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£a/7# £#jM Colonies in Trinidad. 


[Reprinted from "Timehri," the Journal of the Royal 
Agricultural and Commercial Society.] 

Early English Colonies in Trinidad. 

By N. Darnell Davis. 

N the 1 8th of February 1797, Trinidad was 
taken from Spain by a British Force under 
Admiral Sir Henry Harvey and General Sir 
Ralph Abercromby.* When the news reached England 
that the noble Island had been added to the Empire, 
the guns at the Tower of London were fired off in honour 
of the event. 

2. An account of the early history of Trinidad, in the 
Sloane MS. No. 3,662, which is preserved in the British 
Museum, is herewith printed. It shows that early in the 
Seventeenth Century, three attempts were made to estab- 
lish an English colony in that island, but without success. 
Before taking up that manuscript, it may be well to 
glance at the Spanish connection with the island, and to 
observe how the place was frequented by English sailors 
in Elizabethan and Stuart times. 

3. After its discovery by COLUMBUS in 1498 Trini- 
dad was left very much to itself by the Spaniards. In 
1499, that turbulent Cavalier ALONZO DE OjEDA, with 
Juan de la Cosa and Amerigo Vespucci in his com- 

* Some account of the taking of Trinidad will be found in the 24th 
Volume (pp. 181 to 182) of the Naval Chronicle, and in Joseph's History 
of Trinidad (pp, [89 to 199). Don Joseph Chacon, the Spanish 
Governor, was a high minded and brave man. Apodaca, the Spanish 
Admiral, was a poor creature. Although the story may not be true, 
that, on Chacon's saying, " All is lost !" Apodaca, exclaimed, '• Not 
all, I saved the image of St. James of Compostello the Patron of my 
ship, and my own !" it seems to indicate the estimation in which Apodaca 
was held. 


On Whit Sunday, in June 1576, he set out from Plymouth 
with two Barkes. One of these was the Ragged Staffe, 
of which BARKER was Captain. The other was the 
Bear, with WILLIAM COXE, of Limehouse, as Cap- 
tain. After touching at the Cape Verde Islands, the 
freebooters shaped their course ' over the maine ocean/ 
for the West Indies, and arrived ' happily' at Trini- 
dad. They had ' conference with certaine Indian in- 
* habitants thereof, who gave them very friendly and 
'courteous entertainment.' During the six days that 
Barker's expedition spent at Trinidad, a pinnace was 
set up that had been brought out in the Ragged Staffe, 
and traffic for victuals was held with the Indians. From 
Trinidad Barker's vessels went on to Margarita, where 
they began the serious business of their voyage by 
taking a Spanish ship, which had in her 'certaine pitch 
'and 30 tuns of Canarie Wines.' Of the wine, they 
1 reserved 4 or 5 tunnes to themselves, dismissing them / 
' without any further damage.' The voyage was fatal to 
BARKER, who was killed by the Spaniards in the Bay of 
Honduras. His men did not return to England until they 
had done much injury to some of the Spanish settle- 

8. In 1593, or 1594, Captain JACOB WHIDDON was 
sent out by Sir WALTER RALEIGH to gather informa- 
tion about Guiana. WHIDDON, who was esteemed by 
his master as 'a man most honest and valiant/ visited 
Trinidad. He was observed by BERREO, with whom he 
'had speech,' to be inquisitive as to BERREu's proceed- 
ings, and as to the country of Guiana. During WHID- 
DON'S stay at the island, a ship called the Edwat d Bona- 
venture, commanded by Captain LANCASTER, and on her 

Early English Colonies in Trinidad. 7 

way from the East Indies, was driven into the Gulf of Paria; 
WHIDDON went ' to seeke' her.* In his absence ' Berreo 
sent a canoa abord the pinnace onely with Indians and 
dogs, inviting the company to goe with them into the 
wods to kil a .deare, who like wise men in the absence 
of their Captaine followed the Indians, but were no 
sooner one harquebush shot from the shore, Berreo's 
souldiers lying in ambush had them all, notwithstanding 
that he had given his worde to Captaine Whiddon that 
they should take water and wood safelie.' 

9. Sir JOHN BURROUGHS is said to have * surprised' a 
town in Trinidad, in I5g4- Sir WILLIAM MoNSON, who 
is the authority for the statement, gives no details. 

10. Sir Robert Dudley-}-; being of a bold, adventu- 

* In 1593, the Edward Bonaventure, on her return from the East Indies, 
called at Trinidad. Henry May, whose account of Captain James 
Lancaster's voyage is preserved by Hakluyt, says : — 

In the moneth of June we arrived at the island of Trinidad in the 
West Indies, hoping there to find refreshing ; but we could not get any, 
by reason that the Spaniards had taken it Here we were imbayed 
between the island and the maine; and for want of victuals the company 
would have forsaken the ship; whereupon the Captaine was inforcedto 
sweare every man not to forsake the ship until we should see farther 
occasion. Out of this bay called Boca de Dragone, it pleased God to 
deliver us ; from whence we directed our course for the Isle of S. Juan de 
Puerto Rico. 

f Sir Robert Dudley was Knighted at Cadiz in 1596, by the Earl of 
Essex. He was a son of Queen Elizabeth's favourite, the Earl of Leices- 
ter, and of Lady Sheffield, then a widow. Dudley appears to have 
proved that his parents had been married before his birth : but after 
his birth, they married others, as if their own marriage had never taken 
place. By Leicester's will, Dudley became, in 1589, the owner of 
Kenilworth, and other places. He married a sister of Thomas Caven- 
dish, the circumnavigator. Of the singular career of Sir Robert, a very 
interesting account is given in the XVIth Volume of the Dictionary of 
National Biography, 

8 TlMEHRl. 

rous spirit, and having large means at his disposal ; pre- 
pared to set out for the West Indies, 'without hope 
there to do anything woorth note.' He wanted 'to see 
some practise and experience, then any wonders or 
profite.' On the 6th of November i594,.he sailed from 
Southampton. His vessels consisted of the Bear, of 
200 tons and 140 men, his Admiral ; the Beare's Whelpe, 
Vice-Admiral ; and two pinnaces, the Frisking and the 
Earewig. After touching at Plymouth, they proceeded 
on their voyage. Stormy weather deprived Sir Robert 
of his three consorts ; but, he went on his course. He 
made many chases of vessels, off the Coast of Spain, only 
to find that they were English. He spent twelve days at 
the Canaries, to some purpose, taking two very fine 
carvels under the calms of Teneriffe and Palma. These, 
1 both refreshed and amended his company/ and increased 
his fleet to three vessels. Continuing his voyage to the 
West Indies, he touched at Cape Blanco, and thence 
shaped his course for Trinidad, where, on the 1st of 
February 1595, 'he came to an anker under a point 
' thereof called Curiapan, in a bay which was very full of 
' pelicans, and he called it Pelicans' Bay.' Curiapan, 
called by COLUMBUS Punta del Arenul, is now called 
Hicacos, or Icacos. 

11. The Bear afterwards fell down lower, to a place 
called Paracoa, now known as Cedar Point: which was a 
convenient place to water, ballast, ground, and grave the 
carvels. A sconce, like a half-moon, was thrown up on 
shore, for protection against the Spaniards, of whom 
nothing definite could at first be gathered. All the men 
were then sent ashore. 

On the 17th of February, the two carvels were sent off 

Early English Colonies in Trinidad. 9 

' to try their fortunes in the Indies :' they being able to 
' do more good' in the Indies than greater ships. 

