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This book is purchased from 

The Schofield Fund 

given in memory of 

William Henry Schofield 

Victoria College, B.A. 1889 

Harvard University, Ph. D. 1895 

Professor of Comparative Literature 

Harvard University, 1906-20. 

Harvard Exchange P rofessor at 

University of Berlin, 1907 

Lecturer at the Sorbonne and 

University of Copenhagen, 1910. 

Harvard Exchange Professor at 

Western Colleges, 1918. 

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John Stttietti 10k 

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ab Ptraam, ;fee JgtgH* CfeUbwnes Sgtil oke, 
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[Reprinted 1894, 1904, 1931.] 



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Original Series, 32 

Richard Clay <t Sons, Limited, Bungay< 



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Notice. The Russell and De Worde of this work were issued, with 
Rhodes's Boke of Nurture, to the Roxburghe Club, in 4to, 
in 1867. The whole of the work (except p. 361), with 
Rhodes, and some short poems in English, French, and Latin, 
was issued to the Early English Text Society, in 8vo, in 
1868, with the title The Bdbees Book, &c. (Manners and 
Meals in Olden Time). 



Education in Early England . . . . . . . . iv 

Cleanliness, or Dirt, of Men, Houses, &c Ixiii 

Notice of the separate Poems up to Russell . . . . . . Ixviii 


Treatises following it (except those in the Postscript) . . . . Ixix 



(Contents thereof, inserted after title ; Notes thereon, p. 84. 
Lawrens Andrewe on Fish, p. 113.) 

Wilyam Bulleyn on Boxyng and Neckeweede 124 

Andrew Borde on Sleep, llising, and Dress . . . . . . . . 128 

William Yaughan's Fifteen Directions to preserve Health . . . . 133 

The Dyet for every Day (from Sir John Harington's Schoole of Salerne) 138 

On Rising, Diet, and Going to Bed (from the same) 140 

Recipes (for Fritters, Jussell, and Mawmeny) 145 

Recipes (for Hares and Conies in Civeye, and for Doucettes) . . . . 146 


(Contents thereof, p. 150 ; Notes thereon, p. 173. Note on the 

first edition of 1508, p. Ixxxvii.) 

THE BOKE OF CURTASYE (from the Sloane MS. 1986, ab. 1460 A.D.) 175 

Contents thereof, p. 176. Notes thereto, p. 283 
THE BOOKE OF DEMEANOR (from The Schoole of Vertue by Richard 

Weste) . . . . 207 

Bp. Grossetest's Household Statutes (from the Sloane MS. 1986) . . 215 

Stanzas and Couplets or Counsel (from the Rawlinson MS. C. 86) . . 219 


Whate-ever thow sey, avyse thee welle ! . . . . 244 

A Dogg Lardyner, & a Sowe Gardyner 246 

Maxims in -ly 247 

Roger Ascham's Advice to Lord Warwick's Servant 248 

THE BABEES BOOK, (or a ' lytyl Reporte ' of how Young People should 

behave) 250 



Lerne or be Lewde . 868 

The A B C of Aristotle 260 

rrbanitatis 262 

The Boris Hede furst 264* 

The Lytylle Childrenes Lytil Boke, or Edyllys be (on left-hand pages 

to p. 273) 265 

The Young Children's Book (on right-hand pages to p. 274) . . . . 266 
Stans Puer ad Mensam (in English, from MS. Harl. 2251 ; on left-hand 

pages to p. 281) 276 

The Book of Curteisie that is clepid Stans Puer ad Mensam (from 

Lambeth MS. 853 ; on right-hand pages to p. 282) . . . . 276 

Notes to the Boke of Curtasye, &c 283 

Index to the Poems, &c. (before the Postscript) 286 

V POSTSCRIPT (added after the Index was printed). 

FFOR TO SERVE A LORD (see Preface to Russell, p. Ixxii.), with A Feste 

for a Bryde, p. 358 349 

Suffer, and hold your tongue 361 

The Houshold Stuff occupied at the Lord Mayor's Feast, A.D. 1505 . . 362 

The Ordre of goyng or sittyng 365 

Latin Graces 366 

SYMON'S Lesson of Wysedome for all maner Chyldryn 381 

The Birched School-Boy of about 1500 A.D 385 

The Song of the School-Boy at Christmas 387 

The Boar's Head 388 


"THE natural! maister Aristotell saith that euery body be the 
course of nature is enclyned to here & se all that refressheth & 
quickeneth the spretys of man 1 / wherfor I haue thus in this boke 
folowircge 2 " gathered together divers treatises touching the Manners 
& Meals of Englishmen in former days, & have added therto divers 
figures of men of old, at meat & in bed, 3 to the end that, to my 
fellows here & to come, the home life of their forefathers may be 
somewhat more plain, & their own minds somewhat rejoiced. 

The treatises here collected consist of a main one John Russell's 
Boke of Nurture, to which I have written a separate preface 4 extracts 
and short books illustrating Russell, like the BooJce of Demeanor and 
Bolce of Curtasy, and certain shorter poems addressed partly to those 
whom Cotgrave calls " Enfans de famille, Yonkers of account, youthes 

1 The first sentence of Aristotle's Metaphysics is ' All men by nature are actuated 
by the desire of knowledge.' Mr Skeat's note on 1. 78 of Partenay, p. 228. 

2 Lawrews Awdrewe. The noble lyfe $ natures of man, ofbestes, &c. Johries 
Desborrowe. Andewarpe. 

3 The woodcuts are Messrs Virtue's, and have been used in Mr Thomas "Wright's 
History of Domestic Manners and Customs, &c. 

4 If any one thinks it a bore to read these Prefaces, I can assure him it was a 
much greater bore to have to hunt up the material for them, and set aside other 
pressing business for it. But the Boke of Curtasyc binding on editors does not 
allow them to present to their readers a text with no coat and trowsers on. If 
any Members should take offence at any expressions in this or any future Preface 
of mine, as a few did at some words in the last I wrote, I ask such Members to 
consider the first maxim in their Boke of Curtasye, Don't look a gift horse in the 
mouth. Prefaces are gift horses ; and if mine buck or shy now and then, I ask 
their riders to sit steady, and take it easy. On the present one at least they'll be 
carried across some fresh country worth seeing. 


of good houses, children of rich parents (yet aline)," partly to carvers 
and servants, partly to schoolboys, partly to people in general, or at 
least those of them who were willing to take advice as to how they 
should mend their manners and live a healthy life. 

The persons to whom the last poems of the present collection are 

addressed, the 

yonge Babees, whome bloode Royalle 
Withe grace, feture, and hyhe habylite 
Hathe enowrmyd, 

the "Bele Babees" and "swete Children," may be likened to the 
"young gentylmen, Henxmen, VI Enfauntes, or more, as it shall 
please the Kinge," at Edward the Fourth's Court; and the authors or 
translators of the Bokes in this volume, somewhat to that sovereign's 
Maistyr of Henxmen, whose duty it was 

' to shew the schooles 1 of urbanitie and nourture of Englond, to 
lerne them to ryde clenely and surely ; to drawe them also to justes ; 
to lerne them were theyre harneys ; to haue all curtesy in wordes, 
dedes, and degrees ; dilygently to kepe them in rules of goynges and 
sittinges, after they be of honour. Moreover to teche them sondry 
languages, and othyr lerninges vertuous, to harping, to pype, sing, 
daunce, and with other honest and temperate behaviour and patience ; 
and to kepe dayly and wekely with these children dew convenity, 
with corrections in theyre chambres, according to suche gentylmen ; 
and eche of them to be used to that thinge of vertue that he shall be 
moste apt to lerne, with remembraunce dayly of Goddes servyce accns- 
tumed. This maistyr sittith in the halle, next unto these Henxmen, 
at the same boarde, to have his respecte unto theyre demeanynges, 
howe manerly they ete and drinke, and to theyre communication and 
other formes curiall, after Hie booke of urbanitie" (Liber Niger in 
Household Ordinances, p. 45.) 

That these young Henxmen were gentlemen, is expressly stated, 2 

1 scholars ? 

2 Sir H. Nicolas, in his Glossary to his Privy Purse Expenses of Henry VIII., 
p. 327, col. 2, says, "No word has been more commented upon than ' Henchmen ' 
or Henxmen. "Without entering into the controversy, it may be sufficient to state, 
that in the reign of Henry the Eighth it meant the pages of honour. They were the 
sons of gentlemen, and in public processions always walked near the monarch's 
horse : a correct idea may be formed of their appearance from the representation of 
them in one of the pictures in the meeting room of the Society of Antiquarians. It 
seems from these entries (p. 79,* 125, 182, 209, 230, 265) that they lodged in the 

* p. 79, Item the same daye paied to Johnson the maystcr of the kingw barge 
for the Rent of the house where the henxe men lye xl s. 


and they had " everyone of them an honest servaunt to keepe theyre 
chambre and harneys, and to aray hym in this courte whyles theyre 
maisters be present in courte." I suppose that when they grew up, 
some became Esquires, and then their teaching would prove of use, for 

" These Esquiers of houshold of old [were] accustumed, wynter 
and sumer, in aftyrnoones and in eveninges, to drawe to lordes 
chambres within courte, there to kepo honest company aftyr theyre 
cunnynge, in talkyng of cronycles of Kings and of other polycyes, or 
in pypeyng or harpyng, synging, or other actes martialles, to help 
occupy the courte, and accompany straungers, tyll the tymo require 
of departing." 

Bat that a higher station than an Esquier's was in store for some of 
these henchmen, may be known from the history of one of them. 
Thomas Howard, eldest son of Sir John Howard, knight (who was 
afterwards Duke of Norfolk, and killed at Bos worth Field), was 
among these henchmen or pages, 'enfauntes' six or more, of Edward 
IV.'s. He was made Duke of Norfolk for his splendid victory over 
the Scots at Flodden, and Anne Boleyn and Catherine Howard were 
his granddaughters. Among the ' othyr lerninges vertuous' taught 

house of Johnson, the master of the king's barge, and that the rent of it was 40s. 
per annum. Observations on the word Avill be found in Spelman's EtymoL, Pegge's 
Ciirialia, from the Liber Niger, Ed\v. IV., Lodge's Illustrations, vol. i. p. 359, the 
Northumberland Household Book, Blount's Glossary." 

The Promptorium has " Heyncemann (henchemanne) Gerolocista, duorum 
generum (gerolocista)," and Mr Way in his note says, " The pages of distinguished 
personages were called henxmen, as Spclman supposes, from Ger. hengst, a war- 
horse, or according to Bp. Percy, from their place being at the side or haunch of 
their lord." See the rest of Mr "Way's note. He is a most provokingly careful 
editor. If ever you hit on a plum in your wanderings through other books you are 
sure to find it afterwards in one of Mr Way's notes when you bethink yourself of 
turning to the Promptorium. 

In Lord Percy's Household (North. H. Book, p. 362) the Henchemen are 
mentioned next to the Earl's own sons and their tutor (?) in the list of " Persones 
that shall attende upon my Lorde at his Borde Daily, ande have no more but his 
Revercion Except Brede and Drynk." 

My Lordes Secounde Son to serve as Kerver. 

My Lordes Thurde Son as Sewer. 

A Gentillman that shall attende upon my Lord's Eldest Son in the rewarde, and 
appoynted Bicause he shall allwayes be with my Lord's Sonnes for seyuge the 
Orderynge of them. 

My Lordes first Hauneshman to serve as Cupberer to my Lorde. 

My Lords ij de Hanshman to serve as Cupberer to my Lady. 

See also p. 300, p. 254, The Hansmen to be at the fyndynge of my Lord, 
p. 47 


him at Edward's court was no doubt that of drawing, for we find that 
' He was buried with much pomp at Thetford Abbey under a tomb 
designed by himself and master Clarke, master of the works at King's 
College, Cambridge, & Wassel a freemason of Bury S. Edmund's.' 
Cooper's Atli. Cant., i. p. 29, col. 2. 

The question of the social rank of these Bele Babees, children, and 
Pueri who stood at tables, opens up the whole subject of upper-class 
education in early times in England. It is a subject that, so far as I 
can find, has never yet been separately treated 1 , and I therefore throw 
together such few notices as the kindness of friends' 2 and my own chance 
grubbings have collected ; these as a sort of stopgap till the appear- 
ance of Mr Anstey's volume on early Oxford Studies in the Chronicles 
and Memorials, a volume which will, I trust, give us a complete 
account of early education in our land. If it should not, I hope that 
Mr Quick will carry his pedagogic researches past Henry VIII. 's 
time, or that one of our own members will take the subject up. It 
is worthy of being thoroughly worked out. For convenience' sake, 
the notices I have mentioned are arranged under six heads : 

1. Education in Nobles' houses. 

2. At Home and at Private 

Tutors', p. xvii. (Girls, p. xxv.) 

3. At English Universities, p. xxvi. 

4. At Foreign Universities, p. xl. 

5. At Monastic and Cathedral 

Schools, p. xli. 

6. At Grammar Schools, p. lii. 

One consideration should be premised, that 'manly exercises, 
manners and courtesy, music and singing, knowledge of the order 
of precedency of ranks, and ability to carve, were in early times 
more important than Latin and Philosophy. * Aylmar J)e kyng' gives 
these directions to Athelbrus, his steward, as to Horn's education : 

1 When writing this I had forgotten Warton's section on the Revival of Learn- 
ing in England before and at the Reformation, Hist. English Poetry, v. iii. ed. 1840. 
It should be read by all who take an interest in the subject. Mr Bruce also refers 
to Kynaston's Museum Minerva. P.S. Mr Bullein and Mr Watts have since 
referred me to Henry, who has in each volume of his History of England a regular 
account of learning in England, the Colleges and Schools founded, and the learned 
men who flourished, in the period of which each volume treats. Had I seen these 
earlier I should not have got the following extracts together ; but as they are for 
the most part not in Henry, they will serve as a supplement to him. 

2 First of these is Mr Charles H. Pearson, then the Rev. Trof. Brewer, and Mr 
William Chappell. 


Stiwarde, tak nu here 
Mi fundlyng for to lere 
Of ])ine mestere, 
Of wude and of riuere ; 
And tech him to harpe 

WiJ? his nayles scharpe ; 232 

Biuore me to kerue, 
And of J>e cupe seme ; 
J)u tech him of alle be liste (craft, AS. list) 
J)at J?u eure of wiste \ 236 

[And] his feiren ]?ou wise (mates tliou teach) 
Into obere seruise. 
Horn \ u underuonge, 

And tech him of harpe and songe. 240 

King Horn, E. E. T. Soc., 1866, ed. Lumby, p. 7. 1 

So in Eomances and Ballads of later date, we find 

The child was taught great nurterye ; 
a Master had him vnder his care, 

& taught him curtesie. 
Try amor e, in Bp. Percy's Folio MS. vol. ii. ed. 1867. 

It was the worthy Lord of learen, 

he was a lord of hie degree ; 
he had noe more children but one sonne, 

he sett him to schoole to learne curtesie. 
Lord of Learne, Bp. Percy's Folio MS. vol. i. p. 182, ed. 1867. 

Chaucer's Squire, as we know, at twenty years of age 

hadde ben somtyme in chivachie, 
In Flaundres, in Artoys, and in Picardie, 
And born him wel, as in so litel space, 
In hope to stonden in his lady grace . . . 
Syngynge he was, or flowtynge, al the day . . 
Wel cowde he sitte on hors, and wel cowde ryde. 
He cowde songes wel make and endite, 
Justne and eek daunce, and wel purtray and write . . . 
Curteys he was, lowly, and servysable, 
And carf beforn his fadur at the table.' 2 

Which of these accomplishments would Cambridge or Oxford teach ? 
Music alone. That, as Harrison says, was one of the Quadrivials, 

1 Mr "Wm. Chappell gave me the reference. 

2 In the Romance of Blonde of Oxford, Jean of Dammartin is taken into the 
service of the Earl of Oxford as escuier, esquire. He waits at table on knights, 
squires, valets, hoys and messengers. After tahle, the ladies keep him to talk 
French with them. 


1 arithinetike, musike, geometrie, and astronomie.' The Trivium was 
grammar, rhetoric, and logic. 

1. The chief places of education for the sons of our nobility and 
gentry were the houses of other nobles, and specially those of the 
Chancellors of our Kings, men not only able to read and write, talk 
Latin and French themselves, but in whose hands the Court 
patronage lay. As early as Henry the Second's time (A.D. 1154-62), 
if not before 1 , this system prevailed. A friend notes that Fitz- 
Stephen says of Becket : 

" The nobles of the realm of England and of neighbouring 
kingdoms used to send their sons to serve the Chancellor, whom 
he trained with honourable bringing-up and learning ; and when 
they had received the knight's belt, sent them back with honour 
to their fathers and kindred : some he used to keep. The king 
himself, his master, entrusted to him his son, the heir of the realm, 
to be brought up ; whom he had with him, with many sons of 
nobles of the same age, and their proper retinue and masters and 
proper servants in the honour due." Vita S. Thomce, pp. 189, 190, 
ed. Giles. 

Roger de Hoveden, a Yorkshireman, who was a clerk or secretary 
to Henry the Second, says of Richard the Lionheart's unpopular 
chancellor, Longchamps the Bishop of Ely : 

" All the sons of the nobles acted as his servants, with downcast looks, 
nor dared they to look upward towards the heavens unless it so happened 
that they were addressing him ; and if they attended to anything else they 
were pricked with a goad, which their lord held in his hand, fully 
mindful of his grandfather of pious memory, who, being of servile condition 
in the district of Beauvais, had, for his occupation, to guide the plough and 
whip up the oxen ; and who at length, to gain his liberty, fled to the Norman 
territory." (Riley's Hoveden, ii. 232, quoted in The Cornhill Magazine, vol. 
xv. p. 165.)- 

1 It was in part a principle of Anglo-Saxon society at the earliest period, and 
attaches itself to that other universal principle of fosterage. A Teuton chieftain 
always gathered round him a troop of young retainers in his hall who were voluntary 
servants, and they were, in fact, almost the only servants he would allow to touch 
his person. T. Wright. 

2 Compare Skelton's account of Wolsey's treatment of the Nohles, in Why come 
ye not to Courte (quoted in Ellis's Letters, v. ii. p. 3). 

" Our harons be so bolde, 

Into a mouse hole they wold 
Kunne away and creep 
Like a mainy of sheep : 
Dare not look out a dur 

For drede of the maystife cur, 
For drede of the boucher's dog 

1 For and this curre do gnarl, 
They must stande all afar 


All Chancellors were not brutes of this kind, but we must re- 
member that young people were subjected to rough treatment in early 
days. Even so late as Henry VI. 's time, Agnes Paston sends to 
London on the 28th of January, 1457, to pray the master of her son 
of 15, that if the boy "hath not done well, nor will not amend," his 
master Greenfield " will truly belash him till he will amend." And 
of the same lady's treatment of her marriageable daughter, Elizabeth, 
Clere writes on the 29th of June, 1454, 

" She (the daughter) was never in so great sorrow as she is now- 
a-days, for she may not speak with no man, whosoever come, ne not 
may see nor speak with my man, nor with servants of her mother's, 
but that she beareth her on hand otherwise than she meaneth ; and 
she hath since Easter the most part been beaten once in the week 
or twice, and sometimes twice on a day, and her head broken in two 
or three places." (v. i. p. 50, col. 1, ed. 1840.) 

The treatment of Lady Jane Grey by her parents was also very 
severe, as she told Ascham, though she took it meekly, as her sweet 
nature was : 

" One. of the greatest benefites that God ever gave me, is, that he 
sent me so sharpe and severe Parentes, and so jentle a scholemaster. 
For when I am in presence either of father or mother, whether I 
speake, kepe silence, sit, stand, or go, eate, drinke, be merie or sad, 
be sewyng, plaiyng, dauncing, or doing anie thing els, I must do it, 
as it were, in soch weight, mesure, and number, even so perfitelie as 
God made the world, or els I am so sharplie taunted, so cruellie 
threatened, yea presentlie some tymes, with pinches, nippes, and 
bobbes, and other waies which I will not name for the honor I beare 
them, so without measure misordered, that I thinke my self in hell 
till tyme cum that I must go to M. Elmer, who teacheth me so 
jentlie, so pleasantlie, with soch faire allurementes to learning, that 
I thinke all the tyme nothing whiles I am with him. And when I 
am called from him, I fall on weeping." The Scholemaster , ed. Mayor. 

The inordinate beating ! of boys by schoolmasters whom he 

To holde up their hand at the bar. 
For all their noble bloude, 
He pluckes them by the hood 
And shakes them by the eare, 
And bryngs them in such feare ; 
He bayteth them lyke a beare, 

Like an Ox or a Bui. 
Their wittes, he sayth, are dul ; 
He sayth they have no brayne 
Their estate to maintaine : 
And make to bowe the knee 
Before his Majestie." 

' Compare also the quotation from Piers Plowman's Crede, under No. 5, p. xlv, 
and Palsgrave, 1530 A.D., I mase, I stonysshe, Je bestourne. You mased the boye 
so sore with beatyng that he coulde not speake a worde.' See a gross instance of 


calls in different places * sharp, fond, & lewd ' l Ascham denounces 
strongly in the first book of his Sclwlemaster, and he contrasts their 
folly in beating into their scholars the hatred of learning with the 
practice of the wise riders who by gentle allurements breed them up 
in the love of riding. Indeed, the origin of his book was Sir Win. 
Cecil's saying to him " I have strange news brought me this morning, 
that divers scholars of Eton be run away from the school for fear cf 

Sir Peter Carew, says Mr Froude, being rather a troublesome 
boy, was chained in the Haccombe dog-kennel till he ran away from it. 

But to return to the training of young men in nobles' houses. 
I take the following from Fiddes's Appendix to his Life of Wolsey : 

John de Athon, upon the Constitutions of Othobon, tit. 23, in 
respect to the Goods of such who dyed intestate, and upon the Word 
Barones, has the following Passage concerning Grodsted Bishop of 
Lincoln* (who died 9th Oct., 1253), 

" Robert surnamed Grodsted of holy memory, late Bishop of 
Lincoln, when King Henry asked him, as if in wonder, where he 
learnt the Nurture in which he had instructed the sons of nobles (&) 
peers of the Realm, whom he kept about him as pages (domisellos' 6 ), 
since he was not descended from a noble lineage, but from humble 
(parents) is said to have answered fearlessly, ' In the house or guest- 
cruelty cited from Erasmus's Letters, by Staunton, in his Great Schools of England, 
p. 179-80. 

1 " And therfore do I the more lament that soch [hard] wittes commonlie be 
either kepte from learning by fond fathers, or bet from learning by lewde schole- 
maalers," ed. Mayor, p. 19. But Ascham reproves parents for paying their masters 
so badly: " it is pitie, that commonlie more care is had, yea and that emonges verie 
wise men, to finde out rather a cunnynge man for their hoi-se than a cunuyng man 
for their children. They say nay in Avorde, but they do so in deede. For, to the 
one they will gladlie give a stipend of 200. Crounes by yeare, and loth to offer to 
the other, 200. shillinges. God, that sitteth in heauen, laugheth their choice to 
skorne, and rewardeth their liberalise as it should : for he suffereth them to have 
tame and well ordered horse, but wilde and unfortunate Children." Ib. p. 20 

*- 2 Sancta memoriae Robertum Cognominatum Grodsted dudum Lincolniendem 
Episcopum, Regi Henrico quasi admirando, cum interrogavit, ubi Noraturam didicit, 
quA Filios NobUium Procerum Regni, quos secum habuit Domisellos, instruxerat, cum 
non de nobili prosapia, sed de simplicibus traxisset Originem, fertur intrepide respon- 
disse. In Domo seu Hospitio Majorum Regum quam sit Rex Anglice ; Quia Regum, 
David, Salomonis, < aliorum, vivendi morem didicerat ex Intelligentia scriptiirarum. 

3 DOMICELLUS, Domnicellus, diminutivum a Domnus. Gloss, antiques MSS. : 
Heriles, Domini minores, quod possumus aliter dicere Domnicelli, Ugutio : Domicelli 
et Domicellee dicuntur, quando pulchri juvenes magnatiim sunt sicut servientes. Sic 
porro primitus appellabant magnatum, atque adeo Regum filios. Du Cange. 


chambers of greater kings than the King of England ' ; because he 
had learnt from understanding the scriptures the manner of life of 
David, Solomon, & other Kings V 

Eeyner, in his Apostol. Bened. from Saunders acquaints us, that 
the Sons of the Nobility were placed with Whiting Abbot of Glasten- 
bury for their Education, who was contemporary with the Cardinal, 
and which Method of Education was continued for some Time 

There is in the Custody of the present Earl of Stafford, a Noble- 
man, of the greatest Humanity and Goodness, an Original of Instruc- 
tions, by the Earl of Arundell, written in the Year 1620, for the 
Benefit of his younger Son, the Earl of Stafford's Grandfather, under 
this Title ; 

Instructions for you my Son William, how to behave 
your self at Norwich. 

In these Instructions is the following paragraph, "You shall in 
all Things reverence honour and obey my Lord Bishop of Norwich, 
as you would do any of your Parents, esteeminge whatsoever He shall 
tell or Command you, as if your Grandmother of Arundell, your 
Mother, or my self, should say it ; and in all things esteem your self 
as my Lord's Page ; a breeding which youths of my house far superior 
to you were accustomed unto, as my Grandfather of Norfolk, and his 
Brother my good Uncle of Northampton were both bred as Pages 
with Bishopps, fyc." 

Sir Thomas More, who was born in 1480, was brought up in the 
house of Cardinal Morton. Roper says that he was 

" received into the house of the right reverend, wise, and learned 
prelate Cardinal Morton, where, though he was young of years, yet 
would he at Christmas-tide suddenly sometimes step in among the 
players, and never studying for the matter make a part of his own 
there presently among them, which made the lookers on more sport 
than all the players beside. In whose wit and towardness the 
Cardinal much delighting would say of him unto the nobles that 
divers times dined with him, This child here waiting at the table, 
ivhosoever shall live to see it, will prove a marvellous man. Whereupon 
for his better furtherance in learning he placed him at Oxford, &c." 
(Koper's-Zi/e of More, ed. Singer, 1822, p. 3.) 

Cresacre More in his Life of More (ed. 1828, p. 17) states the 
same thing more fully, and gives the remark of the Cardinal more 
accurately, thus : " that that boy there waiting on him, whoever 
should live to see it, would prove a marvellous rare man." ! 

Through Wolsey's household, says Professor Brewer, almost all the 

1 Mr Bruce sends me the More extracts. 


Officials of Henry the Eighth's time passed. Cavendish, in his Life 
of Wolsey (vol. i. p. 38, ed. Singer, 1825) says of the Cardinal, 
" And at meals, there was continually in his chamber a board kept 
for his Chamberlains, and Gentlemen Ushers, having with them a 
mess of the young Lords, and another for gentlemen." Among these 
young Lords, we learn at p. 57, was 

" my Lord Percy, the son and heir of the Earl of Northumber- 
land, [who] then attended upon the Lord Cardinal, and was also his 
servitor ; and when it chanced the Lord Cardinal at any time to repair 
to the court, the Lord Percy would then resort for his pastime unto 
the queen's chamber, and there would fall in dalliance among the 
queen's maidens, being at the last more conversant with Mistress 
Anne Boleyn than with any other ; so that there grew such a secret 
love between them that, at length they were insured together, intend- 
ing to marry 1 ." 

Among the persons daily attendant upon "Wolsey in his house, 
down-lying and up-rising, Cavendish enumerates " of Lords nine or 
ten, who had each of them allowed two servants ; and the Earl of 
Derby had allowed five men" (p. 36-7). On this Singer prints a note, 
which looks like a guess, signed Growe, "Those Lords that were 
placed in the great and privy chambers were Wards, and as such 
paid for their board and education." It will be seen below that he had 
a particular officer called "Instructor of his Wards" (Cavendish, 
p. 38, 1. 2). Why I suppose the note to be a guess is, because at p. 
33 Cavendish has stated that Wolsey "had also a great number 
daily attending upon him, both of noblemen and wortiiy gentlemen, 
of great estimation and possessions, with no small number of the 
tallest yeomen that he could get in all his realm ; in so much that 
well was that nobleman and gentleman that might prefer any tall and 
comely yeoman unto his service." 

In the household of the Earl of Northumberland in 1511 were 
" . . yong gentlemen at their fryndes fynding, 2 in my lords house for 

1 How Wolsey broke off the insurance is very well told. Mistress Anne was 
" sent home again to her father for a season ; whereat she smoked" ; but she "was 
revoked unto the Court," and " after she knew the king's pleasure and the great 
love that he bare her in the bottom of his stomach, then she began to look very hault 
and stout, baving all manner of jewels or rich apparel that might be gotten with 
money" (p. 67). 

2 Under the heading " Gentylmen of Houshold, viz. Kervers, Sewars, Cup- 
berers, and Gentillmen Waiters " in the North. Household ootc, p. 40, we find 


the hoole yere " and " Haunsmen ande Yong Gentlemen at thir 
Fryndes i'ynding v[j] (As to say, Hanshmen iij. And Yong Gentle- 
men iij " p. 254,) no doubt for the purpose of learning manners, &c. 
And that such youths would be found in the house of every noble of 
importance I believe, for as Walter Mapes (? ab. 1160-90 A.D.) says 
of the great nobles, in his poem De diversis ordinibus liominwn, the 
example of manners goes out from their houses, Exemplar morum 
doiaibus proccdit eorum,. That these houses were in some instances 
only the finishing schools for our well-born young men after previous 
teaching at home and at College is possible (though the cases of Sir 
Thomas More and Ascham are exactly the other way), but the Lord 
Percy last named had a schoolmaster in his house, " The Maister of 
Grainier j ", p. 254 ; " Lyverays for the Maister of Gramer 1 in 
Housholde : Item Half a Loof of Houshold Breide, a Pottell of Beere, 
and two White Lyghts," p. 97. "Every Scolemaister techyng 
Grammer in the Hous C s." (p. 47, 51). Edward lY.'s henxmen were 
taught grammar ; and if the Pastons are to be taken as a type of their 
class, our nobles and gentry at the end of the 15th century must 
have been able to read and write freely. Chaucer's Squire could 
write, and though the custom of sealing deeds and not signing them 
prevailed, more or less, till Henry VIII. 's time, it is doubtful whether 
this implied inability of the sealers to write. Mr Chappell says that 
in Henry VIII.'s time half our nobility were then writing ballads. 
Still, the bad spelling and grammar of most of the letters up to that 
period, and the general ignorance of our upper classes Avere, says 
Professor Brewer, the reason why the whole government of the 
country was in the hands of ecclesiastics. Even in Henry the Eighth's 

Item, Gentillmen in Housholde ix, Viz. ij Carvers for my Loords Boorde, and a 
Servant bitwixt theym both, except thai be at their frendis fyndyng, and than ather 
of theym to have a Servant. Two Sewars for my Lordis Boorde, and a Servant 
bitwixt theym, except they be at their Friendis fyndynge, and than ather of theym 
to have a Servant. ij Cupberers for my Lorde and my Lady, and a Servant allowed 
bitwixt theym, except they be at their Fre ndis fyndynge, And than ather of theym to 
have a Servant allowid. 

Under the next heading " My Lordis Hansmen at the fyndynge of my Lorde, 
and Yonge Gentyllmen at there Frendys fyndynge" is 

Item, my Lordis Hansmen iij. Yonge Gentyllmen in Houshold at their Frendis 
fyndynge ij = v. 

1 Grammar usually means Latin. T. Wright. 


time, Sir Thomas Boleyn is said to have been the only noble at 
Court who could speak French with any degree of fluency, and so 
was learned enough to be sent on an embassy abroad. But this may 
be questioned. Yet Wolsey, speaking to his Lord Chamberlain and 
Comptroller when they 

" showed him that it seemed to them there should be some noble- 
men and strangers [Henry VIII. and his courtiers masked] arrived at 
his bridge, as ambassadors from some foreign prince. With that, 
quoth the Cardinal, ' I shall desire you, because ye can speak French, 
to take the pains to go down into the hall to encounter and to receive 
them, according to their estates, and to conduct them into this 
chamber' (Cavendish, p. 51). Then spake my Lord Chamberlain 
unto them in French, declaring my Lord Cardinal's mind (p. 53)." 
The general l opinion of our gentry as to the study of Letters, before 
and about 1500 A.D., is probably well represented by the opinion of 
one of them stated by Pace, in his Prefatory Letter to Colet, prefixed 
to the former's De Frudu*. 

1 The exceptions must have been many and marked. 

2 Eichardi facet, invictissimi Regis Anglice primarii Secretarii, eiusque apud 
Elvetios Oratoris y De Fructu qui ex Doctrines percipitur, Liber. 

Colophon. Basileae apud lo. Frobenium, mense \iu.bri. an. M.D.XVII. 

Restat ut iam tibi explicem, quid me moueat ad libellum hoc titulo cowscri- 
bendum et publicandum. Quu?>t duobus annis plus minus iam prateritis, ex 
Romana urbc in patriam redijssem, inter-fui cuidaw conuiuio multis incognitus. 
Vbi quuwt satis fuisset potatum, unus, nescio quis, ex conuiuis, non imprudens, ut 
ex uerbis uultuqw conijcere licuit, coepit mentionem facere de liberis suis bene 
instituendis. Et primurn omniuw, bonum praeceptorem illis sibi nuserenduw, & 
scholam omnino frequentandaw censuit. Aderat forte unus ex his, quos nos 
generosos uocamus, & qui semper cornu aliquod a tergo pendews gestant, acsi 
etiam inter prandendum uenarewtur. Is audita literarum laude, percitus repewtina 
ira, furibundus prorupit in hscc uerba. Quid nugaris, inquit, amice? abeant in 
malau* rem isttu stultae literse, omnes docti sunt mewdici, etiam Erasmus ille 
t'octissiimis (ut audio) pauper est, & in quadam sua epistola vocat ri}v Karaparov 
jrtviuv uxorewi suam, id est, execrandam paupertatem, & uehementer con- 
queritur se son posse illam humeris suis usqw*; in (3a9vKi')Tia TTOVTOV, id est, pro- 
fundum mare excutere. (Corpus dei iuro) uolo filius mcus pendeat potius, quawj 
dteris studeat. Decet ewtm generosoruwi filios, apte inflare cornu, perite uenari, 
nccipitrew pulchre gestare & educare. Studia uero literaruwt, rusticorum filiis 
sunt relinquenda. Hie ego cohibere me now potui, quin aliqwd homini loqua- 
cissimo, in defensionem bonaruw literarum, respowderew. Ko uideris, inquaw/, 
mihi bone uir recte sentire, nam si ueniret ad regem aliqwis uir exterus, quales 
sunt principum oratores, & ei dandum esset responsum, filius tuus sic ut tu uis, 
institutus, iuflaret duwtaxat cornu, & rusticoruwz filij docti, ad respondenduw 
nocarentu?*, ac filio tuo ueiiatori uel aucupi longe anteponerentwr, & sua erudita 


It remains that I now explain to you what moves me to compile 
and publish a treatise with this title. When, two years ago, more or 
less, I had returned to my native land from the city of Rome, I was 
present at a certain feast, a stranger to many ; where, when enough 
had been drunk, one or other of the guests no fool, as one might 
infer from his words and countenance began to talk of educating 
his children well. And, first of all, he thought that he must search 
out a good teacher for them, and that they should at any rate attend 
school. There happened to be present one of those whom we call 
gentle-men (generosos), and who always carry some horn hanging at 
their backs, as though they would hunt during dinner. He, hearing 
letters praised, roused with sudden anger, burst out furiously with 
these words. " Why do you talk nonsense, friend ? " he said ; " A 
curse on those stupid letters ! all learned men are beggars : even 
Erasmus, the most learned of all, is a beggar (as I hear), and in a 
certain letter of his calls TI^V Karaparor TTIVIO.V (that is, execrable 
poverty) his wife, and vehemently complains that he cannot shake 
her off his shoulders right into fiadvKi'irta. TTUJTOV, that is, into the 
deep sea. I swear by God's body I'd rather that my son should 
hang than study "letters. For it becomes the sons of gentlemen to 
blow the horn nicely (apte), to hunt skilfully, and elegantly carry 
and train a hawk. But the study of letters should be left to the 
sons of rustics." At this point I could not restrain myself from 
answering something to this most talkative man, in defence of good 
letters. " You do not seem to me, good man," I said, " to think 
rightly. For if any foreigner were to come to the king, such as the 
ambassadors (oratores) of princes are, and an answer had to be given to 
him, your son, if he were educated as you wish, could only blow his 
horn, and the learned sons of rustics would be called to answer, and 
would be far preferred to your hunter or fowler son ; and they, 
enjoying their learned liberty, would say to your face, ' We prefer tc 
be learned, and, thanks to our learning, no fools, than boast of oui 
fool-like nobility. ' " Then he upon this, looking round, said, " Who 
is this person that is talking like this 1 I don't know the fellow." 
And when some one whispered in his ear who I was, he muttered 
something or other in a low voice to himself ; and finding a fool to 
listen to him, he then caught hold of a cup of wine. And when he 

usi libcrtate, tibi in facie w diccrc^t, Nos malumus docti esse, & per doctrinai 
now iraprudentes, quam stulta gloriari nobilitatc. Turn ille hincinde circuwspiciens, 
Q,uis est iste, inquit, qwt haec loquitur ? hominew non cognosce. Et quum diceretwr 
in aurew ei quisnaw essem, nescio qwz'd submissa uoce sibimet susurraws, & 
stulto usus auditore, illico arripuit uini poculum. Et quum nihil haberet respon- 
denduw, C03pit bibere, & in alia sermonew transferrc. Et sic me liberauit, non 
Apollo, ut Horatiuw a garrulo, sed Bacchus a uesani hominis disputatione, quam. 
diutius longe duraturara uehemewter timebam. 
Professor Brewer gives me the reference. 


could get nothing to answer, he began to drink, and change the con- 
versation to other things. And thus I was freed from the disputing 
of this niad fellow, which I was dreadfully afraid would have lasted 
a long time, not by Apollo, like Horace was from his babbler, but 
by Bacchus. 

On the general subject it should be noted that Fleta mentions 
nothing about boarders or apprentices in his account of household 
economy ; nor does the Liber Contrarotulatoris Garderobm Edw. 
I mi mention any young noblemen as part of the King's household. 
That among tradesmen in later times, putting out their children 
in other houses, and apprenticeships, were the rule, we know from 
many statements and allusions in our literature, and " The Italian 
Eelation of England" (temp. Hen. VII.) mentions that the Duke 
of Suffolk was boarded out to a rich old widow, who persuaded 
him to marry her (p. 27). It also says 

The want of affection in the English is strongly manifested 
towards their children ; for after having kept them at home till they 
arrive at the age of 7 or 9 years at the utmost, they put them out, 
both males and females, to hard service in the houses of other 
people, binding them generally for another 7 or 9 years. And these 
are called apprentices, and during that time they perform all the most 
menial offices ; and few are born who are exempted from this fate, 
for every one, however rich he may be, sends away his children into 
the houses of others, whilst he, in return, receives those of strangers 
into his own. And on inquiring their reason for this severity, they 
answered that they did it in order that their children might learn 
better manners. But I, for my part, believe that they do it because 
they like to enjoy all their comforts themselves, and that they are 
better served by strangers than they would be by their own children. 
Besides which, the English being great epicures, and very avaricious 
by nature, indulge in the most delicate fare themselves and give their 
household the coarsest bread, and beer, and cold meat baked on 
Sunday for the week, which, however, they allow them in great 
abundance. That if they had their own children at home, they would 
be obliged to give them the same food they made use of for themselves. 
That if the English sent their children away from home to learn virtue 
and good manners, and took them back again when their apprentice- 
ship was over, they might, perhaps, be excused; but they never 
return, for the girls are settled by their patrons, and the boys make 
the best marriages they can, and, assisted by their patrons, not by 
their fathers, they also open a house and strive diligently by this 
means to make some fortune for themselves ; whence it proceeds that, 
having no hope of their paternal inheritance, that all become so 


greedy of gain that they feel no shame in asking, almost " for the 
love of God," for the smallest sums of money ; and to this it may be 
attributed, that there is no injury that can be committed against the 
lower orders of the English, that may not be atoned for by money. 
A Relation of the Island of England (Camden Society, 1847), pp. 

"This evidently refers to tradesmen. 1 The note by the Editor 2 how- 
ever says it was the case with the children of the first nobility, and 
gives the terms for the Duke of Buckingham's children with Mrs 
Hexstall. The document only shows that Mrs Hexstall boarded 
them by contract ' during the time of absence of my Lord and my 
Ladie.' " 

The Earl of Essex says in a letter to Lord Burleigh, 1576, printed 
in Murdin's State Papers, p. 301-2. 

" Neverthelesse, uppon the assured Confidence, that your love to 
me shall dissend to my Childrenne, and that your Lordship will 
declare yourself a Erend to me, both alive and dead, I have willed 
Mr Waterhouse to shew unto you how you may with Honor and 
Equity do good to my Sonne Hereford, and how to bind him with 
perpetual Frendship to you and your House. And to the Ende I 
wold have his Love towardes those which are dissended from you 
spring up and increase with his Yeares, I have wished his Education 
to be in your Household, though the same had not bene allotted to 
your Lordship as Master of the Wardes ; and that the whole Tyme, 
which he shold spend in England in his Minority, might be devided 
in Attendance uppon my Lord Chamberlayne and you, to the End, 
that as he might frame himself to the Example of my Lord of Sussex 
in all the Actions of his Life, tending either to the Warres, or to the 
Institution of a Nobleman, so that he might also reverence your 
Lordship for your Wisdome and Gravyty, and lay up your Counsells 
and Advises in the Treasory of his Hart." 

That girls, as well as boys, were sent out to noblemen's houses for 
their education, is evident from Margaret Paston's letter of the 3rd 
of April, 1469, to Sir John Paston, "Also I would ye should purvey 
for your sister [? Margery] to be with my Lady of Oxford, or with 
my Lady of Bedford, or in some other worshipful place whereas ye 
think best, and I will help to her finding, for we be either of us 
weary of other." Alice Crane's Letter, in the Paston Letters, v. i. p. 

1 As to agricultural labourers and their children A.D. 1388-1406, see below, p. xlvi. 

2 Readers will find it advisable to verify for themselves some of the statements 
in this Editor's notes, &c. 


35, ed. 1840, also supports this view, as does Sir John Heveningham's 
to Margaret Paston, asking her to take his cousin Anneys Loveday 
for some time as a boarder till a mistress could be found for her. " If 
that it please you to have her with you to into the time that a 
mistress may be purveyed for her, I pray you thereof, and I shall 
content you for her board that ye shall be well pleased." Similarly 
Anne Boleyn and her sister were sent to Margaret of Savoy, aunt of 
Charles V., who lived at Brussels, to learn courtesy, &c., says Prof. 
Brewer. Sir Eoger Twysden says that Anne was " Not above seven 
yeares of age, Anno 1514," when she went abroad. He adds : 

" It should seeme by some that she served three in France suc- 
cessively; Mary of England maryed to Lewis the twelfth, an. 1514, 
with whome she went out of England, but Lewis dying the first of 
January following, and that Queene (being) to returne home, sooner 
than either Sir Thomas Bullen or some other of her frendes liked she 
should, she was preferred to Clauda, daughter to Lewis XII. and 
wife to Francis I. then Queene (it is likely upon the commendation 
of Mary the Dowager), who not long after dying, an. 1524, not yet 
weary of France she went to live with Marguerite, Dutchess of 
Alan9on and Berry, a Lady much commended for her favor towards 
good letters, but never enough for the Protestant religion then in the 
infancy from her, if I am not deceived, she first learnt the grounds 
of the Protestant religion ; so that England may seem to owe some 
part of her happyness derived from that Lady." (Twysden's Notes 
quoted by Singer in his ed. of Cavendish's Life of Wolsey, 1825, p. 

As Henry VIII. fell in love with his wife's maid of honour, 
"began to kindle the brand of amours " at the light of Anne Boleyn's 
beauty, " her excellent gesture and behaviour," so we find in. later 
times rich young men became enamoured of poor young women stay- 
ing in the same house with them. Mr Bruce sends me an instance : 

"the young lady was niece, you will perceive, to a well-beneficed 
clergyman, and a thriving gentleman well-advanced in the public 
service. She had lost her mother, and her father was in debt and 
difficulties. She was therefore placed by the influence of her uncles 
in a well-known family in "Wiltshire." 

State Papers. Dom. Car. I. Vol. ccclii. No. 29. Dr Matthew 
Nicholas, afterwards Dean of St Paul's, to Edward Nicholas, Clerk 
of the Council, and afterwards Secretary of State. Dated, West 
Dean, April 4, 1637. 

" I have spoken with Miss Evelyn since I wrote last unto you, 
and enquired of her the cause which moued her to displace my coson 


Hunton. She told me much accordinge to what she had sayd unto 
my coson Hunton, with this addition, that she had respect in it as 
well unto her good as her owne convenience, for hauinge nowe noe 
employment for her but her needle, she founde that sittinge still at 
her worke made her sickly, and therefore thought she might doe 
better in another seruice where she might haue the orderinge of an 
huswifely charge, for w7ch (she told me) she had made her very 
able. I expressed myselfe tender of the disgrace which would lay 
uppon my coson in beinge displaced in such a manner by warninge 
giuen, wherof whatsoeuer were the cause, it would be imagined by 
all that knowe it not, to be in her ill carriage, and wished she had 
done me that fauour as to haue acquainted me with her intents in 
such time as I might haue taken some course to haue disposed of her 
before it had bin knowne that she was to leaue her : she slubbered it 
ouer with a slight excuse that she had acquainted my wife .... but 
for my satisfaction she told me that she would be as mindfull of her 
when God should call her as if she were with her, and in testimony 
of her good likinge of her seruice she would allowe her forty shillings 
yearly towarde her maintainance as longe as herself should line. I 
am soe well acquainted with what she hath as yet disposed to her by 
will, and soe little value forty shillings to my coson Hunton's credit, 
as I gaue her noe thankes. Mr Downes (I heare) is sent for home 
by his father with an intent to keepe him with him, but I doe imagine 
that when my coson Hunton shall be other where disposed off, he 
shall returne ; for my conceit is stronge that the feare of his beinge 
match'd to his disadvantage, who was placed w/th Mr Evelyn a youth 
to be bred for his preferment, hath caused this alteration ; howsoever 
there be noe wordes made of it. I confess that when I have bin told 
of the good will that was obserued betweene my coson Hunton and 
Mr Downes, I did put it by with my coson Huntons protestation to 
the contrary, and was willinge by that neglect to have suffered it to 
have come to pass (if it mought have bin) because I thought it would 
haue bin to her aduantage, but nowe that the busines is come to this 
issue (as whatsoeuer be pretended I am confident this is the cause of 
my cosons partinge) I begin to question my discretion. . . . Good 
brother, let me haue your aduise what to do." 

2. Home and Private Education. Of these, more or less must 
have been going on all over England, by private tutors at home, or in 
the houses of the latter. " In five years (after my baptism) I was 
handed over by my father to Siward, a noble priest, to be trained in 
letters, to whose mastery I was subdued during five years learning 
the first rudiments. But in the eleventh year of my age I was given 
up by my own father for the love of God, and destined to enter the 
service of the eternal King." Orderic, vol. ii. p. 301 ed. Prevost. 


From Adam de Mariscos Letters, 53, \ve find that Henry and 
Almeric, the eldest and youngest sons of the Earl of Montfort, were 
put under Grosseteste for tuition, he being then a Bishop. At Paris, 
John of Salisbury (who died in 1180) gained a living by teaching the 
sons of noblemen, (i?istruendossusceperam,nook them in to board). 
Metalogicus, lib. 11, c. 10. 

Henry of Huntingdon says, " Richard, the king's (Henry I.'s) 
bastard son, -was honourably brought up (festive nutritus) by our 
Bishop Robert (Blote of Lincoln), and duly reverenced by me and 
others in the same household I lived in." Anglia Sacra, vol. ii. p. 
696. Giraldus Cambrensis speaks of beating his cocetanei et conscolares 
terrce suce, of being reproved for idleness by his uncle, the Bishop of 
St David's, and of being constantly chaffed by two of his uncle's 
chaplains, who used to decline durus and stultus to him. Also he 
alludes to the rod. Probably there was some sort of school at either 
Pembroke or St David's. De Rebus a se Gestis, lib. 1, c. 2. 1 

The Statutes of a Gild of young Scholars formed to burn lights 
in honour of some saint or other, and to help one another in sick- 
ness, old age, and to burial, will be printed for us by Mr Toulmin 
Smith in the Early English Text Society's books this year. 

Under this head of Private Tuition we may class the houses of 
Abbots, where boys of good birth were educated. In his History of 
English Poetry, section 36, vol. iii. p. 9, ed. 1840, Warton says : 

" It appears to have been customary for the governors of the most 
considerable convents, especially those that were honoured with the 
mitre, to receive into their own private lodgings the sons of the prin- 
cipal families of the neighbourhood for education. About the year 
1450, Thomas Bromele, abbot of the mitred monastery of Hyde near 
Winchester, entertained in his own abbatial house within that 
monastery eight young gentlemen, or gentiles pueri, who were placed 
there for the purpose of literary instruction, and constantly dined at 
the abbot's table. I will not scruple to give the original words, 
which are more particular and expressive, of the obscure record 
which preserves this curious anecdote of monastic life. * Pro octo 
gentilibus pueris apuddominujnabbatem studii causa perlieiidinantibus, 
et ad mensam domini victitantibus, cum garcionibus suis ipsos comi- 
tantibus, hoc anno, xvitf. ixs. Capiendo pro* . . ." This, by the way, 

1 The foregoing three extracts are sent me by a friend. 

2 From a fragment of the Computus Camerarii Abbat. Hidens. in Archiv. 
Wulves. apud Winton. ut supr. (? Hist. Reg. Angl. edit. Hearne, p. 74.) 


was more extraordinary, as "William of Wykeham's celebrated 
seminary was so near. And this seems to have been an established 
practice of the abbot of Glastonbury, "whose apartment in the 
abbey was a kind of well-disciplined court, where the sons of noble- 
men and young gentlemen Avere wont to be sent for virtuous educa- 
tion, who returned thence home excellently accomplished. l " Richard 
Whiting, the last abbot of Glastonbury, who was cruelly executed by 
the king, during the course of his government educated near three 
hundred ingenuous youths, who constituted a part of his family ; 
beside many others whom he liberally supported at the universities.' 2 
Whitgift, the most excellent and learned archbishop of Canterbury 
in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, was educated under Eobert Whitgift 
his uncle, abbot of the Augustine monastery of black canons at 
Wellhow in Lincolnshire, "who," says Strype, "had several other 
young gentlemen under his care for education." (Strype's Whitgift, 
v. i. ch. i. p. 3.) 

Of Lydgate about 1420-30 A.D. I suppose Prof. Morley says in 
his English Writers, vol. ii. Pt. I. p. 423 : 

" After studying at Oxford, Paris, and Padua, and after mastering 
with special delight the writings of such poets as Dante, Boccaccio, 
and Alain Chartier, Lydgate opened at his monastery of Bury St 
Edmund's a school of rhetoric in which he taught young nobles 
literature and the art of versifying ! " 

Eichard Pace says in his De Frudu, 1517: 

" Now the learning of music too demands its place, especially 
from me whom it distinguished when a boy amongst boys. For 
Thomas Langton, bishop of Winchester (the predecessor of him who is 
now living), whose secretary I was, when he had marked that I was 
making a proficiency in music far beyond my age (as himself per- 
chance from his too great affection for me would point out and 
repeatedly say), ' The talent of this lad,' he said, 'is born for greater 
things,' and a few days afterwards he sent me, to pursue the study of 
literature, into Italy, to the school at Padua, which then was at its 
greatest prime, and benevolently supplied the annual expenses, as he 
showed wonderful favour to all men of letters, and in his day played 
the part of a second Mecsenas, well remembering (as he ofttimes said) 
that he had been advanced to the episcopal dignity on account of 
his learning. Eor he had gained, with the highest commendation, the 
distinctions of each law 3 (as they say now-a-days). Also he so 
highly prized the study of Humanity 4 that he had boys and youths 

1 Hist, and Antiq. of Glastonbury. Oxon. 1722, 8vo, p. 98. 

Reyner, Apostolat. Benedict. Tract. 1, sect. ii. p. 224. Sanders de Schism, 
page 176. 

3 utriusque juris, Canon and Civil. 

4 Lit. humaniores. Latin is still called so in Scotch, and French (1 think), 
universities. J. W. Hales. 

instructed in it at a school in his house; And he was vastly 
delighted to hear the scholars repeat to him at night the lessons 
given them by the teacher during the day. In this competition he 
who had borne himself notably went away with a present of some- 
thing suitable to his character, and with commendation expressed in 
the most refined language ; for that excellent governor had ever in 
his mouth the maxim that merit grows with praise." 1 

Palsgrave in 1530 speaks of "maister Petrus Vallensys, scole 
maister to his [Charles, Duke of Suffolk's] excellent yong sonne the 
Erie of Lyncolne." 

Roger Ascham, author of the Scholemaster, &c., born in 1515, 

" was received at a very youthful age into the family of Sir 
Antony "Wingfield, who furnished money for his education, and 
placed Roger, together with his own sons, under a tutor whose 
name was Bond. The boy had by nature a taste for books, and 
showed his good taste by reading English in preference to Latin, 
with wonderful eagerness. This was the more remarkable from the 
fact that Latin was still the language of literature, and it is not 
likely that the few English books written at that time were at all 
largely spread abroad in places far away from the Universities and 
Cathedral towns. In or about the year 1530, Mr Bond the domestic 
tutor resigned the charge of young Roger, who was now about fifteen 
years old, and by the advice and pecuniary aid of his kind patron 
Sir Antony, he was enabled to enter St John's College, Cambridge, 
at that time the most famous seminary of learning in all England . . 
he took his bachelor's degree in 1531, Feb. 18, in the 18th year of 
his age [" being a boy, new bachelor of art," he says himself,] a time 
of life at which it is now more common to enter the University than 
to take a degree, but which, according to the modes of education 

(Pace de Fructit, p. 27.) Exigit iam suuw musica quoqwe doctrina locuw, a me 
praesertim, quern puerwn inter pueros illustravit. Nam Thomas Langton Vyntoni- 
ensis cpiscopus, decessor huius qui nunc [1517 A.D.] uiuit, cui eram a maim 
minister, quum notassct me longe supra tctatem (ut ipse nimis fortasse amans mci 
iudicabat, & dictitabat) in musicis proficere, Huius, inquit, pueri ingenium ad 
maiora natum est. & paucos post dies in Italiam ad Fatauinum gymnasium, quod 
Uwc florewtissimum erat, ad bonas literas discendas me misit, annuasqj/e impensas 
benigne suppeditauit, ut omnibus literatis mirifice fauebat, & ajtate sua alterum 
Mecenatem agebat, probe memor (ut frequenter dictitabat) sese doctrinae causa ad 
episcopalem dignitatem prouectum. Adeptus enim fucrat per summam laudem, 
utriusqwtf iuris (ut nunc loquuntur) insignia. Item humaniorcs literas tanti sesti- 
mabat, ut domestica schola pueros & iuuenes illis erudiendos curarit. Et summo- 
pere oblectabatwr audire scholasticos dictata intcrdiu a prscceptorc, sibi nocta 
reddere. In quo certamine qui praeclare se gesserat, is aliqua re personae sua3 
accommodata, donatus abibat, & humanissimis uerbis laudatus. Habebct ew'm 
semper in ore ille optimus Fncsul, uirtutcm laudatam crescere. 


then in use, was not thought premature. On the 23rd of March 
following, he was elected fellow of the College." Giles's Life of 
Ascham, Works, vol. i. p. xi-xiv. 

Dr Clement and his wife were brought up in Sir T. More's house. 
Clement was taken from St Paul's school, London, appointed tutor 
to More's children, and afterwards to his daughter Margaret, p. 402, 
col. 1. 

What a young nobleman learnt in Henry the Eighth's time may be 
gathered from the following extracts (partly given by Mr Froude, 
Hist., v. i. p. 39-40) from the letters of young Gregory Cromwell's 
tutor, to his father, the Earl of Essex, the King's Chief Secretary. 

" The order of his studie, as the houres lymyted for the Erenche 
tongue, writinge, plaienge att weapons, castinge of accomptes, pas- 
times of instruments, and suche others, hath bene devised and 
directed by the prudent wisdome of Mr Southwell ; who with a 
ffatherly zeale and amitie muche desiringe to have hime a sonne 
worthy suche parents, ceasseth not aswell concerninge all other 
things for hime mete and necessary, as also in lerninge, t/'expresse his 
tendre love and affection towardes hime, serchinge by all meanes 
possible howe he may moste proffitte, dailie heringe hime to rede sum- 
whatt in thenglishe tongue, and advertisenge hime of the naturell 
and true kynde of prommtiac5n therof, expoundinge also and declar- 
inge the ethnologic and native signification of suche wordes as we have 
borowed of the Latines or Frenche menne, not evyn so comonly 
used in our quotidiene speche. Mr Cheney and Mr Charles in lyke 
wise endevoireth and emploieth themselves, accompanienge Mr 
Gregory in lerninge, amonge whome ther is a perpetuall contention, 
strife, and contiicte, and in inaner of an honest envie who shall do 
beste, not oonlie in the ffrenche tongue (wherin Mr Vallence after a 
wonderesly compendious, facile, prompte, and redy waye, nott with- 
oute painfull delegence and laborious industrie doth enstructe them) 
but also in writynge, playenge at weapons, and all other theire exer- 
cises, so that if continuance in this bihalf may take place, whereas 
the laste Diana, this shall (I truste) be consecrated to Apollo and the 
Muses, to theire no small profecte and your good contentation and 
pleasure. And thus I beseche the Lord to have you in his moste 
gratious tuition. 

At lieisinge in Norfffolk] the last daie of Aprill. 
Your faithfull and most bounden servaunte 


To his right honorable maister Mr Thomas Crumwell 
chief Secretary vnto the King's Maiestie." 

Ellis, Original Letters. Series I. vol. i. p. 341-3. 

The next Letter gives further details of Gregory's studies 


" But forcause somer was spente in the servyce of the wylde 
goddes, it is so moche to be regarded after what fashion yeouth is 
-'(lucaic and browght upp, in whiche tyme that that is lerned (for the 
moste parte) will nott all holelie be forgotten in the older yeres, I 
thinke it my dutic to asserteyne yo r Maistershippe how he spendith 

his tyme And firste, after he hath horde Masse he taketh a 

lecture of a Diologe of Erasmus Colloquium, called Pietas Puerilis, 
whereinne is described a veray picture of oone that sholde be vertu- 
ouselie brought upp ; and forcause it is so necessary for hime, I do not 
onelie cause him to rede it over, but also to practise the preceptes of 
the same, and I have also translated it into Englishe, so that he may 
conferre theime both to-githers, whereof (as lerned men affirme) 
cometh no smalle profecte l . . after that, he exerciseth his hande in 
writing one or two houres, and redith uppon Fabian's Chronicle as 
longe ; the residue of the day he doth spende uppon the lute and 
virginalls. When he rideth (as he doth very ofte) I tell hime by the 
way some historic of the Romanes or the Greekes, whiche I cause him 
to reherse agayn in a tale. For his recreation he useth to hawke 
and hunte, and shote in his long bowe, which frameth and succedeth 
so well with hime that he semeth to be therunto given by nature." 

Ellis, i. 343-4. 

Of the course of study of ( well-bred youths' in the early years of 
Elizabeth's reign we have an interesting account by Sir Nicholas 
Bacon, Lord Keeper, father of the great Bacon, in a Paper by Mr J. 
Payne Collier in the Archceologia, vol. 3G, Part 2, p. 339, Article 
xxxi. 2 " Before he became Lord Keeper, Sir Nicholas Bacon had 
been Attorney of that Court" [the Court of Wards and Liveries] " a 
most lucrative appointment ; and on the 27th May, 1561, he addressed 
a letter to Sir William Cecil, then recently (Jan., 1561) made Master 
of the Wards, followed by a paper thus entitled : ' Articles devised 
for the bringing up in vertue and learning of the Queenes Majesties 
Wardes, being heires males, and whose landes, descending in pos- 
session and coming to the Queenes Majestic, shall amount to the 
cleere yearly value of c. markes, or above.'" Sir Nicholas asks the 
new Master of Wards to reform what he justly calls most " prepos- 
terous" abuses in the department : " That the proceeding hath bin 
preposterous, appeareth by this : the chief e thinge, and most of price, 
in wardeship, is the wardes mynde ; the next to that, his bodie ; the 

1 Ascham praises most the practice of double translation, ' from Latin into 
English, and then back from English into Latin, Scholemastcr, p. 90, 178, ed. Giles. 

2 Mr Wm. Chappell gives me the reference, and part of the extract. 


last and meanest, his land. Nowe, hitherto the chiefe care of govern- 
aunce hath bin to the land, being the meaneste ; and to the bodie, 
being the better, very small ; but to the mynde, being the best, none 
at all, which methinkes is playnely to sett the carte before the horse" 
(p. 343). Mr Collier then summarises Bacon's Articles for the 
bringing up of the Wards thus : " The wards are to attend divine 
service at six in the morning : nothing is said about breakfast, 1 but 
they are to study Latin until eleven ; to dine between 1 1 and 1 2 ; to 
study with the music-master from 1 2 till 2 ; from 2 to 3 they are to 
be with the French master ; and from 3 to 5 with the Latin and 
Greek masters. At 5 they are to go to evening prayers ; then they 
are to sup ; to be allowed honest pastimes till 8 ; and, last of all, 
before they go to bed at 9, they are again to apply themselves to 
music under the instruction of the master. At and after the age of 
16 they were to attend lectures upon temporal and civil law, as well 
as de disdplind militari. It is not necessary to insert farther 
details ; but what I have stated will serve to show how well-bred 
youths of that period were usually brought up, and how disgracefully 
the duty of education as regards wards was neglected. . . It may 
appear singular that in these articles drawn up by Sir Nicholas, so 
much stress is laid upon instruction in music 2 ; but it only serves to 
confirm the notion that the science was then most industriously cul- 
tivated by nearly every class of society." Pace in 1517 requires that 
every one should study it, but should join with it some other study, 
as Astrology or Astronomy. He says also that the greatest part of 
the art had perished by men's negligence ; " For all that our 
musicians do now-a-days, is almost trivial if compared with what the 
old ones (aidiqni) did, so that now hardly one or two (unus aid 
alter) can be found who know what harmony is, though the word is 
always on their tongue." (De Fructu, p. 54-5.) Ascham, while 
lamenting in 1545 (Toxopliilus, p. 29) 'that the laudable custom of 

1 When did breakfast get its name, and its first notice as a regular meal ? 1 
do not remember having seen the name in the early part of Household Ordinances, 
or any other work earlier than the Northumberland Household Book. 

2 On Musical Education, see the early pages of Mr Chappell's Popular Music, 
and the note in Archseol., vol. xx, p. 60-1, with its references. ' Music constituted 
a part of the quadrivium, a hnmch of their system of education.' 


England to teach children their plain song and prick-song' is ' so 
decayed throughout all the realm as it is,' denounces the great practise 
of instrumental music by older students : " the minstrelsy of lutes, 
pipes, harps, and all other that standeth by such nice, fine, minikin 
fingering, (such as the most part of scholars whom I know use, if they 
use any,) is far more fit, for the womanishness of it, to dwell in the 
Court among ladies, than for any great thing in it which should help 
good and sad study, to abide in the University among scholars." 

By 1577 our rich people, according to Harrison, attended properly 
to the education of their children. After speaking " of our women, 
whose beautie commonlie exceedeth the fairest of those of the maine," 
he says : 

" This neuerthelesse I vtterlie mislike in the poorer sort of them, 
for the wealthier doo sildome offend herein : that being of themselues 
without competent wit, they are so carelesse in the education of their 
children (wherein their husbands also are to be blamed,) by means 
whereof verie manie of them neither fearing God, neither regarding 
either manners or obedience, do oftentimes come to confusion, which 
(if anie correction or discipline had beene vsed toward them in youth) 
might haue prooued good members of their common-wealth & coun- 
trie, by their good seruice and Industrie." Descr. of Britaine, 
Holinshed, i. 115, col. 2. 

This is borne out by Ascham, who says that young men up to 1 7 
were well looked after, but after that age were turned loose to get 
into all the mischief they liked : 

" In deede, from seven to seventene, yong jentlemen c.-mmonlie be 
carefullie enough brought up : But from seventene to seven and 
twentie (the most dangerous tyme of all a mans life, and most slip- 
perie to stay well in) they have commonlie the rein of all licens in 
their owne hand, and speciallie soch as do live in the Court. And 
that which is most to be merveled at, commonlie the wisest and also 
best men be found the fondest fathers in this behalfe. And if soni good 
father wold seek some remedie herein, yet the mother (if the house- 
hold of our Lady) had rather, yea, and will to, have her sonne cun- 
nyng and bold, in making him to lyve trimlie when he is yong, than 
by learning and travell to be able to serve his Prince & his countrie, 
both wiselie in peace, and stoutlie in warre, whan he is old. 

" The fault is in your selves, ye noble mens sonnes, and therfore ye 
deserve the greater blame, that commonlie the meaner mens children 
cum to be the wisest councellours, and greatest doers, in the weightie 
affaires of this realme." Scholemaster, ed. Mayor, p. 39-40. 

Note lastly, on this subject of private tuition, that Mulcaster in 


his Mementarie, 1582, complains greatly of rich people aping the 
custom of princes in having private tutors for their boys, and with- 
drawing them from public schools where the spirit of emulation 
against other boys would make them work. The course he recom- 
mends is, that rich people should send their sons, with their tutors, 
to the public schools, and so get the advantage of both kinds of tuition. 
Girls' Home Education. The earliest notice of an English 
Governess that any friend has found for me is in " the 34th Letter 
of Osbert de Clare in Stephen's reign, A.D. 1135-54. He mentions 
what seems to be a Governess of his children, l qucedam matrona quce 
liberos ejus (sc. militis, Herberti de Furcis) educare consueverat? She 
appears to be treated as one of the family : e. g. they wait for her 
when she goes into a chapel to pray. I think a nurse would have 
been * ancilla quoe liberos ejus nutriendos susceperat.' " "Walter de 
Biblesworth was the tutor of the " lady Dionysia de Monchensi, a 
Kentish heiress, the daughter of William de Monchensi, baron of 
Swaiiescombe, and related, apparently, to the Valences, earls of 
Pembroke, and wrote his French Grammar, or rather Vocabulary 1 , 
for her. She married Hugh de Vere, the second son of -Robert, 
fifth earl of Oxford. (Wright.) Lady Jane Grey was taught 
by a tutor at home, as we have seen. Palsgrave was tutor to 
Henry VIII. 's " most dere and most entirely beloved suster, quene 
Mary, douagier of France," and no doubt wrote his Lesdaircissement de 
la Langue Francoise mainly for her, though also " desirous to do 
some humble service unto the nobilitie of this victorious realme, and 
universally unto all other estates of this my natyfe country." Giles 
Du Guez, or as Palsgrave says to Henry VIII., " the synguler clerke, 
maister Gyles Dewes, somtyme instructor to your noble grace in this 
selfe tong, at the especiall instaunce and request of dyvers of your 
highe estates and noble men, hath also for his partye written in this 
matter." His book is entitled "An Introductorie for to lerne to 
rede, to pronounce & to speke French trewly : compyled for the 
Right high, excellent, and most vertuous lady The Lady Mary of 

1 Le treytyz ke raoun sire Gauter de Bibelesworthe fist a MA DAME DYONISIE DE 
MOUNCHENSY, pur aprise de langwage. 


Englande, doughter to our most gracious soverayn Lorde Kyng Henry 
the Eight." 

3. English University Education. In early days Cambridge and 
Oxford must be looked on, I suppose, as mainly the great schools for 
boys, and the generality of scholars as poor men's children, 1 like 
Chaucer's ' poore scolares tuo that dwelten in the soler-halle of Cante- 
bregge,' his Clerk of Oxenford, and those students, gifts to whom are 
considered as one of the regular burdens on the husbandman, in " God 
speed the Plough." Mr Eroude says, Hist, of England, I. 37 : 

" The universities were well filled, by the sons of yeomen 
chiefly. The cost of supporting them at the colleges was little, and 
wealthy men took a pride in helping forward any boys of promise 2 
(Latimer's Sermons, p. 64). It seenis clear also, as the Reformation 
drew nearer, while the clergy were sinking lower and lower, a marked 
change for the better became perceptible in a portion at least of the 

But Grosseteste mentions a "noble" scholar at Oxford (Epist. 129), 
and Edward the Black Prince and Henry V. are said to have been 
students of Queen's College, Oxford. Wolsey himself was a College 
tutor at Oxford, and had among his pupils the sons of the Marquess 
of Dorset, who afterwards gave him his first preferment, the living 
of Lymington. (Chappell.) 

1 Later on, the proportions of poor and rich changed, as may be inferred from 
the extract from Harrison below. In the ' exact account of the whole number (2920) 
of Scholars and Students in the University of Oxford taken anno 1812 in the Long 
Vacation, the Stud-entes of Christ Church are 100, the Pauper es Scholares et alii 
Servientes 41 ; at Magdalene the latter are 76 ; at New College 18, to 70 Socii ; at 
Brasenose (JEneasense Coll.) the Communarii are 145, and the Pauperes Scholares 
17; at Exeter, the latter are 37, to 134 Communarii; at St John's, 20 to 43 ; at 
Lincoln the Communarii are 60, to 27 Batellatores et Pauperes Scholares' Collectanea 
Curiosa, v. i. p. 196-203. 

2 Was this in return for the raised rents that Ascham so bitterly complains of 
the new possessors of the monastic lands screwing out of their tenants, and thereby 
ruining the yeomen ? He says to the Duke of Somerset on Nov. 21, 1547 (ed. 
Giles, i. p. 140-1), 

Qui auctores sunt tantae miseriso ? . . Sunt illi qui hodie passim, in Anglia, 
praedia monasteriorum gravissimis annuis reditibus auxerunt. Hinc omnium rerum 
exauctum pretium; hi homines expilant totam rempublicam. Villici et coloni uni- 
versi laborant, parcunt, corradunt, ut istis satisfaciant. . . Hinc tot families dissi- 
pate, tot domus collapsae . . Hinc, quod omnium miserrimum est, nobile illud decus 
et robur Angliae, nomen, inquam, Yomanorum Anglorum, fractum et collisura est. . . 


When will these words cease to be true of our land ? They should be burnt into 
all our hearts. 


The legend runs that the first school at Oxford was founded by 
King Alfred 1 , and that Oxford was a place of study in the time of 
Edward the Confessor (1041-66). If one may quote a book now 
considered to be * a monkish forgery and an exploded authority,' In- 
gulfus, who was Abbot of Croyland, in the Isle of Ely, under William 
the Conqueror, says of himself that he was educated first at West- 
minster, and then passed to Oxford, where he made proficiency in such 
books of Aristotle as were then accessible to students, 2 and in the 
first two books of Tally's Rhetoric. Maiden, On the Origin of 
Universities, 1835, p. 71. 

In 1201 Oxford is called a University, and said to have contained 
3000 scholars; in 1253 its first College (University) is founded. 
In 1244, Hen. III. grants it its first privileges as a corporate body, 
and confirms and extends them in 1245. In his reign, Wood says 
the number of scholars amounted to 30,000, a number no doubt 
greatly exaggerated. 

In the reign of Stephen, we know that Vacarius, a Lombard by 
birth, who had studied the civil law at Bologna, came into England, 
and formed a school of law at Oxford 3 . . he remained in England in 
the reign of Henry II. On account of the difficulty and expense of 
obtaining copies of the original books of the Roman law, and the 
poverty of ILLS English scholars, Vacarius [ab. 1149, A.D.] compiled an 
abridgment of the Digests and Codex, in which their most essential 
parts were preserved, with some difference of arrangement, and 
illustrated from other law-books. . . It bore on its title that it was 
"pauperibus presertim destinatus ;" and hence the Oxford students 
of law obtained the name of Pauperists. Maiden, p. 72-3. 

Roger Bacon (who died 1248) speaks of a young fellow who came 

1 " He placed JEthelweard, his youngest son, who was fond of learning, together 
with the sons of his nobility, and of many persons of inferior rank, in schools which 
ae had established with great wisdom and foresight, and provided with able masters. 
In these schools the youth were instructed in reading and writing both the Saxon 
and Latin languages, and in other liberal arts, before they arrived at sufficient 
strength of body for hunting, and other manly exercises becoming their rank." 
Henry, History of England, vol. ii. pp. 354-5 (quoted from Asser). 

2 None were so. T. Wright. 

3 Gervaise of Canterbury says, in his account of Theobald in the Acts of the 
Archbishops, "quorum primus erat magister Vacarius. Hie in Oxonefordia 
legem docuit." 


to him, aged 15, not having wherewithal to live, or finding proper 
masters : " because he was obliged to serve those who gave him 
necessaries, daring two years found no one to teach him a word in 
the things he learned." Opus Tertium, cap. xx. In 1214 the Com- 
monalty of Oxford agreed to pay 52s. yearly for the use of poor 
scholars, and to give 100 of them a meal of bread, ale, and pottage, 
with one large dish of flesh or fish, every St Nicholas day. Wood's An. 
i. 185. WuoJs Annals (ed. Gutch, v. i. p. 619-20) also notes that 
in 14G1 A.D. divers Scholars were forced to get a license under the 
Chancellor's hand and seal (according to the Stat. 12 Ric. II., A.D. 
1388, 7k, p. 519) to beg : and Sir Thos. More says "then may wee 
yet, like poor Scholars of Oxford, go a begging with our baggs & 
wallets, & sing salve Regina at rich mens dores." On this point we 
may also compare the Statutes of Walter de Merton for his College 
at Oxford, A.D. 1274, ed. HaUiwell, 1843, p. 19 : 

Cap. 13. De admissione scholariurn. 

Hoc etiam in eadem domo specialiter observari volo et decerno, ut 
circa eos, qui ad hujusmodi eleemosinse participationem admittendi 
fuerint, diligenti solicitudine caveatur, ne qui prseter castos, honestos, 
pacificos, humiles, indigentes, ad studium habiles ac proficere volentes, 
adinittantur. Ad quorum agnitionem singulis, cum in dicta societate 
fuerint admittendi sustentationis gratia in eadem, ad annum urnim 
utpote probationis causa primitus concedatur, ut sic demum si in 
dictis conditionibus laudabiliter se habuerint, in dictam congrega- 
tionem adinittantur. 

See also cap. 31, against horses of scholars being kept. 

Lodgings were let according to the joint valuation of 2 Magistri 
(scholars) and two townsmen (probi et legales homines de Villa). 
Wood, i. 255. An. 15 Hen. III. A.D. 1230-1. 

In the beginning of the 15th century it had become the estab- 
lished rule that every scholar must be a member of some college or 
hall. The scholars who attended the public lectures of the univer- 
sity, without entering themselves at any college or hall, were called 
chamber dekyns, as in Paris they were called martinets ; and fre- 
quent enactments were made against them. Maiden, p. 85, ref. to 
Wood's Annals, 1408, -13, -22, and 1512, &c. 

The following are the dates of the foundations of the different 
Colleges at Oxford as given in the University Calendar : 


University College, 1253-80 } 
BalHol Coll., betw. 1263 & 1268 
Merton College, founded at 
Maldon, in Surrey, in 
1264, removed to Oxford 

in 1274 

Exeter College . . . . 1314 
Oriel . . . . 1326 

The Queen's College . . 1340 
New . 1386 

Lincoln . 1427 

Magdalen College . . 1458 

The King's Hall and Col- \ 
T n T~* f 

lege ol Brasenose ) 

Corpus Christi College . . 1516 

Christ Church . . 1526 

Trinity College . . . . 1554 

St John's . . . . 1555 

Jesus ,, . . . . 1571 

Wadham . . . . 1613 

Pembroke 1624 

Worcester , .1714 

Ail Souls . . 1437 


St Edmund Hall . . . . 1317 
St Mary's . . . . 1333 

Magdalen Hall . . . . 1487 
St Alban after 1547 

New Inn . . . . 1438 

' The Paston Letters ' do net give us much information about 
studies or life at Oxford, but they do give us material for estimating 
the cost of a student there (ii. 124 2 ) ; they show us the tutor reporting 
to a mother her son's progress in learning (ii. 130), and note the 
custom, of a man, when made bachelor, giving a feast : " I was made 
bachelor . . on Friday was se'nnight (18 June, 1479), and I made my 
feast on the Monday after (21 June). I was promised venison 
against my feast, of my Lady Harcourt, and of another person too, 
but I was deceived of both ; but my guests held them pleased with 
such meat as they had, blessed be God." The letter as to the costs 
is dated May 19, 1478. 

" I marvel sore that you sent me no word of the letter which I 
sent to you by Master William Brown at Easter. I sent you word 
that time that I should send you mine expenses particularly ; but as 
at this time the bearer hereof had a letter suddenly that he should 
come home, & therefore I could have no leisure to send them to you 
011 that wise, & therefore I shall write to you in this letter the whole 
sum of my expenses since I was with you till Easter last past, and 

1 This College is said to have heen founded in the year 872, hy Alfred the Great. 
It was restored by William of Durham, said to have heen Archdeacon of Durham ; 
hut respecting whom little authentic information has heen preserved, except that he 
was Rector of Wearmouth in that county, and that he died in 1249, bequeathing a 
sum of money to provide a permanent endowment for the maintenance of a certain 
number of "Masters." The first purchase with this bequest was made in 1253, 
and the first Statutes are dated 1280. Oxford Univ. Calendar, 1865, p. 167. 

2 I refer to the modernized edition published by Charles Knight in two volumes. 



also the receipts, reckoning the twenty shillings that I had of you to 
Oxon wards, with the bishop's finding : 

s. d. 
The whole sum of receipts is . . . . . . . .- 5 17 6 

And the whole sum of expenses is . . . . 6 5 5| 

And that [=what] conieth over my receipts & my 
expenses I have borrowed of Master Edmund, & it 
draweth to . . . . . . . . . . . 80 

and yet I reckon none expenses since Easter ; but as for them, they 
be not great." 

On this account Fenn says, 

" he (Win. Paston) had expended 6 5s. 5|tZ. from the time he 
left his mother to Easter last, which tliis year fell 011 the 22nd 
March, from which time it was now two months, & of the expenses 
' since incurred ' he says * they be not great/ We may therefore con- 
clude the former account was from the Michaelmas preceding, and a 
moderate one ; if so, we may fairly estimate his university education 
at 100 a-year of our present money. I mean that 12 10s. 11 \d. 
would then procure as many necessaries and comforts as 100 will 
at this day." 

What was the basis of Fenn's calculation he does not say. In 
1468, the estimates for the Duke of Clarence's household expenses 
give these prices, among others : 

Wheat, a quarter 

Ale, a gallon 

Beves, less hide and tallow, each 




Rice, a pound 


Holland, an ell (6rf., 8d,, 16d.) 



Napkyns, a dozen, 12s., 1, 2, 






now, say 3 












6 ' 






















2 7 31 17 8 

This sum would make the things named nearly 14 times as dear 
now as in 1468, and raise Fenn's 100 to about 180; but no 
reliance can be placed on this estimate because we know nothing of 
the condition of the beves, muttons, veles, and porkys, then, as con- 

* Poor ones. 


trasted with ours. Possibly they were half the size and half the 
weight. Still, I have referred the question to Professor Thorold 
Kogers, author of the History of Prices 1250-1400 A.D., and he says : 

" In the year to which you refer (1478) bread was very dear, 50 
per cent, above the average. But on the whole, wheat prices in the 
15th century were lower than in the 14th. Fenn's calculation, a 
little below the mark for wheat, is still less below it in most of the 
second necessaries of life. The multiple of wheat is about 9, that of 
meat at least 24, those of butter and cheese nearly as much. But 
that of clothing is not more than 6, that of linen from 4 to 5. 
Taking however one thing with another, 12 is a safe general multi- 

This would make the cost of young Paston's university education 
150 11s. 6d. a year. 

Mr "Whiston would raise Fenn's estimate of 100 to 200. He 
says that the rent of land in Kent in 1540 was a shilling or eighteen- 
pence an acre, see Valor Ecclesiasticus, and that the tithes and 
glebes of the Dean and Chapter of Rochester, which were worth 
about 480 a-year in 1542, are now worth 19,000. 

The remaining Oxford letter in the Paston volumes seems to 
allude to the students bearing part of the expenses of the degree, or 
the feast at it, of a person related to royal family. 

" I supposed, when that I sent my letter to my brother John, 
that the Queen's brother should have proceeded at Midsummer, 
and therefore I beseeched her to send me some money, for it will be 
some cost to me, but not much." 

The first school at Cambridge is said to have been founded by 
Edward the Elder, the son of Alfred, but on no good authority. In 
1223 the term University was applied to the place. The dates of the 
foundations of its Colleges, as given in its Calendar, are : 

St Peter's 1257 

(date of charter, 1264) 

Clare Hall 1326 

Pembroke 1347 

Cains 1349 

Trinity Hall . . . . 1350 
Corpus Christi . . . . 1351 

King's 1441 

Queen's 1446 

St Catherine's Hall . . 1473 

Jesus 1496 

Christ's 1505 

St John's 1511 

Magdalene 1519 

Trinity 1546 

Emmanuel . . . . . . 1584 

Sidney 1598 

Downing 1800 

(refounded 1465) 
Lord Henry Brandon, son of the Duke of Suffolk, died of the 


sweating sickness then prevalent in the .University, on the 16th 
July, 1551, while a student of Cambridge. His brother, Lord Charles 
Brandon, died on the same day. Their removal to Buckden was too 
late to save them (Ath. Cant., i. 105, 541). Of them Ascham says, 
' two noble Primeroses of Nobilitie, the yong Duke of Suffolke and 
Lord H. Matrevers were soch two examples to the Courte for learnyng, 
as our tyme may rather wishe, than look for agayne.' Scholemaster, 
ed. Mayor, p. 62. Besides these two young noblemen, the first 104 
pages of Cooper's Athence Cantabrigienses disclose only one other, 
Lord Derby's son, and the following names of sons of knights : l 


1443 Thomas Eotherham, Fellow of King's, son of Sir Thomas 

Rotherham, knight, and Alice his wife. 
1494 Eeginald Bray, high-steward of the university of Oxford, 

son of Sir Richard Bray, knight, and the lady Joan his 

second wife. 

1 Other well-born men, in the Ath. Cant., then connected with the University, 
or supposed to be, were, 

1504 Sir Roger Ormston, knight, died. Had been High Steward of the 


1504 Sir John Mordaunt, High Steward. 

1478 George Fitzhugh, 4th son of Henry lord Fitzhugh, admitted B.A. 
1488 Robert Leyburn, born of a knightly family, Fellow of Pembroke-hall, 

and proctor. 
1457 John Argentine, of an ancient and knightly family, was elected from Eton 

to King's. 
1504 Robert Fairfax, of an ancient family in Yorkshire, took the degree of 

Mus. Doc. 
1496 Christopher Baynbrigg, of a good family at Hilton, near Appleby, 

educated at and Provost of Queen's, Oxford, incorporated of Cambridge. 
1517 Sir Wm. Fyndern, knight, died, and was a benefactor to Clare Hall, in 

which it is supposed he had been educated. 
1481 Robert Rede, of an ancient Northumbrian family, was sometime of 

Buckingham College, and the Fellow of Kiug's-hall (?), and was autumn 

reader at Lincoln's Inn in 1481. 
ab. 460 Marmaduke Constable, son of Sir Robert Constable, knight, believed to 

have been educated at Cambridge. 
So, Edward Stafford, heir of Henry Stafford, Duke of Buckingham, is 

also believed to have been educated at Cambridge, because his father was 

a munificent patron of the University, constantly maintaining, or assisting 

to maintain, scholars therein. 
So, Thomas Howard, son of Sir John Howard, knight, and afterwards 

Duke of Norfolk, who defeated the Scots at Flodden, is believed, &c. 
1484 John Skelton, the poet, probably of an ancient Cumberland family. 
1520 ? Henry Howard, son of Lord Thomas Howard, ultimately Duke of Norfolk. 

Nothing is known as to the place of his education. If it were either of 

the English Universities, the presumption is in favour of Cambridge. 
The only tradesman's son mentioned is, 

1504 Sir Richard Empsun, son of Peter Empson, a sieve-maker, High-Steward. 


1502 Humphrey Fitzwilliam, of Pembroke Hall, Vice-Chancellor, 
appears to have been the son of Sir Richard EitzAvilliam 
of Ecclesfield, and Elizabeth his wife. 

ab. 1468 Richard Redman, son of Sir Richard Redman and Eliza- 
beth [Aldburgh] his wife ; made Bp. of St Asaph. 

1492 Thomas Savage, son of Sir John Savage, knight, Bp. of 
Rochester. Was LL.D. ? educated at Cambridge. 

1485 James Stanley, younger son of Thomas Earl of Derby, 
educated at both universities, graduated at Cambridge, and 
became prebendary of Holy well in 1485, Bp. of Ely in 

1497 William Coningsby, son of Sir Humphrey Coningsby, 
elected from Eton to King's. 

1507 Thomas Elyot, son of Sir Richard Elyot, made M.A. 
fb. 1520 George Blagge, son of Sir Robert Blagge. 

Queen Elizabeth's favourite, Lord Essex, was at Trinity College, 
Cambridge. See his letter of May 1 3, from there, in Ellis, series II. 
v. iii. p. 73 ; the furniture of his room, and his expenses, in the 
note p. 73-4 ; and his Tutor's letter asking for new clothes for ' my 
Lord,' or else ' he shall not onely be thrid bare, but ragged.' 

Archbp. Whitgift 1 , when B.D. at Pembroke Hall, Cambridge, 
A.D. 1563, "bestowed some of his time and abilities in the instruc- 
tion of ingenious youth, sent to the college for education, in good 
learning and Christian manners. And among such his pupils, were 
two noblemen's sons, viz. the Lord Herbert, son and heir to the Earl 
of Pembroke ; and John, son and heir to tho. Lord North." (Life, 
by Strype, ed. 1822, vol. i. p. 14.) 

While Whitgift was Master of Trinity, Strype says he had bred 
up under him not only several Bishops, but also " the Earls of 
Worcester and Cumberland, the Lord Zouch, the Lord Dunboy of 
Ireland, Sir Nicolas and Sir Erancis Bacon. To which I may add 
one more, namely, the son of Sir Nicolas White, Master of the Rolls 
in Ireland, who married a Devereux." (Life, i. 157, ed. 1822.) 

A search through the whole of the first volume of Wood's Athene^ 
Oxonienses, comprising a period of nearly 100 years, has resulted 
in the following meagre list of men of noble or knightly birth who 
distinguished themselves. There are besides many men of "genteel 

1 Whitgift himself, born 1530, was educated at St. Anthony's school, then 
sent back to his father in tho country, and sent up to Cambridge in 1548 or 1549. 


parents," some of trader-ones, many friars, some Winchester men, 
but no Eton ones, educated at Oxford. 

1478 Edmund Dudley, son of John Dudley, Esq., 2nd son of 

John Lord Dudley, of Dudley Castle in Staffordshire, 
ab. 1483 John Colet, the eldest son of Sir Henry Colet, twice lord 
mayor of London . . was educated in grammatical, partly 
in London or Westminster. 
Nicholas Vaux, son of Sir Will. Yaux of Harwedon in 

Northamptonshire (not the Poet, Lord Vaux). 

end of John Bourchier, Lord Berners, eldest son of Sir John 
Edw. IV. Bourchier, knight, Lord Berners of Hertfordshire . . was in- 
structed in several sorts of learning in the university in 
the latter end of K. Edw. IV. ; in whose reign, and 
before, were the sons of divers of the English nobility 
educated in academical literature in Baliol Coll., 1 wherein, 
as 'tis probable, this our author was instructed also. 
1497 Thomas More, son of Sir John More, knight. (The Sir 

Thomas More.) 
?ab. 1510 George Bulleyn, son and heir of Sir Tho. Bullen, and 

brother of Anne Bulleyn. 
? Henry Parker, son of Sir William Parker, knight. 

1515 Christopher Seintgerman, son of Sir Henry Seintgerman, 


? ab. 1520 Thomas Wyatt, son of Henry Wyatt of Alington Castle in 
Kent, knight and baronet, migrated from St John's, 
Cambridge. 2 
1538 3 John Heron, a Kentish man born, near of kin to Sir John 

Heron, knight. 

? ab. 1520 Edward Seymoure, son of Sir John Seymoure, or St 
Maure of Wolf-hall in Wilts, knight, was educated in 
trivials, and partly in quadrivials for some time in this 
university. He was Jane Seymour's brother, and after- 
wards Duke of Somerset, and was beheaded on Jan. 22, 
1534 John Philpot, son of Sir Pet. Philpot, knight of the Bath. 

Fellow of New Coll. 

ab. 15 Henry Lord Stafford (author of the Mirror for Magis- 
trates), the only son of Edward, Duke of Bucks, 'received 

1 No proof of this is given. 

2 Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey, son and heir of Thomas Duke of Norfolk, 
' was for a time student in Cardinal Coll. as the constant tradition has been among 
us.' p. 153, col. 1. 

3 Andrew Borde, who writes himself Andreas Perforatus, was horn, as it seems, 
at Pevensey, commonly called Penscy [now Pemsey], in Sussex, and not unlikely 
educated in Wykeham's school near to Winchester, brought up at Oxford (as he saith 
in his Introduction to Knowledge, cap. 35), p. 170, col. 2, and note. 


his education in both the universities, especially in that of 
Cambridge, to which his father had been a benefactor.' 
1515 Reynold Pole (the Cardinal), a younger son of Sir Rich. 

? ab. 1530 Anthony Browne, son of Sir Weston Browne, of Abbes- 

roding and of Langenhoo in Essex, knight, 
ab. 1574 Patrick Plunket, baron of Dunsary in Ireland, son of Rob. 

Plunket, baron of the same place, 
ab. 1570 Philip Sidney (the poet), son of Sir Henry Sidney. 

1 John Smythe, son of Sir Clem. S my the. 

(Peter Levens or Levins, our Manipulus or Rhyming- 
Dictionary man, became a student in the university, an. 
1552, was elected probationer-fellow of Mag. Coll. into 
a Yorkshire place, 18 Jan. 1557, being then bach, of 
arts, and on the 19th Jan. 1559 was admitted true and 
perpetual fellow. In 1560 he left his fellowship. AtJi. 
Ox. p. 547, col. 2.) 

1 ab. 1570 Reyiiolde Scot, a younger son of Sir John Scot of Scots- 
hall, near to Smeeth in Kent. 

1590 Hayward Townshend, eldest son of Sir Henry To wnshend, 

ab. 1587 Francis Tresham (of Gunpowder Plot notoriety), son of Sir 
Thomas Tresham, knight. 

The number of friars and monks at the Universities before the 
Reformation, and especially at Oxford, must have been large. Tanner 


In our universities . . . were taught divinity and canon law 
(then, t. Hen. III., much in vogue), and the friers resorting thither 
in great numbers and applying themselves closely to their studies, 
outdid the monks in all fashionable knowledge. But the monks 
quickly perceived it, and went also to the universities and studied 
hard, that they might not be run down by the friers. 1 And as the 

1 See Mat. Paris, p. 665, though he speaks there chiefly of monks * beyond sea. 

* As appears from Wood's Fasti Oxon. 

The following names of Oxford men educated at monkish or friars' schools, or 
of their bodies, occur in the first volume of Wood's Athena Oxon., ed. Bliss : 
p. 6, col. 2. William Beeth, educated among the Dominicans or Black Friers 
from his youth, and afterwards their provincial master or chiel 

p. 7, col. 2. Bichard Bardney, a Benedictine of Lincolnshire. 
p. 11, col. 2. John Sowle, a Carme of London. 
p. 14, col. 1. William Galeon, an Austin friar of Lynn Regis. 
p. 18, col. 2. Henry Bradshaw, one of the Benedictine monks of St Werberg's, 


p. 19, col. 1. John Harley, of the order of the Preaching or Dominican, commonly 
called Black, Friars 


friers got houses in the universities, the monks also got colleges 
founded and endowed there l for the education of their novices, where 
they were for some years instructed in grammar, philosophy, and school 
divinity, and then returning home, improved their knowledge by 
their private studies, to the service of God and the credit of their 
respective societies. So that a little before the Reformation, the 
greatest part of the proceeders in divinity at Oxford were monks and 
Kegular canons. 

By Harrison's time, A.D. 1577 2 , rich men's sons had not only 
pressed into the Universities, but were scrooging poor men's sons out 
of the endowments meant only for the poor, learning the lessons that 
Mr Whiston so well shows our Cathedral dignitaries have carried out 

1 It was customary then at Oxford for the Religious to have schools that bore 
the name of their respective orders ; as the Augustine, Benedictine, Carmelite, and 
Franciscan schools ; and there were schools also appropriated to the benefit of par- 
ticular Religious houses, as the Dorchester and Eynsham schools, &c. The monks 
of Gloucester had Gloucester convent, and the novices of Pershore an apartment in 
the same house. So likewise the young monks of Canterbury, Westminster, Durham, 
St Albans, &c. Kennet's Paroch. Antiq., p. 214. So also Leland saith, Itin. vol. vi. 
p. 28, that at Stamford the names of Peterborough Hall, Semplingham, and Vauldey 
yet remain, as places whither the Religious of those houses sent their scholars to 
study. Tanner, Notitia Monastica, Preface, p. xxvi. note w. 

2 The abuse was of far earlier date than this. Compare Mr Halli well's quotation 
in Ms * Merton Statutes,' from his edition of ' the Poems of John Awdelay, the 
blind poet of Haghmon Monastery in the 14th century, ' 

Now }if a pore mon set hys son to Oxford to scole, 

Bothe the fader and the moder hyndryd they schal be ; 
And 3if ther falle a bcnefyse, hit schal be }if a fole, 
To a clerke of a kechyn, ore into the chauncere . . 
Clerkys that han cunyng, 
. . thai mai get no vaunsyng 
Without symony. 

p. 54, col. 2. Thomas Spenser, a Carthusian at Henton in Somersetshire ; ' whence 
for a time he receded to Oxford (as several of his order did) to im- 
prove himself, or to pass a course, in theology.' 

p. 94, col. 2. John Kynton, a Minorite or Grey-friar 

p. 101, col. 1. John Rycks, 

p. 107, col. 1. John Forest, a Franciscan of Greenwich. 

p. 189, col. 1. John Griffen, a Cistercian. 

p. 278, col. 2. Cardinal Pole, educated among the Carthusians, and Carmelites or 
' \Vhite-fryers.' 

p. 363, col. 2. William Barlowe, an Austin of St Osith in Essex. 

p. 630, col. 2. Henry Walpoole and Richard Walpoole, Jesuits. 

The 5th Lord Percy, he of the Household Book, in the year 1520 founded an annual 

stipend of 10 marcs for 3 years, for a Pedagogus sive Magister, docens ac legens 

Grammaticam et Philosophiam canonicis et fratribus of the monastery of Alnwick 

(Warton, ii. 492). 


with tho stipends of their choristers, boys and men. " Les gros 
poissons man gent les menus. Pro. Poore men are (easily) supplanted 
by the rich, the weake by the strong, the meane by the mighty." } 
(Cotgrave, u. manger.) The law of " natural selection " prevails. 
Who shall say nay in a Christian land professing the principles of 
the great " Inventor of Philanthropy " 1 Whitgift for one, see his 
Life of Strype, Bk. I. chap. xiii. p. 148-50, ed. 1822. In 1589 an 
act 31 Eliz. c. 6, was passed to endeavour to prevent the a]ruse, but, 
like modern Election-bribery Acts with their abuse, did not do it. 

" at this present, of one sort & other, there are about three thou- 
sand students nourished in them both (as by a late serveie it mani- 
festlie appeared). They [the Colleges at our Universities] were 
created by their founders at the first, onelie for pore men's sons, 
whose parents were not able to bring them up unto learning : but 
now they have the least benefit of them, by reason the rich do so 
incroch upon them, And so farre hath this inconvenence spread it- 
self, that it is in my time an hard matter for a pore man's child to 
come by a fellowship (though he be neuer so good a scholer & 
worthie of that roome.) Such packing also is used at elections, that 
not he which best deserveth, but he that hath most friends, though 
he be the worst scholer, is alwaies surest to speed ; which will turne 
in the end to the overthrow of learning. That some gentlemen also, 
whose friends have been in times past benefactors to certeine of 
those houses, doe intrude into the disposition of their estates, with- 
out all respect of order or statutes devised by the founders, onelie 
thereby to place whome they think good (and not without some 
hope of gaine) the case is too too evident, and their attempt would 
soone take place, if their superiors did not provide to bridle their 
indevors. In some grammar schooles likewise, which send scholers 
to these universities, it is lamentable to see what briberie is 
used ; for yer the scholer can be preferred, such briberye is made, 
that pore men's children are commonly shut out, and the richer sort 
received (who in times past thought it dishonour to live as it were 
upon almes) and yet being placed, most of them studie little other 
than histories, tables, dice & trifles, as men that make not the living 
by their studie the end of their purposes; which is a lamentable bear- 
ing. Besides this, being for the most part either gentlemen, or rich 
men's sonnes, they oft bring the universities into much slander. 2 For 

1 Compare Chaucer : ' wherfore, as seith Senek, ther is nothing more covenable 
to a man of heigh estate than debonairte and pite ; and therfore thise flies than 
men clepen bees, whan thay make here king, they chesen oon that hath no pricke 
wherwith he may stynge.' Persones Tale, Poet. Works, ed. Morris, iii. 301. 

2 Ascham complains of the harm that rich men's sons did in his time at Cam- 
bridge. "Writing to Archbp. Cranmer in 1545, he complains of two gravissima im- 


standing upon their reputation and libertie, they ruffle and roist it 
out, exceeding in apparell, and hanting riotous companie (which 
draweth them from their bookes into an other trade). And for 
excuse, when they are charged with breach of all good order, thinke 
it sufficient to saie, that they be gentlemen, which grieveth manie 
not a little. But to proceed with the rest. 

"Everie one of these colleges haue in like manner their pro- 
fessors or readers of the tongs and severall sciences, as they call 
them, which dailie trade up the youth there abiding privatlie in their 
halles, to the end they may be able afterwards (when their turne 
commeth about, which is after twelve termes) to show themselves 
abroad, by going from thence into the common schooles and publike 
disputations (as it were In arearn) there to trie their skilles, and 
declare how they have profited since their coming thither. 

" Moreover in the publike schooles of both the universities, there 
are found at the prince's charge (and that verie largelie) five pro- 
fessors & readers, that is to saie, of divinitie, of the civill law, 
physicke, the Hebrew and the Greek tongues. And for the other 
lectures, as of philosophic, logike, rhetorike and the quadriuials, 
although the latter (I mean, arithmetike, musike, geometric and 
astronomic, and with them all skill in the perspectives are now 
smallie regarded in either of them) the universities themselves do 
allowe competent stipends to such as reade the same, whereby they 
are sufficiently provided for, touching the maintenance of their 
estates, and no less encouraged to be diligent in their functions." 

On the introduction of the study of Greek into the Universities, 
Dr S. Knight says in his Life of Colet : 

" As for Oxford, its own History and Antiquities sufficiently con- 
fess, that nothing was known there but Latin, and that in the most 

pedimenta to their course of study: (1.) that so few old men will stop up to encourage 
study by their example ; (2.) " quod illi fere omnes qui hue Cantahrigiam confluunt, 
pueri sunt, divitumque filii, et hi etiam qui nunquam inducunt animum suum, ut 
abundant! aliqua perfectaque eruditione perpoliantur, sed ut ad alia reipublicae 
munera obeunda levi aliqua et inchoata cognitione paratiores efficiantur. Et hie 
singularis quaedam injuria bifariam academiae intentata est ; vel quia hoc modo omnis 
expletse absolutseque doctrinae spes longe ante messem, in ipsa quasi herbescenti 
viriditate, praeciditur ; vel quia omnis pauperum inopumque expectatio, quorum 
aetates omnes in literarum studio conteruntur, ab his fucis eorum sedes occupantibus, 
exclusa illusaque praeripitur. Ingenium, enim, doctrina, inopia judicium, nil quic- 
quam domi valent, ubi gratia, favor, magnatum literae, et aliae persimiles extraordi- 
nariae illegitimseque rationes vim foris adferunt. Hinc quoque illud accedit 
incommodum, quod quidam prudentes viri nimis aegre ferunt partem aliquam regiae 
pecuniae in collegiorum socios inpartiri ; quasi illi non maxime indigeant, aut quasi 
ulla spes perfect eruditionis in ullis aliis residere potest, quam in his, qui in per- 
petuo literarum studio perpetuum vitae suae tabernaculum collocarunt." Ed. Giles, i. 
p. 69-70. See also p. 121-2. 


depraved Style of the School-men. Cornelius Vitellius, an Italian, 
was the first who taught Greek in that University T ; and from him 
the famous Grocyne learned the first Elements thereof. 

" In Cambridge, Erasmus was the first who taught the Greek 
Grammar. And so very low was the State of Learning in that 
University, that (as he tells a Friend) about the Year 1485, the 
Beginning of Zen. VII. Reign, there was nothing taught in that 
publick Seminary besides Alexander's Parva Logical ia, (as they called 
them) the old Axioms of Aristotle, and the Questions of John Scotus, 
till in Process of time good Letters were brought in, and some Know- 
ledge of the Mathematicks ; as also Aristotle in a new Dress, and some 
Skill in the Greek Tongue ; and, by Degrees, a Multitude of Authors, 
whose Names before had not been heard of. 2 

"It is certain that even Erasmus himself did little understand 
Greek, when he came first into England, in 1497 (13 Hen. VII.), 
and that our Countryman Linacer taught it him, being just returned 
from Italy with great Skill in that Language : Which Linacer and 
William Grocyne were the two only Tutors that were able to teach 
it." Saml. Knight, Life of Dr John Colet, pp. 17, 18. 

The age at which boys went up to the University seems to have 
varied greatly. When Oxford students were forbidden to play 
marbles they could not have been very old. But in " The Mirror of 
the Periods of Man's Life" (Jab. 1430 A.D.), in the Society's Hymns 
to the Virgin and Christ of this year, we find the going-up age put 

at twenty : 

Quod resou/fc, in age of .xx. $eer, 
Goo to oxenford, or lerne lawe 3 . 

This is confirmed by young Paston's being at Eton at nineteen (see 
below, p. Ivi). In 1612, Brinsley (Grammar Schoole, p. 307) puts 
the age at fifteen, and says, 

" such onely should be sent to the Vniuersities, who proue most 
ingenuous and towardly, and who, in a loue of learning, will begin to 

1 Antea, enim Cornelius Vitellius, homo Italus Corneli, quod est maritimum 
Hetruriae Oppidum, natus nobili Prosapia, vir optimus gratiosusque, omnium primus 
Oxonii bonus literas docuerat. [Pol. Verg. lib. xxvi.] 

2 Ante annos ferine triginta, nihil tradebatur in scJwla Cantabrigiensi, prater 
Alexandri Parva Logicalia, ut vacant, $ vetera ilia Aristotelis dictata, Scoticasque 
Qucestiones . Progressu temporis accesserunt bonce literce ; accessit Matheseos Cognitio ; 
accessit novus, aut certe novatus, Aristoteles ; accessit Gra3carum literarum peritia ; 
accesserunt Autores tarn multi, quorum olim ne nomina quidem tenebantur, &c. 
[Erasrai Epist. Henrico Bovillo, Dat. Roffse Cal. Sept. 1516.] 

3 Sir John Fortescue's description of the study of law at "Westminster and in the 
Inns of Chancery is in chapters 48-9 of his De laudibus legum Anglice. 


take paines of themselues, hairing attained in some sort the former 
parts of learning ; "being good Grammarians at least, able to vnder- 
stand, write and speake Latine in good sort. 

" Such as haue good discretion how to gouerne themselues there, 
and to moderate their expenses; which is seldome times before 15 
yeeres of age ; which is also the youngest age admitted by the statutes 
of the Vniuersity, as I take it." 

4. Foreign University Education. That some of our nobles sent 
their sons to be educated in the French universities (whence they 
sometimes imported foreign vices into England 1 ) is witnessed by some 
verses in a Latin Poem " in MS. Digby, No. 4 (Bodleian Library) of 
the end of the 13th or beginning of the 14th century," printed by 
Mr Thomas Wright in his Anecdota Literaria, p. 38. 

Filii nobilium, dum sunt juniores, 
Mittuntur in Franciam fieri doctores ; 
Quos prece vel pretio domant corruptores, 
Sic praetaxatos referunt artaxata mores. 

An English nation or set of students of the Faculty of Arts at 
Paris existed in 1169; after 1430 the name was changed to the 
German nation. Besides the students from the French provinces 
subject to the English, as Poictou, Guienne, &c., it included the 
English, Scottish, Irish, Poles, Germans, &c. Encyc. Brit. John of 
Salisbury (born 1110) says that he was twelve years studying at 
Paris on his own account. Thomas a Becket, as a young man, studied 
at Paris. Giraldus Cambrensis (born 1147) went to Paris for edu- 
cation; so did Alexander Neckham (died 1227). Henry says, 

" The English, in particular, were so numerous, that they occupied 
several schools or colleges ; and made so distinguished a figure by 
their genius and learning, as well as by their generous manner of 
living, that they attracted the notice of all strangers. This appears 
from the following verses, describing the behaviour of a stranger on 

1 Mores habent barbarus, Latinus et Graecus ; 
Si sacerdos, ut plebs est, caecum ducit crecus : 
Se mares effemiuant, et equa fit equus, 
Expectes ab he-mine usque ad pecus. 

Et quia non metuunt animae discrimen, 
Principes in habitum verterunt boc crimen, 
Varium viro turpiter jungit novus hymen, 
Exagitata procul non intrat foemina limen. 


his first arrival in Paris, composed by Negel Wircker, an English 
student there, A.D. 1170 : 

The stranger dress'd, the city first surveys, 

A church he enters, to his God he prays. 

]S"ext to the schools he hastens, each he views, 

With care examines, anxious which to chuse. 

The English most attract his prying eyes, 

Their manners, words, and looks, pronounce them wise. 

Theirs is the open hand, the bounteous mind ; 

Theirs solid sense, with sparkling wit combin'd. 

Their graver studies jovial banquets crown, 

Their rankling cares in flowing bowls they drown. 1 

Montpelier was another University whither Englishmen resorted, 
and is to be remembered by us if only for the memory of Andrew 
Borde, M.D., some bits of whose quaintness are in the notes to 
Russell in the present volume. 

Padua is to be noted for Pace's sake. He is supposed to have 
been born in 1482. 

Later, the custom of sending young noblemen and gentlemen to 
Italy to travel, not to take a degree was introduced, and Ascham's 
condemnation of it, when no* tutor accompanied the youths, is too 
well known to need quoting. The Italians' saying, Inglese Italianato 
e un didbolo incarnato, sums it up. 

5. Monastic and Cathedral Schools. Herbert Losing, Bp. of 
Thetford, afterwards Norwich, between 1091 and 1119, in his 37th 
Letter restores his schools at Thetford to Dean Bund, and directs 
that no other schools be opened there. 

Tanner (Not. Mon. p. xx. ed. Nasmith), when mentioning " the 
use and advantage of these Religious houses" under which term 

1 Pixus et ablutus tandem progressus in urbem, 
Intrat in ecclesiam, vota precesque facit. 
Inde scholas adiens, secum deliberat, utrum 
Expediat potius ilia vel ista schola. 
Et quia subfiles sensu considerat Anglos, 
Pluribus ex causis se sociavit iis. 
Moribus egregii, verbo vultuque venusti, 
Ingenio pollent, consilioque vigent. 
Dona pluunt populis, et detestantur avaros, 
Fercula raultiplicant, et sine lege bibunt. 

A. "Wood, Antiq. Oxon., p. 55, in Henry's Hist, of Eng., vol. iii. p. 440-1. 
2 That Colet used his travels abroad, A.D. 1493-7, for a different purpose, see his 
Life by Dr Knight, pp. 23-4. 



" are comprehended, cathedral and collegiate churches, abbies, priories, 
colleges, hospitals, preceptories (Knights Templars' houses), and 
frieries" says, 

" Secondly, They were schools of learning & education ; for every 
convent had one person or more appointed for this purpose ; and all 
the neighbours that desired it, might have their children taught 
grammar and church musick without any expence to them. 1 

In the nunneries also young women were taught to work, and to 
read English, and sometimes Latin also. So that not only the lower 
rank of people, who could not pay for their learning, but most of the 
noblemen and gentlemen's daughters were educated in those places. " 2 

1 Fuller, book vi. p. 297. Collier, vol. ii. p. 165. Stillingflcet's Orig. Britan. p. 
206. Bishop Lloyd of Church Government, p. 160. This was provided for as early 
as A.D. 747, by the seventh canon of council of Clovesho, as Wilkins's Councils, 
vol. i. p. 95. See also the notes upon that canon, in Johnson's Collection of 
canons, &c. In Tavistock abbey there was a Saxon school, as Willis, i. 171. Tanner. 
(Charlemagne in his Capitularies ordained that each Monastery should maintain 
a School, where should be taught ' la grammaire, le calcule, et la musique.' See 
Demogeot's Histoirede la Litterature Franq aise, p. 44, ed. Hachette. R. Whiston.) 
Henry says "these teachers of the cathedral schools were called The scholastics of the 
diocess ; and all the youth in it who were designed for the church, were intitled to 
the benefit of their instructions.* Thus, for example, "William de Monte, who had 
been a professor at Paris, and taught theology with so much reputation in the 
reign of Henry II., at Lincoln, was the scholastic of that cathedral. By the 
eighteenth canon of the third general council of Lateran, A.D. 1179, it was decreed, 
That such scholastics should be settled in all cathedrals, with sufficient revenues for 
their support ; and that they should have authority to superintend all the school- 
masters of the diocess, and grant them licences, without which none should presume 
to teach. The laborious authors of the literary history of France have collected 
a very distinct account of the scholastics who presided in the principal cathedral - 
schools of that kingdom in the twelfth century, among whom we meet with many 

of the most illustrious names for learning of that age The sciences that 

were taught in these cathedral schools were such as were most necessary to qualify 
their pupils for performing the duties of the sacerdotal office, as Grammar, Rhetoric, 
Logic, Theology, and Church-Music." Ibid. p. 442. 

2 Fuller and Collier, as before ; Bishop Burnet (Reform, vol. i. p. . .) saith so of 
Godstow. Archbishop Greenfield ordered that young gentlewomen who came to 
the nunneries either for piety or breeding, should wear white veils, to distinguish 
them from the professed, who wore black ones, 11 Kal. Jul. anno pontif. 6. M. 
Hutton. ex registr. ejus, p. 207. In the accounts of the cellaress of Carhow, near 
Norwich, there is an account of what was received " pro prehendationibus," or the 
board of young ladies and their servants for education " rec. de domina Margeria 
Wederly prehendinat, ibidem xi. septimanas xiii s. iv d. . . pro mensa unius famuloe 
dictae Margeriae per iii. septimanas viii d. per sept." &c. Tanner. 

* Du Gauge, Gloss, voc. Scholasticus. 


As Lydgate (born at Lydgate in Sullblk, six or seven miles from 
Newmarket) was ordained subdeacon in the Benedictine monastery 
of Bury St Edmunds in 1389 1 , he was probably sent as a boy to a 
monastic school. At any rate, as he sketches his early escapades 
apple-stealing, playing truant, &c., for us in his Testament*, I shall 
quote the youth's bit of the poem here : 

Harleian MS. 2255, fol. GO. 

1/uryng the tyme / of this sesoiw ver in my boyhood, 

I meene the sesoiw / of my yeerys greene 

Gynnyng fro childhood / strecchithe 3 vp so fer 

to })& yeerys / accountyd ful Fifteene up to 15, 

bexperience / as it was weel seene 

The gerisshe sesou??, / straunge of condicioiws 

Dispoosyd to many vnbridlyd passiouns 

rfoi.eob.] ^[ Voyd of resoim / yove to wilfulnesse 

Froward to vertu / of thrift gaf 4 litil heede 

loth to lerne / lovid no besynesse i loved no work 

Sauf pley or merthe / strawige to spelle or reede bnt play 

Folwyng al appetites / longyng to childheede 

lihtly tournyng wylde / and seelde sad 

Weepyng for nouht / and anoon aiftir glad 

^|" For litil wroth / to stryve with my felawe 
As my passiou?is / did my bridil leede 
Of the yeerde somtyme / I Stood in awe yet i was afraid 

to be scooryd 5 / that was al my dreede JJJJj sc 

loth toward scole / lost my tyme in deede 
lik a yong colt / that ran with-owte brydil 
Made my freendys / ther good to spend in ydil / 

^[ I hadde in custom / to come to scole late i came to school 

Nat for to lerne / but for a contenaunce late ' 
with my felawys / reedy to debate 

to langle and lape / was set al my plesaunce talked, 
wherof rebukyd / this was my chevisaunce 

to forge a lesyng / and therupon to muse lied to get off 

whan I trespasyd / my silven to excuse blame, 

[foi. 6i.] ^[ TO my bettre / did no reverence and mocked my 

Of my sovereyns / gaf no fors at al masters. 

1 Morley's English Writers, vol. ii. Pt. I. p. 421. 

2 Edited by Mr Halliwell in his ' Selection from the Minor Poems of Dan John 
Lydgate.' Percy Society, 1840, quoted hy Prof. Morley. 

3 strecched. (These collations are from Harl. 218, fol. G5, back.) 
* toke. 5 skoured. 



wex obstynat / by inobedience 

Ran in to garydns / applys ther I stal 

To gadre frutys / sparyd hegg 1 nor wal 

to plukke grapys / in othir mennys vynes 

Was moor reedy / than for to seyn 2 matynes 

^[ My lust was al / to scorne folk and iape 
Slirewde tornys / evir among to vse 
to Skoffe and mo we 3 / lyk a wantons Ape 
whan I did evil / othre I did 4 accuse 
My witty s five / in wast I did abuse 5 
Rediere chirstoonys / for to 6 telle 
Than gon to chirche / or heere the sacry 7 belle 

^| Loth to ryse / lotlier to bedde at eve 
with vnwassh handys 8 / reedy to dyneer 
My pater nosier / my Crede / or my beleeve 
Cast at the 9 Cok / loo this was my maneer 
Wavid with eclie wynd / as doth a reed speer 
Snybbyd 10 of my frendys / such techchys forta- 

mende 1 1 
Made deff ere / lyst nat / to them attende 

^[ A child resemblyng / which was nat lyk to thry ve 
Fro ward to god / reklees 12 in his servise 
loth to correcciou?i / slouhe my sylf to shryve 
Al good thewys / reedy to despise 
Cheef bellewedir / of feyned 13 trwaundise 
this is to meene / my silf I cowde feyne 
Syk lyk a trwaunt / felte 14 no maneer peyne 

Tf My poort my pas / my foot alwey vnstable 
my look my eyen / vnswre and vagabounde 
In al my werkys / sodeynly chaungable 
To al good thewys / contrary I was founde 
Now ovir sad / now moornyng / now iocounde 
Wilful rekles / mad l5 stertyng as an hare 
To folwe my lust / for no man wold I spare. 

At these monastic schools, I suppose, were educated mainly 
the boys whom the monks hoped would become monks, cleric or 
secular ; mostly the poor, the Plowman's brother who was to be the 
Parson, not often the ploughman himself. Once, though, made a 
scholar and monk there, and sent by the Monastery to the University, 
the workman's, if not the ploughman's, son, might rule nobles and 

I stole apples and 

played tricks and 
mocked people, 

liked counting 
better than 

Late to rise, I 


dirty at dinner, 

deaf to the snub- 



|fol. 61b.J 

reckless in God's 

chief shammer of 
illness when I was 

always unsteady, 


sparing none for 
my pleasure. 

1 nedir hegge. 
5 alle vse. 
9 atte. 
13 froward. 

2 sey. 
6 cheristones to. 

10 Snybbyng 

U o 

3 mowen. 
7 sacryng. 
11 tamende. 

and felt. 

4 koude. 
8 hondes. 

is made. 


sit by kings, nay, beard them to their face. Thomas a Becket, him- 
self the son of poor parents, Avas sent to be brought up in the "religious 
house of the Canons of Morton." 

In 1392 the Avriter of Piers Plowman's Crede sketches the then 
state of things thus : 

Now mot ich soutere hys sone ' seten to schole, NOIT every 

And ich a beggeres brol on the book lerne, J^rt'b and 

And Avorth to a Avritere and with a lorde dAvelle, turns writer, then 

Other falsly to a frere the fend for to serven ; Bishop, 

So of that beggares brol a [by chop J ] shal worthen, 
Among the peres of the lond prese to sytten, 
And lordes sones 2 loAvly to tho losels alowte, and lords- sons 

Knyghtes crouketh hem to and cruccheth ful lowe ; crouch to him > 
And his syre a soutere y-suled in grees, cobbler's son 

His teeth with toylyng of lether tatered as a saAve. 

Here I might stop the quotation, but I go on, for justice has never 
yet been done 3 to this noble Crede and William's Vision as pictures 
of the life of their times, chiefly from the profound ignorance of us 
English of our own language ; partly from the grace, the freshness, 
and the brilliance of Chaucer's easier and inimitable verse : 
Alaas ! that lordes of the londe leveth swiclie Avrecchen, Lords 
And leveth swyoh lorels for her IOAVC Avordes. 
They shulden maken [bichopes ! ] * her owen bretheren should make 

childre gentlemen 

' Bishops, 

Other of som gentil blod * And so yt best seined, 
And fostre none faytoures ' ne SAvich false freres, and set these 

To maken fat and fulle and her flesh combren. scamps 

For her kynde were more to y-clense diches to clean ditches, 

Than ben to sopers y-set first * and served Avith sylver. 
A grete bolle-ful of benen were beter in hys Avombe, and eat beans and 
And with the bandes 4 of bakun his baly for to fillen [^Jof 
Than pertryches or plovers or pecockes y-rosted, peacocks, 

And comeren her stomakes Avith curiuse drynkes 
That maketh swyche harlotes hordom usen, and having 

And Avith her Avikkid Avord Avymmen bitrayeth. women. 

God Avoid her Avonyynge Avere in Avildernesse, 
And fals freres forboden the fayre ladis chaumbres ; 
For knewe lordes her craft treuly I troAve if Lords but knew 

They shulden nought haunten her house so ho[m]ly l their tricks 
on nyghtes, 

1 Mr Skeat's readings. The abbot and abbots of Mr Wright's text spoil the 

2 Compare the previous passages under heading 1, p. vi. 

3 May Mr Skeat bring the day when it will be done ! * ? randes. Sk 


they'd turn these ]sj e Redden swich brothels in so brode shetes, 

But slieten her lieved in the stre to sharpen her wittes. 

DeRgars into the 

There is one side of the picture, the workman's son turned monk, and 
clerk to a lord. Let us turn to the other side, the ploughman's son 
who didn't turn monk, whose head was l shet ' in the straw, who 
delved and ditched, and dunged the earth, eat bread of corn and bran, 
worts fleshless (vegetables, but no meat), drank water, and went 
miserably (Crcde, 1. 1565-7 1 ). What education did he get 1 To whom 
could he be apprenticed ? What was his chance in life ? Let the 
Statute-Book answer : 

A.D. 1388. 12 Rich. II., Cap. v. 

Item. It is ordained & assented, That he or she which used to 
labour at the Plough and Cart, or other Labour or Service of Hus- 
bandry till they be of the Ago of Twelve Years, that from thenceforth 
then shall abide at the same Labour, without being put to any Mystery 
or Handicraft ; and if any Covenant or Bond of Apprentie (so) be from 
henceforth made to the Contrary, the same shall be holdeii for none. 

A.D. 1405-6. 7 Henri IV., Cap. xvii. 

And Whereas in the Statutes made at Canterbury 

among other Articles it is contained That he or she that usetli to 
labour at the Plough or Cart, or other Labour or Service of Husbandry, 
till he be of the age of Twelve Years, that from the same time forth 
he shall abide at the same Labour, without being put to any Mystery 
or Handicraft ; and if any Covenant or Bond be made from that time 
forth to the contrary, it shall be holden for none : Notwithstanding 
which Article, and the good Statutes afore made through all parts of 
the Realm, the Infants born within the Towns and Seignories of 
Upland, whose Fathers & Mothers have no Land nor Kent nor other 
Living, but only their Service or Mystery, be put by their said 
Fathers and Mothers and other their Friends to serve, and bound 
Apprentices, to divers Crafts within the Cities and Boroughs of the said 
Realm sometime at the Age of Twelve Years, sometime within the, said 
Age, and that for the Pride of Clothing and other evil Customs that 
Servants do use in the same ; so that there is so great Scarcity of 
Labourers and other Servants of Husbandry that the Gentlemen and 
other People of the Realm be greatly impoverished for the Cause 
aforesaid : Our Sovereign Lord the King considering the said Mischief, 
and willing thereupon to provide Remedy, by the advice & assent of 
the Lords Spiritual and Temporal, and at the request of the said 
Commons, hath ordained and stablished, That no Man nor Woman, 
of what Estate or Condition they be, shall put their Son or Daughter, 
of whatsoever Age he or she be, to Serve as Apprentice to no Craft nor 
other Labour within any City or Borough in the Realm, except he 
have Land or Rent to the Value of Twenty Shillings by the Year at 


the least, but they shall be put to other labours as their Estates doth 
require, upon Pain of one Year's Imprisonment, and to make Fine and 
Ransom at the King's Will. And if any Covenant be made of any 
such Infant, of what Estate that he be, to the contrary, it shall be 
holden for none. Provided Always, that every Man and Woman, of 
what Estate or Condition that he be, shall be free to set their Son or 
Daughter to take Learning at any manner School that pleaseth them 
within the Realm. 

A most gracious saving clause truly, for those children who were used 
to labour at the plough and cart till they were twelve years old. 1 Let 
us hope that some got the benefit of it ! 

These Acts I came across when hunting for the Statutes 
referred to by the Bolce of Curtasye as fixing the hire of horses 
for carriage at fourpence a piece, and they caused me some sur- 
prise. They made me wonder less at the energy with which 
some people now are striving to erect "barriers against democracy" 
to prevent the return match for the old game coming off. How- 
ever improving, and however justly retributive, future legislation 
for the rich by the poor in the spirit of past legislation for the poor 
by the rich might be, it could hardly be considered pleasant, and is 
surely worth putting up the true barrier against, one of education in 
each poor man's mind. (He who americanizes us thus far will be the 
greatest benefactor England has had for some ages.) These Statutes 
also made me think how the old spirit still lingers in England, how a 
friend of my own was curate in a Surrey village where the kind- 
hearted squire would allow none of the R's but Reading to be taught 
in his school ; how another clergyman lately reported his Farmers' 
meeting on the school question : Reading and Writing might be 
taught, but Arithmetic not ; the boys would be getting to know too 

1 Later on, men's games were settled for them as Avell as their trades. In 
A.D. 1541, the 33 Hen. VIII., cap. 9, xvi., says, 

" Be it also enacted by the authority aforesaid, That no manner of Artificer or 
Craftsman of any Handicraft or Occupation, Husbandman, Apprentice, Labourer, 
Servant at Husbandry, Journeyman or Servant of Artificer, Mariners, Fishermen, 
Watermen or any Serving man, shall from the said feast of the Nativity of St John 
Baptist play at the Tables, Tennis, Dice, Cards, Bowls, Clash, Coyting, Legating, 
or any other unlawful Game out of Christmas, under the Pain of xx s. to be forfeit 
for every Time ; (2) and in Christmas to play at any of the said Games in their 
Master's Houses, or in their Master's Presence ; (3) and also that no manner of 
persons shall at any time play at any Bowl or Bowls in open places out of his 
Garden or Orchard, upon the Pain for every Time su offending to forfeit vi, viiii rf," 
(For Legating, &c., see Strutt.) 


much about wages, and that would be troublesome ; how, lastly, our 
gangs of children working on our Eastern-counties farms, and our 
bird-keeping boys of the whole South, can almost match the children 
of the agricultural labourer of 1388. 

The early practice of the Freemasons, and other crafts, refusing to 
let any member take a bondsman's son as an apprentice, was founded 
on the reasonable apprehension that his lord would or might after- 
wards claim the lad, make him disclose the trade-secrets, and carry on 
his art for the lord's benefit. The fourth of the * Fyftene artyculus 
or fyftene poyntus' of the Freemasons, printed by Mr Halliwell 
(p. 16), is on this subject. 

Articulus quartus (MS. Bibl. Reg. 17 A, Art. I., fol. 3, &c.) 

The fowrthe artycul thys moste be, 

That the mayster hym wel be-se 

That he no bondemon prentys- make, 

Ny for no covetyse do hym take ; 

For the lord that he ys bond to, 

May fache the prentes whersever he go. 

3ef yn the logge he were y-take, 

Muche desese hyt my^th ther make, 

And suche case hyt my^th befalle 

That hyt nry^th greve summe or alle ; 

For alle the masonus that ben there 

Wol stonde togedur hoi y-fere. 

3ef suche won yn that craft schulde dwelle, 

Of dyvers desesys 30 my^th telle. 

For more ^ese thenne, and of honeste, 

Take a prentes of herre ! degre. 

By olde tyme, wryten y fynde 

That the prentes schulde be of gentyl kynde ; 

And so sumtyme grete lordys blod 

Toke thys gemetry that ys ful good. 

I should like to see the evidence of a lord's son having become a 
working mason, and dwelling seven years with his master * hys craft 
to lurne.' 

Cathedral Schools. About the pre-Reformation Schools I can 
find only the extract from Tanner given above, p. xlii. On the post- 
Reformation Schools I refer readers to Mr Whiston's Cathedral 
Trusts, 1850. He says : 

1 higher. 


" The Cathedrals of England are of two kinds, those of the old 
and those of the new foundation : of the latter, Canterbury (the old 
archiepiscopal see) and Carlisle, Durham, Ely, Norwich, Rochester, 
and Worcester, old episcopal sees, were A.D. 1541-2 refotmded, or 
rather reformed, by Henry VIII. . . Besides these, he created five 
other cathedral churches or colleges, in connexion with the five new 
episcopal sees of Bristol, Chester, Gloucester, Oxford, and Peter- 
borough. He further created the see of Westminster, which was . . 
subsequently (A.D. 1560) converted to a deanery collegiate by Queen 
Elizabeth. . . (p. 6). The preamble of the Act 31 Henry VIII. c. 9, 
for founding the new cathedrals, preserved in Henry's own hand- 
writing, recites that they were established 'To the intente that Gods 
worde myght the better be sett forthe, cyldren broght up in lernynge, 
clerces nurysliyd in the universities, olde servantes decayed, to have 
lyfing, allmes housys for pour folke to be sustayned in, Reders of 
grece, ebrew, and latyne to have good stypende, dayly almes to be 
mynistrate, mending of hyght wayes, and exhybision for mynisters of 
the chyrche.' " 

" A general idea of the scope and nature of the cathedral estab- 
lishments, as originally planned and settled by Henry VIIL, may 
be formed from the first chapter of the old statutes of Canterbury, 
which is almost identical with the corresponding chapter of the 
statutes of all the other cathedrals of the new foundation. It is as 
follows : 

" On ! the entire number of those who have their sustentation (qui 
sustentantur) in the cathedral and metropolitical church of Canter- 
bury : 

" First of all we ordain and direct that there be for ever in our 
aforesaid church, one dean, twelve canons, six preachers, twelve 
minor canons, one deacon, one subdeacon, twelve lay-clerks, one 
master of the choristers, ten choristers, two teachers of the boys in 
grammar, one of whom is to be the head master, the other, second 
master, fifty boys to be instructed in grammar* twelve poor men to 
be maintained at the costs and charges of the said church, two 
vergers, two subsacrists (i.e., sextons), four servants in the church 
to ring the bells, and arrange all the rest, two porters, who shall 
also be barber-tonsors, one caterer, 3 one butler, and one under butler, 
one cook, and one under-cook, who, indeed, in the number pre- 
scribed, are to serve in our church every one of them in his own 
order, according to our statutes and ordinances." 

1 Translated from the Latin copy in the British Museum, MS. Harl. 1197, art. 
15, folio 319 b. 

2 Duodecim pauperes de stimptibus dictae Ecclesioo alendi. 

3 Duo units Pincernae, et unus subpincerna, duo unus cociquus, et unus sub- 
coquus. Sic in MS 


In the Durham statutes, as settled in the first year of Philip and 
Mary, the corresponding chapter is as follows : 

On ! the total number of those who have their sustentation (qui 
sustentantur) in the cathedral church of Durham. 

" We direct and ordain that there be for ever in the said church, 
one dean, twelve prebendaries, twelve minor canons, one deacon, one 
sub-deacon, ten clerks, (who may be either clerks or laymen,) one 
master of the choristers, ten choristers, two teachers of the boys in 
f/rati/inar, eighteen boys to be instructed in grammar, eight poor men 
to be maintained at the costs of the said church, two subsacrists, two 
vergers, two porters, one of whom shall also be barber-tonsor, one 
butler, one under-butler, one cook, and one under-cook." 

" The monastic or collegiate character of the bodies thus con- 
stituted, is indicated by the names and offices of the inferior 
ministers above specified, who were intended to form a part of the 
establishment of the Common Hall, in which most of the subordi- 
nate members, including the boys to be instructed in grammar, were 
to take their meals. There was also another point in which the 
cathedrals were meant to resemble and supply the place of the old 
religious houses, i. e., in the maintenance of a certain number of 
students at the universities." 

E k . WHISTON, Cathedral Trusts and their Fulfilment, p. 2 4. 

" The nature of these schools, and the desire to perpetuate and 
improve them, may be inferred from ' certein articles noted for the 
reformation of the cathedral churche of Excestr', submitted by the 
commissioners of Henry VIII., unto the correction of the Kynges 
Majestic,' as follows : 

The tenth Article submitted. " That thcr may be in the said 
Cathedral churche a free songe scole, the scolemaster to have yerly 
of the said pastor and prechars xx. marks for his wages, and his 
howss free, to teache xl. children frely, to rede, to write, synge and 
playe upon instruments of musike, also to teache ther A. E. C. in 
greke and hebrew. And every of the said xl. children to have 
wekely xiid. for ther meat and drink, and yerly vi 8 viii d . for a 
gowne ; they to be bownd dayly to syng and rede within the said 
Cathedral churche such divine service as it may please the Kynges 
Majestic to allowe ; the said childre to be at comons altogether, with 
three prests hereaifter to be spoke off, to see them well ordered at 
the meat and to reforme their manners." 

Article the eleventh, submitted. "That ther may be a fre 
grammer scole within the same Cathedral churche, the scole-master 
to have xx 11 . by yere and his howss fre, the ussher x li . & his howss 

1 MS. No. 688 in Lambeth Library. MS. Harl. cod. 1594, art. 38, in Brit. 


fre, and that the said pastor and prechars may "be bound to fynd xl. 
cliildren at the said grammer scole, giving to every 0011 of the chil- 
dren xiid. wekely, to go to commons within the citie at the pleasour 
of the frendes, so long to continew as the scolemaster do se them 
diligent to lernc. The pastor to appointe viii. every prechar iiii. and 
the scolemaster iiii. ; the said childre serving in the said churche 
and going to scole, to be preferred before strangers ; provided 
always, that no childe be admitted to thexhibicion of the said 
chnrche, whose father is knowne to be worthe in goodes above ccc' 1 ., 
orelles maydispend above xli 1 . yerly enheritance." Ibid., p. 10 12. 

" Now 300 at that time was worth about 5,000 now, so that 
these schools were designed for the lower ranks of society, and open 
to the sons of the poorer gentry. 

