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Full text of "Early Scottish charters prior to A.D. 1153 : with notes and an index"

EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

PRIOR TO A.D. 1153 



PUBLISHED BY 

JAMES MACLEHOSE AND SONS, GLASGOW, 
the 



MACMILLAN AND CO., LTD., LONDON. 
New York, The Macmillan Co. 
London, Simpkin, Hamilton and Co. 
Cambridge, Macmillan and Bowes. 
Edinburgh, Douglas and Faults. 



MCMV. 



Early Scottish Charters 

Prior to A.D. 1153 



Collected, with Notes and an Index, by- 
Sir Archibald C. Lawrie 




Glasgow 
James MacLehose and Sons 

Publishers to the University 
1905 






>. 




777 



GLASGOW : PRINTED AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS 
BY ROBERT MACLEHOSE AND CO. LTD. 



PREFACE 

IN 1800 the Deputy-Keeper of the Records of Scotland 
suggested the publication of the Royal charters granted 
prior to the reign of Robert the Bruce, and in 1814 it 
was stated in the Preface to the Register of the Great 
Seal that some progress had been made in the work, but 
it was abandoned, and now more than a hundred years 
later I have endeavoured to collect the charters and other 
documents written in Scotland, or by or to Scotsmen, 
prior to the death of David I. in 1153. The task has 
been comparatively easy, because nearly all the charters, 
etc., had been printed, one hundred and thirty-four in 
chartularies by the Bannatyne Club, fourteen by the 
Maitland Club, six by the Spalding Club, five by the 
Grampian Club, and others by the Surtees Society and 
the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland. 

To Dr. Raine I am indebted for forty-three original 
charters, in his magnificent work on North Durham. 
I have taken seventeen letters and ecclesiastical docu- 
ments from the second volume of Haddan and Stubbs's 
' Councils/ and eleven charters from Dugdale's ' Mon- 
asticon.' Besides these I have reprinted charters from 
the Record edition of the Scots Acts of Parliament, 
from M. Merlet's 'Cartulaire de 1'Abbaye de Tiron,' 
from Mr. Farrer's 'Lancashire Pipe Rolls,' etc., from 
Stevenson's * Illustrations,' and from Morton's ' Monastic 
Annals.' 

Some charters from manuscripts in the British Museum 



vi PREFACE 

and in the Register House in Edinburgh are here printed 
for the first time. 

I hope some readers may be glad to have these 
documents collected in a single volume, printed in intelli- 
gible Latin, with explanatory and critical notes. 

The little that is known of Scottish history before 
the end of the eleventh century is derived from English 
and Irish chronicles and annals. If there were earlier 
Scottish writers, and if grants and transfers of land 
were committed to writing, the writings have perished ;. 
only a few notitiae written in the twelfth century record 
the tradition of older grants to two or three religious 
houses. Not many of the charters of the first half 
of the twelfth century remain ; the majority have 
come down to us copied in the chartularies of several 
monasteries ; most of these copies are genuine, though 
some were composed by monks anxious to make a 
title to lands the original grants for which had been 
lost. 

I have in the notes expressed doubts as to several 
charters which have hitherto been accepted as genuine. 
If my criticism of the foundation charter of Scone, of 
the c Inquisitio David,' and others, be well founded, 
some conclusions drawn by historians must be modified. 

The charters granted to English monasteries by King 
David and Earl Henry draw attention to the fact that 
they held Carlisle and many lands in Cumberland, that 
they were Earls of Northampton and Northumberland, 
and were lords of the Honour of Huntingdon. 

Mr. Farrer discovered in the Register of the Abbey 
of Shrewsbury charters which proved that King David 
for some years held the honour of Lancaster north of the 
Ribble. It is probable that other charters of King David 
and his son may yet be discovered in England. 

I have in my notes tried to illustrate the history and 
character of many remarkable men, the Kings, Edgar 



PREFACE vii 

Alexander and David ; Turgot and Eadmer and Robert, 
Bishops of St. Andrews ; Hugo de Moreville; John, Bishop 
of Glasgow ; William Fitz Duncan ; William Cumyn, the 
chancellor, Earl Henry these and many others become 
very interesting when the charters and chronicles are 
studied. 

I have not included in this volume the Assise David 
nor the Leges Quatuor Burgorum, as I do not consider them 
to be genuine productions of the reign of David I. 

The Assise David which appears in the older MSS. 
contains many laws later than the reign of King David ; 
the attempt by Mr. Thomas Thomson, more than three- 
quarters of a century ago, to cull from many manuscripts 
those laws which belong to the first half of the twelfth 
century, was not, I think, entirely successful. 

The Leges Quatuor Burgorum were compiled after 
burghs had become self-governing corporations. In the 
reign of David I. burgesses had not passed beyond the 
stage of being the king's immediate tenants, holding 
tofts in the land round a castle, owing rent to the king, 
with defined duties of watching and warding, and pro- 
tected by privileges, especially in regard to buying and 
selling. 

The history of Scottish law, and the separation of 
what was borrowed and what is of local origin, deserve 
more space than the limits of this volume admitted. 

I thank Mr. Maitland Thomson, the Rev. Mr. Paton, 
Mr. Murray Rose, and my friend, Professor Kirkpatrick, 
for kind encouragement and assistance. 

A. C. L. 

THE Moss, January -, 1905. 



CONTENTS 

Text Notes 
Charter. page. page. 

I. Notitiae of Grants to the Church of Deer, A.D. 

565-1100, ------- i 219 

II. Letter of Alcuin to the Monks of Candida Casa, 

A.D. 782-804, 3 226 

III. Notitia of an agreement between the Keledei of 

Loch Leven and the Bishop of St. Andrews, 

ante A.D. 955, 4 228 

IV. Charter (spurious) : Malcolm II. to Bishop Beyn 

of Mortlach, A.D. ion, 4 229 

V. Notitiae of Grants by Macbeth and Gruoch, King 
and Queen of Scots, to the Keledei of Loch 
Leven, A.D. 1040-1057, 5 231 

VI. Notitia of a Grant by Maldunus, Bishop of St. 
Andrews, to the Keledei of Loch Leven, 
ante A. D. 1055, 6 233 

VII. Notitia of a Grant by Tuadal, Bishop of St. 
Andrews, to the Keledei of Loch Leven, 
A.D. 1055-1059, - 7 234 

VIII. Notitia of a Grant by King Malcolm III. and 
Queen Margaret to the Keledei of Loch 
Leven, A.D. 1070-1093, 7 234 

IX. Letter from Lanfranc, Archbishop of Canterbury, 
to Margaret, Queen of Scotland, A.D. 1070- 
1089, 7 236 

X. Charter (spurious) : Malcolm III. to the Church 

of Dunfermline, A.D. 1070-1093, - 8 237 

XI. Notitia of a Grant by Modach, Bishop of St. 
Andrews, to the Keledei of Loch Leven, ante 
A.D. 1093, - --- 9 239 



x EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

Text Notes 
Charter. page. page. 

XII. Charter by King Duncan II. to the Monks of 

St. Cuthbert, A.D. 1094, - - - - 10 240 

XIII. Notitia of a Grant by Donald son of King 

Conchat, 1 1 242 

XIV. Notitia of a Grant by Ethelred, son of King 

Malcolm III., to the Keledei of Loch 

Leven, A.D. 1093-1107, - - - n 243 

XV. Charter (spurious ?) : King Edgar to Durham, 

A.D. 1095, .-.-. 12 246 

XVI. Confirmation (spurious?): William II., King of 

England, A.D. 1095-1100, 14 249 

XVII. Charter (spurious): King Edgar to Durham, 

A.D. 1095, - 14 250 

XVIII. Charter by King Edgar of Coldingham to the 

Monks of St. Cuthbert, circa A.D. 1098, - 16 250 

XIX. Charter by King Edgar to the Monks of 
St. Cuthbert of Coldingham and other 
lands, circa A.D. 1 100, 16 253 

XX. Charter by King Edgar granting Swinton to 

the Monks of St. Cuthbert, circa A.D. 1 100, 17 256 

XXI. Charter by King Edgar granting Paxton to 

the Monks of St. Cuthbert, circa A.D. 1 100, 18 258 

XXII. Charter by King Edgar granting Fishwick, 
etc., to the Monks of St. Cuthbert, circa 
A.D. 1 100, 18 258 

XXIII. Notitia of a Grant by King Edgar to the 

Keledei of St. Serfs, A.D. 1097-1107, - 19 259 

XXIV. Charter by Thor Longus to the Monks of St. 

Cuthbert, circa A.D. 1105, 19 259 

XXV. Letter from Anselm, Archbishop of Canter- 
bury, to Alexander I., A.D. 1107, 20 260 

XXVI. Confirmation by King Alexander I. to the 
Monks of St. Cuthbert of their right to 
Swinton, circa A.D. ii 10, - - - 21 263 

XXVII. Mandate by King Alexander to the Prior of 
Durham regarding Swinton, 
circa A.D. mo, 22 263 



CONTENTS xi 

Text Notes 
Charter. page. page. 

XXVIII. Letter from Alexander I., King of Scots, 
to Ralph, Archbishop of Canterbury, 
A.D. 1115, 22 263 

XXIX. Confirmation by Earl David of Swinton 
to the Prior and Monks of Durham, 
circa A.D. 1117, 23 265 

XXX. Confirmation by Earl David of Swinton to 
the Monks of St. Cuthbert, 
circa A.D. 1117, - - 23 267 

XXXI. Confirmation by King Alexander I. to the 

Monks of St. Cuthbert, circa A.D. 1 1 18, 24 270 

XXXII. Writ by Earl David regarding the rights 
of the Monks of St. Cuthbert to 
Horeworedene, circa A.D. 1118, - - 25 270 

XXXIII. Thor to Earl David regarding Ednam, 

A.D. 1107-1117, 25 274 

XXXIV. Confirmation by Earl David of Thor's grant 

of Ednam, A.D. 1117-1124, - - 26 274 

XXXV. Charter by Earl David founding the Abbey 

of Selkirk, circa A.D. 1 1 20, - - 26 275 

XXXVI. Charter (spurious?) by Alexander I. found- 
ing Scone Priory, circa A.D. 1120, - 28 279 

XXXVII. Letter from Alexander I., King of Scots, 
to Ralph, Archbishop of Canterbury, 
A.D. 1 120, 30 288 

XXXVIII. Letter from Ralph, Archbishop of Canter- 
bury, to Alexander I., King of Scots, 
A.D. 1 120, - 31 288 

XXXIX. Letter from Alexander I., King of Scots, 
to Ralph, Archbishop of Canterbury, 
A.D. 1 120, 33 290 

XL. Letter from Ralph, Archbishop of Canter- 
bury, to Alexander I., King of Scots, 
A.D. 1 120, 34 290 

XLI. Letter from Eadmer to Alexander I., King 

of Scots, A.D. 1 1 22, ... 35 291 

XLII. Letter from Ralph, Archbishop of Canter- 
bury, to Alexander I., King of Scots, 

A.D. 1 122, 38 291 



xii EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

Text Notes 
Charter. page. page. 

XLIII. Pope Calixtus II. to Alexander I., King of 

Scots, A.D. 1 1 22, 39 292 

XLIV. Pope Calixtus II. to John, Bishop of Glas- 
gow, A. D. 1 122, 40 292 

XLV. Pope Calixtus II. to John, Bishop of Glas- 
gow, A.D. 1122, - - 41 293 

XLVI. Grant by Earl David of a hundred shillings 
from Harding estrorna for the use of the 
Church of Glasgow, circa A.D. 1123, - 41 293 

XLVI I. Charter by King Alexander I. of the island of 
Loch Tay to the Canons of Scone, circa 
A.D. 1123, 42 294 

XLVI 1 1. Grant by King Alexander I. to the Church 
of Scone of the can and custom of a ship 
and of protection to the merchants 
bringing goods in the ship, A.D. 1124, - 43 295 

XLIX. Grant of jurisdiction by King Alexander I. 
to the Prior and Brethren of Scone, A.D. 
1124, 43 297 

L. Notitia of the history of the see of Glasgow 
and of the Inquisitio by Earl David as 
to the extent of the lands of the church 
of Glasgow, circa A. D. 1124, - - 44 299 

LI. Charter by Earl David granting in elemosinam 
the lands held under him by the monks of 
Daventry, A.D. 1114-1124, 47 304 

LI I. Confirmation by Earl David of the grant by 
Robert de Brus of Karkarevil to the Abbey 
of St. Mary at York, A.D. 1114-1124, - 47 305 

LI 1 1. Charter by Earl David to Roger the Arch- 
deacon of land in Totenham, A.D. 1114- 
1124, 48 305 

LI V. Charter by King David granting Annandale to 

Robert de Brus, circa A.D. 1124, - - 48 307 

LV. Pope Honorius II. to David, King of Scots, 

A.D. 13 April, 1125, - - 49 310 

LVI. Charter by King David granting to the Monks 
of St. Andrew at Northampton the Church 
of Potton, A.D. 1124-1130, ... 50 310 



CONTENTS xiii 

Text Notes 
Charter. page. page. 

LVII. Confirmation by King David of the rights of 
the Monks of St. Andrew at Northampton, 
A.D. 1124-1130, 50 311 

LVII I. Confirmation by King David to the Monks of 
Northampton of a grant of forty shillings 
from the rents of Bedford, A.D. 1 124-1 130, 51 311 

LIX. Confirmation by King David to the Church of 

St. Augustine at Daventry, A.D. 1124-1130, 51 312 

LX. Confirmation by King David to the Monks of 
Northampton of the Church of Brawfeld, 
with a virgate of land and rights in the 
wood of Yerdelay, A.D. 1124-1130, - - 52 312 

LXI. Mandate by King David regarding the pay- 
ment of tithe to the Church of Dunferm- 
line, circa, A.D. 1125, 52 312 

LXI I. Grant by King David to the Church of Dun- 
fermline of the tithe of the King's lands 
of Dunfermline and dwellings in four 
burghs, circa A.D. 1125, - - - 53 3 I 3 

LXI 1 1. Pope Honorius II. to the Bishop elect of 

Candida Casa, circa A.D. 1125, - - 53 3*4 

LXIV. Profession of Gilla-Aldan, Bishop Elect of 
Candida Casa, to Thurstin, Archbishop 
of York, circa A.D. 1126,- - - - 54 314 

LXV. Confirmation by King David of Coldingham 
and other lands to the Monks of St. 
Cuthbert, A.D. 1126, - - - - 54 3H 

LXVI. Mandate by King David that no distress be 
taken on the land nor from the men, of the 
Church of Dunfermline, except for their 
own debts, circa A.D. 1126, - - - 55 3*5 

LXVI I. Mandate by King David that no distress be 
taken on the lands of the Church of St. 
Andrews for the debt of a stranger, circa 
A.D. 1126, 56 317 

LXVI 1 1. Grant by King David to the Church of Dun- 
fermline of three serfs, circa A.D. 1126, - 56 317 

LXIX. Charter by King David to the Church of 
Dunfermline of a toft in the burgh of 
Perth, circa A.D. 1126, 57 318 



xiv EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

Text Notes 
Charter. page. page. 

LXX. Mandate by King David regarding the 
fugitive serfs of the Church of Dun- 
fermline, circa A.D. 1126, - - - 57 319 

LXXI. Charter by King David granting to the 
Monks of the Church of St. Andrew 
at Northampton tithes and lands in 
Scaldeford and Exton, circa A.D. 1 126, 58 320 

LXXI I. Charter by King David to the Church of 
St. Cuthbert in Edinburgh, circa A.D. 
1127, 59 321 

LXXI 1 1. Charter of Robert, Bishop of St. Andrews, 
granting to the church of Coldingham 
freedom from aid, cain, or conveth, 
A.D. 17 July, 1127, - - - - 59 322 

LXX IV. Charter by King David to the Church of 
Dunfermline confirming the grants of 
preceding kings, and granting many 
lands and privileges, circa A.D. 1128, - 61 323 

LXXV. Declaration by King David regarding the 
consecration of the Bishop of St. 
Andrews at York, A.D. 1128, - - 63 327 

LXXVI. Declaration by Thurstin, Archbishop of 
York, regarding the consecration of 
the Bishop of St. Andrews, A.D. 1128, 64 328 

LXXVI I. Grant by King David to the Church of 
Dunfermline of the tithe of his house 
at Perth, circa A.D. 1128, 65 328 

LXXVI 1 1. Grant by King David to the Church of 
Dunfermline of a tithe of gold from 
Fife and Fothrif, circa A.D. 1128, - 65 328 

LXX IX. Grant by King David to the Church of 
Dunfermline of the Church of Inver- 
esk, circa A.D. 1128,- - - - 66 329 

LXXX. Record of the Trial of a complaint by the 
Monks of St. Serf's Island against Sir 
Robert Burgonensis, A.D. 1128, - - 66 329 

LXXXI. Confirmation by Robert, Bishop of St. 
Andrews, to the Canons of Holyrood 
of Leuing's grant of the Church of his 
vill, circa A.D. 1128, 67 331 



CONTENTS xv 

Text Notes 
Charter. page. page. 

LXXXII. Declaration by Robert, Bishop of St. 
Andrews, that the Church of St. Mary 
in Kelso is free from episcopal exact- 
ion, circa A.D. 1128, - - - - 68 331 

LXXXII I. Charter by King David to the Church of 
St. John in the Castle of Roxburgh, 
circa A.D. 1128, - - - - 69 332 

LXXXIV. Charter by King David to the Abbot and 
Monks of Dunfermline, granting free- 
dom from service on castles and 
bridges, etc., circa A.D. 1130, - - 69 333 

LXXXV. Mandate by King David to preserve the 
rights of the Church of Dunfermline, 
circa A.D. 1130, ..... 70 334 

LXXXVI. Grant by King David to the Abbot of 
Dunfermline of the tithe of the King's 
rent from Stirling, circa A.D. 1130, - 71 334 

LXXXVI I. Mandate by King David in favour of the 
Abbot and Monks of Dunfermline re- 
garding ships trading at Inveresk, 
circa A.D. 1130, ..... 71 334 

LXXXVI 1 1. Grant by King David exempting a ship 
of the Abbot of Dunfermline from 
custom, circa A.D. 1130, 72 335 

LXXXIX. Declaration by King David that the Prior 
of Durham had acknowledged the 
freedom of the Church of Coldingham, 
circa A.D. 1130, ..... 72 335 

XC. Confirmation by King David of the 
boundary between Coldingham and 
Bonkyl, circa A.D. 1130, - - - 73 335 

XCI. Charter by King David to the Church of 
Dunfermline of a ploughgate in Craig- 
millar reserving the liferent of the wife 
of Roger Cass, circa A.D. 1130, - - 74 336 

XCI I. Confirmation by Robert, Bishop of St. 
Andrews, of King David's grants to 
the Abbey of Holyrood, circa A.D. 

74 336 



XCIII. Confirmation by King David of the rights 
of the Abbot of Holyrood in Airth, 
circa A.D. 1130, ..... 75 336 
b 



xvi EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

Text Notes 
Charter. page. page. 

XCIV. Confirmation by King David of the rights of 
the Church of Dunfermline to the shire of 
Kirkcaldy, circa A.D. 1130, 76 337 

XCV. Notitia of a grant to the Church of Deer, 

ante A.D. 1130, 77 337 

XCVI. Mandate by King David that no one take 
anything from the lands granted by 
him to the Church of Holyrood, A.D. 
1130, 77 33& 

XCVI I. Notitia of a grant by Gartnait and Ete, A.D. 

1131-1132, 78 33& 

XCVI 1 1. Charter by King David to the Priory of 
the Holy Trinity in London, circa A.D. 
1132, 78 339 

XCIX. Charter by King David granting to the 
Monks of St. Cuthbert the church of 
St. Mary at Berwick, A.D. 1130-1133, - 79 341 

C. Charter by King David granting Swinton 

to Hernulf, circa A.D. 1135, - - - 79 34* 

CI. Charter by King David granting Swinton 

to Arnolf, circa A.D. 1135, 80 341 

CII. Pope Innocent II. to John, Bishop of 

Glasgow, Nov. 29, 1131, 81 343 

CII I. Charter by King David to the Abbey of 
Dunfermline of the tithe of his can 
from Fife, Fothrif and Clackmannan, 
circa A. D. 1133, 81 344 

CIV. Charter by King David granting Govan to 
the church of Glasgow, 
circa A.D. 1134, 82 345 

CV. Mandate by King David regarding the 
jurisdiction of the court of the Abbey 
of Dunfermline, circa A.D. 1135, - - 83 345 

CVI. Charter by King David of a fishing to the 

church of Coldingham, circa A.D. 1135, - 83 346 

CVI I. Notitia of a grant by Colbain, Mormaer of 
Buchan, and Eva his wife and Donnachac 
Toisech, exempting a church from se- 
cular burdens, circa A.D. 1135, 84 346 



CONTENTS xvii 

Text Note 
Charter. page. page 

CVIII. Charter by King David to the church of Dun- 
fermline of a fishing in the Tweed and 
of a toft in Berwick, circa A.D. 1136, - 84 348 

CIX. Charter by King David granting Perdeyc to 

the church of Glasgow, circa A.D. 1136, 85 348 

CX. Charter by King David to the monks of 
Urquhart in Moray of twenty shillings 
annually from the rent of the burgh and 
fishings of Elgin, circa A.D. 1136, - - 86 350 

CXI. Charter by King David granting a toft at 
Ednam to the church of St. Cuthbert at 
Coldingham, circa A.D. 1136, 86 351 

CXI I. Confirmation by Earl Henry of the rights of 

the monks of Daventry, circa A.D. 1136, 87 351 

CXI 1 1. Charter by Earl Henry granting to the church 
of St. Neot's, twenty shillings annually 
from his mill of Huntingdon, and 
confirming his mother's grant of the 
church of Enesburc, circa A.D. 1136, - 87 352 

CXIV. Confirmation by Earl Henry of a grant of 
forty shillings from the rent of Hunting- 
don to the monks of St. Andrew at 
Northampton, circa A.D. 1136, 88 353 

CXV. Confirmation by Earl Henry of the rights of 
the church of St. Andrew at North- 
ampton, circa A.D. 1136, 88 354 

CXVI. Charter by King David to the Church and 

Bishop of Aberdeen, A.D. 1137, - - 89 354 

CXVI I. Charter by Earl Gospatric granting Ederham 
and Nesbit to the monks of St. Cuthbert, 
ante A.D. 1138, 9 355 

CXVI 1 1. Charter by King David granting the church 
of Linlithgow to the church of St. 
Andrews, circa A.D. 1138, 90 356 

CXIX. Charter of Protection to the Priory of 

Tynemouth, A.D. 1138, 91 358 

CXX. Mandate by King David to the Sheriff of 
Roxburgh to hold the lands which 
Gospatric of Dunbar gave to the monks 
of Durham, A.D. 1139, 92 359 



xviii EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

Text Notes 
Charter. page. page. 

CXXI. Confirmation by King David of the grant 
by Gospatric of Ederham and Nesbit 
to Coldingham, A.D. 1139, - - - 93 359 

CXXI I. Charter by King David to the church of 
St. Andrews of the church of St. Mary 
at Haddington, circa A.D. 1139, - 93 360 

CXXI 1 1. Charter by King David granting a mark 
of silver annually to the monastery 
of Wetheral, circa A.D. 1139, - - 94 360 

CXXIV. Charter by Earl Henry granting freedom 
from toll to the monks of Wetheral, 
circa A.D. 1139, 95 3&i 

CXXV. Charter by King David granting to the 
church of St. Kentigern at Glasgow 
the tithe of his can of beasts and pigs 
from Strathgryfe, Cuningham, Kyle, 
and Carrick, circa A.D. 1139-1141, - 95 361 

CXXVI. Charter by King David to the church of 
Glasgow of the eighth penny of his 
pleas in Cumbria, circa A.D. 1139-1 141, 96 362 

CXXVI I. Mandate by King David to the Sheriff of 
Stirling to give a saltpan to the Abbot 
of Dunfermline, circa A.D. 1140, - 97 363 

CXXVI 1 1. Charter by King David granting Pethen- 
each to the church of Dunfermline, 
circa A.D. 1140, 97 364 

CXXIX. Protection by Earl Henry of the possessions 
of the monks of Durham, circa A.D. 
1140, 98 364 

CXXX. Mandate by Earl Henry to Earl Gospatric 
to respect the rights of the monks to 
the lands of Ederham and Nesbit, 
circa A.D. 1141, ----- 98 365 

CXXXI. Charter by Earl Henry granting to the 
monks of St Cuthbert a fishing in 
the Tyne and a ploughgate of land, 
circa A.D. 1141, ... 99 365 

CXXXI I. Mandate by King David to Reinwald Earl 
of Orkney, to protect the monks of 
Durnach in Caithness, A.D. 1140-1145, 100 365 

CXXXI 1 1. Confirmation by Earl Henry of the grant 
of Ederham and Nesbit by Gospatric 
to the monks of St. Cuthbert at Cold- 
ingham, circa A.D. 1141, - - 100 366 



CONTENTS xix 

Text Notes 
Charter. page. page. 

CXXXIV. Charter by King David granting Clerche- 
tune to the church of St. Mary of 
Haddington, circa A. D. 1141, - - 101 370 

CXXXV. Charter by Earl Henry granting Clerche- 
tune to the church of St. Mary of 
Haddington, circa A.D. 1141, - - 102 371 

CXXXVI. Charter by King David to the Abbey of 

Tiron, circa A.D. 1141, - - 103 372 

CXXXVI I. Charter by Earl Henry to the Abbey of 

Tiron, circa A.D. 1141, - - 104 373 

CXXXVI 1 1. Charter by King David to the monks of 
Shrewsbury of their moiety of Bispham 
and their other possessions within the 
Honor of Lancaster, circa A.D. 1141, - 105 373 

CXXXIX. Charter by King David to the monks of 
Shrewsbury of the church of Kirkham 
and land of Bispham, circa A.D. 1141, 106 374 

CXL. Confirmation by King David of the grant 
to the church of St. Mary at York, by 
Adam the son of Swain, 
circa A.D. 1141, .... 106 375 

CXLI. Charter by King David to the Abbey of 

Melros, circa A.D. 1143-1144, - - 107 375 

CXLI I. Charter by Earl Henry to the Abbey of 

Melros, circa A.D. 1143-1144, - - 109 378 

CXLI II. Charter by King David granting to the 
Abbey of Dunfermline the tithe of land 
in Atherai in exchange for the tithe of 
land in Cambuskinel, circa A.D. 1142, no 378 

CXLIV. Charter by King David of Neubotle to 

the Abbey of Newbattle, A.D. 1 140, - no 378 

CXLV. Charter by King David of Morthuweit to the 

Abbey of Newbattle, circa A.D. 1142, - in 379 

CXLV I. Charter by King David granting Neubotle, 
Morthwait and Ruchalech to the 
church of St. Mary at Newbattle, and 
confirming a grant by Robert ferrarius, 
circa A.D. 1142, 112 379 

CXLVII. Confirmation by Earl Henry to the Abbey 

of Newbattle, circa A.D. 1142, - - 113 380 



xx EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

Text Notes 
Charter. page. page. 

CXLVIII. Charter by King David, to the Abbey of 

Newbattle, of Ruchale, circa A.D. 1142, 113 380 

CXLIX. Charter by King David granting a saltpan 
in Kalentyr, to the monks of Newbattle, 
circa A.D. 1142, 114 380 

CL. Confirmation by Alwyn, Abbot of Holyrood, 
to the Abbey of Newbattle, circa A.D. 
1142, 114 381 

CLI. Declaration to the Abbey of Newbattle by 
Alwyn, Abbot of Holyrood, regarding 
the boundaries of Pittendreich, 
circa A.D. 1142, - - - 115 382 

CLII. Charter by Norman, the Sheriff of Berwick, 
granting to the Abbey of Holyrood the 
Chapel of Corstorphin, circa A.D. 1142, 115 383 

CLI 1 1. King David's Great Charter to the Abbey 

of Holyrood, 116 383 

CLIV. Charter by King David to Edward, a monk 

of Coldingham, of a tithe of fishings, - 119 386 

CLV. Charter by King David granting Pittenweem 
and Inverin to the monks of May, 
circa A.D. 1143, - - - - 120 387 

CLVI. Charter by King David granting common 
rights in the wood of Clackmannan 
to the priory of May, circa A.D. 1143, - 120 388 

CLVI I. Charter by King David granting Crefbarrin 
to the church of Dunfermline, 
circa A.D. 1143, 121 389 

CLVIII. Mandate by King David "De muliere leuif 

et suis fugitivis," circa A.D. 1143, - 121 389 

CLIX. Charter by King David granting to the 
Abbey of Kelso a saltpan in Carsach, 
circa A.D. 1143, 122 389 

CLX. Charter by King David to the canons of 
Holyrood of fifty-two acres of the land 
of Dalkeith, circa A.D. 1144, - - 122 389 

CLXI. Charter by King David granting Rindalgros 

to the Abbey of Reading, A.D. 1143-1147, 123 390 

CLXII. Charter by Robert, Bishop of St. Andrews, 
endowing the Priory of St. Andrews, 
A.D. 1144, 124 390 



CONTENTS xxi 

Text Notes 
Charter. page. page. 

CLXIII. Charter by King David confirming the 
rights of the Priory of St. Andrews, 
circa A.D. 1144, 126 390 

CLXIV. Charter by Earl Henry confirming the 
rights of the Priory of St. Andrews, 
circa A.D. 1144, 128 390 

CLXV. Bull by Pope Lucius II. in favour of the 

Priory of St. Andrews, A.D. 1144, - - 129 393 

CLXVI. Charter by King David to the monks of 

May granting liberty to sell their fish, 131 394 

CLXVI I. Charter by King David to the monks of 
May granting to their ship freedom from 
toll, 131 394 

CLXVI 1 1. Charter by King David granting to the 
canons of St. Andrews a. fishing and a 
toft in Berwick, and freedom from toll 
and liberty to buy corn and flour, - 132 394 

CLXIX. Declaration by Robert, Bishop of St. 
Andrews, that he had founded the 
burgh and had granted land to Main- 
ardus, the Provost, circa A.D. 1144, - 132 394 

CLXX. Charter by King David granting to the 
church of St. Andrews a fishing in the 
Tay, circa A.D. 1144, - - - -133 396 

CLXXI. Charter by King David to the Hospital of 
St. Andrews of the land of Kenlachyn, 
circa A.D. 1144, 134 396 

CLXXI I. Charter by King David granting Lesmaha- 

gow to the Abbey of Kelso, A.D. 1144, 135 397 

CLXXIII. Confirmation by John, Bishop of Glasgow, 
of the grant of Lesmahagow to the 
Abbey of Kelso, A.D. 1144, - - - 136 397 

CLXXIV. King David orders Edward the monk of 
Coldingham to supply wood, 
ante A.D. 1136, 137 398 

CLXXV. Confirmation by Earl Henry of a grant of 
the church of Sprouston, by John, 
Bishop of Glasgow, to the Abbey of 
Kelso, circa A.D. 1144, - - 137 398 



xxii EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

Text Note;* 
Charter. page. page, 

CLXXVI. Charter by King David of Rauendena to 
the church of St. Mary and St. John 
at Kelso, circa A. D. 1145, - - 138 398 

CLXXVII. Confirmation by Earl Henry of the rights 
of the monks of St. Cuthbert in 
Swinton, circa A.D. 1 145, - - - 138 399 

CLXXVI 1 1. Confirmation by King David of the grant 
by Gospatric to the church of Cold- 
ingham of Ederham and Nesbit, 
A.D. 1147, ..... 139 399 

CLXXIX. Charter by King David granting to the 
church of St. Mary at Stirling the 
lands of Cambuskenneth, etc., 
A.D. 1147, 140 400 

CLXXX. Bull by Pope Eugenius III. in favour of 

the Abbey of Stirling, A.D. 1 147, - 141 401 

CLXXXI. Bull by Pope Eugenius III. giving the right 
of electing the Bishop of St. Andrews 
to the Prior and Canons of St. 
Andrews and suppressing the Keledei, 
Aug. 30, 1147, 143 402 

CLXXXI I. Agreement between the Bishop of St. 
Andrews and the Abbot of Dun- 
fermline regarding the church of 
Eccles and the chapel of the Castle 
of Stirling, A.D. 1147-1150, - - 146 403 

CLXXXIII. Confirmation by Earl Henry of the grant 
by Earl Gospatric, of Ederham and 
Nesbit to the monks of Coldingham, 147 404 

CLXXXIV. Charter by King David granting to the 
Priory of May a toft in Berwick, 
A.D. 1147-1153, - - - - 148 404 

CLXXXV. Confirmation by Robert, Bishop of St. 
Andrews, of the addition to the 
endowment of the church of St. 
Laurence at Berwick, A.D. 1147-1153, 148 404 

CLXXXVI. Charter by King David to Alexander de 
St. Martin of the lands of Alstaneford, 
etc.,- ... - - 149 404 

CLXXXVI I. Confirmation by King David of the grant 
of Eversate to the church of St. Bees, 
by Matilda, the wife of Godardus, 
circa A.D. 1147, - - - - 150 405 



CONTENTS 



XXlll 



Text 
Charter. page. 

CLXXXVIII. Grant by King David to the canons of 
St. Andrews of materials for building, 
circa A.D. 1148, - - 151 

CLXXXIX. Charter by King David to the Abbey of 

Jedburgh, A.D. 1147-1150, - - 151 

CXC. Charter by Earl Henry to the Abbey of 

Jedburgh, A.D. 1147-1152, - - 153 

CXCI. Confirmation by Earl Henry to Beatrice 
de Belchaump of her lands in Rox- 
burgh, 154 

CXC 1 1. Charter by Roger de Ov granting the 
church of Langtoun to the Abbey 
ofKelso, 154 

CXC 1 1 1. Charter by Earl Henry granting to the 
Abbey of Kelso a toft in Berwick, 
A.D. 1147-1152, .... 155 



CXCIV. 
CXCV. 



Confirmation by King David of the lands 
and rights of the Abbey of Kelso, 



156 



Charter by Earl Henry granting to the 
church of St. John in the Castle of 
Roxburgh a ploughgate of land and 
a toft in Roxburgh, etc., 
A.D. 1147-1152, .... 159 



CXCVI. Charter by Uctred son of Liulf, granting 
the church of Molle to the Abbey of 
Kelso, - - - - . - - 160 

CXCVI I. Confirmation by Herbert, Bishop of 
Glasgow, of the grant by Uctred son 
of Liulf, of the church of Molle to 
the Abbey of Kelso, - - 160 

CXCVI 1 1. Charter by King David to Nicolas the 

cleric, A.D. 1147-1153, - - 161 



Notes 
page. 



406 
406 

409 

409 
409 

4IO 
411 

411 
412 

413 
413 



CXCIX. Charter by King David granting the 
right of forest in Annandale to 
Robert de Brus, A.D 1147-1153, - 162 413 

CC. Fragment of a Charter by the Bishop 
of Glasgow to Robert de Brus 
(? ante A.D 1147), 162 414 



xxiv EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

Text Notes 
Charter. page. page. 

