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ifrom a f^musai^t of tt^t jFifteentl^ Centurp* 


THOMAS WRIGHT, Esq., M.A., F.S.A., etc. 

Corresponding Member of the lustitute of France (Academic des 
Inscriptions et Belles Lettres.) 





€f)t p^rrp ^oci>tp* 








J. H. DIXON, Esq. 



J. S. MOORE, Esq. 


T. J. PETTIGREW, Esq. F.R.S., F.S.A. 



THOMAS WRIGHT, Esq. M A., F.S A.,Treamrer 4" Secretary. 


The following very curious collection of old 
English Songs and Carols is printed verbatim 
from a manuscript at present in the possession of 
the Editor. It appears by the writing and lan- 
guage to have been written in the latter half of 
the fifteenth century, probably during the period 
intervening between the latter end of the reign of 
Henry VI, and the beginning of that of Henry 
VII ; a date which is confirmed by the fact that 
the few other copies of songs in this collection that 
occur elsewhere, are invariably found in manu- 
scripts of the reign of Henry VI or of the age 
immediately following. 

This manuscript has in all probability belonged 
to a professed minstrel, who sang at festivals and 
merry makings, and it has thei'efore been thought 
to merit publication entire, as giving a general 
view of the elates of poetry then popular. A 

rather large proportion of its contents consists of 
carols and religious songs, such as were sung at 
Christmas, and perhaps at some other of the great 
festivals of the church ; and these are interesting 
illustrations of the manners and customs of the 
age. Another class of productions, in which this 
manuscript is for its date peculiarly rich, consists 
of drinking songs, some of which are singular in 
their form and not wanting in spirit. The collec- 
tion also contains a number of those satirical songs 
against the fair sex, which were so common in the 
middle ages, and which have a certain degree of 
importance as showing the condition of private 
society among our forefathers. In addition to these 
three classes, the manuscript contains a few short 
moral poems, which also are not without their 
peculiar interest. 

Manuscript collections of songs like the present, 
of so early a date, are of great rarity. The only 
one with which I am acquainted, which may be 
considered of exactly the same character, is the 
MS. Sloane, No. 2593, in the British Museum, 
which has generally been ascribed to the reign of 
Hcniy VI. On a comparison of the contents of 
the two manuscripts, it has been found that a few 
of the pieces printed in the present volume are 
found in the Sloane MS., and they have been indi- 
cated in the notes ; one or tw^ arc also found 

separately in other manusci'ipts ; and a diligent 
search would probably bring to light others : but 
by much the larger number of the songs contained 
in our manuscript, including some of the most 
interesting and curious, appear to be unique, and 
the others are in general much better and more 
complete copies than those previously known. 
The great variations in the different copies of 
the same song, shew that they were taken 
down from oral recitation, and had been often 
preserved by memory among minstrels who 
were not unskilful at composing, and who were 
not only in the habit of voluntarily or involun- 
tarily modifying the songs as they passed through 
their hands, and adding or omitting stanzas, but 
of making up new songs by stringing together 
phrases and lines, and even whole stanzas, from 
the different compositions which were imprinted 
on their memories, — imitating in this the practice 
of the more ancient bards of the Anglo-Saxons. 

It remains only to add that the present volume 
is, as nearly as is consistent with the right duties 
of an editor in presenting his original in an intel- 
ligible form, a literal fac-simile of the original 


24, Sydney Street, Brampton. 
Oct. 12, 1S47. 


Nowell, nowell, nowell, nowell, 

Myssiis est ad virginem angelus Gabriell. 

Angelum misit suum Deus omnipotens, 
Ut unicum per filiiim ejus salvetur gens. 
Virgo, ave, clamat ille, O Maria clenieus, 
Concipies et paries, virgo semper manens. 

Virgo clam tremessit, nam mira valde audit. 
Earn cui est ille missus comfortavit. 
Altissimi Patris tui virtus obumbravit, 
Cui per flamen sacrum gramen in te seminavit. 

Virgo Clemens semper tremens ad verba angeli, 
Cui flamen consolamen dat responsum illi, 
Miti voce dicens, Ecce ancilla Domini, 
Et secundum tuum verbum ita fiat mihi. 

Virgo Deum genuit verbum, quern alit cum cura, 
Mirus pater, mira mater, mira genitura ; 
Parit virgo solo verbo contra carnis jura, 
Perseverante post ct ante virgine puru. 



Omnia jam sunt nova per ipsam virginem ; 
Ilumanitas et deitas per humilitatem : 
In virgine sunt conjuncte sacraque per aurem, 
Jam concepit et peperit Deum et hominem. 

Nobis natus, nobis datus, quem virgo lactavit, 
Atque grege sic sub lege cuntaque creavit, 
Miti corde nos a sorde moriendo lavavit : 
Miserere plebi tue, Jhesu fili Davit. 

Virgo pia, O Maria, pura ut lilia, 

Sponsa Dei, soror ei, mater et filia, 

Tu hunc ores .viatores ut fugant villa, 

Et non trahent hue quo gaudent sanctorum milia. 

O pater qui genuisti liunc ab initio, 
Et dedisti gentes sibi pregandes pretio. 
Hie cum venit quos redemit sanguinis precio 
Judicare, fac vivere nos a supplicio. 

Semper vivit misere, qui non habet solvere. 

BoNUM vinum cum sapore 
Bybit abbas cum priore ; 
Sed conventus de pejore 

Semper solet bibere. 
Bonum vinum in taberna, 
Ubi vina sunt valarna, 


Ubi nummus est pincerna, 

Ibi pi'odest bibere. 
Dum vadis ad bibendum, 
Te festina ad videndum 
Quantum habes ad solveudum, 
Antequam vis bibei'e. 
Sis amicus mulieris, 
Et amorem ejus queris, 
Stabis foras, misereris, 

Dum nou habes solvere. 
Dum burse sunt implete, 
Sicut hospes hie manete, 
Panem, potum hie habete, 

Et omnia pacifice. 
Dum burse sunt inanes, 
Latrat hospes velut canes, 
Dicet hospes, Cur hie manes, 

Dum non habes solvere ? 
Dum cares querens victum, 
Tunc tuum scies delictum ; 
Quis tibi dabit vestitum ? 

NuUus vult te tegere. 
Et tunc dicet totus mundus, 
Tu fuisti vacabundus, 
Inonestusque jocundus. 

Bonis volens credere. 
Ergo Deum deprecare, 
Ut te possis sperare, 
Et secum celo regnare, 

Ibi non debes luere. 

B 2 


Have in in)-ncl, in mynd, in mynd, seciiters be oft oneUynd. 

Man, be war, the way ys sleder, 

Thy sowle sail go thou vvottes not wedcr, 

Body and sowle and al togeder, 

Lytyll joye ys son done. 
Have thi sowle in thi mynd, 
The secators be ryght onkynd ; 
Man, be thi own freynd, 

Lytyll joye ys son done. 
In lioly bok yt ys wreten, 
That sely soule ys son forgeten, 
And treu yt ys for to seken' ; 

Lytyll joye ys son done. 
Her ys a song for me : 
Syng another for the ; 
God send us love and charite ! 

Lytyll joye ys son done. 


Her FOR, and therfor, and therfor I came, 
And for to preysse this praty woman. 
Ther wer iij wylly, 3'^ wyly ther wer ; 
A fox, a fryyi', and a woman. 


Ther wer 3 angry, 3 angry ther wer : 

A wasp, a wesyll, and a woman. 

Tlier wer 3 cheteryng, iij. cheteryng ther wer: 

A peye, a jaye, and a woman. 

Ther wer 3 wold be betyn, 3 wokl be betyn ther wer 

A myll, a stoke fysche, and a woman. 

Et virgine natus, Christe, es sine macula; 
Mortis pomo cepit homo quara rumpens jacula, 
Nos gaudere et habere fac habitacula, 
Ubi manes cunta regens unicus per scculu. 

Spiritns sancte, Deus, fer nobis juvamen, 
Ciii fuisti matri Christi sacrum cousolamen. 
Da cum judex advenit rex ad nostrum examen, 
Nos unitas in qua extas Deus servet. Amen. 

For pencynesse and grett distresse I am full woo ; 
Destitute frome al refute, alone I goo. 

Whylome I present was with my sottreyne, 
Ignorawnt I was of dolowr and payne ; 

For than I lyvcd 

Fro sorow deprived ; 


Of plcsure Imvyng habundawnce and delice. 

But now I'orsothe 

Sore hytt me ruthe, 
Fortune contrarytlie to my device. 

For pencynesse, etc. 

Whane fortune flatery ay deseveabyll, 
My hert enycyed by prosyrs delectabyll, 

I thow3t in mynd 

I schuld ay fynd 
The whele of fortunat fyxyd fast ; 

Nott for no chawnce 

To mak delyawnce, 
Whyle my terme of lyff bad past. 

For pencynesse, etc. 

Butt now prosyrs glorius be myxyd with gall, 
Wyche bytter ys and tedius over all ; 

Venimus as poysen, 

To me full naysom. 
And from her palyse ryall, 

Ful cruelly 

And onavysedly 
Sche hath soferyd me to fall. 

For pencynesse, etc. 

And into gret dole and mysery, 
Devoyd of all felyce, 

With her owtrage, 

Me puttyng to damnag, 

SONGS AND Carols. 

With hert contrystaut thyse wordes I sey : 

For pencynesse 

And hyre distresse 
Fad doth my yoye and wannych awey. 
For pencynesse, etc. 

For by her rygurus and crabyd violence, 
Preventyd me sche hath of my pretence, 

Constreynyng me to fulfyll 

That repugnant is to my wyll ; 
For ther as I never entendyd to be abcent, 

Distawnce of place, 

Hyherd myschawnce and case, 
Utterly hath alteryd my purpose and entent. 
For pencynesse, etc. 

Schuld I not morne and in hert be sad, 
Whan slydery cyn, wycli never abydyng had, 

Schuld do me payn 

By fortuns dissayn, 
And al memory on me tak away. 

That the dyseys 

The hert on thynkys, 
Wher syght ys nout, farwel thowjt, and have gud 
For pencynesse, etc. [day. 

Thus my enmye mortale doyth determyne, 
AVith dystawnce of place and current tymc 

Me wyl confownd, 

And never to rcdvvnd, 

St).Ni;S AND 1 AKULS. 

l>iit lue consume and utterly wast ; 

And of al resort 

Of joy and comfort, 
Desolate me make and in penurye me cast. 
For pencynesse, etc. 

Whome nature excellently hath avawncyd, 
And hevynly grace gyftes most and syngularly 
hath enhawncyd, 

In bewte, in sagacite, 

In facund spech and in benyngnyte, 
In behavyowr gudly, me umbyll in spyryt, 

And sondry wertuse, 

Wych canot discuse, 
Frome hym am I sewrd be fortuns despit. 
For pencynesse, etc. 

JS'ow ys wele and all thyng ary5t, 
And Cryst ys come as a ti-ew knyght ; 
For owr broder ys kyng of myjt, 

The fend to fleme and all hys ; 
Thus the feend ys put to flyjt, 

And all his boost abatyd ys. 

Sythyn yt is we wele we do. 
For ther ys non but one of two, 
Hevyn to gete or hevyn for-go, 


Oder men non ther ys; 
I counsayll 30W, syn yt ys so, 
That 56 wyll do to wyn 50W h\ys. 

Now ys well and all ys wele, 
And ry5t wele so have I blys ; 

And sythyn all thyng ys so well, 
I red we do no more amys. 


Wold God that men my5t sene 
Hertys whan thei bene, 

For thynges that bene untrew. 
If yt be as I wene, 
Thyng that semyth grene, 

Ys ofte t'adyd of hew. 

AVyll ys tak for reson, 
Trew love is full geson. 

No man sett be shame ; 
Trost ys full of treson, 
Echy man oderys cheson, 

No man hym seylfe wyll blame. 

Thys warlde ys varyabyll, 

Notiiyng therin ys stable, 

Asay now ho so wyll. 


Syn yt is so mutable, 
How shukl mo be stable, 

Yt may not be tliorow skyll. 

Whan brome wyll appelles bere, 
And humloke hony in feere, 

Than sek rest in lend. 
"With men is no pees, 
Ne rest in hart is no lese, 

With few be see and sond. 

Sythyn ther is no rest, 
I hold it for the best 

God to ovvr frcnd ; 
He that ys owr Lord, 
Delyver us ou5t with liys word, 

And srraunt us a srood ende. 


In a blyssofull tymo that mane ys borne, 
That may fynd frend to trust upon. 

Every mane in hys degre 
Cane say. yf he avysyd be, 
Ther was more trust in sum thre. 

Than ys now in many on. 
This warld ys now all changed new, 
So many niene ben found ontrew, 
That in tiewth lyven but few 

FeythfuU to tryst upon. 


Sum tym a man my5t tryst another 
Better than now hys owne broder ; 
For thei ben fekyll as well as other ; 

For few be trew to tryst upon. 
And if thou tell a man thi hart, 
To kepe it clos as ys hys part, 
Vij . 5ere after it may the smart ; 

For few be trew to tryst upon. 
A mans feyth ys now sett at nou5t ; 
Sum tym therby men sold and boujt : 
Therfor I say thus in my thoujt, 

That few be trew to tryst upon. 
Yf thou do by my counsayll, 
Thynke well on the after tayll ; 
I warent the it wyll the avayll ; 

For few be trew to tryst upon. 
So many men have bene begylyd, 
The fader manot tryst hys oune chyld. 
I am aferd trost ys exylyd ; 

For few be trew to tryst upon. 
Yf thou doo for a comonte, 
All that now lyyth in the, 
Skarsly shalt thou thankyd be ; 

For few be trew to tryst upon. 
Now no man kan know hys frend, 
For doubelnese is so mekyll in mynd ; 
Thus in fayth at the last jend 

Few be trew to tryst upon. 
"Whatsoever thou thynk to do, 
Be ware to whom thou spekes unto ; 

1^ xiNi.S AMI ( AliUJ.S, 

For I trow, whan al is do, 

Few be trew to tryst upon. 
Now Jhesu tliat art heyvyn kyng, 
Thowrow tin nioders prayyng, 
Thon send us all a good endyn ; 

For thou art trew to tryst upon. 

Thys endris nyjth 
I saw a syjth, 

A stare as bryjt as day ; 
And ever among 
A mayden song 

Lullay, by by, lullay. 

This lovely lady sat and song, and to hyr chyld sayd, 
My sone, my broder, my fader der, why lyest thou thus 
in hayd. 

My swete byrd, 
Thus it ys betyde, 

Thow thou be kyng veray ; 
But nevertheles 
I wyl not ses 

To syng, by by, lullay. 

The chyld than spak in hys talky ng, and to hys moder sayd, 
I bekydde atn kyng in crybbc thar 1 be kiyd. 


For aungeiles bry3t 
Done to me ly3t, 

Thou knowest it ys no nay ; 
And of that sy3t 
Thou mayst be ly3t 

To syng, by by, lullay. 

Now, swet son, syn thou art kyng, why art thou layd 

in stall ? 
Why ne thou ordende thi beddyng in sum gret kynges 
hall ? 

Me thynkyth it is ryjt, 
That kyng or knyght 

Shuld ly in good aray ; 
And than among 
It wer no wrong 

To syng, by by, lullay. 

Mary moder, I am thi chyld, thow I be layd in stall, 
Lordes and dukes shal worsshyp me and so shall kynges all. 
56 shall well se 
That kynges thre 

Shal come tlie xij. day, 
For this behest 
3efe me thi bi*est, 

And syng, by by, lullay. 

Now tell me, swet son, I the pray, thou art me leve 

and dere. 
How shuld I kepe the to thy pay and mak the glad of 

11 SONGS AM' t AliOl.S. 

For all till wyll 
1 wold rulltyll, 

Thou wetyste full well in fay, 
And for all thys, 
I wyll the kys, 

And syng, by by, luUay. 

My der moder, whan tym it be, thou take me up on loft, 
And set me upon thi kne, and handyll me full soft. 
And in thi arme 
Thou hyl me warrae, 

And kepe ny3t and day ; 
If I wepe, 
And may not slepe. 

Thou syng, by by, luUay. 

Now, swet son, syn it is so, that all thyng is at thi wyll, 
I pray the graunte me a bone, yf it be both ry5t and skyil. 
That chyld or man 
That wyl or kan 

Be mery upon my day, 
To blyse hem bryng, 
And I shal syng, 

Lullay, by by, luUay. 


Aye, aye, this is the day, that we shal worshep over and aye, 

A FERLY thyng it is to raene, 

That a mayd a chyld have borne, 
And syth was a mayden clene, 

As prophetes sayden herbeforne. 
I-wys it was a wonder thyng, 
That, thowrow an aungelles gretyng, 
God wold ly5t in a mayden 5yng, 

With aye, 
Aye, aye, I dar well say, 
Her maydenhed 3ede no away. 

Hys moder was a mayden myld, 

As holy kyrke wytnese and we ; 
Withouten weme sche bar a chyld, 

And so ded never non but she. 
A farly thyng it schuld befall, 
But God hath all women thrall 
In peynes to ber her chylderne all, 

With aye. 
Aye, aye, I dar well say, 
She felt non of that aray. 

Hys byrth was know that ylk nyjth 
In all the lond thorow and thorow ; 

Thedyr thei jodyn to sc that sy5th, 
To Bethlem that fayer borow. 

An angell bad that thei shuld go ; 


lie seyil that betwenc beestj^s two 
Godcs Sonne sekcr 50 fynd so, 

"With aye, 
Aye, aye, I dar well say. 
In a crybe thei found hym thur he lay. 

Thre kynges oujt of Ynde lond, 

Thei cura to seke that ferly fode, 
With rych presantes in ther bond ; 
A sterre styffely afore hem jode. 
A ferly thyng it was to se, 
That sterre was mor than other thre, 
Yt held the course to that contree, 

With aye, 
Aye, aye, I dar well say, 
Thei ded not mysse of redy way. 

Whan thei with that lady mett, 

Thei fond hyr chyld upon her kne ; 

Full curttesly thei her grett, 

And present hym with 5eftys thre. 

As kyng thei 3efFe hym gold so redd ; 

Myrre and sense to hys mauhedd ; 

Of hyr offryng thus we redde, 
With aye, 

Aye, aye, I dar well say, 

Thei worshepyd hyme on the xij. day. 

Mary moder, maydyn myld, 
To the we cry. to the we call, 


Thou be owre socur and owre sheyld, 

Us thou save fro myschevys all. 
Thou pray thi sonne, that prynce of pees, 
Of all owre synnes he us relees, 
Ou3t of this warld whane we shal cees, 

With aye, 
Aye, aye, so that we may, 
Wend with hym at domysday. 

Now be we glad, and not to sad, 
For verhum euro factum est. 

This may I preve withoujten lett, 
Whan Gabriell owre lady grett. 
On hys kne he hym sett 

So myldly. 
Thou shalt conseyve this sam day, 

Sahatorem m undi. 

A sterre shojne thorow Godes grace, 
As Godes owne wyll yt was ; 
The shepperdes saw in that place 

Angelles two. 
And hem among thei song a song, 

Gloria in excelcis Deo. 

Tlie chyld was born upon 3ole day, 
As prophettes to us gan say ; 
Hys moder sang I'lllay, luUay, 
Into the est ; 


TIrtIoi' mankyiul withou3tcn end 

Syng, verhiim cava factum est. 

And tlian be tokenyng of a starre, 

iij. kyngcs ther cam fro fare, 

And oft'eryd frankyngcens and myrre 

To Cry St so fre ; 
Than tliei seyd with mery chere, 

Mane nohiscum, Domliie. 

Therfor pray we everychone 

To that barne that tym was born, 

He save us all fro shame and schorne, 

In pes and rest ; 
And all mankynd wilhoujten end 

Syng, verhum caw factum est. 

Alleluia, alleluia, de virgine Marin. 

Salvator mundi, Domine, 

Fader of hevyn, blessyd thou be, 

And thi son that commeth of the, 

De virgine Maria. 
Adesto nunc propicius. 
He sent hys sonne, swet Jhesus, 
A man becam for love of us 

De virgine Maria. 


Te, reformator sensuum, 

Lytyl and mekyll, mor and sum, 

Worshyp that chyld that is cum 

De virgine Maria. 
GJorid tibi, Domine, 
Thre persons in Trinite, 
Worshepe that chyld so fre 

De virgine Maria. 

LcLLAY, my chyld, and wepe no more, 

Slepe and be now styll ; 
The kyng of blys thi fader ys. 

As it was hys wyll. 

This endrys nyjt I saw a sy3tb, 

A mayd a cradyll kepe. 
And ever she song and seyd among, 

Lullay, my chyld, and slepe. 

I may not slep, but I may wepe, 
. I am so wo begone ; 
Slep I old, butt I am colde, 
And clothys have I none. 

Me thou3t I hard, the chyld answard, 
And to hys moder he sayd, 

My moder der, what do I her. 
In crybbe why am I layd. 

c -Z 



I was borne and liiyil beforne 

IJcstys, botli ox and asse. 
My nioder myld, I am thi chyld, 

But he my fader was. 

Adams gylt this man had spylt, 

That syn grevyt me sore ; 
Man, for the her shal I be 

Thyrty wynter and mor. 

Dole it is to se, her shall I be 

Hang upon the rode, 
With baleis to-bete, ray woundes to-wete, 

And 3effe my fleshe to bote. 

Her shal I be hanged on a tre. 

And dye as it is skyll ; 
That I have boujt lesse wyll I noujt. 

It is my faders wyll. 

A spere so scharp shall perse my herte, 
For dedys that I have done. 

Fader of grace, wher thou base 
Forgetyn thy lytyll sonne. 

Withoutyn pety her shall al)y. 

And mak my fleshe al bio. 
Adam i-wys, this deth it ys 

For the and many mo. 



Make wc uiery in this fest, 
For verbum euro /actum est'. 

GoDES Sonne for the love of maue, 
Flesshe and blode of Mary he nam, 
As in the gospell seyth sent Johan, 

Verbum caro factum est. 
Of joy and myrth now mowj we syng, 
God with man is now dwellyng, 
Holy wrytt makyth now shewyng, 

Deiis homo natus est. 
God and man hath shewyd hys chyld, 
That hath us boujt fro the develys wyld ; 
Hym to worshyp now be we myld, 

CuiKjaudere mihl. 
This chyldes moder ever more 
Maydyu she was after and before, 
And so sayd the prophett in liys lore, 

W'vbo piopJiesije. 


Of a rose, a lovely rose, of a rose I syng a sung. 

Lytu and lystyn, both old and jyng. 
How the rose begane to spryng, 
A fayyrer rose to ovvj-e lekyng 

Sprong ther never in kyrigcs lond. 


V. brancliis of that rose thei" ben, 
The wych ben both feyer and chene ; 
Of a maydyn, Mary, hevyn qwene, 

Oujt of hyr womb the branch sprong. 
The branch was of gret honour, 
Tliat blyssed Mary shuld ber the flour; 
Ther cam an angell ou3t hevyn toure, 

To breke the develes bondes. 
The secund branch was gret of my3t, 
Yt sprong up on Cristmes ny5t, 
The sterre shone and leme3d bryjt, 

That man schuld se it both day and ny5t. 
The iij. branch gan spryng and spred, 
iij. kynges than to branch gan led, 
Tho to owre lady in hyr chyldbed, 

Into Bethlem that branch sprong ry3t. 
The iiij. branch it sprong to hell, 
The develes powre for to fell, 
That no soule therin shuld dwell, 

The braunch so blessedfuUy sprong. 
The V. branch it was so swote, 
Yt sprong to hevyn both croppe and rote ; 
In every ball to ben owre bote, 

So blessedly yt sprong. 



A good medycyn for sor oyeu. 
For a man that is almost bljnd, 
Let hym go barhed all day ageyn the wynd, 

Tyll the sojne be sette ; 
And than wrap hym in a cloke, 
And put hym in a hows full of smoke, 

And loke that every hoi be well shett. 
And whan hys eyen begyne to rope, 
Fyll hem full of brymston and sope, 

And hyll hym well and warme. 
And yf he se not by the next mone, 
As well at mydny3t as at none, 

I sclial lese my ry3t arme. 

I hold hym W3se and wel i-taujt. 
Can bar an horn and blow it nau5t. 

Blowyng was mad for gret game ; 
Of thi blowyng comcth mekell grame ; 
Therfor I hold it for no schame. 

To ber a home and blow it noujt. 
Homes are mad both loud and shyll, 
Whan tym ys, blow thou thi fyll. 
And whan ned is, hold tlie styll, 

And ber a home and blow it noujt. 
What so ever be in thi thoujt. 


llci- and sc and sey ry3t nou3t ; 

Than schall men sey thou art well tou3t, 

To bere, etc. 
Of al the rychcs under the son, 
Than was there never beter wonnc, 
Than is a tau3t man for to konne 

To bere, etc. 
Whatsoever be in thi brest, 
Stop thi mou3t with thi fyst, 
And lok thou thynk well of had-i-wyst, 

And bere, etc. 
And whan thou syttyst at tlie ale. 
And cryyst lyk an nv3ttyngale. 
Be war to whom thou tellist thi tale. 

But bere, etc. 


Make we m3'rth 
For Crystes byrtb, 

And syng we 3ole tyl Candelmcs. 

The fyrst day of 3ole have we in mynd, 
IJow God was man born of owre kynd; 
For he the bondes wold onbynd 

Of all owre synnes and wykednes. 
The secund day we syng of Stevene, 
That stoned and steyyd up even 
To God that he saw stond in hevyn. 

And crounned was for hys proues^e. 


The iij. day longeth to sent Johan, 
That was Cristys dariyng, derer non, 
Whom he betok, whan he shuld gon, 

Hys moder der for hyr clenuesse. 
The iiij. day of the chyldren 3ong, 
That Herowd to deth had do with wrong, 
And Crist thei coud non tell with tong, 

But with ther blod bar hym wytnesse. 
The V, day longeth to sent Thomas, 
That, as a strong pyller of bras, 
Held up the chyrch, and sclayn he was, 

For he sted with ryjtwesuesse. 
The viij. day tok Jhesu hys name, 
That saved mankynd fro syn and shame, 
And circumsysed was for no blame, 

But for ensaraple of meknesse. 
The xij. day ofFerd to liym kynges iij. 
Gold, myr, and cence, thes gyftes free, 
For God, and man, and kyng was he, 

Thus worschyppyd thei his worthyues. 
On the xl. day cam Mary myld. 
Unto the temple with hyr chyld, 
To shew hyr clen that never was fylyd. 
And therwith endyth Crystmes. 

Tydynges I bryng 30W for to tell. 
What me in wyld forest befell. 
Whan nic must witli a wyld best mell, 
Witli a bor so brynie. 

'^(') SONGS AM) CAltULS. 

A bor so brynie that me pursued, 
]Mc lor to kyll so sharply anieved, 
'J'liat brymly best so cruell and unryd, 

Ther tamyd I hym, 
And reft fro hym both lyth and lyme. 

Truly to shew 30W that is trew,^ 
Ilys hed with my swerd I hew, 
To mak this day to 30W myrth new, 

Now etes therof anon, 
Etys, on much good do yt 30W, 
Take 30W bred and musterd therto, 
Joy with me that I have thus done, 
I pray 30W to be glad everychon. 

And joy all in one. 

Care away, away, away, care away for ever more. 
All that I may swynk or swet. 
My wyfe it wyll both drynk and ete. 
And I sey 0U3t, she wyl me bete ; 

Carful ys my hart therfor. 
If I sey ou3t of hyr but good. 
She loke on me as she war wod, 
And wyll me clou3t abou3t the hod ; 

Carful, etc. 
If she wyll to the gud ale ryd. 
Me must trot all by hyr syd. 
And whan she drynk I must abyd ; 

Carful, etc. 


If I say it slial be thus, 

She sey, Thou lyyst, charll, I wous, 

Wenest thou to overcome me thus ? 

Carful, etc. 
If ony man have such a wyfe to lede, 
He shal know how judicare cam in the creil; 
Of hys penans God do hym mod. 

Carful, etc. 

A, a, a, a, yet I love whcr so I go. 

In all this warld is a meryar life 
Than is a jong man withoutyn a wyfe ; 
For he may lyven vvithoujten stryfe, 

In every place vvher so he go. 
In every place he is loved over all, 
Among maydyns gret and small ; 
In dauncing, in pypyng, and rennyng at the ball, 

In every, etc. 
Thei lat lyjt be husbondmen, 
Whan thei at the ball rene ; 
Thei cast hyr love to 3ong men, 

In every, etc. 
Than sey maydens, Farwell, Jacke, 
Thi love is i)ressyd al in tlii i)akc. 
Thou bcryst thi love bchyud thi back. 

In every, etc. 


Man, beware and wyse in dude, 
Asaj thi frend or thou hast uede. 

Under a forest that was so long, 
As I me rod with mekyll dred, 

I hard a berd syngyng a song, 
Asay thy frend or thou hast ned. 

I ther stod and hoved styll, 

To a tre I teyd my sted ; 
Ever the byrd sang full shyll, 

Asay thi frend or thou hast ned. 

Me thoujt it was a Avonder noyse, 

Alwey ner and ner I 3ed ; 
And ever she song with loud voys, 

Asay thi frend or thou hast ned. 

I behyld that byrd full long. 

She bad me do as I the rede ; 
Whether that thou do ryjt or wrong, 

Asay thi fiend or thou hast ned. 

The byrd sat upon a tre, 

With fethers gray than was hyr wed ; 
She seyd, and thou wylt do after me, 

Asay thi frend or thou ha\ e ned. 

SOKGS AND Carols. 20 

Of me I trow she was agast, 

She tok hyr fly5th in lcn5th and bred ; 
And thus she sang whan she show. . . last, 

Asay thi frend or thou have ned. 

Away full fast she gan hyr hy5e ; 

God graunt us well our lyves to lede ; 
For thus she sang, whan she gan flye, 

Asay thy frynd or thou have ned. 

I pray jow all with hert and tlioujt. 
Amend me and peyer me noujt. 

Holy wrytt sayth no thyng sother, 
That no man shuld apeyer other, 
Sythen I am in God thi broder, 

Amend me and peyer me nou3t. 
This in the GospcU ych man may se, 
If thi broder trespace to the, 
Betwen 30W to corectyd he be ; 

Amend me, etc. 
If thou 8e I do gretly amys. 
And no man wott butt thou of this, 
Mak it not so yl as it is ; 

Amend me, etc. 
Apeyer no nxan with thi word, 
Nether in ernest ne in bord; 
Lat thi tong, that is thy swerd ; 

Amend me, etc. 

.'^0 SONdS ANl^ CAUOLS. 

Lok that thou no man defame, 

Ne apcyer no mans fame, 

Ryjt as thou woldest have the same. 

Amend me, etc. 
Now to amend God jyffe us grace, 
Of repentans and very space, 
And in hevyn to se hys face, 

Wher al thyng amend and peyer noujth. 


Why, why, what is this whi, but virtus verbi Domini. 
TVhan no thing was but God alone. 
The fader, the holy gost, with the son, 
On was iij., and iij. was on ; 
What is this why ? 
To frayn why I hold but foly, 
It is non other sertenly. 
But virtus verbi Domini. 

Fiat was a word ful bold. 
That mad all thyng as he wold, 
Heven and erth and men of mold. 

What is why ? 
To frayn why I hold but foly, etc. 

The warld gan wax and multiply ; 
The planetes mad he full besy, 
To rowll ychy thyng by and by. 

What is why ? 
To frayne why, I hold it but foly, etc. 


The planetes wark no thyng in veyn, 
But as thei be ordend so must thei reygne ; 
For the word of God wyl not ageyne. 

What is why ? 
To frayne why, I hold it but foly, etc. 

Whan Bedc had prechyd to the stonys dry, 
The my3t of God mad hem to cry. 
Amen : certys this is no ly. 

"What is why ? 
To frayn why, etc. 

Herytykes wonder of this thyng most, 
How God is put in the holy host, 
Her and at Rome and in every cost. 

What is why ? 
To frayn why, etc. 

Of M. A. R. I. syng I wyll a new song. 
Of thes iiij. letters purpose I, 
Of M. and A., R. and I., 
Thei betokyn mayd Mary, 

All owre joy of hyr sprong. 
Withou3ten wem of hyr body, 
M. and A., R. and I., 
Of hyr was borne a kyng truly. 

The Jewys dedyn to deth with wrong. 


Upon the mounte of Calvery, 

M. and A., R. and I., 

Thei' thei betyn liys bar body, 

"With schorges that war sharp and loni 
Our der lady she stod hyni by, 
M. and A., R. and I., 
And wepe water ful bytterly, 

And terys of blod ever among. 

Salve regina, mater misericordie. 

O BLYSSEDFULL herd, full of grace, 
To all mankynd thou art solas, 
Quene of hevyn in every place, 

To our helth thou bar a chyld. 
And jet with syn wart never fylyd, 
Mary, moder, mek and myld, 

Fro the fend thou us defend, 
And of syn thou us amend ; 
Mary, thy mercy thou to us send. 


O worthy whyjt, we worship the, 
Full of mercy and of pyte ; 
Wherfor we syng in ech degre. 


And let us not fro the fall, 
And therto we cry and also call, 
Both 30ng and old, grett and small, 

And brjng us to thi sonns blysse, 
Wher that thy wonnyng is, 
Of that we pray the that we not mys. 


Hegina cell letare. 

Gabriell, that angell bry3t, 
Bry3ter than the sonue is lyjt. 
Fro hevyn to erth he took hys flyjt. 

In Nazareth that gret cete, 
Befor a maydyn he knelyd on kne. 
And seyd, Mary, God is with the. 

Heyll, Mary, full of grace, 
God is with the and ever was ; 
He hath in the chosyn a place. 

Mari was afrayd of that syjt. 
That cam to her with so gret ly3t. 
Than seyd the angell that was so bry3t, 



Be not agast of lest ne most, 
In the is conseyvyd the holy gost, 
To save the soules that war for-lost. 
Let are. 


Man, be war, or thou knyte the fast, 
Oftyn ran rewth at the last. 
This wrat I oftyn, poverte partyth company. 
Red this and ly not. 

What ! why dedist thou wynk whan thou a wyf toke 
Thou haddest never mor ned brodde to loke, 
A man that wedyth a wyfe whan he wynkyth, 
But he star afterward, wonder me it thyukyth. 

Man, have this in thi mynd, 

What thou doest with thyn hond, that shalt thou fynd 
Wyves be rekeles, chyldren be onkynd, 
Excecuturs be covetys and hold that thei fynd. 

I saw iij. hedles playen at a ball ; 
On hanles man served hem all ; 
Whyll iij. mouthles men lay and low, 
iij. legles men away hem drow. 


Man upon mold, whatsoever thou be, 
I warn utterly thou getyst no degre, 
Ne no worshyp abyd with the, 

But thou have the peny redy to tak to. 
If thou be a jeman, a gentyUman wold be. 
Into sum lordes cort than put thou the, 
Lok thou have spendyng larg and plente, 

And alwey the peny redy to tak to. 
If thou be a gentylman, and wold be a squyer, 
Rydest out of cuntre as wyld as eny fyer ; 
I the warn as my frend, thou faylyst of thy desyr, 

But thou have, etc. 
If thou be a squyer, and wold be a knyjt, 
And darest no in armus put the in fyjt, 
Than to the kynges cort hy the full ty3t, 

And lok thou have the, etc. 
If thou be a lettryd man to bere stat in scole, 
A pilion or taberd to wer in hete or cole, 
The to besy therabout I hold the but a fole, 

But thou have etc. 
1 1' thou be a bachelar, and woldest ever thnjfe, 
J'rekyst out of contre and bryn//r.s7 Ixnii a ivyfe, 
In much sorow and car ledest thu thi \yfc, 

But thou have, etc. 
If thou be a marchant to buy or to sell. 
And over al the countre wold^.s? .... the well, 
I the counsell as a frend a .... r to dwell, 

But tlion have, etc. 

D 2 


If thou be a jong man in lust tlii lyfe to lace, 
About chyrch and market the byshop wyl the chace, 
And yf thou mayst be get, thou getes nouther grace, 

But thou, etc. 
If thou have out to do with the law to plete. 
At London at the Parvis many on wyll the rehete, 
I warne the com not therout, thi purse may swete. 

And that thou, etc. 

Nova, nova, avefit ex Eva. 

Gabryell, of hy5e degree, 
Cam down from the Trenyte, 
To Nazareth in Galilee, 

With nova. 
He fond the mayd al in hyr place, 
He knelyd down befor hir face, 
And seyd, Al heyl, full of grace, 

With nova. 
Thou shalt conseyve and ber a chyld, 
Thou3 thou with syn wer never defylyd ; 
Thou hast fond grace, thou Mary myld, 

With nova. 
The byrd abasshyd of all ble, 
Answerd and seyd, How may this be ? 
Man thorow kynd towchyd never me, 

With nova. 


The angell seyd unto that free, 
The holy gost shal ly3t in the, 
God and man in on shal be, 

With nova. 
Syx raonthys is ner gon, 
Syn Ely3abei^ co/iseyvyd Johan ; 
She that was barren a babe have borne. 

With nova. 

The ree d unto the fere. 

Now hys we .... e don in me here. 
And Godes maydyn now se me here, 

With nova. 

Left€ our hertes with good entent, 
And thancke God that al hath sent. 

Man and woman in every place, 
God hath 30W sent vertu and grace, 
Therfor spend wel owre space. 

And thanke God that al hath sent. 
If thou be a man herdy and sti'ong. 
With thi strenke do thou no wrong, 
But lat reson rewU the among. 

And thank God, etc. 
If thou have wysdom at thi wyll, 
Thorow thi wysdom do thou no yll, 
Kep in thi hert both loud and styll, 

And thank God, etc. 

4 5 1 S H 


11' tliou be syk or elles pore, 

God hyra shelf may the socur, 

With stedfast hert and thou hym lionour, 

And thank God, etc. 
What wo or tone the betyd, 
God can help on every syd, 
Buxsumlych thou must abyd, 

And thank God, etc. 


Mary, niodjr, cum and se, thi son is naylyd on a tre. 

His body is wappyd all in wo, 
Hand and fot he may not go ; 
Thi son, lady, that thou lovyst soo, 

Nakyd is naylyd upon a tree. 
The blyssyd body that thou hast born, 
To save mankynd that was for-lorn, 
His body, lady, is al to-torn, 

Hys bed with thornnys, as ^e may se. 
Wan Johan ys tal began to tell, 
Mary wyld not lenger dwell, 
Thyl sche cam to that hyll 

Ther sche myth her owyn son see. 
My swet son, thou art me dere, 
Qwy have men hang the here ? 
Thi hed is closyd with a brei'e; 

Qwy have men soo doo to the ? 


Johan, this woman I the betake ; 

Kep this woman for my sake. 

On the rod I hyng for manuys sake, 

For synful men as thou may se. 
This game and love me must pley, 
For synfull sowlis that ar to dey ; 
Ther ys no man that gothe be the wey, 

That on my peynis wyl loke and se. 
Fadyr, my sowle I the betake, 
My body deth for mannys sake ; 
To hell I go withowtyn wake, 

Mannys sole to make fre. 
Prey we al to that blyssyd sone, 
That he us help wan we not mon, 
And bryng us to blys that is abone. 

Amen, amen, amen, for charite. 


All that levo in cristen lay, 
Worshup every Cristmes day. 

A MAN was the fyrst gylt, 
And therfor he was spy It ; 
The profycy was never spylt, 

Thyl on the Cristmes day. 
The fyrst day that lely sprong, 
Jhesu Crist be us among, 
Ever we thowte it was to long, 

Thyl on the Cristmes day. 


It was dyrk, it was dyni, 

For men that levyd in gret syn, 

Lucyfer was us al within, 

Thyl on the Cristmes day. 
Thcr was wepping, ther was woo, 
For every man to hell gan goo. 
It was lityl mery thoo, 

Thyl on the Cristmes day. 

Syng we to the Trenite, with puree mihi, Domine. 

Game and ernest ever among. 
And among al othyr degre, 
It is gud to thynke on my son, 

'With, jiarce mihi, Domine. 
Qwan thou rysyst upon thi rest, 

Make a cross upon thi brest, 
I make this song for no vanite, 

With jidi'ce mihi, Domine. 
Go thou to the chyrche and her thi mes. 

And serve God with humilite ; 
Aske forjevenes of thi trespas, 

With parce mihi, Domine. 
Qwan thou cumste home onto thi tabyll, 

Thou art servid with gret dignite ; 
Hold this song for no fabyll. 

With parce mihi, Domine. 


Prey we bothe nyth and day 
The gret God in Trenite, 
The henne God theche us the wey, 

"With parce viihi, Domine. 

A man that con his tong sterc, 
He ther not rek wer that he go. 

Ittes knowyn in every schyre, 
Wekyd tongges have no pere ; 
I wold thei wer brent in the fer, 

That warke men soo mykyll wo. 
Ittes knowyn in every lond, 
Wekyd tongges don gret wrong, 
Thei make me to lyyn long, 

And also in myche car. 
3yf a man go in clothes gay, 
Or elles in gud aray, 
Wekyd tongges yet wyl say, 

Wer cam the by therto. 
5yt' a man go in cloys ill. 
And have not the world at wyl, 
Wekyd tongges thei wyll hym spyll, 

And seyd he ys a stake, lat hym goo. 
Now us to amend God jeve us grace, 
Of repentens and of gud grace, 
That we mut se hys glorius face. 

Amen, amen, for charyte. 


Nowel, el, el, el, el, I thank it a maydyn every del. 
The fyrst day wan Crist was borne, 
Ther sprong a ros owt of a thorne, 
To save mankynd that was for-lorne ; 

I thanke it a maydyn every dyll. 
In an oxstall the chyld was fownd, 
In por clothyng the chyld was wond ; 
He soferyd many a dedly wond ; 

I thanke it a maydyn every dyll. 
A garlond of thornys on his hed was sett, 
A scharp sper to hys hart was smet j 
The Jewys seydyn, Take the that I 

I thanke it a maydyn every dyU. 
The Juwys dedyn cryyn her parlament ; 
On the day of jugment, 
They werryn aferd, thei huld hem schent. 

I thanke it a maydyn every dyll. 
Tho the peler he was bowdyn ; 
Tho his hart a sper was stunggyn ; 
For us he sofered a dedly wondyn. 

I thanke it a maydyn every dyll. 


I'o, po, po, po, love brane and so do mo. 

At the begynnyng of the mete 
Of a borys hed 30 schal hete, 
And in the mustard ^e xal wete ; 

And jc xal syngyn or 30 gon. 


Wolcum be 36 that ben here, 
And 36 xal have ryth gucl chere, 
And also a ryth gud fare j 

And 36 xal syngyn or 36 gon. 
Welcuna be 56 everychon, 
For 36 xal syngyn ryth anon ; 
Hey 30W fast that 50 had don, 

And 3e xal syngyn or 5e gon. 

In soro and car he led hys lyfe, 
That have a schrow ontyll his wyfe. 

5YNG men, I red that 3e be war, 
That 36 cum not in the snar ; 
For he is browt in meche car, 

That have a schrow onto his wyfe. 
In a panter I am caute, 
My fot his pennyd, I may not owt ; 
In sorow and car he his put, 

That have a schrow onto his wyf. 
With a qwene 3yf that thou run. 
Anon it is told into the town ; 
Sorow he hath both up and down, 

That have a schrow onto hys wyf. 


IIoLVYR and Heyvy mad a gret party, 
Ho xuld have the maystri 

In londes qvver thei goo. 
Than spake Ilolvyr, I am frece and joly, 
1 wol have the maystri 

In londes qwer thei goo. 
Than spake Heyvy, I am lowd and prowd, 
And I wyl have the maystri 

In londes qwer thei goo. 
Than spak Holvyr, and set hym downe on his kne, 
I prey the, jentyl Heyvy, 
Sey me no veleny. 

In londes qwer we goo. 

Synful man, for Crystes sake, I red thou amendes make. 
Thow thou byst kyng, and were the crowne ; 
Thow thou byst lord of towre and towne ; 
I set not by thi gret renowne. 
But 5yf thou wylt amendes make, 

Synful man, for Crystes sake. 
Man, thou art both styf and strong. 
Many a man thou hast do wrong ; 
Welaway sal be thi song. 
But 5yf thou wylt amendes make, 

Synful man, for Crystes sake. 


Man ber not tlii bed to hey ; 
For pumpe and pryd and lechery, 
In hel thi sole xal sor aby ; 
But 5yf thou wylt amendes make, 

Synful man, for Crystes sake. 
Man, be war, the wey ys scheder. 
Thou mast scleder thou wonest weder 
Body and sowll and al toogeder ; 
But 3yf thou wylt amendes make, 

Synful man, for Cristes sake. 


Off al the knottes that I se, I prese the knot in trenite. 
An aungell fro hevn gan lyth, 
A greth a maydyn that was so bryth ; 
A treu knot ther was knyt 

Betwyn them both in trinyte. 
After ys that fayyrly fod, 
For bus he bled his hart blod, 
Qwan he was don on the rod. 

The knottes war knit with nales iij. 
Wettnes of apostyll Johan, 
He ros hup and wold gon ; 
The knot was knyt with marbyl ston, 

Thorow the vertu of the trenyte. 
On Schere Thursday he steyd to hevun, 
Hys fader hym blyssyd with myld stevn ; 
For to fulfyl the deddes wyll. 

The knot was knit with persons iij. 


God xal rysyn at dotnusday, 
Ilys V. knottes for to spray ; 
To al men he xal say, 

Lo, man, vvat knot I knyt for the. 

Now ys the thwelthe day cum. 
The fadyr and the son togeder is won, 
The holy gost his wyth them num 
In fere : 

God send us gud neu ere. 
I wold 30W syng, and I myth. 
Of a chyld so fayyr in syth, 
A maydyn bar on Cristmes nyth, 
So styll. 

As it was hys wyll. 

iij. kyngges com fro Galely, 

Tho Bedlem, that fayer sety, 

For to ofer and se. 

Be nyth ; 

It was a wol fayre syth. 
As thei 5edyn with her offeryng, 
Thei met Herowd, that mody kyng ; 
He askyd hem of her comyng, 
That tym, 

And thus to them gun say. 
For wense cum je, now, kyngges iij. ? 
Out of the est of 50 may se, 


For sekyng that ever xal be, 
Thowre ryth, 

Lord, kyng, and knyth. 
Qwan 36 have at that chyld be, 
Cum ageyn this wey be rae. 
And tell me as ^e have see, 
I pray. 

Go not another wey. 
Of Harowd, that mody kyng, 
Tliei toke her leve both held and jyng, 
And for thei jedyn with her offeryng 
Be nyth, 

The stere jaf them lyth. 
Qwan thei com to that blysful place, 
Jhesu with hys modyr was ; 
Ther thei offeryd with gret solas, 
In fere, 

Gold, sens, and mere. 
Qwan thei had her offeryng mad, 
As the holy gost hem bad, 
Then wer thei both mery and glad. 
And lyth ; 

It was a wel fayr syth. 
Anon as thei awey went, 
The fathyr of hevun an aungell sent 
To the kyngges that mad present. 
Or day. 

And thys tyl hem he sey. 
My lord warnyd 30W everychon, 
That 38 not be Harowd gon ; 


For yf ye don, he vvol 3o\v scion, 
And strow, 
And do 30W mekyll woo. 
Thei 3edyn all anodyr wey, 
Thorow the myth of Goddes lay, 
As the angel tyl hem gan say 
Fol tyth ; 
It was a wol fayre syth. 
Qvvan thei were cum into hyr cuntre, 
Mery and glad then wer thei. 
For the syth that thei had se, 
Be nyth ; 
For as thei cam be lyth. 
Prey we al with gud devocioun, 
To that lord of gret renown, 
And of owre synnys we ask remyssion, 
And grace 
In hevne to have a place. 

Make we jow in this fest, in quo Christits nntus est. 

A patre unigenitus, to a maydyn is cum to us, 

Syng we of hym and sey wolcum, veni, redemptor 

Agnoscat omne secuhnn, a bryth stare kyngges mad cum, 
For to take with her presens verbmn superum prodiens. 
A soils ortus cardine so myty a lord is non as he. 
And to owre lord he hath sreth. 


Manja ventre concepit, the holy gost was ay hyr with; 
Of hyr in Bedlem now born he is, consors 2mtern i luminis, 
Alme beata trinitas, that lay betwyn an ox an a as, 
By hys raodyr raaydyn fre, (jloria tibi, Dominc. 

Man, asay, say, say, make thi moiic to Mary that myld may. 

Of all thi frendes sche is the flowr, 
Sche wyll the bryng to thi honowr, 
Mary to kail thou hast colowrc, 

Asay, asay. 
Sche bar Jhesu owr savyowr, 
Of" al myschyfe sche is socowr. 
Mary is strowne in every schowr, 

Asay, asay. 
Sche is cundas full of grace, 
That spryngyth and spredyth in every place ; 
Mary to callyn gret ned thou has, 

Asay, say. 
Hyf thou be put in poverte. 
Or of thi frendes forsakyd thou be, 
Mary his lady of gret pete : 

Asay, say. 
3yf thou be aferd of thi foly, 
Or of thi day wan thou xal dey, 
Mary his laydy of gret mercy : 

Asay, say. 



So gracilis ami so gud sche is, 
Sclie bryng us al into blys, 
Tlier Mary lady and qwen is : 
A say, say. 

Moflyr whj't as lyly flowr, 
jowr lullyng lessyth my langour. 

As I up ros in a mornyng, 

My thowth was on a mayd 3yng, 

That song aslep with hyr lullyng 

Her swet son, owr Savowr. 
As sche hym held in hyr lape. 
He toke hyr lovely by the pape. 
And therof swetly he toke an appe, 

And sok hys fyll of the lycoM'r. 
To hys modyr gen he seye, 
For this mylke me must deye, 
It ys my kynd therwith to playe, 

My swet modyr par amowr. 
The maydyn frely gen to syng, 
And in hyr song she mad mornyng, 
How he that is owr hevyn kyng 

Shuld shed hys blod with gret dolowr. 
Modyr, thi wepyng grevyth me sor, 
But I wold dey, thu haddj^s be lor ; 
So awey, modyr, and Avep no mor ; 

Thy lullyng lessyth my langowr. 