" An interesting illustration of this [and of the class-feeling in 
education at this time] is supplied," says Mr "Winston, " by the nar- 
rative of what took place 

" when the Cathedral Church of Canterbury was altered from 
monks to secular men of the clergy, viz. : prebendaries or canons, 
petty-canons, choristers and scholars. At this erection were present, 
Thomas Cranmer, archbishop, with divers other commissioners. And 
nominating and electing such convenient and fit persons as should 
serve for the furniture of the said Cathedral church according to the 
new foundation, it came to pass that, when they should elect the 
children of the Grammar school, there were of the commissioners 
more than one or two who would have none admitted but sons or 
younger brethren of gentlemen. As for other, husbandmen's cliil- 
dren, they were more meet, they said, for the plough, and to be 
artificers, than to occupy the place of the learned sort ; so that they 
wished none else to be put to school, but only gentlemen's children. 
Whereunto the most reverend father, the Archbishop, being of a 
contrary mind, said, ' That he thought it not indifferent so to order 
the matter ; for/ said he, ' poor men's children are many times 
endued with more singular gifts of nature, which are also the gifts of 
God, as, with eloquence, memory, apt pronunciation, sobriety, and 
such like ; and also commonly more apt to apply their study, than is 
the gentleman's son, delicately educated.' Hereunto it was on the 
other part replied, ' that it was meet for the ploughman's son to go 
to plough, and the artificer's son to apply the trade of his parent's 
vocation ; and the gentleman's children are meet to have the know- 
ledge of government and rule in the commonwealth. For we have,' 
said they, ' as much need of ploughmen as any other state ; and all 
sorts of men may not go to school.' 'I grant,' replied the Archbishop, 
'much of your meaning herein as needful in a commonwealth ; but 
yet utterly to exclude the ploughman's son and the poor man's son 
from the benefits of learning, as though they were unworthy to have 


the gifts of the Holy Ghost bestowed upon them as well as upon 
others, is as much to say, as that Almighty God should not be at 
liberty to bestow his great gifts of grace upon any person, nor no- 
where else but as we and other men shall appoint them to be em- 
ployed, according to our fancy, and not according to his most goodly 
will and pleasure, who giveth his gifts both of learning, and other 
perfections in all sciences, unto all kinds and states of people in- 
differently. Even so doth he many times withdraw from them and 
their posterity again those beneficial gifts, if they be not thankful. If 
we should shut up into a strait corner the bountiful grace of the Holy 
Ghost, and thereupon attempt to build our fancies, we should make 
as perfect a work thereof as those that took upon them to build the 
Tower of Babel ; for God would so provide that the offspring of our 
first-born children should peradventure become most unapt to learn, 
and very dolts, as I myself have seen no small number of them very 
dull and without all manner of capacity. And to say the truth, I 
take it, that none of us all here, being gentlemen born (as I think), 
but had our beginning that way from a low and base parentage ; and 
through the benefit of learning, and other civil knowledge, for the 
most part all gentlemen ascend to their estate.' Then it was again 
answered, that the most part of the nobility came up by feats of arms 
and martial acts. ' As though,' said the Archbishop, ' that the noble 
captain was always unfurnished of good learning and knowledge to 
persuade and dissuade his army rhetorically ; who rather that way is 
brought unto authority than else his manly look's. To conclude ; the 
poor man's son by pains-taking will for the most part be learned 
when the gentleman's son will not take the pains to get it. And we 
are taught by the Scriptures that Almighty God raiseth up from the 
dunghill, and setteth him in high authority. And whensoever it 
pleaseth him, of his divine providence, he deposeth princes unto a 
right humble and poor estate. Wherefore, if the gentleman's son be 
apt to learning, let him be admitted ; if not apt, let the poor man's 
child that is apt enter his room.' With words to the like effect." 
E. WHISTON, Cathedral Trusts, p. 1214. 

The scandalous way in which the choristers and poor boys were 
done out of their proportion of the endowments by the Cathedral 
clergy, is to be seen in Mr Winston's little book. 

6. Endowed Grammar Schools. These were mainly founded for 
citizens' and townsmen's children. Winchester (founded 1373) was 
probably the only one that did anything before 1450 for the educa- 
tion of our gentry. Eton was not founded till 1440. The following 
list of endowed schools founded before 1545, compiled for me by 



Free School. 
Free Grammar 

Fr. Seh. 

Mr Brock from Carlisle's Concise Description, shows the dates of all 
known to him. 

BEFORE 1450 A.D. 1487 Stockport. Gr. Sch. 

1487 Chipping Canipden. Fr. Gr 


1491 Sudbury. Fr. Gr. Sch. 
bef. 1495 Lancaster. Fr. Gr. Sch. 
1497 Wimborno Minster. Fr. Gr. 

time of Hen. VII., 1485-1509 

King's Lynn. Gr. Sch. 
1502-52 Macclesfield. Fr. Gr. Sch. 
1503 Bridgenorth. Fr. Sch. 

1506 Brotigh or Burgh under Stain- 
more. Fr. Sch. 

1507 Enfield. Gr. Sch. 

1507 Farn worth, in Widnes, near 
Prescot. Fr. Gr. Sch. 

ab. 1508 Cirencester. Fr. Gr. Sch. 

1509 Guildford. Royal Gr. Sch. 

t. Hen. VIII. 1509-47 Peter- 
borough. Gr. Sch. 

t. Hen. VIII. 1509-47 Basingstoke. 
Gr Sch. 

t. Hen. VIII. 1509-47 Plymouth. 
Gr. Sch. 

t. Hen. VIII. 1509-47 Warwick. 
College or Gr. Sch.. 

t. Hen. VIII. 1509-47 Earl's Colne, 
near Halsted. Fr. Gr. Sch. 

t. Hen. VIII. 1509-47 Carlisle. Gr. 

1512 Southover and Lewes. Fr. 
Gr. Sch. 

1513 Nottingham. Fr. Sch. 
1515 Wolverhampton. Fr. Gr. 


1517 Aylesham. Fr. Gr. Sch. 
1512-18 London. 2 St Paul's Sch. 

bef. 1162 Derby. 
1195 St Alban's. 


1198 St Edmund's, Bury. 
1328 Thetford. Gr. Sch. 
? 1327 Northallerton. Gr. Sch. 
1332 Exeter. Gr. Sch. 
1343 Exeter. High School, 
bef. 1347 Melton Mowbray. Schools. 
1373 Winchester College. 

1384 Hereford. Gr. Sch. 

1385 Wotton-under-Edge. Fr. Gr. 

1395 or 1340 Penrith. Fr. Gr. Sch. 
1399-1413 (Hen. IV.) Oswestry. 

Fr. Gr. Sch. 

1418 Sevenoaks. Fr. Gr. Sch. 
1422 Higham Ferrers. Fr. 

1422-61 (Hen. VI.) Ewelme. 


1440 Eton College. 
1447 London. Mercers' School, but 

founded earlier. 


1461-83 (Edw. IV.) Chichester. 

The Prebendal School, 
bef. 1477 Ipswich. 1 Gr. Sch. 
1484 Wainfleet. Fr. Gr. Sch. 
1485-1509 (Hen. VII.) or before. 

Kibroorth, near Market Har- 

borough. Fr. Gr. Sch. 
bef. 1486 Reading. Gr. Sch. 
1486 Kingston upon Hull. Fr. Gr. 




1 Farewell, in Oxford ray college cardynall ! 
Farewell, in Ipsewich, my scliole gramaticall ! 
Yet oons farewell ! I say, I shall you never see ! 
Your somptious byldyng, what now avayllethe me ? 
Metrical Visions [Wolsey.] by George Cavendish, in his Life of Wolsey, 
(ed. Singer, ii. 17). Wolsey's Letter of Directions about his school should be con- 
sulted. It is printed. 

2 Colet's Statutes for St Paul's School are given in Howard Stauuton's Great 
Schools of England, p. 179-85. 



1520 Bruton or Brewton. Fr. Gr. 

ab. 1520 Rolleston. nr. Burton- 

upon-Trent. Fr. Gr. Sch. 
bef. 1521 Tcnterden. Fr. Soli. 

1521 Milton Abbas, near Blandford. 
Fr. Gr. Sell. 

1522 Taunton. Fr. Gr. Sch. 
1522 Biddemlen, near Cranbrook. 

Free Latin Gr. Sch. 
bef. 1524-5 Manchester. Fr. Gr. 


1524 Berkhainpstead. Fr. Gr. Sch. 
1526 Pocklington. Fr. Gr. Sch. 
1526 Childrey, near Wantage. Fr. 


bef. 1528 Cuckfield. Fr. Gr. Sch. 
1528 Gloucester. Saint Mary do 

Crypt. Fr. Gr. Sch. 
1528 Grantham. Fr. Gr. Sch. 
1530 Stamford, or Stanford. Fr. Gr. 

1530 Newark- upon-Trent. Fr. Gr. 

bef. Reform. Norwich. Old Gr. Sch. 

1532 Horsham. Fr. Sch. 

1533 Bristol. City Fr. Gr. Sch. 
ab. 1533 Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

Royal Gr. Sch. 
ab. 1535 Stoke, near Clare. Fr. Gr. 


1541 Brecknock. Gr. Sch. 
1541 Ely. Fr. Sch. 

1541 Durham. Gr. Sch. 

1541-2 Worcester. . The King's 
[t. i. Cathedral Grammar] or 
College School. 

1542 Canterbury. The King's School. 
1542 Rochester. The King's Sch. 1 
1542 Findon, properly Thingdon, 

near Wellingborough. Fr. Sch. 

1542 Northampton. Fr. Gr. Sch. 

1543 Abergavenuy. Fr. Gr. Sch. 

1544 Chester. [Cathedral] Gr., or 
King's School. 

1544 Sutton Coldfield. Gr. Sch. 
bef. 1545 Gloucester. Cathedral 

[t. i. King's], or College School. 

1545 St Mary of Ottery. Gr. Sch. 
bef. 1547 Wisbech. Gr. Sch. 
bef. 1549 Wellington. Gr. Sch. 

t. Ref. Loughborough. Fr. Gr. Scl 

About 1174 A.D., Fitzstephen speaks of the London schools and 
scholars thus : I use Pegge's translation, 1772, to which Mr Chappell 
referred me, 

" The three principal churches in London 2 are privileged by grant 
and ancient usage with schools, and they are all very flourishing. 
Often indeed through the favour and countenance of persons eminent 
in philosophy, more schools are permitted. On festivals, at those 
churches where the Feast of the Patron Saint is solemnized, the 
masters convene their scholars. The youth, on that occasion, dispute, 
some in the demonstrative way, and some logically. These produce 
their enthymemes, and those the more perfect syllogisms. Some, the 
better to shew their parts, are exercised in disputation, contending 
with one another, whilst others are put upon establishing some truth 
by way of illustration. Some sophists endeavour to apply, on feigned 
topics, a vast heap and flow of words, others to impose upon you with 

1 ' That there was a school at Rochester before Henry VIII.'s time is proved by 
our Statutes, which speak of the Schola Grammaticalis as being ruinosa $ admodwn 
deformis.' R. Whiston. 

2 Pegge concludes these to have been St Paul's, Bow, and Martin's le Grand. 


false conclusions. As to the orators, some with their rhetorical 
harangues employ all the powers of persuasion, taking care to observe 
the precepts of art, and to omit nothing opposite to the subject. The 
boys of different schools wrangle with one another in verse ; contend- 
ing about the principles of Grammar, or the rules of the Perfect 
Tenses and Supines. Others there are, who in Epigrams, or other 
compositions in numbers, use all that low ribaldry we read of in the 
Ancients ; attacking their school-masters, but without mentioning 
names, with the old Eescennine licentiousness, and discharging their 
scoffs and sarcasms against them ; touching the foibles of their school- 
fellows, or perhaps of greater personages, with true Socratic wit, or 
biting them more keenly with a Theonine tooth : The audience, fully 
disposed to laugh, 

' With curling nose ingeminate the peals.' " 

Of the sports of the boys, Fitzstephen gives a long description. 
On Shrove-Tuesday, each boy brought his fighting cock to his master, 
and they had a cock-fight all morning in the school-room. 1 After 
dinner, football in the fields of the suburbs, probably Smithfield. 
Every Sunday in Lent they had a sham-fight, some on horseback, 
some on foot, the King and his Court often looking on. At Easter 
they played at the Water-Quintain, charging a target, which if they 
missed, souse they went into the water. ' On holidays in summer the 
pastime of the youths is to exercise themselves in archery, in running, 
leaping, wrestling, casting of stones, and flinging to certain distances, 
and lastly with bucklers.' At moonrise the maidens danced. In 
the winter holidays, the boys saw boar-fights, hog-fights, bull and 
bear-baiting, and when ice came they slid, and skated on the leg- 
bones of some animal, punting themselves along with an iron-shod 
pole, and charging one another. A set of merry scenes indeed. 

" In general, we are assured by the most learned man of the 
thirteenth century, Roger Bacon, that there never had been so great 
an appearance of learning, and so general an application to study, in 
so many different faculties, as in his time, when schools were erected 
in every city, town, burgh, and castle." (Henry's Hist, of England, 
vol. iv. p. 472-3.) 

In the twenty-fifth year of Henry VI., 1447, four Grammar 
Schools were appointed to be opened in London 2 for the education of 

1 The custom of boys bringing cocks to masters has left a trace at Sedburgh, 
where the boys pay a sum every year on a particular day (Shrove-Tuesday ?) as 
"cock-penny." Quick. 

2 On the London Schools, see also Sir George Buc's short cap. 36, " Moore of 

Ivi AN ETON BOY IN A.D. 1478. 

the City youth (Carlisle). But from the above lists it will be seen 
that Grammar Schools had not much to do with the education of our 
nobility and gentry before 1450 A.D. 

Of Eton studies, the Paston Letters notice only Latin versifying, 
but they show us a young man supposed to be nineteen, still at 
school, having a smart pair of breeches for holy days, falling in love, 
eating figs and raisins, proposing to come up to London for a 
day or two's holiday or lark to his elder brother's, and having Sd. 
sent him in a letter to buy a pair of slippers with. William 
Paston, a younger brother of John's, when about nineteen years old, 
and studying at Eton, writes on Nov. 7, 1478, to thank his brother 
for a noble in gold, and says, 

"my creanser (creditor) Master Thomas (Stevenson) heartily recom- 
mendeth him to you, and he prayeth you to send him some money 
for my commons, for he saith ye be twenty shillings in his debt, for 
a month was to pay for when he had money last ; also I beseech you 
to send me a hose cloth, one for the holy days of some colour, and 
another for working days (how coarse soever it be, it maketh no 
matter), and a stomacher and two shirts, and a pair of slippers : and 
if it like you that I may come with Alweder by water " would they 
take a pair-oar and pull down 1 (the figs and raisins came up by a 
barge ;) " and sport me with you at London a day or two this term- 
time, then ye may let all this be till the time that I come, and then 
I will tell you when I shall be ready to come from Eton by the 
grace of God, who have you in his keeping." Paston Letters, modern- 
ised, vol. 2, p. 129. 

This is the first letter ; the second one about the figs, raisins, 
and love-making (dated 23 Feb. 1478-9) is given at vol. ii. p. 122-3. 

Tusser, who was seized as a Singing boy for the King's Chapel, 
lets us know that he got well birched at Eton. 

" From Paul's I went to Eton sent 
To learn straight ways * the Latin phrase 
When fifty-three * stripes given to me 
At once I had : 

other Schooles in London," in his Third Vniuersitie of England (t. i. London). He 
notices the old schools of the monasteries, &c., 'in whose stead there be some few 
founded lately by good men, as the Merchant Taylors, and Thomas Sutton, founder 
of the great new Hospitall in the Charter house, [who] hath translated the Tenis 
court to a Grammar Schoole . . for 30 schollers, poore mens children . . There be 
also other Trmiall Schooles for the bringing up of youth in good literature, t>w., 
in S. Magnus, in S. Michaels, in S. Thomas, and others.' 


For fault "but small or none at all 
It come to pass thus beat I was. 
See, Udall, 1 see the mercy of thee 
To me poor lad ! " 

I was rather surprised to find no mention of any Eton men in 
the first vol. of Wood's Ailience Oxonienses (ed. Eliss) except two, 
who had first taken degrees at Cambridge, Robert Aldrich and 
William Alley, the latter admitted at Cambridge 1528 (Wood, p. 
375, col. 2). Plenty of London men are named in Wood, vol. 1. 
No doubt in early times the Eton men went to their own founda- 
tion, King's (or other Colleges at) Cambridge, while the Winchester 
men went to their foundation, New College, or elsewhere at Oxford. 
In the first volume of Bliss's edition of Wood, the following 
Winchester men are noticed : 
p. 30, col. 2, William Grocyn, educated in grammaticals in Wjke- 

ham's school near Winchester. 

p. 78, col. 2, William Horman, made fellow of New Coll. in 1477. 
Author of the Vulgaria Puerorum, &c. (See also Andrew 
Borde, p. xxxiv, above, note.) 

p. 379, col. 2, John Boxall, Fellow of New Coll. 1542. 
402, col. 2, Thomas Hardyng 1536. 
450, col. 2, Henry Cole 1523. 

469, col. 1, Nicholas Saunders,, 1548. 
678, col. 2, Richard Haydock 1590. 
That the post-Reformation Grammar Schools did not at first 
educate as many boys as the old monastic schools is well known. 
Strype says, 

" On the 15th of January, 1562, Thomas Williams, of the Inner 
Temple, esq. being chosen speaker to the lower house, was presented 
to the queen : and in his speech to her . . took notice of the want 
of schools ; that at least an hundred were wanting in England which 
before this time had been, [being destroyed (I suppose he meant) by 
the dissolution of monasteries and religious houses, fraternities and 
colleges.] He would have had England continually flourishing with 
ten thousand scholars, which the schools in this nation formerly 
brought up. That from the want of these good schoolmasters sprang 
up ignorance : and covetousness got the livings by impropriations ; 
which was a decay, he said, of learning, and by it the tree of know- 

1 Udall became Master of Eton about 1534. He was sent to prison for sodomy. 


ledge grew downward, not upward; which grew greatly to the dis- 
honour, both of God and the commonwealth. He mentioned likewise 
the decay of the universities ; and how that great market-towns were 
without schools or preachers : and that the poor vicar had but 20Z. 
[or some such poor allowance,] and the rest, being no small sum, was 
impropriated. And so thereby, no preacher there ; but the people, 
being trained up and led in blindness for want of instruction, became 
obstinate : and therefore advised that this should be seen to, and im- 
propriations redressed, notwithstanding the laws already made [which 
favoured them]. Strype, Annals of the Reformation, vol. i. p. 437. 

Of the Grammar Schools in his time (A.D. 1577) Harrison says : 

Besides these universities, also there are a great number of 
Grammar Schooles throughout the realme, and those verie liberallie 
endued for the better relief of pore scholers, so that there are not 
manie corporate townes, now under the queene's dominion that have 
not one Gramer Schole at the least, with a sufficient living for a 
master and usher appointed to the same. 

There are in like manner divers collegiat churches, as Windsor, 
Wincester, Eaton, Westminster (in which I was sometime an unpro- 
fitable Grammarian under the reverend father, master Nowell, now 
dean of Paules) and in those a great number of pore scholers, dailie 
maintained by the liberality of the founders, with meat, bookes, and 
apparell ; from whence after they have been well entered in the 
knowledge of the Latine and Greek tongs, and rules of versifying 
(the triall whereof is made by certain apposers, yearlie appointed to 
examine them), they are sent to certain especiall houses in each 
universitie ', where they are received & trained up in the points of 
higher knowledge in their privat halls till they be adjudged meet to 
show their faces in the schooles, as I have said alreadie. 

Greek was first taught at a public school in England by Lillye 
soon after the year 1500. This was at St Paul's School in London, 
then newly established by Dean Colet, and to which Erasmus alluded 
as the best of its time in 1514, when he said that he had in three 
years taught a youth more Latin than he could have acquired in any 
school in England, ne Liliana quidem excepta, not even Lilly e's 
excepted. (Warton, iii. 1.) The first schoolmaster who stood up for 
the study of English was, I believe, Eichard Mulcaster, of King's 
College, Cambridge, and Christ Church, Oxford. In 1561 he was 
appointed the first head-master of Merchant-Taylors School in 
London, then just founded as a feeder or pro-seminary for St John's 

1 The perversion of these elections by bribery is noticed by Harrison in the 
former extract from him on the Universities. 


College, Oxford (Warton, in. 282). In his Elementarie, 1582, ho 
lias a long passage on the study of English, the whole of which I 
print here, at Mr Quick's desire, as it has slipt out of people's minds, 
aivl Mulcaster deserves honour for it : 

" But bycause I take vpon me in this Elementarie, besides som 
frindship to secretaries for the pen, and to correctors for the print, to 
direct such peple as teach childern to read and write English, and the 
reading must nedes be such as the writing leads vnto, thererfor, (sic) 
befor I medle with anie particular precept, to direct the Reader, I 
will thoroughlie rip vp the hole certaintie of our English writing, so 
far furth and with such assurance, as probabilitie can make me, bycause 
it is a thing both proper to my argument, and profitable to my cuntrie. 
For our naturall tung being as beneficiall vnto vs for our nedefull 
deliuerie, as anie other is to the peple which vse it : & hailing as 
pretie, and as fair obseruations in it, as anie other hath : and being as 
readie to yield to anie rule of Art, as anie other is : why should I not 
take som pains to find out the right writing of ours, as other cuntri- 
men haue don to find the like in theirs ? & so much the rather, 
bycause it is pretended, that the writing thereof is meruellous vncer- 
tain, and scant to be recouered from extreme confusion, without som 
change of as great extremitie ? I mean therefor so to deall in it, as I 
maie wipe awaie that opinion of either vncertaintie for confusion, or 
impossibilitie for direction, that both the naturall English maie haue 
wherein to rest, & the desirous st[r]anger maie haue whereby to learn. 
For the performance whereof, and mine own better direction, I will 
first examin those means, whereby other tungs of most sacred anti- 
quitie haue bene brought to Art and form of discipline for their right 
writing, to the end that by following their waie, I maie hit vpora their 
right, and at the least by their president deuise the like to theirs, 
where the vse of our tung, & the propertie of our dialect will not 
yeild flat to theirs. That don, I will set all the varietie of our now 
writing, & the vncertaine force of all our letters, in as much certaintie, 
as anie writing can be, by these seue?z precepts, 1. Generall rule, 
which concerneth the propertie and vse of ech letter : 2. Proportion 
which reduceth all Avords of one soural to the same writing : 3. Com- 
position, which teacheth how to write one word made of mo : 4 
Deriuation, which examineth the ofspring of euerie originall: 5. 
Distinction which bewraieth the difference of sound and force in 
letters by som writen figure or accent : 6. Enfranchisment, which 
directeth the right writing of all incorporat foren words : 7. Preroga- 
tiiie, which declareth a reseruation, wherein common vse will continew 
hir precedence in our En[g]lish writing, as she hath don euerie where 
else, both for the form of the letter, in som places, which likes the 
pen better : and for the difference in writing, where som particular 
caueat will chek a common rule. In all these seuen I will so 
examin the particularities of our tung, as either nothing shall 


seme strange at all, or if anie thing do seme, yet it shall not 
seme so strange, but that either the self same, or the verie like vnto 
it, or the more strange then it is, shal appear to be in, those things, 
which ar more familiar vnto vs for extraordinarie learning, then 
required of vs for our ordinarie vse. And forasmuch as the eie will 
help manie to write right by a sene president, which either cannot 
vnderstand, or cannot entend to vnderstand the reason of a rule, 
therefor in the end of this treatis for right writing, I purpos to set 
down a generall table of most English words, by waie of president, to 
help such plane peple, as cannot entend the vnderstanding of a rule, 
which requireth both time and conceit in perceiuing, but can easilie 
run to a generall table, which is readier to their hand. By the which 
table I shall also confirm the right of my rules, that theie hold 
thoroughout, & by multitude of examples help som maim (so) in 
precepts. Thus much for the right writing of our English tung, which 
maie seme (so) for a preface to the principle of Reading^ as the matter 
of the one is the maker of the other. 1582. Rich d - Mulcaster. The 
First Part of the Elenientarie, pp. 53-4. 

Brinsley follows Mulcaster in exhorting to the study of English : 

"there seemes vnto mee, to bee a verie maine want in all our 
Grammar schooles generally, or in the most of them ; whereof I haue 
heard som great learned men to complain ; That there is no care had 
in respect, to traine vp schollars so as they may be able to expresse 
their minds purely and readily in our owne tongue, and to increase 
in the practice of it, as well as in the Latine or Greeke ; whereas our 
chiefe indeuour should bee for it, and that for these reasons. 1. 
Because that language which all sorts and conditions of men amongst 
vs are to haue most vse of, both in speech & writing, is our 
owne natiue tongue. 2. The purity and elegancie of our owne 
language is to be esteemed a chiefe part of the honour of our 
nation : which we all ought to aduance as much as in vs lieth. As 
when Greece and Rome and other nations haue most florished, their 
languages also haue beene most pure : and from those times of Greece 
& Rome, wee fetch our chiefest patterns, for the learning of their 
tongues. 3. Because of those which are for a time trained vp in 
schooles, there are very fewe which proceede in learning, in compari- 
son of them that follow other callings. 

John Brinsley, The Grammar Schoole, p. 21, 22. 

His " Meanes to obtaine this benefit of increasing in our English 
tong, as in the Latin," are 

1. Daily vse of Lillies rules construed. 

2. Continuall practice of English Grammaticall translations. 

3. Translating and writing English, with some other Schoole 
exercises. Ibid., side-notes, p. 22, 23. 

On this question of English boys studying English, let it be 
remembered that in this year of grace 1867, in all England there is 


just one public school at which English is studied historically the 
City of London School and that in this school it was begun only 
last year by the new Head-Master, the Eev. Edwin A. Abbot, all 
honour to him. In every class an English textbook is read, Piers 
Plowman being that for the highest class. This neglect of English 
as a subject of study is due no doubt to tutors' and parents' ignorance. 
None of them know the language historically ; the former can't teach 
it, the latter don't care about it ; why should their boys learn it ? Oh 
tutors and parents, there are such things as asses in the world. 

Of the school-life of a Grammar-school boy in 1612 we may get a 
notion from Brinsley's p. 296, " chap. xxx. Of Schoole times, inter- 
missions and recreations," which is full of interest. ' 1. The Schoole- 
time should beginne at sixe : all who write Latine to make their 
exercises which were giuen ouernight, in that houre before seuen'. 
To make boys punctual, ' so many of them as are there at sixe, 
to liaue their places as they had them by election 1 or the day 
before : all who come after six, euery one to sit as he commeth, and 
so to continue that day, and vntill he recouer his place againe by/the 
election of the fourme or otherwise. . . If any cannot be brought by 
this, them to be noted in the blacke Bill by a speciall marke, and 
feele the punishment thereof : and sometimes present correction to bo 
vsed for terrour. . . Thus they are to continue vntill nine [at work 
in class], signified by Monitours, Subdoctour or otherwise. Then at 
nine . . to let them to haue a quarter of an houre at least, or more, 
for intermission, eyther for breakefast . . or else for the necessitie of 
euery one, or their honest recreation, or to prepare their exercises 
against the Masters comming in. [2.] After, each of them to be in 
his place in an instant, vpon the knocking of the dore or some other 
sign . . so to continue vntill eleuen of the clocke, or somwhat after, 
to counteruaile the time of the intermission at nine. 

(3.) To be againe all ready, and in their places at one, in an 
instant ; to continue vntill three, or halfe an houre after : then to 
haue another quarter of an houre or more, as at nine for drinking and 
necessities ; so to continue till halfe an houre after fiue : thereby in 

1 Sec p. 273-4, ' all of a fourme to name who is the hest of their fourme, and who 
is the best next him '. 


that halfe houre to counteruaile the time at three ; then to end so as 
was shewed, with reading a peece of a Chapter, and with singing two 
staues of a Psalme : lastly with prayer to be vsed "by the Master.' 

To the objectors to these intermissions at nine and three, who may 
reproach the schoole, thinking that they do nothing but play, 
Brinsley answers, * 2. By this meanes also the Schollars may bee 
kept euer in their places, and hard to their labours, without that 
running out to the Campo (as the[y] tearme it) at school times, and 
the manifolde disorders thereof; as watching and striuing for the 
clubbe, 1 and loytering then in the fields ; some hindred that they 
cannot go forth at all. (5.) it is very requisite also, that they should 
have weekly one part of an afternoone for recreation, as a reward of 
their diligence, obedience and profiting ; and that to be appointed at 
the Masters discretion, eyther the Thursday, after the vsuall custom ; 
or according to the best opportunity of the place. . . All recreations 
and sports of schollars, would be meet for Gentlemen. Clownish 
sports, or perilous, or yet playing for money, are no way to be 

On the age at which boys went to school, .Brinsley says, p. 0, 

" For the time of their entrance with vs, in our countrey schooles, 
it is commonly about 7. or 8. yeares olde : six is very soone. If any 
begin so early, they are rather sent to the schoole to keepe them from 
troubling the house at home, and from danger, and shrewd turnes, 
then for any great hope and desire their friends haue that they should 
learne anything in effect." 

To return from this digression on Education. Enough has been 
said to show that the progress of Education, in our sense of the 
word, was rather from below upwards, than from above downwards ; 
and I conclude that the young people to whom the Babees Boke, &c., 
were addressed, were the children of our nobility, knights, and squires, 
and that the state of their manners, as left by their home training, 
was such as to need the inculcation on them of the precepts contained 
in the Poems. If so, dirty, ill-mannered, awkward young gawks, 
must most of these hopes-of-England have been, to modern notions. 
The directions for personal cleanliness must have been much needed 
when one considers the small stock of linen and clothes that men not 

1 ? key of the Campo, see pp. 299 and 300, or a club, the holder of which had a 
right to go out. 


rich must have had ; and if we may judge from a passaeg in Edward 
the Fourth's Liber Niger, even the King himself did not use his 
footpan every Saturday night, and would not have been the worse for 
an occasional tubbing : 

" This barbour shall have, every satyrday at nyght, if it please 
the Kinge to cleanse his head, legges, or feet, and for his shaving, 
two loves, one picher wyne. And the ussher of chambre ought to 
testyfye if this is necessaryly dispended or not." 

So far as appears from Edward the Fourth's Liber Niger Domus, soap 
was used only for washing clothes. The yeoman lavender, or washer- 
man, was, to take from the Great Spicery ' as muche whyte soape, 
greye, and blacke, as can be thought resonable by prcufe of the 
Countrollers,' and therewith ' tenderly to waysshe . . the stuffe for 
the Kinges propyr persone ' (H. Ord. p. 85) ; but whether that 
cleansing material ever touched His Majesty's sacred person (except 
doubtless when and if the barber shaved him), does not appear. The 
Ordinances are considerate as to sex, and provide for "weomen 
lavendryes" for a Queen, and further that "these officers oughte to 
bee sworne to keepe the chambre counsaylle." But it is not for one 
of a nation that has not yet taken generally to tubbing and baths, 
or left off shaving, to reproach his forefathers with want of cleanli- 
ness, or adherence to customs that involve contradiction of the 
teachings of physiologists, and the evident intent of Nature or the 
Creator. Moreover, reflections on. the good deeds done, and the high 
thoughts thought, by men of old dirtier than some now, may prevent 
us concluding that because other people now talk through their 
noses, and have manners different from our own, they and their in- 
stitutions must be wholly abominable ; that because others smell 
when heated, they ought to be slaves ; or that eating peas with a 
knife renders men unworthy of the franchise. The temptation to 
value manners above morals, and pleasantness above honesty, is one 
that all of us have to guard against. And when we have held to a 
custom merely because it is old, have refused to consider fairly the 
reasons for its change, and are inclined to grumble when the change 
is carried out, we shall be none the worse for thinking of the people, 
young and old, who, in the time of Harrison and Shakspere, the " For- 


gotten Worthies " l and Raleigh, no doubt ' hated those nasty new 
oak houses and chinmies,' and sighed for the good old times : 

" And yet see the change, for when our houses were builded of 
willow, then had we oken men ; but now that our houses are come 
to be made of oke, our men are not onlie become willow, but a great 
manie through Persian delicacie crept in among vs, altogither of 
straw, which is a sore alteration. . . Now haue we manie chimnies, 
and yet our tenderlings complaine of rheumes, catarhs and poses. 
Then had we none but reredosses, and our heads did neuer ake. 2 
For as the smoke in those daies was supposed to be a sufficient 
hardning for the timber of the house ; so it was reputed a far better 
medicine to keepe the goodman and his familie from the quack or 
pose, wherewith as then verie few were oft acquainted." Harrison, 
i. 212, col. 1, quoted by Ellis. 

If rich men and masters were dirty, poor men and servants must 
have been dirtier still. William Langlande's description of Haw- 
kyn's one metaphorical dress in which he slept o' nightes as 
well as worked by day, beslobbered (or I>y-mo2ed, bemauled) by 
children, was true of the real smock ; flesh-moths must have been 
plentiful, and the sketch of Coveitise, as regards many men, hardly 
an exaggeration : 

. . as a bonde-man of his bacon his berd was bi-draveled, 
With his hood on his heed a lousy hat above, 
And in a tawny tabard of twelf wynter a,ge 
Al so torn and baudy and ful of lys crepyng, 
But if that a lous 3 couthe * ban lopen the bettre, 

1 See Mr Froude's noble article in The Westminster Review, No. 3, July, 1852 
(lately republiahed by him in a collection of Essays, &c.). 

2 Their eyes must have smarted. The natives' houses in India have (generally) 
no chimneys still, and Mr Moreshwar says the smoke does make your eyes water. 

3 Mouffet is learned on the Louse. 

" In the first beginning whilest man was in his innocency, and free from wicked- 
nessc, he was subject to no corruption and filth, but when he was seduced by the 
wickednesse of that great and cunning deceiver, and proudly affected to know as 
much as God knew, God humbled him with divers diseases, and divers sorts of 
Worms, with Lice, Hand- worms, Belly- worms, others call Termites, small Nits and 
Acares . . a Lowse . . is a beastly Creature, and known better in Innes and Armies 
then it is wellcome. The profit it bringeth, Achilles sheweth, Iliad I. in these 
words : I make no more of him then I doe of a Lowse ; as we have an English Pro- 
verb of a poor man, He is not worth a Lowse. The Lice that trouble men are 
either tame or wilde ones, those the English call Lice, and these Crab-lice ; the 
North English call them Pert -lice, that is, a petulant Lowse comprehending both 
kindes ; it is a certain sign of misery, and is sometimes the inevitable scourge of 


She sholde noght han walked on that welthe so was it thred-bare, 
(Vision, Passus V. vol. 1, 1. 2859-70, ed. Wright.) 

In the Kinge and Miller, Percy Folio MS., p. 236 (in vol. ii. of 
the print), when the Miller proposes that the stranger should sleep 
with their son, Richard the son says to the King, 

" Nay, first," quoth Richard, "good fellowe, tell me true, 

hast thou noe creepers in thy gay hose 1 
art thou not troabled with the Scabbado 1 " 

The colour of washerwomen's legs was due partly to dirt, I 
suppose. The princess or queen Clarionas, when escaping with the 
laundress as her assistant, is obliged to have her white legs reduced 
to the customary shade of grey : 

Right as she should stoupe a-doun, 
The quene was tukked wel on high ; 
The lauender perceiued wel therbigh 
Hir white legges, and seid " ma dame, 
Youre shin boones might doo vs blame ; 
Abide," she seid, " so mot I thee, 
More slotered thei most be." 
Asshes with the water she menged, 
And her white legges al be-sprenged. 

ab. 1440 A.D., Syr Generides, p. 218, 11. 7060-8. 

If in Henry the Eighth's kitchen, scullions lay about naked, or 
tattered and filthy, what would they do elsewhere? Here is the 
King's Ordinance against them in 1526 : 

God." Rowland's Mou/et's Theater of Insects, p. 1090, ed. 1658 (published in 
Latin, 1634). By this date we had improved. Mouffetsays, " These filthy creatures 
. . are hated more than Dogs or Vipers by our daintiest Dames," ib. p. 1093 ; and 
again, p. 1097, " Cardan, that was a fancier of subtilties, writes that the Carthusians 
are never vexed with Wall-lice, and he gives the cause, because they eat no flesh. . . 
He should rather have alledged their cleanliness, and the frequent washing of their 
beds and blankets, to be the cause of it, which when the French, the Dutch, and 
Italians do less regard, they more breed this plague. But the English that take 
great care to be cleanly and decent, are seldom troubled with them." Also, on p. 1092, 
he says, 'As for dressing the body : all Ireland is, noted for this, that it swarms almost 
with Lice. But that this proceeds from the beastliness of the people, and want of 
cleanly women to wash them is manifest, because the English that are more careful 
to dress themselves, changing and washing their shirts often, having inhabited so 
long in Ireland, have escaped that plague. . . Remedies. The Irish and Iseland 
people (who are frequently troubled with Lice, and such as will fly, as they say, in 
Summer) anoint their shirts with Saffron, and to very good purpose, to drive away 
the Lice, but after six moneths they wash their shirts again, putting fresh Saffron 
into the Lye.' Rowland's Mouffet (1634), Theater of Insects, p. 1092, cd. 1658. 


" And for the better avoydyng of corruption and all uncleannesse 
out of the Kings house, which doth ingender danger of infection, 
and is very noisome and displeasant unto all the noblemen and 
others repaireing unto the same ; it is ordeyned by the Kings High- 
nesse, that the three master cookes of the kitchen shall have everie 
of them by way of reward yearly twenty marks, to the intent they 
shall prouide and sufficiently furnish the said kitchens of such 
scolyons as shall not goe naked or in garments of suclr vilenesse as 
they now doe, and have been acustomed to doe, nor lie in the nights 
and dayes in the kitchens or ground by the fireside ; but that they 
of the said money may be found with honest and whole course 
garments, without such uncleannesse as may be the annoyance of 
those by whom they shall passe ". . . 

That our commonalty, at least, in Henry VIII.'s time did stink 
(as is the nature of man to do) may be concluded from Wolsey's 
custom, when going to Westminster Hall, of 

"holding in his hand a very fair orange, whereof the meat or 
substance within was taken out, and filled up again with the part of 
a sponge, wherein was vinegar, and other confections against the 
pestilent airs ; the which he most commonly smelt unto, passing 
among the press, or else when he was pestered with many suitors." 
(Cavendish, p. 43.) 

On the dirt in English houses and streets we may take the 
testimony of a witness who liked England, and lived in it, and who 
was not likely to misrepresent its condition, Erasmus. In a letter 
to Francis, the physician of Cardinal Wolsey, says Jortin, 

" Erasmus ascribes the plague (from which England was hardly 
ever free) and the sweating-sickness, partly to the incommodious 
form and bad exposition of the houses, to the filthiness of the streets, 
and to the sluttishness within doors. The floors, says he, are commonly 
of clay, strewed with rushes, under which lies unmolested an ancient 
collection of beer, grease (?), fragments, bones, spittle, excrements [t. 
i. urine] of dogs and cats [t. i. men,] and every thing that is nasty, 
c." (Life of Erasmus, i. 69, ed. 1808, referred to in Ellis, i. 328, 

The great scholar's own words arc, 

Turn sola fere sunt argilla, turn scirpis palustribus, qui subinde sic 
renovantur, ut fundamentum maneat aliquoties annos viginti, sub 
se fovens sputa, vomitus, mictum canum et hominum, projectam 
cervisiam, et piscium reliquias, aliasque sordes non nominandas. 
Hinc mutato coelo vapor quidam exhalatur, mea sententia minime 
salubris humano corpori. 

After speaking also De salsamentis (rendered 'salt meat, beef, 


pork, &c.,' by Jortin, but which Liber Cure Cocorum authorises us in 
translating 'Sauces M ), quibus vulgus mirum inmodum delectatur, he 
says the English would be more healthy if their windows were made 
so as to shut out noxious winds, and then continues, 

" Conferret hue, si vulgo parcior victus persuaderi posset, ac 
salsamentorum moderatior usus. Turn si publica cura demandaretur 
JEdilibus, ut vise mundiores essent a coeno, mictuque : Curarentur et 
ea quae civitati vicina sint. Jortin 's Life of Erasmus, ed. 1808, iii. 
44 (Ep. 432, C. 1815), No. VIII. Erasmus Eot. Francisco. Cardina- 
lis Eboracencis Medico, S. 

If it be objected that I have in the foregoing extracts shown the 
dark side of the picture, and not the bright one, my answer is that 
the bright one of the riches and luxury in England must be 
familiar to all our members, students (as I assume) of our early 
books, that the Treatises in this Volume sufficiently show this bright 
side, and that to me, as foolometer of the Society, this dark side 
seemed to need showing. But as The Chronicle of May 11, 1867, in 
its review of Mr Fox Bourne's English Merchants, seems to think 
otherwise, I quote its words, p. 155, col. 2. 

" All the nations of the world, says Matthew of Westminster, 
were kept warm by the wool of England, made into cloth by the men 
of Flanders. And while we gave useful clothing to other countries, 
we received festive garments from them in return. For most of our 
information on these subjects we are indebted to Matthew Paris, who 
tells us that when Alexander III. of Scotland was married to Margaret, 
daughter of Henry III., one thousand English knights appeared at 
the wedding in cointises of silk, and the next day each knight donned 
a new robe of another kind. This grand entertainment was fatal to 
sixty oxen, and cost the then Archbishop of York no less a sum than 
4000 marks. Macpherson remarks on this great display of silk as a 
proof of the wealth of England under the Norman kings, a point 
which has not been sufficiently elaborated. In 1242 the streets of 
London were covered or shaded with silk, for the reception of Richard, 
the King's brother, on his return from the Holy Land. Few English- 

1 Prof. Brewer says that Erasmus, rejecting the Mediaeval Latin and adopting 
the Classical, no douht used salsamenta in its classical sense of salt-meat, and 
referred to the great quantity of it used in England during the winter, when no 
fresh meat was eaten, but only that which had heen killed at the annual autumn 
slaughtering, and then salted down. Stall-fattening not being practised, the 
autumn was the time for fat cattle. Salsamentum, however, is translated in White 
and Riddle's Dictionary, " A. Fish-pickle, brine ; B. Salted or pickled fish (so 
usually in plural)." 


men are aware of the existence of such magnificence at that early 
period ; while every story-book of history gives us the reverse of the 
picture, telling us of straw-covered floors, scarcity of body linen, and 
the like. Long after this, in 1367, it is recorded, as a special instance 
of splendour of costume, that 1000 citizens of Genoa were clothed in 
silk ; and this tale has been repeated from age to age, while the 
similar display, at an earlier date, in England, has passed unnoticed." 

For a notice of the several pieces in the present volume, I refer 
the reader to the Preface to Russell's Bolce of Nurture, which follows 

It only remains for me to say that the freshness of my 
first interest in the poems which I once hoped to re-produce in 
these Forewords, has become dulled by circumstances and the length 
of time that the volume has been in the press it having been 
set aside (by my desire) for the Ayenbite, &c. ; and that the 
intervention of other work has prevented my making the collection 
as complete as I had desired it to be. It is, however, the fullest 
verse one that has yet appeared on its subject, and will serve as the 
beginning of the Society's store of this kind of material. ! If we can 
do all the English part of the work, and the Master of the Rolls will 
commission one of his Editors to do the Latin part, we shall then 
get a fairly complete picture of that Early English Home which, 
with all its shortcomings, should be dear to every Englishman now. 

3, 8t George's Square, N. IF., 
6th June, 1867. 

1 If any member or reader can refer me to any other verse or prose pieces of like 
kind, unprinted, or that deserve reprinting, I shall be much obliged to him, and 
will try to put them in type. 



THOUGH this Boke of Nurture by John Eussell is the most com- 
plete and elaborate of its kind, I have never seen it mentioned by 
name in any of the many books and essays on early manners and 
customs, food and dress, that have issued from the press. My own 
introduction to it was due to a chance turning over, for another 
purpose, of the leaves of the MS. containing it. Mr Wheatley then 
told me of Eitson's reference to it in his BiUiograpliica Poetica, p. 
96 ; and when the text was all printed, a reference in The Glossary 
of Domestic Architecture (v. III. Pt. I. p. 76, note, col. 2) sent me 
to MS. Sloane 1315 l in the Glossary stated to have been written 
in 1452 which proved to be a different and unnamed version of 
Eussell. Then the Sloane Catalogue disclosed a third MS., No. 2027 2 , 
and the earliest of 'the three, differing rather less than No. 1315 from 
Eussell's text, but still anonymous. I have therefore to thank for 
knowledge of the MSS. that special Providence which watches over 
editors as well as children and drunkards, and have not on this 
occasion to express gratitude to Eitson and Warton, to whom 
every lover of Early English Manuscripts is under such deep obliga- 
tions, and whose guiding hands (however faltering) in Poetry have 
made us long so often for the like in Prose. Would that one 
of our many Historians of English Literature had but conceived the 
idea of cataloguing the materials for his History before sitting down 
to write it ! Would that a wise Government Avould commission 
another Hardy to do for English Literature what the Deputy- 
Keeper of the Public Eecords is now doing for English History 

1 This MS. contains a copy of " The Rewle of the Moone," fol. 49-67, which I 
hope to edit for the Society. 

2 The next treatise to Russell in this MS. is " The booke off the goumiaunce 
off Kyngis and Pryncis," or Liber Aristotiles ad Alexandrum Magnum, a book of 
Lydgate's that we ought to print from the best MS. of it. At fol. 74 b. is a 

Here dyed this translatour and noble poette Lidgate and the yong follower gan 
his prolog on this wys. 


give us a list of the MSS. and early printed books of it ! "What 
time and trouble such a Catalogue would save ! 

But to return to John Russell and his Boke. He describes 
himself at the beginning and end of his treatise as Usher and 
Marshal to Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester, delighting in his work in 
youth, quitting it only when compelled by crooked age, and then 
anxious to train up worthy successors in the art and mystery of 
managing a well-appointed household. A man evidently who knew 
his work in every detail, and did it all with pride ; not boastful, 
though upholding his office against rebellious cooks 1 , putting them 
down with imperial dignity, " we may allow and disallow ; our 
office is the chief ! " A simple-minded religious man too, as the 
close of his Treatise shows, and one able to appreciate the master 
he served, the " prynce fulle royalle," the learned and munificent 
Humphrey Duke of Gloucester, the patron of Lydgate, Occleve, 
Capgrave, Withamstede, Leonard Aretine, Petrus Caiididus, Petrus 
de Monte, Tito Livio, Antoyne de Beccara, &c. &c., the lover of 
Manuscripts, the first great donor to the Oxford University Library 
which Bodley revived 2 , "that prince peerless," as Russell calls him, 
a man who, with all his faults, loved books and authors, and shall be 
respected by us as he was by Lydgate. But our business is with the 
Marshal, not the Master, and we will hear what John Russell says of 
himself in his own verse, 

an vsshere y Am / ye may beholde / to a prynce of highe degre, 
bat enioyethe to enforme & teche / alle bo thatt wille thrive & thee, 

Of suche thynges as here-aftwr shalle be shewed by my diligence 
To them J?at nought Can / wzt/i-owt gret exsperience ; 
Therfore yf any man jjat y mete withe, bat for fawt of necligence, 
y wylle hym enforme & teche, for hurtynge of my Conscience. 

To teche vertew and corcnynge, me thynketh hit charitable, 

for moche youthe in coranynge / is barefi & fulle vnable. (1. 3-9.) 

At the end of his Boke he gives us a few more details about him- 
self and his work in life : 

1 One can fancy that a cook like "Wolsey's (described by Cavendish, vol. i. p. 34), 
" a Master Cook who went daily in damask satin, or velvet, with a chain of gold 
about his neck " (a mark of nobility in earlier days), would be not leef but loth to 
obey an usher and marshal. 

2 Warton, ii. 264-8, ed. 1840. For further details about the Duke see the 
Appendix to this Preface, 


Now good son, y haue shewed the / & brought J?e in vre, 

to know ]>e Curtesie of court / & these fow may take in cure, 

In pantry / botery / or cellere / & in kervynge a-fore a sovereyne 

A sewer / or a mershalle : in bes science / y suppose ye byii sewre, 

Which in iny dayes y lernyd withe a prynce fulle royalle, 
with whom, vschere in chambur was y, & mershalle also in halle, 
vnto whom alle bese officeres foreseid / bey eue>* entewle shalle, 
Evir to fulfille my cowmaundement when bat y to bem calle : 

For we may allow & dissalow / oure office is be cheeff 
Incellere&spicery/&theCooke,behelootheorleeff. (1. 1173-82.) 

Further on, at line 1211, he says, 

" Moore of ])is coraiynge y Cast not me to contreve : 
my tyme is not to tary, hit drawest fast to eve. 
bis tretyse ]>at y haue entitled, if it ye entende to preve, 
y assayed me self in youthe w/t/i-outen any greve. 

while y was yonge y-noughe & lusty in dede, 
y enioyed bese maters foreseid / & to lerne y toke good hede ; 
but croked age hathe co?7ipelled me / & leue court y must nede. 
berfore, sone, assay thy self / & god shalle be by spede." 

And again, at line 1227, 

" Now, good son, thy self, with other bat shalle J)e succede, 
whiche ]>us boke of nurture shalle note / lerne, & ouer rede, 
pray for the sowle of lohn Russelle, bat god do hym rnede, 
Som tyme se?'uaunde with duke vmfrey, due l of Glowcetwr in dede. 

For fat prynce pereles prayethe / & for suche other mo, 

]>e sowle of my wife / my fadur and modir also, 

vn-to Mary modyr and mayd / she fende us from owre foe, 

and brynge vs alle to blis when we shalle hens goo. AMEN." 

As to his Boke, besides what is quoted above, John Russell says, 

Go forthe lytelle boke, and lowly ])ow me cowmende 

vnto alle yonge gentilmen / Ipat lust to lerne or entende, 

and specially to jiem at han exsperience, praynge )?e[m] to amende 

and corrects ])at is amysse, fere as y fawte or offende. 

And if so fat any be founde / as frou} myn necligence, 
Cast fe cawse on my copy / rude / & bare of eloquence, 
whiche to d?*awe out [I] haue do my besy diligence, 
redily to reforme hit / by reson and bettur sentence. 

As for ryme or reson, fe forewryter was not to blame, 
For as he founde hit aforiie hym, so wrote he J>e same, 
and jjaughe he or y in oure matere digres or degrade, 
blame neithur of vs / For we neuyre hit made ; 

1 The due has a red stroke through it, probably to cut it out. 


Symple as y had insight / somwhat j?e ryme y correcte ; 
blame y cowde no man / y haue no persone suspecte. 
Now, good god, graunt vs grace / oure sowles neuer to Infecte ! 
bail may we regne in J>i regiouw / eternally with thyno electe. 

(1. 1235-50.) 

If John Eussell was the writer of the Epilogue quoted above, 
lines 1235-50, then it would seem that in this Treatise he only 
corrected and touched up some earlier Book of Norture which he 
had used in his youth, and which, if Sloane 2027 be not its original, 
may be still extant in its primal state in Mr Arthur Davenport's 
MS., " How to serve a Lord," said to be of the fourteenth century 1 , 
and now supposed to be stowed away in a hayloft with the owner's 
other books, awaiting the rebuilding and fitting of a fired house. I 
only hope this MS. may prove to be Eussell's original, as Mr Daven- 
port has most kindly promised to let me copy and print it for the 
Society. Meantime it is possible to consider John Eussell's Book of 
Norture as his own. For early poets and writers of verse seem to 
have liked this fiction of attributing their books to other people, and 
it is seldom that you find them acknowledging that they have im- 
agined their Poems on their own heads, as Hampole has it in his 
Pricke of Conscience, p. 239, 1. 8874 (ed. Morris, Philol. Soc.). Even 
Mr Tennyson makes believe that Everard Hall wrote his Morte d' 
Arthur y and some Leonard his Golden Year. On the other hand, the 
existence of the two Sloane MSS. is more consistent with Eussell's 
own statement (if it is his own, and not his adapter's in the 
Harleian MS.) that he did not write his Boke himself, but only 
touched up another man's. Desiring to let every reader judge for 
himself on this point, I shall try to print in a separate text 2 , for con- 
venience of comparison, the Sloane MS. 1315, which differs most 
from Eussell, and which the Keeper of the MSS. at the British 
Museum considers rather earlier (ab. 1440-50 A.D.) than the MS. of 
Eussell (ab. 1460-70 A.D.), while of the earliest of the three, Sloane 
MS. 2027 (ab. 1430-40 A.D.), the nearer to Eussell in phraseology, I 
shall give a collation of all important variations. If any reader of the 

1 See one MS., " How to serve a Lord," ab. 1500 A.D., quoted in the notes to 
the Camden Society's Italian Relation of England, p. 97. 

2 For the Early English Text Society. 



present text compares the Sloanes with it, he will find the subject 
matter of all three alike, except in these particulars : 

Sloane 2027. 
Contains these lines. 
Inserts and omits as SI. 1315 does, 
but the wording is often different. 

Sloane 1315. 

Omits lines 1-4 of Russell. 
Inserts after .1. 48 of R. a passage 

about behaviour which it nearly 

repeats, where Russell puts it, at 

1. 276, Symple Conditions. 
Omits Russell's stanza, 1. 305-8, about 

' these cuttid galauntes with their 

codware. 1 

Omits a stanza, 1. 319-24, p. 21. 
Contracts R.'s chapter on Fumositees, 

p. 23-4. 
Omits R.'s Lenvoy, under Fried Metes, 

p. 33-4. 
Transfers R.'s chapters on Semes on 

Fisclie Dayes and Sawcis for Fishe, 

1. 819-54, p. 55-9, to the end of 

his chapter on Kervyng of Fishe, 1. 

G49, p. 45. 
Gives different Soteltes (or Devices 

at the end of each course), and 

omits Russell's description of his 

four of the Four Seasons, p. 51-4; 

and does not alter the metre of the 

lines describing the Dinners as he 

does, p. 50-5. 
Winds up at the end of the Bathe or Has 3 winding-up stanzas, as if about 

Stewe, 1. 1000, p. 69, R., with two to end as Sloane 1315 does, but 

stanzas of peroration. As there is yet goes on (omitting the Bathe 

no 'Explicit, the MS. may be incom- Medicinable] with the Fssher and 

plete, but the next page is blank. Marshalle, R. p. 69, and ends sud- 

denly, at 1. 1062, p. 72, R., in the 
middle of the chapter. 

In occasional length of line, in words and rhymes, Sloane 1315 
differs far more from Russell than Sloane 2027, which has Russell's 
long lines and rhymes throughout, so far as a hurried examination 

Contains this stanza (fol. 42, b.). 
Contracts the Fumositees too (fol. 45 

and back). 
Has one verse of Lenvoy altered (fol. 

45 b.). 
Transfers as SI. 1315 does (see fol. 


Differs from R., nearly as SI. 13J5 


But the variations of both these Sloane MSS. are to me more 
like those from an original MS. of which our Harleian Eussell is a 
copy, than of an original which Russell altered. Why should the 
earliest Sloane 2027 start with 

" An vsschere .y. am / as ye may se : to a prynce Of hyghe degre " 
if in its original the name of the prince was not stated at the end, as 
Russell states it, to show that he was not gammoning his readers ? 
Why does Sloane 1315 omit lines in some of its stanzas, and words in 
some of its lines, that the Harleian Russell enables- us to fill up ? Why 
does it too make its writer refer to the pupil's lord and sovereign, if 
in its original the author did not clench his teaching by asserting, as 
Russell does, that he had served one 1 This Sloane 1315 may well 
have been copied by a man like Wynkyn de Worde, who wished not 
to show the real writer of the treatise. On the whole, I incline 
to believe that John Russell's Book of Norture was written by him, 
and that either the Epilogue to it was a fiction of his, or was written 
by the superintender of the particular copy in the Harleian MS. 401 1, 
Russell's own work terminating with the Amen ! after line 1234. 

But whether we consider Russell's Boke another's, or as in the main 
his own, allowing that in parts he may have used previous pieces 
on the subjects he treats of, as he has used Stans Puer (or its 
original) in his Symple Conditions, 1. 277-304, if we ask what the 
Boke contains, the answer is, that it is a complete Manual for the 
Valet, Butler, Footman, Carver, Taster, Dinner-arranger, Hippocras- 
maker, Usher and Marshal of the Nobleman of the time when the 
work was written, the middle of the fifteenth century. For I take 
the date of the composition of the work to be somewhat earlier than 
that of the MS. it is here printed from, and suppose Humphrey 
Duke of Gloucester, " imprisoned and murdered 1447," to have been 
still alive when his Marshal penned it. Reading it, we see " The 
Good Duke " rise and dress ! , go to Chapel and meals, entertain at 
feasts in Hall, then undress and retire to rest ; we hear how his head 
was combed with an ivory comb, his stomacher warmed, his petycote 
put on, his slippers brown as the waterleech got ready, his privy-seat 

1 I have put figures before the motions in the dress and undress drills, for they 
reminded me so of " Manual and Platoon ; by numbers." 


prepared, and his urinal kept in waiting ; how his bath was made, his 
table laid, his guests arranged, his viands carved, and his salt 
smoothed ' ; we are told how nearly all the birds that fly, the animals 
that walk the earth, the fish that swim in river and sea, are food for 
the pot : we hear of dishes strange to us 2 , beaver's tail, osprey, brewe, 
venprides, whale, swordfish, seal, torrentyne, pety perveis or perneis, 
and gravell of beef 3 . Bills of fare for flesh and fish days are laid before 
us ; admired Sotiltees or Devices are described ; and he who cares to 
do so may fancy for himself the Duke and all his brilliant circle 
feasting in Hall, John Russell looking on, and taking care that all 
goes right. 4 I am not going to try my hand at the sketch, as I do 
not write for men in the depths of that deducated Philistinism which 
lately made a literary man say to one of our members on his printing 
a book of the 15th century, " Is it possible that you care how those 
barbarians, our ancestors, lived ? " If any one who takes up this 
tract, will not read it through, the loss is his ; those who do work at 
it will gladly acknowledge their gain. That it is worthy of the 

1 Mr Way says that the planere, 1. 58, is an article new to antiquarians. 

2 Randle Holme's tortoise and snails, in No. 12 of his Second Course, Bk. III., 
p. 60, col. 1, are stranger still. " Tortoise need not seem strange to an alderman who 
eats turtle, nor to a West Indian who eats terrapin. Nor should snails, at least to 
the city of Paris, which devours myriads, nor of Ulrn, which breeds millions for the 
table. Tortoises are good; snails excellent." Henry H. Gibbs. 

3 " It is nought all good to the goost that the gut asketh " we may well say 
with William who wrote Piers Ploughmon, v. 1, p. 17, 1. 533-4, after reading the 
lists of things eatable, and dishes, in Russell's pages. The later feeds that Phylotheus 
Physiologus exclaims against * are nothing to them : " What an Hodg-potch do 
most that have Abilities make in their Stomachs, which must wonderfully oppress 
and distract Nature : For if you should take Flesh of various sorts, Fish of as many, 
Cabbages, Parsnops, Potatoes, Mustard, flutter, Cheese, a Pudden that contains more 
then ten several Ingredents, Tarts, Sweet-meats, Custards, and add to these Churries, 
Plums, Currans, .Apples, Capers, Olives, Anchovies, Mangoes, Caveare, $c., and jumble 
them altogether into one Mass, what Eye would not loath, what Stomach not abhor 
such a Gallemaufrey ? yet this is done every Day, and counted Gallent Entertainment: 1 

4 See descriptions of a dinner in Parker's Domestic Architecture of the Middle 
Ages, iii. 74-87 (with a good cut of the Cupboard, Dais, &c.), and in Wright's 
Domestic Manners and Customs. Eussell' s description of the Franklin's dinner, 
1. 795-818, should be noted for the sake of Chaucer's Franklin, and we may also 
notice that Russell orders butter and fruits to be served on an empty stomach before 
dinner, 1. 77, as a whet to the appetite. Modus Cenandi serves potage first, and 
keeps the fruits, with the spices and biscuits, for dessert. 

* Monthly Observations for the preserving of Health, 1686, p. 20-1. 


attention of all to whose ears tidings of Early England come with 
welcome sound across the wide water of four hundred years, I 
unhesitatingly assert. That it has interested me, let the time its notes 
have taken on this, a fresh subject to me, testify. If any should 
object to the extent of them ! , or to any words in them that may 
offend his ear, let him excuse them for the sake of what he thinks 
rightly present. There are still many subjects and words insuffi- 
ciently illustrated in the comments, and for the names venprides (1. 
820) ; sprotis, (?sprats, as in Sloane 1315), and torrentille (1. 548) ; 
almond iardyne (1. 744) ; ginger coloiribyne, valadyne, and maydelyne 
(1. 132-3) ; leche dugard, &c., I have not been able to find meanings. 
Explanations and helps I shall gladly receive, in the hope that they 
may appear in another volume of like kind for which I trust soon to 
find more MSS. Of other MSS. of like kind I also ask for notice. 

The reason for reprinting Wynkyn de Worde's Boke of Keruynge, 
which I had not at first thought of, was because its identity of phrase 
and word with many parts of Eussell, a thing which came on me 
with a curious feeling of surprise as I turned over the leaves, made 
it certain that de Worde either abstracted in prose Russell's MS., 
chopping off his lines' tails, adding also bits here 2 , leaving out others 
there, or else that both writers copied a common original. The 
most cursory perusal will show this to be the case. It was not alone 
by happy chance that when Russell had said 

Fruture viant / Fruter sawge byn good / bettwr is F?'ut?/r powche ; 
Appulle fruture / is good hoot / but fe cold ye not towche (1. 501-2) 

Wyiikyn de Worde delivered himself of 

" Fruyter vaunte, fruyter say be good ; better is fruyter pouche ; 
apple fruyters ben good good hote / and all colde fruters, touche 

1 The extracts from Bulleyn, Borde, Vaughan, and Harington are in the nature of 
notes, but their length gave one the excuse of printing them in bigger type as parts of 
a Text. In the same way I should have treated the many extracts from Laurens 
Andrewe, had I not wanted them intermixed with the other notes, and been also 
afraid of swelling this book to an unwieldy size. 

2 The Termes of a Kerver so common in MSS. are added, p. 151, and the sub- 
sequent arrangement of the modes of carving the birds under these Termes, p. 161-3. 
The Easter-Day feast (p. 162) is also new, the bit why the heads of pheasants, 
partridges, &c., are unwholesome ' for they etc in theyr degrees foule thynges, as 
wormes, todes, and other suche,' p. 165-6 and several other pieces. 


altering nofs place to save the rhyme ; or that when Russell had 
said of the Crane 

The Crane is a fowle / that stronge is "with to fare ; 
J3e whynges ye areyse / fulle large evyn thare ; 
of hyre trompe in J?e brest / loke Jjat ye beware 

Wynkyn de "Wordq directed his Carver thus : " A crane, reyse the 
wynges fyrst, & beware of the trumpe in his brest." Let any one 
compare the second and third pages of Wynkyn de Worde's text 
with lines 48-137 of Russell, and he will make up his mind that the 
old printer was either one of the most barefaced plagiarists that ever 
lived, or that the same original was before him and Russell too. 
May Mr Davenport's hayloft, or some learned antiquarian, soon 
decide the alternative for us ! The question was too interesting a 
" Curiosity of Literature " not to be laid before our Members, and 
therefore The Boke of Keruynge was reprinted from the British 
Museum copy of the second edition of 1513 with added side-notes 
and stops, and the colophon as part of the title. 

Then came the necessary comparison of Russell's Boke with the 
Boke of Curtasye, edited by Mr Halliwell from the Sloane MS. 1986 
for the Percy Society. Contrasts had to be made with it, in parts, 
many times in a page ; the tract was out of print and probably in 
few Members' hands; it needed a few corrections 1 , and was worthy 
of a thousand times wider circulation than it had had ; therefore a 
new edition from the MS. was added to this volume. Relying on 
Members reading it for themselves, I have not in the notes indicated 
all the points of coincidence and difference between this Boke and 
Russell's. It is of wider scope than Russell's, takes in the duties 
of outdoor officers and servants as well as indoor, and maybe those of a 
larger household ; it has also a fyrst Boke on general manners, and a 
Second Book on what to learn at school, how to behave at church, 
&c., but it does not go into the great detail as to Meals and Dress 
which is the special value of Russell's Boke, nor is it associated with 
a writer who tells us something of himself, or a noble who in all our 
English Middle Age has so bright a name on which we can look back 

1 do the, 1. 115, is clothe in the MS. ; graym, 1. 576 (see too 11. 589, 597,) is 
grayue, Scotch greive, A.S. gerefa, a kind of bailiff ; resceyne, 11. 547, 575, is resceyue } 
receive ; &c. 


as "good Duke Humphrey." This personality adds an interest to work 
that anonymity and its writings of equal value can never have ; so 
that we may be well content to let the Curtasye be used in illustra- 
tion of the Nurture. The MS. of the Curtasye is about 1460 A.D., 
Mr Bond says. I have dated it wrongly on the half-title. 

The Boolce of Demeanor was " such a little one " that I was 
tempted to add it to mark the general introduction of handkerchiefs. 
Having printed it, arose the question, ' Where did it come from ? ' No 
Weste's Schoole of Vertue could I find in catalogues, or by inquiring 
of the Duke of Devonshire, Mr W. C. Hazlitt. at the Bodleian, 
&c. Seager's Schoole of Vertue was the only book that turned up, 
and this I accordingly reprinted, as Weste's Booke of Demeanor 
seemed to be little more than an abstract of the first four Chapters 
of Seager cut down and rewritten. We must remember that books 
of this kind, which we look on as sources of amusement, as more or less 
of a joke, were taken seriously by the people they were written for. 
That The Schoole of Vertue, for instance whether Seager's or Weste's 
Avas used as a regular school-book for boys, let lo. Brinsley witness. 
In his Grammar Schoole of 1612, pp. 17, 18, he enumerates the 
" Bookes to bee first learned of children": 1. their Abcie, and 
Primer. 2. The Psalms in metre, * because children wil learne that 
booke with most readinesse and delight through the running of the 
metre, as it is found by experience. 3. Then the Testament.' 4. 
" If any require any other little booke meet to enter children ; the 
Schoole of Vertue is one of the principall, and easiest for the first 
enterers, being full of precepts of ciuilitie, and such as children will 
soone learne and take a delight in, thorow the roundnesse of the 
metre, as was sayde before of the singing Psalmes : And after it the 
Schoole of good manners*, called, the new Schoole of Vertue, leading 
the childe as by the hand, in the way of all good manners." 

I make no apology for including reprints of these little-known 
books in an Early English Text. Qui s' excuse s 'accuse ; and if these 
Tracts do not justify to any reader their own appearance here, I believe 
the fault is not theirs. 

1 This is doubtless a different book from Hugh Rhodes' s J3ooke of Nurture 
Schoole of Good Manners, p. 71, below 


A poem on minding what you say, which Mr Aldis Wright 
has kindly sent me, some Maxims on Behaviour, &c., which all 
end in -ly t and Roger Ascham's Advice to his brother-in-law on 
entering a nobleman's service, follow, and then the Poems which 
suggested the Forewords on Education in Early England, and have 
been partly noticed in them, p. i-iv. I have only to say of the first, 
The Babees Boke, that I have not had time to search for its Latin 
original, or other copies of the text. Its specialty is its attributing so 
high birth to the Bele Babees whom it addresses, and its appeal to 
Lady Facetia to help its writer. Of the short alphabetic poems that 
follow, The A B C of Aristotle, copies occur elsewhere ; and that 
in the Harleian Manuscript 1304, which has a different introduction, 
I hope to print in the companion volume to this, already alluded to. 
Vrbanitatis, I was glad to find, because of the mention of the booke of 
urbanitie in Edward the Fourth's Liber Niger (p. ii. above), as we 
thus know what the Duke of Norfolk of "Flodden Field" was taught 
in his youth as to his demeanings, how mannerly he should eat and 
drink, and as to his communication and other forms of court. He was 
not to spit or suite before his Lord the King, or wipe his nose on the 
table-cloth. The next tracts, The Lytylle Cliyldrenes Lytil Boke or 
Edyllys Be { (a title made up from the text) and The Young Children's 
Book, are differing versions of one set of maxims, and are printed 
opposite one another for contrast sake. The Lytil Boke was printed 
from a later text, and with an interlinear French version, by 
Wynkyn de Worde in ' Here begynneth a I //tell treat t/se for to lerne 
Englisshe and Frensshe? This will be printed by Mr Wheatley in 
his Collection of Early Treatises on Grammar for the Society, as the 
copy in the Grenville Library in the Brit. Mus. is the only one 
known. Other copies of this Lytil Boke are at Edinburgh, Cambridge, 
and Oxford. Of two of these Mr David Laing and Mr Henry BradshaAv 
have kindly given me collations, which are printed at the end of this 
Preface. Of the last Poem, Stans Puer ad Mensam, attributed to Lydgate 

1 What this Edyllys Be means, I have no idea, and five or six other men I have 
asked are in the same condition. A.S. ce\>el is noble, ce\>eling, a prince, a noble ; 
that may do for edyllys. Be may be for ABC, alphabet, elementary grammar of 


as nearly everything in the first half of the 15th century was I have 
printed two copies, with collations from a third, the Jesus (Cambridge) 
MS. printed by Mr Halliwell in Reliquice Antiquce, v. 1, p. 156-8, and 
reprinted by Mr W. C. Hazlitt in his Early Popular Poetry, ii. 23-8. 
Mr Hazlitt notices 3 other copies, in Harl. MS. 4011, fol. 1, &c. ; Lans- 
downe MS. 699 ; and Additional MS. 5467, which he 'collated for 
his text. There must be plenty more about the country, as in Ash- 
mole MS. 61, fol. 16, back, in the Bodleian. 1 Of old printed 
editions Mr Hazlitt notes one " from the press of Caxton, but the 
only copy known is imperfect. It was printed two or three times by 
Wynkyn de Worde. Lowndes mentions two, 1518, 4to, and 1524, 
4to ; and in the public library at Cambridge there is said by Harts- 
horne (Book Rarities, 156) to be a third without date. It is also 
appended to the various impressions of the Bolce of Nurture by 
Hugh Rhodes." This Boke has been reprinted for the Early English 
Text Society, and its Stans Puer is Rhodes' s own expansion of one of 
the shorter English versions of the original Latin 2 . 

The woodcuts Messrs Virtue have allowed me to have copies of 
for a small royalty, and they will help the reader to realize parts of 
the text better than any verbal description. The cuts are not of 
course equal to the beautiful early illuminations they are taken from, 
but they are near enough for the present purpose. The dates of those 
from British Museum MSS. are given on the authority of trustworthy 
officers of the Manuscript Department. The dates of the non-Museum 
MSS. are copied from Mr Wright's text. The line of description 
under the cuts is also from Mr Wright's text, except in one instance 
where he had missed the fact of the cut representing the Marriage 
Feast at Cana of Galilee, with its six water-pots. 

The MS. of Russell is on thick folio paper, is written in a close 
and seemingly unprofessional hand, fond of making elaborate capitals 
to the initials of its titles, and thus occasionally squeezing up into a 
corner the chief word of the title, because the T of The preceding 

1 P.S. Mr Hazlitt, iv. 366, notices two others in MS. Ashmole 59, art. 57, and 
in Cotton MS. Calig. A u. fol. 13, the latter of which and Ashmole 61, are, he says, 
of a different translation. 

* See Hazlitt, iv. 366. 


has required so much room. 1 The MS. has been read through by a 
corrector with a red pen, pencil, or brush, who has underlined all the 
important words, touched up the capitals, and evidently believed in 
the text. Perhaps the corrector, if not writer, was Russell himself. 
I hope it was, for the old man must have enjoyed emphasizing his 
precepts with those red scores ; but then he would hardly have 
allowed a space to remain blank in line 204, and have left his 
Panter-pupil in doubt as to whether he should lay his " white 
payne " on the left or right of his knives. Every butler, drill- 
serjeant, and vestment-cleric, must feel the thing to be impossible. 
The corrector was not John Russell. 

To all those gentlemen who have helped me in the explanations 
of words, &c., Mr Gillett, Dr Giinther, Mr Atkinson, Mr Skeat, 
Mr Cockayne, Mr Gibbs, Mr Way, the Hon. G. P. Marsh and to Mr 
E. Brock, the most careful copier of the MS., my best thanks are due, 
and are hereby tendered. Would that thanks of any of us now 
profiting by their labours could reach the ears of that prince of 
Dictionary-makers, Cotgrave, of Frater Galfridus, Palsgrave, Hex- 
ham, Philipps, and the rest of the lexicographers who enable us to 
understand the records of the past ! Would too that an adequate 
expression of gratitude could reach the ears of the lost Nicolas, and 
of Sir Frederic Madden, for their carefully indexed Household 
Books, to be contrasted with the unwieldy mass and clueless mazes 
of the Antiquaries' Household Ordinances, the two volumes of the 
Roxburghe Howard Household Books, and Percy's Northumberland 
Household Booh 2 / They will be spared the pains of the special 
place of torment reserved for editors who turn out their books with- 
out glossary or index. May that be their sufficient reward ! 

3, Si George's Square, KW. 
16 Dec., 1866. 

1 The MS. has no title. The one printed I have made up from bits of the text 

2 Still one is truly thankful for the material in these unindexed books. 



Mr C. H. Pearson has referred me to a most curious treatise on 
the state of Duke Humphrey's body and health in 1404 (that is, 1424, 
says Hearne), by Dr Gilbert Kymer, his physician, part of which 
(chapters 3 and 19, with other pieces) was printed by Hearne in the 
appendix to his Liber Niger, v. ii. p. 550 (ed. alt.), from a MS. then 
in Sir Hans Sloane's Collection, and now Sloane 4 in the British 
Museum. It begins at p. 127 or folio 63, and by way of giving the 
reader a notion of its contents, I add here a copy of the first page of 
the MS. 

Incipit dietariuw de sanitatis custodia preinclitissi?wo principi ac 
metuendissimo doramo, dowmohumfrido, duci Gloucestrie, Alijsqwe 
preclaris titulis insignito, Scriptum & co?7ipilatuw, per venerabilem 
doctore?w, Magistrunz Gilbertum Kymer, Medicinanm p?*0fessorem, 
arciura ac philosophic Magtrfram & in legibws bacallariuw prelibati 
principis phisicum, Cui?s dietarij 1 collectionem (?) dilucidancia & 
effectum viginti sex existurct capitwla, quorum corcsequewter hie ordo 
ponitur Rubricamra 2 . 

C&pitulum l m est epistola, de laude sanitate & vtilitate bone diete. 
C&pitulum. 2 m est de illis in quibws consistit dieta. 
Cap?^Zwm 3 m de tocius co[r]poris & parciwn disposicione. 
C&pitulum 4 m est de Ayere eligendo & corrigendo. 
Gapitulum 5 m de q?<antitate cibi & potus sumenda. 
C&pitulum 6 m de ordine sumendi cibuw & potum. 
Capt^uZuin 7 m de tempore sumendi cibum & potum. 
Capitulum 8 m de qwantitate cibi & potus sumendorum. 
C&pitulum 9 m de pane eligendo. 

. 10 m de generibus potagiorw77i sumendis. 

1 The letters are to me more like el, or coJl than anything else, but I am not sure 
what they are. 

3 The MS. runs on without breaks. 


Capitulum ll m de carnib?S vtendis & vitandis. 

Capitulum 12 ra de ouis suraendis. 

Capitulum 13 m de lacticinijs vtendi's. 

Capitulum 14 m depiscibws vtendis & vitandis. 

C&pituluw. 1 5 m de fructibzw sumendis. 

C&pitulum 16 m de cowdimerct/s & spect'ebus vtendis. 

Capitidum 17 m de potu eligendo. 

Capitulum 18 de regimiwe replecKwis & inanic/onis. 

C&pitulum 19 m de vsu coitus. 

C&pitvlum 20 m de excercic/o & q?dete. 

Capitulum 21 m de sompni & vigilie regimirae. 

C&pitulum 22 ra de vsu acc/cZencium anime. 

Capitulum 23 m de bona cowsuetudme diete tenerida. 

Cap/^wZwm 24 ra de medicmis vicissim vtendis. 

Capit'ulum 25 m de aduersis nature infortunijs precauendis. 

Capitulum 26 m de deo sempe?^ colendo vt sanitatem melius tueatur. 

Sharon Turner (Hist, of England, v. 498, note 35) says euphemis- 
tically of the part of this treatise printed by Hearne, that " it implies 
how much the Duke had injured himself by the \vant of self-govern- 
ment. It describes him in his 45th year, as having a rheumatic af- 
fection in his chest, with a daily morning cough. It mentions that 
his nerves had become debilitated by the vehemence of his laborious 
exercises, and from an immoderate frequency of pleasurable in- 
dulgences. It advises him to avoid north winds after a warm sun, 
sleep after dinner, exercise after society, frequent bathings, strong 
wine, much fruit, the flesh of swine, and the weakening gratification 
to which he was addicted. The last (chapter), 'De Deo semper colendo, 
ut sanitatem melius tueatur,' is worthy the recollection of us all." It 
is too late to print the MS. in the present volume, but in a future one 
it certainly ought to appear. 

Of Duke Humphrey's character and proceedings after the Pope's 
bull had declared his first marriage void, Sharon Turner further says : 

" Gloucester had found the rich dowry of Jacqueline wrenched 
from his grasp, and, from so much opposition, placed beyond his 
attaining, and he had become satiated with her person. One of her 


attendants, Eleanor Cobham, had affected his variable fancy ; and tho' 
her character had not been spotless before, and she had surrendered 
her honour to his own importunities, yet he suddenly married her, 
exciting again the wonder of the world by his conduct, as in that 
proud day every nobleman felt that he was acting incongruously with 
the blood he had sprung from. His first wedlock was impolitic, and 
this unpopular ; and both were hasty and self-willed, and destructive 
of all reputation for that dignified prudence, which his elevation to 
the regency of the most reflective and enlightened nation in Europe 
demanded for its example and its welfare. This injudicious conduct 
announced too much imperfection of intellect, not to give every ad- 
vantage to his political rival the bishop of Winchester, his uncle, who 
was now struggling for the command of the royal mind, and for the 
predominance in the English government. He and the duke of 
Exeter were the illegitimate brothers of Henry the Fourth, and had 
been first intrusted with the king's education. The internal state of 
the country, as to its religious feelings and interest, contributed to 
increase the differences which now arose between the prelate and his 
nephew, who is described by a contemporary as sullying his culti- 
vated understanding and good qualities, by an ungoverned and 
diseasing love of unbecoming pleasures. It is strange, that in so old 
a world of the same continuing system always repeating the same 
lesson, any one should be ignorant that the dissolute viqes are the 
destroyers of personal health, comfort, character, and permanent in- 
fluence." 1 

After narrating Duke Humphrey's death, Turner thus sums up 
his character : 

" The duke of Gloucester, amid failings that have been before 
alluded to, has acquired the pleasing epithet of The Good ; and has 
been extolled for his promotion of the learned or deserving clergy. 
Fond of literature, and of literary conversation, he patronized men of 
talent and erudition. One is called, in a public record, his poet and 
orator ; and Lydgate prefaces one of his voluminous works, with a 
panegyric upon him, written during the king's absence on his French 

1 Sharon Turners History of England, vol. v. pp. 496-8. 


coronation, which presents to us the qualities for which, while he was 
living, the poet found him remarkable, and thought fit to commend 

These verses are in the Royal MS. 18 D 4, in the British Museum, 
and are here printed from the MS., not from Turner : 

[Foi. 4.] Eek in this loud I dar afferme a thyng 
Ther is a prince Ful myhty of puyssauwce, 
A kynges sone, vncle to the kynge 
Henry the sexte which is now in frauwce, 
And is lieftenant, & hath the gouernauwce 
Off our breteyne ; thoruh was discrecion 
He hath conserued in this regiou/i 

Duryng his tyme off ful hilie ! prudence 
Pes and quiete, and sustenedrihte. 1 
3it natwithstandyiig his noble prouyde?^ce 
He is in deede prouyd a good knyht, 
Eied as argus with reson and forsiht ; 
Off hihe lectrure I dar eek off hym telle, 
And treuli deenie that he dothe excelle 

In vndirstondyng all othir of his age, 
And hath gret loie with clerkis to commune ; 
And no man is mor expert off language. 
Stable in studie alwei he doth contune, 
Settyng a side alle chauwges 2 of fortune ; 
And wher he louethe, ^iff I schal nat tarie, 
Witheoute cause ful lothe he is to varie. 

Due off Gloucestre men this prince calle ; 

And natwithstandyng his staat & dignyte, 

His corage neuer doth appalle 

To studie in bookis off antiquite ; 

Therin he hathe so gret felicite 

Vertuousli hym silff to ocupie, 

Off vicious slouth to haue the rnaistrie. 3 

1 These e-s represent the strokes through the h-s. 2 MS. thauwges. 

3 This is the stanza quoted by Dr Reinhold Pauli in his Bilder aus Alt-England, 
c. ii. p. 349 : 

" Herzog von Glocester nennen sie den Fursten, 
Der trotz des hohen Rangs und hoher Ehren 
Im Herzen nahrt ein dauerndes Geliisten 
Nach Allem, was die alten Biicher lehren ; 
So gliicklich gross 1st hierin sein Begehren, 
Dass tugendsam er seine Zeit verbringt 
Und trunkne Tragheit manniglich hezwingt." 
The reader should by all means consult this chapter, which is headed " Herzog 


And with his prudence & wit his manheed 

Trouthe to susteyne he fauour set a side ; 

And hooli chirche meyntenyng in dede, 

That in this land no lollard dar abide. 

As verrai support, vpholdere, & eek guyde, 

Spareth non, but makethe hym silff strong 

To punysshe alle tho that do~ the chirche wrong. 

Thus is he both manly & eek wise, 
Chose of god to be his owne knyhte ; 
And off o thynge he hath a synguler l price, 
That heretik dar non comen in his sihte. 
In cristes feithe he stant so hoi vpriht, 
Off hooli chirche defence and [c]hampion 
To chastise alle that do therto treson. 

And to do plesance to oure lord ihesu 
He studieht 2 euere to haue intelligence. 
Eeedinge off bookis bringthe in vertu, 
Vices excludyng, slouthe & necligence, 
Makethe a prince to haue experience 
To know hym silff in many sundry wise, 
Wher he trespaseth, his errour to chastise. 

After mentioning that the duke had considered the book of 
' Boccasio, on the Fall of Princes,' he adds, ( and he gave me com- 
mandment, that I should, after my conning, this book translate him 
to do plesance.' MS. 18 D 4. Sharon Turner's History of Eng- 
land, vol. vi. pp. 55 7. 

P.S. When printing the 1513 edition of Wynkyn de Worde's Boke of 
Keruynge, I was not aware of the existence of a copy of the earlier edition in 
the Cambridge University Library. Seeing this copy afterwards named in 
Mr Hazlitt's new catalogue, I asked a friend to compare the present reprint 
* ith the first edition, and the result follows. 

Elumfrid von Glocester. Bruchstiick eines Fiirstenlebens im funfzehnten Jahrhun- 
derte" (Humphrey Duke of Gloucester. Sketch of the life of a prince in the 
fifteenth century). There is an excellent English translation of this book, published 
by Macmillan, and entitled "Pictures of Old England." W. W. Skeat 

1 The I is rubbed. 3 So in MS. 


The Boke of Keruynge, 


The title-page of the older edition, of 1508, merely contains the words, 
" 5] Here begynneth the boke of Keruynge ; " and beneath them is as in 
the second edition of 1513 a picture of two ladies and two gentlemen at 
dinner, with an attendant bringing a dish, two servants at a side table, and a 
jester. The colophon tells us that it was "Enprynted by wynkyn de worde 
at London in Flete strete at the sygne of the sonne. The yere of our lorde 
M.CCCCC.VIII ; " beneath which is Wynkyn de Worde's device, as in the 
second edition. 

The two editions resemble each other very closely, running page for page 
throughout, and every folio in the one begins at the same place as in the 
other. Thus the word " moche " is divided into mo-che in both editions, the 
"-che" beginning Fol. A ii. b. Neither is altogether free from misprints, but 
these are not very numerous nor of much importance. It may be observed 
that marks of contraction are hardly ever used in the older edition, the word 
"y e " being written "the" at length, and instead of "haged" we find 
" hanged." On the whole, the first edition would seem to be the more care- 
fully printed, but the nature of the variations between them will be best 
understood by an exact collation of the first two folios (pp. 151-3 of the present 
edition), where the readings of the first edition are denoted by the letter A. 
The only variations are these : 

P. 151. lyft that swanne] lyfte that swanne A (a misprint}* 
frusshe that chekyn] f ruche that chekyn A. 
thye all maner of small byrdes] A omits of. 
fynne that cheuen] fyne that cheuen A. 
transsene that ele] trassene that ele A. 
Here hendeth, &c.] Here endeth, &c. A. 
Butler] ButtelerA. 
P. 152, 1. 5. tre\\choures] trenchours A. 
. 12. hanged] hanged A. 
.15. cannellei] canelles A. 
. 18, 19. yf\ the (in both places] A, 
. 20. seasons] seasons A. 
. 23. after] After A. 
. 27. good'} goot A. 
. 30. y e ~\ the A. 
1. 34. modoii] modon A. 
1. 36. sourayne] souerayne A. 


P. 153. y e ] the A (several times'). 
1. 5. toylf] wyl A. 

. 9. rede] reed A. reboyle'} reboyle not A. 
. 12. the reboyle] they reboyle A. 
.17. lessynge~\ lesynge A. 
. 20. campolef] campolet A. 
.21. tyer] tyerre A. 

. 22. ypocras] Ipocras A (and in the next line, and 1. 2G). 
. 24. gynger] gynger A. 
. 27. ren~\ hange A. 
. 29. your] youre A. 
In I. 33, A has paradico, as in the second edition. 

It will be readily seen that these variations are chiefly in the spelling, and 
of a trivial character. The only ones of any importance are, on p. 151, lyste 
(which is a misprint) for lyft, and trassene for transsene (cp. Fr. transon, a trun- 
cheon, peece of, Cot.) ; on p. 152, goot for good is well worth notice (if any 
meaning can be assigned to goof), as the direction to beware of good straw- 
berries is not obvious ; on p. 1 53, we should note lesynge for lessynge, and 
hange for ren, the latter being an improvement, though ren makes sense, as 
basins hung by cords on a perch may, like curtains hung on a rod, be said to 
run on it. The word ren was probably caught up from the line above it in 

The following corrections are also worth making, and are made on the 
authority of the first edition : 

P. 155, 1. 10, For treachour read trenchour. 
1. 23. For so read se. 
1. 24. For se' read se. 
P. 156, 1. 1. ony\ on A. 
1. 7. For it read is. 

1. 15. y e so~\ and soo A. (No doubt owing to confusion between & and y e .) 
1. 16. your] you A. 
1. 29. For bo read be. 
P. 157, 1. 20. For wich read with. 
P. 158, 1. 3. For fumosytoes read fumosytees. 
1. 7. For pygous read pyuyons (whence it appears that the pinion -bones, 

not pigeon' s-bones, are meant). 
1. 25. The word "reyfe" is quite plain. 

P. 160, 11. 18, &c. There is some variation here ; the first edition has, after 
the word souerayne, the following : " laye trenchours before hym / yf he be 
a grete estate, lay fyue trenchours / & he be of a lower degre, foure trench- 
ours / & of an other degre, thre trenchours," &c. This is better ; the second 
edition is clearly wrong about the/0<? trenchers. This seems another error 
made in reprinting, the words lower degre being wrongly repeated. 
P. 161, 1. 6. It may be proper to note the first edition also has broche, 
P. 165, 1. 8. For for ye read for they 


P. 165, 1. 27. the[y] ; in A they is printed in full. 

P. 166, 1. 18. For raysyus read raysyns. 

P. 167, 1. 21. For slytee read slytte. 

P. 169, 11. 10, 18. carpentes] carpettes A. 
1. 14. sAalf] shake A. 
1. 23. blanked'} blanket A. 

Nearly all the above corrections have already been made in the side-notes. 
Only two of them are of any importance, viz. the substitution of pynyons on 
p. 158, and the variation of reading on p. 160 ; in the latter case perhaps 
neither edition seems quite right, though the first edition is quite in- 

In our Cambridge edition (see p. 170, 1. 5) this line about the pope is care- 
fully struck out, and the grim side-note put ".lower down ", with tags to show 
to what estate he and the cardinal and bishops ought to be degraded ! 

OF LANGUAGES, p. xxv-vi. 

!jc fate & pit jrf <$tttftt tflijatetfe's tforot 

" I might here (if I would, or had sufficient disposi- 
tion of matter conceiued of the same) make a large 
discourse of such honorable ports, of such graue coun- 
cellors, and noble personages, as giue their dailie at- 
tendance vpon the queenes maiestie there. I could in 
like sort set foorth a singular commendation of the 
vertuous beautie, or beautifull vertues of such ladies 
and gentlewomen as wait vpon hir person, betweene 
whose amiable countenances and costlinesse of attire, 
there seemeth to be such a dailie conflict and conten- 
tion, as that it is verie difficult for me to gesse, whether 
of the twaine shall beare awaie the preheminence. This 
further is not to be omitted, to the singular commend- ,, 

.hiiiyiisii courtiers 

ation of both sorts and sexes of our courtiers here in the best learned 

& the worst 

England, that there are verie few of them, which haue 



[Ladies learned 
in languages.] 

[Ancient ladies' 

[Young ladies' 

[Old ladies' skill 
in surgery, &c.] 

not the vse and skill of sundrie speaches, beside an ex- 
cellent veiiie of writing before time not regarded. 
Would to God the rest of their lines and conuersations 
were correspondent to these gifts ! for as our common 
courtiers (for the most part) are the best lerned and 
indued with excellent gifts, so are manie of them the 
worst men when they come abroad, that anie man shall 
either heare or read of. Trulie it is a rare thing with 
vs now, to heare of a courtier which hath but his owne 
language. And to saie how many gentlewomen and 
ladies there are, that beside sound knowledge of the 
Greeke and Latine toongs, are thereto no lesse skilfull 
in the Spanish, Italian, and French, or in some one of 
them, it resteth not in me : sith I am persuaded, that 
as the noble men and gentlemen doo surmount in this 
behalfe, so these come verie little or nothing at all 
behind them, for their parts ; which Industrie God con- 
tinue, and accomplish that which otherwise is want- 
ing ! 

" Beside these things I could in like sort set downe 
the waies and meanes, wherby our ancient ladies of the 
court doo shun and auoid idlenesse, some of them ex- 
ercising their lingers with the needle, other in caul- 
worke, diuerse in spinning of silke, some in continuall 
reading either of the holie scriptures, or histories of our 
owne or forren nations about vs, and diuerse in writing 
volumes of their owne, or translating of other mens into 
our English and Latine toong, whilest the yoongest 
sort in the meane time applie their lutes, citharnes, 
prickesong, and all kind of musike, which they vse 
onelie for recreation sake, when they haue leisure, and 
are free from attendance vpon the queenes maiestie, or 
such as they belong vnto. How inanie of the eldest 
sort also are skilfull in surgerie and distillation of 
waters, beside sundrie other artificiall practises pertein- 
ing to the ornature and commendations of their bodies, 


1 might (if I listed to deale further in this behalfe) 

easilie declare, but I passe ouer such maner of dealing, 

least I should seeme to glauer, and currie fauour with 

some of them. Neuerthelesse this I will generallie saie 

of them all, that as ech of them are cuning in somthing t A11 

wherby they keepe themselues occupied in the court, so 

there is in maner none of them, but when they be at 

home, can helpe to supplie the ordinarie want of the 

kitchen with a number of delicat dishes of their owne 

deuising, wherein the Portingall is their cheefe coun- in cookery, helped 

sellor, as some of them are most commonlio with the Portuguese.] 

clearke of the kitchen, who vseth (by a tricke taken vp 

of late) to giue in a breefe rehearsall of such and so [introduction 

of the Carte, 

manie dishes as are to come in at euerie course through- 
out the whole seruice in the dinner or supper while : 
which bill some doo call a memoriall, other a billet, Memorial, 
but some a fillet, bicause such are comrnonlie hanged Fillet.] 
on the file, and kept by the ladie or gentlewoman vnto 
some other purpose. But whither am I digressed ? " 
1577, W. HARRISON, in Holinshed's Chronicles, vol. I. 
p. 196, ed. 1586. 



These are given as a warning to other editors either to collate in foot-notes or not at 
all. The present plan takes up as much room as printing a fresh text would, and gives 
needless trouble to every one concerned. 

p, 260. TheABC of Aristotle, Harl. MS. 1706, fol. 94, collated by Mr Brock, 
omits the prologue, and begins after 1. 14 with, "Here be-gynneth<? 
Arystoles ABC. made be mayster Benett." 

A, for argue not read Angre the 

B, omit ue ; for not to large read thou nat to brode 
D> ; for not read thow nat 

E, ; for to eernesful read ne curyons 

F,/or fers, famuler, freendli, read Ferde, familier, frenfulb 

G, omit to ; for & gelosie j?ou hate, read Ne to galaunt never 

H,/or in J>ine read off 

I, for iettynge read locunde ; for iape not to read loye thow nat 

K, omit to and & ; for knaue read knaves 

~L,for for to leene readwt to lovyng ; for goodis read woordys 

M,/or medelus read Mellous ; for but as mesure wole it meeue read ne to 

besynesse vnleffulk 

N,/0r ne use no new iettis read ne nought*? to ueffangle 
O,/or ouerjjwart ra^ ouertwarth* ; /0r & ooj?is }>ou hate read Ne othez to 

Q, for quarelose read querelous ; for weel ^oure souereyns read men all<? 


R, omit the second to ; for not to rudeli read thou nat but lyte 
S, for ne straungeli to stare read Ne starte nat abowte 
T,/0r for temperaunce is best read But temperate euere 
V,/or ne &c. read ne violent Ne waste nat to moche 
W,for netyer &c. read Ne to wyse deme the 
11 for is euere J?e beste of read ys best for vs 
Add X Y Z x y wyche esed & par se. 

Tytell* Tytelk Tytelk than Esta Amen. 


p. 265. The Lytylle Childrenes Li/til Boke, with part of the Advocates Library 

MS., fol. 84, back (collated by Mr David Laing). 
. I, for children read childur 
. 2, dele >at ; 1. 3 dele For 
. 6, for with mary, read oure Lady 
. 7, for arn read byn 

. 9, prefix Eorst to Loke, and for wasshe read wasshyd 
. 12,/or tylle read to 
1. 13, prefix And to Loke 
1. 14, is, To he y* reweleth y e howse y e bytt 
1. IG,put the that between loke and on 
1. VI, for without any faylys read withowtte fayle 
1. 18, for hungery aylys read empty ayle 
1. 20, for ete esely read etett eysely 
p. 267, 1. 25, for mosselle read morsselle 
1. 2 6, /or mreadowt of 

1. 30, for Into thy read nor in the ; for thy salte read hit 
1. 31, for fay re on \>\ read on a 

I. 32, for The by fore read Byfore the ; and dele J?yne 

II. 33-4, are Pyke not y l tethe wyth yi knyfe 

Whyles y u etyst be y 1 lyfe 

The poem in the Advocates' MS. has 108 lines, and fills 5 pages of the MS. 
( Wynkyn de Worde's version ends with this, after 1. 105, c And in his laste 
ende wyth the swete Ihesus. Amen. Here endeth the boke of curtesye/ 

p. 265. The I/ytylle Childrenes Lytil Boke collated with the Cambridge Uni- 
versity MS., by Mr Henry Bradshaw. Hem is always written for him 
in this MS., and so with other words. 
1. 2, for wrytyne read brekeyd 
1. G,/br Elizabeth read cortesey 
1. 7, for closide read clodyd 
1. 10, /or on read yn 
1. 11, 12, /or )?ou read ye 
1. 14, for hous the bydde read hall J?e beyt 
1. 15, for \>Q read they 
1. 16, for on read no 
1. 17, for any faylys read fayle 
1. 18, for aylys read heydyt 
1. 19, for Ete . . hastely read yet . . hastey 
1. 20, prefix Bot to Abyde ; for esely read all yesley 
p. 267, 1. 23, for Kerue not thy brede read Kot they bred not 

1. 24, is Ne to theke bat be-tweyn 

1. 25, for mosselle read mossels ; for begynnysse to read dost 

1. 2 6, for in read owt of 

1. 27, for on read yn 


p. 267, 11. 28-30, are Ne yn they met, feys, ne fleys. 

Put not thy mete yn J?ey salt seleyr 

1. 32, is Be-fore the, that ys worschep 

1. 33, for ne read nother 

1. 34, /or If read And ; for come read contest 

1. 35, for And read Seche ; put the is before yn 

1. 37, for Ete . . by read Kot . . yn 

1. 08, prefix And to Fylle ; omit clone 

1. 40, is Weyles thou hetys, bey they leyffe 

1. 42,/or J?ow put read take owt 

1. 43, for Ne read Nether 

1. 44, is For no cortesey Let ys not habell 

1. 45, for Elbowe . . fyst ra^Elbowhes . . fystys 

1. 46, for whylis )>at read wheyle 

1. 47, is Bolk not as a bolle yn the crofte 

1. 48,/or karle )>at read charle ; for cote read cotte 

1. 50, for of hyt or |?ou art read the or ye be 

1. 51, /or sterke read lowde 
p. 269, 1. 52, is all of curtesy loke ye carpe 

1. 53, for at read all ; omit loke J>ou 

1. 5 4, for Loke J>ou rownde not read And loke ye 

1. 55, omit thy ; for and read ne 

1. 56, for doo read make 

1. 57, /or laughe not raw? no>er laughe 

1. 5 8, /or with moche speche read thow meche speke ;/br ntayst readm^y 

]. 59,/br fist ne read ner ; and/or the second ne ra?^ not 

1. 60, for fayre and stylle read stere het not 

1. 61,/or thy read the 

1. 66, omit a 

1. 67, for I rede of read of j redde e of 

1. 68, for ne)?er read neuer ; omit yn \>\ before drynk 

1. 69, for J?at read they 

1. 73, for J?ou see read be saye 

1. 76,/or J?ou read yow;/or thow art ra*^ yo\v ar 

1. 11 , for forthe read before yow 

1. 78, omit JJQW not 

1. 79, for ynto read yn 
p. 271, 1. 83,/or ende read hendyng 

1. 84, /or wasshen read was 

1. 85,/or worthy read wortheyor 

I. 86, for to- read be- ; omit & ; for \>\ prow read gentyll cortesey 

II. 87, 88, 89, are omitted. 

1. 90, for nether read not ; for ne read ne with 

1. 91, omit f>i for the hede read they lorde 

1. 92, for hyghly read mekeley 

1. 98, for togydre ynsame read yn the same manere 


p. 271, 1. 94,ybr no blame read the same 

1. 95, for therafter read hereafter 

1. 96, after that add he ys ; for was heere read j>ere aftyr 

1. 97, omit And ; for dispiseth read dispise 

1. 99, /or Nether read neuer 

1. 100, for Ner read ne 

1. 101, after for add sent 

1. 102, /or Louyth this boke read Loren this lesen 

1. 103, omit and ; for made raza? wret 

1. 106, is omitted, 
p. 273, 1. 107, before vs put hem and 

1. 108, for the first Amen read Sey all ; for the Explicit &c. read 
Expleycyt the Boke of cortesey. 


[A few corrections of letters and figures have been made in this Keprint.] 

p. iv. 1. 6. * Your Bele Babees are very like the Meninos of the Court of 
Spam, & Menins of that of France, young nobles brought up with the young 
Princes/ H. Reeve. 

p. v. last line. This is not intended to confine the definition of Music as 
taught at Oxford to its one division of Harmonica, to the exclusion of the 
others, Rythmica, Metrica, &c. The Arithmetic said to have been studied 
there in the time of Edmund the Confessor is denned in his Life (MS. about 
1310 A.D.) in my R K Poems fy Lives of Saints, 1862, thus, 
Arsmetrike is a lore : t>at of figours al is 
& of drau^tes as me drawej? in poudre : & in numbre iwis. 

p. xviii. 1. 16. The regular Cathedral school would have existed at St 

p. xix., note 4 . " There are no French universities, though we find every 
now and then some humbug advertising himself in the Times as possessing a 
degree of the Paris University. The old Universities belong to the time be- 
fore the Deluge that means'before the Revolution of 1789. The University 
of France is the organized whole of the higher and middle institutions of 
learning, in so far as they are directed by the State, not the clergy. It is an 
institution more governmental, according to the genius of the country, than 
our London University, to which, however, its organization bears some resem- 
blance. To speak of it in one breath with Oxford or Aberdeen is to commit the 
. . error of confounding two things, or placing them on the san.e line, because 
they have the same name." E. Oswald, in The English Leader, Aug. 10, 1867. 

p. xxiv. 1. 9,/or 1574 read 1577. 

p. xxv. 1. 17, related apparently. " The first William de Valence married 
Joan de Monchensi, sister-in-law to one Dionysia, and aunt to another." 
The Chronicle, Sept. 21, 1867. 

p. xxvi. One of the inquiries ordered by the Articles issued by Arch- 
bishop Cranmer, in A,D. 1548, is, "Whether Parsons, Vicars, Clerks, and other 
beneficed men, having yearly to dispend an hundred pound, do not find, com- 
petently, one scholar in the University of Cambridge or Oxford, or some 
grammar school ; and for as many hundred pounds as every of them may 
dispend, so many scholars likewise to be found [supported] by them ; arid 
what be their names that they so find." Toulmin Smith, The Parish, p. 95. 
Compare also in Church-Wardens Accompts of St Margaret's, Westminster 
(ed. Jn. Nichols, p. 41). 

1631. Item, to Richard Busby, a king's scholler of Westminster, towards 
enabling him to proceed roaster of arts at Oxon, by consent of the 
vestrie 6. 13. 4. 


1628. Item, to Richard Busby, by consent of the vestry, towards enabling 
him to proceed bachelor of arts 5. 0. 0. 

Nichols, p. 38. See too p. 37. 

p. xxvii., last line. Roger Bacon died, perhaps, 11 June, 1292, or in 1294. 
Book of Dates. 

p. xxvii., dele note 3. 'The truth is that, in his account of Oxford and 
its early days, Mr Hallam quotes John of Salisbury, not as asserting that 
Vacarius taught there, but as making " no mention of Oxford at all " ; while 
he gives for the statement about the law school no authority whatever beyond 
his general reference throughout to Anthony Wood. But the fact is as 
historical as a fact can well be, and the authority for it is a passage in one of 
the best of the contemporary authors, Gervaise of Canterbury. " Tune leges 
et causidici in Angliam primo vocati sunt," he says in his account of Theobald 
in the Acts of the Archbishops, "quorum primus erat magister Vacarius. 
Hie in Oxonefordia legem docuit." ' E. A. F. 

p. xxxiii. note, 1. \for St Paul's read St Anthony's 

p. xxxiv.,/or sister read brother 

p. xlv. 1. 2, /"or poor read independent. ' Fitz-Stephen says on the parents 
of St Thomas, "Neque foenerantibus neque officiose negotiantibus, sed do 
redditibus suis honorifice viventibus." ' E. A. F. 

p. liii. Thetford. See also p, xli. 

p. Ixxix. last line. A Postscript of nine fresh pieces has been since added, 
on and after p. 349, with 'The Boris hede furst' at p. 264*. 

p. 6, 1. 77, for the note on plommys, damsons, see p. 91, note on 1. 177. 

p. 7, 1. 2 of notes, for Houeshold read Household 

p. 27, 1. 418, Areyse. Compare, "and the Geaunte pulled and drough, but 
he myght hym not a-race from the sadell." Merlin, Pt. II. p. 346 (E. E. T. 
Soc. 1866). 

p. 35, note 3 (to 1. 521), for end of this volume read p. 145 

p. 36, 1. 356. Pepper. " The third thing is Pepper, a sauce for vplandish 
folkes : for they mingle Pepper with Beanes and Peason. Likewise of 
toasted bread with Ale or Wine, and with Pepper, they make a blacke sauce, 
as if it were pap, that is called pepper, and that they cast vpon theyr meat, 
flesh and fish." Reg. San. Salerni, p. 67. 

p. 58, 1. 851 ; p. 168, 1. 13, 14. Green sauce. There is a herb of an acid 
taste, the common name for which . . is green-sauce , . not a dozen miles from 
Stratford-on-Avon. Notes fy Queries, June 14, 1851, vol. iii. p. 474. " of 
Persley leaues stamped withe veriuyce, or white wine, is made a greene sauce 
to eate with roasted meat . . Sauce for Mutton, Veale and Kid, is greene 
sauce, made in Summer with Vineger or Verjuyce, with a few spices, and 
without Garlicke. Otherwise with Parsley, white Ginger, and tosted bread 
with Vineger. In Winter, the same sawces are made with many spices, and 
little quantity of Garlicke, and of the best Wine, and with a little Verjuyce, 
or with Mustard." Reg. San. Salerni, p. 67-8. 

p. 62, 1. 909, ? perhaps a comma should go after hed, and ' his cloak or 
cape ' as a side-note. But see cappe, p. 65, 1. 964. 

p, 66, ]. 969. Dogs. The nuisance that the number of Dogs must have 
been may be judged of by the following payments in the Church- Wardens' 
Accounts of St Margaret's, Westminster, in Nichols, p. 34-5. 

1625 Item paid to the dog-killer for killing of dogs 0. 9. 8. 

1625 Item paid to the dog-killer more for killing 14 dozen and 

10 dogs in time of visitacion 1. 9. 8. 

1625 Item paid to the dog-killer for killing of 24 dozen of dogs 1. 8. 
See the o!4 French satire on the Lady and her Dogs, in Rel. Ant. i. 155. 


p. 67, last line of note, for Hoss read Hog's 

p. 71, side-note 12, /or King's read chief 

p. 84, note to 1. 51. Chipping or paring bread. " Non comedas crus- 
tam, colorem quia giynil adustam . . . the Authour in this Text warneth 
vs, to beware of crusts eating, because they ingender a-dust cholor, or 
melancholly humours, by reason that they bee burned and dry. And therefore 
great estates the which be {prig, the] chollerick of nature, cause the 
crustes aboue and beneath to be chipped away ; wherfore the pith or crumme 
should be chosen, the which is of a greater nourishment then the crust." 
Regimen Sanitatis Salerni, ed. 1634, p. 71. Er. chapplis, bread-chippings. 

p, 85, note to 1. 98, Trencher, should be to 1. 52. 

p. 91, last note, on 1. 177, should be on 1. 77. 

p. 92, 1. 6, goddes good. This, and barme, and bar good ( = beer-good) are 
only equivalents for ' yeast.' Goddes-good was so called ' because it cometh 
of the grete grace of God ' : see the following extract, sent me by Mr Gillett, 
from the Book of the Corporate Assembly of Norwich, 8 Edw. IV. : 

" The Maior of this Cite comwaundeth on the Kynges bihalve, y fc alle 
maner of Brewers y 4 shall brewe to sale wtynne this Cite, kepe y e assise 
accordyn to y e Statute, & upon peyne ordeyned. And wheras berme, other- 
wise clepid goddis good, wkmte tyme of mynde hath frely be goven or dely v<?red 
for brede, whete, malte, egges, or other honest rewarde, to y e valewe only of 
a ferthyng at y e uttermost, & noon warned, bicause it cometh of y e grete 
grace of God, Certeyn persons of this Cite, callyng themselves common 
Brewers, for their singler lucre & avayll have nowe newely bigonne to take 
money for their seid goddis good, for y e leest parte thereof, be it never so litle 
and insufficient to serve the payer therefore, an halfpeny or a peny, & ferther- 
more exaltyng y e pr/ce of y e seid Goddis good at their proper will, ageyns the 
olde & laudable custome of alle' Englande, & spmally of this Cite, to grete 
hurte & slaunder of y e same Cite. Wherefore it is ordeyned & provided, 
That no maner of brewer of this Cite shall from this time foorth take of eny 
person for lyvering, gevyng, or grauntyng of y e sd goddis good, in money nor 
other rewarde, above y e valewe cf a ferthyng. He shall, for no malice feyned 
ne sought, colour, warne, ne restregne y e s d goddis good to eny persone y fc 
will honestly & lefully aske it, & paye therefore y e valewe of a ferthyng, &c." 

p. 161, 1. 4. Elawnes. ' Pro Caseo ad fauns qualibet die . panis j ' 
(allowance of). Register of Worcester Priori/, fol. 121 a. ed..Hale, 1865. 

p. 296, col. 1, Clof. Can it be " cloth "' ? 

p. 181, 1. 144, Croscrist. La Groix de par Dieu. The Christs-crosse-row ; 
or, the hornebooke wherein a child learnes it. Cotgrave. The alphabet was 
called the Christ-cross-row, some say because a cross was prefixed to the 
alphabet in the old primers ; but as probably from a superstitious custom of 
writing the alphabet in the form of a cross, by way of charm. This was even 
solemnly practised by the bishop in the consecration of a church. See 
Picart's Religious Ceremonies, vol. i. p. 131. Nares. 

p. 185, 1. 267, for be, falle, read be-falle (it befalls, becomes) 

p. 189, 1. 393, side-note, Hall, should be Hall. Eires in Hall lasted to 
Cena Domini, the Thursday before Easter : see 1. 398. Squires' allowances of 
lights ended on Eeb. 2, 1 suppose. These lights, or candle of 1. 839, would be 
only part of the allowances. The rest would continue all the vear. See House- 
hold Ordinances & North. Hous. Book. Dr Hock says that the holyn or holly 
and erbere grene refer to the change on Easter Sunday described in the Liber 
Festivalis : " In die pasche. Good friends ye shall know well that this day 


is called in many places God's Sunday. Know well that it is the manner in 
every place of worship at this day to do the fire out of the hall ; and the black 
winter brands, and all thing that is foul with smoke shall be done away, and 
there the fire was, shall be gaily arrayed with fair flowers, and strewed with 
green rushes all about, showing a great ensample to all Christian people, 
like as they make clean their houses to the sight of the people, in the same 
wise ye should cleanse your souls, doing away the foul brenning (burning) 
sin of lechery ; put all these away, and cast out all thy smoke, dusts ; and 
strew in your souls flowers of faith and charity, and thus make your souls 
able to receive your Lord God at the Eeast of Easter." Rock's Church of the 
Future, v. iii. pt. 2, p. 250. " The holly, being an evergreen, would be more 
fit for the purpose, and makes less litter, than the boughs of deciduous trees. 
I know some old folks in Herefordshire who yet follow the custom, and keep 
the grate filled with flowers and foliage till late in the autumn." D. R. On 
Shere-Thursday, or Cena Domini, Dr Rock quotes from the Liber Festicalis 
" Eirst if a man asked why Sherethursday is called so, ye may say that in 
Holy Church it is called ' Cena Domini,' our Lord's Supper Day ; for that day 
he supped with his disciples openly, . . It is also in English called Shere- 
tlmrsday ; for in old fathers' days the people would that day sheer their heads 
and clip their beards, and poll their heads, and so make them honest against 
Easter-day." Rock, ib. t p. 235. 

p. 192, 1. 462-4, cut out . after hete ; put ; after sett, and , after let ; 1. 
468-9, for sett, In syce, read sett In syce; 1. 470, Psome omission after this 

p. 200, 1. 677, side-note, steel spoon is more likely spoon handle 

p. 215, 1. 14. The T ofT the is used as a paragraph mark in the MS. 

p. 274, 1. 143-4, ? sense, reading corrupt. 

p. 275, Lowndes calls the original of Stans Puer ad Mensam the Carmen 
Juvenile of Sulpitius. 

p. 312, col. 2, Holyn. Bosworth gives A.S. holen, a rush ; Wright's Vocab., 
holin, Fr. hous ; and that Cotgrave glosses ' The Hollie, Holme, or Huluer 
tree.' Ancren Riwle, 418 note *, and Rel. Ant., ii. 280, have it too. See 
Stratmann's Diet. 

p. 317, col. 2, The extract for Lopster should have been under creuis or crao. 

p. 318, col. 1, Lorely may be lorel-ly, like a lorel, a loose, worthless fellow, 
a rascal. 

p. 339, col. 1, Syles is strains. SILE, v., to strain, to purify milk through 
a straining dish ; Su.-Got. sila, colare. SILE, s., a fine sieve or milk strainer ; 
Su.-Got. sil t colum. Brockett. See quotations in Harwell's Gloss., and Strat- 
mann, who gives Swed. sila, colare. 

On the general subject of diet in olden time consult " Regimen Samtatis 
Salernitanum, with an Introduction by Sir Alex. Croke, Oxford, 1830." H. 
B. Wheatley. On manners, consult Liber Metricus Facet i Morosi. J. E. 

$& Ten fresh pieces relating more or less to the subjects of this volume 
having come under my notice since the Index was printed and the volume 
supposed to be finished, I have taken the opportunity of the delay in its 
issue caused by want of funds to add nine of the new pieces as a Postscript, 
and the tenth at p. 264*. An llth yiece, Caxtoris Book of Curtesye, in three 
versions, too important to be poked into a postscript, will form No. 3 of the 
Early English Text Society's Extra Series, the first Text for 1868. 


[18 Oct. 1894. Much has been done for the history of Education since 
I put the foregoing notes together : see Arthur Leach's articles in the 
Gontemp. Review, Sept. 1892, Nov. 1894 ; Fortnightly Review, Nov. 1892 ; 
Westminster Gazette, 26 July, 1894 ; and National Observer, Sept. 1, 1894. 
Also Herbert Quick's books, J. Bass Mullinger's, Maria Hackett's (1814, 
1816, &c.), and Foster Watson's forthcoming Writers on Education in 
England, 1500 1660. 1 See too Foss's Lives of the Judges ; Jn. Smith's 
Lives of the Berkeleys; the Life of William of Wykeham; Lupton's 
Life of Colet; articles in Thomassin's Ecclesiastica Disciplina, Veins 
et Nova; Dr. P. Alford's Abbots of Tavistock, p. 119-120; R. N. Worth's 
Calendar of the Tamstock Parish Records (1588-9), p. 37, 39, &c.; Dug- 
dale, i. 82, ii. 142, iii. 10, iv. 404-5 ; Leland, Collectanea, vol. i, pt. 2, 
p. 302 ; Ellis, Orig. Let., 3rd Series, i. 333, ii. 243 ; Marston's Scourge of 
Villanie (1599), Works, ed. 1856, iii. 306 ; Cavendish's Life of Wolsey, 
Kelmscott Press, 1893, p. 24 ; John of Salisbury, Epist. XIX, ed. Giles ; 
Churchwardens' Accounts, Somerset Record Soc. (1890), p. xix ; Glaston- 
bury Abbey Accounts, p. 249 ; Engl. Hist. Rev., Jan. 1891, p. 24 ; Songs & 
Carols, Warton Club, 1855, p. 10 ; Dr. Woodford's Report on National 
P^ducation in Scotland, 1868 ; Macmillaris Mag., July 1870 (Scotch at 
Oxford) ; Essays on Grammar Schools, by members of the Free Kirk 
in Scotland ; Stevenson's Nottingham Boro' Records, iv. 272, 299, 302 ; 
Dr. Buelbring's Introduction to Defoe's Compleat English Gentleman; 
Bradshaw on the A B C as a School-book, Cainbr. Antiq. Soc., vol. iii. ; 
&c., &c. 

Much of my Forewords above, appeard in two numbers of the 
Quarterly Journal of Education, no. 2, Aug. 1867, vol. i, p. 48-56, and 
no. 3, Nov. 1867, p. 97-100. F. J. F.] 

The friend to whom this book was dedicated, C. H. Pearson, died, alas, 
this year (1894) after his return from Melbourne, where he had organised 
free education thro' the whole State, and done much other good work. 

i Department of Education, Washington, U. S. A. 







Edited from the Harleian MS. 4011 in the British Museum 






PROLOGUE . . . . . . . . 1 





NAMES OF SWEET WINES . . . . . . 9 

HOW TO MAKE YPOCRAS . . . . . . . . 9-12 

THE BOTERY . . . . . . . . . . 12-13 



HOW TO MAKE THE SURNAPE . . . . . . 16-17 

HOW TO MANAGE AT TABLE . . . . . . 17-18 

SYMPLE CONDICIONS, . . . . . . . . 18-21 


THE CONNYNGE OF KERVYNGE . . . . . . 21-3 

FUMOSITEES . . . . . . . . . . 23-4 

KERUYNG OF FLESH . . . - . . . . 24-30 

BAKE METES (HOW TO CARVE) . . . . . . 30-2 

FRIED METES ; WITH L' ENVOY . . . . . . 33-4 

POTAGES . . . . . . . . . . 34-5 

DIUERCE SAWCES . . . . . . . . 35-7 

KERVYNG OF FISCHJS7 . . . . . . . . 37-45 

OFFICE OF A SEWER . . . . . . . 46-7 



THE FURST COURSE . . . . . . . . 48 

THE SECOND COURSE . . . . . . , . 49 

THE iij D COURSE . . . . . . . . 49-50 



THE FURST COURSE . . , . . . . 50-1 

THE SECOND COURSE . . . . . . . . 51 

THE THRID COURSE . . . . . . . . 52 



SPECIFIED . . . . . . . . 53-4 

A FEST FOR A FRANKLEN . . . . . . 54-5 

SEWES ON FISH^ DAYES . . . . . . . . 55-6 

SAWCE FOR FISCHtf . . . . . . . . 56-9 



THE WARDEROBES . . . . . . . . 64-6 


A BATHE OR STEWE SO CALLED . . . . . . 66-7 





THE SUMMARY . . . . . . . . . . 78-82 

L'ENVOY. . . . . . . . . . . 82-3 


NOTES . . . . . . 84-123 





HEALTH . . . . . . . . . . 133-7 




Iu of 

[Harl. MS. 4011, Fol. 171.] 
n nomine patrb, gob tape me / et filij for djarite, in the name of 

/sri ... A* i. J.T. j 111 the Father, Son, 

<&t spmtus sanxti, where that y goo by lond an d Holy Ghost, 
or els by see! God kernel 

an vsshere y Am / ye may beholde /to a * am an Usher 

' J J to a Prince, and 

prynce of highe degre, 

4 J>at enioyethe to enforme & teche / alle fo thatt J^^ n 

wille thrive & thee ', 

Of suche thynge^ as here-aftwr shalle be shewed by 

my diligence 

To them Jjat nought Can / with-owt gret exsperience; the inex- 
Therfore yf any man ]?at y mete withe, )>at 2 for fawt 

of necligence, 

5 y wylle hym enforme & teche, for hurtynge of my 

To teche vertew and cownynge, me thynkethe hit Charitable to 

for moche youthe in cownynge / is bareii & fulle ignorant youths. 

vnable ; 
Jjer-fore he bat no good can / ne to noon wille be if any such won't 



12 he shalle neuer y-thryve / jjerfore take to hym a give them a toy. 

1 do, get on. 2 ? J>at = nought can. 


One May I went 
to a forest, 

and by the 
Forester' s leave 
walked in the 

where I saw three 
herds of dear 

in the sunshine. 

A young man 
with a bow was 
going to stalk 

but I asked him 
to walk with me, 

and inquired 
whom l.e served. 

' No one but 

and I wish I was 
out of this world.' 

AS y rose owt of my bed, in a mery sesoun of may, 
to sporte me in a forest / where sightes were 

fresche & gay, 
y met with j>e forster / y prayed hym to say me not 

1 6 jjat y mygh[t] walke in to his lawnde ' where J>0 

deere lay. 

as y wandered weldsomly 2 / in-to J>e lawnd J>at was 

so grene, 
Jjer lay iij. herdis of deere / a semely syght for to 

y behild on my right hand / J?e son J>at shon so 

shene ; 

20 y saw where walked / a semely yonge man, jjat 
sklendur was & leene ; 

his bo we he toke in hand toward J>e deere to stalke; 
y prayed hym his shote to leue / & softely with me 

to walke. 

fis yonge man was glad / & louyd with me to talke, 
24 he prayed J>at he iny^t withe me goo / in to som 

herne 3 or halke 4 ; 

J>is yonge man y frayned 5 / with hoom jjat he 
worcned jjan, 

"So god me socoure," he said / " Sir, y serue my- 
self / & els noon oj>er man." 

" i g J>y gouernaunce good? " y said, / "son, say me 

^iff j>ow can." 

28 " y wold y were owt of J?is world " / seid he / " y 
ne rou3t how sone whan." 

1 The Lawnd in woodes. Saltus nemorum. Baret, 1580. 
Saltus, a launde. Glossary in Eel. Ant., v. 1, p. 7, col. 1. Saltus, a 
forest-pasture, woodland-pasture, woodland ; a forest. 

2 at will. A.S. wilsum, free willed. 

3 A.S. hirntj corner. Dan. hiorne. 

4 Halke or hyrne. Angulus, latibulum ; A.S. hylca, sinus 
Promptorium Parvulorum and note. 

6 A&.fregnan, to ask; Goth.,fraihnan ; Germ.,fraffen. 


" Sey nought so, good son, beware / me thynkethe 'Good son, 

bow menyst amysse ; 
for god forbedithe wanhope, for fat a horrible synne despair is sin ; 

berfore Son, open thyii hert / for peraventure y ten me what the 

matter is. 

cowd the lis l ; 
32 " when bale is hext / ban bote is next" / good sone, when the pain is 

_'... greatest the cure 

leme Welle blS. is nearest!' 

" In certeyn, sir / y haue y-sought / Ferre & nere ' sir, I've tried 

J ' J everywhere for a 

many a wilsom way 

to gete mete * a mastir : & for y cowd noust / euery master; but be- 

cause I know 
man seid me nay, 

y cowd no good, ne noon y shewde / where euer y nothing, no one 

ede day by day 

36 but wantouw & nyce, recheles & lewde / as lange- 
lynge as a lay." 

[Fol. 171 b.] 

" JJow, son, 5 iff y the teche, wiltow any thynge y 

lere ? 
wiltow be a seruaunde, plowamafl. or a laborere. what do you 

' want to be ? ' 

Courtyour or a clark / Marchaund / or masouw, or 

an artificere, 
40 Chamburlayn, or buttillere / pantere or karvere 1 " 

" The office of buttiler, sir, trewly / pantere or pt^chamber 
chainburlayne, ^1^ 

The connynge of a kervere, specially / of j?at y wold duties of these 
lerne fayne 

alle ])ese coranynges to haue / y say yow in certayn, 
44 y shuld pray for youre sowle nevyr to come in 

Sou, y shalle teche )>e withe ryght a good wille, c i win, if you'll 
So ]>at bow loue god & drede / for bat is ryght and 

1 AS. lis remissio, lenitas ; Dan. lise t Sw. lisa, relief. 2 /or me to 


true to your 

A Panter or 
Butler must have 

three knives : 

1 to chop loaves, 
1 to pare them, 

1 to smooth the 

Give your Sove- 
reign new bread, 

others one-day- 
old bread; 
for the house, 
three-day bread ; 
for trenchers 
four-day bread ; 

Have your salt 

and your salt- 
planer of ivory, 

two inches 
broad, three long. 

Have your table 
linen sweet and 

your knives 

spoons well 

and to )>y mastir be trew / his goodes J>at )?ow not 


48 but hym loue & drede / and hys coramaundement} 
dew / fulfylle. 

The furst yere, my son, f ow shalle be pantere 01 

Jjow must haue iij. knyffes kene / in pantry, y sey 

the, euermare : 
On knyfe be loves to choppe, aiiothere them for to 

52 the irj. sharpe & kene to smothe be trenchurs and 

square. 1 

alwey thy soueraynes bred thow choppe, & fat it be 

newe & able ; 

se alle oj?er bred a day old or J?ou choppe to J)e table; 

alle howsold bred iij. dayes old/ so it is profitable; 

56 and trencher bred iiij. dayes is cowvenyent & agre- 


loke ]>y salte be sutille, whyte, fayre and drye, 
and by planere for thy salte / shalle be made of 

yverye / 
te brede berof ynches two / ben be length, ynche 

told thrye ; 
60 and by salt sellere lydde / towche not thy salt bye. 

Good son, loke J>at J>y napery be soote / & also 

feyre & clene, 

bordclothe, towelle & napkyn, foldyn alle bydene. 
bryght y-pullished youre table knyve, semely in 

sy3t to sene ; 
64 and ]>y spones fayre y-wasche / ye wote welle what 

y meene. 


1 In Sir John Fastolfe's Bottre, 1455, are "ij. kerving knyves, 
iij. kneyves in a schethe, the haftys of every (ivory) withe naylys 
gilt . . . j. trencher-knyfe." Domestic Arch., v. 3, p. 157-8. 
Hee mensacula, a dressyng-knyfe, p. 256 ; trencher-knyves, mensa- 
culos. Jn. de Garlande, Wright's Vocab. D. 123 


looke Jjow haue tarrers l two / a more & lasse for two wine-augers 

wyne ; 
wyne canels 2 accordynge to j>e tarrers, of box fetice some box taps, 

& fyne ; 
also a gymlet sharpe / to broche & perce / sone to a broaching 

a , gimlet, 

turne & twyne, 
68 with fawcet 3 &tampyne 4 redy /to stoppe when ye a pipe and bung. 

se tyme. 
So when fow settyst a pipe abroche / good [sone,] TO broach a pipe, 

do aftwr my lore : 
iiij fyngur oner / be nere chyne 5 fow may perceror pierce it with an 

, auger or gimlet, 

"Ore j f our fi n g er8 . 

with tarrere or gymlet perce ye vpward be pipe ashore, breadth over the 

lower rim, 

72 and so shalle ye not cawse J>e lies vp to ryse, y so that the dregs 

may not rise. 

warne yow euer more. 
Good sone, alle maner frute / ]>at longethe for seson Serve Fruit ac - 

of bp VPT*> cording to the 

oi pe yere, season, 

Fygges / reysons / almandes, dates / buttwr, chese 6 / figs, dates, 

nottus, apples, & pere, 

Compostes 7 & confites, chare de quynces / white & quince-mar- 

malade, ginger, 

grene gyngere ; &c. 

1 An Augre, or wimble, wherewith holes are bored. Terebra & 
terebrum. Vng tarriere. Baret's Alvearie, 1580. 

2 A Cannell or gutter. Canalis. Baret. Tuyau, a pipe, quill, 
cane, reed, canell. Cotgrave. Canelle, the faucet [1. 68] or quill of a 
wine vessel ; also, the cocke, or spout of a conduit. Cot. 

3 A Faucet, or tappe, a flute, a whistle, a pipe as well to con- 
ueigh water, as an instrument of Musicke. Fistula . . Tubulus. 
Baret. 1. 71. Ashore, aslant, see note to 1. 299. 

4 Tampon, a bung or stopple. Cot. Tampyon for a gon 
tampon. Palsg. 

5 The projecting rim of a cask. Queen Elizabeth's 'yeoman 
drawer hath for his fees, all the lees of wine within fowre fingers 
of the chine, &c.' If. Ord. p. 295, (referred to by Halliwell). 

6 ? This may be butter-cheese, milk- or cream-cheese, as contrasted 
with the ' hard chese ' 1. 84-5 ; but butter is treated of separately, 
1. 89. 

7 Fruit preserves of some kind ; not the stew of chickens, herDs, 
honey, ginger, &c., for which a recipe is given on p. 18 of Liber 
Cure Cocorum. Cotgrave has Composte : f. A condiment or compo- 


[Fol. 172.] 
Before dinner, 
plums and grapes; 

after, pears, nuts, 
and hard cheese. 

After supper, 
roast apples, &c. 

76 and ffor aftwr questyons, or J>y lord sytte / of hym 
J>ow know & enquere. 

Serve fastynge / plommys / damsons / cheries / 

and grapis to plese ; 
aftwr mete /peeres, nottys /strawberies, wyneberiee, 1 

and hardchese, 
also blawnderelles, 2 pepyns / careawey in comfyte / 

Compostes 3 ar like to bese. 
80 aftur sopper, rosted apples, peres, blaunche powder, 4 

your stomak for to ese. 

sition ; a wet sucket (wherein sweet wine was vsed in stead of 
sugar), also, a pickled or winter Sallet of hearbes, fruits, or flowers, 
condited in vinegar, salt, sugar, or sweet wine, and so keeping all 
the yeare long ; any hearbes, fruit, or flowers in pickle ; also pickle 
it selfe. Fr. compote, stewed fruit. The Recipe for Compost in the 
Forme of Cury, Recipe 100 (C), p. 49-50, is "Take rote of persel. 
pasternak of raseiis. scrape hem and waische hem dene, take rapw 
& caboclm ypared and icorne. take an erthen panne with clene water, 
& set it on the fire, cast all f?ise J>ennne. whan )>ey buth boiled, 
cast \>erto peera, & parboile hem wel. take fnse thyngw up, & 1 at it 
kele on a fair cloth, do ]>erio salt whan it is colde in a vessel ; take 
vinegwr, & powdowr, & safrouw, & do Jwto, & lat alle Jnse Jnng/* lye 
J?mn al ny}t o\>er al day, take wyne greke and hony clarified to- 
gidur, lumbarde mustard, & raisouws corance al hool. & grynde pow- 
dowr of canel, powdowr douce, & aneys hole. & fenell seed, take alle 
Jnse Jnng&, & cast togydwr in a pot of erthe. and take Jjm>f whan 
J>ou wilt, & Berne forth." 

1 ? not A.S. winberie, a wine-berry, a grape, but our Whin- 
berry. But ' Wineberries, currants', Craven Gloss. ; Sw. vin-bar, a 
currant. On hard cheese, see note to 1. 86. 

2 Ulandureau, m. The white apple, called (in some part of 
England) a Blaundrell. Cotgrave. 3 See note to 1. 75. 

4 Pouldre blanche. A powder compounded of Ginger, Cinnamon, 
and Nutmegs ; much in use among Cookes. Cotgrave. Is there 
any authority for the statement in Domestic Architecture, v. 1, p. 
132 ; that sugar 'was sometimes called blanch powdre ' ? P.S. 
Probably the recollection of what Pegge says in the Preface to the 
Forme of Cury, "There is mention of blanch-powder or white sugar," 
132 [p. 63]. They, however, were not the same, for see No. 193, 
p. xxvi-xxvii. On turning to the Recipe 132, of " Peem in 
confyt," p. 62-3, we find " whan J?ei [the pears] buth ysode, take 
hew up, make a syrup of wyne greke. o\>er v^mage wtt/t blaunche 
powdwr, Q\>er white sugwr, and powdowr gyngwr, & do the pert* 
j>*rin." It is needless to say that if a modern recipe said take 


Bewar at eve * / of crayme of cowe & also of the i n the evening 

of Strawberies & hurtilberyes / with the cold 

For J>ese may marre many a man changynge his 

84 but ^iff he haue aftwr, hard chese / wafurs, with unless you eat 

hard cheese with 

wyne ypocrate. them. 

hard chese hathe ]>is condicioura in his operacioim: Hard cheese 

^ , , .,, . . keeps your bowel s 

.burst ne wille a stomak kepe in the botom open, 3 
the helthe of euery creature ys in his condiciouw ; 
88 yf he diete hym thus dayly /he is a good cowclusiouw. 

buttir is an holsom mete / furst and eke last, 4 

O pen. 

For he wille a stomak kepe / <fc helpe poyson a-wey Ol ( | s ^ 1 e ' u a s nti " 

to cast, 
also he norishethe a man to be laske / and evy and aperient. 

humerws to wast, 
92 andw/t/i white bred /he will e kepe jjymouthe intast. 

"sugar or honey," sugar could not be said "to be sometimes 
called" honey. See Dawson Turner in Howard Household Books. 

1 loncade : f. A certaine spoone-meat made of creame, Rose- 
water and Sugar. Cotgrave. 