CCI. Mandate by King David that no can nor 
toll be taken from the monks of May, 
A.D. 1147-1153, 163 414 

CCII. Mandate by King David for payment of tithe 
to the monks of Rindalgros, 
A.D. 1147-1153, - - 163 414 

CCI II. Charter by King David granting to the 
Abbey of Dunfermline a toft in the burgh 
of Haddington, A.D. 1147-1153, - - 164 415 

CCIV. Charter by King David granting Ketlistoun 

to the Abbey of Stirling, A.D. 1147-1153, 164 415 

CCV. Charter by King David granting to Nicolas, 
his cleric, the right of forest in Pettinain, 
A.D. 1147-1153, 165 415 

CCVI. Charter by Robert, Bishop of St. Andrews, 
granting the church of Karreden to the 
Abbey of Holyrood, circa A.D. 1 148, - 165 416 

CCVI I. Charter by King David to the monks of the 
Isle of May granting the moiety of 
Ballegallin, circa A.D. 1 1 50, ... 166 416 

CCVI 1 1. Mandate by King David to permit the monks 
of Dunfermline to have material for build- 
ing, circa A.D. 1150, - - - 167 416 

CCIX. Confirmation by King David of all the lands 
and rights and privileges of the Abbey of 
Dunfermline, circa A.D. 1150, - 167 417 

CCX. Charter by King David declaring the canons 
of Stirling to be free from toll and customs, 
circa A.D. 1150, 172 419 

CCXI. Confirmation by Robert, Bishop of St. 
Andrews, of the grants by Hugode More- 
ville and Beatrix de Bello Campo to the 
Abbey of Dry burgh, circa A.D. 1150, - 172 419 

CCXII. Charter by Robert, Bishop of St. Andrews, 
of an agreement regarding the mother 
church of Ednam and its chapel of New- 
ton, circa A.D. 1 1 50, - - - 173 420 

CCXI 1 1. Confirmation by Robert, Bishop of St. 
Andrews, regarding the rights of the 
monks of St. Cuthbert in Ederham, Nes- 
bit, Swinton and Fishwick, A.D. 1150, 174 420 

CCXIV. Grant by Thor to the Abbey of Holyrood of 

the church of Tranent, circa A.D. 1150, - 175 421 



CONTENTS xxv 

Text Notes 
Charter. page. page. 

CCXV. Charter by Hugo de Moreville granting the 
church of Worgis to the church of St. 
Mary at Dryburgh, circa A.D. 1150, - 175 421 

CCXVI. Charter by Hugo de Moreville granting half 
a ploughgate of land in Newtoun to the 
church of St. Mary at Dryburgh, circa 
A.D. 1150, ...... 176 421 

CCXVI I. Confirmation by Earl Henry of the grants 
by Hugo de Moreville and Beatrix de 
Bello Campo to the Abbey of Dryburgh, 
circa A.D. 1150, - - - - - 177 422 

CCXVI II. Charter by King David granting to the 
Abbey of Dryburgh the church of 
Lanark, and the church and a plough- 
gate of land in Pettinain, circa A.D. 

177 422 



CCXIX. Charter by Beatrix de Bello Campo 
granting the church of Bosyete to 
the church and canons of Dryburgh, 
circa A.D. 1150, ..... 178 422 

CCXX. Charter by King David granting to the 
church of St. Kentigern at Glasgow 
the church of Cadihou, circa A.D. 
1150. ....... 178 423 

CCXXI. Charter by King David granting Hector 
comon to Andrew, Bishop of Caith- 
ness, circa A.D. 1150, .... 179 423 

CCXXI I. Charter by King David granting lands 
to Walter de Riddale, 
circa A.D. 1150, - - - - 179 424 

CCXXIII. Confirmation by King David of the rights 

of the clerics of Deer, circa A.D. 1150, 180 424 

CCXXIV. Charter by King David granting Nith- 
bren and Balcristin to the Abbey of 
Dunfermline, circa A.D. 1150, - - 181 426 

CCXXV. Charter by King David granting the 
church of Forgrund to the canons of 
St. Andrews, circa A.D. 1150, - - 182 427 

CCXXVI. Charter by King David granting to the 
Priory of St. Andrews a toft in 
Berwick, ...... 183 427 



xxvi EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

Text Notes 
Charter. page. page. 

CCXXVII. Charter by King David granting to the 
church of St. Andrews a toft in the 
burgh of Haddington, - - 183 428 

CCXXVII I. Confirmation by Robert, Bishop of St. 
Andrews, of the grants to the Abbey 
of Dunfermline by Earl Duncan and 
by Elwyn Renner and his wife, circa 
A.D. 1150, 184 428 

CCXXIX. Charter by King David granting to the 
Abbot of Kelso the church of Sel- 
kirk, circa A.D. 1 1 50, - - - 185 429 

CCXXX. Charter by Robert, Bishop of St. 
Andrews, granting rights in the 
church of Lohworuora to Herbert, 
Bishop of Glasgow, circa A.D. 1150, 185 429 

CCXXXI. Charter by King David granting a toft 
in the burgh of Haddington to the 
monks of May, - - - 186 431 

CCXXXI I. Charter by King David granting the 
Island of Loch Leven to the canons 
of St. Andrews, with liberty to expel 
those Keledei who refuse to become 
canons regular, circa A.D. 1 1 50, - 187 431 

CCXXXIII. Mandate by King David to the canons 
of St. Andrews to receive the Keledei 
of Kilrimont as canons, circa A.D. 
"So, 187 431 

CCXXXIV. Charter by King David granting 
Vithemer to the Abbey of Kelso, 
circa A.D. 1150, - - - - 188 433 

CCXXXV. Charter by King David granting the 
church of Clackmanan, etc., to the 
Abbey of Stirling, circa A.D. 1150, - 189 433 

CCXXXVI. Mandate by Earl Henry not to molest 
the monks of Coldingham in the 
enjoyment of lands in Berwickshire 
which Swain had restored to them, 
circa A.D. 1150, - - - - 189 433 

CCXXX VI I. Charter by King David granting Cad- 
dysleya to the Abbey of Dryburgh, 
A.D. 1150-1152, 190 434 



CONTENTS xxvii 

Text Notes 
Charter. page. page. 

CCXXXVIII. Charter by Beatrix de Bello Campo 
granting a land in Roxburgh, etc., 
to the church of Dryburgh, 
A.D. 1150-1152, - 191 434 

CCXXXIX. Confirmation by King David of the 
grants by Hugo de Moreville and 
Beatrix de Bello Campo to the 
Abbey of Dryburgh, A.D. 1150-1152, 191 434 

CCXL. Confirmation by Richard de Moreville of 
grants to the church of Dryburgh by 
his mother and his sister, 
circa A.D. 1152, 192 435 

CCXLI. Charter by Earl Henry granting a toft in 
Roxburgh to the church of Dryburgh, 
A.D. 1150-1152, 192 435 

CCXLII. Charter by King David to the Abbey of 

Dryburgh, A.D. 1150-1152, - - - 193 436 

CCXLIII. Confirmation to the Abbey of Dryburgh by 
King David of the grants by Beatrix de 
Bello Campo and granting right to take 
wood, etc., in the King's forests and 
freedom from toll and secular service, 
A.D. 1150-1153, - --- 195 436 

CCXLIV. Charter by Earl Henry to the Abbey of 

Holmcultram, A.D. 1150-1152, - - 196 436 

CCXLV. Confirmation by King David of the grant 
by his son, Earl Henry, to the Abbey 
of Holmcultram, A.D. 1150-1153, - - 198 438 

CCXL VI. Charter by Earl Henry to the church of 

Brinkburn, A.D. 1150-1152, - - 198 438 

CCXLVII. Charter by Earl Henry to the church of 

Brinkeburn, A.D. 1150-1152, - - 199 439 

CCXLVII I. Charter by King David confirming to 
Baldwin a toft in the burgh of Perth, 
A.D. 1150-1153, 200 439 



CCXLIX. Charter by King David granting to the 
church of St. Andrews a toft in Clac- 



201 440 



CCL. Charter by King David granting to the 
church of St. Andrews, forty Shillings 
annually from the can of ships at Perth, 201 440 



xxviii EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 



Text Notes 
Charter. page. page. 

CCLI. Charter by Gaufridus de Percy granting a 
ploughgate of land in Heton to the 
Abbey of Kelso, A.D. 1152-1153, - - 202 440 

CCLII. Charter by Gaufridus de Percy granting to 
the church of Whitby a ploughgate of 
land in Oxnam, A.D. 1152-1153, - - 202 440 

CCLI 1 1. Charter by Alan de Percy of land in Oxnam 
and Heton to the church of Whitby, 



A.D. 1152-1153, - 



203 441 



CCLIV. Confirmation by King David of the grants 
by Alan and Gaufrid de Percy to the 
church of Whitby, A.D. 1152-1153, - 204 

CCLV. Charter by King David to the monks of 

Urquhart, A.D. 1150-1153, ... 204 



441 

442 

443 



CCLVI. Confirmation by Robert, Bishop of St. 
Andrews, of the lands and privileges of 
the Abbey of Dunfermline, 
A.D. 1150-1153, 205 

CCLVI I. Mandate by Earl Henry to Gilbert de 
Umfranville to protect the monks of 
Durham, circa A.D. 1152, - - - 206 443 

CCLVI 1 1. Charter by Bernard de Balliol granting a 
fishing in the Tweed to the Abbey of 
Kelso, A.D. 1153, .... 207 

CCLIX. Confirmation by King David of Bernard 
de BallioPs gift of a fishing in the Tweed 
to the Abbey of Kelso, A.D. 1153, - 207 



443 



CCLX. Charter by Countess Ada granting a toft 
in Haddington to the Abbey of Dun- 
fermline, 



208 



444 



444 



CCLXI. Charter by Robert, Bishop of St. Andrews, 
confirming the right of the Abbey of 
Dunfermline to the church of St. 
Leonard at Perth, A.D. 1150-1153, - 208 

CCLXI I. Charter by Andrew, Bishop of Caithness, 
granting to the Abbey of Dunfermline 
the church of the Holy Trinity at 



Dunkeld, A.D. 1150-1153, 



209 



CCLXI 1 1. Grant of the Priory of Lochleven by Robert 
the Bishop to the Priory of St. Andrews, 
A.D. 1152-1153, 210 



444 



445 



CONTENTS 



XXIX 



Charter. 

CCLXIV. 



CCLXV. 
CCLXVI. 

CCLXVII. 

CCLXVIII. 

CCLXIX. 

CCLXX. 



Text 
page. 



Charter by Robert, Bishop of St. Andrews, 
granting to the Canons the right of 
electing a Prior, 211 



Charter by Robert the Bishop to the Priory 
of St. Andrews of a toft in Chilrimund, 

Confirmation by King David of the grant 
to the Priory by Robert, Bishop of St. 
Andrews, of Kinninmount and a toft in 
Kilrimont, 

Charter by King David to the brethren of 
the Hospital of St. Andrews, 

Charter by Robert, Bishop of St. Andrews, 
granting three tofts to the Priory, 

Charter by Robert, Bishop of St. Andrews, 
granting to the Priory six shares of the 
offerings of the altar, - 

Charter by Walter de Lyndesey granting 
the church of Ercheldune to the Abbey 
ofKelso, 



211 



CCLXXI. Charter by Earl [William], son of Earl 
Henry, to Brinkeburn, A.D. 1153, - 



213 



213 



214 



214 



215 



Notes 
page. 



446 

447 

447 
447 
448 

448 

448 
449 



INDEX, 



454 to 515 



I. 

Notitiae of Grants to the Church of Deer, 
A.D. 565-1100. 

Translated from the Gaelic in the Book of Deer. 

COLUMCILLE and Drostan son of Cosgrach his pupil, 
came from I, as God had shown to them, unto Abbor- 
doboir and Bede the Pict was mormaer of Buchan 
before them and it was he who gave them that town 
in freedom for ever from mormaer and toisech. 

They came after that to the other town and it was 
pleasing to Columcille because it was full of God's grace 
and he asked the mormaer, Bede, to give it to him : 
he did not give it; and after refusing the clerics, a son 
of his took an illness and was nearly dead. 

Then the mormaer went to entreat the clerics that 
they should pray for his son, that health should 
come to him : and he gave them as an offering from 
Cloch in tiprat to Cloch pette mic Garnait 

They prayed and health came to the son. 

After that Columcille gave to Drostan that town and 
blessed it and left as (his) word "Whoever shall 
come against it shall not be many-yeared victorious." 
Drostan's tears (deara) came on parting with Columcille. 

Said Columcille, " Let Dear be its name hencefor- 
ward." 

A 



2 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

COMGEALL son of JEd gave from Orti to Furene to 
Columcille and to Drostan. Moridach son of Morcunn 
gave Pett meic Garnait and Achad toche temni ; and 
it was he who was mormaer and was toisech. 

Matain son of Caerill gave the mormaer's share in 
Altere and Culi son of Baten gave the toisech's share. 

Domnall son of Girec and Maelbrigte son of Cathal 
gave Pett in Mulenn to Drostan. 

Cathal son of Morcunt gave Achadnaglerech to 
Drostan. 

Domnall son of Ruadri and Maelcoluim son of Culeon 
gave Bidbin to God and to Drostan. 

MAELCOLOUIM son of Cinaed gave the king's share in 
Bidbin and in Pett meic Gobroig and two davochs of 
Upper Rosabard. 

Maelcoluim son of Maelbrigte gave the Delerc. 

Maelsnecte son of Luloeg gave Pett Maelduib to 
Drostan. Domnall son of Mac Dubbacin dedicated all 
the offerings to Drostan giving the whole to him. Cathal 
dedicated in the same way his toisech's share and gave 
a dinner of a hundred every Christmas and every Easter 
to God and to Drostan. Cainnech son of Mac Dobar- 
chon gave Alterin alia bhethe na camone as far as the 
birch tree between the two Alterins. Domnall and 
Cathal gave Etdanin to God and to Drostan. Cainnech 
and Domnall and Cathal dedicated to God and to 
Drostan all these offerings from beginning to end in 
freedom from mormaer and from toisech to the day of 
judgment. 

And the Lord's blessing on every mormaer and on 
every toisech who shall fulfil these, and to their 
descendants after them. 

Donchad son of Mac Bethad son of Hided gave Achad 
Madchor to Christ and to Drostan and to Columcille 



I.-II. 3 

in freedom for ever. Malechi and Comgell, and Gille- 
christ, son of Fingune, attest, in witness whereof, and 
Maelcoluim son of Moline. 

Cormac son of Cinnedig gave as far as Scale Merlech. 

Comgell son of Caennech toisech of Clan Canan gave 
to Christ and to Drostan and to Columcille as far as 
Gort lie Mor at the hither end which is nearest to 
Aldin Alenn from Dobaci to Lurchari both mountain 
and field in freedom from toisech for ever : and his 
blessing on every one who shall fulfil this and his 
curse on every one who shall go against it. 

II. 

Letter of Alcuin to the Monks of Whitherne, 
A.D. 782-804. 

2 Concil. p. 8. 

ALCUINUS ad fratres Sancti Niniani Candidae Casae, 
Venerandae dilectionis fratribus in loco Deo servientibus 
qui dicitur Candida Casa, Alcuinus diaconus, salutem. 

Deprecor vestrae pietatis unanimitatem, ut nostri 
nominis habeatis memoriam, et intercedere pro mea 
parvitate dignemini in ecclesia sanctissimi patris nostri 
Nynia episcopi, qui multis claruit virtutibus, sicut mihi 
nuper delatum est per carmina metricae artis, quae nobis 
per fideles nostros discipulos Eboracensis ecclesiae 
scholasticos directa sunt, in quibus et facientis agnovi 
eruditionem, et ejus perficientis miracula sanctitatem, 
per ea quae ibi legebam. 

Quapropter obnixius deprecor, ut sanctis orationibus 
vestris illius me precibus commendare studeatis, quatenus 
per ejusdem patris vestri piissimas preces et vestrae cari- 
tatis assiduas intercessiones peccatorum meorum veniam, 
Deo Christo miserante, accipere merear, et ad sanctorum 
pervenire consortia qui saeculi labores fortiter vicerunt et 
ad coronam perpetuae laudis pervenerunt. 



4 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

Direxi ad sancti patris nostri Nyniga corpus [velum] 
olosericum ob memoriam nostri nominis, ut illius atque 
vestram piam merear intercessionem habere semper. 
Protegat atque regat Christi vos dextera fratres. 

III. 

Notitia of an agreement between the Keledei 
of Loch Leven and the Bishop of St. 
Andrews, ante A.D. 955. 

Registr. Prior. St. Andreae. 

BRUDE filius Dergard, qui ultimus regum Pictorum 
secundum antiquas traditiones fuisse recolitur, contulit 
insulam Lochleuine Deo Omnipotenti et Sancto Servano 
et keledeis heremetis ibidem commorantibus et Deo 
servientibus et servituris in ilia insula. Et praefati keledei 
dederunt locum cellulae episcopo Sancti Andreae sub 
tali forma, quod episcopus exhiberet eis victum et 
vestitum. Et ne ignoretur quis contulit episcopo locum 
ibi, Ronanus monachus et abbas, vir admirandae sancti- 
tatis, primo concessit precario locum ibi episcopo scilicet 
Fothath filio Bren qui nunc et tune per totam Scotiam 
fuit Celebris et satis commendabilis vitae. 

Praefatus episcopus dedit benedictionem suam plenarie 
omnibus his qui observarent conventionem istam et 
amicitiam initam inter episcopum et keledeos et versa 
vice dedit maledictionem suam omnibus episcopis qui 
infirmarent et revocarent praefatam conventionem. 

IV. 

Charter by Malcolm II. to Bishop Beyn of 
Mortlach, A.D. ion. 

(Spurious.) Printed in the Registr. Episc. Aberdon., I. p. 3. 
MALCOLMUS Rex Scottorum, omnibus probis hominibus 
suis tarn clericis quam laicis, salutem. 



II. V. 5 

Sciatis me dedisse et hac carta mea confirmasse 
Deo et Beatae Mariae et omnibus Sanctis, et Epis- 
copo Beyn de Morthelach, ecclesiam de Morthelach 
ut ibidem construatur sedes episcopalis, cum terris meis 
de Morthelach, ecclesiam de Cloueth cum terra, 
ecclesiam de Dulmech cum terra, ita libere sicut eas 
tenui et in puram et perpetuam elemosinam : Teste me- 
ipso apud Forfare octavo die mensis Octobris anno 
regni mei sexto. 



V. 

Notitiae of Grants by Macbeth and Gruoch, King 
and Queen of Scots, to the Church of Saint 
Serf, A.D. 1040-1057. 

Registr. Prior. St. Andreae. 

MACHBET films Finlach contulit pro suffragiis orationum 
et Gruoch filia Bodhe, Rex et Regina Scottorum, 
Kyrkenes Deo Omnipotenti et keledeis praefatae insulae 
Lochleuine, cum suis finibus et terminis. 

[Hi enim sunt fines et termini de Kyrkenes et vil- 
lulae quae dicitur Pethmokanne, de loco Moneloccodhan 
usque ad amnem qui dicitur Leuine et hoc in latitudine ; 
item a publica strata quae ducit apud Hinhirkethy 
usque ad saxum hiberniensium et hoc in longitudine; 
et dicitur saxum hiberniensium, quia Malcolmus Rex 
filius Duncani concessit eis salinagium quod Scotice 
dicitur Chonnane. Et venerunt hibernienses ad Kyrkenes 
ad domum cujusdam viri nomine Mochan, qui tune 
fuit absens et solummodo mulieres erant in domo, quas 
oppresserunt violenter hibernienses, non tamen sine 
rubore et verecundia. Rei et eventu ad aures praefati 
Mochan pervento, iter quam totius domi festinavit et 



6 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

invenit ibi hibernienses in eadem domo cum matre sua. 
Exhortatione etenim matris suae saepius facta ut extra 
domum veniret quae nullatenus voluit, sed hibernienses 
voluit protegere et eis pacem dare, quos omnes praefatus 
vir in ultionem tanti facinoris ut oppressores mulierum et 
barbaros et sacrileges in medio flammae ignis una cum 
matre sua viriliter combussit Et ex hac causa dicitur 
locus iste saxum hiberniensium.] 

Cum omni libertate collata fuit villa de Kyrkenes, Deo 
Omnipotent! et keledeis absque omni munere et onere 
et exactione regis et filii regis, vicecomitis et alicujus 
et sine refectione pontis et sine exercitu et vena- 
tione sed pietatis intuitu et orationum sufifragiis . . . 

CUM summa veneratione et devotione Makbeth Rex 
contulit Deo et Sancto Servano de Lochleuyn et here- 
mitis ibidem Deo servientibus, Bolgyne filii Torfyny 
cum omni libertate et sine onere exercitus regis et filii 
ejus vel vicecomitis et sine exactione alicujus sed caritatis 
intuitu et orationum sufifragiis, 



VI. 

Notitia of a Grant by Maldunus, Bishop of 
St. Andrews, to the Keledei of Loch Leven, 
ante A.D. 1055. 

Registr. Prior. St. Andreae. 

MALDUNUS, episcopus Sancti Andreae, contulit ecclesiam 
de Marchinke cum tota terra, honorifice et devote, Deo et 
Sancto Servano et keledeis de insula Louchleuen cum 
praefata libertate. 



V. IX. 7 

VII. 

Notitia of a Grant by Tuadal, Bishop of 
St. Andrews, to the Keledei of Loch Leven, 
A.D. 1055-1059. 

Registr. Prior. St. Andreae. 

TUADAL episcopus Sancti Andreae, contulit ecclesiam de 
Sconyn praefatis viris religiosis devote et integre cum 
omni libertate et honore pro suffragiis orationum. 

VIII. 

Notitia of a Grant by King Malcolm III. and 
Queen Margaret to the Keledei of Loch 
Leven, A.D. 1070-1093. 

Registr. Prior. St. Andreae. 

MALCOLMUS Rex et Margareta Regina Scotiae con- 
tulerunt devote villam de Ballecristin Deo Omnipotent! 
et keledeis de Louchleuen cum eadem libertate ut prius. 

IX. 

Letter from Lanfranc, Archbishop of Canterbury, 
to Margaret, Queen of Scotland, A.D. 1070-1089. 

Scala Chronica, ed. Stevenson, Edin. 1836, p. 222. 

LANFRANCUS indignus Sanctae Cantuariensis Ecclesiae 
Antistes, gloriosae Scottorum Reginae M. salutem et 
benedictionem. 

Explicare non potest epistolaris brevitas quanta cor 
meum laetitia perfudisti, lectis litteris tuis quas mihi, 
Deo amabilis Regina, misisti. 

O quanta jucunditate verba profluunt quae Divino 
Spiritu inspirata procedunt ! Credo enim non a te, sed 
per te dicta esse quae scripseras. 



8 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

Revera per os tuum locutus est Ille qui discipulis 
suis ait "Discite a me quia mitis sum et humilis corde." 
De hac Christi disciplina processit, quod regali stirpe 
progenita, regaliter educata, nobili regi nobiliter copulata, 
me hominem extraneum, vilem, ignobilem, peccatis invo- 
lutum, in patrem elegis, teque mihi in filiam spiritualiter 
habendam precaris. 

Non sum quod putas, sed sim quia putas. Ne decepta 
remaneas, ora pro me ut sim dignus pater orare Dominum 
et exaudiri pro te. 

Orationum et benefactorum sit inter nos commune 
commercium, parva quidem tribuo, sed multo majora 
me recepturum esse confido. De hinc igitur sim pater 
tuus et tu mea filia esto. 

Mitto glorioso viro tuo et tibi carissimum fratrem 
nostrum dominum Goldewinum, secundum petitionem 
tuam, alios quoque duos fratres, quia quod de servitio 
Dei et vestro fieri oportet, solus ipse per se explere non 
posset Et rogo, multumque rogo, quatenus quod pro 
Deo et pro animabus vestris coepistis, instanter et efficaciter 
perficere studeatis : et si possetis aut velitis opus vestrum 
per alios adimplere multo desiderio vellemus hos fratres 
nostros ad nos redire, quia valde in officiis suis necessarii 
erant ecclesiae nostrae. Fiat tamen voluntas vestra, et 
per omnia desideramus obedire vobis. 



X. 

Charter by Malcolm III. to the Church of 
Dunfermline, A.D. 1070-1093. 

(Spurious.) Printed in the Registr. de Dunfermelyn, p. 417. 

IN nomine Sanctae Trinitatis, Ego Malcolmus Dei gratia 
Scottorum Basileus auctoritate regia et potestate, 
Margaretae Reginae uxoris meae, episcoporum comitum 



IX. XL 9 

baronumque regni mei confirmatione et testimonies 
clero etiam adquiescenteque populo. 

Sciant praesentes et futuri me fundasse abbatiam in 
Monte infirmorum in honorem Dei omnipotentis et 
sanctae et individuae Trinitatis, pro salute animae meae 
et omnium antecessorum meorum et pro salute animae 
Reginae Margaretae uxoris meae et omnium successorum 
meorum. 

Concessi enim et hac carta mea confirmavi praedictae 
abbatiae omnes terras et villas de Pardusin, Pitnaurcha, 
Pittecorthin, Petbachichin, Lauar, Bolgin et schiram de 
Kirkaladunt et Inneresc minorem, cum tota schira de 
Fotriffe et Muselburge cum omnimodis suis pertinentiis 
tarn in capellis et decimis aliisque oblationibus quam in 
omnibus aliis ad eas terras villas et schiras juste spec- 
tantibus, ita libere sicut aliquis rex aliquas elemosinas 
unquam cledit vel contulit ab initio mundi ad hunc diem. 

Testibus Ivo Kelledeorum Abbate. Mackduffe Comite. 
Duncano Comite . Araldo Comite . Neis filio Willelmi. 
Merleswain. Apud Edinburge. 



XL 

Notitia of a Grant by Modach, Bishop of St. 

Andrews, to the Church of St. Serf, 

ante A.D. 1093. 

Registr. Prior. St. Andreae. 

MODACH films Malmykel vir piissimae recordationis 
episcopus Sancti Andreae, cujus vita et doctrina tota regio 
Scottorum feliciter est illustrata, contulit Deo et Sancto 
Servano et keledeis heremitis apud insulam Louchleuen 
in scola virtutum ibidem degentibus devote et honorifice, 
cum praefatis libertatibus, ecclesiam de Hurkenedorath, 



io EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

istae sunt antiquae praestationes et canones quas praefatae 
ecclesiae solvebant antiquitus scilicet XXXta panes decoctos 
cum antiqua mensura farinae ibi apposita et XXXta caseos 
quorum quilibet facit Chudreme et octo male de braseo et 
Derchede male et Chedher male. 



XII. 

Charter by King Duncan II. to the Monks of 
St. Cuthbert, A.D. 1094. 

The original is in the Treasury at Durham. 

EGO Dunecanus, films regis Malcolumb, constans here- 
ditarie rex Scotiae, dedi in elemosinam Sancto Cuthberto 
et suis servitoribus, Tiningeham, Aldeham, Scuchale, 
Cnolle, Hatheruuich et de Broccesmuthe omne servitium 
quod inde habuit Fodanus episcopus, et haec dedi in 
tali quitantia cum saca et soca qualem unquam meliorem 
habuit Sanctus Cuthbertus ab illis de quibus tenet suas 
elemosinas. Et hoc dedi pro me ipso et pro anima 
patris mei et pro fratribus meis et pro uxore mea et 
pro infantibus meis. Et quum volui quod istud donum 
stabile esset Sancto Cuthberto, feci quod fratres mei 
concesserunt. Qui autem istud voluerit destruere vel 
ministris Sancti Cuthberti aliquod inde auferre, male- 
dictionem Dei et Sancti Cuthberti et meam habeat. Amen. 

Crux Dunecani Regis X Scriptoris Grentonis X 

Accard X Ulf X Malcolumb X Eadgari X 

Hermer X CElfric X Earnulf X Vinget X 

Hemming X Teodbold X 



XL XIV. n 

XIII. 
Grant by Donald son of King Conchat. 

Registr. Prior. St. Andreae. 

DOUENALD films Conchat Regis dedit omnimodam liber- 
tatem duabus villis scilicet de Kyrkenes et de Petten- 
mokane cum ceteris regibus scilicet Duncano rege 
Edgaro et Alexandro et David fratribus ejusdem et 
omnibus villis quascunque tune habuerunt vel postea 
habere potuerunt. 

XIV. 

Notitia of a Grant by Ethelred, son of King 
Malcolm III. to the Keledei of Loch Leven, 
A.D. 1093-1107. 

Registr. Prior. St. Andreae. 

EDELRADUS vir venerandae memoriae, filius Malcolmi Regis 
Scotiae, Abbas de Dunkeldense et insuper Comes de Fyf 
contulit Deo Omnipotenti et Sancto Servano et keledeis 
de insula Louchleuen cum summa reverentia et honore et 
omni libertate et sine exactione et petitione cujusquam 
in mundo, episcopi vel regis vel comitis, Admore cum 
suis rectis terminis et divisis. Et quia ilia possessio 
fuit illi tradita a parentibus suis cum esset in juvenili 
aetate idcirco cum majori affectione et amore illam 
obtulit Deo et Sancto Servano et praefatis viris Deo 
servientibus et ibidem servituris. Et istam collationem 
et donationem primo factam confirmaverunt duo fratres 
Hedelradi, scilicet David et Alexander, in praesentia 
multorum virorum fidedignorum, scilicet Constantini 
comitis de fyf viri discretissimi et Nesse et Cormac 
filii Macbeath et Malnethte filii Beollani sacerdotum de 



12 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

Abyrnethyn et Mallebride alterius sacerdotis et Thuadhel 
et Augustini sacerdotis keledeorum, Berbeadh rectoris 
scolarum de Abyrnethyn et coram cetibus totius universi- 
tatis tune de Abyrnethyn ibidem degentibus et coram 
Deo Omnipotenti et Omnibus Sanctis. Et ibi data est 
plenarie et universaliter ab omnibus sacerdotibus clericis 
et laicis, maledictio Dei Omnipotentis et Beatae Mariae 
Virginis et Omnium Sanctorum ut Dominus Deus daret 
eum in exterminium et perditionem et in omnes illos 
quicunque irritarent et revocarent et deminuerent elemosi- 
nam de Admore. Omni populo respondente fiat. Amen. 

XV. 

Charter by King Edgar to Durham, 
A.D. 1095. 

(Spurious.) From a copy in the Treasury at Durham. 
IN nomine patris et filii et spiritus sancti, Amen. 

Notum sit omnibus Christi fidelibus praesentibus et 
futuris quod Ego Edgarus films Malcolmi Regis Scottorum, 
totam terram de Lodoneio et regnum Scotiae dono domini 
mei Willelmi Anglorum Regis et paterna hereditate 
possidens, consilio praedicti domini mei Regis Willelmi et 
fidelium meorum, pro animabus patris mei et matris meae 
necnon et fratrum meorum Doncani et Edwardi et pro 
salute corporis mei et animae meae et pro omnibus ante- 
cessoribus et successoribus meis, do Deo Omnipotenti et 
ecclesiae Dunelmensi et Sancto Cuthberto glorioso pontifici 
et Willelmo episcopo et monachis in eadem ecclesia Deo 
servientibus et in perpetuum servituris, mansionem de 
Berwic et cum ista mansione has subscriptas mansiones 
scilicet Greiden . leinhale . dilsterhalle . brygham . Edrem . 
Chirnesid . Hilton . Blakedir . Chynbrygham . huton . 
Regninton . paxton . fulden . Morthyngton . Lamberton . 
aliam Lamberton . Hadryngton . Fyschewike . Horford . 
Upsetinton et mansionem de Collingam et cum ista 



XIV. XV. 13 

mansione has subscriptas mansiones scilicet Aldcambus . 
lummesden . Reston . Suineston . Faudon . Ayton . aliam 
Ayton . Prendirgest . Cramsmowth . Hadynton, has supra- 
scriptas mansiones do Deo et Sancto Cuthberto cum 
omnibus terris et silvis et aquis et theloneis et 
fracturis navium et cum omnibus consuetudinibus quae 
pertinent ad praedictas mansiones et quas pater meus 
in eis habuit quietas solidas secundum voluntatem 
Dunelmensis episcopi in perpetuum libere disponendas. 

Signum X Egari Regis . Signum Alexandri fratris ejus. 
S X Menyanium . Agulfi . S. filii doncani . Eyluerti. 
S. X filii Eghe Omani. S. X Edgari aederling. Uhtredi. 
S. filii Magdufe, Constantini. S. X Rodberti de humet. 
S X ^Etele. A X gulfi. S. Alimoldi filii sui. X David 

Haec carta firmata est iiij to Kalendis Septembris 
in cimiterio Sancti Cuthberti apud Norham, praesente 
Willelmo episcopo et Durgoto priore et Ansketillo 
praeposito de Norham et Ilgero de Corneford et 
Waltero de Valonis et Galfrido de Aldreio et 
Willelmo filio Almodi et Johanne de Amundivilla 
et Rachone lotharingo et Gilberto et Wilfrido et 
Alimodo filio Makodi et Anulfo fratre suo et praesente 
maxima multitudine Francorum et Anglorum quorum 
nomina longum est inscribere. Hoc autem factum est eo 
anno quo Rex Willelmus, filius magni Regis Willelmi, fecit 
novum castellum apud Bebbanburgh super Robertum 
Comitem Northanhymbrorum. 

Ista carta est sigillata cum sigillo rotundo dicti regis 
Edgari, pendente cum filo serico et est in medio ejusdem 
sigilli ymago dicti regis Edgari, sedens cum parva 
corona in capite et habet in una manu sceptrum et in 
altera gladium et habet superscriptionem Ymago Edgari 
Scottorum Regis. 



i 4 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

XVI. 
Confirmation by King William II. of England, 

A.D. IO95-IIOO. 

(Spurious?) The original is in the Treasury at Durham. 
WlLLELMUS Rex Anglorum, Thomae Eboracensi Archi- 
episcopo et omnibus suis fidelibus Francis et Anglis et 
Scottis, salutem. 

Sciatis me concessisse Deo Omnipotent! et ecclesiae 
Dunelmensi et Sancto Confessori Cuthberto et Willelmo 
episcopo, et monachis in eadem ecclesia Deo servientibus et 
in perpetuum servituris, terras in Lodoneio quas Eadgarus 
Rex filius Malcolmi Regis Scottorum Deo et supradictae 
ecclesiae me concedente donavit mansionem scilicet de 
Berwic, et has subscriptas mansiones, Greidene . leinhale . 
dylsterhale . bricgham . ederham . cirneside . hyltun . 
blaccedre . cynebritham . hotun . reinintun . paxtun . 
fugeldene . morthintun . lambertun aliam lambertun . 
hoedrintun . fiscwic . horeford . upsetintun et mansionem 
de Collingaham et has subscriptas mansiones aldcambus . 
lummesdene . ristun . suinestun . fardun . eitun . aliam 
eitun . prenegest . cramesmuthe . hoedentun. 

Has suprascriptas mansiones cum adjacentibus terris et 
silvis et aquis et omnibus theloneis et navium fracturis et 
aliis consuetudinibus suis, sicut eas Malcolmus Rex unquam 
melius habuit Deo et Sancto Cuthberto in perpetuum 
concede. Testibus Willelmo cancellario et Roberto filio 
Haimonis. 

XVII. 
Charter of King Edgar, A.D. 1095. 

(Spurious.) The original is in the Treasury at Durham. 
EDGARUS Dei gratia Rex Scottorum Omnibus ad quos 
praesentes litterae pervenerint tarn Francis et Anglis quam 



XVI. XVII. 15 

Scottis, salutem. Sciatis nos ex licentia Willelmi 
Regis Angliae superioris domini regni Scotiae pro ani- 
mabus Malcolm! patris nostri et Margaretae matris nostrae 
ac pro animabus Edwardi et Duncani fratrum nostrorum 
necnon pro salute nostra, dedisse et concessisse Deo 
et Sancto Cuthberto confessori, Willelmo episcopo, 
Drugeto priori et monachis Dunolmie Deo servientibus 
in perpetuum, baroniam et manerium de Coldingham 
cum his mansionibus subscriptis scilicet Berwic, Old- 
cambows, Lummesden, Restonam, Faudonam, Aytonam 
aliam Aytonam, Prendregest, Cramesmouth, Graiden, Lein- 
hale, Dilchestre, Ederham, Chirnside, Hiltonam, Blaketyr, 
Hotonam, Rayntonam, Paxtonam, Fulden, Morttringtonam, 
Lambertonam aliam lambertonam, Edingtonam, Horford, 
Fishewic, et Upesetlington cum omnibus pertinentiis 
juribus et decimis garbarum et feni cum omnibus liber- 
tatibus et franchesiis regalibus adeo libere et plenarie 
sicut praedictus pater noster et dominus ilia tenuit. 
Habenda et tenenda omnia et singula praedicta 
baroniam et manerium, mansiones, decimas cum omnibus 
libertatibus franchesiis regalibus et juribus quibus- 
cunque praedictis episcopo priori et monachis ac eorum 
successoribus de nobis et heredibus nostris in puram et 
perpetuam elemosinam in perpetuum. 