Swych mornyng as the maydyn mad, 
I can not tell it in this howr ; 
Therfoi* be mery and glade 

And make us mery for owr Savowr. 

Hey howe, selymen, God helpe ?owe. 

Thys indrys day befel a stryfe, 
Betwex an old man and hys wyfe ; 
Sche toke hym by the herd so plyjt, 

With hey how. 
Sche toke hym by the herd so fast, 
Tyll both hys eyn on watyr gan brast, 

"With hey how. 
Howt at the dore as he gan goo. 
Met he with hys neybrys too ; 
Neybyr, why wepyst soo, 

With hey how ? 
In my hows ys swyche a smeke, 
Goo ondyr and 30 schall wete, 

With hey how. 

Make wo joy both more and lessc, 
On the dey of sent Thomas. 
Pastor cesHS in grcgi/s medio, 
Paccm emit cruorys prvcio. 

As storys wryght and specyfy, 

Sent Thomas, thorow Goddcs sond, 

F, 2 


Beyng a byschop of Canturbery, 

Was inartyrd for the ryglit of Englond. 
Ilys motler be blyssyd that hym bar, 

And also hys fader that hym begatt ! 
For war we wol beth fro sorow and care 

Thorow the deth of the prelat. 
Thys holy mane of God was accept, 

For what so ever that he ded prayd, 
Us frome the daunger conservyd and kepte. 

Of the ransom we xuld have payd. 
To and fyfty poyntes onresonabyll, 

Consentyd of byschoppes many on, 
Thou wast no[th]yng therto agreabyll, 

Therfor thou sufferyd thi passyon, 
Of knytes cruell and also wykyd 

Thou sufferyd thi deth with myld mod. 
Wherfor the chyrch is gloryfyyd 

In the schedyng of thy blod. 
To Cryst therfor lat us pray, 

That for us deyyd on the I'ood, 
Conserve us al both nyght and day, 

Thorow the schedyng of Thomas blood. 

To blys God br3'ng us al and sum, 
CJiriste, redemptor omnium. 

In Bedlem, that fayer cyte, 
Was born a chyld that was so fre, 


Lord and prince of hey degre, 

Jam lucis orto side re. 
Jhesu, for the lowe of the, 
Chylder wer slayn grett plente 
In Bedlem that fayer cyte, 

A soils ortus cardine. 
As the sune schynyth in the glas, 
So Jhesu of hys moder borne was ; 
Hym to serve God gyffe us grace, 

O lux heata Trinitas. 
Now is he oure Lord Jhesus : 
Thus hath he veryly vysyt us ; 
Now to mak mery among us, 

Exultet celum laudihus. 

The best tre, if 36 tak entent, 

hiter ligna fructifera. 
Is the vyne tre. by good argument, 

Dulcia ferens pondera. 
Sent Luke seyth in hys gospell, 

A rhor fructti noscitur. 
The vyne beryth wyne, us J 50W tell, 

Hinc aliis prejjonitur. 
The fyrst that plantyd the vynnayaid, 

Manet in cell t/andio ; 
Hys name was Noe, as I am lernyd 

Genesis teslirnonio. 


God gave unto hyra knowyng and wytte, 

A quo prccedvnt omnia, 
Fyrst of the grape wyne for to gytte, 

Propter magna misteria. 
Melchisedech mad offeryng, 

Dando Jicorem vinium, 
Ful uiyglityly sacryfyyng • 

Alturi.s mcrijicium. 
The fyrst of myraculs that Jhesu dyd 

Erat in vino rubeo, 
In Cana Galylee ther it betyd, 

Testante Evangelio. 
He changyd the watur into wyne, 

Aque rubescunt idrie, 
And bad gyve it to Archetriclyne, 

Ut gustet tunc primarie. 
Lyke as the rose excedyth all flowres 

Inter cunta jlorigera, 
Soo doyth wyn other lycurs, 

Dans multa salutifera. 
David, the profyte, sayth that wyne 

Letijicat cor hominis, 
It makyth men mery if it be fyne, 

Est ergo digni nominis. 
The malycoly fumosytesse, 

Que generant tristiciam. 
It causyth frome the hert to resse, 

ToUens omnevi mcsticimn. 
The fyrst chaptur spccyfyeth 

Libri Ecclesiastiri, 


That wyn is musyke of conyng clelyeth, 

Letificat cor clerici, 
Sui's^ yf 36 wyll see boys 
De disciplina scolarium, 
Ther xall ye fynd withowten mysse 

Quod vinum acuit ingenium. 
Fyrst when Ipocras schuld dyspute 

Cum viris saplentibus, 
Gud wyne befor was hys prefute, 

Acumen prebens seusihns. 
It qwykynyth a manys sprytes in hys mynd, 

Audaciam dat loquentihus ; 
Yf the wyne be good and well fynd, 

Prodest subrie biboUibus. 
Good wyne receyvyd modex'atly 

Mox cerebrum letificat; 
Drunkyn alsoo soberly, 

Omne membrum fortijicat. 
Naturall hete well it strenggthes, 

Digestionem roboranH ; 
Helth of body also it lengthes, 

Naturam humanam prosperans. 
Good wyne provokes a man to swete, 

Et plena lav at viscera; 
It makyth a man wel to ete his mete, 

Facitque corda jtrospera. 
It noryssyth, if it be good, 

Facit ut esset juvenis; 
It gather to hym jentyl blood, 
Aam pnrgat reitas sanguinis. 

5() SUNCS AMI t'AliOLS. 

Me tbynkyth, syrs, by thes causys. 

Que aunt rncionahiles, 
That wyne is best of al drynkkys 

Inter pntus notahUcs. 
Fyl the cop wele, bealeamy, 

Potum niihijam ingere; 
I have seyd t.yll my lyppes be dry, 

Vellem vinum nunc hibere. 
Gentyll blood loveth gentyll drynk, 

Simile aviat simile: 
Fyll the cope by the brynk, 

Parum manehit hibere. 
"Wyne drynkers, with grett lionoure, 

Semper laudate Dominum : 
The wych sendys this licoure, 

Propter salutem hominum. 
Plente to all that love good wynes 

Donet Deus hoe largius, 
And bryng them self, when thei go hens. 

JJbi non sicinnt ampliiis. 


Of the Puryfycacion. 
JRevertere, revei-fere, the quene of blysse and of bcaute. 

Behold what lyfe that we ryne ine, 
Frayl to fale and ever lyke to syne, 
Thorow owr enmys entysyng ; 

Therfor we syng and rry to the, 

Bevertere, etc. 


Come hyder, lady, fayryst floure, 
And kepe us, lady, frome doloure 5 
Defend us, lady, and be owr socoure ; 

For we cease not to cal to the, 

Revertere, etc. 
Torne owr lyfe, lady, to Goddys luste ; 
Syne to fle, and fleschly luste ; 
For aftur hym in the we trust 

To kepe us frorae adversyte : 

Revertere, etc. 
Thys holy day of Puryfycacyon 
To the temple thou bare owr salvacyon, 
Jhesu Cryst thin own swet sone ; 

To whome therfor now syng we, 

Revertere, etc. 
Farwell, Crystmas fayer and fre ; 
Farwell, newers day with the ; 
Farwell the holy Epyphane ; 

And to Mary now syng we, 

Revertere, etc. 

In what estate soever I be, 
Tinwr mortis conturbat me. 

As 1 went in a mery mornyng, 
I hard a byrd bothe wep and syng ; 
Thys was the tenowr of her talkyng 
TinKir, rlc. 


I asked that byrd what sche merit. 
I am a musket bothe fayer and gent, 
For di'cd of deth I am al schent ; 

Timor, etc. 
Whan I schal dey I know no day, 
What countre or place I can not sey ; 
Wherfor thys song syng I may, 

Timor, etc. 
Jhesu Cryst, whane he schuld dey, 
To hys fader he gan sey. 
Fader, he seyd, in trinyte, 

Timor, etc. 
Al crysten pepull behold and se. 
This world is but a vanyte. 
And replet wdth necessyte ; 

Timor, etc. 
Wak I or sclep, ete or drynke, 
Whan I on my last end do thynk. 
For grete fer my sowle do shrynke ; 

Timor, etc. 
God graunte us grace hym for to serve, 
And be at owr end whan we sterve, 
And frome the fynd he us preserv^e; 
Timor, etc. 



To almjghty God pray for pees, 
Amice Clirisli Johannes. 

GLORius Johan evangelyste, 
Best belovyd with Jhesu Ciyst, 
In cena Domini upon hys bryst 

Ejus ridisti archana. 
Chosen thou art to Cryst Jhesu, 
Thy mynd was never cast frome vertu ; 
Thi doctryne of God thou dydest renu. 

Per ejus vestigia. 
Cryst on the rod, in hys swet passyon, 
Toke the hys moder as to hyr sone ; 
For owr synnes gett grace and pardon, 

Per tua sancta vierita. 
O most nobble of evangelystes all, 
Grace to owr maker for us thou call, 
And off swetenesse celestyall 

Prehe nobis j'ocula. 
And aftur the cowrs of mortalite. 
In heven with aungels for to be, 
Sayyng Ozanna to the Trinyte 

Per seciilorunt secula 




Pray for us, thou prynco of pes, amici Christi, Johau 

To the now, Crystys der derlyng, 
That was a mayd bothe old and jyng, 
Myn hert is sett for to syng, 

Amici Christi, Johannes. 
For he was so clene a maye, 
On Crystys brest aslepe he laye, 
The prevyteys of heyn ther he saye, 

Amici Christi, Johannes. 
Qwhen Cryst beforne Pilate was browte, 
Hys clene mayd forsoke hym nowte, 
To deye with hym was all hys thowte, 

Amici Christi, Johannes. 
Crystys moder was hym betake, 
Won mayd to be anodyris make, 
To help that we be nott forsake, 

Amiri Christi, Johannes. 




PsALLiMUS cantantes Domino nova cantica dantes. 
Cum canore jubilo et tibi discipulo. 
Qui ex priviligio pre ceteris a Domino 

Dilectus OS, Amice Christi, Johannes. 


Tu in Christi cena raeruisti bene veneranda proflui, 
Fontis unda limpidi pectoris dominici fluenta evangelii 

Potatus es. 
En Christum magistrum tradendum in capi, in ca- 
piendo a missis, 
Relictum a ceteris tuis condiscipulis in atrium pontificis 

Secutus es. 
Dum stans juxta crucem dat tibi Christus in nutricem 

Coutristantem, flebilem, morienti similem, ut tu virgo 

In Porta Latina tu missus es coqui in ferventi oleo, 
Sed illesus a dolio existi, ut a vicio et carnis contagio 

Alienus es 
Omnibus est viris notum, quod tu menti, tu mentibus 

Tuleris obprobrium ante aristodium calcem letiferum 

Et post dies paucas es ductus ante Angustumsevissimum, 
Domicianum pessimum, propter evangelium, in Pathmes 

Dimissus es. 
Exilio reversus in navigio submer, submersorum titulo, 
Clarebas in Epheso et destructo ydolo templa data 

Purgatus es. 
Nonagentis annis transisti in pa, pace tua tempora, 
In sacra ecclesia post divina misteria senex ad cotivivia 
Vocatus es. 



Nowell, nowel], nowoll this is the salutacyoun of the angell, 

SO-^^-'ili : 

Gabryell. Tydynges trew ther be cum new, sent frome 

!-4-~ ^ 

tlie Trynyte, be Gabrj-ell to Nazareth cety of Galile. 







A clen maydyn and pure virgyn, thorow lier humylyte. 


hath conceyvyd the person secunde in deyte. 

Thys is the tewyn for the song foloyng ; yf so bo that 50 wyll have anothei 
tewyn, it may be at 5owr plesurc, for I have set all the song. 


Bryng us in good ale, and bryng us in good ale ; 
I For owr blyssyd lady sak, br^'ng us in good ale. 

'I Bryng us in no browne bred, fore that is mad of brane, 
Nor bryng us in no whyt bred, fore therin is no game. 

But bryng us in good ale. 
Bryng us in no befe, for ther is many bonys, 
But bryng us in good ale, for that goth downe at onys; 
j And bryng us in good ale. 

Bryng us in no bacon, for that is passyng fate. 
But bryng us in god ale, and gyfe us i-nought of that ; 

And bryng us in good ale. 
Bryng us in no mutton, for that is often lene. 
Nor bi-yng us in no trypes, for thei be syldom clene ; 

But bryng us in good ale. 
Bryng us in no eggys, for ther ar many schelles. 
But bryng us in good ale, and gyfe us no[th]yng ellys ; 

And bryng us in good ale. 
Bryng us in no butter, for therin ar many herys ; 
Nor bryng us in no pygges flesch, for that wyl mak us 
borys ; 

But bryng us in good ale. 
Bryng us in no podynges, for therin is al Godes good; 
Nor bryng us in no venesen, for that is not for owr 

But bryng us in good ale. 
. Bryng us in no capons flesch, for that is oftc der ; 
! Nor bryng us in no dokes flesche, for thei slober in the 
nicr ; 

But bryng us in good ale. 


Nova, rioca, sawe yow ever such, 

The mosle mayster of the hows wer^th no brych. 

Dayly in Englond mervels be fownd, 
And among maryd peple have such radicacyon, 

Qwych to the uttermost expresse may no thong, 
Ne penc cane scribull the totall declaracyon ; 
For women upon them tak such domynacyon, 

And upon them self thei tak so mych, 

That it causyth the mayster to abuse a brych. 

Syns that Eve was procreat owt of Adams syde, 
Cowd not such newels in this lond be inventyd ; 

The masculyn sex with rygurnesse and prid 
Withther femals thei altercatt, ther self beyng schent} d, 
And of ther owne self the corag is abatyd. 

Wherfor it is not acordyng to syth to mych, 

Lest the most mayster may wer no brych. 

Yt is sene dayly both in borows and townys, J 

Wheras the copuls han mad objurgacyon. 

The gowdwyff fill humanly to hyr spowse gave 
Wych [thjyng is oryginat of so gret presumpcyon. 
That oftentymys the goodman is fal in a consumpcyon; 

Wherfor, as I seyd, suffer not to mych, 

Lest the most mayster weryth no brych. 


Nat only in Englond, but of every nacion, 
The femynyng wyl presume men forto gyd ; 

3et God at the tym of Adams creacyon 
Gave man superiorite of them in every tyd. 
But now in theys women is fyxyd such pryd, 

And upon them self wyl tak so mych, 

That it constreyny th the most mayster to wer no brych . 

But mayny women be ryght dylygent, 
And so demuer ther husbondes aforne, 

For of cryme or faut thei be innocent ; 
Butt falser than thei be wer never borne, 
I For wantenly ther husbondes thei wyl so dome, 

That owther thei wyl mak hym no thyng rych, 
. Or ellys the most mayster to wer no brych. 

j An adamant stone it is not frangebyll 

With no thyng but with mylke of a gett ; 
So a woman to refrayne it is not posybyll 

With wordes, except ■with a staffe thou hyr intrett. 

Por he that for a fawt hys wyfF wyl not bett, 
"Wherin sche ofFendyt hym very mych, 
The gyder of hys hows must nedes wer no brych. 

A scald hed maye be coveryd and not sene ; 
And many thynges mo may be sone hyddyn ; 

But the hod of a syr, ^e wott what I mene, 
Wych with too hornys infeckyd was and smyttyn, 
By surgery to be lielyd it is forbyddyn. 

For thei have such an yssue abow the cheke, 



That it constereynth the most mayster to wer uo 

"Wherfor ye maryd men that with wyvys he 
Dysplease nott yowr wyvys whom that ^e have ; 

For whan thei be angry or sumwhatt dysplesyd, 
Thei wyl gyffe a man a mark that he xal ber it to hys 

grafe ; 
Whobeit ther husbondes honeste to save 
Clokydly withowt thei obey very mych, 
And inwerdly the most mayster wer no brych. 

"Was not Adam, Hercules, and mythy Sampson, 
Davyd the kyng, with other many mo, 

Arystotyll, Vergyll, by a womans cavylacion, 
Browt to iniquyte and to mych woo ? 
Wherfor ^e maryd men ordur je soo, 

That with jowr wyfvys 30W stryfe not to mych, 

Lest the most mayster wer no brych. 


Whane thes thjniges foloyng be done to owr intent, 
Than put women in trust and confydent. 

"When nettuls in wynter bryng forth rosys red ; 
And al maner of thorn trys ber fygys naturally ; 
And ges ber perles in every med ; 
And laurell ber cherys abundantly ; 


And okes ber dates very plentuosly ; 
And kyskys gyfe of hony superfluens ; 
Than put women in trust and confydens. 

Whan box ber papur in every lond and tovvne ; 

And thystuls ber berys in every place ; 

And pykes have naturally fethers in ther crowne ; 

And bulles of the see syng a good bace ; 

And men be the schypes fyschys do trace ; 

And in women be fownd no incypyens ; 

Than put hem in trust and confydens. 

Whan whytynges do walks forestes to chase hertys ; 
And herynges ther hornnys in forestes boldly blow ; 
And marmsattes morn in mores and in lakys ; 
And gurnardes schot rokes owt of a crose bow ; 
And goslynges hunt the wolfe to overthrow ; 
And sprates ber sperys in armys of defens ; 
Than put women in trust and confydens. 


Whan swyn be conyng in al poyntes of musyke ; 

A.nd asses be docturs of every scyens ; 

Ajid kattes do hel men be practysyng of fysyke ; 

\nd boserds to scryptur gyfe ony credens ; 

\.nd marchans by with home in sted of grotes and pens; 

Vnd pyys be mad poetes for ther eloquens ; 

Chan put women in trust and confydens. 

Vhan spawrus byld chyrchys on a liyth ; 
^nd wrenys cary sekkes onto the myll ; 



And curlews cary tymber howsys to dyth ; 
And fomaus ber butter to market to sell ; 
And wodkokes wer wodk[n]yfys cranis to kyll; 
And gren fynchys to goslynges do obedyens ; 
Than put women in trust and confydens. 

Whan crowves tak sarmon in wodes and parkes, 

And be tak with swyftes and snaylys ; 

And cammels in the eyer tak swalows and larkes ; 

And myse move mountans with wagyng of ther tayles; 

And schypmen tak a ryd in sted of saylles ; 

And whan wyfvys to ther husbondes do no oiFens ; 

Than put women in trust and confydens. 

"Whan hantlopes sermountes eglys in flyght; 
And swans be swyfter than haukes of the tower ; 
And wrennys set goshaukes be fors and myght ; 
And musketes mak vergese of crabbes sower ; 
And schyppes seyl on dry lond, syll gyfe flower ; 
And apes in "Westmynster gyf jugment and sentens; 
Than put women in trust and confydens. 

0£F the 5 joyes of owr lady. 
A, a, a, a, gaude cell domina. 

Mary, for the love of the, 
Glad and mery schal we be ; 
Whe schal syng unto the, 

Tua quinque gaudia. 

SONGS AND Carols. 69 

The fyrste joy that came to the, 
Was whan the aungel greted the, 
And sayd, Mary, ful of charyte, 

Ave, plena gracia. 
The secund joye that was ful good, 
"Whan Goddes son tok flesch and blood ; 
Withowt sorow and changyng of mood 

E)iLra ss puerperct. 
The thyrd joy was ful of myght, 
"Whan Goddes son on rood was pyght, 
Deed and buryed, and layd in syght, 

Surrexit die tercia. 
The fourth joy was on Holy Thursday, 
Whan God to heven tok hys way, 
God and man withowten nay, 

Ascendit supra sydera. 
The fyfth joy is for to come 
At the dredful day of dome, 
Whan he schal deme us al and some, 

Ad cell palacia. 
Mary to serve, God gyve us grace. 
And grete hyr with joys in every place, 
To cum afor hyr sones face 

In seculorwn secuhi. 


A song in the tune of, And I were a mayd, etc. 
SwET Jhesus is cum to us 
This good tym of Crystmas ; 


Wlierfor with prays syng we always, 

"Wclcum owr Messyas. 

Hey, now, now, now. 
The God almyght and kyng of lyght, 

Whose powr is over all. 
Gyve us of grace forto purchas 

Hys realrae celestyal. 
Hey, etc. 
Whe hys aungells and archangels 

Do syng incessantly, 
Hys princypates and potestates 

Maketh gret armony. 
Hey, etc. 
The cherubyns and seraphyns, 

With ther tunykes mery, 
The trones al most musycall, 

Syng the hevenly kery. 
Hey, etc. 
The vertues clere ther tunes here, 

Ther quere for to repayre ; 
Whose song to hold was manyfold 

Of domynacyons fayer. 
Hey, etc. 
With on acord serve we that Lord 

With laudes and orayson, 
The wych hayth sent, by good assent, 

To us hys onely sone. 
Hey, etc. 
Borne ful porly, redy to dey, 

For to redeme us all. 


In the jury, of mayd Mary, 
In a poore oxes stall. 
Hey, etc. 
He taught the sawes of crysten lawes 

To hys apostels twelve ; 
In flome Jordan, of good saynt Johan, 
He was crystned hym selve. 
Hey, etc. 
Hym selfe ded preche, and the folke tech 

The commaundmentes tene. 
He went barfote, that swete herte rote, 
Example to all mene. 
Hey, etc. 
The lame and blynd, men owt of mynd, 

And the demonyacle. 
The deef and dombe, men layd in tombe, 
"VYher hoi by hys myi-acle. 
Hey, etc. 
The Jewes truly had grete envy 

To se hys myght expresse ; 
Thei ded conspyre by grete desyre 
To deth hym for to dresse. 
Hey, etc. 
But by hys myght, thei had no syght 

To know hys corpolence ; 
Tyll unwysse bold Judas hym sold 
For thyrty golden pence. 
Hey, etc. 
Than thei hym tost, and at a post 
Thei bownd hym lyk a thefe ; 


Tliei (led hym bete with scorges grete, 

To put hyra to reprefe. 
Hey, etc. 
Nakyd and bare, hys flesch tliei tare, 

And with a crowne of thorne 
Tliei ded hym crowne, the blod rane downe, 

And gane hym arede in scorn. 
Hey, etc. 
"With raokkes and mowes, buffetes and blowes, j 

And other cursed thewes, 
Thei gan to cry dyspytously, 

Al hayle the kyng of Jewes ! 
Hey, etc. 
With dredfuU othes, the wych hym lothes, 

Thei cryd, crucifige ! 
To Calvary thei gane hym hy, 

The crosse hym self bar he. 
Hey, etc. 
They hym naylyd, and yl flaylyd, 

Alas, that innocent ! 
Lunges, blynd knyght, with al hys myght, 

"With a spere hys hart rent. 
Hey, etc. 
"Watur and blod fro hys hart yode. 

And yet that blyssyd sone 
Prayd for thosse that ware hys fosse, 

To get for them pardone. 
Hey, etc. 
Lo, what kyndnesse in owr dystresse 

That Lord ded schow us than, 


The deth to tak, al for owr sake, 

And bryng us fro Sathan. 
Hey, etc. 
Owr savyour, our creatur, 

On the crosse deyed ther ; 
Of newe tourment we do hym rent, 

Whan we hys membres swer. 
Hey, etc. 
Then let us pray, both nyght and day, 

To hym per omnia, 
That we may cum to hys kyndome 

Injinis secula. 


A song upon, Now must I syng, etc. 

Nowel, nowel, nowel, syng we with myrth, 
Cryst is come wel, with us to dewell, 
By hys most noble byrth. 

Under a tre, in sportyng me 

Alone by a wod syd, 
I hard a mayd that swetly sayd, 

I am with chyld this tyd. 
Nowell, etc. 
Gracyusly conceyvyd have I 

The son of God so swcte ; 
Hys gracyous wyll I put me tyll, 

As moder hym to kepc. 
Nowell, etc. 


Both nyght and day, I wyll hym pray, 

And her hys lawcs taught. 
And every dell hys trewe gospell 

In hys apostles fraught. 
Nowell, etc. 
Tliys goostly case dooth me embrace, 

Withowt dyspyte or moke, 
With my derlyng, luUay to syng, 

And lovely hym to roke. 
Nowell, etc. 
Withowt dystresse, in grete lyghtnesse, 

I am both nyght and day ; 
This hevenly fod, in hys chyldhod, 

Schal dayly with me play. . 
Nowell, etc. 
Soone must I syng, with rejoycyng, 

For the tym is all ronne, 
That I schal chyld, all undefyld, 

The kyng of hevens sonne. 
Nowell, etc. 


Evere more, where so ever I be, 
The dred of deth do troble me. 

As I went me fore to solasse, 
I hard a mane syght and say, alasse ! 
Off me now thus stond the casse, 
The dred of, etc. 


I have be lorde of towr and towne, 
I sett not be my grett renowne ; 
For deth wyll pluckyd all downe ; 

The dred off deth do trobyll me. 
Whan I shal deye I ame not suere, 
In what countre or in what howere ; 
Wherefore I sobbyng sey to my power, 

The dred off deth do treble me. 
Whan my sowle and my body departyd shall be, 
Off my jugment no man cane tell me. 
Nor off my place wher that I shal be ; 

Therfore dred off deth do treble me. 
Jhesu Cryst, whan that he shuld sofer hys passyon, 
To hys fader he seyd, with gret devocyon, 
Thys is the causse off my intercessyon, 

The dred off deth do treble me. 
Al crysten pepul, be ye wysse and ware, 
Thys world is butt a chery ffare, 
Replett with sorow and fulfyllyd with care ; 

Therfore the dred off deth do treble me. 
Whether that I be mery or good wyne drynk, 
Whan that I do on my last daye thynk, 
It mak my sowle and body schrynke ; 

Fore the dred of deth sore treble me. 
Jhesu us graunt hyme so to honowr, 
That at owr end he may be owr socowr, 
And kepe us fro the fendes powr ; 

For than dred of deth shal not treble me. 


Prey we to the Trinyte, 
And to al the holy compane, 
For to bryng us to the blys, 
The wych shal never mysse. 

Jhesus, for thi holj name, 
And for thi beter passyon, 

Save us frome syn and shame 
And endeles damnacyon ; 

And bryng us to that blysse, 

That nevere shal mysse. 

gloryusse lady, quen off heven, 
mayden and o mothere bryght. 

To thy Sonne with myld Steven 
Be owr gyde both day and nyght ; 

That we may cum to that blysse, 

The wych never shal mysse. 

Gabryell and Raphaell, 

With scherapyn and seraphyn, 
Archangell Mychaell, 

With all the orderes nyne, ' 
Bryng us to that blysse. 
The wych never shal mysse. 

ye holy patryarkys, 

Abraham, Ysaak, and many moo, 
Ye were full blyssed in yowr werkes, 


"With Johan the Baptyst also, 
For to bryng us to that blysse, 
The wych never shal mysse. 

The holy apostoles off Cryst, 

Petur, Paule, and Bartylmewe, 
With Thomas, and Johan the evangelyst. 

And Andrew, Jamys, and Mathewe, 
Bryng us to that hevenly blysse, 
The wych never shal mysse. 

Pray fore us ye seyntys bryght, 

Stevyn, Laurence, and Cristofore, 
And swete Georg, that noble knyght, 

With all the marters in the qwere, 
That we may cum to that blysse, 
The wych never shall mysse. 

Blyssyd confessor, sent Gregory, 
With Nycholas, and Edward kyng. 

Sent Leonard, and Antony, 

To yow we pray above all thyng. 

To helpe us to that blysse. 

The wych never shal mysse. 

yow blyssed matrones, 

Anne and swet sent Elsabeth, 
With al the gloryus vyrgyns, 

Kateryne and noble sent Margaret, 
Bryng us to the hevenly blysse. 
The wych never shal mysse. 


All the company celestyall, 

The wych do syng so musycall, 

To the kyng pryncypall 
Pray fore us tei'restyall, 

That we may cum to that blysse, 

The wych never shall mysse. 


Off al the enmys that I can fynd , 
The tong is most enmy to mankynd. 

With pety movyd, I am constreynyd 
To syng a song fore yowr comfort, 

How that dyvers have compleynyd 
Off tong ontru and ill report, 
Sayng thus, withowt dysport, 
Off all, etc. 

Thys tong is instrument off dyscord, 
Causyng war and grett dystans 

Betwyne the subjecte and the lord. 
The perfytt cause off every grevaus. 
Wherfor I syng withowt dysplesans. 
Of all, etc. 

Thow that prestes be never so pacient. 
In towne, cite, or in cowrt ryall ; 


Thow the religyus be never so obedient ; 
Yeit a ill tong wyll trobull them all. 
Wherfore this song reherse I shall, 
Of all, etc. 

Iff he that ill be another do saye, 
Hys propere fawtes wold behold, 

How oftynnis hyme self wer owt off the way, 
Sylens to hyme than shuld be gold, 
And with me to syng he wold be bold, 
Off all, etc. 

Frome this tonge a venamus serpent. 

Defend us, fader, to the we pray, 
As thou onto us tlii sone have sent, 

Fore to be borne this present daye ; 

Lesse that we syng and evermore saye. 
Off all, etc. 

Nowoll, nowcU, this is the salutacion off the aungell Gabriell. 
Tydynges trew ther be cum new, sent frome the Trinite, 
Be Gabriel to Nazaret, cite of Galile ; 
A clone roayden and pure virgyn thorow hyre humilite 
Conceyvid the secund person in divinite. 

"Whan he fyrst presentid was before hyr fayer visag, 
In the most demuer and goodly wys he ded to hyr omag, 


And seiil, Lady, fromc heven so hj, that lordes herytag, 
The wich off the borne wold be, I am sent on niessag. 

Ilayle, virgyne celestial, the mekest that ever was ; 
Ilayle, temple of delte and myrrour off all grace ; 
Hayle, virgyne puer, I the ensure within full lyty[l] 

Thou shalt receyve and hym conceyve that shal bryng 

gret solace. 

Sodenly she, abashid truly, but not al thyng dysmaid. 
With mynd dyscret and mek spyryt to the aungell she 

said : 
By what maner shuld I chyld bere, the wich ever a 

Have lyvid chast, al my lyf past, and never mane 

asaid ? 

Than ageyne to hire certeyn answered the aungell, 
O lady dere, be off good chere, and dred the never a 

Thou shalt conceyve in thi body, mayden, very God 

hym self. 
In whos byrth heven and erth shal joy, callid Emanuell. 

Not it, he seid, vj. monethys past, thi cosyn Elyzabeth, 
That was barren, conceyvid sent Johan, tru it is that 

I tell ; 
Syn she in ag, why not in yought mayst thou conceyve 

as well, 
If God wyl, whome is possybyll to have don every dell? 



Thane agej'ne to the aungell she answered womanly, 
What ever my lord coramaund me do, I wyll obey 

Ecce sum humilima ancilla Domini, 
Secundum verbum ttnim, she seid,Jiat niihi. 


Doll thi ale, doll, doll thi ale, dole, 

Ale mak many a mane to have a doty poll. 

Ale mak many a mane to styk at a bi'ere ; 
Ale mak many a mane to ly in the myere ; 
And ale mak many a mane to slep by the fyere ; 

With doll. 
Ale mak many a mane to stombyl at a stone ; 
Ale mak many a mane to go dronken home; 
And ale mak many a mane to brek hys tone ; 

With doll. 
Ale mak many a mane to draw hys knyfe ; 
Ale mak many a mane to mak gret stryfe ; 
And ale mak many a mane to bet hys wyf ; 

With dole. 
Ale mak many a mane to vv'et hys chekes ; 
Ale mak many a mane to ly in the stretes ; 
And ale mak many a mane to wet hys shetes; 

With dole. 
Ale mak many a mane to stombyll at the blokkes ; 
Ale mak many a mane to mak his lied have knokkes ; 
And ale mak many a mane to syt in the stokkes ; 

With dol. G 


Ale raak many a mane to ryne over the falows ; 
Ale mak many a mane to swere by God and albalows; 
And ale mak many a mane to hang upon the galows ; 
With doll. 


BIyssid be that lady bryght, 
That bare a ehyld off great myght, 
Withouten peyne, as it was right, 
Mayd mother Marye. 

GoDDYS Sonne is borne, his moder is a maid 
Both aftur and beforne, as the prophycy said, 
"With ay ; 
A wonder thyng it is to se, 
How mayden and moder on may be ; 
Was there nonne but she, 

Maid moder Marye. 

The great lord of heaven owr servant is becom, 
Thorow Gabriels stevyn, owr kynd have benom, 
With ay ; 
A wonder thyng it is to se, 
How lord and servant on may be ; 
Was ther never nonne but he, 

Born off maid Marye. 

Two sons togyther they owght to shyne bryght ; 
So did that fayer ladye, whan Jesu in hir light. 
With ay ; 


A wonder thyng is fall, 

The lord that bought fre and thrall, 

Is found in an assis stall. 

By his moder Mary. 

The shepei'des in her region thei lokyd into heaven, 
Thei se an angell commyng down, that said with myld 

With ay ; 
Joy be to God almyght, 
And pece in yerth to man is dyte, 
Fore God was born on Chrismes nyght 
Off his moder Marye. 

Thre kynges off great noblay, whan that chyld was born, 
To hym they tok the redy way, and kneled hym beforn, 
With ay ; 
Thes iij. kynges cam fro fare, 
Thorow ledyng of a stare, 
And offered hym gold, encence, and mure. 
And to hys moder Mary. 

O mervelous and blessed nativite off Goddes Sonne in divinite. 

Welcome be thys blissed feest 

Off Jesu Christ in trinite, 
That is reformer off owre reste, 

Lovyng peace and chai'itc. 



In tymc off peace thys cliylcl was borne, 
As it was shewed in prophieye, 

To save mankynd that was forlorn, 
Fore kyng off peace he is trulye. 

Born mervelously he was, 
Full off blysse and divinite; 

And she a mayd never the lesse, 
And so was never nonne but she. 

In his byrth holy was knytt 
God and man in his degre, 

Moder and mayd together were sett, 
Feith in mans hart ever to be. 

Therfor praye we to that lord, 
And to his moder mayden fre, 

To mak us wisse in wark and word. 
To praysse and pleasse the Trinite. 

Alleluia, alleluia, alleluia, now syng we. 
Her commys holly, that is so gent, 
To pleasse all men is his intent. 

But, lord and lady off this hall, 
Wlio so ever ageynst holly call. 


Who SO ever ageynst holly do crye, 
In a lepe shall he hang full hye. 

"Who so ever ageynst holly do syng, 
He maye wepe and handys wryng. 



Ivy cbefe off treis it is, veni coronaberis. 

The most worthye she is in towne ; 
He that seyth other, do amysse ; 
And worthy to here the crowne ; 

Veni coronaberis. 
Ivy is soft and mek off spech, 

Ageynst all bale she is blysse ; 
Well is he that may hyre rech ; 
Veni coronaberis. 
Ivy is green, with coloure bright, 

Off all treis best she is ; 
And that I preve well now be right ; 

Veni coronaberis. 
Ivy beryth berys black ; 

God graunt us all his blysse ! 
Fore there shall we nothyng lack : 
Veni coronaberis. 



In villa quid viJisti, in villa ? 

Many a man blame his wif, parde, 
Yet he is more to blame than she ; 
Trow ye that ony such there be, 

In villa? 
Ye, ye, hold yowr peasse fore shame, 
Be owr lady, ye be to blame ; 
Wene ye that vvomens tonges be lame. 

In villa ? 
Nay, God forbid, it is naturall 
For them to be right liberall ; 
I now report me over all, 

In villa. 
Every where I have espyed. 
All women be not tong-tyed ; 
And if thei were, thei be belied, 

In villa. 
If ought be said to them sertayn, 
"Wene ye thei will not answer agayn ? 
Yes, by Christ, fore every word twayn, 

In villa. 
Now in good faith, the soth to say, 
Thei have gret cause frome day to day ; 
Fore thei may nother sport nor playe, 

In villa. 
Ther husbondes controll them so secretly ; 
But yet no forse fore that hardly, 
Fore ther scewise shalbe mad so craftely, 
In villa. 


"Who sey ye, women that husbondes haves, 

Wyl not yow owr honour saves, 

And call them lowsy stynckyng knaves, 

In villa. 
Ye, so have I hard tell ore thys. 
Not fare out off thys centre i-wis ; 
Off some off them men shal not mys. 

In villa. 
God wott, gret cans have thei among ; 
But dout ye not, ther hartes be strong ; 
Fore thei may suffere no maner off wrong, 

In villa. 
And if thei dyd, ther hartes wold brast ; 
Wherfor in sotli I hold it best, 
Lett them alon in the devillis rest, 

In villa. 
Ye husbondes all, with on assent, 
Lett yowr wyffis have ther entent ; 
Ore, by my trowth, ye wilbe shent, 

In i-illa. 
It is hard ageynst the strem to stryve ; 
Fore he that cast hym for to thry ve, 
He must ask off hys wiffe leva, 

In villa. 
Ore elles, be God and be the rood. 
Be he never so wild ore wood, 
His her shal grow thorow his hood, 
In villa. 


Ort" all creatuis women be best, 
I^Jiis contrarlum venan est. 

In every place ye may well so, 
That women be trew as tyrtyll on tie ; 
Not liberall in langag, but ever in secrete, 
And gret joy among them is fore to be. 

The stedfastnesse off women wil never be don, 
So gentyll, so curtes thei be everichon, 
Mek as a lambe, styll as a stone ; 
Crockyd ne crabbyd fynd ye none. 

Men be more combres a thowsand fold ; 
And I mervill who thei dare be so bold, 
Ageynst women fore to hold, 
Seing them so pacient, soft and cold. 

Fore tell a woman all yowr counsayle. 
And she cane kepe it wonder weyll ; 
She had lever go qwyck to hell 
Thaa to hire neyboure she wold it tell. 

Fore by women men be reconsyled ; 
Fore by women was never man begiled ; 
Fore by women was never man betraied ; 
Fore by women was never man bewreyed. 


Now sey well by women, ore elles be styll ; 
Fore they never displeasid man by ther will ; 
To be angry ore wroth thei cannot skyll, 
Fore I dare sey they thynk no ill. 

Trow ye that they lyst to smatter, 
Ore ageynst ther husbondes to clatter ? 
Nay, thei had lever fast bred and water, 
Then fore to presse such a matter. 

Thowe all the pacience in the world wer drownd, 
And nonne were left here on the grownd, 
Ageyn in women it myght be fownd, 
Such vertu in them doth abownd. 

To the taverne thei will not goo, 
Nore to the ale howse never the moo : 
Fore, God wott, ther hartes shulbe woo, 
To spend ther husbondes money soo. 

If here wer a woman ore a mayd, 
That list forto go freshly arayd, 
Ore with fyne kerchefs to go displaid, 
Ye wold sale thei be proud, it is evil said. 

Women, women, women, women, 
A song I syng even off women. 

Some be mcry, and some be sad. 
And some be good and some be bad ; 


Some be wyld, be sent Chad ! 

Yet all be not so. 
Fore some be lewd, and some be shrewd ; 

Go shrew, wher so ever ye go. 

Some be wise, and some be fond ; 
Some be tame, I understond ; 
Some wil tak bred at a mans bond ; 

Yet al be not so. 
For some be lewd, and some be shrewd ; 

Go shrew, wher so ever ye go. 

Some be angry, and cannot tell wherfor ; 
Some be scornyng ever more ; 
And some be tuskyd lyk a bore ; 

Yet all be not so. 
For some be lewd, and some be shrewd ; 

Go shrew, where so ever ye go. 

Som wilbe dronken as a mouse ; 

Some be crokyd, and will hurt a lowse ; 

And some be fayer and good iu a howse ; 

Yet all be not so. 
Fore some be lewd, and some be shrewd ; 

Go shrew, wher so ever ye go. 

Some be snowtyd lyk an ape ; 
Some can nother pley ne jape ; 
And some off them be well shape ; 
Yet all be not so. 


Fore some be lewd, and some be shrewd ; 
Go shrew, wher so ever ye go. 

Some can prate without hyere ; 

Some cane pley check mat with owr sycre ; 

And some mak debate in every shyere ; 

Yet all be not so. 
Fore some be lewd, and some be shrewd ; 

Go shrew, wher so ever ye go. 


How, gossip myn, gossipe myn, 
When wyll ye go to the wyn. 

I WYLL yow tell a full good sport, 
How gossyps gather them on a sort, 
Theyre syk bodes for to comfort, 
When thei mett in a lane ore stret. 

But I dare not, fore ther displesaunce, 
Tell off thes maters half the substaunce ; 
But yet sumwhatt off ther governaunce. 
As fare as I dare, I will declare. 

Good gossipe myn, where have ye be ? 
It is so long syth I yow see. 
Where is the best wyn ? tell yow me. 
Can yow ought tell full wele. 


I know a drawght off mery-go-downe, 
The best it is in all thys towne ; 
But yet wold I not, fore my gowne, 
My husbond it wyst, ye may me trust. 

Call forth yowr gossips by and by, 
Elynore, Jone, and Margery, 
Margaret, Alls, and Cecely ; 

Fore thei will come both all and sume. 

And ich of them wyll sumwhat bryng, 
Gosse, pygge, ore capons wyng, 
Pastes off pigeons, ore sum other thyng ; 
Fore a galon oif wyn thei will not wryng. 

Go befoore be tweyn and tweyn, 
Wysly, that ye be not seen ; 
Fore I must home, and come ageyn, 
To witt i-wys where my husbond is. 

A strype ore ij. God myght send me, 
If my husbond myght her se me. 
She that is aferd, lett her fle, 
Quod Alls than, I dred no man. 

Now be we in tavern sett, 
A drowght off the best lett hyme fett, 
To bryng owr husbondes out off dett ; 
Fore we will spend, tyll God more send. 


Ech off them brought forth ther djsch ; 
Sum brought flesh, and sume fysh. 
Quod Margaret mek, now with a wysh, 

I wold Ane were here, she wold mak us chere. 

How sey yow, gossips, is this wyne good ? 
That it is, quod Elenore, by the rood ; 
It cherisheth the hart, and comfort the blood ; 
Such jonckettes among shal mak us lyv long. 

Anne, byd fill a pot of muscadell ; 
Fore off all wynes I love it well, 
Swete wynes kepe my body in hele ; 

If I had off it nought, I shuld tak gret thought. 

How look ye, gossip, at the hordes end ? 
Not mery, gossip ? God it amend. 
All shalbe well, elles God it defend ; 
Be mery and glad, and sitt not so sadde. 

Wold God I had don aftur yowr counsell ! 
Fore my husbond is so fell, 
He betyth me lyk the devill off hell ; 
And the more I cry, the lesse mercy. 

Alys with a lowd voyce spak than, 
I-wis, she seid, lytyll good he cane, 
Tliat betyth ore strykyth ony woman, 

And specially his wyff; God gyve him short ly ve i 


Margaret mek seid, So mot I thryflFe, 
I know no man that is alyffe, 
That gyve me ij. strokes, but he shal have fyfFe ; 
I ame not aferd, though I have no herd. 

On cast down her schott, and went her wey. 
Gossip, quod Elenore, what dyd she paye ? 
Not but a peny. Lo, therefore I saie, 
She shal be no more off owr lore. 

Such gestes we may have i-nowe, 
That will not fore ther shott alow. 
With whom cum she ? gossipe, with yow ? 
Nay, quod Jone, I come alone.. 

Now rekyn owr shott, and go we hence, 
What? cost it ich off us but iij. pence? 
Parde, thys is but a smale expence, 
Fore such a sort, and all but sport. 

Torn down the street where ye cum owt, 
And we will compasse rownd abowt. 
Gossip, quod Anne, what nedyth that dowt ? 
Yowr husbondes be plesyd, when ye be reisyd. 

What so ever ony man thynk, 

Whe cum fore nowght but fore good drynk. 

Now lett us go whom and wynk ; 

Fore it may be sen, where we have ben. 



Thys is the thought that gossips tak, 
0ns in the weke mery will thei mak, 
And all small drynk thei will forsak ; 
But wyne off the best shall han no rest. 

Sume be at the taverne ons in a weke ; 
And so be sume every dale eke ; 
Oi-e ellis thei will gron and mak them sek. 
Fore thynges usid will not be refusyd. 

Who sey yow, women, is it not soo ? 
Yes, suerly, and that ye wyll know ; 
And therfore lat us drynk all a row, 

And off" owr syngyng mak a good endyng. 

Now fyll the cupe, and drynk to me ; 
And than shal we good felows be. 
And oif thys talkyng leve will we, 
And speak then good off" women. 

Tyrle, tyrle, so merylye the shepperdes began to blowe. 

Abowt the fyld thei pyped full right, 
Even abowt the middes off" the nyght ; 
Adown frome hcven thei saw cum a light. 
Tyrle, tirle. 


Off angels ther came a company, 

With mery songes and melody. 

The shepperdes anonne gane them aspy. 

Tyrle, tyrle. 
Gloria in excelsis, the angels song, 
And said, who peace was present among, 
To every man that to the faith wold long. 

Tyrle, tyrle. 
The shepperdes hyed them to Bethleme, 
To se that blyssid sons heme ; 
And ther they found that glorious streme. 

Tyrle, tyrle. 
Now preye we to that mek chyld. 
And to his mothere that is so myld, 
The wich was never defylyd, 

Tyrle, tyrle. 
That we may cum unto his blysse, 
Where joy shall never mysse. 
Than may we syng in Paradice : 

Tirle, tirle. . 
I pray yow all that be here. 
Fore to syng and mak good chere. 
In the worship off God thys yere. 

Tyrle, tirle. 

God that sytteth in trinite. 
Amend this world, if thi will it be. 

Vycyce be wyld, and vertucs lame ; 
And now be vicyce turned to game ; 


Therfore correccion is to blame, 

And besyd his dignite. 
Pacyence hath taken a flyght ; 
And melady is out off syght. 
Now every boy will counterfett a knyght, 

Report hym self as good as he. 
Princypally among every state, 
In court men thynk ther is gret bate, 
And peace he stondyth at the gate, 

And morneth aftur charite. 
Envy is thyk, and love thyne : 
And specyally among owr kyne ; 
Fore love is without the dore and envy within ; 

And so kyndnesse away gane fle. 
Fortewn is a raervelous chaunce ; 
And envy causeth gret distaunce ; 
Both in Englond and in Fraunce 

Exilyd is benyngnyte. 
Now lett us pray both on and all, 
And specyally upon God call. 
To send love and peace among us all, 

Amons: all men in christente. 


p. 4, 1. 2. Man, he war. The first stanza of this song is 
given, with very little variation, in the middle of a song in 
the Sloane MS., fol. 6, v°, as follows, — 
Man, be war, the weye is sleder, 
Thou xal sljde thou west not qweder. 
Body and sowle xul go togeder. 

But if thou wilt amendes make. 

P. 4, 1. 7. Secators. The dishonesty of executors was pro- 
verbial in the middle ages, and they appear often to have 
embezzled money intended for charitable and religious pur- 
poses. Hence we meet with not unfrequent, and of course 
not uninterested, admonitions to the living to dispose of their 
goods to the church for the benefit of their souls, before 
death, rather than leave it to the honesty of executors after. 
See again, p. 34, 1. 16, of the present volume. 

P. 12, No. X. Another copy of this carol is printed in the 
Eeliquice Antiques, vol. ii, p. 76, from a MS. in the Advocates' 
Library, Edinburgh, of the latter part of thefifteenth century, 

P. 18, No. xiir. Another copy of this short song is found 
in the Sloane MS., fol. 9, v°. 

P. 12, No. XVI. This song is found also, with some varia- 
tions, in the Sloane MS., fol. 6, v°. 

P. 24, No, XIX, Another copy of this song or carol is in 
the Sloane MS., fol. 33. v°. 

P, 25, 11. 9-12. This stanza, relating to vSt, Thomas of 
Canterbury, has been blotted out in the MS. by a later hand. 

P. 25, No. XX. This and the one given on p, 42, are two 
new specimens of the curious songs for the ancient ceremony 

100 Nori's. 

of bviugini!; in tho bonv's homl at Christmas. Others wore 
pri>\to*l l\v Ivitson in his Anci'tnt Sou<fs, and a very onrions 
ono will bo ionnd in tho JMiquitV Antt(HM', vol. ii, p. 30. 

r. ;n , 1. (>. /><-</(•. An allnsion to mther an absurd legend 
I'olatiTig to Kede. which wa.s popular at the time these songs 
were written. 

V. ol. No. xwi. Another copy of this song is found in 
Sloane IMS., fol. 24, v*^", with some not voi-y imporUuit varia- 

r. 3r)and37. The manuseript was hero a little ton\; tho 
letters in Italics ai"o supplied by conjecture ; tho few la- 
cunes marked \\v dots I have not ventured to supply in 
this maiuior. 

r. 3(5, 1. (>. At Loiiihni at the Parvis. Tho Parvis or por- 
tico of 8t. Paul's in London, was the coimuon place of con- 
sultation among tho liawyers. Thus Chaucer, Cant. 7\ 1. 31 1, 

A sergt'ant of lawo, war and wys. 
That often hadiU' bou att»' rarvyji. 

P. 38, No. xxxui. This song is also found, but with 
rather considorixble variations, in the Sloane MS., fol. 23, r". 

P. 44, No. XL. This curious song seems to have some 
connection with the song on the Ivy and the Holly, printed 
from MS. llarl. No. OoiHs in Ritsou's Ancient Songs. Songs 
on the Ivy and on tho Holly w ill be found in the present 
volume, p. S4 and So. 

P. 4t>, No. xi.m. Anotlier copy of this carol, but w ith very 
considerable vtuiations, is found in the Sloane MS., fol. 17, r". 
Some stanzas arc omitted in that copy, and others altered, 
and after 1. 13, on p. 4S, the carol there goes on to the cou- 
clusion thus, — 

^^'^th tjvsouM to us gan ho sayn. 
He trowiil .Ihesu to han slayu : 
Inti> t.jO'pt thei went ful pla\u. 
Ue syile, 
Josep here gydf. 

J 01 

Into Hudlcin thai guiine pu>>; 
The sterre gan scliynyu in here fas 
IJrytter tliau ever sclion »uniie in glas; 
In loude, 
Jhesu with Mari thai fonde. 

Kyng Herowdes he raad his vow, 
Gret plente of cliyldurin lie slow, 
He wende ther xuld a be Jhesu ; 
I saye, 
He falyid of his praye. 

