probable there are more, and possibly there are more of the former also. Brunet, iii, 


Colophon [verso of fol. cccciii,^ below last 9 lines of text] : 
^ Fin du rommat de la rofe veu % 
Corrige oultre les precedctes ^ ipref^ 
fions. Et imprime nouuellement a 
Paris/ Lan mil cinq cens . xxxviii. (xxxvii.) 

Printed in single columns, 30 lines to a full page; 412 leaves, the first 8 un- 
numbered, containing the Title (blank on verso), Prologue and Tabli^ 403 
numbered, and the last (blank on redlo, publisher's device on verso), unnumbered. 
The text begins on f*^ i, headed by a woodcut, over which is the Verse-Title. 
The numbers are in small gothic letters. There are no less than 25 cases of 
misnimibering, 13 of which are copied from the previous o^vo edition (Q). 
The first 8 leaves have no signatiu'es, then follow 50 gatherings in 8, and one, 
the last, in 4, all with signatures. The signatures are the 23 lower-case letters 
(with \z for k), followed by 1 and p, the 23 capitals, and aa, bb, cc. The first 
is a, the last cc iii; only the first three leaves of each gathering have the 
signatures, which run thus, b, bii, biii; but a has also a iiii. 

There are no fbotlines, but headlines, Le rommant (verso), De la rofe 
(redo).' The paragraph initials are plain black capitals, with a single orna- 
mental M to the first line of the poem. There are brief marginal analyses and 
notes. There are 49 woodcuts in the text, of which 26 are diflerent.^ These 
woodcuts are rather coarse recuttings of the pretty series in the former odavo (Q], 
six of which, however, including the the galley used as publisher's device, are 
absent.' The edition is, in fad, an extremely close copy of the earlier octavo, page 
for page, line for line, error for error, except that the format is slightly larger, 
and the type gothic instead of roman. The misreading of fol. xli verso, lieulx 
le seneschal for leulx (li for \z) is repeated, although both editions have Keulx 
(capital K), in the margin there, and in the text six lines below. The mis- 
numbering of the leaves, even, is generally followed, though this edition has 

col. 1 1 75, mentions an imprint, " Pierre Vidoue pour Guill le Bret," from which it 
would appear that Pierre Vidoue was the printer. I have, however, seen a copy where 
the imprint on the title-page had ^^ Imprime a Paris pour maifire Pierre Vidoue," etc. 
^ Misprinted ccciii. 

* In some copies precedaces. 

' Each page of the preliminary matter has a headline, Le Prologue or La Tabie. 

* Two used 4 times, §§ 11 (juite)y 35, 63 {suite\ 107 {suite)\ §§ 16, 31, 81, 
112; four used 3 times, §§ 12, 19, 32: §§ 14, 17, 64: §§ 43, 52, 76: §§ 24, 73, 74; 
nine used twice, §§ i, 77: §§ 3, 56: §§ 26, 37: §§ 34, 36: §§ 38, 63: §§ 46, 90: 
§§57,102: §§ 18, loi: §§59,103. 

' See pp. 91, 92.. 


others of its own; and also a line misplaced on f! xl. v^. The passage 
missing in the preceding edition (R) is present here; and also the Interpolation 
beginning Et mesmement de cesU amour. 

This is the last early edition to be issued, no other appearing till 1735. 

^ X. Molinet's Prose Version L Folio. Goth. 1 500. 

^^ ^TvT?! O C^ Ceft le romant de la rofe 



Moralifie cler et net 
Translate de rime en profe 
Par voftre humble molinet.^ 
Colophon [P Clxxxi verso] : 

^ Cy finift le Romant de la rofe tranflate de 
ryme en profe Imprime a paris pour Anthoine 
verard libraire marchant demourant jPParis 
pres Ihoflel Dieu deuant la rue neufue noflre 
Dame A lenfeigne Saint Jehan leuangelifle 
Ou au palais au premier pillier deuat la chap 
pelle ou Ion chante la MefTe de meffeigneurs 
les prefidens. 

[V6rard*s Device.] 

Printed in double columns, with 42 lines to a fiill column. Containmg 186 
1^^^ ^ 3 X leaves, 4 preliminary unnumbered (Title, i page; Table^ beginning on back of 

Title, 6 pages; i page blank), 181 numbered, containing the text, and i blank. 
W'^**' The first page of text is headed Fueillet i. After this the word FueilUt is on 

the verso, and the number, in lower-case gothic letters,' on the redto of each 
leaf. Both the word and the number are in the middle of the page. There is 
no other headline or footline, but each page of the Table has headline La 
Table. There are 31 gatherings, all in 6, except the first, which has 4 leaves, 
and the last, which has 8. The signatiu-es are the 23 lower-case letters (h for k) 
with 1, followed by aa to gg, lower-case. The first signature (on second leaf 
of the book), is a ii, the last gg v ; gg iiii is misprinted gg iii. In the numbering 
of the leaves there are three mistaJces: xix for xxx: Ixv (repeated) for Ixvi: 
C. Ixiiii for C. Ixiii. The initials to the chapters are large, ornamental capitals, 
of the ^^ penmanship " style, embodying grotesque faces.' The shape of the 

^ This title appears to be cut entirely on wood in one piece. Afterwards the 
initial C was used separately, see p. 57, note i. 
* C (100) capital. 
' Facsimiles of most of this alphabet are given in Claudin, ii, 464, 5. 


letter is often disguised almost beyond recognition. The book is illustrated by 
one large woodcut, heading the Pr^Ugui^ and 137 small cuts, the same as those 
used in V^rard's Quarto (H). There are 81 different cuts, four of the series 
being absent here. They are all here surrounded by a framework of gothic 

The date of this edition appears to be given in the rhyming epilogue of Molinet 
in the line, Lan quinxi ans toumay m§Sn au vent. (See Appendix A.) It is 
No. 186 in Macfiurlane. 

There is a copy of this edition on vellum, with all die cuts richly illuminated, 
in the British Museiun (c. 22. b. 2). 

Y. Molinet *s Prose Version II. Folio.^ Goth. 1503. 

^ CEft le romant de la rofe 
Morallfe cler et net 
Trailate de rime en proie 
Par voftre huble molinet 
Colophon [P. c.liii. rcfto, foot of second column] : 
Cy finift le Romant de la Rofe traf< 
late de ryme en profe Imprime a Lyon Lan 
Mil cinq cens t trois par maiflre Guillau^ 
me baUarin libraire t Imprimeur/ demourat 
en la Rue merciere pres fain£t Anthoine/ au 
trement corrigie t amende quil neftoit par de 
nant/ come il appert clerement en diuers paA 
faiges t chapitres. 
[on verso] Gloire foit a dieu 

Et prouffit es hu< 
[Balsarin's Device.] « 

' See account of woodcuts, ^2, p. 1 32. 

* For details, see p. 86. I have not thought it worth while to make a list of all 
the repeated cuts. They can be found in the Table, pp. 139-143. 

* Brunet calb it a Folio. The Supplement sajrs he is wrong, and that it is quarto. 
The copy under my hand is certainly folio (perpendicuUr lines in paper). 

* C, woodcut letter, white on black ground, with a grotesque head inside the letter. 
' Facsimile of this page and of the colophon in Cbudin, iii, 525. The form 

dinsmt it no doubt not a misprint^ but due to the influcnoe of the Provencal dialed). 

65 K 

Printed in double columns, 45 (or sometimes 46) lines to a full column; 
containing 154 leaves; 4 preliminary, unnumbered (viz., Title i page; Tabula^ 
beginning on back of Title, 5 pages; i leaf blank both sides), followed by 150 
numbered leaves containing the text, with publisher's device on verso of the 
last. The first page of text is headed iiii.* After this the word FuiiUet is on 
the verso, and the number (in lower-case gothic letters) on the refto of each leaf, 
at the top in the middle of the page. There are no other headlines or foot- 
lines; but each page of the Table has the headline Tabula, There are 
29 gatherings, arranged on different principles at the beginning and at the end 
of the book. Thus, first one of 4, then six of 6^ one of 4, five of 6; then, 
beginning with signature o, one of 4 and one of 6 alternately to the end« The 
signatures are the 23 lower-case letters (Iz for k) with 1, followed by the same 
double to ee. The first signature, on second leaf of book, is a ii, the last 
eeiiii; miii is misprinted miiii. In the numbering of the leaves there is no 
mistake, but n and m are frequently used for ii and iii respedively. The chapter 
initials are ornamental capitals of several different styles and sizes. At the head 
of Le Prologue is a large " penman's ** L, with face to left, which very closely 
resembles the two reproduced in Claudin, iii, 536, 537, ftom the press of Jean 
de la Fontaine, but appears to be slightly different from either of those.* The 
first letter of the title, C, has a well-drawn grotesque face inside it, and is white 
upon a black background streaked with white. An I on f^. xx (and elsewhere), 
and a G on f^. cxxix, evidently belong to the same set. There are several sizes of 
letters with flower and leaf decoration, and a good many belonging to a simpler 
but elegant style of black capital of which the B (f^ xxxix) is one of the prettiest^ 
There are two initials misprinted: f ^ xix, L for H, and f. Ixxiii, E for F. The 
book is illustrated by one cut 1 12 X 85 mm., heading the Prohgue^ and 139 cuts 
in the text, 67 different, all but two of which are coarse re-cuttings of the second 
Lyons series.^ 

^ Only three of the preliminary leaves being counted. This makes the last leaf 
cliii, an uneven number, instead of cliiii, as it would naturally have been. In the 
Tabula the prologui reference is " FuiilUt premier^** instead of iiii. 

* The top of the uppermost loops is absent, and might, of course, have been cut 
off; but the second of the perpendicular white lines (or spaces) of the stem stops some 
way short of the same in the facsimile letters. 

• See account of woodcuts, *4, p. 133. 

^ See account of woodcuts, p. 84, and Table, pp. 139-143. 


Z. Molinet's Prose Version III. Folio. Goth. i52i. 

LE romant de la Rofe 

Moralifie cler et net 

Tranflate de rime en profe 
Par voftre humble molinet. 

Nouuellement Imprime a Paris. En la grat rue faindl: Jaques 
A lenfeigne de la Roze blanche couronnee. 

Colophon [fol. Cxxvi. refto, col. 2]: 

% Cy finift le Romat de la Rofe tranflate 
de rime en profe Nouuellemct imprime a 
paris/ Par la veufue feu Michel le Noir 
demourant en la grat rue fain^t Jacques 
a lenfeigne de la Roze blanche couronee 
le dixfeptiefme iour Daouft mil cinq cens 
vingt et ung, 

[Device of Michel Le Noir.] 

Printed in double columns 50 and 51 lines to a full column. Containing 128 
leaves: i (Title) unnumbered ; 125 numbered; 2 at end unnumbered. The 
text begins on the verso of the title, below a large cut of Writer at desk, with 
Angel bearing scroll.* The second leaf has the number ii at top, the word 
Fueillit being headline on the page facing it, and so on to the verso of fol. cxxvi, 
on which the Table begins, occupying four pages, each with headline La Tabti. 
The final page (verso of z iiii) is blank. The numbers are lower-case gothic 
letters, with capital C for the hundred sign. There are five errors in numbering.' 
There are twenty-three gatherings, sixteen in 6, five in 4. The signatures are 
the gothic capitals with lower-case gothic letters for numerals; y, z, however, 
are lower-case. The gatherings containing only 4 leaves are F, K, O, S, z. 
At the bottom of the first column of certain leaves is the title R^piSt de 

' The L is a decorated ^^ penman's " letter, with face on left, and a crane's head, 
downwards, swallowing snake, on right. Either a copy or the original of a letter in 
V&rard's PeUrinage de Phomme^ ^S^^j of which a facsimile, differing slightly, and 
showing breakages, is given in Macfiu-lane, LXIII. 

* See page 131, •la. 

* XV for xviii ; xxvii for xxviii ; Ixx for Ixix ; Ixxviii, Ixxix for Ixxvii, Ixxviii. 


la r$fi as t fbotline.^ The Initials to chapters are ornamented letters of 
several different styles and sizes. Besides the large woodcut mentioned above 
there are 27 cuts in the text, 5 of which are used twice, 22 different. Thejr 
are old cuts from various books of Michel Le Noir.* Some, of a better style, 
perhaps from Vfrard's materials. 

^ There is no uniform principle in the use of these foodines. Three gadierings, 
C, D, S, have none at all. From F to P they appear on the first three leaves of the 6-leaf, 
and first two of the 4-leaf gatherings. Before and after that there is little r^ularity. 

' See Table, pp. 139-143. 





f N this part of the work I have endeavoured to tabu- 
late all the woodcut illustrations designed for various 
editions of the Roman de la Rose; and to note and to 
f some extent identify others first designed for other 
; service, but used more or less appropriately for this. 
The labour spent over these small and often poor and unimportant 
woodcuts is, it must be confessed, a gathering of straw, not to say 
of straws. But it is indispensable to the brick-making of Biblio- 
graphy. For woodcut evidence, used with due precaution, is not 
only often clear and decisive, but it is comparatively easy of 
employment to all. Very few persons can hope to acquire the 
special knack of distinguishing types at a glance; but most can re- 
cognize likeness in woodcuts, especially where the human face is 
concerned. It is true that hasty comparisons have been often 
made and identity of blocks assumed too rashly; and warnings 
have been uttered by modern bibliographers against trusting to 
woodcut evidence in assigning unnamed editions to particular 
presses or publishers.' And there has been, in consequence, a tend- 
ency to err in the other dire<5tion, and negleft a source of evidence 

* As also against hastily deciding an inferior impression to be the later. There 
are, however, certain signs, such as serious cracks and breakages in the woodblock, 
which arc unmistakable and sure. 

which, when used judiciously, may be invaluable. This distrust of 
woodcut evidence has arisen from finding cuts, adtually or appar- 
ently from the same blocks, used in books issued with different 
publishers* or printers' names. In the case of the Roman de la Rose^ 
there is no doubt that the blocks of the famous Lyons cuts (Series 
L.ii) changed hands several times; and instances of blocks passing 
from one printer to another, or from one town or even country to 
another, either by sale or loan, are numerous. But it would be 
interesting to follow up all the fadts as to this transference more 
closely, to see whether the pradtice was not checked, say about 
1500 or somewhat before, by a growing rivalry between publishers 
which led them to keep their own blocks jealously for their own 
use. This would account for the great development of the art of 
Recutting, an aFt which was carried almost to the extent of fac- 
simile in many instances,^ and even on occasion produced copies 
in which the workmanship was quite as good as in the originals; 
as for instance in Le Noir's Jardin de Plaisance^ to be mentioned 
presently. It would be well to verify carefully all cases of alleged 
borrowing, and to make sure that they were not sometimes merely 
cases of recutting. For instance, there are certainly four different 
cuttings of the '* Personage Meditating " which appears in three of 
Le Noir's Quartos of the Roman de la Rose (see p. 1 32, *3.)» but each 
publisher keeps his own block; and it would be fairly conclusive 
evidence as to the publisher of an unassigned book to find one of 
these four blocks, so closely resembling each other, used in it. 
This possibility of confusion between borrowing of blocks and 
recuttings has been well drawn attention to by M. Henry Harrisse 
in the Excerpta Columbiniana {Avant-propos^ p. vii), where he 
adduces as an instance the so-called '^ Grand L. de V^rard,'* and 
shows how it was recut at least three times after the original; and 
also points out the mistakes into which Bibliographers have been 
led from not perceiving this. 

^ Many of the^ recuttings are really closer and better than some modem so- 
called facsimiles made by hand before the use of photographic processes ; i,g. than the 
^^ fiicsimiles " of the Roman de la Rose cuts in the Biblioth. Elzev. edition. 


Probably no book ever became widely popular without the 
lielp of illustrations; and though the Roman de la Rose took a 
position of its own on its literary merit, there can be little doubt 
that it was helped to attain that position by the art of the minia- 
turist, and by the illustrations for which its graphic visualizations 
of allegory and pi^resque descriptions of life in fa6t and fiction 
gave such abundant suggestions. We see from the Manuscripts 
that the work was regarded as pre-eminently a field for illustration, 
almost as if it had been a religious book; and the printed editions 
carried on the tradition. Of the twenty-one early editions, in- 
cluding the three of Molinet*s Prose Version, almost all are 
profusely illustrated. There are five separate series of woodcuts, 
which, although in great measure imitated from one another, were 
specially designed for various editions of the work; three of them 
complete and full; one complete, but less full; and one (V6rard*s 
Folio) evidently intended to be both complete and full, but only 
partially carried out. Besides these five series there are partial 
recuttings of two of the series. There is also a single block, contain- 
ing two scenes, which may have been intended as the first of a new 
series, for some reason never carried further, but was more likely 
intended to stand alone at the head of the first two columns of 
text, in imitation of the pair of scenes found almost invariably at 
the head of all the manuscripts, even of the cheaper sort which 
had no other illustrations. This is the block used in all four of the 
cheap Quartos issued by Michel Le Noir and his successor. In the 
second and third of these Quartos there are certain other small 
cuts so entirely appropriate that at first sight they appear to have 
been designed purposely for this service. But upon investigation 
they prove to belong originally to another work, the Lhre de 
Mathiolus^ and to be lineal descendants — ^in other words, reduced 
imitations— -of the cuts in the first edition of that work. 


The following is a complete list of the various series, in* 
eluding the recuttings, lettered and numbered for handy refer- 

L.i. The earliest Lyons series, comprising eighty-six separate 

cuts, used only in the First Edition, Folio I (A). 
L.ii. The second Lyons series, comprising eighty-five separate 
cuts, used wholly in Folios II and III (B and C), and 
partially in Folios IV, VI, VII (D, F, G).^ 

L.iii. The coarse recuttings of certain cuts of the last series, 
L.ii, sixty-five in number, used in Balsarin's edition of 
Molinet's Prose Version, Lyons, 1 503 (Y.) 
V.i. The incomplete series of sixteen cuts designed for 
V6rard*s Folio (Folio V, E) and used in that in con- 
junftion with a large number of cuts from other sources. 
Nine of these cuts are used also in the first edition of 
Clement Marot's Recension (P.) 
V.ii. The series of eighty-two small but superior cuts, prac- 
tically complete though supplemented by three cuts 
from other sources, cut purposely for V^rard's Quarto 
(H.). Seventy-nine of them are also used in V6rard's 
edition of Molinet's Prose Version (X,), and sixty-seven 
in the first edition of C16ment Marot's Recension (P.) 

Le N. The single block, with two scenes, found in the four 
Le Noir Quartos (I, K, L, N). 

P. V.i. The series of thirty-three small cuts, prettily designed, 
but rather coarsely cut, used in the small-8vo edition 
of Clement Marot*s Recension, 1529 (Q), printed by 
Pierre Vidoue, and in the next (R.) 
P. V.ii. The series of recuttings of twenty-six of the last 
series, still more coarsely executed, used in the small- 
8vo edition of 1537-8 (S), also printed by Pierre 

It must be at once conceded that none of these woodcuts are 

^ A single cut of the series reappears in P. 


first-rate, either in artistic design or as specimens of the art of 
woodcutting. Neither of the two Lyons series are equal to work 
produced at Lyons within the same half decade; ^ nor do the Paris 
series, any of them, show the excellence that may be found in 
other woodcuts of the same period and place. As the book was 
plainly in demand among the wealthy^ this appears at first sight 
rather surprising. But there is, perhaps, a somewhat paradoxical 
explanation of it, at all events with regard to the editions pub- 
lished by V6rard< It was not that he was supplying an inferior 
article to suit a lower class of readers, but that plain woodcut 
illustrations, even the best the art could produce, were still so little 
esteemed that it was not worth while taking pains or laying out 
money to secure the very best. The artistic merit possible in an 
uncoloured woodcut was hardly if at all yet recognized in France. 
The early woodcuts were meant to be coloured by hand, as is the 
case in most copies of the two first Folios of the Roman de la Rose; 
and for years after this the rich who wanted copies of the book 
ordered them either -still as illuminated manuscripts, such as the 
magnificent MS. in the British Museum, Harley 4425, made after 
at least three printed editions had appeared, or printed on vellum 
with the woodcuts so overlaid with gold and colours that they 
were really ininiatures. V^rard therefore chiefly desired woodcuts 
as the basis of these illuminations; and in his editions we fre- 
quently find the underlying cut completely unrecognizable in the 
over-painted miniature. In his Folio Roman de la Rosi the scene 
of Pygmalion and the statue is painted over a cut of Eve and the 
serpent, and that of the Dragon flying in the air over a cut bf 
Venus in her dove-drawn car. Besides these wealthy and royal 
patrons, the booksellers had, of course, humbler clients who could 

' For instance, in the Paschalia published by GuiUaume Le Roy in 1485. The 
art of wood-cutting at Lyons seems to have made amazingly qiuck advance in a very 
short period. The first series of Roman di la Rosi cuts was evidently already regarded 
as barbarous by the time the second was made. The second series represents an inter- 
mediate stage between the Rudimentary, as seen in the first series, and the Developed, 
as seen in the Fin des Saints Pins of 1487 ; and had they waited riD only a year or two 
later to be made, these cuts might have been on an altogether higher plane. 



only afford paper copies, and bald uncoloured cuts; but for such 
the second-rate was considered quite good enough, and apparently 
they were then — as now — contented with it. 

Still, although the connoisseur passes them by with indiffer- 
ence or contempt, many of these small cuts have a merit and even 
a charm of their own; and a careful study of them brings out 
many points of interest, and tells pretty plainly the story of a 
certain class of book-illustration in France from the early days of 
the craft till nearly the middle of the sixteenth century. Thus we 
have first the simple and archaic cuts of about 1480, hardly more 
than outlines intended for colouring. Then we see these same 
designs copied by a more ambitious woodcutter, in a series which 
shows an advance in the craft of woodcutting, but a certain loss of 
artistic and intellectual qualities. This new series, we observe^ 
though not yet attaining the highest excellence, is plainly thought 
a good deal of in the bookselling world, being possibly appreciated 
by the public on account of a certain ^^ French *' quality, now making 
itself perceptible in this art of Teutonic origin. And so after being 
used for two fine editions at Lyons, the blocks are transferred to 
Paris, where one of the best publishers employs them for a scholarly 
and well-printed edition, closely imitated from the preceding Lyons 
Folio. By this time the wood-blocks have seen their best days; 
but two more editions, inferior in every respect, are still printed 
from them, though their numbers diminish and the prints show 
increasing signs of wear. Meantime, during the life of these wood- 
blocks, the arts of woodcutting and book-illustration have greatly 
advanced. The foremost Paris publisher, after having planned, but 
compromised over, a folio edition to have been finer than any of 
the preceding, produces one in quarto with cuts smaller in size 
but well designed and well cut, and showing intelligent reference 
to the text But we gather what a position the often-printed 
Lyons cuts had acquired, when we see that most of this fresh 
series are founded upon the corresponding cuts in the Lyons series; 
the passages illustrated and the position of the illustrations are 
pra£lically identical; and the quarto edition a copy in smaller 


size of the Lyons Folios, or at least of the first Paris Folio, which 
imitated them. In hj& we find here, as in most other popular 
books of the kind, that the general scheme of illustration and 
style of the whole book have become as it were stereotyped. Each 
book acquires a convention of its own in these matters. 

The next stage perfectly exemplifies what Mr. Pollard calls 
** the putting away of the last remnants of mediaeval art and litera- 
ture as childish things,'* on the awakening of classical feeling early 
in the sixteenth century.^ What he notes of the ^^ old romances ** 
is exa^y true of the Roman de la Rose; they ^^ continued to be 
published, but in a smaller and cheaper form, and for the most part 
with old cuts.'' This is an exa6t account of the six quarto editions 
of the Roman de la Rose which followed V^rard's, where M. le Noir 
deteriorates from V6rard, and Jehan Janot and Alain Lotrian go 
one— or several — worse than Le Noir. We seem, indeed, actually 
to see the sudden arresting of the flow of illustration in Le Noir's 
Quartos, in which one single block, containing two scenes, was 
designed and cut for the work, while the others are all old cuts 
from other sources. A certain revival of the book and its illustra^ 
tions coincides with Clement Marot's modernization of the poem, 
about 1526, and the edition of 1529 reflet the rising fashion for 
small books with dainty illustrations. But in the case of the 
Roman de la Rose this was but a transient after-glow, to be followed 
by a complete and long-enduring night. 

A striking feature in the diflFerent series of illustrations to the 
Roman de la Rose is the lack of inventiveness displayed in the suc- 
cessive sets of designs* In fa6t, with few exceptions, they simply 
repeat each other more or less closely, and are all founded eventu- 
ally upon the earliest series of all, the rude and archaic cuts of the 
first Lyons Folio. But this sheep-like want of originality, whether 
due to mere parsimony and indolence, or to some instinftive love 
of convention, is very typical of all French illustrations of the time, 
and is quite as evident in the highest class of illustrated books, 
such as the Livres d*Heures; being seen also in the slavish copies 

* Early Illustrate J B^is^ p, 169. 


of archaic German cuts which are handed down through various 
French editions of such works as the Speculum humanae satvatimis. 
It may be supposed that the wider, less educated reading public, 
brought into existence by the development of the Printed Book^ 
had a£lually a sort of childish fondness for conventional repre- 
sentations of scenes to which its eyes had first been opened by 
certain designs, and would have felt a shock of strangeness at seeing 
them presented in an unfamiliar way. 

A curious evidence that this sentiment was real and aftive, is 
found in the way in which certain illustrations become attached to 
a particular work, though not originally designed for it, or even 
appropriate to the subjedts, ai>d are copied again and again when- 
ever the book is reprinted. No very salient instance of this is 
found in the Roman de la Rose^ though the tendency is shown in the 
attachment of the little cut from the Mathiolus^ Math6olus address- 
ing the Almighty, to certain sections in the cheap Quartos; this 
occurs in all four of Le Noir*s, and is imitated in Alain Lotrian's 
by a recutting of the same figure (see p. 95). But a good ex- 
ample of the praftice is seen in the case of the yardin de Plaisance^ 
and as a single cut from that work is used in one edition of the 
Roman de la Rose (the Quarto of 1 526), there is an excuse for intro- 
ducing some niention of it here. The first edition is supposed to 
be that of V6rard, without date, but after 1499.^ This edition is 
illustrated by numerous re-used cuts, taken from V^rard's fine 
Th^ence enfrangoisy a book also without date, but assigned to about 
the same time as the yardin de Plaisance^ and presumably earlier.^ 
The illustrations in V6rard's yardin de Plaisance are composed of 
separate blocks, each containing a figure, k building, or a tree, put 
together in various groups or arrangements. When, howiever, we 
look at Michel Le Noir's edition of the same work — also undated, 
but presumably later — ^we find a somewhat curious turn of afiPairs. 
In this there are altogether nine separate illustrations — several 
repeated more than once — and seven of these are composed of 

^ Macfu-lane, 141. In the colophon the book is said to be noyvelliment impriml. 
' Macfarlane, 152. 


figures and scenes from the same ThArence\ not, however, from the 
original blocks, but extremely good and close copies. But the 
curious point is that in this case each illustration is on one whole 
block, not on separate blocks put together; although in every one 
the design is composed of three details, two figures with one tree 
or one building, or a single figure with both a building and a tree, 
in different combinations; and these details are recuttings from 
the separated details of the first series.^ Naturally, one expedts to 
find that Le Noir had simply copied on single blocks the groups 
and scenes as arranged in V6rard's edition. But it is not so. None 
of the scenes correspond in the two editions; and only three of the 
figures in Le Noir's, I think, appear also in V^rard's, although 
they are all from the Therence. It is evident, however, that Le 
Noir's grouping of the details was not his own, but was copied 
from some previous arrangement of the Th^ence blocks, for one of 
the figures ' has been recut no less than three different times, on 
three different blocks, and in combination with different details. I 
have not seen the yardin de Plaisance of 1 505, without printer's 
name, mentioned but not described by Brunet, so cannot tell if 
that, or some other, contains the arrangements followed and stereo- 
typed by Le Noir; but it appears probable that it was some edition 
of this work and not of the ThAmce he had before him. And any- 
how, it is plain that the designs made for a Terence became firmly 
attached to the Jardin de Plaisance^ and even the edition printed 
at Lyons by Olivier Amollet' is illustrated by a number of separate 
small figures, buildings, and trees, of reduced size, but all clearly 
imitated from the Th&ence details. 

It is on one of the blocks from Le Noir*s Jardin de Piaisanee 
that M. Harrisse founds his belief that there must have been some 

' The tlhistridon oftenett repeated b compoted of a buSding, a figure, and a 
portion of a ship; but this but detail does not appear anjrwhere either in the Thirm€» 
or in the V^nurd JmrSm. 

* The female figure labelled SutrmU in Mac&riane*t Plate XL. It it No. 6 in 
the facsimiles of Nyverd's re-cuttingi of the figures in the Extirftm C$imMmsm0^ 
p. xiz. 

' s. d., but 1520 to 1530 according to Brunei. 


art known at that time of taking metal clicfUs of wood-blocks.^ 
But I believe his contention has not received the adherence of 
other authorities; and it is strongly contradicted by the wide- 
spread use of undoubted recuttings, for which there would have 
been no need had any easier and exader method of multiplying 
blocks been known and practised.^ No doubt the number of im- 
pressions which we must infer to have been taken from one block 
are in some cases startling; as, for instance, in the case of the very 
fine design of an Ecclesiastical Personage receiving a volume from 
an author or publisher, which figures in so many of V^rard's books» 
and is found at the head of the Prologue in his edition of Molinet's 
Prose Version of the Roman de la Rose. Macfarlane mentions twenty 
others of V6rard*s books in which this — ^^ the common frontis- 
piece,** as he calls it — occurs; and it is repeated more than once in 
several of them, and it might have been thought possible that 
this block was not a wood-block but of metal. But in John Wally's 
edition of the ShepbenTs Kakndar^ this print occurs,' showing un- 
doubted worm holes. 

There is in this case no doubt that the impression is from the 
original block; but the art of recutting, to which I have alluded 
before, had reached a wonderful accuracy and excellence in Paris 
about 1500; and there are many instances in which the very closest 
examination is needed to perceive the difference between the 
original block and a copy. One such instance, the cut of a 
^* Personage meditating,** I have mentioned above. The finest of 
all such reproductions are V6rard*s imitations of Pigouchet*s Horae.^ 

^ Exarpta C^lumb^ p. ix. 

' Sometimes impressions from two different blocks of the same cut are found in 
the same book. In John Wally*s edition of the ShepbereTs KaUndar (s. d., circa 1560) 
the figure of the Shepherd taking the time at night is printed both from the original wood- 
block and from a recutting of it side by side on the same page; and in Alain Lotrain's 
Proesses it vaillanas de HercuUs (s« d.) are impressions from two separate recuttings 
of one of the Mathiobu blocks, Orpheus and Proserpine. 

* It came to England with the others for that work in 1506. 

^ A very interesting and instructive paper by Mr. Polkrd deals with this subject 
far more fiilly than I could do. See ^ The Transference of Woodcuts in the Fifteenth 


Exadly what the method was, we do not know. But it is plain 
that in some way or other the reverse of the impression must have 
been transferred to the wood-block, either by tracing-paper, or by 
carefully covering every line, stroke and dot with some slow-drying 
ink which could be pressed upon the wood. That the process must 
have been comparatively facile and mechanical is pretty certain ; 
for even in very poor recuttings it is usual to find every stroke of 
the original reproduced, however coarsely. But in the case of the 
finest recuttings, the work must have been done by the best wood- 
cutters of the day. 

It may be suspefled that the first successes of this peculiar 
art were achieved more or less under the seduftive incitements of 
fraud ; otherwise such minute facsimiles would hardly have seemed 
necessary. Mere copying of designs, more or less freely, had always 
flourished; and a case of close but undeceptive imitation is seen in 
the two diflPerent blocks of the Man at the desk, with a Cherub and 
scroll, of which the copy is found in the Sixth Folio of the Roman 
de la Rose, and the original in the last edition of Molinet*s Prose 
Version. But the ^^ fstcsimile '' process, whatever it was, must have 
become a very regular practice, and was employed by inferior 
woodcutters whom no flattery could accuse of an intention to 
deceive; as in the case of the recuttings of the second Lyons series, 
L.iii, and of the small Pierre Vidoue cuts, P.VJi, among the illus- 
trations to the Roman de us Rose. Except in the best work, re- 
cuttings can usually be distinguished at once by the sharpness and 
angularity of all curves and comers, especially in the features of 
the human face. 

and Sixteenth Centuries,** in BibUogr^pbicM^ roL ii., reprinted in Old Piffure Bf»ii, 

81 M 



Series L.i. The Eaju,iest Lyons Woopcuts. 

HIS is a series of eighty-six cuts — six of them doing 
double duty, so that there are ninety-two cuts in the 
book — all cleariy designed for this particular work, 
and this particular edition of the work, the first 
Lyons Folio. In most cases the block is only of 
column-width ; but the first block is of the width of two columns, 
and contains two separate cuts, and one cut, § 34, is of double the 
usual width, and also extends across the . pag^. The designs ar^ 
naive and simple ; and the cutting rude and archaic. There is no 
knowledge of perspeflive; the trees are of the earliest German con- 
vention; and there is little hatching or shading. At the same time 
some of the figures and .faces show considerable grace and very in- 
tentional efforts at beauty; and throughout there is a very intelli- 
gent seizing of the points to be illustrated. The general impression 
produced is of French art trying its wings after apprenticeship to 
German methods. Certain cuts, nearly resembling these, are found 
in a few other books without place, date, or printer's name, which 
M. Claudin attributes to Martin Husz of Lyons.^ Two of these 

* Hitt, dt tln^rim^ iiJ, 174, tt stq. 


are in the British Museum, VExposition de la Bibky by Julien 
Mtcho, and Le Psautier translate de Latin en Frangoys. In the 
former the cots bear a general resemblance to this series; in the 
latter, two at least of the seven cuts show a very close resemblance 
to the faces and figures in the Roman de la Rose. 

Series L.ii. The Second Lyons Woodcuts. 

This is the famous series of eighty-five separate cuts (seven used 
twice, ninety-two in all) which is found, whole or^ in part, in five 
of the seven folio editions of the Roman de la Rose^ and set the con- 
vention for the illustration of the work. But the designs are every 
one of them copied, with freedom, from the earlier series. The cut- 
ting is technically superior, and shows a nascent French style dis- 
engaging itself from German conventions. The draughtsman was 
simply thinking of the cutting, and shows no sign of having con- 
sulted the text of the work illustrated, but only a great ambition 
to surpass the technique of his predecessor. He therefore often 
neglefis important details, or adds irrelevant and inaccurate features 
to the designs. The perspedtive is still, however, faulty; and the 
faces never show the particular charm which is seen in a few 
instances in the earlier cuts.^ 

The fortunes of these cuts are interesting to follow. After 
being used in two editions at Lyons, the set of wood blocks was 
brought to Paris, and there used in an edition very closely imitating 
the two Lyons Folios. Two of the cuts, however, are missing, § 32 
and § 34,^ the latter being the large double-width cut of the 
Tower-building. This last has disappeared for ever; but § 32 re- 
appears in the next two editions, though not assigned to its right 
place, but placed above the colophon, like a printer's mark. In 
these last two editions the form is slightly varied; there are forty- 

^ In two instances, §51 and § 52, this series uses a repeated cut instead of copying 
the cut of series L.i. In one instance, § 62, a cut repeated in L.i is not repeated in 
L.ii, but a different copy made from the same cut is used instead of the repeat at § 83. 

* § 33 is a repeat of § 29; so these two cuts may have gone astray together. 


three lines to a column instead of forty-one; and the cuts show 
much sign of wear, and more have disappeared, especially in the 
last. This is the final appearance of these cuts, except that a single 
cut of them, § 8, one of those absent in the two last Folios, re- 
appears in the 1526 edition of Clement Marot's recension. Where 
had it lain hid these thirty years ? 

Series L.iii. Recuttings of the Second Lyons Series. 

This is a series of recuttings, coarsely executed, and with a 
few slight alterations, from sixty-five of the eighty-five cuts of the 
second Lyons series. It was used by Balsarin for his edition of 
Molinet's Prose Version, printed at Lyons in 1 503. Most of them 
serve more than once in the book, several as many as four or even 
five times. The drawings on the blocks must have been traced or 
transferred either from one of the two Lyons editions, B or C, or 
from the last but one Paris Folio, F, as one of those recut (32) is 
missing in Du Pr6, D, and six in the last Paris Folio, G. It is 
natural to suppose that one of the Lyons books would have been 
readier to hand to a Lyons printer. But it is possible that the 
copy adtually followed was F, perhaps an imperfedt copy. This 
supposition would account for many of the missing cuts as follows : 

1 . Four of the twenty un-reproduced are missing in F. 

2. Five others of the twenty are in F, back to back, nearly or 
quite, with cuts reproduced; so that transference by inking 
over would have been impossible, if only one copy was cut 
up for use. 