Et nos et heredes nostri omnia et singula praedicta 
baroniam manerium mansiones decimas cum omnibus 
libertatibus franchesiis regalibus et juribus quibuscunque 
ut praedictum est praefatis episcopo priori et monachis et 
eorum successoribus contra omnes gentes protegemus 
in perpetuum et defendemus. In cujus rei testimonium 
praesentibus litteris nostris sigillum nostrum apponi fecimus 
apud Norham in praesentia praedicti Regis Willelmi Angliae 
superioris domini regni Scotiae, et praedictorum episcopi 
et prioris, Walteri Valensis, Odnelli Umfraville, Rachonis 
de Loreyns, Odnelli Heron, Roberti de Amundivilla et 
maximae multitudinis Francorum Anglorum et Scottorum. 



1 6 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

XVIII. 

Grant of Coldingham by King Edgar to the 
Monks of St. Cuthbert, circa A.D. 1098. 

The original is lost ; it was formerly in the Treasury at Durham. 

EDGARUS Dei gratia Rex Scottorum omnibus per regnum 
suum Scottis et Anglis salutem. Sciatis me dedisse 
Omnipotenti Deo et ejus sancto confessori Cuthberto et 
monachis ejus pro animabus patris et matris meae et 
pro salute animae meae et fratrum et sororum mearum, 
Coldingham et omnes illas terras quas habent in 
Lodoneo, ita liberas et quietas, cum omnibus consue- 
tudinibus, sicut eas ego ipse habui in mea propria 
manu. Et volo et praecipio omnibus meis hominibus ut 
nullus illorum eis aliquam molestiam vel injuriam inde 
faciat vel hanc meam donationem infringat, sed in pace 
quiete et honorifice in perpetuum habeant eas et teneant 



XIX. 

Grant by King Edgar to the Monks of 
St. Cuthbert of Coldingham and other lands, 
circa A.D. 1 100. 

The original is in the Treasury at Durham. 

EADGARUS Rex Scottorum omnibus suis hominibus Scottis 
et Anglis salutem. Sciatis quod ego do in elemosinam, 
Deo omnipotenti et Sancto Cuthberto domino meo et 
ecclesiae Dunelmensi et monachis in eadem ecclesia Deo 
servientibus, et in perpetuum servituris, pro animabus 
patris mei et matris meae et pro salute corporis mei et 
animae meae et fratrum meorum et sororum mearum et 
pro omnibus antecessoribus et successoribus meis, man- 



XVIII. XX. 17 

sionem de Goldingaham, et cum ista mansione has 
subscriptas mansiones scilicet, Aldcambus, Lummesdene, 
Regnintun, Ristun, Swinewde, Farndun, Eitun, aliam 
Eitun, Prenegest, Cramesmudhe. Has suprascriptas 
mansiones concede Deo et Sancto praedicto et monachis 
ejus, cum omnibus terris silvis et aquis et teloneis et 
fracturis navium et omnibus consuetudinibus quae pertinent 
ad praedictas mansiones et quas pater meus habuit, quietas 
et solidas, secundum voluntatem illorum in perpetuum 
libere disponendas. 



XX. 

Charter by King Edgar granting Swinton to the 
Monks of St. Cuthbert, circa A.D. noo. 

The original is in the Treasury at Durham. 

EADGARUS Rex Scottorum, omnibus per regnum suum 
Scottis et Anglis, salutem. Sciatis me ad dedicationem 
venisse ecclesiae Sanctae Mariae apud Coldingaham quae- 
quidem dedicatio ad Dei laudem et ad meum placitum 
grata omnibus et accepta honorabiliter est adimpleta. Et 
ego eadem ecclesiae super altare obtuli in dotem et donavi 
villam totam Swintun cum divisis sicut Liulf habuit, 
liberam et quietam in perpetuum habendam ab omni 
calumnia et ad voluntatem monachorum Sancti Cuth- 
berti disponendam, pro animabus patris et matris meae 
et pro salute animae meae et fratrum et sororum mearum. 
Donavi etiam monachis XXIIII animalia ad restauran- 
dam illam eandem terram : et constitui eandem pacem 
in Coldingaham eundo et redeundo et ibidem manendo 
quae servatur in Eilande et in Northam. Insuper etiam 
statui hominibus in Coldingamscire sicut ipsi elegerunt 
et in manu mea firmaverunt, ut unoquoque anno de 
unaquaque carruca, dimidiam marcam argenti monachis 
persolvant ; Testibus ^Elfwino, Oter et Thor longo, et 

B 



1 8 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

jElfrico pincerna, et Algaro presbitero, et Osberno 
presbitero, et Cnut Carl s et Ogga et Lesing et Swein 
Ulfkill s et Ligulf de Bebbanburch et Uhtred Eilaues 
sune et Uniaet thwite et Tigerne. 



XXI. 

Charter by King Edgar granting Paxton to the 
Monks of St. Cuthbert, circa A.D. noo. 

The original is in the Treasury at Durham. 

EDGARUS Rex Scottorum, omnibus in regno suo Scottis 
et Anglis, salutem. Sciatis quod ego concede et dono 
domino meo, Sancto Cuthberto, et monachis ejus, Paxtun, 
ita sicut ego earn habui, cum hominibus terris et aquis, 
et monachi earn possideant ita libere et quiete sicut 
Coldingham ad voluntatem suam. Valete. 



XXII. 

Charter by King Edgar granting Fishwick, etc., 
to the Monks of St. Cuthbert, circa A.D. noo. 

The original is in the Treasury at Durham. 

EADGARUS Dei gratia Rex Scottorum, omnibus suis 
fidelibus per regnum suum Scottis et Anglis, salutem. 
Sciatis quod ego dono in elemosinam Deo et Sancto 
Cuthberto et monachis ejus, Fiscwic, tarn in terris quam 
in aquis et cum omnibus sibi adjacentibus et nominatim 
illam terram quae jacet inter Horuerdene et Cnapadene, 
pro anima patris et matris meae et pro salute animae meae 
et fratrum meorum et sororum, liberam et quietam tenen- 
dam et habendam et ad voluntatem monachorum Sancti 
Cuthberti, domini mei, disponendam. Valete. 



XX. XXIV. 19 

XXIII. 

Notitia of a Grant by King Edgar to the Keledei 
of St. Serfs, A.D. 1097-1107. 

Registr. Prior. St. Andreae. 

EDGARUS filius Malcolmi, Rex Scotiae, contulit in elemo- 
sinam Deo Omnipotent! et praedictis keledeis, Petnemokane 
cum omnibus libertatibus sicut praenotatum est in capitulo 
praecedente. (See No. V.) 



XXIV. 

Charter by Thor Longus to the Monks of St. 
Cuthbert, circa A.D. 1105. 

The original is in the Treasury at Durham. 

OMNIBUS sanctae matris ecclesiae filiis, Thor longus in 
Domino salutem. Sciatis quod yEdgarus, dominus meus, 
Rex Scottorum, dedit mihi ^Ednaham desertam quam ego 
suo auxilio et mea propria pecunia inhabitavi, et ecclesiam 
in honorem Sancti Cuthberti fabricavi, quam ecclesiam 
cum una carrucata terrae Deo et Sancto Cuthberto 
et monachis ejus in perpetuum possidendam dedi. Hanc 
igitur donationem feci pro anima domini mei, regis 
^Edgari, et pro animabus patris et matris illius et 
pro salute fratrum et sororum ipsius et pro re- 
demptione Leswini, fratris mei dilectissimi, et pro meimet 
ipsi tarn corporis quam animae salute. Et si quis hanc 
meam donationem Sancto praedicto et monachis sibi 
servientibus aliqua vi vel ingenio auferre praesump- 
serit, auferat ab eo Deus Omnipotens vitam regni 
coelestis et cum diabolo et angelis ejus poenas sustineat 
aeternas : Amen. 






20 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 



XXV. 

Anselm, Archbishop of Canterbury, to Alexander L, 
A.D. 1107. 

Gerberon, Lib. in. Epis. 132. 

ALEXANDRO gratia Dei Scottorum Regi, Anselmus servus 
Ecclesiae Cantuariensis, salutem et fideles orationes et 
benedictionem Dei et suam quantum valet, gratias 
agimus Deo et gaudemus ego et tota congregatio Eccle- 
siae Christi Cantuariensis quia Deus vos in regnum 
paternum hereditario jure post fratrem vestrum sub- 
limavit et quia vos moribus dignis regno decoravit. 
Pro fratre vestro, qui sancte vivendo meruit ut de 
hac vita bono fine misericordia Dei transiret, sicut pro 
dilecto dilectore nostro, secundum petitionem vestram, 
oramus et orabimus, ut Deus animae illius gloriae suae 
cum electis suis gaudium aeternum tribuat, et aeternam 
beatitudinem concedat. 

Scio quia celsitudo vestra meum amat et desiderat 
consilium, in primis igitur oro Deum ut Ipse vos sancti 
sui Spiritus gratia sic dirigat, et in omnibus actibus 
vestris consilium attribuat, ut ad regnum coeleste post 
hanc vitam vos perducat. Nostrum autem consilium est 
ut timorem Dei et bonos ac religiosos mores quos in adole- 
scentia et ab infantia coepistis habere, Ipso adjuvante, a 
quo accepistis, studeatis tenere. Tune enim bene reges 
regnant, cum secundum voluntatem Dei vivunt, et 
serviant Ei in timore et cum super seipsos regnant, 
nee se vitiis subjiciunt sed illorum importunitatem 
constanti fortitudine superant. Non enim repugnant in 
rege virtutum constantia et fortitudo regia. Quidam 



XXV. XXVI. 2 1 

enim reges, sicut David, et sancte vixerunt et popu- 
lum sibi commissum cum rigore justitiae et pietatis 
mansuetudine secundum quod res exigit, rexerunt 
Sic vos exhibete ut mali vos timeant et boni vos 
diligant, et ut vita vestra semper Deo placeat, semper 
mens vestra vindictam malorum et premium bonorum 
post hanc vitam memoria retineat. Omnipotens Deus 
vos et omnes actiones vestras nulli alii, quam suae piae 
disposition} committat 

De fratribus nostris quos in Scotiam secundum 
voluntatem fratris vestri, qui de labore hujus vitae, 
sicut credimus, ad requiem transivit, misimus, benigni- 
tatem vestram rogare necesse non putavimus, quia 
bonam voluntatem vestram non ignoramus. 



XXVI. 

Confirmation by King Alexander I. to the Monks 
of St. Cuthbert, circa A.D. mo. 

The original is in the Treasury at Durham. 

ALEXANDER Dei gratia Rex Scottorum, Algaro priori 
omnique congregationi Sancti Cuthberti, salutem. 

Sciatis quod ego dono et concedo ex mea parte Deo 
et Sancto Cuthberto et vobis suis monachis, Swintunam 
totam liberam et quietam tenendam et omnino habendam 
sicut breve fratris mei Eadgari regis vobis testatur. Et 
praeterea praecipio et defendo ne aliquis vestrum ullo modo 
de eadem Swintuna placitet aut respondeat ulli homini 
nisi ego ipse ore ad os vel meis litteris praecepero. Quia 
ego et frater meus David elemosinam fratris nostri 
Eadgari et nostram similiter, Sancto praedicto et vobis 
monachis acquietabimus. 



22 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

XXVII. 

Mandate by King Alexander to the Prior of 

Durham regarding Swinton, 

circa A.D. 1 1 10. 

The original is in the Treasury at Durham. 

ALEXANDER Dei gratia Rex Scottorum, Priori Algaro 
et totius conventui ecclesiae Sancti Cuthberti salutem. 

Mando et praecipio vobis ut nullo modo intretis placi- 
tum neque in aliquam diratiocinationem de terra de 
Suintune ante quam veniat ante me. Tibi etiam, domine 
prior, notum facio quia de multis rebus multa vobis 
habeo secrete loqui quam citius fieri poterit. Valete. 

XXVIII. 

Alexander I., King of Scots, to Ralph, Archbishop 
of Canterbury, A.D. 1115. 

Eadmer, Hist. Nov., v. (Selden, p. 117). 

DOMINO et Patri carissimo Radulfo, venerabili 
Cantuariensi Archiepiscopo, Alexander Dei misericordia 
Rex Scottorum, salutem et devotae fidelitatis obsequium. 

Notificamus vobis, benignissime pater, quod episcopus 
ecclesiae Sancti Andreae Apostoli, dominus videlicet 
Turgodus, II. Kal. Septembris migravit a saeculo. Unde 
valde contristamur tanto solatio destituti. Requirimus 
ergo vestrae [paternitatis] consilium et auxilium, sicut 
confidimus in vobis, ut secundum Deum talem substituere 
valeamus, qui nos et gentem nostram per Deo placitam 
conversationem regere et docere utiliter sciat. Petimus 
etiam, ut recordari dignemini, quid vobis jam quadam vice 
suggessimus de episcopis ecclesiae Sancti Andreae ; quod 
in antiquis temporibus non solebant consecrari nisi ab 
ipso Romano Pontifice, vel ab Archiepiscopo Cantuariensi : 




XXVIL XXX. 23 

hocque tenuimus et per successiones temporum ex 
auctoritate ratum habuimus, quousque Dominus Lan- 
francus Archiepiscopus, nescimus quo pacto, absentibus 
nobis et nostris, Thomae Eboraci Archiepiscopo illud ad 
tempus relaxaverat. Quod omnino, vestra, si placet, 
auctoritate suffulti, ut amplius sic remaneat, non con- 
cedimus. Nunc igitur, si ad id nobis nostraeque ecclesiae 
reparandum vestrum adjutorium sperare debemus, quod 
humillimis votis desideramus et petimus, secreto nobis 
certitudinem dignis vestris apicibus remandare curate. 
Valete. 

XXIX. 

Confirmation by Earl David to the Prior and 
Monks of Durham, circa A.D. 1117. 

The original is in the Treasury at Durham. 

DAVID comes, Algaro priori et ceteris fratribus suis de 
Dunelmo, salutem. 

Sciatis quod ego ex mea parte dono vobis et concedo 
Swintonam ita liberam et quietam et voluntatem vestram 
inde faciendam sicut frater meus Eadgarus rex vobis earn 
dedit et super altare obtulit et sicut suum breve earn ad 
vestrum opus testatur. Et nolo amodo pati ut aliquis 
vobis aliquam injuriam vel molestiam inde faciat pro 
certo sciatis. 

Testimonio Mathildis Reginae et Willelmi filii sui. 

XXX. 

Confirmation by Earl David to the Monks of St. 
Cuthbert, circa A.D. 1117. 

The original is in the Treasury at Durham. 

DAVID comes, Johanni Episcopo et Cospatrico et Col- 
bano et Rodberto fratribus et omnibus suis fidelibus Tegnis 
et Drengis de Lodeneio et de Teuegetedale, salutem. 



24 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

Sciatis quod ego concedo monachis Sancti Cuthberti 
cum omnibus consuetudinibus omnia quae habebant tarn 
in tern's quam in aquis die qua frater meus Eadgarus 
vivus et mortuus fuit et sicut ego ipse domino meo 
Sancto Cuthberto post mortem illius fratris mei eisdem 
monachis concessi et sicut frater meus Eadgarus Sancto 
Cuthberto et monachis suis dedit Swintunam et super 
altare in Coldingeham obtulit ; ita eandem omnino totam 
ex mea parte dono et concedo Sancto praedicto et 
monachis eius, liberam et quietam tenendam et amodo 
habendam sicut breve fratris mei praedicti eis testatur. 
Et praecipio omnibus meis hominibus ut nullus eis amodo 
aliquam inde faciat molestiam vel injuriam. Quia volo 
ut hanc meam donationem in pace et honorifice habeant 
et teneant et in perpetuum possideant. 

Testimonio Mathildis reginae et Willelmi filii sui et 
Johannis episcopi. 



XXXI. 

Confirmation by King Alexander I. to the Monks 
of St. Cuthbert, circa A.D. 1118. 

The original is in the Treasury at Durham. 

ALEXANDER Dei gratia Rex Scottorum, omnibus per 
regnum suum Scottis et Anglis, salutem. 

Sciatis quod ego dono Deo et Sancto Cuthberto domino 
meo et monachis ejus, omnia quae habebant tarn in terris 
quam in aquis die qua frater meus Rex Eadgarus vivus 
et mortuus fuit, ita libera et quieta cum omnibus consue- 
tudinibus sicut monachi praedicti illo eodem die melius et 
quietius habuerunt illam eandem terram et nominatim 
illam terram que jacet inter Horeuoredane et Cnapedane 
sicut breve fratris mei Eadgari eis testatur. 



XXX. XXXIII. 25 

XXXII. 

Writ by Earl David regarding the rights of 
the Monks of St. Cuthbert to Horeworedene, 
circa A.D. 1 1 18. 

The original is in the Treasury at Durham. 

DAVID comes, Johanni Episcopo et Colbano et Cospatrico 
et omnibus suis fidelibus, salutem. 

Vos ipsi sciatis quod judicatum fuit ante me inter 
monachos Sancti Cuthberti et drengos meos de terra de 
Horeuoredane, scilicet quod si ipsi monachi haberent 
legales testes vel breve fratris mei, quieta eis ilia praedicta 
terra remaneret et ideo volo sciatis quod ego ipse 
vidi breve et donum fratris mei Eadgari Regis quod ad 
vos etiam misi, et quicquid illud breve eis testatur, volo 
et concedo ut libere et quiete habeant. 

Testibus Willelmi nepotis mei et Osberni capellani 
et Hugonis de Moreuilla. 

XXXIII. 

Thor to Earl David regarding Ednam, 
A.D. 1107-1117. 

The original is in the Treasury at Durham. 

DOMINO suo carissimo Davidi Comiti, Thor omnino 
suus, salutem. 

Sciatis, domine mi, quod Eadgarus rex frater vester 
dedit mihi Ednaham desertam quam ego suo auxilio et 
mea pecunia inhabitavi et ecclesiam a fundamentis 
fabricavi quam frater vester rex in honorem Sancti 
Cuthberti fecit dedicari et una carrucata terrae earn 
dotavit. Hanc eandem ecclesiam pro anima ejusdem 
domini mei regis Eadgari et patris et matris vestri et 
pro salute vestra et regis Alexandri et Mathildis reginae, 



26 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

Sancto praedicto et monachis eius dedi. Unde vos precor 
sicut dominum meum carissimum ut pro animabus 
parentum vestrorum et pro salute vivorum hanc donationem 
Sancto Cuthberto et monachis sibi in perpetuum servituris 
concedatis. 

XXXIV. 

Confirmation by Earl David of Thor's grant 
of Ednam, A.D. 1117-1124. 

Smaller Chartulary, Durham. 

DAVID comes, Johanni Episcopo et omnibus suis fidelibus 
de Lodoneo, salutem. 

Sciatis quod ego do et concedo Deo et Sancto Cuth- 
berto et monachis ejus ecclesiam de Edenham et unam 
carrucatam terrae, sicut Thor longus dedit liberam et 
quietam pro anima patris mei et pro .... animae meae 
et conjugis meae et fratrum meorum et sororum. 



XXXV. 

Charter by Earl David founding the Abbey of 
Selkirk, circa A,D. 1120. 

Liber S. Marie de Calchou. 

DAVID Comes, films Malcolmi Regis Scottorum, Omnibus 
amicis suis Francis et Anglis et Scottis cunctisque sanctae 
Dei ecclesiae filiis, salutem continuam. 

Notum sit omnibus praesentibus atque futuris me fundasse 
quoddam monasterium in Selechyrca, scilicet ad abbatiam 
in honorem Sanctae Mariae et Sancti Johannis Evangelistae 
pro salute animae meae et patris et matris meae, fratrum 
et sororum mearum omniumque antecessorum. 

Hujus vero ecclesiae monachis in elemosinam perpetue 
donavi terram de Selechirche, sicut rivulus descendens a 



XXXIII. XXXV. 27 

montibus currit in Gieruam usque ad rivulum ilium qui 
descendens de Crossinemara currit in Twodam et ultra 
eundem rivulum qui cadit in Gieruam, quandam particulam 
terrae inter viam quae vadit de castello ad abbatiam, 
et Gieruam videlicet versus veterem villam . Et haec 
omnia ita donavi sicut melius habui in bosco et in 
piano et in aquis . Et villam de Middelham et Bothen- 
denam et Aeldonam, sicut melius habui in terris et in 
aquis et in bosco et in piano . Et totum dominium 
meum de Malros per medium vicum et per medium 
fontem usque ad fossam et sicut fossa dividit cadens 
in Twodam ; similiter in terris et in aquis et in 
bosco et in piano . Et in Sprostona unam carrucatam 
terrae et decem acras et unam maisuram carrucatae 
pertinentem . Et in Berewyce unam carrucatam et unam 
maisuram sub ecclesia usque in Twodam et dimidium 
unius piscaturae et septimam partem molendini et 
quadraginta solidos de censu de burgo per unumquemque 
annum . Et in burgo de Rokesburge unam maisuram et 
septimam molendini et quadraginta solidos de censu et 
septimam partem piscaturae . Et decimam caseorum de can 
scilicet de Galweia et dimidietatem coriorum coquinae meae . 
Et de omnibus occisionibus de quibus alteram partem habeo 
et similiter de unctis et de sepis sicut de coriis, et omnes 
pelles multorum et agnorum et decimam coriorum 
cervorum et cervarum quos veltrarii mei capient . Et aquas 
meas circa Selechirche communes ad piscandum suis 
propriis piscatoribus ut meis ; et pasturas meas com- 
munes hominibus suis ut meis ; et boscos meos domibus 
suis faciendis et ad ardendum ut mihi . Et in Anglia in 
Hardingestrop quatuor viginti acras de terra in dominio, 
scilicet cum pratis ad illud dominium pertinentibus, et 
unam maisuram dominio pertinentem et duos bovarios, 
scilicet quisque habet decem acras, et in ultro sex 
virgatas et dimidiam de terra et sex maisuras versus 
pontem de Norhamtune et quandam insulam prati juxta 



28 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

pontem et molendinum ejusdem villae . Et haec omnia 
supradicti monasterii monachis ita libere et pacifice jure 
perpetuo possidenda confirmavi, ut mihi succedentium 
nullus nihil omnino nisi solas orationes ad animae salutem 
exigere praesumat 

Hoc factum est Henrico Rege regnante in Anglia et 
Alexandro Rege in Scotia et Johanne Episcopo in Glas- 
guensi ecclesia et Herberto Abbate in eadem abbatia. 

His testibus, supradicto Johanne Episcopo, Matilde 
comitissa, Henrico filio comitis, Gvalthelino capellano, Os- 
berto capellano, Alwyno capellano, Willelmo nepote comitis, 
Roberto de Bruis, Roberto de Umframvilla, Gualterio in 
Bolebec, Roberto de paintona, Cospatrico fratre Dalfini, 
Hugone de Moruilla, Pagano de Braiosa, Roberto Corbet, 
Reginaldo de Muscampf, Galterio de Lyndeseia, Roberto 
de Burnetuilla, Cospatrico vicecomite, Cospatrico filio 
Aldeue, Uchtredo filio Scot, Macchus, Colbanus, Gille- 
michel, Odardo vicecomite de Babenburch, Lyulf filio 
Uchtredi, Radulfo Anglico, Aimaro Galleio, Rogerio de 
Lerecestria, Adam camerario. 



XXXVI. 

King Alexander I., Charter to Scone Priory, 
circa A.D. 1120. 

(? Spurious.) Liber Eccl. S. Trin. de Scon. 

IN nomine Sanctae et Individuae Trinitatis qua unus Deus 
adoratur et colitur et creditur. Quia sicut rex et pro- 
pheta David testatur domurn Dei semper decet sancti- 
tudo, ego, Alexander Dei gratia Rex Scottorum, filius 
Regis Malcolmi, et Reginae Margaretae, et ego, Sibilla 
Regina Scottorum, filia Henrici Regis Angliae, volentes 
domum Domini decorare et habitationem ejus exaltare 



XXXV. XXXVI. 29 

ecclesiam in honorem Sanctae Trinitatis dedicatam quae 
est in Scona concedimus et tradimus ipsi Deo et Sanctae 
Mariae et Sancto Michaeli et Sancto Johanni et Sancto 
Laurencio et Sancto Augustino, liberam et solutam et 
quietam ab omni exactione et inquietudine a quibus 
regia dignitas et potestas potest earn liberare, patrocinare 
et defendere. 

Ad Dei igitur cultum et honorem dilatandum et 
exaltandum placuit nobis clericos canonicorum pro- 
fessione Deo famulantes de ecclesia Sancti Osualdi de 
qua fama religionis nobis innotuit honesto proborum 
virorum consilio a domino Adelualdo priore requirere. 

Quibus ab ipso priore nobis concessis omni professione 
et subjectione liberis et solutis curam et custodiam 
praefatae ecclesiae sic commisimus ut ordinem ibi con- 
stituant ad serviendum Deo canonice secundum regulam 
Sancti Augustini. Terras etiam et possessiones et con- 
suetudines subscriptas eidem ecclesiae pro nobismetipsis 
et pro animabus patrum et matrum et fratrum et 
sororum et antecessorum et successorum nostrorum 
fidelium jure perpetuo possidendas concedimus. Et nequis 
sacrilegio ausu haec violare praesumat regia auctoritate 
hujus cartae testimonio confirmamus. 

Terrae autem et possessiones haec sunt. Infervus 
cum quinque carrucatis terrae, Benchorin cum tribus 
carrucatis terrae, Fotheros cum una carrucata, Kynochtred 
cum una carrucata, Fingask cum una carrucata, Dufrothni 
cum tribus carrucatis, Cleon cum tribus carrucatis, LifT cum 
sex carrucatis, Grudin cum decem carrucatis, Inuergourin 
cum tribus carrucatis et quinque mansiones domuum, 
unam apud Eduenesburg et unam apud Striuelin, et 
unam apud Inuerkethyin, et unam apud Perth, et unam 
apud Aberdon, et communionem aquae de Thei ut in ea 
possint piscari sicut ad opus regis et can unius navis 
sive propriae navis fratrum sive illius quern proloquentur, 
et medietatem coriorum ad coquinam regis pertinentium, 



30 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

et omnes pelles arietinas et agninas et medietatem uncti 
et sagiminis et decimam panum regis ubicunque fuerit 
a northo de Lambremor. 

Ego Alexander, Dei gratia Rex Scottorum, propria manu 
mea haec confirmo et sigillo meae ymaginis haec consigno. 

Ego Sibilla, Dei gratia Regina Scottorum, propria 
manu mea haec confirmo. 

Ego Gregorius, Episcopus auctoritate Dei et Sanctorum 
Apostolorum Petri et Pauli et Sancti Andreae Apostoli, 
ne quis haec violare presumat sub anathemate confirmo. 

Ego Cormacus, Episcopus auctoritate Dei et Sanctorum 
Apostolorum Petri et Pauli et Sancti Andreae Apostoli, 
ne quis haec violare presumat sub anathemate confirmo. 

Ego Alexander, nepos regis Alexandri, de his testi- 
monium perhibeo. 

Ego Beth comes, similiter. 

Ego Gospatricius [frater] Dolfini, assensum praebeo. 

Ego Mallus comes, assensum praebeo. 

Ego Madach comes, assensum praebeo. 

Ego Rothri comes, assensum praebeo. 

Ego Gartnach comes, assensum praebeo. 

Ego Dufagan comes, assensum praebeo. 

Hujus etiam rei sunt isti alii testes, Willelmus frater 
reginae, Edwardus Constabularius, Gospatricius films 
Walthef, Usieth, Alfricus pincerna, Ego Forn assensum 
praebeo. 

XXXVII. 

Alexander I., King of Scots, to Ralph, Archbishop 
of Canterbury, A.D. 1120. 

Eadmer, Hist. Nov., Lib. v. (Selden's edn., p. 130). 
ALEXANDER Dei gratia Rex Scottorum, Radulfo rever- 
endo Cantuariensi Archiepiscopo et cum reverentia 
diligendo, salutem. 

Audita prosperi adventus vestri in Angliam jamdiu 
a me desiderati manifesta relatione, de incolumitate ac 



XXXVI. XXXVIII. 3 1 

prosperitate vestra congaudens, summoque protectori 
gratias inde referens, cum temporalium undique occupatio 
curarum iter meum, ut vestra ad praesens valeam frui 
praesentia, impediat, tarn litterarum designatione quam 
legatorum relatione animi mei affectum vestrae bonitati 
cupio manifestare. Tantae etenim discretionis personae 
fretus consilio, bonum propositum peroptime ad boni 
operis effectum (Deo annuente) non dubito me posse 
perducere. 

Vestram igitur latere nolo excellentiam, ecclesiam 
Sancti Andreae in regno meo existentem jamdiu pastoral! 
cura destitutam, Dei et vestrae benignitatis providentia 
pastore idoneo desiderantem me velle consolari. Quo 
circa vestrae pietatis deposco clementiam, ut quandam 
personam a plerisque mihi laudatam, Eadmerum, scilicet 
monachum, si vobis idonea visa fuerit ut pontificali 
inthronizetur dignitate, mihi liberam concedatis. Verens 
enim summum pastorem, me graviter offendisse, cum 
gregem suum negligentia mea aliisque forsan criminibus 
impedientibus pastoris penuria desolatum et a tramite 
veritatis in pluribus exorbitatum diu permiserim, filiali 
etiam timore timens in hac re, eum amodo offendere, ad 
vestrae fontem discretionis recurro, ut pristinae memor 
existens dilectionis, inter nos habitae, me filium vestrum 
paterno affectu spiritualiter jamdiu a vobis adoptatum 
vestri munimine consilii in hac re tueamini. Vale. 



XXXVIII. 

Ralph, Archbishop of Canterbury, to Alexander I., 
King of Scots, A.D. 1120. 

Eadm., Hist. Nov., Lib. v. (edn. Selden, p. 131). 

CARO Domino et amico intimo Alexandro, Dei gratia 
Regi Scottorum, Radulfus Archiepiscopus salutem et 
orationes. 



32 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

Gratias Deo innumerabiles referimus, qui ad cogno- 
scendum atque petendum quae debebatis, remotis nebulis, 
mentis vestrae oculos aperuit 

Gratias nihilominus generalitati vestrae, qui petitioni- 
bus vestris legitimis nos vobis ex amicis amicissimos 
ex familiaribus familiarissimos et junctissimos, reddidistis. 

Licet enim ipsis petitionibus, quasi oculum aut 
dexteram a corpore nostro avellere quaeratis, laudare 
tamen habeo justum desiderium vestrum et in quantum 
potero, secundum Deum illi obtemperare. 

Volens quidem, et si pace Dei et vestra potest did, 
invitus assentior bonae vestrae voluntati ; volens vero, 
quia Dei voluntati, quern in hoc facto praesentem atque 
propitium conspicio, resistere non audeo, nee cor vestrum 
in nos amaricare ; invitus autem quod (quasi solus) et 
patris consolatione, ac relevatione assidua et filii sapientis 
consilio et auxilio in infirmitate nostra ac aetate destituor. 

O sapientis viri consilium (si nos eo non spoliaretis 
et cum spolietis) qui tantum virum, tarn famosum, tarn 
ecclesiae Dei utilem, vita et moribus et litteris divinis 
et si opus fuerit, saecularibus, a pueritia instructum, 
terrae vestrae consilio praeesse in his, quae ad Deum 
pertinent, satagatis. Si alius ex partibus longinquis 
quod petitis peteret, pro certo sciatis, non paterer 
elongari a nobis cordis nostri arcanum ; sed vobis 
nihil est secundum Deum, quod abnuere velimus. 

Mittimus ergo ad vos personam quam petitis et 
omnino liberam, ut a vobis certius discat, si ad honorem 
Dei et sanctae matris Cantuariensis videlicet ecclesiae 
spectet petitio vestra. 

Caute igitur et cum consilio tractate quod agitis, quia 
sunt multi qui libenter sacrationem istius disturbarent, 
et si valerent disturbando cassarent. Proinde nostrum 
esset consilium ut quam citius ad nos remitteretur 
sacrandus, ne dilatione quod timemus interveniat vel 
quod nollemus. 



XXXVIIL XXXIX. 33 

Salutat vos conventus fratrum ecclesiae nostrae vere 
fideles vestri et omnino ad servitium vestrum parati. 

In commune autem rogamus ut ita vos habeatis erga 
fratres nostros qui in regno vestro sunt, ut Deus vobis 
inde gratias habeat et nos. Valete. 

XXXIX. 

Alexander I., King of Scots, to Ralph, Archbishop 
of Canterbury, A.D. 1120. 

Eadmer, Hist. Nov., v. (ed. Selden, p. 134). 

ALEXANDER Dei gratia Rex Scottorum, Radulfo, Archi- 
episcopo Cantuariensi, in ipso qui vita est, semper vivere. 

Immensae bonitati vestrae petitioni meae conde- 
scendenti, personam in praesulatu Sancti Andreae 
sublimandam mihi mittendo, animi mei affectus bene- 
volens et ut justum est, obnoxius, innumerabiles gratias 
reddit. Sed persona in episcopatu posita, consuetudi- 
nibus terrae moribusque hominum, ut res et tempus 
exigebat et ut justum et necessarium esset conde- 
scendere noluit. Ipsa vero tandem persona, in praesentia 
quorundam episcoporum et comitum proborumque terrae 
meae virorum, me requisivit ut ei licentiam recedendi et de 
fidelitate, quam mihi fecerat, libertatem concederem, cum 
nullo modo remanere vellet, nisi eum in captione detinerem. 

Haec audiens, ei his verbis respondi ; quod si aliquas, 
dictis vel factis, injurias, ei a me illatas et quod in aliqui- 
bus quae ei facerem debuissem, me defecisse demonstraret, 
pro Dei amore et meo honore libentissime praesto essem 
emendare. 

Ad haec, in praesentia omnium adstantium, dixit quod 
nullas dictis aut factis ei injurias injeceram, nee unquam 
in aliqua re quam ei facere debuissem defeceram. 

Praeterea egomet et episcopi et consules, aliique terrae 
meae probi homines, ibi adstantes reverentiae obedientiam 

c 



34 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

in quibuscunque justum esset, magna animi benignitate 
obtulimus et pro penuria honestae exhibitionis reverentiae 
non esse necesse ei praesulatum relinquere, cum magna 
admonitione retulimus ; ut etiam remaneret, donee Regi 
Angliae et vobis nuntiassem, ut amborum consilio frui 
possem, obnixe rogavimus. 

His auditis, mihi respondit, quod nullo modo rema- 
neret, nisi eum in captione detinerem ; se enim nee utilem, 
nee idoneum in praesulatus regimine sciebat et si 
remaneret, detrimentum animae suae et aliorum imminere 
videbat. 

Communi tandem consilio nolui eum vi retinere, 
petitioni suae quamvis invitus adquievi ; et episcopatum 
reddidit et foedus amicitiae inter me et ipsum osculo 
confirmavit Et haec est rei veritas quam litteris vobis 
declarare volui, ne si aliud ad aures vestras perveniret 
crederetis. 