12. After the carvels had been sent away, only 50 
men remained with Dudley. Then, he learned that 
BERREO, the Spanish Governor, had sent off to Marga- 
ritta, and had got thence 300 soldiers. Thus re-inforced, 
Berreo sent messengers to Dudley ' in kindnesse.' 
The latter, on his part, had no reason to assault the 
Spaniards, * because they were both poor and strong.' 
For * his experience and pleasure,' he marched tour long 
marches upon the island : the last being from one side 
of the island to the other, which was a march of about 
50 miles. He and his men went and came through ' a 
most monstrous thicke wood (for so is most part of the 
yland), and lodging in Indian townes.' DUDLEY gives the 
following description of Trinidad : — " The country is 
fertile, and ful of fruits, strange beasts, and foules, where- 
of munkeis, babions and parats were in great abundance." 
About 3 leagues to the eastward of Pelicans' Bay, a 
mine of Marcazites was found. The stones 'glistened 
like gold (but all is not gold that glistereth), for so they 
found the same nothing worth, though the Indians did 
assure them, it was Caluori, which signifieth gold with 

13. The natives of the island, who were Arrawacks, 
Dudley described as, ' a fine-shaped and a gentle people, 
al naked and painted red. their commanders wearing 
crownes of feathers. These people did often resort 
unto my ship, and brought us hennes, hogs, plantans, 
potatoes, pinos, tobacco, and many other pretie com- 
modities, which they exchanged with us for hatchets, 
knives, hookes, belles and glasse-buttons.' The Caribs, 

to TtMEHRI. 

Dudley learned here, were * man-eaters or canibals, and 
great enemies to the islanders of Trinidad,' He made a 
note of some of the words used by the islanders, with 
their English meanings : and these are preserved in 

14. During his stay of thirty-nine days at the island, 
DUDLEY collected information from the ' Savages' about 
Guiana, and especially of those parts of the ' Maine over 
against Trinidad.' He sent off his ship's boat with fourteen 
men to the Orinoco, to discover a Mine of Gold, of which 
he was told. After sixteen days' absence, ' making but 
one night's aboad anywhere/ the exploring party re- 
turned to Trinidad. They brought news, among other 
things, of a rich nation, that sprinkled their bodies with 
the 'poulder of golde, and seemed to be guilt, and farre 
beyond them a great towne called El Dorado, with 
many things.' DUDLEY wished to go to Guiana, and see 
for himself : but his men had suffered such hardships in 
their journey of 250 miles, in a rowing boat, that not one 
man would go with him, albeit, as he says, he had a 
commision to hang or kill them. 

15. While the party were gone to the Orinoco, those 
who remained at Trinidad were rejoiced at being joined 
by Captain POPHAM, in ' a pinnasse of Plymouth.' If 
DUDLEY had not lost his own pinnaces, he says, he and 
POPHAM would have ' discovered further the secrets of 
those places.' As it was, they stayed on some six or 
eight days longer for Sir Walter RALEIGH, who, as 
they surmised, * had some purpose for this discovery ; to 
the ende, that by their intelligence and his boates, they 
might have done some good.' Sir WALTER did not 
arrive at Trinidad for some weeks afterwards, so Dudl£y 

Early English Colonies in Trinidad. ii 

and Popham re-watered their ships at Paracoa, and set 
sail from Trinidad, on the 12th of March, ' to see further 
of the Indies.' On the 13th, when 25 leagues to the 
northward of Granata, they took a small prize of f Sackes,' 
which ' refreshed them well.' Dudley arrived at St. 
Ives, in Cornwall, at the end of May. In his voyage, 
he tooke, sunk and burnt nine Spanish ships, ' which 
was losse to them, though I got nothing.' 

16. On the 22nd of March 1595, Sir Walter Ra- 
leigh, the Founder of England's Colonial Empire, arrived 
at Trinidad. With his own ship, came a small vessel 
commanded by Captain CROSSE. They cast anchor at 
Point Curiapan, ' which the Spanyards call Punto de 
Gallo? It is now called Hicacos or Icacos ; and, with 
Punta Foletto, forms the Serpent's mouth.* On the 
coast they saw a fire, as they sailed from Point Carao, 
now called Negra Point, to Curiapan. For fear of the 
Spaniards, no Indian dared to come to speak with the 
Englishmen. Before anchoring at Curiapan, RALEIGH 
had got out his barge, and in it coasted the Island * close 
abord the shore and landed in every cove, the better to 
know the island, while the ships kept the channell.' At 
Curiapan they stayed four or five days ; but, in all that 
time, they * came not to the speach of anie Indian or 
Spaniard.' From Curiapan they ' turned up north-east to 
recover that place which the Spaniards cal Puerto de los 
Hispanioles, and the inhabitants Conquerabia.' As be- 
fore, Sir Walter left the ships, got into his barge, and 

* The Topographical notes of Sir Robert Schomburgk, to Raleigh's 
Discoverie of Guiana, are used here to elucidate Sir Walter's account of 
hjs itinerary. 

12 TlMEHR!. 

kept by the shore, * the better to come to speach with some 
of the inhabitantes, and also to understand the rivers, 
watering places and portes of the island,' He refers 
to a chart of Trinidad upon which he was engaged. 
One can only wonder what has become of that ' plot and 
description of the island.' Of the island, its inhabitants, 
(the ' naturals') and its productions, RALEIGH gives the 
following general description : — 

" This iland of Trinedado hath the forme of a sheep- 
hook, and is but narrow ; the north part is very moun- 
teynous, the soile is very excellent and wil beare sugar, 
ginger, or any other commodity that the Indies yeeld. 
It hath store of deare, wyld porks, fruits, fish and fowle. 
It hath also for bread sufficient Mais, Cassaui*, and of 
those roots and fruits which are common euery where in 
the West Indies* It hath diuers beasts, which the 
Indies haue not: the Spaniards confessed that they 
found grains of gold in some of the riuers, but they 
hauing a purpose to enter Guiana (the Magazin of all 
rich mettels) cared not to spend time in the search there- 
of any farther. The iland is called by the people thereof 
Cairi,\ and in it are diuers nations : those about Parico 
are called Iaio ; those at Punto Carao are of the Arwa- 
cas and betweene Carao and Curiapan they are called 

* These two plants supply the most useful food of the Indian tribes 
they form their staff of life. The grains of the first {Zea Mays, 
Linn.) furnish the Indian corn or maize, and from the roots of the 
second {Movihot utilissima, Pohl), although itself a strong poison 
in its natural state, the Indians prepare a nutritious substitute for 

t Sometimos given as Iere % the Indian word for humming bird. Trin i 
dad abounds with that beautiful bird. 

Early English Colonies in Trinidad. 13 

Saluaios ; betweene Carao and Punta Galera* are the 
Nepoios, and those about the Spanish Citie tearme them- 
selues Carinepagotos.f Of the rest of the nations, and 
of other portes and riuers I leaue to speak heere, beeing 
impertinent to mvy purpose, and meane to describe them 
as they are situate in the particular plot and description 
of the island, three partes whereof I coasted with my 
barge, that I might the better discribe it." 

17. Of his voyage along shore, in his barge, which had 
been re-victualled for the service, Raleigh says : — 

" From Curiapan I came to a port and seat of Indians 
called Parico, where we found a fresh-water riuerj, but 
sawe no people. From thence I rowed to another port, 
called by the naturals Picke, and by the Spaniardes 
Tierra de Brea,\ In the way betweene both were 

* The north. eastern point of Trinidad is called at present Punta de la 
Galera; but Columbus designated the south eastern point of the island 
under that name, on account of a rock which has the appearance of a 
vessel under sail. It is now known as Punta Galeota.— Schomburgk's Note. 

f The number of Indians, the remnant of those numerous tribes who 
inhabited Trinidad at the period when Raleigh visited it amounted in 
1831 to seven hundred and sixty two.— Schomburgk's Note. 

% Punta del Cedro, or Cedar Point, forms the northern point of this 
bay. It is no longer known by the name of Parico. — Schomburgk's Note. 

