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Till-: EUITUK. 


The following pages contain The Hystorye of 
Reynard the Foxe, as it was printed by Caxton 
in 1481, a work of considerable interest and 
literary merit; and one, moreover, of such excessive 
rarity, that the last copy exposed to public auction 
produced, at Mr. Ingli8"'s sale, no less a sum tlian 
r*184. Ifis. This copy is now deposited in the 
matchless library of the Right Hon. Thomas 
Grenville, a gentleman who, from the princely 
munificence with which he purchases books, and 
the liberality witli which he permits students to 
make use of them, reali/x's Chaucer's admirablo 
description of the true scholar — 

" Full pladly wol.l lie kriio, .ind ^^ladly tcc-lic." 

1 beg publicly to return to him my best tlianks 
and acknowledgments, for the rcjulincss with 
whicli, at the rccpiest of my IVicnd Mr. Aiiivot, 
he was kind enougli to place ia my iiauils his 
Ixautiful copy of the old Dutch Rkynakut die 
Vos, printed by Cheraert do Leeu, from whicli 

Caxtoirs translation was made Of tlir ailvaiitiigo 
that I thus (^'iijoycd many })i'(i()fs will ]>f found in 
tho fbllo\vin<,^ pairc's. 

The several republications oi' the History of 
Reynard the Fox, which appeared during the 
seventeenth century, professed to be " newly cor- 
rect('(l and purged from all grossenesso in phrase 
and matter;'' but notwithstanding such alleged 
purification, they still eontain some most offensive 

In the present edition, care has been taken, by 
the modification of some few words and sentences, 
which arc as little essential to the conduct of the 
story, as consonant to our present notions of pro- 
priety, to lay before the members of the Percy 
Society a volume which may be perused, it is 
hoped, with pleasure, certainly without offence. 
How few and trifling have been the liberties 
necessary to produce this desirable result, 1 leave 
the curious enquirer to ascertain by comparing this 
reprint with Caxton''s own edition: while to those 
who complain that such alterations or omissions 
destroy tho value of the book, I rei)ly, by denying 
that such is the case, and by answering that even 
if it were so, I am j)i-epared to adopt the declara- 
tion of Dr. Johnson " that there are laws of higher 
riuthoi-ity than those of criticism.'" 

Would that I could ilel'en<l niv introduction and 

notos as confidently, «is I fan the r<.'|irint wliit-li 
tlicy accompany. IJut I am too well aware of" 
the errors of omission and commission which may 
bo found in them, not to entertain some anxiety 
as to the feeling with which my slight illustrations 
of Caxton's language, and his allusions to the 
manners and custom of the olden times, may be 
received by those who arc^ better skilled than my- 
self in those branches of archaeological study. 


.■}|. Miirs/iinii Siirrt, Wishiiiii'ilrr. 
\\'/iitxini Kit, IS J}. 




" Was von verwirruns; in dor Geschichto des Roinekcfuchses 
hcrzscht, mid wio mum-lier wichtigo Punct in dersclbt-n nocli 
unaufgeklart ist, wcrdon diejenigen am bcsten wissen, ilii- sicli 
mit dor Littcratur l)oscli:ifti'rt habcn." — Flogel. 

§ I. For upwiirtls of five centuries h;us the world- 
renowned liistory of Keynard the Fox, in one or other 
of its various forms, succeeded in winuin;; goklen 
o|)iiii()ii.s from all classes of society ; its homely wit 
anil quaint humour j)roving as deliglitful to tlie " lewd 
])e()ple," as its truthful pictures of everyday life, and 
its masterly impersonation of worldly wisdom, ha\(^ 
rendered it to the scholar and the philosopher. In 
Germany, its popularity has been unbounded, far ex- 
celling even that which has been bestowed upon its 
great rival, the INIcrry -Jests of Tyll Eulenspiegcd. 

One of the most distinjxuished of the early (Jerman 
poets, J. "W. Lawrcnberg, is said lo ha\e |)r(inc)iiiieed 
it the best book in the world, next to the Bible.* No 

♦ See Morhof's Unterricht vnn dor Toutschon Spracho nnd 
Poesic, s. .lar}. Tlio statement was ropeateil hy Ilaekman in llio 


such expression is however to be found in any of his 
published writin<;s; yet the followin"^ pussiige, from 
the tourth of those eelebrated satires wiiieii lie jtub- 
lished in the Low German dialect, will show very 
distinctly how highly he estimated the work in (piestion : 

" For worldly wisdom never book could claim 
From fitting readers higher priiiso or fume 
Than the Fox Keynard— a plain book, wlicr(> clear 
As in a mirror doth sound sense appear ; 
For in its rhymes a wit which all must prize, 
Like u rich treasure, half concealed lies."* 

Coming nearer to uur own times, we find the ac- 
eonijdished and tasteful Herder recommending it to 
Goethe, as an old German epic, as fine in its way as 
the Iliad hicW; and Goethe, after having once perused 
it, not only confirming Herder's opinion, but seeking 
to secure for it additional favour in the eyes of his 
countrymen, aufl of all lovers of poetry and hnniour, 
by telling the tale anew in his own stately, yet melo- 
dious verse, and with his peculiar grace and wit. 
After this, surely no apology can be necessary for 

Academical Dissertation which he first published in 1709 upon 
the subject of Reynard, and afterwards prefixed to the reprint 
of the Low German version, which he publish(>d in 1711 from 
the rare edition printed at Lubeck in 1498. 

* " In weltlicher Wysheit ys kein Boeck geschreven 
Den men hillich melir Kolim und Loft" kann geven 
Als Reineke Voss — ein schlicht bock darinnen 
Tho sehende ys ein Spegel hogcr sinnen ; 
Vorstendigheit in dem ringen Gedicht 
Als ein diirbulir sehnt verbortjeii lieht." 

detailing at some length, the various ' fan)ous histories 
and right merry adventures,' in which the crafty 
courtier of the King of Beasts i)lays his busy part ; 
first, however, saying a few words toiieliing th(^ natiin' 
and spirit whieli pervade the numerous stories in 
which Keynard the Fox figures as the liero. 

§ II. Hearne the antiquary, whose judgment cannot 
be pronounced, like his industry, unquestionable, said, 
when speaking of the p]nglish version of this ro- 
mance, "It is an admirable thing;" and so far he was 
right. But when he iollowed up tliis assertion witli 
another, viz. " and the design, l)eing political and to 
represent a wise government, was equally good," — 
with all deference be it spoken, he clearly was 
mistaken. The design Js not a political one, neither 
is it, as others have erroneously characterized it, 
satirical. Jacob Grimm, in the very first chapter of 
his introductory essay to the valual)le work which he 
has published upon the subject of Keyuard,* enters 
into a discussion upon tliis point, and shows very 
clearly the impossibility of the popular stories, in 
which animals are the actors, being in their nature 
satirical. We regret that we are precluded by its 
length from extracting this chapter, in which the 
learneil autlior ilisplays a critif-al iicunicn only to lie 

* Reinhart Fuchs ron Jacob Grimm. Berlin, 1834, 8vo. The 
work is (ledicntfd to Lnihman, to wlioni, in the yonr 1840, lio 
addressed a supph'ment coiUuininf; his latest discoveries, under 
tlie title of " SenfUc/iricl)rn an Karl Lachman von Jacob Grimm. 
fflMT Jhinhnrt Fuchs." 


excelled by the indefatigable rescarcli iiiiinifVstod in 
the succeeding ])ag<;s of his work. 

In lieu thereof, we will therefore substitute the i'ol- 
lowing profound, albeit ([uaintly enunciated, comments 
upon the story, from the i)en of one, who being "more 
German than the Germans," has naturalized among us 
their semi-JEsthetic, semi-mystical, spirit of criticism, 
making some persons think, and others think that they 
think. First, protesting however against the heretical 
notion that any 'true irony' has part or lot in Reynard's 
history; and at the same time pardoning the heresy (to 
use the words of l\Ir. Carlyle himself) as "the product 
of ]>oor humanity, from whose hands nothing, not 
even a Reineke de Fos, comes perfect." 

" This remarkable book comes before us with a 
character such as can belong only to a very few ; that 
of being a true world's-book, which through centuries 
was everywhere at home, the spirit of which diffused 
itself into all languages and all minds. These (piaint 
ilCsopic figures have painted themselves in innumer- 
able heads; that rough, deep-lying humour has been 
the laughter of many generations, so that, at worst, 
we must regard this Reinecke as an ancient idol, once 
worshipped, and still interesting for that circumstance, 
were the sculpture never so rude. We can love it, 
moreover, as being indigenous, wholly of our own 
creation; it sprang up from European sense and cha- 
racter, and was a faithful type and organ of these. 
But independently of all extrinsic consi<lerations, this 
fable of Reinecke may challenge a judgment on its 
own merits. 

" Cunningly constructed, and not witlioiit a true 
poetic life, we must admit it to be : great power of 
conception and invention, great pictorial fidelity, a 
warm sunny tone of colouring, are manifest enough. 
It is full of broad, rustic mirth ; inexhaustible in comic 
devices: a World-Saturnalia, where Wolves tonsured 
into Monks and nigh starved by short commons. Foxes 
pilgriming to Rome for absolution. Cocks pleading at 
the j udgment-bar, make strange mummery. Nor is this 
Wild Parody of Human Life without its meaning and 
moral : it is an Air-pageant from Fancy's Dream grottt), 
yet Wisdom lurks in it : as we gaze, the vision becomes 
poetic and propiietic. A true Irony must have dwelt 
in the poet's heart and head : here, under grotesque 
shadows, he gives us the saddest picture of Keality ; 
yet for us without sadness ; his figures mask themselves 
in uncouth, bestial viziirds, and enact, gambolling; y 
their Tragedy dissolves into sardonic grins. He has a 
deep artful Humour, sporting witli tlie world and its 
evils in kind mockery : this is the poetic soul, rouiul 
which the outward material has fashioiu'd itself into 
living coherence And so, in tliat rmle old Apologue, 
we have still a mirror, though now tarni.-licil and 
time-worn, of true magic reality ; and can discern 
there in cunning reflex, some image l)oth of our des- 
tiny and of our <luty, for now, as then, "Prudence is 
the only virtue sure of its reward," and Cunning tri- 
umphs where Honesty is worsted; and now, as then, 
it is the wise man's jiart to know this, and cliecrfiiliy 
look for it, ami cliecrtnlly defy it ; 

" I't Milpis adulatiu 
Here thro' his own world inovelh. 
Sic hominis et ratio 
Most like to Reynard's proveth." 

" If Reineeke is nowise a perfect Comic Epos, it Ijas 
various features of such, and, above all, a genuine 
Epic spirit, which is the rarest feature. 

" It has been objected that the animals in Reineeke 
are not animals, but men disguised; to which objection, 
except in so far as grounded on the necessary indubitalde 
fact that this is an Apologue or emblematic Fable, and 
no Chapter of Natural History, we icannot in any con- 
siderable degree accede. Nay, that very contrast 
between Object and Effort, where the Passions of men 
develope themselves on the Interests of animals, and the 
whole is huddled together in chaotic mockery, is a main 
charm of the picture. For the rest, we should rather say, 
these bestial characters were moderately well sustained: 
the \ ehenient, futile vocifei'ation of Chanticleer ; the 
hysterical promptitude, and earnest profession, and 
protestation of poor Lam])e the Hare ; the thick-headed 
ferocity of Isegrym ; the sluggish, gluttonous, rapacity 
of Bruin ; above all, the craft, the tact, and inexhaust- 
ible knavish adroitness of Reineeke himself, are in 
strict accuracy of costume. Often also their situations 
and occupations are bestial enough. Wliat quantities 
of bacon and other proViant do Isegrim and Reineeke 
forage ; Reineeke contributing the scheme, — for the two 
were then in partnership, — and Isegrim paying the shot 
in broken bones ! What more characteristic than tlie 


fate of Bruin, when, ill-counselled he introduces his 
stupid head into RustofiU's half-split lojr ; has the 
wedges whisked away, and stands clutched there, as 
in a vice, and uselessly roaring, disappointed of honey, 
sure only of a beating without parallel ! Not to forget 
the Mare, whom, addi-essing her by the title of Good- 
wife, with all politeness, Isegrim, sore-pinched with 
hunger, asks whether she will sell her foal, she answers 
that the price is written in her hinder hoof: which 
document the intending purchaser, being ' an Erfurt 
graduate,' declares his full ability to read ; but finds 
there no writing, or print, save only the print of six 
horscnails on his own mauled visage, and abundance 
of the like, sufficient to excuse an old epos on this head* 
or altogether justify it."* 

§ III. To proceed however wnth the history of 
the Renardine stories, which had their origin in 
times far difierent from this rail-road age ; in times 
when men were in daily contact with the world of 
animals, either in tending their peaceful flocks, chasing 
the wild deer, or hunting down the beasts of the 
forest. The pecidiarities of the different animals 

* From an article by Mr. Carlyle on German Literature of the 
Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries, in the Foreign Quarterly 
Review, No. xvi. Ami here it may be as well to remark, lest 
the reader may roeo^'iiizu in tin- present sketeh much of the 
materials of another article (in No. xxxiv of the same Review), 
that the only excuse wliieli tlie Editor of this reprint can oiler 
for the appropriation, is, the ri;;lu to do as he pleases witli his 

were brought by one or other of these causes con- 
stantly before their eyes, were constantly beconiin;^ 
the subject of their speculation; and the consideration, 
that, in many respects, the living creatui'es which they 
saw around them resembled the human race, that, in 
some, as in sharpness of sifiht, (luickness of hearing, 
and acuteness of the organs of smell, they far excelled 
them, gave rise to numerous suppositions as to the 
relationship which they boi'e to man ; and these 
form the foundation of all those fables in which animals 
enact their parts. Concerning the two great requisites 
for the construction of these fables, Grimm speaks as 
follows : 

" In the tirst place, the fable must exhibit the 
animals as being endowed with iiuman reason, and 
initiated into all the customs and conditions of our 
mode of living, so that their behaviour has nothing at 
all odd in it. The murdered hen is carried on a bier, 
with cries of murder, before the king, who orders the 
service of the dead to be performed and an epitaph to 
be placed over her. The men of the fable do not 
hesitate to recognize tlie tonsure of the wolf, who 
speaks their language, when he prays to be received 
into the monastery. The })easant enters into a formal 
contract with the fox on the subject of his ]ioultiy, 
and in his trial with the animal, recognizes the lion 
as the common judge between them. But then, on 
the other hand, the peculiarities of the nature of the 
several animals must be brought into play and made 
of good effect. Thus the cock sings standing upon 

one leg, and shutting his eyes — u cliuracteristic trait, 
entirely copieil iroin nature. So, in his battle with 
the wolf, does the tbx avail hiniselt" of all his natural 
cunning. In like manner, the cat's deeply-impressed 
propensity for iiiict;, the bear's fondness for honey, are 
necessary levers of the fable, from which the most 
taking situations arise. ^Vithout this uniting into 
one, of two in reality opposing elements, the aiiiinal 
fable ( Thierfubcl) cannot exist. Whosoever would 
invent stories in which the animals merely comported 
themselves like men, but were occasionally gifted with 
the names and ibniis (it aniiuals, would fail as com- 
pletely in catching the spirit of the fable, as he who 
should atteuipt to exliil)it the animals with all the 
truth (if nature, witlidUt liuiuau address and withdut 
the aimed-at action of men. If the animals of the 
fable be without any smack of humanity, the fable 
becomes absurd ; if they are without traces of their 
animal nature, it becomes wearisome." 

Thus much of the nature of these fables. As we 
have already observed, Grimm denies that there exists 
in them any t(,Mnk'ncy to satire, lie doubts, moreover, 
and with good show of reason, whetln^r their object 
was didactic. " Fal)le," says he, " is now entirely 
instructive, yet I believe its first beginning not to 
have been instruction." Kut we must leave his spe- 
culations upon this point, and his shrewd criticism 
upon the claims of La Fontaine and Lcssing to lie 
considered as succes>ful iabulists, and (•onnn( ncc our 
view of tile rise and progress of the far-fanicd adven- 
tures of Kevnanl the Fox. 


§ IV. Some critics of Kcynard, acting upon that 
wise and ancient law of tale-tellers, " Initiamus ab 
initio,'''' have endeavoured to discover the precise 
moment when the events recorded by the historians oi' 
Keynard are supposed to have happened. AVithout 
entering into speculations so recondite, we shall not 
greatly err, if we ascribe them to that interesting period 
spoken of by the venerable chronicler of St. Denis, as 
" ce tans que les bestes parloient," — an epoch likewise 
referred to by the sagacious Bertoldo as one " quando 
le bestie parlavano." AVliat was the language thus 
spoken by animals in the olden time, is a matter hard 
to decide, but we may fairly jjresume that it was one 
of the learned languages. A competent authority has 
asserted that Latin was formerly employed by birds: 
" Li oisiaux dist en son Latin," 

says Li Lais de I'Oiselet, 

But though the question as to when Reynard 
flourished is involved in this obscurity, the labours of 
modern antiquaries have thrown considerable light 
ui)on the next question, namely, when his name was 
chosen, like that of the great Gustavus. 

•• To point a moral and adorn a tale." 

Grimm produces a host of witnesses to show how 
widely spread and favourably received Reynard's His- 
tory was in the days gone by. Gautier de Coinsi, one 
of the best poets of his age, who, as a pious ecclesiastic, 
held in slight estimation all the profane materials of 
poetry, maintains, when speaking of his " Miracles de 
hi Vicrf/e,'' which was comj)leted in 1233, that 

" riiis delitouii scuit si fait coiiU- 
As bones jjeiis, pur saiut Oiiii-r, 
Que do Jtetuirl, in- ilu Houiiur, 
Nf lie TariUu lo iiinofon ;" 

ami further observes that even churchmen were more 
desirous ol' liaving roprcscntutions from this fable in 
their chambers, than images of the saints in their 
churches : 

*' V,n leur mousticrs ne font pus faire 
Sitost limage Notre Dame 
Com font Isantfrin et safamc 
En leur chambres ou il reponent." 

AiKttlier proof of the early popularity of this story 
may be found in Saint Foix's " Essais Ilistoriques sur 
Paris," where we are told that Philip le Bel, probably 
to mortify the Pope (Boniface VIII, who died 1303), 
with whom he was on bad terms, caused the "Proces- 
sion Rcnart" to be solemnly represented, in which a 
mummer, clothed in the skin of a fox, over wiiidi lie 
wore a priest's robes, performed mass, and then ran 
after and devoured the poultry ; and it is probable 
that such exhibitions were frequent. 

§ V. The Provenvals, as far as we at j)resent know, 
never selected Keynard lor the hero of any poems. 
Nevertheless, it is obvious that, from their intercourse 
with the Normans and their acquaintance with the 
literature of their rivals, they soon became familiar 
with his exploits ; and the conse<|uencc is, that amonrrst 
tlie lyrical composition,- of" the Trouljadiiurs we lind 
allusions to this ^t^^ry ohhr than any pniiii bv a 


'I'roiivf'ur now I'xtaiit oil tin- .suhject ; older than the 
lost Normun-Frencli poein.s of tliis eyclus, however, 
they can scarcely bo. 

For instance, our own nmnanli, Hichanl C"«i'ur-(lc- 
Lion, in a Sirvente, which must have been written 
between 1 HJJ) ami 1 199, has an allusion to the stui-y — 

" K vns jiuiiistcifol moi, 
E men portastes tiel foi 
Cora Natngris a Jiflitairt." 

Gavaudan, who wrote about 1 195, Peire de Bussinac, 
who according to Raynouard flourished before the end 
of the twelfth century, and many other celebrated 
writers among the Proven9als, allude to it. 

In Sj)ain and Italy the history of Reynard seems to 
have been but little known ; while, on the other hand, 
the story is shown to have been highly popular in Flan- 
ders at the beginning of the thirteenth century. Sub- 
seciuently to 1229, but before 12.jO, a canon of Liege,* 
when relating the victory of his countrymen over Duke 
Henry of Brabant, says, '■^ Dux antcin, {Brabaiitinns) 
siioriim riflf/is iiitfrituin, Jinjit ad ipsiim coinitem (Far- 
randiiin, Fla/idrcnsem), (jitarens indncins ct renia/n de 
commisso. Sifj)er cnjits jjttlliata /t//j)OcrL^i Flandrenses 
iiidlynati prnrcrrs, *■ Kij(i\ iiii/i(in)it, ^ liainardus f actus 
est mo/iachus.' " 

Shortly before this, in 1204 and 1206, occurred 

• Whose work forms properly the third b()bk of the " Vila 
S. t)ililia> Leodiensis," printed in the second volume of Chapea- 

another t'vcnt rcconlcd in llir liistury of Flanders, 
which shows how widely sprciul was Reynard's reputa- 
tion at that time, Matliihla, the widowed countess, 
was at open war with a party of her subjects. The 
adherents of Mathilda assumed the name of Isanjiriner 
{isri/if/ri/ii) ; those who were (ipi)osed to them bein<^ 
designated IJlaufusscr (IJluvotini). Such is the state- 
ment of a contemporary, Rigordus, in his history De 
Gestis Philippi Augusti,* and his testimony is 
confirmed by (iuilermus Brito, and the later evidence 
of IMiilip Mi)uskes, who was bishop of Tournai from 
IL'T 4 to 12S1?, iind s;iy< in liis Khyniiniz C'lironiele, 

"Et grant douaire tint virs Ipro 
En celc ticrc ties Imnprins, 
Qui liaiiient li's liliirotinn." 

Jacob Meyer, in his ("hronicon Flandri:r, mentions 
the circumstance, and explains the allusion to the 
wolf in the name of the Isangriner, but is unable to 
ilo the same for that of the lUavoter. Grimm, 
however (and the circumstance of its being the name 
of the opposite faction, calls for some such explanation), 
assumes that the epitiiet is connected witli the history 
of the fox, who, as he shows very clearly, was some- 
times designated by the coaxing names of Blaufuss 
(Hluef»)ot) and Schwarzi'uss (Blackfoot).t 

* Diichcsno, V. 54. 
t Sec some curious illustrutions (if this, and otli< r iiistancvs .if 
tlw Klcniish custtim of jj^vini,' cmljlomatic names totlii-ir «iillVnnt 
fiu-tions, in an article on " n(l<,Hnn Lilcrntiiri' and Kivnard tin.- 
Fox," in the iwcnlifth inind)(r of \\\v Hrilisli and Fon-ign 

§ V. IJiit the earliest testimony to the existence ot" 
popuhir stories in which the fox and the wolf exhibit 
those peculiar traits by which they are characterized 
in the Reynardine fables, ailbrded by the Abbot 
Guibert de Nogent in his Autobiography. It 
proves them to have been as familiar to the natives 
of Picardy at the commencement of tlie twelfth 
century, as the passages we have quoted above 
shew them to have been to the Flemings a century 
later. Guibert, or Wibex't, a native of Beauvais, was 
elected Abbot of the Monastery of Nogent, near 
Coucy, in 1104, and died in 1124. He wrote three 
books, De Vita sua, which were published among his 
collected works at Paris, by Lucas d' Achery, in 1 60 1 ; 
and in book 3, cap. 8, p. 507, he relates the murder, 
in 1112, of Gualdricus, orWaldricus, Bishop of Laon, 
in Picardy, who had made himself hated by his crimes 
and offences. The insurgents sought everywhere for the 
bishop, Avho had concealed himself at their approach; at 
last they examined the cellar, "cum itaque per singula 
cum vasa disquirerent, iste (Teudcgaldus, the chief of 
thf murderers) pro fronte tonnulaj illius in qua latebat 
homo, substitit, et retuso obice scisitabatur ingemi- 
nando ' Quis esset ?' Cumque vix eo fustigante gelida 
jam ora movisset, ' Captivus,' inquit. — Solebat autem 
episcopus cum Isengrimum irridendo vocare, propter 
lujiinam scilicet speciem: sic cnim aVu/ui solcnt appellarc 
lupns. Ait ergo scelestus ad prassulem, * Iliccine est 
dorm7ius Isengrim/s rci>03itus?' Renulfus igitur, quam- 
vis peccator, christus (i. c. unctus) tamen Domini, de 

vasculo capillis dctialiitur." In tliis rcinarkablo 
passage, obscure as it is towards the conclusion, in 
which we sliould prubahly read licnnrdus instead of 
Renulfus, we see that in 1112 this fable was so well 
known, that the name of Isengrim was satirically 
applied to a wihl-looking man, and moreover that 
every one of the common people understood the 
allusion. From hence we may reasonably infer that 
in the North of France this characteristic fable was 
then one generation old at least ; that it might, in 
short, date its rise from the middle of the eleventli 

§ VI. "We have thus historical testimony to the fact 
of the story being current at the commencement of 
tlie twelfth century. The names of the chief actors 
afford philological evidence of its existence in still 
earlier times. We will not follow Grimm through 
the eight-and-twenty pages occujiied by his chapter 
upon tlie Thiernamcn (names of the animals); but 
we have long felt that the very name of the fox in 
the Frencli romances upon the subject, served to 
prove, not only that those romances were not of 
French origin (for, had they been so, tlie old French 
apy>cllativc of the fox, doitjtil, and not the Teutonic 
luiuurd, would have obtained as the name of the hero), 
but that the German writers had reason (ni their side 
wlien tliey claimed the credit of this favourite; narrative 
for tlieir countrymen. We shall content ourselves with 
extracting one passage from Grimm, important for tlw 
etymological groundswliich it allonls for supjwsing that 


stories ol" tlie Fox ami ^^ Oil" wire known to the 
Franks as oaily as tlio t'onrtli, lit'tli, ami sixth (•(Mituiios. 

After show in i; that the names applied to the several 
animals, far from being vague and unmeaning, were 
originallv strictly signilieant, (Irimiii proceeds to spe- 
<-ify the several classes into which these e[)ithets were 
capable of being divided, and then to make those 
observations on the name of the fox, which form the 
passage which follows. 

" liniart, RcinJiart, in its earlier form J\c(j'inh(irt, 
still earlier Rityinolidrd, lUuinohard, is a projjcr name 
of frequent occurrence in documents of the seventh, 
eighth, and ninth centuries, the meaning of which has 
long ceased to be thoroughly understood. Smaragd, 
a Benedictine monk of Lorraine, who, about 816, or 
still earlier, completed a Donatus which has never 
been printed, explains lieinhart by ' nitidum consi- 
lium,' erroneously taking rniu for hreni (purus, niti- 
dus). But how did he come ])y 'consilium,' which 
can in no wise exist in hart ? Is it through transpo- 
sition in rat? Has he confounded with it the some- 
where-ac(iuired proper meaning of the first word? It 
appears so ; for ragin, regin, is without doubt ' con- 
silium' in the Gothic language throughout.* In the 
later dialects, the word began to disappear, and to 
exist only in combination. Probably the Frankish 
has preserved it longer, for the well-known rofjhihnmn 
were — the before the tribunal giving counsel, the ad- 

* Philcm. 14, raffincis, consiliarius, senator. Mark xv. 4.3 ; 
Rom. xi. .34. 


visin;;, tlif (It'i-iilinj; — the Anglo-Saxon rccdhormi, 
Frisian red-jeica* Tlie writing of the Lex Sal. racin, 
rar/iin (and before b rachim) is of no consef|nence, 
bocanse, for example, Incinn is there written for hiffhia. 
Thus liagitihard, is iwpert in cotmscl, adviser, and \vc 
have before seen that, throughout all these fables, the 
fox was aetuallj the adviser. Moreover the French 
poem seems to exhibit a knowledge of this fact, pro- 
bably from following clos^ily its jwcomprehended original 
source : 

' Si ai muint hon consell doiK', 
Par iiion droit lum iii non Kciiurt," — 1. I.">s7ri. 

'I have much good counsel given, by my right name 
I am called Reinhart.' From tliis it is clear that the 
name of Reinhart in these fables was a characteristic 
one, and that it was originally applied to the fox on 
that account. It is therefore not to be wondered that 
a so deeply-contrived na;<ie of ;iii aiiinial Ix'came 
firndy rooted in the Frankish tongue, that it could 
even >upplant the French appellative goupil, and from 
lu tiiirf at last became rciKtrd. But w hat ajipearsmorc 
important, the first application, or lindingof the name, 
must be traced up to a period at which the sense of 
the word ragiu was generally i)erceptible, consetpicntly 
our faldes ( Tliu'r/abel) go l)ack far hi vimhI the tuclfih 
century. I venture to maintain that this name alone 
ju>tifies the supposition that the Fal)les ol' thr Fox 
and the "NVolf were known (uthe l*"rank.- in the tourlli, 

Rechts-Alterthiimer, 774, 787. 

fifth and sixth ccnturifs, when thoy used the yet un- 
alloyed (Jerinan tongue, dulled hy no influx of the 
Gaulish language — that they took the fables witli them 
from Germany across the Rhine/'* 

§ VII. Tlic next (juestion for our examination is the 
locality in whidi tlie Uenanlini^ faldcs now possessed 
by us took their rise. This will not take us long, for 
the ground on which tliey could have sprung is not 
widely spread, nor indeed slj^uld we have alluded in 
this place to their local origin, but that we were 
anxious to call attention to the extraordinary fact, that 
this peculiar cycle of popular poetry accjuired its po- 
[)ular and long enduring form, in those very regions 
in which tliat branch of the painter's art wliich may 
be pronounced of a cognate nature with the works under 
consideration — we mean, of course, cattle and land- 
scape painting — has been cultivated with fond perse- 
verance and pre-eminent success. For not only is it 
in Flanders, and the countries immediately adjoining 
to it — the north of Frame, and the western ]>arts of 
Germany — that these poems have flourished most lux- 
uriantly, as we shall take the opportunity of showing 
whtii we bring these various compositions under the 
notice of our readers, but Flanders is the scene of that 
history of Reynard, which, derived from the Flemish, 
now enjoys ah European reputation, being, in fact, 
the type of the whole Renardine cycle; while 
the allusions to Flanders are so numerous in the 
various branches of the French Renart, as to leave 

* Griinin, Rcinhnrt Ftirh.1, Intriidiictinn, pp. Cfxl-cnxlii. 


littlf doubt tli:it it was iVniii tliat coimtry the authors 
of tliose poems gathered thrii- mati-iials. The nadci- 
sliull have proof of this in the wonls of that excellent 
and patriotic Flemish antiipiary, ^I. Willems, who was 
commissioned to edit the old Flemish Kciiiacrt, from 
the manuscript purchased by the Belgian government 
at Ileber's sale, and who in his introduction to that 
work, thus speaks upon tliis very point :* — 

" The scene of the adventures of Reynard and Isen- 
grim, is tliroughout laid in Flanders, with the excep- 
tion of one iuciilent, whieh occurs in the district of 
Varmandois,"!" (verse 1514), and that this excursion of 
the fox and the wolf is n«tt spoken of as if it hatl 
caused them to (juit their own country, is sufficiently 
explained by the political circumstances of the times. 
By the marriage of Philip of Alsace, Earl of Flan- 
ders, to the daughter and sole heir of the Earl of 
Vermandois, who died in 1 1(33, Verniandois was in that 
year united to Flandi-rs, .iiid eontinued so until 1 1 SG. 
In this intervening period, the lieinaert was most pro- 
bai)ly written, or how, otherwise, could Vermandois be 
introduced into it ? 

" In another place, the Fox speaks of the treasure 
of King Ermeiiriek, Imried under a tree at llulsterloo, 
which llulsterloo is in a very wihl, ami inifre(piente<l 
plac«' 4 '""' ''"' ^''//f-/)'o(7i of till' Archives of (Ihent, 

* Wilh'ms' Rcinuert de Vo$, 8vo. Ghent, 1836. IntrtMliifUoii, 
ji. XXXV. 

t Sot' paijf .12 of this ((lition. 
X S«*o p. 5.3 of this oditinn. 



informs us, that pilgrimages to Our Lady of Ilulstorloo, 
were frequtnt in tlie middle ages ; for in that place 
the pilgrims otl'ered tlieir devotions to a miraculous 
image, which, according to a note to the unpul)lished 
chronicle of the abbey of Drongheu, near Ghent, had 
been removed thither from Teruane. Our Lady being 
offended at the slight reverence paid to her by the 
inhabitants of Teruane, commanded that her image 
should be placed somewhere else, whicli was accord- 
ingly done, in the sight of vast multitudes of people ; 
two doves flying before the bearers of the image, lead- 
ing them, like guides, until they came to Ilulsterloo. 
The numbers which then visited it there were so great, 
as to cause a scarcity of food in Ghent. 

"■ Ilulsterloo, by Kieldrect, with its wood, wastes, and 
moors, was ceded to the abbey of Dronghen in the year 
1 1 36. It is very probable that some years after that 
time, the monks of the abbey erected a chapel in that 
place to the honour of the Blessed Virgin, which might 
account for the celebrity of her image there among the 
Flemings ; and the crowds which visited it during the 
thirteenth, fourteenth, and fifteenth centuries, in short, 
until Hulsterloo itself was destroyed by an inundation. 
But if it was a desolate place when Reinaert was 
written, the poem must be older than the transporta- 
tion of the miraculous image, and, consequently, as old 
as the twelfth century." 

Iscngrim's becoming a monk in the cloister of El- 
mare,* and the mention of Herman, abbot of St. Mar- 

* See p. 42 of tho present edition. 


tin's, at Dornick,* and of Godfridus Andegavonsi.*i,f 
both of whom lived in the'carlier ])art of tlie twelfth 
century, are also cited by Willems, as proofs indica- 
tive, not only of th(^ ajre of the Reinaert, but also of 
its beinjr of Flemish origin. 

§ viii. Before we commence our notice of the 
principal works connected with the popular cycle of 
romance in which the F'ox figures so conspicuously, 
we have a few preliminary remarks to make on the 
fact of the lion, a stranger, in our days at least, to the 
forests of the European continent, apjiearing in these 
histories as the acknowledged king of beasts. "We had 
thought of noticing the peculiar fitness of the fox 
and the wolf, formerly the most populous denizens of 
our coverts, for the parts which they are called upon 
to perform. We pass this by, however, that we may 
examine the probable cause of the lion's being invested 
with regal authority. This circumstance would seem, 
at once, to contradict the Teutonic, or indeed European 
origin of the fable. But, setting aside our knowledge 
that lions were formerly broiight into Europe from 
their native wilds, to be exhibited as important objects 
in royal and princely pageants — that proof of their 

* " Ja ic, hots iii jacr, diit ic wacrt 
Voor (It'll (li'kt'ii Ilcrmanne 

In vollcn spcndeto bannc."— /?(i«fi(T/, 1.27.36-8,('(1 Willoms. 

t Mai'stcr Jufroot, in the ConibiirKli MS. of lirimnrt. In fho 

Hobor MS. Gclis:]]and in the old'prosc ed. of (!<• I-«ii, 

Gfliis, and not Diclis, as Willi'ms statos in his nuti', p. 1 20. 

He probably'tjiiotod from Sulil's reprint 


being indigenous to Europe might be adduce*! from 
those poets who tell us that Sigtritl waswont to hunt lions 
in the Burgundian forests — both which circunistances 
might be considered suffieiently explanatory of the 
motives which induced the writers of these fables to 
invest the lion with sovereignity over all the other 
animals who figure in these narratives ; another and 
more siitisfactory explanation is afforded by the fact, 
that there is good reason for Wlieving, that the lion 
has, in comparatively modern times, usurped the 
crown which the bear originally possessed, both de Jure 
and de facto. The bear is, indeed, the strongest and 
the largest of all our indigenous animals— the true 
king of our European forests; and Grimm, after 
showing that, in the old German language, the roaring 
of the lion and the growling of the bear were both 
expressed by one and tin- same word, viz. furmln, — 
and further (which is very remarkable with regard to 
this point) that in the old Norse tongue, the highest 
authority was expressed I)y i>ersa ln//i (licentia ursi), 
adduces satisfactory evidence, the particulars of whicli 
we shall not attempt to follow, that in Germany, in 
the tenth century, and earlier, the kingly authority 
over the beasts of the forests was considered to belong, 
not to the lion, but to the bear ; who, in the works 
now handed down to us is still exhibited as second 
only to the lion in power and influence ; and the bear 
is, in fact, next to the fox and the wolf, the most im- 
portant pers(jnage in these oft-told tales. 

§ IX. IJut it is time that we proceed from these in- 
troductory and general obsenations to a more parti- 


cular examination of sonic of tlic most important ot" 
those numerous literary prcMluctiuns. to whicli the po- 
pularity of Reynard's history has given rise. 

Tlie first of these in point of date, though not of 
literary merit, is a poem, of which two MSS. were dis- 
covered in the royal library at Brussels, by Dr. Jacob 
Grimm, soon after the publication of that great work 
up<m the subject of Keynanl, to which such fre(|uent 
allusion is necessarily madt; in the course of the pre- 
sent volume. 

It was published l»y Grinun in tlie year 1838, in a 
curious and valuable collection of Latin poems of the 
tenth and eleventh century, which he edited in that 
year in conjunction with Andreas Sehmeller.* This 
poem is entitled Echasis cujnsdtim cdptivi per Trnpn- 
logiam, and consists of 1229 leonine verses, the prin- 
cipal part l)eing occuj)ied with the story of the lion's 
illness, told by the wolf, as explanatory of the feud 
between the fox and himself, and the anger of the king 
of beasts against the fox, who alone neglected to attend 
and bring medicines for his recovery — a fact which 
the wolf takes care to bring under the lion's notice. 

" Thf fox ali>ni\ when lion is sick, 
Abst-nt.s lit t)ucf liiinsulf mul pliysic, 
A fiwt wliicli ill «hif toiir.sf is rung 
In royal ears by hostile tongue."* 

* LaUinuche GedichU dcs X und XI Jh. IlerauttfryeiHn r<»/i Jac, 
Grimm und And. Schmrllrr. (jr)ttin^en, 8v(i. 1K.3S. 
f " Alisuiit n ri'liijiiis ciiiit.f incdioatiiiii!! viilpi.><, 

Aiiribus liar reps ninv iiifirt sfdiiliis hostis." 

KcIhisU, 4(VJ-3. 

All angry di-crre is liiliiiiuatcd against tlic fox, who 
in this, as in oUki- versions of" tlie sanif story, unex- 
pecteilly appears at court, and, hy his ingenuity, tri- 
umphs over all his opponents, more especially his great 
enemy the wolf, at onee punishing hiiu, and curing his 
sovereign by the extraordinary remedy which he pre- 
scribes for the ailing monarch, namely — that he should 
be enveloped in the wolf's hide. 

The value of this poem, which (irinun has subse- 
(jufutly pronounced not to have been written atalater 
period than the middle of the tenth century,* is con- 
siderably lessened by its not designating the animals by 
the characteristic names assigned to them in later 
works. Yet, that the poem in question is immediately 
connected with, and founded upon the popular stories 
of Reynard, is clear, from the fact that its main inci- 
dent, — the sickness of the lion, — occurs in all, or 
nearly all, the Reynardine romances. The same ob- 
jection, viz. tli(! absence of the lieyiuirdine names, 
may be made to a little Latin poem, which was com- 
municated to us many years since by !Mr. Wright, and 
which will be found appended to this introduction.! 

* See Sendschrkhen an Litrhmmni, s. 4. 

■( See Appendix I. 

This little poem, entitled ' Sacerdos et Lupus,' which corres- 
ponds with the twelfth branch of the French Renart, is contained 
in a MS. in tlie Public Library at Cambridge (Gp v. p. 3^)) sup- 
posed to have been written in Germany, about the middle of the 
eleventh century, by an Anijlo-Saxon. It is printed by Grimm 
{Lattinisclie Gedichte, s. 340), to wliom it was conununicated by 

§ X. Tilt' next in point of time ami the lirst in wliieli 
tlie animals are designated \>y their (li>tinetive names, 
is II Latin poem, now printed tor the lirst time by 
Grimm, from a manuscript of the fourteenth century, 
preserved at Berlin, " Isengrimus," as tliis poem is 
designated, contains 688 verses, and, though consi- 
derably shorter than the Latin poem "Keinardus 
Vulpes," published by Mone, it is not only obviously 
of greater antiquity, but surpasses it in the power of 
description which it displays. It comj)rises, however, 
only two stories — tiie iirst is, "The Sickness of the 
I^ion ;"" and tiie secoiid, which is very skilfully com- 
bined with it, relates " The Pilgrimage of the Goat." 
It commences as follows : 

" It whilom chanced so sii-k tlie lion lay, 
lie could not feed by night, nor sleep by day ; 
A die, of life or death, the fate did bear, 
And hope fust fadiii 'fore iiiereasinj^ fear ; 
The season too, his ills to iiicreiuse strove. 
For rha'bus then through tiery Cancer drove."* 

He had been removed, for the sake of coolness, to 
the shady coverts of the wood, and ordered a gem-ral 
court, proclaimed a solemn peace, and summoned before 

Mr. Kcmble; and also by Edelstand dii Mnil, p. ;{i>2 of his 
Pottiet Piypulaires Lnlinrn. 

• "CoiUigit arreptum forti languore li-omni, 
Nil dorniire, nieiiil siiniere posse cibi. 
Alea judicium vite mortisijue trai)eba!, 

Et spe liberior ccp'rat esse metiis ; 
Quin morbi ral)iem sors tempcstatis alrlml. 

Cum traiieret Caueri riivbus in arte rotani.'— v. It;. 

him all tlio l»ea>t.s of the forest, that lie might secure 
tiicir allejriance to his wife and ehildren, and during 
his lifetime nominate his successor. Reynard is 
the only one who absents himself: he waits for a 
special summons. Isengrim, the wolf, liis inveterate 
enemy, who is greatly rejoiced at this, thrusts himself 
ostentatiously forward, and, having attracted the at- 
tention of the lion, slamlers the fox, and tells the royal 
invalid that it would much conduce to his recovery to 
eat the livers of the ram and of the goat, and, when 
convalescent, their flesh. But the manner in which 
this is told deserves an extract ; 

" The royal lion smiled, as thus he said, 
(\Vhilo his harsh voice filled every beast with dread) 
' Good Isengrim, near me a seat secure, 
I think thou wouldst relate what would me cure. 
If so, out with it !* Straif^ht the wolf obeys, 
Sits, slightly hems, hi.i pulse then feels, and says, 

' Fear not, great king. Sound health will soon be thine. 
To pay each traitor off in his own coin.' "♦ 

But to proceed: Joseph, the ram, and Borfridus, 
the goat, who had listened with great indignation to 
the suggestions of the wolf, give him such hints with 

• " Ipse parum ridet leo, sicque profatur: eratque 

Vot'is ad horrorem concio tota tremens. 
' Ysengrime comes, propc me sessurus adisfi : 

Credo, referre paras quod michi prestet opem. 
Exere si quid habes.' Proprius sedet ille, pariinn|ui- 

Tussit, et ut vcniam palpitat, inquit ita. 
' Pone metum, rex, pone. Vales, virtute reversa : 

lic-dde suaiii tidei perfidieque vicem.' " — v. 49-56. 

tlie point.'' of their lioriis, as arc not to be mistaken, 
tliat he must leave the throne, aii<l tnkr liis i)hice among 
thecals, tor that his knowledge ot'meilicine was nothing 

" 'Scis nichil, Isengrimc : fugo liinc,' ait omnis, ' abito.' " 

Gusthcro, the hare, is then despatched with a sum- 
mons to the fox, who is called ui)on to display liis skill 
in leech-craft ; lie is, however, desired by Keynard to 
return forthwith to court, and say he could not lind 
him. lie accordingly does so, and is, after awhile 
followed by Reynard, who appears laden with a quan- 
tity of healing herbs, and a number of old worn-out 
shoes. The lion makes no reply to his thrice i)rotl'ered 
salutation. "I'ulcra," remarks the Fox aside, 
" 'Pulcra,' ait, 'liif incrcis pro piftatc dutur;' " 

and then, in answer to the questions of his sovereign, 
he explains that, upon the announcement of his royal 
master's illness, instead of merely presenting himself at 
court, as all the other noliles of the land had done, lie 
had taken a wearisome journey to Salerno, to lind an 
etl'ectual remedy for his disease, and in doing so had 
worn out an incredible number of sIkjcs — producing 
these in proof of tlie accuracy of his statement. lie 
then goes on to explain, that only one thing further is 
required to ensure his sovereign's recovery, which is 
that, when lie takes the medicine, he must promote 
copious perspiration by tMivcloi)ing himself in the tiiick 
and grey hi<le of a wolf three years and a half old, 
and suggests that Iscngrim may lend his for tliat pur- 


pose, and, when the cure is effected, it can he returned 
t(i him. IstMi^'riin, upon hearing this, seeks to escape, 
hut hfin;,' prevented, pleads tliat lie is an old wolf, 
and not a young one. Reynard does not admit this 
excuse, hut proves, from his heing just two years and 
a half old when a certain event took place in the 
goat's house a twelvemonth before — that he is just of 
the right age. The ass, the goat, and the ram are 
called, and confirm the truth of Reynard's statement, 
who however decides at last that any wolfs .skin, be it 
young or old, will answer the purpose. The lion 
accordingly commands the boar to flay the wolf, wliich 
he does, helping him otf with his tunic after the French 
fasliion ; — 

" Ut timicam France deposuisse qucas" — 

but leaving the shaggy covering on his head and paws. 
This circumstance, as well as the redness of his 
bleeding limbs, gives rise to many hitter jests ; such 
as taunting his disloyalty in not always wearing his 
gay red di'css at court, instead of the old grey skin 
in which he was accustomed to appear ; and when 
the poor beast stretches forth his paws, and bows his 
head that his implacable antagonist may tear away the 
skin from them, Reynard upbraids him, that it became 
a suppliant to ajipear bare-headed and with naked 
hands, and not with his head covered, and with gloves, 
as if lie were insolently going to challenge his sovereign 
to a combat. At length the wolf is allowed to escape, 
with the understanding that his skin will be taken care 

of for him until lie thinks proper to reclaim it. The 
lion takes the medicine prescribeil by the fox, an<l 
ensconces himself in the wolfs hide — 

" A copious sweat the fever straight subdued : 
He woke refreshed, nay more he asked for food ; 
Then better slept, and ato, until at lenfjth 
His former health returned in all its strength."* 

Rich gifts marked the obligation of tlie lion to his 

" The kinp an honour to the fox ordained, 
Which 'fore or since no other beast obtained. 
Fearless to cross the marks his tail should leave. 
The bear and boar no p:rant like this receive. "t 

During the king's progress towards convalescence, 
he is entertained by the fox, who relates to him the par- 
ticulars of that adventure of the wolt', to whiehlielnul 
before alluded ; these are as follows : — 

Bertiliana, the she-goat, went forth uj)on a pilgrim- 
age. At first she was alone, but was afterwards joined 
by seven companions, to each of whom some pecu- 
liar duty was allotted. Rearidus the stag, Joseph 
the ram, and Berfrid the goat, being furnished with 

* " Jamque finunt fcbres largo sudore solute : 
Evigilans surgit, poscit et ipse cibnni ; 
Tunc, melius meliusque valcns, dormivit et edit, 
Duui rediit pKno roborc prisca salus." — 1. 511-r)14. 
+ " Precipuo vulpcm Renardum donat hnnore, 
Quem nemo meruit postea, nemo priiis, 
Intrepidum transire sue vestigia cniidc. 

Non hoc coiitigcrunt iirsus niicniue <lf<Mis." — 1.516-20. 

Ijoriis, loriii('<l the \ .in-j.'uanl. H»;ynanl is tlie (|iiart('r- 
nuistcr ; the ass is the janitdr, and carrier oi' tlie l»ag- 
ga^ro ; (ioranlus tlic goose keeps watch at night, ami 
Sprotinus the cuck is the time-keeper. An uhl wolf, 
who was lurking close by, had overheard the treaty, 
and determined, as he was very anxious to make one 
of the party, to creep in amongst tliem on the very 
first opportunity. Reynard had however spied liim 
out, and laid his plans accordingly. For, having found 
a (load wolf hanging upon a tree, he cut ot!" his head 
and gave it to Josei)h, with special directions how he 
was to act, should the wolf intrude among them. 
Night approached : the travellers seated themselves to 
their evening meal. In his anxiety for his supper the 
ass neglects to fiisten the door — 

" iisimiin furor urget cdendi" — 

and Isengrini l)ursts in uj)on them exclaiming, " Peace 
be with you I" The party are at first greatly alarmed, 
but soon recover themselves. Bertiliana inquired, 
" What shall we place before our guest ?" — " There is 
nothing but the grey head of an old wolf," replied 
Joscpli. " Bring that in then," said the fox. Joseph 
brouglit in the head accordingly, at the sight of which 
Isengrim clapped his tail between his legs, and wished 
himself far enough away. "This head won't do,"(|u<)th 
Reynard, "take it away, and bring a larger one?" 
Joseph went out and brought the same again. " That 
won't do either," said Reynard ; " the large heads are 
in tlif other corner. Fetch in two of the seven very 


big ones; or, stop, ItriiiLT tliiit liin' out- that is stretched 
open with the hazt'l-twi<r, that isju<t lit for catinf?." 
Joseph went out and hrought in tlie same again, Imt 
with its jaws stuck open with a bit of wood. Tlic 
wolf trembled violently, and the several animals i)re- 
tended to comfort him. Gerardus the goose thought 
he was suffering from ague, or perhaps from fear of 
liimself. " Be of good cheer," said the goose, " I have 
no wish to terrify you ; not but what I could if I 
wi.-h«'tl, for the wolf whose head yi)U see there, and 
whieli I snapped otf, was a great deal stronger and 
more cunning than you are." — " Our guest had better 
eat," cried Joseph, " he need not care for the expense, 
we have enough for this nine or ten nights, if he will 
only stay with us." — '' I am very ill," said the wolf, 
"and what is more, very much astonished, for whoever 
saw a party of pilgrims carrying with them so many 
wolves' heads?" — "We never catch any but wieked 
wolves," said Reynard ; " wu never meddle witli our 
dear guests." " I am expeeted at home," continued 
the wolf, " my wife and children are waiting for me." 
— '* Won't you go with us r"" the stag cried out after 
him ; "on our way we lay Imlil of all the Wdlves we 
lind in the forest, and either hang them up in the trees, 
or starve them tti death. Vi»u shall help us ami l>e 
the hangman I" — " I am too young for so great an 
honour, I am oidy two years and a half old," replied 
the wolf, and so saying lie took his departure. 

" llle rt-fiit, ' decus lioc inca iioii .-jibi viiiJicul <ta.s 
Dimidians lustrun),' sicquo solutu.s abit." 


Such arc tlie funteiit.s of " Iscngrimus," a pouiu 
written, as is evident tVoni various circumstances, in 
Soutli Flanders, during the first half of the twelfth 
century, probably earlier, for the " Reinardus," wliich 
is certainly not so old, was composed about th(; middle 
of that century. And this affords additional ])r<)(>f, if 
such were necessary, that the Iveynardine fables were 
in general circulation during tlie whole of the eleventh 
century ; for we may be sure that, when an ecclesiastic 
(and that this work was the production of a writer of 
that class is obvious from the traces of classical learning 
which it exhibits) took it into his head to relate in 
Latin verse detached stories selected from a whole 
cycle of romance, that cycle was one wliich had long 
been current in the songs and traditions of the people. 
§ XI. The poem which we have just examined forms 
a portion of, or rather is engrafted into, that more 
extensive work, containing 6596 lines, the " Fabella 
Lupina," as it is designated in one of the three manu- 
scripts from wliiili it was printed, which was published 
some years since by Monc, under tlie title of "Reinardus 
Vulpes."* This publication has certainly been of 
considerable service, as the poem in question is un- 
doubtedly one of the valuable monuments of the 
literature of the middle ages, which have of late been 

* Rfinardun Vulprs. Carmen Kpirum senilis /A' et XII con- 
scriptum. Ad Jidem Codil. MSS. edidit et adnnlatinnihtis ilhstravit 
Franciscus Josephus Mone. Reinhart Fuchs aus rhm netinten und 
zwnlften JcJtrhundcrt . Ileraiispef/eljen und erlautert voii F. J. Moiif . 
8vo. Stuttgart und Tiibiiipcn. 1832. 


jj^iven to the world; and it may well excite our sur- 
prise, that so extensive and liiglily interesting a work, 
sliould liave remained so long entirely unknown, and 
indeed not have been published till our own tiiiir : a 
fact, which can scarcely be explained by the su[)p(jsi- 
tion that the clergy, to whom some parts of it must 
certainly have been peculiarly displeasing, took every 
means in their power to suppress it. 

Wliile we thank the editor for the publication of 
the text, we feel bound to express our regret, tliat in 
his notes lie should have indulged in so many fanciful 
and unfounded views, especially with regard to tlie 
age of the poem, which he asserts, without a shadow of 
evidence, to have been originally composed in the 
nintli century, and afterwards interpolated in the 
twelfth ; and to contain, under the semblance of a 
romance, an allegorical history of the affairs and 
quarrels of various well-known personages ; among 
whom he supposes Zwentibolciis, King of Lorraine, 
and son of the Emperor Arnulf, and who llourishcil 
towards the close of the nintli century, to be repre- 
sented as Isengrimus the "Wolf, and his minister, 
Reginarius, as Reinardus the Fox. 

Before we analyse the poem, it will, tliri(inr(\ ]h> as 
well to demolish, as we trust to do with a very few 
words, these '^ firiUeufniu/crn/cn" (as his countrymen 
characteristically designate such whimsical specu- 
lations) of Professor Mone, whose pec-nliar notions 
on the subject of the poem were first made generally 
known in a series of papers in tiie '* MnvtjvuhhilC' for 



1831 (No. 222-6), to whidi the purclmsor of tlic 
book is very coolly referred, if, us is most likely, not 
beint; contented with the opinions set fortli in the Pro- 
fessor's notes to the poem, he wishes to learn (which he 
oup:ht to do from the preface) tlie Editor's detailed 
opinion of the work in ([uestion. 

But l(.'t us proct'fd. In tlu- first phicf, there is not 
the slifrhtost f^roiind for attril>utinf; any part of tlie 
poem to a writer of the ninth century ; for thougli por- 
tions of it may appear to be in a somewhat earlier 
style, there is notliing in them to justify in the least the 
supposition of their being the production of that early 
period. Keinardus is obviously not a piece of pure 
inv(Mition ; the style in which tlie story is related, and 
tlio oftentimes uncalled-for instances of book-learning 
which it exhibits, are the author's own. But he liim- 
self refers to some written authority: — 

" Gavisani .trriptura rffrri his liisibiis illam." — v. 1879. 

Tliis scriptiira was probably some earlier and more 
simple Latin history, which, if it contained all the 
materials of the present poem (and it most probably 
did .so, the Isengrimus forming perhaps a porti^m only 
of some more extensive work, the rest of which is lost), 
that fact tend greatly to diminish the value of 
Reinardus in our opinion. It is possible, however, 
though much less probable, that an earlier poem in 
the vernacular tongue, and current among the common 
people, formed the basis of the present work. 

That the Poem was written between the years 1148 


and llfiO, is proved, i»y the aiitlior's npofJtrojthisinpj 
two ecclesiastics: who were persoiiully IVii-ndly to liiin. 
These were, "NValtei", i<rior of l">;.Miioml,* ami Haldwiii, 
prior of Lisburn, in Westphalia. Walter was a native 
of Flanders; and in the year 1129 was at the head of 
an ecclesiastical establishment at Lens in Artois, at- 
tached to the Abbey of Ghent. In that year the 
bishop of Utrecht and the Countess t>f Holland wished 
to nominate some worthy ecclesiastic iVem (ihent to 
the Abbey of Egmond ; Anmld, alilpot oi" (ilieiit, re- 
commended Walter, who was aceordin;zlv ajipointed, 
and tilled the situation from 11.30 to IKil with the 
highest cre<lit. About the same time, another Bene- 
dictine, named Baldwin, was called from the same 
sch(M»l to be abbot of the newly-estaVdished monastery 
at Lisborn. His inaujruration took place in 1 l.'H), and 
he held the office until llfil, when lie was sjieceeded 
by Franco. From this ciriiiiiistane<», and from the fact 
of the poem contairiinjr internal evidence ol" its havin;^ 
been written in North Flanders, we may reasonably 
i-onclude that its author was a countryman of Walter 
and Baldwin, that is to say a Flemin<r, and j)robably 
an ecclesiastic attached to the monastery of Saint 
Peter at (ihent. 

' Nomine vol numoro anus ornt, »od nnlhiK contm, 

Vivendi stiuliis et piotntc niainis. 
Quo super KijTnundi fmlri"; nhlmto IxnUhs 
Jus vip't, auijo.soit cfiisiis, ulmnilnt luuinr." 

Hriininlni, lili. iii. I. 1501. oi seq, 



The writer, whoever lie was,* was undoubtedly a 
churchman ; tliis is shown not only by liis learning, 
uU of wliicli was at that time in the hands of the 
Chureh, but also by the monkish spirit which pervades 
the third I'able of the third book. I'he fact of his 
indulging in bitter derision upon tiie downfall of t"*^ 
Church, and sparing neither the supreme head ol' it, 
nor St. Bernard, whose fame then echoed throughout 
Europe, does not at all militate against this opinion ; 
for, at the period when he wrote, the divided state of 
parties would fully account for such an expression 
of opinion. The author of the Reinardus was, how- 
ever, no freethinking scorner, l>ut a man who hon- 
oured the clergy when their conduct justified him in 
doing so, as his praise of Walter and Baldwin sufficiently 
attest; — his calling them his friends and confidants 
affording additional evidence of his connexion with the 
Church. If, too, as has been surmised, he was a Bene- 
dictine, rigidly observant of the ancient rules of the 
order, and, as such, one to whom the rapidly-extending 
innovations of the Cistercian monks could not but be 
highly objectional, his vehement opposition to Saint 
Bernard, who was the head of the Cistercians, and to 
the Crusades, to the promotion of which that distin- 
guished prelate had lent all his influence, is easily ac- 
counted for. When we add, that the work contains 

• His name was probably Nlvardus ; for a MS. in the Royal 
Library at Berlin, which is supposed to be of the fourteenth 
century, contains some extracts from this poem, with the rubric 
^tnqister yivardvn Hr Isenqrinn ei Jieinnrdo. 


allusions to an inundation in Fricsland wliidihapponod 
on tiic 9th January 1 1()4,* and to tlit- ill success of the 
second Crusade,! we think we shall have proved very 
satisfactorily that the poem in ([ucstion is a production 
of the twelfth century.} 

Having done so, it seems almost a work of super- 
erogation toovcrtlirow the theory ri'cently advanced by 
Mone, of its containing an allegorical version of the 
history of Zwentibold ; for the idea of composing a 
work of such a nature would hardly suggest itself three 
centuries after those events had occurred which were 
to fonii the subject-matter of the allegory. Eccard 
was the first to broach the theory of the historical 
origin of Reynard's story, in his jireface to Leibnitz's 
Collectanea Etymologica, and he imagined Iscngri- 
mus to represent a certain Bavarian count, named 
Isanrictis, who at a somewhat later j)eriod, opposed 
the Emperor Arnulf, in Havaria, Austria, and Moravia. 
I'^nfortunately for Eccard's case, although in the fable 
the wolf and the fox are continually coming in contact 
one with the otiier, history not only <hies not iitluid a 
.ningle instance of i\i'ginarius and Isanricus being con- 
nected in the slightest degree ; but, which is still 

• " Proili^^a refcro, (jii'xl Frcsia tota fatotiir." — lib. iv. lis."). 

t St'f lib. iv. V. 1221 ct s<<i. 

X S«»o furtliiT (iriiiiiii, Idinhurt Fuch», s. l.x.x-<-ii ; and Du 
Meril, Pocsifs rd/mlairm Liitinrn, p. 25. HayilouanI, oil tln' otllcr 
hand, iuuked upim it as bvint; of tlu' thirtocnth or foiirtcfiith 
ci'utury. Set' his rcvii'w of tlic work in the Journal drs Savuntu, 
July 1834. 


worse, lavs tliu Sfenes ut tlnir aihriitures in widely 
dittereiit places. Moue, in editin-^ Keiinirdus, adopts 
Eeeard's theory with certain aiiieiidineiits, such us 
making King Zwentibold the original ot" the wolt", in- 
stead of the above-mentioned Isanricus, and seeing in 
the name of the lion, Kufanus, an anagram of that of 
King Arnulf (^Arnafus),* and many other things 
ecpially curious and equally imperceptible to coinmon- 
lilace people like ourselves, who <lo not pretend to l)e 
able to see further into a millstone tlian our neighbours. 
But history treats the editor of " Keinai-Jus" as scur- 
vily as it had before treated the editor of Leibnitz. 
It demolishes his nicely balanced theory. Its records 
pi-ove the characters of Zwentibold and Reginarius to 
have borne no resemblance to those which the wolf 
and the fox exhibit in flic i)oem ; and, what alone is 
([uite sufficient to decide the question against Mone, 
represent Reginarius as the subject of Zwentibold, 
whereas, in " Reinardus,''' the fox is ever free and in- 
dependent of the wolf. 

§ XII. But it is time to give our readers some notion 
of the poem which has called forth these remarks. 
It is divided into four books; and, from the manner 
in which it opens, Isengrimus being named without any 
explanation on the part of the author that the wolf is 
thereby intended, and no reason being given for be- 

* " At some future time," says Grimm, " a much better ana- 
gram luay satisfy tlie world that Mcnn, the editor of the ' Renard,^ 
and Mone, the editor of the ' Reinnrdus,' were identically one 
and the same person." 

stowing the eiiitlut ot" Hcynar<I uikhi iho fox, it is 
obviously either tlie coiitiiuiatitm of" fJome otiier poem, 
or a new branch of cue, which was, at the time when 
this was written, already popular. It commences as 
follows : — 

" At early dawn, ono summer's mom, as Isenf^rimus hieil 
Unto the wood in search ot" fooil, Keinardus he espied ; 
Who thither broup;ht by selfsame thought, by whieli tlie wolf 

had been. 
Had hoped that he the wolf should see, before himself was seen. 
But findin;j straif^ht, althoup^h too late, he was in jtiteous case, 
Cut off from tlij^ht, the cuiiniu}^ wight put on a good bold face; 
And willingly, so feigned he, he was the first to spi-ak — 
'O quick be thine, dear uncle mine, the prey which now you 

lie called him so, yet well did kn<iw that uncle he was none. 
But thought wi>lf ne'er would wish or dare to slay a brother's son. 
' Rejoice, thy prayer is heard, I swear,' quoth Isengrinius grave, 
' The present hour puts in my power the food for which I crave : 
Thou pray'dst that I might quick descry some fitting prey for 

Food to my mind in thee I find, so thou that prey shalt be.' "* 

' Egnrcdiens silvam mane Iscngrimus, ut escam 

Jejunis natis quiereret ntque sibi, 
Cernit ab obliquo Keinardimi currere vulpom. 