Sciat denique bonitas vestra quod vobis penitus ut 
amicus fidelis, obnoxius esse cupio, et consilio vestro, 
vestrae etiam dilectioni subdi desidero. 

Ut Domino Eadmero honorem exhibeas obnixe postulo. 
Vale. 

XL. 

Ralph, Archbishop of Canterbury, to Alexander I., 
King of Scots, A.D. 1120. 

Eadmer, Hist. Nov., Lib. v. (Selden's edit., p. 134). 
ALEXANDRO illustri Regi Scottorum, Frater Radulfus 
Cantuariensis Ecclesiae Minister, sic regnare in regno 
terreno, ut cum Christo regnare possit in caelo. Gratias, 
quas possumus (Venerabilis Domine) sublimitati vestrae, 
referimus pro dilectionis et honoris munere, quod erga 
parvitatem nostram nuntiis et litteris referentibus vos 
habere dignoscimus, In quo nos, proculdubio, nos pro 
posse semper devotos habebitis et si quid in vita nostra 
(Domino largiente) fructuosum inveniatur, vestrum esse 



XXXIX. XLI. 35 

secure, sciatis. Gratias etiam, ex bona voluntate vobis 
persolvimus pro susceptione carissimi filii nostri Eadmeri 
videlicet electi episcopi vestri, quern secundum petitionem 
vestram vobis transmissum honorifice tractastis. Quern 
nos etiam ad partes nostras redeuntem, prout decuit 
tantam personam officiose suscipientes, in adventu ipsius, 
non mediocriter laetati sumus. 

Cumque secretius, postea, inter nos sermo versaretur, 
audivimus eum aliqua a sensu litterarum vestrarum, quas 
prius audieramus diversa sentire, nee omnibus antea 
auditis, ex toto assensum praebere. Nunc itaque quoniam 
in scriptis vestris aliud legimus et aliud ab ipso fratre 
percepimus, consilio nobis est, ut eundem filium nostrum 
apud nos retineamus, quousque, Domino ducente, in 
Angliam veniatis ; nisi forte aliquid aliud, quod nobis 
faciendum sit, antea mandaveritis. Cum autem (Deo 
donante) vobis praesentialiter loqui et rerum causas hinc 
inde audire poterimus, si vita et doctrina hujus amici 
nostri vobis et patriae vestrae utilis esse videtur injuncta 
sibi obedientia ad electionis suae locum, si eum suscipere 
vultis, redire poterit. 

Si vero in conspectu vestro aliud placitum fuerit, nos 
eum, ut virum in lege Domini multipliciter instructum et 
omni bono operi apturn, cum magno gaudio retinebimus : 
et sic spem bonam in misericordia Dei habentes, ejus 
reditum fructuosum habebimus. Vale. 



XLI. 

Eadmer to Alexander I., King of Scots, 

A.D. I I 22. 
Ead., Hist. Nov., vi. (Selden's edn., p. 139). 

ALEXANDRO illustri Regi Scottorum, Eadmerus quondam 
electus Episcopus Scotiae, salutem et servitium. 



36 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

Pro benigna voluntate, quam se erga me vestra ex- 
cellentia olim habuisse monstrare dignata est, gratias, 
quas possum, vobis exsolvo. 

Et quidem benignitatis vestrae non meritorum meorum 
fuisse non nescio, quod praetermissis innumeris, quos et 
vitae probitas et sapientiae atque prudentiae illustrabat 
auctoritas, me in episcopatum elegistis, et regno vestro 
in eis, quae Dei sunt, praeesse voluistis. 

Reddat vobis omnipotens Deus pro tarn bona voluntate 
illud praemium, quod bona voluntas meretur apud Eum. 
Et hoc utique orat quotidie et desiderat anima mea. 
Quod autem res alium, quam propositi communis tenor 
extiterit, eventum sortita est, )ei disposition!, quam 
penetrare vel subterfugere nemo potest, ascribendum fore.: 
non dubito. Quid tamen ' ex discessu meo a ' : pontificatu 
didicerim, si facultas mihi daretur secretius vobis loque,ndi 
sanctae fidei vestrae notificarem. Licet , enim eorpore -a 
vobis discesserim, noveritis tamen pro certo, quod .fidem, 
quam vobis debeo, Deo juvante, non violabo. Unde 
vestrum et regni honorem, in quibuscumque potero, si non 
spreveritis, fideliter quaeram, Ipso teste, qui conscientiae 
meae solus et verus inspector est. 

Nee haec dico, quod multum desiderem in regno 
vestro episcopari; sed tamen mallem dignitatem terrae 
vestrae augeri quam minorari. 

Praeterea noverit beatitudo vestra, quod omnes, qui 
audiunt, qualiter electus, susceptus et pontificatu 
saisitus, et loco pontificis substitutus fui, una sententia 
asserunt nee me juste potuisse episcopatum dimittere 
nee alium me vivente juxta legem Domini substitui 
posse. Nee enim vir uxorem suam, aut uxor virum, ut 
alii nubat, dimittere legaliter potest. 

Sed fortasse dicitis, Tu dimisisti. Dimisi quidem, sed 
(quod cum pace vestra dicatur) illata vi, cui contraire 
nequivi. Cum enim perpes discordia et interminabiles 
inimicitiae mihi ex vestra parte per eos, quos vobis 



XLI. 37 

familiares esse sciebam, intenderentur, nisi episcopatui 
funditus cederem; et his vester habitus circa me, et 
dissaisitio, qua me bis rebus ad pontificatum pertinenti- 
bus sine lege et judicio spoliastis, attestarentur ; ne- 
cessario dimisi quod ablatum retinere non potui. Sed 
de istis epistolari brevitate disquiri commode non valet. 

Quamobrem, omissis istis, breviter suggero, quia, si 
in pace vestra permittitis, et opem (ut vestram regalem 
sublimitatem decet) ferre volueritis, ut ad vos honorifice 
redeam ad explendum apud vos servitium Dei et vestrum 
secundum voluntatem Dei conabor iter aggredi, et in 
omnibus voluntati vestrae parere ; nisi (quod absit) 
videatur voluntati Dei resistere. Quodsi amplecti 
minime vultis, ultra non possum. 

Deo causam ecclesiae suae committo. Ipse videat, 
Ipse dispenset, Ipse quod quisque meretur in hoc 
suo negotio cuique reddat. Ego liberavi, ut aestimo, 
animam meam. 

Ego, uti debui, coram eo exposui causam meam, 
paratus in omnibus sequi voluntatem suam. Ne tamen 
putetis me in aliquo velle quidquam derogare libertati 
vel dignitati regni Scottorum, securum vos esse volo, 
quia quod a me petiistis, et ego tune quidem acquiescere 
nolui, aestimans aliud quam secundum quod postmodum 
didici aestimare debebam, de Rege scilicet Anglorum, 
de Pontifice Cantuariorum, et de benedictione sacer- 
dotali, si hucusque persistitis in sententia vestra me 
amplius contradictorem non habetis ; nee ilia me a 
servitio Dei et amore vestro, quin quod volueritis faciam, 
ullo modo divellent : tantummodo alia, quae pontificis 
Sancti Andreae juri competunt, mini liceat cum vestra 
bona voluntate administrare. Haec olim vobis insinu- 
assem ; sed, quia rumor quaque discurrebat vos in 
Angliam, postposita omni ambiguitate, tune vel tune 
aut certe tune venturum, scribere distuli, quod magis 
optabam secreto vobis adfatu declarare. 



3 8 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

Sive igitur ista suscipiatis sive altiori consilio post- 
ponatis, ego quod mea refert pura et simplici conscientia 
feci, Ipso cuncta inspiciente et examinante qui novit 
quid cuique redditurus aequo moderamine sit. 

Quoniam ergo in manu ejus sunt etiam corda omnium 
regum intimo corde rogo ut Ipse cor vestrum et actus 
vestros ad se sua gratia dirigat ; quatenus et ecclesia 
sua, quae in regno vestro peregrinatur, vestra ope in 
sancta conversatione de die in diem proficiat, et animae 
vestrae post hanc vitam beatitudinis aeternae merces 
exinde proveniat. 

Amen. Quid de istis excellentiae vestrae placeat, 
benigne quaeso mihi fideli vestro litteris suis notificare 
dignetur. Vale. 



XLII. 

Ralph, Archbishop of Canterbury, to Alexander I., 
King of Scots, A.D. 1122. 

Eadmer, Hist. Nov., VI. (Selden's edn., p. 140). 

ALEXANDRO illustri Regi Scottorum Radulfus Can- 
tuariensis Ecclesiae Minister, et fratrum conventus Domino 
Christo in ea deserviens, per ilium in terra regnare cui 
famulatur omnis militia coelestis. 

Novit prudentia vestra, carissime Domine, quanto 
tempore sedes episcopalis, quae in patria vestra, prae- 
cipua habetur, suo caruerit pastore ; quae procul dubio, 
quanto fuerit suo destituta vigore, tanto deterius sub- 
ditorum ruina inde proveniet. 

Unde hortamur serenitatem vestram, quam divina 
propitiatio inter alios reges ita absque notabili repre- 
hensione hujusque honoravit ut ab omnibus laudabilis 
habeatur, quatenus tanto religionis detrimento finem 



XLL XLIII. 39 

dantes, pastorem quern vos canonice elegistis, et nos 
legaliter ad vos misimus, ad sedem suam ex bona volun- 
tate vestra revocetis. Et cum nee in vobis nee in ipso 
culpa pateat, quare hoc digne fieri non debeat ex 
patrum auctoritate non intelligimus qualiter, isto vivente, 
alium memorata ecclesia vestra possit sortiri episcopum ; 
quia sponsa Dei, suo superstite, ne fiat adultera, nisi legalem 
omnem contemnit maritum. Quapropter, quomodocunque 
hactenus hoc dilatum fuerit, virum, sicut speramus, vobis 
utilem et in lege Dei a pueritia nobiliter instructum, in 
primum dilectionis vestrae gradum et in officium sibi 
injunctum pro vestra gloria revocate. Deus pacis et 
dilectionis, a quo omne bonum consilium procedit, sit 
semper vobiscum. 

Quid vobis videatur de iis quae vobis mandamus, nobis 
precamur rescribi facite. 

Valeat dilectio vestra, cum domina Regina uxore 
vestra, et cum omnibus qui ea quae justa sunt volunt, 
et vos diligunt, gloriose domine et honorandae Sanctae 
Matris Ecclesiae fili. Amen. 



XLIII. 

Pope Calixtus II. to Alexander I., King of Scots, 

A.D. I I 22. 
Reg. Alb. Ebor., p. I. fol. 51, and in. fol. 57. 

CALIXTUS Episcopus servus servorum Dei illustri et 
glorioso Scottorum Regi Alexandro salutem et apostoli- 
cam benedictionem. 

Pro episcoporum, qui in tuo sunt regno, praesumptione, 
atque pro venerabilis fratris T[urstini] Eboracensis Archi- 
episcopi negotio, alias ad te jam litteras misimus : 
sed in nullo apud te usque adhuc, uti comperimus, 
exauditi sumus. Quamobrem, nobilitatem tuam litterarum 



40 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

praesentium visitatione in Domino commonentes, prae- 
cipimus ut regni tui episcopos sese invicem consecrare 
absque metropolitan! licentia nullatenus non permittas. 

Cum autem ecclesiarum opportunitas exegerit ad 
metropolitanum tuum Eboracensem videlicet Archi- 
episcopum electi reverentcr accedant ; et aut per ejus 
manum, aut si necessitas ingruerit per ejusdam licentiam, 
consecrationem accipiant. 

Cui nimirum Archiepiscopo et illos et teipsum, tanquam 
patri et magistro, humiliter obedire apostolica auctoritate 
praecipimus. 

Datum Tarenti decimo octavo Kal. Februarii. 



XLIV. 
Pope Calixtus II. to John, Bishop of Glasgow, 

A.D. I I 22. 
Reg. Alb. Ebor., p. I. fol. 51 ; 2 Concil. p. 20. 

CALIXTUS Episcopus servus servorum Dei venerabili 
fratri Johanni Glasguensi Episcopo salutem et apostoli- 
cam benedictionem. 

Eboracencis ecclesiae postulatione a domino prae- 
decessore . nostro sanctae memoriae Paschale Papa in 
Episcopum consecratus es : quam profecto benignitatem 
cum humiliter recognovisse debueris, in tantam (uti 
accipimus) superbiam elevatus es, ut metropolitano 
tuo Eboracensi Archiepiscopo, nee pro nostro etiam 
praecepto, professionem volueris exhibere. 

Contemptus hujus pertinaciam nos diutius pati non 
posse pro certo cognoveris. 

Propter quod repetita tibi praeceptione praecipimus, ut 
Eboracensem ecclesiam, in cuius capitulo tanquam eius 
suffraganeus electus es, non ut ingratus films, recognoscas 
matrem tuam ; et venerabili fratri nostro Thurstino 
metropolitano tuo professionem exhibeas. 



XLIIL XLVI. 41 

Alioquin sententiam quam ipse in te canonica aequitate 
protulerit, nos, auctore Deo, ratam habemus. 
Data Tarenti XVIII. Kalend. Februarii. 



XLV. 
Pope Calixtus II. to John, Bishop of Glasgow, 

A.D. I 122. 
Reg. Alb. Ebor., p. i. fol. 51, and in. fol. 57 ; 2 Concil. p. 22. 

CALIXTUS Episcopus servus servorum Dei Johanni 
Glasguensi Episcopo salutem et apostolicam bene- 
dictionem. Multis dilecti filii nostri Alexandri regis 
Scottorum precibus inclinati, tibi aliquanti temporis 
indutias dedimus, quatenus infra prefixi diei terminum 
ad obedientiam venerabilis fratris nostri Thurstini Ebora- 
cencis Archiepiscopi debita humilitate redires. 

Sicut autem directa litterarum suarum notatione per- 
cepimus, te ab ejus obedientia et subjectione subtrahere 
praesumpsisti. 

Unde tibi mandamus, quatenus infra triginta dies post 
harum acceptionem litterarum ad praefati Archiepiscopi 
subjectionem et obedientiam redeas. 

Alioquin sententiam quae ab eo in te promulgata est, 
confirmamus. 

Data Laterani vii. Kalend. Septembris. 

XLVI. 

Grant by Earl David of a hundred shillings from 
Hardingestrorna for the use of the Church of 
Glasgow, circa A.D. 1123. 

Regist. Epis. Glasguensis, No. 2. 
DAVID Comes omnibus ecclesiae fidelibus salutem. 






42 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

Notum sit omnibus vobis me in perpetuo praebuisse 
redditionem centum solidorum in Hardingestrorna, Glas- 
guensi ecclesiae in elemosinam ad aedificationem et re- 
staurationem ejusdem ecclesiae, et hoc deliberatione et 
concessione Matildis uxoris meae. Testimonio ipsius 
Matildis et procerum et militum meorum, Roberti de 
- Brus et Roberti filii Nigelli, Hugonis de Morvilla. 
Hugonis bret et Roberti Corbet, Walteri de lindeseia et 
Walteri filii Winemerj. Valete. 



XLVII. 

Grant by King Alexander I. of the island of 

Loch Tay to the Canons of Scon, 

circa A.D. 1123. 

Liber Eccl. S. Trin. de Scon, No. 2. 

ALEXANDER Dei gratia Rex Scottorum, episcopis et 
comitibus necnon omnibus fidelibus suis totius Scotiae, 
salutem. 

Notum vobis facio me ad honorem Dei et Sanctae 
Mariae [et] omnium Sanctorum pro me et pro anima 
reginae Sibillae, insulam de Lochtei perpetuo jure 
possidendam cum omni dominio ad eandem insulam 
pertinenti, Sanctae Trinitati de Scon canonice Deo ibi 
fratribus famulantibus dedisse ut ecclesia Dei ibi pro 
me et pro anima reginae ibi defunctae fabricetur et in 
habitu religionis Deo ibi serviant et hoc do eis interim 
quousque dedero eis aliud augmentum unde locus in 
Dei obsequium exaltetur. Teste Herberto cancellario. 
Apud Striuelin. 



XLVL XLIX. 43 



XLVIII. 

Grant by King Alexander I. to the Church of 
Scon of the can and custom of a ship and 
of protection to the merchants bringing goods 
in the ship, A.D. 1 124. 

Liber Eccl. S. Trin. de Scon, No. 3. 

ALEXANDER Dei gratia Rex Scottorum omnibus mer- 
catoribus Angliae, salutem. 

Sciatis me dedisse et concessisse in elemosinam ecclesiae 
Sanctae Trinitatis de Scon et priori fratribusque ibi 
servientibus can et consuetudines unius navis et ideo 
volo et firmiter praecipio ut omnes mercatores extra 
regionem Scotiae manentes qui navem illam cum mer- 
cibus suis ascendere atque in Sconam venire voluerint 
pacem meam et Dei eundo et redeundo pacemque 
tenendo habeant et nulli nisi priori et fratribus dictae 
ecclesiae de consuetudinibus illius navis respondeant. 
Teste Roberto episcopo electo Sancti Andreae et Herberto 
cancellario. Apud Perth. 



XLIX. 

Grant of jurisdiction by King Alexander I. to 
the Prior and Brethren of Scon, A.D. 1124. 

Liber Eccl. S. Trin. de Scon, No. 4. 

ALEXANDER Dei gratia Rex Scottorum episcopis et 
comitibus necnon et omnibus fidelibus totius terrae 
suae, salutem. 

Sciatis me dedisse ecclesiae Sanctae Trinitatis de Scon 
et priori fratribusque ibidem Deo servientibus suam 
propriam curiam, scilicet in duello in ferro in fossa et in 



44 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

omnibus aliis libertatibus ad curiam pertinentibus nee 
ulli respondeant nisi in sua curia propria. Testibus 
Roberto episcopo electo Sancti Andreae, Cormaco 
episcopo, Gregorio episcopo de Morauia, Herberto can- 
cellario, Beth comite, Malis comite, Eduardo constabulario, 
Willelmo fratre reginae, Gospatricio filio Waltheui. Apud 
Scon. 



Notitia of the history of the see of Glasgow and 
of the Inquisitio by Earl David as to the 
extent of the lands of the church of Glasgow, 
circa A.D. 1124. 

Regist. Epis. Glasguensis, No. i. 

IGITUR quandoquidem praedecessorum instituta mortalium 
litterarum ostentatione et scribarum deliberatione ad 
memoriam revocantur : Nos Cumbrensium quaedam gesta 
nobilium praesentibus apicibus memoriae commendavimus. 

In Cumbria itaque, regione quadam inter Angliam et 
Scotiam sita, fide catholica in illis climatibus prius 
exuberante ac propagante : domestici fidei ac proceres 
regni cum rege provinciae co-operante in honorem Dei 
et Sanctae Mariae piae genetricis ecclesiam Glasguensem 
sedem, scilicet pontificalem Cumbrensis regionis funda- 
verunt et dignis sanctionibus pro pristina sanctorum 
religione fratrum solidaverunt. 

Haec vero pulchris initiatibus et ecclesiasticis institu- 
tionibus sanctae quoque fidei rudimentis inolevit et 
dispositione divina Sanctum Kentegernum in episcopum 
admisit qui coelestis affluentiam doctrinae sitientibus 
propinaret et cibum spiritualem ut fidelis dispensator 
esurientibus ministraret. 



XLIX. L. 45 

Verumenimvero fraudulentus exterminator supra dictam 
ecclesiam diu inviolabiliter constare ingemiscens, con- 
suetis versutiis suis post multa temporum curricula 
scandala intolerabilia Cumbrensium ecclesiae machi- 
navit. Dicto namque Kentegerno pluribusque suc- 
cessoribus suis piae religionis perseverantia ad Deum 
transmigratis : diversae seditiones circumquaque insurgentes 
non solum ecclesiam et ejus possessiones destruxerunt, 
verum etiam totam regionem vastantes, ejus habitatores 
exilio tradiderunt Sic ergo omnibus bonis exterminatis, 
magnis temporum intervallo transactis, diverse tribus 
diversarum nationum ex diversis partibus affluentes, 
desertam regionem praefatam habitaverunt : sed dispari 
genere et dissimili lingua et vario more viventes baud 
facile [inter] sese consentientes gentilitatem potius quam 
fidei cultum tenuere. Quos infelices damnatae habita- 
tionis habitatores more pecudum irrationabiliter degentes, 
dignatus est Dominus qui neminem vult perire propi- 
tiatione sua visitare ; tempore enim Henrici regis Angliae, 
Alexandro Scottorum rege in Scotia regnante, misit eis 
Deus David praedicti regis Scotiae germanum in principem 
et ducem, qui eorum impudica et scelerosa contagia corri- 
geret et animi nobilitate et inflexibili severitate contume- 
liosam eorum contumaciam refrenaret. 

Hie nempe bene vivendi studio fervidus profanae mul- 
titudinis miseriae condolens, ut pastorali solicitudine 
qua diutius caruerant eorum opprobria deleret, divino 
instigatus hortamine, Johannem quemdam religiosum 
virum qui eum educaverat vitamque ejus Deo non 
imbeciliter devotam voverat, . . . consilio clericorumque 
suorum auxilio in episcopum elegit. Sed cum episcopus 
cognita infelicis populi feritate et abominabili vitiorum 
multiplicitate utpote perterritus Jerusalem profkisci 
disposuisset, ab apostolico Paschali licet invitus con- 
secratus, officium susceptae solicitudinis nullatenus 
differre voluit, sed cum gaudio sub plebis alacritate a 



4 6 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

principe et a proceribus regni receptus, verbum praedica- 
tionis Spiritu Sancto largiflue operante per Cumbrensem 
parochiam diffudit 

Inquisitio per David Principem Cumbrensem de terris 

Ecclesiae Glasguensi pertinentibus facta. 
DAVID vero Cumbrensis regionis princeps, amore praecipue 
Dei partim quoque [ob] religiosi dilectionem et ammoni- 
tionem terras ecclesiae Glasguensi pertinentes singulis 
Cumbriae provinciis quae sub dominio et potestate ejus 
erant (non vero toti Cumbrensi regioni dominabatur) 
inquirere fecit ut avidus ipsius ecclesiae restaurationis 
possessionum earum quas antiquitus tenuerat posteris 
et sequacibus suis certitudinem relinqueret. 

Has vero auxilio et investigatione seniorum hominum 
et sapientiorum totius Cumbriae pro posse suo investi- 
gavit quae inferius subscribuntur. 

Carcleuien . Camcar . Camcachecheyn . Lengartheyn . 
Pathelanerhc . Cunclut . Chefcarnenuat . Carnethyn . 
Caruil . Quendal . Abercarf . Mecheyn . Planmichel . Sto- 
boc . Penteiacob . Alnecrumba Treueronum . Lillescliva . 
Asheschyrc . Hodelme . Edyngaheym . Abermelc . Driues- 
dale . Colehtaun . Trevertrold . Aschebj . Brumescheyd . 
Treuergylt, in Pobles una carrucata terrae et ecclesia, in 
Treverquyrd una carrucata et ecclesia, in Mereboda una 
carrucata et ecclesia. 

Has terras juraverunt fore pertinentes ecclesiae Glasgu 
rogatu et imperio supradicti principis, Uchtred filius 
Waldef . Gille films Boed . Leysing et Oggo Cumbrenses 
judices . Halden films Eadulf. 

Hujus rei testes sunt ut audientes et videntes, 
Matildis comitissa, quae ex parte sua concessit, Willelmus 
nepos ipsius principis, Cospatric frater Dalfin, Waldef 
frater suus. Cospatric films Uctred, Cospatric films Alden, 
Osolf filius Eadiue, Maccus filius Undweyn, Uhctred 
films Scot, Ulchel filius Alstan . Hugo de Morvilla . 



L. LII. 47 

Paganus de Brausa . Osbert de Ardena . Gervasius Ridel . 
Guido de Caynes . Berengarius Engaine . Robertas Corbet . 
Walterus de Lindeseya. Robertus de Burnevilla. Reinaldus 
de Muscans . Walterus films Winemari . Willelmus venator. 
Alanus de Perci . Walterus de Broy. 



LI. 

Charter by Earl David granting in elemosinam 
the lands held under him by the monks of 
Daventry, A.D. 1114-1124. 

Registr. Prior. Daventre. 

DAUID Comes omnibus baronibus suis et amicis suis 
Francis et Anglis salutem. Sciatis me concessisse 
monachis de Dauentre quicquid tenent de meo feudo in 
terris et decimis et in aliis rebus, scilicet in elemosina. 
Testibus H. de Leicestria et H. de Moreuill et Roberto 
filio Ingell. Apud Jerdelai. 



LII. 

Confirmation by Earl David of the grant by 
Robert de Brus of Karkarevil to the Abbey 
of St. Mary at York, A.D. 1114-1124. 

Dugdale's Monasticon, III., p. 583. 

OMNIBUS videntibus vel audientibus litteras has David 
Comes, salutem. Sciatis me concessisse Deo et Sanctae 
Mariae et Abbatiae Eboracensi in puram elemosinam, 
villam quae vocatur Karkarevil et ecclesiam ejusdem 
villae, quam dedit Robertus Brus praedictae abbatiae pro 
salute mea et uxoris meae et pro salute animarum patris 
et matris meae et pro animabus omnium fidelium defunc- 
torum. Valete. 



48 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

LIII. 

Charter by Earl David to Roger the Archdeacon 
of land in Totenham, A.D. 1114-1124. 

Original in the Archives of the Duchy of Lancaster. 
DAVID Comes, Edwardo praeposito et omnibus succes- 
soribus suis et omnibus hominibus suis de terra et soca 
sua in Londonia et Totenham salutem. Sciatis me 
concessisse et dedisse Rogero Archidiacono et heredi 
ejus totam terram quam tenuit Alwinus Kybbel et 
Ailwardus subsessor ejus libere cum sacha et socha, 
dando singulis annis III. solidos pro censu et vm. 
denarios pro sacha et socha et Agelwardus ibit ad 
placita comitis manutenenda et ipse Archidiaconus si 
in Londonia fuerit expeditus et summonitus fuerit 
manutenebit placita comitis. Et qui sub eo hospitati 
fuerint absque occasione implacitationis. Nee Agel- 
wardo faciet Archidiaconus incrementum super hoc quod 
solebat dare sed nee ipsi Archidiacono incrementum fiet, 
et nullus hospitabitur in domo Archidiaconi nisi Robertus 
Foliot et armigeri sui nisi per Archidiaconum. Et si 
comiti Episcopus vel alia persona ecclesiastica venerit, 
si opus fuerit hospitabitur. Hujus concessionis testes 
sunt Willelmus Peveraell, Hugo de Morevilla, Fulbertus 
de Totenham, Alwinus capellanus comitis, Radulfus pres- 
byter de Totenham, Edwardus prepositus comitis. 
Alfricus presbyter de Sancto Bartholemeo, Edwinus 
Aldormann, Arnaldus, Radulfus films Arth. 

LIV. 

Charter by King David granting Annandale to 
Robert de Brus, circa A.D. 1124. 

Original in the Archives of the Duchy of Lancaster. 
DAVID Dei gratia Rex Scottorum, omnibus baronibus 
suis et hominibus et amicis Francis et Anglis salutem. 



LIII. LV. 49 

Sciatis me dedisse et concessisse Roberto de Brus 
Estrahanent et totam terram a divisa Dunegal de Stranit 
usque ad divisam Randulfi Meschin ; et volo et concede 
ut illam terram et suum castellum bene et honorifice 
cum omnibus consuetudinibus suis teneat et habeat, 
videlicet cum omnibus illis consuetudinibus quas 
Randulfus Meschin unquam habuit in Carduill et in 
terra sua de Cumberland, illo die in quo unquam 
meliores et liberiores habuit. 

Testibus Eustachio filio Johannis et Hugone de Morvilla 
et Alano de [Perci] et Willelmo de Sumervilla et 
Berengario Engaine et Randulfo de Sules et Willelmo 
de Morvilla et Henrico filio Warini et Edmundo Camerario. 
Apud Sconam. 

LV. 

Pope Honorius II. to David, King of Scots, 
A.D. 13 April, 1125. 

2 Concil. p. 211. 

HONORIUS Episcopus servus servorum Dei dilecto filio 
David illustri Scottorum Regi, salutem et apostolicam 
benedictionem. 

Oportet devotos et humiles beati Petri discipulos, 
quae ad honorem sanctae Romanae Ecclesiae spectare 
cognoverint, attentius operari. 

Unde nobilitate tuae rogando mandamus, ut dilectum 
filium nostrum Johannem Cardinalem, cui vices nostras in 
partibus illis commisimus, reverenter suscipias et honores. 

Episcopos etiam terrae tuae, cum ab eo vocati fuerint, 
ad concilium suum facies convenire. 

Controversiam quae inter Thurstanum Eboracensem 
Archiepiscopum et episcopos terrae tuae diu agitata est, 
eidem legato nostro diligentius indagandam discutiendam- 
que committimus. Finalem vero sententiam apostolicae 
sedis judicio reservamus. 

Data Laterani Idibus Aprilis. 



50 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 



LVI. 

Charter by King David granting to the Monks of 
St. Andrew at Northampton the Church of 
Polton, A.D. 1124-1130. 

Regist. Prior. S. Andreae de Northampton. 

DAVID Dei gratia Rex Scottorum Roberto Episcopo 
Lincolniensi et Hugoni vicecomiti de Leycestria et omni- 
bus ministris et fidelibus suis Francis et Anglis salutem. 
Sciatis me dedisse et concessisse in perpetuam elemosinam 
ecclesiam de Poltona cum omnibus appendiciis suis mon- 
achis meis ecclesiae Sancti Andreae de Northampton pro 
salute animae et Matildis Reginae uxoris meae et omnium 
antecessorum meorum. Quare volo et firmiter praecipio 
quatenus libere et quiete earn teneant sicut libera elemosina. 
Testibus Roberto de Rend et Hugone de Moruilla, Roberto 
Corbet, Edwardo Capellano. Apud Barwykke. 



LVII. 

Confirmation by King David of the rights of the 

monks of St. Andrew at Northampton, 

A.D. 1124-1130. 

Regist. Prior. S. Andreae de Northampton. 

DAVID Dei gratia Rex Scottorum omnibus suis hominibus 
fidelibus et amicis totius Angliae salutem. Volo ut bene 
sciatis me concessisse monachis Sancti Andreae de North- 
ampton Deo et Beatae Mariae servientibus omnia quaecum- 
que teneant sive ex me sive ex meis hominibus eo die quo 
factus sum Rex Scotiae. Et ut ea omnia honorifice et 
quiete teneant. Et praecipio omnibus meis hominibus et 
praecipue dapifero meo non eos iniuste manuteneatis et si 



LVI. LIX. 51 

quis de meis tenentibus injuriam eis facere praesumpserit, 
plenariam rectitudinem eis habere faciatis. Testibus 
Michaele de Hamesl. Roberto de Brus, Hugone de 
Moreuilla, Rogero filio Nigelli, Roberto filio Vitalis, 
Willelmo nepote regis, Ilbard de Agenho, Ogero de 
Hotton. 

LVIII. 

Confirmation by King David to the Monks of 
Northampton of a grant of forty shillings from 
the rents of Bedford, A.D. 1124-1130. 

Regist. Prior. S. Andreae de Northampton. 

DAUID Dei gratia Rex Scottorum Reginaldo de Bull 
salutem. Praecipio tibi quatenus intendas priori et 
monachis de Northampton de XL. solidis de redditionibus 
de Bedford et fac eis habere XX d solidos ad Pascha et 
xx t! solidos ad festum Sancti Michaelis, et nulli nisi 
ipsi inde respondeas ut quicunque post te minister fuerit 
simili eis habere faciat ut clamorem inde non audiam. 
Teste Herberto Cancellario et Hugone de Leycestria, et 
Grimbaud. Apud Huntyndon. 

LIX. 

Confirmation by King David to the Church of St. 
Augustine at Daventry, A.D. 1124-1130. 

Regist. Prior. Daventry. 

DAUID Dei gratia rex Scottorum omnibus probis hominibus 
suis et amicis salutem. Sciatis me concessisse Deo et 
Sanctae Mariae caritatis et ecclesiae sancti Augustini de 
Dauentre et monachis ibidem Deo servientibus in per- 
petuum in elemosinam quicquid tenent de feudo meo de 
quocunque sit. Et Willelmus et Hugo qui canonici sunt 
eiusdem loci prebendas suas omni vita sua libere et honori- 
fice teneant, nisi habitum suum vel vitam mutaverint. 



52 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

Testibus A Episcopo Lincolniensi, et Herberto Cancellario 
et Waltero Archidiacono et Hugone de Moreuill et Roberto 
de Brus et Widone de Chanin et Willelmo de Hoct. et 
aliis. Apud ierdelai, die dedicationis ecclesiae Sancti 
Andreae de Jerdelai. 

LX. 

Confirmation by King David to the Monks of 
Northampton of the Church of Brawfeld, with a 
virgate of land and rights in the wood of 
Yerdelay, A.D. 1124-1130. 

Regist. Prior. S. Andreae de Northampton. 

DAUID Dei gratia Rex Scottorum Hugoni Vicecomiti et 
Grimbald et omnibus ministris suis salutem. Praecipio quod 
monachi de Northampton teneant ecclesiam de Braufeld 
cum virgata terrae quae ad earn pertinet liberam et 
quietam ab omni servitio mihi pertinenti. Concedo 
etiam eis ut habeant duas carectas in nemore de ierdele ad 
capiendum mortuum boscum. Teste Herberto Cancellario 
et Roberto de Brus. Apud Dunferm[line]. 

LXI. 

Mandate by King David regarding the payment 

of tithe to the Church of Dunfermline, 

circa A.D. 1125. 

Regist. de Dunfermelyn, No. 6. 

DAVID Rex Scottorum, Willelmo vicecomiti et prepositis 
et ministris suis de Struelin, salutem. Sciatis quia volo 
et nrmiter praecipio quod habere faciatis monachis de 
Dunfermelyn omnes decimas et rectitudines suas ita 
plenarie sicut eis plenius dedi et in elemosinam concessi, 
in omnibus rebus quas juste debent habere unde poteritis 
eis justitiam facere. Et nullus super meum forisfactum 
eis detineat; Testibus Johanne Episcopo, Randulpho 
de Suies. Apud Perth. 



LIX. LXIII. 53 



LXII. 

Grant by King David to the Church of Dun- 
fermline of the tithe of the King's lands of 
Dunfermline and dwellings in four burghs, 
circa A.D. 1125. 

Regist. de Dunfermelyn, No. 26. 

DAVID Dei gratia Rex Scottorum, Roberto electo Sancti 
Andreae et omnibus comitibus et baronibus et omnibus 
fidelibus suis, salutem. 

Sciatis me concessisse et dedisse in perpetuum in 
elemosinam pro anima patris et matris meae et fratrum 
et antecessorum meorum, ecclesiae Sanctae Trinitatis de 
Dunfermelyn omnem decimationem de omnibus dominiis 
meis de Dunfermelyn, nisi de illis quae ad alias ecclesias 
pertinent ; et unam mansuram in burgo meo de Dun- 
fermelyn liberam et quietam, et aliam in burgo meo 
in Struelin, et aliam in burgo meo de Perth, et aliam in 
burgo meo de Edenesburge. 

Testibus Roberto electo Sancti Andreae et Herberto 
Cancellario. Apud Dunfermelyn. 



LXIII. 

Pope Honorius II. to the Bishop elect of 
Candida Casa, circa A.D. 1125. 

2 Concil. 24. 

HONORIUS Episcopus, servus servorum Dei, dilecto filio 
electo de Candida Casa, salutem et apostolicam bene- 
dictionem. 

