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Full text of "The early history of Raleigh, the capital city of North Carolina. A centennial address delivered by invitation of the Committee on the centennial celebration of the foundation of the city, October 18, 1892"

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THE EARLY HISTORY OF RALEIGH, 

THE CAPITAL CITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 



fl CENTENNIAL RDDRE88 

DELIVERED BY INVITATION OF THE COMMITTEE ON 

THE CENTENNIAL CELEBRATION OF THE 

FOUNDATION OF THE CITY, 

OCTOBER 18, 1892, 



Kemi^ F*. Battle, LL. D., 

professor of history in the university of north carolina. 




AND 

AN ACCOUNT OF THE CENTENNIAL CELEBRATION, 

prei'ar);d by the 
CHAIRMAN OF THE PUBLICATION COMMITTEE, 

AT THE REQUEST OF THE BOARD OF MANAGERS. 



RALEIGH: 

Edwards & Brouohton, Printers and Binders. 

1893. 



^^ "L^f 



-R 




T a meeting- of the Board of Managers of the Ealeigh 
Centennial Celebration, held ]^ovember 4, 1892, the 
following resolutions were adopted : 

'''' Remitted, That the grateful thanks of this Board of 
Managers be tendered in behalf of the citizens of lialeigh, 
to Hon. Kemp P. Battle, for the able and scholarly address 
upon the historic past of Raleigh, in which he has preserved 
for us and our children so much of the wit and wisdom of 
our forefathers. 

'■^ Resolved, Tliat Dr. Battle be requested to furnish a copy 
of his valuable address for publication.'' 

The following gentlemen, on the resolution of the Board, 
were aj^pointed by the Chair to prepare and publish a full 
account of the Celebration and incidents connected there- 
with, and the Centennial Address and Poem : 

C. B. Dexson, T. R. Jernigan, 

JosEPHus Daniels, R. H. Lewis, 

W. S. Primrose, J. J. Hall, 

S. A. Ashe. 



At a meeting of the Committee of Publication, held July 
12, 1893, the following was presented by a sub-committee of 
Messrs. W. S. Primrose, S. A. Ashe and K. H. Lewis, M. D., 
and adopted by the Committee : 

Whereas, This Committee, appointed to publish an 
account of the Centennial Celebration of the City of lial- 
eigh, appreciates most highly the unselfish labor which 
Capt, C. B. Denson has bestowed on this volume, and 
desires to make some fitting recognition of his work ; 

Resolved, That the thanks of this Committee are hereby 
especially tendered to Captain Denson for his valuable ser- 
vices, so loyally and patriotically rendered the City of Kal- 
eigh, and that this resolution be printed in the volume, as 
expressive of our sentiments. 



RALEIGH 



PRIZE CENTENNIAL POEM. 

BY MISS MINNIE MAY CURTIS, RALEIGH, N. C. 

() Raleigh ! noble namesake of a niau of fairest fame, 

Our fathers chose most wisely when they crowned yon with 

his name I 
And his spirit — brave, undaunted — seemed to nerve them 

for the strife — 
For the earnest, arduous elfort that brought you into life. 
A hundred years of patience, of weary toil and care, 
Have yielded a rich fruitage, have reared your structure fair. 
O noble State ! be proud and glad ; rejoice on every side ! 
Thy queenly daughter celebrates her natal day with pride. 
Let loving hands delight to iling gay banners to the breeze ; 
Let children's happy voices ring beneath the spreading trees ; 
Let joyous pteans echo from the mountains to the sea. 
To celebrate with gladness our day of jubilee ! 

For all that Science, Art and Skill have br(jught us by the 
way ; 

For all that makes life sweet and good, we thank thee, 
Lord, to-day ; 

For godly shepherds who have led tlieir Hocks to })astures 
fair ; 

For skilled physicians who have wrought with never-weary- 
ing care ; 

For statesmen wise, avIio framed our laws with justice and 
with truth ; 

For faithful teachers who have trained with earnest zeal our 
youth ; 

For- tradesmen in the Inisy mart; for tillers of the soil ; 

For all who l)uilt our city u]) with patient, arduous toil. 



O noble pioneers I who wrought tlirougli long- antl weary 
years, 

We reap with joyful hearts to-day what you have sown iji 

tears ! 
We know your happy spirits, in the blissful realms above. 
Are looking down upon us now in tenderness and love. 

Hushed be the noise of party strife ; contentions die away ! 

This is a holy festival — a glad, yet solemn, day^ — 

A day when wrongs should be forgiven, and bitterness 

should cease. 
And over all should brood in love the fair, sweet dove of 

peace. 

As God has loved us, let us love ; let no one dwell apart; 
Let one broad band of love extend, uniting heart with heart. 
In union lies our strength, and we may win yet brighter 

fame 
In years to come, if one in heart, we labor with one aim. 

So may our city ever be a steady beacon bright. 

Whose beams of purity and love shine with far-reaching 

light. 
So may the nations honor us, and children's children rise 
To call our memory blessed, when we've passed beyond the 

skies ; 

So may they celebrate with joy another hundred years. 

And garner np with grateful hearts, with happy smiles and 

tears, 
A nobler harvest; and with still a greater pride may they 
Pay homage to a glorious and a grand Centennial Day ! 



/ 



INTRODUCTORY. 

Fellow Citizens: — Allow me to explain that I have pre- 
pared this address under great disadvantages. In the first 
place, my University duties, since the reception of the invi- 
tation so kindly extended me by the Committee of Arrange- 
ments, have been very exacting. And secondly I have been 
embarrassed in endeavoring to avoid repeating substantial 
parts of my centennial address July 4, 1876. I began my 
work with the hope that I could cover the whole period of 
one hundred years, but soon found it impossible to do so 
without writing a book instead of an address. I concluded, 
therefore, to confine myself mainly to the inauguration of 
the city, and to the institutions and leading citizens of the 
first two decades. Even with this limitation I must omit in 
the delivery more than half of what I have prepared. 



THE EARLY HISTORY OF RALEIGH, 

THE CAPITAL GUY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 



THE COUNTY OF WAKE. 

The county of Wake dates its birth from troublous times. 
The Regulators, whose insurrectionary movements were prin- 
cipally in the middle counties of the State, had broken up 
courts, cruelly beaten officers of the law, and were threaten- 
ing to march on Newbern* and enforce their demands at the 
rifle's mouth. The Assembly concluded that a state of civil 
war existed and determined to coerce the rebels into submis- 
sion. The militia of the loyal counties were ordered to be 
embodied. Martial law was virtually declared. The safe- 
guards of liberty were suspended by the passage of the act, 
approved by one party as necessary and proper, and stigma- 
tized by the other as the " Bloody Bill." It must have been 
with the double design of appeasing the angry feelings of 
the disaffected by granting them greater convenience for the 
transaction of public business with increased representation 
in the Legislature, and of lessening the opportunities of gatli- 
ering numbers from wide areas, that four new counties were 
erected by this Assembly of 1770. From Rowan was cut off 
the county of Surry, named after Lord Surrey, a prominent 
member of the British Parliament, favorable to the colonies. 
Orange lost part of her territory to form the new county of 
Chatham, called in honor of the " Great Commoner " recently 
transferred to the House of Peers. From Orange and Rowan 
was erected the county of Guilford, in honor of the father of 
Lord North, heir-apparent to the earldom of Guilford, who 
in the same year entered on his long and baleful service as. 
Prime Minister. And lastly, from Johnston, chiefly, with 
slices of Cumberland and Orange, was carved the grand 
county, the capital of which is the city whose centennial we 
are celebrating to-day. 

The royal Governor of that period was a man of striking 
personal qualities and of high family connections, William 
Tryon. In a less turbulent time he w^ould have been the 

* I adopt " Newbern " instead of " New Bern " or " New Berne," because I And 
that mode of writing the name most usual in the Acts of Assembly, and because 
it is so written in the Post-office Directory. Tliere are numerous analogies, e. g., 
Newcastle, Newport, Plymouth, Portsmouth, Charleston, etc. 



10^ 

best beloved of all our colonial Governors. There was a 
Charles Tryon who married the daughter of Earl Ferrers, 
and I conjecture that he was their son. His wife was a 
Miss Wake, whose fortune of £20,000 ($100,000) entitled 
her in those days to be called wealthy. She probably was a 
scion of the noble house of Wake, which a few years before 
had given to England an Archbishop, and she was known 
in our colony as " Lady Tryon." Governor Tryon had a sister 
who, in our Colonial Records, is styled the " Honorable 
Miss Tryon," so that she was maid of honor to the Queen. ^ 
Lady Tryon's sister, Esther Wake, having the same name as"" 
one of the Archbishop's daughters, accompanied her to North 
Carolina, and by her surpassing loveliness of person and ele- 
gance of manners, possibly set off by her probable possession 
of a fortune equal to that of her sister, made the hearts of our 
colonial legislators palpitate admiringly under their capa- 
cious waistcoats and frilled shirt-bosoms. It was partly her 
irresistible appeals which carried the votes of great sums for 
the building at Newbern of the finest palace in America for 
the Governor's use.* 

This palace was finished in 1770, and Governor Tryon 
and his lady, as representatives of the King and Queen of 
England, sat in arm-chairs in its grandest hall and received 
the representatives of the people and the elite of the capital 
at a brilliant ball given in honor of the completion. Gor- 
geous curtseys by the ladies and bows by the men were 
made in presence of the viceroy and his fair consort, and 
stately minuets danced before them in the good old stately 
style. The general admiration and respect culminated in 
giving the name of Wake to the new county, whether, in 
honor of Tryon's wife, or, as others say, of her sister, it is 
impossible now to determine. Probably the married mem- 
bers had in mind the former, while the bachelors hastened 
to win a smile from the fascinating Esther by the assurance 
that their stentorian "Aye" on the passage of the measure 
was prompted by devotion to her charms. 

The reason given in the preamble of the act for the erec- 
tion of the county is that " because of the large extent of 
Johnston, Cumberland and Orange it w-as grievous and bur- 
thensome to attend the courts, general musters and other 
public meetings." The first corner was at " the Edgecombe 
line on Moccoson swamp, a mile above James Lea's planta- 

*I follow the generally accepted tradition. The late James W. Bryan contended 
that Esther Wake is a myth. He slated that .Judge Gaston so thought. It will 
grieve nne if I find evidence which will force me to consign to the realms of fancy 
so cliarming a lady. 



11 

tion." The line then ran straight to "Neuse river, at the 
upper end of John Beddingfield's plantation ; then to David 
Minim's mill creek between Mimm's mill and Tanner's old 
mill ; then the same course continued to the ridge which 
divides Cumberland and Johnston counties ; then a straight 
line to Orange line, at the lower end of Richard Hill's plan- 
tation on Buckhorn ; then the same course continued five 
miles ; then to the corner of Johnston county on the Gran- 
ville line; then with the same line and Bute [now Franklin] 
line to Edgecomb line to the beginning." Afterwards, in 
1786, the part lying east of Moccoson swamp was ceded to 
Franklin. Joel Lane, John Smith (after whom Smithfield 
was named), Theophilus Hunter, Farquard Campbell (from 
him Cambellton, or lower Fayetteville, w^as called), and 
Walter Gibson, were appointed Commissioners to survey and 
mark the boundary lines between Wake, Johnston, Cumber- 
land and Orange. 

The question of the location of the county seat, often left 
to a vote of the people in our day, was entrusted to seven 
Commissioners appointed by the General Assembly, the upper 
house of which was composed of the Governor and his Coun- 
cil. These were Joel Lane, Theophilus Hunter, Hardy 
Sanders, Joseph Lane, John Hmton, Thomas Hines and 
Thomas Crawford. The Commissioners for building the 
court-house and jail were Joel Lane, James Martin and 
Theophilus Hunter. Judging from the foregoing names, it 
seems clear that the General Assembly predetermined the 
site, because we find that one member of the committee of 
location owned the land where the court-house was built, 
and certainly two others, his brother Joseph and Theophilus 
Hunter, were owners of adjoining plantations. 

The legal union of Church and State, which at this time 
had little practical influence on the life of the people, was 
indicated by constituting the entire county a Parish of the 
Church of England under the name of Saint Margaret. 

The names of the townships, until 1868 called precincts, 
of St. Mary, of St. Matthew, of St. Mark, which still survive, 
are mementoes of this legal union, dissolved forever by the 
severance of our political bonds with Great Britain. There 
were probably few members of the Church of England in the 
county, as there is no tradition of any chapels or other church 
buildings in its limits. With the exception of the Lane family 
I know of no members of this denomination whose families 
resided in the county at the date of its erection. Probably 
there were a few others. 



12 



WAKE COURT HOUSE. 



The ancestors of Joel Lane removed from the Albemarle 
country to Halifax. Thence he with two brothers, Joseph 
and Jesse, transferred their homes before the Revolution to 
the part of Johnston county afterwards Wake. Part of his 
residence still stands in the Boylan homestead. The court- 
house was a log building on the hillside in front of his 
dwelling, probably at the crossing of the roads from New- 
bern to Hillsboro and from Petersburg to Cross creek, after- 
wards Fayetteville. The name given to the county seat, 
Bloomsbury, sounds so much like a woman's fancy that I 
am constrained to be'ieve it was selected by the lovely Esther 
Wake and her sister. Lady Tryon. We may surmise that 
they intended to transfer to their county the name of the 
pretty hamlet then near London, now a part of that wonder- 
ful city, as Bloomsbury Square, near the British Museum. 
I love to conjecture that it was their English home. Onr 
ancestors showed scant courtesy in substituting for their 
choice the homely "Wake Court House." They made 
amends, however, by not erasing from the list of counties 
their name when they inflicted the indignity on Tryon and 
Bute of substituting for the former Lincoln and Rutherford, 
and for the latter Franklin and Warren. I make bold to 
suggest that the title of Bloomsbury Square shall be in this 
centennial year restored to the hill on which the old court-' 
house was located. 

About the year 1800 a new courthouse was erected on 
the Fayetteville street site — rectangular, of wood, of the 
shape of the old-fashioned country meeting-house. This 
was sold about 1835, and removed bodily to the southeast 
corner of Wilmington and Davie streets, and was for a long 
time a family residence, and then Cook's hotel. The brick 
structure wdiich replaced it was built in 1835, and remodeled 
in 1882, at which time the statue of Justice was placed over 
its front as a guardian and a monitor. 

THE SEAT OF GOVERNMENT OF NORTH CAROLINA 
IN COLONIAL DAYS. 

In colonial times the Governor resided at his own home 
and summoned the General Assembly to meet at some point 
deemed by him most convenient. For many years such 
place was in the northeastern counties. The earliest of these 



13 

temporary capitals wa^, so far as has been handed down, at 
the house of Captain John Hecklefield in the county of Per- 
quimans. Tlie important Assembly of 1715, tlie first whose 
full proceedings are known to us, which, soon after the terri- 
ble trials of the Tuscarora war, showed its hatred of arbitrary 
government by passing strong resolves against recent despotic 
acts of the executive and the military officers, met at the 
dwelling of Col. Richard Sanderson on Little river io the 
county of Perc^uimans. Five years later we find its session 
held at the court-house in Chowan, about five miles from 
Edenton, and in ] 822, the year of Governor Eden's death, the 
fair young town, looking out on the placid waters of Chowan 
bay, named in his honor, was officially established as the seat 
of government. During Governor Gabriel Johnston's admin- 
istration the centre of population moved away from tlie Albe- 
marle section towards the southwest. The Governor called 
the Assembl}' to convene in 1738 and 1739 at Newbern on 
account of iis central position. He earnestly advocated that 
this town should be made the permanent ''seat of govern- 
ment." The Albemarle counties bitterly opposed this, and, 
having five members to each county, while the others had 
only two, for some time regularly voted down all proposals 
for the change. At length, in 1746, the Governor appointed a 
session at Wilmington during the month of November, when 
the inhabitants of Albemarle were busil}' engaged in fatten- 
ing and slaughtering and curing and driving to market their 
crop of hogs. Their members, a majority of the body, were 
not present when the roll was called. According to the pre- 
cedents of half a century there was no quorum able to trans- 
act business. Then ensued the earliest and most unblush- 
ing arbitrary tactics ever witnessed in our State. The mem- 
bers present first voted that fifteen should be a quorum, and 
then passed an act reducing the representation of the Albe- 
marle counties to two each. Quickly followed an act fixing 
the seat of government at Newbern and making it the centre 
of the court system, the Westminster of North Carolina; and 
although the King disallowed the act, and the Albemarle 
people stoutl}^ refused to recognize the laws of the rump 
Assembly, the practical result was that after the sessions of 
the Assembly in 1740, 1741 and 1743 the town of Edenton 
witnessed legislative gatherings no more forever. Newbern 
had the exclusive honor, with the exception of sessions at 
Wilmington in 174(), 17''4, 1761, 1763 and 1765, and one 
called at Bathtown, now Bath, in 1752, the year of Johnston's 
death. 



14 

Our State provisional revolutionary bodies, called Con- 
gresses, were held at Newborn, Hillsborough and Halifax, 
the latter adopting the Constitution which went into opera- 
tion on the 23d day of December, 1776. 

THE REVOLUTION. 

The sessions of the Assembly during the Revolution were 
affected to a considerable extent by the exigencies of war. 
Those in 1777 and the first session of 1778, as well as the first 
of 1780, were held in Newborn. The second session of 1778, 
the second of 1780, and those of 1782 and 1783 were at Hills- 
borough. The third session of the General Assembly of 1778, 
which met in January, 1779, was at Halifax, as was likewise 
the second session of 1779. The first of 1779 was at Smith- 
field. The first of 1781 was " in Wake county," presumably 
at the court-house. One was appointed for Salem, but a 
quorum did not attend. 

After the Declaration of Peace the sessions of 1784 were, the 
first at Hillsborough, and the second at Newborn, as was also 
that of 1785. That of 1787 was at Tarboro. Those of 1786, 
1788, 1789, 1790 and the first session of 1793 were at Fay- 
etteville. Those of 1791, 1792 and the second session of 1793, 
held in June, 1794, were in Newbern. 

From the foregoing it appears that the first capital of the 
State was Edenton, and the second practically at Newbern. 
As the act of 1746, designating Newbern as the seat of gov- 
ernment, was not approved by the King, the claim of that 
town rested on the action of the Governor, who had power 
to designate tlie places as well as the times of the sessions of 
the Assembly. 

MOVEMENTS FOR A PERMANENT CAPITAL. 

It was plainly impossible that the public business could 
be properly conducted when the Governor and other State 
officers lived at diverse points, when the Legislature migrated 
with less regularity than wild birds, and the public records 
were scattered about according to the convenience or whims 
of officers. North Carolina has sufiered sorely in money and 
reputation from losses of her archives. In 1789 the General 
Assembly made this humiliating declaration, that "it is rep- 
resented by the agents of the State that many officers and 
whole regiments of privates who served in the continental 
line of this State are not to be found on the musters in the 
war or pay-office of the United States, and that no account 
has been taken of numerous wagons and teams with which 



15 

the armies of the United States have been supplied by this 
State," and then orders the Comptroller to search for such 
musters among the private papers of the late Governors and 
of such military officers as may be supposed to have them. 
It was the opinion of all our statesmen and well informed 
men of the Revolution, and afterwards, that great injus- 
tice was done to North Carolina in the settlement with the 
general Government b}^ reason of papers, which would have 
shown our expenditures for the war, having been lost or 
hopelessly mislaid. 

Notwithstanding these evils, there was such a want of 
homogeneousness in the State, one part trading with Nor- 
folk, others with Petersburg, Richmond, Charleston, Wil- 
mington, Newbern and Fayetteville, that it was with great 
difficulty that a change could be made. The General Assem- 
blies shrank from preferring one part over another. A con- 
vention of the people was to be held in Hillsborough in 1788 
to consider the new Federal Constitution. The General 
Assembly of 1787, sitting in Tarboro, requested the people to 
instruct their delegates to "fix on the place for the unalter- 
able seat of government." 

In accordance with this suggestion the Convention of 1788, 
having decided that the Constitution of the United States 
ought not to be adopted without amendments, took up the 
question thus referred to it. After deliberation the majority 
evidently concluded to adopt as near as possible the 
geographical centre of the State, and instructed the General 
Assembly to provide for the selection of a site within ten 
miles of the plantation of Isaac Hunter, in the county of 
Wake. Doubtless other centres were voted for, but the Jour- 
nal of the Convention cannot be found, and I am unable to 
give them. It will be seen hereafter that the AVake county 
circle won by a combination of the delegates from the val- 
leys of the streams flowing into the sounds of Albemarle and 
Pamlico, and that the most formidable opponent was Fay- 
etteville. 

This historical tract of Isaac Hunter lies about three and 
a half miles north of our city on what was once the great 
road from the North to the South by way of Petersburg, 
Warrenton, Louisburg, Wake Court House to Fayetteviile, 
Charleston and other points. The great oaks which prob- 
ably sheltered Isaac Hunter and the guests of his hos- 
pitable home, still stand about one mile north of Crabtree 
bridge. Within ten miles is a long stretch of Neuse river, 
and many of the delegates most probably supposed that the 



16 

new city would possess wharves and shi|)ping, as it was then, 
and for years afterwards, believed, thai the Neuse could be 
made navigable to its Falls, and even beyond to the hills of 
Orange. Indeed, Hamihon Fulton, a iScotch engineer, em- 
ployed by the State during the canal fever, about 1820, gives 
it as his opinion that Rileigh can be directly connected 
with the ocean by a system of dams and locks from the 
crossing of the Faj^etteville road over Rock}- branch. He 
gives the fall down that stream and Walnut creek to Neuse 
river at seventy-four feet three inches, and the distance 
ten miles, four furlongs and eleven rods. He recommends, 
however, in preference to this, tliat the port of Raleigh should 
be on the Crabtree at the Louisburg road crossing, estima- 
ting the expense of dams and locks on the creek, and ahorse 
railroad from Raleigh to the landing, at S35, 255.- It would 
be still better, he said, to have Kaleigh's port on Neuse river 
with a six-mile railroad. It is a historic truth that our 
people invested money in a Neuse River Navigation Com- 
pany, and succeeded in sending one boat, James H. Murray 
captain, down to Newbern and back. It is not surprising, 
with such visions in the air, that the inhabitants of the val- 
leys of the streams flowing into the Albemarle and Pamlico 
sounds united in a legislative log-rolling. 

The General Assemblies were slow in carrying into eflect 
the ordinance of the Convention. There was fierce hostility 
to the location in Wake. There were charges of trickery and 
management in securing it. In November, 1788, Willie 
Jones, in the Senate, moved to carry the ordinance into effect. 
The bill passed by a vote of 26 to 20. The Journal of the 
lower house shows that it was received, amended and jiassed 
its second reading. As it was not ratified, very probably 
the opposition understood the trick of killing bills with 
odious "riders," and the friends of the bill not liking the 
amendments allowed it to drop. 

The Convention and the General Assembly' of 1781) met 
in Fayetteville at the same time. The adoption of the Fed- 
eral Constitution was of such momentous importance that 
probably the failure of the A.<=sembly to consider the ques- 
tion of the seat of government was caused b}^ forgetful n ess. 
In 1790 the Assembly, meeting in the satne town, was so 
evenly divided that the proposition to carry into effect the 
ordinance of 1788 passed the House by the casting vote of 
Stephen Cabarrus, its Speaker, and failed in the Senate by 
the casting vote of a Western man, William Lenoir, the 
Speaker. 



17 

The intensity of the feeling of the friends of Fayetteville 
was shown by its struggle to secure the meeting of the fol- 
lowing General Assembly — that of 1791. After a long and 
close contest Newborn carried the vote, and the cause of 
Flora McDonald's town was lost forever. 

At this Assembly of 1791 an act was passed to carry into 
effect the mandate of the people in convention assembled 
Nine Commissioners, not ten, as has been erroneously stated, 
were appointed to locate the city and five to erect a State- 
house at a co=t of $20,000. The bill passed the Senate in 
January, 1792. by the close vote of 27 to 24, and the House 
by 58 to 53. In the former body Joseph R. Gautier, a promi- 
nent lawyer. Senator from Bladen, who, by the by, left in his 
will a valuable library to the State University, presented a 
strong protest, which, with the names of the signers, I give 
in full, as showing the strength of the feeling on the subject: 

Because permanence cannot be insured to a measure carried by so 
inconsiderable a majority — a measure by which the interest of our con- 
stituents are materially injured— by which the public g)od is sacrificed 
to local combinations and personal influence, and against which as men, 
to ansvver the trust delegated to us, we solemnly protest: — 

Because although it may be inconvenient and inconsistent with the 
dignity of this State that its government sliould continue to be ambula- 
tory, yet in the deternnnation neither economy or policy are consulted — 
the interest of the most valuable part of the State sacrificed (perhaps for 
jealousy of its importance) by the tyranny of an accidental and most 
trifling majority. 

Because the precedent of deciding on carrying into effect measures 
attended with such infinite expense to the country under the sanction of 
an accidental vote which may be reversed at a day not far distant, is 
pregnant with the most fatal mischiefs, and will in future, as it does on 
the present occasion, encoiu'age an intrigue in our counsels, and aban- 
don the command of the treasury and the control of tlie properties of 
the people to the efforts of design, and to the machinations of an inter- 
ested party. 

[Signed] Joseph McDowell (the elder, of Burke), 
John A. Campbell (of New Hanover), 
Joseph Hodge (of Orange), 
David Caldwell (of Iredell). 
KiCHARD Singleton (of Sampson), 
J. R. Gautier (of Bladen), 

F. Campbell (of Cumberland), 
ZebSdee Wood (of Randolph), 
Joseph Winston (of Stokes), 
John Stewart (of Chatham). 
Joseph Graham (of Mecklenburg), 
David Gillespie (of Guilford), 
Joseph Dickson (of Lincoln), 
Thomas Wade (of Anson), 
James Turner (of Montgomery), 
J. Willis (of Robeson), 
Richard Clinton (of Sampson), 
Thomas Tyson (of Moore). 

C. Galloway (of Rockingham), 

G. H. Berger (of Rowan). 



18 

There are strong men in this list. We find Gren. Thomas 
Wade, of Anson, after whom Wadesboro is named ; General 
Joseph Graham, father of Governor W. A. Graham; Joseph 
Dickson, Joseph Winston and Joseph McDowell, senior, all 
three afterwards members of Congress. If attention is paid 
to the counties represented by them it will be found that 
there are eight in the Cape Fear basin: Bladen, Chatham, 
Cumberland, New Hanover, Randolph, Guilford, Sampson 
and Moore. Of the others, the following at that day traded 
almost exclusively with Fayetteville, townt: Anson, Mont- 
gomery'', Robeson, Rowan, Orange, Rockingham and Stokes. 
The remaining western counties, Burke, Iredell, Lincoln, 
Rutherford and Mecklenburg, strangely as it may appear to 
us, traded largely in the same direction. It thus appears that 
the contest was on behalf of this good old town, which, on 
account of its being the head of navigation of the Cape Fear, 
was one of the most important places in our State. Five 
meetings of the General Assembly and the Convention of 
1789, which adopted the Federal Constitution, had been held 
within its limits. It was made a court town of a new 
judicial district. This same Convention had conferred on 
it the extraordinary privilege of sending a borough member 
to the General Assembly. Its citizens and friends had pro- 
cured charters authorizing the clearing and deepening of the 
channel of the Cape Fear from Wilmington to Averasboro. 
All road hands living within two miles of the river could be 
compelled to this work for twelve days in the year. In 1790 
a charter was granted to make Cross creek navigable. Great 
manufacturing enterprises were to be inaugurated. Henry 
Emanuel Lutterloh was authorized by special law to import 
from abroad capitalists and skilled laborers, who were to be 
exempt from all taxation for five years. To make the offer 
still more tempting, the immigrants were in terms vested 
with the perpetual power of erecting their own churches and 
school-houses. Lutterloh was authorized by law to raise by 
a lottery $6,000 for the purpose of paying the expenses of 
transportation and settlement. Perhaps it is an indication 
of the confident hope of securing for this commercial and 
manufacturing centre the further advantages of the seat of 
government, that the citizens called the public building, in 
which General Assemblies sometimes met, burnt in the great 
fire of 1831, which occupied the site of the present market- 
house, the " State-house." These facts explain the strong 
language of Gautier's Protest. It was the beginning of the 
great "Eastern and Western " contest. 



19 

ELECTION OF COMMISSIONERS OF LOCATION. 

The act of 1791 provided for one commissioner of location 
from each of the Judicial Districts, and a ninth from the 
State-at-large. The following nominations were made : 

For the Morgan District — Joseph McDowell, the elder. 

For the Salisbury District — Matthew Lock and James 
Martin. 

Nor the Hillsborough District — Thomas Person and Joseph 
Hodge. 

For the Halifax District — Thomas Blount. 

For the Edenton District — William J. Dawson. 

For the Newbern District — Frederick Hargett. 

For theFayetteville District — Farquhard Campbell, Henry 
William Harrington, Henry E. Lutterloh and John Willis. 

For the Wilmington District — .James Bloodworth, Edward 
Jones and .John A. Campbell. 

For the Ninth Commissioner — * Willie Jones, Griffith Ruth- 
erford and Alexander Mebane. 

The following were elected : 

For IVJorgan District — Joseph McDowell, the elder. 

For Salisbury District — James Martin. 

For Hillsborough District — Thomas Person. 

For Halifax District — Thomas Blount. 

For Edenton District — William Johnston Dawson. 

For Newbern District — Frederick Hargett. 

For Fayetteville District — Plenry William Harrington. 

For the Wilmington District — James Bloodworth. 

For Ninth Commissioner — Willie Jones. 

BUILDING COMMITTEE. 

The following nominations were made for the Building 
Committee of five : 

Richard Benehan, "the venerable Judge Williams," John 
Macon, Robert Goodloe, George Lucas, Nathan Bryan, 
Theophilus Hunter, William Cain, Wyatt Hawkins, James 
Porterfield. 

Of these, Messrs. Richard Bennehan, John Macon, Robert 
Goodloe, Nathan Bryan, Theophilus Hunter were elected. 

The Commissioners for Location will be described hereaf- 
ter. Of the Building Committee Richard Bennehan was of 
Orange. Coming from Petersburg as a clerk in the country 
store of a rich Hillsboro merchant named Johnson, partly 
by marriage, but mainly by investments from time to time 

♦Pronounced Wi-ley. 



20 

of his earnings in slaves and in the rich bottom lands of the 
Neuse and its tributaries, the Eno and Flat, he accumulated 
one of the largest estates in North Carolina. His only 
daughter married Judge Duncan Cameron, and at the death 
of her brother, Thomas I). Bennehan, who never married, 
succeeded to all the estates of her father. Richard Benne- 
han was a man of boundless hospitality, of large public 
spirit, one of the early Trustees of the University, of which 
he was a generous benefactor. 

John Macon was much trusted by the people of Warren, 
for four years a Commoner and ten years consecutively Sen- 
ator. He was a brother of the more eminent Nathaniel 
Macon, from the same county. 

Robert Goodloe was a citizen of Franklin, a prominent 
planter and builder, whose descendants are among the best 
people of Alabama, Tennessee and Kentucky. One of them, 
Colonel Green Clay Goodloe, is now a paymaster in tlie United 
States Marine Corps. The eminent statesman and lawyer, 
Robert Goodloe Harper, who had the peculiar honor of 
being elected to Congress from two districts in South Caro- 
lina at the same time, and who, after marrying a (laughter 
of Charles Carroll of Carrollton, became one of the leaders 
of the Baltimore Bar and United States Senator from Mary- 
land, was a nephew of Robert Goodloe. 

Nathan Bryan had been a member of the Constitutional 
Convention of 1788, was then Senator from Jones and after- 
wards a member of Congress. 

Theophilus Hunter was a brother of the Isaac Hunter who 
owned the centre of the circle within which the location was 
to be ma'le, and will be hereafter more |)articularly described. 

LOCATION OF THE CAPITAL. 

It has been generally believed that the Commissioners 
had unrestricted powers in regard to the new cit}'. This is 
a mistake. The General Assembly prescribed the width of 
the streets, limited the quantity of land to be purchased at not 
exceeding one thousand acres, and the area of the city at 
not less than four hundred acres, and commanded that at 
least twenty acres should be reserved for the State house 
and other public buildings. Tiie compensation of the Com- 
missioners was twenty shillings, or $2 per day. 

On Tuesday the 20th March, 1792, there assembled at the 
house of Isaac Hunter five of the nine Commissioners, viz., 
Frederick Hargett, of Jones; William Johnston Diwsou, of 



21 

Chowan; Joseph McDowell (the elder), of Burke; James 
Martin, of Stokes ; Thomas Blount, of Edgecombe. They did 
not organize, but adjourned at once to the house of Joel 
Lane, at Wake Court House. On the next day they began 
their work by viewing the lands which had been offered to 
them as suitable sites. On the 22d they were joined by 
Willie Jones, of Halifax. 

It is pleasant to travel on horseback with these worthy 
citizens among the gentle hills of Wake, then putting on the 
green loveliness of spring. As the squirrels chattered in the 
oaks and hickories, the rabbits tripped into the broomsedge, 
the mocking-birds poured out their mimetic melody, they 
scanned closely, with woodman's eye, the ridges and streams 
and level uplands, and discoursed sagely about the prospects 
of the coming city. And when they reached their place of 
repose at night, and refreshed their weary frames with the 
fragrant toddy and savory beef, venison or mutton, with 
smoking biscuit and buttered batter-cakes which the busy 
housewife most hospitably set before them, they discussed 
the great questions pending in the political world — how the 
French Revolution would make all the world free, whether 
Hamilton or Jefllerson in Washington's Cabinet would most 
influence the action of their great chief. And they discussed, 
too, the rising influence of the Democratic Republican party, 
which was destined to destroy the Federalist party and con- 
trol the government for many years, and, with wonderful 
vitality and sanguine expectation of victory, is now reaching 
out its hands to grasp again the reins of power. 

The tracts offered to the commissioners, and which they 
were eight days in riding over, not stopping for Sunday, 
were — 

1. The land of Nathaniel Jone=, of White Plains, prob- 
ably including the town of Cary. 

2. That of Theophilus Hunter, senior, on the Fayetteville 
road, one mile from his residence, called Spring Hill. This 
tract is now part of the Bledsoe land. 

3. That of Theophilus Hunter, junior, two miles south of 
AVake Court House, now owned by W. G. Upchurch, the 
Caraleigh company, and others. 

4. That of Joel Lane, at Wake Court House. 

5. That of Henry Lane, one mile north of Wake Court 
House, lately belonging to Henry Mordecai, deceased, a de- 
scendant of Henry Lane. 

6. That of Isaac Hunter, the center of the circle, now the 
property of the estate of Mrs. Mary Smith Morehead. 



22 

7. That of Nathaniel Jones, still belonging to his heirs, 
the home tract of Mrs. Kimbrough Jones. 

8. That on both sides of Neuse river, at the Great Falls, 
now owned by the Raleigh Paper Company, and others. 

9. That of Thomas Crawford, on the north side of Neuse, 
three miles below the Great Falls, now owned by L. C. Dunn. 

10. That of Dempsey Powell, on south side of Neuse, at 
Powell's bridge, seven miles of Isaac Hunter, now owned by 
W. H. Pace. 

11. That of Ethelred Rogers, on the north side of Neuse 
river, at Rogers' Ferry, now owned by Mrs. Fabius J. Hay- 
wood, the elder. 

12. Those of Michael Rogers, Hardy Dean and John Ezell, 
adjoining the last tract ; nearly all of which land now belongs 
to Mrs. Fabius J. Haywood, the elder, the granddaughter of 
Michael Rogers. 

13. That of John Hinton, on the north side of Neuse, one 
mile below his dwelling-house, late the property of Mrs. 
Betsey Hinton. 

14. That of Kimbrough Hinton, on the north side of Neuse 
near the eastern part of the circle, now belonging to the heirs 
of Madison C. Hodge. 

15. Those of Lovett Bryan and others, on the south side of 
Neuse, between Crabtree and Walnut creeks, now belonging 
to the estate of Wm. R. Pool. 

16. That of William Jeffreys, on the south side of Neuse, 
opposite Rogers' Ferry, still in the hands of the same famil3^ 

17. That of William Jeffreys, on the south side of Neuse, 
three miles from Jacob Hunter's, on the road to Powell's 
bridge, still belonging to the same family. 

It is recorded that on the 27th the Commissioners took a 
second view of the lands of Joel and Henry Lane. The prices 
demanded for each of the seventeen tracts are not stated in 
the report. 

On Thursday, the 29th of March, the Commissioners pro- 
ceeded to organize themselves into a Board, choosing unani- 
mously as chairman the estimable Frederick Hargett, who 
was likewise chairman of the Board which selected the site 
of the University. They then proceeded to ballot for the 
place most proper to be purchased. Only three obtained any 
vote. John Hinton's tract on the north side of the Neuse, 
near Milburnie, received three votes; Joel Lane's tract at 
Wake Court-house received two votes; and Nathaniel Jones' 
tract near Cary received one vote. So there was no choice. 



23 

It will be noticed that eight of the seventeen tracts offered 
were on Neuse river, and of these some were at the points 
where there is water-power. As one-half of the Commission- 
ers on the first ballot expressed their preference for John 
Hinton's land, only one mile from Milburnie, it is clear that 
there was considerable expectation in the public mind that 
the new city ought to be a manufacturing centre, with some, 
if not great, navigable facilities. It would be an agreeable 
pastime to go into a conjectural estimate of what would have 
been the development of our city if the Hinton land could 
have obtained one more vote. 

That vote was not had. The Board adjourned until next 
day. Willie Jones was a master of the art of persuasion and 
was an intimate friend of Joel Lane. Lane himself was a 
man of influence, who had served the State in the Colonial 
Congress and as Senator for ten years in succession. Very 
probably he offered new inducements as to price. At any 
rate, on Friday, the 30th of March, a second ballot was taken, 
with the result that Wake Court House received five votes, and 
the Hinton land received only one vote. Possibly Lane was 
adversely criticised for his tactics in winning the contest. 
There was abundant room for unpleasant talk on account 
of his entertaining the Commissioners at his house. They 
were acting as judges and were certainly, notwithstanding 
their high character, liable to the criticism that they ate the 
bread of one of the litigants. I cannot find their accounts 
of expenses, but it is altogether probable that they paid for 
their entertainment. I notice that Lane was Senator from 
1782 to 1792, both inclusive, but that in the next year James 
Hinton had his place. This is some evidence that the Hin- 
ton famil}^ resented his success in the negotiation and that 
the people took their side. If so, the displeasure was evanes- 
cent, for he was Senator again in 1794 and 1795. The soli- 
tary supporter of the Neuse river location on the last ballot 
consented that the vote should be made unanimous. 

The quantity purchased was the maximum allowed by 
the law, one thousand acres. The price was thirty shillings, 
or $3, for the "woodland and fresh grounds," and twenty 
shillings per acre ($2) for the old-field. The fact, now ascer- 
tained, that there were 756 acres of the former and 244 acres 
of the old-fields, gives us a striking picture of the wasteful 
husbandry of that day. One-fourth of the tract, after being 
cleared and cultivated, was abandoned because exhausted, 
and rated at only two-thirds the value of land covered by 



24 

the original forest growth. The price of the whole was 
£1,378, or $2,756.* 

The surveyor employed was William Christmas, State 
Senator from Franklin county, who agreed to accept in full 
compensation for his services, including six copies of the 
plan of the city, four shillings, or forty cents currency, for 
each lot. As there were 276 lots, his pay amounted to $110.40. 
Christmas had theretofore run the boundary between Frank- 
lin and Warren counties, and had laid out the town of War- 
ren ton. 