§ The celebrated pitch-lake of Trinidad near Punta la Brea is situated 
on the leeward side of the island on a small peninsula; it is nearly 
circular, and about a mile and a half in diameter. The usual appearance 
of the pitch or asphaltum is that of pit coal, but in hot weather it is 
liquid. When mixed with grease, oil, or common pitch, to acquire 
fluidity, it is well-adapted for preserving the bottoms of ships against 
the destructive worm, the Teredo navalis. Admiral Cochrane made 
several experiments to use it for nautical purposes, which failed, as it 
was requisite to mix such a large quantity of oil with it to render it 
pliable, that it far surpassed the price of common pitch.— Schomburgk's 

14 TlMEHRI. 

diuers little brooks of fresh water, and one salt riuer 
that had store of oisters vpon the branches of the trees,* 
and were very salt and wel tasted, Al their oisters 
grow vpon those boughs and spraies, and not on the 
ground : the like is commonlie seene in the West Indies 
and else where. This tree is described by Andrewe 
Theuet in his French Antartique, and the forme figured 
in his booke as a plante verye straunge, and by Plinie 

Writing in 1837, Joseph says, ' At this day the Arawackscall La Brea, 
Piche, as they call the river opposite Guarapiche. History of Trinidad 

P- »7- 

* The first accounts brought to Europe of oysters growing on trees 
raised as great astonishment as the relation of El Dorade itself; and to 
those who were unacquainted with the fact that these molluscous animals 
select the branches of the tree, on which they fix themselves during 
high water, when they are immersed, it may certainly sound strange 
and wonderful that shells, which as we know live in Europe on banks 
in the depths of the sea, should be found in the West Indies on the 
branches of trees. They attach themselves chiefly to the mangrove 
tree {Rhizophora Mangle, Linn.), which grows along the shore of the 
sea and rivers with brackish water, and covers immense tracts of coast, 
rooting and vegetating in a manner very peculiar to that tree, even as 
far as low water mark. Sir Walter Raleigh, in his History of the 
World (book i. chap. iv. section 2), compares it erroneously with the 
Indian fig-tree (Ficus indicaj, which Becanus considered to be the tree 
of knowledge, or of life. Raleigh observes in his description that he had 
seen five hundred oysters hanging on one of the branches (which he 
calls cords) of a mangrove tree. The water flowing off during ebb 
leaves the branches with the oysters attached to them high and dry. 
Three species of mollusca are chiefly found on the mangrove trees, 
namely Ostrea Rhizophora (Auct. ?), O. folium, and a species of 
Mytilus. The 0. Rhizophoroe is eaten, and in Porto Rico the price of 
a barrel of these mangrove oysters is a piaster. We differ with Raleigh 
respecting their superior taste ; they are at the best mere substitutes 
for an European oyster, very small, and not so delicate.— SchomburgVs 

Early English Colonies in Trinidad. 15 

in his XII. booke of his naturall historic But in this 
ilande, as also in Guiana, there are verie manie of them. 

" At this point called Tierra de Brea or Piche there is 
that abundance of stone pitch, that all the ships of the 
world may be therewith loden from thence, and wee 
made triall of it in trimming our ships to be most excel- 
lent good, and melteth not with the sunne as the pitch 
of Norway, and therefore for ships trading the south 
partes very profitable. From thence we went to the 
mountaine foote called Annaperima } * and so passing 
the riuer Carone, on which the Spanish Citie was seated, 
we met with our ships at Puerto de los Hispanioles or 

18. Arrived at Port of Spain, RALEIGH gives details 
that inform us of the ruthless errand he had set himself, 
when with grim purpose he steered for that Port. He 
tells his story as follows : — 

" Meeting with the ships at Puerto de los Hispanioles, 
we found at the landing place a company of Spanyardes 
who kept a guard at the descent, and they offering a 
signe of peace I sent Captaine WHIDDON tospeakewith 
them, whome afterward to my great griefe I left buried 
in the said iland after my returne from Guiana, being 
a man most honest and valiant. The Spanyards seemed 
to be desirous to trade with vs, and to enter into tearrns 
of peace, more for doubt of their own strength then for 
ought else, and in the end vpon pledge, some of them 
came abord : the same euening there stale also abord vs 
in a small Canoa two Indians, the one of them being a 

* This hill, in the neighbourhood of San Fernando, is now called 
Naparima, and has given its name to the whole district.— Schomburgk'i, 

16 TlMEHRI. 

Casique or Lord of people called Cantyman, who had 
the yeare before beene with Captaine WH1DDON, and 
was of his acquaintance, By this C antyman wee vnder- 
stood what strength the Spaniardes had, how farre it 
was to their Citie, and of Don Anthonio de Berreo* the 
gouernour, who was said to be slaine in his second 
attempt of Guiana, but was not, 

" While we remained at Puerto de los Hispanioles 
some Spaniardes came abord vs to buy lynnen of the 
company, and such other thinges as they wanted, and 
also to view our shippes and company, all which I enter- 
tained kindly and feasted after our manner: by meanes 
whereof I learned of one and another as much of the 
estate of Guiana as I could, or as they knew, for those 
poore souldiers hauing beene many yeares without wine, 
a fewe draughtes made them merry, in which moode 
they vaunted of Guiana and of the riches therof, and 
all what they knew of the waies and passages, my selfe 
seeming to purpose nothing lesse then the enterance or 
discouerie thereof, but bred in them an opinion that I 
was bound onely for the reliefe of those english, which, 
I had planted in Virginia^, whereof the brute was come 
among them, which I had performed in my returne if 
extremity of weather had not forst me from the said 

* Don Antonio de Berreo y Oruna, who figures so conspicuously in 
Raleigh's voyage, was governor of Trinidad. 

f The conduct of Raleigh, who was charged with a callous abandon- 
ment of the poor settlers in Virginia, has been much censured. This 
passage is one proof among many which we possess, that although he 
had given up his patent to a company of merchants, he continued to 
take a strong interest in the fate of the first adventurers in Virginia.— 
SchomburgVs Note. 


Barly English Colonies in Trinidad. iy 

" I found occasions of staying i-n this place for two 

causes : the one was to be reuenged of Berreo, who the 

yeare before betraied 8 of Captaine WHIDDONS men 

and toke them while he departed from them to seeke 

the E. Bonauenturej which arriued at Trinedado the 

day before from the East Indies : in whose absence 


Berreo sent a Canoa abord the pinnace onely with 
Indians and dogs inuiting the company to goe with 
them into the wods to kil a deare, who like wise men in 
the absence of their Captaine followed the Indians, but 
were no sooner one harquebush shot from the shore, but 
Berreos souldiers lying in ambush had them all, notwith- 
standing that he had giuen his worde to Captaine WHID- 
DON that they should take water and wood safelie : the 
other cause of my stay was, for that by discourse with 
the Spaniards I daily learnedmore and more of Guiana, 
of the riuers and passages, and of the enterprize of 
Berreo, by what meanes or fault he failed, and how he 
meant to prosecute the same. 

w While we thus spent the time 1 was assured by another 
Cdsique of the north side of the iland, that Berreo had 
sent to Marguerita and to Cumana for souldiers, mean- 
ing to have giuen me a Cassado at parting, if it had bin 
possible. For although he had giuen order through all 
the iland that no Indian should come aborde to trade with 
me vpon paine of hanging and quartering, (hauing exe- 
cuted two of them for the same which I afterwardes 
founde) yet euery night there came some with most 
lamentable complaints of his cruelty, how he had deuided 
the iland and giuen to euery soldier a part, that he made 
the ancient Casiqui which were Lordes of the country 
to be their slaues, that he kept them in chains, and 

18 TlMEHRl. 

dropped their naked bodies with burning bacon, and 
such other torments, which I found afterwards to be 
true : for in the city after I entred the same, there were 
5 of the Lords or litle kings (which they cal Casiqui in 
the west Indies) in one chaine almost dead of famine 
and wasted with torments : these are called in their own 
language Acarewana*, and now of late since English, 
French, and Spanish are come among them, they cal 
themselves Capitaynes, because they perceiue that the 
chiefest of euery ship is called by that name. Those 
five Capitaynes in the chaine were called Wannawa- 
nare, Carroaon] Maquarima, Tarroopanama, and 
Aterima. So as both to be reuenged of the former 

* Humboldt considers that Acarewana signifies, in one of the differ- 
ent Carib or Caribisi diale&s, a chief or any person in command. This 
supposition is correft ; more accurately it refers to the commander or 
head of the tribe to which he who speaks and makes use of the word 
belongs. The name of a chief or commander in the general sense of 
the word is Tepotori in the Macusi language, but if the speaker alludes 
to the chief of his own tribe or horde, he would say Epotoriwana ; that 
is, our headman or chieftain. As Raleigh observes, these petty chief- 
tains call themselves now capitan or captain. Esakamapung in the 
Caribisi, or Tepotorokung in the Macusi dialeft, signifies a great 
captain or chief who had command over a number of inferior chiefs ; 
it is perhaps analogous to * king' in the English language. 