Herowdes was wod in ryalte, 
He slow schyldcrin ryght gret plente, 
In Bedlem that fayre cete, 
Willi stryf ; 
Ne left he non on lyf. 

The chyldren of Israel cryid, wa, wa; 
The moderis of Bedlem cryid, ba, ba ; 
Herowdes low, and seyd, a ha I 
That qwede, 
The kyng of Juwys is dede. 

Almyty God in mageste, 
In o god personys thre, 
Bryng us to the blysse that is so fre 
In lere, 
And send us a good newe yere. 

P. 50, No. XLVi. This song also is in the Sloaue MS., 
fol. 10, vo. 

P. 51, No. XLViii, The whole of this song of St, Thomas 
has been designedly blotted out with a pen in the MS. 

P. GO, No. LV. This Latin chaunt is accompanied with 
musical notes in the MS. 

P. 12, No. LVi. This is a much better and more perfect 
copy of a curious drinking song which had already been 
printed by Ritson {Dissertation on Ancient Sonys ami Music, 
p. XXXIV) from MS. Ilarl. .041, fol. 214, v"., written in the 

1 Ot> NOTES. 

reigu of Henry VI. In the copy printed by Ritson the 
whole song runs thus : — 

Bryug us home good ale, sir, bryng us liome good ale. 
And for our der Lady love, brynge us home good ale. 

Brynge us home no beff, sir, for that ys full of bones. 
But brynge home good ale i-nough, for I love wyle that. 

But, etc. 
Brynge us home no wetyn bred, for that is full of braund, 
Nothyr no ry brede, for that ys of that same. 

But, etc. 
Brvnge us home no porke, sir, for that ys very fat, 
Nethyr no barly brede, for nethyr lovj's I that. 

But brynge us home good ale. 
Bryng us home no muttun, sir, for that ys togh and lene, 
Nethyr no trypys, for they be seldyn clene. 

But bringe, etc. 
Bryng us home no vele, sir, for that will not dure. 
But bryng us home good ale i-nogh to drynke by the fyr. 

But, etc. 
Bryng us home no sydyr, nor no palde wyne. 
For and thou do thow shalt have Crysts curse and myue. 

But, etc. 

In the Harl. MS. it is not accompanied with the musical 
notes, as here; they appeared of suiEcient interest to be 
engraved for the present volume. 

P. 66, 1. 14. Arystoti/U, Vergyll. An allusion to the popu- 
lar medieval legends of the philosopher and the poet, both 
of whom were there represented to have been seduced and 
deceived by the fair sex. 

P. 68, No. Lix. Off the 5 joyes. There is a song on the 
same subject, and in the same style, in the Sloane MS., fol. 
9, r", but differing in the words, with the exception of a 
phrase here and there. 

P. 75, 1. 18. A chcry ffare. This is a new instance of a 
cui'ious expression, of not unfrequent occurrence in the old 

NOTKS. 103 

English poets, for the explanation of which the reader is re- 
ferred to Mr. Halliwell's Dictionary of Archaic and Pro- 
vincial Words, art. Cherry-fair. 

P. 89, No. Lxxiii. Another coj)y of this song is printed 
in the Reliquice Antiqua;, vol. i, p. 248, from a MS. in the 
Library of Lambeth Palace, No. 306 (in the printed cala- 
logue), fol. 135, written in the fifteenth centmy. As the 
variations between the two copies are considerable, I give 
here the Lambeth copy for the sake of comparison. 

Women, women, love of women 
Make bare purs -with some men. 
Some be nyse as a manne bene, 

Jit al thei be nat so ; 
Some be lewde, some all be sbreude, 

Go schrewes wber thei goo. 

Sum be nyse, and some be fonde, 
And some be tame y undirstonde, 
And some cane take brede of a manys honde ; 
Yit all thei be nat so, etc. 

Some cane part withouten hire, 
And some make bate in eviri chire. 
And some cheke-mate withoute sire ; 

Yit all thei be nat so. 
Some be lewde, and some be schreued ; 

Go wher they go. 

Some be browne, and some be whit, 
And some be tender as accripo ; 
And some of theym be chiry ripe ; 

Yit all thei be not soo. 
Sume be lewde, etc. 

Some of them be treue of love, 
Benethe the gerdelle, but nat above ; 
And in a bode above cane chove ; 

Yit all thei do nat soo. 
Some be lewde, etc. 

104 NOTES. 

Soino cniio wliistcr, nnil .somo cane eric ; 
Some cani) (Inter, ami some cano lye ; 
And somo can sette the moke awrie ; 

Yil all thfi ilo nat soo. 
Sumo be lewde, etc. 

Ho that made this soiige full good, 

Came of the northe niul the sothern blode. 

And somewhat kyuo to Robyn ?Iode ; 

Yit all we bo nat soo. 
Some be Icwde, etc. 

P. 91, No.LXXiv. The following imperfect copy of this very 
curious ballad was printed by Ritson {Ancient Songs, p. 77) 
fromaJIS.inthcCottonian Library, Titus A. xxvi,foI. 161, r". 
under the somewhat singular title of " Ly tyll thanke." Rit- 
son conjectured rightly, as will be seen from my copy, that 
some stanzas were wanting at the beginning; in fact his 
copy begins at the seventh stanza of the ballad as preserved 
in the MS. in my possession. It will be seen that there are 
numerous and very considerable variations in the two copies. 

Go ye beflbre be twayne and twuyne, 
Wj'sly that yc be not i-sayne, 
And I shall go home and com agaync, 
To witle what dotlie owre syre, 
Gode gosyp. 

For 3yfl' hit happ he dyd me see, 
A strypo or to God iiiyght send me. 
5ytte sche that is afi-rde lette her llee, 
Vm that is nowght be this fyre, 
Gode gosyp. 

That ever^'che of hem browght ther dysche. 
Sum browght fleshe and som brought fyshe. 
Quod Margery meke than with a wyise, 
I wold that Fraukeleyne the harper were here, 
Gode gosip. 

NOTES. 105 

She hade notte so sone the word i-sayd, 
But in coiue Frankelyn at a brayd ; 
God save youe, raastres ! he sayde, 
I come to make youe some chere, 
Gode gosyp. 

Anon he began to draw owght his harpe. 
Tho the gossyppus began to starts. 
They callyd the tawyrner to ffyll the qiiarte ; 
Good gosyp. 

Then seyd the gossyppus all in fere, 
Streke up harper, and make gode chere, 
And wher that I goo, fere or nere, 
To owre hu[s]bondes make thou no [boste.] 
God gossip. 

Nay mastres, as motte I thee, 
Ye schall newyr be wrayed flbr me ; 
I had lever her dede to be. 
As hereof to be knowe, 

Good gosyp. 

They tfylled the pottes by and by, 
They lett not for no coste trully ; 
The harpyr stroke upe merrely, 
That they myght onethe blows. 
Good gosyp. 

They setts them downe, they myght no more, 
Theyre legges they thought were passyng soore ; 
They prayd the harper kepe sum store, 
And lette us drynke abowght, 
Gode gosyp. 

Hcye the, tavernere, I praye the, 
Go fyll the pottcys lyghtyly, 
And latte us dry[n]ke by and l)y, 
And lette the cupe goo route ; 
Good gosyp. 

I (»0 NOTES. 

This ys the tliowght that gossyppus take, 
Onys in the wckc they wyll mercy make. 
And all smalle drynckys they wyll forsake. 
And drynke wyne of the best. 
Good gosyp. 

Some be at the taverne ouys in the weke, 
And some be there every day eke, 
And ellse ther hertes will be seke, 
And gyffe her hosbondys ewyll reste. 
Good gosyp. 

When they had dronke and mad them glad, 
And they schuld rekyn, tlieyn they sad. 
Call they tavernere anone, they bade, 
That we were lyghtly hens. 

Good gosyp. 

I swere be God and by seynt Jayme, 
I wold notte that oure syre at home. 
That we had this game, 
Notte for fourty pens, 

Good gosyp. 

Gadyr the scote and lette us wend, 
And lette us goo home by lurcas ende, 
For dred we mete not with owre frend 
Or that we come home. 

Good gosyp. 

When they had there countes caite, 
Everyche of hem spend vjd at the last. 
Alas, cothe Seyscely, I am agaste, 
We schall be schent evryohone. 
Good gosyp. 

From the taverne be they all gooue, 
And everyche of hem schewy the her wysdom, 
And there sche tellythe her husbond anone, 
Shec had bene at the chyrche. 
Gode gosyp. 


NOTES. 107 

Ofl' ber werke she taky the no kejie, 
Sche muste as for anon'e go sclepe, 
And ells for aggeyr wyll sche wepe, 
Sche may no werkes wurche. 
Good gosyp. 

Ofl' her slepe when sche dothe wake, 
Faste in hey then gan sche arake, 
And cawthe her serwantes abowte the bake, 
Yff to here they outhe had sayd. 
Good gosyp. 

Off this proses I msike an end, 
Becawse 1 will have women to be my fl'rcnd; 
Of there dewosyon they wold send 
A peny forto drynke at the end. 
Gode go.syp. 





:n Jntrotiuction 


Pluribus exbausto creecit sapientia vino, 
Fitque Solon subito qui fuit ante Midas. 

Obsopifis Dc .Irte Uibfndi. 

I. O N D N : 


CfK ^nt^ ^otitt^. 







J. H. DIXON, Esq. 


J. M. GUTCH, Esq., F.S.A. 


W. JERDAN, Esq. M.R.S.L. 

J. S. MOORE, Esq. 


T. J. PETTIGREW, Esq. F.R.S., F.S.A. 



THOMAS WRIGHT, Esq. M.A., F S.A., Treamnr S; Secretary. 


INTRODUCTION ....... P.\GE i.\ Ixi 


I'm RESOLV'd in a tavern WITH HONOUR TO DIE . . 2 


OR HI I'ARRA ......... 4 








A BONNE, GOD WOTE ........ 18 





BACKK AXD SYI)E (!0() BAKK, (;(>!) BAKE 

LET US SIl', AND I,ET IT ..... 



10, Bacchus! to thy table . . . . . 

come, thou monarch of the vine 








cold's the wind, AND WET 's THE RAIN . 





















DRINKING ....... 


here's a health to jolly BACCHUS .... 



let's be jolly, fill our GLASSES ..... 
















"Whatever uncertainty may yet exist, as to the 
proper classification of man in animated nature ; 
there can be little doubt that he is, and from the 
earliest ages has been, a drinking animal. Allu- 
sions to his bibulous propensities appear in the 
most sacred, the most ancient books; and the 
histories of all lands afford examples. Unfor- 
tunately the precept, " avoid' wine, wherein there 
is excess," has been repeatedly forgotten. The 
most polished nations of antiquity, revelling in 
tlie choicest liquors, have erred in this, as much 
as the rudest savages on the first introduction to 
them of " fire-water." It will be necessary, how- 
ever, to confine our observations to the drinking 
habits of our own country, and of these, even to 
give but a sketch — a sample, and not a full draught. 
The Celtic nations appear to have been gene- 
rally addicted to drinking; and the ancient 


Britons, as well of this as of other origin, formed 
no exception to the rule, — ale and mead being thp 
principal drinks; for wine, probably, was scarcely 
known until after the establishment of the 
Romans in the island. Their feasts sometimes 
lasted for several days ; our worthy slightly-clad 
predecessors continuing their amusement as long 
as provisions and liquors lasted. The Anglo- 
Saxons not only emulated, but exceeded them in 
their drinking propensities ; and drank largely in 
honour of their gods, at their religious festivals. 
However, this is not remarkable, when we recol- 
lect that after a well -spent life here, according to 
their notions, — i. e., fighting, drinking, and com- 
mitting breaches of several of the commandments, 
that would have made them objects of wonder in 
any modern police courts, — they were to be re- 
warded in the Valhalla, with the privilege of 
fighting all the live-long day, and feasting every 
night on Scrymer, a great boar, drinking mead 
and beer at discretion, out of the skulls of their 
slain enemies; — a constancy of entertainment, 
more to be wondered at than followed in the pre- 
sent excitement-seeking age. After the intro- 
duction of Christianity, they merely varied their 
habits of intemperance; drinking large draughts 
at their religious festivals in honour of our Saviour, 
the Virgin Mary, the Apostles, and other Saints. 

Archbishop Boniface, in the eighth century, 
observing on the prevalence of drunkenness, more 
than insinuates that some of the bishops, instead of 
preventing it, were themselves partakers in the 
vice. King Edgar, in the middle of the tenth 
century, it is said, was the inventor of the fashion 
of fixing iron ladles, or cups, to the side of every 
fountain and well, for the benefit of the thirsty 
way-farer, as we see still attached to many of our 
public pumps. He, also, first directed that the 
vintners should keep vessels, with pegs, or pins 
of metal at certain distances, inflicting a penalty 
on any one who drank more tlian from one peg- 
to another : though some accounts state, that if a 
person exceeded or fell short of such limit, he 
was to try again for the next peg. Hence, per- 
haps, the phrase, of one being a peg too low, 
when out of spirits, as if wanting another drink 
to rouse him. Anselm's canon, at the commence- 
ment of the twelfth century, forbidding jjriests 
to go to drinking bouts, or drink to pegs, no 
doubt had reference to some such custom, which 
would frequently induce drunkenness. Edgar''s 
ordinance was, however, to promote temperance ; 
and if Amphytrion had not long previously intro- 
duced the mixture of wine and water, Edgar was 
worthy of the invention. Hoops, in quart pots, 
are said to have been for a similar purpose, that 


each man should take his hoop ; and one of Jack 
Cade's intended reforms was, that the three-hooped 
pot should have ten hoops. 

The Anglo-Normans were, at first, a more 
sober people than the previous occupiers of the 
country, but soon ado[)ted, in full, their convivial 
habits, and became most luxurious in their feasts, 
though quantity, more than great variety, was a 
characteristic of their entertainments. At the 
marriage feast of Richard Earl of Cornwall, in 
1243, there were thirty thousand dishes: and the 
enormous bill of fare at the installation of George 
Neville, Archbishop of York, two centuries later, 
(1466) has been often cited; with its one hundred 
and four oxen, one thousand sheep, two thousand 
pigs, five hundred stags, bucks, and roes, twenty- 
two thousand five hundred and twelve fowls of 
diflTerent sorts, two hundred and four cranes, four 
hundred heronshaAvs, twelve porpoises and seals, 
three hundred tuns of ale, one hundred tuns of 
wine, and one pipe of ipocrasse. This exuberant 
feasting seems to have continued down to the 
time of Elizabeth ; when chines of beef and mut- 
ton, with beer and wine, constituted an estab- 
lished breakfast for ladies of quality. About this 
time the feasts, however, seem to have been 
under better arrangement, and of a somewhat 
more polished form. There were some strange 

dishes, also, according to our uotions of choice 
edibles; as cranes, gulls, puffins, curlews, swans, 
congors, seals, porpoises, etc. 

It is proper to observe, that previous to the 
reign of Elizabeth, the vice of drunkenness had, 
from the time of its culmination under the An- 
glo-Norman kings, gradually abated, until the 
English had acquired the character of being the 
most sober of the northern nations; but now, 
during the wars in the Netherlands, they again 
learnt immoderate drinking, and the practice soon 
spread in their own country, and the citizens 
spent much of their time at taverns. Our early 
dramatic writers abound in allusions to such habits; 
and in King James's reign England seems again 
to have obtained the pre-eminence in toping. He 
himself was fond of strong, heady drinks, as 
Frontignac, Canary, high-country wine, tent wine, 
and Scottish ale ; but could carry it off well, 
and surpassed even his doughty relation the Dane. 

" lago. And let me the canakin clink, clink, 
And let me the canakin clink ; 

A soldier 's a man, 0, man's life 's but a span ; 
Why then let a soldier drink. 
Cassio. 'Fore heaven, an excellent song. 
lago. I learned it in England, where indeed they are most 
potent in pottiug; your Dane, your German, and your 
svvag-bellicd Hollander — drink, hoa ! — are nothing to your 


Ccissio. Is your Englishman so exquisite in his drinking? 

laffo. Why, he drinks you with facility, yom* Dane dead 
drunk ; he sweats not to overthrow your Almain ; he gives 
your Hollander a vomit, ere the next pottle can be filled." 
(Othello, ii, 3.) 

See another exami)le, from the Captain, by 
Beaumont and Fletcher, iii, 2. 

" Lodovico. Are the Englishmen such stubborn drinkers 1 
Piso. Not a leak at sea 

Can suck more liquor ; you shall have their children 
Christen'd in mull'd sack, and at five years old 
Able to knock a Dane down." 

There is a curious account handed down to us, 
of some carousals at court, in 1606 (when Christian 
the IVth, of Denmark, paid a visit), which were 
carried to a o;reat excess, even the ladies beino^ 
overcome, in the exuberance of their loyalty. On 
one occasion, there was a sort of masque, or 
representation of King Solomon and the visit of 
the Queen of Sheba. The King of Denmark, who 
personated Solomon, having, from some unknown 
authority, conceived that wine and wisdom were 
synonymou!^, had, at least, imbibed a large portion 
of the former, while the Queen of Sheba had also 
indulged in an extra portion of nectar. She 
advanced to oiFer her gifts of wine, jelly and 
cakes to him ; — the learned pedant James 
having, probably, ascertained that these were 


classically correct presents ; — imfortimately, over- 
come by zeal and wine, the lady stumbled at the 
feet of the king, and threw her gifts indis- 
criminately over him, to the great detriment of 
his fancy dress. Nothing daunted by this, the 
representative of Solomon would dance with the 
Queen of Sheba ; but here he in his turn was 
overcome, and fell also, and was obliged to be 
carried to bed by the sympathizing courtiers. 
Some ladies, who represented Faith, Hope, 
Charity, Victory, and Peace, in the pageant, — such 
characters having been considered to have accom- 
panied the Queen of Sheba in her visit, — would 
not be out-done by their mistress ; they were all 
staggering, and were obliged to retire from the 
court revels, for a time, under the effects of 
temporary indisposition. They manage things 
better now. The feasts of that period had become 
very extravagant and luxurious; and, except in 
not having an untranslateable foreign name, some 
of the dishes might equal any of modern times, 
always reserving the celebrated dish, crawfish a 
la Sampayo, attained by Mons. Soyer. Massinger 
mentions: — 

" their pies of carps' tongues, 

Their pheasants drcnch'd in am1>crgris, the carcases 
Of three fat wethers bruised for gravy, to 
Make sauce for a single peacock. 


" three sucking pigs served up iu a disli, 

Ta'en from the sow as soon as farrow'd, 
A fortnight fed with dates, and muskadine, 
That stood my master in twenty marks apiece, 
Beside the puddings in their beUies, made 
Of I know not what." (The City Madam, ii, \.) 

Gervase Miirkham, in his English House-wife, 
after describing the arranging of great feasts 
in the same reign, gives directions for a more 
humble one, wherein the first course (there being 
three) should consist of thirty-two dishes, in- 
cluding a chine of beef, a pig, a goose, a swan, 
a turkey, and a haunch of venison roasted ; and 
the ordering will be " both frugal in the splendor, 
contentment to the guest, and much pleasure and 
delight to the beholder." 

In the time of Charles the First and the 
Commonwealth, the habits of the Cavalier party 
and of the Puritans, were quite opposed to each 
other; the former, when they had the means, 
indulging in luxurious living, and frequently 
sinking into debauchery ; while the latter aifected 
temperance and frugality, even to prudery ; 
though there were occasional back-slidings — as 
where shall there not be ? The court of Charles 
the Second was not a temperate one, but it was 
liberal, not addicted exclusively to any one 
particular vice, and excess in drinking was included 
in the catalogue. It may be observed that the 


court leaven generally pervaded a large portion 
of society. The reigns immediately following the 
Revolution showed some improvement in these 
matters ; and further than these it is not necessary 
to refer for the purposes of this Introduction. 
It may, however, be observed, that the habits of 
excess in drinking, in general society, till within but 
a few years back, are in the recollection of many, 
and even still exist in some parts, where man so 
debases his faculties, as to render himself unfit to 
associate with the fairer, the more graceful, and 
the purer portion of our race, and becomes a boon 
companion for such as " Happy Jerry " the gin- 
drinking mandril of Exeter-change, when Exeter- 
change was. Hai)pily our court now affords an 
illustrious example to follow ; and at our feasts, 
intellectual intercourse has superseded the grosser 
pleasures of the bottle, — a name to prevent the 
abuse of which, the talented George Cruikshank 
has, by his admirable work on the subject, lent 
his powerful aid. 

The principal liquors in use amongst the early 
inhabitants of our country, were ale, beer, and 
mead. In some of the earliest Welsh laws, we 
find the steward of the king's houscliold had as 
much of evei'y cask of })lain ale, as he could reach 
with his middle finger dipped into it ; and as much 
of every cask <^f ale with spiceries, as he 


could reach with the second joint of his middle 
finger. The Welsh, as at present, were famed 
for their ale; the Anglo-Saxons dividing the 
classes of that liquor into mild ale, clear ale, 
and Welsh ale. Ale, indeed, may be considered 
a national drink, and has preserved its repu- 
tation to the present time, although not so 
aristocratic as formerly. Several places in the 
kingdom have, for a long series of years, preserved 
the reputation of peculiar skill in making this 
liquor. In ancient times it stood forward boldly 
at the royal tables, but now modestly retires to 
the side-board; often has it been the subject of 
parliamentary attention and interference ; and the 
ale-brewer in the 15th century could not sell his 
ale, without the fear of the "cukkyng stole" and 
pillory, until the ale-taster had pronounced it good 
and " abill for mannys body." In the time of 
Henry VIII, ale continued one of the principal 
drinks, and the stock that Queen Elizabeth 
possessed, bore a large proportion to the wines in 
her cellar. At this time the beer was divided into 
single beer, or small ale, double beer, double-double 
beer, and dagger ale, which was particularly sharp 
and strong. There was also a choice kind, brewed 
principally by the higher classes, called March 
ale, from its being made in that month, which was 
scarcely fit for the table until two years old. A 

cup of choice ale with spices and sugar, and some- 
times a toast, stirred up with a sprig of rosemary, 
was a draught for a queen. 

Adam. " Mark you, sir, a pot of ale consists of four parts, 
imprimis the ale, the toast, the ginger, and the nutmeg." 
(Looking Glass for London and England. Greene.) 

But even now roguish brewers and tapsters would 
adulterate. " Let me see thee froth and lime," as 
mine Host of the Garter says to Bardolph : and 
there is a story of old Hey wood, being asl^ed by a 
person in whose beer the hop preponderated at the 
expense of the malt, whether it Avas not well 
hopped ? replying, " It is very well hopt, but if it 
had hopt a little further, it had hopt into the 
water." Derby ale seems to have been one of 
the choice ales at this time : Sir Lionel Rash, in 
Green's Tu Quoque, says, " I have sent my 
daughter this morning as far as PImlico to fetch 
a draught of Derby ale, that it may fetch a colour 
in her cheeks" ; a strange errand this would now 
be thought for a knight's daughter, and leaving it 
an open question whether the walk or the ale was 
to fetch the colour. There was also a strong kind 
of ale called "huff-cap." Another name for strong 
ale seems to have been "nippitate," — 

" Pompiano. My father oft will tell me of a drink 
In England found, and uipitato call'd, 
Which drivcth all the sorrow from your hearts. 

Ralph. Lady, 'tis true ; you need not lay your lips 
To better nipitato than there is." 
— {Knight of the Burning Pestle, iv, 2.) 

It is further described in another play, — 

" Well fare England, where the poore may have a 

pot of ale for a penny ; fresh ale, firme ale, nappie ale, 
nippitate ale." — The Weakest goes to the Wall. 

There was also a mixture of ale with spirits, called 
" hum." Bragget was a compound of ale, honey, 
and pepper. Chaucer says of the carpenter''s 
wife, — 

" Hir mouth was sweete as bragat is or meth, 
Or hoord of apples, layd in hay or heth." 

As before-mentioned, mead or metheglin was 
also one of the earliest drinks; the mead-maker 
was the eleventh officer in rank in the royal 
household, and the steward had as much of every 
cask of mead as he could reach with the first joint 
of his middle finger. It was the companion of 
ale at the royal tables for many generations. The 
clerk Absolon sent to the carpenter's wife, when 
he wished to cause a favorable impression, — 

"piment, methe, and spiced ale. 

And wafi'es piping hot out of the glede." 

In the time of Sir Thopas, Chaucer allows him 
some ginger-bread with his mead : 


" They set him first the swete wine, 
And mede eke in a mazeline 

And royal spicerie, 
Of ginger-bread that was full fine 
Of licores and eke comine, 

With sugar that is trie."* 

By the time of Queen Elizabeth it hud gradually 
fallen into comparative disuse, and did not keep 
such high company, though still frequently men- 
tioned by writers of the age. Vecchio in the 
Chances (Fletcher), when assuming the character 
of a magician, has an invocation or song, com- 
mencing, — 

" By old claret I enlarge thee, 
By Canary thus I charge thee, 
By Britain Matthewglin, and Peter, 
Appear, and answer me in metre !" — (Act v, sc. 3.) 

Mr. Dyce, in a note on this passage, states a fan- 
ciful account given by Taylor in his DrinJce and 
Vrelcome, of metheglin having been so called from 
one jSJathew Glinn, the supposed inventor of it, 
who was master of a large stock of bees, and 
discovered this method of making their labours 
])rofitable. However, this etymology of Taylor 
is probably more jocular than just, as we have 

* It may be observed that all the extracts from Chaucer 
are from Mr. Wright's valuable edition for the Percy Society. 

seen that in the early ages every man in royal 
establishments had his mead, a practice some time 
since obsolete. Even to the end of the seven- 
teenth century, however, metheglin was not dis- 
carded from convivial meetings ; for Poor Rohiros 
Almanack, 1699, singing of the good things of 
Christmas, as plum-porridge, furmity, minced pies, 
swan, etc., adds, 

" And then strong beer, 

For to wash down all this good chear ; 
Yea, in some houses there's no lack 
Of brisk neat claret, spritely sack, 
Metheglin, cider, and stout perry, 
With other liquors to make merry." 

Choice mead may also still be sometimes met 
with. There was a mixture, called Obarni, oc- 
casionally mentioned, which is said to have been 
a preparation of mead and spices. 

" Carmen 

Ai-e got into the yellow starch, and chimney sweepers 
To their tobacco and strong waters, hum, 
Meath and Obarni." — The Devil is an Ass, i, 1. 

Morat was another ancient preparation of mead, 
being diluted with the juice of mulberries, and 
was a choice liquor, confined to the tables of the 
great; the claret-drinkers, as we may call them, 
of the age. Another drink, of the same rank, was 
pigment or pyment, a compound of honey, wine. 

and spiceries, and a great favourite in the early- 

'' Men broughte bred, withouten bost, 
Venyson, cranes, and good rost, 
Pyment, clarre, and drjnkes lythe ; 
King Richard bad hem al be blythe." 

Richard Coer de Lion, 3479-82. 

Many other examples might be given. In the 
old French romances it was sometimes called Vin 
du coucher. Hippocras is a drink constantly 
mentioned, from the early ages to the seventeenth 
century ; and this with the clarre, of the old 
writers, and garhiofilac, were preparations of wine 
with spices. Henry the Third, previous to one 
of his Christmas feasts, directed the keepers of 
his wines, at York, to deliver to Robert de Monte 
Pessulano two tons of white wine, to make gar- 
hiofilac, and one ton of red wine, to make claret 
for the king's own use. A bottle of hippocras was 
occasionally a new year's gift to Queen Elizabeth; 
who seems to have accepted every thing, from 
a fat goose upwards : and also to her successor, 
James. Aristippus, the philosopher, in the play 
of that name, by Kandolph, says, " Sack, claret, 
Malmesey, white-wine, and hypocras, are your 
five predicables, and tobacco your individuum." 
Nichols, in his Illustrations of Literature, ii, 437, 
cites a passage in " The Discovery of a London 



INIonster, called the Black Dog of Newgate, 1612," 
including hippocras, in a list of popular drinks: 
" Room for a custonier, quoth I, So in I went, 
where I found English, Scotish, Welch, Irish, 
Dutch, and French, in several rooms : some 
drinking the neat wine of Orleans, some the Gas- 
cony, some the Bordeaux ; there wanted neither 
sherry, sack, nor charnoco, maligo, nor peeter 
seemine, amber-coloured candy, nor liquorish 
ipocras, brown beloved bastard, fat aligant, or any 
quick-spirited liquor, that might draw their w^its 
into a circle, to see the devil by imagination." 

The variety of wines used in this country, from 
the settlement of the Romans, — before whose arrival 
here it was perhaps scarcely known — to the present 
day, is very great, and may surprise those who 
have never paid any attention to the subject; 
especially such as modern Claret, Burgundy, and 
Champagne drinkers, who may be ignorant of the 
fact, that there are as many names, nearly, for 
these wines as there are separate vineyards, and 
who in their simplicity confound Beaune with 
Clos-vougeot, and gooseberry wine with Sillery. 
So, in the lists of ancient wines, no doubt they 
often differed but little, except in name; each 
town or district giving its appellation to its own 
growth of wine, though many agreed nearly in 
quality and flavour. A curious specimen of 

vinous nomenclature, of nbout the thirteenth 
century, will be found in La Bataille des Vins. 
( Barhazan Fabliaux imr Meon, i, 153), closino- 
with a somewhat contemptuous remark relative 
to a parcel of unnamed wines. 

" Premiers inanda le vin de Cypre ; 
Ce n'estoit pas cervoise d'Ypre, 
Vin d'Aussai et de la Moussele, 
Vin d'Anni et de la Rocele, 
De Saintes et de Tailleborc, 
De Melans et de Treneborc, 
Vin de Palme, vin dc Plesence, 
Vin d'Espaigne, vin de Provence, 
De Montpellier et de Nerbone, 
De Bediers et de Quarquassone, 
De Mossac, de S. Melyon, 
Vin d'Orchise et de S, Yon, 
Vin d'Orliens et vin de Jargueil. 
Vin de Meulent, vin d'Argentneil, 
Vin de Soissons, vin d'Auviler, 
Vin d'Espernai le Bacheler, 
Vin de Sezane et de Sept-mois, 
Vin d'Anjou et de Gastinois, 
D'Ysoudun, de Chastel-Raoul, 
Et vins de Trie la bardoul, 
Vin de Nevers, vin de Rancerre, 
Vin de Verdelai, vin d'Aucuerre, 
De Torniere et dc Flavingni, 
De S. Porchain, de Savingni, 
Vin de Chablics et de Biaune, 
Un vin qui n'est mie trop jauuc. 
Plus est vert que coruc du buef : 
Toz les autres nc prise uu ocf." 


According to the " Gossips'' Song," given here- 
after from the Chester plays, Malmsey was known 
before the flood; but this may be considered pro- 
blematical. We have the highest authority that 
Noah was the inventor of wine, and it was in 
use among all the great nations of antiquity: the 
Egyptians, the Babylonians, the Persians, the 
Greeks (who adopted for their symposia the 
phrase, >; vndt, t] aindi* — " drink or begone") — the 
Romans, etc. 

After the introduction of wine into England, 
it seems to have been of native, as well as of 
foreign growth, as we have accounts of extensive 
vineyards; and the larger monasteries, when estab- 
lished here, generally had vineyards attached to 
them, and the inmates were good judges of crea- 
ture comforts, as why should they not have been, 
as they then headed the tide of science and learning. 
It is probable, however, that the home-made wines 
were inferior to those imported. On the entry 
of the Normans into England, and the increased 
connexion consequently with France, the impor- 
tation of foreign wines was probably much in- 
creased ; and the marriage of Henry the Second 
with Eleanor, and her rich lands in the south of 

* In Aristippus, before mentioned, the motto in a tavern 
room is referred to, as, " Hipathi, hapathi." 


France tended to facilitate the introduction of the 
choicest sorts. The early romances name some 
of the most fashionable, and give curious examples 
of manners, according to our present notions. In 
" Sir Degrevant," the lady goes to the pantry 
and kitchen for dainties for the knight; such as 
"a scheld of a wylde swynne, hastelettus in 
galantyne, plovers, curlew," etc., and " ryche she 
tham drewe, Vernage and Crete"; also, "bothe 
the Roche and the Reyn, and the good Malvesyn." 
On another occasion, it appears, the knight had 
been fighting like a bear, and no doubt required 
these little attentions. In " The Squyr of Lowe 
Degre," the list of drinks is more extensive. 

" Yc shall have rumuey aud malmesyne, 
Both ypocrasse, and vernage wyne, 
Mount rose and wyne of Greke, 
Both algrade, and respice eke, 
Antioche, and bastarde, 
Pyment also, and gamarde ; 
Wyne of Greke, and muscadell, 
Both clare, pyment, and Rochell. 
The reed your stomache to defye, 
And pottes of osey sett you bye." 

Vernajje is Dan Johan's favourite wine in the 
.Schipmanne's Tale {Canterhury Tales, 14481-3.) 

" With him brought he a jubbe of Malvesie, 
And eek another ful of wyn vernage, 
And volantyn, as ay was his usage." 


Wine of Lepe, however, " that is to sellc in 
Fleet Street or in Chepe," seems to have been one 
of themost dangerous wines mentioned by Chaucer, 
producing those singular effects that are occasionally 
attributed to wines of the present day. 

" This wyn of Spayne crepith subtily 
In other wynes growyng faste by, 
Of which ther riseth such fumosite, 
That whan a man hath dronke draughtes thre, 
And weneth that he be at horn in Chepe, 
He is in Spayne, right at the toun of Lepe, 
Nought at the Rochel, ne at Burdeaux toun." 
—{The Pardoneres Tde, 13980-6.] 

In the ordinances of the household of George 
Duke of Clarence, afterwards drowned in a butt 
of Malmsey, and of whose dream, just previous to 
his death, our immortal Shakespeare gives so 
grand a description, the following sweet wines 
are named: "Intyre malvesie, romenay, osey, 
bastard muscadelle." 

This Malmsey, or Malvesy, was a favorite wine, 
and if the same as our Malmsey, is grateful to 
many palates yet : but there must have been for- 
merly a great consumption of it, as we find in an 
act of Richard the Third, complaining of a reduc- 
tion in the contents of the butts of Malmsey, 
then recently imported, that great plent}- was 
wont to be brought in. Barclay, in his second 


eclogue, refers to the sweetness and fragrance of 
this, and some other wines — 

" In the meane season olde wine and dearly bought, 
Before thy presence shall to thy prince be brought, 
Whose smell and odour so swete and marvelous 
With fragrant savour inbaumeth all the house ; 
As Muscadell, Caprike, Romney and Malvesy, 
From Gene brought, from Greece or Hungary ; 
Suche shall he drinke ; suche shall to him be brought."* 

It is included in the household stores of Henry 
VIII and Elizabeth, and in many noble houses 
of their times, and frequently mentioned by our 
early dramatic writers, — valuable authorities for 
the manners of their day. Harrison, in his de- 
scription of England, after stating that brawn 
was " a great peece of service at the table, from 
November untill Februarie be ended ; but chieflie 
in the Christmas time"; adds, "because it is 
somewhat hard of digestion, a draught of Malvesie, 
bastard, or muscadel, is usuallie droonke after it, 
where either of them are convenientlie to be had. 
Jacques, in The Woman's Prize, by Fletcher, 
iv, 2, in allusion to this custom, talks of his " two 
rundlets of muscadel, those two cannons, to bat- 
ter brawn withal at Christmas." Gcrvase Mark- 

* Sec Introduction to "The Cytezen and Uplondyshraan", 
Percy Society's edition, by Mr. Fairholt. 


ham {The English Housewife, p. 162), says, "your 
muscadine and jMalmseys are of many parts of 
Italy, Greece, and some speciall islands." This 
muscadine, or muscatell, so frequently found in 
conjunction with iSIalmsey, and in many of the 
same royal and noble cellars, is stated to have 
been a wine of Crete, and so called from its flavor 
of musk. Petruchio's behaviour at his marriage 
with Katherine, when he 

" Quaff'd off the muscadell, 

And threw the sops all in the sexton's face," 

is familiar to all. Muscadine with eggs, is a 
drink frequently referred to, and the wine was 
apparently of a nourishing or strengthening nature. 
" A man may batten there in a week only, with 
hot loaves and butter, and a lusty cup of musca- 
dine and sugar at breakfast, though he make never 
a meal all the month after." {PerJcin Warbeck, 
iv, 2.) Henry VIII, as well as the luxurious 
Cardinal, Avere good judges of wine no doubt, and 
could cull the market: there is a letter from 
Thomas Allen to Lord Shrewsbury, 1517, stating, 
" As Allan King shews unto me, there were two 
vessels of muscadine wine, which wei^e good ; the 
King had the one, my Lord Cardinal the other." 
(Lodge's Illustrations, i, 37.) There was a red 
muscadine, of high quality, called Aleatico, of a 
purple colour, and luscious flavour, produced at 


Montepulciano, etc. Having given a list of 
ancient wines from a French poem of the 
thirteenth century, we may compare it with a 
catalogue in a curious old English one, of the 
beginning of the sixteenth century, (1508), 
" Colyn Blowbolle's Testament:" (See Halli well's 
Nugw Poeticw, and notes to Sir Degrevant, 
Thornton Romances.^ 

" And what with gestes and with scrvauntes eke, 
I trow their shalbe an honest felowship ; 
Sauf first of all they shall have new bake bouns, 
With strong ale bruen in fattes and in tounes, 
Pyng, drangoll, and the braget fyne, 
Methe, mathebru, and mathelynge, 
Rede wyn, the claret and the white, 
With teynt, and Alycaunt, in whom I delite ; 
Wyn ryvers, and wyn sake also, 
Wyne of Langdoke and of Orliaunce therto, 
Sengle here, and othii- that is dwobile, 
Which causith the brayn of man to trouble ; 
Spruce beer, and the bee; of Hambur, 
Whiche makyth oft tymes men to stambui- ; 
Malmasyes, Tires, and Rumneys, 
With Caperikis, Campletes, and Osneys, 
Vernuge, Crete, and Raspays also, 
Whippett and Pyngmedo, that ben lawyers therto : 
And I will have also wyne dc Ryne, 
With new maid Claryc, that is good and fyne, 
Muscadell, Terantyne, and Bastard, 
With Ypocras and Pymcut comyng afterwarde. 


And as for mctc I will that goo quytc, 
For I had never therein grete dylite, 
So that I myjt have drynke at my will, 
Good ale or wyne my bely for to fille." 

This may, perhaps, be scarcely considered a list 
for the more aristocratic tables; but in the 
Interlude of the Four Elements, of about the same 
date, the taverner, in ansv/er to a question by 
Sensual Appetyte, if he had " any good wyne", 
gives him the following, which may be considered 
more select, and reminds us somewhat of that 
before given from the Squyr of Low Degree. 

" Ye shall have Spayneshe wyne and Gascoyn, 
Rose coloure, whyt, claret, rampyon, 
Tyre, capryck, and malvesyne, 
Sak, raspyce, alycaunt, rumney, 
Greke, ipocrase, new made clary, 
Suche as ye never had ; 
For yf ye drynke a draught or too, 
Yt wyll make you, or ye thens go, 
By gogges body starke madde !" 

The Gascoign wine was a principal ingredient 
in a celebrated composition of the sixteenth 
century, called Aqua composita, for which the 
following is the receipt, inserted for the benefit of 
any who wish to try it, as its virtues were stated 
to be almost miraculous: — " A gallon of Gascoign 
wine, with an Infusion of ginger, galingale, camo- 


mile, cinnamon, nutmegs, grains, cloves, mace, 
anise seeds, fennel seeds, caraway seeds, etc." — 
{Privy Purse Expenses of Princess Mary, by 
Madden, 208, n.) It was a favorite wine. Prisius, 
in Mother Bomhie, ii, 5, in the end of the six- 
teenth century, gives his opinion: "The old time 
was a good time; ale was an ancient drink, and 
accounted of our ancestors authentical. Gascoign 
wine was a liquor for a lord ; sack, a medicine for 
the sick ; and I may tell you, he that had a cup 
of red wine to his oysters was hoisted in the 
queen's subsidy book." 

It is curious how prone every one is to be 
laudator temporis acti. We praise the olden 
times, though we should be very sorry to exchange 
our modern comforts for what we call ancient 
hospitality, or to give up the privilege of freely 
discussing state secrets, — no matter how ignorant 
of the subject, — and return to the times of the Sic 
volo, sicjubeo, of the sovereign. Were any one 
to prefer the arbitrary rule of Henry the Eighth, 
or the despotic government of Elizabeth, with 
all their ancient customs, to the mild and en- 
lightened sway of Victoria, he must be a most 
determined antiquarian. When we get back to 
Elizabeth, we find, as above, tlie same reference 
to olden times, and so back from stage to stage, 
until we arc puzzled to find the starting point. 


However, this, if followed up, would involve a dis- 
sertation quite out of character. 

In early times, it seems, the French preferred 
the wine of Orleans to other wines,, and scarcely 
drank any other. As early as the beginning of 
the eleventh century, Henry the First of France 
laid in a large stock, previous to commencing a 
campaign. In the fifteenth century it continued 
to be prized, and at the commencement of the 
sixteenth "le vin Fran9oi8 et de Bourgogne," 
were sold for " deux sols le pot, et le plus excel- 
lent d'Orleans deux sols six deniers, ou trois sols 
au plus." — (Vaux de Vire de Basselin, 69, n.) A 
wine of Rennes, in Bretagne, was not so favoured ; 
for there was an anecdote told before Francis the 
First, of a dog who unluckily eat a grape near 
Bennes, which affected its stomach so sharply, 
that it turned round in great wrath and barked 
against the vine, by way of revenge. 

Alegant, or Alicant, a Spanish wine, said to 
have been made of mulberries near Alicant, was 
formerly in repute. Verdea, a Tuscan wine made 
in the vicinity of Florence, and taking its name 
from its colour inclining to green, was apparently 
a choice beverage, and perhajjs but little imj^orted 
into this country ; the following speech, applied to 
the younger and foppish brother, alludes to it as 
a traveller's privilege — 


" And must this piece of ignorance be popp'd up, 
Because't can kiss the hand, and cry, ' Sweet lady' ? 
Say, it had been at Rome, and seen the relics. 
Drank your Verdea wine." — The Elder Brother, ii, 1. 

When the unlucky Horner, the armourer, is 
about to fight the apprentice Peter, his neigh- 
bours make him drunk, by pressing on him too 
much good cheer ; so that without hazarding any 
opinion on the justice, or otherwise of his cause, 
we are not much astonished at the result of the 
combat. Charneco is one of the drinks proffered, 
said to have been a sweet wine, made at a village 
of that name, near Lisbon. 

" Here, neighbour Horner, I di-ink to you in a cup of 
sack. And fear not, neighbour, you shall do well enough. 

" And here, neighbour, here's a cup of Charneco. 

" And here's a pot of good double beer, neighbour : 
drink, and fear not your man. 

" Let it come, i' faith, and I'll pledge you all ; and a i3g 
for Peter r— Henry VI, Part II, ii, 3. 

Rhenish wines are frequently mentioned, and 
the unfortunate Kobert Greene died after a 
surfeit of Rhenish and red-herrings. Back-rack 
(Backarach) occasionally mentioned, was a wine 
of this class. 

" I'll go afore, and have the bonfire made. 
My fire-works, and flap-dragons, and good back-rack ; 
With a peck of little fishes, to drink down 
In healths to this day !" — The Beygars Bush, v, 2. 

There was an inferior liquor, or mixture, gene- 
rally named with implied reprobation, as the title 
denotes, Balderdash. John Buncle says, the Welsh 
have the word Baldioridd, to describe the bar- 
barism of confused tongues, as at the confusion of 
Babel; from which word, and Das, is derived 
Balderdash, signifying, strictly, a heap of confused 
or barbarous words ; hence applied to a poor class, 
or mixture of wines. 

" It is against my freehold, my inheritance, 
My Magna Charta, cor laitificat, 
To drink such balderdash, or bonny-clabber !" 
— The Neio Inn, i, 1. 

Bonny clabber, or clabbore, whatever it may be, 
is named in PerJcin Warbeck, iii, 2, in conjunction 
with usquebaugh. 

The Clarre, or Claret, frequently mentioned in 
the sixteenth century, appears to have been a 
mixture of wine, spices, and honey; but the 
French Claret wine was also imported and much 
used, and was probably the wine frequently se- 
lected for the running conduits, on great 
occasions: as for instance, when Prince Arthur 
married Katherine, afterwards Henry the Eighth's 
first wife ; according to Arnold, " at the west door, 
of Powles, was made a costlew paget, renning wyn, 
red Claret and whit, all the day of the marriage." 


So much has been already written about 
Sack, that it would be useless to dwell on the 
subject here, or to discuss, whether it was, or 
was not. Sherry; though the balance of evidence 
seems against It. It is said to have been first 
mentioned in the twenty-third of Henry the 
Eighth, when a regulation was made, that no 
Malmseys, Romineis, Sackes, nor other sweet 
wines, should be sold for more than three pence 
a quart; but this, at all events, proves that sack 
was previously known. FalstafF (Sir John Sack 
and Sugar) with whom this wine is so intimately 
associated, calls it Sherris-sack ; and Gervase 
Markham, in The English Hovseivife, p. 162, says, 
"Your best Sackes are of Seres, in Spaine,"your 
smaller of Galicia and Portugall: your strong 
Sackes are of the islands of the Canaries." The 
Canary Sack was sometimes called sweet Sack, to 
distinguish it from the other, which was a dry 
or sec wine. By some of the early ordinances of 
James the First's household, it seems that he 
considered this wine fit only for the higher classes ; 
as it is directed that the serjeant of the cellar be 
allowed twelve gallons of the Spanish wines, 
called Sack, daily; and that it be used for the 
nobility and people of account, and not for 
people of meaner class, who had got into the 
habit of usine: it. 


Bastard Is another wine of frequent recurrence; 
it was a sweetish wine, from Spain, of which 
there were two sorts, white and brown. 

Another choice liquor, with a somewhat eccen- 
tric name, was Peter-see-me — 
" Welcome, poet, to our ging ; 

Make rhymes, we'll give thee reason ; 
Canary bees thy brain shall sting, 

Mull-sack did ne'er speak treason ; 
Peter-see-me shall wash thy noul, 
And Malaga glasses fox thee." 
— Spanish Gipsy, iii, 1, by Middleton and Rowley. 

This wine, or rather Pedro-Ximenes, according 
to Henderson {History of Wines, 193), was so 
called from a grape imported from the banks of 
the Rhine by one Pedro Simon ; and was one of 
the richest and most delicate of Malaga wines, 
resembling very much the Malmsey of Paxarete. 

Many other wines might be named ; as will be 
evident on referring to Harrison, in his account 
of England, about the time of Queen Elizabeth, 
who states there were fifty-six sorts of French 
wine, and thirty -six of Spanish, Italian, Greek, 
etc., to the amount of thirty thousand tons annu- 
ally, besides what the nobility were allowed to 
import free of duty ; of which the strongest were 
most in request. The same variety of wines 
continued in the seventeenth century, with Cham- 
pagne, Burgundy, and Tokay included : Burgundy 


especially was in much repute, aud is frequently 
mentioned by writers of that age. 

The price of mead, ale, and other liquors, varied, 
of course, much from time to time, and was fre- 
quently the subject of legal enactment. Accord- 
ing to the Leges Wallicw, a cask of mead was valued 
at one hundred and twenty pence, equal to about 
£15 at present; and the measure of a cask of mead 
was to be nine palms in height; and so capacious as 
to serve the king, accompanied by one of his 
counsellors, for a washing tub — rather an arbitrary 
mode of fixing the size. Spiced ale was half the 
value of mead ; and common ale half that value. 

Ale was frequently the subject of fiscal regu- 
lations, particularly of the Assisa, Panis et 
Cervisise, being a drink in universal demand. In 
the time of Henry the Third, (1266), when a 
quarter of wheat was sold for 2>s., or 3s. 4t/. ; a 
quarter of barley for 2Qd., or 2s,, and a quarter 
of oats for \.5d\ the assise declares that brewers 
in cities ought, and might well aiford to sell two 
gallons of beer or ale for a penny; and out of cities 
to sell three gallons for a penny ; and when in a 
town three gallons were sold for a penny, out of 
a town they ought, and might sell for four. 
Another act of the same date, gives a sort of 
sllding-scale for the price of ale, as dependent on 
that of barley. 


In the fifteenth century, ale was generally Id., 
or l^d., a gallon. In the time of Elizabeth, the 
consumption of ale and beer was great, she and 
her court setting the example, for on a visit by 
her to Lord North, 1577, it appears that from 
Monday, September the first, to the Wednesday 
following, no less than seventy -four hogsheads 
of beer, valued at .£'32. 7s. 6d., and two tons of ale, 
valued at £4. 14s., were consumed, besides upwards 
of seven hogsheads of wine. The whole cost of the 
visit is put down at ^762. 4s. 2d., including a 
jewel of =£'120 given to the queen. {Archceol. xix, 
288-90). No wonder that she was fond of en- 
couraging her subjects' hospitality. In 1603, the 
price of ale and strong beer Avas settled by Act of 
Parliament, to be sold at the ale-houses at Id. per 
quart, and small beer at two quarts for \d. 
Various regulations were from time to time made 
about the prices and importation of wines. King 
John directed that no ton of Rochell wine should 
be sold dearer than 20 shillings, of Anjou than 
24 shillings, and of France than 25 shillings, 
and not above, " unlesse the same were of such 
principall goodnesse, that some for their use 
would give twenty-sixe shillings, four pence, for 
the tunne, and not above in any case." A gallon 
of Rochell was to be sold for 4d., and of white 
wine for not above Gd. In the early prirt of 


the fifteenth century these wines still remained 
of the same value ; but in the following century, 
although the Rochell wines still were at 4<i. a 
gallon, French wines, of Gascoyne and Guyenne, 
were allowed to be at 8c?., and Malmseys, Rom- 
neys, Sack, and other sweet wines at 12d. These 
regulations, however, did not apply to, or control 
the nobility, who were specially excepted, and 
allowed to procure higher priced wines; and we 
may find in their household books Gascony wine 
priced as high as two shillings per gallon, and 
others in proportion. At the same time, claret 
wine seems to have varied from twenty to thirty 
shillings the hogshead. Roger Basing, a purveyor, 
bought at Bordeaux, in 1528, and shipped to 
England, amongst others, several parcels of claret 
wine, varying from thirty-six to fifty francs a tun; 
and on the coronation of Henry the Eighth the 
Society of Lincoln's Inn spent one hogshead of 
claret wine in honour, price twenty shillings ; 
a sum that would go but a small way indeed in 
any of their present festivities. The common 
value, by the gallon, was about eight pence. 
Muscadell and Malmsey, and the best Rhenish 
wine were of higher price, varying from sixteen 
pence to two shillings and eight pence per gallon. 
Queen Elizabeth selected these wines for her own 
use; as in the fifteenth year of her reign, the ex- 



penses of her table in Malmsey (sack, muscadills), 
and other sweet wines, were £199 7^. 8r/., in 
Rhenish wine £54 6s. 6d. The price of Sack we 
have in tlie immortal tavern bill of Sir John 

" Item, A capon, 2^!. 2< 
Item, Sauce, 4''. 
Item, Sack, two gallons, 5s. 8^. 
Item, Anchovies, and Sack after Supper, 2*. 6<*. 
Item, Bread, a halfpenny." 