PLAN OF THE CITY. 

The work of the survey occupied four days. The plan 
was adopted on the 4th April, the Commissioners assigning 
names to the public squares and streets. They gave the 
name Union to tlie Capitol Square, which is nearly six acres 
in extent. Four other squares of four acres each they called 
in honor of the first three Governors of our State under the 
Constitution of 1776, and of the Attorney General. 

In the northwest is Caswell Square, commemorating 
Richard Caswell, one of the commanders at Moore's creek 
bridge, the first Governor. 

In the southwest is Nash Square, commemorating Abner 
Nash, the second Governor. Doubtless they had in mind 
also one of the first martyrs to liberty, his biotlier, General 
Francis Nash. 

In the northeast is Burke Square, commemorating Thomas 
Burke, eminent in State and continental legislative bodies, 
the third Governor. 

In the southeast is Moore Scjuare, honoring Alfred Moore, 
who, when barely of age, fought for our liberties, and was 
then Attorney General, soon to be elevated to the Supreme 
Court bench of the most august judicial tribunal in the 
world. The fourth Governor, Alexander Martin, was not 
honored by the name of this square, because a street was 
named after his brother. 

In naming the streets, the Commissioners first honored 
the eight judicial districts into which the State was divided, 
viz. : Those of Edenton, Newbern, Wilmington, Hillsborough, 
Halifax, Salisbury, Fayetteville and Morgan. f The street 
leading from the centre of Union Square, perpendicularly 
thereto toward the north, was called Halifax street; that to 
the east Newbern ; that to the south Fayetteville, and that to 

* The pound currency equaled 92 at that time and for some years afterwards. 
fThe Western .Tudiclal District was so called, although the court town was Mor- 
gan Town, now Morganton. 



25 

the west liilLbnrough. These are 99 feet, all the others are 
66 feet wide, their width being prescribed by the Act of 1791. 

The streets running east and west along the north and 
the south side of Union Square, were called, respectively, 
Edenton and Morgan. Those running north and south 
along the east and the west side were called, respectively, 
Wihnington and Salisbury. 

The other streets, with the exception of those most remote 
from Union Square, which being the boundary streets, were 
called North, East, South and West, were named, firstly, 
alter the nine Commissioners on Location. This left four 
streets. In naming them the Commissioners concluded to 
compliment the Speaker of the Senate, William Lenoir; the 
Speaker of the House, Stephen Cabarrus; the former owner 
of the land, Joel Lane, and lastly, General William Rich- 
ardson Davie. Why Davie was selected for this honor over 
other great men of the day we can only conjeciure. My 
opinion is clear that it was the work of his townsman, the 
very influential Willie Jones. Davie was ah active mem- 
ber of the Convention of 1788, and of the General Assembly 
of 1791, and was a friend of the movement for a permanent 
capital. 

We thus have parallel to Edenton and Morgan streets, 
north of the Capitol, Jones and Lane; to the south, Hargett, 
Martin, Davie, Cabarrus and Lenoir. Parallel to Wilming- 
ton and Salisbury are, to the east, Blount, Person and Blood- 
v^^orth ; to the west, McDowell, Dawson and Harrington. All 
these are notable names in our State history, and their own- 
ers must have a brief notice. 

SHORT BIOGRAPHIES OF COMMISSIONERS, Etc. 

The nine commissioners were — 

1. Willie Jones, of Halifax, the leader of the Anti-Feder- 
alists, a member of the Provincial Congress at Newbern in 
1774, chairman of the Committee of Safety in 1776, and, 
therefore, virtually Governor; a member of the Continental 
Congress in 1780-81, often Senator and Commoner in the 
State Legislature; so fearful of the loss of the rights of the peo- 
ple, that he refused to accept a seat in the Constitutional Con- 
vention of 1787 at Philadelphia, and led the party in the State 
Convention of 1788 opposed to the adoption of the Federal 
Constitution. Although no orator, he was a most adroit 
party leader. He eventually removed to Wake county, 
buying the plantation now owned in part by the St. Augus- 
2 



26 

tine Normal School, aud is buried on this place, without a 
stone to mark his resting-place. 

2. Frederick Hargett, chairman, then and for many years 
Senator from Jones ; a colleague of Abner Nash, who was in 
the House of Commons. 

3. James Martin, a fighting colonel of militia in the Revo- 
lution, who had participated in the movement which led to 
the victory of Moore's Creek Bridge, was with Rutherford in 
the expedition which crushed the Cherokees in 1776, was 
one of the militia who stood their ground and helped cripple 
Cornwallis at Guilford Court House, and was with his old 
commander, Rutherford, in the Wilmington expedition in 
1781. After the war he was a trusted legislator from Stokes. 
His brother, Nathaniel Martin, of Guilford, was then Gov- 
ernor, unanimously elected, having likewise held that office 
during the war. From the Governor's chair he was elected 
to the Senate of the United States. His services to his country 
were of such high order that posterity must forgive him for 
writing rhymes, which he called poetry. The deed from 
Joel Lane for the land purchased for the capital was to him 
in trust for the State. 

4. Thomas Blount, a Revolutionary officer, elected to the 
National House of Representatives the same year, afterwards 
Senator from Edgecombe. His wife was the only daughter 
of General Jethro Sumner, who gave her the name of Jacky 
Sullivan, probably after General John (or Jack) Sullivan of 
the Revolutionary army. After reaching years of discre- 
tion she changed this name to Mary Sumner, and, doubtless 
because her husband was so intimatelv associated with the 
city of Raleigh, she bequeathed a considerable sum for build- 
ing Christ (Ep'iscopal) Church in the city. Thomas Blount 
was of an eminent family. His father, Jacob Blount, of 
Blount Hall in Pitt, was a member of the Provincial Con- 
gress during the Revolutionary struggles. Of his sons, AVil- 
liam Blount was a member of Congress of the Confederacy, 
and as member of the Convention of 1787 signed the Fed- 
eral Constitution. He was afterwards Senator of the United 
States aud Governor of Tennessee. John Gray Blount, who 
was also in the Revolutionary army, was a useful member 
of the Legislature and one of the largest landowners in the 
State; Major Reading Blount was a Revolutionary officer and 
likewise a member of the Assembly, and Willie Blount was 
Governor and Judge of the Supreme Court of Tennessee. 
The very promising LTniversity student whom we recently 
followed sorrowingly to your cemetery, Lawrence Branch 



27 

Jones, and also bis uncle, William Augustus Blount Branch, 
member of Congress from the first district, are lineal descend- 
ants of Jacob Blount. 

5. Thomas Person, the wealthy S3'mpathizer with the Regu- 
lators, as long as they adopted lawful measures for the 
redress of their grievances, was a general of militia in the early 
Revolution, a trusted legislator from his native Granville, a 
benefactor of the University. After him a county is named, 
as well as a Hall at the University, the first chapel of the 
institution. 

6. James Bloodworth, who had many times represented New 
Hanover in the House of Commons, was afterwards IState 
Senator. He was a son of Timothy Bloodworth, a gunmaker, 
who attained the dignity of Speaker of the House of Com- 
mons, a delegate from our State to the Confederate Congress, 
a representative in the Congress of the Union, a Senator of 
the United States. It has been generally believed that the 
father was the Commissioner of Location, but the record 
shows otherwise. 

7. Col. Joseph McDowell, the elder, of Quaker Meadows, 
is to be distinguished from Captain Joseph McDowell, junior, 
of Pleasant Garden, his cousin and a ph3'sician. Both of 
them served against the Cherokees under Rutherford, shared 
in the victories of Ramsour's mill, of King's mountain and 
of Cowpens ; both were often members of the Legislature 
from Burke; both were members of Congress, taking active 
part against the Alien and Sedition Laws; both were leaders 
of the anti-Federalist party in the West, and resisted in the 
Convention of 1778 the immediate and unconditional ratifi- 
cation of the Federal Constitution ; both were in the Con- 
vention of 1789, but divided in their votes, the elder still 
adhering to his opposition. Joseph McDowell, the elder, 
brother of General Charles McDowell, of Quaker Meadows, 
and afterwards of John's river, was the Commissioner. He 
was, in 1792, Senator from Burke; his cousin, of Pleasant 
Garden, now in McDowell county, being at home. I will 
add that he left only two daughters, who removed to Vir- 
ginia, and that no descendants of his name survive. The 
parallelism of the lives of these two worthy men has led to 
grievous entanglement b}'' the annalists, and we are indebted 
to Judge A. C. Avery of the Supreme Court for most careful 
work in distinguishing them. 

8. William Johnston Dawson, of Chowan, son of Colonel 
John Dawson and Penelope Eden, daughter of Governor 
Gabriel Johnston, repeatedly in the State Legislature, was a 



28 

member of Congress, a man of refinement and culture and 
of great influence in the Albemarle country. 

9. Henry William Harrington, an officer of influence in 
the Revolutionary struggle, was a member of the Legislature 
from Richmond county, a planter of immense estates and 
baronial style of living. His son, of the same name, was a 
member of the Convention of 1835, and lived on his 13,000- 
acre estate on the Pee Dee, amid his cotton fields, and his 
slaves, and his tine horses, his deer, foxes and wildcats, " like 
a fine old English gentleman all of the olden time." 

These were the Commissioners. Streets were likewise 
called, as I have said, in honor of — 

1. William Lenoir, Speaker of the Senate, a hero of King's 
Mountain, and of other important Revolutionary campaigns, 
whose name is likewise athxed to an eastern county and a 
western town, the first president and last survivor of the 
sixty eminent men who constituted the first Board of Trus- 
tees of the University of North Carolina. 

2. Stephen Cabarius, an immigrant from France, with the 
courtesy and polish characteristic of that country. Speaker 
of the House of Commons for years, greatly beloved, not 
only by the people of his adopted county, Chowan, but by 
the whole State. His name is perpetuated by one of the 
richest counties, as well as by this street in the capital. 

3. Joel Lane, who deserved the honor not only because he 
was the owner of tfie site, but because of his military ser- 
vices as colonel of militia, and his faithfully representing 
the county of Wake in the Colonial Assemblies, the State 
Coiigresses and tJje State Senate, of unbounded hospitality 
and winning personality, whose ancestors had been useful 
citizens in the Albemarle country and then in Halifax. The 
grandsons of his brother, Jesse Lane, became eminent in 
distant States. General J( seph Lane was Federal Senator 
from Oregon, and candidate for the Vice-Presidency on the 
Breckinridge ticket; Henry S. Lane, Governor and Federal 
Senator of Indiana, and George W. Lane was District Judge 
of the United States for Alabama. Joel Lane's descendants, 
through his son Henr}^ — two of whose daughters married 
the eminent lawyer, Moses Mordecai — are still among us. 

4. Lastly, there was William Richardson Davie, a gallant 
cavalry officer, then at the special request of General Greene 
undertaking the arduous task of feeding his army as Com- 
missary General, but with the stipulation tliat if he should 
be present at a battle he might engage in active conflict. 
After the war an eloquent and successful lawyer, a strong 



29 

advocate of the education of the people, bringing into life 
the dormant clause of the ConsLituiion which requires "one 
or more universities" of the State, and hence earning the 
honorable title of "Father of the University." He was for 
years a member of the Slate Legislature. At the time of the 
location of our city he was, as one of our North Carolina 
Commissioners, engaged in running our southwestern boun- 
dary line from a point "on the great road leading from 
Charlotte to Camden, near the Waxahaw creek, as far as the 
eastern boundary line of the territory ceded by the State of 
Ni>rth Carolina to the United States." He was one of the 
delegates from North Carolina to the Constitutional Conven- 
tion of 1787 and in the State Conventions of 1788 and of 
17b9, he was an ardent advocate of the ratification of the 
Federal Constitution. He was afterwards Governor of the 
State, and, on the prospect of a war with France, was ap- 
pointed by President Adams a Brigadier General in the 
Array of the United States. He was selected by the Presi- 
dent as one of the three special envoys to France who suc- 
ceeded in averting the war. 

I have been thus minute in describing those whose names 
are prominently connected with theinauguration of our city, 
because it is of great importance that our people shall 
keep in mind their virtues, and recognize that we have 
something in our past history to be proud of. Reverence 
for the past tends to make its possessor f)urer and better. I 
think all Raleigh children should be taught these facts as 
an essential part of their education. The rulers and teachers 
of powerful and conquering nations have deemed it wise to 
stimulate State pride in their citizens by inventing legends of 
thegreatdeedsof prehistoricfounders. Rome had her Romu- 
lus, Athens her Theseus, Sparta her Heracles ; and so with 
all the notable cities of antiquity. It is the g:ood fortune of 
our city to have founders whose virtues and patriotic acts 
are recorded in truthful history. Let us give them the 
abundant honor which is their due, and our children will 
be stimulated to imitate them. 

The feeling of pride which we should have on account of 
our city's beginnings being associated with such excellent 
men, should be heightened by reflecting on the brilliant 
soldier, statesman and man of letters. Sir AValter Raleigh, 
after whom the city was named. It is true that he did not 
set foot on our soil. It is true that his designs s^em to have 
come to naught, his vast expenditures wasted, that the cor- 
ner-stone of the projected city of Raleigh on the distant 



30 

Roanoke Island was never laid, and only mournful memo- 
ries are associated with his efforts at colonization, yet the 
greatness of his aims, his sacrifices and his splendid virtues, 
merit this honor. He was not faultless, but it is fortunate 
that our city's name should bring to our mind one of the 
noblest and most accomplished knights of his age. 

DETAILS OF THE PLAN. 

Reverting to the original plan of the city we find that, 
counting the two boundary streets, there are from north to 
south 12 streets, of which 11 are G6 feet wide and one 99 feet; 
from east to west there are 11 streets, of which 10 are 6(j feet 
wide and one 99 feet. From north to south there are 18 one- 
acre lots; from east to west 16 one-acre lots. Including the 
boundary streets, the city was 4,581 feet from north to south, 
and 4,097t from east to west, supposing that the lots are 208f 
feet square. If the lots are 210 feet square, as they are 
usually estimated, then the distance is north to south 4,605 
feet, east to west 4,059. 

The plan was not, however, a perfect rectangle. Between 
Lane and North streets at the northeast and northwest cor- 
ners were left out three lots of one acre each, and between 
Lenoir and South streets, at the southeast and southwest cor- 
ners, were left out three lots of one acre each, or a total of 
twelve acres. There were, therefore, only ten lots fronting on 
North and ten fronting on South street. Our sagacious found- 
ers by this arrangement intended to provide, in addition to 
the five public squares established bv them, that when future 
extensions of the city limits should be made there should 
be four other squares or little parks for playgrounds for chil- 
dren, for flowers and trees and fountains. When afterwards 
the General Assembly ordered sales of land outside the old 
city limits, the plan of leaving these areas open for public 
recreation grounds was adhered to. It was reserved for the 
men of the last forty years, who think, because they have 
travelled on railroads and talked through wires, that they 
are far wiser than their forefathers, to close the southwest 
reservation with an asylum, and to sell the others for build- 
ing-lots. 

The lots are numbered as follows, starting with No. 1, the 
extreme southeast lot, between South and Lenoir streets ; then 
running regularly west to No. 10, inclusive; then returning. 
No. 11 is the extreme southeast lot, adjoining Bloodworth, 
East and Lenoir; then the numbers run regularly to West 



31 

street, the last being No. 26 ; beginning again witli No. 27 at 
the eastern end of Cabarrus street north of No. 11, and so on 
from east to west regularly sixteen numbers in each tier until 
Lane street is passed, there being only ten numbers north of 
Lane, as there are ten south of Lenoir. 

Union or Capitol Square does not interfere with this sys- 
tem of numbering, there being a square numbered acre in 
each corner with the width of Fayetteville and Hillsboro 
streets added. 

All the public squares are four acres each, except Union, 
which is about six acres. All the private squares are four 
acres each, except those along Hillsboro and Newbern streets 
on both sides, those along Llalifax and Fayetteville streets 
on both sides, and those along North, East, South and West 
streets-, which are not, mathematically speaking, squares, but 
rectangles of two acres each. The acres as laid out by surveyor 
Christmas were each 208| feet square, the true acre, but the 
conventional acre of 210 feet square has been adopted practi- 
cally. This departure and the variation of the compass 
since 1792 have caused considerable confusion in the bounda- 
ries of lots and streets. 

In 1867 Governor Worth, Secretary of State Best, Treasurer 
Battle and Auditor Burgin, then having the public property 
under their charge, employed General Walter Gwynne, the 
eminent civil engineer of tiie North Carolina Kailroad Com- 
pan}'^, to make a survey and draw a map showing the boun- 
daries of the land then owned by the State. His assistant 
was a very competent surveyor, a citizen of Raleigh, Mr. 
John W. Johnson. They found, as also did Mr. Feudal 
Bevers, County Surveyor, that the city of 1867 did not ex- 
actly correspond with the plan of 1792, there being many 
encroachments on the streets. As, however, these streets 
have been wide enough to accommodate all using them for 
pleasure or business, the city authorities have not seen fit to 
resist these encroachments. 

The Commissioners made their report to the General As- 
sembly of 1792 and it was adopted. It was enacted that 
"the several streets represented in the plan, and the public 
square whereon the State-house is to be built, shall be called 
and forever known by the names given to them respectively 
by the Commissioners aforesaid." It was also enacted that 
the other Jour public squares shall be called and known by 
the names of Caswell, Moore, Nash and Burke squares, but 
the names were not made irrepealable. 



32 

The plan of the city thus laid out and adopted by the 
General Assembly continued unchaneed lor over sixty years. 
By the General Assembly of 1856-57 the corporate limits 
were extended one-fourth of a mile each way. Within this 
new part other streets have been opened, e. g., in the eastern 
part Swain street, after David L. Swain, who held the posts of 
legislator, Solicitor, Judge, Governor, and then spent over 
one-third of a century in training the young men of the 
South, as President of the University ; Linden avenue, a fancy 
name. West of the Capitol, Boylan street, after William Boy- 
Ian, who will be particularly mentioned, hereafter ; Saunders 
street, after Romulus M. Saunders, long a public servant as 
member of our General Assembly and of Congress, Judge 
and Minister to Spain. North of tlie Capitol are Peace street, 
after William Peace, a leading merchant for many years, 
after whom Peace Institute is named ; Johnson street, after 
Albert Johnson, connected with the Raleigh and Gaston 
Railroad from its completion to a few years ngo, as engineer, 
superintendent of shops- and su|)erintendent of the road ;* 
Polk street, after Col. William Polk, who will be specially 
mentioned liereafter. South of the Capitol are Smithfield 
street, after the town of Smithfield; Cannon street, alter Robert 
Cannon, once a leading citizen, owner of the land through 
which it runs; Manly street, after Charles Manly, Governor, 
and for manv years identified with the University as its Sec- 
retary and Treasurer; Fowle, after our distinguished Gov- 
ernor, whose sudden death was such a shock to our State; 
Blake street, after John C. Blake, a Commissioner ; and Pugh 
street, after John Pugh Haywood. 

FIRST SALES. 

The same Commissioners who located the city made the 
first sale of lots, one acre each. All but forty-two found 
purchasers. Most were apparently bought on speculation 
by men who did not intend to become citizens. Of the Com- 
missioners, Blount became purchaser of four lots, Timothy 
and James Blood worth seven, W. J. Dawson one, Joseph 
McDowell three, Frederick Hargett one, James Martin one, 
while Willie Jones became the owner of fifteen acres of the 
new city, though not all in one body. Joel Lane regained 
six acres of his former land. William Richardson Davie 
bought four, Governor Martin and the Speaker of the House, 

* Mr. Johnson was the first engineer of the " Tornado," one of the earliest engines 
of the Raleigh and Gaston Railroad, and upon the occasion of the Centennial of 
October ISth, 1892, he gallantly rode with the reproduced Tornado in the parade. 



33 

Cabarrus, bought one each. Samuel Ashe, Benjaiuin Smith, 
David Stone, and Gabriel. Holmes, all destined to be Gov- 
ernors, and John Baptist Ashe of Halifax, elected Governor, 
but dying before inauguration, became owners of one or two 
lots each. John Craven, the Comptroller, and John Hay- 
wood, the Treasurer, purchased two lots each, but built 
houses on others bought afterw;irds. The dwelling built 
by Treasurer Haywood on the k.t owned by his son, Dr. 
E. Burke Haywood, is the only house still owned and occu- 
pied by the family of the original builder. It is in accord- 
ance with the instability of the ownership of landed prop- 
erty in America that the only lots owned by the heirs of the 
original purchaser are numbers 140, 141, loH, and 157, 
bought b}' Richard Bennehan. Davie purchased the square 
of four acres now the residence of Dr. T. D. Hogg. The 
square now occupied by the Agricultural building became 
the propert}" of Thomas E. Sumner, son of General Jethro 
Sumner; the site of the Federal court-house and post-ofhce 
passed to Timothy Bloodworth : that occupied by the Yar- 
borough house and the court-house lot opposite to Theophi- 
lus Hunter. Numbers 138 and 154 were reserved as State 
brickyards, in analogy to the Tuilleries (or tile yards) of Paris, 
though no grand palace was built on them. All the lots 
south of Cabarrus street, forty-two in number, were returned 
unsold. The report of the Commissioners cannot be found, 
and is not printed in the legislative journals, but our very 
efficient State Librarian, J. C. Birdsjng, has recovered an 
old map with prices marked on it. I give those of some 
prominent lots. 

The square on which Dr. Hogg lives, bought by General 
Davie, brought $254 for the four acres ; the two lots front- 
ing on Burke Square cost him $66 and $68; the two others 
only $60 each ; No. '211, on which the Agricultural building 
and Supreme Court building are situate, brought £13 L 10s., 
or $263; No. 162, the acre on the southeast corner of Fay- 
etteville and Morgan street, next Union Square, brought 
$232. This was very soon the site of Casso's tavern. The 
acre opposite where the Young Men's Christian Association 
home stands, $222. No. 227, the next to the Agricultural 
building on the north brought only $92. Lot No. 79, where 
Colonel W. J. Hicks resides, brought $79. 

I was painfully surprised in comparing the map of 1834 
with that of 1793 to find that nearly all the lots had changed 
owners. The only exceptions were those belonging to the 
heirs of Richard Bennehan, a half lot to W. T. Lane, a half 



34 

lot to Theophilus Hunler, one lot to the heirs of Lane, and 
one, bought by Dempsey Blake, in the hands of Susannah 
Blake. Not one of these owners, except possibly the last, 
became residents. There is a tradition that most of those 
who thus speculated on the early prosperit}^ of this "city on 
paper" lost money on their ventures. The following trans- 
actions in our real estate will show the truth of this conjec- 
ture : In 1801 one quarter of an acre, part of No. 163, on 
Fayetteville street, the business part of the city, sold for $60. 
A lot opposite, fronting 21 feet and running back 60 feet, 
brought $165. Away from Fayetteville street the prices were 
lower. The Wm. Dallas Haywood lot brought $60 per acre. 
There were other sales of eligible sites for homes as low as 
$50 per acre. 

SALES OF 1813. 

The main body of the 600 acres of land retained after the 
first sale lay to the east of Raleigh. There were fragments 
lying to the south, west and north of the old corporate limits. 
For the purpose of providing better accommodations for the 
Governor, who had occupied a plain residence of wood on 
the lot where the Raleigh National Bank now stands, the 
General Assembly of 1813 ordered the sale of those portions 
described as " extending from Sugg's branch on the southeast 
of the city, all south around the Palace lot and west to the 
extreme northwest of the city," comprising about 184 acres. 
It seems strange that this action should have been taken 
while the war of 1812 was raging. The prices, as might be 
expected, were low. Eight acres at the end of Fayetteville 
street were reserved for the Governor's house. Other reser- 
vations were the Rex spring near the Raleigh and Gaston 
depot, the spring near the Governor's Mansion, and that near 
the Colored Deaf and Dumb Asylum. 

It was at this sale that John Rex, the tanner, a worthy citi- 
zen, bought for $481 15| acres of the land in the southwest 
part of the city devised by him with other property for an 
infirmary or hospital for the sick and alHicted poor of the 
city of Raleigh. This is only about $31 per acre. The Com- 
missioners entrusted with the sale were Henry Potter of 
Raleigh, a lawyer, afterwards Judge of the District Court of 
the United States; Henry Seawell, who will be described 
hereafter; William HintoQ, often Senator from Wake, and 
Nathaniel Jones of Crabtree, often Senator and Congressman; 
Theophilus Hunter and William Peace. 



35 

The proceeds of sale were devoted to the building, under 
the superintendence of one Calder, as architect, of the Gov- 
ernor's Mansion at the foot of Fa3'etteville street, which was 
afterwards in 1876 sold to the cit}' of Raleigh, and the bricks 
composing it were used in the construction of the Centennial 
Graded School. Although outwardly plain and inwardly 
uncomfortable, it was considered grand on account of the 
magnitude of its halls and chambers, and was, therefore, in 
imitation of Tryon's residence, burnt in 1798, styled " The 
Palace." The first occupant was Governor William Miller, 
of Warren, who had an unenviable notoriety for recklessness 
in the pardon of criminals. Senator Badger told me of this 
with strong disapproval. He added that Dr. John B. Beck- 
with, father of Bishop Beckwith of Georgia, for many years 
a most skilful physician of Raleigh, afterwards of Peters- 
burg in Virginia, denounced in the strongest language the 
recent pardon of a vicious criminal convicted of a capital 
felony. " Well," said Badger, " your views are correct, Doc- 
tor, but you have no right to complain. I saw your name 
signed to the petition for executive clemency. 1 refused to 
sign, and I have the right to complain." " I admit that I 
signed it," said the Doctor, " but I did not think that Gov- 
ernor Miller would be such a fool as to pay any attention to 
a petition." 

SALES OF 1819. 

In 1819 live Commissioners were appointed to sell all the 
public lands remaining unsold, except a tract not exceeding 
twenty acres to be reserved for the rock quarry, and except the 
reservations at the corners of the city. The first Commissioner 
named was Duncan Cameron, long one of the most influen- 
tial men in the State as lawyer, judge, legislator, bank presi- 
dent, planter, then a resident of Orange. The others were 
John Winslow, the Commoner from the borough of Fayette- 
ville; Joseph Gales, who will be particularly described ; Wil- 
liam Robards of Granville, the State Treasurer, and Henry 
Potter, already mentioned. The " Mordecai Grove," as it 
was called for many years, northeast of the city limits, owing 
to the spirited competition between Moses Mordecai, the suc- 
cessful bidder, and Col. William Polk, brought the unheard 
of price of 100 per acre. The lots near the city on the east 
and southeast averaged about $50 per acre. 



36 

the; first state-house. 

The proceeds of the sales of 1792 were used in building the 
first State house, as it was called in the Act of Assembly, the 
name taken from the United States of Holland. The more 
ambitious term "Capitol" was not adopted until 1832. The 
architect was Rhody Atkins. The bricks were made in the 
State yards, Nos. 138 and 154, and burnt with wood cut from 
the State forests The maximum cost fixed by the Assembly 
was $20,000, and this amount probably was sufficient for the 
rude brick structure, whose barnlike, dingy, reddish walls 
loomed up among the primeval oaks, and was really for 
occupancy two years later. In November, 1794, the General 
Assembly met in it for the first time. Richard Dobbs Spaight, 
the elder, was the Governor, the same who eight years after- 
wards was slain in a duel by John Stanly. 

The old State-house was smaller than the present structure, 
but the arrangement of the interior was about the same. 
The exterior was as plain as a gigantic dog-kennel, but 
it is doubtful if any building in our State ever served so 
many uses or gave as much genuine pleasure. As there was 
no other public hall in the city, the authorities were gener- 
ous in opening its passages below and halls above for Fourth 
of July dinners, theatrical performances, dancing balls, and 
the religious congregations of all denominations. Many a 
side has been split with laughter, many a throat made 
hoarse with patriotic singing and furious shouting, many a 
head made to swim with Fourth of July brandy and rum, 
many a heart transfixed through and through by the dart 
of the God of Love, many a fantastic toe has been tripped 
in the jocund jig and lively reel, many eloquent speeches or 
sermons uttered by zealous legislators or preachers burning 
with missionary zeal, in that homely old building. It was 
the people's house and the people were allowed to use it. 

The net proceeds of the sales of 1819 were used in im- 
proving this structure. A skilled architect, Captain William 
Nichols, was employed. He disguised the ferruginous ugli- 
ness of the walls with stuccoed imitation of granite. On 
the centre of the roof a shapely dome was raised. Over the 
east and west doors were placed handsome porticoes The 
interior received touches of ornament. The commissioners 
had the nerve and the love of art to order from the great 
Canova one of his grandest statues, in Carrara marble, of the 
Father of our country. It was brought by water to Fayette- 
ville, and thence by sixteen or twenty-mule power to Raleigh. 



37 

It was escorted into the city in grand style by the Raleigh 
Blues, their color-bearer perched on the monument, and 
enthusiastically waving his flag. 

It was placed in the rotunda under the dome. It was a mat- 
ter of deepest pride that the eminent Marquis de LaFayette, 
who with chivalric devotion had left his young wife and the 
delights of a luxurious home, together with the certainty of 
high places at court, and had fought under the eye of Wash- 
ington for the liberties of a struggling people, who had then 
striven vainly, but with the admiration of the "world, to pro- 
vide for France constitutional freedom without bloody 
anarchy, who had in his old age come to visit the grateful 
people whom he had helped to self-government, had stood 
at the base of Canova's statue and praised its workmanship 
and its resemblance to its great original. It is fortunate- 
that we have here to-night an engraving of the scene. The 
lady with him is the late very accomplished Elizabeth Eagles 
Haywood, daughter of Treasurer John Haywood, with whom 
LaFayette had just dined. She was known generally as 
Miss Betsey John Haywood, to distinguish her from Miss 
Betsey Henry Haywood, her cousin, afterwards wife of Gov- 
ernor Dudley. The boy is George West, son of Major John 
T. West, and grandson of Joseph Gales, who afterwards was 
draughtsman in our navy, attached to Commodore Perry's 
Japan expedition. 

BURNING OF THE STATE-HOUSE. 

In the morning of a bright summer day, the 21st of June, 
1831, the citizens rising from their breakfasts were startled 
with the cry of " Fire !" Volumes of smoke were seen issuing 
from the ventilators under the roof. My father had just 
stepped out of his hotel, and the first thing he saw when he 
looked towards the building were owls flying from the attic 
window, followed by lurid flames. If the city had owned 
our present fire equipment, under Captain Engelhard, its 
efficient Superintendent, the work of extinguishment would 
have been easy, but the efforts of the puny engines of that 
day were pjowerless. As the fire descended leisurely from 
the roof where it had been kindled by the carelessness of a 
workman, there was ample time for saving most of the State 
papers, but all the Acts of Assembly were destroyed. In the 
excitement, although there were numerous willing hands,their 
strength could not be organized for removing the ponderous 
statue. Old citizens never forgot their horror as they gazed 



38 

on the beautifal marble, white hot and crumbling, among 
the forked tongues of flame, then shattered into fragments 
as the blazing timbers fell. Portions of the statue, including 
the body and some of the pedestal, are now preserved in the 
State museum. 

An English sculptor of eminence, Ball Hughes, who 
became an American citizen, residing in New York, and 
then near Boston, afterwards came and looked on the ruins 
of Canova's work, and avowed his ability to restore it for 
$3,000. Through the influence of Judge Gaston a contract 
was made with him by legislative enactment, and five hun- 
dred dollars was advanced for preliminary expenses. Sign- 
ing the receipt for this money was the last act done by him 
in performance of his work. 

The loss of the bound copies of the Acts of Assembly was 
remedied partly bv purchase of straggling volumes in the 
State, but mainly by the bequest of Waigbtstill Avery, the 
first Attorney General. 

THE GLASGOW FRAUDS. 

The State-house came near destruction by fire long before 
this, destruction not accidental, but with the design to screen 
criminals. The story should not be allowed to die. 

James Glasgow was one of the most trusted men of the 
Revolution. He was one of the Committee of Safety of the 
Newbern district. He was Major of the regiment of Dobbs. 
When Richard Caswell was chosen first Governor of inde- 
pendent North Carolina, Glasgow was the first Secretary of 
State. When the name of Dobbs was expunged from our 
list of counties, one of the counties taking its place was called • 
Glasgow. 

But North Carolina knows how to punish as well as honor. 
The name of Greene has supplanted on the map that of the 
obliterated Glasgow, and on the records of the ancient and 
honorable society of Masons the black lines of disgrace are 
drawn around the signature of the poor wretch expelled 
from their order for crime. 

In 1797 it was discovered with horror that Glasgow was 
issuing fraudulent grants of land in Tennessee and Western 
North Carolina. He had many accomplices, men of daring, 
who hesitated not to destroy evidence against them by poison 
or fire or the rifle bullet. 

He was indicted for misdemeanor in office. A special 
tribunal, afterwards expanded into the old Supreme Court, 



39 

was created for the trial of him and his accomplices. Judge 
John Haywood, for a .$1,000 fee, considered enormous in that 
day, although he drew the act constituting the new court, 
left the bench in order to defend him. Haywood's removal 
to Tennessee was probably in some measure caused by the 
disapproval of his course by the people. 

The accomplices of Glasgow were not content to trust to 
the skill of Haywood. Certain documents in the Comptrol- 
ler's office were necessary for their conviction. It was plan- 
ned to abstract them and burn the State-house in which 
they were deposited. Judges McNairy and Tatom heard of 
the plot and determined to anticipate it. A messenger was 
seat in the depth of winter over precipitous mountain paths, 
through swollen torrents, along the Indian trails, to carry to 
Governor Samuel Ashe the secret letter which would save 
our State-house and our archives. A trusty watch was set, 
and soon a negro hired for the purpose was caught in the 
act of breaking into the Comptroller's office. Poor Phil 
Terrell, the viciim of the more cunning criminals, died a 
felon's deatli on the scatibld. 

THE NEW CAPITOL. 

These narrow escapes from losing the arcliives of the State 
determined the leaders of public opinion to provide the 
present noble fire-proof structure of granite. Tliere was 
fornjidable opposition to a liberal appropriation. A con- 
vention was expected to be called in order to secure changes 
in the Constitution, and the effort to have the seat of gov- 
ernment at another point was resumed. Old citizens say 
that Haywood, at the junction of the Cape Fear and the 
Haw, lacked only one vote to defeat Raleigh. The record 
does not support this, as the bill to appropriate .$50,000 for 
rebuilding on the old site, passed by 73 to 60 in the House, 
and 35 to 28 in the Senate, but the traditional vote may 
have been in the "Committee of the Whole." 

Citizens of Fayetteville tell me that the Commoner from 
that borough, a lawyer of great ability and force of charac- 
ter, Louis D. Henry, became odious to his constituents for 
not pressing the claims of that town at this favorable junc- 
ture. Some charged, not openly, for he was a man of hot 
temper, and had killed Thomas J. Stanly in a duel, that he 
had been bribed, but there was no evidence of this. Nor 
did the odium, I think, drive him to remove his residence 
to Raleigh, because this change did not take place until 



40 

fourteen years afterwards, after he had, as the Democratic 
nominee, made an able but unsuccessful canvass against 
Morehead for the governorship. This much is certain, how- 
ever, that althougli repeatedly theretofore a member, he 
never, after 1832, represented either the county or the town 
in the Legislature. 

Judge Henry Seawell, then Senator from Wake, is cred- 
ited with saving our city from the threatened ruin. He 
procured the passage of the bill appropriating -$50,000 for 
the erection of the Capitol on the old site, many members 
being persuaded by oversanguine promises, it is said, that 
this amount would finish the work. 

The Commissioners, who had the nerve to expend the 
whole appropriation in laying the foundation of a structure 
worthy to be called the official house of a million people, 
deserve to have their names handed down. They were emi- 
nent for business talent and integrity. They were William 
Boylan, Duncan Cameron, William S. Mhoon, Henry Seawell 
and Romulus M. Saunders. All were Raleigh men, except 
William S. Mhoon, of Bertie, who was a temporar}^ resident, 
then and until 1835 Treasurer of the State. 

The act was adroitly worded so as to appear to provide 
only for a $50,000 building, while its legal interpretation as 
a whole undoubtedly relieves the Commissioners from the 
charge of a breach of trust. It was provided "that the gen- 
eral plan of the said Capitol shall be the same as the former 
building, with such extension of length and height as may 
be deemed necessary for the better accommodation of the 
General Assembly, the lower story of which, at least, shall 
be built of stone, and the roof covered with zinc or other fire- 
proof material." Another section authorized the Commis- 
sioners to employ an architect for such purposes as they 
"may deem necessary." This virtual expression of opinion 
on the part of the law-making power in favor of a larger 
building, and of fire-proof materials, together with the powder 
to call in an expert, shifts the burden of miscalculating the 
expenditures to the expert. 

My experience at the University is that, as a rule, the 
votaries of the most noble profession of architecture either 
are little gifted with prescience or feel bound only b}' a slight 
tenure to respect limitation as to expenditures. I am minute 
in explaining this action of the Commissioners because of 
the common belief that they took the responsibility of disre- 
garding the statute under which they were acting. Certain 
it is that subsequent General Assemblies ratified their action 



41 

by additional ajjpropriations until the completion of the 
Capitol in 1840, the total accounts footing up to the grand 
total of $530,684.15. 

Probably because of continued grumbling by economical 
or demagogical members of the Assembly the Commissioners 
first appointed resigned their offices in 1836 and were suc- 
ceeded by Samuel F. Patterson, then State Treasurer; Bever- 
ley Daniel, Charles Manly, Alfred Jones and Charles L. Hin- 
ton, afterwards State Treasurer; men deemed worthy of all 
praise. The Commissioners aj)pointed Daniel as ciiairman. 

Tw^o architects were consuUed, William Nichols (who 
repaired the old building in 1820) and Ithiel Town, of New 
York. The latter acted for a short while as the chief director, 
but soon his services were dispensed with and the work was 
left to W. S. Drummond, Colonel Thomas Bragg, fati)er of 
Governor Bragg, and David Baton, superintendents of differ- 
ent branches. Paton was the chief draughtsman. Of the 
foremen and skilled laborers employed from time to time 
some settled in Raleigh and their descendants are among our 
best citizens. In the old City Cemetery there is an interest- 
ing group of slabs marking the graves of those whom even 
the salubrious air of our city could not save from the darts 
of pallid death. 

THE NEW CAPITOL DESCRIBED. 

The following is a complete description of the new build- 
ing, written by architect David Paton: 

"The State Capitol is 100 feet in length from north to 
south, by 140 feet from east to west. The whole height is 97| 
feet in the centre. The apex of pediment is 64 feet in height. 
The stylobate is 18 feet in height. The columns of the east 
and west porticoes are 5 feet 2h inches in diameter. An 
entablature, including blocking course, is continued around 
the building, 12 feet high. 

"The columns and entablature are Grecian Doric, and 
copied from the Temple of Minerva, commonly called the 
Parthenon, which was erected in Athens about 500 years 
before Christ. An octagon tower surrounds the rotunda, 
which is ornamented with Grecian cornice, etc., and its dome 
is decorated at top with a similar ornament to that of the 
Choragic Monument of Lysicrates, commonly called the 
Lanthorn of Demosthenes. 

"The interior of the Capitol is divided into three stories : 



42 

" First, thelowerstory, consisting often rooms,eight of which 
are appropriated as offices to the Governor, Secretary, Treas- 
urer, and Comptroller, each having two rooms of the same 
size — the one containing an area of 649 square feet, the other 
528 square feet— the two committee rooms, each containing 200 
square feet, and four closets; also the rotunda, corridors, 
vestibules and piazzas, contain an area of 4,370 square feet. 
The vestibules are decorated with columns and antfe, similar 
to that of the Ionic Temple on the Ilissus, near the Acropolis of 
Athens. The remainder is groined with stone and brick, 
springing from columns and pilasters of the Roman Doric. 