Cui alii a Domino praeesse conceditur, nulla suis 
digne subesse praelatis superbia convincatur : ideoque 



54 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

per praesentia scripta tibi mandamus, ut ad carissimum 
fratrem nostrum Turstinum Eboracensem Archiepiscopum 
tanquam ad proprium metropolitanum tuum consecrandus 
accedas : et ab ipsius manu, praesente Sancti Spiritus 
gratia cum humilitatis devotione consecrationem accipias. 
Data Laterani quinto idus Decembri. 



LXIV. 

Profession of Gilla-Aldan, Bishop elect of Candida 
Casa, to Thurstin, Archbishop of York, circa 
A.D. 1126. 

6 Dugdale, Monasticon, p. 1189; 2 Concil. 25. 

DOMINO et patri suo reverendo Thurstino Dei gratia 
Eboracensis provinciae metropolitano, Gilla Aldan humilis 
electus Candidae Casae salutem et obedientiam. 

Cognovi, tam scriptis patrum authenticis quam veredicis 
antiquorum virorum testimoniis, quod episcopus Candidae 
Casae ab antiquo debeat ad matrem suam Eboracensem 
metropolim respicere, et in his quae ad Deum pertinent 
obtemperare : quapropter ego Gilla Aldan Candidae Casae 
electus sanctae Eboracensis ecclesiae, et tibi Turstine 
et successoribus tuis canonice instituendis debitam sub- 
jectionem a sanctis patribus institutam et canonicam 
obedientiam me amodo servaturum promitto. 

LXV. 

Confirmation by King David of Coldingham and 
other lands to the Monks of St. Cuthbert 
at Durham, A.D. 1126. 

The original is in the Treasury at Durham. 
DAVID Dei gratia Rex Scottorum omnibus per regnum 
suum in Scotia et Lodoneio constitutis Scottis et Anglis 
salutem. 



LXIII. LXVI. 55 

Sciatis me concessisse et dedisse Deo et Sancto 
Cuthberto et monachis ejus in elemosinam has terras in 
Lodoneio, scilicet Goldingeham, Aldecambes, Lumesdene, 
Ristun, Reinintun, Swinewde, Prenegest, Eitun et aliam 
Eitun et Cramesmutham, Lambertun et aliam Lambertun, 
Paxtun, Fiswic et Swintun omnes has suprascriptas 
terras ego do et concede Deo et Sancto praedicto et 
monachis ejus cum sacca et socna et toll et team 
et infangethef et cum omnibus terris et silvis et aquis et 
fracturis navium et cum omnibus consuetudinibus, liberas et 
quietas ab omni opere et servitio, pro salute animae meae 
et filii mei Henrici et pro animabus patris et matris meae et 
fratrum et sororum mearum. Praecipio etiam et defendo 
ne aliquis de hac mea donatione aliquam injuriam vel 
molestiam aut calumpniam monachis Sancti Cuthberti 
amodo faciat quia volo ut haec mea elemosina libera et 
quieta ab omni calumpnia in perpetuum remaneat 

Haec carta firmata est anno ab incarnatione Domini 
M.C.XXVI, tertio anno regni mei, apud Pebles et etiam 
concessu Henrici filii mei. 

Et isti alii sunt inde testes, Johannes Episcopus, Rod- 
bertus de Brus, Herbertus Cancellarius, Ascelinus Archi- 
diaconus, Paganus de Braiosa, Hugo Brito, Berengarius 
Ingania, Gospatricius, Vicecomes, Aimarus. 



LXVI. 

Mandate by King David that no distress be taken 
on the land nor from the men, of the Church 
of Dunfermline, except for their own debt, 
circa A.D. 1 126. 

Registr. de Dunfermelyn, No. 16. 

DAVID Dei gratia Rex Scottorum omnibus baronibus 
suis et fidelibus suis, salutem. 



56 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

Praecipio vobis ne capiatis aliquod namum super terrain 
et super homines Sanctae Trinitatis de Dunfermelyn pro 
forisfacto alicujus nisi pro proprio forisfacto illorum. 

Teste Hugone de Moreuill. Apud Edenburge. 



LXVII. 

Mandate by King David that no distress be taken 
on the lands of the Church of St. Andrews for 
the debt of a stranger, circa A.D. 1126. 

Registr. Prior. S. Andreae. 

DAVID Rex Scottorum, baronibus vicecomitibus minis- 
tris et omnibus probis hominibus suis totius regni sui, 
salutem. 

Sciatis quia volo et firmiter prohibeo quod nullum 
namum capiatur usquam in terris pertinentibus ecclesiae 
Sancti Andreae pro alterius forisfacto vel debitis aliorum. 

Teste Herberto camerario apud Rochesburg. 



LXVIII. 

Grant by King David to the Church of Dunferm- 
line of three serfs, circa A.D. 1126. 

Registr. de Dunfermelyn, No. 19. 

DAVID Dei gratia Rex Scottorum, omnibus probis homi- 
nibus suis, salutem. 

Sciatis me dedisse Ragewin et Gillepatric et Ulchil 
in perpetuum ecclesiae Sanctae Trinitatis de Dunfermelyn 
sicuti homines meos proprios. 



LXVI.LXX. 57 

Testibus Johanne Episcopo et Gillemichel Comite et 
Waldeuo fratre Dolfin et Maldoueni judice et Unyet 
albo et Rob. Burgeis. Apud Dunfermelyn. 



LXIX. 

Grant by King David to the Church of Dun- 
fermline of a toft in the burgh of Perth, 
circa A.D. 1126. 

Registr. de Dunfermelyn, No. 25. 

DAVID Dei gratia Rex Scotiae omnibus fidelibus 
hominibus suis totius Scotiae et praepositis de Perth, 
salutem. 

Sciatis me dedisse in elemosinam ecclesiae Sanctae 
Trinitatis de Dunfermelyn unum toftum in meo burgo de 
Perth quietum de omnibus rebus. 

Ideo mando vobis quatenus faciatis eidem ecclesiae 
habere illud ibidem quod Swain saisivit. 

Testibus Herberto cancellario et Hugone de Moreuill. 
Apud Striuelin. 



LXX. 

Mandate by King David regarding fugitive serfs 
of the Church of Dunfermline, circa A.D. 1126. 

Registr. de Dunfermelyn, No. 32. 

DAVID Rex Scottorum omnibus fidelibus suis totius 
Scotiae et Laudoniae, salutem. 

Praecipio quatenus cito Cumerlache reddantur ecclesiae 
Sanctae Trinitatis de Dunfermelyn et omnes servi sui 
quos pater meus et mater mea et fratres mei ei dederunt 



58 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

et Cumerlache sui a tempore Edgari regis usque nunc 
cum tota pecunia sua ubicunque inveniantur et prohibeo 
ne injuste retineantur. 

Testibus Herberto cancellario et Unyet. Apud Dun- 
fermelin. 



LXXI. 

Charter by King David granting to the Monks 
of the Church of St. Andrew at Northampton, 
tithes and lands in Scaldeford and Exton, 
circa A.D. 1 126. 

5 Dugdale, p. 191 ; Regist. Prior. St. Andreae de Northampton. 

DAVID Dei gratia Rex Scottorum omnibus baronibus 
et hominibus suis, salutem. 

Sciatis me concessisse et confirmasse monachis 
ecclesiae Sancti Andreae Northamptoniae ut ubicunque 
decimas dominii mei plenarie eis habeant tarn in 
pecoribus quam in omnibus fructibus terrae eis quicquid 
Confirmo igitur quicquid habent in villa de Scaldeford. 
scilicet unum molendinum et unam carrucatam terrae in 
liberam elemosinam. 

Reliquam vero terram quam ibidem habent ea libertate 
tenebunt qua Robertus films Vitalis, dominus ejusdem 
villae, terram suam tenet, nee aliquam consuetudinem ei 
inde debent sicut ipse confessus est ante me et meos 
homines. 

Concede igitur eis ut apud Extonam terram illam quae 
vocatur Wiliges frangatur et seminetur et nullus eos 
inquietare praesumat. 

^ Testibus Michaele de Hanesel et Roberto de Brus 
et Roberto filio Nigelli. Apud Gerdelai. 



LXX. LXXIII. 59 



LXXII. 

Charter by King- David to the Church of 
St. Cuthbert in Edinburgh, circa A.D. 1127. 

Holyrood Charters, No. 3. 

DAVID Rex Scottorum, omnibus probis hominibus suis 
totius Lodonie clericis et laicis, Francis et Anglicis, 
salutem. 

Sciatis me dedisse et concessisse ecclesiae Sancti 
Cuthberti juxta castellum totam terram sub eodem castello 
videlicet a fonte quae oritur juxta angulum gardini regis 
per viam qua itur ad eandem ecclesiam et ex altera parte 
sub castello usque pervenitur ad unam viam quae est sub 
eodem castello versus orientem. 

Testibus Henrico filio Regis et Willelmo de Graham 
et Thor de Trauernent et Malbead de Libertona. 



LXXIII. 

Charter by Robert, Bishop of St. Andrew's, 
granting to the church of Coldingham freedom 
from aid, cain, or conveth, payable to the 
Bishops of St. Andrews, A.D. 17 July, 1127. 

The original is in the Treasury at Durham. 

OMNIBUS sanctae matris ecclesiae fidelibus clericis et 
laicis tarn praesentibus quam futuris, Rodbertus Dei 
gratia Sancti Andreae Episcopus, salutem. 

Notum sit vobis omnibus quod nos coram domino 
nostro Rege David et Turstino Archiepiscopo Eboracensi 



60 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

et Rannulfo Dunelmensi Episcopo, Johanne Episcopo 
Glascuensi, et Gaufrido Abbate Sancti Albani et aliis 
multis personis convocavimus Algarum Priorem Sancti 
Cuthberti de Dunelmo ante hostium Ecclesiae Sancti 
Johannis Evangelistae in Rokesburc, ibique quantum ad 
episcopalem auctoritatem pertinet praesentis cartae attes- 
tatione ac munimine clamavimus concessimus et con- 
firmavimus, Ecclesiam de Coldingham liberam et quietam 
in perpetuum, tarn a nobis quam a successoribus nostris 
ab omni calumpnia consuetudine Cana vel Cunevethe 
atque ab omni servitio quod ad nos pertinet vel ad suc- 
cessores nostros. Quare volumus ut episcopali auctori- 
tate confirmamus, quatenus ecclesia de Coldingham et 
omnes ecclesiae vel capellae quae amodo canonice ad 
ecclesiam Sancti Cuthberti pertinuerint, libere et quiete 
sint in perpetuum ab omni episcopali auxilio Cana et 
Conevethe ita ut liberiores et quietiores sint quam aliquae 
aliae ecclesiae abbatiarum quae fuerint in Lothoneio. Et 
prohibemus ne aliquis amodo episcopus, archidiaconus 
vel decanus, aliquam omnino ulterius consuetudinem vel 
auxilium ab eis exigat, nisi forte gratis dare voluerint. 
Haec omnia fecimus prece et consilio domini Regis 
David et praedictorum Episcoporum fratrum nostrorum, 
pro amore Sancti Cuthberti et fraternitate Dunelmen- 
sium monachorum XVI. Kalendas Augusti in festo 
Sancti Kentigerni Martyris, anno ab incarnatione Domini 
MC.XXVII. 

Testibus praesentibus Rodberto fratre meo, Blahano 
presbitero de Litun, Adulfo presbitero de Aldehamstoc, 
Henrico presbitero de Leinhale, Orm presbitero de Eden- 
ham et Johanne presbitero de Ledgardeswde, Godwino 
dapifero Godwino camerario meo et Balsan, cum multis 
aliis personis religiosis tarn clericorum quam laicorum. 



LXXIIL LXXIV. 61 



LXXIV. 

Charter by King David to the Church of Dun- 
fermline confirming the grants of preceding 
kings, and granting many lands and privi- 
leges, circa A.D. 1128. 

Registr. de Dunfermelyn, No. i. 

IN nomine Sanctae et Individuae Trinitatis. Ego David 
Dei gratia Rex Scottorum, auctoritate regia ac potestate, 
Henrici filii mei assensu, et Matildis Reginae uxoris 
meae, episcoporum, comitum, baronumque regni mei 
confirmatione et testimonio clero etiam adquiescente et 
populo, ecclesiae Sanctae Trinitatis Dunfermelitane, prae- 
decessorum meorum pietatis studio et largitionis initiatae 
omnia subscripta concedo et pace perpetua confirmo. 

Patris itaque et matris meae dona subsequentia propono, 
Pardusin, Pethnaurcha, Petcorthin, Petbachelin, Lauer, 
Bolgin, Schyram de Kircalethyn, Inuiresc minorem. 
Dona Duncan patris mei duas villas nomine Lusker ; 
Dona Edgaris patris met Schyram de Gellald. Dona 
Ethelredi fratris mei, Hale. Dona Alexandri Regis fratris 
mei, Duninad, Schiram de Gatemilc, Petconmarthin, Bale- 
kerin, Drumbernin, Keeth. Dona Sibillae Reginae, Beeth. 
Et haec praedicta praedecessorum meorum dona concedo 
liberaliter prefatae ecclesiae in perpetuum cum omnibus 
suis appendiciis et rectis divisis. 

Dona denique propria subsequuntur, Dunfermlin citra 
aquam in qua ecclesia sita est, Kingorn cum suis appen- 
diciis qui propinquior est Dunfermlin, Foeth, Inveresc 
majorem cum molendino et piscinis, unam mansuram in 
Berwiche, aliam in burgo de Edinburgh, tertiam in burgo 
de Striuelin, quartam in burgo Dunfermelitan quintam 
in burgo de Perth et ecclesiam burgi de Perth et red- 
ditum centum solidorum in Anglia. 



62 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

Omnia autem dona praedicta ita liberaliter et quiete 
praefatae ecclesiae concede, sicut ego terras meas proprias 
possideo, defensione regni mei excepta et justitia regali, 
si Abbas in curia sua aliqua negligentia de justitia 
deciderit 

Concede et omnem octavam partem de omnibus placitis 
et querelis meis de Fif et de Fotherif, et omnem decimam 
totius mei can quod afferetur ad Dunfermlin, et omnem 
decimam praebendae quae afferetur ibidem de Fif et de 
Fotherif, et decimam omnium venationum quae ibidem 
afferentur et medietatem coriorum et seporum et 
segaminis omnium bestiarum quae occidentur ad fes- 
tivitates tenendas in Struelin et inter Forth et Tey, et 
concede can unius navis liberum et quietum ubicunque 
in regno meo applicuerit, concede et ut habeant in 
nemoribus meis omnia necessaria ad ignem et ad 
aedifkia sua sicut meipsi et hominibus eorum sicut et 
meis. 

Volo denique ut omnes oblationes quae ad majus 
altare ejusdem offerentur sine calumpnia liberaliter 
habeant et de seliches quae ad Kingorn capientur 
postquam decimatae fuerint, concede ut omnes septimos 
seliches habeant, salisque et [ferri] quae ad opus 
meum ad Dunfermlin adlata fuerint omnem decimam 
concede. 

Supra taxatam autem ecclesiam cum omnibus quae 
Dei donante dementia, in praesenti sicut praesens testatur 
privilegium obtinet et in future eadem adquirere dementia 
valebit in summae pacis tranquillitate et ab omni 
liberimam tarn secularis quam ecciesiasticae potestatis 
subjectione et exactionis inquietudinem permanere 
decernimus excepta sola canonica obediencia quam debet 
unaque matris suae per orbem ecclesia. 

Eandem quoque libertatem in omnibus quam ecclesia 
Sancti Andreae retinet jure inconcusso aeternaliter 
possideat. 



LXXIV. LXXV. 63 

Cujus etiam jura in hoc privilegio praenotata est 
dignitatis privilegia immutilata servare et stabilitate 
perpetua firmare. 

Nosque praesentes sumus successoribus nostris sub 
hac conditione confirmando mandamus et mandando 
confirmamus ut siquis ea perturbare voluerit et nostrae 
defensionis statuta divellere minuere ac violare conten- 
deret non ignoret se contra ipsum mundi Salvatorem 
niti et ideo nee resipuerit aeternae damnationis 
sententiam incurrere eumque Deus de libro vitae deleat 
quae ecclesiae prefatae de concessu potestatis jure 
aliquod abstulerit. Amen Fiat. Ego Robertus Sancti 
Andreae Episcopus confirmo, Ego Johannis Glasguensis 
Episcopus confirmo, Ego Cormaccus Dunkeldensis Epis- 
copus confirmo, Ego Gregorius Moraviensis Episcopus 
confirmo, Ego Macbeth Rosmarkensis Episcopus confirmo. 

Hujus et privilegia testes et assertores sunt Ed. 
Comes, Constantinus Comes, Malise Comes, Rotheri 
Comes, Madeth Comes, Gillemichel Mac duf, Herbertus 
Cancellarius, Hugo de Moreuill, Robertus Corbet, 
Robertus de Monte acuto, Vnyet albus, Maldoueni Mac 
ocbeth, Maldoueni de Scona, Gillepatric Mac Impethin 
Alwyn Mac Arkil, Robertus Burg, Edwardus films 
Siwardi, Walclinus Capellanus. 



LXXV. 

King David, respecting the consecration of Robert, 
Bishop of St. Andrews, at York, A.D. 1128. 

2 Concil. p. 215; Dugdale's Monasticon, vi., p. 1187. 

DAVID Dei gratia Rex Scottorum, Universis Sanctae 
Ecclesiae filiis, salutem. 

Notum sit tarn praesentibus quam futuris, Thurstinum 
Eboracensis Archiepiscopum consecrasse sine professione 
et obedientia pro amore Dei et mei, Robertum Sancti 



64 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

Andreae Episcopum, salva querela Eboracensis Ecclesiae, 
et salva justitia Sancti Andreae. 

Et si quando Archiepiscopus Eboracensis de querela 
sua loqui voluerit, plenariam rectitudinem remota mali- 
volentia ei exequar, ubi juste debebo. 

Testibus Ranulfo Dunelmensi Episcopo, Johanne 
Glasguensi, Radulpho Orcadensi, Gaufrido Eboracensi 
monasterii abbate, Herebert Rochesburg' Wold' de Croy- 
land Adelof priore, Sconensi, Gaultero de Gaunt, 
Eustachio filio Johannis, Hugone Decano et toto Sancti 
Petri capitulo, Gaufrido Murdac, Anketino de Bulemer, 
Roberto de Wanevilla, Rogero de Eummers; et de 
Scotia, Aymaro milite, Aldano filio Alsimald, Ulkil 
filio Morvyn, Ulkil filio Maldred, Gilcolyn Slugepah. 



LXXVI. 

Declaration by Thurstin, Archbishop of York, re- 
garding the consecration of the Bishop of St. 
Andrews, A.D. 1128. 

2 Concil. 215 ; 2 Wharton, A.S. 237, from MS. Cotton, Titus A. xix. 

i 
THURSTINUS Archiepiscopus Dei gratia Eboracensis 

Universis Sanctae Ecclesiae filiis, salutem. 

Notum sit omnibus tarn praesentibus quam futuris 
absolute me consecrasse sine professione et obedientia, 
pro Dei amore, et Regis Scotiae venerabilis David, 
Robertum Sancti Andreae Episcopum, salva querela 
Eboracensis Ecclesiae et justitia Ecclesiae Sancti Andreae. 
Et si Archiepiscopus Eboracensis de querela sua loqui 
voluerit, Rex plenariam rectitudinem remota malevolentia 
ei exequetur, ubi juste debebit. 

Testibus Ranulfo Dunelmensi Episcopo, Johanne 
Glascuensi Episcopo, Radulfo Orcadensi, Galfrido Ebora- 
censis monasterii abbate, Herberto Rocosberiensi, Wai- 



LXXV. LXXVIII. 65 

devo de Creilant, Adulfo priore, Nicolao Sconensi, Waltero 
de Gant, Eustachio filio Johannis, Hugone decano et 
toto Sancti Petri capitulo, Galfrido Murdac, Aschetin 
de Bulmere ; et de Scotia, Almaro milite, Alden filio 
Adhelwold, Ulchil filio Mernin, Ulchil filio Maldred, 
Gille Colman, Slugedt, Roberto de Watervile, Rogero 
Coyneres. 

LXXVII. 

Grant by King David to the Church of Dun- 
fermline of the tithe of his house at Perth, 
circa A.D. 1 128. 

Registr. de Dunfermelyn, No. 17. 

DAVID Dei gratia Rex Scotiae, Malbride Mac congi, 
salutem. 

Scias me concessisse ecclesiae Sanctae Trinitatis de 
Dunfermelyn omnem decimam de domo mea de Perth 
quae mihi pertinet. 

Teste Uniet albo. Apud Scona. 



LXXVIII. 

Grant by King David to the Church of Dun- 
fermline of a tithe of gold from Fife and 
Fothris, circa A.D. 1128. 

Registr. de Dunfermelyn, No. 28. 

DAVID Rex Scottorum, omnibus hominibus suis, salutem. 

Sciatis me dedisse et concessisse ecclesiae Sanctae 
Trinitatis de Dunfermelyn in elemosinam omnem decimam 
de auro quod mihi eveniet de fif et de fothrif. 

Testibus . , . Cancellario et Hugone de Moreuill et 
Johanne Episcopo. Apud Elbotle. 



66 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 



LXXIX. 

Grant by King David to the Church of Dun- 
fermline of the Church of Inveresk, circa 
A.D. 1128. 

Registr. de Dunfermelyn, No. 30. 

DAVID Dei gratia Rex Scotiae, omnibus fidelibus suis, 
salutem. 

Sciatis me dedisse in elemosinam ecclesiae Sanctae 
Trinitatis de Dunfermelyn, ecclesiam de Infresc post 
obitum Nicholai sacerdotis. 

Teste, Johanne Episcopo. Apud Dunfermelyn. 



LXXX. 

Record of the Trial of a complaint by the Monks 
of St. Serfs Island against Sir Robert 
Burgonensis, circa A.D. 1128. 

Registr. Prior. St. Andreae. 

FORNAX et incendium totius iniquitatis, scilicet Robertus 
Burgonensis miles, gravaminibus et injuriis praefatos viros 
religiosos nequiter et calumpniose vexavit et fatigavit, 
volens precise fervore suae rapacitatis et infrenatae 
tyrannidis ab eis auferre quartam partem de Kyrkenes. 

Consilio inito a fratribus juxta simplicitatem suam 
accesserunt ad praesentiam regis David, supplicantes ei 
ut justum judicium faceret inter eos et praefatum 
Robertum. Tandem Rex misericordia motus misit 
nuncios suos per provinciam de Fyf et Fothrithi et con- 
vocavit hominum multitudinem in unum locum, scilicet, 



LXXIX. LXXXI. 67 

Constantinum, comitem de Fyf, virum discretum et 
facundum, cum satrapys et satellitibus et exercitu de Fyf, 
et Macbeath thaynetum de Falleland, et primicerios et 
duces et lumnarcas exercitus Episcopi, et Soen, ducem 
cum familia sua. Et tune temporis fuerunt 
duces exercitus episcopi Budadh et Slogadadh. Et hi 
omnes sunt testes hujus altercationis et dissentionis. 

Tandem fuit compromissum in tres viros legales et 
idoneos, scilicet, Constantinum, comitem de Fyf, magnum 
judicem in Scotia, et Dufgal filium Mocche, qui fuit 
senex Justus et venerabilis, et Meldoinneth filium 
Machedath, judicem bonum et discretum. 

Sed iste Dufgal primo pronunciavit sententiam pro 
monachis id est Keledeis et contra protervitatem et 
calumpniam Roberti Burgonensis, quia alii judices 
detulerunt Dufgal propter sui senectutem et juris peri- 
tiam. Et ita fuit decisum istud negotium sententionaliter 
et per juramentum. 

Isti sunt clerici qui juraverunt super finibus villae de 
Kyrkenes, Duftah sacerdos et abbas et Sarran, films 
Sodelne, et Eugenius monachus et Douinalde nepos Leod, 
et Morrehat vir venerandae senectutis et hiberniensis, et 
Cathan senex. Et sic victus fuit praedictus Robertus 
coram omnibus. 



LXXXI. 

Grant by Robert, Bishop of St. Andrews, to the 
Canons of Holyrood of the Church of the vill 
of Leuing, circa A.D. 1128. 

Holyrood Charters, No. 10. 

R. DEI gratia Sancti Andreae humilis minister, omnibus 
sanctae matris ecclesiae filiis salutem et benedictionem. 



68 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

Innotescat tarn praesentibus quam futuris nos concessisse 
et dedisse ecclesiam de villa Leuing sicut ipse con- 
cessit abbati et canonicis de Sancta Cruce, salva reverentia 
ecclesiae Sancti Andreae et episcopali dignitate cum 
omnibus rebus eidem ecclesiae juste pertinentibus. 

His praesentibus testibus T. Archid., A. decano, M. 
Thoma, W. Capellano, Magistro H, R. de Boilestunea. 
Valete. 



LXXXII. 

Confirmation by Robert, Bishop of St. Andrews, 
of the right of the Abbey of Kelso to the 
Church of St. Mary in Kelso, circa A.D. 1128. 

Liber de Calchou, No. 443. 

ROBERTUS Dei gratia Ecclesiae Sancti Andreae episcopus 
omnibus sanctae matris ecclesiae fidelibus, salutem. 

Sciant omnes sanctae ecclesiae filii praesentes et futuri 
quod pro amore Dei et honore et petitione David 
illustris Scottorum Regis, concessi solutam et quietam et 
omni subjectione et exactione liberam, ecclesiam Sanctae 
Mariae de Calceho quam idem Rex David in abbaciam 
pro Dei amore aedificavit ita scilicet ut Abbas et monachi 
ejusdem ecclesiae a quocunque episcopo voluerint in 
Scotia vel in Cumbria crisma suum et oleum et ordina- 
tionem ipsius abbatis et monachorum et cetera sanctae 
ecclesiae sacramenta accipiant. 

Testibus eodem Regi ^David et filio suo Henrico, 
Matildi Regina, Johanne Glasguensis episcopo, Ascelino 
Archidiacono, Adelulfo Sancti Oswaldi priore, Nicholao 
Sconensi priore, Willelmo Regis nepote, Hugone de 
Moruilla, Roberto de Unfranvilla et aliis. 



LXXXL LXXXIV. 69 

LXXXIII. 

Charter by King David to the Church of St. John 
in the Castle of Roxburgh, circa A.D. 1128. 

Registr. Episcop. Glasguensis, No. 4. 

DAVID Dei gratia Rex Scottorum, omnibus fidelibus 
suis et universis sanctae matris ecclesiae filiis, salutem. 

Sciant tarn posted quam praesentes me dedisse in 
perpetuum et libere ecclesiae Sancti Johannis de castro 
de Rokesburge, unam carrucatam terrae de dominico meo 
de Rokesburge, et unum plenarium toftum cum omnibus 
pertinentiis, et unam maisuram terrae infra castrum, et 
totam oblationem illorum qui manent vel residentes 
sunt in castro, et [quartam] partem oblationis meae 
quando fuero in castro vel familia mea fuerit unus de 
capellanis meis habebit, et totam decimam virgulti mei 
et totam decimam partem de sepo occisionis meae quae 
fit in Teuiethesdale. Et haec omnia concede praedictae 
ecclesiae et hac mea carta confirmo ita libere, quiete et 
honorifice, sicut aliqua elemosina potest melius et liberius 
et honorificentius dari aut concedi alicui ecclesiae. 

Testibus Johanne Episcopo et Henrico filio meo, 
Willelmo filio Dunecani, Waldef filio Reginae, Roberto 
Corbet et Cospatricio Vicecomite, Edwardo et Ricardo 
capellanis, Hugone Brittone, Berengario Engaine, Ascelino 
Archidiacono, Aldredo decano, Hugone de Moreuille. 
Apud Rokesburge. 

LXXXIV. 

Charter by King David to the Abbot and Monks of 
Dunfermline, granting freedom from secular 
service, circa A.D. 1130. 

Registr. de Dunfermelyn, No. 31. 

DAVID Dei gratia Rex Scottorum, omnibus probis 
hominibus suis, salutem. 



70 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

Sciatis me dedisse et concessisse Deo et ecclesiae 
Sanctae Trinitatis de Dunfermelyn et abbati et monachis 
ibidem Deo servientibus, pro anima patris mei et matris 
meae et pro animabus omnium antecessorum meorum et 
successorum, ut homines sui sint liberi ab omni operatione 
castellorum et pontium et omnium aliorum operum. Quare 
volo et precipio quatenus haec libertas eis in perpetuum 
conservetur inconcussa. 

Testibus Johanne Episcopo et Gillemichel comite 
et Roberto de Brus et Hugone de Moreuille. Apud 
Strathyrewen in Galwegia. 



LXXXV. 

Mandate by King David to preserve the rights 
of the Church of Dunfermline, circa A.D. 1130. 

Registr. de Dunfermelyn, No. 18. 

DAVID Dei gratia Rex Scotiae, Constantino et 
omnibus pertinentibus ad ecclesiam Sanctae Trinitatis 
hominibus, salutem. 

Praecipio quatenus omnes consuetudines quas juste 
eidem ecclesiae debetis sine contradictione reddatis et 
operi insistite quod ibi inceptum est sine aliqua 
dilatione. Quod si contempnitis facere, praecipio meo 
praeposito Suuene ne hoc patiatur et ut sit priori in 
adjutorium ut ecclesia ab eis habeat sicut a meis 
hominibus habeo. 

^Teste Edwardo capellano. Apud Strathirewin in 
Galwegia. 



LXXXIV. LXXXVII. 7 1 



LXXXVI. 

Grant by King David to the Abbot of Dunferm- 
line of the tithe of the King's rent from Stirling, 
circa A.D. 1 130. 

Registr. de Dunfermelyn, No. 8. 

DAVID Rex Scottorum vicecomiti et praepositis de 
Striuelin, salutem. 

Sciatis me concessisse Deo et abbati de Dunfermelyn 
decimam denariorum de censu meo de Striuelin. Quare 
volo et firmiter praecipio ut sine omni disturbatione 
faciatis ei earn habere sicut denarii venient. 

Testibus Roberto de Bruus, et Hugone de Moreville. 
Apud Striuelin. 



LXXXVII. 

Mandate by King David in favour of the Abbot 
and Monks of Dunfermline regarding ships 
trading at Inveresk, circa A.D. 1130. 

Registr. de Dunfermelyn, No. 13. 

DAVID Rex Scottorum omnibus probis hominibus totius 
terrae suae, salutem. 

Sciatis me dedisse et concessisse Deo et ecclesiae S. 
Trinitatis de Dunfermelyn et abbati et monachis ibidem 
Deo servientibus ut habeant omnes rectitudines de omni- 
bus navibus quae in portum de Inviresc applicuerint 
et ibi super terram suam retinacula sua fixerint, excepto 
theloneo meo si ibi mercatores navium merces suas 
vendiderint, vel alias ad deferendum secum in terra mea 
mercati fuerint. 



7 2 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

Testibus Hugone de Moreuille, Willelmo de Sumer- 
uille, Herberto Camerario, Thoro filio Swani. Apud 
Perth. 



LXXXVIII. 

Grant by King David exempting a ship of the 
Abbot of Dunfermline from the King's dues, 
circa A.D. 1130. 

Registr. de Dunfermelyn, No. 14. 

DAVID Dei gratia Rex Scottorum omnibus probis 
hominibus suis, salutem. 

Sciatis me clamasse navem abbatis de Dunfermelyn 
et omnia infra earn existentia quieta de omni consue- 
tudine mihi pertinenti. 

Teste, Johanne episcopo. Apud Perth. 



LXXXIX. 

Confirmation by King David of the rights of the 
Priory of Durham in the Church of Colding- 
ham, circa A.D. 1130. 

The original is in the Treasury at Durham. 

DAVID Dei gratia Rex Scottorum omnibus Sanctae 
Ecclesiae fidelibus praesentibus et futuris, salutem. 

Notum sit vobis omnibus quod Robertus Episcopus 
Sancti Andreae in presentia mea apud Rokesburg convo- 
cavit Alg. priorem Dun elm et Rog. subpriorem ante 
hostium ecclesiae Sancti Johannis Evangelistae dicens et 
contestans se nullam consuetudinem nihil juris clamare 



LXXXVIL XC. 73 

super ecclesiam de Coldingham sed velle et concedere 
ut ipsa ecclesia libera et quieta esset ab omni consuetudine 
et servitio salva episcopal! obedientia. Volo itaque et 
firmiter praecipio ut ipsa mea elemosina scilicet ecclesia 
de Coldingham libera et quieta ab omni consuetudine 
et servitio et exactione in perpetuum remaneat monachis 
Sancti Cuthberti. 

Testibus his Jo[hanni Episco]po, Roberto de Brus, 
Hereberto Cancellario, Ascelino Archidiacono, Hugone 
de Morevilla, Pagano de Braiosa, Hugone Brett, Bernegario 
Ingania, Aimaro et aliis multis. 



XC. 

Confirmation by King David of the boundary between 
Coldingham and Bonkyl, circa A.D. 1130. 

The original is in the Treasury at Durham. 

DAVID Rex Scottorum episcopis abbatibus comitibus 
baronibus justiciis vicecomitibus et omnibus probis 
hominibus suis Scottis et Anglicis totius terrae suae, 
salutem. 

Sciant praesentes et futuri me concessisse et hac mea 
carta confirmasse divisas inter Coldingham et Bonekil 
quas ego cum probis hominibus meis perambulari feci 
in perpetuum tenendas libere et quiete et plenarie, 
scilicet a Midlesdeneheued per Mereburnesheued versus 
occidentem usque ad Crachoctre et inde per eandem 
stratam usque ad Eiford. 

Testibus his Johanne Glascuensi Episcopo, Herberto 
Cancellario, R. de Brus, Pagano de Brausa, Hugone de 
Morevilla, Berengario Engain. Apud Rokesburc. 



74 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 



XCI. 

Charter by King David to the Church of Dun- 
fermline of a ploughgate in Craigmillar reserv- 
ing the liferent of the wife of Roger Cass, 
circa A.D. 1130. 

Registr. de Dunfermelyn, No. 12. 

DAVID Rex Scottorum, baronibus, vicecomitibus, minis- 
tris et omnibus fidelibus suis totius Laudonie, salutem. 

Sciatis me dedisse ecclesiae Sanctae Trinitatis de 
Dunfermelyn, in perpetuam elemosinam unam carrucatam 
terrae arabilis in Cragmilor et domos in quibus habit- 
abat uxor Rogeri Cassi, et hoc do et concede, praedictae 
ecclesiae, pro anima mea, et filii mei et antecessorum 
meorum et successorum ad tenendam ita libere sicut 
eadem ecclesia melius liberius tenet suas alias terras, 
et quamdiu praedicta uxor vixerit teneat hanc terrain et 
domos de eadem ecclesia si voluerit, si non, remaneat 
praedicta terra omnino quieta ad opus praedictae ecclesiae. 

Testibus Roberto episcopo Sancti Andreae Johanne 
episcopo et cancellario, et Dunecano comite, Edwardo 
constabulario. Apud Scon. 



XCII. 

Confirmation by Robert, Bishop of St. Andrews, 
of King David's grant to the Abbey of Holy- 
rood, circa A.D. 1130. 

Holyrood Charters, No. 2. 

OMNIBUS filiis Sanctae Matris ecclesiae, Rodbertus Dei 
gratia minister humilis ecclesiae Sancti Andreae, salutem 
et episcopalem benedictionem. 