The common price, per butt, seems to have been 
about £10 — and by the gallon, from sixteen pence 
to two shillings. In the time of Charles the 
First, wines had considerably increased in price; 
and in February 1632, there was a proclamation 
fixing the following prices, for one year: " Can- 
nary Waynes, Muscadell and AUigants, in gross, at 
sixteen pounds the pipe, and at twelve pence the 
quart by retaile; Sacks and Malligoes at thirteen 
pounds, the butt in gross, and nine pence the quart 
by retaile; the best Gascoigne and French wynes at 
eighteen pounds the tonne in gross, and sixpence 
the quart by retaile ; and the Rochell wynes, and 
other small and thin wynes, at fifteen pounds the 
tonne in gross, and at five pence the quart by 
retayle ; this was increased the following montli 
to six-pence. — See JRymer's Fcedera. After the 
restoration of Charles the Second, wines had 


again risen in price. In 1667 the maximum of 
Canary, Allegant, and Muscadels was one shilling 
and eight-pence per quart ; of Sack and Mallagou 
one shilling and six-pence ; of French wines nine- 
pence, and of Rhenish one shilling and two-pence. 
In 1673 they had further advanced; Canary, 
Allegant, and Muscadels to two shillings. Sack 
and Malagas to one shilling and ten-pence, 
French to one shilling, and Rhenish to one shilling 
and six-pence. 

Many of the popular taverns and ordinaries of 
the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries are men- 
tioned in the dramatic writers of that time, and 
numerous scenes are laid in them, from the ever- 
memorable Boar's Head downwards. The fol- 
lowing poetical list, from Nerves from Bartholomew 
Fayre, quoted from Drawee's l^haJcespeare and his 
Times, ii, 133, w., enumerates several. 

" There hath beene great sale and uttei-ance of wine, 
Besides beere and ale, and ipocras fine, 
In every country, region, and nation ; 
Chefely at Billingsgate, at the Salutation, 
And Bores Head, neere London Stone, 
The Swan at Dowgate, a taverne well knowne, 
The Miter in Cheape, and then the Bull Head, 
And many like places that make noses red ; 
The Bores Head in old Fish-street, Three Cranes iu the 

And now of late *S'if. Martin's in the Sentrce ; 



The Windmill in Lothbury, the Ship at the Exchange, 
King's Head in New Fish-street e, where r oyster s do range ; 
The Mermaid in Cornhill, Red Lion in the Strand, 
Three Tutis Newgate IMarket, Old Fish-street at the 

The Boar's Head, near London Stone, or in 
Cheap, is noted as the scene of the revels of Prince 
Henry, Sir John Falstaff and his companions ; and 
the original sign, if not parts of the original house, 
were supposed by many to have been in existence 
until the alterations made a few years since for 
the approaches to the new London Bridge ; but, 
in fact, the original Boar's Head was burnt down 
in the great fire of London. The Mitre was in 
Bread Street, Cheapside, but afterwards removed 
to Fleet Street, and, according to Middleton, ex- 
celled the celebrated Mermaid. 

" Goldstone. Where sup we, gallants 1 
' Pursenet. At Mermaid. 

Got. Sup there who list, I have forsworn the house. 

Pur. Faith, I'm indifferent. 

Bungler. So are we, gentlemen. 

Pur. Name the place, Master Goldstone. 

Ool. Why, the Mitre, in my mind, for neat attendance, 
diligent boys, and — push ! excels it far. 

All. Agreed, the Mitre then." 

— Tour Five 6^aZfe»fe, Middleton, ii, 1. 

The Mermaid was a favourite resort of the wits 
in the time of Ben Jonson, Beaumont, Fletcher, 

etc., and, also, situated in Bread Street. It is 
mentioned in the expenses of Sir John Howard, 
the first Duke of Norfolk of the Howard family, 
1463-4: — "Payd for wyn at the Mermayd, in 
Bred Stret, for my mastyr and Syre Nycholas 
Latemer, xf/., ob." — See Beaum. and Flet., Dyce's 
ed., iv, 129, %. The Windmill is the tavern re- 
sorted to in Every Man in Ms Humour: it stood 
at the corner of the Old Jewry, towards Loth- 
bury. The celebrated Tarleton once kept the 
Bell- Savage tavern in Gracious (Gracechurch) 
Street. The Devil's Tavern, formerly called 
Dunstan's, derived great renown from being the 
place of meeting of the club of which Ben Jonson 
was perpetual president, and for which he wrote 
his Leges Convivales. This tavern was purchased 
by Messrs. Child, the bankers, and pulled down 
in 1788, and Child's Place erected on its site. 
The Dagger, which was in Holborn, and the 
Woolsack, were favourite taverns and ordinaries, 
though not perhaps of high repute, and probably 
on a par with some of the after-play houses of 
present times. They were also celebrated for 
particular dishes : Dagger ale, and Dagger pies, 
are frequently mentioned ; also, Dagger furmety, 
and Woolsack pies. The character, called Ini- 
quity, in The Devil is an Ass, talks of factors and 
prentices spending falsely gotten money from 


their masters — in pies, at the Dagger and the 
Woolsack. So again, in Alchemist, Subtle says 
to the unlucky lawyer's clerk — 

" Her grace would have you eat no more 

Woolsack pies, 
Nor Dagger frumety. 
DoL Nor break his fast 

In Heaven and Hell." 

There were two mean ale-houses abutting on 
Westminster Hall, called Heaven and Hell, which 
are mentioned with a third house, called Purgatory, 
in a grant of first of Henry the Seventh {Giffonrs 
Jonson, iv, 174, w.) frequented, probably, by some 
of the inferior branches of that most extensive 
and varied production of civilization — the law. 
The Pigeons, at Brentford, is also referred to in 
the same play, and in others ; this house, after the 
Puritans had closed the theatres, and dispersed 
the actors, was kept by the once popular actor 
Lowin, who died there, old and poor, just before 
the Restoration. Though somewhat out of cha- 
racter to mention her, inasmuch as she does not 
appear to have kept a tavern, yet some tribute is 
due to the cakes and pasties of Mother Wall, of 
Abchurch Lane, which were in great request, 
and may, at least, have been a cause for drinking. 
"I have the scent of London stone as full in 
my nose, as Abchurch Lane of Mother Wall's 


pasties." {Englishmen for my Money, by Haughton, 
iv, 1.) Other taverns named in our old dramatic 
writers, are: the Phoenix; the Horn in Fleet 
Street; "his eating must be in some famous 
tavern, as the Horn, the Mitre, or the Mermaid" 
(Father Huhhurd's Tales, Middleton) ; the White 
Horse in Friday Street, the scene of one of George 
Peele's tricks ; the Goat at Smithfield ; the Three 
Cups in St. Giles's ; the Checker at Queeuhithe ; 
the Dolphin, without Bishopsgate ; the Shipwreck 
Tavern ; the Fountain in Fleet Street ; the Blue 
Anchor, Billingsgate ; the Bosoms Inn, (i. e. the 
Blossoms Inn, having the sign of St. Lawrence in 
a border of blossoms or flowers; though it is a 
question whether these blossoms may not have 
been a corrupted representation of a border of 
flames surrounding the Martyr); the Sun Tavern, 
behind the Change; the Cock in Bow Street; 
the Gun Tavern in Moorfields ; the Greyhound, 
Blackfriars; the Dog and Partridge; the Lion, 
Shoreditch; Dogbolt's at Brentford; Medley's, 
Nettleton's, Anthony's, and Chateline's ordinaries ; 
the cook's shop in Bam Alley, " where the clerks 
divide, and the elder is to choose," and the Rhenish 
wine house i' th' Stilly ard. 

" the Dutch magazine of sauce, the Stillyard, 

Where deal and backrag, and what strange wine else 
They dare but give a name to in the reckoning, 


Shall flow into our room, and drown Westphalias, 
Tongues and anchovies." 

— The Lady of Pleasure, Shirley, v, 1. 

The prices at the ordinaries must have been to 
a great extent arbitrary, depending on the fashion, 
repute, and capabilities of the house; but in 1633, 
there was a decree of the Star Chamber, which, 
no doubt, failed like other sumptuary laws, by 
which it was ordered, that the price of ordinaries 
should not exceed 2s. a head, or 8^?. for a servant 
attending his master. 

The forms and materials of drinking vessels, 
were as varied as the liquors themselves. In the 
early ages, cups of copper, silver and gold, accord- 
ing to the rank of the parties, were in fashion. 
Horns of animals also we find mentioned as used 
by the ancient classical heroes. The Saxons and 
Danes had gold and silver cups, as well as horns, 
which were sometimes richly carved and orna- 
mented ; and these were occasionally given in 
confirmation of grants of lands, as for instance, 
the Pusey horn, formerly Canute's horn, and 
given by himself with lands at Pusey, in Berkshire. 
(See Archceol. vol. 1, art 39, for other instances.) 
In the ninth century, the Saxon king of Mercia 
gave the monks of Croyland his table-horn, that 
the elders of the monastery might drink out of it 
on feast days, and sometimes remember in their 


prayers the soul of Wiglaf the donor : they would 
at least remember him in their cups. Horns 
continued in use until long after the Conquest. 
They are represented in the Bayeux Tapestry, 
and are mentioned in wills and otherwise for 
centuries after the date of that work, and the 
common horn cup, indeed, is still to be seen in 
many parts. Among the other early drinking 
vessels, was the hanap, a cup raised on a stem, 
either with or without a cover; the godet, a 
species of mug or cup ; the juste (justa), 
rather a conventual, than a secular measure, so 
named from containing a prescribed allowance of 
wine; the barrel, and the tankard. There were 
also cups made of cocoa-nut, as soon as that article 
was known, also of the " grype," or griffin's egg, 
(probably the ostrich's ; as the heraldic griffin, the 
only one known to us, has not the appearance of 
an egg-laying animal.) The cups were commonly 
of silver, and but rarely of gold ; frequently 
parcel-gilt, and sometimes set with jewels, and the 
armorial bearings of the owners embossed or 
enamelled. Favourite cups also had names given 
to them. Glass vessels did not come into use till 
towards the close of the fifteenth century. (See 
Turner on Usages of Domestic Life, Archwological 
Journal, No. vii, pp. 258-66.) The hooped pots of 
King Edgar have already been mentioned; and 


thei'e was a drinking vessel called the Saxon 
roniekin. Another ancient vessel was the mase- 
lyn, or mazer-bowl, usually made of maple wood.* 

" They fet him first the swete wyn, 
And made him eek in a maselyn, 

A real spicerye, 
Of gyngebred that was so fyn, 
And licorys, and eek comyn, 
With sugre that is trye." 
—Canterbury Tales— The Tale of Sir Thopas, 15262-7. 

The mazer, however, seems to have been some- 
times made of more costly materials, but to have 
retained its name from similarity of shape to the 
peculiar form of the maple bowl. Another vessel, 
in use among the inferior classes, was the black 
jack, a specimen of which may still occasionally 
be met with ; a larger sort was called bumbard. 

— " We have unloaded the bread-basket, the beefe-kettle, 
and the beer-bumbards there, amongst youx guests the 
beggai-s."— J. Jovial Crew, or ilie Merry Beggars, Brome, i, 1. 

They were made of leather, as is well known, 
and unwieldly articles enough. 

The description by T. Heywood, in Philoco- 
thonista, 1635, pp. 45-6, of drinking cups, etc., 
gives a curious catalogue of those in use in his 
time, and may conclude this slight account of them. 

" Next for variety of drinking cups, we need not be said 
to come neere, but to goe farre beyond the Grecians, of 


whose carowsing bowles I have before given you a sulBcient 
catalogue ; divers and sundry sorts wee have, some of elme, 
some of hox, some of maple, some of holly, &c., mazers, 
broad-mouth'd dishes, noggins, wJdskins, figgins, cruizes, 
ale-howles, wassell-bowles, court-dishes, tankards, kannes, from 
a pottle to a pint, from a pint to a gill : other bottles wee 
have of leather, but they most used amongst the shepheards, 
and harvest people of the countrey ; small jacks wee have 
in many alehouses of the citie and suburbs, tipt with silver, 
besides the great black jacks, and bombards at the court, 
which when the French-men first saw, they reported at their 
returne into their countrey, that the English-men used to 
drinke out of their bootes ; wee have besides, cups made of 
homes of beasts, of cocker-nutts, of goords, of the egges of 
estriches, others made of the shells of divers fishes brought 
from the Indies, and other places, and shining like mother 
of pearle : infinite there are of all measures, and fashions, 
model'd of earth, cotili, and dicotili, single pots, and double 
pots, some plaine, others of many colours." 

He adds, that 
" Cups are sometimes made in the form of beasts, etc., as 
dogs, cats, apes, horses, dolphins, etc. Also glasses, in the 
shape of ships under sail, with masts, sails, etc., others like 
boats, lyons, rats, trumpets, etc. At private houses there 
were flagons, tankards, beere cups, wine bowles, etc., some 
white, some parcel-gilt, some gilt all over. At taverns 
there were flat bowles, French bowles, prounct cups, beare 
bowles, beakers, etc." 

With this aptitude for drinking, it is natural to 
suppose that many drinking customs and terms 
would be gradually introduced, some of which we 
find exist to the present day, as, the loving cup, 


drinking healths, etc. One of the earliest speci- 
mens of drinking terms is given in Wright's inte- 
resting Essays on Literature, etc., i, 184, w., from 
Wace, Roman de Rou, of the twelfth century — 
" Tote nuit mangierent e burent, 

Unkes la nuit el lit ne jurent. 

Mult les veissiez demener, 

Treper e saUler e chanter ; 

Luhlie Client, e weissel, 

E laticome, e driticheheil, 

Drwic hindrewarty e drintome, 

Brine helf, e dHnctome.'''' 
The term wass-heil is supposed, by many, to have 
been first introduced into this country when the 
fair Rowena was introduced to Vortigern, and 
presenting him with a cup of choice wine, or 
mead, said, "Louerd king, wass-heil," to which 
he replied, as prompted, " Drinc-heile." Robert 
of Gloster says, " And that was tho in this land 
the verst was-hail," but adds that the custom of 
wassailling prevailed even in the third century. 
Thomas de Hatfield, Bishop of Durham, presented 
to the abbey of St. Alban's a murrhine cup, which 
the recorder of the benefaction says, " we, in our 
times, call WQ&heyV— Cotton MS., Nero D., vii, 
fo. 87. 

The habit of what may be called class-drinking 
would be a fruitful source of increased potations : 
that is, different professions and trades drinking 


together, and forming, probably, drinking clubs, 
tending frequently to challenges as to mutual 
powers of vinous imbibition. 

" Inter dissimiles rara est concordia, crebro 

Surgit ab imparili turba sodalitio. 
Namta cum nautis potet : cum milite miles : 

Cum pastore bibat pascere doctus oues. 
Cum medico medicus : cum rura colente colonus : 

Cum sutore colat pocula sutor iners. 
Cum monacho monachus : cum vespillone pitisset 

Polynctor blanda cum meretrice lupa. 
Lictori lictor, sed scribse scriba propinet, 

Lui'co lurconi, mulio mulotribaj. 
Auriga aurigam iungat sibi, verna sodalem 

QuEerat seruili conditione Syrum. 
Denique, quisque parem quserat sumatque bibonem, 

Qui sibi, quique suis moribus aptus erit." 

— Ohsofoms Be Arte Bihendi, 1582, lib. 1, sign, B. 3. 

In the sixteenth century, the gallants, of whom 
we read so much, and whose vain and fantastic 
freaks amuse in the recital, though the realities 
would be but sorry companions now, seemed to 
revel in the invention and application of new 
drinking terms and customs. Take one specimen 
from Decker s GulVs Hornhook, Notfs ed., 26-8 : 
" Awake, thou noblest drunkard, Bacchus ; thou 
must likewise stand to me, if at least thou canst 
for reeling; teach me, you sovereign skinker, 
how to take the German's upsy-freeze, the Danish 
rowsa, the Switzer's stoop of lihenish, the Italian's 


parniizant, the Englishman's healths, his hoops, 
cans, half-cans, gloves, frolicks, and flapdragons, 
together with the more notorious qualities of the 
truest tosspots." 

A man about town of the olden age, was, 
doubtless, more picturesque than the present 
luckless specimen of that class. See him decked 
out in his peascod-bellied doublet, quilted and 
bombasted, with his trunk-hose, ruff, hat and 
feather, shoes and roses, strutting to his favourite 
ordinary or tavern to meet his fellows, taking the 
wall of every one he meets, out-Bobadilling 
Bobadil. Arrived among his boon companions, 
they strive to outdo each other in boasting and 
lewd discourse ; they " drink super nagulum, 
carouse the hunter's hoope, quaff vpsey freze 
crosse, with leapes gloues, mumps, frolickes, and 
a thousand such domineering inuentions." ( Pierce 
Penilesse, Shakespeare Society's edition, p. 52.) 
To revive the palled appetite, shoeing horns, or 
pullers on, were resorted to, salt cakes, red 
herrings, bacon, anchovies, etc., as at present ; 
and the death of Robert Greene, before referred to, 
from a surfeit of Rhenish, was occasioned by a 
shoeing horn of pickled herrings. Upsee Freeze, 
(or Friesland beer), and upsee Dutch, are said to 
have referred to different sorts of heady beer, the 
common beverage of the Low Countries, (hence 


called opzee or over sea,) and much drank ia 
England; and to drink upsee Dutch, or upsee 
Freeze, was synonymous with drinking deep like 
a Dutchman. Upsee English was a beer made 
in England in imitation. Ben Jonson, by Gilford, 
iv, 150, n. 

" Prigg. What think you of our wassel 1 

Higgen. I think it worthily. 

Pr. And very fit it should be : thou, and Ferret, 

And Ginks, to sing the song ; I for the structure, 
Which is the bowl. 
Hig. Which must be upsey-English, 

Strong lusty London beer, ." 

The Beggar's Bush, iii, 1. 

Drinking super nagulum, was to turn the cup 
bottom upwards after drinking, pouring the last 
drop on the thumb nail (super unguium) to prove 
the toper had not shirked the draught. 

"Bacchus. A vous, monsieur Winter, a frolick upsy 
freese : cross, ho ! super nagulum. Knocks the jack upon 
his thumb." — Summer's Last Will and Testament, by JVash. 

Flap-dragons, or snap-dragons, are well known 
now at Christmas time, but we do not emulate 
the amorous gallants of former times, who drank 
off candle-ends, as flap-dragons, in honour of their 
mistresses. They would also stab their arms 
with daggers, in order to mix blood with their 
wine to drink to their healths, sometimes on their 


knees, and commit other disgusting feats which 
need not be here described. 

The custom of drinking healths is probably of 
very early date; the Romans had something 
similar, and the Saxons, pledging the safety of 
each other while drinking, is the same thing in a 
different guise; the Saxon form, indeed, is still 
kept up in certain companies, while the loving 
cup passes, each person pledging, i. e. protecting 
his neighbour while drinking. The complicated 
ceremony of drinking healths, in the beginning of 
the seventeenth century, is fully described in the 
following extract from the Introduction to The 
Honestie of this Age, Percy Society's edition, 
pp. xix-xx, taken from The Irish Hubbub, by 
Barnaby Rich, 1619. 

" The institution of drinking of an health is full of cere- 
mony, and observed by tradition, as the Papists doe their 
praying to Saints. 

" He that beginnes the health hath his prescribed orders : 
first uncovering his head, hee takes a full cup in his hand, 
and setting his countenance with a grave aspect, hee craves 
for audience. Silence being once obtained, hee beginnes to 
breathe out the name, peradventure of some honourable 
personage, that is worthy of a better regard than to have 
his name polluted at so unfitting a time, amongst a com- 
pany of drunkards ; but his health is drunke to, and he 
that pledgeth must likewise ofi" with his cap, kisse his 
fingers, and bowing himselfe, in signe of a reverent accept- 
ance ; when the leader sees his follower thus prepared, hee 


soups vp his broath, tiu'nes the bottom of the cup vpward, 
aud in ostentation of his dexteritie gives the cup a phillip, 
to make it cry Twango ; and thus the first scene is acted. 

" The cup being newly replenished to the breadth of an 
haire, he that is the pledger must now beginne his part ; 
and thus it goes round, throughout the whole company, 
provided alwaies, by a canon set down by the founder, there 
must be three, at the least, still uncovei-ed till the health 
hath had the full passage ; which is no sooner ended but 
another beginnes, again, and hee drinkes an health to his 
lady of little worth, or, peradventure, to his light-heeld 

Healths were not only drank to, or of each 
other, but also those of great men, and not un- 
frequently of little men present or absent. " Boy, 
fill us a cup of your Maligo, we'll drink to Mr. 
Spendall in his absence" (Green's Tw Quoque) ; a 
speech similar to what many of us may have heard. 
Healths of this latter description were frequently 
applied to ladies, and, together with draughts in 
honour of certain sentiments, proposed for the 
occasion, were called toasts. During the usurp- 
ation of Cromwell, a favourite toast of the cava- 
liers, was to put a crum of bread in the glass, and 
before they drank to say, " God send this 
Crum — well down." 

A cup of choice ale, with sugar and spice, and 
a toast, sometimes with a roasted crab, or a})ple, 
is a very old invention ; and by its ancient name 



of Lamb's-wool is still preserved as a Christmas 
dainty, where Christmas festivities are yet duly 
honoured. A cup of spiced ale, with a toast, and 
stirred up with a sprig of rosemary, seems to have 
been the regular morning beverage of justices of 
the peace, and other country gentlemen; but 
whence the term " toast" to drinking a health or 
sentiment, does not seem clear, unless we like to 
adopt the following origin, from No. 24 of The 
Tatler; where it is stated, that on a public day, 
at Bath, in the time of Charles the Second, a 
celebrated beauty was in one of the baths, when 
one of the crowd of her admirers took a glass of 
the water in which she stood, and drank her 
health to the company. A gay fellow who was 
present, half fuddled, offered to jump in, and 
swore, though he liked not the liquor, he would 
have the toast. He was prevented from so doing, 
but this whim gave foundation to the present 
honour done to the lady whose health is proposed, 
who has ever since been called a toast. 

With the numerous incentives to drink, invented 
by the early gallants, it may be supposed that they 
frequently far exceeded the bounds of moderation 
or discretion, and became, in fact, gloriously 
drunk: a great wine-bibber, a Borachio, being, 
in fact, a renowned character among his compeers. 
In Pierce Penihssi, p. o5, the following classifi- 


cation of drunkenness is given: — "There are 
kinds of drunkenness — first, ape drunke, and he 
leaps, sings, hollows, and dances. The second is, 
lion drunk, breaks windows, throws about the 
pots, and is quarrelsome. The third is swine 
drunk, lumpish and heavy. The fourth is sheep 
drunke, wise in his own conceit. The fifth is 
mawdlen drunke, weeping, etc. The sixth is 
Martin drunke, when a man gets drunk and 
drinks himself sober. The seventh is goat drunk, 
he hath no minde but to iecherie. The eighth 
is fox drunke, or crafty drunk, as many Dutch 
be, who will never bargain but when drunk." 

In PhilocotJionista, pp. 44-5, is a long list of 
names, applicable to drunkards; where, also, 
other matter may be found treating on this sub- 
ject, of some of which use has already been made. 
It may be observed, that hob, or nob, is said to 
be habbe, or nabbe, i.e., have, or have not; will 
you have a glass of wine, or not, have, or n'ave; 
and buz, from the German buzzen, off with the 

The custom of singing at feasts, is as old as the 
ancient Britons, whose poets, or bards, composed 
songs, or poems, to enliven the feasts; and the 
Anglo-Saxons had regular drinking songs, though 
our antiquarian researches have not yet enabled 
us to discover the favourite song used at their 
Valhalla feast. 


Much, I fear, cannot be said in favour of the 
merits of many of the following collection; and 
the number might easily have been increased with- 
out adding to the value; but they are specimens 
of a class. Some very few of the early ones may 
exceed the bounds mentioned in the title-page of 
the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, but it is 
hoped they may be excused. Stevens, Morris, 
Hewardine, and other convivial song writers 
towards the end of last century, would have added 
much to the sj)irit of the selection, had they 
not been far out of limits. My lamented friend 
T. Cooke (worthy from his talents to have wedded 
the songs of Anacreon to music, and with virtues 
equal to his talents). Bishop, Webbe, and others, 
have been most successful in the composition of 
drinking glees, but these it would be foreign to 
our purpose to enumerate. I will, therefore, close 
these introductory pages by Cowley's lines on 
drinking ( Anacreontiqiies, Ko. 2), which seem 
appropriate to the subject. 

" The thirsty earth soaks up the rain, 
And drinks, and gapes for drink again. 
The plants suck in the earth, and are 
With constant drinking fresh and fair. 
The sea itself, which one would think 
Should have but little need of drink. 
Drinks twice ten thousand rivers up. 

So fill'd that they o'erfow the cup. 
The busy sun (and one would guess 
By 's drunken fiery face no less), 
Drinks up the sea, and, when he's done, 
The moon and stars drink up the sun. 
They drink and dance by theii' own light. 
They drink and revel all the night. 
Nothing in nature's sober found, 
But an eternal health goes round. 
Fill up the bowl, then, fill it high. 
Fill all the glasses there, for why 
Should every creature drink but I, 
Why, man of morals, tell me why ]" 





Twelfth Century. 
(From Croke, on Rhyming Latin Verse, pp. 100-1.) 

MiHi est propositum in taberna mori, 
Vinum sit appositum morientis ori, 
Ut dicaut, cum venerint Angelorum chori, 
" Deus sit propitius huic potatori." 

Poculis accenditur anirai lucerna, 
Cor inibutura nectare volat ad superna, 
Mihi sapit dulcius vinum in tabernfi 
Quam quotl aqua miscuit pra2sulis pincerna. 

Suum cuique proprium dat natura munus. 
Ego nunquam potui scribei'C jejunus; 
Me jejunum vincere posset puer unus, 
Sitim et jejunium odi tanquam funus. 



Unicuique proprium dat natura donum. 
Ego versus faciens vinum bibo bonura, 
Et quod habent melius dolia cauponum 
Tale vinum generat copiam sermonum. 

Tales versus facio quale vinum bibo ; 
Nihil possum scribere nisi sumpto cibo, 
Nihil valet penitus quod jejunus scribo, 
Nasonem post calices carmine prseibo. 

Mihi nunquam spiritus prophetice datur 
Nisi tunc cum fuerit venter bene satur ; 
Cum in arce cerebri Bacchus dominatur, 
In me Phcebus irruit ac miranda fatur. 

Translation of the same, said to have been made by Mr. Derby, 
of Tordingbridge, Hampshire. 

(Ibid. pp. 101-2.) 

I'm resolv'd in a tavern with honour to die ; 

At my mouth place a full flowing bowl, 
That angels, while round me they hover, may cry, 
" Peace, God, peace to this jolly soul." 

By toping, the mind with fresh vigour is fraught. 

The heart too soars up to the skies ; 
Give me wine that's unmixed — not the watery draught 

Which the president's butler supplies. 


To each man his gift nature gives to enjoy, 

To pretend to write well is a jest 
When I'm hungry ; I yield, overcome by a boy ; 

And a fast like the grave I detest. 

My verses all taste of the wine that I stow ; 

While I'm empty my muse is unkind ; 
But with bumpers enliven'd how sweet does she flow, 

Fam'd Ovid I leave far behind. 

Till my belly's well fiU'd, truths I ne'er can divine ; 

But when Bacchus presides in my pate, 
The strong impulse I feel of the great god of rhyme, 

And wonderful things I relate. 


About the Twelfth Century, 

Citing Petri Andreaj Canonherii Dc admirandis vini virtutibus, 
Antwerp, 1627, p. 501. 

(Ibid. pp. 102-3.) 

QcicuNQUE vult esse frater, 
Bibat bis, ter, et quater : 
Bibat semel, et secundo. 
Donee nihil sit in fundo. 
Bibat hera, bibat herus, 
Ad bibendura nemo scrus : 
Bibat iste, bibat ilia, 



Bibat servus cum ancilla. 
Et pro Rege, et pro Papa 
Bibe vinum sine aqu^. 
Et pro Papa, et pro Rege : 
Bibe vinum sine lege: 
Haec una est lex Bacchica, 
Bibentium spes unica. 


(ReliquiEe Antiq. vol. ii, pp. 168-9. From MS. Reg. 16, 
E. viii., fol. 103, t°. — Early in the thirteenth Century.) 


Or bi parra, 

La cerveyse nos chauntera, 

Alleluia ! 
Qui que aukes en beyt, 
Si tel seyt com estre doit, 

Res miranda ! 
Bevez quant I'avez en poin, 
Ben est droit, car mut est loing 

Sol de Stella. 
Bevez bien & bevez bel 
II vos vendra del tonel, 

Semper clara. 
Bevez bel & bevez bien 
Vos le vostre & jo le mien. 

Pari forma. 


De 90 soit bien porveu, 

Qui que auques le tient al fu, 

Fit corrupta. 
Riches genz funt lur brut ; 
Fesons nus nostre deduit, 

Valla nostra ! 
Beneyt soit li bon veisin, 
Qui nus dune payn & vin, 

Came sumpta ! 
E la dame de la maison, 
Ki nus fait chere real, 
Ja ne pusse elle par mal, 

Esse ceca 1 
Mut nus done volenters, 
Bons beiveres & bon mangers, 
Meuz waut que autres muliers, 

Hec predicta. 
Ore be worn al deiyen. 
Par meitez & par pleyn, 
Que nus ne secun deraayn 

Gens misera! 
Ne nostre tonel nus ne fut, 
Kar plein est de bon frut, 
E si ert tu a nuit. 

Fuerpera. Amen. 



(Wright's Carols, p. 1, from MS. Bib. Reg. 16, E viii., and in 
Douce's Illustrations of Shakespeare.) 

Seignors ore entendez a nus, 
De loinz sumes venuz a wous, 

Pur quere Noel ; 
Car I'em nus dit que en cest hostel 
Soleit tenir sa feste anuel 
Ahi, cest iur. 

Deu doint a tuz icels joie d'amurs 
Qui a danz Noel ferunt honors ! 

Seignors jo vus dis por veir, 
Ke danz Noel ne velt aveir 

Si joie non ; 
E repleni sa maison, 
De payn, de char, e de peison, 

Por faire honor, 

Deu doint a tuz ces joie d'amur ! 

Seignors, 11 est crie en I'ost, 
Que cil qui despent bien, e tost, 

E largement ; 
E fet les granz honors sovent, 
Deu li duble quanque il despent 

Por faire honor 
Deu doint a 


Seignors, escriez les malveis, 
Car vus nel les troverez jameis 

De bone part : 
Botun, batun, ferun groinard, 
Car tot dis a le quer cunard 

Por faire honor, 
Deu doint 

Noel beyt bein li viu Engleis, 
E li Gascoin, & li Franceys, 

E I'Angevin. 
Noel fait beivere sou veisin, 
Si qu'il se dort, le chief enclin, 

Sovent le jor. 
Deu doint a tuz eels. . . , 

Seignors, jo vus di par Noel, 
E par li sires de cest hostel, 

Car bevez ben : 
E jo primes beverai le men, 
E pois apres chescon le soen. 

Par mon conseil ; 
Si jo vus di trestoz, ' Wesseyl !' 
Dehaiz eit qui ne dirra, ' Drincheyl !' 


Free translation of the same, (from Donee's Illustrations, 
ed. 1839, pp. 44S-9.) 

LoRDiNGS, from a distant home, 
To seek old Christinas we arc come. 


Who loves our minstrelsy ? 
And here, unless report mis-say, 
The grey-beard dwells ; and on this day 
Keeps yearly wassel, ever gay. 

With festive mirth and glee. 
To all who honour Christmas and commend our lays, 
Love will his blessing send, and crown with joy their 

Lordings, list, for we tell you true, 
Christmas loves the jolly crew 

That cloudy care defy : 
His liberal board is deftly spread 
With manchet loaves and wastel-bread ; 
His guests with fish and flesh are fed, 

Nor lack the stately pye. 

Lordings, you know that far and near 
The saying is, " Who gives good cheer, 

And freely spends his treasure ; 
On him will bounteous heaven bestow 
Twice treble blessings here below, 
His happy hours shall sweetly flow 

In never-ceasing pleasure." 

Lordings, believe us, knaves abound ; 
Li every place are flatterers found ; 

May all their arts be vain ! 
But chiefly from these scenes of joy 
Chase sordid souls that mirth annoy, 
And all who with their base alloy 

Turn pleasure into pain. 


Christmas quaffs our English wines, 

Nor Gascoigne juice, nor French declines, 

Nor liquor of Anjou : 
He puts th' insidious goblet round. 
Till all the guests in sleep are drown'd, 
Then wakes 'em with the tabor's sound, 

And plays the prank anew. 

Lordings, it is our host's command. 
And Christmas joins him hand in hand, 

To drain the brimming bowl : 
And I'll be foremost to obey ; 
Then pledge me, sirs, and di"ink away, 
For Christmas revels here to day, 
And sways without control. 
Now wassel to you all ! and merry may ye be ! 
But foul that wight befall, who di'inks not health to 

(Vespasian, A. xxv. 142, r".) 
There is no tre that growe 
On earthe, that I do knowe, 
More worthie praise, I trowe. 

Then is the vyne : 
Whos grapes, as ye raaye wende, 
Theire licoure forthe dothe shede- 
Whereof is made indede, 
All our good wync. 


And wyne ye mayc trust me 
Causethe men for to be 
Merie, for so ye se 

His nature is. 
Then put aside all wrathe. 
For David shewed us hathe, 
Vinu letificat 

Cor hominis. 

"Wyne taken w**" excesse, 
As scripture dothe expres, 
Causethe great hevines 

Unto the mynde. 
But theie that take pleasure, 
To drinke it w*** measure, 
No doute a great treasure 

They shall it finde. 
Then voide you all sadnes, 
Drinke youre wine with gladnes, 
To take thought is madnes. 

And marke well this ; 
And put aside all wrathe, 
For David showde us hathe, 
Vinu letificat cor hominis. 

Howe bringe ye that to pas. 
Cordis jocunditas, 
Is nowe and eu was 

The life of man. 


Sithe that mirthe hathe no peare, 
Then let us make good cheare, 
And be you merie heare 

"While that you can. 
And drinke well of this wyne, 
While it is good and fyne, 
And shewe some outwarde syne 

Of joye and blisse. 
Expell from you all wrathe, 
For David shewed us hathe, 
Vinti letificat 

Cor hominis. 

This thinge full well ye ken, 
Hevenes dullethe men, 
But take this medicien then 

"Where eu'r ye come. 
Refreshe your self therwith. 
For it was saide long sithe, 
That vinu acuit, 

Then geve not a cherie 
For sider nor perrye ; 
"Wyne makethe man merie. 

Ye knowe well this. 
Then put aside all wrathe, 
For David shewed us hathe, 
"Vinu letificat 

Cor hominis 


In hope to have release 

Of all our hevines, 

And mirthe for to encrease, 

Sumdele the more. 
Pulsemus organa 
Simull cu cythera, 
Vinu et musica 

Vegitabit cor. 
But sorowe care & strife, 
Shortnethe the daies of life, 
Bothe of man & of wife, 

It will not mis. 
Then put aside all wrathe, 
For David shewd us hathe, 
Vinu letifica 

Cor hominis. 

A raerie harte in cage 
Makethe a lustie age, 
As tellethe us the sage, 

Cuer for the noynes. 
Becase we should delight 
In mirthe bothe daie and night ; 
He saythe an hevie freight 

Drieth up the bones. 
Wherfore let us alwaie 
Rejoyce in God, I saye, 
Our mirthe cannot decay 

If we do this. 
And put aside all wrathe, 


For David shewed us hatlie, 
Vinu letificat 

Cor hominis. 

Nowe, ye that be presente, 

Laude God omnipotente, 

That hathe us geven and sent 

Our dailie foode. 

When thorowe sinne were slane, 

He sent his son againe, 

Us to redeme from pane 

By his swete bloude. 
And he is the trewe vyne, 
From whom distilde the wine, 
That bought your soules and myne, 

You know well this. 
Then put asid all wrathe, 
For David shewed us hathe, 
Vinu letificat, 

Cor hominis. 


(From Chester Plays — Shakespeare Society's Ed., by Wright, 
p. 53. Noah's Flood.) 

The flude comes flittinge in full faste, 
One every syde that spreades full fane ; 


For feare of drowninge I am agaste ; 

Good gossippes, lett us drawe nere ; 

And lett us drinke or we departe, 

For ofte tymes we have done soe ; 

For att a draughte thou drinkes a quarte, 

And soe will I doe or I goe. 

Heare is a pottill full of Malmsine good and stronge, 

Itt will rejoyce boath harte and touge ; J 

Though Noye thinke us never so longe, 

Heai'e we will drinke alike. 


(From Songs and Carols of the fifteenth century, by Wright, 
Percy edit. pp. 2-3.) 

Semper vivit misere, qui non habet solvere. 

BoNUM vinum cum sapore 
Bybit abbas cum priore ; 
Sed conventus de pejore 

Semper solet bibere. 
Bonum vinum in taberna, 
Ubi vina sunt valarna, 
Ubi nummus est pincerna, 

Ibi prodest bibere. 
Dum vadis ad bibendum, 
Te festina ad videndum 
Quantum habes ad solvendum, 

Antequam vis bibere. 


Sis amicus mulieris, 
Et amorem ejus queris, 
Stabis foras, misereris, 

Dum non habes solvere. 
Dum burse sunt implete, 
Sicut hospes hie manete, 
Panem, potum Lie habete, 

Et omnia pacifice. 
Dum burse sunt inanes, 
Latrat hospes velut canes, 
Dicet hospes, Cur hie manes, 

Dum non habes solvere ? 
Dum cares querens victum, 
Tunc tuum scies delictum ; 
Quia tibi dabit vestitum ? 

Nullus vult te tegere. 
Et tunc dicet totus mundus, 
Tu fuisti vacabundus, 
Inonestusque jocundus, 

Bonis volens credere. 
Ergo Deum deprecare, 
Ut te possis sperare, 
Et secum celo regnare, 

Ibi non debes lucre. 


There is also a copy, not so complete, in Harl. MS., 541, and 
printed in Eitson's Ancient Songs. 

(Ibid, page 63.) 

Bryng us in good ale, and bryng us in good ale ; 

For our blyssyd Lady sak, bryng us in good ale. 

Bryng us in no browne bred, fore that is mad of brane. 

Nor bryng us in no whyt bred, fore therein is no game. 

But bryng us in good ale. 
Bryng us in no befe, for ther is many bonys, 
But bryng us in good ale, for that goth downe at onys ; 

And bryng us in good ale. 
Bring us in no bacon, for that is passing fate. 
But bryng us in god ale, and gyfe us i-nought of that ; 

And bryng us in good ale. 
Bryng us in no mutton, for that is often lene, 
Nor bryng us in no trypes, for thei be syldom clene. 

But bryng us in good ale. 
Bryng us in no eggys^ for ther ar many schelles, 
But bryng us in good ale, and gyfe us no(th)yng ellys, 

And bryng us in good ale. 
Bryng us in no butter, for therin ar many herys ; 
Nor bryng us in no pygges flesch, for that will make 
us borys ; 

But bryng us in good ale. 

Bryng us in no podynges, for therin is al Godes good ; 
Nor bryng us in no venesen, for that is not for our blod ; 
But bryng us in good ale. 


Bryng us in no capons flescli, for that is ofte der ; 
Nor bryng us in no dokes flesche, for thei slober in 
the mer ; 

But bryng us in good ale. 


(Ibid. pp. 81-2.) 
Doll thi ale, doll, doll thi ale, dole, 
Ale make many a mane to have a doty poll. 
Ale mak many a mane to styk at a brere ; 
Ale mak many a mane to ly in the myere ; 
And ale mak many a mane to slep by the fyere ; 

With doll. 
Ale mak many a mane to stombyl at a stone ; 
Ale mak many a mane to go dronken home ; 
And ale mak many a mane to brek hys tone ; 

With doll. 
Ale mak many a mane to draw hys knyfe ; 
Ale mak many a mane to mak gret stryfe ; 
And ale mak many a mane to bet hys wyf ; 

With dole. 
Ale mak many a mane to wet hys chekes ; 
Ale mak many a mane to ly in the stretes ; 
And ale mak many a mane to wet hys shetes ; 

With dole. 
Ale mak many a mane to stombyll at the blokkes ; 
Ale mak many a mane to mak his hed have knokkes ; 
And ale mak many a mane to syt in the stokkes ; 

With dol. 



Ale mak many a mane to ryne over the falows ; 
Ale mak many a mane to swere by God and AUhallows; 
And ale mak many a mane to hang upon the galows ; 

With doll. 



Sixteenth Century. 

(Wright's Carols, No. xxix — from MS. Cott Vesp. A. xxv., 
fol. 168. vo.) 

A BONNE, God wote ! 

Stickes in my throate, 
Without I have a draught 

Of cornie aile, 

Nappy and staile, 
My lyfFe lyes in great wauste. 

Some ayle or beare, 

Gentill butlere, 
Some lycoure thou hus showe, 

Such as you mashe, 

Our throtes to washe, 
The best were that yow brew. 

Saint, master, and knight, 

That saint Mault hight, 
Were prest between two stones ; 

That swet humour 

Of his lycoure 
Would make us sinsr at once. 



Mr. Wortley, 

I dar well say, 
I tell you as I thinke, 

Would not, I say, 

Byd hus this day. 
But that we shuld have drink. 

His men so tall, 

Walkes up his hall. 
With many a comly dishe ; 

Of his good meat 

I cannot eate, 
Without a drink i-wysse ; 

Now gyve hus drink, 

And let cat wynke, 
I tell you all at once, 

Yt stickes so sore, 

I may sing no more, 
Tyll I have dronken once. 


The following is one of the oldest Wassail Songs, and is sung by 
Dissimulation, personating Simon of Swynsett, in Kyngc 
Johan, by Bale, about 1550, when offering the poisoned cup. 
After he has given the cup, he says : — 

" The dayes of your lyfe never felt ye suche a cuppe, 
So good and so holsome, if ye would drynko it upp: 



It passeth Malinesaye, Capryck, Tyre, or Ypocras ; 
By my faythe I thynke a better drynke never was." 
(Camden Society's edn., pp. 80-1.) 

Wassayle, wassayle, out of the milke payle, 
Wassayle, wassayle as whyte as my nayle, 
"Wassayle, wassayle in snowe, froste, and hayle, 
Wassayle, wassayle with partriche and rayle, 
Wassayle, wassayle that muche doth avayle, 
Wassayle, wassayle that never wyll fayle. 


(Reliq. Antiq. vol. i., page .S24, from MS. Cotton. Vespas. 
A. XXV., of the time of Henry VIII.) 

Fyll the cuppe, Phylype, and let us drynke a drame 
0ns or twyse abowte the howse, and leave where we 

I drynke to yow, sweteharte, soo muche as here is in, 
Desyeringe yow to followe me, and doo as I begin. 
And yf yow wille not pledge, 
Yow shalle here the blame ; 
I drynke to yow with all my harte, 
Yf yow will pledge me the same. 


(From an old Comedy called Common Conditions, published about 
1570. A sea-song by pirates, perhaps the oldest of the kind 
in English. Collier's History of Dramatic Poetry, 11. 380-1.) 

LusTELY, lustely, lustelj let us saile forthe, 

The winde trim doth serve us, it blowes from the north. 

All thinges we have ready, and nothing we want, 

To furnish our ship that rideth hereby ; 
Victals and weapons thei be nothing skant, 

Like worthie mariners ourselves we will trie. 
Lustely, lustely, &c. 
Her flagges be new trimmed, set flanting alofte. 

Our ship for swift swimmyng, oh, she doeth excell ; 
Wee feare no enemies, we have escaped them ofte ; 

Of all ships that swimmeth she beareth the bell. 
Lustely, lustely, &c. 
And here is a maister excelleth in skill. 

And our maisters mate he is not to seeke ; 
And here is a boteswaine will do his good will. 

And here is a ship boye, we never had leeke. 
Lustely, lustely, &c. 
If fortune then faile not, and our next voiage prove, 

Wee will rcturne merely and make good cheare, 
And holde all together as friends linkt in love, 

The Cannes shal be filled with wine, ale, and beere. 
Lustely, lustely, &c. 


(From Skelton's Works, Dyce's edn., i — vii — x. n.) Stated by him 
to be from a MS. in his possession, and of older date than 
Gammer Gurton's Needle. It is also much longer than the 
M' ell known drinking song there. 

Backe & syde goo bare, goo bare, 
Bothe bande & fote goo colde ; 
But belly God sende the good ale inowgbe, 
Whether it be newe or olde. 

But yf that I 

Maye have trewly 

Goode ale my belly full, 

I shall looke lyke one, 

By swete sainte Johnn, 

Were shoron agaynste the woole. 

Thowthe I goo bare. 

Take yow no care, 

I am nothynge colde ; 

I stuffe my skynne 

So full within, 

Of joly goode ale & olde. 

I cannot eate 

But lytyll meate. 

My stomacke ys not goode, 

But sure 1 thyncke. 

That I cowde dryncke 

With hym that werythe an hoode. 



Dryncke ys ray lyfe, 

Althowgthe my wyfe 

Some time do chyde & scolde, 

Yete spare I not 

To plye the potte 

Of joly goode ale & olde. 

Backe & syde, &c. 

I love noo roste 

But a browne toste, 

Or a crabbe in the fyer; 

A lytyll breade 

Shall do me steade, 

Mooche breade I never desyer. 

Nor froste, nor snowe, 

Nor wynde, I trow, 

Canne hurte me yf hyt wolde ; 

I am so wrapped 

Within & lapped 

With joly goode ale & olde. 

Backe & syde, &c. 

I care ryte nowghte, 

I take no thowte 

For clothes to kepe me warrae ; 

Have I goode dryncke, 

I surely thyncke 

Nothynge canne do me harme. 

For trwly than 

I feare no man, 


Be he never so bolde, 
When I am armed 
And throwly warmed 
With joly good ale & olde. 
Backe & syde, &c. 

But nowe and than 

I curse and banne, 

They make ther ale so small ; 

God geve them care, 

And evil to faare, 

They strye the malte & all. 

Sooche pevisshe pewe, 

I tell yowe trwe, 

Not for a c(r)ovne of golde, 

Ther commethe one syppe 

Within my lyppe, 

Whether hyt be newe or old. 

Backe & syde, &c. 

Good ale & stronge, 

Makethe me amonge 

Full joconde and full lyte, 

That ofte I slepe, 

And take no kepe, 

Frome mornynge untyll nyte ; 

Then starte I uppe. 

And fle to the cuppe. 

The ryte waye on I holde, 

My thurste to staunche, 

I fyll my paynche 


With joly goode ale and olde. 
Backe & syde, &c. 

And Kytte, my wyfe, 

That as her lyfe 

Lovethe well good ale to seke, 

Full ofte drynkythe she, 

That ye maye se 

The tears ronne downe her cheke. 

Then dothe she troiUe 

To me the bolle, 

As a goode malte worme sholde ; 

And saye, swete harte, 

I have take my parte 

Of joly goode ale and olde. 

Backe & syde, &c. 

They that do dryncke 

Tyll they nodde and wyncke, 

Even as good fellowes shulde do, 

They shall notte mysse 

To have the blysse 

That good ale hathe browghte them to. 

And all poore soules, 

That skowre blacke boUes, 

And them hathe lustely trowlde, 

God save the lyves, 

Of them and ther wyves. 

Whether they be yonge or olde. 

Backe & syde, &c. 




(Beloe's Anecdotes, vol. ii. pp. 1 -2, from the Interlude of Tom 
Tyler and bis Wife. Garrick Collection, original edn., 1.598.) 

Let us sip, and let it slip, 

And go which way it will a ; 
Let us trip, and let us skip, 

And let us drink our fill a. 

Take the cup, and drink all up, 

Give me the can to fill a ; 
Every sup, and every cup. 

Hold here, and my good will a. 

Gossip mine, and gossip thine. 

Now let us gossip still a ; 
Here is good wine, this ale is fine ; 

Now drink of which you will a. 

Round about, till all be out, 

I pray you let us swill a. 
This jolly grout is jolly and stout, 

I pray you stout it still a. 

Let us laugh, and let us quaff, 

Good drinkers think none ill a ; 
Hei-e is your bag, here is your staffe, 

Be packing to the mill a. 



(Song from the Thracian Wonder, by Webster and Rowley, Act 
ii,) sung by Tityrus, a shepherd, dressed as Janus, with a 
coat girt to him, a white beard and hair, a hatchet in one hand, 
a bowl in the other. 

Now does jolly Janus greet your meri-iment ; 

For since the world's creation 

I never changed my fashion ; 

'Tis good enough to fence the cold : 

My hatchet serves to cut my firing yearly. 

My bowl preserves the juice of grape and barley : 

Fire, wine, and strong beer, makes me live so long here, 

To give the merry new year a welcome in. 

All the potent powers of plenty wait upon 

You that intend to be frolic to-day : 

To Bacchus I commend ye, and Ceres eke attend ye. 

To keep encroaching cares away. 