" The second story consists of Senatorial and Representatives' 
chambers, the former containing an area of 2,545 and the lat- 
ter 2,849 square feet. Four apartments enter from Senate 
chamber^ two of which contain each an area of 169 square 
feet, and the other two contain each an area of 154 square 
feet; also two rooms enter from Representatives' chamber, 
each containing an area of 170 square feet; of two commit- 
tee rooms, each containing an area of 231 feet; of four 
presses and the passages, stairs, lobbies and colonades, con- 
taining an area of 3,204 square feet. 

" The lobbies and hall of Representatives have their col- 
umns and autre of the Octagon Tower of Andronicus 
Cyrrhestes, and the plan of the hall is of the formation of 
the Greek theatre, and the columns and antse in the Senato- 
rial chamber and rotunda are of the Temple of Erectheus, 
Minerva Polias and Pandrosus, in the Acropolis of Athens, 
near the above-named Parthenon. 

" Third, or attic story, consists of rooms appropriated to the 
Supreme Court and Library, each containing an area of 693 
square feet. Galleries of both houses have an area of 1,300 
square feet ; also two apartments entering from Senate gal- 
lery, each 169 square feet, of four presses and the lobbies' 
stairs, 988 square feet. These lobbies, as well as rotunda, 
are lit with cupolas, and it is proposed to finish the Court 
and Library in the florid Gothic style." 

BUILDING OF THE CITY. 

I return to the narrative of the beginnings of our city. 

The experiment of founding a city at a point not adapted 
by nature either for commerce or manufactures, far removed 
from navigable streams and from water-power, met at first 
with very little success. Those intending to become citizens 
moved in slowly. It required the quickening power of an 



43 

act of Assembly to secure the removal thereto of the execu- 
tive officers, the Governors having the address to have 
themselves at first excepted out of the mandate. We can 
well imagine how woeful it was to the minds of Spaight 
and Ashe, and of their " female families," to use an expres- 
sion of my friend, James H. Williams, of Warren, to leave 
the refined society of Newbern and Wilmington for the oak 
woods and briar patches of the projected capital. In 1794, 
however, the Assembly recjuired Ashe and future Governors 
to spend at least six months within its limits, exclusive of 
the time occupied by the General Assembly, and ordered 
that they should advertise the period of their sojourn in all 
the gazettes of the State. Four 3^ears later, in 1798, when 
Davie was Governor, doubtless with his approval, as he had 
purchased eligible Raleigh lots, an act was passed requiring 
the Governor to make the city of Raleigh his " place of com- 
mon residence." Whenever he should leave his home for 
over ten days he must give notice by advertisement in the 
gazettes, as newspapers were commonly then called, and his 
private secretary was required to keep the executive office 
open during his absence. 

THE FIRST CITY GOVERNMENT. 

The first act for the government of the city of Raleigh 
was passed February 7, 1795. This act did not vest the 
control of the city with its citizens. A counterpart of that 
system is now noticed in the government of Washington 
City. Raleigh's first government was, as the legal phrase 
goes, used more in England than in this country, " put into 
commission." That is, seven appointees of the General 
Assembly, styled Commissioners, the usual name for public 
agents appointed for special purposes, were vested with the 
government for three years. When their term was about to 
expire in 1797 it was renewed. Again, in 1801, there was a 
similar renewal, and three others were appointed " as addi- 
tional and permanent Commissioners." Only in case of 
their death, refusal or resignation could the citizens have a 
vote to fill the vacancy. These Commissioners were vested 
with the right to make laws for the government of the city, 
and also to choose an Intendant of Police, charged with the 
execution of the laws, and also a Treasurer, out of their num- 
ber, to hold office for one year, and a Clerk to hold during 
good behavior. The Intendant held his office indefinitely, 
as did the Commissioners. None of these officers were 



44 

required (o be citizens, and some of them are known not to 
have been such. Raleigh, therefore, for the first ten years 
of its life was very far from being free. Its legislative and 
chief executive officers were creatures of the General Assem- 
bly, and as all ten of the appointees accepted their offices, 
its people, except in the remote contingencies of resignation 
or death, had no voice in the making of their laws. 

This un-American action of the Assembly was thought to 
be necessary, because the citizens settled in their homes very 
slowly, and because the legislators desired to know the char- 
acter of these settlers before vesting in them the custody of 
the seat of government, in which the archives and the 
treasury of the State were to be kept, and its legislative 
councils were to be held. 

No evil to the people resulted from this long withholding 
of their freedom, because the Commissioners were men of 
wisdom and fairness. They were John Hayw^ood, Dugald 
McKeethan, John Marshall, John Rogers, John Pain, James 
Mares and John Craven, who were ))roperly the first City 
Fathers. Those added in 1797 were Joshua Sugg, William 
Polk and Theophilus Hunter. John Rogers was a member 
of the Legislature from Wake, and was a non-resident. 
Joshua Sugof, William Polk and Theophilus Hunter, though 
owners of lots in the corporate limits, did not reside therein. 

It is noticeable that this act was probably drawn by some 
admirer of French institutions. The atrocities of the Reign 
of Terror had not then alienated the sympathies of our peo- 
ple. "Commissions" were a striking feature of the revolu- 
tionary government of 3 794, and the chief officers in charge 
of departments, now called Prefects, had been for many years 
called Intendants. In our city the name Mayor was not 
adopted until 1856. The name Commissioners gave way to 
the good old Anglo-Saxon word Aldermen in 1875. 

John Haywood, who was elected by them "Intendaut of 
Police," was the first chief executive officer. It was not 
until 1803, eight years after the sale of lots, that, in the 
judgment of the General Assembly, the city was sufficiently 
populous to supply officers whose homes must be in the city 
limits. A regular charter was granted. The Commission- 
ers, seven in number, as well as the Intendant of Police, 
were to be elected by freemen having the qualification of resi- 
dence and of owning land within the city. Free negroes 
were included among the freemen. 



45 

CITY GROWTH. 

It was intended that thp Slate-house should front towards 
the east, " Orientalizaiion" at that time being all the fashion. 
It was therefore built so as to look down Newbern street 
in one direction, and Hillsboro street towards the west. This 
was continued when the present sione structure replaced the 
old. The same supposed necessity to front towards Jerusalem 
prompted the eminent French engineer, with the assent of 
Washington and other great officers, to plan the city of 
Washington with the Capitol looking eastward, and the early 
trustees of our State Univeisity to design its buildings to 
look towards the rising sun, with a broad avenue to Piney 
Prospect. In all three cases, however, the settlers refused to 
recognize t^iis architectural propriety, and built their shops 
and residences southward, westward or northward. 

Without discussing the question why Washington and 
Chapel Hill refused obstinately to take the advice of the 
architects, it is easy to explain why the bulk of the business 
of Raleigh located itself on Fayetteville street. 

In the tirst })lace, the bulk of the population of the county 
was in its southern and eastern portions, because settlers had 
worked their way up the Neuse and the Cape Fear and their 
tributaries. The merchants and mechanics, by getting loca- 
tions on this street received the advantage of the trade com- 
ing on both the Smithfield and the Fayetteville roads The 
county authorities, when the old log building on the Boy Ian 
hill was to be replaced by a structure more worthy of the 
capital city, naturally located the court-house on the same 
street, so as to accommodate the majority of their constituents. 

In the second place, the great mail route from North to 
South ran by way of Petersburg, Warren ton, Raleigh and 
Fayetteville, then to Georgetown and Charleston in South 
Carolina. Of course tavern-keepers and others seeking pub- 
lic patronage, selected their business stands along this high- 
way. So eager were they to attract attention and subserve 
the convenience of their patrons, that their buildings were 
placed immediately along the edge of the streets. The earliest 
charters showed the care of the General Assembly to regulate 
these encroachments on the sidewalks by porches, stoops, and 
cellar-doors. The earliest taverns were Casso's, next to the 
Capitol Square on the south, on the east side of Fayette- 
ville street; the Indian Queen, kept by Captain Scott on the 
site of the Federal court-hou'^e and post-office; the Eagle 
Hotel,built in 1812 by Charles Parish, of three stories, the first 



4.6 

brick-house, according to Governor Swain, in the cit}', with 
the exception of the State-house, located north of Union 
Square, and existing to this day, improved and remodeled 
into the State Agricultural Building. Other authorities say- 
that the old brick printing office of Joseph Gales was built 
prior to the Eagle Hotel. 

Three years after the granting of this charter, viz., in 1806, 
it appears that a jealousy between the different sections of 
the city had grown up. The central part, along Halifax and 
Fayetteville streets, being in a majority, was charged with 
not being fair in the distribution either of offices or money. 
The General Assembly was induced in 1806 to divide the 
city into three wards, all east of Wilmington and Halifax 
streets to be the eastern, and to elect three Commissioners ; 
all west of Salisbury and Halifax streets to be the western, 
and to elect one Commissioner, while the rest of the city was 
to be the middle ward, having five commissioners, the taxes 
of each ward to be spent therein by the Commissioners 
thereof. 

This unequal distribution was a concession to property, 
the legislation as well as the constitution of that day by no 
means recognizing universal suffrage, but, on the contrary, 
showing a nervous dread of trusting the property of the 
richer classes to the mercy of the poorer. By a census taken 
the next year, 1807, it was found that there were within the 
city limits 726 souls, of whom the middle ward had only 
250, the eastern 336, and the western 140. Of whites the 
middle ward had 140, the eastern 197, and the western 86, 
total 423. Of slaves the middle ward had 107, the eastern 
111, and the western 52 There were 33 free negroes, of 
whom 28 lived in the eastern ward. Counting one voter to 
every five free inhabitants there were in all about 95 resident 
voters. The number of non-residents entitled to vote because 
of owning land in the city must have been quite considerable. 

An amusing difficulty occurred under the Act of 1806. 
The one Commissioner of the western ward, increased to 
three in 1809, and the three Commissioners of the eastern 
ward had the right of spending for the benefit of their 
wards all the moneys collected therein after defraying general 
expenses. As the western ward was in part bounded on the 
east by Halifax street and the eastern was bounded on the 
west partly b}^ the same street, they stoutly contended that 
Halifax street was not in their wards. The doctrine of usque 
ad medium filum vine, i. c, that the ownership of lands adja- 
cent to rivers and highways extends to the middle thread 



47 

thereof, subject to the right-of-way of the public, made no 
impression on their non-legal minds. Thej^ eagerly gathered 
in the taxes on property and person adjacent to Halifax 
street, and stoutly refused to expend a dime on its repair. 
They contended that the letter of the act put the street into 
the middle ward, and the middle-warders must dig up its 
stumps and fill up its gullies. The General Assembly of 
1811 cured this defect by an amendment, evidently drawn 
by a middle-ward man too angry to respect the rules of 
grammar, and thereafter the centres of Wilmington and of 
Salisbury streets throughout their lengths were the bounda- 
ries of the eastern and western wards respectively. 

The effect of the Acts of ]806 and 1809 was to constitute 
four Boards for the government of our city, viz: One of 
eleven Commissioners for general purposes, one of five for mid- 
dle ward purposes, and two of three each for eastern and 
western ward purposes. In 1813 this was remedied by an 
amendment to the charter reducing the number of Commis- 
sioners to seven, viz., two each from the eastern and western 
wards and three from the middle, and these seven consti- 
tuted one Board, with the Intendant as presiding officer. 
The Board, however, was commanded to expend the taxes of 
each ward in its limits if needed. The constable of the city 
was given the powers of a constable of the county. There 
was no other policeman, either for the day or the night. 
The Commissioners claimed the right to force the citizens to 
patrol the city at night, distributing them for the purpose 
into twenty classes of six each, one of the number being 
captain. When the public mind was disturbed by frantic 
terrors of insurrections among the slaves, as it was during 
the alleged insurrection headed by Frank Sumner in 1802, 
and the Nat Turner atrocities of 1831, there was no difficulty 
in procuring efficient action by this unpaid police. But in 
tranquil times the penalty of one dollar fine for non-attend- 
ance, authorized in 1814, became necessary. It was the 
fashion, however, to avoid the penalty b}^ hiring substitutes, 
some men almost making a living by taking the places of 
sleep-loving principals. Slaves not on their owner's premises 
were required to "have written passes," as they were called, 
after a designated early hour of the night, on the penalty of 
receiving a whipping for the lack thereof, and also of being 
locked up if their behavior led to suspicion of crime. The 
adventures of the niglit-watch and their morning report 
were a notable part of the gossip of the community. 



48 

In 1831 the alarm was so great that martial law virtually 
prevailed in the city, and there wa-, what military men call, a 
" levy en masse." All the white men were armed. Tlie old 
men were organized into a cor{)s called Silver Grays. The 
able-bodied were divided into four classes, each patrolling 
every fourth night. The Presbyterian church was to be the 
rallying point in ease of an alarm given by the ringing of 
its bell. Videttes on horseback were sent out as far as Neuse 
river on the roads leading east, in order to report the com- 
ing of the black army of rebels. While nerves were in this 
state of tension, the bell sounded after one midnight because 
of the burning of a blacksmith shop. Scores of jiiodest 
ladies ran screaming to the fortress of refuge, with dishev- 
elled hair and white nightgowns streaming as thev fled. 
All this excitement and mental torture had not the slightest 
cause except in unreasoning fancies. The Raleigh negroes 
were thoroughly loyal. 

FIRES. 

The first fire-engine in the city was bought by voluntary 
contributions in 1802. It employed sixteen hands, throwing 
eighty gallons per minute one hundred and thirty-two 
feet, and cost ^374.* Eleven years later the city bought a 
new engine, and in I82I the tiist regular fire company was 
organized. Six years before this an abortive attempt to, sup- 
ply the city with water was made. A water wheel worked 
from a pond infrontof the Insane Asylum hill, madeby dam- 
ming Rock}' branch, forced the water to the top td' a water- 
tower on a liill in the southwest part of the city, whence it 
flowed i:)y gravity to Hargett and along Fayetteville street. 
There was no filtration. The water was delivered at inter- 
vals through spouts. The engineer was Samuel Lash of 
Salem, an ingenious mechanic. The pipes were of wood. 
They became frequentl\' clogged with mud. Often they 
burst with the pressure. Lash died and was succeeded by 
his son, who was a drunkard. The citizens living on the 
streets not benefited became clamorous against the taxation 
levied for repairs, and the scheme was abandoned. 

With these meagre means for extinguishing fires, and the 
buildings being. mainly of wood, it is not surprising that 
conflagrations were extensive. That of 181() swept from 
Martin to Hargett on the east side of Fayetteville street, and 
thence almost to Wilmington street. The house at the cor- 
ner of Wilmington and jMartin was saved by the timely use 

*The steam fire-engine (Rescue) now in use is capable of tluowing a vertical 
stream of 126 feet (iOO gallons per minute. 



49 

of ten barrels of vinegar. The fire of 1821 burnt over the 
same district, beginning where the market-house stands, 
then it crossed Hargett and was only stopped by the pluck 
of Mrs. Hannah Stewart, which saved herdwelling standing 
on the land occupied by Tucker hall. She saved it again 
from a tire which consumed all the buildings north 1o Mor- 
gan street, but about twenty years afterwards a third fire 
prevailed even over her heroic energy. 

At another time all the buildings on the west side of Fay- 
etteville street from Morgan to Hargett, with the exception 
of that next to Morgan, then belonging to the Newbern 
bank, were swept away. This was kindled V)y an incen- 
diary, Benjamin F. Seaborn, a clerk of Richard Smith, who 
endeavored by arson to hide the crime of theft. Smith was 
County Register, and twenty registry books were destroyed 
with his store-house, causing much confusion of titles in our 
county. It is gratifying to know that Seaborn was hung for 
his crime. 

THE FIRST CITY FATHERS. 

The first Intendant of Police of the city, as I have stated, 
was John Haywood, the Treasurer of the State from 17o7 to 
his death in 1827, forty years, so popular that a county and a 
town were named in his honor, one of the most consj)icuous 
citizensof early Raleigh. His kindness to the sick and attlicted 
and his hospitality knew no limit. He made it a rule to 
invite to a meal every member and officer of the General 
Assembly, which in his time met yearly. Rather uncult- 
ured guests he had sometimes. Funn}^ stories about some 
of them once flitted about the social atmosphere of our town. 
I recall one of a backwoods legislator who in the dim light of 
the Treasurer's parlor gazed with enquiring wonder at an 
animal lying on the rug. "That," said the Treasurer, "is 
my daughter's pet." "A pet is it? a pet you say? I thought 
it was a cat!" It was at a party, as receptions were then 
called, given by Senator Badger, some years later, that one 
of the guests took his seat on an old-fashioned piano, remark- 
ing that "these Raleigh big-bugs have benches with mighty 
long legs." 

Treasurer John Haywood is to be distinguished from Judge 
John Haj'wood, the eminent lawyer who adorned the bench 
of this State and of Tennessee. Treasurer John was from 
Edgecombe, son of Col. William Haywood, a very prominent 
member of our State Congresses and General Assemblies of 
the Revolution. Judge John was from Halifax, son of Egbert, 



50 

brother of William Haywood. They were named after their 
grandfather, John Haywood, who came to Halifax from 
Barbadoes about 1730. 

Another of the earliest "City Fathers" was William Polk, 
always called Colonel William Polk, who built what was a 
grand residence in those days just out of the city limits 
fronting Blount street. Later, in 1872, after being owned 
by Hon. Kenneth Rayner it was moved to one side to allow 
for the extension of Blount street, and is now called the 
Park Place. Col. William Polk was a remarkable man. 
Born near Charlotte, when he had reached nineteen years 
of age he heard the Mecklenburg resolutions read from the 
court-house stey)s. His fiery spirit led him into the Conti- 
nental army. He served with distinction at Brandy wine 
and Germantown, then at Guilford and Eutaw Springs, being 
wounded slightly at Germantown and severely at Eutaw. 
When the war ended he had attained the rank of Colonel. 
He was a man of strong character, too ardent a Federalist to 
obtain public office in Republican Wake, though he had 
been a Commoner from Mecklenburg, yet in non-political 
posts, such as the presidency of the leading bank, the 
presidency of the Board of Trustees of the young Uni- 
versity, and as guiding the society of the new capital, he 
was uncommonly active and useful. At one time, stirred up 
by recent bad examples of duelling among such great men 
as Hamilton and Burr, Stanly and Spaight, Clinton and 
Swartwout, Van Allen and Crawford, the students of the 
University were threatening to imitate them. The danger 
was so imminent that President Caldwell appealed to Colo- 
nel Polk, knowing that the advice of a Revolutionary hero 
of conspicuous daring would have weight with the fiery 
young men. The Colonel wrote a letter to them denouncing 
the practice of duelling in terms so strong and convincing 
as to avert the evil. I recall one instance, however, where 
his resentment forced him to give preference to the process 
of Judge Lynch. AVhile he was with the American army 
fighting for our liberties, a Tory with whom he was person- 
ally acquainted outrageously marauded upon his father's 
plantation. When peace was declared this Tory fled to parts 
unknown. Many years afterwards Colonel Polk was jour- 
neying on horseback with a friend to visit the lands in Ten- 
nessee given him for his military services. They halted at 
a cabin to enquire about the road. As the owner came to 
the door the Colonel recognized his Tory neighbor. Leaping 
from his horse saying, "Please hold my bridle!" he pro- 



51 

ceeded to pay hiin with his riding-whip the principal with 
compound interest of the debt he had been owing so long. 

Raro antecendem scelestum 
Deseruit pede Poena claudo. 

Colonel Polk was exceedingly patriotic. He entered into all 
4th of July celebrations with boundless enthusiasm, always 
acting by invitation as president of the feasts, and giving out 
the toasts and drinking to them too with hearty good will. 
The dinner was usually ended by the company, at his invi- 
tation, marching to his house and partaking of a second 
treat, the jocund boisterousness by no means diminished by 
the glimpses of the ladies of the neighborhood peering down 
the staircases and through the windows in order to see the 
fun. His son, Leonidas, afterward the Bishop and General, 
in his youth was a leader in singing the patriotic odes. 

The other official fathers of the city are less conspicuous. 
John Craven, of Halifax, was the first elected to the office 
of Comptroller of Public Accounts in 1783, and was annually 
elected thereafter until his death in 1808, twenty-five years. 
He was an old bachelor of popular manners, and having no 
ties of kindred he left his property, including his Raleigh 
lots, to our excellent citizen, who years ago was our very 
popular Mayor, William Dallas Haywood. 

John Marshall and James Mares were hotel-keepers in the 
city. Dugald McKeethan was one of the original purchasers 
of lots, a son-in-law of Joel Lane. John Pain was also one 
of the original purchasers. John Rogers was soon after a 
member of the Legislature from Wake, and had probably 
become an owner of city property. Joshua Sugg was a large 
owner of land adjoining the State land on the east and south- 
east. 

The extensive lands of Theophilus Hunter, usually known 
as Captain Orphy Hunter, adjoined the city on the west and 
southwest, embracing the site of the Insane Asylum and of 
the Water-works. His residence, called Spring Hill (now 
owned by the Grimes family), was the centre of more jovial 
gatherings for eating of good dinners and drinking of good 
rum and chasing of foxes than any place in Wake county. 
He had pretty and attractive daughters, too, and the merry 
laughter of young men and maidens was a frequent sound 
among the trees of Spring Llill. 

A few years afterwards Theophilus Hunter had a less 
pleasant reputation among our people. He owned a mill 
on Rocky branch, and the pond was accused of shaking the 



52 

bones of our people with chills and burning them with 
fevers, especially in 1822, when many lives were lost. After 
much bad feeling and litigation, the matter was settled by 
the city's buying the mill and levelling the dam. 

OTHER EARLY CITY FATHERS. 

The first Intendant of Police chosen by th*^ people was 
likewise an excellent man, William White. He had been 
repeatedly Senator and a Commoner from Lenoir county. 
While Senator he was elected Secretary'' of State as successor 
to Glasgow. He became one of Raleigh's best citizens. His 
wife, the daughter of Governor Caswell, survived him many 
years. One of his daughters married Governor David L. 
Swain, the eminent President of the Universitv. 

In 1806 William Hill, who came to Raleigh from Surry 
county, served' as a clerk in Mr, White's ottice, and then 
engaged in merchandising, was chosen Intendant. In 1811 
he was elected by the General Assembly Secretary of State, 
and amid all the mutations of parties, by annual until 1835, 
and then by biennial elections, he was elected to the same 
office until his death in 1857. For years the "Old Sec," as 
he was familiarly known, was a landmark among us, simple, 
unostentatious, charitable, of perfect integrity, performing 
every duty with strictest fidelity. Such was the public re- 
gard for him that his clerk and son-in-law, Rufus H. Page, 
of similar faithfulness to duty, was chosen his successor for 
several terms, and then lost the office only b}^ reason of the 
violent part}^ passion aroused during the Civil War. 

The next Intendant, in 1807, was an active and po|)ular 
physician. Dr. Calvin .lones. He removed to Raleigh from 
Trov in New York. He was a Commoner from Wake in 
1807. The fact that he was president of the first medical 
society in the State shows the estimation in which he was 
held by his profession. He was chosen a General of Militia, 
and leaving Raleigh, became a planter on the site of Wake 
Forest College, which he sold to that institution. 

The next Intendants were John Marshall, John S. Raboteau 
and Sterling Yancey. Then, in 1813, began the incum- 
bency, which was to continue many years, of a very remark- 
able man, Joseph Gales,- who was for forty 3'ears identified 
with all good movements in our city: a man of boundless 
charity, in its broadest sense, and of extraordinary good 
sense. His history is most interesting. 



53 

In 1794 he was about 34 years old, a citizen of Sheffield, 
in England, bookseller, printer and editor of a prosperous 
newspaper called the Sheffield Register, which had a large 
circulation in Yorkshire, Derbyshire and Nottinghamshire. 
We have a file of it in the State Library. 

In its beginning the French Revolution was regarded as 
destined to bring great political blessings to France, and 
people in all nations hoped that the time had come for the 
lower classes to secure larger control in their governments. 
In England associaiions were formed, some, perhaps, ready 
to resort to force to secure political changes, but others seek- 
ing by educating the public mind to procure reform by con- 
stitutional methods. 

One of the most flourishing of these latter peaceful asso- 
ciations was the Constitutional Society of Sheffield, of which 
Joseph Gales was Secretary. I have examined the editorials 
in the Sheffield Reguter, and there is certainly nothing in 
them looking towards treason or insurrection, only such 
deprecation of the horrors of war, and criticism of the policy 
of the Ministry as would be considered in our day respectful 
and mild. But rash and senseless riols in various parts of 
England, and the horror inspired by the atrocious excesses 
in France, induced Parliament to suspend the privileges of 
the writ of habeas corpus. Arbitrary arrests and imprison- 
ment of the leading agitators for Parliamentary reform and 
against war with France were frequent. 

Mr. Gales received notice that orders for his arrest had 
been or would be issued, and knowing that, as he was the 
onl}^ support of his family, his imprisonment meant abso- 
lute ruin, he concluded to leave the country, giving his 
reason in pathetic language in the issue of May 1, 1794. He 
took ship at Altona, in Denmark, selling his newspaper to 
the poet Montgomery. He was treated so kindly by those 
in Altona who sympathized with him in his political action, 
that he named a daughter after the city, a name which, 
abbreviated into "Alty," pronounced Aulty, is still a favorite 
with the family. 

The members of the Constitutional Society of Sheffield, 
conscious of the rectitude of his purposes, adopted a series of 
resolutions laudatory of their emigrant Secretary, showing 
so much genuine feeling and beauty that I venture to (]Uote 
them : 



54 

At a general meeting of the Society for Constitutional Information, 
held on July 3, 1794, at the house of the late Secretary in Watson's Walk, 
Sheffield. 

The Constitutional Society of Sheffield to Joseph Gales : 

Health! Peace! and Happiness ! On this occasion of addressing you, 
our very dear and inestimable fellow-citizen, we feel a variety of pas- 
sions agitating our minds and forcibly impelling us to some expression 
of our well-founded affection and our ardent gratitude, our sincere 
regret and our just indignation. 

Ti3e eminent worth of your character, your important services to the 
great cause of human happiness, our irreparable injury in the loss of so 
valuable a member, and the persecution of which you are the distin- 
guished object, are so many loud calls for some testimonial of our deep- 
est sense of your merit, and our pungent grief at your sufferings. Yet 
we are happy that we have not merely to speak the language of sympa- 
thetic condolence, but that of joy, of congratulation, of laudable envy. 

We rejoice to reflect that the Divine Cause of Truth and Liberty has 
been supported by so unexceptionable, so able and so successful an 
advocate. 

We cordially felicitate you on your escape from the insidious schemes 
and the enraged ferocity of cruel and inexorable man. 

Though we regret your sufferings, considered abstractly as such, 
yet, viewing them in connection with their cause, we behold you 
adorned with incomparably greater and more enviable honor than the 
most brilliant diadem can confer upon its wearer. You are dignified 
with the unfading crown of a martyr in the illustrious cause of God and 
man. 

We find consolatory pleasure in entertaining the idea that you will 
read these warm effusions of our soul, secure from oppression and 
breathing the pure air of a free country, where the native and inaliena- 
ble rights of man are known, respected and enjoyed. 

Never, we trust, shall we lose the fervent and grateful recollection of 
you, our ever dear friend and brother. We confidently commit you 
to the guardian care of the Supreme Being, who is the immutable 
Friend of Truth and the munificent benefactor of mankind. Under 
His smiles, exile, proscription, or even death, must be sweet. 

Signed by the command and in the name of the Constitutional Society. 

James Watson, 
William Malkin, 
Henry Rock, 
John Grainger, 
William Chow, 

August 1, 1794. Simon Runk. 

We next find Joseph Gales in Philadelphia, beginning, in 
1796, a paper called Gales' Independent Gazetteer. Congress 
then held its sessions in that city, and he has the honor of 
being the first shorthand reporter of the debates of that 
body. Learning from one of our members of Congress that 
the seat of government of North Carolina had no newspapers, 
he sold his Gazetteer and established in the Fall of 1799 the 
Raleigh Register, a name given in loving remembrance of 
his Sheffield paper, and with the same motto, 

" Ours are the plans of fair, delightful Peace, 
Unwarped by party rage to live like brothers." 



55 

His was the first newspaper of oar city, edited at first by 
himself, then by himself in conjunction with his son-in-law, 
William W. Seaton, afterwards the distinguished co-editor of 
the National Intelligencer and Mayor of Washington City ; 
then by himself alone, then by his son, Weston Raleigh 
Gales, then by his grandson, Seaton Gales, a total of nearly 
sixty years. He was for many years State printer. He 
established the first paper-mill in this section, on Rocky 
branch, thence removed to Crabtree creek. In politics he 
belonged to the dominant party, the Republican, and when 
that was disrupted in Jackson's time he became a Whig. 

Mr. Gales was ably seconded by his wife, whose maiden 
name was Winifred Marshall, a remote connection of Lord 
Melbourne. She was a woman of fine talents and accom- 
plishments, the authoress of a novel published in 1804 
by her husband entitled " Matilda Berkeley." My mother, 
before her marriage, was the guest of Mrs. Gales, and years 
afterwards loved to tell of her kindness of heart, her tact, her 
power of making those around her bright and happy, her 
fine conversational power:-. It was from her that her chil- 
dren inherited their rare sprightliness, their father being of 
a more quiet manner and staid temperament. The poetical 
address of her daughter, Ann Eliza Gales, at her gradu- 
ating exercises, and her uncommonly agreeable manners and 
witty speech, were never forgotten by those who knew her. 
She died in the great sickness, almost the pestilence, of 1822, 
attributed, as I have mentioned, to Hunter's mill-pond. 

The rival newspaper to the Raleigh Register, the Minerva, 
was edited by William Boylan. It was transferred from Fay- 
etteville, where it was called " The Fayetteville Minerva,'^ in the 
fall of 1799, a few months after the Register was started. The 
firm of Hodge & Boylan published in 1800 one of the best 
books ever printed in the State, "Haywood's Reports," and 
in 1804 "Burkitt and Read's History of the Kehukee Bap- 
tist Association." The Minerva advocated Federalist princi- 
ples, and, as might be expected, both papers occasionally 
showed the heated temper which separated the parties 
throughout the Union. 

William Boylan came to North Carolina from New Jersey 
one hundred and one years ago, joining his uncle, Abraham 
Hodge, first at Halifax and then at Fayetteville. Until his 
purchase from Peter Browne, the eminent lawyer, of the Joel 
Lane homestead, just outside the city limits, he was often a 
Commissioner of the city. He served for three years during 
the war of 1812 and for one year thereafter, as a member of 



56 

the Legislature in the lower house. He had a strong, well 
balanced mind, the highest integrity, and large public spirit. 
He was Chairman of the Board of Commissioners for rebuild- 
ing the Capitol, and shared in the responsibility of adopt- 
ing the plan of the architect. He was President of the State 
Bank, and a director of that institution and of its successors 
for mjiny years. He was an active promoter and at one 
time President of the Raleigh and Gaston Pvailroad. He 
was a large subscriber to the stock of the North Carolina 
Railroad. He was for many years Chairman of the Justices 
of the Peace of the county of Wake. It was by his urgency 
that the practice of hiring out the keeping of the county pau- 
pers to the lowest bidder was discontinued, and a house and 
farm, together with a comfortable support, provided for them 
at the public expense. He introduced the cultivation of cot- 
ton into our county. His hand was always open to a deserv- 
ing charity. I remember that when, in the great snow-storm 
of January, 1857, what we rarely see in our fortunate climate, 
a veritable blizzard, Raleigh awoke one Sunday morning to 
find two-thirds of its people suffering for want of fuel because 
the wood wagons were unable to run, Mr. Boylan's wagon was 
one of the first to brave the elements in order to relieve the 
shivering poor by gifts from the ample supply laid up for 
his winter's use. I remember, too, the storm of indignation 
when it was reported that a health v man, covered up in 
his bed-clothes, sang out, "Ask Mr. Boylan why he didn't 
have it cut up so as to fit my fireplace!" I remember, too, 
how he allowed a poor but enthusiastic collector of bugs and 
butterflies, snakes and lizards to make his house headquar- 
ters for many days. During the evenings the peripatetic 
scientist would entertain the family with discourses about 
his favorite pursuits. "Ladies! some people say crow is not 
good for food; jay bird is not good; hawk is not good. It 
is a great mistake. I have eaten all kinds of birds. They 
are all good but the turkey buz-zard. The turkey buz-zard 
has a flavor which I do not like." 

Henry Seawell (pronounced in old times Sow-ell), born in 
Franklin, was probably the first lawyer whosettled in Raleigh, 
as I find him a member of the House of Commons as early as 
1799. He was afterwards often a member, sometimes of one 
branch, sometimes of the other. He was a Judge of the 
Superior Court for six years before the establishment of our 
present Supreme Court system in 1818, and therefore during 
that time was a member of the Supreme Court under the 
old system, when all the Circuit .Judges belonged to it. He 



57 

was also a Judge of the Superior Court from 1S32 to 1835. 
He was a lawyer of great ability. In criminal matters he 
was especially distinguished. As a manager of men in leg- 
islative bodies he was exceedingly adroit. 

William Peace is another of the earliest citizens who must 
be mentioned in this sketch. He and liis brother Joseph, 
under the firm name of W. & J. Peace, began merchan- 
dising on Fayetteville street almost as soon as the city was 
founded, and so continued for very many years, dealing 
fairly with all, and accumulating a handsome property. 
William Peace was more of a public man than Joseph, and 
became identified with all of Raleigh's legitimate enterprises. 
He was often a Commissioner of the city, and many years 
director of its leading bank. He was remarkable for quiet 
dignity, unfailing courtesy and perfect integrity'. I doubt 
if he ever had an enemy in the world, though he was as 
firm as a rock on all questions of ])rinciple. He crowned a 
well-spent life by contributing to place on a sound founda- 
tion the excellent female school which Capt. John B. Burwell 
and Mr. James Dinwiddle have made so full of blessings to 
our community. 

Early in the century there settled in Raleigh the last of 
the " live Williams," as they were called, William Peck, the 
others being William Polk, William Boylan, William Hill 
and William Peace. William Peck's store was opposite the 
southeast corner of Union Square, which then sloped down 
to the street. In his old age the square was filled in and 
levelled up as at present, greatly to his discontent, as, he 
said, he was shut off from his accustomed view of the Capi- 
tol. He was highly esteemed by all, a plain, quiet, straight- 
forward man of sterling virtues. He had the same nervous 
aversion to whistling characteristic of the late Judge Cloud. 
Some of the wilder boys delighted, when passing his place 
of business, to emit from their lips the shrillest sound possi- 
ble and then run to escape the threatened punishment. His 
sign, besides the simple " W. Peck," w^as a hat of mountain- 
ous dimensions, hanging over the sidewalk. One of our 
Raleigh boys, when a sophomore at the University, pur- 
chased or borrowed this stupendous and venerable tile, and 
by tying tape across the bottom managed to make it balance 
on his head. He then put over his eyes a large pair of green 
goggles, and in the centre of each glass stuck a red wafer. 
Thus accoutred he marched into the chapel in presence of 
the assembled professors and students, while the roll was 
being called. I witnessed the scene. The echo of the ap- 
4 



58 

plause sounds in my ears plainly after the lapse of forty-seven 
years. I tell you, in confidence, that this fun-loving boy of 
forty-seven years ago is now on this stage, known and honored 
among you as Major Rufus S. Tucker. As he lias been a 
successful Raleigh merchant, I must give you my first ob- 
servation of him as a salesman. When at the University 
he was a youth of inimitable humor, very much liked by 
the President and professors, possibly because of his pro- 
pensity for fun, though the Faculty censured him for the 
big hat and red wafer joke. He was once acting as auctioneer 
at the sale of some discarded furniture belonging to the 
Dialectic Society. He took up an old silver-plated candle- 
stick. " Gentlemen, I now offer you a fine pair of candlesticks. 
They can also be used for mirrors. They have the wonderful 
property of making ugly faces pretty. Governor Swain, bid 
on them. They are the very things for you." As the Gov- 
ernor was of ungainly face and figure, the hit was greatly 
enjoyed by the crowd, and was not displeasing to him. 

The father of this humorous friend of ours, Ruffin Tucker, 
deserves mention among the early City Fathers, not only 
for his faithfulness as a Commissioner and his sterling quali- 
ties as a man, but because he is the only merchant of the 
old time who founded a mercantile name which has lived 
to this day. In 1818, after short service as clerk in order to 
learn the business and get a start, he opened a store on the 
identical spot where is now the grand establishment of W. 
H. & R. S. Tucker & Co., though he afterwards moved to the 
west side of the street. For ten years he was a partner with 
his brother, William C. Tucker. Then he was alone until 
1846, when he took as his partner his son, William H. H. 
Tucker, generally known as Col. Buck Tucker. Ruffin 
Tucker died in 1851, and then Major Rufus S. Tucker, who 
had three years before graduated at the University, joined 
his brother. The history of the firm since is familiar to you. 
The uninterrupted success of this establishment for seventy- 
four years, three-fourths of a century, shows very strong 
qualities in its founder, and places him high among the pro- 
moters of our city's prosperity. 

I have not time to go into any details in regard to other 
worthy city officials, but I will give a short mention of some 
whose names occur to me. 

There was John S. Raboteau, chairman of the committee to 
divide the men of the city into twenty classes, whose lineal 
descendant married our friend, Mr. A. F. Page, who has 



59 

come recently to adorn and improve our city with a grand 
hotel and opera-house. 

And then Richard Smith, long a prosperous merchant 
among us, the County Register for years. He was clerk in 
the store of William Hill, and, when Mr. Hill was elected 
Secretary of State, bought his stock. He did business on the 
plan of having everything that the people would be likely 
to call for, and being a man of good sense he succeeded. 
The same story is told of him that was told of old Mr. 
Kyle in Fayetteville. One man bet another $5 that he could 
not name an article which Mr. Smith did not have for sale. 
" Good ! I take the bet. I bet he has not a pulpit !" Away 
they went to "Smith's corner." "Mr. Smith, we are in 
search of a second-hand pulpit. Can you supply us ?" " Yes, 
come into the back room. I have exactly what you want. 
The Presbyterians concluded to get a new one and sold me 
this!" Whether the story belongs to him or Mr. Kyle, it 
illustrates his style of business. He had faith in Raleigh, 
and invested in its lots. He divided his property between 
his wife and his daughter. His wife left most of her share 
to her nephew, Richard Stanhope Pullen, whose open- 
hearted genen»sity has enriched our city with a beautiful 
park and a site for the State Agricultural and Mechanical 
College, and ins church with many a handsome donation. 
Part of his daughter's share was bequeathed by her as a per- 
petual benefic'-nce to the young men of the State at our 
University. Tlie old man's labors will be a perennial 
blessing. 