3. In B and C, three of the cuts reproduced are back to back 
with others also reproduced; so that for some kinds of 
transference two copies would have been necessary. 

A copy of F with nine leaves lacking would account for the absence 
of all the cuts of the series L.ii missing in L.iii. 

I have found one of these re-cuttings, § 7, Envye^ in another 


work published by Balsarin, La nef des princes et des batailks des 
nobksses^ Lyon, 12th September, 1502, that is, before its use in the 
Roman de la Rose (Molinet's Prose Version) . 

Series V.i. Verard's First Series (incomplete). 

This consists of sixteen cuts, two of which are on one block, 
SIS in Series La and L.ii. They are well designed and well cut, 
but in most of them the design is derived from the second Lyons 
series. There seems every probability that the series was intended 
to be complete, but was interrupted (see p. 27 antea). The num- 
bers, according to the Verse-Titles, are i and 12 (on one block), 

2(8), 3(7)* 4^ 5* 6(13, 15), 14, 16(17), 18, 19, 20(41), 39, 40, 42, 
112. Four of them are used twice, one three times. 

Nine of these cuts appear again in the first edition of Clement 
Marot's Recension, P, viz. 3 : 5,6: 14: 17,18: 41,42: 112 (used 
also for § 31 and § 81). 

The only one I have come across used for another work is 
41, the rather gruesome scene of Nero watching the disseftion of 
his mother. This occurs, to illustrate the same '^ historical " event, 
in Le Recueil des hystoires Rommaines^ printed for Guillaume Eustace, 
Paris, 1 5 1 2, a well-printed book, containing a good many fine cuts 
from various books of V6rard*s. 

Series V.ii. Verard's Second Series* 

This is a series of small cuts, eighty-two in number, of which 
three are used twice (making with three extraneous cuts a total of 
eighty-eight) designed and cut for V6rard*8 Quarto edition. They 
are practically all copied, some freely, some very closely, from the 
second Lyons series. In fa£t, there are only some six of the whole 
series in which the imitation is not clear; although alterations 
have been occasionally made, and in two cases deliberate corredions 
to suit the text (§ 43, the Suicide of Nero, and § 76, in which the 


figure of Phyllis is rightly made that of a woinan instead of a man 
as in L.ii).^ . The style is somewhat peculiar, ahd the wood--cutting 
that of a pradlised hand.-^ The .designs vrere perhaps drawndirefl 
on the blocks; as in the great majority of cases they are reversed 
from the Lyons designs; and in a few cases the faces have the lop- 
sided appearance which a face, reversed from the way it was drawn, 
is liable to present, even in drawings of some artistic excellence. 

The whole series, with the exception of three cuts. 22. 2-?, 
26, was employed again, as well as the three extraneous cuts, to 
§§ 28, 35, 51, to illustrate Verard's edition of Molinet's Prose Ver- 
sion, X. Here they are surrounded with a frame or border of Gothic 
arcading.^ As there are in this book one hundred and thirty-eight 
cuts (besides the large Presentation cut to the Prologue) the eighty- 
two * sepiariatfe c\lts have to do extra service; forty-two of the V.ii 
series are used once, twenty-three twice, nine three times, and five 
four times; the three extraneous cuts once each. 

The same series, or the greater part of ft, is used in combina- 
tion with some of the series. V.i to illustrate the first edition of 
Clement Marot*s Recension, P. Of the original eighty-rtwo • puts, 
sixty-seven reappear here, incli^dingone of those missing in X (23). 
A few of them are not in their riglit places, according to their 
original purpose; four are used twice, and one four times.^ 

^ Of the 85 L.ii cuts, V.ii omits altogether 32, 34, and replaces 28, 35, and 
the repeat of 50 as 51 by extraneous cuts, although a cut which might well have been 
intended for § 35, and is of precisely the same style as this series, is found in another 
book, as mentioned presendy. An additional cut^ 43^ is introduced where the Series 
L.ii repeated 52. The omission of 32 and 34 shows that the exemplar was not either 
of the Lyons. Editions, B C, but the first .^P^uris Folio, D. The unaccountabilc omission 
of 28 might have suggested F or G, in wliich it is missing; but, oq the other. hand^ 
three of the L.ii cuts also missing in those (2, 11, 95) are copied in this series. 

•"^This kfcadmg appear^ again iri IseVerkl' books of VirstfdVlh Connftffioh'With 
various cuts ^ this series* It' would seem to htive been made on purpose for them^ 
partly no doubt to take the place of the bonkr-line on the block itsd^ which is often 
much broken. (See Plate XXXIIa.) 

• The total number of cuts in P — exclusive of the large cut to the Protcgm — is 
ninety-two, the same as in the first three Folios. In addition to the nine (with repeats, 
eleven) of Series V.i,an4 the sixty-«evto (with repeats, 8eventy-four)'of Series V.ii, dient 


Besides their appearance in these three sq)arate edittbns' of the 
Roman de la Roie,ihc work for which they we're* 
signed, this series 5f cuts, br . a considerable number of them, saw 
much service in other books published by V^rard. But uiifor* 
tunately these appear; to be most of them undated books,^ so that 
little or no light is thrown upon the date of these editions of the 
Roman de la Rose. In each of the two editions of Les Regnars 
tr aver sans of J Gzn Bouchet (Macfarlane, 149, 182) sixteen of these 
cuts appear (including the extraneoiis cut used froiil Les Prouffitz 
Champesp-es to § 35). AH but two are the same in both editions. 
In the second edition (Macfarlane, 182) ^ there is a r small cut of a 
\Yriter at a desk (fol. hj, coL a), so exa<5tly, similar in style to the 
cutb of this serif^;, that oqe is tempted to suppose it was designed for 
§ 3C in the Rom^n de la Rose^ and 1 for som.e reason, not used.^ (A 
parallel case Occurs in the . series P. Ya.,. see posty p. 89.) In the 
second of these editions the cuts are enclosed in |^ fab^i'Q^cle border, 
as in the Molinet. Thisip also the, case (except ji(^ , two instances) 
in the Passetemps de tout homme (Macfarlane, 179), in which sixteen 
of these cuts appear, many of them the same as those in the two 
Regnars\ but seven not found in.eitl^er of those. .The arcading also 
occurs, it would seem, in Le Sejour ahonneur (Macfarlane, 187), 
from wliich M. Claiidin gives a reproduction of La Carole^ § 13,^ 

1 J ■ ■ ■ ■ ' • ■ ■ . i ; ■ ■ • . ■ '. • 

19 a^ngle cut,.8,fromX.ii, and six cuts from extraneous sources, including two, §§ la 
and 79, which are also used ia £, and one which is used in H to §.35* 

^ Macfarlane dates this 15 10 with a query. But it must be before 1506, as two 
at lieast of the blocks used in it, Mac&rlane xxiv, xxv, came to England in that year 
or before, arid remained there to illustrate^various editions of the Shepherds Kalendar. 
See. Sommer's edition of this, Prolegomena^ p. 62. 

* See Plate XXXIIa. A recmting of this cut is a&ually used in Jeari Janot's 4to 
Raman de la Rose (M) to & 86, 

* This cut is so unmistakably imitated from the corresponding cut in Series L.ii 
that there can be no doubt that it was designed for the Roman de la Rose. But in all 
the three editions of the latter this cut shows a slight defcd in the woman's head-* 
dress, which is not shown in M. Claudin's &c$imile from Le Sijour d'bonneur. The 
8im|dest thing is to suppose that the facsimile has been touched up. Otherwise it would 
seem that this cut at all events m\ist have been used in adviuice while the Roman de la 
Rose was preparing. In the facsimile there are two or three other minute difierences 


and which appears to contain others of this series. According to 
Mr. Macfarlane, the Nef de Santi^ ^5^7^ ^^ illustrated by cuts 
belonging to this set (Macfarlahe, 85). In the Thaison d^or^ printed 
by Antoine Bonnemere for F, Regnault, folio, 1 5 1 o» which con- 
tains many cuts from books of V^rard's, appears a single one of 
this series, "Jason," § 56. 

Series Le N. The Le Noir Quartos. 

This cannot strictly be called a ^^ Series/' as there is in fa6t 
but a single block, containing two scenes or cuts. It is used in all 
the three Quartos published by Michel Le Noir, 1509, 151 5, 
1 5 19, twice in each case, viz., on the Title-page and below the 
colophon; it is used once, on the Title-page, in the Quarto published 
(by Philippe le Noir) in 1526. The two scenes are § i, the Sleeper, 
and § 12, Dame Oiseuse with the key. They are free copies, not 
recuttings, of the corresponding scenes in Series V.ii. 

Series P.V.i. Galliot du Pr4*s, printed by Pierre Vidoue. 

This is a series of thirty-three pretty little designs, somewhat 
coarsely cut, each contained within a border or framing special to itself 
and cut on the block. The edition for which they were made is 
the small-8vo edition of C16ment Marot's Recension, Paris, 1529, 
printed by Pierre Vidoue for Galliot du Pr^, the only edition in 
Roman characters. The appearance of the book suggests an attempt 
to repopularize the obsolescent Romance by issuing it as one of the 
small and dainty books, the fashion for which was now coming in. 
Many of the cuts are undoubtedly designed expressly for the work, 
though some of these have got out of their right place in passing 
from the draughtsman's or woodcutter's hands into the printer's. 

apparent, but onlj, I think, such is might be due to diflferences in the printing or the 
paper. The general correspondence is too minutely exaA to admit of two difeent 


The designer seems to have had the illustrations of Verard's Quarto 
before him, but not to have followed them slavishly; and in some 
cases he has preferred his own idea of the scene to be depi(5ted. 
Both in design and execution there is an almost entire breaking 
away from the old traditions hitherto adhered to in all illustrations 
to the Roman de la Rose. The composition is more careful and 
more detailed; the shading and solidity and perspeiftive are all 
more like those of a modern woodcut. And when we see Nar- 
cissus at the fountain represented in the plumed hat and costume 
of a fashionable young man of the period, we feel that the end of 
*' ces vieux romanciers " is inevitably at hand, in spite of the still 
mediaeval picturing of Venus in her car borne of doves high in air, 
the only remnant of the old naivete; even here, too, the modern 
spirit has prevailed to the omission of those delightful wheels. 

Of the full series of thirty-three cuts, thirty-two are used in 
the 1529 edition. Eight are used twice, two three times, one four, 
and one {including its appearance on the title-page) five, making a 
total of fifty-one in all. In several cases a cut plainly belonging to 
one scene is used for another instead. Some few of the cuts show 
only a very general suitability to their actual service ; and it would 
not be surprising to find they had originally done other duty, all 
the more from the faft that one single cut, 29, exaftly similar to 
the rest in style and chara6ler, does not appear in this 1 529 edition, 
but in the next, the Folio of 1531. 

Cuts copied more or less closely from Series V.ii, and used in 
their right places, are 10, Papelardie; 55, Wife-beating; 64, 
Faulx-Semblant's homage; go, Messengers to Venus; 92, Venus' 
car; 94, Nature forging; 103, Nature and Genyus; 1 1 1, The Joust. 

Cuts copied, but used in their wrong places, are 3, Felonnie, 
copied from 8, Tristesse; iz, Bel-Acueil admitting L'Amant to 
garden, copied from 79, La Vielle admitting to tower; 17, L'Amant 
surrenders, copied from 20, Amours instructs; 63, Amours urging 
to the assault, probably designed for § 62, the Summons of the 

Appropriate cuts, showing little or no likeness to earlier 

serieSyare the following: 6, Avarice; 13, La Carole; 14, Amours 
and L'Amant; 15, Narcissus; 40, Fortune's wheel; 95, Zeuxis 
painting; 105, Genyus preaching. 

Cuts which might well have served other purposes are: i, 
two sleepers in bed, used both for § i, the Sleeper, and § j'j^ Mars 
and Venus; 24, a graceful woman in conversation with a well- 
dressed man under a tree, here representing Rayson descending 
from her Tower; 34, Soldiers before a castle, used both for § 34, 
The building of the Tower, and § 36, Reason again descending 
from her Tower; 52, Suicide of Lucrece, used both for § 52, and also 
for §43, Suicide of Nero; 56, Departure of Jason, but suggesting 
rather Ariadne in Naxos; 57, a King and his courtiers, representing 
the Crowning of the first king; 59, two lovers embracing, repre- 
senting (perhaps by a misconception of the design in V.ii) L'Amant 
approaching Richesse; loi, worshippers before an idol, represent- 
ing Deucalion and Pyrrha kneeling before Themis. Among the 
repeated cuts there are naturally several instances of inappropriate- 
ness, of which perhaps the most flagrant is the use of 12 (belong- 
ing to § 79), a woman leading a man through a doorway which she 
unlocks, to represent Amours locking the heart of L'Amant, §19* 

Two years later, 1531, these cuts were used again in a folio 
edition, also published by Galliot Du Pr6. Two of the series arc 
missing: 14, Amours, winged and flying, meeting L'Amant; 
and 56, Ariadne (used to depid the story of Jason). In place of 
this latter appears the cut of a Galley manned, which in the earlier 
edition is used for a publisher's sign on the last leaf. But a new 
cut, to § 29, appears, of exadtly the same style as the others, depict- 
ing a group of seven figures, two of whom are kissing. It is here 
placed quite inappropriately; but might very well have been in- 
tended to illustrate La Carole, §13, with Jeunesse and her '* Amy," 
as described in the following lines (B. £. 1 3 1 2) : 

Ses amis iert de li priv& 
En tel guise, qu'il la besoit 
Xoutes les fois que li plesoit, 
Voians tous ceus de la karole. 


There is, however, another cut depidting the Carole in the series, 
which is perhaps why this one was not used in the earlier edition. 
If both were designed for the book, it is a further evidence of that 
want of co-operation between the illustrator and the printer which 
appears in the misplacing of some of the designs. (Plate XXXIIL) 

In the arrangement of the cuts, this edition does not corre- 
spond at all closely with the former, of 1529; some divisions which 
are illustrated in one being without illustration in the other, and 
vice versa. The cut to § 17 is here used in its right place to § 20 (a& 
well as to supply the place of the absent cut 14). The repetition 
of cuts also varies considerably from that in the former edition. 
There are thirty-one different cuts (besides the large cut to the 
Prologue) of which nine are used twice; three used three times; 
three, four times; and one, five times; making a total of fifty-nine 
(or, with the Prologue cut, sixty). 

Five of this series appear again in the edition of the Mer des 
Histoires^ published by Galliot Du Pr6 in 1536. They are 34, the 
Tower, 40, Fortune^s wheel, 57, the King (three times), loi,. 
Deucalion and Pyrrha; also the additional cut, 29, La Carole 
no. 2, which is used twice. Probably these, or others of the series,, 
are to be found sporadically elsewhere as well; but I have not 
come across them. 

This series may possibly be by the same artist who designed 
the title frame for Denis Janot.^ The cutting of this, however, is by 
a superior hand. 

Series P.V.ii. Jehan Longis (and others). Printed by 

Pierre Vidoue. 

This is a set of poor and coarse recuttings from the series 
P.V.i., used to adorn the imitation (in slightly larger size) of the 

^ Eng.^ in Miliadus de Lt9nn9jty 1532. In the small scene near the top of the 
right-hand side there is a mariced resemblance to the style of these cuts. Compare alsa 
the winged figure of Love at the top with that in § 14. 


1529 8vo, which bears the dates either of 1537 or 1538, the names 
of at least ten. different publishers, and (in some copies) the name 
of Pierre Vidoue as printer. They neither deserve much attention 
nor call for much remark. The close following of the model 
(which extends even to misprints, see p. 63) causes the total num- 
ber of cuts to be the same (except that the two cuts used on title- 
page and as publisher's mark at end of the 1529 edition are here 
replaced by various publishers' marks), and also the position of the 
illustrations. The aftual cuts themselves, however, do not always 
correspond. Six of the cuts used in Q^re not reproduced at all 
in S, viz. 14, 24, 569 59, 64, 113; and 29 is also absent. The 
repeatings of cuts are therefore rather more numerous; and also 
vary somewhat from those in Qj_ Nine are used twice, four three 
times, two four times. Thus the total number is forty-nine, and 
the number of separate cuts twenty-six. 

The Mathidus Cuts. 

In two of Michel Le Noir's quarto editions of the Roman de 
la Rose ^ 1 51 5 and I5i9f certain small cuts are found, several of 
which at first sight appear designed on purpose for their service 
here, being appropriate both in subject and size. It was a lesson 
against drawing rash conclusions, to come across one of the later 
editions of Le Livre de Mathiolus} in which I at once recognized the 
same cuts, or rather close recuttings of them ; and on investigation 
to find that this was really the work for which they had been origin- 
ally designed and cut, and that these small cuts had a pedigree of 
their own as interesting as that of the veritable cuts of the Roman 
de la Rose^ and curiously analogous to it. 

In the 1 5 1 5 edition (K) there are seven of these cuts, with 

^ Li Livre de Matbiolus (more correfUy, Les Lamentations de Mathiolus) is a 
translation of a Latin Poem; and is sometimes catalogued under the name of the 
translator Jehan Le Fevre^ de Resson. Brunet, with more reason, describes it under 
the name Mathiolus. 


repeats eleven; in the 15 19 edition (L) one of them is omitted. 
They are as follows: 

Math^olus and the Almighty, used three times: §§ 13, 35, 86. 

Dido, § 76; used also for Lucrece, § 52. 

Samson and Delilah, § 54. 

Phyllis, § 76. 

Symon and Guy's wife, used for Mars and Venus, § j'j^ 
omitted in L. 

Verris and the Street-woman, used for Nobles and Gentles, 
§ 102, and Ploughing, § 106. 

Orpheus and Proserpine, used for Pygmalion, § 109. 

In Michel Le Noir^s earlier Quarto of 1 509 (I) a single one 
of these cuts had previously appeared, Math^olus addressing the 
Almighty, used for §35, Jehan de Meun; and in his successor's 
Quarto of 1526 (N), the same cut is used twice, for § 13 and § 35. 
In Alain Lotrian's Quarto (O), a recutting of this same cut appears 
twice, §35 and §86. In the 1521 edition of Molinet's Prose 
Version another cut from the Mathioliis^ Solomon adoring an idol, 
is used twice, Capp. XV and LII. 

The full and exaft bibliography of Le Uvre de Mathiolus 
remains to be written, in spite of the attempts or contributions 
towards it made by Brunet (s. v. " Math^olus **), by M. Tricotel in 
the appendix to his edition, Brussels, 1846; and by M. Harrisse 
in the Excerpta Columbiniana. The difficulties in the way of such 
an undertaking are many. In the first place no edition, except per- 
haps the first, bears its own date;^ and only one, a late one, the 
name of any place or publisher, this coyness being no doubt due 
to the nature of the book, which is a mixture of the scurrilous and 
the scabrous with illustrations often to correspond. Further, editions 
appear to resemble each other so closely in some cases that it is 
impossible to distinguish them by mere description; cuts are so 
closely recut that it is necessary to examine them side by side to 

' All the editions appear to bear the same date ; see diredly. 


know them apart; and lastly, all editions are so rare that it is im- 
possible to find them all, or nearly all, in one library or collection. 

M. Harrisse shows ^ that the first edition, folio, is not due to 
V^rard, as had been supposed, but to Claude Daygne, of Lyons. 
I presume this to be the edition of which there is a superb copy 
in the Mus^e Cond^, which I have examined. This is a Folio 
(perpendicular water-lines) of 68 leaves, the last blank, in double 
columns, 41 lines to a column, signatures aii to liii, the first and 
the three last leaves without signature. The rhymes which stand 
at the end of all editions, and give the date 06tober 3rd, 1492, 
on which the book was " mys en sens ", can hardly allude to any- 
thing but its first publication;^ and may therefore be taken as 
showing the date of this edition. 

In the Bibliotheque Nationale, besides a copy of this edition, 
are two copies of another, a Quarto (with horizontal water-lines). 
This edition has thirty-five cuts, from the same blocks as those in 
the 'first edition. But one of the cuts found there is absent (Noah 
and his sons, a specially improper one), and its place supplied by a 
fourth repetition of the almost equally inelegant scene of the 

There are two other editions in the Biblioth^ue Nationale, 
both small-quarto. With one ^ of these is boimd he Rebours de 
Mathiolus^ which has at the end the following colophon: ^'Cy 

^ Exarpta dlumb.^ p. viii. See ako Pro£tor's Index, ii, 625, and the latest edition 
of the MatbeoluSj by A. G. Van Hamel, Pftris, 1892. 

* For a similar rhyming colophon, zStuaHy included as the close of the poem, cf. 
^ he Livre de la Deablerie.** . 

Limprimeur est Michel le noir 

Qui a paris a son manoir 

£n la rue saint Jaques en somme 

A la Roze blanche cest homme 

Est vray libraire et usite 

Jure en luniuersite 

Qui la mis en Impression 

Et tout a bonne intencion 

Lan mil cinq cens et huyt s9s fiiulte, etc. 

* The other is the ^ A to O iii '' edition. See note on next page. 


finist le resolu en mariage nou | uellement imprime a Paris par Mis 
[ chel le noir Hbraire demoiirant en la | rue saint Jacques. Le 
treiziesme lour | de may. Lan mil cinq cens t sept." But the 
first part of the volume, the Livre de Mathhlus, does not appear 
to be Le Noir's ; at least the cuts are not from the same blocks as 
the corresponding cuts in his Roman de la Rose, but are undoubtedly 
recuttings of them, a little cut down each way. There are thirty- 
five small cuts in this, reduced copies of the larger cuts in the first 
edition, the cut of Noah being among them. From the appearance 
of the cuts in the 151 5 Roman de la Rose it seems probable that it 
was Michel Le Noir who had the reduced designs made, as they 
show no appearance of being recuttings. So far, however, I have 
found no copy of the Mathhlus with these aftual cuts or with 
Le Noir's name. 

The single cut of this series found in Alain Lotrian's Roman 
de la Rose (O) is not, however, printed from the block used in the 
edition just described, but apparently from a recutting of this re- 
cutting; and seems identical with the same cut in yet another 
quarto edition of Matheolus} which we may therefore perhaps at- 
tribute either to Alain Lotrian or to another of the successive 
tenants of the sign of LEscu de France in the rue neujue Nostre 
Dame. (An edition of the Resolu en mariage was published by Jehan 
Trepperel, and another by his widow.) But how labyrinthine is this 
matter of recutting is shown by the fadt that in an edition o( Les 
proesses et vaillances du preux ef vaillant Hercules^ 4to, Alain Lotrian, 
Paris, s. d., there are two separate recuttings of one of the Mathhlus 
cuts, Orpheus and Proserpine. The first of these is from the same 
block as that in the edition with cut-down blocks, mentioned above. 
And the second from yet another recutting, superior and less cut 
down, but not from Michel Le Noir's block. 

' There is a copy in the British Museum, 11475. ccc. 29, aa well as in the 
Bibliolhique Nationale. This edition is best distinguished as the " A to O iii " edition, 
from its signatures, which differ from those of any other. In the Rothschild Catalogue 
are facsimiles of four illustrations (from four different works) which appear to belong 
originally to this or some other edition of the Mathiohu. 


As mentioned above, there is a great similarity in the history 
of these Matheolus editions to that of the Roman de la Rose, and no 
doubt it is typical of many others. A series of cuts is made at 
Lyons and used for one or more editions there. Then the blocks, 
the Roman de la Rose cuts certainly, the Matheolus cuts probably, 
are brought to Paris, and an edition or so printed from them there.^ 
Then comes on the scene that Prince of Pirates, appropriately 
named Le Noir. He has these designs reduced to smdl and fairly 
good cuts for a cheap edition ; and has in his turn to suffer being 
imitated and stolen from by the yet " lesser fleas,** Trepperel or 
Alain Lotrian, or both, first in an edition which is probably an 
exaft imitation of the missing edition of Le Noir, and again with 
still worse recuttings in the edition " A to O iii." Finally, the 
original cuts, or some of them, are found again at Lyons, used in 
a new edition by Olivier Arnoullet. 

^ The old attribution of the first edition to Virard has been given up, and neither 
Mr. Maciarlane nor M. Claudin credit (or discredit) him with anjr edition. But there 
is an edition of Li Resolu en Mariagt bearing his name (Maciarlane 184), so that it is 
quite possible that he may have published an edition of the Matbiohu itself, more or 
less under the rose. 





HE need for divisions in this long poem was early 
felt, though there are no indications that it was 
originally written with any; and there are few if 
any manuscripts which do not contain Headings or 
Rubrics of some kind, marking off the poem into 
Divisions, or, they have sometimes been called, Chapters. In most 
manuscripts, however, these chapter-headings are in prose, single 
words or brief sentences. But in all the Printed Editions a special 
set of Headings is found, in verse, usually of four lines each, though 
not constantly so, some having two, six, or eight lines. The greater 
number of them bear an evident relation to the illustration, and 
three at least direftly refer to it.^ And it seems probable that these 
special Verse-Titles were composed, or at least systematized and in 

' I have adopted the word " Verse-Title " in preference to " Chapter-Heading," 
as the dividons cannot stridlly be called chapters. It is, however, a misnomer in the 
case of the Figures on the Wall, §§ 2-1 1. 

' § 3^> ^y ^' 1^ "^s bc\lc Raison; § 37, Cy est Ic soulB'eteux; ^ III, . . . vouc 
voyez cy lamant. 

97 ° 

part composed, for the first Printed Edition. They are evidently 
of late composition.^ And I cannot discover that any manuscript 
— unless one copied from a printed edition, as Harley 4425 — has 
these particular Verse-Titles.^ I have, in fad, never seen any manu- 
script in which the Chapter-headings were in verse; but M. 
Langlois, to whom I applied on the subje6t, informs me that 
rubrics in verse are found in early manuscripts, and it seems 
certain that M^on must have had before him some manuscript con- 
taining such, though not the same as in the Printed Editions, and 
possibly only running through the earlier part of the work. After 
his twenty-first rubric,* the last of those not found in the Early 
Editions, his use of a manuscript for this purpose seems to cease; 
and when he alters the words of any Verse-Title from Du Fresnoy's, 
his corredtions seem usually made from Clement Marot's Recen- 
sion.* In two cases, however, § 68 and § 108, he has apparently 
referred to some earlier printed edition. But he has not corre£ted 
the astounding mistake of vertus for Venus in § 53 ; he is quite 
^ontent with Du Fresnoy's unenlightened version of § 83, 1. 4, 
founded on V^rard*s misprint of yres for pres; and in § 35 he prints 
the alteration undoubtedly introduced by Du Pr6. This certainly 
looks as if his manuscript Verse-Titles had not extended beyond 
the earlier part of the poem. 

In the earlier portion, however, M6on has ten Verse-Titles 
not found in the printed Editions; eight of these are in fresh 
places; two take the place of two shorter ones in the printed text, 

^ Very likeljr not all of the same period. In § 20 and § 35, the elder form, 
rommans, rhymes ¥nth amans and ans; in § 86, the later form, romant, rhymes with 
humblement. Hiatus occurs in several, §§ 34, 37, 63, iii. 

* Molinet renders a single two-lined one, § 66, as part of the text; otherwise 
there is no sign that he knew them. 

* As numbered in the Bibl. Elzev. edition ; Mfon uses no numbers. It comes 
between § 23 and § 24. 

^ As in §§ 37, 56, 58, 63, 72, 82, 90, 103. Du Fresnoy had already adopted 
some of Clement Marot's alterations, as in §§ 48, 49, lOO; but he shows no sign of 
having seen these Verse-Titles in MS. ; the few small changes he has made in them 
from his exemplar — Virard's Quarto — ^being merely editorial (as Zeuxis for Zinsisj 
§ 9S), with the possible exception of the amplification in § 12. 


§13 and § i6. The latter, although consisting of eight lines 
instead of four, has a few words. Trait a Vamant^ which occur in 
the same Verse-Title and in the same form in the later printed 
editions, but are, curiously enough, a misprint. The original 
reading, found only in the first two Folios, is Trait Vamant^ /.^., 
Trahit; and this seems to throw some suspicion on this Verse- 
Title, at all events, as being perhaps later than the printed text. 
This may, however, be a mere coincidence, due possibly to both 
versions of this Verse-Title being founded on some one original 
prose rubric. For these Verse-Titles almost all of them read like 
simple prose rubrics made into verse by the addition of tags. For 
instance, § 30 may very well have been amplified thus: 

Comment bel acueil [doulcement] 
Maine Tamant [joyeusement] 
Ou vergier pour veoir la rose 
[Qui lujr fut doulcereuse chose]. 

and many others could be de-versified in the same way. Such 
watering down of prose to make it verse is, in fa6t, exa^ly what 
element Marot did in the case of two single-line rubrics of the early 
editions.^ And also what Du Fresnoy — ^if it was he— did in the 
case of § 12. 

In order to have a simple means of reference to the illustra- 
tions, I have numbered their Rubrics or Titles, taking the First 
edition as the standard. As, however, the Figures on the Wall 
§§ 2-1 1 — where the Title is merely the name of the Figure — are 
usually illustrated, I was obliged to include them in the number- 
ing; and as certain rubrics, not illustrated in the early editions, are 
occasionally so in some of the later, I thought it best for com- 
pleteness* sake to print and number among the Verse-Titles all 
such as are in verse in any of the editions, only keeping to the 
standard of the First edition by labelling those not found there 
with the number of the previous rubric and the addition of the 

^ See the following list of Verse-Titles, % 44 (x«iV/), § 104 {fmU). 


word suite. There are two single-line rubrics found, one in the First 
Folio only, the other in the first three Folios, which I have not 
included, as they are not made into verse in C16ment Marot, nor 
illustrated in any of the printed editions.^ 

I hope to have thus provided a satisfactory means of reference 
to any illustration in the work, and indeed to the various portions 
or ^^ Chapters'" also. Had it seemed possible, I should have 
simply followed the numbering of the Headings in Moon's text as 
reprinted in the Bibliothique Elzevirienne, where they are con- 
veniently placed at the end of each volume as well as in the text. 
But this would have been useless as a means of referring to the 

illustrations; since this edition has not numbered the series of Wall- 
figures among the rubrics, though they are numbered among the 

illustrations; and thus the chapter-numbers and illustration-num- 
bers do not always agree. Moreover — useful as it would have been 
to have the illustrations ready numbered as there — there has 
occurred some unaccountable mistake in the numbering at the 
beginning, so that some of the illustrations are numbered in wrong 
order. I have, however, in my tabulation, added the number of 
the Biblioth^que Elzevirienne, in parentheses, so that reference can 
be made to the Verse-Titles as printed there. The two Verse- 
Titles added by Clement Marot, as well as the three places (with- 
out Verse-Title) illustrated only in editions of his Recension, are 
distinguished by the addition of suite to the number of the pre- 
ceding Verse-Title. 

^ Les iioins de ceulx qui caroloient, Folio I, b^, col. 3 (found in A B C). De la 
fontaine au beau Narcisus, Folio I, b^, col. 2 (only in A). Nor have I included a 
rubric found only in Clement Marot's Recension between 11. 634, 635 ; although in 
the two small-Svo editions the single line, ^ Comment lamant parle a oyseuse ** of the 
1526 and 1 53 1 Folios has been made into verse bjr someone bjr the addition of ^ Qui 
lujr Alt assez gracieuse.** 


^* In the earliest editions there are no punftuation-signs or apostrophes^ except twice 
a point or fiill-stop in A (§ i and § 84); and I have therefore not introduced them 
in printing the Verse-Titles (except the full-stop at the end). The only moderniza- 
tion is the occasional use of j and v, where the vowel-sound is quite undoubted. 

Illustrations to which / is prefixed will be found reproduced among the Plates 
at the end. 

§ I. (B.E. I.) 

Cy commence le romant de la rose 
Ou tout lart damours est enclose. 

Sleeper in bed ; man bearing stick. 

/. L.i. — A. 

/L.ii.— BCDFG. 

/ V.ii.— H P. 

/. LeN.— IKLN. 
Sleeper in bed ; Amours blindfolded. 

/. V.i.— E.* 
Man and woman asleep in bed. 

P. V.i.-Ha R- 


§ 2. Hayne. 

Woman seated, tearing her clothes at breast. 

L.i. — ^A. 

L.ii.— B C D. 

V.i.— E. 

V.ii.— H P. 
Woman standing, clasping her hands. 

P. V.i. — R (same as § 3 in Q). 

§ 3. Felon NYE. 

Woman seated, plunging dagger in her 

breast (or drawing dagger). 
/. L.i. — A. 
Woman seated, running sword through her 


/.L.ii.— BCDFG. 
/ V.i.— E P. 
Woman standing, leaning on point of sword. 
V.ii.— H. 


P.V.i. — R (same as § 52, where 
perhaps it belongs). 
Woman standing, clasping her hands. 

P.V.i. — Q (copied from § 8 in 

Series V.ii). 
P.V.ii.— S. 

§ 4. ViLLENYE. 

Woman seated, drawing up her skirts. 

L.i. — A. 

L.ii.— B C D F G. 

V.i.— E.* 

V.ii.— H P. 
Woman standing, clasping her hands. 

P.V.i. — R (same as § 2). 


Woman seated, holding a money-bag in 
each hand. 
L.i. — A. 

L.ii.— B C D F G. 
V.i.'— E P. 
Woman standing, holding out a money- 
bag in each hand. 
V.ii.— H. 
Woman kneeling at open cofier containing 

P.V.i.— R (same as § 6 in Q). 

§ 6. Avarice. 

Woman standing, holding scales. 
L.i. — A. 

L.ii.— BCDFG. 
V.i.*— E P. 
V.ii.— H. 

' Facsimile in Cbudin, Hist, de Plmfrim.^ ii, 252. 
• Ibid., ii, 253. 


• Ibid.^ ii, 253. 

* AiV., ii, 253. 

Woman kneeling at open co£fer containing 

P.V.i.— Q. 
P.V.ii.— s. 

§ 7. Envye. 

Woman seated, tearing her hair. 

La, — ^A. 

L.ii BCDFG. 

V.ii.— H P. 
Woman seated, running sword through her 

V.i. — E (same as § 3). 

§ 8. Tristesse. 

Woman standing, her arms crossed upon 
her breast. 

L.i. — Ar 

L.ii.— B C D P. 
Woman standing, clasping her hands. 

V.ii.— H. 

P.V.i. — R (same as § 2 and § 4). 
Woman seated, tearing her clothes at 

V.i. — E (same as § 2). 
Woman seated, tearing her hair. 

L.ii. — F G (same as § 7), 

§ 9. VlELLESSE. 

Old woman, of shortened stature, leaning 
on crutches before a fire. 
f. L.i. — ^A. 
Old woman, seated, warming her hands 
before a fire. 
/. L.ii.— B C D F G. 
Old man, seated, warming his hands before 
a fire. 
/. V.ii.— H P. 
Old woman, on ass, in water. 
From ?.— E. 

§ lo. Papelardie. 

Man kneeling before altar vnth cross over. 

L.i. — A. 

L.ii. — B C D (F some copies). 

V.ii.— H P. 
Man kneeling before altar, on which are 
cup, book, pidures, and cross. 

P.V.i.— Q R. 

P.V.ii.— S. 
Man opening cofier, another putting his 
hand in. 

L.ii. — (F some copies) G (same as 


Man seated at table. 
From ?. — E. 

§ II. Povrete. 

Old woman, ragged, seated under tree; a 
bowl near her. 

L.i. — A. 

L.ii.— BCD. 
Same subje^ but warming hands at a fire. 

V.ii.— H P. 
Two women in bed. 

From ?.— E. 

§ II sidte. 

Before line 473, Les ymaiges 
quay advise^ the four editions of 
Clement Marot's Recension in- 
troduce an illustration (without 
Title) where there is none in the 
earlier editions (cf § 63 state: 
§107 suite). 

Writer at desk in library. 

P.V.i.— Q R (same as § 35, § 63 

suiti^ § 107 suiti). 
P.V.ii. — S (same as § 35, § 63 xmV/, 
§ 107 suite). 


From LivrtdisProufitx CbampistreSy 
1486.'—? (used to § 35 in H). 

§ 12. (B.E. III.) 

Comment dame oyseuse 
ouvrit la porte a lamant.^ 

Man kneeling to woman who holds key 
and stands before a gateway. 
/. L.i. — A. 
/. L.ii.— B C D F G. 
/. V.ii.— H P. 
/LeR— IKLN. 
Amours, blindfolded, on throne; woman 
kneeling, offering key. 
/. V.i.— E.* 
Man following woman, who unlocks a 
/. P.V.i.— Q R. 
P.V.ii.— S. 
.*. In L.i, L.ii, V.i, Le N, this cut is on 
the same block as § i. In V.ii it is on 
a separate block, but it is still placed 
with § I at the beginning of the poem. 

§ 13. (B.E. IV.) 

Cy parle ladteur sans frivollc 
De deduit jet de sa caroUe^^ 

Four figures, men and women alternately, 
advancing hand in hand; man blowing 
trumpet behind. 
/. L.i. — ^A. 

