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Full text of "The early history of Jackson county, Georgia. "The writings of the late G.J.N. Wilson, embracing some of the early history of Jackson county". The first settlers, 1784; formation and boundaries to the present time; records of the Talasee colony; struggles of the colonies of Yamacutah, Groaning Rock, Fort Yargo, Stonethrow and Thomocoggan"

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Book„. Ji3W7 . 







"The Writings of the Late G. J. N. Wilson, embracing some of the Early 
History of Jackson County." 







Given in Narrative Style without Burdening the Reader 

with Dates Hard to Remember 


With Supplement giving a list of Officers of the County, 1796 to 1914 

Judges of the Inferior Court Jackson County's Part in the Civil War 

Confederate Veterans in the County 

Representatives and Senators from Jackson, 1799 to 1914 

And Some Strange Records by Editor 

Edited and Published bv 


All Rights Reserved. 


MAY -8 1914 


BY t^ 








In full appreciation of their kindness and in glad memorg of their unselfish 
services, this narrative of a bggone age is 



We, the committee appointed by the teachers at their regular 
monthly meeting in April, to examine the manuscripts of the late 
G. J. N. Wilson, with a view to seeing whether or not any part or 
parts can be used as a History of Jackson County, beg leave to 
make the following report : 

That we, as a committee, recommend that the manuscripts be 
published as "The Writings of the late G. J. N. Wilson, em- 
bracing some of the Early History of Jackson County." 

Jefferson, Ga., July 4, 1913. 

J. E. J. LORD, Chairman, Ex-Member Legislature, 

J. A. CROOK, Principal Plain View High School, 

W. H. MALEY, Member Board of Education, 

LUTHER ELROD, Supt. Public Schools, Jackson County, 

J. N. ROSS, Member Board of Education. 


On August 29, 1913, the Board of Education of Jackson County 
in meeting assembled, unanimously concurred in the above recom- 

J. C. TURNER, President. 

LUTHER ELROD, Secretary. 


"My friend, if I fail to get my book out before the Master calls, 
J want you to promise me, now, that you will see that it is pub- 

In obedience to the above request, made some six months be- 
fore the death of the late Hon. G. J. N. Wilson, the Editor is 
offering this work to the public. 

It has been no small task to take up the manuscripts of a dead 
man, these, too, at different dates, and assemble them in the order 
that one would suppose the author intended. He left no instruc- 
tions whatever and but one explanation, and that concerned the 
Talasee Colony. Mr. Wilson stated that when a small boy, he 
had a "liking for scribbling." That a descendant of the Talasee 
people lived near his father's home and they very kindly allowed 
him to use the old papers as a copy. This he did as mere pas- 
time, it never once occuring to him then that these papers would 
be found useful. A few days after the papers were returned the 
neighbor's house burned. 

Thus does God verify His saying, "And a little child shall lead 
them." Through the work of a little boy these records have been 
saved from oblivion. We can learn a few things about how the 
first settlers began the work of redeeming the forest and building 
homes in the garden spot of all Georgia. 

We have made just as few changes as possible, leaving, as it 
were, "the author in his work." even to the peculiar manner of 
spelling some words. 

After having traveled more than 500 miles, from place to place, 
verifying what was stated, and finding dates, places and people 
just as described in the manuscript, we feel that no higher 


eneonium can be paid the author than to say, "What is written, 
is written." 

In the Supplement to this work the reader will find what we 
believe will interest as well as instruct. 

We wish to thank the many friends that have been so ready to 
help by allowing us the use of their libraries, and also for the 
words of encouragement spoken by those who hope to see our 
county at the front. 


Jefferson, Ga., March, 1914. 

Thk lltnviii Ob I HE "Old (tEneral.' 


On October the 16th, 1827, was born a baby boy, near what is 
now the beautiful little city of Commerce, Jackson County. He 
was named Gustavus James Nash Wilson and was destined to 
make a mark in the world. 

He belonged to a family living in the county when it was or- 
ganized in 1796 and subsequently prominent in its political, busi- 
ness and social affairs. 

He was a grandson of George Wilson, a leading citizen of the 
pioneer days of Jackson County and one who made the original 
draft of the first constitution of the state of Georgia. 

George Wilson was one of the first settlers of the county and 
was an elder in the first Presbyterian church organized in this 
part of the State. James, a son, married Miss Martha Bowles, 
daughter of another old settler, and they were the parents of 
the subject of this sketch. 

The father was a farmer and a brave soldier in the wars of 
1812 and the Indian troubles of 1836. He died at the home of his 
son, G. J. N. Wilson, near Pentecost Church, on March 19, 1870, 
aged eighty-three years. Mr. G. J. N. Wilson then lived in the 
Flannigan house, where Mrs. Amanda Finch now resides. 

In the youthful days of Mr. Gustavus Wilson educational ad- 
vantages were few. The "old-field" schools, and here and there 
a private academy, furnished the mental training of the masses. 
In the former Mr, Wilson 's natural love for learning was nurtured 
until his mind was prepared to guide it into channels of self 
education. He was from childhood a hard and thorough student, 
ever seeking knowledge. 

At thirteen years of age he was so far advanced that he was 
asked to teach a school near where Commerce now is, and so 
eminent were his qualifications and successful was he in the work, 
that he taught this school for fourteen successive years. He was 
associated with other schools in the county, and was at the head 


of some of the most prominent institutions of the county in ante- 
bellum days. 

In May 1862, Mr. Wilson left his profession to cast his lot with 
the Confederate Army as an officer in Company E, Thirty-fourth 
Georgia Regiment. 

After the war he devoted most of his time to carpentry; and 
was thus engaged when, in 1871, he was elected to the position of 
County School Commissioner. He held this position for about 
30 years in succession. 

Mr. Wilson came of Scotch-Irish descent; of fine mental attain- 
ments and possessed a physique of Hercuienean proportions. 

He was an Elder in the Presbyterian church, a Chapter Mason, 
also an Odd Fellow. 

Mr. Wilson was what some might term eccentric, but to know 
him was to love him. His friendship knew no bounds. He was the 
same to all ; the high or the low, rich or poor received his help at 
all times. Hundreds of teachers who now have made their mark 
in the world, can look back to the time when they, struggling to 
rise, would have given up in despair but for the timely aid and 
sweet sympathy given them by the one above them — and yet 
never above, for the Old General never took advantage of his 
position as Commissioner to "bully" his friends or teachers. 

He could boast of never spending an idle day in his life, always 
busy with mind or hand, and his motto was: "Owe no man 
anything. ' ' 

In his official capacity he never cost the county one "nickel." 
He even furnished his own office and office fixtures free of any 
cost to the county he loved so well. 

By using "little scraps of time," Mr. Wilson erected one of 
the nicest homes in the city of Jefferson, with his own hands. 

The Old General, as his friends loved to call him, was always 
at home to his host of friends; and many a time strangers could 
be seen looking around the place and inspecting the many inter- 
esting things that he had gathered from time to time. These 
good people were drawn thither by some chance remark made 
by some other traveler, maybe in a distant state, as to how they 
had spent the time when "passing through the city." 

(Right here let it be understood that the term, "General," was 
not a title nor was it ever used as such by Mr. Wilson, but was 
only a "nickname," by which his friends addressed him.) 

Mr. Wilson owned one of the finest private libraries in the 
State, and one never went to him for help, intellectually, and went 
away empty. He seldom had to refer to his books but had the 
desired information at the "tip of his tongue," so to speak. He 
kept up with the political movements of the times, but never at 
any time stooped to "dabble" with the dirty tricks that some- 
times curse this section of the State. 

He, like many another good man, lived, as it were, before his 
day, and his worth was not appreciated. Even since his death 
he has been criticised by some who did not understand him. 

He was loved by his teachers and pupils alike. And even now 
one can hear him referred to as "That dear old Commissioner 
that visited our school when I was a little tot." 

Mr. Wilson was married on August 1, 1847, to Miss Carrie 
Coleman. They had two children to bless their home, Mr. L. C. 
Wilson and Mrs. Maggie Johnson. 

Gustavus James Nash Wilson died on the 28th day of March, 
1909, and was laid to rest in Woodbine cemetery in the city of 
Jefferson, Ga. EDITOR. 





I. Formation, Boundaries, etc 21 

II. The Country, its Inhabitants, Forests, Streams and Birds 33 
III. Animals, Together with some Incidents Relating to 

Them — The Mysterious Wog 43 


The Talasee Colony. 

I. First Settlers from EflBngham County 51 

II. Johnson Josiah Strong Makes a Discovery .... 60 

III. The White Ladies Visit Adabor 71 

IV. The Identity of Banna Mar de Vedo is Found Out . 82 
V. The Cherokee Spy 93 

VI. A Number of New Emigrants Arrive 106 

VII. The Visit to Yamacutah and Eeturn 119 

VIII. The Draper and Modin Families at Snodon .... 132 

IX. The Visit to Nodoroc 145 

X. Trouble at Snodon and the Arrival of More Emigrants 162 
XI. The Cold Winter and a Visit by Governor Matthews. 

The Organization for Mutual Protection . . . 173 

I. First Settlers at Tumbling Shoals and Related Incidents 186 

The Old-Time Logrolling. 
I. The Log is Rolled 201 

II. The Dance at Dunson's and Preaching at the School 

House 211 

III. Brantly Carries His Bride to Jefferson 220 

IV. Gabe Nash Spells "Tizic" 228 



Cell No. 21. 

chapter. page 

I. The "A" Family 238 

II. Sidney York is Arrested 243 

III. York is Found Guilty — Coatney's Confession . . . 247 


The Hut Owl in Borrowed Feathers. 

I. The Reading of the Poem Opens Their Eyes ... 253 

The Rebel Girl. 

I. The Search for the Rebel 261 

II. The Girl in the Hollow Tree 266 

III. A Cousin is Discovered 274 

IV. The Rebel Girl is Carried Home 277 


Public School OfiBcers of Jackson County 285 

Harmony Grove Female Academy, 1824 286 

Commissioners Roads and Revenues 286 

Sheriffs 287 

Coroners 288 

Ordinaries 289 

Deputy Sheriffs 289 

Clerks Inferior Court 290 

Tax Receivers 290 

Treasurers 291 

Surveyors 291 

Tax Collectors 291 

Clerks Superior Court 292 

Justices of the Peace, Notaries Public, and Constables in 1914 293 

Some Queer Things Culled from Court Records 294 



Judges Inferior Court 298 

Courts of Jackson County 301 

Officers City Court of Jefferson 302 

Board Tax Assessors 302 

Jackson County's Part in Civil War 303 

Convention of 1861 303 

Confederate Veterans Who Enlisted From Jackson .... 304 

Confederate Soldiers Living in Jackson County 324 

Convention of 1865 328 

Convention of 1867-8 339 

Convention of 1877 329 

Members of General Assembly from Jackson County . . . 330 

Some Strange Old Papers 333 

Health and Longevity of People 337 

Some Facts About Jackson County 339 


A List of the Difficult Indian Names Found in this Book, 
Divided into Syllables and an Explanation as to What They 
Belonged To in the Days of the First Settlements. 

Po-ca-tal-i-go was the name used by the Indians for Sandy 
creek; Tish-ma-gu was Mulberry river; B-t5-h5, North Oconee 
river; Ith-lo-bee, Middle Oconee; Pin-ho-lo-wah, Turkey creek; 
T6b-ke-s6-f6s-kee, Curry's creek; Num-sa-co-ta, Hurricane creek; 
Ca-hoo-ta-c6n-nough, Double branches; Ja-ra-thog-gin, Beaver 
creek; Ip-se-quil-ta, Cedar Creek; Yo-to-comp-sa, Morgan's creek; 
Tau-ru-la-boule, Beech creek; Tip-toe, Price's Mountain, on the 
line of Hall; Yam-a-cu-tah, Tumbling Shoals; Yam-tra-hooch-ee, 
Hurricane Shoals; Tal-a-pa-hoo, Rock ford; O-ko-lo-co Trail, was 
on the western side of the county (present boundary) and passed 
through Sno-don, now Winder; La-c5-da Trail led from Augusta 
to the mountains, passing through Groaning Rock, now Commerce, 
thence through where Maysville now is, and on through Stone- 
throw (Gillsville), to the Tallulah and Nacoochee countries; 
Po-ga-nip, Cedar Hill; No-do-roc, the mud volcano, that the In- 
dians thought was hell; So-quil-las, meant horses; tj-mau-sau-ga, 
the old chief that lived at Tal-a-see Shoals, his home being called 
A-da-bor; E-to-hau-to was Umausauga's brother; Yr-tyr-myr-myr- 
mys-c6 and AVo-ko-16g were two Indian bucks ; I-ro and Al-bo-rak, 
names of two of their horses ; Ta-litch-lech-ee was the name of a 
certain man; Yeth-a, a woman's name; Ra-do-a-ta, was a battle- 
field near Attica; Ar-har-ra, another battlefield nearer the Tish- 
maugu ; 0-no-co-wah, a word of lament ; A-lo-tha, the Bell spring ; 
Lap-si-da-li, the woman that caused trouble between the Creeks 
and Cherokees; 0-no-ma-c6, Lapsidali's brother; Nu-mer-a-do, 
the old battlefield at the mouth of the Niim-sa-c6-ta creek; 
Shul-ta-moo-zaw, an Indian village where Black's Creek church 
now stands; Hu-a-na-c5, the name of a certain Cherokee messen- 
ger; Bo-hu-ron, the place where Oconee Heights is situated; 
Neg-li-gole was the Indians' word for renegade; Ta-ta changed his 
name to Nyx-ter when he became a spy among the Bo-hu-rons; 
E-lan-cy-dyne was the Cherokee's queen until she was killed at 
the battle of Arharra; fil-tro-va-dyne, the orphaned daughter of 


Elancydyne. She was found on the field of Arharra and became 
the adopted daughter, Ban-na, of old Umausauga; Ra-mo-ja and 
Emefila meant a festival known as the Corn dance ; Ho-no-ras 
were men among the Creeks that correspond to our present day 
sheriffs; Ne-re Na-ra and Nu-ru-lyn, names of two girls; 
Th6m-6-c6g-gan, the present city of Jefferson was once so called; 
Hooch-le-o-hoo-pah, a certain man's name; No-din was the name 
of a man who lived at Sno-don; We-tump-ka, Columbus, Ga. ; 
0-ko-ko-bee, a Creek chief over the Ufallayak division of the 
nation and was the father of Umausauga, El-to-mu-ra and 
Etohauto ; Ne-na-the-ma-ho-la, successor to Okokobee ; Si-lo-quot 
of Ha-i-tau-thu-ga, near Fort Yargo, was a spy and whose com- 
panions were E-li-to-boy, Ca-mas-too-ka and No-vu-ar-ka; 
O-ko-le-gee, the old chief that lived on Tip-toe; I-no-ma-tti-ha-ta 
lived on Pea Ridge; I-no-ma-taw-tun-sig-na lived at what is 
now known as the Arnold old mill place. These three, 
Okolegee, Inomatuhata and Inomatawtunsigna together with 
Talasee were all chiefs and were among the fourteen In- 
dian chiefs that signed the treaty at Augusta that gave Jackson 
County the "Wofford Settlements." Al-a-pa-ha and his daughter, 
tj-ni-coy, lived near Yamtrahoochee. Wau-to-wau-td was the 
chief that stole Flora Clover and Susan Bingham at the shoals and 
a little later killed Dr. Henry Therrauld at the battle of 
Nau-ha-ta. EDITOR. 



"The very generations of the dead 
Are swept away, and tomb inherits tomb, 
Until the memory of an age is fled, 
And, buried, sinks beneath its offspring's doom." 

— Don Juan. 

In the absence of written history one wave of human life 
sweeps over another until the achievements of the past become 
wholly unknown, save such as are lodged in the generous bosom 
of mother earth or transmitted from father to son as in the days 
before the flood. 

The pioneers of this country cared little for written history. 
To make a record of local events or of the men and measures 
of the times perhaps never entered their minds. Even official 
documents were vague in meaning, and often destroyed as soon 
as used. Stones that have been buried beneath the accumulated 
dust of ages give us an account of some of the leading nations of 
antiquity as full as anything that can be found concerning the 
first settlement of this immediate part of the country. Indeed, 
the generations which followed have been greatly deficient in 
this respect. 

It was long after the first white settlers came to Jackson 
County before the people could spare their children from work, 
or procure the means to send them to school. The first staple 
production was tobacco ; and if the children of to-day, arrayed in 
their splendid outfit for school purposes, could, for one moment, 
know how much hard work was necessary to prepare the un- 
broken forests for cultivation amidst threatening dangers on 
every side, and imagine the filthiness of killing tobacco worms, 
pulling off the "suckers," topping of the plants, cutting, curing, 
stripping the leaves from the stalks, and the hard labor necessary 
to send it to market in "rolling hogsheads" they would stand in 
utter amazement at the great difference between then and now, 
and no longer wonder why their ancestors did not go to school, 
nor have time to read and write. 

But if they did not attend school, knowledge was acquired by 
intensity of action, by observation and reflection, rather than 


from books. They were too busy making the way to the ends of 
life to write incidents on the wayside. Thus it was that through 
the eventful decades of more than a century generations have 
come and gone without leaving any record to let the world know 
that they had ever lived in it. 

To secure from oblivion what is known of their history, now 
fast fading away through the already dim vista of time, is the 
object of these pages. They are written at the solicitation of 
friends for whose opinions the writer has the most profound re- 
spect. They claim no literary merit, but absolute originality. 
Having no companion nor guide to direct him, he travels alone 
amid the shadows of the long-gone past. And yet they are not 

To a limited extent the narrative is drawn from documentary 
evidence, partly from memory, and largely from tradition. Re- 
garding some incidents there is a difference of opinion; but in 
such cases the most reliable authorities have been followed. Many 
of th6 dates given are correct ; others are approximate and where 
this could not be done, none are given. The writer does not 
claim to be free from all error. G. J. N. W. 

Jefferson, Ga., Sept., 1906. 


Formation and Boundaries — Changes Made to Bring the County 
Down to Its Present Limits — Some Incidents by the Way. 

In 1784, when Northeast Georgia was a wilderness, inhabited 
by wild animals and wilder men, with here and there a few white 
settlements from two to three days' journey apart, Franklin* 
County, was laid out in order, as the Act to form it declared, "to 
strengthen the State, and for the convenience of the inhabitants." 
Its area was extensive, "beginning," continues the Act, "at Sa- 
vannah river, where the west lines of Wilkes county strikes the 
same; thence along the said line to the Cherokee corner; from 
thence on the same direction to the south branch of the Oconee 
river ; thence up the said river to the head or source of the most 
southern stream thereof; thence along the temporary line, separa- 
ting the Indian hunting ground to the northern branch of 

* Prof. E. P. Brooks ' ' ' History of Georgia, ' ' Pages 143 and 182. 

Note: We quote, here, from "First Settlers of Upper Georgia," Pages 
333 to 335, by Gov. George R. Gilmer, extracts from a letter, written to the 
President of the United States, concerning the Indian troubles, a few years 
prior to their removal to the West. In this letter, written by a gentleman 
who had resided in or near the "Broad River Settlement," now Oglethorpe 
County, all his life, we find many facts as to the location of the Creek and 
Cherokee Indians in this part of Georgia. 

"Executive Department, Milledgeville, Dec. 29, 1829. 

"Independent of any knowledge derived from individuals, it is probable 
that we could have accounted for the change of possessions of the disputed 
territory from the Creeks to the Cherokees, from the alteration of the habits 
of life which has been for a long time taking place in both tribes. Within 
the last thirty or forty years, the Creeks and Cherokees gradually became 
less and less capable of subsisting by hunting. Very many of the half- 
breeds of each tribe exchanged hunting for herding. But even these were 
but little accustomed to provide, by cultivating the earth, food for the sup- 
port of their cattle during the winter, but rather trusted to the cane and 
other natural productions. Both tribes therefore inclined to progress to the 
south, where the lands on the streams were richer, and the cane more 
capable of sustaining their cattle. That portion of the Cherokee tribe in 
particular, who inhabited the high mountains, cold and sterile country 
about the head waters of the Savannah and the Chattahoochee, were dis- 
posed to leave it to one further to the south, and more suitable to the 
change that was taking place in their habits. The truth of this opinion is 



Showing the location of the different places mentioned in the 

Early History of Jackson County, with both 

the Indian and modern namee. 

Present boundary 

lines, 1914. 

Savannah river known by the name of Keowee, and down the 
said river to the beginning." 

t Previously to the formation of this large county, the state had 
no organized means of protecting its citizens, who had emigrated 
thither from Virginia, North Carolina and the "Broad River 
Settlement," in Wilkes. They had suffered much, not only from 
the merciless native Indians, but also from heartless Tories, who, 
under Champ Moore, the notorious Tory leader, often passed 
through the country. Though this state of affairs existed for 
some years after the organization of Franklin County, the popu- 
lation so greatly increased during the next twelve years, that the 
people, living in the southern part, [it might be more nearly cor- 
rect to say southwestern], made application for another new 

Accordingly, in 1796, when Jared Irwin was governor and Capt. 
James Terrill represented Franklin County in the legislature. 
Jackson County, the twenty-second formed in the State, was cut 
from Franklin. The Act establishing its boundaries bears date of 

t Geo. G. Smith says, "There was up to 1792 great danger from Indian 
forays, and the scattered inhabitants lived much of the time in block- 
houses." P. 153.— Ed. 

verified by the talk delivered by the Cherokees in 1808, to the President 
of the United States, in which they represent the scarcity of game in that 
part of their country, and the intention to leave it. In addition to the 
superior advantages of a more southern country for the support of their 
cattle was added the inducement of approaching nearer their markets, 
rendered important by the increased value of their beef and hides. 

"It is probably known to the President, from personal observation that 
the country in dispute was formerly occupied by the Creeks entirely, and 
that they gradually relinquished their possession, until, at the close of the 
late war, there were very few of the tribe remaining in it; and that, at the 
same time, and in the same manner, the Cherokees by degrees obtained 
almost entire possession. The fact that all the streams and remarkable 
places have Creek names prove certainly that it was but lately occupied 
by the Creeks, and that there has been no general and simultaneous transfer 
of its possessions from one tribe to the other, and that the Cherokees must 
therefore have intermingled with the original inhabitants, so as to have 
adopted their proper names. The Cherokees' talk, the testimony of the 
Indians, and the information of the original white settlers on the frontier, 
prove that this occupation of the country by the Cherokees was permissible 
on the part of the Creeks, and so considered by the Cherokees until 1820, 
when General Mcintosh procured the consent of the Creeks to make it a 


February 11th, 1796, and says: ''The line dividing the County of 
Jackson from the County of Franklin shall begin on the south of 
Broad river at the place where it intersects the Counties of Ogle- 
thorpe and Elbert; from thence it shall run up to the head or 
source of the middle fork, it being the main stream ; from thence 
south forty-five degrees to the main ridge which divides the waters 
of Broad river from the waters of the Oconee; thence along the 
said river to the temporary or western line of Franklin County; 
and all that part of Franklin lying and being southwardly of the 
aforesaid line, shall be included and comprehended in the County 
of Jackson." 

Thus it seems that the new county was four times larger than 
at the present time, and included several places which have since 
become prominent in other counties. Josiah Meigs,* first 
President of Franklin College, now the State University, called 
his first class to order in Jackson County. 

This extensive territory was called after Gen. James Jackson, 
of revolutionary fame, and not for Gen. Andrew Jackson as has 
sometimes been said. Though an Englishman by birth, no other 

•"White's Historical Collections," says "President Meigs commenced the 
exercises of the University when no college buildings had been erected. 
Eecitations were often heard and lectures delivered under the shade of the 
forest oak, etc." P. 397.— Ed. 

matter of right. The country was said to have been loaned by the Creeks 
to the Cherokees. The first claim of the right to possess it at all, on the 
part of the latter tribe, was derived by success at a ball-game, at which 
the stake was the disputed country, and at which play the Cherokees were 
successful. This ball-game took place some time between the years 1816 and 

"I understand that the President is of the opinion that the United States 
Government is bound, by its contract of 1802 with Georgia, as well as upon 
general principles, to permit no transfer of territory after that time from 
the Creeks to the Cherokees, or rather to disregard any contracts which may 
have been made between the two tribes. The Creeks having been the occu- 
pants of the country in 1802, and having parted with possession, it now 
belongs to Georgia, as the rightful owner of the soil. 


"Georgia considers herself entitled to immediate possession of the coun- 
try claimed, but is willing to have the right postponed for the attainment 
of a more important object. If that object is not affected by the means 
adopted during the present session of Congress, the State expects that the 
President will, so far as his own power extends, do her justice, by having 


man was ever a more faithful and efficient servant of Georgia 
than James Jackson. No "railing accusation" was ever brought 
against him except that he was accused of causing Franklin Col- 
lege to be located in Jackson County because it was named after 
him. Mild indeed; but even that was afterwards shown to be 
utterly false. 

For a period of nearly five years the original lines of Jackson 
remained undisturbed. However, the steady increase of popu- 
lation, and the location of the State School where Athens now 
flourishes, called for still another new county. Accordingly by 
an Act approved on 5th of December, 1801, Clarke County, then 
including Oconee, was cut, largely from Jackson, by a line be- 
ginning "on the Appalachee river at the mouth of Marbury's 
creek; thence on a direct line to Richard Easley's mill (Talasee 
Shoals) on the middle fork of the Oconee river; from thence on 
a direct line to where the Oglethorpe line crosses the north fork 
of Brush creek; thence down the Oglethorpe line to the Appa- 
lachee river; thence up said river to the beginning." 

Ten years passed away before Jackson was again called on for 
a division of her patrimony, by its citizens living east of Big 
Sandy creek. By taking a large part from Jackson, and smaller 
portions from Oglethorpe, Clarke, Franklin and Elbert Counties, 
Madison County was formed by an Act approved December 5th, 
1811, and by "beginning on the Clarke County line on the ridge 
between Bushy and Beaverdam creek ; thence a direct line to 
where the Jackson County line crosses Little Sandy creek ; thence 
on a direct line to the fork of Big Sandy creek above Espy's 
Mill; thence up the eastern fork of the same to Knight's old 
store; thence to the head of Black's creek in such manner as to 
leave all the waters of Big Sandy creek in Jackson County." 

the Cherokees removed from so much territory as is included in the treaty 
lately made with the Creeks. 

"These remarks are submitted to the President with sentiments of most 
respectful consideration. 

"To the President of the United States." 



The western boundary of Madison as above given ; being some- 
what indefinite, the matter was not settled till a few years ago. 
The loss to Jackson by the formation of Madison County was not 
as great in territory as it was in citizenship. People in any part 
of the country with first-class citizens, and churches and schools, 
farms and shops, and all pursuits known to civilization, will pros- 
per and be perpetuated upon an ascending scale from generation 
to generation. 

Still, mother Jackson had an immense territory as compared 
with her present limits, embracing a large part of what is now 
Walton, Gwinnett, Hall and Banks Counties. Besides, the year 
after Madison was formed, the usual rule was reversed by 
making Jackson larger. 

In 1785, Col. Hawkins, the United States agent for Indian af- 
fairs, was ordered to run the Franklin line from the Currahee 
to the head of the Appalachee river, which is to this day known 
as the Hawkins line. However, the Georgia legislature of 1812 
decided that Col. Hawkins did not run the line "agreeably to 
the true spirit and interest of the treaty held at Augusta on the 
31st of May, 1783, and confirmed by the treaty at Shoulderbone, 
in 1786; but left on the Indian side certain lands, which, by the 
3rd Section of the 4th Article of the Federal constitution, be- 
longed to the State of Georgia." 

In pursuance of this decision Gov. Rabun, on the 7th of 
December, 1812, signed a bill adding to Jackson County, "all 
the land lying west and northwest of the Hawkins line, and on 
the waters of the Oconee, up the ridge dividing the waters of 
said Oconee from the waters of Chattahoochee river, commenc- 
ing at a point on the line run by Hugh Montgomery, where the 
same crosses the dividing ridge, between Oconee and Broad 
rivers ; thence along said ridge a southwest direction to the inter- 
section of the Hawkins line." 

This act, which is hard to understand, while greatly increasing 
the territory and Indian population of Jackson, added but few 
whites, most of whom belonged to the celebrated "Wofford Set- 


tlement," now in Hall. This colony of pioneers had been added 
to Jackson two years before ; but it seems that the State govern- 
ment did not reach them, and was repealed before the Act of 

The Augusta treaty which finally gave the Wofford Settlement 
to Jackson, was signed, with a cross, by fourteen Indians; and 
as four of them lived within the present limits of the county, 
their names are here given as a matter of curiosity : 

Tala.see King, for whom the Talasee Shoals are named. He 
lived on the road leading from the shoals to Athens, and about 
midway between Prospect Church and the large blackgum tree 
which marks the line between Jackson and Clarke Counties. 

Okolegee, a prominent friend of the white settlers. His wig- 
wam stood on top of Tiptoe, now known as Price's Mountain, 
several miles above the present Price bridge, and where a battle 
was fought between Confederate and Federal troops in 1864. 

Inomatuhata, whose home was on Pea Ridge, north of Winder. 
He lived in a picturesque house made of the branches of hickory 
trees, carefully intertwined and neatly plastered both inside and 
out, with a light, brick-colored mortar, the mixture of which, the 
writer believes, is now unknown. The roof was of moss, evi- 
dently taken from the swamps a few miles to the south, and 
growing, soon became impervious to water. 

Inomatawtunsigna, who affixed to his name the characteristic 
title of "Head Warrior," lived near Arnold's old mill on Bear 
creek. His wigwam was of the common form, but unusually 
substantial. Though not an avowed friend to the whites, he was 
conservative, brave and intellectual. 

I-no-ma-tu-ha-ta and I-no-ma-taw tun-sig-na were brothers, 
and claimed to be descendants of Mispenthe, an illustrious war- 
rior of a former age, and his Queen, Lutro, the "Moon Spirit." 
It is not known that either of the brothers left a namesake to 
try the jaw-breaking power of their pale-faced successors. 

Of the five distinguished white men who signed the treaty, 
two of them, Andrew Burns and John Lamar, afterwards became 


citizens of this county and some of their descendants still live 
in it.* 

The era upon which Jackson County entered in 1812, was an 
eventful one. Though rich in the integrity of her men, proud of 
the ennobling and elevating character of her women ; and boast- 
ing of a surplus in her treasury, amounting to $57.06^, fear and 
forebodings of an evil day began to dawn upon the people. 
Still a border county, and our Atlantic coasts blockaded by Eng- 
lish fleets; the flames of burning houses by night and the gleam 
of the Indian tomahawk by day, announced indiscriminate 
slaughter all along her borders and sometimes within her limits. 
The morals of the people, hitherto almost pure, became corrupt; 
drunkenness, almost unknown before, became common; and 
crimes of which the older citizens had never dreamed, were com- 
mitted, sometimes in open defiance of law. It is strange that de- 
moralization follows exciting times; but the old maxim that, 
"Hanging day is the worst in the year" is generally true. It is 
not certain that Jackson County has yet recovered from the blow 
then given. 

Under the trying circumstances few men could leave their 
threatened homes to enter the second contest with the British lion 
and his whelps, the Creeks and Cherokees. Still out of a popu- 
lation of 227 taxpayers, the county furnished 23 volunteers who 
enlisted under Gen. Jackson, and all but three or four, who had 
died of disease, were with him at the Battle of New Orleans in 
1815. Besides the volunteers, a Company of 40 men, styled the 
"Jackson Guards," under the command of the gallant Capt. Wil- 
liam Jones, patrolled the county, and were of inestimable ser- 
vice. What a crying pity that the history of the "Jackson 
Guards" has never been written. 

*This treaty covered practically all of the old County of Franklin. 
The Acts of the General Assembly of Georgia, 1783, approving this treaty, 
states in Article III, that the Savanah river was considered the eastern 
line and "Beginning at a stream known as the Keowee and running in a 
westerly direction to the Currahee mountain; thence southwest to the head 
Waters of the mout southern branch of the Oconee river (Appalachee), in- 
cluding all the waters of the same; thence down the river to the old line." 


After enlarging Jackson by the Act of 1812, it was six years 
before the pruning knife was again applied to her boundaries. 
As the tread of the Anglo-Saxon had taken its way to the west ; 
as George Walton, Button Gwinnett and Lyman Hall, good men 
and true, were without namesakes on the map of Georgia; and 
as Jackson could furnish good material to build their monuments, 
three deep cuts were made at one blow, creating, to a large ex- 
tent, our three charming daughters, Walton, Gwinnett and Hall 

The Act making these three new counties became a law on 
the 19th day of December, 1818, and says: "That all that part 
of Jackson County which lies southeast and southwest of a line 
to commence on the Appalachee river, where the dividing line 
between the counties of Walton and Gwinnett strikes the same, 
and continuing the course of said line until the same strikes the 
Hog Mountain road ; thence down the same to the southern line 
of said county; thence along the same to the Appalachee river, 
shall be added to, and made a part of Waltonf County ; and all that 
part of said county which lies above the described line; and thence 
along the road which passes Thompson's mill, to the Mulberry 
fork of the Oconee river; thence a direct line to the corner of 
Gwinnett County on the top of the Chattahoochee ridge, shall be 
added to and become a part of Gwinnett County; and all that 
part of Jackson County which lies northwest of a line to begin 
at the house of William Clements and running parallel with a 
line commonly called Hawkins line, to the present line of Frank- 
lin County be added to and become a part of Hall." As this Act 
did not clearly define some of the northern boundaries of the 
new counties, the legislature of 1819 undertook to remedy the 
matter by enacting "that the line dividing the counties of Jack- 
son and Gwinnett shall extend from Thompson's mill on the 

*See G. G. Smith's "The Story of Georgia and the Georgia People" and 
Charles H. Smith's, (Bill Arp) History of Georgia, pages 53 and 54. If the 
reader will make these references he will see that the northern and western 
boundaries of Jackson County were not well defined. — Ed. 

tAccording to the Acts of the General Assembly, 1803, all the lands on 
the north and west of our county were called "The Walton Country." 

Oconee fork of the Mulberry river ; thence up said fork to where 
the line dividing Hall and Gwinnett crosses the same." 

This Act of 1819 was still so unsatisfactory that in December, 
1820, an explanatory Act was passed with following preamble : 
"Whereas some of the lines dividing Jackson, Walton, Gwin- 
nett and Hall Counties were designated by old roads, not very 
much in use; and whereas persons living near such roads are 
in the habit of turning such dividing roads at pleasure round 
their houses, so as to throw them in which county they may see 
proper, so as to evade civil process, militia duty, payment of tax, 
and effect many irregularities contrary to the true intent and 
meaning of the aforesaid law. Be it enacted," etc. The Act 
then goes on to re-establish nearly the same original lines, and in 
the same indefinite manner. In some places their exact loca- 
tion is unknown to this day. 

About the time Walton, Gwinnett and Hall Counties were sur- 
veyed, the Georgia legislature proposed to turn the Chattahoo- 
chee river into the North Oconee by digging a canal from the 
former to the head water of the latter. This novel measure, 
which was claimed to be practical, was, after a long debate, finally 
defeated, mainly by the wild and fiery eloquence of John Steb- 
bins, a member who lived somewhere on the lower waters of the 
Oconee. "What, Mr. Speaker," he exclaimed, "will become of 
me and my family, when the Chattahoochee, three miles wide, 
a thousand feet deep, and ten miles higher than the sea, is turn- 
ed loose at the rate of forty miles a minute, on lower Georgia. 
Why, sir, it will wash every one of us away, and if we don't get 
drowned we will wake up some morning and find ourselves 
a-straddle of logs floating about in the Atlantic ocean. Yes, sir, 
the mountains of North Georgia will come tumbling down here 
and knock our State House into a cocked hat, and people will 
look out of their top windows to see if old father Noah is again 
sailing around in his big ship. Besides all this, Mr. Speaker, if 
we turn the vast volume of water that is in the Chattahoochee 
from the channel where God made it to run, the Gulf of Mexico 
would go dry, and the fish, whales, alligators and snakes in it 


would stink so bad that nobody could live in ten thousand miles 
of its shore!" 

Of course neither the speaker nor any one who heard hira be- 
lieved what he said; but the speech from which the above is an 
extract, was the climax of ridicule, and had the desired effect. 
The measure failed, though it was not finally abandoned till 
some years after. 

In the meantime some of the citizens who lived around Hur- 
ricane Shoals, believing that the Chattahoochee would soon come 
washing by them, applied for a new county to be called Unieoy, 
after the pretty daughter of the Indian chief, Alapaha, who had 
once lived near the Shoals. The bill to create a new county went 
down with the bill to create a new river. They died together; 
but it was not known that John Stebbins had anything to do 
with the county matter. 

In pursuance of a law passed 24th of December, 1821, Jackson 
was again made larger by enacting that "the line dividing 
Franklin and Jackson shall commence where the Grove Level 
road strikes the Hall County line; thence along the said road to 
Malone's old store; thence a direct line to where the present 
Jackson County line strikes the Madison County line, and all that 
part of Franklin lying south and southwest of the aforesaid line, 
shall be added and become a part of Jackson County." 

Sixteen years passed without any further change. In 1837 an 
additional part of Franklin was added to Jackson; and in 1850 
a few hundred acres of Jackson were cut off to Clarke. In 1852 
the line of Jackson was so changed as to include the residence 
of William Sanders in Madison. In 1856 the residence of Jesse 
Lord was transferred from Jackson to Banks, and the lands of 
David Smith in Gwinnett were added to Jackson. The planta- 
tion of George W. Hudson was taken from Jackson and added to 
Clarke in 1868; and the line between Jackson and Madison so 
changed as to add a part of the former to the latter, and a part 
of the latter to the former. 

In 1870 the line of Walton was so altered as to include all the 
lands of D. R. R. Perkins in Jackson ; and the line between Jack- 
son and Banks was materially changed as to begin *'at the resi- 


dence of James H. Holland, on the Hurricane Shoals road ; thence 
to General Thomas Anderson's; thence to Atkin's brick store; 
thence up the Clarkesville road to the line of Banks County, in- 
cluding all the lands in the above metes and bounds in Banks 

This last Act was exceedingly successful in giving its "metes 
and bounds" so that they could not be understood; but all of the 
difficulties growing out of it have recently been adjusted to the 
satisfaction of all parties concerned. 

In 1905 the people living southward of the Mulberry river, ap- 
plied for a new county which they proposed to name Stephens, 
with Winder for its capital. A large part of Jackson was involved 
and the new county party was strong and influential, but was un- 

Note : Again in 1913 an effort was made to cut a part of Jackson 
off and combine with a portion from each of Gwinnett and Walton 
Counties thereby forming a new county to be named Barrow 
County in honor of Chancellor Barrow of the University of Geor- 
gia. This failed, also. — Editor. 

-§,^^z..if.-t.<j ^-^— ^y 

ti. , ^/-^^' 



The Country — Its Inhabitants — Forests — Streams — Birds. 

When the first white man, with his bold and fearless step came 
to what was then known as Franklin, but since 1796, as Jackson 
County, the conditions which he was called upon to meet were 
entirely different from anything known to the present genera- 
tion. The soil, being subject only to the stealthy tread of the 
native, the light foot-fall of the prowling animal, and the force 
of heavy rains being broken by dense forests, was so soft and 
mellow that the white man sank ankle deep as he passed over it. 
There was little undergrowth. By concert of action throughout 
the country, the natives burnt the woods during the autumn of 
every year. This custom kept small growth in check, destroyed 
millions upon millions of reptiles and insects, and the smoke 
arising from such a vast area of burning leaves and dry timber 
partially obscured the rays of the sun and produced the lovely 
Indian Summer of old times. Some of the undergrowth escaped 
the fire and is seen in the large trees which still remain in our 
scattered woodland. 

For an unknown distance in every direction the country was 
covered with an almost unbroken forest through which wild 
animals and wilder men roamed at will both night and day. At 
the time of its first settlement by the whites, the country was not 
as thickly inhabited by native Indians as most of the adjacent 
territory. Perhaps this was partly owing to the fact that that 
part of it which lies between the Athens and Clarkesville road 
to the north and east and the Mulberry river to the south, was 
claimed by both the Cherokee and Upper Creek tribes, and passed 
from one to the other as the fortunes of war dictated. Another 
leading reason for this sparse population will appear as our 
narrative progresses. The territory was now in full possession 
of the Upper Creeks with here and there a family or an indivi- 
dual that belonged to the Lower Creek tribe. In manners, cus- 
toms and language these two divisions of the Creek Nation were 


almost identical; but, strange to say, they were not on friendly 
terms except in time of war with other tribes, and not always 
then. Those who lived within the present limits of Jackson 
County had all the leading characteristics of their race which are 
too well known to need repetition here. A few of them were 
capable of the most devoted friendship; but the great majority 
felt nothing but the most intense hatred for the "pale face" as 
they generally termed the white man. Nor can we reasonably 
blame him for this. Put yourself in his place. It is a serious 
thing for a stranger to come and take full possession of a man's 
home, and either kill or drive him away. It can be justified on 
the principle of the survival of the fittest only. If Moses led his 
hosts to the borders of Canaan and Joshua took possession of the 
homes of its inhabitants, it was for a far-reaching reason that has 
already wrought upon the destiny of the whole human race, not 
only for all time, but for eternity as well! It may be that the 
very people of whose homes our forefathers took possession were 
the descendants of those whom Moses led to Canaan and at last 
became lost among the nations — the ten tribes of Israel ! 

The natives found here were, and still are, called Indians, 
not because that is their proper name, but because, when first 
discovered, they were thought to be inhabitants of India, in Asia. 
This shows how little the geography of the world was known 
by Columbus and his compeers. However, when the natives 
finally came to know something of the different races of man- 
kind, they called themselves ' ' The Red Men, ' ' and this is, perhaps 
the most appropriate designation by which they are known. 

Their conceptions of a Supreme Being were of a high order, 
and almost universal. They fully believed in a future state of 
existence, and thought the after life a continuation of the first in 
every respect. They considered the emergence of a butterfly 
from its chrysalis a renewal of the life of the same insect that 
fluttered from flower to flower the summer before, and that after 
death they would do the same way in what they termed "The 
Happy Hunting Grounds of the Great Spirit." Deeming the life of 
a butterfly an illustration of their own, one of the few precepts 
which they taught their children was "You must not kill a 


cetaee," as they called the butterfly. Though this belief was not 
universally entertained or even known, it was a fine conception of 
the mind of some heathen who never heard of the word resur-" 

The Upper Creeks lived chiefly on wild animals and birds 
caught in the woods; on fish, mud turtles and terrapins found 
in the streams; on custard-apples or papaws which grew upon 
small bushes, but now almost extinct; on wild beans or mistiups 
which grew on vines in the fertile valleys, but totally disappeared 
after the introduction of cattle ; on pig potatoes or oskones which 
still exist in some of our swamps ; on wild grapes or unups which 
grew in great profusion, and were of a much better quality than 
now ; and, when in season, largely on green corn which they call- 
ed emefila when soft, but ze maize when hard. As the time for 
eating this choice article of food approached, they manifested 
their delight by performing the emefila or Green Corn Dance. 
It was a weird and laborious performance and required the full 
exercise of all their physical powers. Sometimes they ground 
hard corn between two stones, or beat it in mortars cut in large 
flat rocks, and thus produced a coarse meal of which they made 
cake or bonokins. These they cooked in hot ashes, and they were 
said to be excellent eating. Our grandmothers perpetuated this 
custom of cooking ash cakes for many years, and carried the art 
to a high degree of perfection. The natives also made many 
kinds of soup, their favorite dish being a mixture of green corn 
and wild beans which they called succotash. They often cooked 
in earthen pots; but broiling was their favorite method of pre- 
paring fish and birds. It is not known that the Upper Creeks 
had any knowledge of salt, pepper, or other seasoning or flavor- 
ing ingredients. 

Patches of corn were planted, cultivated, ground and cooked 
by the women exclusively. The tool chiefly used in its culti- 
vation, or we may say the plow, was made of the forked limb 
of a hard-wood tree, the point that entered the ground being 
somewhat hardened by a skillful application of fire. Within the 
memory of living man, a small plat of land now partly covered 


by the Commerce Cotton Mills, was thus cultivated by a very old 
Indian squaw whose name was Jillico. 

Nearly all Indians were skillful in the use of the bow and the 
tomahawk. Some of them were experts to such a high degree 
of perfection as seem incredible to this age. These were used in 
the chase and in war. Fire arms were unknown to the natives 
of this immediate section until the latter part of the 90 's of the 
18th century. They were of Spanish make, and in the hands of 
the natives did little damage. 

As already stated the forests were almost unbroken, and when 
broken at all it had been done by the action of fire chiefly. Trees 
having a diameter of from six to nine feet, and a spread of 
branches of one hundred feet from side to side were not un- 
common. Most of these were chestnut trees, and the amount of 
nuts which they produced was enormous, sometimes covering 
the ground in places to the depth of several inches. Their ex- 
cellent flavor and mealy substance have made them a favorite 
article of food wherever known. The natives cooked them in 
various ways, and though they make delicious bread, it is not 
known that they ever so used them. Though now closely verging 
upon total extinction, the chestnut, large and small, was the pre- 
vailing growth of this country. The timber, to say nothing of 
its fruit was very valuable, and its disappearance is hard to ex- 
plain. It is generally thought that when the woods ceased to be 
burned, decaying leaves produced a germ of disease that killed 
the trees by slow stages. 

Next in size came the poplars and white oaks, the latter often 
producing enough of big, plump acorns to make it a difficult 
matter to walk over the ground where they had fallen. The 
length and size of their branches were amazing. They generally 
grew horizontal to the main body of the tree. This afforded 
bears and panthers a favorite lurking place. The poplars were 
not so numerous as the oaks but some of them grew to an im- 
mense size. Near the junction of big and little Sandy creeks 
stood a poplar that at the height of a man's head measured nine 
feet and seven inches in diameter. It was hollow, and about 
1837 was cut down by raccoon hunters at the cost of the lives of 


three valuable dogs and several raccoons, besides William 
Rhodes, one of the hunters, was crippled for the remainder of 
his life. Being a shoemaker by trade, he made a full set of lasts 
and the arm pieces of a pair of crutches out of a part of that big 

Another distinguishing feature of the old-time forest was the 
deep yet low undertone which the listening ear could always hear 
when the wind was not blowing. Though not yet entirely un- 
heard in the woods, it was prominent then and many a hunter 
has been soothed to sleep by its pleasant, dreamy moaning 
through the tree-tops. Others again have cried under its in- 
fluence because many believed it to be the whisperings of the dead 
in a language which no one could understand until they joined the 
invisible throng themselves. It was not like the sad soughing of 
the wind through the pine trees, for it could not be heard at all 
when the wind was blowing. It seemed like the solemn, sad, yet 
pleasing moan of beings among the trees, inviting us to come and 
join in the chant of universal nature with them. The old poets 
called it the ''solemn hush of nature," and represented it as 
''constantly singing a soft lullaby that enabled nymphs and 
fairies to sleep soundly." As it was, and still is heard in dense 
forests only, it may be that if the rush of a million worlds through 
infinite space above and around us makes a noise so loud we 
can not hear it, the growth-cells constantly being added to mil- 
lions of trees, leaves and plants all around us, make just enough 
noise to enable us to indistinctly hear them grow, and that this 
constitutes "The Moan of the Woods." 

Taking these prominent features, together with the great num- 
ber of large and beautiful pine trees whose towering trunks 
overtopped all others, whose invaluable timbers have entered in- 
to the construction of many ships beyond the seas, and the large 
area that has been entirely cleared of all spontaneous growth, 
from the forests once roamed by our ancestors, and we have left 
a very skeleton indeed. 

The water courses of the country have also considerably 
changed. It is a disputed question as to whether they afford as 
much water now as they did before the forests were cleared 


away; but the laws governing evaporation justify us in saying 
that less water flows noAv than when its surface was hardly ex- 
posed to the sun at all, nor did the dry winds reach it then as 
now. The water of all streams whether large or small, was as 
clear as crystal. Little mud reached them from the hills. Un- 
der these favorable conditions fishes were much more numerous, 
larger, and better flavored than now when the waters are so 
very impure that it is a matter of surprise that anything con- 
sidered clean can exist in them at all. 

The old-time names of all the streams have been changed. 
North Oconee on which Hurricane and Tumbling Shoals are 
located was called Etoho; Middle or Walnut Fork, Ithlobee; 
Mulberry, on which are the Talasee Shoals, Tishmaugu. Proper- 
ly these streams should still be called North, and Middle and 
South Oconee because they were so named by the first settlers 
of the country. The name of Sandy Creek was Pocataligo ; Tur- 
key Creek, Pinholowah ; Curry's Creek, Tobesofoskee ; Hurricane 
Creek, Numsacota. The double branches in Newtown district were 
called Cahootaconnough ; Beaver Creek, Jarathoggin ; Cedar 
Creek, Ipsequilta ; Morgan 's Creek, Yotocompsa ; and Beech 
Creek, Taurulahoole. This word means screaming panther, and 
the creek was so named because its swamps were inhabited by a 
great number of these animals. 

Taurulahoole ! — Screaming Panther Creek ! — The name sounds 
ominously; but from the accounts which have come down to us 
descriptive of its gloomy haunts, the place itself must have seem- 
ed horrid indeed to those who first came to the country. Mrs. 
Clara Linton, one of the early emigrants, thus described the 
place in a letter written to her sister who lived in Liberty County : 

"The bed of the creek is much below the tops of the adjacent 
hills, and for several miles above its junction with the Tishmaugu 
river is bordered by almost impassable swamps and by dense 
canebreakers on both sides which are in some places several hun- 
dred yards wide. These are inhabited by a great number of 
panthers that make night hideous by their screams which you 
well know resemble those made by a woman in distress. When 
we consider the character of the animal, I conceive that nothing 


more horrid ever reached the human ear than the doleful ming- 
ling of their unearthly screams as with the coming twilight one 
stands on a distant hill top and listens to their frightful orgies. 
Then, if possible, to make the night still more hideous, a flock of 
great-horned owls sit on the surrounding tall tree-tops, and hoot 
and hoot ta-ha-too-who-who until broad daylight. If one near by is 
answered by another in the distance, as frequently happens, then, 
all unconsciously the listener expects to see a troop of ghosts 
come marching from the dark and gloomy jungles of Screaming 
Panther Creek." 

"It is strange," continued Mrs. Linton, "that no other place 
in the country is subject to such a frightful nocturnal visita- 
tion. No wonder only two natives have been known to live in this 
immediate vicinity for more than one day, and they, because of 
some secret said to be in their possession only, were immune from 
the attack of vicious animals. Even torture failed to elicit the 
secret from them." 

Birds were among the most interesting features of the prime- 
val forest. Some are extinct and a few others nearly so. Then 
as now the haughty blue jay, policeman of the woods, growled 
and fretted like many people who seem to be mad because others 
are living besides themselves. Then as now the reticent mocking 
bird, the both day and night musician of the times, poured forth 
his varied notes from some towering tree-top for want of a hedge 
from which to give his hearers a closer audience. 

Then as now, the fidgeted little wren, hermit of the wood-pile, 
with inquisitive round and keen eye, frisked from place to place 
in search of the early worm or belated fly; but the great wood- 
chick with his scarlet plume, and his black and white wings of 
ample spread, carrying him through the air like he was riding 
upon the waves of a boisterous sea; the golden yellow and the 
blood-red tanagers, whose plumage is as brilliant as any bird of 
the tropics; the delightful woodthrush, with his canary-yellow, 
black-speckled breast, and his musical song at break of day; the 
harmless bluebird twittering near his well-hidden nest in some 
hollow tree; the crimson-colored redbird with his bold whistle 
and heavy beak; the delicate partridge with his bob-white call 

and sly habits ; and the great turkey gobbler with his lordy strut, 
bronzed breast, red-wattled head and hanging beard, have all 
or nearly all, disappeared. 

With the pretty birds the great eagle that on tireless wings 
sometimes soared above the clouds, has also gone. Often he 
wheeled in lowering circles and turned his head in every direc- 
tion in search of his prey. Discovering a pig, lamb or rabbit, he 
half-folded his wings, and descending through the air like an ar- 
row, easily carried his victim away to some hidden place of re- 
treat. Indeed one of these fierce birds seized a little child near 
where Winder is now located, and carried it to Price's mountain* 
near Belmont in Hall County. The skeleton of a child's foot 
with toe nails still on was afterwards discovered there, but no 
other bones were found. 

With the passing of the eagle have also gone the great flocks 
of wild geese that often visited the country in old times. Ar- 
ranging themselves in a V-shaped body far above the tree-tops, 
a bold, strong leader placed himself at the apex, and thus they 
ranged the broad extent of country from Mexico to Canada. 
Occasionally a few stragglers would stop to search for food, and 
often some of them were killed and found to be excellent eating. 

Until the woodman's axe became so terribly destructive there 
stood, near the residence of Rev. Henry Hardman, a tree which 
came from a seed found in the craw of a wild goose. It was 
planted in 1823, and no one who saw the tree was able to classify 
it. It produced a rich profusion of finely flavored blooms, and 
almost an equal number of rare berries similar in taste to the 
muscadine, but a little smaller. Greatly to the regret of many, 
the seed of the berries would not germinate — it may have been 
because of climatic conditions. 

Especially at night when ghosts and goblins were said to be 
trooping to and from churchyards, the lonesome, far-away cry, 
"honk!" "honk!" "honk!" of the wild goose caused the listener 
to draw his bedclothes close around him. Sometimes the geese 

*Priee 's Mountain is on the line of Jackson and Hall Counties. Part of it 
is in Jackson, but the greater portion is across the line in the other 
county. — Ed. 


flew so high as to be invisible even in the daytime. That was a 
good sign of dry weather. At other times they flew low and 
repeated their cries rapidly. That was a sign of bad weather. 
Hence the old adage of weather prophets, "The goose hangs 
high," or "the goose hangs low," "hang" being a corruption 
of "honk." 

The vast multitude of wild pigeons that in bygone days visited 
the country have passed away with the geese. The flocks were 
frequently so large as to obscure the sun like a monster black 
cloud, and the great number of rapidly moving wings caused the 
leaves of the trees beneath them to flutter back and forth as 
when a moderate wind is passing. Unlike the geese they often 
stopped to feast on acorns and chestnuts. Going to roost at 
night all went together, and lighting upon the trees they broke 
down the timber to such an extent that many thousands were 
killed in the general wreck. Hence another old adage was, "Go 
around the pigeon roost if you expect to eat dinner." 

Then, too, there was the horned owl, the night sentinel of the 
times, that took his post on some lofty tree-top as described by 
Mrs. Linton. Because of his cigar-shaped body, short wings and 
ghostly hooting, "ta-hoo-to-hoo-hoo," he was regarded as the ogre 
of the night, and when another, and another answered him from 
all directions, children and sometimes even grown folks, went to 
bed and pulled the cover over their heads. Though simple and 
easily understood, such a medley of harsh, discordant notes seem- 
ed to have a ghostly sound. Even more so when the quick, sharp, 
unearthly screams of the nighthawk, seldom seen but often heard 
at night only in the most gloomy parts of the forest where a ray 
of sunshine was almost unknown. Of ugly form, and, except 
when on the wing, of ungainly movements, the nighthawk is, 
perhaps, the least companionable bird of all the feathered tribe. 

The sharp note of the lonesome joeree; the "cra-cre-cro" of 
the sly raincrow; the "boo-o-uh" of the swooping bullbat; and 
the delightful strains of the swamp blackbird, are not often, if 
at all, heard by children of the present generation. To the pros- 
perity of all of them, the unbroken forest with its deep shadows 


and silent glens that teem with insect, vegetable and animal life, 
seems to be necessary. 

It has been said that the number of turkey buzzards in any 
given area neither increases nor diminishes with the passing 
years. This is singular because they are known to extend their 
flight to a great distance. In 1836 William Jones caught a buz- 
z&rd on his father's plantation now known as the Jackson — near 
Dr. L. G. Hardman's place, and fastening a small brass bell, on 
which his name and date were plainly written to the captive's 
neck, he turned it loose unhurt. Some months passed and the 
same bird, having excited the curiosity of many people, was 
shot in the vicinity of Savannah, Ga., and the curious noise it 
made when flying was explained. The probability is that there 
are no more turkey buzzards now than when the country was 
first settled by the white man, nor are there any less. 



Animals Together With Some Incidents Relating to Them — 
The Mysterious Wog. 

Though the species of animals found in the primeval forests of 
this country by our ancestors, were not so many as those living 
in the jungles of Africa or in the plains of Asia, yet they were 
quite numerous. Some were dangerous and others harmless. At 
least one distinguishing characteristic applied to every one of 
whatever kind — all were sleek and fat — none were poor or lean. 
All were wild, but some more gentle than others. As everywhere 
else the vicious animals were not the wildest. Nothing approach- 
ing a domesticated animal had ever been seen by a native of the 
country except two horses of which they were much afraid at 
first, thinking that the horse and his rider were one and the 
same creature. 

With the passing of some of the birds, many animals have dis- 
appeared also. The beautiful and innocent red deer, always 
sleek, clean and toothsome, and as swift as the wind ; the sly fox, 
the delight of all hunters, and as cunning as a native; and the 
barking gray squirrel, the ornament of the woods and a target 
for the sportsman, are nearly all gone, now. 

The opossum, prowler of the night and hypocrite of the woods, 
the raccoon, the little bear of the swamps and inhabitant of hol- 
low trees; and the rabbit, the Molly Cotton Tail of the thicket, 
and the reputed companion of witches, are still here, but com- 
paratively few in number. The latter little animal, the rabbit, is, 
or rather was, the most singular creature known to the country. 
Though still queer and hard to understand, the hunter, with his 
dogs and shot gun, have greatly changed his habits, his manners 
and his customs. Naturally timid, as his speed, large eyes and 
ears certainly indicate, the close seclusion and constant watching 
required by modern conditions, give him something to do besides 
gamboling and playing over the hills and up and down the valleys 
as he did in old times. Having but few enemies rabbits were more 


numerous then than now for an Indian never killed one. Among 
them as among other nations there were curious people and when 
one of these died they believed his or her spirit went into a rabbit 
and made a witch. Hence the immunity of these animals from 
death at the hand of a native. 

All animals have a sense of humor, more or less, especially 
when young. Perhaps rabbits and squirrels are more notable for 
their playful moods after they are grown than any other natives 
of this country. In old times when the latter would run up a tree 
only far enough to get beyond the reach of the hunter's dog, and 
turn around and actually bark at him with what seemed to be 
saucy, defiant mockery, they were very different from what they 
are now. Their playful running up and down trees, over the waving 
and slender branches, and jumping as if they had wings, from one 
tree to another, was very pleasing, and always engaged the closest 
attention of the hunter who never ventured to fire his gun at one 
when thus employed. Their exercises, though not so varied as 
those of the rabbits, were so elegantly performed, and their bark- 
ing and chattering manifested so much real delight, that the re- 
spect of the beholder for the pretty little animals was always too 
great to admit of any interference with their fun, whatever. 

Notwithstanding their wonderful acrobatical exploits among the 
trees, a squirrel was seldom known to fall to the ground. On one 
occasion when several were chasing each other up and down a 
great poplar tree in which was a large hole some thirty feet from 
the ground, the foremost one finally ran in it, and the others quick- 
ly followed. As quickly all came running out at the same time, 
and in such a hurry that some of them lost their footing and fell 
to the ground. After looking around for a moment, they scamper- 
ed off through the forest and did not return. Their companions 
that were playing on other trees at once seemed to know that 
something was wrong and soon disappeared, also. It was after- 
wards found that the hollow into which the playing squirrels 
ran, contained one old raccoon and two young ones. Their haste 
to get out and the stampede that followed were explained. 

Perhaps no animal values its tail so highly as the squirrel. It 
is indeed very pretty, and is of great use whether climbing or 


jumping. In 1841, James Hampton who lived in the vicinity of 
Commerce, shot off the tail of a gray squirrel. It fell to the ground, 
but the squirrel itself escaped to a hollow tree. Near his house 
there grew a large, spreading chestnut tree which at the time was 
full of chestnuts, ripe in the opening burrs. The next day his 
daughter, Lenora Hampton, noticed that squirrels were frequently 
passing back and forth from the forest in which the squirrel had 
been wounded to the big chestnut tree, and that their actions 
were very peculiar. She notified her father of the discovery and 
at once they began to watch the proceedings. At noon the fol- 
lowing day they were entirely satisfied that the friends of the 
wounded squirrel had coaxed him out of his den, induced him to 
sit in the crotch of the tree, amply supplied him with chestnuts 
from the field, and moreover, that he utterly refused to eat them ! 
This continued for several days through which he sat, looking 
sad and dejected, without, so far as those who watched him could 
discover, eating anything. On the morning of the seventh day he 
was found dead at the root of the tree from which he had fallen. 
A careful examination showed that no part of his body had been 
injured by a bullet or otherwise. Doubtless the poor little fellow 
had grieved himself to death because of the loss of his tail. Lenora 
Hampton is still living and sometimes tells the pathetic story of 
the bob-tailed squirrel in the long time ago. 

To further show that a squirrel highly values his tail, the fol- 
lowing incident is given. Two young ones were kept in a cage 
until they were nearly grown and had become quite tame. As 
time passed on, one gnawed the hair off of his companion's tail so 
closely that he looked more like a rat than a squirrel. At last 
they escaped from prison and went to the woods. The uninjured 
one remained in the vicinity, but the rat-tailed fellow kept on and 
was afterwards seen several miles away. He never returned to 
the home of his shame, but his companion, being known by a 
small brass chain around his neck as well as by his manners, often 
went back on a short but always cautious visit. 

As the foregoing incidents relating to animals are given to 
show old-time life in its innocent forms, the following are men- 


tioned as most dangerous, leaving, however, incidents illustrating 
their character, to be described as they occurred in actual life : 

The howl of the savage and always hungry wolf ; the spring of 
the stealthy panther with his inordinate thirst for human blood; 
and the great black bear sniffing around at midnight in search 
of something to devour, and occasionally giving his ugly growls, 
were constantly a terror to those who heard them. 

As all these animals had a mortal dread of fire, the only way 
to keep them at a distance while the pioneers were asleep was to 
keep a fire burning in the yard all night. True, many were killed ; 
but it required a long time to perceptibly diminish the great num- 
ber that roamed through the forests. 

While the wolves, panthers and bears gave the first white set- 
tlers of this part of the country much trouble, still another animal 
whose existence has often been disputed, inspired those who pro- 
fessed to have seen him, with more fear than all the others com- 
bined. It was the Wog, not Woog as it has sometimes been called. 
Many of the people who first lived at and for several miles around 
old Jug Tavern from its first settlement to about 1809, claimed to 
have seen him at their houses. As the character of the people 
who first lived there will be shown as this narrative progresses, 
the reader will be at as much loss to know how he can afford to 
dispute their word as he is to believe what they have said. At any 
rate the writer tells the story as it was told to him ; but, perhaps, 
with a little more evidence than any reader has. 

The wog was said to be a jet-black, long-haired animal about 
the size of a small horse, but his legs were much shorter, the front 
ones being some twelve inches longer than the hind ones. This 
gave him something of the appearance of a huge dog "sitting on 
its tail," and when walking seemed to require him to carry for- 
ward one side at a time. His tail was very large, all the way of 
the same size, and at the end of it there was a bunch of entirely 
white hair at least eight inches long and larger in diameter than 
the tail itself. "Whether sitting, standing or walking this curious 
appendage was in constant motion from side to side, not as a 
dog wags his tail, but with a quick upward curve which brought it 
down with a whizzing sound that could be distinctly heard at 


least when twenty-five or thirty steps distant. But the most dis- 
tinguishing feature of this horrid tail was that it revealed the 
presence of the monster in the dark — the only time he ventured 
to go abroad. His great red eyes were very repulsive, but not so 
much so as his forked tongue, the prongs of which were thought to 
be eight inches long and sometimes played in and out his mouth 
like those of a mad snake. Really the meanest feature about the 
beast was that his bear-like head contained a set of great white 
teeth over which his ugly lips never closed. 

The Indians told the first white emigrants that so long as the 
wog was left undisturbed he would not molest any one — that he 
would sometimes visit their houses — go around them — if a light 
were inside, poke his tongue through any opening he could find 
between the logs, and then go away. Pioneers were not only quick 
to learn this lesson, but also carefully followed the instruction. 

During the years formerly mentioned, the wog made several 
visits to houses in the territory to which reference has been made. 
Those inside the house, though they had not seen the flirting of 
his white plume, knew of his presence by its whizzing sound, by 
the poke of his horrid tongue through the cracks of the wall, and 
notably by the mortal fear with which he inspired other creatures 
outside. Dogs and cats ran away and in some instances were 
scared to death. Horses snorted, cattle moaned and chickens flew 
from their roosts in all directions. 

Thus having seemingly accomplished his only mission — to 
frighten everything out of its wits — he gave a loud snort and still 
twirling his white signal from side to side, went ambling away, 
and welcome was the going. 

The foregoing is, in substance, the description given by Alonzo 
Draper who lived and died in the territory of the wog, and also by 
Thomas C. Barron who died near Apply Valley in the '40 's of the 
last century. 

Let me repeat : I give the account of the wog as it was given 
to me. It is hard to confess that one believes that there was such 
a thing and one hates to say that he does not believe the word 
of these old citizens. The writer must leave the matter to you, 
dear reader. 



Being a part of the Earli; History of Jackson Countg 

Dedicated to the Memory of the Talasee Colonic 



First Settlers From Effingham County. 

In the summer of 1786, when few white people lived within the 
present limits of Jackson County, Richard Easley, Abednego 
Moore and Johnson Josiah Strong,* came from Effingham County 
and settled near Talasee Shoals on Mulberry river, then called 
Tishmaugu. Wishing to conciliate the natives, and knowing they 
were excessively fond of showy trinkets and gay apparel, the 
newcomers brought with them a liberal supply of glittering beads 
and some remnants of cloth of various colors. 

At the time of their arrival a noted Indian whose name was 
Umausauga, and his only daughter, Banna, somewhere in her 
early teens lived in the immediate neighborhood. Though not a 
chief, his influence was considerable, his intellect of a high order, 
his physical strength gigantic, his prowess undisputed, his friend- 
ship true, and his hatred implacable. Contrary to usual custom of 
his people, he claimed a large extent of the adjacent territory as 
his individual property, and no one was allowed to live, hunt or 
fish on it without his permission. His claim lay on the south side 
of the river, and fortunately, the newcomers, without knowing 
anything of the reserved territory, pitched their tent on the north 
side at Jasacathor, afterwards known as the Dr. Pendleton spring 
where John Duncan now lives. 

Some days passed before the white men and the Indian nabob 
met. They had seen him in the distance and thought he tried to 
shun them ; but one evening while fishing at the shoals, a native 
appeared on the opposite bank, and wading into the water caught 
several fish with his hands before they captured one with their 
hooks. Apparently satisfied, he returned to the bank, and Mr. 
Strong, wishing to show a friendly front, and being able to speak 
the Creek language, told him that if he would come over his pale- 
faced friends would give him some hooks made to catch fish in 

*See White's "Historical Collections of Georgia," page 499. — Ed. 


deep water where there were no rocks. After some hesitation the 
Indian accepted the invitation, and when given the promised fish- 
hooks and their use was explained, his eyes sparkled with delight, 
and giving three distinct grunts, one for each of his benefactors, 
he, to their astonishment, said in broken English, " U-mau-sau-ga 
hook take. He much thank you. Hook good fish catch." Then 
and there began a friendship which, though often tried, was never 

At their urgent request the Indian went home with his newly 
found friends who treated him with kindness and respect. Among 
other things they gave him a long string of white, red and blue 
beads, and what Mr. Easley called "a frock pattern" of valuable 
red merino cloth and a string of small beads for his daughter, 
Banna, whom the white men had never seen. 

Having manifested his gratitude in many curious ways and 
grown hilarious over the brilliant color of the cloth, Umausauga 
invited his new neighbors to move on his side of the river and 
live, hunt and fish where they pleased. This led to a full explana- 
tion of his claims as already stated, and, as afterwards found, 
were quite a departure from his usual custom. They gave him to 
understand that they did not want to impose on his generosity; 
but that if he would take beads in payment for a part of his land, 
they would willingly buy. This proposition seemed to please him, 
and the following day was appointed to fix upon the price and 
boundaries. Repeating his significant grunts the Indian then re- 
turned to his wigwam over the river with as proud a step as any 
lord that ever ruled a kingdom. 

The Indian highway known as the Okoloco Trail, was, when 
opened for travel by the white man, called the Hog Mountain 
road. Near the spot where the Jefferson and Monroe road crosses 
that old Trail on the late John M. Austin place, there stood, a 
little to the south, a huge chestnut tree. Its ponderous branches, 
reaching far and wide, offered such ample protection from the heat 
of summer that the natives, who often traveled the Trail in single 
file, called the great tree Calamit, which means the place of rest. 
There they smoked the Calumet, the pipe of peace, and there they 
ratified their treaties and confirmed their trades. 


It was a matter of much surprise to Easley, Moore and Strong, 
when Umausauga conducted them to Calamit to begin a survey of 
the land he had promised to sell them. They had expected it to be 
near the shoals but thinking it good policy to remain silent, and 
not caring much about the matter anyway, they offered no ob- 

As the Okoloco Trail was the southern boundary of Umau- 
sauga 's little kingdom, he made no claim to any exclusive rights 
and privileges pertaining to Calamit ; but placing a large stone a 
little beyond its shadow he designated it as the beginning corner. 
Carefully taking his bearings, he stood upon the rock, and facing 
to the northwest, threw his tomahawk at a small pine tree some 
fifteen feet distant, and with such force that the blade went deep 
in the solid wood. Selecting another tree in range with the mark- 
ed pine and the rock corner, he proceeded as before, and thus 
continued until the party reached a point called Talapahoo, but 
afterwards known as the Rock Ford on the Hinton plantation. 

To an Indian, Talapahoo meant about the same thing that a 
slaughter pen means to us. There the natives dressed the animals 
caught in the chase, and their children washed all blood stains 
away. There Britt Langworth, believed to be a member of Mur- 
rell's Pony Club, dressed in fine broadcloth and sparkling with 
jewels, was drowned in time of high water; and there too was 
found the celebrated Miller camp which created much excitement 
in that community as late as 1873. An entire stranger who said 
his name was Garvin Miller, was an outlaw who sometimes made 
his headquarters in that immediate community, out-generaled all 
the officers with whom he came in contact, and made a plaything 
of the old jail at Jefferson. There are men still living whose faces 
will wear a broad, dry grin every time Miller's name is mentioned 
in their presence. 

Leaving Talapahoo the unique surveyor turned nearly west and 
proceeded as before to Poganip, now Cedar Hill, on the old trail. 
Away back in the shadowy past a large town is said to have 
flourished there; but only a few legends relating to its history 
have come down to us. The name signifies cold weather, and the 


Comanehes of the Far West, when referring to anything very cold, 
use the same word to this day. 