Qui simili studio ductus agebat iter; 
I'm-visuscjue lupo, non vidrrat ante videntem, 

Quam nimis admoto p{rdi<lit hoste fugam. 
nie, ubi ca.ssa fuga est, ruit in discrimiiui ca-suR, 

Nil melius credens quam simidnre fidem. 
Jamque, salutator veluti spontaneus, inlil: 

'Contingat piitnio pneda cupitn meol' 
(l)icebat patruuni falso IJcinardus. ut ille 

Tan(|uam cognato cj-ederet usqno suo.) 


Rcynartl objects tu his uiulf's ]ii'oj)i)sal that he 
i.liouhl travel after the iashion ul' tlie prophet (Jonas), 
that is to say, in liis bowels, 

" cquitabis more prophetae 
Non tibi si-llii siipor dorsii, sed intus erit." 

and while they are arguing the point, which they do 
at considerable length, a peasant passes along carrying 
a ham. Reynard makes his uncle a proposal that they 
should rob the peasant ; his uncle agrees to do so ; and 
acct)rdingly Keynard approaches him, feigns lameness, 
and allows himself to be hunted by the countrymaJi, 
who, that ho may the more readily make him Iiis prize, 
throws down the ham. This is speedily snapped up by 
Isengrim, who had been on the look-out for it, and car- 
ried off t(j the forest ; where the wolf is soon after 
joined by Reynard, who demands his share of the prize, 
whereupon Isengrim gives him the string by which the 
ham had been carried. 

Reynard afterwards induces Isengrim to accompany 
him to a store pond, wliere he will be able to catch 
abundance of fish. Reynard tells him if he dips his 
tail in the water, and allows it to hang there a 
suflicient time, he will be rewarded by an ample prey ; 
and, advising him to catch only eels and perch, and 
not to bother himself about the larger fish, leaves him 
and r<il)s the i)ri(st's iien-roost of a cock. The priest 

• Contigit,' Isengrimus ait, ' la?tare petisse, 

Opportuna tuas obtulit liora preces ; 
Ut qujpsita niilii coiitin;;at pra'cla pftisti, 

Contigit, in pnedam te cxigo, tuque dari,'^.' " — 1. 1-16. 


ii|)un being made acquaintL'tl uitli tin: robbery, leaves 
off saying mass, and gives chase to the fox, accompa- 
nied by his congregation, who arm themselves with the 
crucilix, candlesticks, &c. Keynard, linding the pursuit 
growing hot, betakes himself to tlic spot wliere tlie 
wolf is kept prisoner by his tail being frozen fast in 
the ice. Reynard advises him to escape, and leaves 
him to the tender mercies of the priest and his 
companions. They fall uiiuii liim. tootli and nail, 
with the sacred weapons wliicli tin y had seized. 
Amongst the most active is Andrada, tin' priest's wife, 
who, intending to kill Isengrim, aims a violent blow 
at him with a hatchet. By great good luck however 
the blow only cuts off part of his tail, so that he is 
thereby enabled to eseaj)e and readi the forest, where 
he vows to be bitterly revenged upon Keynard. 

The fox soon after joins him, and endeavours to 
convince his uncle that his loss is really a gain ; but 
offers, by way of making amends for his suppositl ill 
conduct, to point out to him four rams whom he may 
readily capture. lie does so ; and Isengrim begins by 
demanding from them tlir trilmte of hides and wool, 
which their fathers had been accustomed to pay him. 
Tliey deny his right to such tribute, and form an 
effectual plan of resistance, for they all four attack liiin 
at oncf from tlir ilitl'rrfnt sides of the lidd, in tin- 
middle of wliirh hf liiippens to be standing, and he 
falls to the ground half killed by the blows given iiim 
iiy tin- very animals in antiripation ol' wlmse tapturc 
In' had exdainnd — 


" As knives cut butter, will my tct-tli their bones." 
The second book contains the history of the lion's 
fulling sick ; and includes the first portion of the earlier 
" Isengrimus ;" the conclusion of whidi poem, with 
sundry alterations and additions, constitutes, according 
to its present arrangement, the third book of " Kcin- 
urdus." That wliat is now termed the fourth book 
ought, at all events, to be j)laced directly after the 
second, is shown from its commencement, in which we 
are told "that, the court being greatly rejoiced at the 
lion's restoration to health, the several members return 
to their respective homes : and that on his way through 
the forest Reynard encounters the wolf, who is still 
smarting under the loss of liis skin — an explanation 
which shows very clearly that tlie third book, in which 
the wolf and the fox repeatedly encounter each other 
without the slightest allusion being made to this 
particular injury, is very improperly thrust into the 
place which it now occupies. But to proceed, Reynard, 
after a long discour.s^e with Isengrim, persuades him 
to wreak his vengeance upon the ram. The wolf 
agrees to do so, and is accordingly conducted by 
Reynard to the spot where he is feeding. The ram 
succeeds, however, in beating ofFhis assailant, who is glad 
to escape with no worse treatment than a hearty drub- 
bing. When the wolf is somewhat recovered from the 
wounds inflicted on this occasion, Reynard determines 
to play him another trick, and accordingly invites the 

* " Ut butyrum <;ulter dentibus ossa seco." — v. 1464. 


Hun, whom he meets ami who is desperately hungry, 
to visit Iseiiirrim. The lion does so, to Iseugrim's 
great astonishment, and the whole party proceed 
together to the forest, where they have the good- 
fortune to capture a young heifer, wliich Isengrim is 
commanded by the lion to divide. lie commences by 
separating the spoil into three equal portions — intend- 
ing one for the lion, one for himself, and one for the fox. 
The king of beasts is, however, sore displeased with 
the wolf's manner of sharing the spoil, and calls upon 
the fox to divide afresh. Reynard divides it into three 
shares, certainly of cijual size, but of very different 
degrees of value, the first share contained the very 
clioicest parts of the heifer, and was in fact worth the 
other two put together; tlie scconil siiare contained a 
good deal of meat but no fat ; 

" The third sill buiifs, hut litth- fh'sh wius thcrr."* 

Lastly he then takes the feet of the heifer, adds one of 
them to each of the three shares, and lays the fourth 
on one side. Being then called upon by the lion to 
allot the several shares to the parties for whom he 
intended them, he says — the first is for his royal 
master, the second for the lioness, and the third for 
the lion's whelps. The lion intpiires what is to be 
done witli the fowrtii foot. " It is for me, or to be 
added to your majesty's share," replies the fox ; 

"Est ossosa parmn torlia rarnis habens." — 1. v. '_».j8. 


wli(.icu])()ii lie is graciously pcnnittfil to retain it, as 
a reward lor the skill wliirli lie had displayed in 
etfecting so etjuitable a division ; a skill wliieh he 
])rotesses, — in reply to the intjuiry of the lion, who 
had taught him to divide so well, — to have at-tiuired 
IVoni Isen<rrini. 

" Me il(K'iiit . . . piitnius isti- incus."* 

Our limits admonish us to hrinj^ our notiec of this 
poem to a close. We must therefore pass over Iseii- 

* Mono says that in this part of the poem the lion no lon^^er 
represents the emperor Arniilpli, but his son Lewis of Germany, 
ami tliat tlio division of tlie heifer is intondctl to typify the 
partition of Lorraine. Unfortunately for this statement, the 
story is one of the commonest middle age fables. In a MS. of the 
latter end of the thirteenth century, cont^iinini; n collection of 
Latin stories for the use of the monks, amoiif^ tlie additional 
MSS. in the British Museum, which was assuredly ecunpiied iu 
Enj^Iand, we find a similar story, told so smnrtly and so briefly, 
as to justify our adding it to this note. 

" Ix>o, lupus, et vulpes, vcnantes, ci'perunt vacara, ovem, et 
aucaiu ; et cum liora fuissct partiendi, dixit Ix'o, ' Luppe (x/t), 
partire predam nostrain.' Lupus dixit, ' Quia tu es rex iioster 
et dominus, tu habebis vacara ; ego, quia minor te sed major 
vulpe, habebo ovem ; vulpes vero habebit aucam.' Ix-o aiitcm 
hoc audiens, protenso pede, pellem do capitc lupi unguibus ex- 
traliit et caput totum fecerat cruentatum. Dixit vulpi, ' Vulpes 
nunc partire tu.' Dixit vulpes, ' Domine, (juia tu es domintis 
et rc.\, tu habebis vacam; et domina mea leona, uxor tiia, habebit 
ovem ; et domini mei, pueri tui, habebunt aucam.' Cui leo — 
'Die mihi vulpes, quis te docuit sapienter partiri?' Ad quem 
vulpes—' Domine, iste socius meus cum rubco capite'- ostenso 


grim's porjury, and its j>unishnient, together with 
the particulars of liis tli-ath, from an attack iiuulf 
on him Ity a herd of swine, and of liis being partly 
devoured by the old sow. One short extract and we 
have done. Reynard is told that his uncle Isengrim 
will never sin more : — 

*' No wicked schemes now form his dreams, his mind no trea- 
sons fill, 

lie never more, will as of yore, do aiij^ht that's wronp; or ill. 

' Then sure he's dead,' sly Kenurd said ; ' dear imele art iIkki 

Alas ! I'm here, nh uncle dear, thou in thy toinh, ah me !"♦ 

§ XIII. yS'c now come to the oldest High (Jernian 
poem on the subject of Reynard. Unfortunately 
this ha.** not been handed down to us in its earliest 
shape, with the exception of a small fragment from 
a manuscript of the end of the twelfth or commence- 
ment of the thirteenth century, discovered in the year 
1839, in the vellum l)inuing of an old account book. 
A slight examination of this relic, which is pre- 
served in the library at Casscl, at once satisfied 
Grimm that it was a portion of Reinhart, as origin- 
ally written ; and he announce<l his discovery and 
printed the fragment itself, in a letter which ho 
addressed to his learmd and zealous fellow labourer in 

' ' Desiit esse mains, mores projocit iniquos, 
Nil sceleris faciei postmodo, niUpie doli.' 
' Erpo ohiit certe ? jimli, patnie dulcis, ohisti? 

Hen, tumidura sine mo^ patrue care tones ?'" — iv. I(i7.1-fi. 


onrlv (lormaii literature and philolopry", thedistinpruished 
editor oi" the XihcliiiKjen, Karl Lackmaim.* 

Interesting as this fragment is, in a philological 
point of view, it seems better for the present pur- 
pose, to content ourselves with the somewhat modern- 
ized version first printed in 1H17, and again by Grimm, 
from a different manuscript, but collated witli such 
printed text.f 

" Ileinhart," tlie poem in question, contains no fewer 
than 22()G lines ; in the course of which the author 
twice names himself Ileairt Uli <{rr (iHrlicsrrrc accord- 
ing to the one M.S. — (ilUhsctiierc according to the 
other. This last is not j»ropcrly a family name, but 
rather to be considered a characteristic one, sigTiifying 
a counterfeiter or feigner (from the old Clerman 
ffrlir/i(sr>n)iin(\ corresponding with the modern (ierman 
r»7m.v/UT, a dissembler. (Jrimm, — and his oj)inion on 
matters connected with the early literature of his 
fatherland, has all the force of a law — concludes from 
various circumstances that the author was a Suabian, 
living in German Switzerland, who flourished about 
the middle, or rather towards tlie latter half of the 
twelfth century. His work, liowever, has been handed 
down to us only in the shape into which it was fa- 
shioned by an uiikmiwii writer, who lived some fifty 
years later than Hcinrich ; in whose version we find 

* SenrlsrhreilM-n iin A'nrl /.nrlinuinn. rnii Jnrith f!riinm. f/'eher 
Hrinhnrl Fiichf, 8vo. Li'ipsic, 1840. 

■f Reinhnrt Furh.n, s. ciii.-cxv. iind s. 2.')-I 14. 


tliat ii considerable nuinljcr nf versos have been sup- 
pressed, altered, and introduced ; but in which tlie 
cranipinj; metrical laws of the elder poet are preserved 
in a most remarkable manner. The conti-nts ot 
Heinrich's poem contribute remarkal)ly towanls the 
earlier history of these fables; for it must have been 
from the French sources, although not to be found in 
any of those now known to exist, that he was enabled 
to mention, not only Salermi, but the name of the 
physician of that place. Master J'oidin or Bcnd'ui is 
no imaginary person, but iyiafrist<'r I'ontiis, a ( 'reek, 
who is recorded as one of the lir.-t fumidcrs of the 
school. On the «)ther hand, the elephant's being in- 
vested with Bohemia must have been the work ot 
lieinrich der Giicltseturre himself, lor it is little likely 
such au incident should !«■ mentioned l»y the French 

We shall not attempt to give an outline of the 
wljolc story contained in tln' •' Keirdiart ;" Imt, as one 
of its pei-uliarities consists in its being the only work 
which tells how the sickness of the lion was occa>ioned, 
we purpose confining ourxdves to such portion ot' it; 
and tliereby completing that chapter of Iveynanl's His- 
tory, of which our notice of " Isengrinuis" and *' Kein- 
nrdus" have already furnished some particulars. 

The lion jiroclainx-d a general peace, but, the ants 
liaving refused to recogni/e him as their sovereign, 
he trod down their hillocks, killing tliousands of this 
tiny raee, ai\d wounding as many. Tlie l^rd dI' the 
ants was ab-;ent wlieii tlii-; ciitraL'e was conuiiitteil. Imt 

on his r<»turn vowed to tako I>ittf>r vengeance for the 
injury done to his people: 

" So spake their chiof ; then hunted roiiiul. 
After the lion, whom he foiinil 
Under the linden fast asleep. 
Close to him the ant did creep, 
With an angry spirit frauf^ht ; 
' Lord God of the Good,' he tiioupht, 
' IIow shall I my serfs avenge ?' 

* « 4> * 

After thinking many things. 
Right into his ear he springs."* 

Tlic pain which he caused the lion was so intense, 
and so little capable of being relieved, that he looked 
upon it as a judgment of heaven for neglecting his 
duties as a king and judge. A court is therefore 
summoned, at which Isengrim complains against Rey- 
nard, and the cock and hen bring in upon a bier the. 
dead body of tlieir daughter, whom the fox had bitten 
to death ; at wliicli misdeed the king becomes so en- 
raged that he frightens the poor hare into a fever. 
The dead pullet is buried with all fitting solemnity ; 

* " Sprach in hc-rre, und hiiop sich sa ze hant 
Kach dem Lewen, biz daz er in vant 
Under einer linden, da er slief. 
Der ameise zuo im lief 
Mit cime grimmigen muotc, 
Er gedahte 'herre got der guote, 
Wie sol ich rechen mine diet ?' 
* ♦ ♦ * 

Er hate manegen gedanc 
Mit kraft orni in das ore sprnnc."— v. 1231-1300. 

and the liare, having laid liiinsclf down to sleep upon 
her grave, awakes quite recovered from his fever, 
which being looked upon as a miracle, the pullet is 
pronounced a saint. 

Messengers are now sent to summon the fox to 
court ; who, regardless of their authority, plays them 
sundry scurvy tricks. At last his friend the badger 
goes to him, and Reynard promises him to appear 
before the king. He does so, and tells his majesty 
he has brought liim a remedy from Master Pendin, 
the physician of Salerno, after taking which he must 
sweat himself in a wolfs hide, and wear a bear's skin, 
and a cat's-skin hat. These are speedily procured 
from Reynard's enemies. Reynard next asks for food, 
and names a fowl and a piece of boar's Hesh. The 
poor hen, Pinto, who had complained against him, 
is instantly killed, and a steak is as quickly cut from 
the haunches of the boar who had supported her cause. 
In the mean time, the king takes a bath, wraps him- 
self in a wolfs hide, throws the bear's skin over him, 
and puts on his cat' hat. The warmth of this 
last draws out the ant, who creeps from the lion's head 
into the fur. The jihysician lets tlu- sun shine ujion 
the hat, and tlicn-by di.-^covers the little animal which 
had occasioned all the king's sufl'erings. lie is vio- 
lently incensed against tin- anl, who at length obtains 
forgiveness, by promising tlip iox dominion over 
a thousand castles. Mcanwliile, the king having re- 
covered, Reynard, who lias already l)een revenged of 
his enemies, knavislily seeks to reward his friends, the 



elcj)hunt aiul the camel, with gilts which carry with 
them infinite vexation. The king, at Reynard's soli- 
citation, bestows upon tlie clei)hant tlie country of" 
Boliemia, where he gets most piteously maltreated. 
The camel receives a nunnery, but when she goes to 
take possession of it, the nuns rise up with one accord 
an<l beat her out of the place. At length Reynard 
having given the lion poison, he and the badger beat 
a retreat. By the time the fox liad reached his castle, 
the king had grown seriously ill, and, owing to the 
distance of the much-desired ])hysician, a fatal result 
was expected. Eventually the poison does its work, 
an<l the royal Lion dies lamented by all his subjects, 
who threaten vengeance against the traitor Reynard. 

§ XIV. If the story of Reynard had its origin, as it 
undoubtedly had, among the Germans, with whom it 
has moreover to this day preserved its ])opuIarity, 
undiminished either by the influence of time, or the 
changes of literary taste ; still, if we would point out 
the soil on wliicli, during the twelfth and thirteenth 
centuries, it was most assiduously cultivated, and most 
abundantly fruitful, we must place our finger on the 
nortli ot" France. In the Norman French poems, we 
find many rich and pure streams of this dearly-])rized 
romance : in number and extent, although the oldest 
of them are not preserved, they far exceed all the 
other works to which the story of the fox has given 

Mcon has, therefore, done good service to middle age 
literature bv tlie publication of " Le Roman de Re- 


nart ;"• and M. Cliabaille, his successor, has added con- 
siderably to the value of Moon's publicati(»n, l>y llic 
supplementary volume to that work wliicli lu' lias 
^'ivon to the public. "j" 

The " Koman dii Rtiiart" wliich Mcon has puli- 
lished, contains no less than 3(),.'5()2 lines ; and il' to 
these wc add " Le Couronnemens Renart," and " Kc- 
nart le Nouvel," wliich arc contained in the tuurtli 
volume of his collection, this number will be increased 
to 41,748. Our readers will see, therefore, that any 
attempt to epitomize this work would Ite totally incoin- 
patilde with the space which we could apply to thiit 
purpose. Nay more, we could hardly hope to jrive 
tlicm a satisfactory analysis of one oi" the twenty-seven 
* branches,' or divisions, of which it consists. These 
branches, it must be understood, do not, like the .several 
adventures of the Reinardus, form one f^eneral and 
perfect whole ; on the contrary, they are frequently 
directly the opposite of one another, wliich is never the with the .stories in the Latin and Dutch poems. 

fiervinus, one of the m<ist distin;^nislied of tlie liviiij; 
critics of Germany,^ shows that this was a neces- 
sary result froL. the spirit which prevailed in French 

* /,« Roman du Ilrnitrt, pithlic d'tiprts lf» ^lanunriti ile la liilili- 
othripu du Itoi, dtt XIII, XIV, it XV Suvlrs,iMir M. I). M. Mam 
Paris, 8vo. 1824. Tomos 4. 

t ItC Romitn dn Urnart, Siifi/iJi'iiiinl, ]'iiriiinteii rt Ctirrrciinn*, 
jmlilif d'tiprin Us MSS. d, In nil>lii>ll,r,f,ir du !(.>,, rl d, hi Hll>/wlhi</iu- 
df C Artenid, ]Hir I'. ChnlHidlv. run.'*, 8vi). 18.'1."). 

\ Gftchichle der Portiiu-hrn Xntinnal — Lilmttur drr Ihulxrhcn. 
(II. 1. s. 44;i, It .soil.) 


poetry at the time tliesc ' braiielics' were composed, 
when the short, joyous Fabliaux ol" the Trouvt^res 
were reeeived with such {general .satisfaction ; and he 
even ventures to express liis disbelief (p., that a 
Frenchman could liave written so complete and sus- 
tained a work as the Keinaert, — " Nie glaube ich dass 
ein Franzose etwas du Artmachen Konne." This de- 
claration is, on the other hand, treated very contemp- 
tuously by Edelstainl lUi Meril,* who argues that as 
the names of nuiny of the actors in the fable, as Chan- 
ticleer the cock, C'uwart the leopard, Fira])el, the leo- 
pard, have no signification except in France, the fable 
must have assumed its popular form in that country. 

Another distinction between the two classes of works 
may here be pointed out. The wolf and his injuries 
form the main action of the Latin and Germanic works ; 
while, on the contrary, in the F'rench poems, taken as 
a body, the fox always appears, and that very justly, 
as the chief actor ; although there is frequently not 
only no connexion b(;twcen the several histories, but 
oftentimes positive contradi<-tions. The object of the 
more recent writers, again, ai»j)ears to have been, to 
represent the other animals as obtaining the advantage 
over the fox, while he at the same time gets the upper 
hand of the wolf. In the Latin poem the cock is the 
only animal by whom Reynard is outwitted, l)Ut in 
the French works he is so by the raven, the cat, and 
the si)arrow. 

It is most likely that the greater part oi" these French 

* Poi*ie$ Fojntlairex Latinej, p. 205-6. 


stories, and, besides these, many others similar to them, 
were generally curniit aiiionjj the cuminon people; 
and «)nly recpiired to he adopted and put into rhyme 
by the poets. Many that were formerly in existence 
have been lost, such as the story of the ant, that of 
the death of the lion, an<l many others which now 
exist in other forms, but not in the old French, from 
which they are known to have been derived. 

Pierre de St. Cloot is considered to be autlior of 
the oldest exi.stin<j branches of "Le Homan du licnart."' 
lie likewise wrote Le Testament d' Alexandre, a part 
of the great romance on the subject of Alexander, and 
flourished about the beginning of the thirteenth cen- 
tury. Pierre, who refers to a book as his authority 
for what he relates — 

"Que se li livrt's nos dit vr)ir, 
Ou je trove I'estoire escrite" — v. 4938-9. 

avows himself as the hibtorian of Keynard, both at 
the beginning and at the end of the seventh branch 
of M<''on's collection; wliicii is ccrtaiMly one of the 
earliest but not on*; of the best told divisions of the 
work. The branch in question commences : — 

" l*i»Trc' who was born al SU Cloot, 
Hn.s takfii puiiis iin<l trouble too, 
Prompted by his friends' intreaty. 
In verse as best lie may to greet ye. 
With u merry jest and wile 
Of Uemird, who is full of f;uile."* 

* " rieires qui d*- Saint Clost fut nez, 
S'esl tant traveill«'/. el jM-iiei, 

Wlietlic'i- Lc^'raiid d'Aussy and Hayiiuiiani liavc 
any grounds fur also attributing to Pierre the first, 
second, and third branches, appears extremely problem- 
atical, inasmuch as the artair with the cock, related in 
the seventh branch, is told likewise, but in an inlerior 
manner, in the tliinl. That he w'as the author ol" other 
portions of the work nuiy reasonably be concluded 
from a passage in a later writer, who charges him witii 
leaving out the best parts of his subject : — 

" IVrroz, who plied his wit and art 
To tell in verse tah's of Kcnart, 
And of Iscngrini so stout — 
The best jiart of liis talo left out."* 

From which it appears that we are certainly acquainted 
with the name of one of the least important autlu>rs of 
'•Renard;'' and know nothing as to who was the autlicM- 
of the most remarkable parts ; to say nothing of those 
oldest branches which seem to have perished, or which 
at least have not yet been discovered The German 
Ileinrich der GlichseiKEre ])receded Pierre by twenty 
or thirty years at least, and he alludes to French poems 
which must have appeared soon after the middle of 

Par proierc de ses amis, 

Quo il nos a en rime niis 

Une risce et un gabet 

De Renart, qui tant set d'abet." — v. 4851 -f>. 

* " Perroz qui son engin et s'art 
Mist en vers fere de Renart. 
Et d'Ysengrini son chier coiipere, 
I^essa le raiez de sa matere."— v. 9649-50. 


tlic t'lcvcnth century ; in tact there is tio doulit that, 
at tlie time wlieii tlie Latin works were written, tlierc 
existed euinpositions in tlie Frencli hm^^uage on the 
suhjects of Kcynard and Isengrim, tlie h)ss of which 
is greatly to be lamented.* It ought to be added that 
two other writers of later date than Pierre avow 
themselves authors of i)arts of these poems — Robert 
de Lison as the author of the twenty-third, and a 
"Prcstre de la Croix en Brie" of the twentieth 

§ XV. lint it is time to refer to what lias Ijeen pro- 
duced in Flanders, on the subject of our luro. ami in 
doing so we have a pleasant duty to perform, inasmuch 
as we shall be instrumental in awakening public at- 
tention to a poet whose extraordinary merits have been 
Iiitherto, through the induence of fortuit»)Us circum- 
stances, entirely overlooked ; the credit due to his skill 
and ability having been bestowed ujion a later writer, 
who was in fact little more than a tran.-lator. We 
allude to the clever author of the Flemish poem en- 
titled, " Keinart," which was originally published by 
Grilter in 1817, afterwards reprinted by Cirimm, and 

* It is not too nuich to oxpcct that some of those cnrliir 
French poems on tlio .siil»jri't ot" Ki-yniinl may yot conu' to li>;ht. 
If lost, tjiey wen' probably in exi.stcnce up to a later jK-riod than 
is generally supp<isiHl ; .some of them being p«'rhaps contuine<l 
in one or other of the numerous MSS. of " Kenart," mentioneil 
in Van Praet's catalogue of the Ancient Library of the T/Ouvn*, 
Inmilairr df I'anrirunr Jiihl'mlhi i/ue du I^nirrr, fait rn T Annrc l.'J'.l, 
l>tir (idles MalUtt, iiardi d< lit iliU Hdilii>thr4juc, Af. Sm.!. rails, IS.Kl. 


since more fully edited by Willems, from the iiiami.scri|it 
purchased by tlio Belgian Government at lleber's 

The name of tliis luTctofore disrefrarded \otary of 
the Muses, appears from the first line ol' tiiis poem to 
have been IVillem : 

" U' litem liif vi'lo hockc niacctc," 

says the Comburgh MS., the oidy one whieh has yut 
been printed. The Amsterdam MS. on the other 
IkiikI, lias — 

" Wilkm die Madock niaecte," 

from which it has been supposed that his name was 
Jf'il/cm die Matoc (from the old Flemish Mate, socitis, 
likewise pat/prr, miser, with the diminutive oc, there- 
fore sociohts, or pauperculus) ; a piece of knowledge 
Avhirli serves to explain the hitherto unintelligible 
passage at the torinination of Jacob van ]\I(arlant's 

" Want nit ties niot .Maloc's drom 
No Reiimert's, no Artur's bocrdcr." 

" H'illain die Matoc" says Grimm, "must without 
doubt be looked upon as the author of ' Keinaert.' It 
is most pnibable, that he was an earlier poet than 
Macrlant, and not merely a contemporary: I believe 
he must be placed soon after the year 12.jO.'' 

* Reinatrt dr Vnx, Epixrh Fnlieldiiht rnn de Iwnclfde en dertiendc 
Eeuw, met Anmerkingen rn OphcUlerlngen vnn J. F. Willems. Gent. 
Rvo. 1836. 


The accuracy of Grimm's opinion is however 
doubted by Willems, wiio asserts tliat IVillem van 
C'ten/iove/i was the real auth<jr: addinjr, that Madoc 
was not the author, lor that the iiaiiie of" such a writer 
cannot be touiul — tliat, in the jiassa^^e where Madoc 
occurs, it cannot be tlie name of a man, and merely 
designates a j^oem ; and histly, that the article dc is 
never used before the Dutch proper names. These 
objections are not, liowever, conclusive. The arjru- 
ment that Madoc cannot be the name of the writer, 
because no poet of that name is known, applies as 
directly a<iainst its bein^ the title of a poem ; for no 
poem so desiirnated has bcf'n handed down to us. 
Anil, witli r«'j:ard to the article dv never being used 
before Dutch proper names, we can only say that, in 
Ilotl'mann von Fallersleben's History of Flemish 
Poetry, mention is made of Jan de C'lerc, Niclaes 
de Clerc, Andreas ilr. Sni't. and Jan ilc ^^'eert \ an 

lie the author of the Flemish " luinaert"' "NVilleni 
van Utenhoven, or AVilleni die Matoe, a jmint wiiieh 
further investigation can alone decide, his work, which 
contains 3474 verses, is one displaying considerable 
genius and spirit, and may justly claim the merit t)f 
exhibiting a number of the most pleasing and spirited 
adventures in Keynard's history, skilfully worked up 
into one connected, well arranged, and ])erfeet wlmle. 
as the readi'r will readily ailniit wlun told that it 

• llnffman'f llnra Brlijira-, pstrt I, p. 'il. hv. 

corrcspomls with the lirst twenty chapters of the 
present n'|iiiiit. Willrni, wlio states his work ti) liavc 
been innlertaken at the sulieitation of a huly, whose 
name however he does not si)ecify, confessedly employed 
for his purpose French materials, such certainly as 
have not come down to us, but which were no doubt 
current, at the time he wrote, in French Flanders and 
Artois, whence he could have little difliculty in pro- 
curing them. Bnt, wliatever those materials may 
have been, the manner in which he has employed tlicm 
justifies to the fullest his claim to the cliaracter of a 
skilful and successful writer. In his work, the history 
of Keynard is told in light and agreeable language ; 
the narrative is well sustained, there is nothing 
omitted, nothing unnecessarily introduced, but the 
incidents ai)p<'ar to spring naturally one from another, 
and the interest which we feel at the oj)ening of the 
poem keei)s gradually increasing as we fii<proacli its 

To this poem of Willem's, a continuation (consisting 
of upwards of four thousand verses, and of which a 
fragment comprising one thousand and tliirty-eight 
lines was first printed by Grimm) was subsequently 
added by .some writer whose name is entirely unknown. 
The etfect of this addition, which relates a number oi" 
adventures of very diilerent degrees of interest, told 
too in a very inferior style, tcnd.s, as may readily be 
conceived, to weaken the impression produced by Wil- 
lem's well-contrived history. Nevertheless, the two 
works appear to have been very early regarded as only 

one. The trunscribcrs probably united them as a matter 
of course ; and after tbe invention of printing they 
were botli, to the entire suppression of Matoe's fame 
and name, redueed into prose: ami thi- story on its 
appearance in this form was reeeive<l with sueii uni- 
versal favour, that in a short time the older poems 
from which it was derived were entirely forgotten. 
It is not known who was the adapter of this prose 
version, the first edition of wiiicli was published at 
Gouda, by Gheraert Leeu, in 1 170, under the title 
of Dii I/istoric ran luinatit du: \ os^ uitli thi- inj- 
lowing colophon on the recto of fol. ex. *' llvir «i/n<l(t 
(lie /ii/storie ran Itt i/iiiitrt ilic ] os vmlv is (jltiprcnt trr 
goude in /inllaiit hi/ mi (jln rmrt licit den seueutienden 
dach in ainjusto IiU iucr M.cccc en Lxxix Deo (irn- 
t'uis.'''' This edition is of extreme rarity, only two 
copies being known — one at the Hague, the other in 
the matelUess library «»f the Right Honourable Thomas 
Grenville, and for the use of which the editor of 
this reprint is indebted to the liberality of that <lis- 
tinguished collector. This jtrose version was a;:ain 
printed at (iouda in IfS.j, uiid again in 17^."5 in 
12mo. at Lubeek and Leipsic, under the editorship of 
Ludweg Suhl, " Stadts-bibliothekar in Lubcck." At 
the close of this introduction, the reader will find 
the opening chapter of CJerartl Leeu's version, which 
I have tliought it right to give, not only as an extract 
from a volume of extreme rarity, but as furnishing 
the curious empiirer into the uHinity which exists 
between our language and the Flemish, with the meuns 

of comparing Caxton's version with that iVouj wliicli 
he translated.* To tliis, fur similar reasons, has also 
been added tiie |>;irallel passage in the original iiietrieul 
version, f 

§ xvi. Before we proeeed to the history of tlie 
Keynardine fables existing in English literature, to 
which this mention of Gerard Leeu's and Caxton's 
versions naturally lead, it will be necessary to refer to 
that version of Keynard's story to wliich we have al- 
ready alluded, as one which, through its borrowed 
charms, has for a long time usurped a place in public 
estimation to whieli its own merits by no means enti- 
tle it. 

This is tiie Low German Reincke dc Fos attributed 
by some to Ileinrich van Alkmar, " Schulmeister und 
Zuchtlehrer des herzogs von Lothrigen," and by others 
to Nicolaus Baumann, who having fallen into disgrace 
at the court of the Duke of .luliek, afterwards entered 
into the service of Duke Magnus of Mecklenburgh 
and <lied at Kostoek in lo2(3. The former opinion is 
maintained by Gottschcd,J Scheltema,§ and Schel- 

* Appendix, Nn. 11. 

t Appendix, No. III. 

J Ihinrivhs von Alkmnr lieincke der Furhs mit schnncn Kxipfcrn, 
nach der Aiisyahe von 1498 ins J lochdiulschc ubcrsclz von J. C. 
GolUched. Loipsic und Amsterdam, 1752, sm. folio. The plates 
of this edition are by Albert van Elverdinpen, and are the same 
which pH'acc the Pleasant Illstonj of Utynard the For, lately issued 
by Felix Summerly. 

§ Reintje de Vof van IJriwlrirk ran Alhmiiar dtiir Jniohnf Sr/iel- 


Icr.* The latter hv (Iriiimif ami IlnlTniaii vun Tal- 


These unsettled elaims to the autlmr.-'liii) of the Luw 
German " Keineke'' have proved a fruitful souree of 
lit»Tary controversy, hut need not now detain us. The 
work itself certainly created a jrreat sensation. !Miich 
has formerly Itcen written ahout it ; more we vonturf 
to pre<lict than ever will be a;_'aiii. The l»rinf;injr to 
light of the Flemish Keinacrt will assuredly pluck it 
from the throne which it has so long and so unjustly 
occupied. Yet it cannot he denied that Heynard's 
fame has been greatly extended by nutans of this 
version, which has been look<'d up to tor ct-nturies, as 
bv iar the most imj>ortant pro<luction to which his 
history has given risr. The most popular it assuredly 
has been, as is .<hown not oidy by tin- innumerable 
editions of it which have from tiiuf to time appearetl, 
but also from tin- various translations which it has 

The bildiographical history ol' the Rciiieke and tin- 
translations of it, would alone occupv a small volume. 
Such therefore it would be useless to attempt in this 

limit. IlatrK'in, 1826, 8vo. This cruUiiiiis tin- I^>w (jiriniin 
toxt wiili ft Diitth triinslatidn liy St-lii'ltc'iiia. 

* Itcinrkc de Fos fan llinrrh Jitn AUtmar ujit nye utijeijrrtH uniU 
forklared dory Dr. K. F. A. Srhrller. Jirunswick, 182.'j, 8vo. 

t (irimin. Reinhart Fuehs, 8. i-lxvi. ct sc«j. 

X Rrineke Vos. Sack tier I.i'dtrckcr Atutfalf rum JnJirr I 198 mit 
rinltituntf, i/lnsfar und nnmfrkunijrn iitit Hoffman von FallerMien. 
Hrcslau, 1834, 8vo. 

place; but as this introduction would bo very incom- 
plete without some few details upon tliis point, we 
will at once proceed to furnish them. 

§ XVII. The first edition of Reynke de Vos, was 
printed at Lubcck in 1498, in quarto, witli woodcuts. 
Of this edition but one copy is known, and that is in 
the library at Wolfenbuttcl. It next appeared at 
Rostock, in 1522, in 4to. with wood-cuts, printed for 
L. Dietz, and under the editorship of Nicolaus Bau- 
mann, and with the preface, in which the real, or 
pretended author declares himself as "Ich Hinrck 
van Alckmer." This same L. Dietz printed four 
other editions in 4to., viz. in lo39, 1543, 1549, 
and 1553, under the title "Reynke de Voss de olde 
nyge gedruckct mit sidlickem vorstande und schonen 
figuren, erluchtet unde vorbetert." 

An edition in 4to., under a similar title, was pub- 
lished at Francfort am Mayn, by Cyriac Jacobs, in 
1550, and durinji that and the following century, nu- 
merous other editions ap|)eared from time to time. 

The next edition, in point of importance, if not 
with reference to its date, was that published by Plack- 
mann — Reineke de Vos, met dem Koker. Verlegt van 
Frytag, Boeckhandler in Wulffenbuttel, 1711, 4to., 
and which was, till of late years, one of the rarest 
books l)elonging to this class. Hackmann, who was 
professor at Ilelmstadt, in an academical exercise, 
dated 1st November, 1709, contended that Baumann 
was not tlie author of Reinike, but Ileinrich van Alk- 
man ; adducing in confirmation of this opinion, the 
Lubeck edition of 1498, which he regarded as the 


first, and of which no one had previously lieard. In 
1711 he reprinted the poem from the Lubeek edition, 
taking such care not to mention where the copy of 
it was to be found, that it was not ascertained until 
17o3, when Guttsched discovered it in the library 
at Wolfenbuttel. To his edition Ilackmann has pre- 
fixed a ' Vorrede an den aprichtigen Nedersachsischen 
Leser/ and the Latin academical dissertation before 
referred to.* 

Since Hackmann's edition — the only ones deserv- 
ing of notice are those which have api)eared under 
the editorship of Bredow,f Scheller, and Ilotrniann 
von Fallersleben — the last, which is accompanied by 
an excellent glossary, and valuable notes, being by far 
the best and most useful. It is from Iloifman's edition 
that the specimen of the Low German Reincke, which 
follows this introduction, has been derived.^ 

§ xviii. But it is time to rcfi-r to tlie numerous 
translations of this version, to which we have already 
alluded as contributing so greatly to the wide-sjjreail 

* This dissertation contiiins numorous particulars rt'spoi'tiiifj 
the history of tlie Ki-ynardiiu; romaiicts fciiu-rally; and I liave a 
curious analysis of it by my late learned friend ^Ir. Donee, to 
whom I lent my copy of Ilaekmann's edition. Iluckniann tells 
us, among other things, that Luther, to wlmni lie gives a Greek 
appellation (Megalander) was extravagantly fond of uKsop's 
fables, which were never out of his hand. 

f lifineke de Vos, mil einrr Vvrklanuuj tier olilf sasxisclwn uitrilc, 
Eutln, 8vo. 1798. Vot the tith-s of the editions of Scheller and 
Ilolfmann, sec notes, \i. l.\v. 

X Appendix, No. IV. 


popularity i»f Koynard's history. An«l first oi' tlu'; 
translation of it into Ilij^h German. This appeared 
in \')4'), under the title of '■^ Rciitilan Fuchs, Das 
Ander Teyl dcs biichs Schimpff' und Ernst, welches 
mit weniger Kurtzwediger, deii Centum Novella, Eso- 
pus, Eulenspicgel, Alte Weisen, IVeise Mei/ster, und 
alle andcre Kitrtztredige bnchcr, aher zu lernen tceiss- 
heit mid i-erstaud, ucit 7iutzHchrr und bcsserer, wie 
aifs dtr Vorrede zu vernemen ist. Gedruckt zu Frnnk- 
fort am Maynhey Cyriarn Jacobi zu/n Hart." lo4o, fol. 
The translator of this High German version says, in his 
preface, that he has not announced his name, because 
he did not undertake the task for the sake of renown, 
but for the benefit of himself and others. But Schop- 
pcr, in the dedication of his Latin translation to the 
Emperor Maxiniiliaii 11, tells us his name was Beuther. 

" Quos puto Saxonico Beutherus more loquontes 
Gcrmano jussit cultius ore lociiii." 

And we learn from Floegel and Grimm that he was 
no other than ^lichael Beuther, the friend and pupil 
of Luther and Melancthon, and wlui filled the post of 
Professor of History at Straslnu-frh, where he died in 
1 587. Of this translation, of which a specimen will 
be found at the end of this introduction,* no less than 
ten editions are known to have appeared before the 
year 1617, although it is spoken of by Grimm as a 
work of very inferior execution. 

Another translatinn into the same language appeared 

• See Appendix, No. V. 


at Rostock, in 16;jO, in 8vo. iiiKltr the titli-, Iieiuike 
Fuchs Sfcn fluff' fidss ntiir /nit (illcrhand jetziger zeit 
ublichvii reiiii-artrn (iitsijezicrt't, iiiit ctzliclicii fnintlrrf 
rrrsen herfichert, tiiit uiitcrschiidl'tclun sitfm uiid Itlli- 
satzeti vcrltessert. A second edition appoareil in 1662, 
and a third in the foHowing year. It was from tliis 
version that the prose history was compiled, which 
under the title, Der listigc Rcinikr Fuchs, das ist ein sehr 
nutzUches lust-uitd siini-rcichcs Buchlein, has been for 
so many years one of the favorite chap-books of the 
Oerman people. 

In I7t52, appeared Gottsched's translatiim — tlie title 
of which w^e have already given (see note, p. Ixiv). 
and in 1794 Goethe's noble versification of it, in twelve 
.songs, and in stately hexameters which ]\Ir. Carlyle 
has characteristically described as being, " for poetical 
use infinitely the best ; like some copy of an ancient 
bedimmcd, lialf-obliteratcd wouil-cut, but new done on 
steel, on India paper, ami witli nil manner of graceful 
ami appropriate ai)pcnila;rcs.'"* 

Other translations into the High (Jerman have since 
appeared, of which it will here sufllicc to mention that 
of D. W. Holtau, first publishrd at Berlin, in 1H()3, 
and .secondly at Brunswick, in 1H2.'{. 'J'he same autlior, 
some years since, gave to the world a translation of 
Reynard into English <loggrel verse. 

In 1554, there appeared a Danish translation, under 

• Goethe's po«'ni wa.H nrtfrwanl.H lrnn^lalc(linto Danish by the 
illu.Htrioii.4 Ophlcnschlnpor, uho^r vrr>ir(n wn.>. published nt Co- 
penhnpen in ISOfi. 


tlic title En liaffuchog som kaldcs pan tjjske lieinike 
Fuss, nu nyVuje J'onUinskit off' Ihrinann Wi'ujcre. 
This edition, which is in 4to., was published at Lubeck ; 
a second appciircd at Copenhagen in I606; and a 
third, revised and amended, at the same place, in 8vo., 
in 1747. 

From the Danish, it was translated into Swedish 
rhyme, and |>ublishcd at Stockholm, in 8vo., in 1621, 
under the title Reynche Fuss, thet ar en shiin och nyt- 
tigh dicht. This was followed by a prose version en- 
titled Rt'inick Fucks ellcr mirfirl ruf 3 nplagan. 
Stockholm, 1775, in 8vo. 

It is also said to have been translated into Icelandic, 
but it does not appear that any version of it in that 
language has ever been printed. 

§ XIX. We now come to the Latin version by 
Hartmann Schopper, whose literary history fully en- 
titles him to a page in the next edition of the Calamities 
of Authors. Schopper was born at Neumarkt, in the 
Upper Palatinate, in the year 1542 ; he appears to 
havedevoted himself to study, and, in 1565, commenced 
a translation of Reinike into Latin verse, at the sug- 
gestion of Slgismund Feyerabend, the bookseller of 
Frankfort. His task was interrupted by his being 
comi>elled to enter the army, and then cast into prison 
at Freiburg. From Freiburg he ai)pears to have 
ascended the Danube to Vienna, having first assigned 
to another the task of finishing his translation. His 
military career would seem to have terminated at 
Vienna, where he was attacked by a violent fever, and 

fell into such distress, that lie liml ni)t :i l»eil to rest 
on, but slept in the streets, and found shelter in an 
empty eask.* 

At length, Josias Ilufnagel, whoni Sehojiper had nut 
previously known, took pity upon him, out of regard to 
his talents and reputation, assisted him, gave him a 
sword and cloak (in lieu of those which had been stolen 
from him), and procured him the medical assistance of 
Paul Fabritius, the imperial physician. Having some- 
what recovered, he returned in the autumn to Frank- 
fort, where he was most kindly received by INI. Jnjiann 
Cuipius, the son-in-law of Christopher Egenolph, upon 
whose encouragement he eomjdeted his translation, 
and dedicated it to the Emperor I\Iaximilian II, 
to whom he complains bitterly of the poverty and 
hardships which he had endured.* This translation, 
whieh has contributed so greatly to spread Reynard's 
fame amon" scholars who were unable to read his 

* Quin ncc mihi decumbcrc 

Molli licfbat in Thorn, 

Sed in platoa* dolio 

Cubare sonlidi.ssimo, 

Aut linicn anto rpj;iuiii 

•lari-ns in utro pulvt-rc- p. .'Uil, i-tl. \!>9'>. 
f Tln'so scanty particulars arc all (hat are known of the life 
of one whoso smooth style and rt)up;h forlnno kin-p hint in 
memory with scholars. They have In-en Kleanid from his dedira- 
tory versos to Maximilinn, and otlitr parts of his work. W'hiit 
was his subsequent fate, or when and w here " he laiil his 
wearied back one day, in a most still btn], when the blanket 
of the night softly enwrapped him and all his woes," are entirely 


liistory in any of the Teutonic versions*, was piiMisluMl 
at Frankfort, in 1567, under the title, " Opus J'oedcion 
de Admirabili Fallacia et Astutia Vulpeculce Reinikes 
Ubros quatiior hiaudito ct plane nove more, nunc pri- 
mtim ex idiomate Grrmanico ad elegantiam et mundi- 
tiam Ciceronis latinitate doiiatos, adjvctis insiiper elc- 
gantissimis ico7iibns, vcras omnium Apologorum ajiima- 
liumtjtic species (id vivum aduinbrantihus iUustratos 
Iccfurptejucundissimos complectens. Cum brrvissimis in 
margine commentariis, omniumque capitidorum ciigu- 
ynentis, nee non rerum ac vocnm memorabUium Indice 
copioso in operis calcem rejecto Auctore Ilartmanno 
Schoppero, Novoforense Norico. 

Tliere are no less than five other editions of this 
work i)ublished in the years 1574, 1579, 1580, 1584, 
and 1595, all bearinp; the title of Specu- 
lum I'itfV AulicfC. De Admirnbili Frdfaria, <SfC., and 
illustrated by the same admirable woodcuts by Virpji- 
lius Solis, and Jost Aminon. On the presumption 
that the reader may be curious to see a specimen of a 
work, of which the literary history is certainly some- 
what remarkable, and of which the merit appeared to 
Lotichius so great as to justify him in comparing the 
author with Ovid and Tibullus 

" Schoppenis nitidas tlum carmine surgit in niiras, 
Naso, fore par est, sive, Tibulle, tibi I" 

the seventh chapter of the fourth book has been in- 
serted in the appendix.* This has been selected not 
merely as a specimen of Schopper's style, but because 

* Appt!ii(lix. No. VI. 



it has been found necessary to omit a few words in the 
corresponding portion ot" Cuxton's narrativi". 

§ XX. Having thus iletaih-d, at what wc foar many 
of our readers may consid«.'r far too great a length the 
particulars of the i>riii(iiial versions of Keynard's 
story, which exist either in Latin, or in any of the 
languages of Europe, we must now call their attention 
to those which are extant in our own mother tongue. 

And here we would observe that Caxton's translation 
must not be regarded as the first introduction of the 
Reynardine Fables into tlie littrature <jf England, for 
there is good reason to believe that thry had been popular 
in this country in far earlier times. To say nothing of 
Chaucer's NounesPreeste'sTale, in which we learn, how 

" Dan Kussel the fox stert up at ones. 
And by the Garpat hentt' Chaunteclccre," 

which is obviously a genuine Keynard history, we 
have far earlier and more decisive evidence of that 
fact. In the volume of M. Chabaille, for instance, to 
which we have before alluded, there are to be found 
two extracts from the writings of Anglo-Norman I'oets, 
from MSS. in the British Museum, in which distinct 
references are made to them. The tirst, from Chardri's 
Poem ' La Vie de Sit Dornnin:,' is as follows: — 

" Nc voil pas en Fuhlis d'OviiK- 
Soinnurs, nicsirc mini cstuiili- ; 
Ne j^ sachez, m- parloruin 
Nc do Tristram, ne do GakTun, 
Ne do Rrnard, ne de Ilrmmtr 
Ne voil pas metire m'entente." 

The other is from Bcnoit de Saiiit-More'a ' Estoire 


c la Gini'dlogic des Diu i/iii nut rs/r par ordic en 
Nonncudie :' — 

" Diinc vout quL'iis Ilerluins parlor; 
Ausi li prist talant d'uslcr 
Cume fist a dan Isen^m. 
L'li fhfvalior do Costi'iisin 
Coniiit (jiril avfit jii veu." 

The Ilarleiiin MS. (No. 219) of the Latin Fables 
of Odo de Ceriton was assuredly compiled in England, 
as the introduction of English verses into the moral- 
izations clearly proves, and we there find several of 
Reynard's Histories related, with the names of the 
actors, Isingrinus, &c., a fact which serves to show 
that these stories were as familiar to the inhabitants 
of this island as to those of the continent.* Ano- 
ther manuscript in the same library (No 913), which 
was obviously written in the fourteenth century, con- 
tains a political balhul, in which is introduced the fol- 
lowing curious allusion to the same cycle of fable. 
Tlie autlior is complaining that there is one law for 
the ricli and another for the poor, and he illustrates 
liis case by the following 'spelle': — 

" The lyon Ictc cri, as hit was do. 

For he bird, lome to telle. 
And eke hini was i-told also, 

That the wolf didde nojte well. 

• In the Selection of Latin Stories, edited by Mr. Wright for 
the Percy Society, several of these histories are printed. See 
more particularly No. LIX, p. 5.5, De Isengrim monacho, and the 
no te, p. 229. 


And the fox, that litlier gronie, 

With the wolf i-wreiitl wns, 
To-for hnr lord hi schold come 

To amend har trepas. 

And so men di<Mo that scli asse, 
That trepasiJ nujt, no did no gilte. 

With ham bothe i-wreiid was, 
And in the ditement was i-pilt. 

The voxo hird a-manp: al menno, 

And told the wolf with the brode crune, 

That on him send gees and lienne, 
That otlior gcet and niotune. 

The scli aasse wend was saf, 
Por he ne eete nojt bote grassc, 

None jiftcs he ne jaf, 

No wend that no harm nas. 

Tho hi to har lurd com to tune, 
He told to ham h;w and skille; 

llios wikid bestis luid adune, 

' Lord,' hi seiid, ' what is thi wille?' 

Tho spek the lyon hem to. 

To the fox onone Iiis wille, 
' Tell me, boi, what hast i-do, 

Men bcth aboute the to ^^pille.' 

Tho spek the fox first anone, 

* Lord king, nor thi wille, 
Thos men me wroiith of the tunc. 

And wold ni(> gladlieh for to spillc. 

' Ciees no hen nac ic nojl. 
Sire, for soth ic the sigge: 


But as ic Ikuii dcrc b<i3t, 

And bere ham up inyn owoii riggc* 

' Godis grainc most Iii have, 

Tliat in the ourte the so pilt : 
Wliali hit is so, ic vouche wivc, 

Ic for-jivc the this gilte.' 

The t'als wolf stoih.* bc-hiiul, 

He wasdoggid and ek telle, 
' Ic am i-com ef grete kind, 

Pes thou graunt iiie, that on nijt full welle.' 

' What hast ido, bel ami, 
That thou mc so axest pes?' 

* Sire,' lie seid, I nel nozt lie 

Ittliou we woldest inier a res. 

* For ie hinted up the doune, 

To loke, Sire, mi hijetc, 
Tlier ie slow a njotune. 
3e, Sir, and few gete. 

' Ic am i-wrciiil, Sire, to the. 

For that ilk gilt : 
Sire, I chul sker me, 

If ne 5<'f ham dint no pilt.' 

' For soth I siggo the, bel ami. 

Hi nad no gode mun<le, 
Thai that wreiid the to mei, 

Tliou ne diddist no5t bot thi knnd. 

' Sci, thou me, asse, what hast i-do? 

Me thinchith thou cannist no gode : 
Whi nadi.-toti as other mo, 

'I'hou come of lether stode.' 

* Scrti-s Sire, not \c no5t, 

Ic etc sago ninil gras, 
More harm n«' did ic 11031, 
Tlier for i-wrt-iid ic was.' 

* Bel ami, that was mis-do, 

That was a5C thi kund, 
For to ete such gras so, — 
Ilastilichc 51' him Kind : 

' AI his bonis 50 to-draw, 

Ix)k that 5c nojtc Icto, 
And that ic 3ive al for lawc, 

That his fleis be al i-frette.' " 

Hut the mo>t decided jinuif that this o}'cle of Ho- 
maiice wa» popular in England at a very early pcritMl. 
is furnished by an English metrical version of that 
branch of the French Koman du Hcnart, entitlctl 
.Si commc Iteuart Jist avaUr )'s(nt/rim litihuz Ic puis,* 
which was conununicated to tin' Kdiquia! Anticpue by 
Sir Frederick Ma<ldcn, Ity wliom it was discovered in 
the HiMlleian Library, in a Manuscript (l)igby, Ni». 
S(), fol. 13H), written not later than tlu' reign t.f E«l- 
ward I. As tlii> pmiii, wliidi is entitled *'()f tlie 
Vox and of the Wolf," has already been printed by 
Mr. Wright, at the close of the intriHluction to his 
Selection of Latin Stories, it is obviously unnecessary 
to reproduce it upon this occasion. 

§ XXI. IJiit thougli it is evident, from tiiesi' refer- 
ences and allusions, that many of the principal inci- 

• Sc Mcoii. torn. i. p. 2-10-80. 

dents in xhv fox:^ stuvy liad long been well known, and 
popular in this country; — there is no donbt, that after 
thi- sixth of June 14H1, when William Caxton finished 
his translation of it, *' into his rude and simple English 
in the Abbey of Westminster, " and thereby placed 
before the lovers of romance a complete and connected 
history of Reynard's adventures, that its popiilarity 
was greatly increased and extended.* 

Reynard's history was afterwards printed by Pynson. 
Of this edition, which, like Caxton's, is in folio, but 
one copy is known to exist. This,' which is unfortu- 
nately imperfect, was formerly in the possession of 
Herbert, but is now in the liodleian, to which it was 
bequeathed with the rest of his valuable library by 

* Of this intorestin;^ production of Caxton's press no less than 
five copies are known to be in existence. Of these, the Kinj^'s 
Library in the BriLish Museum, I»nl Spencer, the lU^ht lion. 
Thoums Grenvilli', lunl Maurict- Johnson, Esq. of SpnUlin^^, 
each possess one. The fifth is in private liantls. Thi- first three 
copies bi-fore nam« d (and probably the others also) have between 
sheets h and j a leaf inserted, containing apparently one page of 
matter which hatl been omitted in the makinp up and working 
otV of the sbe«ts. This page is so divided as to occupy the 
upp«'r part of each side of the inserted leaf, and contains the 
passage which in the present reprint begins at lino 16, p. I28» 
with the words " your chyldrvn," and ends at line 19 of the 
following page with the words " For I." 

Dibdin stal<'s in liis Tiqta^rttphical Antiquities, i. .364, " a copy 
of Caxton's edition is said to l)c in the I'epysian Collection at 
Cambridge, and another in the library at Lincoln Cathedral." 


the late Mr. Douce* who liail purdiii'ii'd it at the sale 
• >f IIitIktI's b(M>ks. 

Pyuswui's e<lition was followed, in lo.>(), by one in 
12nio. the title of wliirh runs us fttllows, " Here 
beffintuth the hooke of Jfai/narilc the I'tKie, rnnteiniiuj 
divers ijooilUje Itifstorifes and parables, tcit/i others 
dyvers pointrs nccessarye for al men to he murked, bi/ 
the tchieh pointes, men iinti/e hrne to eome unto the 
siibtt/ll hnoteledije of siiehe things, as (hiilif ben used and 
had, in t/' eounsei/les of lordes and prelates, both f/htisteh/ 
and tcorldett/, and also among marehauntes, and eomen 
people. Imprinted in f^mdon in Saint Martens bi/ 
Thomas GauUier looO. This vohinio, which is of tiic 
greatest rarity, (the only known copy, I believe, being 
that in the British Museum), corresponds exactly with 
Caxton's translation, except in a few cases, where 
some words, whidi the editor probal)ly regarded as 
obsolete, or at all eventh obscure, have Ik'cu oniitte<l, 
and their place supplied by more nuxlern terms. Tiiis 
is an advantage, in as far as these changes serve to 
point out more clearly the precise signification of the 
older words and phrases. 

The next eUitiun is said to liavo been printed in 

• My olrl friend onri* nA.HuriHl nu' thai ho rra<l KrynnnI thi- 
Fox regularly oviTy L'hriittmoii t<> XIr.». I)«uoo; ami ujHin my 
renturing to inquire whi-thi-r ho did not find it nccoAsary to 
mako certain oniiiuiionA, ho r<>pliMl, in the wonLt nf ih«< jovial 
clerk of Copmonhur»t, " Oh, of counie, tj^rrptU tsripirHilit." It 
\» obviou.t, from what hoA b«-eii stated in the text, that hu ilid 
not uso Tynxon's e<litioii upon the«c occa.-<!on». 

KilJb, but 1 um nut uwaiv ut' tlie fxititeiice uf u copy 
bearing that date ; fur which reason, an«l fur others 
which it is unnecessary to detail, I am im-linctl tu duultt 
tlie accuracy of tlic stateniont. 

In IG.jO appeared an edition in small quarto, illus- 
trated witii wuudciits uf a very rude character, — the 
blocks oi' which appear to have been much worn. 
The title-pa<;e is as fullows. YTk" most dvUctablc his- 
tory of Reynard the Fox, ttetcly corrected ami purged 
from all r/rossenesse in phrase and matter. As also 
axujmented and iidaryed irith sundry excellent morals 
and expositions upon every sercrall chapter. Loiidmi ; 
Printed by J. Bell IGoO. In this edition the work is 
divided into twenty-five chapters only — the language 
has undergone further modernization — and the editor, 
whoever he was, concluded by promising " to salute 
the world with a second part."* 

This modest promise does not appear, to have been 
fulfilled until the year IGHl — although another edition 
of the furmcr part appcaifil in HWu . In the latter year 
however, appeared a new etlition of the old story of 
Keynard, which was accompanied l)y a sui)plement 
thus entitled : — 'rhv nmst pltusunl and dclitjhtfnlhislory 
if Reynard the fox. The second part, containing much 

• " If any bo clonr, h-t liim hold on his path and avoid stumblitifr; 
and if any take dista.sto or ofTcncc, let him not iilame mc but the 
Fox, for it is only his lanj^ajjo. But, if all tiiinRH suit to my 
wisht imay;inations, I shall then be cncouraj^cd to salute the 
world with a second part, clad in some neater Englisii, deeper 
matter, and if not more, yet every whit as pleasant Morals." 

1 x X X i 

matter of J'leasure ami I'outint, irrHtni fur the delight 
i<f yoHiiij mm, pleasure of the ai/e<l, ami projit of nil. 
To which is added many excellent morals. 

Jlert rriul the Fnx, tiit nature and his art ; 
Who in this Story act* the fjieatest Part. 
Him here you find adranced hiijltly, and 
In thit hit grandeur for a time to stand ; 
Tdl he aspiring further. Treachery 
Qmlrired, and did for his Treason die. 

In lfi84, this was followoil liv wlnit may he coiisi- 
(Icrod as a third part of Ivi vnar(i'> lii.-torv, written 
by some one, wiio ch-arly i-hows hy his jin-racc, that 
he was not the author of the work we liave just (juotecl. 
This seeond supplement is entitled. The shifts of 
liei/nardine, the son of Rei/mird the fox, or a pleasant 
history of his life and death. Fall of varietu, S'e. ami 
may fitly be applied to the late times. .\<>u' published 
for the reformation of men s manmrs. 

liaro anteceilenteiii scelestcm 
JJfseruit jiede jMrna i laudo. 

Into the literary merit of these imitations, or, even of 
their successor, Cawood the rook,* it is unn<'cessary 
Iicrc to enter, — more especially since the space which 

• The History of Caicooel the Rook, or thr AssemlJy of liinU, icilh 
the teeeral Sfteeeltes they made to the Kagle, in hojies to hare the (!o- 
rrmment in his Alisrnee. How the Hook icas b<iHithrtt, u-ith the 
Reason why Crafty Fellows are eatleil Rook'. 121110. 179H. 

Then* wh-m, «•«• lH>lic>f, n noinrwlint .niinilnr mntinunlion 
piibli<ihfHl in (teniinny sonif y(>urs Hincc; « poem oniiilod Hennynk 
lie Hun, written li_v H<^nin'r nnilcr tlio nsKuniod iinmo of Spam-. 

would tiius be occupied, in:iy he better devoted to a 
notice of the English metrical versions of Reynard's 

§ XXII, The of these, written by John Sluirley, 
was published in 1681. f It is divided into chapters, 
corresponding with those of the prose edition of 1650, 
and tlie following lines, taken from the commencement 
of the poem, furnish a very fair sj>ecimen of its lite- 
rary merits, which it must be confessed are of no very 
high order. 


How first ilie Princely Lyon did prochiim 

A Solemn Ffast, to which in numbers came 

All Beasts, except the Fox, who did refrain, 

'Gainst whom the Hound and Wolf do much complain. 
About the Feast of Pentecost, when all 
Tlie Suns brij^ht rays shone on this earthly Ball, 
When Trees were in their Gaudy Liv'ry drcss'd, 
And smiling Flowers each fragrant Field posscss'd. 
When balmy sweets perfum'd tho gentle air, 
And blooming Spices scented from afar. 
All Nature then rejoycing in her prime, 
Whilst birds sat warbling on the boughs sublime, 
Even in the Glory of the pleasant Spring, 
The Lyon then of Savage Beasts the King, 
To celebrate this sacred Festival 
Did all the Beasts that rang'd the Forests call, 

* 77ie most delightful History of Renard the Foxe in Heroic Verse, 
much illustrated and adorned with Alhyorical Phrases and liefined 
Fiif/llsh, ciinliiiniiir/ much Wisdom and Palieies of State, umler the 
Faliliiig Discourse between Birds and Beasts, with a moral /explana- 
tion of each hard and doubtful Place or Part, Iwinri not ordy pleasant 


And those ol" tlelds, nor ilitl Domcsticks spare 
On his high Summons to atttnil him where 
lie had late builded him a Uoyal Conrt, 
SdHtlt-n by name, in troops tliey there resort, 
Fearing that might and powr to dare otlend. 
On wliieh their Lives and Fortunes did dejxnd. 
The Foxe excepted none were absent found, 
But all with reverence did encompass round 
Their King, who with his Queen was jilae'd on high. 
But Reynard's guilt liad caused him to fly, 
Or lurk close in his Den, for well he knew 
How he had injur'd most o' th' Savage Crew ; 
And that against him they [complaints would make. 
When silence being cryVl, thus Isiirim spake. 
Itgrim the Wolf, who was to Rcijnunl Kin, 
Did to the Princely Lyon thus begin. 