/. L.ii.— B C D F G. 
f. V.ii.— H P.* 
Six figures, men and women, hand in hand. 
Man seated with drum and pipe; fiddler 
in background. 
/. P.V.i.— Q R. 
Woman standings holding scales. 

V.i. — £ (same as § 6). 
Man standing, raising forefinger; Almighty 
in clouds. 

From Matbioks.—K L N. 
Writer in chair before desk. 

From ?. — M. 


Close copy of last. — O. 

§ 14. (B.E. X.) 

Comment le dieu damours suy- 

Va ou jardin en espiant 
Lamant tant quil yssoit a point 
Que de ses cinq flesches soit point. 

Amours, winged and crowned, bearing bow 
and arrows, following L'Amant. 
/ L.i. — A. 
/. L.ii.— B C D F G. 
/ V.i._E P. 
Same, but without wings. 

/. V.ii.— H. 
Amours, winged and flying, bearing bow 
and arrow, meeting L'Amant. 

^ Facsimile in Macfarlane's Virard^ Plate IV ; also in Claudin, Hht. de rimprimirUy 

I, 425. 

' This is made into verse in Du Fresnoy's edition (Meon following): 

Conmient dame oyseuse foist tant 
Qu'elle ouvrit la porte k Tamant. 

' Facsimile in Claudin, Hist, di Vlmprim^ ii, 252. 

^ M&>n has four lines, quite difierent from these. 

' Facsimile (from Le Sijour d^honntur)^ Claudin, ii, 502. 


Amoun letted, crowned, bearing bow and 
arrows, instruAing L*Ainant. 

p.V.i. — R (lame at § ao where it 
belongs, though misplaced § 17 
P.V.ii.— S(8aineai§i7). 

§ 15. (B.E. xn.) 

Comment narcisus se mira 
A la fbntaine et souspira 
Par amour tant quil fist partir 
Same du corps sans departir. 

Man bending over fountain in which his 
(ace is reflected. 
/ L.i— A* 
The wm% but no refledion dejM^ted. 
/ UJ.— B C D F Q. 
Vai— H P. 
Youthi richly drmMd, approaching faun« 
lain I rttedioii suggested* 
/ P.Va.— Q R* 
TIm aamei no reiedion* 

Woman s«andin|^ holding scales* 
V*i«— ^ (same as § 6)* 

§ 16* (B*£. XIIlO 

Comment amours ou bel jardin 
Trait ^ lamant qui de cueur fin 
Ama k bouton telement 
C^ puis en eust empe$chement« 

AmAwn w%iigcd| citMrne^ beaniig how and 

/ Uu— A (reipeai of 1 14V 

/ Uii-JIC D FG (f^pmt or§ 14). 

The mine, but without wings. 

/.V.ii*—H (repeat of §14). 
Amours winged, crowned, bearing bow, 
stands holding hand of L'Amant. 
V.i. — £ (same as § 17). 
L'Amant about to pluck the rose, 
y. V.ii. — P (same as § 1 1 2 in H). 
/. P.V.i.— Q R (same as § 1 12). 
P.V.ii. — S (same as § 112}. 

§ 17. (B.E. XIV.) 

Comment amours sans plus at- 

Ala tost courrant lamant prendre 
£n luy disant quil se rendist 
A luy et que plus nattendist. 

Amours winged, crowned, bearing bow, 
stands holding hand of L' Amant. 
La. — A. 

V-L— E P. 

Amours seated, crowned, bearing bow and 
arrows, imtmas L'Amant, standing. 
P.Va.— Q. (No doubt thb cut was 
intended fcr 1 20i,^as used in R.) 
P.Vai.— S (same as S 14). 

§ 1 8. (B.E. XV.) 

Ccmmient apres ce bd langage 
Lamant humbleaient fist homage 
Par jeonesse qui Ic decott 
Au dieu damoors qui le recoat. 

Aaaovfs wu^ied, cnywBedl, uronod, and 

1mlV9rwwC 4MliO^ VR^ilTVT <W1IVIVR% ilVHI ^mQ« 

L.i. — A. 

L.ii.— B C D F G. 
V.i.— E P. 
V.ii.— H. 
Amours winged and flying, tearing bow and 
arrow, meeting L*Amant. 

P. V.i. — Q (tame as § 14). 
Group of women kneeling to figure on 

P. V.ii. — S (same as § loi, where it 
is copied from Q). 

§ 19. (B.E. XVI.) 

Comment amours tresbien souef 
Ferma dune petite clef 
Le cueur de lamant en tel guise 
Quil nentama point la chemise. 

Amours winged, crowned, standing, touch- 
ing L*Amant with key. 
L.i. — A. 

L.ii.— B C D F G. 
V.i.— E. 
V.ii.— H P. 
Man following woman who unlocks a door. 
/. P.V.i.— Q R (same as § la). 
P.V.ii>— S (same as § 12). 

§ 20. (B.E. XVII.) 

Comment le dieu damours en- 

Lamant et dist qui ^ face et tiegne 
Les regies qui bailie aux amans 
Escriptes en ce bel rommans.' 

Amours winged, crowned, throned, instruAs 
L*Amant, seated. 

L.i. — A. 

L.ii.— B C D F G. 
The same, but Amours bareheaded. 

V.ii.— H P. 
Amours crowned, throned, bearing bow 
and arrows, instru^ L*Amant standing. 

P.V.i. — R (same as § 14). 
Nero watching the dissedion of his mother. 

V.i.— E (from §41). 

§ 21. (B.E. XVIII.) 

Comment lamant dit cy quamours 
Le laissa en ses grans doulours. 

No illustration in any of the printed 

§ 22. (B.E. XIX.) 

Comment bel acueil humblement 
Offrit a lamant doulcement 
A passer pour veoir les roses 
Quil desiroit sur toutes choses. 

Bel-Acueil, as a youth^ leading L*Amant 
through gateway. 
L.i. — ^A. 

L.ii.— BCDFG. 
BeUAcueil, as a wonuui, leading L'Aoiaat 
through gateway. 
V.ii.— H. 
L'Amant about to pluck rote. 

/. P.V.i.— R (same as § 112). 
lyfan seated on ground gathering flowcn. 
From Prmtfitx Chmw^strts^ i486.* 
— E. 

* In h'nes 2, 3, qui^qm^iL 

' r§mmmnsj the old and corred form, in A B C. D (Du Pr £) alten to rmtumsni^ and 
#aur ^matu to # lamant. So all subsequent editions and M&xu 
' Facsimile in Claudin, i, 427. 

105 P 

Two labourers, one with scythe, one with 

From Proufit% CbamptstreSj 1486.^ 
— P (used for § 102 in £). 

§ 23. (B.E. XX.) 

Comment dangler villainement 
Bouta hors despiteusement 
Lamant davecques bel acueil 
Dont il eust en son cueur grant 

Man with club driving out L'Amant; Bel- 
Acueil, as a woman, retiring. 
L.i. — A. 

L.ii.— BCDFG. 
V.ii.— H p; 

Man with lifted club holds by hair woman 
/. P.V.i.— R (same as § 55 in R Q, 
where it belongs). 
Man with raised sword, another (or woman) 
with dub, driving away a man in front 
of a building. 

From idnt nomellis nouvilUsy i486. 
— ^E (same as § 93). 

§ 24. (B.E. XXII.) 

Comment rayson de dieu aymee 
Est jus de sa tour devalee 
Qui lamant chastie et reprent 
De ce que foUe amour emprent. 

Raison crowned, standing before tower, 
chiding L'Amant. 
L.i. — A. 

L.ii.— B C D F G. 
V.ii.— H P. 

Man and woman in debate beneath bole of 

P.V.i.— Q. 
Woman crowning another with garland. 
P.V.ii.- -S (same as § 74, where it 
is copied from Q). 
Woman crowned, being married (?) to man 
in plain dress by priest. 

From ?. — £ (same as § 35, § 45, 


§ 25. (B.E. xxiii.) 

Cy respond lamant a rebours 
A rayson qui luy blasme amours. 

No illustration in any of the printed 

§ 26. (B.E. XXIV.) 

Comment par le conseil damours 
Lamant vint faire ses clamours 
A amis a qui tout compta 
Lequel moult le reconforta. 

L'Amant appealing to man in long robe, 
both standing. 
L.i. — A. 
L.ii.— B CDF. 
V.ii.— H. 
Raison crowned, leaving L'Amant, who 
appeals to man in long robe. 

L.ii. — G (same as § 45, where it 
Man about to receive purse from another, 
both standing. 

V.ii. — P (same as § 37, where it be- 
P.V.i. — Q R (same as § 37, where 
it belongs). 

' Facsimile in Mac&rlane's Virardy Plate III; also in Chudin, i, 427. Here, owing 
to the wear or breakage of the block, the blade of the scythe does not appear. 


P.V.ii. — S (same as § 37, where it 


Man, well-dressed, speaking with man poorly 

dressed and hat in hand ; in background, 

man standing by bed in which lies a 


From iCent nouvtUes nouvilUsj i486. 
— £ (same as § 43 and § 92). 

§ 27. (B.E. XXV.) 

Comment amis moult doulcement 
Donne reconfort a lamant. 

No illustration in any of the printed 

§ 28. (B.E. XXVI.) 

Comment lamant vint a dangler 
Luy prier que plus ledengier 
Ne le voulsist et par ainsi 
Humblement luy crieroit ^ mercy. 

L'Amant kneeling to a rustic who leans on 
a club. 

L.i. — A. 
L.ii.— B C D. 
Man kneeling to another who spreads his 

V.ii.— P (from § 46 in H). 
L'Amant threatened by rustic with club; 
two women standing by. 

L.ii. — F G (same as § 82, where it 
Man in bed; man and woman standing, 
holding hands. 

From Cent nouvilUs muvtUiSj 1486.' 
— E. 

Man standing, in priestly dress, points tosmall 
objed extended in right hand of another 
man^who holds left hand to his hat. 
From ?. — H (same as § 37 and § 78 
in £). 

§ 29. (B.E. XXVII.) 

Comment pitie avec francise 
Alerent par tres belle guise 
A dangler parler pour lamant 
Qui estoit daymer en torment. 

Two graceful women approach rustic who 
holds club. 
/ L.i. — A (same as § 33). 
/. L.ii.— B C D F G (same as § 33). 
/ V.ii.— H P (same as § 33). 
Group of seven women, two of whom are 
kissing one another. 
/. P.V.i.— R.* 
Two well-dressed women appeal to a well- 
dressed man. 

From ? Cent ncuvelles nouviUiSy 1486. 
— £ (same as § 51, § 89}. 

§ 30. (B.E. xxvm.) 

Comment bel acueil doulcement 
Maine lamant joyeusement 
Ou vergier pour veoir la rose 
Qui luy fut doulcereuse chose. 

Bel-Acueil, as a youth, leading L'Amant 
through gateway. 

L.i. — A (same as § 22). 
L.ii. — B C (same as § 22). 
Man and woman in debate, beneath bole 
of tree. 

^ A, crieroit: B, criroit; C et sqq., erioit^j M^n, crioit. 
' Facsimile in Macfurlane's Virard^ Plate 11. 

' This pretty cut, though plainly belonging to the series P.V.i., or at least in exa^y 
the same style, does not appear at all in Q, for which the series was apparently designed. 


P.V.i. — R (same as § 36, and as 
§ 24 in Qy where perhaps it be- 

§ 31. (B.E. XXIX.) 

Comment lardant brandon venus 
Ayda a lamant plus que nulz 
Tant que la rose ala baisier 
Pour mieulx son amour appaisier. 

L'Amant having plucked rose. 

/. V.i. — P (same as § 112, where it 
L'Amant about to pluck rose. 

/ P.V.i.— Q R (same as § iia). 
P.V.ii.— S (same as § 112). 

§ 32. (B.E. XXX.) 

Comment par la voix malle bouche 
Qui des bons dit souvent reprouche 
Jalousie moult laidement 
Tense bel acueil pour lamant. 

Woman standing, reproves youth kneeling 
on one knee. 
L.i. — A. 
L.ii. — B C. 
Man kneeling to woman who holds key 
and stands before gateway. 

V.ii. — P (repeat of § 12, where it 
Man following woman who unlocks a door. 
P.V.i. — Q (repeat of § 12, where 

it belongs). 
P.V.ii. — S (repeat of § 12, where it 

§ 33. (B.E. XXXI.) 

Comme honte et paour aussi 
Vindrent a dangler par soucy 
De la rose le ledengier 
Que bien ne gardoit le vergier. 

Two graceful women approach rustic who 
holds club. 
/. L.i. — A (repeat of § 29). 
/. L.ii.— B C D F G (repeat of § 29). 
V.ii.— H P (repeat of § 29). 
Man and woman in garden; buildings in 
distance, and in a doorway man talking 
with woman in peaked cap. 

From Cent nouvilles nouvelUsy 1486.^ 
— E (same as § 4+, § 52, § 79). 

§ 34. (B.E. XXXII.) 

Comment par envieux atour 
Jalousie fit une tour 
Faire ou milieu du pourpris 
Pour enfermer et tenir pris ^ 
Bel acueil le tresdoulx enfant 
Pource quavoit baisie lamant. 

Building of the tower; four men at work, 
and Jalousie, as woman, direding. 
f. L.i. — ^A (double-width cut). 
f. L.ii.^ — B C (double-width cut). 
Warriors approaching castle, moated and 
towered ; woman looking from window. 
/. P.V.i.— Q R. 
P.V.ii.— S. 
Stonemasons building wall and towers; six 
men at work. 

From Proufit% Champtstresy i486.' 

^ Facsimile in Claudin, i, 430. The cut is here much broken and some of the details, 
as the pails and water-wheel, are hardly perceptible. 
' In A B C lines 4 and 5 are transposed. 
' Facsimile in Claudin, Hist, di rimprimiriiy i, 426. 


§ 35- (B-E. xxxiii.) 

Cy endroit trespassa guillaume 
De lorris et nen fit plus pseaulme 
Mais apres plus de quarante ans 
Parfit ce clopinel rommans ^ 
Qui a bien faire sefForca 
Et cy son ceuvre commenca. 

Writer at desk. 
L.i. — ^A. 

L ii.— B C D F G. 
P.V.I.— Q R. 
P.V.ii.— S. 

From Prosifitx Ch^mpistns^ i486.* 
— H. (Also in the C$dUilU at 
From ?. — M (same as § 13). 
From Mir dis HittmnSj 1488/ — 
Man standing, raising forefinger; Almighty 
in clouds. 

From AfatbioUts. — I KLN (same as 

§ 13 in KLN). 
Copy of but. — O. 
Woman crowned, being married (?) to man 
in plain clothes by priest. 

From ?. — E (same as § 24, {45, 


§ 36. (B.E. xxxiv.) 

Cy est la tres belle rayson 
Qui est preste en toute saison 
De donner bon conseil a ceulx 
Qui deulx sauver sont paresseux. 

Raison crowned, standing before tower, 
chiding UAmant. 

L.i. — A (repeat of § 24). 
L.ii.— B C (repeat of § 24)- 
V.ii.— P (repeat of § 24). 

Man and woman in debate, beneath bole of 

P.V.i.— R (same as § 24 in Q). 
Warriors approaching castle, moated and 
towered ; woman looking from 
/P.V.I.— Q(sameas§34). 
P.V.ii. — S (same as 1 34). 

§ 37. (B.E. XXXV.) 

Cy est le souffreteux devant 
Son vray amy en requerant 
Quil luy ayde a son besoing 
Et son avoir luy met ou poing. 

Man receiving purse from another, both 

L.i. — A. 

^ So in A B C. D (Du Pr£), no doubt oSended by the inversion in the fourdi line, 
altered thus: 

iehan de meun ce rommans 
Parfist/ ainsi comme ie treuve 
Et icy commence son euvre. 

This was adopted by all succeeding editions till Clement Marot, who reverted to 
the old reading, only altering the fourth line to ^ Parfit chopinel [sic] ce rommant.** Both 
Du Fresnoy and Mfon print Du Pr6's version. 

' Facsimile, Macfarlane*s fVr#n^ PUte IV; CUudin, Hiti. di Flmp^ i. 42s. 

> Facsimile, Mac&rlane*s yirmrd, Plate XIIL 


L.ii.— B C D F G. 
V.ii.— H P. 
P.V.i.— Q R. 

P.V.ii.— S. 
Man standing, in priestly dress, points to 
small obje£^ extended in right hand of 
another man, who holds left hand to his 

From ?. — £ (same as § 28 in H, 
and § 78 in £). 

§ 38. (B.E. XXXVI.) 

Comment virginius plaida 
Devant apius qui jugea 
Que sa fille a tout bien taillie 
Fut tost a Claudius baillie. 

Man bringing woman before the judge. 
L.i. — A. 

L.ii.— B C D F G. 
V.ii.— H P. 
Messenger, hat in hand, delivering letter to 
captain sitting in front of tent. 

P.V.i. — Q (same as § 63, where it 

perhaps belongs). 
P.V.ii.— S (same as § 63). 
Five courtiers standing on either side of a 
king enthroned. 

P.V.i. — R (same as § 57, where it 
Man and woman, standing together, ad- 
dressed by another man. 
From ?.— E. 

§ 39. (B.E. XXXVII.) 

Comment apres le jugement 
Virginius hastivement 
A sa fille le chief coppa 
Dont de la mort point neschappa 

£t mieulx ainsi le voulut faire 
Que la livrer a pute a faire ^ 
Puis le chief presenta au juge 
Qui en encheut en grant deluge. 

Virginius holding his daughter's head out 
to the judge. 
L.i. — A. 

L.ii.— B C D F G. 
V.i.— E. 
V.ii.— H P. 

§ 40. (B.E. XXXVIII.) 

Comment rayson monstre a lamant 
Fortune sa roe tournant 
Et luy dit que tout son pouoir 
Sil veult ne le fera douloir. 

Raison crowned, standing with L'Amant, 
pointing to Fortune, blindfolded and hold- 
ing a wheel. 

L.i. — A. 

L.ii.— BCD FG. 

V.i— E. 

V.ii.— H P. 
Man and woman standing on each side of 
a wheel, on top of which a king crowned, 
at foot a b^;gar. 

P.V.i.-H8 R. 

§ 41. (B.E. XXXIX.) 

Comment le mauvais empereur 
Neron par sa grande fureur 
Fit devant luy ouvrir sa mere 
Et la livrer a mort amere 
Pource que veoir il vouloit 
Le lieu ou quel conceu lavoit. 

^ a fain: so A only; all other editions, including M^on, affmre. 


Nero throned, wearing imperial crown, 
watches man disembowelling a woman. 
L.i. — A. 

L.ii.— B C D F G. 
V.i.— ER 
V.ii.— H. 

§ 42. (B.E. XL.) 

Comment senesques le preud- 

Maistre de len^pereur de romme 
Put mis en ung baing pour mourir 
Neron le fit ainsi perir. 

Nero, wearing imperial crown, stands by 
tub in which stands a naked man, a 
vein in whose arm is being opened by 

/. L.i. — A. 

/ L.ii.— B C D F G. 

/ V.i.— E P. 

/. V.ii.— H. 

§ 43* (B.E. xu.) 

Comment lemperiere nerons 
Se tua devant deux garcons 
En ung jardin ou se bouta 
Pource que son peuple doubta. 

Nero, wearing imperial crown, thrusting 

sword through his Ijpurt; one youth 

standing by. 
/ L.i. — ^A. 
Nero, wearing imperial crown, stabbing 

himself; two youths standing by ; inside 

garden fence. 
/. V.ii.— H. 
Woman ^ running sword through her breast} 

man looking on. 

L.ii.— B C D F G (in all same at 
§ 52, where it belongs). 
Woman leaning on point of stword ; two 

V.ii. — ^P (same as § 52 in H, where 
it belongs). 
Woman leaning on point of sword, alone. 
/. P. V.i. — Q R (same as § 52, where 
perhaps it belongs). 
P. V.ii.— S (same as § 52). 
Man, well dressed, speakingwith man poorly 
dressed and hat in hand; in background, 
man standing by bed in which lies a 

From iCent nouvdUs nouvilUsy i486. 
— E (same as § 26, § 46, § 92). 

§ 44. (B.E. XLII.) 

Comment phanye dist au roy 
Son perc que par son desroy 
II seroit au gibet pendu 
Et la par son songe entendu. 

King crowned and seated; young woman 
kneels before him, pointing to a gibbet 
on a hill. 

L.i. — A. 

L.ii.— B C D F G. 
The same, but king has imperial crown* 

V.ii.— HP. 
Man and woman in garden ; buildings in 
distance, etc.* 

From Cent nouvellis muvilUsj 1486. 

— E (same as § 33, § 52, § 79). 

Two women, one wearing crown, kneeling 

before king crowned and throned ; four 

bystanders, one on horseback ; gibbet an 

hill in distance. 

From ?. — K (good cut, resembling 
style of V.ii). 

^ Did the designer of L.ii. take emperiere as a feminine form ? 
' See § 33, and note. 


Man, with hands in chains, kneeling be- 
fore king crowned and throned j queen 
crowned, and two others, standing by. 
From ?. — L. 

§ 44 suite. 

Between lines 6884-6885 (B.E.) 
the early editions have a prose 

Cresus respont a sa fille, 

which Clement Marot amplified 
into two lines of verse : 

Cresus respond cy a sa fille 
Qui en saigesse estoit subtille. 

No illustration in any of the printed 

§ 45. (B.E. XLIII.) 

Comment rayson laissa lamant 
Melencolieux et doulant 
Puis sest toume devers amis 
Qui en son cas confort a mis« 

Raison crowned, leaving L'Amant who ap- 
peals to man in long robe. 

L.i. — A. 

L.ii.— BCDFG. 

V.ii.— H P. 
Man and woman in debate, beneath bole of 


P.V.i. — R. (same as § 36, and as 

§ 24 in Q). 
Woman crowned, being married (?) by priest 
to man in plain clothes. 

From ?. — ^E (same as § 24, § 35, 


§ 46. (B.E. XLIV.) 

Comment lamant monstre a amis 
Devant luy ses troys ennemis 
Et dit que tost le temps viendra 
Quau juge deulx se complaindra. 

L'Amant kneels, entreating man in long 

L.i. — A. 

L.ii.— B C D F G. 
V.ii.— H. 
Man, standing, reproves woman ; bystander 
in background. 

V.ii. — P (same as § so in H, where 
it belongs). 
Messenger, on bendedknee, presentingletter 
to woman standing. 

P.V.i. — Q (same as § 90, where it 

perhaps belongs). 
P. V.ii.— S (same as § 90;. 
Man well dressed speaking with man poorly 
dressed and hat in hand, etc. 

From iCint nouviUes nouveUeSy i486. 
— E (same as § 26, § 43, § 92). 

§ 47. (B.E. XLV.) 

Comment povrete fait requestes 
A richesse moult deshonnestes 
Qui riens ne prise tous ses diz 
Mais de tous luy fait escondiz.^ 

Poverty, a woman in rags, kneels to Rich- 
esse, crowned and seated. 
L.i. — A. 

L.ii.— BCDFG. 
V.ii.— H P. 
A man cloaked, hooded, accosts a woman,, 
both standing. 

' luy fait iscomiix (plural of acondit, <<refusal"); soABCPQRS; la fast, D H^ 
Its fats, F G I; Usfaitz^ K L M N; Mfon, Pa fait. 


p.V.i. — R (same u § 103 in Q, 
where it belongs). 
Two men meeting two women, one young, 
one old. 

From ? E. 

§ 48. (B.E. XLVI.) 

Comment amis recorde cy 
A lamant qung seul vray amy 
£n sa povrete il navoit 
Qui tout son avoir luy ofFroit. 

Two men beside opened cofier. 

L.ii.— BCDFG. 
V.ii.— H P. 
Two men killing another outside a vine- 

From ? Mirw de la Ridemptian 
bumaine^ — ^E. 

§ 49. (B.E. XLVII.) 

Comment les gens du temps passe 
Navoient tresor amasse 
Fors tout commun par bonne foy 
Et navoient prince ne roy. 

Three figures (two men, one woman) sleep- 
ing under trees. 
L.i. — ^A. 

L.ii.— B C D F G. 
V.ii.— H P. 
Two men drawing up taUe from water in 
a net; sun over. 

From Afir$ir it la Rtiemptim bu- 
maint^ (^Mensa solis*^. — £ (same 
as § 65). 

§ 50. (B.E. xLvm.) 

Icy commence le jaloux 
A parler et dist oyans tous 
A sa fenmie quelle est trop baude 
Et lappelle faulse ribaude. 

Man upbraiding woman; two bjrstanders 
half seen. 
L.i. — A. 

L.ii.— B C D F G (same as § 51). 
The same, but only one b)rstander. 

V.ii.— H (used to § 46 in P). 

Two women approach man who holds club. 

V.ii. — ^P (same as § 29 and § 33 in 

H P, where it bdongs). 

Man with lifted club holds by hair woman 


/ P.V.i R (same as § 55 in R Q, 

where it belongs). 
Man in bed; man and woman standing 
holding hands. 

From Cent wuvellis muvMsy i486.* 
— E (same as § 28). 

§ 51. (B.E. XLIX.) 

Comment le jaloux si reprent 
Sa femme et dit que trop mes- 

De demener joye ne feste 
Et que de ce trop le moleste. 

Man upbraiding woman; two bystanders 
half seen. 

L.i. — ^A (not the same cut as § 50). 
L.ii.— B C D F G (repeat of § 50). 

* Copied from a cut in Spiegel ier mensebUcbem Behaltniss^ Basel, Bemhard Richel, 
1476. Richel's wood blocks were used for the Lyons Minir eU la R.h. of 1478. 

* Facsimile in Macfivlane's Firardy Plate II. 

113 Q 

Two women approach man who holds club. 
V.ii. — P (same as § 29 and § 33 in 
H P) where it belongs). 
Two women appealing to a well-dressed man. 
From ? Cent nouvilUs nouvelles^ 1486. 
— £ (same as § 29, § 89). 
Woman bringing boy to a man in High 
Priest's (?) robes. 

From ?. — H (same as § 105 in £). 

§ 52. (B.E. L.) 

Comment lucrece par grant ire 
Son cueur point desrompt et des- 

Et chiet morte sur terre a dens 
Devant son mary et parens. 

Woman standing, running sword through 
her breast; man standing by. 
L.i. — ^A. 

L.ii.— B C D F G (in all used before 
for § 43). 
Woman leaning on point of sword; two 
men standing by. 
V.ii.— H. 
Woman leaning on point of sword, alone. 
V.ii. — P (same as § 3 in H, where it 
/. P.V.i.— Q R. 
P.V.ii.— S. 
Queen wearing crown, leaning on point of 
sword, alone. 

f. From Matbeolus (Dido; same as first 
of § 76).— K L. 

Man and woman in garden; buildings in 
distance, ttc} 

From Cent n&uvellts nouvelUs^ 1486. 
— E (same as § 33, § 44, § 79). 

§ 53. (B.E. LI.) 

Beaulte cy ^ chastete guerroye 
Et laidure aussi la maistroye 
De servir a veniis ^ leur dame 
Qui des chastes a malle fame. 

Woman in religious dress, holding rosary, 
attacked by two women, one with her 
fist, one with lifted club. 
L.i. — A. 

L.ii.— B C D F G. 
V.ii.— H P. 
Man and woman seated side by side, her 
aim round his neck. 

P.V.i.— R (same as § 59 in Q R, 
where it probably belongs). 
Two women smiting a nearly naked man. 
From ? Mir^ir de la Ridemption 
humaim* (Lamech and his two 
wives). — E. 

§ 54 (Not in B.E.).'^ 
Comment dalida en dormant 
A Sanson qui laymoit forment 
Coppa par faulse trayson 
Ses cheveulx quant en son giron 
Le fit coucher pour endormir 
Dont apres len convint gemir. 

^ See note to § 33. * cy^ A only ; all other editions (including M6on), sL 

* venus^ A B only; all other editions (including M^n), vtrtus^ making nonsense. 
^ (?) Copied ftom a cut in Sptegel der nunschBchen Beha/tnissj Basel, B. Richel, 


' This Title occurs in the middle of an interpolation of 30 lines, which is found in 

all the early-printed editions and Du Fresnoy, but was discarded by Mion. See posty 

p. 151. 


Woman seated on ground, with thean, cuts 
locks of sleeping man. 
LJ. — ^A. 
/ L.ii.— BCDFG. 
V.ii.— H P. 
Woman in chamber, with shears, cuts locks 
of man asleep and bound with rope j two 
men in armour assist. 
f. From AI^tbhlu$. — K L. 
Woman, having cut off head of sleeping 
man, putting it in tub. 

From Mirnr di la Rldimptim hu^ 
maim^ (Queen Thamar). — E. 

§ 55. (B.E. LII.) 

Comment le jaloux se debat 
A sa femme et si fort la bat 
Que robe et cheveulx luy dessire 
Par sa jalousie et par ire. 

Man with lifted club pursuing woman. 
f. L. i. — A. 
/ L.ii.— B C D F G. 
Man with lifted club holds escaping woman 
by her hair. 

V.ii.— H P. 
Man with lifted dub hdds crouching woman 
bjr her hair. 
/ P.V.i.— Q R. 
P.V.ii.— S. 
King crowned, with harp, plajrs before city 
wall ; queen looks out. 

From Mir9ir di la Ridemptimt bu- 
maim ' (David and Michal). — £• 

§ 56. (B.E. UII.) 

Comment jason ala grant erre 
Oultre mer la toison acquerre 

Et fut chose moult merveilleuse 
Aux regardans et moult paoureuse. 

Man in sailing-boat approaches tower on 
land) two faces at window. 
L.i. — A. 

L.ii.— BCDFG. 
V.ii.— H P. 
Woman on shore, with lifted hands, watch- 
ing ship sailing away. 
P.V.i.— Q. 
Woman standing clasping her hands. 

P.V.ii. — S (same as § 3). 
Gallejr, manned with rowers; inscription 
on scroll : vocui la galee. 

P.V.i.— R (in Q used as GaUiot Du 
Pr<*s mark at end of book, § 1 13). 
Noah in the Ark. 

From ? BibU HistnUt. — E. 

§ 57. (B.E. uv.) 

Cy pouez lire sans desroy 
Comment fu fait le premier roy 
Et puis leur jura sans tarder 
De loyaulment le leur garder. 

King enthroned i men on each side placing 

crown on his head. 

L.i. — A. 

L.ii.— BCDFG. 
V.ii.— H P. 

King on throne; courtiers standing on each 


P.V.i.— Q R. 

P.V.ii.— S. 

Man wearing crown, cutting off hair or 

whiskers of another whom a third holds 

from behind. 

From ?. — E. 

from a cut in Spiigil iit mtntcHHchin BthahmUt^ Baatl, B. Rkbel, 1476. 
See note, p. 113. 

§ 58, (B.E. Lv.) 

Comment lamant sans nul termine 
Prent congie damis et chemine 
A savoir sil pourroit choysir 
Chemin pour bel acueil veyr. 

L'Amant, turning from man in long robe, 
approaches gateway. 
L.i. — A. 

L.ii.— BCDFG. 
V.ii.— H. 
Woman wearing crown, standing with 
folded hands before a king seated, scep- 
tred, and crowned. 

From iMiroir di la Bidemption hu- 
maint (Esther before Ahasuerus). 
— £ (same as § 75). 

§ 59. (B.E. Lvi.) 

Comment lamant trouva richesse 
Gardant le sentier et ladresse 
Par lequel prennent le chastel 
Amans qui asses ont chastel. 

L'Amant seizing woman crowned, seated 
on ground ; castle in dbtance. 
L.i. — ^A. 

L.ii.— BCDFG. 
V.ii.— H P. 
Man and woman seated side by side, her 
arm round his neck. 
P.V.i.— Q R. 
A man cloaked and hooded, accosts a woman, 
both standing. 

P.V.ii. — S (same as § 103, where it 
Woman wearing crown, with hands to- 
gether, approaching warrior with shield 
and pennoned lance. 

From \ Mirnr it la Riiempti^n hu" 
maim (David and Abigail). — £. 

Woman with flower ; scroll inscribed (in 
type) Richiffi. Man with hawk on wrist ; 
scroll uninscribed. (Two separate cuts.) 
From ?.— K L. 

§ 60. (B.E. LVII.) 

Cy dit lamant damours comment 
II vint a luy legierement 
Pour luy oster sa grant douleur 
Et luy pardonna sa foleur 
Quil fit quant escouta raison 
Dont il lappella sans raison. 

Amoxus winged and crowned, \zy% his hand 
on head of L'Amant, standing before 

L.i. — A. 

L.ii.— BCDFG. 
V.ii.— H P. 
Two women in bed. 

From ?. — £ (same as § 1 1). 

§ 61. (B.E. LVIII.) 

Comment lamant sans plus at- 

Veult a amours sa lecon rendre. 

No illustration in any of the printed 

§ 62. (B.E. LIX.) 

Comment amours le bel et gent 
Mande par ses lettres sa gent 
Et les bailie a ung messagier 
Qui les prent sans faire dangier. 

Two parties of men in armour facing one 


L.i. — ^A (same as § 83). 
L.ii/— BCDFG. 
Messenger unarmed, with armed escort, de- 
livering letter to man in mail. 
V.ii— H P. 
Messenger on bended knee presenting letter 
to woman standing. 

P. V.i. — R (same as § 90 in Q, where 
it perhaps belongs). 
Small square tower; two men in armour, 
holding swords and flags, on top. 
From ? E. 

§ 63. (B.E. LX.) 

Comment amours dit a sont host 
Quil veult faire assault tantost 
Au chastel et que cest son vueil 
Pour en mettre hors bel acueil. 

Amours winged and crowned, direding men 
in armour to castle in distance. 
L.i. — A. 

L.ii.— BCDFG. 
V.ii.— H P. 
Messenger, hat in hand, delivering letter to 
captain sitting in front of tent. 
P.V.i.— Q. 
P.V.ii.— s. 

Man throwing food (or stone) into giving 
jaw of a monster; behind stands another 
man; also a pidure of four flagons, and 
a monster, human-headed, holding staflF. 

From ? E. 

Group of men in armour facing group of 
unarmed men, the chief of whom is ad- 
dressing them. 
From ?.— K. 
Men in armour on horseback approaching 
unarmed men, in front of chapd. 
From ?. — ^L. 

§ 63 suite. 

Before line 10,947 Etpuisvien-- 
dra jehan clopinel^ the two small- 
8vo editions of Clement Marot's 
Recension introduce an illustra- 
tion (without Title) where there 
is none in the earlier editions. (Cf. 
§ II suite\ § 107 suite.) 

Writer at desk in library. 

P.V.i. — Q (same as § 11 mu^ and 


P.V.ii. — S (same as § 1 1 suite^ and 

§ 64. (B.E. Lxi.) 

Comment le dieu damours retient 
Faulx semblant qui ses hems de- 

Dont ses gens sont joy eulx et baux 
Quant il Ic fidt roy des ribaux. 

Amours winged, crowned, standing; before 
him kneels man in religious habit, ton- 
sured; woman in religious habit, with 
rosary, standing by. 
L.i. — A. 
L.ii.— B CDF. 
V.ii.— H P. 
The same, but Amours seated, holding bow 
and arrows, and no woman bystander. 

P.V.i.-H3 R. 

Amours winged and crowned, directing men 
in armour to casde in distance. 
L.ii. — G (repeat of § 63). 
Amours crowned, throned, bearing bow and 
arrows ; L'Amant standing before him. 
P.V.ii. — S (same as § 14 and 1 17). 

^ L.ii. has a difierent cut here and at § 83, though both are founded upon the one 
cut in L.i. 


Three men pruning or training fruit trees. 
From ? Proufitz Champistresj i486. 
— E. 

§ 65. (B.E. Lxii.) 

Comment le traitre faulx semblant 
Si va les cueurs des gens emblant 
Pour les vestemens noirs et gris 
£t pour son vis pasle amaigris. 

Man tonsured^ in religious habit, taking 
clothes from a rail. 
L.i. — A. 

L.ii.— B C D F G. 
V.ii.— H P. 
Two men drawing up a table from the 
water in a net ; sun over. 

From Miroir de la Ridnnption bu- 
maim (" Mcnsa Solis "). — E 
(same as § 49). 

§ 66. (B.E. Lxiii.) 

Faulx semblant dit cy verite 
De tous cas de mendicite. 

Man tonsured, in religious habit, preaching 
Arom pulpit to group of men and women, 
standing and sitting. 

P.V.i. — R (same as § 105 in Q, 
where it belongs). 

§ 67. (B.E. LXIV.) 

Comment faulx semblant cy sa- 

tourne ^ 
De ses abis et puis sen tourne 
Luy et abstinence contrainte 
Vers malle bouche tout par fainte. 

Man tonsured, and without his outer gar- 
ments, and woman seated under tree. 
L.i. — ^A. 

L.ii.— B C D F G. 
V.ii.— H P. 
Man tonsured, in religious habit, preaching 
from pulpit to group of men and women 
sitting and standing. 