That Boreas' blasts may never blow to harm you ; 

Nor Hiems' frosts, but give you cause to warm you : 

Old father Janevere drinks a health to all here. 

To give the merry new year a welcome in. 


End of Sixteenth Century. 

(From the Rape of Lucrece, by T. Ilcywood, sung by Valerius, 

Act iii, sc. 1.) 
There is a song in the Percy Society's edition of Songs and 


Ballads of London Apprentices, page 31, called London's 
Ordinary, which is similar to this, but thrice the length — the 
same is also in Evans 1-166, and in Roxburgh Ballads, British 
Museum, 2-291. 

The gentry to the King's Head, 
The nobles to the Crown, 
The knights unto the Golden Fleece, 
And to the Plough the clown. 
The church-man to the Mitre, 
The shepherd to the Star, 
The gardener hies him to the Rose, 
• To the Drum the man of war ; 

To the Feathers, ladies, you ; the Globe 

The sea-man doth not scorn : 

The usurer to the Devil, and 

The townsman to the Horn. 

The huntsman to the White Hart, 

To the Ship the merchants go, 

But you that do the muses love, 

The sign called River Po. 

The banquerout to the "World's End, 

The fool to the Fortune hie. 

Unto the Mouth the oyster wife. 

The fiddler to the Pie. 

The punk unto the Cockatrice, 

The drunkard to the Vine, 

The beggar to the Bush, then meet, 

And with Duke Humphrey dine. 







(From Mother Bombie, by John Lyly, about the end of the 
sixteenth Century, printed in 1594. Act ii, sc. 2.) The 
" Omnes " are four servants, Dromio, Kisio, Halfpenny, and 

Omnes. lo, Bacchus ! to thy table 

Thou call'st every drunken rabble ; 
We already are stiflp drinkers, 
Then seal us for thy jolly skinckers. 
Drain. Wine, O wine, 

juice divine ! 
Ris. How dost thou the nowie refine. 

Plump thou niak'st men's ruby faces, 
And from girls can fetch embraces. 
Half. By thee our noses swell 

With sparkling carbuncle. 
Luc. the dear blood of grapes 
Turns us to antic shapes, 
Now to show tricks like apes. 
Dram. Now lion -like to roar. 

Pus. Now goatishly to whore, 
Half. Now hogishly i' th' mire, 
Luc. Now flinging hats i' th' fire, 
Omnes. lo, Bacchus ! at thy table, 

Make us of thy reeling rabble. 



(From Anthony and Cleopatra, ii, 7.) 

Come, thou monarch of the vine, 
Plumpy Bacchus, with pink eyne : 
In thy vats our cares be drown'd ; 
With thy grapes our hairs be crown'd ; 
Cup us, till the world go round ; 
Cup us, till the world go round. 


(From Roxburgh Ballads, British Museum, 2-82.) The Country 
Farmer s Vain-glory ; in a new song of 


Together with an Answer* to their indecent behaviour. Sung to 
a new tune, much in request. Licensed according to order. 

Our oats they are how'd, and our barley's reap'd, 
Our hay it is mow'd and our hovel's heap'd ; 

Harvest home, harvest home, 
"We'll merrily roar our harvest home, 

Hai'vest home, harvest home ; 
We'll merrily roar our harvest home. 
We'll merrily roar our harvest home. 

* The Answer is omitted. 


We cheated the parson, we'll cheat him again ; 
For why should the vicar have one in ten, 

One in ten, one in ten. 
For why should the vicar have one in ten ? 

For why should, &c. 

For staying while dinner is cold and hot, 
And pudding and dumpling's burnt to pot, 

Burnt to pot, burnt to pot, 
Till pudding and dumpling's burnt to th' pot, 

Burnt to pot, &c. 

"We'll drink off our liquor while we can stand, 
And hey for the honour of old England, 

Old England, old England, 
And hey for the' honour of old England, 

Old England,' &c. 



(Chappell's Collection, 2-65, from Ben Jonson.) 

Drink to me only with thine eyes, 

And I will pledge with mine; 
Or leave a kiss but in the cup. 

And I'll not look for wine. 
The thirst that from the soul doth rise, 

Doth ask a drink divine ; 
But might T of Jove's nectar sip, 

I would not change for thine. 


I sent thee, late, a rosy wreath. 

Not so much honouring thee, 
As giving it a hope, that there 

It could not withered be : 
But thou thereon didst only breathe, 

And sent'st it back to me ; 
Since when, it grows and smells, I swear. 

Not of itself, but thee ! 



(From Valentinian, by Beaumont and Fletcher. Act v, sc. 8.) 
In the banquet of Maximus. 

God Lyceus, ever young, 
Ever honour'd, ever sung, 
Stain'd with blood of lusty grapes, 
In a thousand lusty shapes. 
Dance upon the mazer's brim, 
In the crimson liquor swim ; 
From thy plenteous hand divine 
Let a river run with wine : 

God of youth, let this day here 

Enter neither care nor fear ! 




(From the Bloody Brothers, or Rollo, Duke of Normandy, by 
Fletcher, act ii, sc. 2.) The last lines are similar to a con\-i\ial 
chorus still in vogue. 

By the Cook and his Companions. 

Drink to-day, and drown all soitow, 
You shall perhaps not do it to-morrow : 
Best, while you have it, use your breath ; 
There is no drinking after death. 

Wine works the heart up, wakes the wit, 
There is no cure 'gainst age but it : 
It helps the head-ache, cough, and tisic, 
And is for all diseases physic. 

Then let us swill, boys, for our health ; 
Who drinks well, loves the commonwealth ; 
And he that will to bed go sober. 
Falls with the leaf still in October. 



(From the Spanish Curate, by Fletcher, act iii, sc. 2.) Sung by 
the Parishioners on their reconciliation with the Curate, who 
had threatened to leave them on account of their poverty. 

Let the bells ring, and let the boys sing, 

The young lasses skip and play : 
Let the cups go round, till round goes the ground, 

Our learned old vicar will stay. 



Let the pig turn merrily, merrily, ah. 

And let the fat goose swim ; 
For verily, verily, verily, ah. 

Our vicar this day shall be trim. 

The stew'd cock shall crow, cock-a-loodle-loo, 
A loud cock-a-loodle shall he crow ; 

The duck and the drake shall swim in a lake 
Of onions and claret below. 

Our wives shall be neat, to bring in our meat 

To thee our most noble adviser ; 
Our pains shall be great, and bottles shall sweat. 

And we ourselves will be wiser. 

We'll labour and swink, we'll kiss and we'll drink, 
And tithes shall come thicker and thicker ; 

We'll fall to our plough, and get children enow, 
And thou shalt be learned old vicar. 



(From the Woman's Prize, by Fletcher. Act ii, sc. 6.) Sung 
within by female characters. 

A HEALTH for all this day, 
To the woman that bears the sway. 
And wears the breeches. 

Let it come, let it come ! 


Let this health be a seal, 

For the good of the common weal, 

The woman shall wear the breeches ! 
Let's drink then, and laugh it, 
And merrily, merrily quaiF it, 
And tipple, and tipple a round. 

Here's to thy fool, 

And to my fool ; 

Come, to all fools. 
Though it cost us, wench, many a pound. 


(From the Knight of Malta, by Beaumont and Fletcher. 
Act iii, sc. 1.) 

Sit, soldiers, sit and sing, the round is clear. 
And cock-a-loodle-loo tells us the day is near : 
Each toss his can, until his throat be mellow. 
Drink, laugh, and sing ; the soldier has no fellow. 

To thee a full pot, my little lanceprisado. 
And when thou hast done, a pipe of Trinidado ; 
Our glass of life runs wine^ the vintner shrinks it, 
Whilst with his wife the frolic soldier drinks it, 

D 2 


The drums beat, ensigns wave, and cannons thurap it ; 
Our game is ruff, and the best heart doth trump it : 
Each toss his can, until his throat be mellow, 
Di'ink, laugh, and sing ; the soldier has no fellow. 

I'll pledge thee, my corporal, were it a flagon ; 
After, watch fiercer than George did the dragon : 
What blood we lose i' the town, we gain i' the tuns ; 
Furr'd gowns and flat caps give the wall to guns : 
Each toss his can, until his throat be mellow. 
Drink, laugh and sing ; the soldier has no fellow. 



(Evans's old Ballads, i, 236- 7. From " The Shoemaker's 
Holiday," 1600.) 

Cold's the wind, and wet's the rain, 

Saint Hugh be our good speed : 
111 is the weather that bringeth no gain. 

Nor helps good hearts in need. 

Trowl the bowl, the jolly nut-brown bowl, 

And here, kind mate, to thee, 
Let's sing a dirge for Saint Hugh's soul. 

And down it merrily. 


Down a down, hey down a down, 
Hey derry, derry, down a down. 

Ho, well done, to me let come, 
Ring compass gentle joy. 

Trowl the bowl, the nut-brown bowl. 
And hei'e, kind mate, to thee, 

Let's sing a dirge for Saint Flugh's soul, 
And down it merrily. 

Cold's the wind, and wet's the rain. 
Saint Hugh be our good speed, 

111 is the weather that bringeth no gain, 
Nor helps good hearts in need. 

(From a Mad World my Masters, by Middlcton.) The catch 
for the fifth act, sung by Sir Bounteous Progress to his guests. 

O FOR a bowl of fat canarj^. 

Rich Aristippus, sparkling sherry ! 

Some nectar else from Juno's dairy ; 
O these draughts would make us merry. 

O for a wench ! I deal in faces. 

And in other daintier things ; 
Tickled am I with her embraces ; 

Fine dancing in such fairy rings ! 


O for a plump fat leg of mutton, 
Veal, lamb, capon, pig, and cony ! 

None is happy but a glutton. 

None an ass but who wants money. 

Wines, indeed, and girls are good, 
For brave victuals feast the blood ; 

For wenches, wine, and lusty cheer, 
Jove would come down to surfeit here. 




(From Thomas Ravenscroft, 1614.) 

Trudge away quickly and fill the black bole, 

Devoutly as long as wee bide, 
Now welcome, good fellowes, both strangers and all, 

Let madnes and mirth set sadnes aside. 

Of all reckonings I love good cheere, 

With honest folkes in company ; 
And when drinke comes my part for to beai'e. 

For still me thinks one tooth is drye. 


Love is a pastime for a king, 

If one be seene in phisnomie ; 
But I love well this pot to wring, 

For still me thinks one tooth is drye. 

Masters, this is all my desire, 

I woulde no drinke should passe us by ; 
Let us now sing and mend the tier, 

For still me thinks one tooth is drye. 

Mr. Butler, give us a taste 

Of your best drinke so gently : 
A jugge or twaine, and make no waste, 

For still me thinks one tooth is drye. 

Mr. Butler, of this take part, 

Ye love good drinke as well as I ; 
And drinke to mee with all your hart. 
For still me thinks one tooth is drye. 
Cho. Trudge away quickly, &c. 

Now welcome good fellowes, 8sc. 


(From the same.) 

Cho. TossE the pot, tosse the pot, let us be merry, 
And drinke till our checks be red as a cherry. 


AVe take no thought, we have no care, 
For still we spend, and nevei* spare, 
Till of all money our pursse is bare, 
We ever tosse the pot. 

Cho. Tosse the pot, &c. 

We drinke, carouse with hart most free, 
A harty draught I driuke to thee ; 
Then fill the pot again to me, 
And ever tosse the pot. 

Cho. Tosse the pot, &c. 

And when our mony is all spent. 
Then sell our goods and spend our rent, 
Or drinke it up with one consent. 
And ever tosse the pot. 

Cho. Tosse the pot, &c. 

When all is gone we have no more, 
Then let us set it on the score, 
Or chalke it up behinde the dore, 
And ever tosse the pot. 

Cho. Tosse the pot, &c. 

And when our credit is all lost, 
Then may we goe and kisse the post. 
And eat browne bread in steed of rost. 
And ever tosse the pot. 

Cho. Tosse the pot, &c. 


Let us conclude as we began, 
And tosse the pot from man to man, 
And drinke as much now as we can, 
And ever tosse the pot. 
Cho. Tosse the pot, tosse the pot, let us be merry, 

And drinke till our cheeks be as red as a cherry. 

(From the same. Deuteromelia, 1G09.) 

Wee be souldiers three, 

Pardona moy ie vous an j^ree, 

Lately come forth of the Low Country, 
With never a penny of money. 

Fa la la la lantido dilly. 

Here, good fellow, I drinke to thee, 
Pardona moy ie vous an pree, 

To all good fellowes where ever the} be. 
With never a penny of mony. 

And he that will not pledge me this, 
Pardona moy ie vous an 2vce, 

Payes for the shot what ever it is. 
With never a penny of mony. 


Charge it againe boy, charge it againe, 
Pardona moy ie vous «n pree, 

As long as there is any incke in thy i)en, 
With never a penny of mony. 


(From the same.) 
Martin said to his man, 

Fie man, fie, O, 
Martin said to his man, 

Who's the foole now ? 
Martin said to his man. 
Fill thou the cup and I the can. 

Thou hast well drunken, man. 

Who's the foole now ? 

I see a sheepe shering corne, 

Fie man, fie : 
I see a sheepe shearing come, 

Who's the foole now ? 
I see a sheepe shearing corne. 
And a couckold blow his home, 

Thou hast well drunken, man. 

Who's the foole now ? 

I see a man in the moone. 
Fie man, fie : 


I see a man in the moone, 

Who's the foole now ? 
I see a man in the moone, 
Clowting of Saint Peter's shoone. 

Thou hast well drunken, man, 

Who's the fool now ? 

I see a hare chase a hound, 

Fie man, fie : 
I see a hare chase a hound. 

Who's the foole now ? 
I see a hare chase a hound, 
Twenty mile above the ground, 

Thou hast well drunken, man, 

Who's the foole now ? 

I see a goose ring a hog, 

Fie man, fie : 
I see a goose ring a hog, 

Who's the foole now ? 
I see a goose ring a hog, 
And a snayle that did bite a dog. 

Thou hast well drunken, man. 

Who's the fool now ? 

I see a mouse catch the cat, 

Fie man, fie : 
I see a mouse catch the cat, 

Who's the foole now ? 


I see a mouse catch the cat, 
And the cheese to eate the rat. 
Thou hast well drunken, man, 
Who's the foole now ? 

(From the same.) 

Tliis Song is similar in effect to the Barley Mow Song, printed 
in Specimens of Cornish dialect, where the successive verses 
increase from the nipperkin to the ocean, each repeating all 
the previous ones. 

Give us once a drinke for and the black bole, 

Sing gentle butler balla moy ; 
Foi and the black bole, 

Sing gentle butler balla moy. 

Give us once a drinke for and the pint pot, 

Sing gentle butler balla moy ; 
The pint pot, 

For and the black bole, &c. 

Give us once a drinke for and the quart pot, 

Sing gentle butler balla moy : 
The quart pot, the pint pot, 

For and the black bole, &c. 

Give us once a drinke for and the pottle pot. 
Sing gentle butler balla may : 


The pottle pot, the quart pot, the pint pot, 
For and the black bole, &c. 

Give us once a drinke for and the gallon pot, 

Sing gentle butler halla moy ; 
The gallon pot, the pottle pot, the quart pot, the 
pint pot, 

For and the black bole, &c. 

Give us once a drinke for and the verkin. 

Sing gentle butler balla moy ; 
The verkin, the gallon pot, the pottle pot, the quart 
pot, the pint pot. 

For and the black bole, &c. 

Give us kilderkin, &c. Give us barrell, &c. Give us 

hogshead, &c. 
Give us pipe, &c. Give us butt, &c. Give us the 

tunne, &c. 


(Additional MS., 5-336, from Pammi'lia, by llavenscroft.) 

Let's have a peal for John Cooke's soul, 

For he was an honest man ; 
With bells all in order, the cruse with the black 

The tankard likewise with the can. 


And I, mine own self, will ring the treble bell, 

And drink to you every one ; 
Stand fast now my mates, sing merrily and well, 

Till all this good ale is gone. 


(NichoH's Progresses of King James III, 293-4. From R, 
White's Masque of Cupid's Banishment,) presented to Her 
Majesty at Deptford, May 4th, 1617. 

Enter a grand Bacchus, skippinge in with a belly as bigg as a 
kinderkin, in a flesh-coloured buckram, with a wreath of vine- 
leaves aboute his head, a red swolne face full of pimples, with 
a base lute in his hand, singing and describing the ante-maske, 
all of Bacchus' children. He describes them particularly as 
they come forth. 


Bacchus, at thy call, 

They here come marchinge roundly. 
That will not flinch at all, 

But take their liquor soundly ; 
They'll do their parts, they'll drinke whole quarts, 

A pinte with them is but a swallow ; 
They'll nere give ore till the welkin rore. 

The house runn round, and the sky looke yellow. 

Enter four Bacchanaliaiis. 

Bacchus' children come. 

And at theire backes they've barrells, 


With bellies like a tunn, 
MuU'd sacke shall end all quarrels. 

The drunke Fencer. 
Next Swash appears, who stormes and sweares, 

If that they bring not better wine, 
The potts he'll maule against the wall, 

He'll beate ray host and breake his signe. 

The Ape drunkard. 
Another drunkard skipps. 

Whose head is like a feather, 
He'll show as many trickes 

As your ape (and) baboone together. 

The drunke Fuller. 
The Fidler's croud now squeakes aloud, 

His fidlinge stringes begin to trole ; 
He loves a wake and a wedding-cake, 

A bride-house and a brave may-pole. 

The drunke Tinker. 
Next the roringe Tinker, 

As furious as a dragon ; 
He swears he'll be no flincher, 

His carowse is but a flagon ; 
Hee loves his punke, but when he's drunke. 

His muddy braynes well mull'd with liquor, 
He then will rore and call hir whore, 

And out of doores hee sweares he'll kicke her. 

The weeping drunk. 
Armed all with claret. 

The weeping drunkard next. 


Hee's very sorry for it, 

His soule is sore perplext. 
These are the crew of drunkards trew, 

That do belong to Bacchus' court ; 
Soon see you shall their humors all, 

Yf you marke awhile theire drunken sporte. 

Bacchus at thy call, 

They here come marching roundly, 
That will not flinch at all, 

But take their liquor soundly ; 
They'll do their parts, they'll drinke whole quarts, 

A pint with them is but a swallow ; 
They'll nere give ore till the welkin rore, 

The house runn round, and the sky looke yellow. 

(From Aristippiis, by J. Randolph, about 1630.) 

We care not for money, riches, or wealth, 
Old sack is our money, old sack is our health. 

Then let's flock hither, 

Like birds of a feather, 
To drink, to fling. 
To laugh and sing. 

Conferring our notes together, 

Conferrinsf our notes together. 


Come let us laugh, let us drink, let us sing, 
The Winter with us is as good as the Spring. 

We care not a feather 

For winde, or for weather, 
But night and day 
We sport and play. 

Conferring our notes together, 

Conferring our notes together. 


(From the Sun's Darling, by Ford, act iv, sc. 1.) 


Cast away care ! he that loves sorrow 
Lengthens not a day, nor can buy to-morrow ; 
Money is trash ; and he that will spend it, 
Let him drink merrily, fortune will send it. 
Merrily, merrily, merrily, oh, ho ! 
Play it off stifly ; we may not part so. 
Chor. Merrily 8tc. [.They dritih. 

Wine is a charm, it heats the blood too. 
Cowards it will arm, if the wine be good too, 
Quickens the wit, and makes the back able, 
Scorns to submit to the watch or constable, 
Merrily, &c. 


Pots fly about, give us more liquor, 
Brothers of a rout, our brains will flow quicker ; 
Empty the cask ; score up, we care not ; 
Fill all the pots again, drink on and spare not. 
Merrily, 8c c. 


The tune is " Wet and "Weary." 

(From Collier's Eoxburghe Ballads, 177-182. Said to be probably 
of the time of James the First. Eoxburghe Ballads, British 
Museum, ii, 408-9.) 

Good fellows all, both great and small, 

Rejoice at this my ditty ; "^ 

"Whilst I do sing, good newes I bring 

To the countrey and the city : 
Let every lad and lass be glad, 

(For who will true love smother ?) 
And being here, my joy and dear, 

We'l kindly kiss each other. 
The purest wine, so brisk and fine, 

The alligant and sherry, 
I hold it good to purge the blood, 

And make the senses merry. 

'Tis sparkling sack that binds the back, 
And cherishes the heart, boys, 



For recompence just eighteen -pence 

You must give for a quart, boys : 
Away with beer and such like geei', 

That makes our spirits muddy, 
For wine compleat will do the feat 

That we all notes can study. 
The purest wine, &c. 

Rich malligo, is pure, I know, 

To purge out melancholly, 
And he that's sick it cureth quick, 

And makes their senses jolly : 
It rarefies the dullest eyes 

Of those that are most paler, 
And bi'avely can compose a man 

Of a very prick-lows taylor. 
The richest wine, &c. 

The meerest fool shall teach a school. 

By claret's operation, 
And make some fight, like men of might, 

Or champions of a nation : 
It is more fine then brandewine, 

The butterboxes potion. 
Who drinking dares, in Neptune's wars, 

Reign master of the ocean. 
Canary sack makes firm the back ; 

Both alligant and sherry, 
Are proved good to clear the blood, 

And make the senses merry. 



A longing lass, whose custard face 

Her inward grief discloses, 
With drinking wine, so sweet and fine, 

Will gain a pair of roses : 
It doth revive dead folks alive. 

And helps their former weakness ; 
It is so pure, that it doth cure 

A maiden of her sickness. 

Tills Rhenish wine, &c. 

The drawer still the same shall fill, 

To elevate the heart, boys ; 
For Rhenish gay, you now must pay 

Just twelve pence for a quart, boys. 
Who would be ty'de to brewers side, 

Whose measures do so vary, 
When we may sit, to raise our wit. 

With drinking of canary ? 
The purest wine, 8sc. 

The French wine pure, for seven pence, sure, 

You shall have choice and plenty. 
At this same rate to drink in plate, 

Which is both good and dainty : 
A maunding cove that doth it love, 

'Twill make him dance and caper, 
And Captain Puff will have enuff 

To make him brag and vapor. 
The purest wine, so brisk and fine, 

The alligant and sherry, 


I hold it good to purge the blood, 
And make the senses merry. 

And also we that do agree, 

As one for boon good fellows, 
We'l sing and laugh, and stoutly quaff, 

And quite renounce the alehouse ; 
For ale and beer are both now dear. 

The price is raised in either ; 
Then let us all, both great and small, 

To th' tavern walk together. 
The purest wine, &c. 

The tradesmen may at any day, 

For their own recreation. 
Be welcome still to Ralph or Will, 

And have accommodation ; 
For why, their coyn will buy the wine 

And cause a running barrel ; 
But if you're drunk, your wits are sunk, 

And gorrill'd guts will quarrel. 
The purest wine, &c. 

The cobler fast will stay the last, 

For he's a lusty drinker ; 
He'l pawn his soul to have a bowl. 

To drink to Tom the tinker : 
The broom man he will be as free. 

To drink courageous fhishes ; 
If cole grow scant, before he'l want, 

He'l burn his brooms to aslies. 


The purest wine, so brisk and fine, 

The alligant and sherry, 
I hold is best to give us rest, 

Or make the senses merry. 

The fidling crowd that grow so proud, 

Will pawn their pipes and fiddles, 
They'l strike and crack with bowls of sack, 

And cut the queerest widdles ; 
They'l rant and tear like men of war, 

Their voyces roar like thunder. 
And growing curst their fiddles burst, 

And break 'um all asunder. 
The purest wine, &c. 

The country blades with their own maids. 

At every merry meeting, 
For ale and cakes at their town wakes, 

Which they did give their sweetings, 
Upon their friend a crown will spend. 

In sack that is so trusty ; 
'Twill please a maid that is decay'd, 

And make a booby lusty. 
Be rul'd by me, and we'l agree 

To drink both sack and sherry, 
For that is good to cleanse the blood, 

And make our senses merry. 



(Evans's Old Ballads, i, 162, and Songs of the London Apprentices 
and Trades, by Charles Mackay, Percy Society's Edition, pp. 
134-7, and Roxburghe Ballads, British Museum, ii, 198-9.) 

Here is a crew of jovial blades, 

That lov'd the nut-brown ale, 
They in an alehouse chanc'd to meet, 

And told a merry tale. 
A bonny seaman was the first, 

But newly come to town, 
And swore that he his guts could burst, 

With ale that was so brown. 

See how the jolly carman he 

Doth the strong liquor prize, 
He so long in the alehouse sat, 

That he drank out his eyes ; 
And groping to get out of door, 

Sot-like, he tumbled down. 
And there he like a madman swore 

He lov'd the ale so brown. 

The nimble weaver he came in, 

And swore he'd have a little, 
To drink good ale it was no sin. 

Though 't made him pawn his shuttle. 


Quoth he, I am a gentleman, 

No lusty country clown, 
But yet I love with all my heart 

The ale that is so brown. 

Then next the blacksmith he came in, 

And said, " 'Twas mighty hot ;" 
He sitting down did thus begin, 

" Fair maid, bring me a pot ; 
Let it be of the very best, 

That none exceeds in town, 
I tell you true, and do not jest, 

I love the ale so brown." 

The prick louse tailor he came in, 

"Whose tongue did run so nimble. 
And said, he would engage for drink. 

His bodkin and his thimble. 
" For though with long thin jaws I look, 

I value not a crown. 
So I can have my belly full 

Of ale that is so brown." 

The lusty porter passing by, 

With basket on his back. 
He said, that he was grievous dry, 

And needs would pawn his sack. 
His angry wife he did not fear. 

He valued not her frown. 
So he had that he lov'd so dear, 

I mean the ale so brown. 



The next that came was one of them, 

"Was of the gentle craft, 
And when that he was wet within, 

Most heartily he laugh'd. 
Crispin was ne'er so boon as he, 

Tho' some kin to a crown ; 
And there he sat most merrily, 

With ale that was so brown. 

But at the last a barber, he 

A mind had for to taste, 
He called for a pint of drink, 

And said he was in haste ; 
The drink so pleased, he tarried there 

Till he had lost a crown, 
'Twas all the money he could spare. 

For ale that is so brown. 

A broom man, as he passed by, 

His morning draught did lack ; 
Because that he no money had. 

He pawn'd his shirt from 's back ; 
And said that he without a shirt. 

Would cry brooms up and down ; 
" But yet," quoth he, " I'll merry be. 

With ale that is so brown." 

But when all these together met, 
Oh what discourse was there ; — 


'Twould make one's hair to stand on end 
To hear how they did swear ! 

One was a fool and puppy dog, 
The other was a clown, 

And there they sat and swill'd their guts 
With ale that was so brown. 

The landlady they did abuse, 

And called her nasty whore ; 
Quoth she, " Do you your reckoning pay, 

And get you out of door !" 
Of them she could no money get, 

"Which caused her to frown ; 
But loath they were to leave behind 

The ale that was so brown. 



(From Ayres and Dialogues, by Henry Lawcs. The first Book, 
1653, by Lord Broughill.) 

'Tis wine that inspires. 
And quencheth love's fires, 

Teaches fools how to rule a state ; 
Maydes ne'er did approve it, 
Because those that love it, 

Dispise and laugh at their hate. 


The drinkers of beer 
Did ne'er yet appear 

In matters of any weight; 
'Tis he, whose designe 
Is quicken'd by wine, 

That raises things to their height. 

Who then should it prize, 
For never black eyes 

Made wounds which this could not heale ; 
"Who then doth refuse 
To drinke of this juice, 

Is a foe to the Commonweale. 


(Beloe's Anec. ii, 352 : Wine, Beer, Ale, and Tobacco, contending 
for superiority. A Dialogue, 1658, in Garrick Collection.) 

Wine. I, jovial wine, exhilarate the heart. 

Beer. March beer is a drink for a king. 

Ale. But ale, bonny ale, with spice and a tost, 

In the morning's a dainty thing. 
Chorus. Then let U9 be merry, wash sorrow away ; 

Wine, beer and ale shall be drunk to-day. 
Wine. I, generous wine, am for the court. 
Beer. The citie calls for beer. 
Ale. But ale, bonny ale, like a lord of the soyl, 

In the country .shall domineer. 
Chorus. Then let us be merry, wash sorrow away, 

Wine, beer and ale shall be drunk to-day. 



(From Hilton's Catch that catch can, 1652, pp. 92-3. By 
Mr. WiUiam Child.) 

If any so wise is that sack he dispises, 
Let him drink his smal beer and be sober ; 
Whilst we drink sack, and sing as if it were 

He shall drop like the trees in October. 
But be sure, over night if this dog do you bite, 
You take it henceforth for a warning, 
Soon as out of your bed, to settle your head, 
Take a hair of his tayl in the morning ; 
And be not so silly to follow old Lilly, 
For there's nothing but sack that can tune us ; 
Let his ne-assuescas be put in his cap-case, 
And sing hihito viiium jejuaus. 


(Ibid. 77.) 

Now God be with old Simeon, 
For he made cans for many an one. 
And a good old man was he ; 
And Jiukin was his journeyman. 
And he could tipple off evei'y can ; 


And thus he said to mee, 
To whom drink you ? 
Sir knave, to you. 
Then hey ho, jolly Jinkin, 
I spy a knave in drinking, 
Come trole the bole to mee. 
Now God, &c. 



(Chappell's Collection, ii, 64. From Walsh's British Musical 
Miscellany, vol. i, p. 92.) 

Let's tope and be merry, be jolly and cherry. 
Since here is good wine, good wine ; 

Let's laugh at the fools that live by dull rules. 
And at us good fellows repine. 

And at us good fellows repine. 

Here, here, are delights to amuse the dull nights. 

And equal a man with a god ; 
To enliven the clay, drive all care away, 

"Without a man's but a clod. 

Then let us be willing to spend t'other shilling, 
Since money we know is but dirt ; 

It suits no design like paying for wine. 
T'other bottle will do us no hurt. 




(From Chappell's Collection, ii, GO.) 

Here's a health to the king and a lasting peace, 
To faction an end, to wealth increase ; 
Come let's drink it while we have breath, 
For there's no drinking after death. 
And he that will this health deny, 
Down among the dead men let him lye. 

Let charming beauty's health go round, 
In whom celestial joys ai*e found. 
And may confusion still pursue 
The senseless women- hating crew ; 
And they that women's health deny, 
Down among the dead men let them lye. 

In smiling Bacchus' joys I'll roll, 
Deny no pleasure to my soul ; 
Let Bacchus' health round briskly move, 
For Bacchus is a friend to love. 
And he that will this health deny, 
Down among the dead men let him lye. 

May love and wine their rites maintain, 
And their united pleasures reign. 


While Bacchus' treasure crowns the board, 
We'll sing the joys that both afford ; 
And they that won't with us comply, 
Down among the dead men let them lye. 


There are several copies of the following. Chappell has one, 
(see his valuable Collection, ii, 53), and he says there is one in 
the British Museum, at least two hundred years old : there is 
also one in D'Urfey's Pills, vol. iii, 247-9, and in Roxburghe 
Ballads, British Museum, ii, 257. 

'TwAS God above that made all things, 
The heav'ns, the earth, and all therein ; 
The ships that on the sea do swim, 
To guard from foes that none come in ; 
And let them all do what they can, 
'Tis for one end — the use of man. 
So I wish in heav'n his soul may dwell, 
That first found out the leather bottel. 

Now what do you say to these cans of wood ? 

Oh no, in faith they cannot be good ; 

For if the beai'cr fall by the way, 

Why on the ground your liquor doth lay ; 


But had it been a leather bottel, 
Although he had fallen, all had been well. 
So I wish in heav'n, &c. 

Then what do you say to these glasses fine ? 
Oh, they shall have no praise of mine. 
For if you chance to touch the brim, 
Down falls the liquor and all therein ; 
But had it been in a leather bottel. 
And the stopple in, all had been well. 
So I wish, &c. 

Then what do you say to these black pots three ? 
If a man and his wife should not agree, 
Why they'll tug and pull till their liquor doth spill: 
In a leather bottel they may tug their fill, 
And pull away till their hearts do ake, 
And yet their liquor no harm can take. 
So I wish, 8ic. 

Then what do you say to these flagons fine ? 
Oh, they shall have no praise of mine. 
For when a lord is about to dine. 
And sends them to be filled with wine. 
The man with the flagon doth run away, 
Because it is silver most gallant and gay. 
So I wish, &c. 

A leather bottel we know is good, 
Far better than glasses or cans of wood. 


For when a man's at work in the field, 
Your glasses and pots no comfort will yield ; 
But a good leather bottel standing by, 
Will raise his spirits, whenever he's dry. 
So I wish, &c. 

At noon, the haymakers sit them down, 
To drink from their bottels of ale nut-brown ; 
In summer too, when the weather is warm, 
A good bottel full will do them no harm. 
Then the lads and the lasses begin to tattle. 
But what would they do without this bottle ; 
So I wish, &c. 

There's never a lord, an earl, or knight. 
But in this bottel doth take delight ; 
For when he's hunting of the deer, 
He oft doth wish for a bottel of beer. 
Likewise the man that works in the wood, 
A bottel of beer will oft do him good. 
So I wish, &c. 

And when the bottel at last grows old. 
And will good liquor no longer hold. 
Out of the side you may make a clout. 
To mend your shoes when they're worn out ; 
Or take and hang it up on a pin, 
'Twill serve to put hinges and odd things in. 
So I wish, &c. 



(Hone's Table Book, 255-6, from London Chanticleer, 1659.) 

Submit, bunch of grapes, 
To the strong barley ear ; 
The weak wine no longer 
The laurel shall wear. 

Sack, and all drinks else, 
Desist from the strife ; 
Ale's the only Aqua vitae, 
And liquor of life. 

Then come, my boon fellows, 
Let's di'ink it around ; 
It keeps us from gi-ave. 
Though it lays us on ground. 

Ale's a physician, 
No mountebank bragger ; 
Can cure the chill ague, 
Though it be with the stagger. 

Ale's a strong wrestler, 
Kings all it hath met ; 
And makes the ground slippery, 
Though it be not wet. 


Ale is both Ceres, 
And good Neptune too, 
Ale's froth was the sea, 
From which Venus grew. 

Ale is immortal ; 
And be there no stops, 
In bonny lads quaffing, 
Can live without hops. 

Then come, my boon fellows. 
Let's drink it around ; 
It keeps us from grave. 
Though it lays us on ground. 


(From Wit and Drollery, 165G, pp. 154-5 ; it is also in Ilitson's 
English Songs, ii, 62.) 

When as the Chilehe Rocko blowes, 

And winter tells a heavy tale ; 
When pyes, and dawes, and rookes, and crows. 
Sit cursing of the frosts and snowes ; 

Then give me ale. 


Ale ill Saxon Rumken then, 

Such as will make grim Malkin prate ; 

Rouseth up valour in all men, 
Quickens the poets wit and pen, 

Dispiseth fate. 

Ale that the absent battle fights, 

And frames the march of Swedish drums ; 

Disputes the princes lawes and rights, 
And what is past, and what's to come, 

Tells mortal wights. 

Ale that the plowraans heart up keeps. 
And equals it with Tyrants thrones ; 

That wipes the eyes that over weepes. 
And lulls in dainty and secure sleepes, 

His weared bones. 

Grandchilde of Ceres, Barlies daughter, 
Wines emulus neighbour, if but stale ; 

Innobling all the nimphs of water. 

And filling each man's heart with laughter ; 

Ha, ha, give me ale. 



(Chappell's Collection, part ii, pp. 42-3 : D'Urfey's Pills to purge 
Melancholy, vol. iii, 143-4, which differs a little from this.) 
This Song is said to have been made on Simon Wadloe, who 
kept the Devil Tavern, when Ben Jonson's club, the Apollo, 
met there. 

In a humour I was of late, 

As many good fellowes may be, 

To think of no matters of state, 

But to seek for good company, 

That best might suit my mind. 

So I travell'd both up and down, 

No company I could find, 

Till I came to the sight of the Crown. 

My hostess was sick of the mumps, 

The maid was ill at her ease. 

The tapster was drunk in his dumps, 

They were all of one disease, 

Says old Simon the King. 

If a man should be drunk to-night, 

And laid in his grave to-morrow, 

Will you or any man say 

That he died of care or sorrow ? 

Then hang up all sorrow and care, 

'Tis able to kill a cat, 

And he that will drink all night, 

Is never afraid of that ; 

For drinking will make a man quaff, 


Ami quaffing will make a man sing, 
And singing will make a man laugh, 
And laughing long life doth bring, 

Says old Simon the King. 

Considering in my mind, 
I thus began to think : 
If a man be full to the throat, 
And cannot take off his drink. 
If his drink will not go down. 
He may hang up himself for shame. 
So the tapster at the Crown. 
Whereupon this reason I frame. 
Drink will make a man drunk, 
Drunk will make a man dry, 
Dry will make a man sick. 
And sick will make a man die, 

Says old Simon the King. 

If a Puritan skinker do cry. 
Dear brother, it is a sin 
To drink unless you be dry. 
Then straight this tale I begin : 
A Puritan left his cann, 
And took him to his jugg, 
And there he played the man 
As long as he could tug ; 
And when that he was spyed, 
Did ever he swear or rail ? 
No, truly, dear brother, he cry'd, 
Indeed all flesh is frail. 

Says old Simon the King, &c. 


(From Pills to Purge Melancholy, iii, 240-1.) 

Since there's so small difference 'twixt drowning and 

We'll tipple and pray too, like mariners sinking ; 

Whilst they drink salt-water, we'll pledge 'em in wine. 

And pay our devotion at Bacchus's shrine : 

Oh! Bacchus, great Bacchus, for ever defend us, 
And plentiful store of good Burgundy send us. 

From censuring the state, and what passes above. 
From a surfeit of cabbage, from law-suits and love ; 
From meddling with swords and such dangerous things. 
And handling of guns in defiance of kings : 

Oh! Bacchus, &c. 

From riding a jade that will start at a feather, 
Or ending a journey with loss of much leatlier ; 
From the folly of dying for grief or despair, 
With our heads in the water, or heels in the air : 

Oh! Bacchus, &c. 

From a usurer's gripe, and from every man, 
That boldly pretends to do more than he can ; 
From the scolding of women, and bite of mad dogs, 
And wandering over wild Irish bogs. 

Oh! Bacchus, &c. 


From liunger and thirst, empty bottles and glasses, 
From those whose I'eligion consists in grimaces ; 
From e'er being cheated by female decoys. 
From humouring old men, and reasoning with boys : 

Oh! Bacchus, &c. 

From those little troublesome insects and flyes, 

That think themselves pretty, or witty, or wise ; 

From carrying a quartan for mortification, 

As long as a Ratisbon consultation. 

Oh! Bacchus, great Bacchus, for ever defend us. 
And plentiful store of good Burgundy send us. 



With three glasses ; ending with a Stanza in honour of tlie Prince of 
Ilanover, and Prince Eugene ; made on the occasion of the late 
glorious victor?/ at Audenard. ^ 

(From the same, i, 40-41.) 

Sing mighty Marlborough's story, 

Mars of the field. 

He passes the Scheld ; 

And to increase his glory. 

The French all fly or yield ; 

Vendosme drew out to spite him, 

Th' household troops to fright him ; 

Princes o' th' blood, 

Got off as they couVl, 

But ne'er durst return to fijiht him. 


This is the year of wonders ; 

The gend'arras gor'd, 

With hullet and sword, 

Quake when the general thunders, 

Almanza was the word ; 

Sound the trumpet, sound, boys, 

This to his health be crown'd, boys, 

(^Take the first glass.^ 

Circle his brows 

With fresh oaken boughs, 

And thus let the glasses go round, boys. 

(Taie the second glass and put into the first.) 

Now we made a motion ; 

Eugene, the brave, 

A second shall have, 

And could we tope an ocean. 

His due we hardly give ; 

Still there's one more must be, boys, 

Hannover makes 'em up three, boys. 

{Drinli the third tjlass.) 

Three in a hand, 

I'll drink to my friend, 

And so let us all agree, boys. 



(From the same, iii, 274-5.) 

The effect in this Song is similar to a convivial glee introduced a 
few years since, "A Pie sat on a Fear Tree"; where one 
drinks while the others sing. 

To be sung by all the Company together, with directions to be observed. 

First man sUinds up ivith a glass in hand and sings. 

Here's a health to jolly Bacchus, 

Here's a health to jolly Bacchus, 

Here's a health to jolly Bacchus, I-ho, I-ho, I-ho ; 

For he doth merry make us. 

For he doth merry make us. 

For he doth merry make us, I-ho, I-ho, I-ho. 

*Come sit ye down together. 
Come sit ye down together^ 
Come sit ye down together, I-ho, 1-ho, I-ho ; 
Andj" bring more liquor hither, 
And bring more liquor hither. 
And bring more liquor hither, I-ho, I-ho, I-ho. 

It goes into the cranium,* 

It goes into the cranium, 

It goes into the cranium, I-ho, I-ho, I-ho. 

* At this Star they all bow to each other, and sit down, 
■f At this dagger all the company beckons to the drawer. 
* At this star the Jiist mall drinks his glass, while all the others 
sing and point at him. 


And thou'rt a boon companion,! 
And thou'rt a boon companion, 
And thou'rt a boon companion, T-ho, I-ho, I-ho. 
Thoi the second man takes his glass, all the company 
singing Here's a health, &c. So round. 


(From same, iv, 21o.) 

What need we take care for Platonical rules. 

Or the precepts of Aristotle ; 
Those that think to find learning in books are but fools, 

True philosophy lies in the bottle : 
And the mind that's confin'd to the modes of the schools 

Ne'er arrives to the height of a pottle : 
Let the sages, of our ages, keep a talking of our walking, 

Demurely, whilst we that are wiser 
Do abhor all that's moral in Cato and Plato, 

And Seneca talks like a sizer : 
Then let full bowls, full bottles and bowls be hurl'd, 

That our jollity may be compleater; 
For man, tho' he be but a very little world. 

Must be drown'd as well as the greater. 

"We will drink till our cheeks are as starr'd as the skies, 
Let the pale colour'd student flout us ; 

t At this dagger tlui/ all sit down, cla/ijjtng Ihdr next man on the 


Till our noses, like comets, set fire on our eyes, 

And we bear the horizon about us : 
And if all make us fall, then our heels shall divine 

What the stars are a doing without us : 
Let Lilly go tell ye of thunders and wonders, 

And astrologers all divine ; 
Let Booker be a looker in our natures and features. 

He'll find nothing but claret in mine. 

Then let full bowls, &c. 



(From same, v, 15.) 

Come bring us wine in plenty. 

We've money enough to spend ; 
I hate to see the pots empty, 

A man cannot drink to's friend ; 
Then, drawer, bring up more wine. 
And merrily let it pass ; 
We'll drink till our faces do shine, 
He that won't may look like an ass : 
And we'll tell him so to his face, 
If he oflFers to baulk his glass, 
For we defy all such dull society. 



'Tis drinking makes us mei'ry, 

And mirth diverts all care ; 
A song of Hey down derry, 

Is better than heavier air : 
Make ready quickly, my boys, 
And fill up your glasses higher ; 
For we'll present with huzzas, 
And merrily all give fire ; 
Since drinking 's our desire, 
And friendship we admire. 
For here we'll stay, ne'er call Drawer what's to pay. 



(Fi'om same, v, IG.) 

Let's be jolly, fill our glasses. 
Madness 'tis for us to think, 

How the world is rul'd by asses, 
That o'ersway the wise with chink : 

Let not such vain thoughts oppress us, 
Riches prove to them a snare ; 

We are all as rich as Croesus ; 
Drink your glasses, take no care. 


Wine will make us fresh as roses, 
And our sorrows all forget ; 

Let us fuddle well our noses, 

Drink ourselves quite out of debt : 

When gi'im death is looking for us, 
Whilst we're singing o'er our bowls ; 

Bacchus joyning in our chorus, 

Death depart, here's none but souls. 


(From same, v, 85-6. Words by Mr. Alexander Brome.) 

Stay, stay, shut the gates, 
T'other quart, faith, it is not so late 

As you're thinking ; 
Those stars which you see, 
In this hemisphere be. 

But the studs in your cheeks by your drinking : 
The sun is gone to tipple all night in the sea, boys, 
To-morrow he'll blush that he's paler than we, boys. 
Drink wine, give him water, 'tis sack makes us jee, boys. 


Fill, fill up the glass, 

To the next merry lad let it pass, 
Come away with 't : 

Come set foot to foot, 

And but give our minds to 't, 

'Tis heretical six that doth slay wit, 
No Helicon like to the juice of the vine is, 
For Phoebus had never had wit, nor diviness. 
Had his face been bow dy'd as thine, his, and mine is. 

Drink, drink off your bowls, 

We'll enrich both our heads and our souls 
With Canary ; 

A carbuncled face. 

Saves a tedious race, 

For the Indies about us we carry : 
Then hang up good faces, we'll drink till our noses 
Give freedom to speak what our fancy disposes, 
Beneath whose protection is under the roses. 

This, this must go round. 

Off your huls, till that the pavement be crown'd 
With your beavers ; 

A red-coated face. 

Frights a serjeant-at-mace, 

And the constable trembles to shivers : 
In state march our faces like those of the quorum, 
When the wenches fall down, and the vulgar adore 'era, 
And our noses, like link-boys, run shining before 'em. 


(From same, v, 91.) 

A PLAGUE on those fools who exclaim against wine, 
And fly the dear sweets that the bottle doth bring ; 

It heightens the fancy, the wit does refine. 

And he that was first drunk was made the first king. 

By the help of good claret old age becomes youth, 
And sick men still find this the only physician ; 

Drink largely, you'll know by experience the truth, 
That he that drinks most is the best politician. 

To victory this leads on the brave cavalier. 
And makes all the terrors of war but delight ; 

This flushes his courage, and beats off" base fear, 
'Twas that taught Ceesar and Pompey to fight. 

This supports all our friends, and knocks down our foes, 
This makes all loyal men from courtier to clown ; 

Like Dutchmen from brandy, from this our strength 
So 'tis wine, noble wine, that's a friend to the crown. 



(From same, v, 138.) 

Come fill up the bowl with the liquor that fine is, 

And much more divine is, 
Than now-a-days wine is, with all their art. 

None here can controul : 
The vintner despising, though brandy be rising, 

'Tis punch that must chear the heart : 
The lover's complaining, 'twill cure in a trice, 
And Ctelia disdaining, shall cease to be nice, 
Come fill up the bowl, &c. 

Thus soon you'll discover, the cheat of each lover, 
When free from all care you'll quickly find, 
As nature intended 'em willing and kind : 
Come fill up the bowl, &c. 

(British Bibliograplu-r, ii, 167. From Ilistrio-niastix.) 

The nut-brown ale, the nut-brown ale, 
Puts downe all drinke when it is stale, 
The toast, the nutmeg, and the ginger. 
Will make the sighing man a singer. 



Ale gives a buffet in the head, 

But ginger under proppes the brayne ; 

When ale would strike a strong man dead, 
Then nutmegge tempers it againe, 

The nut-brown ale, the nut-brown ale, 

Puts downe all drinke when it is stale. 


(Ritson's Ancient Songs, pp. 304-6, from " New Christmas 
Carrols"; black letter, no date.) 

To he sung upon twelfth-day, at night, to the tune of " Gallants, 
come away." 

A JOLLY wassel bowl, 

A wassel of good ale, 
Well fare the butler's soul. 

That setteth this to sale ; 

Our jolly wassel. 

Good dame, here at your door 

Our wassel we begin. 
We are all maidens poor, 

We pray now let us in. 

With our wassel. 


Our wassel we do fill 

With apples and with spice, 
Then grant us your good will 

To taste here once or twice 

Of our good wassel. 

If any maidens be 

Here dwelling in this house, 
They kindly will agree 

To take a full carouse 

Of our wassel. 

But here they let us stand 

All freezing in the cold : 
Good master, give command 

To enter, and be bold. 

With our wassel. 

Much joy into this hall 

With us is entred in ; 
Our master, first of all, 

We hope will now begin 

Of our wa.ssel. 

And after, his good wife 

Our spiced bowl will try ; 
The Lord prolong your life. 
Good fortune we espy 

For our wassel. 



Some bounty from your hands, 
Our wassel to maintain : 

We'l buy no house nor lands 
Witli that which we do gain 

With our wassel. 

This is our merry night 

Of choosing king and queen, 

Then be it your delight 

That something may be seen 
In our wassel. 

It is a noble part 

To bear a liberal mind ; 

God bless our master's heart, 
For here we comfort find, 

With our wassel. 

And now we must be gone 
To seek out more good cheer, 

Where bounty will be shown, 
As we have found it here, 

With our wassel. 

Much joy betide them all, 
Our prayers shall be still. 

We hope and ever shall, 

For this your great good will 
To our wassel. 



(By Lieutenant and Soldiers. From the Princess, or Love at 
First Sight, by Killigrew, act v, scene 2.) 

1. All 3. To Bacchus bow, to Bacchus sing, 

With wine and mirth let's conjure him, 

1. By his mother's eye 

2. And his father's thigh, 

3. By her god-brought delight, 

1. And his too glorious sight, 

2. By Juno's deceit, 

3. And thy sad retreat ; 

1. Appear, appear, appear, 

2. Kind god, in bottles here. 
Bacchus. Lo I appear, lo I appear. 

2. All 3. To Bacchus bow, to Bacchus sing, 

With wine and mirth let's conjure hiui. 

1. By Ariadne's wrongs, 

2. And the false youth's harms ; 

3. By the rock in his breast, 

1. That fled from the distrest ; 

2. By the tempest in her mind, 

3. Which ceas't when thou wert kind ; 

1. By those beauties that he fled, 

2. And the pleasures of her bc<l. 


J II 3. Appear, appear, appear, 
Kind god, in bottles here. 
Bacchus. Drink and I will appear ; 
Drink deep and I am here. 

3. All. 3. To Bacchus bow, to Bacchus sing, 

'Tis wine and mirth that conjures him. 

1 . By this blood of the vine, 

2. Thus pour'd on thy shrine ; 

3. By this full glass, 

1 . To the last kind lass ; 

2. 'Twas a girle twice nine, 

3. That clasp'd like thy vine ; 

1. By this and that appear, appear, appear, 

2. Kind and kinder god, in bottles here. 
Bacchus, All 3. Lo I appear, one kind bottle more 

and I will dwell here. 