The metaphorical application of the word tepotori in the Macusi 
language deserves a passing observation, as it affords an instance of 
the similarity of the metaphors employed in the infancy of languages 
in general. The largest of a number of apples, oranges or any other 
objefts would be called by a Macusi tepotori, the chieftain or captain. 
This application reminds us of our own expression in childhood for the 
largest apple or orange among a number, which playfully would be 
callad " the captain " and if we follow the idea suggested by this 
applioation it will lead us to the most striking qualifications required 
for a leader.— Schimburgk's Note t 

Early English Colonies in Trinidad. 19 

wrong, as also considering that to enter Guiana by 
small boats, to depart 400 or 500 miles from my ships, 
and to leaue a garison in my backe interested in the 
same enterprise, who also daily expected supplies out 
of Spaine, I should haue sauoured very much of the 
Asse : and therefore taking a time of most aduantage, I 
set vpon the Corp du guard in the euening, and hauing 
put them to the sword, sente Captaine CALFE1LD on- 
wards with 60 soldiers, and my self followed with 40 
more and so toke their new city which they called S. 
Ioseph*, by breake of day : they abode not any fight after 
a few shot, and al being dismissed but onely BERREO 
and his companion, I brought them with me abord, and 
at the instance of the Indians I set their new city of 
S, Iosephs on fire." 

19. On the same day that the Spaniards were fallen 
upon, and BERREO was taken prisoner, RALEIGH was re- 
inforced by tbe arrival of Captain GEORGE GlFFORD, in 
the LiorCs Whelpe^ and Captain LAWRENCE Keymis, in 
the Gallego, With them came * divers Gent, and others, 
which to our little army was a great comfort and supply.' 

20. Having paid off his score against the Spaniards 
of Trinidad, Sir WALTER and his companions made haste 

* Among the Indian tribes of the Upper Orinoco and its northern 
tributaries, the Ventuari, Padamo, &c, the descendants of the Spaniards 
are still called Castilanos. When the Macusis speak of the Spanish 
inhabitants of the Lower Orinoco about Angostura, they call them 
sometimes Carrakinio (perhaps from Caracas ?), but more frequently 
Espanolos. The descendants of the Portuguese or Brazilians are 
called in the Carib dialers and by the Guianians in general Caraiwa; 
those of the Teutonic races, as the English, Dutch, Paranaghiri, 
signifying Sea- people. Caraiwa is a foreign word, and has been 
introduced from the Tapuyas ; it signifies ' white man,'— Schomburgk's 

20 TlMEHRl. 

to return to Curiapan : thence to make their way, up 
the Orinoco, in quest of Guiana. Before quitting Port 
of Spain, the Captain of the Guard to Queen ELIZA- 
BETH, called together a number of the Indian Captains of 
the Island, and informed them of the Power of the 
Sovereign of England. In the subjoined statement of 
this transaction, RALEIGH'S account of the effect of his 
showing the Virgin Queen's picture to the simple islan- 
ders, is simply delicious ; — 

61 We then hastened away towards our purposed dis- 
couery, and, first I called all the Captaines of the iland 
together that were enemies to the Spaniardes, for there 
were some which BERREO had brought out of other 
countries, and planted there to eat out and wast those 
that were natural of the place, and by my Indian Inter- 
preter, which I carried out of England, I made them 
vnderstand that I was the seruant of a Queene who was 
the great Casique of the north, and a virgin, and had 
more Casiqui vnder her then there were trees in their 
iland : that she was an enemy to the Caste/lam* in respect 
of their tyrannie and oppression, and that she delivered 
all such nations about her as were by them oppressed, 
and hauing freed all the coast of the northern world 
from the seruitude had sent me to free them also, and 
withal, to defend the country of Guiana from their 
inuasion and conquest. I shewed them her maiesties 
picture which they so admired and honoured, as it had 
beene easie to have brought them idolatrous thereof.f 

* St. Joseph is now almost abandoned since Port of Spain became the 
capital. The number of inhabitants amounted in 1837 to six hundred 
and four. 

f Raleigh possessed the indispensable accomplishment of a courtier 
of Queen Elizabeth s reign, namely the art of flattery, in a high degree. 

Early English Colonies in Trinidad. 21 

" The like and a more large discourse I made to the rest 
of the nations both in my passing to Guiana, and to 
those of the borders, so as in that part of the world her 
maiesty is very famous and admirable, whom thev now 
call Ezrabeta Cassipuna Aquerewana, which is as much 
as Elizabeth, the great princesse or greatest commaun- 
der. This done wee left Puerto de los Hispanoles, and 
returned to Curiapan, and hauing BERREO my prisonour 
I gathered from him as much of Guiana asheknewe." 

21. Leaving their ships and some of their Companions 
at Curiapan, Sir WALTER and about 100 officers and 
men, in wherries, one little barge, a small cock-boat, 
and a galley; carrying nine or ten men a-piece, with 

We refer to his poetry and his letters of adulation written to the Queen 
during the period he was for the first time confined in the Tower; nay 
even the romantic incident of the cloak, which, as Fuller tells us, led to 
his favour with the Queen, proves him the accomplished courtier. The 
adulation which pervades the account of his discovery, from the com- 
mencement to the end, does not astonish us therefore ; but we venture 
to say, from the knowledge we possess of the character and taste of the 
Indian, that a representation of Zuccaro's portrait of her Majesty, now 
at Hampton Court, in which she is presented in a fantastic dress, and, 
which we must confess, does not convey to our imagination the idea of 
beauty, would have had many more attractions for the assembled multi- 
tude of admiring Indians than the portrait which Raleigh showed to 
them. — Schomburgk's Note. 

At the meeting of the British Association at Ipswich in 1895, Mr. 
im Thurn. C.M.G., the author of Among the Indians of Guiana, made 
a statement, in the Anthropological section, that shows the Indians of 
Guiana as still prone to the admiration of pictures. Mr. im Thurn said : 

" In one instance a savage tribe in Guiana, as the result of a fort- 
night's teaching, were baptised, and they then abandoned their hunting 
and erected a church, but instead of a religious painting such as the 
one in the building they were imitating they put up a portrait of Mr. 
Gladstone from the Illustrated London News." 

22 TlMEHRI. 

their vi6luals and arms ; set off on their journey up 
the Orinoco. They promised to return in fifteen days, 
but were away a month. Of that admirable piece of ex- 
ploration, a delightful description will be found in 
RALEIGH'S charming account of The Discoverie of the 
Large, Rich, and Beautiful Empire of Guiana. When 
the explorers returned to Curiapar., after passing through 
severe hardships, they found their ships at anchor : 
1 then which,' says RALEIGH, ' there was never to us 
a more joyfull sight.' After burying Captain WHIDDON 
at Trinidad, the little Fleet sailed away for England. 