P.V.i. — R (same as § 66 in R, and 

as § 1 05 in Q, where it belongs). 

Two men killing another outside a vineyard. 

From i Miroir dt la Ridemptim bu- 

maim. — ^E (same as § 48). 

§ 68. (B.E. LXV.) 

Com faulx semblant et abstinence 
Pour lamant sen vont sans doubt- 

Saluer le fel malle bouche 
Qui des bons souvent dit re- 


Man with staff, woman with rosary, both in 
religious garb, approach man seated before 
a doorway. 
L.i. — A. 

L.ii.— BCDFG. 
V.ii.— H P. 
Man, attended by youth, kneeling to priest ; 
altar in background. 

From ? Ctnt nouvilUs nouvilUs. — £ 
(same as § 71). 

§ 69. (B.E. Lxvi.) 

Comment abstinence reprouche 
Les paroles a malle bouche. 

No illustration in any of the printed 

^ Satoumiy A B. C misprinted armoniy and all subsequent editions, including M£on, 
adopt the mistake. 


§ JO. (B.E. Lxvii.) 

Comment malle bouche escouta 
Faulx semblant qui tost le mata. 

A man, cloaked and hooded,accosts a woman, 
both standing. 

P.V.i. — R (same as § 47 in R, and 
as § 103 in Q, where it be- 

§ 71. (B.E. LXVIII.) 

Comment la langue fut coppee 
Dung rasouer non pas despee 
Par faulx semblant a malle bouche 
Dont cheyt mort comme une 

Man, in religious garb, cutting out tongue 
of kneeling man held by a woman in 
religious dress. 
L.i. — A. 

L.ii.— BCDFG. 
V.ii.— H P. 
Man, attended by youth, kneeling before 
priest, etc 

From \Cint ruuveUis nmvilles. — £ 
(same as § 68). 

§ 72. (B.E. LXIX.) 

Comme faulx semblant qui con- 
Maint amant passa tost la porte 
Du chastel avec luy samie 
O eulx largesse et courtoisie. 

Man and woman, in religious dress, follow- 
ing one woman who approaches another ; 
part of tower seen. 
L.i. — A. 
V.ii.— H P. 

The same, but no tower seen. 

L.ii.— B C D F G. 
Pretty young woman addressing elderly 
man ; younger man turning away. 

From iCent nouvilUs nouvilUs. — ^E. 

§ 73. (B.E. LXX.) 

Comment la vielle a bel acueil 
Pour le consoler en son dueil 
Luy dit de lamant tout le fait 
Et le grant dueil que pour luy fait. 

Old woman in conversation with young, 
both standing. 
L.i. — ^A. 

L.ii.— BCDFG. 
V.ii.— H P. 
Man and woman in debate beneath bole of 

P.V.i. — Q (same as § 24). 
Man and woman seated side by side, her 
arm round his neck. 

P.V.i. — R (same as § 59). 
Woman crowning another with garland. 

P.V.ii. — S (same as § 74, where it 
is copied Arom Q). 
Man rending (?) his garments; before him 
a woman whose outer dress is lifted by 
another man. 
From ?. — E. 

§ 74. (B.E. LXXI.) 

Comment tout par lennortement 
De la vielle joyeusement 
Belacueil receut le chapel 
Pour erres de vcndre sa peL 

Old woman seated at desk with open book; 
young woman standing, holding up a 


L.i. — A. 

L.ii.— B C D F G. 

Vii.— H P. 
Woman crowning another with garland. 

P.V.i.— Q R. 

P.V.ii.— S. 
Man addressing two women. 

From ?.— E. 

§ 75. (B.E. LXXII.) 

Comme la vielle sans tencon 
Lit a bel acueil sa lecon 
La quelle sceuent bien les femmes 
Qui sont dignes de tous diffames. 

Old woman at desk with open book ; young 
woman seated, listening. 
L.i. — ^A. 

L.ii.— BCDFG. 
V.ii.— H P. 
Woman wearing crown, standing with folded 
hands before king, etc. 

From ? Mirrir di la Ridimptimt hu^ 
maim (Esther before Ahasuerus). 
— E (same as § 58). 

§ 76. (B.E. LXXIII.) 

Comme la royne de cartage 
Dido par le villain oultraige 
Que eneas son amy luy fit 
De son espee tost soccist 
£t comment phillis se pendit 
Pour son amy quelle attendit. 

Queen crowned, standing, leaning on point 
ofsword ; man hanging by neck from wall; 
woman with live and dead child. 
/. L.i. — ^A. 
/.L.ii.— BCDFG. 

The same, but woman hanging from tree 
instead of man from wall. 
/. V.ii.— H P. 
Woman standing, leaning on point ofsword. 
/. P.V.i.— Q R (same as § 52). 
P.V.ii. — S (same as § 52). 
Queen wearing crown, leaning on point of 
sword. Woman hanging from tree. 
(Two separate cuts.) 

/. From Matbiolus (Dido, same as 
§ 52; and Phyllis).— K L. 
Young man, bearing head with hole in fore- 
head on point of sword, approaches castle 
gate; women with harp and viol meet 

From iAHrair di la RUimptitn bm- 
maim^ (David with head of Go- 

§ JJ. (B.E. LXXIV.) 

Comment ulcanus espia 
Sa femme et moult fort la lya 
Dun lacz avec mars ce me semble 
Quant couchiez les trouva en- 

Man binds with cord clothes of bed in 
which are man and woman. 
L.i.^ — ^A. 

L.ii.— B C D F G. 
The same, but man only holding clothes 
of bed. 

V.ii.— H P. 
Man and woman asleep in bed. 

P.V.i.— Q R (same as § i). 
P.V.ii. — S (same as § i). 
Man in doorway approaches bed on which 
are man and wonun. 

From Matbiolus. — K. 
Woman naked above waist, in bed, addresses 

^ Copied from a cut in Spiigil der nunscbUchin Bihaltniss^ Basel, B. Richel, 1476. 


two men standing by; woman beside 

From ?. — E. 
Three women on land beside tent; ship 
with men on sea« 

From ? (Ariadne abandoned). — L. 

§ 78. (B.E. LXXV.) 

Cy nous est donne par droiture 
Exemple du pouoir nature. 

Man gazing at building; bird in cage; fish 
in trap in stream ; cat with rat. 
f. L.i. — A. 
The same, but scene indoors, and no stream. 
/. L.ii.— BCDFG. 
/. V.ii.— H. 
Man standing in priestly dress points to 
small objedt extended in right hand of 
^mother man, who holds left hand to his 

From ?. — £ (same as § 28 in H, and 

§ 37 in E)- 

§ 79. (B.E, Lxxvi.) 

Comment la vielle la maniere 
Dentrer ou fort par luys derriere 
Enseigna lamant a bas ton 
Par ses promesses sans nul don 
Et linstruisit si saigement 
Quil y entra secretement. 

Old woman leading L'Amant by hand 
through doorway. 
L.i. — A. 
L.ii.— B CDF. 
V.ii.— H. 
Man gazing at building; bird in cage, etc. 
/. L.ii. — G (repeat of § 78). 

Man and woman in conversation in garden ; 

in distance, buildings, and in a doorway 

man talking with woman in peaked cap. 

From dm nouvelles nouvilUs^ 1486.^ 

— E (same as § 33, §44, § 5^) P- 

§ 80. (B.E. Lxxvii.) 

Comment lamant en la chambrete 
De la tour qui estoit secrete 
Trouva par semblant belacueil 
Tout prest dacomplir tout son 

Nero throned, wearing imperial crown, 
watches man disembowellinjg a woman. 
V.ii. — P (same as § 41 in H). 

§ 81. (B.E. LXXVIII.) 

Comment lamant se voulut joindre 
Au rosier pour la rose attaindre 
Mais dangier qui bien lespia 
Louf dement et hault lescrya. 

L'Amant standing, haying plucked rose. 
f. V.i. — P (same as § 112, where it 
L'Amant about to pluck rose. 

/. P.V.i.— Q R (same as § 112). 
P. V.ii. — S (same as §112). 

§ 82. (B.E. LXXIX.) 

Comma honte paour et dangier 
Prindrent lamant a ledengier 
Et le batent tres rudement 
Crioit mercy tres humblement. 

Rustic, with lifted club, attacks L'Amant ; 
two women standing by. 

^ See note to § 33. 

L.i. — A. 

L.ii.— B C D F G. 
V.ii.— H P. 
Man with lifted club holds by hair woman 

P.V.i.— R (same as § 55 in R Q, 
where it belongs). 
Man with jawbone killing another, who re- 
clines on ground, with blood streaming 
from forehead ; behind are two fires on 
one flat stone altar ; flames of one rise, of 
other curve downward. 

From i Bible Historiii (Cain and 
Abel). — £ (same as § 106). 

§ 83. (B.E. Lxxx.) 

Comment tous les barons de lost 
Si vinrent secourir tantost 
Lamant que les portiers batoyent 
Si fort que pres ne lestrangloient. 

Two parties of men in armour facing one 

L.i. — A (repeat of § 62). 
L.ii.*— BCDFG. 
Three men in armour, holding halberds, 

V.ii.— H P. 
Armed men, holding halberds, in firont of 
palisaded camp; horsemen in distance. 
From ?.— K L. 
Man raising great sword,standing by woman; 
man peering from under bed. 

From \Cent nouvelUs nouvelUs, — £. 

§ 84. (B.E. LXXXI.)^ 

Comment lafteur mue propos 
Pour son honneur et son bon loz 
Garder.^ en priant quil soit quittes 
Des paroles quil a cy dites. 

Man holding ferret; dogs pursuing conies 
into their burrows. 
L.i. — A. 

L.ii.— B C D F G. 
V.ii.— H P. 
Man seated on heap of sheaves; woman 
turning round to look at him. 
From ?.— E. 
Man seated at table with pen ; child-angel 
touching him on shoulder. (Small cut.) 
From ?.— K. 
King standing by queen, who holds instru- 
ment at the eye of a dead man's head on 
dish upon table; smaller figure of girl in 

From ? (same style as cut in K). — L. 

§ 85. (B.E. LXXXII.)^ 

Cy dit par bonne entencion 
La6teur son excusacion. 

No illustration to this Title in any of the 
printed texts. 

§ 86. (B.E. LXXXIII.)^ 

Comment ladleur moult humble- 
men t 
Sexcuse aux dames du romant. 

^ L.ii. has a different cut here and for § 62, though both are founded on the one cut 
in L.i. 

' In R the Titles, § 84, § 85, § 86, are missing; a whole leaf^ sig. r iii., of its 
exemplar P, having been passed over or omitted. 

' I have left this point or full stop as it stands in A. It is used once before at 
* the end of § i. These two are the only punduations I have found in this edition. 


Man standing, raising forefinger ; Almighty 
in clouds. 

From Matbhlus. — K L (same as 

§ 13 and § 35). 
Copy of the same. — O. 
Student in cap, reading at desk.^ 

From ?. — M. 
Man standing with hawk on wrist, and 
scroll (no inscription). 

From ?• — N (same as second cut to 

§ 87. (B.E. Lxxxiv.) 

Cy reprent son propoz sans faille 
Ladleur et vient a la bataille 
Ou dame franchise combat 
Contre dangier qui fort labat. 

Rustic with club and shield fighting against 
woman with shield and spear. 

L.i. — A. 

L.ii.— B C D F G. 

V.ii.— H. 
Square tower; three women looking over 
battlements; in front, man in armour 
runs through with sword man crowned, 
holding torch, fallen on ground. 

From ?. — E. 

§ 88. (B.E. LXXXV.) 

Comment bien celer si surmonte 
En soy combatant dame honte 
Et puis paour et hardement 
Se combatent moult fierement. 

Man with raised fist holding down woman; 
man and woman with swords behind him. 

L.i. — A. 

L.ii.— B C D F G. 
The same, but man raising club instead of 

V.ii.— H. 
Manofunusual size raising jawbone; many 
men lying around him dead. 

From iBibli //iV/^nV^ (Samson). — £. 

§ 89. (B.E. Lxxxvi.) 

Comment paour et seurete 
Ont par bataille fort hurte 
Et les aultres pareillement 
Sentrehurtent subtillement. 

Man with raised fist holding down woman^ 

L.i.— A (repeat of § 88). 
L.ii.— B C D F G (repeat of § 88). 
The same, but club instead of fist. 

V.ii.— H (repeat of § 88). 
Two well-dressed women appealing to a 
well-dressed man. 

From idntnouvilUs nouvelUsy 1486. 
— £ (same as § 29). 

§ 90. (B.E. LXXXVII.) 

Comment les messagiers de lost 
Damours de cueurs chascun devost 
Vinrent a venus pour secours 
Avoir en lost au dieu damours. 

Two men, holding spears and kneeling, pre- 
sent letter to well-dressed woman. 
L.i. — ^A. 

L.ii.— BCDFG. 
V.ii.— H P. 

^ A recutting of a cut Arom Li$ Rignars trover sant (Macfarlane, 182), which 
apparently belongs to the series V.ii., though not used with the rest in Vdrard's Quarto* 
See Plate XXXIIa. 


Messenger, on bended knee, presenting letter 
to graceful woman standing. 
P.V.i. — Q (same as § 46). 
P.V.ii. — S (same as § 46). 
Messenger, hat in hand, delivering letter to 
captain seated before tent. 

P.V.i. — R (same as § 63 in Q, where 
perhaps it belongs). 
Woman crowned, being married (?) to man 
in plain dress by man in priest's clothes. 
From ?. — E (same as § 24, § 35, 


§ 91. (B.E. Lxxxviii.) 

Comment venus a andonis 
Qui estoit sur tous ses amis 
Deffendoit quen nulle maniere 
Nalast chasser a beste fiere. 

No illustration in any of the printed 

§ 92. (B.E. LXXXIX.) 

Comment six jennes ^ colombeaux 
En ung char qui fut riche et beaux 
Mainent venus en lost damours 
Pour luy faire hastif secours. 

Car, covered, with wheels, drawn in air by 
eight doves ; Venus seen within. 
L,i. — A. 

L.ii.— B C D F G. 
V.ii.— H P. 
PSr.l—Q R. 
P.V.ii.— S. 
Man well dressed, speaking with man poorly 
dressed and hat in hand; in background. 

man standing by bed in which lies a 

From Went nouvelles nouvellesy i486. 
— E (same as § 26, § 43, § 46). 

§ 93- (B-E- ^c.) 
Cest lassault devant le chastel 
Si grant que pieca ny eut tel 
Mais amours ne sa compaignye 
A ceste fois ne leurent mye 
Car ceulx de dedens resistence 
Luy firent par leur grant puissance. 

Two archers with drawn bows before castle; 
man over gateway hurling stone. 
L.i. — A. 
L.ii.— B CDF. 
V.ii.— H P. 
Amours winged and crowned, dire£ting men 
in armour to castle in distance. 
L.ii. — G (repeat of § 63). 
Archers and men with scaling ladders attack- 
ing castle; sea and ship in distance. 
From ?.— K. 
Fight between two parties of armed men on 
horseback; towers in distance; wounded 
man supported in foreground. 
From ?. — L. 
Man with raised sword, another (or woman) 
with club, driving off a man in front of a 

From iCifit nouvilUs nouvilUsy i486. 
— £ (same as § 23). 

§ 94. (B.E. xci.) 

Comme nature la subtille 
Forge tousjours ou filz ou fille 

^ jenneSf in A habitually for jiunes. — ^Though the illustration always depi£ts eight 
doves, /ix is read in the three first Folios ABC. Du Pr6 correSed it to huit in D, and is 
followed by the remaining Folios £ F G, and all the Quartos, H I K L M N O. Clement 
Marot again reads sixy P Q R S. M£on prints huit. 


Affin que lumaine lygnye 
Par son defFault ne faille mie. 

Woman hammering at small human figure 
on anvil in front of forge. 

L.i. — A. 

L.ii.— B C D F G. 

V. ii.— H P. 

P.V.I.— Q R. 

P.V.ii.— S. 
Mitred priest marrying woman with crown 
to bareheaded man ; another man stands 
behind the man, and a woman bears the 
woman's train. 

From ?. — E. 

§ 95. (B.E. XCII.) 

Comme le bon paintre zensis 
Fut de contrefaire pensis 
La tres grant beaulte de nature 
£t de la paindre mit grant cure. 

Man, seated at easel, at work on pidture of 
nude woman ; nude models stand before 
/ L.i. — A. 
L.ii.— B C D. 
V.ii.— H P. 
/. P.V.i.— <;) R. 

Writer in library before desk with books. 
From Proufitx Champistnsy i486.' 
— E (same as § 35 in H). 

§ 96, (B.E. xciii.) 

Comment nature la deesse 
A son bon prestre se confesse 

Qui moult doulcement luy enhorte 
Que de plus pleurer se deporte. 

Woman kneeling in confession before man 
seated, wearing cloak with hood. 
L.i. — A. 
L.ii.— B CDF. 
V.ii.— H P. 
Graceful woman in talk with man in cloak 
and hood, both standing. 

L.ii. — G (borrowed from § 103). 
Tonsured priest marries man in poor dress 
to woman, behind whom stands man 
richly dressed. (Small cut). 
From ?. — E. 

§ 97. (B.E. XCIV.) 

Cy dit a mon entention 
La meilleure introdudlion 
Que len pent aux hommes aprendre 
Pour eulx bien garder et deffendre 
QuenuUesfemmesleurs maistresses 
Ne soient quant sont jangleresses. 

No illustration in any of the printed 

§ 98. (B.E. XCV.) 

Comment le fol mary couart 
Ce ^ met dedens son col la hart 
Quant son secret dit a sa femme 
Dont pert son corps et elle same. 

Well-dressed man, indoors, standing talking 
to a woman, apparendy enainti. 

From \Cent nouvilUs nouvillts^ i486. 

^ Facsimile, Macfarlane's Virard^ Plate IV ; Claudin, Hnt. di rimprim.^ i, 425. 
' C#, A, correSed to si in all later editions. 


§ 99* (B.E. xcvi.) 

Entendez cy par grande cure 
La confession de nature. 

Writer at desk in library. 

P.V.i. — R (same as § 35). 

§ 100. (B.E. xcvii.) 

Comment nature se plaint cy 
Des deux qui ^ firent contre luy. 

Man seated at easel at work on pi£lure of 
nude woman ; nude models stand before 

L.ii. — F G (borrowed from § 95 in 

§ 101. (B.E. XCVIII.) 

Comment par le conseil themis 
Deucalyon tous ses amys 
Luy et pirra la bonne dame 
Fit revenir en corps et ame. 

Man and woman kneeling before figure on 
pedestal ; in background, two persons ris- 
ing from stones or ground. 
/ L.i. — A. 
/. L.ii.— B C D F G. 
V.ii.— H P. 
Group of women kneeling to figure on 
/. P.V.i.— Q R. 

P. V.ii. — S (used before for § 18). 

King crowned and robed, asleep on bed ; in 
front, figure on pedestal. 

From iMiroir de la Redimption hu- 
maim (Nebuchadnezzar's Dream). 
— E.« 

§ 102. (B.E. xcix.) 

Comment nature proprement 
Devise bien certainement 
La verite dont gentilesse 
Vient et en cnseigne ladresse. 

Labourers with spade and scythe; men on 
horseback in background. 
L.i. — A. 

L.ii.— B C D F G. 
The same, but mattock instead of scythe. 

V.ii.— H P. 
King on throne; courtiers standing on each 

P.V.i. — Q (same as § 57). 
P.V.ii. — S (same as § 57). 
Man and woman seated side by side, her 
arm round his neck. 

P.V.i. — R (same as § 59). 
Two laboiu'ers, one with fork, one with 

From Proufit% Champesiresy i486.' 
— E (used for § 22 in P). 
Man ploughing ; woman with distaff stand- 
ing by. Man richly dressed, with hawk 
on wrist. (Two cuts.) 

ThtfirstfromAfatbiolusi the second 
from ?. — K L (second same as 
second to § 59). 

^ deux qui (^qu'il) A; B, deulx quil; C, de duei quil; hence D and succeeding 
editions, deduitz quilz (except £, deduitz quan fait)\ C. Marot restored dueilz quilz; 
M£on prints deuils qu^ilz. 

< Copied from a cut in Spiegel der menschlichen BehaltnisSy Basel, Bernhard Richel, 

' Facsimile in Mac&rlane's Virardy Plate III. In £ the scythe is not yet broken as 
in P, § 22. 


§ 103. (B.E. c.) 

Ccst cy comment dame nature 

Envoye a amours par grant cure 
Genyus pour luy saluer 

Et pour maints couraiges muer. 

Woman addressing man in hood and cloak, 
both standing. 
L.i. — A. 

L.ii.— B C D F G. 
V.ii.— H P. 

P.V.i.— Q (used for § 47 in R). 
P. V.ii.— S (used for § 59). 
Messenger, on bended knee, presenting letter 
to graceful woman standing. 

P.V.i. — R (same as § 90 in Q, where 
it belongs; used also R § 62). 
Man in high hat and long dress, and wear- 
ing sword, talks with another in reli- 
gious (?) dress; towers in distance. 

From ? (perhaps Nathan and David). 

§ 104. (B.E. CI.) 

Comment damoyselle nature 
Se mist pour forgier a grant cure 
En sa forge presentement 
Car cestoit son entendement. 

Woman hammering at small human figure 
on anvil in front of forge. 
V.ii. — P (same as § 94). 
P.V.i. — R (same as § 94). 

§ 104 Suite. 

Between lines 20178-9 (B.E.) 
the first three Folios have a single- 

line heading, printed as if it was 
a line of the verse : 

Comment le dieu damours habilla 

(C prints bailla a for habilla^ 
Clement Marot amplifies this into 
the following Verse-Heading: 

Comment le dieu damours bailla 
A genius et odlroya 
Une chasuble pour prescher 
Et le fist en bref despecher. 

No illustration in any of the printed 

§ 105. (B.E. CII.) 

Comment presche par grande cure 
Les commandemens de nature 
Le vaillant prcstre genyus 
En lost damours present venus 
Et leur fait a chascun entendre 
Tout ce que nature veult tendre. 

Preacher, tonsured, in pulpit; Amours 
winged and crowned seated before; others 
standing in background. 
L.i. — A. 
L.ii.— B CDF. 
V.ii.— H P.» 
The same, but audience a group of women 
aiid men sitting and standing. 

P.V.i.— Q (used to § 66, § 67 in R). 
P.V.ii.— S. 
Woman addressing man in hood and cloak 
both standing. 

L.ii. — G (repeat of § 103). 

^ In P the block has become considerably damaged, and hardly any traces are left of 
the wings of Amours. 


Woman bringing small boy to a man in 
High Priest's (?) dress. 

From ? (? Samuel brought to Eli). — 
£ (same as § 51 in H). 

§ 106. (B.E. cm.) 

Ce fort excommuniement 
Met genius sur toute gent 
Qui ne se veulent remuer 
Pour sespece continuer. 

Man driving plough with two horses. 
L.i. — A. 

L.ii.— B C D F G. 
V.ii.— H P. 
Man driving plough with two horses; 
woman with distaff standing by. 

From Matbiolus. — K L (same as 
§ 102, first cut). 
Man with jawbone killing another, etc. 
(See § 82.) 

From ? BibU Hystoriee (Cain and 
Abel). — £ (same as § 82). 

§ 107. (B.E. CIV.) 

Comment Jupiter fit prescher 
Que chascun ce quavoit plus chier 
Prenist et en fist a son gre 
Du tout et a sa volente. 

No illustration in any of the printed 

§ 107 Suite. 

Before line 21386 Genyus tout 
ainsi kur presche the two small- 
8vo editions of Clement Marot's 
Recension introduce an illustra- 
tion (without Title) where there 
is none in other editions. (Cf.§ 1 1 
suite and § 63 suite. In all three 
places the same cut.) 

Writer at desk in library. 

P.V.i. — Q (same as § 1 1 suitty § 35, 

§ 63 suiti). 
P. V.ii. — S (same as § 11 suiti^ § 35^ 
§ 63 suite). 

§ 108. (B.E. CV.) 

Venus se recoursa devant ^ 
Ainsi que pour cueillir le vent 
Et alia plus tost que le pas 
Au chastel mals ^ ny entra pas. 

No illustration in any of the printed 

§ 109. (B.E. CVI.) 

Cy commence la fidlion 
De lymage pymalyon. 

Sculptor at work with mallet and chisel on 
statue of a woman leaning against a 

^ Of the early-printed editions A is the only one which has this line corredly. 
B printed [ ] enyus^ which the rubricator naturally filled in as Genyus^ and this was printed 
in all following editions, till Clement Marot corrected it. D altered recoursa to leua\ 
which remained till Clement Marot, who reads Venus or sabille. M6on restored the line as 
in A. Further, B printed the whole Verse-Title as part of the text, and this was done 
in all following editions, even Clement Marot's; M£on printed it again as a Title. 

' malsy A; B and succeeding correS to mats. 


L.i. — A. 

L.ii.— B C D F G. 
V.ii.— H P. 
Man holding arm of woman, who looks back 
to castle they have just left. 

From Matbhlus (Orpheus and Pro- 
serpine). — K L. 
Two men with scourges, one on horse, one 
on foot, flogging a man lying on ground 
outside tower or city. 
From ?.— E. 

§ IIO. (B.E. CVII.) 

Comment pymalion demande 
Pardon en presentant lamende 
A soy ^ ymage des parolles 
Quil dit de luy qui sont trop folles. 

Man kneeling in front of statue of woman 
set upright. 
l-#.i.— A. 

L.ii.— B C D F G. 

V.ii.— HP. 
Eve naked, holding apple; human-headed 
and winged caterpillar standing on its 
curled tail. 

From Bibli Hystoriie.* — E. 

§ III. (B.E. cvm.) 

Comment ceulx du chastel yssirent 
Hors si tost comme ilz sentirent 
La chaleur du brandon venus 
Dont aulcuns jousterent tous nuz. 

Man and woman, naked, jousting with spear 
and shield ; castle in distance. 
L.i. — A. 

L.ii.— B C D F G. 
V.ii.— H P. 
The same, but instead of castle, window 
with two faces looking out. 
P.V.i.— Q R. 
P.V.ii.— s. 

In foreground, man lying on ground ; be- 
hind, elephant with castle on back con- 
taining three men with bow and arrow,^ 
dart, and stone. 

From ? Miroir de la Ridemption bw- 
maine^ (PEleazar). — E. 

§ 1 12. (B.E. CIX.) 

La conclusion du rommant 
Est que vous voyez cy lamant 
Qui prent la rose a son plaisir 
En qui estoit tout son desir. 

L'Amant within enclosure, holding rose 
which he has just gathered. 

/ L.i. — A. 

/. L.ii.— B C D F G. 

/. V.i.— E P. 

The same, but L'Amant about to gather 


/. V.ii.— H. 

/. P.V.i.— Q R. 

P.V.ii.— S. 

Two men (or perhaps man and woman) 

^ soyy A; B and succeeding editions, son. 

' Facsimile in Maciarlane's Firard^ Plate XXXII. Copied from a cut in Spiegel der 
minschlichin Bihaltniss^ Basel, Bemhard Richel, 1476. - 

' Copied from a cut in Spiigel dir minschlichen BihaltnisSy Basel, Bernhard Richel, 


129 S 

standing in garden under trees; walls and 
towers behind. 

From ?. — K L. 

§ 1 13. (Colophon.) 

Cest iin du roman de la rose 
Ou tout lart damours est enclose.^ 

Woman standing, reproves youth kneeling 
on one knee. 

L.ii. — F G (strayed from § 32 in 
B C, where it belongs). 
Galley manned with rowers; inscription on 

scroll, VOGUE LA CALEB. 

P.V.i.— Q (used for § 56 in R).* 

In the three Quartos of M. le Noir, I K L, the cuts § i and § 12 (on one block) 
are repeated below the achevi dUmprimer. 

^ No lines corresponding to these appear in the four editions of Clement Marot's 
recension, P Q R S, where there is only the prose achtvi d^imprimer of the printer. 

^ In Q this is only the Publisher's mark, but as it is used as an illustration in R, and 
is of the same style as the rest, it seemed necessary to assign it a number among them. 


I'he following illustrations are found in divers editions of the Roman 
de la Rose, either at the beginning or at the end^ but not attached 
to awf particular SeSlion or Title. 

Lover gathering Rose. 

P.V.i. (same as § 112). — Q. 

Pair of lovers exchanging flowers, seated in garden surrounded 
by trellis; fountain and castle in the garden. 

From ?.' — M (both front and back of Title-Pagc). 
.'. Perhaps a recutting. 

Scene half inside, half outside building; king, queen, three others. 

From ?. — O. 

.'. A very poor recutting. 

*ia. A largish cut, 150 mm. by 162 mm., representing a 
man seated in a chair at a reading desk, with an angel holding a 
scroll intended for a type-printed inscription. 

From La Danse Macabre^ Paris, 1485.' — Z (head of Prologue). 

*\b. A close copy of the last, 150 mm. by 157 mm. The 
scroll bears a type-printed inscription: Maiftre Jehan de meun. 

From La Danse Macahrgy Trojres, 149 1.' — F (last leaf). 

.*• According to M. Claudin {Hist, de flmpr. franf.^ ii, pp. 122 et sqq.) 
Guillaume le Rouge printed at Troyes in 149 1 an edition in French 
of La Dansi Macabre with a series of cuts (of which this is the first) 
copied extremely closely from those in the editions of Guy Alarchant> 
Paris, 1485 and i486. These cuts were afterwards used in an edition 

^ In the four Le Noir Quartos, I K L N, the cuts § i and § 12 (on one block) 
are printed on the Title-page; and in I K L also at the end below the colophon. 

' Also in Gaguin, La Mer des ChroniqueSy Paris, Poncet le preux, 15 14, and 
J. Sain£l Denys, 1527. Facsimile from the latter in Leighton's Catalogue, Part II, 

p. 3^9- 

' Facsimile in Claudin, i, 338, with type-printed inscription in the scroll. This 

facsimile is from the Latin edition of 1 49 1; but apparently this cut appeared in the earlier 

French editions of 1485 and i486, although M. Claudin does not expressly mention it* 

^ Facsimile in Claudin, ii, 123; no inscriprion in scroll. 


without date, but according to M. Claudin after 1494, printed by Le 
Petit Laurens, the printer of the Roman de la Rose^ Folio VI, F. It is 
interesting to find the other cut, from the original block of Guy Mar- 
chant, still in good condition in Z (1521). 

*2. Man seated, with single-circle aureole round his head, 
receiving a book from the hands of another standing bareheaded; 
behind is a group of men with hats on. 

From VArt de bien Fivre^ Paris, 1492/ — X (head of Prologue). 

.'. Mr. Macfarlane mentions twenty of Virard's publications in which this 
cut — *' the common frontispiece " as he calls it — occurs, but does not 
include among them the Roman di la Rose. (In the British Museum 
copy, on vellum, the design is altered considerably by over-painting.) 
In 1506 the block came to England with others used in the Kalendayr 
of Sbyppars. 

*3. " Personage Meditating." A man in robes seated before 
a desk in a Scriptorium or Library, leaning on his right hand in 

From Gerson's La Mendiciu Spirituel* M. Le Noir, Paris, 1500. — I K (re- 
verse of Title-page, and again on last leaf) L (reverse of Title-page). 

.*. M. Claudin says of this cut that it was copied several times by other 
printers. The differences in copies are extremely minute, but I think 
the following four blocks at all events may be distinguished: 

1. Michel Le Noir*s. Mendiciti Spirt tuelj 1500; Nef des Folks j 1501 ; 

MathlobiSy Paris, s.d.; Roman de la Rosiy 1509, IS^S» ^S^Qy Codicille 
etc. de Jehan de Meungy 1503; Pragmatica San^iOy 1513.' 

2. Jehan Petit's. LaSiantius^ 1509; Diogenes LaertiuSy s.d. 

3. (Design slightly cut down all round.) La Conqueste de P Empire de Tre- 

bisondey Paris, Vefue feu fehan Treperely s.d.; UAvanturier rendu a 
dangievy Paris, s.d.*} MathioluSy s.l. & d. 

4. (Same size as the last.) Perceval le Galloisy Paris, Jehan Sain£t Denys 

& Jehan Longis, 1530. 

' Facsimiles in Claudin, ii, 427 ; Macfarlane's Verardy Plate XXIV; Sommer, 
Kalendir of Shepherdesy London, 1892. 
' Facsimile in Claudin, ii, 167. 

' Facsimile in Leighton's Illustrated Catalogue, No. 4129. 
^ Facsimile in Morgand's Bulletin, June, 1902, No. 42361. 


A print from a much worn block of this design, reversed, occurs in a Troyes 
chap-book of Gallien Ristaure^ ^1^9* 

*4, A man, robed, seated before a leftern on which is a book 
held open by an angel. 

— Y (head of Prologue).* 

• * • The faces and attitudes of both the man and the angel bear a certain 

resemblance to those of the saipe figures in Cut *itf, of which this design 

seems a sort of condensation. 
The same cut is used in the piece composed by Molinet on the birth of 

Charles V, from which the facsimile in Claudin is taken. 
A close recutting is found in Lespinetti du Jnim Prince^ Paris, M. Le Noir, 

1 5 14. 

*S* Figures of man and woman, with name-scrolls unfilled 
above each, standing on either side of a building. 

From Le Jardin de Plaisanciy M. Le Noir, 4to, Paris, s.d. fol. e iii verso. — 
N. (Back of Title.) 

. * . A recutting (on one block) of figures found originally (though not in 
this grouping) in Thinnfi itifranfoys^ Virard, s.d. See above, pp. 78, 79. 

*6. Fresche Memotre showing the tombs of the ancients. 

From Le Chevalier Deliberiy Paris, 1493.* — ^ (back of Title). 
. * . A worn cut, with space for name at top left blank. 

*j. A king loosing halter from neck of a man on one knee 
before him; queen, and others standing by. 

From ?. — L. (Last leaf.) 
. ' . Perhaps a recutting. 

*8. A man, seated on canopied chair before desk with books, 
instrudts group of men seated on benches. 

* Facsimile in Claudin, iii, 527, from the Naissance de Charles d*Autrichf A 
slight break in the top border, seen in the Roman de la Rosty is not shown in this 
facsimile, so that this may be the earlier use of the block. (But cf. p. 87, note 3.) 
M. Claudin suggests that this book was published in 1500. 

* Facsimile in Claudin, ii, 223. He says the same cuts had appeared in an edition 
of V6rard*s, 1488. 

I S3 


P R (head of Priambule du livn). 

.'. Found also in ^inte Curse^ Paris, 1530;' Gillcs, ModeraUurs des 

Belliqueuses Gaulles^ Paris, 1534; and 1544; all from the same block 

with cracks gradually developing. 

*9. Man, with shaven crown, and nimbus, seated at desk in 

From UEguyllon de Crainte divine^ Virard, 1492.' — H. Headpiece and Tail- 
piece to the CodiciUe et testament de maistre yehan de Meung^ following 
the text of the Roman de la Rose. 

^ Facsimile in Leighton's Catalogue, Part II, p. 412. 
* Facsimile in Claudin, II, p. 442. 




Each cut of a serin i> aumbered nith the^umbcr of the lint, or moat appropriate, Vertt-Title to which it ii ttMd 
in the earliest edition nk«re its series appean. B sets the order tor Series L. ii (used also in C D P G), E and R for 
V.i. and V.ii. respeairely (both used again in P), and Q for P.V.i. {used also in R) and P.V.ii, (used in S), Id the 
case of P, the souice is marked by the letter denoting the earlier edition from which each cut ii taken. EatraneoiM 
cuts, not belonging to any of the special series, are marked thus : + appropriate, x inappropriate, m MaliieiMi. 


i 1 

! « 

i J 

i 4 

! 6 

« 7 

i 8 

i 9 


i 1 1 luitf ' 















C. M 








I K L M N 















» - 








14 E 


18 B 
10 H 




































4 - 

5 - 

6 - 


9 - 

■J - 


14 - 

17 - 

18 - 

19 - 

20 - 

: z z r I 











_ _ _ _ _ 


2 If 11 — 1 













11 - 

13 - 

14 - 


X E 

13 H 

14 H 




' In tome copies 48. 

' Same « utcd to ^ 3$ in H. 

' No Verse-Title. 

* 17 in Q R S was no doubt designed for f xo. 





C. M. 










H I 

K L M N 





§ *5 









26 - 

37 H 









— f 












X — 

46 H 




- §«9 









29 H 










— — 










— — 

112 E 









— — 

12 H 












29 — 

29 H 








— — 













+ <WX 

mx mx + mx mx 











— — 

— _ — — — 

24 H 













— — — — — 

37 H 












38 - 

— — — — — 













39 — 

— _i_ — — — 

39 H 











— — — — — 

40 H 












4' — 

— — — — — 

41 E 


— • 










— — — — — 

42 E 











43 — 

52 H 




§44 . 