XCL XCIII. 75 

Noscat vestra fraternitas, nos assensu totius capituli 
nostri, concessisse et carta nostra confirmasse ea omnia 
quae Rex David in elemosinam perpetuam dedit ecclesiae 
Sanctae Crucis de Edenesburc scilicet ecclesiam de 
Castello cum saletunia, et omnibus aliis ejus appenditiis, 
et ecclesiam Sancti Cuthberti cum omnibus ad earn 
pertinentibus, et ecclesiam de Crostorfin cum duabus 
bovatis et sex acris terrae et ceteris rebus ad earn per- 
tinentibus, et ecclesiam de Ereth cum suis appenditiis 
et in eadem villa duas carrucatas terrae, et unam salinam 
cum viginti septem acris terrae, et ecclesiam de villa 
Leuingi cum dimidia carrucata terrae et omnibus aliis 
quae ad earn pertinet, et ecclesiam de Hamere cum 
omnibus appenditiis suis et Hameram et Fordam cum 
rectis divisis eorum. 

Broctunam cum rectis divisis suis et Inverlet et 
Pendendreiam cum rectis divisis, et omnia quaecunque 
carta regis testatur et sicut testatur, haec ut praedictum, 
concessimus et concedendo confirmavimus, et omnia alia 
quae praefata ecclesia in futurum juste adquirere poterit, 
salva dignitate et auctoritate episcopali. 

His testibus Toraldo archidiacono, Aiulfo decano, 
Willelmo capellano episcopi, Gvalerenna capellano, 
Nicholao clerico, Magistro Hereberto Scotto, Radulfo 
nepote episcopi, Rogero milite nepote episcopi, Turstino 
filio Leuingi. 



XCIII. 

Confirmation by King David of the rights of the 
Abbot of Holyrood in Airth, circa A.D. 1130. 

Holyrood Charters, No. 5. 

DAVID Rex Scotiae, Episcopo S. Andreae et vice- 
comiti et omnibus probis hominibus suis totius Striuelin- 
shire, salutem. 



76 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

Sciatis quod volo et firmiter praecipio quatenus Abbas 
Sanctae Crucis de Edeneburg habeat omnes consuetudines 
illas in Heret, videlicet in aquis et in aliis locis et omnes 
rectitudines quae ad ecclesiam ejusdem villae pertinent 
sicut melius habuit die ilia quam illud habui in meo 
dominio. 

Testibus Johanne Episcopo, Roberto de Burnouille 
Rogero nepote Roberti Episcopi. Apud Striuelin. 



XCIV. 

Confirmation by King David to the church of 
Dunfermline of the shire of Kirkcaldy, 
circa A.D. 1 130. 

Registr. de Dunfermelyn, No. 29. 

DAVID Dei gratia Rex Scottorum, episcopis abbatibus, 
comitibus vicecomitibus baronibus praepositis ministris 
et omnibus probis hominibus totius terrae suae Francis, 
Anglicis, Scottis, salutem. 

Sciatis me dedisse et redidisse Deo et ecclesiae Sanctae 
Trinitatis de Dunfermelyn et Abbati et monachis ibidem 
Deo servientibus, totam scyram de Kircaladin, quam 
Constantinus comes ab eis vi tenuit, in perpetuam elemo- 
sinam, cum omnibus libertatibus et dignitatibus cum 
quibus pater meus et mater mea eandem terram pro 
salute animarum suarum et predecessorum et successorum 
suorum ecclesiae dederunt, videlicet in ecclesia et molendino 
et in terris et aquis et pratis et pascuis in boscho et 
piano et in omnibus ad earn pertinentibus. Quare prohibeo 
ne alicui de heredibus Constantini earn calumpnianti, inde 
respondeant sed quiete et pacifice praedictam terram in 
perpetuum teneant. 

Testibus, Roberto Episcopo S. Andreae, Johanne Epis- 
copo Glascuensi, Cormacco Episcopo de Dunkeld, Madeth 



XCIII. XCVI. 77 

Comite, Malis Comite, Head Comite, Hugone de Moreuille, 
Herberto Cancellario, Roberto Corbet, Edwardo Con- 
stabulario, Malotheni Vicecomite de Scona, Alwino mac 
Archil. Apud Striueline. 



XCV. 

Notitia of a grant to the Church of Deer, 
ante A.D. 1130. 

Translated from the Gaelic in the Book of Deer. 

GARTNAIT and the daughter of Gillemichel gave Ball 
Domin in Pet Spuir to Christ and to Columcille and to 
Drostan. 

Witnesses, Gillecalline priest, and Feradach, son of 
Maelbhricin, and Maelgirc, son of Tralin. 



XCVI. 

Mandate by King David that no one take any- 
thing from the lands granted by him to the 
church of Holy rood, circa A.D. 1130. 

Holyrood Charters, No. 4. 

DAVID Rex Scottorum omnibus probis hominibus suis 
de Edenesburc Sira, salutem. 

Prohibeo ne aliquis super terram aliquod accipiat 
quam dedi in elemosinam ecclesiae Sanctae Crucis de 
Edenesburc nisi per licentiam et concessum canoni- 
corum ibidem Deo et Sanctae Crucis servientium. Scilicet 
nee in herba nee in cespitibus sive in aliis rebus nisi 
per concessum canonicorum praedictorum. 

Teste Johanne episcopo. Apud Edenesburc. 



78 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 



XCVII. 
Grant by Gartnait and Ete, A.D. 1131-1132. 

Translated from the Gaelic in the Book of Deer. 
GARTNAIT, son of Cainnech, and Ete daughter of Gille- 
michel, gave Pet-mac- Cobrig for (the) consecration of a 
Church to Christ and Peter (the) Apostle and to Colum- 
cille and Drostan free from all exactions, with the gift 
of them to Cormac, Bishop of Dunkeld, in the eighth 
year of David's reign. 

These are the witnesses Nectan, Bishop of Aberdeen, 
and Leot, Abbot of Brechin, and Maledoun son of 
Mac Bead, and Algune, son of Arcell, and Ruadri, 
mormaer of Marr, and Matadin the Brehon, and Gille- 
christ son of Cormac, and Mael-peter son of Domnall, 
and Domongart Ferliginn of Turbruad, and Gillecolaim, 
son of Muredach, and Dubni, son of Maelcolaim. 



XCVIII. 

Charter by King David to the Priory of the Holy 
Trinity in London, circa A.D. 1132. 

Regist. Prior. S. Trinitatis. 

DAVID Rex Scottorum Gilberto Londonensi Episcopo 
et omnibus fidelibus, salutem. 

Sciatis me dedisse ecclesiam de Toteham canonicis 
ecclesiae Sanctae Trinitatis Londonensis perpetuo jure in 
elemosinam, pro salute animae meae et pro anima Matildae 
Reginae sororis meae et Matildis Reginae uxoris meae, et 
Simonis Comitis, et omnium antecessorum nostrorum, et 
ut canonici beneficiant servire ecclesiae. 

Testibus, Hereberto Cancellario, Walkelino Capellano, 
Hugone de Morvilla, Roberto de Brus, Waltero a 'Espec. 



XCVIL C. 79 

XCIX. 

Charter by King David granting to the Monks of 
St. Cuthbert the church of St. Mary at 
Berwick, A.D. 1130-1133. 

The original is in the Treasury at Durham. 

DAVID Dei gratia Rex Scottorum omnibus episcopis suis 
et comitibus et baronibus simulque omnibus probis 
hominibus suis totius terrae suae, salutem. 

Scitote me dedisse et concessisse Deo et Sancto 
Cuthberto et monachis ejusdem Sancti, ecclesiam Sanctae 
Mariae de Berwic cum terra et decimis et omnibus 
rectitudinibus praedictae ecclesiae terra et aqua perti- 
nentibus et hoc in excambio pro ecclesia de Melros et 
pro rectitudinibus quas ibi habuerunt, ita libere et 
quiete et honorifice sicut unquam liberius et quietius 
et honorabilius tenuerunt ecclesiam et res suas de 
Melros. Concedente et confirmante hoc Henrico filio meo. 

Testibus Johanne episcopo et Herberto abbate de 
Rochesburc et Willelmo nepote regis et Acelino archi- 
diacono et Roberto de Umframvilla et Estmundo clerico 
et Berenger Engaine, et Gualeram capellano et Roberto 
Grimbal et Normanno vicecomite et Willelmo de Sumer- 
villa et Roberto de Burnovilla. Apud Berewic. 



C. 

Charter by King David granting Swinton to his 
knight Hernulf, circa A.D. 1135. 

The original is in the Treasury at Durham. 

DAVID Rex Scottorum et Henricus suus filius omnibus 
vicecomitibus suis cunctisque baronibus Francis et Anglis, 
salutem. 



8o EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

Sciatis quod dedi et concessi huic meo militi Hernulfo, 
Swintun in feudam sibi et heredi suo cum omnibus homini- 
bus suisque pecuniis. 

Tenere bene et libere et honorifice sicut ullus ex 
meis baronibus melius ac liberius tenet et quicquid ad 
earn pertinens et easdem consuetudines per quas Liulfus 
nlius Edulfi et Udardus filius suus tenuerunt, tenere de 
Sancto Cuthberto et de me, XL. solidos reddente monachis 
de Dunelmia sine omnibus aliis servitiis. 

Testibus Willelmo filio Dunecan et Maduc consule et 
comite Dunecan et Radulfo Nuuel et Marsel Marmiun et 
Waltero filio Alani et Herberto Chamberlein et Adamo filio 
Edwardi et Willelmo de Lindesi. Ad Hadintunea. Valete. 



CI. 

Charter by King David granting Swinton to his 
knight Arnolf, circa A.D. 1135. 

The original is in the Treasury at Durham. 

DAVID Rex Scottorum comitibus baronibus vicecomitibus 
ministris et omnibus fidelibus suis clericis et laicis totius 
terrae suae, salutem. 

Sciatis me concessisse et dedisse Arnulfo isti meo militi 
totam terram de Swinton cum pecunia et hominibus 
et omnibus rebus juste ad eandem terram pertinentibus : 
in feudo et in hereditate sibi et heredibus ita libere et 
quiete et honorifice tenere et habere sicut Udardus vice- 
comes earn tenuit liberius et quietius per illud servitium 
inde faciendo monachis Dunhelmie quod ipse Udard eis 
inde faciebat, praesentibus testibus Willelmo nepote Regis 
et Madd. comite et Dunecano comite et Hugone de Mor- 
villa et Waltero filio Alan. Apud Trauercoir. 



a cm. s i 



en. 

Pope Innocent II. to John, Bishop of Glasgow, 
Nov. 29, 1131. 

Dugdale Monasticon, vi., 1187, No. 50; Reg. Alb. Ebor., p. i, 
fol. 52 ; 2 Concil., 26. 

INNOCENTIUS Episcopus, servus servorum Dei, Venerabili 
fratri Johanni Glesguensi episcopo salutem et apostolicam 
benedictionem. 

Praedecessor noster felicis memoriae Papa Paschalis, 
salvo siquidem Eboracensis ecclesiae jure, tibi manum 
consecrationis imposuit. 

Postmodum vero successores ejus sanctae recordationis 
Calixtus et Honorius Romani pontifices, tibi per scripta 
apostolica mandaverunt quatenus venerabili fratri nostro 
Turstino Archiepiscopo Eboracensi tanquam proprio 
metropolitano obedientiam et reverentiam exhiberes : 
quamvis autem, prout ipse asserit, ei obedire promiseris, 
nondum tamen id effectu prosequente complesti. 

Quocirca per praesentia tibi scripta praecipimus, ut 
omni dilatione seu [tergiversatione] remota, praedicto fratri 
nostro T. Archiepiscopo humiliter pareas : alioquin ei in 
sua deesse justitia non poterimus. 

Data Altisiodori tertio Cal. Decembris. 



cm. 

Charter by King David to the Abbey of Dun- 
fermline of the tithe of his can from Fife, 
Fothrif and Clackmannan, circa A.D. 1133. 

Registr. de Dunfermelyn, No. 27. 

DAVID Dei gratia Rex Scottorum, Omnibus probis 
hominibus totius terrae suae salutem. 

F 



82 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

Sciatis me dedisse et concessisse Deo et ecclesiae 
Trinitatis de Dunfermelyn et abbati et fratribus ibidem 
Deo servientibus omnem decimam totius mei can de 
Fif et de Fothrif et de Clacmanan in farina et caseo et 
praebenda et brasio in porcis et vaccis in perpetuam 
elemosinam pro salute animae meae et omnium praede- 
cessorum meorum et successorum meorum. Quare ministris 
meis firmiter praecipio quatenus cum istud can receperint 
eis rectam decimam sine omni molestia et vexatione 
reddant et prohibeo super meam plenariam forisfacturam 
ne aliquis eis inde quicquam subtrahere praesumat. 

Testibus Roberto Episcopo Sancti Andreae, Johanne 
Episcopo de Glascu, et Gillemichel comite de Fif, Hugone 
de Moreuille, Roberto Corbeth, Herberto cancellario, et 
Philippo camerario, Alwino filio Archil. Apud Dun- 
fermelyn. 

CIV. 

Charter by King David granting Govan to the 
church of Glasgow, circa A.D. 1134. 

Registr. Epis. Glasguen., No. 6. 

DAVID Dei gratia Rex Scottorum, Omnibus sanctae 
ecclesiae fidelibus salutem. 

Sciatis me dedisse et concessisse ecclesiae Sancti 
Kentigerni de Glasgu et episcopatui ejusdem ecclesiae, 
Guven cum suis divisis, solutam et quietam, perpetuo in 
elemosinam possidendam, sicut aliqua elemosina liberius 
et quietius potest et debetur dari. 

Testibus Henrico filio Regis et concedente, Roberto 
Episcopo Sancti Andreae, Gaufrido Abbate Dunfermelitano 
Herberto Abbate de Rochesburc, Roberto de Brus, Roberto 
de Unfrauilla, Hugone de Moruilla, Herberto cancellario, 
Cospatric fratre Dalfin, Gilmichel, Uniet albo, Aluuino 
Rennere. 



CIII. CVI. 83 



cv. 

Mandate by King David regarding the jurisdiction 
of the court of the Abbey of Dunfermline, 
circa A.D. 1 135. 

Registr. de Dunfermelyn, No. 15. 

DAVID Rex Scottorum, Episcopo Sancti Andreae et 
Comiti et Omnibus probis hominibus suis totius Fif 
salutem. 

Prohibeo quod homines abbatis de Dunfermelyn de 
Nithbren alicui non respondeant de placitis et calumpniis 
unde calumpniati fuerint, nisi in curia Sanctae Trinitatis 
et Abbatis de Dunfermelyn et praecipio quod judex meus 
illius provinciae cum hominibus qui illuc placitari venerint 
intersit ut placita et justitiae juste tractentur. 

Testibus Gregorio Episcopo Dunkeldensi Edwardo 
constabulario. Apud Scona. 



CVI. 

Grant by King David of a fishing to the church 
of Coldingham, circa A.D. 1135. 

Ex Cartuar. parvo Eccles. Dunelm. 

DAVID Rex Scottorum Episcopis abbatibus comitibus 
justitiis baronibus vicecomitibus praepositis ministris et 
omnibus probis hominibus totius terrae suae Francis et 
Anglis salutem. 

Sciant tarn posted quam praesentes me in perpetuam 
elemosinam dedisse et concessisse Deo et ecclesiae Sanctae 
Mariae de Coldingham illam piscaturam quam Swain 
meus [presbyter] fecit et a saxis liberavit quando Fiswic 



84 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

tenuit libere et quiete sine omni vexatione ad tenendam 
de me et de heredibus meis sicut tenent alias elemosinas 
ad eandem ecclesiam pertinentes melius et liberius. T. 



CVII. 

Notitia of a grant by Colbain, Mormaer of Buchan, 
and Eva his wife and Donnachac Toisech, 
exempting a church from secular burdens, 
circa, A.D. 1135. 

Translated from the Gaelic in the Book of Deer. 

COLBAIN Mormaer of Buchan, and Eva, daughter of 
Garnait, his wedded wife, and Donnachac, son of Sithig, 
toisech of Clan Morguinn, dedicated all the offerings to 
God and to Drostan and to Columcille and to Peter the 
apostle, free from all the burthens, for a share of four 
davochs of what would come on the chief residences of 
Alban generally and on chief churches. 

Testibus his, Brocein and Cormac Abbot of Turbruaid 
and Morgann son of Donchad, and Gille-Petair son of 
Donnchad, and Malaechin and the two sons of Matne and 
(the) nobles of Buchan, all in witness hereof in Elan. 



CVIII. 

Charter by King David to the church of Dun- 
fermlin of a fishing in the Tweed and of a 
toft in Berwick, circa A.D. 1136. 

Registr. de Dunfermelyn, No. 10. 

DAVID Dei gratia Rex Scottorum, Omnibus probis 
hominibus suis salutem. 

Sciatis me concessisse et dedisse in elemosinam in 
perpetuum ecclesiae Sanctae Trinitatis de Dunfermelyn 



CVL CIX. 85 

tractum de Aldestelle et omne quod juste ei pertinet 
et unum toftum in Berwich solum et quietum de 
omnibus servitiis. 

Testibus Henrico filio meo hoc idem concedente, et 
Herberto cancellario, et Roberto de Unfravilla, et 
Hugone Bret, Roberto Frebern, et Hidda, et Willelmo 
de Lambertun. Apud Berwich. 



CIX. 

Charter by King David granting Perdeyc to the 
church of Glasgow, circa A.D. 1136. 

Registr. Episcop. Glasguensis, No. 3. 

DAVID Rex Scotiae, Baronibus ministris et omnibus 
fidelibus suis clericis et laicis totius regni salutem. 

Sciatis me dedisse et concessisse Deo et ecclesiae Sancti 
Kentigerni de Glasgu terram illam in Perdeyc in per- 
petuam elemosinam, pro anima mea et patris et matris 
meae et fratrum et sororum mearum et salute Henrici 
filii mei et omnium antecessorum et successorum meorum, 
quam Ascelinus ejusdem ecclesiae archidiaconus de me 
tenebat in nemore et piano, aquis et piscinis, pratis et 
pascuis, et in omnibus aliis locis ; per rectas divisas sicut 
Ailsi et Tocca eas tenebant die quo praedicta terra fuit 
in meo dominio, ita quod archidiaconus faciat Deo et 
Sancto Kentigerno de Glasgu, quam modo mihi facere 
solebat, scilicet annuatim unam marcam argenti pro 
omnibus servitiis et consuetudinibus quam diu vixerit. 
Post decessum vero archidiaconi remaneat praedicta terra 
ecclesiae deservienda, ita libera et soluta et quieta sicut 
melius et liberius tenet suas alias terras et elemosinas . . . 
eisdem libertatibus. 

Praesentibus testibus Herberto Abbate de Rochesburc, 
Willelmo cancellario, Willelmo filio Dunecan, Malis 
Comite, Dunecano Comite, Fergus de Galweia, Aad 



86 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

cum barba, Malduueni mac murdac, Malodeni de Scona, 
Malodeni marescal, Radulfo filio Dunegal, Duunenald 
fratre ejus, Uchtred filio Fergus, Hugone Britone, Her- 
berto camerario, Gileberto fimboga, Gileberto de Striuelin, 
Dufoter de Calateria. Apud Glasgu. 



CX. 

Charter by King David to the monks of Urquhart 
in Moray of twenty shillings annually from 
the rent of the burgh and fishings of Elgin, 
circa A.D. 1 136. 

Registr. de Dunfermelyn, No. 34. 

DAVID Rex Scottorum, Episcopis abbatibus comitibus 
baronibus vicecomitibus praepositis et omnibus probis 
hominibus totius Muref et Scotiae salutem. 

Sciatis me in perpetuum dedisse Deo et monachis de 
Urchard ibi Deo famulantibus dum devote et religiose 
se continuerint XX solidos, singulis annis ad vestimenta 
eorum de firma burgi mei et aquarum de Elgin. Quare 
praecipio quod praepositus ejusdem burgi eis illos denarios 
sine omni disturbatione faciat habere. 

Testibus Herberto camerario et Alwino filio Archil. 
Apud Banef. 

CXI. 

Charter by King David granting a toft at Ednam 
to the church of St. Cuthbert, at Coldingham, 
circa A.D. 1 136. 

The original is in the Treasury at Durham. 

DAVID Rex Scotiae, Comitibus justiciariis baronibus vice- 
comitibus praepositis ministris et omnibus probis hominibus 
suis Francis et Anglicis totius terrae suae tarn futuris quam 
praesentibus salutem. 



CIX. CXIII. 87 

Sciatis me concessisse Deo et Sancto Cuthberto de 
Dun I et monachis de Coldhinheham unum thoft cum 
domibus in villa de Edenham quod Gillebertus presbyter de 
Stitchel de me tenuit reddendo inde mihi unoquoque anno 
ij solidos et per hoc servitium libere ab omni alio servitio. 

Concedo etiam eis praedictam terram ita de me tenere 
in feudo et in elemosinam. Praesentibus testibus, Hugone 
de Moruille et Roberto filio Widone, et Sweing presbitero 
de Fihswic. Apud Rochesburg. 



CXII. 

Confirmation by Earl Henry of the rights of the 
monks of Daventry, circa A.D. 1136. 

Regist. Prior. Daventre. 

HENRICUS films Regis Scotiae, Omnibus baronibus suis et 
amicis Francis et Anglis salutem. Sciatis me concessisse 
monachis de Dauentre quicquid tenent de meo feudo in 
terris et in decimis et in aliis rebus omnibus scilicet in 
elemosina et Willelmo canonico concede tenere de feudo 
meo sicut unquam melius et honorabilius tenuit quicquid 
suae praebendae pertinet. Testibus R. de Brus et R. de 
Umfranvile et Willelmo capellano. Apud Huntindon. 

CXIII. 

Charter by Earl Henry granting to the church of St. 
Neots twenty shillings annually from his mill of 
Huntingdon, and confirming his mother's grant 
of the church of Enesburc, circa A.D. 1 136. 

Registr. St. Neot. 

H[ENRICUS] comes films Regis Scotiae, Omnibus hominibus 
suis salutem. Sciatis me dedisse et concessisse Deo et 
ecclesiae Sancti Neoti et monachis qui Deo ibidem serviunt 



88 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

ad sustentationem illorum XX. solidos singulis annis 
habendos de molendino meo Hontondon in perpetuam 
elemosinam et praeterea hac carta mea confirmavi illis pro 
salute mea et antecessorum meorum heredumque meorum 
ecclesiam de Enesburc cum omnibus pertinentiis ejusdem 
ecclesiae in liberam et puram elemosinam habendam quam 
mater mea eisdem monachis concesserat. Testibus his. 



CXIV. 

Confirmation by Earl Henry of a grant of forty 
shillings from the rent of Huntingdon to the 
monks of St. Andrew at Northampton, 
circa A.D. 1136. 

Regist. Prior. S. Andreae de Northampton. 

HENRICUS comes filius Regis Scotiae, Roberto Folio 
dapifero suo omnibusque probis hominibus suis de 
Huntyngdon salutem. Mando vobis et praecipio quod 
faciatis habere monachis Sancti Andreae de Northampton 
XL. solidos de firma Huntyndon unoquoque anno ad 
statutes terminos propter elemosinam matris meae quam 
habuerunt in Bedeford et quam dedi jam Hugoni de Bror 
donee excambium eiusdem elemosinae eis dedero ad 
valentiam in convenienti loco. Testibus Herberto cam- 
erario, Roberto de Nigell. Apud Chingor. 

cxv. 

Confirmation by Earl Henry of the rights of 
the church of St. Andrew at Northampton, 
circa A.D. 1136. 

Regist. Prior. S. Andreae de Northampton. 

HENRICUS filius Regis Scotiae omnibus suis hominibus 
fidelibus et amicis totius Angliae salutem. Volo ut bene 



CXIII. CXVI. 89 

sciatis omnes me concessisse monachis Sanctae Mariae de 
Caritate apud Northampton in ecclesia Sancti Andreae 
apostoli servientibus, omnia quaecunque tenebant sive de 
me sive de meis hominibus et ut ea omnia quiete et hon- 
orifice teneant. Et praecipio omnibus meis hominibus et 
praecipue dapifero meo ut eos iuste manuteneatis. Et si 
quis de meis hominibus eis injuriam facere praesumpserit 
plenum rectum eis habere faciatis. Testibus Willelmo can- 
cellario, Roberto Foliotte, Eustachio filio Johannis et 
Roberto de Brus. 



CXVI. 

Charter by King David to the Church and 
Bishop of Aberdeen, A.D. 1137. 

Registr. Epis. Aberdon. 

DAVID Dei gratia Rex Scottorum, Omnibus probis homi- 
nibus totius terrae suae clericis et laicis salutem. 

Sciant praesentes et futuri me dedisse concessisse et hac 
carta mea confirmasse Deo et Beatae Mariae et Beato 
Machorio et Nectano Episcopo Abbirdonensi totam villam 
de Veteri Abbirdon, dimidiam aquam de North, Sclaty, 
Goul, Murcroft, Kynmondy, Malmeulach et ecclesiam de 
Kyrkton, Schiram de Clat, Schiram de Tulinestyn, 
Schiram de Rane, Schiram de Dauyot, cum pertinen- 
tiis earundem et ecclesiis, decimam canum navium 
quae veniunt apud Aberden, decimam annonae in eodem 
loco, decimam meam de redditibus de Aberden, decimam 
thanagiorum, reddituum et escaetarum me contingentium 
infra vicecomitatus de Aberden et de Banff: Tenendas 
et habendas dicto episcopo Nectano et ejus successori- 
bus in puram et liberam elemosinam ita libere sicut 
aliqua elemosina in regno meo tenetur. 

Teste meipso apud Forfar, anno regni mei decimo 
tertio, tricesimo die mensis Junii. 



90 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

CXVII. 

Charter by Earl Gospatric of Ederham and Nesbit 
to the monks of St. Cuthbert, ante A.D. 1138. 

The original is in the Treasury at Durham. 

OMNIBUS sanctae ecclesiae Dei filiis sublimioribus et 
inferioribus ordinatis et laicis Gospatricus comes frater 
Dolfini salutem. 

Sciatis me concessisse et dedisse Deo et Sancto Cuth- 
berto et monachis ejus in elemosinam villam de Ederham 
et ecclesiam ejusdem villae cum omnibus capellis suis 
et aliam villam quae dicitur Nesebite liberas et quietas 
in perpetuum possidendas cum omnibus quae ad easdem 
villas pertinent in terris et aquis et pratis et pascuis pro 
anima Malcolmi Regis et filiorum ejus regum ^Edgari, 
Alexandri et pro Rege David et filio ejus Henrico et 
pro me ipso et uxore mea et filiis meis et pro animabus 
omnium parentum meorum et si aliquis huic elemosinae 
meae vult contradicere inter eum et Deum sit. 

Testibus Willelmo filio Duncani, Gospatrico filio ejus, 
Vlkil filio Meld', Rand, de Lindesai, S. presbitero, 
Johanne capellano, Gosp' filio Crin, et Aldan fratre 
ejus, et Lamberton dapifero. 

Valete. Quicunque huic abstulerit Dominus sibi et hanc 
vitam et regnum coelorum auferat. 

CXVIII. 

Charter by King David granting the church of 
Linlithgow to the church of St. Andrews, 
circa A.D. 1 138. 

Registr. Prior. S. Andreae. 

DAVID Dei gratia Rex Scottorum, Episcopis abbatibus, 
comitibus, baronibus et omnibus probis hominibus totius 
regni sui salutem. 



CXVII. CXIX. 91 

Sciant tarn futuri quam pracsentes me dedisse et con- 
cessisse et hac mea carta confirmasse Deo et Sancto 
Andreae apostolo perpetuo in elemosiriam, ecclesiam 
de Linlidcu cum capellis et terris infra burgum et 
extra burgum et cum omnibus aliis rectitudinibus eidem 
ecclesiae pertinentibus ad luminare ipsius ecclesiae et 
ad vestitum canonicorum ibidem Deo servientibus. 

Volo itaque et firmiter praecipio ut canonici et 
ecclesiae Sancti Andreae Deo servientes et servituri, 
ita libere et quiete et honorifice hanc habeant ecclesiam 
in elemosinam et possideant sicut aliqua ecclesia melius 
et quietius et honorificentius habetur et possidetur in 
toto regno meo pro salute mea et filii mei et pro animabus 
antecessorum et successorum meorum. 

Testibus Willelmo cancellario, Hugone de Moreuilla, 
Herberto camerario. Apud Kynros. 



CXIX. 
Charter of Protection to Priory of Tinmouth, 

A.D. 1138. 

3 Dugdale Mon., 313. Ex Registro quodam S. Albani in Bibl. 
Cottoniana, fol. 108. 

DAVID Rex Scottorum, Episcopis abbatibus comitibus 
vicecomitibus baronibus et omnibus probis hominibus suis 
totius terrae suae Francis et Anglis et Scotis et Galwen- 
sibus salutem. 

Sciatis me concessisse et dedisse ecclesiae Sanctae Mariae 
et Sancti Oswini martyris de Tynmutha et fratribus ejusdem 
loci et dominicis hominibus et rebus ad praedictam 
ecclesiam pertinentibus et omnibus illis hominibus qui in 
pace Sanctae Mariae et sancti ejusdem loci in die Sancti 
Barnabae Apostoli in millesimo centesimo et trigesimo 
octavo anno ab incarnatione Domini fuerunt, meam pacem 



92 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

in perpetuum de me et omnibus hominibus meis pro anima 
patris et matris meae et regis Alexandri fratris mei qui 
pacem Dei et suam firmiter praedictae ecclesiae concessit 
et pro anima Matildae reginae Angliae sororis meae et 
animabus antecessorum et successorum meorum Henrico 
filio meo hanc pacem annuente. 

Ideo volo et firmiter praecipio ut hanc pacem firmiter 
possideant et vos eandem eis teneatis, quamdiu ipsi nobis 
et hominibus nostris pacem tenere voluerint et prohibeo 
quod nullus eis aut hominibus vel rebus suis super nostram 
firmam defensionem injuriam vel contumeliam aut vim 
ullo modo facere praesumat. Et quicunque hanc pacem 
tenere noluerit sicut ego concedo confirmante de me et 
Henrico filio meo et nostra familiaritate et nostra amicitia 
sit omnino alienatus. 

Praesentibus testibus Gospatrico comite, Hugone de 
Morevill, et Mansero Marmiun, et Roberto Foliot, et 
Hugone de Auco, et Hugone Briton. Apud sedem de 
Norham in Junio. 

CXX. 

Mandate by King David to the Sheriff of Rox- 
burgh to hold the lands which Gospatric of 
Dunbar gave to the monks of Durham, 
A.D. 1139. 

The original is in the Treasury at Durham. 

. . . Scot. G. Ridell vie de Rokesburg salutem. 

Praecipio . . . terra monachorum Dunelm. quam Gos- 
patric de Dunbar dedit . . . decessu ponatur in respectum 
donee in illam venero provinciam . . . de monachis nee 
de Gospatrico aliquam operationem nee seruit . . . 
monachi teneant illam terrain bene et in pace quiete 
. . . et non permittas quod aliquis eis inde injuriam 
. . . c meum dominium faceres t. Hug de . . . 



CXIX. CXXII. 93 



CXXI. 

Confirmation by King David of the grant by Gos- 
patrick of Ederham and Nesbit to Colding- 
ham, A.D. 1 139. 

The original is in the Treasury at Durham. 

DAVID Dei gratia Rex Scotiae, Omnibus sanctae ecclesiae 
fidelibus praesentibus et futuris salutem. 

Sciatis me dedisse et concessisse ecclesiae Sanctae 
Mariae et Sancti Cuthberti de Coldingham et monachis 
ibidem deservientibus Ederham et Nesebitam in per- 
petuam elemosinam sicut Gospatricus frater Dolfini eas 
tenuit die qua fuit vivus et mortuus cum suis rectis divisis 
ita liberas et quietas sicut alias terras tenent quae ad 
Coldingham pertinent et sicut carta eorum testatur in 
ecclesiis et aquis et pratis et pascuis et molendinis et 
omnibus aliis locis. 

Praesentibus testibus Hereberto Abbate de Rochesb., 
Daniele priore de Geddewrda, Aschelino archidiacono de 
Glasgu, Willelmo filio Dunecan, Dunecano Comite, Hugone 
de Moreuill, Gervasio Ridell, Alano filio Waldeof et Gos- 
patrico fratre suo, Willelmo de Sumervill, Willelmo de 
Graham. Apud Rochesb. xvij Kl. Sep. anno MC.xxxix. 



CXXII. 

Charter by King David to the church of St. 
Andrews of the church of St. Mary at Had- 
dington, circa A.D. 1139. 

Registr. Prior. S. Andreae. 

DAVID Dei gratia Rex Scottorum, Episcopis abbatibus 
comitibus justitiis baronibus vicecomitibus et omnibus 



94 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

fidelibus sanctae Dei ecclesiae et omnibus probis homi- 
nibus suis Francis et Anglicis tarn futuris quam praesenti- 
bus totius terrae suae salutem. 

Sciatis me dedisse et concessisse Deo et ecclesiae Sancti 
Andreae de Chilrimunt ecclesiam Sanctae Mariae de 
Hadintune in perpetuam elemosinam pro anima mea et 
filii mei et pro animabus antecessorum et successorum 
meorum cum capellis et terris et rectitudinibus et con- 
suetudinibus tarn in decimis quam in aliis elemosinis 
quae Deo et sanctae praedictae ecclesiae pertinent 
videlicet de tota Hadintunschira ad tenendam ita 
libere et quiete de omnibus rectitudinibus de me et 
Theino et de omnibus aliis qui Hadintune tenuerint de 
me et heredibus meis post me et heredibus eorum sicut 
aliqua elemosina in tota terra mea melius et plenius et 
liberius potest dari et teneri. Praesentibus Roberto 
episcopo Sancti Andreae, Johanne episcopo de Glescu, 
et Galfrido abbate Dunfermelyn, et Nicholao priore de Scon, 
et Dionisio canonico de Scon, Willelmo Cumino can- 
cellario, et Hugone de Moreuilla, et Willo. de Sumervilla. 
Apud Hadintune. 

CXXIII. 

Charter by King David granting a mark of silver 

annually to the monastery of Wetheral, 

circa A.D. 1139. 

Dugdale Monasticon, in., p. 584. (Ex autographo nuper in 
Turri B. Mariae Eboraci.) 

DAVID Rex Scotiae, Comitibus, justitiariis, baronibus, vice- 
comitibus, ministris, omnibus probis hominibus suis totius 
Cumberlandiae, Francis et Anglis et Cumbrensibus 
salutem. Sciatis me dedisse et concessisse in elemosinam 
Deo et Sanctae Mariae de Wederhal et monachis ibidem 
Deo servientibus unam marcam argenti per annum de 



CXXII. CXXV. 95 

redditu molendini mei de Scotebi. Volo itaque et fir- 
miter ministris meis praecipio quatenus marcam istam, 
dictis monachis sine disturbatione habere faciant ad ter- 
minos de firma molendini statutes. Praecipio etiam ut 
habeant decimam villae de Scotebi, sicut ab antiquo data 
eis fuit, ita ne aliquis eis illam injuste detineat. 

Testibus Eustachio filio Johannis, Hugone de Morevill, 
Radulfo, . . . Herberto camerario, Jordano clerico. Apud 
Carliolum. 

CXXIV. 

Charter by Earl Henry granting freedom from toll 
to the monks of Wetheral, circa A.D. 1139. 

Dugdale's Monasticon, ill., p. 584. (Ex autographo in 
Turri B. Mariae Eboraci.) 

HENRICUS comes, films regis Scotiae, Justitiae suae, 
baronibus, vicecomitibus, ministris et omnibus probis 
hominibus suis salutem. Sciatis me dedisse monachis de 
Wederhal, suum tolneum de suis propriis rebus per totam 
terram meam. Ouare prohibeo ut nullus vestrum illos 
inde injuste disturbet, nee de suis propriis rebus tolneum 
ab eis exigat 

Testibus Gileberto de Umfravill et Willelmo de Herziz, 
Apud Carl. 