* • • 4- * • 

If this metrical version, wliich is dfrivcil from the 
old prose narrative, cxhiliits but few ehiiins to adini- 
ration on account of its iK)ctical beauties, or as a work 
of art, that of its successor and rival can scarcely be 
held in much hif,'her estimation, although evidently 
the production of a man well skille<l in author-craft. 
Thi.s latter has, lutwcver, the merit of preserving in a 
greater degree the characteristics of the original, ou 
wliich it was moflellcd, '^for wiiile Shurley seems t(» 
have been unable to appreciate the quaint simplicity 
and quiet humour of Caxton's rude and simple £n- 

Imt ptnfititlilr, n* well tn thr Lcnrnrtt nf the Apr as othrrt. The Lihr 
nnvr jmhlithcd to the World Ufurt. iMndon, printed for Thnmat 
Pastentfer at the Three Bible*, and Charles Pastriifirr at the Serrn 
Stars, on I^ndon Bridiie. ir.Sl, 4 to. 

glish, — tin' author ol" '' Tlie Crafty Courtier,"* despite 
of his allusions to contemporary matters, which often 
disturb the harmony of his work, approaches much 
more closely to, and gives a much better idea of the 
poem of Ilartmann Schopper, from which it was de- 
rived. The following specimen, wliich forms the open- 
ing chapter of his book, will, we think, fully justify 
this opinion. 

T/ie Lion thro' hig Jiedlms ilecrees 
A Festival, and solemn Pence : 
His Subjects far and near resort. 
And croud their Passage to his Court. 
TTie will/ Pox some danger guessed, 
Su*])rcts it, and avoids the Feast. 
Nor Anns I simj, nor of Adventurous Deeils, 
Xor Shepherd's playing on their Oaten Reeds, 
But civil Fury, and invidious Strife 
With the J alse pleasures of a Courtier's Life. 

To wlioin yi" Pluses, will my Theme belong, 
Ami whom sliuU I invoke to aid my Song? 
Thalia ! sjtritely'st of the Sacred Nine, 
For Gayety and Mirth, 'tis said are thine, 
Thee, to direct me in my Task I choose 
Protect the Fable and inspire the Muse. 

* TTie Crafty Courtier, or the Fable of Reynard the Fox ; newly 
done into English Verse, from the Antient Latin Iambics of Ilartm. 
SchojtpcT-us, and by him Dedicated to Maximilian, then Emperour of 
Germany. Ijondon : Printed for John Autt, near Stationers Hull, 
1706, 8t'«. 


Now, in her Glory Aid the Spriiifx upj)oar. 

And the glad Hind beheld tlu- coming Yi-ar ; 

leaves cloath tlu- Trees, aiid Flowers the Fields adorn 

Ami ehearful Birds siiluto the rosie Morn. 

When the fiero' Lion from the Tlirone ordains 

Peace to the various Nations of tiie Plains. 

His Will the Heralds and a Feast proclaim. 

Invite alike the Savage and the Tame. 

BbI'IN and IsuRLM, Princes of the Wood, 

Ft)r Beasts too boast their Quality and Blood ; 

The Pard, descended of the Royal Kace, 

Approachd the Throne, and took an envyd Placf. 

The Baduer next, and then the Vulgar came ; 

B<'asLs without Number and without a Name: 

For these a miglity Bumjuet is prepar'd. 

To celebrate the Peace so late declar'd. 

Re.n'ard, invited as a fav'rito Guest, 

Was only missing at the Uoyal Feast : 

Conscious of Guilt, the Coward kept at Home, 

Pretendeil he was sick and couldn't come : 

Himself he knew unworthy, or wxs loth 

To venture farther on a Tynint's Oalh. 

The Tables spn'd, the (lowing li<iwls go round, 

Healths to thi- King froni evry Hoimi resoiuid. 

They more familiar ils they drunker grow, 

And Imsrim rails against his absent Foe : 

The Fox's Treasons he asst-rts at large. 

The Many shout him, and approve tiie Charge. 

§ xxiii. If it were not for the lon^rth t<» which thi.s 
sketch hn.s already exteruletl, I niijrht have ollerid 
some remarks on tin- characteristic epithets liy which 
tlic several animals an- <li-;tin^Miishe<l in the tlilliniit 
viTsidus of Hiynaitl's Ili-tnry, and on the vahiahle 


illustrutiim svliidi flu- r(iiii:iii(f allinds uC l»y-jruiic 
customs, feelings, ami «>iiiiiitni>.* 'J'lu- court j)a;.'i:iiit 
wliicli it lias lately iuniislK'tl lortli, wedded to tin- 
music of Meyerbeer ;f the traces of the story dis- 
coverable in the popular literature of many countries J 
and languages ;§ the works of art to which it has given 
rise, — as for instance the illustrations of Kan»ljerg,|| 
Richter,^ and Kaulbach,** — would all have afforded 

* Its value in illiistratinp^ the old Teutonic law, has been the 
subject of a special essay by Dreyer, entitled, " Alihandluiuj von 
(Ifiii iV«/;<'n tltr trijUchcn Gedichts Ite'mlit (If Vos in Ktkliirung tier 
Dmtsclirn litclits-Alllierthiimer, insonderheit des vUemaUijrn Civrichis- 
tcesens ; Wismar, 1708,411). This paper is reprinted in Dreycr's 
Nebenst u nden . 

I There is no novelty fvt ii in tliis. Fur we an- told that at a 
prrand festival j^ivcn by IMiilip li- Bel of France, in l.'M.'J, then- 
was exhibiti'd a dramatic representation of the history of Kcy- 
nard, wlio eventually became Pope, but even while in the full 
di;^nity of the papacy never ceiused from devourinf:; poultry, old 
and yoiin;;. See Lc Gruiul, FaliUaux, ii. 422, ed. 1829. 

X As, for instance, in A. Kldm's Minki^rhc Swjen und Li(icndcn, 
8. 296 et seq.; in the Lithuanian sonrr^ The Wolfs Wedding. — 
See Rhesa's Dainoa oder Litl/iauuche Volkslieder, Sfc. 

§ As the modern Greek story book, in which the wolf, the 
fox, and the ass play such conspicuous parts. Tiiis porm, of 
three himdred and forty lines, is reprinted by Grimm, in liis 
Sendichriel/en an Karl Lachman uImt Rcinnrt I'lirlis. s. 7.')-90, from 
anc<lition published at Venice in 1832. 

II J. JI, R<immbcrfj. IJmrisse zur Reinehc Fnrlis. IIanov<>r, 1827. 
^ licinrke drr Fiichx. Virrle Verliexaerte Aujlaijc mil twuen Kup- 

J'ern rerxclionrrt, tiarli /.i-irhnnngrn von Prnfr.itsor I.. Richtcr in 

** These last admirable illustrations w ill be published in Eng- 


ample field for observation ; and lastly, I niifrht have 
called attention to the evidence of the endurinp: vitality 
of Keynard's story, as manifested in (i-ermany an<l 
Holland, not only hy its publication in new " Volks 
buchcr,''* but in other works of higher character, and 
in this country by Felix Summerly's reissue of 
Everdingen's engravings in his Home Trcasuri/ \\ and 
by the recent appearance among us of a modernized 
version, especially intended for circulation among tlm 
rising generation.} 

On each of these several points the editor might 
and would fain have said a few words, but for the 
fear of drawing down upon himself, from some of the 
mendjcrs of the Society, the reproof given to honest 
Dogberry, — " Neighbour, you are tedious." lie is 
not altogether sure that what he has already done 
may not, in their cye.s, aj)j)ear to deserve this censure. 

land by Messrs. Ixjn-jman, nioonijianiiil l>y a lu-w inutrical 
translation, rcndireil principally from Alkmar's vorsion, int<i a 
somewhat peculiar style of verso, but one which we can confi- 
denlly say is well befitting the subject-matter. The work will, 
it is umlirstoml, app«-ar under the editorship luid auspicrs of 
Samuel Naylor, Juii. Ksij. 

• RrtHfkr iier Fucks ul>rrtftzt ron G. O. Murtnich, in Otto Wie- 
fl^d's curious series of Cicmian " VulAtbuchrr ," &c. 

t The I'lratant Ilittory of Rrynanl thr Fur, loUl />v F-rrrdiiuyrn's 
Forty Pielurrt. 

X As one of the volumes of Tarker's Colii-ciions in I' 
Literalun>, under ihr title of The most DrIrcUtUc llittnry of Hrynanl 
thr Fixr, anil of hi* .Vow liryrinnlinr, A rrritnl rrmion if nn old 



If it he so, he can only ivply in the sjjirit, iilthoii^'h 
not in the words, of the worthy officer of Messina, 
that liis desire to ])roniote the welfiu'e of the Percy 
Society, lias alone induced him to lay hefore its 
members as complete a sketch as he could jtroduce of 
the literary history of that most delectable romance, 
Reynard the Fox. 



MS. Bibl. Pub. Clin tab. Gp. 5, .35. 

( Written before the middle i>f the 1 \tli cetilnn/. ) 

Qrmus ludns est animo Fossani cavat non modicam 

Et jocularis caiitio Intas ponaiis af^niculuiii 

Et lie patcrct liostibus 
Supcrnc tegit frondibus. 

HiK-advcrtant ridiculmn 
Ex vcro non flctitum. 

Saccrdos jam niricola 
iEUitc sub dccrcpita 
Vivcbat amans pecudis 

Hie cnini nu>s est ru>tieis. 

Ilumaiio datum comroodo 
Nil majus est ingenio 

laipus dum nwte cireuit 
Speni predc captus incidit. 

Ad cujiu? tale studium Aceurrit inane presbilor 
Omnc patiret eouuuoduni Gaudet vieisse taliter 

Nisi forel tarn pnixima Inlus protento baeulo 
Luporum aitrix silvula. I.iipi niinatur oeido. 

Ili niinuentes ntimenim Jam inquit fera |>e<ksima 
Per ejus sumniani penenim Tibi rependam dabitur 

Dant inipares ex paribus, Aut hie fraii|T;etur baeuhts 
El pares ex iniparibus. Aul hie eripal)it ocuhis. 

Qui dolens sibi fieri 
Petrimentum pecidii 

Quia diflidit viribus 

Vindietum (pia-rit artibus 

Hoedieto simul impulit, 
Verbo sed faetum th-fiiit 

Nam lupus .senans oeuluni 
Morsu retentat baeulum. 


At ille miser vctulus Post i-uiiipk-tuui psiilUTiiiiii 

Uiim sesc tnihit iinniub C'Dinimiiic i)rc"stat euniinmliiin 

Ripa cidcntc corniit Sacenlolis timiditas 

Ut lupo comes im-idil. Ati|iic lupi culliditiis. 

Ilinc stilt lupus, hinc pn'>l)itt'r,Nam tuin actlivis Prcsbiter 
Timeut sed disparihiliter, Perliuiret Pater Nostcr, 

\am ut fidenter arl)itror At(|ue clainart't Domino 

Lupub stabat sccurior. Sed libera uos a malo. 

Sacerdos secum mussitat Ilic dorsum ejusiiisilit, 

Septemiiue psalmos rumiuat, Et saltu liber effugit 

•Sed revolvit freijueiitius Kt eujus arte eaptus est 

' Miserere mei Ucus.' I Ho pro scala usus est 

Hoc imiuit infortuuii, A>t ille la-tus nimium 

Dant mihi votxi jxipuli Caiitat l-iudate Dominuui, 

Quorum ncglcxi aiiimas Et promisit j)ro populu 

Quorum eoracdi victimas. Se onituruui a modo. 

Pro dcfuuetiirum mcrito Hinc a vieinio ijuaritur 

Canliit Placebo domino, Et invcntiLS extr;diilur 

Et pro votis viventium, Sed numjuam devotius 

Totum canUit psallerium. Oravit ncc fidelius. 

Tliis story fonus the 12th bnmch of the French Roman dc 
Renart. — Sec Grimm Ih inhart Fuchs, s. cxviii. 

Al'ri;M)lX No. II. 

Specimen of the Historic van Reinaert die Vos.— Printed by 
Gheraert I><ecu, in 1479. 

Het wa-s omtrcnt i»inxtcrcn, also dat tct woutdan gacnie lus- 
tclit gestelt plech le wcscn, van loucrcn blocssemc blocmen 


\s(l ruknidf eiiilf iiuilc van vo^Miilrii jjlii'siiijjhc, Alsoc* ilat 
«iyc tnlcl coiiiiick van alltn ilicriii woiulc drs pinxttTo dagc'* 
ft stadf ceil tvrlic Iml' houdcn dat lii niur al sijn lanto wclen 
dedf. Kfi lid dat mil necrstcfjcbicde oin cen ycgclie ditr al 
daiT to conjcn. Also dat allc die dycren fjroot la clcync Ic 
hoiic ({name, Sonder Iloynat'rt die vos, want liij biktndc luin 
st'lven lirockick aen mcni(;lien dyeri" dye dacr wcscn soudcn, 
Alsoc dat hi dut niet wajjhcn en dorste dacr tc comT-. Doc- 
die cuninc uldus allc sijn hof vcrsamet liadde doe en was 
daer nycmant dan alio die das, hi tn had out-r reynaert 
swaerlic tc elai;hcn. 

Die erste ela^^hc van Vsesfjn in de wcdf oner Reynaert. 

Vseprym mit sinen ma^e die (jhine stac voer den conie en 
sprac, liel" ghenadi^he here heer eoninc doer uwc grote mo- 
^enllicil doer recht en doer nwc grotc genadc soe wilt uiijnrc 
ont fcnnen der groteronreilelieker niisdaet die lleynaer die vtis 
aen mi en ain niyne huu>\n)uwe gedaen heett. Also dat hi tot 
mine hnys en mit wille va mijnre hnusvrouwc ghcweest is, en 
daer bcseykede hi niijn Kinderen daer si laghen, also dat si 
daer al hlint of geworden sijn. Noeh meer so sijn hier dage 
al" geraemt efi udadingt wart also dat Reynert S4iude hiereen 
onsenlt \oer doen, also dat doe die heilig«- voert gehroeht wor- 
den, doe had n-ynaert he andcrs bedacht en hi ontvoer roeke- 
lo«'s weder in sijn vfste. En liene heereoninek dit wrten veie 
van de besten die hier tot nweii hone sijn ghecomen. Noch 
heeft hi mi in vih- meer anden-n suken /eer grotelie misdaen, 
Kfi hi en leeft niert ilirt val ge^eggen vmde die ie o|> des*- tijt 
slaen wil laten. Mer die st^'ande en ilie onere «lie hi mini- 
wine ghcilaen hccft dye en wil ie niet \cn>chwigen noeh 
onghewroeke laten by en silt mi iieleren. 


From thf oil FItniisli Metrical Rcinarrt, vd. Willems. 

" III t was n|) t'lU'U pinxtcr dacli 
Dat iiu'ii woiuk" ciulc vi'hic sach 
(Jroen slaen niyt lovtr eude j^rass 
Ende mcnich vogel Midc wass 
Mit sanpe, in liajji-ii t'lidc in bonicn ; 
Die cnide sprntcn uut, cndc die l)l(K'nu-ii 
Die wel rokcn hier ende daer, 
Elide die dai-li was schoon and daar. 
Nctliel, flic Conine van alien dicren, 
Mad sijn lioff doen krcyj^ren 
Sijn lant al door, ende overal, 
Dat his waende haddc his peval, 
Houdcn ten wd proten love. 
Doc ({uamcn tes coninix hove, 
Alle die dicre, j^oot ende clene, 
Sondcr vos Rcinairt allene. 
Hi liafldc tc hove so vcle niisdaen, 
Dat hire niet dorste gaen, 
Die hem bcschuldich Kent ontsieh. 
Also was Rtinacrdc gescict ; 
Ende iiier omme scuwedis coninx hof, 
Daer hi in hadde crankcn lof, 
Doe al dat hof veramet was, 
Was daer nicnicn, sondcr die das, 
Hine hadde tc clagcnc over Itcinacrde, 
Den fellen, metten rodon bacrdc. 

Nu pact hier op ene dage. 
Iscngrijn cndc sine mage, 
Gingen voor den coninc staen, 


Iseiiprijn boponstc sacii, 

Kndi- Rpiiu", ' Conine licrc, 

Dor u ctlflhtit L-ndf dor u ere, 

Eiulc dor rccht, ondc dor pcnadcn, 

Onlformt u dcr ^^rotor scadi*, 

Die mi lUinaert lictft pcdaen, 

Daer ic af dicken hebbe ourfaen, 

Grotcn lachtcr cude verliess. 

V(H)r al dandrc outfcnne u dies, 

Dat he niijn wijf licvct verhooit, 

Endi nKiicn kindrcu so misvoert, 

Dat hisc l)e sckedc, claer si lagen, 

Daltertwee noint [meor] nc sagen, 

Kndc si wordcn stacr blint ; 

Nochtan hoondi mi sint, 

I let was so vt-rri' conuMi, 

Daltcfnc'U dath af was gcnommcn, 

Ende Ileinaert sonde hebben gedaen, 

Sine ousenlde ende alsusncn, 

Alse die belege waron brocbt, 

\Va.s hi anden>ins l)fdoiht, 

Eudo outvocr ons in sine vestc, 

Here dit kcnncn nochdie bestc, 

Die te hovt'sijn tomen hicr. 

Mi hevet UeinacTt, dat iVUe dier, 

So vele te lecdc giilaen, 

It wcfli wel, al s«indir wacn, 

Ware al tlaken iHrkenu-nl, 

Dat men maket nu te (>ent, 

Inc gesereeft niet daer an, 

Dies swijgic nochtan ; 

Nc ware niijns wivi-s laehter, 

Nc mach hict bli\en achter, 

No onvcrxwcgcn, no ongcwroken. 


Al'l'KNDlX No. IV. 

(From Ilon'mon v. Fallerslebt'n's lU-iucki- Vos.) 

It (;(*&ch:icl> U|» tiit'ii ])iiiksU.-(lach, 

Dat men de woldc ufi vt-lde sach 

(•rone stall mil luf ufi ^ma 

L'u inaiinich vof^t'l vmlik was 

Mil saii^e in lia^cn nfi n\> Ixmicn ; 

Dc krudo sprnUn iifi di- liloim-ii, 

Dc wol riiken hier un dar : 

De daeli was srhone, dat wi-der klar, 

N(»l)el de Konniiik van alien deren 

Helt hof un let den utkrejercn 

S>ni lant dorch over a). 

Dar queinen vele hercn mit grotciu sebal 

Ok <iuenien to hove vclc stoltcr gcsellcn, 

De nion nicht alle honde tellen : 

Lutke de kriin un Mar(|iuirt de begger, 

•la, dessc weren ilar alle dejrper; 

W'ente de konninek niit synen berin, 

Mcndc to hidden hof mit eren, 

Mil vronden ufi mit groten love, 

In hadde vtirhodet dar to hove, 

Alle de dere grot un klcnc, 

Sunder Reinkcn den vos allcnc. 

He ba<ldc in dem hof so velc misdan, 

Dat he dar nicht en dorstc komen iioch gan. 

De quit deit, de sebuwct gem dat lichl, 

Also dwlc ok Reinke dc boscwicht, 

He scbuwedc sere dcs K»iininge.s Imf, 

Darin be baddc ser krankcu lof. 


IXi dc liuf alsus uiif^iiik, 
Kn was tliir iitii an JilK'iio ik- (iitvinck, 
He Imdilf to kia^i-n over KciiiLcii dcii vus, 
1 )i'ii mill ht'lt stT fal.scli un 16s. 


(From Roinicken Fuchs, by lieutlur.) 

AiFK eiiicn I'liiiffsUijj i-s ^oschach, 

Das ujaii die wilde uiid Foldo sag, 

Scbcn liisUg hti'hn init Luub uiid ujas 

L'nd manirh vogi-l frolich wju*, 

Mitsiiigen sjiriiigeii iiidt-u woldeii, 

l>if bluinlin blucii aufT den i-Vldeii, 

Wolhccheud »>U-heu bin uud dar, 

Der tag Yios scbuii, das woUer Liar : 

Nobel der Koiiig aller Tbier 

Kin tiig auv>cbreil>eii liess gar sebier, 

Durcb sein gaiit/ l-^\u\ mid iilienill 

Da kaineii vicl berreii iiiit grosxern seliall, 

Dazu viel sUdt/.er juiiger geM.lIeii, 

Die man nicht all wol kiiiile /elleii. 

Liitgc der Kniiick, uiid Manjuarl der herr, 

Ja dise katneii aiieb daber. 

Dcnn der Kmiig meiiitc init seincn bcrren 

Zu baltrii eineii tag mil chren. 

Mit fieudcn uiid lob, wie ieb sag, 

I lid batte vcrM'briel)eii zu dein tag 

Ja alle lliiere gn>ss uud aueb klein, 

On Rciniken den Fuebs ollein. 

Der belt v> \iel uiiv>liandelt g:ir, 

Das cr nicbl durfte koniuien dar. 


W'vT u]<cU tliut, Rclicut jjtTii (ias Liclit, 

Si I tlict aiK'h Rcinikcn de busscwicbt. 

Dos Koiii^'s lioir IT sflifurt solir 

Dciiii IT ilariiin hftt wciiifj Ehr.J 

Da nun des hiifT also ungien;!^ 

War nyimandt da diii der (irt-vinp, 

DtT hftt zc klageii uhcr Ri-inikcn den Fuclu>, 

Ucn Uielt man fur tin falsclic-n I.uchss. 


(From Ilartniann Scboppcr's De Admirahili Astutia \'ul- 
jicculic lltinikfs, lib. iv. c. vii.) 


Aplant St' puiftitt lupus, rt rulprrula fnllax ; 

I'iribus hie pra-slans corporis, ilia dolis. 
Qu<r truris rrupvrat crudelia membra Gii/autis, 

Sirpe breri virtus citrpnre vuujna latrl. 

Uont srrs Iscnf^inius 
I.,ivore plenus iinpio, 
Kt cxtrcnieiuliis uiij,'uil)us, 
Rictiui suos fj^ravi.ssinii 
Distendit insUir fulminis 
Oinniquc tutus inipetu 
Irrunipil in vuljxculani. 
Que nixa miris fniudibus 
Resistit ipsi forlitcr 
Contraq ; nunc assultibas 
Insurpit ct contrarijs 
Eludit urpons ictil)us. 
Alquaudo jam viriliter 

Sc sat supcnj ; gesscrat 
Mcmorq ; semper Rij,'enx> 
Olenlc Cauda plurimum 
Diuijj niulus cursibus 
Vexarat Iscnprinium : 
F",t insc(|ucnltni luserat 
IVdum citis anibaf,'ibu.s 
Tandem lupi comprcnditur, 
Ferocientis unguibus. 

Tunc qui priiLs male dixcral, 
Vcrbisque fulminavcrat, 
Hostcmquc sat notabili, 


Vcxalionc carpscrat, 
Jam pisco (|uovis niutior 
Sill-but ii'ptT Iloiiiike. 
Lu|iu^<|uc lUH^^iis viriuin 
Quassahat ilium motibus, 
Ut lie salute corporis 
Actum putaretis sui. 

Quarc lu|Hi Mauorlio, 
MaiuLs iiuriut's ])orripciis 
Is supplicahat t.ililnis. 

Per tc omnes C'liliics, 
I'er ossa matris uptima* 
M:itios4|ue patris comprfcor, 
\'<K-em precanlis acrijK' 
\ it;tm<|nc scnes iiilcgram 
Tihi <|U(iu.N<|ue vixcro, 
Ml* (Icdd totiu in jugum, 
Lul)cnter attiuc scn'iam, 
Dum st'iisus hoc ill rorj^nn- 
I^tchit ut<|Mr ^pi^itw^, 
Sed id furens vulpcculo* 
Rwasat Isciiffrinius 
Vitami|ue s;i'ru.s ahiicj^iit, 
Ilaud vcrlia iludum Uilia 
Dallas, ait, ncquivsime, 
Itomts vini<u|ut* nobilt-s 
Ilia tiia fallacia, 
Kt ore meiulacisaiiiu) 
Tam dcxincs lacos.scrt', 
( >ppn»briJ!Mjuc ludtTi', 

Noil te scpultum splcndido 
Plonibit uxor mannorr 
Carive llobuiit lilirri 
Si'd jini'da turpis omnibiLS 
Corvis oris nipai'ibu.s. 

Aut tf ])n)fuii(lo giirpitis 
III aiiini- iiii-rsuni vitrcis 
C'ibuui reliii(|uam piscibiis, 
Ut atni lambaiit vulncra 
El dcnte morsuin distniliaiit. 

Mac ore dum durissimo 
Profuiulit Iseii^rriiiMis 
VuliH's iiiriiinr nriiitia 
C'otisuha versat altera 
MaiiU(|ui' iiiirum |ht miidtiiii 
Lupi pudenda eorripit 
Hostilittri|uc coniprimiL, 
Uolorc pni' |^avi^!>imo 
Ui'maxirais rcsolveret 
()s turpi' I'uiii (laiiioribu-s. 
A>tuta vulpts interim 
Kx liustis ore subiraliit 
Maiiuni |>uleiiter alteram, 
Hie piijjna Mirpl a>p«'ni : 
Virf>(|ue nam eum Ueiuike 
Manas habea-t libeni>, 
I)uov|Ue piif^nnN fuerat, 
Liipiim mideslum \iiieulis 
C'onstrinjjit au-lioribas, 
lU-monlct, uriret, op|irimil 
I't cordis ex nii^Lslia 

Df vciitris aiitro tur^idi Cuiirusiuni coiululenl, 

Iii(;eiis onus rejumerft. Staliiiii|iie Re>^i su])|ilirniit, 
I^ir^uiii({iit> sUrt-iLs omniuin Miscrtasut iiiiem gruvi 

In vnltihus spccUmtiuni Inipunat huic ccrtaniinc. 

Cai-ari't Iscnprinius Kxtcniplo Hex beni^nior 

Claiiiart'l ati]iie nionlio. Suis inini><lris inijuTut, 

Id intiR-ntes pnixinii It liella (liniicantiuni 

'rnrbantur omnes vl liijii l'iipiawi<inc loUant Imrridanj. 



i\n'narti tljc jfoir. 

This is the Tabic of the 
IDistonjc of llfjjnart tfjc ,j}oxc. 

In the first liow tlu' kynge of ^Ue bestes the lyon hclde 

liis court. Capitiilo primo ... 2 

How IsojjTjm tlic wolf coinpliiync'd first on tlio foxe. 

Capitulo ij. . . . . 2 

The coinplaynt of Curto^'s tin- hound and of tlu' ciitto 

Tjjjort. Capitulo iij. . . . .1 

lIow Grjinbert theda.sse the foxes sustirssoneanswen-d 

for the foxe to the kynge. Capitulo iiij. . T) 

Hipw Chantecler the cok complayncd on the foxe. 

Capitulo V. . . . . f< 

How the k3'ngo sayde touchyng the complaynt. Ca- 
pitulo vj. . . . .10 

lliiw Bruyn the here .spedde wyth the foxe. Ciu vij. . Iii 

How the hero etc the hony. Capitulo viij. . 1-4 

The complaynt of the here vpon the foxe. Capitulo ix. J I 

How the kyn-j^e sent Tybert the calte for the foxe. 

Capitulo X. . . . . 'Jii 

How Grynibcrt brouf;iit the foxe to tlir lawe. Ca- 
pitulo xj. . . . . 2'J 

How the foxe was shryuen to GrymlKTt. Capittdo xij. .'M 

How the foxe cam to the court and excused hyni. 

Capitulo xiij. .... :U'> 

How the foxe was are.stitl anil ju^^cd to <lelli. Ca- 
pitulo xiiij. .... .'I'.i 


How tho fdxc was lodde to tho p^lwcs. Capitulo xv. . 4(t 

Ilow the foxp inailo open conft-ssion to fore the kyn<;i' and 
>(_ . to fore alU- thciii that wohl liere it. Capitulo xvj. 4.'J 

I How the foxe brought them in danger that woKl have 
brought hym to detli and how he gate the grace of 
the kyng. Capitulo xvij. . . . -Iii 

Ilow tlie wulf and tlie here were arestyd by tlio labour 

of the foxe. Capitulo xviij. . . .58 

How the wulf and his wyf suffred her shoystobepluckyd 
of, and liow the foxe dydc them on his feet for to 
go to Rome. Capitulo xix. . . . ;"»'J 

How Kywart the hare was slayn by the foxe. Ca- 
pitulo XX. .... G.'J 

How the foxe sente the hares heed to the kynge by 

Bellyn the rame. Capitulo xxj. . . f>7 

How Bellyn the rame and allc his lygnage were jugged 
to be gyucn to the wulf and to the berc. Ca- 
pitulo xxij. . . . . 7() 

How the kynge helde his feste, and Lapreel the cony 

complayned to hym of the foxe. Capitulo xxiij. 72 

How Corbant the roek complayned on the foxe for the 

deth of his wyf. capitulo xxiiij. . . 7'i 

How the kynge was angry of these complayntcs. Ca- 
pitulo XXT. . . . . 7'l 

How Grymbert warned the foxe that the kynge was 

wroth and wold slee hym. Capitulo xxvj. 78 

How the foxe cam agayn to the court and of his shrifte. 

Capitulo xxvij. . . . .79 

How the foxe excused hym byforc the kynge. Ca- 
pitulo xxWij. . . . .89 

How dame Kuktnawe the she ape answerd for the foxe. 

Capitido xxix. . . .99 

A parable of a man whiche dclyucrd a serpent fro deth. 

Capitulo XXX. . . . .103 

Of them that were frendis and k^ne to the foxe. Ca- 
pitulo xxxj. . . .108 


How the foxo subtylly oxciiscfl hym of tho dclh of thi- 
haro and of other niaUrs and liow \n- t^iitc liis pots. 
Capitulo xxxij. . . . 1 lu 

IIuw the wulf complayncd on the foxe. Capitulo xxxiij. 1.11 

A parabk- of tho foxe and the wulf. Capitulo xxxiiij. 1.3G 

How the wulf caste his gloue to fight with the foxe. 

Capitulo XXXV. . . .142 

How tho foxo toke vp the gloue, and the kynge .sctte 

them day and feldo for to fighte. Capitulo xxxvi. 143 

How dame Rukenawo the she ape counseyllcd the foxe 
how he shold doo in the fold ayenst the wulf. 
Capitulo xxxij. .... Mfl- 

How the foxo cam in to the fold. Capitulo xxxiij. . 140 

How tho foxe and the wxdf foughtcn to gydre. Ca- 
pitulo xxxix. .... 147 ; 

How the foxe beyng vnder the wulf with glosyng and ' 

flateryng wordes cam to his aboue. Capitulo xl. . I.'jI 

How Ysegrym the wulf wa.s ouercomen and the batayl 
fynysshyd, and how the foxo had the worship. 
Capitulo xlj. . . . . l.'iG ,' 

An example that the foxe told to the kyng wlian he hud 

wonnc the feldo. Capitulo xlij. 158 

How tho (oxc with his frendes depnrti-d nolily fi'o tiie 
kynge and wento to hi.s castel Maleperduys. Ca- 
pitulo xliij. . . . I(;4 


Tin: loxK. 

In this historye ben wntton the parables, good It-in- 
yiige, and dyverse poyntcs to be iiierkyd, by whitliu 
poyntes men inaye Icrne to come to the subtyl knowe- 
lecbe of suche thynges as dayly ben used, antl hail in 
the counseyllys of lordes and prehit<s, gostly and 
worldly ; and, also cmonge marchantes and other 
eomone peple. And this booke is maad for ncdc ami 
proiiffyte of all*' god folke, as fer as they in redynge 
or iieeryng of it shal mowe understande and fele the 
forsayd subtyl deceytes that <layly ben used iu the 
worlde, not to thcntente that men shold use them, but 
that every man shold esehewe and kepc hym from the 
Bubtyl false shrewis that they be not deeeyvyd. Tlu-nne 
who that wyll have the very uiiderstandyng of this 
mater, he muste ofte and many tymes rede in thys 
boke, and frnrstly and diligently marke wel that he 
redeth, for it is sette subtylly, lyke as ye shal see in 
redyng of it, and not ones to rrde it, for a nnin shal 
not wyth ones over redyng fynde the ryght under- 
standing, ne comprise it wel, l)ut oftymes to re«le it 
shal cause it wel to be understande. And f<»r them 
that uuderst.iJidi'th it, it sliiill lie ryght joyous, phiysant, 
and proutlilable. 


2 rnYsTouYK of ukynakd thi: foxk. 





It was abouto the tynic of Pentliccostc or "Wliytsontydc, 
that the woiles comynly be histy and ghidsoin, ami the 
trees chul with levys and blossoinc, and tlie ground 
with herbes and flowris swetc sinellyng, and also 
the fowles and byrdcs syngen melodyously in theyr 
arinonye, that the lyon, the noble kynge of all 
bcestis wolde in the holydayes of thys feost holdc an 
open court at Stade, whychc he dyde to knowe over alle 
in his land, ami commanded by strayte coininyssyons 
and ujaundements that euery becst shold come thyder, 
in suche wyse that alle the beestis grete and smale cam 
to the courte, sauf Keynard the Foxe, for he kncwe 
hymsclf fawty and gylty in many thyngcs aycnst 
many beestis that thyder sholde comen, that he durstc 
not aventure to goo thyder. Whan the kynge of alle 
bcestis had assembled alle his court, thcr was none of 
them alle but tliat he had complaynerl sore on Ivevnart 
the Foxe. 



IsKGRYM the wulf, wyth his lynage and frendcs, cam 
and stode to fore the kynge, and sayde : llyc and 


mighty prynce, my lord the kynge, I beseche yow 
that thtirgh your grcte myght, rvght, and mtMvy, that 
yv wyl have pyte on tlic gretc trespas, and the iinrc- 
sonablc mysdedcs that Kcynart the Foxe hath don to 
me and to my wyf, tliat isi to wete, he is oomon in to 
my hows ayenst the wylle of my wyf, and there he 
hath bespattered my chyhhen where as they laye, in 
suehe wyse as tliey therof ben woxen Myn<le. 
Wliorupnn was a day sette, and wa-s jngcd tliat Keyg- 
nart tihoM come and have excused hym hierof, and 
liave sworen on tin* holy sayntes, that he was not 
gylty therof, and whan the book with the sayntes was 
brought forth, tho ha<l Heyguart bythought hym otlier 
wyse, and wcnte his waye agayn in to his hole, as lie 
had nought sette therby, and, dere kynge, this knowcn 
wel many of the bestes tluit now be comcn hyther to 
your court, and yet hath lu- trespaced to me in many 
other thingcs, he is not ly^•-vnge that coude telle alle 
that I now leve untolde. I5ut the shame and vylonye 
tluit he hath don to my wyf, that shall I never hydc ne 
suffrr it miaveng<- but that he .--hal make to me large 


WiiAN thysc wordes were s|>oken so stodc there a 
lytyl hounde a>id was nam<>d Courtoys, and eomphiy- 
n»"d to tln> kviiL'i-. liiiw th:it ill the cnldc \v\iiti r. in llii* 


harde froste, he had ben sore forwyntcrd, in such wyse 
as he had koptc no more mete tlian a piiddynjr, whych 
puddyng Keygnard the Foxc had taken away from 

Tho spak Thybert the Catte. 
"NVytii tills so eani Tybcrt the C'att(> wyth an irons 
meed, and sprang in emonge thciii and sayde : My lord 
the kyng, I here bier that IJeggnart is sore coniphiy- 
ned on, and bier is none bnt tiiat he hath ynowh to doo 
to clere liym self; that Courtoys bier eomplaynetb of, 
that is passyd many yeres goon, how be it that I 
eomplayne not, that pudyng was myne, for I hadde 
wonne it by nyglite in a mylle. The myllar laye and 
slepe, }'f Courtoys had ony parte hieron, that cam by me 
to. Thenne spak Panther. Tliynke ye Tybcrt tliat it 
were good that Reynard sholdt! not be complayned on, he 
is a very murderer, a rover, and a theef. lie loveth no 
man so wel, not our lord the kyng here, that he wcl 
wold that he shuM lese good and worshyp, so that he 
my^dit Wynne as moche as a legge of a fat henne. I 
shal telle vow what I sawe hym do yesterday, to Cu- 
wart the hare that bier standeth in the kynges pees 
and saufgarde. He promysed to Cuwart the hare, and 
sayde, he wold teche hym his Credo, and make hym a 
goo<l chapelayn ; he made hym goo sytte bytwene his 
legges, and sange, and eryde lowde. Credo, Credo. 
My way liye therby there that I herde this songe. 
Tho wente I ner and fonde Maister Reynar that had 
lefte that he fyrst redde and songe, and bygan to playe 
his olde playe, for he had caught Kywaert by the 


tlirotc, and had I not that tyme conien, lie sholdc liave 
takf'n his lyf from hyni, like ns ye hiere may see on 
Kywaert the Hare the iVesse wounde yet ; forsothe 
my lord tlie kynge, yt' ye suttre this iiiipiinys.-hytl and 
lete hym go (juytc that hath thus broken your peas, 
and wyl do no right alter the sentenee and jugement 
ttt" your men, your ehihhvn many yeris heral'ter shal 
be myspreysed and bhimed therfore. Sykerly, I'antlier, 
sayd Isegrym, ye saye trouthe, hit were good that 
right and justyse were don, lor them that woklc f'ayne 
lyve in peas. 



Tho spnek Grymbart the dasse, and was Reynart's 
sister sone, wyth an angry moed. Sir Isegrym, that is 
evyl sayd ; it is a comyn i)roverbe, an enemyes moutli, 
sayth seeld wel. What leye ye, and wyte ye myn eme 
Keynart? I wohl that ye wolde aventure that who of 
vow tweyne had moste trespaced to otiier shohh.' iumge 
bv tho necke as a tlieef on a tree. Hut and yf he were 
as wel in this eourt, and as wel wyth the kynge, as ye 
be, it shold not be thought in hym, that it were ynowh, 
that yc shold come and askc hym forgyvncs, ye have 
byten and nypte myn unele wyth your felle anil sharp 
teeth many mo tymes than 1 enn telle, yet wil I tell.- 
some poyntes that I wel knowe. 


Kuowe not ye how ye mysdeled on the pluys whiche he 
threwe doun fro the carrc, whan yc folowed after 
fro ferro. Ami ye ete tlie good phiys allone, and gaf 
liyiii no nioH' tli.iii the grate or bones, whycho ye 
myght not etc your self. In lyke wyse dyde yc to 
hym also of the fatte vlyeche of bacon, whiche savomnl 
so wcl, that ye allone ete in your bcly, and whan niyn 
eme askyd his i)arte, tho answerd ye hym agayne in 
seorne, Kcynart, fayr yonglyng, I shal gladly gyve yon 
yonr part, bnt, niyn emc gate no had nought, ne was 
not the better, notwith.standyng he liad wuiuien the 
(lycche of bacon wyth grcte drcde, for tlie man cam 
and threw hym in a sacke, that he scarsely cam out 
wyth liis lyf. Suche maner thynges hath Ileynart 
many tymes s^ulFrcd thurgh Yscgrym. 

O ye lordes, thynke ye that this is good, yet is ther 
more, he comphiyncth how that Rcynart inyn emc 
hath mochc trespaccd to hym Ijy cause of Ids wyf. 
lint that is wel seven yer to fore er he wedde<l 
her, and she was sone heled therof. Ilierof by ryght 
sliold be no complaynt : were Isegrym wyse he shold 
have lefte that : lie doth to hym self no worsliyj) thus 
to sklaundre his wyf: siie playncth not. Now maketh 
Kywaert the hare a complaynt also, that thynkcth me 
a vyseuasc, yf he rede ne lerned a right his lesson, 
sholdc not Keynard his maister bete hym therfore? 
yf the scolcrs were not beten, ne smyten and reprised 
of tlicir truantrye. they shold never lerne. 

Now comphiyueth C'ourtoys, that he with payne had 
' gotten a puddyni-^ in ihr u viil<r. nt such tyme as the 


coste is evyl to fyiule, therof hym liu<l be bottcr to have 
lioltlt! his |H-rs, ftir he iinci stolen it. Mule (|uesisti et 
iimle penlidisti. Hit is rv<;ht that it he evil loste, 
that is evil woiiiie ; who shal l)lanie Keyiiart, yf he 
have taken fro a theet' stolen ;:oo(l, hit is reson. Who 
that inulerstandeth the lawe and ean tliseernc the right, 
and that he be of hye biifthe as niyn erae Keynart is, 
wiiiehe knoweth wcl how he shal resseyvc stolen gootl, 
ye, al had he Courtoys hanged whan he fonde hyni 
with the nienowr, he luul not inoche niysdon ne 
trespaeed, sauf ayeiist the erowne, tliat he had don 
jiistvse wvthoiit leve ; wherl'ore for the honour of the 
kynge he dyde it not, all hath he bnt lytyl thanke. 
What skathed it hyin that he is thus complayned on ? 
Myn cnie is a gentil and a trewe man, he may sufFre 
no falshcdc, he doth nothyng but by his prestes eoun- 
seyl, and I sayc yow, syth that my lorde the kynge 
liath do proi'lamcd his pcc5,- he never thoughte to hurte 
ony man, for lit; etcth no more than ones a day, he 
lyveth as a recluse, he ehastistth his l)ody and wereth 
a sherte of heer ; liit is mon- than a y<rc that he hath 
eten no tlcsshe, as I yesti-rday herd save of them that , 
cam fro hym ; he hath lefte and geven over his C'astel 
Malcperduys, and hatii bylded a eluse, thcryn dwelleth 
lie, and hunteth no more, nc desyrcth no wynnyngc, 
bnt he lyveth by almesse an«l takcth nothyng bnt suehe 
as men gyve hym for ( haryte, and doth gr»-t«' [K'nancc 
for his synnes, an<l he is woxen moche pale and lene of 
prnyeng and wakyng, for he woldc be fayn wytli (Jod. 
Thus as fIrviiilM If hi.-* <nie stode ;mil iniclicd thise 



wordes, so sawe thvy cDiiifii doiin the hylle to hem 
Chauntt'cler the cock, aiul broiiglit on a biere a deed 
hcnne, of wliom Hcynart had bytcn tlie heed of, and 
that inuste be shewed to the kynge to have kiiowleche 

• AI'lTCl.O V. 

Chauntecler cam fortli, and smote pyteously his 
handes and his fetheris, and on eche side of the byer 
wenten tweyne soronfiil hennes, that one was called Can- 
tart, and that nthcr ^.mkkIc henne Crayant ; they were 
two the fayrcst hennes that were bytwene Holland an<l 
Arderne. Thise hennes bare eche of them a brmnyng 
taprc wliyche was longe and strayte. Tiiise two hennes 
were Coppens susters, and they cryed st) pitously, 
alas and weleaway, for the deth of her dere snster 
Copjx-n. Two yonge hennes bare the byere, whichc 
kakled so hevyly, an<l wepte so lowde, for tlie deth of 
C'oppen their moder that it was ferre herde. Thus 
cam tln'v to jrydre to fore the kynge, and Chauntecleer 
tho seyde ; Mercyi'ul lui-d, my lord the kynge, plese it 
yow to here our complaynte, and abhorren the 
grete scathe that Keynart hath don to me and my 
chihlren that hiere stonden. It was so that in the 
bcgynnyng of appryl whan the weder is fayr, and that I 
as hanly and prowde, l)ycaii.-e of the jrrete lyna^'c that 
I am comcn of, and also haddu, for I had viij fayr sones 


ami seven fu}T daughters whiehe my wyf had hatcheil, 
and tliey were alle stronj.'e and latte, and wcnte in a 
venlc whi< he was walled round aboute, in whiehe was 
a .-liadde whert- in were six gretc dogjues, whiehe had 
to t«»rc and |»lueke<l many a heestis skyn, in suche wysc 
as my ehyldrcn were not aferd. On whom Kcynart 
the tlieef had grete envye, by eause tliey were so sure 
that he cowde none get of thcni, how wel oftymes hath 
this fel theef goon rounde a!»oute this wal, and hath 
leyde for us, in suche wy!=e that the ilogges have be 
sette on hym and have linntcd hyiii :i\v;iy. And oiin' 
they Icep on hynj uj)on the bankf, and tliat eost hym 
somewhat for his thefte. I saw tliat his skyn smoked, 
nevcrtheles he wente his waye, God amende it. 

TIuis were we quyt*- of Heynart a longe whyle; atte 
laste earn he in lyknes of an heremyte, and brought 
to me a Icttre for to re«Ie, sealed wytli tin* kynges seal, 
in wliyche 8to<Ie wn-ton, that the kynge had made pees 
ov<'r al in his royamr, and that allc mant-r beestis and 
fowlh's shold doo none harnic lur scathe to ony other; 
yet, sayd he to mr more, tliut he was a eloysterer, up a 
elosyil n-eluse beeomen, an<l tiiat In* wolde rereyvc 
grete penanee for his syniu-s, he .".liewd mc his slavync, 
and pylehe, and an heren sherte ther under, and thenne 
sayd he. syr Chaunteclcre, after thys tyme l)c no more 
aferd of me, ne take no iiede, for I now wil ete no 
more Hesshe, I am forlhon so olde, thai I woIdc fayn 
remembre my sowlc; I will now go forth, fnr I lia%<' 
yete to saye my sextr, nniu', an<] n>y rvenxnigc, to 
Clod I by take yow. Tho wente Heynart thcns sayrng / 


his Credo, and leyde hym under an hawthorn. Tlienne 
was I glad and mery, and also toke none hede, and wentc 
to my chyldren, and clucked hem togydre, and wentc 
Avythout the wal for to walkc, wherof is moche huniic 
conien to us, for lleynart laye under a busshe and cam 
krepyng bitwene us and the yate, so that he caght one of 
my chyldren, and leyd hym in his male, wherof we have 
liad grete harme, for syth he hath tasted of hym, ther 
myght never hunter ne hounde save ne kepe hym from 
/ us, he hath wayted by nyghte and daye in suche wyse, 
that he hath stolen so many of my chyldren, that of xv. 
I have but foure ; in suche wyse hath this theef 
forslongen them ; and yet yesterday w-as Coppen my 
daughter that hier lyeth upon the byer with the houndes 
rescowed. This complayne I to yow gracious kynge, 
have pyte on myn grete and iniresonable damage and 
losse of my fayre chyldren. 


TiiENNE spack the kynge : Syre Dasse, here ye this 
wel of the recluse your eme? he hath fasted and prayde, 
that yf I lyve a yore he shal abye it ; nowe hearke 
Chauntecler, your playnt is ynough, your doughter 
tliat lyeth here dede, we wyl gyve to her the dethes 
right, Ave may kepe her no lenger, we wil betake her to 
God, we wyllc syngen here vygylie, and brynge her 
worshipfuUy on crthe, and thennc we wille si)ckc wytli 


thisc lurdcs, unci take counse_) 1, how we may do vyglit 
ami justyse of thys grete niurdre, and brynge this fals 
tlieef to the lawe. Tho begonne they Phicebo Domino, 
with the verses that to longen whiche yf I shokl saye, 
were me to longe. Whan this vigilye was don, and the 
commendacion, she was leyde in the pytte, and ther 
upon was leyde a marble stone polyshed as clere as ony 
glas and theron was hewen in grete Icttres in this 
wyse : Coppe, Chauntckler's doughter, whom Reynart 
the foxe hath byteu, lyeth hier under buryed ; com- 
playne ye her for, she is shamefully conien to her deth. 
After this, the kynge sente for his lordes and 
wysest of his counseyl for to take advys, how this 
grete murdre and trespaas shold be punyshyd on 
Reynart the foxe. Thcr was concluded and apoyntcd 
for the beste, that Reynart shold be sent for, and that 
he lefte not for ony cause, but he came into tho 
kynges court, for to here V/at shold be sayd to hym, 
and that Bruyn tiie here shold do the message. The 
kynge thought that alle this was good, and said to 
Bruno the bcre : Syr Brune, I wyl that ye doo this 
message, but, see wel to for your self, lor Reynart is a 
shrewe, and felle, and kiioweth so many wyles, that he 
shal lye and flatre, and shal thynke how he may begyle, 
deceyve, and brynge yow to some mockerye. Tho 
sayd Brune, what good lord late it allone, deccyvcth 
me the foxe, so have I ylle lerned my casus, I trowc 
he shal come to late to inocqiie me. Thus departed 
Brune meryly fro tiiens, but it is to drede that he cam I 
not so meryly agayu. / 



Now is IJrunc {loon on his waye toward the fox*- 
wytli H stowte nioodc, whirhe supposed wel that tlie 
tbxe sholde not liave be^yh.-d hyin, as he eain in a drrke 
wode in a t'on'st were as Ht'ynart liad a l>yp;ith \\li:in 
he was hunted, ther hysydc was an hie niontayne and 
land, and there niuste lirune in the niy(hh.'l ;roon over, 
lor to goo to i\Ialeperduys, for Heynart had many a 
dwellynjr phice, but the eastel of Malepenhiys was the 
beste and the fastest burgh that he had. Ther hiyc he 
innc whan he had nedc, and was in ony drede or fere. 
Now wh;in IWuyn was eomcn to Malperduys he 
fonde the yatf last shette, tho wente he to fore the yatc 
and satte vjion his taylle, and ealled, Iv<'ynart, be ye at 
home ? I am lirownyng, the kynge hatli sente me for 
yow that ye siiohle eome to eourt, for to plete your 
cans. lie hatli sworn tiirre by his (iod, eome ye not, 
or brynge I yow not with nie for tabyde suehe right 
and sentenee as shal be there gyven, it shal coste you 
your lyf, he wyl hange yow, or sette yow on tiie ratte. 
I Reynart doo by niyn eounseyl and eome to the eourt. 
Reynart hiye within the gate as he ofte was wontc 
! to doo for the warmtli of the sonne. Whan Heynart 
\ herd liruyn tho wente hr inneward in to his iioh.', for 
I Malepenhiys was fnl of hooles, hier one hool and ther 
an other, and yonder an other, narowc,er«»ked and longe, 
wyth many weyes to goo out, whichc lie opend and 
shette after that he had nede, whan he had ony proye 


Id-DUght liiHiic, or that lie wislc that oiiy souglit liyin for 
liys inysiK-(les and trfspares, tlicnne he run and hydde 
Iiyin fro his enemyt'S in to hys secrete eharnhres, that 
they coude not fyndc hym, I>y whiih he tleccyvyd 
many a beest that .<oii;.'ht hyni ; and tiio tliou^hl i 
Keynart in liyin sell' how he niyjjht best brynge the 
beere in charge and nede, and that he abode in worship. 
In this thoughtc Keynart cam ont and sayde, liiuyn 
cme, ye be welcome, I herde you wel to fore, but I was ' 
in myn evesong, therfoix* have I the lenger tarycd a j 
lytvl. Dere enie, he hath «l«>n to you no good servyse, 
and I can hym no thank that hath scute yon over this 
longc hylle, for I see that ) e be al so wery that the swete 
rcnneth doun by your chekys ; it was no nede, I had 
nenertheles conjen to court to niorowe, but I sorowe 
now the lasse, for your wyse eounscyl shal wel helpe 
me in the court; and coude the kyng fynde none lasse 
mcssager but yow llbr to b^iid hulur, that is grete 
wonder, for next the kynge ye be the moo.-te g<'ntyl 
and richest of leeuys ami of land. I woldf \\v\ that 
we wen: now at tin- court. l>n: I l\n- nir that I t-lial 
not conne wel g<K> thydcr, for 1 have ctni so mu<h 
new mete, that me thynketh my bely wylle breke or 
cleve asou<ler and by cause the mete was nycwe, I etc 
U>e more. Tho s[)ack the berc, lyef neve, what mete 
have ye eten that maked yow so ful ? Dere enie that I 
etc what njyght it helpc yow that yf I tolde y«»w. I 
cte but symple mete, a pnun- man is no lord that may 
ye knowe, erne, by mc ; «•• jKiure f«)lke niuste etc 
oftymes .suche ha wc l'I.i.1I\ wnMi- in.i ii.. vf «■■ ). id 


better; tlicy wore grcte liony combes which I imistf 
nodes etc for liunger ; tlicy liave ma«le my boly so 
gretc, that 1 can nowhcr endure. liruyn tho spaek 
anone, alas ! Kcyiiart what save ye ? sette ye so lyfyl 
by hony? me oiipjht to preysc ami love it above all 
mete, lief Ileynart heli)e mc that I myght gete a deel 
of this hony, and as longe as I lyve I shal be to yon 
I ft tryew fricude, and abydeby yow as ferre as ye helpe 
I me. that I may have a parte of thys hony. 

now imiYN KTi: THK HONY. 

BiiUYN cme I had supposed that ye had japed ther 
wyth. So lielj) me God, Keynard, nay, I sliold not 
ghully jai)c with yow. Thenne spaeke the rede R«;y- 
nart, is it thenne crnest that ye love so wcl the hony ? 
I shal do late you have so much that ten of yow shold 
not etc it at one mcle, myght I gete therwith your 
IViendship. Not tlu^ ten, Heynerd neve, .^ayd the here, 
how shold that be, had I alh- the hony that is bytwcne 
this and Portyngal I siiolde wel etc it allone. Reynart 
.sayde : What saye ye, erne ? hier by dwelleth an 
luisbondman named Lantfert which hath so moche hony 
that ye shold not cte it in vij. yen-, whiche ye shal 
have in your holde, yf ye willc be to me friendly and 
helpyng agenst myn enemyes in the kynges court. 
Thenne promysed 15niyii tlu; here to hym, that yi' he 
iiiv'lit liavi' his bcly full, he wold truly be to hym to 


fore all other a fay th fill iVcndc ; hcrof laughed Heynart 
the shrewe, and sayde, yf yc woMe liave vij hainUer 
barelis ful I shal wel gete them and help yon to have 
them. These wordes plesyd the here so wel, and 
made hym so moche to lawhe, that he cou<le not well 
stand. Tho thought Heynart, this is good luek, I 
shal lede hym thyder that he shal lawhe by nicsurc. 

Reynart sayd thenne, this mater may not be longe 
tarycd. I mustc paync my self for you, ye siial wel 
understande the very yonste and gtwxl wyl that I bore 
to you ward. I knowe none in al my lygnago that I 
nou wolde lalxture fore thus sun-. That thankcil 
hym the bere, and tlu)ught he taryed longe. IS'ow 
emc, late us goo a goo<l paas and folowe yc me. I 
shnl make you to have as nux-he hony as ye may bere. 
The fox e menteof good strokes, but the eaytyf markyd 
not what the foxe raente, and they wenle so longe to 
gydre, that they cam unto Ijiintferts yerdc, tho wa.s sir 
IJruyn mery. Now herke ; of Lantfert is it true that 
men saye, so was Lantfert a stronge ear|)enter of grete 
tymbre, and had lirought that other day to fore in his 
yerdc a prctcokc whiehe he had Ijcgonne to eleve ; and 
ais men be woned, he had smeten two betels therin, one 
after that other, in suehe wyse the oke was wyde o|ien; 
wherof Reynart was glad, for he had founde it right as 
he wissheil, and sayde to the Iktc all lawhyng, see nou 
wel sharply to, in this tree is so morhe hony that it is 
w itiiout inesure, nsayc yf ye can cotne therin and etc 
but Ij'til, for though the hony ooixilx's be swetc and 
goo«l, yet b<'ware that ye etc not to many, but take of/ 


tlu'iii l>y iiusiuc, tli;it yo cacclw no liariiic in your 
body ; for, swctc cnio, I shoM be blamed yf tln-y dydc 
you ony harme. AN'liat, Heynart ccsyn, sorowc ye not 
for me, wene ye tbat I were a f'ole ? mesure is good in 
alle mete. IJeynart sayde, ye saye trouthe. Wherfore 
shold I sorowe? goo to thende and crej)c theryn. IJruyn 
the berc hasted sore toward the hony, and trad in wyth 
his two formest feet, and put his heed over his eeris in 
to the clyft of the tree. And Reynart sprani; lyghtly 
and brak out tiie betle of the tree. Tho helped the 
I bere nether flateryng ne chydyng, he was fast shette in 
I the tree; thus hath the neveu wyth deceyte brought his 
erae in pryson in the tree, in suche wyse as he coude 
not gete out wyth myght ne wyth crafte, hede ne foote. 
"What prouffyteth Bruyn the bere that he stronge 
and hardy is, that may not helpc hym ; lie sawe wel 
that he begyled was, he began to howle and to braye, 
and crutt'heil wyth tin- hynder feet and made suche a 
noyse and rumour, that Lantfert cam out hastely, and 
knewe nothyng what this myght be, and brought in 
his hand a sharp hoke. IJruyn the bere laye in the 
clyfte of the tree in grete fere and drede, and helde fast 
his heed, and nyped both his fore feet, he wrange, he 
wrastk'il, and cryed, and all was for nought, he wiste 
not how he might gete out. 

IJeynart the foxe sawe fro ferre how that Lantfert 
the caq)enter cam, and tho spack Keynart to the bere. 
Is that hony good ? How is it now ? Ete not to moche 
it shold do you harme, ye soohl not thenne wel conne 
goo to the court; wlian Lantfert comcth yf ye have wel 


t'ten he shal ycvc you hotter to (hiiiki-, and thoniic it 
shal not 8tyke in your throtc. 

After thise wordcs tho torned liyni Kcynart toward 
his eastel, and Lantlert cam and i'onde the here last 
taken in the tree; thenne ran he faste to his neyghhors 
and sayde, Come alio in to my ycrde, thcr is a hcere 
taken ; the worde anone sprange oueral in the thorpe, 
ther nc hleef nether man ne wyf, but alle rannc theder 
as fast as they coude, everychc wyth his wepen ; some 
wyth a staf, some wyth a rake, some wyth a bromc, 
some wytii a stake of the hegghc and some wyth a 
flayel, and the preest of the chirche had the staf oi" the 
erosse, and the olerk brought a vane, the prostis wyf 
Julok cam wytli her dystaf, she sat tho and spanne. 
Ther cam olde wymcn that for age had not one toeth in 
her heed. Now was Bruyn the here nygh moche sorowe, 
that he allonc muste standc aycnst thorn all : whan he 
horde alle this grete noyse and orye, he wrastlod and 
plucked so harde and so soro, that ho gate out his heed, 
but he lefte bohymle allr the skyne and botho his orris 
in suche Avyse that never num sawe fowllor ne lothlyor 
becst, for the blodc ran over his eycn, and or he coude j 
gete oute his feet, he muste letc there his oiawes or 
nayles and his roughe hande. This market cam to 
hyni evyl, for he su|)posed neucr to have goon, his feet 
were so sore, and he myght not see for the bloili- whi( In- 
ran so over his oyen. Lantfcrt cam to hym wyth tlic 
prcost, and fortli witli allr tho parysshe, and bi-gan to 
sniytc and stryke sore upon his heed and visage, he 
receyvd there maiiv a sore stn>ke. Kvery man beware 

1.^ TIlYSTOlOr. OK |{i:VN.Mtl» TlIK KOXK. 

hierby who liath luiniie and scatlic, every man wil hv 
thcr at and put more to. That was wel seen on the 
bere, for they were alle tiers and wroth on the berc, 
grete and smal. Ye, 1 1 iipihelyn wy th the croked lege, and 
Ludolt" with tlio brude longe noose, they were liouth 
wroth ; tiiat one had an leden inalle, and that other a 
grete leden wapj)er, ther wyth they wappred and al I'or- 
slyngred liyin. Syr lii.'rtolt witli the longe fyngers, 
Lantlert, and Ottram the longe, thyse dydc to the 
bere more harnic than id the other, that one had a 
sharp hoke, and that other a eroked staf well leded on 
thende for to playe at the balle. Bactkyn andc Ave 
Abehpiak, my flame Baue, and the prcest with his 
staf, and dame .lulok his wyf, thise wroughten to tlie 
bere so raoehe harmc, that they wolde fayn have brought 
hym fro hi.s lyf to deth: they smote and staeke hym 
al that they eowde. Bruyn the beere satte and syghed 
and groned, and must take suche as was gy\en to hym, 
but Lantfert was the worthiest of byrthe of them alle, 
and made nioste noyse, for dame Pogge of Chafporte 
was his modcr, and his fader was Macob tlie stoppel 
maker, a nioche stowt man. 'liii're as he was allonc 
Bruyn receyvcd of hem many a caste of stones. To- 
fore hem alle sprang fortii Lantefert's brother witli a 
staf, and smote the bere on the heed that he ne herde 
ne sawe, and therewith the bere sprang vp bytwene 
the bushe and ryver emonge au hcep of wyvis that he 
threw a deel of hem in the ryver which was wyde and 
depe; ther was the persons wyf one of them, wherfor he 
was ful of sorow, whan he sawe his wyf lye in the water 


liyni liistetl no linger to sniytc the berc, but cjille<l, 
Dame Juloke in the water! now every man see to; alle, 
they that may helpc her, be they men or wymen I 
gyvti to hem alle pardon of her penance ami releoe alle 
theyr synnes. All they thenne lette liruyn ilif hwr 
lye, and dyde that the preest hudde. 

Whan Bruyn the here suwc that th('y ramie alle iVo 
hym, and ranneto save the wymtn, tho spraii;:c Ik; in to 
the water and swame all that he coiide. Thenne made 
the prccst a gretc showte and noyse, and ran alter the 
bere wyth grete anger and said, Come and tome agayne 
thow false theef. The bore swame after the beste of the 
streme, and lete them calle and crye, for he was glad 
tliat he was so escaped from them ; he cursed ami 
banned the hony trei-, and the foxe also tliat had so 
betrayeil hym, that he had cropen therin so depc that 
he lodte boothe his hood and his eeris. And so forth 
he droof in the streem wel a ij or iij mylc. Tiio waxe 
he 80 wery that he wente to lande for to sitte and restc 
hym, for he was hevy, he groned and syghed, and the 
blodc lepc over his eyen, he drough his breth lyke as 
one sholde have (leyde. 