XX — — — 



$ 44 state * 






— — — — — 










45 — 

— — — — — 

45 H 










46 - 

— — — — — 

50 H 











47 — 

— — — — — 

47 H 










48 - 

— — — — — 

48 H 










49 — 

— — — — — 











50 — 

— — — — — 

29 H 










X — 

— — — — — 

29 H 










5« — 

m+ m+ — — — 













53 — 

— — — — — 

53 H 











54 — 

«r+ «r+ — — — 

54 H 











55 — 

— — — — — 













56 - 

56 H 












57 — 

— — -^ — — 













58 - 












59 — 

+ + — — — 













60 — 

60 H 
















6s — 

... — ..i^ — — 

62 H 











63 - 

X X — — — 

63 H 



S 63 i«»/* * 











64 - 

64 H 












65 - 

— — — — — 

65 H 



— — — — — 










67 - 

^ — — — — 

67 H 











68 — 

— — — — — 

68 H 


^ Inappropriate cut not found in Q^ though belonging to Series P.V.i. 

' Verse-Title added by Clement Marot. ' Cut used in Qjis Printer's Device at end. 


* No Verse-Title. 


i 69 

« 71 

* 7« 

* 73 
« 74 

* 7$ 

* 76 

* 77 

* 78 

5 79 
^ 80 

* 81 

* 8« 

* 83 
§ 84 

* 8s 
$ 86 

S 87 
$ 88 

§ 89 

§ 90 

5 9» 

5 9» 

5 93 

f 94 

S 9S 

5 9« 

5 97 

« 98 

i 99 
§ 100 

i lot 

f loa 

* 103 

* 104 

f 104 /mm' 

♦ 105 
^ 106 

* 107 

^ 107 /«<*• 
i 108 
S 109 
$ no 

f IIS 

* lis* 

A B C D E P G 










7« 7> 

72 7a 

73 73 

74 74 

75 75 

76 76 

77 77 

78 78 

79 79 







H I K L M N 



+ «+ — — 
-•• X — — 

82 8a 82 82 X 82 82 
62 83 83 83 X 83 83 
84 84 84 84 X 84 84 



XX — — 

X X 

Wa P^» Ka 


103 — 

71 H 

72 H 

74 H 


76 H 

77 H 









87 87 

88 88 
88 88 
90 90 







X mx X X 

XI — 

4IH — 
112 I 112 

82 H 

83 H 

84 H 


92 92 

93 93 

94 94 

96 96 


92 92 

93 63 

94 94 

96 103 




101 101 101 101 X 

102 102 102 102 + 

103 103 103 103 X 




102 102,102 — «»+ «»+ — — — 

103 103 103 

105 105 105 105 X 105 103 

106 106 106 106 X 106 106 


— MX mx — — — 

90H 90 

93 M 

95 H 





— mx mx — — — 

— X X — — — 

109 109 109 109 X 109 109109 
no no no no x no nono 
ni ni ni ni x ni in ni 
n2 n2 n2 n2 112 n2 n2 n2 

' Vertc-TiUe addea hy Cl^meat Maroc. * 

' Cdopboo. In Qjtkc cat b oDly iited tt tke Printet^i Device. 



ni N 
n2 I 




No Vene-Tide. 



112 112 
55 — 




3$ — 

101 H 




102 H 




103 N 







— — 

10$ H 








35 — 35 





!r HE illustrations in V^rard's edition, X, are the same 
as in the V^rard Quarto, H; those in Balsarin's 
edition, Y, are (with the exception of two) re- 
cuttings of the second Lyons Series (L.ii). The 
numbers, § i, § 2, etc., refer to the order of the 
illustrations in the original poem and of the Verse-Titles they 
illustrate. Where such a number appears in brackets after the 
chapter-number, it indicates that the chapter-beginning coincides 
exactly, or nearly, with the sedion-beginning; and the addition 
of the number M. 11, etc, indicates the same with regard to sedion- 
beginnings in M6on (Bibl. Elzevir.), which occur where there 
are no Verse-Titles in the early editions. Of the cuts in H, three 
are missing in X, viz. §§ 22, 23, 26. Of the series L.ii, twenty are 
missing in Y, viz. §§ i, 2, 6, 8, 11, 12, 13, 18, 23, 26, 28, 34, 41, 
48, 49, 50, 52, 55, 82, 83. Of the complete series of illustrations 
only two are missing in both X and Y. Those missing in Y but 
found in X are marked (x), and the single illustration, § 22, miss- 
ing in X but found in Y, as well as one other, § 32, found in Y, but 
missing from both X and H, is marked (v) } 

' For the reuon of the absence of thii itliutnitioii in the Seriet Vii, lec p. 86, note t. 


Cap. in MoUoet 

I «1) 

— (Morilit^) 

II (M. u) 






X. Venrd. 

f I Sleeper (x). 

f 14 Amours panuing I'Amant. 
f 57 Crowning first king. 

§ 2 Haine (x). 


- (§ i») 


f 3 Felonnie. 
i 4 Villcnie. 
S 5 Couvoidse. 
f 6 Avarice. 
S 7 Envie. 
S 8 Tristesse (x). 

§ 9 Vicllesse. 
i 10 Papelardie. 
§ 1 1 Povrct^ (x). 

( 1 2 Oiseuse with key (x). 
§ 1 3 La Carole (x). 

§14 Amours pursuing I'Amant. 

11 ;s 

§ 1 3 La Carole. 

§14 Amours pursuing I'Amant. 
§15 Narcissus. 

Y. Bmlurin. 

f 79 La Vielle and I'Amant. 

§14 Amours pursuing I'Anunt. 
S 57 Crowning first king. 
Woman under frame of taber- 
f 4 Villenie. 

f 3 Felonnie. 

§ $ Couvoitise. 

\ 6 Avarice.* 

§ 7 Envie. 

Woman under frame of taber- 
nacle work.^ 

i 9 Viellesse. 

f 10 Papelardie. 

f 67 Faulz-Semblant & Abstin- 

i 19 Amours with key. 

§22 Bel Acueil admits I'Am- 
ant (t). 

f 14 Amours pursuing I'Amant. 

Z. Le Noir. 

Man in bed ; king holding 

Man and Queen in garden. 

Four women, three-quarter 
length. (Portion of a 
border from V^rard's 
^ Hemres R$jmUs. Pacs. 
in Claudin, ii. p. 402.) 

§15 Narcissus. 

f 17 L'Amant surrenders. 

\ 16 (Same as f 14). 

f 18 L'Amant does homage (x). 

f 22 Bel Acueil admits I'Am- 
ant (y). 
§ 14 Amours pursuing I'Amant. 
f 15 Narcissus. 

Voluptas." (From Nifilis 
Ftllesj Paris, 1501; a 
recutting from the edi- 
tion of G. de Mame^ 
Paris, s. d.) 

(15 Narcissus, 
f 17 L'Amant surrenders. 
\ 16 (Same as( 14). 
\ 60 Amours lays hand on head 
of I'Amant. 

Young woman approach- 
ing young man seated 
by fountain. (A re- 

Man kneeling before king 
& queen.' 

' " La Berg^re," from the C9mp9st et KaUndriir des Bergiers. See Claudin, iii, 5 30, where a facsimile is 
given of this cut from that work. The illustrations, he says, are copied from those in Guy Marchant's editions, 
Paris, 1 49 1, etc. 

' Though the same subjed — ^a woman holding scales — this cut is not a recatting from the Lyons cat. 

' Also in Um9M de B^rdeatiXf 151 3, f. czii; but from ? * ■ 


Cap. in Molinet. 











XXI (i 35) 

XXII ft 36) 



xxvm (i 38) 
- (« 39) 







X. Verard. 


XXXVI (i 45) 

XXXVII (i 46) 

- « 49) 

§19 Amours locks heart of 

§ 20 Amours instruds I'Amant. 
§ 24 Rayson descends from 

§72 Faulx-Semblant & three 

§10$ Genyus preaching. 
§ 29 Pi ti^y Franchise &Dangier. 
f 24 Rayson descends from 

§33 (Same as f 29). 
§ 68 Faulx-Semblant & Male- 

f 93 Assault on Castle. 

§3; Jean de M^un.' 

f 12 Oiseuse with key (z). 
§ 36 (Same as $ 24). 
$ 40 Fortune's wheel. 
\ 48 The open coffer (x). 
§83 Barons come to help 

TAmant (x). 
$71 Tongue cut out. 
f 38 Virginias' daughter, 
f 39 Virginius with the head. 
J 56 Jason's voyage. 
\ 40 Fortune's wheel. 
$ 41 Nero's dissection (x). 
i 42 Nero & Seneca. 
§ 44 Phanye. 

§ 43 Nero's death (x). 

$ 106 Ploughing. 

§105 Genyus preaching. 

f 37 Needy and true friend. 
$ 46 L'Amant kneels to Amys. 
\ 45 Rayson departs. 
f 49 In olden times (z). 

Y. Balsar'm. 

§19 Amours locks heart of 

§ 20 Amours instruds I'Amant. 
§ 24 Rayson descends from 

f 72 Faulx-Semblant & three 

§10$ Genyus preaching. 
29 Piti^ Franchise & Dangier. 
24 Rayson descends from 

33 (Same as § 29.) 
68 Faulz-Semblant & Male- 

93 Assault on Castle. 

35 Jean de M^un. 

36 ^Same as $ 24). 

36 (S-ime as $ 24). 
40 Fortune's wheel. 

37 Needy & true friend. 
62 Amours sunimons his host. 

71 Tongue cut out. 

38 Virginius' daughter. 

39 Virginius with the head. 
56 Jason's voyage. 

40 Fortune's wheel. 
109 Pygmalion carving. 
42 Nero & Seneca. 
44 Phanye. 

42 Nero & Seneca. 

106 Ploughing. 

105 Genyus preaching. 

37 Needy and true friend. 
46 L'Amant kneels to Amys. 

38 Virginius' daughter. 

6*/ Faulz-Semblant & Abstin- 

Z. Le Noir. 

Queen & man sitting; 

others in distance.^ 
Three queens approach 

man sitting. 
Solomon adoring idol.' 

^ Also in Hm^h ie B9rdeaux^ 151 3> ^* czl v®; but from ? 
' From Livre des Promffitx Champestres^ i486. 
^'^Iso in Hu9n de Bordeaux^ 151 3* f* czzi; but from ? 
• Ihid,^ f. vii. 

Knight before castle ; 

queen looking over. 
King kneeling before man 

holding bookyin church.^ 

Huon borne by Griffin.* 

Man addressing king ; 

others by.* 
Man reading at table; 

two others standing in 


Christ preaching from 

Musicians outside castle. 

' From Mathhius. 

' Ihid^t f. ciiii. 


Cip. in Molinet. 

XXXIX (i 50) 

- » 50 

- (« 5») 








- (« 56) 

- (* 57 
XLVII ($58; 

XLVIII (§ 60; 
XLIX h 6a 


LII (i 64) 

LIII tt 65) 

X* venrd* 





- (* 73) 
LVII (nearly 

LVIII (nearly 





f ;o Le Jaloox chides his wife (x). 

§51 Woman introdacing boy.^ 
f 52 Death of Lucr^e (x). 
§ 77 Mars and Venus. 
$103 Nature and Genyus. 
I 59 L'Amant & Richesse. 
$53 Chastet^ beaten. 
\ 54 Delilah & Samson, 
f 5 5 Le Jalouz beats his wife (x). 
^ 50 Le Jalouz chides his 

wife (x). 
f 56 Jason's voyage, 
f 57 Crowning first king. 
f 59 L'Amant & Richesse. 

f 60 Amours consoles I'Amant. 

\ 6z Amours summons his host. 

$ 58 L'Amant leaves Amys. 

$ 63 Amours dire6b his host. 

\ 64 Faulz-Semblant's hom- 

f 65 Faulx-Semblant changes 

f 67 Faulx-Semblant & Abstin- 

f 68 Faulx-Semblant & Male- 

f 71 Tongue cut out. 

f 72 Faulz-Semblant & three 

f 74 The wreath, 
f 73 La Vielle & Bel-acueil. 
$75 The Lesson. 

$75 The Lesson. 

i 76 Dido, Phyllis, Medea. 
§ 59 L'Ainant & Richesse. 

§56 Jason's voyage. 

$ 73 La Vielle & Bel-Acueil. 

$77 Mars and Venus. 

f 47 Richesse & Povret^. 

Y. Baltaria. 

f 32 Jalousie chides Bel-Acueil(T). 

f 29 Piti^ Franchise, Dangier. 

f 3 Felonnie. 

f 77 Mars and Venus. 

f 103 Nature and Genyus. 

f 59 L'Amant & Richesse. 

f 53 Chastet^ beaten. 

f 54 Delilah Se Samson. 

f 79 La Vielle admits I'Amant. 

\ 45 Rayson departs. 

f 56 Jason's voyage. 

f 57 Crowning first king. 

S 59 L'Amant & Richesse 

f 60 Amours consoles I'Amant. 

i 62 Amours summons his host. 

$58 L'Amant leaves Amys. 

S 63 Amours direds his host. 

f 68 Faulz-Semblant & Male- 

$65 Faulx-Semblant changes 

f 67 Faulz-Semblant & Abstin- 

f 68 Faulz-Semblant & Male- 

f 68 Faulz-Semblant & Male- 

§ 71 Tongue cut out. 

^72 Faulz-Semblant & three 

S 74 The wreath. 

f73 La Vielle & Bel-Acueil. 

^75 The Lesson. 

f 75 The Lesson. 

f 76 Dido, Phyllis, ?^edea. 
^ 59 L'Amant & Richesse. 

f 56 Jason's voyage. 

i 73 La Vielle & Bel-Acueil. 

^77 Mars and Venus. 

\ 47 Richesse & Povret^. 

Z. UNoir. 

Man in tree playing bag- 
pipe : four figures below. 

Man kneeling before king 
and queen (as Cap. XI). 

Man & queen in garden 
(as Cap. II). 

Attack on town (as Kf 93).' 
Solomon adoring idol ' (as 
Cap. XV). 

Dido (as K L $ 76).' 
Knight, dismounted, greet- 
ing lady.^ 
Huon and Mallebron.' 

^ As used in H, but not belonging to Series V.ii. 

' From Mathhius. 

' From Hu9n it Btrdesux^ 1 5 1 3, f. zzvii. 


' Also in Hu§i$ ie Btdiaux^ i $ 1 3, f. Izzziii. 
^ Also in Hn9n de Bordeaux^ 1 5 1 3, f. Ixx. 

Cap. In MoUact 

X. Vertrd. 

Y. Baliarin. 

Z. LeNoir. 

LXV ft 78) 

5 78 Power of Ntture. 

i 78 Power of Nature. 


f 65 Faulx-Semblant change* 

f 65 Faulz-Semblant changes 




f 64 Faalz-Semblant't homage. 

( 64 Faulx-Semblant's homage. 


^ 78 Power of Nature. 

J 78 Power of Nature. 


$ 106 Ploughing. 

f 106 Ploughing. 


f $0 LeJaIouxchideshuwife(xV 
\ 50 Lejaloux chides hi* wife (x). 

S 29 Pid^ Franchise, Dangier. 


S 29 Pitid, Franchise, Dangier. 


f 75 The Leaion. 

$75 The Lesson. 

LXXIII (i 79) 

^ 79 La Vielle and I'Anunt 

f 79 La Vielle and I'Amant. 

LXXIV ($8z) 
— « 83) 

\ St Dangierattacksl'Amant(x). 

f 88 Dame Honte overthrown. 

§ 83 Thebaron«cometohelp(x). 

f 62 Amours summons his host. 

Soldiers outside stockaded 

camp (as K L $ 83). 

LXXV ($84) 
LXXVI (i 87) 

f 84 Rabbit-hunting. 

f 84 Rabbit-hunting. 

f 87 Franchise fights with Dan- 

f 87 Franchise fights with Dan- 



= n 

§ 88 Dame Honte overthrown. 

f 88 Dame Honte overthrown. 

$ 53 Chastet^ beaten. 

$ 53 Chastetd beaten. 

LXXVII ft 90) 

\ 90 Messengers to Venus. 

f 90 Messengers to Venus. 


f 92 Venus' chariot. 

\ 92 Venus' chariot. 

- ft 93) 

f 93 Assault on Castle. 

f 93 Assault on Castle. 

Atuck on town; as Cap. 
LI, (and K, § 93.) 

LXXIX ft 94) 

f 94 Nature forging. 

f 94 Nature forging. 


S 95 Zeuzis. 

f 95 Zeuzis. 


f 96 Nature at confession. 

f 96 Nature at confession. 

i 77 Mars and Venus. 

i 77 Mars and Venus. 

LXXXII ft 98) 

i 67 Faulz Semblant & Abstin- 

f 67 Faulz-Semblant & Abstin- 




f 96 Nature at confession. 

f 96 Nature at confession. 


f 94 Nature forging. 

f 94 Nature forging. 

- ftioi) 

f loi Deucalion & Pyrrha. 

i loi Deucalion & Pyrrha. 

f 15 Narcissus. 

i 15 Narcissus. 


i 74 The wreath. 

( 74 The wreath. 


f 17 L'Amant surrenders. 

) 17 L'Amant surrenders. 



f 102 Gentles & labourers. 

f 102 Gentles & labourers. 

f 92 Venus* chariot. 

f 92 Venus' chariot. 


f 82 DangierattacksrAmant(x). 

$ 53 Chastetd beaten. 

XCI ft 103J 

f 103 Nature and Genyus. 

f 103 Nature & Genyus. 

f 105 Genyus preaching. 

(105 Genyus preaching. 


f 63 Amours direds his host. 

f 63 Amours dire6b his host. 


^72 Faulz-Semblant & three 

f 72 Faulz-Semblant & three 




f 49 In olden times (x). 

i 67 Faulz-Semblant & Abstin- 


§ 78 Power of Nature. 

i 78 Power of Nature. 

XCVI ft 107) 

f 28 ^ Man addressing High 
Priest (x). 

f 46 L'Amant kneels to Amys. 

^ Same as $ 28 in H, but not belonging to Series V.ii. 


Cap. in Molinet 

X. Venrd. 

Y. Balsarin. 

Z. LeNoir. 


$ 1 2 Oiseuse with key (x). 

$ 32 Jalousie chides Bel- 
Acueil (t). 

Young woman approach- 
ing young man at fount- 
ain (as Cap. VII). 


f 15 Narcissas. 

$15 Narcissus. 


f 105 Genyus preaching. 

$ 105 Genyus preaching. 

c {S 

1 08^ 

i 93 Assault on Castle. 

$ 93 Assault on Castle. 

CI « 


f 109 Pygmalion carving. 

$ 109 Pygmahon carving. 

- tt 


f no Pygmalion kneeling. 

f 1 10 Pygmalion kneeling. 


i 44 Phanye. 

f 44 Phanye. 


§ 1 1 1 The Joust. 

$ 1 1 1 The Joust. 


§ 68 Faulz-Semblant & Male- 

$ 68 Faulz-Semblant Sc Male- 


§ 79 La Vielle & I'Amant. 

§ 79 La Vielle & TAmant. 


i 72 Faulz-Semblant & three 

f 72 Faulz-Semblant & three 


§ 1 1 2 L'Amant gathers rose. 

§112 L'Amant gathers rose. 




145 17 



HS » 



(ONSIDERING the enormous number of manu- 
scripts of the Roman de la Rose — many of them of 
! the fifteenth century, some even contemporary with 
the earlier of the printed editions — it seems at first 
surprising to find that all these (the printed editions) 
derive from one original text; that each succeeding edition of the 
whole fourteen was printed from its predecessor, in an almost un- 
broken continuity; and that none of the occasional alterations, 
until the wholesale revision of Clement Marot, appear to be drawn 
from any manuscript authority.^ The prose version of Molinet 
was undoubtedly made from a manuscript, and betrays no acquaint- 
ance with the printed text; but I shall show presently that this 
, version was made at a much earlier date than has been generally 
supposed, hardly, if at all later than the earliest printed edition.'' Had 
it been made as late as 1500 — the date universally, but erroneously, 
ascribed to it — we may feel perfectly sure that it would have been 
drawn from a printed and not a manuscript text. When we come to 
Clement Marot's Recension, there are indeed scanty traces — few 

' For the possible exception of Du Pri, sec ^f(, p. 155. 

* The First Folio is dated, conjeflurally, " circa 1481." Molinet made his version 
certainly in 1482. 


and far between — of reference to manuscript authority ; but it is 
plain that for him, as for everyone, the printed text had become 
the authoritative — vv^e may almost say the authorized — ^version. A 
moment's refledtion will show that this was as natural as it was 
inevitable. Not only were the manuscripts — even the most modern, 
how much more the earlier — full of archaisms and obsolete words 
and disused terms of speech, and therefore unattradtive or even 
unintelligible to the enlarged world of readers which the printed 
book at once created and supplied, but they all varied. It was a rare 
event to find two copies which gave the same text, or even the same 
number of lines. The moment the printed text appeared, this state of 
things was altered. All copies were identically the same ; even in 
different editions the differences were minute and inconspicuous. 
It was, as I said, inevitable that the printed text should at once take, 
and hold, the field, as the familiar and therefore standard version. 
It is clear also, I think, that the text of the First Folio, from 
which all the editions were derived, was itself a new text, a 
modernization made with a view to a new class of readers, quite 
as distindt and intentional as the later modernization by Clement 
Marot, and carried out with some scholarly method and literary 
taste, albeit the name of the reviser is quite unknown. This text 
then, though only of second-hand value as a help towards a 
critical edition of the original poem, has a certain importance and 
interest of its own. It is itself a poem which delighted and influ- 
enced several generations of readers, for whom was thus made alive 
and adtive what would otherwise have had merely an antiquarian 
or scholastic interest. It is like a church of the earliest architedhire, 
which has not been kept primitive, dark, and integral, but has 
been altered by succeeding generations to suit their real vital needs, 
or perhaps their developments of taste and liking; or we may com- 
pare such a modernization to a present-day adtor's version of 
Shakespeare or Marlowe, in which the author is, so to say, given 
a new incarnation as a dramatist of the present instead of the past. 
How completely the printed text supplanted the manuscript versions 
is snown incidentally by the fad that manuscript copies were 


aSually transcribed from printed. The text of the magnificent MS. 
in the British Museum, Harley 4425, whose splendid illuminations 
have been more than once drawn upon as illustrations of costume 
and other things, is derived from the Third Folio, Le Roy's. 

I have not been able to make any real examination of the 
MSS., though I have looked at a considerable number, and noted 
certain special points.* And unfortunately I am obliged to write 
this before the appearance of M. Langlois' long expeded edition, 
in which I understand the relation of the early printed editions to 
the manuscripts will be discussed. But as far as I have been able 
to discover, no manuscript copy (except Harley 4425), agrees with 
the early printed text; which I have therefore concluded, as I 
said above, to have been constituted specially for the First Folio. 
A further very attraiftive conclusion is borne out by all the MSS. I 
have seen, viz., that the verse-titles found in the printed editions 
were cast into this form specially for the First Folio.'* 

There was no wholesale attempt to revise the text of the 
printed editions till Clement Marot's, but from time to time 
alterations were made which divide the fourteen editions of the 
prs-Marotian text into well-marked groups. The first is the group 
of the three Lyons Folios, which pra(5tically present the same 
readings, although the thiid, Le Roy, has made considerable 
efforts to correal misprints, and has even introduced two of the 
three separate missing lines (see p. 153 pott). After these, three 
editions seem to have been critically or intelligently edited, viz.. 
Folio IV, Du Pr^, which is the parent of all succeeding: Verard's 
Quarto, which introduces ingenious readings of its own, but is 
followed by none of the others: and Folio VII, which is followed 
exactly, except for misprints and misunderstandings, by the six 
later Quartos. Thus the whole of the fourteen editions may be 
arranged as follows: a horizontal arrow representing exa<5l or nearly 

^ I have bad in my hands all those in the British Museum, Bodleian, Mus^e 
Cond^ Biblioth^ue dc I'Arscnal, and a certain number of the immense quantity — 67 
in Paulin Paris' list — in the Biblioth^ue Nationale, besides others. 

' See pp. 97, 98. 


exadt copying; a sloping arrow, copying with some corrcftions or 
differences; a perpendicular arrow, copying with alterations as well 
as corredtions. 




I I 

H G->I->K-^L 

The first point noticeable about the text of the First Folio is 
that it is eminently readable, as readable, in fadt, as our extant text 
of Homer, which is probably at least as far removed from the 
original. Had we no MS. at all — ^instead of hundreds — the Roman 
de la Rose would still survive as an intelligible and interesting poem 
in the printed editions, or at least in the best of them. In fadt, 
when the poem was first revived in modern days, the text 
printed was almost exadtly that of one of the printed editions, and 
not of the earliest.^ To secure this readability, two kinds of 
alterations were necessary, first the modernization of archaic 
forms — in particular of those due to the now defundt system of 
declension — and replacing of obsolete words; and secondly, a 
compensatory repairing of the metre, where cither the alterations 
had injured it, or a change in pronunciation had affedted the num* 
ber of syllables in a word or line. Such changes as these occur 
almost every other line; and a comparison with the text as printed 
by M6on shows that they were as a rule simply and intelligently 
made. Of course, in addition to these intentional alterations, there 
is a certain number of divergences from Meon's text, which are 
due to different readings ; and no doubt when the MSS. are grouped 
and tabulated, it will be possible to assign the text of the First 

^ The edition of Lenglet Du Fresnojr, printed in 1735, though professing to have 
been founded upon several MSS., is in fadl an almost verbatim reprint of V6rard's 
Quarto (see pp. 187 et seq,). 


Folio to some particular group. It seems likely that it was an 
early, or at least a pure, text that was taken in hand for this revision, 
as comparatively few of the interpolations common in the later 
MSS. are found in the printed editions. In Molinet, on the other 
hand, the interpolations are numerous and often lengthy. There 
is, however, one notable interpolation to which Meon makes no 
allusion, which occurs in the printed texts as well as in Molinet. It 
is inserted after line 9538 (B. E.), and consists of 32 lines — six of 
which are a Verse-Title (§ 54) with an illustration — amplifying the 
stories of Hercules and of Samson. I cannot discover that these 
lines have any manuscript authority, otherwise they might easily 
pass as an addition of the author's own ; several of them have a 
true Jean de Meun ring about them» especially the four immedi* 
ately before the Verse-Title ; and as they are not printed even in the 
notes of the current editions, I give them in full from Folio I, 
sign, k^, coL 2. 

Mais dyanira par enujre 

Tendoit a lujr toUir la vie 

Pource qune aultre ayme auoit 

Si quainsi vengier sen vouloit 

Car mains breuuaiges luy donna 

£t sa char toute empoisonna 

Par sa tres mauuaise malice 

Si la creut comme fol et nice 

Mais nulz horns ne se peut par mame 

Gueter dune mauuaise femme 

Quant il y a son cueur boute 

Mains en sont mors en grant vilte 

Comment dalida en dormant 
A Sanson qui laymoit fbrment 
Coppa par faulse trayson 
' Ses cheueulx quant en son giron 
Le fit coucher pour endormir 
Dont apres len conuint gemir 
Aussi es escrips anciens * 

^ Better sense would be given by the singular^ em tescript ancieHy which was probably 
changed when It phiUstUn was turned into Us philistiins. This points to some 
antiquity in the passage. Such changes abound in the printed text. 


On lit que les pfailistiens 
Ne pouoient vaincre sanson 
Par bataille ne par tenson 
Quant sa femme le fit dormir 
£n son giron si que a loisir 
Li coppa trestous ses cheueulx 
Dont dommaige sourdit pour eulx 
£t fiit prins de ses ennemis 
De toute sa force desmis 
£t luy creuerent les deux yeulx 
Dont elle ne valut pas mieulx 
L 9539 B.£. Ainsi sanson qui pas dix hommes 

Ne redoubloit ne que dix pommes 
Sil eust ses cheueulx tous euz 
Fut par sa femme moult deceuz.^ 

The total number of lines in Folio I, counting in the Verse- 
Titles, is 22,541; the uneven number being due to the accidental 
omission of single lines in three places. Adding these, the total 
intended would be 22,544. The number of lines in the BibL Elzev. 
edition, where the Verse-Titles are also included, is 22,608; or 
without the added 28 lines at the end (which are not found in the 
printed texts, or in most MSS.), 22,580; and if we also omit 48 lines 
of extra or enlarged Verse-Titles,* not found in the early printed 
text, the total is almost the same as in the First Folio, 22,532 as 
against 22,544. Though this is a somewhat deceptive appearance 
of conformity, there being many lines and passages not common to 
both, it seems to show at all events that the text of the first printed 
edition was derived from a fairly pure, if not early MS., written 
while there was some sort of standard of length for the poem, 
and before the wholesale interpolations and additions, introduced 
especially in the fifteenth century.' 

^ ^^ Fu par Dalida deceus ^ (Mion) ; moult inserted to compensate for loss of a 
syllable in the pronunciation of deaus. 

* The omission of these, which are all in the G. de Lorris portion of the poem, 
brings the length of that part in Mion's edition (Bibl. £kev«} to precisely the same 
as in the First Folio, viz. 4,154 lines. 

' Till, however, a critical text appears, it is impossible to say what the length of 
the original poem was. M6on himself was no doubt influenced in his idea of it by the 
standard of the printed text. 


The First Folio is, on the whole, remarkably free from mis- 
prints ; the Second shows more. In the Third there are signs of 
intentional corredtion of some of those in the First and Second ; 
but others spring up in other places.^ In three places single lines 
are omitted accidentally in the First and Second Folios : 

1 . Car il convient amour mourir 

9,780 B.£. ^ant amant vuelent seignorir [omitted]. 

for which Folio III (Le Roy) supplies the evidently made* 
up line, ^i ne la viendra secourir^ adopted by all succeeding 
editions, and even by Clement Marot. 

2. ^tt/ pour mot est en grant esueil 

1 1,208 B.E. ^ant el ne vuet ce que ge veil [omitted]. 

Folio III (Le Roy) again supplies a makeshift: Et pour 
moy souffre grant traueil^ which is adopted by all succeeding, 
including Clement Marot. 

3. 1. 16,953 B.E. Sljfil ot escrites en son livre [omitted] 

Si cum Nature les li livre. 

This line is omitted by all succeeding editions, except 
V^rard*s Quarto, which supplies a makeshift, but following 
instead of preceding the second line of the pair : Pour con- 
uenir a mieulx dire? Clement Marot apparently made one of 
his rare recourses to a MS. authority, as he prints, in the right 
place : ^i estoient escriptes en son livre. In all three cases 
Molinet follows the MS. reading. 

^ An obvious printer's error of the Second Folio remains uncorrected in the three 
succeeding. This is the repeating of the last line of ^ gathering '* h, Comme le racompte 
boesse (in the repetition, boece\ as the first line of ^ gathering ^ i. The error remained 
uncorrected, until the Sixth Folio, bjr altering the number of lines in a page, changed 
the position of this line in the column. (The line is the second of a pair interpolated 
after 1. 9,528 B.E.) 

* Du Fresnoy, 1735, whose text is almost exaCUy that of Vjrard's Quarto, has 
here supplied the line in its right place thus, ^i/V/r ont escriptes en son livrcy apparently 
from a MS. ; but possibly only a conjectural emendation of Marot's line. 

A curious instance of a corredtion by Fol. Ill, introducing a 
misreading, is found after line 20,178, where the three first Folios 
have a single-line Heading, which in the First and Second is acci- 
dentally printed as if it were a line of the poem. This mistake 
was perceived and corredted by the Third Folio, but the misread- 
ing bailla a genius is introduced, instead of habilla genius. Du Pr6 
(Fol. IV), omitted the Heading altogether, and so do the three re- 
maining Folios, and all the Quartos. Clement Marot had evidently 
Fol. Ill before him, and amplifies the single-line Heading into four 
lines of verse. (See § 1 04 suite^ p. 1 27.) 

In line 2,2 1 2 we have a case where only Fol. I has the right 
reading, and one which shows, beyond a doubt, the relations of 
the first three Folios one to another^ The MS. reading as printed 
by M6on, runs: 

Car qui him entent it tsgardi. 

Fol. I prints : 

Car qui entent Hen et rtgardi. 

Fol. II prints Par for Car-^ and Fol. Ill follows, but prints entes 
for entent. The Du Pr6 editor (Fol. IV) apparently found this 
difficult or unintelligible, and boldly alters the line thus : 

Car se lorgUiilUwt se ngarde^ 

and this is followed by all succeeding editions; till Clement Marot, 
descending a step further in banality, changed it to: 

Et a a fain Hen regardi. 

Molinet evidently, as usual, had the MS. reading before him. 

In the table of Verse-Titles (p. loi^et sq.)^ are noted several 
instances where the First Folio, sometimes alone, sometimes followed 
by one or both the others, has the right reading, which the Paris 

* Is this a mere misprint, or is Par here equivalent to Por {pour) ? (The two 
words are much confused in MSS., the same abbreviation p doing duty for both.) The 
modem French rendering in the BibL Elsev. edition is, curiously enough. 

Pour qui Hen intend et regarde. 


.1 ..... 

editions altered. The most important case is in § 53, where the 
reading Venus of the First and Second Folios has been changed 
into vertus; this absurd reading — which makes nonsense — actually 
subsisting into all the modern texts, including that in the 
Bibliotheque Elzevirienne. Other instances will be found in § 16, 
§ 47, § 67, § 108. In § 92 the reading of the first three Folios is 
six; but as in the illustrations the number of doves is represented 
as eight, it was very naturally altered by Du Pre. 

The alterations introduced by Du Pre had clearly only one 
obje6t in view, to make the poem more readable. No glimmering 
dream of such a notion as a critical text appears to have entered 
the head of any editor or publisher of the poem. It would be 
natural to suppose that Du Pre's editor would have had occasional 
recourse for a reading to the manuscript authority which he must 
obviously have employed for the interpolation of 104 lines, begin- 
ning fol. d viii, col. 2.^ But, besides the line or two immediately fol- 
lowing this interpolation, I have only come across one instance in 
which he seems possibly to have used it to correct the printed text 
he was copying. This is line 22,206 ^;7 me greueroit mains deux 
Hues, where the three first Folios had printed ne for me, and liures 

' Following line 4636, B. £. These interpolated lines occur in all subsequent 
editions of the original text, but not in the first edition of the Recension of Clement 
Marot, nor in the third, R, which was printed from it. In the second, however, Q 
(which is followed also by SJ the interpolation is printed almost exadlly as it appeared 
in the last of the Quartos, O, and with praflically no "editing," except the corrcflion 
of enserre to enserre% in line 59. This certainly looks as if the introdudlion had been 
made by the printer or publisher, without any reference to Clement Marot. The 
special points which show it to have been copied from O are (l) in line 32 bien tn for 
dicu en (O's exemplar, N, had dim only); (2) in line 43 Damour for Samour (common 
to both N and O); (3) in line 73 driit for dsrl, where O's exemplar, N, had the mere 
printer's transposition drol. The Bibl. Elzev. prints the interpolated lines in a note 
only. M^on had printed them in the text, but condemned them, as not having found 
them " dans Ics plus anciens manuscrits," He has one more line than the early printed 
editions, following line 7 of the interpolation : 

Amors ettfart, Amers ist dure^ 

which makes the number of lines uneven. 

for Hues} But this might easily be nothing but a conjedture more 
felicitous than usual, the rime-word of the preceding line, riues^ 
suggesting an obvious corredtion. He has not corredted the three 
makeshift lines mentioned above, supplied in three places by the 
Third Folio; and most of his corredtions are clearly his own, a 
striking instance being in the Verse-Title § loo (see p. 126).^ 

With these slight exceptions, I have found no signs of recourse 
to manuscript authority in any of the editions before Marot's. Nor 
do any of the texts call for much remark. The editor of V^rard's 
Quarto was plainly a clever man, and his corredtions, though 
without authority, are ingenious and intelligent. But in the six 
cheap Quartos the readings degenerate in exadtness and even 
grammatical possibility, till in many cases they defy scholarship to 
give account of. It must be presumed that the poem found readers 
even in this state ; that they obtained some general idea of its drift, 
and were content with a certain percentage of grammatical expres- 
sion and clear meaning. And it is a remarkable fadt that in spite 
of the antiquated language, which made Galiot Du Pr6 lure 
Clement Marot into revising the text, two editions of the unrevised 
version were issued after the first appearance of the Recension.* 

^ The later editions followed Du Pr£, but liures springs up again in L M N O ; 
and Clement Marot, with C before him, prints the strange alteratioh : 

^uilz me greueroient moins deux liures. 

' Since this was in type I have noticed that in the first line of the passage printed 
on p. 172, where Du Pr6 departs from the earlier Folios, his reading is the same as 
Molinet's; and it may therefore be drawn from a MS. of the same type as that fol- 
lowed by the latter. It is possible that close study might bring to light other instances, 
but they must be rare. 

' The year beginning at Easter, the Quarto dated 7th February, 1526, is nearly 
ten months later than the issuing of the Privillgi to Galiot Du Pr<, dated 19th April, 
1526, ^^apres pasques^^ The undated Quarto of Alain Lotrian must be about two 
years later (see p. 56). 