CXXV. 

Charter by King David granting to the church of 
St. Kentigern at Glasgow the tithe of his 
can of beasts and pigs from Strathgryfe, Cun- 
ingham, Kyle, and Carrick, circa A.D. 1139-1141. 

Registr. Episcop. Glasguens., No. 9. 

DAVID Dei gratia Rex Scottorum, Baronibus ministris 
et omnibus fidelibus suis totius regni sui tam Gawensibus 
quam Anglicis et Scotis salutem. 



96 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

Sciatis me dedisse et concessisse Deo et ecclesiae 
Sancti Kentigerni de Glasgu in perpetuam elemosinam 
totam decimam meam de meo chan, in animalibus et 
porcis de Stratgriua et Cunegan et de Chul et de Karric 
unoquoque anno nisi tune quum ego ipse illuc venero 
perendinens et ibidem meum chan comedens. 

Testibus Willelmo Cumin cancellario, Hugone de 
Moreuilla, Fergus de Galweia, Hugone Britone, Waltero 
filio Alani, Alwino Mac Archil, Radulfo filio Dunegal. 
Dunenald fratre suo. Apud Cadihou. 



CXXVL 

Charter by King David to the church of 
Glasgow of the eighth penny of his pleas in 
Cumbria, circa A.D. 1139-1141. 

Registr. Episc. Glasguen., No. 10. 

DAVID Dei gratia Rex Scottorum, Justitiae suae, vicecomi- 
tibus baronibus et omnibus ministris suis totius Cumber- 
landiae salutem. 

Sciatis me dedisse et concessisse Deo et ecclesiae 
Sancti Kentigerni de Glasgu, octavum denarium de 
omnibus placitis meis per totam Cumbriam quae ibi 
placitabantur aut in denariis aut pecunia. Volo itaque 
et firmiter praecipio ut praedicta ecclesia hanc suam 
partem ita libere et quiete et honorifice teneat in per- 
petuum, sicut elemosina liberius et quietius potest dari 
et teneri. 

Testibus Willelmo Cumino, cancellario, Fergus de Gal- 
weia, Hugone Britone, Waltero filio Alani, Radulfo filio 
Dunegal, Duuenald fratre suo, Alwino Mac Archil. Apud 
Cadihou. 



CXXV. CXXVIII. 97 

CXXVII. 

Mandate by King David to the Sheriff of Stirling 
to give a saltpan to the Abbot of Dunfermlin 
circa A.D. 1 140. 

Registr. de Dunfermelyn, No. 9. 

DAVID Rex Scottorum, Gilleberto vicecomiti de Struelin 
salutem. 

Praecipio quod abbas de Dunfermelin habeat tmam sali- 
nam cum meis salinis ita solam et quietam sicut meae 
salinae sunt. Praecipio et quod homines sui ibi operantes 
meam firmam pacem habeant. 

Testibus Duncano Comite et Maddoc Comite, et Herberto 
camerario. Apud Struelin. 

CXXVIII. 

Charter by King David granting Petheneach to 
the church of Dunfermlin, circa A.D. 1140. 

Registr. de Dunfermelyn, No. 22. 

DAVID Rex Scottorum, Episcopis comitibus baronibus vice- 
comitibus ministris et omnibus fidelibus suis totius regni 
Scotiae salutem. 

Sciatis me dedisse et concessisse ecclesiae Sanctae 
Trinitatis de Dunfermelyn terram de Petheneach in per- 
petuam elemosinam cum omnibus appendiciis et rectis 
divisis suis et libertatibus ad eandem terram pertinentibus 
in aquis et pratis et pascuis et in piano et nemore absque 
omni venatu ita liberam et quietam tenere sicut melius 
et liberius et honorificentius suas alias terras tenet et 
habet et cum omnis illis libertatibus. 

Prohibeo et quod nullus super meum forisfactum aliquod 
namum in praedicta terra ullo modo capere praesumat pro 



98 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

alterius extrinsecus forisfacto. Et homines et terra et 
omnes res eorum juste meam pacem habeant. 

Testibus Hugone de Moreuille, Gervasio Ridel, Edwardo 
constabulario, Alwyn Mac Archil, et Malisio marescall. 
Apud Dunfermelyn in Februar. 



CXXIX. 

Protection by Earl Henry of the possessions of the 
monks of Durham, circa A.D. 1140. 

The original is in the Treasury at Durham. 

HENRICUS Comes filius Regis Scotiae, Justitiis baronibus 
vicecomitibus praepositis ministris et omnibus probis homi- 
nibus suis totius comitatus sui Norhumberlandiae Francis 
et Anglicis salutem. 

Sciatis quod terrae et possessiones monachorum Dunel- 
mie sunt in mea pace et in custodia mea propterea mando 
et praecipio firmiter omnibus officialibus meis quatenus 
manuteneant homines eorum et res suas et prohibeo ne 
quis eis injuste forisfaciat super meum plenarium foris- 
factum. 

Testibus Engelramo cancellario et Gilleberto de Unfran- 
uill. Apud Novum Castellum. 



CXXX. 

Mandate by Earl Henry to Earl Gospatric to 
respect the rights of the monks to the lands 
of Ederham and Nesbit, circa A.D. 1141. 

The original is in the Treasury at Durham. 
HENRICUS filius regis Scotiae, Gospatrico comiti salutem. 



CXXVIIL CXXXI. 99 

Mando et firmiter praecipio quatcnus permittas terram de 
elemosina patris tui videlicet de Hederham et Nesebitam 
ita esse liberam et quietam et in bene et in pace sicuti in 
anno praeterito coram patre meo et Roberto de Brus et 
aliis suis baronibus proloqutum et finitum fuit, donee rex 
pater meus reveniat et reddere facias boves eorum cito per 
plegios. 

Testibus Roberto de Unfranvilla et Ada vicecomite. 



CXXXI. 

Charter by Earl Henry granting to the monks of 
St. Cuthbert a fishing in the Tyne and a 
ploughgate of land, circa A.D. 1141. 

The original is in the Treasury at Durham. 

HENRICUS films Regis Scotiae, Justitiis vicecomitibus 
baronibus et omnibus hominibus suis de Norhumberland 
Francis et Anglis salutem. 

Sciatis me rogatu Nikole dedisse et concessisse Deo 
et Sancto Cuthberto et monachis ejus in elemosinam 
unam piscariam in Tine scilicet Bradjere quam idem 
Nikole tenuit de me cum Croc quae ad earn pertinet 
liberam et quietam ab omni servitio. Praeterea dedi eis 
et concessi illam carrucatam terrae in Cranlintune quae 
idem Nikole eis dedit cum tribus toftis et insuper XXX 
acras de Mora quindecim ex una parte villae et XV ex 
alia cum pratis quantum ad ipsam totam terram pertinet 
et unumquoque croft de prato separatim quod circuit una 
fossa antiquiter facta. Et volo et praecipio ut Sanctus 
Cuthbertus et monachi ejus haec omnia quae pro salute 
mea et patris mei concessi in terris et aquis et pratis 
et pascuis et omnibus rebus ad ea pertinentibus libere 
et quiete in perpetuum teneant et possidearit. 



ioo EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

Testibus Rann' archidiacono, Jordano capellano, Rod- 
berto de Unfranivilla, Gileberto de Unfranivilla, Hereberto 
camerario, Willelmo de Sumerivilla, Ada' vicecomite. 



CXXXII. 

Mandate by King David to Reinwald Earl of 
Orkney, to protect the monks of Durnach in 
Caithness, A.D. 1140-1145. 

Registr. de Dunfermelyn, No. 23. 

DAVID Rex Scottorum, Reinwaldo comiti de Orchadia et 
comiti et omnibus probis hominibus Cateneis et Orchadiae 
salutem. 

Mando vobis et praecipio quod sicut me diligitis 
monachos et homines eorum et res habitantes ad Durnach 
in Cateneis diligatis et ubicunque inter vos venerint 
manuteneatis, non permittendo quod aliquis eis injuriam 
vel contumeliam faciat nee fieri permittat. 

Testibus . . . cancellario et Herberto camerario. Apud 
Abernithi. 

CXXXIII. 

Confirmation by Earl Henry of the grant of Eder- 
ham and Nesbit by Gospatrick to the monks 
of St. Cuthbert at Coldingham, circa A.D. 1141. 

The original is in the Treasury at Durham. 

HENRICUS Dei gratia Comes filius David regis Scottorum, 
Omnibus sanctae ecclesiae fidelibus praesentibus et futuris 
salutem. 

Sciatis me dedisse et concessisse ecclesiae Sanctae 
Mariae et Sancti Cuthberti de Coldingaham et monachis 
ibidem deservientibus, Ederham et Nesbitam, in perpetuam 



CXXXI. CXXXIV. ioi 

elemosinam sicut Gospatricus frater Dolfini eas tenuit 
die qua fuit vivus et mortuus cum suis rectis divisis ita 
liberas et quietas sicut alias terras tenent quae ad 
Coldingaham pertinent in ecclesiis et aquis et pratis. 

Testibus Willelmo cancellario apud Dunelmum et Eus- 
tachio filio Johannis et Walter de Bolebec et Rodbert 
Foliot et Gilebert de Unfranvilla et aliis . . . pluribus et 
Hugo le bret. 

CXXXIV. 

Charter by King David granting Clerchetune to 

the church of St. Mary of Haddington, 

circa A.D. 1141. 

Registr. Prior. S. Andreae. 

DAVID Dei gratia Rex Scottorum, Episcopis -abbatibus 
comitibus justitiis baronibus vicecomitibus praepositis 
ministris et omnibus fidelibus suis Francis et Anglicis 
clericis et laicis, tarn futuris quam praesentibus totius 
terrae suae salutem. 

Sciatis me dedisse et concessisse Deo et ecclesiae 
Sanctae Mariae de Hadintune, Clerchetune in perpetuam 
elemosinam cum suis rectis divisis ex utraque parte 
aquae, sicut Willelmus de Graham et Durandus vicecomes 
et Ricardus et Osbertus prior de Edeneb. et Malbet de 
Libertune et Gillandris films Oggu et Gille. films Mercheh, 
et Ulfchil films Merewin et Sewale miles periverunt et 
circuierunt postquam Toraldus archidiaconus mecum 
finivit apud Pebbles et etiam sicut antea mensurata fuit. 

Concede etiam praedictae ecclesiae unum plenarium 
toftum juxta ecclesiam in villa de Hadintune et omnes 
decimas et rectitudines ecclesiasticas de tota Hadintun- 
shire tarn de molendinis quam de aliis rebus. 

Volo itaque et firmiter praecipio quod praedicta ecclesia 
teneat et habeat praenominatam terram Clerchetunte solam 



102 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

et quietam de me et de Theino et de omnibus aliis qui 
terram praedictam tenuerint de Hadintune de me et de 
heredibus meis et] etiam de heredibus eorum et etiam 
omnes alias rectitudines et consuetudines. In decimis 
et elemosinis ita libere et honorifice et quiete et plenarie 
sicut aliqua elemosina in tota terra mea melius et plenius 
et honorificentius et quietius potest dari et concedi. Has 
autem omnes praenominatas elemosinas do et carta mea 
confirmo pro anima mea et patris matrisque meae et 
animabus antecessorum et successorum meorum. 

Annuente et concedente hoc Henrico filio meo et hoc 
idem testante Roberto Episcopo Sci. Andreae, Johanne 
Episcopo de Glescu, Gregorio Episcopo de Duncheldin, 
Galfrido Abbate de Dunfermlin, Dionisio priore de Scone, 
Rogero priore de Dunfermelin, Roberto de Sigillo et 
Duncano Comite, Hug. de Moreuill, Malise Comite, Eward 
cunestabl. et Leod de Brechin et Ranulfo de Sules et 
Rogero nepote episcopi Rodberti Sancti Andreae. Apud 
Pert XVIII Kalen. Julii. 



CXXXV. 

Charter by Earl Henry granting Clerchetune to 

the church of St. Mary 'of Haddington, 

circa A.D. 1141. 

Registr. Prior. S. Andreae. 

HENRICUS Comes nlius Regis Scottorum, Episcopis 
abbatibus justitiis baronibus vicecomitibus ministris et 
omnibus fidelibus suis Francis et Anglicis clericis et 
laicis tarn futuris quam praesentibus totius terrae suae 
salutem. 

Sciatis me concessisse Deo et ecclesiae Sanctae Mariae 
de Hadintune, Clerchetune in perpetuam elemosinam cum 
suis rectis divisis ex utraque parte aquae sicut Willelmus 



CXXXIV. CXXXVI. 103 

de Graham et Durandus vicecomes et Richardus clericus 
et Osbertus prior de Edeneburc et Malbeth de Libertona, 
et Gillandres films Oggu periverunt et circuierunt post- 
quam Thorandus archdiaconus mecum finivit apud 
Pebles et sicut antea mensurata fuit. 

Concede etiam praedictae ecclesiae unum plenarium 
toftum juxta ecclesiam in villa de Hadintona et omnes 
decimas et rectitudines ecclesiasticas de tota Hadinton 
scira tarn de molendinis quam de aliis rebus. 

Volo itaque et firmiter praecipio quod praedicta ecclesia 
teneat et habeat praenominatam terram Clerchetune solam 
et quietam de me et de Thein et de omnibus aliis qui 
terram praedictam de Hadintune de me et heredibus meis 
et de heredibus eorum et omnes alias rectitudines et 
consuetudines in decimis et elemosinis ita libere et honori- 
fice et quiete et plenarie sicut aliqua elemosina in tota 
terra melius et plenius et honorificentius et quietius potest 
dari et concedi. Has autem praenominatas elemosinas do 
et carta mea confirmo pro anima mea et patris matrisque 
meae et animabus antecessorum et successorum meorum. 

Testibus Engellramo cancellario nostro et Willelmo 
Masculo et Edmundo filio Einier et Anselmo nepote 
Johannis Episcopi. Apud Hadintonam. 

CXXXVI. 

Grant by King David to the Abbey of Tiron, 
circa A.D. 1 141. 

Cart, de Tiron, fol. 49. 

D[AVID] Dei gratia, Rex Scotorum, Episcopis abbatibus et 
omnibus praesentibus regni sui totius et portuum maris 
salutem. 

Sciatis me dedisse et concessisse Deo et ecclesiae 
Sanctae Trinitatis de Tirone pro salute animae meae et 
antecessorum meorum, unam navem, singulis annis, quietam 



104 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

de Can, ubicumque venerit vel applicaverit in tota terra 
mea et omnes homines ejusdem navis cum mercatis suis 
sint quieti de Cano si voluerint piscari an non. 

Volo itaque et firmiter praecipio quod praedicta navis et 
homines qui in ea fuerint juste habeant meam firmam 
pacem vendendi et emendi et mercata sua faciendi 
ubicunque venerint vel applicaverint in tota terra mea, 
et hoc petitione Johannis Glasguensis episcopi. 

Testibus eodem et Roberto de Sigillo, Randulfo de 
Sules, Alfwin filio Archillis, Roberto Burgunno, Roberto 
Avenellensi, Edwardo, Roberto de Pert, Dunecano comite, 
Rogerio nepote episcopi Sancti Andreae. Apud Cluni. 



CXXXVII. 

Grant by Earl Henry to the Abbey of Tiron, 
circa A.D. 1 141. 

Cart, de Tiron, fo. 48. 

Hfenricus] filius regis Scotiae at comes Northumbriae, 
Episcopis abbatibus comitibus justiciariis baronibus prae- 
positis, ministris et omnibus fidelibus suis clericis et 
laicis, Francis, et Anglicis et Scottis tarn futuris quam 
praesentibus totius regni patris sui et portuum maris, et 
omnibus probis hominibus totius comitatus Northumbriae 
salutem. 

Sciatis me concessisse et confirmasse Deo et ecclesiae 
Sanctae Trinitatis de Tyrone, pro salute animae meae et 
antecessorum et successorum meorum, donum patris mei, 
scilicet unam navem singulis annis quietam de Can, 
ubicumque venerit vel applicaverit in tota terra 
patris mei. 

Volo itaque et firmiter praecipio quod praedicta navis et 
homines qui in ea fuerint juste habeant meam firmam 
pacem vendendi et emendi et mercata sua faciendi, 
ubicumque venerint vel applicaverint in tota terra patris 



CXXXVI. CXXXVIII. 105 

mei et omnes homines ejusdem navis cum mercatis suis 
sint quieti ubique per terram patris mei de Cano, si 
voluerint piscari an non. Hoc idem vero sciatis me dedisse 
et concessisse illis ubicumque praedicta navis venerit vel 
applicaverit in tota terra mea de Northumbria, et hoc 
petitione Johannis Glasguensis episcopi. 

Testibus eodem, Ada comitissa, Hugone de Moreville, 
Roberto de Umfranvilla, et Gilleberto de Umfranvilla, 
Gervasio Ridel, Guillelmo de Sumervilla, Normano vice- 
comite, Hugone de Broi, Gullielmo Masculo, Engerano 
clerico, Ricardo capellano. Apud Jeddewrde. 



CXXXVIII. 

Charter by King David to the monks of Shrews- 
bury of their moiety of Bispham and their 
other possessions within the Honor of Lan- 
caster, circa A.D. 1141. 

Register of Shrewsbury Abbey, No. 322. 

DAVID Rex Scottorum, Justitiariis baronibus vicecomi- 
tibus et omnibus fidelibus suis totius Honoris Lancas- 
triae salutem. 

Sciatis quod volo et firmiter praecipio quod monachi 
fratres nostri ecclesiae Sancti Petri de Salopesberia 
teneant et habeant medietatem terrae Biscopham et omnes 
alias elemosinas quas in honore Lancastriae habent ita 
bene et plenarie sicut in tempore aliquorum antecessorum 
meorum melius et plenius habuerunt et tenuerunt 

Praecipio etiam si quid inde captum est quod cito eis 
reddatur et omnes homines eorum in eadem terra manentes 
juste habeant meam firmam pacem, ita quod aliquis eis 
injuriam vel contumeliam non faciat. 

Testibus Hugone de Morevill et Henrico filio Sweni. 
Apud Chulch. . . . 



106 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

CXXXIX. 

Charter by King David to the monks of Shrews- 
bury of the church of Kirkham and land of 
Bispham, circa A.D. 1141. 

Register of Shrewsbury Abbey, No. 87. 

DAVID Rex Scottorum, Justitiariis baronibus vicecomi- 
tibus et omnibus probis hominibus suis totius Honoris 
Lancastriae salutem. 

Praecipio quod abbas et monachi de Salop, teneant 
et habeant ecclesiam de Chircheham cum omnibus 
decimis et elemosinis ad illam juste pertinentibus et 
terram de Biscopham ita bene et plenarie sicut melius 
et plenius tenuerunt in tempore antecessorum meorum. 

Praecipio etiam quod omnes homines eorum illuc in 
negotiis eorum venientes et homines eorum qui in his 
praenominatis terris manserint, juste meam firmam pacem 
habeant et prohibeo super forisfactum ne aliquis eis 
injuriam vel contumeliam faciat. 

Testibus Jordano cancellario, Herberto camerario. 
Apud Novum Castellum de Culchet. 



CXL. 

Confirmation by King David of the grant of 
Wetheral to the church of St. Mary at York, 
by Adam the son of Swain, circa A.D. 1141. 

Dugdale's Monasticon, in., p. 595. 

DAVID Rex Scottorum, Baronibus, vicecomitibus, et 
omnibus probis hominibus suis totius Cumberlandiae et 
Westmorlandiae Francis et Anglis salutem. 

Sciatis me concessisse et carta mea confirmasse terram 



CXXXIX. CXLI. 107 

et locum quern Adam films Suani donavit in perpetuam 
elemosinam Deo et beatae Mariae de Eboraco, et 
monachis fratribus nostris ejusdem loci et de Wederhal. 
Et volo et firmiter praecipio quod fratres et ministri et 
omnia sua sint in mea firma pace et manutentia qui in 
praedicto loco et terra habitaverint. Et prohibeo super 
meam plenariam defensionem quod nullus eis nee alicui 
eorum quicquam forisfaciat nee facere permittat. 

Testibus episcopo Johanne et Jordano cancellario et 
Herberto camerario. Apud Karliolum. 



CXLI. 

Charter by King David to the Abbey of Melros, 
circa A.D. 1143-1144. 

Munimenta de Melros, No. I. 

DAVID Dei gratia Rex Scottorum, Episcopis abbatibus 
comitibus baronibus et probis hominibus suis et omni- 
bus fidelibus suis totius regni sui Francis et Anglicis et 
Scottis et Galwensibus salutem. 

Sciatis me pro anima mea et animabus patris et matris 
meae et fratris ^Edgari et aliorum fratrum et sororum 
mearum et uxoris meae Matildis et etiam pro anima 
Henrici filii mei et heredis et antecessorum et successorum 
meorum concessisse et dedisse Deo et Sanctae Mariae de 
Melros et monachis ibidem Deo servientibus de Rieuall, 
annuente et concedente Henrico filio meo et herede et 
per cartam suam confirmante, in perpetuam elemosinam. 

Totam scilicet terram de Melros et totam terram de 
Eldune et totam terram de Dernewic per terminos et 
rectas divisas suas in bosco et piano et pratis et aquis 
in pasturis et moris in viis et semitis et in omnibus 
aliis rebus liberas et quietas et solutas ab omni terreno 
servitio et exactione seculari perpetuo tenore possidere 



io8 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

insuper autem sciatis me dedisse praedictis monachis et 
hac mea carta confirmasse in terra mea et in forestis 
meis scilicet de Seleschirche et de Trauequair omnia 
aisiamenta sua pasturam scilicet ad averia sua et ligna 
et materiem et pasnagium ubique ad suos proprios usus 
sicut ego ipse melius habeo ad opus meum et nominatim 
inter Galche et Leder. Praeterea in aquis de Thveda 
infra terminos eorum piscaturam tarn ex mea parte 
fluminis quam ex eorum parte ubique. 

Praeter vero omnia supradicta dedi et confirmavi eis ad 
incrementum Galtuneschalech et totam terram et boscum 
de Galtunesside, sicut ego ipse et Henricus films meus 
et Abbas Ricardus ejusdem ecclesiae perivimus et cir- 
cuivimus die Veneris crastino ascensionis Domini anno 
scilicet secundo quo Stephanus Rex Angliae captus est. 

Testibus ad hoc praesens donum Johanne episcopo, 
Willelmo nepote regis, Hugone de Moreuille, Willelmo 
de Sumerville, Henrico filio Swain, Geruasio Ridel. 

Volo itaque ut ipsi omnes has praedictas terras et res 
suas ita libere et quiete teneant et possideant sicut aliqua 
elemosina liberius et quietius, perpetuo tenore teneri 
potest et possideri. 

Testibus Henrico filio meo, Johanne episcopo, Wil- 
lelmo nepote meo, Willelmo cancellario, Madd. comite, 
Roberto de Humframville, Hugone de Moreuille, Waltero 
filio Alani, Hugone Briton, Osberto de Ardene, Geruasio 
Ridel, Willelmo de Sumerville, Ricardo Gernun, Ricardo 
Anglico, Willelmo de Lindesai, Ascelino archidiacono, 
Jordano clerico, Estmundo elemosinario. 

Praeterea homines de eadem terra, Gospatrico comite, 
Ulfchillo filio Ethelstan, Osolfo filio Huctredi, Maccus 
filius Undwain, Huctredo filio Sioth, Huctredo filio Gos- 
patric, Orm filio Eilas, Eilas filio Gospatric, Edulfo filio 
Normanni, Osolfo filio Ediue, Osolfo filio Elfstan, 
Roberto Brus meschin, Radulfo filio Turstain, Rogero 
nepote episcopi. Apud Ercheldon in Junio. 



CXLL CXLII. 109 

CXLII. 

Charter by Earl Henry to the Abbey of Melros, 
circa A.D. 1143-1144. 

Munimenta de Melros, No. 2. 

HENRICUS films David Regis Scottorum, Omnibus episcopis, 
abbatibus comitibus proceribus et omnibus probis homini- 
bus Francis et Anglicis totius regni Scotiae salutem. 

Sciatis me pro anima mea et pro animabus patris et 
matris meae et avunculi mei Edgari et uxoris meae Adae 
et filiorum meorum et omnium antecessorum meorum et 
successorum meorum dedisse et hac mea carta confir- 
masse Deo et ecclesiae Sanctae Mariae de Melros et 
monachis ibidem Deo servientibus de Rieualle et suis 
successoribus in puram et perpetuam elemosinam totam 
donationem regis David patris mei, scilicet totam terram 
de Melros et totam terram de Eldun, et totam terram 
de Dernewic per terminos et omnes rectas divisas suas 
in bosco in pratis in aquis in pasturis et moris in viis et 
semitis et in omnibus aliis rebus liberas quietas et solutas 
ab omni terreno servitio et exactione seculari. 

Insuper sciatis me dictis et suis successoribus et hac 
mea carta confirmasse in terra mea et in forestis meis 
scilicet de Seleschirche et de Treuequor omnia aisiamenta 
sua pasturam scilicet ad averia sua et ligna et materiem 
et pasnagium ubique ad suos proprios usus sicut ego ipse 
melius habeo ad opus meum et nominatim inter Galue 
et Ledir. Praeterea in aquis de Thweda infra terminos 
eorum piscaturam tarn ex mea parte quam ex eorum 
parte ubique. Praeterea vero omnia supradicta dedi et 
confirmavi eis ad incrementum Galtuneschalech et terram 
et boscum de Galtunesside sicut pater meus rex David 
et ego et Ricardus Abbas ejusdem ecclesiae perivimus et 
circuivimus die Veneris crastino ascensionis Domini anno 
scilicet secundo quo Stephanus Rex Angliae captus est 



no EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

His testibus ad praesens donum Johanne episcopo, 
Willelmo nepote regis, Hugone de Moreuille, Waltero 
filio Alani, Hugone Britone, Gervasio Ridel. 

Volo itaque ut ipsi omnes has praedictas terras et res 
suas ita libere et quiete et honorifice teneant et possideant 
sicut aliqua elemosina liberius et quietius et honorifi- 
centius teneri potest et possideri tenore perpetuo. 

Testibus Johanne episcopo, etc. 



CXLIII. 

Charter by King David granting to the Abbey 
of Dunfermlin the tithe of land in Atherai in 
exchange for the tithe of land in Cambus- 
kinel, circa A.D. 1142. 

Registr. de Dunfermelyne, No. 7. 

DAVID Rex Scottorum, Vicecomiti et praepositis de 
Striuelinis Scyra salutem. 

Sciatis me dedisse et concessisse Deo et Sanctae 
Trinitatis de Dunfermelyn et abbati et fratribus ejus- 
dem loci decimam terrae Brixwald quam tenet in Atherai 
in escambio decimae terrae illius quam canonici habent 
in Cambuskinel. 

Testibus Johanne episcopo et Duncano comite et 
Roberto Burguillun. Apud Striuelin. 

CXLIV. 

Charter by King David to the Abbey of Newbattle, 
A.D. 1140. 

Regist. de Neubotle, No. 2. 

DAVID Rex Scotiae, Omnibus hominibus terrae suae 
clericis et laicis salutem. 



CXLII. CXLV. in 

Sciatis me dedisse et confirmasse ecclesiae de Neubotle, 
et monachis ibidem Deo servientibus et Sanctae Mariae, 
Neubotle per suas rectas divisas in omnibus in perpetuam 
elemosinam, libere et quiete, sicut aliqua elemosina potest 
teneri et concedi liberius, exceptis duabus carrucatis terrae 
quas Roberto Ferrario pro suo servitio dedi, quare volo et 
praecipio ut ipsi monachi sint in bene et mea firma pace 
et heredum meorum et sint liberi et quieti et absoluti 
ab omnibus exactionibus et consuetudinibus secularibus 
per totum regnum in perpetuum. Annuente hoc et con- 
cedente Henrico filio meo et confirmante. 

Praesentibus testibus Johanne Episcopo de Glesgu, 
Ricardo Abbate de Melros, Cospatrico et Duncano, comi- 
tibus, Hugone de Moreville constabulario. Apud Edinb. 
Kl. Novembris, anno incarnationis Domini millesimo 
centesimo quadragesimo. 

CXLV. 

Charter by King David to the Abbey of Newbattle, 
circa A.D. 1 142. 

The original is in the Archives at Newbattle. Registr. de Neubotle, 

No. 17. 

DAVID Rex Scotiae, Episcopis abbatibus comitibus 
baronibus justitiis vicecomitibus ministris et omnibus 
probis hominibus totius regni sui clericis et laicis Francis 
Anglicis et Scottis salutem. 

Sciant tarn posted quam praesentes me dedisse et con- 
cessisse Deo et Sanctae Mariae de Newbothle et 
fratribus ibidem Deo servientibus Morthuweit in bosco 
et in piano pratis pascuis et herbis per istas nomi- 
natas divisas scilicet sicut Blancheburne descendit de 
montibus et cadit in Gledehus et sicut Pardauarneburne 
venit de montibus et cadit in Esch et sicut duo rivuli 
descendunt de Muffo . . . retro Thocchesheued et cadunt 
hinc et inde in Gledehus et Esch et hoc ita libere honorifice 



H2 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

et quiete in perpetuam elemosiniam sicut aliqua elemosina 
liberius et quietius datur et tenetur. 

Praesentibus testibus Henrico comite filio meo, Johanne 
episcopo, Dunecano comite, Hugone de Moreville, 
Willelmo de Sumerevile, Willelmo de Lindesai, Waltero 
de Ridale, Waltero de Lindesai, Randulfo de Sules, 
Hyngelrom clerico. Apud Castellum^ puellarum. 

CXLVI. 

Charter by King David granting Newbattle, 
Morthwait and Ruchalech to the Church of 
St. Mary at Newbattle, and confirming a grant 
by Robert Ferrers, circa A.D. 1142. 

Reg. de Neubotle, No. 18. 

DAVID Rex Scottorum, Episcopis abbatibus comitibus 
baronibus justitiis vicecomitibus et omnibus probis 
hominibus totius regni sui clericis et laicis Francis Anglicis 
et Scottis salutem. 

Sciant tarn posted quam praesentes me dedisse et con- 
cessisse Deo et ecclesiae Sanctae Mariae de Neubotle et 
fratribus ibidem Deo servituris Neubotle et Morthwait in 
bosco et piano pratis pascuis et herbis per rectas divisas 
sicut ego et Hugo de Moreville, Walterus de Rydale, 
Ricardus de Castello, Petrus films Kercembaldi et alii 
barones mei mecum peragavimus et praeter hoc Ruchalech 
et terram quam Robertus Ferrarius eis dedit et concessit 
et unam salinam in Blankelande et pasnagium per totum 
forestum meum et materiem ad aedificia sua construenda 
sicut ad opus meum dominicum et hoc ita libere honori- 
fice et quiete in perpetuam elemosinam sicut aliqua 
elemosina liberius et quietius datur et tenetur. 

Praesentibus testibus Henrico comite filio meo, Oswaldo 
Carliolensis episcopo, Hugone de Morville, Willelmo de 
Sumerville. Apud Castrum puellarum. 



CXLV. CXLVIII. 113 

CXLVII. 

Confirmation by Earl Henry to the Abbey of 
Newbattle, circa A.D. 1142. 

Registr. de Neubotle, No. 19. 

HENRICUS Comes filius Regis Scottorum, Episcopis abbati- 
bus comitibus baronibus justitiis vicecomitibus et omnibus 
probis hominibus totius regni patris sui clericis et laicis 
Francis Anglicis et Scottis salutem. 

Sciant tarn posteri quam praesentes me concessisse et 
confirmasse Deo et ecclesiae Sanctae Mariae de Neubotle 
et fratribus ibidem Deo servientibus Neubotle et Morth- 
wayt in bosco et piano et pratis et pascuis et herbis per 
illas divisas sicut pater meus cum baronibus in carta sua 
nominatis peragravit et sicut ego ipse postea illas pera- 
gravi et praeter hoc Ruchalec et terram quam Robertus 
Ferrarius eis dedit et concessit et unam salinam in Blanke- 
lande et pasnagium per totum forestum quiete et materiem 
ad aedificia sua construenda sicut ad opus meum dominicum. 

Volo itaque ut omnia haec praedicta teneant et habeant 
in perpetuam elemosinam. Ita libere honorifice et quiete 
sicut aliqua elemosina liberius et quietius datur et tenetur. 

Praesentibus testibus Athelwaldo Carliolensis Episcopo, 
Alwyno Abbate de Sancta Cruce, Willelmo Abbate de 
Struelyn, Osberto priore de Jeddewurthe et multis aliis. 

CXLVIII. 

Charter by King David to the Abbey of Newbattle 
of Ruchale, circa A.D. 1142. 

Registr. de Neubotle, No. i. 

DAVID Rex Scotiae, Episcopis abbatibus comitibus justitiis 
baronibus vicecomitibus et omnibus fidelibus suis totius 
regni sui salutem. 



n 4 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

Sciatis me dedisse et concessisse in perpetuam elemosi- 
nam Deo et Sanctae Mariae et monachis de Neubotle 
Ruchale. 

Testibus Alwino abbate de Edeneburgh, Gilberto 
priore, Edwardo cancellario, Dunecano comite, Hugone 
de Moreville, et Makbet de Libertona. Apud Edenb. 



CXLIX. 

Charter by King David granting a saltpan in 

Kalentyr to the monks of Newbattle, 

circa A.D. 1142. 

Registr. de Neubotle, No. 162. 

DAVID Rex Scottorum, Omnibus probis hominibus totius 
terrae suae salutem. 

Sciatis me dedisse et concessisse, Deo et fratribus de 
Neubotle in perpetuam elemosinam unam salinariam in 
Kalentyr ita liberam et quietam sicut aliqua elemosina 
in terra mea datur liberius et conceditur. 

Teste Comite Duncano. 



CL. 

Confirmation by Alwyn, Abbot of Holy rood, to the [ 
Abbey of Newbattle, circa A.D. 1142. 

Registr. de Neubotle, No. 4. 

FRATER Alwynus ecclesiae Sanctae Crucis de Edenburc 
abbas ejusdem conventus, Omnibus sanctae matris ecclesiae 
filiis tarn futuris quam praesentibus salutem et pacem bonam. 
Sciatis nos concessisse et scripto nostro confirmasse 
terram de Ruenhale liberam et quietam et in perpetuum 
possidendam abbati et fratribus ecclesiae Sanctae Mariae 
de Neubotle, propterea terram de Dalkied quam a rege 
vicariam accepimus. Valete. 



CXLVIII. CLII. 115 



CLI. 

Grant of Pittendreich by Alwyn, Abbot of Holy- 
rood, to Ralph, Abbot of Newbattle, 
circa A.D. 1 142. 

The original is in the Archives at Newbattle. Holyrood Charters, 
No. 7 ; Registr. de Neubotle, No. 5. 

EGO Abbas Alwinus de Sancta Cruce notifico regibus, 
episcopis comitibus baronibus de Scotiae post me Ven- 
turis me et capitulum nostrum Radulfo Abbati et conventui 
de Newebothla concessisse, David rege hoc tractante et 
proloquente, scilicet Pettenreiam villam nostram nunquam 
proprius erga Newebothlam remoturam quam fuit illo die 
quando conventus primum illuc advenit. Fundata enim 
fuit ecclesia ilia a David rege anno ab incarnatione 
die millesimo C mo XLI mo . 



CLII. 

Grant by Norman, the Sheriff of Berwick, to the 
Abbey of Holyrood of the Chapel of Corstor- 
phin, circa A.D. 1142. 

Holyrood Charters, No. 8. 

NORMANNUS vicecomes de Berewic, Omnibus hominibus 
suis de Crostorfin salutem. 