I name, to >, David Royster, who came to Raleigh in 1802, 
a cabinet-maker — long an honored and trusted citizen. He 
left several sons, noted for their integrity and uprightness. 
One of them is still surviving, David L. Rnyster, born the 
night Canova's statue came into Raleigh, Christmas, 1821, 
I must tell a story on myself to illustrate the independence 
of judgment and kindness of heart for which the old man 
David Royster and his sons were conspicuous. I was em- 
ployed to bring a suit against a woman to obtain summary 
possession of a lot in Raleigh. The lawyer on the other side 
was not himself — another lawyer with Bourbon whiskey in 
his head. He soon gave up the case, and I asked the jury 
to sign the judgment. After I got eleven names I looked 
about for the twelfth — " Dave" Royster. He was a hundred 
yards from the court-house going home. He declared he 
would not turn a woman out of a house in the middle of 
winter unless she had a sober lawyer. So there was a mis- 



60 

trial and my client consented to a compromise. His brother, 
James D. Royster, was a man of remarkable ability. I have 
never known a more retentive memory. I acknowledge my 
indebtedness to him for very much of the knowledge I pos- 
sess of the early history of Raleigh. 

Wesley Whitaker was another of the good men of early 
Raleigh, a valued officer of the Methodist church as well as 
Commissioner of the city. He was converted in the great 
revival in 1811, and was the last survivor of those who joined 
the church at that day. 

John J. Briggs was one of the founders of the Baptist 
church in Raleigh, father of one of the best men I ever knew, 
whose friendship I highly prized, Thomas H. Briggs. 

David L. Barringer, who married a daughter of William 
White, was a very prominent citizen. He repeatedly repre- 
sented Wake county in the General Assembly, the first time 
in 1813, and was afterwards a member of Congress. He was 
uncle of the distinguished D, M. Barringer, a citizen of Ral- 
eigh long afterwards. 

I must mention, too, the very intelligent editors of the 
Star newspaper, established in 1809, Thomas Henderson and 
Alexander Lucas. Nor mast be omitted Sherwood, Stephen 
and William Henry Haywood, who followed their brother, 
the Treasurer, to Raleigh, and became very prominent mem- 
bers of its society. There was, too, Jacob Johnson, the trusted 
janitor of the Bank of the State, of humble social position 
but conspicuous because one of his sons by indomitable pluck 
and strong mind from an apprenticed tailor rose to be Presi- 
dent of this greatest republic of the world. And there was 
Captain Alfred Jones, who in early life fought a duel near 
Hillsboro and was badly wounded. His adversary, a man 
named Faucette, ran off in fright and was never heard of 
afterwards. Gen. Robert Haywood asked him once how a 
man felt with an adversary ten steps off" pointing a pistol 
dead at him. " It looks as big as a cart-wheel," said the Cap- 
tain, and that was all he would say about the fight. He was 
for a long time a bank and railroad director. 

I must name, too. General Robert Williams, a Trustee of 
the University as early as 1803, and its Secretary and Treas- 
urer, also Adjutant General of the State, 
p-^ John Stewart, the merchant, so called to distinguish him 
from John Stewart, the blacksmith, is said to have been the 
first to open a store for business. He married Hannah, the 
daughter of Peter Casso, the hotel-keeper. When President 
Johnson was born his father was an hostler at the hotel, and 



61 

Mrs. Casso gave the name to the new-born child. It was 
intended to call him Andrew Jackson Johnson, but his 
father objected to having so long a name, and the Jackson 
was omittedj Mrs. Stewart was long a widow, distinguished 
for her strength of character. I can only call over the 
names of other worthy citizens of the oldest days; James 
McKee, Southey Bond, Benjamin S. King, Robert Cannon, 
James Coman, Robert Cullum, Henry Gorman, Matthew- 
Shaw, Sterling Wheaton and Mark Cooke. 

The last I shall mention was the exceedingly popular 
United States Marshal, General Beverly Daniel, who migrated 
to Raleigh from Alrginia in 18 10. He kept his othce for 
thirty-two years. In his old age he was removed by Van 
Buren because of his too ardent advocacy of Harrison's 
election. He was a popular favorite, gifted as an organizer 
of processions and pageants, an expert rider, a noted hunter 
of fox and deer, and an accomplished marksman. 

After his removal a banquet was given to him by the citi- 
zens of Raleigh, his old friends, Joseph Gales and John 
Devereux, senior, presiding. George E. Badger proposed the 
following characteristic toast: 

" Oar guest, General Daniel, as an officer, good enough for 
Jefferson, good enough for Madison, good enough for Mon- 
roe, good enough for Adams, good enough for Jackson ; it 
is no wonder Van Buren thinks he is too good for him." 

THE MASONIC FRATERNITY. 

The Grand Lodge of the Masonic Fraternity met in Ral- 
eigh December 3, 1794. Probably the first public institu- 
tion among us was Democratic Lodge, No. 21, organized 
February 11, 1793, with John Macon as Master, but it had 
only a life of two or three years. It is easy to conjecture the 
cause of the failure. The French Revolution was hailed in 
America by many as the dawn of a new era of liberty and 
equality throughout the world. It was the fashion to copy 
Gallican manners and their favorite terms. The anti-Fed- 
eralists, after the adoption of the Constitution, found their 
name insufficient, and adopted that of Democratic-Repub- 
lican. " Democratic Clubs," in imitation of those in Paris 
and elsewhere, were fomied in our cities. Men threw aside 
Anglo-Saxon salutation, and hugged and called one another 
" citoyens." Ladies escaped, I hope, the embracing part of 
the salutation, but were hailed as " citoyesses," instead of 
mistresses and misses. In the midst of this political delirium 



62 

came across the ocean the news of the horrors of the rule of 
Robespierre, Danton and Murat. Worse still, demands came 
that our government should follow the French into a mad 
crusade for the dethronement of kings. When, by the wis- 
dom of Washington and his constitutional advisers, the 
United States determined to be neutral, and there ensued 
contemptuous and insolent treatment of Washington and his 
Cabinet, and depredations on our commerce, the pro-French 
ardor cooled. The Democratic clubswere disbanded. The 
party of Jefferson the party of John Macon, and of his brother 
Nathaniel, got ashamed of the first half its name, which was 
peculiarly a favorite among the Revolutionists, and became 
plain " Republican." In like manner this Democratic Lodge 
quietly melted away. It is noticeable that the Senior War- 
den was Rodman Atkins, the same, probably, as Rhody, or 
Rod}^ Atkins, the architect of the State house. It was doubt- 
less he and the workmen he brought with him, wild with 
revolutionary fur\', who introduced this partisan Lodge 
among our staid people, and their departure probably car- 
ried off the larger part of the membership. 

The next Lodge formed had as its leaders strong Federal- 
ists. William Richardson Davie granted the dispensation 
to Hiram Lodge, No. 40, in 1799. The charter is signed 
December 15, 1800, by William Polk. Its first Master was 
Henry Potter, appointed District Judge by Federalist John 
Adams. 

This Lodge was eminently successful. Among its early 
members we see, besides Polk and Potter, Theophilus Hun- 
ter, John Marshall, William Boylan, William Hill, Calvin 
Jones, William W. Seaton, and many others remembered by 
the Masonic fraternity with fraternal reverence, and known 
by all our people to have been among our best citizens. In 
1899 Hiram Lodge can celebrate its centennial by pointing 
to a long line of illustrious and useful members. 

The Odd Fellows and other benevolent societies came into 
Raleigh within the last half century, and it is not within 
the scope of this address to describe them. 

THE STATE BANK. 

The State Bank of North Carolina occupied a large part 
of the public mind in the early days. It was incorporated 
in 1810, to be located at Raleigh, with branches at Newbern, 
Edenton and Wilmington, which branches were rated as 
first class, and at Tarboro, Fayetteville and Salisbury rated 



63 

as second-class. The first directors were John Haywood, 
William Polk, Henry Potter, Duncan Cameron, William 
Boylan, William Peace, Henry Seawell, William Henry 
Haywood, Theophilus Hunter, Samuel Goodwin, Benjamin 
Brickell, James Mebane, Joseph Gales. Of these Cameron 
and Mebane were non-residents. 

The first President was William Polk, who served without 
salary. Wm. Henry Haywood, afterwards Clerk of the Dis- 
trict Court, was the first Cashier, at a salary of $1,200 per 
annum. The business was at first conducted in a house 
where the residence of the late W. H. Crow stands. Colonel 
Polk, General Beverly Daniel and Joseph Gales were the 
committee who caused to be erected for the permanent bank- 
ing house the brick building, destined to be handed over to 
the Bank of the State of North Carolina, then to the Bank of 
North Carolina, and then to become the Rectory of Christ 
church. lis architectural style was novel and met with 
humorous sarcasm. It was called "Twoporches with a house 
between." John Stanly of Newbern dubbed the committee 
the " Three wise men of Gotham." After Polk the Presidents 
were AVilliam Boylan and Peter Brown, the eminent lawyer, 
who amassed a fortune practicing law first in Windsor, then 
at Halifax, then at Raleigh, purchasing the old Joel Lane 
place, which he sold to W^illiam Boylan. The bank got into 
trouble. Most of its profits came from circulating notes, 
payable on demand in coin. Times of financial pressure 
came. The brokers gathered up the notes and presented 
them for redemption. As the expression went, they " wanted 
the tangible." In 1828 the stockholders became so uneasy 
that they induced Judge Thomas Ruffin, by an offer of an 
increased salary, w^ith liberty to practice his profession in 
Raleigh, to resign from the bench and become President. 
In the same year Charles Dewey, a native of Oxford, for the 
rest of his long life so much loved and respected among us, 
who had even then won distinction as a bank officer, was 
brought from Fayetteville to act as Cashier. Before the 
advent of these two able men the officers had been irritating 
the brokers b}^ throwing difficulties in the way of acceding 
to their demands for specie in exchange for bank bills. 
Ruffin ordered ))rompt payments "as long as there was a 
shot in the locker." This resolute course, together with the 
high reputations of the President and Cashier, restored con- 
fidence in the solvency of the bank and enabled Duncan 
Camer(m, who succeeded Ruffin after one year to wind up 
its afi'airs after expiration of its charter in 1834, paying its 



f)4 

creditors and stockholders in full, toaether with a small sur- 
plus to the latter. To show the difference hetween the old 
system and our National Banks, I state that it had, counting 
the issues of its branches, at one time in circulation $4,000,- 
000 on a capital of $1,600,000, whereas all the National Banks 
in the State never had more than about $2,000,000 circula, 
tion. About five per cent, of the notes w^ere never presented- 
were destroyed or lost in some way. The Bank of the State 
of North Carolina began in 1832 and took the place of the 
State Bank of North Carolina. 

EARLY CHURCHES. 

In the latter part of the eighteenth century and early part 
of the nineteenth religion was at a low ebb. Infidelity was 
fashionable, especially among the educated classes. It is 
not surprising that the early inhabitants postponed attention 
to religious services to matters considered more pressing, of 
building their homes and turning primeval forests and ex- 
hausted old fields into fertile gardens. There was no church 
edifice for many years, the State-house serving for the use 
of any clergvman who would visit Raleigh and seek a con- 
gregation. The great Methodist Bishop, Francis Asbury, 
records in his journal that on March Hth, 1800, he "preached 
in the State-house. Notwithstanding the day was very cold 
and snowy we had many people to hear. I baptized a little 
child and came that evening to Tomas Proctor's." 

In 1805 or 1800 William Glendenning, a native of Scot- 
land, removed to Raleigh and established a grocery store on 
Newbern avenue opposite the present Episcopal Rectory. He 
had been a preacher of the Methodist Episcopal church but 
seceded with James O'Kelly. He built the first church in 
the city, on Blount street between Morgan and Hargett, and 
called it Bethel. He became insane and was called the 
"Crazy Parson," and, of course, made little religious impres- 
sion on the community. 

The first Presbyterian congregation in Raleigh was organ- 
ized in 1806. The first regular pastor was Rev. AV^illiam 
Turner, of Virginia, his Elders being Judge Henry Potter, 
William Shaw, and Thomas Emons. The religious services 
were held in the hall of the House of Commons. In June, 
1810, the Trustees of the Raleigh Academy invited Dr. 
William McPheeters, a Presbyterian divine, to take charge 
of the Academy and become "Pastor of the City." While 
they had no power to confer this authority, yet the tender 



65 

certainly shows singular weakness of other denominations 
or inditierence to the subject. Certainly for several years 
many who did not become Presbyterians seem quietly to 
have accepted Dr. McPheeters as their spiritual guide, his 
place of preaching until 1817 being the State-house, and then 
the Presbyterian church. 

There were movements, howev^er, adverse to the autocracy 
of the able young pastor. In 1811 the Methodists held a 
Conference for the first time in Raleigh. Bishops Asbury 
and McKendree were present. Bishop Asbury records that 
lie preached in the State-house to two thousand people. 
There was a notable revival, probably the first in Raleigh. 
Rev. Dr. Mangum, in his exhaustive history of the Metho- 
dist Church in Raleigh, grows enthusiastic in his description 
of it. " The old State-house, so often the scene of festive 
delights and political excitements, now rang day and night 
witli sermons and songs and cries and shouts." The result 
was the second church edifice, the first built by any denomi- 
nation, a plain wooden structure, finished in 1811, on the 
lot donated by Willie Jones of Halifax, bought by him at 
the sale of 17^2. This building was burnt in 1839, replaced 
in 1841 by one which was removed to give place to the pres- 
ent noble structure. The first pastor in ^811 was Canellum 
H. Hines. 

The Baptists were next in the field. Elder Robert T. 
Daniel organized a congregation in 1812. A church build- 
ing of an humble character was erected which was after- 
wards removed to Moore Square, on this account called by 
many afterwards the Baptist Grove. 

Here for many years the founders of the Baptist church 
worshiped. It is hard to realize that the fathers and 
mothers of this denomination, now so wealthy, once were 
accustomed each to take a tallow candle to this humble 
building in order to produce a "dim, religious light" for 
services at night. Yet my excellent friend, Mrs. Alfred Wil- 
liams, assures me that the practice was common. About 1835 
a division occurred, partly from overgrowth, but partly 
also from differences of opinion. By the special labors 
and pecuniary sacrifices of the pastor. Rev. Amos J. Battle, a 
new and better edifice was erected at the southeast corner of 
Wilmington and Morgan streets. This, too, gave way, in 
1858, to the present imposing First Baptist church, the old 
building being sold to the Roman Catholics. 

The congregation, whicli kept the old Moore Square church, 
dwindled until after the civil war there remained onlv one 



member, Mr. Mark Williams. He sold the old building to 
a colored congregation, who removed it to the trans-rail- 
road southern suburb, known as Hayti. 

The Protestant Episcopal church was not consecrated 
until 1830. A convention of the Diocese was held in Kal- 
eigh in 1821 in the Supreme Court room, and this stimulated 
the organization of a parish in August of that year. The 
first vestrymen were John Haywood, John Lewis Taylor, the 
Chief Justice, A. S. Burgess, M. D., James Henderson, M. I)., 
and William H. Haywood, jr., afterwards Senator of the 
United States. Rev. William M. Green, afterwards a pro- 
fessor in the University of North Carolina, and then Bishop 
of Mississippi, held services for the congregation until Bishop 
John Stark Ravenscroft took charge in December, 1823. He 
reported to the Convention of 1824 that he had officiated 
occasionally in the Presbyterian house of worship until the 
18th of January, " when divine service was performed and 
a sermon preached morning and evening in the house rented 
and fitted up as a temporary chapel." The number of com- 
municants he reports at about twenty-five, and the whole 
number connected with the congregation about thirty-five. 
This temporary chapel was a building called " The Museum," 
erected by Jacob Marling, a portrait painter, for exhibition 
of curiosities, such as minerals, machinery, phantasmagoria, 
etc., for a sight of which 12| cents was charged. It now 
belongs to the Masonic fraternity. Bishop Ravenscroft 
removed to Williamsborough in 1828, and was succeeded by 
Rev. Charles P. Elliott who, after one year, resigned and 
gave place to Rev. George W. Freeman, uncle of Mr. Edward 
B. Freeman, long a Clerk of the Supreme Court. The old 
church of 1830 was sold in 1853 to the colored Methodists, 
and replaced by the present stone building, designed by 
Upjohn. The old bell purchased in 1832 was, in ]861, 
donated to the Episcopal church at Chapel Hill. 

The many churches which have been built and congrega- 
tions organized within recent years I refrain from describing, 
as my plan is to confine myself to those of earlier times. 

For many years there was only one Sunday-school in the 
city, at first held in Glendennin's church. Bethel, and after- 
wards in the Academy. When the hour for morning service 
approached, the children and teachers marched to the State- 
house and formed part of the congregation of Dr. McPheeters. 
The good man made compulsory the attendance on the 
Sunday-school by his own pupils. For repeated absences 
without sufficient reason the delinquent received a sound 



67 

flogging on Monday morning. By such penalties the study 
of the " Shorter Catechism " was undoubtedly stimulated, but 
we may be permitted to doubt whether the love of Chris- 
tianity was stimulated in equal proportion. 

THE RALEIGH ACADEMY. 

The citizens of Raleigh in 1802 inaugurated the Raleigh 
Academy. Nathaniel Jones of White Plains, ancestor of our 
townsman Alfred D. Jones, was President of the Board of 
Trustees, Joseph Gales being Secretary. Rev. Marin Detar- 
gney, of Princeton College, was Principal, and Charles Daniel 
was assistant. Miss Charlotte Brodie was teacher of needle- 
work. Greek and Latin, Spanish and French, mathematics, 
astronomy, navigation, etc., were offered at $5 per quarter, 
the English branches at $3; needle-work, free. 

The school seems to have met with eminent success. Its 
closing exercises were an epoch in the city's life. Public 
examinations were held and trustees were detailed to attend 
and report upon them. An abstract of one of these reports, 
which was published in the city papers, is instructive as giv- 
ing the character of the grading of the classes and the sub- 
jects taught. 

The report shows that there were separate classes in — 

1. Philosophy and Astronomy. 2. Horace. 3. Virgil. 
4. Cajsar. 5. Selecti ^^eterii. 6. Erasmus. 7. .Esop's Fa- 
bles. 8. Corderii. 9 and 10. Latin Grammar. 

One class in gef^graphy ; first, second, third and fourth 
classes in English Grammar; one class in English reading; 
one class in writing; first and second in spelling. 

In the Female Department: 

First, second, third, fourth and fifth classes in spelling; 
first, second, third, fourth and fifth classes in reading; first 
second, third and fourth classes in English Grammar; one 
class in parsing in Blair's Lectures; first and second classes in 
geography ; first and second classes in writing; first, second 
and third classes in embroidery ; one class in tambour work ; 
one class in cotton floss work ; one class in alphabetical sam- 
plers. 

The examinations occupied Thursday and Friday. On 
Saturday the students read compositions and pronounced 
speeches to 'Marge and respectable audiences." Those who 
did best were publicly announced, but I see no mention of 
prizes. 

After the close in 1809 the students presented a comedy 
called " Sighs, or (he Daughter," and the farce of " Trick upon 



68 

Trick," for the benefit of the Polemic Lil^rary, which, I sup- 
pose, belonged to the school. At night was a ball attended 
by the older pupils. 

The Trustees of 1802 were Nathaniel Jones (White Plains), 
John Hughes, William White, Henry Seawell, Simon Turner, 
William BoNdan, John Marshall and Joseph Gales. To these 
were added, in 1809. Redding Jones, Allen Rogers, W. H. 
Haywood, S. Goodwin, Beverly Daniel, W. Shaw, Joseph 
Peace, S. Bond, William Peck, William Hill, Charles Parish 
and John Raboteau. 

It will be noticed that great stress is laid on Latin in the 
training of the boys, while the girls were confined to the 
English branches. Further, it is observable that the princi- 
ple of practical training, so much talked of in modern times, 
was introduced for the benefit of the girls, while the boys 
had none at all. The boys w'ere instructed as if they were 
designed for one of the learned professions. The girls were 
educated to be good spellers and readers, to be well acquainted 
with geography, and their hands were trained to be able to 
use deftly the needle. Many of them, too, learned to play 
on a piano or guitar under a music teacher of reputation, an 
Englishman named Thomas Sambourne. They were well 
taught, too. My soul tbrills after the lapse of half a century 
with the inspiriting tunes which leaped from the rapidly 
flying fingers of the dear ladies of the old school — Virginia 
Reels, Battle of Prague, Coronation March, and the like. 
They were not stuffed with the classics and higher mathe- 
matics and other "ologies," but they were taught to be grace- 
ful and agreeable companions and excellent housewives. I 
may be wrong, but I must state my opinion, that, although 
no prettier than the girls of the present day, for that is sim- 
ply impossible, thev understood and practised better than 
their descendants the art of conversation. Governor Swain 
in his Tucker Hall address printed a letter w^ritten by Mrs. 
Winifred Gales and signed by sixteen Raleigh ladies, accom- 
panying the gift of a pair of globes and a compass to the 
new University of the State. I have the original to show you. 
You will find that not only is the letter couched in good 
English, but the handwriting is all good, lady-like and legi- 
hle. You will further find that the fashion of covering the 
side of the sheet with three or four lines of illegible hiero- 
glyphics had not invaded our city in 1802. 

Let us read the names of those ladies: S. W. Potter, 
Eliza E. Llaywood, Sarah Polk, Anna White, Martha 
McKeethan, Margaret Casso, Eliza Williams, Nancy Bond, 



69 

Hannah Paddisson, Susanna Parish, Ann O'Bryan, E. H. P. 
Smith, Nancy Haywood, Priscilla Shaw, Rebecca Williams, 
Winifred Mears. 

All have long ago closed their eyes forever on the beauti- 
ful town they luved so well, and whose society they adorned. 
But their teachings and their examples will live in the 
character of those with whom in life they were thrown until 
they shall all meet around the throne of God. Let us hope 
that the benediction on the University uttered by these 
good ladies ninety years ago — " May the past, present and 
future students distinguish themselves in society, no less 
by their literary attainments, than by a virtuous course of 
conduct, which, giving additional lustre to talents, will ren- 
der them at once useful and honorable members of society " — 
be realized unfailingly and abundantly in all the years to 
come ! 

In 1810 there was elected to take charge of the Academy 
a native of one of the lovely counties of Virginia, in whose 
cold, clear springs the noble James river has its source, a 
young preacher of the Presbyterian church, destined to have 
a great influence in moulding the character of our people, 
Rev. William McPheeters, honored in 1819 with the degree 
of Doctor of Divinity by the University of the State. Dr. 
McPheeters was a man of learning and of strongest charac- 
ter, of great personal magnetism, an admirable teacher, kind 
to all, but inflexibly severe to ofl'enders. It shows the primi- 
tive state of our society tiiat he was elected, as I have stated, by 
the Trustees not only teacher of the Acadeni}^, but " Pastor of 
the City." He preached most acceptably in the State-house 
until 1817, when the Presbyterian church was erected. He 
gave up the Academy about 1833. In 1837 he spent a year 
in Fayetteville in charge of a large female seminary, and 
resigned on account of failing health. For the same reason 
he declined the tender of the presidency of Davidson Col- 
lege. He returned to Raleigh, to die, in 1842. 

There was no more influential man in the State than Dr. 
McPheeters. Besides his ministerial duties, he was a great 
power in education. Two j^ears after coming to North Caro- 
lina he was elected a Trustee of the Universit3^ His school 
received patronage from all parts of the South, from Vir- 
ginia to Louisiana. He was impartial in his kindness and 
his severity, as exacting with large boys as with small. 
Once when a boy, almost ready to enter the University, pre- 
suming on his size, and possibly on his being the son of the 
great Colonel Polk, ran from the threatening rod in full speed 



70 

towards home, the Doctor pursued, and in sight of the awe- 
struck pupils captured the fleeing youth and administered 
such a tanning as was the source of abundant good to the 
future Bishop of Louisiana and Lieutenant General of the 
Confederacy. The Bishop thanked him afterwards, saying 
it was the turning point of his life. Among his pupils 
were some of the most eminent men in the land ; who all 
testified to his superiority. 

Dr. McPheeters had some able assistants. Among them 
I notice a young immigrant from Scotland, who was married 
while a citizen of Raleigh and afterwards became one of the 
most distinguished teachers in the South, Rev. Alexander 
Wilson, on whom our University conferred the degree of 
Doctor of Divinity in 1839. James Grant, who graduated 
at our University in 1831, by teaching in the same school 
raised the money which enabled him to emigrate to Iowa, 
become an eminent lawyer and Judge, and near the close of 
his life to be a benefactor of his Alma Mater. 

In 1832, in consequence of the failing health of Dr. Mc- 
Pheeters, an ambitious attempt was made to establish at 
Raleigh a large school under the auspices of the Protestant 
Episcopal church. Subscriptions amounting to about $12,- 
000 were procured, mostly payable in the future, while the 
buildings were erected on a tract of 159|^ acres, on a mort- 
gage of the property. Dr. Joseph G. Cogswell, afterwards 
the learned librarian of the Astor Library in New York, was 
the first Principal. The school was at first greatly success- 
ful in securing patronage, at one time reaching 135, but the 
discipline was bad, the financial support failed, and the 
pupils fell away. In 1838 it was closed and the property 
sold to Duncan Cameron. 

But the promoters of the enterprise builded better than 
they knew. After this school for boys had failed, in 1842 
there was inaugurated in the same buildings St. Mary's 
School for girls. Its founder, Rev. Dr. Aldert Smedes, had 
rare qualifications for this work. He was a man of big brain 
and great heart. During the privations of the great Civil 
War, and in the troublous years afterwards, the doors of 
his school were kept open, even when he was suffering a 
pecuniary loss. His benefactions in the way of free tuition 
and board on credit, at all times liberal, were in those days 
princely. There is no calculating the amount of his iniiu- 
ence in the thousands of homes adorned by his pupils all 
through the Southern States. Peace Institute, although not 



71 

rooted so far in the past, forms with St. Mary's a pair of noble 
institutions of which Raleigh is and has reason to be proud. 

Education was not made easy in the old-time schools for 
boys. Their teachers were faithful and learned, as a rule, 
but the methods were not calculated to make learning and 
literature popular with the rising generation. People believed 
that teaching and medicine were alike in the respect that 
the more nauseous they were the greater good was effected. 
Most teachers ruled by fear rather than love. The com- 
bined din of body-wrapping switch and howling boys was 
often heard from the school-room. As a necessary conse- 
quence schools were odious to the pupil. The average 
" scholar," as he was called, looked on any youngster who 
claimed to love school as a devotee of the Father of Lies, rather 
than of the God of Truth, and as seeking under unholy pre- 
tences to obtain the praise of the teacher. The books taught 
were, as a rule, without illustrations and expressed in lan- 
guage above childish comprehension. It strikes one with 
astonishment to see what dry abstract passages of great 
authors are contained in the juvenile readers of old times, 
and to notice what polysyllabic words were contained in 
definitions to be learned by mere children. Things had im- 
proved some in m}^ boyhood, but I remember that when 
eight years old I was forced to study a book in which my 
duty was, under penalty of the rod, to spell such words as 
druggist, and then give from nitniory the so-called definition 
pharmacopolist. 

The result was that boys regarded themselves in a state of 
war with the teacher. It w;sgoud morals to cheat him in 
all possible ways. The teacher, especially Dr. McPheeters, 
wavS generally too wary for the most cunning. I recall a 
forged excuse offered by a youth who had run off on a fish- 
ing excursion. " Philemon are contained at home by dispo- 
sition." It was signed, apparently, by his older sister. The 
Doctor said with a dangerous glitter in his eye, " Your sister 
did not write this!" whereupon Philemon, in alarm, blurted 
out, " Sister never could spell, no how." 

Mr. Lovejoy, Jefferson Madison Lovejoy, " Old Jeff," was 
the last of the old-time teachers, and he became somewhat 
milder at the close of his career. His standing rule was a lick 
for each word missed, and he seemed to enjoy the infliction. 
I have heard him ridicule a moaning sufferer. " What is 
a whipping? Nothing but bringing a stick into contact with 
a boy's leg. Why make a fuss about that?" 



72 

On the whole, he was a good teacher and kind to those 
who would do right and obey orders. He was a man of 
force and striking peculiarities of manner and diction. With 
what awe I listened to his account of his courtship of his 
excellent wife. "I courted her. She said 'No!' I said, 
if you will not have me you shall not marry another. I 
will watch. If any man shows attention to you I will KILL 
him! She was a good woman. She did not want young 
men slaughtered. She did not want me to be hung for mur- 
der. She married me, and has been the best wife in the 

world." 

PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 

While the private, or, as they were called, subscription 
schools, of Raleigh were as a rule of high order, the public 
schools were, until a recent date, more confined to the lower 
grades, " the thre&R's," as they were called, Reading 'Riting 
and 'Rithmetic. The school-houses were built about 1841, 
Favetteville and Halifax streets being the dividing line be- 
tween two districts. The eastern school-house was in Moore 
Square, usually known as the " Baptist Grove "; the western 
on William Boylan's land, immediately west of the land of 
Sylvester Smith. This latter was abandoned in a year or 
two, and another built on the southwest corner of Cabarrus 
and McDowell streets. After a few years a third, designed 
for females only, was built at the northwest corner of the 
City Cemetery. The Cabarrus and McDowell street house 
was sold to the Gas Company, and another erected in Nash 
Square, whence, after the war, it was removed to one of the 
brick-yard lots west of D. C. Murray's residence. These 
were humble beginnings of our noble Centennial and Mur- 
phey Graded Schools. 

vSOCIAL LIFE OF EARLY RALEIGH. 

It would be a pleasant task to sketch the character of all 
the prominent men and women who have illustrated our 
city's past, but this would give my address an intolerable 
length. Confining myself to the early citizens, let us give 
some account of their social life. 

Owing to the fact that housekeepers owned their cooks and 
house-servants, there was a more free hospitality than is 
possible now. Many families had waiters of faultless skill 
in the conduct of the great feasts so common in the good 
old days. But as a rule matrons were not by any means 
relieved from care. 



73 

It is true that she could command their labor and had no 
fears of being left servantless at a critical moment. It is 
true that she had her cows, who cropped unmolested the 
grass on the streets and in the neighboring meadows; 
her pigs, who revelled in the acorns and hickory-nuts of 
uncleared forests; poultry in the backyard, dreading no enemy 
but the mink and the opossum. But her servants were 
often as raw and green as the cabbages in the gardens, and 
it was necessary carefully to tutor them to avoid ludicrous 
mistakes. Even with the extremest care disconcerting blun- 
ders were not infrequent. I recall an incident at the table of an 
elegant lady of English birth. A large company was present. 
8he had prepared a number of pies, which she desired to be 
heated at the proper time for the dessert. She said to her 
waiting maid in a low tone, "Go, 'eat the pies!" The 
maid disappeared. A long interval ensued. The lady was 
in agony. At last the maid returned. There was a glow of 
happine-s on her cheeks and a suspiciously moist appear- 
ance about her lips. The mistress whispered, impatiently, 
" I told 3^ou to 'eat the pies !" " I done eat 'era, ma'am !" was 
the horrifying re[)ly. 

Here is a case which happened at my grandmother's table : 
The servant was instructed to hand plates on the left sides 
of the guests. She avowed, " I don't know, ma'am, nothin' 
about left sides!" " Well, you know which is the right side, 
don't you ?" " No, ma'am, I don't know nothin' about right 
.sides, nuther !" Gentlemen at that date were used to have 
bright brass buttons on the left lappels of their coats, so my 
grandmother told her to hand the plates on the side where 
the buttons were. Alas ! for human hopes ! One of the com- 
pany was just from Washington City, and was decorated 
with the latei^t Parisian style of brass buttons on both breasts 
of his coat. So my grandmother was thrown into consterna- 
tion by the girl saying in a tone loud enough to reach the 
whole table, " Miss, dere's a gem'man what's got buttons on 
bofe sides of his coat — which must I hand to?" 

My elder hearers can doubtless recall many such instances 
in their own households. The tact and good sense of the 
mistress under such adverse circumstances was needed to 
turn the misfortune into a source of merriment, but many a 
sensitive nature was saddened by the mishap. 

I am proud to state that the treatment of slaves in Raleigh 

was generally kindly and wise. Nowhere was there a more 

agreeable feeling between the races. Masters and mistresses 

did their best to train their servants into habits of virtue 

5 



74 

and industry. Their efforts met with much success. No- 
where were better cooks, seamstresses, houser'naids, mechan- 
ics and hostlers. When fires occurred the colored were always 
at hand and worked as hard, mounted as dangerous roofs, 
and were as much singed by the scorching fiames as the 
w^hites. Throughout the war the colored people were, as a 
rule, true to their owners, and after its close neither the 
unbalancing effects of emancipation, nor the heated discus- 
sions incident to politics, introduced any permanent ill-feel- 
ing between the races. For this truly christian spirit the 
old people of Raleigh should have the credit. 

GOVERNOR'S RECEPTION. 

It was the fashion for the Governors to give public recep- 
t'ons every year during the session of the General Assembly. 
To these were invited not only all the members but all repu- 
table people of the city. It was by means of such social 
influences that the Governors retained their power. The 
Constitution of 1776 gave the General Assembly not only the 
election of the executive officers, but the entire control of 
their salaries. When an anxious patriot, who had dreaded 
the arbitrary power of Tryon and Josiah Martin, asked Wil- 
liam Hooper, on his return from the Congress at Halifax, 
" What powers did you give the Governor?" his reply was 
tranquilizing, " We gave him the power to sign the receipt 
for his salary — no more." Yet these officers by their intel- 
lectual and social pre-eminence exerted a strong and abiding 
influence in the control of aflairs in the State. Nearly all of 
the early Governors were elected three years in succession, 
which was the constitutional limit, and most of them were 
at the close of their term transferred to positions of their 
choice. For example, Martin, Johnston, Turner, Stone, 
Branch, Franklin, Iredell, Stokes, were all made Senators of 
the United States, and Swain President of the University. 
The last was such a favorite — Judge, Solicitor, Governor be- 
fore he was thirty-four years of age — that when he was elected 
President of the University Dr. William Hooper cynically 
remarked, " The people have given him every office, and now 
send him to the University to be educated." 

PUBLIC BALLS. 

A prominent feature of social life was the public ball, or, 
to use an euphemistic name coined about 1807, "Subscription 



75 

Assembly." The general rule was that all respectable men, 
who paid the fee, sometimes as high as five dollars, were 
privileged to attend. Managers were appointed, invested 
with larger powers than similar officers of our " hops." They 
conducted the introduction of strangers to one another, and 
assigned partners at their discretion. It was considered good 
form not to decline to carry out their arrangements. Mrs. 
Kenneth Rayner, who in her distant home in the Southwest 
still has a Raleigh heart, writes me that soon after the mar- 
riage of her father (Col. William Polk) to Miss Sarah Haw- 
kins, aunt, by the by, of Dr. Wm. J. Hawkins, the managers 
assigned to her mother a partner very inferior to her in social 
rank. Colonel Polk was an aristocrat of the first water and 
an ardent Federalist, all the more devoted to his party be- 
cause the tide of public opinion was running furiously and 
fatally against it. His anger began to blaze at the supposed 
insult, and he would probably have made a public exhibi- 
tion of his wrath if his wife had not laid her hand gently on 
his shoulder, saying, " My dear, don't be angry. These peo- 
ple hoped to annoy you. I will dance with the gentleman 
and prevent their enjoying their spite." And so she did, 
showing the excellent sense which distinguished her. This 
assignment of partners by the managers applied probably 
only to the regular sets on the programme. After these the 
parties got together according to their own affinities. I 
recall a case where the son of a butcher was refused by sev- 
eral ladies because he did not visit in their set. Then a very 
popular belle who witnessed his mortification called up a 
manager and said, " Tell him to ask me. I will dance with 
him." She did dance with him and never had cause to 
regret it. 

This last incident happened in AVarrenton, but I wish to 
record for the honor of Raleigh that its society, though 
composed of the elite of the State, equal to any in the South, 
was never haughty and exclusive. It readily admitted those 
who, without possessing the advantages of birth or fortune, 
had high character, good sense, and the tact enabling them 
to conform to its usages. 

Dances were mainly jigs, reels and cotillions, or contra- 
dances, mispronounced country dances. The grand minuet 
had gone out of fashion. Not long before his death in 1836, 
at the request of a party of young folks. Colonel Polk and 
Miss Betsy Geddy, one of the best of the noble tribe of "old 
maids," went through its antiquated figures for the amuse- 
ment of the company. The music was almost invariably 



76 

furnished by colored fiddlers, who acquired wonderful skill 
in playing their dance tunes. By constant repetition the 
musical sounds would be brought out in due harmony, 
whether the wielder of the bow was awake or asleep, sober 
or, as he often was, drunk. The music was extremely 
inspiriting. As you listened you could actually hear the 
violin shriek out the request, " Molly, put the kettle on," or 
inquire facetiously — 

" Old Molly Hare, what are you doin^ there ? 
Hitting in a corner smoking a cigar." 

Or ask, as if it expected an answer — 

" Oh! Mister Revel, 
Did you ever see the devil 
VVith his wooden spade and shovel, 
A digging up the gravel 
With his long toe-uail?" 

Or, changing the subject, would inform us that, "The crow 
he peeped at the weasel, and the weasel he peeped at the 
crow." The music may not have been as scientific as in 
modern days, but there was vastly more fun in it. It would 
strike the auric nerve, run down to your feet and put motion 
into your toes in spite of the strongest resolutions against 
it. Men who had lost their feet affirmed that it set agoing 
the toes which had been buried years ago. It seemed to be 
dangerous to play those tunes in the presence of marble 
statues, unless they were securely fastened to the floor. The 
old revivalists who wished to wean their converts from the 
vanities of balls, felt compelled to proscribe the fiddle as the 
Devil's instrument. When I was a boy it was a general 
religious tenet, that playing it was a sin equal to dancing, 
horse-racing, cock-fighting and gambling. 

It is easy to see why the revivalists took this ground. 

It was the habit of the time to indulge freely the use of 
spirituous liquors. Our forefathers, not our foremothers, 
thought they were drinking down health and long life. In 
fact, even when they didnot become drunkards and die the 
drunkard's death, they were gathering to themselves all such 
evils as gout, disease of the liver, of the heart, of the kid- 
neys. It was the fashion to offer spirits on all occasions. 
My father told me that when he was in the Legislature in 
1833-'34, the members, as a rule, kept a jug in their rooms 
and offered a glass to every visitor. All social meetings had 
abundance of it, and it was the attraction which brought 
the neighbors together at log-rollings and corn-shuckings. 
I recall seeing my father, when his colored manager invited 



77 

the neighboring negroes to a corn-shucking, although he 
himself was an abstainer, supplying the whiskey to enliven 
the workers. The scene was an inspiriting one. The bright 
corn ears, as they were torn from their enveloping shucks 
and thrown on the rapidly growing pile, flashed in the 
bright blaze of the lightwood tire, and the loud chanting of 
the negro song echoed weirdly from the surrounding woods. 
At the close the leaders seized him in defiance of his protests 
and carried him around thedwelling-houseon their shoulders, 
the entire crowd accompanying, and singing the old song, 
"Round the corn, Sally!" He had not then reached the 
dignity of a Judge, but, I think, judicial dignity would not 
have protected him. 

PUBLIC AMUSEMENTS. 

The circus, which for scores of years has set people wild, 
was not known in the early days. But theatrical and sleight- 
of-hand performances and feats of agility and strength were 
much enjoyed. Here is what Ifind in an old advertisement : 

FEATS OF ACTIVITY ! 

William Powers Knight. Lately from Charleston. He will stick 
two pins in the stage in front of his feet, and throw his head backward 
between his legs and take up one pin in each eyelid. 

He will stand on the small kuob of a chair with his heels up and dance 
a hornpipe. 

He will dance a hornpipe with both feet on the crown of his head. 

And so on with a half dozen more similar contortions, 
and offering to refund the price of admission, five shillings, 
or fifty cents, if he should fail. 