Now herke how tin: loxi- dyde : er he cam fro 
Lantferts h«>ws he had tstolen a fatte hcnne and had 
leyde her in ids mole, and ranne hast»'ly away by 
a by path were he wende that no man shold have co- 
mon, he ranne toward tho ryver that he swette, he 
was so glad that ho wist not what to do for joye, for 
he hoped that the l>ere had Ik' dede : he saydc, I have 1 
now wcl .s|)edde for he that sholde most have hvndn'd 



mc ill the court is now dedc, and none shal wyte me 
therof, may I not tlicnne by right be wel glad. With 
these wordes the foxe loked to the ryver ward and 
espyed where Bruyn the bcrc hiy and rested liyni. 
'J'ho was the foxe sorier and hevyer than he to fore 
was niery, and was as angry and sayde in chydyng to 
Lantfert, Alas Lantfert, lewde fool, God gyve hym a 
shames deth that hath loste such good venyson whiche 
is good and fatte, and hath late hym goo whiche was 
taken to his hand; many a man wolde gladly have eten 
of hym, he hath loste a riche and fatte here. Thus al 
chydyng he cam to the ryver where he fonde the here 
sore wounded, bebled, and riglit seke, whiche he myght 
thanke none better thereof than Reynart whiche spack 
to the here in skorne, Chiere priestre, dieu vous gai'de. 
Wylle ye see the rede theef, sayde the here to hym self, 
the rybaud and the felle diere here I sc hym comen. 
Thenne sayd the foxe, have ye ought forgoten at 
Lantferts? have ye also payd hym fur the liony combes 
that ye stale fro hym ? yf ye ha\ e not, it were a grete 
shame and not honeste. I wyl rather be the messenger 
my self for to goo and payc hym ; was the liony not 
good ? I knowe yet more of the same prys. Dcre p]me, 
telle me er I goo hens, in to what ordre wille ye goo, 
that ye were this newc hode. Were ye a monke or an 
abbot? he that shoef your crowne, hath nyped of your 
ceris, ye have lost yoin* tojipe, and don of your gloves. 
I trowe veryly that ye wyl go synge Comi)lyn, Alle this 
herde Bruyn the here, and wexe alle angry and sory 
for he myglit nctt avenge hym ; lie lete tlie foxe saye his 



wyllc ami wyth ;:n'te payne suHVimI it, and stcrte 
a^rayiic in the ryvcr, and swam iloiin wvtli the stroem 
to tliat otluT syd«'. Now niusti- li»> suniwc Iiow that 
III- sholde come to the court; for he had loste hiseeriH, 
and the skyniie wyth the clawes of his forefeet. For 
though a man sholde have slayn hyin he ooude not <ro : 
and yet he muste nedes fortli, hut he wist not how. 
Now here how he dyd«: he satte vpon his hammes, an<l 
l»e;ran to rutsele ouer his tayle, and whan he wa< -o 
wery, he wentled and tomhleil nyjrhe half a myle; this 
dy<h' lie with grete i)aync solonge tyl atte h\st<' he cam 
to tlie courte. And whan he was seen so eomyng fro 
ferre, some dt)ubted what it my;;ht he that cam so 
wentelyng. Tlie kyng att«' laste knewe hyni, and was 
not wel pay<l and sayde : This is IJruyn tlie here my 
friende ; who hath wounded hym thus? He ispassyng 
reed on his heed ; me thyuketh he is hurte vnto the 
deth, where may he have hen ? Therwyth is the here 
come to fore the kynge and sayde. 

CM"'. IX". 

T coMi'i.AYNK to yow, nuTcyful lorde. svre kynpe, so as 
ye may see how that I am handled, pravenjr you tavenge 
it upon Reynart the felle heest, for I have goten this 
in your scruyse, I have loste botlie my formest foot, 
my chekcs and myn erris liy hi-; fal>r decfvlc and 


trcson. The kyii<re fJiiydr, IlJtw durst tliis i'liU tlifd' 
Kopiart iloolhis? I siiye to yow IJriiyn, and swere by 
my crowni', I sluil so avenpo you on hym, that ye sliiil 
oomi<> 1110 tlianko. Hi* sent for allc the wysc bcestis, 
and di'sirrd coiinscyl how that ho mvfjlit aucnp:c this 
oner prete wruiifre that tlic foxo ha«l don. Tfiennc the 
counsoyl coiu-hidotl, nhh* and yoiifr, that h<; shoM ho 
sento fore and dayod ornostly ajjayn, for tahydo .sucho 
jufioniont as sliohl there be pyvon on liyni of alh- his 
trespaoos ; and thoy thoufilit that the oatt<' Tyl)ort 
niy^iht best (hj this niossa^o yf ho woUU', for ho. is 
ryjrht wyso. Tlio kyngo tliouj^lit this counceyl goo(h 




CA". X". 

Thknnk tlio kyii^ro saido, Syr Tylu-rt, yo siial now goo 
to Koynart and sayo to hym, tliis soconde tyme, that he 
oonio to court vntu tho j>h-«' for to answero, for though 
ho l>e foUo to other boestis he trustoth you wol, and 
shal df>o by your oounseyl ; anil toih\ yf he ooino not, 
he shal li:i\c the tliinle warnyng, and 1m- duyed, and yi' 
lie theiiiio niiiie not. We shal prooodc by ryght ayenste 
hyn\, and alli- hys lygnago, wvthont nierey. Tybort 
spaok ; My lord the kynge, tlii-y that this oounseyldo 
you wen- not my frendes, what shal I doo tln-re ? he 


wyl not for me ncythcr coin*' nt- altyilf, I Jm'>«.-cIii- yon, 
di*rr kyii^p, seruU' soino otlu'i' to liyin, I nin lytyl and 
ffl)l«', Hruyn the Ix^re wliichc was so frrcte nn«l stron^je 
couile not bryn^f hyin, how sliold I thcniu' tukr it on 
hon«h! ? Nay, sai<l the kynffc, sir 'lylitrt. yi- Ixn wysc 
and wel lerned. Thou;:h ye be not ^rrete ihi-r lyeth 
not on, many do more wyth eral'te aiul connyn;:, than 
with my«rht and stren^rthe. Thenne, wiid the eatti'. 
sytli it nuiste ncdes b<' don, I muste thcnnc take it 
vpon me. Got! j»eve {rrare that I may wel achieve it, 
tor my herte is hevy and evil wilh-d thert<». Tybert 
made hym soue redy t*»ward Maleperdnys, and hr saw 
fro ferre come fleyin;: one of S'vnt Martyns byrdes ; 
tho eryde lie hiwd<' and said*', Al hayl L'fiityl byrde, 
t<irne thy wynjjes lictherward and flc- mi my ri;rlit 
hide; the l»yrde th-wh fortli vjion a tree whirhe stiMMh- 
on the lift side of the catte, tho was Tybert woo, f<»r 
h«' thouprht hit was a shrewd t«»ken and a sy^rne of 
harme, for yf the binh* liad llowen on his ri^rht side, 
he had Ix-n mery and •rlad, Imt now he sorowed that 
his journey sholde toriu- to viiha|i|»-. Nevertlieli-> hi- 
dyde as many diM), and ^'af to hviiiM-lf b<'lt<i- ho|M' 
than his herti- sayd<' ; In- weiitc ami ronne to Malc|HT- 
diiys ward; and then- In* fondi- tin- foxe alloiu' standyn;; 
to fore his hous. Tyln-rt wiide. The riehe (Jod geve 
you po<»«l even, Keynart, the kynj; hath menan>d yow, 
for to take your lyf from yow, yf ye roine n«it now 
wyth me to the eoiirt. Tho foxe tln'U s[in«'k and 
saide, Tilxrt, my dere eosyn, ye Im> ryuht wi-1 < I 
wjtldr wil truly that yi- had nnH-he ftmnl liiekc What 


hurtt'd till- \\i\v to spckc fiijic, t)ioii<;h he saycl wd 
his liiTtc thuu<rht(' it not, and that shal he seen er they 
depai-t, Keynart sayde, wylle we this nyght be to- 
jrydre, 1 wyl make you jrood eliyere and to niorow 
erly in tin- dawnyng we wyl to jrydre gtx) to the court. 
Good neve hite us so doo, I luiv«' none of my kyn, tliat 
I trustc so nioche as to yow, hier was rn-uyn the here 
the tiavtdur III- lukcil so shrewdly on out', aJid me 
thou^dite he was so stronge, that I woMe not for a 
thousand markc have goon with hym, bJt oosyn I 
wil to morow erly goo with yow. Tybert saide, it is 
beste that we now goo, for the nione sliyneth al s<t 
light as it were daye, I never sawe fayrer weder. Nay 
dere eosyn, suehe myght mete vs by daye tynie that 
wold make us good chicn', and by nyghtf paravan- 
ture myght doo us harme, it is suspeeyous to walke 
by nyghte, therfore abyde this nyght here by me. 

jTybert .sayde, wat sholde we ete yf we abode here? 
Reynart sayde, ht-rc is liut lytle to ete, ye niaye wel 
haue an bony et»ndje good and swete, wliat .saye ye 
Tyb«'rt ? wyl )'e ony therof? Tybert answerd, I sette 
nought thcrliy; iiauf ye nothyng ellis? yf ye gaf me a 
good fatti- mows, I .shold be better plesyd. A fatte 

I mows, .-aid Kiynard, dere cosyn what saye ye? here 
by dwillcth a jtrcc-t and hath a liarne l)y his hows 
therin ben so nuiny myse, that a num sholde not lede 
them away u|)on a wayne, I luive herd the preest 
many tymes eomplayne that they dyde hym nioche 
harme. O dere He yiur, lede me thyder for alle that I 
may doo for yow. Ye, Tybert, saye ye me trouthe ? 


love ye wel iwyvr^ ? Yt" I love luiii wcI, >ai<l tlic cattc. 
I love myes better than oiiy tliyii.i.' tliat men fryve me, 
knowe ye nut that myes savdure hetter that veneson, 
ye than flawnes or pasteyes ; wil ye wel doo, so lede 
me thuder where the myes ben, and thenne shal ye 
Wynne my love, ye al had ye slayn my fader, moder, 
an<l alle my kyn. Keynart sayde, ye moke and jape, 
therwyth. The catte saide, so helpe me God I doo not. 
Tybert, said the foxe, wi>te I that veryly, I wolde yet 
this ny;;lit make that yi' shidd be ful of myes. Reynart 
<luo«l he, full that were many. Tybert ye jape. luynart 
(pio<l he in trouth I doo not, yf I hadde a fatte mow.s 
I wtdd not fryve it for a jjolden noble. Late vs ;;oo 
thenne. Tybert, (juikI the foxe, I wyl brynge yow to 
the place. Er I goo fro you, reyner? (^uod the foxe, 
vpon yt)ur sauf <'onduyt, I woMe wel goo wyth you 
to Monpelier. Late vs thenne goo, said the foxe, we 
tarye al to long. Thus wente tlity forth without 
lettyng to the place where as they wold be, to the 
prestes barne, whiehe was faste wallid aboute withe a 
niu<h' wal, an<l the nyght to fore the f«»xe had broken 
in and had stolen fro tlu- preest a g«K)d fatte henne, and 
the ])reest alle angry had sette a gryn to fon> the hool 
to avenge hym, for he wold fayn have take the foxe. | 
This knewe wd iIh- filjc tlurf the foxe, and said, ,-ir 
TylM-rt, eosyn, <'repe in to this hool, an<l ye shal not 
longr tarye but that yv .'<hal eatehe myes by grrte 
lieepis, herke hitw they pvpe. Whan ve be ful, e«inu' 
agayn ; I wil tarye here after you, Im- f«ire this hole, 
wr wil to morowe g(M) t<» gy«Ier to tin- enurt. 'J'vberf 


why taryt- yv thus longe ? come of, and .so inaye we 
retoriie soiie to my wyf, whiche wayteth after vs, aiul 
slial make vs fjootl eliiere. Tybert saide, Keyiiart cosyn 
is it tlu'iine your eouiitJcyl that 1 ;:tKi in this holi-. 
Tbise prestes ben so wyly and shrewyssh, 1 drech- to 
take harme. () ho Tybert, saiil the fox, I sawe yt)u 
never so sore afered, what eyleth yow ? Tlie eatte was 
asliamed and sprange in to the hoole, and anon he was 
caujrht in tlie pryn ])y the neeke er he wyste, thus 
dceeyuyd Keynart his ji;hest and cosyn. As Tyl>ert 
was waer of the prynne, he was a fi-rde and sprange 
forth, the grrynne wente to, thennc began In- to wrawm 
for he was ahnost ystranglyd, he caUed, and eryed, and 
matlc a shn-wd iioysc. Keynart stode to fon* the hool 
and hrnh- al, ami was wtl a payed and sayde, Tybert, 
love ye wel myes ? be they fatte and good? knewetlie 
preeste lierof or JSIertynet, they be so gr-ntyl that 
they wohle brynge yow sawce : Tybert ye synge and 
cten, is that the guyse of the eourt ? if Ysegrym ware 
thej-e by yow in suche reste as ye now be thenni- 
shohl I be ghid, for ofte he hath don me scathe and 
harnie. Tybert coude not g<io awaye, but he niawede 
anil galped so lowd<' that Martynet sprang vp, and 
cryde lowde, Go<l be thanked ! my gryn hath taken 
the tlieef that hath stolen our hennes, aryse vp we 
wil rewarde hym. 

"NVyth tiies(> wordes am.-e tlie preest in an evyl 
tyme and waked alle them that were in the hows, 
and cryde wyth a lowyde vois, the foxe is take ; 
there jeep and ranne alle that there was, the preest 


liyms<-lt" nmiu- al iiumIit luikt-d. Mertyint was tin' 
first that cam to TvlM-rt, tlif pnvst t(»k(> to Lockcn 
his wyt" an otlrrnfr caiulol, ami had hi-r 1\ frht it attc f'y«>r 
and he sniotr Tylxu-t with a jrrctt' staf". Thtr n'royiicd 
Tybert many a grete stroke over all his IxmIv; Mi-rtv- 
net wa.s so nnjrry that h(^ smote the eatte an eye out, 
the naked prest lyfte vp and shold have pyven a preto 
stroke to Tybert, but Tylrt*rt that sawe that h*- inuste 
di-ye, sprnnpe bytwene tin- pre>tes lep^;.'es w\-th liis 
clawj's and with his teeth, so that that h-ep becain yl 
t«» thepreest and to his p^rete siianie. 

Wlmn danje Julocke knewe that, she sware by 
her I'aders sowh-, that she wolde it had cost her alle 
thortrynp of a hole yere, that tin- preest had not had 
tiiat harine, hurte, and shame, and that it had not 
h»])iH'd an«l said, In the develes naine was the prynne 
there sette, s<'e Mertynet Ivef sone : this is a jrreti" 
shame and a prete hurte, tliou^h he Iw hele<l lien)!'. 
The foxe 8tod«! wythoute to fore the iioje and henle 
alle thyse wordes, and lawhed so son- that he vniicthe 
roude stonde ; he spark thus al softly, dame .Iulo<'k 1m' 
al stylle, and lete your prete sorowe sjiike. He slial 
d<Kj wel ynowh. ther is in the world many a cha|Md in 
whiehe is ronpen but on*- Ix-Ile. Thus s<-orned and 
mocked the foxe th<' prostcs wyf danje .lul(M-k, that 
was ful of sorowe. Tin* pn-eM fyl doun a swoinie, 
they toke hym vp and bmupht hvm a;javn<' to Ih'cMc. 
Tho wente the foxe auayn in to his iMirn^h ward, and 
lefto TylMTt the catte in frrete dredc and jeo|»ardyo, 
for tin" f«»Xf wiste none other Imt thaJ the cattc was 


nygh deed ; Imt wIr-ii the catto siiwo them ul Ix'sy nbout»5 
the precst, tho began he to liytc ami jriiawc thi- ^'^riiiiic 
in tlie niychh'l a sonchf, an<l sprangc ont of the hool 
and wcntc rollynjr and wcntlyni.' towards the kyngs 
.c«)iiit : or he caiii llndtr it was lavr day an<l tlic sonne 
Imlmii to ryse. And he eani to the eourt lus u poure 
wyjrht ; iie liad eaujriit harnic atte j)restes hows hy the; 
helj>e and counseyl of the foxe, his body was al to beten, 
and Idjiidc on tlie one eye. ^V ban the kynge wyste this, 
that Tyl)ert was thns arayed, lie was sore angry and 
menaced Heynart the t beef sore, and anone gadn-d ids 
eounseyl to wyte what they wold avyse hyni, liow he 
niygiit bringe the foxe to the lawe, and how he sholde 
be fette. Tho spaek sir Grynd)art, whiehe was the 
foxes sustersone, and saide. Ye lordes,thowgh inyn erne 
were twyes so bad and shrewessli, yet is there remedye 
ynough, late hym be don to as to a free man whan he 
j shal be judged, he nuiste be warned the thirde tyme 
for al, and yi' In- eonie not tliainu" he is thenne gylty in 
alle the trespaces that ben leyd aycnst hym and his, or 
eomplayned on. Grymbert, wlu) W(tlde ye that sholde 
goo and daye hym to come, who wil aventure for hym 
his eeris, hys eye, or his lyf, whiehe is so fel a beest. I 
trowe ther is none here so moche a fool. Grymbart 
spaek, so helpe me Gml I am so moche a fool, that I 
Mv\\ do tills message my self to Reynart, yf ye willo 
/commande nie. 




Now {r«) forth Ciryinbart ami slm' wi-l to foro yow, 
Krynart is so fclle ami tals ami so sulityi, tliat yr iicdc 
wcl to loke alxmti' yow, ami to licwan- of" liyin. 
Griniljort said, he shoUl sih- wfl to. 'llnis wcntc ( iiyiii- 
bart to MiiK'penluys ward, and wliaii he <-am tlu-dcr, 
h«' f«»ud»' Hi-ynart the loxc at hoinf, and dann- Krnu-lyn 
his wyf hiyi! by her whi-lpis in a di-rki* fornt-r, Tho 
spack (JrynilM-rd and >al«'\vril his cnir, ami his aunt*', 
and sai<K' to Hi-ynart, Knic, bi-warr that your absence 
hurte yow not in >uchr niatrrs as be h-yd*' and coin- 
playned on yow, Imt yl ye thynki* it ;:o(m1, it is liyc 
tyiiie that ye come wyth me to tlie court. Tlie wytli- 
holdyn;; yow fro it can doo yow no pkhI, there is inoche 
thyn^re cofn|dayned over yow, and this is tlie thirde 
warnynp, ami I t«dle you for troutli yf ye abyde to 
morow al day, ther may no mercy lielpe you, ye >hal see 
tliat wythiii tinedayes that y<»ur hows shal be l»ys<';:ed 
al about)-, and ther .-^hai be made to tore it iralowes and 
racke, I saie you truly yeslial not thenneesc-ape, neyther 
with wyf lie wyth chyhh-. Tiie kyn;;e shal take allc 
your livys fro yow, tiierfore it is Im'sI*' that ye poo 
wytli inc to the court, your subtyl wys** eounswyl shal 
parnvcnture nvaylle you, ther Im-u jrretter nventures 
falle er this, for it may happe ye shal poo cpiyte «if all 
the coniplnynlcs that Im-ii comphiym'<l on you. ami alle. 
your eneniycM shal altyde in the shame, ye have ofiyntes 


(1(111 more and ;.'Tctt('r tliiii;ics than this. Rcynart the 
foxe answiTe<l, Yv saye soth, I trowe it is beste tliat I 
goo wyth you for tlier lackcth my counscyl, paraventurc 
the kynge shal bo niprcyful to iiie yf I maye come to 
spekc wytli hym, and sec hyiii iiiidcr his e^en, thoufrh 
I had (K)n iiiocdu^ more hariiic, the court may not stonde 
without mo, tiiat shal tiic kynjr*' wel unth-rstande. 
Thoufih some be so telle to me ward, yet it goth not to 
the herte, alle the eouuseyl shal conclude moclu^ by 
me, where grete courtes ben gadred of kynges or of 
grete lordes, where as nedeth subtyl counseyl, ther 
mustc Regnart fynde the subtyl meanes. They maye 
wel speke and save theyr advys but the myne is beste, 
and that goth to fore alle other. In the courte ben 
many that have sworcn to doo me the werst they can: 
and that causeth me a parte to be bevy in my herte, 
for many maye doo more than one allone that shal 
hurte me, nevertheless, nevew, it is better that I goo 
with yow to the court, and answere for myself, than 
to sette me, my wyf, and my chyldren in a venture for 
to be loste : aryse uj), late us goo hens, he is over 
myghty for me, I muste doo as he wylle, I can not 
Itcttre it, I shal take it pacicntly and sullVe it. Reyncrt 
saidc to his wyf, dame Erm(.'lyn I betake yow my 
chyldren that ye see wel to hem, and specyally to 
Reynkyn, my yongest sone. He belykcth me so wel I 
hope he .shal folowe my stappes, and ther is liosel a 
passyng fayr thecf. I love hem as wel a.s any may 
love his. chyldren. Yf God gy^'e me grace that I may 
escape, I shal whan I come agayn thank yow wyth fair 


wonU'S. Tluis t(ik<* Hfyniirt Ifin- ot" liis wyl". A {T'kIs, 
how sorout'ul alxKlf Kriuelyn wytli hrr snmlo whclpis, 
fortlu' vytaylU'r, ami Ik- that soiowcd for Malcpcnliiys 
has pcMni hiri way. Ami the hows not pourvcyi'd nc 


Whan Heynart ami (IrynilK-rt had froon a whylc to- 
jrydrc, tho saidf lii-ymirt, (Jrete cosyn, now am I in , 
grcto fen', for I «J(K) in dredc and it-opanly*.' of my lyf. \ 
I havo so mofhc rcpentauncc for my .synncs that I wil 
shryvc me dore cosyn to yow, here is none otluT preost 
to iivtv, yi' I were shryven nf my synnes, my souh; siiohl 
be the clercr. Grynihert au.-m nle, Kern, wil ye ^hryve 
you, then mnste ye promyse first to h;ve your steel- 
yng and rovynge. Koynart saide that wyst he wel. 
Now herkc, dere coHyn, what I shal saye. Confiteor 
tibi, pater, of allc the misdedes that I have don, and 
fjladly will receyve penance for them. (IrymlM-rte 
.sayde, What saye ye? wylle ye shryve y«»u ? theune 
saye it in En^jlish, that I may nnder.-'lande yow. 
Rrynard sayde, I have tre.-pai-ed ayenst aUe the iK'stis 
tliat lyve, in espeeyal ayenst Hruyn the Iwre, myne 
e«'m, whom I niayde his eruwne al bbnly; and taUL'htr 
TylxTt the eatte to eat«'he mye.s for I niadr her lei-pe 
in .» irrenne wher sin- >v >- ••' '• !■• tt-n : also I have 


trcspaccd jrretly ayoii-'t (.'haiiticlfrc with his oliililicn. 
ior I have iiiudo hyin quyte (if a prpte dele of hem. 
Tht' kyn;r<' is not goon al (|uyte. I have skhuulert'il 
hyin ami the quene many tynu's, that they shall never 
be cleer therof; yet have I bejryled Ysegrym thcwulf 
ofter than I can telle wel : I have ealleil hym erne, but 
that was t<t deceyve hym, he is nothin;; of my kyn. 
I made liym a nionke, Kelmare, where I my self also 
beeam one. And tliat was to his hurte and no prouf- 
fyte. I mayde bynde his feet to the belle rope ; the 
rynjryng of the belle thought hym so good that he 
wolde lerne to rynge, wherof he had shame, for he 
ranjro so .sore that alle the folke in the .strete were 
aferd therof and mervaylled what myght be on the 
belle; and ranne thyder to fore he had eomen, to axe 
the reliiryon, wlierfore he was Iteten almost to the <leth. 
After tliis 1 taught hym to cateiie fy.ssh where h«' 
reeeyvid many a stroke ; also I ledde hym to the richest 
prestes hows that was in Vermedos. This preest had 
a spynde wherin hcnge many a good flitehe of bacon ; 
wherin many a tyme I was wonte to fyl my bely, in 
this .s|)ynde 1 had made an hole, in whiche I made 
Ysegrym to crepe. 'I'here fonde lie tubbes wyth beef 
ami many good flytches of bacon, wherof he etc so 
nioehe withoute mcsure, tliat lie myght not come out 
at the hole where he wente in ; his b<'ly was .so gret<^ 
and ful of the mete, and whan he entred his bely wa.s 
smal. I wente in to the village and made there a grete 
showte, and, yett In iLe what I dyde, thenne I 
ranne to the |iiee-f. w Ik re he satte at the table and elr. 


ami hadtic to fore liyin as fattc caponc aa a man myglit 
fyiuk'. Tliat nipone caught I, and ran in* my weyc ther- 
witli al that I iny^htc. Thf prtM-st «ry«'(l out aud said, 
Take ami sice the foxe : 1 trowc that never man sawc 
more wonder : The Ibxc conieth in my hows and tak<>th 
my cap<M)ne fro my table : Where saw ever nnm an 
hardyer tlieef? And, as me thought, he toke his table 
knyf and<l it at me, but he toudied me not. I 
ranne away ; he ehoof the table from hym, and folowed 
me cryeng, Kyllc and slee liym. I to goo and they after, 
and many moo cam after, whiche alle thongiit to hurte 
njo. I rannc so longe that I cam where as Isegrym 
was, and then* I lete falle the capone, for it wius to 
hevy for me, and ayenst my wille I lefte it there ; and 
thenne I sprange thurgh an hole where as I wolde l>o ; 
and as the prcest toko vjt the capone, he espyede Ise- 
grym, and cryde, Smyte doun her«', frendes ; here is 
the theef, the wulf, see wel to that hi" escape vs not. 
Thoy rannc alle togydre wyth stokkcs and staues, and 
made a grete noys<' that alle the neyghbours canien 
oute, and gauen hym numy a shrcwdc stroke, and 
thn*we at hyuj grctc stones, in suche wyse that he fyl 
doun as he luul Im-u deed. They slepid hynj and drcwe 
hym ouer stones and oner bhwkes wythout the village 
and threwc hym in to a «lyehi-, ancl there he hiye al 
the nyght. I wote neucr how he cam thens. Svth I 
liaue goten of hym, for as nun-he as I nuule hvm to 
fylle his l)cly, that lie sware that hi* wdlde Ih» myn heljM* 
an hole yore. Tho led<le I hym to a place wli«re 1 
toldo hym then w«Te vij. Iiennes and a ccn-ke. whiche 



satte on a jMnlie ami were morlit.' fattc. And tlur 

stoilc a f'aMon* liv, ami we clyiniiicil tlicr v|». I sayd"- 

to hym, yf ho wolde bilt-iic iiio, and tliat In- wolde crojn' 

in to the dore, hi; .sholdc; fyiidc many fattc henncs. 

Iscgrym wente al lawhyng to the don- wanl, and cmiM' 

a lityl in, and tasted here and there, and at laste he 

sayde to nie, Reynarde, ye horde and iaj)e with nic, for 

what I seehe I fynde not. Tiicne, said I, Enie yf ye 

wyl fynde, crepe forther in, he that wil wynne, he 

iiuiste lahoure and auenture ; they that were wonte to 

sittc tliere, I hane them a waye. Thns I made hyni 

to seche ferther in, andshoouc hym forth so ierre, tliat 

liefylledoun vponthefloer, for the pereh wasnarow, and 

lie lill so grete a falle, that they sprange vp alle tliat 

slcpte ; and they that laye nexte the fyre cryden that 

the valdorc was open, and sonithyng was falle, and they 

wistc not wat it niyglit be. They roose vp and lyghte 

acandel, and whan they saw e hym they smeton, lx.'t<jn, 

and wounded hym to the detii. I have brought hym 

thus in many a jepardyc.-, nioo than I can now rekeiie^ 

I sholde fyndi- many moo yf I nie wel bytlioughte, 

which(.' I .--IkiI trill' you here after. Also, I havf 

bydryuen wyth dame Erswynde his wyf. I wohlc I 

had n(»t don it : I am sory for it : hit is to her gretc 

shame, and that me rcpenteth. (Irymbert saidc, Eme, 

I vnderstande you not : ye shryue you as though ye 

hclde somwhat behynde. I wote not what ye raene, 

ne where ye haue h-rned this langage. He saydo, I hauc 

trcspaccd with his wyf. Aeh derc Eme, it were grete 

sh:ime \\' I sholde saye it oppcnly as it hapfKid. I have 


loyen by myn aunto. I am your Eino, I .--IiKld an;_M-i' 
you yf I spak vylanye of wynuncu. Neucu, imw liauc 
1 told you alle that I ran tliynke on, sctte nu» pcnauiicf 
and assoyllc nie, for 1 liau<' i:rvU' rrju-ntaunce. 

Grynilx?rt was snbtyl and wysr, lie hrakr a nMld<« of 
a tree and saide, Knic, now slial ye sniytr yourself 
tliryes with this rodde on your hocly ; and thciun- h'yo 
itdoun vpon the grounde, and s[»ryn{;e thre tyinesther 
oner without bowyng of yoiir li';.'ir<'s, ami w vtliout 
8toiiiiilvii;r, and thenne shal ye take it \ p and kysse 
it frendly, in token of niekem-s aixl ohedienee of your 
penance that I pif yow : herwith !)•• \r quyte of alle 
synnes that ye haue don to this day, for I forL'<-ue it 
yow al. The foxe was glad. Tln>, saytl Grynd>ert to 
his cmc, Eme, see now ft>rtlion that ye din) goo<l werkis, 
rede your psalines, g(M) to ehirehe, faste and kepe 
your halydayrs, and gyut- y<iur allniesse, and leue your 
synful and yl lyf, your thefte and y«»ur treson, and so 
maye ye eome to nirn-y. Thi' foxi' |)roniys('d that In- 
wold «o diMi, and thenne wc-nte they both to gydre to 
the court wanl. A lytel liesyde tiie waye as they 
wente, stmle u cloyster of hhu-k iu»nne.s where many 
ghees, henne.H, and eapones wcnte withoute th** walles ; 
and as they went*' lalkynge, the fiixe hrought (Jrym- 
bcrt out of the right waye thy»ier: and wytlmut the. 
walles, by the harm- wcnt<' the polayh*. The foxi* 
espyed tliem, and saw a fatte yong cupone wliicli went** 
allon<' fro hisfflaws, and lepp and eaiight hym that the 
fethers flewh al>«»ut<' his ccri-. Itut tlie eapone esea|M'd. 
(Iryndxrt saydc. what Kme, eursyd man, what wil ye 

I. 'J 


(loo? wilk' ye for ono ol' tliise poletes falle ajrayn in 
alle your synnos of whiclic ye Imuc shryucn yow ? ye 
oufrlit sore repent you. Keyiuirt answenl, Truly cosyn, 
I had al fttrgoten ; prayc God tintt he forgeuc it ine, 
for I wil neuerdo so more. Thene torned they ajjayu 
ouer a lityl Itrydge, yet the foxe alway lokcd after tlie 
polaylle, he eoudo not refrayne hyni self, that whiehe 
eli'iiid Ity the hone, niyjrht not out of tin* flesshe; though 
he shold he hanged, he coude not leto the lokyng after 
the polayll as fer as he nivght see them. Grynd)ert 
sawe his maner, and sayde, Fowle false deceyuour, h<tw 
goo your eyen so after the poleyl. The foxe sayde, 
Cosyn, ye mysdoo to saye to me ony suche wordes ; 
ye hryngc me out of my deuocion and prayers. Late 
me saye a Pater Noster for alle the fowles of polaylle 
and ghees that I have hetrayed, and ofte wyth falsheed 
stolen from thyse iiolly nonnes. (Irynihert was not 
wel a payd, Imt the foxe had ever his eyen toward the 
judayl, til atte lastethey eani in the waye agayn. Ami 
thenne torned they to tin* eourt wanle. How sore 
({uaked tho Reynard whan they aproehed the court, 
for he wiste wel that he had for to answere to many a 
fowle feet and theft tliat he had doon. 

HOW TIIK roXK r.\>I to THK roIRT, ANI> how HK KXCU8ED 


At the first whan it was knowen in the eourt that 
Reynart the foxe, and (iryniha«'rt his eosyn were 



coiiu'i) to till' court, tluT was none mo poiirt' iior so 
fVI»l«* «»t' kyiine and fri'iuhy*, but that lie made liym 
n-dy for to coiiiiilayne on Keynart the foxi-. Krynart 
Iok«' as lie liad not Ih-u aferd, and lielde liyiu Jn-tter 
than he was, tor he wt'iite lortli proudly with his 
n»'ueii thur<rh the hyest streete of the eourte, ri;:lit as 
In; had Iwii the kyn^jes sone, an<l as he had not 
trespaeed to ony man the vahie of an heer, and wente 
ill the mydel of the phiee stondynp to fore Noble the 
kynjic, aiul sayde, Gtxl pyuc you prete honour and 
worship, there was neuer kynp that eut-r had a trewer 
s«'ruant than 1 haue Ix-n to your jrood prniee and yet 
am. Neuertheh'S, dere lorde, 1 knowf wil that tlur Kin 
many in this eourte that woldi- destroy me yf ye wold 
byh-ve them; but nay, (rod thanke yow, hit is not 
fyttynp to youre erowne to bylevc thise false di-ecy\ars 
ami lyars ly-jhtly. To (iod mot*- it be etmiplayned 
how that thise false lyars and flatrrers nt»w a ilayes in 
the hirde.s eourtes ben inoste herde and Udevyd, the 
shrcwert and fuLs4' deecyvers ben borne \ ji t'or to thni 
tu ;;(hm1 mm allf the harmc and seath they may«>. 
Oure l^>rdi- (mmI .shal «»nes n-warde them tlirir livre. 
The kynfje wiydi-, I'l-i-s, Keynnrd, fals<' th(M-f and tniy- 
t»»ur, how wcl can ye bryn;:i' forth fayer talis; an<l 
alle shalle not helpe yow a stniwe, wcne ye wytli sueh 
rtaterynj? wordea to be n»y fn-mle, ye have wj oftc 
servyd me imm» as ye now shal wcl kiiowe. The [mh'h 
that I have eomandcd and sworne, that havi- ye wel 
hohh-n, haue ye. C'haunteclcr eoud«' n«» h-n^cr ha 
*tyllc, but eryde, Ala.s I what have I by this pees lonte. 




lii- sfvllf (■|i:iuntc<'lfre, lioMr ymir iimutli, late rrn* 
answcrc this fowlc tlicef. Tliow shrewd I'elle theef, 
saiiU' the kynge, thou saist that thou loucst mc wcl ; 
that hast thou shewd wcl on my messugcrs tliese poure 
ffhiws, Tibert the cat. ami IJruyu the bere, whicheyet 
hen al hhxly, whiehe chyde not, ne saye not moche, but 
that shal thisilay oostc the thy lyf. In nomine I'atris, 
Cri>ti. lilii, sayil the foxe, dere lord, and niyjL^hty 
kyn;r, yt' Hruynes erowne be blo«ly, what is that to nic; 
whan he ete hony at Lantferts hows in the vylla|:^e, 
and dyde hym liurte and scathe, there was he beten 
therforc ; yf he had willyd, lie is so stronge of lynnnes, 
he niyght wel haue be aucngid er he sprang in to the 
water. Tho cam Tybert tiie catte, whom I recyue<l 
\ frendly; yf he wente out without my counseyl for to 
\ stele myes to a prestes hows, ami the i)rest «lyde hym 
/ harme, sholde I aljye that? thenne myght I say I were 
not happy. Not so my liege lorde, ye maye doo what ye 
wille, thowh my mater be cleer and goo<l, ye may siede 
me, or roste, hangc* or make me blynde, I may not 
escape you; we stonde allc vnder your ('orreccion. Yc 
be myghty and stronge, I am feblr, ami my lujlpc is 
but smal. Yf ye put nw to tin- dftli, hit were a smal 

Whiles they thus spak, sprangc vp Bellyn the 
ramc, and his erne Dame Oh'wey, and saidc. My 
lord the kynge, here our complaynt ; Bruyn the bere 
stodc up w)'th al his lygnage and his felaws : Ti- 
birt the catte, Isegrym tlie wulf, KyAvart the hare, 
and I'anthcr the boon-, the camel and lirunel the 


ghoos, thckyile and ghoot, n«»u(U'\vyn the nssc, Borrc the 
Imllf, Ilaiiul t\u' oxc, ami the wrscl, C'haiitci-h'r the 
nn-k, IVrtohtt witli alio tlii-vn- chililn-ii. allf tliisc 
made grctc ruiiKtiir ami iKiysf, aiitl ••am lurth openly 
to fore tlu'ir lord*' the kynge ; ami niaile that the foxc 
was taken an<l arcsted. 


IIkrk vpon was a p .rliannMit, an<l they dr.sin-d that 
Ivt-ynart sholdc ben deed, and what sonnne euer they 
saden uyenst the foxe, he answerdu to eehe to them. 
Neuer herde man of suehe playntis of wyse eounseyl, 
and suhtyl inm-neions : ami on that otlur syde, tlie 
foxe made so wel ami formahly theron, that 
they that herde it wondrej therof. Thi-y that henle 
and MHwe it, may telle it forth for troutlie. 1 shal 
short the mater, and telle yow forth of the foxe. The 
kynjre and the eounseyl herde the witnessis of the 
eotiiphtyntes of lv« ynarts myMliMles ; hit wente with 
hem a> it ofte dmh. the feblest hath the worst. Tliey 
jrat'e sentcm-e ami jn;:ed that the foxe sholde Im* declo 
and han;:ed by tl>e neeke ; tlio lyste not he to pleye 
nlle his flateryng, wordos ami doec^'tes roude not hel|>c 
hynu The jupement wa^ pyven and that muste Ik; 
<lon. ClrymlHTt his neueu, and many of his lignafje 
mypht not fynde in their ht-rtes to see hym dye, bnt 
token leue sorouftdly, and romed tin* eonrt. The 
kynge bithoughte h) ni and niarke«l how many a yong- 


ling departed rnmi tlii-iis al wrpyntr, wliitli wore nyghc 
of Ins kynne, and sayde to hymself, llii-r belioiietli 
other counseyl herto ; tliotigli Hcyiiart be a shrewe, 
ther be many good of his lignage. Tybert tlie cattc 
sayde, sir Bruyn and Sir Lsegrym, how be ye thus 
shnve, it is ahnost euen, hier ben many l)usshes and 
liedges, yf he eseaped from vs and were delyuerd ont 
of this pawl, lie is so subtyl and so wyly and can so 
many deeeytes, that he shold neuer be taken agayn. 
Shal we hange hym ? now stonde yc al thus, er the 
galewis can be made redy it shal be nyght. 

lsegrym bethought hym tho and seyde, hierby is a 
gybct or galewis, and wyth that worde he sighed, and 
the catte espyed that and sayed, lsegrym, ye be aferd, 
ys it ayenst your wylle? Thynke ye not that he hym- 
self wentc and laboure<l that bothe your bretlwrn were 
hanged ? were ye good and wyse, ye sholde thanke 
hym, and ye sholde nd tht r with st) longe tarye. 

CAPlTri-O XV. 

IsKGKYM balke<l and sayde, ye make mochc a doo, sir 
Tybert; ha<Mi' we an halter whiche were mete for his 
neekc and stronge ynough, we shold sftne make an 
endc. Keynart tlic fi»xe, whiehc longe had not spoken, 
saidc to lsegrym. Short my payne. Tyberte hath a 
stronge corde whiehe eaught hym in the prestes hous, 
whan he bote the jncste. He ean elymc wel and i» 


swift, lutt' Iiyiii bert' vp the lyne. Isof^ryiii mid Bniyn, 
tliys iK'ctuuftli yow wd, that yi; thus doo to your 
lu-uew. I uin sory timt I lyue thus h»nge : hiuste you, 
ye be sctte thcrto ; it is euyl iloo tliat y<' turye tluis 
Uuifre : goo to fore IJruyn aiide h de iiif ; Iscgryin, fo- 
lowe taste, and see wel to and beware that Keyiiart fro 
not away. The, sayd Bruyii, it is X\ir. best eounseil 
that I euer yet herde, tliat Keyiiart there seith. 

Isegrym eoiunianded anon and bachh* liis kyn and 
frendes, that they shold see to Keynart tliat he eseaped 
not, for he is so wyly and fals. They hehlen hyiii by the 
feet, by the berde, an<l so kepte liyin tliat he eseaped not 
from liein. The foxe iierdc alli- thyse wordes, whiehc 
toueliid hyni nygh, yet spak lie and sayde, Och dt-rc 
Kine, nn' thynkrth ye payne your self sore, for to doo 
to nic hurte and seatlie ; yf I durste I wolde prayo 
you of nierey, thaugh my hurti; nnd sorow is playsant 
to you. I wote wel yf niyn auntc your wyf bethought 
her wel of oldc ferners, she wohle not suffre that 1 
shold haue ony hariiie ; but now 1 am h**, that now ye 
wille doo on nie what it slial ples<'yow; ye, Bruyii and 
Thiliert, (i«m1 gyue you shames deth, but ye «1«m> tt> me 
your werst, I wote wln'rto I slial, I maye deye but 
oneH, I wohle that I wcp- de«h' alretly. I sawc my 
fader deye ; he had sonc d<>nin'. Is<'gryni sayde, Lctc 
V8 goo, for y<' eurse vs bi cause we longthe the tyme, 
euyl mote he fare yf we aby«le ony longer. He wento 
forth wyth gretc enuye on that one side, nnd Hruyn 
stixnle on the iitlirr sydr, ami so lede thry hym I'ortli 
to the galowes warde. TylnTt ranne with a gtHnl wil 


to fore, and hare the cordc, and his throte was yet sore 
of thf rri'viinc, and Ins tToppt' dyde hym woo of the 
strykc that he was take in, tliat happi-d hy tlie counseil 
of the foxc, and that thoiiirht hi- now t<» quyte. 

Tyhert, Isefrryni, and IJruyn, wcnte hastely wyth 
Reinert to the phice there a.s the feU)ns ben wonte to he 
put to detli. Nobel the kynge, and the quene, and alio 
that were in the eourt, folowed after for to see the ende 
of Keynart. The foxe was in grete drede ^'f hym 
myshapited, and bethought hym ofte, how he myghte 
saue hym fro the detii, and tho thre, that so sore desi- 
reden hys <leth how he niyght deeeyuc them, an<l 
brynge them to shame ; and how he myght brynge 
the kynge wyth Icsyngis for to holdc wyth hym aycnst 
hem. This was alle that he studyed, how he myght 
putte away his sorowe wyth wylys ; and tiiought thus, 
though the kynge an<l many one be vpon me angry, 
it is no wonder, lor I have wil dcscruid it ; ni-ucr- 
theh'S I hopi! for to be yi-t his ])est fn-ndc, and yet 
shal I nfui'r do them g(^><l. How strong that the ^yngc 
bt', and how wyse that his counseil In-, yf I may brouke 
my wordes, I kiujwe so many an inueneion, I shal 
come to myn above, as fc-r as they wolde comen to tho 
galewcs. Tho saidc Ysegrym, Sir IJruyn thynke now 
on your rede crowne whiehe by Keynarts mcne ye 
caughte ; we haue now the tyme that wo may wel re- 
wards hym. Tybert clyme vp hastyly and bynde the 
corde fxste to the lynde, and make a rydynge knottc 
or a strop*', ye 1)0 tlie lyghtyst. Ye shal this day see 
your wylli' of hym. Bruyn see wel to that he escape 


not, and lu»l«le fuste; I will litlpc tliut the lailtK-r l)c 
84'ttr vp, tliut lie may {r«M) vpwart tlicroii. Hruyn 
sau\v. Do, I simll holpe liyin \\v\. Tlu' foxc sayde, now 
may my lu*rtc be wel hcny for i:rfU' drede ; for 
I .-re the deth to fore niyn eyen, and I may not cwape. 
My lorde the kynjre, and dere (juene, and fortli aUe ye 
tliat here stande, er I dcparte fro this worUh", I pray 
you of a honi", that I may to fon- you alh- make my 
eonfes.sion opeidy, and t«'lle my drfaultes also elerly, 
that my sowie l>c not aeomhn-il, and also that no mun 
hen-after, here r>o Idame for my thcftc, m- for my 
tre.-HJn ; my deth «hal Ik* to me the esyer, and praye yc 
alle to God that !><• haue mercy on my sowle. 



Ai.l, tlu-y that sto«len there, had pyte wlh-n Ivrynart 
snide the wordes ; and said it was liut a lyti-l requestc 
yf tin' kynge w«ihh' jjrnnte it hym ; ami thry pniyilo 
the kynp- to frniunt<' it hym. The kyn;;«' ^'af hym 
leue. Heynart \* as wel ;:lad, ami ho|M-d that it myj^ht 
falle better, and said, tiiUiS Now hrI|N>, Spiritiis iXunini, 
f«»r I sec hicr no man, but I have tn'spne<'d vnto. Nc- 
uerthelcH yet was I, vnto the tyme that I wn.H weneil 
fro the tote, one the ln'Ste ehylde that eouch; onwher 
be founden. I wmte tho an<l ph-yde wyth the himU'CS 
by eause I herde hi-m phully bhte ; I was >o lonp. 


wyth lioni, that at the lastc I bote one, there Icrned I 
tyrst to \ii\u-u of tho hlooih- : liit sauourd wcl ; ine 
tliouf^ht it ri^rlit {^ixmI. Ami ai'ter I bc^an to taste of 
the flossh thcrot", I was lycourous, so tliat at't< r that 1 
w«'ut«: to the fjlioi-t in to the W(«le, tliere henie 1 the 
kyddes blute, and 1 slewe of them tweyne. I bo;;an to 
wexe hardy. After I slew henncs polayl, and ghees, 
wliere euer I fonde hem. Thus worden my teeth al 
bhxly. After this I wexe so felle, and so wroth, that 
wliat sonnnc euer I founde tliat I myght ouer, 1 slowe 
allr. Tlier after cain I l)y Isej^rym now in the wynter, 
where he liydde hyin vnder a tree, aii<l rekened to me 
that lie was myn Kme. Whenne I herde hym thennc 
rekene allyanee, we becomen fehiws, whieh I may wel 
repcnte ; we promysed eeho to other to be trewe, ami 
to vsc good fehiwshij), and began to wandre to gyder: 
he stal the grete tliyngs, and I the smaUe, and all was 
comyn bytwene vs ; yet he made it so, that he had the 
bcste dele, I gate not half my parte. AVlian that Yse- 
grym gate a calf, a raninic, or a weder, thenne grim- 
nicfl in-, and was angry on nic, and droof me fro hym, 
and lielde my j»art and liis to, so gimd is lie. Yet this 
was of the leste: but, whan it so lucked, that wc toke 
an oxe or a cowe, thenne cam therto his wyf wyth 
vij <'hildrcn, so that vnto me myght vnnethe eome one 
of the smallest rybbes ; and yet had they eten alle the 
flcssh tlicrof, ther with all mustc I be content. Not 
for tliat I had so grete nede, for I have so grettc 
scatte, and good, of sylucr and of gold, that scuen 
Waynes shold W)t conne carye it away. ^Viian the 


kynfje liordc hym 8i>eke of this {jrete gmxl and riches, 
s«» he breiincd in the dcsyre and coiictys*^ thrrof, and 
siiydr, Hovnart, wlicrc i> the rychcsse iMcoiniMi, tell iii(» 

The ftixc suicle, My lonlf I shal tcUc ymi. Tlic rych- 
e»sc waij.stoU'n, and had it nt)t he stolen, it siiold liaue 
cost you your lyl'e, and you shoUl haue hen niurdere«l, 
whiehe God forhede, and shold haue ben the {rretcst 
hurte of the woHde. Wlmn the queue herde that she 
was s«ire aferde, and erytU- low(K', Ahis I and wele 
away, Keynart what saye ye? I eoniun- vi>u \>y the 
KtUfre way that your souh' shal ^joo, tliat ye teUe vs 
opeidy tin- tmuthe herof, as nuK-he as ye knowe of this 
^rn-te niunlre, that sholde haue l)C doon on my h»rde, 
that we alh- nuiy here it. Now herkene liow th»' foxe shal 
flatrc the kyn^e and queue, and shal wynne Ixithc 
their gtwd willes and loue ; and shal hyndre them 
tluit laboure for his dith ; In- shal vnhyndc his packe 
and lye, and hy flaterye and fayr Wdrdes, shal lirvn;.'e 
forth so his maters, that it slial hi- supposed for tmuthe. 
In a syrrowful conteuanee spak the foxe to tiie ipieiie, 
I am in suehe eiuis now, that I mu>te n«'des dey«' ; and 
hadde ye me not so sore conjured, I will not jeo- 
panic my sowlc ; an<l yf I so dyde, I shold ri>o ther- 
fore in to the payne of hcUe. I wil wiye nothyng. I>ut 
that I wil make it pixxl ; for pyt4)UMly he shoM 
haue ben murthred of his owen folke ; neuertheles 
they that were most pryncypal in this feat, wen* «»f my 
next kyne, whom ;:ladly I wold not iMMvraye. yf the 
Sorow were not of the inllr. The k\n'.' w:,. In i.v ..r 


liertc and saide, Keynart, saisto tliou to ine tlie trouthe? 
Ye, said the foxc, See ye not how it stantU'th with iiic ? 
Wene ye tliat I wil dain|me my sowle ? what slioM it 
auaylle me, yt" I n(»w saide other wise ihiui tnuithc : 
my deth is >o nyfrhe, tlier may iiethor prayer ne <;<ki(1 
helpe me. Tlio tremhK-d the foxe by dyssymlyyng, as 
he had ben aft-rde. The (juene liad pytc on hym, 
and prayde the kyng to haue merey on hym, in 
cschewyng of more harme ; and that he shoUle doo 
tlie peple hohhi their peas, and gyue tlie foxe au- 
dience, and here what he shold say. Tho commanded 
the kynge openly, that eelie of them shoUl he styMe, 
and suifrc the foxe to saye vnberisped wliat that lie 
wolde. Tlieiiiie saide tlie foxe, Be ye now allc stylle, 
syth it is the kynges wille, and I slial telle you openly 
this treson ; and therin I wil spare noinan that I 
knowc gylty. 

now TUF. loxr. imioicmit tukm in dainckii, that hauk 



Now harkone how the foxe began. Tii tin- begynnyng 
he applied (irynibert his dere cosyn, which euer had 
holpeii hym in his nede ; he dydc so, bycause his wordes 
sholih- be the })etter byleued, and that he forthon 
myght the better lye on his enemyes. Thus began he 
firste, and said, My lord, my fader had founden kyng 
Ermeiyks tresour iloluen in a pytte ; and whan lie had 


thys grete good, lie was so proiule and orgnillous, that 
he had alio other beestis in despyte, whielie to lore had 
been hi^ fehiws. He made Tybert the catte, to go in 
to that wylde lande of Ardenne to Bniyii the bore, for to / 
do to hyni homage, and bad liym sayo yl" lie wohle be / 
kynge, that he shoM eonie in to Flaundres. Bruvn the 
bere was glad hierof, for he had longe desired it, and 
wente forth in to Flaundres, where my fader rccoyued 
hym right frendly. Anone he sente for the wyse Grym- 
bert myn neuewe, and for Ysegrym the wulfe, and for / 
Tybert the catte. Tlio these fyue eamen, bytwenei 
Gaunt and the tliorpe, eallyd Yfte. Tlure they held- 
en their cuunseyl an liole derke nyght longe. What 
with the deuels helpeand eraft, and for my faders richesse 
they eoncluiled, and swore there the kyngys deth. Now 
herkene, an«l here tiiis wonder; the foure sworen 
vpon Ysegryms erowne, that they sholde mak«> Bruyn 
41 kynge and a lorde ; and l>rynge hym in the stole a 
Akon, and sette the erowne on ids heed ; and, vf tin-re 
were ony uf the kynges fn-nilcs, or lignage, tliat wolde 
be contrarye or ayenst this, liyni .-holde my fadi-r 
wyth hisgoiidand tres(nirfordryu<', and take from hym 
his myght and power. It liappi-d so, that t»n a niorow 
tyde erly, that (iryndx-rt n>y neuew, was of wyne 
almost dronke, that he tolde it to dame Sh'opead«* his 
wif in counsryl, and i)adde her kcpe it a se<Tete, but 
she nnoiw forgate it, and saide it forth in eonfrssion t<) 
my wyf, vpon an hfth wh«ii- they luith went.'n a 
pylgrema;.'e ; but sh.- must IhsU- swcre Ity hr-r troutlie, 
and by tin* holy tlire kyng.'s of C'oleyn. tlial for loue, 
ne for hate, she sholde ncuer telle it forth, but kepc it 


secrete. But she lielde it not, and kepte it no lonjjcr 
secrete, but tyl she cam to me ; and she theiine tolde 
to me alh.' that she lierde, but I must kcpe it in secrete; 
and she toMe me so many tokenys, that I felte wi-l it 
was trouthe ; and lor dreih' and fere, myn heer stodn 
right vj), and my herte becam as heauy as leed, and 
as colde as ise. 1 thought by this, a lyknesse whiche 
hier a fore tyme byfylle to tlie frosshis, which were 
free ; and comphiyned that tliey had none lorde, ne 
were not bydwongen, for a comynte witliout a gouuer- 
n»»ur was not god; and they cryden to God with a 
lowde voys, tliat lie wohle ordeyne one that myglit 
rewle them. Tins was al that they ch-sired. (lod 
horde theyr requeste, for it was resonab^^ and 
sent to them a storke, wliiche ete and swolowed tliem 
in as many as he coude fynde : he was alway to liem 
vnmercyfid. Tho comphiyned they theyr hurte, but 
thene it was to hitf ; tiny that were to fore free, and 
were aferde of no liody, ln'U now Ininde and musto 
obeye tostrengthc theyr kynge ; hyerfore, ye riche and 
poure, I sorowed tliat it iiiyght liappi-n vs in lyke wyse. 
Tlius, my h)rd tlie kyng, 1 iiaue liad sorowe for you, 
wherof ye can me but lytyl tiianke. I knowe Bruyn 
the here, for suche a shrewe and raveneur, wherfor I 
tlioughte yf hi- were kynge, we shohl be all destroyed 
and loste. I knowe our souerain lord the kyng, of so 
Jiye Ijyrtiie, so niyghty, so benygnc and niercyful, that 
I thought truly it ha<l inn an euyl chaunge for to 
haue a fouh' stynkynge thoef, and to refuse a noble, 
myghty, stately lyon, for the here hath more madde 
folyc in his vnthrifty heed, and al Iiis anncestris, than 


oiiy other hath. Thus liiul I in inyii hcrtc, many ii 
sontwc ; aiul thoii^'ht alway, hnw I my^lit Itreke and 
t<ir<l(M> my laih-rs tals t-ounsi-yl. whi«-h (if a «-hurlo and 
traytour, and uur.-c than a thrct', wdltlc iiiaki' a hirdc, 
and a kyngo. Alway I prayd Hod, that hi- wohle 
ki'pe our kyng in worship, and good helthi', and grantc 
hyni long lyf ; but I tliought wed, yf my Imh-r ht-lde 
his tresour, he sluddc witli liis fals felaws, wcl I'ynde 
the waye that the kyng shohl he deposeil, and set a 
syde. I \va.s sore bethought, how I myght heste wyte 
where my faders g(K)d laye ; I awayted at al tynu'S, 
U.S nygh as I couch', in wodes, in bushes, in feeMis, 
where my fader h-ytle his eyen ; were it by nyght or 
by daye, colde or weet, I was alway by hym, to espye 
ami knowe where his tresour was leyde. On a tyme, 
I laye doun al pat on the grountle, and sawe my fad«'r 
come rcnnyng out of an hole. Now herke what I sawe 
hym doo. "VVhan he eaiu out of the hole, he hiked fast a 
JM)Ute, yf ony bmly luul si-en hym ; and, whan he coude 
no wher none see, he stttpj)ed the hole witli saiide, and 
made it euen and playn, lyke to tlie i»tlier gniumle \>\. 
He knewe not that I sawe it : and wliere his fo<»tsporc 
st«)od, there stryked lie with his tayl, and made it 
smothe with his mouth, tluit no man shohl espy it. 
That lerned I there of my fals fadrv, and nuuiy sub- 
tylitoes, that I to f«»re knewe notiiyng of. Thenne <le- 
parted he tiiens, and ran to the village wanh', for to 
doo his thyngi.x ; and I forgate not, iuit .-prauge and 
lepe to the hole ward ; and how wel that In* had sup- 
posed, that he had ni:i<1< al fa.^te. I was not ><> niorlie 



II tool, hut that I touch' the holt' w<;l, and cratchcd and 
scraiM'd with my tV'ct the simd out of the liole, and 
creptc thcrin ; There fonde I, the nioste plente of 
siluer, and of golde, that euer I sawe. Hier is none 
80 ohlo, that euer so much sawe, on one heep, in alle 
his lyf. Tho toke I Ermelyne, my wife, to lielpe, and 
we ne rested, ny^dit nc <hiy, to here and carye awaye 
with grete lahour, and |)aync, tliis riehe trcsour, in to 
another plaee, that lave for vs better, vnder an hawe in 
a de|i(( hole. In the menc whyle, that niyn liousewyf 
and I thus labouryd, my fader was with them, that 
wolde bctraye the kynge. Now may ye here what 
they dede. Bruyn the here, and Yscgrym tlie wulf, 
sente alle the hmde aboute ; yf ony man wolde take 
wages, that they sliold come to Bruyn, and he wohlc 
paye them their souhlye or wagis to fore : My fader 
ranne ouer alle the lantle, and bare the lettres. lie 
wist lytil that he was roblied of his trcsour, ye though 
he myght haue wonnen al the worhl, he had not eonne 
fynde a peny therof. Whan my fader had ben oueral 
in the laude, bytwene the Elue, and the Somme ; and 
liadde goten many a souldyour, that shold the next 
somer haue comcn to helpe Bruyn, tlio cam he agayn 
to the here, and his felowis, an<l tolde them, in liow 
grete auenture Ik- had l>e tofore the borughes, in the 
l(»n(h! of Saxone ; and how the liunters dayly rydcn, 
and hunted with houndes after hyra, in sueho wise, 
that he vnnethis escaped with his lyf. "Wlian he had 
tolde this to thise fonre false traytours, thenne .shewde 
he them lettres, that plcsyd moche to Bruyn ; tliere in 


wcro wrotoii xii. c, of Ysoprryins liprnnnrr by name, 
witlioute the lK?res, tlu' foxes, tho cattes, and tlie cla&»cs. 
All tliisc had sworn, that wytli thr first nn'ssa«»('r that 
.shoM conic forthrin, tlu-y sii(»l«l bi' n'dy, and come for 
to heipe the b<'rc, yf th«'y had tlicir waj^cs a nioneth 
to fore. This aspycd I ; I tliankc Gml. Aft«-r this« 
wordes, my fader wentc to the liule, where his tn-sour 
had h'yn, and wohh' loke vpon it. 'I'lio bc^'iin he a 
preto son»we, of tliat lie soufrhte he fondo notliyn;; : lie 
fonde his hole broken, and his tresonr born a way. 
There de<le ho that I may wel sorowe, and In'waylle ; 
for preto anger and sorowe, he weiite and hynpe hym 
self. Thus alxxle the treson of Hriiyn, by my subtylte, 
after. Now s«»e myii int'ortiini- ; thise traytoiirs, Yso- 
grym, an<l Hruyn, b< ii now iiio-.t pnuy of counseyl 
alxiut*' the kynjre, and sytte by hym on the hye 
Ixiiiche ; And I, puiirr Key::art, have no thaiike ne rc- 
wanl. I haue buryed niyn owcn fader, by cause the 
kynge sholde haue his lyf. My lorde, sai«le the foxe, 
where Immi they that so wolde doo, tliut is to «lestroye 
them self for to kejK' yow. 

The kynpe, and the (juenc, hoped to wynne the tre- 
sonr, and wythout eoun«'fyl, toke to them K«'yiiarl, and 
prayde hym that he wold do so wel, as to tidle them were 
this tresour was. Kcymirt saide, how sliold I telle the 
kynpe, or them that wolde han>r«' me, ft)r love of the 
traytours, ami murderars, which by her flaterye, wolde 
fayno hrynge me t«> detli. Shold I telle to them wher 
tnyc {ro<Hl if*, thenne wen' I out »if my wytti*. Tlu'iiuenc 
tho spak. Nay, I?eynarf, th«> kyn^r sinil htr you haue 

y. *J 


your lyf, ami slial al to ^yilre forjryuc you, and ye 
shal be fro hens forth wyse, and true to my lorde. 
The Ibxe answerd to the «iucne, Dere lady, yf the 
kynge wil beleue mo, and that he wil pardone, and 
forgyue me allf my olde tresjiaecs ; ther was neuer 
kynge so riche, as 1 shal make liym, for the tresour, 
that I shal doo hym iiaue, is right costely, and may not 
be nombred. The kynge saidf, Ach damt', wille ye 
beleue the foxe ; sauf your reuerencc, he is borne to 
robbe, stele, and tt> lye, this cleuid to his bones, and 
can not be had out of the flessh. The queue said&, Nay, 
my lorde, ye may now well byleue hym ; though he 
were heretofore felle, he is now changed otherwise 
than he was. Ye hauc wel herde, that he hath ajjpe- 
cliiil liis fader, and the das.^c, his iicuew, whiehe he 
juyght wel hauc leyde on otlier bestes, yf he woldc 
haue ben false, felle, and a lyar. The kynge saide, 
Dame, wille ye thenne haue it soo, and thynke ye it 
best to be don, though I supposed it sholde hurte me, 
I will take alle thise trespaccs of Keynart vpon me, 
and bileue his wordes. But I swere by my crownc, 
yf he euir here after mysdoo and trespace, that shal 
he dere abye, and all his lignage vnto the ix. degree. 
The foxe loked on the kyng stoundmele, an<l was glad 
in his hcrtc, and saide, My lonle, I were not wyse, yf 
I sholde saye thynge that were not trewe. The kynge 
toke vp a straw i'ro the ground, and pardoned, and 
forgaf the foxe, all the mysdedes, and tresi)aces, of his 
fader, and of hym also. Yf the foxe wastho mery, and 
glad, it was no wonder, for he was quyte of his deth, 
and was all free, and franke, of alle his enemyes. 


The foxe saide. My Innlc, tlio kynp^o, and noWe lady, 
the (jueno, God rewanh' yow, thys jfreto wur.sliip tliat ye 
do to me, I shal thynke, ami alsn tlianko you for hit, 
in siK-ht' wise, that ye shal 1m' the rii-hi'st kynjre of tlie 
world ; for ther is none lyuyng vntlicr tlic sonno, that 
I vouchesjiuf hotter my tresour on, than on yow bothe. 
Thennc toke the foxc vp a straw, and profred it to the 
kyng, and saidc. My nioste dere lord, plese it yow to 
receyue hiere, the ryche trosoiir, whichc kyn;je 
Ermeryk hadilo, for I gyue it vnto yow, wytli a fre 
wylle, and knowlcehe it ojtenly. The kyngi' recoyiiid 
the straw, and threwe it ineryly fro hyin, with a joyous 
visa«r<', and thanknl moehe the foxe. 