22. In 1596, Captain LAURENCE KEYMIS in the Dar- 
lings returning from a voyage of exploration to Guiana, 
stopped at Trinidad, after touching at Tobago. His own 
account of his visits to those places is very short. They 
fell in with the Punta de Galera, " the North-Eastermost 
part of Trinidad. But having Tobaco in sight we first 
went thither. This isle is plentiful of all things, and a 
very good soil. It is not now inhabited, because the 
Charibes of Dominica are evil neighbours unto it. They 
of Trinidad have a meaning and purpose to fly thither, 
when no longer they can keep Trinidad. Their only 
doubt is, that when they are seated there the Spaniard 
will seek to possess it also. The Governor of Margarita 
went lately in a pinnace to view this island. GILBERT, 
my pilot, who sometime lived there, noteth it for the best 
and fruitfulest ground that he knoweth. 

" Thence we returned to Punta de Galera, and anchored 
in ten fathom under the North side of the Island, some 
five or six miles from the said point. The flood-tide 
striketh along the coast to the Eastward very strongly. 
We discharged a piece of Ordnance, and afterward went 

Early English Colonies in Trinidad. 23 

to the shore in our boat; but no Indian came unto us. I 
would have sent John of Trinidad to procure some of 
them to speak with us; but he was altogether unwilling 
alleging that their dwellings were far within the mountains, 
and that he knew no part of that side of the Island. 
From this place we set sail for Santa Lucia^ but fell 
with Granata, which we found not inhabited." 

23. When Sir Walter Raleigh was on his way 
down the Orinoco, in 1595, he left two young English- 
men with Topiawari, the chief Cacique of Arromaia, to 
learn the language of the Indians in that part of the 
country. One of these was FRANCIS Sparrey, 'a ser- 
vant' of Captain GlFFORD, and the other HUGH GOODWIN, 
a 'boy' of Sir Walter's. Goodwin was eaten by a 
jaguar. In 1596, Sparrey was taken from the Orinoco, 
to Cumana, by Captain Philipe DE SANTIAGO, who had 
been sent to fetch the two Englishmen, by DON ROQUE 
DE MONTES, the Royal Treasurer of Cumana. SPARREY 
was sent prisoner to Spain. He published, in 1602, a 
description of Trinidad, which will be found in Chapter 1 1, 
Volume IV, of Purchas's Pilgrims** 

24. Master John Wilson, on his return from the 
Wiapoco, or Oyapok, in 1606, in a Dutch ship, put in at 
Trinidad. The 'Spaniards entertained him and his com- 
panie very kindly for they gave them Tobacco for all such 
commodities as they had, and suffered them to lade Pitch 
which goeth out of the ground there, for that our Master 
durst not goe to the Point de Ree to lade sault there as 
he determined, because he heard that the Spaniard did 
lye there with their men of warre, and had taken cer- 

* See Reports from Santiago and de Montes, in 1596, in the Parlia- 
mentary Blue Book: Venezuela No. / 7 (1896), pp.49 to 51.] 

24 TlMEHRI. 

taine Holland Shippes, and had flung over boord all the 
men that were with them.' 

25. In connection with the first attempt to found an 
English colony in the Island of Grenada, a glimpse is 
given of Trinidad, in 1609, in the following statement 
extracted from the Shane MSS.> 3662, folios 52, 5J : — 

" This Island (Grenada) was first attempted to be 
settled by some Merchants of London, Anno. 1608. The 
chiefe undertakers were Mr. GODFREY, Mr. HALL, Mr. 
Lull, Mr. Quarles and Mr. Robinson in behalfe of 
themselves and Company. They equipped and sett to 
sea the good ships named the Diana, Penelope, and 
Endeavour ; who arrived in the Great Bay of this Granada 
the first of Aprill 1609, and soone after landed 208 men 
who were often disturbed by the Indians, nor indeed 
were they persons fitt for the settling of plantacons, 
being the greater part the people of London, noe way 
inured to hardship and soe not capeable of encoun- 
tring the difficulty that attends new plantacions in the 
West Indies, these ships having landed their passengers 
in pursuance of their orders sayled thence to the river 
Caroone, in Trinidada, to settle some trade wth. the 
Spaniards, in vvch. they did not onely faile but were de- 
layed, Don Sanches DEMENDOZA,theGovernorofTrini- 
dada, untill he found a way to distroy the English Colonie 
begun at that Island Granadas : the Spaniard never likeing 
the English neighbourhood. By his heightning the jeal- 
ousies of the Indians, which did by some Fryers that 
spake the Indian language sent thither from Trinidada, 
while they were treateing w th the English about a trade. 
At lenth Capt. MENDOSA advised the English merchants 
aboard the ships to take care ot theire new Collonie in 

Early English Colonies in Trinidad. 25 

that he believed they were in distresses, assured them 
that he had found upon mature consideracion, that he 
could not mainetaine a trade without apparent hazzard 
of his life and fortune, upon wch. those ships sayled from 
Trinidada back for the Granadas where they found their 
colony, the greatest part destroyed : those few that re- 
mayned they tooke wth. them for England, and the 15th 
day of December, 1609, they arrived in England to ye 
greac dissattisfaction of their employers, who would (not?) 
embarque any more, on soe advantageous a designe 
wherein they had once miscarried, wch. are the reasons 
rendered by Mr. GODFREY in his own writing, (one of the 
undertakers) which he hath left unto posterity." 

26. Robert Harcourt, of Stanton Harcourt in 
Oxfordshire, an English gentleman, had a Patent from 
King James I, to establish a Plantation in Guiana.* 
In 1609, this descendant of ' nobie, nay Royal ancestors,' 
called at Trinidad, on his return to England. In his 

* In the Bodleian Library, Oxford, is preserved the letter of which 
the following is a copy (Tanner MS. , LXXL 154J 

To his honoured friend Sir Henry Spelman, Knt., These. 
Worthy Sir, — It will much concern my brother Sr. Simon Harcourt at a 
trial wh. he shall have shortly at Stafford Sizes, to make good proof 
of my father's death in Guiana. We have already to that purpose 
Captain King his oath, who was there at ye time of his death, but to 
strengthen that proof, our request to you is that you would be pleased, 
to certifie under your hands to this bearer, Mr. Astley, what yourself and 
the Companie have heard and verily believe, concerninge his death i 
and foi this favour I shall ever be ready to acknowledge, and to my 
power to expresse myself, — Your Servant at your Commande. 

Fr. Harcourt. 
Mid. Temple, Feb. 27, 1632. 

The deceased was probably Michael Harcourt, younger brother of 
Simon. Michael was a fellow colonist with his elder brother in 1609, 
in Guiana. In 1618, he was a Captain in Sir W. Raleigh's Expedition. 

26 TlMEHRI. 

Relation, which was published in 1613, and is reprinted 
in Volume III, of the Harleian Miscellany, HARCOURT 
says : — 

" When I came a-board, we weighed anchor, and steered 
away from (for?) the island of Trinidado; and, upon 
the eighteenth day in the morning, we arrived at Punta de 
Galea, where we found three English ships at anchor 
which was no small comfort unto us, considering our 
great defe6ls and wants. One of these ships was called 
the Diana, belonging to Mr. LUL, a Dutch merchant, 
dwelling in London : the other two, the Penelope, and 
Endeavour, belonging to Mr. Hall, a merchant also of 
London. We staid at this place six days to mend our 
bad casks, and to take fresh water, during which time I 
was kindly treated and feasted by the merchants, and 
had supply of all such things as I stood in need of, which 
courtesy I requited in the best manner I could for the 

Upon Sunday the twenty-fourth of September we 
weighed anchor; so likewise did the Diana, the other 
two ships being gone two or three days before us ; but 
the wind shifting to the north-east, forced us back again 
almost to the same place from whence we departed. The 
twenty-fiftb we weighed again, and plied along the shore 
towards Cape Brea, about three leagues. The Cape is 
so called of the pitch which is there gotten in the earth, 
whereof there is such abundance, that all places on this 
side of the world may be stored therewith. 

It is a most excellent pitch for trimming of ships that 
pass into these regions and hot countries, for it melteth 
not with the sun as other pitch doth. 

The twenty-sixth day we stood long again, the wind 

Early English Colonies in Trinidad. 27 

being still contrary and variable, intermixed with many 
calms, and so continued until the second of 06tober, 
when we arrived at Porte de Hispania. 