The theatrical performances, sometimes by strolling play- 
ers, and very often b}^ amateurs of the city, were greatly 
enjoyed, though the scenery was extremely simple. Occa- 
sionally a young man would develop such histrionic talent 
as to incite him to become an orator on the political stump. 

COURT SCENES. 

In addition to the annual meetings of the General Assem- 
bly, our citizens watched the proceedings of the courts, State 
and Federal, with an intensity of interest only paralleled by 
that excited by the Ku-klux trials and the special-tax bond 
suits soon after the close of our Civil War. There were 
many great questions to be settled, and conspicuous crimi- 



78 

nals to be prosecuted, and some of the judges and lawyers 
were of uncommon ability. I have already told of the 
special tribunal for the trial of Secretary of State Glasgow 
and his associates. Another case of extreme importance 
was the ejectment suit brought in the United States District 
Court by the Earl of Coventry and others, heirs at law of 
Earl Granville, against William Richardson Davie, and a 
second suit by the same parties against Josiah Collins, as 
test cases, to enforce their claim to tlie magnificent territory 
allotted in 1744 to Earl Granville as heir of the original 
Lord Proprietor, Sir George Carteret. A¥e read in the Ral- 
eigh Register that on Thursday William Gaston, for the 
plaintifis, " spoke at great length, and with much method, 
perspicuity, eloquence and strength. The defence was con- 
ducted by [Duncan] Cameron, [Blake] Baker and 

Woods, with great ingenuity, skill and force, and the argu- 
ment was closed on Saturday by Mr. [Edward] Harris, for 
the plaintiffs, with much learning and ability." The case 
was decided against the plaintiffs, and the appeal to the 
Supreme Court of the United States was never prosecuted to 
a hearing, probably because of the war of 1812. 

The time consumed in the trial of this case was very sel- 
dom equalled in the early days. It was rare that more than 
one day was consumed, the spinning out to weary length of 
examinations of witnesses and arguments of counsel being 
a modern invention. 

PUBLIC HANGINGS. 

Public hangings I must not call one of the amusements of 
the old days, but they were productive of so much interest and 
excitement that I must describe them. They were thought to 
afford high moral instruction. The unfortunate wretch was 
clothed in a white shroud and seated on his coffin in a cart, a 
minister of the gospel and the officers of the law, together with a 
military company, attending. Startingfrom the jail the dismal 
cavalcade marched to the place where the gallows was ready. 
In the earliest times the arrangements, though effective, were 
exceedingly simple. Phil. Terrell, already mentioned, was 
suspended to an oak tree between South and Lenoir streets. 
At another time a cross-beam was placed between two trees 
near the old city graveyard. At another a similar beam 
was placed between two pines on Gallows Hill, which was 
the southwestern reservation, at the corner of South and 
AVest streets. After that the rock quarry was selected and a 



79 

regular gallows erected. For some years the criminal was 
lelt in the cart, and after the adjustment of the rope the horse 
was driven from beneath the beam. The instinctive love of 
life prompted the criminal to struggle to keep his feet on the 
moving vehicle as long as possible in a manner horrifying 
to the spectators. Hence the trap was introduced, held up 
by a rope passed over a limb or beam and cut with a chisel 
at the critical moment. Pulling up the condemned man by 
a heavy weight is of modern origin. The crowds present, as 
I have been told — I never witnessed one of these hangings — 
were, as a rule, seemingly impressed with the solemnity of 
the scene. I am grieved to say, however, that when once, 
after the rope was adjusted, a reprieve came from the Gov- 
ernor, there were many expressions of disappointment on the 
part of those who had travelled many miles to witness the 
consummation. A decent-looking w^oman was heard to say 
indignantly, " T won't never go again to see him hung if he 
never is hung," as if she had been conferring a favor on the 
reprieved man by coming to his " taking off." A newly mar- 
ried couple in Granville journeyed to a hanging as a bridal 
tour. Whatever may be thought of the attitude of the peo- 
ple of the first part of this century to this subject, I am bound 
to record that many good people thought it right, and some 
thought it a duty, to be present on all similar executions of 
the sentence of the law. 

DUELS. 

We are happilv in our day spared the constant thrilling 
anxiety which our grandparents had in consequence of the 
frequency of duels, often resulting in the death of one or both 
parties. Public opinion inexorably demanded that there 
should be no shrinking from the ordeal. In South Carolina 
men of established reputation thought it no shame to act as 
seconds to two belligerent students of the State College, and 
assisted them in a combat which resulted in the death of 
one and so terribly wounding of the other that his usefulness 
for life was destroyed. I am glad to say that I find no mor- 
tal combats between citizens of Raleigh, although divers men 
who had engaged in them afterwards made their home within 
its limits. I am glad, too, that the editors of Ijoth our news- 
papers, Mr. Joseph Gales and Mr. William Boylan, had the 
courage to raise their voices against the horrible practice. 
The following eloquent apostrophe appears in the Minerva, 
of 1807, after giving an item to the effect that in Beaufort, 



80 

South Carolina, Arthur Smith on Monday afternoon and 
Thomas Hutson on Tuesday of the same week had been slain 
in duels: 

"Oh, thou idol, who delightest in human sacrifice ; who offerest up 
blood as sweet-smelling incense! when will thy reign cease? Oh, ye 
votaries of this Moloch, ye abettors of murder and bloodshed ! Remem- 
ber that thedav will assuredly come when you will know whether you 
are to form your actions by the laws of honor, or the laws of God!"' 

It was seldom that these " affairs of honor," as they were 
called, were bloodless. The combatants usually aimed to 
kill, the distances were short, generally ten paces, the 
weapons pistols, carrying balls as large as the end of one's 
thumb. There were no amusing comments of the French 
type regarding the result. I find only one chronicle of a 
humorous nature, ridiculous because the challenge did not 
conform to the rules of " the code." I copy it verbatim,. 

"Sir. You will please bring your gun and Tom Brown to Mr. Ja. 
Joneses in the morning to give me consolation. 

NATHAN'L MORRIS. 
To Mr. Wm. Dillard, Wake county."" 

I have searched the subsequent columns in vain in order 
to ascertain whether the irate Mr. Morris ever got his "con- 
solation " from Mr. Dillard and his gun. As newspapers 
then, as now, never failed to chronicle bloody tragedies, the 
probabilities are that the soil of Wake county was not fer- 
tilized by the gore of either the offender or his disconsolate 
foe. 

MAILS AND TRAVELLERS. 

It is difficult for us with our frequent mails and rapid and 
comfortable ti'avelling to realize the evils suffered by our 
ancestors for want of postal and tran'^portation facilities. 
The only mail and passenger coaches from the North via 
Raleigh, in the early years of the century, left Petersburg 
on Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays at 3 a. m. They 
arrived at Warrenton on the same days at 8 p. m., seventeen 
hours on the road. They left Warrenton at 3 o'clock 
next morning, and were expected to be in Raleigh the same 
day at 6 p.m., covering fifty-five miles in fifteen hours. The 
travellers and mails going further south left Raleigh on Mon- 
days, Wednesdays and Fridays at 3 a. m., and were to be in 
Fayetteville on the same days at 5 p. m. They proceeded to 
Charleston by way of Georgetown at the same rate of speed. 
Besides the loss of time, travellers suffered greatly from the 
constrained position of the body in the coaches, especially 



81 

when crowded, and from heat in summer and cold in win- 
ter. In one respect, however, the old-time citizens had the 
advantage over the modern, as I myself can recall. This 
was the keen pleasurable excitement experienced at the 
arrival of the stage, as the mail coaches were called, bring- 
ing news from friends and the world in general after 
two days suspense. I firmly believe that no music is ever 
so sweet to the people of to-day as were, before the steam 
locomotive came into our city, the distant notes of the old 
stage-horns, sounding wild and clear in the eveningair from 
the Crabtree hills. And no man is ever so great in these 
days as were the drivers who blew those horns, as with 
thundering trot their beautiful horses dashed up to the post- 
office. The news from Europe came in with corresponding 
slowness. For example, the Minerva of September 17, 1807, 
has the latest irom Bos on September 2. " By arrival of 
ship Sally, in forty-two days from Liverpool, we have 
received our London files complete to the 17th of July." 
These contained the first news of the Peace of Tilsit betw'een 
France and Prussia made on June 22. Two thousand gal- 
lant British soldiers were shot down by the troops of General 
Jackson at the battle of New Orleans on the 8th of January, 
1815, fifteen days after the declaration of peace. And the 
news of this brilliant victory was not heard in Raleigh until 
the 17th of February, the period of transmission being forty 
days. 

PRICES. 

We are accustomed to hear of the superior economical 
habits of our grandsires. I do not dispute altogether this 
belief, but I must explain that there were tw^o good reasons for 
their being so virtuous. One is, that on account of the great 
expense of freights owing to the want of good roads, incomes 
in cash were smaller than in our day. The second reason is, 
that for like cause, and aho for lack of labor-saving machinery, 
prices of articles raised at home were much higher. I have 
the mercantile books of W. & J. Peace for the early part of 
the century. I have a guilty sensation, like that of an eaves- 
dropper, in seeing what the belles and beaux of the period 
were accustomed to buy ; ribbons and combs and calicoes, 
silk handkerchiefs, teas and coffee?, and, shall I tell on them, 
brandy and rum. I mention no names, but to make you 
more content with your monthly store accounts, I state that 
a dozen needles cost 25 cents, a silk handkerchief (bandana) 
$1 25, a muslin handkerchief 70 cents, a yard of broadcloth 



82 

$7, a pound of pepper 70 cents, a pair of cotton hose $1.40, 
one dozen pewter plates $4.50, a pound of Hyson tea $2.50, 
a yard of linen 70 cents, a pound of gunpowder, $1, a pound 
of shot 15 cents. Nails were sold b}'- number, not by the 
pound, e. g., fifty ten-penny nails 15 cents. Brandy was 
cheaper, $1 60 a gallon, but the loaf-sugar for sweetening the 
julep was 45 cents a pound. 

FOURTH OF JULY CELEBRATIONS. 

It is impossible for us at this late day to realize the inten- 
sity of the enthusiasm which our fathers and grandfathers 
had in all matters relating directly or indirectly to the Revo- 
lutionary War. It was beginning to die out when I was a 
boy, but I will never forget the grand militia musterings, the 
gorgeous uniforms of the officers, and the shrill sound of the 
drum and fife in the warlike tunes of " Yankee Doodle," and 
" Three little Pigs, three little Pigs and a Bob-tailed Sow." 
When old soldiers who had participated in the struggle and 
could talk about its victories still survived, there was a liv- 
ing, intense interest, which manifested itself in fondness for 
processions and toast-drinkings and military companies and 
patriotic shoutings, which scaled the loftiest clouds and 
" made the welkin ring." 

Nowhere was this spirit greater than at Raleigh. Besides 
other war-men, we had a distinguished leader, Colonel Polk, 
who had fought throughout the Revolution, and bore scars 
of battle upon his stalwart body. He appeared proud and 
reserved at other limes, but at anniversaries of our independ- 
ence he deemed it a patriotic duty to unbend and join in 
and promote the general joy. For this work he had peculiar 
gifts to enable him to shine in the post to which he was by 
universal consent always assigned, that of president, or, 
if the Governor was present, acting vice-president of the 
festival. 

He had an assistant who was also peculiarly fitted for such 
occasions. His name was F. H. Reeder. Reeder was a tinner 
by trade, who had a talent for writing doggerel and a voice for 
singing. He was a private in the army that fought at Bla- 
densburg, and felt bound to obey an old officer, whether 
ordered to sing a song, propose a toast, drink a dram as 
" deep as the Zuyder Zee," or shout vociferous hurrahs until 
they echoed back from the Crabtree hills. It was a rare treat 
to see once a year this patriotic veteran, with about half a 
dozen full horns 'under his jacket, meandering around the 



83 

old Colonel who served under Washington, ordinarily proud, 
but " hail-fellow-well-met" to-day, and fondly saying, "Col- 
onel, you are such a clever fellow on the Fourth of July." 

I must read you one of Reeder's odes. At this late day I 
cannot discover whether it was original with him, or what 
candidate it satirises : 

REEDER'S ODE. 

The election times are drawing nigh — 
Who shall we send to the Assembly, saj ! 

Each 'clined to Legislature far, 
Would fain to Raleigh haste away. 

Those gentlemen we've sent so long, 

I think at home they now might stay — 
This is the burden of my song: 

Let every puppy have his day. 

Don't for the sly physician vote, 

Though he may for your interest urge — 

He'll cram his physic down your throat. 
And 'stablish by the law his charge. 

When hlistered, glystered, cupped and bled, 

He 11 drean your body and your purse; 
And when you're in your cofiSn laid. 

All you leave is his — of course. 

The lawyer, he should not go there — 

Lawyers were knaves from early time; 
Their quirks and quavers we should dread. 

Nor up to power let them climb. 

And if by chance he should go there, 

He'll make a law to raise his fees. 
And leave you neither horse nor cow, 

Nor hog your hominy to grease. 

The farmer, he should rot go there, 

By chance his noddle it would pop; 
He'd think himself a gentleman, 

'Twould raise his pride and spoil his crop. 

Then what would such a noodle do! 

Let him employ his clumsy paws 
In handling of his hoes and ploughs. 

And never dream of making laws. 

Well, who the devil shall we send! 

Let me alone for that my dears — 
A friend to you I'll recommend, 

Who'll guard your freedom with his shears. 

Bow-legged and firmly he will stand. 

Protecting you from all abuse. 
With long sharp bodkin in one hand. 

And in the other a red-hot goose. 



84 

The celebration of the 4th of July, 1812, wa?, on account 
of the pendency of the war, of peculiar interest, and I must 
give a description of it. 

At 9 o'clock there was an oration before the Polemic Soci- 
ety by a brilliant young orator, who afterwards attained 
national fame, Willie P. Mangum, of Orange, not yet twenty- 
one years of age. At 11 o'clock there was a parade by Cap- 
tain Henderson's cavalry and Captain Wiatt's infantry, lead- 
ing a procession to Union Square. Then Mr. Thomas G. Hen- 
derson delivered an oration, which was followed by hymns. 
The declaration of war and proclamation of President Madi- 
son w^ere read by Mr. Henderson Lucas, co-editor with Hen- 
derson of " The Star" newspaper. Rev. James Hall, of 
Cabarrus, a Revolutionary soldier, offered a prayer. A din- 
ner was subsequently given to seventy guests — Governor 
William Hawkins being nominal president, but Colonel 
Polk, as vice-president, really the master of ceremonies. I 
give the headings of the toasts that you may see what our 
forefathers were thinking about. I wish I had time to give 
the whole of each as there is much literary excellence in 
some of them : 

1. The 4lh of July, 1776. 

2 The Memory of George W^ashington. 

3. The Officers and Soldiers of the Revolutionary Army. 

4. The Patriots and Statesmen of 1776. 

5. The Convention of 1787 

6. The People of the United States. 

7. The President of the United State. 

8. The Congress and the Constituted Authorities of the 
United States. 

9. The Militia, Army and Navy. 

10. An Honorable and Speedy Termination of the W^ar 
which the Injustices and Aggressions of Great Britain has 
Inaugurated. 

11. Our Rule of Conduct towards the World— Enemies in 
War; Friends in Peace. 

12. Our Maritime Citizens, unjustly deprived of their Lib- 
erties. 

13. Agriculture, Commerce and Manufactures. 

14. The Constitution of the United States— Old and with- 
out needing repairs. 

15. The American Press. 

16. Literature, Art and Science, the Main Pillars of the 
Temple of Liberty. 



85 

17. The University of North Carolina and other Literary- 
Institutions. 

18. The American Union. 

These regular toasts, carefully written beforehand, show 
admirable taste in pleasing both Federalists and Republi- 
cans. At other places, AVilmington for example, the feeling 
between the parties was so strong that each had its own cele- 
bration. 

After the regular toasts the following volunteer t asts were 
given : 

By the President (Governor Hawkins) — 

The Memories of Hancock and Adams. 

There was much tact shown in this toast. Hancock, who 
died in 1793, was extremely popular, and having offered 
amendments to the Constitution much desired by the Repub- 
licans, was claimed as on their side. The recognition of 
Adams brought howls of delight from the Federalists. 

Colonel Polk then offered — 

The Memories of Franklin and Hamilton. 

The compromising tact shown in this toast is apparent. 
Franklin was claimed by all parties, and Hamilton was the 
ablest man of the Federalist party. 

The President, Vice-President and ex-Governors Stone and 
Williams then retired and their healths were drunk. 

This was evidently a very formal and official dinner, with 
all proprieties suitable to the presence of State dignitaries. 
On the same day the Raleigh Volunteer Guards and citizens, 
dressed in homespun, as a protest against British manufac- 
tures, had their dinner at Rex Spring in the northern part 
of the city. Captain Wiatt was made president and Allen 
Rogers, vice-president. " A plain and plentiful dinner was 
provided, and the toasts were drunk in home-made liquor," 
("old corn "). After each toast there was music and gener- 
ally three to nine cheers. The dogs of war were let loose. 
No compromises and stiff official forms here. Besides the 
usual toasts to Washington, " The Day we Celebrate," " The 
Patriots of the Revolution," etc., there were some which were 
offensive to most Federalists. For example, " The Congress 
of the United States — May its floor be cleaned of Yelpers and 
Trimmers!" This was followed by three cheers, a recitation, 
and an ode by A. Davis. Then I note that the militia had 
a toast all to itself, followed by nine cheers and two tunes, 
"Yankee Doodle," the national tune, and one called "Colum- 
bia's Volunteers." The toast to the Army and Navy was 



86 

honored by onlv three cheers and one tune, " The American 
Star." 

There was a toast to Thomas Jefferson, whose name was 
not mentioned in the official banquet. 

Another was to " Our Republican Brethren of Spanish 
America," followed by the French battle-song " Ca Ira." 

Then followed one to Canada — " May her Star soon Shine 
in the Flag of the Union." This was followed by a song, 

"March! march! march! in good order, 
Until we arrive at the English border." 

The following has a faint odor of tar and a soft suggestion 
of feathers: "The Liberty of the Press — May, those who 
abuse it, to serve the Enemies of our Country, be treated to a 
suit of American Manufacture!" 

Great Britain and her sympathizers (if any) must have 
shuddered at the next : " Great Britain — May the thunder 
of our cannon check her arrogance, and contempt silence 
her advocates !" The music to this was, " Let's Sound the 
Trumpet of \¥ ar." 

After this explosion of wrath, the company " tapered off" 
with compliments to " Domestic Manufactures," and " The 
American Fair," meaning, of course, the ladies. 

The patriotic Raleigh Volunteer Guards marched to Beau- 
fort, but never met the enemy. There was a drafting of the 
militia of Wake for the defence of Norfolk. It was con- 
ducted on Union Square north of the Capitol, the Governor 
and Secretary of State seeing that there was fair play. 
There were two wheels of the size of cheese boxes. The 
names of the militiamen were placed in one wheel ; the due 
proportion of blanks and papers with the word " drafted " 
in the other. A boy drew a name from the first box and a 
paper from the second. When the fatal " drafted " appeared, 
often the females of the family of the unfortunate set up 
loud lamentations. A man named Hardy Dodd, willing to 
go as a substitute, took chances for from $15 to $25 each. 
His luck was such that he drew fifteen blanks, but was 
caught on the sixteenth. Poor fellow! All theglory gained 
was death in camp from fever. Most of these soldiers left 
their bones on Virginia soil. 

The leader of the Raleigh Volunteers, Captain W. T. C. 
Wiatt, afterwards Colonel Wiatt, was a remarkable man, 
and if he had had opportunity would have become eminent 
as a partisan officer. He had nerves of steel. When Sheriff 
of Wake his name became famous throughout the State 



87 

because of his killing a prisoner named Wolfe. Wolfe was 
a man of great physical strength. He came to Raleigh as a 
recruiting officer, married and settled here. He adopted 
gambling as a business, was arrested under the vagrant act, 
and committed to Wiatt's custody. Wiatt ordered the 
jailer, INIiller, to change his quarters to the dungeon, as he 
was fearful of an escape. Wolfe knocked Miller down, and 
was rushing for the door when Wiatt shot and killed him. 
His action was decided to be justifiable. In 1841 the 
Supreme Court of the State made him its Marshal, in which 
capacity he acted until his death. Old-time travellers remem- 
ber the cool water of his well four miles west of town on the 
road to Chapel Hill and Hillsboro. The drivers of the 
public stages always watered their horses at Wiatt's well. 

LAFAYETTE'vS VISIT. 

The euthusiasm in regard to the Revolutionary War 
received a great impetus by the visit of LaFayette in 1825. 
Colonel William Polk, by the request of the Governor, met 
him at the Virginia line and escorted him throughout the 
State to the South Carolina boundary. Near Raleigh he 
was met by Colonel Thomas Polk of Mecklenburg in com- 
mand of a corps of cavalr}^ followed by nearly one hun- 
dred citizens on horseback. The General and suite, which 
included his son, Washington LaFayette, and his Secretary, 
M. Le Vasseur, alighted from their carriages and a general 
introduction took place. At the city limits they were met 
by a company of infantry under command of Captain John 
S. Ruffiu. The cavalcade proceeded to the Capitol amid 
firing of cannon and huzzas of the assembled people. Col- 
onel Polk and the General rode together in a barouche 
drawn by four iron-grays. The Governor received him in 
the vestibule, escorted him to the reception chamber, where 
he was welcomed in a formal address by the Governor 
(Burton), to which he made a suitable reply. At the con- 
clu.sion the company was gratified w'ith a spectacular scene. 
LaFayette and Polk, both of whom were wounded at Bran- 
dy wine, rushed into each other's arms, and with tears of joy 
avowed " their gratitude that they who had borne the brunt 
of the battle together in their youthful prime, had been 
spared to meet again on peaceful plains and in happier 
hours." Then an old soldier named Cross, who also had 
been wounded at Brandy wine, was brought up and exhibited 
his venerable scars. 



88 

LaFayette spent from Tuesday until Thursday in Raleigh, 
abundantly feted and very gracious. Tradition hath it that 
he had a voracious appetite. Mr. James D. Royster informed 
me that, in common with hundreds of others, he had the 
honor of shaking his hand. His invariable salutation was, 
"How do you do, ray son? How do you do?" When 
old soldiers were accorded a more leisurely introduction, he 
invariably asked the question, "Are you married?" If the 
reply was " Yes, sir ;" he would say, with unction, " Happy 
man; happy man !" If the reply was " No, sir;" he would 
reply, " Lucky dog! lucky dog!" An immigrant from France, 
naively thinking that his countryman would, as a matter of 
course, be interested in his family affairs, informed him of 
the recent death of his wife. He received the mechanical 
reply, " Happy man; happy man ! " 

OLD NEWSPAPERS. 

But I must close these random sketches. It is so delight- 
ful for me to take these old people by the hand and talk 
with then], and look at the world through their eyes, that I 
never know when to stop. I had WTitten a three-hour speech 
before I had noticed it, from half of which I have spared 
you to-night. I like, too, to look over the old newspapers 
and notice what items were enjoyed in the old days. Some 
of them were very grave and some very amusing. I am 
struck with frequent satires on the ladies, showing that these 
interesting creaturfs filled then, as now, a large portion of 
the public mind. Before concluding, I quote several of them, 
The first is from The Wasp, a newspaper of small dimensions, 
printed in the Gales office and edited by two boys, who after- 
wards attained great distinction. Joseph Gales, of the 
National Intellige'ricer, and Edward J. Hale, of the FagcUeville 

Observer. 

EPITAPH. 
Beneath this stone, a heap of clay. 

Lies Arabella Young, 
Who, on the twenty-fourth of May, 
Began to hold her tongue. 

The next is from Mr. Boylan's newspaper: 

RECEIPT TO -CURE A LOVE-FIT. 
Tie one end of a rope fast over a beam, 
And make a slip knot at the other extreme; 
Then just underneath let the cricket be set, 
On which let the lover most manfully get. 
Then over his head let the snicket be got. 
And under one ear be well settled the knot; 
The cricket kicked down, let him take a fair swing. 
And leave all the rest to the work of the string. 



89 

Another : 

TO MATTHEW BRAMBLE, ESQ. 

In the blithe days of honeymoon, 

With K^tte's allurements smitten, 
I loved her late, I loved her soon, 

And called her dearest kitten. 
But now my kitten's s'"own a cat, 

And cross, like other wives. 
Oh! by my soul, my honest Mat, 

I fear she has nine lives. 

The kindred joke about the husband saying that when he 
was first married he loved his bride enough to bite her, but 
that he had not been married six months before he bitterly 
repented not having bodil}' devoured her, came in later. 

I notice two anecdotes, new to me, about ninety years old. 
They are fair specimens of what struck the risible nerves of 
our forefathers. The first is on a newly imported Dutchman^ 
having learned that a spirit is a ghost, angrily inquiring of 
the bar-tender, " What for de tivel don't you put plenty of 
ghost in my water? " 

The other is, of course, on an Irishman, an editor, who, on 
giving the news that wool was rising in price, but whiskey 
was falling, offered the consolation to his readers, that if 
their coats will be more costl}^ the lining will be cheaper. 

RAILROADS. 

But really, I must come to a conclusion. 

For years Raleigh dragged its slow length along, a mere 
country village, because it had no advantages of water- 
power or of access to markets. About 1820 it tried in vain 
to make Neuse river and Crabtree navigable, and there were 
wild dreams of having a harbor on Rocky branch. 

In fifty years, by the census of 1840, it had only 2,244 
inhabitants. Its boast of good health was proved to be just, 
by there being ten between seventy and eighty, two between 
eighty and ninety, one between ninety and one hundred, and 
two over one hundred. Some of the best people of the State- 
had made their homes among us, but their pecuniary inter- 
ests mostly lay elsewhere. Raleigh could only be called a. 
half-dead town, " looking up all the time, because flat of its 
back it could not look anywhere else"; eminently respecta- 
ble, but in progressiveness, comatose. 

But in that same 1840 there were signs of the breaking up 
of this lethargy. Not only was the great Tippecanoe, log 
6 



90 

cabin and hard cider celebration in October, wlien real 
ships, sails set, with sailors on the spars, and real log cabins 
and hard cider, and real hornet's nests, and live Revolution- 
ary soldiers, along with other appropriate components of an 
immense procession, moved through our streets and thou- 
sands shouted themselves hoarse for political objects, but 
there were the " three days in June " in honor of the com- 
pletion of the Capitol and of the steaming in of the old 
"Tornado" locomotive engine on the Raleigh and Gaston 
Railroad. 

Rightly did our people become enthusiastic over this mo- 
mentous occasion. Rightly did old General Beverly Daniel 
mount his fiery steed and march the procession from the 
court-house to the depot, where five tables, each ninety. feet 
long, upheld one hundred and fifty yards of " scorched pig," 
whose sweet savor ascended to the skies. There were thir- 
teen regular and seventy-six volunteer toasts, each accompa- 
nied, in all cases with the show, in most with the reality, of 
potations of wine or whiskey. Weston R. Gales was toast- 
master. Governor Dudley was president, assisted by ten vice- 
presidents, among them the venerable Judge Gaston, Here 
is that to the Raleigh and Gaston Railroad : 

"Its structure will accelerate with the velocity of a Tor- 
nado the train of public opinion in its favor." 

And at the close, when eighty-nine sips of the spirituous 
beverage were safely (or unsafely) stowed away, you will not 
criticise harshly the closing toast given by the presiding 
officer. 

"THE CITY OF RALEIGH ! 

It has exceeded in gallantry even its renowned namesake. 
Sir Walter. He but laid down his cloak for one lady to walk 
over. Its citizens have helped to lay down eighty-six miles 
of railroad for the whole sex to ride over !" 

Well did our citizens celebrate the advent of the railroads. 
They have supplied what we lacked. They were at first 
built on mistaken ideas and seemed to fail. But these mis- 
takes have been corrected. They have given us access to the 
world. The great war came. Our citizens supported the 
Southern cause with distinguished gallantry. They had 
their share of its terrible losses. They lost sons and they 
lost fortunes. But Raleigh became known to the world. 
The armies of both sides tramped through it. Our army 
was a means of education not only to our own citizens, but 
to those of the adjoining country. Oar soldiers came back 



91 

with new ideas, gained by tramps through Virginia and 
through Pennsylvania, aye and through Maryland too. 
When the war ended, Raleigh began to go forward with a 
bound. 

Later our citizens learned the power of organized effort. 
They formed in time a Chamber of Commerce and Industry, 
a Cotton Exchange, a Tobacco Exchange, a Merchants' Ex- 
change. When we contemplate a part only of the improve- 
ments we seem to be in a new country. I give such as occur 
to me. I am satisfied that there are more than these: 

1. Street-car lines. 

2. Water- works and sewerage. 
8. Electric lights. 

4. Extension of gas-works. 

5. An excellent fire department. 

6. Electric fire-alarm. 

7. Telephone system. 

8. Graded schools — 1,900 pupils and commodious build- 
ings. 

9. Old churches enlarged and new churches built. I am 
told that there are now thirty church buildings in the city, 

10. Private schools, excellent and prospering; the male 
school up to the reputation of the old Academy under 
McPheeters, and St. Mary's and Peace Institute celebrated 
throughout the land. 

11. A beautiful new public park, the gift of a Raleigh man. 
Also a private park. 

12. Two new cemeteries of ample extent and beautifully 
adorned. 

13. Hotels, new and enlarged, and with modern conveni- 
ences. 

14. A well arranged new union depot. 

15. An opera-house in progress 

16. Many large blocks of new buildings for stores and 
offices. 

17. A new city hall. 

18. A good cotton trade. 

19. Three cotton factories. 

20. Tobacco warehouses and factories. 
21 Wholesale hardware establishments. 

22. Wholesale groceries. 

23. Car-works and wood factories. 

24. Wholesale dry goods trade. 

25. Four strong banks, including a savings bank. 



92 

26. A Home Insurance Company, and many branch 
insurance companies. 

27. Extensive machine and car-shops of the Raleigh and 
Gaston and Raleigh and Augusta Air-Line, and new engine- 
house. 

28. The State Agricultural and Mechanical College, which 
is proving so successful and beneficial to the State. 

29. Vineyards and their products. 

30. Farms of improved cattle and blooded horses. 

31. Spacious new Fair Grounds. 

32. The Agricultural Department and Building. 

33. Agricultural Experiment Station. 

34. Larger livery-stables. 

35. Hospitals for white and colored. 

36. Supreme Court Room and Library. 

37. Large institutes of learning ior the colored, patronized 
by the whole South — Shaw University and St. Augustine 
Collegiate Institute. 

38. A Deaf and Dumb Asylum for the colored. 

39. A handsome Federal Court-house and Post-oSice. 

40. A new and improved County Court-house. 

41. The new Governor's Mansion. 

42. The Soldiers' Home. 

43. Cotton- seed oil mills. 

44. The State Penitentiary. 

45. Ice factories. 

46. A Young Men's Christian Association Building. 

47. The principal streets graded and paved. 

48. The township roads being graded and macadamized. 

49. Many sidewalks properly paved. 

50. Carriage and wagon factories. 

51. Candy factories. 

52. Acid and fertilizer works. 

53. Telegraph facilities largely increased. 

54. Streets extended in many directions. 

55. Cornfields and old fields in the suburbs turned into 
building lots. 

56. Numerous private buildings, some of them costly and 
handsome. 

57. Three daily newspapers and eleven weekly. 

58. Large printing-houses. 

59. Cotton compress. 

60. Cotton yards. 

61. Population nearly eight times what it was forty years 
ago. 



93 

This is a most laudable showing of enterprise and intelli- 
gence. I close with the profound wish — I will be bolder, I 
will say the prediction, that when, one hundred years from 
this date, in the year 1992, some gray-haired speaker stands 
up before your great-grandchildren and the scores of thou- 
sands of added population who will make their homes on 
these hills, he will truthfully chronicle your labors towards 
making this one of the greatest inland cities of the South. 



Note. — Since the printing of the foregoing Address, Rev. 
Dr. J. B. Cheshire, of Charlotte, has furnished me with 
extracts from the Journal of the Convention of 1788, of 
which he has a copy, in regard to locating the seat of gov- 
ernment. The places voted for as centres of the circle of 
twenty miles diameter, within which the location should be 
made, are as follows : 

Smithfield, nominated by James Payne. 

Tarborough, nominated by Robert Williams. 

Fayette- Ville, nominated by William Barry Grove. 

Isaac Hunter's plantation, nominated by James Iredell. 

Newbern, nominated by Judge Samuel Spencer. 

Hillsborough, nominated by Alexander Mebane. 

Fork of Haw and Deep rivers, nominated by Thomas 
Person. 

Isaac Hunter's plantation obtained a majority of votes on 
the second ballot. 

James Iredell, soon to be a Judge of the Supreme Court of 
the United States, offered the ordinance requiring the Gen- 
eral Assembly to establish the Seat of Government within 
the Wake County circle. 

Willie Jones offered the resolution for selecting by ballot 
the circle of location. 

William Barry Grove, of Fayetteville (then written Fay- 
ette-Ville), presented a protest against the action of the 
Convention, signed by over one hundred members. 



A GLANCE AT RALEIGH TO-DAY. 

(Prepared by Especial Request or the Committee 
OF Publication.) 



The city of Raleigh, in all essential respects, extends 
beyond the corporate limits, in every direction, with a steady 
growth that never halts, summer or winter. Whatever may 
be the source of her prosperity, whether her market for cot- 
ton or tobacco, her general mercantile advantages, her new 
manufacturing interests, her educational and social induce- 
ments, or her relations to the State and Federal governments, 
the continued advancement year by year is plain to all 
observers. It proceeds from no artificial efforts, no wide- 
spread advertising. From the' close of the war Raleigh 
began to assume an importance beyond its ante-bellum position 
as the refined and cultivated seat of the State government, 
retired within the shades of its primeval oaks. 

The extension of its railroad connections through the heart 
of Western North Carolina, by Col. A. B. Andrews, until they 
met the lines of the West and South ; the building of the 
Raleigh and Augusta Air- Line to Hamlet, with its after-con- 
nections, through the labors of Maj. John C. Winder, to Char- 
lotte, Cheraw, etc., and the superb new road, the Georgia and 
Carolina, under the presidency of Raleigh's gifted citizen. 
Gen. R. F. Hoke, giving a through line by the Seaboard 
system to Atlanta, have done no little for the progress of the 
city. With these are associated the extensive shops of the 
Seaboard system, and the North Carolina Car Factory, afford- 
ing employment to many worthy citizens. 

The renewal of the Annual State Fairs held by the North 
Carolina Agricultural Society proved to be one of the most 
valuable elements of growth. In 1869 this organization, 
dating back to 1852, was revived, with Hon. K. P. Battle as 
President and James Litchford Secretary. In 1873, under 
the Presidency of Col. Thos. M. Holt, the site of the Fair was 
purchased, on lands northwest of the city, beyond St. Mary's, 
and railroad connections made. From 1876 to 1880, inclu- 
sive, Capt. C. B. Denson was Secretary and Executive Man- 
ager, holding five fairs, a greater number than by any other in 
its history; $14,000 of its debt was paid; much machinery 
and many fine specimens of live stock were introduced. By 



95 

its direct efforts upon the General Assembly, the Society 
brought about the organization of the State Agricultural 
Department, which has been a great factor in the develop- 
ment of the State and the city. At present Hon. Richard 
H. Battle is President and H. W. Ayer, Esq., Secretary. The 
Fair of 1892 was held concurrently with the Centennial Cele- 
bration and contributed much to its success. 

In 1884 the Fair was merged temporarily into the North 
Carolina State Exposition, for which buildings were erected 
on a scale heretofore unknown in our State, and a display of 
the economic advantages of North Carolina was made for 
months, which attracted visitors from every section of the 
Union, and was of mcalculable benefit to our people. To 
Wm. S. Primrose, President, whose judicious management 
and comprehensive far-sighted plans were admirably sec- 
onded by the executive ability of the Secretary, H. W. 
Fries (of Salem), the credit is due for the success which 
revealed to the world the gifts and wonders within North 
Carolina's control, and the beauty and desirability of her 
> Capital as a home. 

To these must be added her progressive city government, 
the efforts of her Chamber of Commerce, the Interstate Ex- 
position of 1891, under J. T. Patrick, and the memorable 
visit in October of that year of the famous Fifth Maryland 
Regiment. Illuminations, fireworks, a banquet to the offi- 
cers at the Yarborough, a grand ball to the entire regiment, 
nearly one thousand strong, at the Stronach auditorium, and 
openhanded hospitality by the citizens, were the features of 
the occasion, which formed a fitting prologue, one year in 
advance, to the Centennial Celebration. 

SITUATION. 

Raleigh is delightfully situated at the meeting of the lim- 
its of the oak and the pine, the sand and the clay, upon a 
granite foundation which crops out in quarries to the south- 
east and southwest. The land slopes gently in every direc- 
tion from the swelling hills upon which our State and city 
institutions and our homes are built. This affords a natural 
drainage, and the delightful streams near us, of Rocky branch, 
Walnut and Crabtree creeks and Neuse river, have made the 
problem easy of solution to furnish an ample supply of pure 
water for all purposes and an admirable system of sewerage, 
which were constructed during the mayoralty of Hon. Alfred 
A. Thompson. Oar climate enjoys the almost ideal meteor- 



96 

ological average of 58° 4', and the health of the city is so 
remarkable tliat it was selected by the authorities of the Con- 
federate States as the site of one of the most extensive mili- 
tary hospitals and surgical camps under that government, 
superintended as Medical Director by our eminent fellow- 
citizen, Dr. E. Burke Haywood. 

The number of Northern visitors who prefer our delight- 
ful winter climate to the damper and more enervating effects 
of the extreme South is rapidly increasing, and will doubt- 
less call for increased hotel accommodations to meet their 
demands. 

A marked feature which has contributed no little to the 
high salubrity of the city is the fact that beside the broad 
streets, fifty in number, and extending sixty-five miles, our 
houses are so built as to give ample room, and surrounded 
with airy spaces affording perfect circulation of the atmos- 
phere. Such leading thoroughfares as Fayetteviile, Wil- 
mington, Halifax, and the busier portions of Morgan, Har- 
gett and Martin streets, have been paved with Belgian block 
and well curbed with granite. This work is progressing 
steadily, taking in order the portions of the city most used. 
A well-equipped and admirably managed Electric Car Com- 
pany renders access to the remoter sections easy and pleasant. 

The city is advancing in every direction, and especially 
toward the north and west. Sixty buildings were reported 
as going up during the Centennial week. The total number 
has more than doubled within twenty years past. Many of 
these are far more commodious and ornate than hitherto. 
Suburbs in the east, known as "Idlewild," and in the north 
as " Oakdale," have been prepared for homes by, grading and 
laying out streets, and are gradually being occupied. Near 
the site of the great cotton factories, villages are now going 
up for the homes of the operatives, which must in a short 
time be fully united with the city and extend its limits over 
miles of adjacent territory. 

PAKKS. 

Union Square, about six acres in extent, in which the 
Capitol is located, is planted with trees and shrubbery, and, 
together with Nash and Moore Squares, which within a few 
3^ears past have been adorned with grass and flowers and 
fountains, supplies a resting place for the weary. 

But through the munificence of J. Stanhope PuUen, Esq., 
an extensive park in the west and southwest, adjoining the 



97 

lands of the North Caroliua Agricultural and Mechanical 
College, has been presented to the city. Its natural beauties 
are enhanced already by the efforts of art and the the gen- 
erosity of the giver, who also donated the land upon which 
the college stands. History will preserve his name high on 
the roll of our benefactors. 

Brookside Park, in the northeast, is another spot of great 
natural beauty, enjoying its trees of the original growth and 
the beauties of a winding stream. 