The southern boundary of Umausauga's claim being already 
well defined by the Okoloco Trail, the surveying party went south- 
east to an obscure Indian settlement called Snodon, where the 
pretty city of Winder now flourishes. A small number of natives 
who, by Umausauga's permission, lived there, gathered around 
the little party to stare and gaze at the white men. Barnum never 
exhibited a greater curiosity than they were to the simple natives 
of Snodon. Some examined their shoes to see if they were hoofs 
or bear-skin moccasins, and others felt of their noses to see if 
they had bones in them. An old squaw wanted to wash Mr. Eas- 
ley's blue eyes to learn if they were painted that color, and be- 
came indignant because he would not allow her to make the ex- 
periment. One boy proposed to stick a thorn in Mr. Moore's leg 
to know if it would bleed, and another, more bold, actually pulled 
a lock of Mr. Strong's curly hair out of his head to see if both 
ends grew in the scalp. This came near causing serious trouble ; 
but when Umausauga slapped the boy to the ground the white 
men thought it good policy to do nothing themselves. The boy's 
name was Quakow and was a stranger at Snodon. 

AVhile the natives showed much curiosity, they manifested some 
friendship also. With friendly mind all went even unpleasantly 
near except one young girl who studiously remained at a respect- 
able distance, silent, thoughtful ; but closely watching every move- 
ment made. She was evidently reading a new chapter in the his- 
tory of human life, and she was puzzled to understand it. Her 
movements were easy and graceful, her form unusually elegant, 
and her general appearance that of a queen born to command 
without speaking and to be obeyed without question. Her features 
were regular, and a flood of buoyant life of a soft red tinge 
seemed to play over her well-rounded shoulders, and flowing 
higher to her slightly oval face, danced upon her cheek in open 
revelry. Her large jet-black eyes were intelligent, and her hair, 
without a wave, was of the same color and reached much below 
her waist. She wore a robe made of fawn skins, which, being 
confined at the waist by a belt overlaid with small sea shells, gave 


the spots on her dress that glittering appearance seen on the feath- 
ers of a peafowl when in the sunshine. On her feet were dainty 
moccasins made of the skin of a full grown deer, and conse- 
quently without spots. 

These were all very distinguishing features to find in that wild, 
isolated region, deep in the seemingly boundless forest where no 
Anglo-Saxon foot had ever trod before ! Still another significant 
feature was that the wild-wood beauty wore a three-fold string of 
beads around her neck — small, white, red and blue beads! Was 
she some mystical being who had been wafted thither by a passing 
zephyr from some enchanted island of a far southern sea ? No ! 
No ! not that. The white men knew the beads. From the center of 
the lowest fold hung a large scarlet bead which rested upon the 
bosom of her spotted robe as if satisfied to remain there forever. 
They knew that it was the central bead of the string sent by them 
to Umausauga's daughter whom they had never seen. So the 
beautiful girl thus surrounded by savages was Banna ! 

"0 my God!" exclaimed Josiah Strong as he turned his eyes 
away for a moment, **can it be that such a creature is herself a 

Among the few who lived at Snodon were Etohautee, Umau- 
sauga's brother, and his son, Tata, who was something more than 
half grown. T'hey lived in an old, dilapidated wigwam which 
stood on the ground now occupied by the Winder College Build- 
ing. Near the wigwam was a large rock pillar built of huge 
stones dressed well enough to remain in position readily. It was 
about eight feet square at the base, tapered to some six feet at the 
top, and was perhaps a little more than ten feet high. Through the 
lower half was an opening in the form of an arch about three 
feet wide, and the upper half was hollow like a chimney through 
which the top was reached. The opening at the base was pro- 
vided with shelving rocks which seemed to have served the pur- 
pose of seats as well as a ready means of reaching the opening 

When Umausauga was asked to explain the purpose of the pil- 
lar, he only said, "Nere Nara," shook his head, chased gathering 
tears from his eyes, and turned away sadly. 


Another strange feature about Snodon was its neglected, dilapi- 
dated appearance. Though doubtless once a thriving community, 
the few remaining wigwams had begun to fall down, its corn 
patches were uncultivated, and its once well-worn footpaths were 
overgrown with weeds and briers. 

When ready to leave the place, Umausauga held a brief conver- 
sation with his pretty daughter, but nothing they said was heard 
by the white men. It was noticed, however, that his demeanor 
towards her was kind and affectionate, and that her attention to 
him was that of an obedient and loving child. 

"How strange! how very strange, that we should have such an 
illustration of filial affection and parental love in this God-for- 
saken part of the world," said Josiah Strong as his companions 
walked away, and casting a long, lingering look at the beautiful 
girl, he joined them hurriedly. 

Etohautee and his son, Tata, accompanied the surveying party 
back to Calamit, the beginning corner. The whites were puzzled 
to know why the boy carried a chunk of fire and a short hickory 
stick burned to a point at one end. Unlike other mysteries of 
the day, that was soon solved. Arriving at the place the Indians 
with a sharp stick and their hands soon dug a hole large enough to 
bury the corner rock so to as prevent its easy removal. The par- 
ties then seated themselves in a circle near the big tree, 
Umausauga filled his huge pipe made in the shape of a flying 
pigeon, Tata touched it with fire, and the ceremony necessary to 
confirm the land trade began, not by written document and offi- 
cial signature ; but by smoking the calumet, the pipe of peace. 

Each man present, six in all, took one whiff, and so on, in- 
creasing one every time until the sixth round was made. Thus 
the trade was confirmed by a process as binding on an Indian as 
any legal document is on a white man. Though unwritten, Indian 
law was sometimes very precise. Etohautee and Tata were the 
witnesses — an old man to see that the work was done properly, 
and a boy to transmit it to a future generation. 

The trade being thus sealed, Umausauga received 14 pounds of 
beads in payment of his land, that is, one-eighth of a quintal 
avoirdupois as was counted in those days. Etohautee and his son 


each received several yards of blue cloth, and the boy a Barlow 
knife, extra. The boy valued the knife much more highly than 
the white men valued their land, and voluntarily bound him to 
them with hooks of steel that never, either bent or broke. Again 
the pipe went around. Each one present took six distinct puffs, 
and blew the smoke upwards that all might be endowed with the 
spirit of peace which it was supposed to impart. The first smoke 
sealed the trade and the second showed that both parties were 
satisfied with it. The Indians gave their usual grunts, and going, 
single file, in the direction of Snodon, they walked away silently. 

In addition to the curious features already mentioned, the ad- 
venturers, being left to themselves, began to consider others 
which they did not clearly understand. Being far beyond the 
reach of any well-known friends, and surrounded by savages whom 
they knew to be crafty and treacherous, it was quite necessary 
that they should be on guard at every turning and ready for ac- 
tion at a moment's warning. Though Umausauga had manifested 
strong friendship, and shown consummate skill as a woodman, he 
had that day constantly acted as if apprehensive of danger. He 
did not talk in the forest and when they spoke he placed his fore 
finger on his lips and shook his head. Then why had they not 
seen a native until they reached Snodon, and why had he allowed 
them more land than they wanted? Why had he made it in form 
of a triangle when some other shape would have been more prac- 
tical? Why had he selected a territory that included Snodon 
where all the people they had seen were living, and where stood 
the curious rock pillar that brought tears to his eyes? These 
were some of the things that puzzled them and continued to do 
so for a long time. 

Weary and a little anxious the pioneers returned to their tent 
at Jasacathor, and setting a watch they slept by turns that night. 
As their larder was scantily supplied just at that time, they de- 
voted a part of the next day to hunting; and after killing a fine 
buck and several turkeys they returned home to find that a com- 
pany of nine fresh emigrants had just arrived from the low coun- 
try, all being relatives or other personal friends. It consisted of 
Mrs. Martha Easley, wife of Richard Easley, Mrs. Letty Moore, 


wife of Abednego Moore and sister of Josiah Strong, Thelan Lah- 
goon, his wife Orpah and their daughter Ruth who was nearly 
grown, Leon Shore and Abel Trent, both young men, Joseph Starr 
and Edward Belknap, bachelors. 

Besides other things of prime importance the late emigrants 
brought with them four horses, two wagons, four head of cattle, 
four sheep, six pigs, a good supply of tools, ten new rifles, and a 
large quantity of ammunition. 

The little colony now consisted of eight brave and determined 
men, and of four equally brave and resolute women, and every 
one with a dead shot with the rifle. Richard Easley, Abednego 
Moore, Josiah Strong, Phelan Lahgoon, Joseph Starr and Edward 
Belknap were all revolutionary soldiers, fresh from the field of 

The following resolutions passed at a meeting called to con- 
sider the public welfare, will serve to show something of the 
spirit of these hardy pioneers : 

"RESOLVED FIRST: That this colony shall be known as the 
Talasee Colony in the State of Georgia and County of Franklin ; 
that in the name of said state we now take formal possession of 
that part of its territory lying and being on the north side of 
Tishmaugu river, to the extent of two miles above and two miles 
below Talasee Shoals on said river, and thence two miles north 
of it to west and east rock corners placed there to define said 
boundaries ; that we proceed at once to improve the same as time 
and circumstances may allow, by clearing land, building houses, 
and, when thought necessary, a substantial fort for our protection. 

"SECOND: That no person who is not of good moral character 
and of industrious habits, shall become a citizen of this colony; 
that one proving himself or herself to be unworthy, shall be 
driven away by force, if necessary. 

"THIRD: That the land lately purchased from Umausauga. a 
native resident of this community, beginning at Calamit on the 
Okoloco Trail; thence northwest to Talapahoo, on the head waters 
of Taurulaboole creek ; thence west to Poganip on said trail ; 


thence easterly down the trail to the beginning rock corner at 
Calaniit, will not be occupied by any member of this colony until 
further developments may justify us in doing so ; that other emi- 
grants who are peacefully and industriously inclined, have per- 
mission to settle there at any time and place they may see proper, 
provided always that they do not trespass upon the claims of the 
said Umausauga; that in consideration of the price paid for the 
land whose boundaries are herein given it shall be called Bead- 
land. RICHARD EASLEY, President. 

''MRS. LETTY MOORE, Secretary. 

"October 20th, 1786." 

It doubtless seemed anomalous to the purchasers of Beadland 
that so large a territory should be bought for fourteen pounds of 
beads; but it was by no means an isolated case in history. When 
our forefathers purchased the site of New York of the Indians, 
the price was a peck of glass beads and brass buttons. All 
Chicago was bought for a pair of old boots, and the ground upon 
which Milbourne, one of the richest cities of Australia, now stands, 
was sold for two old woolen blankets. When Queen Dido first 
set foot on African soil, she told the natives that she only wanted 
a patch of land big enough to be inclosed in a bull's hide, and a 
contract was made on those terms. But the crafty queen cut the 
hide into leather shoe strings, and tying them together took in all 
the land upon which ancient Carthage stood, and the price paid 
for it was less than one dollar of our currency. Up to about 1840 
the tax rate on Beadland and surrounding territory was based on 
a valuation of from 6^4 to 121/^ cents per acre. 


Johnson Josiah Strong Makes a Discovery. 

As the days passed into months material changes took place 
among the Talasee colonists. Though few in number, they had 
good tools and every man knew how to use them. From sun to 
sun and sometimes far into the night, the men labored so con- 
stantly that they soon had a sufficient number of substantial log 
cabins completed to live comfortably, and, as they believed in 
security. Euth Lahgoon had brought with her two powerful 
dogs called Pyth and Damon, and as all the women were experts 
with their rifles, they and the dogs kept a bountiful supply of 
meat on hand which left the men little to do besides clearing land 
and building houses. 

The social condition of the colonists also soon began to improve. 
Various natives, some of them of high rank in their nation, often 
visited them — a few from friendly motives and others as a matter 
of mere curiosity. So far no hostility had been shown. Seem- 
ingly to encourage the social feature, one day Josiah Strong, after 
some hesitation and much circumlocution, said to Mrs. Moore : 
"Sister, though Umausauga is a savage, he seems to be our friend, 
and as the time may come when his services would be of great 
value to us, I wish you would visit him and open friendly re- 
lations with his daughter, of whom I believe you have heard. I 
dare say you will like her, and if you should, then take Ruth with 
you so that the girls may become acquainted, and perhaps 
enjoy each other's company." Mrs. Moore gave her brother a 
searching glance, smiled, and said playfully, "Since you show 
yourself to be such a splendid diplomatist, why not go yourself, 

"Well, I could do that," said the brother demurely, "but my 
diplomatic code teaches me that one woman should deal with 
another in all such cases as this. Besides, since I think of it, the 
girl has, or I suppose she yet has, enough real fine merino to 
make her an elegant dress. We sent the cloth by her father be- 

fore we had seen her, and our kindness has certainly had a good 
effect. Of course she does not know what to do with such a 
charming dress pattern, and it is a shame for it to be used as a 
mere wrapper. Then- please go, sister, and in your own charming 
way, offer to cut and make her a dress in first-class style, and I am 
free to say you'll never regret it." 

"It may be, Josiah, that the girl is not as ignorant as you sup- 
pose her to be. I have heard that she is very handsome and that 
her deportment approaches that of a refined lady." 

"I don't think Banna a fool; but as her father told me that 
she is a native of the wilderness and had never been anywhere 
else, I take it for granted that she knows nothing of English man- 
ners and customs. I gladly admit that her deportment seems to 
approach elegance and refinement; but I can account for it only 
on the theory that God in his providence has, for some reason, im- 
planted something in her nature that is as broad as earth and as 
high as heaven. Then so much the better and greater the reason 
why you should comply with my request." 

"Granted; but how would it do to have such a pretty girl, dress- 
ed as you want Banna to be, here in this wilderness with three 
such hotheaded young men as you, Leon Shore and Abe Trent 
are ? ' ' 

"Why not include Joe Starr and Ed Belknap?" "Oh! they are 
such incorrigible old bachelors they would not be in the way. If 
you want heavy work done or a hard battle fought, call on Joe 
and Ed; but not to make love to a girl." 

"That seems to be true; but you need fear no rivalry. Ruth 
has the exclusive control of the hearts, heads, hands and feet of 
Leon Shore and Abel Trent. She is the prime cause of them being 
here. As you say they are both so hot-headed that I sometimes 
feel concerned about the final result." 

A pause followed. Brother and sister seemed to be pondering 
over all they had said, and speculating upon the probable out- 
come of the future. Finally the sister said thoughtfully, "I admit 
that some of your argument is very good, especially that part of 
it which pleads for the friendship of the natives around us. 
Therefore, with some misgivings I consent to comply with your 


request at a convenient time during to-morrow afternoon." "I 
thank you, sister, and again say you will not regret it," replied 
the young man in tones of deepest thankfulness. 

The truth was Mr. Strong had, at first sight, fallen deeply in 
love with the shy Indian girl whom he had seen at the old town 
of Snodon. Though a strong man he fought against it with all 
his power; but like Banquo's ghost, it would not down. Unsought 
and unbidden, an unfaltering love for the unknown girl entered 
into every fibre of his heart and took full possession. Gentle as a 
lamb among his friends and as dreadful as a maddened lion amid 
his enemies, it was strange that an untaught child of the forest 
should bring him to his knees at the first shot; but, even in spite 
of himself, it was so. 

Johnson Josiah Strong was our hero 's full name ; but the first 
part is generally omitted in this narrative because he seldom used 
it himself, perhaps for the reason that his uncle. Gov. Josiah Tat- 
nall, for whom he was named, had also dropped Johnson on ac- 
count of its inconvenient length. 

Josiah Strong was an ensign at the siege of Augusta where he 
carried the national standard with distinguished bravery, and had 
one finger shot from his left hand. He was 22 years old at the 
time of his arrival at Talasee, stood six feet and four inches in 
his shoes, and was well proportioned. He was as fearless as he 
was strong and athletic, and as fleet on foot as any man that ever 
ran against him. Beneath a rich profusion of curly black hair 
there flashed a pair of coal-black eyes that always commanded 
respect and attention. Yet he had a kind heart and a sympathetic 
nature which, when added to his handsome features, caused him to 
have many close friends. 

The to-morrow evening of which Mr. Strong and his sister had 
spoken came none too soon for the anxious brother. They went 
to the shoals at the time appointed, silent and thoughtful. There 
being neither bridge nor foot-log across the water, Mrs. Moore, 
seated upon her brother's strong right arm was quickly carried 
to the opposite bank. Though Umausaugua could speak broken 
English to a limited extent, they decided upon such Creek words 
as they thought would be necessary to use on the occasion. The 

Indian's wigwam which they had learned was called Adabor, 
stood on the hill, solitary and unadorned, something more than 
two hundred yards from the shoals. 

Waving, as was sometimes the custom of a peaceful visitor, a 
white handkerchief, Mrs. Moore slowly and a little anxiously, 
approached the humble home of her neighbor. Umausauga 
recognized her at once and offered his hand which was eagerly 
grasped by the lady. Neither knew much of the other's language ; 
but they managed to be understood reasonably well. 

When Mrs. Moore entered the wigwam, a young girl was seat- 
ed upon a bear's hide which was spread upon the ground floor to 
its full extent. She wore a robe of spotles red deer skins, and 
being gathered at the waist by a blood red belt of the same mate- 
rial, the effect was really charming. She still wore the threefold 
strand of beads ; but the large scarlet one rested upon her throat 
instead of her breast as before. She was busily engaged in making 
a fox skin moccasin, and judging by one already completed, the 
work was being neatly and substantially done. 

In strict accordance with Indian etiquette the girl did not raise 
her head. Understanding the cause of this reserve Mrs. Moore 
kneeled upon the bear skin and offered her hand. It was quickly 
grasped, and their eyes met. A moment more and they were 
in each other's arms; and being unable to think of anything more 
appropriate, the visitor sang, in tones of soft and mellow cadence, 
the good old song of Barbary Allen. Who fails to know that 
music thrills the savage heart no less than that of the philosopher? 
Its rhythmic sweep carries all creatures along with it from the 
tiny insect that burrows in the ground to the lordly lion that 
roams upon its surface. Thus it was when a Christian woman 
first met a child of nature in the wilderness, and thus it was, when 
many years after, they parted for the last time and both were fol- 
lowers of the Man of Sorrows. How strangely different from the 
usual meeting of the Anglo-Saxon with the Red Man of the west. 

Umausauga was deeply affected by the scene just witnessed, 
and so was a stranger whom Mrs. Moore had not seen until she 
arose from the bear-skin mat. He was leaning against the wall of 
the wigwam in a somewhat darkened corner, and evidently much 


excited also. She judged him to be of medium size, of slender form 
and quite young. His dress was composed of skins of various 
kinds, and around his neck and waist were belts from which 
hung bear and eagle claws alternately. On the back of his head 
was a kind of pad which projected, in bristling array, a row of 
long eagle feathers. A tomahawk, bow and small quiver of ar- 
rows were lying near his feet, and seemed to be in excellent condi- 
tion. His name was Yrtyrmyrmyrmysco, Ir-tir-mir-mir-mis-co, is 
perhaps, as near as the English can speak it. 

Lying on the bear skin was a small mussel shell exquisitely 
polished and the parts apparently still united by the usual liga- 
ment or hinge on one side. Notwithstanding this, the girl took 
a string from the eye of her bone needle and carefully tied it 
around the shell. Then watching for an opportunity when the 
strange young Indian was not looking at her, she quickly con- 
cealed it in the folds of her robe, or maybe in a pocket. While 
tying the shell, Mrs. Moore noticed that the girl used the words 
eto thaska which, unfortunately, were not in the list furnished by 
her brother; but seeing a package which was evidently the red 
merino cloth tied with a deer skin throng, she pointed to the 
bundle and said "eto thasca." The girl looked surprised, but 
without hesitation untied the package and spread the cloth be- 
fore her strange visitor. 

It was now that Mrs. Moore learned that Banna, the girl whom 
she found sitting on a bear skin, could speak broken English, even 
better than her father, her accent being clearer and more distinct. 
Having already accomplished the first part of her mission by se- 
curing the good will of a neighboring family, she found it an easy 
matter to effect the second part, even without using half the 
Creek words she had learned for the purpose. 

The result was that Banna readily understood what her visitor 
wanted, and was glad to have a dress made in first-class style and 
in accordance with the fashion of the times, that is to say, a closely 
fitting bodice, ample skirt and flowing sleeves. Having taken the 
necessary measurements, and promising to return, as in modern 
times, every day or so until the fit was completed, Mrs. Moore, 


carrying the merino cloth with her, took leave of her friends and 
joined her brother at the river. 

"0 Josiah!" she said, with an anxious tone, "I hardly know 
what to say. That girl is one of the most beautiful as well as most 
lovely beings I ever saw. Though a savage, she seems to have 
some knowledge of civilization. There must be some mistake ! I 
do not believe she is an Indian!" "Then why do you call her a 
savage?" asked the brother dubiously. "Oh, some mysterious fate 
has placed her in savage hands. Now I think of it, I am more 
than half ashamed I called her one. Why she speaks a few Eng- 
lish words with a sweet, musical accent that is charming. Be- 
sides her long, wavy hair convinces me that she does not belong 
to the red race. Then too, an Indian is incapable of giving the 
clean-cut enunciation that she gives to some of the words she 
speaks. Forgive me for calling her a savage." "I freely forgive 
you. I did not know that Banna knew any English words at all ; 
but I do know that her hair is as straight as an arrow — there is 
neither wave nor curl about it. And I fully believe she is a full- 
blood Indian." "Why brother, you are mistaken. Only a few 
minutes ago I twined my own fingers among her silken tresses, 
and they were as full of waves as the ocean when a gentle breeze 
plays over it. And I well remember that when I was smoothing 
them over her forehead I could see her Saxon blood playing hide 
and seek beneath her sunburned features, for Banna the Beauti- 
ful, as I must hereafter call her, knows nothing of wearing a bon- 
net. It was then, too, she, for the first time, turned her large, 
lustrous eyes full upon me. They were soft and liquid as those 
of a gazelle, and as I returned the look, deep and sympathetic as 
heart can feel, tears gathered in them. In all America there is not 
a native from whom a pale face can thus draw a single tear." 

"Have it your own way for the present, Letty. A few hours or 
days at most may decide which is right. Banna's English is sur- 
prising to me ; but is easily accounted for. Her father lived for 
several months on the coast when he naturally picked up the 
little he knows of our language, and in turn his daughter has 
learned it from him. As to the play of her blood, her musical 
accent and the gathering of tears in her luminous eyes, I attri- 


bute all that to her superior nature which, from the little I have 
seen and all you have told me, I readily grant. As to her hair 
you are simply mistaken about that ; but wavy or straight means 
nothing to me. I am truly glad that you too, love her. So it only 
remains for me to acknowledge the 'corn' and ask you to help 
me win her heart as she has mine. Say, Letty, will you help me?" 

Mrs. Moore was seated on a way-side rock where she mused 
long and tearfully before answering. When a little composed she 
looked up and with quivering lips answered, "It seems strange 
and sudden to say so ; but I can only answer yes ! A very queen 
should be proud to own her as a sister, even if she were an 
Indian ! ' ' 

When the grateful brother had expressed his thanks, his sister 
gave him a full account of her visit, saying in part, "I found and 
left at the wigwam a fellow whom I suppose story writers would 
call a young Indian brave. He sported about all the old toggery 
of his race, together with a terrible name so long that I do not 
remember it. I believe he is making love to our Banna, and if so, 
it may mean trouble in the future." 

"Never mind about that. Umausauga has incidently mention- 
ed that fellow to me. Though a sub-chief, apparently, I have 
learned that he is not in favor at Abador." "I'm glad of that; 
and have another incident to mention that greatly excites my 
curiosity. When I first approached Banna I happened to notice 
a mussel shell, such as we see on the rocks here, but well polished, 
lying half concealed on her bear skin seat. For some reason she 
slyly concealed it in a fold of her wrapper. I am anxious to know 
what is in it, not merely to satisfy a woman's curiosity; but to 
confirm my belief that the little incident means something of im- 
portance. Should you ever learn what was in it, please tell me." 

"Certainly — " 

They were joined by Leon Shore and Ruth Lahgoon, and the 
subject was dropped for the time. All four of the ladies belonging 
to the colony were good with the needle, but Letty Moore was a 
professional seamstress. All eagerly began work on the first 
fashionable dress ever made inside the present limits of Jackson 
County. When it was cut and basted together Mrs. Moore re- 

turned to the wigwam on the hill to see if the fit was satisfac- 
tory. The form to be fitted was so nearly perfect that no altera- 
tions were necessary. While this was surprising, it was more so 
to find that the girl's hair was, after all, "as straight as an 
arrow. ' ' 

While in vain looking around for the mysterious shell, the 
neigh of a horse was heard in the woods near by. Though wonder- 
ing why a horse should be in that secluded forest, the lady thought 
it imprudent to ask questions, and returned home. She reluc- 
tantly acknowledged that the hair of her idolized girl was 
straight; but was ready to be qualified that it was full of waves 
when she saw her before. 

The report that a strange horse was in the neighboring forest 
created some suspicion, and curious to say, Ruth Lahgoon was 
selected to investigate the matter. This young woman, then in 
her seventeenth year, was an anomalous combination of female 
modesty and loveliness, and of indomitable courage and heroic 
fortitude. Though a small girl, she was as active as the prover- 
bial cat, and to repluse her was to invite another battle more fierce 
than before. As an expert with the rifle and as a rider on horse- 
back, whether over the open field or through the tangled 
forest, she had no superior. And Ruth was a very beautiful girl. 
Her golden hair which fell in rich, curling ringlets over her ex- 
quisitely formed shoulders, and her deep blue eyes, mild when in 
repose, but flashing defiance when aroused, set off her florid com- 
plexion to great advantage. Her smile and her manners brought 
most men to her feet. The only reason why Josiah Strong had 
not, years before, loved Ruth Lahgoon, was because he knew that 
her heart had, almost from childhood, belonged to Leon Shore, 
one of his best personal friends. 

The day following Letty Moore's second visit to Adabor was an 
ideal one for a bold horseback gallop through the woods. The 
morning was fair and balmy, and save the wash of the water over 
the rocks, not a sound was heard to break the reigning silence. 
No one in all the world, either ancient or modern, had ever 
thought of the rattle and clash of the machinery that now manu- 


factures lightning there to run complicated systems of wheels 
and pulleys many miles away. 

As Ruth stood at the side of Alborak, her beautiful black horse, 
the scenes around her meant more than the whirr of all the ma- 
chinery in the world. By common consent he was all her own. 
She had trained him from a colt and ridden him all the way from 
the seacoast to within plain view of the mountains. Though large 
and powerful, he yielded to every pull of the rein, understood and 
obeyed all her commands, and when left to himself followed her 
as a shadow. Often when seen running in the distance his feet 
did not seem to touch the ground, and his powers of endurance 
were unknown. 

Alborak 's equipment was a light double-reined bridle with 
martingale to match. His saddle was light also, and of English 
made. Around its right side was a half hoop made of whalebone. 
A light rifle was strapped to the hoop, and from the right horn of 
the saddle hung a long knife in a steel scabbard. His head, trim 
and tapering to the muzzle, was held high, and now and then he 
clamped his bits. He was waiting for the signal to be off and 

His mistress still stood at his side, tapping the toe of her dainty 
boot with a small rattan which she sometimes carried. She wore 
a closely fitting buckskin habit, that the brush through which she 
often dashed might not tear her dress. On her head was a jaunty 
cap from which fluttered a single white ribbon, and in which her 
curly hair was carefully rolled, the cap being held in place by a 
strap beneath her chin. Thus arrayed she too, was waiting — 
waiting for her dogs, Pyth and Damon, that were trailing a fox in 
the distant woods. 

Becoming impatient, she gave a long, keen blast with the hunt- 
ing horn that hung at her side, and presently the dogs appeared 
at a full run. One bound and their mistress was in the saddle and 
at once horse, rider, dogs and all were off at a brisk trot. 

Hitherto Ruth had not crosed the river, though she had per- 
mission of the lord over there to do so at will ; and now that her 
delegated mission to search for the unknown horse led her into the 
excluded territory, she boldly rode towards the shoals, 


Having been pilotted across the river by Leon Shore, of whose 
services she had no more need on that occasion than she had for 
another horse, she went west, intending to make a detour to the 
left and return by way of Adabor. In that way she hoped to 
learn something of the strange horse and at the same time gratify 
her anxiety to see the famous beauty of whom she had heard so 

As the bold heroine advanced she became lost in thought. The 
huge trees with their ponderous branches reaching far and wide 
as if to grasp everything around them in their embrace, obscured 
the sun above and dwarfed all undergrowth below them. From 
their cool shade wild animals of various kinds scurried away in 
all directions, and they were so numerous that a constant effort 
was required to keep the dogs from following them. Life in a 
vast primeval forest through which only the savage has roamed, 
and where the sound of the huntsman's horn and the bay of his 
hound have never been heard, is at once grand, solemn and im- 

Such was the situation of Ruth Lahgoon, the gentle, and yet 
heroic huntress from south Georgia. But Ruth was not looking 
for game that day. However she had unstrapped her rifle and was 
carrying it in her hand, ready for any emergency that was likely 
to occur. When descending into a deep ravine she noticed that 
Damon's hair was standing erect on his back, and th|it he stopped 
and began to sniff the air. Presently he trotted to the left in 
hostile attitude, and looking in that direction, she discovered a 
panther preparing to spring upon the dog from a horizontal limb 
of one of the great trees. Instantly the crack of a rifle, perhaps 
the first that had ever awoke the sleeping echoes of that gloomy 
forest, pierced the still morning air. With a death-scream the 
animal fell to the ground in dying struggles. Snatching her 
hunting knife from its scabbard, both she and Pyth hastened to 
the rescue of Damon. But the knife was unnecessary, the beast 
was quickly torn into fragments. 

Having tasted blood the dogs were still more anxious for the 
chase. They constantly watched their mistress for the signal of 
pursuit. It was not given and the dogs did not go. 

The passing of the panther aroused the solitary girl from her 
reverie. Consulting a pocket compass which she always carried 
when in the woods, she found that she had gone too far to the 
west. However when on Alborak distance signified little to his 
rider. She had heard that the Okoloco Trail was to the south, 
and wishing to strike it, rode in that direction. Having gone sev- 
eral miles, her horse stopped suddenly and gave a low, sharp 
snort. She had never known him to do that way before. With 
one forefoot up the dogs stopped also and stood listening. Ruth, 
as if talking to herself, said softly : '* "What in the world is up now 
my boys?" She could neither see nor hear anything unusual. 
Gently patting her horse on the shoulder, she continued, "For- 
ward a little, Alborak, just a little, my boy." With head erect 
and nostrils distended the horse slowly advanced as long as he 
felt the gentle tapping. If she had struck him heavily he would 
have been oif and away as if on the wings of the wind. But when 
she stopped he stood still and so did the dogs. As yet neither 
had shown any sign of present danger. Their actions indicated 
surprise only. 

Just as the wondering girl was thinking of another forward 
movement she, to her utter astonishment, distinctly saw a woman 
flit like a bird, from the ground to the back of a snow-white horse. 
He was standing with arched neck, inflated nostrils and anxious 
look beneath a large spreading tree about one hundred yards 


The White Ladies Visit Adabor. 

No one in any position was ever any more astonished than Ruth 
Lahgoon when, in that dreary and infrequently visited part of the 
country, she saw a woman pass like a shadow from the ground 
to the back of a horse. Somehow she instinctively knew who the 
strange woman was, and approaching nearer, the spotted robe, 
the long flowing hair, the well rounded shoulders, the athletic 
movement, and even the presence of a horse, all united to satisfy 
her that she had unexpectedly found the mysterious beauty who 
had played such sad havoc with the heart of a good personal 
friend of whom she had, more than once, came near giving her 
own. It was Banna at Calamit! 

Remembering the flag of truce used by Mrs. Moore at Adabor, 
Ruth waved her handkerchief and approached near the large 
tree at a slow walk. The white horse seemed anxious to advance 
also ; but his rider, evidently not knowing just what to do, re- 
strained him. Both horses soon began to neigh as if glad to 
meet each other, and they were. 

One of the girls knew some Creek words and the other about 
an equal number of English ones, and by using them together 
with a multiplicity of signs, they managed to understand each 
other fairly well. But to understand words and signs was a 
small matter compared with another lesson they learned at this, 
their first meeting — to love each other so devotedly that it grew 
with their growth, strengthened with their strength, and died 
only when they died, if, indeed, such love ever dies. Verily, no — 
it lives forever! 

As was afterwards learned, Banna at first thought that Ruth 
was some good spirit who, because of her beauty and loveliness, 
had been liberated from Nodoroc, and that all horses were white 
until changed to black by some demon in that horrid place. It 
was a long time before any of the colonists knew just what 
Nodoroc meant except that it was a very bad place. On the 

other hand Ruth, though she knew the Indian girl was not a 
queen, thought that because of her regal appearance as she still 
sat on her horse, ought to be one, and acted accordingly. Know- 
ing that the throne of an Indian queen consisted of a grass mat 
covered with white feathers, usually those of the white crane 
common to the country, she spread her handkerchief on the 
ground and motioned Banna to jump from her horse upon it. 
Quickly comprehending the honor intended, and not considering 
herself worthy of it, she jumped with elegant ease a little to one 
side, and spreading her arms, the girls were at once in a long, 
loving embrace. The only words spoken were, "No wonder that 
Mr. Strong and his sister love you!" It is a remarkable thing 
that an untaught child of nature should refuse an offered honor, 
and at the same time show her gratitude for it by embracing one 
whom she was just beginning to learn was not a spirit, but a real 
being like herself. Though the result was not expected, both 
girls were always proud of their first meeting beneath the great 
spreading tree at Calamit, the Place of Rest. 

When at last they thought of their soquillas, the word for 
horses in both the Creek and Cherokee languages, they saw 
them eating grass near together. Their long isolation from horse 
society made them feel close akin. No doubt of that. 

"The twin sisters," as Banna and Ruth were afterwards called, 
seated themselves on the rock corner of Beadland, and entered 
into a long conversation by using such words as they knew and 
by making such signs as were necessary. While thus engaged 
two Indians came walking along the trail, and, seeing the girls, 
both went near and one of them, whom Ruth knew by Mrs. 
Moore's description M'^as Yrtyrmyrmyrmysco, asked Banna if she 
was traveling homeward or towards Snodon. The answer being 
somewhat evasive, was unsatisfactory, and the fellow whose name 
is too long to be often repeated, squatted flat upon the ground 
at the girl's feet, spoke something of his love and of his intention 
to visit her father about night. 

The conduct of one seemed to enbolden the other, whose name 
turned out to be Wokolog, and he too squatted at Ruth's feet. As 
he did so he passed one hand over her cheek and began to toy 


with the rattan which she still carried. Quick as thought she 
drew a long, glittering stiletto, such as many Italian women carry 
to this day, and such as many Americans ought still to carry, 
from her bosom, and threw back her arm ready to strike ; but the 
flashing blue eyes that seemed to look through him and the dag- 
ger that glittered in her steady hand, sent him backwards be- 
yond striking distance, where he gained his feet and walked away 
sullenly. The other was evidently much astonished, but also 
went away laughing at the discomfiture of his companion. 

While seated on the rock Ruth learned several things that were 
interesting to her. She had hoped to forever settle the dispute 
about Banna's hair, and she had settled the matter well enough 
to know that sometimes it was straight and sometimes it was 
wavy. When she first met her, the first thing noticed was the 
girl's long, silken tresses of entirely straight hair. While seated 
together she carefully noted that it was full of waves — beautiful 
waves which followed each other in constant succession from one 
end to the other. So Mr. Strong and his sister were both right, 
but how, she could not understand. 

Another discovery made was that while the Indian girl, if she 
were an Indian, still wore the threefold strand of beads, there 
was a fourth strand of plaited hair, apparently from her own 
head, around her neck, and that to this strand was suspended 
just such a mussel shell as Mrs. Moore had described. A singular 
feature was that the wearer was careful to keep the shell con- 
cealed under the collar of her wrapper, but did not always suc- 
ceed in doing so. 

Still another discovery that afforded the observant Ruth much 
satisfaction was the cold and distant manner in which Banna 
received the advances of the long-named Indian. After he went 
away she did not hesitate to say how much her father disliked 
both Yrtyrmyrmyrmysco and Wokolog, the latter being so named 
because the word is applied to anything known to the Indian 
mind as low, mean and cunning. 

Ruth Lahgoon had allowed the fire that once burned in her 
breast for Josiah Strong to smoulder in ashes; but she was still 
his devoted friend, and never failed to work in his favor on all 


proper occasions. Hence her gladness to learn that there was 
no chance for the Indian to supplant him. Indeed the nature of 
both girls revolted at the thought. 

The sun was far on his western journey when Ruth consulted 
her compass and pointed towards the shoals. The other under- 
stood the significance of the action, and in the musical tones on 
which Mrs. Moore so fondly dwelt, called out, "Iro! Iro!" The 
white horse quickly ran to her, and lightly stroking his forehead, 
she again repeated his name in low and gentle tones as musical 
as before. 

"So Iro is the name of her pretty horse. He is doubtless the 
one heard by Mrs. Moore, and finding him in possession of her 
well-loved girl, my mission is accomplished," was the mental 
conclusion of Ruth. "Iro! Iro!" she repeaded, to impress the 
name on her mind. Iro was indeed a beautiful animal. Though 
not so large as Alborak, he was of good size, and as elegantly 
formed. He was a pure white except his mane and tail which 
were of a light canary hue. The yellow tint was afterwards 
found to be artificial ; but it certainly enhanced the beauty of the 
animal, and was then as appropriate for a white horse as the 
painting of a lady's face is now. The training of Iro and Albo- 
rak was different; but the result was the same. The white came 
when his name was called, the black when he heard a peculiar 
whistle given by his mistress, and by her only. 

Iro's equipment consisted of a bridle and a sidesaddle, both 
of Spanish make. From the right hand horn of the saddle hung 
a bow and a small quiver of arrows. It had no hoop, but a toma- 
hawk of curious shape was tied to the rear. On the small right- 
hand skirt the flag of Spain was imprinted in good style. Be- 
neath the flag was the following inscription: DON MAR DE 

As the girls rode away, they presented a striking appearance. 
Two such horses carrying two such riders had never been seen 
in a wilderness before, perhaps nowhere else. Any woman looks 
better on horseback than she does in a palace, and when both 
horse and rider have an elegant appearance the effect is very 


pleasing. And thus, as Banna and Ruth rode homeward, talking 
and making signs as if in all their glory, it was proven that — 

"When two kindred strings are tuned alike. 
To move them both but one we strike." 

When Adabor was reached it was plain that neither the horses 
nor their mistresses were willing to separate ; but after a long, 
fondly lingering look at each other they separated with tears in 
their eyes. When Ruth reached the shoals she found Leon Shore 
and Abe Trent both waiting there for her. Poor, anxious, con- 
siderate fellows ! Notwithstanding the girl had passed through 
enough during the day to try the nerves of the strongest man, 
they thought she needed help to ford a small stream! A bullet 
is blind, and so is love ! 

At a meeting called for the purpose of hearing Ruth's report, 
a "vote of thanks was tendered the heroine of the day for faithful 
performance of duty," and on motion of Josiah Strong, three 
hearty cheers were given in her honor. Had a modern talking 
machine been used, how curious it would be to hear those cheers 
as they were given more than a century ago. Are they forever 
lost? Or will the great expected achievements of the twentieth 
century unroll them to mortal ears ? 

Ruth's adventures that day furnished themes for many discus- 
sions. What was the significance of the carefully concealed mus- 
sel shell? Where did the white horse and the Spanish saddle 
come from? And what did the curious inscription on the saddle 
mean? How did the girl get possession of them? And why was 
her hair changeable? These were some of the questions that Mrs. 
Moore, because of her deep insight into curious things, was asked 
to answer. **I can not," replied that lady, "answer all your 
questions; but the changes in the dear girl's hair prove, as I 
have before told you, that she is not an Indian, though I can not 
account for the change. Moreover the Spanish saddle and the 
emblems on it, and now I think of it, the type of her features 
convince me that she is of Spanish descent with a distinct mix- 
ture of aristocratic English blood." 


"Sister," replied Josiah, "you are getting along first rate with 
your advanced theories; but after all I should not be surprised 
to find that changeable hair is characteristic of Indian beauties. 
Whether Indian, Spanish or English, I love Banna the Beautiful 
with all my heart, and no race distinction can change me." 

"We do not," said Ruth after a pause, "blame you, and are 
anxious to do anything we can in your favor. ' ' 

"That greatly encourages me, and I thank you in advance for 
your services. It only remains for you and Letty to arrange 
some plan that will enable me to meet her as if by chance. I will 
do the rest." "We can easily do that," said Ruth, and the inter- 
view closed sans ceremonie. 

On the day following the interview the merino dress was com- 
pleted. The finishing touches were made by the deft fingers of 
Ruth Lahgoon who was a "needle work designer," as those who 
did artistic work with the needle were called at that time. 
Around the bottom of the skirt was wrought a lovely wreath of 
green, white and blue beads. On the bosom was a similar design 
in oval form, and in the center of that was a monogram composed 
of the initial letters R. B., an emblem of mutual love. The sleeves 
were also ornamented with modest flowers wrought, not with 
beads, but with silk thread of various colors. Such was the dress 
made for a savage girl, — the native of a wilderness where the 
name of God had never been heard until a short time before and 
of whose attributes she knew nothing. For some reason her 
superior form and features were so cast by the God whom she 
did not know, that the light that irradiated them from within was 
the handiwork of the same GREAT FIRST CAUSE ; 

"Who rules and regulates 

And guides this vast machine. 
And governs wills, and times and fates — 
Retires and works unseen." 

The dress being completed Mrs. Moore and Ruth made a formal 
visit to Adabor. They found Banna alone, and she received them 
with gladness. However, they soon noticed that she became a 
little disconcerted because her hair was again without a wave, 


and for the first time she discovered that her white friends were 
astonished at the change. When the glittering merino garment 
was spread before the wondering girl, she was so nervous by 
emotions perhaps unknown to the tutored mind, that she sat 
down and wept like a child. There in the deep umbrageous soli- 
tudes of nature, far away from the strife and turmoil of stren- 
uous human life, followed a touching scene. Both visitors kneel- 
ed at the weeping girl, and placing their arms upon her shoulders 
and their heads against her heaving breast, the trio wept together 
— one in grateful remembrance of her friends, the others in deep 
sympathy with her sweet, sensitive nature. 

When restored to a normal condition Ruth dressed Banna's 
hair, and a delicate piece of net-work consisting of braids and 
curious plaits was the result. But the artist's fingers trembled 
as she deftly manipulated the long black tresses — she could see 
and even feel the waves returning. 

"Eureka! I have found it!" exclaimed Mrs. Moore who was 
watching the waves as they came into view slowly. "Found 
what?" the artist asked anxiously. "That her hair changes when 
it comes in close contact with people of her own race. Such has 
been the case every time that either of us has been near her; 
another proof that she is not an aboriginee of this country." 
"I am," said Ruth, "more than half convinced that you are right; 
but why does our touch produce such a curious result?" "Tell 
me why the saw-brier and many other plants close their leaves 
when we touch them? A touch often means more than we can 
understand. At least one astronomer has said that if we could 
touch a star it would fly out of its orbit. But to be plain, I can 
not answer your question. While a truth is revealed, the mystery 
deepens. The why must go unanswered." 

The bright girl knew that her hair was the subject of conversa- 
tion, and she was embarrassed; but the smiles and kisses of Ruth 
caused her great luminous eyes to look upon her friends as charm- 
ingly as before. 

The fit of the new dress was perfect. As Mrs. Moore finished 
adjusting the skirt she stepped back and said, "Oh, that brother 


could see you now ! You are so radiantly beautiful. I never be- 
fore felt the full force of Gray's musical lines — 

" 'Full many a gem of purest ray serene, 

The dark unfathomed caves of ocean bear — 
Full many a flower is born to blush unseen, 
And waste its sweetness on the desert air!' " 

A deep silence followed this quotation from Gray's Elegy, be- 
cause the scene was really impressive. At last Ruth said, ' ' Though 
she bloomed in a desert we intend to transfer her to a garden, 
where tender hands and loving hearts will cultivate the rare 
flower until she blooms afresh in Heaven." 

As Banna did not understand half what was said in reference 
to her, she looked bewildered; and to change the current of her 
thoughts, Ruth presented her with a toilet set, consisting of a 
small mirror, comb, brush and a few other articles. She was 
shown how to use them, and for the first time, saw herself in a 
looking-glass. Hitherto she had seen her own image only as re- 
flected by the smooth water of the Tishmaugu just before it went 
tumbling over the shoals. 

Perhaps that was the only way mother Eve ever saw her fair 
face, and as to that matter, father Adam, too. Yet they lived a 
long time. Having studied the toilet articles one by one, the girl 
began to realize the worth of her pale-face sister, and said 
thoughtfully, ''I do what for things so good, so pretty?" Ruth 
knew what she meant, and hastened to inform her that all was 
the gift of love and that nothing would be received in payment. 
She looked astonished and clasped both visitors in her arms say- 
ing, "Will have little gift, you?" 

When told that a small present would be received, not in pay- 
ment, but as a token of love, she produced a roll of coarse grass 
cloth which contained several pairs of moccasins made of beaver 
skin with the fur on. They were lined with the same soft and 
pliant material. Around the tops were single rows of small sea 
shells evidently from a distant shore. The workmanship was neat 
and substantial, and the shape much the same as shoes of that 
day, that is to say, they were not "rights and lefts." Having 


selected pairs of proper size, the ladies received the gifts with 
sincere thankfulness. They represented them as warm and pleas- 
ant to the feet, and wearing them on rare occasions only they 
kept them as long as they lived. It may be interesting to know 
that these moccasins were exhibited in a Lapsidalian basket at a 
county fair held at Jefferson in 1835, when Gen. David M. Burns 
was chairman, and William Gathright, secretary. 

While selecting the moccasins Umausauga made his appearance 
with bow and arrows in one hand and a turkey in the other. As 
he surveyed his daughter in her new attire his huge frame began 
to tremble, but there was no frown on his tawny brow. Riveting 
his keen and restless black eyes upon her, he continued to gaze 
until, sinking lower and lower, he sat sprawling on the floor. 
When tired of his comical position he gave one of his native 
grunts and began to walk from side to side of the wigwam. His 
demeanor satisfied the anxious guests that he was proud of the 
wonderful transformation of his daughter, but strange to say, 
was actually afraid of the looking-glass. 

Having fully accomplished their mission the ladies left with 
the understanding that Banna should visit them at Fort Strong 
two days hence. 

On the morning of the day appointed for the Indian girl's visit, 
several ladies were assembled at the humble but well-supplied 
home of Abednego Moore. 

"What," asked Mrs. Moore, "shall we give our guest for dinner 
to-day?" "I do not know," answered Ruth, after some reflec- 
tion, "what Banna likes best, but she had two broiled fishes for 
luncheon at Calamit the other day. She beats corn in a mortar 
and makes hominy in an earthen pot. When last with her I 
noticed a sort of mug full of honey comb, and a ham of dried 
venison near by it. With these hints I suggest that you and 
mother spread such a dinner as you think best." 

Everything at Talasee was done methodically. Nothing of gen- 
eral importance was attempted without a two-thirds majority of 
both men and women. This concert of action made the little 
colony strong in purpose and ready in execution. Ruth's sug- 
gestion was accepted by all, and everything went on smoothly. 


Alborak soon carried his mistress to Adabor where she found 
Banna a little excited but ready to return with her. When called, 
Iro trotted near, and the girls rode to the shoals where they met 
a delegation of ladies to bid their coming guest a hearty wel- 
come. Umausauga had been selected to accompany the party; but 
for some reason declined the invitation. 

As soon as the opposite bank was gained Banna leaped from her 
saddle and embraced in turn each of the three ladies present as 
if she had been a long-absent daughter. A formal introduction 
followed, and when Iro's saddle had been regained as easily as it 
had been left, Mrs. Easley, who was a lady of culture and refine- 
ment, said : 

"0 Letty ! did you see the deep red blood playing hide and seek 
in her cheeks as she threw her arms around us? Why has such 
a gem been so long concealed in these dark and gloomy forests?" 

"For the present echo only answers why. By and by we may 
know the reason," replied Mrs. Moore thoughtfully. 

Having arrived in front of the Moore residence, Leon Shore, as 
previously arranged, approached, and taking Ruth by the hand 
she lightly leaped to the ground. Josiah Strong and Banna at 
once followed the example, and together the pairs walked into the 
house. The Indian girl, as her escort still more than half be- 
lieved her to be, had shown herself an apt scholar and a ready 
imitator as well. 

Now a great relief was at hand. Mr. Strong could speak the 
Creek language almost as well as Banna herself. He had indulged 
in many a blissful thought which he hoped to enjoy while teach- 
ing her English, and was almost sorry that she could already 
speak some words as fluently as he could, though she did not know 
just how to arrange them. To remedy this defect, he finally decided, 
would be more pleasant than teaching the words, and so his future 
prospects grew brighter and brighter as they hastily passed before 
his mental vision. 

If he loved her under as unfavorable conditions as when he 
first saw her at Snodon, what were his emotions now that she was 
at his side as a guest, arrayed in the most elegant style of the 
times? He became lost in wondering thoughts and audibly mut- 


tered: "More than a butterfly has come from a golden chrysa- 

Finally glancing at the braided, plaited network of hair that 
served so well to show the outlines of her symmetrical shoulders, 
he discovered that it was as full of graceful waves as his own was 
of turning, twisting curls. Hitherto he had thought that his sister 
and Kuth were mistaken. He knew that his own hair was change- 
able — that the curls were more profuse in damp than in dry 
weather — but he had never heard of hers changing that way. This 
together with the fact that a crimson blush played over her face 
when he first gave her his hand, was enough to convince him that 
his sister was right. But before making a final decision he con- 
cluded to learn if he could whether Indian girls in common blush- 
ed or not. The truth was that for some reason he did not want 
to believe that Banna the Beautiful was not "a native to the 
manor born." 

Of course the stranger girl did not know just how to meet the 
new conditions by which she was surrounded; but the constant 
attention of all present and the readiness with which she learned 
and understood anything presented to her mind helped her won- 
derfully. When she found that Mr. Strong could speak her lan- 
guage fluently, her eyes sparkled with delight, and to all appear- 
ance she greatly enjoyed her visit. When he asked her if she 
rememberd seeing him at Snodon sometime before, she quickly 
looked at his head, as if to prove his identity by the missing lock 
of hair pulled out by the rude Indian boy, and with some con- 
fusion answered, "YES." 

A general conversation followed in which Mr. Strong found 
that his visitor was anxious to learn all she could of the English 
language and that she was willing for him to become her teacher. 
Thus the day passed away pleasantly, and a little before sundown 
Mr. Strong escorted the Guest of the Colony to her secluded home 
amid the great spreading trees just over the river. The promises 
of his sister and friend had been redeemed. 


The Identity of Banxa Mar De Vedo Is Found Out. 

About sixteen years before the beginning of our narrative a war 
broke out between the Cherokee and Upper Creek Indians. The 
former claimed territory as far south as the Tishmaugu, and the 
latter as far north and east as the Lacoda Trail,* which was nearly 
identical with the present Athens and Clarkesville road. Their 
first engagement was at Numerado, near the confluence of Hur- 
ricane Creek and Etoho river above Hurricane Shoals. Amer- 
cides, apparently an Indian with a Greek name, was leader of the 
Cherokees, and as gallant a brave as ever drew the bow. He rode 
a white horse and dashed from place to place as if trained on the 
battlefields of Europe. 

Talitchlechee, commander of the Creeks, saw the mistake, and 
placing himself at a favorable point awaited the expected oppor- 
tunity. It soon came and the Creek buried his tomahawk in the 
gallant leader's side. When the white horse was seen running 
riderless through the forest of Numerado, the Cherokees began to 
retreat. But soon the scene changed. Elancydyne, the wife or as 
she was generally called, the queen of Amercides, committing a 
small child that she was holding in her arms to the care of an 
attendant, mounted the riderless horse and at once took com- 
mand. She was greeted by a yell from the Cherokees that echoed 
and re-echoed up and down the river and forward and back 
across the valley. Soon the air was thick with flying arrows and 
whizzing tomahawks. 

The conflict deepened and the battle .raged on. The commander 
was more cautious than her fallen lord, but rode unflinchingly in 
the face of every danger. At last the Creeks, finding their ranks 
so fatally thinned, retreated hastily. Another yell — this time the 

*It was our pleasure to follow this old trail, last summer, to Tallulah 
Falls. Just a few miles this side of Clarkesville it "forks." One branch 
extending northwest leads into the noted Nacoochee country. The other 
branch, leading on through Clarkesville, Turnerville and the Tallulah 
country. — Ed. 


yell of victory, reverberated over the hills, and the heroine of the 
day, forgetting all things else, hastened to see if her child was 
safe. She found it sleeping soundly in the arms of her attendant, 
who, to shield the babe from harm, had received an arrow deeply 
in her own shoulder. Her name was Yetha, and though the 
wound was thought to be fatal, she lived to be very old. 

Soon a band of young warriors gathered around the queen, and 
carrying her over the battlefield, in grim mockery introduced her 
to the fallen Creeks as their conqueror — their beautiful Elancy- 

Elated with their decisive victory the Cherokees considered the 
country conquered territory as far as they claimed and began a 
march across it to take formal possession. In the meantime, how- 
ever, the Creeks had received substantial recruits, and Talitch- 
lechee being a wily old chief of long experience, the enterprise 
was doubtful. His enemy, still led by what her followers con- 
sidered their invincible new queen, moved slowly and cautiously 
forward until they reached the verge of the plateau which dips to 
Cold Spring, then known as Radoata, near the John Harrison old 
place, where they met Talitchlechee in command of a larger force 
than at Numerado. 

The Creeks gave the gage of battle and soon the engagement 
became general. Though queen Elancydyne showed that she was 
a skillful and fearless leader, she was finally overcome by num- 
bers, and by a master piece of strategy made a flank movement, 
and going still forward, camped that night at Arharra on the 
plain where Prospect Church now stands and within hearing of 
the waters of the Tishmaugu, the object of her expedition. This 
singular movement on the part of an enemy who had shown such 
consummate skill so puzzled Talitchlechee that he hesitated to 
offer battle as he had done at Radoata. The next morning, how- 
ever, an accident brought on a general engagement with varying 
success. This continued at intervals until noon when the Creek 
chief sent Umausauga, one of his trusted braves, to conceal a num- 
ber of expert bowmen in the branches of some spreading trees that 
grew in an adjacent forest. Late in the afternoon the conflict 
again became general. 


Elancydyne on her white horse led the van, and her example 
so inspired her followers that they gave another deafening yell 
and rushed forward to engage at close quarters; but the Creeks 
retreated in the direction of the concealed bowmen. Again the 
Cherokee queen was in the thickest of the fray and soon fell from 
her horse pierced by many bristling arrows. The wail of lament, 
''Onocowah, Onocowah!" rising from the field of carnage, dis- 
heartened the Cherokees, and they in turn sullenly retreated to 
the north, tenderly carrying their fallen queen with them. If she 
had survived the battle it is difficult to say what would have been 
the result. 

About the time of the arrival of the second party of emigrants 
at Talasee, various rumors reached Umausauga, and through him 
the colony, that the Cherokees were preparing to return to the 
country and wreak vengeance upon their enemies for their disas- 
trous defeat at Arharra. Umausauga at once notified the leaders 
of this people of the threatened danger, and the colonists im- 
mediately began building a fort. When completed it was a large, 
substantial building, and in honor of the man who had worked al- 
most every day and night in the interest of the colony, it was 
named Fort Strong. 

About the same time Fort Yargo* was built at a place of that 
name about three miles southwest of Winder, the old Jug Tavern. 
Strange to say, Fort Yargo is still standing in a good state of pres- 
ervation. Though first in Franklin and next in Jackson; it is 
now in Walton County; and having seen the coming and going 
of three generations, it is a heavy old land-mark which does not 
receive the attention it deserves. 

Notwithstanding the number of brave, strong men belonging to 
the colony, Banna the Beautiful, and Ruth Lahgoon the Lovely, 
were appointed scouts to patrol the surrounding country. All 

*0n January 24th, 1914, the Editor visited this old fort and found it in 
good state of preservation. It is now used as a dwelling house for tenants 
by Mr. T. M. Wages, the owner. In cutting out the doors and windows 
preparatory for a dwelling most of the "port holes" were cut away but 
on the side next to the spring is one about 4 inches by 10 inches. This place 
is only a short distance from Carter Hill church, near the Winder and 
Loganville road. 


the men were needed for heavy work; besides none were better 
than these two brave and skillful riders. A few days of instruction 
by Mr. Strong had enabled them to converse with each other read- 
ily, and they had become equal experts with the rifle. They gen- 
erally went together and always in hearing of each other. As a 
protection to the women and children, the dogs, Pyth and Damon, 
were left at home. Both wore deerskin clothing, made to fit close- 
ly, and jaunty little caps of the same material from which gener- 
ally fluttered a short black ribbon. They carried comparatively 
light rifles, long knives in steel scabbards hung from their sad- 
dles, and on the left breast of each the hilt of a deadly stiletto 
was just visible. 

Thus equipped, and mounted on Alborak and Iro, these scouts 
fearlessly roamed the forests infested with dangerous wild beasts 
and sometimes with wilder men. They met with many adven- 
tures, some of which it is necessary to give here. 

One day when they had been riding a little apart about one 
mile to the north, they, by previous agreement, met at a spring 
then called Alotha, but since known as the Bell spring. It is still 
a copious fountain, and its crystal waters are always inviting. 

Banna was last to arrive, and leaping to the ground as was 
her custom, a shell fell from a pocket in her dress. The string 
around it was broken by the fall, the parts separated, and a jet 
black lock of curly hair was revealed to Ruth's wondering gaze, 
Mrs. Moore's mystery was solved at last. The disconcerted girl 
blushed as her companion had never seen her blush before. She 
did not wonder that Josiah Strong was enchanted when he saw 
those dark-hued cheeks mantled with a deep rosy tint as if bor- 
rowed from a sunset cloud. When Ruth looked at her and smiled 
pleasantly the bewildered girl made a clean-breast of the matter 
by saying in substance : 

"That lock of hair was taken from Josiah Strong's head by a 
mean Indian boy at Snodon, When he threw it away I took pos- 
session of it and intend to keep it as long as I live. When I am 
buried I want it left lying on my breast. For this reason only I 
now reveal the secret." 


That was indeed a pathetic confession, and Ruth knew it was an 
honest one. She was a very bright girl, and felt that the senti- 
ments expressed in it were not born in a savage breast. In- 
dependently of all she had hitherto seen and heard, she was now 
fully convinced that her dear friend, Banna the Beautiful, was 
not an Indian. 

Ruth reported her wonderful discovery to Mr. Strong and his 
sister only. To the brother it seemed evident proof that the girl 
who so highly valued a lock of his hair had loved him from the 
first as he had her. In happy reverie he said : 

"Surely God has not decreed that two such streams should flow 
in different directions; and though the race question has nothing 
to do with my feelings, I am now convinced, as Ruth was, that 
Banna the Beautiful is not an Indian." Mrs. Moore was glad of 
the conversion of her brother and Ruth to her belief, and to more 
fully confirm them in it she said : 

"Allow me to remind you that our Savior knew all about the 
laws of nature. When speaking of good and bad trees and of 
their fruits he said, 'Of thorns men do not gather figs, nor of a 
bramble bush gather they grapes.' The teaching is as applicable 
to Banna as it is to a tree and its fruit. Jesus of Nazareth made 
no mistakes." 

When the rumor of a Cherokee invasion reached the country 
Umausauga, to the great surprise of the colonists, placed his 
daughter under the protection' of the whites. No proposition was 
ever more gladly accepted; and now that all were fully satisfied 
that she was really not his child, the council met and passed the 
following preamble and resolution unanimously : 

"Whereas, a discovery has been made which fully satisfies this 
colony that Banna, hitherto known as the daughter of our friend, 
Umausauga, the Indian, does not belong to his race : 

"Resolved, That Miss Ruth Lahgoon, a member of this body, is 
hereby appointed to inform the said Banna of the discovery made, 
and direct that she do so at such time and in such manner as 
she may deem proper. 

"J. Josiah Strong, Presiding. 

"Orpah Lahgoon, Secretary." 


On the morning following the above-mentioned meeting the 
scouts crossed the river and rode to the west. As Ruth had for- 
merly traveled in that direction, she knew that the country was 
rough and infested with dangerous animals. Therefore they rode 
near together, generally in single file, without meeting with any- 
thing unusual until they reached the lower water of Taurulaboole 
(Beech) creek. There as they entered the dense forest that skirt- 
ed its banks, they discovered a little path which led to a cluster of 
tall reeds that grew on a knoll a short distance from the stream. 
Following the path they soon reached a curious structure almost 
hidden by the reeds which grew close to its walls. As they went 
near an opening which seemed to serve the purpose of a door, a 
wizen-faced old man made his appearance at the opening with a 
small bundle of split reeds in his hand. He had never seen two such 
beings before, and as they approached nearer he disappeared in 
the hut. However, when Banna told him in his own language that 
no harm was intended, an old squaw came to the door cautiously. 
She brought a half finished basket in one hand and an old, rusty 
tomahawk in the other. She was hideous in appearance and evi- 
dently much older than the man. Her skin appeared to be dry 
on her bones, her great butter-teeth showed outside her thin, 
tightly drawn lips, and a tuft of hair, much like the foretop of a 
horse, fell straggling over her tawny brow. Banna at once recog- 
nized her as Lapsidali, a basket maker whom she had sometimes 
seen at Adabor. 

Having long gazed with critical eyes at the girls and their 
horses, she laid down her basket and tomahawk on the ground and 
went nearer. When apparently satisfied that there was no danger, 
she went still nearer and patted Iro on the forehead. Ceasing to 
caress the horse, she looked up and carefully scanned his rider's 
features. Then she went backwards several steps, and placing 
both hands on her angular hips, she stood with a far-away look as 
if lost in some over-powering thought. Being unable to close her 
lips, they twitched over her great scurvy-eaten teeth as if talking 
to herself. Finally she suddenly turned and called to the little 
old man who was still in the hut, and said in substance: 


"Onomaco, this girl on white horse is certainly Banna. Lives at 
Adabor, I have seen her there. But she has been changed to 
butterfly. That's to keep Cherokees from knowing her. Two 
white horses. Two queens, too. This white horse like Adar. The 
other on black horse is pale face. Lives at Shoals. Flies through 
the air. Spirit floats up and down river every night. No harm 
in her. Come out here." 

The old hag advanced to pat the black horse also. Somehow 
Alborak refused to be petted by her, and throwing back his ears, 
he gave a short, vicious snip at her arm. The old woman snatched 
up her tomahawk, and her movements indicated that she intended 
to throw it at the horse's head. Quick as thought the muzzle of 
a rifle was thrust in her face. Perhaps she did not know just what 
that meant, but at the click of the lock she fled into the hut and 
crouched beyond a pile of baskets. 

When confidence was restored, the scouts examined the hut as 
a matter of curiosity. It was about ten feet square and some six 
feet high. Poles were set in the ground from ten to twelve inches 
apart, and the spaces between them were filled with slender wil- 
low branches, basket fashion. The outside was roughly daubed 
with whitish clay mortar which seemed to be hard and endurable. 
The roof was composed of several layers of wahoo bark which was 
held in place by large balls of the white clay mortar. As the two 
solitary inhabitants were found to be wickiups, that is, cane basket 
makers, the place was doubtlessly selected because of the dense 
canebrake that grew in the vicinity, and was called Boca, the 
Creek word for cane. 

The hut contained quite a number of finished baskets, and it 
was amazing to see with what wonderful skill they were made. 
Onomaco split and dressed the cane, and Lapsidali, his sister, 
colored and wove the material, but never in the presence of 
another. The brilliant colors produced by her methods did not 
fade, and though many efforts were made to learn her secret, the 
old jade died without revealing it. 

In the early part of the last century these baskets were fre- 
quently seen in the possession of the settlers, and were called Lap- 
sidalian baskets. Before leaving Boca the scouts made an ear- 


nest effort to induce Lapsidali to explain what she meant in her 
talk to Omonaco about Banna. She however shook her head and 
replied, "Lapsidali talk to Onomaco, not to young squaws." 

Being bothered about the ambiguous expressions of the old 
woman, they resolved to return home immediately and make 
their report. Both were silent for a time; but Ruth, deeming 
the opportunity favorable for telling her companion of the dis- 
coveries made in regard to her race, decided to use it. She began 
by calling the astonished girl's attention to what she had just 
heard at the hut concerning herself, the Cherokees, the two 
white horses and the two queens. She then went over all the 
circumstances which had convinced Mrs. Moore, Mr. Strong and 
finally the whole colony, that she did not have one drop of Indian 
blood in her veins, and concluded by saying: "I have seen enough 
myself to prove that you have the same white blood beating in 
your heart that is beating in mine. You may be of foreign descent 
partly ; but if you are, it comes from white ancestors whose blood 
shows in all their descendants the world over, and Banna, I 
am unable to tell you how glad I am!" 

Ruth threw her arms around her trembling friend, and to- 
gether they wept a long time. At last when the still trembling 
girl was a little composed she said in substance: "I have some- 
times wondered why all around me was so different from myself. 
I have always thought Umausauga my father. He is good to me 
and has never failed to treat me kindly. I have noticed that 
other fathers make slaves of their daughters, while he treats me 
as a queen. I have never before been able to understand why 
this is so. I have never known but one other exception, and that 
is the case of a girl who lives at Snodon. Her name is Mera, and 
I want you to visit her, for both she and her mother are very 
lovely. Mother! Mother! How sweet and endearing the word! 
O, that I could know something of mine ! The name must be of 
some akin to the Heaven of which you and your people so often 
tell me. Somehow your strange revelations make me feel like 
one world had gone and another had come. Must I give up all 
to gain more? I know not what to say or do!" "No! no!" re- 
plied Ruth vehemently, "you need not give up all you have. You 

need not give up the man to whom you owe so much ! We will 
take you both under our protection for life. You have nothing 
to fear, but much for which you will some day thank God and 
be glad." 

In the midst of their conversation the scouts reached home, 
and all the colonists, finding that Banna had been informed of 
her true position in society, came to encourage her upon entering 
a new life. This was of vast benefit to the bewildered girl, and 
perhaps saved her from miserable depths of despondency and 
gloom. To change the training of a lifetime is doubtless a hard 
thing to do. 

That night the council met, and with unusual interest listened 
to Ruth Lahgoon's report. The following extract from the pro- 
ceedings of the meeting was copied from the original document 
more than sixty years ago : 

"Whereas, the various allusions made in the presence of our 
scouts by Lapsidali, the squaw, to the Cherokees, the white horses 
and the queens, may mean something of much importance to this 
colony : 

"Resolved, That Josiah Strong is hereby directed to inter- 
view the said Lapsidali, and obtain such information as he can 
about these matters; that Joseph Starr shall visit our sister 
colonies at Yamacutah and Groaning Rock ; and that Abel Trent 
visit Fort Yargo, to secure an alliance with said colonies, assure 
them of our assistance at any time needed, and obtain such other 
information as may pertain to our interest. 

"And be it further Resolved, That the Indian, Umausauga, and 
his hitherto supposed daughter, Banna, be solicited to become 
citizens of this colony and members of this council ; and that the 
discovery made in regard to the unknown parentage of the latter 
be revealed to the former when the present unsettled state of the 
country passes away. 

' ' Signed, 

"Richard Easley, President. 
"Martha Easley, Secretary." 

Early on the following morning Starr and Trent started on 
their respective missions. In the afternoon Strong visited the 
curious hut among the reeds. To his great disappointment not 
a vestige of either its inhabitants or of their work was to be 
seen. He continued his visits for several days in succession, and 
always with the same result. 

As the deserted abode seemed to have been in use several 
years, the solution of another mystery awaited the anxious colo- 
nists. The faithful scouts roamed on foot about the shoals nearly 
all the day carrying rifles in their hands. Poor Banna, having 
passed a sleepless night, was tossed upon a sea of conflicting 
emotions; dreams of the wilderness fleeting like a shadow to the 
realities of a new life of which she knew almost nothing. Whith- 
er should she go? Which way should she turn? Many brave 
young warriors of the upper Creek Nation, including him of the 
jaw-breaking name, had fallen at her feet and sued for her heart 
and hand. Though she knew not the reason why the pulsations 
of her heart did not beat in unison with them, she felt a reason, 
and loved them not. Her sensitive soul, ethereal as the passing 
zephyr and as invisible as the germ of the delicate violet, longed 
for something more refined that any of them could offer. A drop 
of oil in mid-ocean will not mix with any of its multitudinous 
waves. Being utterly unable to catch even a passing glimpse of 
what her future life should probably be, she instinctively drew 
the polished shell from her bosom, kissed it, and then slowly 
returned the dear souvenir to its long resting place. A smile as 
if a flood of sunshine had poured from an over-hanging cloud 
played over her features for a moment, and then as thoughts of 
the strange past and the uncertain future came to her mind, she 
sadly joined her companion who was gathering wild flowers 
some distance away. 

Being a little weary the girls went to the shoals, and seeing a 
nice clean rock a few feet from the bank, they leaped upon it, 
and in a reclining position watched the water as it went rippling 
by them. Presently a large fish, in water so shallow that its dor- 
sal fins were in plain view, came hurrying by without any ap- 
parent effort, and quickly disappeared in the deeper water be- 


low. "Like that fish I know not whither I am drifting," said 
Banna thoughtfully. "Dear, please don't say that," replied 
Ruth anxiously. "Any fish" she continued with much earnest- 
ness, "can float with the current; but it takes a splendid moun- 
tain trout to scale the rapids and strike for higher latitudes and 
purer waters. You, with ten thousand times the advantage of 
any fish, may do likewise. Should you meet with any difficul- 
ties on the way, as did the fish when it struck the shallow water, 
I know of a strong arm, a willing mind, and a devoted heart that 
will always be ready to help you overcome them." 

The girl did not reply at once. She was trying to understand 
the meaning of her friend. Finally she asked, "Where, where 
shall I find such help as that?" "Josiah Strong, a lock of whose 
hair you now carry in your bosom, is the man! I know that he 
loves you, and only you, devotedly, and is longing for an oppor- 
tunity to tell you so." The surprised girl covered her face with 
both hands, and after rocking back and forth for awhile, turned 
her beautiful, tearful eyes upon her companion, and in trembling 
tones said : 

"Dear one, may we now go?" They lightly jumped to the 
bank, and arm in arm walked to the fort, where Banna the 
Beautiful, for the first time learned it was to be her future 



The Cherokee Spy. 

In due time Starr and Trent returned from their respective 
missions and made their reports. The latter found that the fort 
Yargo people, though few in number, were well armed and ready 
to come to the aid of Talasee at a moment's warning, and the 
former reported substantially the same of the colonies he visit- 
ed; adding that the citizens of Groaning Rock had some reason 
to believe that a Cherokee spy, going in the direction of Talasee, 
had recently passed through the country. 

In view of the information gained of the probable spy, Richard 
Easley and Phelan Lahgoon, both of whom had seen much hard 
service in active warfare, offered to become additional scouts. 
Accordingly the next morning the men rode to the east and the 
girls to the north with the understanding that the parties were 
to meet at Rodoata (Cold Spring) at such time in the afternoon 
as they could make the junction. 

About noon when the girls were riding across the gentle slope 
on which Crooked Creek church now stands, their horses stop- 
ped and stood listening. Knowing that their hearing was more 
sensitive than their own, the girls remained quiet and anxiously 
awaited the result. Directly they discovered an Indian going in 
the direction of the spring, still there, but not so bold and beau- 
tiful as then. Amazed, both whispered "The Spy!" "The Spy!" 
He was armed with a tomahawk only, and carrying that at his 
left side, they knew him to be a Cherokee. 