The foxe laughed in hyni self. The kyng«' thenn her- 
kenede after the counseyl of the foxe, aiid alle that ther 
were, were at his wylle. My lorde, sadc he, herkene, 
and marke wel my wordes ; in the west side of Flaun- 
dres, ther standeth a woode, and is named Ilulsterlo, 
and a water that is cnllid Kerekenpyt lyetli thcrhv. 
Thi."* is so grete a wyldtrnesse, that ofte in an hole 
yere man ner wyf <'oMieth fiirrin, sauf they that wil,/ 
Mild they that willo not esehewe it; there lyeth thig 
tresour hyddi-. Vnderstamle wi-l, that thi' place iij 
raUed Krekenpit ; for I aduys*- you for the lesst<" hurte, 
that ye and my lady goo lM)the thyder, for I knowe 
none so trewe, that 1 durste on your hehalue truste, 
wherfore goo vour self. And whan ye come to Kre- 
kenpyt, ye shal fynde thi're. two l)irehen trees standvng 
alther next the |>ytte. My lorde. to the hyrohen trcca 1 
shal VI' LToo, there Ivcth thi- tnv-our viitlur doluen. ' 


There muste ye scrape, and dyprjie a way a lytyl, the 
niii^.-c mi tlie one side; Ther shalle ye fynde many a 
jewel oi" golde, and syluer ; and there shal y(; lynde 
the crowne, whielie kyn;re KrnuTyk ware in his dayes; 
that sholde Bruyn the here have WDrn, yf hi8 wyl had 
gon forth. Ye slial see many a costly jewel, with 
riche stones sette in golde wcrk, whiche coste many a 
thousand marke. My lorde, the kynge, whan ye now 
haue all this good, how ofte shal ye saye in your herte 
and thynke, O how true art thou Keynart, the foxe, 
that with thy subtyl wytte, daluyst and hyd<lest here 
this grete tresour ; God gyue the goo<l ha[ii)e, and 
Avelfare, where eucr thou be. 

The kynge sayde, Sir Keynart, ye muste come and 
helpe V8 to dygge vp this tresour; I knowe not the way; 
I sholde neuer conne/ynde it. I haue herde ofte named, 
Parys, London, Akon, and Colcyn. As me thynketh, 
this tresour lyeth right as ye nuK-ked and japed, for ye 
name Kryekenpyt, that is a fayned name. These wordes 
were not good to the foxe, and he sayd with an angry 
mode, and dyssymyled and saide ; Ye, my lord, the 
kynge, ye be also nyghc, that as fro Rome to Maye. 
Wene ye that I wille lede yow to flomme Jordayn. 
Nay, I shal brynge you out of wenyng, and shewe it 
you by good wytnes. He called lowde, Kywart, the 
hare, come here to fore the kjnige. The bestes sawe 
alle thyder ward, and wondred what the kynge wold. 
The foxe sayde to the hare, Kywart, ar ye a colde ? 
How tremble ye, and quake so? be not aferd, and telle 
my lorde, the kynge, here the trouthe ; And that I 


eharpre you, by the fayth and troutlic, tlmt ye owe hyin, 
and to my lady, the (juene, ot" suche thyng as I slial 
deniandc of you. Kywacrt said**, I slial saye tlie 
ti'outhe, though 1 sliohl K)se my ui-ckc tlurlniv, I !*lial 
not lye, ye haue cluirfied jne so sore, yt" I kiiowe 
it. Thenne saye, knuwe ye not where Keriiki-iipyt 
etaudeth ; is that i.» your niynde i" The hare i^aidc, I 
knewe that wel, xii. yer a goon, wher that standeth, 
why aske ye that? It stantlt-th in a woode, named 
Ilulsterto, vpon a warande, in the wyUlernesse. I 
haue suH'ri'd there moehe sorowe for hunger and for 
colde ; ye more than I eaii telle. Pater SyinciRt the 
friese, was woned to nuike thure riil.-«L' inoney, wher- 
wyth he bare hyni self out, and al his rchiw>hi|) ; but 
that was to fore er 1 had fi-hiw.'-hip \sitli iilxii tlie 
houude, whirhe made me escape many a daiuiger, as 
he eoude wei telle yf he wore here, and that I neui-r 
in my dayes trespaced agenst the kyiige, other wyso 
than I ouglit to doo with ri;:lit. Krynart suy<l to liyui, 
( io agayne to yonder felawshiji, here ye, Key ward: 
my lorde, the kynge desyreth no more tti knowe of 
yow. The liare ret(»rned and wente agayn to the place 
he cam fro. The foxe sayde. My loni, the kynge, is 
it trewe that I saide. Ye, Keynart, said the kynge, for- 
gyue it me. I dy<le euyl that I ladeuitl you not. 
Now Rcynart, frende, fynde the waye that ye goo 
wyth vs to the place and pytt«', where the tresour 
lyeth. The foxe saidt*. it if« a woncler thyng wene ye, 
that I wolde not favnt- giw) wyth yow, \{' it were w» 
with nie that 1 myght gixi with yow, in suche wise 


that it no sliaiin' wcri' viit<» your lordsliyp, I wnM goo ; 
Imt, nay, it may not lu'c : licrkt'iic what I hIiuI saye, 
and imistc nedos thautrh it he to ine vyloiiyt- and shanic. 
AVhan Iscgryin the wult", in the dt'Uels name, wentc in 
to ndigion and become a monke, shorn in the ordre, 
tlio the prouende of sixe raonkes was not suffycient to 
liym, and had not ynoiigh to ete ; he thcnne phiyncd 
and wayllcd so sore, that I liad pyte on liym ; lor he 
becani slowe and soke, and byeause he was of my kynne 
I gaf Iiyn) connscyl t.) renne away, and so he dyde ; 
wlierforc I stonde a curseil, and am in the Popes bannc 
and sentence. I wil to morow, bytymes, as the Sonne 
riseth, take my waye to Kome for to be assoyled, and 
take par(h)n, and fro Kome I wil ouer the see in to the 
holy landc, and wil neuer retorne agayn til I haue 
doon so moche goo<l, that I may with worship goo 
wyth yow ; hyt were greet rcprcl' to yon, my lord, the 
kyng, in what U>ndc that I accompanyed you, that men 
shold saye, j'e reysed and accompanyed your self with 
a cnrsyd and a porsone agravato. 

The kynge sayde, Sith that ye stand a cursyd in the 
censures of the chirche, yf I wente wyth you, men 
sholdc arette vilonye vnto my crowne ; I shal thcnne 
take Kywaert, or somme other, to goo with me to 
Krykenpytte, and I counseylle you, lieynart, that ye 
put your <elf out of this curse. My lord, qcl. the foxe, 
therfore wyllo I goo to Kome, as hastely as I may: 
I shal not restc by nyght nor day, til I bee assoyllcd. 
Reynart, said the kynge, uic thynketh ye ben torned 
in to a good waye ; God gyue you grace taccomplyssb 


wel jonr (k'syre. Assons ns tliis spokyn;; was don, 
Noble, the kyng, wente and stode vjxm an liygh stago 
cif stone, and (-(unniiindod siK-iicc to allc tlic bestes, and 
that thi'y shuhlf syttf doiiii in a ryiifjo rounde vpon 
the grasse, eueriche in Ins jthicc, after his estate and 
byrthe. Reynart the foxc stode hy the rjiicne, whom 
he ought wel to lone. Thennc said the kynjre. Here 
ye alle, tliat be pourc and riciip, yong and olde, that 
stondeth here, Keynart, one of tlic lieed otlycers of my 
hows, had don so eiiyl, whi<'he this daye shold hano 
ben lianged, hath now in this eonrte don so nHK'he, 
that I and my wyf, the <|nene, haue promysed to h}T« 
our grace and frendshyji. The (juene hath pravdc 
nuK'he for hyni ; in so moche tliat I haue made pees 
wyth hym, and I pyf to hpn his lyf, and metnbre, 
freely agayne ; and I eonnincle you, vpon your Ivf, 
tliat ye d«x> worship to !{<•) iuirt, his wyf, and to his 
chyldren, where sonieuer ye mete Ih-ui, by «lay or by 
nyght ; and I wil also here no moo eomplayntes of 
Keynard ; yf he hath heirtofore mysdtm, and tres- 
paced, he wil no more mysdo, iw trespaee, Imt now 
iM'ttre hym ; he wylle to inomwe erly goo to tin' I'ope, 
for pardon and ft>ryeuenes «»f alle hys synnes ; and 
forth ouer the sec to the Iltdy Lande, and he wil not 
come agayn til he brynge |»ardon of alle his synnes. 

This tale lierde Tyselyn the rauen, and hep t«» 
Ysegrym, to IJruyn. and t«» TylM'rt, there as thev were, 
and sai«le. Ye eaytyf.-s how guth it now ye vnhappy 
folke, what do ye here ? Keynard the fow is now a 
squyer, and a eourtycr, and right gretc and myghty ia 


the cdiirt. Tlic kyiigc hath skyUcil liym (juyte of all<' 
his hntki's, ami forgyu<.'ii liyiu alle his trespaces aud 
niystlcdes, and ye he alle ht-trayed and ajx'chyd. 
Ysegrym saidc, How may this be? 1 trowc Tyselyn 
that ye lye. 1 do not certaynly, saide the rauen. 
Tlio wente the wulf, and the here, to the kynge. 
Tybert, the cattc, was in grcte sorowe, he was so sore 
aferde, that lor to haue the foxes frendship, he wold 
wel forgyue Reyner the losse of his one eye, that he 
lostc in tlie prestos hows; lie was so woo, he wist not 
what to doo, he wolde wel that he neuer had seen 
the foxe. 



YsECRYM cam prondly on«'r the felde to fore the 
kynge, and he thanked the (jui-ne, and spaek, wyth a 
felle nuM.'d, ylle wonh-s on the foxe, in snehc wy8<% 
that the kynge herde it, and was wroth, and nia«le the 
wulf and the here anon to he arestyd. Ye sawe neuer 
w<xk1 dt)gg<'S <lo more liarme than was don to them ; 
they were botht; fast Ijounden, so sore, that, alle that 
night, thfy myght not stere liande ne foot; they 
myght searsely rore, ne niene ony joynte. 

Now here how the foxe forth dyde : lie haterl hrrii ; 
he laboured so to the quene, that he gate leue for to 
haue as mochc of the beres skyn vpon his ridge as a 


foote longe anil n foot brmle for to nuikc Iivin therof a 
scrj'pjK'. Tlieniie was the foxc rcdy yf he had foure 
stroupo »h«>on. 

Now here how he dyile ft)r to gcte th«'>e slioon. 
H«' said to the queue, Madame, I am yourc pylgrvm, 
here is myn eme, sir Isoprym, tliat hath iiij. strong 
sh(Hin, whioho were pootl for uu\ yf he woldc hitc uie 
haur two of them, I wohh' tin tlic wayc hcsyly tliynkc 
on vour sowlf ; for it is ri^rht tliiit a pylLTviii shnld 
alway tlivnk*' and praye for thcni that iloo liiin jxihxL 
Thus maye yc doo your sowlc giMxl, yf ye wyll. And 
also, yf ye niyght, gete of myn aunt«', dame I">?rswyn, 
also two of her shoon to gyue me ; she may well doo it, 
for she go<»th hut lytil out, hut ahydcth alway at home. 
Thcnne, sayde the cpuMir, Hcynard, yow lR-liou«-th wel 
suclie shoes, ye may not Ik' wythout them ; they shal 
Ik' grxnl for you to kcpe your feet hool for to passo 
with then* many a sharpe montayn, and stony nn-hes ; 
ye ran fynde no iK'ttcr sIkm-s for you, than such as 
Ysegrym and his wyf hauc and were, they he gcMnl and 
stn>nge ; though it sholde touehe their lyf, «'ehe of 
them shal gyue y<»u two shoes, for to aecomplis^h wyth 
your hye pilgremagc. 




■ vrlTfLO XIX. 

Tuus hath tliis fal&c pylgrym gotun fro Ysegrym ij. 


sliooes fro liis feet, which were haled of the clawes, to 
tl»c .scnewis ; ye sawe neucr foulc that men rosted hiye 
so stylle as Ysegryin dyde, whan liis shoes were haled 
of he styred not ; and yet his feet bledde. Thenne 
whan Ysegrym was unshoed, tho muste dame Eerswyn, 
his wyf, lye doun in the grasse wyth an heuy chere, 
and she loste ther her hynder shoes. Tho was the 
foxe glad, and saide to hid aunte, in scorne, My dere 
aunte, how moche sorow haue ye suffred for uiy sake, 
whiche me sore repenteth, sauf tins herof I am glad, 
for ye be the lyeuest of alle my kyn, therefore I wyl 
gladly were your shoen. Ye shal be partcner of my 
pylgremage, and dele of the pai'don that I shal, with 
your shoen, fecche ouer the see. 

Dame Erswyne was so woo that she vnnethe myght 
speke ; neuertheles, this she sayde, A Reynart, that 
ye now al thus haue your wyl, I pray Gud to wreke 
it ! Ysegrym and his felaw, the here, helden their pees 
and wheren al stylle. They were euyl at ease, for 
they were bounden and sore wounded ; had Tybert, 
the catte, haue ben there, he shold also somwhat haue 
suffred, in suche wyse, as he sholde not escaped thens 
wythout hurte and shame. The next day, whanne the 
Sonne aroos, Keynard thenne dyde grece liis shoes, 
whithc he had of Ysegrym and Erswyn, his wyf, and 
dyde hem on, and bonde hem to his feet ; and wente 
to the kynge and to the queue, and said to hem with a 
glad chere, Noble lord and lady, God gj'ue you good 
morow ! and I desire of your grace, that I may haue 
male and staff, blessyd as belongeth to a pilgrym. 


Thennc the kynge, anone, sent lor Bellyn the ramuie, 
and whan he cam he saidc, Sir Bellyn, ye shal do 
masse to fore Reynart, for he shal goo on pylgremage, 
and gyue to hym male and staf. The Ram answerd 
agayn, and said, My lord, I dare not do that, for he 
hath said that he is in the Pope's curse. The kynge 
said, what thcrof ? IMayster Gelys hath said to vs, yf 
a man had doo as many synnes as al the world, and he 
wold those synnes forsake, shryue hem, and resseyuc 
penance, and do by the prestes counseyl, God wil 
forgyue them, and he mercytul \iit<) hym ; now 
wil Reynard goo ouer the see, in to the Holy Lande, 
and make hym clere of al hys synnes. 

Thenne ansuerd Bellyn to the kynge : I wil not doo 
litil no moche herin, but yf ye sane me harndes in the 
spirituel court byfore the bysshop Prcndelor and to 
fore his archedeken Loosuyndc and to fore sir Rapiamus 
hisoffyryal. The kynge began to wexe wroth and saide, 
I shal not bydde you so moche in halfe a ycre : I had 
leucr hangc you than I sholde so moche praye you for 
it. AVhan the ranic sawc that tlie kynge was angry, he 
was so sore afcrd that he tpioke for fere, and wente to 
tlie awter and sange in his l)ookes and raddc suche as 
hym thought good ouer Reynart, wliiihc lytyl sctte 
ther by, sauf that he wold haue the worship therof. 
When Bellyn the rannnc had allc sayd his seruyse 
deuoutly, thenne he hynge on the foxes necke a male 
couered wyth the skyiinc of riiiiyn the l)crr, and a 
lytil palster therby : tlio was Hrynart redy toward his 
journey. Tho loked he toward the kynge as he had 


ben sorowful to departe and fayned as he had weptc, 
right as lie hadde yamcrdo in liis liertc, but yf he hail 
ony sorow, it was by cause al the other, that were 
there, were not in the same plyght as the wulf and 
here were brought in by hym. Ncuertheles he stood 
and prayd them allc to praye for hym, lyke as he wold 
praye for them. The foxe thought that he taryed 
longe, and wold fayn haue departed, for he knewe 
hymself gylty. The kynge saide, Reynart I am sory 
ye be so hasty, and wil no lenger tarye. Nay my 
lorde, it is tyme, for we ought not spare to doo wel. 
I praye you to gyue me leue to departe, I muste doo 
my i)ylgremage. The kynge sayd, God be wyth yow ! 
and commanded alle them of the court to go, and 
conueyne Reynart on his way. Sauf the wulf and 
the here, whyche fast laye bounden, ther was none 
that durst be sory therfore ; and yf ye had seen Rey- 
nart how personably he wente wyth his male, and 
palstcr on his sholder, and the shoes on his feet, ye 
shold haue laughed. He wente and shewde hym 
^ outeward wysely ; but he laughed in his herte, that 
I alle they brought hym forth, whiche had a lytyl to 
I fore been with hym so wrooth ; and also the kynge, 
j whiche so moche hated him, he had made hym suche 
I' a lool, that he brought hym to his owne entente, he 
, was a pylgrym of deux aas. ]My lord the kyng, sayd 
the foxe, I i)ray you to retorne agayn ; 1 wil not that 
ye goo ony ferther with me; ye myght haue harme 
therby ; ye haue there two morderars arestyd, yf they 
escaped you, ye myght be hurt by them. I pray God 


kepe you fro mysaventurc. Wyth these wordes he 
stode u|» on liis afterft'ot, and ]»raydc alio the l^eostys 
grete and sinal, that wohle he partencrs of his i)anh)n, 
tliat they shoUl praye tor hyni ; tlicy saydc that tlii-y 
alio wolde ronnMnlire him. 

Then departed he tio the kyncre so hevyly, that 
many of them ermed. 

Thenne saide he to Kyward the hare, and to Bellyn 
the ramnie, meryly, Dere frendcs, shal we now departe ? 
Ye wil, and God will, accompanye me fcrther ; ye two 
made me never angry ; ye be good fur ti) walke wyth, 
courtoys, frendly, and not comjjlayncd on of ony beeste ; 
yc he of good condicions, and goostly of your lyuyng ; 
yc lyue both as I dyde, whan I was a reeluse ; yf yc 
haue leeuis and gras, ye be plesyd ; ye rctehe not of 
brede, of flesshe, ne suehe manor mete. "With such 
flateryng wordes hath Keynard thise two flatrcd, that 
they wente wyth hyni fyl they canicn to fon; his hows 


AViiAN the foxe was come to fore the yate of his hows, 
he sayde to Bellyn tin- rainine, Cosyn ye shal abide 
here withoute, I an«l Kywart wille goo in, for I wille 
praye Kywart to helpe me to take my leuc of Ermelyn, 
my wif, and to comforte her and my chyldrcn. Bellyn 
sayde, 1 praye hym to romforte thcin wel. 



Wyth suclie flateryng wonles brought he the Iiare 
in to his liole in an euyl liour. Tliere founde they 
(lame Ermelyn, lyeng on the grounde, witii liur yong- 
lyngis, whiche had sorowed moche for (h-cdc ol' 
Reynart's detli; but whan she sawe liyin coiuo she was 
glad. But whan she sawe his male and palster, and 
espyed his shoes, she meruailled and sayd, Dere 
Reyner, how haue ye spedd ? He sayd, I was arestitl 
in the court, but the kynge lete me gow. I muste goo 
a pilgremage. Bruyn the bere, and Ysegrym the 
wulf, tliey be I)leggc lor me ; I tlianke the kynge, he 
hath gyuen to vs Kywart hier for to doo with hyni 
what wc W} 1. The kynge saide hyra self, that Kywart 
was the first tliat on vs complayned ; and by the fayth 
that I owe yow, I am right wroth on Kywart. 

Whan Kywart hcrde thise wordes, he was sore 
aferdc. He wold haue fledde, but he might not, for 
the foxe stode bytwene hym and the yatc, and he 
caught hym ]>y the necke. Tho crycd the hare, Ilclpe 
Bcllyn, hclpe ! where be ye ? this pilgryme sleeth me. 
But that cryc was sone doon, for the foxe had anon 
byten his throte a two. Tho sayd he. Late vs go ete 
this good fatte hare. The yonge whelpes cam also. 
Thus heldc they a grete fcste, for Kywart had a good 
fatte body. iM-melyn ete the flessli and dranke the 
blood ; she tlianked ofte the kynge that he had made 
them so mery. The foxe saide, Ete as moche as ye maye, 
he wil paye for it, yf we will feche it. She sayd, 
Reynart I trowe ye moche : telle me the trouthe, how 
ye be de[)arted thens. Dame, I haue so fiaterid the 



tiiystoryp: ok heynard the foxe. 65 

the kingc and tlio (lucnc, tliat I suppose the froml-liip 
bytwene vs shal be right th}'iin(' wlian lie shal kiiowc 
of this ; he shal be angry ; and hastcly seke me for 
to hange me by myne necke. 

Therfore late vs departe, and stele secretly a way in 
Ronime other foreste, where we may lyue wythout<' 
fere and drede ; and there that wc may lyue vij ycrc 
and more and fynde vs not. There is plenty of good 
mete of partrychs. wododckkis, and niocho other wilde 
fowle, dame ; and yf ye wil come with me thyder, 
ther ben swete welles and fayr clere rennyng brokes. 
Lord God, how swete eyer, is there ; there may Ave be 
in pees, and ease, and lyue in grete welthe, for the 
kynge hath lete me gon, by cause I tolde hym that 
ther was grete tresour in Krekenpyt ; but there shal 
he fynde nothyng, thdugh he sought cuer. This shal 
sore angre hym, whan ho knoweth that he is thus 
deceyuid ; wliat trowe y(\ how many a gn-tc lesynge, 
muste I lye, er I coude escape from hym. It was 
harde that I escaped out of pryson ; I was neuer in 
gretter paryl, ne nerrer my doth. But how it euer 
goo, I shal by niy willr ncui-r mure Cdnic in tli<' kyngcs 
daungcr : I banc now gotcn niv thoinlM' dut of his 
moutli ; that thankc I my subtylyto. 

Dame Ermelync saiib", Hivnait, 1 rounsoyle that 
we goo not into another foreste, where we sholde bo 
strange, and elenge ; we banc licre al that we des^TC : 
and ye be here lorde of our neygh])<)urs: wherfore 
shalle we leue this place, ami auenture vs in a wnrso : 
we may abydc her sure ynuuLrli. If the kynge Wdld 


(loo vs oiiy liarmc?, or Ix'siogo vs, here ben so many 
by or side holes, in suche wysc, as we shal escape fro 
hym: in abydyng here, we may not doo amys ; we 
knowe alle bypathes ouer alle ; and er he take vs with 
rayght, he muste haue raoche helpe therto. But that 
ye haue sworcn, that ye shal goo ouer sec, and abide 
there, that is the thyng that toucheth me moste. Nay, 
dame, care not therfore ; how m<jre forsworn how 
more forlorn. I wente ones with a good man, that 
said to me, that a bydwogen oth, or oth sworn by 
force, was none oth. Though I wente on this pil- 
gremage, it shold not auaylle me a cattestayl. I wil 
abydc here, and folowe your conseyl. Yf the kyng 
liunte after me, I shal kcpe me as wel as I maye ; yf 
he be me to myghty ; yet I hope wyth subtylte to 
begyle hym. I shal vnl)ynde my sack, yf he wil seeke 
harm he shal fynde harine. 

Now was Bellyn the ramme angry, that Kywart, 
his felawe, was so longe in the hole; and called lowed, 
Come out, Ky^varte, in the deuels name ! how longe 
shal Keynart kcpe you there. Haste you, and come 
late vs goo. 

"Whan Reynard herde this, lu; wente out, and 
saide softly to IJcllyn the ramme, Lief Bellyn, wher- 
fore be ye angry ? Kywart spekcth wyth his derc 
aunte ; me thynketh ye ought not to be dysphjsid 
therfore. He bad me saye to yow, ye myght wel go 
to fore, and he shal come after : he is lighter of fote 
than ye, he muste tarye a whylc wytli his aunte, and 
her chyldren ; they wcpe, and crye, by cause I shal 


;;o() fro them. Btllyn saydc, AVliat dydc Kyward ? 
nic tli«)ught(j lie cryed after hclpc. TIic foxc answerd. 
What sayc ye Bellyne? wene ye that he sludd liauc 
ony harmc. Now herkc wluit he thcnne dydc ; wlian 
he were comcn in to inyn hows ; aiid Eriudyn. my 
wyf, vuderstode that I shoUle groo ouer sec, slie fyl 
doun in a swoun. Tliennesayde the ranimc, In iaytli 
I vnderstode that Kywart had ben in gretc duun'ier. 
The foxe sayde, Nay, truly or Kyward shold liauc ony 
hanne in my hows, I had leiier that my wyf and 
fhyldren sholde sutfre mochc hurto ! 



The foxe saide, llrllyn, rcmcinljre ye not that 
yesterday the kynp;c and his oounscyl commanded me, 
that or I ehold departe out of this hinde, I shold st'ndc 
to hym two lettres. Dere cosyn, I pray you to here 
them: they he redy wreton. The ranime sayde, I 
wote neuer yf I wiste that your endythynpr and 
wrytynj; were pood, ye myirht pannienture so mocln- 
praye me that I woltl here tin-in. yf I had ony tliyn^' 
to berc th<iii in. Ivcynard saide, ye shal not fayle tft 
haue somwhat to l)iri' thfUi in. Kather than they shold 
be vnb»)rn, I shal rather fryue yow my male, that 1 
here, and put tin- kynges Irttres therin, and hanjie 
them ahoutc your necke. Ye shal haue of the kyngre 

V 2 


grete tlianke therfore and be right welcomen to liym. 
Thcr vpon Bellyn proinystMl liym to berc tluse Icttres. 

Tlio retorned Reynart in to liis liows, and toke the 
niule and put tlicrin Kywarts heed ; and lirought it to 
Bellyn for to brynge him in daunger ; and hengc it 
on his necke ; and chargyd hym not for to loke in the 
male, yf he wolde haue the kyngis frendship : and yf 
ye wil that the kynge take you into his grace, and loue 
you ; saye that ye your self haue made the lettre and 
endited it ; and haue gyuen the counseyl that it is so 
wel made and wreton. Ye shal haue grete thank, 
therfore. Bellyn the ramme was glad herof, and 
thought he sholde haue grete thank, and saide, Reynard, 
I wote wel that ye now doo for me. I shal be in the 
court gretly preysed, whan it is knowen that I can so 
wel endyte and make a lettre, thaugh I can not make 
it : ofte tymes it happeth, that God sufFreth sonime to 
haue worship ; and thanke of the lal)ouris, and connyng 
of other men ; and so it shal bifalle me now. Now 
what counseyle ye, Reyner ? shal Kywaert the hare 
come wyth me to the court ? Nay, sayd the foxe, he 
shal anone folowe yow ; he may not yet come, for he 
muste speke wyth his aunte. 

Now goo ye forth to fore, I shal shewe to Kyvvart 
secrete thyngis whiche ben not yet knowen. Bellyn 
sayd. Fare wel, Reynart ! and wente hym forth to the 
court ; and he ran, and hasted so faste, that he cam 
to fore mydday to the court ; and founde the kynge in 
his palays wyth his barons. 

The kynge meruayllcd whan he saw hym brynge 


the male agajii, whiche was made of tlie beres skyn. 
The kynge saide, Saye on, Bi-Uyn, fro whoiis come ye? 
where is the foxe ? how i& it that he hatli not the male 
witli hym ? Bellyn sayil, 3Iy lonl, I shal saye yow al 
that 1 know. I accompayned Reynard vnto his hows ; 
and whan he was redy ; he asked me yf that I wold 
for your saacke here two lettres to yow. I saide for 
to do you playsir and worship, I wold gladly here to 
yow vij : tho brought he to me this uiale, wherein 
the lettres be ; whielie ben endyted by my connyng, 
and I gaf eounseyl of tlie makyng of them. I trowe 
ye sawe neuer lettres better, ne craftelyer made, ne 
endyted. The kynge commanded anon, Bokart his 
sceretarye, to rede the lettres ; for he vnderstode al 
mancr langages. Tybert the catte, and he, toke the 
male of Bellyns neckc ; and Bellyn hath so fcrre sayd, 
and confessyd ; that he tlierfon; was dampned. 

The elerke Bokart umlyde the male ; and drewe out 
Ky warts heed; and said, AlasI what lettres ben these? 
cfrtaynly, my lord, this is Kywarts heed. Alas, sayde 
thi' kynge, that euer I beleuid so the foxe. Tliere 
myght men see grete heuynesse of the kynge, and df 
th«^ (|uenc. The kyng was so angry, that lie lieUle 
h)nge doun his heed ; and atte last afti'r many thoughtes 
he made a grete crye ; tliat alle the bestys were uferde 
of the noyse. Tho sjjaek. Sir Firapeel, the lupaerd, 
whiche was sybbe somwhat to the kynge, and saide : 
Sire kyng, how make ye suche a noyse ; ye make sorow 
ynough thaugh the queue were ileed. Late this somwe 
goo ; and make gotxl chere : it is grete shame ; be yo 


not a Idrdc and kynjrc of tliis londo. Is it not allr 
\ luler yow, that licre is. The kynge sayde, Sir Fira- 
pcel, liow shoUl 1 sutf re tliis : one false shrcwc and 
deceyuar hath betrayed me, and brought me so ferre, 
that liavc I t'orwrought, and angred my frendes, the 
stoute Bruyn the here, and Ysegryni tlie wulf ; whiche 
sore me ropenteth : and this gotli ayenst my worsliip, 
that 1 hauc done ainys ayenst my beste barons ; and 
tliat I trusted and lielcuid so moche tlie I'als horeson 
the f'oxe ; and jny wyt" is cause therof : slie prayde 
me so moohe, tliat I h( rde her prayer, and that me 
repcnteth ; tliaugh it be to hitc. Wliat tliawli, sir 
kyng, said the hipacrd, yf thcr be ony thyiig mysdon, 
it shal be amemh'd : we slial gyue to IJruyn, the here, 
to Yscgrym tlic w iilt'. and to Erswjm his wyf, for the 
pece of his skynne, and for tlieir slioes, for to liaue 
good pees, Bellyn the ramme ; for he hath confessyd 
hyin self, that he gaf counseyl, and consentyd to 
Kywardes deth ; it is reson, that he abye it. And 
we alle slial goo fecche Reynard and we slial areste 
hym, and hangc hym by the neckc, without lawc or 
juirement: and tlit-r with alle shal be conteutc. 





TiiK kynge saide, I wil do it gia<lly. Firapeel, the 
Juj)acrd, wcnlc tlm in the jtrysun, and \iibonde them 


lirstc: niultlii'iiiit', he saydo, Yc sires, 1 liryiij:e to ymi 
a ikste pardon, and my lordes loue, and tVcndsliip ; it 
rL'i)entt'tli hym, and is sory, that he cucr hath don, 
spoken, or trespaecd, ayeiist you : and therforc ye shal 
hauc a good appoyntmicnt. And aha aniondes he 
shal gyuo to you ; Ikllyn the raninie, and alle lu3 
lignage, fro now tbrtlmn to domesdaye, in sudie wyse 
that wheresonieutT ye tynde them in iVle or in wode, 
tliat ye may f'rely l)ytc, and ete them, wythout ony 
t'oH'ayte. And also the kynge graunteth to yow that 
ye maye hunte, and do the werst tliat ye can to Key- 
nard, and alle his lygnago, wj-thoute mysdoyng. This 
layr grete i)ryuelage wyllc the kynge graunt to you, 
cuer to holde of hym. And tlie kyiige willc, that yo 
swrre to hym, neuer to mysd(K», but doo hym homage, 
and feawte : I counseil yow to doo this ; for ye may 
«loo it honorably. 

Thus was the i)ees made by Fyraprl, the lupaerd, 
frendly and wel. And that coste IkUyn the ramme 
his tabart, and also his lyf. And the wulfis lignage 
liulile tliise |)reuilegi3 of the kynge ; ami in to thys) 
dayc, they deuoin-e and vie IJcllyns lignagr, where 
that they may fyndi- them. This di-bate was lirgonni 
in an ciiyl tynu- ; for the pees roudi- m-ucr syth l>e 
made betwene tliem. The kynge dyde forthwyth his 
eourtc and feste, lengthe xij. dayes linger for loui> of 
tho hero, and the wulf. So glad wa.s he of the nmkyng 
ol' the pees. 






To this grete feste cum al uiaiR-r ot" bcstis: lor the 
kynge dyde to crye this feste oUer alio in that h)iKle. 
Tlier was the mostc joye, and myrtlie, that euer was 
seen eraonge beestis. Ther was daunsed nianerly the 
lioue daunce with shalmouse, trompettis, and alle maner 
of menestraylsye. Tlie kynge dyde do ordeyne, so 
moche mete, that eueryeh fonde ynough. And ther 
was no beest in al liis lande so grete ne so lytyl but he 
was tliere : and ther were many fowles and byrdes 
also : and alle they that desired the kynges fi'endship 
were there, sauyng Keynard tlie f'oxe, the rede false 
pilgryiii, wliiche laye in a Avaytc to <li)o liarme ; and 
thoughte it was not good for hyni to be there. Mete 
and drinke flowed there. Ther weere i)layes, and 
esbatemens. The feest was ful of melodye. One 
myght haue luste to see suche a feestc ; and right as 
the feestc had dured viij dayes, a boute mydday, cam 
in the cony, Laprcel, to fore the kynge, where he satte 
on the table, with the (picnc ; and sayde, al heuyly, 
that all they herde hyni that were there, My lorde, liaue 
pyte on my complaynt, whiche is of grete force, and 
murdre, that Reynard the foxe wold haue don to me. 
Yester morow as I cam rennyng by his borugh at 
Maleperdhuys he stoile byfore his dore without lyke a 
j.ylgryme. I supposed to haue passed by hym i)easi- 


My, towurd this Ibste, and whan lie sawc me come, he 
came ayenst me, sayeng his bedes ; I salewcd liym ; 
but he spack not one worde ; but he raught out his 
right foot and dubbed me in the necke betwene myn 
ccris, that I had wende I sholde haue loste my heed. 
lUit, (jod be thanked I 1 was so Ivglit, that 1 >|>iaiige 
l'n> hyiii. Wyth mucho payne cam I ut' his chiwes. 
He giymmed, as he had ben angry, bycause he helde 
me no faster. Tho 1 escaped from hym, I loste myn 
one ere, and I had foui'e grete holes in my heed, of his 
sliarpc nayles, that the blood sprange out ; and that 1 
was nyhe al a swoun ; but for the grete fere of my 
lyf I sprange and ran so faste fro hyuj, that he coude 
not ouertake me. See my lord, thise grete woundes, 
that he hath made to me, with his sharpe long nayles. 
I praye you, to haue pite of me, and that ye wil 
punysshe this false traytour, and morderar ; or ellis 
shal ther no man goo, and conien, ouer tlie hctli in 
saefte, whyles he haunteth his fal>eand slirewd.- rcwle. 



Ryciit as the cony had niadr :tii ciidc of his coni- 
|)lant, catn in Corbant the rokr, Howen in the phice to 
fore tlie kynge; and sayde, Dere lorde, here me : 1 
brynge you hier, a jiitrous complaynt : I wente to day 
by tlie morow wyth Sliarp(;bck my wyf for to playo 
vpoii the hcth, and there laye Heynart the foxe doun 


on the grounde, lyke a detle kcytyf. Ilis eyen stared 
and his tonge licnge longe out of his mouth, lyke an 
hounde had ben deed. We tasted and felte his bely, 
but we fonde tlieron no lyf. Tho wente my wyf and 
herkcned, and leyde her ere to fore his mouth, for to 
wite yf he drewe liis breeth: whiche mysfylle her 
euyl, for the false felle foxe awayted wel his tyme, 
and whan he sawe her so nygh hyre. he caught her by 
the heed and boote it of. 

Ther was I in grete sorowe ,and cryde lowde, Alas ! 
alas ! wliat is there happed. Then stode he hastely 
vp, and ruught so couetously after me, that for feere of 
deth I tremljlcd and flewh vpon a tree therby, and 
sawe i'ro lerre how the false keytyf etc and slonked her 
in, so hungerly tha£ lie lefte neyther flessh ne bone, no 
more but a fewe fethers ; the smal fethers he slange 
them in wyth the flessh : he was so hungry he wolde 
wel haue eten tweyne. Tho wente he his strete. Tho 
flewh I doun wyth grete sorow, and gatb'ed up the fe- 
theris for to shewc them to you here. I wolde not be 
agayn in suche peryl and fere as I was there, for a 
thousand marke of the fynest gold that ever came out 
of Arabye. My lord the kyng, see hier this pyteous 
werke, these ben the fetheres of Sharpbecke, my wyf. 
My lord, yf ye wil haue worship, ye muste do herfore 
justyce, and avenge you, in such wise as men may fere 
and holde of yow : for yf ye sufFre thus your sauf con- 
duyt to be broken, ye your self shal not goo peasibly 
in tlie bye way : for tho lordes that do not justyce, and 
.>utlrc that the lawc be not executed vpon the theeuis, 


merderars, and tluMu that in} sdoo, they be pai*tener3 
to fore God, of alio thcyr iiiysdcdcs and trespaces, and 
eueryc'he thcnne wylle he a lord liyni self. Derelurde, 
see wel to for to kepe your sell'. 

• AlMTl I,() XXV. 

Noni.K, tlie kyng was sorr niciiyd ami aiiirry whan lie 
had herde thise comj)hiyntcs of the cony, and of the 
roek. He was so ferdful to loke on, that his cyen 
Lrlymmcrd as fyre, he brayed as lowde as a bulle, in 
suehe wise that alle the court (juake for fecre. At the 
liuste he sayde, crycng, IJy my cntwne, and by the 
trouthe that I owe to my wyf, 1 shal so awreke antl 
auenge this trespaces, that it slial be longe spoken of 
after that my sauf conduyt an<l my conimandement is 
thus broken. I was ouer nycc that I beleiued so 
lyghtly the false shrewe. His false flateryng speche 
deceyved me. He tolde me he wolde go to Home, and 
I'or thens ouer see to the? Holy Londe. I gal liym male 
and palstt-r, and made of hym a pylgrym, and mente 
al trouth. (J what false touches can he ! How can he 
atutfe the sleue wyth flockes ! 15ut tiiis caused my wyf; 
it was al by her counscyl; I am not thefyrst that haue 
ben deccyued by wymmcn's counscyl, by whichc many 
a grete hurte hatii byfallcn. 1 pray and comande alle 
tlinn that hold oi inc. and desire my l'n'nil,-hi|i, inilicy 
here, <>r wlicre someuer ilu y Im, that they wyth tlicyr 

"G THYSTORYE OF kkvnakd tih: koxe, 

coonseyl and dedes, helpe me tauenge this ouer gretc 
trcspaas, that we and owris may abydc in honour and 
woi'dhip, and this i'alse theef in shame, that he no 
more trespace ayenst our saufgarde. I wil my sell, in 
my persone, helpe therto al that I maye. 

Yscgrym the wulf, and Bruyn the here, herde wel 
the kynges wordes, and hoped wel to be auengid on 
Reynard the foxe, l)iit they durste not speke one word. 
The kynge was so sore meuyde that none durste wel 
speke. Attelaste the queue spak, Sire, Poui- Dieu, ne 
croyes mye toutes choses que on vous dye, et ne jures 
pas legierment. A man of worship shold not lyghtly 
bileue, ne swere gretly, vnto the tyme he knewe the 
mater elerly ; and also, we ought by right here that 
other partye speke ; tlier \)cn many that complayne on 
other, and ben in tlie defaute them self. Audi alteram 
j)artem ; here that other partye. I liaue truly liolden 
the foxe for good, and vi)on that, that lie mente no 
falshede, I helped hym that I niyghte ; but how som- 
ever it cometh or gooth, is he euyl or good, me thynk- 
eth for your worship, tliat ye sholde not proeede ayenst 
liym ouer hastely, that were not good ne honeste ; for 
he may not eseape fro you. Ye maye prysone hym, 
or slee hym, he muste obeye your jugement. 

Thenne saide Fyrapel, the lupaerd, My lord, me 
thynketh my lady here hath saide to you troutlie, and 
gyuen yow good counseyl, do ye wel and folowe her, 
and take aduyse of your wyse counseyl, and yf he be 
founden gylty in the trespaces that now to yow be shewd, 
late hym be sore punysshid accordyng to his trespaces. 


And }T In- coMH' not liytlior, cr this feste be ended, 
:iii<l excuse liyiii, as he ou<rlit of rijrht to doo, tlicnne 
doo as the counseyl shall adiiyse yow. Hut and yf 
he were twyes a.s moche false and ylle as he is, I 
wolde not counseyllc tliat he slmldt! he done to more 
than rifrlit. 

Ise;rryni, the widf, saide, Sir Fyrapal, all we atM-ee 
to the same as ferre as it plcseth my lord the kynire, 
it can not be beter. But thonjrh Heyiiart wen- now 
here, and he elery<l hym of double as many ]>layntes, 
yet siiold I Itryngc forth ayenst him that he had ior- 
fayted his lyf ; but I wyl now be stylle and say not, 
by cause he is not prcsente, and yet above alle this, he 
hath tolde the kynj^e of certayn tresure lyencf in Kre- 
keiijiyt, in Ilulsterlo. Ther was never lyed a frreter 
lesyng, ther wyth he hath vs alle bepryletl, and hath 
sore hyndred me and the here, lilar leye my lyf theron 
that he sayd not therof a trewe worde. Now robbeth 
he, and steleth v]»on the heth, all that {^ooth forth by 
his hows. Neuertheles, Sir Firapel, what that plesi'th 
the kynfje an<l yow, that niusti; wel be don. But and 
yf he wolde haue eonien hyther, he myu'lit liaue ben 
here, for he had knowleelie by the kyn;;e's luessa^'er. 

The kynge sayde. We wyl none tttherwyse sende for 
hym, but I comniande. alle them that owe me .seru)'se» 
and wylle my honour and worshi|i|te, that they make 
tliem redy to the warn> at the end*; of vj. dayes ; all 
them that l>en archers, and haue bowes. prolines, bom- 
liardes, Iiorsemen. and I'outcMieM. that alle tlii,-«e be redy 
to besiefje Maleperduys ; I >lial de.-troye lieynart the [ 


i'oxc yf I l)c a kyngc. Yo Ionic.*, and sires, what sayc 
yc hereto ? wille ye doo this wytli a pjood wyl ? 

And they sayd and cryed alle, Ye, me lordo, wliari 
that ye wyllc, we shall allc goo with yow. 



Alle thisc wordes herde Grymbcrt the dasso, wliichc 
was his bi'othor sone ; he was sory and angry yf it 
myght haue proufyted. He ranne thenne the hye way 
to Maloperduys ward, he spared nether busshe nc 
liawe, but he hasted so sore, that he swctte. lie so- 
rowed in liym self, for Rejoiart his rede erne ; and as 
he went he saide to hjmiself, Alas ! in what daunger bo 
ye conicn in. Wlicre slial ye become ? shal I sec you 
brought fro lyf to deth, or elles exylod out of the lands ? 
Truly I may be wel sorouful, for ye be the heed of allc 
our lygnage ; ye be wysc of counseyl ; ye be redy to 
helpe your frendes whan they haue nede ; ye can so 
wel shewe your resons, that where ye speke yc wynnc 
alle. With suchc maner wayllyng and pytous wordes 
cam Grymbcrt to Maloporduys, and fonde Rcynart his 
erne there standyng, whiche had goten two pygcons, 
as they cam lirst out of lior ncste to assaye yf they 
coude flee, and bicausc the fethors on her wyngis were 
to shortc, they fyllo doun to the ground, and as Rcy- 
nart was gon out to seche his mete, he espyed them, 
and caught lu'm, aiul was comcn home with hem. 



And whan he sawe Grymbf rt comyng, he tar}'(l anil 
said, Wt'lroino, my best beloucd nouew, that I knuwe 
in al my kynrcde, yc hauc ronne taste, yo ben al be 
swette ; haue ye ony newe tydiiigs ? Alas, said he, 
Lyet" eme it standeth euyl wyth yow. Ye haue loste 
both lyf and good. The kynge hath sworn 'at he 
shal gyue you a shameful deth ; he hath con. ^nded 
alle his folke withyn vj dayes for to be here ; archers, 
foteincn, liorsenien, and peple in waynes. And he 
liatli gunne?, bonibardes, tentes, and pauyllyons. And 
also he hath do laaden torches. See to fore ynw, for yc 
liaue nedc. Yscgryni and liruyn ben better now wyth 
tjic kynge than I am wyth yow. AUc that they wille, is 
doon ; Lscgrym hath don him to vnderstande that ye 
be a theef, an<l a mordorar : he hath grete enuye to 
yow. Lapreel the cony, and Curbaiit tiie roek haue 
made a grete coniplaynt also. I sorow nioche for your 
lyf, that for drede I am alle soke. 

I'uf, said the f«)X<*, dere neuew is ther nothyng clli!?, 
be ye so sore aferd lierof. Make good ehere hardely. 
Though the kynge hym self and alle that ben in the 
court liatl sworn my deth, yet shal I be exalted above 
them alle. They may alle faste jangle, clatre, and 
geue ct)unseyl, but tlie eourtc may not prosjitre wcyth-j 
oute me, and my wylcs and subtyltc. 


Dim. iiciKw lati' all the.-f tliyngo pa>.-M', and foiiif 


liorc in, and see what I sliall gyue you, a good payrc 
of fattc py^jft'ons. I loue no mete better ; tliey ben 
fjood to dygestc. They may ahnost be swoluwen in al 
hool, the bones ben half bU)de, I ete theiuwyth that 
other. I fele my self other whole encombred in my 
stomak, therefore ete I gladly lyjrht mete. My wyf 
Ermelyn shall receyuc vs frendly. But telle her 
nothyng of tliis thynge ; for she sholde take it ouer 
heuyly : she is tcndre of herte : she myght for fere 
falle in sommc sekenes. A lytyl thynge gooth sore to 
l)tr hcrtp ; and to morow crly I wil goo with yon to 
the eourte, and yf I may come to speclie, and may be, 
herd, I shal so answcre, that I shal touche somme nygh 
ynowh. Neuew, wyl not ye stande by me, as a frendc 
ought to doo to another. 

Yes truly derc erne, saiil Grymbort, and alle my good 
is at your coniniandement. God tlianke you, ncncw, 
said the foxe, that is wel said : yf I may lyne I shall 
quyte it yow. Eme, said (irymbert, ye may wel come 
to fore allc the lordes, and excuse yow ; ther shal none 
areste yow, ne holde as longe as ye be in your wordes. 
The quene and the hi[)aord have gotenn that. 

Then said the foxe, therfor I am glad. Thenne I 
carre not for the beste of the man lu'cr. I shal wel 
saue my self. rh<y spake no more bcrof ; l)nt wente 
forth in to the burgh ; and fondc Ermelyn there sit- 
tyng by her yonglyngs, whichc aroose up anon and 
receyuid thr^m frendly. Grymbert salewed his ante 
and the chyldre wytli frendly wordes. Then ij pigeons 
were made ready for tlieyr sopcr, whiche Reynard had 


tukcn : echo ol" them take Iiis part as tcrrc as it woldi- 
strutchc. Yf wlie of lit'iii lunl had one more, tlier sliolde 
but \yty\ haue ben leite over. The foxe saide, Lief 
neiiewe, how lyke ye my cliyldreii Kosel and Keyner- 
<lyn, they shal do W(>r>liij) to alle our lygnuge. They 
l>e;rynne alredy to do wel. Tliat one eatelielli wel a 
chyken, and that otiier a |nill<'t ; they conne wel also 
duke in the water after lapuynclies ami dukcys. 1 
wohle ofte sende them for prouande, but I wil fyrst 
teehe them how they shal kepe them fro the grynnes, 
fro the hunters, and fro the houndes. Yf they were so 
ferre comen that they were wyse, I dur>c wd trustc 
t4> them, that tln-y shold wel vytaylh* vs in many <:(i()d 
diucrses meti'S, that we now lacke. And they lykc 
and fiilowe me wel ; for they playe alle grymmyng, 
and where they hate, they loke frendly and meryly ; 
for therby, they bryn;^e them under their I'eet, and 
byte the throte usondre. This is the nature of the 
foxe. They bo swyfte in their takynfi^e, whiche pleseth 
me wel. Eme, said Grymbert, ye may lie ghul that ye 
haue suehe wyse ehyldren. And I am j^lad of them 
also, byeause they l>e of my kynni-. (iryinlxrt, .--aid 
the foxe, ye hniie swetiu' and l)e wery, it were bye tyme 
that ye were at vonr rt-.|«-. Knie, yf '• ph'se you, it 
thynketh me }^ood. rho layi- th» y i|i»wn on a Iviier 
nmdc of strawe, the foxe, hys wyf iinil hys ehyldn-n 
w«'nte alle to slept-. Hut iIh; foxe was al heuy, and 
laye, sii^hed, and sorowed, Imw he might beste exeus<! 

On tin iiiorow crlv, in ruvnHil lii- ca.-^tii. and wtntc 


with Gr}nnbcrt. But he toke leuc first of (hiiiie 
Erinelyn his wyf, and of his chyhlrcn, and sayde : 
Thynke not longe, I must goo to tlie court wyth 
Grymbert my cosyn ; yf I tarye somewhat be not 
aferde ; and yf yc here ony ylle tydyngs, take it alway 
for tlie bcste ; and see wel to your self, and kepc our 
castel wel. I shal doo yonder the bestc I can, after 
that I see how it gooth. 

Alas, Reyner, said she, how haucyc now thus taken 
vpon yow for to go to the court agayn. The last 
tyme that ye were there, ye were in grete jeopardye 
of your lyf : and ye sayde, ye wold neuer come there 
more. Dame, said the foxe, Thauenture of the world 
is wonderly, it goth other whylc by wenyng. Many 
one weneth to have a thing whiche he must forgoo. 
I muste nedes now go thyder. Be content, it is al 
wythoute dreade ; I hope to come at al ther lengest 
within fyue dayes agayn. Here wyth he departed, 
and wente with CJrynibert to the court ward. 

And when they wt-rc vpon the, hcctli, th(innc sayde 
Reyner : Neuew, syth 1 was iaste shryuen, I iiaue don 
many shrewde tomes. I wolde ye wold here me now, 
of alle that I have trcspaced in. 1 made the here to 
haue a grete wonde for the male whiche was cutte out 
of his skynne. And also, I made the wulf and his wyf 
to Icse her shoon. I peased the kynge with grete 
lesyngis, and bare hym on honde that the wulf and 
the bcre wold haue betrayed hym and wolde haue 
slayn him. .So I made tlic kynge right wratli witli 
them, where tkcy dcseruytl it not. Also, I tolde to 


the kynfTc, tliat tlur was p^rote trosoiir in Iliilsterlo, of 
whiflie he was neuer the better, ne richer, for I lyed 
nl that I sayih'. I k^hh- r>(lljii tlic raiiuiie, and 
Kywart the hare, with inc, ami slewe Kyward, and 
scnte to tlic kynge, by Bellyn, Kywarts liecd in skorn. 
And I dowcd the cony bytwene Ills cers that ahnost I 
benaamc his lyf from hyni, for lie escaped a^renst my 
wyl : he was to me oner swyft. The roekc may wcl 
comphiyne, fur 1 swok)wed in dame Sharpbeck his 
wyf. And also, 1 haue furgoten on thyng, the laste 
tyme that I was shreuen to you, wliicli I haue syth 
bctlioiight me, and it was of grctc deccytc that I dydt' 
whiche I now wyll telle yow. 

1 cam wyth the wulf, walkynge bytwene Iluutluil.-'t 
and Eluerdynage, there sawe we goo a rede mare ; and 
she had a black eolte or a fool of iiij monctliis olde, 
which was good and futte. Isegrym was almost 
storuen for hunger, and jnayd me goo to the marc and 
wytc of her yf slie wohl selle her fool. I ran faste to 
the mare, and axed that of her. She sayd she wold 
selle it for money. 1 demandeil of lier how she wold 
selie it. Siic saydr it is wnton in my hymhc foot : 
yf ye conne rede, ami lie a clirk, ye may come sec and 
rede it. Tho wyst I wcl where she wold be, and I 
saide. Nay for sothe lean not rede ; and also I desyrn 
not to bye your cliyldc. Isegrym hath -cnti- nu- 
hcther ; and wold t'ayn knowc the j'rys tlicrof. The 
mare saide, Lati'hymcome thenne h^'msclf, ami I shal 
late hyni banc knoulechc I sav<le, I slial, and 
hastely wente to Yse^rym and <;iide, Knie, wil yc ete 


your bely tiil of tlii.-i colte ? so goo fustc to the mare, 
for she tnryeth after yow. She hatli do wryte the 
pris of her colte vnder her fote, slie wolde that I sliold 
haue redde it ; Imt I can not one lettre, whiche me 
sore repenteth, for I wente neuer to scole. Erne, 
wylle ye bye that colte ? conne ye rede, so maye ye 
bye it ? 

Oy nouow, that can I wtl, wliat sholde me lotte ; 
I can wel Frenshc, Latyn, Englissh and Ducho ; I haue 
goon to scole at Oxenford. I haue also wyth oldt? and 
auncyent doctours, ben in the audyencc, and herde 
plees, and also haue gyuen sentence. I am lycensyd j, 

in bothe lawes : what maner wrytyng that ony man can 
deuyse, I can rede it as perfyghtly as my name. I • 

wyl goo to her, and >hal anon vnderston<lc tlic prys. \ 

And bad me to tarye for hym ; and he rannc to the ' 

marc, and axed of her, how she wohh; sell*; her fob;, 
or kcpe it. 

She sayde the somme of the money standeth wre- ^ 

ton after on my fote. He saide, late me rede it. She '"^ 

saide, Doo ; and lyfte vj) her foot wliiche was newe f 

shood wytli yron, and \j. stronge nayles, and she smote 
hym wytliout myssyngon iiis liccd, thathcfyl doun as 
he liad ben deed ; a man shold wel haue ryrlcn a myle 
er he aroos. 

The mare trotted a way wyth her colte, and she leet 
Isegrym lyeng shrewdly hurte, and wounded. He 
laye and bledde as an hound. I wente tho to hym and 
sayde, Sir Ysegrym, dere eme, how is it now wyth 
yow ? Haue ye eten ynowh of tin; colte ? Is your bely 

THVsroKVK Ol- KKVNAia) TlIi: lOXK. a.) 

Jul ? ^^'lly jryue yo nic no [)art ? I (ly<lt' your craiKlc 
Haue ye sleptr your flymr ? I |>r:iy vow telle iiie wliat 
was wPL'toii vnder the iiiares I'ote, what was it, prose, 
or ryiiie, metro or verse, I wold tayn know it. I trowc 
it was eantiun, for I herde you syngc nie thought 
fro ferre, for ye were so wysc, that iuj man eoude rede 
it better tlian ye. 

Alas, Keynart ! alas! said the wulf, I pray yow to 
leue your moekyng. I anj so foule arayed, and sore 
hiirte, that an lierte of stone niyght Iiaue pyte of me. 
The mare wyth her Utnge legge had an yron foote, I 
weiiile the iiayles therof had ben lettres, and slie hytte 
me at the fyrst stroke vj. grete woundes in my heed, 
tiiat almost it is clouen. Suche maner lettres shal I 
neuer more desire to rede. 

Dere enie, is that trouthe that ye telle me? I haue 
herof grete meruaylle. I heehh- you for one of the 
wysest elerkes that now lyue. Now I here wel, it is 
treue that I long syth haue redde and herde, that the 
beste elerkes I)en not the wysest men. The laye pejde 
otherwhyl wexe wyse. The eause that thise elerkes 
ben not the wysest, is that they studye so moehe in the 
connyng and science, that they therin do..le. Tims 
brought I Isegrym in this grete laste and harme, that 
ho vnneth byiielde iiis lyf. Lyef neuew, now haue I 
tolde you alle my >ynnes that I renieiuhre. What .^o 
euer falh; at the court, I wote neuer how it shal stonde 
with me then". I am not now so sore aferd, ft)r I am 
clere from synne, I wyl gladly come to raercy, and 
reccyue penance by your (•oun.-»eyl. 

80 TMVsrOKVK OK in'.VNAKD Till". I'OXK. 

firyinluTt saydc, TIic trespaccshcn ^Tftc, JU'urrtlic- 
Ics who tliat is deccl iiuisto abide deed, and tlR'rfore I 
wyl forfryin; it you altofrydre, with the fei*e that ye 
shal sunVu thcrtoiv, cr yc .slud coiinc excuse you of the 
<h'th ; and hicr \ j)i)ii 1 wyl iussoylle you. But the nioste 
hyiidre that ye shal haue shal be tliat ye seute Kywart's 
heed to the court, and tliat ye blynded the kynge wyth 
suttlc lye3. Erne, that was riglit euyl doon. 

The Ibxe sayde, What lyef neuew ? Who that wyl 
goo thurgh the worUl this to here, and that to see, ami 
that other to telle, truly it may not clerly be done. 
How sliolil ony man handle hony, but yf he lycked his 
fyngres. I am oftymes rored and pryeked in my con- 
science as to loue God above all thynge, and inyn euen 
Crysten as my self, as is to God wel acceptable, and 
accordyng to his lawi-. But how weno ye that reson 
wythin forth fyghteth ayenst the outeward wylle, than 
stonde I alle stylle in my self, that methynkethi haue 
loste alle my wittes, and wote not what me eyleth, 1 
am thenne in suche a thought. I haue now alle lefte 
my synnes, and hate alle thynge that is not good, and 
clymrae in bye contemplacion aboue his commande- 
ments ; but this specyal grace haue I whan I am alone, 
but in a short whyle after, whan the warld cometh in 
mi', tiienne fynde I in my wayc so many stones, and 
the fotespores that thyse loos prelates and riclie |)iees- 
tys goo in, that I am anone taken agayn. Thenne 
Cometh the world and wyl haue tliis ; and the flesshe 
wyl lyue plesantly, whiche leyc to fore me so many 
thinges that I thenne lose alle my good thoughtis and 


puq)Oos. I licrc tliero syiijrc I'Vpt', lawlir, pliiyc, uiid 
alie mirth, ami I here that tlicse prehite.*, uiul richc 
curates, preche and saye al other wyse, then they thynkc 
and diK). There learue I to lye. The lesyuf!;es ben 
moste vsed in the lordes courtcs, certaynly hjrdes, la- 
dves, prestis, antl clerke.s nuiken most lesyn;;es. Men 
dar not telle to the lonles now the trouthe. Ther is 
defaute, 1 must flatre and lye also, or ellis I shold be 
shette wythout tlie dore. I haue ofte horde men saye 
trouthe and ri^rhtl'ully, and haue theyr re-son made 
wyth a Icsynge lykc to theyr purpose, and brought it in 
and wcnte thurgh by cause their mater shold seme the 
fayrer : the lesyng oftymes comcth vnauysed, and fal- 
h'tii in the mater vnwetyngly, and so whan she is wel 
claddc, it goth forth thurgh with tliat other. 

Dere neuew, thus muste men now lye here, and 
tlicre saye soth, llatre, and menace, i)raye, and curse, 
and seke cuery man vpon his feblest and wckcst. A\ \u> 
otherAvyse wyll now haunte and vse the world, than 
deuyse a lesyng in the fayrest wise, and that bywym- 
ple witii kercliieiiis aboutc in siiehe wise that men take 
it fur a tnmthr, lie is imt ruinu- away Im his maister. 
Can he tliat sidttyltc in >uche wis«! that he stamer not 
in his wordes, and may thenne be hernle, neuew, this 
man nuiy doo womliT ; he may were skarlet and 
grysc ; he wynncth in the spyrituel lawe, and teniporal 
also, and wheresommeuer ho hath to «1(M), Now ben 
tlier many false siiifwis that have grete cnuye that 
thfv have so grete lurdclc ; and wcm- that tiny caniie 
also wel lye : and take nn them to lyi' and to telle it 


forth. lit' woldc iayn vU.' oi" tlic I'littc morscUis. Ijiit 
he iri not bileiud ne herd. And many bcii tlni- lliat 
h(j so pluinpc and folisshe, tluit wlian they \v«jnc bi-ste 
to prononce and shewe their mater and conclude, they 
falle l^csyde and outc therot", and can nut thcnne hclpe 
hem .self, and leue tlieyr mater wythout tayl or heed, 
and he is acom})ted for a fool. And many mockc 
them ther with. But who can gyue to his lesynge a 
conclusion, and prononce it without tatclyng, lyke as 
it were wreton to fore hym, and that he can .so Idynde 
the j)eide, that his Icsynge shal better be bileuid than 
the troiitlif, that is the man. 

What connyng is it to sayc the trouth that is good 
to doo. How lawhe thisc false subtyl shrewis that gyue 
eounseyl to make thise lesynges, and sette tliem forth ; 
ami iiiaken vnright goo aboue right; and make billes, 
and sctte in thynges that neuer were thought ne sayd, 
and teche men see thurgh their fyngrcs, and alle for to 
Wynne mone}' ; and late their tonges to hyre fur to 
niayntene and strengthe tlieir lesynges, ala.^ neuewe ! 
this is an euyl connyng of whiche lyf, scathe, and hurte 
may come therof. 
I I saye not but that otherwhyle, men muste jape, 
' bourde, and lye, in sniale thyngi.s, for who .so sayth 
alway troutlie, lie may not now goo nowher tliurgli the 
j world. Tlier ben many that playe Placebo. AVho .so 
alle way sayth trouth, shal fynde many lettynges in 
his way. Men may wel lye whan it is nede, and after 
amende it by eounseyl: for alle trespace.s ther is mercy. 
Ther is no man so wyse but he dooleth otlier whyle. 




Gryniltrrt saydi', WrI. ilcro cmc, what tliyiiL'i' slial 
you lette. Ye knowe al thyng at the narewcst. Ye 
sliulcle brynge me hastely in dotyiig, your rcsons pas- 
sen my viulei'standyng. What nede haue yc to shryue 
you ? yr shulde yourself by right be thi- pncst, and 
lete nu', and other sheep come to you for to be shryuen. 
Ye knowe the state of the worM in suehe wyse as no 
man may halte to ft)re you. 

Wyth suehe maner talkynge, the cam walkyng in 
to the court. The foxe sorowed somvvliat in liis liertc. 
Neuertheles he bare it out and stryked forth thrugh 
aUe tlie folke til he caiii in to the place where the kynge 
liym self was. And (irymbert was alway by the foxe 
anil .-iayde, Erne be not a ferde ; ami make good chcre. 
^\'h<) that is hardy thauiMitun- helpeth hym. Oftymes 
out; day is better than somtyme an hole yere. 

The foxe sayde, Neuewe, ye say trouthe. God 
ti.anke you, ye comforte me wel. .^nd forth he wentc 
and lokyd grymly hen- and tlicrc as who .-aith. What 
wylle ye? Here come I. He sawc tliere many of his 
kyinie standyng, wliiehr yuncd liym Imt lytyl good, as 
the otter, bcui'r, and otlirr to the nomlirc o|" x. whoine 
I slial name afterward. And sonnno were thcic tliat 
loued liym. The loxe eani in ami fvl doun on his 
knees to fore the kyng and began liis wonles and sayde. 