2 See the recipe to make it, lines 121-76 ; and in Forme of Cury, 
p. 161. 

3 Muffett held a very different opinion. ' Old and dry cheese 
hurteth dangerously : for it stayeth siege [stools], stoppeth the 
Liver, engendereth choler, melancholy, and the stone, lieth long 
in the stomack undigested, procureth thirst, maketh a stinking 
breath and a scurvy skin : Whereupon Galen and Isaac have well 
noted, That as we may feed liberally of ruin cheese, and more 
liberally of fresh Cheese, so we are not to taste any further of old 
and hard Cheese, then to close up the mouth of our stomacks after 
meat,' p. 131. 

4 In youth and old age. Muffett says, p. 129-30, 'according 
to the old Proverb, Butter is Gold in the morning, Silver at noon, 
and Lead at night. It is also best for children whilst they are 
growing, and for old men when they are declining ; but very un- 
wholesom betwixt those two ages, because through the heat of 
young stomacks, it is forthwith converted into choler [bile]. The 
Dutchmen have a by-Verse amongst them to this effect, 

Eat Butter first, and eat it last, 
And live till a hundred years be past ' 


Milk, Junket, Milke, crayme, and cruddes, and eke the loncate, 1 

t e Y c ^ ose a nia/Mies stomak / a-nd so dothe be possate ; 

Eat hard cheese berfore ete hard chese aftir, yef ye sowpe late, 

96 and drynk romney modou^, 2 for feere of chekmate. 3 
Beware of green beware of saladis, grene metis, & of frutes rawe 

meat ; it weakens 

your beiiy. f or j> e y make many a man haue a feble mawe. 

berfore, of suche fresch lustes set not an hawe, 
] 00 For suche wantourc appetites ar not worth a strawe. 
For food that sets a u e maner metts bat by tethe oil egge doth sette, 

edge, eat nimonds take almondes berfore ; & hard chese loke bou not 

and cheese, 

hit wille voide hit awey / but looke to moche berof 

not bou ete ; 
but not more timn jQ^. f or ij e wight of half an vnce wit//-owt ronipnev is 

half an ounce. 

if drinks have jiff dyuerse drynkes of theire fumosite haue be dis- 

given you indi- . , 

gcstion, eat a raw SCSld, 

Ete an appulle rawe, & his fumosite wille be cesed; 
Moderation is mesure is a mery meene / whan god is not dis- 

best sometimes, , , 

plesed ; 

at others 

abstinence. 1 08 abstynews is to prayse what body & sowle ar plesed. 

Take good hede to j>e wynes / Eed, white / & 

looke euery ny3t with a CandeUe fat fey not 
MS. has a k over reboyle / nor lete ; 

and wash the euery nyat with cold vr&tur washe be pipes hede. 

heads of the pipes 

with cold water. & hit not forgete, 

gSaSr 112 &alle-wey haue a gywlet, & a dise, 4 with lynnen 
and linen cio'ths. clowtes smalle or grete. 

1 See note to 1. 82. 

2 See ' Rompney of ModoiT,' among the sweet wines, 1. 119. 

3 Eschec $ mat. Checke-mate at Chests ; and (metaphorically) 
a remedilesse disaster, miscrie, or misfortune. Cot. 

4 ? ascia, a dyse, Vocab. in Reliq. Ant. \. 1 , p. 8, col. 1 ; ascia, 
1. an axe; (2. a mattock, a hoe; 3. an instrument for mixing 
mortar). Biessel, ofte Diechsel, A Carpenter-axe, or a Chip-axe. 


3iff J>e wyne reboyle / bow shalle know by hys J^j 16 wine boil 

perfore a pipe of colours de rose 1 / Jjou kepe J>at J" 

was spend in drynkynge 
the reboyle to Eakke to be lies of be rose / bat [Foi. m b.] 

and that will cure 

shalle be his amendynge. it- 

116 3iff swete wyne be seeke or pallid / put in a Romp- Romney win 

bring round sick 

ney for lesynge. 2 8we et wine. 


fllhe namys of swete wynes y wold fat ye them ^ name * J 

knewe : 
Vernage, vernagelle, wyne Cute, pyment, Raspise, 

Muscadelle of grew, 
Rompney of modem, Bastard, Tyre, O^ey, Torren- 

tyne of Ebrew. 
120 Greke,Malevesyfi, Caprik, & Clarey whan it is newe. 

ood son, to make ypocras, hit were gret -Recipe for making 


and for to take J>e spice J?erto aftw J>e proper- Ta ke spices thus, 

Gynger, Synamome / Graynis, Sugur / Turnesole, cinnamon, &c., 

fat is good colourynge ; 

124 For commyn peple / Gynger, Canelle / longe long Pepper 

pepur / hony aftwr claryfiynge. fo[r] oommynte 

1 ? The name of the lees of some red wine. Phillips has Eosa 
Solis, a kind of Herb ; also a pleasant Liquor made of Brandy> 
Sugar, Cinnamon, and other Ingredients agreeable to the Taste, and 
comfortable to the Heart. (So called, as being at first prepared 
wholly of the juice of the plant ros-solis (sun-dew) or drosera. 
Diet, of Arts and Sciences, 1767.) 

2 See note, 1. 31. 3 See note on these wines at the end of the poem. 
4 In the Recipe for Jussel of Flessh (Household Ord., p. 462), 

one way of preparing the dish is ' for a Lorde,' another way * for 
Commons.' Other like passages also occur. 



Have three basins 

and three strain- 
ing-bags to them ; 

hang 'em on a 

Let your ginger 
be well pared, 

hard, not worm- 

(Colombyne is 

than Valadyne or 

your sticks of 
Cinnamon thin, 

hot and sweet ; 

Canel is not so 

Cinnamon is hot 
and dry, 

Cardamons are 
hot and moist. 
Take sugar or 

sugar candy, 
red wine, 


look ye haue of pewiur basons oon, two, & thre, 
For to kepe in youre powdurs / also be licowr 

berin to renne when bat nede be ; 
to iij. basou?is ye must haue iij bagges renners / so 

clepe ham we, 
128 & hange bem on a perche, & looke bat Sure they be. 

Se bat youre gynger be welle y-pared / or hit to 

powder ye bete, 
and bat hit be hard / wit/t-owt worme / bytynge, 

& good hete ; 
For good gynger colombyne / is best to drynke 

and ete ; 
132 Gynger valadyne & maydelyn ar not so holsom 

in mete. 

looke bat jour stikkes of synamome be thyn, 

bretille, & fayre in colewre, 
and in youre mowthe, Fresche, hoot, & swete / bat 

is best & sure, 

For canelle is not so good in bis crafte & cure. 
136 Synamome is hoot & dry in his worchynge while 

he wille dure. 

Graynes of paradise, 1 hoote & moyst bey be : 
Sugre of .iij. cute 2 / white / hoot & moyst in his 

propurte ; 

Sugre Candy is best of alle, as y telle the, 
1 40 and red wyne is whote & drye to tast, fele, & see, 

Graynes l / gynger, longe pepur, & sugre / hoot & 
moyst in worchynge ; 3 

1 Graines. Cardamomum, Graine de paradis. Baret. ' Graines 
of Paradise ; or, the spice which we call, Graines.' Cotgrave. 

2 Cuite, a seething, baking. Cot. 

$ Spices. Of those for the Percy Household, 1512, the yearly 
cost was 25 19*. Id., for Piper, Rasyns of Corens, Prones, Gynger, 
Mace, Clovvez, Sugour, Cinamom, Allmonds, Daytts, Nuttmuggs, 
Grams, Tornesole, Saunders, Powder of Annes, Rice, Courafetts, 
Galyngga, Longe Piper, Blaynshe Powder, and Safferon, p. 19, 20. 
Household Book, ed. Bp. Percy. 


Synamome / Canelle l / red wyne / hoot & dryo in cinnamon, spice, 

Jjeire doynge ; 
Turnesole 2 is good & holsom for red wyne colow- andtumesoie.and 

144 alle fese ingredyentes, j>ey ar for ypocras makynge. 

Good son, youre powdurs so made, vche by bam put each powder 

.. . ,. ,. . ., in a bladder by 

self in bleddwr laid, itself, 

hange sure youre perche & bagges ]?at J>ey from Hang your strain- 

ing-bags so that 

yow not brayd, 

& ]>at no bagge touche oj?er/do as y haue yow saide ; they mayn't 
148 J>e furst bag a galourc / alle ober of a potelle, vchon a gal io n , others 

by ober teied. 
Furst put in a basourc a galourc ij. or iij. wyne so red ; Put the powders 

in two or three 

ben put in youre powdurs, yf ye wille be sped, gallons of red 

wine; then into 

and aftyr in-to ]>e rennere so lett hym be led, [F O I. 173.] 

152 fan in-to J?e second bagge so wold it be ledde. the ^cond^ bag, 

loke jjou take a pece in J>yne hand euermore amonge, 

and assay it in J>y mouthe if hit be any thynge stronge, (tasting and 

and if J?ow fele it welle boj>e with mouthe & tonge, then), 
156 )>an put it in ]>e iij. vesselle / & tary not to longe. ve88e i. 

And Jjan ^iff Jjou feele it be not made parfete, if it's not right. 

Jjat it cast to moche gynger, with synamome alay 
J?at hete ; 

and if hit haue synamome to moche, with gynger add cinnamon, 

.... ginger, or sugar, 

Ol IIJ. CUte j as wanted. 

160 jjafi if to moche sigure J>er be / by discressiou?^ ye 
may wete. 

Thus, son, shaltowmakeparfite ypocras, as y the say ; 

1 Canel, spyce. Cinatnomutn,amomum. Promt. Parv. Canelle,o\uc 
moderne Cannell or Cinnamom. Cot. (Named from its tube stalk ?) 

2 Tourne-soleil. Tornesole, Heliotr opium. Cotgrave. Take bleue 
turnesole, and dip hit in wyne, that the wyne may catch the colour 
thereof, and colour the potage therwith. H. Ord., p. 465. . . and 
take red turnesole steped wel in wyne, and colour the potage with 
that wyne, ibid* ' And then with a little Turnsole make it of a high 
murrey [mulberry] colour.' Markham's Houswife, p. 70. 


Mind you keep but mt ^ J'J mowthe to prove hit, / be jjow tastynge 

tasting it. alle-way; 

strain it through let hit renne in iiij. or vj bagges l ; gete )>em, if Jjow 

bag" of toe cloth 

164 of bultelle clothe 2 , if J>y bagges be J>e fynere wit/&- 
owten nay. 

hooped at the Good son loke by bagges be hoopid at be mothe 



J?e surere mayst J>ow put in Jjy wyne vn-to by behoue, 
the first holding he furst bag of a galouw / alle ober of a potelle to 

a gallon, the 

others a pottle, pPOV6; 

168 hange ])y bagger sure by J>e hoopis ; do so for my loue; 
and each with a And vndur euery bagge, good son, a basouw clere 

basin under it. 

& bryght ; 
The Ypocras is and now is J?e ypocras made / for to plese many a 

made. . 


use the dregs in fe draff of ]>e spicery / is good for Sewes in kychyn 

the kitchen. 

172 and }iff jjow cast hit awey, Jjowdost Jjymastirnori^t. 

Wow, good son, )>yne ypocras is made parfite & 

welle ; 
Put the Ypocras y wold ban ye put it in staunche & a clene vesselle, 

in a tight clean 

vessel, and pe mouthe per-on y-stopped euf / more wisely 

& feUe, 
serue hil 
& Celle. 

and serve it with 176 and serue hit forth with wafurs bobe in chambur 


The Buttery. 

Keep aii cups, HH n y cuppes / J?y pottes, J?0u se be clene boj?e 

Ac., clean. JL ., , . D 

Don't serve ale W*t**-Ul & OWt j 

unit's five days [Tjhyne ale .v. dayes old er jjow serue it abowt, 

1 Manche : f. A sleeue ; also a long narrow bag (such as Hypo- 
eras is made in). Cotgrave. 

2 boulting or straining cloth. 4 ij' Status Domus de 
Fynchall, A.D. 1360. Dom. Arch. v. 1, p. 136, note/. 


for ale J?at is newe is wastable wat/i-owten dowt : 
180 And looke J>at allefynge be pure & clene J>at ye go 

Be fayre of answere / redy to seme / and also gen- Be civil and 


telle of chere, 

and jjan men wille sey ' fere gothe a gentille officers.' 
be ware Jjat ye geue no persone palled 1 drynke, for and give no one 

184 hit my^t brynge many a man in dissese / durynge 

many a ^ere. 

Son, hit is tyme of be day / be table wold be layde. [Foi. 173 bj 
To lay the Cloth. 
Furst wipe be table with a clothe or bat hit &c. 

Wipe the table 

be splayd, 
ban lay a clothe on be table / a cowche 2 it is Put a doth on it 

(a cowche) ; 

called & said : 
188 take by felow oon ende berof / & bou bat othere you take one end, 

your mate the 

that brayde, other; 

Than draw streight J?y clothe, & ley ]?e bou^t 3 en J>e i ay the fold of tbe 

vttur egge of >e table, %$ 

take J?e vpper part / & let hy t hange evyn able : the table 

bann take be .iii. clothe. & ley the bomt on be that of the third 

., . ,. cloth (?) on the 

Inner side plesable, inner. 

192 and ley estate wiih the vpper part, |?e brede of half 
fote is greable. 

Cover Jjy cuppeborde of thy ewery with the towelle ^olrd Sh a" P " 

of diapery ; dia P er towel 

take a towelle abowt thy nekke / for bat is curtesy, ? ut one round 

your ueck, one 

lay bat oon side of be towaile on by lift arme side on your left 



1 Stale, dead. Pallyd, as drynke (palled, as ale). Emortuus. 
P. Parv. See extract from A. Borde in notes at end. 

3 See Diet, de V Academic, p. 422, col. 2, ed. 1835. ' douche 
se dit aussi de Toute substance qui est etendue, appliquee sur une 
autre, de maniere a la couvrir. Revetir un mur d'une couche de 
pldtre, de mortier, #c.' 

3 Pr. repli : m. A fould, plait, or bought. Cotgrave. cf. Sow, bend. 


with your sove- 196 an on J>e same arme ley J>y soueraignes napkyfi 

reign's napkin; honestly; 

on that, eight ftan lay on ]>at arme viij. louys bred / with iij. or 

loaves to eat, and ..... , , 

three or four uij. trenchere lovis ; 

Take J>at oo ende of >y towaile / in J>y lift hand, 

as ]>e maner is, 
the sait-ceiiar. and )>e salt Sellere in J>e same hand, looke J>at ye do 

this ; 
in your right 200 bat ober ende of be towaile / in rht hand with 

hand, spoons aud 

knives. spones & knyffes y-wis ; 

Put the salt on Setyoure salt on jje right side / where sittes youre 


on its left, a on J>e lyfft Side of youre salt / sett youre trencher 

oon & twayne, 
on their left, a on J>e lifft side of jour trenchoure lay youre knyffe 

syngwler & playn ; 
then whit roils, 2 04 and on be . . . .* side of youre knyffes / oon by on 

f * a space in the 

MS )>e white payne ; 

and beside them youre spone vppoii a napkyn fayre / jet folden 

a spoon folded in i j i_ T_ 

a napkin. WOld lie DC, 

besides J>e bred it wold be laid, son, y telle the: 
Cover all up. Cover your spone / napkyn, trencher, & knyff, J>at 

no man hem se. 

At the other end 208 at J>e oj>er ende of Jje table / a salt with ij. trench- 
set a Salt and two 
trenchers. rs Sett ye. 

HowlJwrapup O*V,f jeff )>ow wilt wrappe Jjy soueraynes bred 

your lord's bread of afpl v 

in o. stately way. Stately, 

Thow must square & proporciouw )>y bred clene & 

Cut your loaves and bat no loof ne bunne be more ban ober pro- 

all equal. 

212 and so shaltow make Jry wrappe for ]>y master 

manerly ; 
Take a towel two ban take a towaile of Raynes, 1 of ij. yardes and 

and a half yards 

half wold it be, 
1 Fine cloth, originally made at Rennes, in Bretagne. 


take j>y towaile by the dowble / and faire on long by the ends, 

a table lay ye, 
}>an take J>e end of J>at bought / an handfulle in J^ u e p a * h h e a d dful 

hande, now here ye me : 
216 wrap ye hard J>at handfulle or more it is j>e styffer, 

y telle J?e, 
ban ley betwene be endes so wrapped, in myddes of and in the middle 

of the folds lay 

Jjat towelle, 
viii loves or bonnes, botom to botom, forsothe it eight loaves or 

buns, bottom to 

wille do welle, bottom; 

and when ]>e looffes ar betwen, ]?an wrappe hit put a wrapper 

wisely & felle ; 
220 and for youre enformacioiw more playnly y wille 

yow telle, 
ley it on be vpper part of be bred, y telle yow [Foi. 174.] 

on the top, 

honestly ; 

take bo]>e endis of J>e towelle, & draw j>em straytly, twist the of 
and wrythe an handfulle of J>e towelle next J>e bred get^T 

224 and se jjat thy wrappere be made strayt & evyn smooth your 


when he is so y-graithed, 1 as ri}t before y haue 

J>en shalle ye open hym thus / & do hit at a and quickly 

open be last end of by wrappere before bi souerayne open the end 

of it before your 
laid, lord. 

228 and youre bred sett in maner & forme : )?en it is 
honestly arayd. 

Son, when J>y souereignes table is drest in Jms After your lord's 

kouer alle ober bordes -with Saltes ; trenchers & iy the other 


cuppes jjeron ye lay ; 
fan emperialle J?y Cuppeborde / with Siluer & gild 

fulle gay, 
1 A.S. gerizdian, to make ready, arrange, prepare. 


your washing- 232 jjy Ewry borde with basons & lauowr, watw hoot 

table with basins, 

AC. & cold, eche ojjer to alay. 

Have plenty ot loke fat ye haue napkyns, spones, & cuppis euer 

napkins, &c., 

to your soueraynes table, youre honeste for to 


and your pots a ^ so )> at Pttes for wyne & ale be as clene as Jjey 

clean< mowe ; 

236 be euermore ware of flies & motes, y telle ]>e, for 
J>y prowe. 

Make the Surnape fllhe surnape 1 ye shulle make with lowly curteeye 

with a cloth under J^ . . 

a double napkin. with a clothe vndir a dowble of ri^t feire napry ; 

take thy towailes endes next yow w^t^-out vilanye, 

Fold the two ends 240 and be ende of be clothe on be vttur side of be 


one of the cloth, towelle bye ; 

Thus alle iij. endes hold ye at onis, as ye wellt 1 

now fold ye alle there at oonys J?at a pli^t passe 
a foot over, no t a fote brede alle way, 

and lay it smooth ijan lay hyt fayre & evyn bere as ye can hit lay ; 

foryourlordto J J J J Y J J> 

wash with. 244 jjus stftur mete, ^iff yowre mastir wille wasche, J>at 

he may. 

at ]?e ri^t ende of J>e table ye must ii owt gyde, 
Themirshai Jje marchalle must hit convey alonge )>e table to 

must slip it along , . , 

the table, glide ; 

So of alle iij clothes vppeward Jje ri^t half })at tide, 
and puii it 248 and ]>at it be draw strayt & evyn bojje in lengthe 

8mooth - & side. 

Then raise the Then must ye draw & reyse / )>e vpper parte of j>e 

upper part of the ,, 

towel, towelle, 

aud lay it even, Ley it wM-out ruffelynge strei^t to J>at oj?er side, y 

)>e telle ; 
)>an at euery end jjerof convay half a yarde or an elle, 

1 See the mode of laying the Surnape in Henry VII.'s time 
described in H. Ord. t p. 119, at the end of this Poem. 


252 Jjat J>e sewere may make ' a state / & plese h*s mastir so that the sewer 

Welle. dishes) may mako 

a state. 

whan be state hath wasche, be surnap drawne when your lord 

has washed, 


fen must ye bere forjje ]>e surnape before youre 

and so must ye take it vppe withe youre armes two arms 

twayne, and carry it back 

256 and to j)e Ewery bere hit youre silf agayne. to theEwery. 

a-bowt youre nekke a towelle ye bere. so to serue Carr y a towel 

round your neck. 

youre lorde, 

)>an to hym make curtesie, for so it wille accorde. 
vnkeuer youre brede, & by J?e salt sette hit euyn Uncover your 

ofi ]?e borde ; 
260 looke bere be knyfe & spone / & napkyn w/t/i- see that uii diners 

have knife, spoon, 
OUty[w] any WOrde. and napkin. 

Euer whan ye departe from youre soueraigne, looke BOW when you 

ye boweyo^r knees; 
to be port-payne 2 forthe ye passe, & bere viij. Take eight loaves 

J J from the bread- 

loues ye leese : cloth 

Set at eijjur end of J?e table .iiij. loofes at a mese, 
264 Jjan looke Jjat ye haue napkyn & spone eue?y 
persone to plese. 

wayte welle to J>e Sewere how many potages 

keuered he ; 
keuer ve so many personis for youre honeste. sewer has set 

pot ages for, 

]?an serve forthe youre table / vche persone to his 

268 and >at J>er lak no bred / trenchoure, ale, & wyne / 

euermore ye se. drink - 

1 make is repeated in the MS. 

2 " A Portpayne for the said Pantre, an elne longe and a yerd 
brode." The Percy, or Northumberland Household Book, 1512, 
(ed. 1827), p. 16, under Lynnon Clothe. ' A porte paine, to beare 
breade fro the Pantree to the table with, lintheum panarium.' 




Be lively and 
soft-spoken, clean 
and well dressed. 

Don't spit or put 
your fingers into 

Stop all blaming 

and backbiting, 

and prevent 

General Directions 
for Behaviour. 

Don't claw your 
back as if after 
a flea; 

or your head, as if 
after a louse. 

See that your eyes 
are not blinking 

and watery. 

Don't pick your 
nose, or let it 

or blow it too 

be glad of chere / Curteise of kne / & soft of speche, 
Fayre handes, clene nayles / honest arrayed, y the 

teche ; 

Coughe * not, ner spitte, nor to lowd ye rcche, 
272 ne put youre fyngurs in the cuppe / mootes for to 


yet to alle fe lordes haue ye a sight / for grog- 

gyrcge & atwytynge ! 

of fellows fat be at ]?e mete, for ]>eire bakbytynge ; 
Se fey be serued of bred, ale, & wyne, for com- 


276 and so shalle ye haue of alle men / good loue & 

Sptple nmMoatts. 

^lymple Cowdicyons of a persone )>at is not taught, 

y wille ye eschew, for euermore ]>ey be nowght. 

youre hed ne bak ye claw / a fleigh as Jjaughe ye 


280 ne youre heere ye stryke, ne pyke / to pralle 2 for a 
flesche mought. 3 

Glowtynge 4 ne twynkelynge with youre y^e / ne to 

heuy of chere, 

watery/wynkynge/ne droppynge/but of sight clerc. 
pike not youre nose / ne ]>at hit be droppynge 

with no peerlis clere, 
284 Snyff nor snitynge 5 hyt to lowd / lest youre 

souerayne hit here. 

* Mark over h. l A.S. cBtwitan, twit; o$w!tan, blame. 

2 ' prowl, proll, to seek for prey, from Fr. proie by the addition 
of a formative /, as kneel from knee.' Wedgwood. 

3 Louse is in English in 1530 'Louse, a beest pov. Palsgrave. 
And see the note, p. 19, Book of Quinte Essence. 

4 To look sullen (?). Glowting round her rock, to fish she falls. 
Chapman, in Todd's Johnson. Horrour and glouting admiration. 
Milton. Glouting with sullen Bpight. Garth. 

8 Snytyn a nese or a candyl. Emungo, mungo. Prompt. Parv. 
Emungo, to make cleane the nose. JSmunctio, snuffyng or wypynge 


wrye not youre nek a doyle 1 as hit were a dawe ; or twist your 
put not youre handes in youre hoseii youre codware 2 Don't claw your 

for to clawe, 
nor pikynge, nor trifelynge / ne shrukkynge as 

jjau^ ye wold sawe ; 
288 -your hondes frote ne rub / brydelynge -with brest rub your hands, 

vppon your crawe ; 

with youre eris pike not / ner be ye slow of herynge ; pick your ears, 
areche / ne spitt to ferre / ne haue lowd laughynge ; retch, or spit too 
Speke not lowd / be war of mowynge 3 & 

scornynge ; 
292 be no lier with youre mouthe/ne lykorous, ne Don't tell lies, 

with youre mouthe ye vse nowper to squyrt, nor y ^J^J,^ h 

spowt ; 
be not gapynge nor ganynge, ne with J>y mouth gape, pout, or 

lik not with by tonge in a disch, a mote to haue owt. put your tongue 

in a dish to pick 

296 Be not rasche ne recheles, it is not worth a clowt. dust out. 

[Fol. 175.] 

with youre brest / sighe, nor cowghe / nor brethe, Don't cough, 

youre souerayne before ; 
be yoxinge, 4 ne bolkynge / ne gronynge, neuer J>e hiccup, or belch, 


of the nose. Cooper. Snuyt uw neus, Blow your nose. Sewel, 
1 740 ; but snuyven, ofte snuffen, To Snuffe out the Snot or Filth 
out of ones Nose. Hexham, 1660. A learned friend, who in his 
bachelor days investigated some of the curiosities of London Life, 
informs me that the modern Cockney term is sling. In the dress- 
circle of the Bower Saloon, Stangate, admission 3d., he saw stuck 
up, four years ago, the notice, "Gentlemen are requested not \ to 
sling" and being philologically disposed, he asked the attendant 
the meaning of the word. 

1 askew. Doyle, squint. Gloucestershire. Halliwell. 

3 Codde, of mannys pryuyte (preuy membris). Piga, mentula. 
Promptorium Parvulorum. 

3 Mowe or skorne, Vangia, vel valgia. Catholicon, in P. P. 

4 }yxyn Singulcio. }yxynge singullus. P. P. To yexe, sobbe, or 
haue the hicket. Singultio. Baret. To yexe or sobbe, Hicken, To 
Hick, or to have the Hick-hock. Hexham. 




or scrub your 

Don't pick your 

cast stinking 
breath on your 

ftre your stem 
guns, or expose 

your codware 

wit/4 youre feet trampelynge, ne settynge youre 

leggis a shore l ; 

300 with youre body be not shrubbynge 2 ; lettynge 3 is 
no loore. 

Good son, J?y tethe be not pikynge, grisynge, 4 ne 

gnastynge 5 ; 
ne stynkynge of brethe on youre souerayne 

castynge ; 
with puffynge ne blowynge, nowjjer fulle ne 

fastynge ; 
304 and alle wey be ware of J>y hyndur part from 

guwnes blastynge. 

These Cuttid 6 galauntes withtheire codware; fat 

is an vngoodly gise ; 
Other tacches 7 as towchynge / y spare not to 

myspraue aftwr myne avise, 

1 ? shorewise, as shores. ' Schore, undur settynge of a >ynge j?at 
wolde falle.' P. Parv. Du. Schooren, To Under-prop. Atter eschays, 
To shale, stradle, goe crooked, or wide betweene the feet, or legs. 

2 Dutch Schrobben, To Rubh, to Scrape, to Scratch. Hexham. 

3 lettyn verno. P. Parv. Mr Way quotes from Palsgrave, 
" I iette, I make a countenaunce with ray legges, ie me iamboye" 
&c. ; and from Cotgrave, " lamloyer, to iet, or wantonly to go in 
and out with the legs," &c. grinding. 

5 gnastyn (gnachyn) Fremo, stridco. Catholicon. Gnastyng of 
the tethe stridevr, grincement. Palsg. Du. gnisteren, To Gnash, 
or Creake with the teeth. Hexham. 

6 Short coats and tight trousers were a great offence to old 
writers accustomed to long nightgown clothes. Compare Chaucer's 
complaint in the Canterbury Tales, The Parsones Tale, De Superbiu, 
p. 193, col. 2, ed. Wright. " Upon that other syde, to speke of the 
horrible disordinat scantnes of clothing, as ben these cuttid sloppis 
or anslets, that thurgh her schortnes ne covereth not the schamful 
membre of man, to wickid entent. Alas ! som men of hem schewen 
the schap and the boce of the horrible swollen membres, that semeth 
like to the maladies of hirnia, in the wrapping of here hose, and 
eek the buttokes of hem, that faren as it were the hinder part of a 
sche ape in the fulle of the moone." The continuation of the 
passage is very curious. " Youre schort gownys thriftlesse " are 
also noted in the song in Harl. MS. 372. See Weste, Booke of 
Demeanour, 1. 141, below. 

7 Fr. tachf, spot, staine, blemish, reproach. C. 


when he shalle seme, his mastir, before hym on before your 

. -, -, i ., -, master. 

jje table hit lyes ; 
308 Euery souereyne of sadnes l alle suche sort shalle 

Many moo condicions a man myght fynde / fan Many other 


now ar named here, 
perfore Euery honest seruand / avoyd alle thoo, & a s od servant 

worshippe lat hym leere. 
Panter, yoman of J?e Cellere, butlere, & Ewere, 
312 y wille J>at ye obeye to J>e marshalle, Sewere, & 

kervere. 2 ' 

" /N ood syr, y yow pray be connynge 3 of kervynge 'Sir, pray teach 

T 1 ' me how to carve, 

ye wille me teche, 
and J)e fayre handlynge of a knyfe, y yow beseche, handle a knife, 

and cut up birds, 

and alle wey where y shalle alle maner fowles / 

breke, vnlace, or seche, 4 

316 and wiih Fysche or flesche, how shalle y demene fish, and flesh.' 
me with eche." 

Son, thy knyfe must be bryght, fayre, & clene, 
and Jjynehandesfairewasche, it wold }>e welle besene. 
hold alwey thy knyfe sure, J>y self not to tene, Hold your knife 
320 and passe not ij. fyngurs & a thombeon thy knyfe ajj^j^ a W 
so kene ; thumb ' 

In mydde wey of thyne hande set the ende of ]>e in your midpaim. 

haft Sure, 
Vnlasynge & mynsynge .ij. fyngurs with]>e thombe/ DO your carving, 

jjat may ye endure, 
kervynge / of bred leiynge / voydynge / of cronies i ay you r bread, 

& tenchew^, SlS^Hh 

324 with ij. fyngurs and a thombe /loke ye haue )>e Cure. er8 and 

1 sobriety, gravity. 

2 Edward IV. had ' Bannerettes IIII, or Bacheler Knights, to 
be kervers and cupberers in this courte.' H. Ord., p. 32. 

3 MS. comynge. 

4 See the Termes of a K&ruer in Wynkyn de Worde's Soke of 
Keruynge below. 


Sett neuer on fysche nor flesche / beest / nor fowle, 

Moore J?an ij. fyngurs and a thombe, for J>at is 

Never touch Touche neuer with youre right hande no maner 

others' food with , 

your right hand, mete surely, 

but only with the 328 but with your lyft hande / as y seid afore, for fat 
is goodlye. 

[Foi. 175 b.] Alle-wey with youre lift hand hold your loof with 


and hold youre knyfe Sure, as y haue geue yow sight. 
Don't dirty your enbrewe l not youre table / for fan ye do not ryght, 

or b wipeyour 332 ne fer-vppon ye wipe youre knyffes, but on youre 
knives on it. napkyfi plight. 

Take a loaf of Furst take a loofe of trenchurs in fy lifft hande, 

fan take J?y table knyfe, 2 as y haue seid afore 

hande ; 
with the edge of with the egge of ]>e knyfe youre trenchere vp be 

your knife raise , 

a trencher, and ye reysande 

lord e re y Ur 336 as n yghe J> e poy nt as ye may, to-fore youre lord hit 
leyande ; 

lay four trenchers right so .uij. trenchers oon by a-nothur .iiij. square 

four-square. yQ ^ 

and another on and vppon J)o trenchurs .iiij. a trenchur sengle 

tbetop ' with-out lett ; 

Take a loaf of J>an take youre loof of light payne / as y haue said 

light bread, 

340 and with the egge of )>e knyfe nyghe your hand ye 


pare the edges, Furst pare Jje quarters of the looff round alle 


1 to embrew. lemon tingere sanguine. Baret. 

2 The table-knife, ' Mensal knyfe, or borde knyfe, Mensalis' 
P. Farv., was, I suppose, a lighter knife than the trencher-knife 
used for cutting trenchers off very stale coarse loaves. 


J>an kutt Jje vpper crust / for youre souerayne, & cut the upper 
to hym alowt. lord, 

Suffere youre parelle l to stond stille to J?e botom / 

& so ny^e y-spend owt, 

344 so ley hym of ]>e cronies 2 a quarter of ]>e looff Sauncj 
dowt ; 

Touche neuer jje loof aftwr he is so tamed, i^ttetf?* 

put it, [on] a platere or J?e almes disch }>e?*-fore trimmed. 

Make clene youre bord euer, J>aii shalle ye not be 2. yourtaW0 

348 j>an may J>e sewere his lord seme / & neythwr of 

yow be gramed 3 


Of alle mane?' metes ye must thus know & fele YOU must know 
what meat is 
fe fumositees of fysch,nesche, & fowles dyuers indigestible, 

& feele, 
And alle maner of Sawces for fische & flesche to and what sauces 

are wholesome. 

preserue your lord in heele ; 
352 to yow it behouyth to knew alle fese eue?y deele." 

[yr, hertyly y pray yow for to telle me Certenle 
of how many metes fat ar fumose in f eire 

.; y 

in certeyn, my son, fat sone shalle y shew the These things are 
356 by letturs dyuers tolde by thries thre, 

JL 5 jRj and S / in dyuerse tyme and tyde 
F is ]?e furst / fat is, Fatt, Farsed, & Fried ; Fat and Fried, 

Jtv. raw / resty, and rechy, ar combero?/s vndefied ; Raw and Resty, 
360 S / salt / sowre / and sowse 4 / alle suche fow set saitandSour, 

1 ? Fr. paretl, A match or fellow. C. 2 MS. may be coomes. 
3 A.S. grramian, to anger. 4 Sowce mete, Succidium. P. Parv. 



also sinews, skin, 
hair, feathers, 

pinions, &c., 


outsides of thighs, 


these destroy 
your lord's rest.' 

'Thanks, father, 

I'll put your 
teaching into 

and pray for you. 

But please 

tell me how to 
carve fish and 

with other of the same sort, and lo thus ar thay, 
Senowis, skynnes / heere / Cropyns ! / yonge fedurs 

for certen y say, 

heedis / pyrcnyns, boonis / alle J>ese pyke away, 
364 Suffir neuer ]>y souerayne / to fele J>em, y the pray / 
Alle maner leggis also, bothe of fowle and beestis, 
the vttur side of the thyghe or legge of alle fowlis 

in feest^, 
the fumosite of alle maner skynnes y promytt Jjee 

by heestis, 
368 alle J>ese may benym 2 J?y souerayne / from many 

nyghti's restis." 

" T^T W fayre befalle yow fadur / & welle must ye 

^ cheve, 3 
For these poyntes by practik y hope fulle welle to 

and yet shalle y pray for yow / dayly while J?at y 


372 bothe for body and sowle / J?at god yow gyde from 

Praynge yow to take it, fadur / for no displesure, 
yf y durst desire more / and J>at y myghte be sure 
to know J?e kervynge of fische & flesche/ aftur 

cockes cure : 
376 y hed leuer )>e sight of that / than A Scarlet hure." 4 

Carving of Meat. 

Cut brawn on the 
dish, and lift 

Son, take jjy knyfe as y taught J?e while ere, 
kut bravne in )?e dische ri^t as hit liethe there, 

1 ? Crop or crawe, or cropon of a beste (croupe or cropon), 
Clunis. P. Parv. Crops are emptied before birds are cooked. 

2 A.S. beniman, take away, deprive. 

3 Fr. achever, To atchieue ; to end, finish. Cot. 

4 Hwyr, cappe (hure H.), Tena. A.S. hufe, a tiara, ornament. 
Promptorium Parv. 


and to f y souereynes trenchoure / with f e knyfe / eiice* off with 

, ., , your knife ; 

ye hit bere : 
380 pare f e fatt f er-from / be ware of hide & hecre. 

Than whan ye haue it so y-leid / on )>y lordes tren- 

looke ye haue good mustarde fer-to and good ^ r ^. i i r t d wi 
licoure ; 

Fatt venesou?i wtt/i frumenty / hit is a gay ve 



384 youre souerayne to serue with in sesoim to his 
honowre : 

Towche not be venisou?i with no bare hand Touch 

1 only with your 

but withe f y knyfe ; f is wise shalle ye be doande, knife, 

withe f e fore part of f e knyfe looke ye be hit parand, P are lt > 

388 xij. draughts with fe egge of fe knyfe fe venison ^ 8 itwith 12 

Than whan ye fat venesou?^ so haue chekkid hit, [Foi. ne b.] 
with be fore parte of youre knyfe / bat ye hit owt cut a P ieceout > 

and put it m the 
kytt, furmity soup. 

Iii f e frumewty potage honestly ye convey hit, 
392 in J>e same forme wft^pesyn & baken whan sesouw 

fer-to dothe sitt. 
Withe youre lift hand touche beeff / Chyne 1 / Touch with 

' your left hand, 

motouw, as is a-fore said, 
& pare hit clene or fat ye kerve / or hit to yowr pare it clean, 

lord be layd ; 

and as it is showed afore / beware of vpbrayde ; 
396 alle fumosite, salt / senow / Eaw / a-side be hit put away the 

sinews, &c. 

In sirippe / partriche / stokdove / & chekyns, in partridges, &c. : 

take up 


with jour lifft hand take fern by f e pynon of f e by the pinion, 

1 Chyne, of bestys bakke. Spina. P. Parv, 


& fat same vr-ith f e fore parte of f e knyfe be ye vp 

and mince them 4QQ Mynse hem smalle in f e siruppe : of fumosite algate 

be ye feerynge. 

Larger roast Good son, of alle fowles rested y telle yow as y Can, 

Every goos / teele / Mallard / Ospray / & also 

re y se V P t le ss is of alle I 7686 furst > j se y the than > 

win s 404 afftwr fat, f e whyngei large & rownd / fail dare 

blame f e no man ; 

lay the body in Lay the body in myddes of J?e dische / or in a-nodwr 


with the wings of vche of ]?ese with whynges in myddes, )>e legged 

and legs round it, so aftir there. 

of alle fese in .vj. lees ! / if fat ye 2 wille, ye may 

vppe arere, 

in the same dish. 408 & ley fern betwene fe legg&r, & f e Avhynges in f e 
same platere. 

capons : Capon, & hen of hawt grees 3 , fiis wold fey be 

dight : 

take off the wings Furst, vn-lace fe whynges, fe legges fan in sight, 

Cast ale or wyiie on fern, as fer-to belowgeth of 


mince them into 412 & mynse f em f an in to fe sawce with powdurs 

the flavoured , 

sauce. kene of myght. 

Take capoiw or hen so enlased, & devide ; 
Give your lord the take fe lift whynge ; in fe sawce mynce hit euen 

left wing, . 

and if he want it, and yf youre souerayne ete saue?iy / & haue f erto 

the right one too. 416 fan mynce fat ofur whynge fer-to to satisfye hyni 

f at tyde. 

1 slices, strips. 2 MS. may be yo. 

3 * De haute graisse, Full, plumpc, goodlie, fat, well-fed, in good 
liking.' Cotgrave. 


Feysaunt, partriche, plouer, & lapewynk, y yow Pheasants, &c. : 

areyse l J?e whynges furst / do as y yow pray ; 

In j?e dische forthe-withe, bobe J>at ye ham lay, dish, 
420 Jjan aftur bat / be leggus / without lengur delay. 

wodcok / Betowre 2 / Egret 3 / Snyte 4 / and Curlew, woodcocks, 
heyroiwsew 5 / resteratiff ]>ey ar / & so is the brewe f Heronshaws, 
J>ese .vij. fowles / must be vnlaced, y telle yow 

424 breke be pynons / nek, & beek, bus ye must bem bre k th e pinions, 

neck, and beak. 


Thus ye must jjem vnlace / & in thus manere : L Fo1 - 17 7-] 

areyse J?e leggis / suffire Jjeire feete stille to be on cut off the legs, 

}?an be whynges in ]?e dische / ye may not Jjem then the wing?, 


1 Fr. arracher. To root vp . . pull away by violence. Cotgrave. 

2 The Bittern or Bittour, Ardea Stettaris. 

3 Egrette, as Aigrette ; A foule that resembles a Heron 
Aigrette (A foule verie like a Heron, but white) ; a criell Heron, or 
dwarfe Heron. Cot. Ardea alba, A crielle or dwarfe heron. Cooper. 

4 Snype, or snyte, byrde, Ibex. P.P. A snipe or snite : a bird 
lesse than a woodcocke. Gallinago minor, &c. Baret. 

5 A small Heron or kind of Heron ; Shakspere's editors' hand- 
saw. The spelling heronshaw misled Cotgrave, &c. ; he has Hai- 
ronniere. A herons neast, or ayrie ; a herne-shaw, or shaw of wood, 
wherein herons breed. ' An Hearne. Ardea. A hearnsew, Ardeola.' 
Baret, 1580. l Fr. heronceau, a young heron, gives E. heronshaw,' 
Wedgwood. I cannot find heronceau, only heronneau. 'A yong 
herensew is lyghter of dygestyon than a crane. A. Borde. Eegy- 
ment, fol. F i, ed. 1567. ' In actual application a heronshaw, 
hcrnshaw or hernsew, is simply a Common Heron (Ardea Vulgaris) 
with no distinction as to age, &c.' Atkinson. 

6 The Brewe is mentioned three times, and each time in con- 
nection with the Curlew. I believe it to be the Whimbrel (Numeni- 
m Phaopus) or Half Curlew. I have a recollection (or what seems 
like it) of having seen the name with a French form like Whim- 
breau. [Pennant's British Zoology, ii. 347, gives Le petit Courly, 
ou le Courlieu, as the French synonym of the Whimbrel.] Morris 
(Orpen) says the numbers of the Whimbrel are lessening from their 
being sought as food. Atkinson. 



Jay the body be- 428 be body ban in be middes laid / like as y yow 

tween them. 


Crane: take off the 
wings, but not 

the trompe in his 

Peacocks, &c. : 

carve like you do 
the Crane, 

keeping their 
feet on. 

Quails, larks, 
pigeons : 

give your lord the 
legs first. 

Fawn : serve the 
kidney first, 

then a rib. Pick 
the fyxfax out of 
the neck. 

Pig: 1. shoulder, 
2. rib. 

The Crane is a fowle / fat stronge is with to fare ; 

J>e whynges ye areyse / fulle large evyn thare; 

of hyre trompe ! in be brest / loke bat ye beware. 
432 towche not hir trompe / euermore bat ye spare. 

Pecok / Stork / Bustarde / & Shovellewre, 

ye must vnlace bem in be plite 2 / of be crane prest 
& pure, 

so bat vche of bem haue jjeyre feete aftwr my cure, 
436 and euer of a sharpe knylF wayte bat ye be sure. 

Of quayle / sparow / larke / & litelle / mertinet, 
pygeouw / swalow / thrusche / osulle / ye not for- 


be legges to ley to your souereyne ye ne lett, 
440 and afturward be wliyngus if his lust be to ete. 

Off Fowen / kid / lambe, / be kydney furst it lay, 
))an lifft vp the shuldur, do as y yow say, 
3iff he wille be?*of ete / a rybbe to hym convay ; 
444 but in be nek J>e fyxfax 3 bat bow do away. 

venesouw rost / in be dische if youre souerayne hit 

be shuldir of a pigge furst / ban a rybbe, yf hit 

wille hym plese ; 

1 " The singular structure of the windpipe and its convolutions 
lodged between the two plates of bone forming the sides of the keel 
of the sternum of this bird (the Crane) have long been known. 
The trachea or windpipe, quitting the neck of the bird, passes 
downwards and backwards between the branches of the merry- 
thought towards the inferior edge of the keel, which is hollowed 
out to receive it. Into this groove the trachea passes, . . . and 
after making three turns passes again forwards and upwards and 
ultimately backwards to be attached to the two lobes of the lungs." 
Yarrell, Brit. Birds ii. 441. Atkinson. 

2 Way, manner. Plyte or state (plight, P.). Status. P. Parv. 

3 A sort of gristle, the tendon of the neck. Germ. Jtachse, 
Brockett, And see Wheatley's Diet, of Reduplicated Words. 


be cony, ley hym on be bak in be disch, if he haue Rabbit: lay him 

on his back ; 


448 while ye par awey be skyn on vche side / & ban pare off his skin; 
breke hym or y[e] sece 

betwene be hyndur leggte breke be canelle boon, 1 

ban with youre knyfe areyse be sides alonge be down each side of 

the back, lay him 

chyne Alone ; on his belly, 

so lay jour eony wombelonge vche side to be 

chyne / by craft as y cowne, 
452 betwene be bulke, chyne, be sides to-gedure lat fern 

be doon ; 
The .ii. sides departe from be chyne, bus is my separate the sides 

from the chine, 

ben ley bulke, chyne, & sides, to-gedire / as bey put them together 

were yore. 
Furst kit owte be nape in be nek / be shuldurs cutting out the 

nape of the neck; 

before ; 
456 with be sides serve voure souerayne / hit state to give your lord 

the sides. 

Kabettes sowkers, 2 be furber parte from be hyndur, 

ye devide ; 
ban be hyndur part at tweyn ye kut Jat tyde, arthe 

pare be skyn away / & let it not bere abide, skin off, 

460 ban seme youre souerayne of J>e same / be deynteist 
of j>e side. 

T[Fol. 177 b.] 
he maner & forme of kervynge of metes bat byn Such is the way 

J ' J of carving gross 

groos, meats - 

afftur my symplenes y haue shewed, as y suppose : 
yet, good son, amonge ober estates euer as bow goose, 

1 The ' canelle boon ' between the hind legs must be the pelvis, 
or pelvic arch, or else the ilium or haunch-bone : and in cutting up 
the rabbit many good carvers customarily disjoint the haunch-bones 
before helping any one to the rump. Atkinson. 

2 Rabet, yonge conye, Cunicellus. P. Parv. ' The Conie beareth 
her Rabettes xxx dayes, and then kindeleth, and then she must be 
bucked againe, for els she will eate vp hir Rabets. 1575. Geo. 
Turbervile, The Booke of Venerie, p. 178, ch. 63.' H. H. Gibbs 



Cut each piece 

into four slices (?) 

for your master to 

of large birds' 


put only three 

bits at once in the 


of small birds' 

scrape the flesh to 


and put it on 

your lord's 


464 as ye se / and by vse of youre self / ye may gete 
yow loos. 

But furjjermore enforme yow y must in metis 

kervynge ; 

Mynse ye must iiij lees ! / to oon morselle hangynge. 
p&t Jouie mastir may take with .ij. fyngurs in his 

sawce dippynge, 
468 and so no napkyn / brest, ne borclothe 2 , in any wise 


Of gret fowle / in to ])e sawce mynse be whynge 

,-, . . 

this wise ; 
pas not .iii. morcelles in be sawce at onis, as 

y yow avise ; 
To youre souerayne J>e gret fowles legge ley, as is J>e 

472 and J>us mo we ye neuer mysse of alle C07inynge 


Of alle maner smale brydd/s, ]?e whyngzs on Jje 

trencher leyinge, 
w^ ]?e poynt of youre knyfe / J?e flesche to ]?e 

boon end ye brynge, 
and so coTzveye hit on be trenchere, bat wise ycwr 

soue?'ayne plesynge, 
476 and with faire salt & trenchoure / hym also oft 


How to carve 
Baked Meats. 

Almanere bakemetes )>at byn good and hoot, 
Open hem aboue )>e bryrn of j?e coffyn 4 cote, 

1 slices, or rather strips. * board-cloth, table-cloth. 

3 Part IV. of Liber Cure Cocorum, p. 38 42, is ' of bakunmete.' 
On Dishes and Courses generally, see Handle Holme, Bk. III. Chap. 
III. p. 77-8G. 

4 rere a cofyn of flowre so fre. L. C. C., p. 38, 1. 8. The crust 
of a raised pie. 


and alle fat byn cold / & lusteth youre souereyn to co id ones 

480 alwey in J>e mydway open hem ye mote. in the middle. 

Of capon, chiken, or teele, in coffyn bake, o'theteSe* " nt 

Owt of )>e pye furst bat ye hem take, 

In a dische besyde / bat ye be whyngus slake, and mince their 

484 thynk 1 y-mynsed in to be same with jour knyfe ye 

And stere welle be stuff J>er-in with be poynt of stir the gravy in; 

yowr knyfe ; 
Mynse ye thynne be whyng/s, be it in to veele or 

with a spone lightely to ete your soue/'ayne may your lord may eat 

it with a spoon. 

be leeff, 

488 So with suche diet as is holsom he may lengths 
his life. 

enesoura bake, of boor or othur venure, hTthl^asty ' * M 

Kut it in be pastey, & ley hit on his trenchure. 
Pygeon bake, be leggis leid to youre lord sure, 
492 Custard, 2 chekkid buche, 3 square with be knyfe ; 

bws is be cure kn1fe - 

1 for thin ; see line 486. 

2 ? A dish of batter somewhat like our Yorkshire Pudding; not 
the Crustade or pie of chickens, pigeons, and small birds of the House- 
hold Ordinances, p. 442, and Crustate of flesshe of Liber Cure, p. 40. 

3 ? buche de bois. A logge, backe stocke, or great billet. Cot. 
I suppose the buche to refer to the manner of checkering the cus- 
tard, buche- wise, and not to be a dish. Venison is ' chekkid,' 1. 
388-9. This rendering is confirmed by The BoJce of Keruynge's 
"Custarde, cheke them inch square" (in Keruynge of Flesshe). 
Another possible rendering of buche as a dish of batter or the like, 
seems probable from the ' Bouce Jane, a dish in Ancient Cookery' 
(Wright's Provl- Dicti-), but the recipe for it in Household Ordin- 
ances, p. 431, shows that it was a stew, which could not be 
checkered or squared. It consisted of milk boiled with chopped 
herbs, half-roasted chickens or capons cut into pieces, ' pynes and 
raysynges of corance,' all boiled together. In Household Ordin- 
ances, p. 162-4, Houche, or Bouche of court, is used for allowance. 
The ' Knights and others of the King's Councell,' &c., had each 



Dowcets; pare 
away the sides ; 

serve in a 

Payne-puff: pare 
the bottom, 
cut off the top. 

(? paraeys) 

Fried things are 

Jpan J>e souerayne, with his spone whan he lustethe 

to ete. 
of dowcetes, 1 pare awey the sides to J>e botom, & 

\>ai ye lete, 

In a sawcere afore youre souerayne semely ye hit sett 
496 whan hym likethe to atast : looke ye not forgete. 
Payne puff, 2 pare J>e botom ny^e J?e stuff, take hede, 
Kut of ]>e toppe of a payne puff, do thus as y rede ; 
Also pety perueys 3 be fayre and clene / so god be 

youre spede. 
500 off Fryed metes 4 be ware, for J>ey ar Fumose in dede. 

'for their Bouch in the morning one chet loafe, one manchet, one 
gallon of ale ; for afternoone, one manchett, one gallon of ale ; 
for after supper, one manchett, &c.' 

1 See the recipe, end of this volume. In Sir John Howard's 
Household Books is an entry in 1467, ' for viij hoshelles of flour for 
dowsetes vj s. viij d.' p. 396, ed. 1841. See note 5 to 1. 699, below. 

2 The last recipe in The Forme of Cury, p. 89, is one for Payn 
Puff, but as it refers to the preceding receipt, that is given first 
here. xx 


Take male Marow. hole parade, and kerue it rawe ; powdowr of 
Gyngwr, yolkts of Ayrene, datw mynced, raisous of corance, salt a 
lytel, & loke \>ai \>on make Jjy past with ^olkes of Ayren, & J?at no 
water come \>erio ; and fowrme )?y coffyn, and make up )>y past. 



Eodem modo fait payn puff, but make it more tendre \>* past, and 
loke Jje past be rouwde of J?e payn puf as a coffyn & a pye. 

Handle Holme treats of Puffe, Puffs, and Pains, p. 84, col. 1, 2, 
but does not mention Payn Puff. ' Payn puffe, and pety-pettys, 
and cuspis and doucettis,' are mentioned among the last dishes 
of a service on Flessh-Day (H. Ord., p. 450), but no recipe for 
either is given in the book. 

3 In lines 707, 748, the pety perueys come between the fish 
and pasties. I cannot identify them as fish. I suppose they were 
pies, perhaps The Pety Peruaunt of note 2 above ; or better still, 
the fish-pies, Petipetes (or pety-pettys of the last note), which 
Handle Holme says < are Pies made of Carps and Eels, first roasted, 
and then minced, and with Spices made up in Pies.' 

4 De cibi elecctbne : (Sloane MS. 1986, fol. 59 b, and else- 
where,) " Frixa nocent, elixa fouent, assata cohercent." 

* Glossed Petypanel, a Marchpayne. Leland, Coll. vi. p. 6. Pegge, 



JfrieJr metes. 

fritters are bet. 

Fruture viant l / Frutur sawge, 1 byii good / 

W ' 

bettwr is Frutwr powche ; l 
Appulle f ruture 2 / is good hoot / but Jje cold ye not 

Tansey 3 is good hoot / els cast it not in youre Tanscy is good 

504 alle nianer of leesse^ 4 / ye may forbere / herbere in D"'t ca 

yow none sowche. 
Cookes with J>eire newe cowceytes, choppynge / 

starnpynge, & gryndynge, 

Many new curies / alle day J>ey ar cowtry vynge 

& Fyndynge 

jjat prwokethe j?e peple to perelles of passage / 
peyne soore pyndynge, 

508 & J>rouj nice excesse of suche receytes / of ])e 
life tc make a endynge. 

Some with Sireppis 5 / Sawces / Sewes, 6 and 
soppes, 7 

Cooka are always 

inventing new 

that tempt people 

and endanger 
their liven : 


1 Meat, sage, & poached, fritters ? 2 Recipe in Z. Cure, p. 39. 

3 There is a recipe ' for a Tansy Cake ' in Lib. C., p. 50. 
Cogan says of Tansie, " it auoideth fleume. . . Also it killeth 
worms, and purgeth the matter whereof they he engendred. 
Wherefore it is much vsed among vs in England, about Easter, 
with fried Egs, not without good cause, to purge away the fleume 
engeudred of fish in Lent season, whereof worms are soone hred in 
them that he thereto disposed." Tansey, says Bailey (Diet. 
Domesticum) is recommended for the dissipating of wind in the 
stomach and belly. He gives the recipe for 'A Tansy' made 
of spinage, milk, cream, eggs, grated bread and nutmeg, heated 
till it's as thick as a hasty pudding, and then baked. 

4 Slices or strips of meat, &c., in sauce. See note to 1. 516, 
p. 34. 

5 Recipe ' For Sirup,' L<ber Cure, p. 43, and ' Syrip for a Capon 
or Faysant,' H. Ord. p. 440. 

6 potages, soups. 

7 Soppes in Fenell, Slitte Soppes, H. Ord. p. 445. 




Comedies / Cawdelles 1 cast in Cawdrons /I 
ponnes, or pottes, 

jellies, that atop leesses / lelies 2 / Fruturs / fried mete bat stoppes 

512 and distemperethe alle ]je body, bothe bak, 
thebowels - bely, & roppes : 3 

some dishes are Some maner cury of Cookes crafft SoteUy y 

haue espied, 
how ]>eire dischmetes ar dressid with hony not 

Cow heelis / and Calves fete / ar dere y-bou3t 

some tide 

516 To medille amonge leeches 4 & lelies / whan 
suger shalle syt a-side. 

prepared with un- 
clarified honey. 

Cow-heels and 
Calves' feet are 
sometimes mixed 

with unsugared 
leches and Jellies. 

[Fol. 178 b.] 

Fui-mlty with 

W ortus with an henne / Cony / beef, or els afi 

Frumenty 6 with venesouw / pesyn with bakon, 

longe wortes not spare ; 
Growelle of force 7 / Gravelle of beeff 8 / or motouw, 

haue ye no care ; 

1 Recipe for a Cawdel, L. C. C. p. 51. 

2 Recipes for Gele in Chekyns or of Hermes, and Gele of 
Flesshe, H. Ord. p. 437. 

3 A. 8. roppas, the bowels. 

4 " leeche " is a slice or strip, H. Ord. p. 472 (440), p. 456 
(399)' cut hit on leches as hit were pescoddes,' p. 439, and also 
a stew or dish in which strips of pork, &c., are cooked. See 
Leche Lumbarde, H. Ord. p. 438-9. Fr. lesche, a long slice or 
shiue of bread, &c. Cot. Hie lesca Ae, scywe (shive or slice), 
Wright's Vocab. p. 198: hec lesca, a schyfe, p. 241. See also 
Mr Way's long note 1, Prompt. Parv., p. 292, and the recipes for 
64 different " Leche vyaundys" in MS. Harl. 279, that he refers to. 

5 For Potages see Part 1. of Liber Cure Cocorum, p. 7 27. 

6 Recipe for Potage de Frumenty in H. Ord. p. 425, and for 
Furmente in Liber Cure, p. 7, H. Ord. 462. 

7 Recipe ' For gruel of fors,' Lib. C. p. 47, and H. Ord. p. 425. 

8 ? minced or powdered beef: Fr. gravelle, small grauell or 
sand. Cot. ' Powdred motoun,' 1. 533, means sprinkled, salted. 


520 Gely, mortrows 1 / creyme of almondes, fe mylke a mortrewes, 
J?er-of is good fare. 

lusselle 3 , tartlett 4 , cabage* 1 5 , & nombles G of jusaeii. &c., are 

vennure, 7 

alle ]>ese potages ar good and sure 
of oj?er sewes & potages bat ar not 
524 alle Suche siropis sett a side youre heere to endure, set aside 


vennure, 7 

of ober sewes & potages bat ar not made by nature, other out-of-the- 

JM ow, son, y haue yow shewid somewhat of myne such is a 

be service of a flesche feest folowynge englondis 

Forgete ye not my loore / but looke ye bere good 

528 vppofi obur co/mynge kervers : now haue y told 

yow twise. 

A Iso to know youre sawces for flesche conveni- Sauces provoke 
A ently, 
hit provokithe a fyne apetide if sawce youre &ue appetite 

mete be bie ; 
to the lust of youre lord looke bat ye haue ber Hav 


1 Recipes for ' Mortrewes de Chare,' Lib. C. p. 9; ' of fysshe,' p. 
19 ; blanched, p. 13 ; and H. Ord. pp. 438, 454, 470. 

2 Butter of Almonde mylke, Lib. C. p. 15; H. Ord. p. 447. 

3 See the recipe, p. 145. 

1 Recipe for Tartlotes in Lib. C. C. p. 41. 

5 Recipe for Cabaches in H. Ord. p. 426, and caboches, p. 454, 
hoth the vegetable. There is a fish caboche in the 15th cent. 
Nominale in Wright's Vocab. Hie caput, A*> Caboche, p. 189, 
col. 1, the bullhead, or miller's thumb, called in French chabot. 

6 See two recipes for Nombuls in Liber Cure, p. 10, and for 
4 Nombuls of a Dere,' in H. Ord. p. 427. 

The long r and curl for e in the MS. look like f, as if for 

8 For Sauces (Sahamenta] see Part II. of Liber Cure, p. 2734. 



Mustard for 
brawn, &c., 

Verjuice for veal, 

Chawdon for 
cygnet and swan, 

Garlic, &c., for 
beef and goose, 

Ginger for fawn, 

Mustard and 
sugar for 
pheasant, &c., 

Gamelyu for 
heronsew, &c., 

Sugar and Salt 
lor brew, &c., 

532 suche sawce as hym likethe/to make hym glad & 

Mustard 1 is meete for brawne / beef, or powdred 2 

motoiw ; 

verdius 3 to boy led capou/2 / veel / chiken /or bakon ; 
And to signet / & SAvan, corcvenyent is be 

chawdofi 4 ; 

536 Roost beeff / & goos / with garlek, vinegre, or 
pepur, in conclusion?*. 

Gynger sawce 5 to lambe, to kyd / pigge, or 

fawn / in fere ; 
to feysand, partriche, or cony / Mustard with be 

sugure ; 
Sawce gamelyn 6 to heyron-sewe / egret / crane / 

& plovere ; 
540 also / brewe 7 / Curlew / sugre & salt / with 

watere of be ryvere ; 

1 Recipe ' for lumbardus Mustard ' in Liber Cure, p. 30. 

2 Fleshe poudred or salted. Caro salsa, vel salita. Withals. 

3 The juice of unripe grapes. See Maison Ruslique, p. 620. 

4 Chaudwyn, 1. 688 below. See a recipe for " Chaudern for 
Swannes " in Household Ordinances, p. 441 ; and for "J>andon 
(MS. chaudon *) for wylde digges, swannus and piggus," in Liber 
Cure, p. 9, and " Sawce for swannus," Ibid, p. 29. It was made 
of chopped liver and entrails boiled with blood, bread, wine, 
vinegar, pepper, cloves, and ginger. 

6 See the recipe " To make Gynger Sause " in H. Ord. p. 441, 
and " For sawce gynger," L. C. C. p. 52. 

6 No doubt the " sawce fyne )?at men calles camelyne " of Liber 
Cure, p. 30, ' raysons of corouns,' nuts, bread crusts, cloves, gin- 
ger, cinnamon, powdered together and mixed with vinegar. 
" Camelin, sauce cameline, A certaine daintie Italian sauce." Cot. 

7 A bird mentioned in Archaologia, xiii. 341. Hall. See note, 
1. 422. 

* Sloane 1986, p. 48, or fol. 27 b. It is not safe to differ from 
Mr Morris, but on comparing the C of ' Chaudon for swannis,' 
col. 1, with that of ' Caudelli of almonde,* at the top of the second 
col., I have no doubt that the letter is C. So on fol. 31 b. the C 
of Chaudon is more like the C of Charlet opposite than the T of 
Take under it. The C of Caudel dalmow on fol. 34 b., and that of 
Cultellis, fol. 24, 1. 5, are of the same shape. 


Also for bustard / betowre / & shovelere, 1 Gameiynfor 

bustard, &c., 

gamelyii 2 is in sesotm ; 

Wodcok /lapewynk / Mertenet / larke, & venysouw, salt and cinna- 
mon for wood- 

Sparows / thrusches / alle Jjese .vij. with salt & cock, thrashes. 

synamome : 
544 Quayles, sparowes, & snytes, whan beire sesouw and quails, &c. 

com, 3 
Thus to provoke aw appetide fe Sawce hathe is 


How to caret 



'ow, good son, of kervynge of fysche y wot y 

must be leere : 
To peson 5 or frumenty take be tayle of J>e bevere, 6 


1 Shovelars feed most commonly upon the Sea-coast upon cockles 
and Shell-fish : being taken home, and dieted \vith new garbage 
and good meat, they are nothing inferior to fatted Gulls. Muffett, 
p. 109. Hie populus, a schevelard (the anas ctypeata of naturalists). 
Wright's Voc., p. 2-53. 

2 See note 6 to line 539, above. 

8 Is not this line superfluous? After 135 stanzas of 4 lines 
each, we here come to one of 5 lines. I suspect 1. 544 is simply 
de trop. W. W. Skeat. 

4 For the fish in the Poem mentioned by Yarrell, and for refer- 
ences to him, see the list at the end of this BoJce of Nurture. 

*> Recipes for " Grene Pesen " are in J7. Ord. p. 426-7, p. 470 ; 
and Porre of Pesen, &c. p. 444. 

6 Topsell in his Fourfooted Beasts, ed. Rowland, 1658, p. 36, 
says of Beavers, " There hath been taken of them whose tails have 
weighed four pound weight, and they are accounted a very delicate 
dish, for being dressed they eat like Barbies : they are used by the 
Lotharingians and Savoyans [says Bellonius] for meat allowed to 
be eaten on fish-dayes, although the body that beareth them be 
flesh and unclean for food. The manner of their dressing is, first 
roasting, and afterward seething in an open pot, that so the evill 
vapour may go away, and some in pottage made with Saffron ; 
other with Ginger, and many with Brine ; it is certain that the 
tail and forefeet taste very sweet, from whence came the Proverbe, 
That sweet is that fish, which is not fish at all." 


tail, salt 548 orsiffye haue salt purpose 1 / iele 2 / torrenti!]? 8 , 

Porpoise, &c. 

deynteithws fulle dere, 

ye must do afture Jje forme of frumenty, as y 
said while ere. 

Baken herynge, dressid & di}t with white sugure ; 
Split up Herring. be white herynge by be bak a brode ye splat hyfii 

take out the roe 552 bothe roughe & boom^s / voyded / ben may youre 

Bd bones, 

lorde endure 

eat with mustard. to ete mcrily with mustard bat tyme to his plesure. 

Take the skin off Of alle maner salt fische, looke ye pare awey the 

salmon. Ling. &c.. Salt samouft / ConguT 4 , grone 5 fische / bobe lynge 6 

& myllewelle 7 , 
556 & on youre soueraynes trenchewr ley hit, as y 

yow telle. 
and leuhe sauce j, e sawce ber-to, good mustard, alway accordethe 


1 See the recipe for " Furmente with Purpeys," H. Ord. p. 442. 

2 I suppose this to be Seal. If it is Eel, see recipes for " Eles 
in Surre, Browet, Grave, Brasyle," in H. Ord. p. 467-8. 

5 Wynkyn de Worde has ' a salte purpos or sele turrentyne.' 
If this is right, torrentille must apply to ^ele, aud be a species of 
seal : if not, it must be allied to the Trout or Torrentyne, 1. 835. 

4 Congur in Pyole, H. Ord. p. 469. ' I must needs agree with 
Diocles, who being asked, whether were the better fish, a Pike or a 
Conger : That (said he) sodden, and this broild ; shewing us 
thereby, that all flaggy, slimy and moist fish (as Eeles, Congers, 
Lampreys, Oisters, Cockles, Hustles, and Scallopes) are best broild, 
rosted or bakt ; but all other fish of a firm substance and drier con- 
stitution is rather to be sodden.' Muffett, p. 1 io. 

6 So MS., but grone may mean green, see 1. 851 and note to it. 
If not, ? for Fr. gronan, a gurnard. The Scotch crowner is a species 
of gurnard. 

6 Lynge, fysshe, Colin, Palsgrave ; but Colin, a Sea-cob, or 
Gull. Cotgrave. See Promptorium, p. 296. 

7 Fr. Merlus on Merluz, A M ell well, or Keeling, a kind of small 
Cod whereof Stockfish is made. Cotgrave. And see Prompt. Parv. 
p. 348, note 4. " Cod-fish is a great Sea-whiting, called also a Koel- 
ingor Melwel." Bennett's Muftett on Food, p. 148. 


Saltfysche, stokfische l / merlynge 2 / makerelle, but- but for M ackarei, 
twryemay &c " butter 

with swete buttwr of Claynos 3 or els of hakenay, ofciaynesor 
560 be booims, skynnes / & fynnes, furst y-fette a-way, 

ben sett youre dische bere as youre souereyw may 
tast & assay. 

Pike 4 , to youre souereyn y wold bat it be layd, or Pike, the belly 

be wombe is best, as y haue herd it saide, 
564 Fysche & skyn to-gedir be hit convaied 

wiih- pike sawce y-noughe ber-to / & hit shalle not with plenty of 
be denayd. 

The salt lamprey, goben hit a slout 5 .vij. pecis y 

assigne ; gobbets, 

pick out the back 

ban pike owt be boonws ny^e be bak spyne, bones, 

1 Cogan says of stockfish, " Concerning which fish I will say no 
more than Erasmus hath written in his Colloquio. There is a kind 
offishe, which is called in English Stockfish : it nourisheth no more 
than a stock. Yet I haue eaten of a pie made onely with Stockefishe, 
whiche hath been verie good, but the goodnesse was not so much in 
the fishe as in the cookerie, which may make that sauorie, which of 
it selfe is vnsavourie . . it is sayd a good Cooke can make you good 
meate of a whetstone. . . Therfore a good Cooke is a good iewell, 
and to be much made of." " Stockfish whilst it is unbeaten is 
called Buckhorne, because it is so tough ; when it is beaten upon 
the stock, it is termed stockfish." Muffett. Lord Percy (A.D. 
1512) was to have "cxl Stok fisch for the expensys of my house 
for an hole Yere, after ij.d. obol. the pece," p. 7, and "Dccccxlij 
Salt fisch . . after iiij the pece," besides 9 barrels of white and 10 
cades of red herring, 5 cades of Sprats (sprootis), 400 score salt 
salmon, 3 firkins of salt sturgeon and 5 cags of salt eels. 

2 Fr. Merlan, a Whiting, a Merling. Cot. < The best Whitings 
are taken in Tweede, called Merlings, of like shape and vertue with 
ours, but far bigger.' Muffett, p. 174. 

3 MS. may be Cleynes. ? what place can it be ; Clayness, Clay- 
nose ? Claybury is near Woodford in Essex. 

4 A recipe for Pykes in Braseyis in H. Ord. p. 451. The head 
of a Carp, the tail of a Pike, and the Belly of a Bream are 
most esteemed for their tenderness, shortness, and well rellishing. 
Muffett, p. 177. 

6 Cut it in gobets or lumps a-slope. " Aslct or a-slowte (asloppe, 
a slope), Oblique" P. Parv. But slout may be slot, bolt of a door, 
tiiiJ so aslout = in long strips. 



nerve with onions 
and galentine. 

Plaice: cut off the 

fins, cross it with 
a knife, 

sauce with wine, 

Gurnard, Chub, 

Roach, Dace, Cod, 
be., split up and 
spread on the 

FPol. 179 ft.] 

568 and ley hit on your lordes trenchers wheber he 

sowpe or dyne, 

& fat ye haue ssoddyn ynons l to meddille with 
galantyne. 2 

Off playce, 3 looke ye put a-way f e w&iur clene, 
afftwr fat f e fynnes also, fat fey be not sene ; 
572 Crosse hym fen with jour knyffe fat is so kene ; 
wyne or ale / powder f er-to, youre soue?-ayn welle 
to queme. 

Gurnard / roche 4 / breme / chevyn / base / melet / 

in her kervynge, 

Perche / rooche 5 / darce 6 / Makerelle, & whitynge, 
576 Codde / haddok / by fe bak / splat fern in fe 

dische liynge, 
pike owt f e boonws, dense f e refett 7 in f e bely 


Soolus 8 / Carpe / Breme de mere, 9 & trowt, 

1 Onions make a man stink and wink. Berthelson, 1754. 'The 
Onion, though it be the Countrey mans meat, is better to vse than 
to tast : for he that eateth euerie day tender Onions with Honey 
to his breakfast, shall Hue the more healthfull, so that they be not 
too new.' Maison Rustique, p. 178, ed. 1616. 

2 Recipes for this sauce are in Liber C. p. 30 and H. Ord. p. 
441 : powdered crusts, galingale, ginger, and salt, steeped in vine- 
gar and strained. See note to 1. 634 below. 

8 See " Plays in Gene," that is, Ceue, chives, small onions some- 
what like eschalots. H. Ord. p. 452. See note 5, 1. 822. 

4 Of all sea-fish Rochets and Gurnards are to be preferred ; for 
their flesh is firm, and their substance purest of all other. Next 
unto them Plaise and Soles are to be numbered, being eaten in 
time ; for if either of them be once stale, there is no flesh more 
carrion-like, nor more troublesome to the belly of nun. Mouffet, 
p. 164. 

6 Roches or Loches in Egurdoucc, H. Ord. p. 469. 

6 Or dacce. 

7 Rivet, roe of a fish. Halliwcll. Dan. ravn, rogn (rowne of Pr. 
Parv.) under which Molbech refers to AS. hrcefe (raven, Bosworth) 
as meaning roe or spawn. G. P. Marsh. But see refeccyon, P. Parv. 

8 See " Soles in Cyne," that is, Cyue, H. Ord. p. 452. 

9 Black Sea Bream, or Old Wife. Cantharus griseus. Atkinson. 
" Abramides Marinse. Breams of the Sea be a white and solid 


Jjey must be takyfi of as ]>ey in be dische lowt, So]e9> Carpi &c . 
580 bely & bak / by gobyn be boon to pike owt, 
so serve ye lordes trenchere, looke ye welle abowt. 
Whale / Swerdfysche / purpose / dorray 2 / rosted whale, porpoise. 

Bret 3 /samon / Congur 4 / sturgeouw / turbut, & congur, turbot, 

584 fornebak / thurle polle / hound fysch 5 / halybut, to Halybut> &c> . 

hym bat hathe heele, 
alle bese / cut in be dische as youre lord etethe at cut in the dish. 

Tenche 6 in lely or in Sawce 7 / loke bere ye kut and also Tench in 


hit so, 

and on youre lordes trenchers se bat it be do. 
588 Elis & lampurnes 8 rosted / where bat euer ye go, On roast 


substance, good juice, most easie digestion, and good nourishment." 
Mu/ett, p. 148. 

1 gobbets, pieces, see 1. 638. 

2 Fr. Doree : f. The Doree, or Saint Peters fish ; also (though 
not so properly) the Goldfish or Goldenie. Cotgrave. 

3 Brett, xxi. He beareth Azure a Birt (or Burt or Berte] proper 
by the name of Brit. . . It is by the Germans termed a Brett-fish 
or Brett-cock. Eandle Holme. 

4 Rec. for Congur in Sause, H. Ord. p. 401 ; in Pyole, p. 469. 

5 This must be Randle Holme's " Dog fish or Sea Dog Fish. 
It is by the Dutch termed a Flachhund, and a Hundfisch : the 
Skin is hard and redish, beset with hard and sharp scales ; sharp 
and rough and black, the Belly is more white and softer. Bk II. 
Ch. XIV. No. Iv, p. 343-4. For names of Fish the whole chapter 
should be consulted, p. 321345. 

6 ' His flesh is stopping, slimy, viscous, & very unwholesome ; 
and (as Alexander Benedictus writeth) of a most unclean and 
damnable nourishment . . they engender palsies, stop the lungs, 
putrifie in the stomach, and bring a man that much eats them to 
infinite diseases . . they are worst being fried, best being kept in 
gelly, made strong of wine and spices.' Muffett, p. 189. 

7 Recipes for Tenches in grave, L. C. C. p. 25 ; in Cylk (wine, 
&c.), H. Ord. p. 470; in Brcsyle (boiled with spices, &c.), p. 468. 

8 Lamprons in Galentyn, H. Ord. p. 449. " Lampreys and 
Lamprons differ in bigness only and in goodness ; they are both a 
very sweet and nourishing meat. . . The little ones called Lamprons 
are best broild, but the great ones called Lampreys are best baked." 
Muffett, p. 181-3. See 1. 630-40 of this poem. 



cast vinegar, &c.. 
and bone them. 

Crabs are hard to 
carve : break 
every claw, 

put all the meat 
in the body-shell, 

and then season it 

vinegar or verjuice 
and powder. (?) 

Heat it, and give 
it to your lord. 

Tut the claws, 
broken, in a dish. 

The sea Crayfish : 
cut it asunder, 

slit the belly of 
the back part. 

take out the fish, 

Cast vinegre & powder feron / furst fette J>e bonwa 
J?eni fro. 

Crabbe is a slutt / to kerve / & a wrawd ' wight ; 
breke Query Clawe / a sondwr / for ]>at is his 

ryght : 
592 In ]>e brode shelle putt youre stuff / but furst 

haue a sight 
J>at it be clene from skyn / & senow / or ye 

begyn to dight. 

And what 2 ye haue piked / J?e stuff owt of euery 

with be poynt of youre knyff, loke ye temper hit 

596 put vinegre / }>erto, verdjus, or ayselle, 3 

Cast ]jer-on powdur, the bettur it wille smelle. 

Send jje Crabbe to ]>e kychyn / Jjere for to hete, 
agayn hit facche to )>y souerayne sittynge at mete; 
GOO breke J>e clawes of )>e crabbe / Jje smalle & fe grete, 
In a disch fern ye lay / if hit like your souer- 
ayne to ete. 

Crevise 4 / Jms wise ye must them dight : 
Departe the crevise a-sondire euyn to youre sight, 
C04 Slytt Jje bely of the hyndur part / & so do ye 

and alle hoole take owt J?e fische, like as y yow 


1 Wraw, froward, ongoodly. Perversus . . exasperans. Pr. Parv. 

2 for whan, when. 

3 A kind of vinegar ; A.S. eisile, vinegar ; given to Christ on the 

4 Escrevisse : f. A Creuice, or Crayfish [see 1. 618] ; (By some 
Authors, but not so properly, the Crab-fish is also tearmed so.) 
Escrevisse de tner. A Lobster ; or, (more properly) a Sea-Creuice. 
Cotgrave. A Crevice, or a Crefish, or as some write it, a Crevi* 
Fish, are in all respects the same in form, and are a Species of 
the Lobster, but of a lesser size, and the head is set more into the 
body of the Crevice than in the Lobster. Some call this a Gan- 
well. R. Holme, p. 338, col. 1, xxx. 


Pare awey pe red skyn for dyuers cawse & dowt, 

and make clene pe place also / pat ye calle his ^ can out the wt 

gowt, 1 
608 hit lies in pe myddes of pe bak / looke ye pike the gjJJ^JJj 1 the 

it owt ; back ; P ick & out - 

areise hit by pe pyknes of a grote / pe fische tear it off the fish, 

rownd abowt. 
put it in a dische leese by lees 2 / & pat ye not 

to put vinegre to pe same / so it towche not pe J.? ufc vine & ar 

mete ; 
612 breke pe gret clawes youre self / ye nede no break the claws 

cooke to trete, 
Set J>em on J>e table / ye may / w/t/i-owt any 

maner heete. 

The bak of fe Crevise, fus he must be sted : 
array hym as ye dothe / J?e crabbe, if fat any be 

616 and bo]?e endes of fe shelle / Stoppe them fast 

with bred, 
& seme / youre souereyn per with / as he likethe 

to be fedd. 

Of Crevis dewe dou3 3 Cut his bely a-way, [Foi. iso.] 

be fische in A dische clenly bat ye lay The fresh-water 

Crayfish : serve 

620 with vineger & powdur ]>er vppon, pus is vsed ay, with vinegar and 
pan youre souerayne / whan hym semethe, sadly 
he may assay. 

1 No doubt the intestinal tract, running along the middle of the 
body and tail. Dr Giinther. Of Crevisses and Shrimps, Muffett 
says, p. 177, they " give also a kind of exercise for such as be weak : 
for head and brest must first be divided from their bodies ; then 
each of them must be dis scaled, and clean picked with much 
pidling ; then the long gut lying along the back of the Crevisse is 
to be voided." 

2 slice by slice. 

8 The fresh -water crayfish is beautiful eating, Dr Giinther says. 



Salt Sturgeon : 
HliUtajoll. or 
head, thin. 

Whelk : cut off 
its head and tail, 

throw away its 
mantle, &c., 

cut It iu two, and 
put it on the 

adding vinegar. 

Carve Baked 
Lampreys thus : 
take off the pie- 
crust, put thin 
slices of bread on 
a Dish. 

pour galentyne 
over the bread, 

add cinnamon 
and red wine. 

The lolle l of jje salt sturgeovw / thyn / take hede 

ye slytt, 

& rownd about J>e dische dresse ye musten hit. 
624 J}e whelke 2 / looke J?at j>e hed / and tayle awey 

be kytt, 
his pyntill 3 & gutt / almond & mantille, 4 awey 

]>er fro ye pitt ; 

Then kut ye J>e whelk asondwr, even pecw two, 
and ley J>e pecis ferof / vppon youre sturgeoun so, 
628 rownd all abowt J?e disch / while bat hit wille go ; 
put vinegre ber- vppon / be bettwr ban wille hit do. 

Fresche lamprey bake 5 / bus it must be dight : 
Open be pastey lid, ber-in to haue a sight, 
632 Take ben white bred byn y-kut & ^t, 

lay hit in a chargere / dische, or plater, ryght ; 

with a spone ben take owt be gentille galantyne, 6 
In be dische, on be bred / ley hit, lewman myne, 
636 ben take powdwr of Synamome, & temper hit 
with red wyne : 

1 lolle of a fysshe, teste. Palsgrave. loll, as of salmon, &c., 
caput. Gouldm. in Promptorium, p. 264. 

3 For to make a potage of welkes, Liber Cure, p. 17. "Per- 
winkles or Whelks, are nothing but sea-snails, feeding upon the 
finest mud of the shore and the best weeds." Muffett, p. 164. 

3 Pintle generally means the penis ; but Dr Giinther says the 
whelk has no visible organs of generation, though it has a project- 
ing tube by which it takes in water, and the function of this might 
have been misunderstood. Dr G. could suggest nothing for almond, 
but on looking at the drawing of the male Whelk (Buccinum un- 
datum) creeping, in the Penny Cyclopaedia, v. 9, p. 454, col. 2 
(art. Entomostomata), it is quite clear that the almond must mean 
the animal's horny, oval operculum on its hinder part. ' Most spiral 
shells have an operculum, or lid, with which to close the aperture 
when they withdraw for shelter. It is developed on a particular 
lobe at the posterior part of the foot, and consists of horny layers, 
sometimes hardened with shelly matter.' Woodtvard's Mollusca, p. 47. 

4 That part of the integument of mollusca which contains the 
viscera and secretes the shell, is termed the mantle. Woodward. 

6 Recipe " For lamprays baken," in Liber Cure, p. 38. 
6 A sauce made of crumbs, galingale, ginger, salt, and vinegar. 
See the Recipe in Liber Cure, p. 30. 


be same wold plese a pore man / y suppose, welle & 


Mynse ye be gobyns as thyii as a grote, j^ c g e the lam ' 

ban lay beih vppon youre galantyne stondynge on a la * them on tlle 

chaffire lioote : llot pi ate - 
640 bus must ye di3t a lamprey owt of his coffyn cote, 

serve up to your 

and so may youre souerayne ete rnerily be noote. lord. 

White herynge in a dische, if hit be seaward & J^h? berring " 

jour souereyn to ete in seesourc of yere / ber- 

aftur he wille Asche. 
644 looke he be white by be boon / be roughs white 

& nesche ; 
with salt & wyne serue ye hyin be same / boldly, 

& not to basshe. 

Shrympes welle pyked / be scales awey ye cast, 
Eound abowt a sawcer / ley ye bem in hast ; 
648 be vinegre in be same sawcer, bat youre lord may v ine & ar -" 

ban with be said fische / he may fede hyiii / & 

of bem make no wast." 

WTOw, fadir, feire falle ye / & crist yow haue in "Thanks, father. 


For of be nurture of kervynge y suppose bat y be sure, JiJJS^JJw* 
652 but yet a-nodwr office ber is / saue y dar not endure [lol- 180k] 
to frayne yow any further / for feere of displesure : but i hardly dare 

ask you about 

For to be a sew ere y wold y hed be coraiynge, a Sewers duties, 
Jjaii durst y do my devoire / with any worship- 

fulle to be wownynge ; 

65G sen bat y know be course / & be craft of kervynge, 
y wold se be si^t of a Sewerc 1 / what wey he / 
shewethe in seruynge." 

1 See the duties and allowances of " A Sewar for the Kynge," 
Kthv. IV., in Household Ordinances, pp. 36-7; Henry VII., p. 118. 
King Edmund risked his life for his assewer, p. 36. 



The Duties of a 

dffia 0f 

"Son, since you 
wish to learn, 

1 will gladly teach 

Let the Sewer, 
as soon as the 

begins to say 

hie to the kitchen. 

I. Ask the Panter 

for fruits (as 

if they are to be 

II. Ask the Cook 

and Surveyor 

>w sen yt is so, my son / fat science ye wold 
fayn lere, 
drede yow no f ynge daungeresnes ; f us 2 y shalle 

do my devere 

660 to enforme yow feithfully with ryght gladsom chere, 
& yf ye wolle lysten my lore / somewhat ye shalle 
here : 

Take hede whan fe worshipfulle hed / fat is of 

any place 
hath wasche afore mete / and bigy?znethe to sey f e 


664 Vn-to f e kechyn fan looke ye take youre trace, 
Entendyng & at youre commaundynge fe se?*- 

uaundes of f e place ; 
Furst speke with f e pantere / or officere of f e 


For frutes a-fore mete to ete fern fastyngely, 
6C8 as buttwr / plommes / damesyns, grapes, and chery, 
Suche in sesons of f e yere / ar served / to make 

men rnery, 

Serche and enquere of fern / yf suche se?-uyse 

shalle be fat day ; 
fan commyn with f e cooke / and looke what he 

wille say ; 
672 fe survey oure & he / f e certeynte telle yow wille 

1 The word Sewer in the MS. is written small, the flourishes of 
the big initial having taken up so much room. The name of the 
office of sewer is derived from the Old French esculier, or the 
scutellarius, \. e. the person who had to arrange the dishes, in the 
same way as the scutellery (scullery) was hy rights the place 
where the dishes were kept. Domestic Architecture, v. 3, p. 80 n. 

* Inserted in a seemingly later hand. 


what metes // & how many disches / fey dyd whjidWiet w 
fore puruay. 

And whan f e surveoure l & f e Cooke / w/t/i yow 

done accorde, 
ben shalle be cook dresse alle bynge to be sur- m. Let tne oook 

serve up the 

veynge horde, dishes. 

676 fe surveoure sadly / & sohurly / wit/t-owten any ti Surveyor 


Delyuer forthe his disches, ye to cowvey fern to deliver them 
f e lorde ; 

And when ye bithe at fe horde / of seruyce and and t ^u 1 'the 1 

surveynge, Sewer - taf- 

se fat ye haue officers bof e courtly and corcnynge, skilful officers to 
680 For drede of a dische of youre course stelynge ! , being stolen, 
whyche myght cawse a vileny ligtly in youre 
seruice sewynge. 

And se fat ye haue seruytours seniely / fe disches J^^JJ 6 proper 

for to here, 
Marchalles, Squyers / & sergeaunte* of armes 2 , if Marshals. &c., 

fat fey he there, 
684 fat youre lordes mete may he brought wit/tout ^^kitJhen 3 

dowt or dere ; 
to sett it surely on be horde / youre self nede not v - Y ou 8 f * thera 

J f I J on the table 

feere. yourself. 

1 Seethe duties and allowances of " A Surveyour for the Kyng" 
(Edw. IV.) in Household Ord. p. 37. Among other things he is 
to see 'that no thing be purloyned,' (cf. line 680 below), and the 
fourty Squyers of Household who help serve the King's table from 
' the surveying bourde ' are to see that ' of every messe that cura- 
myth from the dressing bourde . . thereof be nothing withdrawe 
by the squires.' ib. p. 45. 

2 Squyers of Houshold xl . . xx squires attendaunt uppon the 
Kings (Edw. IV.) person in ryding . . and to help serve his table 
from the surveying bourde. H. Ord. p. 45. Sergeauntes of 
Armes IIIL, whereof ii alway to be attending uppon the Kings 
person and chambre. . . In like wise at the conveyaunce of his 
meate at every course from the surveying bourde, p. 47. 


A Meat Dinner. ^ tyMt fit 

First Courtf. 

1. Mustard and 

2. Potage. 

&[je Jfurst Course. 

j|urst set forthe mustard / & brawue / of boore, 2 
* be wild swyne, 

Suche potage / as be cooke hathe made / of yerbis / 
spice / & wyne, 

3. stewed piiea- 688 Beeff, moton 3 / Stewed feysaund / Swan 4 

saut aud Swan, &c. 

the Chawdvvyn, 5 

4. Baked Venison. 

6. A Device of 

Gabriel greeting 


Capouw, pigge / vensoiw bake, leche lombard 6 / 

fruture viaunt 7 fyne ; 

And ban a Sotelte : \ 

Maydon mary bat holy virgyne, / 

And Gabrielle gretynge hur / with ( 

an Ave. / 

1 Compare the less gorgeous feeds specified on pp. 54-5 of Liber 
Cure, and pp. 419-50 of Household Ordinances. Also with this and 
the following 'Dinere of Fische' should be compared "the Diett for 
the King's Majesty and the Queen's Grace" on a Flesh Day and a 
Fish Day, A.D. 1526, contained in Household Ordinances, p. 174-6. 
Though Harry the Eighth was king, he was allowed only two 
courses on each day, as against the Duke of Gloucester's three given 
here. The daily cost for King and Queen was 4 3s. 4d. ; yearly, 
1520. 13s. 4d. See also in Markham's Houswife, pp. 98-101, the 
ordering of ' extraordinary great Feasts of Princes ' as well as 
those 'for much more humhle men.' 

8 See Recipes for Bor in Counfett, Boor in Brasey, Bore in 
Egurdouce, in H. Ord. p. 435. 

3 Chair de niouton manger de glouton : Pro. Flesh of a Mutton 
is food for a glutton ; (or was held so in old times, when Beefe and 
Bacon were your onely dainties.) Cot. 

4 The rule for the succession of dishes is stated in Liber Cure, p. 
55, as whole-footed birds first, and of these the greatest, as swan, 
goose, and drake, to precede. Afterwards come baked meats and 
other dainties. 6 See note to 1. 535 above, 

8 See the Recipe for Leche Lumbard in Household Ordinances, 
p. 438. Pork, eggs, pepper, cloves, currants, dates, sugar, pow- 
dered together, boiled in a bladder, cut into strips, and served with 
h )t rich sauce. 

1 Meat fritter ?, mentioned in 1. 501. 


Second Course. 

Two potages, blanger mangere, 1 & Also lely 2 : i- Bianc Mange (of 
For a standard / vensoiw rost / kyd, favne, or 2. Boast venison, 



bustard, stork / crane / pecok in hakille ryally, 3 3 - Peacocks . 
696 heiron-sew or / betowre, with-serne with bred, heronsew ' 
yf bat drynk be by ; 

Partriche, wodcok / plovere / egret / Kabettes 

sowkere 4 ; 

Gret briddes / larkes / gentille breme de mere, 
dowcettes, 5 payne puff, wiih leche / loly 6 Ambere, Le^he, 
700 Fretoure powche / a sotelte folowynge in fere, 
be course for to fullfylle, 

6. A Device of an 

An angelle goodly kan appere, Angei appearing 

and syngynge with a mery chere, 
704 Vn-to .iij. sheperdes vppon an hille. herds on a hill. 

Third Course. 

Creme of almondes, & mameny, |?e iij; course L Almond cream> 

in coost, 
Curlew / brew / snytes / quayles / sparows / 

mertenettes rost, 

1 See " Blaumanger to Potage " p. 430 of Household Ordinances ; 
Blawraangere, p. 455 ; Blonc Manger, L. C. C. p. 9, and Blanc 
Maungere of fysshe, p. 19. 

2 " Gele in Chekyns or of Hennes," and " Gelle of Flesshe," 
H. Ord. p. 437. 

3 See the recipe " At a Feeste Roiall, Pecockes shall be dight on 
this Mauere," H. Ord. p. 439 ; but there he is to be served "forthe 
with the last cours." The hackle refers, I suppose, to his being 
sown in his skin when cold after roasting. 

4 The fat of Rabet- suckers, and little Birds, and small Chickens, 
is not discommendable, because it is soon and lightly overcome of 
an indifferent stomack. Muffett, p. 110. 

6 Recipe at end of this volume. Dowcet mete, or swete cake 
mete (bake mete, P.) Dulceum, ductileus. P. Parv. Dousette, a 
lytell flawne, dariolle. Palsgrave. Fr. flannet ; m. A doucet or 
little custard. Cot. See note 1 to 1. 494 above. 

6 May be lely, amber jelly, instead of a beautiful amber leche. 


3. Fresh-water 
crayfish, &c. 

4. flaked Quinces 
Sage fritters, &c. 

6. Devices: 
The Mother of 
Christ, presented 

by the Kings of 

White apples, 
wafers and 
Clear the Table. 

Perche in gely / Crevise dewe dou$ / pety perueis ! 

with be moost, 
708 Quynces bake / leche dugard / Fruture sage / y 

speke of cost, 
and soteltees fulle soleyn : 
bat lady bat conseuyd by the holygost 
hym bat distroyed be fendes boost, 
712 presentid plesauntly by be kyng<? of coleyn. 

AStur bis, delicatis mo. 

Blaunderelle, or pepyns, with carawey in confite, 
Waffurs to ete / ypocras to drynk with delite. 
716 now bis fest is fynysched / voyd be table qnyte 
Go we to be fysche fest while we haue respite, 
& fan with goddes grace be fest wille be do. 

A Fish Dinner. 

First Course. 

1. Minnows, &c. 

2. Porpoise and 

[Fol. 182.] 

3. Fresh Millwel 

4. Roast Pike. 



" Musclade or 3 menows // with ]?e Samouw bel- 

lows 4 // eles, lampurns in fere ; 
720 Peson with fe purpose // ar good potage, as y 

suppose // 

as fallethe for tynie of ]>e yere : 
Baken herynge // Sugre feron strewynge // 
grene myllewelle, deyntethe & not dere ; 
724 pike 5 / lamprey / or Soolis // purpose rosted on 
coles 6 // 

1 See tlie note to line 499. 

2 Compare " For a servise on fysshe day," Liber Cure, p. 54, and 
Household Ordinances, p. 449. 

-For of. See < Sewes on Fische Dayes,' 1. 821. 

4 ? for bellies : see ' the baly of J?e fresch saraoun,' 1. 823 in Sewes 
on Fische Dayes; or it may be for the sounds or breathing apparatus. 

5 Pykes in Brasey, H. Ord. p. 451. 

6 Purpesses, Tursons, or sea-hogs, are of the nature of swine, 
never good till they be fat . . it is an unsavoury meat . . yet many 
Ladies and Gentlemen love it exceedingly, bak'd like venison. 
Mou/et, p. 165. 


gwmard / lamp?mies bake / a leche, & a friture; 

a semely sotelte folowynge evyn bere. 6. A Divice: 

A galaunt yongemaii, a wanton wighi, A young man 

728 pypyuge & syngynge / lovynge & lyght, piping 

Standynge on a clowd, Sangzwneus he hight, cM^sa^nin- 

be begywnynge of be seson bat cleped is ver." eus> or Spnng - 

je SJCtOUb tOnrS*. Second Course 

11 Dates in confyte // lely red and white // J'ei?y ** and 

732 bis is good dewynge ] ; 

Congwr, somon, dorray // In sirippe if bey lay // 2 - Doree in s ^ r p. 

with olper disches in sewynge. 
Brett / turbut 2 / or halybut // Carpe, base / my let, s. Turbot. &c., 

or trowt // 
736 Cheven, 3 breme / renewynge ; 

3ole / Eles, lampurnes / rost // a leche, a fryture, y 4 - Eel9 - Frittere - 

make now bost // 

]>e second / sotelte sewynge. 5 - A Device : 

A man of warre semynge he was, A Man of War - 

740 A roughe, a red, angry syre, red and augry 

An hasty man standynge in fyre, 
As hoot as somer by his attyre ; 

i . i i -n , called Estas, or 

his name was J?eron, & cleped Estas. summer. 

1 ? due-ing, that is, service ; not moistening. 

2 Rhombi. Turbuts . . some call the Sea-Pheasant . . whilst 
they be young . . they are called Butts. They are best being 
sodden. Muffett, p. 173. " Pegeons, buttes, and elis," are paid 
for as hakys (hawks) mete, on x Sept. 6 R. H(enry VII) in the 
Howard Household Books, 1481-90, p. 508. 

3 Gulls, Gulfs, Pulches, Chevins, and Millers-thombs are a kind 
of jolt-headed Gudgins, very sweet, tender, and wholesome. Muffett, 
p. 180. Randle Holme says, 'A Chevyn or a Foliar de ; it is in 
Latin called Capitus, from its great head ; the Germans Schwall, or 
Alet ; and Myn or Mouen ; a Schupjish, from whence we title it a 
Chubfah? ch. xiv. xxvii. 



Third Course 

1. Almond 
Cream, &c. , 

2. Sturgeon, 

Whelks, Minnows, 

3. Shrimps, &c., 

4. Fritters. 

5. A Device: 
A Man with a 


called Harvest 

Fourth Course. 

[Fol. 182 b.] 
Hot apples, 

Ginger, Wafers, 

The last Device, 

Yemps or 

Winter, with grey 


Bitting on a stone. 

744 Creme of almond 1 lardyne // & mameny 2 // good 

& fyne // 

Potage for fe .iij d seruyse. 
Fresch sturgen / breine de mere // Perche in 

lely / oryent & clere // 
whelks, menuse ; }us we devise : 
748 Shrympis / Fresch herynge bryled // pety perueis 

may not be exiled, 
leche fryture, 3 a tansey gyse // 
The sotelte / a man with sikelle in his hande, In a 

ryvere of watur stande / 
wrapped in in a werysom wyse, 
752 hauynge no deynteithe to daunce : 
J>e thrid age of man by liklynes ; 
hervist we clepe hym, fulle of werynes 
$et fer folowythe mo fat we must dies, 
75 G regards riche fat ar fulle of plesaunce. 

Ijt .iiij. tonm oi fruie. 

Whot appuls & peres with sugre Candy, 
Withe Gyngre columbyne, mynsed manerly, 

Wafurs with ypocras. 

760 Now Jis fest is fynysched / for to make glad chere : 
and faughe so be fat J>e vse & manere 

not afore tyme be seyn has, 

Neuerthelese aftwr my symple affeccion 
764 y must conclude with f e fourth co?^pleccion, 

f yemps ' f e cold terme of f e yere, 
Wyntur / with his lokkys grey / febille & old, 
Syttynge vppon fe stone / bothe hard & cold, 
768 Nigard inhert & hevy of chere. 

1 "Creme of Almond Mylk." //. Ord. p. 447. 
3 See the recipe, end of this volume. 

3 Compare "leche fryes made of frit and friture," H. Ord. p. 
449 ; Servise on Fisshe Day, last line. 


The furst Sotelte, as y said, 'Sangwmews' hight These Devices 
represent the Aprs 
fTlhe furst age of man / locond & light, of Man: 

Sanguineus, the 

be spn'ngynge tyme clepe ' ver. 1st age, of 

772 ^f The second course / 'colericus' by callynge, coiericus, the 2nd, 

Fulle of Fyghtynge / blasfemynge, & brallynge, 
Fallynge at veryaunce with felow & fere. 

^ The thrid sotelte, y declare as y kan, Jhe'ST""* 

776 * Autu?npnus,' bat is be .iij d age of man, 

With a flewische ' countenaunce. of melancholy. 

^f The iiij th countenaunce 2 , as y seid before, oTaclS and 4th> 

is wyntur with his lokkes hoore, troubles. 

780 be last age of man fulle of grevaunce. 

These iiii. soteltees devised in towse, 3 These Devices 

give great 

wher bey byn shewed in an howse, pleasure, when 

T * * shown in a house. 

hithe dothe gret plesaunce 
784 with ober sightes of gret Nowelte 

ban han be shewed in Rialle feestes of solempnyte, 
A notable cost be ordynaunce. 

superstripcioun of >e sutiltees about inscriptions /or 

\pu folofaet^e Versus the Device,. 


Largus, amans, hillaris, ridens, rubei ^(e Loving, 



Sanguineus. _. _ 

7ft Cantans, carnos/^s. satis audax, atque singing. 



1 Melancholy, full of phlegm : see the superscription 1. 792 below. 
' Flew, complecyon, (fleume of compleccyon, K. flewe, P.) FlegmaJ 
Catholicon in P. Parr. 

2 Mistake for Sotelte. 

3 The first letter of this word is neither a clear t nor 0, though 
more like t than c. It was first written Come (as if for cou[r]se, 
succession, which makes good sense) or touse, and then a w was put 
over the u. If the word is towse, the only others I can find like 
it are tow, ' towe of hempe or flax,' Promptoriura ; ' heruper, to 
discheuell, towse, or disorder the haire.' Cot. 




[Vol. 183.] 
Prickly, angry. 

crafty, k.iu. 

Sleepy, dull, 
sluggish, fat, 


Envious, sad, 

timid, yellow- 

A Franklin's 

Brawn, bacon and 

beef and boiled 

roast goose, 
capon, and 

Second Course. 

veal, rabbit, 


or leche. 

If Estas 

Hirsutus, Fallax / irascens / prodigus, 
Golericus. s&tis audax, 

Astutus, gracilis / Siccus / crocei que coloris. 

If Auturapnus 
Hie sompnolentus / piger, in sputamine 


Fleumaticus, ,. , . .' . . 

792 J^bes nine sensus / pinguis, facie color 


1f yemps 

Invidus et tristis / Cupidus / dextre 
que tenact*, 

expers fraudis, timidus, lutei que 


ftst fa ft 

A Franklen may make a feste Improberabille, 
796 brawne with mustard is concordable, 
bakon serued with peson, 

beef or moton stewed se?*uysable, 
Boyled Chykon or capon agreable, 
800 convenyent for fe seson j 

Eosted goose & pygge fulle profitable, 
Capon / Bakemete, or Custade Costable, 
when eggis & crayme be geson. 

804 jperfore stuffe of household is behoveable, 

Mortrowes or lusselle ' ar delectable 

for J>e second course by resoil. 

Than veel, lambe, kyd, or cony, 
808 Chykon or pigeon rosted tendurly, 

bakemetes or dowcettes 2 with alle. 

J?efi followynge, frytowrs & a leche lovely ; 

Suche smiyse in sesoim is fulle semely 
812 To serue with bothe chambur & halle. 
1 See Recipe at end of volume. 2 See Recipe at end of volume. 


Then appuls & peris with spices delicately spiced pears. 

Aftur be terme of be yere fulle deynteithly, 

with bred and chese to Calle. bread and cheese, 

816 Spised cakes and wafurs worthily spiced cakes, 

withe bragot ! & methe, 2 bus men may meryly bragot and mead. 
plese welle bothe gret & smalle." 

[Fol. 183 b.] 
Dinners on Fish- 




^ own( iurs / gogeons, muskels, 3 menuce in 


820 Eles, lampurnes, venprides / quyk & newe, venprides (?) 

Musclade in wortes / musclade 4 of almondes for musclade (?) of 


states fulle dewe, 

Oysturs in Ceuy 5 / oysturs in grauey, 6 your helthe oystere dre8sed ' 
to renewe, 

The baly of be fresche samon / els purpose, or porpoise or 8eal 
seele 7 , 

1 See a recipe for making it of ale, honey, and spices, in [Cog- 
an's] Haven of Health, chap. 239, p. 268, in Nares. Phillips 
leaves out the ale. 

2 Mead, a pleasant Drink made of Honey and "Water. Phillips. 

3 A recipe for Musculs in Sewe and Cadel of Musculs to Potage, 
at p. 445 H. Ord. Others ' For mustul (? muscul or Mustela, the 
eel-powt, Fr. Mustelle, the Powte or Eeele-powte) pie,' and 4 For 
porray of mustuls,' in Liber Cure, p. 46-7. 

4 ? a preparation of Muscles, as Applade Ryal (Harl. MS. 279, 
Recipe Cxxxv.) of Apples, Quinade, Rec. Cxv of Quinces, 
(fol. 27 b.) of Pynotis (a kind of nut) ; or is it Mesclade or Meslade, 
fol. 33, an omelette ' to euery good meslade take a Jjowsand eyroun 
or mo.' Herbelade (fol. 42 b.) is a liquor of boiled lard and herbs, 
mixed with dates, currants, and ' Pynez,' strained, sugared, coloured, 
whipped, & put into ' fayre round cofyns.' 

5 Eschalolte : f. A Give or Chiue. Escurs, The little sallade 
hearb called, Ciues, or Chiues. Cotgrave. 

6 For to make potage of oysturs, Liber Cure, p. 17. Oysturs in 
brewette, p. 53. 

7 Seales flesh is counted as hard of digestion, as it is gross of 
substance, especially being old; wherefore I leave it to Mariners 
and Sailers, for whose stomacks it is fittest, and who know the 
best way how to prepare it. Hujfett, p. 167. 


pike cullis. 
jelly, dates, 
quinces, pears, 

houndfish, rice, 

If you don't like 
these potages, 
taste them only. 

Fifth Sauces. 


824 Colice 1 of pike, shrympus 2 / or perche, ye know 

fulle wele ; 
Party e gely / Creme of almondes 3 / dates in 

conlite / to rekeuer heele, 
Quinces & peris / Ciryppe with parcely rotes / 

ri^t so bygyn your mele. 

Mortrowis of houndfische 4 / & Eice standynge 5 

828 Mameny, 6 mylke of almondes, Rice rennynge 


J?ese potages ar holsom for bem bat han delite 
berof to ete / & if not so / ben taste he but a lite." 

atate for 

sawces to make y shalle geue yow 
* lerynge : 

1 Cullis (in Cookery) a strained Liquor made of any sort of 
dress'd Meat, or other things pounded in a Mortar, and pass'd 
thro' a Hair-sieve : These Cullises are usually pour'd upon Messes, 
and into hot Pies, a little before they are serv'd up to Table. 
Phillips. See also the recipe for making [a coleise of a cocke or 
capon, from the Haven of Health, in Nares. Fr. Coulis : m. A 
cullis, or broth of boiled meat strained ; fit for a sicke, or weake 
bodie. Cotgrave. 

2 Shrimps are of two sorts, the one crookbacked, the other 
straitbacked : the first sort is called of Frenchmen Caramots de la 
sante, healthful shrimps ; because they recover sick and consumed 
persons ; of all other they are most nimble, witty, and skipping, 
and of best juice. Muffett, p. 167. In cooking them, he directs 
them to be " unsealed, to vent the windiness which is in them, being 
sodden with their scales ; whereof lust and disposition to venery 
might arise," p. 168. 

3 See the recipe for " Creme of Almonde Mylk," Household 
Ordinances, p. 447. 

4 "Mortrewes of Fysshe," H. Ord. p. 469; "Mortrews of 
fysshe," L. C. C. p. 19. 

See " Rys Lumbarde," H. Ord. p. 438, 1. 3, ' and if thow wilt 
have hit stondynge, take rawe ^olkes of egges,' &c. 

6 See the Recipe at the end of this volume. 

1 * Let no fish be sodden or eaten without salt, pepper, wine, 
onions or hot spices ; for all fish (compared with flesh) is cold and 


832 Mustard is 1 /is metest with alle maner salt Mustard for salt 



Salt fysche, salt Congur, samourc, with sparlynge, 2 conger, 

Salt ele, salt makerelle, & also withe merlynge. 3 mackerel, &c. 

Vynegur is good to salt purpose & torrentyne, 4 vinegar for salt 


836 Salt sturgeon, salt swyrd-fysche savery & fyne. swordfish, &c. 
Salt Thurlepolle, salt whale, 5 is good with egre ^ h Ti e wine for 

withe powdur put J?er-on shalle cawse oon welle ^^ po^er. 

to dyne. 
Playce with wyne ; & pike withe his reffett ; Wine for P laicc - 

moist, of little nourishment, engendring watrish and thin blood.' 
Muffett, p. 146, with a curious continuation. Hoc Sinapium, An ce - 

Salgia, sirpillum, piper, alia, sal, petrocillum, 

Ex hiis sit salsa, non est sentencia falsa. 

15th cent. Pict. Vocab. in Wright's Voc. p. 267, col. 1. 

1 ? is repeated by mistake. 

2 Spurlings are but broad Sprats, taken chiefly upon our 
Northern coast ; which being drest and pickled as Anchovaes be in 
Provence, rather surpass them than come behind them in taste and 
goodness. . . As for Red Sprats and Spurlings, I vouchsafe them 
not the name of any wholesome nourishment, or rather of no 
nourishment at all ; commending them for nothing, but that they 
are bawdes to enforce appetite, and serve well the poor mans turn 
to quench hunger. Muffett, p. 169. 

8 A Whiting, a Merling, Fr. Merlan. < Merling : A Stock-fish, 
or Marling, else Merling ; in Latine Marlanus and Marlangus? 
R. Holme, p. 333, col. 1. 

4 After searching all the Dictionaries and Glossaries I could get 
hold of in the Museum for this Torrentyne, which was the plague 
of my life for six weeks, I had recourse to Dr Giinther. He searched 
Rondelet and Belon in vain for the word, and then suggested 
ALDROVANUI as the last resource. In the De Piscibm, Lib. V., I 
accordingly found (where he treats of Trout*), " Scoppa, graw- 
maticus Italus, Torentinam nominat, rectius Torrentinam vocaturus, 
a torrentibus nimirum : in his n[ominatim] & riuis montanis 
abundat." (ed. 1644, cum indice copiosissimo.) 

5 Whales flesh is the hardest of all other, and unusuall to be 
eaten of our Countrymen, no not when they are very young and 
tenderest ; yet the livers of Whales, Sturgeons, and Dolphins 
smell like violets, taste most pleasantly being salted, and give 
competent nourishment, as Cardan writeth. Muffett, p. 173, ed. 
Bennet, 1655. 



Galantine for 

Verjuice for 
Cinnamon for 
base, carp, and 

Garlic, verjuice, 
and pepper, 

for houndfish, 

stockfish, &c. 

[Fol. 184.] 
Vinegar, cinna- 
mon, and ginger, 
for fresh-water 

fresh porpoise, 

sturgeon, &c. 

Green Saurn for 
green fish (fresh 

840 ]?e galantyne 1 for J?e lamprey / where j?ey may 

be gete ; 

verdius 2 to roche /darce /breme /soles / & molett; 
Baase, flow[7i]durs / Carpe / Cheven / Synamome 
ye Jjer-to sett. 

Garlek / or mustard, vergeus ferto, pepwr ]?e 

844 For fornebak / houndfysche / & also fresche 


hake 3 , stokfyshe 4 , haddok 5 / cod 6 /& whytynge 
ar moost metist for thes metes, as techithe vs J?e 


Vinegre/powdur withe synamome / and gyngere, 
848 to rost Eles / lampurnes / Creve^ dew dou$, and 

breme de mere, 
For Gurnard / for roche / & fresche purpose, if 

hit appertf, 
Fresche sturgeon / shrympes / perche / molett / 

y wold it were here. 

(jrene sawce 7 is goodwith grene fisch 8 , y here say; 

1 See the recipe in Liber Cure Cocorum, p. 30 ; and Felettes in 
Galentyne, H, Ord. p. 433. 

2 Veriuse, or sause made of grapes not full i ipe, Ompharium. 

3 Hakes be of the same nature [as Haddocks], resembling a Cod 
in taste, but a Ling in likeness. Muffett, p. 153. 

4 ' Stocke fysshe, they [the French] have none,' says Palsgrave. 
6 Haddocks are little Cods, of light substance, crumbling flesh, 

and good nourishment in the Sommer time, especially whilst 
Venison is in season. Jli(/ett, p. 153. 

6 Keling. R. Holme, xxiv, p. 331, col. 1, has "He beareth 
Cules a Cod Fish argent, by the name of Codling. Of others termed 
a Stockfish, or an Haberdine : In the North part of this Kingdome 
it is called a Keling, In the Southerne parts a Cod, and in the 
Westerne parts a JPelwell." 

7 See the Recipes for ' Pur verde sawce,' Liber Cure, p. 27, and 
'Vert Sause' (herbs, bread-crumbs, vinegar, pepper, ginger, &c.), 
H. Ord. -p. 441. Grene Sause, condimentum harbaceum. Withals. 

8 Ling perhaps looks for great extolling, being counted the beefe 
of the Sea, and standing every fish day (as a cold supporter) at my 


852 botte lynge / brett ' & fresche turbut / gete it wh : 

so may. 
yet make moche of mustard, & put it not away, Mustard is best 

for every dish. 

For with euery dische he is dewest / who so lust 
to assay. 

Other sawces to sovereyns ar senied in som other sauces are 

served at grand 
SOlempne festlS, feasts, but the 

856 but these will plese them fulle welle / bat ar but familiar guests." 

hoomly gestis. 
Now have y shewyd yow, my son, somewhat of 

dyuerse lestis 

]jat ar remewbred in lordes courte / Jjere as all 
rialte restis." 

w fayre falle yow fadir / in fay the y am " Fair fail you, 
full fayn, 
860 For louesomly ye han lered me be nurtur bat ye YOU have taught 

me lovesomely ; 

han sayn ; bt 

plesethe it you to certifye me with oon worde or please tell me, 

J?e Curtesy to cowceue conveniently for euery too, the duties of 

i -i 1 _ ji a Chamberlain." 


The Chamberlains 

" fphe Curtesy of a chamburlayn is in office to He must be 
A be diligent, diligent ' 

Lord Maiors table ; yet it is nothing but a long Cod : whereof the 
greater sised is called Organe Ling, and the other Codling, because 
it is no longer then a Cod, and yet hath the taste of Ling : whilst 
it is new it is called GREEN-FISH ; when it is salted it is called Ling, 
perhaps of lying, because the longer it lyeth . . the better it is, 
waxing in the end as yellow as the gold noble, at which time they 
are worth a noble a piece. Mnffett, p. 154-5. 

1 A brit or turbret, rhombus. "Witbals, 1556. Bret, Brut, or 
Burt, a Fish of the Turbot-kind. Phillips. 

2 These duties of the Chamberlain, and those of him in the Ward- 
robe which follow, should be compared with the chapter De Officio 
Garcionum of " The Boke of Curtasye " 11. 435520 below. See 
also the duties and allowances of ' A Chamberlayn for the King ' 



neatly dressed, 

careful of fire and 

attentive to his 

light of ear. 

looking out for 
things that will 

The Chamberlain 
must prepare for 
his lord 

a clean shirt, 

under and upper 
coat and doublet, 

breeches, socks, 

and slippers as 
brown as a water- 

In the morning, 

must have clean 
linen ready, 
warmed by 

a clear fire. 

864 Clenli clad, his clojjis not all to-rent ; 

handis & face waschen fayre, his hed well kempt ; 
& war euer of fyre and candille fat he he not 

To youre mastir looke ye geue diligent attend- 

aunce ; 
868 he curteyse, glad of chere, & light of ere in Query 

euer waytynge to fat thynge fat may do hym 

plesaunce : 
to these propurtees if ye will apply, it may yow 

welle avaunce. 

Se that youre souerayne haue clene shurt & 

872 a petycote, 1 a dublett, a longe coote, if he were 


his hosyn well hrusshed, his sokkes not to seche, 
his shon or slyppers as hrowne as is f e watwr- 


In f e morow tyde, agaynst youre souerayne doth 

876 wayte hys lynnyn fat hit he clene ; fen warme 

hit in JMS wise, 
hy a clere fyre withovrt smoke / if it he cold or 

and so may ye youre souerayn plese at )>e best 


H. Ord. p. 31-2. He has only to see that the men under him do 
the work mentioned in these pages. See office of Warderobe of 
Bedds, H. 0. p. 40 ; Gromes of Chamhyr, x, Pages of Chamhre, 
IIII, H. 0., p. 41, fec. The arraying and unarraying of Henry 
VII. were done by the Esquires of the Body, H. Ord. p. 118, two 
of whom lay outside his room. 

1 A short or small coat worn under the long over-coat. Petycote, 
tunicula, P. P., and * .j. petticote of lynen clothe withought slyves,' 
there cited from Sir J. Fastolfe's Wardrobe, 1459. Archaeol. xxi. 
253. subiicula, le, est etiam genus intima vestis, a peticote. "Withals. 


Agayne he riseth vp, make redy youre fote sliete when his lord 

J rises, he gets 

880 in Jus maner made greithe / & bat ye not forgete ready the foot- 

' f sheet; 

furst a chayere a-fore be fyre / or soin ober honest puts a cushioned 

chair before the 

sete nre > 

[Fol. 184 b.] 

Withe a cosshyn fer vppon/ & a no^itr for the a cushion for the 

feete / 
aboue be coschyn & chayere be said shete over and over ail 

spreads the foot- 

884 So fat it keuer f e fote coschyn and chayere, rijt 

as y bad ; 
Also combe & kercheff / looke bere bothe be had has a comb and 

1 f kerchief ready, 

youre souereyn hed to kymbe or he be graytly and then 

clad : 
Than pray youre souereyn with wordus man- asks his lord 

888 to com to a good fyre and aray hym ther by, to come to the are 

J and dress while 

and there to sytt or stand / to his pe?'sone pies- he wait8 b y- 

and ye euer redy to awayte with maners metely. 

Furst hold to hym a petycote aboue youre brest i. Give your 

master his under 

and barme, coat, 

892 his dublet fan aftur to put in bof e hys arme, 2. His doublet, 
his stomachere welle y-chaffed to kepe hym fro 

his vampeys l and sokkes, fan all day he may go 4 - Vampeys and 

warme j 

1 Yamps or Vampays. an odd kind of short Hose or Stockings 
that cover'd the Feet, and came up only to the Ancle, just above 
the Shooe ; the Breeches reaching down to the Calf of the Leg. 
Whence to graft a new Footing on old Stockings is still calPd Vamp- 
ing. Phillips. Fairholt does not give the word. The Vampeys 
went outside the sock, I presume, as no mention is made of 
them with the socks and slippers after the bath, 1. 987 ; but 
Strutt, and Fairholt after him, have engraved a drawing which 
shows that the Saxons wore the sock over the stocking, both being 
within the shoe. Vampey of a hose auant pled. Yauntpe of a 
hose uantpie.' Palsgrave. A.D. 1467, ' fore vaunpynge of a payre 
for the said Lew vj.d.' p. 396, Manners $ Household Expenses, 1841. 



Then drawe on his sokkis / & hosyn by the fure, 
896 his shon laced or bokelid, draw them on sure ; 
Strike his hosyn vppewarde his legge ye endure, 
]>en tmsse ye them vp strayte / to his plesure, 

Then lace his dublett euery hoole so by & bye ; 
900 on his shuldur about his nek a kercheff pertf 

must lye, 
and curteisly jjan ye kymbe his bed with combe 

of yvery, 
and watur warme his handes to wasche, & face 

also clenly. 

Than knele a down on youre kne / & Ipus to youre 

souerayn ye say 
904 " Syr, what Robe or govfi pleseth it yow to were 

to day 1 " 

Suche as he axeth fore / loke ye plese hym to pay, 
Jjan hold it to hym a brode, his body jjer-in to 

array ; 

his gurdelle, if he were, be it strayt or lewse ; 
908 Set his garment goodly / aftur as ye know ]>e vse ; 
take hym hode or hatt / for his hed cloke or 

cappe de huse ; 
So shalle ye plese hym prestly, no nede to make 


Whejmr hit be feyre or foule, or mysty alle withe 

18 Before he jrocs f\t n r\ j .L-I-T /> t-i 

y 1 2 Or youre mastir depart his place, afore J?#t Jns be 

to brusche besily about hym ; loke all be pur and 


whejmr he were saten / sendell, vellewet, scarlet, 
or greyii. 

Before your lord 

goes to church. Piynce or prelate if hit be, or any oj>er potestate, 

916 or he entur in to )>e churche, be it erly or late, 

5. Draw on bis 
socks, breeches, 
and shoes, 

8. Pull up his 

7. Tie 'em up, 

8. Lace his 

9. Put a kerchief 
round his neck, 

10. Comb his 
head with an 
ivory comb, 

11. Give him 
warm water to 
wash with, 

12. Kneel down 

and ask him what 
gowu he'll wear: 

13. Get the gown, 

14. Hold it out to 

15. Get his girdle. 

16. Hia Robe (see 
1. 957). 

17. His hood or 

brush him 


perceue all bynge for his pewe bat it be made see that MS pew 

is made ready, 

bo]>e cosshyn / carpet / & curteyh / bedes & boke, cushion, curtain, 

forgete not that. 
Than to youre souereynes chambur walke ye in Return to his 


hast ; 

920 all be clones of jje bed, them aside ye cast ; SohL ff "** 

J>e Fethurbed ye bete / without hurt, so no beat the feather- 

feddurs ye wast, 

Fustian 1 and shetis clene by sight and sans ye see that the fustian 

and sheets are 
tast. clean. 

Kover with a keuerlyte clenly / bat bed so Cover the bed 

J J I r with a coverlet, 

manerly made ; 
924 be bankers & quosshyns, in be chambur se bem spread out the 

J ' f bench-covers and 

feire y-sprad, cushions, 

bobe hedshete & pillow also, bat ]>e[y] be saaff J^^ 6 ^ 

vp stad, 
the vrnelle & bason also that they awey be had. remove the rinal 

and basin, 
[Fol. 185.] 

Se the carpettis about be bed be forth spred & lay carpets round 

the bed, and with 


928 wyndowes & cuppeborde with carpettw & S 

cosshyns splayd ; cupboard " 

. . , have a fire laid. 

Se fer be a good fyre in J?e chambur conveyed, 
with wood & fuelle redy ]?e fuyre to bete & aide. 

Se be privehouse for esement 2 be fayre, soote, & Keep the Privy 

sweet and clean, 

932 & bat be border ber vppon/be keuered withe cover the boards 

with green cloth, 

clothe feyre & grene, 

1 Henry VII. had a fustian and sheet under his feather bed, 
over the bed a sheet, then ' the over fustian above,' and then ' a 
pane of ermines' like an eider-down quilt. 'A head sheete of 
raynes ' and another of ermines were over the pillows. After the 
ceremony of making the bed, all the esquires, ushers, and others 
present, had bread, ale, and wine, outside the chamber, ' and soe 
to drinke altogether.' H. Ord. p. 122. 

2 A siege house, sedes excrementorum. A draught or priuie, 
latrina. Withals. 


so that uo wood 
shows at the hole; 
put a cushion 

and have some 
blanket, cotton, or 
linen to wipe on ; 

have a basin, 
jug, and towel, 
ready for your 

lord to wash when 
he leaves the 


& be hoole / hym self, looke jjer no borde be sene, 
feron a feire quoschyn / j?e ordoure no rnah to 

looke \er be blanket / cotyn / or lynyfi to wipe 

)>e nejwr ende l 

and euer when he clepithe, wayte redy & entende, 
basou/i and ewere, & on your shuldur a towelle, 

my frende 2 ; 
In j)is wise worship shalle ye wyn / where \a\ 

euer ye wende 

In the Wardrobe 
take care to keep 
the clothes well, 
and brush 'em 

with a soft brush 

at least once a 

for fear of moths. 

Look after your 
Drapery and 

be warderobe ye must muche entende 
940 the robes to kepe well / & also to brusche 

bein clenly ; 
with the ende of a soft brusche ye brusche bern 


and yet ouer moche bruschynge werethe cloth 

lett neuer wollyn cloth ne furre passe a seuenyght 
944 to be vnbrosshen & shakyn / tend berto aright, 
for moughtes be redy euer in beni to gendur & a- 

li^t ; 
berfore to drapery / & skynnery euer haue ye a 


1 An arse Vii&ye, penicillum, -li, vel anitergmm. Withals. From a 
passage in "William of Malmesbury's autograph De Gestis Pontijicum 
Anglorum it would seem that water was the earlier cleanser. 

2 In the MS. this line was omitted by the copier, and inserted 
in red under the next line by the corrector, who has underscored all 
the chief words of the text in red, besides touching up the capital 
and other letters. 

8 See the Warderober,' p. 37, and the ' office of Warderobe of 
Kobes,' in H. Ord. p. 39. 


youre souerayn aftir mete / his stoniak to digest if your lord win 

948 yef he wille take a slepe / hym self J>ere for to immeai, 


looke bothe kercheff & combe / bat ye haue bere have ready 

kerchief, comb. 

bothe pillow & hedshete / for hym be[y] must be i>mow and head- 


drest ; 

yet be ye nott ferre hym fro, take tent what y say, 
952 For moche slepe is not medcynable in myddis of 2^\J?ioSj) 

J>e day. 
wayte J?at ye haue watur to wasche / & towelle water and towel. 

alle way 
aftur slepe and sege / honeste will not hit denay. 

Yi han youre souerayne hathe supped / & to when he goes to 

chamber takithe his gate, 
95G fan sprede forthe youre fote shete / like as y lered JjJ-jJJJjJ out the 

yow late ; 
than his gowne ye gadir of, or garment of his 2 - Take off your 

by his licence / & ley hit vpp in suche place as and put it away. 

ye best wate. 

vppon his bak a mawtell ye ley / his body to *J cloak on 

kepe from cold, 
960 Set hym on his fote shete l / made redy as y yow J 


his shon, sokkis, & hosyn/to draw of be ye bolde; ^ef 
]>e hosyn on youre shuldyr cast / on vppon jour bre ^o 1 es> 185 b ] 


youre souereynes hed ye kembe / but furst ye 7 combhia head, 

knele to ground j 

964 ))e kercheff and cappe on his hed / hit wolde be J^^J? 
warmely wounde ; nightcap, 

1 JJQ lord^ schalle shyft hys govrne at ny^t, 
Syttand on foteshete tyl he be dy^t. 

The Boke of Curtasye, 1. 487-8. 



9. Have the bed, 
and headsheet, 
&c., ready, 

10. Draw the 
1L Set the night- 

12. Drive out 
dogs and cats, 

13. Bow to your 

14. Keep the 
night-stool and 
urinal ready for 
whenever he calls, 

and take it back 
when done with. 

How to prepare 
a Bath. 

Hang round the 
roof, sheets 

full of sweet 


have five or six 

sponges to sit or 

lean on, 



his bed / y-spred / be shete for be hed / be 

pelow prest fat stounde, 
fat when youre souereyn to bed shall go / to 

slepe fere saaf & sounde, 

The curteyns let draw f em f e bed round about ; 
se his morter } with wax or perchere 2 fat it go not 

owt ; 
dryve out dogge and catte, or els gene fern a 

Of youre souerayne take no leue 3 ; / but low to 

hym alowt. 

looke fat ye haue f e bason for chambur & also 

f e vrnalle 

redy at alle howres when he wille clepe or calle : 
his nede performed, f e same receue agayn ye 

& f us may ye haue a thank / & reward when fat 

euer hit falle. 

& ba% jor sitbr* so 

youre souerayne wills to fe bathe, his 
body to wasche clene, 
976 hang shetis round about fe rooif ; do thus as y 

meene ; 

euery shete full of flowres & herbis soote & grene, 
and looke ye haue sponges .v. or vj. feron to 
sytte or lene : 

1 Morter . . a kind of Lamp or Wax-taper. Mortarium (in 
old Latin records) a Mortar, Taper, or Light set in Churches, to 
hurn over the Graves or Shrines of the Dead. Phillips. 

2 Perchers, the Paris-Candles formerly ns'd in England ; also 
the higger sort of Candles, especially of Wax, which were com- 
monly set upon the Altars. Phil. 

3 The Boke of Curtasye (1. 519-20) lets the (chief) usher who 
puts the lord to hed, go his way, and says 

^omow vssher he -fore \>e dore 
In vtter chamhwr lies on J>e flora. 


looke \er be a gret sponge, J)er-on youre souer- and one s^*^ 

ayne to sytt ; 

980 feron a shete, & so he may bathe hym fere a with a sheet over 

vndir his feete also a sponge, ^iff her be any to JjJ e ft p B JJJt 

and alwey be sure of )je dur, & se fat he be shutt. ^md the door's 

A basyn full in youre hand of herbis hote & J^J^ 11 of 

984 & with a soft sponge in hand, his body bat ye wash him with a 

soft sponge. 

wasche ; 
Kynse hym with rose watur warme & feire * h 1 ^ w n rose " water 

vppon hym flasche, 
]>en lett hym go to bed / but looke it be soote & let him go to bed. 

nesche ; 
but furst sett on his sokkis, his slvppers on his Put his socks 

and slippers on, 

988 J>at he may go feyre to J>e fyre, J?ere to take his stand him on his 

fote shete, 
ban withe a clene clothe / to wype awey all wete ; wiDe him dry. 

I 3r J > take him to bed 

than brynge hym to his bed, his bales there to to cure his 

J ' J troubles. 



" Holy hokke / & yardehok 2 / pentory 3 / and . C Fo1 - 186 -1 
J)e brown fenelle, 4 hollyhock 

1 See note at end. Mr Gillett, of the Vicarage, Runham, Filby, 
Norwich, sends me these notes on the herhs for this Bathe Medicin- 
able : " 2 YARDEHOK = Mallow, some species. They are all more 
or less mucilaginous and emollient. If Yarde = Virgo, ; then it 
is Marshmallow, or Malva Sylvestris ; if yarde = erde, earth ; then 
the rotundifolia. 3 PARITORY is Pellitory of the wall, parietaria. 
Wall pellitory abounds in nitrate of potass. There are two other 
pellitories : ' P. of Spain ' this is Pyrethrum, which the Spanish 
corrupted into pelitre, and we corrupted pelitre into pellitory. The 
other, bastard-pellitory, is Achillea Ptarmica.* BROWN FENNELLE 
= probably Peucedanum offieinale, Hog's fennel, a dangerous plant ; 



centaury, 992 walle wort 5 / herbe lohn 6 / Sentory 7 / rybbe- 

wort 8 / & camamelle, 
herb-benet, h e y hove 9 / heyriff 10 / herbe benet 11 / brese- 

wort 12 / & smallache, 13 

certainly not Anethum Graveolens, which is always dill, dyle, dile, 
&c. 8 RYBBEWORT, Plantago lanceolata, mucilaginous. 9 HEYHOVE 
= Glechoma hederacea, bitter and aromatic, abounding in a principle 
like camphor. ! HEYRIFF= harif= Galium Aparine, and allied 
species. They were formerly considered good for scorbutic diseases, 
when applied externally. Lately, in France, they have been admin- 
istered internally against epilepsy. 12 BRESEWOBT ; if = brisewort 
or bruisewort, it would be Sambucus Ebulus, but this seems most un- 
likely. BROKE LEMPK = brooklime. Veronica Beccabunga, formerly 
considered as an anti-scorbutic applied externally. It is very 
inert. If a person fed on it, it might do some good, i.e. about a 
quarter of the good that the same quantity of water-cress would do. 
BILGRES, probably = henbane, hyoscysmus niger. Compare 
Dutch [Du. Bilsen, Hexham,] and German Bilse. Bil = byle = boil, 
modern. It was formerly applied externally, with marsh-mallow 
and other mucilaginous and emollient plants, to ulcers, boils, &c. 
It might do great good if the tumours were unbroken, but is 
awfully dangerous. So is Peucedanum officinale. My Latin names 
are those of Smith : English Flora. Babington has re-named them, 
and Bcntham again altered them. I like my mumpsimus better 
than their sumpsimus." 

2 ' The common Mallowe, or the tawle wilde Mallow, and the 
common Hockes' of Lyte's Dodoens, 1578, p. 581, Malua sylvestris, 
as distinguished from the Malua sativa, or " Rosa vltramarina, that 
is to say, the Beyondesea Rose, in Frenche, Jtfaulue de iardin or 
cultiuee . . in English, Holyhockes, and great tame Mallow, or 
great Mallowes of the Garden." The " Dwarffe Mallowe . . is 
called Malua syluestris pumila." 

3 Peritory,parietaria, vrseolaris, vel astericum. "Withals. 

4 ? The sweet Fennel, Anethum Graveolens, formerly much used in 
medicine (Thomson). The gigantic fennel is (Ferula] Assafatida. 

5 Sambucus ebulus, Danewort. See Mr Gillett's note for Book 
of Quintessence in Hampole's Treatises. Fr. hieble, Wallwort, 
dwarfe Elderne, Danewort. Cotgr. 

Erbe Ion', or Seynt lonys worte. Perforata, fuga demonum, 
ypericon. P. Parv. 7 Centaury. 

8 Ribwort, arnoglossa. Ribwoort or ribgrasse, plantago. Withals. 
Plantain petit. Ribwort, Ribwort Plantaine, Dogs-rib, Lambes- 
tongue. Cotgrave. Plantago lanceolata, AS. ribbe. 