Having apparently satisfied himself that no danger was lurk- 
ing near, he fell prostrate at the spring and began to drink. Just 
then, with rifles ready for instant use, the scouts rushed upon 
him with such impetuous dash that the fellow jumped the creek 
near by at one bound and ran to the southeast with incredible 
speed. Thinking they might obtain some valuable information 
from him they did not want to kill him or even wound him unless 
actually necessary. At full speed the girls began the chase at once, 


and the Cherokee, finding that he would soon be overtaken, stop- 
ped suddenly and looked back. Perhaps more through habit than 
design he unfortunately drew his tomahawk from his belt, and 
quick as thought two bullets went crashing through his arm. 
The weapon fell to the ground, and the fellow, finding that it 
was useless to run, suddenly fell with his face to the ground, 
and gave the Cherokee wail of despair "Owocoway!" Then the 
scouts knew that there was no one near who could come to his 

Doubtless the poor Indian thought there was no one to help 
him ; but he was greatly mistaken. Hands far more tender and 
skillful than he had ever known were there and anxious to help 
him. For their own benefit the girls carried a roll of linen band- 
ages, various salves, pins, needles and thread to use in case of 
accidents to which they were almost constantly liable. They 
now found great need of them, and conducting the wounded 
man back to the spring, they dressed his arm, and otherwise 
made him as comfortable as possible. They found that one bullet 
had fractured the arm bone but did not break it, and that the 
other had made a severe flesh wound. Their greatest difficulty 
was to stanch the freely flowing blood ; but by long continued ap- 
plication of cold spring water they finally succeeded. During 
the entire process, which of necessity must have been very pain- 
ful, the Indian did not utter a groan nor speak a word. The 
most distinguishing feature of his conduct was that he seemed 
unable to turn his eyes away from Banna. For some reason he 
was evidently overcome with wonder and amazement. 

When the captive was a little composed the girls leisurely 
conducted him to Talasee and turned him over to Joe Starr and 
Ed Belknap from whom he was not likely to escape. They then 
hastened to Rodoata that the other scouts might find them there 
according to promise. 

Easley and Lahgoon having reached the vicinity of Cherokee 
Corner, turned to the northwest, and crossing Trail and Sandy 
Creeks, reached the plateau upon which Center is now situated, 
without learning anything unusual. There, however, they met 
with a native, who informed them that on the day before, an 


Indian who was supposed to be a Cherokee, had been seen going 
in the direction of Talasee, and that a runner had been sent to 
inform TJmausauga of the discovery. This caused the scouts tu 
hasten homeward, and being well mounted, they soon reached 
the plain beyond Etoho river. There they di&covered the well 
known tracks of Alborak and Iro. Following the still deeper 
and deeper gashes as if made by a furious charge, they came to 
a spring where blood was spattered all over the rocks around 
it. They groaned in despair and frantically called for Ruth and 
Banna. No answer was returned and again they groaned aloud 
and Mr. Lahgoon exclaimed, "0 my God! have the Cherokees 
murdered my precious child and her darling friend?" 

Just then Mr. Easley noticed that the red stains led across the 
adjacent creek. They were quickly followed until a pool of 
clotted blood was reached. Both scouts were unable to speak — 
their hearts seemed to be still. Almost blinded by fear and appre- 
hension, they looked around for further signs. Though confused 
by the great number of tracks made in the soft soil, they finally 
discovered a trail that led back towards the spring. They hur- 
riedly followed the tracks, and reaching the creek, Mr. Easley 
discovered a slip of paper hanging on a bush that grew near the 
spring. To the unspeakable joy of the men there was written 
upon it: 

"Gone home with our prisoner, the spy. He is badly wounded, 
but not fatally. We are not hurt; will meet you in Rodoata in 
due time. Ruth and Banna." 

Both men threw their hats high in the air and gave four lusty 
cheers, — one each in honor of the girls and their horses. With 
supreme satisfaction they rode to Rodoata, and finding Ruth 
and Banna already there, the cheers were repeated, and then 
following a series of whoops so wierd and wild that turkey 
gobblers were heard answering them in the distance. The four 
scouts returned home together; and having so quickly passed 
from mortal fear to very gladness, happier men than Dick Easley 
than Phel. Lahgoon never rode over the hills of Georgia. 

In the meantime Umausauga had been notified of the capture 
of the Cherokee, and at once visited him at Fort Strong. He 


was accompanied by Notha Neva, the runner who had been sent 
to inform him that a stranger had been seen in the country. In 
personal appearance this Indian was far superior to any others 
seen in the country, and while he had the step and the hair pe- 
culiar to the natives, he did not resemble them in any other 

Silent and moody, as if his thoughts were far away, the pris- 
oner refused to speak to any one. That somewhat exasperated 
those who had him in charge, but they patiently awaited the 
action of the council. That body met at an early hour, and for 
the first time Umausauga consented to be present. Notha Neva 
also remained, and the two Indians were offered front seats, but 
refused to accept them. 

The captive occupied a seat near the president, and turning 
his keen black eyes upon vacant space before him, he seemed 
to be utterly oblivious of the presence of others. He did not 
have a bad face, and his brow showed a high order of intellect. 
He was of medium size, but evidently muscular and active. When 
told that he might speak for himself, he placed his wounded arm 
on the palm of his left hand and asked, ''Lodu Huanaco se 
queech?" — May Huanaco talk now? 

The president nodded his head, and the prisoner arose to his 
feet ; but in spite of his stoicism, with manifest pain. It was seen 
by all that his arm was badly swollen and the bandages too 
tight. Ruth and Banna hastened to his relief. 

Umausauga and Notha Neva came near and watched the 
movements of their delicate fingers with almost breathless inter- 
est. Such tenderness and skill were unknown to them. Though 
far above the ordinary savages around them, they knew nothing 
of the glorious mission of a true woman — nothing of the soothing, 
healing touch of her gentle hand — nothing of the angelic spirit 
which warms her breast and makes glad the beatings of a 
wounded heart. 

With eyes wide open and with bated breath the natives watch 
the nimble fingers until the last bandage is reached. It is deep 
in the flesh and tightly held there by dry blood which has to be 
softened by an application of warm water before the cloth can 


be removed. Banna is applying the water. The silent, stoical 
sufferer casts a long, anxious look at her, similar to those given 
while his arm was being dressed at the spring. Suddenly his 
eyes close spasmodically, his whole body trembles, and he 
heavily falls to his knees, exclaiming, "Ouch Elancydyne! 
menurik outic en ma ecindre at survi. Eltrovadyne. " That is, 
Elancydyne, has your spirit come back, or are you the once 
little Eltrovadyne? 

The council was amazed. Umausauga stood speechless, and 
acted as if some great secret of his life was about to be revealed. 
Banna realized that in some way the dramatic scene referred to 
herself. She nestled close to Ruth, and as usual their arms were 
around each other. The captive was lying upon the floor seem- 
ingly but not really unconscious. While in this condition the 
dressing of his arm was completed. The council sympathized 
with the poor fellow and awaited his own action. He had evi- 
dently made some overpowering discovery, and all wanted to 
know the result. 

By and by, when the sufferer began to breathe easily, some of 
the men raised him to his feet, and he was told to go on with his 
talk. He essayed to do so, but did not know what to do with 
his wounded arm and paused to think. While doing so Mrs. 
Easley quickly untied her snow white apron, made a loop that 
fell from his neck upon his breast, and tenderly placed his 
wounded arm in it. Though still suffering his eyes followed the 
kind lady to her seat, a faint smile played over his features for 
a moment as if to thank her, and turning, he made a touching 
talk of which the following is a free translation: 

"My friends. I find friends here. Great and good friends. 
Friends for whom I am ready to give my life." Here he paused 
and pointing his trembling forefinger towards Ruth, Banna and 
Mrs. Easley, he looked around and continued: "I believe there 
are others. To friend and foe alike I want to say I am a Chero- 
kee. My name is Huanaco. I am not a spy. I come to you on a 
mission of peace, though I made a great mistake. I drew my 
tomahawk on the horses, not on their riders. I thought I 
might be run over. Had I not made this mistake I should not 


have been hurt." Again pointing his finger towards the girls, he 
added, "They are too good to willingly hurt others. 

"Friends, many moons ago the Creeks and Cherokees were at 
war. We were led by King Amereides. Pie was a Spanish noble- 
man. For some reason he became one of us. He died for us on 
the bloody field of Numerado. Then his queen took his place. 
She led us to victory. Her name was Elaneydyne. Though of 
pure English blood she was always true to the Cherokees. When 
a very little girl she was washed on shore by the waves of the 
sea. We adopted her and she too became one of us. She grew 
to be so good and beautiful that King Amereides gladly made 
her his queen. She led us from Numerado to other battlefields. 
The Fast was at Arharra near this very place. There, when 
passing under some trees in whose branches bowmen were hid- 
den, she fell mortally wounded. The spirit of the Cherokees 
was broken. We retreated beyond the Etoho. We carried our 
queen's dead body with us. She and Amereides sleep together. 
After the battle we tried to find her little girl. She was the very 
image of her mother. We did not find her. Her name was Eltro- 
vadyne. Until a short time ago we fully believed her to be dead. 
I have been sent to see if she still lives. I think I have found her. 
We want her for a queen. Friends," the Indian continued, 
after a thoughtful pause, "I was once wounded in battle. Queen 
Elaneydyne poured cold water on a great gash in my shoulder. 
Her beautiful eyes looked on in pity. She, whom you call Banna 
gave me just such a look with just such eyes while pouring water 
on my arm to-night. The discovery overcame me. I fell upon 
the floor. I know that was not in keeping with the dignity of a 
warrior. But tell me, tell me, if you can, is Banna, the once 
little queen Eltrovadyne? What shall Huanaco tell his people?" 

The speaker sat down, and with impassive features fixed his- 
eyes on vacant space as when he first entered the fort. Umau- 
sauga was as motionless as a stone pillar. He seemed utterly 
incapable of action, and Banna was lying insensible in Ruth's 
arms. Even the iron-nerved Josiah Strong was deeply moved. 
The contraction of his brow, the compression of his lips, and the 
twitching of his great muscles, showed that some stern resolve 

might soon be made known. Yet he spoke not a word, nor was he 
likely to do so before the climax of what seemed to be coming 
was reached. Banna the Beautiful, though now believed to be 
a princess indeed, was not to be taken from him, not even for a 
throne. Her situation excited the heart-felt sympathy of every 
one present, and the efforts of all were concentrated upon the 
best means to restore her to consciousness. 

By and by, she began to revive, principally through the efforts 
of Mr. Strong who, though not a physician, had once studied the 
science of medicine with a view to practice. The services render- 
ed to his patient in the wilderness was indeed a labor of love. 

When all became quiet, Mr, Moore, the presiding officer that 
night, requested Umausauga to answer, as well as he could, the 
Cherokee's important question as to what he should tell his 
people. Without moving a muscle in his face or changing the 
natural gleam of fire in his eyes, the Indian came to the front 
with a slow, but steady step, and chiefly using the third person 
said, "Umausauga calls you friend, too. You have been good to 
him. In turn he will be good to you. He is glad we are friends. 
He was once the enemy of all white people and of the Cherokees 
too. Was in the battle of Arharra. Was one of the bowmen in 
the tree tops. Does not know who killed queen Elancydyne. 
Knows she was very brave. That her fall ended the battle. That 
he could have prevented her warriors from taking her body away. 
Umausauga would not do that. He fights for the living. Not for 
the dead excepting one time." 

Here the speaker, for a reason that may be discovered as this 
narrative progresses, broke down and stood speechless. Banna, 
still trembling like a stricken child, went and took a seat at his 
side. That seemed to strengthen him. He gently placed one 
hand upon her head and with the other motioned for Ruth to 
come also. She quickly went and sat opposite her friend. 
Placing his free hand on her head, he, this time with a trembling 
voice, continued : ' ' May the God of the white men and the Great 
Spirit of the red man bless you both, and keep you together 
always. Curses on the hand that would violently separate you. 


"Umausauga has committed no crime. After the retreat of the 
Cherokees from Arharrah he was walking over the battle ground. 
He heard a child crying in the distant woods. He could not have 
found the little creature if it had not been crying. It was con- 
cealed by earth, rocks and bushes. A dead woman was lying 
near. An arrow was sticking deep in her breast. The shaft 
was broken. She still held the broken part in her hand. She had 
tried to pull it from her breast. When it broke she died. 

"Umausauga took the crying baby in his arms. It soon be- 
came quiet. He placed it by the side of what he then thought 
was its dead mother. Their features were not at all alike, he 
thought again. He found that the features of the child were 
just the same as the features of the heroic woman who rode the 
white horse. He then believed her to be the child's mother, and 
that the dead woman was its nurse. He has since learned this 
to be true. 

"Umausauga had no heart to leave the little girl to die alone in 
the woods. He carried her to his wigwam. He named her 
Banna. That word means princess. You all know how true she 
is to her name. Now you all know how well she deserves the 
title. As she grew older, he found her very good and very smart. 
He never knew her to do wrong wilfully. He never knew her to 
fail in her work. He never twice told her to do anything. She 
has always been good to him. He has always tried to be good 
to her. Umausauga has often thought of the grand appear- 
ance made by the Cherokee queen on her white horse. He want- 
ed Banna to have one like it. He went all the way to the ocean 
before he found one to suit him. He finally found Iro and pur- 
chased him. He hunted two winters and one summer to get 
skins enough to pay for horse and bridle. Old Lapsidali had 
found a saddle in the woods around Arharra. She did not know 
what it was. Umausauga gave her a handful of beads for it — 
some of the beads he received in payment for Beadland. So 
Banna now had a horse, bridle and saddle. The horse is very 
much like the one ridden by her mother. Doubtless the saddle 
was hers also. 


"Umausauga was so proud that he turned fool enough to tell 
his great secret to old Lapsidali. Until now he has never told 
any one else. He and Banna began to train Iro at once. She 
often went dashing through the woods on his back. He now sees 
how much she looked like queen Elancydyne charging among the 
trees at Arharra." 

Here the Indian again broke down as if lost in painful thought. 
At last he went on: "Brothers, sisters! this trial is too much for 
Umausauga. He here confesses for himself what you already 
know, that Banna is not his daughter! It is worse than death 
to be separated from her. And he here sounds a warning note 
that unless the separation be for some good reason and by her 
consent, somebody must be thrown alive into the boiling, burn- 
ing flames at Nodoroc. " 

Again the speaker stood silent for a few minutes. His eyes 
flashed, his muscles twitched, and giving a deep guttural groan, 
he suddenly turned to Huanaco, and in thunder tones exclaimed 
in Cherokee: "Hear, Huanaco! Having found your lost prin- 
cess, what will you do? Speak! Huanaco, speak!" 

Having uttered the last sentence with terrible emphasis, the 
speaker sat down. The Cherokee was confused; but showed 
himself a good diplomatist. After some hesitation he said, "Since 
the fall of queen Elancydyne the Cherokees have been under a 
chief chosen by themselves. He is a good man and the people 
like him. But he wants to retire from public life. All were 
devoted to Amercides and his queen. We want their daughter, 
our Eltrovadyne and your Banna to be queen of all the Chero- 
kees. It is her birthright. It is our pleasure. Of course her 
consent must be first obtained. No force can be used in this 

"Brothers, I hope you have learned that I am not an enemy as 
you first thought. Lapsidali is the one who told us that our 
lost queen is here. We doubted her word. I have come and find 
that for once she told the truth. But she told it to make trouble 
between us. You have heard that the Cherokees are preparing 
to invade this part of the country again. That is absolutely 
false. The old squaw made the tale out of my appointment to 


come here for a harmless purpose. She eolors truth to suit her- 
self as she does her baskets. 

"Brothers and sisters, we scarcely dared hope to find our lost 
Eltrovadyne. Less did we expect to find her already a queen 
among subjects of her own race. And this complicates the mat- 
ter. Allow me to return home and report to my people. I see 
your Banna is deeply grieved even at the thought of leaving you. 
I am willing to leave the matter to you and to her. I can not 
answer for the Cherokees until I see them. They may be able to 
offer some inducement that will cause you all to change your 
minds. Huanaco is done." 

The scene that followed beggars description. Lost in astonish- 
ment at the strange incidents revealed, and rejoicing over the 
news that the Cherokee invasion was probably a myth, the 
Talasee council was hardly fitted for regular business. However 
after various private conferences it was found that all were 
practically of the same opinion and the following resolutions 
were passed : 

"1st: That thanks of the Talasee council and its friends are 
hereby tendered Huanaco who claims to be a Cherokee on a 
peaceful mission to the Creeks, for his pacific talk to-night, and 
we assure him of our friendship on all proper occasions. 

"2nd: That while we thank the Cherokees for proposing to 
make one of our members their reigning queen, we, by her full 
consent, most respectfully decline to accept the honor offered. 

"3rd: That the guard is hereby instructed to release the said 
Huanaco from custody, and allow him to return to his people at 
such time as suits him. 

"4th: That we thank our scouts for the faithful and efficient 
manner in which they performed their duty by arresting and 
bringing to headquarters a supposed spy. 

"5th: That we regret the said Huanaco 's mistake which led 
our scouts to wound him, but attach no blame to them. On the 
contrary they showed the highest order of skill and bravery as 
well as sound judgment in their actions. 


"6th: That while we gladly receive the news that the rumor 
of a Cherokee invasion is false, we will not for one moment relax 
our viligence to protect this colony and its friends. 

"7th: That we think the thanks of the whole civilized world 
is due our friend Uraausauga, for the kind manner in which he 
took care of the little child that he found in the woods, and for 
his faithfulness to her from that time to the present moment. 
And we further believe that as the anointing of our Savior's feet 
at Bethany has become a universal memorial of the woman who 
performed the gracious deed, that also the kindness shown by 
an untaught savage of the wilderness to a stranger, should be told 
for a memorial of him to all men. 

"8th: That because of the unfaithfulness of Lapsidali, the 
basket maker, as shown by the betrayal of Umausauga's confi- 
dence, and by the circulation of false reports in regard to a 
Cherokee invasion, she is hereby declared to be a traitor of this 
Colony, to Umausauga and his people. 


"Abednego Moore, Pres. 

"Orpah Lahgoon, Sec." 

Much apprehension of coming danger had been removed, and 
a free conversation followed. Still Banna's face was sad. She 
seemed to be whirling in a circle of unknown circumference. 
She was arrayed in her wonderful red dress over which her now 
constantly wavy hair hung in graceful tresses to her waist. Un- 
der the tutilage of Ruth and others, her manners, never coarse, 
had become graceful and easy. At her own request she was car- 
ried to Huanaco who manifested some courtliness and much em- 
barrassment. The following is a free translation, in a condensed 
form, of the conversation between them : 

"Huanaco, I am Banna whose name you say in Eltrovadyne. I 
must first tell you that if we had known you were not a spy, we 
would not have hurt you for all the world. We ask you to for- 
give us." 

"Eltrovadyne, you and your friend are forgotten. Huanaco has 
a heart." 


"We thank you. Now please tell us what Eltrovadyne 

"Glittering Star. Huanaco thinks you are one of them," re- 
plied the Indian as he pointed towards the stars. 

"0 Huanaco, my friends here tell me of a home beyond the 
stars, where all the truly good shall live forever in a home not 
made by hands, eternal in the heavens ! I have learned to take 
a few steps in that direction. If for no other reason I should not 
want to leave my teachers. They can show me how to travel the 
pathway which leads to life eternal, where there is fullness of 
joy and pleasures evermore ! They tell me of a Savior who came 
from beyond the stars — from a place they call Heaven, to seek 
and to save that which was lost ! I want him to find Eltrovadyne. 
If I go to the Cherokees no one will point me out to him! My 
friends here do that. They call it prayer. They talk to the 
Savior in prayer. They sometimes call him Jesus and talk to him 
every day. They read or talk about him in a book they call the 
Bible. It is curious to think that a book can talk to you. I am 
beginning to learn how it is done. I already know the words. 
They call them letters like a, b, c. I can put a few of them to- 
gether now and make long words — words like we use when talk- 
ing. Then too, I am beginning to learn how to talk on paper, 
or on anything that will hold a mark. They call it writing. I 
can write my name now. I say B-a-n-n-a. I can not write 
Eltrovadyne. It contains too many words or letters. But now 
that I can speak the word I can soon learn how to make the 
letters talk it. They call that spelling. This is curious and I 
long to know more about it. Then, Huanaco, the Cherokees 
must not want to take me away!" 

In mute astonishment the Indian gazed upon her radiant face 
until he almost ceased to breathe. After a little while he turned 
his eyes away, and, as if talking to himself, muttered in a deep 
undertone, "It is right for Eltrovadyne to remain here! I wish 
Huanaco had never seen her! There is a dark-eyed maiden at 
Stonethrow who had all my heart. Glittering Star takes it away 
from her! Hush! Hush! Huanaco! Glittering Star is a pale- 


face ! That ends all ! To-morrow Huanaco goes to Stonethrow ! 
Back to his dark-eyed Thespe!" 

"Talk to Eltrovadyne," said Banna, wishing to turn the cur- 
rent of the Indian's thoughts. "Please tell me what Elancydyne 
means?" "Shooting Star," answered the Cherokee slowly, and 
again pointing upward, continued, "When Elancydyne was a 
little girl a Cherokee brave took her from a sinking ship in time 
of a storm, and the waves brought them both to shore. Later she 
ran about from one camp-fire to another so fast, and was so very, 
very bright and beautiful, that she was called Elancydyne or 
Shooting Star. Our old men said her clothes showed that she was 
the child of an English nobleman. She was very white with 
features just like yours. her eyes ! your eyes, Eltrovadyne ! 
How can I leave; but hush, Huanaco! Thespe still speaks!" 

"May Eltrovadyne ask a few more questions?" The Indian 
nodded his head, and sat with eyes cast down as if to avoid the 
heart-breaking battery that was turned upon him. "What does 
Amercides mean?" asked the girl tremulously. "Don't know," 
was the thoughtful reply. ' ' When your father first came among 
the Cherokees he was known as Don Mar de Vedo, of the royal 
family of Spain. Huanaco don't remember all about it. He 
was then young. Something like CID was connected with his 
name. When he was made king his subjects were required to 
call him Amercides. So Cid was still a part of his name." 

"Has Eltrovadyne any brothers and sisters among the Chero- 
kees?" asked Banna anxiously. The Indian shook his head only, 
and the girl ventured to ask him one more question: "Do yon 
know where my father and mother are buried, and if so will 
you show me the place sometime?" "Huanaco knows. He will 
show you," was the thoughtful reply. 

The troubled girl covered her face with her hands, and weep- 
ing bitterly, she and Ruth Lahgoon bade the Cherokee farewell 
and disappeared. 



A Number of New Emigrants Arrive. 

On the morning following the memorable meeting of the 
Talasee council in which Banna unexpectedly learned much of 
her early history, her saddle was identified by Huanaco as the 
same on which queen Elancydyne rode over the battlefields of 
Numerado, Radoata and Arharra. He said he distinctly re- 
membered it as a gift from Amercides to his queen, and that the 
first journey made upon it was her ride from Shaultamoozaw 
(Black Creek church) to Yamtramahoochee (Hurricane Shoals) 
just before the battle of Numerado. Thus the parentage of the 
bright girl long known as Umausauga's daughter was established 
to the satisfaction of herself and her friends ; and the declaration 
of Mrs. Moore that she did not have a drop of Indian blood in her 
was fully verified. Consequently her name was at once enrolled 
upon the records of Talasee council as Banna Mar de Vedo, the 
first name being retained because of its well-known significance. 

By request Notha Neva accompanied Huanaco to Stonethrow, 
with secret instructions to learn all he could as to the intentions 
of the Cherokees and report accordingly. Though quite a num- 
ber of new emigrants was constantly expected, the people did 
not want any further trouble, and therefore were anxious to 
know what effect Huanaco 's report would have upon the au- 
thorities who sent him to hunt their lost queen. In due time the 
messenger returned and to the great relief of all the colonists 
made, in substance, the following report : 

"Brothers, a big company of Cherokee warriors was at Stone- 
throw. Huanaco made them a talk. Told them that he had found 
their lost queen. That she was just like her mother. That she 
was as bright as the stars. That her dress hurt his eyes like the 
sun. Could talk English. Had quit all Indian life. Was living 
in a big fort with a colony of pale-faces. That she is wholly de- 
voted to them. That they are wholly devoted to her. That the 
only way to get her was by force. He thought the safest way 


was to let Eltrovadyne stay with tlie pale-faees. They call her 
Banna. That means princess. She is a princess among them as 
well as among us. 

"Brothers, the Cherokees send you word that you may keep 
their lost queen in peace. That it is not their intention to engage 
in another war. That the old squaw Lapsidali told lies. That 
they intended to punish her for causing so much trouble. 

"Brother, outside of council Notha Neva learned other things. 
The Cherokees are afraid of the men and guns inside your big 
fort. Huanaco told about them. They are afraid to have Eltro- 
vadyne a queen, now. They think she would fight more for 
Creek than for Cherokee. Notha Neva is done." 

The messenger received the hearty thanks of the colonists 
for services rendered, and with many presents which he valued 
very highly, he returned to his wigwam somewhere on the lower 
waters of Pocataligo (Sandy) creek. Since the rumors of a 
Cherokee invasion had reached the Creek Nation five bands or 
camps of their warriors under as many sub-chiefs had been 
stationed in various parts of the country, ready on short notice, 
to be massed under the famous Talitchlechee, who lived in the 
vicinity of the present town of Dacula in Gwinnett County. That 
old hero being informed by the colonists that the war cloud had 
passed away, at once ordered four of the camps to disband; but 
to hold themselves in readiness for action in case of necessity. 
The fifth camp, consisting of about thirty men, under the sullen 
sub-chief, Yrtyrmyrmyrmysco, was located at Bohuron, now 
known as Oconee Heights in Clarke County. The leader of the 
Bohurons, as his followers were called, asked and received per- 
mission to remain in camp until it was known by better evidence 
than any white man could give that all danger was over. This 
slur together with the fact that none of the camps had been es- 
tablished near Fort Strong, nor on any part of Umausauga's 
claim, and also the emphasis placed upon the last part of 
Talitchlechee 's order disbanding the four camps, gave the colo- 
nists the first hint that there was an element of hostility among 
some of the natives around them. Though they said nothing they 
"trusted in God and kept their powder dry." 


Umausauga was a strong, brave man. He knew by instinct 
that "coming events cast their shadows before them," He seems 
to have had a bad opinion of the leader of the Bohurons from 
the beginning. He knew that the chief had been spurned as a 
viper by his darling Banna, and that it was natural for one of 
his race to seek revenge. Really he more than half believed that 
the negigole (renegade) remained in the country for that pur- 

For Umausauga to think was to do. As soon as the camp was 
established under the long-named chief, he induced Tata, his 
nephew at Snodon, to change his name to Nyxter, and join the 
Bohurons as a spy. Though not fully grown Tata was a strong, 
sharp young fellow, and little known outside of his secluded home 
circle. He was known to be fearless, faithful and true to his 
friends. His skill with the bow was unerring and his fleetness 
on foot was superior to that of the red deer. 

A few days after the four camps disbanded it was reported 
that the Bohurons had gone south to join the Lower Creeks to 
which their leader really belonged. Heice Umausauga 's term of 
division, negigole. Had he known a stronger term he certainly 
would have used it. Though often asked to live at the fort, he 
continued to stay in his wigwam at night and to roam the woods 
by day. He knew nothing of the sensation of fear, though, to 
use his own expression, he "walked with his eyes looking and 
slept with his ears hearing." 

As if to prove this saying, he one night heard the preconcerted 
signal of Nyxter, the spy. They met at the appointed place where 
some startling revelations were made. The boy informed his 
uncle that the southward movement of the Bohurons was only a 
ruse ; that half of the company was still in camp and would re- 
main there as a blind. That the other half which had gone south 
would return in a short time and watch the woods by day and 
the fort by night for an opportunity to capture both Banna and 
Ruth Lahgoon and carry them away to the Lower Creeks; that 
Wokolog was a leading Bohuron and wanted revenge for the 
way Ruth received his advances at Calamit ; that Yrtyrmyrmyr- 
mysco was still determined to make Banna his wife, and that he 


had sworn vengeance against Josiah Strong as the only cause of 
his rejection. 

"I am on fire all over, and will see about that matter before 
the moon shines on my tracks," said the furious Indian as he 
hastened away to Fort Strong. Quickly reaching there he told 
the startling news, and Mr. Easley who was president of the coun- 
cil at that time, quietly asked: ''What is the best thing for us 
to do?" "I want two arrows unlike any ever used in this part 
of the country. Will you help me make them?" was the equally 
quiet reply. "I think you need not make any. I have a small 
bundle of those that were used in King Phillip's war," said Joe 
Starr, as he went to get them. "These," he continued upon his 
return, "were given to me by my father. They are called King 
Phillip arrows, and I value them very highly. Still you are wel- 
come to two or three if they suit you." 

Umausauga took the bundle eagerly and critically examined the 
arrows one by one. The shafts were unusually long and made of 
a tough, fine-grained wood unknown to the Creek or to any of the 
colonists. The tips or heads were made of a very dark flint, and 
tapered to a long, keen point. The Indian's eyes sparkled with 
delight as he selected two and returned the others. 

"Now," he said as he arose to go, "hide the others where they 
can not be seen by prying eyes," and thanking Joe for the favor, 
he disappeared in the reigning darkness. 

The following day and night were uneventful, but during the 
evening of the second day seven or eight Bohurons were seen to 
enter the dense woods to the south of Alotha, and were supposed 
to be heading for the deep ravine which still distinguishes that 
locality. This proximity to the fort was rather ominous ; but to be 
forewarned was to be forearmed, and everything was in order 
there. For the first time Umausaiiga and his brother, Etohautee 
of Snodon, remained at the fort all that night. About break of 
day the latter, who was patrolling the immediate vicinity with the 
stealthiness of a mousing cat, saw the enemy cross the river and 
go in the direction of the Okoloco Trail. A few hours later the 
white men, leaving the Indian brothers as a guard, left the fort on 
a tour of observation. When the little company reached the trail 


the fresh tracks of fast runners going east were soon discovered. 
Presently another runner was seen coming at full speed; but as 
soon as he saw the white men he dashed into the woods. It was 
the work of a few minutes only for Mr. Lahgoon, who was mount- 
ed on Alborak, to overtake him. When brought back he refused 
to speak, but soon found it was easier to talk than to die. He 
said his chief had been killed and his men were scattered in 
every direction ; that Wokolog, the next in command, was very 
sick and that he had been carried to the low country to be treat- 
ed by a famous doctor down there. 

The captive then led the way to his fallen chief who was found 
lying near Calamit with an arrow buried deep in his head. It 
was a King Phillip arrow, in all probability the first of its kind 
that ever cleared the air in that part of the country. And yet the 
white men knew that Umausauga had not sent it on its deathly 
mission. When they approached the dead leader three men were 
sitting near, apparently expecting the arrival of others. Not one 
of the natives spoke a word nor moved a muscle. When asked if 
they needed help one of the sullen warriors shook his head and 
pointed down the trail, as much as to say that help was expected 
from that direction. 

A few days after the death of Yrtyrmyrmyrmysco, two old men 
visited Adabor. They carried with them the spearless shaft of 
the King Phillip arrow. Having entered the head a little in front 
of the right ear, it had been sped with such force that when 
pulled away the spear remained in the bones of the skull. The 
object of the visit was to know if Umausauga had ever seen such 
an arrow used by either Upper Creek or Cherokee. He had never 
seen one used, and promptly answered in the negative; but sug- 
gested that such deadly missiles might be used by Lower Creeks 
who live on the coast. 

"That," said one of the old men, "may be true. 
Yrtyrmyrmyrmysco has enemies there. Some of them have fol- 
lowed him and sent this arrow almost through his head. What 
a true bowman the fellow is!" "Yes," said Umausauga to him- 
self after the old men went away, "that fellow happened to be 
Tata Nyxter, as true a bowman as ever let an arrow fly ! It is a 


pity that he can not use the other now. But look out, Wokolog ! 
It's not too late yet!" 

Following the death of the leader of the Bohurons and the dis- 
appearance of his lieutenant, the Talasee colony slept soundly 
once more. Various improvements were inaugurated and rapidly 
carried to completion. Among these was a grist mill, the second 
of its kind built within the present limits of the county. It was 
known as the Richard Easley mill, and though the runners were 
of native granite, they ground good corn meal of which the only 
bread known to the country for several years was made in 
various ways, chiefly in "oven pones," johnny and ash cakes. 

About this time the long expected company of emigrants ar- 
rived. They were led by William Clark, a man of great energy, 
and characterized by those who knew him as "brim full of com- 
mon sense and running over with human kindness." The com- 
pany consisted of one hundred and twenty-seven men, women and 
children. Thirty-nine remained at Talasee, twenty-seven went 
to Beadland, and the others to various points now in Walton and 
Gwinnett Counties. 

Of the number that remained at Talasee there were twenty-one 
able bodied men as follows: William Clark, Herman Scupeen, 
James Tinsley, John McElroy, Robert Linton, John Clack, Ezra 
Lavender, Ezekiel Damron, Thomas Jett, James Varnum, Alton 
McElhannon, Alonzo Draper, Elkin Kinney, Ludwell Nichols, 
Homer Jackson, Alexander Bell, Oliver Betts, Thomas Mitchell, 
Joseph Cook, Russell Anglin and George Singleton. A majority 
of these were young men, all in the prime of life, and to use the 
words of one of their number, "increased the colony to twenty- 
eight hard-working, hard-fighting, rough and tumble fellows." 
Every man and every woman as well as all of the oldest children, 
knew exactly how to use the deadly rifle. 

Nine only of the late emigrants had families. All the children 
were small except two, Helen Draper, the sixteen-year-old daugh- 
ter of Alonzo and Orpah Draper, and Ocean Scupeen, the half- 
grown son of Herman and Annette Scupeen, and so named be- 
cause he was born on the Atlantic ocean. 


James Tinsley was a Methodist preacher of the John Wes- 
ley type, and a man of letters. "William Clark was a lawyer from 
Wolf Island, near New Iverness in Liberty County, now Darien in 
Mcintosh County. He was the man for whom Clarksboro the 
first county site of Jackson County was named, and not as some 
have said, for either Gen. Elijah Clarke, or his son. Governor John 
Clarke. George Singleton was a physician, and ancestor of Dr. 
A. L. Singleton of "the duello" memory. Thomas Jett was a 
carpenter and built the first jail at Jefferson. Thomas Mitchell 
was a teacher, and taught the first general school established by 
the colony in a small annex to Fort Strong. Ludwell Nichols 
was a blacksmith and some of his work remains in the country 
to this day. 

The colony now felt sufficiently strong to separate into several 
different but contiguous communities. Clark, McElroy, Linton, 
Clack and Lavender settled less than a mile north of Fort Strong 
near the place which afterwards became Clarksboro; Damron, 
Varnum and Kinney went to Rodoata near Cold Spring ; Bell and 
Betts settled at Alotha, and, at the earnest request of the Indian 
brothers, Umausauga and Etohautee, Draper, Jackson and Scu- 
peen followed their friends to Beadland and settled at Snodon, 
leaving all the professional men, except Clark, at Fort Strong. 
The going of Draper, Jackson and Scupeen to Snodon was op- 
posed at the fort; but it was a division of power seen only by 
the sagacious Indian brothers, which proved to be of great value 
to the whites throughout the country. 

Notwithstanding the occasional mutterings of the natives, an 
era of prosperity now began in the colony which showed them 
plainly that the pale-faces had come to stay. 

While this state of affairs was pleasing to the whites it was 
aggravating to the reds, especially when they learned of some 
things which the late emigrants had brought with them; all of 
prime necessity to pioneer life. Among them were an ample 
supply of arms and ammunition, horses, cattle, hogs and sheep. 
Among the cattle was a yoke of oxen — great animals with wide- 
spreading horns that beat against each other with ominous 
knocks as they walked side by side. From these the natives fled 


in consternation; crying out as they ran, "Nodoroe! Nodoroc ! 
go back to Nodoroc ! ' ' Perhaps these oxen, the horses, and the 
shining array of rifle guns, greatly hastened native hostility; for 
although the colonists did not know it at the time, it was after- 
M'ards found that the teaching of the Indian leaders was, in sub- 
stance, "We must crush the pale-face before he becomes still 

Of the horses last brought to the colony, the names of three are 
mentioned here : Hector, a fine animal belonging to Josiah 
Strong; Dart, owned by the boy. Ocean Scupeen; and Scat, the 
high-strung steed that went and came at the bidding of the 
equally high-strung girl, Miss Helen Draper! 

During the period of quietude that followed the bursting of the 
Cherokee bubble, much of Mr. Strong's time was devoted to 
teaching a school composed of two pupils. Though so small, it 
was the first school taught in the countrj% even antedating that 
at Yamacutah. The curriculum was limited, but the work ex- 
ceedingly pleasant to the master. He was teaching English to 
Banna Mar de Vedo, and Creek to Ruth Lahgoon. They were 
ready learners, and with their previous knowledge of these lan- 
guages advanced rapidly. By and by, becoming weary of close con- 
finement, a visit to Beadland was planned for an early day. The 
girls wanted to visit Helen Draper who, much to their regret, had 
recently left them. 

Helen 's features were not really beautiful like theirs ; but in 
form and movement she was the peer of the most elegant, and 
her hair and her eyes were very pretty indeed, the former long 
and golden in color, the latter deep blue and laughing. Her 
manners were so free and easy and her voice so sweetly musical 
that without any effort on her part all loved and courted her 
society. Like them she was very bright; but unlike them she 
was somewhat given to fun and frolic. Like them she was brave 
to a fault ; but unlike them she was not sufficiently cautious. Like 
them she was an accomplished horseback rider; but unlike them 
she was yet deficient in the ready use of the rifle while in the 


For either man or woman to be "a dead shot at the bat of an 
eye" was regarded as the greatest accomplishment of the times. 
Such proficiency was by no means uncommon in those days, and 
under the training of her friends Helen Draper soon became 
equal to the best. 

When all were ready Josiah Strong and Banna Mar de Vedo, 
Leon Shore and Ruth Lahgoon, armed capapie, left Talasee bound 
for Snodon the Dreary, as Helen had characterized the place in 
one of her letters. They went directly to Calamit where they re- 
mained several hours. Mr. Strong's first visit there, the myste- 
ries which still hung over Beadland, Ruth's first discovery of 
Banna and Iro and their subsequent visit to the place, and the 
fate of Yrtyrmyrmyrmysco in the immediate vicinity, were some 
of the subjects discussed. 

From thence they went to the old town of Snodon where in a 
whirling sea of thought Josiah and Banna stood and gazed upon 
the spot where they first saw each other, and where at that 
moment was born a love that never wavered during the trying 
vicissitudes of their eventful lives. 

It was near Nere Nara, the great rock pillar already described, 
and at the mention of which Umausauga had been seen to shed 
tears. Seated upon the steps within its arch they dwelt silently 
upon the past, "sadness, hope and gladness" passing, like a 
weaver's shuttle, back and forth, in and through their minds. 
None of the few natives who lived near were to be seen. Leon 
and Ruth had wandered away to the great flat rocks which lie to 
the south and were gathering flowers of the wild honeysuckles 
which grew in their crevices. They walked and talked until un- 
expectedly they reached a swamp hard by. There they discover- 
ed other flowers and jack-in-the-pulpit was among them. The 
solitary finger of one of these droll plants seemed to beckon to 
Leon and say, "Come and get me." As it grew upon the margin 
of the bog he obeyed the silent monitor, and being weary, as they 
supposed, the twain seated themselves upon a great boulder con- 
veniently near. 


In the meantime Mr. Strong and his companion became weary 
of silence and began to talk again, though in a tone quite differ- 
ent from their previous conversation. 

"Do you know, dear one, for such I now venture to call you, 
how dear this place is to me?" asked Josiah of the blushing girl 
at his side. "And why, Mr. Strong, is such a place so dear to 
you?" she asked in trembling tones. "Because here I first saw 
you, the only woman whom I can always truly love." "And she 
a poor, unknown savage who had never heard the name of God! 
Mr. Strong, can you be in earnest?" "Yes, my own 'Twink- 
ling Star, ' in earnest, absolutely ! Though you may have been 
comparatively unknown, you never were a savage. The best 
blood of Spain, pure Aryan blood, beats gladly in your heart: the 
rich red blood of the Cid Campaedor. Blood as proud, as noble 
and as brave as ever beat in human heart was his. And so is 
yours. Then too, the blood of your mother, the peerless Elancy- 
dyne, the 'Shooting Star' that blazed upon the red-stained 
plains of Numerado, Radoata and Arharra, with such dazzling 
splendor, also beats in your heart and runs through your veins. 
As we now know your mother was the daughter of an English 
nobleman, the same race to which I belong, and of which we are 
both surely proud. Then say not my Eltrovadyne, my Glittering 
Star, and dearer than all, my Banna the Beautiful, for my this 
name I first knew you, that you ever were a savage. And still 
more, as the daughter of undisputed royalty, your rights would 
place you on a throne to-day. So darling, you are not only of 
noble blood, but that of royalty as well. As such I salute you, 
and bid you all hail my beautiful, my only queen !" 

In an honest endeavor to repeat a long history in a few words, 
and overcome with intense earnestness, the speaker paused for 
want of breath to proceed. He looked at the trembling girl who 
was crying as if broken-hearted. For the first time he took her 
hand in his, and placing the other on her shoulder continued : 

"0, Banna, for a long time you must have known that I love 
you dearly. Because of the unsettled condition of the country 
and my earnest wish to tell you so at the very place where I first 
met you, I have not mentioned the subject until now. The time 


has come at last. I can not afford to let it pass unheeded. Then 
with the full assurance of all my heart, will you here and now 
consent to become my wife?" Still trembling the girl remained 
silent and thoughtful for a little while. Then she deliberately 
took the polished mussel shell from her bosom and quietly show- 
ing him its contents said: "Here is my answer. Since I took 
this lock of your hair from here on the same day that a mean boy 
snatched it from your head and threw it away, I have carried it 
near my heart almost constantly. I would not exchange it for 
the brightest diadem that ever crowned a queen. If I think so 
much of a single lock I have no words to tell how much I should 
value all that clustered around it. So, as you are the only man 
I ever loved, I am free to say that I am willing to become your 
wife. ' ' 

Mr. Strong eagerly grasped her hand with both of his, and 
gently, tenderly leaned his head upon her shoulder. She re- 
turned the pressure and softly placing her head upon his manly 
breast, they both audibly thanked God for the happy consum- 
mation of their fondest earthly hopes. Ah ! ah ! — the irony of 
fate ! Two lovers, both of whose hearts were always readily 
responsive to all the fine feelings of human nature, whose acts 
were often close akin to the acts of an angel, and who never 
caused each other to feel either pain or sorrow, had plighted 
their troth over the sleeping dust of a victim of unrequited 
love ! 

A hard battle had been fought and won hard, not because one 
had ever seriously doubted the other, but because of the turbu- 
lent times in which they lived, and the many difficulties incident 
to pioneer life — a life vastly more trying than this or any suc- 
ceeding generation can ever know. 

At last the lovers remembered that there were other beings in 
the world to claim their attention ; a lesson seldom forgot and 
never neglected. And now that the hitherto dreary old town 
of Snodon seemed to have taken on new life, they thought all the 
world akin. The curious rock pillar, the quaint old wigwams and 
the unfrequented paths around them, all decorated with festoons 
of spider webs spun with geometrical accuracy, and spread in 


rich profusion upon myriads of wild flowers that swayed back 
and forth in the golden sunshine, instead of seeming desolate as 
heretofore, were now arrayed in gorgeous robes of blue, violet 
and gold. This transformation made them long to tell their 
truant companions how happy they were. 

Lost in their own thoughts, Leon and Ruth were loth to leave 
the vine-clad boulder upon which they sat. They had ceased to 
notice the festoons of sweet-scented honeysuckles that, moved by 
the evening breeze, were playing hide and seek all around them. 
Leon Shore was twirling a long, slender jack-in-the-pulpit between 
his fingers, and calling Ruth's attention to it said: 

"Sentimentalists say that jack-in-the-pulpit is an emblem of 
Hymen's Altar. And now, my dear Ruth, you know that a long 
time ago you promised to be my wife sometime. The matter has, 
for good reasons I confess, been delayed. I think the anxious 
'sometime' has come at last. I now offer you this flower, this 
Hymen 's-Altar-leader, and if you are willing for me to lead you 
to such an altar at an early day, take it and make me supremely 
happy, and in turn I will do all that mortal man can do to make 
you happy also." 

The blushing girl took the flower and kissed it. There amidst 
the deep silence of the wilderness where the feathery honey- 
suckles reached out their tendrils towards the stable rocks, and 
jack-in-the-pulpit nodded his approval from the swamp, they 
sealed their vows. 

They too had forgotten to note the flight of time, and hastened 
to join their companions at Nere Nara. 

When the parties met the situation was at once comprehended 
by all. Congratulations went from one to the other in quick suc- 
cession, and together all rejoiced in very gladness. 

Alonzo Draper's "little house in the woods" was soon reach- 
ed. It stood near what is now known as "the black gum hollow" 
in the northern suburbs of Winder. Herman Scupeen, Homer 
Jackson and a few other families lived near, Scupeen being the 
first settler of what is sometimes called the Morris old place, and 
Jackson built the "Wright cabin" which disappeared many 
years ago. 


To use the words of one present, "the girls were in a blaze of 
glory that night and did not go to sleep at all, and the men stopped 
talking only long enough to sometimes sally forth and shoot 
some wild animals." However the howl of the wolf, the scream 
of the panther, and the sniff of the prowling black bear were 
noticed only when unpleasantly near. 

Among those who came to offer their compliments to the vis- 
itors from Talasee was Ocean Scupeen. He was a bold, mis- 
chievous boy, but never mean. He was as true a hero as ever 
trod the soil of any country. He was handsome withal and had 
a good elementary education. His devotion to Helen Draper was 
equaled only by his heroism. Except that bright, vivacious girl, 
he acknowledged no leader willingly. They were nearly of the 
same age, and had hunted wild game and played together from 
early childhood. Both were at home on horseback, and the 
wilder the horse the better they were pleased. When on foot 
both were unerring shots, but had never practiced loading and 
firing when in the saddle and on the run. To see Ruth and Banna 
perform these feats with such consummate skill, "set them," to 
use Ocean's own words, "all on fire to do so, too." 

The visitors began their homeward journey on the evening of 
the following day. They were accompanied by their friend Helen, 
who rode her high-spirited but well-trained horse already known 
by the name of Scat. Tata also was with them on foot, and it 
was amazing to witness the ease with which he kept in advance 
of the horses, even when at a full trot. Wanting to reward the 
boy for ridding the country of their arch enemy in such a master- 
ly way, and at the same time secure the services of a highly valu- 
able friend, the colonists had arranged for him to become one 
of their number. No better trade was ever made. 

In due time that party arrived at Talasee, and no one received 
them with a more hearty welcome than Pyth and Damon, though 
it required several days for Tata to gain their confidence. To 
Banna Mar de Vedo the world in which she grew to womanhood 
seemed to have changed into a new one. And in many respects 
it had. 


The Visit to Yamacutah and Return. 

Trained by Banna and Ruth, Helen Draper soon learned "to 
drive the cross" on horseback; but it was another thing to load 
the rifle and drive the cross when the horse was at full speed. 
Yet in the course of a few days the skill of her trainers and her 
own unyielding disposition "to do or die" enabled her to oc- 
casionally succeed in both loading and shooting. Having done so 
for a few times, she threw her bonnet high in the air and shouted : 

"Hurrah for success! There is nothing like making an effort, 
long and strong if need be, to achieve success. My darlings, how 
about that?" 

"It's all true," replied Ruth. "I think, however, that Scat is 
too frisky for such work, especially to begin with." 

"She can practice on Iro," said Banna as she led the white 
horse forward. When the necessary movements are learned by 
actually performing them, Helen will ask Mr. Frisky no odds." 

"Hurrah for success!" exclaimed the girl as she again threw 
up her bonnet, and bouncing upon Iro's black as a sparrow to 
the top rail of a fence, she continued, "Please give me my gun, 
bullet pouch and powder horn. Hurrah for success and the 
scamp of a boy I left behind me !" 

So saying she gave Iro the necessary signal, and at high speed 
he dashed into the woods. Aiming at a large tree the bullet 
"barked" a smaller one near by and the horse went on. Now 
came the tug of war; her gun was empty. After many ineffect- 
ual efforts she finally succeeded in loading when Iro was at a 
full run. Having thus practiced for a part of several days, her 
teachers informed her that it was only necessary for her to 
practive awhile on her own horse and then she "would be fully 
competent to meet an enemy on the wing." This so greatly 
pleased her that she rode to the front door of Mr. Lahgoon's 
dwelling where a number of the colonists had assembled, and 
shouted : 


"Hurrah for success, Helen Draper, Iro, Scat, my darling girls, 
and every one else that lives here and at home, especially my 
mother who is the dearest, best and sweetest woman in all the 
world. ' ' 

The "darling girls" were present, and leading Helen into the 
house, they crowned her with a wreath of wild flowers which they 
had prepared for the occasion. Having securely fastened the 
wreath upon her brow, they threw up their hands and said 
laughingly, "Hurrah for success and Helen Draper, our own vic- 
torious queen!" 

A lively, good natured tussle followed, which soon turned into 
a real break-down dance. Most of those present quickly joined 
in the giddy whirl, and round and round, back and forth went 
the uproarious revelers in what they called "a Georgia gallop," 
until the strongest became exhausted. Such was life in the olden 
time when life was real, when life was earnest, and effeminacy 
and mistrust were almost unknown. 

As it was impossible to obtain a marriage license in that part 
of the country, after the dance was over a party was formed to 
visit Yamacutah or Tumbling Shoals where lived a minister who 
was authorized to issue such papers. It consisted of Josiah Strong 
and Banna Mar de Vedo, Leon Shore and Ruth Lahgoon, Abel 
Trent and Helen Draper, to which, Joseph Starr, the former mes- 
senger to that place, was added as guide and always welcome 
companion, especially in time of danger. 

Abe Trent, as already known, had long ardently loved Ruth 
Lahgoon, but proved himself to be too much of a gentleman to 
bear ill will to the man who had supplanted him. Speaking of 
the matter he said: "I attach no blame to any one. If I loved 
Ruth Lahgoon it was because I had never seen Helen Draper." 

No wonder then that Abe was anxious to accompany his 
friends, especially as he too was always a welcome companion as 
well as a friend who never failed to respond to the call of duty. 

Well mounted, well armed, and carrying their dogs and hunt- 
ing horns with them, the party reached their destination in due 
time. They rejoiced to meet that noble band of pioneers who had 
preceded them, and whose fame had reached far beyond the lim- 


its of their travels. They received that royal welcome which 
such men as Jordan Clark, Jacob Bankston, John Harris, Dale 
Clover, Dr. Henry Therrauld, Jared Cunningham, James Mont- 
gomery and Hiram Bingham can only give. A salute of fourteen 
guns, two each, for their guests, was fired, and in response double 
that number was given by the visitors. All this was followed by 
the united shouts of both parties which raised such a din that, 
as usual, the dogs howled and the wild animals in the neighbor- 
hood ran to their hiding places. Dinner, consisting of *'hog and 
hominy" and many of the meats known to the native forests and 
streams — meats boiled, stewed, baked and broiled after the tooth- 
some style of Mrs. Clover's cooking. Then too there were butter 
and milk and cheese made after the old Virginia fashion, and 
rich, porous "johnny cakes," and "batter cakes" made of un- 
bolted rye flour, good to the taste. 

Instead of sitting around in idleness and waiting for their host- 
ess to serve them, the three Talasee girls went to work as they 
did at home. Rolling up their sleeves and tucking up their dress- 
es, they cooked, washed dishes, carried water and swept the 
houses and yards around them. Then shouldering their rifles 
they roamed through the woods and showed the admiring citi- 
zens that they could "bring down a buck at full tilt," or "chip a 
squirrel" from the top of the loftiest tree when riding at full 

"Can it be," thoughtfully observed the quaint John Harris 
when speaking of these girls one day, "can it be that such 
flowers will ever fade, such eyes ever grow dim, and such nerves 
ever become unsteady?" 

"Yes, yes, but they will bloom again in Heaven; for I find that 
all three of them are devoted Christians," replied Dr. Therrauld 
who happened to hear the remark so seriously made. 

And that was the turning point in the life of the wonderful 
John Harris who, though never a bad man, was never seriously 
inclined until he began to consider the mutations of time as 
brought to his attention by the foregoing episode. 

The men spent their time in conversation, hunting, fishing, run- 
ning, jumping, and in a critical examination of the mysterious 


circle* and its appendages which then existed at that place. Thus 
four days passed away like the shadows of an hour before the 
Talasee party could get their own consent to leave such con- 
genial friends as the Yamacutahans proved themselves to be. 
But early on the morning of the fifth day after their arrival they 
tore themselves away and began their homeward journey. 

The parting of the girls with the lovely and accomplished Mrs. 
Clover and her little daughter Flora was touching, even to the 
lion-hearted men who stood about them. 

Josiah Strong and Leon Shore carried their long-coveted mar- 
riage licenses with them. They had been issued by Dr. Therrauld, 
the same that afterwards gave a license authorizing the marriage 
of William T. Brantly to Idalone LeCain at the Dunson log-roll- 
ing. He and the two famous singers of that age, Jared Cunning- 
ham and James Montgomery, accompanied the party to Talasee. 

Abe Trent said he wanted a license too, but did not know 
whether to apply for one or not. When asked why, he said : 

"I can not bring Miss Helen around to the sticking point. She 
seems to think pretty well of me ; but then she apparently thinks 
the same of everybody else. Somehow she refuses to make any 
distinction. 'Speet that harum-scarum Ocean Scu — or whatever 
his name is, has something to do with it. That's just my luck at 
any rate." 

However, Abe did not relax in his attentions to Miss Helen. 
She continued to be kind, gentle and sometimes affectionate even 
to loveliness. Her individuality was very marked, and frequently 
hard to understand. 

One of the peculiarities of the visit was that the dogs of the two 
colonies refused to be friendly, and on several occasions open 
hostilities arose between them. This continued until the re- 
turning party reached some point not far from where Jefferson 
now is. There the Talasee dogs, led by Pyth and Damon, brought 
a huge black bear with two half-grown cubs to bay. A battle 
royal followed which seemed to be going in favor of the dogs un- 
til another still larger bear came to the rescue of, perhaps, his 

*The reader will find a full description of the "Circle" in Yamacutah in 
this work. — Ed. 


family. Then for once Pyth and Damon had to stand back. 
Upon this the Yamacutah dogs evidently thought that foul play 
had been used, and dashing forward, with bristles erect, the 
battle was renewed and soon ended in favor of the dogs. Though 
several rifles were ready for instant use if necessary for the safety 
of the furious assailants, not a shot was fired. The curious feature 
of the case was that on all future occasions these dogs, when 
thrown together, were not only friendly, but fought for each oth- 
er and played together like so many puppies. Will those who pro- 
fess to believe the dog destitute of reasoning power explain this 
wayside incident? 

Early in the afternoon the Talasee party reached the crest of 
the hill that overlooked Fort Strong a little beyond the branch 
which still goes rippling by. Their arrival had been anticipated. 
That moving Tata, like a disembodied spirit floating through the 
silent air, reported them homeward bound more than two hours 
before they were seen on the hill. Consequently their friends 
were prepared to give them a gracious reception. 

Look ! Yonder on the outskirts of the still increasing com- 
pany as the people emerge from the adjacent houses, stands 
Richard Easley, Abednego Moore, Edward Belknap and Phelan 
Lahgoon. They are dressed in the same old blood-stained gar- 
ments they wore on the battle fields of Brandywine and Sara- 
toga. See! The bullet and sabre scars cross upon their hands 
and faces. They stand at dress parade. In front of Ed Belknap 
there is an old drum, beaten and bruised by hard service. His 
fingers clutch the drum sticks, and the spirit of war glitters in 
his eyes. At his side stands Phelan Lahgoon with a fife in his 
hand. All eager to peal forth its shrill notes once more, his lips 
pucker and his fingers move from note to note silently. On the 
left is Eichard Easley, a tall, angular man of iron nerve and im- 
mense physical power. He carries a heavy rifle, and at his side 
hangs a tattered and torn haversack and a dingy wooden can- 
teen. In front stands the tall and elegant form of Abednego 
Moore. He holds the same battle-scarred flag that his brother- 
in-law, Josiah Strong, carried at the siege of Augusta. All eager 
to move, Mr. Moore waves the flag back and forth and begins to 


mark time. The soldiers, all of whom had seen hard service, make 
one step forward, the drum roars, the fife screams, and the old 
flag flutters in the brisk evening breeze. Tramp ! tramp ! tramp ! 
go the men to the thrilling tune of Yankee Doodle.* They turn 
to meet the approaching party from Yamacutah. The concourse 
of all the people present fall into line. Men pull off their hats, 
and women flutter their handkerchiefs around their heads. The 
marching throng begins to shout. Old Tom, the bell in the fort, 
sends forth its sonorous peals. The keen, quick, discordant blasts 
of five or six tin trumpets, about seven feet long, unite with the 
bell, drum and fife, to swell the loud acclaim. The men shout and 
the women sing the grand old song, 

"We all come forth to meet you with the glad refrain — 
You are coming back to mother — coming home again. ' ' 

Look ! The columns meet between the branch and the fort. 
The returning party has thrown itself into single file. The 
heroic Dr. Henry Therrauld is in front. In copious torrents tears 
are streaming from his eyes. The scene is too much for him, 
strong as he is. It carried him back to the trying times when 
he too, like Easley, Moore, Strong, Belknap, Shore, Trent and 
Lahgoon, so valiantly fought for God and their native land. 

The columns unite and march to the front of the fort. The 
general uproar ceases, congratulations go around and all engage 
in a general conversation. 

Umausauga is sitting on a stump, arms folded across his breast, 
and as immovable as a marble statue. In an open space near by 
him Tata Nyxter, the scout, is dancing the ramoja, or green corn 
dance. It strains the eyes to follow his movements. Sometimes 
he seems to be a shadow flitting through the air, or becoming 
rigid, forms himself into a hoop and bowls over the ground like 
a running wheel. See! he now assumes the form of a bow, and, 
in perfect time, dances with both hands and feet until he reaches 

*This old air, "Yankee Doodle," was known in England in the time 
of Cromwell, and was sung in our New England colonies before the 
Revolution. — Ed. 


a tall tree, up which he scampers much like a scared cat. Reach- 
ing the branches he looks down with a comical expression playing 
over his face, as much as to say, "You can't do that." 

A hearty laugh greets the comical looks and grotesque actions 
of the boy, and again the drum, fife, bell and bugles create a 
wild concourse of sounds which cease only when dinner is called. 

Though no special preparations had been made, it was sub- 
stantially like that served at Yamacutah, and like that was greatly 
enjoyed by all present. Yet not one drop of intoxicating liquor 
was seen at either place. Once more, such was life in old times 
when selfishness had small share in shaping the affairs of men. 

It was Friday evening. That same afternoon it was arranged 
by common consent, "That next Sabbath at 4 o'clock P. M. May 
the 4th, 1794, Johnson Josiah Strong and Miss Banna Mar de 
Vedo are to be married inside the altar in front of the preaching 
stand ; that Umausauga give his adopted daughter away, and that 
Rev. Henry Therrauld of Yamacutah, perform the marriage cere- 
mony. And furthermore, that Leon Shore and Miss Ruth Lah- 
goon be also married at the same time and place ; that Phelan 
Lahgoon give his daughter away and that Rev. James Tinsley 
of Talasee perform the marriage ceremony. And further, that 
the contracting parties shall kneel while their vows are being 
made; that the brides shall wear plain home-spun and home- 
woven dresses, and be of the same style and finish precisely; 
that Abel Trent and Miss Helen Draper shall be the special at- 
tendants upon both parties, and that the day shall be devoted to 
religious services entirely." 

The foregoing account of the remarkable events which were 
to be celebrated at a future time is given in the exact words of 
the original record. It was written by a secretary with whom we 
have not met before, Mrs. Clara Linton, probably wife of Robert 
Linton. Evidently she did not use the common goose quill pen, 
but one made of a reed that grew on the river bank. Anyway, 
the writing was in an elegant, bold round hand, "plain as print." 

If even a small proportion of the important events that took 
place during the settlement of this country had been as carefully 
recorded as those of Talasee an interesting history of the people 


might be written. As it is few of their names are known, and 
their deeds have passed away with the smoke of their camp 

It was Sunday. Two days had come and gone since the jubilee. 
Things holy and divine were to take the place of worldly gladness. 
A large arbor had been erected with improvised seats for the 
accommodation of the people ; and it had been announced that at 
10:30 A. M. Dr. Therrauld, the great and good man from Yama- 
eutah would preach. Every citizen of the country both white 
and red, had a special invitation to attend the meeting. 

It is a typical May morning. No where is a cloud to be seen 
between the green earth below and the clear blue sky above. 
Save the plaintive undertone that murmurs through the tree tops, 
silence reigns at Talasee. The woodman's axe, the crack of the 
rifle, the barking of dogs, the hunter's horn, and the rattle of 
the little mill at the shoals are all hushed now. Surely God is 
pouring down a shower of blessings from the wide-open windows 
of heaven. 

Aye, verily ! And there is not room enough in Talasee to con- 
tain it silently. Listen ! some one is singing, and such a sweet 
song! It is the full rich voice of Mrs. Letty Moore. She is sit- 
ting outside, near her cabin door, singing Watt's Sabbath Hymn 
— "Welcome sweet day of rest." Soon other voices unite with 
hers, and on and on to other hymns and other cabins the music 
spreads until the hills and valleys around become vocal with 
songs of praise and adoration. 

Hark ! the singing ceases ! Old Tom announces from the fort 
that preaching hour is near. Soon the people begin to gather at 
the arbor. Most of the white people of the country, some from 
as far as Snodon and vicinity, were present. Umausauga, Eto- 
hautee, Tata, Notha Neva and a few other Creeks are there also. 
The preacher, being a man of imposing personality, was looked 
upon with something like awe, and his presence was not only 
an inspiration to the good, but commanded the respect and at- 
tention of even rude strangers. His text was from John 3 :16, 
"God so loved the world that he gave his only begotten Son that 
whosoever believeth in him should not perish but have everlast- 

ing life. ' ' It was a powerful discourse for any time or any place, 
and though its chief purpose was to show Banna the plan of sal- 
vation, it produced much other good fruit. 

After preaching, an opportunity was given to join the church, 
and the first to give her hand was Banna Mar de Vedo, and the 
last was Umausauga. All of her close companions were already 
members of the church and they had allowed no favorable oppor- 
tunity to pass without giving her religious instruction. Rev. 
Mr. Tinsley had read the New Testament through in her im- 
mediate presence, always stopping to explain such parts as he 
thought necessary and to answer such questions as she asked 
him. He was an able expositor, and his labors were amply re- 
warded. Then, too, the sermon to which she had just listened, 
though the first she ever heard, threw a flood of light upon the 
Christian's pathway that enabled her to understand some of her 
duties as a traveler therein better than she ever understood them 

It was 2 :40 in the afternoon. Again Old Tom in half dolorous 
tones announced evening services. Several more natives were 
present than in the forenoon. They had doubtless come to wit- 
ness what they called ''the passing away" of one whom they had 
long thought a member of their own race, but somehow superior 
to them. The candidates were among the last to arrive. The 
girls were dressed as already indicated; and if one was a 
"Glittering Star," the other was certainly a close twin sister. 
They were radiantly beautiful. The most unique figure present 
was Umausauga. For the first time he had been induced to wear 
tight pantaloons and a swallow-tailed coat. Though not a bad 
looking man nor wanting in hard sense, circumstances had placed 
him in an awkard position that day. He did not know just what 
nor just how to do. He doubtless felt queer in his new suit. 
Much to the amazement of those inclined to smile, he was con- 
stantly fumbling with his long coat tail as if something serious 
was the matter with it. Seemingly however, he neither saw nor 
heard anything. 

Rev. Mr. Tinsley preached the evening sermon from Isa 27 ; 
2, 3, "Sing ye unto her, a vineyard of red wine. I the Lord do 


keep it ; I will water it every moment, lest any hurt it, I will keep 
it night and day." This, like the morning address, was well re- 
ceived, and being chiefly directed to the new members did much 
to establish them in the "new life" firmly. 

When preaching was concluded Old Tom announced that 4 
o'clock was fast approaching. The ministers were seated inside 
the improvised altar, the candidates were conducted to the front, 
Umausauga and Mr. Lahgoon gave the brides away, and the mar- 
riage ceremonies proceeded with deep solemnity. The kneeling 
of the candidates was very impressive. 

And yet the scene was not over. Umausauga, who sat in his 
usual statuesque form during the ceremony, suddenly stood up, 
and tugging at his coat tail, asked permission to make a little 
talk. When told to proceed, he once more gave his coat a sudden 
pull as if he wanted it to cover more of his body, and taking 
one step forward, made in substance the following talk : 

"Brothers; the white man asked me for the child I found in 
the woods. I gave her to him. He is a good man. She is good, 
too, very good. It wounds my heart deeply to part with her; 
deeper than any of you know. I still love her dearly. She is 
now the pet of many strong friends. Still she has not changed. 
She is the same as before she met these strong friends; the same 
to me. Banna, do not go far away ! Come to see me some- 
times. Come to see me at Adabor — anywhere!" 

Here the speaker broke down and Banna hastened to wipe the 
blinding tears from his eyes. It was a pathetic scene. After 
awhile he became calm and motioning her to be seated near him, 
he gave his coat another pull and continued : 

"Brothers, some of you want to know why Banna's hair 
changes. The waves are taken out of it by an ointment. Only a 
few of us know how to make it. I wanted the waves out of it so 
that others would not think her a pale-face. The Indian always 
has straight hair. Some of you were sharp. You found that the 
waves come back when she was in your presence for awhile. I 
have been asked to explain why this is so. I can not do it any 
more than I can explain why the leaves of some plants close when 
we touch them." 

Again the speaker paused for a short time and stood in anxious 
thought. Then suddenly thrusting his hand into his coat pocket 
he slowly drew out a long necklace of glittering pearls and 
sparkling diamonds. It then dawned upon the audience that it 
was not for want of better manners that he pulled at his coat; 
but that he had been feeling to see if his treasure were still there, 
for it was very costly and very beautiful. He held it extended in 
his hands until all had looked at it with wondering eyes, and then 
turning to Banna he continued : 

"My lost daughter — I must still call you by that endearing 
name — this was your mother's necklace. Your father gave it to 
her when he was made King of the Cherokees. As you know, he 
was killed at the battle of Numerado. Your mother quickly took 
his place. After mounting her white horse, Adar, she pulled off 
her necklace. She left it in the care of your nurse. It was stolen 
from her. Huanaco afterwards learned where the jewels were 
hidden. Soon after he left here he told Daxator your history. 
He was the chief who succeeded your mother. He ordered 
Huanaco to take some men with him and bring both necklace 
and thief to headquarters. The order was soon executed. Daxa- 
tor took possession of the treasure and punished the thief severe- 
ly. Only a few days ago he sent the necklace to me. He in- 
structs me to give it to you. So now, my darling daughter," he 
said, as he raised the precious gift above her head, "I place this 
representative of royalty around your neck in the name of the 
Cherokee people. I have performed my mission. Umausauga 
is done." 

When the speaker took his seat Banna fell fainting towards 
the floor; but she did not fall far. Mr. Strong reached her so 
quickly that she fell in his arms. The next moment Ruth, Mrs. 
Ruth Shore, was bathing Mrs. Banna Mar de Vedo Strong's face 
with cold water that Tata had just brought from the spring. 

When some minutes of anxious solicitude had passed away, the 
sufferer opened her eyes, and finding herself in the arms of her 
husband, she threw hers around his neck saying : 

"Such a sudden and unexpected memento of my unknown par- 
ents, unnerved me completely. I have long been anxious for 


something closely connected with their memory, that I could con- 
stantly carry with me. This precious jewel — precious not be- 
cause it is costly and beautiful ; but because it was the gift of my 
father to mj^ mother, so gratifies my long-cherished wish, that T 
was overcome by the sad memories of the past and the welcome 
joys of the present and fainted away. Please excuse my weak- 

"There is nothing to excuse, darling; but many things for 
which I and all our friends are profoundly thankful," replied 
Mr. Strong, while he was yet chasing the natural bloom back 
into her lovely cheeks with a hand so faithful, gentle and true, 
that it never afterwards touched her otherwise. 

As if to pour a flood of thrilling gladness into every heart and 
make the place seem to be a foretaste of Heaven itself. Messrs. 
Therrauld, Cunningham and Montgomery began to sing in power- 
ful, yet sweet and musical bass and tenor, the choice hymn of 
the ages — 

"All hail the power of Jesus' name, 
Let angels prostrate fall — 
Bring forth the royal diadem, 
And crown him Lord of all. ' ' 

Before the last stanza was reached a shout was heard in the 
camps of Israel. Another and another song followed with similar 
effects until the surrounding forest seemed vocal with praises to 
God. Taken altogether one of the most interesting and pleasing 
features of the day was the song-service of that eventful even- 
ing. Indeed the singing closed only at the instance of Old Tom 
in the fort when he gave notice that the baptismal hour was near. 

The congregation adjourned to the Shoals, and there, just a few 
feet above the rock on which she and her heart-friend, Ruth Lah- 
goon, sat and speculated upon the drifting fish that passed by 
them, Banna the Beautiful was baptized by Rev. Henry Ther- 
rauld, than whom a better man never lived. To her a pleasing 
feature of the occasion was that Umausauga whom she had called 
father nearly all her life, was at the same time baptized at her 
side by Rev. James Tinsley, himself a great and good man. It 
was by the Indian's request that they went under the water at 


the same instant, arose from it together, and, arm in arm, were 
led to dry land. Perhaps this is the only instance of the kind 
on record. 

In this pleasing way the first two marriages at Talasee were 
consummated. If ever a cloud lingered over their homes even 
for one moment it was never known. 



The Draper and Modin Families at Snodon — The Jug — The 
Circle — Abe Trent — Animals — Trouble Brewing in 1794 — 
The Wog — The Watchers — Haitauhuga — A Discovery — A 
Conspiracy — The Signal — The Kidnapper — To Talasee — 
Ocean — The Dance — Nodoroc. 

When in 1793 Alzono Draper, Herman Scupeen and Homer 
Jackson moved from Talasee to Snodon, the lovely extended plain 
was densely covered with a luxuriant growth of black and sweet- 
gums over which reached many tall pines and huge poplars. Lon 
Draper, as he was usually called, was a small man, but muscular, 
active and brave. His wife, Mary Draper, though not unusually 
handsome, was pleasing and attractive in her manners and of 
most excellent character. Like most other pioneer women she 
was "a dead shot," and brave even to a fault. Their daughter, 
Helen Draper, is already known. It may be added here, how- 
ever, that because of her quick action she was sometimes called 
"POWDER." Her best thoughts came like a flash, and her ef- 
forts to execute them as suddenly. These features added to her 
other qualities, made this young child of the forest a girl of 
wonderful force. 