4. All 3. Then thus again we will conjure him, 
Because he has propitious been. 

1 . Hence this glass, a poor and single sacrifice, 

2. A hecatomb in this bottle dies, 

3. By the men that thou hast won, 

1 . And the women thou hast undone ; 

2. By the friendships thou hast made, 

3. And the secrets thou hast betray'd ; 

1 . By this cure of our sorrow, 

2. Thus charm'd till to-morrow ; 

3. Appeal", appear, appear, 


All 3. Kind god, in bottles here. 
Bacchus, All. 3. Lo I appear, lo I am here, 
And there, and there ; 
Lo, I am everywhere. 




(From Roxburghe Ballads, British Museum, 2-88.) 

He that loves sack, doth nothing lack, 

If he but loyal be ; 
He that denyes Bacchus' supplyes, 

Shows meere hypocrisie. 

To a new tune, " Come boyes, fill us a Bumper," or " My 
Lodging is on the cold Ground." 

Come, boyes, fill us a bumper, 

We'l make the nation roare, 
She's grown sick of a rumper 

That sticks on the old score. 
Pox on phanatticks, rout 'um, 

They thirst for our blood, 
We'l taxes raise without 'um, 

And drink for the nation's good. 
Fill the pottles and gallons, 

And bring the hogshead in, 
We'l begin with a tallcn, 

A brimmer to the kincr. 


Round around, fill a fresh one, 

Let no man bawk his wine, 
We'l drink to the next in succession, 

And keep it in the right line. 
Bring us ten thousand glasses, 

The more we drink we're a dry, 
We mind not the beautiful lasses, 

Whose conquest lyes all in the eye. 
Charge the pottles and gallons, 

And bring the hogshead in ; 
We'l begin with a tallen, 

A brimmer to the king. 

We boyes are truly loyal. 

For Charles we'l venture all, 
We know his blood is royal, 

His name shall never fall. 
But those that seek his ruine. 

May chance to dye before him, 
While we that sack are wooing. 

For ever will adore him. 
Fill the pottles and gallons, 

And bring the hogshead in ; 
We'l begin with a tallen, 

A brimmer to the king. 

I hate those strange dissenters 
That strives to bawk a glass. 

He that at all adventures 
Will see what comes to pass : 


And let the popish faction 

Disturb us if they can, 
They ne'er shall breed distraction 

In a true-hearted man. 
Fill the pottles and gallons, 

And bring the hogshead in, 
We'l begin with a tallen, 

A brimmer to the king. 

Let the phanatticks grumble, 

To see things cross their grain, 
We'l make them now more humble, 

Or ease them of their pain : 
They shall drink sack amain, too, 

Or else they shall be choak't, 
We'l tell 'um 'tis in vain, too. 

For us to be provok't. 
Fill the pottles and gallons. 

And bring the hogshead in, 
We'l begin with a tallen, 

A brimmer to the king. 

He that denyes the brimmer 

Shall banish't be in this isle, 
And we will look more grimmer, 

Till he begins to smile : 
We'l drown him in canary. 

And make him all our own, 
And when his heart is merry 

He'l drink to Charles in's throne ; 


Fill the pottles and gallons, 
And bring the hogshead in, 

We'l begin with a tallen, 
A brimmer to the king. 

Quakers and Anabaptist 

We'll sink them in a glass, 
He deals most plain and flattest 

That says he loves a lass : 
Then tumble down canary, 

And let your brains go round, 
For he that won't be merry 

He can't at heart be sound ; 
Fill the pottles and gallons. 

And bring the hogshead in, 
We'l begin with a tallen, 

A brimmer to the king. 


(From the Mser, act iii, by Thomas Shadwell, Esq.) 

Come, lay by your cares, and hang up your sorrow ; 
Drink on, he's a sot that e'er thinks on to-morrow ; 
Good store of good claret supplies every thing. 
And the man that is drunk is as great as a king. 


Let none at misfox'tunes or losses repine, 

But take a full dose of the juice of the vine ; 

Diseases and troubles are ne'er to be found, 

But in the damn'd place where the glass goes not round. 


(From the Woman-Captain, by same, act iv.) 

Let the daring adventurers be toss'd on the main, 

And for riches no dangers decline ; 
Though with hazard the spoils of both Indies they gain. 

They can bring us no treasure like wine. 

Enough of such wealth would a beggar enrich, 

And supply greater wants in a king ; 
'Twould sooth all the griefs in a comfortless wretch, 

And inspire weeping captives to sing. 

There is none that groans under a burdensome life. 

If this sovereign balsam he gains ; 
This will make a man bear all tlie plagues of a wife. 

And of rags, and diseases in chains. 

It swells all our veins with a kind purple flood, 
And puts love and great thoughts in the mind: 

There's no peasant so rank but it fills with good blood, 
And to gallantry makes him inclin'd. 


There's nothing our hearts with such joy can bewitch, 
For on earth 'tis a pow'r that's divine ; 

Without it we're wretched, tho' never so rich, 
Nor is any man poor that has wine. 

ON CAN All Y. 

(By Alexander Brome.) 

Of all the rare juices 
That Bacchus or Ceres produces, 
There's none that I can, nor dare I 
Compare with the princely Canary. 
For this is the thing 

That a fancy infuses, 
This first got a king, 

And next the nine muses; 
'Twas this made old poets so sprightly to sing. 

And fill all the world with the glory and fame on't ; 
They Plelicon call'd it, and the Thespian spring. 
But this was the drink, though they knew not the 
name on't. 

Our cider and perry 
May make a man mad, but not merry ; 
It makes people windmill-pated, 
And with crackers sophisticated ; 
And your hops, yest, and malt, 
When they're mingled together, 


Makes our fancies to halt, 

Or reel any whither ; 
It stuffs up our brains with froth and with yest, 

That if one would write but a vei'se for a bellman, 
He must study till Christmas for an eight shillingjest. 

These liquors won't raise, but drown, and o'erwhelm, 

Our drowsy metheglin 

"Was only ordain'd to inveigle in 

The novice that knows not to drink yet. 

But is fuddled before he can think it : 

And your claret and white 

Have a gunpowder fury. 
They're of the French spright, 

But they won't long endure you. 
And your holiday Muscadine, Alicant and Tent, 

Have only this property and virtue that's fit in't, 
They'll make a man sleep till a preachment be spent. 

But we neither can warm our blood nor wit in't. 

The bagrag and Rhenish 
You must with ingredients replenish ; 
'Tis a wine to please ladies and toys with, 
But not for a man to rejoice with. 
But 'tis sack makes the sport. 

And who gains but that flavour, 
Though an abbess he court. 

In his high-shoes he'll have her; 


'Tis this that advances the drinker and drawer : 

Though the father came to town in his hobnails 


and leather, 

He turns it to velvet, and brings up an heir. 

In the town in his chain, in the field with his feather. 



(From Early Naval Ballads, Percy Society's edition, pp. 96-8, 
also in D'Urfey's Pills to Purge Melancholy, iii, 304-6.) 

All hands up aloft, 

Swab the coach fore and aft, 

For the punch clubbers straight will be sitting ; 

For fear the ship rowl 

Sling off a full bowl, 

For our honour let all things be fitting ; 

In an ocean of punch 

We to-night will all sail, 

I'th' bowl we're in sea-room. 

Enough, we ne'er fear : 

Here's to thee, messmate. 

Thanks, honest Tom, 

'Tis a health to the king ; 

Whilst the larboard man drinks, 

Let the starboard-man sing. 

With full double cups 

We'll liquor our chops. 


And then we'll turn out, 
With a who up, who, w^lio ; 
But let's drink e'er we go, 
But let's drink e'er we go. 

The wind's veering aft, 

Then loose ev'ry sail, 

She'll bear all her topsails a-trip ; 

Heave the logg from the poop, 

It blows a fresh gale. 

And a just account on the board keep ; 

She runs the eight knots. 

And eight cups, to my thinking, 

That's a cup for each knot. 

Must be fiU'd for our drinking. 

Here's to thee, skipper. 

Thanks, honest John, 

'Tis a health to the king, 

Whilst the one is a drinking, 

The other shall fill. 

With full double cups, 

We'll liquor our chops, &c. 

The quartier must cun. 

Whilst the fore-mast man steers, 

Here's a health to each port where e'er bound ; 

Who delays, 'tis a bumper, 

Shall be drub'd at the geers, 

The depth of each cup therefore sound : 

To our noble commander. 


To liis honour and wealth ; 
May he drown and be danin'd 
That refuses the health. 
Here's to thee, honest Harry. 
Thanks, honest Will, 
Old true penny still ; 
Whilst the one is a drinking, 
The other shall fill. 

With full double cups, 
We'll liquor our chops, &c. 

What news on the deck, ho ? 

It blows a nicer storm ; 

She lies a trie under her mizon, — 

Why, what tho' she does ? 

Will it do any harm ? 

If a bumper more does us all reason : 

The bowl must be fiU'd, boys, 

In spight of the weather ; 

Yea, yea, huzza, let's howl altogether. 

Here's to thee, Peter. 

Thanks, honest Joe, 

About let it go ; 

In the bowl still a calm is, 

Where e'er the winds blow. 
With full double cups. 
We'll liquor our chops, &c. 



(From Ancient Poems, Ballads, &c., by J. H. Dixon, Percy 
Society's edition, pp. 206-8. See also Chappell's Collection, 
and D'Urfcy's Pills, &c. v, 62-4.) 

There were six jovial tradesmen, 

And they all set down to drinking, 

For they were a jovial crew ; 
They sat themselves down to be merry ; 
And they called for a bottle of sherry. 
You're welcome as the hills, says Nolly, 

While Joan's ale is new, brave boys, 

While Joan's ale is new. 

The first that came in was a soldier, 
With his firelock over his shoulder. 
Sure no one could be bolder. 

And a long broad sword he drew : 
He swore he would fight for England's ground, 
Before the nation should be run down. 
He boldly drank their healths all round. 

While Joan's ale was new. 

The next that came in was a hatter. 
Sure no one could be blacker. 
And he began to chatter, 
Among the jovial crew : 


He threw his hat upon the gi-ound, 
And swore every man should spend his pound, 
And boldly drank their healths all round, 
While Joan's ale was new. 

The next that came in was a dyer, 
And he sat himself down by the fire, 
For it was his heart's desire 

To drink with the jovial crew : 
He told the landlord to his face, 
The chimney-corner should be his place, 
And there he'd sit and dye his face. 

While Joan's ale was new. 

The next that came in was a tinker, 
And he was no small beer drinker, 
And he was no strong ale shrinker, 

Among the jovial crew : 
For his brass nails were made of metal, 
And he swore he'd go and mend a kettle. 
Good heart, how his hammer and nails did rattle, 

When Joan's ale was new. 

The next that came in was a tayloi". 
With his bodkin, shears, and thimble, 
He swore he would be nimble 

Among the jovial crew : 
They sat and they called for ale so stout, 
Till the poor taylor was almost broke, 
And was forced to go and pawn his coat, 

While Joan's ale was new. 


The next that came in was a ragman, 
With his rag-bag over his shoulder, 
Sure no one could be bolder 

Among the jovial crew. 
They sat and called for pots and glasses, 
Till they were all as drunk as asses, 
And burnt the old ragman's bag to ashes. 

While Joan's ale was new. 


(From Tom Brown's Works, iv, 53-4.) 

What a plague d'ye tell me of the papists design ? 
Would to God you'd leave talking, and drink off your 

Away with your glass, sir, and drown all debate ; 
Let's be loyally merry, ne'er think of the state. 
The king (heav'ns bless him) knows best how to rule ; 
And who troubles his head I think is but a fool. 

Come, sir, here's his health ; your brimmer advance, 
We'll ingross all the claret, and leave none for France ; 
'Tis by this we declare our loyal intent, 
And by our carousing the customs augment. 
Would all mind their drinking, and proper vocation, 
We shou'd ha' none of this l)ustlc and stir in the nation. 


Let the hero of Poland, and monarch of France, 
Strive, by methods of fighting, their crowns to advance; 
Let chapels in Lime-street be built or destroy'd, 
And the test, and the oath of supremacy void, 
It shall ne'er trouble me ; I'm none of those maggots. 
That have whimsical fancies of Smithfield and faggots. 

Then banish all groundless suspicions away. 
The king knows to govern, let us learn to obey ; 
Let every man mind his business and drinking. 
When the head's full of wine, there's no room left for 

'Tis nought but an empty and whimsical pate, 
That makes fools run giddy with notions of state. 


(From the sume, iv, 62.) 

Wine in the morning 

Makes us frolick and gay, 

That like eagles we soar 
In the pride of the day. 

Gouty sots of the night 
Only find a decay. 


'Tis the sun ripes the grape, 
And to drinking gives light ; 

We imitate him, 

When by noon we are at height 

They steal wine who take it, 
When he's out of sight. 

Boy, fill all the glasses. 

Fill them up now he shines ; 
The higher he rises, 

The more he refines : 
For wine and wit fall 

As their maker declines. 

(From ChappoH's Colleclion, ICl.) 

Wassail ! wassail ! all over the town, 
Our bread is white, and our ale it is brown 
Our bowl it is made of the maplin tree, 
So here, my good fellow, I'll drink to thee. 

The wassailing bowl, with a toast within, 
Come fill it up unto the brim ; 


Come fill it up, so that we may all see ; 
With the wassailinff bowl I'll drink to thee. 

Come, butler, come bring us a bowl of your best, 
And we hope your soul in Heaven will rest ; 
But if you do bring us a bowl of your small. 
Then down shall go butler, the bowl and all. 

Oh, butler ! oh, butler I now don't you be worst. 
But pull out your knife and cut us a toast ; 
And cut us a toast, one that we may all see ; — 
With the wassailing bowl I'll drink to thee. 

Here's to Dobbin, and to his right eye, 
God send our mistress a good Christmas pye ; 
A good Christmas pye, as e'er we did see ; — 
With the wassailing bowl I'll drink to thee. 

Here's to Broad May and to his broad horn, 
God send our master a good crop of corn ; 
A good crop of corn, as we may all see, — 
With the wassailing bowl I'll drink to thee. 

Here's to Colly, and to her long tail. 
We hope our master and mistress's heart will ne'er fail, 
But bring us a bowl of your good strong beer. 
And then we shall taste of your happy new year. 


Be there here any pretty maid^ ? we hope there be 

Don't let the jolly wassailers stand on the cold stone, 
But open the door, and pull out the pin, 
That we jolly wassailers may all sail in. 



popular €iisli5il) ^i^toxm. 


F.S.A., HON. M.R.I. A., HON. M.R.S.L., ETC. 

Tlio' will] the fablp, though iiulc the rhyme, 
Oh ! deal- is a tale of the olden time. 



Cfte ^ercp ^onetp. 







J. H. DIXON, Esq. 


J. M. GUTCH, Esq., F.S.A. 


W. JERDAN, Esq. M.R..S.L. 

J. S. MOORE, Esq. 


T. J. PETTIGREW, Esq. F.R.S., F.S.A. 



THOMAS WRIGHT, Esq. M.A., F S.A., Trcamrer 4- .Secretary. 


The value of a popular history — by which we 
mean a narrative especially intended for the in- 
struction or amusement of the unlearned — is not 
to be estimated by its apparent frivolity. And 
why is it not ? Simply because such a composi- 
tion is, in many cases, one of the few remaining 
records which arrested the destruction of numei'ous 
facts, trivial perhaps in themselves, but of the ut- 
most importance to the correct understanding of 
some of our best writers. 

A student who is anxious to attain that exten- 
sive knowledge of the habits, customs, and phrase- 
ology of our ancestors, without which the humour 
of Shakespeare and many of his contemporaries 
can only be imperfectly appreciated, will do well 


to turn his attention to the ancient literature of 
the cottage, and make himself acquainted with the 
tales that were familiar " as household words" to 
the groundlings of the Globe or the Blackfriars. 
Those who despise this troublesome method of 
illustration do so without reflection, and invari- 
ably without a practical knowledge of its extreme 
utility. Let us ask, where would a reader turn 
for explanations of the jocular allusions in a modern 
farce or extravaganza? Certainly not to the works 
of Faraday or Mrs. Somerville, but oftener to the 
ballads of Seven Dials, or even to the songs of the 
nursery. The observation is true when applied 
to a more ancient period. If any proof were 
necessary, it would be found in the fact, that the 
tale of Jack the Giant Killer is quoted in the 
second greatest tragedy — King Lear. 

We are insisting upon the usefulness of our 
fugitive popular literature, without the slightest 
reference to its undeniable value in the history of 
fiction and the transmission of romance. Merely 
regarding it as important in the illustration of 
works, which all the world admit are worthy of 



illustration, it is contended that the most frivolous 
books that were read by our ancestors, are at the 
same time invaluable for the exposition of early- 
English humour. 

Under this impression, it is hoped that a short 
account of some of the most curious popular histo- 
ries will not be unacceptable to the members of 
the Percy Society. It may, at all events, draw 
attention to a subject well worthy of attentive 
consideration, and attract the notice of those who 
may be enabled to make important additions to 
these imperfect memoranda.* 

Most of the pieces described in the following 
pages were printed in the last century, chiefly 
between the years 1720 and 1780; but it is to be 
observed that, although reprints of much earlier 

* We are so well aware of their defective quality, that 
we are most anxious to plead the apology usually accepted 
for the first essay in any branch of literature, no matter how 
humble, and to invite contributions. Any communications 
respecting popular histories, chap-books, garlands, or any of 
the numerous fugitive pieces of a like character, will be 
most thankfully and carefully acknowledged. They may be 
addressed to Mr. Halliwell, Avenue Lodge, Brixton Hill, 


productions, they liave been found to agree 
minutely with the more ancient copies, wherever 
an opportunity of compai'ison has been afforded. 
In many cases, no copies of the seventeenth cen- 
tury are known to exist ; but after our experience 
of the correctness with which they continued to 
be reprinted, we may accept the later editions 
without much hesitation. 

The wood- cuts in this tract have been carefully 
taken from the originals by Mr. Fairholt. The 
two at pp. 9, 72, were kindly lent to the Society 
by J. M. Gutch, Esq., F.S.A. The others are 
presented by the Compiler. 

November 1848. 


1. The Life and Pranks of Long Meg of West- 
minster. Imprinted at London for Abraham 
Veale, dwellinge in Pauls Church yeard, at the 
signe of the Lambe. 12mo, 1582. 

This is in black-letter, and differs in many parti- 
culars from the subsequent impression of 1635. It 
has, however, a manuscript title-page, and some doubts 
may be entertained whether the date there assigned to 
it is correct ; but there can be no hesitation in ascrib- 
ing it to an earlier period than any edition hitherto 
described. Thomas Gubbin, in 1590, had a license to 
print " the life of Long Megg of Westminster" ; and 
she is alluded to in Nash's Strange Neices, 1592. 
Long Meg is thus mentioned by Gabriel Harvey, in 
his Pierce's Supererogation, or a Neiv Praise of the 
Old Asse, 4to, 1600 :— « Phy, Long Megg of West- 
minster would have bene ashamed to disgrace her 
Sonday bonet with her Satterday witt. She knew 
some rules of decorum; and although she were a luslie 
bounsing rampe, somewhat like Gallemella or Maide 
Marian, yet was she not such a roinish rannell, or such 
a dissolute gillian flurtes, as this wainscot-faced Tom- 


boy." In Holland's Leaguer^ 1632, mention is made 
of a house kept by Long Meg in Southwark : — " It 
was out of the citie, yet in the view of the citie, only 
divided by a delicate river ; there was many handsome 
buildings, and many hearty neighbours, yet at the first 
foundation it was renowned for nothing so much as 
for the memory of that famous Amazon, Loiiga Mar- 
garita, who had there for many yeeres kept a famous 
infamous house of open hospitality." According to 
Vaughan's Golden Grove, 1608, "Long Meg of "West- 
minster kept alwaies twenty courtizans in her house, 
whom by their pictures she sold to all commers." She 
is also remembered by Middleton, in the Roaring Girl, 
act v, scene 1 : — " Was it your Meg of Westminster's 
courage that rescued me from the Poultry puttocks 
indeed?" See also the Scornful Lady, act v, scene 2. 
Westminster Meg is mentioned by Ben Jonson. See 
his Works, ed. Gifford, viii, 78 : — 

Or Westminster Meg, 
With her long leg. 
As long as a crane, 
And feet like a plane. 

Gifford says she performed many wonderful exploits 
about the time that Jack the Giant-killer flourished. 
She was buried, as all the world knows, in the clois- 
ters of Westminster Abbey, where a huge stone is 
still pointed out to the Whitsuntide visitors as her 

This work continued to be printed till the com- 
mencement of the present century, and I possess 


several editions issued between 1740 and 1800, all of 
which are abridged copies of the original, but other- 
wise agreeing very accurately with it. A play called 
Longe Mege of Westmester is mentioned in Henslowe's 
Diary, as having been acted early in 1595, and it 
appears to have continued a favourite on the stage for 
some years. No copy of it has been preserved. Long 
Meg is mentioned in the list of authors prefixed by 
Taylor, the Water Poet, to his Sir Gregory Nonsense, 
his Newes from no Place, in the second part of his 
JVorkes, fol. Lond. 1630 ; and in the play of West- 
ward Hoe, 1607. " You will find it worth Meg of 
Westminster, altho' it be but a bare jig," Hog hath 
lost his Pearl, 1614. 

The following lines, entitled " Long Meg of West- 
minster to Dulcinea of Toboso," occur in Gayton's 
Pleasant Notes upon Don Quixote, 1654, p. 289: — 

I, Long Meg, once the wonder of the spinsters, 
Was laid, as was ray right, i' th' best of minsters, 
Nor have the wardens veutur'd all this whiles 
To lay, except myselfe, one in those iles. 
Indeed, untill this time, ne'r any one 
Was worthy to be Meg's companion. 
But since Toboso hath so fruitfull been, 
To bring forth one might be my sister twinue, 
Alike in breadth of face ; no Margerics 
Had ever wider cheeks or larger eyes ; 
Alike in shoulders, belly, and in flancks. 
Alike in legs too, for we had no shancks, 
And for our feet, alike from heel to toe. 
The shoomakers the length did never know. 
Lye thou by me, no more it shall be common, 
One lie of Man there is, this He of Woman. 



The only impression of Long Meg noticed by 
Lowndes is that of 1635, which sold at the Nassau 
sale for £o. 7s. 6d. 

2. The Most Pleasant History of Tom a Lin- 
coln, that ever renowned Souldier, the Red-rose 
Knight, who for his Valour and Chivalry was 
sirnanied the Boast of England. Shewing his 
Honourable Victories in Forrain Countries, Avith his 
strange Fortunes in the Fayrie-land, and how he 
married the faire Anglitora, daughter to Prester 
John, that renowned Monark of the "World. To- 
gether with the lives and deaths of his two famous 
sons, the Black Knight and the Fairy Knight, 
with divers other memorable accidents, full of 
delight. London, Printed for Francis Coles at 
the Signe of the Half-bowle in the Old Baily, 

In black-letter. This is called on the title-page the 
ninth impression. It was entered on the books of the 
Stationers' Company on December 24th, 1 599, to W. 
White by assignment from W. Danter; and the second 
parte to the same on October 20th, 1607. The sixth 
edition appeared in 1631, the seventh in 1635, and the 
twelfth in 1682. It was written by Richard Johnson. 

3. Another edition, Printed by Tho. Norris at the 
Looking-glass on London-bridge, n. d. 

4. The History of the Seven Wise Masters 
OF Rome, now newly corrected, better explained 
in many places, and enlarged with many pretty 
pictures, lively expressing the full history, 12mo. 


London, Printed by J. W. for G. Conyers at the 
Golden Ring in Little Britain, 1697. 

In black-letter, with wood-cuts. The history of 
these very popular tales has been given by Mr. Wright, 
in the preface to his edition of the Seven Sages, 1845. 
A small abridged version, of twenty-four pages, was 
circulated during the last century as a penny-history. 
Kirkman said, in 1674, that this collection is "of so 
great esteem in Ireland, that next to the horn-book 
and knowledge of letters, children are in general put 
to read in it, and I know that only by that book seve- 
rall have learned to read well, so great is the pleasure 
that young and old take in reading thereof." In con- 
firmation of this, may be adduced a passage in the 
Irish poem called the Rivalry of O'Rourke, written by 
Hugh MacGowran about the year 1712, which has 
been translated by Swift and Wilson : — 

Then rose a big fryar 

To settle them straight, 
But the back of the fire 

Was quickly his fate ; 
From whence he cry'd out, 

Do ye thus treat your pastors ? 
Ye, who scarcely were bred 

To the Seven. Wifte 3 f asters. 

5. The Famous, Pleasant, and Delightful His- 
tory OF Palladine of England : discoui'sing 
of honourable adventures, of knightly deeds of 
arms and chivalry : interlaced, likewise, with the 
love of sundry noble personages, as time and 
affection limited their Desires. Herein is no 
offence offered to the wise by wanton speeches, 


or encouragement to the loose by lascivious mat- 
ter. 12mo. London, c. 1690. 

This is called on the title " the second edition", but 
it originally appeared in 1588, and another edition was 
published in 1664, 4to. In November, 1587, it was 
entered unto Edward Aide, " upon condytion that he 
get yt orderly authorysed and allowed to the print 
when yt is translated into Englyshe". The English 
translation was entered in 1595, to Valentine Symmes, 
and again, in August 1596, to John Danter. The 
present is a reprint of the 1664 edition, and contains 
a short preface by the printer, T. Johnson. The ro- 
mance was translated by Anthony Munday from the 
French, " Histoire Palladienne traitant des gestes et 
genereux faits d'armes et d'amours de plusieurs grands 
princes et seigneurs, specialement de Palladien ; mise 
en Fran9oys par Claude Colet," 8vo. Paris, 1573. 
The 1 588 edition is entitled, " The famous pleasant 
and variable Ilistorie of Palladine of England, dis- 
coursing of honorable Adventures, of Knightly deedes 
of Armes and Chivalrie : enterlaced likewise with the 
love of sundrie noble personages, &c. Translated out 
of French by A. M., one of the Messengers of her 
Majesties Chamber. At London, Printed by Edward 
AUde for John Perin." It is censured by Meres in 
his Palladis Tamia, 1598, f. 268. 

6. Of the Famous and Pleasant History of 
Parismus, the valiant and renowned Prince of 
Bohemia, in two parts: containing his triumphant 
battels ibught against the Persians, his love to the 


beautiful Laurana, the great Dangers he passed in 
the Island of Rocks, and his strange Adventures 
in the Desolate Island : containing the Adven- 
turous Travels and noble chivalry of Parismenos, 
the Knight of Fame, with his love to the fair 
Princess Angelica, the Lady of the Golden Tower, 
12mo. Black-letter. Printed at the Lookins^- 

With a wood-cut frontispiece, containing portraits 
of Laurana and Parismus. This romance, which was 
exceedingly popular, was written by Emanuel Foord* 
Douce had two editions ; one printed in 1696, 4to, and 
another, the seventh, dated 1724, Gilford, in his 
Autobiography, says that at the age of fifteen, " I had 
read nothing but a black-letter romance, called Paris- 
mus and Parismenus, and a few loose magazines." 
This x'omance was abridged, and constantly printed as 
a penny history at Aldermary Church-yard, and other 
places. I have the fifth edition, with numerous cuts, 
dated 1713. It was entered on the books of the Sta- 
tioners' Company, by Creed, in November 1597, and 
published the following year under the title of " Pa- 
rismus, the renowned Prince of Bohemia, his most 
famous, delectable, and pleasant History, conteining 
his noble battailes fought against the Persians, his love 
to Laurana, the King's daughter of Thessaly, and his 
strange adventures in the Desolate Island." In 1599, 
appeared, "Parismenos, the second part of the most 
famous delectable History," &c. This had been en- 
tered to Thomas Creed on October 25th, 1598 : "Paris- 
menos, the Triall of true Friendship, conteininge the 


second part of the Histoi-y of Parisraenos, otherwise 
called the second parte of the Castle of Fame." 

7. The History of George a Green, Pindar of 
the Town of Wakefield, his Birth, Calling, Valour, 
and Reputation in the Country : with divers plea- 
sant as well as serious Passages in the Course of 
his Life and Fortune. Illustrated with cuts. 
Sm. 8vo. London, Printed for Samuel Ballard 
at the Blue-Ball in Little Britain, 1706. 

The wood-cuts in this book are greatly superior to 
most of the specimens met with in similar productions, 
as may be judged from the frontispiece here copied. 
There is a curious early MS. of this prose history in 
the library of Sion College, which may be the original 
whence the present edition is taken, for the preface 
says, " As for the history itself, it's very easie to ob- 
serve, by its phraseology and manner of writing, that 
'tis not very modern, but that the manuscript must at 
least have been as old as the days of Queen Elizabeth. 
It's lodged in a publick library in the city of London, 
from which a copy was taken, and is now made pub- 
lick, with no other alteration than such as were neces- 
sary to make the sence tolerably congruous." George 
a Green is thus noticed by Drunken Barnaby : — 

Straight at Wakefield I was seen a, 

"Where I sought for George a Green a. 

But could not find such a creature ; 

Yet on a sign I savr his feature, 

Where strength of ale had so much stirr'd me, 

That I grew stouter far than Jordie. 


This volume contains 109 pages, exclusive of fron- 
tispiece, title, epistle dedicatory " to the Steward and 
other the Gentlemen and Inhabitants in the Town and 
Lordship of Wakefield in the West-Riding of the 
County of York," signed by N. W., the preface, and 
one leaf containing a list of " books printed and sold 
by Samuel Ballard at the Blue-Ball in Little Britain." 

George a Green is mentioned in Gayton's Pleasant 
Notes upon Don Quixote, 1654, p. 21 : "Had you 
heard of Bevis of Southampton, the Counter-scuffle, 
Sir Eglamore, John Dory, the Pindar of Wakejield, 
Robin Hood, or Clem of the ClufF, these no doubt had 
been recommended to the Vatican without any Index 
Expurgatorius or censure at all." 

8. The Pleasant History of the Frolicksomk 


Courtier and the Jovial Tinker. 12mo. 
London, n. d. 

A curious medley of tales, the first of which is on 
the same story as the Induction to the Taming of 
the Shreio. — 1. How finding a drunken tinker asleep, 
he had him carried in that posture to his house ; laid 
him on a bed in a stately room, with rich cloaths by 
him, feasted and entertained him with musick, and 
making him drunk, conveyed him back again. — 2. How 
he bought all the butter of a woman going to market, 
and the frolicks he played with her for being over 
covetous, causing the saying, when a woman scratches 
her, butter will be cheap. — 3. By what a comical 
method he relieved the poor widow of Mortlake against 
the Parson of the Parish, who had stopped up her 
water-gap. — 4. How he served the tinker coming 
again to his house, because he complained he could get 
no drink. — 5. A comical trick he made the tinker 
serve an old farmer, who used to ride sleeping, making 
him think that his horse was a devil. — 6. How the 
tinker complained to him of a butcher's dog that often 
assaulted him : how he put on the tinker's habit, fought 
with and killed the dog, and the comical examination 
before a Justice. — On the title is a wood-cut of the old 
Covent Gai'den. The first tale, not having been re- 
printed in any Shakesperian collection, is here given : 
Riding one day along with his retinue, he espied a 
tinker (who had been taking a very early draught, to 
quench the spark in his throat) lying fast asleep, and 
snoring under a sunny bank, having made his budget 


into his pillow, to rest his drowsy head upon, and the 
courtier's country house not being far off, he imme- 
diately caused his servants to take him up very softly, 
and carry him thither ; then to put him in a stately 
bed in the best chamber, pull off his foul shirt and put 
him on a clean one ; then convey away his old cloaths 
and lay rich ones by him. This was punctually ob- 
served. The tinker being thus laid, slept soundly till 
evening, when rousing up between sleep and waking, 
and being dry, as usually drunkards are, he began 
to call for drink, but was extremely frighted to find 
himself got into such a place, furnished with lights, 
with attendants about him that bowed to him, and 
harmonious musick accompanied with most charming 
voices, but none of them to be seen. Whereupon, 
looking for his old cloaths and budget, he found a muff 
and rich attire glittering with gold by him, which 
made him fancy himself metamorphosed from a tinker 
to a prince. He asked many questions, but in vain, 
yet being willing to rise, the attendants arrayed him 
in the richest attire, so that he looked on all sides 
admiring the sudden change of fortune, as proud as a 
peacock when he spreads his tail against the glittering 
beams of the sun. And being arrayed, they carry 
him unto another room, where was a costly banquet 
prepared ; and placed him in a chair, under a fine 
canopy fringed with gold, being attended with wine in 
gilded cups. At first he strained courtesy,* but being 

* That i3, stood upon ceremony. The phrase occurs in 
Shfikespeare, Romeo and Juliet, ii, 4. 


entreated to sit down, the banquet being solely at his 
disposal, he fell too most heartily. Then after supper 
they ply'd him with so much wine as to make him 
dead drunk ; then stripping him, and putting on his 
old cloaths, they carried him as they had brought him, 
and laid him in the same posture they found him, being 
all this time asleep ; and when he waked in the morn- 
ing staring about, he took all that happened before for 
a vision, telling it wherever he came, that he had verily 
dreamed he had been a prince, telling them, as well as 
he could, all that had happened, but plainly he now 
saw again, his fortune would raise him no higher than 
to mend old kettles. Yet he made this song for the 
fraternity to sing at leisure. 

All you that jovial tinkers are. 

Come listen unto me : 
I dream'd a dream that was so rare. 
That none to it can e'er compare, 

No tinker such did see. 

I thought I was a king indeed, 

Attired gay and fine : 
In a stately palace I did tread, 
Was to a princely banquet led. 

And had good cheer of wine. 

But soon I found me in a ditch, 

That did no comfort lend : 
This shews a tinker, tho' he itch 
To be a priuce or to grow rich, 

Must still old kettles mend. 


JoAK, being the comical humours of Mr. John 


Ogle, the life-guard man ; the Merry Pranks of 
the Lord Moon, the Earl of Warwick, and the 
Earl of Pembroke ; with the Lord Rochester's 
dream, his Maiden's disappointment, and his 
mountebank speech in Tower-hill. Together with 
the diverting Fancies and Frolicks of King Charles 
and his three Concubines. 12mo. London, printed 
by and for T. Norris, at the Looking-glass on 
London-bridge, n. d. 
According to this history, John Ogle was " the 
younger son of a gentleman in Northamptonshire ; his 
fortune being small, he quickly spent it, but his sister, 
being mistress to the Duke of York, got him into the 
first troop of guards, under the command of the Duke 
of Monmouth." Of the tales here related, the following 
may serve as a sample: — *' There being a general 
muster of life-guards in Hyde Park, and Ogle having 
lost his cloak at play, therefore he borrowed his lady- 
ship's scarlet petticoat ; so, tying it up in a bundle, 
put it behind him, then mounted safe enough, as he 
thought. So away he went, but one of the rank per- 
ceiving the border, he gave the Duke of Monmouth 
some item of it, and fell into his rank again. The 
Duke, smiling to himself, said, ' Gentlemen, cloak all;' 
which they did, except Ogle, vvho, stammering and 

staring, saying, 'Cloak all, cloak all ! what a must 

we cloak for? It don't rain:' but not cloaking, the 
Duke said, ' Mr. Ogle, why don't you obey the word 
of command ? Cloak, sir ! ' Said Ogle, ' Why, there 
then,' and peeping his head out of the top of the petti- 
coat, saying, ' I can't cloak, but I can petticoat with 
the best of you'; which caus'd great laughter among 


the whole company." Towards the end of the tract is 
a wood-cut of Lord Rochester on a stage, with bottles, 
in the character of a mountebank. Several stories of 
Nell Gwyn are also worth notice, as well as an anec- 
dote of Lord Mohun, the Earl of Warwick, and the old 
woman with her codlings at Charing-cross. 

10. Another edition, in verse, " to the merry tune 
of the Cambridgeshire Lass, or the Two Sharpers 
outwitted at the Royal Exchange, with a child 
in a basket, instead of a couple of Geese." 8vo. 
London, c. 1721. 

This is a version of the last piece, entirely in verse, 
and illustrated with cuts, amongst which may be noticed 
a curious one of a hackney-coach of the time. It is 
very rare, and has not been reprinted. On this ac- 
count, I give the following anecdote as a specimen of 
the style in which it is written : — 

The Dutchess of Portsmouth one time supp'd with the King's 

majesty ; 
Two chickens was at table, when the Dutchess would make 

'em three : 
Nell Gwin being by, denied the same ; the Dutchess speedily 
Reply'd, here's one, another two, and two and one makes three. 

'Tis well said, lady, answer'd Nell : King, here's one for 

Another for myself, sweet Charles, 'cause you and I agree ; 
The thii'd she may take to herself, because she found the same : 
The King himself laughed heartily, whilst Portsmouth 

blush'd for shame. 

1 1. A Choice Pennyworth of Wit, or clear Dis- 
tinction between a virtuous Wife and a wanton 


Harlot, in three parts : how a merchant was de- 
luded from his lady by a harlot, to whom he 
carried gold, jewels, and other things ot" value, for 
many years, which she received with unspeakable 
flattery, till his wife gave him a penny to lay out 
in a pennyworth of wit. Sm. 8vo. Printed for 
S. Wates, in Fleet-street, 1707. 

A very popular ballad-tale, which has been reprinted 
in the north-country chap-books up to a very recent 
period ; and is also common as a sheet ballad. It 
commences : 

Here is a pennyworth of wit 

For those that ever went astray ; 
If warning they will take by it, 
'Twill do them good another day. 

The story has appeared in many forms, as in the 
ancient poem, How a merchande dyd hys wyfe betray, 
printed in Ritson's Pieces of Ancietit Pojmlar Poetry, 
1791, p. 69, which is probably the same as the Chap- 
man of a Pennyworth of Wit, mentioned by Laneham, 
1575. The tale also occurs in Penny-wise, pound- 
foolish, or a Bristow diamond, set in two rings, and 
both cracKd, 4to. 1631. A Pennyioorth of IVytt was 
licensed to John Sampson in 1561. 

12. The Pleasant History of Taffy's Progress 
TO London, with the Welshman's Catechesm : 

Behold in wheel-barrow I come to town, 
With wife and child to pull the Taffies down : 
For sweet St. David shall not be abus'd, 
And by the rabble yearly thus misus'd. 

Sm. 8vo. London, printed for F. Thorn, near 
Fleet-street, 1707. 


A curious wood-cut on the title, representing a 
Welchraan, with leeks in his hat, in a barrow. The 
tract is a severe satire on the Welch. In answer to 
the question, why they wear leeks on St. David's day, 
Taffy says, — " Cuds flesh, her fery plood boils at hur 
now ; hur cou'd eat hur now with corn of salt : what ! 
find fault with that which hur countrymen wears to 
the honour of Saint Tavy ? By te great Calwalladar, 
hur cou'd fain in hur heart to lay hur countryman's 
towel about hur for hur sarciness." 

13. The New Wife of Beath much better re- 
formed, enlarged, and corrected, than it was for- 
merly in the old uncorrect copy. With the addi- 
tion of many other things. 12mo. Glasgow, 1700. 

In black-letter. According to the address to the 
reader, this is the second edition of this very popular 
poem, of which so many copies were circulated. This 
impression is very rare, the present copy, and one in 
Mr. Bright's collection, 6041, vdiich sold for £1. 12s., 
being the only ones that appear in the sale-catalogues. 
The original of this curious piece is a fable of the thir- 
teenth century, Du Vilain qui conquist Paradis par 
plait, printed in Barbazan, iv, 114. It maybe neces- 
sary to mention that this is altogether different from 
the ballad on the same subject printed by Evans, 
although one was probably formed from the other. 

14. The Pleasant and Delightful History of 
DoRASTUs, Prince of Sicily, and Fawnia, only 
Daughter and Heir to Pandosto, King of 


Bohemia ; pleasant for age, to shun drowzy 
thoughts ; profitable for youth, to avoid other 
wanton pastimes, and bringing to both a desired 
content. A pleasant winter-evening's entertain- 
ment. By R. Green, Master of Arts in Cam- 
bridge. 12mo. London, 1696. 

This was first published in 1588, under the title of 
"Pandosto, the Triumph of Time, wherein is dis- 
covered, by a pleasant historic, Truth may be con- 
cealed, yet by Time, in spight of fortune, it is most 
manifestly revealed," &c. Imprinted at London by 
Thomas Orwin for Thomas Cadman, dwelling at the 
Signe of the Bible, neere unto the North doore of 
Paules, 1588. This copy contains the Love-passion, 
mentioned by Mr. Dyce, Greene's Works, ii, 242, as 
not being in the early editions. It is almost unneces- 
sary to observe that Shakespeare's Winter's Tale was 
founded upon this romance. 

15. The Lovers' Quarrel, or Cupid's Triumph, 

being the Pleasant and Delightful History of Fair 

Rosamond, who was born in Scotland. She was 

the only daughter of the Lord Arundel, whose 

love was obtain'd by the valour of Tommy Potts, 

who wounded and conquered the Lord Phoenix in 

a Duel. Likewise his Marriage to the fair Lady. 


One of the early original editions, without date, but 

printed about 1740. It was reprinted by Ritson, in 

his Pieces of Ancient Popular Poetry, 1799, p. 117. 

Later copies differ exceedingly, the text having been 

modernized. The wood-cuts to the present are most 

incongruous, the first being a representation of the fall 



of Friar Bacon's brazen head, and the last of Noah's 
Ark ! It commences thus : 

Of all the lords in Scotland town, 
And ladies that be so bright of blee, 

There is a noble lady among them all. 
And report of her you shall hear by me. 

I possess a curious edition, printed at Newcastle, 
about 1760, plentifully embellished with cuts, and con- 
taining the Second Part, which was unknown to Rit- 
son. This is entitled, " The Lovers' Loyalty, or the 
Happy Pair, giving an account of the happy lives of 
Tommy Potts (now Lord Arundel) and the Fair Rosa- 
mond, his charming bride, who loved and lived in peace 
and unity all their days ; the Second Book." It com- 
mences : 

How Tommy Potts did win his bride 

By dint of sword, you needs must know ; 

Giving great Lord Phoenix the foil, 
As the first book doth plainly show. 

Another edition, in my possession, printed about 
1 780, is entitled, " The History of Tommy Potts, or 
the Lovers' Quarrel" : 

Thus Tommy Potts does here trepan 
The lady's heart, tho' a serving man. 

• 16. The Force of Nature, or the Loves of 
HippoLiTo AND DoRiNDA. Translated from the 
French original, and never before printed in Eng- 
lish. 12mo. Northampton, 1720. 

This is a chap-book history on the same tale as the 

Tempest, and has escaped the notice of all the editors 


of Shakespeare. It is evidently made up from that 
play, and the assertion of its being a translation from 
the French is most probably erroneous, as some of the 
original drama is literally quoted. 

17. The "Whole Tryal and Indictment of Sir 
John Barleycorn, Knight, a person of noble 
birth and extraction, and well known to be both 
rich and poor throughout the kingdom of Great 
Britain : being accused for several misdemean- 
ours by him committed against her Majesty's liege 
people, by killing some, wounding others, and 
bringing thousands to beggary, to the ruin of 
many a good family. Here you have the sub- 
stance of the evidence given in against him on his 
tryal, with the names of the judges, jury, and 
witnesses. Also, the comical Defence Sir John 
makes for himself, and the good character given 
him by some of his neighbours, namely Hevvson 
the cobler, an honest friend to Sir John, who is 
entomb'd as a memorandum at the Two Brewers 
in East Smithfield. Taken in short-hand by 
Timothy Toss-pot, Foreman of the Jury. Sm. 
8vo. London, Printed for J. Dutton, 1709. 

A very curious satirical tract, written by Thomas 

Robins, which continued to be reprinted for a century 

after this edition appeared. The following list of the 

jury is curious : 

Timothy Toss-pot. Richard Standfabt. 

Benjamin Bumper. Small Stout, 

Giles Lick-spigot. John Never-sober. 

Barnaby Full-pot. Obadiah Thirsty. 

Lancelot Toper. Nicholas Spend-thrift. 

John Six-go-downs. Edmond Empty-purse. 

Sir John Barleycorn is tried in regular form, the 

c 2 


jury returning a verdict of Not Guilty, The evi- 
dence is singularly curious. "We may extract, for 
example, that of Sir John's uncle, Mr. Mault, who, of 
course, appears for the defence : " First, I pray con- 
sider with yourselves, all trades will live, and altho' I 
sometimes, with my cousin Sir John's help, make a 
cup of good liquor, and many men come to taste it, yet 
the fault is in neither of us, but in them that make the 
complaint, else let 'em stay till they are sent for. Who 
can deny but that Mr. Mault can make a cup of good 
liquor by the help of a good brewer, and when it is 
made it must be sold; I pray which of you all can live 
without it ? Where else would you sop your toast and 
nutmeg, and what should asswage the thirst of gam- 
mons and red-herrings? Were I to suffer, lords, 
knights, and esquires would want their March beer and 
October to treat their tenants and their friends : 
bottle-ale and stout would be wanted at Islington and 
Highgate to treat your wives with : old women would 
want hot-pots of brandy and ale, and the good-wife 
that lies in could have no caudle." The tract con- 
cludes with, a song "to the tune of Sir John Barley- 
corn". An old ballad, from which this tract may per- 
haps be taken, is printed in Evans, ed. 1810, iv, 214 ; 
and Burns was no doubt indebted to the former for his 
celebrated song on the same subject. 

18. The History of the two Children in the 
Wood reviv'd, or Murder reveng'd, containing 
the sad and lamentable Story of the Death of two 
Children of a Gentleman, who, after the Decease 


of their Parents, were delivered, by their uncle, 
to two ruffians, to be murdered for their estates, 
but in the end they were left in an unfrequented 
wood, and there starved to Deatli, and covered 
over by a Robin Redbreast: Together with the 
sad relation of the heavy judgements that befel 
their unnatural uncle, who died miserable in pri- 
son, and how it came to be discovered by one of 
the ruffians upon his being condemned for a noto- 
rious robbery. With many other passages and 
circumstances at large. 12mo. Licensed and 
entered according to order, n. d. 

This tale is founded on the same story which is the 
subject of the second part of a tragedy by Robert 
Yarrington, 4to. 1601, entitled, " Two Lamentable 
Tragedies ; the one of the murther of Maister Buch, 
a chandler in Thames-street, and his boy, done by 
Thomas Merry ; the other of a young childe mur- 
thered in a wood by two Ruffins, with the consent of 
his uncle." In the play, however, one child only is 
murdered. The chapters are thus entitled : — 1. How 
Pisaurus, seeking a wife, accidentally fell in love with 
the fair Eugenia. 2. How Pisaurus found means to 
discover his passion to Eugenia, and how she con- 
sented ; also the marriage-day appointed. 3. How the 
happy nuptials were celebrated, and of the ominous 
presage. 4. How Androgus, brother to Pisaurus, de- 
sirous of his estate, laid this unsuccessful project. 5. 
How Cassandar and Jane being born, Pisaurus and 
Eugenia fell sick, and by what means. 6. How Andro- 
gus returned, visited his brother and sister, and of his 
dissimulation. 7. How Pisaurus made his will, de- 


livered his children to Androgus, and died as did his 
wife. 8. "What thought Androgus had about putting 
to death his brother's children, but had not the heart 
to put it in practice himself. 9. How Androgus met 
with Rawbones and Woudkill, and agreed with them 
to murder his brother's children. 10. How the ruf- 
fians fell out about the disposal of the children, and 
how Rawbones killed his partner, and covered him up 
in a pit. 11. How Rawbones left the children in an 
unfrequented wood, where they died. 12. How the 
murder came to be discovered at the gallows. The 
ballad on the same story, so highly commended in the 
Spectator, No. 85, is printed by Percy, ed. 1840, 
p. 238. It is also alluded to again in the Spectator, 
No. 179. 

19. Mother Bunch's Closet newly broke open, 
containing rare Secrets of Art and Nature, tried 
and experienced by learned Philosophers, and 
recommended to all ingenious young Men and 
Maids, Teaching them in a natural way how to 
get good wives and husbands. By our loving 
friend Poor Tom, for the King, a lover of mirth, 
but a hater of treason. 12mo. With wood-cuts, 
n. d. In two pai'ts. 

This very curious collection of vernacular customs, 
digested into the form of a narrative, seems to have 
escaped the notice of our writers on popular anti- 
quities. The present edition was printed about 1770, 
but it was published very long before, being thus re- 
ferred to in Wit and Drollery, 1682, p. 42 : — 


Wit that shall make thy name to last, 

When Tarleton's jests are rotten, 
And George a Green, and Mother Bunch, 

Shall all be quite forgotten. 

A Way to tell who must be your Husband. — " Take 
a St. Thomas's oniou, pare it, and kiy it on a clean 
handkerchief under your pillow; put on a clean smock, 
and as you lie down, lay your arras abroad, and say 
these words : — 

Good St, Thomas, do me right. 
And bring my love to me this night. 
That I may view him in the face, 
And in my arms may him embrace. 

Then, lying on thy back with thy arms abroad, go to 
sleep as soon as you can, and in your first sleep you 
shall dream of him who is to be your husband, and he 
will come and offer to kiss you; do not hinder him, but 
catch him in thy arms, and strive to hold him, for that 
is he. This I have tried, and it was proved true. Yet 
I have another pretty Avay for a maid to know her 
sweetheart, which is as follows : — Take a summer 
apple of the best fruit, stick pins close into the apple 
to the head, and as you stick them, take notice which 
of them is the middlemost, and give it what name you 
fancy; put it into thy left hand glove, and lay it under 
thy pillow on Saturday night after thou gettest into 
bed; then clap thy hands together, and say these 
words : — 

If thou be he that must have me, 
To be thy wedded bride, 

Make no delay, but come away 

This night to my bedside." — (pp. 10-11.) 



20. The History of Thomas of Reading, and 


forth their mirth, great riches, and liospitality to 
the poor, and the great favour they gained with 
their Prince. Concluding with the Avoeful death 
of Thomas of Reading, who was murdered by his 
host. 12mo. London, Aldermary Church-yard, 
n. d. 