Within two days after our arrival there, DON SANCHES 
DE MENDOSO, the teniente for that year, with certain 
other Spaniards, came aboard us : we gave them the best 
entertainment that our means, the time, and place would 
afford, and had much friendly conference together. They 
told me, that they lately had a conflict with the Caribbees, 
wherein they had lost seven or eight of their men, and 
had many others hurt and wounded, whereof some came 
to my surgeon to have their wounds dressed during our 
abode there ; and they plainly confessed, that they are 
very much molested by the Caribbees, and knew not how 
by any means to suppress them. 

We staid at Porte de Hispania until the seventh day, 
in hopes to get some good tobacco amongst the Spaniards, 
who daily fed us with delays and fair words ; but, in 
truth, they had none good at that present for us, which 
we perceiving, departed thence upon the seventh day, 
about one o'clock in the morning, leaving the other ships 
to attend their trade, and stood away for the passages 
called Les sciot boccas de Drago, and disembogued 
about eight o'clock the same morning." 

27. Sir Thomas Roe was sent ' upon a discovery to 
the West Indies', by Prince HENRY, the eldest son 
of King James I. Writing to the Earl of Salisbury, 
from Port d' Espaigne y Trinidad, on' the 29th of Feb- 
ruary 161 1, Sir Thomas said, he had seen more of the 
Coast, from the Amazon to the Orinoco, than any English- 
man alive, having passed the Wild Coast and arrived at 
Port d' Espaigne* The Spaniards there were proud and 

28 TlMEHRI. 

insolent, yet needy and weak. Their force was reputa- 
tion : their safety, opinion. The Spaniards treated the 
English worse than they did the Moors. There was news 
that the King of Spain intended ' to plant Orinoco.' Men, 
cattle, and horses, were arriving daily, to be employed 
in fortifying Trinidad, raising a new City, and in the 
'Conquest' of Guiana. ROWE'S own opinion was that 
'all will be turned to smoke.' The Government was 
lazy : and had more skill in planting and selling Tobacco, 
than in ere6ling Colonies or marching Armies.* 

28. In November 1617, Sir Walter Raleigh arrived 
in the West Indies, for the second time, in search of 
El Dorado. On the nth of November he made the 
North Cape of Wiapoco, in Guiana. There he rode 
sufficiently long for his skiff to go to the shore, to enquire 
for his " sarvant, LEONARD, the Indian who bine with me 
in England 3 or 4 yeers, the same man that tooke Mr. 
HARCORT\S brother and 50 of his men when they came 
upon that Coast and were in extreme distress, having 
neither meat to carry them home nor meanes to live there, 
but by the help of this Indien whom they made believe 
that they were my men : but I could not here of him by 
my boat that I sent in, for he was removed 30 mile 
into the country, and because I had an ill rode and 
5 leages of, I durst not stay his standing for.' From the 
Wiapoco, RALEIGH stood for Caliana, which we now 
know as Cayenne, 'where the CASIQUE was also my 
sarvant, and had lived with mee in the Tower 2 yeers.' 
He left in port at Wiapoco, two Hollanders, that wore 
loading with 'Onotto, gums, and spekeld wood.'t On 

* Calendar of State Papers: Colonial Series, 1574 to 1660, p. II. 
t Letter wood. 

Early English Colonies in Trinidad. 29 

the 14th RALEIGH arrived at Cayenne. He sent his 
barge ashore, to enquire for his servant HARRY, the 
Indian. When HARRY came, a day or two after, he 'had 
almost forgotten his Inglish,' but not his friendship for 
his old Chief. He brought great store of food, to the 
refreshing of Sir Walter's Company. At Cayenne was 
Captain JANSEN, of Flushing, ' who had traded that 
place a dussen yeares.' On the 17th of November, with 
the help of Captain Jansen, Sir Walter's ship, the 
Destiny, got over the bar and went into the river. Here 
the sick were set ashore, and here they all recovered. 
Here also the barges were set up ; the ships were cleaned ; 
the casks were trimmed and filled with water; and the 
smith's forge was set up, and such iron work was made 
as the Fleet needed. At Cayenne they remained until 
the 10th of December, when the Fleet assembled at the 
isles du Salut. Here 400 soldiers and sailors were em- 
barked in the Encounter, the Confidence, the Supply, 
and another vessel, for the Expedition up the Orinoco. 
They sailed on the 10th, Sir WALTER RALEIGH himself 
leaving for Trinidad, two or three days after. Besides 
his ship, the Destiny, there went with him, the Jason 
(Captain John PENNINGTON), the Thunder, (Sir War- 
HAM ST. Leger), the Flying Hart (Sir JOHN Ferne), the 
Chudley, and two or three others. In that most valuable 
edition of the Discoverie of Guiana, published by the 
Hakluyt Society, and edited by Sir ROBERT SCHOM- 
BURGK, there is printed the Journal which Sir Walter kept, 
in his own hand, of his second voyage. From that record the 
following entries relating to Trinidad are extracted* : — 
" The 15 of December we made the land neere Pvncto 

* Cotton MSS., Titus, B, VIII., fol. 153. 

30 TlMEHRI. 

Annegada at the mouth of Orenoke,* and that night we 
saw the northest part of Trinidado, and came toancor in 
30 fathom 6. L. of the shore, from thence we coasted the 
Hand neere the south syde in 15 fathom and neere the 
shore in 10 and 11 fathom and coming close abord the 
poynt of the rode att the west end of the Hand which 
poynt they naturally call Curiapan, and the Spaniards 
Pun6lo de gallo we had 5. fathom. It floweth on this south 
coast E.N.E. and W.S.W. it is needfull to saile neere the 
poynt of Gallo which you may do boldly because ther 
lyeth a dangerous legg of rock so half a mile of the rode 
to the westward, a most forcible current that setts of the 
poynt, a greater current can no wher be found the cur- 
rant of Bahama excepted. 

The 1 7 we came to Ancor at Pun6lo Gallo where wee 
stayd (taking water, fish and some Armadellias, refresh- 
ing our men with palmeto, Guiavas,t piniorellas and 

* In a manuscript map of the world, to which we have had oppor- 
tunity to allude on a former occasion, the right bank of the Canoa 
Manamo near its embouchure is called Anegada (from anegar in Spanish, 
to immerse or cover with water). From Sir Walter Ralegh's account 
it is evident that he alludes to a more eastern point, probably the 
present Point Barima, which is called Terra basse in the old manuscript 
map. This conclusion is rendered more probable by some observations 
in his Apology. (See Cayley, vol. ii. p. 124).— Schomburgk's Note. 

f The Guiavas, or rather Guavas, are the fruits of Psidium pomiferum 
and P. pyriferum Linn , trees about eighteen feet high. They are as 
large as a middle sized apple, which they resemble in shape, of a bright 
yellow outside, and the pulp of a reddish colour, intermixed with very 
small hard seeds. The second kind (P. pyriferum) is considered by 
many to be merely a variety of the first, improved by cultivation. They 
have a pleasant sub acid and aromatic taste, and, prepared with sugar 
and milk, may be compared to strawberries. A rich jelly or marmalade 
is likewise made of them. We do not know what fruit Ralegh calls 
Piniorellas.— Schomburgk's Note, 

Early English Colonies in Trinidad. 31 

other frute of the country) till the last of December. In 
sayling by the south coast of Trinidado I say (saw ?) in one 
day to witt the 16 of December 15 rainebowes, and 2 wind 
galls, and one of the rainebowes brought both ends 
together att the sterne of the shipp making a perfait 
cirkell which I never saw before nor any man in my shipp 
had seene the like.* 