Goi;, iVo whom nothyng may be hyd, and abouc aiU- 


thyng is myglity, suue my lordr tlie kyufro, and my lady 
tlie (jucne, and gyue Lyiii grace to kiiowc who hath 
right, and who hath wroiigc. For thcr lyue many in 
the world, that seme otherwise outward than tJH'v \u> 
withinne, I wolde that God shewde openly cuery mans 
mysdedes, and alle theyr trespaces stoden wrcton in 
theyr forehedes ; and it coste me more than I now 
saye. And that ye, my lord the kynge, knewe as raoche 
as I doo, how I dispose me bothc erly and late in your 
seruyse. And therfore am I complayned on of the 
euyl shrewys, and wyth lesynges am put out of your 
grace, and consayte, and wohl charge me with grete 
otfencis, wythout deseruyng, ayonst al right. Wher- 
fore I cryc out, Ilarowe on them, that so falsely haue 
belyed me ; and brought me in suche trouble. How 
be it, I hope and. knowe you bothe, my lord and my 
lady, for so wyse and discrete, that ye be not ledde nor 
bileue suche lesyngis, ne false talis, out of the right 
waye ; for ye haue not be woned so to doo. Therfore, 
derc lorde, I biseche you to considere by your wysedora 
alle thynge by right, and lawe ; is it in dcede, or in 
speche, do euery man right. I desire no better. He 
that is gylty, and founde fawty, late hym be punsshyd ; 
men shal wcl knowe er I departe out of this courte, 
who that I am. I can not flatre, I wil allewey shewe 
openly luy heed. 


Alle they, that wcva in the palays, weren alle stylle, 
and wuudrcd that the foxe spack so stoutly. The 


kynjro saytlc, Ila, Ki'yiiart, how wel can ye your t'alacyc 
ami salutacion dooii ; Imt your tayr wordes may nut 
liclpt' you. I tliyiike wi'l that he slial this dayi" for 
your workis ]>c haii;_M'(l I)y your iiccko. I wil not nioche 
chydo wyth you. IJut I shal sliorteyour paync Tliat 
ye h)ue vs wel, that haue ye wel shewde ou the eony, 
and on Corbaut the roeek. Your falsenes, and your 
false inuencions, shal without longe taryeng make you 
to dryc. A pot may goo so longe to water, that at 
the la.ste it eomcth tohroken hoom. I thynkc your 
potte, that .so ofte hath deceyued vs, shal now hadtly 
be broken. 

Hcynart was in grete fere of thisc wordes. lie 
wold wel he had ben at Coleyn, whan he come thedyr. 
Thcnne, thoughte he, I muste her thurgh, how that I 
doo. ]\Iy lorde, the kynge, seyd he, it were wel reson 
that ye herde my wordes alle out. Thaugh I were 
dampned to the deth, yet ought ye to here my wordes 
out. I haue yet here to fore tyme gyuen to you juany 
a good eounseyl and prouHytable. And in nedealwey 
baue byden by you where other beestis haue wyked 
and goon theyr way. Yf now the cuyl beestis with 
false maters, haue to fore you wyth wronge belyetl me 
and 1 myght not eome- to myn excuse, ought 1 not 
thcnne to plaync. I haue to fore tliis seen that I sliold 
l>e herde by fore anutlier ; yet myght thisi' thyngi.s 
W(d ehaunge ami eonn' in tlieyr olde state. Olile good 
detles ought to be renieinbrid. I .see here nuiny of 
my lygnage and frendes standyng, that .seme they settc 
now lytyl by me, wliiehe neucrthelcs ehold sore deere 

Vl THY s r( ) It V i; « ) I- 1{ k v n a k i > r 1 1 1". I'l » x i:. 

in theyr liertes, that ye, my lonle tlic kynge, sholde 
destroye inc wroiif^^fully. Yt" yc; so dyde ye sholde 
destroye the trcwest scniaiit that ye haia- in alk' y»'in" 

What wenc yc, syr kynge ; hadde I knowen my self 
gylty in ony feat or broke, that wold haue comen hether 
to the lawe emonge alle myne cnemycs. Nay, sire, 
nay. Not for alle the world of rede gold. For I was 
fre and at largf. Wliat node had I to do that, but 
God be thanked I I knowe my self elere of alle niys 
dedes, that I dar wel eomc openly in the lyghte and to 
answere to alio the coniplayntes that ony man can saye 
on me. 

But Avhan Grymbert brought mc first thise tydyngis 
tho was I not wel plesed, but half fro myself that I 
lei>e here and there, as an viiwyse man. And had I 
not ben in the eensures of the chyrclH', J had wythout 
taryeng ham; comen. But I wente dolynge on the 
heeth, and wist not wliat to doo for sorowc. And 
thenne it happed that Mertyne, myn cnie, the ape, met 
wyth me, whiche is wyser in dergie than somme 
prcest ; he hath ben aduocate for the bysshop of 
Eameryk ix yere duryng. lie sawe me in this grcte 
sorow and heuynes ; and saide to me, Dere cosyn, me 
thyiiketh ye ar not wel wytli yourself ; what eyleth 
yow ? who hath dysplesyth yow ? thynge that thoucheth 
charge ought to be gyuen in knowleche to frendis. A 
triew frende is a grete helpe. lie fyndetli ofte better 
counseyl than he that the charge restcth on. For who 
someuer is charged wyth maters, is so heuy and 


acombrod with tlit-iii, that oitc he can imt ln'iryniu- to 
fynde the reraedyc. For suclie be so woo \y\n' as they 
hud h)ste thcyr inwytte. 

1 sui<le, Dere emc, ye .^ayc tnnithc For in lyke 
wyse is fallen to me. I am Ijioii^'lit in to a ;rrtte 
heuynes, vndeseruid and imt jrylty, l)y one tn whom 1 
haue alway ben an lierty and j^rete frende : lliat is the 
cony, whiche cam to me yesterday in tin- moniiyng 
where as I satte to fore my hows, and sayd matyns. 
He tolde me he wolde goo to the court, and sah-wed 
me frendly, and I iiym agayn. Tlio sayd he to me, 
Gootl Keynard, I am an hoiiirnd and am \vt rv : haiie 
ye ony mete ? 1 .-aide, Ye, ynowli, come nere. 'Iho 
traf I hym a cojx-l of maynchettis with swete l)utt<'r. 
It was vjxm a We<lnesday, on whiche day I am not 
wonte to etc ony llessh. And also 1 fasted by cause 
of tins feste of Whytsontyd whiche approuchcd. For 
who that wylle ta.ste of the oucrest wysclicdc, and 
lyuc g<K)Stly, in kepyng tlu; commandtints of our Lonl. 
he muste faste, ami make hym rrdy aycnst thi- hyr 
testis. Ft vos cstote parati. Dm- Fmr, I gaf hym 
I'ayr whyte lireed with .swete l)Uttrr, wlii-r wyth a man 
myght Wfl be casid that were moche hongry. And 
whan he liad i-t<Mi his b<>ly fidle, tho cam Kussi'l, my 
yongest .sonc, and wold haiic taken away that was lefti*. 
For yonge chyldnii wold aluay fayn«' et<ii. And with 
that he tasted for to banc taken .somwhat. tli<- coiiv 
smote Kussi-I, to fore his mouthc, that his teeth biiild<-, 
and fyl down half a swonn. Whan lieynardyn, myn 
eldest .sone, saw*- that, lie sprange to the eonv, and 


cnii^lit liyin hy the hvvA, and slioM liaiic slayii Iiyni, 
had I not reskowed hyni. I lidjui hym that he wcnte 
iVoni hym : and l»cte my cliyhlo scui' tlicrfore. Laprecl 
tlie cony ran to my lord tlie kynp, and saidc I wohl 
hano niunhi'd hym. Sec, emc, thns come I in thr 
wonh'S ; and I am leydc in the Idame. And yet In- 
comj)hiyneth, and I playne not. 

After this cam Corhant the roek, fleyiig wyth a 
soronful noyse. I asked what liyin cylcd. And he 
said, Alas my wyf is deed : yonder lyeth a dede hare 
full of mathes, and wormes, and there she etc so moche 
thcrot", tliat the wormes haue byten a two her throte. 
I axed hym Ikjw cometh that by ; he wohle not speke 
a wordc mitre, but llewe his waye ; and lete me stande. 
Now, saith he, that I haue byten and slayn her. IIow 
shold I come so nygh lier ; for she fleeth, and I jyoo a 
fote. IJeholde, dere emc, thus am I bftrn an hondc. I 
may saye wcl that I am vnhapjiy. 15ut parauenture 
it is for myn ohle synnes. Hit were goutl for me, yf 
I coude paeiently sufl're it. 

The ajie saide to me, Neucw, ye shal goo to the 
courte to fori- tlic lordes and excuse yow. Alas, erne, 
that may not be ; for tlie archdeken hath put me in 
the popes curse, bycausc I counscyllc<l Ysegrym the 
wulf, for to Icue his rclygon at Elmare, and forsake 
liis liabytr. lie <-oni|ilayned to nic, that Iir lyiiyd so 
straytly, as in longe fastyng, and many thyngi.s reilyng 
and syngyng, tliat he coude not endure it. Yf he 
shold longe aliydr tlure he shold deyc. 1 liad i)yt(; of 
his complaynyng, and I helpe hym, as a trewe frende, 


that ho cam mifc. Wliicln' imw me sore rciicntctli. 
Vov lie lal)oiiivtli, al tliat In* can, ajjcnst inc to tlie 
kyngc, for to do mc to Im- Iiaii^rcil. Thus dotli lie cii}l 
for good. So, erne, thus am 1 at theendc ol' my \s yltcs 
ami of counseyl. For I mustc goo to Uome for an 
ub.M)lucion, and tliennc shal my wyf and chyldren 
suffre raoche liarnie aiul blauie. For thisc cuyl hostis 
that hate me, shalle do to hem allc the Imrtf tiny 
maye, and fordryue them whcr they can ; and I wnld 
wel dcfende hem, yf I were IVe of the curse ; for 
thenne wold I g<M) to the court ami excuse mc, win-re 
iH)W I «lar not. I sliold do grete syiiiic yf I cam 
emonge the gotxl iM|)le, I am aferde God shohl phiglie 

Nay, cosyn, be not aferd. Kr I shold suffre you in 
this sorow, I know the way to Rome wel, I vnder- 
standc mc on this werke. I am called ther Mertyue, 
the bisshops clerke ; and am wd by knowen ther<'. I 
shal do syt«' the anhdikru and take a pier ayenst hym, 
and shal l>ryngf witii me for you au absctlucion, 
hi", wil, for I kiiowf thtrr all that is for to Im- doon or 
Icftc, There dwelleth Symon, myn eme, whiche is 
grete and myghty thcr ; wim that may gyue ought, lie 
holpeth hym anon. Tlnr is I'rentout, Waytescathe, 
and other of my frendis and alyes. Also, I shal take 
so(»mc money with nw, yi' I ned ony. The preyer is 
wyth yeftes hardy, wyth money alle way the right 
goth forth. A trewi- frende shal for his frende auenture 
!)oth lyf and good ; and so shal I for you in your 
right. Cosyn, make gtHnl chere, I shal not reste after 

9 Til YSTf ) R Y F- O V U F. Y N A li I > Til I-: FO X F. 

to iiKirow, til I coino ti> Roinc, ami I shal solycyte your 
maters. Ami gou ye to the court, as soiie as ye may ; 
all your mysdedes, and tlio synues that haue brought 
you in the grete sentence and curse, I make you 
quyte of them ; and take them in my self. Whan ye 
come to the court, ye shal fynde there, Rukenawc, my 
wyf, her two susters, and my thre chyldrcn, and many 
mo of our lignage. Derc cosyn, speke to them hardciy. 
My wyf is sondrely wyse, and wil gladly do somnii! 
what for her frcndis. Who that hath nedc of helpe, 
shal fynde on her grete frendship. One shal alway 
seke on his frendes, thaugh he haue angred them : 
For blood mustc krepe where it can not goo ; and yf 
so be, that ye be so ouer chargyd, that ye may haue 
no right, thenne sende to me, by nyght and day, to 
the court of Koine, and late me haue knowlcche therof, 
and alio tho that ben in the lande, is it kynge or quene, 
wyf or man, I shal brynge them alle in the Popes 
curse ; and sende there an inderdicte, that no man shal 
rede ne syngen, ne crystene chyldren, ne burye the 
dede, nc receyue sacramcnte, tyl that ye shal haue 
good ryght. 

Cosyn, this shal 1 wel gete, for the pope is so sore 
oldc, that he is but lytil sette by : and the cardynal of 
Puregold hath alle the myght of the court : he is 
yonge and grete of frendis ; he hath a conculjyne, 
whom he mouch loueth ; and what she dcsyreth that 
geteth she anone. See cosyn, she is myn nece, and I 
am grete and may doo mouche with her: in .-uche wyse 
what I desyre, I faylle not of it ; but am alway fur- 



thcrd tlii'riii. Wlierefore, cosyn, liyd my lunl the 
kynge, that he (h>o you rijrht. I wote wol h<' wil not 
wariiryitu, for the ri<;ht is hrvy vmoiil'Ii to every mail. 

My lord the kynge, whun I herde this I hiwhed : and 
wyth grete gladncs cam hether, and haue told you allc 
trouthe. Yf ther be ony in this court, that can leyc 
on nie, ony other mater, wyth goo<l witncsse, and 
preue it, as ouglit to be, to a nolde man, late me 
thenne make amendcs, acordyng to the lawc : and yf 
he wil not leue of herbi, thciine settc mc day and fcld, 
and I slial make gotKl on hym, also ferre as he be of 
as good birth as I am, and to me lyke ; and who tliat 
can wyth fyghtyng gete the worship of the fehle, 
late hyni haue it. This riglit hath standen yet 
hethcrto ; and I wil not it shold be broken by me. 
The lawe and right doth no man wrong. 

Alle the beestis, both poure and riche, were allc 
stylle whan the foxe spak .so stoutly. Tlic cony 
Laprcl, ami tin- rock, were .so sore aferde, that tliey / 
durste not >peke ; but pyk<'d and strykcd them out of 
tbe court botlie two, and wlian they were a room, fer 
in the playne, they .saide, (iod graunte that thi.s felltt 
nuirderarc may fare cvyl. IIi- tan liywrappe and 
covere liis falslie«le, that his wordes seme as trowe as 
the gospel ; herof knoweth no man tlian we : How 
sh(dd we brynge ? it is bettr-r tliat we wyko I 
and departc, than we sholde holde a felde, and fyghto 
with hym ; he is .so shrcwde, ye thaugh ther of us 
were fyve, we coud not dcfendc us, but that he shold 
sic vs alle. 



Isegrym tlir wiilt", and IJriiyn the bcre, were woo in 
hemself, wlian tliey j^awe tliisc tweyne mine the eourt. 
The kynjxe sayde, Yf ony man wil coniphiyne, hite hym 
conic forth, and we shal hci*e hym. Yesterday eamen 
here so many, where ben they now ? Reynart is here. 
\ The foxe saide. My lord, ther ben many that com- 
iplayne, that and yf they sawe their athieisarye, they 
jwold be stylle, and make no playnte. Witnes now of 
Laprel the cony, and Corbant the rock, which haue 
j comphiyned on me to yow, in my absence : but now 
j tliat I am conien in your presence, they flee away, 
and dar not abyde by tlieyr wordes. Yf men shohl 
byleue false shrewes, it shold do moche harme and 
hurte to the good men. As for me, it skylleth not. 
Nevertlicles, my lord, yf they had by your com- 
mandement, axed of me forgyfnes, liow be it tlii>y 
haue gretly trespaced, yet I had for your sake par- 
doned and forgyue them. For I wil not be out of 
charyte, ne hate ne complayne on myne enemyes. 
But I sette alio thyng in Goddes hand ; he shal werke 
and auenge it as it plesyth hym. The kynge sayde, 
Reynart, me thynketh ye be greued, as ye saye : Ar 
ye withinforth, as ye seme outward. Nay, it is not so 
cleer, ne so open nowher nyghe, as ye here liaue 
shewed. I muste saye what my gryef is, which towch- 
eth your worship and \yf, that is to wete, that ye liaue 
don a foul and shameful trespaas. "Whan I had par- 
doned you alle your offencis, and trespacis, and ye 
promysed to goo ouer the see on pylgremage, and gaf 
to you, male and staf, and after tliis, ye sente me by 


IJt'Uyn the nunc the male airayno, and tlicryn KywartS 
lic'i^'tl. How might ye do a more reprouable trespass ? 
Now were ye so hardy to dore to me doo suche a 
shame. Is it not euyl don to send to a lorde, his scr- 
uaunts heed ? Ye can not saye nay, here agaynst ; 
for Bcllyn th(; ranie wliiche was our chapehiyn, tohle 
vs al the mater, how it happed. Suche reward as lie 
had wlian he brought vs the message, the same .shal ye 
liaue or right shal taylle. 

Tho wius lleynart so sore atord, that he wist not 
what to saye. He was at his wittcs ende ; and lokyd 
ahoutc him pytously ; and sawe many of liis kyn and 
alycs that horde alle this, hut nought they saide. He 
was al pale in his visag<\ hut nomun profcrd hym hand 
ne foot t<» Indpi- hvni. The kinge said, Thou suhtyl 
felaw and fals shrewe, why spekest thou not, now 
dombe. The foxe stode in grete drede, and syghed 
sore, that alle herde him. But the wulf and the here 
were glad hcrof. 

now i>.\Mi: III KK.SAWK an.s\vi;hij Koit Tni; ><>\i; TO Tin; kyn»;k. 


Dame Rnkenawe, tlie she apt-, Reynart's nuntc, wa« 
not wel plesyd. She was grete wyth tlic <puMic, and 
wel belouyd. Hit happed wel for the foxe that she 
was there, for she vmlerstood alh' wysedom ; and she i 
durste wel speke, where iv^ it to doo was. Where mer 
she cam euerich was glad of hci-. She sayde. My loixl 

II 2 


the kyng, yc ought not to be; angry whan ye sytte in 

jugenicnt ; for that becometh not your noblesse. A 

man that sytteth in jugement ought to put fro hym 

alle wrath and angre. A lorde ought to have dyscrc- 

cion that shold sytte in justyse. I knuwe better the 

poyntes of the lawe tlian somnie tliat were furred 

gownes, for I haue Icrned many of tliem, and was made 

connyng in tli(> la\v(\ 1 had in the pope's palays of 

Woerden, a good bedde of Iieye, where other beestes 

laye on the harde grounde ; and also whan I had there 

to doo, I was suffred to speke, and was herde to fore 

another, by cause I knowe so wcl the lawe. Seneca 

wryteth that a lorde shal oueral doo right and lawe, 

he slial charge none to whom he hath gyuen liis sauf- 

garde to, aboue the right and lawe ; the lawe ouglit 

not to halte for no man ; and euery man tliat stondetli 

here wolde wcl betliynke hym what he hath doon and 

bydryuen in his dayes ; he shold the better haue pa- 

cience and pyte on Reynart. Late euery man knowe 

hym self, that is my counseyL Ther is none that 

stoiiilcth so surely, but otht-rwhyle he falleth or slyd- 

eth. Wlio tliat neuer mysdede ne synned, is holy and ||j 

good, and hath no neede to amende hym. AVhan a 

man doth amys, and thenne by counseyl amendeth it, 

that is humaynly and so ought he to doo, but alway to 

mysdo and trespace, and not to amende hym, that is 

euyl, and a deuely lyf. 

Merke thenne what is wreton in the gospel. Estate 
misericordes, be ye mercyful ; yet standetli ther more, 
Nolite iudicarc, ct non indicabimi?ii, derae ye no man, 


and ye slial not be tlcincd. Tlicr stiuidftli also liow 
tin- pliarisL'Csbrouf^lit a woman taken in aduoultrvi-, and 
wold liaiie stoned her to detli : they axed onr Lonl what 
he said therto, lie said, Who of yow alle is withoiite 
synne, late hym easte the fyrst stone. Tho abode no 
man, but lefte her there stondyng. 

Me thynketh it is so hycre. Therbe many that see 
a strawe in an other? ye, that can not see a balke in ■ 
his owne. Ther be many that denie other, and hviu 
8idf is werst of" alle. Thaugh one fallc ofte, and at 
laste aryseth vp and cometh to mereye, he is not therof 
danipned. God receyueth alle them that desyre his 
mercy ; Late no man condampne another ; though they 
wystc tliat he had don amys, yet late them see theyr 
own defautes, and thennc may they them self correcte 
fyrste ; and thenne Reynart my cosyn shold not fare the 
werse : for his fadre and ins graunfadre, haue alway 
ben in more loue and repntaeion in this court, than 
Isegrym the wulf or lliuyn the here, witli al theyr 
frendis and lignage. Hit hatli ben here to f<tre an 
vidyke comparison. The wysedom of Reynart my 
cosyn, and the lionour and worship of hym, that lie 
hath doon, and the counseyl of them ; for tlirv know 
not how the world gooth. Me thynketh this court is 
al torned vp so doon. Thise false shrewes, flaterers, 
and deceyuours ari>e and wexc grete by tlic lonhs and 
ben euhaunsed vp ; and tlm gootl, triewc, and wvso 
been put doun. For tiiey haue ben woned to counseylle 
truly, and for t honour of the kyng : I can not sec how 
this may stondc longc. 


Thonnc; said the kyiige, Dame, yf lie had don to 
yow suche trcspaas as he hath don to other it shohl 
repeute yow. Is it wonder that I hate liym. Ho 
brekcth ahvay my saufgurde. Ilaue ye not herde 
tlie comphiyntes tliat here haue ben shewde of hym, 
of iiuirdre, of theefte, and of treson ? Ilaue ye suche 
trurft in hym ? Thynke ye that lie is thus go<id and 
cleer, tlienne sette hym vp on the awter and worshi|>e 
and praye to hym as to a saynte. But thcr is none 
in alle the world that can saye ony good of hyin. Ye 
maye saye moche for hym, but in thende ye shal fynde 
hym al nought. He hath nether kyn, ne wyn, ne frende 
that wylle entreprise to helpe hym, he hath so deseruyd. 
I haue grete ineruaylle of you ; I herde neuer of none 
tliat hatii felawshipped with hym that euer thanked 
liym, or saide any gocjd of hym, sauf you now ; but 
alway he hath stryked hem with his tayl. The she 
ape ansuerd and said, My lord, I loue hym, and haue 
hym in grete chicrte ; and also I knowe a good dede 
that he ones in your i)resence dyde, wherof ye coude 
hym grete thanke : though now it be thus torned, yet 
shal the heuyest weye moste. A man shal love his 
frende by mesui'C, and not his enemyehate ouennnche. 
iStedfastnes and constaunce is fyttyng, and behoueth to 
the lordes, how someuer the world torneth. ]\Ien 
ought not preyse to moche the daye, tyl euen be come. 
Good counseyl is good for hyiu that wil doo ther 


T 1 1 YSTO K Y !•: ( ) K K K Y N A U I ) T III : l'( ) X i:. 1 Oo 



Now two yore ])assi(l cam n iiuin and a scrixiit in to 
tliis court, for to haue jugement, wliichc was to 3'ow 
an<l youres ri^lit doubtcful. Tlic serpent stoile in an 
liedche where as he sujiposcd to Iiauc jron tlioru;^li, l>ut 
he was caught in a snare l>y the necke, that he mvght 
not escape without helpe, hut shuhl liaue k)st his lyi" 
there. The man cam Ibrth by. and tlie serpente cal- 
led to hym, and cryde, and prayde the man, that he wolde 
helpe hym out of the snare, or ellis he muste there dye. 
The man had pyte of hym, and saide, Yf thou pro- 
myse to me that tliou wilt not enuenyme me, ne d«> 
iiie none harme ne hurte, I >\i:\\ lulpe tlie out of this 
peryl. The serpente was i.'dy, and swore agrete othe 
that he, now ne neuer, sholde iloo hym harnie ne hurte. 
Thenne he vnlosed hym, and delyuerd liyiii out of tlie 
snare, and wente forth to gydre a good whyle, that the 
serpente had grete hongre, for he had not eten a gretc 
while to fore, and sterte to the man. and wohl haue 
slayn livni. The man >ti rte away, and wa> a terile, 
and saide, ^^'ilte thou now sle me? ha>t tliuu forgoten 
the oth that thou madest to me, tliat thou shohlest not 
mysdoo ne hurte mo ? The serpent auswcrd, I nmye 
doo it good to fore al the worhl that I dcM) ; the node 
of hongre may cause a man to broke his oth The 
man saide, j'f it n»ay bo not bottre, gyue me so longe 
respyte tyl we mete ami fynde that nuiy juge the mater 
by right. The serpent graunteil therto. 

10 1- TIIVSToUVi; (IF KKV.NAKI) Till: I'liXK. 

Tliu.s tliry wfiite to ;i;ytlre ^o longf, that tliry I'oiule 
Tyselyn, tlic nuicn, ami Slyndpere, his sone. There 
rehersed they theyr rcsons. Tisdyii the raucn juged 
anon tliat he shold etc the man, he wolde fayn haue 
oten his parte, and liis sune also. The serpent said to 
the mail, How is it mow ? AViiat thynkc ye, haue I not 
wonne ? Tiio man saidc. How sholde a robber juge 
this? he shold haue auayle therby, and also he is alloiie; 
thcr iiiu.-te be two or tlue at leste to gytlre, and that 
they umlerstande the right and lawe ; and that don, late 
the sentence gon. I am neuertheles yl on ynough. 

They agreed and wente forth bothe to gydre so longe 
that they ioutle the beer and the wull", to wliom they 
tolile theyr mater. And they nium juged that the 
serpent shold sle the man, for the nede of hongre brek- 
cth oth alwaye. The man theniic was in gretedoubte 
and fere, and the serpent earn and caste his venyni at 
hym. But the man lepe a way from hym with grcte 
payne, and said. Ye doo grcte wronge that ye thus lye 
in a wayte to slee me ; ye haue no right therto. The 
serpent sayde, Is it not ynough yet? hit hath lien 
twyes juged. Ye, sayd the man, that is of tlu'm that 
ben wonte to munlrt' and mljiic. AUe that cucr they 
swere and promyse they hold not. But I aj)pele this 
mater in to the court to fore our lord the kyng ; and 
that thou mayst not foraske ; and what jugement shal 
be gyuen there, I shal obeye and suftre, and ncuerdoo 
the contrarye. 

The bore and the wulf sayden that it shold be so, 
ami that the M-rpcnt dtsirud no better. "i'Ley supposed 


jrf it sbolJ come to fore you, it shoUl goo there as tliey 
woKle. I trowc yi' l»c wcl remeiubrid lierof. 

Tho cam thry ulle to the court to fore yow, und the 
wulues two cliyMren cam with thcyr fader, wliiche 
were caliyJ Empty bely, and Neuer full, by cause they 
wold etc of the man, for they howlyd for grete hon- 
gre, whcrfore ye commaundcd them to auoyde your 
court. The man stode in gretedrede, and called vpon 
your gtKMl grace, and toldc how the serpentc wold haue 
taken his lyf fntm hyin, to wiiomhe had sauyd his lyf, 
and that aboue his oth and promyse, he wtdd haue de- 
uoured hym. The serpente answcrd, I haue not tres- 
paccd, and that I report me hoolly on the kyng. For 
I dyde it to saue my lyf; for nede of lyf, one may breke 
bid oth and promy&c. 

My lord, that tyme were ye and alle y«)ur counseyl 
herewyth aconibryd. For your noble grace sawe (he 
grete sorow of the man, and ye wold not that the man 
shold for his gentilnes and kyndenes bo juged to deth. 
And on that other, sith hongre and nede to saue the 
lyf, seketh narowly to be holpen. Ther was none in 
al the court that coude ne knewe the right hierof. 
Ther were somme that wolde fayn the man ha»l be 
holpen. I see them Iiicr 8tondyng. I wote wcl they 
saydc that they coude not ende this mater. 

Thenne commanded ye that K«'ynard, my neuew, 
shold come and save his aduysc in thi>« mater. That tyme 
was lie aboue alle other luleuyd, and herd in the court, 
and ye bad hym gyue sentence acordyng to the bent 
right, and we alle .shal folowc hym ; for he knewe the 


groiinde of the lawo. Reynard said, My l(ird, it is not 
possyble to yeue a trewe sentence after theyr wordes, 
for in here sayenjjr ben ofte lesyn<j:es. But and yf I 
myght see the serpent in the same paryl and nede that 
he was in, wlian the man loosed hym, and unbonde, 
thenne wyste I wel what I shold saye, and who that 
wolde doo otherwise he shokl mys(Ui(» airayn riglit. 

Thenne sayd ye, my lord, Reynard, that is wel said, 
we alle acorde hcrto, for no man can saye better. 
Thenne wente the man and tlie serpent in to the place 
wher as he fonde the serpent. Kcynart bad that the 
serpent shold be sette in the snare in lyke wyse as he 
was, and it was don. Thenne sayd ye, my lord, Rey- 
nart, how thynketh yow now ? what jugement shal we 
gyue ? Thenne said Reynard the foxe, ]\Iy hjrd, now 
ben thry ])othe lyke as they were to fore, they hane 
neyther wonne ne loste. See, my lord, how I jugefor 
a riglit, also fcrre as it shal ph-se your noltir grace. 
Yf the man wil now lose and vnbynde the serpent 
vpoii the ])romyse and oth that he to fore made to hym, 
h<! may wel doo it ; but yf he thynke that he for ony 
tliyng shold be emcc)m])ryd or hyndred by the serpent, or 
for nedeof hongre wold l)reke liis oth and promysc, thenne 
juge I that the man may goo frdy where lie wyl, and late 
the serpenteabydestylleboundcn, lyke as he myght haue 
don at the begynnyng; for he wold haue broken liis oth 
and promyse wher as he helpe hym out of suche fereful 
peryl. Thus thynketh me a ryghtful jugement that the 
man shal haue his fre choys, lyke as he tofore hadde. 

Lo, my lord, this jugement thought yow good, and 



allc your c'oiins«'yI, whiclK' at that tyiiic were by you, 
and t*«>lc\vfd th<' t^aiiu', ami prcysed Keynardis wysedom, 
that he had inatle the man (luytc and fri-e. Thus the 
foxe wysely kepto your noble honour and worship, as 
a triowe seruant is bounde to doo to his lord. ^Vher 
liath the beer or tlio wulf don cuer to yow so moche 
worship? Tliey conne wed huylen, and blasen, .st(de 
and robbe, and etc latte niorsdlis, and fyll thi-yr ludycs, 
and thenne juj;e they for rifrht and lauc. tliat snude 
theuis that stolen hcnnys and chekyns sholdbe hanp'd. 
Jiut they hem self that stelen kyen, ttxen, and horses, 
they shal goo quyte, and be lordcs, and seme as though 
they were wyser than Salamon, Avyccnc, or Aristoti- 
les. And eeiie wil Ijc holden hye i)roud, and preiscd 
of grcte dedes and hardy ; but and they come where 
as it is to «loo, they bi-n the lir.-te that Mee. Thenne 
muste tin; symple ;.'cm) forth to lore, and they kepe the 
rcreward Ix-hynde. Och, my lorde, these luid other 
lyke to them, Ik; not wysc, but they destroye. towne, 
eastle, lande, and peple. They retchc not whos hows 
brenn»*th, so that they may warme them by the eoles. 
They seke alle theyr owne anayll, and syn;iuler 
profTyfe ; but Keynarf tlie foxe, and alle his frendin, 
and Ivfrna^re, sorowen and thynke to preferre the. 
honour, worship, fordeel, and prolfyte, of theyr lonl, 
and for wiac. eounm-yl, wliiehe ofte more prouffvtetli 
here tluin prydt' and l><H»st. Thih doth Heynard. thou;:h 
he haue no thanke. Atte longe it shal be widknowen 
wlio is beste, and «lt»th moste prouflyt. Mv h)rd. ve 
saye, that his kynne and li^na;;e drawe :i| afterward 


from livm, :iinl stoiidc not liy liviii, \\>r his falshcdc 
ami (l<ccvual)lt' ami sulityl tDiirhis. I wolilc an otlicr 
luul saydo that, thi-i shultlc thenne .suchf wrakt- lie 
taken thorul", that liyni niyght growlc that cuer lie 
sawe hyni. But, my lonle, we wyl forbere you. Ye 
niaye sayc your playsir, and also I saye it n*>t l)y yow. 
Were ther ony that wolde bcdryue ony thyng ayenst 
yow with wordes or with werkes, liyni wold we soo doo 
to, that men slmM save wo liad ben there. Ther as 
fyghtyng is, we ben not woned to be aferd. 

My lorde, by your leue I may wel gyue you know- 
leehe of Ileynardis fremlis and kynne. Ther ben 
many of them that for his sake and loue wille auenture 
lyf and good. I know my self for one. I am a wyf. 
I shold, yf he had nede, sette my lyf and good for 
hyiii. Also I liane tlirr fid waxen eldldn'ii wliiidi lien 
hardy and stronge, whom 1 wold alle to gydre auenture 
for his loue, ratlier than I shold see hym destroyed ; 
yet had I Icutr dye fliaii I sawe th(Mn mysearyc to 
fore niyn eyeii : so wel loue I hym. 


The fyrste eliyldc is named Byteluys, whichc. is 
moehe eht-rysshyd and ean make moehe sjjorte and 
game, whei"forc is gyuen to hym the fatte trenehours 
and moehe other good mete, whiehe eometh wel to 
proulfyt of Fulrompe liia brother, and also my thyrdc 


chyhlc is a dou<;liter ami is nuincil IIat<Mn-tt<>. Sin* 
can wel pyke out lyse ami iictis out of mens lu'ctlis. 
Thisc thro ben to cche othor tryewc, wlicrfor I loiic 
them wel. 

Dame Itukenawe called hem turth ami sayde, AVel- 
come, my derc chyldren ; come I'nrth and stande by 
Keynard your derc ncuew. Theiine payd slic. Come 
fortli, alle ye that beii of my kyiim- ami licynarts ; 
and late vs praye the kynge that he wille doo to 
Keynard ryght of the lande. Tho eam forth many a 
becst anon, as the squyrel, the musehont, the fyehews, 
the martron, the bcuer wytli his wyt' Ordegalc, the 
gr*nete, the ostrole, the boussyng and the fyret ; 
thyse tweyne etc as fayne polayl as dotli Keynart ; 
the oter and Tantecroet his wyf, whom I had alm<»te 
forgoten, yet were they to fore with the beuer, enemyes 
to the foxc ; but they dn'-st not gaynsaye Dame 
Rukcnawe, for they were aferd of her. She was also 
the wyscst of al his kynne of counscyl, and was moste 
doubted. Ther cam also mo than xx other by cause of 
her for to stan<le by Kyiianl. Ther cam also dame Atrote 
with her ij sustrcs the wesel, and Ilermell tlieasse, tlie 
backo, the watrerattc, and many moo to the nonibre of 
xl. whiche alle eamen and stoden by Keynard the foxc. 

My lord the kynig, saide Kukenawc, come and see, 
lieir yf Keynart haue any fron<li9. Here nuiy ye see 
we ben your trewe subgettis whiche for yt)W wohl 
anenture both lyf an«l goo<l, yf ye had neile. Though 
ye be hardy, myghty an<l stronge, oure wel wyllyd 
frendsliij) nxu nut hurte )ou. Late Keynard the foxe 


wiA hrtliyiiko Iiyiii \ poii tliisc maters that yo hnim 
leyd ayenst Iiiiii, and yf he can not excuse hyni, 
thenue doo hyni right, we desire no bett«T. And tliis 
by right ought to no man be warned. 

Tiie quene tlienne spack : This saide I to hym yes- 
terday; but lie was so fyers and angry that he wold 
not here it. The lupaerd saide also, Syre, ye may juge 
no iV-rthcr than your men gyue theyr verdyte : for \i' 
ye wold goo forth by wyl and myghte, that were nut 
worshipful for your estate ; here allewaye botlie 
partyes, and thenne by the beste and wysest counseyl, 
gyue jugement discretly acordyng to the beste right. 

The kinge saide, this is al trewc ; but I was so sore 
nieuyd whan I was enformed of Ky-wart's deth, and 
sawe his hede, that I was hoot and hasty. I shal here 
the foxe. Can he answere and excuse hym of that is leyd 
ayenst hym, 1 shal gladly late hym goo (piyte. And 
also atte requeste of his good frendis and kynnc. 
Reynart was glad of tliise wordcs, and tlioughte, (lod 
thanke myn aunte I Siic hath the rys doo blosme 
agayn. She hath wel holpen me forth now. I haue 
now a good foot to daunse on. I shal now lokc out of 
iiiync eycn, and bryngc forth the fayrest lesyngis that 
euer luan herde, and brynge my self out of this dauuger. 






Thenne spak Reynart the foxe, and saide, Alas what 


sayc ye, is Kywnrt ilccd ? and where is Bellyn the 
rainnie, what hroiight he to y<»w wlian he earn airayn ; 
tor I (lelyuerd to liyni thn' iewellis. I wold fayii 
knowe where tliey ben he eonien. That one of hem 
shohl he liaiie fryuen to yow, my h)rd the kyiij; : and 
the other ij to my lady the quenc. 

The kynge saide, Bellyn brought us nought ellis 
but Kywaiis lieed: lykc as I saide you to lbre;wherof 
I toke on hym wrake ; I made hym to lose his lyf. 
For the fouie kaytyt" said to me, tliat he hym self was 
of the cimnseyl of tlie Kttres makyng that were in 
the mah-. 

Ala-s my lord, is this very trouthe ? "\Vt) to mc 
kaytyf, that euer I was born, sith tliat thise good 
jewellis be tluis lost, myn herte wil breke for sorowc. 
I am sory that I now lyue. What shal my wyl* sayo 
whan she hereth lu'rof. She shal goo out of her wytte 
for sorow. I shal neuer, also longc as I lyue, haue her 
fren<lship; she slial maki; moehesorowe when slie hereth 
therof. The she ape saitle, Heynard, dere neuew, what 
proufTyteth that ye nuikc al tliis sorowc. Late it piusse, 
and telle us, what thise jewellis were. Parauenturo 
W(' shallc fynde eounseyl to haue them agayn yf they 
be aboue erthe. Mayster Akeryn shal hiboure for 
tliem in his book is ; ami also we shal eurse for them 
in alle ehirehys vnto tiie tyme that we haue knowleehc 
wher they Ix'n. They maye not be loste. 

Nay, aunte, thynke nut that ; for they that liauu 
them, wyl not lyghtly departe fro thorn. Ther was 
neucr kynge that euer gaf so rielie jewellis as these 

112 TIIVSTORYE OF nr.vNARn Tin: foxf,. 

be. Neuerthclos yc haue somwhat wylli your wordes 
casyd myn licrtc, and made it li^'hter tliaii it was. 
Alas loo, here ye may see how he or they to whoiue a 
man triisteth nioost, is ofte l»y h\ iii or tln'in deeeyvyd. 
Thaufjh I shold goo al the world thorugh, and my lyl" 
in auenturc settc tlierforc, I slial wyte wher thise 
jewellis ben be comcn. 

"Wyth a dissymylyd and sorouful speehe .saide the 
foxe, Herken ye, alle my kynnc and frendys, I slial 
name to yow, thise jewellis, what they were. Ami 
thenne may ye saye that I hauf a grcte lossc. That 
one of them was a rynge of i'yn golde, and within the 
rynge next the fyngre M'ere wreton lettres cnameld 
* with sable and asure, and ther were thre hebrews names 
therin. I coude not my self rede ne spelle them, for 
I vnderstonde not that langage ; but Maister Abrion of 
Tryer, he is a wyse man, he vnderstandeth wel al 
maiuT of langages,and the vertue of a! niani-r herhes ; 
and ther is no beest so fiers ne stronge, but he ean 
doiiijite hym, for yi' he see hym ones he shal doo as 
hec wyl. And yet lie beleueth not on God. He is a 
jewe. The wysest in connyng, and speeially he knowcth 
the vertue of stones. I shewde hym ones this rynge. 
He saide that tln-y were tho thre names that Seth 
brought out of Paradys whan he brought to his fadrc 
Adam the oyle of mercy." And whom someuer bereth 
on hym thise thre names he shal iieuer be hiirte by 
thondre ne lyglitiiyng ; ne no witehcral't shal liauc 
power oiur hym, ne be tempted to doo. synne. And also 

THYSTOUYi: oi' UI.VNAUI) TIIK Fit.Xi:. 1 I*} 

he shal iioucr take Iiarin \ty Cdlilc, tliau;:Ii iic layc tliro 
wynters longe nyghtis in the fitlilf, tliaiii,'li it sm>\vo(I, 
stornu'd or trons ncucr so sore. So ;:rL'te iiiyght hauc 
this«! worik's ; wytnes of Maistcr Abrion. 

Withought forth on the rynge stode ii stone of thre 
maner colours ; the one part was lyke rede cristaUe, 
and shoon lykc as fyrc had ben therin, in suehc wysc 
tliat yf one wold gtx) by nyght, hyni behoiied non other 
lighte, for the shynyng of the stone made and gaf as 
gret«' a lijrht as it had ben niydday. That other parte 
of the stone was whyte ami clcre, as it liad I»en biir- 
nysshid. Whi) so had in his eyen ony sniarte or son,'- 
nes, or in his body ony swellynge or heed aehe, or ony 
"vkenes without forth, yf he stryked this stone on the 
place whcr the gryef is, he shal anon be hole ; or yf 
<»ny man be s«.'ke in his body of v<iivin, or vile iiict*' 
in his stonmeh, of colyk, straiiguyllon, stone, fyst<l, or 
kanker, or ony other sckencs. sauf only tin- uery dtth, 
late hym leye tliis stf»ni' in a litlc watn-, and late liym 
drj'nke it, an<l hr slial I'orthwvth l><' hulc, and ijnyteof 
his sekenes. 

Alas! saide the fox*-, we liaue- ;.mmm1 caiisc to besory 
to lesc suche a jewel, K<»rthcmore the tiiird<' eolour 
was gren«', lyke glas, but ther were soninie sprynklis 
therin lyke purjiure. The niaister t<dd for tmnthe, 
that who that bare this stone vpon hyni shoM ikmut 
be hurte of his cin-niye. and that nonian, were he neuer 
so fttronge and hardy, that myght mysdiM) hym ; and 
where euer that he fought he shold haue vyctorye, were 
it by iiyght or daye, als. . t'l-rrf n> lii« brlielde it fastyiip ; 


ami also thi-rto where ."oineuer he wcnto, urnJ in what 
felawship, he shoUl be bylouyd, thouf;:h they lia<lde hatcil 
liym to fore; yf he had the riiif; vpnn hyin, they sliohl 
forgete thoyr angre as soiie as they sawe hyni. Also 
though he were al iiake<l in a fehh- ngayii an honch-cd 
armed men, he shold he wel herted, and escape fro 
them with worsliip. But he moste b<; a nohU' gentle 
man, and haue no rhorh's eondicions, for thenne the 
stone had no myglit. And by eansc this stotic waa so 
precious and goo<l, I thought in m^'self that I was not 
able ne worthy to here it, and therefore I sento it to 
my dere lord the kyng ; for I knowe hym for the moste 
nolih' tliat imw lymtli, and al-o a!lc our welfare nn<] 
worship lyctli on hym, and for he shohl bo kcptc fro 
alle dre<le, nedc, and nngiieluck. 

I fonde this rynge in my fadres tresonr, and in tin' 
same jilaee I toke a glasse or mirrour, and a rond>e 
whiclie my wyf wold algates haue. A man myght 
wondre that sawe thise jewellis. I scntu thyse to my 
ladv the queue, for I haue founden her good and gra- 
cious to me. This combe myght not be morhe preysed ; 
hit Avas made of a clene noble bcest named I'antlH-ra, 
whichc fidtth hym bytwcnc the grete Inde and crthly 
Paradyse. lie is so lusty fayr, and of colour, that ther 
is no colour vnder the heuen but somme lyknes is in 
hym. Therto he smelleth so swete, that the sauour of 
hym boteth alio syknessis ; and for his beaute and 
swetc smellyng all other beestis folowc hym, for by 
his swete sauour, they Ijen helcd of all syknessis. 

This Panthera hath a fair boon, brode and thynne, 

THYSTOKYK 0\- KF.YNAKIi Till", F()XK. 1 If) 

wliaii so i.-^ tlmt tliid hocstc is hluyu, al tlu' swcU- odour 
restiil in the Ikmic whiche can not be broken, ne siml 
neucr rote, ne l>c (lo3tn>yc«l by tyre, by watrr, ne by 
sm_>-tynfr, hit is so hard, tyjrht, and taste, and yi't it is 
lypht of weypht. The swcte odour of it hatli gretc 
niyprht, that who that sincllcth it settc nought by none 
otljiT lustc in thi" wtirld, and is wisyd and ([uyt*; of alle 
nianer disrasi'.<, and iiilinnvtf-;. And aL>-(t he is jocondc 
and glad in Iiis h*M-t< . 

Tliis coiidK' is |)«»lys.-.hid a,-< it were fyue syhier, and 
the teeth of it ben smal and straite; and bytwen the 
grettor tcetlj and the smaller, is a large felde, and s|>ace, 
where is caruen many an yinagi', hul)tilly made mid 
enameld aboute with fyn gold. The felde is eiieeked 
with sable and siluer, enameld with cyixm^ and asure. 
And ther in is thistorye how Venus, Juim. and Pallas, 
strof for tha])|)le of gold, whiehe oehe of them wold 
liaue hatl, whiehe contrauersye was settc upon Parys, 
that he shold gyue it to the fayrest of them thre. 

Parys was that tyme an herde man and kepte his 
fa<lers beestis and sheep without Troye. AVliaii he had 
resceyuid thap|de, .Inno promysvd to liym vf lie wolde 
juge that she myght liaiie tliap|d<-, he .-.hnld haiie llie 
mo«te rieliess<; of the world. Pallas said, \{ .".he my;:ht 
liave theapple, she wold gyve hym wysedom and 
strength, and make hym so grcto a lorde that he sluild 
overcome alle his onemyes, and whom he wi>ld. Venus 
.saide. What ne<lest thou riehessr or strengthe? art not 
thou Prianjfl sone, ami Ileetor is thy brother, wiiiehe 
liaue al Asye undir th< ir power? Art tliou not onf 

I 2 


of the possessours of grete Troye? Yf thou wylt 
gyve to me thapple I shal gyve the richest tresour 
of the world, and that shal be the fayrest woman that 
ever had lyf on erthe ; ne never shal none be born 
fairer than she. Then shal thou l)e riclier than riehe, 
and shal clymine above al other, for tliat is tin- tresour 
that no man ean preyse ynou^h, for honest, fair, and 
good women can put a way many a sorow fro the 
herte ; they be shamefast and wyse, and brynge a man 
in every joye and blysse. 

Parysherde this Venus, whiclie presented hym this 
grete joye and iayr lady, and prayed her to name this 
fayr lady, that was so fair, and where she was. Venus 
saide. It is Ilclene, kynge Menclaus wyf, of Grece. 
Ther lyveth not a nobler, richer, gentiller, ne wyser wyf 
in al the world. Tlienne Parys gaf to her thapple, and 
said that she was fuyrest. IIow that he gate afterward 
Ilelene by the helpe of Venus, and how he brought 
her in to Troye, and wedded her ; the grete love and 
ioly lyf that they had to gydre, was al carven in the 
felde, every tliyng by hym self, and the story wreton. 

Now ye shal here of the mirrour. The glas that 
stode thcron was of suche vertu that men myght see 
therin all that was don within a myle, of men, of beestis, 
and of al thyngc that men wold desire, to wj'te, and 
knowe. And what man loked in the glasse had he ony 
dissease, of prickyng, or motes, smarte, or perles in 
his eyen, he shold be anon heled of it. Suche grete 
vertue had the glas. 

Is it thennc wondrc yf I be mevyd and angry for to 
lose suche maner jewellis. The tree in whiche this 


glas stodc was lyf^Iit and fa-tr, ami was named Cetyuc, 
liit shohK' endure ever, er it wcild rote, or wonncs 
slmld luirte it ; and therfore kynrre Salamon seelyd his 
temple wvtii the same wodc withynf'orth. Mcti preysed 
it dft-rcr than fyn gold, hit is like to tn' ot' Ilcljenus, 
of whiche wode kynge Cnmipart made his hors of tree 
for love of kynge Moreadij^as dou^xhtfr, that was so 
fayr, whom he had wende for to have wonne. 

That hors was so made within, that wosomever rode 

on it, yf he wolde, he shold he within lesse than an 

hour, an hondred myle thens ; and that was wel jjrevyd, 

for Cleomedes, the kynges sonc, W(d<le not hylevr that 

hors of tree luul sucIh' mvght and vertue. lie was 

yonge, lusty, and hanly, and drsyn-d to doo grcte <h'des 

of prys. for to be rtMiomcd in this world, and li<|) on 

this hors of tree. Cronipart tornctl a pynne that sto<le 

on his brest, and anon th" hors lyfte hym up, and 

wente out of the hallc by the wvndowe, and cr on<> 

myght saye liis Pater Nost<'r, he was goon more ten 

myle waye. Cleomt'dis was son> aferd, an<l supposed 

never to have torned agavn, as thistorve therof telh'th 

more playnly : but Imw grete dnde lie jiad. ami how 

ferre that he rood upon that horse made of the tree of 

Hebenus, er he eoude knowe the arte and erafte how he 

shold torne hym, and liow jovet'nl he was whan he 

knewe it, and how imn sorowed for hvm, and how lie 

kn(»we all this, and the joye therof whan he cam agayn, 

al this I pass over for lo-;yng of tvme, Imt the moste 

parte of alle eani to \>y the vertue of thi> wode. of 

wliielu" Wode the fp.e that the glas stode in was made : 


ami that was w itiiout Icnth of tlic glas halt' a foot brood, 
wherin stode somme strange hystorycs, wliiche were of 
gold, of sable, of silver, of yelow, asure, and cynoi)C. 
Thysc sixe culowrs were tlieriii wrought in suehe wise 
as it behoved, ami under every hystorye tlie wordes 
were graven and enanield, that every man inyght 
undcrstandc what eche historye was. 

After my jugcment ther was never m^Tour so eostly, 
80 lustly, ne so playsaunt. In the l^cgynnyng stode 
there an horse made fatte, stronge, and sore enuyous 
upon an herte, whiehe ran in tlie feeld so ferre and 
swyftly, that tlie hors was angry that he ran so ferre 
to fore hym, and eoudc not overtake hyni. He tiiought 
he shold caceho hym, and subdue liyni, though he shold 
suffre moehe paync therfore. The horse spack tho to 
a hcrdeman in this wyse. Yf thou cowdest taken an 
herte that I wcl can shcwe the, thou sholdest haue 
grete prouffyt therof: thou sholdest selle dcre his 
homes, his skyii and his Hesshe. The lierdeman sayd, 
How may I eoiiic by hym. The hors saiile, Sytte vpon 
me, and I shal here the, and we shal hunte hym til he 
be take. 

The herdeman sprangc and satte vpon the hors and 
sawe the herte, and he rode after, but the herte was 
lyght of foot, and swyft, and out ran the hors ferre. 
They honted so ferre after hym that the horse was 
wery, and said to the hcrdeman that satte on hym, 
Now sytte of, I wil reste me: I am al wery, and gyue 
me leue to goo fro the. The hcnhmian saide, I liauo 
arested the, thow mayst not escape fro me. I iiaue a 


brydio on thy lu-de uiid sporis on my holes, thou shalt 
I1IMHT ham: thiinke iierof. I shal bydwynj^e and siib- 
tlue the, haddost thou sworn the eontnirye. See how 
the liorse brouirht liyni self in thraldom, and was taken 
in his owno nette. How may one better bo taken than 
by hi^ owne propre enuye siiU're liym self to be taken 
and ritien; tlier ben many tliat laltoure to hurte othtr, 
and they them seluen bi'U Iiurto and rLwanlt.d with 
tlie same. 

Ther was also made an asse and an hound; whiehc 
dwelled bothe with a riehe man. The man louy<l his 
liountl wel, for he pleydc ofte witli hym as folke doo 
witli hitundis. The liound lecp vj) and pleyd with his 
lay], ami lyeked liis nuiister aln)Ute the mouth. This 
-awe liowdwyn the asse, and had grete spytc therof 
in Ids hi-rte, and said to iiyin self, how may this l>e 
and what may my lordc sec on tins fowle hound, whom 
I neuer sec doth good nc proU'yt, sauf spryngeth on 
hym and kysseth hym, but me whom men puttcn to 
laboure, to here and drawe,, and <h)o more in u weke 
tiian lie wytli his xv shtdd doo in a liole yen-; and yet 
sytteth he neuertheles by hym at the talih', ami there 
ctctli b«»ne,s, {lessii, and fatte trenehours; and 1 haue 
nothyng but thysth-s and lutth .s ami lye on nyglites 
on the liardc erthe and suHre numy a smrn. 1 wyl no 
Icngrc sufVrc this. 1 wylh- thynke Imw 1 nuiy gete 
my lordcs loue and frendship lyke as the hound doth. 

Therwyth eam tin* lorde, and the lyfl vp his 
tayl and spranir witli Ids fore feol on llif lordes shol- 
dres. Ami blen-d, ^'rennyd, and songe, ami with his 

120 thystokvl: of khynahi) tiik fo.m:. 

I'cL't iiKulc two }i:rctc buk'-s iiboutL' his cris; uihI put 
forth liis mouth and wold htuie kyssed the lordes mouth 
as Lc had seen the hound doon. Tlio eryde the lorde 
sore aferde, Help! lieli)! thisasse wil slee me. Thenne 
eain lii.s seruauiitis witii good stauis, and sniyten and 
bete the asse so sore that lie had weiide he shold luiue 
lostc his lyt". Tho returned lie to his stable and ete 
thistles and nettles and was an asse as he to fore was. 
In lyke wvse, who so haue enuye and spy to of an 
others welfare, and were seruyd in lyke wyse, it shold 
be wel behoeful. Therfor it is concluded that the asse 
shal ete thistelis and netteles and here the saeke. 
Though men wold duo hyni worshij) he can not vnder- 
stondc it, but must vse old lewde maners. Where as 
asses geten lordship] >is, there men see selde good rewle. 
For they take hede of uothyng but on theyr synguler 
prouflyt ; yet ben they take vp and rysen grete, the 
more pyte is. 

llerkeu fei'ther, how my fadrc and Tybert the catte 
wende to gydre, and had sworn by theyr trouthe, that 
lor loue ue hate they shold not departe ; and what 
they gate, the shold departe toeche the half. Thenne 
on a tyme they sawe hunters comyng ouer the felde 
with many houndes. They leep and ranne faste fro 
them ward, al that they myhte, as they that were aferd 
of theyr lyf. Tybert, said the foxe, whyther shal we 
now best Hee ? The hunters banc espyed vs, knowe ye 
ony helpe ? My fadre trusted on the [)romyse that eche 
made to other. And that he wolde for no nede departe 
fru liyni. Tybert, saiil he, I haue a sack ful of wyles 


y( \vc liauo iieile ; as lorri! as we ubyde to gydre we 
iictle not to doubto liuntcrs ne houndt-.s. 

Tybcrt bigan to syghe aiul was sore aford, and saidt.', 
Reynart, what auayllen many wordes? I knowe but 
one wyle ; and theder muste I too. And the claninie 
he vpon an hye tree in to tlie toppe vnder the Icuys, 
where as hunter no hounde myjrht doo hyni non liarme, 
and Ict'tc my iadrc alloiu; in jeoparde ol" his lyl": t'tn- 
the liiiiiters sette on iiym the lioundes alle that they 
eoude. Men blewe the hurnes and eryed and hah)wed 
The foxe. Slee and take ! Wlian Tybtrt the catte sawe 
that, I>e mocked and scorned my tadre and said, what 
lieynart, cosyn, vnbynde now your sakke wher al tlio 
wylis ben in, it is now tyme; ye be so wyse called, helpe 
your sell', for ye haue nede. 

This moeke muste my ta<lre here ol" liym to wlnnn 
he had most his trust on. And was almoste taken 
and nyghe his deth ; and he ranne and lledde wyth 
grete I'ere ot' his lyt" and lete his male slydeof by cause 
he wold be lyghter. Yet al that coude not helpe hyni, 
for the houndes were to swyft and shold haue byton 
hym ; but he had one auenture, that ther by he fond 
an old hole, wherin he crepte, and escaped thus the 
honters and houndes. Thus lu-lde this false dcceyuer 
Tibaert his sykcrnes that he Iku! promysed, 

Alas I how many ben there now a dayes that kepe 
not theyr promyse and sette not tlierby thougii they 
brcke it. And though I hate Tybaert hcrfore, is it 
won»ler? I5ut I doc not sikerly ; 1 loue my sowle to wel 
tlierttt. Ncuertheles yf I sawi- hytn in auenture and 



mysfalle in his body or in liis goodes, 1 trow hit shoM 
not inofhc goo to my herte so that another dyde it. 
Neuertheles I shal ueythcr hate hym ne haue enuye 
at hyin. I shal for goddes loue forgyue liym, yet is it 
not so clere out of myn herto, but a lytyl ylle wylle to 
hym ward abideth therin, as tiiis conieth to my re- 
uicmbrannce, and the cause is that the scnsualyte of 
my flessh fyghteth ayenst reson. I 

Tlier stode also in that myrrour, of the wulf. How 
he fonde ones vpon an heth a dede hors, elayn : but al 
the flessh was eten. Thcnne wente he and bote grete 
morsellis of the bones, that for hongre he toke thre or 
iii j att ones and swolowed them in. For he was so 
gredy that one of the bones stack thwart in his mouth. 
Wherof he had grete payne, and was in grete fere of 
his lyf. He soughte al aboute for wyse masters and 
surgyens, and promysed grete yeftis for to be heled of 
his disease. 

Atte laste whan he coude nowher fynde reraedye, he 
cam to the crane wyth his longe necke and bille ; and 
prayde hym to holpc hym, and he wolde loue and re- 
wardc hym so wel tiiat he sholde euer be the better. 
The crane herked after this grete rewarde, and put his 
heed in to his throte and brought out the boon wyth 
his bylle. The wulf sterte a syde wyth the pluckyng 
and cryde out, Alas thou doost me harme ! but I for- 
gyue it the : doo no more soo, I wolde not suffre it of 
an other. The crane saide, Sir Isegrym, goo and be 
mery, for ye be al hool now. Gyue to me that ye 
promysed. The wulf saide, AVyl ye here what he 


sayth : I am Ik; tliat liuth sunre<l, and have cause to 
plaync, and lie wille have good of" me. lie thanketh 
not me of the kyndncs tliat I dyde to liym ; he put liis 
heed in my mouth, and I sullVed hym to drawe it out 
liole, without hurtyng; and he dyde tome also hurme, 
and yt' ony hier shold have a reward, it sliold be 1 by 

Thus the unkynde men now a dayes rewardc them 
that doo them good. AViian tlie false and subtyl aryse 
and become grete, thenne goth worship and proufl'ytal 
to uought. Tlier ben many of right that ought reward 
and doo good to suche as have holpen hem in her nede, 
that now fy nde causes and sayc they be hurte, and 
wolde have amendis, where they ought to rewarde and 
make amendes them .self. Therfore it is said, and 
trowthe it is, whoo that wyl chyde or ehastyse, see that 
lie be clere hym self. 

Alle this, and moche more than 1 now can wtl 
remembre, was made and wrought in this glasse ; the 
maister that ordeyned it was a coiniyng man, and a 
|in)founde clerk in many sciences ; and by cause thise 
Jewells were over good ami precious for me to kepo 
an<l have, therfore 1 .■>ent«' them to my dcre lord the 
kynge, and to tiie (|uene in presente. AVhcre ben they 
now that gyve to theyr lordes .suriie prescntes ? the 
sorowe that my ij. chyhlren miule whan 1 sente away 
the glasse was grete, for they wi-re woncd to loke therin 
and see them self how theyr clothyng and araye bycam 
thi'in on their bodyes. 

() alas ; I knewt! imt that Kvwart the hnre was SO 


nyghe liis dcth wlirm I drlyvrryd liviu tli<> male uitli 
thise jewellis I I wi&te not to whom 1 inyglit better 
have taken them, though it sliold have coste me my 
lyf, than hym and Bellart the ramme. They were 
two of my best frendis. Oute, alas, I crye upon the 
murdcrar ! I shal knowe who it wa.s, though I shold 
renne thurgh al the world to seke hym ; for niurdre 
abydeth not hyd, it shal come out. IVraventure he is 
ill this companye that knoweth where Kywart is bico- 
luen, though he telleth it not ; tor many false slirewys 
walke wyth good men, fro whom no man can kepe 
hym. They knowen tlieyr craft so wcl and can wel 
covcrc their falsenes. 

But the most wondre that I Imve is that my lord tlie 
kyng hier saith so felly, that my fadre nor I dyde hym 
never good ; that thynketh me mervayl of a kynge. 
But ther come so many thyngis to fore hym that he 
forgeteth that one wytli that other, and so faryth by 
me. Dere lorde, remembre not ye whan ray lord your 
fadre lyvyd, and ye an yonglyng of two yere were, that 
my fadre cam fro skole fro Moiipellier, where as he had 
fyve yere studyed in recoptes of medycyncs. He 
knewe al the tokcnes of the uryne as wel as his honde ; 
and also alle the herbes and nature of them whiche 
were viscose or laxatyf. He was a synguler maister 
in that science, he rayght wel were cloth of sylke and 
a gylt gyrdle. 

Wlian he cam to court he fondethe kynge in a grete 
sekenes, wherof he was sory in his hert, for he lovyd 
hym above alle other lordes. The kynge wold not 


for/Too hyni, for wliaii ln' <':ini :illi' (itlitr luid It've to 
walke where they w(»ld, he trusted none so inoche as 
livin. lie said, Reynar<l, I am seke, and fele nie tlic 
Icnirer the werse. ^ly t'adre saiil, My dere lord, here 
is an uryiial, assone as I may see it I shal telle what 
sekcnes it is, and also how yc shal be holpen. The 
kyngc dyde as he conseilled hym, for he tru>tcd nuinan 
better that lyuyd. Th(in;:li so were tliat my fader 
dyde not as he shold have don to you, but that was l)y 
founseyl of evyl and foule beestis, I had wonder therof 
but it was a rasyng ayenst his deth. lie sayd, iSIy 
lord, yf ye wyl lie hole, ye niuste etc the lyver of a 
wulf of vii. yere old. that may yc not leve, or ellis yc 
shal deye, for your uryne sheweth it playnly. 

The wulf stoile ther by and said non<rht, but the 
kynfre said to hym. Sir Ysegrym, now ye lu-re wel tiiat 
1 muste have your lyver yf I wil be hool. Tho an- 
Rwerd the wulf, and said, Nay, my lord, not soo. I 
wote wel I am not yet fyve yere olde, I have herde my 
moder saie s(k>. My fadre sayd, "What skylh^th his 
wordes? late hym be o|>enrd an<l I shal knowe by the 
lyver yf it be <ro(id for yow or imt. And therwvtii tiie 
wulf was had to kycheii, and his lyver taken out, 
whiche the kynge ete, and wa^ unon al hole ol" alle his 
sckenes. Thenne thanketh he my fudrc mwhe, and 
commnnded alle his hous4-hold, upon their lyvys, that 
after that tyme they shold ealle hym Mayster Reynard. 