Near by is Oakwood Cemetery, laid out some twenty-five 
years ago, through the foresight of Hon. K. P. Battle, the 
lamented Geo. W. Mordecai and others. The remains of 
many distinguished dead were removed to this spot from the 
old City Cemetery. Few resting-places of the dead can 
exceed the tranquil loveliness of Oakwood, where many of 
North Carolina's great and gifted lie. 

The Hebrew and the Confederate Cemeteries adjoin the 
above, and that of the Roman Catholic is on the brow of a 
neighboring hill. The old City Cemetery, just on the edge 
of the corporate limits, is still used to some extent. Famous 
names are to be found on its gravestones. It is a curious 
fact that the southern portion of it was formerly set apart for 
the burial of negroes — the slaves of tho-e interred within the 
same enclosure. 

The colored portion of the community is now provided 
with a well arranged and admirably situated cemetery on 
the south of the city, under the name of Mt. Hope, and main- 
tained by the municipal authorities. 

There is also a National Cemetery, kept in beautiful order 
by the Federal government, holding the remains of many 
United States soldiers who fell in the engagements along 
Sherman's march to the southeast of Raleigh or died in hos- 
pital here. 

Congress is expected to act favorably upon a bill to provide 
a macadamized road from the cemetery to the city line. 

Largely through the efforts of Dr. R. H. Lewis the roads 
debouching from our streets have been gradually macad- 
amized to the township line, furnishing an object-lesson to 
other communities upon one of the greatest needs of Ameri- 
can civilization. 

PUBLIC BUILDINGS. 

Besides the Capitol there are many public buildings which 
there is no space to adequately describe. The North Caro- 



98 

lina Insane Asylum, completed in 1856, is 730 feet in length, 
and accommodates about 300 patients. It is situated on Dix 
Hill. An addition is about to be erected on the south side 
for 100 female patients. 

The North Carolina Institution for the Deaf and Dumb 
and the Blind was established in 1846. It occupies Caswell 
Square, and after September, 1894, is to be used lor the blind 
only, a new structure for the deaf and dumb having been 
erected at Morganton. 

The colored department of this Institution is fitted in every 
respect for this important service, and is provided with sub- 
stantial brick buildings in the southeastern section of the city. 

The State Penitentiary is an enormous building constructed 
of brick, with granite enclosing wall, and was about twenty 
years in building. There are about 1,300 convicts, but only 
those convicted of high crimes are kept within the building 
here. It is a model edifice of the kind. 

The Agricultural Department, at the corner of Edenton 
and Halifax streets, contains the necessary offices, the State 
Geological Museum, which also is a museum of the forestry, 
mines, fisheries, agriculture, etc., of the State, the Weather 
Bureau, the Railroad Commission, the office of Labor Statis- 
tics, and the rooms of the Agricultural Experiment Station. 

The Supreme Court and State Library is situated next to 
the Agricultural Building, and fronts Capitol Square. Its 
exterior is plain, but it is admirably fitted within. It con- 
tains the Supreme Court room, adorned with portraits of the 
eminent jurists of North Carolina, the Attorney General's 
office, the Supreme Court Library, office of the Superinten- 
dent of Public Instruction, and the State Library. The last 
has 45,000 volumes and many portraits of citizens eminent 
in every walk of life, and especially of North Carolinians 
prominent in the war between the States. 

The Governor's Mansion is built of brick and occupies the 
center of Burke Square, and is worthy of the people whose 
Chief Executive makes it his home. Its hall is adorned with 
portraits of the Governors. The beautiful marble from the 
Nantahala of Macon county is used in the construction of 
portions of the building. 

The North Carolina College of Agriculture and Mechanic 
Arts, Col. A. Q, Holladay, President, has a fine site of six t}'- 
two acres on Hillsborough street, extended beyond the cor- 
porate limits. It is of brick, with Wake county granite and 
Anson brownstone. It is 170x90 feet, main building, and 
surrounded by necessary shops, dormitories, barn, green- 



99 

house, etc. Wm. S. Primrose, Esq., is President of the Board 
of Directors. The Experimental Farm is a short distance 
west of it, adjoining the State Fair grounds. 

Raleigh also has a United States Post-office and Court- 
house, built of granite at a cost of about half a million dol- 
lars, and most conveniently furnished. A Union Station 
House has recently been finished and opened b3'^the several 
railroads entering the city at a cost of $85,000, and affords 
great satisfaction to the traveling public. The commodious 
new Park Hotel and Opera-house erected by A. F. Page 
will be opened for business in the fall of 1893, and with the 
well-known Yarborough House add to the attractions our 
city already enjoys. 

CHURCHES. 

There are about thirty churches for white and colored, or 
one to about five hundred population, a very remarkable 
provision in a town of its size. Services are well attended; 
few people fail to appreciate the blessings of reverent obser- 
vance of Sunday. Disorder or disturbance of any kind is 
exceedingly rare, and nowhere are there kinder relations 
between the races. Sunday-schools are well maintained, and 
the Young Men's Christian Association and the King's 
Daughters have suitable rooms where their beneficent work 
is carried on. In the church congregations nine thousand 
persons are numbered, and five thousand pupils in the Sun- 
day-schools. Of the churches for the white population three 
are Baptist, three Methodist, two Protestant Episcopal, one 
Presbyterian, one Roman Catholic, one Christian, one Primi- 
tive Baptist, and there are various missions. Six of these 
church edifices have been erected within ten years past. 

SCHOOLS. 

Dr. Battle has alluded to the happy influence upon the 
history of the city of St. Mary's School, which is under the 
care of Rev. Bennett Smedes, D. D., Rector, and son of its 
distinguished founder. Its prosperity extends with its years. 
The buildings and grounds form one of the architectural 
beauties of the city. More than five thousand pupils have 
left its halls to gladden the homes of the South. 

Peace Institute is another of the famous schools of Raleigh 
for young ladies, and is situated in the northern portion of 
the city. Prof. James Dinwiddle is Principal, with twenty- 
two officers and teachers, and one hundred and sixty-nine 



100 

pupils. Both of the above institutions rank among the first 
in the South. 

The Baptists contemphite the founding here of a first-class 
University for women. 

The Raleigh Male Academy, Messrs. Morson and Den?on, 
Principals, in its fifteenth year, has one hundred and forty- 
five students, and the record of their standing in the Collf ges 
and University is unexcelled by any in the country. 

The Public Graded Schools include the "Centennial," 
occupying commodious buildings erected at the foot of Fay- 
etteville street, the "Murphy," for girls chiefly, and the three 
colored schools. The enrollment of pupils is about two thou- 
sand, under Superintendent E. P. Moses. The cost is main- 
tained by special township taxation. 

Shaw University, with Estey Seminary and Leonard Medi- 
cal College, Rev. Dr. H. M. Tupper President, and St. Augus- 
tine Normal school, Rev. A. B. Hunter Principal, furnish 
educational advantages to the negroes of the Souih, probably 
unsurpassed in the Union. The King of Belgium has sent 
pupils to the former institution directly from the Congo Free 
State, and St. Augustine U the principal divinity school for 
the colored people under the patronage of the Protestant 
Episcopal Church in the United States. 

FIRE DEPARTMENT, TELEGRAPH, ETC. 

The Fire Department has been referred to, as forming a 
very distinctive feature of the Centennial procession. It is 
under the charge of Capt. E. B. Engelhard, and has a well 
deserved reputation for promptness and efficiency that can- 
not be surpassed. The water-supply from Walnut creek, 
carefully guarded from contamination, is forced into a tower 
by compound pumps, operated by steam and water-power, 
with nearly twenty miles of main and one hundred and 
twenty double hydrants for fire purposes. An electric fire 
alarm is a valuable adjunct to the safety equipment of the 
city. The Thomson-Houston electric system is in use, but 
the city is mainlv lighted by coal-gas works. 

The'Western Union and the Postal Telegraph Companies 
have offices here, and communication is kept up by telephone 
throughout the city, with a well equipped Exchange. 

BANKING FACILITIES. 

At the date of this publication great losses have occurred 
throughout the country by the stoppage of payments, loss of 



101 

confidence, and failures in business to such an extent as to 
involve millions of property and great consequent suffering. 
It is especially gratifying to say that the banks of Raleigh 
enjoy the fullest confidence of the people, and none of these 
evils have, at this writing, befallen our prudent and judi- 
cious men prominent in financial and mercantile life. The 
National Bank of Raleigh, E. G. Reade, President, C. H. Bel- 
vin, Cashier, has of capital $225,000, surplus ^30,000, depos- 
its $400,000. The Citizens National, W. J. Hawkhis, Presi- 
dent, J. G. Brown, Cashier, has capital $100,000, surplus 
$25,000, deposits $J50,000. The Commercial and Farmers 
Bank (State), J. J. Thomas, President, B. S. Jerman, Cashier, 
has capital $100,000, surplus $15,000, deposits $230,000. The 
Raleigh Savings Bank has capital $15,000, surplus $9,000, 
deposits $150,000. Of this W. C. Stronach is President, and 
J. T. PuUen Cashier. Since the ante-hellam period no town 
of its size in the South has excelled it in the extent and solid- 
ity of its banking facilities. 

INDEBTEDNESS. 

The total indebtedness of the city, as rendered in the 
last annual fiscal report, is $207,867.14, chiefly in five per 
cent, bonds due in 1919 and 1929 respectively. A sinking 
fund is constantly reducing this amount. 

COTTON FACTORIES. 

The Hosiery Yarn Mill was built in 1888, and has been 
such a success that its products have been sold for a year 
ahead of production. Its spindles number 5,000. 

The Caraleigh Cotton Mills were begun in 1890 and by 
September, 1891, had commenced operations. Spinning and 
weaving are done, and there will be 10,000 spindles and 400 
looms. The Pilot Cotton Mills began in May, 1893, and will 
have 5,000 spindles with 400 looms. A fourth is now pro- 
jected, and it is said will be built near the railroad not far 
from Pullen Park. 

A cotton-oil mill with capacity for using seventy-five tons 
of seed daily is also situated near the treight depot. Phos- 
phate works, supplied with the latest machiner}', to furnish 
our farmers with a superior home-made fertilizer, are located 
near Caraleigh Cotton Mills. 



102 

COTTON MARKET. 

Nearly 40,000 bales of cotton are handled here annually, 
and the system is perfect. 

Raleigh has all the warehouse room needful, a very fine 
cotton platform convenient for loading trains, steam com- 
press, careful and experienced weighers, and merchants who 
buy at the most liberal rates, some of whom ship direct to 
Liverpool, Hamburg and other ports. Its freight facilities 
are all that could be desired. A well managed Cotton 
Exchange is one of the most important elements in her busi- 
ness life. 

TOBACCO MARKET. 

Not a few of her most sagacious citizens believe that a great 
development awaits her future in tobacco — as a market for 
the leaf and perhaps also for its manufacture. The first 
brought here for sale was in September, 1884, and on the 
26th was held the first regular sale, in a temporary ware- 
house. Three spacious warehouses were built in less than 
as many years thereafter. 

Indeed, among Raleigh's important avenues for profitable 
development must be mentioned her tobacco industry. The 
market was opened by the organization of the Capital Tobacco 
Warehouse Company in the Spring of 1884, which was soon 
followed by the erection of two other large warehouses for 
the sale of leaf tobacco, and many commodious prize houses 
were erected. Joseph E. Pogue moved his extensive plug 
tobacco works from Henderson to this city in September, 
1885, and thus started the first plug tobacco factory in Ral- 
eigh. C. F. Harvey, of Kinston, opened the second tobacco 
factory a year later, and Mr. Andrew Rand, M. A. Parker 
and others soon embarked in the manufacture of tobacco. 
Two years ago Mr. Philip Taylor retired from the wholesale 
grocery business and entered this inviting field for the manu- 
facture of tobacco. 

Raleigh has a live and progressive Tobacco Board of 
Trade. Sells annually about 4,000,000 pounds of the golden 
weed, and draws tobacco from all the counties contiguous to 
Wake, which, together with Wake county, makes a large 
area of good tobacco producing territor}'^, naturally tributary 
to the Raleigh tobacco market, which now fully guarantees 
its success. 

Almost every line of mercantile business may be found in 
our city, well represented: commission, wholesale and retail 



103 

houses in groceries, dry goods, hardware, clothing, books and 
stationery, jewelry, confectioneries; book and job printers, 
drugs, sewing machines, etc. Many of these have a long 
and honored history. 

The Insurance interest is well cared for, this being a cen- 
ter for the surrounding region. The North Carolina Honae 
Insurance Company was founded here a quarter of a century 
ago and is flourishing to-day. 

A LITERARY CENTER. 

Raleigh has always held a high position as a center of 
intelligence. With a population of about 16,000 it has the 
same postal revenue from papers, magazines, etc., that Nor- 
folk and like cities of 40,000 population enjoy. Here are 
published the News and Observer (which has recentlj'- acquired 
the Chronicle) and the Evening Visitor, dailies with weekly 
issues, and also the North Carolinian, Christian Advocate, 
Christian San, Biblical Recorder, Signal, Progressive Farmer, 
Gazette, Friend of Temperance, North Carolina Teacher, Eclectic, 
Voice of Peace, etc. 

THE NEWS AND OBSERVER. 

It is not invidious to say of the News and Observer, by which 
nanie it is best known, that for twenty-five years it has been 
an honor and crown of journalism in the State. Its editor- 
in-chief, Capt. Samuel A. Ashe, a son of the revolutionary 
stock of our glorious annals, united legal training and legis- 
lative experience with his own patriotic history, before assum- 
ing the arduous duties of political and economical leadership 
in the daily press, and his success amid a multitude of the 
wrecks of such enterprises throughout the country, bears 
tribute to the energy and sagacity of this citizen of Raleigh. 

CHARITIES. 

The benevolent orders all flourish, both white and colored, 
and they have been referred to in the account of the Centen- 
nial procession. St. John's Hospital is a voluntary charita- 
ble institution, organized by St. John's Guild of the Church 
of the Good Shepherd, reflecting the highest credit on the 
citizens who organized and maintain it. Dr. P. E. Hines is 
Medical Superintendent and A. P. C. Bryan, Treasurer. 



104 

t)r. Battle has alluded to the purchase of land in 1813 by 
John Rex, a benevolent citizen of that day, who left it by 
will, with other property, for the founding of a hospital for 
the city. Much of this fund w^as lost in the financial revo- 
lution occurring by the war of 1861. By wise management 
the remainder has gradually increased to nearly thirty 
thousand dollars, and a happy arrangement has been effected 
whereby St. John's passes to the control of the Rex Hospital 
Trustees, R. H. Battle, W. G. Upchurch and others, while its 
beneficent work goes on, aided by the income devised by the 
noble man who has so long slept with the just. 

The Soldiers' Home is situated on Newbern avenue, and 
through the efforts of W. C. Stronach and other large-hearted 
citizens, was opened for North Carolina Veterans in the fall 
of 1890. It has now about sixty inmates, and receives an 
appropriation from the State Treasury. 

On all occasions, when a great calamity has fallen upon 
any portion of the Union, our city has never failed to respond 
cheerfully to the cry of distress, and to contribute its full 
share for relief. 

THE SUBURBS. 

If space permitted we might describe the beauty of the 
hills about our city and their pleasant homes. A chapter 
might well be bestowed upon the wheat-growing farms, vine- 
yards, numerous and extensive; cotton-growing, market-gar- 
dens, dairies and other interests. But we add a line from 
the pen of the proprietor of Fair A^iew Farm, and one of our 
men of business witli large experience, Capt. B. P. William- 
son : 

" Ten years' experience has taught me that many of the 
best grasses and all the best clovers grow well around Ral- 
eigh, and with the care taken in all other sections with their 
growing we get as good results as others anywhere. 

" Five years' experience in breeding fine horses justifies me 
in saying that we can breed and raise them as fine, as good 
and as cheaply as in any section of our great country." 

Nor has the Capital of North Carolina ever been wanting 
in patriotism. Early in the war of 1812, with Great Britain, 
John T. C. VVyatt (Wiatt) led a company as captain, and 
many citizens enlisted in the company of Capt. W. H. 
McCullers. Captains John Bell and John Green also com- 
manded companies at a later period in the war, which em- 
braced many Raleigh men. She sent a volunteer company 



105 

to the Mexican war, and many joined the company of Regu- 
lars commanded by Captain (afterwards Colonel) W. J. 
Clarke. It would be difficult, it not impossible, to name the 
hundreds of her sons who served in the war of 18(5 1, in every 
capacity, from general to private soldier. Two of the great 
camps of instruction were here; there was hardly a regiment 
without a Raleigh boy, and Manly's battery, if we may 
specify one out of many brave organizations, reflected glor}^ 
upon its home. 

Here lie the lamented General, L. O'B. Branch, Geo. B. 
Anderson, Col. H. K. Burgwyn, Col. Sion H. Rogers, Col. 
Turner, Capt. Randolph Shotwell and others, and eight hun- 
dred brave Confederates, asleep in the cemetery marked out 
for their special resting-place. 

The North Carolina Monumental Association, Mrs. Armis- 
tead Jones, President, will erect in Capitol Square a shaft 
commemorative of the great deeds of North Carolina's heroes. 
The General Assembly has given $10,000 to this object, and 
the women of the State, especially, are responding to the call 
to honor the venerated dead with a fitting testimonial of the 
gratitude of those for whose rights and liberties they gave 
up their lives. 

Far more might be said of our city's honorable record in 
the past, and its prosperous outlook to-day. A commemora- 
tive volume like this must neces=^arily leave the greater field 
to the historian. But we hazard nothing in declaring that 
in such hands as those which guide the progress of Ral- 
eigh ; — in markets and manufactures, in municipal and 
social advancement, in literary culture and moral elevation, 
her future is safe. And when a century hence our 
descendants gather, perhaps, about some magnificent col- 
umn that emblazons the patriotism and virtue of the great 
Englishman wdiose name has crowned our Capital, may 
sunny skies bend over a people as peaceful and happy as 
their fathers of to-day — a people symbolized by the Liberty 
and Plenty on North Carolina's arms, and rooted like the 
oaks of the home they love, against the shocks and storms of 
time. C. B D. 



THE CENTENNIAL CELEBRATION. 



The commemoration of the one hundredth anniversary 
of the founding of the city of Raleigh was suggested by the 
press and by many influential citizens; and in pursuance 
thereof committees for said celebration were appointed by 
the Board of Aldermen, the Chamber of Commerce, the 
State Agricultural Society, and the citizens in mass meeting. 

The following extract from the minutes of the City Clerk 
presents the origin of the celebration: 

[Resolution adopted April 1, 1892.] 
By Alderman Pogue: 

Whereas, This is the centennial anniversary of the city of Raleigh; 
and whereas it is befitting that the event be duly observed — 

Resolved, 1st, That the Mayor appoint from the Board of Aldermen 
a committee of five (of which His Honor shall be chairman) to devise 
ways and means by which this historic event may be appropriately cele- 
brated . 

Resolved, 2d, That the Chamber of Commerce be requested to appoint 
at their next meeting a similar committee to cooperate with this com- 
mittee. 

The Mayor appointed the following committee under the resolution: 
Aldermen Pogue, Stronach, Hunnicutt and Bowes 

C. W. LAMBETH, Clerk. 

The following gentlemen composed the Board of Alder- 
men who authorized the proposed steps for the said celebra- 
tion : 

First Ward— Frank Stronach, M. A. Parker, J. R. Terrell 
and R. C. Redford. 

Second Ward— W. R. Womble, S. A\ House and F. W. 
Hunnicutt. 

Third Ward — C. R. Lee, J. E Pogue and Thomas Pescud. 

Fourth W^ard — M. Bowes, B. J. Robinson (colored) and 
Alfred Tate (colored). 

Fifth Ward — Julius Lewis, R. E. Lumsden, D. M. King 
and L. B. Pegram. 

A joint meeting was held in Metropolitan Hall July 21, 
1892, of the gentlemen thus selected, who chose an addi- 
tional number of citizens to serve with them under the 
name of "The Board of Managers of the Raleigh Centen- 
nial." Mavor Thomas Badger was elected chairman and 
Henry E. Litchford secretary, and the Board was constituted 
with the following members: Dr. E. Burke Haywood, Rev. 



107 

Dr. J. J. Hall, Capt. C. B. Denson, L. C. Bagwell, B. F. 
Cheatham, B. F. Womble, B. S. Jerman, H. E. Litchford, 

E. McK. Goodwin, James Boylan, Charles E. Johnson, G. E. 
^ Leach, C. B. Edwards, B. R. Harding, W. S. Primrose, A. Q,. 

Holladay, W. C. Stronach, R. G. Dunn, G. F. Kennedy, 
Josephus Daniels, W. E. Ashley, P. H. Andrews, W. H. 
Hughes, A. A. Thompson, R. H. Battle, Dr. R. H. Lewis, Dr. 
James McKee, Frank Stronach, J. E. Pogue, F. W. Hunni- 
cutt, M. Bowes, Julius Lewis, B. P. Williamson, Col. W. J. 
Hicks, D. W. Bain, N. B. Broughton, C. G. Latta, R. S. Pul- 
len, Hon T. M. Holt, Maj. R.'S. Tucker, Dr. T. D. Hogg, 
Capt. S. A. Ashe, A. F. Page, William M. Boylan, Judge A. 
S. Merrimon, Judge T. C. Fuller, Hon. E. G. Reade, J. J. 
Thomas, Col. A. B. Andrews, Dr. W. J. Hawkins, Hon. T. R. 
Jernigan, Dr. G. W. Blacknall, Maj. John C. Winder, C. B. 
Root, William G. Upchurch, Judge Walter Clark, J. S. 
Wynne and Col. J. M. Heck. 

On July 29, under a resolution of the Board, the Mayor 
nominated the members of the following committees, who 
were duly elected : 

Committee of Livitation — C. B. Denson, B. P. Williamson, 
Walter Clark, Dr. R. H. Lewis and T. R. Jernigan. 

Committee on Programme — J. E. Pogue, A. A. Thompson, 
C. G. Latta, S. A. Ashe and N. B. Broughton. 

Committee on Ways and Means — R. H. Battle, R. S. Pul- 
len, J, J. Thomas, J. J. Hall, D. D., and R. S. Tucker. 

Committee on Speakers and Music — W. S. Primrose, A. Q,. 
Holladay, C. B. Edwards, W. H. Hughes and A. S. Merrimon. 

Committee on Printing and Advertising — Josephus Dan- 
iels, G. E. Leach, D. T. Swindell, B. F. Womble and B. S. 
Jerman. 

Committee on Trade Floats — W. E. Ashley, Julius Lewis, 
J. S. Wynne, James McKee, M. D., and W. G. Upchurch. 

Committee on Centennial Ball— Charles E. Johnson, G. W. 
Blacknall, James Boylan, E. McK. Goodwin and W. C. 
Stronach. 

Subsequently other gentlemen were requested to serve on 
the Board, and the following additional committees were 
appointed : 

Committeeon Pyrotechnics and Military — Frank Stronach, 
M. Bowes, L. C. Bagwell, C. F. Kenned v, P. PL Andrews, S. F. 
Telfair, J. W. Cross, E. G. Harrell, H. M. Cowan, E. B. Engel- 
hard, W. B. Grimes, G. E. Leach, W. R. Richardson and 

F. A. Olds. 

Committee on Decorations and Illuminations — D. T. Swin- 
dell, George C. Heck and L. A. Mahler. 



108 

Committee on Transportation — G. E. Leach and P. H. 
Andrews. 

Committee on Finance — J. E Pogue and C. B. Root. 

Bureau of Information — H. W. Ayer, G. E. Leach and F. 
Stronach. 

The Managers held frequent meetings, characterized by- 
great earnestness and always harmonious and agreeable. 
Indeed, throughout the history of the celebration, as with 
one heart, the whole people of the city united in this task 
of love. Ten thousand copies of the following address were 
distributed throughout the State: 

To the Peo]3le of North Carolina : 

One hundred years ago the Capital of your State was founded upon 
the order of a Sovereign Convention of the people. The city thus called 
into existence by your will, in the quiet shades of a beautiful forest of 
oaks, in the county of Wake, has grown with your growth, nourished 
by the best blood of the commonwealth, and is to-day the representative 
of your heroic past and brilliant future. 

The history of Raleigh is your own history in an especial sense. Every 
county has contributed to its population, and sent hither some leader of 
the people in legislative assemblies, or some one of the noble spirits that 
have honored the judicial bench or the executive chair. 

The ashes of many of Carolina's sons, distinguished in peace or war, 
rest here. Ties of kindred and friendship unite every county of your 
broad domain with this city. Its very streets and public squares are 
your own property. Here your laws are made, proclaimed, interpreted 
and executed. Here are many of your great institutions of State, and 
here are preserved the records which will be the grandest legacy of your 
posterity. To celebrate the Centennial of Raleigh, is to commemorate 
the deeds of the great statesmen, jurists, educators and soldiers that each 
section of the State has sent hither for the common welfare of ail. 

They have left an impress upon this community forever. They have 
made Raleigh in moulding the spirit of its people. 

Accepting the bidding of modern enterprise, without forgetting the 
glorious traditions of the former days, we are rejoiced that with new 
life and strength, your Capital is growing daily in material progress. In 
churches and schools, in factories and workshops, in facilities for trade, 
in multiplied institutions, the improvements of modern life, and the 
comfort and beauty of her homes. 

Therefore, celebrating with grateful hearts the completion of her first 
century, the undersigned committee of her citizens cordially invite all 
North Carolinians, from every town and county, to assemble on the 18th, 
19th and 20th days of October next, and unite with the people of Raleigh 
in the commemoration of the Centennial of their home and your Capital. 

During that week the Raleigh Centennial, the State Fair, a magnifi- 
cent pyrotechnic display, and a festival recalling colonial days, will 
take place for your interest and enjoyment. 

We repeat, then, the cordial invitation to the people of North Caro- 
lina, and to those of Carolinian ancestry or association, wherever they 
may be, to come up as one man, and with one heart. The citizens of 
Raleigh will bid you welcome. 

Thomas Badger, Pres. .T. M. Heck, 

H. E. LiTCHFORD, Sec. C. B. Denson, 

W. S. Primrose. 

Raleigh, N. C. August 26, 1882. Special Com. of Invitation. 



109 

This was cordially responded to by the press, and, as the 
event'proved, by the largest assemblage of people that the 
Capital of North Carolina had ever witnessed within her 
limits. 

The Committee on Programme recommended that Hon. 
Kemp P. Battle, LL. D., of the University of North Carolina, 
be requested to deliver the commemorative address, and that 
a prize be offered for the best centennial poem, which Capt. 
C. B. Denson was invited to read. 

The Board of Aldermen generously contributed from the 
funds of the city two thousand one hundred dollars to aid 
in defraying the cost of the celebration. Oriole yellow and 
red were adopted as the colors of the city, henceforth to be 
inse|)arably blended with the happy remembrance of a cele- 
bration, so delightful to the peojde, and so honorable in its 
patriotic s[)irit and devotion. 

By common consent, Col. J. M. Heck was chosen Chief 
Marshal. This high honor was not una})preciated, but he 
modestly strove to transfer it to some other citizen. Happily 
for all, the Board of Managers unanimously insisted upon its 
choice, and events proved the wisdom of the selection of a 
gentleman of expansive views, admirable executive power, 
and know'ledge of the infinite details essential to success in 
any great demonstration. 

A grand allegorical and trades procession was resolved 
upon for Tuesday, October 18, to be followed by the oration at 
night; on Wednesday night, a display of fireworks in Moore 
Square; and on Thursday night, the centennial ball. 

Messrs C. B Root, Samuel A. Ashe and C. B. Denson were 
appointed a committee to prepare a list of honorary mar- 
shals as special guests, to be chosen from the old citizens 
identified with the growth and history of the town. The 
gentlemen selected were to be not less than sixty-five years 
of age, to be chosen from every walk of life, and to be 
escorted in carriages as the honored fathers of the Oak City. 

On the nomination of Chief Marshal Heck, field marshals 
of divisions and assistant marshals were elected (October 4), 
and thereafter Centennial Headquarters were opened at the 
office of George C. Heck, Esq. (corner Fayetteville and Martin 
streets), where the field marshals held frequent meetings for 
thorough organization. The centennial colors were distrib- 
uted, and soon the red and yellow were s°en on the bosom 
of all, rich and poor, white and colored, old and young, 
united at least in pride of the glorious history and steady 
advancement of the city that bears Raleigh's great name. 



110 

Invitations were issued to eminent gentlemen throughout 
the country, and especially to distinguished North Caroli- 
nians, and those connected with Raleigh by former residence 
or ancestry. The greater number responded by attending in 
person, and were courteously received by Field Marshal 
Charles E. Johnson and assistants. Replies from others were 
received, some of which are appended as follows: 

RALEIGH FROM ABROAD— COMPLIMENTARY PARAGRAPHS IN 
REFERENCE TO OUR CITY— THE CELEBRATION OF THE 
CENTENNIAL AWAKENS INTEREST THROUGHOUT THE 
COUNTRY. 

The celebration of the Centennial of Raleigh has awakened interest 
throughout the country. The newspapers of this State and those adjoin- 
ing have many complimentary paragraphs in reference to the enterprise 
of our city. We publish a few of the many courteous letters received 
by the Committee of Invitation of the Board of Managers. 

Cardinal's Residence. 
Baltimore, Md., October 14, 1892. 

Messrs. C. B. Denson, Walter Clark, B. P. Williamson, R. H. Lewis 
and T. R. Jernigan, Committee of Invitation. 

Gentlemen: His Eminence the Cardinal begs to thank you for the 
kind invitation which, in the name of the Board of Managers, you have 
sent him to attend the Raleigh Centennial. Nothing would have given 
him more satisfaction than to assist in the ceremonies in commemora- 
tion of the founding of the Capital of North Carolina. But he will be 
present in Chicago at that time, where he has been invited to say the 
closing prayer at the dedication of the buildings of the World's Fair. 
I beg to assure you, gentlemen, of the Cardinal's appreciation, of and his 
gratitude at, your kind invitation. 

I have the honor to be, gentlemen. 

Very respectfully yours in Christ, 

C. F. Thomas, Chancellor. 



[From ex-Presideut Grover Cleveland.] 

Victoria Hotel, New York City, Oct. 18, 1892. 
C. B. Denson, Esq., Chairman Committee of Invitation, Raleigh, N. C. 

My Dear Sir: I beg to acknowledge with thanks the receipt of an 
invitation in behalf of the Board of Managers of the Raleigh Centennial 
to be present at the commemoration of the founding of the Capital of 
North Carolina, to take place from the 18th to the 21st of the present 
month. 

I very much regret that my engagements here are such as to forbid 
my acceptance of your courteoiis invitation. Hoping that the occasion 
will be entirely successful and thoroughly enjovable, I am very truly 
yours. Grover Cleveland. 



[From the Governor of Virginia.] 

Governor's Office, Richmond, Oct. 17, 1892. 
C. B. Denson, et ah. Committee of Invitation lOO^/i Anniversary of the 
City of Raleigh. 

Gentlemen: I am directed by His Excellency the Governor to 
acknowledge the receipt of the invitation to the 100. h anniversary of the 



Ill 

city of Raleigh, and State of North Carolina, from the 18ch to the 21st 
of October, 1892, to thank you for the compliment conveyed and to 
express his very great regret that the pressure of official busmess and 
other public engagements here, will preclude his having the pleasure of 
being present upon such an enjoyable occasion, commemorating as it 
does the life and success of the noble Raleigh in whom Virginia claims 
an equal interest with her sister North Carolina. With best wishes for 
the complete success of your celebration, I am very respectfully and 
truly yours, Cazneau McLeod, Secretary. 



[From the Chief Justice of the United States.] 

Washington, October 15, 1892. 
C. B. Denson and others, Board of Managers of the Raleigh Centennial : 
The Chief Justice and Mrs. Fuller beg to acknowledge the invitation 
of the Board of Managers of the Raleigh Centennial, to be present at the 
100th anniversary of the city of Raleigh on the 18th, 19th, 20th and 21st 
of October, 1892, and to express their regret at their inability to attend 
on that occasion. 



[From'O. V. Smith, Traffic Manager Seaboard Air-Line.] 

Norfolk, Va., October 15, 1892. 
Capt. C B. Denson, Chairman Committee of Invitation, Raleigh, N. C 
Dear Sir: I beg to acknowledge the receipt of your invitation to be 
present at the celebration of the city of Raleigh's 100th anniversary. 
Rest assured it would afford me infinite pleasure to be with you on so 
interesting an occasion. I regret, however, that my engagements require 
my presence in New York from the 18th to the 22d inclusive. 

May abundant success crown your efforts, and niay Raleigh's pros- 
perity, population and progress! veness move hand in hand with each 
succeeding year of her second century. 

Yours truly, 

O. V. Smith. 



[From the Hon. J. F. Graves, Judge Superior Court of North Carolina.] 

Mt. Airy, N. C, October 18, 1892. 
Messrs. C. B. Denson, Walter Clark, B. P. Williamson, R. H. Leivis, 
M. D., and T. R. Jernigan. 

Dear Sirs: On my return home from Gaston Superior Court, I found 
your invitation to be present and vinite in the " Commemoration of the 
founding of the Capital of North Carolina." 

I have pride in the past history and present condition of North Caro- 
lina, and earnestly desire that the past history may be brought truly to 
light, so that the beloved State may be put before our own people and 
all others in such way that the grand commonwealth may occupy her 
proper position in the hearts of her own people, and in the mind of the 
whole world. Yours truly, 

J. F. Graves. 



[From Rev. Charles F. Deems, D. D., LL. D., 4 Winthrop Place, New York, Oct. 14, '92,] 

Captain C, B. Denson. 

Dear Sir: Be pleased to present to the Committee on Invitation very 
grateful acknowledgment of their request to be present and unite in the 
commemoration of the 100:h anniversary of the foundation of the city 
of Raleigh. 



112 

Having known the good capital of the dear Old North State through 
more than half its life, having had many of my best friends among 
its citizens, and having most delightful memories connected with it, let 
me assure you that I have sincere regret that my engagements deny me 
the pleasure of taking part in the proposed commemoration. 
With very great respect. 

Yours cordially, 

Charles F. Deems. 



[Froin Judge Legh R. Watts, General Counsel of the Seaboard Air-Line. J 

Portsmouth, Va., October 14, 1892. 
Capt. C. B. Denson, Esq., Raleigh, N. C. 

My Dear Sir: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of the 
invitation to attend the lOOch anniversary of the city of Raleigh, from 
the 18th to the 2 1st inst. I am much gratified at your thoughtful cour- 
tesy, and did not business engagements of an imperative character take 
me to the North at the time indicated I should certainly be present. 
My official connection with the system of railroads which is so intimately 
identified with your city and its prosperity, is one reason why I should 
like to attend; another is a reason personal to myself. There is a bond 
which binds together the people of the two commonwealths, and in the 
city of Raleigh I have many friends. I notice with pleasure the distin- 
guished position assigned you; as an old friend, schoolmate, and former 
fellow-townsman I congratulate you. Again thanking you and the 
Committee on Invitation, I remain 

Yours very truly, 

Legh R. Watts. 



[From ex-Governor C. H. Brogden.] 

Goldsboro, N, C, October 14, 1892. 
To the Committee on Invitation. 

Gentlemen; I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your 
polite invitation on the part of the Board of Managers of the Raleigh 
Centennial by which I*am cordially invited to be present " and unite 
with them in the commemoration of the founding of the Capital of North 
Carolina." 

For this distinguished mark of respect I beg leave to tender you and 
those you represent my sincere thanks, and the assurance that it is highly 
and gratefully appreciated. 

Having been acquainted with the city of Raleigh and many of her 
good people for the last tifty-four years, and having resided in that city 
and been connected with our State government in different ways a con- 
siderable part of the time, I have always felt a deep and lively interest 
in the development of her resources, and her prosperity and growth. 

In all the mutations through which our country has passed during the 
last one hundred years, Raleigh has steadily maintained her good char- 
acter for peace, law and order. As the best evidence of this statement, 
there has been less crime committed within her limits than in any other 
town or city in the United States, according to population, for the same 
length of time. This is owing to her peaceable and law-abiding people, 
and the good management of her municipal affairs. No town, in or out 
of the State, ever had a better population than the old settlers and citi- 
zens of Raleigh. The hero, whose name she bears, was a man of noble 
presence and commanding genius, unquestionably one of the most splen- 
did figures in a time unusually prolific of all splendid developments of 
humanity. In the politic wisdom of the statesman and the skilful dar- 
ing of the warrior, he was pre-eminent. The moral element of the man 



113 

shone out eminently in the darkness which beset his later fortunes, and 
the calm and manly dignity with which he bore adverse fate conciliated 
even those whom his haughtiness in prosperity had offended. We are 
informed that under the auspices of Sir Walter Raleigh, the flig of Eng- 
land was first unfurled on Roanoke Island, in North Carolina, on the 4th 
of July, 1584. When the book of time shall be opened it will show that 
the city of Raleigh has a history and a fame of which North Carolina 
may well be proud. May Fhe continue " to walk in her integrity" and 
increase in prosperity and Christianity as time rolls on. May •' peace be 
within her walls and prosperity within her gates." May "her ways be 
ways of pleasantness, and all her paths be peace." I have the honor to 
be, with very great respect. 

Your obedient servant, 

C. H. Brogden. 



[From Co!. J. S. Amis.] 

Oxford, N. C, October 17, 1893. 
Messrs. C. B. Denson and others, Committee, Raleigh, N. C. 

Gentlemen: Accept my thanks for the invitation to be present at your 
city centennial on the 18ch of October. I am glad to see your city put- 
ting on so much life and becomint; pride in her history, and doubt not 
that the beneficial influence resulting from this celebration will be far- 
reaching, not only to your city, but to the whole State. It would be 
most delightful to witness the display and partake of the patriotic sijirit 
of the occasion, but other engagements will render it impossible for me 
to be with you. 

Wishing the fullest success in all that concerns your city, and again 
thanking you, I am, Your obedient servant, 

J. S. Amis, 
President Board of Directors of Insane Asylum North Carolina. 



[From an old citizen of Raleigh.] 

The Dickinson County News, 
Abilene, Kansas, October 15, 1892. 

Messrs. C. B. Denson, B. P. Williamson, and others, Committee. 

Gentlemen: There is nothing that would give us more pleasure — my 
son and I — than co be present at the "Raleigh Centennial," but short- 
ness of time and business duties compel us to reluctantly decline your 
kind invitation. I. especially, would like to be with you on that occa- 
sion, as I am a native of the good Old North State, and was a resident 
of Raleigh from 1835 to 1809. During that time I saw Hon, E. E. Dud- 
ley, the first Governor elected by the people of the State, inaugurated, 
and many other things of historical interest, up to the time that tried 
men's souls — 1861 to 1865 — all of which would do me good to hear related. 

My affection for my native land grows stronger every day, and I trust 
you will have a celebration fraught with so much pleasure that it will 
not cease to live in the hearts of the present and future generations, 
during the second century. 

Thanking you for your kind remembrance of us, I am. 

Respectfully yours, 

F. k. Strother. 

A cordial invitation was extended to the various organi- 
zations in the city to take v>art in the procession, and also to 
the ranking officers of each body in the State, including the 



114 

Masons, Knights Templar, Odd Fellows, Knights of P3'thias, 
Trades Union, Typographical Union, Ladies' Auxiliary of 
Young Men's Christian Association, Tobacco Association, 
Raleigh Academy of Medicine, Cotton Exchange, Dental 
Association, Underwriters' Association, Raleigh and Gaston 
Railroad Relief Association, Brotherhood of Locomotive 
Engineers, Wheelmen's Association, the public schools, Ral- 
eigh Male Academy, North Carolina College of Agriculture, 
St. Mary's School and Peace Institute, and students of the 
Institution for the Deaf, Dumb and the Blind. The Governor 
and other State officers, Mayor and Aldermen and the police 
and fire departments were especially invited. 