— — ^^*HERE is nothing in Clement Marot's Prologue to 
indicate at what particular date he made this Re- 
cension; but it was evidently a bit of task-work, 
done, as M, Gaston Paris says, very hurriedly, and 
no doubt to earn money, since in the Privilege there 
is allusion to the expense incurred, tant a la correBion que r impression 
I duditl livre. Marot owns in the Prologue that he had undertaken 
I the work not of his own accord but at the request of Galiot Du 
\ Pre {the publisher); and the words apres avoir veu sa correSiion 
suggest that the latter had at all events begun such a work him- 
I self, which he submitted to the professional man of letters. All 
\ this points to the revision having been made immediately before 
I April, 1526, when the Privilege was granted; that is at the time 
when Marot was in prison under a charge of heresy. This lends 
piquancy to his implied blame of hereticques who speak evil of 
, the Virgin; and the sentence may have been introduced as a sort 
I of recantation, or at least as evidence of the writer's being a good 
I, Catholic. That he had some eye to the ecclesiastical or religious 
' world appears in his thinking it necessary to make a quasi-apology 
I for the poem, by maintaining that its author had certainly an 
allegorical intention. He makes no allusion to Molinet's inter- 
pretations; but suggests several mystical explanations of the "Rose" 

of his own. At the same time he bears witness to the great popu- 
larity of this "pleasant book," which he says all gens d^ esprit 
keep in the " uppermost nook " of their libraries. (The language 
used is too straightforward to bear any secondary suggestion be- 
sides that of doing honour to the book, tempting as it is to suspedt 
an Equivoque.) Perhaps because he was under a cloud at the time, 
Marot's name is nowhere mentioned in the work, and the attribu- 
tion of this Recension to him, though undoubted, seems to be tradi- 
tional or inferential.^ 

The text from which he worked was evidently that of the 
Third Folio, but he must have referred now and again to a manu- 
script. Thus he has reintroduced the four lines in the description 
of Courtoystey omitted in the earlier texts.^ Also in the somewhat 
confused passage, 4639-4642, B.E., immediately following the 
place where the Interpolation was introduced by Du Pr6, Marot 
seems to have corredted the text of the earlier Folios by the 
manuscript reading. On the other hand, of the single lines omitted, 
in three places by Folios I and II, he has only restored one from 
the manuscript, being contented with Le Roy's makeshift substitutes 
for the other two. But from his point of view there was little use 
in restoring manuscript readings. His work is merely a moderniza- 
tion, a rejuvenescence; his aim is simply to provide a text which 
the public of his own day would read, or at all events would buy. 
And the performance is rather a sorry one, unworthy as the work 
of any Poet, quite unworthy of the feme of Clement Marot him- 
self, exaggerated as that fame may seem to us. Throughout, the 
restorations or alterations show rather the task-work of a pradlised 
versifier than the revivifying touch of a living poet in sympathy 
with a dead poem. However, his efforts gave a new lease of life to 
the now obsolescent lo vers'-classic ; and to judge by the number of 

^ Pasquier refers to Marot's having made a Recension, but does not attach the 
mention to any edition. 

• Stt posty p. 170. — Evidence of his using Folio III is seen in § 35, § 104 suiu^ 
etc.; as wdl as in the fa6l that his first edition has not the interpolation introduced by 
Folio IV. 


copies still surviving of the four editions of it, there must have been 
a considerable demand for this Recension during the dozen years 
from 1526 to 1538.' 

The later editions of Clement Marot's Recension present no 
textual variations from the first, though there are small differences 
such as the correftion, or introduction, of misprints; except that 
both the second and fourth (the two small-8vo editions) contain 
the Interpolation introduced by Du Pre in the first Paris edition 
(see p. 155, note i). It was evidently introduced afresh by the 
printer, unrevised by Marot or anyone else; and is copied, mistakes 
and all, with hardly a variation, from Alain Lotrian's edition, which 
must have appeared just before. No doubt it is also to the printer 
of Q^(C. M. R. II.) that we must attribute the turning into verse 
of three Chapter-Headings which bad appeared as prose in Clement 
Marot's first edition: viz., § i (restored to its pre-Marotian shape): 
§ 12, which runs, 

Corament Oyscuse ouvrit la porte 

a Lamant, & puis sen deporte 

and also a new one, introduced ninety-eight lines after the last- 

Comment iamant parle a oyseuse 

Qui luy fut assez gracieusc. 

In all these points the fourth edition of Clement Marot's Recension 
exactly follows the second; while the third, being printed from 
the first, has neither the Interpolation nor the Verse-Titles. 

' Pasquier's remarks show that Marot's modernization did not approve itself to 
the best judgment even in those days. In his LttUrs, first published in 1586, i.e., 
some fifty or sixty years after this time, he says: "II n'y a homme doflc entre 
nous . . ■ qui n'embrasse le Romant de la Rose, tequel a la mienne volant^ que par 
une bigarrure de langage vieux et nouveau, Clement Marot n'eust voulu habilier a la 
moderne Ffan9oise." if(/r«. Book II, "a Monsieur Cujas." AsPasquier was only born 
in 1529, this letter must have been written a considerable time after the publication of 
the last of the early editions. It shows that the Reman de la Rote still had devoted 

liRaders, though apparently the number of "hommcs doiles" was not large enough to 

[ create a demand for new editions after 1538. 




HE date of this composition has been universally 
taken as 1500, and in the two verses which con- 
clude it the author certainly seems to intend this. 
These two verses, with a rough translation, will be 
found at the end of this section. They are not of 
any importance except for the mention of this date; but I have 
reproduced them so as to show exactly what they do say about it. 
Did this date, however, really refer to the writing of the book, it 
would be a most remarkable circumstance that the rendering of 
the poem had been made from a manuscript, and not from the 
printed text; and there is in fa£t conclusive internal evidence that 
the work must have been composed a whole eighteen years before. 
And if so the verses can only be taken as a form of the rhymed 
colophon which was a frequent pleasantry about this date. (See 
above, p. 94). 

In Chapter LXXXV allusion is made to the First Peace of 
Arras {1435), to the troubles which arose later, and to the Second 
Peace of Arras {23rd December, 1482), and the betrothal of Mar- 
guerite of Austria — then three years of age — to the Dauphin, after- 
wards Charles VII. In Chapter LXXXVI Louis XI is spoken of 
as alive, and " gloriously resplendent " after his troubles. As Louis 
died on 30th August, 1483, this passage at all events — which is 

not very far from the end of the work — must have been written 
between these two events, that is, in the first half of 1483. There 
is no allusion to any later historical events, such as the annulling 
of Marguerite's " marriage " in 1491; and the passage (cited in full 
below, Seftion VI), in which she is compared to Noah's olive- 
branch, stands uncorre6ted, although the " olive-branch " had been 
restored to its parent stem nine years before the book was 

It seems evident then that Molinet's punning conceits of 
" turning mill to the wind," and " winning the flour from the 
corn," must be taken as applying to a date long anterior to that 
which he mentions in connexion with these processes; or else 
explained vaguely to mean that he looked over his earlier writings, 
and produced this from among them. It seems hardly possible 
that there was any revision — which would have fitted the meta- 
phor better — or some allusion must have been made in the course 
of it to the after history of Marguerite, to whom Molinet held the 
post of librarian. 

The date 1500, then, seems necessarily to be that of the 
' publication of the book; and as no earlier edition is known than 
the undated one of V^rard, we may decide with some certainty 
that 1500 is the date of that edition.' 

The person at whose request Molinet undertook this work 
was Philippe de Cleves, seigneur de Ravestain. In the prologue 
he is addressed,'^ in highly inflated language, as having seen more 
fighting than any prince of his own age, and not being contented 
with warring under the triumphant standard of Mars, as desirous 
of being " Champion des Dames " ^ under the pleasant guidance of 
Venus. This, and the words a little further on, avant que plus avatit 
marchiez ou province d'amoureuse pensee, might plainly be taken to 
mean that the person addressed was about to marry. He did not, 
however, marry till 1487, five years later than the compiling of 

' Sec Appendix A. 

* His name is not there mentioned, but appears in the Mara/ite to Cap. LXXX VI. 

* The poem of this name was a favourite at this time. 

161 Y 

this work, as shown above. It is possible — if we suppose Molinet 
to have been some years over this work — that the allusion is to 
Philippe*s effort to win Mary of Burgundy, of whom he was one 
of the six unsuccessful suitors, before, in 1477, ^^^ married 
Maximilian. His eventual wife was the younger daughter of Pierre 
de Luxembourg, Count de Saint Pol.^ His father was Adolf, 
younger brother of John I, Duke of Cloves, and "principal gover- 
nor " of the young son of Maximilian. He succeeded him in the 
Seigneury of Ravenstein in 1492, and died in 1528. His name 
occurs very frequently in Molinet's Chronicles, and De Commines 
mentions him more than once.^ 

Molinet's prose version has been usually put aside with con- 
tempt or ridicule, but this is both unfair and uncritical. The 
work is twofold — a literal prose rendering of the poem, and an 
allegorical interpretation or morality of each " chapter.*' ^ In these 
interpretations, it is quite true, we usually see Molinet at his worst; 
the language is artificial and ridiculous, and the allegorizing cheap, 
far-fetched, and unconvincing. But the rendering of the poem 
itself is simple and generally close — so much so that it is almost 
always possible to recognize the reading of the manuscript em- 
ployed; and though here and there a passage would seem to have 
baffled him, the translator has usually taken pains to get to the 
meaning of his author, and his translation may still be read help- 
fully as a " crib." * 

The text of the poem which Molinet employed was very 
certainly not the printed text, but a late manuscript. The evidence 
of this is abundant. Beside numerous smaller points, there are con- 
spicuous interpolations not found in the printed editions or in 

1 See Molinet, Chroniques^ Cap. XCII and XCIII. 

' The account above, where not derived from De Commines or Moh'net, is taken 
from Borheck, ^^Geschichte des Landes Cleve,'' 1800, pp. 292-295. 

* The division into chapters is quite arbitrary, as will be seen by a reference to 
the Table, Appendix B. 

^ In the Mus^e Cond6 there is a MS., of the latter half of the fifteenth century, 
containing another prose version of the Roman de la Rose^ diiFerent from Molinet's, 
and with no moralizadons. 


early manuscripts. In a manuscript of the fifteenth century I have 
found the original of three of these passages; and as they appear 
to be so far unprinted, I have given them from this manuscript in 
Section VI below. Whatever their date, the two longer of them at 
all events seem certainly earlier than this manuscript ; but I have 
thought it suflicient to give them as they appear in that, without 
hunting them up in earlier manuscripts, as the purpose is only to 
give the original of Molinet*s version, and his manuscript was prob- 
ably of much the same date and class as this. 

Molinet had almost as great an itch for rhyming as good 
Dr. Watts; and there is more than one piece of verse, printed as 
prose, among the moralitis to the chapters. The two verses, how- 
ever, at the conclusion are printed as verse. It may be observed 
that besides the apparent verse-strufture of an eight-line stanza, 
rhyming a, b, a, a, b, b, c, c, there is a secondary verse-strudlure, 
equally regular, marked to the ear by rhymes and to the eye 
by the diagonals which were one of the pundluation-marks of 
early printing. The rhymes are most ingeniously excellent, as 
"French" rhymes — the whole final syllable being in most cases 

Having undertaken, at the beginning of this Section, to give 
a rendering of these verses, I found them, when it came to the 
point, a singularly baffling bit of rubbish; and I was fain to 
throw myself for help upon the unfailing kindness of M. Paul 
Meyer, having previously obtained what hints I could from a 
distinguished lady Romance-scholar in Oxford. They both say, 
practically, that to find an exa£t meaning throughout is beyond 
their power ; and M. Meyer regards the verses as an enigma or 
" logogriphe,*' suitable rather for those who amuse themselves 
with such "jeux de soci^te" than for a serious student. I have 
therefore good excuse for the faults and failures in the version I 
have attempted. 

It must be borne in mind, all through, that the writer was a 
sort of Euphues playing the fool, and is ready at any moment to 
sacrifice sense to sound and logic to word-play, as in aymer and 


armeTy vent and convent. But in the first verse he seems to keep 
more or less closely to the metaphor of warfare suggested by the 
word champions; and in the second to that of the mill,* suggested 
by his (5wn name, on which he puns flagrantly in the last line. 
The double entente means the twofold nature of his work, the prose- 
version of the Poem and the " Moralit^s " to each chapter ; and 
he warns his readers to " negle£t the evil " or " throw away the 
chaflF," i.e.y to prefer the allegorical meaning to the literal, " which 
many a fool gapes after," it being, indeed, this popularity of the 
Poem which caused the need to excuse it in the eyes of the pious- 
minded by the pretence of allegory. 

Vniys champions damours plus fors que fer 
Qui triumpher / querez en faulte tente 
Se leternel bouton voulez trouuer 
Pour vous sauluer/ pensez de bien tfOitr 
Et vous armer/ quant lennemy vous tempte 
Je vous presente/ et monstre voye et sente 
A double entente/ et touchant cest aflfaire 
Laissiez le mal se visez du bien faire 

Lan quinze cens tournay molin au vent 
Et le conuent/ damours ouury ma bailie 
Chargie de grain sengrenay tellement 
Que rudement/ a mon entendement, 
Prins du froment/ la fleur que je vous bailie 
Ruez la paille/ apres qui maint sot bailie 
A la happaille/ et loings du jardinet 
Le monnier doit tenir son molin net. 

True champions of love, more stout than 
steel, who seek in rust-stained (?) mail to 
triumph, if for your salvation ye will find the 
Rosebud Everlasting, bethink you to love 
well and to arm you when the foe tempts 
you. I offer and display to you the way and 
pathway in two-fold sense. And as touching 
this matter I pray you leave the evil and set 
your aim on well-doing. 

The year fifteen hundred I turned mill to 
the wind and the acquaintance of Love. I 
opened my yard, laden as I was with grain, 
and so fed the mill-stone, that, unskilfully, 
to the measure of my wit, I got from the 
com the flour I here present you. Throw 
the chaff* — ^which many a fool gapes after — 
to the runagates, and away from the garden - 
plat. It behoves the miller to keep his mill 

1. 2. faulte: " lames de fer articul&s,'* "jupon dc mailles ": Godefroy. 


?=:teinte (a suggestion of despair, and according to M. Meyer, a tous points de vue 
impossible). M. Meyer himself suggests that faulte is a misprint for fauke^ and that en 
faulce tente means par des feintesy par ruse. 

L 8. se visez : perhaps more likely " if you set your aim." 

L 10. // convent damours may be either the "company," "association" of Love, 
or possibly the ** agreement," " covenant." The choice of the word is plainly due to 
its rhyming with vent rather than to its precise meaning. M. Meyer's suggestion is as 
follows: "The year 1500 I turned my mill to the wind, and opened my precin£b to 


the meeting of Love (viz. to the lovers, perhaps to the coiincil of Love. At all events 
I should prefer, Et el convintY* 

L II. Engremr. ^^Mettre du grain dans la trjmie du moulin" (mill-hopper), 

1. 15. happatlh^harpailU: "beggars," "vagabonds,** "rtf«<7i7&." 




jHE Pedigree or Descent of the text of all the 
editions is as follows: 

From A sprang B, praftically the same text, 
with no difference but misprints or slight varia- 
tions of spelling. 
From B sprang C, with some of B's misprints distinguishing 
it from A, but with intentional corrections, such as the restoration 
of the missing lines. (See p. 153.) 

From C sprang D, clearly shown by the change in verse-title 
§ 67, 1. I, where A B read satoume, vfhich C changed to sermone. 
This was adopted by D and all subsequent editions. 

From D sprang, firstly, E, clearly shown in the verse-title, 
§ 1 00, 1. 2, in which the original reading of A, Des deux qui ( = qu'il) 
Jirent, and B, Hes deulx quiljirent, had been misprinted by C, Hes 
de duet quilfirent. From this unintelligible phrase D evolved the 
grammatical but unmeaning reading, T>es deduttz quilzjirenty which 
E, offended by the syllabic too much in the line, changed to Des 
deduttz quon fait. This one instance proves conclusively that D 
preceded E, as even supposing the reading of E could have sprung 
dired from that of C, the reading of D would not have sprung 
from £. 

From D sprang, secondly, H, shown in the same verse-title, 

§ I oo, where H prints the reading of D, Des desduitz quilz Jirent. 
But H introduced alterations of its own, not followed in any other 
editions, e.g., villenastres for villains nastres in the second passage 
printed in the Sedlion immediately following (p. 172, 1. 7). 

From D sprang, thirdly, F, shown by the same Verse-Title, 
§ 1 00, in which F copies the reading of D exactly, T>es deduitz 

From F sprang G, shown in Verse-Titles, § 47, lesfais escon-- 
ditz^ and § 48, regarde (for recorde). 

From G sprang I, shown by the omission of 1. 895 (B.E.), 
Amourettes tant est propice^ which had accidentally dropped out in 
G at the turn of a column. 

From I sprang K, shown in Verse-Title § 47, 1. 4, where I 
accidentally omitted j, and printed tou\ K mistook the omitted 
letter, and printed tout. 

From K sprang L, shown in Verse-Title, § 47, 1. 3, tous se ditZy 
and 1. 4, tout les faitz esconditz. 

From L sprang M, shown in omission of 1. 18, ^ue songe soit 

From M sprang N, shown in the addition to the title, aultre^ 
ment dit le songe vergier. 

From N sprang O, shown in § 47, 1. 3, present (N prisent^ 
pre viously ^/V^) . See also p. 56 antea. 

Clement Marot, P, had before him the Le Roy Folio, C. 
(See above, p. 158). 

QJbllowed P, but introduced the Du Pr6 Interpolation from 
O (see p. 155, note). R also derives from P, and not from the 
intermediate edition Q^ This is shown, e.g.^ in the Preambule^ 
1. 17, where P and R have pueril entendement^ while Q^has petit 
entendement; but more conspicuously by the total omission of 
157 lines of text, corresponding exactly to a whole leaf of P 
(fol. xcviii). 

^ This is the reading of the printed editions. M^on (B. £.) has Amontes a sa 


S derives from Q, having petit entendement^ and containing the 
lines omitted in R, as well as the Interpolation. 

Molinet worked entirely from a manuscript, and not from 
any of the printed editions. I have given in Appendix A the 
reasons for placing V^rard's edition, X, first. Balsarin's, Y, derives 
from it, with corrections. And the last, Z, also derives from X, 
and not from the intermediate edition, Y. This is shown in many 
places; among other evidences is the appearance in Z of the words 
de motz multiplication^ omitted in Balsarin (see p. 196, note). 




1. MEON (B.E.). 






Meon (Bibl. Elzev., ly p. 14). 


1. 1 79. Aprhs fu painte Coveidse : 
C'est cele qui les gens atise 
De prendre et de noient donner, 
£t les grans avoirs auner, 
C'est cele qui fait a usure 5 

Prester mains por la grant ardure 
D'avoir conquerre et assembler. 
C'est cele qui semont d'embler 
Les larrons et les ribaudiaus ; 
Si est grans p^chi^ et grans diaus 10 
Qu'en la fin en estuet mains pendre. 
C'est cele qui fait I'autrui prendre, 
Rober, tolir et bareter, 
Et bescochier et mesconter ; 
C'est cele qui les trich^ors 1 5 

Fait tous et les faus pledgors. 
Qui maintes fois par lor faveles 
Ont as val6s et as puceles 
Lor droites herites toluCs. 
Recorbillies et cro9u6s 20 

Avoit les mains icele ymage ; 
Ce fu drois : car toz jors esrage 
Coveitise de I'autrui prendre. 
Coveitise ne set entendre 
A riens qu'k I'autrui acrochier; 25 

Coveitise a I'autrui trop chier. 

Folio L 


a. 4. col. I. Apres fut painte couuoitise 
Cest cele qui les gens atise 
De prendre 7 de Hens donner 
Et des grans auoir auner 
Cest celle qui bailie a usure 
Et preste par la grant ardure 
Dauoir conquerre Z arrabler 
Cest celle qui semont dembler 

Rober tollir et barater 

Et par faulsete mesconter 

Cest celle aussi qui les tricheurs 

Fait et cause les barateurs 

Qui maintes fois par leurs flauelles 

Ont aux varletz ct aux pucelles 

Leurs droites heritez tollues 

Car moult croubes et moult crochues 

Auoit les mains ycellc ymage 

II est droit que tousiours enrage 

Couuoitise de lautruy prendre 

Couuoitise ne scet entendre 

Fors que lautruy tout acrochier 

Couuoitise a lautruy trop chier. 

1. I. Tout aupres ettoit, D, and aU succeeding : Tou, L: estoyt, M: couuoytise, CDFGH, couuoityte, I. 
L 2. celle, in all but A; ^ les get atyse, I. 1. 3. deriens, F. L 4, a mener, C: auoirs amener, D, and all suc- 
ceeding. 1. 6. grontH: ardeure FGI. 1.7. Dauoir/, H: Douoir, LM. 1. 8. omitted in D and all succeeding: 
dambler, BC. 11. 9-12. omitted in all. 1. 13. Robber, K, Robbe,LMNO: tolir, C: barrater, L M N. 1. 14. 
faulcete, C6IKLMNO: parsa faulsete, H : metcompter, H K L M N O. 1. 15. elle, N O : trecheurs, B. L 16. 
Fai^ O : des, C [perhaps B, my copy wormed]. 1. 17. maintesfois (one word) B, and all succeeding, roainteffbis 6: 
flauellez, B. 1. 18. varlets, C. 1. 19. droits et h., D, and all succeeding. 1. 20. mSlt, C : croubez, B, courtei, D, 
and all succeeding: mSlt, CKLM: crochuez, B, crossues, D, and all succeeding. 1. 21. icelle, EGIKLMNO: 
ymaige, M N O. I. 22. enraige, G I K L M N O. 1. 23. Couuoytise, B C D F H, Couuoityte, I : laultruy, C D F G I. 
1. 24. Couuoytise, BCDEFH, Couuoityse I: scayt, H. L 25. laultruy, BC DFGI: trop (for tout), all but A: 
acrocher, L M N O. 1. 26. Couuoytise, B C D F G H, Couuoityse, I: laultruy, B C D F G I. 

A few Tariations in the contradions have been disregarded ; and also pun^uation marks except that in 1. 7. 



CLilflNT MaROT, 1526. 


f. ii. col. 3. Apret fat ptinde couuoiriie 
Cest celle qui let gens atdse 
De prendre et de rient donner 
Et les grans tresors amener 
Cest celle qui fiiit a usure 9 

Prester poar la tretgrant ardare 
Dauoir/ conquerre et assembler 
Cest celle qui semont dembler 
Les larrons plains de mesckant rueil 
Cest grant peche/ mais cest grant ducil 
A la fin quant il les fault pandre 1 1 
Cest celle qui fait lautruj prendre 
Jentens prendre sans achepter 
Qui fait tricher et crocheter 
Cest celle qui les desuoyeurs 1 5 

Fait tous et let faulx plaidojeurt 
Qui maintet foyt par leurt cautelles 
Ottent aux varletz et pucellet 
Leurt droits et leurt rentet etcheus 
Courbet/ courtet et moult crocbcus 
Auoit let mains icelle ymage a i 

Cest bien painA/ car toustourt enrage 
Couuoytise de lautruy prendre 
Couuo]rtise ne scait entendre 
Port de lautruj tout acrocber t$ 

Couuoytite a lantmj trop cher. 

I I. 

I It. 

voytiit. QS. L 3. rkst ac 
, R. U It. Biea est ptiad, Q^ 


MoLiNiT (ViaAao). 

£ V. col. I. Couuoitise qui les gens attise de 
prendre/ de point donner et darner grans 
tresors fut apres painte. Cest celle qui 
fait prester a usure par grant ardure de 
conquerre et damatser auoir/ let larrons 
et les ribaudeaulx semont elle dembler. 
Si leur fait commettre de grans pechez et 
de grans maulx/ tellement que plusieurs 
en conuient pendre en fin. Cest celle 
qui fait prendre lautruy/ rober/ tollir et 
mesconter/ tellement que par elle ne peut 
on auoir pris ne loenge. Cest celle qui 
fait les playdojeurs estre plains de faul- 
setea et de trickeries/ lesquelz par leurs 
cautelles ont plusieurs fbis tollu les drois 
keritaiget det varletz et det pucellet. 
Cette ymaige auoit let mains crockeuet 
et recourbeleet par droicte raison/ car 
couuoitise enraige tousiourt de prendre 
lautry. Si ne veult a quelque rien en- 
tendre fors a Crocker et a gripper lauoir 
daucruy quelle a moult ckier. 

L I. Cft«oltite» Y. L ». ^ammt/ t dcaicr, Z. L t. 
4m ii fill, Y. L 9. ta k ia» Y. L it. loilgt, Z. 
L IS* f^ f io tm% , Y. 1. 14. hmkttn^ Z. 1. 15. fbys 
4roitB, Z. L 16. Kcricit«« V. 1. it. recowWkc, Z: 
4raitt» Y. L 19. tMiioiMiovn, Z. 1. tc. Uucnij, Y Z. 
1. 11. crokcr t tfriffcr, Y. 

la tiM cttndt horn MaroC uni MollMt a km fanly tfftfnpkkal variatioas, ckMy ia tW coatradioat 
■ft btft csftadf^), lia«« beta imn%uiti mmtmm 



Meon (BiBL. Elzev., II, p. 76). 

]. 5485 Car tant cum Avarice put 
A Diex qui de ses biens reput 
Le mondcy quant il Tot forgi6 
(Ce ne t'a nus apris fors gi6), 
Tant li est Largesce plesant, 5 

La cortoise, la bienfesant. 
Diex het avers les vilains nastres, 
Et les dampne comme idolastres: 
Les chetis sers mal^ur^ 
Paorcus, et desmesur^s, 10 

Qui cuidenty et por voir le dient, 
Qu'il as richeces ne se lient, 
Fors que por estre en s^urt^, 
Et por vivre en ben^urt^. 
H6 ! douces richeces mortex, 1 5 

Dites done, estes-vous or tex 
Que vous facias ben6ur6es 
Gens qui si vous ont emmnr^es ? 
Car quant plus vous assembleront, 
Et plus de paor tremblcront. 20 

Et comment est en bon ^ur 
Hons qui n'est en estat s^ur ? 
Ben^urt^ done li saudroit. 
Puis que s6urt^ li faudroit. 24 

Folio I : f^, col. 4. 

Car tant commc auarice put 
Au dien qui de ses biens reput 
Le monde quant il leust forgie 
Ce ne ta nul apris fors ie 
Tant luy est largesse puissant 
La courtoisse la bien faisant 
Dieu hait auers les villain nascres 
Et les tient tous pour ydolatret 
Les chetifz folz desmesurez 
Paoureux couars et nuleurez 
Si cuident et pour tout vraj dient 
Quilz aux richesses ne se lyent 
Fors que pour estre en grant scurte 
Aussi pour vinre en bieneurte 
Ha doulcet richesses mortellet 
Dites dont saillites vous tellet 
Que vous ftciez bieneurees 
Les gens qui vous ont emmurees 
Car tant plus vous assembleront 
Et plus de grat paour trembleront 
Et comment seroit en bon eur 
Homme qui nest en estat seur 
Bieneurte done luy fauldroit 
Puis que seurte luy defiauldroit. 

L I. Car toute auarice ti pat^ D, and all succeeding. 1. 2. dien. A: the rest, dieu. qui de k a bieni| B, qui det 
biens, F, qui de grans biens, 6 I K L M N O. 1. 3. il eust, B C, il eut forge, D, and all succeeding. L 4. Ne, 
OIKLMNO: aprinSyCLMNO. L 5 (Ust word)plaisant,GIKLMNO. 1. 6. courtoise, B C D G H I, courtoyie, 
K, courtoisie, £ F, courtojsie, L M N O. L 7. hayt^ G I : auiers, E : Tillaint^ B, villaisy C, TiUains nastres, 
DEGIKLMO, TiUains naistres, F, villains nostra, N, Tillenastret, H. 1. 8. Et tient, F : ydolattres G I K L M N O. 
1. 9. chetif, B, detmesures, B F G I. U 10. maleuzes, G, malheureiy H K L M N O, malheureSy I, maleureus, F. 
1. II. cuydent^ K LM N O: par (for pour), C. L 12. lient, all except A H : le (for se), N O. L 13. gant (for 
grant), L. 1. 14. bieneurete, I K L M N O. L 15. licgetses, G. 1. 16. Diae^ H, Dides dou saillistes, G I K L O, 
Dides dos sallistes, M N. L 17. faciet, EFOHIKL. I.19. assambleront, B. U 20. trambleront, B C, temble- 
ront^ D F. L 21. seroyt^ B» seroie, F. L 23. Bieneurete, DEFHIKLM, Bienneurete, G, Bieneuree, N O. 
1. 24. seurete, I : defiiuldroit, G. 

.*. A few variations in the contradions have been disregarded, and also punduation marks. 

U 2. ilitii: u for a^ perhaps a sign of early date and 6itt€t printing from MS. In Ajemmisu is often printed for 
jtmuMte, L 6. The reading courtoitie (cMtrMjmr), found in uz editionsy is, no doubt, not a confusion with the noun, 
but a sign that the adjedive wu sometimes pronoonced eeurtt^t. L 7. mucrtx: c for r. The remark in the note to 
line 2 applies here also. — ^The readings wUsum of A and villaiMt of B suggest the influence — which seems inevitable — 
of the word vUItMostra C^infimous,'* ** ignoble*') upon the common phrase, wllahu nostra {nostra = ** covetous," 
<< low,** ** wicked '*). Verard's Qotrto deliberatdy changes the reading to the single word. 



ClImiiit Marot, 1516. 

Ft. xiiv. col. I. Car tanc comme auarice peult 
Au dieu qui de set biens repeat 
Le monde quant j leat forge 
Cc ne ta nal aprini fors ie 
Tant lay est largewe puiitant $ 

Et courtoitie bien faitant. 
Dieu hart auen et vilains natret 
Et les tient toas pour ydolatret 
Poures chetifz deimeturez 
Paoareox couars et malheures 10 
Qui cuident et pour tout vraj dient 
Quaux richetiet point ne se lient 
Fors que pour ettre en grant tearte 
Ec viure auui en bienearte. 
f Ha doulcet richeMet mortellet 1 5 
Di^let doa taillittet voot tellet 
Que vous faidet let bieneureet 
Gent qui vous ont trop enfermeet/ 
Qiii tant plus vous atsembleront/ 
Et tant plot de pear trembleront/ ao 
Mais comment teroit en bon hear 
Homme qui nett en etut tear/ 
Bieneurete dont lay faaldroit 
Puit que seurte lay defaoldroit. 

I. I. pcut, Q S. I. 3. n icvt, IL L 6. 
QS. 1. 1 1. aif4tnt, Q S. L 11. 12**"^t ^^ 

MouMiT (ViaARo). 

Ft. xli. col. 3. Car toute auarice put deuant 
dieu qui repeat le monde quant il leut 
forgie tant luy ettoit liberalite courtoite 
et plaitant. Dieu hait auers et vilbins et 
les tient pour ydolatres. Tela chetife det- 
meturez Tola/ paoureux couars et mal- 
eurez cuydent et dient quilz ne te lient 
auz richestes fort que pour ettre en seu- 
rete et en bienneurete viure. Ha doulces 
richettet mortellet dont ettet vout sailliet 
qui bien heureet faidet let gent qui em- 
mureet vout ont. Certes cat plus en at- 
sembleront unt plus trembleront de grant 
paour. Mait visont comment cellai qui 
nett en seur esut pourroit ettre bien 
heure. Puit que bieneorete loy de faal- 
droit ti feroit teurete/ 

1.1. pcolt^YZ. I.t. repcvkyZ: L 1. k«r (for lc«l), 
Y. 1. 5. Itliriit, Y. L 9. bicabcvfctr, Z. 1. it. ^i, 
om.Z. 1. ji. Cifil,YZ. L 14. ccUs^YZ. 1. 16. 
bkshcwccr, Z i fleliiuUroiC, Y, <lelbaMroit, Z. 

.*. la tlM eitrtdi from Maroc and MoIImc a ftm p w tl y cypograpbical variatioot, chidly •• tW coatraAtoat 
(whidi aft Wrc npaadcd), have baeo ditrtgarM aa of ao 




iHE manuscript followed by Molinct had consider- 
able interpolations in the text, though not the in- 
terpolation of 104 lines first printed in Du Pre's 
edition (see p. 155, and note). The following are 
the most important interpolated passages that I 
have noted ; they are all in the first part of the poem, by G. de Lorris. 

I. In Cap. ii. the list of Figures on the wall is preceded by a 
description of one not found in the original poem, OrgueU, 

II. In Cap. iv. is interpolated a long description of the five 
evil arrows of Love, where in the original the author says he 
purposely defers the description till later: 

Ains vous dirai que tout ce monte 
Ainfois que je fine mon contc' 

III. In Cap. V, in the description of the Lady Beauty, a longer 
passage takes the place of the last twenty-two lines. 

* This promise, which G. de Lorris did not live to fulfil, znd which J. de Meun 
in his continuation docs not redeem, incidentally furnishes an argument against the 
authenticity, otherwise improbable, of the eighty lines which in some manuscripts con- 
clude the part of G. de Lorris, and pretend to be the winding-up of the whole poem. 
See Bibl., Elzcv. cd., vol. i, p. 272 tt siq. 


IV. In Cap. XV. all but a few lines at the beginning is composed 
of a long interpolation, describing the four guerdons or payments 
of Love. 

Of this last I have not come across the original verses in any 
MS., but of the first three interpolations I have transcribed the 
corresponding lines from a manuscript of the fifteenth century in my 
own possession. The two longer are, however, evidently of earlier 
date, perhaps not much later than the poem. 

I. Between 11. 148-149 (Bibl. Elzev.): 

PremiiTiment y estoit orgueiL 

Orgueil, qui porte la baniere 
De tous maubc, f u en la maisiere 
Pourtrais tout primerainement. 
Si vous di bien certainement, 
5 Scion ce que veoir en peu, 

Des autres lui estoit bien peu; 
Ne les prisoit pas deux festuz. 
Bien estoit chauciez et vestuz, 
£t beaux blans gans es mains auoit. 
10 Mont bien deduire se sauoit. 

Tout se deteurtoit par coindse, 
L'une janbe auant I'autre mise, 
£t du pie de trauers passoit; 
Tout Pordre daler trespassoit. 

[In Molinet the description is continued for the equivalent of another six or 

eight lines.] 
1, 6. Estre de: " Importer*^ (Godefifoy); Molinet, m cbaloit gueres dis autres. 
1. 10. Mont (sic) ssMouh. 1. 11. deteurtoit: Molincty destordoit. 

II. (Displacing 11. 1004-1112, Bibl. Elzev. — In Molinet the 
preceding five lines, 999 et sq.^ are also omitted.) In another 
manuscript, also of the fifteenth century, I have found this passage 
placed separately at the end of the work, with no indication of 
where it was to be inserted. There it begins with a line, 

Ces dnq flesches sent d'un aSiirc, 

which is only a slight alteration of line 998. This, however, is the 
second line of a couplet in the original ; and as Molinet brings in 
both the rhyme words, affaire (of the interpolation) and maniere (of 


the original), one may conjedurc that in his copy this inconvenience 
had been rectified by an alteration or addition. I have placed all 
but quite unimportant variants from this manuscript (B) in the foot- 
notes. It will be observed that they often give the correal reading, 
where the first MS. has blundered. I have noted such cases, where 
important, with a *. There are no headings in this second MS. 

1. 1003 II deuoit bien tilzJUches train. 

Maiz plus pouoient bien mesfaire 
Les trois premieres, ce sachiez, 
A cuer qui d'elles fust bleciez 
5 Que ne feissent les deuz derraines, 

Pour ce que les troiz primeraines 
Lui sont prez du cuer, ce croiez, 
S'en est de mal plus aspoiez. 

De troiz dis [des)fliches villaines. 

Orgueil et felonnie et honte 
10 Reprouuees sont, qui droit compte, 

Droitement a amour contraire; 
♦D'amour nc peut nulli attraire 

A lui, puiz qu'a le fer au cuer 

De ces troiz fleches, a nul feur; 
1 5 Car amour est de tel nature . 

Qu'elle n'a d'estre seule cure, 
*Ains desire adez compaigne, 

£t vers son pareil s'umilie. 

Maiz le cuer qui d'orgueil est plains, 
20 II ne saroit estre compains; 

Tousiours se vuelt aseigneurir; 

De tous se veult faire seruir. 