The last of December we wayed ancor and turned up 
northest towards Conquerabo, otherwise called the port 
of Spayne being new yeers eve, and wee came to Ancor 
at Terra de Bri, short of the Spanish port some 10 
leagues. This Terra de Bri is a peece of land of some 2 
leagues longe and a league brode, all of ston pich or 
bitymen which riseth out of the ground in little springs 
or fountaynes and so running a little way, it hardneth in 
the aire, and covereth all the playne ; ther are also many 
springs of water and in and among them fresh water fishe* 
Here rode att ancor, and trymd our boates, we had here 
some fishe, and many of the country fesants somewhat 
bigger then oursf, and m^ny of the henns exceeding fatt 
and delicate meat, 

The 19 of Januarie we sent vp Sir J. Ferns shipp to 
the Spanish port, to try if they would trade for Tobacco 

* In the spray of the sea or a cascade a circular rainbow is often 
seen, and if it were not for the interruption of the earth a circular spectrum 
would be seen at all times when tha conditions are favourable for 
forming a rainbow. — Schomburgks Note. 

f Several species of birds from Guiana and other parts of South 
America have been compared with the pheasants of the Old World, but 
chiefly Penelope cristatus Gmel., P. pipile J acq. and Phasianus Matnot 
Gmel., the Catraca of Buffon. The first is the most common, and is 
called Marudi in British Guiana; the flesh is tasteful, though sometimes 
(as we know by experience) very tough. — Schomburgk's Note, 

32 TlMEHRI. 

and other things, but when her boate was neere the shore 
while they on the land were in parle with Cap; GILES 
who had charge of the boat, the Spaniards gave them a 
volley of some 20 musketts at 40 paces distant, and yet 
hurt never a man, as our bote putt of they called our 
men theeves and traytors with all manner of opprobrious 

Thef of Januarie we sent back the Viceadmirall 

Cap : PEN1NGTON to pun6lo Gallo to attend the returne 
of our companies in Orenoke. 

The 29 of Jan : we lost one of Sir Jo : Fern's men 
who being ashore boyling of the country pich, was shot 
by a Spaniard who lay in the woods all night with five 
other Spanierds, our shipps taking the alarm we waied 
out our boates, I tooke my barge with six shott, Capt : 
Chudley tooke his skiff, and Sir W. SENTLEGER his, 
wee pursued them with all hast possible and forst them 
to forsacke their canoas and run into the thick woods, 
leaving behinde them their cloakes, and all other their im- 
plements but their arms. Ther were of Sir J : FERN'Smen 
three, and one boy, one of them was slay ne, one swam abord, 
and third hidd himself in the woods till my barge came 
ashore, the boy we suppose was carried with them alive. 

* Fray Simon ; in his ' Noticias historiales,' asserts that Ralegh 
intended to disembark his men for the purpose of assaulting St. Joseph. 
Lieutenant Benito de Baena, informed of his projeft, posted his people 
so advantageously at Port of Spain, that the attack of the English was 
repulsed with the loss of several men, one being taken prisoner, who 
informed De Baena of the departure of a part of the fleet for the Orinoco. 
Ralegh's simple account of this affair is more probable: the prisoner of 
rhom Be Baena speaks was douotless the boy lost during the affair of 
the^jcjth of January. — Schotnburgk's Note. 

f A similar blanlf in the original.— Schomburgk's Note. 

( < v 

Early English Colonies in Trinidad. 33 

The last of Jan : we returned from the pich land to 
Puncto Gallo, hoping to meet our men which we sent 
into Orenoke. 

The first of Februarie the sentenell which we had layd 
to the eastward of Puncto Gallo to discover if any shipps 
or boates cam from the east alongst the coast, for we 
could not discouer any thing wher we rode till they were 
within a mile of vs by that the poyncl; lay out so farr ; 
these of the sentenell discovered 7 Indiens and brought 
them vnto vs. They had a village some 16 mile from vs 
to the eastward, and as it proued afterward came but as 
spies to discouer our forces, they were two dayes, abord 
and would be acknown, that they could speaks any word 
of Spanish, but by signes they made vs know that they 
dwelt but one dayes jurney towards the east. I keipt 3 
of them abord and sent 12 of my men with the other 4 
to see their towne and to trade with them, but in ther 
way thitherward one of the Viceadmiralls men espied an 
Indien, one of the 4 who two yeere before he had seene 
in Orenoke, and taking him by the arme told him that he 
knew him, and that he could speake Spanish, in the end 
after many threates, he spake, and confest, that one of 
the three abord my shipp could also speake Spanishe ; 
whervppon the Viceadmiralls man returning abord mee, 
and I threating the cheif of these which I had keipt, one 
of them spake Spanish, and told mee that certayne Indiens 
of the dround lands inhabited by a nation called Tibitivas 
ariving in a Canoa att his port, told him that the Inglish 
in Orenoke had taken S l . Thome, slaine DlEGO DE 
PALMITA* the Governour, slayne Cap : ERENETTA, and 
Cap: John Rues, and that the rest of the Spanierds 

* Diego Palomeque de Acuna, 

34 TlMEHRI. 

(their Captaynes slayne) fledd into the mountaynes and 
that two Inglish Captaynes were also slayne. This tale 
was also confirmed by another Indien which my men 
brought from the Indien towne with divers other particu- 
larities, which I forbeare to sett downe till I know the 
trewth, for the 6 of this moneth I sent the viceadmirall 
skiff from Pun6lo Gallo towards Orenoke man'd with 10 
musketiers to understand what my men had don their, 
and the cause of their longe stay, having received no 
newse from them since they entred Orenoke but by these 
Indiens since the 10 of December,, other then that they 
were att the rivers mouth, which newse Cap : CHUDLEY 
(who accompanied them so farr) brought mee. 

The 3 of January* my men returned from the Indien 
town and brought with them some Cassivi bread with 
other frutes, and very faire Orenges. 

The forth of January* a boat that I had sent over to the 
south syde wher I saw a great fier returned not finding 
any people ther. 

The 6, day I sent a skiff over toward Orenoke man'd 
with io musketiers, to here what was become of my men 
their. The same day came into this port Cap : GlNER 
of the He of Waight and his pinnes. 

The 8 day I sent 16 musketiers by land to the Indien 
towne to bring away some of the Indiens which spake 
Spanish and to separate them from those two which I 
keipt abord mee because I found them so divers in their 

* We have copied the date literally from the original manuscript* 
though it is evident that Ralegh meant the month of February. The 
great suspense about the fate of the Orinoco expedition, which at that 
period must have been much increased by the reports brought to him by 
the Indians, doubtless caused an error, which gives us a picture of the 
anxiety of his mind.-— Schomburgk's Note. 

Ea'rlv English Colonies in Trinidad. 35 

reports as towching Orenoke, and because one of them 
in the Indien towne, were in St. Thome when it was 
taken by the Inglish. I was desirus by taking 2 or 3 of 
the rest to know the trewth but so careless were the 
mariners I sent as they suffered all to go loose and to es- 
cape : but I had yet 2 Indiens abord mee, and a third 
went pilot for Orenoke, one of these I sent away with 
knives to trade with a nation inhabiting the est part of 
Trinidado called the Nepoyios, with this charge that if 
he came not agayne after 4 dayes (which was the time 
by him required) that I would then hange his brother 
which was the pilot as aforesayd, and this other Indien 
abord, to which the Indien abord condiscented. 

But the 12. of Februarie, I went ashore and tooke the 
Indien with mee fastned and well bound to one of my 
men, so caried him with me to shew me the trees which 
yeild balsemum of which I had recouered a nuttfull of 
that kinde which smells like Angolica and is very rare 
and pretious*, and after it was 10 a clock and very hot t, 
the wood also being full of musketos, I returned and left 
my Indien in charge with one of my masters mates and 
3 others, but I was no sooner gonn but they untyde him 
and he att the instant tooke the wood and escaped, not- 
withstanding that I had told them that if the Indien gatt 

* Ralegh's observation, that the balsam resembled Angolica, by which 
he alludes to the violet- scented Orris-root (Iris fiorentina) , causes us to 
conjecture that it is the balsam of Tolu, which is yielded by a tree called 
Myrospermum toluiferum, Rich. We have found that useful tree neat 
the Saerere mountains, between the rivers Rupununi and Takutu, and 
the natives of these regions wear the seeds, which are equally fragrant 
with the resin, as ornaments round their body. If we are correct in our 
supposition, this tree is no longer to be met with in Trinidad.— Schom- 
burgk's Note. 