Only the three white families mentioned lived at Snodon in 
1793; but ten or twelve others had previously settled in Bead- 
land, the nearest being some half mile distant. For some curious 
reason which required a long time to explain, only a few natives 
lived within the boundaries of the purchased territory. Onlj^ one 
small family lived in the immediate vicinity of the whites, and 
all the members proved to be welcome neighbors. It consisted 
of husband, wife and daughter. The man's name was Modin, one 
of the few Bible names mentioned in the history of the red race. 
He was of medium size, well formed, good-looking, of a friendly, 
sociable disposition, and distinguished as a fast runner. His 
wife, or squaw as he called her, was a native of the lower Creek 
tribe and well known by the pleasing name of Nyrulyn. All the 


white men who saw her said she was beautiful. Her complexion 
was fair even for a Creek ; but this was no uncommon distinc- 
tion. Her hair was a curiosity. Fine as silk, jet black, and with- 
out a kink, it swept the ground when walking. To prevent this 
she rolled it into balls, being careful to make a large one on top, 
and gradually taper others to her ears. There were two rows, 
the lower one not being rolled to the scalp hung, pendant, over 
her shoulders. Whether pretty or not the style was certainly 
unique, and to imitate it would probably bother a modern hair 
dresser. Below the row of hanging balls was a good face with 
mild, persuasive features, large black eyes, well-rounded cheeks 
and a slightly dimpled chin, all making her look like a woman 
superior to her station in life. 

Mera, the only daughter of Modin and Nyrulyn, and the girl 
that Banna had so favorably recommended to Ruth Lahgoon, was 
nearly grown, her exact age being unknown. She was sometimes 
called "Blue Bird," because, unlike most of her race, her eyes 
were of a clear, liquid blue, and her voice of a bird-like melody. 
Otherwise she was much like her mother; but her melting blue 
eyes and retiring modesty gave her such a superior appearance 
that if she had been placed among girls of any race few would 
have been called more beautiful than Mera, the Blue Bird. 

But the personal appearance of this child of the wilderness was 
not the only feature that distinguished her from other girls of 
her race. Her intellectual endowments were of a high order, her 
powers of imitation without any known limit, her fleetness on 
foot equal to that of her father, and her skill with the bow as 
true and unerring as that of Tata Nyxter, except at long range. 
Modin and his interesting little family lived near the Dr. Saun- 
ders residence in Winder, and were neighbors of Lon Draper who 
built his first substantial log cabin on ground that is still called 
the Black Gum Hollow, which he selected as a strategic point. 
Around his house, and thirty yards from it, he left a circle of tim- 
ber fifty feet wide from which he cut nothing except a few un- 
sightly shrubs. Outside this wooded belt he cleared a circular 
field three hundred yards wide and on which he left nothing 


growing. Thus the largest field in Beadland was cleared and 
first cultivated in 1794. 

Mr. Draper called the circular field "THE JUGr," the timbered 
belt "ITS NECK," and his house "THE STOPPER." So the place 
went by the name of "The Jug" for many years, leaving it to a 
future generation to add the word "TAVERN." 

It may be stated that there were no drunkards in Beadland or 
in the Talasee Colony at this time, and that jugs were used gen- 
erally as "jars" are now. It is further explained that Mr. 
Draper's reason for clearing a circular field was threefold : First, 
to enable a watchman in the circle of woods to readily see an ap- 
proaching enemy; second, it was several years before bears, pan- 
thers and wolves would enter any large open space ; and third, a 
circle mystifies any animal, and if long traveled in a narrow 
circuit, any living thing. The jug is a circle, and both before and 
since Mr. Draper's day has mystified, not animals, but men — men 
by hundreds and by thousands. 

For a few months the Draper family lived quietly at their new 
home. The Scupeens and Jacksons, besides the Modin family 
lived near. Helen and Mera had become close friends and were 
almost constant companions. Though in some respects unlike 
Banna and Ruth, they were as devoted to each other and as true 
to their friends as the lovely heroins of Talasee could be, and, as 
was often proven, the love and friendship of the two pairs were 
as strong as love of life itself. Then, too, Abe Trent, the always 
welcome Abe — welcome anywhere that true men were needed 
and respected — often visited there. 

On moonlight nights he and Helen sometimes walked 
around the outer edge of the cleared field in search of a place to 
cross it without exposing themselves. They seldom went around 
more than twice before they seemingly became disgusted at a 
place that had no end and returned to their native woods where 
they often joined in a chorus of such dismal howls that the watch- 
ers instinctively grasped their rifles more tightly. 

Hitherto the mass of the natives had been friendly with the 
white settlers generally; but in the spring of 1794 it was noticed 
that parties of red men passed up and down the Okoloco trail 


more frequently than at any previous time. The maxim that 
"When an Indian wants to fool you he goes both ways," gave the 
whites a hint that mischief was brewing. Talitchlechee himself 
passed several times, and on one occasion stopped and asked some 
questions. Abe Trent happened to be present, and being familiar 
with the old warrior's language, they engaged in the following 
conversation : 

"Bows and arrows — what sort shoot pale-faces?" 

"We have none — don't want any," answered Abe, pointing to 
a crow that was sitting on a tall tree some distance away. "See 
that crow fall," he continued, and with the crack of his rifle the 
bird fell to the ground. "That," still continued Abe, "shows the 
sort of arrows we shoot. ' ' 

The old man was evidently puzzled, and after a long pause 
asked, as if in doubt of the propriety of his questions : 

"Pale-faces come how many more?" 

"Don't know — can not count them." 

"Pale-faces here now how many?" 

"So many that I can not count them either — so many that we 
have to leave most of them in a big hole and take them out as 
we need them." 

The old leader looked surprised as well as a little incredulous; 
but after apparently considering the matter, he shook his head 
violently, and said as if to himself: "Nodoroc! Nodoroc!" and 
passed on hurriedly. 

If Abe Trent had puzzled the wiley old chief, he was in turn 
puzzled himself. Though fluent in the use of Greek words, he 
did not know the meaning of Nodoroc. Somehow the short, 
jerky way the Indian pronounced the word gave it an ominous 
sound, and he resolved to apply to Umausauga, the best authority 
he could think of, for an explanation. 

A short time after the chief's visit the country was thrown 
into confusion by the always dreaded visit of the "WOG." 
Though his appearance seemed to be familiar to some of the 
natives in the surrounding country, none of the white people had 
ever seen him. 


It was a few hours in the night. The half moon hung low, and 
barely gave light enough to reveal the outlines of an object ; just 
enough to make shadows that swayed back and forth in the pass- 
ing breeze seem ghostly. As usual there were sentinels in the 
timbered circle ; for now that the friendship of the natives was 
doubted, the white people, though few in number, managed to 
know almost everything that was carried on in the country. 
Looking to the four points of the compass stood the Draper fam- 
ily and Abe Trent, all heavily armed, Helen's position facing to 
the east. At her feet, curled up nearly into a ball, was Lion, a 
huge Egyptian dog as fierce and almost as powerful as a mad 
tiger. Suddenly the dog unrolled himself. ''TOO HOO" broke 
the reigning silence. It was Helen's signal to the other sentinels 
that something unusual was on hand. Lion's growl always 
meant something. 

The girl stood looking and listening. Lion was at her side, 
bristles erect and occasionally giving a low growl ; lower than be- 
fore. Like an apparition emerging from the ground Abe Trent 
appeared on the other side. She realized that she stood between 
two powerful friends. Just then her father and mother came 
near, and Mrs. Draper, pointing across the field whispered, 
"LOOK." Lion increased his growls, and all plainly saw a wolf 
enter the field for a short distance, look around, and then hastily 
retreat. Another and another did the same way until a dozen or 
more appeared and looked across the field as if in doubt as to 
what they should do. While thus looking, they suddenly scam- 
pered away and disappeared in the woods. 

While wondering at the unusual actions of the wolves, a dark 
object that appeared to be carrying a white flag, emerged from 
the woods and stopped at the outer rim of the field. It was then 
seen that the white flag was waved from side to side like one 
motioning to another to get out of the way. This continued for 
several minutes when at last the dark object moved forward 
still flourishing its white banner. When little more than half 
across the field a whizzing sound was heard as the flag went back 
and forth like a boy cracking his hickory bark whip. Even Lion 
became uneasy, and turned his growls into low whines. This was 


significant to all. While seeing that their guns were in order Mr. 
Draper hurriedly whispered — 

"The good Lord! It's that infernal wog!" As bad as Lion 
had seemed to be scared, his courage returned and it required 
all of the family's efforts to keep him from meeting the still 
advancing monster. Mr. Draper's rifle carried an ounce ball, and 
though he had heard that it was best to let the creature alone, and 
that its hide was impervious to a bullet, he felt sure in the light 
of past experience, that he could, to use his own words, "send a 
leaden messenger clean through any part of its body, or plug one 
of its fiery eyes out either." He was, however, persuaded to 
wait for further developments, and the party retired to the 
house, barred the doors, and stood by their guns, axes and knives, 
awaiting the gage of battle, if need be. 

The near approach of the animal was plainly indicated by the 
whiz of his tail, and when he reached the door he made a noise 
similar to the long-continued hissing of a goose. Having done 
this several times, he began his serenade around the house and 
finding a small opening between the logs, he poked his forked 
tongue through it as if trying to impale some one between its 
slimy prongs. Lion saw this and rushed to grap the tongue, but 
Mr. Draper succeeded in stopping him just in the nick of time. 
Having thus twice gone around the house, he gave a short shout 
similar to one made by a wild hog in the woods, and going west, 
slowly disappeared. Awhile after the animal left, a light tap was 
heard at the door. It was Mera who said that her father had 
seen the wog going away, and that she had come to see if her 
friends were safe, and to offer such assistance as she might be 
able to give. When asked why she was not afraid to be out at 
such a time, the noble girl modestly replied that she could out- 
run anything that carried along one side at a time. Though evi- 
dently willing to return alone, Abe Trent would not allow her to 
do so, and shouldering his rifle he accompanied her home "with 
as much pleasure," he said, "as I ever felt in my life." 

It appeared that the Draper family was the only one visited 
by the monster at Snodon, and that after leaving there he was 
not heard of until he reached Haitauthuga, a small settlement 


of wigwams that stood on the plain now covered by the fine oak 
grove east of the residence of Rev. H. N. Rainey at Mulberry. 
There lived Siloquot, a head man among the Creeks, and a sort of 
politician. He was one of the signers of the treaty made at 
Shoulderbone in 1786, and a man of some consequence. When 
the unscrupulous wog reached his wigwam there were two Lower 
Creek dignitaries present, perhaps on official business, and as he 
began to blow and hiss like a monster goose, they ran to the 
woods as only scared Indians can run, leaving their host to his 
fate. But Siloquot found safety in the top of a tall tree where 
the beast, having hoofs instead of claws, could not follow him. 

The spring season was now far advanced and Abe Trent's stay 
at Snodon where he was helping Mr. Draper do some heavy work 
was drawing to a close. Still he had not advanced one step in his 
love affair with Helen. They went hunting on horseback by day, 
and sometimes walked around the wood circle watching for In- 
dians at night, but she would not talk about anything except 
"hunting" and "watching." Still she was the same lovely, kind 
and attentive girl that she was at first. Not one word would she 
say about loving anybody. 

"Why," passionately exclaimed Abe, one night, when on 
watch "do you refuse to let me tell how much I love you when 
you know that I am anxious to do so?" 

"Dear me, Mr. Trent," she said, stooping low to look under 
the hanging branches of a tree, "look at that dark spot on the 
far side of the field. I have been watching it for some time, and 
it seems to be coming slowly but constantly nearer." 

"Yes," was the snappish reply, "you can talk about anything 
but the one dearest to me, and if — " 

"Just look! It comes nearer and nearer," she said, punctua- 
ting the remark with the click of her rifle. 

"Let it come; but before it gets here tell me whether you love 
me or not. It may be your last chance." 

"0 Mr. Trent! It's an Indian crawling on the ground! Look 
at him! He's 'humping it' back to the woods. What does he 
mean, you reckon?" 


"What do you mean by — " Just then a well-known "TOO- 
HOO-HOO" came from a long distance to the left. It was the sig- 
nal of Ocean Scupeen warning the family that an enemy was 
lurking in the woods. Abe ceased to press his suit further, and 
he and Helen listened. The signal was not repeated. If it had 
been they would have known that the danger was to be met at 
once. While still listening Mr. and Mrs. Draper appeared, bring- 
ing Mera and Lion with them. The girl, wholly unexpected at the 
time, was greatly agitated, and threw herself into Helen's wide 
open arms, saying in broken language : 

"0 Helen, I have seen such an awful time this evening! About 
sundown I went to the big rocks to grind corn. I heard one man 
tell another that the pale-face girl who lived in the circle must 
be carried away to-night, and that she would be returned only 
when all the pale-faces left the country. They did not see me and 
I hastened away to tell you. I soon met Ocean Scupeen, and we 
decided that it would be best for him to warn you by a danger 
signal and for me to come at once and tell you what the danger 
is. There are watchers all around here and that is the reason 
why I did not come sooner, and why, I suppose, Ocean is so far 
away. Did you hear his signal?" 

"Yes, darling," softly said Helen, clasping her faithful friend 
still closer in her arms. 

Utter silence prevailed for awhile. Abe or Draper was con- 
stantly walking around the belt and looking across the field. The 
object of the crawling Indian as discovered by Helen had been 
revealed. It was uncertain as to how soon a similar effort might 
be made by an increased number. When Abe was about half way 
around his beat, he heard a low growl, and looking saw Lion 
standing near with one foot off the ground and with bristles 
erect. "TOO-HOO!" bravely escaped his lips and he was soon 
joined by his companions. It was quite dark and nothing un- 
usual was in sight. Yet the dog continued to growl and to show 
a great desire to rush forward. Mera had in the meantime crawl- 
ed a little way into the field and discovered four men in a stoop- 
ing posture a little more than half way across it. Doubtless their 
presence had caused Lion's growls, and now that they were so 


near they heard him and ran back to the woods on feet and 
hands like so many animals. An hour or more of silence follow- 
ed. Even the dog lay quietly at Helen's feet. That was almost 
a sure sign that no enemy was near. 

By and by the long-drawn hooting of an owl was heard, but 
nearer than before. Was that hoot made by an owl? No, owls 
do not dwell on their syllables. Was it made by an Indian? No; 
Indians say "TU-HU." Then it was made by Ocean Scupeen. 
Yes, listen "TO-HU-0-0." 

' ' That means the Indians are gone from this immediate vicinity, 
at least for the present," said one. 

"What shall we do?" asked another. 

"Wait and see," answered the others. 

Soon Ocean himself joined the sentinels and reported that he 
had learned enough to satisfy him that no further attempt to 
capture Helen would be made that night; but that they would 
try some other plan in the future when the dog was out of the 

"So, Helen," concluded the faithful boy, "hereafter look to the 
welfare of both yourself and your dog. I am indebted to Eto- 
hautee for most of this information, and he will keep us informed 
of the movements of the enemy as well as he can. That means 
very much, for we all know both his fidelity and his consummate 
ability. I can say the same for the Modin family ; but in no case 
use one of their names in connection with this matter except to 
a known friend." Such were the faithful services rendered and 
the sage advice given by a mere boy. Nor will his shadow grow 

Sure enough, nothing more of the foiled kidnappers was heard 
that night. Believing that any further attempt to interfere with 
the liberties of Helen Draper would result in open war, and ex- 
pecting other emigrants to arrive at an early day, it was thought 
good policy for her to go to Fort Strong on the following morn- 
ing and, with her dog, remain there until such time as circum- 
stances would justify her return. 

Accordingly, Helen, accompanied by Abe Trent and Ocean 
Scupeen, rode towards Talasee at the appointed time. Ocean was 


a bold and fearless rider, and when on "DART," his well-trained 
horse, his handsome face and elegant form all combined to give 
him a fine appearance, Abe, knowing that this dashing young- 
ster and Helen were close friends, was a little jealous; still he 
admired the boy for his well-known bravery as well as for his 
kind, unselfish heart. 

There was great joy at Talasee when the trio arrived from 
Snodon. Ruth, Banna and Helen talked and talked until Abe 
became nervous and suggested that — 

"Mr. Strong and myself be excused for the evening, and that 
our mutual friend, Mr. Scupeen, be allowed to remain, and if pos- 
sible, prevent the ladies from talking themselves to death." 

Without saying a word, Helen wrote something on a slip of 
paper and gave it to Abe. It read as follows : 

"Please let the boys, Master Josiah Strong and Master Abel 
Trent, pass up and down the river until midnight, and as much 
longer as they please. Signed, 


Several of the neighboring families were present, and led by 
Mr. Strong, every man selected a "pardner" at random, and all, 
old and young, large and small, whirled off into the mazes of a 
giddy dance which turned out to be what they afterwards called, 
"The Regular Georgia Breakdown." Ocean, who was a sort of 
musician, snatched a fiddle from the table and stood in the cor- 
ner and began to play. Tata Nyxter, who was looking in at the 
door, grabbed one of the long tin bugles that hung on the wall 
and began to blow it. Round and round, back and forth went 
the dancers; some with the "double shuffle," some cut the "pigeon 
wing," and some "jumped jim crow." 

"Squeak! Squack ! Squeak!" went the rough, discordant notes 
of the fiddle; "toot-ta-tah-toot," went the blasts of the bugle, and 
some who were nearly exhausted kept better time by puffing 
and blowing than they did with their feet. 

It was a sure-enough breakdown, and though no rule was fol- 
lowed nor time observed by either dancers or musicians, they 


shyly congratulated each other for their elegant performances. 
Once more, such was life in old times ! 

Though playfully requested, Abe Trent had a real motive for 
wanting to be absent that evening. He was anxious for an inter- 
view with Umausauga in regard to the meaning of the strange 
word, NODOROC ; and feeling sure that his friend had more in- 
fluence over the Indian than any one else, he desired to transfer 
the interview to Mr. Strong. The friendship between the two 
was strong indeed. They addressed each other as "father" and 
"son," and because of these cordial relations Mr. Strong did not 
hesitate to comply with his friend's request to conduct the inter- 
view. Accordingly after the dance was over Josiah and Abe 
shouldered their rifles and crosing the river at the shoals, the 
former remained there to fish, apparently, and the latter proceed- 
ed on his mission. He found Umausauga smoking a corn-cob 
pipe of which he had become very fond, and seemed to be in ex- 
cellent humor. "Father," asked Mr. Strong, after using some 
preliminaries, "would it be wrong for you to tell me what 
Nodoroc means?" 

The Indian appeared to be surprised and a little disconcerted; 
but after thinking a little, asked : 

"That what for you want to know?" 

Mr. Strong proceeded to tell him the suspicious way in which 
Talitchlechee had used the word by evidently connecting it with 
Beadland, and then added : 

"Father, when you went around the land with us you showed 
so many signs of uneasiness that we have never been able to un- 
derstand. Only a very few natives live on it, and the appearance 
of Snodon shows that it is in a forsaken country. They seldom 
pass through it, and seem to be actually afraid of the place. And 
now, as you well know, that the presence of the white man in 
this part of the country is beginning to give some dissatisfaction, 
and inasmuch as you and your brother, Etohautee, together with 
his son, Tata, are already classed with the white people, we must 
know everything that is going on around us. We have full con- 


fidence in the three mentioned, and in the Modin family also, and 
when any of you want help come to us for it at once. Now, father, 
what do you have to say?" 

"Yes," said the Indian after a long and thoughtful pause, 
"Talitchlechee fool. He knows Nodoroc nothing has to do with 
white man. Nodoroc in Beadland is, Umausauga to sell it want- 
ed. White man 'fraid of it not. Indian is — scare him to death. 
Few have seen it ever. 'Fraid to go. To sell it that is why. 
Devil there lives. It hell is — Great Spirit not there." 

"Please." said Mr. Strong mildly, "talk like Banna and I have 
taught you to speak, and tell me why you use the words devil 
and hell when speaking of Nodoroc?" 

"Oh, Yes, Yes! I forgot! I'll leave off the old Umausauga and 
come back to the new man that you and Banna and the grace of 
God made out of the old one and tell you all important move- 
ments of the enemy as they occur, and, of the secret which In- 
dians believe lies hidden in Nodoroc. It is kept a secret only be- 
cause of the mystery connected with the horrid place. 

"As I have already said, Nodoroc is hell, and the wog that 
passed through Snodon not long ago, is the devil and makes his 
headquarters there, where no one who gets in ever gets out." 

"The Great Scott!" exclaimed Strong excitedly. "I am all 
anxiety to see the place, and instead of being sorry that it is in 
Beadland I am glad of it. And now that I know Nodoroc belongs 
to me and my friends, we will go and see the place very soon. I 
am sure that all will be glad for you to go with us, show us the 
way to go, and give us such information as we may need. Will 
you kindly do so?" 

"Yes! Yes! Now that I am not an Indian because I have placed 
myself on the side of the white man and of the white man's God, 
and for these reasons have felt myself at liberty to give away a 
secret in regard to his place of torment, I therefore consent to go. 
Will Banna go with us?" 



"Then see that she does not go near the horrid, boiling, bubbling 
smoking place. It burns ! It burns ! ' ' 

No man was ever more mystified than Josiah Strong was by 
Umausauga's description of Nodoroc. He could not even venture 
to dispute the Indian's word; yet almost every feature described 
as so unlike anything he had ever heard of before, that he was 
lost in wonder and amazement. 



Visit to Nodoroc — Column of Smoke — At Nodoroc — ^The Boil- 
ing Mud — The Triangular House — The Noon Breeze — 
Umausauga's Narrative — The Liying Victim — The Shower 
OF Arrows — The Conspiracy — Its Victims. 

' ' It burns ! It burns ! " To the party of men and women, who, 
led by Umausauga, left Fort Strong on the following morning, 
these words as used on the previous day by their leader, were a 
profound mystery. The anxious company consisted of Mr. and 
Mrs. Josiah Strong, Mr. and Mrs. Leon Shore, Helen Draper, 
Abel Trent, and Edward Belknap. This, with the dogs, left a 
comparatively strong force at Talasee, which was always well 
guarded night and day. They went by the way of Calamit, and 
there they left the Trail and turning to the right, rode through 
the dense forest to some point on the high plain upon which 
Chapel church now stands. There they halted, and looking to 
the north the leader pointed out a long, slender column of smoke 
which seemed to pierce the region of the clouds. The sun shone 
brightly and there was not a passing zephyr to break the reigning 
stillness, while slowly, silently, solemnly, the curling, twisting, 
airy wreaths of intensely black smoke, marked the exact location 
of the mysterious Nodoroc, the Indian's place of torment. Doubt- 
less it was the first view of an Anglo-Saxon eye, and very im- 
pressive. Said Mr. Strong in an effort to describe the scene : 

"I am utterly unable to describe the scene or to express in 
words the feelings it produces. When I take into consideration 
the associations connected with it and with the other more awful 
one described in the word of God I am so overcome with the 
comparison suggested that I can think only of St. John's words 
in Revelation — 'And the smoke of their torment ascendeth up 
for ever and ever.' " 

The sky above, the air and the woods around, and the faces 
of the company, all seemed to be shrouded in a funeral pall. The 
solemn spell was not broken when the leader again pointed to 


the column of smoke and all moved forward. Having gone a 
short distance they entered a valley in which all the animals in 
the country seemed to have collected. 

Having never seen men and women on horseback before, and 
perhaps thinking the horses and their riders were one and the 
same, they scampered off in every direction as if never before so 
badly scared. Turning slightly from the little valley to the west, 
the party passed over a narrow plain and descended a gentle 
slope until they could see the column of smoke forming on the 
surface of what appeared be a lake of bluish water. Going a little 
nearer it was found that not a sprig of vegetation of any kind 
grew near it and that the timber growing in the vicinity was 
badly dwarfed. A closer inspection revealed the astonishing 
fact that the lake was not water, but a body of from three to five 
acres of smoking, bubbling, bluish mud of about the consistency 
of molasses, and whose surface ranged from two to three feet be- 
low the surrounding solid land. The mud near the banks was 
slightly in motion, but its action gradually increased towards 
the center until about half an acre had the appearance of a 
moderately boiling pot of water. The movement of the smoke 
which arose from the bubbles was sluggish, and uniting in funnel- 
shaped form a few feet above the surface, formed the imposing 
column seen from the distant plain. It was perhaps five feet in 
diameter at the base, and tapering at the height of at least one- 
fourth of a mile, spread out like the branches of a tree. Now and 
then a flickering, bluish blaze, like a flame from a smouldering 
fire, played for a moment over various parts of the boiling area. 
This made the smoke more dense than when there was no flame, 
and the boiling was less violent. It was said by those who had 
witnessed this uncommon phenomenon on a dark night, that it 
produced such horrid feelings as to cause some people to faint and 
made others so sick that they had to be led away. These emo- 
tions were probably produced by the unpleasant stench that arose 
from the lake when the flames were not flickering over it. The 
fire fed on the ascending gas that was thrown up by the bubbles 
and thus destroyed the offensive odor. 


There, amid the dismal solitudes of a primeval forest, where 
the white man never trod before, unknown races of people, ante- 
dating the red man, may have stood and wondered over the 
mysteries of Nodoroc just as did the pioneer company from Tal- 
asee; for the column of smoke, the lake of boiling mud, and the 
flames of fire that played over it must have been indescribably 
■■ grand and awfully suggestive. Who knows that the place did not 
mark one of the last vestiges of primeval time when "the earth 
was without form, and void, and darkness moved on the face of 
the deep." 

It was evident that work of which even the red man knew nom- 
ing had been carried on at this curious place during the lorig 
gone ages of the past. At the western end of the hot mud lake\ 
and fifty steps from its margin, there was a triangular stone \ 
house whose sides were equal, twelve feet long and eight feet 
high. The stones of which it was built were roughly dressed, but 
well enough for them to fit closely and remain in place steadily. 
They were of various dimensions, the largest being heavy enough, 
perhaps, to require two men to carry them. In the west wall, 
facing the lake, there was an opening nearly five feet high and 
thirty-two inches wide, the sides of which were better dressed 
than any other part of the structure. The stone immediately 
above this opening or door jutted out from the wall a little more 
than two feet as if intended for an awning; but a close inspec- 
tion showed that it had been used for some sort of ceremonial 
purposes. The upper side and that part of the wall facing it 
plainly indicated the long-continued action of fire, showing like 
the more elaborate and artistic altars at Yamacutah or Tumbling 
Shoals the observance of such sacrificial rites as are attributed 
to the prehistoric races of this country. 

The floor of this equilateral triangle was of the same material 
as the walls, and in the west corner was a solid, hewn stone altar 
having three steps, on each of which were the same signs of fire 
as shown on the projecting stone over the door. Both were 
probably used in conjunction for the same purpose. In 1837 


Gov. George R. Gilmer purchased this altar,* and in the spring of 
1900, it was still where Mr, Gilmer placed it in the front yard of 
his residence in Lexington, Georgia. 

The indications were that the triangle had been covered, but 
no evidence of the material used has survived the rush of the 
sweeping years that have come and gone since it first began to 

The walls were covered with a greenish gray moss which must 
have been the growth of ages. Seemingly one layer, or the growth 
of a long series of years, had died, and another had grown upon 
that, and another and another, until the whole bed was, in some 
places, from six to eight inches deep. A few badly dwarfed oak 
and chestnut bushes were growing in the moss, and their roots had 
forced themselves between the stones. 

All present were of a cheerful disposition, but now as they 
realized that Umausauga's declaration, "It burns! It burns," was 
really true; that a dry piece of timber thrown into the boiling 
mud was instantly burned into ashes; that a heavy rain which 
had just fallen evaporated as fast as it fell; and that the only 
effect was to increase the volume of smoke, the entire party be- 
came silent and thoughtful. Even Helen Draper failed to shout, 
"Hurrah for success," and settled down to serious meditation. 
When at last aroused she turned to Mrs. Shore and said, "My 
dear Ruth, I am about ready to believe that we have fallen into 
the hands of Aladdin and his lamp and that we have been trans- 
ported to the shores of the Dead Sea. Have you seen any apples 
of Sodom growing about here?" "No, child, no," answered 
Ruth, with a faint smile, "but talking about apples makes me 
hungry. What do you all say?" 

It was nearly noon, and having brought an ample supply of 
provisions with them, all joined in a hearty dinner at some dis- 
tance from the lake. "What is that?" asked Ruth as she munched 
a piece of broiled fish and sniffed the air. "The old wog is 
getting his breath," replied Josiah Strong, "as he always does 

*Quite a number of the stones are still in the yard; but many have been 
carried away by curio seekers. Dr. W. H. Keynolds occupies the old home 
at present, 1914. — Ed. 


just at noon. Father Umausauga warned me of this, but I had 
forgotten to mention it." 

A brisk breeze had set in from the southwest, the leaves flutter- 
ed, the tree-tops waved back and forth, the column of smoke dis- 
solved, and in whirling eddies went chasing each other over the 
ground and through the air, and the stench from the lake became 
almost intolerable. The breeze continued for a short time only, 
just long enough, the Indians believed, for the monster that in- 
habited it to get a good breath. It was afterwards found that this 
strange phenomenon occurred at time of full moon only. When 
the wind had subsided Umausauga, by request, gave the follow- 
ing account of Nodoroc, repeating a few things that he had for- 
merly mentioned to Mr. Strong: 

"To the mind of the Creek Indian Nodoroc means about the 
same as hell does to the white man, and Wog corresponds to 
devil, or Satan. For the meaning and application of these names 
I am indebted to my darling Banna, and I have full faith in all 
that she says. I was myself once so much afraid of the wog- 
devil that I sold the land on which he mostly traveled, and only 
a few of my race will live on it. The Creeks believe that all bad 
spirits are sent here and when their bodies die and sometimes they 
die here and the wog smooths over the hole they make when 
entering the mud by sweeping his ugly tail from side to tide. 

"When one of you told Talitchlechee that you kept men in a 
hole and took them out as you needed them, he doubtless thought 
that Nodoroc was meant ; and I am of the opinion that that 
thought of the old chief had as^'-^much to do in calming down his 
fiery spirit as the mortal dread that he and all his warriors have 
of your keen cracking rifles. 

"A long time ago the place was hotter than it is now. Even 
when I was a boy you could sometimes see solid sheets of flame 
shooting over the surface like lightning in a southern storm- 
cloud; and the boiling mud would pop and crack like a burning 
canebrake. All this made people, and its present condition still 
makes some people believe, that the wog was mad because enough 
bad spirits were not sent to him. This belief caused innocent 
victims to be thrown into the horrid place to satisfy revengeful 


and overbearing natures and to keep the wog from visiting them 
at night. 

"But all the victims that have suffered here v^^ere not innocent. 
Many years ago a M^oman who lived at Jasacathor killed and ate 
one of her own children. A hunting party made the discovery 
and reported the matter to Urocasca, the Head Man at the time. 
Finding the report to be true he ordered her to be thrown head 
foremost into the hottest part of Nodoroc. The old wog was said 
to turn over when she struck the mud, and sweeping his tail 
back and forth over the hole she made, the wretch, though often 
heard, was never seen again. 

"Many dark nights she has run over these hills squalling and 
screaming like a demon while a troop of children followed close 
behind her shouting and clapping their hands as if greatly en- 
joying her misery. Her name was Fenceruga, and since that 
time it has only been used to scare children. 

"All prisoners taken in war and those who are condemned to 
death for crime are thrown into Nodoroc by men called Honoras. 
At the battle of Radoata the Ceeks captured nine prisoners. They 
were brought here and thrown into the boiling mud. It was a 
difficult matter to find a man who was willing to be an Honora, 
and though not one myself, I saw the prisoners thrown in just 
where there was a blue blaze of fire playing around them. They 
did not seem to care for anything until the flames touched them. 
Then all gave the Cherokee scream of lament. Owocowah ! 
Owoeowah ! I did not care for it then, but it seems so terrible, 
terrible now. 

"I never had a wife though once I dearly loved a beautiful 
girl, and I love her memory still. She was as dear to me as life 
itself. Yes ! Yes ! she was much dearer than my life. Her name 
was Nere Nara. She lived at Snodon where Modin now lives. 
She was Nyrulyn's sister; with soft and lovely eyes like those of 
the red deer. Like the full round moon in all its glory, her face 
with dimpled chin was no akin to earth and seemed to rise and 
set with the morning and the evening stars. Glad and musical 
was her laugh as the water ripples over the rocks at Talasee, and 
her cheeks were as lovely as dewdrops in the morning sunshine. 


As Nyrulyn's hair is long and glossy so was Nere Nara's, though 
a little, just a little, wavy — not so much so as Banna's is now. 
She was as fleet on foot as Mera, and as bright as Mera, too. But 
Nere Nara is gone, now — gone to live beyond the stars in the 
Happy Hunting Grounds of her fathers — gone to the white man's 
Heaven where, Ouska ! Chouska ! Loak (Glory to God !) I will meet 
her again sometime — meet my lost Nere Nara beyond the stars ! 
Ouska ! Chouska ! Loak ! 

"I was to carry my lost loved one to Adabor, the wigwam on 
the hill, at time of the next round moon, but Watleskew, a 
Choctaw warrior came to Snodon and fell in love with Sunrise 
— Nere Nara means Sunrise. He talked love to her for a long 
time. She would not talk love to him. That made him mad. He 
buried his tomahawk in her head. She died on the very spot 
where Banna gave herself away to Mr. Strong. Her murderer 
fled towards the north. I had the wings of a bird to run, and 
the eye of an eagle to follow her tracks. I ran in front, Etohau- 
tee and Notha Neva, her brother whom you know, kept my tracks 
hot with their own feet. We came up with him at Thomocoggin, 
[Jefferson]. Three tomahawks were instantly buried in his car- 
rion body, two in his head and one in his heart, which I, with 
my own hand, tore from his breast and gave to a hungry wolf 
that was prowling around the place. We brought the carrion 
body here. We ought to have brought him alive ; but the cries 
of vengeance called for haste and they were met with haste. With 
Modin to help us we threw the carrion far into the boiling, 
smoking lake just where dull, bluish flames were reaching out, 
as if for other victims, like lightning in the angry storm cloud. 
I gloried in the deed then. I feel differently about it now. That 
was the only dead body ever thrown into Nodoroc. Other crim- 
inals that died away from here, if buried at all, lie on the sur- 
rounding hill. Look, you can see many graves. It is the Home 
of Accursed. 

"We buried Nere Nara just where she died. There my heart is 
buried with her. There, too, I want my body to be buried at her 
side. Will any of my white friends who may live longer than 
I do promise to bury me there?" 


The speaker paused and looked upon those around him im- 
ploringly. Instantly all present pledged themselves to comply 
with his request, and to procure the assistance of every white 
man and woman in the country if necessary, A faint smile play- 
ed over his features, he chased the thickly falling tears from his 
eyes and buried his face in the palms of his ponderous hands. 
As on former occasions, Banna went and sat at his side. She 
tenderly chased his massive brow with her hands, and leaning 
her head upon his shoulder, wept like a stricken child. 

By and by he looked up and said: "Excuse me! This is not 
my weakness, but my strength — my strength to bear all things 
for Nere Nara. When she came into my life the sunshine turned 
into gold, the moonbeams into silver, and the stars into pearls of 
the ocean, the great blue ocean above, where God unfurls his ban- 
ner and bids us march on to victory beneath it, Ouska ! Chouska ! 

"But," continued the Indian after a long pause, "when Sun- 
rise was taken away all the glories of earth turned black as the 
smoke of Nodoroc. I could not see the blooming flowers, hear the 
singing birds or laughing water. As I thought on these things 
my blood began to boil as boil the central fires of the white 
man's hell and of the red man's together. I swore vengeance 
against the whole Choctaw tribe. I organized a war party of 
more than two hundred followers. When almost ready to start 
on my mission of vengeance the wog began to appear occasionally. 

"Some of you have seen him with his thrashing tail, his great 
red eyes, his grinning lips and forked tongue. At first he scared 
some of the natives to death, and it was reported all over the 
country that he snatched dead bodies out of their graves and ate 
them. This made me uneasy about the precious body of my lost 
Sunrise who had so suddenly and unexpectedly set in gloom to rise 
no more. To protect her from the abominable creature I built the 
great rock pillar which you all well know as Nere Nara over her 
grave at Snodon. 

"Its foundation is deep in the ground to prevent the beast from 
scratching under, and its top is high so as to enable men who 
watched the grave to protect themselves. Every night for many 


moons I sat on top of that dreary pile of rocks to watch for the 
coming of the monster. But it was a work of love, and therefore 
pleasant. Some of my friends were always on watch with 
me, and one of us was always wide-awake. One time only the 
dreadful thing came in sight; but after scaring Hoochleohoopah, 
who lived where Modin now lives, away from the country, passed 
on without doing any other mischief. 

"By and by, when the lovely form of Nere Nara had returned 
to what Banna calls her mother earth, the watch was discon- 
tinued ; but though the place is black and dreary, I still continue 
to go there frequently. Sometimes Banna went with me, and 
sometimes she went alone. It was on one of these lonely visits 
that she found the lock of hair that grew on Mr. Strong's head. 

"Vengeance against the Choctaws still ran swiftly in every 
drop of my blood ; but another bright light, almost too bright for 
earth, came bounding into my life. I found a little daughter on 
the battlefield of Arharra. I carried her home and nursed her 
with my own hands. All too soon she grew to be a lovely woman 
— more lovely to me than the rising sun — more brilliant to me 
than the evening star, and has, in turn, nursed me with her own 
hands. The Great Spirit has placed her in a happy home. There 
the glorious light of the white man's heaven fell upon her, and 
there the blood of a crucified Eedeemer made her who was always 
white, still whiter than snow. I once believed all these things 
about Nodoroc. I do not believe them now. Banna talked 
[prayed] to the true God for me. Vengeance is all gone now. I 
leave that to the God she serves — to her God and to my God. 
Ouska ! Chouska ! Loah ! Soul answers soul that Banna Mar de 
Vedo Strong is right, and God is true. Umausauga is done !" 

The foregoing is a free translation of Umausauga 's narrative. 

No speaker ever had a mort attentive audience, nor was any 
ever more sincere in his final conclusions. Having finished his 
narrative he slowly walked far up the hill, and facing to the east, 
reclined upon the ground. Lighting his favorite corn-cob pipe he 
began to smoke and apparently fell into a deep meditation. His 
companions were walking about in various directions thinking 
of the horrid scenes connected with the place. Perhaps the fate 


of Fenceruga and Wetleskaw was most vivid in their minds ; but 
if such instances were only a small part of what one man knew of 
Nodoroc, what would be the sum total of all the horrors witnessed 
at that dreadful place ? 

While the scattered company was silently thinking over the 
strange customs of savage life and trying to compare it with the 
light of a Gospel day. Umausauga arose to his feet quickly, and 
placing his hand over his mouth to denote silence, hastily joined 
his companions near the triangle. 

"Silence! silence!" he said as he seated himself near Mr. and 
Mrs. Strong. "There is no danger if you don't interfere, and 
keep a still tongue." 

As a matter of habit more than otherwise, every rifle in the 
company "clicked" at the word danger, and Mr. Strong asked 
anxiously: "What have you discovered, father?" "The Honoras 
are coming," was the answer, as the Indian pointed across the 
lake to the south and continued: "They have gotten some poor 
wretch for the old wog. I saw them stop and tie his hands to- 
gether. There are six Honoras, and I judge from fifteen to 
twenty warriors. It is not likely that the latter will come any 
nearer if — " 

While the Indian was speaking six large men, dressed in skins 
and decorated with feathers came in view from the direction in- 
dicated. They were leading a medium-sized man whose steps 
were bold and firm, and looking straight before him, seemed to 
advance without a tremor. Arriving at the bank the Honoras 
took hold of him, three on each side, and swinging him back and 
forth several times, threw him head foremost into the hot cal- 
dron of slimy mud. The body quickly disappeared below the sur- 
face, but nothing was seen of the wog or of its trowel-like tail by 
the silent and almost breathless spectators. 

With a slow and measured tread, in single file and stooping 
posture, the Honoras joined their comrades in the distance, and 
going south, soon disappeared. 

Rendered almost speechless by the dreadful sight just wit- 
nessed, the little party was standing in wonder over "man's 
inhumanity to man" when the silence was broken by the whiz- 


zing of a shower of arrows through the tree tops over their heads, 
and some that struck solid timber fell to the ground near their 

''What's that?" asked several at the same time. "I never 
heard of such a thing before," answered the Indian. "But as 
they know," he continued thoughtfully, "that white people are 
here, they shot the arrows to notify you that if you follow them 
they will shoot again." 

"Shoot again indeed!" hissed Abe Trent, through his grind- 
ing teeth. "If Josiah and Leon will go with me, we'll quickly 
show 'em who has the next shot." 

The next moment Abe was on his horse and ready for a furious 
pursuit ; but better counsel prevailed ; and though thoroughly 
mad, Abe complied with the wishes of his friends, a common thing 
for him to do. Helen Draper had not said a word, but was on her 
horse almost as soon as Abe himself, and with one hand raised to 
give the necessary signal to send him off at full speed wherever 
she directed, for by this time Scat was about as well trained as 
Alborak and Iro. 

Having sent out scouts and satisfied themselves that the In- 
dians were gone, Umausauga told the party that he had another 
message to deliver, and then they would all return home. Every 
one was at close attention with the first word he spoke. 

"Friends, children," he began, "of course I do not know of 
all the horrors that have been witnessed here. Even those of 
which I do know something, I have told you a few only. There 
is one more to which I wish to direct your attention because it re- 
lates to Banna, and I have never even told her of it. She was 
too young to understand it at the time, and I have thought it best 
not to tell her until now. Though a half Upper Creek, I am not 
a native of this part of the country. I was born and grew to 
manhood at Wetumpka [Columbus, Ga.]. on the Chattahoochee 
river. My father, Okokobee, was a ruling chief over the Ufallayak 
division of the Creek race. My mother, Elota, was a Muscogee 
woman whose father was also a ruling chief. I am their oldest 
son, and ray sister, Eltomura, is next. When I was about grown 
my father died. Through the influence of the Muscogees, Nena- 


themelahola was put in my father's place which he filled only a 
short time. Though entitled to the succession I did not want it, 
mainly because such a course would have involved my mother's 
safety. So to shorten the matter I and a young brother, Etohau- 
tee, whom you know, came to Snodon where he still lives; but 
after the passing of several moons I went to Adabor to prepare 
a home for my lovely Nere Nara. 

"Now it is a law of the Creek Nation that when the oldest son 
of a chief fails to fill the vacancy occasioned by his father's death, 
that his oldest child shall fill the place, or be put to death, and 
thus stop the line of inheritance in an unfaithful family. 

"Time passed on and by some means unknown to me, Nena- 
themelahola heard that I had a little daughter, and that my 
friends intended to put her in his place with the title of queen, and 
make me a Head Man to lead their warriors in battle and perform 
such other duties as warriors only are expected to do. This made 
the chief uneasy, and to get the child out of his way he sent 
emissaries here to murder her. 

"While their plans were being matured Etohautee happened 
to be in that country, and learning of them, he with nine chosen 
friends, hastened to give me warning. Again my blood was boil- 
ing hot. Just think of it ! Murder Banna ! Murder my princess 
whom you all call 'THE BEAUTIFUL ! '—whom I call 'THE 
GOOD!' Dear child! to what danger has she not been exposed? 

"Left a little child on the dreary battlefield to perish with 
hunger and be devoured by wild beasts, left where dead men, 
growling bears, screaming panthers and howling wolves were 
her only companions ! Next threatened with death if she, a mere 
child, should not be made a queen, and with death to prevent her 
from being one. And next, doomed to be carried as a slave to 
the dismal death-swamps of the south because she refused to be- 
come a servant of a villain here. Yes, darling Banna, my tongue 
can not express the danger to which you have been exposed ; but 
thank God, thou Great Everywhere, that you are now in the 
hands of friends who are strong enough and willing enough to 
protect you from all such dangers. 


"Etohautee and our nine friends, together with others who 
live here remained near me and the little girl until all danger 
was over. We were careful to keep her well concealed and strong- 
ly guarded. We ranged the country over both night and day un- 
til one evening about dark four men were seen stealing through 
the woods near Calamit, while the little girl, then about five years 
old, was sleeping in the opening beneath the arch of Nere Nara 
with three men on each side and one sentinel lying flat on top of 
the pillar. Peacefully, soundly, the child slept there that night; 
but she dreamed not of the time when she gave herself away at 
that very place with a promise to become the wife of a stranger 
of whom she had never heard. This increased our vigilance if pos- 
sible, for we had learned that all four of the men were very 
sharp and well calculated to carry on the murderous business in 
which they were engaged. One of them whom we supposed to be 
the leader, had the same rare faculty that Etohautee has of 
going to and from a place while you are watching it without 
being seen. 

"They do this by sliding on the ground just like a snake, and 
to discover one you must watch for a snake. This is not only a 
rare faculty, but to him who uses it, is the most advantageous ac- 
quirement known to the Indian race. Where one or more is known 
at all, he is called 'a sythyr' or crawler. Etohautee and his son, 
Tata, are the only sythrys in this part of the country, though all 
of them are very careful to keep this gift a profound secret, 
which enables them to be still more useful to themselves and their 
friends. You may now understand how Tata and his father can 
appear before you at night as if they had come out of the 
ground at your feet, and be thankful that they are your friends. 
Perhaps I should not have told you of these sythyrs ; but I have 
done so as a friend, and you will not give me away. 

"It is something of a wonder that the crawler leader did not 
give us more trouble, and doubtless would have done so if we had 
not had a crawler ourselves. 

"One dark, moonless night when I and most of my men were 
at or near Adabor it so happened that the sythyrs of both parties 
passed near each other. Fortunately the stranger did not discover 


my brother who, after waiting a little, turned and followed him 
to the large rock a few steps above the shoals. There he was soon 
joined by three others, and there, after a hard struggle to take 
them alive, all four were captured and securely bound. They 
proved to be the men who were sent to murder my darling little 
Banna. That was enough ! Just at sunrise on the following 
morning the four men were hurled, full length, into the boiling 
mud of Nodoroc. " 

The speaker paused for breath to give more force to the ve- 
hement words that began to snap from his quivering lips. Point- 
ing his long, bony finger towards the smoke he continued fiercely : 

"See! See! Yonder, where the blue blazes are chasing each oth- 
er for a moment, then instantly disappear and come again and 
again in quick succession, is where we threw them. And IJmau- 
sauga was avenged in part. Nenathemelahola was my mother's 
brother — a full Muscogee. Hence the influence of that tribe to 
place him in authority ; but it did not do him much good. A few 
moons after his four emissaries disappeared, he also failed to re- 
port, and Banna was beyond his reach. In a council of head men 
called for the purpose, I transferred all my claims of Eltomura. 
I am to act as her head man in time of war. Since Banna is now 
in other hands than mine, I hold myself in readiness to fly to her 
assistance when necessary. Again Umausauga is done." 

The day was now far spent, and two and two in solemn proces- 
sion, the party hastened to Talasee. Pages of unwritten history 
had been read that day, and the illustrations were so vivid that 
every feature was deeply engraven on the minds of all. A ghostly 
night followed and through its darkness restless sleep and fitful 
dreams alternate while now and then flickering blazes of fire 
played hide and seek over the walls. 

Note: For the benefit of the young reader, the Editor wishes to direct 
the attention to the great change in old Umausauga in the few years that 
he has been associated with the white people. When they found him on 
the banks of the river at Talasee, he firmly believed that Nodoroc was 
really hell; and that the "Wog" was the Evil One. But now he sees it in 
a different light. He is getting away from superstition and waking to the 
marvelous light of the Son of God. "Ouska! Chouska! Loah!" 


As the foregoing description of the Red Man's place of torment 
is the only leading feature of this narrative whose history can be 
continued, we venture to leave early life long enough to give an 
outline account of the curious place up to the present time. 

That Nodoroc was a mud volcano like those which still exist 
in various parts of the world, particularly in British Burma, there 
is no doubt in the minds of those who are familiar with its history 
of little more than one hundred years ago, and with the history 
of similar volcanoes which still contain boiling mud from which 
issue fumes of fire and black smoke. 

The writer knows nothing of the legends connected with the 
place. He gives them as they were given to him. 

Even to this day Nodoroc is a curiosity. It is situated three 
and one-half miles east of Winder on the plantation of John L. 
Harris, a substantial citizen of that progressive city. We have 
heard something of its history for nearly two generations before 
the country was first settled by the whites ; have seen its condi- 
tion when visited by highly intelligent parties in 1794, and will 
now give a brief outline of its history from the visit of Umausauga 
and his party to the present day. 

For many years after but little attention was given the volcano. 
In fact, the Indians kept away from Beadland, except when on 
their war expeditions ; and the whites were too busy with clearing 
the forest and fighting the red man to trouble with such things. 

This place became, apparently, nothing but a gloomy swamp. 
Those that saw the smoke rising from the hot mud thought it 
only fog. Years passed ; and after the white man began to come 
into Beadland from different counties of Georgia ; and from other 
states, even, settlements were made at different places. 

Mr. John Gossett lived nearest the mudhole, as it was called. 
He cleared a large field that almost surrounded Nodoroc. One 
morning when he and his good wife were in the field they noticed 
an unusual amoung of fog (or what they supposed was fog) hang- 
ing over the swamp. As the sun rose higher in the heavens they 
noticed that it did not dispel the supposed mist. But on the 
other hand the "fog" grew denser, until about 9 o'clock Mrs. 
Gossett saw a great volume of smoke burst forth from the swamp. 


She called her husband, who was plowing, to look. Both heard 
a loud rumbling noise, somewhat like that of distant thunder. Mr. 
Gossett's horse was frightened and tried to run, so loud was the 
noise. All at once, the whole surface of the mud hole seemed to 
rise up into the air. The elements seemed to be filled with hot 

It appeared to rise so high and the air was so full of the small 
particles that it darkened the sun for a few moments. Then came 
the hot stuff back to the earth, falling all around Gossett and his 
wife, some striking them bespattering their clothing but doing 
them no damage, as the little particles of mud were too small. 

After this eruption old Nodoroc seemed to settle down several 
feet and to cool off. In a few years it was perfectly cold and was 
known the country round as one of the worst of ' ' cow mires. ' ' 

Then the seeds of vegetation began to find their way to the rich 
mud. A stunted growth was covering the whole surface, though 
it was quite dangerous to venture on to it. A number of years 
later it was estimated that more cattle had been lost in the swamp 
during that period than was ever in the settlement at any one 
time. This led to the necessity of fencing the swamp which was 
continued until the coming of the stock law. 

Finally, old Nodoroc became the property of John L. Harris, 
who, always calm and calculating, determined to turn the old 
time horror into practical use. Accordingly, by dint of much 
hard work, skill, and a determination to succeed, he drained it 
sufficiently well to allow cultivation with the hoe. It produced 
first-class corn which Mr. Harris was careful to carry to solid 
ground in baskets. In the summer of the second year after the 
swamp was drained, the writer walked through the growing corn 
when it was from ten to twelve feet high, and the tops shook to 
the tread of his feet as far as the corn could be seen. 

The ditches were "planked" on the sides with stays between, 
to keep the soft mud in place, and it was curious to see pure, 
clear water running along them, as in comparatively recent times 
no water at all was running there. 

Mr. Harris continued to work his newly drained swamp with 
the hoe for several crops, but of recent years has been cultivating 


it with horse and plow, and always with highly satisfactory 

Bones and horns of animals, doubtless those that last disap- 
peared, was ploughed up occasionally. 

The whole area, consisting of about five acres, is now in a high 
state of cultivation, but the surface has been gradually sinking 
since it was first drained. 

What other, if any, metamorphosis takes place in the ancient 
Nodoroc is unknown ; but it is reasonable to conclude that its sub- 
terranean fires were extinguished by the eruption witnessed by 
Mr. and Mrs. John Gossett. 

Note: Old "Nodoroc" is still owned by Mr. John L. Harris. The Editor 
visited the place both in 1913 and 1914. The soil is a blue-black in color, 
very porous and is about four to five feet deep, that is the hard sand pan 
that has formed is that depth below the surface. In looking down at the 
"bottom," from the surrounding hills, which are not high, it has the ap- 
pearance of five acres of land covered with coal dust, Nodoroc is about 
one-half mile east of Chapel Church and one-fourth mile south of the 
S. A. L. E. E. on the head waters of Barber's Creek. — Ed. 



Trouble at Snodon and the Arrival of More Emigrants. 

Early one morning some days after the return from Nodoroc 
to Talasee, Ocean Scupeen arrived at Fort Strong, with a written 
message from his mother, stating that Mera was dangerously ill, 
and that the suffering girl wanted to see Helen Draper before 
she died. 

Dr. Singleton was at once summoned, and in a short time Miss 
Draper, though warned of the danger of being kidnapped, was on 
her way home with a well-appointed escort in three divisions : 
First went the invaluable scout, Tata Nyxter, some distance in 
advance; second, Helen Draper, Ocean Scupeen and Dr. Single- 
ton; third, and some distance in the rear, which was always the 
point of Indian attack, went Abe Trent, Joe Lavender and Ed 
Damron, a formidable trio, if any fighting were to be done. 

Though a few strange natives were passed at Calamit, the 
party, being well mounted and heavily armed, reached the 
Charmed Circle in due time without being molested. 

Without delay Helen and Dr. Singleton visited the humble 
home of Mera, whom they found dangerously sick with fever, 
and unconscious. In piteous tones she often exclaimed in wild 
delirium: "0 Helen! Helen! Where is my darling Helen? Will 
she — will Helen never come?" 

Helen kissed her burning cheeks and bathed them with her 
freely flowing tears, while Dr. Singleton sat anxiously at her side 
counting her pulse and looking into her great, wide-open black 
eyes over which the chilly film of death seemed to be gathering. 
At last Dr. Singleton, giving Helen a furtive glance and shaking 
his head, said: "There is little hope; but we must do something. 
Warm water, please, quick as possible!" 

It was a singular process, and one which a modern physician 
would probably discard; but when the patient's feet had been 
bathed and vigorously rubbed in warm water, and an occasional 
application of cold water had been gently applied to her brow and 


the back of her neck for fully two hours, she became quiet, 
breathed easier, and her eyes began to close very slowly. In the 
meantime, medicine had been administered, but under such diffi- 
culties that little was really taken. 

"If," said the doctor, "her eyes are closed by morning and 
she is still breathing regularly as now, the crisis will be passed. 
Close attention, however, is the price of life. Here, with full 
written directions, are the necessary medicines. If needed during 
the night. Miss Draper will notify me by the whippoorwill call 
twice repeated." 

It was then after sundown, and the doctor, shouldering his 
trusty rifle, joined the men who were stationed at some distance 
around the house at regular intervals. 

The guard was composed of Abe Trent, Joe Lavender, Ed 
Damron, Ocean Scupeen, Alonzo Draper, Herman Scupeen, 
Hoochleohoopah, Tata Nyxter and Dr. Singleton. The nurses, 
inside were Nyrulyn, the sick girl's mother, Mrs. Mary Draper, 
Helen Draper, and Mrs. Annette Scupeen. These and other partic- 
ulars are given to show the difference between then and now, and 
also the unselfish devotion of the pioneer settlers of the country 
to their friends. 

Though the nurses were fully aware of the heroic character of 
the guard around them ; and though they had confidence in their 
own ability to defend themselves, and in Lion, a host in himself, 
that was lying at the feet of his young mistress, they were restless 
and uneasy, because somehow all were impressed with the belief 
that another effort would be made during the night to capture 
their darling Helen and hold her as hostage until the whites left 
the country. While none doubted the result for a moment, still 
their anxiety increased with passing hours. 

The wigwam was covered with several layers of poplar bark at 
the apex of which was an opening large enough to admit the body 
of an ordinary Indian. The temporary covering of the opening 
being removed, Nyrulyn and Helen placed themselves near it 
alternately, and constantly listened for any disturbance made 
on the outside. 


It was far into the night. Nyrulyn, who was a good reader of 
the stars, said it was past midnight. Mera, who had been resting 
comparatively well, became restless with the turning hour, and 
again talked in wild delirium, but not so violently as before. She 
continued to call for Helen, alluded to Ocean Scupeen in some 
unknown connection and challenged Tata Nyxter for a foot race. 
A soothing portion being given, she became quiet, by and by, 
partially closed her eyes and seemed to sleep at short intervals 
peacefully. From the doctor's standpoint this was taken as a 
good omen, and the nurses looked at each other and smiled 

It wants some two hours to daybreak. Helen Draper ventures, 
for a moment, to raise her head above the house top. A faint 
gleam of light opens the eastern horizon, the last quarter moon 
is rising. Silence reigns supreme. But, hark ! To-hoo-to-hoo-hoo-o ! 
breaks upon the still night air ! What can it mean ? It is not the 
hooting of an owl. That last "oo-o" is never given by the solemn 
night bird. 

"It is Tata Nyxter 's danger signal," whispers Helen who is now 
on duty. "But," she continued, "the hooting seems strangely 
distant. What can the danger be? No gun has been fired. That 
is strange. With ten such men as I know are around us, and with 
four such women as are present, with Lion to lead the charge, I 
fear nothing that is likely to come against us. Comrades, see 
that your guns and sabres are ready, and when necessary follow 
me and Lion ! ' ' 

The heroine 's address was received with the waving of handker- 
chiefs, and Nyrulyn, seizing her well-tried bow and arrows, stood 
at the door, as much as to say — "No, dear Helen, you are too 
precious to my darling Mera to receive the first shock of battle. 
Her mother will do that." Again the sick girl is moaning and 
rolling on her lowly bed of pain, and Helen, crying like a stricken 
child mutters : 

"Poor Mera, you can not answer signals as you have so bravely 
done on former occasions, nor can your now restless feet carry, 
as a bird on the wing, a message to your friends as they once 


All are intently listening for the report of fire arms, when 
suddenly, "to-hoo-o-o," long drawn out, reaches the wide-open 
ears of the anxious nurses. 

"That means the danger is over," exclaimed Helen joyfully, 
and placing her weapons by Lion, she began to chase Mera's 
brow gently saying, "Poor Mera ! darling Mera, Banna is con- 
stantly praying for your recovery and I have faith to believe 
you'll soon get well." 

Thus the anxious nurses kept up their night-long vigil until 
break of day when Dr. Singleton returned to the wigwam. See- 
ing that his patient's eyes were closed he extended his open hands 
and said: "Thank God! With Miss Draper for a nurse the 
danger is over. While her hands sometimes seemed to be moved 
by iron nerves. I notice that their touch upon the burning fevered 
brow is as soft and gentle as the whisper of an angel." 

"You are right, doctor, but," whispered Mrs. Scupeen, "why 
was the danger signal given last night?" 

Silently going outside the wigwam, Dr. Singleton gave the fol- 
lowing account of the disturbance of the night: 

"At an early hour the faithful Tata Nyxter was sent out to re- 
connoiter the surrounding country. While watching the main 
pathway that leads near the rock pillar, he saw three Indians 
enter the archway and seat themselves as if to rest. They were 
soon joined by another man who, contrary to all Indian usage, 
walked in a stooping posture. So sharp was the boy's observa- 
tion that he recognized the three men who first came as the same 
that had formerly made an effort to kidnap Miss Helen. The 
fourth was a stranger, and evidently a leader in some conspiracy. 
Silently, 'worming' himself near the pillar, the boy learned that 
the stoop-shouldered man had located Miss Draper, and reported 
that only one man was with her, that the sick girl's father was 
away from home, and just at moon up all four should rush into 
the wigwam together, and bear the girl away before any one 
could come to her relief. 

"The boy at once brought us the news and gave the warning 
signal that you heard. Then we made the discovery that the boy 
was a ventriloquist. Though he stood near it was difficult for 


me to believe that hooting was not made by an owl on some lofty 
tree-top beyond the rocks to the south of Nere Nara. 

"Every man constituted himself a vigilant watchman and as 
the upper horn of the moon rose above the horizon, four men, 
in single file, were seen creeping on all fours along the path that 
leads from the south. It was a small matter to capture them, and 
they are now in close custody. Immediately the hooting boy 
went to the rear and gave the second signal. The captives turned 
and listened in the direction where the hooting seemed to be, and 
the bent-shouldered man said angrily : ' Osh sempa uto tach ebrus ' 
— the horrid owl is laughing at us! 

"It is a little singular that the Creek language has no profane 
word; otherwise the crooked Indian would have used it, for he 
was desperately mad. When Abe Trent began to disarm him, 
the fellow jerked his tomahawk back; whereupon Abe hurled 
him to the ground with such force that we thought him dead for 
a while. A break was expected; but the 'click' of several guns 
soon restored order. Nothing on earth seems so dreadful to an 
Indian as the sharp crack of the white man's rifle. He can not 
understand it." 

Nyrulyn, who had remained by her sick daughter, motioned 
Helen Draper to come in, and Dr. Singleton followed. They 
found Mera awake and her mind partially restored; but physi- 
cally so weak that she could not raise her head to greet the 
friend whom she loved so well. The meeting was a happy one, 
and Helen's presence doubtless had much to do with the sick 
girl's recovery. 

When confronted in daylight, the prisoners, as usual, assumed 
a haughty attitude and refused to make any explanation what- 
ever of their purposes ; but when Abe Trent, in a spirit of mis- 
chief, pointed to the east and whispered "Nodoroc" in their ears, 
they changed their demeanor, and offered allegiance to the whites 
as the price of their liberty. 

With the concurrence of the Talasee Colony they were released 
on the following day. 

Through Etohautee, it was found that the stoop-shouldered 
Indian was the ring leader of the plot to capture Helen Draper 


and hold her as a hostage until the white settlers left the country, 
and that his report concerning Miss Draper's defenseless condition 
was not based on what he knew himself, but on information given 
by another Indian who wished to play him a trick. He turned 
out to be Siloquot of Haitauthuga, and that he was not stoop- 
shouldered ; but for some reason had assumed this position as a 
sort of disguise. His companions were Elitoboy, Camastooka and 
Novuarka who lived in the vicinity of Fort Yargo. 

About this time the long-expected train of emigrants arrived. 
It consisted of eleven men, nine women and seven children — 
twenty-seven in all. It was led by Robert Alston, father of 
Alexis Alston* of Pea Ridge. The Talasee Colony having relin- 
quished all claim to Beadland, the newcomers settled in various 
parts of that territory. Mr. Alston and three other families re- 
mained at Snodon. He built a double log cabin near Nere Nara, the 
rock pillar. Having been told something of the history of that cu- 
rious mausoleum, one of the first acts of his wife, Mrs. Thurza Al- 
ston was to drape the pillar with festoons of wild flowers. This is 
equivalent to writing a long chapter in the history of a good 
woman. When Umausauga heard of this token of respect for 
his lost Nere Nara and had learned its significance from Banna 
and Marzee Marcum, he went the same night to Snodon and 
prostrated himself at Mrs. Alston's feet. So much of the senti- 
ment of a christianized heathen. At the same time the Alstons 
and their adherents gained a powerful friend by one simple but 
beautiful deed. 

In the meantime Mera continued to improve slowly. Sleeping 
a little now and then while in her seat, Helen Draper remained 
at her side almost constantly for ten long days and as many 
weary nights. Every movement was carefully noted and every 
need of the sick girl was lovingly supplied by the faithful nurse 
for three weeks, when she was carried in the willing arms of 
Ocean Scupeen to Helen's own home for further attention. 

During this period it was curious to notice that when Helen was 
absent Lion took her place by Mera, and allowed no stranger to 

•Read first ch.ipter of "Cell No. 21" in this work. — Ed. 


come near. To gratify his desire to serve the girl, he carried 
dinner to her in a little basket, nor did he permit any one 
else to take it from him. On one occasion when Mera and Lion 
only were in the house, a long gaunt wolf trotted to the door and 
began to sniff the inside air. Quick as thought the dog jumped 
upon the intruder, and a battle royal followed. His wolfship 
was no mean antagonist ; but when the family reached the house, 
his throat was torn wide open and the dog was sitting near Mera 
as if nothing unusual had happened. 

To meet such emergencies as this, which were by no means un- 
common, fire arms and a deadly knife were always within easy 

Though still feeble, the girl, even without her powerful ally, 
the dog, was well prepared and certainly knew how to defend 

Since the capture of the conspirators and the arrival of Mr. 
Alston and his companions it was thought that no further effort 
would be made on Helen Draper's liberty; but the vigilance of 
herself and friends was not abated for an hour. The cunning 
and fleet-footed Tata Nyxter, and the bold, dashing Ocean Scu- 
peen, ranged the country in all directions; while the dreaded 
trio, Abe Trent, Joe Lavender and Ed Damron were within easy 

The surveillance continued until Mera was strong enough to be 
taken to Fort Strong, where in the sunshine of her still faithful 
nurse as well as in that of other devoted friends there, she soon 
fully recovered her health. To no one was this more pleasing 
than to Dr. Singleton who, next to Helen, had been Mera's most 
faithful attendant. He was a young man of fine personal ap- 
pearance and pleasing manners. 

At any time Mera was a pretty girl ; but now that she was ar- 
rayed in an elegant dress, made by the deft fingers of Letty 
Moore, and her magnificent supply of jet black hair had been 
dressed by the expert hands of Marzee Marcum, she was still 
more beautiful. 

If, when the doctor thought his patient near death his atten- 
tions were very close, it was plain enough that now she was in 

blooming health, they were still closer and even more necessary 
for his own happiness than before. So the people began to talk 
and say 

"Dr. Singleton loves the dreamy-eyed Indian girl." 

The remainder of the Blue Bird's stay at Fort Strong was de- 
voted to daily rifle practice and to horseback riding under the 
efficient guidance of Helen Draper, At the end of four weeks she 
was almost equal to her teacher except in loading while on the 
run. When Mera returned home she was accompanied by Dr. 
Singleton and Rev. James Tinsley. 

The purpose of the former was not professional, but a matter 
of love and the mission of the latter was to confer with Nyrulyn 
about the education of her interesting daughter, it being cus- 
tomary for mothers to dispose of their daughters and fathers of 
their sons. Both doctor and preacher were agreeably surprised 
to find the mother almost as interesting and handsome as the 
daughter. The truth was, both she and her ill-fated sister Nere 
Nara, had been brought up in Savannah, where, being favorites 
in the family of Edward Telfair, afterwards Governor of Geor- 
gia, they learned to speak English with tolerable facility. 

They were said to be the lineal descendants of Lachlan Mc- 
Gillivray, a native of Scotland, and the granddaughter of Schey ; 
mother of the famous Gen. Alexander McGillivray,* and spoken 
of by the historians of the time as the daughter of a full- 
blooded Creek woman of high rank in her nation, and of Capt. 
Marchance of the French army, and that at the time of her mar- 
riage she was "a maiden of sixteen, cheerful in countenance, be- 
witching in looks, and graceful in form." 

Such was Schey, the grandmother of Nyrulyn and great-grand- 
mother of Mera. 

So, after all, it turns out that "the pretty Blue Bird Indian 
girl," as she was commonly called, was of Scotch-French-Indian 
descent, belonged to a family "of high rank in her nation," and 
was really a member of the Lower Creek Nation. 

•White's "Historical Collection of Georgia," P. 154.— Ed. 


It was long after this before Dr. George Singleton knew any- 
thing of Mera's ancestors. He loved her for herself as Josiah 
Strong had loved Banna the Beautiful, and who by common con- 
sent was known, after her marriage, as "Banna the Good." 

Finding Nyrulyn so far superior in intelligence and manners to 
anything anticipated, Mr. Tinsley suggested that both mother 
and daughter go through a course of instruction at Fort Strong 
in the early future. This proposition brought Hoochleohoopah, a 
powerful but well-disposed man, into the consultation. He op- 
posed the measure at first, but finally consented for both his wife 
and daughter to accept the preacher's proposition after he re- 
turned from an extended hunt for which he was then preparing. 

Being highly elated with his success, Mr. Tinsley extended his 
hand and bade farewell to the family; but when Dr. Singleton 
offered his hand Nyrulyn refused to take it until she had paid him 
for services rendered to her sick child. The doctor informed her 
that Miss Draper had offered to pay him, but that he would not 
under any circumstances receive pay for what he had done for 
her sick daughter. This seemed to puzzle the woman and after 
thinking awhile she asked: 

"Have you wife?" 

"No; but I want one," answered the doctor blushing to the 
crown of his head. 

"You have no pay, then you take present from Nyrulyn." 

"Yes, with all my heart." 

Turning, she went to an obsecure corner of the wigwam and 
returned with a small bundle wrapped in a piece of beautifully 
woven grass cloth, and placing it in an elegant Lapsidalian basket, 

"Here, take this. Doctor no use for it. When you wife get, 
to her give it in Nyrulyn 's name. A belt it is of mine and Mera's 
hair ; it is made of Nyrulyn 's hair, the two-strand pieces are made ; 
of Mera's hair are made the three-strand pieces. The beads the 
flowers made, were to me given by Banna the Beautiful. Let her 
it open when you home get. The Great Spirit the doctor bless for 
his goodness to Mera." 


So saying she extended her hand. It was cordially taken, and 
after a fervent God bless you, the two surprised men rode away 
silently but thoughtfully. 

"Say, Mr. Tinsley, I am the biggest fool that ever rode the 
Okoloco trail," said Dr. Singleton when well on his homeward 

''Why do you think so?" asked Tinsley. 

"Because I had such a splendid opportunity to ask for Mera, " 
answered the doctor peering into his pretty basket. "Then why 
did you fail to do so?" 

"I did not know that the Blue Bird was willing to be caught. 
What a fool I was not to ask her to be my wife as we rode along 
here this morning. I never spoke a word of love to the girl in my 
life. I'll never have such an opportunity again with either her- 
self or mother." 

"You may easily make one; but I have noticed that you are 
shy in the presence of ladies and think you would feel more at 
home while cutting off a man 's leg or pulling three or four of his 
molars than in the presence of the girl you love. Remember. 
'Faint heart never won fair ladie!' " 

"Perhaps you are right; but by all the moons of Jupiter, I'll 
never let another good opportunity pass without knowing the 
best or the worst of the whole matter," answered the doctor 
seriously as he again peeped into his basket. 

Reaching home. Dr. Singleton, after inviting all present to go 
with him, hastened to his rough pine-pole office, where in a 
husky voice, he asked Banna to unwrap the package for him. 

When open she held up a belt of such exquisite workmanship 
that all were lost in admiration of its beauty. It was nearly four 
inches wide, and made of alternate plaits of two or three strands 
of jet black hair twined together with consummate skill. Over 
the whole was wrought in white, red and blue bead-work, flowers 
in almost exact imitation of ox-eye daisies and dainty little 
forget-me-nots. The center was designated by a half drawn bow 
with an arrow lying at sharp angles across the bar. The fasten- 


ings at the ends were of bone, and in workmanship were in keep- 
ing with the belt itself. 

When all were through looking at the elegant gift, its owner 
kissed it, and while replacing it in the basket remarked thought- 
fully: "Such an artist would adorn the finest gallery in Eu- 



The Cold Wintee and a Visit by Governoe Matthews — The 
Organization for Mutual Protection. 

It was now January 1795. Except the efforts made to kidnap 
one of their best-loved citizens, the Talasee Colony and the in- 
habitants of Beadland had been free from any immediate danger, 
and were eminently prosperous and well contented. 

They knew that the Lower Creeks were giving the citizens of 
Bryan, Liberty, Mcintosh, and other adjacent counties serious 
trouble; but as the whites under Col. Josiah Tatnall, uncle of our 
Josiah Strong, and for whom he was named, were constantly vic- 
torious, they had little fear that the disturbance would reach so 
far into the wilderness as Talasee and Snodon. Nevertheless they 
whetted their knives, picked their flints, kept their powder dry, 
and Tata Nyxter and Ocean Scupeen patrolled the country day 
and night. Anything that escaped the eyes of those two boys 
was hard to see, indeed. The people knew that "eternal vigi- 
lance is the price of liberty." 