An abridgement from the larger history by Deloney, 

4to. 1632, which has been reprinted by Mr. Thorns. 

On the title is the annexed cut of a barber's shop : — 

It is a curious illustration of the old custom of the 
person who was waiting for his turn playing on the 
ghittern. There are innumerable allusions to this 
practice in our old dramatists: — " A barber's cittern 
for every serving-man to play upon", Dekker's Honest 
fVhore, Second Part, 1630. Stubbes, 1583, mention- 
ing barbers and shaving, says : — " You shall have also 
your orient perfumes for your nose, your fragrant 


waters for your face, wherewith you shall bee all to be- 
sprinkled : your musicke againe and pleasant harmonic 
shall sound in your eares, and all to tickle the same 
with vaine delight." 

21. The History of Lawrence Lazy, containing 
his Birth and slothful breeding ; how he served 
the Schoolmaster, his Wife, the Squire's Cook, and 
the Farmer, which, by the laws of Lubberland, 
was accounted High Treason ; his Arraignment 
and Trial, and happy deliverance from the many 
treasons laid to his charge. 12mo. London, 
Aldermary Church-yard, n. d. 

The following are the titles of the chapters : — 1. Of 
his birth and heavy breeding, and of his being carried 
to school. 2. Of Lawrence's falling asleep in a grove, 
and so losing his walking mates ; of his meeting with 
an old man, who gave him a charm with which he 
wrought many wonders. 3. How Lawrence served his 
master, and then made his escape. 4. Of his causing 
a gentleman's cook to lose his place. 5. The trick he 
served a country farmer, who would not give him the 
least morsel of meat. 6. Lawrence is taken and sent 
to Lubberland Castle. 7. Lawrence's Trial in the 
Town-hall of Never-work, and of his coming off at 
last with flying colours. This edition was printed 
about 1780, but it was a much earlier production, and 
is thus alluded to in a curious MS., called Great Bri' 
tan's Honycombe, 1712: — "There was a gentleman 
that had two sons : the one was gifted to rise very 
early in the morning, and goe out about his lawful! 


occasions; and his other son, having too much blood 
of the Lawrences in him, which occasioned a very lazy 
habit in him that he could not finde in his heart to rise 
in a morning before ten or eleven of the clock, not- 
withstanding his father's often calling him, which 
availed nothing, for Lmvrence had made too deep an 
impression into his constitution." 

22. Doctor Merryman, or Nothing but Mirth, 
being a Poesy of Pleasant Poems and Witty 
Jests. 12rao. London, Bow-Church Yard, n. d. 

This piece is copied from an old work, called " De- 
mocritus, or Doctor Merryman his medecines against 
melancholy humors, written by S. E. : Printed for 
John Deane, and are to be sold at his shop at Temple- 
barre under the gate", n. d., but entered on the regis- 
ters of the Stationers' Company, Oct. 24th, 1607. 
There was also an edition in 1681, 4to. This is by 
Samuel Rowlands, the author of various other pieces. 
There are some omissions in this tract, and the two 
pieces at the end, the Savage and the Beggars, are 
not in the original edition. I extract the following, 
chiefly because it contains the remarkable phrase 
" naked gull," affording a better example of it than 
the commentators have produced. See Timon of 
Athens, act ii, scene 1 . 

A country fellow had a dream 

which did his mind amaze ; 
And starting up he wakes his wife, 

and thus to her he says : 


0, woman, rise and help your goose, 

for even the best we have 
Is presently at point to die, 

unless her life you save. 
On either side of her I see 

an hungry fox doth sit ; 
But staying upon courtesy, 

who shall begin first bit. 
Husband, quoth she, if this be all, 

I can your dream expound ; 
The perfect meaning of the same 

I instantly have found. 
The goose betwixt two foxes plac'd, 

which in your dream you saw, 
Is you yourself that proves a goose, 

in going still to law. 
On either side a lawyer sits, 

and they do feathers pull ; 
That in the end you will be found 

a bare and naked gull ! 
Wife, in good truth, said he, I think 

thou art just in the right ; 
My purse can witness to my grief 

how they begin to bite. 

23. A Pleasant and Delightful Dialogue be- 
tween Honest John and Loving Kate, with 
the contrivance of their marriage, and way to get 
a livelihood. 

Readers, here's a loving pair 
Shortly to be married are ; 
Honest John and loving Kate 
To each other prove a mate ; 
I wish them both in joy to live. 
Since heart to each other give. 

]2nio. Leicester, c. 1760. 

28 notices of popular histories. 

24. An Excellent Dialogue between Honest 
John and Loving Kate, containing not only 
their wooing, but also their wedding, to the satis- 
faction and good liking of their friends. 

Some wooing was in the first part, 
But now their join'd both hand and heart 
In wedlock's bands, to the great joy 
Of all their friends ; tho' Kate was coy 
At first, at length she granted love, 
And does a constant woman prove. 

12mo. Leicester, c. 1760. 
It is clear, from the allusions to manners and cus- 
toms, that these two pieces were composed at least as 
early as the time of Charles 11. In one part, Kate 
says, " Good lack, they will keep such ado when they 
come to eat the sack-posset, and taking their leaves of 
us, and throwing the stocking, and one thing or other, 
that I shall wish them all far enough." 

25. The Unfortunate Lovers, or the History 
OF Argalus and Parthenia. In four books, 
adorn'd with cuts. The fifth edition. 12mo. 
London, n. d. 

This tale is taken from Sir Philip Sidney's Arcadia, 
and was exceedingly popular. It is frequently men- 
tioned in Scott's novel of Peveril of the Peak. 

26. The History of Argalus and Parthenia, 
being a choice Flower gathered out of Sir Philip 
Sidney's rare Garden. 12mo. Printed in the 
year 1788. 

Abridged in pp. 24, with wood-cuts. 

notices of popular histories. 29 

27. The Honour of Chivalry, or the Famous and 
Delectable History of Don Bellianis of 
Greece, containing the valient Exploits of that 
magnanimous and heroick Prince, son unto the 
Emperor Don Bellaneo of Greece ; wherein are 
described the strange and dangerous adventures 
that befel him, with his Love towards the Prin- 
cess Florisbella, daughter to the Soldan of Baby- 
lon. 12mo. London, c. 1710. 

Contains 168 pages, including title and preface, and 
sixteen cuts. Larger editions, in quarto, wei'e pub- 
lished in 1650, 1673, and 1703. This romance is men- 
tioned by Meres, 1598, as then popular. 

28. The Renowned History op Valentine and 
Orson, the two Sons of the Emperor of 
Greece, newly corrected and amended. Adorn'd 
with Cuts. 12mo. London, 1724. 

This romance was published at Lyon in 1495, under 
the title of " Le Roman des deux nobles et vaillans 
Chevaliers, Valentin et Orson, fils de I'Empereur de 
Grece, et nepveux du tres vaillant et redoubt^ roy 
Pepin, jadis Roi de France," fol. ; and again at a very 
early period at Paris by N. Bonfons, 4to. An edition 
in Italian appeared at Venice in 1558, The incident 
of the wooden horse of Pacolet, in this romance, is 
taken from UHistoire de Clamades et Clarmonde, 
which was printed at Lyon by Jean de la Fon- 
taine in 1488, and is a much earlier production. Dr. 
Farmer possessed a fragment of a very old edition, 
probably printed by Wynken de Worde, and an edi- 
tion by Copland is in existence. In 1586, Thomas 


Purfoot had a license to print "the old booke of 
Valentine and Orson." The printer of the edition of 
1649, in his preface, says, "The history here written 
was translated out of French into English, above 100 
years ago, by one Henry Watson, and since that time 
it hath by him been corrected, and put into a more 
plyant stile, and so followed on to the presse till this 
present edition." 

29. Another edition. 8vo. London, 1736. 

This is called on the title the sixteenth edition. It 
is illustrated with cuts and a frontispiece. 

30. The Mad Pranks of Tom Tram, Son-in-law 
TO Mother Winter ; whereunto is added his 
Merry Jests, Odd Conceits, and pleasant Tales, 
very delightful to read. In three parts. 12mo. 
London, n. d. 

A perfect copy of an original edition of the three 
parts of this history is very difficult to meet with. 
The present was formed from no less than four imper- 
fect copies. At the end of the second part is the 
following notice : — " Reader, the last time that I saw 
Tom, he was at the Half Moon, where we drank each 
of us a pint of sack to rub up his attention, and he 
promised the next mad pranks he played, he would 
send them up to Tom Long the Carrier ; which pro- 
mise, being now fulfilled, it is now published." The 
following are the contents of the chapters of the first 
part: — 1. Tom's pedigree, and the cause of his whip- 
ping tlie pots to death. 2. Of Tom's displeasing the 


mayor, though he did what he bid him. 3. Shewing 
how Tom served his hostess and a tobacco -seller. 

4. Shewing how he paid the man for his horse-hire. 

5. How Tom served some gentlemen. 6. Tom rides 
a-gossipping. 7. Tom's trick on some gypsies. 8. Of 
Tom's selling his master's trivot, and cheating an old 
man. 9. The usage of Tom to a singing-man in the 
West. 10. Of Tom's courtship and marriage with 
Cicely Summer, the neat maid of the West. — Then 
follow some tales unconnected with the history. The 
chapters of the second part are entitled : 1. Tom binds 
himself apprentice, and of what means he used to get 
from his master. 2. Of old Mother Winter's marriage, 
and what pranks Tom played. 3. Tom takes the rag- 
man that stole the goose. 4. Tom goes a hedging. 
5. Of Tom's going to fetch the plough-irons from the 
smiths. 6. Tom's father sends him for a dog, and of 
what happened. 7. Tom's mother sends him to market 
for a leg of mutton. 8. Tom's father sends him to 
thrash corn, and what happened. 9. Tom is sent to 
invite the guests to eat the swine and geese he had 
killed. 10. Tom makes his father break his shins. 

11. Tom and his father go to the fair to buy horses. 

12. Of his taking leave of his parents, and going to 
seek his fortune. 13. He gets five pounds for pre- 
venting a man from being made a cuckold. 14. How 
Tom saved a gentleman five hundred pounds. — The 
contents of the third part are entitled: I. Of Tom's 
getting forty-five wenches with child, ami his e.scai)e 
from the constable. 2. Tom hires himscU" to a mouute- 


bank, and cures a country squire of a consumption. 
3. Of Tom and his master's progress, with what hap- 
pened on their journey. 4. Of Tom's further proceed- 
ings on the journey with his master. 5. Tom's revenge 
on his master for making him lose his dinner. 6. The 
method Tom took with his master to get his wages. 
7. Tom hires himself to a justice, and what pranks he 
played while he was his servant. 8. Tom gains the 
love of his master and all the family. 9. Tom's re- 
venge on the usurer for complaining to his master. 
10. Tom marries the lady's waiting-woman, and has 
by her an only daughter. The following specimen of 
this very singular work may suffice to give an idea of 
the nature of the whole : — 

Of Tom and his Masters progress, with what hap-' 
pened on their journey. — Now the doctor and his man 
Tom being on the road together, Tom said, Methinks 
it is melancholy riding; if you are willing, we will 
make verses to divert the time. With all my heart, 
says the mountebank ; and accordingly, being near 
Abindon, he began thus : 

God«-armercy Abingdon, 

God-a-mercy ! 

Thou hast a spire 

Like the sheath of a dagger. 

Rarely well done, quoth Tom. The master replied, 
Now it is your turn. At which Tom began thus: 

God-a-mercy master, 
God-a-mercy ! 
You have a head 
Like unto a brass kettle. 



Why, you impudent rascal, said his master, do you 
compare my head unto a brass kettle? After this they 
rode silent for the remaining part of the day; the 
doctor, being in the dumps, would not speak or explain 
himself; nor would he permit Tom to remain in his 
presence at night. Tom passed away the time as well 
as he could till morning, when the chamberlain* came 
to Tom to know if his master chose to have a fire in 
his room ? Yes, says Tom, but he will have no one 
to make it but myself. Then taking a brush under his 
arm, and a fiiggot on his shoulder, he went up, saying, 
as he entered the room, 

Good-morrow, master, 

Good-morrow, ho ! 

I have brought a faggot 

Into your chamber, ! 

Well, look you there, said his master, this is something 
like. Could not you have made this verse yesterday ? 
But on the contrary, you must compare ray under- 
standing head to a brass kettle. Well, for this verse 
I will pardon you, but be sure take care how you 
commit the like again. 

* The steward or head-waiter at an inn. The antiquity 
of Tom Tram is shown by its phraseology. Thus we have 
the word mome, a foolish fellow, which occurs iu the 
Comedy of Errors, iii, 1 : — 

My mother is to be married, they say, 

Old foolish doating moam ! 
While I fantastick tricks do play ; 
She'd better have staid at home. 

Mad Pranks of Tom Tram, part ii, ch. 2. 



At the end of the history are the following verses : 

He liv'd till he was eighty years of age, 

When death at last with darts did him engage, 

So that he fainted ; pangs came thick and stronger. 

And then he dy'd, 'cause he could live no longer. 

The last words he said, — Let this be sent 

To London, that it may be put in print. 

There can be no doubt but that Tom Tram was 
written in the seventeenth century, although no copy 
has been noticed of so early a date. It was very 
popular in the following century. An edition in my 
possession, printed at Newcastle about 1770, has a cut 
on the title of the second part, with the boy saying, 
" O, Parson, have I caught you." It continued to be 
republished within the last thirty or forty years, for I 
have an abridged edition printed at Falkirk by T. 
Johnston, 1817. 

31. The Famous and Memorable History of the 
TWO unfortunate tho' noble lovers, Hero 
ANT> Leander, giving an account of all that hap- 
pened from the beginning of their loves, till both 
of them ended their lives in the sea for each other. 
Together with their various adventures, and the 
renowned atchievements of Leander, in his many 
glorious Victories and Successes, till he was forbid 
access to fair Hero by her cruel Father, upon his 
killing his rival in a combat. Also how (she 
being imprisoned in a Tower) he swam over the 
Sea to visit her, and in a monstrous storm was 
drowned ; for sorrow of which she leaped into the 
waves and drowned herself, Sm. 4to. New- 
castle, n. d. 

Ten leaves, with wood-cuts on title. This is the 


earliest popular history that I recollect as having been 
pi'inted at Newcastle, one of the great emporiums of 
such pieces in the eighteenth century. On the back 
of the title is an epistle to the reader by J. S. 

32. The Renowned History of the Seven Cham- 
pions OF Christendom, showing their valiant 
Exploits both by sea and land, their combating with 
Giants, Monsters, Lions, and Dragons ; their Tilts 
and Tournaments in honour of their Mistresses ; 
their overcoming Magicians and Necromancers, 
putting an end to their direful enchantments ; 
their knighthoods, chivalry, and magnificent 
prowess against the Enemies of Christ, and in 
honour of Christendom, in Europe, Asia, and 
Africa. To which is added the true manner of 
their Deaths, and how they came to be entituled 
the Seven Saints of Christendom. Illustrated 
with a variety of pictures. Sm. 4to. London, 
printed by Tho. Norris, at the Looking-glass on 
London-bridge, n. d. 

Twelve leaves, with a large wood-cut of St. George 
and the Di-agon on the title-page. On the reverse of 
the title are three stanzas, entitled the Author s muse 
upon the History. The first part was published in 
1596, and the second shortly afterwards. It was cen- 
sured by Meres in 1598. It is chiefly a compilation 
from Bevis, Guy, and other old English romances ; 
and, according to the quaint language of Ritson, con- 
tains " all the lyes of Christendom in one lye." 

33. The History of the Blind Begger of Bed- 
NAL Green. Licensed and enter'd according to 
order. Printed for 'J\ Norris at the Looking- 
Glass on London-bridge, n. d. 

d 2 


This is one of the rarest of the histories published 
by Norris at the commencement of the last century. 
The present copy formerly belonged to Sir Francis 
Freeliug. On the title is a large wood-cut, entitled, 
'' Young Monford riding to the wars, where he un- 
hapily lost his eye-sight." It consists of twelve leaves, 
and has seventeen wood-cuts, one of which is a rude 
view of London. It is in prose, with the Blind Beg- 
gar's song at the end. Pepys, in his Diary, June 26th, 
1663, says the house at Bethnal Green, then occupied 
by Sir W. Rider, " was built by the blind beggar of 
Bednall Green, so much talked of and sang in ballads, 
but they say it was only some of the outhouses of it." 

34. The Most Famous History of the Learned 
Fryer Bacon, shewing his Parentage and Birth, 
how he came to be a scholar and to study art- 
magick, with the many wondex'ful things he did in 
his life-time, to the amazement of the whole 
world, in making a brazen head to have walled 
all England with Brass : With his penitent death. 
Also, the merry Waggeries of his man Miles, and 
the Exploits of Vandermaster, a German, and 
Fryer Bungy, an English Conjurer; with the 
manner of their woful deaths, as a warning to 
others. Being all very profitable and pleasant to 
the Reader. London, Printed for Tho. Norris at 
the sign of the Looking-glass on London-bridge, 
n. d. 

Twelve leaves, with a wood-cut of the brazen head 

and Friar Bacon on the title-page. 

35. The History of the ever-renowned Knight 
Don Quixote de la Mancha, containing his 


many wonderful and admirable atehievements and 
adventures, with the pleasant humours of his 
trusty Squire, Sancha Pancha : Being very comi- 
cal and diverting. London, Printed by and for 
W. O., and sold by H. Green at the Sun and 
Bible on London-bridge, n. d. 

Twelve leaves, with wood-cuts. This is, perhaps, 

the earliest chap-book edition oi Don Quixote. 

36. The Voyages and Travels of that re- 
nowned Captain, Sir Francis Drake, into the 
West Indies, and round about the World : 
giving a perfect relation of his strange adven- 
tures, and many wonderful discoveries, his fight 
with the Spaniard, and many barbarous nations ; 
his description of monsters, and monstrous people, 
with many other remarkable passages not before 
extent, contained in the history of his Life and 
Death; both pleasant and profitable to the Reader. 
Printed by C. B. and J. F., and sold by E. Tracy 
at the Three Bibles on London-bridge, n. d. 

Twelve leaves, with a wood-cut of a ship on the 

title. This was a very popular chap-book, and fre- 

(jucntly republished. 

37. The History of Fair Rosamond, Mistress to 
Henry II, and Jane Shore, Concubine to 
P^Dw^ARD IV, Kings of England, shewing how 
they came to be so, with their lives, remarkable 
actions, and unha{)py ends. Extracted from emi- 
nent records, and the whole illustrated with cutts 
suitable to each subject. 12mo. London, Printed 
by and for T. Norris at the Looking-glass on 
London-bridge, 1717. 

Contains pp. 156, exclusive of title and preface, four 

leaves : — History of Fair Rosamond, p. 1 ; a Song on 


the death of Fair Rosamond, p. 79; History of Jane 
Shore, p. 83 ; a Song of the supposed Ghost of Shore's 
Avife, to the tune of Live ivith me. It is illustrated 
with cuts, and a frontispiece containing two, with 
copies of verses. The song on Eosamond is quite dif- 
ferent from Deloney's ballad printed by Percy. It 
commences — 

In Woodstock bower once grew a flower 

Beloved of England's king ; 
The like for scent and sweet content 

Did never in England spring. 

The song of Jane Shore's Ghost thus commences: — 

Dame Nature's darling let me be, 
The map of sad calamity ; 
For never none, like Shore's fair wife. 
Had badder end, nor better life. 

" The gentler breasts of the virginities of Loudon," 
says Gayton, 1654, "are compassionately mov'd, if a 
ballad of Jane Shore be reviv'd, or any figment new 

38. The Most Pleasing and Delightful His- 
tory OF Eeynard the Fox, and Reynardine 
his Son, in two parts; to which is added the His- 
tory of Cawood the Rook, or the Assembly of 
Birds, with the several speeches they made to the 
Eagle in hopes to have the government in his 
absence. 12mo. London, 1735. 

With frontispiece and cuts, pp. 154. It is common 

as a penny history, abridged into twenty-four pages. 

39. The New History of the Trojan Wars, and 
Troy's Destruction, in four books : containing 


an account of the Birth, Life, Death, and glorious 
Actions of the mighty Hercules of Greece; the 
renowned and valiant Deeds of the most famous 
Hector of Troy ; the Rape of fair Helen of Greece, 
together with the last destruction of Troy by the 
stratagem of the Wooden Horse ; the Arrival of 
Brute in Britain, and how he conquered Albion 
and his giants, and built Troynovant, now Lon- 
don. 12mo. London, Printed for C. Bates at 
the Sun and Bible in Pye-Corner, 1728. 

At the end is a tragi-comedy called the Sieye of 
Troy, a drama by Settle, which was acted in Mrs. 
Mynn's booth in Bartholomew Fair. The frontis- 
piece is a picture of Hercules, under which are the 
following verses: — 

Behold the inighty Hercules, whose name 
And glorious actions fill the trump of Fame : 
He hydras, tyrants, lions does destroy. 
And saves the daughter of the king of Troy. 

The original of this, many times removed, will be 
found in the works of Dares Phrygius, Dictys Creten- 
sis, and Guido de Colonna's Historia de Bello Trojano, 
the last of which was written about 1260. The two 
first ai'e well known to be early foigeries. 

40. The Secret History of the most Renowned 
Q. Elizabeth and the E. of P2ssex. By a per- 
son of quality. ]2mo. Cologne, Printed ibr 
"Will with the Wisp at the Sign of the Moon in 
the Ecliptick, n. d. 

It is unnecessary to say that this imprint is merely 
farcical, and we find from the reverse of the frontis- 
piece that it was " printed for James Hodges at the 
Looking-glass on London-bridge." 

40 notices of popular histories. 

41. The Right Pleasant, and Variable Tra- 
CHiCAL History of FoRTUNATUs,whereby a young 
man may learn how to behave himself in all 
worldly affairs and casual chances. First penned 
in the Dutch tongue., there-hence abstracted, and 
now first of all published in English by T. C. 
12mo. London, printed by T. B. for Hanna Saw- 
bridge, at the sign of the Bible on Ludgate-hill, 
near Fleet-bridge, 1682. 

In black letter, with wood-cuts. Verses at the back 
of title, entitled, " the moral documents and considera- 
tions which are to be noted in this book." Then 
follows a preface, and next, " the sum and argument of 
this book," in verse. At the end is the following 
memorandum : — " This book, having found very good 
acceptance for many impressions, some ill-minded per- 
sons, and particularly one Thomas Haley, has printed 
a counterfeit impression in quarto, therein falsifying 
the original, and endeavouring to deprive the true 
proprietor of the copy; therefore let the buyer take 
heed of cheating himself, and encouraging such base 
practices, the true copy being in octavo, and so sold by 
H. Sawbridge at the Bible on Ludgate-hill." T. C. 
is for Thomas Churchyard. The fourth edition ap- 
peared in 1702. A German edition was published at 
Vienna in 1 509, 4to, 

No English edition earlier than the present, is, I 
believe, known to exist, but it was certainly pi'inted 
before 1 600, and most of the cuts in the present copy 
are old, some of them exhibiting the worm-holes of the 
original blocks. The tale is mentioned by Henry 
Crope in Vertves Commomvealth, or the Highioay to 



Honour, 4to. 1602; and many years before, Meredith 
Hanmer, in the epistle dedicatory to his translation 
of Eusebius, 1577, speaks of " the stories of King 
Arthur, the monstrous fables of Garagantua, the Hun- 
dred Merry Tales, Skoggan, Fortunatus, with many 
other infortunate treatises." The History of Fortunatus 
was entered on June 22nd, 1615, with other copies, to 
Mr. Field. Taylor, the water-poet, in his Workes, 
1630, iii, 99, says of a traveller in Germany, "he must 
have Fortunatus or a prince his purse, that must be, 
like a drunkard's dagger, ever drawne, to pay bounti- 
fully for such wash and graines as his valiant stomacke 
hath overcome, conquered, and devoured." 

The above cut is taken from p. 155, and represents 
Andolocia in prison, seated in a pair of stocks, and the 
Earl Theodorus strangling him. Mr, Fairholt has 
kindly furnished me with the following remarks on 


the cuts ill this volume : — " The cuts in the History of 
Fortunatus, 1682, are certainly not the work of English 
artists, and are very much older than that date. It 
was not at all unusual for English publishers of popular 
stories to obtain their illustrations abroad ; and as this 
work is stated in the title-page to be ' first penned in 
the Dutch tongue,' it is by no means improbable that 
the cuts were obtained in Holland or Germany, where 
the art of book illustration principally flourished. The 
cuts, however, are not uniformly good, nor are they 
all by the same hand. I should be inclined to think 
that the publisher obtained as many as he could, and 
then had the others copied by an inferior hand at home. 
Wood-engravers from the Low Countries resided in 
England and pursued their avocations here in the time 
of James to Charles I ; and Evelyn in his Sculptura, 
1662, says: 'we have likewise Switzer for cutting in 
wood, the son of a father who sufficiently discovered 
his dexterity in the herbals set forth by Mr. Parkinson, 
Lobel, and others.' He also engraved the cuts in 
Speed's History of Britaine, fol., 1611. He was a very 
tame and poor engraver ; but wood engraving at the 
close of the sixteenth century had greatly declined. 
The better cuts in Fortunatus are certainly executed 
earlier : the costume of the women in particular is 
peculiarly German. From the peculiarities of their 
style and drawing they appear to be the work of Jost 
Amman, who was born at Zurich in 1539, removed to 
Nuremberg in 1560, and died there in 1591. During 
the thirty years in which he resided in that city, he 



apiiears to have been busily employed in making de- 
signs on wood for the booksellers of Nuremberg and 
Frankfort ; but though he excelled as a painter on 
glass, and furnished designs for goldsmiths, book illus- 
tration appears to have been his chief employment, and 
which he practised so industriously, that his works 
amount to a far greater number than have yet been 

42. The History of Fortunatus, setting forth his 
birth, life, travels, and adventures in most parts 
of the woi-ld ; how the Lady Fortune appeared to 
him, and gave him a rich purse that never wanted 
money ; and also, in his travels, how he got from 
the Soldan a wishing-hat, that by putting it on 
his head, he could convey himself immediately 
into whatever place he desired. With an account 
how Fortunatus, on his death-bed, declared to his 
two sons, Auipedo and Andolocia, the virtue of 
his purse and hat. 12mo. Glasgow, 1790. 

An abridgement of the last article, in the form of a 

penny merriment. 

43. The History of Jack and the Giants. 12mo. 
n. d. The Second Part of Jack and the Giants, 
giving a full account of his victorious Conquests 
over the North Country Giants, destrojdng the in- 
chanted castle kept by Galligantus, dis])ers'd the 
fiery griffins, put the conjuror to flight, and re- 
leased not only many knights and ladies, but 
likewise a Duke's daughter, to whom he was 
honourably married. 12mo. Newcastle, 1711. 

With rude cuts illustrating the principal events 

related in the history. I am not acquainted with any 

edition of Jack the Giant-ldUcr earlier than the pre- 


sent one, but it was certainly composed at least a cen- 
tury before, and there can be but little doubt of its 
being alluded to in King Lear, act iii, scene 4. In 
the present edition, the lines quoted by Edgar are 
given as follows, and it will be perceived they are 
nearer the words in Shakespeare than those in later 
copies quoted by the commentators : — 

Fe, fi, fo, fum, 

I smell the blood of an English Man : 

Be he alive, or be he dead, 

I'll grind his bones to make me bread. 

And in Nash's Have lo'tth you to Saffron Walderi, i 596, 

mention is made of " a precious apothegmaticall pedant, 

who will finde matter inough to dilate a whole daye of 

the first invention of 

Fy, fa, fum, 

I smell the bloud of an Englishman ! " 

See remarks on the similarity of this history to 
legends of other countries, in Keightley's Tales and 
Popular Fictions, 1834. 

44. The Birth, Life, and Death of John Franks, 
wirii THE Pranks and Jests he play'd, though 
A MEER fool. 12nio. Loudon, Bow-Church Yard, 
n. d. 

These pretty jests you here will read. 

Were from an innocent indeed : 

Such pretty pranks were never known. 

As oftentimes John Franks has shewn : 

Some men are fools only in show, 

But this a fool all men did know ; 

Belov'd he was of ev'ry one. 

And when he dy'd there was great moan. 


We are here informed that "John Franks, the 
reputed son of John Ward, was born at Much Easton 
in Essex, within three miles of Duumow : he had no 
friends to take care of him, but his being such a fool 
was the cause of his well-being, for every one was in 
love with the sport he made. When he was grown to 
be of man's stature, there was a worthy knight, who 
took him to keep, where he did very many and strange 
pranks. He was a comely person, and had a good 
complexion ; his hair was of a dark flaxen : he was of 
a middle stature, and good countenance. If his tongue 
had not betrayed his folly, no one but would think he 
had been a wise man." At the end it is stated, " He 
lived about fourscore years, and died in a knight's 
house in Enfield parish, where he was handsonsely 
buried; all that knew him being sorry for his death, 
poor soul, who had never done evil, but through evil 
example." We cannot say much for the wittiness of 
the jests, but give as an example one chapter, which is 
illustrated with a wood-cut of a farmer playing at the 
game of blind-man's-buff. 

Chap. V. — How Jack deceived Mr. Sorrel, a rich 
Veomaii, of puddings and links that hung up in his 
chimney. — Jack was often upon the ramble, and one day 
he went up to this yeoman's house, who loved much to 
make sport with him. The servants being all busy, 
some in the barn, and some abroad amongst the cattle, 
and only him and the fool together ; ' Mr. Soriel,' 
says Jack, ' shall we play at blind-man's-buff"?' ' Ay 


faith,' saith he, ' with all my heart, Jack.' ' You shall 
be blinded,' says Jack. ' That I will, Jack,' said he. 
So, pinning a napkin about his eye and head, ' Now, 
turn about,' says Jack; ' but you see, Mr. Sorrel, you 
see.' ' No, good faith. Jack,' saith he, ' I do not see.' 
Jack shuffled up and down the kitchen in order to 
catch him, and still cried, 'You see, Mr. Sorrel, you 
see.' But when the fool perceived that he did not see, 
he went to the chimney, and whipt down some of the 
puddings into his pockets, and thus he continued to do 
whenever he came to the end of the room, till he had 
filled both his pockets and breeches with them, which 
was soon done, for they were large and he was very 
quick. The doors being open. Jack runs away as 
fast as he could, leaving the good man blinded, who, 
wondering he did not hear the fool, cried, ' Jack, Jack!' 
but finding no answer, he pulled off the napkin, and 
seeing the fool was gone, and that he had also taken 
many of the links and puddings with him, he was so 
enraged that he sent his bloodhounds after him, which 
when Jack perceived, he takes a pudding and flings it 
at them; the dogs smelling to the pudding, Jack gained 
ground the time, and still as the dogs pursued him, he 
threw a pudding at them; and thus he did till he came 
to an house. 

This was spread abroad, to the shame and vexa- 
tion of the farmer. 

It happen'd, some time after, that Mr. Sorrel, 
among other tenants, went to pay their respects to the 
lord where Jack then lived. Jack espying him, went 


and told his lady that Mr. Sorrel was come. The lady 
being afraid that the fool might offend him by speak- 
ing of the puddings, threaten'd him, saying, ' Sirrah, if 
you speak of the puddings you shall be whipt.' ' No,' 
says Jack, ' I will not.' 

But when the lord and lady were at dinner, and 
Mr. Sorrel and the rest with them. Jack went to Mr. 
Sorrel and shak'd him by the hand, saying, ' How is it, 
Mr. Sorrel'? Then, whispering to him as it were, but 
hollowed so loud that all the company heard him, ' Mr. 
Sorrel,' says Jack, 'not a word of the puddings, Mr. 
Sorrel,' at which they all burst into a laughter; but the 
honest man was so much ashamed, that the company 
were sorry to see, and he never came there any more. 
Ever since it is a byword to say, ' Not a word of the 

45. The Noble and Renowned History of Guy 
Earl of "Warwick, containing a full and true 
Account of his many famous and valiant Actions, 
remarkable and brave Exploits, and noble and 
renowned Victories : Also his courtship to fair 
Phoelice, Earl Roband's daughter and heiress, and 
the many difficulties and hazards he went thorow 
to obtain her love. Exti'acted from authentick 
Records, and the whole illustrated with cuts suit- 
able to the History. 12mo. London, Printed 
by W. 0. for E. B., and sold by A. Bettesworth 
at the sign of the Red Lion on London-bridge. 

Dedicated by G. L. " to his honour'd and worthy 
friend, Mr. Zachariah Hayward, citizen of Loudon." 
Then follows a '* Poem in praise of the following 


History." At the end is, " An old Song of the valiant 
Deeds of Chivalry atchiev'd by the noble Knight Sir 
Guy of Warwick, &c. Tune, fVas ever man''^ : — 

Was ever knight for lady's sake 

So tost iu love as I, Sir Guy ? 
For Philis fair, that lady bright, 

As ever man beheld with eye. 
She gave me leave myself to try 

The valiant knight with shield and spear, 
Ere that her love she would grant me, 

Which made me venture far and near. 

This tale was dramatized early in the seventeenth 
century, and Taylor mentions having seen it acted at 
the Maidenhead in Islington : — "After supper we had 
a play of the life and death of Guy of Warwicke, 
played by the Right Honourable the Earle of Darbie 
his men". — Pennilesse Pilgrimage, ed. 1630, p. 140. 

46. The First Part of the History of the King 
AND CoBLER, shewing how Henry VIII used to 
visit the watches in the city, his acquaintance 
with a merry cobler, how he was entertain'd in 
the Cobler's cellar, and what had like to have 
befallen him there. 12mo. Newcastle, Printed 
by John White, n. d. 

The King and the Cobler: the Second Part. 12mo. 

This is one of the numerous popular tales in which 
the sovereign is represented as visiting the humble 
subject in disguise. Ch. 1. How K. Henry VIII used 
to visit the watches in the city, and how he became 
acquainted with a merry jovial cobler. 2. How the 
cobler entertain'd the King in his cellar, and of the 
disturbance they had like to have had by his wife 


Joan. 3. How the cobler prepar'd himself to go to 
court, and how he was set out after the best manner 
by his wife Joan. 4. The cobler's reception at court, 
with the manner of his behaviour before the King. 5. 
The cobler's entertainment in the King's cellar, how 
he met with his new friend Harry Tudor, and how he 
came to know him to be the King. 5. How the cobler 
became a courtier. — Second Part, Chap. 1. Of the 
cobler's return from court to his wife Joan, and of the 
comical discourse that past between them. 2. How the 
Queen, upon hearing much mirth at court, came with 
her maids of honour to know the cause thereof, and 
how Cardinal Wolsey, that proud prelate, curbed the 
King for being, as he said, too free with a poor cobler. 
3. How the cobler the next morning was thunderstruck 
by his wife, and how upon singing a new song which 
he had made, she at once took him to coram nobis; 
Avith many other things very remarkable. 4. How the 
King took to himself the title of a tanner, and came to 
the cobler to sell him a piece of leather, and how the 
Queen, in the disguise of a country maid, passed for 
his kinswoman who wanted service, with other pas- 
sages of very much mirth. 5. How the King invited 
the cobler and his wife to dinner, and the discourse 
that passed thereupon. 6. How the cobler was put in 
fear of his life, and how he came off with flying 

The king died first, the cobler followed after, 

But not till he had often fiU'd the court with laughter. 


The King pensions the coblei* by a grant of land worth 
£50 per annum : — 

Thou shalt have fifty-pounds a year in land, 
Which lies upon the south side of the Strand ; 
I am the royal giver, thou the taker. 
And I will have it call'd the Cobler's Acre. 

47. Cock Robin, a pretty gilded Toy for either Girl 
or Boy, suited to children of all ages. 12mo. 
Aldermary Church-yard, n. d. 

48. The Tragical Death of A, Apple Pye, who 
was cut in pieces and eat by twenty-five gentle- 
men, with whom all little people ought to be 
very well acquainted. 12rao. Aldermary Church- 
yard, n. d. 

The earliest notice of this popular tract I have met 

with occurs in Eacliard's Observations upon the answer 

to a?i Enquiry into the grounds and occasions of the 

Contempt of the Clergy, 8vo. 1671, p. 160:— "Why 

not A apple-pasty, B bak'd it, C cut it, D divided it, 

E eat it, F fought for it, G got it," etc. 

49. The House that Jack built, a diverting story 
for Children of all ages ; and the history of Gog 
and Magog. 12mo. Aldermary Church-yard, n. d. 

These three tracts are of a very small size, with 

cuts. It may be worth while to observe, that all the 

Aldermary Church-yard books of this kind are now 

very rarely met with. The present was printed about 

1780, and I have another edition printed in Long-lane, 

in the year 1809. 


50. The Famous History of the Valiant London 
Prentice, shewing his noble Exploits at home 
and abroad, together Avith his Love and great 
Success, very pleasant and delightful. Written 
for the encouragement of youth by J. S. 12mo. 
Licensed and entered according to order, n. d. 

The story will easily be collected from the titles of 
the chapters. — 1. An account of his birth, education, 
and early valour, etc. 2. An account of his first ad- 
ventures and enterprizes, and how he won the virgin 
hearts, etc. 3. How the fairLucinda fell in love with 
him, and how those she despised for his sake conspired 
against him. 4. How they attempted to destroy Aure- 
lius, but were overcome, and left naked in the wood. 
5. How his father put him an apprentice to a merchant, 
and the leave he took of Lucinda. 6. How he gained 
the love of his master, and became enamoured of 
Dorinda, his fair daughter. 7. How he got leave to 
go for Turkey, and what ensued. 8. How he arrived 
in Turkey, and of his reception ; how he overthrew 
the Turk, and killed a Turkish prince. 8. How he 
destroyed two lions prepared to devour him, and had 
the king's only daughter in marriage. — The ballad of 
the London Prentice, printed by Evans, iii, 178, is on 
the same story. See also Mackay's Songs, p. 22, 

51. The Fryar and Boy, or the Young Piper's 
Pleasant Pastime, containing the witty adventures 
betwixt the Fryar and Boy in lelation to his step- 
mother, whom he fairly fitted for her unmerciful 
cruelty. 12mo. Newcastle, c. 1760. 

In two parts, with cuts, one of whidi, :it p. 15, appears 


to be a veiy early one. The second part is entitled, 
" The Merry Piper, or the second part of the Fryar 
and Boy, containing a further progress of Jack's frolick- 
soine intrigues ; full of Mirth and Reception." The 
first part is founded on the old tale of the Frere and 
the Boy, printed in Ritson's Ancient Popular Poetry, 
1791, p. 35; and by Mr. Wright, 12mo. 1836. The 
second part is not in the older tale. It relates the 
manner of Jack obtaining three formidable gifts, which 
he employs unmercifully against everybody he meets 
with. The popularity of this history has continued to 
the present day, having been reprinted in the North of 
England within the last five years. 

52. The Pleasant History of Jack Horner, con- 
taining his witty Tricks and pleasant Pranks which 
he play'd from his youth to his riper years, right 
pleasant and delightful for winter and summer's 
recreation. 12mo. Newcastle, c. 1760. 

A curious history, the sixth chapter of which, " Jack's 
kindness to his old friend the inn-keeper, whom he put 
in the way to pay his debts," is founded on the Tale 
of a Basin, printed by Mr. "Wright from a manuscript 
of the fourteenth century, 12mo. 1836. The com- 
mencement appears to furnish the origin of a popular 
nursery rhyme : — 

" Jack Homer was a pretty lad, 

Near London he did dwell ; 
His father's heart he made full glad, 

His mother lov'd him well. 
A pretty boy of curious wit, 

All people spoke his praise, 


And in the corner would he sit 

In Chi'istmas holy-days : 
When friends they did together meet, 

To pass away the time, 
Why, little Jack, he sure would eat 

His Chi'istmas-pye in rhime, 
And said. Jack Horner, in the corner, 

Eats good Christmas pye, 
And with his thumb pulls out the plumb, 

And said, Good boy am I ! " 

With regard to his stature, we are told, — 

" Thus few was like him far and nigh, 
When he to age was come. 
As being thirteen inches high, 
A giant to Tom Thumb !" 

53. The whole Life and Merry Exploits of 
BOLD Robin Hood, Earl of Huntingdon, shew- 
ing how he became an outlaw, and fled to the 
forest of Sherwood, where he and his gang shelter'd 
themselves for many years, committing many 
notorious Villanies and Robberies, insomuch that 
all passengers were forc'd to pay them tribute ; 
and at last he betook himself to a monastery in 
Yorkshire, where he was bled to death by a ^loiik. 
To which are added several songs not in the former 
impressions. With the whole Ilistoiy of Johnny 
Armstrong of Westmoreland. With cuts adapted 
to each story. ]2mo. London, printed for S. 
Crowder, at the Looking-glass on London -bridge, 

Prose histories, with a frontispiece of Robin Hood, 

and numerous cuts. At the end is a " Collection of 

Songs concerning Robin Hood," and a " Song shewing 

how Johnny Armstrong, and his eight score men, 

fought a bloody battle with the Scotch king at Edin- 


burgh." The prose history of Robin Hood occupies 
ninety pages. 

54, The History of Robin Hood, and of all tlie 
notable Exploits performed by him and Iiis Merry 
Men. 12mo. Manchester, n. d. 

In prose and verse, sixteen pages. 

65. A True Tale of Robin Hood, setting forth the 
Life and Death of that renowned outlaw Robert 
Earl of Huntington, carefully collected out of the 
truest writers of our English chronicles, and pub- 
lished for the satisfaction of all who desire to have 
Truth from Falsehood. By Martin Parker, gent. 
12mo. Newcastle, n. d. 

This is a later copy, with a few verbal variations, of 

the poem under the same title printed in Mr. Gutch's 

Robin Hood, vol. ii, p. 88. 

56. The Life and Death of St. George, the 
NOBLE Champion of England. 12mo. London, 
Aldermary Church-yard, n. d. 

Ch. L Of the birth of St. George, and how he was 
brought up. 2. Of St. George's arrival in Egypt, of 
his killing a dragon, and many other wonderful at- 
chievements. 3. Of St. George getting out of prison, 
and releasing St. David. 4. St. George regains Sabra. 
5. Sabra and St. George's death, with the occasions 
thereof. " 'Twas very proper for these saints to alight 
at the sign of Saint George, who slew the dragon which 
was to pi'ey upon the virgin; the truth of which story 
hath been abus'd by his own countrymen, who almost 


deny all the particulars of it, as I have read in a scur- 
rilous epigram very much impairing the credit and 
legend of St. George, as followeth : — 

They say there is no dragon, 

Nor no St. George, 'tis said : 
St. George and dragon lost, 

Pray Heaven there be a maid ! 

But it was smartly return'd to, in this manner : — 

Saint George indeed is dead, 

And the fell dragon slaine : 
The maid liv'd so and dyed ; 

Shee'll ne'er doe so againe." 
Gatton's Pleasant Notes upon Bon Quixot, 1654, p. 231. 

57. Bateman's Tragedy, or the Perjur'd Bride 
JUSTLY Rewarded, being the history of the Un- 
fortunate Love of German's Wife and young 
Bateman. London, Printed by Tho. Norris at 
the Looking-glass on London-bridge, n. d. 

Li prose and verse, with wood-cuts. The latter 
part is entitled, " A Godly Warning to all Maidens 
by the Example of God's judgment shewed on Ger- 
man's wife, of Clifton, in the County of Nottingham, 
who, lying in child-bed, was borne away, and never 
heard of after : To the tune of the Lady's Fall." This 
is on the same subject as a play by William Sampson, 
" The Vow-breaker, or the Fair Maid of Clifton in 
Nottinghamshire", 4to. 1636. 

58. Another edition. 12mo. Newcastle, 1783. 

A wood-cut on the title, in three partitions, repre- 
senting events in the history. 


59. Jack and Jill, and old Dame Gill : read it 
who will, they'll laugh their fill. 18nio. London, 
n. d. 

In verse, with numerous wood-cuts. The nursery 

rhymes of Jack and Jill are founded upon this tale. 

60. The Histort of the Four Kings of Canter- 
bury, Colchester, Cornwall, and Cumber- 
land, THEIR Queens and Daughters, being the 
merry Tales of Tom Hodge and his Schoolfellows. 
12mo. Falkirk, 1823. 

Although this tract is of so late a date, yet it seems 
worth insertion in this series, as most probably a re- 
print of an older performance. It contains seven tales, 
the first of which relates to the period of the Lanca- 
shire witches, and a country fellow who " was pos- 
sessed with a fear that he was a witch, because he had 
a wart grew on his neck, which he imagined to be a 

61. The most Surprising Adventures and won- 
derful Intrigues of David Huntly, the famous 
English fortune-hunter, who first made love to his 
master's daughter, and from having gained an 
intei'est in her favour, he began to think him- 
self intitled to a much better match, and how he 
made his addresses to several ladies of fortune. 
12mo. Glasgow, 1787. 

62. The History and Lives of all the most 
NOTORIOUS Pirates, and their Crews, from 
Captain Avery, who first settled at Madagascar, 
to Captain John Gow, and James Williams, his 
Lieutenant, he, who were hanged at Execution 


Dock, June 1 1, 1735, &c. Adorned witli nineteen 
beautiful cuts. _ 12nio. Glasgow, 1788. 

This became, in an abridged form, a very popular 

penny history. 

63. The Story of King Edward III and the 
Countess of Salisbury. 12mo. Whitehaven, 
n. d. 

This is a small prose history, and there is one, if 

not more, early play on the same subject. A ballad 

" Of King Edward the Third and the fair Countess of 

Salisbury, setting forth her constancy and endless 

glory", is printed in Evans' Old Ballads, ed. 1810, 

ii, 301. 

64. The History of Johnny Armstrong of West- 
moreland. l2mo. London, Aldermary Church- 
yard, n. d. 

In six chapters, with cuts. This is an abridgment 

of the larger history. See No. 53. 

65. Another edition. 12mo. Newcastle, 1772. 

66. The Pleasant and Princely History of the 
Gentle Craft, a Discourse containing many 
matters of Delight, very pleasant to read : shew- 
ing what famous men have been shooe-makers in 
time past in this land, with their worthy deeds 
and great Hospitality. Set forth with pictures, 
and variety of \\ it and ]\Iirth. London, Printed 
for H. Rhodes at the Star, the corner of Bride- 
lane, Fleet-street, n. d. 


A gentle craft, that hath the art 

To steal soon into a ladies heart ; 

Here you may see what youth and love can do : 

The crown doth stoop to the maker of a shooe. 

Following the title are copies of verses " to all the 
good Yeomen of the Gentle Craft", and " the old 
Shooe-maker's advice to his Son, being the Downfall 
of Ale-wives." On the last page is a song, " How a 
Shoemaker's Widow fell in love with her Man". This 
edition contains twenty-nine leaves, and sixteen cuts. 

67. The Princely History of Crispin and Cris- 
PANius, OR THE Gentle Craft, shewing what 
renowned princes, heroes, and worthies, have been 
of the Shoemakers' trade, both in this and other 
kingdoms ; likewise why it's call'd the Gentle 
Craft, and that they sa}'' a Shoemaker's son is a 
Prince born. 12mo. London, Printed by L. 
How in Petticoat-Lane, n. d. 

An abridgment of the last, with several wood-cuts. 
It commences with the tale of Hugh and "Winifred, 
daughter of Donvallo, King of Flintshire: and then 
follows the story of Crispin and Crispianus. Deloney's 
Gentle Craft was published in 1598, and Harrington 
has an epigram upon it. I have an edition of this 
chap-book printed at Newcastle about 1760, having a 
curious cut on the title evidently much older than the 
tract, and concluding with "A brief Account of the 
strange prodigies and other wonderful things that hap- 
pened during the Mayoralty of Sir Simon Eyre, Lord 
Mayor of London, who was a Shoemaker." 

notices of popular histories. 59 

68. The Shoemaker's Glory, or the Princely 
History of the Gentle Craft, shewing, &c. 
12mo. London, Aldermary Church-yard, n. d. 

69. No Jest like a true Jest, being a compen- 
dious record of the merry Life and mad Exploits 
of Capt, James Hind, the great robber of Eng- 
land ; together with the close of all at Worces- 
ter, where he was drawn, hanged, and quartered, 
for High Treason against the Commonwealth, 
Sept. 24, 1652. 12mo. Stratford-upon-Avon, n. d. 

This very popular history has been reprinted up to 
the present time in the north of England. The fourth 
chapter relates " how Hind was enchanted by an old 
hag for the term of three years," who gave him " a 
little box almost like a sun-dial," saying, " when you 
are in distress, open this, and that way you see the 
star turn out, go and you shall escape." 

70. The History of Thomas Hickathrift : Part 
the First. — The History of Thomas Hickathrift : 
Part the Second. 12rao. London, n. d. 

With numerous cuts. Thomas Hickathrift belongs 

to the same series as Jack the Giant-killer, one of the 

popular corruptions of old Northern romances. It 

seems to allude to some of the insurrections in the 

Isle of Ely, such as that of Hereward, described in 

Wright's Essays, 1846, ii, 91. The first part contains 

five chapters : — L Tom's birth and parentage. 2. How 

Tom Ilickathrift's great strength came to be known. 

3. How Tom became a brewer's servant; how he killed 

a giant, and came to be called Mr. Hickathrift. 4. 


How Tom kept a pack of hounds, and of his being 
attacked by some highwaymen. 5. Tom meets with 
the tinker, and of the battle they fought. — The con- 
tents of the second part are as follows: — 1. Tom 
Hickathrift and the Tinker conquer ten thousand 
rebels. 2. Tom Hickathrift and the Tinker are sent 
for to court, and of their kind entertainment. 3. Tom, 
after the death of his mother, goes a wooing, and of 
a trick he served a gallant who had affronted him. 4. 
How Tom served two troopers, whom his spark had 
hired to beset him. 5. Tom, going to be married, is 
set upon by one-and-twenty ruffians, and of the havock 
he made. 6. Tom makes a feast for all the poor 
widows in the adjacent towns, and how he served an 
old woman, who stole a silver cup. 7. Sir Thomas 
and his Lady are sent for up to court, and of what 
happened at that time. 8. Tom is made governor of 
East Angles, now called the Isle of Thanet, and of the 
wonderful atchievements he there performed. 9. The 
tinker, hearing of Tom's fame, he goes to his partner ; 
and of his being unfortunately slain by a lion. The 
reader will observe the error respecting the East Angles, 
now called the Isle of Thanet, a mistake not unlikely 
to be made by a compiler from an older tale, who was 
not very minutely acquainted with geography. 