10 Haylife, an herbe. Palsgr. Galium aparine, A.S. hegerifan 
corn, grains of hedgerife (hayreve, or hayreff), are among the herbs 
prescribed in Leechdoms, v. 2, p. 346, for "a salve against the elfin 
race & nocturnal [goblin] visitors, & for the woman with whom 


broke lempk l / Scabiose 2 / Bilgres / wildflax / scabious, 
is good for ache ; 

wethy leves / grene oies / boyled in fere fulle soft, withy leaves ; 
996 Cast bem. hote in to a vesselle / & sett youre throw them hot 
soverayn alloft, 

and suffire bathete a while as hoot as he may a-bide; y ur lord on !*: 
se bat place be couered welle ouer / & close on hot as he can. 
euery side ; 

and what dissese ye be vexed wz'tft, grevaunce Jj 

outer peyn, 
1000 bis medicyne shalle make yow hoole surely, as 

menseyn." mmmm* 

4 my lorde, my master, of lilleshulle abbot 4 

"Fllhe office of a coraiynge vschere or mar- 
shalle w^t/i-owt fable 

the devil hath carnal commerce." u Herba Benedicta. Avens. 

12 Herbe a foulon. Fullers hearbe, Sopewort, Mocke-gillouers, 
Bruisewort. Cotgrave. "AS. 1. brysewyrt, pimpernel, anagallis. 
Anagattis, brisewort." Gl. Rawlinson, c. 506, Gl. Harl. 3388. 
Leechdoms, vol. 1, p. 374. 2. Bellis perennis, MS. Laud. 553, fol. 
9. Plainly for Hembriswyrt, daisy, AS. dceges cage. " Consolida 
minor. Daysie is an herbe )?at sum men callet hembrisworte o)?er 
bonewort." Gl. Douce, 290. Cockayne. Leechdoms, v. 2, Glossary. 

13 Persil de marais. Smallage ; or, wild water Parseley. Cot. 

1 Brokelyme fabaria. Withals. Veronica Becabunga, Water- 
Speedwell. ' Hleomoce, Hleomoc, brooklime (where lime is the Saxon 
name (Uleorftoc] in decay), Veronica beccabunff a, Vfith V. anagallis , . 
" It waxeth in brooks " . . Both sorts Lemmike, Dansk. They were 
the greater and the less " brokelemke," Gl. Bodley, 536. " Fabaria 
domestica lemeke." Gl. Rawl. c. 607. . . Islandic Lemiki. Cockayne. 
Gloss, to Lecchdoms, v. 2. It is prescribed, with the two cent- 
auries, for suppressed menses, and with pulegium, to bring a dead 
child away, &c. Ib. p. 331. 

2 Scabiosa, the Herb Scabious, so call'd from its Virtue in 
curing the Itch ; it is also good for Impostumes, Coughs, PL-urisy, 
Quinsey, &c. Phillips. 

3 See the duties and allowances of The Gentylmen Usshers of 
Chaumbre .1111. of Edw. IV., in H, Ord. p. 37; and the duties of 
Henry VIII's Knight Marshal, ib. p. 150. 

*- 4 This line is in a later hand. 


He must know 
the rank and pre- 
cedence of all 

I. 1. The Pope. 

2. Emperor. 

3. King. 

4. Cardinal. 

5. Prince. 

6. Archbishop. 

7. Royal Duke. 

II. Bishop, &c. 1012 

III. 1. Viscount. 
2. Mitred abbot. 

3. Three Chief 

4. Mayor of 

IV. (The Knight's 

1. Cathedral 
Prior. Knight 

2. Dean, Arch- 

3. Master of the 

4. Puisn6 Judge. 

5. Clerk of the 

8. Mayor of 

[Fol. 186 b.] 

7. Doctor of 

8. Prothonotary. 

9. Pope's Legate. 

must know alle estates of the church goodly & 

1004 and J>e excellent estate of akynge with his blode 

honorable : 

hit is a notable nurture / cownynge, curyouse, 
and commendable. 

TljC )J0)J hath no peere ; 
f Emperowre is nex hym euery where ; 
Kynge corespondent; jms nurture shalle yow 

highe Cardynelle, j>e digny te dothe requere ; 

Kyngis sone, prynce ye hym Calle ; 
Archebischoppe is to hym pe?-egalk. 
Duke of J)e blode royalle, 
bishoppe / Marques / & erle / coequalle. 

y ycount / legate / baroune / suffrigan / abbot 

wiih mytwr feyre, 
barovn of J?eschekere/ iij. ]>e cheff Justice^ / of 

london ]?e meyre ; 
Pryoure Cathedralle, myt?/r abbot without / 

a knyght bachillere 
Pnoure / deane / archedekon f a knyght / JJG 

body Esquyere, 

Mastir of the rolles / ri^t ]jus ryken y, 
Vndir Justice may sitte hym by : 
Clerke of the crowne / & theschekere Con- 

1020 l^Meyre of Calice ye may preferre plesauntly. 

r Provyncialle, & doctur diuyne, 
Prothonotwr, aper^li to-gedur J>ey may dyne. 

J}Q popes legate or collectoure, to-gedwr ye 




Doctur of botne lawes, beynge in science digne. v. (The squire's 

IT i o i -i l - Doc tor of 

Xlym J>at hath byn meyre / & a londynere, Laws. 
Sargeaunt of lawe / he may with hym com- London. 

3. Serjeant of 

pere ; Law. 

The mastirs of the Chauncery with comford & * Masters of 



jpe worshipfulle prechoure of pardoun in J?at c. Preacher, 
place to appere. 

The clerkes of connynge that han takeil degre, 


And alle otliur ordurs of chastite chosyn, & also 7 - other 

of pouerte, 
alle parsons & vicaries pat ar of dignyte, s. Parsons and 


1032 parische prestes kepynge cure, vn-to ]?emloke ye 9. Parish Priests. 

For )>e baliffes of a Cite purvey ye must a space, 10. city Bailiffs. 
A yeman of be crowne / Sargeaunt of armes vriih n. Serjeant at 



A herrowd of Armes as gret a dygnyte has, 12. Heralds 

1036 Specially kynge harrawd / must haue J?e pn'nci- Herald has first 

11 i place), 

palle place ; 

Worshipfulle me?*chaundes and riche artyficeris, 13. Merchants, 

Gentilmen welle nurtured & of good maneris, H. Gentlemen. 

WOh gentilwommen / and namely lordes nur- 15 - Gentlewomen 

1040 alle these may sit at a table of good squyeris. " eafc with 

T o, son, y haue shewid the aftwr my symple i have now told 

euery state aftir J?eire degre, to )>y knowleche y 

shalle commytte, 
and how pey shalle be semed, y shalle shew the and now I'll ten 


3 ett, 
1044 in what place aftwr beire dignyte how bev owght how they may be 

grouped at table. 

to sytte : 



*** eS 


I. Pope, King. 
and Duke. 

II. Bishop, Mar- 
quis, Viscount, 

III. The Mayor 
of London, Baron, 
Mitred Abbot, 
three Chief 
Justices, Speaker, 

may sit together, 
two or three at a 

IV. The other 
ranks (three or 
four to a mess) 

equal to a 



unmitred Abbot, 

Dean. Master of 1060 
the Rolls, 

[Fol. 187.] 
under Judges, 

Doctor of 



Mayor of Calais. 1064 

V. Other ranks 
equal to a Squire, 
four to a mess. 

Pope, Emperowre / kynge or cardynalk, 
Prynce with goldyn rodde Koyalle, 

( Archebischoppe / vsyng to were J?e palle, 
Duke / alle Jjese of dygnyte ow^t not kepe ]?e 

I hall*. 

Bisshoppes, Merques, vicount, Erie goodly, 
May sytte at .ij. messe^ yf j?ey be lovyngely. 
J>e meyre of london, & a baron, an abbot myterly, 
the iij. chef lustice^, J>e spekere of J?e parlement, 

alle these Estates ar gret and honorable, 
J>ey may sitte in Chambur or halle at a table, 
.ij. or els iij. at a messe / ^eff fey be greable : 
Jms may ye in youre office to euery man be 

Of alle o]>er estates to a messe / iij. or iiij. Jms 

may ye sure, 
And of alle estatis ]?at ar egalle wiih a knyght / 

digne & demure, 
Off abbot & pn'oure saunc} mytwr, of convent 

)?ey han cure ; 
Deane / Archedecon, mastwr of J>e rolles, aftwr 

youre plesure, 
Alle the vndirlustice^ and barouwes of ]>e kynges 

a provincialle / a doctoure devine / or bo))e 

lawes, Jms yow lere, 
A prothonotwr aperfli, or J?e popis collectoure, if 

he be there, 
Also Jje meyre of J?e stapulle / In like purpose 

Jjer may appere. 
Of alle ojwr estates to a messe ye may sette 

foure / & foure, 
as suche persones as ar peregalle to a squyere of 

honoure : 


Sargeaundes of lawe / & hyfii fat hath byii meyre Serjeants of Law. 

of london aforne, London, 

1068 and fe mastyrs of fe chauncery, fey may not be Masters of 

Alle prechers / residencers / and persones fat 

ar greable, 

Apprentise of lawe In courtis pletable, Apprentices of 

Marchaundes & Frankloii}, worshipfulle & 

1072 fey may be set semely at a squyers table. 

These worthy l Estates a-foreseid / high of re- 

Vche Estate syngulerly in halle shalle sit a- 

that none of hem se othure / at mete tyme in 

feld nor in towne, another - 

1076 but vche of fern self in Chambur or in pavil- 


Yeff f e bischoppe of f e provynce of Caunturbury 
be in f e presence of the archebischoppe of yorke 

reuerently, bishop of York, 

Jjeire seruice shalle be kouered / vche bisshoppe 


1080 and in fe presence of fe metropolytane none Joiltan^ne 
of er sicurly. 

yeff bischopps of yorke provynce be fortune be yor k Bishop of 

In f e presence of J>e pr?'mate of Englond fan JSforeThe 6 ** 

beynge, Primate of 

J ' England. 

fey must be couered in alle f eyre seruynge, 
1084 and not in presence of fe bischoppe of yorke 
fere apperynge. 

, son, y perceue fat for dyuerse cawses / Sometimes 
as welle as for ignorauwce, 

a merchalle is put oft tymes in gret comberaunce a Marshal is 
1 royally is written over worthy. 


puzzled by Lords For som loi\\es j)at ar of blod royalle / & litelle 

of royal blood ' 

being poor, and of ly velode per chaunce, 

others not royal 

being rich; 1088 and some of gret lyvelode / & no blode royalle 
to avaunce; 

And som knyght is weddid / to a lady of royalle 

ing a knight. , , , 

and vice versd. DlOCle, 

and a poore lady to blod ryalle, manfulle & 
myghty of mode : 

f bl d r alle slialle 

keep her rank ; sne a f ore i n 

the Lady of low 

""* estate, y make h^t good. 

wwSIy L fa ro i" ^ e su ^ stauwce f lyvelode is not so digne / as 

blood ' is blode royalle, 

prevali^wer the jperfore blode royalle opteyneth fe souereynte in 

former ' chambur & in halle, 

for royal blood jr or blode royalle somtvnie ti^t to be kynge in 

may become King. 

palle ; 
1096 of fe whiche matere y meve no more : let god 

gouerne alle ! 
The parent* of a .There as pope or cardynalle in beire estate 

Pope or Cardinal 


fat han fadur & modur by theire dayes lyvynge, 
must not prewune feire fadur or modir ne may in any wise be pre- 

the? "on' 7 wUh ^^ to be e S a ^ e w ^ theire son standynge ne sit- 

tynge : 
and must not Therfore fadir ne moder / bey owe not to desire 

want to sit by 

him - to sytte or stond by Jjeyre son / his state wille 

hit not require, 
but by Jjem self / a chambur assigned for them 


1104 Vn-to whom vche office ought gladly to do 

look to the rank To the birthe of vche estate a mershalle must se, 

and |>eft next of his lyne / for ]>eyre dignyte ; 


J>en folowynge, to officers afftere feire degre, 
1108 As chauncelere, Steward / Chamburleyn / 
tresorere if he be : 

More ouer take hede he must / to aliene / com- and d honour 

to foreign visitors 

mers straungeres, 
and to straungers of jjis land, resi[d]ent dwell- and residents. 

and exalte fern to honoure / if j>e be of honest 

maneres ; 
1112 J>en alle oj>er aftur jjeire degre / like as cace 


In a manerable mershalle be co/mynge is moost A well-trained 


to haue a fore sight to straungers, to sett bem at should think 

beforehand where 
J>6 table ; to place strangers 

For if J>ey haue gentille chere / & gydynge 


1116 ]?e mershalle doth his souereyn honoure / & he 
J>e more lawdable. 

Tf 3eff Jjow be a mershalle to any lord of J>is land, if the King sends 

any messenger to 

ylf ]?e kynge send to J>y souereyn eny his seruand your Lord 



by sand, 

yoman of ]>e crown 
I Childe 

f baroun honorand receive him one 

_ _ , degree higher 

Kliyght With hand than his rank. 


yeman in manere 
grome goodly in fere 
grome gentille lernere. 

1125 If. hit rebuketh not a knyght / be knyges grome to The King's groom 

may dine with a 

sytte at his table, Knight or 


no more hit dothe a mershalle of manors plesable ; 

and so from jje hiest degre / to J>e lowest honor- 

1128 if j>e mershalle haue a sight J>erto, he is com- 



A Marshal must 

also understand 

the rank of 
Borough Officers. 

and that a Knight 

of blood and 
property is above 

a poor Knight, 
the Mayor of 


above the Mayor 

of Queenborough, 

the Abbot of 

above the poor 

[FoL 188^]' 

^[ Wisdom wolle a mershalle manerabely bat he 

alle j}6 worshipfulle officers of the comunialte 

of jjis land, 
of Shires / Citees / borowes ; like as J?ey ar 


1132 J>ey must be sett aftwr ]>eire astate dewe in degre 
as J>ey stand. 

T hit belongethe to a mershalle to haue a fore sight 
of alle estatis of J>is land in euery place pight, 
For bestate of a knyght of blode, lyvelode. & 


1136 is not peregalle to a symple & a poouere knyght. 
^T Also be meyre of londofi, notable of dignyte, 
and of oueneborow l be meire, no bynge like in 


at one messe J?ey owght in no wise to sitt ne be ; 
1140 hit no fynge besemethe / Jjerfore to suche semble 
ye se / 

II Also be abbote of Westmynstere, be hiest of \>is 

lande / 

The abbot of tynterne 2 fe poorest, y vndirstande, 
J>ey ar bojje abbotes of name, & not lyke of fame 
to fande ; 

1 Queenborough, an ancient, but poor town of Kent, in the Isle 
of Sheppey, situated at the mouth of the river Medway. The chief 
employment of the inhabitants is oyster-dredging. Walker's 
Gazetteer, by Kershaw, 1801. 

2 The Annual Receipts of the Monastery " de Tinterna in 
Marchia Wallie," are stated in the Valor Eccl. vol. iv. p. 370-1, 
and the result is 

s. d. 

Summa. totolis dare valom dec' predict' cclviij v x ob' 

Decima inde xxv xvj vj ob'q' 

Those of the Monasterium Sancti Petri Westm. are given at v. 1, 
p.'410 24, and their net amount stated to be 4470 2d. 

s. d. 

Et remanw* clare MlMlMHiijclxx ij q' 

Decima inde iij c xlvij q' 


1144 $et Tynterne with Westmynster shalle no\vber 

sitte ne stande. 
^f Also be Pryoure of Caunturbury, 1 a cheff churche *k**jjj f 

of dignyte, 
And be prioure of Dudley, 2 no bynge so digne Jj 10 the Prior of 

as lie : 

$et may not be prioure of dudley, symple of degre, 
1148 Sitte with be prioure of Caunturbury : ber is 
why, a dyuersite. 

T And remerabre euermore / an rule per is 

generalle : 
A pn'oure bat is a prelate of any churche Cathe- ^J^J f ^ ho is 

dralle Cathedral Church 

above any Abbot 

above abbot or prioure with-in the diocise sitte or Prior of his 


he shalle, 

1152 In churche / in chapelle / in chambur / & in 

If Eight so relief-end docturs, degre of xij. yere, bem 

ye must assigne 
to sitte aboue hym / bat commensed hath but .ix. above one of 9 

(though the latter 

and Jjaugh'e fe yonger may larger spend gold red be the richer), 

& fyne, 
1156 $et shalle be eldur sitte aboue / whejmr he 

drynke or dyne. 
^f like wise the aldremen, 3ef bey be eny where, the old Aldermen 

1 The clear revenue of the Deanery of Canterbury (Decan* Can- 
tnar') is returned in Valor Eccl. v. 1, p. 2732, at 163 2 Id. 

s. d. 

Hem' clxiij xxi 

Decima pars inde xvj yj ij 

while that of Prioratus de Dudley is only 

s. d. 

Swmma de claro xxxiiij xvj 

Decima pars inde iij viij j ob'q' 

Valor Ecclesiasticus, v. 3, p. 104-5. 

2 Dudley, a town of Worcestershire, insulated in Staffordshire, 
containing about 2000 families, most of whom are employed in the 
manufacture of nails and other iron wares. Walker, 1801. 


above the youug J>e yongere shalle si tie or stande bonethe J>e 

ones, and , , . 

elder ri$t J>ere ; 

1. the Master of a and of eucry crafft Jje mastir aftur rule & manere, 

2. the ex-warden. 1J60 and )>eii J>e eldest of fern, J>at warden was J>e 

fore yere. 

^[ Soche poyntes, w/t/i many o]?er, belongethe to a 

mershall ; 
Before every feast, berfore whensoeuer youre sovereyn a feest make 

then, think what 

people are coming, Snail, 

their order of demcene what estates shalle sitte in the hall, 

precedence is to 

be. 1164 Jjan reson w/t/i youre self lest youre lord yow 


^[ Thus may ye devise youre niarshallyng?, like as 

y yow lere, 
Jje honoure and worshippe of youre souereyn 

euery where ; 
if in doubt, And ^eff ye haue eny dowt / euer looke J>t ye 

ask your lord or 1168 Rcsorte euer to youre souereyne / or to be cheflf 

the chief officer, 

officere ; 
*nd then you'll do ^[ Thus shalle ye to any state / do wronge ne pre- 

wrong to no one, 

but set ail to sette eue?y persone accordynge wit/i-owten 

according to their as aftur be birthe / livelode / dignite / a-fore y 

birth and dignity. 

taught yow this, 
1172 alle degrees of highe officere, & worthy as he is. 

NOW i have told T T^Tow good son, y haue shewed the / & 

you of J3| 

brought J>e m vre, 
court Manners, to know )?e Curtesie of court / & these Jjow may 

how to manage , , 

take in cure, 
in Pantry. In pantry / boterv / or eel lere / & in kervynge 

Buttery, Carving, 

and as Bewer, a-fore a sovereyne demewre, 

nd Marshal, H7g ^ sewer / or a mershalle : in j>es science / y sup- 
pose ye byn sewre, 


If Which in my dayes y lernyd withe a prynce fulle as i leamt with a 

Royal Prince 

with whom vschere in chambur was y, & mer- whose Usher and 

, ,, , . -, ,, Marshal I was. 

shalle also in halle, 
vnto whom alle jjese officers foreseid / j>ey euer xii other officers 

entercde shalle, 

1180 Evir to fulfille my commaundement when jjat y hare to obey me. 
to J>em calle : 

For we may allow & dissalow / oure office is be Our office is the 

r chief, 

In cellere & spicery / & the Cooke, be he loothe whe ther the Cook 

J ' likes it or not. 

or leeff. 1 
If Ihus he diligences of dynerse officer v haue f Fo1 - 188 b -J 

All these offices 

shewed to be allone, ma y be filled b y 

one man, 

1184 the which science may be shewed & doon by 

a syngeler a persone ; 
but be dignyte of a prince reqm'rethe vche office but a Princes 

dignity requires 
must haue OOfi each office to 

to be rewlere in his rome / a seruaund hym a 

waytyngeon. under him, 

^f Moore-ouer h^t requirethe ene ?*ich of Jjem in office (an knowing 

.. . their duties 

to haue perfite science, perfectly) 

1188 For dowt and drede doynge his souereyn dis- 

hym to attende, and his gQstis to plese in place to wait on their 

where J?ey ar presence, hiTgu a e s?s. Plet 

that his souereyn jjroughe his seruice may make 

grete corigaudence. 

^[ For a prynce to serue, ne dowt he not / and god Don't fear to serve 
be his spede ! 

1 Two lines are wanting here to make up the stanza. They 
must have been left out when the copier turned his page, and began 

2 The word in the MS. is syngle or synglr with a line through 
the/. It may be for syngnler, sim/ntus, i. unus per se, sunderly, 
vocab. in JRJ. Ant. v. 1, p. 9, col. 1. 


take good heea to 1192 Furber ban his office /& ber-to let hym take 

your duties, 

good hede, 
watch. and his warde wayte wisely // & euermore fer-in 

haue drede ; 
and you need not ])us doynge his dewte dewly, to dowte he shalltf 

not nede. 

mfifSlhosTof U~Tastynge and credence 1 longethe to blode & 

royal blood, birth royalle, 2 

as a Pope, 1196 As pope / emperoure / Emp^ra trice, and Car- 

kynge / queene / prynce / Archebischoppe in 

Duke, and Eari : Duke / Erie, and no mo / fat y to remembraunce / 


SSof Son; 11 Credence is vsed, & tastynge, for drede of poy- 


1200 To alle officers y-sworne / and grete othe by 
chargynge ; 

uroom secure ferfore vche man in office kepe his rome sewre, 

and close your 
safe, for fear of 

Cloos howse / chest / & gardevyan 3 , for drede 

of congettynge. 

1[ Steward and Chamburlayii of a prince of 


1204 fey haue / knowleche of homages, semice, and 
fewte ; 

of a lnoffice v s ersight so > e ^ haue ou ersight of euery office / aftwr 

feire degre, 

1 Credence as creance . . a taste or essay taken of another man's 
meat. Cotgravc. 

2 Compare The Boke of Curtasye, 1. 495-8, 

No mete for mow schalk sayed be 
Bot for kynge or prynce or duke so fre ; 
For heiers of paraunce also y-wys 
Mete shalk be seyed. 

3 Gardmangcr (Fr.) a Storehouse for meat. Blount, ed. 1681, 
Garde-viant, a Wallet for a Soldier to put his Victuals in. 
Phillipps, ed. 1701. 


by wrytynge be knowleche / & be Credence to and of tasting, 

ouerse ; 
^[ Therfore in makynge of his credence, it is to and they must 

drede, y sey, 
1208 To mershalle / se were 1 and kervere bey must ten the Marshal, 

Sewer, and Carver 

allowte allwey, 
to teche hyfii of his office / f e credence hym to how to do u - 

prey : 
Jms shalle he not stond in makynge of his cre- 

dence in no fray. 
IF Moore of bis comrynge y Cast not me to con- idon-t propose 

J to write more on 

treve : this matter - 

1212 my tyme is not to tary, hit drawest fast to eve. 

fis tretyse fat y haue entitled, if it ye entende J r ^ e this 

to preve, 
y assayed me self in youthe w/t7i-outen any myself, in niy 


while y was yonge y-noughe & lusty in dede, 
1216 y enioyed bese maters foreseid / & to lerne y ^e^ these 

toke good hede ; 
but croked age hathe co?%pelled me / & leue court but now a & e 

compels me to 
y mUSt liede. leave tfte court; 

ferfore, sone, assay thy self / & god shalle be fy so try yourself." 

" TVT W feire falle yow, fadur / & blessid mote "Blessing on you. 

J]U Father, for thia 

> ' ye be, 

1220 For fis comenynge / & J>e connynge / fat y[e] your teaching of 

haue here shewed me ! 
now dar y do seruice diligent / to dyuers of NOW i shall dare 

to serve 

where for scantnes of connyrcge y durst no man where before i 

was afraid. 


1 The Boke of Curtasye makes the Sewer alone assay or taste 
'alle the mete' (line 76376), and the Butler the drink (line 




[Foi. 189.] 

I will try. and 

shall learn by 

May God reward 

you for teaching 

Good Bon, and 

all readers of this 

Boke of Nurture, 

pray for the soul 

of me, John 
Russell, (servant 

Duke ofGtou- 

cester ;) also for 

the Duke, my 

wife, father, and 
mother, that we 

may all go to 

bliss when we 


So perfitely sethe y hit perceue / my parte y 

*,-, j 

wolle preue and assay ; 
1224 bobe by practike and exercise / yet som good 

lerne y may : 
and for youre gentille lernynge / y am bound 

euer to pray 
that oure lorde rewarde you in blis that lasteth 


a Wfow, good son. thy self with other bat 


shalle be succede, 
1228 whiche bus boke of nurture shalle note / lerne, 

& ouer rede, 
pray f or ^Q sowle of lohn Russelle, bat god 

do hym Hiede, 

Som tyme seruaunde with duke vmfrey, due J of 

GloWCetttr in dede. 

For bat prynce pereles praveth^ / & for suche 

other mo, 

1232 be sowle of my wife / my fadur and modir also, 
vn-to Mary modyr and mayd / she fende us 

from owre foe, 
an( j brynge vs alle to blis when we shalle hens 

J 6 

goo. AMEN." 

ail learners, 

and to the ex- 

i pray 

to correct its 


^ fcrifc lytdk boke, and lowly bow me 

1236 vnto alle yonge gentilmen / bat lust to lerne or 

an d specially to bem bat han exsperience, praynge 

fe[m] to amende 
and coiTecte bat is amysse, bere as y fawte or 


^| And if so bat any be founde / as broiq myn 

1 The due has a red stroke through it, probably to cut it out. 


1 240 Cast be cawse on my copy / rude / & bare of put to my copy- 

whiche to drawe out [I] liaue do my besy dili- which i have 

done as I best 

gence, could. 

redily to reforme hit / by reson and bettur 

If As for ryme or reson, be forewryter was not to The transcriber is 

not to blame ; 

1 244 For as he founde hit aforne hym, so wrote he he copied what 

was before him. 

be same, 
and baughe he or y in oure matere digres or 

blame neithur of vs / For we neuvre hit made : and "M*er of us 

wrote it, 

^T Symple as y had insight / somwhat be ryme y i only corrected 

the rhyme. 

correcte ; 
1248 blame y cowde no man / y haue nopersone sus- 


Now, good god, graunt vs grace / oure sowles God! grant us 
neuer to Infecte ! 

ban may we re<me in bi regiourc / eternally with to rule in Heaven 

with Thine elect ' 

thyne electe. 

[Some word or words in large black letter have been cut off at 
the bottom of the page.] 


1. 11-12. John Russell lets off his won't- learns very easily. Willy am 
Bulleyn had a different treatment for them. See the extract from him on 
" Boxyng & Neckweede " after these Notes. 

1. 49. See the interesting " Lord Fairfax's Orders for the Servants of his 
Houshold " [after the Civil Wars], in Bishop Percy's notes to the Northum- 
berland Household Book, p. 421-4, ed. 1827. 

1. 51. Chip . 'other .ij. pages .... them oweth to chippe bredde, but not 
too nye the crumme.' H. Ord. p. 71-2. The " Chippings of Trencher-Brede " 
in Lord Percy's household were used " for the fedyinge of my lords houndis." 
Percy H. Book, p. 353. 

1. 56. Trencher bread. ITEM that the Trencher Brede be maid of the Meale 
as it cummyth frome the Milne. Percy Household Book,ip. 58. 

1. 66. Cannell, a Spout, a tap, a cocke in a conduit. Epistomium. Vne 
canelle, vn robinet. Baret. 

1. 68. Faucet. Also he [the yeoman of the Butler of Ale] asketh allow- 
aunce for tubbys, treyes, wAfaucettes, occupied all the yeare before. H. 
Ord. p. 77. 

I. 74. Figs. A, Borde, Introduction, assigns the gathering of figs to " the 
Mores whych do dwel in Barbary," . . " and christen men do by them, & they 
wil be diligent and wyl do al maner of seruice, but they be set most comonli 
to vile things ; they be called slaues, thei do gader grapes and fygges, and 
with some of the fygges they wyl wip ther tayle, & put them in the frayle." 
Figs he mentions under Judaea. " lury is called y e lande of lude, it is a noble 
countre of ryches, plenty of wine & corne. . . Figges and Raysions, & all 
other frutes." In his Regyment, fol. M. iii., Borde says of ' Fygges. . They 
doth stere a man to veneryous actes, for they doth auge and increase the 
seede of generacion. And also they doth prouoke a man to sweate : wherfore 
they doth ingendre lyce.' 

II. 74-95. Chese. 'there is iiij. sortes of Chese, which is to say, grene 
Chese, softe chese, harde chese, or spermyse. Grene chese is not called 
grene by y e reason of colour, but for y e newnes of it, for the whay is not 
half pressed out of it, and in operacion it is colde and moyste. Softe chese 
not to new nor to olde, is best, for in operacion it is hote and moyste. 


Harde chese is hote and drye, and euyll to dygest. Spermyse is a Chese the 
whiche is made with curdes and with the luce of herbes. . Yet besydes these 
.iiij natures of chese, there is a chese called a Irweue [rewene, ed. 1567] 
chese, the whiche, if it be well ordered, doth passe all other cheses, none 
excesse taken.' A. Borde, Reg. fol. I. i. See note on 1. 85. 

1. 78, 83. The Bill-berry or Windberri/, 11. Holme, Bk. II., p. 52, col. 1 ; 
p. 79, col. 1 ; three Wharl Berries or Bill-Berries . . They are termed 
Whortle Berries or Wind Berries, p. 81, col. 2. xxviii. See the prose 
Burlesques, Reliq. Aittiq., v. 1, p. 82. Why hopes thu nott for sotlie that 
ther stode wonus a coke on Seynt Pale stepull toppe, and drewe up the 
strapuls of his brech. How preves thu that? Be all the .iiij. doctors of 
Wynbere hi/lies, that is to saye, Vertas, Gadatryrne, Trumpas, and Dadyl- 

1. 79. Fruits. These officers make provysyons in seasons of the yere 
accordynge for fruytes to be had of the Kinges gardynes withoute prises ; 
as cherryes, peares, apples, nuttes greete and smalle, for somer season ; and 
lent en, wardens, quinces and other ; and also of presentes gevyn to the 
Kinge ; they be pourveyours of blaundrelles, pepyns, and of all other fruytes. 
H. Ord. p, 82. 

I. 80. Mr Dawson Turner's argument that the " ad album pulverem " 
of the Leicester Roll, A.D. 1265, was white sugar pounded (Pref. to House- 
hold Expenses, ed. 1841, p. li.), proves only that the xiiij lib. Zucari there 
mentioned, were not bought for making White powder only. 

II. 81-93. Crayme. ' Rawe crayme undecocted, eaten with strawberyes, 
or hurttes, is a rurall mannes basket. I haue knowe such bankettes hath 
put men in ieobardy of theyr lyues.' A. Borde, Regyment, fol. I. ij. 

1. 82, 1. 93. Junket. The auncient manner of grateful suitors, who, hauing 
prevailed, were woont to present the Judges, or the Reporters, of their causes, 
with Comfets or other Jonlcets. Cotgrave, w. espice. 

I. 85. Cheese. Whan stone pottes be broken, what is better to glew 
them againe or make them fast , nothing like the Symunt made of Cheese ; 
know therfore it will quickly build a stone in a drie body, which is ful of 
choler adust. And here in Englande be diuers kindes of Cheeses, as Suff. 
Essex, Banburie .&c. according to their places & feeding of their cattel, time 
of y e yere, layre of their Kine, clenlinesse of their Dayres, quantitie of their 
Butter ; for the more Butter, the worse Cheese. Bullein, fol. Ixxxv. 

1. 89. Butter. A. Borde, Introduction, makes the Flemynge say, 
Buttermouth Flemyng, men doth me call. 
Butter is good meate, it doth relent the gall. 

1. 94. Posset is hot Milk poured on Ale or Sack, having Sugar, grated 
Bisket, Eggs, with other ingredients boiled in it, which goes all to a Curd. 
R. Holme. 

1. 94. Poset ale is made with hote mylke and colde ale ; it is a temperate 
dry nke. A. Borde, Reg. G. iij. 

1. 52. Trencher. The College servant ' Scrape Trencher,' R. Holme, Bk. 
III., Chap, iv., p. 099 [199], notes the change of material from bread to 


1. 105. Hot wines & sweet or confectioned with spices, or very strong 
Ale or Beere, is not good at meales, for thereby the meat is rather corrupted 
then digested, and they make hot and stinking vapours to ascend vp to the 
braines. Sir Jn. Harrington. Pres. of Health, 1624, p. 23. 

1. 109. Reboyle. ' If any wynes be corrupted, reboylcd, or unwholsome for 
maimys body, then by the controller it to be shewed at the counting bourde, 
so that by assent all suche pypes or vesselles defectife be dampned and cast 
uppon the losses of the seyd chiefe Butler.' H. Ord. p. 73. 

1. 109. Lete, leek. 'Purveyoursof Wyne . . to ride and oversee the places 
there as the Kinges wynes be lodged, that it be saufely kept from peril of 
leekitiff and breaking of vessels, or lacke of hoopinge or other couperage, 
and all other crafte for the rackinge, coy ay age, rebatinge, and other salva- 
tions of wynes, &c.' H. Ord. p. 74. 

SWETE WYNES, p. 8, 1. 118-20.* 

a. Generally: 

Halliwell gives under Piment the following list of wines from MS. 
Rawlinson. C. 86. 

Malmasyes, Tires, and Rumneys, 

With Caperikis, Campletes f, and Osueys, 

Femtye, Cute, and Raspays also, 

Whippet and Pyngmedo, that that ben lawyers therto ; 

And I will have also wyne de Ryne, 

With new maid Clary e, that is good and fyne, 

Muscadell, Terantyne, and Bastard, 

With Ypocras and Pyment comyng afterwarde. 

MS. Rawl. C. 86. 
And under Malvesyne this : 

Ye shall have Spayneche wyne and Gascoyne, 

Rose coloure, whyt, claret, rampyon, 

Tyre, capryck, and mahesyne, 

Sak, raspyce, alycaunt, rumney, 

Greke, ipocrase, new made clary, 

Suche as ye never had. 

Interlude of the Tour Elements (uo date). 

Of the wine drunk in England in Elizabeth's time, Harrison (Holinshed's 
Chron. v. 1, p. 167, col. 2, ed. 1586) says, " As all estates doo exceed herin, I 
meane for strangenesse and number of costlie dishes, so these forget not to vse 
the like excesse in wine, in so much as there is no kind to be had (neither anie 
where more store of all sorts than in England, although we have none grow- 
ing with us, but yearlie to the proportion of 20,000 or 30,000 tun and 
vpwards, notwithstanding the dailie restreincts of the same brought over 
vnto vs) wherof at great meetings there is not some store to be had. 
Neither do I meane this of small wines onlie, as Claret, White, Red, French, 

* See Maison Rustique or The Country Farme, p. 630-1, as to the qualiticsof 
Sweet Wines. f See Campolet in " The Boke of Keruyng." 


&c. } which amount to about fiftie- six sorts, according to the number of 
regions from whence they come : but also of the thirtie kinds of Italian, 
Grecian, Spanish, Canarian, &c., whereof Vernage^ Gate, pument, Raspis, 
Muscadell, Ronnie, Bastard, Tire, Oseie, Caprike, Clareie, and Malmesie, are 
not least of all accompted of, bicause of their strength and valure. For as I 
haue said in meat, so the stronger the wine is, the more it is desired, by 
means wherof in old time, the best was called Theologicum, because it was 
had from the cleargie and religious men, vnto whose houses manie of the laitie 
would often send for bottels filled with the same, being sure that they would 
neither drinke nor be serued of the worst, or such as was anie waies mingled 
or brued by the vintener : naie the merchant would haue thought that his 
soule should haue gone streight-waie to the diuell, if he should haue serued 
them with other than the best." 

On Wine, see also Royal Rolls, B.M. 14 B. xix. 

/3. Specially: The following extracts are from Henderson's Histery of 
Ancient and Modern Wines, 1824, except where otherwise stated : 

1. Vernage was a red wine, of a bright colour, and a sweetish and 
somewhat rough flavour, which was grown in Tuscany and other parts of 
Italy, and derived its name from the thick-skinned grape, vernaccia (corre- 
sponding with the vinaciola of the ancients), that was used in the preparation 
of it (See Bacci. Nat. Vinor. Hist., p. 20, 02). It is highly praised by 

2. Vernagelle is not mentioned by Henderson. The name shows it to 
have been a variety of Vernage. 

3. 1. 118. Cute. " As for the cuit named in Latin Sapa, it commeth neere to 
the nature of wine, and in truth nothing els it is, but Must or new wine 
boiled til one third part and no more do remain ; & this cuit, if it be made 
of white Must is counted the better." Holland's Plinies Nat. Hist., p. 157. 
" (of the dried grape or raisin which they call Astaphis). . The sweet cuit 
which is made thereof hath a speciall power and virtue against the Hsemor- 
rhois alone, of all other serpents," p. 148. " Of new pressed wine is made 
the wine called Cute, in Latin, Sapa ; and it is by boiling the new pressed 
wine so long, as till that there remaine but one of three parts. Of new 
pressed wine is also made another Cute, called of the Latiues Defrutum, and 
this is by boiling of the new wine onely so long, as till the halfe part be con- 
sumed, and the rest become of the thicknesse of honey." Maison Rustique, 
p. 622. ' Cute. A.S. Caren, L. carenum, wine boiled down one-third, and 
sweetened.' Cockayne, Gloss, to Leechdoms. 

4. Pyment. In order to cover the harshness and acidity common to the 
greater part of the wines of this period, and to give them an agreeable flavour, 
it was not unusual to mix honey and spices with them. Thus compounded 
they passed under the generic name of piments,^ probably because they were 

* Vernage was made in the Genoese territory. The best was grown at San 
Gemignano, and in Bacci's time was in great request at Rome. The wine known as 
Vernaccia in Tuscany was always of a white or golden colour. Henderson, p. 396. 

t See the recipe for making Piment in Halliwell's Dictionary, s. v. 


originally prepared by the pigmentarii or apothecaries ; and they were used 
much in the same manner as the liqueurs of modern times. Hend. p. 283. 

The varieties of Piment most frequently mentioned are the 

Hippocras $ Clarry. The former was made with either white or red wine, 
in which different aromatic ingredients were infused ; and took its name from 
the particular sort of bag, termed Hippocrates's Sleeve, through which it 
was strained. . Clarry, on the other hand, which (with wine of Osey) we have 
seen noticed in the Act 5 Richard II. (St. 1, c. 4, vin doulce, ou clarre), 
was a claret or mixed wine, mingled with honey, and seasoned in much the 
same way, as may be inferred from an order of the 36th of Henry III. 
respecting the delivery of two casks of white wine and one of red, to make 
Clarry and other liquors for the king's table at York (duo dolia albi vini et 
garhiofilacum et unum dolium rubri vim a,d claretum faciendzm). Henderson, 
p. 284. Hippocras, vinum Aromaticum. Withals. "Artificiall stuffe, as 
ypocras & wormewood wine." Harrison, Descr. Brit., p. 167, col. 2, ed. 1586. 

Raspice. " Vin Rape," says Henderson, p. 286, note v> " a rough sweetish 
red wine, so called from its being made with unbruised grapes, which, having 
been freed from the stalks, are afterwards fermented along with them and a 
portion of other wine."* Ducange has Raspice. RASPATICIUM, Ex racemis 
vinum, cujus prseparationem tradit J. Wecker. Antidot. special, lib. 2, 6, 
page 518 et 519. Paratur autem illud ex raspatiis et vinaceis, una cum uvis 
musto immissis. Raspatia itaque sunt, quse Varroni et Columellse scopi, 
scopiones, sibenelegitur; unde nostrum Raste. Ducange, ed. 1845. Raspecia. . 
Sed ex relate longiori contextu palam est, Raspeciam nihil aliud esse quam 
vinum mixtis acinis aliisve modis renovatum, nostris vulgo Rape ; hujus- 
cemodi enim vinum alteration! minus obnoxium est, ut hie dicitur de Raspecia. 
Yide mox Raspetum, Vinum recentatum, Gallis Raspe. Charta Henrici Duels 
Brabantise pro Communia Bruxellensi ann. 1229 : Qui vinum supra uvas 
habuerit, quod Raspetum vocatur, in tavernis ipsum vendere non potest. Vide 
Recentatum. Ducange, ed. 1845. 

The highly-praised Raspatum of Baccius, p. 30-2, of which, after quoting 
what Pliny says of secondary wines, he declares, " id primiim animaduerti 
volumus a nostra posteritate, quod Lora Latinorum, quaw deuterium cum 
Graecis, et secundarium Vinum dixit Plinius, StvTtpia, seu TTOT-I/ZOV Dios- 
corides, quodque rpvybv vocauit Galenus, cum Aquatis quibus hodie vtimur in 
tota Italia, & cum nouo genere, quod a delectabili in gustu asperitate, Raspa- 
tum vocat ; similem omnes hse Voces habent significant iam factitii .s. ex aqua 
Vini, p. 30. Quod uini genus in Italia, ubi alterius uini copia non sit, 
parari simpliciter consuevit colore splendido rubentis purpurse, sapore 
austero, ac dulcacido primis mensibus mox tarnen exolescente, p. 31-2, &c. 
Raspice was also a name for Raspberries. Item, geuene to my lady Kingstone 
smitf>mte bringing Strawberes and Respeces to my ladys grace xij d. Privy 
Purse Expenses of tlie Princess Mart/, p. 31 ; and in his Glossary to this 

* Besides this meaning of rapt (same as raspt), Cotgrave gives first " A verie 
small wine comming of water cast uppon the mother of grapes which have been 
pressed ! " 


book Sir F. Madden says, ' In a closet for Ladies 12mo. London, 1854, is a 
receipt " To preserve Raspices" and they are elsewhere called " Raspis- 
berries." See " Delights for Ladies," 12mo. 1654.' 

6. Mmeadelle of Grew : Bastard : Greke : Malvesyu. " The wines which 
Greece, Languedoc, and Sapine doe send vs, or rather, which the delicacie 
and voluptuousnesse of our French throats cause to be fetched from beyond 
the Sea, such as are Sacks, Muscadels of Frontignan, Malmesies, Bastards 
(which seeme to me to be so called, because they are oftentimes adulterated 
and falsified with honey, as we see wine Hydromell to be prepared) and Cor- 
sick wines, so much vsed of the Romanes, are very pernicious unto vs, if we 
vse them as our common drinke. Notwithstanding, we proue them very 
singular good in cold diseases . . but chiefly and principally Malmesey." 
Stevens and Liebault's Maison Rustique, or The Countrey Farme, by 11. 
Surflet, reviewed by Gerv. Markham, 1616. Muscadell, vinum apianum. 
Withals. Mulsum, wine and honie sodden together, swiete wine, basterde or 
Muscadell. Withals. William Vaughan says, " Of Muscadell, Malmesie, and 
browne Bastard. These kindes of wines are onely for maried folkes, because 
they strengthen the back." Nat-urall and Artificial Directions for Health, 
1602, p. 9. 

Andrews Borde, of Physicke, Doctor, in his Regyment or Dyetary of 
helth made in Mou^tpylior, says, " Also these hote wynes, as Malmesey, wyne 
corse, wyne greke, Romanyke, Romney, Secke, Alygaunc, Basterde, Tyre, 
Osaye, Muscadell, Caprycke, Tynt, Roberdany, with other hote wynes, be not 
good to drynke with meate, but after mete and with Oysters, with Saledes, 
with fruyte, a draughte or two may be suffered . . Olde men may drynke, as 
I sayde, hygh wynes at theyr pleasure. Furthermore all swete wynes, and 
grose wynes, doth make a man fatte." 

7. Rompney. Henderson, p. 288, says, "Another of the above-mentioned 
wines (in the Squire of Low Degree] designated by the name of the grape, was 
the Romenay, otherwise Romenay, Rumney, Romaine, or Romagnia. That 
it could not be the produce of the Ecclesiastical State, as the two last 
corruptions of the word would seem to imply, may be safely averred ; for at 
no period, since the decline of the empire, has the Roman soil furnished any 
wines for exportation ; and even Bacci, with all his partiality, is obliged to 
found his eulogy of them on their ancient fame, and to confess that, in his 
time, they had fallen into disrepute." He argues also against the notion that 
this wine came from Romana in Aragon, and concludes that it was probably a 
Greek wine, as Bacci {Nat. Vin. Hist. p. 333) tells us that the wine from the 
Ionian Islands and adjoining continent was called in Italian Romania, from 
the Saracen Rum-ili. Now this is all very well, but how about the name of 
Rompney ofModene or Modena, just outside the Western boundary of the 
Romagna, not Meudon, in France, " amongst all the wines which we use 
at Paris, as concerning the red, the best are those of Coussy, Seure, Vaunes, 
and Meudon'' Maison Rustique, p. 642. Who will hold to John Russell, 
and still consider Romney an Italian wine ? Rumney, vinum resinatum. 


8. Bastard. Henderson argues against the above quoted (No. 6) supposi 
tion of Charles Etienne's (which is supported by Cotgrave's Vin mielle, honied 
wine, bastard, Metheglin, sweet wine), and adopts Vernier's account (Via 
Recta ad Vitam Longam), that "Bastard is in virtue somewhat like to 
muskadell, and may also in stead thereof be used ; it is in goodness so much 
inferiour to muskadell, as the same is to malmsey." It took its name, Hend- 
erson thinks, from the grape of which it was made, probably a bastard 
species of muscadine. " One of the varieties of vines now cultivated in the 
Alto Douro, and also in Madeira, is called bastardo, and the must which it 
yields is of a sweetish quality. Of the Bastard wine there were two sorts, 
white and brown (brown and white bastard, Measure for Measure, Act iii. sc. 
2), both of them, according to Markham's report, "fat and strong; the 
tawny or brown kind being the sweetest." In The Libelle of Englysch 
Polycye, A.D. 1436 (Wright's Political Songs, v. 2, p. 160), wyne bastarde ' 
is put among the commodyetees of Spayne. 

9. Tire, if not of Syrian growth, was probably a Calabrian or Sicilian 
wine, manufactured from the species of grape called tirio. Tyre, vinum 
Tyrense, ex Tyro insula. Withals. 

10. Ozey. Though this is placed among the " commodities of Portugal " 
in some verses inserted in the first volume of Hackluyt's Voyages, p. 188 
Her land hath wine, osey, waxe, and grain, yet, says Henderson, " a passage 
in Valois' Description of France, p. 12, seems to prove, beyond dispute, that 
oseye was an Alsatian wine ; Auxois or Osay being, in old times, the name 
constantly used for Alsace. If this conjecture is well-founded, we may pre- 
sume that oseye was a luscious-sweet, or straw-wine, similar to that which is 
still made in that province. That it was a rich, high-flavoured liquor is 
sufficiently shown by a receipt for imitating it, which may be seen in Mark- 
ham (English Housewife, 1683, p, 115), and \\e learn from Bacci p. 350) 
that the wines which Alsace then furnished in great profusion to England as 
well as different parts of the continent, were of that description. In the 
* Bataille des Vins' we find the ' Vin ttAussai ' associated with the growths 
of the Moselle." Osey is one ' Of the commoditees of Portingalle,' Libelle, 
p. 163. 

11. Torrentyne of Ebrew. Is this from Tarentum, Tarragon, or Toledo ? 
Whence in Ebrew land did our forefathers import wine ? Mr G. Grove says, 
" I hould at first say that Torrentyne referred to the wine from some wady 
(Vulgate, torrens) in which peculiarly rich grapes grew, like the wady of 
Eschcol or of Sorek ; but I don't remember any special valley being thus 
distinguished as ' The Torrent' above all others, and the vineyards are 
usually on hill-sides, not in vallies." 

12. Greke Malevesyn. "The best dessert wines were made from the 
Malvasia grape ; and Candia, where it was chiefly cultivated, for a long time 
retained the monopoly," says Henderson. He quotes Martin Leake to 
explain the name, Monemvasia is a small fortified town in the bay of 
Epidaurus Limera. " It was anciently a promontory called Minoa, but is now 
an island connected with the coast of Laconia by a bridge. The name of 


Monemvasia, derived from the circumstances of its position (^ovr) tp(3a<ria, 
single entrance), was corrupted by the Italians to Malvasia ; and the place 
being celebrated for the fine wines produced in the neighbourhood, Malvasia 
changed to Malvoisie in French, and Malmsey in English came to be applied 
to many of the rich wines of the Archipelago, Greece, and other countries." 
(Researches in Greece, p. 197.) Maulmsey, vinum creticum, vel creteum. 

13. Caprik may have been a wine from the island of Capri, or Cyprus. 

14. Clarey. See above under Pyment, and the elaborate recipe for 
making it, in Household Ordinances, p. 473, under the heading " Medicina 
optima et experta pro Stomacho et pro Capite in Antiquo hominem." Claret 
Wine, vinum sanguineum subrubrum, vel rubellum. Withals. " The seconde 
wine is pure Claret, of a cleare lacent, or Yelow choler; this wine doth 
greatly norish and war me the body, and it is an holsome wine with meate." 
Buttein, fol. xj. 

1. 122. Spice ; 1. 171. Spicery. Of " The commoditees and nyoetees of 
Venicyans and Florentynes," the author of the Libelle says, p. 171, 
The grete galees of Venees and Florence 
Be wel ladene wyth thynges of complacence, 
Alle spicerye and of grocers ware, 
Wyth swete icynes, alle maners of cheffare, 
Apes, and japes, and marmusettes taylede, 
Nifles, trifles, that litelle have availede, 
And thynges wyth which they fetely blere oure eye, 
Wyth thynges not enduryng that we bye. 

1. 123. Turnsole. Newton's Herbal, plate 49, gives Yellow Turnsole 
G(erarde), the Colouring Turnsole P(arkinson). 

1. 123. Tornesole. Achillea tormentosa, A.S. Solwherf. ' This wort hath with 
it some wonderful divine qualities, that is, that its blossoms turn themselves 
according to the course of the sun, so that the blossoms when the sun is 
setting close themselves, and again when he upgoeth, they open and spread 
themselves.' Leechdoms, ed. Cockayne, v. 1, p. 155. 

1. 123, 141. Granes are probably what are now called " Granes of 
Paradise," small pungent seeds brought from the East Indies, much 
resembling Cardamum seeds in appearance, but in properties approaching 
nearer to Pepper. See Lewis's Materia Medica, p. 298 ; in North. H. 

1. 131-2. I cannot identify these three sorts of Ginger, though Gerarde 
says : " Ginger grovreth in Spaine, Barbary, in the Canary Islands, and the 
Azores," p. 6. Only two sorts of Ginger are mentioned in Parkinson's 
Herbal, p. 1613. ' Ginger grows in China, and is cultivated there.' Strother's 
Harman, 1727, v. 1, p. 101. 

1. 141. Peper. "Pepir blake " is one of the commoditees of the Januays 
(or Genoese), Libelle, p. 172. 

1. 77. In his chapter Of Prunes and Damysens, Andrew Borde says, Syxe 
or seuen Damysens eaten before dyner, be good to prouoke a marcnes appe- 


tyde; they doth mollyfie tlie bely, and be abstersyue. the skynne and the 
stones must be ablated and cast away, and riot vsed. Regyment, N. i. b. 

1. 178. Ale, See the praise of the unparalleled liquor called Ale, Meti,e- 
glin, &c., in lolm Taylor's Drink and Welcome, 1637. In his Reaimcnt, A. 
Borde says, " Ale is made of malte and water ; and they the whicht do put any 
other thynge to ale than is rehersed, except yesv, barmb, or goddes good,* 
doth sophysticall there ale. Ale for an Englysshe man is a naturall drynke. 
Ale muste haue these properties, it must be fresshe and cleare, it muste 
not be ropy, nor smoky, nor it muste haue no werte nor tayle. Ale shulde 
not be dronke under .v. dayes olde. Newe Ale is vnholsome for all men. 
And sowre ale, and dead ale, and ale the whiche doth stande a tylte, is 
good for no man. Early malte maketh better Ale than Oten malte or any 
other come doth : it doth ingendre grose humours : but it maketh a man 

Beere is made of malte, of hoppes, and water. It is a naturall 
drynke for a doche man. And nowe of late dayes [1557 ?] it is moche vsed 
in England to the detryment of many Englysshe men ; specyally it kylleth 
them the whiche be troubled with the Colycke and the stone, and the strayne 
coylyon ; for the drynke is a cold drynke. Yet it doth make a man fatte, 
and doth inflate the belly, as it doth appere by the doche mennes faces and 
belyes." A. Borde, Tfrgyment, fol. G. ii. 

1. 194. Neck-towel. The neck-towelles of the pantrey, ewerye, confection - 
arye, comters, hangers, liggers, and all that is the Kiuges stuffe. H. Ord. 
p. 85. 

1. 201. Salts. Other two groomes in this office [of Panetry] to help 
serve the hall, or other lordes, in absence of the yoman, and to cutte trench- 
ours, to make saltes, &c. H. Ord., p. 71. 

1. 213. Raynes. Towelles of raygnes, towelles of worke, and of playne 
clothe. H. Ord., pp. 72, 84. 

1. 237. The Surnape. In the Articles ordained by King Henry VII. for 
the Regulation of his Household, 31 Dec., 1494, are the following directions, 
p. 119. 

As for the Sewer and Usher, and laying of the Surnape. 

The sewer shall lay the surnape on the board-end whereas the bread and 
salte standeth, and lay forth the end of the same surnape and towell ; then 
the usher should fasten his rodd in the foresaid surnape and towell, and soe 
drawing it downe the board, doeing his reverence afore the Kinge till it passe 
the board-end a good way, and. there the sewer kneeling at the end of the 
board, and the usher at the other, stretching the said surnape and towel!, 
and soe the usher to laie upp the end of the towell well on the boarde, and 
rise goeing before the Kinge, doeing his reverence to the King on the same 
side the surnape bee gone uppon, and on that side make an estate with his 
rodd ; and then goeing before the Kinge doeing his reverence, and soe make 
another estate on the other side of the King, and soe goeing to the boards 
end againe, kneele downe to amend the towell, that there bee noe wrinkles 
* Halliwell says it means yeast. It cannot do so here. 


save the estates ; and then the usher doeing his due reverence to the King , 
goeing right before the Kinge with his rodd, the side of the same towell 
there as the bason shall stand. ; and doeing his reverence to the Kinge, to goe 
to the boards end againe ; and when the King hath washed, to bee ready 
with his rodd to putt upp the surnape and meete the sewer against the 
Kinge, and then the sewer to take it upp. (The French name was Serre-nape.) 
1. 253. State. Divers Lords and Astates, p. 155 ; divers astates and gentils, 
p. 160. Wardrobe Accounts of King Edward IV. 

1. 262. The Pauntry Towells, Purpaynes, Coverpaynes, Chipping-knyffs. 
Percy or Northumberland Hd. Book, p. 387. 

1. 277. Symple Conditions. Compare these modern directions to a serving 
man : " While waiting at dinner, never be picking your nose, or scratching 
your head, or any other part of your body ; neither blow your nose in the 
room ; if you have a cold, and cannot help doing it, do it on the outside of 
the door ; but do not sound your nose like a trumpet, that all the house may 
hear when you blow it ; still it is better to blow your nose when it requires, 
than to be picking it and snuffing up the mucus, which is a filthy trick. Do 
not yawn or gape, or even sneeze, if you can avoid it ; and as to hawking 
and spitting, the name of such a thing is enough to forbid it, without a 
command. When you are standing behind a person, to be ready to change 
the plates, &c., do not put your hands on the back of the chair, as it is very 
improper ; though I have seen some not only do so, but even beat a kind of 
tune upon it with their fingers. Instead of this, stand upright with your 
hands hanging down or before you, but not folded. Let your demeanour 
be such as becomes the situation which you are in. Be well dressed, and 
have light shoes that make no noise, your face and hands well washed, your 
finger-nails cut short and kept quite clean underneath ; have a nail-brush for 
that purpose, as it is a disgusting thing to see black dirt under the nails. Let 
the lapels of your coat be buttoned, as they will only be flying in your way." 
1825. T. Cosnett. Footman's Directory, p. 97-8. Lord A. Percy's Waiters 
were changed every quarter. See the lists of them in the Percy Household 
Book, p. 53-4, 

1. 280. Lice. See Thomas Phaire's Regiment of Life, The boke of 
Chyldren, H. h. 5 ; and A. Borde's Introduction, of the Irishe man, 
Pediculus other whyle do byte me by the backe, 
Wherfore dyvers times I make theyr bones cracke. 
And of the people of Lytle Briten, 

Although I iag my hosen & my garment round abowt, 
Yet it is a vantage to pick pendiculus owt 

67/991. Rosemary is not mentioned among the herbs for the bath ; 
though a poem in praise of the herb says : 

Moche of this herbe to seeth thu take 
In water, and a bathe thow make ; 
Hyt schal the make ly^t and joly, 
And also lykyng and ^owuly. 
MS. of C. W. Loscombe, Esq., in Reliquite Antiques, i. 196. 


1. 300. Jet. 

llogue why Winkest tbou, 
Jenny why Jettest tbou. 
are among R. Holme's Names of Slates, Bk. III. ch. v. p. 265, col. 1. 

1. 328. Forks were not introduced into England till Coryat's time. See 
his Crudities p. 90-1, 4to. London, 161], on the strange use of the Fork in 
Italy. " I observ'd a custom in all those Italian Cities and Townes through 
the which I passed, that is not used in any other country that I saw in my 
travels, neither do I thinke that any other nation of Christendome doth use 
it, but only Italy. The Italian and also most Strangers that are comorant 
in Italy, doe always at their meals use a Little Forke when they cut their 
meat." Percy's notes, p. 417-18, North. H. Book. 

1. 348-9. Fumositees. But to wash the feete in a decoction of Baye 
leaues, Rosemary, & Fenel, I greatly disalow not : for it turneth away from 
the head vapours & fumes dimming and ouercasting the mynde. Now the 
better to represse fumes and propulse vapours from the Brain, it shalbe 
excellent good after Supper to chaw with the teeth (the mouth being shut) 
a few graynes of Coriander first stieped in veneiger wherin Maioram hath 
bin decocted, & thew thinly crusted or couered ouer with Sugar. It is 
scarrce credible what a special commodity e this brmgeth to y e memory. No 
lesse vertuous & soueraign is the confection of Conserue of Quinces. 
Quinces called Diacidonion, if a prety quantity thereof be likewise taken 
after meate. For it disperseth fumes, & suffreth not vapours to strike 
vpwarde, T. Newton, Lemnie's Touchstone, ed. 1581, fol. 126. See note 
on 1. 105 here. 

1. 358. Forced or Farced, a Forced Leg of Mutton, is to stuff or fill it 
(or any Fowl) with a minced Meat of Beef, Veal, &c., with Herbs and 
Spices. Farcing is stuffing of any kind of Meats with Herbs or the like ; 
some write it Forsing and Farsing. To Farce is to stuff anything. R. Holme. 

1. 378. Brawn. In his chapter on Pygge, Brawne, Bacon, Andrew Borde 
says of bacon as follows : " Bacon is good for Carters, and plowe men, 
the which be euer labouryng in the earth or dunge ; but & yf they haue the 
stone, and vse to eate it, they shall synge ' wo be to the pye ! ' Wherefore 
I do say that coloppes and egges is as holsotne for them as a talowe candell 
is good for a horse mouth, or a peece of powdred Beefe is good for a blere 
eyed mare. Yet sensuall appetyde must haue a swynge at all these thynges, 
notwithstandynge." Regyment, fol. K. iii. b. 

1. 382 & 1. 515. Venison. I extract part of Andrewe Borde's chapter on 
this in his Regyment, fol. K. 4, b. 

^ Of wylde Beastes fleshe. 

^[ I haue gone rounde about Chrystendome, and ouerthwarte Chryi- 
tendome, and a thousande or two and moore myles out of Chrystendome, 
Yet there is not so moche pleasure for Harte and Hynde, Bucke and Doe, 
and for Roo-Bucke and Doe, as is in Englande lande : and although the 
flesshe be dispraysed in physicke, I pray e God to sende me parte of thejlesshe 
toeate,pfiysicke notwithstanding . . all physicions (phyon suchons, orig.} sayth 


that Venson . . doth ingeudre colorycke humours ; and of trueth it doth so : 
Wherefore let them take the skynne, and let me haue the flesslie. I am sure 
it is a Lordes dysshe, and I am sure it is good for an Englysheman, for it 
doth any mate hym to be as he is : whiche is stronge and hardy. But I do 
aduertyse euery ma#, for all my wordes, not to kyll and so to eate of it, 
excepte it be lawfully, for it is a meate for great men. And great men do 
not set so moche by the meate, as they doth by thepastyme of kyllynge of it. 

1. 393. Chine, the Back-bone of any Beast or Fish. R. Holme. 

1. 397. Stock Dove, Columba anas, Yarrell ii. 293. 

Doues haue this propertie by themselues, to bill one another and 
kisse before they tread. Holland's Plinie, v. 1, p. 300. 

1. 401. Osprey or Fishing Hawk (the Mullet Hawk of Christchurch 
Bay), Pandion Haliatetus, Y. i. 30. 

1. 401, 482. Teal, Anas crecca, Y. iii. 282. 

1. 402. Mallard or Wild Duck, Anas boschas, Y. iii. 265, 

1. 421, 542. Betowre. Bittern, the Common, Botaurus stellaris, Y. ii. 571. 
In the spring, and during the breeding season, the Bittern makes a loud 
booming or bellowing noise, whence, probably, the generic term Botaurus 
was selected for it ; but when roused at other times, the bird makes a sharp, 
harsh cry on rising, not unlike that of a Wild Goose. Yarrell, ii. 573. 
The Bittern was formerly in some estimation as an article of food for the 
table ; the flesh is said to resemble that of the Leveret in colour and taste, 
with some of the flavour of wild fowl. Sir Thomas Browne says that young 
Bitterns were considered a better dish than young Herons . . ii. 574. 
' Hearon, Byttour, Shouelar. Being yong and fat, be lightlier digested then 
the Crane, & y e Bittour sooner then the Hearon.' Sir T. Eliot, Castell of 
Health, fol. 31. 

1. 422. Heron. Holland (Plinie, p. 301) gives 1. A Criell or dwarfe 
Heron ; 2. Bittern ; 3. Carion Heron, for Pliny's 1. Leucon ; 2. Asterias ; 
3. Pellon. 

1. 437. Martins are given in the Bill of Fare of Archbp. Nevill's Feast, 
A.D. 1466, 3rd Course. R. Holme, p. 78. 

1. 449. Cannell Bone. ' Susclavier. Vponthe kannell bom ; whence Veine 
susclaviere. The second maine ascendant branch of the hollow veine.' Cot. 

1. 457. Compare Rabbet Ronners 1 doz., 2 s., temp. Hen. VIII., a 33. II. 
Ord. p. 223. 

1. 492. Custard, open Pies, or without lids, filled with Eggs and Milk ; 
called also Egg-Pie. R. Holme. 

See the Recipes for ' Crustade Ryal,' ' Crustade ' (with Chikonys 
y-smete or smal birdys), and 'Crustade gentyle' (with ground pork or 
veal), fol. 43, Harl. MS. 279. The Recipe for Crustade Ryal is, " Take 
and pike out J>e marow of bonys as hool as J>ou may. J>en take )>e bonys an 
sej>e hem in Watere or >at be bro^e be fat y-now. J>en take Almaundys & 
wayssche hem clene & bray hem, & temper hem vppe vfith \>e, fat bro|>e ; J>an 
wyl J?e mylke be broun. J?en take pouder Canelle, Gyngere, & Suger, & caste 
ber-on. f>en take Roysonys of coraunce & lay in )>e cofynne, & taylid Datys 


& kyt a-long. f>en take Eyroun a fewe y-straynid, & swenge among be 
Milke be aolke. b en take the botmon of be cofynne ber be Marow schal 
stonde, & steke \>er gret an long gobettys \>eroi\. vppe ry^t. & lat bake a 
whyle. ben pore in comade ber-on halful, & lat bake, & whan yt 
a-rysith, it is ynow ; ben serue forth." 

Sir F. Madden in his note on Frees pasties, in his Privy Purse Expenses 
of the Princess Mary, p. 131, col. 1, says, " The different species of Con- 
fectionary then in vogue are enumerated by Taylor the Water Poet, in his 
Tract intitled ' The Great Eater, or part of the admirable teeth and stomack's 
exploits of Nicholas Wood,' &c., published about 1610. ' Let any thing 
come in the shape of fodder or eating-stuffe, it is wellcome, whether it be 
Sawsedge, or Custard, or Eg-pye, or Cheese-cake, or Flawne, or Foole, or 
Froyze,* or Tanzy, or Pancake, or Fritter, or Flap iacke,f or Posset, or 
Galleymawfrey, Mackeroone, Kickshaw, or Tantablin ! ' " 

1. 500, 706, 730. Pety Perueis. Perueis should be Terneis, as the Sloane 
MS. 1985 shows. Alter text accordingly. Under the head of bake Metis or 
Vyaunde Furne^, in Harl. MS. 279, fol. 40 b, we have No. xiiij Pety Pernollys. 
Take fayre Floure Cofyns. ben take ;olkys of Eyroun & trye hem fro be 
whyte. & lat be ^olkys be al hole & no# to-broke. & ley .iij. or .iiij. }olkys 
in a cofyn. and ban take marow of bonys, to or .iij. gobettys, & cowche 
in be cofynn. ben take pouder Gyngere, Sugre, Roysonys of corau^ce, & caste 
a-boue. & ban kyuere bin cofyn vriih be same past. & bake hem & frye hem 
in fayre grece & serve iorth. 

xx Pety Peruaaunt. Take fayre Flowre, Sugre, Safroun, an Salt. & make 
bm>ffe fayre past & fayre cofyngw. b an take fayre y-tryid ^olkys Raw & 
Sugre an pouder Gyngere, & Raysonys of Coraunce, & myncyd Datys, but not 
to small, ban caste al bis on a fayre bolle, & melle al to-gederys, & put in bin 
cofyn, & lat bake ober Frye in Freyssche grece. Harl. MS. 279. 

1. 501, 701. Powche. I suppose this to be poached-egg fritters ; but it 
may be the other powche ; ' Take the Powche and the Lyno^r [? liver] of 
haddok, codlyng, and hake.' Forme of Cury, p. 47. Recipe 94. 

1. 501. Fritters are small Pancakes, having slices of Apples in the 
Batter. R. Holme. Frntters, Fruter Napkin, and Fruter Crispin, were 
dishes at Archbp. Nevill's Feast, 7 Edw. IV. 1467-8 A.D. 

1. 503. Tansy Cake is made of grated Bread, Eggs, Cream, Nutmeg, 
Ginger, mixt together and Fried in a Pan with Butter, with green Wheat 
and Tansy stamped. R. Holme. ' To prevent being Bug-bitten. Put a sprig 
or two of tansey at the bed head, or as near the pillow as the smell may be 
agreeable.' T. Cosnett's Footman's Directory, p. 292. 

* Froize, or pancake, Fritilla, Frittur, rigulet. Baret. Omlet of Eggs is Eggs 
beaten together with Minced suet, and so fried in a Pan, about the quantity of an 
Egg together, on one side, not to be turned, and served with a sauce of Vinegar and 
Sugar. An Omlet. or Froise. R. Holme. 

f Flapjack is " a fried cake made of butter, apples, &c." Jennings. It is not 
a pancake here, evidently. " Untill at last by the skill of the cooke, it is trans- 
form'd into the forme of a flapjack, which in our translation is cald a pancake." 
Taylor's Jack-a-lent, i. p. 115, in Nares. 


1. 504, 511, &c. Leach, a kind of Jelly made of Cream, Ising-glass, Sugar, 
and Almonds, with other compounds (the later meaning, 1787). R. Holme. 

1. 517-18. Potages. All maner of liquyde thynges, as Potage, sewe 
and all other brothes doth replete a man that eteth them with ventosyte. 
Potage is not so moche vsed in all Chrystendome as it is vsed in, Englande. 
Potage is made of the licour in the whiche flesshe is sod in, with puttynge 
to, chopped herbes, and Otmell and salte. A. Borde, Reg. fol. H. ii. 

1. 517,731. Jelly, a kind of oily or fat liquor drawn from Calves or Neats 
feet, boiled. 11. Holme. 

1. 519. Grewel is a kind of Broth made only of Water, Grotes brused 
and Currans ; some add Mace, sweet Herbs, Butter and Eggs and Sugar : 
some call it Pottage Gruel. R. Holme. 

1. 521. Cabarjes. 'Tis scarce a hundred years since we first had cabbages 
out of Holland ; Sir Anthony Ashley, of Wiburg St Giles, in Dorsetshire, 
being, as I am told, the first who planted them in England. Jn. Evelyn, 
Acetaria, 11. They were introduced into Scotland by the soldiers of Crom- 
well's army. 1854. Notes and Queries, May 0, p. 424, col. 1. 

1. 533. Powdered is contrasted with fresh in Household Ordinances : 
'In beef daily or moton, fresh, or elles all /row/rat is more availe, 5d.' H. 
Ord. p. 4G. In Muffett (p. 173) it means pickled, 'As Porpesses must be 
baked while they are new, so Tunny is never good till it have been long 
p&uldred with salt, vinegar, coriander, and hot spices.' In p. 154 it may be 
either salt or pickled ; 'Horne-beaks are ever lean (as some think) because 
they are ever fighting ; yet are they good and tender, whether they be eaten 
fresh or poudred' Powdered, says Nicolas, meant sprinkled over, and 
" powdered beef." i.e. beef sprinkled with salt, is still in use. Privy Purse 
expenses of Elizabeth of Yorke, $c., p. 254, col. 1, See note to 1. 378, 689, 

1. 535-G88. Chaudoun. MS. Harl. 1735, fol. 18, gives this Recipe. 
' ^1 Chaudotf sauz of swaunes. f Tak y e issu of y e swannes, & wasch<? hem wel, 
skoure y e guttys wYtA salt, sethz al to-gidre. Tak of y e ileysch<? ; hewe it 
smal, & y e guttys w/tA alle. Tak bred, gyngere & galingale, Canel, grynd 
it & tempre it vp w/tA bred ; colo^; 1 it wztA blood on? w/tA bret bred, seson 
it vp with a lytyl vinegre ; welle it al to-gyder<?.' And see the Chaudoun 
potage of Pygys, fol. 19, or p. 37. 

1. 540. Crane, the Common, Crus clnerea, Y. ii. 530. 

1. 540. Egret, or Great White Heron, Ardea alba Y. ii. 549. (Buff- 
coloured, Buff-backed, and Little Egret, are the varieties.) 

1. 540. Hernshaw or Common Heron, Ardea cmerea. Y. ii. 537 (nine 
other varieties), 

1. 5U. Plover, the Great (Norfolk Plover and Stone Curlew), jEdicne- 
mus crepitans, Y. ii. 405 (10 other varieties). 

1. 541. Curlew the Common, Numenius arqitata, Y. ii. 610 (there 
are other varieties). 

1. 542. Bustard, the Great, Otis tarda, Y. ii. 428 ; the Little (rare here) 
ii. 452. 



1. 542. Shoveler (blue-winged, or Broad-Bill), Anas clypeata, Y, iii. 247. 
Snipe, the Common, Scolopax gallinago, Y. iii. 38 (11 other sorts). 

1. 543. Woodcock, Scolopax rusticola, Y. iii. 1. 

1, 543. Lapwing or Peewit, Vanellus cristatus, ii. 515. 

1. 543. The Martin, or House Martin, Hirundo urbica, Y. ii. 255 ; the 
Sand or Bank Martin, Hirundo riparia, ii. 261. 

1. 544. Quail, the Common, Coturnix vulgaris, Y. ii. 413. 

1. 546. On Fish wholesome or not, see Bullein, fol. Ixxxiij., and on 
Meats, fol. 82. 

1.548. Torrentille: Mr Skeat suggests '? Torrent-eel.' Though the 
spelling of Handle Holme's A Sandik or a Sandeek (Bk. II., p. 333), and 
Aldrovandi's (p. 252 h.) "De Sandilz Anglorum" may help this, yet, as Dr 
Giinther says, eels have nothing to do with torrents. Torrentille may be the 
Italian Tarentella ; see note on Torrentyne, 1. 828 below. 

1. 555. Ling. There shall be stryken of every Saltfische called a Lyng 
Fische vj Stroks after iij Strooks in a Side. Percy Household Book, p. 135. 

1.558. Stockfish. Yocatur aute/n 'Stockfisch' a trunco, cui hie piscis 
aridus tundendus imponitur. ariditate enim ita riget, ut nisi praemaceratus 
aqua, aut prsetunsus, coqui non possit. Gesner, p. 219. ' le te frotteray a 
double carillon. I will beat thee like a stockfish, I will swinge thee while I 
may stand ouer thee.' Cotgrave. ' ' The tenne chapitule ' of ' The Libelle of 
Englysch Polycye' is headed Of the coundius stokfysshe of Yselonde,' &c., 
&c., and begins 

Of Yseland to wryte is lytille nede, 
Save of stockfische. 

A. Borde, in his Introduction to Knowledge, under Islond, says, 
And I was borne in Islond, as brute as a beest ; 
Whan I etc candels ends I am at a feest ; 
Talow and raw stockefysh I do loue to etc, 
In my countrey it is right good meate, 

... In stede of bread they do eate stocfyshe, and they wyll eate rawe fyshe 
& fleshe ; they be beastly creatures, vnmannered and vntaughte. The people 
be good fyshers ; muche of theyr fishe they do barter with English men for 
mele, lases, a#d shoes & other pelfery. (See also under Denmarke.) 

1. 559. Mackerel. See Muffett's comment on them, and the English and 
French ways of cooking them, p. 157. 

1. 569. Onions. Walnuts be hurtfull to the Memory, and so are Onyons, 
because they annoy the Eyes with da/eling dimnesse through a hoate 
vapour. T. Newton, Touchstone, ed. 3581, fol. 125 b. 

1. 572. A Rochet or Rotbart is a red kind of Gurnard, and is so called in 
the South parts of England ; and in the East parts it is called a Curre, and a 
Golden polle. R. Holme. 

1. 575. A Dace or a Blawling, or a Gresling, or a Zienfische, or Weyfisch ; 
by all which the Germans call it, which in Latin is named Leucorinns. And 
the French Vengeron, which is English'd to me a Dace, or Dace-fish. B. 


1. 577. Refett. " I thought it clear that refett was roe, and I do not yet give 
it up. But see P.P., Refeccyon, where the editor gives ' refet of fisshe K., refet 
or fishe H., reuet P.,' from other manuscripts, and cites in a note lloquefort 
from Fr. reffait (refait) as meaning a fish, the rouget, &c., &c. The authority 
of Roquefort is not much, and he gives no citation. If, however, in K. H. and 
P. these forms are used instead of the spelling refeccyon, and defined refect 'to, 
refectura, it rather embarrasses the matter. Halliwell cites no authority for 
rivet, roe." G. P. Marsh. See note to 1. 840 here, p. 108. 

1. 580. Gobbin, or Gobbet, or Gubbins : Meat cut in large peeces, as large 
as an Egg. R. Holme. 

1. 584. A Thornbacke, soe called from the Sharp Crooked Pricks set on 
Studs, all down the middle of the Back. R. Holme, 

1. 584. Hound Fysch. A Sow-Hound-Fish. . . So it is called from its 
resemblance of a Dog. and its fatness like to a Swine : though most term it 
a Dog-Fish. It hath a small Head, great Eyes ; wide Mouth, rough, sharp 
and thick skinned. R. Holme. 

1. 584, 1. 830. Thorlepolle. Aldrovandi, describing the Bal&na vera Ron- 
del\_etii\ says : Hec belua Anglis, (vt dixi) Hore vocatur, & alio nomine Horle- 
poole & VVirlepoole etiam, ni fallor, earuw nimiruw omnium significatione, 
quodimpetuosuo & flatu vorticosas in maritanquam palude procellas excitet. 
Oleum ex ea colligi aiunt. p. 677. See Holland's Plinie on the Whales 
and Whirlepooles called Batanse, which take up in length as much as foure 
acres or arpens of land, v. 1, p. 235, &c. 

Thornback, Raja. Thornback, which Charles Chester merily and not un- 
fitly calleth Neptune's beard, was extolled by Antiphanes in Athenaeus history 
for a dainty fish ; indeed it is of a pleasant taste, but of a stronger smell than 
Skate, over-moist to nourish much, but not so much as to hinder lust, which 
it mightily encreaseth. Muffett, p. 172. 

1. 596. Verjuice is the juice of Crabs or sour Apples. R. Holme. 

1. 622. Jole of Stnrgion or Salmon is the two quarters of them, the head 
parts being at them. R. Holme. 

1. 630. Lamprey pie. In the Hengrave Household Accounts is this 
entry " for presenting a lamprey pye vj d." " Item, the xiiij day of January 
[1503] to a servant of the Pryour of Lanthony in reward for brynging of two 
bakyn laumpreys to the Queue v s. Nicolas's Elizabeth of York, p. 89, and 

Under ' How several sorts of Fish are named, according to their Age or 
Growth,' p. 324-5, R. Holme gives 

An Eel, first a Fauser, then a Grigg, or Snigg, then a Seaming, then a 
little Eel ; when it is large, then an Eel, and when very large, a Conger. 

A Pike, first a Hurling pick, then a Pickerel, then a Pike, then a Luce or 

A Smelt or Sparling, first a Sprat, then a small Sparling, then a Sparling. 

A Codd, first a Whiting, then a Codling, then a Codd. 

A Lamprey, first a Lampron Grigg, then a Lampret, then a Lamprell, 
then a Lamprey. 


A Lampron, first a Barle, than a Barling, then a Lamprell, and then a 
Lamprey or La ai proa. 

A Crevice, first a Spron Frey, then a Shrimp, then a Sprawn, and when 
it is large, then called a Crevice. 

The curious Burlesques, pp. 81-2, 85-6, vol. 1 of Reliyuice Antiquce, con- 
tain a great many names of fish. 

1. 631. Pasty is paste rouled broad, aud the Meat being laid in Order on 
it, it is turned over, and made up on three sides, with garnishes about. R. 

1. 631, note. Galltigale. Harman (ed. Strother, 1727) notices three 
varieties, Cyperus rotundas, round Galingal ; Galanga major, Galingal ; Galanga 
minor, lesser Galingal. 

Gallinga, Lat. Galanga, says Bp Percy, is the root of a grassy-leaved 
plant brought from the East Indies, of an aromatic smell and hot biting 
bitterish Taste, anciently used among other Spices, but now almost laid aside. 
Lewis, Nat, Med. p. 286. See Mr Way's note 4 in Pr. Parv. p. 185. 

'Galendyne is a sauce for any kind of roast Fowl, made of Grated Bread, 
beaten Cinnamon and Ginger, Sugar, Claret-wine, and Vinegar, made as thick 
as Grewell.' Handle Holme, Bk. IIL, chap. III., p. 82, col. 2. See also 
Recipes in Markham's Houswife, the second p. 70, and the first p. 77. 

1. 657- A sewer, appotitor ciborum. Appono, to sette vpon the table. 

1. 686. See Handle Holme's ' relation of the Feast made by George 

Nevill, Arch-Bishop of York, at the time of his Consecration, or Installation, 

7. Edw. IV. 1467-8,' and his other Bills of Fare, p. 77-81, Book III. Chap. III. 

1. 686. Mustard is a kind of sharp biting sauce, made of a small seed 

bruised and mixed with Vinegar. R. Holme. 

1. 686. Dynere. Compare the King's dinner in The Squyr of Lowe Degree. 
The Squyer 

He toke a white yeard in his hande, 
Before the kynge than gane he stande, 
Aud sone he sat hym on his knee, 
And serued the kynge ryght royally 
With deynty meates that were dere, 
With Partryche, Pecocke, and Plouere, 
With byrdes in bread ybake, 
The Tele, the Ducke, and the Drake, 
The Cocke, the Corlewe, and the Crane, 
With Fesauntes fayre, theyr ware no wane, 
Both Storkes and Snytes ther were also, 
And venyson freshe of Bucke and Do, 
And other deyntes many one, 
For to set afore the kynge anone. 

1. 312-27, E. Popular Poetry, v. 2, p. 36. 
Several of the names of the dishes in Russell are used burlesquely in the 


JFeest of the Turnanient of Tottenham, E. Pop. P., v. 3, pp. 94-6, " saduls 
scwys, mashefatis in mortrewys, mylstones in mawmary, iordans in iussall, 
chcse-crustis in charlett," &c. 

1. 688, Swan. " Cap. xxviij. The Swanne is veri a fayr birde, mtA whyie 
feders / & it hath a blacke skinne & flesshe / the mariner seeth \\yrn gladly / 
for whan he is inery, the mariner is without sorowe or dauoger ; & all his 
strcngthe is in his wynges / and he is coleryke of complexion / & whan they 
will engender, than they stryke wyth theyr nebbys toged?r, and cast theyr 
neckes oner eche other as yf thei wolden brace eche other ; so come they 
togeder, but the male doth hurt thz female ; & as sone as he beknoweth that 
he hathe hurte her, than he departeth frome her compani in all the haste 
possible / and she pursueth after for to reuenge it / but the, anger is sone 
past, & she wassheth her with her bylle in the water / and clenseth herselfe 
agayne." L. Andre we, Noble Lyfe. Pt. II. sign. m. 1. 

1. 688, Feysaund. " Cap. xlvi. Fascian?/*- is a wyld cocke or a fesant 
cocke that byde in the forestes, & it is a fayre byrde with goodly feders. but he 
hath no co/umbe as other cockes haue/and they be alway alone except whane 
they wylle be by the henne. and they that will take this bird / and in many 
places the byrders doth thus, they paynte the figure of this fayre byrde in a 
cloth, & holdeth it before hym / & whan this birde seeth so fayr a figure of 
hym selfe / he goeth nother forward nor bacwarde / but he standeth still, 
staringe vpon his figure / & sodenly commeth another, and casteth a nette ouer 
his hede, and taketh hym. Thys byrde morneth sore in fowle weder, & hideth 
hym from the rayne vnder Me busshes. Towarde the. morninge and towardes 
night, than commeth he out of the busshe, and is oftentimes so taken, & he 
putteth his hede in the ground, & he weneth that all his boddy is hyden / and 
his flessh is very light and good to disiest." L. Andrewe, Noble Lyfe. 
Pt. II. (m.4.) 

1. 689. Vensoun bake, or Venison Pasty. Of the Hart and Ilinde, Topsel 
says, " The flesh is tender, especially if the beast were libbed before his horns 
grew : yet is not the juice of that flesh very wholesome, and therefore Galen 
adviseth men to abstain as much from Harts flesh as from Asses, for it engen- 
dereth melancholy ; yet it is better in Summer then in Winter. Simeon Sethi, 
speaking of the hot Countries, forb'ddeth to eat them in Summer, because 
then they eat Serpents, and so are venemous ; which falleth not out in colder 
Nations, and therefore assigneth them rather to be eaten in Winter time, 
because the ooncoctive powers are more stronger through plenty of inward 
heat ; but withal admonisheth, that no man use to eat much of them, for it 
will breed Palsies and trembling in mans body, begetting grosse humors, 
which stop the Milt and Liver: and Auicen proveth, that by eating thereof 
men incur the quartane Ague ; wherefore it is good to powder them with salt 
before the dressing, and then seasoned with Peper and other things, known 
to every ordinary Cook and woman, they make of them Pasties in most 
Nations," p. 103, ed. 1658. 

1. 691. Blanckmanger, a made dish of Cream, Eggs, and Sugar, put into 
an open puff paste bottom, with a loose cover. JHamcinger, is a Capon roast 


or boile, minced small, planched (sic) Almonds beaten to paste, Cream, Eggs, 
Grated Bread, Sugar and Spices boiled to a pap. R. Holme. 

1. 694. Po = tage is strong Broth of Meat, with Herbs and Spices Boiled. 
Pottage is the Broth of Flesh or Fowl, with Herbs and Oatmeal boiled 
therein. 11. Holme. 

1. 694, Vensonn; and 1. 696, Heironsew. 

But many men byn nowe so lekerous 

That they can not leve by store of howse, 

As brawne, bakyn, or powderd beef ; 

Such ly velod iiow ys no man leef, 

But venyson, wyldfowle or heronsewes, 

So newfanggell be these men of her thewes ; 

Moche medlyd wyne all day men drynke ; 

j haue wyste wyldfowle sum tyme stynke. 
Piers ofFullham, 11. 171-8, p. 8, v. 2, of Early Popular Poetry, 

ed. Hazlitt, 1866. 

1. 695, Bustard. " Cap. xv. The Bistarda is a birde as great as an egle, 
of the, maner of an egle, and of suche colour, saue in ///e winges & in the tayle 
it hath some white feders ; he hath a crooked by 11, & longe talants. and it 
is slowe of flight / & wha# he is on the grownde, than must he ryse .iij. or 
iiij. tymes or he can come to any fulle flight, he taketh his mete on the erth ; 
for .v. or .vi. of them togeder be so bold that they festen on a shepe & tere 
hyi a-sonder / & so ete the flesshe of him / & this birde dothe ete also of 
dede bestes & stinkyn caryon, and it eteth also grasse & grene erbes / & it 
layth his eggis vpon the grou^de, & bredeth the/ out the while that Me 
come groweth on the felde." L. Andrewe, Noble Lyfe, L ij back. 

1. 695, Crane. " Cap. lix. The Crane is a great byrde / and whan they 
flye, they be a greate many of them to-gyder in ordre, and a-monge thew they 
chose a kynge the whiche they obey / whan the crane sleepth, than standeth 
he vpon one fote witA his hede vnder his winges / & ther is one thai kepeth 
the wache witA his hede vpryght to-wardes the ayre / & wha# they ete, tha# 
the kynge kepeth the wache fore them, and than the cranes ete without 
sorowe. Aristotiles sayth thai aboue Egipt in farre lo^des come the cranes in 
the witer / and there the fight wit A the pygmeis as before is shewed in Me 
.c. & .xvi. chapter.* 

The Operacion. 

Basi. The flesshe of him is grosse, & not good to disiest / & it maketh 
melawcolious blode. ^f The crane that is kille in somer shalbe hanged vp one 

* Pigmeis be men & women, & but one cubite longe, dwellinge in the mount- 
aynes of yncle | they be full growen at their third yere, & at their seuenyere they be 
olde | & they gader them in may a grete company togeder, & arme them in theyr best 
maner | and than go they to the water syde, & where-so-euer they fynde any cranes 
nestis they breake all the egges, & kyll all the yonges that they fynde | and this they 
do because the cranes do them many displeasures, & fight with them oftentymes, & 
do them great scathe | but these folke couer their houses wt't/t the cranes feders & 
egshels. fol. h. ij. buck. 


daye /and in winter season .ij. dayes or it be eten, and than it is the more 
disiestious." L. Andrewe, Noble Lyfe. Pt. II. (n. iij.) 

1. 695, peacock. " Paon revestu. A Peacocke flayed, parboyled, larded, 
and stucke thicke with Cloues ; then roasted, with his feet wrapped vp to 
keepe them from scorching ; then couered againe with his owne skinne as 
soone as he is cold, and so vnderpropped that, as aliue, hee seemes to stand 
on his legs : In this equipage a gallant, and daintie seruice." 1611, Cotgrave. 

1. 695, Peacock. " Pauo / the pecocke is a very fayre byrde / and it hath 
a longe necke, and hath on his hede feders lyke a lytell crowne / he hathe a 
longe tayle the whyche he setteth on hye very rycheli, but whan he loketh on 
hys lothly fete, he lateth his tayle sirike. Be nyght, whan the Pecocke can 
nat see hymselfe, than he cryeth ernefully, and thynketh that he hath lost hys 
beautye / and with his crye he feareth all serpentes / in suche maners thai 
they dare nat abyde in those places whereas they here hym crye / and whan 
the pecocke cly^meth hye, that is a token of rayne . . also the pecocke is 
envious & wylle nat knowe his yonges tyll that they haue the crowne of feders 
vpon theyr hede, and that they begynne to lyken hym. . . . The flesshe of hym 
will nat lightely rote nor stynke / and it is euyll flesshe to disiest, for it can 
nat lightely be rested or soden ynough." L. Andrewe, Noble Lyfe (o. iv.), 
Cap. xci. 

1. 696, Heironsew. Ardea is a byrde that fetcheth his mete in y e water, & 
yet he byldeth vpon the hyest trees that he can. This birde defendeth his 
yonges from y e goshawke, castinge his dounge vpon him / & than the fedders of 
the goshawke rote of y e dounge of ardea as far as it touchet[h]. Nob. Lyfe, L. ij. 

1. 696, Partrich. " Cap. xcvi. Perdix is a byrde very wylye, & the cockes 
feght oftentymes for the hennes. and these byrdes flye of no heght / and they 
put theyr hedes in the erthe, & they thinke thai they than be well hyden, for 
wha# she seeth nobody she thinketh thai nobody seeth here. & she bredeth 
out other prrtriches egges / for whan she hath lost her eges, than she steleth 
other egges & bredeth them / & whan they be hatched thai they can go on the 
grounde / than this dawme setteth them out of the nest / but whan they be 
a-brode, & here the wyse of theyr owne dawmes, incontinent they leue theyr 
da^me thai brought them up, & go to their owne natural da^me / & than she 
thai brought them vp hath lost her labour. The Operacion. The flesshe of 
a ptfrtriche is most holsomest of all wylde fowles, the brest & vppermoste 
parte of the bodie is the swetest, & hathe the best sauoure / but the hinder 
parte is nat so swete." L. Andrewe, Noble Lyfe, sign. p. i. & back. 

1. 698, Lark. Alauda : the larke is a lytel birde, & wz'U euery man well 
beknowen through his songe / in the somer thei begynneth to singe in the 
dawning of the day, geuynge knowlege to the people of the cominge of the 
daye ; and in fayre weder he reioyseth sore / but whan it is rayne weder, than 
it singeth selden / he singeth nat sittinge on the grownde nouther / but whan 
he assendith vpwarde, he syngeth mereli / & in the descending it falleth to 
the grownde lyke a stone. The Operacion. The larkes flesshe hardeneth 
the beli, and the brothe of hym that he was soden in, slaketh the beli. L. 
Andrewe, Noble I/yfe, sign. L. iv. back, and L. i. 


1. 706, Snyte or Snipe. " Cap. Ixxxiiij. Nepa is a byrde vrilh a longe 
byll / & he putteth his byll in Me erthe for to seke the worms in the grou/?de 
/ and they put their bylles in the, erthe sometyme so depe thai they can nat 
gete it vp agayne / & tha# they scratche theyr billes out agayn with tlieyr 
fete. This birde resteth betimes at nyglit / and they be erly abrode on the 
morninge / & they haue swete flesshe to be eaten." L. Andrewe, Noble Lyfe. 

1. 706, Sparow. " Passer / The Sparowe is a lytell byrde / and wha# ///e 
cucko fyndetli the sparovves nest / tha# lie suppeth vp the, egges, & layeth 
ne\ve egges hym self therin agayne / & the sparowe bredeth vp these yo//ge 
cuckoes tyl they can flee ; tha# a great many of olde sparowes geder to-geder 
to thentet thai thei sholde holde vp the yo;?ge sparowes that can nat flee / & 
theyr mete is wormes of the erthe . . All sparowes flesshe is euyl / and their 
egges also. The flessh is very hote, and moueth to the operacion of 
lechery." L. Andrewe, Noble Lyfe (o. iv.), Cap. xci. 

1. 713. Comjits are round, long or square pellets of Sugar made by the 
Art of a Confectioner. 11. Holme. 

1. 737, Eles. Trevisa in his Higden says of Britain ' J?e lond ys noble, 
copious, & ryche of noble welles, & of noble ryvers wij? plente of fysch. J>ar 
ys gret plente of smal fysch & of eeles, so J>at cherles in som place feedej? 
sowes wijj fysch.' Morris's Specimens, p. 334?. 

Corny th ther not al day owt of hollond and flauudre 
OK fatte eles full many a showte, 
And good chepe, who that wayteth the tyddys abowte ? 
Piers ofFullham, 11. 71-3, Early Pop. Poetry, v. 2, p. 4 (and see 11. 7-10). 

1. 747, 812. Minoes, so called either for their littleness, or (as Dr. Cajus 
imagined) because their fins be of so lively a red, as if they were died with 
the true Cinnabre-lake called Minium : They are less than Loches, feeding 
upon nothing, but licking one another . . they are a most delicate and light 
meat . . either fried or sodden. Muffett, p. 183. 

1. 758. Towse. Can this be a form of dough ? G. P. Marsh. 

1. 782. Sotiltees were made of sugar and wax. Lei. Coll. VI. p. 31. Pegge. 

1. 788-795, Sanguineiis, Colericus, Fleumaticus, Malencolicus. Men were 
divided into these four classes, according to their humours. Laurens Audrewe 
says, in his Noble Lyfe, " And the bodij of man is made of many diuers sortes 
of ly?mes / as senewes / vaynes / fatte / flesshe & skynne. And also of the 
foure moistours / as sanguyne / flematyke/ coleryke & melaucoly." (fol. a iv. 
back) col. 2. In his Chapter " Howe that man co^meth into the house 
of dethe," he has drawings of these four types of man, on either side of King 
Death & the skeleton under him. Men die, he says in thre ways. 1. by one 
of the four elements of which they are made, overcoming the others ; 2. by 
humidum radicale or ' naturall moystour ' forsaking them ; 3. by wounds; " & 
these thre maners of dethes be contained in the four cowplexcions of man / 
as in the sawguyne / colerike / flematike / & melaucoly. The sanguyne 
wareth oftewtymes so olde through gode gouernauwce / that he must occopy 


spectacles, & Hue longe or hu/midu/ radicale departe frome him / but than 
he dyeth. The colerike corameth oftentymes to* dethe be acciderctall maner 
through his hastines, for he is of nature hote & drye. The flematike cowmeth 
often to dethe thorough great excesse of mete & dririke, or other great 
labours doinge / for his nature is colde and moyste, & can not well disiest. 
And mela/zcoly is heuy / full of care & heuynes / whereof he engendereth 
moche euyll blode that causeth great sekenes, which bringeth him vnto dethe. 
Thus go we al vnto the howse of dethe / the one thrugh ensuynge of his 
complexion / the other through the ordenances of almyghty god. The thirde 
through the planetis & signes of the firmament." fol. a vi. 

1. 799, Beef. Laurens Andrewe, Noble fyfe, sign. C. i., Ft. i. says, " Of the 
oxce, ca. xiiij. " The oxce is a cowpanable beste, & amonge his co/pani he is 
very meke / & alwaye he seketh his felowe that was wont to go in the plowghe 
wyth hym / and whan he fyndeth nat his felow, than cryeth he wyth a lowde 
voyce, makyng gret mone / as it were one thai wolde make a mourninge 
complaynt. A bull lyueth .xv. yere, and a oxce .xx. yere. ^[ Isaac sayth 
that an oxce flessh is the dryest flesshe amonge all other / & his blode is nat 
holsome to be eten, for it wyll nat lightly disieste. & therfore it fedeth sore, 
& it maketh euyll humoures, & bredeth mela^coly / & they melancolicus that 
eat moche suche metes be like to suffer many diseases, as to gete an harde 
mylte / the febris quartayn / the dropcy / mangnies, lepry, &c." 

1. 799, Mutton. Wether mutton was rightly held the best. See " The 
operacion " below. " [[ Of the Ramme or weddr. Ca. iij. Ysydorus sayth 
that the raw me or wedder is the lodysman of other shepe / and he is the male 
or man of the oye, and is stronger than the other shepe / & he is also called 
a wedder because of a worme that he hath in his hede / & whan that begm- 
neth for to stirre, than wyll he tucke and feght / and he fereth naturally the 
thonder, as other shepe dothe. Tor whan a shepe is with frute, hering the 
thonder, she casteth her frute, and bryngeth it dede to the worlde. and the 
wedder in the tyme that he bespryngeth the oye, than is it in the tyme of 
loue amonge the shepe / and the Rawme or wedder wyl feght boldly for theyr 
wyues one with another .... 

The Operacion. 

^ The flesshe of a yowge wether that is gelded is moch better than any other 
motion / for it is nat so moyste as other motion, and it is hoter, and whan it 
disgesteth well it maketh gode blode / but the flessh of an oled rawme wyll 
nat lightely disgest, & that is very euyll." L. Andrewe, Noble Lyfe, Pt. I. sign. 
b. i. back. 

1. 800, CJiykon. On the cocke & hen L. Andrewe discourses as follows : 
" the Cocke is a noble byrde with a combe on his lied & vnder his iawes / he 
croweth in the, night heuely light in the mornu/ge / & is fare herd with the 
wide. The lyon is afrayd of the cocke / & specially of the whyte / the 
crowyng of the cocke is swete & profitable ; he wakeneth the sleper / he 
conforteth the sorowful / & reioyseth the wakers in tokenyiige thai the night 
is passed . . . The flesshe of the coscke is groser tha the flesshe of the 

* oriq. do. 


he/me or capon. Nota / the olde cockes flesshe is tenderer than the yonge. 
The capons flesshe is mightiest of all fowles & maketh gode blode. Auicena. 
The cokerels flesshe thai neuer crewe is better than the, olde cockes flesshe : 
the stones be gode {bribe* that haue to light a disiestyon /' the brothe of 
hym is gode for the payn in Me mawe thai commeth of wynde." Noble Lyfe, 
n. i. back. Of the hen, L. Andrevve says : "the home is Me \vyfe of the cocke/ 
& ye shall lay odde egges vnder her for to hatche / . . The flesshe of the 
yonge he;me or she haue layde / is better than of the olde he^ne / also 
the grese of the cheken is moche hoter than of the home." Noble Lyfe, n. i. 

1. 802, Goose. " The tame gese . . be heuy in fleinge, gredi at their mete, 
& diligent to theyr rest / & they crye the houres of y e night, & therwith they 
fere y e theues. In the hillis of alpis be gese as great, nere ha#de, as an 
ostriche : they be so heuy of body that they cannat flee, & so me take them 
with the hande . . The gose flessh is very grose of nature in disiestion." 
Noble Lyfe, L. i. back. Part ii, cap. 10. 

1. 803, Capon. " Gallinacius / the capon is a gelded cocke / & because 
thai he is gelded he waxeth the soner fatte / & though he go with the 
hennes, he dothe nat defende them / nor he croweth nat." L. Aridrewe, 
Noble Lyfe, fol. n. ij. 

1. 804, Eggis. " the new lyde egges be better than the olde / the henne 
cgges be better tha^ ani other egges, whan thei be fresshe, & specialli whan 
thei be rere, tha they make gode blode / but the egges that be harde rosted 
be of Me grose metis. 

The Operacion. 

All maners of egges waken a man to the worke of lecherie, & specialli 
sparowes egges. Auice^na : The ducke egges & suche like make grose 
humoures. The best of the egges is the yolke, that causeth sperma / the 
white of the egge enclineth to be cole, whan an home shall brede, take hede 
of those egges that be blont on bothe endes, & thei shal be home chekens / 
& those that be longe & sharpe on bothe endes shall be cocke chekens." L. 
Andrewe. Noble Lyfe (o iij. back). 

1. 808, Lamb. Laurens Andrewe, Pt. i. says, ^[ Of theLa/wme. Cap. pn'mo. 
In the begiwnynge we haue the Lawme, because he is the moste mekest beste 
leuinge, for it offozdeth nobody / and all that he hathe on him is gode / ye 
flesshe for to eate, the skynne to make parcheme^t or ledder / the donge for 
to dowge the felde / the clawes & homes be medicinable / he dredeth the 
wolfe sore / & he knoweth his damme best be her bleting, though she be 
amonge many shepe. 

The Operacion. 

The Lamrae that soucketh his damwe hath his flesshe very slymie, & nat 
lowable / and it will nat be disgested, principally of them that haue cold 
stomakes. lawmes of a yere olde be better & lighter to disgest / & they make 
gode blode / and specyally they be gode for theym that be hote & drye of 
complexcyon & dwell in a hote drye lande / la^mes flesshe is very gode for 
one that is hole & lusti, but for theim thai be seke it is very euyll : though 


it lightely disgest and descende out of the man / yet it is euyll for other 
partes of the body, for it maketh slimy humours, sign. b. i. 

1. 808, Cony. " The coney is a ly tel beste dwellynge in an hole of the 
erthe / & thore as he vseth he eucreaseth very moche, and therfore he is 
profitable for man, for he casteth oftentymes in the yere . . Ysaac sayth. 
That conys flesshe hath properli Me vertue to strengen Me mawe and to 
dissolue the bely / and it casseth moche vryne." The Noble Li/fe, sign. e. i. 

1. 811. Mead or Meath, a drink made of Ginger, Sugar, Honey and 
Spring water boiled together. R. Holme. 

Metheylin, a drink made of all sorts of wholesome Herbs boiled and 
strained with Honey and Water, and set to work with Bearm, as Ale or Beer. 
R. Holme. Dan. miod. 

1. 811. Brayyot. This drinke is of a most hot nature, as being compos'd 
of Spices, and if it once scale the sconce, and enter within the circumclusion 
of the Perricranion, it doth much accelerate nature, by whose forcible 
atraction and operation, the drinker (by way of distribution) is easily 
enabled to afford blowes to his brother. In Taylor. Drink fy Welcome, 
1637, A 3, back. 

1. 812. Mussels (Mityli, Chamce) were never in credit, but amongst the 
poorer sort, till lately the lilly- white Mussel was found out about Romers- 
wall, as we sail betwixt Flushing and Bergen-up-Zon, where indeed in the 
heat of Sommer they are commonly and much eaten without any offence to 
the head, liver, or stomach : yea my self (whom once twenty Mussels had 
almost poisoned at Cambridg, and who have seen sharp, filthy, and cruel dis- 
eases follow the eating of English Mussels) did fill my self with those Mussels 
of the Low Country, being never a whit distempered with my bold adventure. 
Muffett, p. 159. 

1. 824, Samoa. 

Also sumtyme where samons vsen for to haunte, 
Lampreys, luces, or pykkes plesaunte, 
wenyth the fyscher suche fysche to fynde. 

Piers o/Fullham, 11. 11-13. 

1. 835, 4 Torrentyne. The passage before that quoted from Aldrovandi, de 
Piscibus, p. 585, in the note, is, "Trutta, sine ut Platina scribit Truta, siue 
Trotta Italicuw nome est, a Gallis, quibus Troutte vel potius Truette, vel 
ab Anglis quib#s a Trute, vel Trovvt appellant, acceptum. Rhaeti qui 
Italica lingua corrupta vtuntur, Criues vocant, teste Gesnero." The special 
fish from the Tarentine gulf is the " Tarentella, Piscis genus. Tract. MS. 
de Pise. cap. 26 ex Cod. reg. 6838. C. : Magnus thunnus, is scilicet qui a 
nostris Ton vocatur . . dicitur Italis Tarentella, a Tarentino, wide advehitio', 
sitm." Ducange, ed. 1846. 

1. 845. Hake. Merlucius (or Gadus)vulyaris Y. ii. 258, 'the Seapike. . . 
It is a coarse fish, not admitted to the tables of the wealthy ; but large 
quantities are annually preserved both by salting and drying, part of which is 
exported to Spain.' ' Fish, samon, hake, herynge ' are some of the com- 
moditees of Irelonde mentioned in the Libelle (A.D. 1436), p. 186. 


1. 839, reffett. In the following extract refete has the Promptorium meaning 
eteth of the [full grown] fysche, and be not so lykerous, 
Let the yong leve that woll be so plenteous ; 
ffor though the bottomles belyes be not ffyllyd with such refete, 
Yet the saver of sauze may make yt good mete. 

Piers ofFMham, 11. 80-3, K Pop. P., v. 2, p. 5. 
1. 842. Ireme. 

. . y schall none pondes with pykes store, 

Breme, perche, ne with tenche none the more. Ibid. 11. 51-2. 

But now men on deyntees so hem delyte, 
To fede hem vpon the fysches lyte, 
Asjtowndres. perches, and such pykyng ware ; 
Thes can no man gladly now-a-day spare 
To suffyr them wex vnto resonable age. Ibid. 11. 74-8. 
1. 867- Hose. For eight pair of hosen of cloth of divers colours, at xiij s. 
iiijd. the pair; and for four pair "of sokks of fustian" at iij d. the pair 
(p. 118) . . for making and lyning of vj pair of hosen of puke lyned with 
cloth of the goodes of the saide llichard, for lynyng of every pair iij s. iiij d. 
xx s. Wardrobe Accounts of Edw. IV. (ed. Nicolas) p. 120. 

1. 879. Combing the head was specially enjoined by the doctors. See 
A. Borde, Vaughan, &c., below. 

1. 915. Fustian. March, 1503, 'for v yerdes fnstyan for a cote at vij d. 
the yerd ij s. xj d.' Nicolas's Elizabeth of York, p. 105. See A. Borde, 
below. 'Coleyne threde, fustiane, and canvase* are among the 'com- 
modites . . fro Fruse ibroughte into Flaundres,' according to the Libelle, 
p. 171, 

But tha Flemmyngis amonge these thinges dere 
In comen lowen beste bacon and bere : 
Thus arn thy hogges, and drynkye wele staunt ; 
Fare wele Flemynge, hay, horys, hay, avaunt. (See n. p. 131, below.) 
A. Borde, in his Introduction, makes one of the Januayes (Genoese) say, 
I make good treacle, and &\SQ fustian, 
With such thynges I crauft with many a pore man. 
1. 941-5. See the extracts from Andrew Borde, W. Vaughan, &c., below. 
1. 945. The Motte bredethe amonge clothes tyll that they have by ten it a 
sender / & it is a maniable worm, and yet it hydeth him in y e clothe that it 
can scantly be sene / & it bredethe gladly in clothes that haue ben in an 
euyll ayre, or in a rayn or myst, and so layde vp without hanging in the sonne 
or other swete ayre after. 

The Operacyon. 

The erbes that be bitter & well smellitfge is good to be layde amowge 
snehe clothes / as the baye leuis, cypres wode. The Noble Lyfe (i. 3.) Pt. i. 
Cap. c.xlij. sign. i. 3. 

1. 9G9. Catte. The mouse hounter or catte is an onclene beste, & a 


poyson ennemy to all myse / and whan she hath goten [one], she playeth 
therwith / but yet she eteth it / & y e catte hath lo^ge here on her mouthe / 
and whan her heres be gone, than bathe she no boldnes / and she is gladli in 
a warme place / and she licketh her forefete & wassheth therwith her face. 
Laurens Andrewe, The Noble Lyfe (g. iv.), Part I. cap. c.i. 

1. 970, doffge. Here is the first part of Laurens Andrewe's Chapter. 

Of the dogge. ca. xxiiij. 

The dogge is an onclenly beste / thai eteth so moche that he vomyteth it out 
& eteth it vp agayne / it is lightly angry, and by tetb gladly strau^ge dogges / 
he barketh moche / he kn[oweth] his name well / he is hered [all over his 
b]ody, he loueth his mast[er, and is eselye] lerned to many games / & be 
night he kepeth the house. There be many hourades thai for the loue of 
theyr maister they wyll rone in their owne dethe / & whan the dogge is 
seke / he seketh grasse or other erbes / & that he eteth, and heleth himselfe 
so / and there be many maner of dogges or hourcdes to hawke & hunt, as 
grayhouwdes / braches / spanyellis, or suche other, to hunt hert and hynde / 
& other bestes of chace & venery, &c. and suche be named gewtyll hou/edes. 
The bitche hath mylke .v. or vij. dayes or she litter her whelpes / and that 
milke is thicker tha any other mylke excepte swynes mylke or hares mylke. 
fol. c. iv. 

1. 970, Catte. L. Andrewe says 

"Of the Catte. ca. xxv. 

The catte is a beste thai seeth sharpe, and she byteth sore / and scratcheth 
right perylously / is principal! ennemye to rattis & myce / & her colour is 
of nature graye / and the cause thai they be other wyse colowred, that 
cowmethe through chaunge of mete, as it is well marked by the house catte, 
for they be selden colored lyke the wylde catte. & their flesshe is bothe nesshe 
& soffte." Noble Lyfe, Part II. c. iv. 

1. 983. Bathe. ' Bathing is harmful to them [who are splenitic] chiefly 
after meat, and copulation (following) on surfeit. . . Let him also bathe him- 
self in sweet water. Without, he is to be leeched and smeared with oil of 
roses, and with onlayings (or poultices made of) wine and grapes, and often 
must an onlay be wrought of butter, and of new wax, and of hyssop and 
of oil ; mingle with goose grease or lard of swine, and with frankincense and 
mint ; and when he bathes let him smear himself with oil ; mingle (it) with 
saffron.' Leechdoms, v. 2, p. 245. 

1. 987. Scabiosa, so named of old tyme, because it is giuen in drinke 
inwardly, or oiutmentes outwardly, to heale scabbes, sores, corrupcion in the 
stomacke, yea, and is most frend emong all other herbes in the tyme of the 
Pestilence, to drinke the water with Mithridatum a mornynges . . the 
flowers is like a Blewe or white thrummed hatte, the stalk rough, the 
vpper leaues ragged, and the leaues next the grose rootes be plainer. Under 
whom often tymes, Frogges will shadowe theim selues, from the heate of 
the daie : hoppyng and plaiyng vnder these leaues, whiche to them is a 
pleasaunt Tente or pauillion, saieth Aristophanes, whiche maie a plade 



(= made a play), wherein Frogges made pastime. Bulkin's Bultcarke, 1562, 
or, The booke, of Simples, fol. xvj. b. 

1. 995. Bilgres. Can this be bugloss ? I find this, as here, in juxtaposition 
with scabiose, in Bullein's Bulwarke of Defence, Book of Simples, fol. xvj. b. 
G. P. Marsh. 

1. 1004. For Selden's Chapter on Precedence, see his Titles of Honour, 
ch. xi. Rouge Dragon (Mr G. Adams) tells me that the order of precedence 
lias varied from time to time, and that the one now in force differs in many 
points from Russell's. 

1. 1040. Nurrieris. I find no such name in Selden's chap, ix., Of Women. 
Does the word mean ' foster-mothers or fathers,' from the Latin " Nutricarii, 
Matricularii, quibus enutriendi ac educandi infantes projectos cura incumbe- 
bat : Nourissiers. Vita S. Goaris cap. 10 : Hcecque consuetudo erat, ut quando 
aliquis homo de ipsis infantibus projectis misericordia vellet curam habere, ab 
illis, quos Nutricarios vocant, matriculariis S. Petri compararet, et illi Episcopo 
ipsum infantem prcesentare deberent, et postea Episcopi auctoritas eumdem homi- 
nem de illo Nutricario confirmabat. Id clarius explicatur a Wandelberto in 
Vita ejusdem Sancti, cap. 20." Ducange, ed. 1845. 

The following list of Names of Fish, from Yarrell, may be found conve- 
nient for reference, 

Names of Fish from Yarrdl 

English Names 

Bream or Carp-Bream 

the common Sea- 
Brill, or Pearl, Kite, 

BRETT, Bonnet-Fleuk 
Butt, Flook, or Flounder 

Common Cod, or Keeling 
Green Cod 


Dace, Dare, or Dait 

Dog Fish (the common), 
The Picked Dog-Fish, or 
Bone Dog (Sussex), Hoe 

Small Spotted Dog Fish 

or Morgay (Scotl.), Robin 

Huss (Sussex Coast) 
Large Spotted Dog Fish, or 

Bounce (Scotl. & Devon) 

s History of British Fish, 1841, 

Latin Names. Yar., vol., page 

Perca labrax i 8 

Luciscus, or Cyprinus alburnus i 419 

Abramis, or Cyprinus brama 

Pagellus centrodontus 

Rhombus vulgaris, or 

Pleuronectes rhombus 

Pleuronectes Jlesus, or 

Platessa flesus 

Morrhua vulgaris, or 

Gadus morrhua (Jenyns) 

Merlangus virens (Cuvier) 

Gadus virens (Linnaeus) 

Conger vulgaris, or Murana conger ii 402 

Leuciscus vulgaris, or Cyprinus i 404 


Spinax acanthias, or ii 524 

Squalus acanthias 

i 382 
i 123 

ii 231 
ii 303 

ii 221 
ii 256 

Sryllium canicula, or 
Squalus canicula 

Sci/H'tum stellaris 

U 493 



English Names. 

Black-mouthed Dog-Fish, or 

Eyed Dog-Fish (Cornwall) 
The Smooth Hound or 

Shate-toothed Shark, 

Ray-mouthed Dog (Cornwall) 
Dory, or Doree 
Sharp-nosed Eel 
Broad-nosed Eel 
Flounder, or Flook (Merret). 

Mayock, Fluke (Edinb.), Butt. 


Red Gurnard 



Hornfish, GARFISH, Sea-pike, 

Long Nose, &c. 
Keeling. See Common Cod 
Lampern, or River Lamprey * 

Luce, or PIKE 



Merling, or Whiting 


Mullet, grey, or Common 







Latin Names. Yar., 

vol. , page 

Scyllium melanostomum 


Squalus musfelus, or 


Mustelus Icevis 

Zeus fader 


Anguilla acutirostris, or vulgaris 


Anguilla latirostris 


Platessa flesus 


Tliymallus vulgaris, or 


Salmo thymallus 

Gobiojluviatilis, or 


Cyprinus gobio 

Trigla cuculus, or lineata 

i 38-63 

Morrhua ceglejinus, or 


Gadus ceglefinus 

Merlucius vulgaris, or 

ii 253 

Gadus merlucius 

Clupea harengus 


Hippoglossus rulyari*, or 


Pleuronectes hippoglossus 

Belone vulgaris, or 


Esox belone 



ii 604 

Fef.romyzon marinus 


Lota molca (Cuvier), or 


Gadus molca (Linnaeus) 

Esox Indus 


ii 365 

Scomber scombnts, or vulgaris 


Merlangus vulgaris (Cuvier), or 

ii 244 

Gadus merlangus (Linnaeus) 

Leuciscus, or Cyprinus phoxinus 


Mugil capita, or cephalus 


Murtena Helena 


Perca Jluviatilis 

i 1 

Esox Ittcius 


Platessa vulgaris 


Cyprinns rutilis 


Salmo Salar 

ii 1 

* The Lamperns have been taken in the Thames at Teddington this autumn 
(1866) in extraordinary quantities. 



English Names. 

Smelt. Spirling and Sparling in 

Sturgeon, the Common, 

the Broad -nosed 


Trout, Common 

Turbot, or Rawn Fleuk and 

Bannock Fluck (Scotl.) 
Vendace or Vendis (? Yen prides, 

1. 821, Russell) 
Whiting, or Merling 

Latin Names. Yar., vol., pajre 

Salmo Sperhmus, or ii 75 & 

Osmerus Sperlanus 129 

Acipemer Sturio ii 475 

Acipenser latirostris ii 479 

Xiphicts y lad 'i us i 104 

Tinea vulyaris, or i 375 

Cyprinus tinea 

Raia clavata ii 583 

Salmo fario ii 85 

Rhombus maximus, or ii 324 

Pleuronectes maximus 

Coregonus Willuyhbii, or ii 146 

Coregonus Mnrcenula (Jenyns) 

Merlanyus vulgaris (Cuvier) ii 244 

Gadus merlanyus (Linnaeus) 


(*iracfs about <j[islj from " Clje noble Info & nature* 

of man, ($f btsttz / g-erpenigs / fofolts $ fissjjes 

g be moste knoteen." 

A VERY rare black-letter book, without date, and hitherto 
undescribed, except perhaps incorrectly by Ames (vol. 1, p. 
412, and vol. 3, p. 1531), has been lent to me by Mr 
Algernon Swinburne. Its title is given above : " The noble 
lyfe and natures of man " is in large red letters, and the rest 
in smaller black ones, all surrounded by woodcuts of the 
wonderful animals, mermaids, serpents, birds, quadrupeds 
with men's and women's heads, a stork with its neck tied in 
a knot, and other beasts " y be most knowen." The illustra- 
tions to each chapter are wonderfully quaint. The author of it 
says in his Prologus " In the name of ower sauiour criste 
lesu, maker & redemour of al ma^kynd / I Lawre^s Aizdrewe 
of the towne of Calis haue translated for Jolurones does- 
borrowe, booke prenter in the cite of Andwarpe, this present 
volume deuyded in thre partes, which were neuer before in 
no matemall langage prentyd tyl now / " As it is doubtful 
whether another copy of the book is known, I extract from 
the Third Part of this incomplete one such notices of the fish 
mentioned by Russell or Wynkyn de Worde, as it contains, 
with a few others for curiosity's sake : 

here after followeth of the natures of the fisshes of the See 
whiche be right profitable to be vndersta^de / Wherof I wyll 
wryte be the helpe and grace of almighty god, to whose laude 
& prayse this mater ensueth. 


ABremon* is a fruteful fisshe that hathe moche sede / but it 
1 ? not Bream (see 

is nat through mouynge of the he / but only ot the owne cap. xm ; p. 115 

proper nature / and than she rubbeth her belly upon the hl 
grouse or sande / and is sharpe in handelinge / & salt of 
sauour / and this fisshe saueth her yonges in her bely whan it 
is tempestius weder / & when the weder is ouerpast, than she 
vomyteth them out agayne. 

* aft/cMis, a fish found in the sea and the Nile, perhaps the 
bream, Opp. Hal. i. 244. Liddell & Scott. 



Eel (Russell. 1 

Is of no sex ; 
Is best roasted. 

Herring (Russell, 
1. 722). 

Is delicious when 

(Russell, 1. 748) 
or salted. 

Dies when it feels 
the air. 

Whale f (Russell, 
1. 682). 

Shipmen cast 
anchor on him, 

nnd make a fire 
on him. 

He swims away, 
and drowns them. 

Ooldenpoll f 

A huna. 

When the Ahuna 
is in danger, 

he puts his head 
in his belly, and 

Cap. ij. 

ANguilla / the Ele is lyke a serpent of fascyon, & may leue 
eight yere, & without water vi. dayes whan the wind is in 
the nortlie / in the winter they wyll haue moche water, & that 
clere / amo#ge them is nouther male nor female / for they 
become fisshes of the slyme of other fisshes / they must be 
flayne / they suffer a longe dethe / they be best rosted, but it 
is longe or they be ynouge / the droppinge of it is gode for 
paines in the eares. 

Cap. iij. 

A Lee, the heringe, is a Fisshe of the see / & very many be 
taken betweene bretayn & germaia / & also in denmarke 
aboute a place named schonen / And lie is best from the 
begi;mynge of August to december / and when he is fresshe 
taken / he is a very delicious to be eten. And also wha# he 
hath ben salted he is a specyall fode vnto man / He can nat 
leue wt'Uout water, for as sone as he feleth the ayre he is 
dede / & they be taken in gret hepis togeder / & specially 
where they se light, there wyll they be, than so they be taken 
with nettis / which commeth be the diuyne Prouydens of 
almighty God. 

Cap. v. 

A Spidocheloft / as Phisiolog^s saith, it is a monstrous thinge 
-LA. in the see, it is a gret whale fisshe, & hath an ouer-growe 
rowgh ski^ne / & he is moste parte with his bake on hye aboue 
the water in such maner that some shypmen thai see him, wene 
that it is a lytell ylande / & whan they come be it, they 
cast their ankers upow him / & go out of theyr shippes & make 
a fyre upon hym to dresse theyr metys / and as sone as he 
feleth the hete of the fyre / tha;me he swywmeth fro the place, 
& drowneth them, & draweth the shippe to the grounde / And 
his proper nature is, whan he hath yonges, thai he openeth his 
mouthe wyde open / & out of it fleeth a swete ayre / to ///e 
which the fisshes resorte, and tha he eteth them. 

AAurata is a fysshe in the see thai hathe a hede shinynge 
lyke golde. 

Cap. xi. 

A Huna is a mobster of the see very glorisshe, as Albert*! 
saith / what it eteth it tourneth to greas in his body / it 
hathe no mawe but a bely / & that he filleth so full that he 
speweth it out agayne / & that can he do so lyghtely / for he 
hath no necke / whan he is in peryl of dethe be other fisshes / 
than he onfacyoneth himselfe as rou^de as a bowle, w/t//draw- 
ynge his hede into his bely / wha he hathe then hounger / He 



dothe ete a parte of himselfe rather than the, other fisshes eats a bit of 
sholde ete him hole and all. 

Cap, xiii. 

BOrbotha be fisshes very slepery, somewhat lyke an ele / Borbotha. 
haulage wyde mouthes & great hedes / it is a swetemete / 
and whan it is xij. yere olde, than it waxeth bigge of body. 
Nota / Botte that is a flounder of the fresshe water / & they Butt, or Flounder 
swimme on the flatte of their body, & they haue finnes rou^de and^ote^).' 30 ' 
about theyr body & with a sothern wynde they waxe fatte / 
& they have rede spottis. Bre#ua is a breme, & it is a fisshe Bream (Russell, i. 
of the riuer / & whan he seeth tlie pyke that wyll take hym / 
than he sinketh to the botom of the, water & maketh it so 
trobelous that the pyke can nat se hym. 

Cap. xiiii, 

Alena is a great beste in the see, and blowetli moche water Baitna. (The 

from him, as if it were a clowde / the shippes be in great Merman/ 8 See' 8 

dauber of him somtyme / & they be sene moste towardes note, p. 123, here. 

? Whale. Russell, 

winter / for m the somer they be hidden in swete brod places i. sst.) 

of the water where it casteth her yoages, & suffereth so grete ^ t s e P r en most In 

payne thai tha he ileteth aboue the water as one desiringe kreed in summer. 

helpe / his mouth is in the face, & therefore he castetli the more 

water / she bringeth her yonges forthe lyke other bestis on 

erthe, & it slepeth / in tewpestius weder she hydeth her in rough weather 

i ii / j i -i 11 i xi 11 Balena puts her 

verges in her mouthe / and whan it is past she voydeth them young in her 
out agayne / & they growe x. yere. mouth. 

Cap. xvi. 

CAncer the creuyce is a Fishe of tliQ see that is closed in a Crevice (Sea and 
harde shelle, hauyng many fete and clawes / and euer it, crayfish)"*^ 
crepeth bacward / & the he hathe two pymies on his bely, & (Russell, i. cos, i. 
th& she hathe none / whan he wyll engender, he cliwmeth on f\ 8 ow t i, ey 
her bake, and she turneth her syde towardes him, & so they en s en(ler . 
fulfyll their workes. In maye they chaunge their cotes, & in 
winter they hyde the/ fiue monethes duringe / wlm# the and hybematc. 
creues hath dro^ken milke it may leue lo#ge wit/tout water. 
when he is olde, he hathe ij. stones in his lied with rede 
spottes that haue great vertue / for if they be layde in 
drynke / they withdryue the payne frome the herte. the 
creuyce eteth the Oysters, & geteth the/ be policye / now the Craytisi 
for whan the oyster gapeth, he throweth lytell stones in him, 
and so geteth his fishe out, for it bydeth than open. 

The Operacion. 

^[ The Asshes of hym is gode to make white tethe / & to 
kepe the motes out of the clothes / it wzt//dryueth byles, & 



Crayfish is hard 
to digest. 



Is difficult to net. 

Like* Harmony. 
Gets harpooned, 

rubs the harpoon 
into himself, and 
slays himself. 

Conohe, or 


heleth mangynes. The creuyce of the fresshe water geueth 
gret fode, but it is an heuy mete to disieste. 
Cap. xviij. 

CA.MCIUS is a fisshe that will nat be taken wz't/* no hokes / but 
eteth of the, bayte & goth his way quyte. Capital^.? 
is a lytel fisshe vriih a great liede / a wyde rou^de mouthe / & 
it hydeth him vnder the stones. Nota. Carpera is a carpe, & 
it is a fysshe that hathe great scales / and the female hathe a 
great rowghe, & she can bringe forthe no yonges tyll slie haue 
receyued mylke of her make / & that she receyueth at the 
mouth / and it is yll for to take / for whan it perceyueth that 
it shalbe taken vfiik the net, tha# it thrusteth the hede into 
the mudde of the water / and than the nette slyppeth oner 
him whiche waye soeuer it come ; & some holde them fast be 
the grounde, grasse / or erbis, & so sauc themselfe. 
Cap. xix. 

CEtus is the greatest whale fisshe of all / his mouthe is so 
wyde that he bloweth vp the water as yf it were a clowde / 
wherw/t^ he drowneth many shippes / but whan the inaryners 
jpye where he is / than thei accompany them a gret many of 
shyppes togeder about him with diuers iwstrumewtis of musike, 
& they play with grete armonye / & the fische is very gladde 
of this armonye / & cowmeth fletynge a-boue the watere to 
nere the melody, & than they haue amonge them an instru- 
ment of yron, the whiche they fester iii-to the harde skimie, & 
the weght of it synketh downwarde in to the fat & grese / & 
sodenly \viih that al the instrumentes of musike be sty 11, and 
the shyppes departe frome thens, & anone he sinketh to the 
grownde / & he feleth thai the salt watere srnarteth in the 
woumie, tha# he turneth his bely vpwaerd and rubbeth his 
wownde agay;/st the, ground, & the more he rubbeth, the 
depere it entreth / & he rubbeth so longe thai he sleeth hym- 
self / and whan he is dede, than commeili he vp agayne and 
sheweth him selfe dede / as he dyd before quicke / and than 
the shippes gader them togeder agayne, and take, & so lede 
hym to lo#de, & do theyr profyte with hym. 
Cap. xxij. 

COnche be abydynge in the harde sheliis : as the mone 
growth or waneth, so be the conches or muscles fulle or 
nat full, but smale / & there be many sortes of conches or 
musclys / but the best be they that haue the perles in. 
Cap. xxiij. 

COochele / is a snayle dwelliwge in the water & also on the 
lode / they go out of theyr howses / & they thruste out 


.ij. longe homes wherwith they felc wether they go / for they 
se nat where they crepe. 

Cap. xxiiij. 

THe Conger is a se fisshe facioned like an ele / but they be Conger. 
moche greter in qua^tyte / & whan it bloweth sore, than 
waxe they 1'atte. ^f Polippus is also a stronge fisshe thai Poiippus. 
onwarse he wyl pull a man out of a shyp. yet the conger is so 
stronge that he wyll tere polippu^ asonder w/U his teth, & in 
winter the, conger layth in the depe cauernes or holes of the 
water. & he is nat taken but in somer. ^ Esculapius sayth. 
Coretz is a fisshe that hydeth hym in the depe of the water Corets. 
whan it rayneth / for yf he receiued any rayne, he sholde waxe 
blynde, and dye of it. ^f lorath sayth. The fisshes that be 
named se craues / wha#ne they haue yo#ges / they make suche Sea-crevice. 
noise thai through theyr noyse they be fou^de and taken. 

Cap. xxvij. 
is a mobster of the see, & it hath no voyce, but Dolphin or 

it singheth lyke a man / and towarde a tempest it play- M 
eth vpon the water. Some say whan they be taken that they 
wepe. The delphin hath none eares for to here / nor no nose 
for to smelle / yet it smelleth very well & sharpe. And it 
slepeth vpon the water very hartely, that thei be hard ronke 
a farre of / and thei leue C.xl. yere. & they here gladly play^ge 
on instrumentes, as lutes / harpes / tabours / and pypes. They 
loue their yonges very well, and they fede them longe with the 
mylke of their pappes / & they haue many yonges, & amonge 
i\\em all be .ij. olde ones, that yf it fortuned one of the yonges 
to dye, tha# these olde ones wyll burye them depe in the 
gorwnd [sic] of the see / because othere fisshes sholde nat etc 
thys dede delphyn ; so well they loue theyr yonges. There 
was ones a kinge thai had take# a delphin / whyche he caused 
to be bounde \viiA chayries fast at a hauen where as the 
shippes come in at / & there was alway the pyteoust 
wepynge / and lamentynge, that the kinge coude nat for 
pyte / but let hym go agayne. 

Cap. xxxi. 

ECheola is a muskle / in whose fysshe is a precious stone / Echcoia, a 
& be night they flete to the water syde / and there they Muscle - 
receyue the heuenly dewe, where throughe there groweth 
in the/M a costly margaret or orient perle / & they flete a great 
many togeder / & he thai knoweth the water best / gothe 
before & ledeth the other / & whan he is taken, all the other 
scater a brode, and geteth them away. 






Kills his wife and 
gets another. 


Takes lier young 
out of her womb 
to look at 'em. 

8 word-Fish. 





Cap. xxxvi. 

Echyn^s is a Ijtell fysshe of half a fote longe / & hath sharpe 
prykcles vnder his bely in stede of fete. 

Cap. xxxvii. 

Ezox is a very grete fisslie in that water danowe be the 
londe of Hungary e / he is of suche bygnes tliat a carte 
with .iiij. liorses can nab cary hym awaye / and lie hath nat 
many bones, but his hcde is full / and lie hath swete fisshe 
lyke a porke, and whan this fysshe is taken, tha;me geue hym 
mylke to drynke. and ye may carye hym many a myle, and 
kcpe hym longe quicke. 


FOcas is a see bulle, & is very stro#ge & dangerous / and 
he feghteth euer with his wyf tyll she be dede / and 
whan he hath kylled her, than he casteth her out of his place, 
& seketh another, and leueth with her very well tyl he dye / 
or tyll his wyfe ouercome him and kylle \\jrn / he bydeth alway 
in one place / he and his yonges leue be suche as they can 
gete. ^T Halata is a beste that dothe on-naturall dedys / for 
wha# she feleth her yonges quycke, or stere in her body / 
tha;* she draweth ihern out & loketh vpon them / yf she se 
they be to yoge, tha# she putteth thew in agayne, 8c lateth 
them grow tyll they be bygger. 

Cap. xv, 

r\ Ladies is a Csshe so named because he is mouthed after 
VJT the fascyor* of a sworde poynt / and ther-fore often 
tymes he perseth ///e shyppes thorough, & so causeth tliem to 
be drowned. Aristotiles. Gastarios is a fisshe lyke the 
scorpion / and is but lytell greter than a spyder / & it 
styngeth many fisshes \\iih her poyson so that they ca# nat 
endure nowhere / and he styngeth the dolphin on the hede thai 
it entreth in-to Me brayne. ^[ Isidorus. Glaucus is a whyte fissh 
that is but selden sene except in darke rayne weder / and is 
nat in season but in the howndes dayes. 

Cap. xli. 

G"" Obio is a smale longe fissh with a rou^de body / full of 
scales and litell blacke spotty s / and some saye they leue 
of droutf de caryo# / & the fisshers say contrarye, thai they 
leue in clere watere in sandye graueil / and it is a holsom 
mete. 51 Grauus is a fisshe that hath an iye aboue on hys hede, 
and therwz't/i he loketh vp, and saueth hym from theiw that 
wyll eat hym. 



LUcius is a pike / a fisshe of the, riuer with a wyde mouthc pilce ' 
& sharpe teth : whan the. perche spieih him / he turneth 
his tayle towardes him / than the, pike dare nat byte him 
because of his fumes, or he can nat swalowe him because he is 
so sharpe / lie eteth venimo^ bestes, as todes, frogges, & eats venomous 
suche like ; yet it is sayde thai he is very holsom for seke b 
peple. He eteth fisshes almost as moche as himselfe / wha# 
they be to bigge, tha# he byteththe^ inij. peces, & swaloweth 
the one halfe first, & tha the other / he is engendered with is begotten by a 
a westerne wynde. West Wind< 

Cap. Ivii. 

MUs marhw?, the see mouse, gothe out of the water, & there Sea-Mouse 
she laith her egges in a hole of the erthe, & couereth the 
eges, & goth her way & bydeth frorne them xxx, dayes, and 
than commeth agayne and oncouereth them, & than there be 
yo>/gcs, and them she ledeth into the, water, & they be first al 
blynde. Muscul^s is a fisshe that layth harde shellis, and of Muscuius is the 
it the great monster balena receyueth her nature, & it is cock of Baiena. 
named to be the cocke of balena. Mustek is the see wesyll / sea-weazie. 
she casteth her yonges lyke other bestes / & wha# she hath 
cast them, yf she perceiue that they shall be founde, she 
swaloweth them agayne into her body, and than seketh a place 
wher as they may be surer without dau^ger / & than she 
speweth them out agayne. 

Cap. lix. 