The winter was intensely cold — colder, the oldest natives said, 
than they had ever known before. The ground had been covered 
with alternate layers of frozen rain and snow for six weeks with 
no prospect of an early change. Animals and birds became raven- 
ously hungry. Panthers and wolves, troublesome at any time, 
were more dangerous than ever before. Hundreds of them were 
shot in the yards around the cabins during the day, and at night 
they were kept at a respectful distance by roaring fires in the 
chimneys and by burning pine knots outsides the houses. Some- 
times even these precautions did not effect their purpose. 

One night a gang of wolves being made ravenous by smelling 
the blood of a deer that Mr. Draper had dressed that day, broke 
over, to them, the mysterious circle, and rushing between the 
fires, besieged the house itself. 

Most of them were shot through port holes made for the pur- 
pose; but two bolder than the others, attacked the door. One of 


them tore away enough of the shutter with his strong teeth to ad- 
mit its head, and while struggling to get its body through the 
opening Lion tore its throat open — his favorite way of dealing 
with an enemy. 

The living wolves outside soon began to devour the dead ones, 
and when they came to the one fast in the door shutter they 
pulled it away and still another poked his head through the 
opening. Helen, whose rifle had just been discharged, split its 
head open with an axe. That, eventually, ended the battle as 
the wolves still living being gorged with the slain, retired from 
the field. 

The cracking of bones, the lapping of blood, and the fierce 
growls of the monsters outside all intermingled with the sharp 
crack of those rifles inside and one at an unknown place, created 
a horrid din that words can not describe. 

It was afterwards found that the firing of the unknown rifle 
came from the spreading branches of a tree whither Ocean Scu- 
peen, seeing the danger to which his friends were exposed, had, 
at the risk of his life, climbed to help defend those he loved. At 
a time of great need the boy did heroic service that dreadful 

As the body of the large wolf whose head Helen cut open was 
not eaten, he was supposed to be the leader of the pack, which 
also helps to explain the sudden termination of the attack. 
Had he gotten through the door others would have made desperate 
efforts to follow. 

Such hunting droves of half-starved wolves became so common 
that work and travel were almost suspended and the people were 
compelled to give exclusive attention to their destruction. The 
natives throughout the country suffered more than the whites be- 
cause their means of defense were not so good. Soon after the at- 
tack on the Draper home an Indian, accompanied by his squaw 
who was carrying her papoose, as native children were called, 
were followed by several wolves to Snodon. As dark came on 
the animals became bolder and pressed the natives so closely 
they were compelled to climb a tree to save themselves. 


The weather was so cold that the mother's numb fingers re- 
fused to obey her will, and the child fell to the ground where it 
was instantly devoured. When relief reached them sometime 
afterwards, they were no nearly frozen they could not walk. 

In 1837, when Snodon was well known as Jug Tavern, a scrubby 
blackjack was pointed out by an old native called Jolly Jumper, 
as the tree from which the Indian child fell. It stood on the 
north side of Hog Mountain road opposite the present residence of 
Mr. Wiley Bush of Winder. 

From the time of the first settlement of the country to some- 
time about the thirties of the last century, Beech creek, because of 
the dense canebrakes which grew upon its margins, was called 
the panther's stronghold. Hence its name, Taurulaboole, which 
means "screaming panther." The excessively cold winter drove 
these animals from the canebrakes to the hills where they became 

Early one morning Loyd Upson, a little boy whose father, 
Jabin Upson, was a newcomer living near Mr. Draper, was seized 
by a panther and carried to the woods. Helen Draper, hearing the 
cries of the boy, took her father's heavy rifle and in her usual 
headlong way, hastily pursued the animal. When within from 
thirty to forty yards of it she gave a loud scream. The brute, 
doubtless thinking that another panther was following, turned to 
investigate the matter. As it turned an ounce ball entered its 
body a little behind the right shoulder and passing through im- 
bedded itself in an oak tree which stood a few yards distant. 
Leaping high the animal gave a dying scream which released the 
boy and they fell together on the ground. 

The boy scrambled away on his hands and one leg, the other 
being so badly torn that he could not use it. Such was Helen 
Draper, the touch of whose hand had been characterized as being 
"as soft and gentle as the whisper of an angel." And so it was 
when gentleness was required. 

"Mother," said the boy, after he had been carried home, "she 
wrapped her apron around my leg while the smoke was slowly 
coming out of the muzzle of her gun." 


The boy's wound finally healed, but he was a cripple for life. 
His mother afterwards made him "a-round-about" coat of the 
panther's skin, and one of his greatest joys was to wear it in 
Helen's presence and rest his head upon her knee, while she 
patted his red, plump cheek with her "soft and gentle hand." 

In 1813, when Capt. Carnes was in Jefferson, beating for vol- 
unteers to meet the British on the Atlantic coast, Loyd Upson, 
then a good-looking young man, was the first to offer his ser- 

Being rejected because of his lameness, he took a battered bul- 
let from his pocket, and turning it with his fingers said thought- 
fully: "Perhaps it is for the best. I intended to remould this 
bullet and kill some redcoat with it. When Nancy Jane [mean- 
ing his rifle] speaks, she always means death. As it once saved 
my life it seems, after all, wrong for me to kill another with it." 

The disappointed young man returned the bullet to his pocket 
and limped away with tears in his eyes. Two years later he was 
accepted as a volunteer and did valiant service in the battle of 
New Orleans. On the 8th of January 1815, when the battle was 
raging all along the lines, Gen. Jackson noticed a soldier several 
steps in rear of his command. He was loading and shooting as 
deliberately as if at a country shooting match. He wore a broad- 
brimmed wool hat, and every time he took aim he turned up the 
front part of the brim, and a man fell. "When this had been re- 
peated several times, Jackson, overcome with admiration, ap- 
proached the soldier and asked: "My brave boy, what are you 
doing here by yourself?" 

"Well, you see. General" was the answer, "I am lame and can 
not keep up with the boys. So I am out here fighting on my own 
hook." "What is your name and where from?" 

"Loyd Upson of Georgia, sir, and it's Nancy Jane that is 
speaking to the fellows over yonder." 

"Tell her to speak on," said Jackson as he himself plunged into 
the fight. 

The foregoing incidents are given, not as all of the kind that 
occurred in the country; but to illustrate the prevailing con- 
ditions under which the pioneers of Beadland labored. Helen 


Draper and Loyd Upson were typical of the men and women 
among whom the former lived, and the latter grew to manhood. 

Several more weeks passed after the dangerous animals had 
been mainly subdued by the rifle and starvation before the in- 
tense cold abated. Those which withstood the vigor of the winter 
best, were deer, rabbits and squirrels. This was of great benefit 
to the people, for though lean, they were eatable. Dear subsisted 
largely on moss which was found near the roots of large trees, on 
decaying timber and on rocks. It was said to be interesting to 
see them cutting ice from rocks with their sharp hoofs. Rabbits 
(hares) or Molly Cotton Tails, as the people called them, lived 
on bark, chiefly of the sassafras, laurel and alder. Squirrels 
dined on hickory nuts, chestnuts and acorns which they had wisely 
stored away during the previous autumn — a custom which they 
still pursue. Tell who can how a squirrel finds the proper place 
to dig a hole through the snow to unearth a nut which he had 
buried there months before. 

Of all the small pests to which the people were subjected, the 
ground rat was the most troublesome. These little stubby-tailed 
rodents were very numerous, and being driven into houses in 
search of something to eat, made them almost unin- 
habitable. They even gnawed on the feet and noses of people 
when asleep. One which Ocean Scupeen said "had a sweet tooth 
in its head," took a snip from Helen Draper's lip, and the boy 
was wicked enough to say that he did not "blame the rat, but 
commended it for its good taste." 

So many birds starved and froze to death that the great num- 
ber then existing was never afterwards attained, some species 
becoming almost extinct, and a few entirely so. Turkeys and par- 
tridges, the most valuable of all, were too lean for table use, and 
boys sometimes killed them with sticks. A drove consisting of 
ten or twelve turkeys became so gentle that Helen and Mera fed 
and sheltered them through the winter. When warm weather 
came they refused to leave their kind friends and followed the 
girls like a shadow, and this was the beginning of domestic tur- 
key raising in northeast Georgia. 


During the coming summer, when Gov. George Matthews was 
making a tour of the country with a view to the organization of 
the then much-talked new County of Jackson, he stopped at Sno- 
don for dinner and dined upon one of Helen and Mera's tamed 
turkeys because others were thought to be too poor to set before 
a governor. 

It was so toothsome that his Excellency asked the girls to 
sell him a pair. They did not want to sell their pets; but being 
such an august purchaser, they finally consented to let him have 
a pair for fifteen shillings (English coin) — a very good price. 

Having divided the shillings equally, Mera looked curiously at 
the first money she ever possessed, and really not knowing its 
value, at once gave it to the still suffering Loyd Upson who, as she 
said by way of justifying her action "was not able to help him- 

From whence came such a sentiment from a young girl of the 
wilderness? Her association, though brief, with Banna, Marzee 
and Helen, had, perhaps unconsciously implanted it in her 
naturally noble heart. 

When the governor was ready to leave he turned to Mera, and 
doubtless because of her beauty and elegant figure, looked at her 
a long time. The girl blushed and he broke the silence by say- 
ing: "You are certainly a beautiful girl and I intend to send you 
a handsome sweetheart. As I am traveling on horseback I can 
not carry the turkeys with me; but I will send for them before 
long. Mino will come for them, perhaps next week. He is a very 
handsome young brave and has an excellent character. He is as 
fleet as the wind and as quick as an arrow. Should you and 
Mino love each other, and I think you should because you are 
very much alike, the Governor of Georgia will come all the way 
here to perform the marriage ceremony." 

At the mention of "marriage ceremony" Mera suddenly ran to 
Helen and threw both arms around her neck, "No, sir, Mr. Gov- 
ernor, I'll never leave such a friend as this for any one," an- 
swered back the girl, patting Helen on the shoulder, and sealing 
her vow with a kiss. 


"You'll think better of that when you see Mino," answered 
the Governor, as he rode away. 

Governor Matthews* then lived at the Goose Pond on Broad 
river in Oglethorpe County which had been recently organized. 

The anxiously awaited "next week" came, and the handsome 
young brave came with it, as provided by the Governor. Hand- 
some he was, sure enough, and sure enough he and Mera were so 
much alike that they would have passed anywhere as twin brother 
and sister. It was amusing to see them looking at each other. Mino 
evidently fell in love at first sight, and on the second day of his 
visit he resolved to ask Mera to become his wife and go with him 
to the silently flowing water of Salwigee (Broad) river, from 
whence he came. But the girl was shy and provokingly distant, 
always retreating to Helen like a child to its mother when among 
strangers. Neither Miss Draper nor her friends were willing to 
part with their pet without a struggle. Still her lover was so 
handsome and pleasant in his manners, talked English even bet- 
ter than Mera herself, and showed so many traits of civilization, 
that Helen wanted her to treat him at least with respect. 

At last when the young brave had almost despaired of bring- 
ing the girl to terms of either acceptance or rejection, he sat down 
and leaned against a tree that grew in the Charmed Circle to 
brood over his condition. While sitting there Hoochlechoopah, 
Mera's father chanced to pass near. The young brave looked up, 
the man stopped, and their eyes met. Having looked at each 
other for a short time, the passing Indian turned suddenly and 
without speaking a word, retraced his steps hastily. 

The young brave was astonished, and thinking the big 
stranger meant some harm, was at a loss to know what course to 
pursue, finally deciding that as the turkeys had to be carried to 
Gov. Matthews, it would be best for him to leave the country, at 
least for the present and return at some future time. Arising 
to carry out his resolutions, he naturally looked in the direction 

*For a complete record of the settlements on Broad River, in what is 
now Oglethorpe and Elbert Counties, see Gov. Gilmer's "Early Settlers of 
Upper Georgia." — Ed. 


taken by the retreating stranger. To his astonishment he saw 
the same man who was closely followed by a woman, approaching 
at a brisk run. Though a little flustered he returned to his seat 
and awaited the result calmly. "Look and see, Nyrulyn," said 
the man, as he came near. "I think," he continued with some 
excitement, "that the man sitting by the tree is your long-lost 
brother ! ' ' 

Nyrulyn went nearer, intently gazed into the eyes of the 
stranger, and going still nearer, turned up a sort of cap which he 
wore and passed her hand over his forehead slowly. Then she 
took one step backward, stood trembling for a moment, advanced, 
and, throwing her arms around the bewildered man, exclaimed 
exultingly : 

"0 my long lost brother, little Adra Axter. I am your sister Ny- 
rulyn. I know you because you are so much like our mother, and 
by the three-cornered scar on your forehead. I have described it 
many times over when trying to find you. At last ! At last ! 
Thank the Great Spirit ! At last ! At last ! ' ' 

The emotions experienced that evening were strange indeed. 
The newly found brother at once realized that his love for Mera 
must take a different direction to that for which he had so ar- 
dently hoped for a few hours before ; while she was utterly aston- 
ished to find that her relations to the handsome boy were to be 
about the same as if he were her brother, and that she must call 
him uncle. Nyrulyn was so greatly elated that she sent for her 
only other brother, Notha Neva, who, it will be remembered, 
lived on the lower waters of Sandy Creek. Tata Nyxter was the 
messenger, to whom that distance seemed as nothing. 

Mino, whose real name was Adra Axter, was stolen from his 
parents when nearly three years old by a roving band of Chero- 
kees, who, not knowing his name, called him Mino. They kept 
him a slave until nearly grown and sometimes used him very 
roughly. Finally, his proud spirit rebelled, and finding an oppor- 
tunity to escape, he made good use of it. Though followed, his 
wonderful fleetness enabled him to escape his pursuers. While 
wandering over the country aimlessly, he fortunately fell into the 


hands of Gov. Matthews, who, appreciating his good qualities, 
treated him so kindly that the boy refused to leave him. 

Adra Axter remembered nothing of his home life and from 
early boyhood had thought himself an orphan Cherokee, born to 
slavery and hardship. 

Tata Nyxter accompanied by his former friend, Notha Neva, 
soon returned to Snodon. The meeting of the brothers was very 
affecting, and though the resemblance was not so great as that 
of Nyrulyn and her daughter, they would have passed for broth- 
ers anywhere. 

Although the sending of Tata Nyxter after Notha Neva was it- 
self of no historical importance, still "thereby hangs a tale." 

A short distance above the mouth of Sandy Creek there was a 
small lagoon or shallow lake, surrounded by a dense growth of 
cane, briers and other small swamp growth. On its north side was 
a slightly elevated plot of dry land on which stood a little hut 
made of poles and covered with canes and clay mortar. As a Bo- 
huron Tata Nyxter was well acquainted with the ground, knew 
the purposes of the hut and the exact location of the only path 
that led to it. When passing on his way to Notha Neva's home 
in the almost interminable wilderness which lay a short distance 
east of the creek, he noticed that the path had been traveled 
recently. At first he thought it only a common occurrence -ind 
passed on. But knowing that the path led to the "Secret Coun- 
cil Chamber" of the Bohurons, the further he went the more he 
became convinced that in all probability something unusual was 
on hand. Hastening on he told his host of the discovery made, 
and was informed that strangers had been recently seen going 
towards the swamp beyond the creek on several different oc- 

Even against the advice of his friends, he resolved to investi- 
gate the matter that very night. He knew that if the strangers 
were Bohuron leaders, they would sleep in the hut until about 
midnight, and broil their meat and talk over their plans before 
daylight. Kesolving that if discovered he would claim the rights 
of the clan himself (for the use he had made of the King Phil- 
lip's arrow was still unknown to any besides the few who knew 


the secret even before the deed was done), the boy reached the 
path leading to the hut awhile before midnight. 

Judging that the coast was clear, he crawled upon his hands and 
knees near the hut and concealed himself in a cluster of scrubby 
laurel that grew near the lake and between it and the hut, wisely 
thinking that no one would be likely to come or go in that direc- 

By and by some one was heard snoring in the hut and the spy 
knew it was inhabited. He thought it the loudest snoring he had 
ever heard, and presently another, evidently annoyed at the dis- 
cordant sound said snappishly : ' ' Huh ! Huh ! Huh ! Up wake ! you 
the country alarm!" 

A long-drawn yawn was heard, and the snoring ceased. A long 
talk followed of which the spy barely heard enough to convince 
him that his suspicions were well founded. Soon, however, a 
light appeared in the hut, and the boy knew that meant broiling 
meat, and maybe, roasting an ash cake. Silently stealing near, 
he looked through a small opening in the wall and saw two men 
sitting near the fire broiling bear meat. The odor was delightful, 
yet he dared do nothing but look and listen. 

One of the men was Wokolog, a well-known Bohuron leader, 
who, of all Indians, Tata Nyxter and his father most hated. The 
other was a stranger dressed in skin decorated with bear and 
eagle claws. On his head was a sort of skullcap from which pro- 
truded quite an array of fine feathers (Ostrich), of a kind the spy 
had never seen before. This indicated that the stranger was 
from a distance. Really he was a fine-looking fellow of medium 
size, whose features, form, dress and movements strongly re- 
minded one of Yrtyrmyrmyrmysco. 

Few words were spoken while the meat was cooking; but soon 
as it was taken off the coals the men engaged in conversation. 

From all that was said the stealthy listener learned that the 
stranger's name was Bonoaguartah, brother of the slain Bohuron 
chief, and that his presence in the country was to reorganize that 
clan and avenge the death of his brother. That as the curious ar- 
row that killed the chief must have been furnished or used by 
some pale-face, any white man or woman, not even excepting the 


royal blooded Banna, or any Indian friendly to the whites, should 
be the object of their vengeance, and that they would be ready to 
start upon the war path at half of this moon. 

As the new moon went down a little after dark that night, "at 
half of this moon" meant about thirteen days hence. As was 
afterwards learned nearly two weeks were allowed so as to give 
recruits expected from the low country time to arrive. 

Having gained this startling information, Tata looked at the 
stars, and finding that daybreak was near, hastened away as he 
had come. Soon he and Notha Neva was on a brisk run for Sno- 
don, which accounts for their early arrival there. 

Arrangements were at once made to inform all the citizens of 
Beadland and of the Talasee, Fort Yargo, Thomocoggan, Yamaeu- 
tah and Groaning Rock colonies of the impending danger. The 
bearer of the news to each place carried a written message of 
which the following is a copy: 

"Georgia, Franklin Co. 
"Snodon, Aug. 8th, 1795. 
"To the Colonies of Yamacutah. ' 

"Dear Friends: 

"Danger threatens. We have lots of dry powder. If necessary 
come help us burn it. Bearer will give particulars. Hurrah 
for success. Devotedly, 

"Helen Draper." 

As the time for Mino's departure was at hand, he took affec- 
tionate leave of his relatives and their friends saying: "If 
danger comes Mino will be with you. He too knows how to use the 
cracking rifle as well as the twanging bow." 

Accompanied by Notha Neva, each carrying a turkey, the 
brothers left Snodon with some sadness. As messengers of the 
people of Beadland, they went by the way of Thomocoggan, Yama- 
cutah and Groaning Rock. 

The colonists being already well provided with arms and am- 
munition, the next thing deemed necessary was an effective or- 
ganization. They could, all told, muster a force of 98 fighting 
white men, and about half that number of women, many of them, 


perhaps all, being as heroic in case of necessity as Helen Draper 
herself. Besides all of them, including Nyrulyn and Mera, were 
dead shots, and as effective at the port hole and sometimes in the 
open field as any man. 

After an absence of a few days which Umausauga had spent 
among his personal friends, he returned with 17 loyal followers, 
which, when added to the proscribed Indians, Umausauga, Eto- 
hautee, Tata Nyxter, Hoochleehoopah and Notha Neva made a 
fighting contingent of 22 friendly natives, making a total of 120 
available men. Besides, if the fight continued to be a local one as 
was supposed, they expected valuable aid from their sister col- 

About ten days before the expected outbreak an organization 
was effected which proved to be satisfactory to all. 

Johnson Josiah Strong was elected Commander-in-Chief, and 
the white men, being divided into 1st, 2nd, and 3rd companies, 
Joe Lavender, Ed Damron and Abe Trent were their commanders, 
with the rank of Captain. Ocean Scupeen was quickly selected 
patrolling scout. 

Umausauga was placed over the natives with Tata Nyxter 
patrolling scout. To complete the organization Helen Draper was 
elected viva voce to lead the women, with rank of Captain. 

To show the spirit of that girl more fully it may be said that 
after her election she stepped in front and said, "All command- 
ers-in-chief have aides. I therefore appoint Banna Mar de Vedo 
Strong, Marzee Marcum, and Mera Hoochleehoopah my aides-de- 
camp. Comrades, take due notice thereof and govern yourselves 
accordingly, though I don't know just what that means. Hurrah 
for success." 

"Hurrah for success," shouted all the men, and each one felt 
that a true Joan of Arc was among them. So far as doing any- 
thing the girl commander thought little of her shout, and less of 
her appointments at the time, but "Hurrah for success," became 
the battle cry of the colonists, and her aid did as much to achieve 
"success" as any other three soldiers in the field. 

Note: This closes the record of the Talasee Colony, just as the "Old 
General" left it. Evidently, he intended following the progress of this 


colony "on and on and on" in their successful efforts to build homes and 
settle, with the help of the other colonies scattered over the county, this 
the garden spot of Georgia. But the grim reaper, death, cut short his 

With all due respect to the other settlers of the county, it must be seen, 
from records in our court-house, that this colony was the most influential 
of any in the county at that time. 

As the different parts of the county were settled and the people began 
to get on their feet, so to speak, the Talasee section began to give way, and 
to swing backward for a while. Such is life. The pendulum will go 
from one extreme to another. To-day all sections of the county are about 
evenly represented in governmental affairs. 

But, after all is said, the history of the Talasee people is the history 
of Yamacutah; and the history of Groaning Rock is, virtually that of 
Snodon and on through the list. Thomocoggan was as great as Stone- 
throw, (just over the line in Hall County, now) and Yamtrahoochee was 
as great as any in the list. So none of them can say "I did it" but "We 
did it by each other's help." — Ed. 



First Settlers at Tumbling Shoals and Kelated Incidents. 

How true is the word of God: "One generation passes away, 
and another generation cometh ; but the earth abideth forever. 
There is no remembrance of things that are to come with those 
that shall come after." 

We want to tell you some things that happened when the 
twang of the Indian 's bowstring was heard in almost every forest, 
but that was not much worse than the crack of the pistol as 
heard in modern times. Then the rattlesnake was coiled in almost 
every path, the scream of the panther was heard on almost every 
hill, and the howl of the wolf echoed through almost every val- 
ley; but these threatenings were not one whit worse than some 
of the dangers that menace modern society. 

Your forefathers dreamed of unrestricted liberty in the bound- 
less forest and in the national councils as well. The modern 
dream is largely of ambition, and the accumulation of riches, of 
homage to fashion, ease and elegance, the emoluments of office 
and of the loudest cry calling for extraordinary privileges to a 
favored few. 

But after all, your social gatherings like those of to-day, your 
intelligence and refinement, your schools and colleges, your 
churches and Sunday-schools, your asylums and hospitals, your 
home and foreign mission boards, your Bible and publishing 
houses, your railroads, automobiles, telegraphs, telephones, sew- 
ing machines, farming tools, cotton factories and rolling mills, are 
all infinitely superior to anything known one hundred years ago. 

A century ! That is a long, long time. Very few of the human 
race live that many years. While I do not believe that the Bible 
fixes the limit of human life at the age of three score and ten, as 
David is supposed to do in the 90th Psalm, it is a well-attested 
fact that the majority of the race die young. While we know 

• ' Yamacutah " was prepared for the Centennial Celebration held in 
Jefferson, Ga., 1906.— Ed. 


comparatively little of the age reached by those who lived in this 
county one hundred years ago, it is safe to say that none of them 
are living now. They all sleep in the arms of our common mother 
earth, and how still they lie! 

They toiled hard, and met and overcame many dangers. Their 
hopes and aspirations were as strong as yours, but along different 
lines. They wrote little, but said much. As far as the record 
goes, and as far as legitimate conclusions can be drawn from it, 
a great majority of them were good, substantial people. They 
were as true to themselves, to their families, their neighbors, their 
country and their God as any who lived in that age of the world. 
They were pioneers: the settlers of a frontier country. Their 
heroic struggles to overcome the unbroken wilderness inhabited 
by wild beasts and wilder men are worthy of all praise. Of 
course they made mistakes. With the light of the present genera- 
tion before them they would have done better. But with all their 
disadvantages, they built better than they knew. With their 
primitive axe and scooter plow and rifle gun they laid a glorious 
foundation upon which the present generation has erected a 
monument of which no citizen need be ashamed. 

The comfortable dwellings in which good cheer and a God- 
given hospitality reign supreme, and the well cultivated farms, 
made picturesque by plows that cut the ground like a thing of 
life, and with harrows, rakes and weeders that smooth it over 
like a fancy flower-bed, all — all tell us that the people are pros- 
perous and happy. May joy and contentment always be the 
pleasing compensations of such a noble people. 

I have spent more than three-fourths of a long lifetime in close 
relations with the boys and girls of Jackson County. For thirty 
years I passed more than half my time with her noble band of 
school teachers. 

The inspiration received from her children and the uplifting 
influences of her teachers have been of more benefit to me than 
all other earthly things combined. 

It has been said by one of the most profound thinkers of the 
age, that, "To be less than twenty years old, and live in the be- 
ginning of the 20th century, is a greater fortune than has ever 


been offered to the world before." Boys and girls of this great 
country, do you realize that? 

Look well to your laurels, and live up to your great oppor- 
tunities. No other generation ever had such favorable and far 
reaching ones. Your opportunities are already made — made for 
you. In no other age of the world have such great efforts been 
made for the education of the young as have been made for you. 
Your ancestors had no such opportunities. Eoman-like they had 
to make a way or find one, and they generally had to make it. 
And now to give you some idea of primitive life in this country, 
we will go back to the first permanent settlement made by white 
people within the present limits of Jackson County. 

Perhaps there are comparatively few people now living in the 
county who know that there is such a place in it as the "TUMB- 
LING SHOALS." For more than a generation no road, public 
or private, has led within sight of them ; and like most other 
things pertaining to the early settlement of this country by the 
Anglo-Saxon race, their history has never been written. They are 
about one mile below the well-known Hurricane Shoals, on 
North Oconee river, where the water goes whirling around one 
end of a solid rock dam built by the hand of nature, and then 
ripples over a series of minature falls in such a way as to seem 
that one wave rolls or tumbles over another. Hence the name, 
which comes from the Cherokee word, YAMACUTAH, signifying 
to tumble. 

In 1784 Jordan Clark and Jacob Bankston,* two enterprising 
and adventurous young men, came from Virginia to Wilkes 
County, Georgia. There they met with a roving band of Choctaw 
Indians who told them of a strange old camping-ground which 
they called Yamacutah. They said it was located on the banks of 
Etoho (Oconee) river, some two days' journey towards the setting 
sun; that the Great Spirit once lived there; and that since his 
disappearance Indians sometimes went to the place to walk the 
paths which God once trod, and then hastened away, as He had 
done, without leaving a trail to show which way they went. 

*See White's "Historical Collections of Georgia." — Ed. 


Having their curosity aroused, Clark and Bankston at once 
resolved to go and see if the Choctaws had told them the truth. 
Late on the afternoon of April 22, 1784, they reached a series of 
small shoals, which they immediately recognized as Yamaeutah, 
While the stream was small and the shoals modest, they were 
curious, and their surroundings were sublime and awe-inspiring 
far beyond anything known to the present inhabitants. 

Trees of fabulous dimensions interlocked their ponderous 
branches, and the acorns and chestnuts of the previous year liter- 
ally covered the ground. The glaring eyes and startling bound 
of the red deer, the wild chattering of a multitude of birds, and 
the warning signal of the rattlesnake, told the newcomers that 
such beings had seldom, if ever, been there before. 

Distant some twenty yards, a great black bear was perched in 
the fork of a tree. As he moved his forepaws with the evident 
intention of descending, a ball from Clark's deadly rifle crashed 
through his head. Curious to say, as was afterwards learned, 
that bear's life was the first ever known to be taken at or near 
Yamaeutah. After a "delightful supper of broiled bear ham," as 
the adventurers described it, they slept by turns, through most of 
the night, and with the rising sun began a careful examination of 
their surroundings. 

About seventy-five yards from the west end of the natural 
rock dam they discovered a curious upright statue a little over 
four feet high. It was made of a soft talcose rock, 13 inches 
square at the bottom; but the top, from the shoulders up, was a 
fair representation of the human figure. The shoulders were 
rudimentary, but the head was well formed. The neck was un- 
duly long and slender. The chin and forehead were retreating. 
The eyes were finely executed, and looked anxiously to the east. 
It stood at the center of an earth mound (17) seventeen feet in 
circumference and six feet high. Around it were many other 
mysteries which will never be fully explained. Only a few of 
them may be mentioned now. 

Four paths, doubtless the ones the Choctaws mentioned, led, 
with mathematical precision, from the base of the mound to the 
cardinal points of the compass. Though it seemed that no other 


part of the forest had been trodden by human feet, these paths 
were as smooth and clean as a parlor floor. The scrubby cane, 
which seemed to have been planted by design along their mar- 
gins, was as neatly trimmed as if the work had been done by a 
professional gardener. And here, amid those gloomy solitudes 
the natives believed that our God, their Great Spirit, had walked 
as a man walks along his homeward pathway. 

The statue was found to be the center of an exact circle about 
one hundred and fifty yards in diameter. Its boundary was plain- 
ly marked by holes in the ground three feet apart. The holes to 
which the paths ran in a straight line from the center were much 
larger than the intervening ones; and before them, inside the 
circle, were what seemed to be stone altars of varying dimensions. 
At the end of the path running to the north was a single triangu- 
lar stone; at the east were five square stones and four steps; at 
the west, four stones and three steps; at the south, three stones 
and two steps. Upon the upper surface of all the stones except 
that at the north the effect of fire was plainly visible and doubtless 
had been used for sacrificial purposes. 

All the paths terminated at the altars except the one running 
to the east. At this the trail parted, and, uniting beyond it, con- 
tinued a short distance and then, much like an ascending column 
of smoke, disappeared, gradually. The account given by the 
Choctaws was verified. On the smooth surfaces of the stones 
were deeply cut both three and five-pointed half moons, whose 
horns turned in different ways. 

A good representation of the rising sun and other curious 
characters were deeply cut on the eastern altar. 

Outside the circle were many ash heaps, beaten hard by the 
heavy hand of time, and over some of them were growing gigantic 
oaks and towering pines, as if to mark the grave of the dead past. 

Having studied these and other features of the vicinity, the 
adventurers went back to their starting point with a determina- 
tion to return and make a permanent settlement at Yamacutah. 

For an unknown period of time the immediate territory on both 
sides of the river and for about one mile below, and to the Hur- 


ricane Shoals above, was neutral ground, claimed by neither 
Creek nor Cherokee, the lords of the adjoining territory. 

For reasons already given it was considered Holy Ground: the 
Indians' Palestine. If on the war path, they went around it; if 
enemies met there they became friends as long as they remained 
there ; by mutual consent of all the tribes the life of neither beast 
or bird, nor any living thing, should ever perish there. It was 
ever to be a place of refuge and never to have upon it the stain 
of blood. The killing of the bear by Clark was the first breach of 
law in the Holy Ground, and led, a few years later to open hostili- 
ties between the red and white men who lived in this part of the 

On the 20th day of the following June Clark and Bankston re- 
turned to Yamacutah and began the first permanent settlement of 
white people within the present limits of Jackson County. They 
were accompanied by John Harris, a nephew of Nancy Hart, of 
revolutionary fame, and who became extensively known as Black 
Harris. He was a skillful workman in both wood and iron, and 
of almost unlimited resources in strategy and cunning. 

A small cabin, which at once became dwelling-house and work- 
shop, was soon completed. Here such articles were made as seemed 
necessary to their simple wants. I now have a cupboard which 
was made by John Harris in that shop in 1785. It was made of 
boards split from a huge pine tree that grew ^^pon an ash heap 
near the eastern altar. Though one hundred and twenty-one years 
old, it is still solid in all its points, and no modern mechanic can 
excel the workmanship. 

This ancient "dresser,"* as the maker called it, together with 
a curious cluster of pine cones* that grew upon the tree of which 
is was made ; an acorn* which fell from an oak that reached its 
ponderous branches far over the talcose statue ; and some other 
things, I keep as mementoes of the shadowy past. When in want 
of curious mental food, or a desire to leap at a single bound from 
the present back to the long-gone past, I look at these relics of a 
former age, and with the old Saxon poet who, after his failure to 

*These relics are still in the homes of the Author's children. — Ed. 


penetrate the future, cried out: "ROLL BACK! ROLL BACK! 
Oh, wheels of time, roll back ! and let me realize something of the 
difference between then and now." 

The following year, 1785, was a memorable one. In May there 
same a cold wave which killed many large trees. The bird family 
was almost exterminated, and a large eagle, accidentally feeling 
the warmth of the cabin, became domesticated and remained a pet 
for several months, when it left wearing a bell which John Harris 
had fastened around its neck with his name and date engraved 
upon it. In 1790 this romantic bird was killed in the vicinity of 
Augusta. Even so large and hardy animals as wolves and pan- 
thers were found dead in the forest, and many fish were frozen 
in solid ice. 

But the most remarkable phenomenon of that, or perhaps of any 
other year since the crufixion of the Son of God was the Dark 
Day on November 24th. It has never been explained, and the 
splendid illumination of the 20th century casts no light upon the 
cause of the darkness. Though the sun was visible all day long, 
and appeared to be much larger than usual, it omitted no light ex- 
cept such as may be seen while passing through a dense fog at 
night. The whole of animated nature on the Western Hemisphere 
was astonished on that day, and all who had ever heard of the final 
judgment listened in anxious expectation of hearing the long- 
drawn blasts of Gabriel's trumpet to wake the sleeping dead. 

But only that which took place at Yamacutah concerns us now, 
and the tenth of that can not be told here. Even such strong and 
heroic men as Clark, Bankston and Harris were anxious, talked 
in whispers, and sat by their cabin all day. Various animals 
passed by in utter confusion, and several opossums and raccoons 
crouched near them, and though they sat with rifles across their 
knees, not a gun was fired the whole long day. 

During the day many Indians came, and seating themselves 
around the mystic circle, gazed steadfastly towards the central 
figure. This they continued all day, and perhaps all night; for 
when next morning they saw the sun rise bright and golden as 
ever, they arose as one man, went inside the circle, and solemnly 
walking along the path to a step as regular as the beating of a 


healthy heart, they disappeared beyond the eastern altar as al- 
ready indicated. 

This was the last time this curious performance ever took place 
at the Tumbling Shoals, or anywhere else so far as I ever heard. 
What did it mean ? Was there any more in it than a mere heathen 
ceremony ? 

In the early part of 1787 the little settlement was increased 
by the arrival of an important family consisting of Dale Clover, 
Mrs. Mary Clover, and their two children. Flora, a daughter four 
years old, and Egbert, a litle boy just beginning to walk. They 
came directly from Virginia by request of Clark and Bankston, 
who were near relatives of the Clover family. 

Both Mr. and Mrs. Clover were educated and refined. The 
latter was very beautiful, and her little daughter even more so. 
Clark, Bankston, Harris and Clover were revolutionary soldiers, 
were Free and Accepted Masons, members of the Baptist church, 
and after the surrender of Cornwallis at Yorktown, shook hands 
with George Washington for the last time. Who is not proud to 
live in a county first trod by such men? 

The population of Tumbling Shoals and vicinity had been 
increased to 42 men, women and children. Among them were 
Jared Cunningham, James Montgomery and Dr. Henry Therrauld. 
Cunningham settled at Hurricane Shoals, and one of our districts 
was named after his son, John. 

Just here one of the strangest romances known to real life 
might be unearthed by the professional writer. Montgomery 
afterwards moved to where Cabin Creek church now stands, and 
building the first cabin there both the creek and church built near 
it took that name. 

Dr. Therrauld was an extraordinary man and his life would 
fill a volume of thrilling interest. He administered the first pro- 
fessional dose of medicine ever taken by a citizen of Jefferson, 
The patient was Mrs. Thomas Jett. He helped to build the first 
Baptist church organized in the county, and preached the first 
sermon delivered there. The church was called "Etoho, " but 
was changed to Oconee, and stood some two miles east of the 
present Oconee church. 


Several good, substantial dwelling-houses, a strong fort, a small 
grist mill, a successful iron furnace and a school house had been 
built at Yamtrahoochee (Hurricane Shoals). The first school in 
the county was taught here by our same Dr. Therrauld, with a 
maximum number of ten pupils. 

Iron ore for the foundry was digged from the mines near the 
present city of Commerce, and from near Dry Pond, where many 
tons were taken and carried to be smelted at the Shoals. 

Fragments of pots, ovens and skillets were thick around the old 
site until 1840, when the great Harrison flood, as the big rain was 
called, swept away almost every vestige of its former life. Then 
work had to start anew. The old furnace was kept in operation 
as late as the sixties, during the civil war. 

Trou'ble with the Indians had been brewing for some time and 
open hostilities began in 1801, with varying results until the gage 
of battle was decided in favor of the white people, but at the 
fearful cost of Dr. Therrauld 's life — a loss as great as Jackson 
County ever felt. In these conflicts Clark, Bankston, Harris, 
Clover, Cunningham, Montgomery and Therrauld always com- 
posed the front rank. 

Only a few incidents may be given. One afternoon when most 
of the men were at work in a corn field, with their rifles hanging 
down their backs in deer-skin pouches made for the purpose, 
little Egbert Clover, who had left the fort unobserved, was vio- 
lently seized by a painted Indian warrior. His mother who was 
an expert with the rifle ran out at the only door, and just as she 
saw her little boy's brains dashed out against a large rock, she 
fired and the Indian fell dead. 

John Harris made a razor strop of skin taken from that In- 
dian's back, and many razors were afterwards sharpened on it. 
This is a grim feature of the times; but remember what Sherman 
said about war. 

Only a short time after this sad event, Flora Clover, sister of 
little Egbert, and Susan Bingham, the 13-year-old daughter of 
Hiram Bingham, mysteriously disappeared from home. For six 
long, painful weeks, every possible effort was made to discover 
them ; but without avail. When all hope was well-nigh gone, a 


man of gigantic proportions was seen approaching the fort with 
a white handkerchief streaming from the muzzle of a long rifle, 
and another covering the lower part of his face. Finding that he 
was seen, he deliberately placed the paper under a flat rock and 
went away as he had come, with a bold, lordly step. The paper, 
written in elegant style, read as follows : 

"A little after dark to-night, leave the key in the lower door of 
the furnace, and about 12 you may find Flora and Susan inside. 
Place an invisible guard. ALISCO." 

The anxiety of the evening was great beyond description. The 
instructions given were strictly followed. About 1 o'clock that 
night, the huge form of a giant leading two girls approached the 
door, the great key made by John Harris turned in the lock, the 
girls were gently lifted inside, the door silently closed, and the 
giant disappeared in the deep shade of the trees. A few minutes 
more and Flora Clover and Susan Bingham were in their father's 
arms. There was joy at Yamacutah that night. 

In the meantime, other settlements had been made in the terri- 
tory. At Stonethrow, now Gillsville, were 43 settlers ; at Groaning 
Rock 47 ; at Talasee, afterwards Clarksboro, were 51 ; at Thomo- 
coggan and vicinity 63 ; Yamacutah 42, and at places settled by 
families, 104, making the population of the county at the time 
of its organization 350 white people. 

In 1795, the year before Jackson County was organized, there 
died near where Berea church is, a man by the name of Patrick 
Shaddon, the grandfather of Mrs. John Jacobus Flournoy* of 
local celebrity. 

A part of Shaddon 's estate was a well-grown ox that ran 
through the woods as wild as a buck. Somehow, this ox, or Shad- 
don's steer, as he was called, became public property. Though he 
ran like a race horse and jumped over fences like a deer, he was 
finally captured and broken to harness by a famous Indian whose 

*John Jacobus Flournoy was a deaf mute and was a man of means. He 
knew the handicap under which the "deaf and dumb" have to live. He, 
therefore, set to work for state aid for the unfortunates that had not 
the money to attend schools in the North. He was largely instrumental in 
establishing the school for special instruction at Cave Spring. — Ed. 


name was Anaxieorn, The strange feature about the matter was 
that while in harness and at work he was entirely gentle and 
docile ; but as soon as turned loose he ran away at full speed as 
wild as he ever was, and as difficult to capture. It became a 
custom that whoever caught the Shaddon steer was at liberty to 
work him one week, but must then turn him loose. 

On one occasion he was chased by men on horseback as far as 
the vicinity of Jefferson, William T. Brantly, a young man then 
living at Thomocoggan, and who could throw a lasso as well as 
a Mexican ranchero, joined in the chase and soon captured the 
prize with his unerring rope. As soon as the ox found that his 
foreleg was hampered he submitted without a struggle. He was 
his captor's property for six days, and the first plowing ever done 
in Jefferson territory was during the next day when Mr, Brantly 
plowed the public square with the Shaddon steer. 

About this time most of the citizens living within the original 
boundary of Jackson, but then known as Franklin County, as- 
sembled at Thomocoggan to consider various public measures. 
This was the first step taken towards organizing a new county, 
but they failed to agree upon any other name than a general one, 
"THE WHITE MAN'S CONFERERACY. " It retained this dis- 
tinctive title for many years after the county was organized. 

Also, about this time, the "Confederacy," in common with 
other parts of the world, was visited by the "JERKS," a queer 
disease, if a disease at all, and in this part of the country was 
called, "The Move-a-Diddles." People sitting or standing quietly 
at work were seen to jump suddenly, sometimes as far as five or 
six feet at a single bound, while every muscle in them would jerk 
and twist in fearful contortions for some ten or fifteen minutes. 
Then the whole body became rigid and was incapable of motion 
for about the same length of time. This was followed by a dull 
stupor that sometimes continued for several hours, and, as a good 
old lady of the times said, made her feel "like she had the jim- 
jams." As I do not know how the jim-jams feel, I can not give 
any further description. 

In those days there lived near Jefferson, two brothers, George 
and Thomas Groves, and their wives were sisters. There were 


two children in each family, both girls being about 17 or 18 years 
old, and the boys about half grown. They were all unusually 
bright and intelligent, and the girls unusually beautiful. One 
day Matthew, the son of Thomas Groves, suddenly became sick 
when his mother was absent. Having lain as if asleep for a few 
minutes, he opened his eyes and told his sister Lucy that he was 
dying, and that his cousin, Nellie, the daughter of George Groves, 
was dying also. He then closed his eyes and said : 

"Put my Bible under my head, 

My prayer book under my feet — 
If mother comes before I wake, 
Tell her I am asleep." 

With the last word the boy died as a candle is blown out. 

It was soon found that Nellie Groves had expired in about the 
same way. They were buried in one grave, each with Bible and 
prayer book as directed by Matthew's last words. 

All alone their dust sleeps somewhere not far from the resi- 
dence of Mr. George Smith, the place where Nellie's father lived. 

For a long time Lucy Groves was silent and moody. She in 
some mysterious way became both Nellie and Lucy Groves. She 
often went to her Uncle George's house and did work just as 
Nellie had planned it before her death. A finger ring and some 
other articles that could not be found by the family were pro- 
duced by Lucy upon a moment's notice. Even the secrets be- 
tween Nellie and the young man to whom she was engaged to be 
married, were well known to Lucy in every particular. Some 
said they ought to marry and they did marry, though Lucy said 
she never loved him till after Nellie's death. 

Other instances of this kind have been known in the history of 
the human race; but it is a psychological phenomenon that, so 
far as I know, is not understood. 

The first county site of Jackson was at Clarksboro about one 
mile north from Talasee Shoals ; but the cutting off of Clarke 
made it necessary to move our capital nearer the center of the 
county, and a committee composed of George Wilson,* James 

*Geo. Wilson and Jas. Pittman were very prominent Inferior Court 
Judges of this county. — Ed. 


Pittman and Josiah Easley selected the place, not because it was 
surrounded by a broad, extended plain ; but because it was, and 
still is, as near the center of the county as they could determine ; 
because that four bubbling springs poured forth as many foun- 
tains of pure, crystal, life-giving water; and because it washed 
its face every time it rained. They named the place Jefferson,* 
after Thomas Jefferson of Virginia, 

When Xerxes marshaled his vast army on the banks of the 
Hellespont, he wept because of all that great multitude not one 
man would be living 100 years hence. And well might Xerxes 
weep ! He had visited only the tomb of Adam ; and not one ray 
of light came from its dark, mysterious depths. We have visited 
the tomb of Jesus — the open, not closed sepulchre of a crucified 
Redeemer, and it is radiant with light and glory — have almost 
heard the angelic anthem that rolled over the plains of Bethle- 
hem, "Glory to God in the highest, on earth, peace; good will 
towards men." 

Oh, Jefferson ! Jefferson ! Standing almost alone among the red 
hills of Georgia where no great thoroughfare, teeming with busy 
life and great purposes ever passes by, what have you done? 
Surrounded on every side by working, pushing, wide-awake rivals, 
where lightnings flash from hill to hill, and thunders roar along 
their winding valleys, what have you done? Listen not in echo, 
for the answer. 

Jefferson is known and honored all over the civilized world, 
and in many heathen countries. Menelik, the heathen king of 

*It is a very difficult matter to determine just when Jefferson was made 
the seat of county affairs. In 1799 the courts were held in Kirkpatrick's 
house, but does not say where this gentleman's house was. In 1802 the 
court met in the court-house. But where? In 1804 they were using a court- 
house, according to the records. But where? The records show that the 
court was held in the court-house at Jefferson in 1805. The Acts of the 
General Assembly state that a committee was appointed to select a place 
for the court-house, and at the next session that act would be repealed and 
another committee appointed. 

It is almost certain, however, that Jefferson was considered the county 
site as early as 1803, and in the year 1806 an Act was approved "Making 
Jefferson the permanent place for the court-house and for holding the 
courts, ' ' — Ed. 


far-away and benighted Abyssinia, has openly expressed a wish 
to see Jefferson, 

Most of the potentates of Europe, and all the learned physi- 
cians and scientists of the world have desired to visit Jefferson, 
and many have written about it. In Bristol, England, there is 
published a medical journal called "The Jeffersonian, " not for 
Jefferson, the politician ; but for our Jefferson, the mitigator of 
pain and suffering. 

And why is all this renown? The answer has been heard 
around the globe, and I will repeat it here. 

It is because that here Dr. Crawford W. Long discovered the 
anaesthetic properties of sulphuric ether ! And Jefferson was im- 
mortal! Go to the blood-red battlefields of America, Europe, 
Africa and Asia, look at the great hecatomb of amputated limbs 
of wounded soldiers, and the surgeons will tell you that all of 
this was done without pain. 

Go to the hospital where every breeze is laden with the groans 
of the suffering, and ask the nurses who flit from couch to couch 
like angels of mercy, who is the greatest and best loved doctor 
there and, as if by one voice, will come the answer — CRAWFORD 

Those of us who have heard his gentle step in the sick room, 
seen his beaming smile, and almost effeminate features, and know 
the sterling worth of his character as a high-toned, Christian 
gentleman, love to join in with the loud acclaim — All honor to 
Dr. Crawford W. Long and to Jefferson, from whence he first 
started on his glorious mission of mercy. 

And other great and good men have lived there. High on the 
roll of honor is the well-known name of "WILLIAM DUNCAN 
MARTIN." Tennyson has well said that, "To live in the hearts 
we leave behind is not to die." 

This is figuratively true, and William D. Martin still lives. 
Again the poet says — 

"Howe'er it be it seems to me, 
The noble are the truly good; 
Kind hearts are more than coronets, 
And simple faith than Norman blood." 

This is also true, and William D. Martin wears a crown to-day, 
and it is set with many glitering diamonds whose brilliancy will 
never grow less. His crown is Martin Institute. The jewels 
which sparkle in it are the great number who have entered its 
doors as pupils. They represent almost every phase of noble life 
known to human endeavor. To many lands they have carried 
glad tidings from Jefferson. 

Peace to the ashes of those who sleep, and long and happy life 
to those who live. 

When William D. Martin founded and endowed the school 
named for him, he, too, ''Built better than he knew." 



The Log is Rolled. 

For many years after the first settlement of Jackson County, 
the logrolling (logpiling) was the most popular public occasion 
known to the times. The vast forests which reached to an un- 
known distance in every direction contained a great number of 
large trees which had to be cut into convenient lengths and piled 
for the purpose of burning. This was the "logrolling." It was 
a big occasion, and in the way of good cheer and a spontaneous 
flow of friendship and neighborly love, extraordinary prepara- 
tions were made for it. Though not in the flash of modern 
advancement, the people were happy, loyal to themselves, to each 
other, to their country, and to their God, 

It was not deemed necessary to give any one a special invita- 
tion to a logrolling. The day was appointed, notice given, and 
that was all. The whole family, men, women and children, were 
glad to go, and glad to stay all day, frequently all night. And 
all were welcome. Their happiness was at high tide. 

However, this was not all that pertained to the old-time log- 
rolling. A quilting was nearly always simultaneous with it. 
While the men were rolling logs in the field, their mothers, wives, 
sisters and sweethearts were making bed quilts in the house, and 
the children were playing in the creek or wading through the 

Nor indeed was this all. At night the dance was always pro- 
vided for. It was not known by the flippant name of "frolic," or 
softened down to the easy word "party." It was a dance, and 
the dancers danced. 

The logrolling which I have selected to illustrate pioneer life 
in this county became known as the "Dunson Logrolling," and 
I have chosen it because it represents one, and only one feature 


of Auman endeavor, which I believe has never been witnssed any- 
where else in the world. 

This may sound like somebody has been riding on a high horse. 
Wait, let's see. 

William Dunson was of German descent, and one of the early 
settlers of the county. As we are to learn of him further on, it 
is only necessary to state here that he pitched his tent on Little 
Sandy Creek, about two miles southeast of Groaning Rock, and 
that he became a strong, progressive and honorable farmer. 

A short time after this, Gendelph LeCain came from Virginia, 
and settled near Mr. Dunson. His wife, Mrs. Florette LeCain, was 
a magnificent woman, in the prime of life. Large, unusually tall, 
no sculptor ever dreamed of a more graceful figure. Educated 
and refined, her manners were dignified, but pleasant and agree- 
able. She claimed to be a graduate of a celebrated cooking school 
in Paris, and of the many who enjoyed the hospitality of her 
table, not one ever doubted her claim. 

Idalone, pronounced Id-ah-lone was their only daughter, and 
though quite young at the time of her arrival, she soon became 
a Hebe in beauty and a Sampson in physical strength. At the 
time of the Dunson logrolling she was said to be 18 years old, 
and more powerfully and elegantly developed than her mother. 
She was very beautiful. Her features were regular and her form 
classical. She had been educated by her parents, was a lover of 
books, and often studied them far into the night. She cooked, 
knit stockings, carded and spun wool, wove cloth, cut and made 
clothes, fed cattle, and jumped the calf-rope when on her way to 
the cowpen. Her step was graceful and seemed to be as firm as 
the hills over which she so often roamed. 

Thus Idalone LeCain stood, waiting for her mother, on the hill 
which overlooked the "new ground" where Mr. Dunson had ar- 
ranged to have his annual logrolling that day. It was a bright 
April morning, when the singing of birds and the chirping of 
crickets seemed to proclaim joy and gladness for all. But for 
once the young girl was sad. She could see that some of the log- 
rollers had already arrived ; great, broad-shouldered men of 
fabulous strength and heroic endurance. Though it was some re- 


lief to know that her father was among them, her sadness in- 
creased with each recurring thought. She felt that the day might 
shape her destiny for all time to come; for odd as it seems, 
Idalone LeCain was to be one of the logrollers that day. She, and 
other girls, too, had often attended these gatherings; and one day 
a gallant young fellow playfully bantered her to become his 
"toting mate." She accepted the challenge, and with one hand 
carried her part of the log, and defiantly patted the log with the 
other. This was a revelation, and continued from time to time, 
until Mr. Dunson, having discovered her amazing strength, pitted 
her against any young man that could be brought on the field. 
This continued for two seasons, and though several of the most 
powerful men in the surrounding country accepted the challenge, 
none of them were able to bring out her strength. 

Finally she playfully remarked that she would marry any 
clever, good-looking young man who, "could make her walk un- 
steady while carrying a log." She made this offer because all the 
young men with whom she was acquainted already knew better 
than to put her to such a test. Still she thought that some 
stranger might appear, and it was this that made her feel sad. 
As already seen, she was waiting for her mother on the hill which 
overlooked the logrolling ground. She did not have to wait long, 
and arm in arm, mother and daughter approached the men who 
were waiting for all "hands" to arrive. 

"Great Jupiter," exclaimed an old man, Thomas Perry, who 
was present, not to roll logs, but to carry the demijohn and water 
for those who did. He was sitting on a stump with his mouth 
wide open, as some one asked : 

"What is the matter. Uncle Tom?" 

" Gewhillicans ! such a sight !" was the only answer given, as the 
old man turned his eyes from the approaching "beauties," as 
they were often called. 

Idalone was not mistaken in her apprehension. William T. 
Brantly of Jefferson, the same that had caught and plowed the 
Shaddon steer, had not seen the wonderful girl, but had often 
heard of her. Learning of the Dunson logrolling, and that the 
famous beauty might be there as a champion, he at once decided 

to attend ' ' the show, " as he termed it ; not, however, with the in- 
tention of entering any contest. He was among the first arrivals 
and was sitting on a log when mother and daughter appeared. It 
was a case of love at first sight. This was no usual occurrence. 
He afterwards said, "I at once felt stronger, and could have 
jumped ten feet further than ever before." He was a powerfully 
made man, tall, broad-shouldered, well-formed, athletic, and 
"good-looking." Some thought that for once the champion girl 
was overmatched. Most admitted that there was some danger. 
*'Not a bit of it to our girl," said Mr. Dunson, defiantly. 

A cheer followed this expression, and the necessary prepara- 
tions began. A poplar log, three feet and two inches in diameter 
at the small end, and fifteen feet long, was selected by mutual 
consent, for the great trial, and it was to be carried to a large 
flat rock ten yards distant. Such a log, green and solid, was very 
heavy, and to "tote" it usually required about as many men as 
could walk on both sides. 

The team and sets selected were as follows : 

1. Miss Idalone LeCain, William Thadeus Brantly. 

2. William Dunson, Geo. Wilson. 

3. James Nash, Robert Wilson. 

4. Drury Gee, Dr. Henry Therrauld. 

5. Notty Gore, Gendelph LeCain. 

This list presents a formidable array of physical power, and is 
given here as a slight memorial of the substantial worth of those 
who composed it. Wish it could be greater ! Seems like the mute 
eloquence of their dust can almost be heard moaning amid the 
few tree-tops left of those primeval forests through which they 
once so gladly roamed. A deep thinker has asked, "What matters 
it if the individual dies, since the race continues?" It is some 
consolation to know that descendants of some of "the famous 
ten" still live in the county. 

Rev. James Rogers, a young minister of the gospel, was chosen 
umpire. When they heard that the interesting, but 
dreaded, contest was actually to come off, all the ladies who at- 
tended the quilting rushed to witness the scene. When they saw 


the manly form and stately bearing of Brantly, they trembled for 
the result; they did not want their favorite girl to leave them. 
Her mother wept like a stricken child. The girl herself appeared 
to be composed and self-reliant. This had always been one of her 
sustaining powers. 

"All ready!" called out the umpire. The sets advanced to take 
their places as indicated by the list, the first being in front at the 
heavy end of the log. 

As Idalone went forward she drew her right sleeve above her 
elbow, lest her left hand should become entangled in it. And 
such an arm ! It was noticed that when Blantly saw the great 
muscles below the elbow, like layers of knotted ropes twisted 
together, he turned pale, and compressed his lips. When at their 
places, he looked over the log and thought the prize worthy of 
the best effort of his life. And he made it. Idalone only blushed. 

"Log up, and steady yourselves!" came the command. 

Slowly the great log arose from its bed. All stood upright — 
firm — without a tremor. 


With measured tread the designated rock was reached and the 
ponderous log placed upon it. 

"Not so much as one unsteady step was made by anybody! It 
is a victory for all, but for no individual!" proclaimed the um- 
pire gladly. 

Then such a great shout went up that the echo came reverbera- 
ting over the hills and met and clashed in the valleys. The squir- 
rels came from their hiding places in the surrounding forests, ran 
along the limbs of the trees, suddenly stopped, gave their pretty 
tails a few spasmodic jerks, and began to bark. Droves of wild 
turkeys roving the woods hard by stopped scratching among the 
fallen leaves, raised their great red-wattled heads high in the air, 
listened, then spread their tails, and with their ominous "quit, 
quit," went further into the forest. They nor the squirrels had 
ever heard such an alarm before. 

Then Uncle Tom Perry carried the old Dutch demijohn around, 
and most, but not all, took a "dram." "Oh, horrors!" the 
modern reader may exclaim; and well he might if such a thing 


was done in these days. But, then, as a rule, people did not get 
drunk. No boy or young man was ever seen drunk, and women 
did not drink at all. We may notice that the shouting began be- 
fore the dram was taken, nor was it repeated afterwards. 

When the shouting ceased, Idalone was leaning against the log. 
Her fine eyes sparkled like opals in the sunlight. Brantly came 
and stood by her. He was evidently embarrassed, and in deep 
meditation. When about to speak, Mr. Rogers came to the rescue, 
saying : 

"Miss LeCain, you are still uneonquered, and in my opinion are 
likely to remain so. Mr. Brantly is at least your equal; for I 
saw that you both made desperate efforts to gain the mastery. 
Neither wavered for a moment. You are therefore equal so far as 
this contest is concerned, and I can make no decision. Therefore, 
I shall shift my responsibility as umpire, to you." 

Turning to Brantly, he continued: "Mr. Brantly, please take 
position on the opposite side of the log." 

Without knowing what was intended, he leaped over at a single 
bound. The umpire continued: 

"Now, Miss LeCain, there is nothing between you, as I believe, 
but the log. If you are both willing to remove this barrier, shake 
hands over it." 

Without hesitation Brantly offered his hand. Idalone was 
taken by surprise ; her face turned pale ; she had not time to 
think. After some hesitation, she turned her great blue eyes to- 
ward her father and mother, who were standing near. Tears were 
chasing each other down the cheeks of both. They too, hesitated ; 
but finally nodded their heads; they could not speak. Covering 
her eyes with her left hand, and resting her head on what she 
afterwards called "the dear old poplar log," she extended her 
right hand toward Brantly. He quickly grasped it, and before 
any one had time to think, he had leaped back over the log and 
there was nothing between them. 

Though more than half in love with Idalone LeCain himself, 
Mr. Rogers, holding his hat upon a level with his shoulders, said: 

"I know these two young people are worthy of each other, and 
believing that the hand of God is in the matter, I take the respon- 


sibility of saying that if there are any present who object to their 
marriage, say so here and now, or else forever hereafter hold their 

"Amen," roared the coarse voice of William Dunson. The 
speaker waited for opposition, but as none was offered, he con- 
tinued : 

"Victory without a battle. Then as our good Dr. Therrauld 
is an ordained minister of the gospel, and is duly authorized to 
issue and return marriage licenses, he will prepare the papers and 
perform the marriage ceremony I claim the privilege of giving 
the bride away, and after the marriage the bride and bridegroom 
will return with the ladies present to Mr. Dunson 's residence, 
where we all feel they will enjoy themselves as becomes this inter- 
esting occasion." 

"Amen and amen!" again roared Mr. Dunson. 

All the young girls present at once formed into two parties; 
one, led by Miss Kathleen Strother, a fine Dutch girl, swept and 
garnished a large circle with "brushbrooms. " The other, led by 
Miss Eunice Emory, gathered rabbit pinks, snowdrops, ox-eye 
daisies, forget-me-nots, lady's slippers and anemones, and scat- 
tered them in rich profusion all over the "Wedding Circle," as 
these two leaders named it. I have heard it said that old-time 
people had no sentiment. In whose parlor have you seen a higher 
order of sentiment than was shown by the Misses Strother and 

All things were ready. Save the barking of a squirrel in the 
distant forest, and the drumming of a yellow hammer on a dead 
tree near by, all was hushed in silence until Dr. Therrauld arose 
and said : 

' ' Let us pray. ' ' 

And such a prayer ! In speaking of it afterwards, Mr. Rogers 
said: "It seemed like all heaven and all earth were listening to 
it." At the conclusion, Idalone was presented to William as "the 
precious gift of her father and mother." He led her to the charm- 
ing flower circle, and then and there they were made one by the 
man of God. They ever afterwards lived as one — it was a happy 


union. Many hearty congratulations followed, and the last one 
was somewhat remarkable. 

The big Indian, Anaxicorn, though not a resident, was sometimes 
seen in that community. Having watched the proceedings closely, 
he took a small package from his belt, and holding it in one hand, 
fell upon his knees before the bride and offered his congratula- 
tions in his own language. The following is a full translation of 
all he said: 

"Indian want you much joy. Take this — make man moccasins 
with, I wanted you make moccasins for me wear." 

He presented the small package to the bride and walked away. 
He was never again seen in the community. No one had ever 
thought that he, too, was in love with Miss LeCain, and even 
wanted her to make his shoes. He, however, acted generously 
about the matter, for the little package contained several bone 
needles of different sizes and two small balls of sinews taken from 
the legs of the red deer, then so common in the country. With 
these the natives made their moccasins, and Anaxicorn thought 
Brantly's should be made in the same way. 

"How," some may ask, "were the bride and bridegroom 
dressed?" The answer is easy. The bride was arrayed in a dress, 
every thread of which had been carded, spun, woven, cut and 
made with her own hands. It was of white and black wool mixed, 
and in those days was called "flea-bitten" cloth. The skirts were 
more ample than in modern times; but the bodice fitted neatly 
over a superb form. 

The bridegroom also wore a "homespun" suit, made from start 
to finish by Mrs. Eliza Boyd, wife of Peter Boyd, who sold the 
land on which to build the famous town of Jefferson. It was 
made, as then called, of "walnut dye" jeans, and in strict accord- 
ance with the aristocratic notions of the day. His coat was a 
"claw hammer," and the skirts somewhat resembled a wren's 
tail. The fit was good and brought out his manly form to great 

As Mr. Rogers requested, Mr. and Mrs. Brantly and all the 
ladies present went to the Dunson residence where it soon ap- 
peared that the bridegroom was as good with the needle as he was 

with the "handstick." The quilting went on apace, and every- 
body was happy. 

Uncle Tom once more carried around the demijohn and water 
bucket. Logrolling was resumed until noon, when all adjourned 
to dinner. 

And, my ! my ! such a dinner. There were no candies, bonbons, 
ice cream, or milkshakes. Perhaps there was not a woman there, 
young or old, who was not a good cook. Mrs. LeCain was there, 
Mrs. Dunson's mother. Granny Walker, who had said that when 
she "had the move-a-diddles she felt like she had the jim-jams," 
and other good cooks were there. With respect, I dare say that 
there is not a cook in the state that can make such ginger cakes 
and such beer as Mrs. LeCain and Granny Walker baked and 
brewed that day. 

Old-time johnny cakes, made of corn meal, baked before the 
fire on wooden boards made for the purpose, and turned and 
turned until they were cooked through, and both sides without 
any bottom crust, of a light-brown color, constituted the chief 
article of broad. 

Coffee, used only on rare occasions like this, milk, chicory, and 
sparkling corn beer were the drinks used. 

There were meats galore, boiled ham, roast beef, venison, kid, 
mutton ; barbecued shoats, squirrels and turkeys ; boiled chicken 
and partridge ; and fish and turtle, were some of the chief courses. 

Such a dinner, prepared by such cooks, and for more than fifty 
people, all strong and hearty, hale and healthy, was indeed "a 
thing of beauty and a joy forever." 

Contrary to modern usage, Mr. and Mrs. Brantly waited on the 
tables, and with good grace replied to the many jokes thrown at 

Late in the afternoon the heaping of the logs was completed, 
and then for the third and last time that day, the demijohn went 
around. It disappeared without leaving a sign of intemperance 
behind it. Supper was next in order. 

The great "new ground" awaited only the burning of the log 
heaps to be ready for the plow. Such clearings continued many 
years ; but became smaller and smaller until the grand old forests, 

with their "droves" and "gangs" of animal life, have almost dis- 
appeared; and the hamadryad, which is said to die with the tree 
it lives in, the regular seasons, the uniform fall of rain, and the 
equable temperature of the air we breathe, have all gone with 
them. Our once valuable chestnut timber and the spreading grape 
vine which ran upon the ground, or climbed upon the tree, some 
of whose fruit was more delicious than any found in modern 
vineyards, have also gone with them. 

Most of the few remaining forest pines are taking the dry-rot, 
orchards are failing, walnuts, hickory nuts, and acorns are smaller, 
and water in springs, wells, branches, creeks and rivers is be- 
coming less and less every year ; so much so, that the historic fish 
has small chance to live in this country. 

While all these things were going other things have been com- 
ing. Long, dry summers, irregular rains, malarial diseases, howl- 
ing storms and terrific lightnings are more frequent and severe 
than when breathing forest leaves and clear running water equal- 
ized the furies. The Colorado beetle, the San Jose scale, the boll 
weevil, the curculio, the cabbage snake and other plant and tree 
life-destroyers have invaded the land without an invitation, and 
the indications are that they have come to stay. 

The history of Greece, Egypt, Palestine and Spain contains full- 
page illustrations which show that there is not a nation on the 
globe which has not, in the course of centuries, declined in pro- 
portion to the disappearance of its forests. What a pity that our 
forefathers did not study the improvement of land instead of ex- 
posing such a vast area to the burning sun and drying winds. 


The Dance at Dunson's and Preaching at The School House. 

With the return of the logrollers the last rays of the setting 
sun, coming over a vast extent of forest reaching all the way to 
the Pacific shore, brought with them a green-tinted haze, which, 
uniting with the gold of the sun and the blue of the sky, spread 
a glow along the western horizon that seemed to bathe the earth 
in irridescent vapor everywhere. As this began to disappear in 
the coming darkness supper was announced. 

As usual, the quilting was greatly enjoyed by all. The ladies 
threaded their needles and talked, quilted and talked, "laid off 
shells" and talked, "rolled the quilt" and talked, "cut threads" 
and talked, and talked, until there came a thoughtful pause. This 
was finally broken by Mrs. Emory, Eunice's mother, saying 
slowly : 

"Did you ever! Married a man to whom she never spoke be- 
fore, and on short notice, at that!" 

"No, I never! Though as Brother Rogers says he is all right, 
and is such a splendid-looking fellow, for my part, can not say that 
Idalone is to blame," said another. 

"No, not to blame; but I should have wanted a longer court- 
ship — there's lot's of fun in courting," said still another. 

"To be married in the woods, under a great spreading tree, on a 
lovely carpet of flowers, love, courtship and marriage, all in less 
than an hour, and at a logrolling at that, is no everyday business. 
As for me I don't blame Idalone one bit," said Miss Medoline 
Callahan, whose family name is still well known. 

"Neither do I. It is really so romantic that I want my wedding, 
if I ever have one, to be just like Idalone 's," said Blanche Chan- 
dler, whose family name is also extensively known. 

"That is all right, but this quilt will soon be finished ; and it will 
take all the girls here to wrap it around Mr. Dunson and carry 
him to supper. So let's talk about that ; there's lots of fun ahead. 
What you say, girls?" asked Mrs. Mildred Gathright, wife of 


Miles Gathright, who was the first settler on the banks of the 
Oconee below the present iron bridge. 

It may be explained here that on all similar occasions it was 
customary to wrap the new quilt around the gentleman of the 
house, seat him at the table, and serve him while the guests were 
taking their places. All knew that Mr. Dunson would resist this 
part of the ceremony "just for the fun of the thing," and he was 
so big and strong that he was sometimes dreaded. 

By and by the quilt was unrolled, the supper tables were ready, 
but Mr. Dunson could not be found. He had concealed himself. 
At last he was discovered in the barn, and such a scuffle followed 
that the cows jumped out of the cowpen and ran to the woods. 
He finally submitted, however, the quilt was closely wrapped 
around his huge form, and to the tune "Granny Will Your Dog 
Bite?" he was marched to the head of the table. He was bounti- 
fully supplied with good things, and to use the words of one who 
was present, "he looked like a bear sitting on the stump of a 
bee-tree licking of his chops." He was a dark man of august pres- 

Supper was over and the new quilt carefully folded away. The 
services of Jim Beasly, "the breakdown" fiddler of the times, 
had been secured to furnish music for the coming dance, which was 
to begin at 8 o'clock, sharp. The great house-clock, some seven 
feet high, was closely watched. The long pendulum moved back 
and forth in measured swing until the appointed hour was nearly 
reached. Jim Beasley began to tighten his fiddle strings. He 
"tuned and tuned" until the desired tension was reached. 
As a matter of respect, it was not customary for women to 
enter the first dance. Eight men, four sets, led by Brantly, stood 
upon the floor. Sque-squa-squo-ske-e-e-au-au-squeak ! went the 
fiddle. "Face your partners" called the leader, and to the air 
of "Billy in the Low Ground," the first dance was 
on. It was a rigadoon, and round and round went the men. 
Passed through opposite ranks, and then dashed on with the 
"double-shuffle," "jump jim crow," "cut the pigeon wing," and 
the "hop over the moon," to the finish. 


Men looked on with their hands in their pockets, women patted 
their feet; all eager "to trip their own light, fantastic toes." Old 
Terpsichore had turned loose his jolly forces. 

The next dance was called the Laedan, or Leader. It required 
only one performer, who was expected to illustrate every distinct 
movement or step to be taken that night. The man selected for 
that purpose was Toby Bradshaw, commonly called Tobe Bratcher. 
He was a small man of wonderful activity and well versed in the 
mazes of the dance. 

Again the fiddle gave the signal and Tobe flitted across the 
floor like a phantom, and to the tune of "Sally in the Wildwoods," 
illustrated the next dance, called the Bolero. When through with 
the round dance, he bowed, and stood to one side. This was the 
signal for all the ladies who intended to dance that night to ar- 
range themselves in a circle, and in such order that the leader, or 
teacher, could pass around and between them, and thus readily 
see all they were expected to do themselves. When through, 
Tobe gave a forward and backward movement, so quick and intri- 
cate that the step was called, "do it if you can." 

That closed the object lesson, and it was well given. Then small 
bronzed pitchers containing something to drink went round. All, 
men, women and children, drank heartily; but it was metheglin, 
a delicious beverage made of clear spring water, honey and spice. 

A running conversation followed, and then came the Bolero. 9 
chair was placed on a table at one end of the room, and to this 
elevated seat Tobe Bratcher was lifted by Natty Gore, who handed 
him a long wand made of turkey feathers. This he waved around 
his head, and then brought it to an upright position between his 
feet. This was the beginning signal. Beasly's long-drawn bow 
and Tobe's gently waiving wand, say, "all is ready." Mr. and 
Mrs. Brantly led the van, and away and away they go to the 
mellow, persuasive strains of "Over the Hills and Far Away." 
Still on they rush in perfect order and in rhythmic time, the wand 
is waved quickly back and forth, the speed increases, Jim Beasly 
is in all his glory, his fiddle trembles to the vibrations of its 
music, the floor heaves up and down, dogs, sitting on the doorsteps, 
howl ; cats, with hair erect, leave the room, and the crickets hush. 