In recognition of the blessings of Providence and in grate- 
ful remembrance thereof, the managers, on October 11, 
appointed Messrs. R. S. Tucker, E. McK. Goodwin and J. J. 
Hall, D. D., a committee to wait upon the pastors of the sev- 
eral churches and request them to hold commemorative 
services in their respective congregations on Sunday, October 
16. This request was cheerfully complied with wherever it 
was practicable, and the solemn sanction of religion was 
given to the people's week of rejoicing. 

SERVICES AT THE CHURCHES. 

At the First Baptist Church the Rev. Dr. J. W. Carter 
preached from Joshua iv : 6, 7, in reference to the carrying of 
a stone by each of twelve selected men through the waters 
of the miraculously-divided Jordan, the twelve stones being 
set in a lodging-place on the opposite side of the river as 
memorial stones of this great event. He alluded to the 
great dates of 1492, 1792 and 1892, and called attention to 
the fact that the centennial anniversary of Raleigh was also 
the centennial of the first Baptist Foreign Mission Society, 
formed in Kettering, England, by Carey, Fuller, and others. 
He drew a graphic picture of Europe four hundred years 
ago, and of the career of Columbus. He pointed to the 
Divine Hand in human history. Strikingly was this illus- 
trated in the voyage of Columbus, who was sailing for the 
coast of North Carolina but was diverted to the West Indies 
by the flight of birds. But a Spanish settlement of our 
State instead of its English origin one hundred and fifty 
years later would have greatly changed its history, and pos- 
sibly that of the Western World. "One hundred years ago 
the area on which our city stands was a forest. The grounds 
of the Capitol, it is said, formed a favorite deer stand. The 



115 

State had then about 400,000 inhabitants. The government 
had no settled habitation — had been sometimes at Hillsboro, 
Newbern, Halifax, etc. Commissioners were appointed, and 
the farm of Joel Lane was selected as the site of the Capital. 
The name of the gifted and honorable but unfortunate Ral- 
eigh, who sent the first expedition to North Carolina, was 
given to the newly-organized town. A statue ought to be 
erected to the memory of that great man and placed in the 
grounds of the Capitol, like that of Washington. The prog- 
ress of the city was slow, having only 700 inhabitants in 
fifteen years. But it is now steady, and we have great reason 
to rejoice and thank God for the churches and schools, and 
for the good men and women to-day in our midst." 

At Edenton Street Methodist Church the Rev. J. N. Cole 
delivered a special Centennial sermon to a very large con- 
course, upon " The Heavenly City in Analogy and Contrast 
with Earthly Cities." Special and appropriate music was 
rendered, and the Rev. Dr. Long, President of Elon College 
(Christian), made a touching and eloquent prayer. 

At Central Methodist Church Rev. Dr. J. A. Cuninggim 
invoked the blessings of God for the coming century, and 
Rev. J. B. Hurley, the pastor, referred to the growth and 
prosperity of Raleigh, the many attractions it possessed, and 
prophesied for the city a great future. 

The Rev. Dr. Eugene Daniel, of the First Presbyterian 
Church, delivered a very appropriate address. " The State of 
North Carolina," he said, " should be justly proud of her his- 
tory before and during the Revolution. Her Mecklenburg 
Declaration showed the first spirit of independence, and the 
battle-field of GTuilford showed the determination to sustain 
the Declaration with her life-blood." In alluding to the 
early days of Raleigh, he mentioned that in 1810 the Rev. 
William McPheeters was called to be the "Principal of the 
Academy and pastor of the city," and all religious services 
were held in the Capitol, conducted by the "City Pastor." 
In 1817 the present First Presbyterian Church was built, 
which has since been such a blessing to the community. 
Raleigh has developed into all that goes to make an attract- 
ive and delightful modern city, and should be the pride of 
the State. 

At Christ Protestant Episcopal Church, in the absence of 
Rev. Dr. M. M. Marshall, the Rector, the Rev. Dr. R. B. Sut- 
ton alluded to the commemorations of the municipality and 
the country in impressive terms, and the choir rendered the 
hymn, " God Bless our Native Land." 



116 

But tlie most elaborate observance took place at the Cliurch 
of the Good Shepher<i (Protestant Episcopal). The morning 
service commemorated the one hundredth anniversary of the 
consecration on American soil of a Bishop of the Prote-tant 
Episcopal Church. The service at night was in observance 
of the Centennial of Raleigh and the quadri-centennial of 
the landing of Columbus. The church was beautifully deco- 
rated in the colors of the cit}'. 

Hon. Chas. M. Busbee, a native resident (formerly Grand 
Sire of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, and as such 
the official head of the largest benevolent order in the world), 
made an address, which this volume can onl}' represent by 
extracts. Breathing the living regard of a son tor his mother, 
it yet represents the truly conservative s[)irit of the wise 
fathers of the past. 

ADDRESS OF HON. CHARLES M. BUSBEE. 

LxDiES AND Gentlemen: I did not feel at liberty to 
decline the invitation of the Rector of tliis church tendered 
me a day or so ago," to be present this evening and speak to 
you brieli}^ upon this interesting occasion — this beginning 
of the celebration of our municipal centenary — for I believe 
it to be the duty of each and all of us by word and effort to 
do what lies in our power to make the celebration upon which 
'we are entering worthy of ourselves and of the city in whicli 
we live. The man who does not join with his fellow-citizens 
in the endeavor to make the event memorable in the annals 
of the city, is not as patriotic and as valuable a citizen as he 
ought to be. 

Tr ****** * * 

It is eminently proper that this beginning of our Centen- 
nial should take place on this sacred day within ttje walls of 
this holy temple. To the Lord God of Hosts we owe what- 
ever measure of prosperity and happiness that rias come to 
us, as a community or as individuals — for underneath all 
temporal and spiritual blessings are the everlasting arms. 

"Except the Lord build the house, they labor in vain that 
build it." 

"Except the Lord keep the city, the watchman waketh but 
in vain " 

He has shielded from storm and tempest, from fire and flood 
and pestilence, and during the ever-recurring years He has 
multiplied to us His bounteous gifts and bestowed on us 
witiiout ceasing His gracious benefactions. We should be 



117 

unworthy of His continued favor if we did not, at this incep- 
tion of our thanksgiving, kueel in His presence, and with 
grateful hearts, declaring our abiding faith in Him; beseech 
Him for a continuance of His love and divine protection. 

It is well for a city to commemorate its centennial. It 
would be without excuse or ju&tificalion, if this prosperous 
and progressive city did not sliow to the world its apprecia- 
tion of the fact that it has reached its hundredth birth-day 
and turned into its second century. The ceremonies of the 
coming week will mark an epoch in our history. It is grati- 
fying to see that all the patriotic fervor lying dormant in our 
hearts has come into active play, and our people of all classes 
and conditions are moved by one comnjon impulse of mu- 
nicipal pride and patriotism. 

The city of Raleigh was founded and incorporated just 
one hundred years ago. It was located as the Capital of the 
State by a legislative majority of one, and subsequent his- 
tory in this instance, even if it does not in all instances, has 
demonstrated the wise foresight of the legislative will. The 
city was named in honor of that chivalrous Englishman who 
brightened with his genius and adventure the famous reign 
of England's virgin queen. The city is well named. Our 
people are chivalrous and brave, steadfast and enterprising; 
they retain that manly virtue, not so prevalent now as in 
other days, of supreme devotion to woman, that knightl}'' 
courtesy which is of right their due; they are patriotic, 
loving the soil upon which they daily tread ; they have faith 
in the future that awaits their city, and they are enterprising, 
willing to invest their fortunes and their labors in its advance- 
ment. They have inherited from their fathers the virtues of 
which the valoroiis statesman of the sixteenth century, whose 
name the city perpetuates, was so signal an exemplar. 

A city takes its character from the people who possess it. 
The people of Raleigh have always been a God-fearing and 
God-serving people. Our religious development and influence 
has ever been coextensive with the material growth of our 
city. The humble beginning was a small Methodist church 
on Blount street, and the great denomination which built 
the first church in Raleigh has grown into a vast religious 
power for the spread of the Kingdom of God. The other 
denominations have advanced with even step, in numbers 
and ever-increasing influence, with a common purpose and 
a common hope, until now there are thirty churches in our 
midst from which the gospel of the living God is preached — 
about one to every five hundred of our population. The 



118 

church in which we have assembled this evening illustrates 
the increase. It has now more communicants than its mother 
church had not many years ago when it withdrew and 
organized a new parish. And to-day the churches of Raleigh 
are full of zeal and the spirit of the Most High God, and 
the vital truths of God's Word are preached by faithful men 
from Sabbath to Sabbath in churches that do not tolerate 
the private ownership of any part of the house of God. May 
I not quote the language of the great apostle who, speaking 
of Tarsus, said: "We are citizens of no mean city." 

The city of Raleigh is notable on account of the old 
families that remain. Many of the names now standing 
upon the tax-lists are the names that were there one hun- 
dred years ago. There is no need to mention them. Some 
are here this evening. They ilhistrate in their lives the 
sturdy virtues which are theirs by right of inheritance. This 
city will never lose the impelling force given it in its early 
years by those pioneers of civilization who founded it, nor 
will it ever lose the refining influence of those who touched 
and adorned it in its infancy with the grace and beauty of their 
characters — whose sons and daughters yet live amongst us. 

And yet to them is not all the credit due, for there have 
come into our midst from time to time men and women of 
other counties and States and nations, who have become as 
truly our fellow-citizens as if to the manor born, and who 
have equalled those of native birth in their loyalty to the 
city of their adoption and in their love for its people, its tra- 
ditions and its welfare. For the people of Raleigh have 
always welcomed and will ever welcome the worthy stranger 
to their hearts and homes. It matters not from whence he 
comes, what his faith or sect, if he is honest and industrious 
he will always fiud a hearty welcome and sympathy and 
friends. * * «■ -x- * * * • 

There is one thing about our city which I conceive I can 
safely assert: that no deserving person ever lived in our 
midst for any length of time who did not become attached 
to the city and its people, and who if compelled to move 
away did not desire to return. I can count among our citi- 
zens many who at some period of their lives, thinking to 
better their fortunes, moved away, and unable to resist the 
spirit that incited them, returned, and were glad to return. 
There is some alluring quality in the air of Kaleigh, filling 
it with an indefinable subtle power, that when you once 
become accustomed to it, renders it the most delightful 
atmosphere you ever breathed, and if once forsaken, it is 



119 

almost impossible to resist the longing that comes upon you 
to fill your lungs with it again. Perhaps you may call me 
extravagant of speech, but at least 3^ou will give me credit for 
believing what I say. 

I believe that the city of Raleigh has always done its duty. 
It has ever been prompt to respond to appeals for sympathy 
and aid when misfortune has come to other communities, 
and in times of public peril it has never shirked the per- 
formance of its natural and moral obligations. 

It sent brave men into the service of their country in 1812, 
and the bones of its sons are entombed beneath Mexican 
soil. When civil war divided our own people, no city in the 
South made quicker reply to the call of the State or sent into 
the Confederate army a more gallant band of soldiers. On 
many a bloody field they proved the mettle of the race from 
which they sprung, and there was scarcely a battle-field in 
A'irginia that was not watered with the blood of some Ral- 
eigh boy. 

No city in all the land sheltered a more self-sacrificing 
band of women, who, without murmur, gave their husbands 
and brothers and sons to a cause in which they believed, and 
who bore without complaint the bitter burden of those who 
could only wait for the end, and suffer while they kept the 
faith; and yet no city in all the South accepted more freely 
and without cavil the end that came at last, and more 
promptly recognized the paramount duty of those who 
renewed their alliance as citizens of a restored Union, never 
again to be broken. And to-day there are no people in this 
land of ours who are more faithful to the Government as it 
is and to the flag which is the symbol of its power. 

45- -;•;■ * ■» vr -x- * ~- 

Fortunate it is for us that we have never had a boom. 
The growth of the city, although slow, has been sure and 
steadfast. What we have gained we hold. We are a con- 
servative people and go safely if slowly. We have builded 
upon a rock. No commercial disaster has ever wrecked us. 
No financial storm has ever overwhelmed us. 

And yet our progress during the last twenty years has 
been noticeable. We have substituted well-paved streets for 
country roads, and bad roads at that. And the various roads 
leading into the city are being re-made upon scientific prin- 
ciples. We have the best organized and best operated vol- 
unteer fire department in the United States, and I challenge 
any city in the Union to produce firemen, whether profes- 
sional or not, who can eclipse our volunteer firemen in 



120 

bravery, in devotion to duty, in absolute reliability and skil- 
ful endeavor. We have a system of water-works furnishing 
as plentiful a supply of pure water as we need. We have a 
well- managed electric railway, a telephone exchange, and 
improvements are still the order of the day. Cotton facto- 
ries, the new hotel and opera-house cease to attract attention. 
And, above all, we have materially enlarged our educational 
facilities. We are a city of churches and schools — a city 
filled with the hum of busy industries — and our people are 
united and conservative, vigorous and enthusiastic, law- 
abiding and safe, and they are proud of the city they have 
built. 

-X- Tc -X- -x- * * * * 

We propose this week to put on our holiday clothes, the 
garments of mirth, and to congratulate ourselves and let our 
neighbors and friends join in the congratulations that always 
attend birth-days duly and properly celebrated. It is our 
purpose to open our gates, to show hospitality to the stranger, 
to banish for the time all personal and political controver- 
sies, to forget the clashing rivalries of business, and to enjoy 
ourselves as a patriotic and homogeneous people. 

-X- -x- * * * -X- * * 

And let us take withal a serious view of it. Let us deter- 
mine that in the days to come, so far as we are able, we will 
keep our city in the paths of virtue and morality in which 
our fathers trod. Let us make our city, in the language of 
the prophet Isaiah, " a crowning city, whose traffickers are the 
honorable of the earth." 

Let us remember that while we are citizens here, we are 
also citizens of a heavenly kingdom and that the duties and 
privileges of that higher and better citizenship are para- 
mount to our duties and privileges here. Let us go forth 
into the coming years with an ever-enlarging faith in God, 
ready to do His will, and knowing that that city and that 
people alone are safe and strong, whose God is the Lord, and 
who walk in the divine and radiant light of His countenance. 

President Geo. T. Winston, of the University of North 
Carolina, then pronounced the commemorative Columbian 
address. After a philosophic description of great men as the 
gift of a great age, and a tribute to the genius of Columbus, 
he reckoned the great benefits to humanity from his discov- 
ery as follows: 1. Room for the development of the energies 
awaking in Europe. 2. The fall expansion of the Anglo- 
Saxon race by the occupancy of a new continent. 3. The 



121 

civilization and Christianity of many millions of Africans, 
through a mild system of slavery. 4. Progress in America 
inducing progreirs in Europe in politics, society and relig- 
ion. The fifth, and last, is a[)pended in his own language: 

" 5. It has shifted the centre of gravity of the universe: the 
Atlantic has supplanted the Mediterranean, and New York 
is the heart of the world. Columbus made the world larger,, 
but it has steadily grown smaller. The voyage that he made 
in seventy days is now complete in only six. The earth is 
ribbed with steel and the steam horse plows through the 
mountains. The electric wire girdles the globe. Place your 
ear at the battery and hear the heart-beat of humanity. The 
joys and sorrows of the world are being condensed. All 
mankind but yesterday wept at the bedside of the Poet Lau- 
reate as he lay. dying. Slowly and steadily we are moving; 
onward to grander and better standards of life. 

" There is more comfort, more knowledge, and less disease 
than ever before. Man has conquered almost everything but 
himself. The humblest laborer rides upon the thunderbolts- 
of Jove. Jehovah no longer speaks in the lightning and 
pestilence and famine; and man is sometimes prone to for- 
get his Maker. But in the silence of the Sabbath morning, 
when the bells are pealing to worship, God speaks and bids 
the spindles cease humming and the markets cease traffick- 
ing. Humanity puts aside its cares, its turmoil and ambi- 
tion and listens to the silent voice of conscience as it pro- 
claims: 'Be still and know that I am God, I will be exalted 
among the nations, I will be exalted in the earth.'" 

THE CITY IX HOLIDAY ATTIRE. 

On the next day the business establishments and resi- 
dences along the route assigned to the procession, and in 
other sections, were decorated with many rare and tasteful 
devices, chiefly in the oriole and red. Nothing so complete 
and so beautiful in effect had ever been witnessed in our 
borders, as everyone competed with his neighbor to exhibit 
his pride and love for the City of Oaks. In the language of 
the city press, "The heavens are almost obscured in the gay 
glittering waves of color." Across Fayetteville street was; 
suspended bright streamers, with a mammoth portrait of Sir 
Walter Raleigh, and suitable mottoes. 

The great day of the celebration dawned bright and beau- 
tiful, and its coming was greeted by the bells of all the, 
churches and the whistles of the factories and workshops. 
The incoming trains had brought thousands of visitors ta 
8 



122 

enjoy the da}^ and gradually the streets were filled with the 
largest assemblage ever known in the Capital City. At an 
early hour the thirteen divisions of the procession formed on 
the several streets leading to Fayetteville street, from the 
southern extremity of which the parade began. 

At 10 A. M. the twenty-two Field Marshals and two hun- 
dred and twenty-two Assistant Marshals met Chief Marshal 
J. M. Heck at the north gate of the Capitol, to escort the 
State officers to their position in the processiou. Each Mar- 
shal wore a sash of red and yellow, and his horse was 
caparisoned with housings of the same colors. The Field 
Marshals in charge of divisions wore also a white rosette. 
As they proceeded in column of fours, escorting the state 
carriages to place at the foot of Fayetteville street, the scene 
was a brilliant prelude to the events of the day, and called 
out the cheers of thousands. The following gentlemen com- 
posed the superb body of Marshals, their names being 
recorded in the order of the signature on receipt of commis- 
sions. Each commission bore the seal and colors of thecit}^ 
by special resolution of the Board of Aldermen. 

THE MARSHALS. 

Chief Marshal— Col. John M. Heck. 

Field Marshals — Alf. A. Thompson, W. S. Primrose, Frank 
Stronach, Thomas Pescud, James McKee, William E. Ash- 
ley, T. B. Moseley, W. C. Stronach, G. E. Leach, William 
Boylan, Joseph E. Pogue, E. B. Engelhard, Henrv Horton, 
John Y. MacRae, R. S. Tucker, F. B. Haywood, N. B. 
Broughton, C. B. Denson, A. W. Haywood, Hugh Morson, 
Charles Earl Johnson. 

Assistant Marshals — Henry D. Blake, Walter Woollcott, 
John R. Ferrall, Frank P. Haywood, Jr., John W. Har- 
din, Jr., William R. Crawford, Jr., Fred. A. Olds, Graham 
Haywood, W. Deems Smith, William E. Shipp, Middle- 
ton T. Lea6h, J. R. Barkley, J. R. Rankin, Junius B. Tim- 
berlake, J. A. Duncan, John C. Drewry, A. E. C. Lindsay, 
E. L. Fleming, Jr., Maurice Rosenthal, J. Pink Wray, J. D. 
Turner, Phil. H. Andrews, James C. Dobbin, Henry E. 
Litchford, T. P. Jerman, Jr., William J. Saunders, E. D. 
Smith, Carey J. Hunter, William H. Martin, H. J. Dowell, 
J. Henry Mahler, E. M. Uzzell, Thomas S. Stevenson, J. M. 
Broughton, E C. Potter, A. J. Williams, R. E. Crawford, 
J. J. Dunn, Frank W. Rovster, C. M. Bretsch, T. L. Eberhard, 
C. B. Wright, John B. Kenney, T. T. Hay, J. M. Ayer, K. P. 
Battle, Jr., S. S. Batchelor, J. D. Boushall, George W. Fowler, 
William A. Wynne, N. W. West, W\ W. Willson, J. C. Baugh, 



123 

C. W. Newcorab, R. C. Strong, S. T. Smith, G. W. Johnson, 
F. K. Ellington, J. C. Pool, H. W. Jackson, B. C. Beckwith, 
R. T. Gray, W. H. Bain, R. E. Lumsden, J. F. Ferrall, J. C. 
Birdsong, J. G. Ball, William M. Lambeth, Ernest Haywood, 
F. H. Cameron, Jr., C. N. Dixon, M. B. Barbee, Thomas A. 
Miller, George W. Burgin, L. S. Ellison, J. J. Whitehead, 
Alexander Stronach, R. S. Tucker, W. H. Pace, J. W. Cross; 
B. W. Hunter, Ernest P. Maynard, P. H. Hughes, E. E. 
Ellington, J. J. Bernard, Alf. Jones, J. H. Jones, C. B. 
Edwards, Jr., H. E. Upchurch, W. F. Myatt, Cecil G. Stone, 
F. H. Busbee, J. C. S. Lumsden, D. T. Johnson, J. W. Cobb, 
J. H. Parham, N. T. Cobb, W. C. Cram, Thomas Badger, Jr., 
W. P. McGehee, W. E. Renn, B. G. Cowper, W. J. Ellington, 
J. S. Wynne, S. A. Campbell, T. 0. Faucett, Alston Grimes, 
Fred. A. Watson, S. \V. Brewer, F. B. Dancy, Charles J. Mer- 
rimon, G. M. Allen, A. R. D. Johnson, Ernest B. Bain, D. S. 
Hudgius, Joseph S. Correll, Alfred Williams, Jr., George C. 
Heck, C. L. Hinton, W. C. Richardson, A. M. Bobbitt, B. F. 
Womble, A. W. Knox, J. C. L. Harris, James H. Lawrence, 
Thomas Loftin Nowell, Horace B. Greason, E. A. Jones, 
Sherwood Haywood, John Stronach, D. D. Upchurch, Charles 
Dewey Wildes, C. W. Lewis, L. R. Wyatt, Ed. Chambers 
Smith, W. A. McClenahan, Julius Lewis, C. F. Ford, C. G. 
Latta, William R. Dicks, A. C. Lehman, George H. Snow, 
Thomas H. Briggs, G. M. Spence, W. G. Allen, J. K. Mar- 
shall, A. J. Bufftiloe, M. D., Hugh Lee Miller, G. E. Iden, 
W. F. Bishop, R. A. Cole, J. T. Nottingham, Charles Ben. 
Park, Charles M. Pritchett, A. IL Green, T. P. Devereux, 
Haywood Guion Dewey, James H. Baker, Alston Perkins, 
James S. Moore, E. McK. Goodwin, John D. Briggs, E. R. 
Pace, John S. Keith, R. A. Coley, Wallace Riddick, Powhatan 
Matthews, W. F. Harris, Frank Bell, R. L. Hayes, W. L. 
Davis, C. C. Williams, Melvin Andrews, John S. Riddle, 
W. W. Whitson, Edward H. Baker, J. N. Holding, Alex. M. 
McPheeters, Jr., Edgar Haywood, R. H. Bradley, C. Frank 
Massey, George Henry Hill, A. E. Glenn, P. T. Myatt, W.S. 
Powell, W. B. Mann, G. F. Kennedy, Cas. A. Riddle, B. S. 
Skinner, L. Wilder, D. Berwanger, Thomas N. Richardson, 
J. J. Summerlin, J. M. Proctor, W. G. Randall, R. E. L. 
Yates, C. F. Lumsden, Frank Brannan, H. D. Tucker, Y. E. 
Turner, J. M. Stephenson, H. A. Bland, T. L. Love, H. B. 
Battle, N. M. Rand, Peter E. Hines, S. A. Ashe, W. R. Tucker, 
J. B. Pearce, J. C. Pool, Henry McKee Tucker, William 
Henry Bagley, John M. Heck, Jr., Eugene G. Harrell, S. F. 
Telfair, Hubert Haywood, Albert Kramer. 



124 

THE PROCESSION 

Occupied one hour in passing a given point, the route being 
up Fa^^etteville street, around the east, north and west sides 
of Capitol Square into Hillsboro street, and thence into the 
State Fair Grounds, where an immense concourse awaited its 
arrival. 

The parade moved promptly at 11 a. m., headed by Chief 
Marshal John M. Heck and his staff of fifty Marshals, with 
a platoon of the city police in front commanded by Major 
Charles Heartt, Chief of Police, mounted; Adjutant James 
McKee and Chief of Transi^ortation G. E. Leach followed, 
and then Field Marshal A. W. Haywood and assistants in 
charge of the First Division, composed of the State officers and 
the Justices of the Supreme Court, escorted by the Governor's 
Guard, sixty strong, Capt. Jno. W. Cross, with a fine military 
band. 

The Second Division, under Field Marshals Chas. E. John- 
son and Alf. A. Tliompson, with assistants, was composed of 
his Honor the Mayor and the City Council and other offi- 
cers, venerable citizens escorted as honorary Marshals, and 
guests of the city from various sections of this and other 
States, officers of the State Agricultural Society, the Bar of 
Raleigh, and the Academ}' of Medicine, occupying sixty 
carriages. 

The Third Division was under command of Field Marshals 
Rufus S. Tucker and Henry Horton, with an array of assist- 
ants. It was headed by a superb float, representing Sir Wal- 
ter Raleigh before Queen Elizabeth. Every detail was per- 
fect. Two paintings in oil, each fifteen by eight feet, exe- 
cuted by the distinguished artist W. G. Randall, occupied 
the sides of the lofty car, and on the rear was a portrait of 
Sir Walter Raleigh in heroic size. Under the canopy (^ueen 
Elizabeth sat in regal grace and dignity (represented by Miss 
Lovie Park), while her ladies in waiting were exquisitely 
presented in the beauty of Miss Martha Davis and Miss Rosa 
Broughton, and Mr. C. B. Eldwards, Jr., and Mr. Joseph Wat- 
son were respectively Sir Walter Raleigh and Lord Leicester. 
Messrs. Randall and Fred. Watson were congratulated upon 
their success in the production of this finished and artistic 
car. It was drawn, as the others, by a team of the finest 
horses in our region. 

Next came a float as a representation of the scene at the 
reception of Lafayette in 1825 by Governor Burton of this 
State. This was the largest and most lavishly decorated of 



125 

all the cars, and the scene includerl a faithful personation of 
Lafayette and Miss Elizabeth Hiywood before Canova's 
statue of Washington. It was the contribution of Messrs. 
W. H. & R. S. Tucker & Company. 

No spectacle possessed more historic interest than the 
appearance in the ])arade of a fac simile in every respect of 
the old "Tornado," the first locomotive that ever reached 
Raleigh, with its tender and freight car. The Neivs and 
Observer of the following day has this paragraph: 

The Tornado came to Raleigh over the Raleigh and Gaston Riilroad 
in 1840. It was built in Richmond ill 1839 by D. J. Burr & Comptny. 
Mr. Albert Johnson was then Master Mechanic of the Raleigh and Gas- 
ton, and yesterday he held the throttle of the Tornado in the procession. 
The original has long been destroyed, but Mr. Johnson remembers it dis- 
tinctly, and he made the patterns for its reproduction in wood at the 
Raleigh and Gaston shops here. It had only two drive-wheels, no cow- 
catcher and no head-light. The engineer's cab was without protection, 
and the smoke-stack was high and old-fashioned. The engine and tender 
were painted green, with black borders. The box-car was about one- 
third as large as those of the present. The whole train was about fifty 
feet in length, and was one of the most interesting sights of the day. 

It may be added that on the engine with Mr. Johnson, 
the oldest living locomotive engineer, was Reuben Cole, the 
colored fireman, who both came here with the Tornado fifty- 
two years ago, and are still, in the same company's service. 
This spfeaks volumes for the company, for our city, and the 
kindly relations existing between the races. 

The division was closed by the Odd Fellows' float, display- 
ing the scarlet, white and blue, surmounted by a lofty tent 
typifying the Encampment, or Patriarchal branch, by its 
royal purple. Within the three links upon the base were 
the names of the three lodges of the city, Manteo, No. 8; Sea- 
ton Giles, No. 64, and Capital, No. 147. The fly of the tent 
bore the names of the Encampments, McKee, No. 5, and Litch- 
ford, No. 26. Eight knights in costume represented the 
Lodges and Encampments and displayed the city colors. Ban- 
ners of white, pink, blue, scarlet and purple adorned its 
angles, and in front hung the life-size, oil portrait of Chas. 
M. Busbee, of this city. Past Grand 8ire Independent Order 
of Odd Fellows of the world. This was executed by his son, 
James L. Busbee. In the rear were these words: " Paid for 
relief in 1891, $3,064,620 80." " Our membership, 721,146." 
The f )llowing committee prepared this float: Seaton Gales, 
No. 64, A. M. Powell, P. H. Andrews, B. H. Woodell ; for 
Manteo, No. 8, G. H. Glas?, W. W. Briggs, A. J. Buffaloe, M. D. 
The following Knights took f)art in the personations : Messrs. 
Wilson, Norwood, McRary, Theim (Jr.), Wilder, Phillips, 
Alford and Ball. 



126 

The fourth Division was commanded by Field Marshals 
E. B. Engelhard and Jos. E. Pogue. Probably nothing so 
illustrative of the progress of the firemen's protective art has 
ever been seen in the South. Chief Engineer Engelhard and 
Assistant Chief Ferrall were its designers, and the local Board 
of Underwriters of the city contributed liberally to its pro- 
duction. This grand display was in two departments — the 
first representing the old means of protection from fire, and 
the second the modern system. The place of honor in the 
first was held by a float, upon which was exhibited the verita- 
ble fire-engine imported from Europe in 1784 for the use of 
the Moravian town of Salem, North Carolina, and undoubt- 
edly the oldest existing fire-engine on this continent. The 
venerable T. L. Love, now one of our largest dealers in 
tobacco, had charge of the department, being ex-foreman 
of Hook and Ladder Company, No. 1, with R. H. Bradley, 
ex-foreman Rescue Company, and following the Salem 
engine, in chronological order, came the Fayetteville engine 
of 1820, the Victor engine of 1840, the Bucket and Ladder 
Company, Single Tank Chemical, old Rescue Hand Reel, 
old Victor Hand Reel, old Capital Hand Reel, old Indepen- 
dent Hand Reel, Victor Racing Reel and old Rescue Horse 
Reel. 

The Second or Modern Department, under immediate 
charge of Chief Engelhard and Assistant Ferrall, comprised 
the W. R. Womble Hook and Ladder Company No. 1, the 
Rescue Steam Eire Engine, Rescue Hose Wagon, two-horse; 
Capital Hose Wagon, No. 3, two-horse ; Victor Hose Reel, 
No. 2, two-horse; Double Tank Chemical Engine, two-horse. 

Next in line was the float of the Raleigh Typographical 
Union, fitted with cases and other appliances, and exhibiting 
men at work. A part of one of the oldest presses in the 
Union was shown on the float, and a job press used before 
the war, from which hand-bills were printed and thrown to 
the eager crowds. The printer's devil was rampant in glory, 
playing about the eldest of the craft, while the Union, No. 
54, followed to the number of fifty or more. 

The Fifth Division exhibited the historic renown of the 
brave men of our past, and was most significant and impress- 
ive. Field Marshals AVm. S. Primrose and Wm. C. Stron- 
ach in charge, with a brilliant staff" of assistants. The first 
float was in commemoration of the services of citizens of Ral- 
eigh in the war of 1812, presenting types of the army and 
navy in the uniform of that day, and exhibiting many mar- 
tial emblems. Extracts from the noted message of the War 



127 

Governor to the Legislature of the day, (by Governor William 
Hawkins,) adorned the car in large letters, and within sat the 
following prominent citizens, his direct descendants : W. J. 
Hawkins, A. B. Hawkins, P. H. Andrews, Colin Hawkins 
and Armistead Jones. This float was unique in style and in 
the finest taste. 

The war with Mexico in lS4()-'47 was next represented. 
Its decorative designs were adorned by the names of distin- 
guished Carolinians who gave up their lives in this contest, 
and four veterans of that conflict yet surviving attended it 
and linked those days with the present : Messrs. M. B. Barbee, 
\V. H. High, W. A. Lamb and H. W. Earp. 

Next in order was a float emblematic of the great war 
between the States of thirty years ago, and eight brave veter- 
ans of Raleigh's troops in the Confederate cause, attired in 
the identical gray uniform of the bloody struggle of 1861, 
were saluted with reverence as they passed by. 

The last of this division was the appropriate float of South- 
ern peace and progress. Its snowy canopy hung above the 
Goddess of Peace upon her throne, in spotless white, with a 
golden crown. Miss Susie Tucker filled this position, and 
Misses Redford, Wilson, Powell and Renn were the repre- 
sentatives of our great industries. This float was contributed 
by Woollcott & Sons, and bore the motto, "Peace hath her 
A^ictories, no less renowned than War." 

The Sixth Division was composed wholly of the students 
of the Raleigh Male Academy, under charge of Field Mar- 
shals Hugh Morson and C. B. Denson, Principals of the 
institution, and the following Assistant Marshals from the 
students, whom we name as the youngest in the procession : 
Messrs. Wm. H. Bagley, Jno. M. Heck, Jr., Thos. H. Briggs 
and Benjamin Hardy. The students marched one hundred 
and twenty-five strong, each wearing the city colors and a 
white silk badge with the arms of the city (the oak) and the 
inscription, " R. M. A., 1792-1892." Remembering the high 
honors its graduates have won in the colleges and universi- 
ties of the country, they were enthusiastically applauded 
along the route, and in response gave the school slogan with 
a will. 

The Seventh Division (Field Marshals, John Y. MacRae 
and F. J. Haywood) was headed by the float of the Murphey 
Graded Public School, which represented on a very elaborate 
scale a reception in the colonial days by Miss Esther Wake, 
sister of the wife of Governor Tryon. The costumes were 
modeled from those of the days of British rule, and many 



128 

were veritable antiques from the last century. The many 
bright and beautiful faces in the throng will never be for- 
gotten by the beholder. The credit of it^ preparation belongs 
to Miss Eliza Pool and Professor E. P. Moses. 

Then came the float of the city druggists, showing the 
interior of a drugstore with its various contents and fittings. 
The names of the members then in the profession here were 
given, including Messrs. John Y. MacKae, J. I. Johnson, 
Robert Simpson, James McKimmon, \V. H. King & Co., and 
J. Hal. Bobbitt. The prescription counter was utilized by 
pharmacists compounding and filling prescriptions. 

The North Carolina College of Agriculture and Mechanic 
Arts furnished a float with exhibits from the departments of 
agriculture, horticulture, chemistry and mechanics, by Pro- 
fessors Massey, Irby, Withers and Riddick. Farm and gar- 
den products, greenhouse plants, farm and dairy implements 
and apparatus, such as the Babcock Separator, improved 
plows, etc., were shown. A varied exhibit also of chemical 
furniture and philosophical appliances, such as retorts, fur- 
naces, eudiometer, air-pump, microscope, electrical apparatus, 
surveyor's instruments, turning-lathe (with machinery pro- 
pelled by power from the wheels of the car), blacksmith's, 
tools, and specimens in wood, iron and brass, made by the 
students. 

Next came the float emblematic of the oldest paper in 
the city and the leading daily in the State, the News and 
Observer, edUed by Capt. Samuel A. Ashe. The throne under 
the gorgeous canopy of city colors was graced by a group of 
lovely young ladies, surrounded by leading member.'^ of the 
staff of the Netvs and Observer. Misses Stone, Carter, Murphy, 
Powell and Roberson were the centre of all eyes upon this 
admirable car. 

The Eighth Division, under Field Marshal Thomas Pescud, 
with the assistants that attended every section of the pro- 
cession, was headed by a mercantile float of J. R. Ferrall & 
Co., crowded with an array of fancy groceries tastefully 
arranged, and rendered very striking by the humorous 
figures in masks that brought forth roars of laughter. Rs 
immense weight required four of the strongest horses. 

Then tlie Raleigh Bicycle Club varied the appearance of 
the line by following in single file in rapid serpentine evolu- 
tions from side to side — thirty in number, with wheels like 
miniature suns shining in red and yellow, and taking these 
movements to hold their place in the slow-moving jiarade. 
Messrs. Will. A. Wynne and Cecil G. Stone led the wheelmen. 



129 

Next came the float of The State Chronicle, with its print- 
ing array, and the very creditable float displayed by D. T. 
Johnson, with a full line of staple and fancy groceries. 

The Ninth Division was under the charge of Field Mar- 
shal William E. Ashley, and contained the floats of Messrs. 
T. H. Briggs & Son, with a full display of hardware of every 
description and household furnishings; of E. F. W^-att & 
Son, filled with specimens of harness and saddlery. Theu 
came the immense exhibit of the Raleigh Cotton Mills, with 
spindles and looms, and a pyramid of their famous produc- 
tions. The float of Messrs. Julius Lewis & Co., with thou- 
sands of items of hardware; and the float of the steam 
laundry of L. R. Wyatt lent much interest to this important 
division illustrative of our industrial progress. 

The Tenth Division, under Field Marshal N. B. Broughton, 
was led by the exhibit from Allen & Cram's foundry and 
machine-shops. One item of much attraction was an engine 
fired up, with whistle blowing and machinery at work. 
Messrs. Ellington, Royster & Co., builders, presented a 
carrj'all of rough logs drawn by mules, and in a second sec- 
tion a car showing finished woods of great beauty. W. C. 
McMackin, the supervisor of the new county roads building 
near the city, supplied a float happily designed to illustrate 
the need of good country roads, one of the greatest obstacles 
to the farmer's success in this da3^ 

The Eleventh Division, under Field Marshal Frank Stron- 
ach, was illustrative of the advancement of the Negro, upon 
the especial request of leading colored men of Raleigh, who 
asked the Board of Managers to permit their race to cele- 
brate its own share in the prosperity of the city. 

Shaw University (for the colored race) has 450 students, 
some of whom come to it directly from the Congo Free State 
in Africa, and have specimens of the dress, weapons, furni- 
ture, tools, etc., of their native land. Four floats exhibited, 
as follows: In the first scene, an African King and Queen, 
medicine man, villagers, etc. ; in the second, there was the 
next stage of progress, showing the Negro farmer, black- 
smith, carpenter, shoemaker, bricklayer, painter, stone-cutter, 
cook and waiter, each representative being taken from one of 
these classes. In the third, education had produced the 
Negro minister, teacher, doctor and merchant. A famil}'- 
group was also shown, and the whole enlivened by jubilee 
singers. Another float held a fine display of industrial work 
from that University. 



130 

The Twelfth Division, with Field Marshal William Boylan, 
consisted of an exhibit of farm products and live stock from 
the farms of Maj. R. S. Tucker, near the city. The culti- 
vated hay, shucks and straw neatly baled, and the Oxford 
Down sheep and Jersey cattle (of pedigree) were of especial 
interest to the thousands of farmers attending. 

The Thirteenth Division, Field Marshal T. B. Moseley, 
consisted of Pawnee Bill's company of native Indians and 
cowboys, mounted, and accompanied by the third brass 
band in the procession. 

The parade moved in stately order up Fayetteville street, 
amid the waving decorations on every building and across 
the broad avenue, and greeted by the fluttering of the hand- 
kerchiefs of fair spectators, it was welcomed at the Capitol 
Square, as it moved in order around it, b}^ the patriotic song 
of "The Old North State Forever" from the lips of a thou- 
sand children of the city public schools, massed in the 
Square. 