MUrena is a lowge fisshe with a weke skinne lyke a serpent / Lamprey. 
& it conceyueth of the serpent vipera / it liueth longest 
in the tayle, for wha that is cut of, it dyeth incontinent / it 
must be soden in gode wyne with herbes & spices, or ellis it Must be boiled in 
is very dauwgenm to be eten, for it hath many venymous AV 
humours, and it is euyll to disieste. 

Cap. Ixi. 

MUlus is a see fysshe thai is smale of body / & is only a Mulus : 
mete for gentils : & there be many maners of these / 
but the best be those thai haue ij. berdes vnd<?r the mouthe / has 2 beards. 
& whan it is fayre weder, than they waxe fatte / whan he is 
dede than he is of many colours. 

Cap. Ixiiij. 

NEreydes be monsters of the, see, all rowghe of body / & whan Nereids, 
any of them dyeth, tha# the other wepe. of this is 
spoken in balena, the .xiiij. chapter. 




Is Balene's deadly 



Pecten : winks. 


How he catches 
small fishes. 




If Archu;z is a monster of the se / whose lykenes can nat 
\J lightely be shewed / & he is mortal e^nemye to thz 
balene, & tereth asonder the bely of the balene / & the balene 
is so boystous thai he can nat turne hym to defende him, and 
thai costeth him his lyfe / for as sone as he feleth him selfe 
wounded, than he si/zketh doune to the botoni of the water 
agayne / & the Orchim thro wet h at him w/U stones / & thus 
balena endith his lyfe. 

Cap. Ixvi. 

OStren is an oyster that openeth his shell to receyue the. 
dewe & swete ayre. In the, oyster groweth natural! 
orient perles that oftentymes laye on the see stronde, & be but 
lytell regarded, as Isidorus saith. 

Cap. Ixvij. 

"Qagrus is a fisshe that hath so harde tethe thai he byteth the, 
JL oysler shelles in peces, & eteth out the fisshe of them. 
Nota. Pauus maris is the Pecocke of the Se, & is lyke the 
pecocke of the londe, bothe his backe, necke, & hede / & the 
nether body is fisshe Nota. Percus is of diuers colours, & 
swift in ro^nynge in the water, & hathe sharpe finnes, & is a 
holsome mete for seke people. Pecten is a fisshe that is in 
sandy grou^de, & wha# he is meued or stered, lie wynketh. 
Cap. Ixx. 

Pinna is a fisshe thai layeth alwaye in the mudde, and hathe 
alway a lodisma#, & some name it a lytel hoge, & it hathe 
a roiuzde body, & it is in a shell lyke a muscle ; it layth in 
the mone as it were dede, gapyng open / and than the smale 
fisshes come into his shel, weniwg of him to take their repaste / 
but whan he feleth thai his shell is almoste ful / than he 
closeth his mouthe, & taketh them & eteth them / & parteth 
them amo#ge his felowes. The playce is well knowen fisshe, 
for he is brode & blake on the one syde, and whyte on the 

Cap. ixvij. 

POlippus hath gret strength in his fete / what he therin 
cacheth, he holdeth it fast / he sprkgetk somtyme vp to 
the shippes syde, & snacheth a ma# \fiih him to the grou^de 
of the see, & there eteth him / & that thai he leueth, he 
casteth it out of his denne agayn / they be moche in the se 
about Venis / & he is taken in barellis where hartys homes 
be layd in / for he is gladly be those homes. 
Cap. Ixxvij. 

RUmbus is a great fisshe stronge & bolde / but he is very 
slow in swiwmiffge, therfor can he gete his mete but 


soberly vritA swiwmyng / therfor he layth him down in the 
grouflde or mudde, & hideth him there / and all the fisshes 
that he can ouercome / co#zmynge forby him, he taketh and 
eteth them. 

Cap. Ixxviij. 

RUbus is a fisshe of the grekes se & of the sees of ytaly / Rubus. 
they be rou^de lyke a ringe, & haue many rede spottes / 
& is full of sharpe finnes & pinnis / he is slow in swiwmynge 
because he is so brode / he gothe be the grou^de, & wayteth 
there his praye / & suche fisshes as he can gete he burieth in 
the sandes, & it is a very swete fisshe. Ryache be fisshes Ryache. 
that be rou^de / somtyme they be in length & brede two 
cubites / & it hath a long tayle / theron be sharpe pinnes / & 
it is slowe in swiwmynge. 

Cap. Ixxix. 

Sal mo is a fysshe engendred in the swete water, & he waxeth Salmon. 
longe & gret / & also he is heuy / & his colour nor sauour 
is nat gode tyll he haue ben in the salt water & proued it / 
thus draweth the samon to the water agaynst the, streme ; he 
neuer seaseth tyll he haue ben in the se and returned agayn to 
his olde home, as Phisiologua saith / his fisshe 1 is rede, & he [i?fleshe,j 
may nat Hue in a swet sta^dinge water / he must be in a 
fresshe riuer that he may playe up and dou#e at his plesure. 

Salpa is a fowle fisshe and ly tell set by / for it will neuer be Salpa. stockfish t 
jnough for no maner of dressinge tyll it haue ben beten 
with grete hamers & staues. 

Cap. Ixxij. 

SErra is a fysshe with great tethe, and on his backe he hathe gerra. 
sharpe fynnes lyke the combe of a cocke / and iagged 
lyke a sawe wherewz'U thys monstrous fisshe cutteth a ship cuts through 
thorough, & whan he seeth a shippe comynge, than he ships with his fins, 
setteth vp his fbmes & thiiketh to sayl with the shippe as 
fast as it / but whan he seeth that he can nat continue / thaw 
he latteth his finnes fall agayn & destroieth the shippe with 
the people, and tha etetk the dede bodyes. Nota. Scilla is scyiia. 
a monster in the see betwene Italye & Sicill / it is great 
ennemye vnto ma^. It is faced & handed lyke a gentylwoman / 
but it hath a wyde mouthe & ferfull tethe / & it is belied like 
a beste, & tayled lyke a dolphin / it hereth gladly singinge. It 
is in the water so stronge that it can nat be ouercome / but 
on the, lond it is but weke. 

Cap. Ixxxiij. 

Syrene. the mermayde is a dedely beste that bringeth a man Siren, 
gladly to dethe / frome the nauyll yp she is lyke a woman 



Siren is like an 
e;j,'Ic below. 

sings sweet songs 
to mariners, 

and tears them to 

Sirens, serpents. 




[i orig. Tge] 


Eats no food, 
has no mouth. 

Krows fat on east 

Has no bones in 
his body. 


with a drcdfull face / a long sly my o here, a grete body, & is 
lyke the egle in the nether parte / haui;/ge fete and tale^tis to 
tear asonder suche as she geteth / her tayl is scaled like a 
fisslie / and she singelh a maner of swete song, and therwith 
deceyueth many a gode mariner / for wha# they here it, they 
fall on slepe commonly / & than she cowmeth, and draweth 
them out of the shippe, and tereth them asonder / they here 
their yowges in their armes, & geue them souke of their papis 
wliiche be very grete, lia;/ginge at their brcstis / but the, wyse 
maryners stoppe their eares whan they se her / for whan she 
playth on the water, all they be in fear, & than they cast out 
an empty to^ne to let her play with it tyll they be past her / 
this is specifyed of them that haue sene it. Ther be also in 
some places of arabye, serpewtis named sirenes, that ronne 
faster than an horse, & haue wynges to flye. 
[Cap. Ixxxv.] 

Solaris is a fishe so named because it is gladly be the londes 
yyde in the so/me / he hathe a great hede, a wyde mouth, 
& a blake skine, & slipper as an ele / it waxeth gret, & is gode 
to be eten. Solea is the sole, that is a swete fisshe and 
holsom for seke people. 

Cap. Ixxxvi. 

SOlope^dria is a fisshe / whan he hathe swalowed in an 
angle, than he spueth out al his guttes till he be quyt of 
the hoke / and than he gadereth in all his guttes agayne. The 
Scorpion of the see is so named because wha he is taken in 
any mannys handes he pricket h him with his stinge of his 
tayle. Plinizw saith that the dede creuyce that layeth on the 
drye sonde be the see syde, becowmeth scorpyons. 
Cap. Ixxxix. 

STurio / the sturgio;? is a gret fisshe in the rowninge waters / 
and he taketh no fode in his body, but lyueth of Me 
styl and swete ayres therfore he hathe a small bely / with a 
hede and no mouthe, but vnder his throte he hathe a hole thai 
he closeth whan lie wyll / he openeth it whan it is fayre 
weder / & with an east wynde he waxeth fat / and whan that 
the north wiiide bloweth, than falleth he to the grouwde / it is 
a fisshe of ix. fote longe whan he is ful growen / he hath 
whyte swete flesshe & yolow fatte / & he hathe no bone in all 
his body but only in his hede. 

Cap. xcij. 

TEcna is a tenche of the fresshe water, and is fedde in the 
mudde lyke the elc / & is moche lyke of colours : it is a 
swete fisshe. but it is euyll to disiest. f Tintinalus is a fayre 


mery fisshe, & is svvcte of sauour, & well smellinge lyke the 
tyme, where of it bereth the name, ^[ Torpido is a fisshe. Torpedo. 
but who-so handeleth hym shalbe lame & defe of lymmea / 
that he shall fele no thyng / & it hathe a maner of Squitana 
thai is spoke;? of in the Ixxxiiii. chapter 1 , and his nature. 

Cap. xciij. 
...... 5[ Trncka 3 / the trowte is a fisshe of the ryuer, & 

hathe scales, & vpon his body spottys of yelow and blodye 

coloure. & his fisshe 3 is rede frome the monthe of July to the [3?flcsshc] 

monthe of Nouewber / and is moche sweter than Me fresshc 

samo#; and all the other part of the yere his fisshe 3 is whytc. 

Cap. xcv. 

rpEstudo is a fysshe in a shelle / & is in the se of.Inde / & his Testudo. 
JL shelle is very great & like a muskle / & be nyght they 
go out for theyr mete / & whan they haue eten theyr bely 
full / thaw they slepe swy^mi^g vpon the water, thaw ther 
come iij. fisshers botes / of the, wiche .iij. twayn take one of 
these muskles. Solinus sayth. thai this muskle hathe his 
vppermest shell so brode that it may couere a howse / where 
many folke may hyde them vnder / And it gothe out the 
water vpon the londe / & there it layth an hondred egges as 
grete as gose eggis / and couer them wz'U erth / & often- 
tymes be night it gothe to the eggys & layeth vpo# t\\em w/tA 
her brest, & than become they yo#ges. 

[This copy of Admiral Swinburne's Andrewe ends with the 
next column of this page, sign. v. i. back, with an illustration 
not headed, but which is that to Cap. xcvij.] 

1 Squatinws is a fisshe in the se, of fiue cubites longe : histayle is 
a fote brode, & he hicleth him in the slimy mudde of the se, & 
marreth al other fisshes that come nigh him : it hath so sharpe a 
skmne that in som places they shaue wode with it, & bone also / 
on his skinne is blacke short here. The nature hathe made him so 
harde that he can nat almoste be persed with nouther yron nor stele. 

Note to Balena, p. 115. J?ar [in J?e se of Brytain] buj? ofte 
ytake dolphyns, & se-calves, & balcties, (gret fysch, as hyt were of 
whaales kinde) & dyvers manere schyl-fysch, among pe whoche 
schyl-fysch bup moskles pat habbcp wipynne ham margey perles 
of al manere colour of hu}, of rocly & red, of purpre & of blu}, & 
specialych & moost of whyte. Trevisa's Higden, in Morris's Speci- 
mens, p. 334. For 'the cocke of Balena' see Musculus, p. 119, 
above ; and for its ' mortal ennemye,' Orchun, p. 120. 



of Compoundes,fol. Ixviii.) 

Will boxyng doe any pleasure ? 


"YTEa forsothe, verie moche : As example, if you hatie 
-L any sausie loughte, or loitryng lubber within your 
For saucy louts, house, that is either to busy of his hand or tongue : 
and can do nothing but plaie one of the partes of the 
.24. orders of knaues. There is no pretier medicen for 
this, nor soner prepared, then boxyng is : iii. or .iiii. 
tymes well set on, a span long on bothe the chekes. 
And although perhaps this will not alter his lubberly 
condicio?is, yet I assure you, it wil for a time chauwge 
his knauishe complexion, and helpe him of the grene 
sicknes : and euery man maie practise this, as occasion 
shall serue hym in his familie, to reforn.e them. Bul- 
leins Bulwarks of Defence, 1562. 

the best cure is 

The names of 

(From The booke of Simples, fol. xxvii. back.) 


fTlHere is an herbe whiche light fellowes merily will 
-* call Gallowgrasse, Neckeweede, or the Tristrams 
knot, or Saynt Audres lace, or a bastarde brothers 
badge, with a difference on the left side, &c. you know 
my meaning. 


WHat, you speake of Hempe? mary, you terme it 
with manie pretie names. I neuer heard the like 


termes giuen to any simple, as you giue to this ; you 

cal it neckwede. A, well, I pray you, woulde you 

know the propertie of this Neckeweede in this kinde 1 Neckweed (a 

beinge chaunged into such a lace, this is his vertue. 

Syr, if there be any yonkers troubled with idelnesse 

and loytryng, hauyng neither learnyng, nor willyng 

handes to labour : or that haue studied Phisicke so 

longe that he or they can giue his Masters purse a Pur- is good for thievish 

,.,.,.. ,. , apprentices. 

gacion, or his Chist, shoppe, and Countinghouse, ci 

strong vomit ; yea, if he bee a very cunning practicioner 

in false accomptes, he may so suddenly and rashely 

minister, that he may smite his Father, his Maister, or 

his friende &c. into a sudden incurable consumption, 

that he or they shall neuer recouer it againe, but be 

vtterly vndone, and cast either into miserable pouertie, 

prisonment, bankeroute &c. If this come to passe, then 

the ! best rewarde for this practicioner, is this Necke- [i F O I. xzviii.] 

weede : if there be any swashbuckler, common theefe, f or swashbucklers 

ruffen, or murtherer past grace, y nexte remedie is P ' 

this Lace or Corde. For them which neuer louedconcored, 

peace nor honestie, this wil ende all the mischief ; this 

is a purger, not of Melancholy, but a fin all banisher of 

all them that be not fit to Hue in a common wealth, no and ail scamps. 

more then Foxes amonge sheepe, or Thistles amonge 

good Corne, hurters of trew people. This Hempe, I 

say, passeth the new Diat, bothe in force and antiquitee. 

If yonge wantons, whose parentes haue left them fayre A iso for young 

houses, goods and landes, whiche be visciously, idle, s i )endthnft3 

vnlearnedly, yea or rather beastly brought vp : after the 

death of their saied parentes, their fruites wil spryng who after ti>eir 

foorth which they haue learned in their wicked youthe : par< 

then bankets and brothels will approche, the Harlots waste their ail 

will be at hande, with dilightes and intisementes, the 

Baude will doe hir diligence, robbyng not onlie the 

pursses, but also the hartes of suche yongemen, whiche 

when they be trapped, can neuer skape, one amonge 



an liundreth, vntill Hempe breaketh the bande amonge 

and in gambling these loytring louers. The Dice whiche be bothe smalle 

and light, in respecte vnto the Coluering, or double 

Cannon sliotte or Bollet, yet with small force and noyse 

can mine, break downe, and destroy, and caste away 

their one Maisters houses, faire feldes, pleasaunt Woddes, 

and al their money, yea frendes and al together, this 

can the Dice do. And moreouer, can make of worship- 

which makes men f u n borne Gentilmen, miserable beg^ers, or theefes, vet 

beggars, or ' J 

thieves. for the time "a-loft syrs, hoyghe childe and tourne thee, 

A life of reckless what should youth do els : I-wisse, not liue like slaues 


or pesantes, but all golden, glorious, may with dame 
Venus, my hartes delight" say they. "What a sweete 
heauen is this : Haue at all, kockes woundes, bloud and 
nayles, caste the house out at the window, and let the 
Diuell pay the Malte man : a Dogge hath but a day, a 
good manage will recouer all together:" or els with a 

and robbery Barnarcls blowe, lurkyng in some lane, wodde, or hill 
top, to get that with falshead in an hower, whiche with 
trueth, labour, & paine, hath bene gathered for per- 
happes .xx. yeares, to the vtter vndoyng of some 
honest familie. Here thou seest, gentle Marcellus, a 
miserable Tragedie of a wicked shamelesse life. I nede 
not bring forth the example of the Prodigall childe, 
Luke .xvi. Chapter, whiche at length came to grace : It 

ends with is, I feare me, in vaine to talke of him, whose ende was 

good ; but a greate nomber of these flee from grace, and 
come to endes moste vngracious, finished only life by 

Hemp. this Hempe. Although sometime the innocente man 

dieth that way, through periurie for their one propper 
gooddes, as Naboth died for his owne Vineyarde, 
miserable in the eies of the worlde, but precious in the 
sight of God. This is one sendee whiche Hempe 

The \\su of Hemp Also this worthy noble herbc Hempe, called Canna- 
bis in Latten, can not bee wanted in a common wealth, 


no Shippe can sayle without Hempe, y sayle clothes, the 

shroudes, stales, tacles, yarde lines, warps & Cables can to the sailor, 

not be made. No Plowe, or Carte can be without Plowman, 

ropes ! halters, trace &c. The Fisher and .Fouler [' Foi. xxviii. b.] 

Fislicr and 

muste haue Hempe, to make their nettes. And no 
Archer can wante his bowe string : and the Malt Archer. 
man for his sackes. With it the belle is rong, to 
seruice in the Church, with many mo thynges profit- 
able whiche are commonly knowen of euery man, bo 
made of Hempe. 



!$, anb $rtss. 

i$ Regyment, ? 

[Fol. B. i.] 

After Dinner, 
sleep standing 

against a 

[I Fol. K. i. b.] 

Before bedtime 
be merry. 

Have a fire in 
your bedroom, 

but stand a good 
way off it. 

Shut your 

Whole men of what age or complexion so euer they 
be of, shulde take theyr naturall rest and slepc in the 
nyght : and to eschewe merydyall sleep. But and nede 
shall compell a man to slope after his meate : let hym 
make a pause, and than let hym stande & lene and 
slepe agaynst a cupborde, or els let hym sytte upryght 
in a chayre and slepe. Slepynge after a full stomacko 
doth ingendre dyuers infyrmyties, it doth hurte the. 
splene, it relaxeth the synewes, it doth ingendre the 
dropses and the gowte, and doth make a man looke euyll 
colored. l Beware of veneryous actes before the fyrste 
slepe, and specyally beware of suche thynges after 
dyner or after a full stomacke, for it doth ingendre the 
crampe and the gowte and other displeasures. To 
bedwarde be you mery, or haue mery company aboute 
you, so that to bedwarde no angre, nor heuynes, 
sorowe, nor pensyfulnes, do trouble or dysquyet you. 
To bedwarde, and also in the mornynge, vse to haue a 
fyre in your chambre, to wast and consume the euyl 
vapowres within the chambre, for the breath of man 
may putryfye the ayre within the chambre : I do 
advertyse you not to stande nor to sytte by the fyre, 
but stande or syt a good way of from the fyre, takynge 
the flauour of it, for fyre doth aryfie and doth drye vp 
a mannes blode, and doth make sterke the synewes and 
ioyntes of man. In the nyght let the wyndowes of 


your howse, specyallye of yonr chambre, be closed. 

Whan you * be in your bedde, 1 lye a lytle whyle on C* Fo1 - * "0 

your lefte syde, and slepe on your ryght syde. And Lie first on your 

whan you do wake of your fyrste slepe, make water yf 

you feel your bladder charged, & than slepe on the 

lefte side; and looke as ofte as you do wake, so oft 

turne your selfe in the bedde from one syde to the 

other. To slepe grouellynge vpon the stomacke and TO sleep grovei- 

bely is not good, oneles the stomacke be si owe and is bad; 

tarde of dygestion ; but better it is to laye your hande, 

or your bedfelowes hande, ouer your stomacke, than to 

lye grouellynge. To slepe on the backe vpryght 2 is on the back 

upright, is worse. 

vtteiiy to be abhorred 1 : whan that you do slepe, let 

not your necke, nother your sholders, nother your ' 

ha?ids, nor feete, nor no other place of your bodye, lye 

bare vndiscouered. Slepe not with an emptye stomacke, 

nor slepe not after that you haue eaten meate one 

howre or two after. In your bed lye with your head 

somwhat hyghe, leaste that the * meate whiche is in [* FoL E - u - b -V 

your stomacke, thorowe eructuacions or some other 

cause, ascende to the oryfe (sic) of the stomacke. Let 

your nyght cap be of scarlet : and this I do aduertyse VVear a scarlet 


you, to cause to be made a good thy eke quylte of cotton, 

1-1 Compare what Bulleyn says : slepe. The night is the 
best time : the dale is cuill : to slepe in the fielde is perilous. 
But vpon, or in the bedde, liyng firste vpon the right 
side, untill you make water : then vpon the lefte side, is good 
But to lye vpon the backe, with a gaping mouth, is daungerous . How to lie in bed. 
and many thereby are made starke ded in their slepe : through 
apoplexia, and obstruccion of the sinewes, of the places vitalle, 
animall, and nutrimentalle. Bulleirfs Bulwarke, The booke of 
the vse of sicke men and medicenes, fol. Ixx. See also Sir John 
Harrington's directions from Ronsovius : " They that are in 
health, must first sleepe on the right side, because the meate 
may come to the liner, which is to the stomack as a fire vnder the 
pot, and thereby is digested. To them which haue but weake di- who S h uld put 
gestion, it is good to sleepe prostrate on their bellies, or to haue their hands on 
their bare hands on their stomackes : and to lye vpright on the their stomach8 - 
backe, is to bee vtterly abhorred." p. 19. 

2 This wenche lay upright, and faste slepte. Chaucer. The 
Reeves Tale, 1. 4192, ed. Wright. 



Have a flock bed 
over your 

OH rising, re- 
member God, 
brush your 
breeches, put on 

your hose, 

[* Fol. E. iii.] 
go to stool. 

Truss your 
points, eomb 
your head, 

wash your hands 
and face, 

take a stroll, 

pray to God. 


and combing the 

or els of pure flockes or of cleane wolle, and let the 
couerynge of it be of whyte fustyan, and laye it on the 
fetherbed that you do lye on ; and in your bed lye not 
to hote nor to colde, but in a temporaunce. Olde 
auncyent Doctors of physicke sayth .viii. howres of 
slepe in so??zmer, and ix. in wynter, is suffycent for 
any man : but I do thynke that slepe oughte to be 
taken as the complexion of man is. Whan you do 
ryse in the niornynge, ryse with myrth and remembre 
God. Let your hosen be brusshed within & without, 
and flauer the insyde of them agaynst the fyre ; vse 
lynnen sockes, or lynnen hosen nexte your legges : 
whan you be out of your bedde, stretche forth your 
* legges & armes, & your body ; cough, and spytte, and 
than go to your stoole to make your egestyon, and 
exonerate youre selfe at all tymes, that nature wolde 
expell. For yf you do make any restryction in kepynge 
your egestyon or your vryne, or ventosyte, it maye put 
you to dyspleasure in breadynge dyuers infyrmyties. 
After you haue euacuated your bodye, & trussed your 
poyntes, 1 kayme your heade oft, and so do dyuers tymes 
in the day. And wasshe your ha??des & wrestes, your 
face, & eyes, and your teeth, with colde water ; and 
after y l you be apparayled, walke in your gardyn or 
parke, a thousande pase or two. And than great and 
noble men doth vse to here masse, & other men that 
can not do so, but muste applye theyr busynes, doth 
serue god with some prayers, surrendrynge thankes to 
hyni for hys manyfolde goodnes, with askynge mercye 

1 Fricacion is one of the euacuacions, yea, or clensynges of man- 
kinde, as all the learned affirrueth : that mankinde should rise in the 
mornyng, and haue his apparell Avarme, stretchyng foorthe his 
handes and legges. Preparyng the bodie to the stoole, and then 
begin with a fine Combe, to kembe the heere vp and down : then 
with a course warme clothe, to chafe or rnbbe the bedde, necke, 
breast, armeholes, bellie, thighes, &c., and this is good to open the 
pores. 1562 JBullein's Bulwarke, The booke of the vse of sicke men 
and medicenes, fol. Ixvij. See Vaughan below, No. 2, p. 133. 


for theyr offences. And before you go to your refec- 

tion, moderatly exercise your body with some labour, C* Fo1 - B - iu - b -3 

or playeng at the tennys, or castyng a bowle, or paysyng Play at tennis, 

. or wield weights. 

weyghtes or plo??imettes ot leede in your handes, or 
some other thyng, to open your poores, & to augment 
naturall heate. At dyner and supper ! vse not to drynke At meals, 
sundry drynkes, and eate not of dyuers meates : but 
feede of .ii. or .iii. dysshes at the moste. After that 
you haue dyned and supte, laboure not by and by 
after, but make a pause, syttynge or standynge vpryght 
the space of an howre or more with some pastyme : 
drynke not moch after dyner. At your supper, vsc 
lyght meates of dygestyon, and refrayne from grose 
meates ; go not to bed with a full nor an emptye 
stomacke. And after your supper make a pause or you 
go to bed ; and go to bed, as I sayde, with myrth. 

Furthermore as concernynge your apparell. In 

wynter, next your shert vse you to weare a petycote of ^J" * * carlet 
scarlet : your dowb*let vse at plesure : But I do t* FOI. E. iv.] 
aduertvse vou to Ivne vour Jacket vnder this fasshyon Line a jacket 

J with WMite 

or maner. Bye you fyne skynnes of whyte lambe & and black 

. , . , e lambskin sewn 

blacke lambe. And let your skymier cut both y sortes diamond-wise. 
of the skynnes in srnale peces triangle wyse, lyke halfe 
a quarell of a glasse wyndowe. And than sewe 
togyther a* whyte pece and a blacke, lyke a whole L*MS.a] 
quarell of a glasse wyndowe : and so sewe vp togyther 

1 Drunkards, bench- wislers, that will quaffe untill thei are starcke 
staring niadde like Marche Hares : Fleming-like Sinckars ; brain- 
lesse like infernall Furies. Drinkyng, braulyng, tossyng of the 
pitcher, staryng, pissyng*, and sauyng your reuerence, beastly 
spuyng vntill midnight. Therefore let men take hede of dronkew- 
nes to bedward, for feare of sodain death : although the Flemishe f 
nacion vse this horrible custome in their vnnaturall watching all 
the night. Bullein, fol. Ixix-lxx, see also fol. xj. 

* Compare A. Borde of the " base Doche man," in his Introduction. 
f I am a Flemyng, what for all that 
Although I wyll be dronken other whyles as a rat. 

A. Borde, Introduction. 


quarell wyse as moche as wyll lyne your Jacket : this 
furre, for holsommes, is praysed aboue sables, or any 
other fur. Your exteryall aparel vse accordyng to your 
honour. In sonmer vse to were a scarlet petycote 
made of stamell or lynse wolse. In wynter and soramer 
kepe not your bed to hote, nor bynde it to strayte ; 
Keep your neck kepe euer your necke warme. In somer kepe your 


Wear goatskin necke and face from the sonne ; vse to wear gloues 
made of goote skyn, perfumed with Amber degrece. 

[* Foi. B. iv. b.] And beware in sta?zdyng or lyeng on the *grounde in 
the reflection of the son?*e, but be mouable. If thou 

Don't stand long shalt common or talke with any man : stande not styll 

on grass or . e , 

stones. in one place yf it be vpon y bare groume, or grasse, 

or stones : but be mouable in suche places. Stande 
nor syt vpon no stone or stones : Stande nor syt longe 
barehed vnder a vawte of stone. Also beware that you 
do not lye in olde chawbres which be not occupyed, 

Don't sleep in specyally suche chambres as myse and rattes and snayles 
resorteth vnto : lye not in suche chambres, the whiche 
be depreued cleane from the sonne and open ayre ; nor 
lye in no lowe Chambre, excepte it be boorded. Be- 

Don't take cold in ware that you take no colde on your feeto and legges. 
And of all weather beware that you do not ryde nor go 
in great and Impytous wyndes. (A Compe^dyous Regy- 
ment or a Dyetary of helth, made in Mountpylior: Com- 
pyled by Andrewe Boorde, of Physicke Doctor. (Colo- 
phon.) Imprinted by me Eobert Wyer : Dwellynge at 
the sygne of seynt John Euangelyst, in S. Martyns 
Parysshe, besyde Charynge Crosse.) 


William fitajfean's 
Jfifteen Jliratians ta prtserfrt Hcalt|. 

(From his Natural! Artificial Directions 
for health, 1602, p. 57-63.) 

Declare vnto mee a dayly dyet, whereby I may 
Hue in health, and not trouble my selfe in Physicke. 

(1) I will.:- first of all in the morning when you i. stretch 
are about to rise vp, stretch your self strongly : for 
thereby the animall heate is somewhat forced into the 
outward partes, the memorie is quickned, and the 
bodie strengthened. 

(2) Secondarily, rub and chafe your body with the 2 - Rubyouweit 
palmes of your hands, or with a course linnen cloth ; 

the breast, back, and belly, gently : but the armes, , 
thighes, and legges roughly, till they seem ruddy and 

(3) Euacuate your selfe. GO to stool. . 

(4) Put on your apparell : which in the summer 4. Put on your 
time must be for the, most part silke, or buffe, made of 

buckes skinne, for it resisteth venime and contagious 
ayres : in winter your vpper garment must be of cotton 
or friezeadow. 

(5) When you have apparelled your selfe han- 5 - combyour 


somely, combe your head softly and easily with an 
luorie combe : for nothing recreateth the memorie 

(6) Picke and rub your teeth: and because I e. clean your 
would not haue you to bestow much cost in making te 



Use Vaughan's 

made after this 

(How to keep the dentrifices for them; I will aduertise you by foure 

teeth sound and * i . 

the breath sweet, rules of importance how to keepe your teeth white and 
vncorruyt (sic), and also to haue a sweete "breath. First, 
wash well your mouth when you haue eaten your 
meat : secondly, sleepe with your mouth somewhat 
open. Thirdly, spit out in the morning that which is 
gathered together that night in the throate : then take 
a linnen cloth^-and rub your teeth well within and 
without, to take away the fumositie of the meat and 
the yellownesse of the teeth. For it is that which 
putrifieth them and infecteth the breath. But least 
peraduenture your teeth become loose and filthy, I 
will shew you a water farre better then pouders, which 
shall fasten them, scoure the mouth, make sound the 
gums, and cause the flesh to growe againe, if it were fallen 
away. Take halfe a glasse-full cf vineger, and as much 
of the water of the mastick tree (if it may easily be 
gotten) of rosemarie, myrrhe, mastick, bole Armoniake, 
Dragons herbe, roche allome, of each of them an 
ounce; of fine cinnamon halfe an ounce, and of foun- 
taine water three glassefulles ; mingle all well to- 
gether and let it boile with a small fire, adding 
to it halfe a pound of honie, and taking away the 
scumme of it ; then put in a little bengwine, and 
when it hath sodden a quarter of an houre, take it 
from the fire, and keepe it in a cleane bottle, and wash 
your teeth therewithall as well before meate as after ; 
if you hould some of it in your mouth a little while, it 
doth much good to the head, and sweetneth the breath. 
I take this water to be better worth then a thousand of 
their dentifrices. 

(7) Wash your face, eyes, eares and hands, with 
fountaine water. I have knowne diuers students 
which vsed to bathe their eyes onely in well water 
twise a day, whereby they preserued their eyesight 
free from all passions and bloudsheds, and sharpened 

It's better than 
1000 Dentriflces.) 

7. Wash. 


their memories mamaylously. You may sometimes 

bathe your eyes in rose water, fennell water, or eyebright 

water, if you please ; but I know for certaintie, that 

you neede them not as long as you vse good fountaine 

water. Moreouer, least you by old age or some other 

meanes doe waxe dimme of sight, I will declare vnto 

you, the best and safest remedie which I knowe, and The best remedy 

this it is : Take of the distilled waters of verueine, 

bettonie, and fennell one ounce and a halfe, then take 

one ounce of white wine, one drachme of Tntia (if you 

may easilie come by it) two drachmes of sugarcandy, 

one drachme of Aloes Epatick, two drachmes of 

womans milke, and one scruple of Camphire : beat 

those into pouder, which are to be beaten, and infuse 

them together for foure and twenty houres space, and 

then straine them, and so vse it when you list. 

(8) When you haue finished these, say your morn- s. say yom 
ing prayers, and desire God to blesse you, to preserue raye " 
you from all daungers, and to direct you in all your 
actions. For the feare of God (as it is written) is the 
beginning of wisedome: and without his protection 
whatsoeuer you take in hand, shall fall to ruine. 
Therefore see that you be mindfull of him, and re- 
member that to that intent you were borne, to weet, to 

set foorth his glorie and most holy name. 

(9) Goe about your businesse circumspectly, and 9. set to work, 
endeauour to banish all cares and cogitations, which are 

the onely baits of wickednesse. Defraud no man of his 
right : for what measure you giue vnto your neighbour, B e honest. 
that measure shall you receiue. And finally, imprint 
this saying deepely in your mind : A man is but a 
steward of his owne goods ; wherof God one day will 
demaund an account, 

(10) Eate three meales a day vntill you come to the 10. Eatcniy three 
age of fourtie yeares : as, your break efast, dinner, and meals a day ' 
supper,) yet, that betweene break efast and dinner there 



Eat light food 
before heavy. 

Drink hinders 

Use silver cups. 

11. Don't work 
directly after 
meals/but talk, 


and clean your 

12. Undress by 
the fire in winter, 

be the space of foure houres, and betwixt dinner and 
supper seauen houres : the breakfast must be lesse 
then dinner, and the dinner somewhat lesse then 

In the beginning of meales, eate such meates as 
will make the belly soluble, and let grosse meats be the 
last. Content your selfe with one kind of meate, for 
diuersities hurt the body, by reason that meats are not 
all of one qualitie : Some are easily digested, others 
againe are heauy, and will lie a long time vpon the 
stomack : also, the eating of sundrie sorts of meat 
require often pottes of drinke, which hinder concoction ; 
like as we see often putting of water into the meat- 
potte to hinder it from seething. Our stomack is our 
bodies kitchin, which being distempered, how can we 
liue in temperate order : drinke not aboue foure times, 
and that moderately, at each meale : least the belly- 
God hale you at length captiue into his prison house of 
gurmandise, where you shall be afflicted with as many 
diseases as you haue deuoured dishes of sundry sorts. 
The cups whereof you drinke, should be of siluer, or 
siluer and gilt. 

(11) Labour not either your mind or body presently 
after meales : rather sit a while and discourse of some 
pleasant matters : when you haue ended your confabu- 
lations, wash your face and mouth with cold waters 
then go to your chamber, and make cleane your teeth 
with your tooth-picker, which should be either of 
iuorie, silver, or gold. Watch not too long after supper, 
but depart within two hours to bed. But if necessitie 
compell you to watch longer then ordinary, then be 
sure to augment your sleepe the next morning ; that you 
may recompence nature, which otherwise through your 
watching would not a little be impaired. 

(12) Put of your clothes in winter by the fire side : 
and cause your bed to bee heated with a warming panne : 


vnless your pretence bee to harden your members, and 
to apply your selfe vnto militarie discipline. This 
outward heating doth wonderfully comfort the inward 
heat, it helpeth concoction, and consumeth moisture. 

(13) Kemember before you rest, to chew down two 13. Before bed, 
or three drachmes of mastick : for it will preserue your 

body from bad humours. 

(14) Pray feruently to God, before you sleepe, to u. praytoGod. 
inspire you with his grace, to defend you from all 

perils and subtelties of wicked fiends, and to prosper 
you in all your affaires : and then lay aside your cares 
and businesse, as well publicke as priuate : for that 
night, in so doing, you shall slepe more quietly. Make 
water at least once, and cast it out : but in the morn- 
ing make water in an vrinal : that by looking on it, L k at your 

water in a 

you may ghesse some what of the state of your body, unnai. 
Sleep first on your right side with your mouth open, 
and let your night cappe haue a hole in the top, through Have a hole iD 
which the vapour may goe out. 

(15) In the morning remember your affayres, and if 15 - Against 

J J rheums, eat 

you be troubled with rheum es, as soone as you haue white pepper, 
risen, vse diatrion piperion, or eate white pepper now 
and then, and you shall be holpen. 



ijre get fur tferj 


Sit $0{[n f ragtcm's ' St|pole jof 


Stretch your 

[* Page 36.] 
rub your body 

and head ; 

protect yourself 
from cold ; 

dress, washing i 

in Winter. 

|rmr0at:ott 0f fealty, or a Jlget for % 
Pair, 1624, p. 358.) 

. . first I will begin with the dyet for every day. 

In the beginning when you arise from the bed, 
extend forth all your members, for by this meanes the 
animal spirits are drawne to the outward members, 
the *braine is made subtill, & the body strengthened. 
Then rub the whole body somewhat with the palmes, 
the brest, back and belly gently, but the armes and legs 
with the hands, either with warm linnen : next, the 
head is to be scrubbed from the forepart to the hinder- 
part very lightly. After you are risen, I will that you 
defend with all care and diligence your head, necke, 
and feet, from all cold in the morning ; for there is no 
doubt, but in the morning and euening the cold doth 
offend more, then it doth about noone tide, by reason 
of the weaknes of the Sun-beames. Put on your clothes 
neat and cleane : in the Summer season, first wash with 
cleane pure water, before described ; but in the Winter 
yourself season sit somewhat by the fire, not made with turfe or 
stinking coale, but with oake or other wood that 
burneth cleare, for our bodies are somewhat affected 
with our clothes, and as strength is increased by the 


vse of meat and drinke, and our life defended and 
preserued ; and so our garments doe conserue the heat 
of our bodies, and doe driue away colds : so that as 
diet and apparel may seeme alike, so in either of them 
a like diligence is to be preferred. 

In the Summer-time I chiefly commend garments In summer 

[Page 37.] 

of Harts-skinnes, and Calues-skins, for the Hart is a wear <fcerB and 

calves' skins, 

creature of long life, and resisteth poyson and Serpents ; 
therefore I my selfe vse garments of the like sort for 
the winter season, also neuerthelesse lined with good 
linnen. Next I doe iudge it not to bee much amisse 
to vse garments of Silke or Bombace, or of purple : 
also of Martyn or Wolfe-skinnes, or made of Fox m winter, woif 

and fox skins. 

skmnes, I suppose to be good for the winter ; notwith- 
standing in the time of Pestilence, apparell of Silke and 
skinnes is condemned, because it doth easily admit and 
receiue the contagious ayre, and doth retain it long. 
After the body is well clothed, kembe your head wel Comb y ur head 

40 times, 

with an luory comb, from the forehead to the backe- 

part, drawing the comb some forty times at the least ; 

then wash all the instruments of the sences, as the eies, wash your face, 

the ears, the nostrils, the mouth, the tongue, the teeth, 

and all the face with cold water ; and the eyes are not 

only to be washed, but being open plainly, immerg'd : 

and the gumme and foulnes of the eie-lids that do there clean your 

stick, to remoue ; somtimes also to besprinkle the 

water with Rose-water or Fenel- water, also rubb the rub your neck 


neck well with *a linnen napking somewhat course, for [* Page ss.j 

these things doe confirme the whole body ; it maketh 

the mind more cheerefull, and conserueth the sight. 

In this place it pleaseth me to adioyne some Dentifrices 

or clensers of teeth, waters not only to make the teeth 

white, but also to conserue them, with some medicines 

also to conserue the sight 


israg, Jiti, anh doing ta 



n's ' 


On rising, 
empty your 
bladder and 
belly, nose and 

Cleanse your 
whole body. 

Say your Prayers. 

Wa Ik gently, 

go to stool. 

[ Page 42.] 

Work in the 

of iltfe, or a Jgtt for % 
Pan, 1624, p. 358.) 

Also to prosecute our former purpose, when you 
arise in the morning, to auoyd all superfluities, as well 
by vrine as by the belly, which doe at the least euery 
day. Auoid also from the nostrils and the lungs all 
filthy matter, as wel by clensing, as by spittle, and 
dense the face, head, and whole body ; & loue you to 
be cleane and wel apparelled, for from our cradles let 
vs abhor vncleannes, which neither nature or reason 
can endure. Whew you haue done these things, re- 
member to powre foorth your prayers vnto God with a 
cleare voice, that the day may be happy and prosperous 
vnto you, that God may direct your actions to the 
glory of his name, the profit of your country, & the 
conseruation of your bodies. Then walke ye gently, 
and what excrements soeuer do slip down to the in- 
feriour parts, being excited by *naturall heate, the 
excretion thereof shall the better succeed. 

As for your businesses, whether they be publike or 
priuate, let them be done with a certaine honesty; then 
afterwards let your hunting iourneyes bee performed ; 
apply your selues to studie and serious businesse the 


houres of the fore-noone, and so likewise in the after- 
nooiie, till twoor three houres before supper : alwaies in 
your hands vse eyther Corall or yellow Amber, or a Always wear a 

precious stone 

Chalcedonium, or a sweet Pommander, or some like 
precious stone to be worne in a ring vpon the little 
finger of the left hand : haue in your rings eyther a in a ring ; 
Smaragd, a Saphire, or a Draconites, which you shall 
beare for an ornament : for in stones, as also in hearbes, 
there is great efficacie and vertue, but they are not 
altogether perceived by vs : hold sometime in your hold a crystal 
mouth eyther a Hyacinth, or a Crystall, or a Granat, in y u 
or pure Gold, or Siluer, or else sometimes pure Sugar- 
candy. For Aristotle doth affirme, and so doth Albertus 
Magnus, that a Smaragd worne about the necke, is 
good against the Falling-sicknes : for surely the vertue 
of an hearbe is great, but much more the vertue of a f or the virtue of 

, . , ,., , ., . ., precious stones is 

precious *stone, which is very likely that they are t * Page 43 .] 
endued with occult and hidden vertues. 

Feede onely twice a day, when yee are at mans Eat only twice a 
age : neuerthelesse to those that are subiect to choller, 
it is lawfull to feede often : beginne alwayes your 
dinner and supper with the more liquid nieates, some- 
times with drinkes. In the time betweene dinner and Don't drink 

between dinner 

supper, abstain altogether from cups, vnlesse necessitie and supper, 
or custome doe require the same : notwithstanding the 
same custome being so vitious, must be by little and 
little changed. 

I would not that you should obserue a certaine 
houre, either for dinners or suppers, as I haue sufficiently Don't have one 
told you before, lest that daily custome should be foTyo^meais. 
altered into nature : and after this intermission of 
this custome of nature, hurt may follow ; for customo 
doth imitate nature, and that which is accustomable, 
the very same thing is now become naturall. 

Take your meate in the hotte time of Summer in 
cold places, but in the Winter let there bee a bright in winter eat in 



hot well-aired 

[* Page 44.J 

Fast for a day 
now and then. 

Eat more at 
supper than 

After meals, wash 
your face, and 
clean your teeth, 

chat and walk 

Don't sit up 

[* Page 45.] 

Before bed. 

rub your body 

Undress by a fire 
in Winter, 

fire, and take it in hotte places, your parlors or Chambers 
being first purged and ayred with, suffumigations, which 
I would not haue you to *enter before the suffumigation 
bee plainely extinct, lest you draw the fume by reason 
of the odour. 

And seeing one and the same order of diet doth not 
promiscuously agree with all men, take your meate in 
order, as is before said, and sometimes also intermit the 
vse of meats for a whole day together, because through 
hunger, the faults of the stomacke which haue beene 
taken eyther by much drinking or surfetting, or by any 
other meanes, may be depelled and remoued. 

By this meanes also your bodies shall be better 
accustomed to endure and suffer hunger and fasting, 
eyther in iourneyes or wars. Let your suppers bee 
more larger then your dinners, vnlesse nightly diseases 
or some distilations doe afflict you. 

After meat taken, neither labour in body nor mind 
must be vsed, and wash the face and mouth with cold 
water, dense the teeth either with luory, or a Harts 
home, or some picker of pure siluer or gold. 

After your banquets, passe an houre or two in 
pleasant talkes, or walke yee very gently and soberly, 
neither vse much watchings long in the night, but the 
space of two howres goe to your bed ; but if honest 
* businesse doe require you to watch, then sleepe after- 
wards so much the longer, that your sleepe may well 
recompence your former watchings. Before that you 
go to your bed, gently smooth down your head, armes, 
and shoulders, the back and all the body, with a gentle 
and soft rubbing, vnlesse you meane to do it in the 
morning to mooue distribution, whose time is best to be 
done in the morning. 

In the "Winter, sitting by the fire, put off" your gar 
ments, and dry your feet by the fire, neuerthelesse 
auoyd the heat and the smoke, because it is very hurt- 
full both to the lungs, and the eyes. 


In the Winter time, warme well your garments at a jjj e ^ JJ r 
the fire, and warm the linings of the same, for it helpeth 
concoction, and remoueth all humidity and moysture. 
But my father did not allow of this custome, warning 
men of strength, and those that are borne for the 
Common-wealth, not to accustom themselves to such 
kind of softnesse, which doe weaken our bodies. Also 
when you put off your garments to go to bed, then put Put off your cares 

with your clothes, 

away all your cogitations, & lay them aside, whether 

they be publike or priuate, for when all your *members [* Pa 8 e 46 -l 

be free from all cares, you shall then sleep the quieter, 

concoction and the other natural! actions shall best be 


But in the morning when you rise againe, resume ami take thea 
to your selues your former dayes thoughts and cares ; 
for this precept my Father had often in his mouth, 
therfore I deliuer it vnto you as the more worthy of 
your obseruation. 


[From Harleian MS. 5401, ab. 1480-1500 A.D.] 

FRUTURS. (page 194 or fol. 69 b.) 

'Recipe l )>e cromys of whyte brede, & swete apyls, & ^okk^- of 
egg/5, & bray fern wele, & temper it with wyne, & make it to sethe ; 
& when it is thyk, do fer-to gode spyces, gynger & galittgay & canyll 
& clows, & serve it forthe. (See also Liber Cure Cocorum, p. 39-40.) 

FRUTURS OF FYGis. (p. 197 or fol. 98.) 

Recipe & make bature of floure, ale, peper & saferon, with ofer 
spices ; jjan cast fam 2 in to a frying pann with batwr, & ole, & bake 
fara & serve. (See another recipe in Household Ordinances, p. 450, 
under the head " Turtelettys of Fruture.") 

IUSSELL. (p. 198 or fol. 98 b.) 

Recipe brede gratyd, & eggw ; & swyng )>a??i to-gydere, & do 
ferto sawge, & saferon, & salt ; fan take gode brothe, & cast it j>er-to, 
& bole it enforesayd, & do fer-to as to charlete &c. (See also Liber 
Cure Cocorum, p. 1 1 ; Jussel of Flesh, Household Ordinances, p> 
462 ; Jussel enforsed, p. 463 ; Jussel of Fysshe, p. 469.) 

MAWMENY. (p. 201 or fol. 100.) 

^Recipe brawne of Capons or of hermys, & dry fa?w wele, & 
towse fara smalle ; fan take thyk mylk of almonds, & put fe saide 
brawn fer-to, & styr it wele oner fe fyre, & seson it w^t^ suger, & 
powder of Canelle, with mase, quibibs, & anneys in corafete, & 
serve it forthe. (See also the recipe "For to make momene" in 
Liber Cure Cocorum, p. 26 ; for " Mawmene for xl. Mees " in 
Household Ordinances, p. 455 ; and " Mawmene to Potage," p. 430.) 

FRETOURE. (Harl. MS. 276.) 

Vyaunde leche. Frctourc. Take whete Floure, Ale, 3est, Safroun, & 
L>uu> Salt, & bete alle to-gederys as J>ikke as ]?ou schuldyst 
make ofer bature in fleyssche tyme, & fan take fayre Applys, & kut 
hem in maner of Fretourys, & wete hem in fe bature vp on downe, 
& frye hem in fayre Oyle, & caste hem in a dyssche, & caste Sugre 
f er-on, & serue forth. [The recipe for " Tansye " is No.] 

1 The \> is always y in Harl. 5401. 2 that is, the figs. 



[From Harl. MS. 279, ab. 1430-40 A.D. A pretty MS. that 
ought to be printed^ 

Potagedyuers Harys in cyueye. Take Harys, & Ele hem, & make 
(foi. 15 a.) I 16111 clene, an hacke hem in gobettys, & sethe hem in 
Watere & Salt a lytylle ; pan take Pepyr, an Safroun, an Brede, 
y-grounde y-fere, & temper it wyth Ale. pan take Oynonys & 
Percely y-mynced smal to-gederys, & sethe hem be hem self, & after- 
ward take & do per-to a porcyon of vynegre, & dresse in. (See also 
the recipe for " Harus in Cyue" in Liber Cure Cocorum, p. 21, & 
that for " Conyngus in cyue" p. 20. Chive is a kind of small onion.) 

Conyngys in cyveye. Take Conyngys, an fle hem & sepe 
ffoi. 16 a.) h enij & m ake lyke J)ou woldyst make a sewe, sane alle 
to-choppe hem, & caste Safroun & Iyer per-to, & Wyne. (See also 
"Conyngus in cyue" in L. C. C., p. 20 ; and "Conynges in Cyue" 
in Household Ordinances, p. 434.) 

xv. Doucettes. Take Creme a gode cupfulle, & put it on a stray- 
(foi. 89 b.) nourej j, anne take ^olkys of Eyroun, & put per-to, & a lytel 
mylke ; pen strayne it prow a straynoure in-to a bolle ; pen take Sugre 
[ifoi. 40.] y-now, & put per-to, or ellys hony for defaute 1 of Sugre ; pan 
coloure it with Safroun ; pan take pin cofyns, & put it in pe ovynne 
lere, & lat hem ben hardyd ; pan take a dyssshe y-fastenyd on pe pelys 
ende, & pore pin comade in-to pe dyssche, & fro pe dyssche in-to pe 
cofyns ; & whan pey don a-ryse Wei, teke hem out, & serue hem 

xxxvij. Doucettes. Take Porke & hakke it smal, & Eyroun y-mellyd 
(foi. 43 b.) to-gederys, & a lytel Milke, & melle hem to-gederys with 
Hony & Pepir, & bake hem in a cofyn, & serue forth. 

xxxviij. Doucettes a-forcyd. Take Almaunde Milke & 3olkys of 
Eyroun y-mellid to-gederys, Safroun, Salt, & Hony : dry pin cofyn, 
& ley pin Maribonys per-on, & serue iorih. 

t 0!t 4 

[that is to say, 

The boke of Seruyce & Keruyjjge and Sewynge 

& all Maner of Offyce in his kynde 

vnto a Prynce or ony other Estate, 

& all the Feestes in the yere.] 

Enprynted by Wynkyn de Worde at London in 

Flete Strete -at the sygne of the Sonne. The 

vere of our Lorde God. M.CCCC.xiij. 

[and now reprinted. 



(From the Headings in the Text, fyc.) 


Termes of a Keruer 151 

Butler and Panter (Yoman of the Seller and Ewery) . . . . 152 

The Names of Wynes 153 

For to make Ypocras . . . . . . . . . . . . 153 

To laye the Clothe 154 

To wrappe your Soueraynes Brede stately . . . . . . 155 

Of the Surnape . . . . . . . . .... . . 155 

Sewynge of Flesshe, & Seruyce (Succession of Dishes) . . . . 156 

The Keruynge of Flesshe, & Seruyce (How to carve) . . 157 
Sauces for all maner of Fowles .. .. .. .. ..159 

Feestes and Seruyce from Eester vnto Whytsondaye . . . . 160 

Keruyng of all maner of Fowles .. .. .. .. ..161 

Of the First & Second Courses, & the Sauces for them . . 163 
Feestes and Seruyce from the feest of Saynt lohn the Baptist 

vnto Myghelmasse . . . . . . . . . . . . 164 

Feestes and Seruyce from the feest of Saynt Myghell vnto the 

feest of Chrystynmasse .. .. .. .. ..164 

Of the skin & wholesomeness of certain Birds 165 

Sewynge of Fysshe . . . . . . . . . . 166 

Keruynge of Fysshe . . . . . . . . . . 166 

Sauces for all maner of Fysshe . . . . . . . . 168 

The Chaumberlayne . . . . . . . . . . 168 

Of the Marshall and the Vssher. . 170 

Notes 173 


of Jitrapge. 

Tf Here begynneth the boke of keruynge and 
sewynge / and all the feestes in the yere, for the seruyce 
of a prynce or ony other estate, as ye shall fywde eche 
offyce, the seruyce accordynge, in this boke folo wynge. 

^[ Termes of a Keruer. 

[Fol. Al.J 

[Fol . A l &>1 

BEeke that dere 
lesche y brawne 
rere that goose 
lyft that swanne 
sauce that capon 
spoyle that henne 
frusshe that chekyn 
vnbrace that malarde 
vnlace that cony 
dysmembre that heron 
dysplaye that crane 
dysfygure that pecocke 
vnioynt that bytture 
vntache that curlewe 
alaye that fesande 
wynge that partryche 
wynge that quayle 
mynce that plouer 
thye that pegyon 
border that pasty 
thye that wodcocke 
thye all maner of small 
tymbre that fyre 

tyere that egge 
chyne that samon 
strynge that lampraye 
splatte that pyke 
sauce that playce 
sauce that tenche 
splaye that breme 
syde that haddocke 
tuske that barbell 
culpon that troute 
fynne that cheuen 
transsene that ele 
traunche that sturgyon 
vndertraunche y purpos 
tayme that crabbe 
barbe that lopster 

TT Here hendeth the 
goodly termes. 

^[ Here begynneth 
byrdes Butler and 

in the year. 
Terms of a Carver 

Slice brawn, 
splat a pike, 
spoil a hen, 
unbrace a mallard, 

fin a chub, 

untache a curlew, 
barb a lobster, 

border a pasty, 
thigh small birds. 



The Butler has 3 
knives : 

[iFol. Aii.] 

1. a squarer, 

2. a chipper, 

3. a smoother. 

must be 4 days 

the Salt-Planer of 

table cloths kept 
in a chest, or 
hung on a perch. 

To broach a Pipe, 
have 2 angers. 

funnels, and 
tubes, and pierce 
the Pipe 4 inches 
from the bottom. 

Always have 
ready fruits 
[2 Orig. seasous] 

and hard cheese. 

Beware of cow 

Hard cheese is 
.iperient, and 

keeps off poison. 
Milk and Junket 
close the Maw. 

l Fol. A ii. 6.1 

fTlHou shalte be Butler and Panter all the fyrst yere / 
and ye muste liaue thre pantry knyues / one 
knyfe to square trercchoure loues / an other to be a 
1 chyppere / the thyrde shall be sharpe to make smothe 
trewchoures / than chyppe your soueraynes brede hote, 
and all other brede let it be a daye olde / housholde 
brede thre dayes olde / trenchour brede foure dayes 
olde / than loke your salte be whyte and drye / the 
planer made of luory, two inches brode & thre inches 
longe / & loke that youre salte seller lydde touche not 
the salte / than loke your table clothes, towelles, and 
napkyns, be fayre folden in a cheste or hanged vpon a 
perche / than loke your table knyues be fayre pullysshed, 
& your spones clene / than loke ye haue two tarry ours, 
a more & a lesse, & wyne cannelles of boxe made 
accordynge / a sharpe gymlot & faucettes. And whan 
ye sette a pype on broche, do thus / set it foure fynger 
brede aboue y nether chyme vpwardes aslaunte / and 
than shall y lyes neuer a-ryse. Also loke ye haue in 
all seasons 2 butter, chese, apples, peres, nottes, plommes, 
grapes, dates, fygges & raysyns, compost, grene gynger 
and chardequynce. Seme fastynge butter, plommes, 
damesons, cheryes, and grapes, after mete, peres, nottes, 
strawberyes, hurtelberyes, & hard chebe. Also bran- 
drels or pepyns with carawey in confetes. After 
souper, rost apples & peres, with blaunche poudre, & 
harde chese / be ware of cowe creme, & of good straw- 
beryes, hurtelberyes, louncat, for these wyll make your 
souerayne seke but he ete harde chese / harde chese 
hath these operacyows / it wyll kepe y stomacke 
open / butter is holsome fyrst & last, for it wyll do awaye 
all poysows / mylke, creme, & louncat, they wyll close 
the mawe, & so dooth a posset / therfore ete harde 
chese, & drynke romney modon / beware of grene 
sallettes & rawe fruytes, for they wyll make your 
sourayne seke / therfore set no mo- 3 eke by suche metes 


as wyll set your tethe on edge ; therfore ete an almonde For food that sets 
& harde chese / but ete non moche chese without edge, eat an 

, f -i 11 / .1 almond and hard 

romney modon. Also yf dyuers dry^kes, yf theyr c } ie esc. 

fumosytees haue dyspleased your souerayne, let hyra ete 

a rawe apple, and y fumosytees wyll cease : mesure is A raw apple win 

cure indigestion. 

a mery niene & it be well vsed / abstynercce is to be 

praysed whaw god therwith is pleased. Also take good see every night 

that your wines 

hede of your wynes euery nyght with a candell, bothe don't boil over or 


rede wyne and swete wyne, & loke they reboyle nor 
leke not / & wasshe y pype hedes euery nyght with 
colde water / & loke ye haue a chynchynge yron, addes, 
and lynen clothes, yf nede be / & yf thefyl reboyle, ye You'll know their 

J ' J ' J J ' J fermenting hy 

shall knowe by the hyssynge / therfore kepe an empty their hissing, 
pype with y lyes of coloured rose, & drawe the 
reboyled wyne to y lyes, & it shal helpe it. Also yf 
your swete wyne pale, drawe it in to a romney vessell 
for lessynge. 

^[ Here foloweth the names of wynes. Names o/ wine* 

*H Eeed wyne / whyte wyne / dared wyne / osey / 
capryke / campolet / renysshe wyne / maluesey / bas- Campoiet, 
tarde / tyer, romney / muscadell / clarrey / raspys / 
vernage / vernage wyne cut / pymente and ypocras. 

For tO make ypOCraS. To make Ypocras. 

^f Take gywger / peper / graynes / canell / synamon / 
suger and tornsole / than loke ye haue fyue or syxe Tnk<s spices; put e 

. - o , bags on perch, 

bagges for your ypocras to renne in, & a perche that 

your renners may ren on / than muste ye haue .vi. e pewter basins 

peautre basyns to stande vnder your bagges / than loke 

your spyce be redy / & your gynger well pared or it be ginger and 

beten ! to poudre / than loke your stalkes of synamon be [' Foi. I iuj 

well coloured; & swete canell is not so gentyll in <of the qualities of 

operacyon ; synamon is hote and drye / graynes of para- 8I 

dico 2 bera hote and moyste / gynger / graynes / longe vsiaofrrei 

peper / and suger, ben hote and moyst / synamora / 



Pound each spice 
separately, put 'em 
iu bladders, and 

hang 'em in your 

add a gallon of 
red wine to 'ein, 

stir it well, run 
it through two 

taste it, 

pass it through 6 
runners, and put 
it in a close vessel . 

Keep the dregs for 

Have your Com- 
post clean, and 
your ale 5 days 

but not dead. 
To lay the Cloth. 

Put on a couch, 
then a second 

the fold on the 
outer edge ; a 
third, the fold on 
the inner edge. 
I" Fol. A iii. 6.] 

Cover your cup- 

put a towel round 
your neck, one 
side lying on your 
left arm ; 

on that, 7 loaves of 
eating bread and 
4 trencher loaves. 
In your left hand 
a saltcellar, 

canell, & rede wyne, ben hote and drye / tornsole io 
holsome / for reed wyne colourynge. Now knowe ye the 
proporcyons of your ypocras / than bete your poudres 
eche by themselfe, & put them in bladders, & hange 
your bagges sure, that no bage touche other / but let 
eche basyn touche other ; let the fyrste basyn be of a 
galon, and eche of the other of a potell / than put in 
your basyn a galow of reed wyne, put thereto your 
poudres, and styre them well / than put them in to the 
fyrste bagge, and let it renne / than put them in to the 
seconde bagge / than take a pece in your hande, and 
assaye yf it be stronge of gynger / and alaye it with 
synamon / and it be stro[ft]ge of synamon / alaye it 
with suger / and loke ye lette it renne thrughe syxe 
renners / & your ypocras shall be the fyner / than 
put your ypocras in to a close vessell, and kepe 
the receyte / for it wyll serue for sewes / than seme 
your souerayne with wafers and ypocras. Also loke 
your composte be fayre and clone / and your ale fyue 
dayes olde or men drynke it / tha?i kepe your hous of 
offyce clene, & be curtoys of answere to eche persone, 
and loke ye gyue no persone noo dowled drynke / for it 
wyll breke y scabbe. And whan ye laye the clothe, 
wype y borde clene with a cloute / than laye a cloth, 
a couche, it is called, take your felawe that one ende, & 
holde you that other ende, than drawe the clothe 
straught, the bought on y vtter edge / take the vtter 
parte, & hange it euen / than take the thyrde clothe, 
and lay y bought on the inner * edge / an<J laye estat 
with the vpper parte halfe a fote brode / than couer thy 
cupborde and thyn ewery with the towell of dyaper / 
than take thy towell about thy iiecke, and laye that one 
syde of y towell vpon thy lefte arme / and there-on 
laye your soueraynes napkyn / and laye on thyn arme 
seuen loues of brede, with thre or foure trenchour loues, 
with the ende of y towell in the lefte hande, as the 


maner is / than take thy salte seller in thy lefte hande, |u your right the 
and take the ende of y towell in your ryght hande to set the saltcellar 

on your lord's 

bere in spones and knyues / than set your salt on the right, and 

e trenchers on the 

ryght syde where your souerayne shall sytte, and on y left of it. 

lefte syde the salte set your trenchours / than laye your 

knyues, & set your brede, one lofe by an other / your Lay knives, bread. 

-. -, r, PIT-IT spoons, napkins. 

spones, and your napkyns fayre iolden besyde your 

brede / than couer your brede and trenchoures, spones and cover >em up - 

and knyues / & at euery ende of y table set a salte 

seller with two treachour ! loues / and yf ye wyll wrappe n sic .- a /or ni 

your soueraynes brede stately, ye muste square and 

proporcyon your brede, and se that no lofe be more the loaves . 

than an other / and than shall ye make your wrapper 

man[er]ly / than take a towell of reynes of two yerdes teke a Re nes 

and an halfe, and take the towell by y endes double, 

and laye it on the table / than take the ende of y put it on the 

' table, pinch up a 

bought a handfull in your hande, and wrappe it harde, handful of one 

and laye the ende so wrapped bytwene two towelles; a ud lay it between 

vpon that ende so wrapped, lay your brede, botom to 

botom, syxe or seuen loues / than set your brede 

manerly in fournie / and whan your soueraynes table is Put salt. cups. &c., 

thus arayed, couer all other hordes with salte, tren- tables. 

choures, & cuppes. Also so 2 thynewery be arayed with 

basyns & ewers, & water hote & colde / and se' ye haue 1 *" 

i o I p _p aud your ale ] >ots 

napkyns, cuppes, & spones / & se your pottes for kept clean. 
wyne 3 and ale be made clene, and to y surnape make ] 


ye curtesy with a clothe vnder a fayre double napry / |" r " a ^ 
tharc take be towelles ende nexte you / & the vtter ende a double towel. 

hold 3 ends 

of the clothe on the vtter syde of the table, & holde together. 
these thre endes atones, & folde them atones, that a J>w them in a 

foot-broad pleat. 

plyte passe not a fote brode / than laye it euen there it and Jay lt smo tii. 
sholde lye. And after mete wasshe with that* that is After washing. 
at y ryghte ende of the table / ye muste guyde it 
out, and the marshall must conuey it / and loke the Marshal must 

carry the surnape 

on eche clothe the ryght syde be outwarde, & drawe out. 
it streyght / than must ye reyse the vpper parte 



Leave out half a 
yard to make 

When your lord 
has washed, 
remove the 

When he is seated, 

salute him, un- 
cover your bread. 

kneel on your 
knee till 8 loaves 
are served out (?) 

Provide as many 
cups as dishes. 

of y to well, & laye it vfith-ont ony gronynge / and at 
euery ende of y towell ye must coimey halfe a yerde 
that y sewer may make estate reuerently, and let it 
be. And whan your souerayne hath wasshen, drawe y 
surnape euen / than here the surnape to the myddes of 
the borde & take it vp before your souerayne, & bere it 
in to y ewery agayne. And whan your souerayne it 1 
set, loke your towell be aboute your necke /than make 
your souerayne curtesy / than vncouer your brede & set 
it by the salte & laye your napkyn, knyfe, & spone, afore 
hym / than knele on your knee tyll the purpayne passe 
eyght loues / & loke ye set at y endes of y table foure 
loues at a messe / and se that euery persone haue 
napkyn and spone / & wayte well to y sewer how many 
dysshes be couered; y so many cuppes couer ye / than 
seme ye forth the table manerly y euery man may 
speke your curtesy. 

^f Here endeth of the Butler and Panter, yoman of 
the seller and ewery. And here foloweth sewynge of 

[Fol. A 4 >.] 
The Sewer or 
arranger of dishes 

must ascertain 
what dishes and 
fruits arc pre- 
pared daily for 
dinner ; and he 
must have people 
ready to carry up 
the dishes. 

[2 for be] 

THe sewer muste sewe, & from the borde conuey aU 
maner of potages, metes, & sauces / & euery daye 
comon with the coke, and vnderstarzde & wyte how 
many dysshes shall be, and speke with the panter and 
offycers of y spy eery for fruytes that shall be eterc 
fastynge. Than goo to the borde of sewynge, and se ye 
haue offycers redy to conuey, & seruauntes for to bere, 
your dysshes. Also yf marshall, squyers, and ser- 
uauntes of armes, bo 2 there, than seme forth your souer- 
ayne withouten blame. 

The Succession 

1. Brawn, &c. 

2. Pheasant, &c. 

^[ Seruyce. 

^[ Fyrste sette ye forthe mustarde and brawne, 
potage, befe, motton stewed. Fesande / swanne / 


capon / pygge, venyson bake / custarde / and leche 3. Meat Fritters, 
lombarde. Fruyter vaunte, with a subtylte, two pot- 4. Eor a standard, 
ages, blauwche ma?iger, and gelly. For standarde, 
venyson roste, kydde, fawne & cony / bustarde, storke, 
crane, pecocke with his tayle, hero?isewe, bytture, wood- a peacock with ins 
cocke, partryche, plouer, rabettes, grete byrdes, larkes / 
doucettes, paynpufFe, whyte leche, ambre / gelly, creme p a D ^ u ^ tes> 
of almondes, cmiewe, brewe, snytes, quayle, sparowes, Brew, snipe, 
martynet, perche in gelly / petyperuys 1 , quy?zces bake / Petyperuys and 
leche dewgarde, fruyter fayge, blandrelles or pepyns Fayge, 
with carawaye in corcfettes, wafers and ypocras, they be Caraways, &c. 
a-greable. Now this feest is done, voyde ye the table, ciear the table 

T Here endeth the sewynge of flesshe. And begyn- 
neth the kemynge of flesshe. 

THe keruer must knowe the keruynge and the fayre 
ha?idlynge of a knyfe, and how ye shall seche al 
maner of fowle / your knyfe muste be fayre and 2 your 
hawdes muste be clene ; & passe not two fyngers & a 
thombe vpon your knyfe. In y myddes of your harcde 
set the halfe sure, vnlassynge y mynsyrcge wich 3 two 
fywgers & a thombe ; keruynge of brede, layenge, & 
voydynge of crommes, with two fyngers and a thombe / 
loke ye haue y cure / set neuer on fysshe / flesshe / OI 
beest / ne fowle, more than two fyngers and a thombe / or fowL 
than take your lofe in your lefte hande, & holde your 
knyfe surely ; enbrewe not the table clothe / but wype Wi P e y our knife 

on your napkin. 

vpon your napkyn / than take your trenchouer lofe in 

your lefte hande, and with the edge of your table knyfe 

take vp your trenchours as nye the poynt as ye may / 

thara laye foure trenchours to your soferayne, one by an Jjy 4 trencken 

other / and laye theron other foure trenchours or elles J^ 2 or 4 on 

twavne / than take a lofe in vour lyfte hande. & pare nd tn e upper 

J I crust of a fine 

y lofe rouwde aboute / tha?i cut the ouer cruste to loaf. 
your souerayne, and cut the nether cruste, & voyde 



the parynge, & touclie the lofe no more after it is so 
serued / than dense the table that the sewer may seme 
Also ye nmste knowe the fumosytces ! 
of fysshe, flesshe, and foules, & all maner of sauces 
accordynge to theyr appetytes / tliese "ben the fumosytes / 
as resty, fat things, salte, soure, resty, fatte, fryed, senewes, skynnes, hony, 
croupes, yonge feders, heddes, pygous 2 bones, all maner 
of legges of bestees & fowles the vttef syde ; for these 
ben fumosytees ; laye them neuer to your souerayne. 

LI sic: c/or e ] youre souerayne 

Give heed to what J 
is indigestible, 

feathers, heads, 
[2 sic: u/or n] 
legs, &c. 

Ktruynge of 

How to carve 


p Pol. A5h.] 
(cut it in 12 bits 
and slice it into 
the furmity.) 


(mince the wings 
into the syrup,) 

Goose, Teal, &c., 
(take off the legs 
and wings,) 


(mince the wing 
with wine or ale,) 

Plover, Lapwing, 

Tf Seruyce. 

^[ Take your knyfe in your hawde, and cut brawne 
in y dysshe as it lyeth, & laye it on your soueraynes 
trenchour, & se there be mustarde. Venyson with 
fourmewty is good for your souerayne : touche not the 
venyson with your hawde, but with your knyfe cut it 
.xii. draugh 3 tes with the edge of your knyfe, and cut it 
out in to y fourmenty / doo in the same wyse with 
pesen & bacon, befe chyne and motto?? / pare the befe, 
cut the motion / & laye to your souerayne / beware of 
fumosytees / salte, senewe, fatte, resty & rawe. In 
syrupe, fesande, partryche, stockdoue, & chekyns / in the 
lefte ha/ide take them by the pynyo?, & with the fore- 
parte of your knyfe lyfte vp your wynges / than mynce 
it in to the syrupe / beware of skyraie rawe & senowe. 
Goos, tele, malarde, & swa/me, reyse 4 the legges, than the 
wynges / laye the body in y myddes or in a nother 
plater / the wynges in the myddes & the legges ; after 
laye the brawne bytwene the legges / & the wynges in 
the plater. Capora or henne of grece, lyfte the legges, 
thaw the wynges, & caste on wyne or ale, than mynce 
the wynge & giue your souerayne. Fesande, partryche, 
plouer or lapwynge, reyse y wynges, & after the legges. 

4 The top of the s is broken off, making the letter look like an 
I rubbed at the top. 


woodcocke, bytture, egryt, snyte, curlewe & heronsewe, Bittern, Egret. 

vnlace them, breke of the pynyons, necke & becke / 

thaw reyse the legges, & let the fete be on sty 11, than 

the wynges. A crane, reyse the wynges fyrst, & beware HOW to carve a 

of the trumpe in his brest. Pecocke, storke, bustarde trump in his 

& shouyllarde, vnlace them as a crane, and let y fete 

be on sty 11. Quayle, sparow, larke, martynet, pegyon, Quail, Martins, 

swalowe, & thrusshe, y legges fyrst, than y wynges. Swallow, 

Fawne, kyde, and lambe, laye the kydney to your Fawn, Kid, 

souerayne, than lyfe vp the sholder & gyue your souer- 

ayne a rybbe. Venyson roste, cut it in the dysshe, & Roast venison, 

laye it to your souerayne. A cony, lay hyra on the cony, 

backe, cut away the ventes bytwene the hywder legges, 

breke the canell bone, than reyse the sydes, than lay flay him on hi 3 

e J e J belly with his two 

the cony on y wombe, on eche syde the chyne y two cut-off sides, on 
sydes departed from the chywe, thaw laye the bulke, 
chyne, & sydes, in y dysshe. * Also ye must myrcce Cu c * Fol - AG - ] 
ibure lesses to one morcell of mete, that your soverayne each bit of meat, 

for your lord to 

may take it in the sauce. All bake metes that ben pick it up by. 

Open hot Meat- 

hote, open them a-boue the coffyn : & all that ben colde, J^s at the top ; 

' cold in the middle. 

open theym in the mydwaye. Custarde, cheke them Cut custards in 

inch blocks. 

inche square that your souerayne may ete therof. Dou- Boucettes, p are 
cettes, pare awaye the sydes & the bottom : beware of bottom. 
fumosytes. Fruyter vaunte, fruyter say, be good; better ers hot are 
is fruyter pouche ; apple fruyters ben good hote / and all 
colde fruters, touche not. Tawsey is good / hote wortes, Jjjjj jj*?' 
or gruell of befe or of mottow is good. Gelly, mortrus, Jeiiy. Blanche 
creme almondes, blauwche manger, lussell, and charlet, Ac^Segood! and 
cabage, and nombles of a dere, ben good / & all other no other potagea. 
potage beware of. 

IT Here endeth y keruynge of flesshe. And Smu **fi* 

J J ' mawr qf F<nole. 

begywneth sauces for all maner of fowles. 


Ustarde is good with brawne, befe, chyne. bacon, Mustard for beef ; 

Verjuice for 

& niotton. Vergius is good to boy led chekyns boiled chickens; 

J J Cawdronsfor 

and capon / swanne with cawdrons / rybbes of swans; 



Garlick, &c., for 

Ginger for lamb ; 
Gamelyne for 
heronsewe, &c. ; 
Salt, Sugar and 
Water of Tame i'or 
brew, &c. 

White salt for 
lapwings, &c. 
Cinnamon and 
salt for thrushes 

befe with garlycke, mustarde, peper, vergyus ; gynger 
sauce to lawbe, pygge, & fawne / mustarde & suger to 
fesande, partryche, and conye / sauce gamelyne to 
herorcsewe, egryt, plouer, & crane / to brewe, curlewe, 
salte, suger, & water of tame / to bustarde, shouyllarde, 
& bytture, sauce gamelyne : woodcocke, lapwynge, 
larke, quayle, mertynet, venyson, and snyte, with whyte 
salte / sparowes & throstelles with salte & synamorc / 
thus with all metes, sauce shall haue the operacyons. 

^[ Here endeth the sauces for all maner of fowles 
and metes. 

[Fol. A 6 b.] 
The Dinner 
Courses from 
Easter to 
From Easter to 
set bread, 
trenchers and 
spoons : 

6 or 8 trenchers 
for a great lord, 

3 for one of low 
degree. Then cut 
bread for eating. 

For Easter-day 


First Course : 

A Calf, boiled and 

boiled Eggs and 
green sauce ; 

Potage. with beef, 

Tf Here begynneth the feestes and seruyce from 
Eester vnto whytsondaye. 

ON Eester daye & so forthe to Per^tycost, after y 
seruyrcge of the table there shall be set brede, 
tre/zchours, and spones, after the estymacyow of them 
that shall syt there ; and thus ye shall serue your 
souerayne ; laye [six or eight ! ] trewchours / & yf he be 
of a lower degre [or] estate, laye fyue trenchours / & yf 
he be of lower degre, foure trenchours / & of an other 
degre, thre trenchours / than cut brede for your souer- 
ayne after ye knowe his condycyons, wheder it be 
cutte in y myddes or pared, or elles for to be cut in 
small peces. Also ye must vnderstarcde how y mete 
shall be serued before youre souerayne, & namely on 
Eester daye after the gouernaunce & seruyce of y 
countree where ye were borne. Fyrste on that daye he 
shall serue a calfe soden and blessyd / and than sodera 
egges with grene sauce, and set them before the most 
pryncypall estate / and that lorde by cause of his hyghe 
estate shall departe them all aboute hym / than serue 
potage, as wortes, lowtes, or browes, with befe, mottow, 

1 See above, in the Keruynge of Flesshe, p. 157, lines -5 and 4 
from the bottom 


or vele / & caporcs that ben coloured with saffron, and s c a a ^ H stailled 
bake metes. And the seconde course, lussell with second Course: 
mamony, and rosted, endoured / & pegyons with bake Mameny, Picons, 
metes, as tartes, chewettes, & flawnes, & other, after the j^**^ 
dysposycyon of the cokes. And at soupertyme dyuers Supper : 
sauces of mottoft or vele in broche 1 , after the ordynaunce [' ? brothej 
of the stewarde / and than chekyns with bacon, vele, chickens, veal, 
roste pegyons or lambe, & kydde roste with y heed roast Kid, 
& the portenaunce on lambe & pygges fete, with Ptes'-Feet. 
vinegre & percely theron, & a tarcsye fryed, & other a Tansey fried, 
bake metes / ye shall vnderstarcde this maner of seruyce 
2 dureth to Pentecoste, saue fysshe dayes. Also take [* Foi. B '-3 
hede how ye shall araye these thynges before your 
souerayne / fyrst ye shall se there be grene sauces of creen sauces of 

, sorrel or vines. 

sorell or 01 vynes, that is holde a sauce tor the tyrst for the first course 
course / and ye shall begyn to reyse the capon. 

f Here endeth the feest of Eester tyll Pe 
And here begynneth keruyng of all maner of fowles. 

How to carve a 

^[ Sauce that capon. capon. 

^f Take vp a capon, & lyfte vp the ryght legge and 
the ryght wynge, & so araye forth & laye hym in the 
plater as he sholde flee, & serve your souerayne /' & 
knowe well that capons or chekyns ben arayed after 
one sauce ; the chekyn shall . be sauced with grene sauce : <?reen 

sauce or verjuice. 

sauce or vergyus. 

^[ Lyfte that swanne. 

f Take and dyglite hym as a goose, but let hym 
haue a largyour brawne, & loke ye haue chawdron. 

Tf Alaye that fesande. 
*fi Take a fesande, and reyse his legges & his wynges 
as it were an henne, & no sauce but onely salto. NO sauce but Salt. 

f wynge that partryche. Partridge. 

^ Take a partryche, and reyse his legges and his 
wynges as a henne / & ye mynce hym, sauce hym with 


Here endeth the feest of Eester tyll Pentecoste. Keruyng of aii 

maner of Forties. 



Sauce for 

How to carve a 

Sauce: salt. 

Sauce: ginger, 
mustard, vinegar, 
and salt. 

[Fol. B i. b.] 

Sauce as before. 

Salt, the sauce. 

Salt, the sauce. 

Salt, as sauce. 

Salt, as sauce. 
Cony (or Rabbit.) 

Sauce: vinegar 
aud ginger. 

wyn, poudre of gynger, & salte / that set it vpon a 
chaufyng-dysshe of coles to warme & seme it. 

^[ wynge that quayle. 

^[ Take a quayle, and reyse his legges and his 
wynges as an henne, and no sauce but salte. 

Dysplaye that crane. 

^[ Take a crane, and vnfolde his legges, and cut of 
his wynges by the loyntes : than take vp hys wynges 
and his legges, and sauce hym with poudres of gynger, 
mustarde, vynegre, and salte. 

Dysmembre that heron. 

f Take an heron, and reyse his legges and his 
wynges as a crane, and sauce hym with vynegre, mus- 
tarde, poudre of gynger, and salte. 

Vnioint that bytture. 

^[ Take a bytture, and reyse his legges & his 
wynges as an heron, & no sauce but salte. 

Breke that egryt. 

Tf Take an egryt, and reyse his legges and his 
wynges as an heron, and no sauce but salte. 

Vntache that curlewe. 

^[ Take a curlewe, and reyse his legges and his 
wynges as an henne, and*no sauce but salte. 

^[ Vntache that brewe. 

^f Take a brewe, and reyse his legges and his 
wynges in the same maner, and no sauce but onely 
salte, & serue your souerayne. 

Ynlace that cony. 

^[ Take a cony, and laye hym on the backe, & cut 
awaye the ventes / than reyse the wynges and the 
sydes, and laye bulke, chyne, and the sydes togyder ; 
sauce, vynegre and poudre of gynger. 


that Sarcell. Sarcel or Teal. 

TT Take a sarcell or a teele, and reyse his wynges & 
his legges, and no sauce but salte onely. 

Mynce that plouer. Plover. 

^[ Take a plouer, and reyse his leggcs and his 
wynges as an henne, and no sauce but onely salt. 

A snyte. 8ni P e - 

^ Take a snyte, and reyse his wynges, his legges, 
and his sholdres, as a plouer ; and no sauce but salte. 

T[ Thye that woodcocke. [Foi. Bij-l 

Take a woodcocke, & reyse his legges and his 
wynges as an henne ; this done, dyght the brayne. 
And here begynneth the feest from Pentecost vnto 


the seconde course for the metes before sayd ye sauces for the 

Second Course. 

shall take for your sauces, wyne, ale, vynegre, and 

poudres, after the mete be ; & gynger & canell from 
Pentecost to the feest of saynt lohn baptyst. The First course: 

Beef and Capons. 

fyrst course shall be befe, motton soden with capons, 
or rested / & yf the capons be soden, araye hym in 
the maner aforesayd. And whan he is rested, thou HOW to sauce and 

must caste on salte, with wyne or with ale / thaw take * R 

the capon by the legges, & caste on the sauce, & 

breke hym out, & laye hym in a dysshe as he sholde 

flee. Fyrst ye shall cut the ryght legge and the ryght 

sholdre, & bytwene the foure membres laye the 

brawne of the capon, with the croupe in the ende by- 

twene the legges, as it were possyble for to be loyned 

agayne togyder/ & other bake metes after : And in the Second Course : 

Potage, Charlet, 

seconde course, potage shall be, lussell, charlet, or young Geese, 

Payne Puffe, &c. 

mortrus, with yonge geese, \ele, pxke, pygyons or 
chekyns rosted, with payne puffe / fruyters, and other 
bake metes after the ordynauwce of the coke. Also the HOW to carve a 


goose ought to be cut niembre to membre, begynnynge 
at the ryght legge, and so forth vnder the ryght wynge, 



Goose must be & not vpon the loynte aboue / & it ought for to be 

eaten with green . 

garlic or verjuice, eten with grene gaiiyke, or with sorell, or tender vynes, 
or vergyus in somer season, after the pleasure of your 
souerayne. Also ye shall vnderstande that all maner 
of fowle that hath hole fete sholde be reysed vnder the 
wynge, and not aboue. 

^f Here endetli the feest from Pentecost to myd- 
somer. And here begynneth from the feest of saynt 

Dinner corses 
tivity* I/ st John 

the Baalist, (June T , .1 -i , , -\r i t 

24.) to Michaelmas, lohn the baptist vnto M yghelmasse. 

First Course : 
soups, vegetables, 
legs of Pork, &c. 

Second Cow se : 

roast Mutton, 
glazed Pigeons, 
Fritters, &c. 

Serve a Pheasant 
dry, with salt and 
ginger : 

a Heronsewe with 
salt and powder 
(blanche 'i) 

Treat open- 
clawed birds like 

TN the fyrst course, potage, wortes, gruell, & four- 
-L menty, with venyson, and mortrus and pestelles of 
porke with grene sauce. Eosted capon, swanne with 
chawdron. In the seconde c'ourse, potage after the 
ordynaunce of the cokes, with rested motton, vele, 
porke, chekyns or endoured pygyons, heron-sewes, 
fruyters or other bake metes / & take hede to the 
fesande : he shall be arayed in the maner of a capon / 
but it shall be done drye, without ony moysture, and he 
shall be eten with salte and pouder of gynger. And 
the heronsewe shall be arayed in the same maner with- 
out ony moysture, & lie shulde be eten with salte and 
poudre. Also ye shall vnderstande that all maner of 
fowles hauynge open clawes as a capon, shall be tyred 
and arayed as a capon and suche other. 

Dinner Courses 
from Michaelmas 

to Christmas. of Chrystynmasse. 

From the feest of saynt Myghell vnto the feest 

First Course : 
legs of Pork, &c. 

Second Course ; 

IN the fyrst course, potage, befe, motton, bacon, or 
pestelles of porke, or with goose, capon, mallarde, 
swanne, or fesande, as it is before sayd, with tartes, or 
bake metes, or chynes of porke. In the second course, 
potage, mortrus, or conyes,or sewe / than roste flesshe, 
motton, porke, vele, pullettes, chekyns, pygyons, teeles, 
* The feast of St John's Beheading is on Aug. 29. 


wegyons, inallardes, partryche, woodcoke, plouer, byt- widgeon, 
ture, curlewe, heronsewe / venyson roost, grete byrdes, 
snytes, feldefayres, thrusshes, fruyters, chewettes, befe Fieldfares, 
witli sauce gelopere, roost with sauce pegyll, & other with sauces 

Gelopere and 

ba'ke metes as is aforesayde. And yf ye kerue afore Pegyii. 

[iFol. Biii.] 

your lorde or your lady ony soden flesshe, kerue awaye Cut the skin off 

e boiled meats. 

the sky?zne aboue / thaw kerue resonably of y flesshe Carve carefully for 
to your lorde or lady, and specyally for ladyes, for y 2 p/fertheyi 

J ' J J J J Ladies; they soon 

wyll soone be angry, for theyr thoughtes ben soone pet angry 

changed / and some lordes wyll be sone pleased, & some 

wyll not / as they be of corapleccyo?i. The goos & Carve Goose and 

swanne may be cut as ye do other fowles y fc haue hole hirds - 

fete, or elles as your lorde or your lady wyll aske it. 

Also a swa?zne with chawdron, capo??,, or fesande, ought 

for to be arayed as it is aforesayd / but the skynne must 

be had awaye / & whan they be?i kerued before your 

lorde or your lady / for generally the skynne of all 

maner clove?i foted fowles is vnholsome / & the skynne Theskinofcioven- 

of all maner hole foted fowles be??, holsome for to be unwholesome: 

eten. Also wete ye well that all maner hole foted of whole-footed 


fowles that haue theyr lyuy?zg vpon the water, theyr 

sky nnes ben holsome & clone, for by y clenes of the wholesome. 

water / & fysshe, is theyr lyuynge. And yf that they 

ete ony stynkynge thynge, it is made so clene with y because the water 

washes all corrup- 

water that all the corrupcyon is clene gone away frome Won out of em. 

it. And the sky?me of capo??, henne, or chekyn, ben not chickens' skin is 

so clene, for thefy] ete foule thynges in the strete / & " 

therfore the skynnes be??, not so holsome / for it is not because their 

e nature is not to 

theyr kynde to entre in to y ryuer to make theyr mete enter into the 

voyde of y fylth. Mallarde, goose, or swanne, they 

ete vpon the londe foule mete / but a-no??, after theyr River birds 

kyiide, they go to the ryuer, & theyr they dense them SSfa ttfriSl! 

of theyr foule stynke. A fesande as it is aforesayd/ but 

y sky??nc is not holsome / than take y heddes of all Take off the head* 

of all field birds. 

felde byrdes and wood byrdcs, as fesande, pecocke, 
partryche, woodcocke, and curlewe, for they ete in for they eat 



worms, toads, and 

the like. 

Sewynge of 

First Course : 

Salens, &c., 
baked Gurnet. 

Second Course : 
Jelly, dates, &c. 
For a standard, 

Mullet, Chub. 
Seal. &c. 

Tliird Course ; 

Bream, Perch, 
Whelks; and 
pears in sugar 
candy. Figs, 
[i Orig. raysyns] 
dates capped with 
minced ginger, &c. 
All over ! Clear 
the table. 

theyr degrees foule thynges, as wormes, todes, and other 

^f Here endeth the feestes and the keruynge of 
flesshe, And here begynneth the sewynge of fysshe. 

^[ The fyrst course. 

) go to sewynge of fysshe : musculade, menewes in 
sewe of porpas or of samon, bacon hery?ige w^t7t 

suger, grene fysshe, pyke, lampraye, salens, porpas 

rested, bake gurnade, and lampraye bake. 

^f The seconde course. 

^[ Gelly whyte and rede, dates in confetes, congre, 
samon, dorrey, brytte, turbot, halybut / for standarde, 
base, troute, molette, cheuene, sele, eles & lamprayes 
roost, tenche in gelly. 

^[ The thyrde course. 

^f Fresshe sturgyon, breme, perche in gelly, a loll 
of samon, sturgyon, and welkes ; apples & peres rested 
with suger candy. Fygges of malyke, & raysyns, 1 dates 
capte with mynced gynger / wafers and ypocras, they 
ben agreable / this feest is done, voyde ye the table. 

IT Here endeth sewynge of fysshe. 
f i owe th keruynge of fysshe. 

And here 

Put lails and 
livers in the pea 
broth and furmity. 
How to carve 
Seal Turrentyne, 

baked Herring, 
white Herring, 

Greea Fish, 

Merling, Hake, 

THe keruer of fysshe must se to pessene & fourmen- 
tye the tayle and y lyuer : ye must loke yf there 
be a salte purpos, or sele turrentyne, & do after y 
fourme of venyson / baken herynge, laye it hole vpon 
your soueraynes trenchour / whyte heryrcge in a disshe, 
open it by y backe, pyke out the bones & the rowe, & 
se there be mustarde. Of salte fysshe, grene fysshe, 
salt samon & congre, pare away y skyn / salte fysshe, 
stocke fysshe, marlynge, makrell, and hake, with butter : 
take awaye the bones & the skynnes. A pyke, laye y 


wombe vpon his trenchour with pyke sauce ynoughe. 

A salte * lampraye, gobone it flatte in .vii. or .viii. salt r Lamprey ] 

peces, & lay it to your souerayne. A playce, put out Plaice, 

the water / than crosse hym with your knyfe, caste on 

salte & wyne or ale. Gornarde, rochet, breme, cheuene, Gurnard, Bream. 

base, molet, roche, perche, sole, makrell & whytynge, Roach . Whiting, 

haddocke and codlynge, reyse them by the backe, & Codling, 

pyke out the bones, & dense the refet in y bely. 

Carpe, breme, sole, & troute, backe & belly togyder. Carp Trout. 

Samon, congre, sttirgyon, turbot, thorpole, thornebacke, Conger, 

houftde-fysshe, & halybut, cut them in the dysshe as y 

porpas aboute / tenche in his sauce, cut it / eles & Tench, 

lamprayes roost, pull of the skynne, pyke out y bones, 

put therto vyneger & poudre. A crabbe, breke hym and Crab. 

a-sonder in to a dysshe, make y shelle clene, & put in 

the stuffe agayne, tempre it with vynegre & pouder, HOW to dress and 

than couer it with brede, and sende it to the kytchyn 8< 

to hete / than set it to your souerayne, and breke 

the grete clawes, and laye them in a disshe. A 

creues, dyght hym thus: departe hym a-sonder, & HOW to dress and 

J carve a Crayfish, 

sly tee 3 the belly, and take out y fysshe ; pare away the P sic ^ 

reed skynne, and mynce it thynne ; put vynegre in the 

dysshe, and set in on y table w^tAout hete. A lol of a Joii of sturgeon, 

sturgyon, cut it in thynne morselles, & lay it rourcde 

aboute the dysshe. Fresshe lampraye bake : open y a fresh Lamprey. 


pasty / than take whyte brede, and cut it thynne, & 

lay it in a dysshe, & with a spone take out galentyne, (sauce, Gaientyne 

with red wine 

& lay it vpon the brede with reed wyne & poudre of and powdered 


synamon / than cut a gobone of the lampraye, & mynce 

the gobone thynne, and laye it in the galentyne ; than 

set it vpon the fyre to hete. Fresshe herynge with Fresh Herring, & c . 

salte & wyne / shrympes wel pyked, flourcdres, gogyons, 

menewes & musceles, eles and lamprayes : sprottes is sprats, 

good in sewe / musculade in wortes / oystres in ceuy, Muscuiade in 

worts, Oysters, 

oysters in grauy, menewes in porpas, samow & seele, 
gelly 3 whyte and reede, creme of almorcdes, dates in 



Mortrewes of 

comfetes, peres and quynces in syrupe, with percely 
rotes ; mortrus of lioundes fysshe, ryse standynge. 

Sauces for Fish. 

Mustard for 
Salmon, &c.; 

Vinegar for salt 
Whale, &c. : 

Galen tyne for 
Verjuice for 
Roach. &c.; 
Cinnamon for 
Chub, &c. ; 

Green Sauce for 
Halibut, &c. 

^[ Here endeth the keruynge of fysshe. And here 
begywneth sauces for all maner of fysshe. 

MUstarde is good for salte herynge / salte fysshe, 
salte congre, samorc, sparlynge, salt ele & lynge : 
vynegre is good with salte porpas, turrentyne salte / 
sturgyow salte, threpole, & salt wale / lampray with 
galentyne / vergyus to roche, dace, breme, molet, base, 
flounders, sole, crabbe, and cheuene, with poudre of 
synamoTi ; to thornebacke, herynge, houndefysshe, had- 
docke, whytynge, & codde, vynegre, poudre of synamon, 
& gynger ; grene sauce is good with grene fysshe & 
halybut, cottell, & fresshe turbot / put not your grene 
sauce awaye, for it is good with mustarde. 

^[ Here endeth for all maner of sauces for fyssche 
accordynge to theyr appetyte. 

The Duties of a 

He must be 
cleanly, and comb 
his hair: 

see to his Lord's 
clothes, and 
brush his hose ; 

in the morning 
warm his shirt, 

and prepare his 

[i Fol. B 5.] 
warm his pety- 
cote, Ac. ; 

put on his shoes, 
tie up hia hose. 

fl" The chaumberlayne. 

THe caumberlayne muste be dylygewt & clenly in 
his offyce, with his heed kembed, & so to his 
souerayne that he be not recheles, & se that he haue a 
clene sherte, breche, petycote, and doublet / tha?i 
brusshe his hosen within & without, & se his shone & 
slyppers be made clene / & at morne whan your 
souerayne wyll aryse, warme his sherte by the fyre / 
& se ye haue a fote shete made in this maner. Fyrst 
set a chayre by the fyre with a cuysshen, an other 
vnder his fete / tha?i sprede a shete oner the chayre, 
and se there be redy a kerchefe J and a combe / than 
warme his petycote, his doublet, and his stomaehere / 
& tli an put on his hosen & his shone or slyppers, than 
stryke vp his hosen manerly, & tye them vp, than lace 


his doublet hole by hole, & laye the clothe aboute his 

necke & kembe his hede / than loke ye haue a basyn, comb his head. 

& an ewer with warme water, and a towell, and wasshe wash his hands, 

his handes / than knele vpon your knee, & aske your 

souerayne what robe he wyll were, & brynge him such 

as your souerayne commaurideth, & put it vpon hym ; 

than doo his gyrdell aboute hym, & take your leue 

manerly, & go to the chyrche or chapell to your 

soueraynes closet, & laye carpentes & cuysshens, & lay church or chapel. 

downe his boke of prayers / than drawe the curtynes, 

and take your leue goodly, & go to youre soueraynes then come home 

chambre, & cast all the clothes of his bedde, & bete the chamber, take off 

the bed-clothes. 

feder bedde & the bolster / but loke ye waste no feders ; 

than shall the blankettes, & se the shetes be fayre & 

swete, or elles loke ye haue clene shetes / than make Make hw lordjs 

vp his bedde manerly, than lay the hed shetes & the dean sheets, 

pyllowes / than take vp the towel & the basyn, & laye 

carpentes aboute the bedde, or wyndowes & cupbordes ^J^*^ 88 

layde with carpettes and cuysshyns. Also loke there and windows, &c. 

be a good lyre brennynge bryght / & se the lious of 

hesement be swete & clene, & the preuy borde couered 

with a grene clothe and a cuysshyn / thaw se there be 

blanked, donne, or cotton, for your souerrayne / & loke 

ye haue basyn, & euer with water, & a towell for your 

souerayne / than take of his gowne, & brynge him a JjJJJJJf J"* ; 

mantell to kepe hym fro colde / than brynge hym to JJJJ"J hig ghoei 

the fyre, & take of his shone & his hosen ; than take a &c - 

fayre kercher of reynes / & kembe his heed, & put on Comb his head - 

his kercher and his bonet / than sprede downe his put on his night- 

bedde, laye the heed shete and the pyllowes / & whan 

your souerayne is to bedde l drawe the curtynes / than . [1 F L B 5 b>1 

* J * draw the curtains 

se there be morter or waxe or perchoures be redy / than rouud him . 
dryue out dogge or catte, & loke there be basyn and drive out the 

.. . , . dogs and cats, set 

vrynall set nere your souerayne / than take your leue the urinal near, 
manerly that your souerayne may take his rest meryly. leave. 

fl" Here endeth of the chaumberlayne. 


Of the Marshal 
and Usher. 


^ Here f i owe th of the Marshall and the vssher. 

fTlHe Marshall and the vssher muste knowe all the 

- estates of the chyrche, a: 
kynge, with the blode royall. 

He must know 

ireced d e e a^eo f faii " estates of the chyrche, and the hyghe estate of a 


A Cardinal before 
a Prince. 

The Mayor of 
London ranks 
with the 3 Chief 

The Knight's 

[Fol. B 6.] 

The ex-Mayor of 

The Esquirr's 

If The estate of a Pope hath no pere. 

^f The estate of an Emperour is nexte. 

Tf The estate of a kynge. 

^f The estate of a cardynall. 

If The estate of a kynges sone, a prynce. 

^f The estate of an archebysshop. 

Tf The estate of a duke 

Tf The estate of a bysshop 

^[ The estate of a marques 

^f The estate of an erle 

^f The estate of a vycount 

^f The estate of a baron. 

Tf The estate of an abbot with a myter 

If The estate of the thre chefe luges & the Mayre of 


^f The estate of an abbot without a myter 
^| The estate of a knyght bacheler 
^f The estate of a pryour, dene, archedeken, or knyght 
^f The estate of the mayster of the rolles. 
^f The estate of other Justices & barons of the cheker 
^[ The estate of the mayre of Calays. 
^f The estate of a prouyncyall, a doctour dy vyne, 
Tf The estate of a prothonat : he is aboue the popes 

collectour, and a doctour of bothe the lawes. 
Tf The estate of him that hath ben mayre of London 

and seruaunt of the lawe. 
^[ The estate of a mayster of the chauncery, and 

other worshypfullprechours of pardon, and clerk es 

that ben gradewable / & all other ordres of 


chastyte, persones & preestes, worshypfull mar- 
chauntes & gentylmen, all this may syt at the 
squyers table. 

^f An archebysshop and a duke may not kepe the Who must dine 
hall, but eche estate by them selfe in chaumbre 
or in pauylyon, that neyther se other. 
^[ Bysshoppes, Marques, Erles, & Vycoiwtes, all these who 2 together, 

may syt two at a messe. 

^[ A baron, & the mayre of London, & thre chefe who 2 or 3. 
luges, and the speker of the parlyament, & an 
abbot with a myter, all these may svt two or 
thre at a messe 

^f And all other estates may syt thre or foure at a who 3 or 4 - 

^[ Also the Marshall muste vnderstande and knowe The Marshall 
the blode royall, for some lorde is of blode royall & of are Df royal blood, 
small lyuelode. And some knyght is wedded to a 
lady of royal blode ; she shal kepe the estate that she 
was before. And a lady of lower degree shal kepe the 
estate of her lordes blode / & therfore the royall blode for that has the 


shall haue the reuerercce, as I haue shewed you here 

If Also a marshall muste take hede of the byrthe, 
and nexte of the lyne, of the blode royall. 

If Also he must take hede of the kynges offycers, He must take 

' heed of the King's 

of the Chaunceler, Stewarde, Chamberlayne, Tresourer, officers, 
and Controller. 

^[ Also the marshall must take heed vnto straungers, do honour to 
& put them to worshyp & reuerence ; for and they haue 
good chere it is your soueraynes honour. 

^f Also a Marshall muste take hede yf the kynge and receive a 

Messenger from 

sende to your souerayne ony message; and yf he send the King as if one 
a knyght, receyue hym as a baron ; and yf he sende a 
squyre, receyue hym as a knyght / and yf lie sende you 
a yoman, receyue hym as a squyer / and yf he sende 
you a grome, receyue hym as a yoman. 


fora Kin^s groom ff Also it is noo rebuke to a knyght to sette a grome 

may sit at a 

Knight's table. of the kynge at his table. 

Here ends this ^[ Here endetli the boke of seruyce, & keruynge, 

and sewynge, and all maner of offyce in his kynde vnto 
a prynce or ony other estate, & all the feestes in the 



1513 - lorde god M.CCCCC.xiij. 

printed by yere. Enprynted by wynkyii de worde at London in 

Wynkyn de 

Flete strete at the sygne of the sonne. The yere of our 

.fct. borbc's device here.] 



Wynkyn de Worde introduces some dishes, sauces, fish, and one wine, 
not mentioned by Russell. 

The new Dishes are 

Fayge (p. 157, 1. 10). This may be for Sage, the herb, or a variety of Fritter, 
like Fruyter vaunte (p. 157, 1. 2 ; p. 159, 1. %) t fruyter say (p. 159, 1. 24), or a 
dish that I cannot find, or a way of spelling figs. 

Fruyter say, p. 159, 1. 24. If say is not for Sage, then it may be a fish, con- 
trasted with the vaunte, which I suppose to mean ' meat.' Sey is a Scotch name 
for the Cualfish, Merlangvs Carbonarius. Yarrell, ii. 251. 

Charlet (p. 159, 1. 28). The recipe in ' Household Ordinances,' p. 463, is, 
Take swete cowe my Ik and put into a panne, and cast in therto }olkes of eyren 
and the white also, an.d sothen porke brayed, and sage ; and let hit boyle tyl hit 
crudde, and colour it with saffron, and dresse hit up, and serve hit forthe." 
Another recipe for Charlet Enforsed follows, and there are others for Charlet 
and Charlet icoloured, in Liber Cure, p. 11, 

Jowtes, p. 160, last line. These are broths of beef or fish boiled with 
chopped boiled herbs and bread, H. Ord. p. 461. Others are made ' with swete 
almond mylke,' ib. See * Joutus de Almonde,' p. 15, Liber Cure. For ' Joutes ' 
p. 47 ; ' for o^er ioutes,' p. 48. 

Browes, p. 160, last line. This is doubtless the Brus of Household Ordi- 
nances, p. 427, and the bruys of Liber Cure, p. 19, 1. 3, brewis, or broth. Brus 
was made of chopped pig's-inwards, leeks, onions, bread, blood, vinegar. For 
'Brewewes in Somere ' see H. Ord. p. 453. 

Chewettes, p. 161, 1. 4, were small pies of chopped-up livers of pigs, hens, and 
capons, fried in grease, mixed with hard eggs and ginger, and then fried or 
baked. Household Ordinances, p. 442, and JAber Cure, p. 41. The Chewets for 
fish days were similar pies of chopped turbot, haddock, and cod, ground dates, 
raisins, prunes, powder and salt, fried in oil, and boiled in sugar and wine. 
/,. Cure, p. 41. Markham's Recipe for 'A Chewet Pye ' is at p. 80-1 of his 
English Houswife. Chewit, or small Pie ; minced or otherwise. R. Holme. 
See also two recipes in MS. Harl. 279, fol. 38. 

Flaunes (p. 161, 1. 4) were Cheesecakes, made of ground cheese beaten up 
with eggs and sugar, coloured with saffron, and baked in cofyns ' or crusts. 
' A Flaune of Almayne ' or ' Crustade ' was a more elaborate preparation of 
dried or fresh raisins and pears or apples pounded, with cream, eggs, bread, 
spices, and butter, strained and baked in ' a faire coffyn or two.' //. Ord. 
p. 452. 

Of new Sauces, Wynkyn de Worde names Gelopere & Pegyll (p. 165, 1. 4). 
Gelopere I cannot find, and can only suggest that its p may be for/, and that 
" cloves of gelofer," the clove-gillyflower, may have been the basis of it. 
These cloves were stuck in ox tongues, see " Lange de beof," Liber Cure, p. 


26. Muft'ett also recommends Gilly-flour Vinegar as the best sauce for 
sturgeon in summer, p. 172 ; and Vinegar of Clove -Gilliflowers is mentioned 
by Culpepper, p. 97, Physical Directory, 1649. 

Pegylle I take to be the Pykulle of Liber Cure Cocorum, p. 31, made thus; 
' Take droppyng of capone rostyd wele 
With wyne and mustarde, as have J>ou cele [bliss], 
With onyous smalle schrad, and sothun in grece, 
Meng alle in fere, and forthe hit messe.' 

The new Wine is Campolet, p. 153. Henderson does not mention it ; Halli- 
well has ' Complete*. A kind of wine, mentioned in a curious list in MS. 
Rawl. C. 86.' [See the list in the Notes to Russell, above, p. 86.] I sup- 
pose it to be the wine from ' Campole. The name of a certaine white grape, 
which hath very white kernels.' Cotgrave. 

Of new Fish W. de Worde names the Salem (p. 166, 1. 8), Cottell and Tench 
(p, 167). Torrentyne he makes sele turrentyne (p. 166, 1. 8 from bottom) 
seemingly, but has turrentyne salte as a fish salted, at p. 168, 1. 7. 

Cottell,^. 168, L 14, the cuttlefish. Of these, Sepice vel Lolligines calamarite, 
Muffet says, they are called also f sleewes ' for their shape, and ' scribes ' for 
their incky humour wherewith they are replenished, and are commended by 
Galen for great nourishers ; their skins be as smooth as any womans, but their 
flesh is brawny as any ploughmans ; therefore I fear me Galen rather com- 
mended them upon hear-say then upon any just cause or true experience. 

For the Salens I can only suggest thunny. Aldrovandi, de Piscibus, treating 
of the synonyms of the Salmon, p. 482, says, " Grsecam salmonis nomencla- 
turam 11011 inuenio, neq#<? est quod id miretur curiosus lector, cum in 
Oceano tantu/ flumi#ibusq# in eum se exonerantibus reperiatur, ad quae 
veteres Graeci nunquam penetrarunt. Qui voluerit, Salangem appellare 
poterit. ZaXdxS enim boni, id est, delicati piscis nomen legitur apud He- 
sychium, nee prseterea qui sit, explicatur : aut amigrandi natura Kari>afyo/ioc, 
vel Spopag fluviatilis dicatur, nam Aristoteles in mari dromades vocat 
Thunnos aliosq?^? gregales, qui aliunde in Pontum excurrunt, et vix vno 
'oco couquiescunt ; aut nomen fingatur a saltu, & dXpwv dicitur. Nou placet 
tamen, salmonis nomen a saltu deduci, aut etiarn a sale, licet saliendi natura ei 
optime quadret saleqM aut muria inueturaria etiam soleat. Non enim latine 
sed a Germanis Belgisue Rheni accolis, aut Gallis Aquitanicis accepta vox 
est." See also p. 318. ' Scardula, et Incobia ex Pigis, et Plota, Salea.' 
Gesner, de Piscibus, p. 273. Can salens be the Greek ' ffwXrjv, a shell-fish, 
perhaps like the razor-fish. Epich. p. 22.' Liddell and Scott ? I presume 
not. ' Solen. The flesh is sweet; they may be eaten fryed or boiled.' 1601, 
R. Lovell, Hist, of Animals, p. 240. 'Solen : A genus of bivalve mollusks, 
having a long slender shell ; razor-fish.' Webster's Diet. 

Sele turrentyne, p. 166, 1, 8 from bottom. Seemingly a variety of seal, or 
of eel or sole if sele is a misprint. But I cannot suggest any fish for it. 

Rochets, p. 167, 1. 5, Rabelliones. Rochets (or rather Rougets, because 
they are so red) differ from Gurnards and Curs, in that they are redder by 
a great deal, and also lesser ; they are of the like flesh and goodness, yet better 
fryed with onions, butter, and vinegar, then sodden. Muffett, p. 166. 

AB. 1460 A.D. 



Here begynnethe fe FYRST BOKE of CURTASYE . . ... . . 177 



De officiarijs in curijs dominoriim . . . . . . 187 

De lanitore 188 

De Marescallo aule 188 

Per quantum tempus armigm halebunt litaratam et ignis 

ardeb/t in aw/a . . . . . . . . ... 189 

De pincernario, panetario, et cocis sibi smiietttib?w . . 190 

De office pmce?narij 190 

De hostiario et suis seruientib?^ . . . . . . 190 

De Officeo gamonu?^ 191 

De seneschallo . . . . . . . . . . 194 

De contrarotulatore . . . . . . . . . . . . 195 

De superuisore . . . . . . . . . . . . 195 

De Clerico coquine . . . . . . . . . . 195 

De cancellario . . . . . . . . . . . . 195 

De thesaurizario . . . . . . . . . . . . 196 

De receptore firmarwm . . . . . . . . . . 197 

De Auenario 197 

De pistore 198 

De venatore et suis conibtM . . . . . . . . . . 198 

De aquario . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199 

Qui debent manus lauare et in quorum domib?/s . . . . 199 

De panetario 200 

De Cultellis domim 200 

De Elemosinario . . . . . . . . . . . . 201 

De ferculario 202 

De candelario 204 


forht of 

begynnethe )>e fyrst boke of curtasye. 

wo so wylle of curtasy lere, 
In this boke he may hit here ! 
Yf thow be gentylmon, 301x10?*, or knaue, 
4 The nedis nurture for to haue. 
When thou comes to a lordis $ate, 
The porter ]?ou shalle fyride ther-ate ; 
Take hym thow shalt J?y wepyn tho, 
8 And aske hym leue in to go 
^[ To speke with lorde, lady, squyer, or grome. 
Ther-to the nedys to take the tome ! ; 
For yf he be of loghe degre, 
1 2 Than hym falles to come to the ; 
^[ Yf he be gentylmow of kyii, 
The porter wille lede the to hym. 
When thow come tho halle dor to, 
16 Do of thy hode, thy gloues also ; 
^[ Yf }>o halle be at the furst mete, 
This lessou/j loke thow no^t for-^ete : 
J)e stuard, countroller, and tresurere, 
20 Sittand at de deshe, )>0u haylse in fere. 
^f Withm J>e halle sett on ayther side, 

Sitten other gerctylmew as falles ]>at tyde ; 
Ericlyne ])e fayre to horn also, 
24 First to the ry^ht honde J>ou shalle go, 

1 Toom or rymthe. Spacium, tempus, oportunitas. V. Parv. 

[Fol. 12.J 

In this book you 
may learn 
Every one needs 

On reaching a 
Lord's gate, give 
the Porter your 
weapon, and ask 
leave to go in. 

If the master is of 
low degree, he 
will come to you ; 
if of high, the 
Porter will take 
you to him. 

At the Hall-door, 

take off your hood 

and gloves. 

If the first meal is 


greet the Steward, 
&c., at the dais, 

bow to the Gentle- 
men on each side 
of the hall, 

both right 



wid left 5 

notice the yeomen, 
then stand before 
the screen 

till the Marshal 
or Usher leads 
you to the table. 

Be sedate and 
courteous if you 
are set with the 

Cut your loaf in 
two, the top from 
the bottom ; 

cut the top crust 
in 4, 

and the bottom 
in 3. 

Tut your trencher 
before you, 

and don't eat 01 
drink till your 
Mess is brought 
from the kitchen, 
lest you be 
thought starved 
or a glutton. 

Have your nails 

Don't bite your 

but break it. 

Don't quarrel at 

or make grimaces. 

^f Sitthen to fo left honde fy neghe J>ou cast ; 
To horn foil boghe wzt/iouten wrast l ; 
Take hede to yomon on f y ryght honde, 
28 And sithen by fore the serene fou stonde 
^T In myddys f e halle opon f e flore, 

Whille marshalle or vssher come fro f e dore, 
And bydde the sitte, or to borde the lede. 
32 Be stabulld of chere for menske 2 , y rede ; 
^f Yf he f e sette at gentilmo/mes borde, 
Loke fou be hynde 3 and lytulle of worde. 
Pare f y brede and kerue in two, 
36 Tho ouer crust f o nether fro ; 
^[ In fowre fou kutt f o ouer dole, 
Sett horn to-gedur as hit where hole ; 
Sithen kutt ])0 nether crust in thre, 
40 And turne hit down, lerne f is at me. 
^f And lay thy trenchowr f e be-fore, 
And sitt vp-ry^ht for any sore. 
Spare brede or wyne, drynke or ale, 
44 To thy messe of kochyn be sett in sale ; 
^[ Lest men sayne ]>0u art hongwr beten, 
Or ellis a gloten ]?at alle mew wyten, 
Loke ))y naylys ben clene in blythe, 
48 Lest J?y felaghe lothe ther-wyth. 

Tf Byt not on thy brede and lay hit doim, 
That is no curteyse to vse in town ; 
But breke as myche as J>ou wylle ete, 
52 The remelant to pore J>ou shalle lete. 
^ In peese fou ete, and euer eschewe 
To flyte 4 at borde ; ]jat may ]?e rewe. 
Yf fou make mawes 5 on any wyse, 
5G A velany fou kacches or euer fou rise. 

1 AS. wrcesten, to writhe, twist. 

2 grace, civility ; from AS. mennisc, human ; cp. our double sense 
of humanity. H. Coleridge. 

3 courteous. 4 AS.Jlytan, dispute, quarrel. 

6 Mowe, or skorne. Vanyia, vel valgia^ cachinna. Promptorium. 



^f Let neuer f y cheke be Made to grete 
With morselle of brede fat f ou shalle ete ; 
An apys mow men sayne he makes, 
60 })at brede and flesshe in hys cheke bakes. 
T[ Yf any man speke fat tyme to the, 

And f ou schalle onsware, hit wille not be 
But waloande, and a-byde f ou most ; 
64 ])ai is a schame for alle the host. 

<H On bothe halfe fy mouthe, yf fat f ou ete, 
Mony a skorne shalle f ou gete. 
j)ou shalle not lau^he ne speke no fynge 
68 Wliille f i mouthe be fulle of mete or clrynke 
^f Ne suppe not \\ith grete sowndynge 
Nof er potage ne of er fynge. 
Let not f i spone stond in f y dysche, 
72 Whef er fou be serued w/t/t fleshe or fische ; 
^[ Ne lay hit not on thy dishe syde, 

But dense hit honestly w/t/i-outen pride. 
Loke no browynge on f y fyngur fore 
76 Defoule fe clothe fe be-fore. 
^f In fi dysche yf fou wete fy brede, 
Loke fe?*-of fat no^t be lede 
To cast agayne f y dysche in-to ; 
80 ))ou art vii-hynde yf f <m do so. 
If Drye f y mouthe ay wele and fynde 

When f ou schalle drynke of er ale or wyne. 
Ne calle f ou no^t a dysche a-^ayne, 
84 ])at ys take fro fe borde in playne; 

^f 3if f ou sp[i]tt ouer the borde, or elles opon, 
])oii schalle be holden an vncurtayse mon ; 
Yf f y nown dogge f ou scrape or clawe, 
88 pat is holden a vyse emong men knawe. 
^[ Yf f y nose f ou dense, as may be-falle, 
Loke f y honde f ou dense, as wythe-alle, 
Priuely with skyrt do hit away, 
92 Ofer ellis thurghe thi tepet fat is so gay. 

[Fol. IS.] 
Don't cram your 
cheeks out with 
food like an ape, 

for if any one 
should speak to 
you, you can't 
answer, but must 

Don't eat on both 
sides of your 

Don't laugh with 
your mouth full, 

or sup up your 
potage noisily. 

Don't leave your 
spoon in the dish 
or on its side, 

but clean your 


Let no dirt off 

your fingers soil 

[p. 27, bot.J 
the cloth. 
Don't put into the 
dish bread that 
you have once 

Dry your mouth 
before you drink. 

Don't call for a 
dish once 

or spit on the 
table : 
that's rude. 

Don't scratcli 
your dog. 

If you blow your 


clean your hard ; 

wipe it with your 

skirt or put it 

through your 




Don't pick your 
teeth at meals, 

or (It ink with food 
in your mouth, 

as you may get 


or killed, by its 

stopping your 


Tell no tale 

to harm or shame 

your companions. 

Don't stroke the 
cat or dog. 

Don't dirty the 
table cloth with 
your knife. 

Don't blow on 
your food, 

or put your knife 
in your mouth, 

or wipe your teeth 

LFol. 14.] 
or eyes with the 
table cloth. 
If you sit by a 
good man, 

don't put your 
knee under his 

Don't hand your 
cup to any one 
with your back 
towards him. 

Don't lean on 
your elbow, 

^f dense not tlii tethe at mete sittande, 
With knyfe ne stre, styk ne wande. 
While f ou holdes mete in mouthe, he war 
96 To drynke, fat is an-honest ! char, 
^f And also fysike for-bedes hit, 

And sais fou may be choket at fat byt ; 
Yf hit go f y wrang throte into, 
100 And stoppe fy wynde, fou art fordo. 
*|f -Ke telle fou neuer at borde no tale 
To harme or shame J)y felawe in sale ; 
For if he then wttAholde his methe 2 , 
104 Eftsons he wylle forcast fi dethe. 
^[ Where-sere foil sitt at mete in borde, 
Avoide f e cat at on bare worde 
For yf fou stroke cat of er dogge, 
108 jpou art lyke an ape tey3ed with a clogge. 
^[ Also eschewe, with-outen stryfe, 

To foule f e borde clothe with f i knyfe ; 
Ne blow not on fy drynke ne mete, 
112 Nef e?' for colde, nef er for hete ; 

Tf With mete ne bere f y knyfe to mowthe, 
Whef er fou be sett be strong or couthe ; 
Ne with Jo borde clothe J>i tethe fou wype, 
116 Ne j>y nyen fat rennen rede, as may betyde. 
^[ Yf foil sitt by a ry3ht good man, 
j}is lesson loke f ou f enke apon : 
Yndur his the3ghe f y kne not pit, 
1 20 ])OVL ar fulle lewed yf f ou dose hit. 
^f Ne bacwarde sittande gyf no$t f y cupe, 
Nof cr to drynke, nof er to suppe ; 
Bidde f i frende take cuppe and drynke, 
1 24 J5t is holden an-honest thyng. 
^[ Lcne not on elbowe at f y mete, 
Nof er for colde ne for hete ; 

1 an privative, unhonest. 2 AS. mod, mood, passion, violence. 



Dip not J)i thombc )>y drynke i?ito, 
128 ])on art vncurtayse yf ]?ou hit do ; 
^f In salt saler yf ]>at J>0u pit 

Oj?er fisshe or flesshe \>ai me?i may wyt, 
fiat is a vyce, as me?z me telles, 
132 And gret wonder hit most be elles. 
^f After mete when Jjmi shalt wasshe, 
Spitt not in basyn, ne water J>ou dasshe ; 
Ne spit not lorely, for no kyn mede, 
136 Be-fore no mow of god for drede. 
H" Who so euer despise J>is lessoiw ry}t, 
At borde to sitt he hase no my3t. 
Here endys now oure fyrst talkyng, 
140 Crist graunt vs alle his dere blessyng ! 

^[ Here endithe pe [first] boke of curtasye. 

or dip your thumb 
into your drink, 
or your food into 
the salt cellar : 

That is a vice. 

Don't spit in the 
basin you wash in 

or loosely (?) 
before a man of 


YF that ]>mi be a ^ong enfaunt, 
And thenke J?o scoles for to haunt, 
This lessoiw schalle J>y maistwr ]pe merke, 
144 Croscrist ]?e spede in alle J?i werke ; 

Sytthen Jjy pater ?zoste?- he wille Jje teche, 
As cristes owne postles con preche ; 
Aftwr jjy Aue mar/a and ]?i crede, 
148 ]?at shalle ]?e saue at dome of drede ; 
^] Then aftwr to blesse Jje vrith ]>e t?*init3, 
In nomine patris teche he wille f e ; 
)5en with marke, mathew, hike, and Ion, 
152 With J>e per cruc?s and the hegh name ; 
^f To schryue ]?e in general J>ou schalle lere 
))y Confiteor and misereatwr in fere. 

Jf you goto 

you shall learn : 

1. Cross of Christ, 

2. Pater Noster, 

3. Hail Mary and 
the Creed, 

4. In the name of 
the Trinity, 

5. of the Apostles, 

6. the Confession. 



Seek the kingdom 
of God, and 

worship Him. 

At church, take 
holy water ; 

pray for all Chris- 
tian companions ; 

kneel to God on 
both knees, 

to man only on 

At the Altar, 
serve the priest 
with both hands. 

Speak gently to 
your father and 

[Fol. 15.] 
mother, and 
honour them. 

Do to others as 
you would they 
should do to you. 

Don't be foolishly 

The seed of the 
righteous shall 

never beg or 
be shamed. 

Be ready 

and fond of peace. 

If you cannot 
give an asker 

To seche J>e kyngdam of god, my chylde, 
156 J?erto y rede J>ou be not wylde. 

^f Ther-fore worschip god, bothe olde and }ong, 
To be in body and soule yliclie stronge. 
When jjou comes to )>o chirche dore, 
160 Take )>e haly water stondand on flore ; 
^[ Rede or synge or byd p?-ayeris 
To crist, for alle Jjy crysten ferys ; 
Be curtayse to god, and knele douw 
164 On bothe knees vrith grete deuociouw. 
^[ To mon ]?ou shalle knele opon J?e ton, 
J)e to]>er to jjy self J>ou halde alon. 
When J?ou ministers at Jje heghe autere, 
168 With bothe hondes j?ou seme fo p?*est in fere, 
])z ton to stabulle ])e toj?er 
Lest jjou fayle, my dere broker. 
^f Ano]?er curtayse y wylle J?e teche, 
172 Thy fadur And modur, wlih mylde speche, 
In worschip and senie with alle ]?y my^t, 
])al fou dwelle j?e lengur in erthely ly$t. 
1f To anofer man do no more amys 
176 Then ]?ou woldys be doii of hym and hys ; 
So crist J?0u pleses, and getes )je loue 
Of men and god J?at sytt/5 aboue. 
^f Be not to meke, but in mene J?e holde, 
180 For ellis a fole }>0u wylle be tolde. 
He J>at to ry^twysnes wylle enclyne, 
As holy wry^t says vs wele and fyne, 
His sede schalle neuer go seche hor brede, 
184 Ne suffur of mow no shames dede. 
^[ To for-gyf J>ou shalle J?e hast ; 

To veniaunce loke ])ou come on last ; 
Draw J>e to pese vfiili alle J>y strengfe ; 
188 Fro stryf and bate draw ]?e on lengjje. 
^f Yf mow aske J?e good for goddys sake, 
And J?e wont thynge wher-of to take, 


Gyf hym boner wordys on fayre manere, 
192 With glad semblaunt l and pure good cher. 
*[ Also of sendee J?ou shalle be fre 

To euery mow in hys degre. 

pan schalle neuer lose for to be kynde ; 
196 That on for^etzs, anojjer hase in mynde. 
^[ Yf Any maw haue part with ]>e iw gyft, 

With hym j?ou make an euen skyft ; 

Let hit not henge in honde for glose, 
200 POM art vncurtayse yf J>ou hyt dose. 
^[ To sayntzs yf J?ou J?y gate hase hy^t, 

Thou schalle fulfylle hit with alle ]>y rny^t, 

Lest god J?e stryk with grete veniaunce, 
204 And pyt j>e in-to sore penaunce. 

^[ Leue not alle mew that speke Jje fayre, 

Whejjer ]>at hit ben comyns, burges, or mayre j 

In swete wordis )>e nedder was closet, 
208 Disseyuaunt euer and mysloset ; 

)3er-fore J?ou art of adams blode, 

With wordis be ware, but Jjou be wode : 

A schort worde is comynly sothe 
212 pat fyrst slydes fro mownes tothe. 
^[ Loke Iy3er neuer ]?at }?ou be-come, 

Kepe ]?ys worde for alle and somme. 

Law^e not to of[t] for no solace, 
216 For no kyn myrthe ])at any maw mase; 

Who lawes alle J)t mew may se, 

A schrew or a fole hym semes to be. 
^f Thre enmys in ]?ys worlde J?er are 
220 pat coueyten alle me?i to for-fare, 

The deuel, j?e flesshe, ]?e worlde also, 

That wyrkyn mankynde ful mykyl wo : 

Yf jjou may strye J>es ]?re enmys, 
224 POM may be secur of heuen blys. 
^f Also, my chylde, a-gaynes J>y lorde 

Loke ])0u stryfe with no kyn worde, 


give him good 


[ MS. semblamt] 

Be willing to 
help every one. 

Give your partner 
his fair share. 

Go on the pilgrim 
ages (?) you TO\V 
to saints, 

lest God take 
vengeance on you. 

Don't believe all 
who speak fair : 

the Serpent spoke 
fair words (to 

Be cautious with 
your words, ex- 
cept when angry. 

Don't lie, but 
keep your word. 

Don't laugh too 

or you'll be 
called a shrew or 
a fool. 

Man's 3 enemies 

the Devil, the 
Flesh, and the 

Destroy these, and 
be sure of heaven. 

Don't strive with 
your lord, 



or bt or play 
with him. 

[Fol. 16.] 
In a strange place 

don't be too inqui- 
sitive or fussy. 

If a man falls, 
don't laugh, but 
help him up : 

your own head 
may fall to your 

At the Mass, if 
the priest doesn't 
please you, 

don't blame him. 

Don't tell your 
secrets to a shrew. 

Don't beckon, 
point, or whisper. 

When you meet 
a man, greet him, 

or answer him 
greets you : 

don't be dumb, 

lest men say you 
have no mouth. 

Never speak im- 
properly of 


.Ne waiour non with hym Jjou lay, 
228 Ne at ]>& dyces with hym to play. 
^[ Hym that Jjou knawes of gretter state, 
Be not hys felaw in rest ne bate. 
3if J)0u be stad in strange contre, 
232 Enserche no fyr j?en falles to the, 
Ne take no more to do on honde 
]3en jjou may hafe menske of all& in londe. 
^[ 3if ]>OM se any -mon fal by strete, 
236 Laweghe not J)er-at in drye ne wete, 
But helpe hym vp with alle ]?y my^t, 
As seynt Ambrose ])e teches ry^t ; 
))ou that stondys so sure on sete, 
240 Ware lest ]>y hede falle to jjy fete. 
^f My chylde, yf j>ou stonde at fo masse, 
At vndur stondis bothe more and lasse, 
Yf J?o prest rede not at J>y wylle, 
244 Repreue hym no^t, but holde J>e stylle. 
^[ To any wy^t |?y counselle yf ]?ou schewe, 
Be war fat he be not a schrewe, 
Lest he disclaundyr ]je with tong 
248 Amonge alle mew, bothe olde and }ong. 
^f Bekenyng, fynguryng, no^ ))ou vse, 
And pryu6 rownyng loke ]>ou 
Yf fou mete kny^t, ^omow, or knaue, 
252 Haylys hym a-non, " syre, god ^ou saue." 
Yf he speke fyrst opon ]>e )?ore, 
Onsware hym gladly w?'t/i-outew more. 
^[ Go not forthe as a dombe freke, 
256 Syn god hase laft the tonge to speke ; 
Lest men sey be sibbe or couthe, * 
" 3ond is a mow witA--outen inouthe." 
^f Speke neuer vnhonestly of woman kynde, 
260 Ne let hit neuer renne in ]>y mynde ; 

1 to relation or friend. 



})G boke hym caller a chorle of chere, 

That vylany spekes be wemen sere : 

For alle we ben of wymmew born, 
264 And oure fadurs vs be-forne ; 

fierfoie hit is a vnhonest thyng 

To speke of hem in any hethyng. l 
Tf Also a wyfe be, falle of ry3t 
268 To worschyp hyr husbonde bothe day and ny}t, 

To his byddyng be obediente, 

And hym to seme wttft-onten offence. 
^f Yf two brether be at debate, 
272 Loke noj>er j?ou former in hor hate, 

But helpe to staunche horn of malice ; 

])en J)0u art frende to bothe I-wys. 
Tf 3if Jwu go wit^ a-nojjer at ))0 gate, 
276 And 36 be bothe of on astate, 

Be curtasye and let hym haue J>e way, 

That is no vylanye, as men me say ; 

And he be corner of gret kynraden, 
280 Go no be-fore Jmwgh foil be beden ; 

And yf ]>ai he Jjy maystwr be, 

Go not be-fore, for curtase, 

Nofer in fylde, wode, nojjer launde, 
284 Ne euen hym w^, but he cowmaunde. 
^f Yf j>ou schalle on pilgn'mage go, 

Be not J?e thryd felaw for wele ne wo ; 

Thre oxen in plowgh may neuer wel drawe, 
288 Nofer be craft, ry^t, ne lawe. 
T[ 3if fou be profert to drynk of cup, 

Drynke not al of, ne no way sup ; 

Drynk menskely and gyf agayne, 
292 ])ai is a curtasye, to speke in playne. 
^[ In bedde yf Jjou falle herberet to be, 

Wiih felawe, maystur, or her degre, 

for we and our 
fathers were all 
born of women. 

A wife should 
honour and obey 
her husband, 

and serve him. 

Try to reconcile 
brothers if they 

At a gate, 
let your equal 
precede you ; 

go behind your 

and your master 

unless he bids 
you go beside 

On a pilgrimage 
don't be third 

3 oxen can't draw 
a plough. 

[Fol. 17.] 

Don't drink all 
that's in a cup 
offered you; take 
a little. 

If you sleep 
with any man, 
ask what part of 

1 contempt, scorn, O.N. 1itff>ung. H. Coleridgo. 



the bed he likes, 
and lie far from 

If you journey 
with any man, 
find out his name, 
who he is, where 
he is going. 

With friars on a 
pilgrimage, do as 
they do. 

Don't put up at a 
red (haired and 
faced) man or 
woman's house. 

Answer opponents 

but don't tell lies. 

Before your lord 
at table, 

keep your hands, 
feet, and 

fingers still. 

Don't stare about, 
or at the wall, 

or lean against the 

Don't pick your 

J5ou schalt enquere be curtasye 
296 In what par[t] of e bedde he wylle lye ; 
Be honest and lye Jjou fer hym fro, 
Jpou art not wyse but J>ou do so. 
*[ With woso men, bojje fer and negh, 
300 The falle to go, loke J>ou be slegh 

To aske his nome, and qweche he be, 
Whidur he wille : kepe welle J>es thre. 
^[ With freres on pilgrimage yf ]pat ]>oii go, 
304 ])at J?ei wille 3yme, 1 wilne j>ou also ; 
Als on ny^t J>ou take J?y rest, 
And byde J>e day as tru marines gest. 
^| In no kyn house ]>at rede mon is, 
308 Ne womoft of ]?o same colour y-wys, 
Take neuer ]>y Innes for no kyn nede, 
For J>ose be folke ]>at ar to drede. 
Tf Yf any thurgh sturnes )>e oppose, 
312 Onswere hym mekely and make hym glose : 
But glosand wordys J?at falsed is, 
Forsake, and alle that is omys. 
^[ Also yf Jjou haue a lorde, 
316 And stondes by-fore hym at J?e horde, 

While ]>at J>ou speke, kepe welle ]?y honde, 
Thy fete also in pece let stonde, 
^[ His curtase nede he most breke, 
320 Stirraunt fyngurs toos whe?i he shalle speke. 
Be stabulle of chere and sumwhat Iy3t, 
Ne oner alle wayue J)ou not thy sy3t ; 
^[ Gase not on walles with ]?y neghe 2 , 
324 Fyr ne negh, logh ne heghe ; 
Let not J>e post be-cum Jjy staf, 
Lest Jjou be callet a dotet daf ; 
Ne delf )?ou neuer nose thyrle 
328 With thombe ne fyngur, aa 3ong gyrle ; 

1 AS. gyman, attend, regard, observe, keep. 

2 thine eye 



Tf Rob not |>y arme ne no3t hit claw, 

]STe bogh not douw ]>y hede to law ; 

Whil any man spekes with grete besenes, 
332 Herken his wordis witft-oateft distresse. 
^[ By strete or way yf j)0u schalle go, 

Fro J>es two ]>ynges )>0u kepe ]>e fro, 

NoJ?er to harme chylde ne best, 
336 With castyng, turnyng west ne est; 

Ne chaunge Jwu not in face coloure, 

For lyghtnes of worde in halle ne boure ; 

Yf jjy vysage chaunge for no^t, 
340 Men say * )>e trespas J>ou hase wrought.' 
^[ By-fore Jjy lorde, ne mawes J?ou make 

3if Jjou wylle curtasie with J?e take. 