The company becomes unconscious of all things else ; the dancers 
are electrified, the wand directs all in utter silence, and the dogs 
howl on. 

Finally the wand was again brought to a perpendicular and the 
dance closed. Everybody was in a good humor, and Mr. Dunson 
threw great chunks of meat to the dogs to stop the howling. A 
general conversation followed and perhaps some particular court- 
ing, as that very night William Howington and George Wilson 
fell in love with the girls whom they afterwards married. 

Thus the exercises continued, unabated, until old Chanticleer, 
from some distant tree-top, announced the coming day. Jim 
Beasly wrapped his fiddle in a blanket, Tobe Bratcher came down 
from his perch, and reluctantly most of the assembled guests be- 
gan to disperse. Not one of them was in any way under the in- 
fluence of strong drink; nor had any girl there ever seen a young 
man drunk, or with a hip-pocket in his trousers. 

The foregoing is given as an illustration of life in old times ; and 
it yet remains to give some further account of those mentioned as 
actors in them. 

About half mile east of S. W. Jackson's mill, there was a small 
log cabin in which W. T. Brantly had taught school, and there 
Revs. Therrauld and Rogers had an appointment to preach on the 
night of the dance. Being amply provided with a supply of good 
things, they left the logrolling in time to reach the school house 
about sundown. Though on foot they had their blankets and 
provisions with them, and the country being thinly settled they 
prepared to stay all night. Of course they expected a small con- 
gregation, for there were not enough people within a reasonable 
distance to make a large one. 

Having eaten their supper and swept the house with pine-top 
brooms, they separated and went to the woods to pray. Imagine 
two such men, in the fast-gathering darkness of a wilderness, at 
prayer amid its dismal solitude. It seems much like the custom of 
their Divine Leader, who "went into a mountain apart to pray." 

While thus engaged the few people in the country began to as- 
semble, and the preachers gladly joined them. After services it 
was found that every man and woman present, except two or 


three who were already members, joined the church, some to go to 
Cabin Creek, where Mr. Rogers was pastor, others to Oconee 
where Dr. Therrauld had charge. 

It was at this meeting in the woods that the well-known Capt. 
Tom Stapler, father of Jeff Stapler, Esq., of Newton, joined the 
church, and afterwards became one of the standard bearers of 
Cabin Creek. He had a good practical education, taught school, 
and in other capacities served the public faithfully. 

It was the Capt. Tom Stapler who, during the alarmingly dry 
summer of 1845, proposed to turn a regular meeting into a prayer 
service, and pray for rain exclusively. Strange, some of the mem- 
bers objected, but Mr. Stapler succeeded in having a prayer- 
meeting appointed for the next service. 

Rev. Jesse Human who lived near where Mountain Creek church 
now stands, was pastor at Cabin Creek, and as he ascended the 
pulpit steps to offer the first intercessory prayer, Brother Stapler, 
in a voice louder than he had ever before spoken in a church, 
cried out, "Ih-ay for a soaker. Brother Human." Let unbelievers 
scoff if they will ; but it soon rained, and the people made enough 
corn that year to tide them on to another. 

It was also this Capt. Tom Stapler, who as far as I have been 
able to learn, was the only man ever summoned to appear before 
any tribunal in this country to answer to the charge of being a 
Free Mason. 

Though some twenty-five years after Western New York was 
agitated by the "Morgan heresy," as it was called, an account of 
it, though dead in its own house, reached the ears of the most in- 
consistent members of Cabin Creek church. Believing all they 
had heard was true, and wanting to believe it, and being joined by 
others, they caused Brother Stapler to be cited "to appear before 
the church in conference assembled, to then and there answer to 
the charge of being a Free Mason, contrary to the teaching and 
belief of said church." 

The contest was long, and, in some respects bitter. Rank con- 
tentions seemed to be hovering in the air. Unity Lodge of Jeffer- 
son, of which brother Stapler was a member, went to his assist- 
ance. Other lodges sent their ablest members consisting of min- 


isters of the gospel, lawyers, and high-school and college profes- 
sors, to help him. Here came another difficulty as hard to decide 
as the other. Should these "outsiders" be admitted to the con- 
ference was the question. After a sharp contest the church by a 
small majority permitted them "to talk but not vote." 

And they did talk. They had not come with any expectation 
of voting. After a defense perhaps as able as any ever made in 
the country, the defendant went forth, as he so richly deserved, 
a member of the church and of the Masonic Lodge in good stand- 
ing. At last in ripe old age, he approached his grave — 

"Like one who wraps the drapery of his couch 
About him, and lies down to pleasant dreams." 

— Bryant. 

The fraternity which he so well and so faithfully exemplified, 
buried him with Masonic honors in the latter sixties of the last 

Dr. Henry Therrauld, as shown elsewhere, was one of the lead- 
ing spirits at Tumbling Shoals. As no account of his untimely 
death could be given there, an outline of the sad incident may be 
stated here. Though only a few friendly Indians remained in the 
immediate vicinity, quite a number who were openly hostile, roved 
along the western borders,* now in Hall County. They had never 
forgiven the "pale-faces" for shedding blood on their "holy 
ground," nor had their chief, Wautowauto, abandoned his pur- 
pose to recapture the white girls, Flora Clover and Susan Bing- 
ham, whom he had stolen from their parents at Yamacutah. 
, A few weeks after the meeting at the Brantly school house, a 
party of fifteen Indians were seen to enter the dense canebreak 
which grew on both sides of the river a little above the Hurricane 
Shoals. The ever wide-awake citizens of Tumbling Shoals rushed 
to their arms, and in a short time a company of twenty determined 
men, led by the heroic Henry Therrauld, marched up the river to 
find them. Jordan Clark and John Harris were sent out as scouts 
and in the early part of the afternoon reported that the foe was 

♦Charles H. Smith's "History of Georgia," page 53.— Ed. 


encamped about the center of the canebreak, and that sentinels 
were on the outskirs. It was then seen that the enemy intended 
to remain there until night, and from thence make their intended 
assault upon the Shoals after dark. 

After consultation, the leader determined to post his men in 
the immediate vicinity and attack the Indians as they emerged 
from their hiding place. While cautiously selecting a position on 
the hill which overlooks the Shoals from the north, they were seen 
going up the western bank of the river in full retreat. By some 
unknown means they had become alarmed. Immediate pursuit 
was ordered, and when, after a long chase it was found they were 
about to be overtaken, they crossed the river about where Dixon's 
bridge now is and made a stand among the very large trees which 
grew a few hundred yards above the crossing. They had doubt- 
less left the canebrake because there was no such protection there. 

Finding, as he expected, that the Indians were shielded by 
large trees, he divided his men into two squads, one led by Jordan 
Clark, going to the left. To prevent the danger of killing each 
other from opposite sides, it was understood that no firing was to 
be done when the squads were in range with the enemy, and that 
every possible advantage should be taken of the trees. 

It was known that the few firearms carried by the foe were 
almost worthless in their hands, and that the tomahawk would be 
held for closer quarters. Poisoned arrows were of greatest con- 
cern, though at the time even that was not thought of. 

The order to advance was given; a flight of arrows whizzed 
through the air. These did little damage, and on went the men. 
The tactics were new, even to the Indians. The trees offered 
but little protection. There was an enemy on both sides, and one 
of the foe fell at every crack of the rifle. Having noticed that no 
enemy was to be seen at an unusually large tree, Dr. Therrauld 
heedlessly went near it. As he did so, a long arm was seen to 
reach out from the tree, and at the same instant a tomahawk went 
crashing into his brain. The tree was hollow, and the Indian, 
Wautowauto, had concealed himself in it. John Harris, next in 
rear of his leader, threw an axe which he carried in his belt, at the 


chief, and his bowels gushed out and fell at his feet before his 
body fell on them. 

The death of their leader so maddened his followers that they 
made such a furious charge that every Indian, except two or three 
who saved themselves by flight, was slain, and several of these 
were shot when at full speed. 

Dale Clover, Hiram Bingham and James Montgomery were 
badly, but not fatally hurt. Several others whose names are un- 
known were slightly hurt. Wautowauto, instigator of all the mis- 
chief, was left as he fell in the hollow of the tree. His bones were 
still there when Mr. Hinson Barr moved to that community some 
time in the thirties. The other Indians were buried in a flat now 
in cultivation, and where I have myself found various relics of the 
older time. The spot is near the ancient Nauhata,* an Indian 
town, where the aborigines of this county had many sanguinary 
conflicts before the Anglo-Saxon race ever trod its soil. 

The almost idolized body of Dr. Therrauld was carefully, ten- 
derly, lovingly carried to Tumbling Shoals, and, on top of the hill 
leading to the north, was buried somewhere near the spot where 
an unfrequented road passes the south corner of Mr. Davis' cotton 
field, where about one year ago, I gladly noticed that, in all prob- 
ability, no ploughshare had passed over his hallowed grace to mark 
it for its own. 

Perhaps Mr. Davis, or any one else in the community, does not 
know that he may sometimes walk over such sacred dust. Tread 
softly, brother, for — 

"Then shall the good stand in immortal bloom, 

In the fair gardens of that second birth; 

And each bright blossom mingle its perfume 

With that of flowers, which never bloomed on earth." 

— Longfellow. 

Rev. James Rogers was a native Georgian, and came to this 
country in the early part of the last century. He became a prom- 

*Note: The Editor visited the site of the town, Nauhata, in 1914. It is 
a short distance above Dixon bridge about three miles west of Maysville, 
Ga. The land is now owned by Mr. T. N. Highfill. We also saw the Indian 
"flood gauge." It is a large bowlder of granite just below the bridge. It 


inent minister of the gospel in earl}^ life and from the beginning 
devoted himself to his high calling with a fervency and zeal which 
knew of no abatement. As shown by his conduct at the logrolling, 
he was a born leader, and always led to the satisfaction of others. 
In some of his views he was far in advance of the times in which 
he lived, and, realizing this, he often said he was "born too soon." 
Denominational strife was common and very bitter in those days, 
and both he and his co-laborer, Dr. Therrauld, were always conser- 
vative and peaceful along these lines. These two noble men were 
the first to sow the seeds of "peace and good will toward men" 
in Jackson County ; and though they fell at first on stony ground, 
they finally began to spring up and grew into great trees under 
whose shades all classes may now meet and ask blessings of their 
common Heavenly Father. 

While I do not believe that Clotho and her other companions 
have any control over the destinies of men, there is One who 
"shapes our ends;" and for some good reason these two leading 
pioneer ministers were taken, seemingly, in the prime of their 
glory and usefulness. 

After the death of Dr. Therrauld, Mr. Rogers became pastor at 
Oconee, where he, like his predecessor, became much beloved. 
Some years after, when on his way to an appointment, an old tree 
killed him and the horse he was riding. The tree stood some 
three hundred yards west of the S. W. Jackson mill, and a little 
over half a mile from the Brantly school house. An hour or 
two before Mr. Rogers was killed. Hardy Rose, while passing, 
noticed that the old tree was leaning unusually far towards the 
road. He made several efforts to push it down, but failing, passed 
on without a thought of what was so soon to take place. 

This pioneer preacher, James Rogers, was the grandfather of 
J. B. Rogers of Jefferson, [now Maysville] and were he living to- 
day would be proud to own his grandson as the worthy descendent 
of a noble sire. 

IB said that when any unusual rise in the river occurred, the Indians would 
mark the height to which the water rose by drilling a hole in the big 
rock. However the greater part of this "flood gauge" was used in the 
construction of the new bridge that now spans the river. 



Brantlt Carries His Bride to Jefferson. 

William T. Brantly carried his bride to Jefferson on the third 
day after their marriage. They went on an ox cart drawn by two 
huge oxen called Buck and Ball, and carried with them such 
household property as the LeCain's could afford to give them. 
They lived in a small house near the white oak spring, a spot 
which has witnessed many curious things. Mr. Brantly was a 
school teacher, and also hunter and farmer. Mrs. Brantly fol- 
lowed her home life, picked seed out of cotton with her fingers, 
carded, spun and wove the lint, and of the cloth she cut and made 
her own and her husband's clothes. There is good evidence that 
they all had the appearance of being tailor made. To show her 
appreciation of Anaxicorn 's curious wedding gift, she made moc- 
casins of deer skin and ornamented them with pretty designs in 
needle work ; all for her husband, and he was proud to wear them 
on public occasions. 

Being an educated man, Mr. Brantly finally sought a field more 
favorable to his growing reputation, and about 1820, moved to 
Richmond County, where, for want of further information, I 
leave him. This was a distinct loss to the county. He, however, 
had a cousin of the same name, Rev. W. T. Brantly, who in the 
early fifties was a professor in Franklin College, and at the same 
time pastor of Cabin Creek Church. Being called to a pastorate 
in Philadelphia, he died there a few years later. 

As the use of oxen is not so common as in old times, it may be 
interesting to the young reader to know something more of them. 
A yoke of oxen was then called *'owsen," as used in Scotland 
and the North of England to this time. They were almost ex- 
clusively used as draft animals. Horses only drew the plow — 
mules were unknown. The oxen which carried Mr. Brantly and 
his bride to their new home were unusually large. The spread of 
their horns was so great that they knocked against each other at 
almost every step so loudly that one on the road knew that the 

LeCain oxen were coining before they were seen. In after years 
William Nash, one of the most famous fox-hunters in the country, 
gave a cow and calf for one of these horns, and Ras Stonum, his 
brother-in-law, gave a Ledford rifle and eleven ducks for its mate. 
These gentlemen were of first-class families, and great uncles of 
Hon. T. J. Shackelford of Athens. 

For reasons that may hereafter appear, I have ever had a desire 
to know just what was the fate of the house in which Brantly lived 
at White Oak Spring ; but have only learned that it was torn down 
and moved away ; where, I do not know. It was standing in 1842, 
the year in which James Swetman was hanged for the murder of 
Tom White. On that day I was standing on the doorsill, thinking, 
in boyish fashion, of all I had ever heard of Mr. and Mrs. Brantly; 
and, while trying to compare their absence with what must have 
been their presence, the lines of a poem, which I had recently been 
trying to learn came into my mind and I repeated them aloud : 

"Hark! as my lingering footsteps slow retire 

Some spirit of the air has waked thy string! 

'Tis now a seraph bold, with touch of fire, 
'Tis now the brush of fairy's frolic wing, 
Receding now, the dying members ring 

Fainter and fainter down the rugged dell, 

And now the mountain breezes scarcely bring 

A wandering witch-note of the distant spell — 

And now, 'tis silent all! — Enchantress, fare thee well." 


While repeating the last line, with all the sadness I could com- 
mand, I heard a little old dried-up-looking man say, "That boy is 
distracted and ought to be put in the calaboose. ' ' I did not know 
just what a calaboose was, but thinking it something bad, I and 
my companion, Newton Barron, a great, loose-jointed boy, left for 
home without further warning. 

As we passed near the jail, which stood where Dr. Walter 
Smith's oifice now is, we noticed that the door was open, and the 
great, ponderous shutter swaying back and forth in the wind. 
Finding that the little old man was not following us, we cau- 
tiously entered the gloomy house, and no one else being in there 
we roamed at will. The first thing noticed was a tin plate placed 

on a joist overhead. I took it down and found that it contained 
two rashers of fried bacon, and three dark biscuits. From one bis- 
cuit a single bite had been taken, leaving the imprint of four 
teeth, a gap being between the first and third, showing that one 
front tooth was missing. The poor fellow who had just been hung 
had doubtless taken only one bite for his breakfast that morning, 
and the sign left by his teeth is now as plainly seen in memory as 
it was then seen with my eyes. While I was pondering over this 
silent reminder of a sad fate and Newt Barron was peeping into 
the gloomy dungeon below, the door shutter closed with a loud 
bang, and, as we thought, the little old man had us at last. We 
both jumped, Newt came near falling into the dungeon, the bis- 
cuits went rolling over the floor, and we rushed for the door. The 
shutter readily yielded ; the wind had closed it, and seeing nothing 
of our supposed enemy, we hastened away. 

Gendelph LeCain was of French descent, belonged to an aristo- 
cratic family, and had a liberal education. His character for 
truth and fair dealing was never called in question, which, to- 
gether with his immense physical powers, gave him a hearty wel- 
come into a new country where hardy manhood was required. 
Coming from Albemarle County, Va., the family claimed much 
friendship for Thomas Jefferson, the sage of Monticello ; and Mr. 
LeCain insisted on doing things much like Mr. Jefferson did. For 
instance, he wore red "breeches," and hitched his horse to a short 
peg driven in the ground for the purpose, as Mr. Jefferson is said 
to have done, even in front of the capitol at Washington. The 
entire family was greatly devoted to each other, and when Mr. 
and Mrs. Brantly moved away Mr. and Mrs. LeCain went with 
them. Here was another great loss to the county, and the places 
which once knew them so well knew them no more. 

William Dunson, having shown himself to be a successful farmer 
and a substantial citizen, moved to Troup County, Georgia, in the 
early thirties, where he became a large planter. He returned only 
one time, and wearing an elegant suit of black broadcloth which 
cost him $14 per yard, he made a fine appearance. Though proud, 
he was not haughty, and those who lived near him said he was 

"one of the best neighbors in the world." He left four sons here, 
and some of their deseendents are still living in the county. 

It is curious to know that Linton Dunson, a great-grandson of 
William Dunson, married Miss Sallie Rogers, a great grand- 
daughter of Rev. James Rogers, and they, too, live here. 

Thus the race still continues, but all the old folks are gone. Life 
is a continual stream ever freighted with passengers bound for 
eternity! How vast the sweep of its dismal tide from Abel, the 
first passenger, to the last who "shall take his chamber in the 
silent halls of death," 

George Wilson, a near neighbor and close friend of William 
Dunson, was a native of Dublin, Ireland, where he was educated. 
He came from Iredell County, N. C, to this part of the country in 
1784, only a few months after the first settlement at Tumbling 
Shoals. He was a master workman at almost any trade known 
to the times, and only a few years ago a chimney which he built 
was torn down by an unappreciative hand. I have heard it said 
that the men who located Jefferson were drunk ; but *George Wil- 
son, James Pittman and Josiah Easley, the committee who located 
the place, did not drink at all, were never drunk in their lives. 
I prophesy that within the next decade Jefferson will become one 
of the most beautiful towns in the country. The contour of the 
land and the ready water supply are eminently favorable to this 
view. A reasonable sum of money at the disposal of a competent 
engineer is all that is needed. This little digression is not at all in 
the way, because it gives the truth. 

George Wilson was also largely instrumental in the organiza- 
tion of Sandy Creek Presbyterian church, and was one of its first 
Ruling Elders. W. T. Brantly and all the LeCain family were 
members of that church. Being elected a delegate to the conven- 
tion called to revise the constitution of the state, he at once be- 
came a leader, and finally wrote and signed the revision made. 

A giant himself, he was greatly interested in the Dunson log- 
rolling, and dearly loved to see "the boys," as he called them, put 
forth their strength. He clapped his hands and shouted when he 

*George Wilson, James Pittman with Joseph Humphries were delegates 
to the Constitutional Convention of 1798, from this county. — Ed. 

saw that Idalone LeCain's last step with her heavy burden was 
just as firm and steady as her first one had been, and that she was 
still uneonquered, even by so powerful a man as his Brother 

The big poplar log on the flat rock was also of much interest to 
Mr. Wilson, and so was Franklin College, at Athens, then strug- 
gling under great difficulties, into existence. By Mr. Dunson's 
ready permission, he had the log sawed into lumber with what 
was called a rip-saw. A pit was dug near the rock, the log was 
rolled over it, one man stood in the pit, two or more upon a plat- 
form above, and pulled and pushed a long saw, having horizontal 
handles, up and down until a line was sawed. This was a slow and 
laborious process ; and consequently, then, when timber was in the 
way, it was a much more difficult matter to get sawed lumber than 
it is now when there is so little timber to be found. 

Being a college man himself, George Wilson wanted to do 
something for Franklin College, not in a financial way, but as a 
memorial of it. Accordingly, he sent three cart-loads of his 
poplar lumber to Athens, and it became some part of a house 
which was then being built on the college campus. As far back 
as the fifties, I made many efforts to trace this lumber further, 
but was unable to find any part of it. He also sent a fourth cart- 
load to Jefferson, and Mr. Brantly made a loft in his house with 
it. I stood under it when I made my "distracted" recitation 
from Scott, and hence my desire to know what became of the 

In old age, when the machinery was run down, and not of dis- 
ease, George Wilson died, and was buried in sight of the flat rock 
on which he stood and shouted for very gladness when Idalone 
LeCain achieved her victory. 

Five years after his burial an old white-haired man appeared 
in the community and said that he wanted to see George Wilson, 
When told that he was dead he sat down and cried bitterly. He 
at last became calm, and by request was conducted to the grave. 
There his tears again began to flow and nothing could induce him 
to leave the grave. He remained there until next morning, when 
George Wilson, Jr., went to look after him. Still refusing to 


leave, George carried him in his arms to his house, where he was 
induced to eat a little. He soon returned to the grave, and sitting 
flat upon the ground, remained there all day, and the next morning 
was found dead on the spot where he had last been seen in a sit- 
ting posture. And he, too, lies buried there in an unknown grave. 

Many efforts were made to get the old man to talk ; but he paid 
no attention whatever to any question asked after the first one 
was answered. His long white hair reached to his shoulders, and 
when the wind was blowing, it waived around his head in such 
ghostly fashion that, when seen at a graveyard in the night, the 
bravest either stopped to think, or resolved to increase speed, gen- 
erally the latter. Two such incidents happened during the 
stranger's stay at George AVilson's grave, and some people lived 
and died in the full belief that the white-haired old man was a 
very ghost. This, or something like this, is about the explanation 
of all ghost stories. 

Moses Vincent, son-in-law of George Wilson, was a dapper little 
man, and almost as irritable as a hornet. He was, however, one 
of the best of workers ; and for Moses Vincent to say he was going 
to do anything was almost equivalent to saying it was done. When 
at any kind of work he thrashed away like men do when killing 
snakes. Though not one of the poplar log team, he was present 
as busy as, and louder than, the biggest man there. He is intro- 
duced here because he hauled his father-in-law's poplar lumber 
to Athens. He carried it on an ox cart whose wheels were made of 
solid blocks of timber cut from a huge blackgum tree. They were 
made with solid hubs on them and consequently did not wabble 
much. The rims of the wheels were protected by white oak tires, 
which had to be frequently renewed. To prevent them from 
creaking on their axles, pine leaves were used instead of common 
pine tar. Such a cart drawn by big oxen over the campus of the 
State University to-day, would create so great a sensation that 
everybody would be wanting to ride. 

The gum trees which then grew in the swamps were sometimes 
of immense size. I now have, in everyday use, a gum* which was 

*Thi8 old gum is now in Mrs. Maggie Johnson's possession. — Ed. 

cut in one of these swamps by George Wilson, Sr., in 1785. Though 
not the largest cut, it holds about eight bushels, is three feet high, 
and the wood is not more than an inch thick at any place, all 
hollowed out by the hand of nature. 

Mrs. Polly Vincent, wife of Moses, had spun and woven enough 
cloth to make her two or three counterpanes to spread over her 
well-filled feather beds on Sundays. They were striped both ways, 
and were called checkered counterpanes. The stripes were blue, 
white and copperas, and about three inches wide. After making 
her counterpanes, Polly found that she had nearly two yards left. 
Moses wanted a pair of breeches made of this remnant ; and 
though she demurred, he insisted, and the breeches were made. 

About that time, the famous Lorenzo Dow and his wife, Peggy, 
were making a tour through this part of the country. One Satur- 
day they had an appointment to preach at Black's Creek church, 
where Moses was a member in good standing. Wanting, as he 
said, "to hear a woman preach before he died," he was anxious 
to attend and wear his new breeches. The time came, and Moses 
pulled himself into his pants. They were so tight that he could 
not stoop down and Polly had to tie his shoes. He hesitated to 
wear them ; but she laughed at him so heartily that he got mad, 
and declared he would go "breeches or no breeches." So, by 
going to a stump, he "wiggled" on his horse, and away he went; 
but he could not bend his legs enough to keep his feet in the 
stirrups. Near the church, he met a traveling stranger, who ex- 
claimed : 

"Good morning, sir, to your big striped breeches!" 

"None of your business, sir, what sort of breeches I wear," 
snapped Moses. 

"I know," replied the man, "but you look so funny, you must 
excuse me." 

"Excuse the d 1!" 

"No, not him, but me." 

"Light, and I'll thrash you." 

"You can't light with them tight breeches on; so I'll go." 

"Go and be durned," was the reply, and the traveler rode away, 


Moses waited until the stranger was out of sight, and he was 
so mad that he turned and went back home. He afterwards 
burned his "big striped breeches," because, as he said, "the 
d d things kept him from hearing a woman preach." 

Mr. Vincent was a strictly honest and successful farmer. He 
finally moved to Habersham County, where he died somewhere 
in the early forties. Some of his relatives still live here. 



Gabe Nash Spells "Tizic." 

James Nash, father of William Nash, came with other early- 
settlers to this county, where he followed farming nearly all his 
life. His industrious habits and good management soon enabled 
him to accumulate a considerable fortune ; and, being the soul of 
honor and a Christian gentleman without blemish, he made good 
use of it. His position at the poplar log showed his physical 
strength, and he was in every other way equally strong. 

He finally settled about four miles below Commerce, on the 
Clarkesville road, where he built the best and most elegant resi- 
dence then in the county. It afterwards became a public inn and 
was favorably known to the traveling public both far and near. 
This house and all the improvements on the place were totally 
destroyed by a cyclone on Feb. 19, 1884. His daughter, Miss 
Mary Nash, was fatally wounded and some of the family of his 
grandson, C. T. Nash, who then lived there, were blown high up 
into the shade trees; but did not get seriously hurt. 

Mrs. Margerette Thornton, who recently died in Texas at the 
age of 100 years, was James Nash's daughter, and widow of 
Micajah Thornton, who was born near old Etoho church before 
it became Oconee. 

The celebrated Gabriel Nash, Esq., who died in Madison County 
many years ago, was James Nash's son and a pupil of William T. 
Brantly near John Borders' mill, now the Jackson mill. Perhaps 
a friendly controversy which took place between the teacher 
and pupil may be worth repeating. Walker 's dictionary was then 
used, and one day the teacher gave out the word "phthisic." 
When it had reached Gabriel no one had spelled it, and he bawled 
out "t-i-z-i-c, tizic." The teached shook his head and finally had 
to spell it for his class. 

"Are you sure," asked Nash, "that p-h-t-h-i-s-i-c spells tizic?" 

"I'll leave it to Walker," replied the teacher. 

"Mr. Brantly," said Nash respectfully, "I like you too well to 
dispute your word, and it's Walker, himself, that is wrong." 

"What will you do for a standard?" was asked. 

"Make one for myself," was the reply, and the lesson went on 

In after years, when Gabriel Nash was a leading lawyer at the 
bar and such men as Howell and Tom Cobb dreaded his biting 
sarcasm and his bold assaults, he had a case in court which, in 
some way, involved the estate of a man who had died with the 
phthisic. In making out his briefs it became necessary for him 
to use the name of the disease with which the man died. Though 
frequently used, he invariably wrote the word "tizic." Judge 
Charles Dougherty, a man who always insisted on doing every- 
thing precisely right, was on the bench, and ordered Mr. Nash 
to change his spelling. 

"Please, your Honor, what difference does it make for a man 
to die with two h's or without any. He's dead, and that's all 
there is of it." 

He took his seat and nothing more was said about the trouble- 
some word. He had made and followed his standard. 

Mrs. James Nash, nee Miss Margerette Long, was loved and 
honored by all the people. No being lived, however obscure or 
mean, that she failed to treat kindly. She was a near relative of 
Dr. Crawford W. Long, but she died before he became famous. 
She and her husband sleep the sleep of the good in plain view of 
the desolate spot which was once their pleasant home. 

Robert Wilson, son of George Wilson, Sr., was the first boy 
born within the present limits of Jackson County and the first 
native citizen to leave it. Like his father and brothers, he was a 
giant in size ; and being a blacksmith, the strength in his arm was 
enormous. He forged all the iron work that was used in the old 
jail at Jefferson. In this he was assisted by James Goode, the 
first man ever confined within the walls which he had labored to 
make strong. He was afterwards hung for the murder of his 
child, which a woman required him to put out of the way before 
she would marry him. It is all well and much better that that 

woman's people were then, and still are, among the best people 
in the country. 

The above is a remarkable paragraph, which I failed to notice 
until after it was written. First son born ; first to leave county ; 
first substantial jail; first prisoner; first murderer legally pun- 
ished; first hung. 

Robert Wilson married Miss Aseneath Winburn, whose father 
lived near Black's Creek church. A little more than a year ago 
I passed by the old Winburn burying ground and paused to 
think of the changes which the ever onward rush of years re- 
veals to the eyes of an old man. Elberta peach trees and cotton 
were growing all over and around the graves of an entire family, 
except one son, Elsworth Winburn, who fell at the side of David 
Crockett at the battle of the Alamo, Texas, March 6, 1836. As 
the song says, "What one man loses another one gains." 

Soon after Robert Wilson married he went with his bride to 
Tennessee, and I have never heard anything more of him, except 
that he lived in the neighborhood of James K. Polk, and left 
many descendants there. 

Drury Gee was by direct descent an Englishman of pure 
Saxon blood. He came to this county from North Carolina in 
1785 as a follower of George Wilson and Notty Gore, and settled 
near Black's Creek church, now in Madison County. He was a 
revolutionary soldier and fought under Washington all the way 
from the crossing of the Delaware to Yorktown. He belonged to 
the same regiment that boasted of the names of Jackson Clark, 
Jacob Bankston, John Harris, Dale Clover and Henry Therrauld. 
When Tumbling Shoals was threatened with an enemy, Drury 
Gee flew to the aid of his friends there with all possible speed, 
and was always an ally of first importance. The news of the in- 
vasion of Wautowauto did not reach him in time for the battle 
among the trees ; but he was at the burying of Dr. Therrauld and 
wept over the loss of his dear friend and fellow soldier at a 
"time that tried men's souls." 

Because of his powers and endurance he was called "The Iron 
Man," and he well merited the title. Though of medium size, his 
muscles bulged from his arms in great, cord-like knots; and for 


this reason he was always one of the team of men who carried 
big logs. Foot-racing was a leading sport of the times, and as 
dearly loved by Drury Gee as the smoker loves his pipe. When 
"on the turf," as he called it, he was never known to be in the 
rear. When the news of Wautowauto's descent upon Tumbling 
Shoals reached him he arrived at the place on foot, carrying a 
heavy rifle twelve miles, in advance of two boys, James Wilson 
and Samuel Gore, who followed him on horseback. Before sun- 
down of that day every available man and boy at and around 
the Groaning Rock settlement was at Tumbling Shoals, all heavily 
armed. It was thus that the scattered inhabitants of the country 
flew to the assistance of each other, and they always went to hurt. 

Mr. Gee was eminently a man of peace and a gentleman ; but it 
was dangerous business "to tread upon his toes." This was 
never known to be tried but one time. John Shoemaker, a very 
large man and a self-styled "bully," though not a citizen, while 
passing through the country heard of Drury Gee. He sent him 
word that he could either whip him or throw him down in a 
rough and tumble scuffle. They met and Gee told him that he 
would throw him down first and thrash afterwards. This made 
the "bully" mad, and they went together with a clash. At the 
second pass Gee threw him on his back so violently that, though 
he tried, he could not turn over. Gee then carried him to a 
heavy rail fence, put his head between two rails that would not 
choke him, took off one of his heavy shoes and gave him a good 
"spanking." The man soon began to beg for mercy. Gee de- 
liberately released him, they shook hands and parted in peace. 
Shoemaker never returned to the settlement. This was character- 
istic of the times — no pistol, no knife, no threats — nothing but 
the closing of the fingers together. 

Some years after this, while Drury Gee was cutting sprouts in 
his new ground, he felt a sharp pain in the big toe of his right 
foot. He gave it little attention at first, but in a few days his 
entire foot began to swell and turn blue. Sharp pains began to 
shoot up his leg and the swelling increased to an alarming extent. 
The nearest physician was Dr. Hopson, at Jefferson. Sar^uel 
Gore, son of Notty, and the boy that went with James Wilson to 


Tumbling Shoals, being a bold and reckless rider, went after him. 
In due time, the doctor arrived, and after examination decided 
that amputation of the leg was the only chance to save his life. 
Mr. Gee consented. The knives and saws, the bandages, thread 
and needles, usually carried by a surgeon in those days were 
placed on a shelf in plain view of the sufferer. James Mont- 
gomery, Hiram Bingham, Notty Gore and James Wilson were 
the special attendants. They placed Mr. Gee on a heavy, rough 
table which stood near the shelf. Everything was ready. The 
reader may think that all those strong men were there to hold 
Mr. Gee ! Oh, no, not that ! They were there to wait on the sur- 
geon, and Mrs. Gee and others were there to wait on them. 
Crawford W. Long had never been heard of; anesthesia was 

Mr. Gee is pale ; but his eyes which had faced so many dangers 
unmoved, are calm and glittering. A death-like silence reigns, the 
first incision is made, the cutting goes on and on, the arteries 
are tied and tied, the bone is reached ! The cruel saw begins its 
work, slowly, slowly, carefully, lower and lower go its slurring 
teeth, all grim with blood and marrow; and lower, lower still, 
until it ceases to move — stop ! — the leg is off ! 

Neither groan nor sigh had escaped the lips of the sufferer. 
No wonder he was called "The Iron Man." 

Mr. Gee's leg was well in reasonable time, and for twelve 
months he went on one crutch as cheerful and determined as he 
had ever been. But, it is painful to ever write it — his left big toe 
became affected as the other had been. The disease spread as be- 
fore, and again amputation became necessary. The same sur- 
geon performed the operation as successfully as before. When 
Dr. Hopson thought his patient out of danger, he playfully asked 
Mr. Gee what he intended to do. "Lie here and kick up my heels, 
I reckon," was the dry reply. A legless man kicking up his 
heels ! 

Mr. Gee lived only a few years after his last leg was cut off. 
He was buried at Black's Creek church, and "He whose memory 
deserves a temple," now sleeps in a grave unmarked. In 1854 
two small stones indicated the exact spot, but in 1880 even these 

were gone. It is between the graves of Mesdames Polly Me- 
Ginnis and Eveline Baugh, mother of the late W. C. Baugh of 

Samuel Gore, already incidentally mentioned, was not remark- 
able for anything except his physical strength and the bold, reck- 
less way he had of doing things. As the escapade he had on the 
night he went for Dr. Hopson will illustrate this feature, it may 
be given here. 

As a matter of fun and daring, Sam rode the Shaddon steer, 
and when he reached Curry's creek a little below the present 
rock dam, where the banks were about thirty feet apart, the 
steer, becoming shy of the rippling water as it glittered in the 
moonshine, utterly refused to cross. Sam wore a heavy, home- 
made iron spur on each heel, and digging these into the sides of 
the animal, he made the opposite bank at three jumps. Having 
no mane to hold by, he digged his spurs still deeper to keep from 
falling off. This so enraged the steer that he threw up his tail 
to an angle of about ninety degrees and he and his rider went 
dashing through the little town like they had been shot out of 
a cannon. It was in the early part of the night but Mrs. Lucy 
Hyde happened to see them, and having a milk cow about the same 
color of the steer, she hastened to tell her husband that, "The 
devil had taken her cow and gone off on her back like a streak 
of lightning!" Others had heard "the rippet," as they termed 
the stampede, and this, when added to Mrs. Hyde's somewhat 
exaggerated story, created much excitement. 

The rider, being strong and athletic, after making a wide 
circuit, finally brought the steer under control. When he reached 
the court-house on his return the square around it was thronged 
with people trying to find an explanation of what they heard, 
and Mrs. Hyde saw. The explanation was easy, a hearty laugh 
went around, and Sam hastened to the doctor's office. 

Some one of the town wrote a song to celebrate the occasion 
It began with the following lines: 

"The devil came in town to-night, 
But didn't come to stay, 
He came upon his steer all right, 
But rode our cow away." 


This doggerel, sang to a lively air, became popular all over the 
county; and as late as 1836, v^^hen a company of volunteers was 
goint West to help carry the Indians avray, all sang this song as 
they went through Jefferson. Sam Gore himself, and his neigh- 
bor, the ill-fated Levi Quintius Curtius McGinnis, vi^ere members 
of the company and joined in the singing of the song. 

Some Gore died near Ross' Landing, now Chattanooga, and 
though rough in some of his ways, he had a kind heart and was 
a true and faithful friend. McGinnis returned, and I was a pupil 
in his school nine days. 

Jim Beasly, the fiddler, though of fair moral character, was a 
good-for-nothing sort of fellow. He was so kind-hearted that 
like Diogenes, he had "nothing for himself and everything for 
others." A good fiddler for the times, he played at public gath- 
erings, and for that he generally received good wages. Though 
he seldom worked long at one place, he was industrious, and gave 
good satisfaction. A bird of passage, he finally disappeared and 
no one knew from whence he came nor whither he went. 

Thomas Perry, Sr., came to this county in the early years of 
the last century. He was a small man of quiet manners and of 
unquestioned good character. Though he sometimes took his 
dram, he never drank to excess, and lived on friendly terms with 
all his neighbors. He was one of those rare men who joked and 
took jokes without offense to either party. A man could not be 
found who disliked him, nor was he ever known to speak disre- 
spectfully of another. "Geewhillicans" was his favorite by-word, 
and introductory to almost everything he said. An oath seemed 
to rasp and grate upon his feelings like a saw across his breast, 
and he would not remain where one was uttered. He was certain- 
ly a fine character and worthy of all praise. 

He settled one and a half miles south of Commerce, where he 
opened a farm, made a good living by his own industry and by 
attending to his own business without any interference whatever 
with the business of others. 

He was a neighbor of George Wilson, Sr., and one of the men 
who labored faithfully to alleviate the suffering condition of the 
strange old man who died at his grave. For several years be- 


fore his death he was confined to his bed with the shaking palsy, 
which, at a ripe old age, wore out the finely woven tissues of his 
life. He died as he had lived, without an enemy, and was buried 
near his home on a plat of ground selected by himself. Mrs. 
J. W. Lord of Jefferson is his granddaughter. 

Notty Gore came to this country from Ireland and settled 
near where J. J. Dunson, grandson of William Dunson, now lives. 
As his place at the logrolling showed, he was one of the men of 
the times. Though disposed to be peaceful, he was a terrible an- 
tagonist when aroused; but this never occurred on his own 
motion. Though a true Celt, he soon became Americanized in 
all respects except two or three. He never did become reconciled 
to reptiles and ghosts. He was more afraid of snakes and 
lizzards than he was of the wolves and panthers that were his 
near neighbors. "Ather Sent Pathric must come to Ar-mer-i-ca, 
or Notty Go-re must go back to I-re-land, " was his common say- 
ing. Notty was one of the two men who saw the "ghost" at the 
grave during the first night the white-haired old man stayed 

"Faith an' begorra," exclaimed Notty, "that's George come 
afther me, an' I'm not er go in' at all, at all!" and off he went 
at full speed. Though so strong, he was clumsy, and could run 
neither far nor fast. James Wilson, who was on his way to see 
about the strange old man, met Notty about the time he became 
exhausted and fell sprawling on the ground. 

"Jamie! Jamie! och! honey, me darlint! it's yer fa-ther that's 
afther me, an' I'm all not wantin' ter go!" said the Irishman, as 
he lay panting, flat on his back. 

Finally, becoming pacified, James and his brother, George 
AVilson, Jr., went home with Notty and many good laughs went 
around. Though so nervous about such minor things, Notty Gore 
was as brave as a lion when facing real danger. To illustrate this, 
the following incident may be given : 

William Sailers, the ten-year old son of Christopher Sailers, 
Sr., was attacked by a gang of wolves in hearing of Mr. Gore. 
As usual, he had with him a very heavy hickory club which he 
called "his shillalah," and, in his hands, was a formidable 


weapon. Judging by the noise he knew that the wolves had 
brought something to bay and he ran as fast as he could to see 
what was the matter. He soon discovered a little boy sitting some 
seven or eight feet above the ground, in the crotch of a small 
dogwood tree, and that six or seven wolves were jumping and 
snapping at him. Without hesitation he joined battle ; and 
though he was bitten in several places and his clothes badly 
torn, he killed every one of the wolves with his terrible club and 
stamped upon their tails. Old hunters said that if you mashed 
the tail of an animal none of its species would bother you after- 
wards. Hence the vulgar saying — "mashed his tail." The shep- 
herd dog seems to know something of this "tailology." The 
first snap is at the tail of his enemy, and, generally, that ends the 

The battle over, Mr. Gore placed his back against the dogwood, 
the little boy crawled upon his broad shoulders, and in that 
position was carried home. The older generation of the Sailers 
family thought of Notty Gore as the world, for less reason, thinks 
of Alexander the Great. 

At that time, Mr. Gore was the only member of the Roman 
Catholic church in the country and said that if he had not counted 
his beads that morning he never would have gained the victory in 
the wolf fight. 

He became a chair-maker by trade, and by using a foot-lathe, 
turned and made the first split-bottomed chairs seen in the 
county. They were large and heavy, and made to last for genera- 
tions. His wife, Oeschellee Gore, died a few years after reaching 
her wilderness home, and left two children, Samuel and a little 
daughter, who soon followed the mother. 

Many years after Notty Gore joined his wife and children 
where, Dante like, "few want to go, but going never to return" 
— and the Gore family was extinct in this country. For reasons 
that appear in the closing paragraphs of this narrative, he was 
buried at the side of his life-long friends, and at the very spot, 
reserved for the purpose, where the mysterious stranger died. 

Notty Gore and George Wilson came, almost as one man, to 
America, and joined the army under Washington just before the 


capture of Fort Lee in 1776. There they were taken prisoners, 
but soon after escaped, and, being cut oif from their command, 
they went to Philadelphia. While there they fell in love with the 
girls who afterwards became their wives. Wilson married Miss 
Martha Gevendoline Gailey, a native of Scotland, and Gore mar- 
ried her sister, Miss Oeschellee Gailey. Carrying their wives with 
them, they again entered the army in time to be in the battle of 

At the battle of Monmouth they were both severely wounded, 
but the nursing of their "good angels," as they called their 
wives, finally saved their lives. However, they were not able to 
do active service again until a short while before the fall of York- 
town, which they reached the day after Cornwallis surrendered, 
Oct. 19, 1781. Like Othello, their "occupation was gone." 

They turned to the west, and reaching Iredell County, N. C, 
remained there about two years, and then came to Georgia. 

It is strange that these two soldiers, who had never heard of 
Clark, Bankston, Harris, Clover, Therrauld, or Gee should almost 
tread in the footprints of these strangers from Yorktown to the 
same wilderness in Georgia. Was this a coincidence — a chance, 
or was it a single turn in the whirligig of time which has, turn 
after turn, brought Jackson County to adopt the motto — "On- 
ward! and to the Front?" 

Note: The foregoing is a fine illustration of "old times on the farm." 
Many of our older readers can remember when the logrollings were an 
annual occurrence on all the farms in the spring of the year. Even the 
little "brown jug," the dance, quilting and maybe the wedding at some of 
them, can be called to mind. — Ed. 


CELL NO. 21. 

The "A" Family. 

In 1833 there lived on Pea Ridge, near Winder, a remarkable 
family which was extensively known by the curious designation 
of "The Letter A." The father, Alexis Alston,* was an able 
and consecrated minister of the Baptist church, and the mother, 
Mrs. Almeda Alston, was known and loved throughout the coun- 
try for her many Christian virtues. They had nine sons, Albert, 
Alpheus, Almarine, Alpha, Augustus, Alford, Adolphus, Alphonso, 
and Abraham; also two daughters, Artemisia and Alto. Though 
so numerous all their names begin with A, and when one 
spoke of himself it was a matter of pride to say, ''I am one of the 
A family." 

While all were good-looking and of excellent character, none 
of the children were married. The Alstons were not wealthy, 
but in easy circumstances, making their living by hard work 
and good management. Mrs. Alston was educated and refined, 
and being aided by her husband, was eminently successful in 
educating her children. 

Living in a new country, far away from the busy hum of life 
as now heard in that section; having few neighbors, no schools, 
and but one church within easy reach, we might suppose that 
the Alstons led an isolated life. Such, however, was not the case. 
They had many visitors, and among them were what was then 
called "aristocrats." In the summer of the year mentioned 
Governor George R. Gilmer and Mrs. Gilmer of Lexington vis- 
ited the family, and were so well pleased that they remained 
several days over their allotted time. Mrs. Gilmer, who was one 
of the first women of her time, afterwards wrote a letter to a 
relative in Virginia from which the following is an extract : 

*Mr. Alston's parents were Mr. and Mrs. Eobert Alston, who settled at 
Snodon (now Winder), in 1794. — Ed. 


"I have just returned from Jug Tavern [Winder] in the up- 
lands of Jackson County. Near that place lives Rev. Alexis 
Alston whose family is remarkable in several respects. The un- 
earthly beauty of his daughter, Artemisia, is, perhaps, the most 
surprising of all. Named after the ancient queen of Cavia, she 
is herself a very queen. Nearly eighteen years old, and perfect 
in form and feature, she is really more than a queen. Her man- 
ners are pleasing, her carriage graceful, and her smiles seem to 
be made of sunshine and gladness. Her hair, which is of a light 
wine color, falls in graceful ringlets over her classically formed 
shoulders, and when her eyes, which are of a deep cerulian blue, 
look at me from beneath two curls that usually meet just above 
them, I think her the most beautiful girl I ever saw. And when 
I find that her natural disposition is as sweet as her face ; that 
with all her beauty she does not seem to know it; and that the 
tone of her voice rises and falls, trembles and melts away like 
the twinkling of a silver bell in some enchanting cathedral, then 
for a moment, I forget what I have seen and become lost in ad- 
miration of what I hear. 

"All the family are trained musicians, both vocal and instru- 
mental; and to hear them in concert seems to lift one far above 
the sensual things of earth. The wonder is why such a flower 
blooms in almost a wilderness! 

"The Alstons, however, are not without visitors. The fair 
Artemisia has many admirers, some of them from quite a distance. 
While there two young men, John Coatney and Sidney York, 
were paying her marked attention. So far as I could see she 
showed nothing but common friendship for both alike. They 
are handsome, but their positions in life are quite different. 
Coatney is rich and influential ; York, though poor, has a charac- 
ter far superior to that of his rival." 

It is the purpose of this narrative to give only so much of the 
history of "The Letter A" as will enable the reader to better 
understand a few incidents that relate to that interesting family. 
As stated by Mrs. Gilmer all the Alstons were good singers, and 
every night prayer and song, generally led by one of the boys or 
girls, were strictly observed. After going to bed, Mr. and Mrs. 


Alston generally, when at home, sang themselves to sleep, and 
a little before daybreak it was their custom to sing again until 
their early rising hour. Those morning songs in the silent hours 
of night were certainly impressive. 

The writer has heard them but not at Pea Ridge ; though some- 
times when passing along the road which still runs near that 
place once made glad with prayer and song, with busy life and 
musical laughter, he has stopped and listened with momentary 
expectation of hearing the old-time symphony again. He heard 
it not, but believes that SOMEWHERE in the vast universe of 
God, it is still heard as an accompaniment to the song of redeem- 
ing grace — a song that angels can not sing. 

On the night of the 13th of November of that same year, when 
the Gilmers had returned home, and other visitors, though not so 
distinguished, had taken their places, the usual devotional exer- 
cises of the Alston home were abruptly brought to a close by the 
hasty and unceremonious appearance of Dick Manly, a neighbor 
who lived more than a mile distant. Bare-headed, with blazing 
eyes and wild gesticulations, he rushed into the house while all 
the family and visitors were singing, and shouting at the top of 
his voice that "the world was coming to an end," he fell upon 
his knees and asked Mr. Alston and all the family to pray for 
him. He was quickly followed by Mrs. Manly, who also ran into 
the house with a white sheet wrapped around her. Falling at 
the feet of Mrs. Alston, she moaned in piteous tones : 

"0 Meda, judgment day has come! Ga'bril will soon be ready 
to blow his horn! I'm ready, see I've done put on my ascension 
robe, all nice and clean! Pray for Dick, he curses and swears! 

pray, Meda, pray! for God's sake, pray! — pray now for poor 
Dick— Dick— Dick Manly ! ' ' 

The sudden appearance and wild behavior of Manly and his 
wife so astonished all present that no one seemed able to move. 
Soon a distant cry was heard plaintively saying: "O Lord! the 
world is coming to an end, and I 'm not saved ! Lord what shall 

1 do?" 

Other similar exclamations, mixed with screams and wild 
hysterical shouting were heard in different directions. At last 


realizing that something uncommon was going on, Mr. Alston ran 
to the door, and looking out, hurriedly called aloud: 

"All come here and see a wonderful display of the power of 
Almighty God! but be not afraid!" 

A confused rush was made into the yard, when some one 
shouted: "Back into the house, all the stars of heaven are 

Some obeyed, some remained; some were praying, a few were 
shouting and praising God ; some were crying, some were scream- 
ing, none were cursing, then. 

Consternation, wonder and amazement ruled almost supreme ! 
The heavens seemed to be aglow with liquid fire — it was raining 
stars ! Sometimes the whole firmanent above seemed to be en- 
veloped in rolling convoluted sheets of flame, leaving scarcely a 
place that was not covered every instant. Sometimes the sheets 
fell like great flakes of snow, and shooting in every direction 
like burning sheaves of straw in a whirlwind ! Sometimes they 
assumed the form of great rolling, tumbling balls which, upon 
reaching the lower atmosphere, burst into thousands of frag- 
ments that made a veritable shower of fire. Far above the so- 
called bursting stars others could be seen, striking violently 
against each other, and then shooting away with inconceivable 
velocity in every direction, disappearing in the shadowy distance. 

The scene was awful and grand beyond description. No 
wonder that many people, not only on Pea Ridge, but all over the 
Western Hemisphere, were thrown into consternation and might- 
ily cried to God in anxious, confused clamor. 

In a short time many were assembled at the Alston home ; and 
although he assured his troubled friends that what they called 
falling stars, were only shooting meteors, and that the strange 
phenomenon had been often seen before, thinking that he was 
only trying to pacify them, few, except his own family, believed 

Good people constitute a powerful magnet which, in time of 
distress, draws others around them. Misery loves company. The 
whole scene shows that at last God is the only refuge. 


That wonderful meteoric shower, though not all the time so 
brilliant, lasted through the night, and, astronomers say, until 
nearly noon on the following day : that is to say, it took the earth 
nearly all night and half of the next day to pass through that 
part of its orbit around the sun where meteors are always shoot- 
ing through the heavens, and that the same place is reached only 
one time in 33 years. 

At any rate few went to sleep that night at Pea Ridge. Some 
continued their prayers and wild exclamations until the brighter 
rays of the morning sun obscured the softer splendor of night's 
aerial fireworks. 


Sidney York is Arrested. 

Among those who arrived late after the alarm given by the 
Manleys were John Coatney and Sidney York, who, as already 
seen, were rivals for the hand of the fair Artemisia. As the form- 
er had hitherto shown nothing but contempt for the latter, it 
was surprising to see the warm friendship which sprang up 
between them during that eventful night. Mr. Coatney went so 
far as to tell Mrs. Alston and her daughters that he had found 
Mr, York to be one of the best men he ever knew, and that he 
was sorry for having cast reflections upon his good name. That 
astonished those who best knew him and caused some comment. 
A few attributed the sudden change to the "falling stars" others 
to a recognition of Mr. York's real worth, and still others said 
that no good would come of it. 

When morning came and the fiery heavens had their usual ap- 
pearance, John Coatney, hat in one hand and gloves in the other, 
approached Mrs. Alston, saying: 

"My Dear Madam, I am glad to see you looking so well after 
the exciting scenes of the night. After all it was nothing but a 
plaything of God, and I rejoice to know that you were not fright- 
ened. I am sorry that Mr, York is not present to join me in 
thanking you for the hospitalities of the night. I regret to say 
that I must now bid you good-bye." 

With the grace of a Chesterfield he bowed to all present and 
left the room. After a long silence a Mrs. Underwood, a friend 
visiting from a distant part of the state, remarked: 

"Meda, I am afraid of that man. The idea that God would 
make a plaything of any part of his creation is so absurd that it 
almost stops my breath. It shows a depravity that is calculated 
to lead to the commission of the meanest crime." 

It is not known that Mrs. Underwood's criticisms had any 
reference to Mr. Coatney 's apparent relations to the family, but 
none present called her conclusions in question. 


In the meantime both young men continued their visits to the 
Alston home, where they were always received on equal terms. 
Perhaps this irritated Mr. Coatney; but still their friendship 
seemed to grow stronger and stronger until they began to ex- 
change visits. They occupied the same sleeping room, and some- 
times hunted together in the almost boundless woods, never men- 
tioning, however, the girl whom they both loved so well. 

One day while stopping at a spring, since called the Segars 
tanyard spring, Coatney carelessly said to his companion: 

"Say, Sidney, who cut and made that new suit of clothes I 
saw you wearing last Sunday?" 

"Marion Winters, a professional tailor, who lives at Hurricane 
Shoals over on North Oconee river," replied Sidney. 

"He certainly understands his trade. The fit and make seem 
perfect, and I want one just like it, except mine shall be of 
blue broadcloth." 

"That will lay mine in the shade. However, I am content to 
wear plain clothes until I can pay for better ones." 

"I suppose you have a prospect of being able to buy finer ones 
in a few years," said Coatney, drumming with his fingers on a 
fine Ledford rifle. 

"I hope not so long as that. An uncle recently died in Ala- 
bama and left me a snug little fortune. I expect to go after it 
in about two weeks." 

"So that is what the new suit means?" said Coatney, inter- 

"That is one thing, though it pinched me pretty closely to pay 
for it and have enough left for traveling expenses," replied York 

"Don't talk so sadly. I'll come down and cheer you up before 
you leave," said the other, rising to his feet. 

"Glad to have you come, and I thank you for your kind in- 
tentions. Of course the legacy will be gratefully accepted; but 
I mourn the loss of a very dear uncle," replied Sidney, as he 
shouldered his rifle. 

The hunt continued for several hours, but nothing further was 
said in allusion to new clothes or the trip to Alabama. 


Two weeks passed away, and at the appointed time Sidney 
York, wearing his new suit, mounted his horse and rode away to 
the West with the intention of being gone from fifteen to twenty 
days. He was a very handsome young man, broad-shouldered, of 
graceful carriage, fine mental capacity, industrious, and of un- 
blemished character. He had told his sweetheart good-bye on the 
previous evening, and for the first time saw a shadow pass over 
her lovely features as he turned to go away. "At last, thank 
God," he muttered, as he mounted his horse. 

About noon of the same day he began his journey to Alabama, 
John Coatney went to a magistrate and had a warrant issued 
charging that "On the 9th of January, 1834, while I was sleeping 
in my father's house, Sidney York did then and there steal from 
me, the said John Coatney, one fifty ($50.00) dollar bill. No. 2152, 
on the bank of Augusta, Ga." 

The warrant was immediately placed in the hands of a Deputy 
Sheriff, who, in company with Coatney himself at once started 
in pursuit of the alleged thief. They overtook him the second 
night after leaving home while sleeping in a house where he had 
secured lodging. When arrested he vehemently and manfully de- 
clared his innocence. 

That was taken by the sheriff as a matter of course, and he, 
even rudely, proceeded to search his prisoner. A little more 
than seven dollars was found in his purse. His shoes, stockings, 
cravat, and every pocket in his clothes were next carefully ex- 
amined ; but no money was found — nothing but a common pocket- 
knife of which the officer took charge. 

He was then ordered to dress, pay his bill, and get ready to 
return. While putting on his coat John Coatney quickly grabbed 
it by the collar, and said: 

"Stop, Mr. Sidney York, I think I saw a place in your coat 
collar that looks like it had been ripped open ! Mr. Sheriff, look 
and see!" 

The officer took the garment and turned up the heavy collar 
common to tailor-made coats in those days, and, sure enough, 
there was a place where the stitches had been cut. The sheriff 
thrust two fingers into the opening, and by making the rent 


larger drew out a carefully folded paper. It proved to be a 
$50.00 bill, No. 2152, on the Bank of Augusta, Ga., just as de- 
scribed in the warrant. 

"I told you so! I am surprised at you, Sidney York!" said 
Coatney harshly. 

"I'll face you on judgment day about this false accusation. I 
did not know the money was in my coat collar," replied the 
prisoner in tones as clear as the morning echo. 

"You'll first face him before an earthly judge, the evidence is 
too plain for denial," said the sheriff unfeelingly. 

"I'll face you, too, at the final settlement of all things, Mr. 
Sheriff! I'm not guilty, sir; but am ready to go with you," was 
the prisoner's firm reply. 

"Have you any weapons?" demanded the officer. 

"You know I have none, not even a pocket-knife," was the 
sarcastic reply. 

"Look under his pillow," growled Coatney. 

Nothing was found, and the prisoner was hurried back and 
placed in jail at Lawrenceville, where he remained until morn- 

Oh, how cold and gloomy were prison walls that night and for 
many nights following to the finely woven nature of Sidney York ! 
Neither tongue nor pen can ever tell how much he suffered. 

In the afternoon of the following day the great iron-bound door 
of the old jail at Jefferson was closed upon him. The news soon 
reached his friends. Their astonishment and sorrow were very 
great. Indignation too, played a prominent part; though the evi- 
dence against him was so damaging that some, not all, hung their 
heads in silence. 



York is Found Guilty — Coatney's Confession. 

At the approaching session of the Superior court Sidney York 
was brought to trial. He looked every inch a gentleman. Calm, 
cool, collected, his great black eyes seemed to pierce through 
judge and jury. Many of his friends were present. Able law- 
yers represented both sides. As nearly all the evidence was 
against the prisoner, few had any hope. John Coatney testified 
that in the conversation at the spring, York told him that after 
paying for his new clothes he had nothing left and that he loaned 
him the money found in his purse to pay his expenses to Ala- 
bama. This, together with the direct evidence of the deputy 
sheriff led some to think that it was useless for the prisoner to 
make any further defense. His attorney, Gabriel Nash,* did not 
think so. As bold as a lion and as terrific as a thunderbolt in his 
assaults upon an adversary, he first assailed the doubtful character 
of John Coatney, and drew such inferences from it as to cause 
judge and jury to stare with wide-open eyes. Had he known the 
exact words spoken by his client at the spring it is difficult to say 
what the effect would have been. He next considered the hith- 
erto well-known good character of his client as shown by first- 
class witnesses, and drew such conclusions from it as seemed to 
make it impossible for such a man to be a thief, especially when 
he was almost within reach of a fortune. 

After an absence of something over two hours, the jury re- 
turned with a verdict of "GUILTY." Amid tears and sorrow 
the prisoner was sentenced for "three years at hard labor in the 
penitentiary." It was afterwards learned that Col, Nash had 
saved his client from two years of prison life. 

The tragedy was over, and a few days after the "convict" was 
carried to the penitentiary at Milledgeville and assigned to his 
cold 3x7-foot "CELL NO. 21." 

•The records of the Superior Court show that Mr. Nash was a very promi- 
nent lawyer in our courts. — Ed. 


To more than one home did the sombre specter of grief go and 
take the place of Sidney York! 

As the days passed away John Coatney continued to press his 
suit for the heart and hand of pretty Artemisia Alston. To his 
infinite chagrin she still continued to manifest nothing more 
than common friendship for him. Sometimes he thought even that 
was weakening. An answer to his offers of marriage and a large 
fortune was always postponed for further consideration. Be- 
coming desperate he reproached her for being indifferent to his 
overtures and hinted that she would talk more favorable to a 
thief in the penitentiary than to himself. That ungenerous 
thrust enabled her to do what she had often tried to do before. 
She indignantly told him that she did not love him, and that even 
her friendship was gone forever. He left her in high "dudgeon;" 
but a few days after wrote her a note asking forgiveness and 
begging for a reconciliation. In reply she fully forgave him; 
but said nothing about a reconciliation. They never met again. 

In the midst of the fall season, when Sidney York had been 
languishing in his narrow prison cell by night and working in 
its shops nearly every day for nine miserable months, John Coat- 
ney was stricken with a violent type of fever. Being physically 
strong he fought the disease for several weeks ; but he finally be- 
gan to sink so fast that his physicians, when asked for their 
opinion, frankly told him he had only a few hours to live. This 
was terrible news to such a man, and for a few minutes he im- 
plored them to save him if possible. When nearly exhausted he 
became more composed, and calling for a servant ordered him to 
go after the same magistrate that had issued the warrant for 
the arrest of Sidney York. When the officer arrived the dying 
man, with great difficulty, dictated and signed the following 
affidavit : 

"Believing that I am now dying, and deeply repenting of the 
great crime I committed against Sidney York, now in the peniten- 
tiary for stealing, I, John Coatney, in the presence of Almighty 
God, and of the witnesses whose names are hereunto annexed, 
do solemnly swear that I put the $50.00 bill. No. 2152, in the 
said Sidney York's coat collar with my own hands while he was 


asleep in my father's house; and that I thought by disgracing 
him, he could not come between me and the only woman I ever 
loved. John Coatney. 

"Signed in Presence of: 

"D. G. Campton, J. P.; William Harris, N. T. Smith." 

The affidavit was at once sent to the governor of the State. 
A few hours afterwards John Coatney died and was buried in the 
vicinity of the present Line school house near which his father 

How true is Holy Writ, "The way of the transgressor is hard!" 
and again, "Be sure your sin will find you out." How truly did 
Mrs. Underwood prophesy, and how clearly did Col. Nash see 
through the case, when, in the closing sentence of his argument 
before the jury, he exclaimed in thunder tones : 

"Gentlemen of the jury, I call you to witness, that, though 
it may or may not be known in time, when the records of eternity 
are unrolled it will be known of all men, that the green-eyed 
monster of jealousy is the head and front of this false accusa- 

The perplexing mystery was solved at last. In due time Sid- 
ney York was free. So highly was the country gratified over the 
vindication of his honor that several leading citizens went and 
escorted him home from Milledgeville. 

The humble but honorable home of Sidney York's father stood 
on the spot now occupied by the cemetery at Chapel church a 
few miles east of Winder. That beautiful place has since seen 
the flow of many tears of sorrow; but when the liberated pris- 
oner of Cell No. 21, reached there, tears of joy flowed like great 
drops of falling rain. How strange the transmutations of time 
as it passes on, forever on, in unimpeded flight. 

The first visit made by the free man was to see the Alston 
family, not one of whom had ever believed him guilty. Miss 
Artemisia manifested her former friendship, nothing more. That 
was disappointing and strengthened him in a former resolution 


to leave the country. To that she objected in such terms that 
hope was renewed. As he had come into full possession of the 
legacy bequeathed him by his uncle, he from time to time became 
more bold, and finally reaching what he called "the turning 
point," said, with a deep tremor in his voice: 

"My dear Artie, as I called you when we were children to- 
gether, I want to repeat what you have long known ; only, how- 
ever, by your permission. May I go on?" 

She hesitated a moment, and then giving one of those smiles 
which Mrs. Gilmer characterized as "sunshine and gladness," 
answered: "Yes, go on." 

"You know," he continued, "that I love you, Artie, so very 
sincerely, that only a lifetime of devotion can measure it ! Yes, I 
love you, and only you. While I have been one of the most un- 
fortunate men that ever lived, I have been fortunate in some 
respects, fortunate in having a competency of ready cash, and 
fortunate in having your friendship since early childhood. But 
friendship is not enough, however valuable that may be. I shall 
look back with pleasure over the misfortunes of the past if you 
will promise to be my wife. I know this is asking for much more 
than I deserve ; but my undivided love for you does not allow me 
to ask for less. Will you answer me, darling?" 

She hung her head, placed her hands over her face and sat in 
silent, tremulous meditation. He took her hand in his, she did 
not draw it away. He again said : 

"Will you answer me, dear?" 

She hesitated, but finally looked up, and leaning her head 
against his manly breast, she answered in broken tones : 

"0 Sidney, I have loved you since we played together in child- 
hood's happy hours. I realize all that you have suffered on my 
account, and am willing to do all I can to make you happy in the 
future. As you could say nothing less than ask me to be yours, 
neither can I say anything less than to answer, yes." 

"Then, since I have safely passed through the dark night into 
which John Coatney drove me with unmerciful hand, and have 


entered into the glorious sunshine of your love, my only one, 
and mine forever, I forgive him for all the pain he has caused me 
to suffer." 

"Dear Sidney," she said, as the tears flovt^ed from her lustrous 
blue ej^es, * ' I too have suffered all the time you were away in that 
horrid prison, and all because the treacherous John Coatney, by 
some means unknown to me, discovered that I loved you. I had 
long thought that he intended to do you harm, and that was the 
reason why I showed you only friendship when I dearly loved you 
all the time. Remember that 'all things work together for good 
to them that love God.' " 

"Yes, dear, I remember; and while I thank you for the explana- 
tion of your friendship when I so ardently longed for your love, 
let us unite in prayer and thank Him for this happy hour, and 
ask for a continuation of his blessings." 

They fell upon their knees and asked God to help them conse- 
crate their lives to his service, to give them grateful hearts for 
the consummation of their wishes, and to bless their future lives 
with peace and happiness. 

Who will say such prayers went unanswered? 

A few weeks later Sidney York and Artemisia Alston were 
married. Nearly every citizen for many miles around witnessed 
the ceremony, and all extended their hearty congratulations. 

The following year the Alston and York families moved to 
Habersham County. It was there the writer visited them; there 
he heard Mr. and Mrs. Alston sing their morning songs, and 
there they told him the story of "Cell No. 21." 

Mrs. Artemisia Alston York often joined her husband in the 
chase, and with rifle, horn and dogs roamed the mountains on 
horseback, the very picture of health and still radiantly beauti- 

About this time Joseph Coatney, John Coatney 's father, emi- 
grated to Cherokee County, where he died some years later. He 
left a will in which he bequeathed one full share of his large 
estate "to Sidney York instead of John Coatney, deceased." 


When offered the legacy, Sidney York indignantly refused to 
accept it, saying: 

"Though I have forgiven John Coatney for the great crime he 
has committed, and though his father doubtless meant well, 
neither Artie nor myself can afford to touch one cent of his 
deeply tainted patrimony." 

Solomon says of a good woman: "The heart of her husband 
safely trusts in her, so that he shall have no need of spoil. ' ' 

Note. For justifiable reasons, the true names of some of the foregoing 
characters are not given. 



The Reading of the Poem Opens Their Eyes. 

On the Northeastern [now Southern] railway a few furlongs 
above Harmony Grove [now Commerce], there stands a small log 
cabin to the building of which the memory of man does not go 
back. Larkin Butler, an old pioneer, said the "hut" was built by 
John Akin, a nephew of the celebrated Nancy Hart, in 1784, and 
that Tethlemaco, the Indian chief, who at that time directed the 
councils of the Cherokee nation, helped do the work. 

Sixty years came and passed, when strange to say, the "Hinton 
Hut" as the house was then called, seemed to be nearly as old as 
it is now at the hoary age of one hundred and eight years. Many 
"split-board roofs" have sheltered its walls; but its moss-covered 
logs are the same, except, perhaps, the places that have been made 
lean by natural paper-makers — the wasps and hornets — which 
have for a full century been running their factories upon the 
neighboring fence-corners. 

For a number of years the cabin had not been inhabited ; but 
on a cool Saturday evening in April a rude one-ox cart stopped 
near its ancient doorway. The driver, a young girl of some six- 
teen summers, having seen to the comfort of two little boys that 
were on the cart with her, turned and anxiously looked in the 
direction from which she had come. Presently a man and woman 
were seen approaching. The former was beastly drunk and the 
latter was weeping bitterly. To a plowboy who gazed over the 
adjacent fence the scene beggared description. 

It was Van Allen and his family who, becoming weary of their 
home in Carolina, were thus miserably wending their way to some 
point in the West. Mary, their oldest daughter, had gone forward 
with the cart to select a camping place, while the mother remained 
behind to look after the drunken father. 


Soon after reaching the cart the man went to sleep, when, by 
permission of the owner, Mrs. Allen decided to occupy the cabin 
until morning, little thinking that it was to become her home for 
a long time. 

A scanty supper of cold bread was eaten, the little boys went 
to sleep on a bed of straw, and save the hoarse snoring of the 
drunkard nothing broke the painful silence of the mother and 

Suddenly the snoring ceased and the demon arose to his feet 
in a furious passion. Demanding something to eat, Mary hastened 
to offer him a piece of bread ; but because she could not give 
more, he hurled a pine knot at her with all his force. Though 
she attempted to evade the blow, the rough missile struck her 
full in the breast. Quivering for a moment like a butchered ani- 
mal, she gave one gasp and fell senseless on the ground. 

The plowboy, who at the time was preparing to return home, 
witnessed this frightful scene. Though only seventeen years old, 
he was brave and muscular. Himself the son of a drunkard, he 
could readily sympathize with others in a similar condition. Be- 
sides he was by nature a noble boy. This and more he had in- 
herited from a good mother who, like Mrs. Allen, had been 
brought from prosperity and happiness to shame and sorrow by 
the demon's drink — alcohol. 

So when Clyde Arthur, the plowboy, saw Mary Allen fall, he 
leaped the fence at a single bound, not thinking that he carried 
one of his plowlines with him. The inhuman father was ready 
for the fray. The boy, who had no desire to hurt the man, soon 
exhausted the strength of his antagonist, and in a few minutes 
Van Allen was tied hand and foot with the plowline. He chafed 
in the harness like a caged lion. Perhaps never before had such 
horrid oaths jarred against the walls of that old house. Were 
its logs a graphophone or dictagraph, what might be ground out 
from their inner depths? 

While Clyde was pulling at the last knot in his plowline an- 
other character, attracted to the place by the loud ravings of the 
bound man, appeared upon the scene of this strange transaction. 


This was a teacher* who at the time had a school at Rock Spring 
in the immediate neighborhood ; and who was himself a mere boy 
in the very first of his teens. 

Turning their attention to the wounded girl, the two boys 
quickly carried her to a neighboring house where they felt sure 
that Mrs. Allen and her children would be kindly received. Nor 
were they disappointed. 

At every gasp poor Mary was expected to die. Blood flowed 
from her mouth and she was wholly insensible. Without delay 
the teacher went on foot for the nearest physician who lived ten 
miles distant, and a little before sunrise on the following morn- 
ing, Dr. Crawford W. Long, the distinguished discoverer of 
anaesthetics, stood by the suffering stranger. 

The next morning while packing his medicines to return home, 
the good doctor, having observed the anxiety manifested by 
Clyde and the teacher requested that they be admitted to the 
room. Timidly entering. Dr. Long informed them that the crisis 
was past and that his patient would live. 

Then softly going near the bed and gazing at the quietly 
sleeping stranger, they for the first time fully realized how beauti- 
ful — how very beautiful, Mary Allen was. 

At the close of four anxious weeks Mrs. Allen and her children 
returned to the Hinton hut which had, in the meantime, been 
secured as at least their temporary home. 