The ladies of the Confederate Memorial and Monumental 
Association had been invited to assemble at the State Agri- 
cultural Building to receive a marching salute in passing, 
which was gallantly performed, and the same repeated in 
honor of the young ladies of Peace Institute and St. Mary's 
at their designated points of rendezvous. 

At the line of the city limits the police and fire depart- 
ments saluted and fell out of ranks, and the remainder of 
the immense procession, escorted by thousands of delighted 
people on either side and behind, proceeded to the Fair 
Grounds, where a great assemblage b}' trains from all sections 
of the State, had gathered to enjoy its coming. 

After the march around the track, and the magnificent 
array of mounted Marshals had gathered about the Chief at 
the Judges' Stand, the great parade was dismissed. 

The News and Observer of the next day declared of the 
celebration — 

Yesterday was indeed a gala day for Raleigh. It was a gratifying 
evidence of wliat Raleigh can do when she tries. No demonstration ever 
before made in North Carolina has approached it. Whether we consider 
the immense crowd of spectators who witnessed the procession, or the 
number and magnificence of the floats, or the brilliant array of Marshals, 
the sight far surpassed tlie expectations and hopes of those engaged in 
the undertaking. Fayetteville street gaily decorated throughout its 
length, from turret to foundation stone, in the red and oriole yellow that 
blend so harmoniously, presented a scene remarkable for its rich pro- 
fusion of coloring and variety of ornamentation. And when the mag- 
nificent corps of Marshals, numbering over two hundred, adorned with 
their regalias, marched down the street in open column of fours, the 
sight was one of great brilliancy. 



131 

But the climax was reached when the procession heing ready, each 
division of Marshals, followed by the floats for which they were escorts, 
marched again in line to the Capitol, and around Capitol Square, up 
Hillsboro street, the sidewalks being entirely packed by spectators and 
all of the windows and balconies being enlivened by the ladies in their 
holiday attire. 

It was a scene to make one's heart beat fast with high elevation.'! Ral- 
eigh was celebrating her jubilee in royal style, and patriotic ardor 
responded to the sentiment of the occasion and all were joyful and jubi- 
lant. 

Well ^one for our good old city ! All praise to our patriotic and esti- 
mable citizens ! They illustrated their pride in their homes by provid- 
ing a right regal birth-day for our fair City of Oaks, and in doing it they 
did all things well and left nothing undone. 

The following is from the Slate Chronicle of the same date: 

THE CENTENNIAL. 

The mile mark in the first century of Raleigh's history was passed yes- 
terday. It was a happy day for our city. There was no sighing over 
the past, the present was joyous with glad faces and the future looked 
to with fond hopes. 

The sun rose in a cloudless sky. As he streaked the morning with 
gray beams his coming was saluted with the peals of church bells, as 
they rang out upon the clear air the notes of a Christian civilization. 

The members of all professions in our midst were active in the prepa- 
ration to render the celebration worthy of the Capital city of one of the 
original thirteen States. 

It was worthy of Raleigh, her noble sons and beautiful daughters, and 
of North Carolina. 

With pure English blood on both sides in our veins, and with an 
ancestry which, for a hundred years have known no home but North 
Carolina, we did feel a pride in the scope and character of the celebration 
of the hundredth birth-day of this Anglo-Saxon city. And so long as 
Anglo Saxon pride and spirit remain with our people, there will be no 
backward step in the grand march of progress. 

Too much praise cannot be said in behalf of Chief Marshal J. M. Heck. 
The effects of his zeal, his energy, his good judgment, his fine executive 
ability were seen everywhere, and he has, as he merits, the thanks and 
gratitude of all for the admirable programme of the occasion, the sys- 
tein with which it was executed and the perfect success that obtained 
all around. 

Everything was arranged just as it should have been, and carried out 
as it should have been. 

The Chronicle congratulates all, and Chief Marshal Heck and his 
worthy associates especially. 

May there be many happy returns of the day. 

THE ADDRESS. 

At 7 P. M. the Board of Managers and the Marshals assem- 
bled at the Mayor's office, and with the band, escorted the 
orator, Dr. Kemp P. Battle, and reader of the poem, Capt. C. 
B. Denson, to the Stronach auditorium, where a great audi- 
ence had assembled. A stage holding several hundred had 
been erected, and the hall splendidly decorated with the 



132 

colors of the city. Seats were reserved for venerable citizens, 
guests and the schools of the city. In front of the double 
semi-circle of Marshals in regaHa were Mayor Badger, speak- 
ers of the evening and Chaplains (Drs. Skinner and Hall), 
the Supreme Court and other distinguished persons. The 
Mayor presided, and announced the opening prayer by liev. 
Dr. Thos. Skinner, who referred to the history of the city, to 
its thirty churches for fifteen thousand people, its many social 
privileges, and invoked the blessings of God upon our people. 

Joseph E. P(^gue, Esq., Chairman of the Committee on 
Programme, introduced in graceful and complimentary lan- 
guage Capt. C. B. Denson, of the Raleigh Male Academy, 
who read the Centennial Prize Poem, written by Miss Min- 
nie May Curtis, of Raleigh. The award was made by a com- 
mittee ignorant of the authorship of any of the large number 
submitted. The poem was received with much enthusiastic 
applause. 

The "Old North State" was sung by Miss Alice Dugger, 
accompanied on the piano by Miss Alice .Jones, and the vast 
audience joined in the patriotic chorus. 

Mayor Badger, as chairman, then announced that Mr. 
W. S. Primrose would now introduce the historian of the 
Raleigh Centennial. 

Mr. Primrose, in presenting the distinguished speaker, 
said: 

Mr. Chairman, Citizens of Raleigh, and Honored Guests: I am 
proud of the city of my birth. Raleigh bus done well today in cele- 
brating her one-hundredth anniversary. We have been aiaking history 
for an liundred years; but while deeds of purest patriotism have been 
performed, while deeds of valor have been done, the people have 
applauded arid the historian has slept. 

Now, to write the history of an hundred years ago, much of extra- 
nenis matter has to be swept away; much of the cherished fancy of "the 
oldest ciiizen;" much of pure fiction will have to be sifted. Like Mr. 
Boffin's dust piles in '• Our Mutual Friend," much earth must be carted 
away before the pure metal can be found. 

I am glad to know, however, that during the past ten years a spirit of 
active research and investigation of historical matter has arisen among 
our people. A number of our best citizens, from patriotic motives, have 
given their time and abilities to this important labor of love. Foremost 
among them all is the distinguished gentleman who will address you 
this evening. 

I now have the pleasure and honor of introducing to you the Honora- 
ble Kemp P. Battle, of North Carolina. [Applause.] 

Hon. Kemp P. Battle then pleasantly acknowledged the 
kindness of his reception and the success of the celebration, 
and proceeded to deliver the historic oration which will be 
found in these pages. 



133 

Of his admirable production the papers of the day said : 

Dr. Battle spoke for nearly two hours and kept his audience intensely 
interested throughout. His remarks were interspersed with much 
pleasantry in regard to the olden time, and many references to persons 
well known to the audience by tradition or otherwise brought frequent 
bursts of applause. His address was very much enjoyed. 

Rev. Dr. J. J. Hall pronounced the benediction. 

FIREWORKS AND BALL. 

On Wednesday night it is estimated that ten thousand 
persons gathered about Moore Square to witness the display 
of fireworks, which concluded with a representation on a 
large scale of the State Capitol. 

The festivities of the week closed on Thursday night with 
the Centennial Ball, under the direction of Messrs. Charles 
E. Johnson, G. W. Blacknali, James Boylan, E. McK. Good- 
win and W. C. Stronach, committee. 

The following notice is from the city press: 

THE CENTENNIAL BALL — THE MOST MAGNIFICENT SOCIAL EVENT OF THE 
SEASON IN RALEIGH. 

The centennial ball last night was, like the other features of the week. 
a great success. Stronach's auditorium was elegantly arranged and 
decorated for the occasion, and outside of the ball netting were hun- 
dreds of delighted spectators. The Newton Band furnished the prome- 
nade music before the ball took place. Dancing began promptly at 9:30 
o'clock, the participants, ladies and gentlemen, being dressed in the 
quaint costumes of " ye olden time." 

The following participated in the dance: Misses Heck, Tucker, Snow, 
Marshall, Hicks, Francis, Carter. Busbee. Whitaker, Hawkins, Burwell, 
Sadie Tucker, Roberts, Smith. Kate W. Denson. Mary Denson, Minnie 
Tucker, Rena Burwell, Anne Busbee, Carroll, Pescud, McMackin. Higgs, 
Hinsdale. McVea, Katie Haywood, Henrietta McVea, Jackson, Dortch, 
Stith, Fuller, Janet Fuller. Besson. Andrews, Bell, Brown, Hale, 
Badger, Janet Badger, KateBidger, Harris, and Haywood; and Messrs. 
Alexander of Chapel Hill, Branch of Wilson, Privett of Goldsboro, 
Leach of Lexington, Phillips of Tarboro, Davis of Ridgeway. Jones 
of Newbern, Tomlinson of Durham, Perkins of Washington, Thomas 
Badger, Jr., F. P. Haywood, Jr., S. J. Hinsdale, Jr.. S. A. Ashe, 
Jr.. Alex. Stronach, Jr., George H. Snow, Jr., Alfred Williams. Jr., 
J. C. Prior. Robards, Howard Thomas, Whitaker. Hardin, Busbee, Hun- 
ter, Pritchett, Holderness, Marshall, Faison, .John Stronach, Meng, 
Reynolds, Snow, T. C. Denson, Mebane, White, Turner, Burgin, Little, 
Smith, Battle, Micks. Ingle, Clem. Wright, Wise, Whitaker, Dr. Ayer, 
Anderson. McGee, Martin, Linehan, A. B. Andrews. Jr., Kennedy, 
Johnson. Sherwood, Faison, Lieutenant Shipp, H. L. Miller, C. J. Mer- 
rimon, Higgs. Brown, Joe Marshall, Kenan, Dobbin, Patterson, Graham, 
Eugene G. Denson, Pemherton, Grimes, Whitaker, Crews, Cotten, 
Wright, Pippen, Cannon, Ferrall, Cameron. 



134 

PRESENTATION TO THE CHIEF MARSHAL. 

An interesting sequel of the Centennial Celebration took 
place on the evening of the 22d of February, 1893. 

The Marshals of the memorable procession determined to 
present to Col. John M. Heck a testimonial of their appre- 
ciation of his admirable management of the occasion, and at 
a meeting held for the purpose, placed their contributions in 
the hands of the following committee: Messrs. C. B. Denson, 
W. S. Primrose, G. Edgar Leach, Thos. R. Kenan, Joseph G. 
Brown, James McKee, M. D., and Jos. E. Pogue. At their 
order an exquisite wassail-bowl or loving-cup of sterling 
silver was made, large in size and with the double handles 
peculiar to the ancient use of the bowl among the Scandina- 
vian peoples. The cup bore the inscription, " Col. J. M. 
Heck, Chief Marshal. From the Marshals of the Raleigh 
Centennial, October, 1892." 

The 22d of February, the birth-day of the great Virginian, 
was selected as the appropriate day for tlie presentation, in 
compliment to Colonel Heck's nativity, and the Committee, 
together with his Honor Mayor Thomas Badger, Chairman 
of the Centennial Board, and N. B. Broughton, Secretary of 
the Marshals, proceeded to the residence of Colonel Heck at 
7: 30 p. M. Greetings having been interchanged, the Chair- 
man, Captain Denson, made the following address: 

Colonel Heck : It is my high privilege, at the request 
of the Committee of Marshals of the Centennial Celebration 
of the city of Raleigh, to express to you their feelings of pro- 
found regard, and of grateful appreciation of your services 
as Chief Marshal on that memorable occasion. 

You, sir, accepted that charge only upon their urgent 
request, and its laborious duties, requiring many days of 
unwearied attention to innumerable details, were undertaken 
and faultlessly executed by you in a spirit of unselfish and 
lofty patriotism. 

Your CO- workers and friends felt that but for such patient 
and far-reaching skill, and such admirable energy in action, 
that brilliant chapter in our municipal history never would 
have been written in the hearts of men in all its magnifi- 
cence. Therefore, sir, the Marshals in whose name this com- 
mittee speaks, beg to tender you a token of their grateful 
recollection of this conspicuous public service. 

You, sir, discovered the talisman whose touch brought 
into one sj>irit and one heart the entire population of our 



135 

beautiful Capital upon their great festival, at the close of tlie 
first hundred years of life. Rich and poor, old and young, 
white and black, friend and stranger, all for the time being, 
felt the magnetic touch which welded all hearts for the most 
spontaneous and perfectly harmonious celebration that has 
ever adorned our history. 

That talisman was your sympathy with and consideration 
for every class and condition of your fellow-men. From the 
admirable suggestion to commemorate a century of honor- 
able progress by colors to be worn upon every man's bosom, 
however humble, to the distinguished courtesy bestowed 
upon the venerable fathers of our city, in whatever rank of 
life, and regardless of the accidents of fortune, the key-note 
came from you, and it was the same loving and generous 
remembrance of every one who could claim a home and an 
interest in the City of Oaks. 

We beg ^'^ou, therefore, in memory thereof, to accept this 
loving-cup, or wassail-bowl, fashioned in the ancient form 
of the vessel that in the halls of our Anglo-Saxon forefathers, 
circled from the master of the feast to his humblest vassal, 
that every lip might pledge devotion to a common cause, and 
one bond of sympathetic regard unite every man for weal or 
woe. 

Receive it, sir, at the hands of the representatives of your 
great array of Marshals, given as a slight token of their pro- 
found esteem, and their conviction of the great public service 
you render to this and to coming generations by the weld- 
ing of the people of Raleigh into one harmonious whole. 
May the memory of that glorious demonstration abide with 
them always in the fullness of its lesson of brotherhood. 

And as the years glide by, and the brilliant Centennial 
recedes like a distant star upon the horizon in the mists of 
the evening of life, when your eye shall fall upon this loving- 
cup let it remind you that to the brim it bore the invisible 
freightage of the admiration and respect of your fellow citi- 
zens, proud to recognize in j^ou one of those great souls of 
whom poesy declares that they 

" Shed noble deeds as easily as an oak 
Loosenth its golden leaves in a kindly largess 
To the soil it grew upon. 

Captain Denson presented the bowl, and Colonel Heck 
replied as follows: 



136 

Mr. Mayor and Gentlemen, Fellow-Citizens and 
Fellow-Marshals: Allow me to accept this magnificent 
present and these flattering words as the measure of your 
generosity, ralher than an acknowledgment of service by the 
recipient, either to yourselves or to the city we delight to 
honor and obey. 

I am not sufficiently schooled in the language we speak 
to find words that will convey to you the profound gratitude 
that wells from the deepest recesses of my heart. I know 
that men honor their fellow-citizens, but not often after this 
magnificent fashion. This honor unexpected, but not unap- 
preciated, is multiplied a hundred fold when it comes from 
neighbors and fellow-workers in the enterprise to celebrate 
the history of the (^ueen of our hearts, the Capital of this 
great State. 

Never was favor bestowed by Elizabeth upon her most 
faithful subject. Sir Walter Raleigh, received with deeper 
gratitude than this token of regard through the honorable 
committee that represents the brave and gallant band of 
Marshals that directed the Centennial of the City of Oaks. 

It was our city's whole people that by an unselfish and 
unanimous effort made that day memorable in North Caro- 
lina for all time. Let us pledge ourselves in this "loving- 
cup" which that patriotic band of Marshals through you 
have so eloquently presented to me. Pledge ourselves and 
our city that we will labor together continually for the 
advancement of Raleigh, and that the Centennial organiza- 
tion will maintain itself intact until it shall have wrought 
a lasting memorial, in erecting a fitting monument to the 
ideal gentleman whose name this city bears. 

Now thanking you, one and all, for this costly and precious 
gift, the outpouring of your generous good-will, let me say 
that the desire of my heart is, that when a quarter of a mil- 
lion citizens of this goodly Capital shall gather together at 
the base of the tall shaft erected to Sir Walter Raleigh at the 
celebration of a second Centennial, that the sons and grand- 
sons of that goodly company may be foremost in the ranks 
of the distinguished citizens of that day, and that this last- 
ing work of art in its solid silver may be the token to them 
of the courtesy and generosity of their forefathers. 

After the feeling and eloquent response of the host the 
party sat down to a magnificent dinner, the table being 
exquisitely decorated in Raleigh colors, which w^ere likewise 
presented to each guest in the rarest flowers, and the even- 
ing that passed in delightful social converse will never be for- 
gotten by the participants. 



137 

[From the News and Observer, October 20, 1892.] 

We rise to suggest that when the publication of Dr. Battle's address 
is made, that the volume should embrace not merely the prize poem 
and Centennial address and Mr. Busbee's and Dr. Winston's addresses, 
but also a poem offered the Committee on Poems entitled " Raleigh's 
Dream," which is a production of rare power and high order, and should 
be incorporated in the volume, together with a full account of the Cen- 
tennial Celebration. 

The following poem from the pen of Col. Alex. Q. Holla- 
day, the distinguished President of the North Carolina Col- 
lege of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts, is such a tribute to 
the memory of the hero whose name was bestowed upon 
our Capital, that the committee of award, by special resolu- 
tion, requested a copy of the same for the commemorative 
volume, and for preservation in the literature of North Caro- 
lina. C. B Denson, 

R. H. Battle, 
S. A. Ashe, 
W. S. Primrose, 
J. J. Hall, D. D., 
Committee on Award of Prize Poem. 

THE LAST THOUGHTS OF SIR WALTER RALEIGH. 

Through the barred casement ( f his prison wall. 
In that great tower the conqueror built, 
Sir Walter Raleigh looked, and snailed at the block. 
And headsman grim, leaning on his dumb axes. 
And while he gazed his thoughts found utterance: 
"I have drunk life to the lees; all earth can give 
Has been mine, enjoyed, suffered, to this last. 
Much have I seen and studied; barbaric. men, 
Strange deserts, perilous and wind-scourged seas, 
Cities rare and gorgeous — chiefs and princes 
Have hailed me brother and honored peer. 
And here I stand a gray-worn broken man, 
The murdered victim of an ingrate king. 
Who shrinks behind his craven throne and dreams 
That with another sun he shall be rid 
Forevermore of fallen Raleigh's scorn. 
But James shall make his pigmy boast in vain. 
My breath is his to take away, but not my life. 
He cannot blot nor blur my glorious past. 
Nor with his small vindictive envy kill 
My nobler part that did the deeds called great, 
And made me of God's chosen spirits here. 
9 



138 

He cannot shake my soul : he cannot steal 

The bright jewel of peerless Sidney's heart, 

The sweet companionship of Spenser's muse, 

Tiie high commune with gentle Shakespeare's soul. 

The trust and love of that great Virgin Queen. 

Who now well may weep o'er England's shame. 

To see this pitiful and puny worm 

Creeping and crawling on her mighty throne. 

His petty hate cannot kill nor long delay 

The work that grew out of mine own heart. 

To bring forth good for men when I am gone. 

Even now my dying eyes look out beyond 

The western seas, where far in coming time 

Shall grow a commonwealth planted by my hand. 

A fearless folk that brooks no tyrant king, 

But in its own majesty, and sell-made laws, 

Shall build for men a belter land than this — 

A Slate whose sons marching ever in the race 

Of freedom's fight in each succeeding age, 

Shall lead the way for liberty to man : 

A State whose dames supremely pure and fair, 

Fit mates and mothers of a mighty race. 

Shall bring to the shrine of triumphant love 

The flawless pearl of perfect womanhoo 1. 

■X- * * * -x- * 

My heart is light: I do not die to-day : 

I put off my flesh, a garment all worn out. 

And lay it down with things unneeded more; 

My spirit shall pass beyond the sunset, 

To dwell with them that owe their State to me. 

In a fair city that shall bear my name, 

On far Carolina's oak-crowned hills. 

Whose steadfast love of right and all things good, 

Whose noble citizenship, shall rightly show 

The inspiring power of Raleigh's soul 

When Raleigh's bones are mouldered into dust; 

Whose brave and gentle hearts and kindly hands, 

Whose gracious manners, and high-pitched thought, 

Whose pure homes, and altars duly served. 

Honoring God, as I have served and honored Him, 

Shall be the monument of my deathless fame. 



DIGEST OF LAWS RELATING TO RALEIGH. 



LAWS OF 1770, CHAPTER XXII. 

An Act for erecting part of Johnston, Cumberland and Orange Counties into a 
separate and distinct County by the name of Wake County and St. Marga- 
ret's Parish. 

Section I recites tliMt the large extent of said counties 
renders it burdensome to attend the courts, general musters, 
and other public meetings. 

Sec. II. Be it enacted by the Governor, Council and Assem- 
bly, and by the authority of the same, that after the 12th 
March, 1771, the said county be divided by the following 
lines (as given in the text of the address). 

Sec. III. Courts to be held on the first Tuesdays in March, 
June, September and December. 

Sec. IV provides for the old Sheriff collecting arrears of 
taxes. 

Sec. V. Johnston County to be in Newbern and Wake in 
Hillsborough Districts. 

Sec. VI. Sheriff of Wake to account to the Southern Treas- 
urer. 

Sec. VII. Commissioners appointed to sehct site of court- 
house, etc , to erect buildings, etc. (as stated in the text). 

Sec. VIII. Justices of the Inferior Courts to levy tax (o 
reimliurse the Commissioners for their expenditures in carry- 
ing out provisions of Section VIL 

Sec. IX Justices of Johnston County to try causes already 
on docket. 

Sec. X. Johnston to appoint four and Wake six jurors to 
attend the Court of the District. 

Sec. XL Only six jurors from Dobbs County. 

Sec. XII. The Vestry of the Parish of St Stephen's, in 
Johnston County, to be dissolved. 

Sec. XIII. The Freeholders of St. Margaret's to select 
twelve Vestrymen, and those of St. Stephen's to select twelve. 

Sec. XIV. Appoints Joel Lane, John Smith, Theophilus 
Hunter, Farquard Campbell and Walter Gibson to run 
dividing line between Johnston and Wake. 

Sec. XV. The Inferior Courts shall levy taxes for same. 

Sec. XVI. The Royal Prerogative of Incorporation not to 
be deemed impaired by this act. 



140 

LAWS OF 1791, CHAPTER VI. 

Act to carry into effect the Ordinance of the Convention held at Hillsborough in 
July, one thousand seven hundred and eighty-eight, entitled "An Ordinance 
for establishing a place for holding the future meetings of the General Assem- 
bly, and the place of residence of the Chief Officers of the State." 

Section 1. Provides for electing nine persons by ballot of 
both Houses —one from each District; a majority to select 
the site within the ten-miles limit, and to purchase not less 
than six hundred and forty nor more than one thousand acres 
and pay for the same by drafts on the State Treasurer; to lay 
off a town not less than four hundred acres, one-acre lots, 
main streets 99 feet and the others 6(3 feet wide; to allot 
twenty acres or more for State-house, etc. ; to sell and con- 
vey lots. 

Sec. 2. Five other persons to erect a State-house out of 
proceeds of sale of lots, not to excee 1 £10,000 ($20,000); 
Commissioners allowed twenty shillings ($2) per day and 
expenses. 

Sec. 3. The place selected to be "the seat of government 
and the unalterable place of holding the future Assemblies 
of this State, and the place of residence of the chief officers 
of the State." 



LAWS OF 1792, CHAPTER XIV. 

Act to confirm the Proceedings of the Commissioners appointed under an Act of 
the last General Assembly, entitled "An Act to carry into effect the Ordi- 
nance of the Convention held at Hillsborough in July, 1788, entititled an 
Ordinance for establishing a place for holding the future meetings of the 
General Assembly, and the place of residence of the Chief Officers of the 
State." 

Preamble recites that a majority of the Commissioners — 
Frederick Hargett, Willie Jones, Joseph McDowell, Thomas 
Blount, William Johnston Dawson and James Martin — on 
4th April, 1792, purchased of Joel Lane, by deed, date April 
5, 1792, one thousand acres of land at Wake County Court- 
house, and laid off a plan of a city of four hundred acres, 
comprehending, besides streets, 276 lots of one acre each. 

Section 1. Confirms report of the Commissioners. 

Sec. 2. Plan of the city ratified and ordered to be recorded 
in office of the Secretary of State. 

Sec. 3. Names of Caswell, Burke, Nash and Moore public 
squares ratified. 

Sec. 4. As soon as the State-house, in Union Square in the 
the city of Raleigh, is finished, the General Assembly shall 



141 

adjourn there, and the Treasurer, Secretary of State and 
Comptroller shall hold their offices in said city, which shall 
thenceforward be " the permanent and unalterable seat of 
government of North Carolina and the place of residence of 
the chief officers of the State." 



Act for the regulation of the City of Raleigh. Ratified February 7, 1795. 

Skction I. Seven Commissioners appointed (named in 
the address) and made a body politic. Authorized to enact 
ordinances for government of the city. Election to fill 
vacancies to be held by the Sheriff of the county. 

Sec. II. Commissioners to elect an Intendant to enforce 
the ordinances. 

Sec. II. Qualifications of Commissioners and voters pre- 
scribed. 

Sec. III. Treasurer to be elected for one yesiV by Commis- 
sioners. 

Sec. IV. Also Clerk during good behavior. 

Sec. V. Tax not over five shillings on £100 of taxable 
property (fifty cents on $200). 

Sec VI. Provides for listing property. 

Sec. VII. Encroachments on streets regulated by Com- 
missioners; to be taxed. 

Sec. VIII. Intendant and Commissioners to protect tim- 
ber on public property. 

Sec. IX. This act to be in force until January 1, 1797. 

B}-^ act of February 21, 1797, the foregoing act was con- 
tinued indefinitely. 

By act of December 18, 1801, three more Commissioners 
were added (named in the address). 

LAWS OF 1832, CHAPTER III. 

Act making an appropriation and appointing Commissioners for the rebuilding 
of the Capitol, in the City of Raleigh. 

Section I. Appropriates $50,000 

Sec. II. Commissioners appointed (as stated in the address). 

Sec. III. Plan of building: lower story, at least, of stone; 
roof covered with zinc, or other fire-proof material. 

Sec. IV. Authorizes stone from the State quarry. 

Sec. V. Commissioners may pay the undertaker from time 
to time by warrants on the Public Treasurer. 

Sec. VI. Commissioners may appoint an architect. 



I X D K X 



A. PAGE. 

Address of Kemp P. Battle, LL D. 1 
Addi-fss uf Hon. Chtirles M. Busbee IKi 
Addiessoi President (i. T. Winston, 120 

Aldermen, Board of 106 

Ashe, John Biiptist 33 

Ashe. Samuel 33 

Assistant Marshals 122 

Atkins, Rodman G2 

B. 

Badger, Mayor Thomas 132 

Balder, Blake 78 

Ball, Centennial 13S 

Banking Facilities 100 

Baptist Grove 65 

Barringer, David L 60 

Barringer, D. M. 60 

Battle, Kemp P., LL. D., address of 1 

Battle, Kev. AmosJ 6.') 

Beiiehan, Richard 19 

Bevers, Feudal .-. 31 

Biographies of Commissioners for 

locating capitol 25 

Blake, John C 32 

Bloodworth, James 27 

Bloomsburg Square 12 

Blount, Mrs. Mary Sumner 26 

Blount, John Grjiy 26 

Blount, Willie 26 

Blount, Thomas 26 

Board of Aldermen 106 

Board of Managers, Committees of 

the 107 

Board of Managers of the Raleigh 

Centennial 106 

Bond. Southey 61 

Boy Ian, William 40 

Brag«<, Col. Thomas 41 

Brickell, Benjamin 63 

Briggs, John J. - _- 60 

Briggs. Thomas H 60 

Brookside Park 96 

Brown Peter ^ 55 

Bryan, Nathan 19 

Bryan, Lovett -- -. 22 

Burgess, A.S 66 

Burke Square . .-_ 24 

Burning of the State House ._ 37 

Busbee, Hon. Charles M., address of 116 

C. 

Cabarrus, Stephen 28 

Cain, William _— 19 

Cameron, Judge Duncan 35 

Campbell, Farquaiti 19 

Campbell, Jolm A 19 

Cannon, Robert 32 

Canova's Statue of Washington 36 

Capital city, plan of the 30 

Capital of North Carolina, the first 

temporary — 13 

Capital, location of 20 

Capital, movement for a permanent 14 

Capital, plan of the city 24 

Capital, permanentjSite of and price 

of land 23 

Capital, sites voted on for — - 93 

Capital, tracts offered for site of 21 



PAGE. 

Capiiol, building the new .,0 

Capitol or Union Square 31 

Casso's Tavern .. . 4.> 

Caswell Square l4 

Celebration, the Centennial 10(> 

Cemetery, City 97 

Ceinetery, Confederate 9T 

Cemetery, Hebrew 97 

Cemetery, Mt. Hope 97 

Ceinetery, National 97 

Cemetery, Oakwood .. 9T 

Centennial ball 133 

Centennial celebratiim 106- 

Centennial procession 124; 

Charities 103 

Chief Marshal 122 

Chief Marshal, presentation to 134 

Christmas, William 24 

Churches . 99 

Churches, Centennial servicesat the 114 

City fathers, the first 4i> 

City indebtedness 101 

City, plan of the 24 

Cogswell, Dr. Joseph O 70 

Colonial days, seat of government 

of North Carolina in 12 

Columbian address. President Geo. 

T. Winston 120 

Coman, James 61 

Commissioners of location 19 

Commissioners for locating capital, 

biograpliies of ..- -_ 25 

Committee of Publication, resolu- 
tions of 5 

Committee for building Capitol 19 

Committee of Board of Managers— 107 

Cooke, Mark 61 

Cotton factories 101 

Cotton market 102 

Court scents in tlie past 77 

Craven, Joiin 51 

Crawford, Thomas 22 

Cuhum, Robert .-- 61 

Curtis, Miss Minnie May, Prize Cen- 
lennial Pi.iem by 6 

D. 

Daniel, Cliarles 67 

Daniel, Elder Robert T 66 

Daniel, Gen. Beverly 61 

Davie, Gen. William Richardson .. 28 

Dawson, William Johnston 27 

Dean, Hardy . 22 

Denson, Capt. C. B.; Account of Cen- 
tennial Celebration 106 

•Description of the new Capitol 41 

Detaigney, Rev. Marin 67 

Dickson, Joseph 18 

Digest of Laws relating to Raleigh. 139 

Drummond, W. S 41 

Duels in the past 79 

Eagle Hotel 45 

Early Churches 64 

Early History of Raleigh, address 

on 1 

Elliott, Rev. Charles P 66 

Emons, Thomas 64 

Ezell, John 22 



143 



•*. PAGE. 

SPaeintres, tjanking 100 

Paclories. cotton --_ ._- 101 

Fayettevllle desires seat o( capital. 18 

J<'ii'es ill tlie past 48 

FireDepartnient 100 

Kire engine, the first bought 48 

Fireworlis 1^3 

KuLiith of July celebrations in the 

past 8^ 

Fovvie, Governor Daniel G 32 

Freeman, Edward B 6ii 

Freeman, Rev. George W 06 



Gales, Joseph 52 

■Gales's printing office 40 

Gale-, Beaton .5i 

Gales, Weston Raleigh .55 

Gallows Hill 78 

Gautier, Joseph R 17 

Geddy, MissBetsy 7i 

Glasgow Frauds 88 

Glendenning, William 04 

Goodloe, Uol. Green Clay 20 

Goodloe, Robert 19 

Goodwin, Samuel OS 

Gorman, Henry 01 

Government, the first city -13 

Governor's reception 74 

Grant, James 70 

Green. Rev William M. 00 

Growih of the city of Raleigh 46 

H, 

Hale, Edward J 88 

Hall, Rev. James 84 

Hall, Rev. Ur. J. J. 13o 

Harper, Robert Goodloe 20 

Hargett, H'rederick 20 

Harrington, Henry William 28 

Harris, Edward 78 

Hawkins, Governor William 84 

Hawkins. Wyatt 19 

Haywood, John— the Judge 49 

Haywood, John— the Treasurer 49 

Haywood, John Pugh 32 

Haywood, Bherwood 00 

Hay wood, Stephen 00 

Haywood, Col. William 49 

Haywood, William Dallas 51 

Haywood, William Henry 01 

Haywood, William H., Jr 60 

Healthfulness or Raleigh 96 

Hecliletield, Captain John 13 

Henderson's Cavalry 84 

Henderson, James 60 

Henderson, Thomas 00 

Henry, Louis D 39 

Hill, William 52 

Hill-borough Convention of 178S--- 15 

Hines, Th(jmas 11 

Hinton, Charles L. 41 

Hinton,John 22 

Hinton, Kimbrough 22 

Hodge, Abraham 55 

Hodge, Madison C. 22 

Hodge, Joseph 19 

Holmes. Gabriel 33 

Hunter, Isaac— plantation of 15 

Hunter, Theophilus .. 21 



Indebtedness of thecit.y 101 

Improvements in Raleigh 91 

Indian- Queen Tavern 45 



J- PAGE. 

Jeffreys, William 22 

•Johnson, Aloert 32 

Johnson, Andrew 01 

J(jhnson, Jacob 00 

Johnson, Jolin W 31 

.lohnslon. Governor Gabriel 13 

Jones, I'aplain Alfred 60 

Jones, Dr. Calvin , 52 

Jones, Edward 19 

Jones, Nathaniel 22 

Jones, Redding 68 

Jones, Willie — 19 

K. 

King, Benjamin .S. . 01 

L. 

LaFayette. Marquis De 37 

LaFayette's visit to Raleigh 87 

Lane, Henry .-^ 21 

Lane, Jesse 28 

Lane, Joel 21 

Lane, Joseph 11 

Lash, .Samuel 48 

Laws relating to Raleigh, Digest of 139 

Lenoir, William 28 

Literary center 103 

Location, Commissioners of 19 

Lock, Matthew 19 

Lot sales of lhl3 in Raleigh 34 

Lot sales of 1819 in Raleigh 35 

Lovejoy, J efierson Madison 71 

Lucas, Alexander 00 

Lucas, George 19 

Lucas, Henderson 81 

Lulterioh, Henry B 19 

M. 

Macon, John 19,61 

Mails and travelers in the past 80 

Manguin, Willie P 81 

Manly, Gov. Charles 32 

Market, Cotton 102 

Market, Tobacco 102 

Marling, Jacob 06 

Mares, James 44 

Marslials, Centennial 122 

Marshall, John 52 

Martin, Gov. Alexander 24 

.Martin, Janie^ 26 

Martin, Nathaniel 26 

Masonic Fraternity 01 

McDowell, Gen. Charles 27 

McDowell, Col. Joseph, Sr 27 

McDowell, Capt. Joseph, Jr 27 

McKee, James 61 

McKeethan, Dugald 44 

McPheeters, Dr. William 64 

Mebane, Ale.xander 19 

.Mebane, James 63 

Mhoon, William S 40 

Moore, Alfred 24 

Moore Square 24 

Mordecai, George W 97 

Mordecai, Moses 28 

Movements for a permanent capital 14 

N. 

Nash Square 24 

Newbern, seat of goverment at .- 13 

New Capitol, description of the 41 

Newspapers in the past 88 

News and Observer 103 

Nichols, Capt. William 38 

North Carolina, State Bank of 62 



144 



p. PAGE. 

Page, Rufus H 52 

Pain, John 44 

Parish, Charles 68 

Park, Brookside 98 

Park, Pullen 96 

" Pastor of the City " 64 

Paton, David 41 

Patterson, Samuel F 41 

Peace Institute 70 

Peace, Joseph 57 

Peace, William 32 

Person, Thomas 27 

Plan of the capital city 30 

Polk. Bishop Leonidas 51 

Polk, Col. Thomas 87 

Polk, Col. William 50 

Potterfleld, James 19 

Porter, Henry 62 

Powell, Dempsy 22 

Presentation tothe Chief Marshal— 134 

Prices In the past 81 

Prinirose, W. S. 132 

Procession, Centennial 124 

Public amusements in the past 77 

Public balls of the past 74 

Public hangings in the past 78 

Public schools : — 72 

Pullen Park 96 

Pullen, Richard Stanhope 59 

E, 

Raboteau, John S 52 

Railroads in the past 89 

Raleigh Academy — , 67 

Raleigh, addresson early history of, 1 
Raleigh Centennial, Board of Man- 
agers of 106 

Raleigh, growth of the city ol 45 

Raleigh, improvements in 91 

" Raleigh Minerva" 55 

" Hftleigh Register" _ 55 

Raleigh, Sir Walter 29 

Raleigh, .social life of early city of- 72 

•• Raleigh Star " 60 

" Raleigh Wasp " 88 

Raleigh Volunteer Guards 85 

Ravenscroft, Bishop John Stark_-_ 66 

Rayner, Hon. Kenneth.. 50 

Reeder, F H 82 

Resolution of Board of Managers.-, 3 
Resolution of Committee of Publi- 
cation 5 

Re.K Spring 85 

Robards. William .„ 35 

Rocky Branch, navigability of 16 

Rogers, Allen — 68 

Rogers. Ethelred - 22 

Rogers, .John 44 

Rogei-s, Michael 22 

Roy.stor, David 59 

Royster, David L ■'i9 

Royster, .lames D 60 

Ruffln, Capt. .lohn S 87 

Rutherford, Griffith 19 

S. 

Saint Margaret, Parish of 11 

Sanders, Hardy 11 

Sanderson, Col. Richard 13 

Saunders, Romulus M 32 

Schools — 99 

Seat of government at Newbern 13 

Scat of government of North Caro- 
lina ill colonial days 12 

Seaton, William W 55 



PAGE. 

Seawell, Henry 56 

Services at the churches 114 

Shaw, Matthew 61 

Shaw, William 64 

Silver Graj' Corps 48 

Smedes, Rev. Dr. Aldert 70 

Smith, Benjamin 33 

Smith, Richard 59 

Social life of early city of Raleigh— 72 

Spaight, Gov. Richard Dobbs 36 

State Bank of North Carolina 62 

State House, the first built 36 

State House, burning of the 37 

Stewart, .lohn 60 

St. Mary's School 70 

Stone, David. ... 33 

Subscription Assembly 75 

Suburbs, the 104 

Sugg, Joshua 44 

Sumner, Frank 47 

Sumner, Gen. Jethro 26 

Sumner, Thomas E 33 

Swain, Gov. David L 32 

T. 

Taylor, John Lewis 66 

Telegraphs 100 

"Ten Mile Limit" for permanent 

capital 15 

"Tippecanoe, log cabin and hard 

cider" celebration of 1840 90 

Tobacco market 102 

"Tornado," the old 125 

Town. Ithiel 41 

Township, Macadamized roads in. 97 

Tryon, Governor William 9 

Tryon's Palace 10 

Tucker, Major Rufus S 58 

Tucker, Ruffin 58 

Tucker, William C. 58 

Tucker, William H. H 58 

Turner, Simon 68 

Turner, Rev. William... 64 

U. 
Union Square 24 

V. 
Vasseur, M. Le 87 

W. 

Wade, Gen. Thomas 18 

Wake courthouse 12 

Wake, Esther 10 

Wake, the county of, formed 9 

Water-works of the city in 1815 48 

Wheaton, Sterling 61 

Whltaker, Wesley 60 

White, William 52 

Wiatt, Col. W. T. C 86 

Wiatt's Infantry 84 

Williams, Gen. Robert 60 

"William's, the five" 57 

" Williams, the venerable Judge".. 19 

Willis. John 19 

Winslow. John 35 

Wilson, Rev. Alexander 70 

Winston, Joseph 18 

Winston, President G. T., Colum- 
bian address of 120 

y. 

Yancey, Sterling 52 



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