36 TlMEHRI. 

but a tree betvveene him and them and were loose that 
all the Inglish in the fleet could not fetch him agayne. I 
had now none left but the pilott sent to Orenoke and I 
feare me that he also will slipp away by the negligence 
of the mariners who (I meane the common sort) are 
dilligent in nothing but pillaging and stealing. 

The 13 day Cap: GlNER and I made an agrement that 
he shoulde follow me with his small shipp and pinnes 
for 6 moneths after this 13 day. 

The same Evening I sent Sir W. SENTLEGER Cap : 
CHUDLEY and Cap : Giles with 60 men to the Indien 
towne to try if I could recover any of them." 

Before parting from KEYMIS, at Cayenne, Sir WALTER 
RALEIGH had given the latter written instructions for his 
guidance. Among these, Keymis was directed as fol- 
lows : " Let me hear from you as soon as I can. You 
shall find me at Punfio Gallo, dead or alive. And if 
you find not my ships there, you shall find their ashes. 
For I will fire, with the galleons, if it come to extremity ; 
but run will I never." When, therefore, Raleigh's 
journal stops short, with an entry up to the evening of 
the 13th of February, made at Pun6lo Gallo, it is rea- 
sonable to conclude, that, on the 14th of February, at 
that place, RALEIGH received the letter written on the 
8th of January, in which KEYMIS reported progress to him. 
With his letter, Keymis also sent 'a parcel of scattered 
papers/ reserving a ' cart-load.' On the 2nd of March, 
Keymis, George Raleigh, and others rejoined Sir Wal- 
ter at Pun6to Gallo. It was some days after this that 
Keymis put an end to himself. He had in vain appealed 
to Raleigh to allow him to send a defence of his con- 
dud, which he had written to the Earl of Arundel. " I 

Early English Colonies in Trinidad. 37 

know not then, Sir, what course to take," were, the last 
words of Keymis to RALEIGH, in the latter's cabin in the 
Destiny. Going then to the Couvertine, Keymis entered 
his own cabin, A pistol shot was soon heard. RALEIGH 
sent to ask who had fired it. KEYMIS himself answered, 
that he had shot off the pistol, because it had been long 
charged. Half an hour afterwards, Keymis was found 
lying dead in his cabin, " having a long knife thrust, under 
his left pap, through his heart, and his pistol lying by 
him, with which it appeared that he had shot himself; 
but the bullet lighting upon a rib, had but broken the 
rib, and went no further/' The coming dramatist of 
Trinidad will find ample materials for a Tragedy in the 
events of 1618, as they transpired at Pundlo de Gallo y 
now called Hz'cacos, 

Little did Raleigh's contemporaries reck, how near 
to San Thomas, abundance of Gold would, in after times, 
be found by Englishmen at the Old Callao Mine in 
Venezuela; and, in the neighbouring English colony of 
British Guiana. Raleigh, the Founder of our Colonial 
Empire, returned to England, only to be butchered to 
make a Spanish Holiday. The Great Elizabethan 
was, by order of King James I, executed in Old Palace 
Yard, Westminster, on the 29th of 06lober, 161 8, under 
a sentence passed in 1603, for alleged offences of con- 
spiring with Spain against England !* 

29. The English were not the only Heretics who 
made free with His Catholic Majesty's island of Trinidad. 

* Justice may forgive 
Kingdoms betrayed t and Worlds resigned to Spain t 
But never can forgive a Raleigh slain. 

"-Churchill's Gotham. Book I. 

38 TlMEHRI. 

The ubiquitous Dutchmen, not content with settling 
themselves in Guiana, resorted to Trinidad at their 
pleasure. Their visits annoyed the Spanish authorities, 
who seem to have found some relief to their feelings by 
stigmatising the Dutch as ' Lutherans.' On the 16th of 
June 1614, Don Juan Tostate, who, in the absence of 
Sancho DE Aleuisa, governed the island, reported that 
he had, in the previous year 'hanged several * Flemish,' 
whom he had captured in a small vessel. One of the 
captives had been given to DON GERON1MO DE PORTU- 
GAL. The Don stated, further, that he had persecuted, 
and given such ill-welcome, to those that had attempted 
to reconnoitre the place, that they had never returned. 
But twenty days, however, before he wrote, some 
natives had brought word that they had seen a number 
of Carib canoes on the Southern side of the island, in 
company with some Flemish vessels. Apparently the 
DON was merely boasting, when he said he had freed 
Trinidad from the unwelcome visits of the Dutch. The 
King's Council in Spain, found it to be proved, that the 
sland was generally surrounded by the Flemish and 
Caribs, both by sea and land : so that the inhabitants lived 
in constant want of many things, which they could not 
go and fetch for fear of the enemy. The Caribs even 
came as far as ' the City,' to rob and ill-treat the Spaniards. 
This came of their strong alliance with the Flemish. 
They always moved together : as they did when they 
attacked Arrawacks : when they took many of these priso- 
ners, and carried off their wives.* 

30. In 1615, the King of Spain appointed DON 
Diego Palomeque de Acuna, to be Governor and 

* Parliamentary Blue Book, Venezuela, No, 3, pp, 204, 205. 

Early English Colonies in Trinidad. 39 

Captain General of Trinidad. He then ordered the 
Governor of Porto Rico to send 70 to 80 soldiers to 
Trinidad, that with them, and the men of the country 
that Don DlEGO might be able to bring together, he 
might extirpate the Dutch from every point of the island 
on which they had taken footing,* 

31. On the 14th of 06tober, 1637, while DON DlEGO 
ESCOBAR, the Governor, was in Guiana, the Dutch : with 
great numbers of Arrawacks, Caribs, Tivitivas, and Ne- 
pongos : came to Trinidad in 20 vessels. Entering by the 
Caroni, they took prisoner the watchman stationed at 
its mouth. Three quarters of an hour before day-break, 
the invaders attacked the town of San Jose de Urufia. 
They burnt and plundered the principal houses. They 
burnt the Church. The 28 or 30 Spaniards at the 
settlement made the best resistance they could, without 
success, One Spaniard, JUAN GALLARDO, was killed ; 
Captain Santiago and others were wounded. The 
Dutch threatened to return. As they were going away, 
an Indian was captured from them by the Spaniards. 
This man, named ANDRES, had formerly served Captain 
CHRISTOBAL DE Vera of Guiana. ANDRES told the 
Trinidad Spaniards that the Dutch were in great num- 
bers " in the three Colonies" of Amacuro, Essequibo 
and Berbice, where they were in league with the Caribs 
and Arrawacks. Every year, two, three and four ships 

* Blue Book, Venezuela No. j. (1896). p. 210. Don Diego was a 
relative of Count Gondomar, the Spanish Ambassador. When the 
latter learned of the attack upon San Thome, he waited upon King 
James. Exclaiming Pirates ! Pirates ! Pirates ! and saying nought else 
Count Gondomar quitted the Royal presence. 

40 TlMEHRI. 

came from Holland, bringing assistance and taking away 
annatto, cotton, hammocks and tobacco.* 

32. Not long after their invasion of Trinidad, in the 
time of Don Martin de Mendoza's government, the 
Dutch built a fort at Point Galera, and founded settle- 
ments. The latter were destroyed for want of ships. 
From the former the Spaniards were continually harassed 
by skirmishes. f For their security, the Dutch had allied 
themselves with the Caribs. 

(To be concluded.) 

* See pp. 212 to 214, of the British Parliamentary Blue Book, Vene- 
zuela, No. 3 (1896.J 

t Blue Book, Venezuela, No. 3, p. 217. 

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