With hondes vnwasshen take neuer ]?y mete 
344 Fro alle J?es vices loke ]>ou ]?e kepe. 
^[ Loke jjou sytt and make no stryf 

Where jjo est 1 commauwdys, or ellis Jjo wyf. 

Eschewe )>e he3est place with wyn, 2 
348 But ]>0u be beden to sitt jjer-in. 

Of curtasie here endis ]?e secunde fyt, 

To heuen crist mot oure saules flyt ! 

scratch your arm, 
or stoop your 

Listen when 
you're spoken to. 

Never harm child 
or beast with evil 
eye (?) 

Don't blush when 
you're chaffed, 

or you'll be 
accused of 

Don't make faces. 

Wash before 

Sit wLere the host 

[Fol. 18.] 
tells you ; avoid 
the highest place 
unless you're told 
to take it. 



IT De officiariis in curiis dominoTum. o/tke officers in 

Lords' Courts. 

Ow speke we wylle of officiers 
Of court, and als of hor mestiers. 
Foure mew \er ben J?at ^erdis schalle Four bear rods ; 

, three wands : 



1. Porter, the 

Porter, marshalle, stuarde, vsshere ; 
The porter schalle haue ]>e lengest wande, 
356 The marshalle a schorter schalle haue in hande ; 2 - Marshal, 

1 Read ost 

2 AS. win, contention, labour, war ; win, wyn, joy, pleasure. 



8. Usher, the 


4. Steward, a staff, 

a finger thick, half 

a yard long. 

Of the Porter. 

He keeps the Gate 
and Stocks, 

takes charge of 

till judged, 
also of clothes, 

and warns 


He is found in 
meat and drink. 

On his lord's 

he hires horses at 
4d. a piece, 

the statute price. 

Of the Marshal 
of the Hall 

The vssher of chamber smallest schalle haue, 
The stuarde in honde schalle haue a stafe, 
A fyngur gret, two wharters long, 
360 To reule fe men of court ymong. 

T De lanitore. 1 

^[ The porter falle to kepe J>o 3ate, 
j?e stokkes with hym erly and late ; 
3if any man hase in court mys-gayne, 

364 To porter warde he schalle be tane, 
])er to a-byde J?e lordes wylle, 
What he wille deme by ry^twys skylle. 
For wesselle clothes, fat no$t be solde, 

368 ))e po[r]ter hase ]>at warde in holde. 
Of strangers also ]>ai comen to court, 
})o porter schalle warne ser at a worde. 
Lyueray he hase of mete and drynke, 

372 And setti's with hym who so hym thynke. 
When so euer J>o lorde remewe schalle 
To castelle til ofer as hit may falle, 
For cariage Jje porter hors schalle hyre, 

376 Foure pens a pece with-m j)o schyre ; 
Be statut he schalle take Jat on J>e day, 
])ai is J?e kyng/s crye in faye. 

^[ De Marescallo aule.' 2 

^[ Now of marschalle of halle wylle I spelle, 3 
380 And what falle to hys offyce now wylle y telle ; 

1 See the duties of Prince Edward's Porters, A.D. 1474, in 
Household Ordinances, p. *30, and of Henry VIII. 's Porters, ibid. 
p. 239. 

2 Though Edward IV. had Marshals (Household Ordinances, p. 
84, &c.), one of whom made the Surnape when the King was in the 
Hall (p. 32), or Estate in the Surnape (p. 38), yet there is no 
separate heading or allowance for them in the Liber Niger. Two 
yeomen Ushers are mentioned in p. 38, hut the two yeomen Ewars, 
their two Grooms and Page, p. 84, perform (nearly) the duties 
given above to the Usher and his Grooms. 

3 MS. spekle. 


In absence of stuarde lie shalle arest He simii arrest 

Who so euer is rebelle in court or fest ; 

3omo7z-vsshere, and grome also, Yeoman- usher 

aiul Groom are 

384 Vndur hym ar f es two : under him - 

})o gronie for fuelle fat schalle brenne The Grc^m gets 

In halle, chambur, to kechyn, as I f e kcnne, 

He shalle delyuer hit ilke a dele, 
388 In halle make fyre at yche a mele and makes one in 

Borde, trestuls, and formes also, mLi ; l * 

DQ cupborde in his warde schalle go, 

J?e dosurs cortines to henge in halle. 
392 J)es offices nede do he schalle ; th * Hail. 

Bryng in fyre on alhalawgh dav, *l!' ea . las ^ { l? m 

Allsamts Day to 

To condulrnas euen, I dar welle say. candlemas Eve, 

(Nov..l to Feb. 2.) 

^f Per Quantum tempus armigeri habebunt libe/-ata??i et Howi^~squires 

j -L. -i. 7 shall have allow- 

igms ardebit m a?^a. anee ,, and Ft 

_. . shall burn in the 

bo longe squiers lyueres shalle hale, 1 Hail, 

396 Of grome of halle, or ellis his knafe : and thus long, 

Squires receive 

But fyre shalle brenne in halle at mete, their daily candle ^ 

T n j ' t. i, (see K a<59 ') 

lo Cena aomim fat me/i hase ete ; 

\)er brow^t schalle be a holyn kene, [Foi. 19.] 

400 \)ai sett schalle be in erber grene, 

And fat schalle be to alhalawgh day, 

And of be skyfted, as y f e say. 

In halle marshalle alle men schalle sett The Marshal 

404 After here degre, wWwmtew lett. 2 

1 Edward IV.'s Esquiers for the Body, Till, had 'for wyuter 
lyverey from All Hallowentide (Nov. 1) tyll Estyr, one percher 
wax, one candell wax, ij candells Paris, one tall wood and dimjtf- 
iuw, and wages in the countyng-house.' H. Ord. p. 36. So the 
Bannerettes, II II, or Bacheler Knights (p. 32), who are kervers 
and cupberers, take ' for wynter season, from Allhallowentyde till 
Estyr, one tortays, one percher, ii candelles wax, ii candelles Paris, 
ii talwood, ii faggotts,' and rushes, litter, all the year ; which the 
Esquiers have too. The Percy household allowance of Wax was 
cciiij score vij Ib. dimid. of Wax for th' expensys of my House for 
oone hole Yere. Viz. Sysez, Pryketts, Quarions, and Torches after 
ix d. the Ib. by estimacion ; p. 12. 

2 The Liber Niger of Edw. IV. assigns this duty to one of the 
Gentylmen Usshers. H. Ord. p. 37. 

men iB 



Of the Butler, 
Panter, and Cooks 
serving him. 
They are the 
He shall score up 
all messes served, 
and order bread 
and ale for men, 

but wine for 

Each mess shall 
be reckoned at Cd. 

and be scored up 
to prevent the 
cook's cheating. 

If bread runs 
short, the Marshal 
orders more, ' a 

Of the Butlers 

He shall put a 
pot and loaf to 
each mess. 

He is the punter's 

The Marshal shall 
see to men's 
The Lord's 
Chamber and 
Wardrobe are 
under the Usher 
of the Chamber. 

Of the Usher and 
Grooms of the 

1. Usher, 

fl" De pincernario, panetario, et cocis sibi seruientibus. 
^} The botelar, pantrer, and cokes also, 
To hym ar semauntfs witfi-outen mo ; 
per-fore on his ^erde skore shalle he 2 

408 Alle messys in halle fat se?*uet be, 

Coramaunde to sett bothe brede and ale 
To alle men fat seruet ben in sale ; 
*|f To gentilmera with wyne I-bake, 

412 Ellis fayles fo seraice, y vnder-take ; 
Iche messe at vj d breue shalle he 
At the countyng house with of er mene ; 
Yf f o koke wolde say fat were more, 

416 pat is fo cause fat he hase hit in skore. 
))Q panter 1 also yf he wolde stryfe, 
For rewarde fat sett schalle be be-lyue. 
When brede faylys at borde aboute, 

420 The marshalle gares sett with-outen doute 
More brede, fat calde is a rewarde, 
So shalle hit be preuet be-fore stuarde. 

^f De officio pincernarij.' 2 

^f Botler shalle sett for yche a messe 
424 A pot, a lofe, with-onten distresse ; 
Botler, pantrer, felawes ar ay, 
Reken horn to-gedur fulle wel y may. 
The marshalle shalle herber alle men in fere, 
428 That ben of court of any mestere ; 

Saue f e lordys chamb?4r, f o wadrop to, 
po vssher of chamber schalle tent f o two. 

Tf De hostiario et suis seruientilws. 3 

Tf Speke I wylle A lytulle qwyle 
432 Of vssher of chambur, w/t/i-oute?* gyle. 

1 See the Office of Panetry, H. Ord. p. 70. 

2 See the Office of Butler of Englond, H. Ord. p. 73. 

3 See Gentylmen Usshers of Chaumhre, IIII, H. Ord. p. 37. 
* This name ussher is a worde of Frenshe,' p. 38. 



])er is gentylmen, ^omow-vssher also, 
Two gromes at J>o lest, A page J?er-to. 

1f De Offic/o garcwnum. 1 
If Gromes palettw shyn fyle and make liters, 2 

436 ix fote on lengthe wM-out diswere ; 
vij fote y-wys hit shalle be brode, 
"Wele watered, I-wrythen, be craft y-trode, 
"Wyspes drawen out at fete and syde, 

440 Wele wrethyn and twrnyd a-^ayne fat tyde ; 
On legh vnsonken hit shalle be made, 
To bo gurdylstode hegh on lengthe and brade. 
For lordys two beddys schalle be made, 

444 Bothe vtter and inner, so god me glade, 
J)at henget shalle be with hole sylowr, 3 
With crochete 4 and loupys sett on lyour ; 5 
^[ ])o valance on fylour G shalle henge with wyn, 

448 iij curteyns street drawen wM-inne, 

\)ai reche schalle euen to grounde a-boute, 
Nober more, nobe?' lesse, with-oiiten doute ; 
He strykes horn vp with forket wande, 

452 And lappes vp fast a-boute be lyft hande ; 

' Compare H. Ord. p. 39. ' Yeomen of Cliambre, IIII, to make 
beddes, to bere or hold torches, to sette bourdes, to apparayle all 
chaurabres, and suche other servyce as the chaumberlayn, or 
usshers of chambre command or assigne.' Liber Niger Edw. IV. 
See also H. Ord. p. 40, Office of Warderobe of Beddes, p. 41, 
Gromes of Chambyr, X ; and the elaborate directions for making 
Henry VII.'s bed, H. Ord. p. 121-2. 

2 Hoc stramentum, lyttere, (the straw with which the bed was 
formerly made) p. 260, col. 2, Wright's Vocabularies. 

3 Sylure, of valle, or a nother thynge (sylure of a walle), Cela- 
tura, Celamen, Catholicon, in P. Parv. Fr. del, Heauen, pi. dels, 
a canopie for, and, the Testerne and Valances of a Bed. Cotgrave. 
A tester over the beadde, canopus, Withals. 

4 Crochet, a small hooke. 

5 Lyowre, to bynde wythe precyows clothys. Ligatorium. P. 

6 Fylowre, of harbours crafte, Acutecula, filariwn. P. Parv. 
See note 3, p. 160. 

2. Yeoman-usher, 

8. Two grooms 
and a Page. 

The Duties of the 
Grooms of the 
They shall make 
palets of litter 9 
ft. long, 7 broad, 

watered, twisted, 
trodden, with 
wisps at foot 
and side, 
twisted and 
turned back ; from 
the floor-level to 
the waist. 

For lords, 2 beds, 
outer and inner, 

hung with 
hooks and eyes 
set on the binding; 
the valance hang- 
ing on a rod (?) , 
four curtains 
reaching to the 
ground ; 

these he takes up 
with a forked rod. 



[Fol. 20.] 

The counterpane 
is laid at the foot, 
cushions on the 

tapestry on the 

and sides of the 

The Groom gets 
fuel, and screens. 

The Groom keeps 
the table, trestles, 
and forms for 
dinner ; 

and water in a 

He puts 3 wax- 
over the chimney, 

all in different 

The Usher of the 
Cliamber walks 
about and sees 
that all is served 

orders the table 
to be set and 

])Q knop vp turnes, and closes on ry^t, 
^[ As bolde by nek bat henges fulle ly^t. 
])o countw/'pynt he lays on beddys fete, 

456 Qwysshenes on sydes shyn lye fulle mete. 
Tapetzs l of spayne on flore by syde, 
])ai sprad shyn be for pompe and pryde ; 
\)Q chambur sydes ry^t to j?o dore, 

460 He henges with tapet/s bat ben fulle store ; 
And fuel to chymne hyra falle to gete, 
And serenes in clof to y-saue J>o hete. 
Fro ]jo lorde at mete when he is sett, 

464 Borde, trestuls, and fourmes, wM-outew let ; 
If Alle thes bynges kepe schalle he, 
And water in chafer for laydyes fre ; 
iij perchers of wax ben shalle he fet, 

468 A-boue bo chymne bat be sett, 

In syce 2 ichon from ober shalle be 
)}e lenghthe of ober bat mew may se, 
To brenne, to voide, fat dronkyn is, 

472 Ober ellis I wote he dose Amys. 

])o vssher alle-way shalle sitt at dore 
At mete, and walke schalle on be flore, 
To se bat alle be seruet on ry3t, 

476 J)at is his office be day and ny$t ; 

And byd set borde when tyme schalle be, 
And take horn vp when tyme ses he. 

1 Tapet, a clothe, tappis. Palsgrave, 1530. Tapis, Tapistrie, 
hangings, &c., of Arras. Cotgrave, 1611. Tapis, carpet, a green 
square-plot. Miege, 1684. The hangynges of a house or chambre, 
in plurali, aulwa . . Circundo cubiculum aulceis, to hange the 
chambre. The carpettes, tapetes. Withals. 

2 And he (a Grome of Chambyr) setteth iiyghtly, after the 
seasons of the yere, torchys, tortays, candylles of wax, mortars ; and 
he setteth up the sises in the King's chambre, H. Ord. p. 41, 
' these torches, five, seven, or nine ; and as many sises sett upp as 
there bee torches,' ib. p. 114 ; and dayly iiii other of these gromes, 
called wayters, to make fyres, to sett up tressyls and bourdes, with 
yomen of chambre, and to help dresse the beddes of sylke and 
arras. H, Ord. p. 41. 


^f The wardrop l he herbers and eke of chamber 

480 Ladyes vrith bedys of coralle and lambw?*, 
\)o vsshere schalle bydde bo wardropere 
Make redy for alle ny^t be-fore be fere ; 
)?en bryngis he forthe ny^t goun also, 

484 And spredys a tapet and qwysshens two, 
He layes horn ben opon a fourme, 
And foteshete ber-on and hit returne. 
^[ ])o lorde schalle skyft hys gown at nyjt, 

488 Syttand on foteshete tyl he be dy$t. 
)}en vssher gose to bo botre, 
" Haue in for alle nyjt, syr," says he ; 
Fyrst to be chaundeler he schalle go, 

492 To take a tortes lyjt hym fro ; 

H" Bothe wyne and ale he tase indede, 
]3o botler says, wzt^-outen drede, 
No mete for mon schalle sayed 2 be, 

496 Bot for kynge or prynce or duke so fre ; 
For heiers of paraunce also y-wys, 
Mete shalle be sayed, now thenk} r s on this. 
J?en to pantre he hy^es be-lyue, 

500 ^[" Syrs, haue in with-ouien stryffe ; " 

Manchet and chet 3 bred he shalle take, 
J5o pantere assayes bat h?'t be bake ; 
A morter of wax $et wille he bryng, 

504 Fro chambwr, syr, wM-out lesyng ; 
])at alle ny^t brennes in bassyn clere, 
To saue bo chambwr on ny^t for fyre. 
^[ jpen ^omora of chambur shynne voyde w?'tA rynie, 

508 The torches han holden wele bat tyme ; 

Tho chamber dore stekes bo vssher thenne, 
preket and tortes bat conne brenne ; 


takes charge of 
the Wardrohe and 
bids the Ward- 
roper get all 
ready before the 

carpet, 2 cushions, 
a form with a 

footsheet over it ; 
on which the lord 
changes his gown. 

The Usher orders 
what's wanted 
from the Buttery : 

a link from the 

and ale and wine. 

(No meat shall be 
assayed except 
for King, Prince, 
Duke or Heirs- 

From the Pantry 
the Usher takes 
fine and coarse 

and a wax-light 

that burns alV 
night in a basin. 

(The Yeoman- 
Usher removes 
the torches.) 

The Usher puts 
lights on the Bed- 
room door, 

1 "Wardroppe, or closet garderobe. Palsgrave. 

2 See the duties of Edward IV.'s Sewar, H. Ord. p. 36. 

3 Manchet was the fine bread ; chet, the coarse. Fr. pain 
rouffet, Cheat, or boulted bread ; houshold bread made of Wheat 
and Hie mingled. Cotgrave. 



brings bread and 

[Fol. 21.] 

(tbe lord washing 

offers the drink 
kneeling; puts 
his lord to bed, 



and then goes 
home himself' 
The Yeoman- 
Usher sleeps at 
the Lord's door. 520 

Fro cupborde he brynges bothe brede and wyne, 

And fyrst assayes hit wele a[nd] fyne. 

But fyrst ]?e lorde shalle vasshe I-wys, 

Fro bo fyr hous when he corner is ; 

jpen kneles be vssher and gyfes hym drynke, 

Brynges hym in bed where he shalle wynke ; 

In strong styd on palet he lay, 

At home tase lefe and gose his way ; 

3omo?i vssher be-fore be dore, 

In vttur chamber lies on be flore. 

Oftlie Steioard. 

Few are true, 
but many false. 
He, the clerk, 
cook and surveyor 

consult over their 
Lord's dinner. 

Any dainty that 
can be had, the 
Steward buys. 

Before dishes are 
put on, the 
Steward enters 
first, then the 

The Steward shall 
post into books all 
accounts written 
on tablets, 





and add them up. 540 

Jf De seneschallo. 1 

Now speke I wylle of bo stuarde als, 

Few ar trew, but fele ar 2 fals. 

))o clerke of kechyn, countrolkmr, 

Stuarde, coke, and surueyour, 

Assented in counselle, m't/i-outew skorne, 

How bo lorde schalle fare at mete bo morne. 

Yf any deyntethe in countre be, 

j?o stuarde schewes hit to bo lorde so fre, 

And gares by hyt for any cost, 

Hit were grete syn and hit were lost. 

Byfore J?e cours bo stuarde comes ben, 

J)e seruer hit next of alle kyn mew 

Mays way and stondes by syde, 

Tyl alle be serued at bat tyde. 

At countyng stuarde schalle ben, 

Tylle alle be breuet of wax so grene, 

Wrytten in-to bokes, with-out let, 

fiat be-fore in tabuls hase ben sett, 

Tyl countes also ber-on ben cast, 

And somet vp holy at bo last. 

1 See the Styward of Housholde/ H. Ord. p. 55'6 : ' He is head 
officer.' 2 MS. awl 



Tf De COntrOTOtulatore. 1 Of the Controller. 

^[ The Countrollowr shalle wryte to hym, He puts down the 

Taunt resceu, no more I myn ; 
And taunt dispendu bat same day, 
544 Vncountabulle he is, as y 3011 say. 

T De superuisore. 2 
^f Surueour and stuarde also, 
Thes thre folke and no mo, 
For no$t resayuew bot euer sene 
548 fiat nojjyng fayle and alle be whene ; 

pat bo clerke of kechyn schulde not mys, 
fter-fore bo countrollowr, as hafe I blys, 
Wrytes vp bo somme as euery day, 
552 And helpes to count, as I $ou say. 

^[ De Clerico coquine. 3 
H The clerke of be cochyn shalle alle byng breue, 

Of men of court, bothe lothe and leue, 

Of achatis and dispenses j>en wrytes he, 
55 G And wages for gromes and ^emew fre ; 

At dressow also he shalle stonde, 

And fett forthe mete dresset with honde ; 

J}e spicery and store with hym shalle dwelle, 
5 GO And mony thynges als, as I no^t telle, 

For clethyng of officers alle in fere, 

Saue J>e lorde hym self and ladys dere. 

^[ De cancellario. 4 

^f The chaunceler answeres for hor clothyng, 
564 For ^ome?*, faukeners, and hor horsyng, 

1 See the " Countroller of this houshold royall,' H. Ord. p. 58-9. 
3 See the duties and allowances of A Surveyour for the Kyng, in 
Household Ordinances, p. 37. 

3 See the < chyef clerke of kychyn,' t. Edw. IV., H. Ord. p. 70 ; 
and Henry VIII.'s Clerke of the Kitchen, A.D. 1539, ib. p. 235. 

4 The duties of the Chauncellor of Englond are not stated in Edw. 
IV.'s Liber Niger, H. Ord. p. 29 ; but one of the two Clerkys of 
Grene- Clothe was accustomed to ' delyver the clothinge of hous- 
holde,' p. 61. 

receipt and con- 
sumption of every 

Of the Surveyor. 

He, the steward, 
and controller, re- 
ceive nothing, but 
see that all goes 

The Controller 
checks daily the 
Clerk of the 
kitchen's account. 

Of the Clerk of the 

He shall keep ac- 
count of all 

purchases, and 
payments, and 

shall preside at 
the Dresser, 

and keep the 
spices, stores, &c., 

and the clothes of 
the officers. 

Of the Chancellor. 

He looks after the 
servants' clothes, 
and horses, 



[Fol. 22.] 
seals patents, 
and grants of 
land, &c., for life, 
or during the 
lord's pleasure. 

He oversees the 
land too, and is a 
great man. 

Of the Treasurer. 

He takes from the 
Receiver what is 
collected from 
bailiff and grieve, 
courts and 

He gives the 
Kitchen clerk 
money to buy 
provisions with, 
and the clerk 
gives some to the 
baker and butler. 

The Treasurer 
pays all wages. 

He, the Receiver, 
Grieves, Ac., 

account, once a 
year to the 

from whom they 
can appeal to a 
Baron of the Ex- 

For his wardrop and wages also ; 

And asseles patently mony and mo ; 

Yf f o lorde gyf o$t to terme of lyf, 
5C8 The chaunceler hit seles with-ou.ten stryf ; 

Tan come nos plerra mew seyne, fa* is qu&ndo 
nobis placet, 

fiat is, whille vs lykes hym no^t omys ; 

Ouer-se hys londes fat alle be ry^t : 
572 On of f o grete he is of my^t. 

^[ De thesaurizario. 1 
^[ Now speke y wylle of tresurere, 

Husbonde and houswyf he is in fere ; 

Of f e resayuer he shalle resayue, 
576 Alle fat is gedurt of bayle and grayue, 2 

Of f e lordes courtes and forfetis als, 

Whef er fay ben ry^t or fay ben fals. 

To f o clerke of cochen he payes mone 
580 For vetayle to bye opon f o countre : 

The clerke to kater and pulter is, 

To baker and butler bothe y-wys 

Gyffys seluer to bye in alle thyng 
584 fiat longes to here office, vfith-outen lesyng. 

fie tresurer schalle gyfe alkyn wag^., 

To squyer, 30010^, grome, or page. 

fio resayuer and f o tresurer, 
588 fio clerke of cochyn and chaunceler, 

Grayuis, and baylys, and parker, 

Schone come to acountes euery 301*6 

By-fore f o auditowr of f o lorde onone, 
592 fiat schulde be trew as any stone ; 

Yf he dose horn no ry3t lele, 

To A baron of chekker fay mun hit pele. 

1 See the < Thesaurere of Housholde ' in Edw. IV.'s Liber Niger, 
H. Ord. p. 56-8 : * the grete charge of polycy and husbandry of 
all this houshold growyth and stondyth moste part by hys sad and 
dylygent pourveyaunce and conduytes.' 

2 .AS. gerefa, reeve, steward, bailiff. * MS. \>er 


^T De receptore firmarwra. f the Receiver of 


^f Of ])e resayuer speke wylle I, 
596 ftat fermys 1 resayuys wyttwrly 

Of grayuys, and horn aquetons makes, He gives receipts, 

Sex pons Jjer-fore to feys lie takes, and gets a fee of 

And pays feys to parkers als I-wys, He pays fees to 

park-keepers, and 

600 ))er-of at acountes he loued 2 is, looks after castles 

_ and raanor- 

And ouer-seys castels, maners a-boute, houses. 

])ai no3t falle with-in ne wit/i-oute. 
Now let we fes officers be, 
604 And telle we wylle of smaller mene. 

If De Auenario. 3 S the Avener - 

IT be Aueyner schalle ordeyn prouande 4 good won, He shall give the 

horses in the 

For J>o lordys horsis euerychon stable 

)y schyn haue two cast' of hay, SSf^of 

608 A pek of prouande on a day ; oats, daily. 
Euery horse schalle so muche haue, 
At racke and manger fat standes with staue. 

A maystwr of horsys a squyer 6 J>er is, Ma^o/Ihe 

612 Aueyner and ferowr vnd?<r hym I-wys ; Horse ; under 

him are Avener 

))ose 3ome?* J?at olde sadels schyn haue, and Farrier, 

])ai schyn be last for kny3t and knaue, 

For yche a hors bat ferroure 7 schalle scho, < the Farrier has 

a halfpenny a day 

616 An halpeny on day he takes hym to ; for every horse ho 

1 Rents, in kind or money ; AS. feorme, food, goods. 

2 Or loned. 

3 The Avener of Edw. IV. is mentioned in H. Ord. p. 69. See 
the Charge of Henry VIII.'s Stable, A.D. 1526, ib. p. 206-7. 

4 Prouender or menglid corne fovrraige . . provende. Palsgrave. 

5 See ' two cast of brede,' 1. 631. ' One caste of brede' for the 
Steward's yeoman, H. Ord. p. 56, &c. 

6 Mayster of the horses escvier de escvirie. Palsg. 

7 See Rogers's Agriculture and Prices in England, v. 1, p. 280- 1. 
The latest prices he gives for shoeing are in 1400 ; " Alton Barnes, 
Shoeing 5 horses, a year, 6s. 8d. Takley, Shoeing 2 cart horses 
[a year] Is. 8d." A.D. 1466, fore shoyinge ij.d.' Manners and 
Household Expenses (ed. Dawson Turner), 1841, p. 380. (Sir Jn. 
Howard, Knt., 1462-9.) The Percy allowance in 1512 was " ij s 



and grooms and 
pages hired 

at 2d. a day, 
or 3 halfpence, 
[Fol. 2R.] 

and footmen who 
run by ladies' 

Of the Baker. 

Out ofa London 
bushel he shall 
bake 20 loaves, 
One and coarse. 

Vndwr ben gromes and pages moiiy one, 
))at ben at wage eue?-ychone ; 
Som at two pons on a day, 
620 And som at iij ob., I 3011 say; 
Mony of hem fote-me?i J>er ben, 
))rtt renne?& by J>e brydels of ladys sliene. 

^[ De pistore. 1 

^f Of J?o baker now speke y wylle, 
624' And wat longes his office vntylle ; 
Of a lunden buschelle he shalle bake 
xx louys, I vndur-take ; 
Manchet and chet to make brom 2 bred hard, 
628 For chaimdeler and grehoundes and himtes 

Of the Huntsman 
and his Hounds. 

He gets a half- 
penny a day for 
every hound. 

lots of bread if he 
lias 2 leash of 
Greyhounds, and 
a bone for each, 

besides perquisites 
of skins, &c. 


T[ De venatore et suis canibws. 

A halpeny fo hunte takes on J>e day 
For euery hounde, )>o sothe to say : 
])o vewter, two cast of brede he tase, 
Two lesshe of grehoundes yf pat he hase ; 
To yche a bone, pat is to telle, 
If I to 3011 be sothe shalle spelle ; 
By-syde hys vantage fat may be-falle, 
Of skynnes and obe?- thynges w/t/i-alle, 
)3at hunteres con telle better fan I, 
)?er-fore I leue hzt 

viiij d. every Hors Shoynge for the hole Yere by estimacion, Viz. a 
Hors to be shodd oons in iij moneths withowt they jornay." p. 24. 
A horse's daily allowance was 'a Peck of Oats, or 4d. in Braide 
after iiij Loiffcs, 4d. for Provaunder, from 29th Septr. 8 Hen. VIII. 
to 3rd May following,' p. 266. 

1 See Edw. IV.'s Office of Bakehouse, H. Ord. p. 68-70. * The 
sergeaunt of thys office to make continually of every busshell, halfc 
chiete halfe rounde, besydes the flowre for the Kinges mouthe, xxvii 
loves, every one weying, after one daye olde, xxiii ounces of troye 
weyghtes.' p. 69. 

2 Read broun, brown. 


^ De aquario. 1 

And speke I wylle of ober mystere 

])at falles to court, as 30 imm here ; 

An euwere in halle bere nedys to be, 

And chandelew schalle haue and alle napere ; 

He schalle gef water to gentilmerc, 

And als in alle 



^[ Qui decent manus lauare et in quorum domibu*. 

*,[ In kynges court and dukes also, 
fier ^omew schynne wasshe and no mo ; 
In duke lonys house a ^oma?z ber was, 

648 For his rewarde prayde suche a grace ; 
])Q duke gete graunt ber-of in londe, 
Of be kyng his fader, I vndudurstonde. (so) 
Wosoeuer gefes water in lordys chaunber, 

652 In presens of lorde or leuede dere, 

He schalle knele downe opon his kne, 

Ellys he for^etes his curtase ; 

Jpis euwer schalle hele his lordes borde, 

656 With dowbulle napere at on bare worde : 
The seluage to J?o lordes syde with-inne, 
And doun schalle heng ]>ai o]ier may wynne ; 
])o ouer nape schalle dowbulle be layde, 

660 To ]>o vttur syde j>e seluage brade ; 
J)o ouer seluage he schalle reply e, 2 
As towelle lut were fayrest in hye ; 
Browers 3 he schalle cast ]>er-opon, 

664 ]3at )>e lorde schulle dense his fyngers [on], 
}?e leuedy and whoseuer syttes Wit/i-inne, 
Alle browers schynne haue bothe more and myn. 

1 In Edward the Fourth's Court, < Knyghts of Household, XII, 
bachelers sufficiant, and most valient men of that ordre of every 
countrey' had ' to serve the King of his bason.' H. Ord. p. 33. 

2 Re^ilier, To redouble, to bow, fould, or plait into many 
doublings. Cotgrave. 

3 Napkins ? 0. Fr. brueroi is bniytrc, heath. 


Of the Ewerer or 

He has all the 
candles and cloths 

and gives water to 
every one. 

Who may wash 
his hands, and 

The bringer of 

shall kneel down. 

The Ewerer shall 
cover the lord's 
table with a 
double cloth, the 
lower with the 
selvage to the 
lord's side ; the 
upper cloth shall 
be laid double, 

the upper selvage 
turned back as if 
lor a towel. 

He shall put on 
cleaners for 
every one. 




He carries 8 
loaves cut square 
for trenchers, 

and the covered 
[Fol. 24.] 

2 Carving-knives, 
and sets the 3rd, 
and a spoon to his 

Of the Lord: s 
Knives, (Bread, 
and Washing.) 
The hafts of 2 are 
laid outwards, 
that of the 3rd 
inwards, and the 
steel spoon by it. 
More trencher 
loaves are set, and 
wine served to the 

2 Trencher-loaves, 
and salt, to the 
lord's son ; and 1 
loaf and saltcellar 
set at the end of 
the table. 

Then 3 loaves of 
white bread are 
brought, and 1 
coarse loaf is put 
in the Alms-dish. 

To assay bread, 
the Panter kneels, 
the Carver cuts 
him a slice, 

and he eats it. 

The Ewerer 
strains water into 
his basins, 
on the upper one 
of which is a towel 









^f De panetario. 

Jjenne comes fe pantere with loues tlire, 
)?at square are coruyn of trenchowr fre, 
To sett wi't/i-inne and oon wit/i-oute, 
And sailer y-coueryd and sett in route ; 
With jjo ouemast lofe h/t shalle be sett, 
Wzt7i-oute forthe square, w/t/i-outew lett ; 
Two keruyng knyfes wi t7i-oute one, 
J)e thrydde to J>o lorde, and als a spone. 

Tf De Cultellis domml 
Of J?o two ]>o haftes schynne outwarde be, 

Of f>e thrydd J>e liafte inwarde lays he, 

J)Q spony stele \er by schalle be layde ; 

Moo loues of trenchirres at a brayde 

He settes, and seruys euyr in fere 

To duches his wyne fat is so dere. 

Two loues of trenchers and salt J>o, 

He settes be-fore his son also ; 

A lofe of trenchowrs and salt on last, 

At bordes ende he settes in hast. 

j)en brede he brynges, in towelle wrythyn, 

Thre lofys of ]>o wyte schalle be geuyn ; 

A chet lofe to ]?o elmys dyshe, 

We]?er he seruyd be with flesshe or fysche ; 

At afer ende he castes a cope, 

Layde down on borde, J?e endys plyed vp. 

That he assayes knelande on kne, 

])Q keruer hym parys a schyuer so fre ; 

And touches ]>o louys yn quere a-boute, 

jpo pantere hit etys wz'tA-oute dowte ; 

)?o euwere thurgh towelle syles l cleno 

His water into J?o bassynges shene ; 

\)o oner bassyn J?er-on schalle close, 

A towelle ]>er-on, as I suppose, 

1 ? Du. zijgen (door een zifte ofte Stramijn], to runne (through a 
Sift or a Strainer.), een Suyle a Pale or a "Water-pale. Hexham. 


fiat folden schalle be with fulle grete lore, folded dodgiiy. 

700 Two quarters on lenkethe and suradele more ; 

A qwyte cuppe of tre f er-by shalle be, 

fier-with f o water assay schalle he ; 

Quelmes ( agayn by-fore alle merc ; 
704 })o keruer f e bassynges tase vp f enne ; 

Annaunciande sqwier, or ellis a kny^t, 

])o towelle down tase by fulle good ry^t ; 

])o cuppe he tase in honde also, 
708 ))o keruer powres wat[er] f e cuppe into ; 

The kny^t to f o keruer haldes anon, 

He says hit ar he more schalle don ; 

])o cuppe fen voyde is in f o flette, 2 
712 J)e euwer hit takes w/t/i-outera lette. 

The towelle two kny^htts schyn halde in fere, 

Be-fore f e lordes sleues, fat ben so dere ; 

The ouer bassyn fay halde neuer f e queder, 
716 Quylle fo keruer powre water in-to fe nedwr. 

For a pype fer is insyde so clene, 

fiat water deuoydes, of seiner schene ; 

j^en settes he f e nethyr, I vnd[u]rstonde, 
720 In f e ouer, and voydes with bothe is honde ; 

And brynges to f e euwer f er he come fro ; 

To f o lordys hordes a^ayn con go ; 

And layes iiij trencho?rs fo lorde be-fore, 
724 J5e fyft aboue by good lore ; 

By hym self ,thre schalle he dresse, 

To cut opon f e lordes messe ; 

Smale towelle a-boute his necke shalle bene, 
728 To clens his knyfys fat ben so kene. 

^[ De Elemosinario. 3 

^f The aumenere by f is hathe sayde grace, 
And f o alines dysshe hase sett in place ; 

1 covers. ' Ovyr quelmyd or ouer hyllyde. Obvotutus.' P. 
Parv. - A.S.Jlett, room, hall. 

3 See The Almonry of Henry VIII. A.D. 1526, H. Ord. p. 154, 
and p. 144; A.D. 1539, H, Ord. p. 239. 

Then the water 
is assayed in a 
cup of white wood. 

The Carver takes 
up the basins ; a 
knight takes down 
the towel, and 
wipes the cup, into 
which the Carver 
pours water; the 

knight hands it to 
him ; he assays it, 
and empties the 

Two knights noid 
the towel before 
the lord's sleeves 
and hold the 
upper basin while 
the Carver pours 
water into the 
lower ; 

then he puts the 

lower into the 

upper,and empties 


takes them to the 

Ewerer, returns to 

the lord's table, 

lays 4 trenchers 

for him, with 1 


The Carver takes 

3 to cut the 

lord's messes on, 

[Fol. 25.] 
and has a cloth 
round his neck to 
wipe his knives 

Of the Almoner. 

He says grace, 
sets down the 
Alms-dish, and 



the Carver puts 
the first loaf in it. 

The other loaves 
he pares round, 

cuts one in two, 
and gives the 
upper half in 
halves to him. 
The Almoner has 
a staff in his 

He keeps the 
broken food and 
wine left, for poor 
men at the gate, 

and is sworn to 
give it all to them. 

He distributes 
silver as he rides. 

Of the Sewer (or 
setler-on of 

The Cook assays 
the meat before 
it's dished. 
The Sewer puts 
the cover on it, 

and the cover 
must never be 

for fear of 


(A Dodge: If the 

silver dish burns 


put bits of bread 
under it.) 

The Sewer assays 
all the food: 

])cr-\\\ j>e keruer a lofe schalle settc, 
732 To seme god fyrst with-o\\ten lette ; 

jpese o])er lofes he parys a-boute, 

Lays hit myd dysshe vrith-OMten doute. 

Jpe smalle lofe he cnttis euew in twynne, 
736 ])o oner dole in two lays to hym. 

The aumenere a rod schalle haue in honde, 

As office for almes, y vndurstonde. 

Alle J>e broken met he kepys y wate, 
740 To dele to pore men at fe 3ate. 

And drynke )?at leues semed in halle ; 

Of ryche and pore bothe grete and smalle. 

He is sworne to oue/'-se J?e semis wele, 
744 And dele hit to J>e pore euery dele ; 

Selue?* he deles rydand by way ; 

And his almys dysshe, as I 3011 say, 

To ]>e porest m&n ]>at he can fynde, 
748 Olper ellys I wot he is vnkynde. 

^[ De ferculario. 

Tf This wyle j>o squyer to kechyn shalle go, 

And brynges a bof for assay )>o ; 

])o Coke assayes fe mete vngry3t, 
752 }5o sewer he takes and koners on ry3t ; 

Wo so euer he takes J>at mete to bere, 

Schalle not so hardy J>o couertoure rere, 

For colde ne hote, I warne 3ou alle, 
756 For suspecyon of tresoun as may befallo. 

Yf j?o syluer dysshe wylle algate brenne, 

A sotelte I wylle J?e kenne, 

Take ]?e bredde coruyn and lay by-twene, 
760 And kepe J?e welle hit be not sene ; 
jf I teche hit for no curtayse, 

Eut for jjyn ese. 

When Je sewer comys vnto J?e borde, 
764 Alle fie mete he sayes at on bare worde, 



])e potage fyrst with brede y-coruyn, 

Couerys horn agayn lest fey ben stomyn ; 

With fysshe or flessh yf [they] be se?*ucd, 
768 A morselle fer-of shalle he be keruyd ; 

And touche f e messe ouer alle aboute, 

])o sewer hit etis vfith-ou.ten doute. 

With baken mete yf he seruyd be f o, 
772 ))o lydes vp-rered or he fyr go, 

})Q past or pye he sayes wit/i-inne, 

Dippes bredde in graue no more ne mynne ; 

3if f e baken mete be colde, as may byfalle, 
770 A gobet of fo self he sayes with-dlle. 

But fou fat berys mete in hande, 

Yf f o sewer stonde, loke fou stande ; 

Yf he knele, knele fou so longe for o$t, 
780 ^ Tylle mete be sayde fat fou hase broght. 

As oft at hegh borde yf brede be nede, 

The butler two louys takys indede ; 

J5at on settes down, fat of er agayn 
784 He barys to cupborde in towelle playn. 

As oft as fe kerue?- fettys drynke, 

])Q butler assayes hz't how good hym thynke ; 

In fe lordys cupp fat leuys vndrynken, 
788 Into f e almesdisshe hit schalle be sonken. 

The keruer anon vfith-outen thou3t, 

Vnkouers f e cup fat he hase brou^t ; 

Into f e couertoure wyn he powres owt, 
792 Or in-to a spare pece, with-outen doute; 

Assayes, an gefes f o lorde to drynke, 

Or settes h^t doun as hym goode thynke. 

}3o keruer ! schalle kerue f o lordes mete, 

1 Edward IV. had ' Bannerettes, IIII, or Bacbeler Knights, 
to be kervers and cupberers in his Courte.' 'The kerver at the 
boarde, after the King is passed it, may chese for hymself one dyshe 
or two, that plcntic is among. . . Theis kervers and cupberers . . 
them nedeth to be well spede in taking of degree in the schole of 
urbanytie' H. Ord. p. 32-3 

potage with a 
piece of bread ; 

fish or flesh, he 
eats a piece ; 

baked meats hot, 
he lifts up the 

and dips bread in 
the gravy ; 
baked meats cold, 
he eats a bit. 

The meat-bearer 
stands or kneels 
as the Sewer does. 

[Fol. 26.] 

When bread is 
wanted, the 
Butler puts one 
loaf on the table, 
the other on the 

The Butler assays 
all the wine. 

What is left in 
the lord's cup 
goes to the Alms- 

The Carver fills 
the empty cup, 

assays it, and 
gives it the lord 
or puts it down. 

He carves the 
lord's meat, 



and lays it on his 

putting a piece of 
every thing in the 

except any 
favourite piece or 
potage sent to a 

(To say more 
about the Carver 
would requirs 
another section, 
so I pass it over.) 

After dinner the 
Sewer brings the 
Surnape, a broad 
towel and a 
narrow, and slides 
it down. 

The Usher takes 
one end of the 
broad one, the 
Almoner the 
other, and when 
it is laid, 
he folds the 
narrow towel 
double before his 
lord and lady. 

After grace 
removes them, 

lays the table on 
the floor, and 
takes away the 

Of the Chandler. 

796 Of what kyn pece fat he wylle ete ; 

And on hys trenchour he hit layes, 

On f ys maner w/tft-out displayes ; 

In almesdysshe he layes yche dele, 

])ai he is with serued at f o mele j 

But he sende hit to ony stronger^, 

A pese fat is hym leue and dere, 

And send hys potage also, 
804 J)at schalle not to f e almes go. 

Of keruer more, yf I shulde tellc, 

Anof er fytt f enne most I spelle, 

Ther-fore I let hit here ouer passe, 
808 To make oure talkyng summedelasse. 

When f e lorde hase eten, f o sewer schalle bryng 

j)o surnape on his sclmlder bryng, 

A narew towelle, a brode be-syde, 
812 And of hys hondes he lettes hit slyde ; 

J)e vssher ledes fat on hed ry^t, 

])o aumener f o of er away shalle dy^t. 

"When f e vssher comys to pe borde ende, 
816 fto narow towelle he strecches vnkende ; 

Be-fore J?o lorde and )?e lady so dere, 

Dowbelle he playes ]>o towelle fere ; 

Whenne fay haue wasshen and grace is sayde, 
820 Away he takes at a brayde ; 

Awoydes fo borde in-to fo flore, 

Tase away fo trest/5 fat ben so store. 

^[ De candelario. 1 

^[ Now speke I wylle a lytulle whyle 
824 Of f o chandeler, viith-onien gyle, 

See the ' Office of Chaundlerye,' 1L Ord. p. 82-3. Paris 
candles, torches, morters, tortayes, sizes, and sraalle lightes, are 
mentioned there. 



J)at torches 1 and tortes 2 and preketes 3 con make, 

Perchours, 4 smale condel, I vnder-take ; 

Of wax bese candels alle bat brennerc, 
828 And morter of wax bat I wele kenne ; 

)5o snof of horn dose a-way 

With close sesours, as I jow say ; 

J2e sesours ben schort and rownde y-close, 
832 With plate of irne vp-on bose. 

In chamber no ly}t ber shalle be brent, 

Bot of wax ber-to, yf ^e take tent ; 

In halle at soper schalle caldels (so) brenne 
836 Of parys, ber-in bat alle mew kenne ; 

Iche messe a candelle fro alhalawghe day 

To candelmesse, as I 3011 say ; 

Of candel liueray squiyers schalle haue, 
840 So long, if hit is mon wille kraue. 

Of brede and ale also bo boteler 

Schalle make lyuere thurgh-out be $ere 

To squyers, and also wyn to kny^t, 
844 Or ellys he dose not his office ry^t. 

Here endys the thryd speche. 

Of alle oure synnes cryst be oure leche, 

And bryng vs to his vonyng place ! 
848 Amew, sayes 36, for hys grete grace ! 
[[ Amen, par charite. 

1 Torche. Cereus. P. Pair. 

2 ? same as tortayes, p. 192, note 2 ; p. 204, n. 

3 Pryket, of a candylstykke, or other lyke. Stiga, P. Parv. 
Candlesticks (says Mr Way) in ancient times were not fashioned 
with nozzles, but with long spikes or prykets. . . (See wood cut at 
the end of this hook.) In the Memoriale of Henry, prior of 
Canterbury, A.D. 1285, the term prikett denotes, not the candlestick, 
but the candle, formed with a corresponding cavity at one end, 
whereby it was securely fixed upon the spike, p. 413, n. 1. Henry 
VIII.'s allowance ' unto our right dere and welbilovede the Lady 
Lucy,' July 16, 1533, included ' at our Chaundrye barr, in Wynter, 
every night oonpreket and foure syses of Waxe, with eight Candells 
white lights, and oon Torche.' Orig. Letters, ed. Ellis, Series I., 
vol. ii. p. 31. 4 See note ', p. 189, 

He can make all 
kinds of candles, 
little and big, 

and mortars of 


He snuffs them 

with short 


In bed-chambers 
wax lights only 
shall be burnt ; 

[Fol. 27.] 

in hall, Candles of 

each mess having 
one from Nov. 1 
to Feb. 2 (see 1. 
395), and squires 
one too. 

The Butler shall 
give Squires their 
daily bread and 
ale all the year, 
nnd Knights their 

May Christ bring 
us to His dwell- 
ing-place. Amen ! 






[From the reprint by Bensley & Sons (in 1817) of "The 

Booke of Demeanor from Small Poems entitled The 

Sclwdle of Vertvfi by Richard Weste," 1619, 12mo.] 


To the Reader. 

R Ightly conceiue me, and obseme me well, 

I Doe what heere is done for Childrens good, 
C Hrist in his Gospell (as S. Marke doth tell) 

II Ath not forbidden Children, nor withstood 
A Ny that should but aske the ready way, 

R Egarding Children, not to say them nay. 
D Irecting all that came, how faith should be, 

W Hat they should crave of Gods high Majestic, 
E Yen Salvation, through their faithful Prayer, 
S Ending their contemplations into the ayre, 
T his high throne, whose love so guide us all 
E Yen to the end we neuer cease to call. 

[N.B. The stops and sidenotcs are those of the original, but 
that has no Headlines."] 


The Booke of 


Stand straight vpright, and both thy feet 

together closely standing, 
Be sure on't, ever let thine eye 
4 be still at thy commanding. 

Observe that nothing wanting be 

which should be on the bord. 
Vnlesse a question moved be, 
8 be carefull : not a word. 

If thou doe give or fill the drinke, 

with duty set it downe, 
And take it backe with manlike cheere 
1 2 not like a rusticke Lowne. 

If on an errand thou be sent, 

make haste and doe not stay, 
When all have done, observe the time, 
16 serve God and take away. 

When thou hast done and dined well, 

remember thou repaire 
To schoole againe with carefulnesse, 
20 be that thy cheefest care. 

And marke what shall be read to thee, 

or given thee to learne, 
That apprehend as neere as may be, 
24- wisdom e so doth wame. 

Serving at 
the table. 


or filling 

[p. 6.] If on an 

To schoole 



To use the 

The eyei. 

The fore- 


Tho nose. 

stedfast eye and carefull eare, 
remember every word 
Thy Schoole master shall speake to thee, 
28 as memory shall afford. 

Let not thy browes be backward drawn, IP- 7.) 

it is a signe of pride, 
Exalt them not, it shewes a hart 
32 most arrogant beside. 

Nor let thine eyes be gloting downe, 

cast with a hanging looke : 
For that to dreamers doth belong, 
36 t that goodnesse cannot brooke. 

Let forehead joyfull be and full, 

it shewes a merry part, 
And cheerefulnesse in countenance, 
40 and pleasantnesse of heart. 

Nor wrinckled let thy countenance be, 

still going to and fro : 
For that belongs to hedge-hogs right, 
44 they wallow even so. 

Nor imitate with Socrates, tp. s.j 

to wipe thy snivelled nose 
Vpon thy cap, as he would doe, 
48 nor yet upon thy clothes. 

But keepe it cleane with handkerchiffe, 

provided for the same, 
Not with thy fingers or thy sleeve, 
52 therein thou art too blame. 

Blowing or 


Blow not alowd as thou shalt stand, 
for that is most absurd, 


lust like a broken winded horse. 
56 it is to be abhord. 


Nor practize snufflngly to speake, 

for that doth imitate 
The brutish Storke and Elephant, 
60 yea and the wralling cat. 

Snuffling in 
the nose 
when you 

If thou of force doe chance to neeze, 

then backewards turne away 
From presence of the company, 
64 wherein thou art to stay. 

[P. 9.] 


Thy cheekes with shamefac't modesty, 

dipt in Dame Natures die, 
Not counterfet, nor puffed out, 
68 observe it carefully. 

Keepe close thy mouth, for why, thy breath 

may hap to give offence, 
And other worse may be repayd 
72 for further recompence. 

Nor put thy lips out like a foole 
as thou wouldst kisse a horse, 
When thou before thy betters art, 
76 and what is ten times worse, 




To gape in such unseemely sort, 

with ugly gaping mouth, 
Is like an image pictured 
80 a blowing from the south. 

Which to avoyd, then turne about, 

and with a napkin hide 
That gaping foule deformity, 
84 when thou art so aside. 


[p. 10.] Yawning. 


Laughing. To laugh at all things thou shalt heare, 

is neither good nor fit, 
It shewes the property and forme 
88 of one with little wit. 

Biting the 

To bite the lip it seemeth base, 

for why, to lay it open, 
Most base dissembling doggednesse, 
92 most sure it doth betoken. 

Biting the 
upper lip. 

And so to bite the upper lip 
doth most uncomely shew, 
The lips set close (as like to kisse) 
9G in manner seeme not so. 



To put the tongue out wantonly, 

and draw it in agen, 
Betokens mocking of thy selfe, 
100 in all the eyes of men, 

If spitting chance to move thee so 

thou canst it not forbeare, 
Remember do it modestly, 
104 consider who is there. 

ing in 


If filthiness, or ordure thou 
upon the floore doe cast, 
Tread out, and cleanse it with thy foot, 
108 let that be done with haste. 

If in thy tale thou hammering stand, 

or coughing twixt thy words, 
It doth betoken a liers smell, 
1 1 2 that's all that it affords. 

To belch or bulch like Clitiplto, 
whom Terence settetli forth, 

[p. 12.] 


Commendeth manners to be base, 
116 most foule and nothin worth. 

If thou to vomit be constrain'd, Vomiting. 

avoyd from company : 
So shall it better be excus'd, 
120 if not through gluttony. 

Keep white thy teeth, and wash thy mouth Keeping 

the teeth 

with water pure and cleane, cieane. 

And in that washing, mannerly 
124 observe and keep a meane. 

Thy head let that be kembd and trimd, & 13 -J 

let not thy haire be long, 
It is unseemely to the eye, 
128 rebuked by the tongue. 

And be not like a slothfull wight, Hanging 

delighted to hang downe head 

The head, and lift the shoulders up, 
132 nor with thy browes to frowne. 

To carry up the body faire, 

is decent, and doth shew 

A comely grace in any one, 

1 36 Where ever he doth goe. 

To hang the head on any side, Hangin- 

the head 

doth shew hypocrisie : aside. 

And who shall use it trust him not, 
140 he deales with policie. 

Let not thy privy members be IP- U -J prh ~y 


layd open to be view'd, 
It is most shamefull and abhord, 
144 detestable and rude. 


Urine or 


Ketaine not urine nor the winde, 

which doth thy body vex, 
So it be done with secresie, 
148 let that not thee perplex. 

sitting. And in thy sitting use a meane, 

as may become thee well, 
Xot straddling, no nor tottering, 
152 and dangling like a bell. 


The gate in going. 

Observe in Curtesie to take 

a rule of decent kinde, 
Bend not thy body too far foorth, 
156 nor backe thy leg behind. 

In going keep a decent gate, 


[p. 15.] 

not faining lame or broken, 
For that doth seeme but wantonnesse, 
and foolishnesse betoken. 

e t thy apparrell not exceede, 
to passe for sumptuous cost, 
Nor altogether be too base, 
164 for so thy credit's lost. 

Be modest in thy wearing it, 

and keep it neat and cleane, 
For spotted, dirty, or the like, 
168 is lothsome to be scene. 

This for thy body may suffice, 

how that must ordred be : 
2s"ow at the Church thou shalt observe 
172 to God how all must be. 

[No doubt incomplete, or to be inserted before Cap. v. 
Schoole of Vertue, at the end of this Part. F. J. F. ] 


[Sloane MS. 1986, .p. 193, db. 1450-60. The last page 
mentions the l$th year of Henry VL, A.D. 1440-1.] 

INcipiuwt statuta familie bone Memorie dow pni 
Robert! Grossetest, lincolme episcopi. 

"I" Et alle men be warned J>at seruen 3ou, and warnyng 


Taster ; 

U be 3eue to alle men that be of howseholde, to od and their 

serue god and 3011 trewly & diligently and to perform- 

yng, or the wyllyng of god to be performed and fulfyll- 

ydde. Fyrst let seruaunti's doo perfytely in alle thyngis primus 

youre wylle, and kepe they soure commaundement^ UGUieuhu 

J _ doing fully all 

after god and ry^thwysnesse, and w?t/i-oute cowdicion that their Master 

and also wztA-oute gref or offense. And sey 30, that be 

pn'ncipalle heuede or prelate to alle 3oure seruauntzs 

bothe lesse and more, that they doo fully, reedyly, and 

treuly, with-onte offense or ayenseyng, alle youre wille without answer- 

& commaundement that is not ayeynys god. T the 2"* 

secunde ys, that 36 commaunde them that kepe and 

haue kepyng of 3oure howseholde, a-fore 3oure meynye, The upper serv- 

ants must t>6 

that bothe wzt^-in and w/t7i-oute the meynye be trewe, honest and 
honest, diligent, bothe chast and profitabulle. ^f the ' "g^ 
thrydde : commaunde ye that noman be admittyd in 
2oure howseholde, nother inwarde nother vtwarde. but and ^s^ 6 " 

untrusty or 

hit be trustyd and leuyd that 36 be trewe and dili- unfit man. 
gent, and namely to that office to the whiche he is 
admyttyd ; Also J>at he be of goode maners T The 
fowrethe : be hit sow3ht and examined ofte tymys yf ther iv. 
be ony vntrewman, vnkunnyng, vnhonest, lecherous, Dishonest, 



[* p. 194] 
quarrelsome, and 
drunken servants 
must be turned 

v. All must be of 
one accord, 


obedient to those 
above them, 

dress in livery, 

and not wear old 



Order your Alms 
to be 

given to the poor 
and sick. 

ix. Make all the 
household dine 
together in the 

[* P. 195] 
[l MS. wyse] 
x. Let no woman 
dine with you. 

Let the Master 
show himself to 


Let your servants 
go to their homes. 

stryffulle, drunke*lewe, vnprofitabulle, yf there be ony 
su-che yfunde or diffamydde vppon these thyng/s, that 
they be caste oute or put fro the howseholde. ^[ The 
fyft : coramaunde 36 that in no wyse be in the howse- 
holde men debatefulle or stryffulle, but that alle be of 
oon a-corde, of ooii wylle, euen lyke as in them ys 0011 
mynde and oon sowle. ^[ The sixte : coramaunde 30 
that alle tho that semen in ony offyce be obedient, and 
redy, to them that be a-bofe them in thyng^s that per- 
teynyn to there office. ^f The seuenthe : commaunde 
36 that 3oure gentilmen yomew and other, dayly bere 
and were there robis in 3oure presence, and namely at 
the mete, for 3oure worshyppe, and not oolde robis and 
not cordyng to the lyuerey, nother were they oolde 
schoon ne fylyd. ^[ The viij : Commaunde 30 that 
3 cure almys be kepyd, & not sende not to boys and 
knafis, nother in the halle nothe oute of ]?e halle, ne be 
wasted in soperys ne dyners of gromys, but wysely, 
temperatly, wM-oute bate or betyng, be hit distribute 
and the[n] departyd to powre men, beggers, syke folke 
and febulle. ^[ The ix. : Make 36 3oure owne howse- 
holde to sytte in the alle,, as muche as ye mow or may, 
at the bordis of oon parte and of the other pc/rte, and 
lette them sitte to-gedur as mony as may, not here 
fowre and thre there : and when youre chef maynye be 
sett, then alle gromys may* entre, sitte, And ryse ^f 
The x. : Streytly for-bede 30 that no wyfe ! be at 3oure 
mete. And sytte 30 euer in the myddul of the hye 
borde, that youre fysegge and chere be schewyd to 
alle men of bothe partyes, and that 36 may see Iy3htly 
the semicis and defawtzs : and diligently see 36 that 
euery day in 3oure mete seson be two men ordeyned to 
ouer-so youre mayny, and of that they shalle drede 3011 
If The xi : cowmaunde 30, and yeue licence as lytul 
tyme as ye may with honeste to them that be in 3oure 
howseholde, to go home. And whenne 30 yeue licence 


to the???, Assigne 30 to them a short day of comyng a 

yeyne vndur peyne of lesyng there seruice. And yf 

ony man speke ayen or be worths, 1 say to hym, " what! Doi't aiiow th 

wille ye be lorde 1 ye wylle ]>ai y serue you after 301110 & rumblm g- 

wylle. " and they that wylle not here that 36 say, 

effectually be they ywarnyd, and ye shalle prouide 

other semantic the whiche shalle serue you to youre 

wylle or plesyng. ^f The xij is : command, the panytrere x >i. Tell your 

, Panter and 

w?,t/i youre brede, & the botelare w^t7i wyne and ale, Butler to come to 

come to-gedur afore 3ou at the tabulle afore gracys, J^J^ 

And let be there thre yomera assigned to serue the hye 

tabulle and the two syde tabullis in solenne dayes \ 

IT And ley they not the vessels deseruyng for ale and Tel1 off three 

yeomen to wait at 

wyne vppon the tabulle,* but afore you, But be thay table, 
layid vnder J?e tabulle. ^[ The 13 : commaunde ye the X iii. J 
stywarde J?at he be besy and diligent to kepe the Ten the steward 

. .. to keep good order 

maynye in hys owne persone iwwarde and vtwarde, and i n the Hail, 

namely in the halle and at mete, that they be-haue 

them selfe honestly, with-oui stryffe, fowlespekyng, 

and noyse ; And that they that be ordeynyd to sette 

messys, bryng them be ordre and cowtinuelly tyl alle and serve every 

be serued, and not inordinatly, And thorow affeccion l [i Ms^affecdorij 

to personys or by specialte ; And take 36 hede to this 

tyl messys be fully sett in the halle, and after tende ye 

to 3oure mette. ^f The xiiij : commaunde 56 ]>al youre xiv- Have your 

dysshe be welle fyUyd and hepid, and namely of dish u led 

entermes, and of pitance wit^-oute fat, carkyng that 36 

may parte coureteysly to thoo that sitte beside, bothe that you may help 

of the ryght hande and the left, thorow alle the hie 

tabulle, and to other as plesythe you, thow3ght they 

haue of the same that ye haue. At the soper be 

seruant/s seruid of oon messe, & by3th metz's, & afte?- of 

chese. ^[ And yf the[r] come gestiV, se?-uice schalle be 

haued as nedythe. ^f The xv : co??imaunde ye the xv. Always admit 

officers that they admitte youre knowlechyd men, 

familiers frendys, and strangers, with mery chere, the 



t* P- 197] 
and show them 
you are glad to 
see them. 


Talk familiarly to 
your Bailiffs, 

ask how your 
tenants and store 

xvii. Allow no 
private meals ; 
only those in Hall. 

wh[i]che they knowen you to wille for to admitte and 
receyue, and to them the whiche wylle you worschipe, 
and* they wyllen to do that ye wylle to do, that they 
may know them selfe to haue be welcome to 3ou, and 
to be welle plesyd that they be come, ^f And al so 
muche as 36 may w/t/i-oute peril of sykenes & werynys 
ete 30 in the halle afore ^oure meyny, ^[ For that 
schalle be to ^ou profyte and worshippe. ^[ The xvj : 
when youre ballyfs comyn a-fore ^oure, speke to the??i 
fayre and gentilly in opyn place, and not in pmiey, 
^[ And shew them mery chere, & serche and axe of 
them "how fare owre men & tenauntis, & how corny s 
doon, & cartes, and of owre store how hit ys mwltiplyed," 
Axe suche thyng/s opewly, and knowe 36 certeynly that 
they wille the more drede ^ou. ^[ The xvij : com- 
maunde 36 that dineris and sopers prmely in hid plase 
be not had, & be thay forbeden that there be no suche 
dyners nother sopers oute of the halle, For of suche 
comethe grete destr[u]ccion, and no worshippe therby 
growythe to the lorde. 

If Expliciuwt Statuta Familie bone Memorie. 

Prof. Brewer has, I find, printed these Statuta in his most 
interesting and valuable Monumenta Franciscana, 1858, p. 582-6. 
He differs from Mr Brock and me in reading arunkelewe (drunken, 
in Chaucer, &c.) as ' drunke, lewe,' and vessels as bossels,' and 
in adding e 's * to some final g 's. He says, by way of Intro- 
duction, that, " Though entitled Ordinances for the Household 
of Bishop Grostete, this is evidently a Letter addressed to the 
Bishop on the management of his Household by some very 
intimate friend. From the terms used in the Letter, it is 
clear that the writer must have been on confidential terms with 
the Prelate. I cannot affirm positively that the writer was 
Adam de Marisco, although to no other would this document be 
attributed with greater probability. No one else enjoyed such a 
degree of Grostete' s affection ; none would have ventured to address 
him with so much familiarity. Besides, the references made more 
than once by Adam de Marisco in his letters to the management of 
the Bishop's household, greatly strengthen this supposition. See 
pp. 160, 170 (Man. Francisc.}. The MS. is a small quarto on vellum, 
in the writing of the 15th century It is in all probability a trans- 
lation from a Latin original." 

i Iu this he is probably right. The general custom of editors justifies 
it. Our printers want a pig-tailed or curly g to correspond with the 
MS. one. 



ds of 

Me Raivlinson MS., C. S6,fol 31, 
Bodleian Library.] 

Vtter thy langage wyth good avisement j 
Reule the by Keasoim in thy termo} alle ; 
Mystruste not thy frende for none accusement, 
Fayle him neuer at nede, what so euer befalle ; 
Solace Jn selfe when men7^ to sporte fee calle ; 
Largely to speke be wele ware for }at cause ; 
Eolle faste this reasou?i & thynke wele on JM 

Never mistrust or 
fail your friend. 

Don't talk too 

What manrc j>ou se/niyst, alle wey him drede ; 
His good as J)yn owne, euer J?ou spare. 
Lette neuer ]>j wylle ]>j witt ouer lede, 
But be glad of euery mannys welfare. 

Spare your 
master's goods 
as your own. 

1 2 Folus lade polys ; wisemenn etc J>e fysshe ; 

Wisenienra hath in \er hondis ofte ]>at folys 
after wysshe. 

Who so in youthe no vertu vsith, 
Tn age alle honowr him refusith. 

A lawless youth, 
a despised old 


16 Deame pee best in euery doute 
Tyl pe trouthe be tryed oute. 

A Gentleman says Jj. ^ j, e p r0 p er t e of A 

the best he can </ 

every one. r sa y the beste fat he canro. 

20 Si vie^ dolere tua crimina die miserere 
Permiserere mei frangitur ira dei 

[Follows : Policronica. 

Josephus of Icwes \>at Nobyl was, the firste Auctowr ol 
the booke of Policronica, &c."| 





ttil] to learnt ijjtjr totic bj, 
|(ttotJj jtruftln, jtmtttei, 
sni supwittti bj % 
fpft Jinttflur 

F. S.LeagerJ 

a hritft hdaradon of ibe 
bntic of itbe begree. 


Difpife not councel, rebuking foly 
Efteme it as, nedefull and holy. 

|mpnnicb nt Bonbon in 
Cljurcljgarbc at % figne of 
t!je f tbg^ogge bg 
iam Starrs. 



Aye well some wyll by this my labour 

Euery man yet 
Amonge the good 
God them forgeue 
Eche man I wyshe 
Reade and then iudge 

Wyll not say the same 
I doubt not fauour 
For it me blame 
It shall offende 
Where faulte is amende. 

Face aut Tace. 



(Taken from the headings in the Text.} 


The mornynge prayer . . . . . . . . . . . . 225 

Cap. i. Howe to order thy selfe when thou rysest, and in 

apparelynge thy body . . . . . . . . 22G 

Cap. ii. Howe to behaue thy selfe in going by the streate 

and in the schoole . . . . . . . . 227 

Cap. iii. Howe to behaue thi selfe in seruynge the table . . 229 

Cap. iiii. Howe to order thy selfe syttynge at the table . . 231 

Cap. v. Howe to order thy selfe in the Churche . . . . 233 

Cap. vi. The fruites of gamynge, vertue and learnynge . . 234 

Cap. vii. How to behaue thy selfe in taulkynge with any 

man 235 

Cap. viii. How to order thy selfe being sente of message . . 236 

Cap. ix. A-gainste Anger, Enuie, and malice . . . . . . 23G 

Cap. x. The fruites of charitie, loue, and pacience . . . . 237 

Cap. xi. A-gainge (so) the horrible vice of swearynge . . 238 

Cap. xii. A-gainste the vice of filthy talkynge . . . . 239 

Cap. xiii. A-gainste the vice of lyinge 239 

A praier to be saide when thou goest to bedde . . . . 240 

The dutie of eche degred. (so) brefely declared . . . . . . 241 


[N.B. The even lines (2, 4, &c.) of the original are printed here opposite 
the odd ones (1, 3, &c.), instead of after them, to save space. The lines 
must therefore be read right across the page. The sidenotes in large 
type, 'Cato, Isocra, &c.,' are those of the original. The rest are the 
editor's, and he has added headlines, some stops, &c.] 


e stjjrole cf tetae. 

THIrst in the mornynge 
* To God for his grace 
This prayer folowynge 
Thy harte lyftynge vp ; 

when thou dost awake, 
thy peticion then make ; 
vse dayly to say, 
Thus begyn to pray 

[sign. A. II.] 

say this 

U" The mornynge prayer. 


God, from whom 
To thee we re- 


That with thy grace 
Yertue to folowe 
Heare this our request, 
lorde ! moste humbly 
This day vs defende, 
May do the thynge 
That as we in yeares 
So in good vertues 
To thy honour, 
Learninge to lyue well, 

In flyinge from all 
Applyinge our bookes, 
May fructifye and go for- 


In this vale of miserie 
That after this lyfe 
We may attayne 
The Lordes prayer then 
So vsynge to do 

al good gifts precede ! " o God ! 

enable us to 
follow virtue. 

in tyme of our nede, 1 2 
thou wouldst vs endue 
and vyce to exchue : 16 
and graunt our desyre, 
we do the requyre ! 20 
that we walkynge aryght 
acceptable in thy syght, 
And body do growe, 26 
we may lykewyse flowe 
and ioy of our parentes, 
and kepe thy commaund 
mentes ; 32 

Vice, synne, and cryme, flee from vice, 
not losynge our tyme, 36 

[sign. A. ii. &.] 

Defend us this 

Let us abound 
with virtues, 

here in good doynge 

vnto oure lyuees endynge, 

here transitory 

to greater glory." 44 

se thou recyte, 

at mornynge and nyght. 

and go forward in 
good doing to our 

[sign. A. iii.] 

Repeat the Lord's 
Prayer night and 



How to wash and 
dress yourself. 


Don't sleep too 

Rise early; 
[sign. A. iii. b.] 

cast up your bed, 

and don't let it 

Go down, 

salute your 

wash your hands, 
eornb your head, 

brush your cap 
and put it on. 
[sign. A. iiii.] 


Tie on your shirt- 

fasten your girdle, 

rub your 
breeches, clean 
your shoes, 
wipe your nose on 
a napkin, 
pare your nails, 
clean your ears, 
wash your teeth. 
[A. sign. iiii. b.] 
Have your torn 
clothes mended, 

or new ones 

Get your satchell 
and books, and 
haste to School, 

Howe to order thy selfe when thou rysest, 
and in apparelynge thy body. 

Capitulo .i. 

T?Lye euer slouthe 

In health the body 
Muche slepe ingendereth 
It dulles the the wyt 
Early in the mornynge 
Thy raynient put on, 
To cast vp thy bed 
Els may they say 
So to departe 
It is not semynge 
Downe from thy chamber 
Thy parentes salute thou, 
Thy handes se thou waahe, 
And of thy raynient 
Thy cappe fayre brusht, 
Takynge it of 
Cato doth councel thee 
Declarynge therby 
Thy shyrte coler fast 
Comely thy rayment 
Thy gyrdell about 
Thy hose fayre rubd 
A napkyn se that 
Thy nose to dense 
Thy nayles, yf nede be, 
Thyne eares kepe cleane, 
If ought 'about thee 
Thy frendes therof she we 
And they wyll newe 
Or the olde mende, 
This done, thy setchell 
And to the scole 

and ouer much slepe ; 50 
therby thou shalte kepe. 
diseases and payne, 54 
and hurteth the brayne. 
thy bed then forsake, 58 
thy selfe redy make. 
It shalbe thy parte, 62 
that beastly thou art ; 
and let the same lye, 66 
nor yet manerly. 
when thou shalte go, 70 
and the famely also ; 
and thy hed keame, 74 
se tome be no seame ; 
thy hed couer than, 78 
In speakynge to any man. 
thyne elders to reuerence 
thy dutye and obedience, 
to thy necke knyt ; 86 
loke on thy body syt. 
thy wast then fasten, 90 
thy showes se be cleane. 
thou haue in redines 94 
from all fylthynes. 
se that thou payre ; 98 
thy teath washe thou fayre. 
chaunce to be torne, 102 
ho we it is worne, 
for thee prouyde, 106 

In tyme beinge spyde, 
and thy bokes take, 110 
haste see thou make. 



But ere thou go, 

That thou take with thee 

For these are thynges 

Forget not then 

The souldiar preparynge 

Leaues not at home 

No more shulde a scoler 

what he at scole 

These thynges thus had, 

Vnto the schole 

with thy selfe forthynke. taking too 
pen, paper, and ynke ; 1 " 
for thy study necessary, 

pen, paper, and ynke ;116 pen, paper, and 

which are neces- 

with thee them to cary. 

hym selfe to the fielde 122 
his sworde and his shielde, 
forget then truly 126 

shulde nede to occupy. 
Take strayght thy way 
without any stay. 132 

Howe to behaue thy selfe in going by 
the streate and in the schoole .ii. 

TN goynge by the way 
-- Thy cappe put of, 
In geuynge the way 
It is a poynte 
And thy way fortune 
Let it not greue thee 
when to the schole 
This rule note well 
Thy master there beynge, 
Declarynge thereby 
Thy felowes salute 
Lest of inhumanitie 
Vnto thy place 
Streight go thou to, 
Thy bokes take out, 
Humbly l thy selfe 
Therein takynge payne, 
Learnynge to get 
All thynges seme harde 
But labour and diligence 
we ought not to recken 
That bryngeth ioye 
Leaue of then laboure, 




and passynge the strete, 
Salute those ye mete ; 136 
to suche as passe by, 
of siuilitie. 
so for to fall, 
thy felowes to call, 
thou shalte resort, 
I do the exhort : 
Salute with all reuerence, 
thy dutye and obedience j 
In token of loue, 154 
they shall thee reproue. 
appoynted for to syt, 158 
and thy setchel vnknyt, 
thy lesson then learne 162 
Behaue and gouerne. 
with all thyne industry 
thy boke well applye : 168 
when we do begyn, 
yet both them wyn ; 172 
and counipt the thyng harde 
and pleasure afterwarde ; 
and the lacke rue, 178 

[sign. A. v.] 

for use at school. 
Then start off. 

How to behave 

going to, and at, 


Take oft* your cap 

to those you 



give way to 
passers by. 

[sign. A. v. &.] 
Call your play- 
mates on your 
At School 

salute your 

and the scholars. 

Go straight 
to your place, 
undo your 
take out your 
1 lOrig. Huubly] 

[sign. A. vi.] 
books and learn 
your lesson ; 
stick well to your 


If you don't work, 



you'll repent It 

when you grow 


Who could now 

speak of famous 

[sign. A. vi. b.] 
deeds of old, 
had not Letters 
preserved them ? 





Work hard then, 
[sign. A. vii.] 

and you'll be 
worthy to serve 
Die state, 
li Orig. ryme] 

Men of low birth 
win honour by 

and then are 
doubly happy. 
When you doubt, 
ask to be told. 

[sign. A. vii. ft.] 

Wish well to 

those who warn 


On your way 


walk two and two 


(for which men 
will piaiseyou); 

Lament and repent 

Deades that deserued 

Buried had ben, 

If letters had not then 

The truth of suche thynges 

Applye thy minde 

For learnynge in nede 

Nothinge to science 

The swetenes wherof 

And Cato the wyse 

That man wantinge learn- 

The rootes of learnynge 
The fruites at last 
Then labour for learn ynge 
The ignoratint to teache, 
So shalte thou be thought 
The common welth to serue 
Experience doth teache 
That many to honour 
That were of byrthe 
Suche is the goodnes 
For he that to honour 
Is double happy, 
If doubte thou doest, 
No shame is to learne, 
Ignoraunce doth cause 
Forwantynge of knowledge 
Then learne to discerne 
And suche as thee warne, 
when from the school e 
Or orderly then go ye, 
your selues matchynge 
That men it seynge 
In coinmendynge this 
whiche must nedes sounde 

when age doth insue. 180 
Fame and greate prayse, 
we se in olde dayes ; 184 
brought them to lyght 
who coulde nowe resyght ? 
to learnynge and scyence, 
wyll be thy defence. 192 
compare we may well, 
all thynges doth excell. 
this worthy sayinge hath, 

is as the image of death, 
most bytter we deme ; 202 
Mostepleasaunt doth seme, 
whyle here thou shalt lyue, 
and good example geue ; 
A membre most worthy 
Intyme 1 of necessitie. 212 
And shewe to thee playne 
.By learninge attayne 216 
But symple and bace, 
Of Gods special! grace, 
by vertue doth ryse, 222 
and counted most wyse. 
Desyre to be toulde, 226 
Beinge neuer so oulde ; 
Great errors in vs 230 
Doubts to discusse ; 
the good from the yll, 234 
Bere them good will, 
ye shall take your waye, 
twoo in aray, 240 

So equall as ye may, 
May well of you saye 244 
your laudable wayes, 
to your great prayse, 248 



Not runnynge on heapes 
As at this day 
Not vsynge, but refusynge, 
As commonly are vsed 
As hoopynge and halow- 


That men it hearynge 
This foolyshnes forsake, 
And learne to followe 
In goynge by the way 
Gape not nor gase not 
But soberly go ye 
Humblye your selues 
Be free of cappe 
Greate loue of al men 
Be lowly and gentyll 
Then men con not 
In passynge the strete 
Vse thou fewe wordes, 
Then men shal see 
From whom vertues 
when thou arte come 

Thy leaue then takynge 
The house then entrynge, 
Humbly salute them 

as a swarme of bees, 
Euery man it nowe sees ; 
Suche foolyshe toyes 254 
In these dayes of boyes, 

as in huntynge the foxe, 
Deryde them with mockes. 
this folly exchewynge, 
this order insuynge. 264 
Neyther talke nor iangle, 
at euery newe fangle, 268 
with countinaunce graue ; 
towarde all men behaue ; 
and full of curtesye ; 274 
you shall wyn therby. 
and of meke moode ; 278 
but of you say good. 
Do no man no harme ; 282 
and thy tounge charme, 
that grace in the groweth 
So aboundantly floweth. 
where thy parentes do 
dwell, 290 

Byd thy felowes farewell ; 
In thy parence presence 
with all reuerence. 296 

don't run in 
heaps like a 
swarm of bees 

[sign. A. viii.] 
like boys do now. 

Don't whoop 
or hallow as in 

don't chatter, 

or stare at every 
new fangle, 
but walk soberly, 


[sign. A. viii. &.] 
taking your cap 
oft' to all, 

and being gentle. 

Do no man harm ; 
speak few words. 

On reaching home 

salute your 
parents rever- 

[sign. ffl.J 

Howe to behaue thi selfe in seruynge 
the table. Cap. iii. 

How to wait at 

YTVhen thy parentes do wne to the table shall syt, 

In place be ready For the purpose moste fyt: Lookyour 

With sober countinaunce Lokynge them in the face, jjjf**** 

Thy handes holdynge vp, this begyn grace : 304 hands > and 8a y 


"pEuethankes to God 
U For that shall be 

with one accorde 
Set on this borde. 

Grace before 
303 meate. 



Grace before 

[sign. B. i. b.] 

Make a low 

curtesy ; 

wish your 

parents' food may 

do 'em good. 

If you are big 


bring the food to 


[sign. B. ii.] 

Don't fill dishes 
so full as to spill 

on your parents' 
dress, or they'll 
be angry. 

Have spare 
trenchers ready 
for guests. 

See there's plenty 
of everything 

Empty the 
Voiders often. 

[sign. B. ii. 6.] 
Be at hand if any 
one calls. 
When the meat 
is over, 
clear the table : 

1. cover the salt, 

2. have a tray by 
you to carry 
things off on, 

3. put the 
trenchers, &c., in 
one Voider, 

And be not carefull 
To eche thynge lyuynge 
For foode lie wyll not 
But wyll you fede, 
Take well in worth 
At this tyme be 

If So treatablie speakyng 
That the hearers therof 
Grace beynge sayde, 
Sayinge " muche good 
Of stature then 
It shall become thee 
In bringynge to it 
For thy parence vpon 
Disshes with measure 
Els mayste thou happen 
On theyr apparell 
whiche for to doe 
Spare trenchers with nap- 


To serue afterwarde, 
Be circumspecte ; 
Of necessary thynges 
As breade and drynke, 
The voyders with bones 
At hande be ready, 
To fetche or take vp, 
when they haue done, 
The table vp fayre 
Fyrste the saulte 
Hauynge by thee 
thynges from thy handes 
That from the table 
A voyder vpon 
The trenchers and napkyns 

what to eate, 
the Lorde sends meate ; 
Se you peryshe, 314 

Foster, and cheryshe ; 
what he hath sent, 318 
therwith content, 
Praysynge God." 322 

as possible thou can, 
May thee vnderstan. 326 
Lowe cursie make thou, 
May it do you." 330 

yf thou be able, 
to serue the table 334 
Suche meate as shall nede 
that tyme to fede. 338 
thou oughtest to fyll, 
thy seruyce to spyll 342 
Or els on the cloth, 
wolde moue them to wroth. 

haue in redynes 348 

If there come any gesse. 
see nothynge do wante ; 
that there be no skant, 354 
se there be plentie ; 
Ofte se thou emptie. 358 
If any do call, 
If ought fortune to fall, 
then ready make 3G4 

In order to take : 
Se that thou couer, 368 
Eyther one or other 
then to conuaye 372 

thou shalt take awaye. 
the table then haue, 376 
therein to receaue ; 



The croomes \vith a napkyn 
It at the tables ende 
Then before eche man 
The best fyrste seruynge, 
Then cheese with finite 
"With Bisketes or Caro- 


Wyne to them fyll, 
But wyne is metest, 
Then on the table 
It for to voyde 

Eche syde of the clothe 
Foldynge it vp, 
A cleane towell then 
The towell wantynge, 
The bason and ewer 
In place conuenient 
when thou shalt see 
The ewer take vp, 
In powrynge out water 
The table then voyde 
All thynges thus done, 
Before the table 

together them swepe, 380 
In a voyder them kepe. 
A cleane treanchour lay, 
As iudge thou soone may ; 
On the table set, 388 

As you may get. 
Els ale or beare ; 392 

If any there were. 
Attende with all diligence, 
when done haue thy 
parence : 398 

Do thou tourne in, 
At the hygher ende begin. 
On the table spreade, 
the cloth take in steade, 
to the table then brynge, 
theyr pleasure abydynge. 
them redy to washe, 412 
and be not to rashe 
More then wyll suffise. 416 
that they may ryse. 
forget not thy dutie, 420 
Make thou lowe cursie. 

4. sweep the 
crumbs into 

[sign. B. iii.] 

5. set a clean 
trencher before 
every one, 

6. put on Cheese, 
Fruit, Biscuits, 

7. serve Wine, 
Ale or Beer. 

When these are 
clear the table, 

and fold up the 

[sign. B. iii. 6.] 
Then spread a 
clean towel, 

bring bason and 


and when your 


are ready to wash, 

pour out the 


Clear the table ; 

make a low 

[sign. B. iiii.] 
How to behave at 
your own dinner. 

Howe at the table 

[ Howe to order thy selfe syttynge at the table. 
Capitulo .iiii. 

Chyldren ! geue eare your duties to learne, 424 
you may your selues 


I say, in no case ; 428 Socra. Cato. 
to thy betters geue place. 
Fyrste serued to be, 432 
Of good curtesie. 
then pause a space, 436 
of nourture and grace. 

Presume not to hyghe, 
In syttynge downe, 
Suffer eche man 
For that is a poynte 
when they are serued, 
For that is a sygne 

Let your betters 
sit above you. 
See others served 

then wait a while 
before eating. 



Take salt with 
your knife, 
[ign. B. iiii. &.] 
cut your bread, 
don't fill your 
spoon too full, 

or sup your 

Have your knife 

Don't smack your 


or gnaw your 


avoid such 


[sign. B. v.] 
Keep your fingers 

wipe your mouth 
before drinking. 


Don't jabber or 


Silence hurts no 
[sign. B. v. &.] 


and is fitted for a 
child at table. 


Don't pick your 


or spit too much. 

Behave properly. 

Don't laugh too 

[sign. B. vi.] 
Learn all the 
good manners 
you can. 

Saulte with thy knyfe 
The breade cut fayre, 
Thy spone with pottage 
For fylynge the cloth, 
For rudnes it is 
Or speake to any, 
Thy knyfe se be sharpe 
Thy mouth not to full 
Not smackynge thy lyppes, 
Nor gnawynge the bones 
Suche rudenes abhorre, 
At the table behaue 
Thy fyngers se cleane 
Hauynge a Napkyn. 
Thy mouth therwith 
The cup to drynke 
Let not thy tongue 
And of no matter 
Temper thy tongue 
For " measure is treasure," 
And measure in althynges 
what is without measure 
For silence kepynge 
where as thy speache 
Bothe speache and silence 
But sylence is metest 
And Cato doth saye, 
The fyrste of vertue 
Pyke not thy teethe 
Nor vse at thy meate 
this rudnes of youth 
thy selfe manerly 
If occasion of laughter 
Beware that thou vse 
Of good maners learne 
It wyll thee preferre 

then reache and take, 440 
And do not it breake. 
to full do not fyll, 444 
If thou fortune to spyll, 
thy pottage to sup, 448 
his head in the cup. 
to cut fayre thy meate ; 
when thou dost eate; 454 
As comonly do hogges, 
As it were dogges ; 458 
Suche beastlynes flie, 
thy selfe manerly. 462 
that thou euer kepe, 
thereon them to wype ; 
Cleane do thou make, 468 
In hande yf thou take, 
At the table walke, 472 
Neyther reason nor talke. 
and belly alway, 476 

the prouerbe doth say, 
Is to be vsed ; 480 

Ought to be refused, 
thou shalt not be shent, 
May cause thee repent, 
are commendable, 488 
In a chylde at the table, 
that " in olde and yonge 
Is to kepe thy tonge." 494 
at the table syttynge, 
Ouer muche spytynge ; 
Is to be abhorde ; 500 
Behaue at the borde. 
at the table thou se, 504 
the same moderately. 
So muche as thou can ; 
when thou art a man. 510 



Aristotle the Philosopher 
That " maners in a chylde 
then playnge on instru- 


For vertuous maners 
Let not this saynge 
For playnge of instrumentes 
But doth graunt them 
Yet maners muche more 
Refuse not his councell, 
To vertue and knowledge 

^f Howe to order thy 
TTVhen to the Churche 

Knelynge or standynge, 
All worldely matters 
Earnestly prayinge, 
A contrite harte 
whiche he doth coumpt 
To hym thy sinnes 
Askynge for them 
He is the Phisition 
And can to health 
Aske then in fayth, 
The thynges ye desyre 
So they be lawfnll 
He wyll the heare 
More mercifull he is 
The aucthor and geuer 
" All ye that labotire 
I wyll you refreshe 
These are Chrystes wordes, 
Spoken to all suche 
Our wylles to his worde 
The heauenly habytacion 

this worthy sayinge writ, Aristot. 
are more requisit 514 They are better 

than playing the 

and other vayne pleasure ; 

Is a most precious treasure." 

In no wyse thee offende, 

He doth not discommende, 

for a chylde necessary, but necessary ; 

see here he doth vary. 526 yet manners 

-K.T i IT- are more 

.Nor his wordes dispise ; important. 
By them mayste thou ryse. [sign. B. vi. ?..] 

though that's 
no harm, 

selfe in the Churche. 

thou shalt repay er, 532 
to God make thy prayer ; 
From thy mynde set apart, 
to God lyfte vp thy hart. 
He wyll not dispyse, 540 
A sweete sacrifice, 
shewe and confesse, 544 
Grace and forgyuenes ; 
that knoweth thy sore, 
A-gayne thee restore. 550 
Not doubtynge to haue ; 
ye shall then receaue ; 554 
Of God to requyre, 
and graunt thy desyre ; 
then pen can expresse, 560 
here of all goodnesse. 
and burdened be, 564 
In commynge to me." 
the scripture is playne, 
as here suffre payne ; 570 
then let vs frame, 
therby we may clame. 574 

How to behave at 

Pray kneeling or 

Psal. 1. 

Confess your sins 
to God. 

[sign. B. vii.] 
He knows your 

lames the .i. 

Ask in faith, 
and what you 
ask you shall 

He is more 
merciful than 
pen can tell. 


[sign. B. vii. b.] 



Behave nicely in 

and don't talk 
or chatter. 

Behave rever- 
ently ; 

the House of 

Luke .xix. 

[sign. B. viii.] 
is not to be made 
a fair. 


dicing and 


Delight in 
Virtue, and 

[sign. B. viii. ft.] 

Happy is he who 
cultivates Virtue. 

Cursed is he who 
forsakes it. 

Let reason rule 

[sign. C. i.] 
and subdue your 

These ills come 
from gambling : 

In the churche comly 
In vsage sober, 
whyle you be there, 
Nor one with an other 
Reuerently thy selfe 
when to the Churche 
Eche thynge hath his tyme, 
For that is a token 
The Lorde doth call it 
And not to be vsed 

thy selfe do behaue, 
thy countinaunce graue. 
taulke of no matter, 580 
whisper nor chatter. 
Order alwaye 584 

thou shalt come to pray : 
Consyder the place, 588 
of vertue and grace, 
the house of prayer 592 
As is a fayer. 

The fruites of gamynge, vertue and learnynge. 
Capitulo .vi. 

OLytle chylde, 
For .that hath brought 
As dysynge, and cardynge, 
which many vndoeth, 
But yf thou delyght 
Delyght in knowledge, 
For learnynge wyll leade 


And vertue wyll teache thee 
Vice beynge subdued, 
Happy is the man 
By knowledge lykewyse 
By vertue agayne 
These be the frutes 
Cursed is he then 
But we erre in wyt 
In iudgynge that good 
Let reason thee rule, 
To folowe thy fansie, 
But subdue thy luste, 
If it shall moue thee 
For what hurte by game 
No wyse man I thynke 

Eschewe thou euergame, 
Many one to shame, 598 
And suche other playes, 
as we se no we a dayes. 602 
In any earthly thynge, 
Yertue, and learnynge, 606 

to the schoole of vertue, 
Vice to subdue. 610 

thou canst not but floryshe; 
that vertue doth norysh. 
thou shalt doubtes discerne, 
thy lyfe well gouerne. 618 
By them we do take, 
that doth them forsake. 
In folowynge our wyll, 
which playnly is yll. 626 
and not will thee leade 
A wronge trace to treade. 
and conqeur thy wyll 632 
to doe that is yll ; 
to many doth growe, 636 
but doth it well knowe. 



Experience doth shewe 
That all good men 
As strife and debate, 
whiche amonge Christians, 
with cursynge and bann- 


That no honest harte 
These be the fruites 
with many more as euill 

and make it manifesto 640 
can it but deteste, 

murder and thefte, 
wolde god were lefte, 

(J44 strife, murder, 

cursing and 

with swearyng and tearyng, 

can abyde the hearyng : 

that of them doth sprynge, 

that cometh of gamynge. [sign. c. \. 

How to behaue thy selfe in taulkynge 

with any man. 

IF a man demaunde 
In thine aunswere mak- 


waie well his wordes, 
Eare an answere to make 
Els may he iudge 
To answere to a thynge 
Suffer his tale 
Then speake thou mayst, 
Low obeisaunce makyng, 
Tretably speaking, 
with countinaunce sober 
Thy fete iuste to-gether, 
Caste not thyne eies 
when thou arte praised, 
In tellynge thy tale, 
Such folly forsake thou, 
In audible voice 
Not hie nor lowe, 
Thy wordes se that 
And that l they spoken 
In vttryng wherof 
Thy matter therby 
whiche order yf thou 
From the purpose 

Capitulo .vii. 
a question of thee, 656 

be not to hastie ; 
the case vnderstande 660 
thou take in hande, 
in thee little wit, 664 
and not heare it. 
whole out to be toulde, 
and not be controulde ; 
lokinge him in the face, 
thy wordes see thou place, 
thy bodie vprighte 676 
thy handes in lyke plight ; 
on neither syde. 680 

therin take no pryde. 
neither laugh nor smyle, 
banish and exyle ; 686 
thy wordes do thou vtter, 
but vsynge a measure. 690 
thou pronounce plaine, 
Be not in vayne ; 694 
Kepe thou an order, 
thou shalte much forder ; 
Do not obserue, 700 

nedes must thou swarue, 

How to behave 
when conversing. 


Understand a 
question before 
you answer it ; 

let a man tell all 
his tale. 

[sign. C. ii.l 
Then bow to him, 
look him in the 

and answer 

not staring about 

or laughing, 

but audibly 

and distinctly, 

[sign. C. ii. 6.] 
your words in due 

[i orig. thai] 

or you'll straggle 



or stutter, or 
stammer, which is 
a foul crime. 

[sign. C. Hi.] 

Always keep your 
head uncovered. 

Better unfed 
than untaught. 

How to take a 

Listen to it well ; 
don't go away not 
knowing it 

[sign. C. iii. fc.] 
Then hurry away, 

give the message ; 

get the answer, 
return home, 
and tell it to 
your master 


[sign. C. iiii.] 
exactly as it was 
told to you. 

And hastines of speche 
Or wyll thee teache 
To stut or stammer 
Learne then to leaue it, 
How euyll a cliylde 
Thy selfe beynge iudge, 
And sure it is taken 
whyle yonge you be 
This generall rule 
In speakynge to any man 
The common prouerbe 
" Better vnfedde 

f How to order thy selfe 

TF of message 
* Take hede to the same, 
Depart not awaye 
Know wel thy message 
with possible spede 
If nede shall requirr it 
After humble obeisaunce, 
Thy wordes well placinge 
As shall thy matter 
Thine answere made, 
And to thy master 
As then the answere 
Neither adde nor deminish 
Lest after it proue 
But the same vtter 
No faulte they shall fynde 
In most humble wyse 
As shall become beste 

wyll cause thee to erre, 704 
to stut or stammer. 
is a foule crime, 708 

take warnyng in tyme ; 
it doth become, 712 

hauinge wisedome ; 
by custome and vre, 716 
there is helpe and cure, 
yet take with the, 720 
Thy head vn-couered be. 
remember ye oughte, 724 
then vn-taughte." 

being sente of message* 

forthe thou be sente, 728 
Geue eare diligente ; 
and beyng in doute, 732 
before thou passe out ; 
then hast thee right sone ; 
so to be done. 738 

the message forth shewe 
in vttringe but fewe 742 
serue to declare, 
then home againe repare, 
therof make relacion 748 
shall geue thee occasion, 
any thynge to the same, 
to thy rebuke and shame, 
so nere as thou can ; 756 
to charge thee with than, 
loke done that it be, 760 
a seruantes degre. 

Against Anger, 

The slave of 
Anger must fall 

^[ A-gainste Anger, Enuie. and malice. 
Cap. ix. 

IF thou be subiecte and to anger thrall, 

And reason thee rule not, nedes must thou fall. 




Conquer thy wyll 

Thy faiisy not folowing, 

For anger and furie 

That thy doynges to wise 


Thine anger and wrath 
For wrath, saith Plato, 
The hastie man 
His mad moody inynde 
And malyce thee mone 
Dread euer god, 
Do not reuenge, 
Forgeue the offender 
He is perfectely pacient, 
[That] From wrath and 


Disdayne nor enuie 
In worde nor dede 
Debate and disceate, 
Are the chief e frutes 
And Salomon saithe 
Of him selfe hath 

and subdue thy luste, 768 Pericles, 
thy cause though be iuste ; 

Wyll thee SO Chaunge 772 Anger's deeds are 

wyll appeare straunge. 
seke then to appeace, 776 
Leades shame in a leace. 
wantes neuer trouble, 780 
his care doth double, 
to reuenge thy cause, 784 
and daunger of the lawes. 
though in thy power it be, 
being thine enemie. 790 
we may repute plaine, 

[sign. C. iiii. b. 
strange to wise 


A hasty man is 
always in trouble. 

Take no revenge, 
but forgive. 


himselfe can refrayne. 794 
The state of thy brother, 
not hurtyng one an other, 
contencion and enuie, 800 
of an euyll bodie. 
" The harte full of enuie, Salomon, 
no pleasure nor commo- 
ditie." 806 

[sign. C. v.] 
Envy no one. 


An ill body breeds 

The fruites of charitie, loue, and pacience. 
Cap. x. 

seketh not that to her doth belonge, 

^ But paciently a-bydinge, sustainynge rather wronge ; 
Not enuiynge, but bearinge with loue and pacience, 

So noble is her nature, 
And loue doth moue 
But malice againe 
whiche in the wicked 
Pacience thee teacheth 
where pacience and loue 
All hate and debate, 

forgeuing all ofence. 814 
the mynde to mercie, 
doth worke the contrarie. 
wyll euer beare stroke, 820 
therof to beare the yoke, 
to-gether do dwell 824 
with malice, they expell. 

The Fruits of 
Chanty, <tc. 

Charity seeketh 
not her own, 

but bears 
[sign. C. v. 6.J 

Love incites to 

Patience teaches 



Pithagoras. Loue constant and faitlifull, Pithagoras doth call 828 


To be a vertue 
Plato doth speake 
' where loue is not, 

thee Charity and Charitie to VS6 

to lead thee to These three folowinge 

Virtue's School, 

That to vertues schoole 

and thence to 
Eternal Bliss. 

Against Swear- 

Take not God's 
name in vain, 


most principal!, 
almoste in effecte 832 
no vertue is perfecte.' 
toassiste thee with his grace 
and pacience to imbrace ; 
will thee instructe, 840 
they wyll thee conducte, 
to eternall blisse 844 

continually is. 

A-gainge (so) the horrible vice of swearynge. 
Cap. xi. 

And from vertues schoole 
where incessaimt ioie 

Beware of His 


and live well in 

thy vocation. 

vaine take not 
Swere not at all 

thee! e WIU Plague The house with Plagues 
[sign. c. vi. 6.] w here othes are vsed : 

luste are his iudgementes, 
And sharper then is 
wherfore beware thou 
And learne to lyue well 
wherin that god 
Rysinge againe 
By prayer and repentance, 
Christ wolde not the death 
But rather he turne 
And so to lyue 
what better art thou 
Prouokynge his yre 
Thee for to plauge, 
Knowlage and reason 
And for to flee 
Senica doth councell thee 
Although great profite 
Pericles, whose wordes 
From sweryngadmonisheth 

[sign, C. vii.] 
What is the good 
of swearing ? 

It kindles God's 
wrath against 



the name of god ; 848 
for feare of his rod. 
he threteneth to visit 852 
they shall not escape it. 
and true is his worde, 856 
a two edged sworde ; 
his heauy indignacion, 860 
in thy vocacion 
shall thee set or call ; 864 
if it fortune to fall 
whiche is the onely waie. 
of a sinner, I saye, 870 
From his wickednesse, 
in vertue and goodnesse. 
for this thy swearyng 876 
the name of god tearyng 1 
and kyndlinge his wrath 
that geuinge the hath 
thy selfe for to rule, 884 
the thynge that is euyl. 
all swerynge to refrayne, 
by it thou mighte gaine : 
are manifesto and playne, 
thee to obstaine ; 894 



The lawe of god, 

and commaundement he God's law forbids 


[sign. 0. vii. b.] 

and so does the 
counsel of 

I haue here expreste, 900 philosophers. 

Swearynge amongst vs in no wyse wolde haue. swearing, 

The councell of philoso- 


Amongest whom sweryng was vtterly deteste ; 
Much lesse amongest chris- 

tians ought it to be vsed, 904 

But vtterly of them cleane to be refused. 

^f A-gainste the vice 

YTO filthy taulke 
* ' Thy tonge therby 
Of euery idell worde 

All men I woulde 
To god for it 
In earnest or sporte 
whiche daye to the iuste 
And to the wicked 
As we here doe, 
Vnles we repente 
If god wyll deale 
For thinges that be 
Then haue we cause 
Our lyues lewdly 
Thy tonge take hede 
From speakyng wordes 
Thy wyll and witte 
Thy mynde exercise 

of filthy talkynge. 

in no wise vse, 
for to abuse. 

an accumpte we shall 
render; 912 

tlii s sayinge to remember; 
at the generall daie 916 
we shall speake or saie ; 
shalbe most ioyfull, 920 
againe as wofull. 
so shall we receaue, 924 
and mercy of god craue. 
with vs so straight 928 
of so small waight, 
to feare and dreade, 932 
if we haue leade. 
thou doe refrayne 936 
that are moste vayne ; 
to goodnes applie, 940 
in vertuous studie. 

Against fllthy 

908 Never talk dirt. 

For every word 
we shall give 

at the Day of 
[sign. C. viii.] 

and be judged 
according to our 

Let lewd livers 
then fear. 

Keep your tongue 
from vain talking, 
[sign. C. viii. &.] 


Against laying. 

1" A-gainste the vice of lyinge. 
Capitulo .xiii. 

forge, to fayne, to flater and lye, 944 Plato. 

Eequiere diuers collours with wordes fayre and slye, 
Butthevtteraunceof truthe is so simple and playne TO speak the 



truth needs no 
therefore always 

practise it and 
speak it. 

[sign. D. i.] 
Shame is the 
reward of lying. 

Always speak the 

Who can trust a 

It a lie saves you 

[sign. D. i. b.] 
it deceives you 

A bedward 

God of mercy, 

take us into Thy 

Forgive us our 

[sigu. D. ii.] 

Deliver us from 


and our enemy 

the Devil. 

That it nedeth no studie 
wherfore saye truth, 
So shalte thou fynde 
Vse truthe, and say truth, 
For tyme of althinges 
Shame is the rewarde 
Then auoyde shame, 
A lyar by his lying 
That whan he saith truth 
Then let thy talke 
And blamed for it 
Howe maie a man 
But doubte his dedes, 
In tellyng of truth 
Where vttring of lyes 
And though a lye 
Thrise for that once 
Truste then to truth, 
And followe these pre- 
ceptes : 

T[ A praier to be 
goest to 

A Mercifull god ! 

^ And graunte vnto vs 

Into thy tuicion, 

Our bodies slepynge, 

Forgeue the offences 

A-gainste thee and our 


And graunte vs thy grace 
And that a newe lyfe 
Deliuer and defende vs 
And from the daunger 
whiche goeth a-boute 
And by his crafte 

to forge or to fayne ; 950 
how euer stand the case, 
more fauour and grace. 954 
in that thou goest aboute, 
the truthe wyll bringe out. 
For lying dewe ; 960 

and vtter wordes trewe. 
this profet doth get, 964 
no man wyll him credet ; 
with the truth agree, 968 
thou shalte neuer bee. 
a Iyer ought truste 2 972 
his woordes being vniuste. 
there lougeth no shame, 
deserueth much blame ; 
from stripes ye once saue, 
it wyll the desceue ; 982 
and neither forge nor fayne, 

from liyng do refraine. 986 

saide when thou 

heare this our requeste, 
this nighte quiet reste. 990 
oh lorde, do vs take ! 
our myndes yet maie wake, 
this daye we haue wroughte 
in worde, dede, and 
thoughts ! 998 

hense forth to flie sinne, 
we maie nowe beginne ! 
this night from all euell, 
of our enemie, the diuell, 
sekyng his praie, 1008 
whom we maie betraie. 


Assiste vs, oh lorde, with thy holy sprite, 1012 Assist us 

That valiantly against him we inaie euer fighte ; 

And winning the victorie, maie lifte vp our voice, to conquer him 

And in his strength faithfully reioice, 1018 

Saying, " to the lorde be all honour and praise and ascribe aii 

honour to Thee. 

i or his defence bothe now and alwaies ! 

^T the dutie of eche degred. (so) [sign. D. u. &.] 

Each one's Duty. 

brelely declared. 

1 VE princes, that the The Duty ot 

earth rule and gouerne, 1024 Prince8> 

Seke ye for knowledge doubtes to discerne. 

2 Ye iudges, geue iudge- judges, 

ment according to righte 1028 

As may be founde acceptable in the lordes 


3 Ye prelates, preache Prelates, 

purely the worde of our lorde, 

That your linings & 

prechinges in one maie accorde. 1034 

4 Ye fathers and mothers, so your children instructe Parents, 
As maye them to grace and uertue conducte. 1038 

5 Ye chyldren, lykewyse obey your parewtes here ; [sign. D. uu 
In all godlinesse see that ye them feare. 

6 Ye maisters, do you the thynge that is righte Masters, 
Not lokynge what ye may do by mighte. 

7 Ye seruauntes, applie your busines and arte, Servants, 
Doinge the same in singlenesse of harte. 

8 Ye husbandes, loue Husbands. 

your wyues, and with them dwell, 

All bitternesse set 

aparte, vsing wordes gentell. 1054 




The Duty of 

[sign. D. iii. b.] 

Parsons and 

Men of Law, 



9 Ye wyues, to your hus- 

bandes be obedient alwaie, 
For they are your 

heades, and ye bounde to obeie. 

10 Ye persons and vickers that haue cure and charge, 
Take hede to the same, and roue not at large. 1062 

1 1 Ye men of la we, in no wyse delaie 

The cause of the poore, but helpe what ye maie. 

12 Ye that be craftes men, vse no disceite, 1068 
Geuing to all men tale, measure, and weighte. 

13 Ye that be landlordes and haue housen to let, 
At reasonable rentes do them forth set. 1074 

[sign. D. ilil.] 


Rich Men, 

Poor Men, 

14 Ye merchauntes that 

vse the trade of merchandise, 

Vse lawfull wares and reasonable prise. 1078 

15 Ye subiectes, lyue ye in obedience and awe, 
Fearyng gods stroke, and daunger of the lawe. 

16 Ye rych, whom god hath goods vnto sente, 
Releue the poore and helpe the indigente. 

17 Ye that are poore, with your state be contente, 
!N"ot hauinge wherwith to lyue competente. 1090 



18 Ye magestrates, the 

cause of the widdow and f atherles 

Defende againste suche as shall them opresse. 

19 All ye that are called to any other office, 1 096 
Execute the same acordinge to iustice. 


20 Let eclie here so Hue in his vocacion, 1100 The Duty of 

As maie his soule saue, and profet his nacion. 

21 This graunting god, that sitteth on hie, 1102 
we shall here well lyue and after well die. woU l 

Jfamam bhiuiig mors 
lin iwquit quod, jf, t 

Imprinted at London in Paules 
Churchyearde. By willian' 


jrate-ete fjjoto % aimst tjjtt fotllt! 

0. 9. 38. Trinity College, Cambridge.} 

A man must 
mind what he 

hearts are fickle 
and fell. 

Take care what 
you say. 

A false friend may 
hear it, 

and after a year 
or two will repeat 

Hasty speech 
hurts bearer and 

In the beginning, 
think on the end. 

Almy^ty godde, conserue vs fram care ! 

Where ys thys worle A-wey y-wente ? 

A man that schold speke, had nede to be ware, 
4 ffor lytyl thyng he may be schente ; 

Tonggys beth y-turne to lyther entente ; 

Hertys, they beth bothe fykel and felle ; 

Man, be ware leste thow repente ! 
8 Whate euer thow sey, A-vyse the welle ! 

A-vyse the, man, yn whate place and whare 
A woord of conseyl thow doyst seyne ; 
Sum man may ley ther-to hys ere ; 

12 Thow wenyst he be thy frend; he ys thy foo 


Peraventor aftyr A 3ere or tweyne 
Thow trowyst as tru as eny stele, 
Thys woord yn wreth thow schalt hyre A-gayne ! 

16 Whate euer thow sey, A-vyse the welle ! 

Meny man spekyth yn hastenys : 

hyt hyndryth hym and eke hys frende ; 

hym were welle beter his tonge to sese 

20 Than they both ther-for be schende. 

Suche wordys beth not to be had yn meynde, 
hyt maky^t comforte wiih care to kele : 
Man, yn the begynnyng thenk on J>e eynde ! 

24 Whate euer thow aey, A-vyse the welle ! 



To sum man thow mayste tel a pryuy tale : 
Whan he fro the ys wente A-way, 
ffor a draw}t of wyne other ale 

28 he wolle the wrey, by my fay, 

And make hyt worse (hyt ys noo nay) 
Than euer hyt was, A thowsend dele. 
Thys ys my songe both ny^t & day, 

32 Whate euer thow sey, A-vyse the welle ! 

You tell a man a 
secret, and he'll 
betray it for a 
drink of wine. 

Mind what yon 

Be ware of bagbytynge, y the rede ; 

ley flaterynge vndyr thy foote, loke ; 

Deme the beste of euery dede 
36 Tylle trowth haue serchyd truly ))e roote ; 

Krefrayne malyce cruelle & hoote ; 

Dyscretly and wysly speende thy spelle ; 

Boost ne brage ys worth A loote ; 
40 Whate euer thow sey, A-vyse the welle ! 

Avoid backbiting 
and flattering ; 

refrain from 

and bragging. 

Dysese, wharre, sorowe and debate, 
ys caused ofte by venemys tonge ; 
haddywyst cometh euer to late 

44 Whan lewyd woordis beth owte y-spronge. 
The kocke seyth wysly on his songe 
' hyre and see, and hold the stylle,' 
And euer kepe thys lesson A-monge, 

48 Whate euer thow sey, A-vyse the welle ! 

A venomous 

tongue causes 


When words are 

said, regret In too 


Mind what you 

y dere welle swery by the sonne, 

yf euery man had thys woord yn thow^t 

Meny thynggis had neuer be by-gunne 

52 That ofte yn Ingelond hath be y-wro^t. 
The wyse man hath hys sone y-taw3tte 
yn ryches, poorte, woo, and welle , 
Thys worthy reson for-^ete thow no3t, 

66 Whate euer thow sey, A-vyse the welle ! 

Had men thought 
of this, many 
things done in 
England would 
never have been 

See "fhe Wise 
Jfan, in Babeea 
Boke, &c. p. 48. 



To speak aright 
observe six 
things : 

1. what; 2. of 
whom ; 3. where ; 

4. to whom ; 

5. why; 6. when. 

In every place 
mind what you 

Almighty God, 

grant me grace 
to serve Thee ! 

Mary, mother. 

send me grace 
night and day ! 

yf that thow wolte speke A-ry^t, 

Ssyx thynggys thow moste obserue then : 

What thow spekyst, & of what wy^t, 

60 Whare, to wham, whye, and whenne. 

Thow noost how soone thow schalt go henne ; 
As lome be meke, as serpent felle ; 
yn euery place, A-monge alle men, 

64 Whate euer thow sey, A-vyse the welle ! 

" Almy3ty god yn personys thre, 
W^t7? herte mylde mekly y praye, 
Graunte me grace thy seruant to be 

68 Yn woorde and dede euer and aye ! 
Mary, moder, blessyd maye, 
Quene of hevyn, Imperes of helle, 
Sende me grace both ny^t and daye !" 

72 Whate euer thow sey, A-vyse the welle ! 



[MS. 0. 9. 38. Trinity College, Cambridge.] 

Printed in Reliquiae Antiquse, v. i. p. 233, from MS. Lansdowne 
No. 762, fol. 16 b. 

a\ow 1 * larder> 


h so ^aaky^t at crystysmas A dogge lardyner, 
marc ^ ^- sowo g ar( iy n er, And yn may A foole 
of every wysmanys counsaylle, he schalle neuer haue 
goode larder, ne fayre gardyn, nother counsaylle welle y- 


aiims in -Ij. 

[MS. Lansdowne 762, fol. 16 b, written as prose. 
Printed in Eeliquiae Antiquse, v. i. p. 233.] 

Aryse erly, 

serue God devowtely 

and the worlde besely, 

doo thy werk wisely, 

yeue thyne almes secretely, 

goo by the waye sadly, 

answer the people demuerly, 

goo to thy mete apetitely, 

sit therat discretely, 

of thy tunge be not to liberally, 

arise therfrom temporally, 

go to thy supper soberly 

and to thy bed merely, 

be in thyn Inne iocundely, 

please thy lone duely, 

and Slope suerly. 




Wattoitb's Stortnmt. 

Fear God. 

serve your lord 

be courteous to 
your fellows. 

Despise no poor 

Carry no tales. 

Tell no lies. 

Don't play at dice 
or cards. 

With the different counsels to babees, pages, and 
servants, throughout this volume, may be compared 
Roger Ascham's advice to his brother-in-law, Mr C. H., 
when he put him to service with the Earl of Warwick, 
A.D. 1559. Here follows part of it, from Whitaker's 
Hist, of Eichmondshire, p. 282. 

First and formost, in all your thoughts, words, and 

deeds, have before your eyes the feare of God 

love and serve your lord willingly, faithfullye, and 
secretlye ; love and live with your fellowes honestly, 
quiettlye, curteouslye, that noe man have cause either to 
hate yow for your stubborne frowardnes, or to malice 
yow for your proud ungentlenes, two faults which 
commonly yonge men soones[t] fall into in great men s 
service. Contemne noe poore man, moeke noe simple 
man, which proud fooles in cort like and love to doe ; 
find fault with your selfe and with none other, the best 
waye to live honestlye and quiettly in the court. 
Carrye noe tales, be noe co??zmon teller of newes, be 
not inquisitive of other menn's talke, for those that are 
desirous to heare what they need not, commonly be 
readye to babble what they shold not. Vse not to lye, 
for that is vnhonest ; speake not everye truth, for that 
is vnneedfull ; yea, in tyme and place a harmlesse lye 
is a greate deale better then a hurtfull truth. Use not 
dyceing nor carding ; the more yow use them the lesse 
yow wilbe esteemed ; the cunninger yow be at them 


the worse man yow wilbe counted, for pastime, love 

and learne that which your lord liketh and vseth most, Tak* to your 

lord's favourite 

whether itt be rydeing, shooteing, hunting, hawkeing, sport. 

fishing, or any such exercise. Beware of secrett corners 

and night sitting vp, the two nurses of mischiefe, un- 

thrif tines, losse, and sicknes. Beware cheifely of ^ a e r g e s of 

ydlenes, the great pathway that leadeth directly to all 

evills ; be diligent alwayes, be present every where in 

your lord's service, be at hand to call others, and be not Always be at 

hand when you re 

ofte sent for yourselfe; for marke this as part of your wanted. 

creed, that the good service of one whole yeare shall 

never gett soe much as the absence of one howre may 

lose, when your lord shall stand in need of yow to send. 

if yow consider alwayes that absence and negligence 

must needes be cause of greife and sorrowe to your 

selfe, of chideing and rueing to your lord, and that 

dutye done diligently and presently shall gaine yow Diligence win get 

you praise. 

profitt, and purchase yow great praise and your lord's 

good countenance, yow shall ridd me of care, and wynne 

your selfe creditt, make me a gladdman, and* your aged 

mother a ioyfull woman, and breed your freinds great 

comforth. Soe T comitt and commend yow to God's God be with you < 

mercifull protecc/on and good guidance, who long 

preserve Your ever loving and affectionate brother in 



To my loveing Brother in Lawe, Mr C. H., Servant 
to the Rt. How. the Earle of Warwick, these. 



[MS. Earl. 5086, fol. 8690; ab. 1475 A.D.] 

My God, support 
me while I trans- 
late this treatise 
from Latin. 

It shall teach 
those of tender 

To know and 
practise virtues 
is the most pro- 
fitable thing in 
the world. 

Young Babies, 
adorned with 

I call on you to 
know this book 
(for Nurture 
should accompany 

and not on aged 
men expert 

this tretys the whiche I thenke to wryte 
Out of latyn in-to my comvne langage, 
He me supporte (sen I kan nat endyte), 
4 The whiche only after his owne ymage 

Fourmyd man-kynde ! For alle of tendre age 
In curtesye Resseyve shulle document, 
And vertues knowe, by this lytil coment. 

^f And Facett seythe the Book of curtesye, 
9 Vertues to knowe, thaym forto haue and vse, 
Is thing moste heelfulle in this worlde trevly. 
Therfore in feythe I wole me nat excuse 
12 From this labour ywys, nor hit Refuse ; 

For myn owne lernynge wole I say summe thing 
That touchis vertues and curtesye havyng. 

^[ But, yonge Babees, whome bloode Royalle 
16 Withe grace, Feture, and hyhe habylite 
Hathe enowrmyd, on yow ys that I calle 
To knowe this Book ; for it were grete pyte, 
Syn that in yow ys sette sovereyne beaute, 
20 But yf vertue and nurture were withe alle ; 
To yow therfore I speke in specyalle, 

^J" And nouhte to hem. of elde that bene expert* 
In governauwce, nurture, and honeste. 


24 For what nedys to yeve helle peynes smerte, why add pain to 

loye vnto hevene, or water vnto the see, w e ater to the sea, 

Heete to the Fyre that kan nat but hoote be ] or ^'f^ 
It nedys nouhte : therfore, Babees yynge, 

, Babies, my book 

28 My Book only is made for youre lernynge. is f or you on iy, 

f Therfore I pray that no man Keprehende 
This lytyl Book, the whiche for yow I make ; 
But where defaute ys, latte ylke man amende, 
32 And nouhte deme yt ; [I] pray thaym for youre 

For other mede y wys I kepe rioone take The only reward 

I seek is that my 

But that god wolde this Book myhte yche man book may please 

all and improve 
plese, you. 

And in lernynge vnto yow do/me somme ese. 

^f Eke, swete children, yf there be eny worde K you don't know 

37 That yee keraie nouhte, spyrre whils yee yt ken ; 

Whawne yee yt knowe, yee mowe holde yt in and then keep 

hold of it. 


Thus thurhe spyrryng yee mowe lerne at wyse 

40 Also thenke nouhte to straungely at my penne. And do not won- 

der at this being 
In this metre for yow lyste to precede, in metre. 

Men vsen yt ; therfore on hit take hede. 
5f "But amonge alle that I thenke of to telle, I must first 

describe how you 

44 My purpos ys first only forto trete Babies who dwell 

How yee Babees in housholde that done duelle should behave at 
Shulde haue youre sylf wheTine yee be sette at 

And how yee shulde, whewne men lyste yow Re- and be ready with 

' lovely and 

hete, benign words 

48 Haue wordes lovly, swete, bleste, and benyngne. 
In this helpe me Marie, Modir dyngne ! 

^f And eke, lady myn, Facecia ! Lady Faoetia, 

My perme thow guyde, and helpe vnto me shewe j 



[Fol. 87.] 
Thou art the 
Mother of all 

Help the ignor- 
ance of me 
untaught ! 

52 For as the firste off alle lettres ys the A, 
So Artow firste Modir of alle vertue. 
Off myn vnkimnynge, swete lady, now Rewe ; 
And thouhe vntauhte I speke of governance, 

56 Withe thy swete helpe supporte myn ygnor- 

Fair Babies, 
when you enter 
your lord's place, 
say " God speed," 

and salute all 

Kneel on one 
knee to your lord. 

A Bele Babees, herkne now to my lore ! 
** Whewne yee entre into jour lordis place, 
Say first, " god spede ; " And alle that ben by- 

GO Yow in this stede, salue withe humble Face ; 
Stert nat Rudely ; komme Inne an esy pace ; 
Holde vp youre heede, and knele but on oone 

To youre sovereyne or lorde, whedir he be. 

If any speak to 
you, look straight 
at them, and listen 
well till they have 
finished; do not 
chatter or let 

your eyes wander 
about the house. 

^[ And yf they speke withe yow at youre komynge, 
65 "Withe stable Eye loke vpone theym Rihte, 
To theyre tales and yeve yee goode herynge 
Whils they haue seyde ; loke eke withe alle 

jour myhte 
68 Yee Tangle nouhte, also caste nouhte yowr 


Aboute the hovs, but take to theym entent 
Withe blythe vysage, and spiryt diligent. 


shortly, and 

[Pol. 87 6.] 

Many words are 
a bore to a wise 

^f Who/me yee Answere or speke, yee shulle be 


72 What yee shalle say / speke eke thing fructuous ; 
On esy wyse latte thy Resone be sayde 
In wordes gentylle and also compendious, 
For many wordes ben rihte Tedious 
76 To ylke wyseman that shalle yeve audience ; 
Thaym to eschewe therfore doo diligence. 


Take eke noo seete, but to stonde be yee prcste : stand tm you are 

told to sit : keep 

Whils forto sytte ye haue in komaiwdement, 

80 Youre heede, youre hande. yow? feet, holde yee 

J hands, and feet 

inreste; qiet: 

Nor thurhe clowyng, jour flesshe loke yee nat don>t scratch 

Lene to no poste whils that ye stande present or lean against a 


Byfore jour lorde, nor handylle ye no tliyng 

84 Als for that tyme Vnto the hOYS touching. or handle any- 

thing near. 

^F At euery tyme obeye vnto youre lorde Bow to y ur lord 

when you answer. 

Wheraie yee answere, ellis stonde yee styl as 


But yf he speke ; loke withe oon accorde 
88 That yf yee se komme Inne eny persone if any one better 

than yourself 

Better thawne yee, that yee goo bak anoone coraes in retire 

and give place to 

And gyff him place ; youre bak eke in no way him. 
Turne on no wihte. as ferforthe as ye may. Turn y ur back 

on no man. 

Yiff that youre lorde also yee se drynkynge, 

93 Looke that ye be in rihte stable sylence Be silent while 

your lord drinks, 

Withe-oute lowde lauhtere or langelynge, not laughing, 

' whispering, or 

liovnynge, lapynge, or other insolence. joking. 
96 Yiff he komauwde also in his presence 

Yow forto sytte, fulfill* his wylle belyve, e ** J o ou so to at 

And for youre seete, looke nat withe other stry ve, once - 

^[ Whewne yee er sette, take noone vnhoneste tale ; Jjfj^^jjj^y 
1 00 Eke forto skorne eschewe withe alle y our myhte ; C FoL 88 -3 

' one, but be meek 

Latte ay youre chere be lowly, blythe, and and cheerful. 


Withe-oute chidynge as that yee wolde fyhte. 

Yiff yee perceyve also that eny wihte if your better 

praises you, 

104 Lyst yow kommende that better be thawne yee, 

Ryse vp anoone, and thanke him withe herte rise up and thank 

J him heartily. 




When your lord 
or lady is speak- 
ing about the 

don't you inter- 

hut be always 
ready to serve at 
the proper time, 

to bring drink, 
hold lights, or 

anything else, 

and so get a good 


The best prayer 

you can make to 

God is to be well 


If your lord offers 
you his cup, 

rise up, take it 
with both hands, 

offer it to no one 
elae, but give it 
bark to him that 
brought it. 
[Fol. 88 o.] 

At Noon, when 
your lord is ready 
for dinner, 
[ihelde, pour out; 
A.S. hyldan, to 
incline, bend.] 
some pour water 
on him, some hold 
the towel for him 
till he has 
finished, and 
don't leave till 
grace is said. 

^[ Yif that yee se youre lorde or youre lady 
Touching the housholde speke of eny thiiige, 

108 Latt theym alloone, for that is curtesy, 

And entremete yow nouhte of theyre doynge, 
But be Ay Redy withe-oute feynyuge 
At hable tyme to done jour lorde service, 

112 So shalle yee gete anoone a name of price. 

^f Also to brynge drynke, holde lihte whawne tyme 


Or to doo that whiche ouhte forto be done, 
Looke yee be preste, for so yee shalle ywys 
116 In nurture gete a gentyl name ful sone ; 
And yif ye shulde at god aske yow a bone 
Als to the worlde, better in noo degre 
Mihte yee desire thawne nurtred forto be. 

^1 Yif that youre lorde his owne coppe lyste com- 


121 To yow to drynke, ryse vp whawne yee it take, 
And resseyve it goodly withe boothe youre 


Of yt also to noone other profre ye make, 
124: But vnto him that brouhte yt yee hit take 

Whewne yee haue done, for yt in no kyn wyse 
Auhte comvne be, as techis vs tLe wyse. 

^[ Now must I telle in shorte, for I muste so, 
128 Youre observance that ye shalle done at none ; 
Whercne that ye se youre lorde to mete shalle 


Be redy to fecche him water sone ; 
Summe helle l water ; suwme holde to he hathe 


132 The clothe to him ; And from him yee nat pace 
Whils he be sette, and haue herde sayde the 



^f Byfore him stonde whils he komauwde yow sytte, stand byyour 

Withe clene handes Ay Redy him to serve ; you to sit, 
136 Whewne yee be sette, jour knyf withe alle jour then keep your 

J knife clean and 

WVtte sharp 

Vnto youre sylf bothe clene and sharpe con- 

That honestly yee mowe jour owne mete kerve. to cut your food. 
Latte curtesye and sylence withe yow duelle, fie gilent) and teU 
140 And foule tales looke noona to other telle. no nast/stories. 

^[ Kutte withe jour knyf jour brede, and breke cut your bread, 

don't break it. 

yt nounte ; 

A clene Trenchour byfore yow eke ye lay, Lay a clean 

And whewne yowr potage to yow shalk be 


144 Take yow sponys, and soupe by no way, don't sup it up. 

And in youre dysshe leve nat jour spone, I Don't leave your 

spoon in your 
pray, dish. 

Nor on the borde lenynge be yee nat sene, Don't lean on the 

But from embrowyng the clothe yee kepe clene. cloth. 

^f Oute ouere youre dysshe jour heede yee nat Don't hang your 

head over your 
nynge, dish, or eat with 

149 And withe fulle mouthe drynke in no wyse j 

Youre nose, yo^r teethe, jour naylles, from pick your nose, 

teeth, and nails, 


Kepe At your inete, for so techis the wyse. [Foi. 89.] 

152 Eke or ye take in youre mouthe, yow avyse, 

So mekyl mete but that yee rihte welle mowe or 8tu 5 you . r 

mouth so that 

Answere, And speke, whewne men speke to yow. you can't speak. 

If Whawne ye shalle drynke, jour mouthe clence wipe your mouth 

when you drink, 

withe A clothe ; 
156 Youre handes eke that they in no manere and don>t dirt y 

the cup with your 

Imbrowe the cuppe, for tha?me shulle noone be hands. 



Don't dip your 
meat in the salt- 


Withe yow to drynke that ben withe yow yfere. 
The salte also touche nat in his salere 
Withe nokyns mete, but lay it honestly 
On youre Trenchoure, for that is curtesy. 

or put your knife 
in your mouth. 

Taste every dish 
that's brought to 
you, and when 
once your plate is 
taken away, don't 
ask for it again. 

^[ Youre knyf withe mete to jour mouthe nat here, 
And in youre hande nor holde yee yt no way ; 

164 Eke yf to yow be brouhte goode metys sere, 
Luke curteysly of ylke mete yee assay, 
And yf your dysshe withe mete be tane away 
And better brouhte, curtesye wole certeyne 

168 Yee late yt passe and calle it nat ageyne. 

If strangers dine 
with you, share 
all good food sent 
to you with them. 

It's not polite to 
keep it all to 

1" And yf st?*aungers withe yow be sette at mete, 
And vnto yow goode mete be brouhte or sente, 
Withe parte of hit goodely yee theym Rehete, 
172 For yt ys nouhte ywys convenyent 

Withe yow at mete, whawne other ben present, 
Alle forto holde that vnto yow ys brouhte, 
And as wrecches on other vouchesauf nouhte. 

[Fol. 89 &.] 
Don't cut your 
meat like field 
labourers, who 
have such an 
appetite they 
don't care how 
they hack their 

Sweet children, 
let your delight 
be courtesy, and 
eschew rudeness. 

Tf Kutte nouhte youre mete eke as it were Felde 

177 That to theyre mete haue suche an appetyte 

That they ne rekke in what wyse, where ne 


Nor how vngoodly they on theyre mete twyte ; 
180 But, swete children, haue al-wey jour delyte 
In curtesye, and in verrey gentylnesse, 
And at youre myhte eschewe boystousnesse. 

Have a clean 
trencher and 
knife for 
your cheese, 

and eat properly. 

Tf Whawne chese ys brouhte, A Trenchoure ha ye 

184 On whiche withe clene knyf [ye] jour chese 

niowe kerve ; 
In youre fedynge luke goodly yee be sene. 


And from langelyng jour tunge al-wey conserve, Don't chatter 

either, and you 

For so ywys yee shalle a name deserve shall get a good 

188 Off gentylnesse and of goode governance, gtntiene^s. 

And in vertue al-wey youre silf avauwce. 

1 Whanne that so ys that ende shalle kome of wjen the meal to 

Youre knyffes clene, where they ouhte to be, dean your knives, 

and put them in 

192 Luke yee putte vppe ; and holde eke yee jour their places: keep 

your seats till 
86616 you've washed; 

Whils yee haue wasshe, for so wole honeste. 
"Whewne yee haue done, looke thawie goodly 

that yee 

Withe-oute lauhtere, lapynge, or boystous worde, JffcJjJ^JJ 11 '" 
196 Eyse vppe, and goo vnto youre lordis horde, 


Tf And stonde yee there, and passe yee him nat stand there 


AVhils grace ys sayde and brouhte vnto an ende, till grace is said. 
Thawne somme of vow for water owe to goo. Then some of 

you go for water, 

200 Somme holde the clothe, somme poure vpon some hold the 

towel, some 
hlS hende. pour water over 

Other service thamie this I myhte comende [Foi. 90.] 

To yow to done, hut, for the tyme is shorte, shaiTnot'pS in 
I putte theym nouhte in this lytyl Eeporte, this little Report ' 

IT But oiwe I passe, prayyng withe spyrit gladde but ski P vcr 

praying that no 

205 Of this labour that no wihte me detray, one win abuse 

me for this work. 

.But where to lytyl ys, latte him more adde, Let readers add or 

And whe/me to myche ys, latte him take away ; 
208 For thouhe I wolde, tyme wole that I no more say ; JS n c e ^ c t it 
I leve therfore, And this Book I directe 
To euery wihte that lyste yt to correcte. 

TJ" And, swete children, for whos love now I write, Sweet children 

I beseech you 

212 1 yow beseche withe verrey lovande herte, 




know this book, 
and may God 
make you so 
expert therein 

that you may 
attain endless 

To knowe this book that yee sette your delyte ; 
And myhtefulle god, that suffred peynes smerte, 
In curtesye he make yow so experte, 
216 That thurhe your nurture and youre governauwce 
In lastynge blysse yee mowe yowr self auauwce ! 


n to ftttto. 

[Fol. 90 b.] 
Don't be too 
loving or angry, 
bold or busy, 
courteous or cruel 
or cowardly, and 
don't drink too 

or be too lofty or 

but friendly of 


Hate jealousy, 

be not too hasty 
or daring ; 

joke not too oft; 

ware knavea* 

Don't be too 
grudging or too 

too meddling, 

too particular, 
or too daring. 
Hate oaths 

To Amerous, to Aunterous, ne Angre the nat to 

muche ; 

To Bolde, ne to Besy, ne Bourde nat to large ; 
To Curteys, to Cruelle, ne Care nat to sore ; 
4 To Dulle, ne to Dredefulle, ne Drynke nat to 

To Elenge, to Excellent, ne to Careful le ney- 


To Fers, ne to Famuler, but Frendely of Chere; 
To gladde, ne to Glorious, and Gelousy thow 

hate ; 
8 To Hasty, to Hardy, ne to Hevy in thyn 

Herte ; 
To lettyng, ne to langelyng, and lape nat to 

To Kynde, ne to Kepyng, and warre Knavis 

To Lothe, ne to Lovyng, ne to Lyberalle of 

goode ; 
12 To Medlous, to Mury, but as goode Maaer 

askithe ; 

To noyous, ne to Nyce, ne to Newfangylle ; 
To Qrped, to Overtwert, and Othes, sir, thow 



To Preysyng, to Preve withe Prynces and and flattery. 

Dukes ; 
16 To Queynt, to Querelous, and Queme welle ^ 8 a t s e e r wel1 tby 

thy maistre ; 
To Eiotous. to Kevelyug, ne Rage nat to Don't be too 


muche ; 
To Strauwge, ne to Steryng, ne Stare nat u g c outto 

abroode ; 
To Toyllous, to Talevys, for Temperauwce it Don't be 

hatithe ; 
20 To Vengable, to Envious, and waste nat to too revengeful 

muche ; 
To Wylde, to Wrathefulle, and Wade nat to or wrathful, 

and wade not too 

depe ; diep. 

A ivr i i TI/T IP 11 The middle path 

A JVlesurable Mene way ys beste lor vs alle ; i s the best for ua 


^[ Yitte. Lerne. or. Be. Lewde. 

[A Dietary given 'vnto Kyng Herry vte' 'by Sigismounde, 
Empmrar of Rome,' follows, leaf 91. The colophon (leaf 98, back) 
is ' IT Thus endithu this Dyetarye Compyled And made by Plato 
and Petrus Lucratus, Grete Philosophers and Astronomers.'] 

A complete copy of the A B C Alliterative Poem of which the 
foregoing LERNE OB BE LEWPE is a fragment, occur& in the Lambeth 
MS. 853, and is therefore added here. 


% of 

[Lambeth MS. 853, db. 1430 A.D., ^a#e 30, written 
without breaJcs.] 

Yi ho-so wilnef to be wijs, & worschip desirij), 
Lerne lie oo lettir, & looke on anothir 
Of J)e .a. b. c. of aristotil : argue not a^en J>at : 
4 It is couwcel for ri^t manye clerkis & kny^tis a 

And eek it my^te ameende a man fill ofte 
For to leerne lore of oo lettir, & his lijf saue ; 
For to myclie of ony Jjing was neuere holsum, 
8 Reede ofte on ])is rolle, & rewle J>ou Jjer aftir ; 
Wlio-so be greued in his goost, gouerne him 

bettir ; 

Blame he not fe barn Jjat ]?is .a. b. c. made, 
But wite he his wickid will & his werk aftir ; 
12 It schal neuere greue a good man Jjou^ fe gilti 

be meendid. 
Now herkenej) & heerij? how y bigymie. 

A to amerose, to auwterose, ne argue not to myche. 

Jj to bolde, ne to bisi, ne boorde not to large. 

I/ to curteis, to cruel, ne care not to sore. 

JJ to dul, ne to dreedful, ne drinke not to ofte. 

to elenge, ne to excellent, ne to eernesful neijjer. 

f to fers, ne to famuler, but freendli of cheere. 