Li cuers en qui orgueil habite 

A si humilite despite 

11. 1,2. B., Cis V fiesches sont d*un affaire^ Mais illes font plus di mal traire. 
11. 3, +, transposed in B. 1. 4. B., Au: ist bUcbiiz. 1. 5. B.j font (probably derraines 
was in the original trisyllabic, daaraines). 1. 6. B., fmeraines. 11. 7, 8, are lacking in 
B., as also in Molinet. 1. 8. aspoiez prohMy = asproieZy a word used in R. de la R.j 
e,g.j 1. 1517. 1. 9. B., Orgueil folonnie. 1. 10. B., cote. L ii. B.j amours. 1. 12. B., 
N* amours rlen puet nullui atraire. I. 13. B., J li pour fait: 0m 1. 14. B., /uer (cf. 
R. de la R.^ 1. 319). 1. 15. B., amours. 1. 17. B., compaignie. 1. 18. B., Emters. 
1. 19. B., om. le:s*est espains. \. 20. B.jScaroit. 1. 21. B., aseignourir. I. 23. B., cuer. 


^5 *Qu'i I'a du tout boutee arriere. 

Ce n'yert ja en nulle maniere 
Que cuer puist bonne amour suir 
*Qui humilite vuelt suir; 
Car orgueil et humilitez 
30 Ce sont deuz contrarietez. 

Que felonnie soit contraire 
A amour tel prouue en veul faire. 

CI parle Fadeur iTammr naturfle. 

Amour si est une aliance 

Par quoy chascun a ordonnance 

35 D'auoir a toute creature 

Paix et Concorde par nature. 
Maiz le cuer qui a hebergie 
£n lui rencune et fielonniei 
Ne tient pas cest ordonnement; 

40 Car il ne pourroit nullement 

Aduenir, ce dient li maistre, 
Deuz contraires en un point estre. 
Si nous dit en une escripture 
*Tulles, qu*i n'est si grant laidure 

45 Com d'auoir a cellui bataille 

Dont tu as este bien sans faille. 
Cil qui de son ami se penne 
Courcier, fait chose trop vilaine. 
D*autre part vous sauez asses 

50 *Que vray cuer que n'est one lassez, 

Puis qu'amour le tient en sa cage, 
De descouurir tout son courage 
Quant il peut vray ami trouuer. 
Maiz qui de bonte reprouuer 

55 *£t coustumiers, et qui s'attire 

Souuent a vilanie dire, 
Je ne puiz mie bien sauoir 

1. 25. B^ qu^il Fa. L 26. B., tCiert. 1. 27. B., sirmir. L 28. B.^/uir. 1. 29. B^ 
£t. L 31. B., sMt. 1. 32. B., freuut. L 37. B., H ours: herhergie. 1. 38. B., B 
rancune. 1. 4a B., ^jf^n m vcit pas legienmint 1. 41. B., u: mtstre. 1. 42. B. (last 
word), mettre. 1. 43. B., dist. 1. 44. B., qu*iL L 46. B., De qui fas Hen este. 
1. 47. B*, Cibi: faine. 1. 48. B*, Cmrromcer: trepj om. 1. 50. B., vrmx cuers West 
enqmes. 1. 51. B., qu^ammtrs. 1. 53. B., fuet. I. 54. 'B.^que (for qui). 1. 55. B., 
Est: qtfiL L 56. B., vihnnie. 

177 A A 







Comment puist bonne amour auoir. 
Salemons dit qu'amiz couuient 
Partir Ion dont tel preuue vient. 
Qui vne pierre geteroit 
Entre oyseaulx^ seurer les feroit. 
Tout aussi escripture ensaigne 
*Que sil qui son ami desdaigne, 
II fait d'amiste desseurance, 
D'amour aussi se desauence; 
£t bien la doit audr perdue 
Qui les secrez d'autruy desnue. 
Trop est plain de mauuaises teches 
Qui est blecie de ces troiz fleches. 

Des diu% dirreniergs flicbis. 

Les autres deux sont d'autre afiaire. 
Car tout facent elles retraire 
Le cuer d'amour et despointier. 
C'est ou pour autrui acointier, 
Ou pour faire du tout seurance, 
Quant on a aucune esperance 
De ce a quoy on veult attaindre. 
Desirier, qui ne se peut faindre, 
*Tant adez et melencolie, 
Qu'il puist, soit sauoir soit fblie, 
A ce qu'il desire venir. 
Maiz quant tost n'y peut aduenir, 
Dont naist ou cuer une pensee, 
Auec la quelle est tost entree 
La fleche de desesperance, 
Qui tolt au cuer perseuerance 
Par un peu de pensee vaine. 

1. 59. B., Salomon. 1. 6o. B., la ou npreuue. 1. 61. B^ jetteroit L 62. seurer ^ 
i.e., srurery " separate " ; B., partir ; Molinet, serrer ensemble (!). 1. 63. B., l* escripture. 
1. 64. B., ciL 1. 65. B., d^amistie. L 67. B., le. L 69. B. inserts par after trop: 
males tesches. L 70. B., blecbiex. L 74- B., par. 1. 75. B., par. For 11. 74.-77 
Molinet gives: tant pour /aire nouvelles accointance (sic X, accointancesj Yj X\ que 
destre asseure de ce a quoy on a esperance do attaindre^ a different reading, or perhaps 
only a misunderstanding of seurance (^^ separation "). L 77. B., tend ataindre. L 78. 
B., puet. 1. 79. B., Tout ades si tent t coUe (see Godefiroy, s.v. cMer^ especially the 
third citation, from the Vert de la mort). L 8o. B., soit ou sens ou filie. 1. 83. B., au. 
I. 84. B., alee (last word). 1. 87. B^ ung poi. 


Quant cil pense qu'il part sa paine, 
*£t qu'il a serui sans pardon, 
90 *Onquez n*eut point de garredon 

De ce quil a long temps ame; 
ltd cuer a ja entame 
Desesperance, et le contraint 
A ce que d'amer se retraint. 
95 De la fleche nouuau penser 

Vous vueil cjr dire mon penser. 
Pource que prouffiz et plaisance 
*£t deliz si sont attraiance 
De cuers a amour par nature, 

100 Peut il estre par auenture, 

Que quant on a s'entente mise 
A auoir aucune acointise, 
Ou pour plaisance, ou pour prouffit, 
Ou pour aucun autre delit, 

105 £t trop fait longue demouree 

*La fin a quoy on tant et bee, 
Le cuer qui met tout son desir 
A ce qu'il desire saisir. 
Quant il trouue aucune acointance 

no De qui il a mieuldre esperance 

De tout son desirier auoir, 
Lors pense et met tout son sauoir 
A ce qu'en ceste amour s'embate, 
£t de tel amour se departe. 

1 1 5 Lors tout errant le fiert et blesce 

Le fer de la cinquiesme fiesche, 
Qu'on appelle nouueau penser. 
£t qui bien y vouldra penser. 

1, 88. B^ pert, 1. 89. B., ait serui en pardon^ i.r., ** gratis,** ** without reward.'* 
Molinet gives no equivalent for this line. L 90. B., tTonques tCot: guerredtn. 1. 92. 
luly perhaps / tel^Un tel; B., Ung teL L 93. B., constraint. 1. 94. B., refraint. 
1. 95. No mark of new paragraph in either manuscript. 1. 97. B., prwffit. 1. 98. 
B., delit si font. 1. 99. B., our a ameurs, 1. 100. B., puit. 1. 10 1. B., Et quant. 

I. 103. B., Ou par plaisance. L io6. B., tent. 1. 107. B.j Li cuer, 1. 108. B.yVenir. 

II. 1 09-1 1 2. Molinet apparently has nothing for these four lines, except the phrase Lers 
pense a toute diligence; and the next line in his copy, 113, seems to have difiered firom 
the line here. L 109. B., treuue. 1. no. B., nundre. 1. 112. B. leaves this line 
blank. L 114. B., Et qm d$ laultre se departe. 1. 115. B., Et teut. 1. 116. B., Li 

fers de le v*. 


Auqucz verra appertement 

120 Qu'il ne se peut plus bellement 

Ne plus trestost partir d'atnours 
Que par auoir pensee aillours. 
Car li uns pensers I'autre esloigne, 
£t Tescripture nous tesmoigne 

125 Q"^ '^ ^^^ cloux I'autre hors boute. 

Car quant cuer un peu se desroute 
De penser a ce qu'il souloit, 
£t nouuelles amours concoit, 
Iceste nouuelle pensee, 

130 S'elle est en cuer bien asserree, 

Tant com dedens le cuer sera, 
L'autre amour tost hors boutera. 
Par ce peut on auquez prouuer 
Qu'on ne peut en nul cuer trouuer 

135 *Qu'il se puisse tout, se me semble, 

Donner en plusieurs lieux ensemble. 
Car amour est une pensee 
Par plaisance ens ou cuer boutee, 
£t cuer ades plus pensera 

140 A ce que il plus amera; 

£t qui veult sa pensee mettre 
£n plusieurs lieux, selon la letre, 
Peu en aura en chascim lieu; 
Tel cuer sont apelle court lieu, 

'45 Qui ^'^ ^^ ^i^u P^ ^^ demeurenty 

Maiz on mieulx cuident auoir queurent. 

Ci parle encores Pa£ieur di touiis les dixfleches. 

Des dix fleches vous ay compte 
Vn peu, pour cause de briete. 

1. 120. B., ^'on: puet. 1. 121. B., Ne pbutost departir. L 123. B., It ung 
penser: eslogne. 1. 124. B., Et It escripture tesmongne, 1. 125. B., li ung clou, 1. 126. 
B., ^ue quant ung pense se, 1. 127. B., soloit. L 128. B., conchoit. 1. 130. B., ou 
cuer: enserree. 1. 132. B., om. tost: hors en. 1. 133. B., puet. 1. 134. B., puet. 
1. 135. B.y ^i se. . . ce me. 1. 136. B., En pluiseurs lieux donner. 11. 137-140. 
Molinet has nothing equivalent to these four lines. 1. 137. B., amours. 1. 138. B., 
en son cuer entree, 1. 139. B., cuers. 1. 140. B., pitu il, 1. 142. B., pbiiseurs, 
1. 143. B., Petit en a en aulcun lieu. 1. 144. B., courlieu (see Godefroy and Littr6 
for this interesting word; neither, however, mentions this use of it). L 145. B., ung: 
point ne. I. 146. on sic, butsm as B. 1. 148. B. leaves this line blank. 


Dont les cinq premieres nominees, 
150 Qui ^ ^'^'^ estoient dorees, 

Ne font se non amour attraire. 

Troiz des autres la font retraire, 

Combien qu'el ait tresgrant este, 

Tant sont blecie et tempeste 
1 55 Li cuer qu'amour a entamez, 

Que ja n'en iert uns bien amez. 

Les deux autres n'ont pas tel vice, 

Car il n'y a autre malice 

Fors qu'elz font les cuers repentir 
160 D'amer, par faulte de souffrir; 

Ainsi tolent perseuerance. 

Sans qui nuUe oeure n'a vaillance, 

Ne n'yert ja jugee pour bonne; 

Car la fin I'oeure adez couronne. 
165 Assez pourroit on cy sus dire. 

Mais bien est temps que je m'atire 
1. 1 1 1 3 Pour reuenir a ma parok 

Des Hoilis gens d$ la carole. 

[The next two lines in B. £. are omitted in this MS. and in Molinet.] 

U. 1 51 -1 53. B.y Ne font fors Us amours atraire. Les aultres trots les font retraire^ 
Gom grans qu^elUs aient este. 1. 155. B^Licuerfui les ont entamez; Molinet evidently 
read the same. 1. 156. B., ung. 1. 157. B., aultres deux. 1. 159. B., ^*elles/ont. 
1. 161. B.| toUent, 1. 162. B., euure. 1. 163. B^jjugie. 1. 164. B., Car It fins muet 
{uet^ faint as if erased; in margin a word, imeme) Peutire. 

This interpolation has considerable interest from being evid- 
ently of some antiquity. This is seen in the remains of declension 
subsisting even in the fifteenth century MSS. : by el, elz^ for elk^ elles; 
iert for sera^ etc. There is more " style '* in it than in the work of a 
mere hack versifier, and some of the phrases, such as asproiez (1. 8) and 
a nulfuer (1. 1 4) are found in G. de Lorris' own work. Compare also 
the phrase vuelt aseigneurir (1. 2 1) with vuelent seignorir (B. E. 9780). 
The next interpolation follows after a very few lines : 
III. (In place of 11. 1023- 1044 Bibl. Elzev. : Elnefu oscure^ ne 
brune^ . . . Gr as sete et gresky gente et joint e). 

L 1022 En lui iut maintes ionms teches^ 

Si com il paroit par semblance, 
Maiz li plus parant yert plaisance 


De corps, de facon et de vis. 

De sa beiulte tant vous deuiz, 
5 Que je ne me remenbre mie, 

Qu'onquez maiz en jour de ma vie 

J'eusse veu femme sy tresbelle. 

£lle fu jenne damoiseile, 

S'auoit robe d'autel samiz 
10 Com estoit vestus ses amiz; 

Moult fu noblement acesoiee, 

£t d'un beau ill d'or galonnee. 

£1 eut une hune de soie 

Si dougee que je cuidoie 
15 Que 81 cheueul fussent tout nu. 

Vn chapclet a or batu. 

Qui moult estoit beaulx et joliz, 

Pourtoit ses chiefz blons et poliz; 

£t pardessuz eut desplie 
20 Vn volet noble et delie, 

£t miz sur son chief a espars. 

Si com veoit de toutes pars 

La gnint beaulte de son viaire. 

Je me merueil comment sceut faire 
25 Nature femme si plaisans. 

Le chief eut blons et reluisans; 

Les oreilles eut petitetes, 

Rondes et netes et blanchetes; 

Le col grasset, blanc par nature, 
30 Roploiant et groz par mesure ; 

Beau front plain, sans fronce et sans tache; 

Tenure et doulcete auoit la fiice ; 

Blanche com Hz est sa messelle, 

Vermeille com rose nouuelle; 
35 De caroler fu eschaufiee, 

S'auoit une plaisant meslee 

1. 8. jinnty so plainly (see p. 124, note i). In common words, e.g.jfnoultj this copyist 
takes less pains to distinguish m and ir. 1. 13. Molinet prints hune also. Godefroy s.v., 
huvfj ^sorte de coiffure," ^^ornement de tite," quotes a passage firom the same author's 
Chronicles J where the word is also printed hune. 1. 14. dougee; v. Godefroy s.v., 
delgie. 1. 22. r^m, sic, but read r'^n s ^iiV/f . 1. 30. ^«^/9itfif/, sic, with a stroke over/; 
Molinet, reployant. (In this manuscript o is sometimes written for e; see below, 1. 77.) 
1. 32. Tenure^ i.e., Tenvrej ** small," " fine "; v. Godefroy s.v., Tenve\ Molinet, tendre. 
1. 33. Est sic, but read ert 


Du bUmc auecques le vermeil. 
Maiz d'une chose me menieil, 
Dont tant bien se sauoit garder 

40 Qu'onc ne la peu tant regarder, 

Combien que m'entente y meisse, 
Qu'en moy regardant la veisse. 
Se mon oeil fiist vers lui toumez, 
Tost eust ses regars destournez; 

45 £t Ion que mes yeulx destournoie. 

Errant sur moy ses yeulx auoie, 
Qt^*el auoit groz, vers et rians, 
Secz et aguz et attraians, 
Amoureux, gaiz, plains de plaisance, 

50 £t pour plus tost faire attraiance 

De cuen, et pour plus dommager, 
Cloans et ouuans de legier. 
Les sourcilz out haulx et voultiz, 
Bassez de poil, brunez, traitiz 

55 L*un vers Tautre un petit clinez. 

Tant lui auoient bien linez, 
Qu*el auoit droit et bien naissant ; 
£n I'entroeil un petit baistant 
Par ou ses beaulx ftons descendoit, 

60 Et en aualant s'extenddt 

Jusquez au nez, sicomme cilz 
Qui deseuroit les deux surctlz. 
Si bel et si auenaument. 
Que ce sembloit tout visaument 

^5 Qu^ ^^ ^t vne pourtraiturc, 

I'ant estoit de belle fiuAure. 
Entre le nez et la boucbette 
Eut une petite fDSsete 
Qui sur la leure s*en venoit 

70 Et moult tresbien lui auenoit. 

Rouuellete et riant bouchete; 
A chascun lez une fbssece 
Eut en la maisselle empraintee, 
Et quant arriere estoit tournee. 

L 52. mmimt sic; Molinet, mmrans. L 56. MS.^ M /lii/s; ?read mffm^ii Uem U 
mi% (cf. I. 70 imfr^)\ Molinet renders this and the next line, Li mem m Umimmnt drmi gi 
Uen msistamL I. 71, RnuuUfU^ (not in Godefrojf) dimin* of rfii«^ ^ red/* 11. 70-76. 
Molinet is rmther skimpy here, but apparently renders L 74: £i fmmmi elU rytii. 


75 Adont ses fossetes pguroient 

Bassetes, qui moult lui seoient. 
Dens menus, sorez, nez et blans; 
Leures bassetes et joignans; 
Mieulx souhaitier ne pourroit on. 

80 Un petit fourchie le menton; 

Le goitroncelet soubz leuant, 
Crasset et blanc, et pardeuant 
Vn peu reploiant par plaisance. 
La gorge, qu'el eut clere et blanche, 

85 Pouoit on veoir tout aplain. 

Elle n'eut pas le sain trop plain, 
Ains auoit unes mameletes 
Roides, poignans et petitetes; 
Si n*estoient pas si petites 

90 Que son sain en fust du toutquittcs. 

Car, selon ce que veoir peu, 
Elles faisoient un bien peu 
Son sain soubz leuer et bocier, 
Si qu*il couuenoit reploier 

95 Sa robe en une valeete. 

Qui descendoit de sa gorgete 
Jusquez au ceint onniement. 
Bien sachiez que moult liement 
Regarday si belle fiufture, 
ICO £t ce qu'el eut soubz la ceinture; 

La poitrine un peu esleuee; 
Moult fut par les rains bien fbrmee^ 
Si croy bien que li remenans 
N'estoit mie mains auenans 

^05 Q^^ ^^ 9^^ j'^7 ^7 demise* 

Son estre ay moult bien auise, 

Qu'il m'est auis que je le voie 

Quant je suis du parler enude. 

£1 estoit droite et allignie, 

1 10 Et de tous menbres bien taillie. 

Voire a merueilles et auenans. 

1. 77. Sarez^serris (see note to 1. 30 supra)j Molinet, strrees. 1. 8i. goitronaUt 
(not in Godefroy), dim. of gpitrvfiy *' throat**; Molinet, ginteroucel in all three editions 
(not in Godefroy); i for guiterancei. 1. 97. onniemintj "regularly,** "uniformly,** v. 
Godefiroy, 8.V., oniement. 11. 98, 99, not rendered by Molinet. 1. 101. pritrinty 
Molinet, boudim. 1. 108. mune sicas/n v§it, 1. iii. ?omit tt\ or read a merveilU 
est} Molinet, v^in^ vimuilU, 


Ainuble, amee et imans, 

Belle, blonde, blanche, bien fkidle, 

Sade, sauoreuse, aimplete, 
1 1 s Courtoite, coulouree et cointe, 

Jenne, jolie, gente, jointe, 

Doulce, delitans, debonnaire; 

£n lui pouoit on rexemplaire 

Remirer de toute beaulte. 
120 Le dieu d^amoun par loyaulte 

Main a main te tenoit a lui; 

II n*auoit pas du tout failly 

Qui a tel dame yert afsenex; 

Et il estoit preux et tenez, 
125 Et moult noblement la menoit. 

Com cil qui bien lui auenoit« 

Tout un yerent leur vestement 

Car nature legierement 

Et raison se joignent ensemble 
130 Beaulte et amour, se me semUe, 

Qu*enuix est rien belle trouuee 

Qui ne soit amans ou amee. 

[In the MS. the Interpolation ends here, and the description of Richesa 
immediately begins. In Molinet, however, there is a piece more, equivalent to about 
a dosen lines.] 

1. 116. Jimm^ V. note to L 8 above. 
1. 129. For i#, ? leg. XI. 
1. 130. For i#, ? leg. €€. 

I have added a short passage of Molinet's own, from the 
Morality to Cap. LXXXV, which is a very good specimen of his 
style, and introduces a scrap of tinkling verse, no doubt of his 

'* Mais pour accoiser ceste dide noise, contoumee en mortelle 
guerre/ comme le Coulon apporta a Noe quant Teaue se retrahit le 
raincel de Paix, la Tressacree Imperialle maieste nous fist ^ auoir 
du beau vergier de sa noble maison d*austrice une petite et propre 
marguerite, qu'aucunes gena appellent la consaulde,^ et non sant 

' He would have prevented it if he oould. {Di C m mi mn^ bk. vi, cap. 9.) 
• •« L4irkspur.- 

185 IB 

Qause/ car elle consoulde et resoulde la paix quant elle est dessouldee. 
Et, qui plus est, en ce mesmes lieu d'arras, et sur la propre enclume 
on Tune ^ fut faide, souldee et forgiee. Et quant les pastoureaulx 
des champs ont congneu la preciosite de ceste noble fleur, nourrie 
de celeste rousee, et que pour quelque vent qu*il vente, soit de bisc 
ou de frise, toujours presiste ^ en sa bonne pacience et fort vertueuse. 
Ilz ont compose a sa louenge ung petit dittier en disant.^ 

Marguerite est la florette, 

Fort proprette, 
£n qui tous biens sont comprins. 
Fortune luy est durette^ 

La tendrette 
Fleur a bien ses jeuz apris. 
Cest ung chief d'oeuure de pris, 

Sans despris, 
Que chascun ayme et fort prise. 
On doit louer le pourpris 

Ou fiit pris 
Tel gent flouron sans reprise." 

^ la^ the First Peace of Arras, I435) mentioned by Molinet a litde before this 

' /./.i persiste. (She was then three years old!) 

' In the original these verses are not printed in separate lines, but marked by 
capitals and fullstops at the beginning and end of each line; I have pim£hiated them 
in modern fashion. The commas and apostrophes in the prose portion are also added. 




aHOUGH stridly this belongs to the modem 

' editions — with which I have not here to deal — it 

is already one hundred and eighty years old, and 

therefore separated from the pre&ent time by 

nearly as great an interval as the one hundred and 

ninety-seven years which separate it from the last of the early- 

■ Lt ktmam dt la Rut . . . Anuterdun, Jon Fred. Benurd kdgczzxt : or Pari*, 
veuve Phtot, tame date: three vob — SitpUmtmt (sic) ak GUitairt dm Rmman dt Im 
Rut . . . Dijon, J. Strot: h-DCCxxxvu. 

There have been only five modern editioiu of the complete Poem. t. Parii, or 
Amtterdam, 1735: 2. Paris "An Sepotme," (1798): 3- Pari», 1814 (M&m't text): 
4. Paris, 1864 (MJon's text, edited b^ Fnuiciaque-Micbel): 5. Orleans, 1875 (Biblio- 
th^uc Elsevirienne; Mion'i text, edited bjr I^enc Marteau). But there have been 
other printing! or editingi of imatl portiona of it, nicb ai Dr. PuschcTs revision of the 
first 834 lines from a Berlin MS. (Berlin, 1872): and the ** Chaucer" portioni, edited 
— mainly after F.-Michel, but with tome collation of four of the MSS. in the British 
Museum, as well as of Dr. POschel's revision — by Dr. Max KaJuu for the Chaucer 
Society {London, 1891]. A complete tnbliographyof the Rimmn dt k Rm* would have 
abo to take account of the various tnuulatiom <^ it, and to include theicfere a biblio- 
giaphy of Chaucer. The only complete English translation jet accomplished is tlut of 
the late F. S. Ellis, three vob., London, Dent, 1900. There is a curious English poem 
of 71a lines called "The Romance of the Roae, Imitated from Chaucer," London, 
Jonah Bowycr, 1721, in which tome veta'gea of the original descriptions yet Ungcr, 
sadly tnveitied in their English eighteenth-century style. At the end ia a biidatioii of 
Hanmer. I cannot find out the name of the author. 


printed editions, 1538. It is in three volumes, i2mo, to which a 
fourth is usually added, although published two years later. The 
first two volumes contain the text of the Roman de la Rose^ with 
Ixviii pages of prefatory matter. The third volume contains the 
Codicilk et Testament de Jehan de Meungj a few other poems by 
other authors, and a glossary. The fourth volume contains a dis- 
sertation (by Lantin de Damerey), an analysis, various readings, etc. 

The first volume presents some remarkable differences in the 
two issues of Amsterdam and Paris. Brunet notes that there was 
originally a preface which had been suppressed, and for which a 
preface, ^'not nearly so piquant," had been substituted; and he 
adds that some copies with the first preface were still ripandu 
dans le public. But it does not seem to have been observed, by him 
or others, that it is not only the introdudtory matter that differs in 
these copies, but that the first twenty-eight pages of the text are 
very different also.^ Both issues are evidently from the same press; 
the type is the same; and after page 28, the text corresponds 
exaftly; in faft, the sheets C to Qjn both belong plainly to one 
impression. The differences between the two— besides the title- 
page to each of the three volumes — are as follows: 

I. The Introductory Matter. Though made up to the same 
number of pages, sixty-eight, in both, there is a very considerable 
difference in the matter. The Paris issue omits sundry portions, 
especially those in which an ecclesiastic might have scented dis- 
respect to the Church, such as the five pages dealing with Faulx- 
Semblant.^ But it adds a good deal more matter, including a page 
and a half more relating to Molinet, and seven pages of Plan de 
cette idition^ of which there is nothing in the Amsterdam preface. 
Further, it contains two pages of Privilege du Roy^ while the 
Amsterdam issue has none. To make room for this additional 
matter the Paris issue has printed the preface of Marot (which 
both include) in a smaller type. 

^ Brunet does not allude to the difference of imprint, nor mention that of Am- 

' Du Fresnoy was himself a priest^ 


2. The Telct. The type, and the page arrangement, are to 
precisely similar, that without collation the two issues appear to 
be the same.^ But upon collation it appears that in the Paris issue, 
the first 821 ^ lines, contained in the first twenty-eight pages, have 
undergone a very considerable recension, many lines being com- 
pletely different, and the reading approaching more nearly to the 
text as M6on restored it from early manuscripts. Some few of 
these readings are those given in the notes appended to the end of 
the second volume. But in these notes the variants — scanty as 
they are — are not continued after line 357, except for one single 
reading near the end of the poem.' 

One might conjecture that there was some difficulty about 
obtaining the Privilege, and that it was only obtained on condition 
that the portions of the preface, objectionable in the ecclesiastic 
eye, were omitted ; that the editor, LfCnglet Du Fresnoy , employed 
this enforced delay, in revising the text up to a certain point, and 
also took the opportunity of enlarging his preface. Whether there 
had been any fear of confiscation, and the sheets containing the 
condemned preface, and also the first portion of the text, had been 
removed to Amsterdam; or whether the idea of obtaining a Privi- 
lege and publishing in Paris was a later idea, or an idea returned 
to after temporary abandonment, it seems useless to attempt to 
unravel. The irregularity in the first sheets of text seems to point 
to some change of plan, possibly hurried. But the fa£t that the 
Amsterdam issue is dated 17359 while the Privilege for the Paris 
issue was granted before the end of 1734,^ does not lessen the 
puzzle. And we cannot but wonder what moved the editor— 

' The only typogrmphical.difierence b that in the Amsterdam ittue the first twenty- 
eight pages of text have the signatures as follows: A, 2 leaves, B, 12 leaves, while in 
the Paris issue A has 1 2 leaves, B 2. 

* The edition which Lenglet du Fresnoy followed was V^rard's Quarto, in which 
line 186 is omitted (see the seleAed passage on p. 170, amu). Thus, after this, the 
numbering of the line is thrown out of step with the rhyme-pairs. 

' The editor, in a final note, explains that he has only given these variants as a 
sample ; those who wanted more most go to the MSS. 

* 1 2th November: registered 7th D e c e mb er . 


after printing the whole text with hardly any alterations from 
V^rard's quarto edition — suddenly to make such wholesale altera- 
tions in a small part of it. Were these alterations — possibly — the 
work of another hand? They do not correspond at all to the 
variants given by Lantin de Damerey in the fourth volume. 

The edition of 1798 follows the Amsterdam issue, and has 
the unrevised text, and the preface in the ** suppressed ** form. 

Brunet's remarks are drawn from Mimoires pour servir h 
rhistoire . . . de M. VAbbi hmglet Du Fresnoy^ par Michault^ 1 76 1 , 
p. 173. Unfortunately these memoirs give few or no details of 
Du Fresnoy's life after about 1723. Before that time he seems to 
have had a somewhat eventful career; and to have been at least 
twice imprisoned. Another of his books, Prtncipes de VHistoire 
pour r Education de la "Jeunesse^ was also published simultaneously, 
or nearly so, in Paris and Amsterdam, in 1736-37. 




)HIS book being supposed to be undated, the clue 
to the year of its publication has been sought in 
the address of the publisher. The particular form 
in which this appears, pres Ihostel Dieu deuant la 
rue neufue nottre DamCy appears to be found only 
in one other of V^rard's books, also without date, the " Chronique 
Martiniane," No. 158 in Mr. Macfarlane's list. But it has been 
universally accepted or assumed that the address deuant la rue neufue 
nojtre Dame represents a move of Virard's which took place early in 
the year 1 503.' And as Balsarin's edition of Molinet's Prose Version 
is dated 1503, it seems to have been confidently concluded that 
V^rard's must be later. Van Praet, according to Brunet, says 1 5 1 1 , 
and Mr. Macfarlane adopts this date with a quzrc. Brunet himself 
only remarks that it could not have been " before 1 503," but seems 
to assume without question the priority of Balsarin. I will show 
presently what seems to me conclusive internal proof that Balsarin's 
edition is the later, and V^rard's the original edition, a fad which 
might have been surmised k priori from the colophons of the two 
books, as Balsarin expressly states that his edition is "aufrement 

* Gl^tottDwnl^NmveSttrtchtreMn smr ^mtmmtFirmrtl. Mr. Macfarluic, Introd., 
p. si, mjf* Septttnber, 15031 but diii b cviikntljr a dip, h tbb miinm u found with 
tlM data 17th Julf, 1503* in the ** Radonil dcs divim often,'* No. 69 io bii Uk. 
193 CC 

ccrrigie & amende quit nestoit par denant (sic) /' ^ whereas V^rard 
merely says '* imprime h Faris^^ without " nouvellement " or any 
other qualification. But before doing this I will touch shortly on 
the rather perplexed question of V^rard's addresses after the fall of 
the Bridge in Odlober, 1499, and see whether it is altogether 
necessary to conclude that the book in question must have been 
published in the year 1503, after " the move " which took place in 
that year, though before the edition of Balsarin, which is definitely 
dated the same year. 

Now, including some trifling verbal differences, there are no 
less than twenty different forms of the address, A lenseigne Saint 
Jehan leuangelistCy after that the fall of the Pont nostre Dame on 
October 25, 1499, had violently ejected both the Saint and the 
Publisher from the establishment thereon. By means of Mr. 
Macfarlane's valuable work, it has been easy to analyze and tabu- 
late them. It is plain that these are not twenty different addresses; 
and indeed no more than three, />., two removals after a first 
temporary shelter, have been suggested. It is equally plain, how- 
ever, that there was some difiiculty in finding a clear and exa6t 
description of the new address or addresses, and it has only been 
realized comparatively recently that the address Carrefour Saint 
Severin means the same establishment as the address rue Saint 
Jacques pres Petit Pont? 

I do not know if there are any topographical or other 
reasons which make the suggestion impossible, but it is evident 

^ Brunet remarks that this seems to show it not to be the first edition. Molinet 
had no connedtion with Lyons. The only other of his books published there was copied 
from one which had been printed before at Valenciennes, of which Molinet was canon. 
See Claudin, iii. 207. — (The form denant is due perhaps to Provencal influence.) 

* See Renouard, Imprimeurs ParisienSy p. 362, note 2 ; also Macfarlane, Introd., 
p. xi ; and Prodor, Index, ii, 607. Renouard alleges that V£rard had an estabh'shment 
"rue du March<-Palu, pris 1 Hdtel-Dieu, en fece Notre-Dame,** as early as 1498, the 
authority he gives being the colophon of the Prophecies Merlinj 1498, which he quotes 
in full, but which only gives the address " deuant nostre Dame De Paris." I presume 
this book to be the same as Macfarlane's 1 73, which he places among the undated bookii 
assigning to it the date " 1498 [-1503?]," as if it bore a date which he imagined a false 


that several difficulties would be resolved if we might understand 
there to have been only one single establishment of Verard's to 
which all these addresses refer, and that he never moved at all 
from the house where he established himself, either directly after 
the fall of the Bridge, or, if we may agree with M. Renouard 
and rely upon the solitary evidence of the Merlin, two years 
before. Provided there are no unanswerable objeGions on other 
grounds than those within my own purview, the following points 
make strongly for this explanation. 

First, and chiefly, there is the fai5l that in the colophons of 
two works published by Verard, the two addresses, pres petit pont, 
and devant la rue neufue nostre dame, considered to refer to diffi:rent 
establishments, are actually found in combination, the address in 
each case running as follows: 

a Paris pres petit pont devant U rue neufue nostre dame a lenscignc Saint jehan 

Again, there is a Hora (Macf., 224) which bears the date 

14th August, 1500, and the address, pres le carrefour SainB 

. Severing while there is another (No, 253) agreeing very closely with 

this, says Mr. Macfarlane (only for the Use of Tours instead of 

I Orleans) and bearing the same date, but with the address, (^<ryan/ la 

\ rue neufue nostre dame, Mr. Macfarlane's explanation is that '* By 

■ accident, apparently, the date has not been altered to correspond 

with the change of address." If there was no change of address 

there is no difficulty and no explanation is needed. 

A third indication of the same kind is afforded by the two 

i one. But, perhaps by an oversight, he does not give the colophon of the third volume 
1 of this book. — The prccisencss of Renouard's indication appears to be founded upon 
t die Plan of Paris of MM. Lenoir and Berty, which is treated as a final authority both 
[ by M. Renouard and M. Duval. 

' "Gyron le courtois" (Macf., 139). "Quinte Curse dc la vie . . . d' Alexandre 
le Grand" (Macf., 148). Tiiaddres& prts prtll pant {auprei dt pilit font : a prtii pent) in 
used five times simply, thirteen times in the combination in la rut tainft jaquei prti 
petit ponlf twice as above, and once in the combination a petit pent prei du carfeur Saint 
Sevtrin (Macf. 142). 


editions of Monstrelet (Macf., 144, 176), both undated, but one 
bearing the address a petit pont^ the other deuant la rue neufue nostre 
dame. The latter edition, says Mr. Macfarlane, " is set up, page for 
page, from the earlier edition. . • . These two editions must evid- 
ently have been printed in rapid succession, and it seems desirable 
to assign this to the earliest possible date, namely July — December, 
1 503, the year in which Virard arrived at his new address devant 
la rue neufue nostre dame^ and the earlier edition to the earlier 
part of the same year, which Vcrard spent pres petit Fmt^ Here 
again the difficulty, such as it is, is created simply by the hypo- 
thesis of a move. 

With regard to the book under consideration, Molinet's Prose 
Version (Macf., 186), the adoption of the above suggestion would 
allow us to date it as early as we liked after Odober, 1499. 
Molinet himself, in the verses which conclude the work, men- 
tions the year 1500; and as I have shown (p. 160) that the work 
had been composed many years before, it seems quite clear that 
this must refer to its publication. It probably followed very soon 
after the quarto edition of the " Roman de la Rose," most of 
whose cuts it contains. But there is less clue to the date of this 
than of the Molinet itself (see infra). 

To proceed now to the internal evidence that V^rard's edition 
preceded Balsarin's. This is mainly drawn from the woodcuts; 
but there are a few typographical points also which show the same 
thing, which I will first mention. Thus there is in Balsarin an 
accidental omission of three words in the " Prologue," ^ and a few 
lines further on a curious misprint, " despoir par turbation " for 
" desperit perturbation." There are also traces of the alleged " cor- 
rections and amendments" here and there; as in the addition of words 
in the same column, ** (moult grant) rage " and " non (pas) seule-- 
ment." Some of the "corrections" are in truth blunders, as on 
f^ V. col. c, "dinutilite fruiCt" for "dinutile fruid"; f^ vi. col. c, 

^ Y\ iiii, coL d: '* de dons assuefa^on: [de motz multiplication] de sotz accimiula- 
tion." The 1521 edition has these words. It was evidently set up froni^V6rard*s. 


" rive " for " riviere '*; ^ P vii. col. a, " regarderay " for " regarday "; 
r. xii, col. a, 1. 8, "cnferrcc" for ^^enserree" (v. p. i8o, 1. 130). 