In those days school life in the rural districts was not like it 
is now. The school at Rock Spring was large and contained many 
different characters. A few still live, but most of them are 
dead. Some were rich and some were poor — very poor. Some 
were dull, others intellectual and ambitious. A few of their 
names have passed into history. Gen, W. T. Milligan, one of the 
first heroes who gave his life for the "Lost Cause," and Emeline 
Maddox, who bravely carried the colors of her husband's regi- 
ment over the bloody field of Shiloh, and who performed an an- 
gel's mission at the close of Albert Sidney Johnson's heroic life 
will never be forgotten by those who knew them best. 

*The teacher was the author. He began teaching when 13 years old 
and was 17 when this school opened. — Ed. 


But perhaps the most interesting feature of the school was 
"Class No. 1." It was composed of sixteen young ladies, most 
of whom were immensely wealthy — all of unblemished character, 
beautiful and highly intellectual. 

Over this pleasing feature, however, the pride and vanity of 
about half the class sometimes caused a dark cloud to gather — a 
feature which in those days often served to grind the poor into 
the very dust. 

Soon after Mary Allen's recovery she was induced to become 
a pupil in the Rock Spring school. To the surprise of all her 
entrance examination showed that she was already a good Eng- 
lish scholar and well advanced in some of the higher branches. 
This at once placed her in Class No. 1. 

Though poor and obscure, she was uncommonly beautiful, very 
intelligent, of pleasing address, and the very soul of honor. But 
in the estimation of some of her classmates these sterling qualities 
weighed little against gold and silver. They frowned upon her 
in school and cut her acquaintance in society. Some called her a 
"cart-driver," and others a "pauper." One, the leader of the 
class, publicly called her "The Hut Owl in Borrowed Feathers," 
using the term feathers in allusion to the flowing curls of jet- 
black hair that fell in festoons over her symmetrical shoulders. 

This cruel conduct was their only serious fault and can be at- 
tributed only to that prevailing spirit of the times which has 
since been characterized as "the hot blood of the old Southern 

Although these taunts were felt with the keenest anguish, their 
victim usually met them with tears only. The rest died away in 
the silence of her noble breast. 

However, the time came when even with the gentle nature of 
Mary Allen "forbearance ceased to be a virtue." 

One lovely Sabbath several of her class met her at church and 
in a conspicious way refused to recognize her presence. Her 
heart bled at every pore and for once she resolved upon some sort 
of revenge. 

Compositions and essays were not so common then as now. 
Rock Spring being one of the few schools where such exercises 


were required. Then original composition was regarded a great 
task ; but to Mary Allen this kind of work was no task at all. 
This her classmates well knew; and while most of them would 
have scorned a proposition to wear her bonnet, none had any 
particular objections to presenting her thoughts as their own. 

So as the time for the public exercises of the school drew 
near Mary's facile pen was laid under heavy tribute. The week 
following the neglect shown at church various members of her 
class politely requested her to write for them. 

"Mary," said the wealthy Lucy Graves, "as it is such an easy 
matter for you to write, will you kindly assist me?" 

"I will on two conditions," replied the former, thoughtfully. 

"And what are they?" asked the latter. 

"That you allow me to select the subject and tell no one that 
I am the author," was the firm reply. 

"I will do that gladly," promised Lucy. 

"Then call on me one hour hence," said Mary, "and my 
thoughts on Toil, Pain and Tears, will be at your service." 

At the time appointed the two met, when Lucy said : 

"Read Mary, for you are a better reader than I am." 

Announcing her subject as was the custom of those days, Miss 
Allen proceeded: 

"Away back in the far-gone ages when Mother Time was 
singing her nursery hymn, the white-winged Messenger of peace 
hovered over earth, and Toil, Pain and Tears were unknown to 

"But as time rolled on an arch enemy appeared upon the 
scene, when the guardian Messenger sadly folded her snowy wings 
and a piercing cry, never heard on earth before, reached from 
pole to pole. The crystal waters of Eden assumed a leaden hue 
and a turbulent flood, laden with Toil, Pain and Tears rolled on 
without a shore." 

At the close of this paragraph their eyes met. A pearly tear 
was stealing down Lucy's rosy cheek. This was chased away by 
Mary's tender hand, when she proceeded to read the entire paper 
of some ten minutes in length. 


Again their eyes met. The first tear was the forerunner of 
many others. These, too, were chased away by the same gentle 
hand, and while doing so the ''pauper" girl received the first 
kiss ever offered by any one of her class. 

Separating on terms more sociable than ever before, one went 
to rest at her ease — the other to brook the importunities of 
others to write for them also. 

Overwork at school, overwork at home, added to the many sor- 
rows she had to bear at both places proved to be too much for 
the poor girl's power of endurance. Suddenly her nerves gave 
way and for several weeks she was unable to attend school. 

As a preparatory measure for the forthcoming public exercises 
the members present of Mary Allen's class were called to read 
their respective papers. Perhaps, fortunately, she was still ab- 
sent. Understanding that only those who had read should be 
present at the reading of another, the teacher glanced at the 
class roll and announced the first name, Miss Anna Dickson. 

Promptly that young lady took her position, and announcing 
her subject to be, "Toil, Pain and Tears," began: 

"Away back in the far-gone ages when Mother Time was sing- 
ing her nursery hymn, the white-winged Messenger of peace 
hovered over earth, and Toil, Pain and Tears were unknown to 

Word for word as Mary Allen had written for Lucy Graves, 
did Anna Dickson read to the end, and then took her seat to wit- 
ness the performance of those who were to follow. 

Next came Eliza Hampton who, after saying her theme was 
"Toil, Pain and Tears," proceeded: 

"Away back in the far-gone ages when Mother Time was sing- 
ing her nursery hymn," and so on, she continued to repeat Miss 
Dickson's words to the close, and took her seat, also. 

But Miss Hampton saw that something was wrong. The teacher 
was puzzled and hurried to the next name. Lucy Graves, saying 
"Toil, Pain and Tears" was her subject, she, too, began: 

"Away back in the far-gone ages," and thus following her 
two classmates about half way through, she became so embar- 
rassed at their appearance that she could read no further. 

Wishing to relieve them in some way, the teacher remarked, 
"There appears to be a remarkable similarity in the sentiments 
of the class. That we may see if this unity of mind goes any fur- 
ther the usher will please introduce Miss Ballard." 

Except Mary Allen, Evie Ballard was one of the most noble 
pupils in school. Like the others she said the title of her paper 
was "Toil, Pain and Tears," and began: 

"Away back in the far-gone ages" — but at the word "ages" 
her three classmates ran from the room and left her standing 
in blank astonishment. The teacher hastened to explain the 
situation, and going with Evie they found that nine of the class 
had the same essay word for word. The class was greatly morti- 
fied at the discovery, but all now saw that Mary Allen's beauti- 
ful production was a pathetic comparison of her own condition 
with that of her aristocratic classmates. At this their hearts, 
naturally good, at once melted, and every one began to weep. 
This was their teacher's opportunity to do the greatest work of 
his life. 

Going with the class to the old cabin where Mary Allen still 
lived they found her in a much better condition than when she 
left school. 

"You have sold us all out" said Minna Lane, the leader. "For- 
give us, and let us always be friends. ' ' 

"I freely forgive all," replied Mary, "but I can not forget 
that horrid name — 'The Hut Owl in Bor !' " 

"I take it all back and gladly substitute 'angel' in its place," 
interrupted the leader, and throwing her arms around Mary, the 
embrace went round until every member of the class had asked 
and received forgiveness. Nor did she ever again suffer at any 
one of their hands. 

The following winter Van Allen filled a drunkard's grave. The 
next spring Mrs. Allen and her children were carried by her 
brother to the far West. As their teamster, Clyde Arthur went 
with them. 

Thirty-six years after a man stood upon Lookout Mountain, 
gazing now at the city of Chattanooga below, and then at the 


heights above, where, on a hedge of rocks stood a lady and 
gentleman of elegant and commanding appearance. 

Going near the place where they stood a mutual recognition 
took place — the two extended their hands — the man leaped upon 
the rocks, and Mary Allen, Clyde Arthur and their Rock Spring 
teacher all in full abounding joy, again stood face to face. 

Mary Allen had become Clyde Arthur's wife. He had studied 
law, had passed through the late war with honor and distinction, 
and returning home, had been elected governor of his adopted 
State — was then serving his second term in that high office where 
"The Hut Owl in Borrowed Feathers" had become "the first 
lady" of the land in which she lived, and an "angel" in her ele- 
gant western home as well. 



The Search for the Rebel. 

Soon after the skirmish between the Confederate and the 
Federal forces at Bridgeport, Tenn., in the early spring of 1862, 
both parties began to move up the Tennessee river, the former 
occupying its eastern and the latter its western bank. A little 
before reaching Long Island, which is a few hours march below 
Chattanooga, they halted within view of each other, and for 
several days something like peaceful relations seemed to exist be- 
tween them. Firing across the river ceased, and sometimes the 
blue and the gray exchanged coffee and tobacco on one or the 
other of its banks. 

Suddenly, however, a Federal regiment moved north and 
spread its tents on an open plain several hundred yards below 
the point where the river divides in about equal portions at the 
island. Thus the distance between the opposing forces was in- 
creased by the breadth of the island, which was here about the 
fourth of a mile, and by a narrow swamp which intervened be- 
tween the river and the Federal camp. 

Hitherto neither party had attempted to occupy the island, but 
as this latter movement of the enemy somewhat puzzled the Con- 
federates, they decided to investigate the matter, without, how- 
ever, any hostile intention. 

Accordingly on the morning of the 10th day of June a de- 
tachment consisting of sixty picked men under the command of 
Capt. J. T. Atwater, crossed the eastern branch of the river, and 
quietly took possession of that part of the island which was sup- 
posed to be opposite the enemy's camp. The dense growth on 
the intervening swamp cut off all signs of their presence, and if 

*Thi8 beautiful little story has little or no connection with the early 
history of Jackson County; but it is here inserted because the Editor feels 
that the reader will appreciate and enjoy it. 


any pickets occupied its margins they were not seen. Two small 
log houses stood near their landing, and though corn and pota- 
toes grew near them, they were unoccupied. Most of the ground 
was covered by large trees on whose ponderous limbs squirrels 
were playing and amid whose dense foliage birds were singing 
their morning madrigals. 

After becoming familiar with his surroundings Capt. Atwater 
proceeded, about dark, to establish a line of picket posts along 
something less than half a mile of the western boundary of the 
island. Near the river, and a little below what was thought to 
be about the center of the Federal camp, stood a huge sycamore 
tree which the corporal of the guard designated as Post No. 1. 
To this he assigned Jim Warren, a tall, muscular and brave Con- 
federate in the flush of young manhood's prime. Though he knew 
there were not men enough on the island to relieve him during the 
night, his task was comparatively easy because, for an unknown 
distance below, the river-bank was too steep and rugged to re- 
quire much attention. 

When an hour and more had passed the impressive silence was 
suddenly broken by a shout beyond the swamp : ' ' Wake up, 
Johnny Reb, will you sleep all night?" 

The words came in such clear and distinct tones they seemed 
almost to walk through the still night air. Evidently the shout 
was "a feeler" to ascertain if the island was occupied by Con- 
federates. It was so regarded, and the solitary picket remained 
silent and was bothered — bothered because he had certainly 
heard that voice before, but when and where he could not think. 

Hitherto he had stood as motionless as the great tree itself; 
but now he became restless and longed to take a stroll among 
the great trees around him, and in their solitude possibly call to 
mind by whom the clean cut words just heard were probably 

But Jim Warren was too brave to leave his post for any selfish 
purpose, and noticing that the fog over the river began to emit 
enough light to enable him to dimly see the outline of objects 
near the bank, he assumed a less conspicious position by re- 
clining on the sand at his feet. While still trying to solve the 

mystery connected with the seemingly familiar voice he was sud- 
denly brought to a sitting posture by hearing a distinct ripple 
in the water below, the point from which he least expected any 
one to come. To his amazement the ghostly light had increased 
enough to enable him to see a large tree which had fallen into 
the water seven or eight feet below him. While merely glancing 
at this another ripple, more distinct than before, reached his 
wide-open ears. He cautiously crawled nearer the water and 
soon he discovered a small canoe coming towards him. It was 
hugging the bank closely, and contained, as well as he could see, 
one person. Cautiously it glided on until it touched the fallen 
tree lightly. Quick as thought almost its solitary occupant step- 
ped upon the prostrate tree and listened intently. Had a thunder- 
bolt come crashing from the cloudless sky Jim Warren could not 
have been more astonished. A woman was standing on the log! 
She was of small size, and her movements indicated prompt 
action and wonderful agility. Having stood motionless for a 
short time, she suddenly turned, and going towards the top of 
the tree, towed the boat beyond the picket 's view. 

Instead of going around the tree as he expected, she presently 
came running back along the log with perfect ease, and leaping 
on the clayroot turned up by the tree, at a single bound, she 
flitted by him like a shadow and disappeared in the great syca- 
more tree, which, for that night, at least, the disconcerted soldier 
had exclusively claimed as his own. 

Though not superstitious above educated men in general, Jim 
more than half believed that he had seen a very ghost. The form 
as seen in the half-illuminating fog; the ease and speed with 
which the log was followed; the airy leap made to reach the top 
of the clay-root ; the ethereal form with seeming wings that passed 
by him, and the sudden disappearance into what he thought Avas 
a solid tree, staggered all belief in any flesh-and-blood theory that 
the mystified soldier could imagine. 

To a brave man the thought that his post was in the possession 
of another being of some kind was extremely humiliating ; and to- 
this day Jim Warren has never been able to say what he would 


have done if the trying scenes which soon followed had not taken 

He was considering the propriety of calling for help by means 
of a pre-arranged signal ; but before deciding the matter, another 
movement in the water below attracted his attention. It was not 
like the soft ripple first heard, but evidently the strong stroke 
of a rapidly dipping oar. Nearer and more audible it came until 
a boat — such as fishermen sometimes use on the western rivers — 
swiftly came in sight. Two men were in it, the one in the stern 
was rowing as if for life. Suddenly, and with what seemed to 
be increased power, the boat struck the prostrate tree with such 
force that both men were thrown from their seats. 

''D — n the log," muttered a coarse voice as both men scrambled 
to their feet. 

"What '11 uses do now, boss?" asked the other in quite a differ- 
ent tone. 

"I hardly know," said the first speaker, rubbing his bruised 
hands. "She," he continued after rubbing and grunting awhile, 
"has not come this far up the river." "I tole yer, boss, she done 
go down de riber." "No, Tom said she came up it, and he knows. 
But if she had come this far this log would have stopped her like 
it has us ; and to go around it would have carried her too near our 
boys on the other side. Col. Cummins' regiment is about opposite 
this point and his Bay State boys would shoot at the devil him- 

"So de game done played, am it, boss?" again asked the other. 
"No," was the snarling reply, "No, not by a long shot. Sure as 
I am Captain Phil Dimple, I'll yet have the Rebel Girl, as they 
love to call her, for my wife. In such times as these she'll soon 
learn to love me. But before we go further I want you to again 
swear that you'll be true to the trust I've already placed in your 

"Fo, Grod, Joe swears, Cap'n," said he who from the first was 
thought to be a negro. 

As Captain Dimple failed to notice that Joe did not swear to 
any particular thing, he seemed satisfied and continued: 

"I'm of the opinion that we have passed by the little jade, and 

think that her intention is to strike across the country to White- 
sides where she has an uncle living. The route she is most likely 
to take lies a little above this island ; and if she ran under some 
bank, as I think she did, to avoid being overtaken, she'll shoot 
up stream like an arrow and must of necessity come to this log. 
I'll conceal myself and be ready to keep her from falling into 
the water when she strikes it. 

"Now, Joe," the miserable man continued, "I want you to go 
down the river to the bluff where we left Tom. I'll arrange my 
blanket to look like a man in the dark, so that when you pass her 
hiding place she'll think we are both returning. To allow her 
good time to reach here remain at the bluff about an hour and 
come back here within less than two hours, if possible. If you 
find Tom bring him with you. If necessary to use them don't 
forget that the pass word is 'Mitchell,' and the countersign 
'Shell Moina.' Do you understand me this time?" 

"Sartin sho, Cap'n," answered the negro with some in- 

The blanket was arranged to look something like a man in a 
stooping posture, and the boat, apparently carrying two men, 
soon disappeared in the midnight darkness. 

And now came the supreme moment. Something like small 
pebbles were heard falling in the water. The Captain was evi- 
dently climbing the bank. Not wishing to make any noise the 
picket shifted his gun to the left and drew a long knife from his 
belt. Presently a figure as if coming out of the earth stood bolt 
upright near a small tree behind which Jim Warren was standing. 

"Hands up, sir," came the ominous command. 

Perhaps the astonished man did not see the drawn knife, but 
the gun on the left only. At any rate he was very quick to 
draw a side weapon, and when almost ready to pull on his as- 
sailant, the long knife was driven to the hift in his breast. 

A bitter oath, a spasmodic bound, a heavy fall and all was 
over with the self-styled Captain Phil Dimple. 

To the solitary picket, surrounded by the thickening events of 
the night, and by nature devoted to all the endearments of peace 
and good will to men, the time was a trying one. 


The Girl in the Hollow Tree. 

When satisfied that the tragedy just enacted had not given any 
alarm over the river, Jim Warren gave three hoots in imitation 
of the night-owl. This, "too-hoo-too-hoo-hoo," repeated three 
times, was the pre-arranged signal call for help from Post No. 2, 
which, being regarded as the danger point, was supplied with 
several men. 

In response, Loyd King, a fearless, quick-witted little man 
quickly appeared upon the scene. While Jim was explaining 
the situation to him, a low, plaintive voice was heard, saying : 

' ' This way, gentlemen ; for I have some reason to think you are 
my friends." 

''It's a ghost, Jim, in possession of your post," whispered 
Loyd King. 

Nothing daunted, however, both went forward, and a woman, 
coming from the opposite side of the big tree, boldly met them. 
Jim at once recognized her as the same little creature that had 
come in the boat, and consequently as the intended victim of the 
monster who had followed her. 

"I place myself," she said with much embarrassment, "under 
your protection, at least until I tell you something of my fearful 
condition. Then you can decide as to whether I am entitled to 
it or not. Some months ago we came as refugees from Western 
Tennessee to my father's plantation in this immediate vicinity. 
Hence my familiarity with this part of the country. As fate 
would have it, we, only a few days ago, found ourselves inside 
the Federal lines, and being unable to pass through them with all 
the family, went to Huntsville, Alabama, which is my present 
home. We felt more secure there, but were mistaken. To-day a 
little before 10 o'clock, when my parents were temporarily ab- 
sent, Phil and Tom Dimple, two renegade Tennesseans, and 
whom I have known since early childhood, kidnapped me and 
brought me to Bridgeport, a few miles below this place. The 


negro Joe, who has just gone down the river, and who has been 
my friend and faithful servant all my life, follow^ed us, and in 
some way managed to become my guard while the Dimples were 
eating supper. He is very shrewd, and when, a little after dark, 
he motioned me to follow him, I did so without hesitation. At 
full speed he took me in his arms to the river and put me in 
a little boat which a friend of his had provided for the occasion. 
Advising me to hasten to my 'tree-home' as he calls this big 
sycamore, he said he'd be here in the morning to carry me to 
Whitesides, where Uncle John Gailey lives, and then disappeared. 

"It seems," she continued, "from what I heard in the rene- 
gade's boat, that Joe tried to keep them off my track by saying 
I went down the river. Failing in this he has somehow managed to 
continue in their service, and, in my opinion, he'll never leave 
them until he knows I am beyond their power. Thus 
you see how much I am indebted to him; but," 
kneeling at Jim's feet, she kept on, "I owe you a debt 
of gratitude that all of life can never pay, but not greater than 
my heart can feel. If Tom Dimple, Phil's brother, does come 
here to-night I need not tell such men as you what course to 
pursue further than to ask that you protect Joe." 

"The battle necessary to the protection of yourself and friends 
and the punishment of those who would harm you will be fought 
to the finish," said Jim, raising the little creature to her feet. 
"Now," he continued with some hesitation, "please tell us how 
you managed to get into this big tree?" 

"Dear me," she answered as if a smile were playing over her 
features, "the tree is hollow. There is room enough inside for 
several persons. To the north there is a natural opening through 
which I have often passed before to-night. I have frequently 
been here with various parties and sometimes alone. We made 
this place a sort of headquarters, and the hollow tree served as a 
shelter when it rained. It served me a good purpose to-night. 
From there I heard Phil Dimple's plans to recapture me, and 
through a small opening which father made for ventilation, I 
saw you strike him. I did not know of your presence until that 
moment. Somehow I knew you to be a Confederate soldier. 


They call me the Rebel Girl, and hence my trust in you and 
your companion." 

"Your trust is not misplaced," said Jim Warren. 

"Amen and amen," chimed in Loyd King shifting his weight 
from one foot to the other. This was a sure sign that he was 
ready for action to the death. 

"Now," whispered Jim to the girl, "please retire to your tree- 
home and we'll do the rest. We must now talk low." 

"No," she softly replied, "I'll remain with you. If necessary 
I can materially aid you. See ! ' ' and from a wrapper that was 
over her shoulders she took a bow and a small bundle of arrows. 
"With these," she continued, "my friends say I am an expert. 
When here some days ago I left them in the tree with the ex- 
pectation of returning next morning. But that very day the 
enemy drew their lines and would not let me pass through them. 
Though at a fearful cost they are mine again, and I prefer to use 
them because they are silent." 

"And so is mine," said Jim, showing his great knife yet stained 
with blood. 

This seemed to have the desired effect on the resolute girl, 
and she reluctantly retired, leaving Jim Warren to speculate 
upon the difference between a lovely form in real life and the 
gliding of a ghost into what he at first thought was a solid tree. 

In the meantime Loyd King returned to his post to give such 
information as would prevent the corporal of the guard from 
coming to Post No. 1 while the watch for the return boat was on. 
When he came back the two soldiers concealed themselves near 
the roots of the fallen tree and anxiously awaited the coming of 
"Tom." For a little while they watched the large tree play 
back and forth on the surface of the sullen water without seeing 
or hearing anything unusual. 

Jim Warren was restless and uncomfortable — uncomfortable 
because he had arrayed himself in Captain Dimple's blue uni- 
form ; and though the fit was fairly good, he felt like he was in- 
cased in sheet-iron. By this unpleasant transformation and a 
change of voice he thought he could, at that dark hour, pass for 
Capt. Dimple. 

More than the time allotted for the return of the boat had 
passed. Loyd was "spoiling" to say something and at last 
whispered : 

"Say, Jim, don't let that little mortal, if she be mortal, see 
you wearing that blue suit. You bet she is " 

"Hush !" softly said Jim. "I think I hear the boat coming," he 
continued after a pause. "Yes, I know the long sweeping strokes 
of the negro." 

Leaving Loyd on the bank, he crawled upon the floating tree, 
and tried to pierce the gloom that brooded over the water. Near- 
er and nearer came the muffled strokes, until he could see the 
outlines of a boat with two men in it. 

"Halt! Who comes there?" asked the sentinel. 

"Mitchell," answered a strange voice. 

"Advance, Mitchell, and give the countersign." "Hall Zenus," 
quickly responded the negro. 

"Shell Moina," added the stranger before Jim could speak, 

"Pass on, but who is that with you, Joe?" 

"Massa Tom." 

"Glad you come Tom — mind Joe, here's the log." 

With graduated strokes the boat touched the fallen tree, and 
as Tom awkardly scrambled upon it, he hurriedly asked : 

"Did she come, Phil?" 

"Certainly! Get out quick! There is trouble brewing along 
the rebel lines and we must leave here at once. Make no noise," 
said the supposed Phil Dimple, stepping back on the log so as to 
place the man in front. 

"Where is she?" asked Tom, greatly excited. 

"Yonder," said Jim pointing to a tall tree which stood a 
little distance from the true one. 

Just as the three men were passing the place where Loyd 
King was concealed, Jim Warren cautiously said : 

"Stop, Tom, let me go before." 

This was to divert the man's attention, and before he could 
think of anything else the muzzle of an English rifle was at his 
breast, and with the action came the stern command : 

"Surrender or die." 

His hands went up slowly and Tom Dimple was a prisoner. 
"And you too, Joe, this is not Phil Dimple," said Jim Warren 
touching the negro. 

"God-a-mity — who am it den?" 

''The friend of your young mistress." 

As Joe fell to his knees and clasped Jim in his arms a long 
dagger fell from his sleeve. 

"What does this mean, Joe," asked the soldier picking up the 

"It means," was the reply, "death to de first man dat lay 
vi'lant hands on young Missus — whar am she?" 

"She is safe and you may see her presently." 

Joe arose to his feet and began dancing a jig that called for 
the exercise of every muscle in him. Loyd King characterized it 
as "a double and twisted green corn dance that was never seen 
in all the world before." 

When Joe's mild dance was over the lonely too-hoo-too-hoo-hoo, 
twice repeated, broke on the still night air. It was the second 
call for help, and soon the corporal of the guard and two other 
soldiers came and took the prisoner, Tom Dimple, away. 

Jim Warren and Loyd King remained near the hollow syca- 
more, waiting to learn if the recent commotion among them had 
attracted the attention of the enemy. By and by, they were re- 
lieved by hearing the shout first heard that night : 

"Wake up Johnny Reb — 'tis almost day." 

Though the words varied a little, the voice was the same. 
Jim was now satisfied that he had certainly heard that voice be- 
fore, and, in the light of what he had heard Captain Dimple say in 
the boat, he was almost certain that he knew by whom the words 
were spoken. 

As this conclusion produced both pleasant and unpleasant 
thoughts, he postponed a further consideration of the matter un- 
til a more favorable time, and suggested that he and Loyd retire 
a short distance for the purpose of formulating a plan looking to 
the restoration of the Rebel Girl to her people and that Joe take 
their places. 


This the negro was glad to do, and, after remaining at the 
opening in the tree for a few minutes, he began another of his 
wild, fantastic dances around and around the great sycamore 
until he made so much noise by striking his huge feet together 
that Jim had to stop him. Quietly seating himself near the open- 
ing he again placed the ugly knife up his sleeve and said : 

"Any mo' want young Missus, tell 'em come on — Joe wasn't 
ready befo', but is ready now!" 

Having agreed upon a plan which they thought would enable 
the suffering girl to reach her home in safety, the two soldiers 
indulged in a few thoughts in regard to her personal appearance. 
They had noticed that there was a charm in her movements and 
sweet music in her voice; but neither had distinctly seen her 

''One thing is certain," Jim Warren said gravely, "she reminds 
me of sister Mary. She walks like, talks like, and now and then 
tosses her head to one side just like sister." 

"And more than th — that," Loyd added, half choked, for his 
heart beat a wild tat-too every time Mary Warren's name was 
mentioned in his presence, "More than th — that, no one as 
br — brave and spry as th — that little elf can be any — anything 
less than bea — beautiful like Ma — ; but hush Jim, you kn — know 
how it is!" 

Jim thought it prudent to change the subject as suggested by 
his friend, and at once took Joe's place as sentinel. 

Clearing his throat to indicate his presence, he whispered : 
"Now that you are beyond the reach of the Dimples, how can we 
best serve you?" 

"In the first place," came the answer, "tell me to whom I am 
indebted for this great service." 

"The soldier who so promptly came to our assistance is Loyd 
King, a Georgian, and is as gallant a knight as ever drew a lance, 
I am a Georgian also, and my name is James Warren." 

"Warren! Warren! Warren!" slowly repeated the girl. 
"James Warren is my father's name, and mine is Nellie — they 
call me 'Nellie Warren, the Rebel Girl!' Can it, can it be! 
that we are of the same family?" 


"I certainly think so. Many years ago an uncle of mine, Jos- 
eph Warren, a descendant of and named for Gen. Joseph War- 
ren of Bunker Hill fame, emigrated to western Tennessee from 
whence you came. Do you know anything of him?" 

"Dear! dear me," exclaimed the the girl, "I am his grand- 

"And I am his nephew," eagerly said Jim as he, for the first 
time, reached his head into the opening. 

They clasped each other's hands and for awhile remained silent. 
At last Nellie said through her thickly falling tears: "I thank 
God for this knowledge, and can now afford to ask you if there 
is any way by which I can return home safely." 

"Though the country from Bridgeport is in full possession of 
the enemy, I think we can manage to reach Huntsville. 

"In the first place you may remember that the voice we heard 
to-night, calling on 'Johnny Keb to wake up,' was uncommonly 
clear and musical. It may surprise you to know that I have 
heard the same voice repeat the words, 'wake up!' many times 
before to-night. Phil Dimple told Joe in the boat that Col. 
Cummins' regiment is about opposite this place, and referred to 
his men as the 'Bay State boys!' 

"This means that the regiment over the river is from Mas- 
sachusetts, and that Arthur Cummins, a heart-treasured friend of 
mine, and a native of that State, is its commander. At Cam- 
bridge, three miles from Boston, Arthur Cummins and I lived 
together four years. We entered the grand old University of 
Harvard on the same day, graduated in the same class, and re- 
ceived the same degree. We occupied the same room and dined 
at the same table. From Cambridge I went home with him and 
remained nearly three months. It was during this latter period 
that I often heard him call to two younger brothers to 'wake 
up ' when, as they frequently did, they slept too long to please him. 
There never has been a break in our love for one another, and I 
am not at all afraid to test it again. 

"Then in the second place I propose to carry you home as a 
Federal officer. You may not know that I have Capt. Phil 
Dimple's uniform, and it fits me fairly well. I wore it last night 


at Tom and Joe's reception. It fooled them and I propose to 
keep on fooling somebody until you are safe in your mother's 

''It remains for me to get leave of absence from my command. 
Capt. Atwater will attend to this within the next few hours. This 
afternoon I will visit my dear friend over the river, and fear not 
the result." 

"But," asked the wondering Nellie thoughtfully, "can any 
good thing come out of Massachusetts, so far as the Southern 
Confederacy is concerned?" 

"So far," replied Jim, "as friendship for me and sympathy 
for you are concerned, I unhesitatingly answer, yes." 

The coming day had already hung its banners along the eastern 
horizon. A company of Confederates soon halted at one of the 
log cabins near by. It was the relief guard, and Jim Warren, 
leaving Loyd King at his post, went to meet them. 


A Cousin Is Discovered. 

It was sunrise, that glad transition from the gloom of a dread- 
ful night to the golden light of a balmy summer morning. Some 
distance beyond the river, further than the shouts of the pre- 
ceeding night, the Federal bands struck up a lively air, and now 
and then the neighing of horses mingled with the morning re- 
vielle. These were the only sounds that greeted the ears of the 
weary pickets just off duty, except Jim Warren and Loyd King 
who asked and received permission to remain at Post No. 1 
"until" as the latter expressed it, "the crack of doom if neces- 
sary. ' ' 

Near by was a deep hole apparently made by high water. In 
this the body of Capt. Phil Dimple, wrapped in his make-believe 
blanket was placed, and, when covered with several feet of sand, 
was left to his fate. There, unless molested by the same agency 
that dug his rude grave, his dust still sleeps. 

While the burial was going on Loyd King signaled Jim War- 
ren to come near. 

"Jim," said Loyd, in a perplexed manner, "I just now took a 
peep into the hollow tree, and that little angel of some sort is 
sleeping like a kitten on a hearth rug. I'll swear by all the 
moons of Jupiter she'll pass for your sister Mary, anywhere. 
She's as pretty as a rosebud in a sugar loaf, and looks ten 
thousand pounds sweeter. You know I thought her beautiful 
from the start ; but the great scott ! I did not think such a scrap 
of mortality could look so ethereal and divine in open daylight, 
that is, if she be mortal." 

"If she is not mortal what is she?" asked Jim. 

"Well, now that I think of it, I understand the whole matter. 
This is a fairy island, and the queen of the whole troop is at this 
moment sleeping in her palace. Invisible to us millions of them 
are hovering around us now. It may be that Mary Warren is 
a fairy, too, gone to live with you, because you are a clever fel- 


low, Jim, and because your features, though not half so hand- 
some, are very much like hers. Go and see for yourself, old 

Jim went to the tree and cautiously looked in. A bewildered 
expression passed over his features, he crossed his arms behind 
him, and gazing intently, he remained motionless for several 
minutes. Finally his arms fell limp at his side and he slowly 
walked away. Though strong among the strongest men, he wept 
like a child. 

"Ah! my boy! I told you so ! Do you believe me now?" asked 
Loyd tenderly. 

"Yes, my friend, much that you said is true. Perhaps you 
think it unmanly of me to weep ; but as I think of the stormy 
sea over which that little creature has just been tossed, and of 
her condition now, I am too manly not to weep. Sure enough 
she is as much like sister Mary as two peas in a hull. This, coming 
to our knowledge as it was, is very strange indeed; but when I 
tell you that her name is Warren — Nellie Warren — and that the 
blood which flows through her veins flows through mine also, the 
whole matter presents a chapter of romance in real life that 
overcomes me as I attempt to read it. 

"Even now," the speaker continued, "the position of her silent 
weapon shows how faithfully the Warren blood has been trans- 
mitted down to this sleeping child of a distant generation. An 
arrow is in place, and I judge when she fell asleep her bow was 
ready for immediate action. Both bow and arrows appear to be 
of steel, and the string of fine copper wire, all in keeping with 
the classically turned little hands which, even in sleep, seem to 
grasp them firmly." 

Thought took the place of speech and the two soldiers sat in 
silent meditation. While thus engaged the "fairy queen" awoke 
and came out of her "palace" with bow and arrows in her hands. 
She was radiantly beautiful, and advanced to meet them with 
a smile "so sweet," Loyd King said, "that it melted his body off 
of his legs." 

"Excuse me, gentlemen," she said. "I am heartily ashamed of 
so far forgetting myself as to fall asleep at this critical time. It 


was unintentional. Besides I fear such carelessness has caused 
you some trouble." 

" no ! " said Jim. "To you sleep was of first importance. To 
us it was a pleasure to watch and wait while you took the rest 
so much needed. This, Miss Warren," he continued, pointing to 
Loyd, "is Mr. King, my lifelong friend." 

"I am certainly glad to meet you, Mr. King. I thank God for 
such friends as you and Mr. Warren." 

Loyd touched his cap with the grace of a Chesterfield and re- 
luctantly returned to his post as a matter of duty. 

"My own cousin Nellie, for by this endearing title I may now 
call you," said Jim, as Loyd went away, "tell me where you left 
your boat last night? I'll need one this evening." 

"I hid it among the brush at the top of the tree, because its 
presence at or near the clay-root might have betrayed my pres- 
ence, also. If this little ruse failed, I expected this bow to be my 
next best friend." 

' * I thank my good stars that I was here to take the place of the 
bow," said Jim, gently taking her right hand in his. 

She did not answer immediately nor withdraw her hand; but 
finally turning her large blue eyes, which were as soft and liquid 
as those of a gazelle, full upon him, and placing her free hand on 
his shoulder, said: 

"And I thank God." 

The soldier felt a little reproved for using the word "stars;" 
but as Capt. Atwater was seen coming across the island the con- 
versation was dropped. 

With a smile of gladness on his handsome face, the Captain ap- 
proached and gave the anxious soldier a paper which gave 
"private James Warren of the C. S. A., leave of absence for five 
days," and stipulated that "if said Warren did not report to his 
command within said time, judgment is to be suspended for five 
additional days." 

"See," said the delighted soldier, "what good time they give 
us. I think three days at most will carry us through." 



The Rebel Girl Is Carried Home. 

It was noon, the whirling of time had made its half cycle. 

All of the Confederates except Jim Warren and Loyd King had 
evacuated the island. They, with pretty Nellie Warren, remained 
in a canoe which was concealed by a cluster of vines that grew 
on the bank of the eastern branch of the river. 

Just at 2 o'clock Jim Warren went to one of the little log 
houses and arrayed himself in Captain Phil Dimple's uniform. 
He soon found the little boat near the tree-top, and at an angle of 
about forty-five degrees, boldly struck for the opposite bank. 
This did not carry him to the lower end of the swamp, but he soon 
found it, and in half an hour was at the enemy's lines. He was 
not sure that the words of the previous night were still in use; 
but, depending mainly on his uniform and his strong faith in 
Col. Cummins, he ventured to use them. 

He found them all right, and was at once conducted to head- 
quarters and introduced to Col. Arthur Cummins as *'Capt. Leon 
Starr of the U. S. A." 

Col. Cummins gave the Captain a searching look and said as 
if dreaming : 

"I declare Captain, you greatly resemble a very dear friend of 
mine whom I would be glad to meet." 

"C e, " said the Captain bowing. 

"C a," rejoined the Colonel, and instantly they were in each 

other's arms. The cabalistic words so often used by them in their 
school days at once accomplished much of the serious work in 
hand. It was a novel sight — two professional soldiers, arrayed 
in open hostility, stood clasped in each other's arms. Perhaps the 
broad annals of war have not recorded a similar scene. 

When the shock natural to such a meeting had somewhat sub- 
sided, Jim Warren made a full confession of his mission. He 
concealed nothing of importance to his cause. 

. 2J7 

Col. Cummins listened to his narrative with profound atten- 
tion; and after considering the matter to the fullest extent pos- 
sible, consented to do all he could to restore Nellie Warren to her 

While engaged in conversation during the evening, Capt. Starr 
asked : 

"Dear Colonel, did you hear anything unusual on the island 
last night?" "Only once; and that v^as the most terrible medley 
of sounds I ever heard. The whole regiment turned out to listen, 
and though we did not think it was made by the enemy, I sent two 
daring Irishmen to investigate the cause. They reported that 
the whole 'tear-up' was nothing but a 'darn fool nigger 
dancing a wild rigadoon around a great big tree like old Nick 
was after him, or he was after old Nick — we don't know which.' 
As some of the people believe that a negro can 'hoo-doo,' or put 
spells on white men, they concluded their report by saying, 'we 
watched him till we felt a spell coming on us, and scurried 
away.' " 

"That was the negro Joe celebrating the redemption of his 
young missus, who was then inside the tree," exclaimed Capt. 
Starr laughing heartily. 

It was dark when Capt. Starr again reached his little boat, 
armed with "permission to cross the river to take voluntary pos- 
session of a lady whom he had formerly wooed and won, ' ' and or- 
dered that "upon his return with the lady at any time during 
the following morning, both are to receive the aid and protec- 
tion of the officer detailed to receive them." 

Elated with hope, the bold Confederate pulled for the island, 
and after meeting with some difficulty while crossing the main 
current, reached the fallen tree safely. 

Miss Warren was so overcome by the joyful tidings brought 
her that Loyd King insisted on helping her, and without even 
asking permission to do so, took the astonished girl in his arms 
and tenderly carried her to the large sycamore where it was pro- 
posed she should sleep if she could, through the remainder of 



the night. Loyd afterwards said that "Though it was the first 
barrel of sugar he ever carried in his arms, he hoped it would 
not be the last one." 

Though silent and uneventful, the night's vigil was one of 
patient love. How true it is that "The fluttering of the love- 
angel's wing will make the most dreary spot of earth a seeming 
Paradise, and produce emotions which hearts can feel, but tongue 
can never tell!" 

At last the break of dawn, "at first faint gleaming in the dap- 
pled east," gave notice that the time for leaving was at hand. 
Miss Warren was ready and led by the steady hand of Loyd 
King, she was soon a passenger with Jim Warren, bound for the 
other bank. Tears fell thick and fast, a sad farewell was said, 
and the little boat moved away into the semi-darkness. 

A little before sunrise the anxious voyagers reached the desig- 
nated landing. An unknown officer and two other soldiers were 
there to meet them, and being conducted to headquarters th^y 
found a magnificent breakfast awaiting their arrival. 

About 9 o'clock A. M., Capt. Starr and his lady started for 
Bridgeport, the terminus of the railroad since the affair men- 
tioned at the beginning of this narrative. At 2 P. M. they board- 
ed a freight train which carried them to Huntsville, sometime in 
the night. 

To describe the abounding joy at the Warren home when the 
lost daughter returned is beyond the utmost reach of words. 
When Nellie whispered to her father that Capt. Starr was a 
full-blooded rebel in disguise, a large amount of gold was offered 
him for his services. Shaking his head with a firmness that 
could not be misunderstood, he said : 

"No, that is not my price. I may be able to tell you what it is 
in the morning." 

The morning came. Doubtless little sleep fell to the lot of the 
Warren family that night. A return train was scheduled for 
Bridgeport at 8 o'clock. The disguised rebel wanted to spend 
most of the intervening time with his redeemed Rebel Girl. She 


offered no objections. Within half an hour she had promised to 
become his bride when the "cruel war was over." He hastened 
to her parents, and after telling them in substance all that he and 
Nellie knew of each other, he concluded by saying: 

"Notwithstanding all this; our relationship is not close enough 
to prevent me from redeeming my promise of last night. Nellie 
has given me her heart, will you give me her hand if I live through 
the war, which I grant is a very uncertain thing?" 

"May God," answered the father, "bless and save you both. 
Then come and be our son." 

Mr. Warren could say no more, and when the bitter farewell 
was over, the strange captain passed silently through the gazing 
crowds that thronged his way. 

It was nearly sunset when Capt. Starr again stood in front of 
Col. Cummins' tent door. Sleeping little, they communed to- 
gether until morning when the captain, with a flag of truce, 
rowed, for the last time, to the island of his thrilling adventures. 

Leaving his precious craft where he found it, he hastened to 
the boat among the vines where he found Loyd King and Joe 
waiting for him. They at once reported to headquarters, and 
from thence passed on still deeper into the great conflict between 
the states. 

The negro Joe, at Nellie Warren's particular request, became 
the willing and devoted servant of both Jim Warren and Loyd 
King ; and in deference to her wishes, Tom Dimple was sent away 
as a prisoner of war. The following October the noble Capt. At- 
water was killed at Perryville, Ky. 

The strife became more furious as time passed on, and when at 
last the conflict was over, and the South was just entering into the 
throes of reconstruction. Col. James Warren, formerly private 
Jim Warren, accompanied by his sister, Mary Warren, Capt. 
Loyd King, Gen. Arthur Cummins of Massachusetts, and Dr. 
Palmer, late of New Orleans, appeared before Nellie Warren at 
her elegant home in western Tennessee, and the man of God made 
them one. By them stood Loyd King and Mary Warren. The two 


pairs exchanged places on the floor, and the brave little Georgian 
and the beautiful Mary, were made one, too, 

Joe King Warren, as the negro loved to call himself after en- 
tering the service of two masters, died about ten years ago. A 
costly monument, erected by the Warren family prominently 
marks his grave. 











OF 1861-65-67 AND 1877. 






Until the year 1870, the Ordinary had charge of the school 
funds of the county. 

An Act of the General Assembly, approved October 13, 1870, 
called for the election, by the Board of Education, of one of its 
members of said Board to be County School Commissioner. This 
Act was amended on the 19th of January, 1872, in several par- 
ticulars, but did not materially change the duties of the Com- 

The Act of 1911 changed the name "Commissioner" to "Super- 
intendent of Schools." And also made the office elective by the 
people instead of by the Board. 

The following gentlemen have served as Commissioners or 
Superintendents, viz: 

1871 to 1900, Gustavus James Nash Wilson. 

1900 to 1912, Richard Dudley Moore. 

1912 to , Luther Elrod. 

The following are the names of the members of the Board of 
Education from 1876 to 1914, inclusive : 

Robert White, J. G. McLester, J. L. Johnson, William Thur- 
mond, J. L. Williamson, F. M. Bailey, W. H. Bridges, G. W. 
Brown, J. A. B. Mahaffy, William Seymore, C. W. Appleby, J. 
C. Grow, W. F. Stark, R. S. McGarity, C. B. Irwin, T. H. Niblack, 
H. L. Brock, E. M. Thompson, S. W. Jackson, A. L. Venable, W. 
T. Howard, W. T. Thurmond, J. T. Chestnut, L. F. Sell, W. B. 
Hardman, H. M. Appleby, H. J. Cox, J. N. Holder, T. W. Webb, D. 
W. Garrison, J. C. Turner, J. F. Shannon, A. A. Camp, B. A. Hill, A. 
M. Flanigan, L. M. Arnold, W. R. Smith, W. H. Maley, J. N. 
Ross, J. A. Crook, R. W. Haynie, and L. C. Allen. 

Of the above members six have served as presidents of the 
Board, viz: Messrs. Robert White, J. G. McLester, J. A. B. Ma- 
haffy, J. N. Holder, W. B. Hardman and J. C. Turner. 


The present Board is composed of the following gentlemen: 
J. C. Turner, President; W. H. Maley, J. A. Crook, R. W. Hay- 
nie and L. C. Allen. 

The people of this county have always believed in education, 
and to-day, every district has a new and commodious school build- 
ing. Jefferson, Pendergrass, Commerce. Statham, Maysville all 
have good brick buildings that would do credit to much larger 
cities, while Winder, Talmo, Hoschton, Arcade, Nicholson and 
Center have buildings of wood. 


In Dawson's Compilation of the Laws of the State of Georgia, 
page 24, No. 56, is found this Act : 

"An Act to incorporate the Female Academy at Harmony 
Grove in Jackson County." 

*'Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of 
the State of Georgia, in General Assembly met, and it is hereby 
enacted by the authority of the same, That Russell Jones, William 
Putts (Potts), Samuel Barnett, Frederick Stewart and John Rhea 
be Trustees of said Academy, etc." This was the first school for 
girls that was established in the State. 


''In accordance with an Act of the General Assembly, entitled 
an Act appointing County Commissioners for Jackson County, 
Georgia, approved the 16th day of Feb., 1874." 

Their first meeting was held on March the 7th, 1874. 

The following gentlemen served on the Board : 

1874, Hartwell Jackson, Thomas L. Ross and L. Gilleland. 

1875 and 1876, William Seymore, W. J. Haynie and W. G. 

1877, J. H. Reinhardt, F. S. Segars and S. S. Smith. 

T. H. Niblack served as Clerk. 

This board was dissolved by Act of the Legislature approved 
Feb. 24, 1877. 

Again, in 1901, the General Assembly of Georgia approved an 
Act creating another Board of Roads and Revenues. This Act 
was amended in 1903, allowing the people to elect the members 
of the Board instead of being appointed as under the Act of 1901. 
Members of the Board follows : 

1902-3, W. P. DeLaperriere, Chairman; G. E. Deadwyler and 
A. R. Braselton. 

1904, F. L. Pendergrass, Chairman; A, R. Braselton and W. P. 

1905, F. L. Pendergrass, Chairman; W. B. Matthews and C. 
M. Porter. 

1906-7-8, F. L. Pendergrass, Chairman ; C. M. Porter and H. C. 

1909 to 1912, A. R. Braselton, Chairman ; D. R. Marlow and T. 
T. Stapler. 

1913, A. R. Braselton, Chairman; W. W. Hancock and L. D. 

By an Act approved in 1902, the office of Superintendent of 
Roads, better known as Civil Engineer, was created. 

Mr. T. Jack Bennett served in this capacity until 1912. 

Mr. George D. Appleby is the present Engineer. 


1796 to 1800, John Hart 

1801 to 1803, Chas. Dougherty 

1804 to 1805, Robt. Hyde 

1806 to 1807, J. M. C. Montgomery 

1808 to 1809, Wm. Potts 

1810 to 1812, Robt. Mitchell 

1813 to 1818, Wm. Potts 

1819 to 1820, J. Little 

1821 to 1821, Wm. Potts 

1822 to 1824, Joseph Hampton 
1825 to 1826, J. Little 

1827 to 1828, Jos. Hampton 
1829 to 1830, John Park 


1831 to 1832, John Randolph 

1833 to 1834, Barnabus Barron 

1835 to 1836, John Randolph 

1837 to 1838, G. F. Adams 

1839 to 1839, James Wood, Unexpired Term 

1840 to 1841, N. H. Pendergrass 
1842 to 1843, Jas. Wood 

1844 to 1845, Wm. S. Thompson 

1846 to 1847, Joshua H. Randolph 

1848 to 1849, Wm. Thompson 

1850 to 1851, J. H. Randolph 

1852 to 1853, Wm. Thompson 

1854 to 1855, J. H. Randolph 

1856 to 1857, John S. Hunter 

1858 to 1859, Alfred Smith 

1860 to 1861, A. M. Reynolds 

1862 to 1863, D. T. J. Chandler 

1864 to 1865, James E. Randolph 

1866 to 1867, Wm. C. Stevens 

1868 to 1870, J. D. Johnson 

1871 to 1872, Turner Wilhite, Died 

1872 to 1873, M. N. Duke, Unexpired Term 
1874 to 1878, John S. Hunter 

1879 to 1890, Thos. A. McElhannon 

1891 to 1896, Benj. H. Collier 

1897 to 1898, A. R. Braselton 

1899 to 1906, W. T. Stevens, Died 

1906 to 1906, J. J. Pettyjohn, Unexpired Term 

1907 to 1912, B. H. Collier 
1913 to , Samuel C. Potts 


1852 to 1857, H. Allen 
1858 to 1872, W. J. Park 

1873 to 1876, William Wallace 


1877 to 1878, S. Yearwood 

1879 to 1894, W. A. Worsham 

1895 to 1898, M. P. Wood 

1899 to 1906, L. J. Johnson 

1907 to 1912, J. F. Adams 

1913 to , J. A. Wood 


By an Act of the General Assembly of Georgia, approved in 
1851, amended in 1852 and again in 1853, the office of Ordinary 
was created. 

The following is a list of gentlemen that have served this 
county : 

1853 to 1859, John G. Pittman 

1860 to 1861, A. C. Thompson 

1862 to 1867, John Simpkins 

1868 to 1872, Thos. L. Ross 

1873 to 1876, Wily C. Howard 

1877 to 1896, Horatio W. Bell 

1897 to 1900, L. Y. Bradbury 

1901 to 1908, John N. Ross 

1909 to , James A. Wills 


1883 to 1886, S. E. Bailey 

1887 to 1890, J. W. Cleghorn 

1891 to 1892, John A. Suddeth 

1893 to 1894, J. F. Coleman 

1895 to 1896, Samuel Coleman 

1897 to 1898, R. M. Patrick 

1899 to 1900, H. M. Appleby 

1907 to 1912, Frank Collier 

1913 to , James W. Stockton 



1796 to 1797, D. W. Easley 
1798 to 1800, Jas. Easley 
1801 to 1802, W. Pentecost 
1803 to 1816, Edward Adams 
1817 to 1818, Edward Harris 
1819 to 1822. Joseph Depriest 
1823 to 1832, Edward Adams 
1833 to 1837, Sylvanus Ripley 
1838 to 1839, William Cowan 
1840 to 1847, J. J. McCulloch 
1848 to 1865, Pitsfield F. Hinton 
1866 to 1866, H. J. Simmons 
This court was abolished in 1866. 


1851 to 1852, J. B. Lowry 
1853 to 1854, Thos. Stapler 
1855 to 1860, John Simpkins 
1862 to 1863, W. A. Worsham 
1864 to 1865, J. M. Venable 
1866 to 1867, E. M. Durham 
1868 to 1870, D. R. R. Perkins 
1871 to 1874, J. P. Thompson 
1875 to 1878, Geo. W. Brown 
1879 to 1880, W. C. Appleby 
1881 to 1882, J. W. N. Lanier 
1883 to 1890, W. P. Boggs 
1891 to 1892, A. G. Lamar 
1893 to 1894, W. P. Boggs 
1895 to 1898, R. J. Fleeman 
1899 to 1904, G. M. D. Moon 
1905 to 1912, N. B. Lord 
1913 to , Obie Hawks 


1864 to 1867, Joseph Elslery 
1868 to 1872, Jas. Rogers 
1873 to 1876, L. J. Johnson 

1907 to 1910, Geo. W. Baily 
1911 to , Geo. E. Smith 


1853 to 1854, B. F. Park 
1855 to 1859, Ephraim Jackson 
1860 to 1861, N. B. Cash 
1862 to 1865, E. Jackson 
1866 to 1870, A. J. Weir 
1871 to 1880, J. L. Johnson 
1881 to 1882, N. N. Pendergrass 
1883 to 1884, W. T. Bennett 
1885 to 1892, A. C. Appleby 
1893 to 1894, C. 0. Pittman 
1895 to 1898, J. H. Hardy 
1899 to 1904, C. 0. Pittman 
1905 to 1906, C. A. Mize 
1907 to 1912, C. 0. Pittman 
1913 , No one 


1840 to 1854, E. Hewit 
1855 to 1856, A. C. Thompson 
1857 to 1858, T. L. Brown, Died 
1859, H. C. Appleby 

1860 to 1861, V. Cronic 
1862 to 1863, W. A. Worsham 
1864 to 1865, C. C. Thompson 
1866 to 1870, Wm. Thurmond 

1871 to 1872, Chas. Fleeman, Died 

1873 to 1874, C. S. Hill 

1875 to 1880, Jas. L. Williamson 

1881 to 1882, J. M. Sailors 

1883 to 1885, T. L. Brown, Died 

1885 to 1886, H. C. Barnett, Unexpired Term 

1887 to 1890, J. D. Williamson 

1891 to 1892, J. F. Marlow 

1893 to 1894, J. R. Roberts 

1895 to 1898, W. F. Head 

1899 to 1906, A. H. Brock 

1907 to , W. T. Appleby 


1796 to 1806, George Taylor 

1807 to 1831, Edward Adams 

1832 to 1837, Sylvanus Ripley 

1838 to 1839, William Cowan 

1840 to 1847, J. J. McCulloch 

1848 to 1865, P. F. Hinton 

1866 to 1866, H. Atkins, Appointed 

1866 to 1866, H. J. Simmons, Elected 

1866 to 1868, J. F. Harrison, Deputy 

1868 to 1869, H. Atkins 

1869 to 1870, Jno. Simpkins 
1871 to 1880, T. H. Niblack 
1881 to 1884, J. L. Williamson 
1885 to 1889, W. T. Bennett, Died 

1889 to 1890, J. C. Bennett, Unexpired Term 

1891 to 1892, T. H. Niblack 

1893 to 1896, J. C. Bennett 

1897 to 1898, C. C. Chandler 

1899 to 1906, A. C. Appleby 

1907 to 1912, S. J. Nix 

1913 to , N. B. Lord 

Most of the above-named clerks served as treasurers, also. 
Since 1864, our county has had only five treasurers apart from the 
Clerk's office. 

Notice the list of Treasurers, and there will appear a gap from 
1875 to 1907. 

Note: The custom followed by the officers in the early settlement and 
even up to the Civil War, was to assume the duties of their offices at 
most any time in the year that suited their convenience. This makes it 
a difficult matter to place the exact length of service, and we have, there- 
fore, given each his one, two or four years as the case demands, as though 
he began on the first of the year as is the custom now. 

In former years some would begin the terms any time from January to 


Jefferson District, 245— H. C. Doster, J. P.; W. W. Dickson, N. 

P., with J. J. Pettyjohn and A. J. Watson, Constables. 
Clarksboro, 242— E. D. Welchel, J. P. ; C. F. Holliday, N. P., with 

J. F. Hale and R. W. Holliday, Constables. 
Newtown, 253— J. 0. Stapler, J. P.; J. W. Ingram, N. P., with 

D. J. Nunn and C. E. Fleeman, Constables. 

Center, 1704— S. A. Pittman, J. P.; J. P. Johnson, N. P., with 

J. H. Farmer and J. J. Pace, Constables. 
Harrisburg, 257— H. T. Jennings, J. P. ; W. P. Boggs, N. P., with 

G. R. Griffeth and B. C. McRee, Constables. 
Minish, 255— J. W. Sailors, J. P. ; T. A. Little, N. P., with S. E. 

Baily and A. Jep Smith, Constables. 
Wilson, 465— W. N. LeMaster, J. P.; D. A. Crisler, N. P., with 

E. B. Seay and Jack Hopkins, Constables. 

Miller, 455— R. R. Wilson, J. P. ; J. A. Crook, N. P., with W. M. 

Tolbert and S. W. Lord, Constables. 
Talmo, 1691— J. W. Walker, J. P.; L. R. Pettyjohn, N. P., with 

J. H. A. Simmons and D. G. Stover, Constables. 
Cunningham, 428— E. Duke, J. P.; W. B. Patrick, N. P., with 

W. W. Brooks and J. T. Bailey, Constables. 

Randolph, 248— H. M. Duke, J. P.; A. J. Morgan, N. P., with 
Charley Bryant and J. W. Simmons, Constables. 

Hoschton, 1407— J. H. C. Randolph, J. P.; W. M. Smith, N. P., 
with J. L. Stover and J. M. Deaton, Constables. 

House, 243— A. I. Lyle, J. P. ; R. 0. Ross, N. P., with W. A. Wat- 
son and E. Hewit, Constables. 

Chandler, 246— J. M. Haynie, J. P. ; Muller McElroy, N. P., with 
C. E. McDanold and G. L. Williamson, Constables. 

Sante Fe, 1042— L. D. Nickelson, J. P. ; J. J. Bolton, N. P., with 
J, I. Wages and W. N. Haynie, Constables. 




"State of Georgia ) 
Jackson County j 

At a court began and held in and for the County aforesaid the 
first day of August 1796. Present 

Joseph Humphries \ 

Absalom Ramsey / Esquires 

Roderick Easley \ 

Montfort Stokes I Judges 

James Pitman / 

On motion of Theo P. Carnes, Atty. for Wm. Brown, stating 
that an action was depending in the Inferior Court of Franklin 
County, Wm. Brown vs. John Barnett which cause was ordered 
by said Court to be removed to this as the defendent resided in 
this County 

Ordered, that the Clerk inter the same on the docquet and 
stand for trial next term 

Then proceeded to nominate Constables when David Shay 
Samuel Bridgewater and Johnson Clark was appointed and quali- 
fied also John Kinnerly who is to be qualified hereafter 

Ordered, that a road be cut from this place the nearest & best 
way to the Cherokee Corner, and that Samuel Knox John Heart 
& Daniel W. Easley be commissioners of the same 

And that a road be cut from this place Meeting a road from 
Franklin Court House, Jas East Wm. Carter & Obiant Mooney 
Commissioners of the same 

Signed Jas Humphries Roderick Easley Absalom Ramsey Jas. 
Pittman Wm. Stokes 

The Court adjourned until court in course. 

D. W. Easley, Clk. 

The following jurors were drawn for the January term of 
court, 1797, viz: 

1 John Bradshaw, 2 John Parks, 3 Chesly Morris, 4 Jas. Scott, 
5 Jno. Cunningham, 6 Isaac Hill, 7 Wm. Gentry, 8 Ben Virmil- 
lion, 9 Jordan Anderson, 10 Sam Kilough, 11 Jno. Miller, 12 
Walter Bell, 13 Nathaniel Midlock, 14 Jas. Harper, 15 Wm. Duke, 
16 Jas. Armstrong, 17 Jno. Party, 18 Jno. Reynolds, 19 Asa 
Hamilton, 20 Henry Ledbetter, 21 Wm. Sparks, 22 Matt Moon, 
23 Geo. Kinerly, 24 Randolph Traylor, 25 Jesse Sparks, 26 Jno. 
Wilson, 27 Matt Waters, 28 Mial Barnett, 29 David Luke, 30 Jacob 
Howen, 31 Geo. McPharse, 32 Isaac Middlebrooks, 33 Daniel 
Matthews, 34 Wm. Cauthorn, 35 Henry Trent, 36 Miles Gathright, 
37 Sam Knox, 38 Cain Gentry, 39 Ales Kilgoor, 40 David Kil- 
ough, 41 John Shield, 42 Leon Best, 43 Thos. Kinily, 44 Thos. 
Nelson, 45 Daniel Williams, 46 William Ramsey. 

The first case tried in the county was the case of William 
Brown against John Barnett, and was decided by the following 
jurors, viz: 

1 Jno. Bradshaw, 2 Jno. Parks, 3 Chesly Morris, 4 Jno. Cun- 
ningham, 5 Isaac Hill, 6 Ben Vermillion, 7 Sam Kilough, 8 Jno. 
Miller, 9 Walter Bell, 10 Jas. Harper, 11 (Name does not appear 
on record,) 12 Wm. Duke. 

The verdict was: "We the jurors find for the defendant a non 
suit, with cost of suit." 

Jas. Harper, F. M. 

Case appealed. 

August Term 1797. 

On Thursday 3d the following "Orders" were passed: 
"Ordered that Tavern license & License for to keep a Ferry- 
across the Oconee river at Fort Mathews be granted to Mathew 


"Ordered, That, Tavern License be granted to Cain Jentry 

"Ordered, that the following Rates be Lawful for any Tavern 
keeper, or retailers of Spiritous Liquors to sell by and shall not 
extort a larger sum for any single article than what is here 

for Breakfast of good holesome diet $0.25 

first table "Dinner " do Warm 371/2 

Second table " Dinner " do Cold 25 

" Supper " do 25 

" Lodging " 10 

" half pint of Jamaica or Wisterior Rum. . .25 

" half pint North East Rum 183^ 

" half pint Brandy 183^ 

" half pint Whiskey 121/0 

" horse feed 4 cents for each quart of Corn or 
bundle fother 

feeding & Stableing a horse twenty four hours 
with a plenty of Corn and fother 371/2 

Jackson County's first Justices of the peace were appointed on 
the 4th day of August, 1797, as follows : 
Capt. Morrison's district, Joseph East and Alexander Morrison. 

* ' Kilough 's " John Easley 

" Kirkpatrick's " Joseph MeCutchen and Thomas Kirk- 

" Strong's " Micajah Benge. 

Constables for these districts, having been appointed on the 
day previous, were Elijah Gentry, Ben Parr, James Henderson 
and Ben Rodgers. 


At the April term 1797 this order was passed, viz : 
"Ordered that the Clerk advertise the building of the [first] 
Jail to be let to the lowest bidder on the first Saturday in May 
next at Clarksboro. the plan of said house is as follows, twenty 
two feet square on the out side two stories high a shingle roof 
the first story to begin two feet in the ground built with a double 
wall of timbers at least ten inches square & filled with small round 
poles end ways so as to make the walls three feet thick to be 
eight feet clear in the pitch of the floor to begin even with the 
surface of the earth laid with hewn timbers a foot thick close 
together then with two Inch oak plank nailed down with spikes 
within six inches of each other and second floor in the same manner 
and a trap door in the middle three feet square well Ironed the 
second story to be ten feet pitch in the clear & only the out wall 
carried up the upper floor of squared timbers six inches thick a 
door to the upper story well Ironed & 4 eight light glass windows, 
well grated the lower story to have two windows, eight inches 

square grated inside and out 

With a few changes in the plans, the jail was erected in the 
following summer. 

At the June Term of the Inferior Court in 1800, this "Order" 
was passed: "Ordered, that Gabriel Hubbard, Jacob Bankston, 
James Stringer, Robt. McGowen, Richard Easley, Wm. Loyd and 
Richard Thurmond be commissioners to lay out a road leading 
from the High Shoals of the Appalatchee to Jackson court house 
so as to cross the bridge across the Middle river where the county 
may appoint. 

"George Wilson, Absalom Ramsey and Jas. Pittman, Judges." 

A page from the Inferior Court records. An exact reproduc- 

Thursday the 7th feb 1805 
Court met according to adjournment 
Present their honors 

C James Pittman a 

■s James Hendrix y Esquires 

i. Eth'd Wood 3 

Ordered that the following rates be lawful for taverns for the 
present year viz 

Breakfast of good holsom Diet $0.18% 

Dinner " do 25 

Supper " do 183^ 

Lodging night 061/4 

Jamaica or West Indian or holland Gin i^ pt. . . .18% 

Brandy & Whisky do ... .I2V2 

Horse well fed with Corn and fodder 12^/2 

Feeding and stabling horse well with corn & fodder for 

twenty four hours 371^ 

For one night 25 


1796-7-8, Joseph Humphries, Absalom Ramsey, Roderick Easley 
and Mont Stokes. 

1799, Jas. Pittman, Buckner Harris, George Wilson, Absalom 

Ramiey and John Hampton. 

1800, B. Harris, Jas. Pittman, Micajah Williamson, and George 


1801, B. Harris, George Wilson, M. Benge, Absalom Ramsey, Jas. 

Pittman and B. Haynie. 

1802-3, B. Harris, Jas. Pittman, Wm. Foster, Jas. Hendrix and 
David Dickson. 

1804, B. Harris, Jas. Pittman, Wm. Foster, Jas. Hendrix, D. Dick- 
son and E. Wood. 

1805-6-7-8, B. Harris, Jas. Pittman and George Cowan. 

1809, B. Harris, Jas. Pittman, Jas. Hendrix, E. Wood and David 


1810, Peter Boyle, D. Witt, Jas. Hendrix and Etheldred Wood. 

1811, Hugh Montgomery, P. Poole, D. Witt, Jas. Hendrix and Jas. 

1812-13-14, D. Witt, Chas. Venable, Hosea Camp, Joseph Davis 
and Sam Henderson. 


1815, Jos. Davis, Hosea Camp, Hezekiah Gates, D. Witt, G. N. 

Lyle and D. H. McCleskey. 

1816, Elisha Winn, Hugh Montgomery and D. Witt. 

1817, D. H. McCleskey, D. Witt and Hugh Montgomery. 

1818, David Boring, D. Witt, Hugh Montgomery and John 


1819, William D. Martin, D. Boring, D. Witt, Jno. Borders, Levi 

Lowry and Jos. Hampton. 

1820, Jos. Hampton, Levi Lowry, D. Witt, Thomas Hyde and 

Jas. Lyddell. 

1821, Thos. Hyde, Levi Lowry, Jos. Hampton, W. D. Martin and 

Jas. Lyddell. 

1822, Thos. Hyde, J. J. Singleton, D. Witt, G. W. Moore, Samuel 

Barnett and Benj. Freeman. 

1823, Hugh Montgomery, W. D. Martin, Sam Barnett and Geo, 


1824, Geo. Shaw, Sam Barnett, Thos. Hyde, Hugh Montgomery 

and W. D. Martin. 

1825, W. D. Martin, Hugh Montgomery, Geo. Shaw, Sam Barnett, 

Tandy Key and D. Witt. 

1826, W. D, Martin, Tandy Key, Geo. Shaw and Sam Barnett. 

1827, W. D. Martin, David Witt, Tandy Key and Geo. Shaw. 

1828, D. Witt, Sam Barnett, Tandy Key and Sylvanus Ripley. 

1829, Robt. Smithwick, J. W. Glenn, S. Ripley, Robt. Venable, 

Jas. Montgomery and Tandy Key. 

1830, J. W. Glenn, S. Ripley, Robt. Smithwick, Robt. Venable and 

Arthur Camp. 

1831, S. Ripley, R. Venable and R. Smithwick. 

1832, D. Witt, Jos. Hampton and J. W. Glenn. 

1833, N. C. Jarrett, Richard Pentecost, Augustus Brown and Ed- 

ward Adams. 

1834, Joseph L. Anderson, E. Adams, N. C. Jarrett and Robert 


1835, N. C. Jarrett, John G. Pittman, Robt. Moon, and Tillman 


1836, E. L. Newton, N. C. Jarrett, J. G. Pittman and D. H. Me 


1837, K. Pentecost, N. C. Jarrett, J. G. Pittman, Robt. Moon, J. P. 

Hutchens and Tillman Harrison. 

1838, John Mills, N. C. Jarrett and David M. Burns. 

1839, W. J. Hill, N. C. Jarrett, Tillman Harrison and D. M. Burns. 
1840-41, N. C. Jarrett, Robt. Moon and Tillman Harrison. 
1842-43, N. C. Jarrett, Tillman Harrison and Middleton Witt. 

1844, Charley Price, N. C. Jarrett and Tillman Harrison. 

1845, N. C. Jarrett, E. H. Moomaugh and Chas. Price. 
1846-47, Charles Witt and E. H. Moomaugh. 

1848, Robt. Espy, E. H. Moomaugh and Chas. Witt. 

1849-50, Robt. White, Madison Strickland, Chas. Witt and M. 

1851, Chas. Witt, R. J. Park and M. Witt. 
1852-53, M. Witt, Madison Strickland and Chas. Witt. 
1854-55, A. B. Pittman, D. L. Jarrett, R. J. Park and J. H. 

1856-57, J. H. Vandiver, A. B. Pittman, D. L. Jarrett and W. P. 


1858, D. L. Jarrett, A. B. Pittman and W. P. Miller. 

1859, W. P. Miller, A. B. Pittman and H. C. Giddens. 

1860, H. C. Giddens, A. B. Pittman, W. P. Miller, D. L. Jarrett 

and J. W. Hardy. 

1861, H. C. Giddens, J. W. Hardy, Henry Hosch, Jas. Linsey and 

W. A. Worsham. 

1862, J. W. Hardy, William GriflPeth and H. C. Giddens. 

1863, A. C. Shockley, Wm. Griffeth, J. R. Hancock and James T. 

1864,65, Jas. Lindsey, A. C. Shockley, J. R. Hancock, Wm. Griffeth 

and J. W. Hardy. 
1866, A. T. Bennett, J. R. Hancock, G. E. Deadwyler and Jasper 

N. Wood.* 
This court took the place, somewhat, of the Court of Ordinary 
at the present time, if the duties of Commissioners of Roads and 
Revenues were combined with his work. The Inferior Court also 

*Judge Jasper N. Wood died on Jan. 20, 1914, being the last to answer 
the call of the Great Judge. 


had jurisdiction over civil cases up to $500 and some criminal 

The court was abolished in 1866. 


This court was organized in June, 1866 with Hon. W. L. Marler, 
Judge, and Hon. W. I. Pike, Solicitor. 

The court had its monthly, quarterly, semi-annual and annual 
sessions. From the record, it would seem that certain cases of a 
particular nature was tried at certain of these different "sit- 

This court was abolished in November 1867. 


This court was organized in October 1875. Hon. M, M. Pittman 
was the Judge. This court, unlike the court of '66 and '67, which 
used the sheriff, had its own recognized bailiffs. 

The court was abolished in 1877. 


And, yet, another court was organized in the '80 's but was de- 
clared unconstitutional and therefore it was abolished. 

These courts were thought to be too expensive, considering the 
small scope of their powers. Much of the business transacted by 
them could be carried on by the Justice courts. 

But later the people felt the need of a court that could be car- 
ried on at less expense than the Superior Court and therefore 
the City Court of Jefferson came into existence. 

It has jurisdiction over all "misdemeanor" cases and nearly all 
civil cases, except "land cases," divorce suits and some others. 


This court was organized in September 1892. 
1892 to 1911, W. W. Stark 
1911 to , G. A. Johns 


1892 to 1897, R. B. Russell, of the Superior Court 
1897 to 1900, C. H. Brand, of the Superior Court 
1900 to 1907, R. L. J. Smith 
1907 to 1911, W. H. Quarterman 
1911 to , Pemberton Cooly 


1892 to 1911, James L. Williamson, Died 
1911 to , E. L. Williamson 


"An Act to regulate the return and assessment of property for 
taxation in this State." 

Section 2, "Be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid, 
That there shall be and is hereby established in each of the 
several counties of the State a Board of Tax Assessors. Said 
County Board shall consist of three members to be appointed by 
the Board of County Commissioners, or a majority thereof or by 
the ordinary in which have no Board of County Commissioners, 
etc." Approved August 14, 1913. 

The first Board of Tax Assessors appointed under the above 
Act were : Judge John N. Ross, Hon. R. D. Moore and Hon. John 
B. Hardman. 

Their terms of office began January 1st, 1914. 

Game Warden, 1914, John R. Duke. 


As soon as the returns of the election, on November the 7th, 
1860, was known and every one was satisfied that Abraham 
Lincoln would be the next President of the United States of 
America, the South "sat up and took notice." 