O to glad, ne to gloriose, <fe gelosie ]>ou hate. 


11 to hasti, ne to hardi, ne to heuy in Jrine herte. 

1 to iettynge, ne to iangelinge, ne iape not to ofto. 

Jv to kinde, ne to kepynge, & be waar of knaue tacchis. 

Li to looth for to leene, ne to liberal of goodis. 

JTi. to medelus, ne to myrie, but as mesure wole it meeue. 

JN to noiose, ne to nyce, ne use no new iettis. 

vl to orped, ne to ouerjjwart, & oobis bou hate. 

P to presing, ne to praiy with pn'ncis ne with dukis ; 

tj to queynte, ne l to quarelose, but queeme weel ^oure souereyns. 

R to riotus, to reueling, ne rage not to rudeli. 

S to straurzge, ne to stirynge, ne strauwgeli to stare. 

T to toilose, ne to talewijs, for temperauwce is beest. 

V to venemose, ne to vewiable, & voide al vilonye. 

Yi to wielde, ne to wrabful, neiber waaste, ne waade not to depe, 
^f Eor a mesurable meene is euere be beste of alle. 

["Whi is J?is world biloued" follows.] 

See two other copies of this A B C in Sari. MS. 541, fol. 213 and 228. 

The copy on fol. 213 has the exordium as prose, thus : "Who so wyl!0 be wyse, 
and worspyp^ to wynne, leern he on lettur, and loke vpon an other of the .A. B. C. 
of Arystotle ; nooii Argument agaynst that, ffor it is counselle for clerkts and 
knyghtw a thowsande. And also it myghte amende a meane man, fulle oft the 
lernyng of A lettur, and his lyf save. It shal not greve a good man though gylt be 
amende, rede on this ragment / and rule the therafto. The copy on fol. 228 has 
110 Introduction. 


[MS. Cott. Calig. A. n., ab. 1460 A.D., fol. 88, col. 2.] 

When yon come 
before a lord 

take off your cap 
or hood, 

and fall on your 
right knee twice 
or thrice. 

Keep your cap off 
till you're told to 
put it on ; 

hold up your 

look in the lord's 


keep hand and 

foot still; 

don't spit or snot ; 

get rid of it 
quietly ; 

behave well. 

When you go into 
the hall, 

don't press up too 

Who-so wylle of nurtur lere, 

Herken to me & ^e shalle here. 

When Jjou comeste be-fore a lorde 
4 In halle, yn bowre, or at fe horde, 

Hoode or kappe fou of J>o. 

Ere fou come hym alle vn-to, 

Twyse or f ryse with-outen dowte 
8 To fat lorde foil moste lowte, 

With f y Ry3th kne lette hit be do, 

Thy worshyp f ou mayst saue so. 

Holde of f y cappe & f y hood also 
12 Tylle f ou be byden hit on to do ; 

Alle f e whyle foil spekest wiih hym, 

Fayr & louely holde vp J>y chynw, 

So &ftur J?e nurtur of fe book 
1C In hz's face louely Jjou loke ; 

Foot & hond J?ou kepe fulle stylle 

Fro clawyng or tryppywg, hit ys skylle ; 

Fro spettyng & snetyng kepe J?e also ; 
20 Be pnuy of voydance, & lette hit go. 

And loke Jjou be wyse & felle, 

And ferto also fat fow gouerne fe welle. 

In-to fe halle when fou dost wende 
24 Amonge fe genteles gode & heride, 

Prece fou not vp to hy3 for no fywg, 

Nor for fy hy^ blood, nere for fy kownywg, 

Nofwr to sytte, nefwr to lene, 
28 For hit ys neyjmr good ne clene. 



Lette not )>y coratynaunce also abate, 

For good imitur wylle sane J>y state ; 

Fadyr & modyr, what euw fey be, 
32 Welle ys )>e chylde J?at may the : 

In halle, in chambur, ore where jjou gon, 

Nurtur & good maners make]) man. 

To ]>e nexte degre loke )>mi wysely 
36 To do hem Keue?'ence by and by : 

Do hem no B,eue?-ens, but sette alle in Howe 

But 3yf J)0u J>e bettw do hym knowe. 

To Jje mete when Jjou art sette, 
40 Fayre & honestly thow ete hyt : 

Fyrste loke Jjat \>y handes be clene, 

And J?at j?y knyf be sharpe & kene ; 

And cutte Jjy breed & alle j>y mete 
44 By^th euen as Jjou doste hit ete. 

If Jjou sytte be a worthyor man 

Then J>y self thow art on, 

Suffre hym fyrste to towche J>e mete 
48 Ere J?y self any fer-of gete ; 

To ])e beste morselle ]>ou may not stryke 

Thow} )?ou TiQiiur so welle htt lyke. 

Also kepe J?y hondys f&yre & welle 
52 Fro fylynge of the to welle, 

Ther-on )?ou shalt not ]?y nose wype ; 

Nojwr at ])y mete ]?y toth JJGU pyke ; 

To depe in j?y cuppe ])ou may not synke 
56 Thow^ Jjou haue good wylle to drynke, 

Leste Jjy eyen water fere by, 

Then ys hyt no curtesy. 

Loke yn \>y mowth be no mete 
60 When Jwu begyrcneste to dry?ike or speke ; 

Also when J>ou sest any man drynkyng 

That taketh hede of ]?y karpyng, 

Soone a-non Jwu sece Jjy tale, 
64 Whejjzw he drynke wyne or Ale. 

Don't be shame- 

Wherever you 
go, good manners 
make the man. 

Reverence your 
but treat all 
equally whom 
you don't know. 
[Fol. 86, back, 
col. 1.] 

See that your 
hands are clean, 
and your knife 

Let worthier men 
help themselves 
before you eat. 

Don't clutch at 
the best bit. 

Keep your hands 
from dirtying the 
cloth, and don't 
wipe your nose on 

or dip too deep in 
your cup. 

Have no meat m 
your mouth when 
you drink or 
speak ; and stop 
talking when your 
neighbour is 



Scorn and 

[i Marg. has grt 
for insertion.] 
reprove no man. 
[t repraue is 
written above 
the line.] 

Keep your fingers 
from what would 
bring you to grief. 

[Fol. 86, back, 
col. 2.] 

Among ladies, 
look, don't talk. 
Don't laugh loud, 
or riot with 

Don't repeat what 
you hear. 

[3 not put in by a 
later hand.] 

Words make or 
mar you. 

If you follow a 
worthier man, 
let your right 
shoulder follow 
his back, and 

don't speak till 
he has done. 

Be austere (?) in 

don't stop any 
man's tale. 

Christ gives us all 
wit to know this, 

and heaven as our 
reward. Amen I 

Loke also ]?ou skorne no mon 

In what J>e[gre] l J?ou se hym gon ; 

Nor J?ou shalte no mon Repreue 2 
68 3yf fou wylt J?y owen worshyp sane, 

For suche wordys Jwu my^th out kaste 

Sholde make J>e to lyue in euelle rcste ; 

Close J?yn honde yn J>y feste, 
72 And kepe }?e welle from hadde-y-wyste. 

In chamber among ladyes bry^th, 

Kepe Jjy tonge & spende ]>y sy^th ; 

Law^e J?ou not with no grette cry, 
76 Ne Rage J>ou not with Rybawdry. 

Pley ]>0u not but with }>y peres ; 

Ne telle J>ou not ]>at J>ou heres, 

NOT dyskeuere ]?ou not 3 ])yn owen dede 
80 For no myrth nor for no mede ; 

With fayr speche Ipou may haue ]>y wylle, 

And with ]>j speche foil may j?e spylle. 

3yf j?ou suwe a wordyer mon 
84 Then J>y self J>ou art on, 

Lette ]?y Ry^th sholdwr folow his bakke, 

For nurtwr ipat ys, w^tA-owten lakke. 

When he doth speke, holde J?e style ; 
88 When he hath don, say ]>y wylle ; 

Loke yn J?y speche fou be felle, 

And what j?ou sayste a-vyse ])e welle ; 

And be-refe Jjou no mon h-/s tale, 
92 Nojwr at wyne nere at Ale. 

Now, m'ste of hi's grette grace 

3eue vs alle bothe wytte & space 

Welle JMS to knowe & Rede, 
96 And heuen to haue for our mede ! 

Amen, Amen, so moot hit be, 

So saye we alle fbr charyte ! 



264 1 

Cfre $0ra jrefo fast 

[Porkington MS. No. 10, /oZ. 202; ?a&. 1460-70 A.D.] 

Hey, hey, hey, hey, J?e borrys hede is armyd gay ! ] 

The boris hede irc hond I bryng 

W/tt garlond gay in porttoryng. 

I pray yow all w*tt me to synge P"oi. 202 t>.j 

Witt hay. 

^["[j" Lordys, kny^ttzs, and skyers, 
Persons, prystis and wycars, 
The boris hede ys J?e fur[s]t mes, 

Witt hay. 
^[^| The boris hede, as I yow say, 

He talus his leyfe, & gothe his way 
Son aft?jr ]>e xij theylffyt day, 

Witt hay. 

Tffl Thew coramys in be secund kowrs m'th mekyll 


be cranms & be heyrrouws, be byttwris by be syde, 
be partrychys & ]?e plowers, j>e wodcokis & J>e 

Witt hay. 

^J"^[ Larkys i?z hoot schow, 2 ladys for to pyk, 
Good drynk Jjerto, lycyvs and fyn, 
Blwet of allmayn, 3 romnay and wyin, 

Wttt hay. 

^j^[ Gud 4 bred, alle & wyin, daer I well say, 
J) e boris hede witt musterd armyd soo gay, 
^f^f furmaTite to podtage, 5 witt wewnissuw fyn, 

& f e hombuls of ])e dow, & all fat euer commis in, 
^[^[ Cappons I-bake witt J} e pesys of ]? e roow, 
Reysons of corrans, witt odyre spysis moo, 

1 "When you print I recommend that the first line of the MS. 
* Hey, hey,' &c. should stand alone in two lines. They are the 
burthen of the song, and were a sort of accompaniment, or under- 
song, sung throughout, while an upper voice sang the words and 
tune. You will see numbers of the same kind in Wright's Songs 
and Carols printed by the Percy Society. It was common in the 
14th and 15th centuries." WM. CHAPPELL. 

This Carol is printed in Reliq. Antiq., vol. ii., and is inserted 
here copied from and read with the MS. to fill up a blank page. 
The title is mine. 

2 ? sewe, stew. 3 ? the name of a wyne. Recipes for 
the dish Brouet of Almayne (H. 0.), Brewet of Almony, Breuet de 
Almonde, are in Household Ordinances, p. 456 ; Forme of Cury, 
p 29, and Liber Cure Cocorum, p. 12. * ? MS. End. 

6 Recipe for Potage de Frumenty in. Household Ordinances, p. 425 




[7/rtrZ. MS. 541, /oZ. 210 ; and Egerton Mf.>. 1995 ; 
db. 1480 A.D.] 

Clerks say that 

courtesy came 
from heaven when 
Gabriel greeted 
our Lady. 

All virtues are 
included in it. 

See that your 
hands and nails 
are clean. 

Don't eat till 
grace is said, 

or sit down till 
you're told. 

First, think on 
the poor ; the 
full belly wots 
not what the 
hungry feels. 

Don't eat too 




Lytylle childrene, here ye may lere 
Moche curtesy )>at is wrytyne here ; 
For clerk/s that the vij arte} cunne, 
Seyn ' )>at curtesy from hevyn come 
Whan Gabryelle oure lady grette, 
And Elizabeth with mary motte. 
Alle vertues arne 2 closide yn curtesye, 
And alle vices yn vylonye. 
Loke Jjyne hondw be 3 wasshe clene, 
That no fylthe on 4 thy nayles be sene. 
Take J?ou no mete tylle grace 5 be seyde, 
And tylle fou see alle thyng arayede. 
Loke, my son, j?at thow not sytte 
Tylle ]>e ruler of )?e hous the bydde ; 6 
And at thy 7 mete, yn \e begynnyng, 
Loke on 8 pore men that thow thynk, 
For the fulle wombo wit/iout [ 9 any faylys] 
Wot fulle lytyl [ 9 what the hungery aylys.] 
Ete [ 9 not thy mete to hastely, 
A-byde and ete esely. 

2 ben closyde 

1 Egerton MS. 1995, Synne 

3 that thy hondys benne 4 in 

6 the halle the bytte 7 Atte the 

9 The parts between square brackets [ ] are from the Egerton MS. 

6 the fyrste gracys 
8 a-pon (and omits that) 


[From the Ashmolean MS. 61 (Bodleian Library), 
ab. 1500 A.D.,/0?. 20.] 

Who so euer wylle thryue or the, 

Muste vertus lerne, & cwrtas be j 

Fore who in jowthe no vertus vsythe, 
4 Yn Age All men hym refusythe. 

Clerkys J?at cawne J>e scyens seuene, 

Seys ]?at cw?*tasy came fro heue/i 

When gabryell owre lady grette, 
8 And ely^abeth wit/i here mette. 

All vertus he closyde in czrtasy, 

And Alle vyces \n vilony. 

Aryse he tyme oute of thi hedde, 
12 And hlysse Jji hrest & thi forhede, 

Than wasche thi hondes & thi face, 

Kerne J?i hede, & Aske god grace 

The to helpe in All J>i werkes ; 
16 Thovv schall spede better what so J>ou carpes. 

Than go to }>e chyrche, & here A messe, 

There aske mersy fore Jji trespasse. 

To whom J?ou metys come by J?e weye, 
20 Curtasly * gode morne ' ]?ou sey. 

When J>0u hast done, go breke thy faste 

With mete & drynke of gode repaste : 

Blysse }>i mouthe or Jjou it ete, 
24 The better schalle be })i dyete. 

Whoever will 
thrive, must be 
courteous, and be- 
gin in his youth. 

Courtesy came 
from heaven, 

and contains all 
virtues, as rude- 
ness does all 

Get up betimes ; 
cross yourself; 

wash your hands 
and face ; comb 
your hair ; say 
your prayers ; 

go to church and 
hear Mass. 

Say ' Good Morn- 
ing ' to every one 
you meet. 

Then have 

first crossing 
your mouth. 



Touch nothing 
till you are fully 

Don't break your 
bread in two, 

or put your pieces 
in your pocket, 

your fingers in 
the dish, 

or your meat in 
the salt-cellar. 

[Fol. 210, back.] 

Don't pick your 
ears or nose, 

or drink with 
your mouth full, 

or cram it full. 

Don't pick your 
teeth with your 

Take your spoon 
out when you've 
finished soup. 

Don't spit over 
or on the table, 
that's not proper. 

Don't put your 

elbows on the 


or belch as if you 

had a bean in 

your throat. 

Be careful of good 

Tyile f ou haue thy fulle seruyse, 

Touche noo messe in noo wyse. 

Kerue not thy brede to thynne, 
24 Ne breke hit not on twynne : 

The mosselle that f ou begynnysse to touche, 

Cast them not in thy pouche. 

Put not thy fyngerys on thy dysche, 
28 Nothyr in flesche, nothyr in fysche. 

Put not thy mete in-to the salte,. 

In-to thy Seler that thy salte halte,] 

But ley it fayre 1 on f i trenchers 
32 The byfore, 2 and fat is f yne honore. 

Pyke not f yne Eris ne thy nostrelKs ; 

If 3 f ou do, men wolle sey f 011 come of cherKs. 4 

And 5 whylle f i mete yn f i mouth is, 
36 Drynk f ow not ; for-gete not this. 

Ete f i mete by smalle mosselles ; 

Eylle not thy mouth as done 6 brothellw. 

Pyke not f i tethe with thy knyfe ; 
40 In no company begynne f ow stryfe. 7 

And whan f ou hast f i potage doone, 8 

Out of thy dyssh f ow put thi spone. 

Ne spitte f ow not 9 over the 10 tabylle, 
44 Ne therupon, for that is no fing abylle. 11 

Ley not f yne Elbowe nor 12 thy f^ r st 

Vpon the tabylle whyhs fat thow etist. 13 

Bulk not as a Beene were yn fi throte, 
48 [As a kajrle fat comys oute of a cote. 

[ 14 And thy mete be o]f grete pryce, 

[Be ware of hyt, or f ou arte n]ot wyse. 

[Speke noo worde stylle ne sterke ; 

1 Egerton MS. omits fayre 2 To-fore the 3 And 

4 comyste of karlys 6 But 6 dothe 

7 Whyle J?ou ettyste by thy lyffe 8 Idone * Spette not 

10 thy n Nor a-pon hyt, for hyt ys not able 12 nothyr 

13 whyle Jjou este 
14 The parts between square brackets [ ] are from the Egerton MS. 



Be-fore j>i mete sey J>ou J>i grace, 
Yt ocupys bot lytell space ; 
Fore oure mete, & drynke, & vs, 

28 Tlianke we owre lord Ihesus ; 
A pate?' noster & Aue mary 
Sey fore )>e saulys ]>at in peyne ly ; 
Than go labowr as f ou arte bownde, 

32 And be not Idylle in no stounde : 
Holy scryptowr ]>us it seyth 
To ))e ]>at Arte of cristen feyth, 
" YiFe ])<9U labowr, pou muste ete 

36 That with Jji hondes Jwu doyste gete ; " 
A byrde hath wenges forto fle, 
So man hath Amies laboryd to be. 
Luke ))0u be trew in worde & dede, 

40 Yn Alle J>i werkes ty&n schall J)ou spede : 
Treuth wyt neuer his master schame, 
Yt kepys hym out offe syraie & blame. 
The weys to heuew jjei bene Ipus tweyne, 

44 Mercy & treuthe, As clerkes seyne ; 
Who so wyll come to j>e lyfe of blysse, 
To go ]?e weys he may not mysse. 
Make no prornys bot it be gode, 

48 And kepe J>ou it with myght & mode ; 
Fore euery promys, it is dette, 
That with no falsed muste be lette. 
God & ))i neybores lufe all wey ; 

52 Welle is J>e, than may J?ou sey, 
Fore so jjou kepys All j)e lawe 
With-oute Any fere, drede, or awe. 
Vn-callyd go J>ou to no counselle ; 

56 That longer to ])e, with J?at thow melle. 
Scorne not j?e pore, ne hurte no mane ; 
Lerne of hy?ft ]?t the teche cane ; 
Be no glosere nor no mokere, 

60 N"e no seruawtes no wey lokere. 

Say grace, 

thank Jesus for 
your food, 

and say an Ave 

for the souls in 


Then set to work, 

and don't be idle. 

Scripture tells 

if you work, you 
must eat what 
you get with your 

Be true in word 
and deed ; 

truth keeps a man 
from blame. 
Mercy and Truth 
are the two ways 
to heaven, 

fail not to go by 

Make only proper 
promises, and 
keep them 

without falsehood. 

Love God and 
your neighbours, 

and so fulfil all 
the Law. 

Meddle only with 
what belongs to 

Scorn not the 
poor j 

flatter no one ; 
oppress (?) not 



and be courteous 
and cheerful. 

Don't whisper in 
any man's ear. 
Take your food 
with your fingers, 
and don't waste it. 
Don't grin, or 
talk too much, 

or spill your food. 

Keep your cloth 
before you. 
[Fol. 207.] 

Cut your meat, 
don't bite it. 

Don't open your 
mouth too wide 
when you eat, 

or blow in your 


If your lord 

drinks, always 

wait till he has 


Keep your 
trencher dean. 

Drink behind no 
man's back. 

Don't rush at 
the cheese, 

or throw your 
bones on the floor. 

52 And honowre and curtesy loke J?ou kepe, 

And at the tabylle loke bou make goode chere ; 

Loke bou rownde not in nomannys ere. 

With thy fyngerys bmi towche and taste 
56 Thy mete ; And loke bmi doo noo waste. 

Loke bou laughe not, nor grenne ; 

And with moche speche J>ou rnayste do synne. 

Mete ne drynke loke bou ne spylle, 
60 But sette hit downe fayre and sty lie.] 

Kepe thy cloth clene the byforne, 

And here the so l thow haue no scorne. 

Byte not J>i mete, but kerve it 2 clene, 
64 Be welle ware no 3 drop be sene. 

Whan bou etyst, gape not to wyde 

That bi mouth "be sene on yche a 4 syde. 

And son, beware, I rede, of 5 on thyng, 
68 Blow^neber 6 yn thi mete nor yn bi 7 drynk. 

And yif thi lord drynk at jjat tyde, 

Drynk bou not, but hym abyde ; 

Be it at Evyne, be it at noone, 8 
72 Drynk bou not tylle he haue done. 

Vpon bi trencher no fyllthe Jjou see, 9 

It is not honest, as I telle the ; 

Ne drynk 10 behynde no mannes bakke, 
76 For yf J?ou do, thow art to lakke.' 1 

And chese come forthe, 12 be not to gredy, 13 

NQ cutte bow not therof to hastely. 14 

Caste not bi bones ynto the flore, 
80 But ley bem 15 fayre on bi trenchore. 

Kepe clene bi cloth byfore be 1G alle ; 

1 that 2 cut hit 8 that noo 

4 he in euery 6 he ware of 6 \>on not 7 mete not 

8 morowe, (and omits next line.) 9 he sene 
10 Drynke )>ou not " hlame 12 hy-fore the 

13 re( jy u TO cut there-of he not to gredy. 15 hem 

16 ) omitted. 
The parts between square brackets [ ] are from the Egerton MS. 



Be not prowd, hot nieke & lynd, 
And with thi better go J>ou be-liynd. 
When }>i better schewys his wylle, 

64 To he haue seyd jjou muste be sty lie. 
When J>0u spekes to Any mane, 
Hande, fote, & fynger, kepe jjou styll fan, 
And hike Jwu vppe in to his face, 

68 And cwrtase be in euery place. 

With Jji fynger schew Jwu no thynge, 
Nor be not lefe to telle tydinge. 
Yff Any man sey welle of J?e, 

72 Or of thi frendes, thankyd muste be. 
Haue few wordes, & wysly sette, 
Fore so J>ou may thi worschyppe gete. 
Vse no suerynge nojjer lyenge, 

76 Yn thi sellynge & thi byenge, 
Fore & jjou do Jou arte to blame, 
And at )>e last Jjou wylle haue schame. 
Gete ]ri gowd with trewe[t]h & wy?ine, 

80 And kepe J)e out of dette & sywne. 
Be loth to greue, & leffe to pies ; 
Seke j>e pes, & lyfe in es. 
Ofife whome Jjou spekes, where & when, 

84 A-vyse ]>e welle, & to what men. 
When J>ou commys vn to A dore, 
Sey "god be here," or Jjou go ferre : 
We?--euer jjou commys, speke honestly 

88 To ser or dame, or )?er meny. 

Stand, & sytte not furth-wft/i-alle 
Tylle he byde J>e }?at rewlys )?e halle ; 
Where he bydis, \er must pou sytte, 

92 And fore none ojjer change ne flyte ; 
Sytt vp-ryght And honestly, 
Ete & drinke, & be feleyly, 
Parte with hem J?at sytes fe by, 

96 Thus teches )>e dame cwrtasy. 

Be meek, 

and wait till your 
better has spoken. 

When you speak 
to a man, keep 
still, . 

and look him in 
the face. 

Don't be a 
Thank all who 
speak well of you. 

Use few words ; 

don't awear or lie 
in your dealings. 

Earn money 
honestly, and keep 
out of debt. 

Try to please; 
seek peace ; 

mind whom you 
speak to and what 
you say. 

Wherever you 
enter, say " God 
be here," 

and speak 
courteously to 
master and man. 

Stand till you are 
told to sit at meat, 

and don't leave 
your seat before 

Sit upright; 

be sociable, 
and share with 
your neighbours. 

27 i 


Bit still till grace 
is said and you've 
wauhed your 

and don't spit in 
the basin. 

Rise quietly, '" 
don't jabber, but 

[Fol. 207, back.] 

thank your host 
and all the 

and then men will 


'A gentleman was 

here ! ' 

He who despises 

this teaching 

isn't fit to sit at a 

good man's table. 

Children, love this 
little book, and 

pray that Jesus 
may help its 
author to die 
among his friends, 
and not be 
troubled with 

And sit fou stylle, what so be-falle, 1 
Tylle grace be said vnto J>e ende, 

84 And tylle Jjou haue wasshen with J)i frend. 
Let the more worthy ban 2 thow 
Wassh to-fore 3 be, & that is bi prow j 
And spitte not yn 4 bi basyne, 

88 My swete son, bat bow wasshist yne ; 
And aryse up soft & stylle, 5 
And iangylle nether with lak ne lylle, 
But take bi leve of the hede 6 lowly, 

92 And bank hym with thyne hert hyghly, 
And alle be gentylKs 7 togydre yn -same, 
And bare the so 8 thow haue no blame ; 
Than men wylle 9 say therafter 

96 That a gentylleman was heere. 

And he fat dispiseth this techyng, 
He is not worthy, w^t^oute lesyng, 
Nether at 10 good mannes tabulle to n sitte, 
100 !N"er 12 of no worships for to \vytte. 

And therfore, chyldren, for 13 charyte, 
Louyth this boke though yt lytil be ! u 
And pray for hym Jjat made it thus, 15 
104 That hym may helpe swete Ihestts 
To lyve & dye among his frendes, 
16 And neuer to be combred with no fendes ; 

1 stylle wtUalle 2 thenne 

3 by-fore * Spete not on (and omits next line.) 

5 And ryse wzt/i hym that sate with the stylle, 
And thanke hym fayre and welle : 
Aftyr, langely not with lacke ne gylle. 
6 lorde 7 \>e gentylles omitted. 8 soo that 

9 wylle they sey 10 Neuyr at a u for to 

12 Nothyr ia pur 

" Lernythe thys boke that ys callyd Edyllys be 
15 made thys 
i-ie ^ n( j vs graunte in loy to a-byde ! 

Say ye alle Amen for charyde in euery syde 



Take Jje salt wiih thi clene knyfe ; 
Be cold of spech, & make no stryfe ; 
Bakbyte no man fat is A-weye, 

100 Be glad of Alle men wele to sey. 
Here & se, & sey thou nought, 
Than schall fou not to profe be brought. 
With mete & drynke be-fore J>e sette, 

104 Hold fe plesyd, & aske no bette. 

Wype thi mouthe when fou wyll drinke, 

Lest it foule thi copys brinke ; 

Kepe clene thi fyngeres, lypes, & chine, 

108 Fore so Jwu may thi wyrschype wywne. 
Yn J)i mouth when fi mete is, 
To drinke, or speke, or lau^h, I-wys 
Dame cz^rtasy fore-bydes it the ; 

112 Bot prayse thi fare, wer-so-euer fou be, 
Fore be it gode or be it badde, 
Yn gud worth it muste be had. 
Whew fou spytes, be welle were 

116 Where so fou spytes, ny$e or fere ; 
Hold J?i hand be-fore thi mouth 
When foil spytes, & hyde it couth. 
Kepe j>i knyfe both clene & scherpe, 

120 And be not besy forto kerpe ; 

Clens j)i knyfe "with some cutte bred, 
^ot with thi cloth, As I J?e rede : 
With Any fylth to fowle Je clothe, 

124 A cwrtase mane he wylle be lothe. 
In J)i dysch sette not |)i spone, 
Nojjer on fe brynke, as vn-lernyd done. 
When J>ou sopys, make no no[y]se 

128 WM thi mouth As do boys. 
The mete fat on Jn trencher is, 
Putte it not in-to Jn dysch. 
Gete Jje sone A voyder, 

132 And sone A-voyd fou thi trenchers. 

Take salt with a 
clean knife ; 

talk no scandal, 

but speak well of 


Hear and see ; 

don't talk. 

Be satisfied with 
what's set before 

Wipe your mouth 
before you drink ; 
keep your fingers 
and lips clean. 

Don't speak with 
your mouth full. 

Praise your food 
for whether it's 
good or bad, it 
must be taken in 
good part. 

Mind where you 

and put your 
hand before your 

Keep your knife 

and don't wipe it 
on the cloth. 

Don't put your 
spoon in the dish, 

or make a noise, 
like boys, when 
you sup. 

Don't put meat 
off your plate into 
the dish, but into 
a voider. 


but be in joy for And geve vs grace yn loy to be ; 

108 Amen, Amen, for charytee ! 16 

EXPLICIT, lerne or be lewde 
qiwd Whytyng. 1 ? 

17 AMEN. 

Hsre endythe the boke of Curtesy that ys Mle neces- 
sary vnto yonge chyldryn that muste nedys lerne the 
maner of curtesy. 




When thi better take J?e tho coppe, 
Drinke thi selffe, & sette it vppe, 
Take tho coppe with thi hondes. 

136 Lest it falle ]>er As Jjou stondes. 
When thi better spekes to the, 
Do offe thi cape & bow J)i kne. 
At thi tabull no]?er crache ne claw, 

140 Than men wylle sey J>ou arte A daw. 
Wype not thi nose nor J>i nos-thirlys, 
Than inena wylle sey J>ou come of cherlys. 
Make J>ou nofyer cate ne hond (so in MS.) 

144 Thi felow at fou tabull round ; ( ) 
Ne pleye with spone, trenchere, ne knyffe. 
Yn honesty & clenys lede J>ou thi lyffe. 
This boke is made fo?* chylder ^onge 

1 48 At the scowle pat byde not longe : 
Sone it may be conyd & had, 
And make them gode iff J>ei be bad. 
God gyffe them g?-ace, vertuos to be, 

152 Fore than Jjei may both thryff & the. 
Amen ! quod Kate. 

If your superior 
bands you a cup, 

but take the cup 
with two bands. 

When he speaks 

to you, doff your 

cap and bend your 


Don't scratch 

yourself at table, 

wipe your nose, 

or play with your 
spoon, &c. 

This book is for 
young children 
who don't stay 
long at school. 

God grant them 
grace to be 
virtuous J 


tans Untr tis Hensara. 


[MS. Harl. 2251, ? about 1460 A.D., fol. 153 or 148. The 
parts between brackets [ ], and various readings, are from Mr 
Halliwell's print in Reliquice Antique, v. 1, p. 156-8, of a 15th- 
century MS. Q. T. 8, fol. 77, r, in the Library of Jesus College, 

^[ [My dere childe, first tliiself enable 
With all thin herte to vertuous disciplyne 
Afor thi soverayne standing at the table, 
4 Dispose thi youth aftir my doctryne 
To all norture thi corage to enclyne. 
First when thu spekist be not rekles, 
Kepe feete and fingeris and handes still in pese.] 

BE symple of chiere, cast nat thyn ye aside, 
Agenst the post lete nat thy bak abyde ; 
Gaase nat aboute, towrnyng oueralle ; 
Make nat thy myrrowr also of Jhe walle, 
12 Pyke nat thy nose, and in especialle 

Be right wele ware, and sette hieron thi thought, 
By-fore thy souerayne cracche ne rubbe nought. 

^f Who spekithe to the in any mane?* place, 
16 Rudely 1 cast nat thyn ye 2 adowne, 

But with a sadde chiere loke hym in the face ; 

Walke demurely by strete in the towne, 

Advertise the withe wisdom and Reasoune. 
20 Withe dissolute laughters do thow non offence 

To-fore thy sou^-ayn, whiles he is in presence. 

1 Bel. Ant., Lumbiashly * hede 


look of Cnrteisie 


Starts |)tter air | 

[Lambeth MS. 853, ab. 1430 A.D., page 150, back. 
Part written as prose J\ 

JLILi dere sone, first f i silf able 
w/t/i- al fin herte to vertuose discipline, 
A-fore f i souereyn stondinge at f e table 
4 Dispose f ou fee aftir my doctryne 
To al nortur f i corage to encline. 
First while f ou spekist, be not richelees ; 
Kepe bofe fyngir and bond stille in pees; 

8 Be symple in cheer ; caste not f i looke a-side, 
gase not about, twrnynge fi sht oueral. 
a^en f e post lete not f i bak abido, 
neif er make f i myrrowr also of f e wal. 
12 Pike not fi nose ; & moost in especial 
be weel waar, sette her-on f i f ou^t, 
to-fore fi souereyn cratche ne picke fee nou^t. 

Wlien you stand 
before your 

speak not reck- 
lessly, and keep 
your hands still. 

Don't stare about 

lean against a 
post, look at the 
wall, pick your 
nose, or scratch 

Tf Who-so speke to fee in ony maner place, 
16 lumpischli caste not fin heed a-douw, 

but with a sad cheer loke him in f e face. 

walke demurely bi streetis in f e tourc, 

And take good hede bi wisdom & resourc 
20 fat bi no wantowne lau^inge f ou do noon offence 

To-fore f i souereyne while he is in presence. 

When spoken to, 
don't lumpishly 
look at the 

Walk demurely in 
the streets, 

and don't laugh 
before your lord. 


^[ Pare clene thy nailes, thyn handes wasshe also 
To-fore mete, and whan thow dooest arise ; 

24 Sitte in that place thow art assigned to ; 
Prease nat to hye in no maner wise ; 
And til thow se afore the thy service, 
Be nat to hasty on brede for to byte, 

28 Of gredynesse lest men wolde the endwyte. 1 

^f Grennyng and mowes at the table eschowe ; 
Cry nat to lowde ; kepe honestly silence ; 
To enboce thy lowis withe mete 2 is nat diewe ; 
32 Withe ful mowthe speke nat, lest thow do offence ; 
Drynk nat bretheles 3 for hast ne necligence ; 
Kepe clene thy lippes from fat of flesshe or 

fisshe ; 
Wype clene 4 thi spone, leve it nat in thy disshe. 

If Of brede I-byten no soppis that thow make ; 
37 In ale nor wyne withe hande leve no fattenes ; 

Withe mowthe enbrewed thy cuppe thow nat take ; 

Enbrewe 5 no napery for no rekelesnes ; 
40 For to souppe [loude] is agenst gentiles ; 

[NJeuer at mete begynne thow nat 6 stryf ; 

Thi tethe also thow pike nat withe no knyf. 

[Foi. las, back.] ^[ Of honest myrthe late be thy daliaunce ; 

44 Swere none othes, speke no ribawdrye ; 

The best morsel, have in remembraunce, 

Hole to thyself alwey do nat applie ; 

Part withe thy felaw, for that is curtesie : 
48 Laade nat thy trenchowr withe many remyssailes ; 

And from blaknes alwey kepe thy nayles. 

U Of curtesye also agenst the lawe, 

Withe sowne 7 dishonest for to do offence ; 
52 Of old surfaytes abrayde nat thy felawe ; 

Toward thy souerayne alwey thyn aduertence ; 
1 a-wite. 8 brede it 3 bridlid 4 fayre 

6 Foul 6 be warre gynne no 7 Which sou 



Pare clene pi nailis ; pin hondis waische also 

to-fore pi mete, [&] wharme pou doist arise. 
24 sitte pou in pat place pat pou art a-signed to ; 

Prece not to hie in no maner wise ; 

And whawne pou seest afore pee pi seruice, 

be not to hasti upon breed to bite 
28 lest men perof Do pee edwite. 

(jrewnynge & mowywge at pi table eschcwe ; 
Crie not to lowde : honestli kepe silence. 
To enbrace pi iowis vrith breed, it is not dewe ; 
32 vrith ful moup speke not lest pou do offence ; 
Drinke not bridelid for haste ne necligence ; 
Kepe clene pi lippis from fleisch & fische ; 
"Wipe faire pi spoon ; leue it not in pi dische. 

36 \Jf breed with pi teep no soppis pou make ; 
Lowde for to soupe is a$en gentilnes : 
With mouj) enbrowide J>i cuppe ]?ou not take, 
In ale ne in wiyn with hond leue no fatnes ; 

40 Defoule not J>e naprie bi no richelesncs. 

Be waar pat at J?e mete j)0u bigywne no striif ; 
))i teejj also at ]>e table picke with no knyf. 

Of honest mir|je eue?'e be ]?i daliaunce ; 
44 Swere moon oopis ; speke no ribaudie. 

))e beste morsels, haue ]jis in remewbrauwce, 

Holli alwey ))i silf to take do not applie. 

Prt?-te wit/i )?i felawis, for pat is curteisie. 
48 Lete not pi trenchowr be vriih many morsels ; 

And fro blaknes kepe weel pi nailis. 

Of curtesie it is a^en pe lawe, 
"With dishoneste, sonc, for to do difence ; 
52 Of oolde forfetis vpbraide not pi felawe ; 
Towarde pi souereyn do euere reue?*ence. 

Clean your nails 
and wash your 

Sit where you're 
told to, 

and don't be too 
hasty to begin 

[Page 152.] 
Don't grin, shout, 

or stuff your 
jaws with food, 

or drink too 
Keep your lips 
clean, and wipe 
your spoon. 

Don't make sops 
of bread, 

or drink with a 
dirty mouth. 

Don't dirty the 
table linen, 

or pick your teeth 
with your knife. 

Don't swear or 
talk ribaldry, or 
take the beat bits; 

share with your 
Eat np your 
pieces, and keep 
your nails clean. 

[Page 153.] 

It's bad manners 
to bring up old 


Play withe no knyf, take heede to my sentence ; 
At mete and soupper kepe the stille and soft ; 
56 Eke to and fro meve nat thy foote to oft. 

Tf Droppe nat thi brest withe sawce ne withe potage; 
Brynge no knyves vnskoured to the table ; 
Fil nat thy spone, lest in the cariage 
60 It went beside, whiche were nat comendable \ 
Be quyke and redy, meke and semisable, 
Wele awaityng to fulfille anone 
What that thy soucrayne comav[w]dithe the to 
be done. 

64 ^[ And whereso euer that thow dyne or soupe, 
Of gentilesse take salt withe thy knyf ; 
And be wele ware thow blow nat in the cuppe. 
Reuerence thy felawe, gynne withe hym no stryf ; 
68 Be thy powere kepe pees al thy lyf. 
Interrupt nat, whore so thow wende, 
None other mans tale, til he have made an ende; 

^[ Withe thy fyngres make ] thow nat thy tale ; 
72 Be wele avised, namly in tendre age, 

To drynk by mesure bothe wyne and ale ; 

Be nat copious also of langage ; 

As tyme requyrithe, shewe out tJiy visage, 
76 To gladde ne to sory, but kepe atwene tweyne, 

For losse or lucre or any case sodayne. 

[Foi. 154 or 149 ] If ^ e me ^ e i n niesure, nat hasti, but tretable ; 

Ouer moche is nat worthe in no maner thyng ; 
80 To children it longithe nat to be [vengeable, 2 ] 
Sone meeved and sone forgyiyng ; 
And as it is rcmembrid bi 3 writyng, 
Wrathe of children is sone ouergone, 
84 Withe an apple the parties be made atone. 
1 Eel. Ant., marke 2 MS, HarL, tretable 3 Rel Ant., by olde 




Pleie with no knif, take hede to my sentence ; 
At mete & at soper kepe fee stille & softe, 
And eek to & fro meeue not f i fee]) to ofte. 

Don't play with 
your knife, 

or shuffle 
your feet about. 

Droppe not f i "brest with seew & of 6T potage, 
Bridge no foule knyues vnto f e table ; 
Fille not f i spoon lest in f e cariage 
60 It sclieede bi side, it were not co??zmendable. 
Be quik & redi, meke & seruiable, 
Weel awaiti^ge to fulfille anoow 
What fat f i souereyn coramauttdif to be doon. 

Don't spill your 
broth on your 
chest, or use dirty 
knives, or fill your 
spoon too full. 

Be quick <odo 
whatever your 
lord orders. 

64 And wliere-so-euere f o\\ be to digne or to suppe, Take salt with 

your knife ; don't 

Of gentilnes take salt with f i knyf, blow in your cup, 

.,, , ,, ,. or begin quarrels. 

Ana be weel waar f on blowe not in f e cuppe. 
Reuerence f i felawis; bigyrcne with he??? no strijf ; 
68 To f i power kepe pees al f i lijf. 

Intrippe no mara where so bat f ou wende, interrupt no mau 

in his story. 

No man in his tale, til he hatie maade an eende. 

^|" With f i fyngris marke not f i tale ; [Page IM.] 

72 be weel avysid, & nanieli in tendir age, 

To driwke mesurabli bof e wiyn & ale. 

Be not to copiose of langage ; 

As tyme reqwmf schewe out f i visage, 
76 To glad, ne to sory, bwt kepe fee euene bitwene but keep a middle 

For los, or lucre, or ony case sodene. 

Drink wine and 
ale in moderation. 

Don't talk too 

Be soft in mesure, not hasti, but treteable ; 

Ouer soft is noii3t in no maner f ing 
80 To children longif not to be vewgeable, 

Soone meued and soone fi^tinge ; 

And as it is remembrid bi writynge, 

\vraffe of childre?z is ouercome soone, 
84 With f e partis of an appil bew made at oon. 

Be gentle and 
tractable, but not 
too soft. 

Children must not 
be revengeful ; 

their anger is 
appeased with a 
bit of apple. 

281 8TAN8 PUER AD MENSAM. (HARL. MS. 22*1.) 

^f In children werre l now myrthe and now debate, 
In theyr quarel no grete violence ; 
Now pley, now wepyng, sielde in one estate ; 
88 To theyr playntes gyve no credence ; 

A Eodde refowrmythe al theyr insolence ; 
In theyr corage no Rancowr dothe abyde ; 
Who sparithe the yerd, al vertu set aside. 


92 ^f ^> litel bille, bareyn of eloquence, 

Pray yonge children that the shal see or Reede, 
Thoughe thow be compendious of sentence, 
Of thi clauses for to taken heede, 
96 "YVhiche to al vertu shal theyr yowthe leede. 
Of the writyng, thoughe ther be no date, 
If ought be mysse, worde, sillable, or dede, 
Put al the defaute vpon lohne Lydegate. 

1 Rd. Ant.. In childre 


In children werre is now mirjje & now debate, q*. r e *'* re flrat 

In her quarel is no violence, play - then cryln * : 
now pleie, now wepiwge, & seelde in oon state ; 

88 to her pleyntis seue no credence : don>t belfeve tlielr 

complaints; give 

A rodde reformej? al her necligence ; >em the rod - 

in her corasre no rancowr doob abide, fi P are tha *' a " d 

you'll spoil all. 

who J>at sparij) ]?e rodde all uertues settij? a-side. 

92 A ! litil balade, voide of eloquence, [Page 155.1 

I praie 3011 ^onge children ]?t Jjis schal se & rede, Young children. 

pray take heed to 

J)OIU 1G DC COplOUS OI Sentence. my little ballad, 

' which shalllead 

)it to J?ese clausis tor to take hede you into an 
96 Which al into vertues schal JOUTQ ^oujie lede. 

In Jjis writynge, jjou^ ]?er be no date, 

Yf ou^t be mys in word, sillable, or dede, 

I submitte me to correcciouw wMoute ony debate. correctlon - 

Thus eendith ]?e book of curteisie ])at is clepid 
stans puer ad mensam. 



p. 188, 1. 377-8, Statut. The only Statute about horse-hire that I can 
find, is 20 Ric. II. cap. 5, A.D. 1396-7, given below. I suppose the Foure 
pens of 1. 376 of the Boke of Curtasye was the price fixed by " the kyngis 
crye " or Proclamation, 1. 378, or by the sheriff or magistrates in accordance 
with it as the " due Agreement to the party " required by the Statute. 

"Item. Forasmuch as the Commons have made Complaint, that many 
great Mischiefs Extortions & Oppressions be done by divers people of evil 
Condition, which of their own Authority take & cause to be taken royally 
Horses and other Things, and Beasts out of their Wains Carts and Houses, 
saying & devising that they be to ride on hasty Messages & Business, where 
of Truth they be in no wise privy of any Business or Message, but only in 
Deceit & Subtilty, by such Colour and Device to take Horses, and the said 
Horses hastily to ride & evil entreat, having no Manner of Conscience or 
Compassion in this Behalf, so that the said Horses become all spoiled and 
foundered, paying no manner of Thing nor penny for the same, nor giving 
them any manner of sustenance ; and also that some such manner of people, 
changing & altering their Names, do take and ride such Horses, and carry 
them far from thence to another Place, so that they to whom they belong, 
can never after by any mean see, have again, nor know their said Horses 
where they be, to the great Mischief Loss Impoverishment & Hindrance of 
the King's poor People, their Husbandry, and of their Living : Our Lord 
the King willing, for the Quietness and Ease of his People, to provide 
Remedy thereof, will & hath ordained, That none from henceforth shall take 
any such Horse or Beast in Such Manner, against the Consent of them to 
whom they be ; and if any that do, and have no sufficient Warrant nor 
Authority of the King, he shall be taken and imprisoned till he hath made 
due Agreement to the Party." 

That this seizing of horses for the pretended use of the king was no 
fancied grievance, even in much later times, is testified by Roger Ascham's 
letter to Lord Chancellor Wriothesley (? in 1546 A.D.) complaining of an 
audacious seizure of the horse of the invalid Master of Peterhouse, Cam- 
bridge, on the plea that it was to carry the king's fish, whereas the seizer's 
own servant was the nag's real burden : " tentatum est per hominem apud 
nos valde turbulentum, nomine Maxwellum." Ascham's Works, ed. Giles, 
v. 1, p. 99. In vols. ix., x., and xi. of Rymer, I find no Proclamation 
or Edict about horse-hire. In 1413 Henry Y.'s Herbergeator is to pro- 


vide Henry le Scrop, knight, with all that he wants " Proviso semper quod 
idem Henricus pro hujusmodi Foenis, Equis, Carectis, Cariagiis, & aliis 
necessariis, per se, seu Homines & Servientes suos praedictos, ibidem capien- 
dis, fideliter solvat & satisfaciat, ut est justum." Rymer, ix. 13. 

The general rule shown by the documents in Rymer is that reasonable 
payments be made. 

De Equis pro Cariagio Gunnorum Regis capiendis. 

A.D. 1413 (1 Sept.), An. 1. Hen. V. Pat. 1, Hen. V. p. 3, m. 19. 
Rex, Dilectis sibi, Johanni Sprang, Armigero, & Johanni Louth Clerico, 

Sciatis quod Assignavimus vos, conjunctim & divisim, ad tot Equos, 
Boves, Plaustra, & Carectas, quot pro Cariagio certorum Gunnorum nos- 
trorum, ac aliarum Rerum pro eisdem Gunnis necessarium, a Villa Bristolliae 
usque Civitatem nostram Londoniae, indiguerint, tarn infra Libertates, quam 
extea (Feodo Ecclesise dumtaxat excepto) pro Denariis nostris, in hac parte 
rationabiliter solvendis Capiendum & Providendum. Rymer, ix. p. 49. 

So in 1417 the order to have six wings plucked from the wing of every 
goose (except those commonly called Brodogest brood geese ) to make 
arrows for our archers, says that the feathers are rationabiliter solvendis. 
See also p. 653. 

p. 188, 1. 358. The stuarde and his stafe. Cp. Cavendish's Life of Wolsey 
(ed. Singer, i. 34), " he had in his hall, daily, three especial tables furnished 
with three principal officers ; that is to say, a Steward, which was always a 
dean or a priest ; a Treasurer, a knight ; and a Comptroller, an esquire ; 
which bare always within his house their white staves. 

" Then had he a cofferer, three marshals, two yeomen ushers, two grooms, 
and an almoner. He had in the hall- kitchen two clerks of his kitchen, a 
clerk comptroller, a surveyor of the dresser, a clerk of his spicery." See the 
rest of Wolsey 's household officers, p. 34-9. 

p. 190, 1. 409. Ale. See in Notes on the Months, p. 418, the Song " Bryng 
us in good ale," copied from the MS. song-book of an Ipswich Minstrel of 
the 15th century, read by Mr Thomas Wright before the British Archaeo- 
logical Association, August, 1864, and afterwards published in The Gentle- 
man's Magazine. P.S. The song was first printed complete in Mr Wright's 
edition of Songs 8f Carols for the Percy Society, 1847, p. 63. He gives 
Ritson's incomplete copy from Harl. MS. 541, at p, 102. 

Bryug us in good ale, and bryng us in good ale ; 
For owr blyssyd lady sak, bryng us in good ale. 

Bryng us in no browne bred, fore that is made of brane, 
Nor bryng us in no whyt bred, for therm is no game ; 
But bryng us in good ale. 

Bryng us in no befe, for there is many bonys ; 
But bryng us in good ale, for that goth downe at, onys, 
And bryng us in good ale. 


Bryng us in no bacon, for that is passing fate ; 
But bryng us in good ale, and gyfe us i-nought of that, 
And bryng us in good ale. 

Bryng us in no mutton, for that is often lene, 
Nor bryng us in no trypes, for thei be syldom clene ; 
But bryng us in good ale. 

Bryng us in no eggys, for ther ar many schelles ; 
g us in good ale, and 
And bryng us in go 


But bryng us in good ale, and gyfe us no[th]yng ellys, 
od ale. 

Bryng vs in no butter, for therin ar many herys 
Nor bryng us in no pygges flesch, for that will make us borys ; 
But bryng us in good ale. 

Bryng us in no podynges, for therin is al Godes-good ; 
Nor brynrr us in no venesen, for that is not for owr blood ; 
But bryng us in good ale. 

Bryng us in no capons flesch, for that is ofte der ; 
Nor bryng us in no dokes flesche, for thei slober in the mer ; 
But bryng us in good ale. 

See also the other ale song at p. 81 of the same volume, with the burden 

Doll thi ale, doll ; doll thi ale, doll ; 

Ale mak many a mane to have a doty poll. 

p. 191, 1. 435, Chromes, "the said four groomes, or two of them at the 
Jeast, shall repaire and be in the King's privy chamber, at the farthest 
between six and seven of the clock in the morning, or sooner, as they shall 
have knowledge that the King's highnesse intendeth to be up early in the 
morning ; which groomes so comen to the said chamber, shall not onely 
avoyde the pallets, but also make ready the fire, dresse and straw the 
chamber, purgeing and makeing cleane of the same of all manner of filthy- 
nesse, in such manner and wise as the King's highnesse, at his upriseing and 
comeing thereunto, may finde the said chamber pure, cleane, whollsome, and 
meete, without any displeasant aire or thing, as the health, commodity, and 
pleasure of his most noble person doth require." Household Ordinances, p. 
155, cap. 56, A.D. 1526. 




To save the repitition of p. and /. for page and line, I have adopted Mr Morris's 
plan, in his Chaucer Glossary, of putting a / between the numbers of the page and 
line, so that 5/115 stands for page 5, line 115. Where no line is named, then 
p. for page is prefixed. The French references are to Cotgrave, except where other- 
wise specified. The Index, though long, does not pretend to completeness. The 
explanations of words given in the notes to the text are not repeated here. 

Abbots of Westminster & Tintern 
not to sit together, 76/1141-4. 

Abbot with a mitre, 70/1013, 
72/1051; without one, 1. 1015; 

ABC of Aristotle, p. 260, p. 258. 
A bofe, 216/9, above. 
Abrayde, 277/52, upbraid. 
Abremon, a fish, p. 113. 
A-brode, 62/906, spread open. 
Abstinence, 8/108 ; 153/6. 
Abylle, 267/44, fit, convenient, 

beseeming ; L. kahilis, suitable, 

Accounts, yearly, taken to the 

Auditor, 196/590. 
Achatis, 201/555, purchases. Fr. 

achet, a bargaine, or purchase. 

Addes, 153/11, adze. 

Aduertence, p. 277, attention, re- 
spect, reverence. 

Affeccion, 52/763, disposition. 
After-dinner nap, 65/947-54, to 

be taken standing against a 

cupboard, p. 128. 

Ages of man, the four, p. 53, p. 

Ahuna, a monster of the sea, p. 


Alay, 16/232, temper. 
Alaye, p. 151, carve. 
Aldermen, the old, rank above the 

young, 77/1157. 
Ale; is to be 5 days old, 12/178; 

p. 92; 154/19. Fr. Gutaleon 

Guttale. Ale, good Ale. Cot. 
Ale or wine, the sauce for capons, 


Algate, 26/400, always. 
Aliene, 75/1109, foreigners. 
AUe, p. 216, No. ix. hall. 
Allhallows Day, fires in hall begiD 

on, 189/393. 



Allhallowsday, 205/837. 

Alloft, 69/996, above, over the 
vessel of herbs. 

Almandes, 5/74, almonds. 

Almond, 44/625, a whelk's oper- 

Almonds, good against sour food, 
8/102 ; eat it with raw frnit, 

Almond, iardyne, cream of, 52/ 
744 ; cream and milk of, 35/ 
520; cream of, 49/705; 56/ 
825; 157/8; p. 167, last line. 

Almoner, his duties, 201/729 ; to 
remove a towel, 204/814. 

Alms to be given to the poor, p. 
216, No. viii. 

Alms-dish, 23/346; 200/687; 
201/730 ; loaf for, 202/731 ; 
it has the leavings in the lord's 
cup, 203/787, and a piece of 
every thing he is served with, 204 
/799. See John Fitz Eoberts's 
account for altering and orna- 
menting an almsdish for Hen. 
VI., that belonged to the Duk 
dExcestre, in Kymer X. 388, 
col. 1. 

Aloes epatick, 135/12; Fr. hepa- 
tique, Liuer-helping ; comfort- 
ing a whole, or curing a diseased, 
liuer. Cot. 

Als, 197/599, also. 

Altar, minister at the high, with 
both hands, 182/167. 

Alycaunt, p. 86, p. 89, a wine. 

Amber, 141/3 ; adj. 49/699. 

Amberdegrece, 132/9, a scent. 

Angel and 3 Shepherds, device of, 

Anger, avoid, 236/764, 

Anhonest, 180/96, unmannerly, 
improper; 180/124, unpolite. 

Annaunciande, 201/705,announc- 

ing, who announces guests 1 
Answer sensibly, 252/71. 
Answer, servants mustn't, 215/ 


Ape tied with a clog, 180/108. 
Apparel, rules for, 214/159, &c. 
Apple fritter, 33/502, &c. 
Apple, a raw, cures indigestion, 

153/5 ; and the fumes of drink, 

Apples, 52/757; 55/813; 152/ 

19. " The dy veil choke hym , 

he hath eaten all the appels 

alone." Palsgrave, p. 484, col. 

Apples and pears roasted, 164/17, 

Apprentise of lawe, rank of, 73/ 

Apprentices, thievish, hanging 

good for, p. 125. 

Apys mow, 179/59 ; apes grimace. 
Aquarius, p. 199, the Ewerer or 


Aquetons, 197/597, acquittance. 
AT, 201/710, before. 
Archbishop, 72/1047. 
Archbishop ranks with a prince, 

70/1010 ; is to dine alone, 

Archdeacon, rank of, 70/1016; 


Areche, 19/290, retch? 
Areise, 43/609, tear off] 
Arere, 26/407, cut. 
Areyse, 27/418, 425; 28/429, 

&c. ; tear or cut off. 
Aristotle's A B C, p. 260, p. 258. 
Arm, don't claw it, 193/329. 
Armes, servauntes of, 156/28, 1 in 

livery, or men-at-arms. 



Artificers, rich; rank of, 71/1037. 

Asche, 45/643, ask. 

Ashore, 5/71, slantwise, aslope; 

20/299, astraddle. 
Asise, 60/879, way, manner. 
Aslout, 39/560 ; aslant. 
Aspidochelon, a great whale-fisshe, 

p. 114. 
Assaying "bread, by the panter, 

200/691 ; water, 201. / 702; 

meat, by the sewer, 202/764. 

See Credence, and Tasting. 
Asseles, 196/566, sets the lord's 

seal to. 

Astate, 185/276 ; rank. 
At, 256/182, with ; 184/242, that. 
Afer, 200/689, either, each. 
Attend at school, 209/21. 
Attirling, 287/41, shrew; A.S. 

AttoTy Ater, poison. 
Atwytynge, 18/274, twitting, 

blaming others. 
Audibly, speak, 235/687. . 
Auditor, the lord's, all officers to 

account to, once a year, 196/ 


Aunterose, p. 260, 1. A, venture- 

Aurata (a fish), p. 114. 
Autumn, the device of, 53/766 ; 

p. 54. 

Ave, 48/692. 
Ave-Maria, 181/147. 
Aveyner, his duties, p. 197. 
Avise, 35/525, opinion, learning. 
Awoydes, 204/821, removes, puts 


Ayselle, 42/596, a kind of vine- 

Baase (the fish), 58/842. See 

Babulle, 1/12. Au fol la marotte. 

Prov. We say also, Giue the 

foole his bable; or what's a 

foole without a bable? Cotgrave, 

under fol. 
Back; turn it on no one, 253/90; 

not on him you give a cup to, 


Backbite no man, 272/99. 
Bacon and peas, 54/797. 
Bailiffs of a city, rank of, 111 


Bailiffs of farms, &c., to be talked 
to pleasantly, p. 218, No. xvi. 
Baked herrings with sugar, 166/7. 
Bakemete, 54/802, meat-pie. 

Bake metes, 30/476-7, game pies, 
&c. ; ? sweet pies, 54/809 ; how 
to carve, 159/19 ; how assayed, 

Baker, gets money from the 
treasurer, 196/582 ; his duties, 

Bakes, 179/60, as bokes, bulges, 

Balena, a whale or mermaid, pp. 
115, 123, 119, last line. 

Banker, 63/924, cloth to cover 
a bench. 

Barbe, p. 151, cut up. 
Barme, 61/891, bosom. 

Barnard's bio we, p. 126, a secret 

blow by a highwayman. 
Baron, 70/1013, 72/1051 ; of 

the Exchequer, 70/1014; 72 

Baron of the Exchequer, appeal 

lies to, from an Auditor, 196/ 

Base, the fish, 51/735 ; 166/13 ; 


Bason, 63/926, washing basin. 


Basshe, 45 / 645, be abashed, 

Bastard, 9/119; 89/7; 153/20; 

a sweet wine. 

Bate, 182/188, quarrelling. 
Bath, how to make one, p. 66-7 ; 
a medicated one, p. 67-9. 

Bayle, 196/576, bailiff. 

Bearer of meat to stand or kneel 
as the sewer does, 203/777. 

Beastlynes, 232/460 ; nasty prac- 
tise, t. i., gnawing bones. 

Beaver, considered as a fish, 37/ 
547. " The beuer, whose 
hinder feet and taile onlie are 
supposed to be fish. Certes 
the taile of this beast is like 
vnto a thin whetstone, as the 
bodie vnto a monsterous rat. . 
It is also reported that their 
said tailes are a delicate fish." 
Harrison, Desc. Brit., i. 225, 
col. 2. See Giraldus Cambren- 
sis, Works, vol. v. p. 59, ed. 

Beckoning, don't use it, 184/249. 

Bed, how to undress a lord for, p. 

Bed and Bedroom, how to air and 

prepare, 63/919-30. 
Bed, offer your bed-fellow his 

choice of place in, 185/293. 
Bed, prayer on going to, 240 / 


Bedchamber, how to prepare your 
master's, pp. 63, 65. 

Bedchamber door, lights stuck 

on, 193/509. 
Bedes, for church service, 63/ 


Bedrooms, don't sleep in ratty 
ones, or those deprived of sun, 
p. 132. 

Beds of straw, &c., to be 9 ft. long 
and 7 ft. broad, 191/436-7. 

Beef, 34/517; 48/688; p. 105; 
powdered, p. 102, note to 1. 
694 ; stewed, 54/798 ; how to 
carve, 25/393. " Touchyng 
the befe : I do estymate him of 
nature melancolyke, and engen- 
dre and produce grosse blode 
well norisshyng folkes robustes 
and of stronge complexion, 
whiche occupy them in great 
busynesse and payne." Du 
Guez's Introductorie, p. 1071. 

Behight, 41/605, direct. 

Behoveable, 54/804, necessary. 

Belch not, 178/113. 

Believe fair words, don't, 183/ 

Bengwine, p. 134 ; Fr. Benjoin, 

the aromaticall gumme called 

Benjamin or Benzoin. Cot. 
Benym, 24/368, deprive. 
Be-sene, 21/318, become, suit. 
Bete, 63/930, feed, nourish. 
Bete, 67/990, remedy, cure. 
Betowre, 37/541, the bittern, 

q. v. ; 49/696 ; how to carve, 

27/421 ; p. 162. 
Better, give place to your, 25 3/ 


Bilgres, 69/994; bugloss? p. 110. 
Birds, how to carve, pp. 25-8, 

30-1, 161-62. 
Birth to be looked to first, 74/ 


Bishop, rank of, 70/1012. 
Bisketes, 231/389, biscuits. 
Bite not thy bread, 178/49. 
Bithe, 47/678, are. 
Biting your lips is bad, 178/89. 
Bittern, to unjoint or carve, p. 

162; 165/1. See Betowre. 



Blaknes, 278, 277/49, black dirt, 

Blamanger and Blanclimanger, p. 
101, bottom . See Blanger man- 
gere and Blaunclie manger. 

Blandrelles, 157/10, white apples. 
See Blaundrelles. 

Blanger mangere, 49/693. 

Blanked, 169/23. See Blanket. 

Blanket, 64/935. Fr. blanchet. 
A blanket for a bed ; also, 
white woollen cloth. Cot. Is 
to be kept in the privy. 

Blasting, 20/304 ; cp. Fr. Petar- 
rade : f. Gunshot of farting. 

Blaunche manger, 157/3. 

Blaunche powder, 6/80, note ; 
p. 85, p. 10, note 3; 152/26. 

Blaunderelle, 50/714 ; Blawn- 

derelles, 6/79; p. 85, white 


Blaynshe powder, p. 10, note 3. 
Blow and puff not, 20/303. 
Blow not like a broken-winded 

horse, 210/53. 
Blow, don't, on your food to cool 

it, 180/111. 

Blood Royal, Babees of, The 

Babees Book, addressed to, 250/ 

Blood Royal ranks above property, 

74/1094; 171/16. 
Blush or change colour, don't, 

Blysse, 266/12, 23, make the sign 

of the cross on or over. 

Blythe, 178/47, joy 1 = (in) faith. 
Boar pasty, 31/489. 
Boar, 48/686. 

Boards of the privy to be covered 

with green cloth, 63/932. 
Body to be kept upright, 235/676. 

Bof, 202/750, ?not " loeuf, an 
ox, a beefe," Cot. ; but a-bof 
(dishes), above, up. 

Boke, the, 185/261. 

Bold, don't be too. p. 258, p. 260, 
1. B. 

Bolde, 192/454, finely? 

Bole Armoniake, p. 134. Fr. 
Armoniac, a gumme spring 
from the Cyrenian Ferula or 

Bolkynge, 1 9/2 9 8, belching. A. S. 
bealcian, to belch ; to bolke 
belche, roucter. Palsgrave. 

Bombace, p. 139, cotton; cp. 

Boner, 183/191. Fr. bonaire, 
gentle, courteous, affable. Cot. 

Bones not to be thrown on the 
floor, 269/79 ; to be put into 
voyders, 230/358. 

Bonet, 169/29, nightcap. 

Book, stick to it well, 227/168. 

Boorde, p. 260, 1. B, joke, play. 
" To bourde or iape with one 
in sporte, truffler, border, 
iouncher" Palsgrave. 

Boorde, bourde, p. 258, p. 260, 
1. B ; Fr. bourder, to toy, trifle, 
dally ; bourd or ieast with. Cot. 

Borbotha, a slippery fish, p. 115. 

Borclothe, 30/468, table-cloth. 

Bordclothe, 4/62, table-cloth. 
" The table clothes and towelles 
shoulde be chaunged twyes 
every weeke at the leste ; more 
if neede require." H. Ord. p. 85. 

Borde, 178/31, table. 

Borde, Andrew, extracts from, pp. 
89, 91, &c. ; on Sleep, Rising, 
and Dress, p. 128-32. 

Border, p. 151, carve. 

Botery, 12/176-7. 



Botre, 193/489, buttery. 

Bou$t, 13/188, 189 n, 191, fold; 

268/27,29; 269/17; 'Malferu, 

A malander in the bought of a 

horse's knee.' Cot. 
Bow when you answer, 253/83. 
Boxyng, p. 1 24, smacking the face. 
Boys to walk two and two from 

school, not hooping and halloo- 
ing, 228/238-264. 
Boystous, 257/195, rude; Boy- 
stows, rudis. Prompt. 
Boystousnesse, 256/182; Ruditas. 


Brade, 199/666, broad. 
Bragot, 55/817; p. 107. 
Brandrels, 152/24, blaundrels, 

white apples. 

Brawn of boar, 48/686 ; 54/796. 
Brawn of a capon, 163/27. 
Brawn, how to carve, 24/378; 

pp. 94, 156. 
Brayd, at a, 15/226, sharply, 

Brayde, 13/188, instant, same 


Brayde, 11/146, start, slip. 
Brayde, at a, 200/678, quickly. 
Bread to be cut, not broken, 255/ 

141 ; 267/24 ; at dinner to be 

cut in two, 178/35. 
Bread, how to chop, p. 4 ; how 

assayed, 200/691-2. 
Bread and cheese, 55/815. 
Break your bread, 178/51. 
Break not wind, 20/304. 
Bream, 51/736; 58/841; pp. 

108, 115. 
Bream, sea-, 40/578; 49/698; 

52/746 ; 58/848. 
Breath, as it may smell, keep your 

mouth shut, 211/69. 

Breche (? drawers), clean, 60/871. 

Brede, 13/192, breadth. 

Breke, 21/315; p. 151, carve 

Breke a cony, 29/448. 

Bresewort, 68/993. "In the 
curious treatise of the virtues 
of herbs, Eoyal MS. 18 A. vi., 
fol. 72 b, is mentioned ' bryse- 
wort, or bon-wort, or daysye, 
consolida minor, good to breke 
bocches.'" Way, Promptorium, 
p. 52, note '. 

Brest, 19/288, 1 for fist. 

Bret, Brett, a fish, 41/583 ; 51 
/735; 59/852. Fr. Limaude, 
f. A Burt or Bret-fish. Cot. 

Breue, 190/413, book, score-up. 

Breuet, 194/536, briefed (with 
green wax). 

Breve, 195/553, set down in writ- 
ing, keep accounts of. 

Brewe, 36/540, a bird; 49/706; 
157/8; how to carve, 27/422; 
to untache or carve, p. 160. 

Bridelid, 278/33, ?a wrong read- 
ing; or, with food in one's 
mouth; Fr. boire sa bride, A 
horse to draw vp his bit into 
his mouth with his tongue. 

Broach a pipe of wine, how to, 
5/69, p. 152, 121/69. 

Broche?, 161/6. 

Broiled herrings, 52/748. 

Broke-lempk, 69/994; p. 68, 

Broken, 214/158, with hernia?, 
E. Engl. bursten. 

Broken meat or food for the poor, 

Brothellis, 267/38, low rude peo- 
ple. Fr. bordeaUy a brothell 



or bawdie house ; bordelier, a 
wencher, haunter of baudie- 
houses. Cotgrave. Adulterous 
friars are called brothels in 
Piers Plowman's Crede, 1. 1540, 
v. 2, p. 496, ed. Wright. See 
Arth. and Merlin, &c., in Hal- 
liwell ; a blackguard, Towne- 
ley Mysteries, p. 142, " stynt, 
brodels, youre dyn." 

Browers,! 99/663 ; brower must be 
a napkin or doyley. " Can it be 
a bib put on when taking broo 
or broth in, against the spilling 
of what is supped up ? (Or 
rather, wiping the fingers from 
the broo, sauce, or gravy, that 
men dipped their bits of meat 
into.) Halliwell curiously ex- 
plains broo, top of anything. 
' Tak a knyf & shere it smal, 
the rute and alle, & sethe it in 
water; take the broo of that, 
and late it go thorow a clowte ' 
evidently the juice. Ital. 
broda, broth, swill for swine, 
dirt or mire ; brodare, to cast 
broth upon." H. Wedgwood. 

Browes, p. 160, last line; p. 173. 
A.S. briw, es. ; m. Brewis, the 
small pieces of meat in broth ; 
pottage, frumenty, &c., briwan, 
to brew. Somner. 

Brows, how to use the, 210/29; 

Browynge, 179/75, broth, grease. 
See Browes. 

Brush your master well, 62/913 ; 
all robes lightly, 64/940-3; 
your cap, 228/78. 

Brushed (well), breeches, 60/873. 

Brydelynge, 19/288, ? the passage 

seems corrupt. 
Brytte, a fish, 166/12. 
Bucho, 31/492, in squares. 

Sloane MS. 1315, reads " Cus- 
tarde, enche square checke hit 
with your knyfe." 

Buffe, p. 133, leather made of 
buck's skin. 

Bulchnot, 294/113. 

Bulk, 267/47. A.S. bealcian, to 

belch. " Bolkyn, ructo, eructo, 

orexo." Prompt. 
Bulke, 29/452, thorax, breast ; 

BULLEYN, Wilyam; on Boxyng 

and Neckeweede, p. 124-7. 
Bultelle clothe, 12/164. 
Bun, 14/211; 15/218. 
Bushel of flour to make 20 loaves, 


Business, attend to your own, 268 

Bustard, 28/433 ; 37/541 ; p. 97; 

49/695; p. 102; 157/4. 

Butler and Panter's duties, p. 

Butler, his duties, 196/423-30 ; 
is the panter's mate, /425. 

Butt or fresh-water flounder, p. 

Butter, sweet, of Claynos or 
hakeney, 39/559. 

Butter, one of the fruits to be 
eaten before dinner, 46/667-8. 

Butter and fruits to be eaten be- 
fore dinner, 152/22. 

Butter, wholesome first and last, 
7/89; 152/31. 

Butter, 7/89-92; p. 85; 152/20, 

Buttiler, p. 3, 1.40-1. 'Butler, the 
officer in charge of the buttery 
or collection of casks ; as Pantler, 
the officer in charge of the pan- 
try.' Wedgwood. 

Buying, swear & lie not in, 270/7C. 



By dene, 4/62, properly. 

Cabages, 35/521 ; p. 97 ; 159/29. 

Calf, boiled, on Easter-day, p. 1 60. 

Calves-foot jelly, 34/515. 

Calves-skin garments to be worn 
in summer, p. 139. 

Camamelle, 68/992, chamomile. 

Camelyne sauce, p. 36, note 6 . 

Camphire, 135/13. 

Campolet wine, 153/20, p. 174. 

Cancer, the creuyce or cray-fish, 
p. 115. 

Candelarius, 204 / 822-3, the 

Candle, one to each mess at dinner, 

Candlemas-eve, squires' allow- 
ances stop on, 189/394 ; 205/ 
837. " Aujourd'liuy Febvrier 
demain Chandelier : Prov. 
(For Candlemas day is euer 
the second of Februarie.) " Cot. 

Candles, 34/510. 

Canel, 5/66 ; p. 84, a spout. 

Canelle, 11/142; 10/135; 153/ 
24, 31 ; a spice. 

Canelle-boon, 29/449; 159/14. 
Fr. Clavicules, f. The kannell 
bones, channell bones, necke- 
bones, craw-bones, extending 
(on each side one) from the bot- 
tom of the throat vnto the top 
of the shoulder. Cot. The merry- 
thought of a bird. The haunch- 
bones below correspond to the 
clavicles or kannell bones above. 
Canne, 266/4; cunne, 265/3, 

Beccasse, f. A Woodcock. Becasse 
petite, A Snite or Snipe, f Chevalier, 
A daintie Water-fowle, as big as a 
Stock-doue, and of two kinds, the one 

Cannelles, 152 / 15, channels, 

Canterbury, Bp. of, 73/1077. See 

Canterbury, the prior of, 77/ 

Cap, take it off before a lord, 262/ 
4 ; before your better, 274/1 37 ; 
when speaking to any man, 226 
/80 ; be free of, 229/274, salute 
every one. 

Capitaius, a fish, p. 116. 

Capon, 48/689 ; 54/801 ; p. 106. 
" Of all meates the best and 
most utille to the body of 
man is of capons, chyckyns, 
faisantes, partriches, yonge par- 
triches, plouuiers, pigeons, 
quailles, snites(&ecasses), wod- 
cockes, turtell doves, knyghtes 
(cheualiersty, stares, sparows, 
or passeriaux, finches, uerd- 
ieres,* frions, gold finches, 
linotes, thrushe, felde fare, and 
all kyndes of small byrdes 
(whereof the names ben without 
nombre) ben metes norisshyng 
and of litell degestion, and that 
engendre good blode." Du 
Guez's Introdudorie, p. 1071-2. 

Capon, how to carve, 26/409 ; 
to sauce or carve, p. 161. 

Capon, boiled, 54/799 ; verjuice 
its sauce, 36/534. "Capons 
boyled, and chekyns, ben lyke- 
wyse of good nourysshyng, and 
doth engender good blode, but 
whan they ben rested, they ben 
somewhat more collorykc, and 
all maner of meates rostcd, the 

red, the other blacke. Cot. * Verd- 
rier, m. The Gold-hammer, Yellow- 
hammer, Yowlring. Cot. 



tone more the tother lesse." Du 
Guez, p. 1071. 

Capon pie, 31/481. 

Capon, roast, how to carve, 16 1/ 

Cappe, 65/964, night-cap. 

Cappe-de-huse, 62/909, ? cape 
for the house, Fr. cappe, a 
short cloake, or loose and 
sleeuelesse garment, which hath, 
instead of a Cape, a Capuche 
behind it. Cot. 

Caprik, 9/120; p. 91, No. 13, a 
sweet wine. 

Caraway, Careawey, 6/79, cara- 
way-seeds, (from Kapov, cumin ; 
Lat. careum ; Ar. karawiya; 
Mahn,) 50/713; 152/25; 1577 
11; 231/389. 

Cardinal, rank of a, 70/1008; 

Carding, eschew, 234/599. 

Cariage, p. 280, 279, 1. 59, act of 

Carowayes, 231/389, caraway-seed 

Carp, 40/578; 51/735 ; 58/842 ; 
p. 116. 1 

Carpentes, 169/9, 18, carpets 
under foot 1 See carpettes for 
cupbordes, 1. 19. 

Carpets, about a bed, windows, 
&c., 63/927-8. 

Carry your body up, 213/133. 

Carver, his duties, p. 24-32; as- 
says the wine ?, and carves the 
lord's meat, 209/789-95. See 

Carving offish, p. 166-7 ; of flesh, 
p. 157. 

Carving-knives, panter to lay two, 

Cast, 197/607, armful or pitch- 

Cast of bread, 198/631, ? arm- 
ful, lot taken up at one heave. 

Cast up thy bed, 226/61. 

Castles, the Receiver sees to re- 
pairs of, 197/601. 

Castyng, 187/336, ? 

Cat, don't stroke it at meals, ISO/ 

Cate,274/143,? cat (hond, hound). 

Cathedral prior sits above others, 

Cato quoted, 232/491. 

Cats to be turned out of bed- 
rooms, 66/969 ; p. 108, p. 109; 

Caucius, a fish, p. 116. 

Cawdrons, the sauce for swans, 
p. 159, last line. See Chawdon. 

Cellar, yeomen of the, 21/311. 
Celle, 12/176, cell. 

Cena Domini, fires in hall stop 
on, 95/398; Shere Thursday 
or Maundy Thursday, day 
before Good Friday. 

Cetus, the greatest whale, p. 116. 

Ceuy, 55/822, chive-sauce. 

Chafer, 192/466, a heater. 

Chaffire, 45/639. Chafowre 
to make whote a thynge, as 
watur. Calefadorium. " Prompt. 

Chalcedony to be worn in a ring, 
p. 141. 

Chambur, bason for, 66/971. 

Chamberlain, the duties of one, 
p. 59-69, p. 168-9. 

1 And of the carp, that it is a deyntous 
fyssche, but there ben but fewe in Eng- 

londe ; and therefore I wryte the lasse of 
hym. Jul. Berners's Book of St Allan's. 


Chancellor, his duties, 195/563. 

Chandelew, 199/642, chandlery, 
stock of candles. 

Chandler, his bread, 198/628; 
his duties, p. 204-11. 

Change (countenance or temper 1) 
don't, 270/92 

Char, 180/96, turn, trick. 

Chardequynce, 152/21, chare de 
quynces, 5/75 ; conserve of 
quinces, or quince marma- 
lade. Charequynses, lOlb. the 
boke, v 21., 10s. A.D. 1468, 
H. Ord. p. 103. Marmalet of 
Quinces. R. Holme, Bk. III., 
p. 80, col. 1. 

Charger, 44/633; Chargere, 26/ 
405, a kind of dish. 

Charity, the fruits of, p. 2 3 3, cap. x. 

Charlet, 159/28; p. 173. 

Chat after meals, p. 142. 

Chatter, don't, 253/94; 257/186. 

Chaufing-dysshe, 162/2, heating 

Chaundeler, 299/492, chandler, 

officer in charge of the candJes. 
Chawdon (chawdron, p. 161), the 

sauce for swan, 36/535 ; p. 97. 
Chawdwyn, the sauce for swans, 


Cheeks, don't puff 'em out, 21 1/ 

65 ; don't stuff yours out like 

an ape's, 179/57. 
Cheese, hard, 6/78 ; 7/85 ; p. 84, 

p. 85; 7/84-8; 8/102; 152/24. 
Cheese, 55/815 ; 152/19. 
Cheese, the best cementfor broken 

pots, p. 85. Ruin cheese, p. 7, 

note 3 ; 85/3. 
Cheese, have a clean trencher for, 

Cheese, fruit, and biscuits, for 

dessert, 231/388. 

Cheese, only take a little, 269/76. 
Fourmage est bon qnand il y 
en a peu: Prov. The lesse 
cheese the better ; or, cheese is 
good when a miserable hand 
giues it. Cot. 

Chekker, 1 9 6/594, the Exchequer. 

Chekkid, 25/389; 31/492, cut 
into chequers or squares. 

Chekmate, 8/96. 

Cherlis, 267/34, 48, poor, rude, 
and rough people. 

Cherries, 6/77; 46/668; 152/23. 

Chet, 199/501, coarse bread ; chet 
loaf to the almsdish, 200/687. 

Cheven (Cheuene, 166/13), chub, 
51/736, note 3 ; 58/842. Fr. 
Vilain, the Cheuin or Pollard 
fish (called so because it feedes 
vpon nothing but filth). Cot. 
See Chub. 

Cheve, 24/369, end. 

Chewettes, 161/4; p. 171; 173/3. 

Chicken, boiled, 54/799; roast, 
54/808; chicken pie, 31/481. 

Chickens, how to carve, 25/397. 

Chide not, 253/102. " I lyken 
the to a sowe, for thou arts 
ever chyding at mete." Pals- 
grave, p. 611, col. 2. 

Chief Justices, rank of, 70/1014; 

Childe, or young page, the King's, 

Children soon get angry, 279, 280/ 
81 ; 281, 282/85 ; give 'em an 
apple then, 280/84 ; and a rod 
when they're insolent, 281, 

Children, to wait on their parents 
at dinner before eating their 
own, 229/297; 231/423; the 
duty of, 241/5. 



Chin, hold it up when you speak, 
262/14 ; keep it clean at dinner, 

Chine, 25/393. "Fr. Escliinon : 
in. The Cliyne, or vpper part 
of the backe betweene the 
shoulders. Escliine: f. The 
Chyne, backe bone, ridge of the 
backe. 1611, Cotgrave. 

Chip, p. 84; 152/4. "I 
chyppe breed. Je chappelle 
du payn . . je descrouste du 
pain . . and je pay re du pain. 
Chyppe the breed at ones, for 
our gestes be come." Palsgrave, 
p. 484, col. 1. See "choppe" 
and " chyppere." 

Choke, don't, by drinking with 
your mouth full, 180/98. 

Choppe (loaves), 4/51 ; p. 184. 

Chub, p. 51, note 3 . See Cheuen. 

Church, how to behave in, 233/ 
332 (this is the part that would 
follow at the end of the Boolce 
of Demeanor, p. 296). 

Church, behave well at; go to, 

Chyme of a pipe, 152/18, rim. 

Chymne, 192/461, fire-place or 

Chyne, 5/70, rim of a cask. 
Chyne, 25/393; 159/15, 16, 

back, loin. See Chine. 
Chyne, p. 151, carve. 

Chynchynge, 153/11, pinching. 
Metaphorically " chynchyn or 
sparyn mekylle, perparco" 

Chyppere, 152/4, a knife to chip 
bread with. 

Cinnamon and salt as sauce for 
venison, &c., 37/542-3. 

Cinnamon, eaten with lamprey- 

pie, 44/636 ; with fish, 58/842, 
847; 168/11. 

Cinnamon, 153/30. 

Ciryppe, 56/826, syrop. 

Civeye (chive sauce), hares and 
conies in, p. 309 ; 55/822. 

Clared wyne, 153/19. 

Clarey, 9/120; p. 91, No. 14; 
Clarrey, 153/21. Sp. Clarea: 
f. Clary drinke of hony and 
wine. Some say Muscadell, 
others call it Nectar or kingly 
drinke. 1591, Percivale, ed. 
Minsheu, 1623. 

Clarke of the crowne and th'es- 
chekere, 70/1019. 

Claryfinynge, 9/124. 

Claw, don't, 253/81; 262/18; 

Claw not your head, &c., 18/ 
279. "I clawe, as a man or 
beest dothe a thyng softely 
with his nayles. Je grattigne . . 
Clawe my backe, and I wyll 
clawe thy toe." Palsgrave. 

Claynos buttur, 39/559. 

Cleanse your spoon, 179/74. 

Clene, 262/28, fitting, courteous. 

Clerk of the Kitchen, 195/549; 
his duties, 195/553-62; gets 
money from the Treasurer, 196/ 

Clof, 192/462, 1 

Cloke, 62/909, cloak. 

Cloos-howse, 80/1202, lock-up 
place for food. 

Cloth, how to lay the, 13/187, 
&c., 154/23; how to take it 
off the table, 231/399. 

Cloth, keep it clean, 269/61, 81 ; 
272/123; 277/39; 278/40; 
don't wipe your knife on it, 
272/122; or your nose, 263/53. 



Clothes, don't wipe your nose on, 

210/48. See Apparel " Graue 

clothes make dunces often seeme 

great clarkes." Cot., u. fol. 
Clothing of officers, given out by 

the clerk of the kitchen, 195/ 

561 ; of lord and lady, by the 

chancellor, 195/563. 
Cloven-footed fowls, skin of, is 

unwholesome, 163/18. 
Clowche, 33/503, belly? Not 

" clowchyn or clowe (clewe), . 

glomus, globus" Prompt. 
Clutch at the best bit, don't, 263 


Coat, long, 60/872. 
Cock and hen, p. 105. 
Cock, shooting at ; girls not to 

go to, 289/81. 
Cockes, 24/375, cooks. 
Cod, 58/845; 168/12. 
Cod, how to carve, 40/576; 

names of, p. 99. 
Codling, a fish, p. 59, note; 

Codware not to be clawed, 19/ 

286; not to be exposed, 20/ 

Coffyn, cofyn, 30/478 ; 31/481 ; 

96/2, 22, &c., crust of a pie. 
Cold, head and feet to be kept 

from, p. 138. 
Cold fritter is not to be eaten, 


Colericus, 53/772 ; p. 54 ; p. 104. 
Colice, 56/824, broth. 

Collector, the Pope's, 70/1023; 

Cologne, the kings of, 50/712. 

Colombyne gynger, 10/131 ; Co- 
lumbyne gyngre, 52/758; a 
kind of ginger. ? what. 

Coloure de rose, 9/114. See note 
there; it was a wine, p. 86, 
extract from the Four Elements. 

Colvering, 126/3, 1 

Comade, 96/4 ; sauce of whipped 
eggs and milk. 

Comb for the hair, 61/885. 

Comb your head often, p. 130 ; 
nothing recreateth the memorie 
more, p. 128. 

Comb your head, 266/14; do it 40 
times every morning, p. 139. 

Comb your lord's head, 65/963; 
169/2, 28. 

Comedies, 34/510, quaint dishes 1 

Comenynge, 81/1220, communi- 
cation, teaching. 

Comfit, 50/714; p. 104. 

Commende, 254/120. Fr. 1 Com- 
mander, to recommend, or to 
commit ouer vnto the care of 
another. A Dieu vous com- 
mand. God be with you. Cot. 

Commensed, 77/1154, taken a 

Commyn, 46/671, communicate, 

Companions, pray for your, 182/ 

Compleccion, 52/764, device. 

Compleccyon, 1 65/1 1, disposition. 
My complexcyon a-cordyth to 

eny mete, 

But rere sopers j refowse, lest 
j shuld surfett. 
Piers of Fullham, 1. 197-8. 

Compostes, 5/75, note ; 6/79 ; 
152/21 ; 154/19. See Recipe 
100, Forme of Cury, p. 49. 

Conche or muscle fish, p. 116. 
Concoction, 136/12, digestion. 
Concordable, 54/796, suitable. 



Condcl, smale, 205/826, tapers. 

Confiteor, the, to be learnt, 18 1/ 

Confites, 5/75; p. 85, note to 

1. 82, comfits. 

Confyte, 51/731, a comfit. 

Congaudence, 79/1190, congra- 
tulation, satisfaction. 

Conger, 38/555; 41/583; 51/ 
733; p. 117. Kichard Sheale, 
the minstrel and ballad-writer, 
" I can be content, if it be out 

of Lent, 
A piece of beef to take, my 

hunger to aslake. 
Both mutton and veal is good 

for Richard Sheale ; 
Though I look so grave, I 

were a very knave 
If I would think scorn, either 

evening or morn, 
Being in hunger, of fresh 
salmon or congar" Knight's 
Life of Caxton, p. 48. 

Conger, salt, 57/833. 

Congettynge, 80/1202, conspir- 
acy, tricks. 

Connynge, 81/1220-2, learning, 

Contrarotulator, p. 195, the con- 

Controller, his work, 195/541, 
550 ; sits on the dais in hall, 
177/20. "I feel by William 
Peacock that my nephew is not 
yet verily acquainted in the 
king's house, nor with the 
officers of the king's house he 
is not taken as none of that 
house; for the cooks be not 
charged to serve him, nor the 
sewer to give him no dish, for 
the sewer will not take no men 

no dishes till they be com- 
manded by the controller." 
Clement Paston, P. Letters, ed. 
1841, v. 1, p. 144 (XV. vol. 
iv. p. 53, orig.). 

Cold of speech, be, 272/98. 

Cony, 34/517; 49/694; 54/807; 
p. 107. "And conys, hares, 
rabettes (laperaus), buckes, 
does, hartes, hyndes, robuckes, 
or lepers (cheureus ou saillanz), 
holde also all of melancoly." 
Du Guez. 

Cony, how to carve, 29/447 ; 

159/12 ; to unlace or cut up, 

p. 162. 
Cony, with mustard and sugar, 


Conyd, 274/149, learnt. 
Coochele, sea-snails, p. 116. 

Cook must obey a marshal, 79/ 

Cooks are always finding out 

new dishes, and nearly killing 

people, 33/505. 
Coost, 49/705, rank, succession ? 

Fr. coste a coste, in euen ranke, 

side by side. Cotgrave. 
Cope, 200/689, covering, towel ? 
Copious of talk, don't be, 279, 

Coral, 141/3. 
Coretz, a fish, p. 119. 
Cornys, p. 218, No. xvi. different 

kinds of grain. 
Cote, 267/48, cot, cottage. 
Cottell, 168/14, cuttle-fish. 
Cotyn, cotton, to be kept in the 

privy, 64/935. 
louche, 154/25. 
^ouertoure, 202/753, dish-cover ; 

203/791, cover, or lid of a 




Cough not, 18/271 ; before your 
lord, 19/297. 

Counturpynt, 192/455, counter- 

Countyng, 194/535, reckoning. 

Courteous, be, to God, and kneel 
at prayers, 182/163. 

Courtesy came from heaven, 2G5/ 
4; 266/6; all virtues are in- 
cluded in it, 265/8 ; 266/10. 

Courtesy and gentleness, delight 
in, 256/180. 

Courts (fines of), 196/577. 

Couth, 272/118, Uruly, indeed, 
A.S. cudtice, certainly. 

Couthe, 180/114, known persons, 

Coverlet of a bed, 63/923. 

Cowd, 3/34-5, knew. 

Cowche, 13/187, and note, the 
undermost table-cloth. 

Co wheels mixed with jellies, 

Crab, how to carve and dress one, 
42/590-601 ; 165/14. 

Crache, 274/139; 275/14; 276/ 
14. 'Clawyn or cracchyn, 
scratche, Scalpo, scrato, grado.' 
Cath. in P. PL ; ' Krauwen, 
krabben, kratsen, ofte schrab- 
ben.' Hexham. 

Craftsmen, their duty, 242/12. 

Cram your mouth full, don't, 

Crane (the bird), 36/539 ; p. 97 ; 
49/695; p. 102, and note*, 
for their fighting pigmies. 

Crane, how to carve, 28/429 ; or 
dysplaye, p. 162. 

Crane's trump, take care of it, 

28/431; 157/4. 
Crawe, 19/288; Fr. iabot, the 

craw, crop, or gorge of a bird. 

Crayfish, how it catches oysters, 

p. 115 ; p. 117 ;' freshwater, p. 

116. See Creues, &c. 
Cream, cow- and goat-, 7/81 ; 8/ 

93; p. 85; 54/803; is bad, 

152/27. "The dyvell burst 

him, he hath eaten all the 

creame without me." Palsgrave, 

p. 472, col. 2. 
Credence, 80/1195-9, tasting food 

against poison. Only done for 

the highest ranks, down to an 

Creed, to be learnt by boys, 

Creues (crayfish), how to carve, 


Crevice, freshwater, 58/848. 
Crevis dewe dou^, fresh-water 

cray-fish; how to carve, 43/ 


Crevise, freshwater, 50/707. 
Crevise or cray-fish, how to carve, 

42/602 ; the names of, p. 100. 
Crochettis, 197/446, hooks. 
Cropyns, 24/362, crops, craws, 

of birds. 

Croscrist, 181/144. 
Cross, make the sign of, on rising," 


Croups of birds indigestible, 158/7. 
Cruddes, 8/93, curds. 
Culpon, p. 151, cut into chunks. 
Cup, don't- ask a friend to take 

it, but give it him yourself, 

Cupboard, 13/193, table or stand 

for cups, &c., to stand on ; is 

in the marshal's charge, 189/ 
390; to be covered with car- 
pets, 169/19. 



Cupborde, bread and wine stand 

on (or in), 194/511. 
Cuppeborde in a bed-room, 63/ 


Cups to be silver, p. 136. 
Cure, 78/1174, charge. 
Cure, 21/324; 31/492; custom, 

way of doing a thing. 
Cure, 28/435, directions. 
Cure, 24/375, craft, art, practice. 
Curies, 33/506, dodges, curious 


Curlew, 49/706; 157/8; how to 
carve, 27/421 ; to untache or 
cut up, p. 162. Sir Degrevant, 
1. 1406, p. 235, has 
ffatt conyngus and newe, 
ffesauntys and corelewe. 

Cursie, 230/328, curtsey. 

Curtains, bed-, 66/968 ; four to 
abed, 191/448. 

Curtasye, the Bok& of (Sloane 
MS. 1986), p. 175-205. 

Curtesy, 156/9, a bow or salut- 

Curtsey, make your, decently, 

Cury, 34/513, dodges, sleights. 

Cushion, to be put on the chair, 

Cuspis, p. 32, note 2 . 

Custade costable, 54/802, a kind 

of custard. 
Custard, how to carve, 31/492 ; 

p. 95 ; 157/1 ; 159/21. 
Cut your meat, don't bite it, 269/ 


Cut, 153/22, cute wine. 

Cute, 9/118; p. 87, No. 3, a 
sweet wine. Fr. Vin cuict. 
Wine boyled on the fire to a 
certaine thicknesse, and then 

put into vessells, and reserved 
for sweet sawces. Cot. 

Cute, 10/138, baking. 

Cute, gynger of iij, 11/159. 

Cuttid, 20/305, short-coated. 

Cuttlefish, p. 174. 

Cyueye (chive or onion sauce), 
hares and conies in, p. 309. 

Dace, 40/575; p. 98, bottom, 
58/841 ; Fr. Sophie ... the 
Dace or Dare-fish. Cot. 

Damsons, 6/77 ; p. 91, last note 
(wrongly headed, 1. 177); 46/ 
668; 152/23. 

Dangle like a bell, don't, 214/152. 

Dates, 5/74; p. 32, note 2 ; 51 
/731; 152/21,23; p. 167, last 

Dates in confite, 56/825 ; in con- 
fetes, 166/1 1; captewithmynced 
ginger, 166/19. 

Daungeresnes, 46/659, of great 

Daw, a, sticks its neck askew, 

Dean, rank of, 70/1016; 72 

Debt, keep out of, 270/80. 

Degree, University; rank of 
clerks that have taken one, 71 

Degree (of men), the duty of each, 
p. 241-8. 

Delicatis, 50/713; delicacies. 

Delphin, or mermaid, p. 117. 

Demeanor, The Booke of. p. 207- 

Demeene, 78/1163; learn 1 or 

Demurely, walk in the streets, 

275, 276/18. 



Depelled, 142/12, driven out. 

Dere, 47/684, injury. 

Deshe, 177/20, dais. 

Despisers of courtesy are not fit to 
sit at table, 271/99; 181/137. 

Dewe, 43/618, of water. 

Dewgarde, leche, 157/10. 

Dewynge, 51/732, service. 

Deynteithe, 52/752, 1 inclination, 

Deynteithly, 55/814, tooth- 

Deyntethe, adj., 50/723, tooth- 
some, dainty. 

Deyntethe, sb., 194/527, dainty. 

Diaper towel, 154/31. 

Diapery, towelle of, 13/193. 

Diatrion piperion, to be used 
against rheums, p. 137. 

Dice, don't play at with your 
lord, 184/228. 

Diet, 31/488, food. 

Diet, one for everyday, p. 133. 

Difence, 278/51 ; 1 Fr. defense, a 
reply, answer, argument, or 
allegation vsed, or vrged in 
defence. Cot. Faire defense 
is now to forbid, prohibit. 

Dig your thumb into your nose, 
don't, 186/327. 

Digest his stomak, his food, 657 

Digne, 71/1024, worthy. 

Diligences, 79/1183, duties. 

Dim sight, remedy for, p. 135. 

Dinner described, from the laying 
of the cloth, 199/655, to the 
removal of the board and 
trestles, 204/822. 

Dinner of flesh, p. 48-50, p. 100 ; 
of fish, p. 50-2 ; fruits to be 
eaten before, 46/667-8. 

Dinner at noon, what the page is 

to do at, 254/128. 
Dinner and supper, the only 

meals allowed, p. 141. 
Dip your meat in the saltcellar, 

don't. See Salt. 
Dipping slices of meat in sauce, 


Dirty clothes forbidden, 214/167. 
Disallow, 29/1181. 
Dise, 8/112, an adze? 
Dish taken away, don't ask for it 

again, 256/166; 179/83. 
Dish-side, spoon not to be laid on, 

179/73; 272/126. 
Dismember, p. 151, carve. 
Dispendu, 201/543 (J eatables, 

&c., not money), disposed of, 

Dispenses, 195/555, payments, 

Dissolute laughters, avoid, 275/20. 

Diswere, 191/436, doubt. Hal- 
liwell. " Platt-D. war en is 
to certify, assure ; to prove by 
witnesses, &c. ; wahr, true, is, I 
believe, what is certain, sure. 
* Ik ivill jou de Waarscliup 
darvan bringen,' I will bring 
you the truth of it, will bring 
you certain intelligence of it. 
Diswere then would be uncer- 
tainty." H. Wedgwood. 

Do to others as you would they'd 
do to you, 182/175. 

Doctor of both laws (Canon and 
Civil), utriusque juris, 71/1024; 

Doctor of divinity, rank of, 70/ 
1021 ; 72/1062. 

Doctors of 12 years' standing, 
rank above those of nine, 77/ 



Document, 250/6, L. documentum, 
that which teaches, a lesson, 
example for instruction ; FT. 
document, precept, instruction, 
admonition. Cot. 

Dog, don't claw yours at dinner, 

Dogs to be turned out of bed- 
rooms, 66/969; p. 109; 169/ 
33. One reason for turning 
dogs out of the bedroom at 
night is given in Palsgrave's 
" 1 wolde gladly yonder dogge 
were hanged, he never ceased 
whowlyng all nyght," p. 784-5. 

Donne, 169/23, down. 

Dorray, 51/733, doree. 

Doree, the fish, 41/582 ; 166/12. 

Dosurs, 189/391, canopies, hang- 
ings : c Docere of an halle : 
Dorsorium, auleum.' Prompt. 
Fr. Vn dossier de pavilion. The 
head of a Pauillion, or Canopie ; 
the peece that hangs down at 
the head thereof. Cot. 

Doted daf (confounded ass, stupid 
fool), don't be one, 186/326. 

Doublet, 60/872; 61/892; 627 

899; 169/1. 
Dou}, 43/618, soft, fresh (water). 

Dowcetes, dowcettes, a dish, 32 
/494; recipe at p. 309; 49/ 
699; 54/809. 

Dowled drink not to be given to 
any one, 154/22 ; dowld, dead, 
flat (Yorkshire), Halliwell ; not 
'dollyd, sum what hotte, tepe- 
factus' Prompt. 

Dowt, 79/1188, fear. 
Doyle, 19/285, skew. 

Draconites, 141/7, the dragon- 

Dragons he^be, p. 134. 

Drapery, 64/946, cloths. 
Draughtes, 25/388, drawn lines, 


Dresser, in the kitchen, 195/557. 
Dressing described, p. 168-9. 
Drink hinders digestion, p. 136. 
Drink, how assayed, 203/785-93 ; 

how to hand, 209/9. 
Drink not behind a man's back, 

269/75 ; wipe your mouth first, 

Drink all in the cup, don't, 1857 


Drink with full mouth, don't. 272 

Drink moderately, 279, 280/73. 
Drivel not with your mouth, 197 

Drop soup on your breast, don't, 

279, 280/57. 

Dropynge from the eyes, 18/283. 
Drunk, don't get, p. 258, p. 260, 


Drunkelewe, 216/1, drunken; 
( drunkelew ebriosus. Prompt. 
For the -lewe = -ly, cp. * deli- 
cat horses that ben holden for 
delyt, that they ben so faire, 
fat, and costleice. Chaucer. 
Parsones Tale, Poet. Works, 
ed. Morris, iii. 298; costlewe 
furring in here gownes, ib. p. 

Drunken servants to be turned 
away, 216/1. 

Dry thy mouth before drinking, 

Duchess, 200/680. 

Duck: see Mallard. 'The 
ducke maketh a clere voyce, & 
causeth man to lay gladdly in 
the armes & geueth hym the 
sede of nature / & the sewet is 



of it very good to souple all 
maner of paynes in the bodi of 
man." Noble Lyfe. L. i. back. 

Dugard, leche, 50/708. 

Duke of royal blood, 70/1011; 

Duke to dine alone, 171/4. 

Dumb, don't be, 184/255. 

Dysfygure, p. 151, carve. 

Dysplaye, p. 151, carve. 

Earl, the lowest rank for which 

food was tasted by a servant, 

Ears, not to be picked, 267/33; 

19/289 ; to be kept clean, 


Ease (quiet), live in, 270/82. 
Easter-day feast, p. 160. 
Easter to Whit-sunday, feasts 

and service from, p. 160. 
Eat properly, 263/40; not hastily, 

Eat, don't, till your mess is 

brought from the kitchen, 178/ 


Echeola, the pearl-muscle, p. 117. 
Echynus, p. 118. 
Edwite, 278/28, blame, reproach, 

turt; A.S. edwitan. 
Eel, salt, 57/834. 
Eels, bred from slime, p. 114. 
Eels, roasted, 41/588 ; 58/848. 
Eels, names of, p. 99. 
Eels, 50/719 ; 51/737 ; 55/820 ; 

p. 104 
Eernesful, p. 260, 1. E ; A.S. geor- 

nes, earnestness ; f/eornfull, full 

of desire, eager, anxious. 
Egestyon, 130/15, evacuations. 
Egge, 22/335, edge. 
Eggs, 54/803; p. 106. 

Egre, 57/837; Fr. aigre, eagre, 

sharpe, tart, biting, sower. Cot. 
Egret, 36/539; p. 97; 49/697, 

great white heron. 
Egret, how to carve, 27/421 ; to 

breke or carve, p. 162. 
Elbows, don't lean on, at meals, 

267/45 ; 180/125. 
Elemosinarius, 201/728-9, the 


Elenge, p. 260, 1. E. 
Elephant, don't you snuffle like 

he does, 211/59. 
Elizabeth, 265/6 ; 266/8. 
Embrowyng, 255 / 147, dirtying, 

soiling; Ex. embroue, bedurtied, 

soiled, defiled. Cot. 
Emperialle, 15/231, set out, deck, 


Emperor, after the pope, 70/1006. 
Empty your mouth before speak- 
ing, 263/59 ; 272/110; 277/ 

32 ; 278/32. 

Enboce, p. 277, ) , O i * ? 
T- -L n/ro i 1- 31, stuff out: 

Enbrace, p. 278, j 

?Fr. emboucher, to mouth or 

put into the mouth of. 
Enbrewe, 22/331, dirty, soil. 
Enbrowide, 278/39 ; Er. embroue, 

. . bedurtied, soiled, defiled. 

Enbrowynge, 30 / 468, soiling, 


Enclyne, 177/23, bow. 
End of a meal, what to do at the, 

Endoured, 161/3, glazed ; en- 

doured pygyons, 164/15. 
Endure, 35/524, make to last; 

' endurer faut pour durer : ' 

Pro. To dure we must endure. 

Enemies, man's three, 183/219. 



Englandis gise, a flesh feast after, 


Enlased, 26/412, cut up, carved. 
Enourmyd, 250/17, adorned; 0. 

Fr. aorner, L. adornare ; not 

e?iorer, honour. 

Entende, 64/936, 939, attend. 
Entendyng, 46/665, listening for 

orders, attending. 

Enter a lord's place, how to, 252/ 


Entremete, 254/109, interfere. 
Envy no one, 237/795. 
Equal, give way to your, 1 85/276 ; 

don't play with him, 264/77. 
Errands, going, 209/13. 

Esox, a fish of the Danube, p. 

Esquyere, J?e body, 70/1016, the 

Esquire of the King's person. 
Est, 187/346, host. 
Estate, how to lay or make, with 

a cloth, 13/192; 17/152; p. 


Estate, 65/957, rank, 73/1072-3. 

Estates, 72/1053, ranks, persons. 

Euwere, 199/641, water-bringer ; 
L. aquarius, Fr. eauier, is a 
gutter, channell, sinke, sewer, 
for the voiding of foule water. 

Evacuate yourself, p. 133. 

Evy, 7/91, heavy. 

Ewer, 64/937; 231/413, jug of 
water ; water-bearer, 199/641, 
655, &c. 

Ewerer, strains water into the 
basins, 200/695. 

Ewery, 13/192, drinking vessels. 

Ewery, 154/31, stand or cup- 
board for water-vessels ; how 
to dress it, 155/23. 

Exonerate, 130/16, unload, dis- 

Eyebright water, 135/2. 

Eyes, don't make 'em water by 

drinking too much, 263/57. 
Eyes, don't wipe 'em on the 

table-cloth, 180/116 ; wash 

them, p. 134; p. 139. 
Eyes, how to use the, 210/33. 
Eyes, not to be cast about, 275, 

276/8; 231/679. 
Eyroun, p. 146, eggs. 

Facche, 42/599, fetch. 

Face, look in the man's you're 
speaking to, 262/16 ; 270/67. 

Facett, 250/8 ; Fr. Facet: m. A 
Primmer, or Grammer for a 
young scholler. Cotgrave. 
Faceet, booke, Facetus (well- 
speaking, polite). Pr. Parv. 

Falconers, 195/564. 

Fall, if any one does, don't laugh 
at him, 184/235. 

Familiar, don't be too, p. 258, F ; 
p. 260, line F. 

Familiar friends, always admit, 
p. 217, No. xv. 

Fande, 76/1143, try, experience*? 

Fangle, 229/268, toy, thing. 

Farsed, 23/358 ; p. 94, stuffed. 

Fast now and then, p. 142. 

Father and mother ; worship and 
serve them, 182/172. 

Fathers and mothers, duty of, 

Fatnes, 277/37; 278/39, fat, 

Faucettes, 152/16, taps. 

Fawcet, 5/68; p. 84 ; 152 / 
16, a tap. Yn tynie therfore 
tye vp your tryacle tappe ; Let 



not to long thy fuwset renne. 
Piers of Fullham, 1.228-9. Early 
Pop. P., v. 2, p. 10. Stryke 
out the heed of your vesselles, 
our men be to thrustye to tarye 
tyll their drinke be drawen 
with a faulsed. Palsgrave, p. 
740, col. 1. Fr. Guille:f. The 
quille or faucet of a wine 
vessell. Cot. 

Fawn, 49/694; how to carve, 28/ 


Fawn, and ginger sauce, 36/537. 
Fawte, 82/1238, make default 

or mistakes. 

Fayge, fruyter, 157/10; p. 173. 
Featherbed to be beaten, 63 / 

921; 169/12. 
Feed elegantly, 256/185. 
Feede onely twice a day, p. 141. 
Feet to be kept still, 270/66; 

275/7 ; 279, 280/56. 
Feet and hands together, 235/677. 
Feet, what birds to be served with 

their, 28/435. 
Fele, 11/155, 157, perceive, 

taste; 24/364, Haste or see; 

23/349, understand. 
Feleyly, 270/94, fellowly, sociable. 

Felle, 262/21; 264/89; 1 stern, 

or discreet. See Cold. 
Fende, 82/1233, defend. 
Fenel-water, p. 139. 
FeneUe, the brown, 67/991. 
Fercularius, 202/749, the Sewer. 
Fere, 50/719, company ; in fere, 

Fere, 83/774, companion. 

Fermys, 197/596, rents; Fr. 
ferine, a farme or lease, a thing 
farmed, a toll, rent, manner or 
demesne in farme. Cot. 

Ferour, 197/612, 615, farrier; 
Fr. Mar eschal f errant. Cot. 

Few words, use, 270/73. 

Fieldfares, 165/3. 

Fieldmen, how they fly at their 
food, 256/176. 

Figs, fritters of, p. 145. 

Figs, 152/21; 166/18, in Corn- 
wall, raisins are called figs, ' a 
thoomping jfoOT pudden,' a big 
plum pudding. Spec, of Cor- 
nish Dialect, p. 53. 

Filthy talking, against, p. 239, 
cap. xii. 

Finger, don't point with, 270/69 ; 
don't mark your tale with, 279, 

Fingering, avoid it, 184/249. 

Fingers, meat to be eaten with, 
269/55 ; nose not to be blown 
with, 262/19; 118/284; 210/ 
51 ; not to be put in one's 
cup, 118/272 ; or on the dish, 
267/27 ; keep 'em clean, 272/ 
107 ; wipe 'em on a napkin, 

Fingers, two, & a thumb, to be 
put on a knife, 21/320-4; 22/ 

Fingers and hands, keep still, 

275/7 ; 276/7. 

Fingers and toes to be kept still, 


Fins of fish to be cut off, 39/560. 
Fire at meals in winter, p. 142. 
Fire, have a good one, 169/20. 
Fire in bed-room, p. 128. 
Fire in hall at every meal from 

Nov. 1 to Feb. 2, 189/393-8. 
Fire to dress by, 61/888. 
Fire to be clear, 60/877. 
Fire-screens for a lord, 192/462. 



First course offish, p. 166. 
Fish, a dinner of, three courses, & 

one of fruit, p. 50. leune chair 

vieil poisson : Prov. Old flesh 

and young fish (is fit for the 

dish). Cot. 
Fish, carving & dressing of, p. 

37; p. 98, &c.; p. 166; how 

assayed, 203/767-70; sauces 

for, p. 56; 168/4; sewynge or 

courses of, p. 166. 
Fish, salt, 57/833. 
Fish, names of, from Yarrell, p. 

152 ; extracts from Laurens 

Andrewe on, p. 1 1 3. 
Fisshe, p. 121, p. 122, the flesh 

or body of fish. 
Fist, close your hand in it, 264/ 

71 ; keep your opinions to 


Fist, not to be put on the table, 

Fit servants only to be engaged, 

p. 215. 

Flapjack, 96/13, a fried cake. 
Flasche, 65/985, dash. 
Flauer, 130/11, warm & air. 
Flaunes, 161/4; p. 173; flawne, 

96/12, a kind of tart; Fr. 

flans : m. Flawnes, Custards, 

Egge-pies. Cotgrave. Du. een 

Icees vlaeye, a Cheese-cake or 

Flawne. Hexham. 
Flax, wild, 69/994. 
Flea, don't scratch after one, 187 


Flemings, great drinkers, p. 131, 

Flesche-mought, 18/280, louse. 

Flesh, carving of, p. 26 ; p. 157 ; 
how assayed, 203 / 767-70 ; 
sauces for, p. 39 ; sewynge or 
succession of dishes of, p. 156. 

Flesh, a dinner of, p. 40. 
Flette, 201/711, room, floor. 
Fleumaticus, 54/792 ; p. 104. 
Flewische, 53/777, melancholy. 
Flounders, 55 / 819 ; 58 / 842 

Flyte, 178/54,quarrel; don't, 270/ 

Focas or phocas, p. 118. 
Follow your better, how to, 264/ 

Foole, 96/12, as in gooseberry- 

Foot-cushion, 61/882-4. 

Footmen to run by ladies' bridles, 

Foot-sheet, how to prepare it, 

61/879-84; 65/956; 67/988. 
Foot-sheet, the lord sits on it 

while he is undressed for bed, 

For, 3/34, because; 178/42, 

For, 18/275, against, to stop or 


Forcast, 180/104, plot, scheme for. 
Forder, 235/698, further. 
Fordo, 180/100, done for, killed. 
Forehead, to be joyful, 170/37. 
Forenoon, work in the, p. 141. 
Forewryter, 77/1243, transcriber? 

Forfeits to a lord, go to the trea- 
surer, 196/577. 

Forfetis, 281/52; Fr. forfaict : 
m. A crime, sinne, fault, mis- 
deed, offence, trespasse, trans- 
gression. Cot. 

Forgive, 182/185. 

Formes, 189/389; 19 2/4 6 4, forms, 



Foul tales, don't tell, at table 

Fourpence a piece for hire of 

horses, 188/376. See Notes, 

p. 283. 
Four slices in each bit of meat, 

Foxskin garments for winter, p. 


Franklin, a feast for one, p. 54. 
Franklins, rank of, 71/1071. 
Fray, 81/1210, fright. 
Freke, 184/255, man, fellow; 

A.S. freca, one who is bold. 
Fretoure powche, 49/700 ; fruture 

sage, 50/708. 

Friars, give way to them on pil- 
grimages, 186/303. 

Fricacion, or rubbing of the body, 
is good, p. 130 n. 

Fried things are fumose or indi- 
gestible, 21/358 ; 30/500 ; 32/ 
/512; 54/6. They generally 
came in the last course (see 
Modus Cenandi). Du Guez, 
after speaking of the English 
dishes in order, pottage, beef, 
mutton, capons, river birds, 
game, and lastly, small birds, 
says, "howbeit that in Spaine 
and in Fraunce the use [succes- 
sion at dinner] of suche metes 
is more to be commended than 
ours . . for they begynne always 
with the best, and ende with the 
most grosse, which they leave 
for the servantes, where-as we 
do althe contrary," p. 1072. 

Friend, don't mistrust or fail him, 

1 Guisnes : f. A kind of little, sweet, 
and long cherries ; tearmed so because at 
first they came out of Guyenne ; also 
any kind of Cherries. Cotgrave. 

Friendly, don't be too, p. 258, p. 

260, line F. 
Friezeadow coats for winter, p. 

Fritters, 33/501; 34/511; 51/ 

725, 737 ; 54/810 ; 157/24-6; 

161/32; 163/3. See Fruter, &c. 

Friture, a, 51/725. 

Frogs shelter themselves under 

the leaves of Scabiosa, p. 109, 

note on 1. 987. 

Frote, 19/288, wring, twist. 

Fretyn or chervyn (chorvyn), 

Torqueo. Prompt. 
Frown, don't, 173/132. 
Froyze, 96/13, pancake, or omelet. 

Fruits to be eaten before dinner, 
46/667-8. But of all maner of 
meate, the moost daungerous is 
that whiche is of fruites (fruitz 
crudz), as cheres, small cheryse 
(guingues*), great cherise (gas- 
congnes)) strauberis, fryberis 
(fram boises) mulberis, cornelles? 
preunes, chestaynes nuts, fyl- 
berdes, walnuttes, cervyse, 
medlers, aples, peres, peches, 
melons, concombres, and all 
other kyndes of fruites, how- 
beit that youth, bycause of 
heate and moystnesse, doth 
dygest them better than age 
dothe. Du Guez's Introduc- 
torie, p. 1073-4. 

Frumenty potage, 25/391, fur- 

Frumenty, 37/547; 38/549; 
with venesoun, 33/518. 

Frusshe, p. 151, carve. 

Fruter Crispin & Napkin, p. 96. 

2 Corneille, a Cornill berrie ; Cornillier, 
The long cherrie, wild cherrie, or Cor- 
nill tree. Cotgrave. 



Fruture viant, sawge & pouche, 
33/501, Imeat, sage, & poached 

Fruturs, 34/511 ; Fruyters, 161/ 
32, fritters ; recipes for, p. 145. 

Fryture, a, 51/737, fritter. 

Fuel, a groom for, 189/385. 

Full belly and hungry, 265/17. 

Fumose, 23/353, fume-creating, 

Fumositees, p. 23-4. 

Fumosities, p. 23 ; p. 94 ; 151/4 ; 
p. 158, indigestibilities, indi- 
gestible things creating noxious 
fumes in the belly that ascend 
to the brain; such to be set 
aside, 25/396. 

Fumosity, 8/105 ; p. 86. 

Furs to be brushed every week, 

Fustian, 63/922, a cloth over 
and under the sheets of a bed. 

Fustyan, whyte, 130/2. 

Fygges, 5/74 ; p. 84, figs. 

Fyle, 19 1/435, fill] 

Fylour, 191/447, a rod on which 
the bed-curtains hung. " Fylour 
looks like felloe, G. felge, which 
is explained as something bent 
round; it would apply to the 
curtain-rod round the top of the 
bed." "Wedgwood. 

Fylynge, 263/52, dirtying ; A.S. 
fulian, to foul ; fylnes, foulnes ; 
fyld, filth. 

Fynne, p. 151, cut up. 

Fyr, 184/232, further. 

Fyr hous, 194/514, privy? 

Fysegge, p. 216, No. x, phiz, 

Fytt, 213/806, section of a poem. 

Fytte, 67/980, while, time. 

Fyxfax, to be taken out of the 
neck, 28/444. 

Gabriel, angel, 265/5 ; 266/7 ; 

Galantyne sauce, 40 / 569 ; 58/ 

840; 167/27,29; 168/9. 
Galantyne, to be mixed with 

lamprey pie, 44/634 ; recipe 

for, p. 100. 

Galingale, p. 44, last line but 

one; p. 100. 
Gallants, shortcoated, denounced, 


Galleymawfrey, 96/14, a dish. 
Gallowgrass, p. 124. 
Game, some, to be played before 

going to business, p. 131. 
Gamelyn sauce, 36/539 ; 37/541. 
Gaming, the fruits of, p. 234, 

cap. vi. 
Ganynge, 19 / 294, yawning : 

Ganynge or 3anynge, Osdtus. 

Prompt. I gane, or gape, or 

yane, ie bailie. Palsgrave, ib. 

" I yane, I gaspe or gape. Je 

bailie" Palsgrave. 
Gape not, 19/294 ; when going 

to eat, 272/65. 
Gaping is rude, 211/77. 
Gartio, 191/434-5, groom (of the 

Gardevyan, 80/1202, a safe for 


Gares, 190/420, causes. 
Garlic, 58/843. 
Garlic, the sauce for roast beef 

and goose, 36/536. 
Garlic, green, with goose, 164/2. 
Gastarios, a fish, p. 118. 
Gate, on coming to a lord's, what 

to do, 177/5. See also 252/58. 



Gaze about, don't, 192/175. 
Gele, p. 49, note 2 ; gelly, 166/ 

11, jelly. 

Gelopere sauce, 165/4 ; p. 173. 
Gentilmen welle nurtured, 71 / 


Gentilwommen, rank of, 71/1039. 
Gentlemen, one property of, 220/ 

Gentlemen of the chamber, 19 1/ 

Gentlemen's table in hall, 178/ 


Gentyllis, 273/93, gentlefolk. 
Geson, 54/803, scarce. 
Gesse, 230/350, guest. 
Gestis, 79/1189, guests. 
Getting-up in the morning, a 

lord, how dressed, p. 61. 
Gild, 25/231, gilt plate. 

Ginger, white and green, 5/75 ; 
colombyne, valadyne, and 
maydelyn, 10/131-2 ; colum- 
byne, 52/758 ; green, 152/21. 

Ginger sauce with lamb, kid, &c., 

Ginger, 58/847; with pheasant, 


Girdle, 64/907. 
Girls, young, pick their noses, 186/ 

Glaucus, a white fish, p. 118. 

Glorious (boasting), don't be too, 
p. 258, p. 260, line G. 

Glosand, 186/313, lying. 

Glose, 183/199, deceit, lie. 

Glosere, 268/59. Fr. flateur, a 
flatterer, glozer, fawner, soother, 
foister, smoother; aclaw-backe, 
sycophant, pickthanke. Cot. 

Gloves to be taken off on enter- 
ing the hall, 177/16. 

Gloves, perfumed, 132/8-9. Cp. 
in the account of Sir John 
Nevile, of Chete, in The Forme 
of Cury, p. 171, "for a pair of 
perfumed Gloves, 35. 4d. ; for 
a pair of other Gloves, Ad." 

Gloucester, Humphrey, Duke of, 
79/1177; 82/1230; p. Ixxxii. 

Glowtynge, 18/281, looking 
sulky, staring. Halliwell. Sw. 
glutta ; Norse, glytta, gletta, 
look out of the corner of the 
eye. Wedgwood. 

Gnastynge, 20/301, note 5 . 
Gnaw bones, don't, 232/457. 
Goatskin gloves, 132/9. 
Goben, 39/566, cut into lumps. 

Gobone, 167/2, cut in lumps; 
167/29, a piece. 

Gobyn, 41/580 ; p. 99, gobbets. 
Gobyns, 45/638, lumps, pieces. 
' God be here ! ' say on entering, 

Good cheer, make, at table, 269 / 

53, be jolly. 
Good manners, learn, 232/507. 

'Good Morning;' say it to all 
you meet, 266/20. 

Goodly, 62/908, nattily. 

Goose, how to carve, 26/402 ; 

p. 163, last line but one; 

garlic its sauce, 36/536 ; roast, 

54/801 ; p. 222. 
Goshawk, p. 103, note on Heir- 


Gown, a man's, 62/904. 
Gowt of a crayfish, 43/607. 
Grace, 46/663, the prayer before 

dinner, 229/305-322 ; to be said 

by the Almoner, 221/729. 

Grace after dinner, sit still till it's 
said, 271/82 ; pages to stand by 



their lord while it's said, 25 7/ 

Gradewable, p. 170, graduated, 

have taken degrees. 
Gramed, 23/348, angered, vexed. 
Granat, 141/11, a garnet. 
Grapes, 6/77; 46/668; 152/21. 
Gravelle of beeff or motoun, 34/ 


Gravus, a fish, p. 120. 
Graynes, 9/123; 10/137, 141; 

p. 91. Fr. Maniguet, the spice 

called Graines, or graines of 

Paradise. Cot. 
Graynes of paradice, 151/32. 
Graytly, 61/886 ; entirely, quite. 
Grayue, 196/576, 589, 597, reeve, 

outdoor steward. 
Greable, 13/192, suitable. 
Great birds, 49/698. 
Grece (fat), hen of, 158/29. 
Green cheese, p. 84, n. to 1. 74. 

Green fish, 58/851 ; 188/8, 29, 
ling. Fr. Morue: f. The Cod, 
or Greenefish (a lesse and dull- 
eyed kind whereof is called by 
some, the Morhwell). Morue 
verte. Greenefish. Moruyer. 
Poissonnier moruyer. A Fish- 
monger that sells nothing but 
Cod, or Greenefish. Cot. 

Green sauce, 58/851; 168/13, 14. 

Green wax, accounts to be briefed 
with, 192/536. 

Greet the men you meet, 200/ 

Greithe, 61/880, ready. 
Greke,9/120; 86/31; p. 90, No. 
12, a sweet wine. 

Grene metis, 8/97, green vege- 

Greve, 81/1214. Fr. grief, 

Greyhounds fed on brown bread, 
198/628; p. 84, note on 1. 
51 ; each has a bone, &c., 198/ 
633. "Eau $ pain, Jest la 
viande du chien. Prov. : Bread 
and water is diet for dogs." 

Greyn, 62/914, a crimson stuff 
or cloth. 

Grin, don't, 269/57; 277, 278/ 

Grisynge, 20/301, grinding. 
Groan not, 19/298. 

Groggynge, 18/273, grumbling. 
Grutchyn, gruchyn, murmuro. 
Prompt. Gruger, to grudge, 
repine, mutter. Cot. 

Grone fische, 38/555. 

Groom of the King may sit with 

a knight, 75/1122-5; 204/1. 
Grooms of the Chamber, their 

duties, p. 191-2. 
Groos, 29/461, large. 
Grossetest, Bp., his Household 

Statutes, p. 207-10. 
Grouellynge, adv. 129/8, 12, face 

Growelle of force, 34/519; p. 

Gruell of befe or motton, 159/27. 

Grumbling of servants to be put 
down, p. 208. 

Gudgeons, 55/819; p. 118. 

Guns blasting, (breaking wind,) to 
be avoided, 20/304. The 
parallel passage in Sloane MS. 
2027 (fol. 42, last line), is. 
" And alle wey be ware thyn 
ars be natte carpyng." 

Gurdylstode, 191/442, girdle- 
stead, waist. 

Gurnard, 40/574; 51/725; 58/ 
849 ; baked, 198/9. 



3yme, 1 8 6/304, attend to,wish, like. 
Gymlet, 5/67, 71. 
Gynger, 3 kinds of, 10/131-2; 
p. 91. 

Haberdine, 'Mouschebout: m.The 

spotted Cod whereof Haberdine 

is made.' Cot. 
Hable, 254/111, fitting, due. 
Had, 274/149, ? held in the 

Hadde-y-wyste, 264/72; vain 

after-regret, ' had I but known 

how it would have turned out.' 
Haddock, 58/845, 200/11. 
Haddock, how to carve, 39/576. 
Haft of a knife, 200/675. 
Hair, don't scratch, for lice, 18/ 

280; to be combed, 173/125. 
Hake, 58/845; p. 107 ; 166/31. 
Hakenay buttur, 39/559. 
Halata, p. 118. 

Hale, 253/101, A.S. hdl, healthy. 
Half-penny ; farrier paid one a 

day, 197/616; hunter one for 

every hound, 198/629. 
Halke, 2/24 ; A.S. hylca, hooks, 

turnings. Somner. 
Hall, who should not keep it 

(1 meaning), 72/1048; who 

seated in, 217/19-22. 
Hall, head of the house to eat 

in, p. 209, No. xv 
Halybut, a fish, 41/584 ; 39/ 

735; 166/12; 167/11. 
Hammering in speech is bad, 212/ 

Hand to be cleaned when you 

blow your nose in it, 199/90; 

put it on your stomach to warm 

the latter, p. 129. 
Handkerchief for the nose, 210/ 

49; 'Jan. 1537-8, my ladys 

grace lanes handekerchers 
silk^/s.' P. P. Exp. of Princess 
Mary, p. 54. 

Handle nothing while you are 
spoken to, 253/83. 

Hands and feet, keep 'em quiet, 

Hands, to be washed, 277, 278/ 
22; before meals, 187/343, 201/ 
713-21 ; to be wiped before 
taking hold of the cup, 255/156. 

Hands to be clean at meals, 263/ 
41, 51; 265/9; 266/1 3. 

Hang in hand, 183/199 ; be 

Hanging down your head is 

wrong, 213/130. 
Hard cheese, the virtues of, 150/ 

29. See Cheese. 

Hare, 34/517 ; chive sauce to, see 

Harington, Sir John; the Dyet 

for every day, p. 138-9 ; on 

Rising and going to Bed, p. 


Harm of others, don't talk, at 

table, 180/102. 
Harpooning whales, p. 116. 
Harts-skin garments to be worn 

in summer, p. 139. 
Harvest, the device of, 52/754. 
Hastily, don't eat, 265/19. 
Hasty, don't be, 279, 280/78. 
Hat, 62/909. 
Haylys, 184/253, salute. 0. N. 

heilsa, Dan. hilsa, to salute, to 

cry hail to. Wedgwood. 
Head and hands, keep quiet, 253/ 

Head, don't hang it, 255/148; 

don't cast it down, 276/16; 

don't bend it too low, 193/330. 
Heads of field- and wood-birds 



unwholesome ; they eat toads, 

p. 197-8. 
Headsheet, 63/925 ; 65/950 ; 66/ 

Hede, 271/91, host, master or 

lord of a house at a meal. 

Hedge-hogs' countenances, 210/ 

Heelfulle, 250 / 10, health-ful, 

Heere, 35/524; Sloane MS. 

1315 reads hele, health. 
Heironsew (the heron), 49/696; 

p. 103. See Heron. 

Hele, 199/655, cover. 

Helle, 254/131, ?not 'clear, A.S. 
hellej but from hyldan, to in- 
cline, bend, and so pour. 

Help all, be ready to, 183/193. 

Help others from your own dish, 

p. 217, No. xiv. 
Hemp, the names of, p. 124; its 

advantages, p. 125-6. 

Hen, fat, how to carve, 26/409 ; 

Henchman, p. ii. ; Mayster of the 

henshmen escvier de pages 

dhonnevr. Palsgrave. 

Hende, 254/122, hands. 
Henderson's Hist, of Ancient and 
Modern Wines, p. 87, &c. 

Her, 185/294, higher. 

Herald of Arms, 71/1035 ; king 
or chief herald, 1. 1036. 

Herber, 190/427, lodge, accommo- 

Herbe benet, 68/993. 

Herbe John, 68/992. 

Herbs in sheets to be hung round 
the bath-room, 67/977. 

Herne, 2/24, corner. 

Heron, to dysmembre or carve, p. 

162. See Heyron-sewe. 
Heronsew, 157/5 ; to be cooked 

dry, 165/20. 
' I wol nat tellen of her straunge 


Ne of her swannes, ne here 
heron-sewes." 1 
Chaucer, March. Tale, 1. 60, 

v. 2, p. 357, ed. Morris. 
Herring, L. Andrewe on the, p. 


Herrings, baked, 50/722; fresh, 
58/844; fresh, broiled, 52 / 
748 ; salt, 57/832. 
Herrings, how to carve and serve, 

Herrings, white, or fresh, how to 

serve up, 45/641-5, 166/28. 
Hethyng, 185/266, contempt. 
Heyhove, 68/993, a herb. 
Heyriff, 68/993, a herb. 
Heyron-sewe, 36/539; p. 97, 
the heron: how to carve it, 27/ 

Hiccup not, 19/298. 

High name, the, 181/152, God] 

Highest place, don't take unless 
bidden, 187/347. 

Hit, for his, 29/456. 

Hithe, 53/783, it. 

Hold your hand before your 
mouth when you spit, 272/ 

Hole of the privy to be covered, 

Holy water, take it at the church- 
door, 182/160. 

Holyhock, 67/991. 

Holyn, 189/399. 1 

Horn, 185/273, them. 

Homes, servants to visit their 
own, p. 207, No. xi. 

Honest, 269/74, fitting, proper. 



Honeste, 65 / 954, propriety, 

Honey not clarified, used for 

dressing dischmetes, 34/514. 
Hood, a man's, 62/909. 
Hood, take it off", 217/16. 
Hoopid, 12/167, made round 

like a hoop. 
Hor, 187/272, their. 
Hornebeaks, p. 97, note on 1. 


Horse-hire, 4d. a day, 188/375. 
Horsyng, 195/564, being horsed, 

Hose, p. 108 ; to be rubbed, 226/ 

91. Du. koussen, Stockins or 

Hosen ; opper-Jcoussen, Hose 

or Breeches ; onder koussen, 

Nether-stockins; boven Tcoussen, 

Upper-hosen, or Briches. Hex- 

Hosen, 130/10; 168/31. 
Hosyn, 60/873; 62/895-8; 65/ 

/961 ; p. 108, breeches. 
Hostiarius, 190/430-1, usher. 
Hot dishes, a dodge to prevent 

them burning your hands, 202/ 

Hot wines, p. 83, in extract from 

A. Borde. 
Houndfisch, 41/584 ; p. 99 ; 56/ 

827 ; 58/844 ; 167/11, dogfish. 

* He lullith her, he kissith hir 
ful of te; 

With thikke bristlis on his herd 

Lik to the skyn of houndftsch, 
scharp as brere, 

(For he was schave al newe in 
his manere,) 

He rubbith hir about hir tendre 

Chaucer, Marchaundes Tale, 
v. 2, p. 223, ed. Morris. 

Houndes-fysshe, mortrus of, 168/2. 
Household bread, 4/55; to be 3 

days old, 152/6. 
Housholde, Babees that dwelle 

in, 251/45; Forewords, pp. ii., 

x., xi., &c. 
Howndes Dayes, p. 118, Cap. 

xv., dog-days. 
Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester, 

82/1230 ; App. to Russell Pref. 
Hunte, 198/629, huntsman; pi., 
Huntes, 198/628, huntsmen. 
Hure, 24/376, hood, cap. 
Hurtilberyes, 7/82 ; p. 85, n. to 

1. 81, 152/24. 

Husbands, the duty of, 237/8. 
Hyacinth, 141/11, jacinth, a pre- 

cious stone. 

, 183/201, promised, vowed. 

Jack and Jill, don't chatter with, 

langelynge, 2 5 3/9 4, chattering, 

(don't be), p. 258, p. 261, line I, 
langle (chatter), don't, 252/68; 

langylle, 271/90, chatter; 'iange- 

lyn, or iaveryn, iaberyn, garrulo 

blatero: P. Parv. 
Janitor, 188/360-1, the porter. 
lapynge, 253/95, joking. 
lardyne, almond, 52/744. 
Idle, don't be, 268/32. 
Jealousy, hate it, p. 258, p. 260, 

line G. 

Jelies, 34/511; iely, 49/693. 
Jelly, 34/511; 35/520; 51/ 

731 ; 56/825 ; p. 97. 
lestis, 59/858, proceedings, din- 


lettis, p. 261, 1. N, fashions. 
lettynge, p. 261, LI, sho wing-off, 



' I iette w* facyon and coun- 
tenaunce to set forthe inyselfe, 
ie braggue.' Palsgrave, in Way. 

lettynge, 20/300, note 3 . Fr. 
Poste a rakehell, or Colledge- 
seruant, thats euer gadding or 
letting abroad. Cot. 

Ignorance, the evils of, 228/230. 

Imbrowe, 255/157, dirty, soil. 

Improberabille, 54/795, very 
proper ? 

Impytous, p. 1 32, impetuous (last 

Infect, 83/1249. Fr. infecter, 
to infect ; poison j depraue, 
corrupt. Cot. 

Ingredyentes, 11/144, materials. 

Inhumanitie, 225/155, discour- 

Interrupt no one, 282/69. 

Intrippe, 283/69, interrupt. 

John the Baptist's day to Michael- 
mas, feasts from, p. 164. 

John, Duke, a yeoman in his 
house got a reward, 199/647. 

lolle of Jje salt sturgeoun, 44/ 
622; p. 99; 167/23. 

loncate, 7/82; p. 85; 152 / 
28, junket, orig. cream-cheese 
made in wicker-baskets, from 
L. juncus, a rush. Mahn. 
'Junkets, Cakes and Sweet- 
meats with which Gentle- 
women entertain one another, 
and Young-men their Sweet- 
hearts ; any sort of delicious 
Pare to feast and make merry 
with.' Philipps. 

lowtes, p. 160, last line; p. 171. 