There are also two places where Balsarin begins a chapter 
with a wrong initial; Cap. XII, where L is printed for H; and 
Cap. LII, where E is printed for F. Now in Virard*s edition, the 
initials are the highly decorated and much disguised capitals of 
which— or of most of which — facsimiles arc given in Claudin, vol. ii, 
pp. 464, 465. And it seems an extremely probable explanation of 
Balsarin*s mistakes that the compositor simply mistook the letter. 
It is, in fa6t, apart from the context, extremely difficult to say what 
some of the letters in this series are meant to be, they are so twisted 
and disguised by ornamentation. Even in M. Claud in*s facsimiles 
the alphabet is not quite in alphabetical order; and this very H, 
misread by Balsarin, is placed at the end of all, as if its identifica- 
tion had been doubtful. 

Even apart from these small but strong corroborations, how- 
ever, the evidence of the woodcuts is decisive. In the first place 
they show quite certainly that one edition is founded upon the 
other; and in the second, they display a whole number of points 
in fiivour of Balsarin having copied from V^rard, and pradically 
none in favour of V^rard having copied from Balsarin. The 
arrangement of the illustrations in the two editions is to all intents 
identical; V^rard has 138, besides the Prologue, omitting to illus- 
trate two places illustrated in Balsarin; Balsarin has 139, besides 
the Prologue, omitting to illustrate one place illustrated in V^rard. 
In 1 08 cases the actual illustrations coincide,* and in some 44 of these 
cases the cuts are being employed more or less away from their 
original use in the Poem itself. Nothing but copying of an almost 
slavish kind can account for such agreement; unless indeed we hypo- 
thetise a common exemplar, an earlier edition, of which all trace has 

* Rivi teems here to suit the tense bet^, but rivtin wmt the word in the original 
p o em . 

' The cuts in the two series corrctpood in design so doseljr that their coinctdeiioe 
or disigrcement b as manifest as if the cuts wcra the same. See account of the wood- 
cuts, pp. 8a n i#f. 


disappeared. But this seems quite unnecessary and exceedingly 

In the same way an attentive study of the cases in which the 
cuts do not agree leaves little doubt as to which was the copied 
and which the imitator. For with very few exceptions they arc 
cases in which Balsarin could not follow Verard — not having the 
corresponding cut in his series — while Virard could have followed 
Balsarin. Further, the choice Balsarin makes of a cut when he 
has not the correft one, is evidently dilated, not by the passage 
to be illustrated, but by the general appearance of the cut used 
in Verard. Thus in Cap. II, not having the cut of " Povret^," 
§ I L, used by Virard, he substitutes " Faulx-Semblant and Abs- 
tinence," § 67, for no apparent reason but that in each case 
the figures are sitting under a tree. And the same appears to be 
the reason for the choice of this same cut, § 67, to take the place 
of § 49, " In olden times," both in Cap. XXXVIII and XCIV. In 
Cap. II again, for " Oiseuse before the gate," § 12, he employs § 19, 
" Amours locking the heart of TAmant," a key figuring promin- 
ently in both cuts. Had the sense of the passage been the point 
considered, he would have used the cut, § 22, *^ Bel-Acueil admit- 
ting TAmant," which, however, comes next, in a less appropriate 
position. In the same way " Pygmalion at work on the statue," 
§ 109, has to do duty in Cap. XXXI for " Nero watching the dis- 
section of his mother"; and "La Vielle admitting TAmant," 
§ 79, for "Le Jaloux beating his wife," § 55 (Cap. XLV), be- 
cause there is a general cffeA of one figure laying hold of the 

In the first chapter Balsarin inserts an illustration to the 
" Moraliti," where Verard has none. But the cut he uses is the 
same (" Amour pursuing TAmant," § 14) as V^rard's next, at the 
head of Cap. II, and in the same way Balsarin uses V^rard's next 

^ This same principle of superficial resemblance in the cuts, without consideration 
of the subjed, is seen also in the following substitutions: Cap. XXXIX, § 29 for § 5 1 ; 
Cap. XLVI, §45 for §50; Cap. LII, §68 for §64} Capp. LXX and LXXI, §29 
for § 50; Cap. LXXIV, § 88 for § 82; Cap. XC, § 53 for § 82. 


following cut (§ 57, " Crowning first king,"), one place before.' 
Here again there is clear evidence of Verard's priority. For the 

^ eubjedl which he illustrates by "Crowning first king" is " Or- 
gueil," an interpolated passage, for which therefore none of the 

' series had an illustration. Plainly, the choice of this substitute was 
deliberate and judicious. In its position in Balsarin, on the other 
hand, the illustration is meaningless. Direftly afterwards, again, 
we find the cut, § 4, *'Villenie," used to "Haine" in Balsarin, 
and to its own subjedl in Verard. 

Moreover, while in the majority of cases where Verard's series 
has cuts not found in Balsarin's, they are used to their proper places, 

' theonlytwocutsof Balsarin's not occurring in Verard's series are not.^ 
There are only two cases where Balsarin has a cut in or near 

' its right place, where Verard's is not. These are in Cap. XXII, 
where Balsarin places § 36 (same as § 24), " Raison descends," at 

I the head of the chapter, while Verard uses " Oiseusc with key," 

[512 (Verard, however, uses § 36 directly after, Balsarin repeating 
it); and in Cap. XXV, where Balsarin places correftly § 37, 
'' The needy and a true friend," while Verard uses § 48, " The open 

I coffer," a quite appropriate cut, though not the actually correal 
one. It is significant, however, that in both these cases Verard, 
had he been the imitator, could have used the same as Balsarin; 
while in neither case was it possible for Balsarin to follow Verard, 
as his series did not contain the cut used by him. 

As to the date of Verard's quarto edition of the poem itself, 
there is little guidance. But it may be assumed that the cuts 
were made for that, and therefore that it appeared before the 
Molinet.^ It is unfortunate that none of the other works of Verard's 

' Thus in the two editions the second and third cuts agree; but Balsarin's have 
got, so to say, out of step with Verard's. * 

' §32, "Bcl-Acueil admits TAmant," used twice, Capp. Ill and V; §32, 
"Jalousie chiding Bcl-Acucil," used twice, Capp. JXXXIX and XCVII. In both 
the latter places there is a superficial likeness to the cut used by Verard. 

* I have not been able to detect any signs of wear or breakage in any of the blocks 
in either book, except in the cut § 13, where the slight break appears in both alike. 
(Sec p. 87, note 3.) 


in which these cuts appear (see p. 87) have any helpful date, being 
all apparently either undated, or else, like the " Nef de Sant6,'* 
1 507, of too late a date to give any clue. It is possible that indica- 
tions might be found in conne6tion with one or other of the three 
extraneous cuts, §§ 28, 35, 51, or the cut, *9, used in the Codicillei 
but I have not so far been able to trace the sources of two of these, 
§§ 28, 5 1 ; nor to find any help from either of the others, except 
that § 35 is used in the " Kalendayr of Shyppars," 1503. As far as 
^ a facsimile can be relied on, I think this cut, as reproduced in 
Sommer's book, shows certain minute signs of wear, compared to 
the cut in Virard's Quarto. But this gets us no further than the 
evidence of the Molinet discussed above. The cut from the Codicille^ 
*9, has a little break visible in the capital of the right-hand pillar, 
which does not appear in Claudin's facsimile of the 1492 book. 
This might be a clue, could it be found elsewhere, less broken or 
more Broken, in a dated book. 

There is an edition of the " Codicille et Testament Maistre 
Jehan de Meun," etc., published by Michel Le Noir, 24th April, 
1 50 1 (Brunet, iii. 1680). If — as seems probable — this was copied 
from Virard's edition, the latter, and consequently the accompany- 
ing Roman de la Rose Quarto, cannot be later than 1 500. 

Brunet mentions another edition of the " Codicille, etc.,'* 
which seems certainly to be the same as the edition found at the 
end of V^rard's quarto Roman de la Rose. But the description is 
hopelessly puzzling. The title and colophon both correspond to 
that, and also the number of leaves (42). But Brunet describes 
only 31 lines to a page instead of 41; and speaks as if the whole 
of the three parts were in "long lines," whereas it is only the 
Codicille itself, the other two items being in double columns. That 
there is some mistake is evident, as the contents thus arranged 
could not possibly come within the 42 leaves. I think probably 
31 is a misprint for 41, the other point a mere oversight, and the 
edition the same as that which accompanies the V^rard Quarto. 

Of course if it is proved — as I think it is — that V^rard's 
edition of Molinet must be attributed to 1500; and if it is taken 


for granted — as I think it must reasonably be — that the prior use 
of the cuts was for the edition of the Poem itself; then it follows 
necessarily that V^rard's Quarto must be dated before 1500, or 
early in that year. The apparently identical condition of the wood- 
blocks would seem to show almost contemporaneous printing. 

20I DD 






Cap. I i 


i Part of §1. 


contains §38; part of §39. 



Part of §l; §§2-11; 
part of § 1 2. 



Part of §39; part 
of §40. 



Partof§i2; part of §13. 



Part of §40. 



Part of §13. 



§§41,42; part of 



Part of § 13; part of § 14. 




Part of §14. 



Part of §43; part 



Part of § 14; part of § 15. 

of §44. 



Part of §15. 



Part of §44. 



Part of §15. 



Part of §44. 






Part of §44. 



§§17, 18; part of §19. 






Part of § 19; part of §20. 



§§46,47; part of 



Part of §20. 




Part of §20. 



Part of §48; part 



Part of § 20. 

of §49. 



§§2i, 22, 23. 



§§5o>5i; part of 



§§ 24, 25, 26, 27 ; part 


of §28. 



Part of §52. 






Part of §52. 


part of §31. 



Part of §52. 



Part of §31; §§32»33- 



Part of §52; part 




of §53. 






Part of §53; part 



Part of §36. 

of §54. 



Part of §36. 



Part of §54; part 



Part of §36; part of §37. 

of §55. 



Part of §37. 



Part of §55; §565 



Part of §37. 

part of §57. 



Part of §37. 



S§58, 59. 







contains §§6o, 6i. 


contains Partof§95;§§96, 







Part of §63. 



Part of §98. 



Part of §63. 







part of §100. 



§65; part of §66. 



Part of §100 ; part 




of §101. 




Part of §ioi. 



Part of §72. 



Part of §101. 



Part of §72; §73; 



Part of §101. 

part of §74. 



Part of §102. 



Part of §74. 



Part of §102. 



Partof§74j §75. 



Part of §102. 



Pan of §76. 



§§103, I04» 105; 



Part of § 76. 

part of § 1 06. 



Pan of §76. 



Part of §106. 



Part of 1 76. 



Part of §106. 



Part of §77. 



Part of §106. 



Pan of §77. 



P^ut of §106. 



Part of §78. 



Part of §107. 



Part of §78. 



Part of §107. 



Part of §78. 



Rut of §107. 



Part of §78. 



Part of § 107. 



Part of §78. 









§ 109; part of 




§ no. 



Part of §78. 



Part of §110. 



§§79980, 81. 



Part of §110; part 



§§82, 83. 

of §111. 



§§84, 85, 86. 



Part of §111. 



§§87, 88, 89. 



Part of §111. 



§§90, 91. 



Part of §111. 



W92, 93- 



P^ut of §111; 



Part of §94. 

§ 112. 



P^ut of §94; part 
of §95. 










A. L [Lyons.] [Ortuin & Schenck.] 

B. n. [Lyons.] [Jean Syber.] 

C. in. [Lyons.] [G. Le Roy.] 

D. IV. Paris. 

F. VI. Paris. 

G. VU. Paris. 

J. Du ?r6. 

E. V. Paris. [E. Jehannot.] 

J. Du Pri. 

A. Virard. 

(a. J. Petit. \ 
h. blank. V 
c. A.V6rard.J 

Nic Des Prez. 

a. J. Petit. 

h. Pierre Le Caron. 

c. Jehan Ponce. 

d. G. Eustace. 

e. M. Le Noir. 

[circa 148 1.] 
[circa 1485.] 

[circa 1487.] 

[circa 1494.] 

[circa 1497.] 

2 cols. 180 ff., 34 IL, 92 cuts. 
2 cols. 149 ff.y 41 11., 92 cuts. 

(Arabic numenk in ngnatures.) 

2 cols. 150 ff.y 41 IL, 92 cuts. 

(Sm. roman numerals in signa- 
tures except a'y a*.) 

2 cols. 1 50 ff.y 41 \Lj 88 cuts. 
2 cols. 150 ff., 41 IL, 88 cuts. 

2 cols. 142 flf., 43 11., 88 cuts. 

[1498 to 1505.] 2 cols. 142 ff., 43 11., 87 cuts. 




I. Paris. 

II. ParU. 

K. m. Paris. 
L. IV. Paris. 
M. V. Paris. 

N. VI. Paris. 

O. Vn. Piu-is. 

A. Virard. 

M. Le Noir. 
M. Le Noir. 
M. Le Noir. 
J. Janot. 

[P. Le Noir.] 

A. Lotrian. 







2 cols. 150 ff. (+ 42), 41 U., 

88 cuts(+ 3). 

(With the TgjUmemtf etc, at end.) 
2 cols. 156 ff., 3911.9 7 cuts. 

2 cols. 156 ff., 39 IL, 26 cuts. 

2 cols. 156 ff., 39 11.^ 26 cuts. 

2 cols. 142 ff., 41 11., 5 cuts. 

2 cols. 142 ff., 41 IL, 

(6 as) 5 cuts. 

2 cols. 142 ff., 41 ILy 5 cuts. 

NoTB.— In all the Folios, and most of the Quartos, the fint illuftradon is a double cut, represendag (a) The Sleeper, (h) Dame Oisnut with 
the key. These I have counted alwa;fs as two cuts, though they are sometimes on one block { #^., in the Le Noir Quartoa. Tlras 
No. VII Quarto is eza£Uy uniform with Nos. V and VI, though the cuts are different 



Nos. I AND in. Folio; Nos. II and IV, Small-8vo. 







I. Paris. 

Q. II. Paris. 

R. m. Paris. 

S. IV. Paris. 

Pierre Vidoue. 

Pierre Vidoue. 

(a. Galliot Du Pri. \ rfPrivilege dated \ ^ ^. r.^ w ^ ^ ii ^^ ^,*. 
1^. Jehan Petit. | V 1526.] / * ^^- '^ *^' ++ "'' 93 cuts. 

Galliot Du Pre. 

(a. Galliot Du Pri. 
\^. Jehan Petit 

/a. J. St Denys. 
b, J. Longis. 
r. J. Morin. 

d. Les Angeliers. 
i. J. Andr6. 

tf. J. St. Denys. 

b. J. Longis. 

c. J. Morin. 
^. Les Angeliers. 

e. J. Andr6. 
/ J. Mass^. 
g. Fr. Regnault. 
h. G. Le Bret. 
I. P. Vidoue. 

\k. PoncetLePreux. 


} 1531- 



1 col. 412 ff., 30 11., 51 cuts. 

2 cols. 136 ff., 45 11., 60 cuts. 


I col. 412 ff., 30 11., 49 cuts. 

The printer's luune is mentioned 
in the copies bemring 6. Le 
Bret's name. 












A. Virard. 





G. Balsarin. 

G. Balsarin. 






/ Vcufue feu \ 
\M. Lc Noir./ 


2 cob. 1 86 ff., 4211,139 cuts. 
2 cob. 1 54 flf., 45 11.) 140 cuts. 

2 cols. 1 28 £, 5 1 IL, 28 cuts. 

All the editions are in Gothic letter, except one, viz., Clement Marot's Recension No. II, which is in Roman. 



The following Facsimiles have been made with the view of illustrating a variety of 

The close resemblance existing among the Folios made it seem expedient to 
reproduce the first and last pages of each of the seven ; and the first page of V^rard's 
Quarto has been added, as it follows closely the pattern of the Folios. Of the separate 
cuts, some have been chosen to illustrate points referred to in the monograph, as § 14 
on Plates III and IX (see pp. 18, 19); §§ 78 and loi on Plates VI and XII (see 
pp. 17, 18), etc. The imitation of design from one series to another may be followed 
through all the series in §§ 12 and 112, and through some in §§ 14, 42, etc. The 
intelligent corredtions of design introduced in V^rard's Quarto (Series V. ii) are seen in 
§§ 43 and 76 (Plate XXXI). The change in taste and style in the latest designs 
(Series P. V. i) is exemplified in § 15 (Plate XXXm b, compared with Plates IV and 
^X § 55 (Plate XXXIV compared with Plates V and XI), etc. Three examples of 
the Mathiolus illustrations are given (Plate XXXIII a) to show how exactly they suit 
their service in the Roman dt la Rose. 

The following are the sources firom which the facsimiles have been taken : 

A, Folio I : partly from my own copy, partly — by the kind permission of the 

owner — fi-om the copy belonging to Mrs. Christie Miller, of Britwell G)urt. 

B, Folio n : the first page (Plate VII) from the Adamoli copy in the Palais des 

Arts, Lyons, but with the woodcut initial (which is in that copy hidden under 
illumination) supplied from my own copy.^ The first page, lower part, show- 
ing variations (Plate XIII a), fh>m the copy in the possession of M. J. Masson, 
of Amiens. The last page and separate cuts from my own copy. 

C, Folio III : from the copy in the Bodleian Library at Oxford, by the kind 

permission of the Librarian. 

D, Folio IV : from my own copy. 

E, Folio V : from the British Museum copy (c 7, b. 13). 

F, Folio VI: V^rard's Title (Plate XXIII a), from a Title-page in my own 

possession (see p. 25) \ Jehan Petit's Title (Plate XXIII b), from the British 
Museimi copy (c 7, b. 12). 

> In the process of introduftion into the facsimile this initial has been infinitesiniall/ tikcd out of 
its correA position. See the same initial in Plate Xm a. 

209 E E 

G, Folio VII ; iYom my own copy, but the last page (Plate XXVIII) from a 

H, Quarto I; from the British Museum copy (c. 34, g. i). 
K) Quarto III (Plates XXXII h; XXXIII a); from my own copy. 
Cuts from Series P. V. i (Plates XXXIII b, and XXXIV), from British Museum 

copy of Q (i 1475. h. 10) except § 29, which is from my own copy of R. 
Cut from Les Regnars traversant (Plate XXXII a), from the British Museum 

copy(ii47S. gg. s). 


A, Folio I. 

First page, Plate L 

Last page. 


B, Folio II. 

First page, 


Last page. 


First page, lower port 


showing variations 

, XIII a. 

C, FoKo III. 


xm b. 

First page. 


Last page. 


D, FoUo IV. 



First page. 


A^Mw% j#ng%#. 


E, FoUo V. 



First pag^ 


Last page, 


F, FoUo VI. 

V^rard's Title, 


Jehan Perit's Title, 


First page. 


Last page. 


G, Folio VII. 

Le Noir's Title, 



First page. 


Last page. 


H, Quarto L 

First page, 


K« Quarto III. 




§ I. The Sleeper. Series L.i. Plate I. 


V.i. XX. 

V.ii. XXIX. 

Le N. XXXII b. 


§ 3* Felonnye. 

§ 9. Viellesse. 

§12. Dame Oiseuse. 

§13. La Carole. 

§14. Amours suyvant. 

§15. Narcissus. 

§ 29. Piti£ and Franchise. 

§ 32. Jalousie chides Bel-Acueil. 
§ 34. The Tower. 

^ 42. Seneca. 

^ 43. Suicide of Nero. 

^ 52. Suicide of Lucrece. 
§ 54. Samson and Delilah. 

^ 55. Lc Jaloux. 

% 76. Phyllis, Dido, Medea. 

iL.i. Plate m. 





































• V.ii. 







xxxni b. 








XXV, xxvm. 




































§ j6 {c&nt.). Phyllis, etc. 
§ 78. Power of Nature. 

Series V.ii. Plate XXXI. 

Mathhlus. XXXma. 
L.i. VI. 





§ 95. Zeuxis. 





§ loi. Deucalion and Pjrrrha. 







§112. L'Amant gathers the Rose. 











Cut from Lfs Reman travtrsant. 



ilCfCommca Ic romac oe U rofe 
Ott tout Uit osmours eft cndorc. 

y^'W^ Smttigpietiiat 

M I V qucaifongcs 

SIB 'Hefoncqftblcs 

H I H ctmoifongcs 

■ f V fongesfongicr 
11^ Quinc font ntye 

Sins font apics bun appirinc 
0i (» puis bim crouucr garant 
Ung lonir cenomme nMOobes 

Qui IK tint pas Tonscs t lobes 
9incois tfcript U tirion 
Ouiconqius aiitc nc qui D^ 
Dccrout que Ibnge atiiiinine 
£t qui voubna pur fol aim tioiix 
£ar cnsjott moy af ic Rancc 
Oat fonge foit ligniHancc 
D«8 bits nil gens ct OS ainu]73 
Que Us plufieura fongeittf nufts 
ZDoute K cboTes couueitement 
Que on t«it puis appenenunt. 

s { 

I. First page of A, with cuts from Series L.i, 
% I. The Sleeper; § IZ. Dame Oiseusc. 

^^^B ^((tiMWfontenboiitomut 

tbiffiygtiCMDlxfoisoavtaat ^| 

^^^^^^ ConniKaimlcniUeqiKboncll 

aMscenironiKmcronulnt H 

^^^^^H SifisloMRaKna-kegMtes 

QiiimtainioyrallitSKte H 

^^^^^H Ont^fceernKfliiiTaicapdoce 

mosKMidkumkc W 

^^^^^H CttntqiKtaiitlrbontaiiRiiDK 

OnloiKqaes Kpitfrnub 


^^^^^H £efattonctqiieief(«fl9 


^^^^^H ZMsKtamfiisicbiailozefi^ 


^^^^^M QaoKlHomilmol gu ncmea fcnt 


^^^^^V IfBpnixquiwiuiiMliKncowcntt 

l^poftcmait Ira full; imiiq 

^^H ZDsbreconrenttrcufrrtfgiK 


^^^M ZbMceqiiiir(x(qiiim(to|Rpb&« 

Qui taiit mcnramiricK mte 

^^^M SilmpixIkflcecDmuiunt 


^^^^^^ OmliffaisgmttcSmiuuc 

annt fon dnjxl tE fonqK 

^^^^^^L IFcfitbtFopottUngciKcetift 

Qui Ces amsns Ic9 rofes gaits 

^^^^^^1 aJatsSnjrimtmilcontrAit 


^^^^^H Ottsncfmrntnamctaait 

Sins que Billtc iiK rcitiiufle 

On man vndl oiom ocmounfle 

^^^^^M ^'VJaMoiRbuiICRgKmety 


lafloirDu besuroficrnaiir 

^ ^J?piicfaiifiiid)ltmoitifaa>p 

^^^P flaentefpennoeiKlloicfliblc 


^f /nflcKntoiisiiKsbfcnfiitciira 

a tmt fiit iour ct ie imruciUe 

^^^^^^ £onuntwrctOfU€ntxxAtttttt3 

^Sit fh en roimnt tt U rcTe 

^^^L Csrinoiibctlcivcaailttcm^ 
^^^H CnrparcnlxdtoiclxnaiiK 
^^H StridxqncpxiriiofrUfiMx 

Ou MM I« cnunours cit (ndofe 

^^H . vaOttiatoltpaaUrUbc 

^^^^^^^ ^_lUDicainmonrstayaii» 

^^^^^H IMaataiaUsbaronsEclotl 

^^^^^" IcTqiidjfanigistxaiiKfcndoll 

^^^V Drarccoareeeefaisamaraienx 

^^^^^^ £KKlnMBcntMMNraix 

^^^^^^^^^^^^1 page 

of A. 


5. Narcissus. 

/aireoumilioitiu pourpjfa 
Sel acucil k trefcouli enfant 

•Pourct qiMuoit taifit Uqiaiit 

§ 34. The Tower (showing lines mispUced at the top of the page). 
IV. Cuts from Series L.i. 

$4>* ScMO. 

f 43. Suicide of Nero. 

(S5-LcJ«k>«- 4 76. PhjrUis DWo, M«»«. 

V. Cats froM Series LX 

§ 78- Power of Nature. 

§ 95. Zcuxis. 


^Lai^ ^ 






















$ lOi. Deucalion and Pyrrha. § 112. L'Amant gathers the Rose. 

VI. Cuts from Series L.i. 

i tCfcommencEleromant bela rofe 
\iDa coQC laitoamours eft cndofe 

ainces gens blaaq 
J €lii( IK font mic menfonaitr 
a diBfoitt apjes bfoi appuraiit 
I 0f oi paisbim troime grant 
i ?8tng actor tatonimcr macrobes 
J (Qui ne tint pas fongcB a lobes 
? afncoiBefcript la ■oifion. 
p£)tri adoint an rof api'on 
Ciiicnnqiic; ajidc ne qiri Die 
\ Cneafoftvnemnfardfe 
\ f^aare qiK fongcadmoine 
; £tqa vouldrapeur fol nKmfnme 
* Car oidroitntovafie fiance 

jeesbiensanc gene et See cnnnfs 
£!nele8 pluffeorafongent parnuYtj 
Obonttbccbofes coonerttment 
dpJ ^qiiAi5fefm(anoe mo cage 
C—L l&DPoit43n>on<^P!Ap(^9c 
• — iZee feanee gesconcbfetncftoye 
^nc nnft conimc (c fonloipe 
lEtmc eoimoifemoult foimait 
Slwfcng fongcen mon boanant 
Onimonltfatbcla adnifer' 
Conmc voosme orreseenffer 
/Car en adotfant moult me pkut 
Obaiscnfongeoncqaes nes nenll 
101 wefl (c fongc rinioyer 
Tttxurvofoem pbs fnt efgarer 
amoorslc mepiieet commande 

VII. First page of B, with cuts from Scries, 
§ I. The Sleeper; ^13. Dame Oiscusc. 

jEtqnataticiir mains nfpentioiiidie 
ZootfoiKfacmetfiiits moi po&idre 
Zebootonpiiisa enocber 
Zomsenfispir efcooKr 
Zesb:acbesorona-t momioA- 
Sana ianul ace rams ocfpcdcr 
iCar ai vouloye rims blccicr 
£c ff men coiuiiiit li a foicc 
JEntamcr vng pou dc icfcouE 
Snltremcnt aaoir ne fcaaorc 
iCcOontpsrantocfir anofc 
<Bt la fin fis rant vous en Of 
etaasfeiKsmasi cfpandf 
iQaanc ieur le botnon eflocbie 
iCe fat quant oedansIeD3toiid)ie 
lories feaUatesranrcbar 
Car ie foulove toK fertber 
3ln|qiies anfons tn bcntonnet 
Commeflmefembleq boncft 
Si fis lou fi mefler les graincs 
lSail;f(0cfmell3|fent3 paines 
fEttant a toot lebonton tedre 
£nfisenaFgir 1 eUandrc 
jCe fat tout cc que ie foifis 
nbilsbetancfnsfebn lo28fi5 
Ouornqs rail mal grene men foeat 
Zetxwhrqainulmalne concait 
SVmappeueiloe conomant 
fine tor fifs^^rbefiaenanc 
II^ateilRf mctnnl cDniredic 
iQnene p:ame manve 1 (Bdlle 
^pOavtR^dxeinoirs f faefSe 
" ntenfibaaltoegremevf 

^ eia^linoblanentcbai; 

eni^peranci: ndloit fable 

^ofTevcrsto'tnes bioifaitai* 

tCommc faire ooiuent bdxeors 
Car moult cftof c a eol): raioj 
<£ar parent cftof cocucncj 
Siricbeqneponrvoir laf^e 
Jtobc|feneftoitpas (irfcbe 
JLT'S^Oienbainours la voins 
7^<Qni racuflent aidie miojlrd nd} 
l^uis a tons les barons be Ion 
£efqucI;UmaisWea ne foidoft 
iDcs fecoars bes fins amoarcqc 
iEntre les baiffers fauoorair 
IRmdif graces oi)c fois ouvingt 
U^lsoeratfon nemc founint 
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SalleivDabeaD roper Hasf 
2(iiipiemlirorc vernicille 
atant (ntioarifc mefaeille 

^u rout (art damoutsdl 

Vni. LastpxgeofB. 

§ 3- Felonnyc. 

% 9- Vicllessc. 

^ 13. La Carole. 

^ 14. Amours suyvant. 

IX. Cuts from Series L.ii 




g \^3 

§ 42. Seneca. 

§ 54. Samson and Delilah. 

§ 55. Lc Jaloux. 

§ 76. Phyllis, Dido, Medea. 

XI. Cuts from Series L.ii 

f 78. Power of Nature. 

f loi. Deucilian mad Pjrrrfaa. 

} 1 12. L'Amut gsthen the Rose. 
XIL Cut! from Seria L.ii. 

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(a) First page of B, lower part, showing variations. 

j€'^«mm«m J^tZ«yi«ft 

(b) Title-page of C. 


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XIV. First page of C, with cuts from Scries L.H, 
§ r. The Slccperj § 12. Dame Oiscuse. 

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XV. Lut page ore. 

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a it. 

XVII. Tint page of D, w 
% I. TfaeSIccpOi I 

th cuts from Series 
ily Dame Oiseuse. 

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l^k XVm. Last page of D. ^M 

XIX. TitVsfitecfE. 

Mftteat bttSamonts c|t aubfc 

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XX. First page of E, with cuts from Series V.i, 
§ I. The Slecperi § 12. Dame Oiseuse. 

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_ XXI. L 


B (g 


a?l IgS 


§ 3. Fctonnye. 


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^^K^ '* s'*^'^^ 








§ 14. Amours suyvant. 


% 42, Seneca. § 1 12- L'Amant gathers the Rose. 

XXII. Cuts from Scries V.i. 





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jSDufnst f ntl Samoute e|{ cmrofe 

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XXIV. First paM of F, with cuts from Series L.ii, 
y 1. The Sleepcrj § 12. Dame Oisetise. 

' fitfattMatimiiMia 



Sine me (onTaif (I fcnffce afouc 








iinanf o) (i ^t Segie mt Si 
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XXV. Last page of F, 
f 33. Jalousie 

S^O!ireo)fat( oiceeonnciSiiiSe 

ainfi iewfa tofe Bcimane 
a (isMfiit iouid wnKJiwUre 


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■^^ ur/ 



, with cut from Series LJi, 
chides Bcl'Acucil. 

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^^^^^^^^^H A%in(ijtcH0fitcteuii(4 ^^1 







XXVI. Title-page of G, with M. Le Noir's Device. 


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asuia mc|{oi(« ofirfois 


XXVII. First page of G, with cuts from Series L.ii, 
^ I. The Sleeper} § tx Dune Oiseuie. 

tQaoncqntannfmaf jtKtit met) peat 

flins mccmftnttt feuf K a fafix 
^ qutf feet qutfme conufnt fntcc 
Si moppefCe iTiiecaiiucnaKt 
jiQue&irfiXs gumt kefonemiiiC 

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fOoaeceqHeSpt) etagceaSfe 
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pncmi fc (ate cecine Smus 
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fl>nractliami)UtBefi tmtemtofe 

1 ^ 





S: j^nL^v^i^ 

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=^ — -^ 

gfnMiime romidtetnenf « putiapot 
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XXVIII. Last page 
J 32- J>°ov 

3f G, with cut from Scries L.ii, 
sie chides Bel-Acucil. 

f[4C^ tfl tt rommant htia rofe 
tont fott ftdmouce cf7 enifofe 
2(in tc0 0cn« 6unc i) ci) fonjsee 
nuieoffttcnt (t^fZjSM fSgn 
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' in2<utciitb<nomiiieifi(icro6f« 

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et quiSouOta |Wi» foTRia) tiigiK 
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iSue fra |i(u|uute foiigcl put nupt; 
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"I point quam oitt« pifiit fe peage 


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c^ie «} foiisc onngms ncne naif 
Aui niuou btt tout m Ibtt 
4:omfiie9?fii>ict fetoopt 
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^Conimmf » 9uctf que a romntiUM 
£)» fdtt frditionre cf{ (onCe ff icfof« 
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jOi tionit Mm qHO) ijn fa R(0|>iic 
CcfCtMuc qtti<c Hi)) cmpiie 
<i;c|I Vnt »aine»e tinft pu'« 
Slncffit iMA rofc rflct (fhriuc 
Q|S6uieH»|)oi(a afitfai* 
£■«))>< cinq an>;anqmoy« 
S3ue iw m«|x te imtp it (iMi3«iic 
3lu ftmpg amommf ptatn itiaft 

XXIX. Fint page of H, with cues from Scries V.ii 
§ I. The Sleeper} ^12. Dame Oiseuse. 

§ 9- Viellcsse. 

^ 14. Amours suyvant. § 42. Seneca. 

XXX. Cuts from Series V.H. 

§43- Suidde of Nero, 

§ 76. PhyUis, Dido, Medea. 


§ 78, Power of Nature. § 1 1 a, L'Amant gathers the Rose. 

XXXI. Cuts from Series V.ii, 

(a) Cut from Let Regnars travertani, perhaps designed for 
Series V.ii, § 35, Jean de Mcun. 







- 11 


(b) Title-page of K, with cuts of Series Lc N., 
§ I. The Sleeper; § 12. Dame Oiseuse. 

§ 5+- Samson and Delilah. § 76. Dido and Phyllis, 

(a) Cuts from MuthMus, used in K and L. 

§ 12, Dame Oiseuse. 

§ 13. La Carole. 

§ 15. Narcissus. ^^9- PitiJ ind Franchise. 

(b) Cuts from P.V.i. 

^ 34. The Towt-r. 

§ 55' Lc Jaloux, 

^ 52. Suicide of Lucrecc. 


§ loi. Deucalion and Pyrrha. § ii2, L'Amant gathers ihe Rose 

XXXIV. Cuts from Scries P.V.i. 

CHiswicK mess: chauu 


■ t 

I ■ 
> • 

■ f 1 


« I 

'I I 

T 1 



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« 4 



Supplementary Note to Illustrated Monograph XIV 

'The Early Editions of the Roman de la Rose' 





JoLY 1913 



SOME little time after the issue of my Monograph on the Early 
Editions of the Roman de la Rose^ Mr. Esdaile kindly brought 
to my notice a vellum-printed fragment of the work, differing from 
any of the editions there described. The interesting question at 
once arose, had there existed an edition, now unknown, of which 
this was the only surviving trace. Though this question has been, 
in Mr. Pollard's opinion and my own, decided with some certainty 
in the negative, I thought the fragment itself of sufficient interest 
to offer an entire facsimile of it to the Bibliographical Society, with 
a few explanatory notes, in such a form that the whole can be 
readily appended to my previous monograph. 

The facsimile shows exactly of what the fragment consists. 
It is a doubled sheet out of a gathering of four; />., there are here 
two leaves out of a gathering of eight leaves, four pages out of the 
sixteen. The first leaf bears the signature a. ii., and the second 
therefore would be a. vii. The first leaf, in its four columns, con- 
tains the first 121 lines of the poem ; and the second contains lines 
617-764. There are two woodcuts on the first page, and one on 
the last. 

It is at once evident that this sheet bears some very close 
relation to Verard's Folio edition, that lettered E in the Monograph. 
It is not, however, a fragment of that edition, the type and other 
features being different in the corresponding sheet of such copies 
as I have seen. The two woodcuts at the head of the first page are 
indeed the same as in that, but in the reversed order.^ The woodcut 
on the last page is not the same as that found in the corresponding 

^ I am glad of an opportunity here to correA a slip in the Monograph, p. 85, 
where it is stated that these two woodcuts are on a single block. It should have been 
said that they are two separate cuts. 

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place in V6rard's Folio ; although this same cut is used in that 
edition four times, in other places (§§ 26, 43, 46, 92). It is one of 
those stock cuts of V6rard's, used for so many different services, and 
belongs originally, it appears, to the Cent NouvelUs Nouvelles of i486. 

The type of the fragment is old and much worn. A type very 
much like it is found in certain sheets in the V6rard Folio, but not 
exactly the same. The fount employed in the fragment appears to 
be identical with the type used in a book printed for V6rard by 
Le Caron, viz., Alain Chartier^fais^ diBes et balades^ and also with 
a type used by Guillaume Mignart, of which a specimen is given 
in Claudin, vol. ii, p. 325 (alphabet, p. 326). M. Claudin notes the 
close resemblance of Mignart's types and Lc Caron's. Mr. Prodtor 
speaks of the latter as ^^a rather mysterious person." It seems 
extremely probable, he thinks, that a large proportion of V^rard's 
books were printed by him. 

Taking into consideration the worn-out type, the irregularity 
of position of the woodcuts, and the fa£t that this fragment is 
apparently unique, we may conclude pretty certainly, I think, that 
it does not form part of a lost edition, but is, as Mr. Polliard 
suggested to me, a " trial sheet" printed off to test the type, which 
proved, when tested, to be too much worn to use. No doubt a 
proof or two was struck off on paper, and thrown away. This 
proof on vellum has survived, simply because the material was 
valuable for binders' use. There is no record at the British Museum 
of how the fragment came into its possession. But it bears precisely 
the appearance we should exped had it been taken out of a binding, 
and as all the vellum-printed copies of V^rard's publications in the 
King's Library— -ordered of the publisher by the English King 
Henry VII — have been rebound, there seems every probability that 
this sheet was found in one of the original bindings, and preserved 
by the Library authorities at the time of the rebinding. 




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