He abode stylle liy tho kynge, and was beleuid of 
alle thyngis, and muste alleway go by his side. And 
the kynge gaf to In ni a garlond of roo>e>, whiehe he 

hJ«i rilYSTOKVK ()|- HKYNMil) TIIK I'dXK. 

muste ;il\v:iy wrrc on liis licid. JJiit now tiiis is al 
torned. Alle tlie old good thinfjis that lio dyde, ben 
forfrotcn; Jiiid thise covetouse and riiuenou3 shrewys 
l)en takiii vp and sette on the hyc benche, ami ben 
herde and made grete; and tlie wyse t'olke \n:u put a 
back. By wliielio thise lordes otte lacke, and cause 
them to be in nioche trouble and sorowe; for whan a 
couetou.s man of lowe byrthe is made a lord, and is 
moche greet, and aboue his ncyghbours hath power 
and inyght, tlicnnc he knoweth not hyin self, ne 
whens he is a conien, and hath no pytc on nomons 
hiirtc; no hereth nomans reqneste, but yf he may liaue 
gretc yet'tis. Al his entent and desyre is to gadre 
good and to be grctter. O how many couctous men 
ben now in lordes courtcs. They Jiatri- and smoke, 
and plese the pryneo Ibr theyr syjiguler auayl. But 
and the prynce had nedc of them or their g(H)d they 
sholde rather sufl're hym to «leye, or fare right hard, er 
they wolil gyne or h-ne hym. They be lyki' the wnlf 
that had hmer the kyngc had deyed than he wolde 
gyue hvtn his lyuer. Yet had I leuer er the kyngc 
or the (piciH- >hold fan- amys, that xx suche wulves 
.sliolil lose thevr lytie.s ; hit were also tin- leest losse. 
My h»rde ul this bifelle in your yougth*' that my 
fader dyde thus. I trowe ye haue forgoten it. And 
also I httuc myself don yoAV rcucrencc, worship and 
courtosye. Vnroused be it, thaugh ye nowe thanke 
me but lytyl, but parauenture ye remcmbred not that 
I shal nowe saye; not to ony forwyttyng of yow, for 
ye l>o worthy alle worship and n-uj-rcnce that ony 


iiiiui ran »1<m>. That liauc yr ot" Alniy;.'lify (Ji>(I \>y 
eiilit'ritunci', of your noldc jtrojicnytours ; wliortor I 
your huiultle sul>;;t'tte an«l st-rtiant am boundcii to tloo 
to yow alio tlio stMMiyso that I can or niaye. 

I cani on a tyiiit- walkynir with the wiilf Iscfrryni. 
And \vi' hathlf ;rott>n vndi-r vs hothe a swync. And 
for liis hiwclc cryynj^ we h<itf hyni to detli, and, Syrr, 
yc ram I'm tVrrr out of a ^'rouc ayenst vs. Yo sa- 
Ifwed vs fri'iidly, and saide, we were welcome, and tliat 
yc and my lady thcqucnc wliiclic cam after yow liadilc 
RTotc hongre and had nothyn;^ for to etc, and praydc. 
V8 for to pryue y(»w parte of our wynnynpr. Isef»rym 
spac-k so softc that a man vnncthe niyfrht here hym, 
but I spack out, ami saidc : Ye. my lord, with a ^tikmI 
will, thuiiu'h it were iimrc, we wil wd that vc iiaiio 
parte. And thenne the wnlf departed as he was wont 
to doo, ho departed and tok- that on half fur hym self. 
And he guf yow a quarter; for yow and the (|uene. 
That other rjuarter he eto an«l bote as hastely as he 
myfrhtc, bicausc he wolde <-te it allone. And he jraf to 
ino but half the lonjres, that I pray (Jod that i-uyl 
mot« he fare. 

Thus shewile he hin cinidieiuns ami nature. JOr 
men shold haue sonpen a Credo, ye my lord had eten 
your part. And yet wold ye fayn had mi>re, fur ye 
wow not lid. Afid bicause he gaf ytiu no more no 
protVred yow, ye lyfte vp your ri;;ht fote and smote 
hym l»ytwene the eris, that ye tnre hifl skynne ouer his 
eyen, and tho he myght no Icngrc abytle, but he bicdde, 
howled, and ran away, and lefte his part then* lye. 

128 THY STO k Y I". i)V n v. Y N A in ) Til I'. I'( ) \ K . 

Tho said ye to liyin, li:i<t<' yow a^ayn littlicr ami 
brynge to vs more. And here alter sec better to how 
ye dele and parte. Thennc ?»'u\ I, My lord yf it plese 
yow I wyll goo wyth liym. I wote w«'l what yesaidc. 
I wente wyth liyin, he bleddc and groned as sore as ho 
was al softly. II<' <liirst not crye lowde. We wente 
so ferre that we brouglit a calf. 

And whan ye sawe vs come therwytli, y<' lawhyd, 
for ye were wel plesyd. Ye said to me that I was 
.swj'ft in hontyng. I see wel that yc can fynde wel 
whan ye take it vpon yow, ye be good to sende forth 
in a nede. The calf is goode and fatte. llcinf shal 
ye be the ddar. T saide, My lord wyth a jstnul wyl. 
The one half my lord shal be for yow. And that 
other half inr my lady the quene. The moghettis, 
lyuer, longes, and the inward, shal befor your chyldren. 
The heed shal Iscgrym the wulf liaue, and I wyl haue 
the feet. Tho said ye, Roynart who hath taught you 
to departe so courtoisly. My lord, said T, that hath don 
this prcest that syttcth her with the blody crowne, 
he lost his skynno wyth the vncourtoys dcpartyng of 
the swyn. And for Iiis couetyse and rauyne he 
hathe botlie hurtc and siiamo. Alas th«>r ben many 
wulucs now a dayes that without right and reson 
destroye and ete them that they iftay haue the 
ouerhand of. They spare neyther flesh ne blood, 
frende ne enemye: what they can gete, that take they. 
O woo be to that lande and to towncs, where as the 
wulues haue tin- ouerhand. 

My lord, this and many other good thing haue I don 


for yuii, tliat I cowdc wol telle, yl" it wito not to loii;;^ 
of wliiclK' iKnv ye n'UH'inhrc litil by the wtirdt'S that I 
her {>[' yt>u. Vt' yi' wold al thyii^r onersec wcl, ye 
wolii not sayc as y»! doo. 1 liaue seen the day that 
ther shold no jrrete inat<T lie eoiiclinlcd in this court 
witliout niyn ailiiyse. Al l)e yt that this aueiiture is 
now fallen. It niyfiht ha|>|)(Mi yet that my wordes shal 
be herd and also bileuyd as wel as an others as ferre 
a.s ryjrht wyl, for I desyre none other, for yf ther be 
ony ran save and make good by sutfyeient wit- 
nesis that I haue trcspa<"ed, I wyll abyd al the ri;;ht 
and lawe that niav come therof. and yf ony saie on 
me ony thyng of whiehe he can bryn<:f no wytn«'sses« 
late me thennc ix; rcwlyd after the lawe and customc 
of thy.s court. 

The kynge suid, Reynart ye saye resonably. I 
knowe not of Kywarts deth more than that Bellyn the 
ramn>e brought his heed hether in the male. Therof 
1 lete yow goo <|uyte. For I haue no wytnes therof. 

My dcre lord, sjii<l Reynard. ( Jodthankc yow; sykerly 
ye doo w«;l, for his deth makcth me so sorowful, fliat 
me thynketh my herte wyl brekc in two. () whan 
tliey departed fro mo n>yn hertc was so In-uy, that me 
thought I shohl Imuo swoned. I wote wel it wivs a 
token of the \onse that the was so nyghe eomyng to 

AUe the moost parte of them th.'it were there, and 
lierdc the foxes worded of the jcwellis, and how he 
made his contenani'c and stratchid hym, had veryly 
supposed that it had not l>e fayiied, but tiiat it had be 

130 tiiystouyf; of reynard the foxr 

tryewe. They were sory ot" liis lossc ami mysaucnture; 
and also of his sorowc. The kynge and the quone 
had bothe pyte of hym; and bad hyn» to make not to 
moche eorowe, but that he sholde endcucre h}Tn to 
feche hem. For he had nioehe preysed hem, that they 
had grete wyl and desyre to hauetheni. And by cause 
he had made them to vnderstftnde that lie had sente 
these jewellis to them, tliough tliey neuer had tlicni 
yet they thankyd hym. And prayd hym to helpe that 
they myght haue them. 

The foxe vnder?todc theyrmenyngwel. He thought 
toward them but lytyl good. For al that, he said, God 
thanke y<JW, my lord, and my lady, that yc so f'rendly 
comforte me in my sorow. I shal not reste nyght ne 
day, nc alle they tliat wyl doo ony thyng for me, but 
renne, and i)raye, thretene, and aske alle the four 
corners of the world, thaugh I shold euer seche, tyl 
that I knowc where they ben bicomen; and I pray 
you my lord the kynge, that yf they were in suchc 
place as I eowde not gete them by prayer, by myght, 
ne by re«]uest, tiiat ye wold assiste me and abide by 
me: for it toweheth your self, and tlie good is youris. 
And also it is your part to doo justyse on theftc and 
nuirdre whiche bothe ben in this caas. 

Rcynart, said the kynge, that shal I not loue whan 
ye knowe wher they ben. Myn helpe shal be alway 
redy for you. O dere lorde, this is to moche presented 
to me, yf I had power and myght I shoMe deserue 
ayenst yow. 

Now hath the foxe his mater fast and fayr. For he 


liatli till' kyiiL't' ill hi-* li.iiiil :i> Ii<- wnM. Ilvin tlmiijrht 
that he was in l)cttti- caa-^ than it waslvki' to haiic he. 
He liath iua«lo so many k-synj^cs that In; may jrod 
frcly when he wyl without coniphiynyn"; of ony ol" 
them alio. Sauf of Lscf^rym, which was to hyni ward 
nnp^ry and dysplcsyd, and saide, O noble kynge, ar ye 
so mocho chyldyssh tiiat ye hyleve this false and suhtyl 
shrewo, and sutfrc your self wyth ialsc. lyes thus to 1m; 
•l.M-cyvyd ? Of fayth it sin. Id I..- h,u'^c ..r 1 -Iiold 
l>yii-v(' liyiM. He is in niuriliL' and troson al \ni \vra|t- 
prd ; aiwl hf nio«-keth you to fore your visa^i-. I shal 
tidle hym a nother tale. I am j^lad that I si-e now hym 
h<n\ Al liis lcsyn{;:es shal not avayllo hym er he de- 
parts fro mo. 

iroxs y^k<;kv >r iiii; \m i.k comi'lvvskd acjavn on rni; koxk. 
fArrn I.O x.wiu. 

.My lord, I |»ray you to take licdr, this falsi- thc< 1 
iM-traicd my wyf ones, fowh- and <lisIionfstly. Hit 
was so that in a wynters day that they wrnte to ^'yder 
tlinr>rh n pretc water; and lie han- my wyf an honde 
that he wold teche Iht take fysshe wylli Inr tayl, and 
that .shi> shold late it hanjre in the water a jioud while, 
and ther .shold .so mo<dic fysshe tdeue on it that foure i 
of them shold not eonne «-te it. 

The fool, my wyf, supposed he had said trouthe ; 
and .she wente in the myre to tin; l)ely to, er she cam 
in to the water. And whan she wa.s in the dep|>est of 
the water, he had her hoMe Iht tnyl -.tyllr, til that tie- 

K •-' 


fyssho were comen. She heldc her tuyl su loiij^e that 
it was from harde in the yse, and coude not plucke it 
out. And Avhan he sawc that, he sprange up after on 
licr ; alas ; so knauisshly that I am ashamed to 
telle it. She coude not defende herself, the sely beest, 
she stode so depe in the myre. Hereof he can not 
saye naye, for as I wente above vpon the banke I sawe 
hym bynethe. Alas ! what payne sutl'red I, tho at 
my herte. I had almost for sorow loste my fyve wits ; 
and cryde so lowde as I myght, Reynart, what do ye 
there ? And whan he sawe me so nyghe tlio lepe he 
of, and wente his waye. 

I wente to her in grete hevvinesse ; and wente depe 
in that myre and that water er I coude breke the yse ; 
and moche payne suffred she er she coude have out 
her taylle ; and yet lefte a gobet of her tayle behynd 
lier. And we were lyke bothe therby to liave lost our 
lyves, for she galped and cryde so loude for the 
smarte that she had, er she cam out, that the men 
of the village cam out with stavys and l>yllis, with 
flaylis and jn'kforkcs ; and the wyvis wyth theyr 
distavis, and cryed dyspytously Sle I sle ! and smyte 
down right. I was never in my lyf so aferdc : for 
unnethe we escape, we ran so fast that we swette. 
Ther was a vylayne that stake on vs wyth a pyke, 
whiche hurted vs sore. lie was stronge, and swyfte 
a fote. Hadde it not be nyght, certaynly we had ben 

The fowlc oldc queues wold fayn have beten us. 
They saide that we had byten theyr sheep. They 

■|•||^■s^ol:^•|••. oi' i<i;n nakd iiiI'; I'oxi:. \'3'l 

cursed vs with iiiaiiy a riirsc. Tim caiii we in to a lirUl 
I'liI lit" liioiiii- and bn!!iil>los ; tlicre liy«Me we vs fro 
the vyhiyiu'S, and they durst iu)t folowe vs lertluT l>y 
nyght, hut retorned lioine a^ayn. 

See, my lord, tliys tbwle luatrr ; this is murdre, 
rape, and treason, which ye ought to dwo justyce 
therein sharply. 

Reynard answerd and said, Yl' this wc^re trewe, it 
slioM go to nvghe niyn honour and wor>hip. (iod tor- 
hede tliat it shohl be lounde trewc. But is wel truwu 
that 1 taught her huw she sliohle in a plaee catelie 
lysslie, and shewde her a good waye for to goo t)ver 
in to the water without goyng in to the niyre ; but she 
ranne so desyrously whan she henk* me name the 
fysslie, that slie nether way iuj path In-ide, l)Ut wente 
in to tlie yse wherin she was forfrorn ; and that was 
by cause she abode to hinge ; slie liad lissli yuough yt' 
she coude have lie plesyd wyth mesure. It laUeth 
ofte, wlio tiiat Wold liavo ail. Itv-rtli alle. ()\.t 
covetous was never good ; for the beest can not be 
satisfycd. And whan 1 suwe her in the yse s«) taste, 
1 wendc to have hol|ien her, and href and shoef, and 
stack here and tlnrf, to have brought Inr out ; Imt it 
was al i)ayne loste, for •^Ih-. was to hi;vy lor nic 

Tho cam Ysegryin and sawe how I shoef and stack, 
and dyde al my liote, and he a towle choile, fnwlc and 
rybadously sklaundryth mc wyth her, as thvsc luwlc 
niithrittcH ben wontc to do. 

Uut. my dere lord, it wa> none otlnrwyx- ; lie 
lidyeth me falsely, reradvenlure his even da.>clyd as 

I'.il 1 llVsToItVK OK KI'.VNAKD TlIK I'OXK. 

lit' li)k«'il tVoiii :ili()\(> liowii. Ill' ( ryilc ainl curscil u\<\ 
ami swort' many an otli I slinM di-rc altvc it. W lien I 
lierde hyin so curse ami tliri-teiu', I wente my wayc, 
and lete him curse and menace til he was wery. And 
tho wente he and heel' and shoef, and halpe his wyf 
out, and tlun hf Iccp and ran, and she also, for to gete 
them an lietc, and to warm them, or ellis they shold 
have deyed for eolde. And what somever I have sai<l 
a fore or aftci-. tliat is elerdy al trouthe. I wuldi- not 
for a thousand marke of fyn gold, lye to yow one 
lesying, it were not fyttyng for me. What somever 
falle of me, I shal saye the trouthe, lyke as myn elders 
have alway don syth the tynic tliat fvrst we vnderstode 
reson ; and if ye he in douhte of ony thyng that I have 
said otiierwyse than trouth, gyve me respytc; of viij 
dayes, that I may have eouseyl ; and I .-lial lirynge 
suehe informacion wyth good tryew and sullycient 
reeorde, that ye shal alle your lyf duryng truste and 
byleve mc, and so shal all your counscyl also. What 
liave I to doo wyth the wulf, hit is to fore clerly 
ynowh shewde that he is a foulo vylaynous kaytyf, and 
an nnclene heest when he deled and d<-])arted the 

So it is now knowen to yow alle hy his owenwordes 
that is a (letVamer of wynimen, as nioche as in him is. 
Ye may wel marke everychone. Who shold luste to do 
that game to one so stcdfast a wyf, heyng in so grete 
j)eryll of dcth. Now aske ye hys wyf, yf it he so as he 
sayth ; yt' she wyl saye the trouth, I wotc wel she shal 
saye as I doo. 



Ilio s|i:iik Hrswyiulc, the wiillis wvt : A<li i'vUn 
rt-yiiiirt, iiu iimn niii kcpc liym srlf fro the ; thou 
must so wel uttrc thy wonh-s and tliy IhIscik'S, iiiul 
treson settc forth ; Imt it shall In- riiyl n,'\vur«lc(l in the 
ende. How broii;;ht(St tlmu mo ones in to the welle 
where the two bokettys hengc by one corde rennyng 
thurgh one poUey which wente one up and another 
down. Thou sattcst in that one boekct bynethe in the 
pytte in great drede. 1 eani thedei*, and herde the 
syghe and make sorrow, and axed the how thou 
earnest there. Thou suidcst tliat thou haddist tii<'rc 
so many good fy.sshes eten out of the water that thy 
bely wolde bresto. I said. Tell me how I shall eomc 
to the. Thennc Raidcst thou, Aunte, sprynge iu to that 
boket that hangeth there, and ye shal eome anon to me. 
I dyde so, and I wente downward, and ye cam upward. 
Tlio was I alle angry: thou saidcst, 'J'iius fanlli the 
world, that one goth ii[>, and another gotii down. Tho 
s[)rang ye forth, anil wente your waye, and 1 abode 
there allone, syttyng an Imle «lay sore an hongryd, 
and a coldc ; and therto ha<l 1 many a stroke er I 
coude getc thcns. 

Aunte, snyd the foxe, tht)ngh the strokes dyde you 
harme, 1 had lever ye had them than I, for ye nuiy 
better bcrc them, f<>r one of vs nnist nrdes have had 
them. I taught y«>w good ; wyl ye vndcrstande it, atid 
tliynke on it, that ye another tyme take better hedr, 
ami bileve no man uvt-r hastely ; is he frcndc or eosyn. 
For every man .-rkitli his owe proull'yt. Th»y l>e now 



fooles that do not so ; ami specyally wliaii tlit-y lt<- in 
jeopardy ot'tlu-yr lyves. 


My lord, said dame Erswyii, I pray yow here how 
he can blowe with alk- wyndes ; and how fayr bryng- 
eth he his maters forth. Thus hath lie hron^rlit me many 
tyme in scatiie and hurte, said the wull". lli' iiath ones 
betrayed nic to the she ape, niyn aunte; where 1 was 
in grete drede and fere, for 1 lefte there almost myn 
one ere. Yf the foxe wil telle it how it byfel, 1 wyl 
gyve liym the fordcle thereof ; for I can not telle it so 
wel, but he shal beryspe me. 

Wei, said the foxe, I shal telle it wythout stameryn^s 
I shal saye tlie trontli. I pray yow lierken me. Hi- 
(■am in to the wode, and eomplayned to me that he had 
gretc hongre; for 1 sawc hym never so ful, but he 
wold alway have had fayn more. 1 have wonder 
wlicre tI»o mete becometh that he destroycth. I see 
now on his contcnance that he begynneth to gryrame 
for hongre. "NV'han I herde hym so eom[dayne, I had 
jtyte of hym ; and I said I was also hongry. Thenne 
wente we half a day togydre, and fond nothyng, 
tho whyned he and cryted, and said he myght goo no 
ferther. Thenne espyed I a grete hool, standyng in 
the inyddys vndcr an hawe whiche was thyek of brem- 
bles; and I herde a russhyng therin; I wist not what 

T11Y6TOKYK ol' UKVNAUD Till". KoXK. l.')7 

it was. Theunc saitl I, t-!i)<» tlifriii, and lnkc yl' tlirr 
Itc uiiy lliyng thcr for us; I wotc wcl tlier is buinwliat. 
Tlio suid he, Cosyii, I wolilc not crepe in to that hole 
for twenty pound, but I wist fyrst what is tlierin; nic 
thynketh thut ther is some perylous thyng. But I shal 
ahyde here vnilerthis tree, yf ye wilgoo thcrin to fore; 
but eonie anon a;.Min, and hite me wete what tliyng is 
therin. Ye i"Ui many a subtyltc and wcl helpc your 
selfe, and moehc better than 1. 

See, my lord, the kynge ; thus he made me, iioure 
wiglit, to goo to fore in the daunger ; and he, whiche 
is grete, longc, and stronge, abode withoute, and rested 
hym iu pees : awaytc yi' I dyde not for him there. I 
wold not sulVre the drede and fere that I there sutt'red 
lor al the good in erthe ; liut yl' 1 wyste how to eseape. 
i wente hardyly in. I fondr tiie way derke, longe, and 
brood. Kr 1 right in the hind eam, s*^) espyed I a grete 
light; whiche cam in fro that one syde ; tlitr layr in a 
grete ape with tweyne grete wydc eyen, and tiiey 
glymmed as a fyre. And she had a grete mouth witii 
large teeth, and sharp naylles on hir feet, and on her 
liaiiili-,-. 1 wende hit had l)e a mermoyse, a banbyn, 
or a mereatte, for I ^awe never fowler bee>t. And by 
her laye thre of her ehildreii, whiehe were right fowle; 
for they were right lyke tlie moder. \\ lian they sjiwo 
me come, they gapetlen wyde on me, and were al htylle. 

1 was aferd, an<l wold wel I had Ih-ii tiiens ; but I 
thoughte, I am therin, I must*' ther tliurgh, and couk' 
out as wel as I nuiye. As I .-awe her me thou;:iit >he 
semed nmre than Y,-ei:i") m tin; wulf. And her thyl- 


(Iruii wurc inorc tliaii I. 1 siiwc never a loulci- 
ineyiie ; they leye on luwie heye which was iil Ix- 
fouled. They were byslabbcJ and byclaggcd to their 
ores to in her owen dongc. Hit stanke that I was 
almost smoldred therof. I durst not saye but good ; 
and thenne I said, Aunte, goed gyve yow good dayc, 
and alio my cusyns, your fayr chyldreii, they be of 
theyr age the that ever I sawe. O Lord God! 
how wel plesc they nic ; how lovely, how fayr ben 
they. Eche of them for their beaute niyght be a grete 
kyngis sone. Of right we ought to thanke yow, that 
ye thus encrece oure lygnage. Dere aunte, whan I 
herde saye that ye were delyverd and Icyd down, I 
eoude no lenger abyde, but muste come and frendly 
vysite yow. I am sory that 1 liail not erst knowcn it. 

lieynard, cosyn, saide he, ye be welcome f(»r that ye 
liavc founde me, and thus come see me, 1 thanke yow. 
Dere cosyn, ye be right trewe, and named right wyso 
in alle londes, and also that ye gladly furthrc and 
brynge your lignage in grete worship. Ye muste 
teche my chyldix'n with theyouris, som wysedom, that 
they may knowe what they shal doo and leue. 1 have 
thought on yow ; for gladly ye goo and felowship with 
the good. 

O, how wel was I plesyd whan I horde thise wordes. 
This deservyd I at the begynnyng whan I callyd her 
aunte ; how be it that she was nothyng sybbe to me ; 
for my right aunte is dame Kukenawe, that yonder 
standeth, whichc is woned to brynge fortli wise chyl- 
dren. I saide, Aunte, my lyf and my good is at your 

TIIYSTOKVK dl' UKVNAIM) Mir. roXK. l.*>!* 

(-oininiinilc'inciit ; and what I may tluo lor yow l>y 
iiyirlit ami hy daye. I wyllc gladly U'v]ut tlicin alli- 
1 fail. 1 woldc tayii have be tlieiis tor the stoiudie ol 
llieni, and also 1 had i)yte of the grcte hongre that 
isegrym had. 

I saide, A unto, I shal eoimnytt! yuii and your layr 
chyldrcn to Ciod, and take my leve. My wyl' shal 
tliynkc longe after ine. 

Dere cosyn, said she, ye shal notdeparte til ye have 
I'tcn, for yf ye dyde, 1 wold saie ye were not kynde. 
i'ho .stode she up, and Itrought me in an other hool, 
where as was nioehe mi'tc of hertcs and hyndcs, roes, 
tcsanntfs, partryehs, and moche otlu-r vcnyson, that I 
wondn-d fret wiieiis al this mete myght eome. And 
wlian I had eaten my bely ful, she gafme a gretc pece 
of an hynde for to etc wyth my wyf and wytli my 
houshold whan I come homo. I was ashamctl to take 
it; but I myght none other wysc doo. I thankyil her. 
and toki- my Icvc She l»ail nic I slmld ciinic suiic 
agavn. I sayd, I wohl ; and so departed tliens 
iiiervly, that 1 .so wel had spedde. 

I hasted me out, and wlian I earn and sawc Y.segrym, 
whiche laye gronyng ; and I axed liyni Imw he 
ferde; he said, Ncvew, al evyll, for it is wonder that 
I Ivve. liryngt' ye ony nietc to ete, I (leye for lionger. 
'riin had I eomjiassion of hyni, and gaf livm tliat I 
had. and saved hyin there his lyt"; whemf thenne he 
thanked me gretely ; how be it that he now owetli me 
evyl wyl. 

lie had eten tliis vp anon. I'hn, .»aiil he. Re\ nard. 


ilere cosyn, what loinl<- ye in tliat liool? I am more 
hongry now than I was to fore ; my teeth ben now 
sharped to cte. I said thenne, Eme, haste yow thenne 
lyghtly in to that hool. Ye shal fynde there ynough. 
There lieth inyn auntc wyth lier ch^lih-cn. Yf ye wyl 
spare the trouth, and lye grete lesynges, ye shal liave 
tliere al your desire ; but, and ye saye trouth, ye shal 
take harnie. My lord, was not this ynough sayd and 
warned, who so wold vnderstonde it that al that he 
fonde he shold saye the contrayre. But rude and 
plompe beestis can not vnderstonde wysdom ; therfore 
hate they alle subtyl inuencions, for they can not eon- 
ceyve them. Yet, nevcrtheles, he saide he wolde goo 
iiine, and lye so many lesynges er he sholde myshappe, 
that alle man slioldc liavc wondre of it; and so wente 
forth in to that fowle stynkyng hool, and fonde the 
marmosette. She was lyke the devyl's doughter, and 
on her chyldren hynge moche fylth cloterd in gobettis. 

Tho crydi- In', me growleth of thysc^ fowle 
nyckcrs, come tiiey out of helle ? Men may make 
devylles aferd of hem. Goo and drowne them, that 
fvyl mote they fare. I sawe never fowler wormes ; 
they make al myn hecr to stande right up. 

Sir Ysegrym, said she, what may I doo thcrto? 
they ben my chyldren, and I muste be their moder. 
What lyeth that in your waye ? Whether they 
b«! fowl or fayr they have yow nothyng coste. There 
hath ben one to-day byfore yow, whiche was to them 
nyhe of kyn, an<i was your better and wyser ; and he 
sayde that they were fayr. Who hath sente yow 


Iiytlior with tliyse tyclynfres? Daino, wyl ya wytte, I 
wylle etc of your mete ; hit is better bestowed on me 
than on thyse tbwle wyghtcs. She said, Heir is no 
mete. He saide, Here is ynough ; and ther wyth he 
sterte with his hede toward the mete, and wolde have 
goon in to the hool wher the mete was. But myn 
aunte sterte vp wyth her ehyldren, and ronne to hym 
wyth their sharp longe nayles so sore that the l)lii(lc 
ran over his eyen. I herde hym cry sore and howle, 
but I knowe of no defence that lie made, but that he 
ran faste out of the huol. And he was there eratchod 
and bytcn ; and many an huul had thfv made in liis 
cote and skyn. His visage was alle on a bh)od, and 
ahnost he had loste Ids one ere. He groned andcom- 
playned to me sore. 

Thenne asked I hym yf he had wel lyed? He sayd, 
I saide lyke as I sawe and fon<h,' ; and that was a 
fowle bytche with many fowle wyghtis. Nay eme, 
said I, ye shoUl have said, Fayr nccc, liuw fare ye and 
your fair ehyldren, whii-hc; ben my wel belovidcosyns. 

The wulf sayd, 1 had lever that they were hanged 
er I that saide. 

Ye cmc, therefore muste ye resscyue sudn- ni.iner 
payment. Hit is better other while to lye than li> sayc 
trouthe. They that ben better, wyser, and strenger 
than We be, have doon so to fore vs. 

See, my lord the kyng, thus gate he his re<le royf. 
Now stondeth he al so symjily as he knewe no harme. 
1 pray yow aske ye hym yf it was not thu.-> ; ho was 
not fer of, } f I wote it wel. 




Tlio wiilt' say<l, I may wcl forbere your inockes und 
your scorncs, ami also your fi-lle venymous wordes, 
stronj; tliecf that yc ar. Ye saido that I was almost 
dede tor hungre when ye helpe mc in my nede. Tliat 
is falsely lyed, for it was but a boon that ye gat" to me, 
ye had eten away alle the flessh that was theron. And 
ye mocke me and saye that I am hongry here where I 
stande ; that toucheth my worship to nygh. What 
many a spyty worde have ye brought forth wyth false 
lesyngis ; and that I have conspyred tlic kynges detli 
fro the trcsour that ye have seidto hym is in Ilulsterlo. 
And ye have also ray wyf shamed and sklandred that 
ye shal never recovre it, and I shold ever be diswf»r- 
shipped therby, yf I avengyd it not. I have forborn 
yow longe, but now yc shal not escape me. I can not 
make licrof greet preof ; Imt I saye here to fore my 
lord, and to fore alle them that ben here, that thou art 
a false traytour and a morderar ; and that shal I prove 
and make good on thy body wythin lystes in the felde, 
and that body ayenst body, and thenne shal our stryf 
have an ende. And therto I caste to the my glove ; 
and take thou it up. I shal have right of the or deye 

Reynard the foxe thought how come I on this cam- 
pyng, we ben n(jt Ijothc lyke. I shal not wel come 
stonde ayenst this stronge theef ; all my proof is now 
come to an ende. 






Ytt, tlioiij^rht tlif foxo, I luive good avauntarrc. Tin- 
claw (.'s <il" Ills fore tuft ben of, and liis feet bcu yet son' 
tliontf; wlian for my sake hr was viislioed. lie; slial be 
soiiiwliat tlie weyker. Tlienne, said the foxe, Wlio 
that saitli tliat I am a traytour or a morderar, I sale lie 
lirth falsely, and that art thou specyally, Yscgrym. 
Thou brynjrest me there as I wolde be. This have I ofte 
desyred. Lol here is my pledge, that allc thy wordcs 
ben falls ; and that I shal defcndc me, and make irood 
that thou lyest, 

riu! kynge receyvyd the plegges, and amyttcd tin 
Itatryll, and askt-il borowes of them bothe, that on the 
morn they shold come and })arforme theyr batayll, and 
doo as they ought to doo. Tiien the bere and cattc 
were borowes for the wnlf; and inr the fox»; wen- 
borowys (irymbert the dasse, and llyttinvs. 



The she ape saidc to tlie foxe, Keyner, ncvcw, see 
tiiat yc take hcdo in your batayll ; be colde and wyse. 
V<»ur eme taught nw ones a ])rayer that is of iiioehe 
vertue to hym that .-ha! fvghtf ; and a gretc inaistcr, 
and a wyse clerk, and wa^ abbot of Hoiidelo, that 


tauglitcil liyii>. lie saiilc, Who flcit 8ay<lc deiioutly 
this prayer fustyng, shal not tliat day be overcomen in 
batayl, nc in fygliting. Therforc, dcre ncuew, be not 
afenl, I sbal rede it over yow to-morow ; thcnnc may 
yc be sure ynough of the wiilf". Hit is Ix-ttrc to tVghte 
than to liave the ncoke asondre. I thankc yow, den; 
aunte, said tlie foxe. The quarel that I have is right- 
ful, therfore I liope I shal spede wel ; and that shal 
gretely be niyne helpe. 

Alio his lygnage abede by hym al the nyght, and 
helpe hym to dryve a way the tj-me. 

Dame Rukenawe the she ape, his aunte, thnughte 
alway on his prouff'yt and fordele ; and she dyde alle liis 
heer fro the heed to the tayl be shorn of sniothe; and 
she annoyted alle his body wyth oyle of olyve. And 
thenne w^as his body al so glat and slyper, that the wull" 
sholde have none holdc on hym. And he was rounde 
and fatte also on his body. And she said to hym, 
Dcre cosyn, yc mustc now drynkc niochc, that to-mor- 
row ye may the better when ye come to the felde. 
And whan nede is and tyme, so shal yc iil your rowhe 
tayll, and smytc the wulf thcrwytli in his bcrde. And 
yf ye myght hytte hym therwyth in his eyen, thenne 
shal ye byneme hym his syght, that shold moche 
hyndrc hym. But ellis, hold alway your tayl faste 
bytwene your legges that he catch you nottherby; and 
liolde down your cris lycng plat after your heed that 
lie holdc you not thcrby. And sec wisely to yourself; 
and at begynnyng flee fro his strokes, and let hym 
spryngc and renne after you, and renne to fore where 

TIIYSTOltYK OF RI",V\AUI) Till'. KoXK. 14") 

us inostt- ilii>t is ; aii<l >t}iv it wytli your feet, that it 
may flee in liis eyeii aiitl that .-Iial iikkIic Iiyiidi-f his 
syjrht. And whyle lie rul)l)eth his eyen take your 
auantage, and sniyte and liyte hyni there as ye may 
most hurte hym ; and allewayto liytte li3'ni \\'yth your 
tayll lul in his visage, and that slial make hym so woo 
that he shal not wyte where he is. And late hym 
rennc after yow lor to make hym wery; yet his feet 
ben sore of that ye made hym to lose his shooes, and 
though he be greet he hath no herte. Neuew, eer- 
taynly this is my eonnsoyll. 

The eoimyng goth to fore strengthe, thcrfore see for 
your .-ilf, and sette your sell' wyscly attc defence, that 
ye ami we alle may have worsiiip tht-rof ; I wold be 
sory yf y<' myshappcd. I shal ti-che you the wordes 
that your erne ^lertyn taught nu-, that ye may o\er- 
eome your enemye, as 1 hope yow shal dou wytliout 

'I'iu-rwyth she Icydc hrr hand v|M)n his iicfd, and 
saide these wordes, Hlaenic Shay Alplii uio, Kaslnic 
(iorsons alsbuifrio. Neuew, now be ye sure iVo alle 
mysehief an<l dre(le ; and I eounseyle yow that ye 
rcstc yow a lytyl, for it is by the daye y»> •"hat be the 
better dysposed. AVe shal awake y<»u al in tym(>. 

Aunte, said the foxe, I am nt>w glad. Clod thanke 
you, ye have <lon tti ine suehe g(M»d. I ran never 
deserve it fully agayn. Mi- thynketh iher iii;iy no 
thynge hurte me, syfh that ye have said thyse holy 
wonles over me. 

Tho wente he amlleyd hym down vndera tre in the 



grasse and slopte tyl the sonno wiisrysi-n ; tliocani tlic 
otter and waked liyin, and l»ad liym arysc, and 
gaf hyni a good yong doke, and said, Dere cosyn, 1 
have this nyght made many a leep in the water cr 1 
coude gette this yong fattc doke. I have taken it fro 
a fowler. Take and etc it. 

Rcynart saydo, Tliis is goodhansclo, yf I refused tiiis 
I were a fool. I thanke you, cosyn, that ye remeinbre 
me. Yf I lyve, I shal rewarde yow. The foxe ete 
the doke with oute sawce or breed ; it sauourd hym 
Avcl, and wente wel in. And he drankc therto iiij 
grete draughtis of water, thenne wente he to the 
bataylle wainle, mid allc they that luiiyil hym wente 
wyth hym. 



Whan the k}Tige sawe Reynart thus sliorn and oyled 
lie said to him, Ey fo.xe, how wel ean ye .<ee for your 
self ? He wondred therof he was fowle to loke on. 
But the foxe saide not one worde, but kncled down 
lowe to therthe vnto the kynge and to the <iueni', and 
stryked hym forth in to the felde. 

Thewulfwas ther redy and spack many a proud 
word. The rulers and kepars of the felde was the 
lupacrt and the losse. They brought forth the booke, 
on whiche sware the wulf that the foxe was a traytour 
and a morderar, and none myght be falser than he was; 


ami that lie wnM imiu.' on his hody ami make; it l'i'imI. 
Ueynart the Ibxe sware that ho. lycd as a false knave 
ami a ciirsyil thoef, ami that he wohl doo good on hiij 
body. Wiian this wa.s don, thi' frovononrs of the fclde 
liail thcMi duo thcyr dciinyr. 'rhiiun' roiinil they alli> 
tlu- tt'ldf, sauf Dame Kukcnawt' the she ape ; she aliode 
l»y the foxo, and bad hyin renicnibre wel the wordes 
that she had sayd to hyni. She said, See wel too ; whan 
ye were vii. yer olde ye were wyse ynouj^li to goo by 
iiyght wythout lanternc, or mono shyne, whore yo wysto 
to wynno ony gooilo. Ye bon named emong the j)e|de 
wy.-i' and .-ubtyl, |iayne your sell" to wcrke soo that ye 
\synne the prys, tlnnne may ye have ever honour and 
worship, and al we that ben your Irendys. 

lie answerd, My dercst aunto, I knowc it wel. 1 
shal doo njy besto, and thynkc on your counsoyl. I 
hope so to doo that alio my lignage shal have worship 
theri>y, ami myn onemyes shame and eoui'usion. She 
saydo, God graunte it yow. 


Therwyth she wentc out of the feldo, and let them 
twoync goo to gydre. The wulf trade forth to the foxo 
in grete wrath, and opened his fore feet, and -iipposcd 
to have taken the foxo in hem; but the foxe sprang fro 
hym lyghtly; for he was lyghter to foto than he. The 
wulf sprange after and hunted the foxe sore. Thoyr 
frendes stodo without tin- ly.»tes and lokcd vpon hem. 

L 2 


The Willi" strode wydi-r than Ivcvnai'il dyilc, and ofto 
overtoke hyni, and lytU- vp Iiis foot and wcnde tn hauc 
sniyten hyni, but the foxc sawe to, and smote hyin 
wyth ids rowhe tayle al in his visage. Tlio wendc the 
wulf to Iiavo IxMi plat blyndc. Thenne niiiste he restc 
for to make clene his eyen. 

Keyner thoughte on his fordele, and stode above the 
wynde skrabbing and casting wytli his feet the duste, 
that it flewe the wulfis eyen ful. The wulf was sore 
blynded therwyth, in suche wyse that he muste leve 
tlie rennyng after hym, for the sonde eleuytl vnder his 
eyen that it smarted so sore that he muste rubbe and 
wasshe it a way. 

Tho cam Keyner in a grete angre, and bote hyni 
thre grete woundes on his heed wyth his teetli, and 
said, What is that, syr wulf? hath one there byten 
yow ? how is it wyth yow ? I wyl al otherwyse on 
yow yet. Abyde I shal brynge yow somme newe 
thyng. Ye have stole many a laml)e, and destroyed 
many a symple beest ; and now falsely have appeled me 
and brought me in this trouble. Al this shal I now 
auenge on the. I am chosen to reward the for tliyn 
old synnes, for good wyl no longer sufTre the in thy 
grete rauyn and shrewdnes. I shal now assoylle the. 
and that shal be good for thy sowle. Take pac-iently 
this penaunce, for thou shalt lyuc no longer. 'J'he helle 
shal be thy purgatoi-ye. Thy lyf is now in my mercy; 
but, and yf thou wilt knele down and aske me forgyf- 
nes, and knowlcchc th(,' to be overcomen ; yet, though 
thou be evyl, yet 1 wyl spare the, i'or my con- 



science coiinsclleth inc I .slioUl not ghuUy slee no 

li^egryn wcmlc wytli tliyse niockyng iind spytous 
wonlcs to have goon out of liis wytte ; and tliat dercd 
liyin .so nioclie that he wyste not what to .saye bull" ne 
balf, he was so angry in his Iierte. The woundes that 
Reynart had given hyni bledde, and snierted sore ; and 
he thought how he myghte best auenge it. 

Wyth grete angre he lyft vp his foot and smote the 
foxe on the heed, so grete a stroke, that he fyl to tlie 
ground. Tlio sterte tlie wulf to, and weiide to have 
take hyni ; but the foxe was lyght and wyly, and roose 
lyghtly \p and uiette wyth hyni lier.-ly, and there 
began a felle bataylle whiehe dured longe. Tlic wulf 
had grete spyte on llie ft)xe, as it wel seined, lie 
sprange after hyni x times eehe after other, and wold 
fayn have had hyiu I'a.-tr, but iii.s .skyu was so 
slyper and falte of tiie oyK, tiiat alway he escaped fro 
hym. OI so subtyl and snelle was the foxe, that 
many tymf>, whan the wulf wcndc wel to be sure of 
iiini, he stt-rtc tiienne bytwcne his legges, and vndre 
his bely, and theiine torned he agayn and gaf the wulf 
a stroke wyth his tayl in liis eyen, that Isegryn wende 
he shohl haue losle his syght ; and tliis dydc lie often 

And alway, wli.iu In- had >o >iin ten hvni, tin iiu 
wold lie goo uboue tin; wyndeand reyse the dusle, llmt 
it made his eyen ful of stufs. 

Isegrym was wo begon, and thought in- was at av^ 
aftcrdele. Yet wa.s his strcngthe and mvght mocho 


\ more thtin the luxes. K(;yiuinl luul many a sore stroke 
ot" hym wliun lie ranglit liym. Tlie jraf eclie other 
many a stroke and many a byte whan they sawe theyr 
anaimtage ; anil eehe of hem <ly«le his best to de.stroye 
that other. I ^vokl I myght see suehe a bataylle : that 
one was wyly ami that other was stronge ; that one 
faught wyth strengthe and that other wyth subtylte. 

The wulf was angry that the foxe endured so longc 
ayenst hym. Yf his formest I'eet had ben hole the foxe 
had not endured so longe ; but the sores were so open 
that he myght not wel renne, and the loxe myght bet- 
ter ol" and on than he. And also he swange his tayl 
ofte vnder his eyen, and made hym that hym thoughte 
that his eyen shold goo out. 

Attc laste he sayd to hym self, I wyl make an ende 
of this bataylle. How longe shal this eaytyf dure thus 
ayenst nie. I am so grete, I shold, yf I laye \\)on 
hym, presse hym to deth. Hit is to me a grete shame 
that 1 spare hym so longe. Men shal moeke and 
poynte me wyth fyngrcs to my shame, and reljuke, for 
I am yet on the werst syde. I am sore wounded. I 
blede sore, and he drowneth me, and caste so mochc 
dust and sande in myne eyen that hastely I shal not 
conne see. Yf I sulire hym ony longre, I wyl sette it 
in auenture, and seen what shal eome therof. 
1 Wyth that, he smote wyth his foot Keynard on the 
\ heed, that he fyll down to the ground ; and er he cowde 

, aryse, he caught hjin in his I'eet and laye vpon hym as 

Ihe wold haue pressed hym to deth. 
i Tho began the foxe to be aferd, and so were alle 


his frcndis, wliaii theysawc hym lye viulor ; ami on 
that othiT syde alle Yse^jrynis frciuk's were ioycful ami 
glad. The toxe defended liyin faste wyth hiri clawes, as 
he laye vpward wyth his feet ; and gaf hym many a 
elope. The wulf durste not wyth his feet doo hym 
moche harrae, but wyth his teeth snatehcd at hym as 
he wold have byten hym. 

^^'han the foxc .sawe that he shold be byten, and was 
in grete drede, he smote the wulf in the heed wyth his 
formest clawes, and tare the skynne of bytwcne his 
browes and hys eeris ; and that one of his cyen henge 
out ; whiehe dyde him moche payne. He howlyd ; he 
wej)te; he cryde lowde; and made a py teous uoyse ; for 
the blodc ranne down as it had ben a streme. 





'I'lic wulfwypt il hi- ( yi-ii. Tlie foxe was glail whan 
he sawc that. He wrastle«l so sore, that he sprang on 
Ids feet whyk's he nibbrd his eyen. The wulf was not 
wel plesyd tlh-i wyth alle ; and smote after hym er he 
escaped, and caught hym in his amies, and helde hym 
fa^tc, notwythstandyng that he bleddo. 

Reynard was woo thenne. There wrastletl theylongo 
and .-^ore. The wulf wexc so angry that he forgat nl 
his smartc and payne, and threw the foxe al plat vnder 
hym. whiehe cam hym euyl to passe : for his one hand 


by wiiiclie lie deffendcd hym sterte in tlie fallying in to 
Ysegryms tlirote, ami tliunne was lie aferd to lose his 

The wulf sayd tlio to the foxe, Now chese whether 
ye wyl yelde yow as ouercoine, or ellis I shal certaynly 
, slee yow, the skatcryng of the dust, thy mockyng, ne 
tliy detFence, ne alle thy false wylys, may not now helpe 
the ; thou mayeste not escape nie. Thou hast here to 
fore don me so moche luirnie and shame, and now T 
haue lost myne one eye, and therto sore wounded. 

"Whan Reynard herde that it stode so rowme, that 
he shold chese to knowleche hyra ouercomen, and yelde 
hym, or ellis to take the deth, he thought the choys was 
worth ten marke, and that he muste saye that one, or 
that other, he had anon concluded what he wold sale, 
and began to saye to hym, wyth fayr wordes in this 
wyse : Dere eme, I wyl gladly become your man wyth 
alle my good, and I wyl goo for you to the holy graue, 
and shal gete pardon and wynnyng for your cloistre, 
of all the chyrches that ben in the Holy Lande, whiche 
shal moche proutFyte to your sowle, and your elders' 
sowles also. I trowe tlier was neuer suche a proufFre 
prouffred to ony kynge. And I shal serue you lyke as 
I shold serue our holy fixder the pope. I shal holde of 
you al that I haue, and eucr ben your seruaunt, and 
forth I shal make that al my lignage shal do in lyke 
wyse. Thenne shal ye be a lorde aboue all lordes ; 
who shold thenne dare doo ony thyng ayenst you ? and 
furthermore, what someuer I take of polaylle, ghees, 
yiaitrvch, or plouyer, fysshc, or flcsshe, or what someuer 


itbe, thfi'of slialyclyrst luuio the choys, ami your wyf, ami 
your chyUlren, er ony come in my body. Thcrto I wyl 
alway abyde by you, that where ye be ther shal no liurte 
ne scathe come to yow. Ye be strong, and I am wyly ; 
late vs abyde to gydre, that one wyth the counseyl, and 
that other wyth the dcde, then may ther nothyng mys- 
ialle to us warde, and we ben so nygh of kynne eche to 
other, that of right shold be no angre bytwene vs. I 
wold not haue Ibughten ayenst you yf I niyght haue 
escaped ; but ye appeled me fyrst vnto fyghte ; tho 
muste I doo, that I not doo wold gladly. And in this 
bataylle I haue ben curtoys to yow ; I haue nut yet 
shewde the utterist of my myght on yow, lyke as I wold 
haue doon yf ye had ben a straungerto me; for the neuew 
ought to spare the erne. It is good reson, and it ought 
so to bee. Dere erne, so haue I now doo, auil that 
maye ye marke wel, whan I ran to fore yow ; myn 
herte wold not consente therto, for I myght hauehurte 
yow moehe more than I dydc, hut I tliouirht it iicuer ; 
for I haue not hurte you, ne don yow so nuK-lu' harm 
that may liyndre yow, sauf oidy that myshappe that is 
fallen on your eye. Aili I tin rion' I am sory, ami 
sufTre moche sorrow in njy herte. I wold wel, dere 
emc, that it had not hai)ped yow, but that it had fallen 
on me, so that ye therwyth had ben ple.-yd ; how be it 
that ye shal haue therby a grete auaunta^^e, fur whan 
ye here after shal slepe, ye nedc not to shette but one 
wyndowe where another muste siiette two. My wyf 
and my chyldreu ancj uiy lignagcshal falledoun to your 
feet, to fore the kynge, and to fore all them that ye wyl 
desyre, and prayo yow humbly, that ye wyl .-uflVe 


Reynart, your iieiiew lyue, and also I slial knowcleche 
ofte to haue trespaced aycnst yow, and what lesynges I 
haue lycd vpon yow. How myfiht ony lord hauc more 
honour than I protire yow ? I wold ior no good do this 
to another ; therforc 1 i)ray yow to be plosyd here 
wyth al. 

I wote wel, yt' ye wolde, ye niyght now slec me, 
but and ye so don liad, what had ye wonne. So muste 
ye euer after this tyme kepe yow fro my frendes and 
lignage. Thcrfore he is wyse that can, in his angre, 
mesurc hym self, and not be ouer hasty ; and to see wel 
what may falle or ha[)pe afterward to hym, what man 
that in his angre can wel aduyse hym, certaynly he is 
wyse. Men tynde many fooles that in bote hasten hem 
so moche, that after they repente hem, and thenne it is 
to late. But, dere eme, I trowe that ye be to wyse so 
to doo. Hit is better to haue prys, honour, reste, and 
pees, and many frendes that be redy to helpc hym, than 
to haue shame, hurte, vnreste, and also many enemyes 
lyeng in a wayte to doo hym harme. Also it is lityl 
worship to hyni that hath ouercomcn a man thenne to 
slee hym, it is a grete sliauie ; not ior my lyf, though 
I were deed, that were a lyt}ll hurte. 

Isegrym the wulf said. Ay, theef, how fayn woldest 
thou be loscd and dyscharged fro me, that here I wel 
by thy wordes. Were thou now fro me on thy free 
feet, thou woldest not sette by me an egge shelle. 
Though thou promyscdest to me alle the world of fyn 
rede gold, I wold not late the escape. I sette lytyl by 
the, and alle tliy iVcndes and lignage. AUe that thou 


hast here said is luit Icsyngis and faynod falsenes ; 
weiiest thou thus to deceyue me. It is Ion;:*' .-} tli that 
I kuewe the. I am no byrde to be loeiicd ne take by 
dial". I know wel ynowh good corn. C) how woldest 
thou raocke me yf I lete tlie thus escape ? thou myght- 
e^st wel haue said this to one that knewe the not, but to 
me, thou losest thy llateryng and swete floytyng, for 1 / 
vnderstande to wel thy subtyl lyeng talys ; thow hast ' 
60 ofte deceyued me that me behoueth now to take good 
hedc of the ; thow false styiikyng knaue, thow saist 
that thou hast spared me in this batayl ; loke hether- 
ward to nu', is not jnyn one eye out, and tiierto hast 
thou Wduniled me in xx. places in my heed ; thou woldest 
not sutlre me so louge to reste as to take ones my breeth. 
I were oucr moche a fool yf I shold now spare the, or 
be mercyful to the, so many a confusion and shame thou 
hast don to me ; and that al.o that touchcth me most of 
alle, tiiat thou hast diswor-hijicd and sklaundred Krs- 
wyn, my \\y\\ wlinm I Iduc as wel as my self, and 
falsely dfceyuedest her, whiche shal neiier out of my 
herte, for as ofte as it eometh to myn mynde, all myn 
angre and hate that I haue to the reneweth. 

In the niene wylle that Ysegrym was tlius spekyng, \ 
the foxc bithougiit hym how he myght helpe hym self, 
and stak his other bond after bytwene his legges, ami 
grepe the wulf fast, and he wnuige hem so sore that for 
woo and payne he iiiuste crye lowde, and howle. 
Thcnne the foxe drewe his otiier honde out of his 
raouth. Tlie wiilf had so moche payne and anguyssh 
of the sore wryngyng that the foxc dowed and wn.nge 
that ho spytto blood. 






This paync dydc liym more sorow and woo tluui his eye 
dyde, that so sore bledde, and also it made liym to 
ouerthrowe alle in a swowne, for he had so mcjehc 
bledde, and also the thrcstyng that he suflVed made 
hym so faynt, that lie had lost his myj^ht. 

Thenne Keynard the foxe lepe vpon hym wyth al 
his myght, and caught hym by the legges, and drewe 
hym forth thurgh the felde, that they all myght see it, 
and he stack and smote hym sore. 

Thenne were Ysegrym's frendcs al l"ul of sorowe, 
and wente al wepyng vnto theyr lord the kynge, and 
; prayde hym that he wold doo sece the batayll, and taKu 
it vp in to his handcs. 

I The kynge graunted it, and theinie wente the kepars 
of the felde, the lupaerd and the lossem, and saide to 
the foxe, and to the wulf. Our lord, the kynge, wil 
speke wyth yow, and wyl that this batayl be ended ; 
he wil take it in to his hand ; he desyreth that ye wyl 
gyue your stryf vnto liyni, for yJ" ony iA' yow here were 
slayn, it shold be grete shame on bothe sydes. For ye 
haue as raoche worship of this felde as ye maye haue. 
And they sayde to the foxe, Alle the beestis gyue to 
yow the prys, that haue seen this bataylle. 

The foxe said, Therof I thanke hem, and what that 
shal plese my lord to command, that shal I not gayn- 
saye. I desire no better, but to haue wonne the felde. 


TiivsTdiiVK oi" ur.YNAun Tin: F()\i:. l>/ 

Late my frendes coinc Iictlicr to nic, I wil take aduyse 
of them what I shal doo. 

Tliey saide, That they thought it good : and also it 
was reson in weyghty matters, a man slioUl take adiiys 
of Iiis frendis. 

Tiienne came dame Slopeeade and Grymbert the 
dasse, her husband; dame Kukenawc wyth lier ii sus- 
ters; Bytchiys and Fuh(iiii])c, her two sons, and Ilate- 
net her doughter ; the llyndermows, and the wezel. 
And ther cam moo than xx, whiche wouhl not have 
conien yf the foxe hail lest the feeld. So who that 
wynntth and conicth to hys aboue, he getteth grete 
loos and worship ; and who that is oveithrowen and 
hath the werse, to hyni wil no man gladly come. Ther 
earn also to the foxe, the beuer, the otter, and bothe 
t' , yr wyues I\inthecrote and Ordegali' ; and the 
ostrole, the niartre, the fychcws, the fyret, the mowse, 
and the scjuyrel, and many moo than I can name ; and 
alle byeause he ha<l woime the feeld. Ye some that to 
fore had coinplayned on hym, and were now of his 
next kynne, and they shewdf hyin right iVendly cliitT 
and eontenanee. Thus fanth the world now: ^\ ho 
that is riche and high on the wheel, he hath many 
kynnesmcn and frendes that shal lulpe to here out his 
welthc. But who that is ncdy and in payne, or in 
poverte, fyndcth but few frendes and kynnesmcn ; for | 
every man almost eshewcth his companye and waye. 

There was then no grete fcste : they blewc up 
trompettis ami pypcd wytli shalmoyscs. They saydcn 
alle, Dere nenew, bles.-yd l)e (iodthat ye haue sped 


wel. Wc were in gretc dreile ami i'erc whan we saw 
yow lye vnder. 

Reynart the foxe thaukcLl alle them frendly, ami 
resceyued them with grete joye and gladnes. Thenne 
he asked ol" them, what they couns^t-ylled liym ; yf he 
sholde gyue the lelde vnto the kynge or no. Dame 
81oi)ecade sayde, Ye hardcly cosyn. Ye may wyth 
worship wel sette it in to his handes, and truste hym 
wel ynough. 

Tho wente they alle wyth the kepars of the fclde 
vnto the kynge, and Reynard the foxe wente to fore 
them alle wyth trompes and pypes, and moche other 
mynstralcye. The foxe kneled down to fore the kynge. 
The kynge bad hym stand vp, and said to hym, Rey- 
nard ye he nowjoyeful. Ye have kepte your day wor- 
shipfidly. I discharge yow, and late yow goo freely 
quyte where it plesyth yow. And the debate bytweue 
yow I holde it on nie, and shal discusse it by reson and 
by counscyl of noble men, and wil ordeync therof that 
ought be doon by reson, at suche tymc as Yysegrym 
shal be hool. And thenne I shal sende for yow to come 
to me ; and thenne, by Goddes grace, 1 shal yeue out 
the sentence and j ugcment. 



iNIy worthy and dere lord, the kynge, saide the foxe, 
I am wel agreed and ]>ayd therwytli. But whan I 


cam fyrst in your court, tin r wore many that were 
felle and cniiyous to nic, whiclie never hail hurte ne 
cause of scathe by me, but they thoii-^'ht that they 
myght beste over me. And alle they cryden wyth myn 
enemyes ayenst me, and wold fayn haue destroyed me, 
by cause they thought that the wult'was better with- 
holden and gretter wyth you than I was, whiche am 
your humble subget. They kncwe none other thynge 
why ne wherfore. They thoughtc not as the wyse be 
woncd to doo, tliat is what the end may happen. My 
Ionic, thyse ben lykc a grete heepof houndes whiclie I 
ones saw stonde at a lordes place vpon a donghil, 
where as they awayted that men sholde brynge them 
mete. Thenne sawe they an hound come out of the 
kychen, and had taken there a fayr r}'bbe of beef er it 
was gyuen hym, and he ran fast away wyth all. But 
the cook had espyed or he wcnte away, and took a grete 
bolle ful of scaldyng water and caste it on his hyppes 
behyndc, ; wherofhe thankyd nothyng tiie cook, for the 
beer behynde was skaldcd of, and his skyn semed as it 
had be thurgh sodcn. Ncvertheles he escaped away, 
and keptc that be had woniic' And wliaii his felaws, 
the otiicr houndes, saw hym come wytli this fayr 
rybbe, they called hym allc, and saidc to hym, (), how 
good a frendc is the cook to tlic, whidic hath gyuen to 
the so good a boone whcron his so moche llcssh. The 
hound saide. Ye knowe nothyng thcrof ; ye preyse mc 
lyke as yc sec mc to fore wyth tiiis bone, but ye hauo 
not seen me behynde. Take hede and Ijcholdc mc after- 
ward on myne buttokkis, and thcnncyc shal knowe how 
I haue deseruyd it. 


And wliiiii tlicy liail seen Iiym Ixjliymlc on liis liyppos, 
how that his skynne and his llessh was al rawe an<l 
thurgli sodon ; the growled thcin alio, and were afcrd 
of that syedyng water, and wold not of his felawship, 
but fleddc and ran away from hyin, and lete hyni there 
allone. See, my lord, this right haue thyse false 
beestis, whan they be made lordes and may gete their 
desire, aM<I wlian they be iiiy;.fhty ami doubted, tlienne 
ben thoy extoreionners and scatte and pylle the peple, 
and eten them lyke as they were forhongred houndes. 
These ben they that here the bone in her mouth. No 
man dar haue to doo wyth hem, but preyse alle that 
they bedryve. No man dar saye other wyse, but suche 
as shal plese hem by cause they wold not be shorn ; 
and ,<onime helpe them forth in tluyr vniyghtwys dedes 
by cause they wold haue parte, and lykke theyr fyn- 
grcf, and strengthe them in theyr euyl lyf and werkis. 
O, dere lonl, how lytyl seen tin v that do thus after 
behynde them what the cnde shal be. Attc lastc they 
fal fro hye to lowe in grete shame and sorowe, and 
thenne theyr werkis come to knowleche, and be opene 
in suche wyse that no man hath pyte ne compasion on 
them in theyr meschief and trouble ; and every man 
curse them, and saye euyl by them to their shame and 

Many of suche haue ben Ijhuned and sliorn ful nyghe 
that they had no worship ne prouflyt, but lose theyr heer 
as the hound dyde ; that is, theyr frendes, whiche haue 
liolpc tliem to couere their mysdedes and extorcions, 
like as the hccr couerythe the skyn. And whan they 



hauc sorow and .-liainc lor tlit-yr ulile trc>{)acc'3, thenne 
cche body pluckyth his hand fro hyin, and flee, lyke as 
the houndes dyde fro hym that was scaMcd wyth the 
syedyng water, and leto liyin thysc exturcions in her 
sorow and nede. 

My dere lorde the kyngc, I besechcyou to rt'iiifinbrf 
the example of me, it shal not be aycnst your worship 
ne wyse(h»m. Whatweneye how many ben thcr suehe 
false extoreioiuiers, now in tht'sc daycs, ye nuicli werse 
tlian an hound, tliat bereth suehe a bone in hismoutli, 
in townes, in grete lordes courtes, whiehe wyth greet 
faeing and braeyng oppressc the poure peple wyth 
grete wronge, and selle theyr fredoni and jiryuelages; 
and here tiit-m on bond of thyngis that tlii-y neuer 
kncwe, ne thoughte. And all for to gete good for 
theyr synguler proffyt, God giuc tlniii all >liam<' and 
soone destroy them, who soiuine euer they be that so doo. 

But God be thanked, said the foxe, thcr may no 
man endwyte me, ne my lygnage, ne kynne, of suche 
werkys, but that we shal aequyte vs, and eomen in 
the lyglite. I am not aferd of ony, that ean saye <jn me 
ony thyng tliat I haue don olherwyse than a trewe man 
ought to doo. Allc way the foxe shal a byih-tlie foxe, 
though allc his encinyes hadde sworn the eontrarye. 
My dere lord the kynge, I loue you wyth my herle 
aboue allc other lordes. And neuer for nonuin wold 1 
torne fro yow ; but abyde by yow to the utteri.-t ; how 
wel it hath ben otherwysc enformed your hycni.> : I 
hatie neuertheles alway do the best, and forth so wylle 
doo alle my lyf that I can or may. 






The kyngc saycle, Reynard, ye be one of them that 
oweth me homage, whiche I wyl that ye allway so doo. 
And also I wylle that erly and late ye be of my coun- 
seyl, and one of my justyses. See wel to that ye not 
mysdoo, ne trespace no more. I sete yow agayn in alle 
your myght and power, lyke as ye were to foi"e, and see 
that ye further alle matters to the bestc righte, for 
whan ye sette your wytte and counseyl to vertuc and 
goodnesse, thenne may not our court be wythout your 
aduyse and counseyl, for here is non that is lyke 
to yow in sharp and hye counseyll, ne subtyller in 
fyndyng a remedye for a meschief. And thynkc ye on 
thexample that ye yourself haue tolde ; and that ye 
haunte rightwysnes, and be to me trewe. I will fro 
hensforth wcrkc and doo by your aduyse and counseyll ; 
he lyucth not that yf he mysdede yow, but I shold 
sharply aduenge and wreke it on hym. Ye shall ouer- 
alle speke and saye my wordes, and in alle my lande 
shall ye be, aboue alle other souerayne, and my bayle ; 
that offyce I gyue yow : ye may wel occupye it wyth 

Alle Rey nardis frendis and lignage thanketh the kyngo 
heyly. The kyngc sayde, I wolde doo more for your 
sake than ye wene; I praye yow alle that ye remembre 
hym that he be trewe. 