Irweue, 85/3. ? Pr. Mulette . . 
the maw of a Calfe, which being 
dressed is called the Renet-bag, 
/renm-bag,orCheslop-bag. Cot. 

Judges, the duty of, 241/2. 

lusselle, 35/520; 54/805; 159/ 
28 ; recipe for, p. 145. 

Justices, the under, rank of, 70/ 
1018; 72/1061. 

Ivory comb, 62/902. 

Karle, 267/48, churl, poor man. 
Karpyng, 263/62, talking. Carp- 

ynge, Loquacitas, collocutio. 


Kater, 196/580, cater, provide. 
Kepe, 202/760, take care. 
Kepyng (stingy), don't be, p. 258, 

p. 261, line K. 
Kercheff, 61/885. 

Kerpe, 272/120, ?is it complain, or 
only talk, chatter ; ' carpyn or 
talkyn, fabulor, confabulor, 
garrulo,' Pr. Parv. 'to carpe, 
(Lydgate) this is a farre nor- 
then verbe, cacqueter.' Pals- 
grave, ib. note. Or is it break 
wind 1 See Guns. The Sloane 
MS. 2027, fol. 42, has for 1. 304 
of Eussell, p. 20, 'And alle 
wey be ware thyn ars be 
natte carpyng.' 

Keruynge of flesshe, p. 157 ; of 
fysshe, p. 166. 

Kerver, termes of a, p. 149. 

Keuer, 17/265-6, cover, put covers 

or dishes for. 
Kickshaw, 96/14, a tart. 

Kid, 49/694; 54/807; with 

ginger sauce, 46/537 ; how to 

carve, 28/441. 
Kidney of fawn, &c. to be served, 


Kind, be always, 183/195. 
Kind, don't be too, p. 258, p. 261, 

line K. 
King ranks with an emperor, 

70/1007; 72/1045. 



King's Messengers, 171/31. 
King's officers, 171/25. 

King's servants to be received as 

one degree higher than they 

are, 75/1117-27. 
Knaves' tricks, beware of, p. 258, 

p. 261, line K. 
Knee, don't put yours under 

other men's thighs, 180/119. 

Kneel on one knee to men, on 

both to God, 182/163-6. 
Kneel, the Ewerer to do so. on 

giving water to any one, 199/ 

Kneel to your lord on one knee, 


Knife, don't play with your, 279, 
280/54; don't put it in your 
mouth, 256/162; 180/113; 
take salt with it, 272/97. 
(When were saltspoons intro- 

Knife, don't pick your teeth with, 

Knives to be clean, 279, 280/58 ; 
to be sharp, 263/42 ; to be clean 
and sharp, 255/137 ; 272/119 ; 
to be wiped on a napkin, not on 
the tablecloth, 22/332. 

Knives to be put up after meals, 

Knives, for bread, 4/50-2; for 
the table, ib., 1. 63. 

Knives, the Butler's three, p. 
152; the lord's, 200/675. 

Knight, the rank of a, 70/1016 ; 

Knop, 192/453, knob, bunch? 

Kommende, 253/104, this may 
possibly be like 254/120, com- 
mend (q. v.~) a cup to you to 
drink ; but 270/71, ' sey welle ', 
looks as if praise wore meant. 

Kymbe, 61/886, comb. 
Kyn, 217/13, birth. 
Kynraden, 185/279 ; A.S. cynn- 
ryne,& family course, parentage. 

Labour not after meals, p. 136. 
Lace- or buckle-shoes, 62/896. 
Ladies, how to behave to, 264/73. 
Ladies soon get angry, 165/8. 

Lady of low degree has her lord's 
estate or rank, 171/19. 

Lakke, 269/76, blame ; Du. la- 
ecken, to vituperate, blame, or 
reproach. Hexham. 

Lamb, 54/807 ; p. 106 ; how to 
carve, 28/441. 

Lamb and ginger sauce, 36/537. 

Lambur, 193/480. ?has it any- 
thing to do with Fr. lambre- 
quin, the point of a labell, or 
Labell of a file in Blazon ; 
Lambel, a Labell of three 
points, or a File with three 
Labells pendant (Cot.). Ladies 
wore and wear ornaments some- 
what of this kind. 

Lambskins, p. 131. 

Lamprey, 50/724; 58/840; p. 
119. See Henry V.'s commis- 
sion to Guillielmus de. Nantes 
de Britannia to supply him and 
his army with Lampreys up to 
Easter, 1418. From the Camp 
at Falaise, Feb. 6. Rymer, ix. 

Lamprey, names of a, p. 99, 


Lamprey pasty, 167/25. 
Lampreys, fresh, pie of, how to 

serve, 44/630-45 ; p. 99. 
Lamprey, salt, how to carve, 39/ 

Lampron, names of a, p. 100. 



Lampurnes, 50/719; 55/820; 

58/848; bake, 51/725; rost, 

51/737 ; 41/588, lamperns. 
Landlords, their duty, 242/13. 
Lands of a lord, his Chancellor 

oversees, 196/571. 
Lapewynk, 37/542 ; p. 98, lap- 

Lappes, 191/452, wraps. 
Lapwing, how to carve, 27/417 ; 

p. 158, last line. 
Lark (the bird), 28/437, 37/542, 

49/698, p. 103. 

Laske, 7/91, loose (in the bowels). 
Last, 15/227, uppermost. 
Laugh, don't, with your mouth 

full, 179/67 ; 272/109. 
Laugh loudly, don't, 264/75. 
Laugh not, 269/57 ; not too often, 


Laughing always is bad, 212/85. 
Lauour, 16/232, washing-basin?. 

Lavacrum, a lavour, Reliq. 

Ant. i. 7. Esguiere: f. An 

Ewer, a Lauer. Cotgrave (see 


Law, how kept, 268/53. 
Law, men of, their duty, 242/11. 
Law, 187/330, low. 
Lawes, 183/217, laughs. 
Lawnde, 2/16, and note. 
Lay the Cloth, how to, 13/187 ; 

Leaking of wine pipes, 8/110 ; 


Lean not on the table, 255/146. 
Learning, its roots bitter, its 

fruits pleasant, 228/202. 
Leche, a, 51/725, 737 ; 54/810. 
Leche dugard, 50/708. 
Leche fry ture, 52/749. 
Leche Lombard, 48/689; 157/2. 

See ' Lumber ' in Nares. The 
recipe in Forme of Cury, p. 36, 

Take rawe Pork, and pulle of the 
skyn, and pyke out J?e skyn [&] 
synewu, and bray the Pork in a 
morter wzt/i ayreii rawe ; do jwto 
sugwr, salt, raysons, corailce, daU* 
mynced, and powdowr of Peper, 
powdow gylofre, and do it in a 
bladder, and lat it see)? til it be 
ynowh}. and whan it is ynowh, kerf 
it, leshe it in likenesse of a peskodde, 
and take grete raysolis and grynde 
hem in a morter, drawe hem up wif? 
rede wyne, do fyerto mylke of almandw, 
colour it with sanders and safron and 
do jj^rto powdowr of pep^r and of 
gilofre, and boile it. and whan it is 
iboiled, take powdowr of canel and 
gynger, and temper it up with wyne. 
and do alle Jnse thyng/s togyd^r. and 
loke j?at it be renyns, and lat it not 
seej> after that it is cast togyder, and 
serve it forth. 

Leche, whyte, 157/7, 

Leeches, 34/516, strips of meat, 

&c., dressed in sauce or jelly. 
Lees, 26/407; 30/466, strips; 

43/610, slices. 
Leessez, 33/504; 34/546, strips 

of meat in sauce. 
Lede, 179/78, leaved, left. 
Left hand only to touch food, 

Legate, 70/1013; the pope's, 1. 


Legh, 191/441, 1 law, hill, eleva- 
tion, A.S. hlcBw; or lea land, 

Legs not to be set astraddle, 20/ 

Legs of great birds, the best bits, 

26/403, 410 ; 27/426 ; 30/471. 
Lele, 196/593, loyally ?, justly. 
Lemman, 44 / 635, dear young 

friend ; A.S. leof, dear. 
Lengthe, 31/488, lengthen. 
Lered, 65/956, taught, told. 



Lerynge, 56/831, teaching. 
Lesche, v. tr., p. 151, slice. 
Lessynge, 153/17, remedy, cure. 
Lesynge, 9/116, curing, restor- 
ing to good condition. 
Lete, 8/110; p. 86, leak. 
Letters, the use of, 228/186. 
Leues, 202/741, remains. 
Leuys, 203/787, remains. 
Lewd livers to dread, 239/933. 
-lewe, see drunkelewe. 
Liar, don't be one, 19/292 ; 1837 

Liberal, don't be too, 260/11, p. 

263, line L. 
Lice, 18/280; p. 93. 
Lick not the dish, 19/295. 
Licoure, 25/382, sauce, dressing. 
Lie not, 270/75. 
Lie far from your bedfellow, 


Lies, 9/116, deposit, settlement. 
Light payne, 22/339, fine bread 

for eating. 
Lights to be put above the Hall 

chimney or fire-place, p. 192/ 

Line of the blood royal, 171/24. 

Linen, body-, to be clean, 60/ 

Linen, used to wipe the nether 

end, 64/935. 
Ling (the fish), 38/555 ; p. 98 ; 

p. 58, note 8; 59/852 ; 168/6. 
Lining of a jacket, the best, p. 

Lips; don't put 'em out as if 

you'd kiss a horse, 211/73. 
Lips, keep 'em clean, 277, 278/34. 

Lis, 3/31, relieve. ' ac a-lys 
us of yfele,' but deliver us 

from evil, Lord's Prayer. Eel. 
Ant. i. 204. 

Listen to him who speaks to you, 

Lite, 56/830, little. 

Litere, 191/435, litter, straw or 
rushes for beds. 

Livery of candles, Nov. 1 to Feb. 
2, 205/839. i. La Livree des 
Chanoines. their liverie, or 
corrodie ; their stipend, exhi- 
bition, dailie allowance in 
victuals or money. Cot. 

Loaf, small, to be cut in two, 

Loaves, two to be brought when 
bread is wanted, 203/781-4. 

Lobster. ' Finallie of the legged 
kinde we have not manie, 
neither haue I seene anie more 
of this sort than the Polypus 
called in English the lobstar, 
crafish or creuis, and the crab, 
[q. v.]. Carolus Stephanus in 
his maison rustique, doubted 
whether these lobstars be fish 
or not ; and in the end con- 
cludeth them to grow of the 
purgation of the water as dooth 
the frog, and these also not to 
be eaten, for that they be 
strong and verie hard of diges- 
tion.' Harrison, v. i. p. 224-5. 

Lokere, 268/60, 1 not look, over- 
see, superintend, and so 
oppress; but from Dutch 
Loker, an allurer, or an inticer, 
locken, to allure or entise, 
Hexham; lokken, to allure, 
bait. Sewel. 

Lombard, leche, 48/689 ; 157/2. 
See Leche Lombard. 'Frutour 
lumbert . . Lesshe lumbert? 
Oxford dinner, 1452. Eeliq. 
Ant. i. 88. 



Look steadily at whoever talks to 

you, 252/65. 
London bushel, 20 loaves out of 

a, 198/625. 

London, Mayor of, 76/1137. 
Londoner, an ex-Mayor, 71 / 

1025; 73/1067. 

Long hair is unseemely, 213/126. 
Long pepper, 153/33. 

Longe wortes, 34/518, ? carrots, 
parsnips, &c. 

Lord, a, how dressed, p. 61-2 ; p. 
168; how undressed and put 
to bed, p. 65-6; p. 169; his 
pew and privy, p. 63 ; wash- 
ing before dinner, 254/129; 
after, 257/199. See Hands, &c. 

Lord, how to behave before one, 
262/3 ; how to serve one at 
table, p. 275-6. 

Lord, let yours drink first, 269/69. 

Lord or lady when talking, not to 
be interrupted, 254/106. 

Lordes nurrieris, 71/1039; p. 

Lords' beds, 191/443. 

Lorely, 181/135, loosely about ? 
A.S. leoran, leosan, to go forth, 
away, or forward, leese, lose. 

Lothe (be loth to lend), p. 258, p. 
261, line L. 

Lothe, 178/48, be disgusted. 

Loud talking and laughing to be 
avoided, 19/290-1. 

Loued, 197/600, allowed, given 

credit for. 
Love God and your neighbour, 


Love, the fruits of, 237/815. 
Lowly, be, 229/278. 
Lowne, 209/1 2, lout. 

Lowt, 41/579, lie. 

Lowte, 262/8, do obeisance, bow. 
' I lowte, I gyue reuerence to 
one, le me cambre, le luy fais 
la reuerence. 1 Palsgrave, in 
Way. A.S. lilutan, to bow. 

Lumpischli, 276/16, Ho be lum- 
pish, botachtigh zijn : botach- 
tigh, Rudish, Blockish, or that 
hath no understanding.' Hex- 

Lyer, 146/11, ? the cook's stock for 
soup ; glossed ' a mixture ' by 
Mr Morris in Liber Cure Coco- 
rum. And make a lyoure of 
brede and blode, and lye hit 
)>erwithe . . ib. p. 32, in 'Gose 
in a Hogge pot.' ? Lat. liquor, 
or Fr. Her to soulder, vnite, 
combine. Cot. 

Lyft, p. 151, carve. 

Lying, against, p. 239, cap. xiii. 

Lykorous, 19/292, lip-licking? 

Lynse wolse, 132/5, linsey- 

Lynd, 270/61, Du. lindt, soft, 
milde, or gentle. Hex. 

Lyour, 191/446, a band. 

Lytulle of worde, 178/34, sparing 
in speech. 

Lyvelode, 74/1087-8, property. 

Lyueray, 188/371, pi. lyueres, 
189/395, allowances of food, 
&c. See Livery. 

Lyuerey, p. 216, No.vii. servant's 
dress. Fr. livree . . One's cloth, 
colours, or deuice in colours, 
worn by his seruants or others. 

Mackerel, 39/559; p. 41; p. 
98; salt, 57/834; how to 
carve, 40/575-6. 



Mackeroone, 96/14, a tart. 

Magistrates, their duty, 242/18. 

Make, 274/143, stroke? 

MdlencolicuSj p. 54 ; p. 104. 

Malice, 237/783, 817. 

Mallard, 164/28 ; how to carve 
it, 26/402 ; 158/25. 

Mallard, &c., how they get rid of 
their stink, 165/32-3. 

Maluesy, 153/20; Malvesyn, 
9/120; p. 86; p. 90, No. 12; 
p. 93, No. 6; the sweet wine 

Malyke or Malaga, figs of, 166/18. 

Marneny, 49/705 ; 52/744; recipe 
at p. 145. 

Manchet, 198/627, fine bread. 

Manerable, 75/1113, well-trained. 

Manerly, 13/195 ; 63/923, neatly. 

Maners, 197/601, dwelling- 
J houses, mansions, Fr. memoir, 
a Mansion, Mannor, or Man- 
nor-house. Cot. 

Manger, a horse's, 197/610. 

Mangle your food, don't, 256 / 
176-9. 'I mangle a thing, I 
disfygure it with cuttyng of it 
in peces or without order. Je 
mangonne . . and je mutille. 
You have mangy lied this meate 
horryhly, it is nat to sette afore 
no honest men (nul homme de 
lien) nowe.' Palsgrave. 

Manners maketh man, 263/34 ; 
are more requisite than play- 
ing, 233/513. 

Man's arms, the use of, 268/38. 

Mansuetely, 61/887. Fr. man- 
suet, gentle, courteous, meeke, 
mild, humble. Cot. 

Mantle, 65/957, cloak or dress- 

Mantle of a whelk, 44/625. 

Many words are tedious, 252/75. 

Mark, Matthew, Luke, and John, 
bless yourself by, 181/151. 

Marquess and Earl are equal, 
70/1012; 72/1049. 

Marshal of the Hall, p. 69-78, 
p. 170-2; his duties, p. 188- 
90; arrests rebels, 189/381; 
seats men by their ranks, 189/ 
403 ; has a short wand, 187/ 
356 ; attends to all bed-cham- 
bers except the lord's, 190/ 

Marshal or usher comes up to a 
guest, 178/30. 

Marshallynge, 78/1165, arrang- 
ing of guests. 

Martyn, skin or fur of, for 
garments, p. 139. 

Martynet, 157/9 ; 159/7, the 
martin (bird). 

Mary, the Virgin, 48/691. 

Mase, 183/216, makes. 

Mass, hear one daily, 266/17. 

Mass heard by the nobles every 
morning, but not by business 
men, p. 130. 

Master, don't go before your, 
185/281 ; don't waste his goods, 
4/47 ; 219/9. 

Master, don't strive with your, 
183/226. lamais ne gaigne qui 
plaide a son seigneur ; ou, qui 
procede a son Maistre. Pro. No 
man euer throue by suing his 
Lord or Maister ; (for either 
God blesses not so vndutifull a 
strife, or successe followes not 
in so vnequal a match.) Cot, 

Master of a craft sits above the 
warden, &c., 78/1159. 

Master of the Rolls, rank of, 70/ 
1017 ; 72/1060. 

Masters, duties of, p. 241/6. 



Mastic, to be chewed before you 
rest, p. 139. 

Maistirs of the Chauncery, rank 
of, 71/1027; 73/1068. 

Mawes, 178/55, mocks; 187/ 

Mawmeny, recipe for, p. 145. 

Maydelyne gynger, 10/132. 

Mayor of Calais, 70/1020 ; 72/ 

Mayor of London, 70/1014; 

Mays, 194/533, makes. 

Mead, p. 107. 

Meals, 3 a day to be eaten, p. 
135 ; only 2 a day, p. 141. 

Measure is treasure, 232/477. 

Mede, 181/135, reward; for no 
kyn mede, on no account what- 

Medelus (meddlesome), don't be 
too, p. 258, p. 261, line M. 

Medicinable bath, how to make, 
p. 67-9. 

Meek, don't be too, like a fool, 

Meene, 261/15, mean, middle 
course. See Moderation. 

Melle, 268/56, mix, meddle. 

Men must work, 268/31. 

Mene, smaller, 197/604, lower 
officers of the household. 

Menewes in sewe of porpas, 166/ 
6; in porpas, 167/35. 

Menske, 178/32, civility; 184/ 
234, favour. From A.S. men- 
nisc, human : cf. our double 
sense of ' humanity.' H. Cole- 
ridge. Cp. also * kind ' and 

Menskely, 185/291, moderately. 

Menuce, 55/819 ; menuse, 52/ 
747, minnows. 

Meny, 270/88, household. 

Merchants, duty of, 242/14 ; 
rank of, 71/1037; 73/1071. 

Merlynge, 39/558, the fish whit- 
ing ; 57/834; 166/31. 

Mermaid, p. 117. 

Merry, be, before bed-time, p. 128. 

Merry, don't be too, p. 258, p. 
261, line M. 

Mertenet, 37 / 542 ; p. 98, the 
martin ; Mertenettes, 49/706. 

Mertinet, 28/437 ; p. 95, martin. 

Mess, each, at dinner, to be 
booked at 6d., 190/413. 

Mess, who may sit 2 or 3 at a, 
72 / 1055 ; who 3 or 4, 1. 
1057 ; who 4 and 4, 1. 1066. 

Message, when sent on, how to 
behave, p. 236, cap. viii. 

Mesurabli, p. 261, 1. % moderate. 
Mesurably, Mensurate (mode- 
rate). Prompt. 

Mesure, 8/107, moderation. 

Metely, 61/890, meet, fitting. 

Metes, 58/845, fish. 

Methe, 58/817, mead. 

Metheglin, p. 107. 

Metis, 8/95, vegetables ; ib. 1. 
101, food. 

Michaelmas to Chrismas, feasts 
from, p. 164. 

Milk, 8/93. ' Vin sur laid, c'est 
souhait ; laid sur vin, c'est 
venin: Prov. Milke before 
wine, I would twere mine ; 
milke taken after, is poisons 
daughter. Cot. u. SouUait. 

Minnows, p, 104 ; 166/6. 

Miser eatur, to be learnt, 18 1/ 

Misty, ad/, 62/911. 

Mocker, don't be a, 268/59. 



Moderation, 8/107 ; 153/5 ; 232/ 
477. See Meene. Cp. p. 104 of 
the Old English Homilies, ed. 
Morris, 1868. 'Brutes eat as 
soon as they get it, but the wise 
man shall have times set apart 
for his meals, and then in reason 
keep to his regimen.' 
Mood, temper, passion. 
Morning prayer, p. 225. 
Morter, 66/968, bed-candle ; 
160/32 ; 193/503, a kind of 
candle used as a night-light. 
Morter, a Mortarium, a light 
or taper set in churches, to 
burn possibly over the graves 
or shrines of the dead. Cowel. 
Qu. if not a cake of wax used 
for that purpose. Note in Brit. 
Mus. copy of Hawkins's Hist, 
of Music, ii. 294. 
Mortrowes, 35/520 ; 54/805 ; 56/ 


Mortrus, 164/31. 
Motes, 16/236 ; 18/272, bits of 

dust, &c. 
Moths in clothes, p. 115, last 


Mought, flesche-, 18/280, flesh 
moth, louse. ' Mow^te, clothe 
wyrme (mouhe, mow, mowghe). 
Tinea ; Mought that eatett 
clothes, uers de drap? Pals 
grave; A.S. modde. Prompt. 
Moughtes, 64/945; p. 108, moths, 
Mouth, don't eat on both sides 

of, 179/65. 
Mouth, drink not with a full, 255 

149 ; nor speak, 255/152. 
Mouth, wipe it before drinking 


Mowes (faces), don't make, 277 

278/29. Fr. 'Monnoye de Singe 

Moes, mumps, mouthes ; also 

friskes, leaps, gambolls. . . . 
Mopping, mumping, mowing; 
also friskes, gambolls, tumbling 
tricks.' Cotgrave. 

Mowynge, 278/29 ; 19/291 ; mak- 
ing faces in derision, grimac- 
ing ; ' mowe or skorne,' vangia 
vel valgia. Pr. Parv. 

Mullet, 58/841, 850; 166/13. 

Mulus, a sea-fish, p. 119. 

Muscadelle, 9/118 ; p. 89, No. 
6 ; 153/21, a sweet wine. 

Musclade of almonds, 55/821; 

in wortes, 55/821; 167/34; 

of minnows, 50/719. 
Muscles (fish), 55/819 ; p. 107 ; 

p. 116. 
Musculade, 166/6; 167/34. 

Musculus, the cocke of balena, p. 

Mustard, 48/686; p. 100; 54/ 

796 ; 58/843 ; 159/33. 
Mustard and sugar, the sauce for 

pheasants, &c., 36/538. 
Mustard for brawn, &c., 36 / 

533 ; with fish, 59/853 ; with 

salt fish, 38/557 ; 57/832. 
Mustela, the see-wesyll, p. 119. 
Mutton, 48/688 ; p. 105. 'The 

moton boyled is of nature and 

complexion sanguyne, the 

whiche, to my jugement, is 

holsome for your grace.' Du 

Guez, p. 1071. 
Mutton, salt, to be eaten with 

mustard, 36 / 533 ; stewed, 

Mutton, loin of, how to carve, 


Mylet, 51/735, mullet. 
Myllewelle, the fish, 38 555] 

Myn, 199/666, less. 



Mynce, p. 151, carve. 
Mynse, 26/400, mince. 

Mysloset, 183/208, 1 mispraised 

or misgoiug, misleading. 
Mystere, 199/G39, craft, service. 

Nails to be clean, 265/10 ; 2T7-8/ 
22; 18/270; not to be picked 
at meals, 255/150 ; to be kept 
from blackness, 277-8/49. 

Nape in the neck, the cony's to 
be cut out, 29/455. 

Nape, 199/659, tablecloth. 

Napere, 199/642, napry, table- 
cloths and linen ; /656, table- 

Napery, 4/61. 

Nature, all soups not made by, 

are bad, 35/523. 
Neckweed, p. 124, a hempen 


Neck-towel, 13/194; p. 82 ; to 

wipe knives on, 201/727. 
Keghe, 178/25, eye. 
Neeze, 211/61, sneeze. 
Nereids, p. 119; p. 115. 

Nesche, 45/644, tender; 67 / 
985, soft. 

Newfangled, don't be, 258/13. 
Nice, 33/508, foolish. 

Nice, don't be too, p. 258, p. 261, 
line N. 

Night-cap to be of scarlet stuff, p. 
129 ; must have a hole in the 
top, to let the vapour out, p. 

Night-gown, 193/483. 

No fixed time for meals, p. 141. 

Noble Lyfe and Natures of Man, 

$c., by Laurens Andrewe, p, 

113, &c. &c. 

Nombles, 35/521; see Promp- 
torium, p. 360, note 1. 

Nombles of a dere, 159/29, 
entrails, from umbilicus. 

Noon, dinner at, 254/128, 

Norture, give your heart to it, 275, 

Nose, don't blow it on your dinner 
napkin, 263/53; when you blow 
it on your fingers, wipe 'em, 

Nose, don't pick it, 275, 276/12 ; 

at meals, 255/150; at table, 

Nose not to be wiped, 274/141; 

not to be wiped on your cap, 

Ac., 210/47-52. 
Nose-napkin, 226/94. 
Nottys, 6/78 ; p. 85, nuts. 
Nowelte, 53/784, novelty. 
Nowne, 179/87, own. 
Nurrieris, 71/1039; p. 110. 
Nurture, 45/651, correct way. 
Nurture makes a man, 263/34, 30; 

needful for every one, 177/4. 
Nurtured, pray to be, 254/117. 
Nuts, 152/19, 20. 
Nyen, 180/116, eyes. 

Oaths, hate 'em, p. 258, p. 261, 

line 0. 

Oats, green, in a bath, 69/995. 
Ob. 198/620, halfpence. 
Obedient, servants to be, p. 207, 

No. vi. 

Office, 202/738, mark of office? 
Officers in Lords' courts, 187/327. 
Officers, their duty, 242/19. 
Officers of shires, cities, and 

boroughs, their ranks to be 

understood, 76/1130-2. 



Onions with sal't lamprey, 40 / 

569 ; p. 198. 

Onone, 196/591, anon, at once. 
Open-clawed birds to be cooked 

like a capon, 164/23. 
Opon, 196/580, up in?, about, 

Opponents, answer them meekly, 


Orchun, a sea-monster, p. 120. 
Order in speech, keep, 235/696. 
Orders of chastity and poverty, 

monks, rank of, 71/1030. 
Orped, 258/14; p. 261, 1. 0, 

daring; orpud audax, belli- 

potens. Pr. Parv. 
Oryent (jelly), 52/746, bright. 
Osey, 153/19; p. 206, asweet wine. 
Osprey, how to carve, 26/402 ; 

p. 95. 

Osulle, 28/438, the blackbird. 
Ouemast, 200/671, uppermost. 
Ouerjnvart (don't be), p. 258, p. 

261, 1. ; Fr. Pervcrs, peruerse, 

crosse, aukeward, ouerthwart, 

skittish, froward, vntoward. 


Oyster, p. 120. 
Oysters in ceuy (chive sauce), 

55/822, and grauey ; 167/34. 
Ox ; he is a companionable 

beast, p. 105. 
Oxen, three in a plough never 

draw well, 185/287. 
Ozey, 9/119; p. 90, No. 10, a 

sweet wine. 

Page, the King's, 75/1123. 
Pagrus, a fish, p. 120. 
Pale, 101/16, grow pale? 
Palettis, 197/435, pallets, beds of 
straw or rushes. 

Palled, 13/183, stale, dead. 

Panter, 200/667. 

Pantere, 3/40; pantrer, 190/405, 

425 ; originally the keeper and 

cutter-up of bread, see his duties, 

p. 4 ; 'Panetier, a Pantler.' Cot. 

His duties, to lay the bread, 

knives, &c., 200/667. 
Panter and butler, p. 208, No. 


Pantry, 193/499. 
Paraunce, heiers of, 193/497, 

heirs apparent. 
Parelle, 23/343, 'the thofer 

parte ' in Sloane MS. 1315. 

Parents, salute them, 226/71 ; 
229/294 ; wait on 'em at table, 
230/337. 'What man he is 
your father, you ought to make 
courtesye to hym all though 
you shulde mete hym twenty 
tymes a daye.' Palsgrave, ed. 
1852, p. 622, col. 1. 

Paris, candles of, 205/836. 

Parish priests, rank of, 71/1032. 

Parker, 196/589 ; 197/599, park- 

Parsley roots, 56/826. 

Parsons, the duty of, 242/10; 
rank of, 71/1031 ; 73/1069. 

Partridge, 49/697 ; p. 103 ; how 
to carve, 25/397; 26/417; or 
wynge, p. 161. 

Partridge, with mustard and 
sugar. 36/538. 

Passage, 33/507, 1 passage through 
the bowels, or passing out of 
the world. 

Past, 203/773, pasty. 

Pastey of venison, &c., 31/490. 

Pasty, lamprey, 44/631 ; p. 100. 

Patentis, 196/566, letters patent, 
grants, gifts by deed. 



Paternoster, 181/145. 

Patience, the fruits of, 237/821. 

Pavilowne, 73/1079, pavilion, 

Payne puff, 32/497, a kind of 
pie, 49/699; 157/7; 163/32. 

Peacock in hakille ryally, 49 / 
695; p. 103. 

Peacock, 28/433 ; and tail, 157/5. 

Pearl-muscle, the, p. 117. 

Pearl-oyster, p. 120. 

Pearls from your nose, do not 
drop, 18/283. 

Pears, 52/757 ; 55/813 ; 57/826 ; 
152/19. 'Apres la poire, le vin 
ou le prestre. Prov. After a 
(cold) Peare, either drinke wine 
to concoct it, or send for the 
Priest to confesse you.' Cot. 

Peas and bacon, 25/392 ; 34/518. 

Peantre, 153/28, pewter ; cp. 
Margaret Paston's Letter, Dec., 
between 1461 and 1466, 
modernized ed. 1841, v. 1, p. 
159. i Also, if ye be at home 
this Christmas, it were well 
done ye should do purvey a 
garnish or twain of pewter 
vessell, two basins and two 
ewers, and twelve candlesticks, 
for ye have too few of any of 
these to serve this place.' 
Grig. ed. vol. iv. p. 107, Letter 

Pece, 203/792, cup. 

Peck of oats a day for a horse, 


Pecocke of the se, p. 120. 
Pecten, a fish that winks, p. 120. 
Peeres, 6/78, 80, pears. 

Pegyll sauce, 165/4 ; p. 174. A 
malard of the downghyll ys 
good y-nogh for me wythe 

plesaunt .pyMe, or yt ys elles 
poyson, perde. Piers of Pull- 
ham, 1. 196-7. E. Pop. P. vol 
2, p. 9. 

Pen, paper, and ink, to be taken 
to school, 217/116. 

Pentecost to Midsummer, feasts 
from, 163/13. 

Pepper, 58/843, eaten with beef 
and goose, 36/536. 

Pepyns, 6/79 ; p. 85, pippins. 
Fr. pepin-perce, (The name of) 
a certaine drie sweet apple. 

Percely, 168/1, parsley. 

Perceue, 62/917, look to, see. 

Perch, 56/824 ; 58/850. 

Perch (pei'cus), p. 120. 

Perch in jelly, 50/707 ; 52/746 j 
157/9; 166/16. 

Perche, 10/128; 11/146, sus- 
pended frame or rod. 

Perche, to hang cloths on, 152/14. 

Perche for ypocras strainers, 153/ 

Percher, 66/968, a kind of 


Perchers, 192/467; Perchoures, 
169/32; 205/826, candles, 

Per-crucis, the, 181/152. 

Peregalle, 70/1 pi 0, quite equal. 

Pereles, 72/1231, peerless, with- 
out equal. 

Pericles, the advice of, 238/891. 

Peritory, 67/991. 

Perueys, or perneys, 32/499 ; p. 

96, a sweet pie. 
Peson, 37/547. 
Peson and porpoise, good potage, 




Pessene, 166/23, peason, pease- 
broth 1 

Pestelles, 164/11,28, legs. Pestle 
is a hock, Fr. Faucille (in a 
horse), the bought or pestle of 
the thigh. Cot. 

Pestilence, silk and skins not to 
be worn during, p. 139. 

Petipetes, or pety-pettys, p. 32, 
note 2 ; 1. 499, note 3 . 'Peti- 
petes, are Pies made of Carps 
and Eels first roasted, and then 
minced, and with Spices made 
up in Pies.' R. Holme. 

Petycote, 60/872 ; 61/891 ; 168/ 
22, 30. Randle Holme, Bk 
III., chap. ii. xxvii., p. 19, 
col. 1, says, ' He beareth 
Argent, a Semeare, Gules ; 
Sleeves faced or turned up, Or 
Petty-Coat Azure ; the skirt or 
bottom Laced, or Imbrauthered 
of the third. This is a kind of 
loose Garment without, and 
stiffe Bodies under them, & 
was a great fashion for Women 
about the year 1676. Some 
call them Mantua's ; they have 
very short Sleeves, nay, some 
of the Gallants of the times, 
have the Sleeves gathered up 
to the top of the Shoulders 
and there stayed, or fastned 
with a Button and Loope, or 
set with a rich Jewel.' He 
gives a drawing of it two pages 

Petycote of scarlet over the skirt, 
p. 131. 

Pety peruaunt, 32/note 2 ; 96/xx. 

Pety perueis, or perneis, 50/707 ; 

Petyperuys, 157/9. 

Pewter basons, 153/28. 

Pheasant, how to carve, 27/417 ; 

to alaye or carve, p. 161. 
Pheasant to be cooked dry, and 

eaten with ginger, 163/17 ; 

with mustard and sugar, 36/ 

538 ; stewed, 48/688 ; p. 101. 
Pick not your nose, teeth, or 

nails, 255/150; 18/283. See 

Nose, &c. 
Pick not your teeth with your 

knife, 277, 278/42. 
Pick yourself, don't, 276/14. 
Pick your teeth with a knife, or 

fingers, don't, 180/93. 
Pie, how to carve a, 31/482. 
Pie, 203/773. 
Pig, how to carve, 28/446 ; 48/ 

689 ; roast, 54/801. 
Pig and ginger sauce, 36/537. 
Pig's feet, 161/9. 
Pigeon, 28/438 ; baked, 29/491 ; 

roast, 54/808. 
Pight, 76/1134, placed. 
Pigmies, p. 102, note. 
Pike, 50/724; p. 119; 57/839; 
how to carve, 39 / 562 ; p. 
164, last line; colice of, 56/824. 
Pike, names of a, p. 99. 
Pike not your nose, 18/283. 

Pilgrimages vowed, to be per- 
formed, 183/201. 
Pillow, 53/925 ; 66/965. 

Piment, 153/22, a sweet wine. 
See Notes to Russell, p. 86-8. 

Pincernarius, 190/422-3, butler. 
Pinions indigestible, 24/363. 
Pinna, a fish, p. 120. 
Pippins, 50/713; 152/25. 
Pistor, 198/622-3, the baker. 

Plaice, p. 120; how to carve, 

40/570; 167/3. 
Plaice with wine, 57/839. 



Planer, 4/58, (ivory) smoother 

(for salt) ; 152/9. 
Platere, 26/408 ; plater, 44/633, 


Playes, 204/818, folds. 
Plijt, 16/242, fold. 
PKte, 28/434, manner. 
Plommys, 6/77, plums. 
Plover, 36/539 ; p. 97 ; 49/697 ; 

p. 158, last line; 165/1. 
Seththe sche brou^t horn in 

Ploverys poudryd in paste. 

Sir Degrevant, p. 235, 1. 1402. 
Plover, how to carve, 27/417 ; 

to mynce or carve, p. 163. 
Plummets of lead, 131/4. 
Plums, 46/668 ; 152/20. 
Plyed, 200/690, folded. 
Plyte, 155/31, plait. 

Points, truss your masters, 62/ 
898. To truss . . the points 
was to tie the laces which sup- 
ported the hose or breeches. 

Polippus, a fish, p. 117, p. 120. 

Pommander, p. 141, a kind of 
perfume made up in a ball and 
worn about the person. See 
recipes in HalliwelTs Gloss. 

Poor, think of them first, 265/16. 

Poor men, their duty, 242/17. 

Pope has no peer, 70 / 1006 ; 
72/1045; his father or mother 
is not equal to him, 74/1097- 

Pork, 164/12, 28, 30, 32. 

Porpoise, 41/582 ; 55/823 ; p. 97, 
note on 1. 533. 

Porpoise, fresh, 58 / 849 ; salt, 
38/548; 57/835; 166/25. 

Portenaunce, 161/9, belongings, 

an animal's intestines. Pals- 
grave (in Ha Hi well). 

Porter at the gate, 177/6; to 
have 'the longest wand, 187/ 
355 ; his duties and perquisites, 
p. 188. 

Port-payne, 17/262; p. 93; a 
cloth for carrying bread. Cp. 
' J?en brede he brynges, in 
towelle wrythyiV 200/685 ; 
cp. 203/784.. 

Possate, 8/94; p. 85; posset, 

Post, don't lean against it, 253/ 
82; 275/9 ; 276/10; 186/325. 

Potage, 34/516-17; p. 102; 497 
693;. 52/745; 56/829; 159/ 
30; 164/10, 13. 

Potage to be served after brawn, 
48/687; p. 102; 'physicionsben 
of opynyon that one ought to 
begyn the meate of vitayle 
(uiandes Uquides) to thende 
that by that means to gyve 
direction to the remenant.' 
1532-3. Giles du Guez's Intro- 
ductorie, ed. 1852, p. 1071. 

Potage, how assayed, 203/765 ; 
how to be supped, 234/443-50 ; 
to be supped quietly, 179/70 ; 
eat it with a spoon, don't sup it, 

Potelle, 11/148, a liquid measure. 

Potestate, 62/915, man of power, 

Pouder, 167/16,? ginger or pepper. 

Poudre, 164/22, ? ginger, see 1. 

Poudres, 163/17, spices? 

Powche, 33/501, ? poached-egg, 
p. 96, 49/700. 

Powder, 42/589, 597 ; ? salt & 
spice, 43/620. The Forme of 
Cury mentions 'powdour fort,' 



p. 15, p. 24, and ' powdowr 
douce,' p. 12, p. 14, p. 25. 
Pegge, Pref. xxix., < I take 
powder - douce to be either 
powder of galyngal (for see 
Editor's MS. II. 20, 24;) or 
a compound made of sundry 
aromatic spices ground or beaten 
small, and kept always ready 
at hand in some proper recepta- 
cle. It is otherwise termed 
good powders, 83. 130. and in 
Editor's MS. 17. 37. 38 (but 
see the next article,) or powder 
simply No. 169. 170. (p. 76), 
and p. 103, No. xxxv.' 

Powder, 40/573, ? not sprinkle 
verb, but brine or salt sb. 

Powders for sauce, 26/412. 

Powdred, 36/533; p. 97, salted. 
Dutch besprenght vleesch, Pow- 
dered or Salted meate. Hex- 
ham. Cotgrave has ' Piece de 
laboureur sale. A peece of 
powdered bcefe. Salant . . salt- 
ing ; powdering or seasoning 
with salt. Charnier, a ponder- 
ing tub. Saliere . . a salt-seller, 
also, & powdering house.' 'Item 
that theire be no White Salt 
[see p. 30] occupied in my 
Lordis Hous withowt it be for 
the Pantre, or for castyny upon 
meit, or for seasonynge of 
meate.' North. Hous. Book, p. 
57. The other salt was the Bay- 
Saltt of p. 32. 'Poudred Eales 
or Lamprons 1 mess. 12d.' 
H. Ord. p. 175. 

Powdur, 57 / 838 ; 58 / 847, 
? blanche powder. Er. 'Pouldre 
blanche, A powder compounded 
of Ginger, Cinnamon, and Nut- 
megs ; much in vse among 
Cookes.' Cotgrave. 

Powtnot, 19/294. 

Praised, when, rise up and return 

thanks, 253/104. 
Praising (nattering), don't be, p. 

259, p. 261, line P. 
Pray, pp. 137, 140. 
Prayer, morning, p. 225 ; evening, 

p. 240. 

Prayer, the best, 254/117-19. 
Prayers to be said, p. 135. 
Precedence, the degrees of, p. 

70-78; p. 110. 

Prechoure of pardon ; rank of 
one, 71/1028; 73/1069. 

Precious stone, to be worn in a 
ring, p. 141. 

Preket, 193/510, 1 not a spike to 
stick a light on, but a kind of 
candle. See note 3 on 214/825. 
One of the said groomes of the 
privy chamber to carry to the 
chaundrie all the remaine of 
morters, torches, quarries, prick- 
etts, wholly and intirely, with- 
oute imbesseling or purloyhing 
any parte thereof. H. Ord. p. 

Prelates, the duty of, 241/3. 

Press up among the gentlefolk, 
don't, 262/25. 

Press not too high, 277, 278/25. 

Prest, 28/434; presto, 254/115; 

Prestly, 62/910, readily. 

Pricks, Pref. p. ci.-ciii. ; Sp. fiel, 
the pinne set at buts or pricks 
which archers measure to. 

Priest, don't blame him, 184/244. 
Primate of England, 73/1082. 
Prince, rank of a, 70/1009. 
Princes & dukes, don't be privy 

with them, p. 259, p. 261, 

line P. 



Princes, the duty of, 241/1. 

Prior of a Cathedral, 70 / 1015 ; 

simple, 1. 1016; 72/1059; 

the ranks of. 
Priors of Canterbury & Dudley 

not to mess together, 77 / 

Private dinners and suppers not 

to be allowed, p. 218, No. xvii. 

Privehouse, 63/931, privy (to be 

kept clean). 
Privy members not to be exposed, 

20/305 ; 213/141 ; or clawed, 

Privy seat, cover it with green 

cloth, 169/21. 

Promises, keep your, 268/48. 
Property, the difference it makes 

in the way men of the same 

rank are to be treated, p. 76-7. 
Prothonat, p. 170; prothonotary, 

Prouande, 197/605; provender, 

forage for horses, used in 1. 608 

for oats. 
Provyncialle, 70/1021 ; 72/1062 ; 

1 governor of a province. 
Prow, 271/86, advantage, duty, 

the correct thing to do. 
Prowe, 16/236; advantage. 
Prowl not for fleshmoths in your 

head, 18/280. 
Puff not, 20/303. 
Pullets, p. 164, last line. 
Palter, 196/581. Fr. Poullailltr, 

a Poulter or keeper of pullaiiie. 

Purpayne, 1 5 4/ 1 1 . See Port-payne. 

Purpose, 50/720, porpoise; roasted 

on coals, 50/724. 
Purveyde, 252 / 71, provided 


Pyment, 9/118 ; p. 97, No. 4; p. 

96, a sweet wine. 
Pyndynge, 33/507, tormenting, 

torturing, A.S. pinan. 
Pyntill, a whelk's, 44/625. 

Quail, to wynge or carve, p. 1 62. 
Quails, 28/437 ; 37/544 ; p. 98 ; 

Quarelose, p. 261, 1. Q, querulous; 

Quarel, or querel, or playnt, 

Querela. Prompt. 
Quarell (square) of a glasse wyn- 

dowe, p. 131, last line. 
Queder, 201/715, whether of two ; 

neuer j>e queder, never mind 

which of the two 1 

Queeme, p. 2 6 1 , 1. Q ; A. S. cweman, 

to please. 

Quelmes, 201/703, covers. 
Queneborow, the Mayor of, not to 

be put beside the Mayor of 

London, 76/1138. 
Quere, 200/693, circle? 
Questions, three, to ask your 

companions, 186/299. 
Queynt, don't be, p. 259, p. 261, 

1. 2. 

Quick in serving, be, 279, 280/61. 
Quinces, 56/826 ; baked, 50/ 

708 ; in sirup, 168/1. 
Quosshyns, 63/924, cushions. 
Qweche, 186/301, who, what. 
Qwyle, 190/431, while. 
Qwysshenes, 1 92/456, cushions for 

a bed, ? pillows. 
Qwyte, 201/701, white. 

Rabettes sowkers, 29 / 457 ; p. 

95 ; 49/697, sucking rabbits. 
Rack for horses, 197/610. 



Kage not too much, 259/17 ; p. 

261, 1. R. 
Rage, p. 264, 1. 76, break bounds, 

Rain, the peacock's cry a token of, 

p. 103, note on Peacock. 
Raisins, 5/74 ; 152/21. 
Rakke, 9/115, rake, go, move, 

Sw. racka, to stretch or reach 

to. Wedgwood, u. rake. 
Rash and reckless, be not, 19/296. 
Raspise, 9/118; p. 98 ; raspys, 

153/21, a sweet wine. 
Raw fruits are bad, 8/97; 152/35. 
Ready to serve, always be, 25 4/ 

110, 115. 
Raynes, towaile of, 14/213 ; p. 

92. Rennes, in Brittany. 
What avayleth now my 

feather bedds soft 1 
Sheets of Raynes, long, large, 

and wide, 

And dyvers devyses of clothes 
chaynged oft. 

Metrical Visions, by George 

Cavendish, in his Life of 

Wolsey, ed. Singer, ii. 17. 

In Sir Degrevant the cloths 
are ' Towellys of Eylyssham, 
Why^th as the seeys fame,' 
Reason, be ruled by, 219/2 ; 234 

Rebels in court to be arrested, 

Reboyle, 8/110; 9/113; p. 86; 

153/9, ferment and bubble out 

of a cask. 

Reboyle, 8/115, fermentation. 
Rechy, 23/359, ? causing belches. 

Receiver of rents, forfeits, &c., 
the, 196/575, 587; his duties, 
p. 197. 

Receyte, 154/17, sediment, dregs. 

Receytes, 33 / 508, takings-in, 
stuffing themselves with choice 

Red landlord or landlady, don't 
go to any, 186/307. 

Red wyne, properties of, 10/140. 

Refet, 167/8, fish entrails, roe, &c. 

Refett, 40/576; p. 99; ? roe, 
57/839 ; p. 108. 

Regardes, 52 / 756, things to 
look at. 

Rehete, 256/171 ; Fr. rehaiter,to 
reuiue, reioyce, cheere vp ex- 
ceedingly; Cotgrave. * rammer, 
rejouir, refaire.' Burguy. 

Rekles, richelees, 275, 276/6, care- 

Remelant, 178/52, remnant. 

Removing from castle to castle, 

Remyssailes, 277/48, 1 pieces put 

on ; Fr. remettre, to commit or 

put vnto. Cot. 
Renners, 10/127, strainers; 153/ 

27; 154/15. 

Rcnysshe wine, 153/20, Rhenish, 
Sche brou^the hem Vernage 
and Crete, 

And wyne of the Reyne, 

1. 1704. 
And evere sche drow hem 

the wyn, 

Bothe the Roche and the 

And the good Malvesyn, 

1. 1415. 

Sir Degrevant, Thornton Ro- 

Repairs of castles, &c., the Re- 
ceiver sees to, 197/601. 
Repeat gossip and secrets, don't, 




Replye, 199/661, fold back. 
Reprove no man, 264/67. - 
Rere, p. 151, carve ; 202/754, 

raise, lift up. 

Rerynge, 26/399, cutting. 
Resayue, 196/575, receive. 
Resceu 9 195/542, received. 
Residencers, rank of, 73/1069. 
Resty, 13/359, mouldy, as rusty 

bacon, wheat, &c., 156/6. 
Retch not, 18/271. 
Revelling, don't be, 259/1 7 ; p. 

261, 1. R. 
Revengeful, don't be, 259/20 ; p. 

261, 1. V. 
Reverence thy fellows, 279, 280/ 

Rewarde, 190/421, 418, name of 

the second supply of bread at 


Rewe, A.S. lireowan, to rue, re- 
pent ; hremvian, to feel grieved, 

be sorry for. 

Reynes, 155/14. See Raynes. 
Reynes, a kercher of, 169/28. 
Reyse, p. 158, last line, cut off; 

159/14. 'how many bestis ber- 

ith lether, and how many skyn ? 

Alle that be . . arracies, that 

is to say, the skyn pullyd ovyr 

the hed, beryth skyn.' Twety, 

in Rel. Ant, i. 152. 
Reysons, 5/74, raisins ; 152/21. 
Rialte, 59/858, royalty, courtly 

customs 1 
Ribaldry, avoid, 264/76 ; don't 

talk, 277, 278/44. 
Rice, standing and liquid, 56 / 

827-8; standing, 168/2. 
Rich, their duty, 242/16. 

Right hand, the carver's, not to 
touch the food, 22/327. 

Right shoulder after your better's 

back, 264/85. 
Right side, sleep on it first, p. 


Righteousness, the reward of, 

Riotous, don't be, 259/17 ; p. 261, 
1. R. 

Rise when your lord gives you 

his cup, 254/120. 
Rise early, 266/11; 226/58. 
Rising, what to do on, p. 130, 133. 

River-birds, p. 165. 'And all 
foules (uolatilles) and byrdes 
of water (riuieres), as ben 
swannes, gese, malardes, teales, 
herons, bytters (butors), and 
all suche byrdes ben of nature 
melancolyke, lesse neverthelesse 
rosted then boyled.' Du Guez, 
p. 1071. 

River water in sauce, 36/540. 
Roach, 40/574; p. 98; 58/841, 
But in stede of sturgen or 

he drawyth vp a gurnerd or 

kodlynges, konger, or sucho 

queyse ^ysche 
As wolwyche roclies that 1m 

not worth a rusche. 
Piers of Fullham, 1. 17-20, E. 
Pop. P., v. 2, p. 3. 

Roast apples and pears, 152/J'J. 

Roast beef; garlic its sauce, 36/536. 

Roast porpoise, 166/8. 

Rob, 187/327, rub. 

Robe, 62/908. Robbe tfautmy 

nefait lionneur a nulluy : I'rov. 

No apparell can truly grace 

him that owes [= owns] it not. 

Cotgrave, u. Autruy. 



Robes ; yeomen and servants to 
wear, p. 216, No. vii. 

Roche alum, p. 134. 

Rochet, 167/5; p. 174, roach. 
' Rutilus, the Roach or Rochet ; 
a Fish.' Phillips. 

Rods, four officers to bear, 187/ 

Romney modoun, 8/96, 104 ; 9/ 
116, 119; p. 86; p. 89, note 
7 and 6; 152/34; 153/3, 21. 

Roppes, 34/512, bowels. 

Rose, coloured, 153/14, a wine? 
' Eau clairette. A water (made 
of Aquauite, Cinnamon, Sugar, 
and old red Rose water) ex- 
cellent against all the diseases 
of the Matrix.' Cot. 

Rosewater, 135/2 ; p. 139 ; after 
a bath, 67/985. 

Roughe, 45/644, roe. 

Rovnynge, 253/95, whispering. 

Rounde, 269/54; Fr. suroreiller, 
to round, or whisper in the 
eare. Cot. 

Rownyng, 184/250, whispering. 

Rub yourself every day, p. 133 ; 
p. 138, 139, 142. 

Rub yourself, don't, 275/14. 

Rub your teeth, p. 133. 

Rubus, a fish, p. 121. 

Ruffelynge, 16/250, ruffling. 

Rumbus, a fish, p. 120. 

Russell, John : his Boke of 
Nurture, p. 1-83 ; describes 
his position and training, p. 
79, 81, 82. 

Rybbewort, 68/992. 

Ryme, 193/507 1 haste ; A.S. 
hryin, hrum is soot ; rum, 
room, space ; ryman, to make 
room, give place, make way. 

Ryoche, a fish, p. 121. 

Sad, 276/17, steady, fixed. 

Saddles, old, for yeomen, 197/ 

Sadly, 43/621, quietly 1 

Sadnes, 21/308, sobriety. 

Saffron, capons coloured with, 161 

Sage, fruture, 50/708. 

Salads, 8 / 97 ; green, are bad, 
152/35. * He that wine 
drinkes not after a (cold) 
satiate, his health indangers 
(and does wrong to his pal- 
late).' Cot. See a recipe for 
Salat of 14 vegetables, &c., in. 
The Forme of Cury, p. 41, 
No. 76. 

Sale, 178/44, hall. 

Salens, 166/8; p. 174, a fish. 

Salere, 256/159 ; saUer, 200/670; 
Fr. saliere, a salt-cellar, a table 
or trencher salt. Cot. 

Salmon, 41/583; 57/833; p. 
121 ; 167/10. 

Salmon bellows, 50/179; salted, 

Salmon's beUy, 55/823. 

Salpa, a fish, p. 121. 

Salt to be white, 4/57 ; put some 
on your trencher, 256/161; 
take it with your knife, 279, 
280/65 ; 232/440 ; don't dip 
meat into it, 267/29. See Salt- 

Salt as sauce, p. 161-2. 

Salt and wine, fresh-herring sauce, 

Salt fish and salmon, 166/30. 

Salt-fish, how to serve up, p. 



Saltcellar, 14/199; 155/1, 3. 
Saltcellar, dip no food into it, 256 

/159; 267/29; 181/129. 
Salt-sellere, 4/60, salt-cellar. 
Salute thy school-master anc 

-fellows, 227/150-4. 
Samoun bellows, 50/719. 
Sanguineus or Spring, 51/729 

p. 104 ; 53/769, 787. 
Sans, 63/922, sense, smell. 
Saphire, 141/7. 
Sarcell (Fr. cercelle, (the water- 

fowle called) a Teale, Cot.), 

how to breke or carve, p. 163. 
Sargeaunt of law, rank of, 71 / 

1026 ; 73/1067. 
Satchell for school-books, 226/ 

110; 227/160. 

Satin, a lord's cloak of, 62/914. 
Sauce, p. 151, carve. 

Sauces for flesh, p. 35-7 ; for fish, 

p. 56-9 ; 166/4 ; for fowles, p. 

159; for the second course of 

a dinner, p. 163. 
Sauerly, 26/415, as if he liked it. 
Sawcere, 32/495. 
Sawge, 33/501, ?sage. 
Say, fruyter, 159/24; p. 173. 
Sayed, 193/495, 498, tried, tasted 

against poison. 

Sayes, 202/764, assays, tastes. 
Sayntis, 183/201, saints' shrines. 
Scabiose, 69/994 ; p. 109. 
Scandal, don't talk, 272/99. 
Scarlet, 62/914, scarlet stuff or 


Schone, 196/590, shall. 

Schyn, shall, 197/607. 

School, boy going to, how to 
behave, p. 227 ; what to learn 
at, p. 181, The Second Book. 

School, go to, after dinner, 209 

Schrubbynge, 20/300, rub, scrub. 
Schyuer, 200/692, slice ; " schy- 

vyr, fissula, abscindula." 


Scilla, a sea-monster, p. 121. 

Scissors for candle-snuff, 205/ 

Scorn no one, 253/100; 264/65. 
Scorn not the poor, 268/57. 
Scoring on a rod the messes for 

dinner, 190/407 ; done to check 

the cook, 190/415. 
Scorning to be avoided, 19/291. 
Scorpion of the sea, p. 1 22. 

Scratch yourself before your lord, 
don't, 276/14. 

Screen in hall, 178/28. 

Screens against heat to be pro- 
vided, 192/462. 

Sea-bull (focas), p. 118. 

Seager's Schools of Vertue, p. 
221-43; Pref. to Russell, p. 

Seal, 55/823; 166/13; 167/35. 

Seal? feele), 38/548; 39/583. 

Sea-mouse, p. 119. 

Sea-snails, p. 116. 

Seaward, 45/642, just from the 

Seche, 21 / 315, carve certain 

birds 1 

Secrets, don't tell 'em to a shrew, 

Seeke, 9/116, sick, (wine) out of 

Seew, 280/57, ?a stew; sew, cepu- 

latum. Prompt. See Sewes. 
Sege, 65/954, evacuating oneself; 

p. 63, note 2 . 



Seluage, 199/657, 661, edge of a 

Semblaunt, 183/192, seeming, 


Semble, 76/1140, putting to- 
Semethe, 43/621, seems good to, 

it pleases. 
Sen, 250/3, since. 
Sendell, 62/914, a fine silk 

stuff; Fr. cendal. H. Coleridge. 
Senescliallus, 194/520-1, the 


Sentory, 68/992, centaury. 
Seneca's advice, 238/887. 
Sere, 256/164; 185/262, several, 

Serjeant of arms, rank of, 7 1/ 


Serra, a fish, p. 71. 
Seruice, 278, 277/26, food served 

to a person, allowance. 
Servants, duties of, p. 215 ; 241 

Servants to sit at meals together, 

not here 4 and there 3, p. 

216, No. ix. 
Server with the dishes, follows 

the steward, 194/532. 

Service to be fairly to all, p. 217, 

No. xiii. 
Serving at table, how to behave 

when, p. 229-31. 
Servitors to carry dishes to the 

dinner-table, 49/682-3. 
Set not an hawe, 8/99, value not 

a haw. 

Sewe, p. 146 ; 164/31, ? stew. 

Sewe, 55/819, course. 

Sewere, 45/654, 657, the arranger 

of dishes on a table. Du. 

een opperste Tafel-dienaer, A 

Master-suer, or a Stuard that 
sets the courses or messes of 
meate oii.the table. Hexharn. 

Sewer, his duties, p. 46-7 ; p. 

Sewes (service, courses), on fish- 
day es, p. 55. 

Sewes, 154/17, stews or dishes of 

Sewes, 33/509 ; 35/523, soups or 

Sewynge, borde or table of, 156/ 
26, serving-up. 

Sewynge of flesshe, p. 156. 

Sewynge, in, 51/734, serving, 
course ; *? not inseuynge, ensu- 

Shall, 169/14, for shake. See 
Pref. p. Ixxxix. 1. 5. 

Shame the reward of lying, 240/ 

Share with your fellows, 270/95 ; 

277, 278/47. 
Share fairly a joint gift, 183/197. 

Sheets to be clean, 63/922 ; to be 
sweet and clean, 169/14. 

Shene, 198/622, fair, beautiful. 

Shewethe, 45 / 657, arranges 
courses and dishes. 

Shirt, a clean, 60/871 ; 168/22 ; 
to be warmed, 1. 25. 

Shirt-collar, 226/85. 

Shoes to be clean, 226/92 ; 
servants not to wear old ones, 
p. 216, No. vii. 

Shoeing horses, a day for, 197/ 

Shon, shoes, 60/874; 65/961. 

Shore, a- ; Shaylyng with the knees 
togyther, and the fete a sender, 
a eschais. Palsgrave, p. 841, 



col. 2. Fauquet, A shaling wry- 

legd fellow. Cotgrave, 
Short word, the first, is generally 

true, 183/211. 
Shovelar, Shoveller, 28 / 433 ; 

37/541 ; p. 98, 157/6, the 


Show out thy visage, 279, 280/75. 
Shrimps, how to serve up, 45 / 

646-9 ; 52/748; 56/824; 587 

850; 167/32. 
Shrukkynge, 19/287, shrugging. 

Schruggyn, frigulo. Prompt. 
Shyn, shall, 191/435. 
Si curly, 73 / 1080, surely, cer- 

Side, 16/248, breadth. 
Sigh not before your lord, 19/ 

Signet, 36/535, cygnet, s wauling. 

Skyft, 183/198. A.S. scyfl, di- 
vision; scyftan, to divide. 

Skyfted of, 189/402, shifted off. 
Silence fittest for a child at table, 

Silent, be, 209/8; while your 

lord drinks, 253/92. 
Silk to be worn in summer, p. 


Silk garments, p. 139. 
Silver, the dishes of, 202/757. 
Silver given away by the almoner 

as he rides, 202/743. 
Sinews indigestible, 24/362. 

Siren or Mermaid, ' a dedely 
beste,' p. 121-2. 

Sirippe, 51/733, syrup. 
Sireppis, 33/509 ; 35/524, syrops, 
t. i. stews or gravies. 

Siruppe, 25/397 ; 26/400 ; sauce 

for partridges, &c. 
Sit, don't, till bidden, 265/14; 

270/89 ; sit properly, 214/149 ; 
sit down when you're told to, 
253/97 ; and where you're told, 
270/91; 187/345. /Z se 
pent seoir sans contredit qui 
se met la ou son hoste luy dit : 
Prov. He needs not feare to be 
chidden that sits where he is 
bidden ; (the like is) II se pent 
lien seoir a table quand le 
maistre luy commande: Prov. 
Well may he sit him downe 
whom he that may sets downe. 

Sixpence, the value of each mess 
at dinner, 190/413. 

Sixpence the receiver's fee, 197/ 

Skynnery, 64/946, skins, furs. 
Skins, indigestible, 24/367 ; of 

cloven-footed birds not whole- 
some, 165/28; to be cut off 

boiled flesh, 165/7 ; to be pared 

off salt fish, 38/553. 
Skins the huntsman's perquisite, 


Skirt of a man's dress, 179/91. 
Slake, appease; A.S. slacian, to 


Slake, 31/483-4, cut. 
Slander, don't talk, 180/101. 
Sleep at mid-day not wholesome, 

Sleep, how much to be taken, 

130/5 ; evils of too much, 226/ 


Slegh, 186/300, cunning, careful. 
Sling, p. 19, note ; blow your nose 

with and through your fingers. 

* Still in use in America.' G. P. 

Slippers brown as the waterleech, 

60/874; 67/987; 168/31. 
Slutt, 42/590, awkward animal. 
Smack your lips, don't, 232/455 



Small pieces, eat, 267/37. 

Smallache, 68/993. 

Small birds, how to carve, 30/ 

Sneeze ; turn your back to people 

when you sneeze, 211/61. 

Smaragd (an emerald) good against 
falling-sickness, p. 141. 

Snetyng, p. 262, 1. 19, snotting, 
wiping your nose with your 
fingers. ' Mouchement : u. 
A snyting, or wiping of the 
nose.' Cot. 

Sniff not too loud, 18/284. 

Suite not (blow with your fingers) 
your nose too loud, 18/284. 
1 Deux pour vn. The Snyte- 
knave ; tearmed so, because two 
of them are worth but one good 
Snyte? Cotgrave. 'To Suite. 
To wipe, or slap. Suite his 
snitch ; wipe his nose, i. e. give 
him a good knock.' 1796. 
Diet, of the Vulgar Tongue. 

Snyte or snipe, how to carve, 27/ 
421; p. 163; 37/544; 98/2; 
49/706; p. 104; 165/3. 

Snuff of candles taken away with 
scissors, 205/829. 

Snuffers, 205/830. 

Snuffle, don't, 211/57. 

Socks, 60/873 ; 61/894 ; 62/895 ; 

65/961; 67/987; 130/1 2. 
Socrates wiped his nose on his 

cap, a bad example, 210/45. 
Soil the cloth, don't, 255/147. 
Solaris, a fish, p. 122. 

Soles, 40/578; 50/724; p. 122; 


Soleyn, 50/709, solemn. 
Solopendria, a fish, p. 122. 
Somet, 194/540, summed. 

Somon, 51/733, salmon. 
Sops, 33/509. 
Sore, 178/42, sorrow, pain. 
Sorrel with goose, 164/2. 
Sotelte, 202/758, dodge, way. 

Sotelte, a device after each course 
of a dinner, 48/690 ; 49/702 ; 
50/710; 52/726,738; 52/750, 
765; p. 53-54; 157/2. Does 
Chaucer allude to these when 
speaking of the 'exeesse of 
divers metis and drinkis, and 
namely of suche maner of bake 
metis and dische metes brenii- 
yng of wilde fuyr, and peynted 
and castelid with papire, and 
semblable wast, so that is abu- 
sion for to thinke.' Persones 
Tale, ed. Morris, iii. 299. ' A 
soteltie with writing of balads ' 
came at the end of the first course 
of Hen. YII.'s marriage-feast in 
1487. Italian Relation, p. 
115. Eabett sowker, in 2nd 
course, ib. 

Souls in purgatory, pray for, 268/ 

Sowkers, 29/457, suckling. 

Sows fed with fish, p. 104, note 
on 1. 737. 

Sowse, 23/360, pickled. 

Spain, tapetis or carpets of, 192/ 

Sparling, names of a, p. 99. 

Spailynge, 59/833, the fish 
sperliiig. Fr. esperlan, a smelt, 
Cot. Spurlin, a smelt, Fr. es- 
perlan. Skinner, in Prompt. 

Sparrows, 28/437; 37/543; 49/ 
706 ; p. 104. 

Speak well of all men, 272/100. 

Speaker of the Parliament, rank 
of, 72/1052. 



Speche, 205/845, book or division 

of a poem. 
Speech mars or makes a man, 2647 


Speke, 156/17, speak of. 
Spermyse chese, p. 84-5, note to 


Spiced cakes, 55/816. 
Spicery, 12/171, spices; p. 91. 
Spicery and store; Clerk of the 

Kitchen keeps the, 195/559. 
Spicery, the officer of the, 46 / 


Spices, 55/813. 

Spill the gravy on your parents' 

clothes, don't, 230/342. 
Spill your food, don't, 269/59. 
Spit not, 18/271 ; modestly, 21 2/ 

101 ; not over much at meals, 

Spit on or over the table, don't 

267/43; 179/85; 167/43. 
Spit in the washing basin, don't, 

271/87; or loosely about, 1817 


Spit, when you do, cover your 

mouth with your hand, 272/ 

Spit and snite, don't, 262/19 ; 

when you do, tread it out, 212 / 


Splat, 40/576, split open. 
Splatte, p. 151, carve. 
Splay e, p. 151, carve. 
Splayd, 13/186, set out; 63/928, 
displayed, decked. 

Sponges for bathing, 66/978 : 677 

Spony stele, 200/677, the spoon 

Spoon, don't leave yours in the 
dish, 255/145. 

Spoon, not to be filled full, 279, 
280/59 ; not to be put in the 
dish, 272/125; not to stand in 
the dish, 179/71. 

Spoon; wipe it clean, 277, 278/ 
35 ; take it out of the dish when 
you've finished, 267/42. 

Spowt not with your mouth, 19/ 

Spoyle, p. 151, carve. 

Spring, the device of, 53/771. 

Sprottes, 167/33, sprats. 

Spycery, 156/25. 

Spyrre, p. 251, 1. 37 ; A. S. spyrian, 
to track, seek, inquire, investi- 
gate, Sc. speir. O.N. spiria. 

Spyrryng, p. 251, 1. 39, seeking, 

Squatinus, a fish, p. 123. 

Squire's table, who may sit at, 

66/1040; 169/3. 
Squirt not with your mouth, 19/ 


Squyer, his wages paid by the 
treasurer, 196/586. 

Stabulle, 182/169, support. 

Stamell, 132/5, a kind of fine 
worsted. Halliwell; Fr. estai/te, 
worsted. Cok 

Stammering is a foul crime, 236/ 

Stand, if you do, be ware of falling, 

Stand not still on stones, p. 1^2. 

Stand upright, 276/16 ; 213/1. 

Stans Puer ad Mensam, two Eng- 
lish texts, p. 275-82. 

Standard, 49/694, ? the chief 
dish at a dinner, served stand- 
ing, 1 57/3. ' A large or stand- 
ing dish,' says Pegge, on Sir J. 
Nevile's ' a Eoe roasted for 



Standert/ Forme of Cury, p. 
173, 'for a Standert, Cranes 2 
of a dish,' p. 174, 1. 3. 

Standarde, 166/12, ? chief dish of 

Stapulle, 72/1064, Calais. 

Stare about, don't, 252/68 ; 259/ 
18; p. 261, 1. S; 209/3. 

State, 17 / 252, a grand curl-up 
or arrangement of a cloth or 

State, 17/253 ; p. 83, master of 
the house. 

States, 55/821, nobles? de 
twaelf Genooten ofte Staten van 
Vranckrijck, The twelve Peeres 
or States of the Kingdome of 
France.' 1660. Hexham. 

Staunche, 12/174; Fr. estancher, 
to stanch or stop the flow of 
liquid. Sp. estancar, to stop a 
leak ; estanco, water-tight. A 
stanch vessel is one that will 
hold the water in or out, 
whence fig. stanch, firm, reli- 
able. Wedgwood. 

Staunche, 185/273, stop, stay. 

Stealing dishes, to be watched 
against, 47/680. 

Sted, 43/614, treated, served. 

Steward, his duties, 194/521 
(many are false, 1. 522) ; he 
sits on the dais in hall, 177/ 
20 ; carries a staff, 187/354 ; 
188/358 ; is to keep good 
order in hall, p. 217, No. xiii. 

Stewe or bath, p. 66. 

Stewed beef or mutton, 54/798. 

Stewed pheasant, 48/688. 

Stinking breath not to be cast on 
your lord, 20/302. 

Stirring, don't be too, 259/18 ; p. 
261, 1. S. 

Stockdove, 25/397. 

Stockfish, 39/558 ; p. 98 ; 58/ 
845; p. 121. 'The Icelandic 
fare is not more inviting than 
the houses. Stockfish and but- 
ter eaten in alternate mouth- 
fuls form the ordinary materials 
of a meal. The former, however, 
has to be pummelled on a stone 
anvil with a sledge hammer 
before even the natives can bite 
it ; and, after it has undergone 
this preparation, seems, accord- 
ing to Mr Shepherd, to require 
teeth to the manner born. The 
latter is made from sheep's milk, 
and as it is kept through the 
winter in skins, becomes "rancid 
beyond conception in the early 
spring." ' Chronicle, Aug. 10, 
1867, on Shepherds North- 
West Peninsula of Iceland. 

Stocks, the porter keeps the, 188 

Stomach the body's kitchen, 136 


Stomacher, 61/893 ; 168/30. 
Stop strife between brothers, 185 

Stork ; it snuffles, don't you, 


Stork, 28/433 ; 49/695 ; 157/4. 

See Pigmies. 

Storuyn, 212/766, spoilt bv cold. 
Stounde, 66/965, moment. 
Straddle, don't, 214/151. 
Strangers, honour them, 171/28, 

always admit, p. 217, No. xv. ; 

share good food with them, 256 

/1 69; the porter warns them, 


Strangers, visitors and residents, 

Strawberies, 6/78; 7/82; p. 85, 

note to 1. 81 ; 152/24. 



Straynoure, p. 146/14, strainer. 

Streets, how boys are to walk in, 

Stretch your limbs, pp. 130, 133, 


Strife not to be allowed in a 
household, p. 216, No. v. 

Strive not with your lord, 183/ 
226. See Master. 

Strongere, 204 / 801, stranger, 

Strye, 183/223, destroy. 

Stryke 18 / 280, stroke. ' I 
stryke ones heed, as we do a 
chyldes whan lie dothe well. 
Je applanie. . . My father 
sayeth I am a good sonne, he 
dyd stryke my heed by cause 

I had conned my lesson with- 
out the booke.' Palsgrave. See 
also * I stryke softely ' and 

I 1 stroke ones heed,' p. 741, 
ed. 1852. 

Strynge, p. 151, carve. 

Stuff, 42/592, 594, crab's flesh; 

167/16, a crab's inside. 
Stuff, 31/485, gravy? 
Stuff your jaws, don't, 277, 278/ 

Sturgeon, 41/583; 52/746; 58/ 

/850; p. 122; 166/16; salt, 

Stut, 236/706, to stutter, is a foul 


Subjects, their duty, 242/15. 
Suffrigan, 70/1013; Er. suffra- 

gant, A Suffragan, a Bishops 

deputie. Cot. 
Sugar and mustard, the sauce for 

partridges, &c., 36/538. 
Sugar and salt as a sauce, with 

Curlews, &c., 36/540. 
Sugar, strewed on baked herrings, | 

50/722; 38/550. 
Sugar candy (sugre candy, 10/ 

139); 52/757; 135/11; p. 

141; 166/18. 
Summedelasse, 204/808, some 

deal less. 

Summer, the device of, 51/739- 

Sun, face and neck to be kept 
from, 132/8. 

Sup not your food up lowdly, 272 
/127; 277/40; 278/37; 179/ 

Supervisor, 195/544-5, surveyor. 

Suppers to be light, p. 131 ; to 
be larger than dinners, p. 142. 
See the one in Sir Isumbras, 
Thornton Romances, p. 235, &c. 

Surnape, how to lay, p. 16-17 ; 
p. 92-3; 155/26; it was the 
upper towel or cloth for the 
master of the house to wipe 
his hands on after washing 
them when dinner was done. 
The sewer to bring it after 
dinner, 204/809-20. 

Surueynge borde, 47/675, table 
or dresser on which the cook 
is to put the dishes for dinner. 

Surveyor of the dishes for dinner, 

46/672 ; 47/674, 676. 
Surveyor, his duties, 195/545. 

Suwe, 264/83 ; O.Fr. seure, sevre, 

Fr. suivre, L. sequor, follow. 
Swallow, 28/438 (the bird). 
Swan, 48/688 ; p. 91 ; how to 

carve, 26/402; to lyfte or carve, 

p. 161. 
Swan ; its sauce is chaudon, 56/ 

/535 ; p. 97 ; its skin is to be 

cut off, 165/15. 
Swashbucklers, hanging good for, 

p. 125. 



Swear not, 270/75. 

Swear no oaths, 277, 278/44. 

Swearing, against, p. 236, cap. 
xi. See Ascham's account and 
condemnation of it in 1545, 
Toxophihw, p. 45, ed. Giles, 
and in his Schoolmaster, p. 
131, of the little child of four 
roundly rapping out his ugly 
Sweet words, ware ; the serpent 

was in 'em, 183/207. 
Swenge, 96/1, beat up. 
Swordfish, 41/582; p. 118 ; 

salt, 57/836. 

Swyng, p. 145, beat, whip, mix. 
Syce, 192/469, candle-stick or 
holder ; but ' Syse, waxe 
candell, lougee.' Palsgrave in 

Syde, p. 151, carve. 
Syles, 200/695, strains. See 


Sylour, 191/445, tester and val- 
ances of a bed. 
Hur bede was off aszure, 
With testur and celure, 
"With a bry^t bordure 

Compasyd ful clene. 
Sir Degrevant, 1. 1473-6; p. 
238. A tester ouer the beadde, 
canopus. Withals. 
Symple condicions (how to be- 
have when serving at table, 
Ac.), p. 18 ; p. 83. 
Synamome, 10/131, 136. 
Syngeler, 79/1184, single. 
Syngulerly, 73/1074, 1079, by 

Table for dinner, how the ewer 
and panter are to lay it, p. 

Table, how to lay and serve the, 
pp. 13-18 ; how to wait at, p. 
229, cap. iii. 

Table, how to behave when sitting 
at, 231/423; 255/136; 263/ 
39 ; 265/15 ; 270/94. 

Table-cloth, don't dirty it with 
your knife, 180/110; 272/119; 
277/39 ; 278/40 ; or wipe your 
teeth on it, 180/115. 

Table-knife, 22 / 334, 1 a broad 
light knife for lifting bread- 
trenchers on to the table. 

Table-knives, 152/13. 

Tacches, 20/306, faults, ill man- 

Tacchis, p. 261, 1. K ; 258/10 ; 
tricks, ways; tetch'e, or maner 
of condycyone, mos, condicio. 
Prompt. He that gentyl is, 
wylle drawe hym vnto gentil 
tatches, and to folowe the cus- 
tommes of noble gentylmen. 
Caxton's Maleore, v. i. p. 250, 
ed. 1817. 

Take leave of all the company 
after dinner, 271/91-3. 

Take the best bit, don't, 277, 278/ 

Talwijs, p. 261, 1. T ; 259 / 
19 ; full of slander ; A.S. 
tdl, reproach, blame, slander, 
accusation, false witness, a 
fable, tale, story. Bosworth 
(from whom all the A.S. words 
are quoted). Du. taalvitter, a 
censorious critick. Sewel. 
' Talu has for its first significa- 
tion censure ; and " wise at cen- 
sure" censorious, is an ancient 
Momus.' Cockayne. 

Talk at meals, don't, 267/51 ; 272/ 

Talk loud, don't, 277, 278/30. 



Talk too much, don't, 269/58; 219 

/6 ; 279, 280/74. 
Talking to any man, how to be- 
have when, p. 235, cap. vii. ; 

252/64; 270/65; 275, 276/16. 
Tamed, 23/345, trimmed, or 1 

cut down. 

Tampyne, 5/68, a stopper. 
Tansey, 159/26 ; is good hot, 33/ 


Tansy cake, p. 96. 
Tansye fryed, 161/10. 
Tansey gyse, a, 52/749, a dish 

of tansey of some kind. 
Tantablin, 96/14, a kind of tart. 
Tapet, 193/484, cloth. 
Tapetis, 192/457, 460, cloths, 

carpets, or hangings. 

Tarrer, p. 5, 1. 65, 1. 71, an auger. 
Tar ere por percier. De UOus- 
tilleinent au Villain, ed. 1833, 
p. 10. Tarre . . Hauing an 
ouerture or hole. Tare, worme- 
eaten, or full of holes. Cot. 

Tarry ours, 152/14, augers. 

Tartlett, 35/521. 

Tarts, 161/4; 164/29. 

Tast, 63/922, test, try. 

Taste every dish, 256/165. 

Tastynge, 80/1195-9 (tasting or 
testing food to see that there's 
no poison in it), is only done 
for a king, &c., down to an 
earl, 193/495-6. See Credence. 

Tattle, don't, 264/78. 

Tayme, p. 151, cut up. 

Teal, p. 164, last line; how to 
carve, 26/401 ; p. 95 ; p. 163. 

Teal pie, 31/481. 

Teeth, to "be washed, 226/100 ; to 
be kept white, 213/121 ; how 
to keep clean, p. 134. 

Teeth not to be picked at meals, 
255/150; 263/54; 20/301; 
232/495 ; not to be picked with 
a knife, 277, 278/42 ; or a stick 
at meals, 180/93. 

Temper, 42/595, season, sauce; 
44/636, mix. 

Temper thy tongue and belly, 

Temperance is best, p. 261, 1. T ; 

Temporaunce, 130/4, moderate 

Tenants, to be asked after, p. 21 8, 

No. xvi. 
Tench, how to carve, 41 / 586 ; 

p. 122. 

Tenche in gelly, 166/14. 
Tene, 21/319, trouble. 
Tene, 64/934, vex, trouble. 
Tent, heed, attention. 
Tent, 190/430, attend to, take 

charge of. 

Tepet, 179/92, a man's tippet. 
Testudo, p. 123, the tortoise or 


pan, 53/785, that, which. 
Thank him who gives you food, 


paughe, 52/761, though. 
The, 263/32, thrive, 
pegre, 264/66, degree, state. 
Theologicum, 87/7, the monks 


Think before you speak, 252/71. 
Third man, never be, 185/287. 
po, 262/5, do, put. 
Thornback, 41/584 ; p. 99, two 

notes; 58/844; 167/10; 168/ 

Thorpole, 167/10. See' Thurle- 




Three or four at a mess, 171/13 ; 


Threpole, 168/8; Hhurlepolle. 
Throat, don't get food into your 

wrong one, or it will do for you, 

Thrushes, 28/438 ; 37/543; 165 

Thumb, don't dip yours into your 
drink, 181/127. 

Thurle-polle, 41/584 ; p. 99 ; salt, 

Thye, p. 151, carve. 

Ti^t, 74/1095, draws, grows, from 
A.S. teon. 

Time (a) for all things, 234/587. 

Tintern, the abbot of, the poorest 
of all abbots, 76/1142. 

Tintinalus, a fish, p. 122. 

Toes, keep 'em still, 186/320. 

Tome, 177/10, opportunity. 

Tongue ; don't let yours walk, 
232/472; don't poke it out and 
in, 212/97 ; charm it, 229/284. 

Tooth-picker (A.D. 1602), p. 136, 
p. 142 ; Sp. escarvadi 'entes, a 
tooth-picker, a tooth-scraper. 
1591, Percivale, by Minsheu, 

Top crust for the lord, 139/342 ; 
p. 271. 

Torches, 193/508; 205/825. 

Torn clothes to be mended, 226/ 

Tornsole, 153/25 ; 154/1 ; Pegge 
says < Not the flower Heliotrope, 
but a drug. Northumb. Book, 
p. 3, 19. I suppose it to be 
Turmeric. V. Brooke's Nat. 
Hist, of Vegetables, p. 9, where 
it is used both in victuals and 
for dying.' Forme of Cury, p. 
38. See Turnsole. 

Torrentyne of Ebrew, 9/119; 
p. 90, No. 11 ; a sweet wine. 

Torrentyne, 57/835; p. 107; 
the trout. * Fr. torrentin is 
4 Belonging to, or abiding in, 
torrents, or swift and violent 
streames.' Cot. See Turren- 

Torrentille, 38/548 ; p. 98, a fish. 
1 what. 

Tortes, 193/492 ; p. 193, note 2 , 
a kind of light ; 193/510; 205/ 
825 ; 204/note '. 

Totter, don't, 214/151. 

Towel, don't dirty it at dinner, 

Towel, a narrow and a broad, to 
wash with after dinner, 20 4 / 

Towel, 2 knights to hold before 
the lord's sleeves, 201/713. 

Towse, 53/781, 1 oakum. 

Trace, 46/664, way; 234/630, 
track, path. 

Trample not with your feet, 20/ 

Transsene, p. 151, cut up. 

Traunche, p. 151, cut up. 

Tre, 201/701, wood. 

Treasurer, his duties, 196/573-94 ; 
he sits on the dais in hall, 177/ 

Treatablie, 230/323, distinctly. 

Trencher bread, 4/56 ; p. 84 ; to 
be 4 days old, 152/7. 'Item 
that the Trenchor Brede be 
maid of the Meale as it cuin- 
myth frome the Milne.' North- 
umberland H. Book, p. 58. 

Trenchere lovis, 14/197; p. 84; 
154/35 ; p. 157 ; loaves of coarse 
unsifted meal ; the panter to 
bring in three, 200/667. 



Trencher-knife, p. 22, note 2 ; 152/ 

Trencher, no filth to be on, 269/ 

73 ; not to be loaded with scraps, 

277/48 ; 278/48. 
Trenchers, how to be laid on 

table, p. 22 ; four to the lord, 

and one a-top, 201/723 ; p. 160, 

and the collations of the first 


Trestis, 204/822, trestles. 
Trestuls, 189/389; trestles, 192/ 

Tretably, 235/673,? Fr. traictable, 
courteous, gracious, tractable, 
pliant, facile, intreatable. Cot- 

Trete, 43/612, trouble? 

Treteable, 279, 280/78; Fr. traict- 

Trifelynge, 19/287, Crocking, 

swaying about. 

Trinity, bless oneself with, 181/ 

Trompe, the crane's, 28/431-2 ; 

Trout, 40/578 ; 51/735 ; p. 123; 

True, be, in word and deed, 268/ 


Trusse, 62/898, pull. 
Tunny, p. 97, note on 1. 533. 
Turbot, 41/583; 51/735; 167/ 
10 ; fresh, 59/852. 

Turnsole, 9/123; 11/143; p. 
91 ; turnesole is used to make 
povmas colour (Ipownas, puce) 
in Forme of Gury, recipe 68, 
p. 38. See Tornsole. 

Turrentyne salt, 168/7. 

Turrentyne, sole, 166/25 ; p. 174. 

Tursons, p. 50, note 6 . 

Xuake, p. 151, carve. 

Tutia, 135/10, for Tutia ; Fr. 
Tuthie: f. Tutie; a medicinal >le 
stone or dust, said to be the 
heauier foyle of Brasse, cleaning 
to the vpper sides and tops of 
Brasse-melting houses : and 
such doe ordinary Apothecaries 
passe away for Tutie ; although 
the true Tutie be not heauie, 
but light and white like flocks 
of wooll, falling into dust as soon 
as it is touched ; this is bred of 
the sparkles of brasen furnaces, 
whereinto store of the mineral! 
Calamine, beaten to dust, hath 
been cast. Cotgrave. 

Two at a mess, who may sit, 72/ 
1049; 179/7; who, two or 
three, 72/1051-5 ; carver is to 
put on, 179/9. 

Two fingers and thumb, carver is to 
put, on a knife, 21/320; p. 157. 

Two fingers, a lord to eat with, 30/ 

Twopence or threepence a day, 
the wages of a groom or page, 

Twynkelynge, 18/281, blinking. 

Twyte, 256/179, hack; <telwyn,or 
thwytyii (twhytyn, twytyn). 
Abscco, reseco* P. Parv. 

Tyer, 153/21, Tyrianwine. 

Tyere, p. 151, cut up. 

Tymbre that fyre, p. 151, put 
wood on it. 

Tyre, 9/119; p. 90, No. 9, a 
sweet wine. 

Unbrace, p. 151, carve. 

Unbrushen, 64/944. 

Uncleanness to be abhorred, p. 

Uncountabulle, 195/544, not ac- 
countable to any other office! 
of the household ? 



Uncover thy head when talking 

to any man, 236/722. 
Undefied, 23/359, 1 unqualified, 

unguarded against, uncooked. 
Undercrust of a loaf to be cut in 

three, 178/39. 

Undertraunche, p. 151, cut up. 
Undress by the fire, p. 136 ; in 

winter, p. 142. 
Undressing described, p. 169 ; 

and going to bed, 193/487, &c., 

Unfed, better than untaught, 


Unjoint, p. 151, carve. 
Unlace, 21/315, 322; p. 151, 

carve (a cony) ; 26/410 (a 


Unsunken, 191/441. 
Untache, p. 151, carve. 
Upbrayde, 25/395, reproach. 
Upper-crust of a loaf for the lord, 

23/342; p. 157 at foot; to 

be cut in four, 178/37. 
Upright, sit, 270/93. 
Upright, p. 129, with the face 

upwards. " I throwe a man on 

his backe or upright, so that 

his face is upwarde. Je ren- 

uerse" Palsgrave. 
Urinal, 169/34. See Vrnelle. 
Urine, retain it not, 214/145. 
Usher, the duties of one, p. 69- 

78; p. 170-2. 
Usher of the Chamber, 190/432 ; 

his duties, 192/473 to 194/ 

520 ; he carries the smallest 

wand, 187/354. 
Usher and marshal ; all other 

household officers obey him, 


Valadyne gynger, 10/132. 

Valance, 191/447, hangings of a 

Vampeys, 61/894. 

Vantage, 198/635, gain, per- 

Vaunte, fryter, 157/2, ? meat. 

Veal, 54/807. 

Veal, verjuice its sauce, 36/534. 

Veele, 31/486, veal. 

Velany, 178/56, abusing. 

Velvet, 62/914. 

Venator, 198/628-9, the hunts- 

Venemous, don't be, p. 261, 1. V. 

Venesoun, how to carve, 25 / 
383-91 ; Andrew Borde's 
opinion of, p. 94-95. 

Veniable, p. 261 , 1. V, revengeful. 

Venison, 37/542 ; how to carve, 

Venison baked, 48/689 ; p. 101; 
roast, 28/444; 49/694; 165/2. 

Venison pastey, 31/489. 

Venprides, 55/820. ? 

Ventes, 159/13, anus; p. 162, 1. 
3 from foot. 

Venure, 31/489, beast that is 

Vewter, 198/631, fewterer ; 'in 
hunting or coursing, the man 
who held the dogs in slips or 
couples, and loosed them ; a 
dog-keeper.' Halliwell. Vaul- 
tre, a mongrel between a hound 
and a maistiffe ; fit for the chase 
of wild bears and boars. Got. 
' The Gaulish hounds of which 
Martial and Ovid speak, termed 
vertagi, orveltres, appear to have 
been greyhounds, and hence 
the appellations veltro, ItaL, 
viautre, vaultre, Fr., Welter, 
Germ. The Prornptoriuin gives 



"Grehownde, veltres," p. 209. 
Various details regarding the 
duties of the " foutreres," and 
their fee, or share of the pro- 
duce of the chace, will be found 
in the Mayster of Game, Vesp. 
B. xiL, fol. 99, 104, b.' Way 
in Promptorium, p. 291. 

Verjuice, 58/841, 843. 

Verjuice, p. 159, 168/9, at foot. 

Verjuice, the sauce for boiled 
capon, &c., 36/534; for crab, 
42/596 ; with goose, 164/3. 

Vernage, 9/118; p. 87, No. 1; 
153/22. ' 
Ryche she tham drewe 

Vernage and Crete. 
Sir Degrevant, p. 235,1. 1408, 
1. 1703. 

Vernagelle, 9/118; p. 87, No. 2. 

Viant, 33/501, ?meat. 

Viaunt, fruture, 48/689, meat 
fritters ? 

Vicars, rank of, 71/1031. 

Vice, avoid, 234/610. 

Vilony, 265/8; 266/10, dis- 
courtesy, rudeness; p. 261, 1. V. 

Vinegar, 57/835 ; 58/847. 

Vinegar as a sauce, 36/536. 

Vinegar for crayfish, 43/611. 

Vines, tender, with goose, 164/2. 

Virtue, the first of, 232/493. 

Viscount, rank of, 70/1013; 

Vngry^t, 202/751, undished?, not 

Vnhynde, 179/80, ungentle, un- 

Vnkende, 204/816, ? unsuitably ; 
A.S. uncynd, unnatural, un- 

Vnkiumynge, 252/54, want of 

Vnskilfully, without reason; 0. 
IS", skil, reason. 

Voider, put your scraps into it, 
272/131 ; one to be on the 
table, 230 / 376, 358 ; 231 / 
382. < A Voider to take vp 
the fragmentes, vasculum frag- 
mentarium, analactarium, vel 
aristoplwrum.' 1 Withals. Fr. 
Portoire, Any thing that helpes 
to carry another thing ; as 
a Voyder, ' Skep, Scuttle, 
Wheelebarrow, &c. Cotgrave. 

Vomit away from company, 2 1 3 

/1 17. 
Voyd, 50/716, clear. 

Voydance, 262/20. The side-note 
is doubtless wrong ; the get- 
ting it out of the way applies 
to the snetyng of the line 
above. But see 214/145-7. 

Voyder, 272/131, vessel to empty 

bones and leavings into. 
J Vrbanitatis, p. 262-4. 

Vre, 78/1173; 236/716, custom, 

Vrinal, 137/15, a glass vessel in 
which urine could be looked at 
and through. 

Vrnelle, 63/926; 66/971 ; Fr. 
Vrinal, an Vrinall ; also, a 
Jordan, or Chamberpot. Cot. 

Wade not too deep, 259/21 ; p. 

261, 1. W. 
Wadrop, 190/429, wardrobe. 

Wafers to eat, 50/715 ; 52/759 ; 
55/816; 157/11; 166/19. 

Wager, don't lay with vour lord, 


| Wages of grooms and yeomen 
kept account of by the Clerk 
of the Kitchen, 195/556; of 



grooms and pages, 197/617-20 ; 
paid by the Treasurer, 196/ 

Walk gently in the morning, p. 


Walk decently, 214/157. 
Wall, don't make it your mirror, 

275, 276/11. 
Walle-wort, 68/992. 

Waloande, 179/63, guggling, 

speaking with the mouth full. 
Wand, teeth not to be picked 

with, 180/94. 
Wanhope, 3/30, despair. 
Wanton laughing is wrong, 276/ 

Wantons, young, want hanging, 

p. 125. 

Warden of a craft, 78/1160. 
Wardrobe, 64/940; is in the 

Usher's charge, 193/479. 
Wardrop, 196/565. 
Wardropere, 193/481, keeper of 

the wardrobe. 

Warm water to wash hands in, 

Warm your clothes in winter, p, 


Warming-pan, p. 136, last line. 
Wash (vasshe) before going to 

bed, a lord does, 194/513. 
Wash in summer, not winter, p. 


Wash on rising, your hands, 226 

/74; before eating, 187/343; 

265/9; and face, 266/13; 

before leaving the table, 27 1/ 

84; after meals, 257/193; p. 

Washing after dinner, how done, 

201/713-21; 231/403-416; 


Washing directed, p. 130; p. 


Wastable, 13/179. 
Waste not, 259/20 ; p. 261, 1. W ; 


Wate, 201/739, know. 
Water, how to assay, 202/702. 
Water, Ewerer to give, to all, 

Water forthe teeth, W. Vaughari's, 

p. 134. 
Water-leech, slippers to be brown 

like one, 60/874. 
Watery, 18/282. 
Wax, all candles & morters of, 

Wayte, 17/265, watch; 28/436 

take care. 
Wayne, 186/322, glance, move, 

let wander. 
Wearisome, 52/751. 
Weldsomly, 2/1 7, at will. 
Welke, mar ceo, to welke,aictt flor- 
es. marcidus, welked. emerceo, 
to wax drie and welkynge. 
Gloss. Reliq. Ant. v. 1, p. 6. 
Wesselle clothes, 188/367,?cloths, 

for vessells. 

Weste, Eichard, his Schoole of 
Vertve, referred to, p. 207; his 
acrostic, p. 208. 
Westminster, the Abbot of, 76/ 

Wether or ram, p. 105, note on 

1. 779. 

Whale, likes harmony, p. 116. 

Fr. Tinet : m. The Whall 

tearmed a Horlepoole, or 

Whirlepoole. Cot. 

Whale, roast, how to carve, 4 1/ 

581; salt, 57/837; 168/8. 
Whelk, how to carve a, 44/624. 



Whelks, 52/747 ; 166/17. Fr. 

TurUn. The shell-fish called a 

Welke or Winkle. Cot. 
Whene, 195/548, 1 same asciveme, 

Whileere, 24/377, a time ago, 


AVhils, 254/133, until. 
Whisper, don't, 253/95; 269/54. 
Whispering, avoid it, 184/250. 
White bread, 7/92 ; 200/686. 
White herrings, 45/642. 
White payne or bread, 14/204. 

Whiting, 40/575 ; 58/845 ; how 
to carve, 167/6. 

Whole-footed fowls, skin of, is 
wholesome, 165/19. 

Whot, 52/757, ?white, not "hot," 
as in side note : cf. blaundrelle, 

Widgeon, 165/1. 

Wife, is to honour her husband, 
185/267 ; takes her husband's 
rank, 74/1092. On the first of 
June, 1582, John Wolfe paid 
the Stationers' Company Sd. for 
a licence " to imprinte two 
ballades," of which the latter 
was "a settinge forth of the 
variety of mens mindes, es- 
teaminge rather weith with a 
wanton wife, then vertue in 
a modeste mayde." Collier 's 
Extracts, ii. 165. For variety 
in this entry, Mr Collier pro- 
poses to read vanity. See also 
the ballad, 
Faine would I have a ver- 

tuous wife 

Adorned with all modestic, 
in Collier's Extracts, i. 162-3. 

Wight, quick, nimble. Swed. vig. 
Wild, don't be, 182/156. 

Wild boar, 48/686. 

Schebrou^t fram the kychene 
A scheld of a wylde swyne, 
Hastelettus in galantyne. 
Sir Degrevant, p. 235, 1. 1397-9. 

Wind, let it out with secresy, 

Windows of a bedroom to be shut 

at night, p. 129. 
Wine, livery or allowance of, 205/ 

Wines, 8/109 ; sweet, p. 9 ; p. 

86-7 ; the names of, p. 153. 

Wing, cut under, not over, in 
whole-footed birds, 164/5. 

Wings of smaller birds, the best 
bits, 27/418; 30/473. 

Winter, the Device of, 52/766. 

Wipe your mouth before drinking, 

Wipe your nose, don't, 274/141. 

Wise men eat the fish, 219/12. 

Wisps of straw for bed-making, 


Wite, wot, know, A.S. witan. 
Withy leaves in a bath, 69/995. 
Wives, the duty of, 242/9. 

Wolfskin garments for winter, p. 

Woman (?) not to sit at a 
Bishop's table, p. 216, No. x. 

Woman-kind, speak never un- 
courteously of, 184/259. 

Woman's milk, 135/13. 

Wombelonge, 29/451, belly-wise, 
on its belly. 

Won, 197/605, supply. 
Wont, 182/190, wants, fails. 
Woodcock, 37/542 ; p. 98 ; 49/ 

697 ; 165/1 ; how to carve, 27/ 

421 ; p. 163. 



Woollen cloth to be brushed every 
week, 64/943. 

Work after meals to be avoided, 
p. 131. 

Worship God, 182/157. 

Worshipfulle, sb., 45/655, wor- 
shipful person. 

Worth, 272/114, estimation. 

Worthier men, let them be 
helped first, 263/45. 

Wortus, 34/517; A.S. wyrt, 
wurt, 1. wort, a herb, plant, a 
general name for all sorts of 
herbs, scented flowers, and 
spices; 2. a root. (Bosworth.) 

Wralling, 211/60, wawling, cater- 
wauling, ' quarrelling or con- 
tending with a loud voice.' 

Wrap bread stately, how to, 14/ 
209; 155/10. 

Wrappe, sb., 14/212 cover. 

Wrappe, 14/212, wrap, cover. 

Wrapper, 15/224; 155/13. 

Wrast, 178/26, wresting, twist. 

Wrawd, 42/590, fro ward. 

Wrinkled, don't let your counte- 
nance be, 210/41. 

Wry not your neck askew, 19/ 

Wyn, 191/447; A.S. wyn, joy, 

Wyneberries, 6/78 ; p. 85. 

Wynge, p. 151, carve. 

Wynkyn de Worde's Boke of 
Keruynge, p. 147-74. 

Wynkynge, 18/282. 

Wynne, 270/79 ; A.S. win, labour 
(not wyn, win, pleasure). 

Wyt, 268/41, will. 

Jane, 19/294, yawn ; A.S. ganian. Zole, 51/737, sole ? 

Yardehok, 67/991. 
Yawn not, 19/294 ; when you 
do, hide behind a napkin, 211 


Y-chaffed, 61/893, warmed; FT. 


Ycoruyn, 203/765, carved, cut. 
Yeoman of the Crown, 71/1033. 
Yeoman-usher is under the 

marshal, 189/383. 
Yeomen in haU, 178/27. 
Yerbis, 48/687, herbs. 
3ett, 22/339, formerly 1, see 1. 204. 
Y3es, 35/527, eyes. 
Ygraithed, 15/225, prepared. 
Ynons, 40/569 ; p. 98, onions. 
Yn-same, 271/93, in the same 

way. Cut out the hyphen. 
3omon of chambur, 193/507. 
3omon-ussher, sleeps all night on 

the floor at his lord's door, 

York, Archbp. of, 73/1078; Bps. 

of, 1. 1081. 
Youth, if lawless, old age despised, 

Ypocras, how to make it, p. 9-12 ; 

p. 153. 

Ypocras, 52/759 ; 166/19. 
Ypocras to drynk, 50/715. 
Yoxinge, 19/298, note 4 . I yeslce, 

I gyue a noyse out of my 

stomacke. Je engloute. When 

he yesketh next, tell hym some 

straunge newes, and he shall 

leave it. Palsg. 
Ypullished, 4/63, polished. 
Yse, 81/1222, look at. 

Ywys, 250/12 ; A.S. gems, cer- 



Brawn of boar : this was the first dish at dinner in Harrison's time, 

1577-87 ; see his Description of Britain, bk. iii, ch. 1 (N. 3h. 


Dischmetes, 34/514. 

Galingale: Sp. Juncia avellanda, Junca odoroso, galingale. Miusheu. 
Girls: home-education, xxv, xv, &c. 
Lec/ie fryture: see Leschefrites, leschefrayes, in the index to the 

Menagier de Paris. 
Masdade is Span, mezdada, mixture. Ital. mescolanza is used, in 

Genoa at least, for a fry of small fish. H. H. Gibbs. Minsheu 

has mfaela t mesda or mezdadura, a inedlie, mingling. 
Peacock: as to his voice, see Eoberts's Fables Inedits, T. Wright's 

Piers Plowman, ii. 548. 
Raspise : All maner of wynes be made of grapes, excepte respyce, the 

whiche is made of a berye. A. Borde, Dyetary of Wynes, 

sign. F. i. 
Remyssailes : leavings. 


[Postscript, added after the Index had been printed. | 

Jffor to serbe a lorfc. 

[ From the Rev. Walter Sneyffs copy of Mr Davenport Bromley's MS.'] 

MB SNEYD has just, told me that Mr Arthur Davenport's MS. #020 
serve a Lord, referred to in my Preface to Russell, p. Ixxii., is in fact the one 
from Mr Sneyd's copy of which his sister quoted in her edition of the l Italian 
Relation of England ' mentioned on pp. xiv. xv. of my Forewords. Mr Sueyd 
says : ' I made my copy nearly forty years ago, during the lifetime of the late 
Mr A. Davenport's grandfather, who was my uncle by marriage. I recollect 
that the MS. contains a miscellaneous collection of old writings on various 
subjects, old recipes, local and family memoranda, &c., all of the 15th century, 
and, bound up with them in the old vellum wrapper, is an imperfect copy of 
the first edition of the Book of St Alban's. On Mr Arthur Davenport's 
death, last September, the MS. (with the estates) came into the possession of 
Mr Davenport Bromley, M.P., but a long time must elapse before it can be 
brought to light, as the house you mention is still unfinished, and the boxes 
of books stowed away in confusion.' On my asking Mr Sneyd for a sight of 
his copy, he at once sent it to me, arid it proved so interesting especially 
the Feast for a Bride, at the end that I copied it out directly, put a few 
notes to it, and here it is. 1 For more notes and explanations the reader must 
look the words he wants them for, out in the Index at the end of Part II. 
The date of the Treatise seems to me quite the end of the 15th century, if not 
the beginning of the 16th. The introduction of the Chamber, p. 356, the 
confusion of the terms of a Carver, 'unloseortire or display/ p. 357 enough 
to make a well-bred Carver faint : even Wynkyn de Worde in 1508 and 1513 
doesn't think of such a thing the cheese shred with sugar and sage-leaves, 

1 Though it goes against one's ideas of propriety to pi-int from a copy, yet when 
one wants the substance of a MS., it's better to take it from a copy, when you can 
get it, than fret for five years till the MS. turns up. When it does so, we can print 
it if necessary, its owner, permitting. 



p. 355, the ' Trenchours of tree or brede,' 1. 16, below, &c., as well as the 
language, all point to a late date. The treatise is one for a less grand house- 
hold than Russell, de Worde, and the author of the Boke of Curtasye prescribed 
rules for. Eut it yields to none of the books in interest : so in the words of 
its pretty ' scriptur ' let it welcome all its readers : 

" Welcombe you brethereu godely in this hall ! 
Joy be unto you all 
that en l this day it is now fall ! 
that worthy lorde that lay in an Oxe stalle 
mayntayne your husbonde and you, wa'U your gystys all ! " 

1. Have your 
table-cloths and 
napkins ready, 

also trenchers, 
salts, &c. 

2. Bring your 
cloths folded, 

lay them on the 

then cover the 
cupboard, the 
side-table, and 
the chief table. 

3. Bring out the 
chief salt-cellar, 
and pared loaves, 

and hold the 
carving-knives in 
your right hand. 

[I. Of laying the Cloth and setting out the Table.] 

Ffirst, in servise of all thyngys in pantery and 
botery, and also for the ewery. ffirst, table-clotliis, 
towelles longe and sliorte, covertours 2 and napkyns, be 
ordeyned clenly, clene and redy accordyng to the tyrne. 
Also basyns, ewers, Trenchours of tree or brede, sponys, 
salte, and kervyng knyves. 

Thenne ayenst tyme of mete, the boteler or the 
ewer shall brynge forthe clenly dressed and fayre ap- 
plyed 3 Tabill-clothis, and the cubbord-clothe, cowched 
uppon his lefte shulder, laying them uppon the tabill 
ende, close applied 3 unto the tyme that he have firste 
coverd the cubbord ; and thenne cover the syde-tabillis, 
and laste the principall tabill with dobtll clothe drauw, 
cowched, and spradde unto the degre, as longeth therto 
in festis. 

Thenne here-uppon the boteler or panter shall bring 
forthe his pryncipall salte, and iiij or v loves of paryd 
brede, havyng a towaile aboute his nekke, the tone 
half honge or lying uppon his lefte arme unto his hande, 
and the kervyng knyves holdyng in the ryght hande, 
iuste unto the salte-seler beryng. 

i on. - For bread, see III., p. 352. 

3 Folded. Cf. ' a towaile applyetl dowble ' below. Yr.plier, to 
fould, plait, plie. Cotgrave. 


Thenne the boteler or panter shall sette the seler 4 - Put your chief 

salt-cellar before 

in the myddys of the tabull accordyng to the place the chief person's 

seat, his bread 

Avhere the principall soverain shalle sette, and sette his b y it, 

brede iuste couched unto the salte-seler ; and yf ther 

be trenchours of brede, sette them iuste before the seler, "j or g S it trenchcrs 

and lay downe faire the kervyng knyves, the poynts to 

the seler benethe the trenchours. 

Thenne the seconde seler att the lower ende, with 6. Put the secona 

salt-cellar at the 

ij paryd loves l therby, and trenchours of brede yf they lower end - 

be ordeyned ; and in case be that trenchours of tree if wooden 

shalbe ordeyned, the panter shall bryng them with used, bring them 
nappekyns and sponys whenne the soverayne is sette 
att tabill. 

Thenne after the high principal] tabill sette with 6 - Put wit-ceiiare 

on the side-tables. 

brede & salte, thenne salte-selers shall be sette uppon 
the syde-tablys, but no brede unto the tyme such people 
be sette that fallith to come to mete. Thenne the 7. Bring out your 

basins, &c., and 

boteler shall bryng forth basyns, ewers, and cuppis, set ail your plate 

on the cupboard. 

Pecys, 2 sponys sette into a pece, redressing all his silver 
plate, upon the cubbord, the largest firste, the richest 
in the myddis, the lighteste before. 

[II. Of Washing after Grace is said.] 
Thenne the principall servitours moste take in ii 8 - Let the chief 

J servants have 

handys, basyns and ewers, and to well, and therwith to basins, &c., ready, 

awayte and attende unto the tyme that the grace be 

fully saide ; and thenne incontynent after grace saide, 

to serve water with the principall basyn and ewer unto and after Grace, 

hold the best 

the principall soverayne, and ij principall servitours to 

1 What is done with these loaves does not appear. The carver 
in Motion 12, Section IV., pares the loaves wherewith he serves the 

2 Gohlets or cups : ? also ornamental pieces of plate. ' A peece of 
wyne ' occurs in Ladye Bessiye, Percy Folio, Ballads & Eomances, 
vol. iii., and in the Percy Society's edition. John Lord Nevill 
ofRaby, in 1383, bequeaths 48 silver salt-cellars .. 32 peces, 48 
spoons, 8 chargers, 27 jugs, &c. Domestic Architecture, ii. 66. 
* Diota. Horat. Any drinking peece having two eares, a two-eared 
drinking cup.' Nomenclator in Nares. 

A A 



basin to the chief holde the towell under the basyn in lenght before the 

lord, with the 

towel under; sovrayne ; and after that the sovrayne hath wasshe, to 
and then let Wa yeve thenne water unto such as ben ordeyned to sytte at 

messmates wash. ' 

the sovrayne-is messe. 

[III. Of the Lord fy Guests talcing their Seats, $ getting 
their Trenchers, Spoons, Napkins, $ Bread] 

Thenne after the wesshing servid, the sovrayne will 
take his place to sitte, and to hym such persons as hit 
pleaseth hym to have, uppon which tyme of sittyng, 
the servitorys moste diligently a-wayte to serve them of 
qussyons, and after that done, to make such personys 
to be sette at the lower messe as the principall soverayne 
aggrees that be convenyent. 

Be it remembrid that evermore at the begynnyng 
of grace the covertour of brede shalbe avoyded and 
take away, thenne the karver, havyng his napkyn at 
all tymes uppon his left hand, and the kervyng knyf 
in his right hande, and he shall take uppon the poynte 
of his knyf iiij trench ours, and so cowche them iustely 
before the principall, iij lying iustely to-geder, ij under, 
and one uppon, and the fowerth before, iustely for to lay 
uppon salte. and the next, lay iij trenchours ; and soo 
iij or ij after her degree, therto the boteler most be redy 
with sponys and napkyns, that ther as the trenchours 
be cowched, lay the spone and the napkyn therto, and 
soo thorowe the borde. 

Thenne the kerver shall take into his hande on or ij 
loves, and bere hem to the syde-tabill ende, and ther 
pare hem quarter on first, and bring hym hole to-geder, 
and cowche ij of the beste before the sovrayne, and to 
others by ij or on after ther degree. 

[IV. Of the Courses of the Dinner.] 

[First Course.] 

Thenne the kerver or sewer most asserve 1 every 
1 ? Assewe. 

9. The chief lord 
takes his seat, 
then his mess- 
mates theirs ; 

then the lower- 
mess people 

(When Grace 
begins, the bread 
cover is to be 
taken away.) 
10. The Carver 
takes 4 trenchers 
on lib knife-point, 

and lays them 

before the chief 


(one to put his 

salt ou.) 

and 3 or 2 before 

the less people. 

11. The Butler 

gives each man a 

spoon and a 


12. The Carver 
pares 2 loaves, 

lays 2 before his 
lord, and 2 or 1 to 
the rest. 



disshe in his degre, after order and course of servise as 
folowith : first, mustard and brawne, swete wyne shewed 
therto. 1 


Befe and moton. swan or gese. grete pies, capon or 
fesaunt ; leche or fretours. Thenne yef potage be 
chaungeabill after tyrae and season of the yere as 
fallith, as here is rehercid : by example, ffor befe and 
moton ye shall take 

Pestelles or chynys of porke, 

or els tonge of befe, 

or tonge of the harte powderd ; 2 

Befe stewed, 

chekyns boylyd, and bacon. 

[The Second Course.} 

Thenne ayenste the secunde cours, be redy, and 
come in-to the place, the kerver muste avoyde and take 
uppe the service of the first cours, begynnyng at the 
lowest mete first, and all broke cromys, bonys, & tren- 
chours, before the secunde cours and servise be served, 
thenne the seconde cours shall be served in manner 
and fourme as ensample thereof here-after folowyng : 

13. Serve brawn, 

beef, swan, 
pheasant, fritters. 

As a change for 

have legs or 
chines of pork, or 
tongue of ox or 

14. Clear away 
the 1st course. 

crumbs, bones, 
and used 
15. Serve the 
Second Course : 

Potage. pigge 

la?ftme stewed 
Kidde rosted 

Small birds, 
kid, venison, 


Yeneson rosted 









a bake mete 

meat pie. 

Stokke-dovys stewed 


cony malard 


telys wodecok 

teal, woodcock. 


grete byrclys 

Great birds. 


1 Sewed or served therewith. 2 salted or piokied. 



IB. Fin men's 

cups and remove 

their trenchers, 

17. collect the 


is. Take up the 

lowest dishes at 

the side-tables, 

and then clear the 

high table. 

the busTf bread 
trenchers, &c., 

[V. How to clear the Table.] 

After the seconde cours served, kerved, and spente, 
hit must be sene, cuppys to be fillid, trenchours to be 
voyded. thenne by goode avysement the tabill muste be 
take uppe in manner as folowith : first, when tyme 
foloweth, 1 the panter or boteler muste gader uppe the 
sponys ; after that done by leyser, the sewer or carver 
shall be-gynne at the loweste ende, and in order take 
uppe the lowest messe ; after the syde-tabill be avovded 


and take uppe, and thenne to precede to the Principall 
tabill, and ther honestly and clenly avoyde and with- 
drawe all the servise of the high table, ther-to the 
^ erver must e be redy, and redely have a voyder to geder 
i n a ll the broke brede, trenchours, cromys lying upon 
the tabill ; levyng none other thyng save the salte- 
seler, hole brede (yf any be lefte), and cuppys. 

[VI. How to serve Dessert] 

After this done by goode delyberacion and avyse- 
20. Take away the me nt, the kerver shall take the servise of the principall 

cups, &c., from all * 

Eiesse in order and rule, begynnynge at the lowest, and 
so precede in rule unto the laste, 2 and theruppon the 
kerver to have redy a voyder, and to avoyde all maner 
trenchours [&] broke brede in a-nother clene disshe 
vo y der > an(i cromys, which with the kervyng-knyf 3 
8aa n be av0 yded from the tabill, and thus precede unto 
the tabill be voyded. Thenne the kerver shall goo unto 
^ 6 cu PP e ^ or( i> an( l redresse and ordeyne wafers in to 
towayles of raynes or fyne napkyns which moste be 
cowched fayre and honestly uppon the tabill, and thenne 
serve the principall messe first, and so thorowe the 


?n to weis laldon 
the table. 

1 raloweth 

2 ? firste. The directions for taking-away seem repeated here, 
unless these second ones apply only to the spoons, napkins, &c. The 
cups are wanted for dessert. 

3 crumb-brushes were not then invented. 


tabill .i or ii vf hit so requere : therto moste be servid and sweefc wine - 

In holiday 

swete wyne fa and in feriall 1 tyme serve chese shraped JJ^ cheese< 

with sugur and sauge-levis, 2 or ellis that hit be faire 

kervid hole, or frute as the yere yeveth, strawberys, 

cherys, perys, appulis ; and in winter, wardens, 3 costardys in winter, roast 

roste, rested on fisshe-dayes with blanche ponder, and 

so serve hit forth A Thenne aftur wafers and frute 22. clear away 

J* all except the 

spended, all maner thinge shalbe take uppe and avoyded, chief sait-ceiiar, 

whole bread, and 

except the principall salt-seler, hole brede, and kervyng- carving-knives ; 

knyves, the which shalbe redressed in maner and 

fourme as they were first sette on the table; the which, 

principall servitours of the pantre or botery, havyng his take these to the 

towaile, shall take uppe, and bere hit into his office in 

like wyse as he first brought hit unto the Tabill. 

[VII. How the Diners shall wash after Dessert J} 

Thenne the principall servitours, as kerver and 23. Lay a fresh 

cloth all along the 

sewer, moste have redy a longe towaile applyed dowble, chief table, 
to be cowched uppon the principall ende of the table ; 
and that towell must be iustely drawen thorowe the 
tabill unto the lower ende, and ij servitours to awayte 
theruppon that hit be iustely cowched and sprad. after 

that done, ther muste be ordeyned basyns, and ewers 24. Have ready 

with water hote or colde as tyme of the yere requerith, with hot or cold 

and to be sette uppon the tabill, and to stonde unto the ud after Grace, 

grace be saide ; and incontynent after grace seide, the w a a n ter JJThe^rst 

servitours to be redy to awayte and attende to yeve mess> 

water, first to the principall messe, and after that to the then the second. 

1 Fr. ferial, of or belonging to a holyday. Vn ferial beuveur, a 
square drinker, a faithfull drunkard ; one that will take his liquor 
soundly. Cotgrave. JFeries, Holydaies, feastiuall dales, properly 
such holydaies as Monday and Tuesday in Easter week, &c. Cot. 

3 So "Apples and Cheese scraped with Sugar and Sage " at the 
end of the Second Course of the Dinner at the Marriage of Roger 
Rockley & Elizabeth Nevile, daughter of Sir John Nevile, the 14th 
of January in the 17th year of Henry the Ylllth. (A.D. 1526.) 
Forme of Cury, p. 174. 

3 "Wardens are baking pears ; costards, apples. 



seconde. incontynent after this done, the towayle and 
25. Take off and tabill-clothis most be drawen, cowched, and sprad, and 

fold up the towels 

so by litill space taken uppe in the myddis of the 
tabill, and 
or botery. 

and cloth, 
and give 'cm to 

the ranter, tabill, and so to be delyvered to the officer of pantery 

20. Clear away 
tables, trestles, 
forms; and put 
cushions on other 

27. Butler, put 
the cups, &c., 
back into your 

28. Serve knights 
and ladies with 
bread and wine, 

29. Conduct 
strangers to the 

30. Serve them 
with dainties : 

junket, pippins, 
or green ginger ; 

nml sweet wines. 

[VIII. Of the Removal of the Table, and the separate 
Service to grand Guests in the Chamber.] 

Thenne uprysyng, servi tours muste attende to avoyde 
tabills, trestellis, formys and stolys, and to redresse 
bankers and quyssyons. then the boteler shall avoyde 
the cupborde, begynnyng at the lowest, procede in rule 
to the hieste, and bere hit in-to his office. Thenne 
after mete, hit moste be awayted and well entended by 
servitours yf drinke be asked, and yf ther be knyght or 
lady or grete gentil-woman, they shall be servid uppon 
kne with brede and wyne. Thenne it moste be sene 
yf strangers shalbe brought to chamber, and that the 
chamber be clenly appareld and dressed according to 
the tyme of the yere, as in wynter-tyme, fyer, in somwr 
tyme the bedd couerd wzt/< pylawes and hedde-shctys 
in case that they woll reste. and after this done, they 
moste have chere of newel tees in the chamber. 1 as 
luncate, 2 cheryes, pepyns, and such neweltees as the 
tyme of the yere requereth ; or ellis ;^rene ginger com- 
fetts, 3 with such thynge as wynter requereth; and 
swete wynes, as ypocrasse, Tyre, muscadell, bastard 

1 I do not suppose that each guest retired to his own bed-room, 
but to the general withdrawing-room, possibly used as a 
general bed-room also, when the Hall had ceased to be it. "The 
camera usually contained a bed, and the ordinary furniture of a bed- 
chamber; but it must be remembered that it still answered the 
purpose of a parlour or sitting-room, the bed being covered over 
during the daytime with a handsome coverlid, as is still the custom 
in France & other foreign countries to this day." Domestic Archi- 
tecture, iii. 94-5. 

2 See loncate in Index, and Russell, 1. 82. 

* See Russell, 1. 75, and, for wines, 1 117, and notes p. 86-91 


vernage, of the beste that may be had, to the honor and 
lawde of the principall of the house. 

[IX. How to Carve.] 

to lose and t[i]re or sawse a capon : l begynne at the HOW to carve a 

lifte legge first of a Swan; 2 & lyfte a gose y-reared at the 

right legge first, and soo a wilde fowle. To unlose, tire, wild-fowl, cran. 

or display a crane: 3 cutte away the nekke in a voyde 

plate, rere legge and whyngge as of a capon ; take of ij 

leches of the briste, and cowche legge and whyngge and 

lechis into a faire voyde plater ; niynse the legge, and 

poyntes of whinge ; sawse hym witJi mustard, vinager, and 

pouder gynger, and serve hit before the sovrayne, and 

the carcas in a charger besyde : serve it hole before the 

sovrayne. and he 4 may be served and dressed as a capon, 

save one thyng, his breste bone. 5 To tyre or ellis to 

dismember an heronsew : 6 rere legge and whinge as of Heronsew 

a crane ; cowche them aboute the body on bothe sydes, 

the hedde and the nekke being upon the golet : serve 

him forth, and yf he be mynsed, sawse hym with 

mustard, burage, 7 suger, and powder of gynger. 

To lose or untache a bitorn : 8 kitte his nekke, and Bittern, 
lay hit by the hedde in the goletto ; kitte his whynge 
by the joynte ; rere hym legge and whynge, as the heron; 
serve him fourth ; no sawse unto hym but only salte. 

To lose or spoyle an Egrete 9 : rere uppe his legge Egret, 

1 There must be some omission here. See Russell, 1. 409, and 
W. de Worde, pp. 161, 163. 

3 See Russell, 1. 403. Wynkyn de Worde, p. 161, directs the 
swan to he carved like the goose is, on p. 163. 

3 See Russell, 1. 427-32 ; Wynkyn de Worde, p. 162. Here is 
cut off. * that is, the crane. 

5 See Russell, 1. 431 and note ; W. de Worde, p. 159, 1. 5 ; 
p. 162. 

6 Russell, 1. 422; Wynkyn de Worde, p. 162, p. 164, 1. 20. 

7 Borage is a favourite flavouring for cups and other drinks 

8 Russell, 1. 421 ; Wynkyn de Worde, p. 162. 

9 Russell, 1. 421 ; Wynkyn de Worde, p. 162. 



Partridge, Quail, 


A Bridal Feast. 
First Course. 

Boar's head, and 
a Device 

of Welcome. 

and whynge, as of a henne, aboute the carcas : no sawse 
to him but salte. 

To tyre or to ele 1 a partorich 2 or a quayle 3 
y-whyngged: rere uppe whynge and legge, as of an 
henne ; cowche them aboute the carcas ; no sawse save 
salte, or mustard and sugar. To lose or unlase a 
fesaunt : 4 rere uppe legge and whynge as an henne ; 
cowche legge and whynge aboute the carcas ; serve 
hym fourth ; no sawse but salte : , but and yf he be 
mynsed, take whyte wyne, sugur, mustard, and a lyttell 
of powder gynger. 

ffor to make a feste for a bryde. 

The ffirst cours : brawne, with the borys hed, 5 
lying in a felde, hegge 6 about with a scriptur, sayng 
on this wyse ; 

" Welcombe you bretheren godely in this hall ! 7 
Joy be unto you all 
that en 8 this day it is now fall ! 
that worthy lorde that lay in an Oxe stalle 
mayntayne your husbonde and you, with your gystys, 

Venison and 
Custard, with a 
Device of 


Ffurrnente with veneson, swanne, pigge. 
Ffesaunte, with a grete custard, with a 


A lambe stondyng in scriptour, sayng on this wyse 
" I mekely unto you, sovrayne, am sente, 
to dwell with you, and ever be present." 7 

1 Fr. aile, wing ; but ailer, to give wings unto. Cotgrave. 

2 Russell, 1. 397, 1. 417 ; W. de Worde, p. 161. 

3 Russell, 1. 437 ; W. de Worde, p. 162. 

4 Russell, 1. 417 ; Wynkyn de Worde, pp. 161, 164. 

5 See the carol from the Porkington MS., ' The Boris hede 
furste," in Eeliq. Ant. vol. ii., and above, p. 264*, and p. 388. 

6 hedged or edged. 7 The verse is written as prose. 8 on 


TllG Second COUrse. Second Course. 

Veneson in broth, viaunde Ryalle, 1 veneson rested, venison, 
crane, cony, a bake mete, leche damaske, 2 with a and a Device of 
sotelte : An anteloppe sayng 3 on a sele that saith 
with scriptour 

"beith all gladd & mery that sitteth at this messe, Gladness and 
and prayeth for the kyng and all his." 4 

The thirde course. Third course. 

Creme of Alraondys, losynge in syruppe, betourtf, sweets, &c., 
partrich, plover, snyte, pouder veal, leche veal, wellis 5 
in sotelte, Roches in sotelte, 6 Playce in sotelte ; a bake 
mete with a sotelte : an angell with a scriptour, J^nkMuess 
" thanke all, god, of this feste." 

The iiij COUrS. Fourth Course. 

Payne puff, 7 chese. freynes, 8 brede hote, with a Cheese and a cak-o 

with a Device of 

cake, 9 and a wif lying in childe-bed, with a scriptour 

1 Here is the Recipe in Household Ordinances, &c., p. 455, for 
" Viaiide Riall for xl. Mess :" 

Take a galone of vernage, and sethe hit into iij. quartes, and take 
a pynte therto, and two pounde of sugre, ii Ib. of chardekoynes 
[quinces ? ' Quynce, a frute, pomme de qtioyn, Palsgrave], a 
pounde of paste -roiale, and let hit sethe untyl a galono of vernage. 
Take the yolkes of 60 eyren, and bete horn togeder, and drawe horn 
thurgh a straynour, and in the settynge doune of the fyre putte the 
>olkes therto, and a pynte of water of ewrose, and a quartrone of 
pouder of gynger, and dresse hit in dysshes plate, and take a barre of 
golde foyle, and another of sylver foyle, and laye horn on Seint 
Andrews crosse wyse above the potage ; and then take sugre plate 
or gynger plate, or paste royale, and kutte horn of losenges, and 
plante horn in the voide places betweene the barres : and serve hit 
forth e. 

2 Leyse Damask. Leland, Coll. iv. p. 226 ; Leche Damaske, 
ibid. vi. p. 5 ; in Forme of Cury, p. 141. 

3 ? Fr. seoir, to sit. 

4 "Written as prose, which it is. * ? welkis. 

6 Roches or Loches in Egurdouce. H. Ord. p. 469. 

7 See the Recipe for it, p. 32, note 2 ; and in Household Ordi- 
nances, p. 450. 

8 flaunes ? see p. 173; or chese-freynes for cheese-cakes. 

9 Were the cheese and cake meant as a symbol of the Groaning 


and a promise of saing in this wyse, " I am comyng toward your bryde. 
yf ye dirste onys loke to me ward, I wene ye nedys 
muste." 1 

Another course or servise. 

Brawne with mustard, umblys of a dere or of a 
sepe ; 2 swanne, capon, lambe. 

Cake & Cheese (so called in allusion to the mother's complaints 
at her delivery) mentioned by Brand, Pop. Ant. ii. 44, ed. 1841, 
or was the cake the wedding-cake ? 

1 ? must get a baby : or is ye = I? a si 


Suffer, & I]0to put fonpe. 

[Balliol MS. 354, ffl ij Cxv, or leaf 231.] 

On the subject of this song, compare, among many others, 
" Whate-ever thow sey, avyse thee welle," above, p. 244 ; " I hold 
hym wyse and weli-tau}t, Can her an horn and blow it nau}t," in the 
Percy Society's Songs and Carols, p. 23. Lydgate's " Lyke thyn 
Audience, so vttyr thy Langage," in my Folit. Eel. $ Love Toem** 
p. 25 ; &c. 

he is wise, so most I goo, 

that can be mery, & suffer woo. 

Be mery, & suffer, as T the vise. 

wher-euer thow sytt or rise, 

be well ware whorft thow dispise. 

thoM shalt kysse who is thy ffoo. 

he is wise, so most I goo, 

that can be mery, & suffer woo. 

Beware to whom* thou speke thy wilt, 
ffor thy speche may greve the ylt -, 
here & see, & goo than stilt ; 

but welt is he that can do soo. 

he is wise, so most I goo, 

that can be mery, & suffer woo. 

Many a ma/i holdyth hym so stowght, 
what-so-euer he thynke, he seyth it owt ; 
but if he loke welt a-bowt, 

his tonge may be his most ffoo. 

he is wise, so most I goo, 

that can be mery, & suffer woo. 

Be mery now, is alt my songe ; 

the wise maw tawght both old & yonge, 

' who ca?i suffer & hold his tonge, 

he may be mery, & no-thyng woo.' 

he is wise, so most I goo, 

that can be mery, & suffer woo. 

Yff any man displese the owght, 

Suffer with a mery thowght, 

let care away, & greve thee nowght, 

& shake thy lappe. & lat it go. 

lie is wise, so most I goo, 

that can be mery, & suffer woo. 


, si. isos. 

jf& 354, ^ C iii. ^4ZZ the final ll's are 
crossed in the MS.] 

here ffolowith suche howshold stuff as must 
necU's "be ocupied at the mayres fest yerely 
kepte at the yelde hall. 

ffirst, v diaper table clothes // iiij Cowchers l of 
playn clothe // iiij longe towelh's of dyaper // Item x 
doz napkyns / Item ij doz Ewry towell/s. Item viij 
shetis for coberde clothes // Item a doz couer-payns a 
ffor wafere. 

Tf Eeceyte for ypocras. 

^f Item CynamoTi x 11 / Gynger iiij 11 / Grayns j 11 / 
Suger iiij 11 // 

^[ Butlers towelhk 

^T xxxvj butlers towell/5, the length of a towell an 
ell ^ a half' 6 // & quarter brode / that is, iiij towellfr 
of an ell ^ a half, 3 of ell brode clothe. 

T[ ffor the mayres offessers. 

^[ ffirst ffor sewers & carwers / iiij tcwell/5 of fyne 
clothe, ij ell?6- longe, & half a yarde brode, summa iiij 

1 Cp. Russell, 1. 187, p. 13. 

2 See Russell's portpayne, 1. 262, p. 17. 3 MS. ell d. 


ifor drawers of ale & wyne. [ffl c uj back. 

viij apurns, summa viij ellis ^ Item x portpayns 
to bere in brede / ^[ swwma xxxviij ellis. 

TT wyne. 

Rede wyne, a tonne / Claret wyne, a pipe ; whit 
wyne, a hogg/shede / ypocras xl. galons. 

fl~ Brede. 

viij quarters of chet brede / In ma/achettis vij s ' In 
trewchar brede viij 8 / In ob 2 brede iiij ; Item in wafers 
ix xx messe 3 / & the waferer must brynge Couerpayns for 
to serue owt his wafers. 

^[ Ale pottos & Tappis. 

xxviij barrelKs ale / Erthen pottis for wyne & ale 
Ix doz // pychars xij doz / ij doz stenys 4 Item viij C 
assheii curmis / iiii doz taDDis. 

IA. uva // uvuiuun A.IJ U.L/J / jj 

asshefi cuppis / iiij doz tappis. 

jf plate. 

Item iiij doz stondyng Cuppis / xxiiij doz bolh's 
Item v doz s&ltis : xl doz spones / ij doz gilt sponys / 

1 I suppose this and the following s'es to mean shillings. 

~ ob bred is ha'penny bread. On ffl C xviij of the MS. is 
The Assise of Bred with-in London. 

The quarter whet at iijs // after v. 

The fferdyng whit loff coket / xvij oz & d [=] & ob weight * 
The ob [ha'penny] whit loff xxxv vnc/* & j d weight 
The q a f symnell xv oz ij d ob in weight 

The ob whet loff lij oz d. & j d ob weight 

The peny whet loff Cv oz d & quarter & ob weight 

The ob lof of all graynes Ixx oz & ij d weight 

9 ix xx = 9 x 20, = 180. messe may be in effe : the long s'es are 
crossed like f 's. 

4 Stean, a stone vessel. ' A great pot or stean? Hollyband's 
Dictionarie, 1593. Halliwell. 

* Half a pennyweight. + ? quadranta, farthing. 


xviij basons Wit/i ewers / a payyer of gilt basons // xx 
siluer pottis. 

Explicit the butlers charge 

thai he must speke ffor. 

pewter at the feste 

Hirst in platters gret & small xij xx x dozen l 
Item dyshis gret & small xij xx x dozew l 
Item in sawsers gret & small xij xx x dozen l 
Item in chargers gret & small x dozen 

At the gyvyng vp of the verder of the warclmot 
Inquests after xij th day. 

In dishis xx doze?i // In platers x dozen // 
In sawsers iij doze?i // In chargers j dozen 

ffor the wacche at mydsomer 
In platters xij dozen // In dyshes xxiiij dozen 

all this was in the tyme of lohn wyngar, mayre 
of london. 

for the hire viij d the garnyshe of pewter 

Lord Mayor Whyngar was Richard Hill's master. 
On ffl C Ixxvj of the MS. is the entry, " Iste liber per- 
tineth Rycardo Hill, seruant with blaster "Wynger 
aldermaw of londora." 

At the back of ffl ijC xx of the MS., in the list of 
Mayres & Sheryffw, is this entry : 

[1]505 John Wyngar Roger Acheley \ . 
William brown ) 

(Kyng Henry the vij th ). 

1 ? (12 X 20+ 10) 12=3000. 


orbn 0f gopg 0r sitit 

354, /? C Ixxxxi, or Zea/203, 

A pope hath no pere 2 

An emprowre A-lone 

A kyng A-lone 

An high cardynall 

A pr/nce, A kyng/s son 

A duke of blod Royall 

A "busshop 

A markes 

An erle 

A vycownt 

A legate 

A baron 

An abbot mytered 

the ij cheff lugys 

the mayre of london 

the chif baron of the 

cheker // 

An Abbot without myter 
A knyght 
A pryoure 

A deane 

An Arche-dekon 

the Mastei of the rollis 

the vnder lugis 

the vnder barons of the 


the mayre of caleis 
A provyncyall 
A doctor of diuinite 
A prothonotory ys boue 3 
the popes colectour 4 
A doctw of both lawes 
A sergeant of lawe 
the Masters of channsery 
A person of Chyrche 
A seculer prest 
A marchant 
A gentylman 
An Artificer 
A yemara of good name 

1 Compare with Russell, p. 70-71, and Wynkyn de \Vorde, p. 
170-1. It differs little from them. 

2 This is struck through with a heavy black-line. 

3 Last letter blotched. 

4 Struck through with several thin lines. 


f atra 

the Balliol MS. 354, Zea/2.) 

["These graces are the usual ones still said in all colleges and religiou