The people seemed to think that the time had come for a 
separation from the Union. And accordingly a convention was 
called to decide whether Georgia would leave the Union or 
remain as she was. 

The Convention met in Milledgeville, the Capital then, and on 
Jan. 19th, 1861, passed the following ''Ordinance:" "We the 
people of the State of Georgia, in convention assembled, do de- 
clare and ordain, and it is hereby declared and ordained, That the 
ordinance adopted by the people of the State of Georgia in con- 
vention, on the second day of January 1788, whereby the Con- 
stitution of the United States of America was assented to, rati- 
fied and adopted; and also all acts and parts of acts of the Gen- 
eral Assembly of this State ratifying and adopting amendments 
of the said constitution, are hereby repealed, rescinded and 

"We do further declare and ordain. That the Union now sub- 
sisting between the State of Georgia and other states, under the 
name of the 'United States of America,' is hereby dissolved, and 
that the State of Georgia is in the full possession and the exercise 
of all those rights of sovereignty which belong and appertain to a 
free and independent state." 

Our delegates, Hons. J. J. McCulloch, J. G. Pittman and D. R. 
Lyle, voted for the above ordinance, thus placing Jackson County 
on the list as in favor of Secession. We notice our sister county's 
(Banks) delegates voted one for and one against the ordinance. 
Hon. S. W. Pruit favored the withdrawal but Hon. W. R. Bell 
opposed it. Hall County's three delegates, Hons. E. M. Johnson, 
P. M. Byrd and Davis Whelchel, voted solidly against the 
measure. Gwinnett's delegates, Hons. R. D. Winn, J. P. Simmons 
and T. P. Hudson did likewise, while Hons. T. R. R. Cobb, Asbury 
Hull and Jefferson Jennings of Clarke, favored the ordinance. 


Hons. J. S. Gholston and A. C. Daniel of Madison County, did 
the same. Walton County sent Hons. George Spence and H, D. 
McDaniel who voted in favor of the measure, but Hon, Willis 
Kilgore was against the ordinance. 


While many of our best citizens thought it best not to "fight" 
the stars and stripes, doing all in their power to avert a collision 
with the powers at Washington, they soon saw that there was 
no remedy save that of the bayonet. When the call came, the 
manhood of this county offered itself a living sacrifice, for what 
they thought was right. 

The "conscript" officer had little or no work to do in our 
midst. Every one was ready to volunteer for service, in defense 
of the southland. 

No section of the state, or better say of the world, if you please, 
had a more noble and courageous band of men than those who 
enlisted from Jackson County. 

To secure this list of 1,350 names, we have searched the records 
of our court-house, the Roster Commission office in Atlanta, the 
records in Washington City and last, but by no means least, have 
conferred with quite a number of the old veterans, who have been 
exceedingly kind and helpful in this work. 

The companies have been placed, each to itself, where enough 
names could be found to make a creditable showing. In several 
of the last companies that went out and where the enlistment took 
place outside the county, the "muster rolls" could not be found, 
therefore, it was thought best to group them together as has 
been done. 


Mintz or Story's Company. 
Company G, 43rd Volunteer Infantry, 

Adair, A. H. 
Addington, J. L. 
Addington, J. F. 
Anthony, D. M. 
Anthony, T. G. 
Barrett, Ebenezer 
Barnett, J. B. D. 
Barr, W. J. 
Baugh, Barney 
Baugh, W. F. 
Bennett, J. M. 
Benton, S. G. 
Bradberry, M. F. 
Brown, G. W. 
Bryant, J. J. 
Butler, E. M. 

Butler, H. J. 

Butler, J. R. 

Butler, M. R. 

Butler, M. L. 

Butler, W. L. 

Butler, W. P. 

Carr, Thos. J. 

Carr, B. M. 

Carr, B. F. 

Cantrell, N. W. 

Carlisle, P. H. 

Carson, B. F. 

Carson, R. H. 

Carson, T. L. 

Carter, T. H. 

Carter, Jesse 

Carter, Joseph 

Carter, Jas. 

Cash, John 
Catlett, B. L. 
Catlett, E. P. 
Clark, C. M. 
Coker, A. F. 
Coker, J. W. 
Coker, W. R. 
Coker, Wily R. 
Collins, Josiah 
Cox, R. F. 
Culpepper, A, M. 
Culpepper, C. C. 
Culpepper, W. H. 
David, J. M. 
Davis, H. L. 
Dunston, G. W. 
Dunston, Russ 
Espey, C. J. 
Espey, Calvin 
Ellison, W. A. 
Freeman, J. H. 
Garrison, P. D. 
Gilbert, T. S. 
Greenway, G. A. 
Greenway, Govan 
Greenway, T. G. 
Gober, T. H. 
Gunter, T. W. 
Gunter, W. C. 
Garner, W. S. 
Henderson, T. J. 
Henderson, A. J. 
Henderson, H. B, 
Henderson, H. J. 


Hailes, W. C. 
Hancock, W. Me. 
Hard, R. J. 
Hardy, R. J. 
Hartley, J. W. 
Hartley, John W. 
Herndon, A. J. 
Herndon, Hiram 
Herndon, M. J. 
Hill, C. P. 
Hill, G. L. 
Holliway, John 
Hudson, T. P. 
Ivy, Wm. B. 
Jarrett, W. N. 
Jarrett, N. W. 
Kidd, H. F. 
Lackey, J. M. 
Lay, E. J. 
Lipscomb, R. Gr. 
Loggins, S. T. 
Mintz, M. M. 
Minish, P. H. 
Minish, F. H. 
Minish, J. W. 
Martin, G. L. 
Marlow, J. F. 
Marlow, Sam 
Marlow, R. B. 
Marlow, Wilson 
Matkeif, Oliver 
Madkiff, J. 0. 
Nunn, T. A. 
Newman, W. P. 
Patrick, Miles 
Patrick, Joe 
Parks, J. M. 

Pettyjohn, W. J. 
Ragsdale, W. S. 
Ricks, John 
Roberts, S. J. 
Roberson, Wm. 
Randolph, H. J. 
Story, J. M. 
Sanders, Jerry 
Sanders, M. 
Stark, W. F. 
Scott, J. W. 
Shankle, T. S. 
Skates, J. A. 
Sisson, J. J. 
Smith, Bird 
Smith, J. H. 
Smith, J. M. 
Smith, Joe M. 
Smith, M. F. 
Stapler, J. W. 
Stapler, J. M. 
Thornton, J. J. 
Thornton, J. D. 
Thompson, Joe 
Thompson, A. F. 
Thompson, W. R. 
Wadkins, J. C. 
Wadkins, W. C. 
Webb, C. R. 
White, A. J. 
Wallace, B. D. 
Wallace, Wesley 
Word, A. H. 
Webb, H. P. 
Webb, J. C. 
Webb, T. A. 
White, C. C. 


White, G. W. 
White, H. S. 
White, J. T. 
White, K. F. 
White, W. J. 
White, Robt. 
Whitmire, J. H. 
Whitmire, W. A. 
Wilbanks, S. D. 
Wilson, J. M. 

Wilson, Moren 
Wilson, Sauford 
Wilson, Thomas 
Wilson, Upson 
Wood, Asberry 
Wood, M. P. 
Yarbrough, E. P. 
Yarbrough, Joel 
Yarbrough, Joseph 
Yarbrough, Wiley 

Reynold's Company. 

Company B., 16th Georgia Volunteer Infantry. 

Allison, Mark 
Allison, Henry 
Arthur, John 
Arthur, Jos. 
Archer, Bill 
Archer, Bob 
Adams, Thomas 
Adams, Lude 
Bone, Jos. 
Bowls, Dutch 
Burson, Green 
Bates, Wm. N. 
Baird, Jas. 
Boyd, Wm. 
Bradley, Marion 
Bradley, Jas. 
Bradley, Thos. 
Bean, William 
Betts, Parks 
Betts, Redmond 
Butler, Tip 
Butler, Nathan 

Cox, H. J. 
Cone, Seaborn 
Cronic, Warren 
Cosby, Jas. 
Cosby, Wm. 
Clark, Moses J. 
Copeland, Eli 
Cook, Samuel 
Cook, Wm. 
David, Thomas 
David, H. J. 
Delay, George 
Dalton, John 
Dalton, Wm. 
Deveral, John 
Dunson, L. D. 
Davis, Charles 
Doster, W. E. 
Edwards, M. E. 
Eads, Aaron 
Elsberry, Benj. 
Ferguson, John 


Ferguson, Jas. 
Flannigan, Wm. 
Flannigan, Tip 
Garner, Eli 
Guthrie, Horace 
Harvil, T. R. 
Harvil, Sanford 
Harvil, George 
Hosch, Henry 
Hardigree, D, I. 
Hardigree, G. F. 
Hayes, John 
Hoopaugh, Allen 
House, J. H. 
House, Henry 
House, Jackson 
Hill, W. E. 
Hughey, D. A. 
Justice, Allen 
Johnson, Joel 
Jackson, W. W. 
Jackson, Stonewall 
Kurcus, Watt 
Kidd, Thomas 
King, Pid 
Kirbo, Dock 
Linn, Jack 
Lyle, A. J. 
Lyle, Cisero 
Lyle, Leslie 
Moon, Alfred 
McDanold, Geo. 
McDanold, Richard 
McDanold, Jack 
Moon, Robert 
Milton, James 
McDaniel, Daniel 

Morris, William 
Morris, H. C. 
Morris, Walton 
Morris, Thomas 
Morris, Dilmus 
Mitchell, Raymond 
Manus, George 
McElhannon, Wm. 
Murphy, Terrell 
Murphy, Elijah 
McMillan, Wm. 
North, J. R. 
Park, A. 
Poole, James 
Pentecost, Poke 
Pentecost, Daniel 
Reynolds, A. M. 
Reynolds, J. M. 
Reynolds, John 
Randolph, R. J. 
Roberts, John 
Robertson, Wm. 
Slaton, W. H. 
Slaton, Wm. 
Sikes, David 
Smith, Job 
Smith, Sanford 
Smith, Joseph 
Seymore. William 
Strange, John 
Stevens, Nelson 
Stevens, John 


Spence, Jas. 
Spence, William 
Sprewell, J. W. 
Stewart, Wash 

Statham, John 
Tate, William 
Thompson, Wm. 
Venable, J. M. 
Vandiford, Richard 
Wright, W. J. 
Wallis, J. J. 
Wallis, Madison 

Wood, James 
Wood, John 
Wills, Abner 
White, Robert 
Watts, Morgan 
Wheeler, Thomas 
Williams, Jasper 
Wall, Arthur 

Howard's Company. 
Company H., 43rd Volunteer Infantry. 

Anglin, H. H. 
Anthony, M. A. 
Benton, A. N. 
Berry, T. A. 
Benton, J. G. 
Benton, J. R. 
Benton, S. G. 
Barr, Canada 
Blackburn, P. D. 
Bolden, W. B. 
Bolden, L. J. 
Bolton, W. J. 

Booth, W. M. 

Boyce, G. W. 

Boyce, Joseph 

Bradberry, Jacob 

Bray, W. H. 

Brown, W. A, 

Chaplain, E. H. 

Carithers, Richard 

Coffer, A. R. 

Chambers, John 

Clotfelter, D. A. 

Coleman, L. L. 

Cook, C. N. 
Cook, G. N. 
Cook, J. W. 
Cook, Newton 
Cunningham, J. S. 
Dameron, C. W. 
Dameron, Loyd 
Dameron, L. C. 
Davenport, J. S. 
Davidson, W. P. 
Davis, G. W. 
Day, J. E. 
Delay, J. M. 
Delay, R. V. 
Durran, Sylvanus 
Densmore, Adam 
Doster, Henry 
Doster, E. W. 
Dovale, Corille 
Duke, G. R. 
Duke, G. S. 
Finch, Hiram 
Fowler, Kelley 
Fowler, R. C. 


Giddens, John 
Garrett, A. F. 
Giles, Dock 
Gohlston, W. D. 
Howard, H. R. 
Howard, H. H. 
Horton, J. M. 
Heard, J. A. 
Hardy, J. W. 
Hammond, Benj. 
Hammond, J. A. 
Hardy, Samuel 
Harris, Lewis 
Highfill, B. F. 
Hill, George 
Hill, Jesse 
Highfiell, T. N. 
Hood, T. J. 
Hooppan, A. F. 
Hoopaugh, F. M. 
Irwin, Andrew 
Irwin, E. D. 
Irwin, W. H. 
Jordan, C. T. 
Jordan, William 
Kenney, David 
Lavender, W. G. 
Lavender, R. R. 
Lessieur, J. A. 
McCann, R. C. 
McDaniel, W. C. 
McEver, W. T. 
McKeon, C. W. 
McKeon, J. E. 
Matthews, J. C. 
Matthews, W. J. 
Matthews, W. P. 

Maddox, C. C. 
Marler, D. M. 
Marler, J. E. 
Martin, M. H, 
Maxey, David 
Mays, W. J. 
Maddox, R. C. 
Mobley, E. D. 
Mobley, J. D. 
Moon, W. E. 
Morris, J. M. 
Morris, Leroy 
Murray, J. M. 
Nabors, J. C. 
Nixon, G. M. 
Nixon, T. C. 
Owen, J. C. 
Phillips, Abner 
Phillips, E. H. 
Phillips, W. W. 
Pollard, George 
Ranson, C. 
Reynolds, Aplin 
Reynolds, F. M. 
Sells, James 
Smith, J. M. 
Sorrow, J. C. 
Sorrow, Nicholas 
Sorrow, W. T. 
Streetman, W. T. 
Stewart, C. B. 
Stewart, W. A. 
Statham, W. R. H. 
Stanley, G. W. 
Trout, G. P. 
Trout, W. C. 
Venable, J. A. 


Wadkins, John 
Walls, J. W. 
Walls, W. J. 
Ward, J. C. 
Waters, Hiram 
Watson, J. S. 

Watson, J. T. 
Watson, Josiah 
Williams, M. M. 
Williamson, G. W. 
Wood, R. D. 

Bennett's Company. 
Company E., 34th Georgia Volunteer Infantry. 

Adair, J. 0. 
Anthony, S. W. 
Anderson, R. B. 
Adams, Jesse 
Adams, J. F. 
Bennett, A. T. 
Brock, W. T. M. 
Bolton, E. F. 
Bray, D. A. 
Bailey, S. T. 
Brock, S. M. D. 
Brooks, J, A. 
Carithers, W. J. 
Chandler, R. N. 
Chandler, Reuben 
Chandler, W. H. 
Crisler, D. A. 
Colquitt, W. J. 
Cruse, Berry 
Culbertson, Pink 
Deadwyler, G. E. 
Dunnahoo, J. B. 
Dunson, J. M. 
Dunson, Walker 
Evans, J. F. 
Esco, J. M. 

Esco, John 
Esco, W. T. 
Garrison, J. W. 
Garrison, B. S. 
Garrison, C. P. 
Garrison, Caleb 
Gunnin, J, J. 
Glenn, J. G. 
Hood, Z. W. 
Harmon, J. M. 
Harris, T. W, 
Harris, A. J. 
Harris, S. A. 
Hardy, R. M. 
Hardy, F. M. 
Henry, F. P. 
Henry, George 
Holliday, D. H. 
Hawks, W. T. 
HighfiU, J. J. 
Ivy, J. A. 
Ingram, E, H. 
Johnson, J. D. 
King, Perry 
Lampkin, Edward 
Leechman, Carlos 


Lord, M. G. 
Murphy, C. T. 
Mitchell, W. S. 
Maddox, C. T. 
Marlow, R. A. 
Marlow, F. W. 
Moore, W. T. 
McCarty, Jesse 
McCarty, John 
Mann, W. S. 
Merk, F. A. 
Nunn, J. E. 
Nunn, A. L. 
Nix, J. M. 
Nix, D. M. 
Pittman, J. G. H. 
Pittman, M. M. 
Patrick, T. W. 
Patrick, W. H. 
Pinson, W. A. 
Pharr, W. A. 
Pharr, James 
Ramppy, P. B. 
Roberts, P. J. 
Roberts, D. H. 
Randolph, J. C. 
Rogers, J. T. 
Reed, Z. M. 
Riden, Josephus 
Strickland, John 
Strickland, J. G. 

Strickland, E. W. 
Strickland, Carlos 
Sailors, J. M. 
Sailors, Isham 
Sailors, Andy 
Sailors, W. F. 
Sanders, M. M. 
Stapler, A. J. 
Stapler, J. L. 
Streetman, J. T. 
Smith, Isham 
Smith, David 
Tiller, Sandford 
Thurmond, Cisero 
Thurmond, Bolton 
Voiles, Ira 
Voiles, Frank 
Voiles, Levi 
Wilson, G. J. N. 
Wilson, M. M. C. 
Wilson, G. C. 
Wilson, J. E. 
Wood, W. R. 
Williams, J. F. 
Williams, J. G. 
Wills, J. M. V. 
Yeargan, D. G. 
Yeargan, W. S. 
Yeargan, J. C. 
Yeargan, S. B, 

Jarrett's Company. 

Company C, 18th Georgia Volunteer Infantry. 
Appleby, J. T. Addington, J. M. 

312 . 

Adams, J. T. 
Anglin, Willis 
Anglin, Knock 
Anglin, W. W. 
Adair, W. A. 
Allen, J. B. 
Bowls, T. C. 
Bacon, A. E. 
Bacon, Ed. 
Barnett, H. C. 
Barron, W. L. 
Bell, H. W. 
Bell, A. J. 
Bennett, Euel 
Bennett, Tom 
Cohen, M. A, 
Callahan, J. H. 
Callahan, W. C. 
Cheek, L. M. 
Clanton, "Wm. 
Daley, James 
DeLaperriere, A. A, 
Davis, Ephraim 
Davis, W. C. 
Davis, Pierce 
Davis, John 
Espey, J. F. 
Espey, J. A. 
Estes, 0. N. 
Erwin, Elijah 
Eustice, E. M. 
Franklin, M, V. 
Franklin, R. B. 
Freeman, S. A. 
Goodin, Augustus 

Gilbert, H. C. 
Harris, Gains 
Harris, Jesse 
Harris, Geo. 
Harris, Tom 
Helton, E. 
Helton, W. 
Helton, R. H. 
Hood, W. W. 
Howard, John 
Head, W. 0. 
Holmes, J. H. 
Harrison, T. L. 
Harrison, W. 
Harvill, A. 
Hutchins, L. J. 
Hunter, Wm. 
Harden, William 
Hardy, A. J. 
Irwin, Elijah 
Jarrett, D. L. 
Jarrett, N. M. 
Kinney, J. A. 
Lord, J. W. 
Lord, Phillip 
Lord, John 
Lindsey, Jas. 
Ledbetter, W. H. H. 
Ledford, Jesse 
Ledford, Adison 
Lampkin, Thos. 
Miller, J. P. 
Miller, J. H. 
Morgan, George 
Morgan, D. M. 


Morgan, J. P. 
Morgan, B. B. 
Moore, Tom 
Moore, J. L. 
McElhannon, J. C. 
McElhannon, H. W. 
McLester, Whitson 
Mitchell, J. R. 
Mathews, C. W. 
Millican, R. J. 
Michael, Benj. 
McCuUoch, L. A. 
Niblack, T. H. 
North, J. R. 
Oliver, J. H. 
Oliver, Andrew 
Orr, J. M. 
Pharr, Samuel 
Potter, R. P. 
Potter, William 
Palmer, J. A. 
Pettyjohn, T. J. 
Potts, John 
Potts, Wayne 
Patman, Tom 
Park, Wm. A. 
Randolph, H. J. 
Rouse, E. 
Rogers, Tom 
Rogers, Jas, 
Rose, H. F. 
Rose, B. 0. W. 
Shockley, W. S. 
Silman, J. B. 

Strickland, Jesse 
Strickland, N. C. 
Strickland, Ansel 
Shirley, Richard 
Sanders, J. E. 
Stapler, A. D. 
Simmons, H. J. 
Spencer, H. 
Story, J. M. 
Thurmond, J. H. 
Thurmond, E. 
Thurmond, James 
Thurmond, W. T. 
Thurmond, A. M. 
Tolbert, A. J. 
Vandiver, Q. C. 
Winters, James 
Wills, Martin 
Worsham, W. W. 
Worsham, J. L. 
White, J. M. 
Wilhite, 0. M. 
Wilhite, W. T. 
Williamson, J. H. 
Williamson, R. H. 
Williamson, C. C. 
Williamson, Jno, N. 
Waters, W. A. 
Wingfield, J. E. 
Wingfield, John 
Wier, John G. 
Wilson, W. 0. 
Wilson, Fenuel 
Wilson, Henry. 


Marler's Company. 
Company E., 16th Georgia Volunteer Cavalry. 

Anglin, J. N. 
Anglin, David 
Addington, John 
Ash, Lemon 
Arnold, S. G. 
Arnold, Geo. 
Arnold, James 
Barrett, Wm. 
Bowman, G. S. 
Brown, N. S. 
Brown, Micajah 
Bowles, Cicero 
Booth, Thomas 
Carson, G. L. 
Carson, N. D. 
Carson, J. C. 
Camsby, G. D. 
Cook, Wesley 
Cook, J. J. 
Casper, Thomas 
Collins, E. P. 
Catlett, Wash 
Carter, Wash 
Cheely, Mark 
Cheely, Wm. 
Coleman, Thomas 
Cox, Martin 
Chandler, Parks 
Daniel, Cicero 
Daniel, M. A. 
Daniel, W. A. 
Duncan, J. C. 
Dobbs, Oliver 
Elrod, Harrison 

Fulcher, James 
Fulcher, Jesse 
Fleeman, Thomas 
Fleeman, Cass 
Fleeman, Mell 
Finch, Ren 
Finch, Benj. 
Finch, John 
Finch, Joseph 
Fowler, L. C. 
Guffin, Wm. 
Gilleland, Hugh 
House, William 
House, Mack 
House, James 
Holliday, Geo. 
HoUiday, Walter 
Holliday, Frank 
Holliday, Joseph C. 
Hewitt, Polk 
Hill, Alex. 
Hill, Cicero 
Hill, David 
Hill, Dock 
Hoopaw, D. I. 
Haynie, W. J. 
Hancock, Parks 
Harrison, N. C. 
Johnson, L. J. 
Johnson, James 
Johnson, Jerry 
Johnson, James M. 
Johnson, R. L, 
Kinney, A. C. 


Knight, Green 
Lyle, Joseph 
Lyle, Harrison 
Lyle, William 
Luke, John 
Lay, Ansel 
Mayes, C. S. 
Mayes, W. H. 
Marler, W. L. 
Mise, John 
Moon, John 
Millsaps, John 
McElhannon, Kam 
McElhannon, Tip 
McElhannon, Will 
MeElroy, J. G. 
Neal, T. N. 
Neal, R. W. 
Patrick, V. V. 
Patrick, Troup 
Perkins, Judge 
Perkins, David 
Potts, Mack 
Potts, Bud 
Pike, W. I. 
Pentecost, J. C. 
Pentecost, Mark 
Roberts, Bluford 
Roberts, Green 
Roberts, Wilkes 
Rose, Oliver 
Ryley, E. J. 
Ryley, Bill 
Ray, James 
Ross, Jack 

Ross, John 
Shields, Robert 
Shields, William 
Sims, G. D. 
Seymore, Bud 
Seymore, E. H. 
Seymore, John T. 
Stewart, Jesse 
Stewart, Henry 
Stanley, G. W. 
Stanley, Calvin 
Stephens, John 
Spence, R. T. 
Spence, Jerry 
Trout, Thomas 
Thurmond, Wm. 
Thurmond, Jas. 
Thurmond, Joe 
Vaughn, W. L. 
Wages, William 
Wages, Jack 
Wages, James 
Wages, Sanford 
Wilson, Thomas 
Wilson, W. 0. 
Wood, Jesse 
Wood, Jasper N. 
Wood, Green C. 
Wood, Green S. 
Wood, William 
White, Jess6 
Wilbanks, John 
Williams, Bud 
Williamson, John 
Wills, Cicero 


Wills, J. A. 
Wills, Matt. 
Wills, Jas. A. 

Wills, Lee 
Whitehead, Willis 
Whitehead, J. N. 

Camp's Company. 

Company D., 16th Georgia Volunteer Cavalry. 

Allen, Vard 
Bell, C. C. 
Bell, Lafayette 
Bell, Tyler 
Bell, Ray 
Bell, Marion 
Brooks, A. E. 
Bridges, Harrison 
Blankinship, Marion 
Blankinship, Hutch 
Brown, Joseph 
Brock, Wm. 
Camp, D. A. 
Cronic, L. H. 
Cato, John 
Cato, Thomas 
Cato, Monroe 
Cooper, Jas. 
Clark, Jas. 
Davenport, Wm. 
Duncan, W. H. 
Duncan, N. B. 
Duncan, J. T. 
Duncan, L. G. 
Duncan, George 
Deaton, Thomas 
Elder, Joshua 
Elsbury, Wm. 
Flanigan, James 

Flanigan, Jasper 
Flanigan, Elijah 
Fleeman, C. S. 
Garner, Eli 
Hudgins, Francis 
Hudgins, Jeptha 
Holland, Jas. 
Holland, Sanford 
Harvil, James 
Irwin, G. W. 
Kerbo, John 
Kerbo, Marshall 
Kinney, Thomas 
Lancaster, Tillman 
Lancaster, William 
Lott, Jordan 
Lyle, Ezra 
Lyle, J. B. 
Lyle, J. A. 
Major, John 
Mangum, Middleton 


Maddox, John 
Maddox, Seaborn 
Mauldin, M. M. 
Manus, George 
Matthews, Ephraira 
Mahaffy, Geo. W. 
McEver, Joseph 


McEver, Andrew 
McEver, John M. 
Osburn, Green 
Pike, W. L. 
Pool, J. M. 
Park, John 

Park, L. 

Pierce, Wm. 
Queen, Elijah 
Smith, John 
Wallace, Pendleton 
White. T. W. 

Pittman's Company. 

Militia or State Troops. 

Adair, Benjamin 
Atkins, Hugh 
Arnold, Washington 
Bennett, Hosea 
Bailey, Milton 
Bailey, S. E. 
Burgar, David 
Barnett, M. P. 
Bowden, J. F. 
Cox, Calvin 
Cook, Albert 
Chatman, John 
Duke, Jones 
Duke, Marshall 
David, Haden 
David, Frank 
Elrod, A. N. 
Hinton, Mans 
Highfill, Cap 
Highland, J. H. 
Hardy, Thomas 
Harrison, Perry 
Hood, J. H. 
Johnson, Carey 
Lyle, Byrd 
Lyle, William 

Lyle, David 
Lemmons, A. 
Lasears, David 
Lott, Marion 
Moore, Alsa 
Moore, J. A. 
Morris, Robert 
Marlow, Joseph M. 
Martin, John 
Murray, William 
McLester, J. Gr. 
McElhannon, Stewart 
McCune, John 
Nix, Thomas 
Orr, S. P. 
Page, Pompey 
Pruit, J. W. 
Pittman, A. B. 
Pittman, Cobb 
Potts, William 
Parks, Sell 
Rogers, Blake 
Reynolds, James 
Randolph, J. H. C. 
Roberts, Stephen 
Stapler, T. J. 


Smith, Samuel 
Story, Addison 
Story, C. T. 
Story, James 
Segars, Jack 
Segars, Wash 
Sell, Mark 
Thurmond, Ludd 
Thompson, James 
Vandiver, James 

Watkins, Lute T. 
Walker, Press 
Walker, George 
Wilbanks, Frank 
White, William 
Williamson, Sanford 
Wilson, L. C. 
Wofford, W. W. 
Yearwood, Abraham 

Thompson's Company. 
Company G., 16th Volunteer Infantry. 

Archer, W. J. 
Archer, R. B. 
Appleby, J. R. 
Abner, J. W. 
Allen, T. G. 
Bell, W. W. 
Bell, Joe S. 
Bell, G. 
Bailey, F. M. 
Black, Geo. H. 
Black, Thomas 
Braselton, E. W. 
Bradberry, John 
Catlett, John 
Coleman, J. F. 
Clanton, William 
Culberson, John 
Durham, E. M. 
Daniel, D. P. 
Daniel, T. A. 
Duke, G. R., Jr. 
Elrod, G. F. 

Elrod, W. B. 
Evans, T. H. 
Freeman, Henry 
Finch, C. W. 
Few, W. S. 
Fields, T. J. 
Fields, B. F. 
Gwinn, J. 
Garrison, J, C. 
Garrison, John 
Garrison, S. R. 
Gilmer, B. F. 
Gilmer, John 
Gilmer, W. L. 
Gilmer, A. C. 
Gilmer, Obediah 
Gunter, L. C. 
Hardy, A. J. 
Hayes, G. S. 
Hay, T. W. 
Hay, J. T. 
Hay, J. G. 


Harwell, J. W. 
Harwell, C. 
Howard, H. 
Henry, George 
Highfill, B. F. 
HighfiU, John 
Hewitt, Starkey 
Hewitt, C. 
Haynie, W, J. 
Ivey, J. R. 
Johnson, J. S. 
Johnson, J. D. 
Kidd, John 
Kelley, J. E. 
Lay, T. R. 
Lay, M. L. 
Lowery, George 
Lee, W. 
Lyle, George 
I^le, Alford 
Lampkin, F. M. 
Lord, M. W. 
Morris, W, A. 
Michael, Benjamin 
McElhannon, B. T. 
McElhannon, W. G. 
Moon, C. C. 
Moon, J. A. 
Merk, J. W. 
McEver, C. C. 
Nabors, Z, L. 
Nichols, Geo. N. 
Patrick, M. J. 
Patrick, J. W. 
Patton, G. W. 
Potter, Thos. N. 
Park, M. J. 

Park, W. A. 
Randolph, H. J. 
Randolph, J. T. W. 
Randolph, J. T. 
Randolph, W. L. 0. 
Reinhardt, J. H. 
Rawson, M. W. 
Riley, E. G. 
Ross, T. L. 
Spence, J. W. 
Stevens, E. W. 
Steed, M. G. 
Tate, William 
Thompson, A. C. 
Thompson, E. M. 
Thompson, A. M. 
Thompson, W. S. 
Thompson, M. 
Thornton, Isaac R. 
Thurmond, W. P. 
Thurmond, W. 
Trout, W. R. 
Trout, J. W. 
Whitehead, J. C. 
Whitehead, C. T. 
Whitehead, M. J. 
Williamson, C. B. 
Williamson, Columbus 
Wilson, John K. 
Wilson, Shade 
Watson, J. 
Wood, D. W. 
Wood, J. R. 
Wood, W. J. 
Wood, J. C. 
Wood, G. L. 


Names of soldiers who enlisted in companies, in the county, of 
which the "muster rolls" could not be obtained; and, also, those 
who joined companies outside of Jackson County. At least 99 
per cent, of these were volunteers in the service. 

Archer, William 
Anglin, D. J. 
Addington, Z. T. 
Addington, Jesse 
Arnold, John 
Arnold, Robert 
Arnold, Jack 
Appleby, W. C. 
Appleby, John 
Alexander, John, Sr. 
Alexander, John, Jr. 
Bailey, J. M. 
Bradley, H. S. 
Boggs, James 
Boggs, W. P. 
Boggs, Milton 
Brown, H. H. 
Brown, Tillman 
Brown, C. D. 
Burns, Anderson 
Bolton, Billy 
Bell, Joseph 
Bell, Walter 
Bell, George 
Bell, James 
Bowden, William 
Baird, Samuel 
Braselton, J. A. 
Brooks, Thos. D. 
Brooks, C. C. 
Brooks, Alonzo 
Bryant, Burrell 

Bryant, W. L. 
Bryant, Moses 
Burson, George 
Burson, Dred 
Bates, Wm. N. 
Carithers, W. A. 
Collins, W. J. 
Collins, Thomas 
Camp, Mack 
Cash, N. B. 
Carter, Paul 
Cofer, Guss 
Co wen, John 
Cowen, Elijah 
Chandler, Frank 
Chandler, (Big) Frank 
Chandler, Joseph 
Coleman, Frank 
Dixon, J. J. 
Dixon, E. J. 
Doss, S. J. 
Dowdy, Richard 
Dowdy, R. W. 
Damons, Cam 
Dunson, Seaborn 
Daniel, Foster 
Dunnahoo, J. G. 
Davis, William 
Elrod, Isaac 
Espey, William 
Ellison, James 
Evans, William 


Few, M. C. 
Fulcher, William 
Gober, Jay 
Gober, John 
Gober, Asbury 
Gilleland, Jas. 
Gilleland, Lafayette 
Garrison, D. W. 
Gant, Adolphus 
Guffin, William 
Guffin, "Esquire" 
Howington, Jas. 
Howington, Reuben 
Hardy, John N. 
Hardy, Guss 
Hardy, Thomas 
Human, Green 
Hood, J. H. 
Hood, C. W. 
Hood, W. C. 
Hill, Moses 
Hunter, John 
Hunter, Samuel 
Hewitt, Jack 
Huie, Jack 
Harrison, W. O. 
Harrison, J. F. 
Harrison, T. C. 
Harrison, Jason 
Harrington, Milton 
Ivey, Richard 
Jackson, Woods 
Jackson, S. W. 
Jackson, S. C. 
Jackson, James 
Jarrett, J. A. 
Kenningham, J. 0. 

Long, Andy 
Lavender, Ebo 
Lay, Mark 
Linsey, Melvin 
Mahaffy, J. A. B. 
Mahafley, E. V. W. 
Mahaffy, J. W. S. 
Matthews, Miles 
Matthews, Daniel 
Matthews, Willis 
Matthews, John 
Mitchell, James 
Mitchell, G. W. 
Moon, George 
Moon, Thomas 
Moon, T. J. 
Marler, D. M. 
Martin, Sim 
Martin, Ansel 
McElhannon, Jack 
McElhannon, T. A. 
McElhannon, Calvin 
Maddox, Joseph 
Maddox, John 
McEver, Jno. 
Nabors, William 
Nash, John J. 
Nash, J. Polk 
Nash, Reuben 
Nash, Thos. T. 
Nash, Reuben L. 
Nixon, John 
Nixon, Theo. 
Oliver, J. C. 
Orr, William 
Orr, George 
Orr. W. C. 

Oshields, John 
Park, Livingston 
Park, F. M. 
Park, High 
Park, William 
Pittman, Willis 
Pinson, J. N. 
Pettyjohn, M. G. 
Preston, J. M. 
Rogers, William 
Rogers, Thomas 
Riley, Andy 
Riley, J. B. 
Rowdin, Edward 
Roberts, Joe 
Roberts, W. Clint 
Roberts, W. C. 
Roberts, William 
Reynolds, Frank 
Reynolds, Appleton 
Reeves, Thomas 
Randolph, Hill 
Randolph, Joshua 
Rainey, H. N., Sr. 
Riden, Frank 
Shockley, Thomas 
Shackelford, C. W. 
Shackelford, T. J. 
Sims, J. M. 
Shields, William 
Simmons, William 
Simmons, M. G. 
Simmons, Moke 
Simmons, Henry 
Simmons, J. B. 
Simmons, James 
Simmons, W. Bit 

Simmons, M. T. 
Segars, Dub 
Segars, William 
Stephens, W. C. 
Shankle, Seaborn 
Strickland, Sweet 
Strickland, Ed 
Strickland, Chat 
Smith, Zack T. 
Simpkins, Wm, N. 
Sharp, Jarrel 

Sharp, J. G. 

Sharp, M. C. 

Twitty, William 

Tolbert, Oliver 

Turner, J. J. 

Thompson, Wiley 

Toney, V. A. 

Todd, T. B. F. 

Titshaw, L. W. C. 

Vandiver, G. C. 

Vandiver, C. C. 

Vandiver, J. W. 

Venable, Arch 

Vandiford, John 

Wood, Daniel 

Wood, John 

Watkins, John 

Williams, Dimp 

Williams, T. C. 

Ward, John 

Ward, William 

Wills, Jack 

Weaver, John H, 
Williamson, L. 

Williamson, George 

Williamson, J. L. 


"Williamson, Jack 
Williamson, James 
Weir, Robert 
Weir, Samuel B. 
Witt, George 
Wilson, R. M. 
White, Andy 

White, George 
White, Robert 
White, William 
White, Henry 
Whitworth, Jack 
Whitehead, Thos. 
Whitehead, George 


Aaron, W. R. 
Adams, J. R. 
Archer, R. B. 
Alexander, C. C. 
Alexander, M. P. 
Arnold, C. W. 
Ayers, F. M. 
Abner, J. W. 
Arnold, J. P. 
Bowles, Frank 
Black, J. S. 
Bell, H. W. 
Bailey, J. L, 
Bailey, J. M. 
Bailey, S. E. 
Bailey, S. T. 
Banks, James 
Barnett, J. G. 
Barnett, H. C. 
Barnes, J. E. 
Barnes, B. H. 
Benedict, R. S. 
Berry, F. T. 
Boggs, W. P. 
Borders, F. M. 
Brewer, C. D. 

Brewer, B. P. 
Brewer, J. A. 
Brooks, T. D. 
Brooks, D. M. 
Brooks, C. T. 
Brooks, J. L. 
Brown, A. L. 
Batchelor, G. W. 
Bruce, W. R. 
Bryan, J. R. 
Bryan, J. W. 
Bohannon, B. S. 
Barnett, M. P. 
Bradberry, M. W. 
Cobb, A. J. 
Castleberry, E. T. 
Campbell, W. D. 
Carethers, W. A. 
Carson, G. L. 
Coker, J. R. 
Cook, H. S. 
Cooper, H. H. 
Colquitt, W. J. 
Cramer, J. E. 
Crisler, D. A. 
Crisler, W. S. 


Carrol, J. M. 
Dale, W. A. 
Dailey, J. M. 
Dailey, S. T. 
Damron, L. A. 
David, K. S. 
Davis, W. C. 
Davis, M. T. 
Davis, Isaac 
Davidson, L. M. 
Dadisman, L. M. 
Daniel, J. T. 
Doss, S. J. 
Doster, E. T. 
Doster, F. M. 
Duke, John 
Duke, G. R. 
Duke, G. S. 
Duke, M. N. 
Duncan, J. C. 
Daily, H. C. 
Daily, J. M. 
Dixon, Jno. J. 
Elrod, A. N. 
Edwards, Marcus 
Eberhart, J. A. 
Eads, J. C. 
Edgar, Henry 
Evans, Wm. C. 
Fambrough, A. A, 
Farmer, H. G. 
Finch, C. W. 
Fowler, W. H. 
Fowler, L. C. 
Freeman, W. J. 
Foster, W. H. 
Garrison, T. W. 

Gilleland, Lafayett( 
Gillespie, J. B. 
Garrison, C. P. 
Gober, F. A. 
Gober, W. J. 
Greenway, W. M. 
Greeson, J. D. 
Grier, Joseph 
Gunter, L. C. 
Fulcher, J. H. 
Hardigree, D. I. 
Hardy, J. N. 
Harmon, J. M. 
Harris, A. J. 
Hutchins, J. M. 
Hammond, B. B. 
Hawkins, J. M. 
Haynie, W. J. 
Haynie, W. Jack 
Henry, F. P. 
Helton, R. H. 
Hill, J. M. 
Highfill, T. N. 
Holland, S. M. 
Hoopaugh, D. I. 
Holden, J. J. 
Hood, Z. W. 
Hood, W. C. 
House, M. C. 
House, W. H. 
Howington, W. J. 
Hudson, T. P. 
Hudgins, J. I. 
Humphrey, T. G. 
Herrin, M. C. 
Hardman, W. S. 
Hamilton, C. T. 


Hayes, J. W. C. 
Howard, W. C. 
Holliday, G. R. 
Jackson, S. W. 
Jackson, S. C. 
Jarrett, J. A. 
Johnson, J. M. 
Jones, W. Jack 
Jacks, C. S. 
Jones, James 
Jones, W. I. 
Jewell, M. L. 
Jennings, P. P. 
Kelley, N. J. 
Kinney, A. C. 
Kent, W. C. 
Kelley, N. J. 
Kinney, A. C. 
Kent, W. C. 
Latimer, W. M, 
Link, S. A. 
Little, T. A. 
Lord, J. W. 
Lyle, G. R. 
Lyle, J. B. 
Lyle, L H. 
Lovin, W. P. 
Montgomery, Jno. 
Marler, J. E. 
Martin, P. R. 
Mahaffy, J. A. B. 
Marlow, D. D. 
Marlow, R. B. 
Martin, E. 
Mathews, W. S. 
Mathews, L. J. 
Manus, J. D. 

Manus, J. B. 
Mauldin, B, L. 
Michael, Starnes 
Meeks, W. H. 
Merk, W. H. 
Merk, J. W. 
McElhannon, J. W. 
McElhannon, T. A. 
McCurry, S. M. 
McEver, Robt. 
McEver, J. M. 
McGinty, W. H. 
McEntyre, J. H. 
Minish, R. K. 
Millsaps, M. A. 
Mahaffy, J. A. B. 
Mitchell, G. W. 
Montgomery, C. T. 
Montgomery, C. L. 
Moon, G. M. D. 
Moon, A. A. 
Morris, Thomas 
Morris, Leroy 
Motes, J. W. 
Motes, Jesse 
Moore, G. W. 
Moore, A. A, 
Moulder, E. M. 
Moulder, Frank 
Murphey, Jeremiah 
Nash, J. R. 
Nunn, R. C. 
Nicholson, W. D. 
Nowell, J. W. 
Niblack, T. H. 
Newman, F. A. 
Okelley, G. W., Sr. 


Poole, J. M. 
Potts, Wayne 
Parham, W. L. 
Perry, W. K. 
Pettyjohn, J. J. 
Pickelsimon, W. J. 
Pittman, J. G. H. 
Porter, M. S., Sr. 
Parr, J. H. 
Pentecost, R. J. 
Quails, Robert 
Quillian, W. A. 
Rainey, H. N., Sr, 
Randolph, J. H. C. 
Randolph, H. J. 
Roberts, J. W. 
Roberts, W. C. 
Roberts, W. J. 
Roberts, R. J. 
Robertson, W. C. 
Rogers, J. D. 
Rooks, G. W. 
Roberts, P. J. 
Seymore, R. T. 
Sailors, Chas. W. 
Sailors, G. W. 
Sailors, J. M. 
Sells, Jones 
Sisk, A. S. 
Shaw, J. P. 
Smith, Andrew 
Smith, T. L. 
Smith, Z. H. 
Smith, A. N. 
Smith, Chas. H. 
Smith, J. M. 
Sprewell. J. M. 

Stapler, T. J. 
Stewart, Robt. G. 
Stewart, J. G. 
Stone, Cal C. 
Strange, W. N. 
Shore, J. P. 
Story, C. T. 
Story, James 
Thomas, J. G. 
Thompson, J. W. 
Thompson, W. S. 
Titshaw, L. W. C. 
Toney, J. M. 
Treadwell, I. 
Trout, N. G. 
Turk, A. A. 
Vandiver, J. W, 
Venable, Arch 
Venable, J. M. 
Voiles, Ira 
Waddell, Frank 
Wages, W. M. 
Wall, J. M. 
Walker, G. D. 
Wier, John G. 
Wall, W. H. 
Watson, J. H. 
Watts, J. L. 
Wheeler, T. V. 
Wheeler, John 
White, T. W., Sr. 
White, W. C. 
Welborn, W. A. 
Wiley, S. C. 
Wiley, J. D. 
Wilkes, A. H. 
Wilbanks, S. A. 


Wilbanks, Solomon Wood, J. R. 

Wills, A. Woods, J. N. 

Wilhite, J. M. Wright, James 

Williamson, A. A. Wall, J. P. 

Winters, J. T. Ward, John 

Wilson, W. H. Wright, T. M. 

Webb, F. P. Wilson, L. C. 
Whitehead, J. R. 

The ranks are being rapidly thinned and it will be but a short 
time until all have passed over to the great roll-call. About one- 
third of the above named veterans, enlisted from Jackson County, 
the others having moved in from other places. But they, doubt- 
less, were just as brave as our boys in gray and they are welcome, 
yea, thrice welcome. 


After the awful war of the '60 's closed, Governor James John- 
son called for delegates to be sent to Milledgeville. It will be 
remembered Gov. Johnson was Provisional governor, by appoint- 
ment, and he was thoroughly in sympathy with the President and 
the only thing our delegates could do was to undo the acts passed 
in withdrawing from the Union or do nothing. 

One of the "Ordinances" adopted by this convention was as 
follows : 

"We, the people of the State of Georgia in convention, at our 
seat of government, do declare and ordain, That an ordinance 
adopted by the same people, in convention, on the nineteenth day 
of January 1861, entitled 'An ordinance to dissolve the Union be- 
tween the state of Georgia and the other states united with her 
under a compact of government entitled "the constitution of the 
United States of America;' " also an ordinance, adopted by the 
same on the sixteenth day of March 1861, entitled, An ordinance 
to adopt and ratify the constitution of the Confederate States of 
America; and also all ordinances and resolutions of the same, 
adopted between the sixteenth of January and twentieth of 

March in the year aforesaid, subversive of, or antagonistic to the 
civil and military authority of the government of the United 
States of America, under the constitution thereof, be, and the 
same are hereby repealed." 

The Delegates from our county were : Hons. W. L. Marler, J. 
B. S. Davis and William S. Thompson. 

After all the deliberating and "swallowing" these cold "ordi- 
nances," the powers that were in Washington would not accept 
the humble submission of Georgia until she was given further 
punishment. She was refused representation in Congress and 
was put under military rule. Georgia remained thus until an 
election was called by the military in charge, to send delegates 
to the State Capital for another convention. 

This election lasted three days and was held at the county 
seats, only, and was guarded in this county by the Federal soldiers 
with guns at their sides. 

The convention met on the 9th of December, 1867, and lasted 
until the following March, 1868. At the close of this convention 
Hon. Rufus B. Bulloch was made Governor of Georgia. 

Jackson county was represented in the convention by Hon. 
William L. Marler. 


While the Constitution of 1868 was a very good instrument, the 
people felt unkindly towards it on account of its having been 
forced on them by bayonet rule. The Legislature, 1877, approved 
an Act giving the people the right to vote for or against the 
holding of another Constitutional Convention. The vote was 
light, the aggregate being only 87,238, and the convention was 
carried by 9,124 majority. 

Jackson County was represented in the convention by D. A. 
Camp, who served the county faithfully and well. 

The Constitution of '77 was almost an ideal instrument. The 
State is still controlled by it. There have been a few amendments 
made and doubtless others will be made from time to time as the 
emergencies may arise. 



Representatives Senators 

1799 — Buckner Harris, James Pittman Roderick Easley 

1800 — Buckner Harris, Harmon Reynolds Daniel Bankston 

1801 — Harmon Reynolds, John Hampton Roderick Easley 

1802 — John Hampton, Buckner Harris David Dickson 

1803 — Samuel Henderson, George Reid .David Dickson 

1804 — Samuel Henderson, Geo. Reid John Hampton 

1805 — Buckner Harris, William Mathews John Hampton 

3806 — Sam Henderson, Wm. Mathews John Hampton 

1807 — Hugh Montgomery, Ealton Harris, Wm. Mathews . . Sam Henderson 
1808 — Hugh Montgomery, Thomas Boyle, Jas. Cochran.. Sam Henderson 

1809 — James Cochran, Hugh Montgomery Sam Henderson 

1810 — Hugh Montgomery, Jas. Cochran, Wm. Mathews . . Sam Henderson 
1811 — Hugh Montgomery, Jas. Cochran, Wm. Mathews . . Sam Henderson 

1812 — Wm. Mathews, Jas. Cochran, David Witt Hugh Montgomery 

1813 — Wm. Mathews, David Witt, Jas. Cochran Hugh Montgomery 

1814 — David Witt, Jas. Cochran, Wm. Mathews Hugh Montgomery 

1815 — David Witt, Jas. Cochran, Wm. Mathews .... Hugh Montgomery 

1816 — Wm. Mathews, Jas. Cochran, David Witt Hugh Montgomery 

1817 — Jas. Cochran, David Witt, George Reid Hugh Montgomery 

1818 — David Witt, Jas. Cochran, James Liddell Hugh Montgomery 

1819 — Edwin Gresham, Jas. Liddell, David Witt William Pentecost 

1820— Edwin Gresham, Jas. Liddell, David Witt William Mathews 

1821— Edwin Gresham, David Witt, Jas. Liddell William D. Martin 

1822 — Allen Lawton, John Young, Jas. Cochran Jos. J. Singleton 

1823 — Jas. Cochran, J. J. Singleton, David M. Burns. .Hugh Montgomery 
1824 — David Witt, F. Merriwether, Jas. Cochran. . .Hugh Montgomery 
1825 — David M. Burns, Wm. D. Martin, F. Merriwether. .Jas. Liddell 

1826 — Wm. D. Martin, Samuel Barnett, Jas. Cochran David Witt 


1827 — Sam Barnett, Jas. Cochran, David M. Burns Wm. D. Martin 

1828— David M. Burns, George Shaw, Thomas J. Bowen. .Wm. D. Martin 
1829 — David M. Burns, George Shaw, Thomas J. Bowen, . .F. Merriwether 
1830— David M. Burns, Thos. J. Bowen, Jas. Liddell. . Jos. J. Singleton 

1831 — Sam Barnett, William Jones Jos. J. Singleton 

1832 — Jas. Liddell, Thomas J. Bowen, David M. Burns. .Jos. J. Singleton 
1833 — David M. Burns, John G. Pittman, Richard Pentecost. .Jas. Liddell 

1834 — Richard Pentecost, David M. Burns, J. G. Pittman Jas. Liddell 

1835 — Richard Pentecost, David M. Burns, J. G. Pittman Jas. Liddell 

1836 — Richard Pentecost, David M. Burns, J. G. Pittman Jas. Liddell 

1837 — Richard Pentecost, Bailey Chandler, J. Horton. . .David M. Burns 

1838 — A. DeLaperriere, John Horton, Middleton Witt George Shaw 

1839 — A. DeLaperriere, Bailey Chandler, P. McMillan . . . Sterling Mayes 

1840 — Bailey Chandler, Peter McMillan, H. Webb Sterling Mayes 

1841 — Nathaniel C. Jarrett, Bailey Chandler Sterling Mayes 

1842 — N. C. Jarrett, Bailey Chandler, Russel Daniel. . .Thos. F. Anderson 

1843 — John Randolph, Russell Daniel Thos. F. Anderson 

1844 — No Session 

1845— William Bell, Robert Moon Thos. F. Anderson 

1846— No Session 

1847 — Richard Pentecost William Clayton 

1848— No Session 

1849— Michael Mintz William Clayton 

1850— Michael Mintz William Clayton 

1851-52— S. P. Thurmond William Mosley 

1853-54— Peter E. McMillan Robt. Moon 

1855-56— R. J. Park, R. J. Daniel Robt. White 

1857-58— C. F. Hardy, M. M. Mintz J. C. Hayes 

1859-60— M. M. Mintz, R. J. Daniel A. DeLaperriere 

1861-62— Hosea C. Giddens Samuel Stephens 

1863-64— J. Bell, A. C. Shockley Robt. White 


L865— J. Bell, A. C. Shockley W. R. Bell 

L866— Pittsfield F. Hinton W. R. Bell 

L867— No Session 

1868— A. T. Bennett A. M. Stringer 

1869— A. T. Bennett A. M. Stringer 

L870— A. T. Bennett. A. M. Stringer 

L871-72— John R. Hancock M. V. Estes 

L873-74— G. R. Duke M. V. Estes 

L875-76— G. R. Duke, J. M. Potts G. E. Deadwyler 

[877— G. R. Duke, A. T. Bennett G. E. Deadwyler 

L878-79— A. T. Bennett, W. I. Pike A. D. Candler (Hall Co.) 

L880-81— A. T. Bennett, J. B. Silman B. F. Suddeth (Banks Co.) 

[882-83— James Hudson, J. B. Silman W. I. Pike (Jackson Co.) 

1884-85— T. H. Niblack, N. B. Cash Oliver Clark (Hall Co.) 

886-87— T. C. Williams, T. E. Key Martin L. McDonald (Banks Co.) 

■888-89— Z. W. Wood, J. N. Twitty 

1890-91— H. H. Hancock, J. N. Twitty . 
892-93— W. I. Pike, W. T. Thurmond. . . 

894-95— L. F. Sell, G. D. Bennett 

L896-97— L. F. Sell, G. D. Bennett . . . . 

.898-99— J. N. Holder, J. R. Hosch 

900-01— J. R. Hosch, T. H. Niblack 

-902-03— L. G. Hardman, J. N. Holder. 

W. S. McCarty (Jackson Co.) 

H. H. Beard (Hall Co.) 

.J. K. Thompson (Banks Co.) 
.T. S. Johnson (Jackson Co.) 
. . . J. E. Redwine (Hall Co.) 
.J. K. Thompson (Banks Co.) 
. . J. N. Holder (Jackson Co.) 
H. H. Perry (Hall Co.) 

904— L. G. Hardman, J. N. Holder, Short Term. . .H. H. Perry (Hall Co.) 

905-06— J. N. Holder, L. G. Hardman. 
907-08— J. N. Holder, A. M. Flanigan. , 
909-10— L. G. Hardman, J. N. Holder. 
911-12— J. E. J. Lord, J. N. Holder. . . . 
913-14— L. C. Allen, H. N. Railey, Jr. . 

...P. F. M. Furr (Banks Co.) 
.L. G. Hardman (Jackson Co.) 
Howard Thompson (Hall Co.) 

T. F. Hill (Banks Co.) 

. . . W. W. Stark (Jackson Co.) 


Jackson County has been honored by having had two of her 
worthy citizens elected to the Speakership of the General As- 
sembly of Georgia. Hon. David Witt held this position in 1820 
and 1821. Hon. John N. Holder held the place of Speaker from 
1909 to 1912. It is conceded by all that Mr. Holder ranked among 
the very highest as Speaker. 

Note: In 1843 the state was divided into forty-seven Senatorial dis- 
tricts. Each district was composed of two counties, except Chatham, which 
was considered a district alone. In this arrangement our county was in 
the 38th. But the Convention of 1862, at Savannah, paragraph I., section 
n, article II, of the constitution of the state was so amended that it pro- 
vided that there shall be 44 districts composed of three contiguous counties. 

Paragraph I., section II., article HI., of the constitution of Georgia, of 
1877, declares "the 44 districts shall be composed as follows, etc." Under 
this, Jackson, Hall and Banks form the 33rd Senatorial district, as had 
been the case with these counties since 1861. 


In book "A and B" on pages 10 and 11 in the office of the 
Clerk of the Superior Court, this county, is this record : 

"Know all men by these presents that I Daniel W. Easley of 
the county of Jackson & state of Georgia for and in consideration 
of the sum of four thousand four hundred & ninety dollars to me 
in hand paid by Roderick Easley of the county and state afore- 
said the receipt whereof I do hereby acknowledge have bargained 
sold & delivered unto sd. Rod. Easley his heirs & assigns forever 
to have & to hold the following property to wit One Negro Man 
named Bob & his wife Molly & two children Rachel & Clary One 
Negro woman named Lucy & children Abram Nancy & Winny. 
two negro men named Tom & Peter two Boys named Bob & Adam 
two negro women Frank & Fann one negro girl named Esther 
One hundred & Thirty head of Black Cattle of Different marks 
six head of horses One bay stud Two Gildens two blacks and one 
sorrel twenty head of sheep of Different marks One hundred head 
of hogs in said Daniels mark five feather beds & furniture to 
have and to hold the sd. property for his own proper use & benefit 


forever & firmly by these presents, do warrant & forever defend 
the above named property from all person or persons whatsoever 
that shall or may lay any right title or claim to sd. property unto 
Eod. Easley his heirs executors & administrators firmly by these 
presents. In witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand & 
seal this 21 day of November 1796. 

"Signed sealed & Delivered ) ^.^ . . ^„ ^ . ,, 

• 4^^'n rr ^ t tj '' ^ 'Daniel W. Easley" 

in presence of Geo. Taylor, J. P. j 

"Wm. Streetman" 

The above Bill of Sale is here inserted for no other purpose than 
to let the young reader, who may not have known of these sales, 
see for himself that human beings were once handled in the mar- 
ket like cattle. 

It is safe to say that there is not, to-day, a man or woman in 
the county that would wish to see these things brought back to 
this lovely land of ours. 

Note: We wish to call the attention of the young reader to these ex- 
tracts from the records at the court-house. They are exact copies. We 
have no right to change them one iota. If the punctuation or spelling is 
wrong it must be copied that way. Some of them seem ridiculous, but let 
us remember they had but few advantages that you and I have to-day. 

Cheap Lands. 

It sounds very, very strange to the reader to hear that a great 
deal of the best farming lands of our county was once sold for 
taxes ; but such is the case. 

From the records, we learn that at the close of the Revolu- 
tionary War, many "grants" were made to the soldiers and 
others. The deeds, as are used to-day, were then called "war- 
rants." These warrants were deeds signed by the Governor of 
the state. Many of the citizens of the county now have these 
old grants or warrants among their papers, forming what they 
are proud to show as a complete "chain of title." 

A large number of these "grantees" never saw the land to 
which they had the deeds. They seemed to think this part of 


Georgia was unfit for farming purposes and therefore paid no at- 
tention to their claims, in fact, one historian wrote fifty years 
later that all of the land was poor except the "bottoms." 

By referring to records in the Clerk's office, it will be found 
that in book "A and B" on pages 154 to 180, a Mr. John Cobb of 
Jefferson County and a Mr. Benning bought at Tax Collector's 
sale 14,123 acres of Jackson County lands for the aggregate 
amount of 71 pounds and 1 shilling, English money, or in our 
money, about $344.5914 (reckoning the English pound at $4.85). 
These lands lay around, or in the vicinity of Talasee Shoals, some 
near the little town of Attica and other tracts between Commerce 
and Hurricane Shoals. These sales took place in 1792-4-5. 

Our friend, Mr. Cobb, must have become "land poor" as he sold 
in 1799, 7,025 acres of this land for $10.00. A copy of the deed can 
be found in this work. None of the territory that sold so cheap 
then could be bought for less than $50.00 an acre, at the present 

A "Grant" from His Excellency, the Governor of Georgia, 1785. 

State of Georgia. 

By the Honorable Samuel Elbert Esquire Captain, General, 
Governor and Commander in Chief in and over the said state. 
To all to whom these presents shall come, Greeting: 

Know ye, that inpursuance of the Act for oppening the land office 
and by virtue of the powers in me vested, I have by and with 
the advice and consent of the Honorable and Executive Council, 
given & granted land by these presents in the name & behalf of 
the said state Do give and grant unto William Few, Esquire his 
heirs & assigns forever All that tract or parcel of land, containing 
Seven hundred & twenty five acres Situate, lying and being in the 
County of Franklin state aforesaid, butting and bounding On all 
sides by vacant land having such shape form and marks as appear 
by a plat of the same hereunto annexed together with all and 
singular the Rights members and appurtenances thereof whatso- 
ever to the said tract or parcel of land belonging or in any wise 
appertaining; And also all the Estate, Rights, Title, Interest 
Claim & demand of the state aforesaid of in to or out of the same 


S. Elbert. 

To Have and to Hold the said tract or parcel of land and all and 

singular the premises aforesaid with their and every of their 

Rights members and appurtenances unto the said William Few 

his heirs & assigns to his and their own proper use and behoof 

forever in fee simple. 

Given under my hand in Council, and the Great seal of the said 
State, this Thirteenth day of October in the year of our Lord 
One thousand seven hundred & eighty five and in the Tenth year 

of American Independence. 

Signed by his honor the Govenor 

in Council the 13th day of 

October 1785. 

G.Handley C. C. 

Registered the 19th day of October 1785. 

The above grant is here given that the reader may see exactly 
what is meant by the Governor's "warrants" to land. This tract 
of land is in Cunningham district, this county, and is known as 
the Perry and Franklin Harrison home place, four miles north of 
Jefferson and three miles east of Pendergrass, Ga., on the old state 
road. Mr. James F. Harrison has the "grant" among his old 
deeds, forming a complete chain of title. 

On page 182 of Book "A and B," of the Clerk Superior Court's 
records can be found this very remarkable deed — that is if the 
price of land of to-day is taken into consideration : 

"Georgia. This Indenture made this fifteenth day of March in 
the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and ninety 
nine and in the twenty third year of the Independence of the 
United States of America between John Cobb of the county of 
Jefferson and State aforesaid of the one part And Rhoderick 
Easley of the County of Jackson & State aforesaid of the other 
part Witnesseth that the said John Cobb for and in Considera- 
tion of the sum of ten dollars to him in hand paid, well and truly 
paid by the said Rhoderick Easley at or before the Sealing and 
delivery of these presents, the receipt whereof is hereby acknowl- 
edged hath granted bargained sold released & confirmed. And 


by these presents doth grant bargain sell release and confirm 
unto the said Rhoderick Easley, his heirs and assigns, all those 
following tracts of land (to wit) one of four thousand and twenty 
five acres, more or less, situated lying and being in the County 
of Jackson, f ormaly Franklin County on Marbury 's Creek, grant- 
ed to Horatio Marbury. Also One other tract of three thousand 
acres lying and being in the coimty aforesaid on McNutt's creek 
and the waters of Barber's Creek, granted to John P. Wagnon, 
bounded by Horatio Marbury & Stinson, together with all and 
singular the rights, members and appurtenances thereunto be- 
longing, to have and to hold the said tract & premises to the only 
proper use, benefit and behoof of the said Rhoderick Easley his 
heirs forever And the said John Cobb for himself his heirs and 
assigns will warrant and forever defend the aforesaid tracts of 
land and premises unto the said Rhoderick Easley his heirs for- 
ever against him the said John Cobb & his heirs, and all and every 
other person or persons whatsoever. In witness whereof he the 
said John Cobb has hereunto set his hand and Seal the day and 
year first above written. Signed, Sealed and delivered in the 
presence ofJB. Easley I' ) "John Cobb (L. S.)" 

'Robt. Jackson" j 

"Ben Easley being duly sworn saith he saw John Cobb sign 
and acknowledge the above Deed, and that he saw Robert Jackson 
subscribe as a witness with him." 

"Sworn to before me this fifteenth day of March 1799. Ben 
Easley." James Pittman J. P. 

"Recorded 15th of March 1799. 

"Geo. Taylor Clk." 

The above is an exact copy, capitalization, punctuation and all. 


Jackson County has always stood at the head of the list, as a 
healthy place in which to live, noted for its good water and 
healthful climate, 


Since many of the streams have become choked with trash 
and sand, causing them to overflow the adjoining lands, in some 
sections, malarial fevers are felt. But the people are beginning 
to realize that by proper drainage, this evil can be overcome. 
There are now drainage companies being organized that promise 
to not only improve the health of the county but to reclaim 
thousands of acres of as good land as there is in the state. 

The surveyors have demonstrated that there is ample "fall" to 
carry the waters, if given a clear channel in which to flow. This 
has been proven beyond a shadow of doubt. 

At a cost of some twenty dollars per acre this land can be 
brought into cultivation. When that is accomplished, what is now 
waste land will produce enough food for every man and beast 
within the bounds of the county. 

This county is noted for the long life of many of its people. A 
Mrs. Loggins is said, on good authority, to have lived 115 years. 
Mrs. Elizabeth Merk, grandmother of Mr. Henry Merk, died at 
116. We give below short sketches of three dear old mothers 
that are nearing the century mark : 

Mrs. Virginia Elizabeth Veal 

was born September 29, 1822. She lived in Hall until her mar- 
riage to Mr. Elijah A. Veal, of this county, in the year 1838. 

Mrs. Veal's maiden name was Miss Kidd. She is the mother of 
14 children, 7 sons and 7 daughters. She has 62 grandchildren, 
142 great-grandchildren and 17 great-great-grandchildren. 

With her weight of 92 years, she is "hale and hearty" and does 
light housekeeping, making her home, not on her own farm but 
with one of her children, Mrs. T. T. Cooper, near Braselton, Ga. 

Mrs. Rebecca Hancock 

was born January 28, 1818. Her maiden name was Miss Lyle. 
She was married to Mr. John R. Hancock, December 30, 1834. To 
them were born 10 children, eight of whom lived to be grown, 
and four, Mrs. E. J. Whitehead, Mrs. Fannie Stanton, Mrs. Emma 
Rush and J. B. Hancock, are still living. 


Mrs. Hancock has 17 grandchildren and 26 great-grandchildren. 
While more than 96 years old, she is able to sit and converse with 
her friends and neighbors for quite a long while each day. 

Mrs. Martha Gober 

was born on the 27th day of April, 1815. Her maiden name was 
Miss Hudson. She was married to Mr. Henry B. Gober on Jan- 
uary 26, 1837. To them were born four children, two boys and 
two girls. 

She has 18 grandchildren. Notwithstanding her pilgrimage of 
nearly 100 years, she holds up wonderfully well. Her mind is 
reasonably active and she can converse with her friends very 


Jackson County lands sell for $50 and up. Compare this with 
the price asked, but not always obtained, for New York, Pennsyl- 
vania and New Jersey lands at $25 and less per acre. 

One historian, sixty years ago, as has been mentioned in this 
work, said the lands of our county were "mostly very poor, 
except the river bottoms." How does that strike the young 
mind of to-day? Even thirty years ago, land in some sections 
of the county was considered too worthless to clear away the 
timber for cultivation. 

Such lands got the high sounding name of Pea Kidge and 
Chinquapin Ridge. Said to have been called by those names be- 
cause the land would not sprout peas but would grow the little 
sweet nut that the children called "chinkey pins." (The writer 
is very sorry to part company with these little friends of by- 
gone days.) 

These same ridge lands are selling to-day at from $50 to $100 
and difficult to obtain at that price. They are producing one 
bale of cotton or 50 bushels of corn per acre. 

What has wrought this seeming miracle, you say. The answer 

*We are indebted to THE FAKM AND HOMESTEAD for much of the 
information contained herein. 


is not far to seek: improved methods in farming. Our farmers 
are not only carrying out the old adage of ''growing two blades 
where only one grew" but are doubling and thribbling the yields 
on the "old hills of Jackson County." 

Indeed, Jackson ranks second in agricultural importance in 
the state. While many of the other counties were settled sixty 
or seventy years before Jackson, she is forging her way to the 
very front. 


In 1890, this county had 19,176 inhabitants; in 1900, 24,039 and 
in 1910, 30,169. At the same rate of gain, the population stands 
at about 32,000, — not quite 70 to the square mile. 

There are 2,839 white boys and 2,663 white girls of school age 
in the county and 1,278 colored boys and 1,236 colored girls, of 
school age, making a grand total of 8,016, 

The census of 1913 shows the rate of illiteracy among white 
children to be 5.1, a gain over 1908 of 2.4. 

Forty-five counties in Georgia are larger than Jackson, but 
only one, Bulloch County, produced more crop-wealth during 
the census year. And some years Jackson produces a greater 
number of bales of cotton than any in the state. 

Jackson has some large land owners but the county is made up 
largely of small farmers. Nearly two-thirds of the farms are 
less than 50 acres in size. The total wealth, including city prop- 
erty, according to the census report 1912, was nearly 5,500,000 
dollars. About $47,000 per year gain for the 117 years since the 
organization of the county. 

The money value of the crops of 1910, was, in round numbers, 
$4,582,000. The question will arise, and naturally so, too. What 
becomes of all that great wealth? The answer is not hard to find. 
Jackson County has been under the reign of the great king. King 

The tide is turning. In the year 1913, our people produced 
more corn and oats, peas, hay and syrup than in any previous 
year of the history of the county. 


While the people of Jackson County have been inclined to 
agriculture, yet, from time to time, some have given attention 
to manufacturing. 

As early as 1820, Mr. James Orr, father of Professor S. P. Orr, 
now of Athens, had a cotton gin establishment in what is now 
known as the Merk Settlement, between Dry Pond and Apple 
Valley. Mr. Orr and Mr, Cowan constructed a machine with 
which the "teeth" of the saws could be cut as speedily as a sew- 
ing machine can make stitches, whereas, before that invention, 
each tooth was made by hand. They never had their idea 
patented but allowed others to use it free. 

The iron used in these gins was smelted at Hurricane Shoals. 

Many of our older citizens can recall the old hat factories of 
our county. At the old mill site, now owned by Mr. R. C, 
Roberts, some three miles above Jefferson, was a factory that 
produced an excellent grade of hats from native wool. There 
was another factory in the eastern part of the county, also. These 
factories flourished for many years before the Civil war, and the 
first named, until after that great strife was settled. 

Commerce had a foundry and machine shop some years past. 
Winder now has a foundry and shops that is a paying investment. 

Jefferson, Winder and Commerce all have cotton mills that give 
employment to many people and these mills turn out a first class 
product. Each of these cities, as well as Pendergrass, Maysville 
and Hoschton, have oil mills with fertilizer plants attached. 
Winder has an overall factory, also. Braselton has a fertilizer 
plant known as "The Co-Operative Fertilizer Co." 

Maysville has two banking establishments ; Commerce has three ; 
Jefferson, three; Statham, one; Winder, three; Hoschton, one; 
Braselton, one; and Pendergrass, one, all of which are owned 
and conducted by Jackson County people. 

This county has three railroads. Gainesville Midland, through 
the center and on the west ; Seaboard on the south, and the South- 
ern (old North Eastern) on the eastern side of the county. 

The National Highway, from Atlanta to New York, crosses the 
county, entering at Winder, passing through Jefferson and Com- 


merce and thence to the Banks County line. This county has 
many other graded roads, also. 

The Financial Condition of Jackson. 

From the general presentments of the Grand Jury, of February, 
1914, it is observed that the county has a good court-house, sub- 
stantial jail, home for the poor, roads supplied with good bridges 
across all the streams, is out of debt, no bonded indebtedness, and 
has a cash balance of $26,314.05. 

Talmo Cotton. 

It is not generally known, but nevertheless true, that Talmo 
enjoys the distinction of being located in the midst of a section 
that is noted for its fine cotton. 

In the cotton trade it is known as the "Talmo Cotton District." 

This little city is surrounded by some twelve or fourteen square 
miles of gray — nearly white — lands that produce the finest ' ' short 
staple" cotton in the world. In fact, most of Jackson County 
lands produce a fine grade of cotton. 

When the Pacolet Cotton Mill Company was looking for a loca- 
tion suitable to place their dismantled mills, they chose Gaines- 
ville, Ga., in order that they might be in close touch with this 
section of Georgia — Jackson and surrounding section. 

This cotton is sought after by all mill men and always com- 
mands a higher price than any other cotton. 

Water Power. 

Jackson County has no navigable streams but does possess some 
fine water-powers. There is enough power going to waste on the 
North Oconee river to put electric lights on the streets and in the 
buildings of every town in the whole county. And there is enough 
power wasting in the different streams over the county to light, 
with the proper storage facilities, every home in and turn every 
wheel of machinery in the county. This can be utilized without 
materially interfering with the proper drainage that is contem- 


Jackson County First. 

Martin Institute was the first "endowed" school in the world. 

Jackson county was first to manufacture gins in upper Georgia, 
—1820, by Mr. Orr. 

First to have an Academy solely for girls — 1824. 

First to use an anaesthetic, — by Dr. Crawford W. Long, March 
30, 1842. Mr. J. M. Venable was the patient. 

First to produce 100 bushels of corn, — by Master Joe Stone, in 

First in growing the finest "short staple" cotton, — Talmo 

Thus our county has made wonderful progress in the 118 years 
of its existence, but greater things are in store for her and she 
will attain the goal.