Dame Rukcnawo thcnnc sayd, Yes sykerly, my lord, 
that slial he euer be. And thynke ye not the contrary ; 
for yf he were otherwysc, he were not of our kynne 
ne lignage, and I wold euer myssake hyni, and wold 
ever hyndre hyni to my power. 

Kcynart the foxe thanked the kynge with fayr cur- 
toys wordes, and sayd, Dere lorde, I am not worthy to 
haue the wership that ye doo to me ; I shal thynke 
thcron, and be trewe to you also longe as I lyue, and 
shal gyue you as holsom counseyl as shal be expedient 
to your good grace. Here wyth he departed wytli his 
frendes fro the kynge. 

Now herkc how Isegrym the wulf dyde. Bruyn the 
here, Thybert the catte, and Erswynde and her chyl- 
dren, wyth their lignage, drewcn the wulf out of the 
felde, and leyde hym vpon a lyter of hcyc, and couerd 
hym warm, and loked to his woundes, which were wel 
XXV. ; and ther cam wyse maistres and surgyens, whiche 
bondc them, and weeshe hem. He was so soke and 
feble, that he had lost hisfelynge; but they rubbed and 
wryued hym vnderhis temples and eycn,that he sprange 
out of his swoune and crydc so lowde, that allc they 
were aferde : they had wcndc that he had been wood. 

But the maistres gaf hym a drynke that comforted 
his herte, and made hym to slcpe. They comforted hys 
wyf, and tolde to hor that ther was no <loth wounde, ne 
paryl of his lyf. Theniu' the court brake vj), and the 
beestis departed to theyr [)laccs and homes that thi-y 
cam froo. 

M 2 






Reynaut the foxe toke his leue honestly of the kynge 
and of the quene, and they bad hyni he shold not tarye 
longe, but shortly retorne to them agayn. He answerd 
and said, Dere kynge and quene, alway at your cora- 
mandement I shal be redy. Yf ye node ony thynge, 
whiche God forbede, I wold alway be redy wyth my 
body, and my good to helpe yow, and also al my frendes 
and lignage in lyke wyse shal obeye your coramande- 
ment and desire. Ye haue hyely deseruyd it, God 
quyte it yow and yeue you grace longe to lyue ; and I 
desyre your lycence and leue to goo home to ray wyf 
and chyldren ; and yf your good grace wil ony thyng, 
late me haue knowleche of it, and ye shal fynde me 
alway redy. Thus departed the foxe wytli fayr wordes 
fro the kynge. 

Now who that coude sette hym in Reynardis crafte, 
and coude behaue hym in flateryng and lyenge, as he 
dyde, he shold, I trowe, be berde, both wyth the lordes 
spyrytuel and temporel. Ther ben many, and also the 
moste parte that crepe after his waye and his hole. 
The name that was gyuen to hym abydeth alway stylle 
wyth hym. He hath lefte many of his crafte in this 
world, whiche alwaye wexe and become myghty, for 
!who that wyl not vse Reynardis crafte now, is nought 



worth in the world now in ony estate tliat is ot" niyglit. \ 
l>ut yf he can crei)e in Keynanlis nettc, and liath ben 
his scoler, thenne may ye dwelle with vs. For thenne 
knoweth he wcl the way how he may aryse, and is sette 
vp abouc of euery man. 

Ther is in the workl moche seed left of the foxe, I 
whiche now oueral groweth and coraeth sore vp ; though | 
they haue no rede berdes, yet ther ben foundcn mo foxes 
now than euer were here to fore. The rightwys people 
boti al loste, trouthe and rightwysnes ben cxyled, and 
f(jrdriuen, and for them ben abyden wyth vs couetyse, 
falshede, hate, and enuye. Thyse regne now moche in 
euery centre, for is it in the popes court, the emperours, I 
the kynges, dukes, or ony other lordes where some euer I 
it be, eche man laboureth to put other out fro his wor- ; 
shi|), ofiyce, and power, for to make hym sylf to clymme ' 
hyo witli lyes, wyth llateryng, wyth symonye, wyth 
money, or wyth stren;Lrthe and force. 

Ther is none thyng byloued ne knowen in the court , 
now a days but money; the money is better byloued 
than God, for men doo moche more therfore ; fn- who 
pomcuer bryngeth money shal be wel reccyuyd, and shal 
haue allc his desyro, is it of lordi's or of ladyes, or ony 
other. That iiioncy dutli nKK-Jic hannc. IMoncv l)i"vng- 
cth many in shame and drcdc of his lyf, and bryngeth 
false wytnes ayenst true peple for to gete money. Hit 
causeth vnclennes of lyuyng, lyeng, and lechorye. 

Now clerkes goon to Home, to Parys, and to manv 
another place, for to lerne Kcynardis crafte. Is lie 
clerke, is he laye man, euerichc of them tredeth in the 


foxes path, and scketh his hole. The world is of snche 
condycion now, that euery man seketh iiym self in alio 
raaters. I wotc not what ende shal come to vs heroi'. 
All wyse men may sorowc wel herforc, I fere that for 
the gretc falsenes, thefte, robberye, and murdre, that 
is now vsed so raoche and comonly, and also the vn- 
shamfast lecherye and avoultry hosted and blowen a 
brood with the auauntyng of the same, that wythout 
grete repentaunce, and penaunce therfore, that God 
will take vcngeaunce and punyshe vs sore therfore ; 
whom I humbly bcseche, and to whom nothyng is hyd, 
that he wylle gyue vs grace to make araendes to hym 
therfore, and that we maye rewle vs to his [)laysyr. 

And herwyth wil I leue : for what haue I to wryte 
of thise mysdedis? I haue ynowh to doo with myn owne 
self, and so it were better that I helde my pees, and 
sufFre ; and the beste that I can doo for to amende my 
self now in tliis tyme, and so I counseyle euery man 
to doo Iierc in this present lyf, and that shal be moste 
our proulfyt. For after this lyf cometh no tyme that 
we may occupye to our auantage for to amende vs, for 
thenne shal euery man answerc for hym self, and bero 
his owen burthen. 

Reynardis frendes and lignagc to the nombre of xl., 
haue taken also theyr leue of the kynge, and wente 
alle to gydre wyth the foxc, whiche was right glad that 
he had so wel sped, and that he stode so wel in the 
kyngcs grace. He thought that he had no shame, but 
that he was so grete with the kyng, that he myght 
htlj»e and further his frendes, and hyndre his enemyes, 


and also to doc what he woMe, wytliout he shoUl be 
bhuiunl yf he wold be wysc. 

Tlie foxc and his tVemlis wentc so longe to gydre 
that they camcn to his burph to Maleporduys ; ther tliey 
alio tuke leuc, echc of other, wyth fayr and courtoys 
wordes. Reynard dyde to them grete reuerence, and 
thanked them allc frendly, of'theyrgood I'ayth, and also 
worship, that they had don and shewd to hym, and pro- 
frcd to eche of them his seruysc yf they had nede, wyth 
boily and goodes. And herwyth they departed, and 
eche of them wente to theyr ownc howscs. 

llie foxc wente to dame Ermelyn his wyf, whiehe 
welcomed hym frendly: he tolde to her and to his 
chyldren, allc the wonder that to hym was befallen in 
the court ; and forgote not a worde, but tolde to them 
eucry dele, how he had escaped. Thennc were they 
glail that theyr fader was so enhaunscd and grctc wyth 
the kynge. And the foxc lyued forthon wyth iiis wyf 
and rhyhlren in grete joyc ami gladnes. 

Now. who tliat said to yow of the foxc, more or lesse, 
than yc hau<' herd or red, I holde it for lesyngc. I'lit 
tliis that ye hauc herd or red, that may ye beleuc wcl ; 
and who that bylcueth it not, is not therforc out of the 
right bclcui". I low be it, ther be many, yf that they 
had ficcn it, tiicy .shold haue the lessc doubte of it. 
For ther l)en many thinges in the world whiehe ben 
byleued though they were ncuer .'Mjen ; also tlur ben 
many fygures, playes foun<h'ii, that neuer were don ne 
happeil, but for an example to the peple, that they may 
therby the Iwttcr vsc and folowc vertuc, and tcschewe 



synne and vycos. In lyke wyse in:iy it be by this 
booke : that who that wyl rede this mater, though it be 
of iapes and bourdcs, yet he may fynde therin many 
a good wysedom, and lernynges ; by whiche he may 
come to vertue and worship. Ther is no good man 
bhinied Iierin ; hit is spoken generally. Late eucry 
man take his ownc part as it belongetli and behoveth, 
and he that fyndeth hym gylty in ony dele or part 
tlierof, late hym bettre and amende hym. And he 
that is good, veryly I pray God kepe hym therin. 
And yf ony thyng be said or wreton herin, that may 
greue or dysplease ony man ; blame not me ; but the 
I'oxe. For they be his wordes and not myne. 

Prayeng alle them that shal see this lytyl treati^, to 

correcte and amende, where they shal fynde faute ; for 

I haue not added ne mynusshed, but haue folowcd as 

I nyghe as I can, my copye, whiche was in dutche, and 

! by me William Caxton translated in to this rude and 

I symple Englyssh, in thabbey of Westmestre. Fynysshed 

the vj daye of juyn the yere of our lord m.cccg.lxxxj 

and the xxj yere of the regne of kynge Edward the 

j iiijtb. 



p. 2, Open Court. — This open court, the "Cour I'leiiirri' 
of the Fix'iieli, is very characteristiciilly smnmoiied at U hil- 
suntide ; sueh as.seiiil)liiijjs of the feudatory iioldes at the 
eourt of their sovereipi during the middle ajjes, heiiifj eustoni- 
arily hchl ii|)oii the three great festivals of tlie Church. — «S'<r 
Diuanj^e, s. v. Curia. 

1*. :), Ur-iiMtlirid. — The words in the Dutch prose are " end 
dacr heseykedc hi luijn kiudercu daer si laghcn," ^c. 

Iliiil. Ilnli/ S(ti/ntr.<i. — In the original "die heeligen" by 
which is meant, not " the hook with the Saynles" which 
Caxton introduces a few lincf. after, and of which no mention 
is made in the Dutch prose, hut the relics of saints, a fonn of 
adjuration which wils anciently of frerjuent occurrence, and 
regarded as of the most solemn and binding naturi-. I'he 
reader will call to mind the circumstance of William having 
concealed the " holy sayntes'' hcneath the altar at which 
Harold swore fidelity to him, sec liappcnbcrg, i. .VJ7. That, 
in this ease, relics are alluded to, is shown by the following 
vi'rses from tlic lirinunlux. 

" A III lit prn-jurc* piini<>ri> mutii mijmt." — lili iv. IMfl. 
and — 

" Qui* inilii n'liqiiias nffcn't ? trqim vi-lim." — iv. flOH. " 
See further ujion this point (Jrimm's Deutsche Ketlits- 
Aitherthumer, s. NiXi. 

P. 5, Grijmhiiil tin Dinsc. — The dasse is the badger, from 

1 70 NOTES. 

the Dutch Das, and German Dachs. In the English edition 
of IGoO, \c. he is called " the Brock." 

Ibid. Myn Emc. — Thuuyh Griniliart here calls Reynart 
his ' Erne' or uncle, the word which we have from the Anglo- 
Saxon Eaui, and is the same with the Gennan Oheiin, Low 
German Ow, and Frisian Em, originally siguilicd the mother's 
brother (avunculus), but afterwards was applied in the sense 
of father's brother (patnius), and eventually became a com- 
plimentaiy epithet, bestowed without regard to the relationship 
of the parties. 

P. (i, The (/rate or bones. — Grate is the Flemish Gract, 
German Grate, a fish bone. The fish Thomback is called by 
the Dutch Grict, from its spinous appendages. 

Ibid. By cause of his ui/c. — The passage which follows is 
thus given in the Dutch prose : " Mijn oeme heft se germint, 
lae dat is wel seveniaer gheleden eer dat hy se trouwede. 
Of dan Reynaert daer doer minne en houescheit sinen willc 
did. Wat wast dan. Si was daer schier of genesen." 

P. 7, The Menowr. — A thief is said to be taken with the 
Mainour, when he is taken with the thing stolen upon him 
in manu. And Blackstone furnishes an illustration of the 
accuracy with which the Badger lays down the law, when he 
adds (l)ook iv. c. 23), that " by the Danish law he might be 
tiikcn and hanged upon the spot, without accusation or trial." 

P. 7, What skathed it him. — What harmed it him ; from 
the Anglo Saxon scethan, to injure, hurt, SiC. 

Ibid. Bijlded a cluse. — A cluse is a cell, from the I/itin 
clnsa, see Ducange ; and in the next chapter (p. 9) we hear 
that Reynard was " a eloysterer, or closyd recluse, becomen." 

P. 9, Slaryne and ■pijlche. — The " slavyne" is the robe worn 
by pilgrims, .see Ducange, s. v. Sclavina, who says, quoting, 
ex Chronico Andiensi ; Pedes incedens in habitu pereyrini 
i/ui vulgo dicitur Sclavina. 

NOTES. 1 7 1 

The pylchc, from llie An^xlo-Saxim pi/Ica, is a gani)ent <»!' 
skin, with the liuir, or I'ur fjarmcnt. The tenn "pilch" is still 
retiiiiicd in our nurseries fur a llanuel wrapper. 

Ibid. Fort/iiin. — Indeed ; from the An<iln-Su.rnii fiirthou. 

P. 10, Sexte, None, and Evensonij. — Three of the seven 
cnnonieul houre of the Romish Church, to each of which proper 
services were assijijned. 

Ibid. Bijtakc. — Commend ; from the Anglo-Saxon, beta can . 

Ibid. Forslonycn. — Swallowed up, devoured. From the 
Dutch Vcrslindcn, German Vcrscldingcn, to devour. Thus 
in Luther's (Jennan BiMo, 2 Sam. xx. I J), " Warum willst 
du diis Erbtheil des Ilerrn versihlint/iii." " ^^ hy wilt thou 
swallow up tlie inheritance of the Lord?" 

Ibid. Abijc. — .Make amends for, atone, so in Tiers Plough- 

Tlie commune for theyr iinkymlcnes, 

I ilreJu mo, -sUul abyo." — 1. 6330-7. ed. Wright. 

P. 10, \Vc will t/ive to her the dcthvs riyhts. — It was not 
unreasonable to hope that this passage would have furnished 
some illustration of Shakspere's ' \'irgin crants,' an expression 
whicli has excited so much comment. In the metrical Dutch 
version, we have the veiy words of Caxton, " Daer willtu wy 
ecus doden reeht me plegcn." 

P. 11, Plnnbii. — At the service of tlic dead, after tlie verse 
Retjuieiii tetiruaiii, V'". Placebo Dnntinu in rii/ioiie liiorunt 
is sung. 

Ibid. When tliii \ iijUic was done and the r«iniitiudnriitti. 

The ollice for the dead in the Unmish Church was some- 
times so designated, see Ducange in v. lii/ilitr. 

Cmnmendalio, pniyers nv ollice fur the dead, so cntitlt d, 
savs Ducange (1. v.) (|Uotiuj; tlie statutes of the onler of 
Scmpringham, " (piia in co fit cximmendatio aniuiu; defmicti a 
sacerdote. ' 

172 NOTES. 

P. 1 3. Richest of leevijs and of land. — This is obviously one 
of th(.sc allitt'iativo fonmihc, oi" which so many have l)een 
preserved in legal technicology, as " might and main," " life 
and limb," "part and parcel," &c. It is here used to express 
a person of wealth and consideration, as is obvious from the 
original Dutch prose, in which the Fox describes the Bear as 
being " die edelste en die nieeste van lone van aide lande." ^ 

Ihid. Lyef neve. — Lyef, dear, from the Anglo-Saxon Leof. 

f. 14. The rede Reynard. — Rede is red : so in the metrical 
Riinarts " 1st u eernst, sprac die rode." 

P. 14. Vii ha)nber barclis. — Probably seven wine barrels, see 
Ducange, s. v. Ania, llama, nnd JIantcllicits. The Dutch prose 
says, " seuen aemen heblien," and the metrical Rcinart. 

" Al wllilij.s hebbun vii iimeii," — line 019. 

Ante is explained by Killian " Cadus llama," and in 
French Caque. 

Ihid. Y^nnstc. — Favoiu" and affection, from the Dutch 

Ibid. Two betels. — Betels, here and in the following page, is 
used in the sense of wedge ; and in the copy of Caxton's 
Reynard, in the King's Library, British Museum, the word 
" Betels" has been struck out with a pen, and the word 
" wegge" written over it, in an old, apparently a contemporary, 

P. 17. lilccf. — Remained, from the Anglo-Saxon Mtf/c/^', 
the perfect of the verb bclij'an. 

P. 18, Grete Irden n-apper. — What precise instrument is 
meant by the " grooten loden wappere," as it is called in 
Caxton's original, is by no means clear. Killian defines 
wapperaii Flagellum : and again, irapper, Ini/erikloof, asPlum- 
bata, martiobarl»ulus, i>ila idumljca, missilis, Plombec, boule 
de plombe attachee a une corde pour la jcter, et retirer ayant 
assene .son coup. 

Ibid. Forslyrncdgc . — Smote or beat. 

NOTES. 1 73 

Ibid. A cruked staf, ivcll Icded, ^-v. — i'robably such a slalV 
as is now used in playing Golf. 

Ibid. Maciib, the sloppil-maker. — A maker of stoppds or 
stoops, sec Killian, s. v. ^Stoppcl, Stmipc, \c. In the Low 
Genuan Reineke Vos, we find, — 

" It were de sluppilmctcr," which Ilnffnianu explains in his 
Glossary, Sluhhle-nieter, used ironically tor Tithc-collcctor. 

Ibid. Ut/m lusted. — It pleased him. This impersonal verb is 
frcf|ucntly used by Chaucer, see Tyr^vhitt's Glossaiy, s. v. Leste. 

P. 20. Such good veni.sou.— Tiom this use of the word 
" N'cnison," it would seem that it was formerly applied, not to 
the flesh of deer only, but to that of any other animal taken 
by the chase, and used as an article of food. 

Ibid, Dicu Vitus (/ardr. — C'axton has not transferred this 
sentence into his English version, but altered it in a way which 
shows his knowledge of the French language. The metrical 
Keimirt says, 

" Sire I'riistiT, ilieii vu Mint!" 

The Dutch prose from which Caxtoii translated " C'liyrc 
pricster, dieux vos fant." 

Ibid, The fcUc dicre. — 'Jhc fell beast, IVdUi tlie 1 )uuli Diem, 
and German Thier. 

P. 21. To rulsele. — To slip or slide, I'ldni tlie Dutch nilseii 
or ml sen. 

Ibid. He irriitlfil. — He tnriietl <ir nilled umi, tmni the ulil 
Dutch icentelen or ueiidteleti, .see Killian. So a^ain, page '28, 
the Cat is described as " rolling and ueuthjuij towards the 
kyng's court." 

Ibid. Not null ]iiii/il. — Not well pleastd. So Chancer, in 
the Wifeof liath's Talc: 

" AVlio so tluit link liiin paid of lii<t povprlo, 
] liolil liiiii ricli, 111 luul he not a sluTtr." 

In Piers Ploughman, as in the present work (see page 
2(5, 5:c.), the word occurs again, nmler tlie furni n-patjed: 

1 7 t NOTES. 

" Thcrwitli wns IVrkyn ii payoil." — 

Pur* rioughinan, I. t012. ed. Writjht. 

P. 2-2. " And thi/r,l," " and he daijed ;" from the Flemish 
aii'l l.iiw (u-miaii daffcn, to he summoned for a eertain day, 
or Imvo a day appointed, sec Hoffmann's Rcincke, v. 902 ; 
Willem's lieinart, v. 1007. 

This explanation is confirmed hy tlie passaj^e in page 2S, 
where Grymbart ilaims for the Fox tliat lie shall "he don to 
as to a free man, whan he shall he judged, he miiste he warned 
the thirde tyme for al." 

P. 23. " One of Sei/nt Mart}jns bj/rdes." — Dreyer, in his 
Essay on Reynard, Nchmstunden, s. 108, and Grimm, in his 
Reiidiart Fuchs, suppose the crow, Virjjil's "sinistra cornix," 
the " comeia sinistra" of the Poema del Cid, to be the bird 
alluded to ; and the superstition connected with such a bird, is 
mentioned by Peter of Blois, epist. t>5. " Si a sinistra in dex- 
teram avis Sancti Martini volaverit." Others have suj)posed 
the Goose to be the bird alluded It), whose connexion with the 
anniversary of St. Martin, is shown by the following lines from 
the old German comic romance of Peter Leu: 

" Hiiiiiiini lii* nuf S. Mnrlin's Tun 
Als <la iu;m (liu (iiins-Fcstf pllaj;." 

V. der HuKt'ii'siVrtrrmfci/r/i, ». .Hill. 

And in Donee's Illustrations of Shaksjierc, ii. •\\'>, tliero is a 
story t|uotcd from Odo de t'eriton, in which mention is made 
of a kind of wren named after St. Martin, w ith very long and 
slender legs. 

Ibid. Unhappe. — Misfortune. In the Dutch prose, from 
which Caxton translated, the word is nni/hcluckc. 

P. 25. Flownrx. — In this instance, pancakes are probjibly 
intended. " Of milke and of egges men make flawnes," says 
Caxton, in the f^oke for Travellers, see further Mr. Way's 
Promptorium Parvulonim, y. KM, n 3. where the reader will 

NOTES. 175 

find an almndancc of illustrations of tlic several nu-aniiigs 
attaclu'd to this word. 

Ibid. Line 1.').— It is plain, from an examination of the 
Diitih prose, that this passage should he printed, " Tyl>ert, 
quod the Foxe, I will hring jow to the place, cr I goo from 
yow. Reyner, quod the Cattr, upon your sauf conduijt, I 
wolde wel goo wylh you to Moniiclicr !" 

Iliiil. Uryn. — A trap or snare. So in the Anglo-Saxon 
(iospel, Luke xxi. 35, we read, Siva ma gn/n, as a snare. 

P. 26. Wrawcn.— To call out, from the Dutch irrauwm. 
In the Dutch prose it is uraumii ; in tlu' nutrical Urinarl, 

Ibid. Al mnder naked.— 'V\\\^ expressive substitute for the 
more common phrase " naked as he was born," Caxton has 
copied from his original, when it is said " Die paep seh o liep 
al moder nacct." The incident affords a striking proof how 
universally the custom of so sleeping prevailed during the 
Middle Ages,— a custom which is curiously illustrated by the 
Fal)liau of Le lioucher d\ibbtvilli; and still more so by the 
rcri/ French engraving of that subject, which appeai-s in the 
frontispiece to the fourth volume of Meon's edition of iiarba- 
zan's Kabliaux et C'ontes. 

Ibiil. Liickrii /lis »(•///■.— Thi.s error in the name of tlie jtricst's 
wife, whose name w.-uj Dame .lulocke, as we have it in the 
next page, is not t'axlon's. The author of the Dutch jirose 
calls her I^oeken in this jihice. To show how slight have been 
tlie alterations, Imw few the onii>siiins, made in the text of 
•his edition, we lake this opportunity of gi>ing the original (pf 
a passiige, which hius necessirily been more modified tliaii anv 
"•tlif'r \u the book. 

Die naectc paep hief op en sonde enen grotcn .slach slaen, 
en Tyberl sacii wel dat hi unmer stcrven moeste, daer\er- 
inande hi hem, en voer dm p.ij)e tusehen sine Inenen niitlt n 

176 NOTICS. 

clamven en mitten tandon, also dat hi lien sinen rechtcren 
ciil (if haclde. Desen spionck bi([iiuiu den paej) so qnuliken 
eude tot proton suadcn. 

" Dit dine viol neder op die vloer, vronwe .Inlocke dit 
vernani ende swoer grofliek hoers vaders (ielo, si woudc dattct 
hoer ghceost waer die otrerhande van enen heelen iacr dat den 
paep die scade die scande ende die leemte niet gheschiet en 
waer, ende spracli, In des duuels name wort die striek bier 
ye gliesettet. Sicli mertinet, leue soen, di.ts van dijns vaders 
ghewade, dat as een alien groten scande ende mi alte grolc 
scade, al genase hi hier van so is noch van mi vcrdcrft ende 
ewelic des soeten speels ommachtich. Keynert stant buten 
voer dat gat, ende hoerde alle die woerden, ende lachte also 
uterwaten sere dz hi nauwe ghestaen en coude. Hi sprac 
aldus in scbimpe, vromve Julocke schwiget al stillc ende laet 
uwen groten rouwe sincken. Al heeft u here sincn cid verloren, 
ten scaet hem met als hi u anders van bachten dienen wille, 
hi sal u nochtans wel gberiiien. Menighe capellen sijn oeck 
in die wereldt daerinen niet dan mit eonre cloekcn en luydt " 

P. 27. Vnnethr. — Scarcely, from the Anglo-Saxon nu-mthe. 

P. ;U. Vi/lai/llcr. — Purveyor. 

Ibid. He that soruurd. — He that cared or provided for. 

P. 32. Spt/nde. — A pantry or larder, from the Dutch sjriudc. 

P. 33. Slepid. — Dragged, from the Flemi-sh sleypen,Ui drag. 

P. 34. Faldure, and again, valditre. — A trap-door or fcdding- 
door, from the Flemish valdntre or vald-dcure. 

Ibid. Yr borde and jape iril/i me. — You joke and jest with 
me. Borde, from the Anglo-Norman, or more j)rolialtly from 
the old Friesic Bord, a jest ; and jape, to mock, from the 
Norman-French Gabcr, and not, I think, from the Anglo- 
Saxon, as has freipiently been stated. The words are freciuenlly 
found in connexion, as in Chaucer's Manciple's Prologue : 

" That that I spake, I said it in mj bourd. 
And wete ye what? I liave here in my gourd 

SOTVJi. 177 

A ilraiiK)it of win, yi- of n ripe- Kru]M'. 
And riglit amin yp sliiil stfii a (jtMul jui'f.' 

And in Palsf^nive, where we find : " To hounle or y.i[H- wiili 
iiiie in sport." " Triijfltr, hurdrr, jnuuvhn;" sec fnrtliii Mr. 
W'jiy's vahiaMe illustraticms of both (lu'se words, in liis eililiiMi 
of tlie Pronii>toriinn Parvvdornin, pp. II and 267. 

P. ;{|. liijilriivrn. — From the I'lcniisli licilryvcn, nialnni 
comniittere, see Killian. 

P. 3.'). Piil(ii/I(\ poliii/lli, piilmill, fiolii/l — for the wor<l 
occurs in all these forms, within the space of two paj^es — is 
here used in the sense of ponltry, or domestic fowls ; from the 
French Poulaillr. 

P. W. Rnmrd the court. — Departed from the eonrt ; from 
the anplo-Saxon /2umta>i,and Danish Rmmuw. In pajjcHl, 
we have " rnjined his castle." 

P. !<>. lialkeil — Was an<;ry, from llie I'leniish bclffcn, in 
past hnlrh, to lie angry. 

/'. II. Fcmers, — past event'-. This word oecurt> in Piers 
Ploiifjlhman, nsed adverbially, line 33.')!, and as a substantive 
in the following passage : 

" And many tiim-s liiivr nu'vcd tlic 
l'i> (liynki! on thru cndc, 
And how TcIm /fTHyrrii on- fnH'n," &c. 

/. 7ni>. .<»../ <-/. M'ri.iht 

In Gualliers edition, tlir wurd " tyme" is substituted. 

/'. II. rf7//77.— (Joats, froni the .\uglo-Saxon (iiil,ii goat. 

Ibiil. Gnjmmiil. — U.iged, from the Anglo-Saxon i/riiiiinuii, 
to rage. 

Ihifl. Sinltc.— ]]\ this inslanee .«r«//f, which is derive<l from 
the .\nglo-Saxon snat, is nsed in the .sense of treasure. It 
son)etimes means money only ; and ccrUiin Anglo-Saxon coins 
were expres.sly denominated xcraltas. It is also frecjuently 
used to siiriiifv a tax or tribute : and in this latter is :i 


household word at the present day, under the modernized fonn 
of " scot," as in scot and lot, scot-free, \'c. 

P. 4<». Unherisped This word, which Gualtier in his 

edition has changed into openly, is here used in the sense of 
harmless, undisturbed, and is the same as the old Flemish 
niiberispt, harmless, see Killian ; or rather, as the wihirepprd, 
unbciTppcd, untouched, undisturbed, of the old Fricsic law, 
see Richthofer. Sec note on Deryspr, p. 13(). 

Ibid. KyiKj ErvuTi/ks tresoitr. — The reader who desires 
better acquaintance with this treasure, which is so fre([uently 
referred to in the German poems of the Middle Ages, as the 
Nibelun<::en, \'c. and is intimately connected with the northern 
and Gothic traditional cycles, is referred to Mr. Kemble's 
edition of Beowulf, vol. i. p. 261, and to the note on line 2396 
in vol. ii. ; or for yet fuller particulars, to W. Grimm's DcuLichc 
Heldcnsage, s. 17,46, ifc. 

P. 47. Sivoren upon Ysegrym's croume. — Willems, in his 
Reinaert, p. 92, explains this passage, by a reference to Ise- 
grim's having entered the cloister of Elniare and become a 
monk, and to the practice which fonncrly obtained, when a 
priest never took an oath, but when he gave evidence laid his 
right hand upon his crown or tonsure, and in that way testi- 
fied to the truth of his statement. 

Ibid. The sliile at Aeon. — Acou is Aix la Chapelle, or, as it 
is called in German, Aachen. " The stole" is the celebrated 
throne or coronation chair of white marble, covered with plates 
of gold, on which no less than fifty-five crowned emperors had 
been seated previously to the year 1558, see Nolten's Archao- 
logische Bcschreibnufj des Mxmstrr oder Kronungikirche zu 

Ibid. Fnrdryve. — Chaucer uses this word in hisRomaunt of 
the Rose : 

" ArMien they in case wene best to live 
They ben with tonipest i\\\ fordrive."—l. 3781,2. 

NOTES. 1 79 

Gaulticr in his nlitiiin has altered the seiiteiiec, and reads 
" shouhle ehace him away." 

Ibid. " T/u- linhj thre Kingx of Calli/it,^' — I he Tliree Kings 
of Cologfnc, the patrons of that city, are the Three Wise Men, 
whose bodies were broiipht to Constantinople by the Empress 
Helena, ahont the year ;V2M, thenec transferred to Milan, and 
aftenvards, in 1104, when Milan was taken by the Emperor 
Frederick, presented l)y him to the Arehbishop of Cologne. 
In Fosbroke's liritish ^Lmachisin is an account, drawn from 
Dii Cange, of the Feast ol' the Star, or Ofliec of the Three 
Kings ; and in IlolVman's Hone Hcltjirtr, ii. (>!>, the s<mg sung 
by the Star-Singers, tlie actors in a popular ceremony observed 
in (iermany on the Feast of tlie F.]>iphany, until the el(l^e of 
the last eentun.'. 

P. -18. Frosshis — Frogs. See Mr. Way's observations on 
this fonn of the word in his edition of the i'mmptoriiun, 
p. 180. n. n. 

Ibid, hydu-nnijen — " Kept under" is the expression substi- 
tuted by (Jualtier in his edition — which coiTesponds very 
closely with the original Flemish word, bedwongen, which 
Killian defines "Coactus, Adaetus, Ci>ntraint." The word 
occurs again in a somewhat dilVcrent form at j). (H), where we 
read " a bydwogen oth, or oth sworn by force." 

P. 40. /•'("(/ xporr — foot-mark, the voil-.ipnerc. Vestigium 
pedis, of Killian. It occurs again at p. 80. 

P. 50. Snuldi/r or wages. — Pay, or wages, fmni the In m li 
Snuldi',souldvr, see Roijuefort. Wc sec very clearly Imm this, 
and the word " Souldyour," which oecurs a few lines lower 
down, the strict meaning of the name souldicrs, that is, hired 

P. 52. Stoundiurlr — a little while. Caxtou appears to ha\e 
misunderstood the original |)assagc, whieh says, — The f<>xe 
saw that the king \\n>; '/<.<?>"/,— and translated the Dutch 

N 2 

180 NOTKS. 

«i<7<y)r'H stoundniele, which GiuiUior not undeistandinpjaltcred 
in his edition (if l;')oo, into "sadly." 

J hid. lite khitf toke up a straw fro the ground. — This, and 
tlic passage in the foHowing page, where the fox takes np a 
straw, and proffers it to the king, contain alhisions to one of 
tlio must ancient symhulical fonns which exist in the early 
hiws of the Roman and Germanic nations: and the lawyer 
who speaks of agreements and stipulations, little thinks how 
much (if legal archa'ology is involved in the latter word. But 
the subject would require a book instead of a note, so I will 
refer the reader desirous of investigating this curious p(jint, 
to (Jrimm's Deutsche Rcchts-altherthilmfr, s. 121, et seq., or 
Michelct, Oriijincs du Droit Fran<;ais, p. 120. 

P. 54. " Fro Rome to mai/e." A bantering expression 
equivalent to the English one, — From the first of April to the 
foot of Westminster Bridge. Similar forms of speech occur 
in the Reinardus, as — 

" inter Pascha Remisque fcror." — HI), ii. v. 690. 
and again, 

" inter 
Cluniacum et Sancti fe.stu Joliaiiiiis obit." — lib. iv, v. 072. 

The French have a similar saying, " Cela s'est passe cntrc 
Maubeuge et la I'entecote. 

P. .0(5. Ye rei/scd — Journeyed, as it is modernized l)y Gual- 
tier. It is the same as the modern German Reisen, to tra- 
vel, and occurs in Chaucer, who says, speaking of the knight, 
" In Lctlowc had lie rcysed, and in lluw!." 

Iliid. rt,«rt?//rt/— absolved. So in Piei-s Ploughman, 
" And so to ben assoiled," — 1. 13, 7.53. 

P, 67. An hygh stage of stone. That in old times" high stages 
of stone" were among the places most frequently chosen for 
the administration of justice, is shown very clearly by Grimm, 
Deutsche Rerhls AJihirlli'i'niur, s. H02, while the practice which 


(il)Uiiiif(l aniiiiij; the Scamliiiiiviiin nations nf crcatini; iheir 
kinj^s liy plaiing tlit-ni on an cli-vatcd stunc, (a practice 
still shadowed forth in our own coionatinii service), scr>'es to 
illiistnite very strikinj^ly the i>rtM'nl passa<;e. The Enfrlish 
roadrr will, ])rolial)ly, hv rcmindrd of tlie " marble UMv " in 
Westminster i lall, and the Frith stool of Beverley. 

P. 5S. Jirokc. — This word, which occurs again in p. }>'2, is liy 
(iualtier changed in the one instance into " fehmy," in the 
.second into "misdeed." It is frmu the I'lcniisli l>nuil;r, a 

P. 60. Male and staff' blessi/d as luiontjeth Inn jiili/rini. — In 
I"osijroke's Ihilis/i Afoiiarltisiii, p. '.V2ii, ed. ISI.I, is acliaptir 
on the eonsccr.ition of j)ilgrims, from which we learn that 
after certain prayi rs and psalms had been said ovt-r the 
intended jtilgrims as they lay jirostrale before the altar, they 
arose, ami the priest consecrated their scrips and staves. He 
next sprinkled holy water upon their .scrips and stiives, and 
placed the scrip around the neck of each pilgrim, with other 
religious services. Afterwards he delivered to each of them 
their stalf, witli similar prayers, (S:u. 

P. ()1. Ma-slir (ill i/s— In some copies of the Flemish met- 
rical Reinaert, as well as in the old prose version, " Master 
(ielis" is here named, by whom it has been sup]>osed the 
author intended /T'ljidins dr J.r.isinin, a eelebnited theologian, 
the friend of Albertns Magmis. In the other cojiy of the 
Flemish poem, Mecster Jufroet is the authority referred to. 
By Jufroet, there is no doubt that (lodfridus .\ndegavensis is 
meant, who lived in the earlier i)art of the twilfth century, 
and the passage in his works to which the lion relers, is thus 
• pioted by (irimm, and Willems, froni the liihlia Pulniiii, 
toni. xxi. p. <><> ; " I'ude uuieuiipie peecatori de magna 
Domini miseratione iiululgeiitiam sperare licet, si secognovcrit 

182 NOTES. 

peccatorein, ct suis proxiuiis cuinpaliens tie pcccjiU) pa'iiitcrc 

Ibid. Palsler — a pilpiiius staff. Tliese were soiiietiines 
armed with iron, and are named among other forbidden wea- 
pons in a document printed in Anselmi Codex Bcigicus Pars 
II. J). 17. See, for a full description of the pilj^rim's stiiff, 
Fosbroke's British Monachism, p. 'M6, ed. 18 j:}. 

P. ()2. Yammerde.—'nm word, which is clearly the same as 
tlie German Jammcrn, to lament, is by Gualtier modernized 
into "sorrowed." It is the Anglo-Saxon Earmian, which we 
find in the next page, under the fomi ermcd. 

Ibid. " A jjijlijryin nf deux aas." — W'illems, who tpiotes a 
l>oem entitled Frenesie, printed by him in his Mengclingeiiy to 
show that deux ai was a game, 

" Nocbtan eysch ic toe twee aes," 

explains this to mean that the fox was only a pretended pil- 
grim, or a pilgrim ' i)nur la farce.' 

P. 0.3. Ermcd. — (jualticr has altered this into " maruayled," 
It properly means lamented. See the last note but one. 

Ibid. Retche not of — do not care for. From the Anglo- 
Saxon Reccan. Chaucer uses the word in his " Man of Lawes 
Prologue"" — 

" But naUieles I rccclic not a bene." 

P. <>i). Si/bbe, — related or allied. From the Anglo-Saxon 
sib. It occurs in the same sense in Chaucer's " Tale of 
Mclibeus," — "they ben but litel .libbe to you, and tlic kin of 
yourc enemies ben nigh sibbe to hem." 

P.71. Afa.ite pardon — a sure pardon, as it is rightly modern- 
ized by (iualtier. It is from the Anglo-Saxon fast, finnus, 
and the epithet is still used in its original sense, in the word 

P. 72. Iloue Datmce—Comi daunee, as Gualtier has it, 
from the Anglo-Saxon Hof. 

NOTKS. 1^S3 

Ibid. Plai/cs andexbatrmruls. — rhc>;c arc not jileas and abate- 
ments, as our lej^al friends may be inclined to suiiimse— but 
literally plays and pastimes, as Gualtier has modernized the 
cxi)ression — Esbatenicnts, from the old I'rench Esbdlltjnent, 
which Ko(|uefon defines Passe-temjis, S:c. 

]'. 73. To daij bi/ the viorow. — In the morning, as Gualtier 
has modernized it. It is the old form of the word morning, 
from the Anglo-Saxon Mor(jni. 

P. 74. Slonkid hrr jh.— This expressive term, which oecnrs 
again in the next line but one, in another fonn, "he slange 
them in," is from the riemish Slindcn, Gernum Schliuijen, 
to swallow greedily, to devour. 

Ibid. Thn xcvu(f he his strctc.—Hh way. From the Anglo- 
Saxon Stitrt, via. 

P. 75. IIi»r rail lie stuff' thv sliiir with Jhnkcs. — This ob- 
scure proverbial expression is literally translated by C'axton 
from the old Dutch prose. " Hoe maccte hi die mouwe mit 
ons vol mit vloeken." Gualtier retains the phrase, which was 
probably well understood in his day. 

P. 7(5, Sirr pour Dicii. — This passage in French, is trans- 
ferred literally from the old poem, into the Dutch prose. The 
reader will iiLstantly perceive its metrical constniction. 

P. 77. Gonnt's, boinbardts. — Honibardcs arc cannon. The 
reader will find a most coniplcic sunmiaiy of the history of 
guns, gmipowdcr, fic, in Mr. Way's edition of ilic I'r^ioipto- 
riuin, p. 2 IN, n. 1. UolTiiian in his edition of liriiiikr, p. 
'221, refers to the Uuunm-cr: Mmjaziii, 17!>H, s. :J('>1, for a 
proof that cannon and their use were known as early as the 
year 1330. 

P. Hi. /V<»i(j>i</<'.— Provender, from the IVcnch proniid,-, 
see lloqucfort, who defines it " Provisions de boiicbe." Sliak- 
spcrc uses it in Coriolanus, act ii. sc. 1. 

'• Of MO more vjiil, nor fitncM in tlir world 


I'hiui cainrls in llit-ir war ; wln> hiivc their jirnrawl 
Only lor bearing burdens. ' 

I*. .s;<. nmaame—tooV awjiy, iVdiii the Aiijrlii-Saxim Jiruu 
iitni . 

Ibid. The " ijrete dtceijtv'' wliich Rcynanl here relale^, 
(onus one of the most popular faliles of the Middle Ages. 
It is alluded to by Chaucer in his Miller's Tale. — 

" The pretest clerks ben not tlie wisest men, 
As whilom to the wolf, this spoke the mare." 

It forms the 91st story of the " Cento Novclle Antiehe," and 
its literary history pencially, may be read in Schmidt's Bei- 
trage zur Gesch. der Homaiitischcn Poesie, s. 181, et scq. 

P. 84. / can wel Frenshc, Lati/n, English. — Caxton has 
adapted the whole of this passage to the meridian of London, 
in the (uiginal there is no mention of the English language 
or of Oxford, ^c, as the following extract will show:^ 

" Ich can wel walsch, latyn, cnde duytsch. le hebbe terf- 
forden ter seholen ghcgaen. Oee hcb ich luit oudcn wisen 
meesters van deraudiencien questien, cnde sentencien gheghe- 
vcn, endc was in loeyen ghelycencecrt, 5cc. 

P. 85. Laste, — loss, as in Gualtier's edition. 

P. 86. Even Christen. — Neighbour or fellow -Christian. 
Kven, in the sense of felhiw, occurs in tlie Anglo-Saxon Gos- 
jtels, Matthew xix. where fellow-servant is rendered efen 
ihenua, and cven-ehristian for neighbour, in the old Pricsie, 
where the commandment. Thou sbalt love thy neighbour as 
thyself; is "minna thinne evncristena like thi selva." 

'ITie word occurs also in Piers Plr)ughman, and in Hamlet. 

P. 87. Jhjni/mplc with kervhinds. — Veil or mask the truth, 
as women's faces were concealed by their wimples. Tlie edi- 
tion of KioO rcad.s, "but he that cannot wimple falshood in 
truthcs kerchief, hath neither art nor cunning." 

Ifiid. Ih-maij urrc acarlct ««(/ ^n/if.— Scarlet and gryse, the 


NOTh^S. 185 

roslumo ul" a dortor of laws. (Irys is a liir, and t^hamrr 
ilescrilies liis monk as lia\in^j 

•' His slfVfs ]iiir|ili'(l at thf liuiiil, 

Willi f!ri$, uiiil lliat tlic liiitst of the Imiil. — 1. HKl J, 

See fuithcr Pnnnptoriuiti^ ]>. 211, (■<!. Way. 

/*. HK. Without tati'lijnii — willioiit staninicriiijr- Inmi the 
Old I'lemish tntrren, wliieli Killian explains l>y lialiutirc, 

P. MS). >'()H«f/. — This word, which is modernized hy Cnaltier 
into "wished," is I'mm the I'lemish J'i/ihch, whieh Killian 
explains by favere. 

P. I'O. / cri/e out Iliirou'v on them. — I denounee lluin. 
llarow was the cry by whieh the Nonnans were bniiiid to 
denounce any great offence, such as theft, murder, Nee. whieh 
had been committed. It is said by Roquefort in his Glossairr 
s. V. Ilarow, to be derived from I la and Rmml, in remembrance 
of Raoul I, Duke <»f Normandy, whose memory was highly 
esteemed by his eountrynu-n. for his love of justice, aiul the 
strictness with whieh lieaihiiinisteicil it. See further, DindiK/r 
s. V. Ham. Uncertain as is tin- etymology of this cry, it is 
probably connected with the hnralms of the Ia'X Hipuaria, 
mentioned by (Jrimm, HeehLs-Altherthiimer, s. 7!>4. 

/'. !»1. Wykni. — !)e|)a'rted, or gone away, from the Flemish 
Wifrkvn, cedere, reeedere, 've. 

P. }I2. Kiimrrick. — This is a misprint for Camerirk. 

P.\y.\. Iniri/tlr—Rvasitn, consciousness, from the .\nglu- 
Saxon inirit. 

P. !M. .}f(iffi(s. — Wonus or maggots, from the .\nglo. Saxon 
Miiiha, the riemish, Mmlru. 

/'. !>»>. Soiulrrli/ »//«. — I'.xtremily wisi-, from llif .\ngIo- 
Saxon, .viiH</er, si-parate or peeidiar, or rather ptrha|>s ilu 
<ii'rman somlrrlii/i, espteially, partieularlv 

/'. lol. Iliilkr. — Abeam, from the Anglo Saxon hair. 

186 NOTES. 

P. 102. Nct/icr hi/n, nv wi/ii, nc frende. — Neither kinsiiiiiii, 
1101- friend, Wyn, ;i I'rieiul, from the old Fricsic Winnc. .See 

Ibid. Grete chierie. — This French phrase is introduced by 
Caxton ; " lief ende weert" are the words of the original. 

P. 103. A parable of a man. — This fable is one of the most 
frequent occurrence in the literature of the middle ages. See 
Robert's Fables Incdilcs, Sec. II, p. 51. Barbazan's Fabliaux, 
ii. p. 7.3, ed. Meon. 

P. 104. Avat/lc. — Profit. This word, which occurs several 
times, see pp. 107, 12(), &c. is used by Chaucer in his Court 

of Love : 

" By mine advice, love shall be contrurie 
To bis availe." 

P. 107. Avicen. — Avicenna or Ebn Sina, as he is properly 
called, was an Arabian Physician of the tenth century. He 
was no less celebrated as a philosopher, and his " canon," as 
the volume in which he had collected all the medical know- 
ledge of his time was designated, was looked upon, during the 
middle ages, as the text-book of medical science. The 
original text was first published at Rome, in 15!>.'), jind has 
since been frequently translated. His philosojihical works 
translated into Latin were i)riiited at Venice, in two volumes, 
folio, in 1523, and again in 1504. 

Ibid. Forded. — Profit or advantage, con'esponding with 
the modem Gennan, Vortheil. 

P. 109. The Musehimt is the weasel, mustcla, according 
to Grimm, who tells us that in the Schildbiirgcrn, cap. 44, 
the cat is called the mam/tund. HofTraan ccmsiders it the cat. 

Ibid. The fychcws is also described by Mr. Wright in his 
Glossary to Piers Ploughman, as a kind of weasel. 

Ibid. The marlron, the marten. 

Ibid. The (jcncte, the ustrolc and the doussyng. — The genete 
is the wild cat. 

NOTES. 187 

P. 10!'. Ilrrmil, the assi-. — Caxtoii lias in this instunce 
inismulei-stixKl his original, in whiih ilat Ihruirl is cnnnuTuted 
before the ass, anil not as being the name of that animal. 
The Ilcrinrl, aecoriling to Iloirnian, is the Ermine, Miis 
linnenus, the Enuellino of the Italians. 

P. 110. "She hath the r)s doe blosuie agayn." — In the 
original " Si hevet rijs aveder begonnen doen bloejcn." 
She hath made the branehcs blossom again, or as the Editor 
of the editiim of 1(350 has improved it, " put new blossomcs 
on my dried roses. " 

P. 111. Mai/stcr Aken/ii. — Willcms supposes this to be 
altogether an imaginary personage. See his Note, Rciimert, 
p. '20-.). 

P. ll'J. Maisttr Ahrion of Tri/cr. — Willems supposes this 
also to be an imaginary personage, witli a name derived from 
the old French Abricon, a quaek or charlatan, (irimm, 
(s. c. 4. iii.) who stiites that he cannot lind in Wolfe's Jiihli- 
olheca Ilehraica any Jewish writer of this name, "of Tryer," 
queries whether the name may not be (Uri\eil from Aaron, 
Abraham, or rather from Ajijiirion, the diminutive of 1-phraim. 
He adds that the name somewhat resembles in .'^ound that of 
Apnmculus, the old Bishop of Triers, of the sixth century 
(Bouquet iii. 110), but whom any tradition, which might eomc 
down to the middle ages, woidd hardly convert into a .lew. 

P. 1 12. The Oijlr itf Mercy. — The legend of Seth's bringing 
the Oil of Mercy out of I', is poetically related in the 
jioem " Van dem lioltc des heiligcn Cruccs," «if the wood of 
the Holy Cross, printed in Staphorst : " Hamb : Kirchen- 
gesehiehte iv. s. iOH-'Jii. See HofTmann's Ihiiukr, s. '22\. 

P. 1 \'^. " Late him bye this stone in a litlc uatri-." — The 
virtue attriltutcd to this stone must remind the reader of that 
of the " I*ee Penny," on which Sii Walter Scott founded his 
story of The Talisman. .\ similar ring, sa\s Willems, is 
mentioned in l'lori> c>u Blanclielleui. 

1 88 NOTES. 

1'. Ml. Wrl hrrted — This will hv host cxplaiiuil in the 
words of the Editor of the 1().'>() edition, "yet should not his 
heart fail him." 

Ibid. Pantlivrii. — The belief that the panther " smelleth so 
sweet" and that " for his sweet sniellin<j; all other beasts follow 
hiui," is one of very great antiquity. It is mentioned in the 
old English Bestiarius, in the Arundel MS. No. 292, printed 
in tlie Alt-Deutschf Blatter n. i>J), in the old (Jemian Physio- 
logus referred toby Iloffman in his " Fundgruben, 1. 1(>, and 
in Maerlant's " Naturenblomc." 

/'. 1)5. Ci/bere. — In the metiical licinacrl, v. 5611, Uiis 
eolour is called Synoper, which Willems interprets green. 
C'axton mentions it again, p. 1 18, when he terms it " Cynope." 

P. 117. Ctti/ne. — This wood is called Cetijn in both the 
metrical and prose Flemish versions. In the low German 
Ueiiiikc it is called Sfthim, and Hoffman gives the fidlowing 
description of it from the Liber de Natura of Thomas 
Canlipratensis. Constit ergo (|uod Sethhn arbor maxime 
sit; lignum ejus album ac leve legitur et inconibustii)ile, id 
est de facili non cedens igni : imputnl)ile (juod nun(|uam 
uli(iuo humore vel anti(]uitate corrumpitur, quod patet adhuc 
in archa Noe, qua; super monies Armenia; incorruptibilis per- 
severat. De lignis i.stis, et archa testamenti legitur et 
inulta alia in cdilicium templi et vasorum. 

And the following passage from Maerlcnt's dcscrijition of 
the Tabernacle in his Ri/mbybel, will serve to show that it is 
the Shittim wood of the Holy Scriptures : 

An die nordside dar icgen recht, 
Stont ene tafle van hoiite Cclin, 
Dair ic oec wel seker ave bin 
Dat lichtste oude ist dat men vint, 
Ende- verrot iiiet en twiut 

Ibiil. of tre. — This W(»oden hor.ic is the cheval defusi 
which not only figures so conspicuously in the celebrated 

NOTKS. 189 

roiuance of Clrnuiadn,, written by Adiiiis, or Adciiey Ic IU>i, 
but in s(tnic ol' the MSS. jjivcs its title to the poem. Much 
nirious iUiistration of the liisttir)' juhI writinffs of Adencz, 
who was tlie minstrel of Henry III, Duke of Brabant, will 
be found in De la Rue, llistoire des Bardes, \c. ii. ;5<), in 
Paulin Paris, Lettre ii M. Monmenjue, and in Terdinand 
Wolf " I'eber dcr Lcistungen der Franzosen," s. 'M. In the 
latter work, and in Keiphtley's "Talcs and Popular Fictions," 
are many notices of similar maj^ic horses. 

P. 1 i!>. lii/fliri/nf/c. — In Guallier's edition this is modernized 
into " well rule." See also note on p. IH. 

P. \'20, Tiro (jrelc hulvs. — Two great boils or swellings. It 
is the Flemish and Low Gennan hulni. 

Ihiil. And was an as.i, i^-c. — A similar fable will be found in 
the old French Vsopctin Robert's" Fables ineditcs des xiinu*. 
xiii. et xivrae. Siecles, i. 231. 

Ibid. Ilcrkni ferthrr. — The story which the fox here relates 
is another of the fables so po])ular during the middle ages, 
which the author has contrived to weave into the thread of his 
narrative. It occurs, among other places, in the " Poesies de 
Marie de France," ii. 3S7. 

P. \'22. There also stndi- ulsn in thiil nii/rrour. — l"or this 
fable the reader is again referred to Robert's Fahlis imttiti's, 
i. I'X). 

P. I'JI. fro scote fro MontjKllier. — Montpelier was ceh-- 
brated as a seat of learning in the twelfth century, and 
according to Ilesselin — Dirdonnairr I niiTrxrl dp la Franrr, 
iv. 55.0, medical lectures were publicly delivered there jus 
early as 11 SO. 

Iliid. Cloth of si/lkr, and a t/j/lt gtjrdle. — I must leave to 
my friend Mr. Petlign w, who has made hinisi-lf so com- 
pletely master of that interesting held, llie ArchaH)logy of 
Medicine, to decide when and how this pcctiliar costume 


was lirst appropriated to tlic nicdical prolVssion, and t(i 
explain wliy Caxton has changed the " bontc ende side," 
the fur and silk, of his original, into the " clothe of sylke 
and a gylt gyrdle." The inference is that the latter formed, 
in Caxton's time, the characteristic costume of the English 
physicians. Let me add that La C'licnaye des Bois, in his 
most useful Dirlhinnnirc Ilixliirif/ur des Frati^ni'!, iii. DO, 
speaking of the physician of the king of France, says: — 
" Quand il va aux ecoles de Paris, il est vetu d'une robe de 
satin commc les conseillers d'Etat," &c. 

P. 125. A garhmd of roses. — On the subject of these gar- 
lands, see Le Grand d^ Aussi/, Vie privie des Francois, ii. 
222. The nature of these garlands, and the objects and 
occasions on which they were bestowed, have never yet been 
sufficiently investigated, and the present is scarcely the place 
to discuss a point involved in as much obscurity, as it is re- 
plete with interest. 

P. 126. Smeke. — Gualticr, in his edition, has changed this 
expressive epithet into " speak fair ;" it properly means to 
flatter, and is the same as the old Flemish s)iu<'('k<')i. 

P. 12(1. Not li> (Uiij J'onri/lli/n</ of i/mr. — Reproaeli. It is 
obviously connected with the (ierman vomit:, i)ertness. In 

Gualtier's edition the ithrase is altered to " not that I will cast ' 


you in the teeth therewith." 

P. 128. The mogghctis. — The paunch. In the original 
" pensen darmen," the paunch and intestines. 

P. 132. Gobet. — A part or morsel, from the French gobel. 
The word, which is used several times by Caxton (page 140), 
occurs also in Chaucer, whose Pardonere is described as 
Siiying : 

" he haddc a gobliet of tlio seyl 

Wliich tliat St. Peter liad, whan that he wente 
Upon the sea. 

NOTES. 191 

P. V^S. Forfiorn. — Fro/.i'ii. Kd. Gualtior. 

Ibid. Rifbadnitsli/. — Iiulcrcntly. Kihaiid and lihaiidif, 
occur both in Piers Plmifj^lmian, and in Cliauccr, but I 
do not remember to have met with the word use<l adver- 

P. i;U). But that lie shall hrri/spp mc. — This is a eonlinna- 
tion of the former note upon the word " iniberisped." In 
(iiialtier's edition we read, instead of the above, " but that he 
will take me in my wordes." 

P. 137. A mrrmoi/xi', a baubi/n,i»a iiurcate. In the I'lem- 
ish prose, " een marraoeyse een baubyn of ecn meereat," and 
in the metrical Reiuaert, Willems describes Mamet as an 
epithet of the foul fiend, and dcriverl from Mahomet, but 
states that he cannot trace the name of such an evil spirit 
as bakuinijn in (irimm's Deutsche Mi/thalnyie. But it is 
obvious that the fox did not allude to supernatural beings. 
Killian explains tnvvr-katte, siinia eaudata, and the general 
sense of the passage may, perhaps, l)e gathered from the more 
modern version in the edition of 1650, "a marmo/.in, or 
baboone, or else a mereat." Caxton, it may be observed, 
afterwards (p. 110), uses the term marmosette. 

P. 110. Nt/ckers.— In liiis name, by which the wolf desig- 
nated the fiend-like oll'spring of the " mannosel," we have a 
striking allusion to the Muhology of Scandinavia, and that 
portion of it which is retained among us to this day, when 
we designate the lOvil One by the epithet of Old i^'irk. Odin 
assumes the name of Nikar or llnikar when he enacts Uie 
destroying or evil principle, and scarcely a river of Scandinavia 
which has not its appropriate Nikr. See further upon this 
curious point, (Jrimm Deutsche Mytliologic, s. 2.')(»-2(>5, 
2te. .\nsge. 

/*. 1 J2. .V;/ _<//.ii'c.— Cniisnll nil the siibjirt of challenging 
l>y throwing down a gIo\c, and of accepting such cliallengi- 

1 1)2 NOTES. 

liy tlio lakiiij,' iiji nt the satiu-, (iriiinn'^ DciUscIr' RecliLs- 
Althcitliiiiiicr, !s. l.VJ. 

P. 1 12. J'his campijng. — This lighting, lioiu the Gcnuaii, 
hampf, a fight, kampfen to fight. 

P. 143. Jiiiroins. — Pledges, hail, security. This wonl 
occurs in almost all the Teutonic languages. In the Anglo- 
Saxon we have Imr/i, used precisely in the sense in which 
Caxton uses the word, see Thorpe's Auylo-Saxnu Laws. It 
occurs also in Piers Ploughman, 

" Ami lirougbtest nie horwcs, 
My biddyng to fulfil." 

And in Luther's version of the Old Testament, Genesis xliii. 
V. 9, we read " Ich will barge fur ihn scyn." 

P. 120. Glat. — Slippery, from the Anglo-Saxon glid, 
slippery, or from glad the participle oi glid, to glide or slip. 

P. 14.5. Blaerdf shaj/. — HofTnian, in a note upon the 
corresponding passage, in his edition of the Reinikcy refers to 
his " Beitrage zur Gerchichte der Segens-und Beschworungs- 
formeln," in the Monatschrift, v. u. f. Schlesien, 1H2!>, s. 7;')!, 
and to his Fundgruben, i. 2«>0-;} and 34;3-r», for an illustra- 
tion of similar ancient forms of adjuration. Willems further 
refers to Mone's Aiiztigcr, 1834, s. 277. 

P. 14(). Stri/kcd. — To go forth, from the Anglo-Saxon 
strican. It occurs in the Creed of Piers Ploughman, under 
the form straketh. 

" With stenie slaves and stronge 
Thci over loud slraketb.' — 1. 163-^1, ed. Wright. 

P. 1 J<>. The lussr. — The lynx, which is called the Inssem 
in p. 166. 

P. 148. Pint /////nrfr.—Gualtier has altered this into " starcke 

P. 14!). Snrllc. — Quick, the Gernian schnell. 

Ibid. Afterdelp. — Disadvantage, in contradistinction to 
fnrdete, which lias occurred so fre(|uently. 

NOTF.s. ifc; 

I*. !;')(>. Jiiiuff/il. — Rcarlied, Irom tlic .•\ii}^l(i-Sii\ini rticaii, 
past tt'iiso ni/ili; to reach. ChaiiciT uses the word in liis 
admimble description of the Prioresse, 

" Full wiiifly after hire ini-to slii- rinit;lil.' 

And in several other passages. 

P. 131. dope. — A Idow, the German, A/c/;/". 

P. 1;')'2. " That it stt>de so rownie." — Tliat alTairswerc in snch 
a position. 

Ihid. The huh/ (jrnrr. — The holy sepnlchre. On thesulyect 
of such Pilirrinia;,'esof])nnishnientiind ])enante, see Foslirokc's 
British Monaehisni, p. 3I«>, ed. isi;?. 

P. 1 ;'>"2. " For whan ye hereafter shall slepe."— This taunting 
speech, uttered even at a moment when the fox is seeking to 
propitiate the favour of his rival, is highly characteristic of 
that comhinatiou of impudence, confidence, and audacity 
which distinguish Reynard from the other actors, in this 
strange drama. 

p. l.O.'). Locked. — Caught, from the (dd I'lemish Inehen, 
or rather tlic Anglo-Saxon Ucccan, to seize or take. Tin- v;iin<- 
word occurs in " Piers Ploughman." 

'■ .\iiil if yo larrhi- Lyeri'. liyiii iii>);)it u.Hrnpeii, 
Er hi" Ik- put cii tlie ))illory. ' — s. I2H«I N. 

Ibid. Sireti Jliii/liiiif. — This word occnis in t'haiiccrV 
(leserijition of the Voung Sipiire, 

" Singing li<" was or floyliuij nil tin- ilnv." 

And is explained hy Tyrwliitl " playing on the llnte." llui 
as the Flemish //n»//r;i si^nilies Itoih to ]>lay on the flute, and 
to tell lies, it may be douhteil whether, in the present case, 
the latter interpretation is not to be preferred. 

P. 137. Fli/itdennows. — In CJualtier's edition we read field 
mouse, but it is more i)robably the bat, the vleddernim of 

194 NOTES. 

till' Flemish Reinaerl, which Killian explains by Vespertilio, 
mus vnlucer, I've. 

fbid. Grete Loos. — Great praise or honour ; in which sense 
the word is used in " Piers Ploughman." 

" Ne pooil loos of liisc handes." — 1. 7161. 

P. IHO. Scatte and pijlle. — 'J'ax and rob. The former word 
has already been explained in the note on page 44. Thf 
lalter is from the Anplo-Nonnan, see Roquefort, s. v. -pille, 
pillrnr, &c. 

P. 1(52. Ml/ bai/le. — Bailiff. The sheriff is now the king's 
bailiff, whose duty it is to preserve the rights of the kin^ 
within his bailiwick ; for so his county is frequently called in 
the writs. See Blackstone, book i. cap. 9, p. .344, ed. 1778. 

P. 1H,3. Missake. — Renounce or forsake, from the old 
Flemish mis-saecken, negare. 

Ibid. Wrj/ved. — Rubbed, from the old Flemish urijvrn, 
atterere, fricare, ^c. 


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