71. The Famous History of Tom Thumb, wherein 
is declared his marvellous Acts of Manhood, full 
of wonderful Merriment. Part the First. 

The Famous History of Tom Thumb, wherein is 
declared his marvellous Acts of Manhood, full of 


wonderful Merriment : performed after his first 
return from Fairy Land. Part the Second. 
The History of Tom Thumb, wherein is declared 
his marvellous Acts of Manhood, full of wonder 
and merriment : performed after his second return 
from Fairy Land. Part the Third. 
12mo. Printed and sold in London,_n. d. 

The first part of this history is a copy, with a few 
variations and eight additional stanzas, of an edition in 
the Bodleian Library, dated 1630, reprinted in Pit- 
son's Pieces of Ancieyit Popular Poetry, 1791, p. 99. 
The two other parts are probably more modern, not 
being found in the early editions. It was no doubt 
published at a very early period, being alluded to by 
Ben Jonson, and thus mentioned in some verses pre- 
fixed to Coryat's Crudities, 1611: — 

Tom Thumbe is dumbe, untill the pudding creepe 
In which he was intomb'd, then out doth peepe. 

And again, in a very old ballad, entitled, " The Devil 
and the Scold": — 

Tom Thumb is not my subject, 

Whom fairies oft did aide : 
Nor that mad spirit Robin, 

That plagues both wife and maid. 

It was turned into prose in 1621, the editor saying, 
" The ancient tales of Tom Thumbe in the olde time 
have beene the only revivers of drouzy age at mid- 
night : old and young have with his tales chim'd mat- 
tens till the cocks crow in the morning; batchclors and 
maides with his tales have compassed the Christmas 
fire-blocke till the curfew b(dl rings candle out ; the 


old shepheard and the young plow-boy, after their 
dayes labour, have carold out a Tale of Tom Thumbe 
to make them merry with: and who but little Tom hath 
made long nights seem short, and heavy toyles easie ? 
Therefore, gentle reader, considering that old modest 
mirth is turn'd naked out of doors, while nimble wit in 
the great hall sits upon a soft cushion giving dry 
bobbes ; for which cause I will, if I can, new cloath 
him in his former livery, and bring him againe into 
the chimney corner, where now you must imagine me 
to sit by a good fire, amongst a company of good fel- 
low es, over a well spic'd wassel-bowle of Christmas 
ale, telling of these merry tales which hereafter follow." 
Tom Thumb is thus alluded to in John Taylor's Motto, 
12mo. 1622 :— 

And many more good good bookes I have with care 

Lookt on their goods, and never stole their ware, 

For no booke to my hands could ever come, 

If it were but the treatise of Tora Thumh, 

Or Scoggins Jests, or any simple play, 

Or monstrous newes came trundling in my way. 

All these, and ten times more, some good, some bad, 

I have from them much observation had : 

And so with care and study I have writ 

These bookes, the issue of a barren wit. 

Tom Thumbe is also included in the list of authors 
prefixed to Sir Gregory Nonsense, his Newes from, No 
Place, in Taylor's Workes, 1630. So also in the 
second part of the Friar and the Boy : — 

The merry tales of Robin Hood, 

Tom Thumb, and Little John, 
Cannot compare with this little book, 

Which I present to you. 


It may be a question whether the tale of Tom 
Thumb has come down to us in its original form. 
Scott, in his Discoverie of Witchcraft, 1584, puts him 
in a list of fairies and hobgoblins. His size, however, 
might account for this; and a fairy page, in Drayton's 
Nymphidia, is called Tom Thumb. Taylor, in his 
Certaine Sonnets in Praise of Mr. Thomas the De- 
ceased, in his Workes, 1630, ii, 63, says: — 

Tom Thumb did through th' Arabian deserts wade, 
"Where Castor and his brother Pollux shine. 

And, again, in Laugh and be Fat, p. 77: — 

This author 'mongst the rest in kindnesse comes 
To grace thy travels with a world of Toms ; 
Tom Thumhe, Tom Foole, Tom Piper, and Tom-asse, 
Thou Tom of Toms dost all these Toms surpasse. 

Harry White, in his Humour, 1660, " is of this opi- 
nion, that if the histories of Garrangantua and Tom 
Thumbe be true, by consequence Bevis of Hampton 
and Scoggin's Jests must needes bee authenticall." 

It seems hardly necessary to allude to the monstrous 
assertion made by Thomas Hearne, that Tom Thumb, 
" however looked upon as altogether fictitious, yet was 
certainly founded upon some authentic history, as being 
nothing else originally but a description of King Edgar's 

72. The Comical and merry Tricks of Tom 
Thumb the Wonderful. 12mo. Paisley, n, d. 

This is a prose history, formed from the foregoing 

metrical account of Tom Thumb. 


73. The History of the Life and Death of 
THAT noble Knight Sir Bevis op Southamp- 
ton. 12mo. Newcastle, n. d. 

A prose history, abridged from the romance. It has 
a cut on the title, evidently copied from that in the 
old black-letter edition, of Sir Bevis on horseback, 
attended by his squire. Allusions to Sir Bevis are of 
very frequent occurrence. Hooper says: — "Men know- 
eth not what the Gospel is : they read it as they read 
Bevis of Hampton, or the Gestes of Robin Hood," 
Early Writings, p. 77. Taylor, the water-poet, men- 
tions him several times in his Workes, 1630, i, 65 ; 
ii, 1, 16; iii, 80; and in his Crop-eare Curried, 1644; 
and Gayton, in his Pleasant Notes, 1654, p. 275, says: 
" Men may, if they be dispos'd to be merry, seem to 
discredit the stories of Bevis of Southampton, John-a- 
Green, and Robin Hood, but that the cities wherein 
these men sometimes were famous in their hals and 
publike meeting-places in painted cloth or frames, pre- 
sent the lively histories still unto posterity." The 
statue of Bevis, mentioned by Pepys, i, 347, is still 
remaining on the gates of Southampton. 

74. The History of the Noble Marquis of Salus 
and Patient Grissel. 12mo. London, Alder- 
mary Church-yard, n. d. 

Abridged and altered from the "Ancient, True, and 

Admirable History of Patient Grisel, a poore Man's 

daughter in France", 1619, which was reprinted by 

Mr. Collier for the Percy Society, 1842. It appears 

to have been published in this form, and under this 


title, at least as early as 1703. In Harry White's 
Humoxir, printed about 1660, we read that — "Having 
lately read the rare history of Patient Grizell, out of 
it he hath drawne this phylosophicall position, that if 
all women were of that woman's condition, we should 
have no iraployraent for cuckin-stooles." 

75. The History of Jack of Newbury, called 
THE Clothier OF England, 12mo. London, n. d. 
An abridged edition, with wood-cuts. This tale 
appears to have been first printed in 1596, and the 
eighth edition was published in 1619. The eleventh 
edition appeared in 1630, entitled, " The Pleasant 
History of John Winchconib, in his younger yeares 
called Jack of Newbery, the famous and worthy 
Clothier of England, declaring his life and love, toge- 
ther with his charitable deedes and great hospitality, 
and how he set continually five hundred poore people 
at worke, to the great benefite of the Commonwealth." 
In a MS. Diary by one Stoneley, written in 1597, is 
the following entry : — " To Johns the prynter for the 
booke of Jack of Newberye at Wynchon, iiij d." Jack 
of Newbury is thus alluded to in John Taylor's " Jack 
a Lent, his Beginning and Entertainment, with the 
mad Prankes of his gentleman-usher Shrove-Tuesday, 
that goes before him, and his footman Hunger attend- 
ing," 1630: — 

Of Jack-an-Apes I list not to cudite, 

Nor of Jack Daw my gooses quill .shall write , 

Of Jacke of Newhen/ I will not repeatc, 

Nor Jacke of both sides, nor of Skip-.Tackc ncate. 


66 notices of popular historiks. 

76. The Pleasant Art of Money-catching, 
treating of the original and invention of Money; 
of the misery of wanting it; how persons in straits 
for money may supply themselves with it; how a 
man may always keep money in his pocket; how 
a man may pay debts without money; the true 
and only way to thrive. 

Whilst arts and study's a hatching, 
My study is the art of money-catching ; 
And I, poor I, by sad experience know 
That want of money brings a deal of woe. 

12mo. Glasgow, 1740. 
This was a very popular chap-book, and frequently 

77. Dead Alive : a True and Particular Account 
of a Man who came to Life again in the closet of 
a Surgeon, after he had been publicly executed ; 
how he affrighted the Surgeon, who afterwards 
assisted him in his escape to Holland, where he 
became an opulent Merchant. 8vo. London, n. d. 

Theodore Hook probably founded his novel of Max- 
well on this narrative. The scene is laid at Bury in 
Suffolk, and at Amsterdam. 

78. The History of Sir Richard Whittington, 
thrice Lord Mayor of London, shewing how 
he came up a poor boy to London, and was re- 
ceived as a scullion by a merchant; his sufferings 
and afflictions under a cruel cook-maid. How he 
bought a cat for a penny, and sent her a venture 
beyond sea, for which he got great riches in 
exchange. And lastly, how he married his Mas- 
ter's daughter, and was made thrice Lord Mayor 
of London. 12mo. Newcastle, n. d. 




79. Another edition. 12mo. Printed by L. How in 
Petticoat-lane, n. d. 

On the title is a wood-cut of Whittington on horse- 
back as Lord Mayor, attended by his mace-bearers. 
There are several other cuts in the Newcastle edition, 
very rude and curious. These are the original ver- 
sions, differing very much from the recent editions. 
The first edition of this history is probably not in 
existence. It was certainly published in some shape 
early in the seventeenth century, the "famous fable of 
Whittington and his puss" being mentioned in East- 
ward Hoe, 1605. Stephens thus alludes to it in his 
Essayes and Characters, 12mo. Lond. 161 o: — 

As if a new-found Whittington's rare cat, 
Come to extoU their birth-rights above that 
Which nature once intended. 

There is, indeed, in existence a black-letter copy in 
quarto, but it is of a considerably later date. A cha- 
racter in the P«rsow'5 Wedding, 1664, says, "I have 
heard of Whittington and his cat, and others, that 
have made fortunes by strange means." The Spectator, 
No. 5, remarks, " I am credibly informed that there 
was once a design of casting into an opera the story 
of Whittington and his Cat, and that in order to it, 
there had been got together a great quantity of mice; 
but Mr. Rich, the proprietor of the play-house, very 
prudently considered that it would be impossible for 
the cat to kill them all, and that, consequently, the 
princes of the stage might be as much infested with 
mice as the prince of the island was before the cat's 

F 2 


arrival upon it ; for which reason, he would not per- 
mit it to be acted in his house." An opera on the 
subject was, however, produced at the theatre in 
Smock Alley, Dublin, in 1739. A correspondent of 
the Taller, Oct. 8th, 1709, is anxious that Sir Richard 
should be admitted into the list of famous men, as one 
"who began the world with a cat, and died worth 
three hundred and fifty thousand pounds sterling, 
which he left to an only daughter three years after his 

Sir Richard Whittington, whose name has been 
taken for the hero of this romance, was Lord Mayor of 
London early in the fifteenth century. See Stowe's 
Survay of London, ed. 1605, p. 521. According to 
Stowe's Annales, p. 567, " he builded the library of 
the Grey Friers, and the East end of the Guild Hall 
in London, with divers small conduites called bosses, 
and the Weast Gate of London called Newgate." 

This story is stated by Sir William Ouseley to be 
founded on an oriental narrative, and it is related in a 
Persian MS. that in the tenth century one Keis, the 
son of a poor widow of Siraf, embarked for India with 
his sole property, a cat : there he fortunately arrived 
at a time when the palace was so infested by mice or 
rats, that they invaded the king's food, and persons 
were employed to drive them from the royal banquet. 
This cat was useful in the same manner as Whitting- 
ton's, and its owner was similarly rewarded. See 
further in Keightley's Tales and Popular Fictions, 
pp. 241-266. 


In the Description of Guinea, 1665, it is recorded 
" how Alphonso, a Portuguese, being wrecked on the 
coast of Guinney, and being presented by the king 
thereof with his weight in gold for a cat to kill their 
mice, and an oyntment to kill their flies, which he 
improved, within five years, to £6000 on the place, 
and returning to Portugal, after fifteen years traffick, 
became the third man in the kingdom." 

The tale of Whittington was dramatized early in the 
seventeenth century. According to the Biographia 
Dramatiea, iii, 402, there was entered on the books 
of the Stationers' Company by Thomas Pavier, Feb. 8th, 
1604, "The History of Richard Whittington, of his 
lowe byrthe, his great fortune, as yt was played by the 
Prynces servants." This play is alluded to in the 
Knight of the Burning Pestle, 1613. Pepys mentions 
a puppet-show on the story, Sept. 21st, 1668 : — '" To 
Southwarke fair, very dirty, and there saw the pup- 
pet-show of Whittington, which was pretty to see ; 
and how that idle thing do work upon people that see 
it, and even myself too !" 

At the end of this chap-book is the ballad beginning 
" Here must I sing the praise of worthy Whittington," 
which is printed in the Croivne Garland of Goulden 
Bases, 1612, and has been reprinted in Evans, ed. 
1810, ii, 325, and elsewhere. 

80. The Life and Death of Siieffery Morgan, 
THE SON OF Shon ap Morgan. 12nio. New- 
castle, c. 1760. 


On the title is a cut of a Welshman, with a leek in 
his hat. It describes the adventures of a Taffy from 
his birth to his death, how he travelled towards Lon- 
don, took a journey to the North, was robbed, turned 
doctor, and at last died of a surfeit. It appears, from 
allusions in it, to have been composed in the seven- 
teenth century. Shon ap Moi'gan is mentioned in 
Taylor's Worhes, 1630, i, 117. 

81. The Welch Traveller, or the Unfortunate 

If any gentleman does want a man, 
As I doubt not but some will want, and then, 
I have a Welchman, though but meanly clad, 
Will make him merry, be he ne'er so sad : 
If that you'll read it, read it thro', I pray. 
And you'll not think your penny thrown away. 

12mo. London, n. d. 
A curious metrical account of the misfortunes of a 
poor Welchman, said to have been written by Humphry 
Crouch. A Newcastle edition, in my possession, printed 
about 1760, says, "by Humphrey Cornish." It was 
published as early as 1671. It is illustrated with cuts. 
At p. 10 is one of TaiFy and an old woman seated in 
stocks. Taffy's Indictment, which concludes the tract, 
is as follows : — " Imprimis, for troubling the shepherd 
to help him out of the pit : Item, for selling the jerkin 
for a groat which was borrowed : Item, for casting 
dust into the hostess's son's face : Item, for casting the 
fish and rotten eggs into the hostess's face : Item, for 
throwing apples at the country-man, having the worst 


of it himself : Item, for taking the gold ring : Item, 
for calling the justice booby : Item, for sitting in the 
stocks with an old woman : Item, for creeping into 
the smoak-loft, and then falling down into the fire : 
Item, for acting the part of the devil, and putting all 
the house in bodily fear : Item, for scaring all the 
children in the town : Item, for scaring the sexton in 
the church : for which loose behaviour he was obliged 
to stand in the pillory, where we shall leave him till 
the next pranks he plays." 

82. The Merry Tales of the "Wise Men of 
Gotham. 12mo. Px-inted and sold in London, n. d. 

This has a cut on the title of a Gothamite hedging 
in a cuckoo, with the insci'iption, " Coocou. Gotam." 
It is the same cut that is fac-similed in Collier's Rox- 
burghe Ballads, p. 126. The first known edition is 
entitled, "Merie Tales of the Mad Men of Gotam, 
gathered together by A. B. of Phisike Doctour" : the 
colophon is, " Imprinted at London in Flet-stret, 
beneath the Conduit, at the signe of S. John Evan- 
gelist, by Thomas Colwell," bl. 1., n. d., but probably 
between 1556 and 1566. Allusions to these tales are 
very numerous, and exhibit their great popularity. 
Wither, in his Abuses, p. 80, says : — 

And he that tryes to doe it, might have bin 
One of the crew that hedg'd the cuckow in. 

They had attained public favour much earlier. In 
Philotimus, 1583, the "men of Goatam" arc remem- 
bered as having tied " their rentes in a purse about an 


Lare's necke, and bad her to carrie it to their landlord;" 
and they are decried as " witlesse devices" in Bering's 
rVorkes, 1614. 

83. The History of Adam Bell, Clim of the 
Clough, and "William of Cloudeslie. 

Who were three archers good enough, 
The best iu the north country. 

12rao. Newcastle, n, d. 
This is a somewhat modernized version of the well 
known poem reprinted by Ritson and Percy, but the 
variations between them are well worth the notice of 
a future editor. It has the following cut on the title, 
which originally appeared in Robin Hood's Garland, 
1670 ; representing Robin Hood, Little John, Queen 
Catharine, the Bishop, the Curtal Friar, and the Beg- 
gar. See Mr. Gutch's edition of the Robin Hood 
Ballads, i, 364. 

notices of popular histories. 73 

84. The Merry Conceits of Tom Long the 
Carrier, being many pleasant Passages and mad 
Pranks which he observed in his travels. Full of 
honest mirth and delight. The nineteenth edition. 

A sackful of news here is for your money ; 
Come buy it then, 'twill cost you but a penny, 

12rao. London, n. d. 

On a fly-leaf is a wood-cut of a woman, in a costume 

of the time of Charles I. The following notices of the 

different histories, in which the heroes are persons of 

the name of Tom, are curious. 

Of all the Toms that ever yet was nam'd, 

There's none like our Tom, that is so fam'd : 

Tom Long, his rare conceits by far exceeds 

Tom Hickathrift, and all his mighty deeds : 

Tom Tram's mad tricks to every one are known, 

But greater wonders in this book are shown ; 

Tom Thumb's strange wonders too, they seem as nought 

Compar'd with those which Tom the Carrier's brought : 

Tom's Ass may pass, but only for his ears. 

For no such jewels as our Tom he wears : 

Tom Tell-truth is the froth, but truth to tell, 

From all these Toms, Tom Long doth bear the bell. 

The chapters of this tract are thus entitled : — L How 
Tom Long first set up the trade of being a carrier, and 
where he took up his lodging. 2. How Tom Long the 
Carrier met a young man upon the way, with wliat 
happened to them, and how they were entertained by 
an hostess. 3. How Tom and his young man dis- 
coursed of their dinner, and how they resolved to mend 
the matter at nigiit, but met with as bad entertainment. 
4. Tom relates how a certain counterfeit merchant 
cozen'd divers gentlemen of very great sums of money. 


5. Of the great surprize that Tom Long was in, and 
how the wise mayor of Huntington siezed on Tom's 
ragged colt for Sturgeon. 6. A story of the seven 
sleepers, who slept above three hundred years, and 
never waked. 7. How Tom Long tlie Carrier sold his 
horse for the skin, supposing him to be dead, and how 
a crafty fellow coming by knew what the horse ailed, 
and so bought him, 8. How Tom Long the Carrier 
converted all his carriage to his own use, and thereby 
recruited himself with another horse, and of the sad 
mischance that befel his horse. 9, How Tom Long 
was assaulted by a dog, and how valiantly he defended 
himself, and killed him. 10. Of the hard lodging Tom 
Long found on the ground, having under him but one 
poor feather. 11. Of the king and his jester. 12. 
How Tom Long cozened two shoemakers of a pair of 
shoes. 13. "Witty conceits of Tom Long. 14. The 
conclusion of the merry conceits of -Tom Long. — 
Although this history offers curious illustrations of 
phraseology, I have looked in vain for a prose quota- 
tion. The last chapter, however, which is in verse, 
may be worth giving : 

Tom Long the carrier coming to an inn, 
Ask'd the maid what meat there was within ? 
Cow-heels, said she, and a fine breast of mutton. 
Then, said Tom, since that I am no glutton, 
Either shall serve ; to-night I'll have the breast : 
The heels in the morning, then light meat is the best. 
At night he took the breast, and did not pay ; 
In the morning took his heels, and ran away. 
When the worst is past, all things begin to mend. 
And here the story of Tom Long doth end. 


Taylor, in bis Armado, or Navy of Ships a7id other 
Vessels, ed. 1630, p. 80, thus alludes to Tom Long: — 
" The master's name was Petrus Vaineglorious, his 
mate Hugo Hypocrisie, men that have steered the 
course in the lord-ship many hundred yeeres ; the boat- 
swaine and bis mate were Scoffe and Derision, with 
Gripe the steward, Avarice the purser, and Lawrence 
Delay the paymaster, kinsman to Tom Long the Car- 
rier, which three last are thought to be very arrant 
knaves, who have spoyled the government of the whole 
ship." A ballad, "intituled Tom Longe the Caryer," 
was entered on the books of the Stationers' Company, 
1562. Brorae mentions this personage in his Songs 
and other Poems, ed. 1668, p. 226: — 

Their fat have scabs doubled for every nail, 
That thou mayst, like Tom Long, for over go. 
And ne'er come where thou art assign'd unto. 

85. The Foreign Travels and Dangerous 
Voyages of that renowned English Knight 
Sir John Mandeville, wherein he gives an 
account of remote kingdoms, countries, rivers, 
castles, and giants of a prodigious height and 
strength; together with the people called Pigmies, 
very small and of a low stature. To which is 
added an account of i)cople of oild Deformities, 
some without beads : also dark incbanted wilder- 
nesses, where are fiery dragons, griflins, and many 
wonderful beasts of prey in the country of Prester 
John. AH very delightful to the Header. 12mo. 
Bow-Church Yard, n. d. 

A popular abridgment, in twenty -four chapters, of 

the well known travels of Maundevile. 

76 notices of popular histories. 

86. The Merry Exploits of Poor Eobin, the 
Merry Saddler of Walden, containing many 
merry passages of his life, of harmless mirth, to 
lengthen out pleasure, and drive away melan- 
choly. 12mo. n.d. 

A very curious tract, which appears, from several 
allusions, to have been written during the time of the 
civil wars. The following chapter will serve as an 
example of its contents : — 

Poor RohirHs perambulation about the City. — No 
sooner did Apollo begin to appear in the eastern hori- 
zon, but Poor Robin, shaking off melancholy sleep, 
roused his companion to prepare himself for their 
intended perambulation ; and having armed themselves 
with a pot of nappy ale, they took their first walk to 
see the Royal Exchange, a most magnificent structure, 
built by Sir Thomas Gresham. From thence they 
then went to take a view of Leadenhall, but the exceed- 
ing bravery of the Exchange had so dimmed the beauty 
of the place, that it was nothing pleasing to Poor 
Robin's eye; he made no tarrying there, but went pre- 
sently down to the Tower, Avhere having seen the 
lions, and from the Wharf taken a superficial view of 
the bridge, as also the ships upon tlie river Thames, 
grew weaiy of beholding such trivial matters as these. 
He had, however, far more content in this than in any 
thing he had seen before, so admirably pleasing to his 
fancy it was to see how these little pretty things hopt 
about. But lest he should take a surfeit with such 
ravishing delights, his friends persuaded him to go to 
see the ancient Cathedral of St. Paul's, it being at that 


time made a horse guard by the soldiers ; which Poor 
Robin beholding, ' What a blessed reformation,' quoth 
he, ' have we here ! for in our country we can scarce 
persuade men to go to church, but here come men and 
horses too.' But having quickly satisfied himself with 
the sight of St. Paul's, they would in the next place 
go to visit Westminster, the rather because it was at 
term time, where beholding such a number of Lawyers 
in their gowns, he roared out, ' Good God ! send me 
safe out of this place, for if two or three make so great 
quarrelling in our town, what a noise will all these 
make !' 

87. The Famous and Memorable History of 
Chevy Chace by the River Tweed in Scot- 
land, together with the fatal battle between Lord 
Piercy of Northumberland, and his fifteen hun- 
dred archers, and the Earl of Douglas with twenty 
hundred Scots : in which both these earls and 
most of their men were slain. 12mo. London, 
Aldermary Church-yard, n. d. 

A prose history, with the ballad at p. 16, commenc- 
ing, " God prosper long our noble king." The chap- 
ters of the first part are entitled; — 1. How the Piercies 
came by their name, and to be Earls of Northumber- 
land, and of the vow which the Earl, in the reign of 
Henry II, made of hunting three days in Chevy Chace. 
2. Of their killing many deer, and receiving at sup- 
per-time a threatening message from Douglas com- 
manding them to depart. 3. Of Earl Piercy 's second 
day's sport, and his conduct on hearing of Earl Dou- 


glas's approach. 4. Of the meeting of the two Earls, 
their proposal to decide the quarrel in single combat, 
witli "NVitherington's objection. 5. The battle begun, 
and of its obstinate and bloody countenance : and the 
death of the two Earls. 

88. The Merry and Entertaining Jokes of 
George Buchanan, who was servant and teacher 
to King James VI, as his private Counsellor, but 
publicly acted as his fool. The whole compiled 
in three numbers, for the entertainment of youth. 
]2mo. Newcastle, n. d. 

In two parts, with miscellaneous jests at the end. 
This chap-book was exceedingly popular, if we may 
judge from the numerous editions that have been pub- 
lished in the north of England and in Scotland. The 
following extract is taken from another Newcastle edi- 
tion, which somewhat differs from the above : — 

14. George being now far advanced in years, and 
being weary of the great fatigue and folly of the court 
fashions, a short time before his death had a great 
desire to visit his native country, and the place of his 
nativity; therefore he petitioned the King for permis- 
sion to do so, which was granted. So he set out for 
Scotland, and went to the parish of Buchanan, in 
Dumbartonshire, where he visited all his relations and 
friends. But George staying longer from court than 
the time allowed, the King sent him several messages 
to return, to which he returned no answer. At last 
the King sent him a letter, threatening, that if he did 
not appear before him in the space of twenty days, he 


would send his Lyon Heralds for him; to which George 
returned tlie following answer: — 

My honour'd liege, and sovereign king, 
Of your boasting great I dread no thing ; 
On your feud or favoiu: I'll fairly venture ; 
Ere that day I'll be where few kings enter. 

And also gave him many good admonitions and direc- 
tions concerning the government of his kingdom, and 
the well-being of his soul, which drew tears from the 
King's eyes when he read it. 

89. The Witty and j^ntertaining Exploits of 
Georgk Buchanan, who was commonly called 
the King's Fool, in six parts complete : to which 
are added several witty and entertaining Jests. 
I2mo. Stirling, 1799. 

90. The History of the Life and Death of Fair 
Rosamond, King Henry H's Concubine, shew- 
ing how Queen Eleanor plotted to destroy Fair 
Rosamond, to prevent whicii she was removed to 
a stately Bower at Woodstock, near Oxford, and 
while the King was in France, Fair Rosamond 
was poisoned by Queen Eleanor. 12mo. AVhitc- 
haven, n. d. 

In seven chapters, pp. 24. Drayton has the fol- 
lowing notice of Rosamond's Bower in his Poems, ed. 
1637: — "Rosamond's Labyrintli, whose ruines, together 
with her Well, being paved with square stone in tlic 
bottome, and also her Tower from which the Labyrintli 
did run (are yet remaining) was altogether under 
ground, being vaults arched and walled with brick 
and stone, almost inextricably wound one witliin an- 


other, by which, if at any time her lodging were laid 
about by the Queen, shoe might easily avoid pei-ill 
eminent, and if need be, by secret issues take the aire 
abroad many furlongs round about Woodstocke in 
Oxfordshire, wherein it was situated. Thus much for 
Rosamond's Labyrinth." 

91. The Unfortunate Son, or a kind Wife is 
WORTH Gold, being full of Mirth and Pastime : 

Good reader let thy patience brook 
But to read over this small book, 
Which will thee satisfy awhile. 
And surely force from thee a smile : 
A story of such fortune bad, 
Had never, sure, poor harmless lad. 

12mo. London, n. d. 
A comical description of the disasters of a foolish 
fellow, who blunders in every thing, and succeeds in 
nothing that he undertakes. It commences thus : — 

There was a man but one son had, 

And he was all his joy ; 
But still his fortune was but bad, 

Tho' he was a pretty boy. 
His father sent him forth one day 

To feed a flock of sheep, 
And half of them were stole away. 

While he lay down to sleep. 
Next day he went with one Tom Goff, 

To reap as he was seen, 
When he did cut his fingers off, 

The sickle was so keen ! 

92. The Pleasant and Delightful History of 


THE Unfortunate Daughter, set forth in two 

The Unfortunate Son you have had before ; 
Accept the Daughter, and then no more. 

12mo. Licensed and entered according to Order, 
n. d. 

A similar poem to the last, detailing like misfor- 
tunes. The second part commences as follows : — 

Be silent, all ye girls and boys, 

Assist me, all you Nine, 
And while I speak make ye no noise, 

That fame with art may shine. 
I spoke of Gellian, that fine girl, 

The glory of the West, 
Daughter unto "William Pearl, 

A wench of great request. 

There are several indications of early composition 
in this tract. At p. 13 is an allusion to Bevis of 
Hampton, " who kill'd the wild boar, and bang'd the 
giant's hide." It concludes with "An Epitaph which 
a friend of her's wrote, being some of her rare quali- 
fications which she perform'd in her life-time, who 
hanged a mourning shoe-clout over her grave instead 
of a banner." On the title is a large rude wood-cut, 
representing the events related in the history. 

93. The Five Strange "Wonders of the World, 


was written on purpose to make all the People of 
England merry, who have no occasion to be sad. 
8vo. London, n. d. 
This is clearly an ancient con»position. It describes 


five different species of each motto. Thus " the five 
sorts of people beholden to the horn" are, " the ink- 
hoi'n-maker for a livelihood, the shoe-maker to draw 
on his customers' shoes, the farrier to drench sick 
horses with, the huntsman to call his dogs together, 
and Tom of Bedlam to call^ his boys together." The 
following " five things in great request" may ascertain 
the date of the tract: — "Hoops in women's petticoats 
almost as big as a well's curble, women who carry 
their cloaths half up their legs, young men in perukes 
down to their breeches, wenches who wear high top- 
knots on their heads and never a smock on, painted 
wh : in coaches, and honest gentlemen who are walk- 
ing on foot." Another edition, printed by Wolver- 
hampton, has the following verses on the title-page : — 

Here are such conceits and merriment, 
Which well may give the reader good content ; 
And serve it will to lengthen some men's lives, 
If they observe the several sorts of Fives : 
Let those that buy read it at their leisure, 
'Twill serve as well for profit as for pleasure. 

94. Youth's Warking-Piece, or the Tragical 
History of George Barnwell, who was undone 
by a Strumpet, that caused him to rob his Master, 
and murder his Uncle. 12mo. Stockton, n. d. 

A prose history, with cuts, followed by " George 
Barnwell, an excellent old ballad, setting forth the 
weakness and folly of Youth in following the steps of 
lewd women, which ahvays lead to destruction," which 
has been printed by Percy. 

notices of popular histories. 83 

95. Simple Simon's Misfortunes, or his Wife 
Margery's outragious Cruelty. 12mo. Lou- 
don, Printed and sold by Mary D. at the Horse- 
shoe in Giltspur Street, n. d. 

At the end is "a pleasant Song, giving an account 
of many more miserable Misfortunes of poor Simon, 
shewing how he drank a bottle of sack to poison him- 
self, as being weary of his life." This edition, which 
was printed early in the last century, is unfortunately 
imperfect ; but the deficiency is supplied from a New- 
castle edition, printed about 1 760. The chapters are 
thus entitled : — 1. An account of Simon's wedding, 
and how his wife Margery scolded him for putting on 
his roast-meat cloaths the very next morning after he 
was married. 2. How she dragg'd him up the chimney 
in a basket a sraoak-drying, wherein they used to dry 
bacon, Avhich made him look like a red-herring. 3. 
How Simon lost a sack of corn as he was going to the 
mill to have it ground. 4. How Simon went to market 
with a basket of eggs, but broke them by the way : also 
how he was put into the stocks. 5. How Simon's wife 
cudgell'd him for not bringing home money for his 
eggs. 6. How Simon lost his wife's pail, and burnt 
the bottom of her kettle. 7. How Simon's wife sent 
him to buy two pounds of soap, but going over a 
bridge, let his money fall into the river: also how a 
rag-man run away with his cloaths. The roast-meat 
clothes, mentioned in the first chapter, mean the holi- 
day or Sunday clothes. 

96. The Comical History of Simple John and 

G 2 


HIS TWELVE Misfortunes, which happened all in 
twelve tlays after the unhappy day of his Mar- 
riage, giving a particular account of his courtship 
and marriage to a scolding wife, which has been 
a mortifying misery to many a poor man. I2mo. 
Glasgow, 1805. 

A Scotch tract, more modern than the above, and 

apparently imitated from it. To this may be added 

the following : — 

97. The Miseries of poor simple innocent Silly 
Tam. 12mo. n. d. 

98. "Wanton Tom, or the merry History of Tom 
Stitch the Taylor. 

Deck'd with such pleasing pastimes of delight, 
That it would invite a lady, lord, or knight, 
To read : it is a gem, a mint of treasure, 
'Tis sport and mirth beyond all measure. 
12mo. Newcastle, n. d. 
A collection of anecdotes respecting a young tailor, 
who was a favourite with the ladies. On the frontis- 
piece is a cut of two tailors seated on their table. This 
tract was composed in the seventeenth century, and 
has some curious allusions. 

99. The History of that celebrated lady Ally 
Croaker, in which is contained more fun than 
ever was sold at so small an expense, consisting 
of funny joaks and blunders, and intended to 
instruct and delight. 12mo. London, n. d. 

All you that merriment do love, 

To ease a troubled mind, 
Peruse this book, and you therein 

Great store of mirth will find ; 


Here's funny blunders fresh <and new, 
Till now where (sic) ne'er in print : 

You'll say, if well this book you view. 
There's mirth and pastime in't. 

With numerous cuts, printed about 1760. This 
was a very popular chap-book in the last century, and 
frequently published at Aldermary Church-yaid. It 
is a collection of Irish bulls in the form of a narra- 
tive, impertinently connected with the name of Alicia 
Croker, who was the second sister of Edward Croker 
of Rawleighstown, county Limerick, and high sheriflf 
of that county in 1735. She was a great beauty, and 
the subject of many verses and some music. Mr. 
Grogan, a gentleman of the county of "Wexford, is 
said to have composed the popular air of Ally Croker 
in commendation of her charms. This must have been 
previous to 1735, as it was replied to in a sporting 
song on the convivialities of her brother, by Pierce 
Creagh, printed by Mr. Crofton Croker. Ally mar- 
ried Charles Langley, Esq. of Lisnarnock, county Kil- 
kenny, and died at an advanced age, without children 
to inherit their mother's charms. 

100. The Merry Frolicks, or the Comical Cheats 

OF SwALPO, a notorious Pickpocket, and the Merry 

Pranks of Roger the Clown. 12mo. London, n. d. 

An account of the cheats practised by a pickpocket. 

It is illustrated by cuts. In another edition, i)rinted 

by T. Saint, Newcastle, about 1770, his companion is 

called on the title " Jack the Clown. The first chapter, 

which illustrates the practices formerly in vogue at 


Bartholomew Fair, is an average specimen of the inge- 
nuity of the whole. 

Hoio Swalpo outivitted a countryman of a broad 
piece of gold, ivhich he had hid in his mouth, — Swalpo 
dressed himself like a countryman, with a pair of dirty 
boots, and a whip in his hand, and going into Bartho- 
lomew Fair, met with no prize worth speaking of, he 
walked out of the fair. At the entrance into the fair 
he met a countryman, and said to him, " Honest friend, 
have a care of your pockets ; you are going into a 
cursed place, where there are none but rogues and 
pickpockets; I am almost ruined by them, and am 
glad they have not picked the teeth out of my head : 
let one take never so much care of their pockets, they'll 
be sure of the money : I am sure the devil helps them." 
" I defy all the devils in hell," says the countryman, 
" to rob me of anything of value. I've a broad piece, 
and that I'll secure." So clapping it into his mouth, 
he went confidently into the fair. Swalpo desired no 
more than to know if he had money, and where it lay : 
he gives a sign to a hopeful boy of his, and giving him 
out some sixpences and groats, told him what he should 
do. The boy immediately runs, and falls down just 
before the countryman, and scattering the money, starts 
up and roars like a bedlamite, crying, he was undone, 
he must run away from his apprenticeship ; his master 
was such a furious fellow, he would certainly kill him. 
The countryman with other people gathered about, 
helping the boy to take the money. One of them says> 
" Have you recovered all ?" " Yes, all the silver," says 


the boy, " but what does that signify ? There is a 
broad piece of gold that I was carrying to my master 
for a token sent him from the country, and I like a fool 
must come through this unlucky place to lose it : I 
shall be kill'd, "What shall become of me ?" Swalpo 
coming up, tells some of the by-standers, who were 
pitying of the boy, that he observed that country fel- 
low there to stoop, and put something into his mouth. 
Whereupon they flew upon him, and one of them 
wresting open his mouth, made him spit out the gold, 
and some blood along with it. "When the countryman 
endeavoured to speak for himself, they kicked him, 
punched him, and tossed him about, and some calling 

to the and pump, he was glad to call for mercy, 

and thought himself richer than the great Turk when 
he got out of their clutches. The boy, in the mean 
time, slips from the crowd, and goes to Swalpo with 
the gold, where he used to find him." 

101, The History and comical Transactions op 
Lothian Tom, in six Parts; wherein is contained 
a collection of roguish Exploits done by him both 
in Scotland and England. 12mo. Edinburgh, n. d. 

An account of tricks, some not of the most honour- 
able description. At the end is, " The Ploughman's 
Glory, or Tom's Song." 

102. The Conquest of France, with the Life and 
Glorious Actions of Edward the Black Prince, his 
victory, with about twelve thousand archers and 
men at arms, over Philip of France and an liiin- 


dred thousand Frenchmen, &c. 12mo. London, 
Bow-Church Yard, n. d. 

This gives us an account of the amours of Edward 

and his son the Black Prince. On the title is a cut of 

English archers besieging a Fi'ench city. 

103. The Witch of the Woodlands, or the 
Cobler's new Translation. 

Here Robin the Cobler, for his former evils, 
Is punish'd bad as Faustus with his devils. 

12mo. London, n. d. 

A very curious tract, of which I have several edi- 
tions, differing only in the wood-cuts. It commences : 
" In the weilds of Kent, not far from Eomney Marsh, 
there dwelt an old merry-conceited cobler, commonly 
called Robin the Devil, who afterwards was called the 
Witch of the Woodlands." He gets into the power of 
some witches, who transform him into a fox, a horse, 
and a swan ; but, in the end, meets with a beggar-man, 
who leaves him a fortune. The annexed cut of the 
witches is taken from p. 12. 

Chap. 1 . Robin's place of abode : he is married to a 
wench ; with his pitiful lamentation. 2. Robin runs 
away, and the entertainment he found on the road. 
3. Robin wakes in the morning, and missed his bed- 
fellow, who soon returns with some witches; the 
manner of his punishment, and other particulars. 4. 
Robin goes to London ; with his bitter lamentation on 
the road. 5. Robin meets an old blind beggar. 6. 
Robin lives with a beggar, who dies and leaves him all 



his money ; Robin goes home, and what use he makes 
of his good fortune. Some of the wood-cuts are in- 
congruous with the narrative. At p. 16, is one of a 
knight and a lady at a well; at p. 18, a cut of two 
countrymen, the same which was a favourite embellish- 
ment in ballads of the seventeenth century ; and at 
p. 21 is a representation of the devil bringing a goblet 
to a person in bed. 

104. The F'amous and Memorable History op 
Wat Tyler and Jack Straw. 12mo. Lon- 
don, Bow- Church Yard, n. d. 

In five chapters, with wood-cuts. 

105. The History of the Royal Martyr, King 
Charles the First, with the Eiii.i,ncs of those 
worthy Persons that suffered, and tlic Time and 
Places where they lost their lives in his Majesty's 


cause, during the Usurpation of Oliver Crom- 
well. 12mo. London, Bow-Church Yard, n. d. 

In two parts, with twenty-four cuts. It appears to 

be a popular compilation from Lord Clarendon. 

106. The History of the Wicked Life and Hor- 
rid Death of Doctor John Fatjstus, shewing 
how he sold himself to the Devil to have power 
for twenty-four years to do as he pleased. Also 
the strange things done by him and Mephisto- 
philus. With an account how the devil came for 
him at the end of twenty-four years, and tore him 
to pieces. 12mo. Glasgow, 1777. 

An abridgment, in twenty-four pages, of the popular 
tale of Dr. Faustus, reprinted by Mr. Thorns. 

107. The Famous and Renowned History of 
Hector, Prince of Troy, or the Three De- 
structions of Troy. 12mo. 1787. 

Chap. 1 . How Troy was the first time destroyed by 
Harcules, for Leomedon's refusing to give him the 
horses he promised upon slaying a sea-monster, deli- 
vering Exione, his daughter, from destruction, and 
freeing the land from plague. 2. How Troy was a 
second time destroyed by Hercules, &c., and of the 
Greek's departure. 3. How King Priamus rebuilded 
Troy; how Paris was sent with a navy, and stole away 
fair Helen. 4. How the Greeks declared war against 
the Trojans, and came with a huge fleet, and burnt 
Tenedos. 5. Divers battles between the Trojans and 
the Greeks. 6. How the Greeks conspired the death 
of Hector, and how he was slain by Achilles. 


108. John Thompson's Man: or a short Survey of 
the Difficulties and Disturbances that may attend 
a married life : to which are added some very 
extensive and most salutary Observations thereon; 
with certain and approved Rules for the choice of 
a Wife. 12mo. Licensed and entered according 
to order, n. d. 

A curious tract of twenty-four pages, with a wood- 
cut on the title. The author is a very plainly spoken 
person, as maybe gathered from the following extract, 
which contains an array of epithets not very easily 
rivalled : — 

16thly. If you wed an old mapsie, murlie, mupit, 
crouch-backed, milk-mow'd, wirlie-faced, nipped, de- 
formed creature to be thy wife, it is surely more out of 
love to her gear than herself; but as the proverb says, 
need makes naked men run, and sorrow makes websters 
spin, for it is her money renders her as nimble as an 
eel, and clouts all her broken clampers ; but consider, 
it is often observed that you leave behind you the pro- 
duct of the soil, which is crook-backed, heckle-headed, 
midge-winged, mifly-kited, lap-lugged, ill-haired, bee- 
stanged, flat- nosed, bow-legged, squint-eyed, chandler- 
chafted, sheavel-gabbed, left-handed, craik-toiled, yel- 
low-wamed, button-footed, beetle, boided, wap-nobbed, 
tanny-cheeked, rep-shanked, fiddle-flanked, tout-mon'd, 
antick, apish, ugly, saucy, infirmcd, diseased, donard, 
doited, decriped, disjointed, distracted, distorted, wea- 
zel-faced, quarter-witted, punch-lipped, horn-hiped, 
ham-houghed, hair-brained, nonsensical, fantastical, 
goose-capical, coxcomical, and idiotical world's wonder, 


bursen-body, not only to possess your estate, but to 
build up your family — a pretty man indeed ! And if 
these be help-meets let the world judge. So I think 
it is better for a man to live alone (if he lives a pious, 
chaste, virtuous, and honest life) than to be joined to 
one who will put him out of himself; for marriage, as 
it was said before, was designed for love, peace, and 
concord, and to be help-meets to each other ; but as 
the proverb says, maidens are so meek till they be 
married, that men never so much as dream of a toolzie 
till the tocher come a-paying. 

109. The History and Travels of Hector Mac- 
Lean, late Sailor. Printed for Hector Maclean, 
and sold for his own benefit. 12mo. 1765. 

Twenty-four pages, with two cuts. It was several 

times reprinted as a penny history. 

110. A Wonderful Prophecy by one called 
Nixon, who lived in Cheshire in the reign of 
King James VI of Scotland and I of England ; 
foretelling several remarkable Events relating to 
the United Kingdoms of Great Britain, some of 
which are already accomplish'd, and others to be 
accomplished (as alleg'd) in the reign of our sove- 
reign King George II. With a short description 
of that Prophet. 8vo. Edinburgh, 1730. 

Nixon is here described as " a short squab fellow, 

had a great head and goggle eyes, and us'd to slobber 

and drivle when he spoke, which was but seldom. He 

was very surly, and would run after and beat the 

children that made sport at him. He would do nothing 


Avithout beating. He had a large stomach, and would 
eat up a great shoulder of mutton at a meal, and a 
luncheon of bread and cheese after it. The manner 
how Nixon was discovered to be a prophet was in this 
wise : His master being one day at plow, and Nixoa 
following him, the boy stopt on a sudden, and dropt 
his bottle and budget, and stood as in a trance : they 
beat him, but to no purpose, for he stood still in the 
same manner above an hour. At last he told them, 
in a very rational manner, of divers things that were 
done some time before, and of others that would come 
to pass." This edition differs very considex'ably from 
the later copies. 

111. The Strange and Wonderful History and 
Prophecies of Mother Shipton, plainly setting 
forth her birth, life, death, and burial. 12mo. 
Newcastle, n. d. 

Chap. 1. Of her birth and parentage. 2 How 
Mother Shipton's mother proved with child ; how she 
fitted the severe justice, and what happened at her 
delivery. 3. By what name Mother Shipton was 
christen'd, and how her mother went into a monastery. 
4. Several other merry pranks play'd by Mother Ship- 
ton in revenge of such as abused her. 5. How Ursula 
married a young man named Tobias Shipton, and how 
strangely she discovered a thief. 6. Her prophesy 
against Cardinal Wolsey. 7. Some other prophesies 
of Mother Shipton relating to those times. 8. Her 
prophesies in verse to the Abbot of Beverly. 9. Mo- 
ther Shipton's life, death, and burial. 

94 notices of popular histories. 

112. The "Whole Prophecies of Scotland, Eng- 
land, France, Ireland, and Denmark ; pro- 
phesied by Thomas Rymer, Mervellous Merling, 
Beid, Berlington, AValdhave, Eltraine, Banester, 
and SybiHa ; containing many strange and mar- 
vellous matters not of before read or heard. 12mo, 
Aberdeen, 1779. 

These prophecies are in verse, and that of Thomas 
the Rymer is a different version of the ballad of 
Thomas and the Fairy Queen, printed in Scott's Mi7i- 
strelsy of the Scottish Border, ed. 1810, iii, 181, and 
Laing's Early Popular Poetry, 1822. At p. 38 is the 
" Prophesie of Gildas"; and at p. 40, "the Prophesie 
of Sybilla and Eltraine." 

113. The Worthy Sayings of old Mr. Dod, fit 
to be treasured up in the Memory of every Chris- 
tian. In two Parts. 8vo. London, n. d. 

This was the celebrated puritan divine of Jesus Col- 
lege, Cambridge. Granger says in his Biographical 
History, ed. 1779, i, 370, "his Sayings have been 
printed in various forms ; many of them, on two sheets 
of papei^ are still to be seen pasted on the walls of 
cottages." The])resent edition is in prose, in the form 
of a chap-book, with a large woodcut of our Saviour on 
the Cross at the end. In the British Museum is a 
metrical version, entitled " Old Mr. Dod's Sayings, 
composed in verse for the better help of memory, 
and the delightfulness of children's reading and learn- 
ing them ; whereby they may the better be ingrafted 
in their memories and understanding ; composed by 


T. S., a well-wilier to the precious and immortal souls 
of all persons whatsoever." 12mo, 1678. 

114. The Christian TDRNED Jew ; being the most 
remarkable Life and Adventures of Lord G. G., 
with the Letter sent to him by a certain great 
lady since his Confinement. 8vo. London, 1780. 

A contemporaiy street tract on the proceedings of 

Lord George Gordon, with woodcuts, and a ballad on 

his committal to Newgate. 

115. Canterbury Tales, composed for the enter- 
tainment of all ingenious young men and maids at 
their merry meetings ; intermixed with pleasant 
stories, witty jests, etc., very proper for town or 
country. 12mo. London, n. d. 

A collection of jests, illustrated with cuts. The 
scenes of the anecdotes are chiefly laid at Canterbury. 
The following may be selected as an example : — 

A woman having a new high-crowned hat, resolved 
for the first time of wearing it to go to church in it. 
When she entered, they were reading these words 
(which form part of the Church service), " Lord have 
mercy upon us ! " The woman, being little accustomed 
to go to church, thouglit they was (sic) taking her hat 
off; so in a rage hollowed, — "Lord have mercy upon 
us ! did you never see a woman's high-crowned hat 
before ? " 

116. The History of Henry, son to Richard 
Earl of Moreland : and the Life of Bob Easy, 
gent. 12mo. Darlington, Printed by Marshall 
Vesey, n. d. 


On the title is a cut of a gentleman in the costume 
of the early part of the last century. The first tale 
relates to the time of Charles II. 

117. The Protestant Martyrs, OR the Bloody 
Assizes ; giving an account of the lives, tryals, 
and dying speeches of all those eminent Protes- 
tants that suffered in the West of England by the 
sentence of that bloody and cruel Judge Jefferies ; 
being in all 251 persons, besides what were hang'd 
and destroyed in cold blood. Containing also the 
Life and Death of James Duke of Monmouth, his 
birth and education ; his actions both at home and 
abroad; his unfortunate adventure in the West; 
his letter to King James ; his sentence, execution, 
and dying words upon the scaffold ; with a true 
copy of the paper he left behind him. And many 
other curious remarks worth the reader's observa- 
vation. 8vo. London, Printed by J, Bradford, 
at the Bible in Fetter-lane, n. d. 

A chap-book of twelve leaves, with eleven woodcut 

portraits on the title-page. 

118. The Blasphemer's r-JNiSHMENT, or the Cries 
of the Son of God to the whole World, being'a 
true and faithful account of one Elizabeth Dover, 
a knight and baronet's daughter, twenty-one years 
of age, who never would believe that there was 
either God or Devil, heaven or hell, or any future 
state after this life was ended ; till last Sunday was 
three weeks, as she was walking in the fields with 
some of her wicked companions swearing. If there 
is a devil, let me see him, that I may know him 
another time. Svo. Aldermary Church-yard, 
1785. (Five wood-cuts.) 


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