Sciatis me concessisse et in perpetuam elemosinam 
dedisse Sanctae Cruci de Edeneburg et abbati et fratribus 
ibidem Deo servientibus capellam meam de Crostorfin cum 
omnibus rectitudinibus capellae eidem pertinentibus. 

Testibus Henrico Comite et Edwardo cancellario et 
Turoldo archidiacono Lodoniae, et Ricardo clerico de 
Edeneb. Apud Berewic. 



n6 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 



CLIII. 

King David's Great Charter to the Abbey of 
Holy rood. 

The original is in the possession of the City of Edinburgh. 
Holyrood Charters, No. i. 

IN nomine Domini nostri Jhesu Christi et in honore 
Sanctae Crucis et Sanctae Mariae virginis Omniumque 
Sanctorum, ego David Dei gratia Rex Scottorum regali 
auctoritate assensu Henrici filii mei et episcoporum regni 
mei comitum quoque baronum confirmatione et testimonio, 
clero etiam acquiescente et populo, divino instinctu omnia 
subscripta concedo ecclesiae Sanctae Crucis Edwines- 
burgerisi et pace perpetua confirmo. 

Haec itaque sunt quae ecclesiae praefatae et canonicis 
regularibus in eadem Deo servientibus in liberam et per- 
petuam elemosinam concedimus. Ecclesiam scilicet cas- 
telli cum omnibus appendiciis et rectitudinibus suis et 
examen duelli aquae et ferri calidi quantum ad ecclesia- 
ticam dignitatem pertinet et cum salectuna per suas 
rectas divisas et ecclesiam Sancti Cuthberti cum parochia 
et omnibus rebus quae eidem ecclesiae pertinent et cum 
Kyrchetune per rectas divisas suas et cum terra in qua 
ipsa ecclesia sita est et cum alia terra quae sub castello 
jacet videlicet a fonte qui oritur juxta angulum gardini 
mei per viam qua itur ad ecclesiam Sancti Cuthberti et 
ex alia parte sub castello usque quo pervenitur ad unam 
craggam quae est sub eodem castello versus orientem 
et cum duabus capellis quae ad eandem ecclesiam Sancti 
Cuthberti pertinent scilicet Crorstorfin cum duabus bovatis 
terrae et sex acris et ilia capella de Libertune cum duabus 
bovatis terrae et cum omnibus decimis et rectitudinibus 
tarn de vivis quam de mortuis de Legbernard quas 
Macbetber eidem ecclesiae dedit et ego concessi et 



CLIII. 117 

ecclesiam de Hereth cum terra quae ad eandem ecclesiam 
pertinet et cum tota terra quam ego ei augmentavi 
et dedi sicut ministri mei et probi homines perambula- 
verunt et tradiderunt Alwino Abbati cum una salina in 
Hereth et XXVI acris terrae quam ecclesiam et terram 
praenominatam volo ut canonici Sanctae Crucis teneant 
et possideant in perpetuum libere et quiete et prohibeo 
firmiter ne aliquis canonicos sive homines eorum qui in 
eadem terra manent injuste gravent aut disturbent, neque 
aliquas operationes sive auxilia sive consuetudines secu- 
lares injuste ab eis exigant. Volo etiam ut idem canonici 
habeant libertatem molendini faciendi in eadem terra 
et ut habeant in Hereth omnes consuetudines illas et 
rectitudines et aisiamenta videlicet in aquis et piscationibus 
in pratis in pascuis et in omnibus aliis necessariis rebus 
sicut melius habuerunt die ilia qua illam habui in meo 
dominio et Broctunam cum suis rectis divisis et Inverlet 
illam quae vicinior est portui cum suis rectis divisis et cum 
ipso portu et cum medietate piscationis et cum decima 
totius piscationis quae ad ecclesiam Sancti Cuthberti 
pertinet et Petendreiam cum suis rectis divisis et Hamere 
et Fordam cum suis rectis divisis et hospitale cum una 
carrucata terrae et quadraginta solidos de meo burgo 
de Ewinesburg singulis annis et redditum centum soli- 
dorum singulis annis ad indumenta canonicorum de cano 
meo de Pert et hoc de primis navibus quae negotiationis 
causa veniunt ad Pert et si forte non venerint concedo 
praefatae ecclesiae de meo redditu de Edwinesburg quadra- 
ginta solidos et de Striueline viginti solidos et de Pert 
quadraginta solidos et unum toftum in Striueline et 
tractum unius retis ad piscandum et unum toftum in burgo 
meo de Edwinesburg liberum et quietum ab omni con- 
suetudine et exactione et unum toftum in Berewic et 
tractum duorum retium in Scypwel et unum toftum in 
Reinfry quinque particarum et tractum unius retis ad 
salmones et ibi piscari ad allechtia libere et prohibeo ne 



n8 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

aliquis inde a vobis sive ab hominibus vestris aliquas con- 
suetudines exigat. 

Concede etiam praefatis canonicis de camera mea singulis 
annis decem libras ad luminaria ecclesiae et ad operationes 
ejusdem ecclesiae et ad reparationem earundem opera- 
tionum in perpetuum. 

Praecipio etiam omnibus ministris meis et forestariis de 
Striuelin-sire et de Clacmanant quod Abbas et conventus 
habeant liberam potestatem in omnibus nemoribus meis 
et forestis capiendi tantum de materia quantum eis 
placuerint et voluerint ad aedificationem ecclesiae suae et 
domorum suarum et ad quaelibet negotia sua facienda et 
praecipio quod homines eorum qui ad eorum negotia in 
eisdem nemoribus materiam capiunt meam firmam pacem 
habeant et ita quod non permittatis quod in aliquo dis- 
turbentur et porcos dominicos supradictae ecclesiae in 
omnibus nemoribus meis concedo esse quietos de pad- 
nagio. 

Concedo etiam praefatis canonicis medietatem sepii 
et uncti et coriorum de occisa de Edwinesburg et 
decimam de omnibus cetis et marinis beluis quae mihi 
eveniunt ab Avin usque ad Colbrandespade et decimam 
omnium placitorum meorum et lucrorum ab Avin usque 
ad Colbrandespade et medietatem meae decimae de meo 
cano et de meis placitis et lucris fle Kentyr et de Errogeil 
et omnes pelles arietinas et ovinas et agninas de castello 
et de Linlitcu quae moriuntur de meo dominio et octo 
cheldros de brasio et octo de farina et triginta carratas 
de busche de Libertune et unum de meis molendinis de 
Dene et decimam molendini de Libertune et de Dene et 
novi molendini de Edwinesburg et Craggenemarf quantum 
inde habeo in meo dominio et quantum Vineth Albus eis 
de eodem Craggo in elemosinam dedit. 

Concedo et eis herbergare quoddam burgum inter ean- 
dem ecclesiam et meum burgum et concedo ut burgenses 
eorum habeant communionem vendendi res suas venales et 



CLIII. CLIV. 119 

emendi in foro meo libere et absque calumpnia et consue- 
tudine sicut mei proprii burgenses et prohibeo ne aliquis in 
burgo eorem panem vel cervisiam aut pannum aut aliquod 
venale capiat per vim aut sine voluntate burgensium. 

Concede et canonicos esse quietos de theloneo et de 
omni consuetudine in omnibus burgis meis et per totam 
terram meam scilicet de omnibus rebus quas ement et 
vendent et prohibeo ne aliquis capiat pandum super terram 
Sanctae Crucis nisi abbas ejusdem loci rectum et jus 
facere recusaverit. 

Volo autem ut omnia praedicta ita liberaliter et quiete 
teneant sicut ego meas proprias terras possideo et volo 
ut abbas curiam suam ita libere et plenarie et honorifice 
habeat sicut episcopus Sancti Andreae et abbas de Dun- 
fermelin et abbas de Kelcov curias suas habent. 

Hiis testibus Rodberto Episcopo Sancti Andreae, Johanne 
Episcopo Glasguensi, Henrico filio meo, Willelmo nepote 
meo, Eadwardo cancellario, Hereberto camerario, Gille- 
michael com., Gospatrico fratre Dolfini, Rodberto de 
Monte Acuto, Rodberto de Burneuile, Petro de Brus, 
Normanno vicecomite, Oggu, Leising. Gillise, Willo. de 
Graham, Turstano de Crectune, Bleino archidiacono 
Aelfrico capellano, Waleranno capellano. 



CLIV. 

Charter by King David to Edward, a monk of 
Coldingham, of a tithe of fishings. 

Small Chartulary of Durham. 

DAVID Rex Scotiae, Vicecomiti de Berwic praepositis et 
omnibus probis hominibus suis vicecomitatus de Berwic 
salutem. 

Praecipio quod Edwardus monachus de Coldingham 
habeat ita bene et in pace et plenarie totam decimam 



120 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

piscium de his piscatoriis aquis de Halwarestelle et de 
omnibus aliis juste pertinentibus ad ecclesiam Sancti 
Cuthberti de halieland sicut melius et plenius habent. 

Prohibeo etiam quod nullus inde quicquam injuste 
retineat nee celet super Dei defensionem (et) meam 
T. . . . 

CLV. 

Charter by King David granting Pittenweem and 
Inverin to the monks of May, circa A.D. 1143. 

Cartae Prior. Insulae de May, No. 4. 

DAVID Rex Scotiae, Episcopis abbatibus comitibus vice- 
comitibus ministris et probis hominibus totius terrae 
suae salutem. 

Sciatis me concessisse et in perpetuam elemosinam 
dedisse Deo et ecclesiae de Mai et fratribus ibidem Deo 
servientibus tarn futuris quam praesentibus Petneweme et 
Inuerrin quae fuit Averni per rectas divisas ita libere et 
quiete ad tenendum de me sicut aliae ecclesiae elemosi- 
narum mearum tenent melius et liberius. 

Testibus Abbate Gaufrido de Dunfermelin et Comite 
Dunecano et Hugone de Morevilla et Edwardo can- 
cellario et Alfwino MacArchil et Macbet Mac Torfin. 
Apud Edeneburgum. 

CLVL 

Charter by King David granting common rights 
in the wood of Clackmannan to the priory of 
May, circa A.D. 1143. 

Cartae Prior. Insulae de May, No. 5. 

DAVID Rex Scotiae, Episcopis comitibus vicecomitibus 
ministris et gilleserfis de Clamanec et omnibus probis 
hominibus suis salutem. 



CLIV. CLVIII. 121 

Sciatis me concessisse et dedisse Archardo priori et 
fratribus de Mai in elemosinam communitatem nemoris 
de Clacmanec quare defendo ne ullus eos aut eorum 
homines in nemore disturbet. 

Testibus Galfrido Abbate de Dunfermelin et Edwardo 
cancellario et Herberto camerario. Apud Dunfermelin. 



CLVII. 

Charter by King David granting Crefbarrin to the 
church of Dunfermline, circa A.D. 1143. 

Registr. de Dunfermelyn, No. 5. 

DAVID Rex Scottorum, Omnibus hominibus suis salutem. 

Sciatis me dedisse et concessisse ecclesiae Sanctae Trini- 
tatis de Dunfermlin in elemosinam Crefbarrin. 

Testibus Johanne episcopo, Edwardo cancellario, 
Hugone de Moreville. Apud Elbotle. 



CLVIII. 

" De muliere leuif et suos fugitives," 
circa A.D. 1143. 

Registr. de Dunfermelyn, No. 20. 

DAVID Rex Scottorum, Omnibus probis hominibus totius 
terrae suae salutem. 

Mando vobis atque praecipio quatenus unuscunque H. 
leuif poterit invenire aliquos suorum fugitivorum quatenus 
ei juste reddantur et ne ullus ei juste detineat super 
meam defensionem. 

Testibus Hugone de Morville et Edwardo cancellario. 
Apud Edinburg. 



122 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 



CLIX. 

Charter by King David granting to the Abbey of 
Kelso a saltpan in Carsach, circa A.D. 1143. 

Liber de Calchou, No. 375. 

DAVID Dei gratia Rex Scottorum, Episcopis abbatibus 
comitibus baronibus vicecomitibus justitiis praepositis 
ministris et omnibus probis hominibus totius regni sui 
Francis Anglicis et Scottis salutem. 

Sciant tarn posted quam praesentes me dedisse et con- 
cessisse ecclesiae Sanctae Mariae de Kelchov et abbatt 
fratribusque ejusdem ecclesiae pro salute animae meae 
in perpetuam elemosinam unam salinam in Carsach ita 
liberam et quietam sicut aliquam elemosinam liberius et 
quietius tenent et habent. 

Testibus Roberto Sancti Andreae episcopo, Johanne 
Glasguensi episcopo, Edwardo cancellario, Dunecano 
comite, Hereberto camerario, Edwardo, Tor vicecomite, 
Alwino Mac Archill, Ucteredo filio Fergus. Apud 
Streuelyn. 

CLX. 

Charter by King David to the canons of Holyrood 

of fifty-two acres of the land of Dalkeith, 

circa A.D. 1 144. 

Holyrood Charters, No. 6. 

DAVID Rex Scotiae, Episcopis abbatibus comitibus justi- 
tiis baronibus vicecomitibus et omnibus fidelibus suis 
clericis et laicis tarn praesentibus quam futuris totius regni 
sui salutem. 

Sciatis me dedisse et concessisse pro animabus ante- 
cessorum et successorum meorum in perpetuum Deo et 
Sanctae Cruci de Edeneburc et canonicis fratribus nostris 



CLIX. CLXI. 123 

ejusdem loci videlicet LIJ acras de terrae de Dolchet inter 
nemus et planam terram in escambio de Rhuchale quam 
monachis de Neubotle in perpetuam elemosinam donavi. 
Concede etiam praenominatis canonicis Sanctae Crucis 
omnem decimam novi molendini de Dene et burgi mei de 
Edeneb. et Libertone in perpetuam elemosinam. 

Praesentibus testibus Johanne episcopo, Edwardo can- 
cellario, Dunecano comite, Hugone de Moruille, Willelmo 
de Lindesai, Waltero de Ridale, Thor de Treuernent, 
Malbet de Libertone. Apud Castellum puellarum. 



CLXI. 

Charter by King David granting Rindalgros to 
the Abbey of Reading, A.D. 1143-1147. 

Cartae Prior. Insulae de May, No. i. 

DAVID Dei gratia Rex Scotiae, Venerabilibus fratribus 
et amicis E abbati et domino Briencio totique 

conventui de Redingis salutem et dilectionem. 

Animae meae meorumque saluti providens et vestris 
necessitatibus caritatis intuitu subveniens, dono et concedo 
Deo et ecclesiae Sanctae Mariae et conventui de Re- 
dingis, Rindalgros per illas divisas per quas ego ipse 
sed et Willelmus Giffard, Herbertus camerarius ceterique 
homines mei perivimus ad vestrum opus. Hanc itaque 
praedictam villam pro salute animae meae antecessorum 
et successorum meorum vobis et successoribus vestris in 
perpetuam elemosinam dono et concedo ita liberam et 
quietam et ab omnium hominum calumpnia absolutam 
in terris aquis et piscariis sicut aliqua abbatia in regno 
meo donationes suas et possessiones liberius et quietius 
tenet et habet. 

Hac demum consideratione ut si ego vel heredes 
mei praedictae donationi tantum divina inspiratione ad- 
deremus unde conventus posset sustentari praedicto loco 



i2 4 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

conventum destinetis qui de beneficiis illis necessaria 
habeat Reliquum vero utilitati et dispositioni vestrae 
concedimus. 

Praesentibus testibus fratre Willelmo Giffardo, Gaufrido 
abbate de Dunfermelin, Edwardo cancellario, Waltero 
de Bydun, Nicolao clerico, Dunecano comite, Hugone 
de Morevill, Herberto camerario, Waltero de Lindesai, 
Leod de Brechin. Apud Dunfermelin. 



CLXII. 

Charter by Robert, Bishop of St. Andrews, endow- 
ing the Priory of St. Andrews, A.D. 1144. 

Reg. Prior. S. Andreae. 

ROBERTUS Dei gratia Scottorum episcopus, Omnibus 
catholicae ecclesiae filiis tarn praesentibus quam futuris 
salutem perpetuam ecclesiam beati Andreae apostoli cui 
auctore Deo deservio, quum usque ad tempus nostrum 
permodica fuerat Deo inspirante ampliare studuimus sed 
quam non sufficit ad laudem nominis Domini lapidum 
congeriem congregare nisi et procuremus vivos in Dei 
aedifkium lapides adunare, canonicos ibidem ad Deo 
deserviendum sub regulari canonicali beati patris Augus- 
tini constituimus, quibus et filium nostrum fratrem Rober- 
tum in partem laboris nostri assumentes, jure pariter 
et nomine prioris prefecimus et ad victum et vestitum 
eorum ceteraque necessaria de possessionibus et redditibus 
nostris, consilio simul et concessione piisimi regis nostri 
David necnon et filii ejus Henrici comitis et regis 
designati. Nihilominus et episcoporum abbatum comitum 
atque optimaturn et fidelium suorum consilio, portionem 
quandam in perpetuum possidendam liberam et incon- 
cussam indulsimus, quae autem donavimus et concessimus 
subscribenda dignum duximus. Sunt autem haec: Barri- 



CLXL CLXII. 125 

mund . Struuithin . Kinnines . Castdouenald . Drumckarach .. 
Ledochin . Stradkines . Balhucea . Rodmanand . Pettultin . 
Kinastare .Chinemonie . Drumsac . Balemacdunechin . Eglis- 
namin . Ballothen . Sconin . molendinum de Kilremund . 
molendinum de Puthachin. 

Haec omnia cum omnibus pertinentibus et adjacentibus 
et appendiciis suis. Et de firma regis de Perth I marcam 
argenti singulis annis ad Pascha ad luminare ecclesiae 
et unam aquam in Bereuiuich de dono regis. De VII vero 
portionibus quae sunt altaris Sancti Andreae, ipsis canonicis 
IJ portiones dedimus et concessimus quae pertinent duobus 
personagiis quae ipsi habent et hospitali ejusdem villae 
I portionem. Quod nimirum hospitale cum terris et posses- 
sionibus et redditibus eidem pertinentibus eisdem con- 
cessimus, in susceptionem hospitum et peregrinorum et 
ad ipsum hospitale medietatem decimae carrucarum 
nostrarum et vaccarum et berchiariarum et porchariarum 
et equariarum de parochia S. Trinitatis, et medietatem 
de nostro chan ejus parochiae et totam decimam de 
nostro chan de Biadebolg et de aliis provinciis et locis 
undecumque fuerit allatum vel adductum ad Sanctum 
Andream. Molendinum et de Nidin eis dedimus, et omnes 
libros nostros. Ista ergo et quaecunque postmodum prae- 
dictae ecclesiae Beati Andreae et canonicis ibidem Deo 
servientibus vel servituris collata fuerint, libera esse et quieta 
ab omni exactione decrevimus. Hanc igitur donationem 
et concessionem nostram, quicunque ipsi ecclesiae et 
canonicis immunem et inconcussam conservare adjuverit, 
partem et societatem cum Beato Andrea et coapostolis 
ejus et cum fundatoribus et defensoribus sanctae Dei 
ecclesiae et cum omnibus sanctis se praecepturum gaudeat. 
Quicunque vero sive per fraudem sive per violentiam 
earn infestare vel diminuere temptaverit nisi condigne 
satisfecerit ante tribunal districti judicis cum raptoribus 
et destructoribus ecclesiarum se reum et dampnabilem 
fore doleat. 



126 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

Hanc ego Robertus episcopus donationis nostrae paginam 
episcopal! auctoritate confirmo et ob memoriam et re- 
verentiam dominicae crucis impressione consigno et sigilli 
nostri testimonio confirmatione consigno. Anno Dominicae 
incarnationis MCXL.IIIJ. Ego Thoraldus Archidiaconus 
subscribe et crucis signo confirmo. 



CLXIII. 

Charter by King David confirming the rights of 
the Priory of St. Andrews, circa A.D. 1144. 

Reg. Prior. S. Andreae. 

DAVID Dei gratia Rex Scottorum, Episcopis abbatibus 
comitibus baronibus ministris et omnibus fidelibus suis 
salutem. 

Ad hoc nos divina providentia in populo suo principes 
esse voluit ut debeamus et velimus ipsi tanquam Domino 
et Creatori omnium subesse et subditis nostris magis 
prodesse quam praeesse mala penitus extirpare bonum 
non solum ipsi facere verum etiam benefacientes adjuvare. 

Proinde dilecti patris nostri in Christo venerabilis 
Roberti episcopi Sancti Andreae studium et opus atten- 
dentes in beati Andreae apostoli ecclesiae ampliare et 
canonicorum constitutione simul et elemosinarum largi- 
tione, tarn ego quam Henricus films et Deo donante heres 
meus et Rex designatus, tarn utili et necessario incepto 
congaudentes et de bonis initiis meliores expectantes 
exitus quaecunque praefatus Dominus Robertus episcopus 
eidem ecclesiae et canonicis ibidem Deo servientibus et 
servituris dedit et per cartam confirmavit, nos illis con- 
cedimus et confirmamus perpetuo possidendam ita libere 
et quiete plenarie et honorifice sicut liberius et quietius 
plenarius et honorificentius possidetur aliqua elemosina in 
regno meo. 



CLXIL CLXIII. 127 

Nomina autem eorum quae ab ipso illis donata sunt 
subscribi dignum duximus Balrimund Struuichin Kinnis 
Gastduvenold Drumkarach Ledochin Stratkines Balucca 
Rodmanan Petultin Kinnastare Balgoua Kinnamone 
Drumsac Balemacdunegin Eglesnamin Ballochen Sconin 
cum omnibus pertinentibus et adjacentibus et appendiciis 
suis, molendinum etiam de Kilrimund molendinum de 
Niden molendinum de Pudechin. 

De septem vero portionibus quae sunt altaris Sancti 
Andreae apostoli, ipsis canonicis duas portiones confir- 
mamus et hospitali ejusdem villae unam portionem. Ipsum 
etiam hospitale ab episcopo eis datum et concessum in 
susceptione hospitum et peregrinorum cum terris et 
possessionibus et redditibus eidem pertinentibus, eisdem 
canonicis concedimus et confirmamus et ipsi hospitali 
medietatem de chan episcopi de parochia Sanctae Trinitatis 
et totam decimam de chan episcopi de Bladebolg et de 
aliis provinciis undecumque fuerit allatum vel adductum 
ad Sanctum Andream et omnes libros praedicti episcopi. 
Ex dono autem meo ecclesiam de Linlidcu cum capellis 
et terris infra burgum et extra et cum omnibus rectitudini- 
bus eidem ecclesiae pertinentibus et unam marcam de 
firma mea de Perth singulis annis ad Pascha ad luminare 
ecclesiae Sancti Andreae apostoli et unam aquam in Berwic 
et tractum unius retis in aqua de Perte cum meis propriis 
retibus. 

Praedictis etiam canonicis curiam suam cum libertatibus 
placitorum et querelarum concedimus sicut liberius et 
plenarius alicui ecclesiae vel elemosinae in regno meo 
concessimus, ecclesiam quoque de Foregrund cum omni- 
bus eidem ecclesiae pertinentibus. 

Praecipimus etiam ut nullus namum capiat in terris 
suis pro alterius forisfacto vel pro debitis aliorum. Con- 
cedimus etiam ut canonici sine omni disturbatione 
habeant materiem in bosco meo de Clackmanan ad 
aedificia sua. Praeter haec damus et concedimus ipsis 



128 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

canonicis XL solidos de meo chan de navibus de Perth 
singulis annis ad vestitum eorum. 

Has vero donationes et concessiones domini Roberti 
episcopi et nostras, ego David Dei gratia Rex regia 
auctoritate confirmo et sigilli mei impressione consigno 
ego Henricus comes films David Regis et Deo praestante 
Rex designatus, ea quae subscripta sunt concede et sigillo 
meo consigno. Ista vero et quaecunque praedictae ecclesiae 
Beati Andreae apostoli et canonicis ibidem Deo servientibus 
et servituris in posterum collata fuerint, libera esse et 
quieta ab omni exactione decernimus. 

Testibus Willelmo nepote regis, Comite Dunecano, Cos- 
patrico filio Walleui, Roberto camerario, Willelmo de 
Sumerville, Edwardo constabulario. Apud Kynros. 



CLXIV. 

Charter by Earl Henry confirming the rights of 
the Priory of St. Andrews, circa A.D. 1144. 

Registr. Prior. S. Andreae. 

HENRICUS Comes films David Regis Scottorum, Omni- 
bus fidelibus et amicis suis salutem. 

Sicut filiis nequam pessimorum patrum imitatoribus 
peccata patrum et sua reddenda cognovimus ita justorum 
filiis si justitias patrum sectati fuerint bona retribuenda 
confidimus. Unde ego Henricus gloriosi et illustris Regis 
David filius et Deo propitio heres et rex designatus, 
amorem et sollicitudinem quam praedecessores mei circa 
Dei ecclesias habuerunt quam et me pater meus rex 
et docet et docuit, habere in animo meo statui. Concedo 
igitur eccelsiae Beati Andreae et Roberto primo ejusdem 
ecclesiae priori et canonicis ibidem Deo servientibus et 
servituris, donationes quas venerabilis pater Robertus 
episcopus consilio patris mei et assensu atque meo 



CLXIIL CLXV. 129 

eisdem contulit sicut carta ipsius episcopi testatur, 
donationes nihilominus patris mei ex propriis redditibus 
sicut per cartam suam rex pater meus eisdem concessit; 
et confirmavit in perpetuum possidendas. 

Testibus Roberto episcopo ejusdem ecclesiae et Dune- 
cano comite et Willelmo capellano et Herberto came- 
rario et Alfwino filio Archilli, et Malothen le Mareschald. 
Apud Chilrimund. 

CLXV. 

Bull of Pope Lucius II. in favour of the Priory 
of St. Andrews, A.D. 1144. 

Registr. Prior. S. Andreae. 

LUCIUS Episcopus servus servorum Dei, dilectis filiis 
Roberto priori ecclesiae Sancti Andreae apostoli de Scotia 
ejusque fratribus tarn praesentibus quam futuris regularem 
vitam professis in perpetuum. Apostolici moderaminis 
clementiae convenit religiosos diligere et eorum loca pia 
protectione munire. Dignum namque et honestati con- 
veniens esse cognoscitur ut qui ad ecclesiarum regimen 
assumpti sumus, eas et a pravorum hominum nequitia 
tueamur et apostolicae sedis patrocinio foveamus. 

Eapropter, dilecti in Domino filii, vestris rationabilibus 
postulationibus venerabilis fratris nostri Bernardi episcopi 
Sancti David precibus inclinati clementer annuimus et prae- 
fatam ecclesiam in qua divino mancipati estis obsequio sub 
beati Petri et nostra protectione suscipimus et praesentis 
scripti patrocinio communimus. In primis siquidem statu- 
entes ut ordo canonicus secundum beati Augustini regulam 
qui per te, dilecte in Domino fili Roberte, prior ejusdem 
loci, episcopi consilio et auxilio, in eadem ecclesia consti- 
tutus est, perpetuis temporibus inviolabiliter conservetur 
praeterea quascunque possessiones quaecunque bona ex 
dono aut concessione ejusdem loci episcopi vel aliorum 



130 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

Dei fidelium in praesentiarum juste et canonice possidetis 
aut in futurum concessione pontificum, largitione regum 
vel principum, oblatione fidelium seu aliis justis modis 
Deo propitio poteritis adipisci, firma vobis vestrisque 
successoribus et illibata permaneant 

Decrevimus vero ut nulli omnino hominum liceat prae- 
fatam ecclesiam temere perturbare aut ejus possessiones 
seu bona vestra auferre, vel ablatas retinere, minuere aut 
aliquibus vexationibus fatigare sed omnia integre conser- 
ventur, eorum pro quorum gubernatione et sustentatione 
concessa sunt usibus omnimodis profutura. Salva episcopi 
nostri canonica justitia ac reverentia et apostolicae sedis 
auctoritate. Si qua igitur in futurum ecclesiastica secu- 
larisve persona hanc nostrae constitutionis paginam sciens 
contra earn temere venire temptaverit secundo tertiove 
commonita si non satisfactione congrua emendaverit 
potestatis honorisque sui dignitate careat, reamque se 
divino judicio existere de perpetrata iniquitate cognoscat 
et a sacratissimo corpore ac sanguine Dei et Domini Re- 
demptoris nostri Jesu Christi aliena fiat, atque in extreme 
examine districtae ultioni subjaceat. Cunctis autem eidem 
loco juste servantibus sit pax Domini nostri Jesu Christi 
quatenus et hie fructum bonae actionis percipiant et 
apud districtum judicem praemia aeternae pacis inveniant. 
Amen, Amen, Amen. 

Ostende nobis Domine misericordiam tuam. 

Sanctus Petrus, Sanctus Paulus, Lucius Papa II. 

Ego Lucius catholicae ecclesiae episcopus S.S. 

Ego Conradus Sabinensis episcopus S.S. 

Ego Theoduuninus Sanctae Rufinae epis. S.S. 

Ego Albericus Ostiensis epis. S.S. 

Ego lamarus Tusculanus epis. S.S. 

Ego Petrus Albanensis epis. S.S. 

Ego Gilbertus indignus sacerdos titulo S. Marci S.S. 

Ego Rem. Presbyter Cardinalis titulo S. Stephani in 
Celio Monte. S.S. 



CLXV. CLXVII. 131 

Ego Guido Diaconus Cardinalis Sanctorum Cosme et 
Damiani S.S. 

Ego Gerardus Diaconus Cardinalis Sanctae Mariae in 
Dominica S.S. 

Dat. Lat. per manum Baronis capellani et scriptoris 
ij idus Maii Indict. VIJ, incarnationis dominicae anno 
M. C. XLIIIJ, pontificatus vero domini Lucii II. Papae anno 
primo. 

CLXVI. 

Charter by King David to the monks of May 
granting liberty to sell their fish. 

Chartulary of the Abbey of Reading. 

DAVID Rex Scotiae, Justitiaris vicecomitibus praepositis 
et omnibus probis hominibus totius terrae suae salutem. 
Sciatis quod concessi monachis et suis hominibus liber- 
tatem vendendi piscem suum in portu suo sicut in burgo. 
Quare praecipio super meum forisfactum ne calumpnientur 
de mercimoniis comparatis plusquam de [empticiis] in 
meo [dominico] burgo. 

Testibus Gaufrido abbate de Dunfermelin, Edwardo 
cancellario et multis aliis. 

CLXVII. 

Charter by King David to the monks of May 
granting to their ship freedom from toll. 

Chartulary of the Abbey of Reading. 

DAVID Rex Scotiae, Omnibus probis hominibus terrae 
suae salutem. Mando vobis atque praecipio quatenus 
ubicunque navis fratrum de Mai applicuerit in terra mea 
sit quieta de cano et tolneo et omni consuetudine ita ne 
ullus eis aut rebus [eorum] forisfaciat. 

Testibus Gaufrido abbate de Dunfermelin et Edwardo 
cunestabulario. Apud Edeneburh. 



1 32 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

CLXVIII. 

Charter by King David granting to the canons 
of St. Andrews a fishing and a toft in Berwick, 
and freedom from toll and liberty to buy corn 
and flour. 

Registr. Prior. S. Andreae. 

DAVID Rex Scottorum, Omnibus probis hominibus totius 
terrae suae salutem. 

Sciatis me dedisse et concessisse ecclesiae Sancti 
Andreae in Scotia et canonicis ibidem Deo servientibus 
et servituris, unam aquam in Berewic et unam toftam 
juxta ecclesiam ita liberam et quietam ab omni con- 
suetudine et servitio seculari sicut liberius et quietius 
elemosina potest dari et concedi. 

Volo etiam et praecipio ut praedicti canonici et homines 
sui sint quieti et liberi de tolneo in burgis meis et extra 
per totum regnum meum et habeant licentiam emendi 
cujusmodi voluerint bladum et farinam in mea firma pace 
ad suos proprios usus et nullus super meam defensionem 
eos inde disturbet. 

Testibus Hugone de Moreuilla, Roberto de Sigillo 
Randulfo de Sulis. Apud Rochesburg. 



CLXIX. 

Declaration by Robert, Bishop of St. Andrews, 

that he had founded the burgh and had 

granted land to Mainardus, the Provost, 
circa A.D. 1144. 

Black Book of St. Andrews ; Act. Parl. Scot. I. 

ROBERTUS Dei gratia Sancti Andreae humilis minister, 
Universis fidelibus tarn futuris quam praesentibus salutem. 



CLXVIIL CLXX. 133 

Innotescat dilectioni vestrae nos Deo auxiliante et 
licentia regis nostri David, burgum apud Sanctum 
Andream in Scotia statuisse et in ipso burgo hunc 
Mainardum Flandren^em cum regis consensu et ejus 
firma pace praefectum fecisse et huic praefato Mainardo 
et heredibus suis in ipso burgo propter suum servitium 
nobis et nostris fideliter exhibitum tres toftas scilicet a 
vico burgendi usque ad rivum prioris libere et quiete ab 
omni consuetudine pro sedecim numtnis scilicet uniquique 
virgatae terrae quatuor denarios concedimus. Quia ipse 
ex prioribus est qui burgum supradictum aedificare et in- 
staurare incepit. Eapropter successoribus nostris humiliter 
supplicamus quatenus ilium et heredes suos pro amore 
Dei et Sancti Andreae et nostri diligant et manuteneant 
et nullus ei et suis super excommunicatione Dei et Sancti 
Andreae et nostri injuriam inferat et si quis ei quacunque 
ex causa injuriam fecerit rex terrae ei propter Deum 
rectum facere non diferrat quod si ipse non fecerit Rex 
Regum Justus et aequus Judex in die magnae ultionis 
ei rectum faciat. 

Supradicta enim villa elemosina illius benedicti regis 
est et ipse supradictus Mainardus ejus proprius burgensis 
in Berrewyk fuit quern Sancto Andreae et nobis cum 
supradicta elemosina in elemosinam tribuit. 

His testibus Priore ecclesiae ejusdem villae, Willelmo 
Torreld. 



CLXX. 

Charter by King David granting to the church of 

St. Andrews a fishing in the Tay, 

circa A.D. 1 144. 

Registr. Prior. S. Andreae. 

DAVID Rex Scottorum, Episcopis abbatibus comitibus 
justitiis baronibus vicecomitibus et omnibus fidelibus suis 



134 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

totius regni sui, Francis et Anglicis et Scottis tarn futuris 
quam praesentibus salutem. 

Sciatis me dedisse et concessisse in perpetuam elemo- 
sinam Deo et Sancto Andreae et fratribus ibidem Deo 
deservituris tractum unius retis in aqua de Thei ad 
piscandum ubi mea dominica retia piscabuntur. 

Concede etiam eis praedictum tractum ita libere et 
quiete de omnibus rectitudinibus et consuetudinibus 
tenere sicut elemosina melius et liberius et quietius 
potest dari et concedi pro anima mea et filii mei et pro 
animabus antecessorum et successorum meorum. 

Praesentibus testibus Hugone de Morevill, Dunecano 
comite, Herberto camerario, Roberto de Sigillo, Randulfo 
de Sules, Roberto Burguin, Alwino filio Archil, Roberto 
de Pert. Apud Sconam. 



CLXXI. 

Charter by King David to the Hospital of St. 

Andrews of the land of Kenlachyn, 

circa A.D. 1 144. 

From a transcript in the Register House, made from the original at 
St. Andrews, communicated by the Reverend Dr. John Lee. 

DAVID Rex Scottorum, Episcopis, abbatibus, comitibus, 
justitiariis, baronibus, vicecomitibus et omnibus fidelibus 
totius regni sui, Francis et Anglicis et Scottis salutem. 

Sciatis me dedisse et concessisse et hac mea carta 
confirmasse Hospitali Sancti Andreae in perpetuam elemo- 
sinam terrain de Kenlachyn liberam et quietam ab omni 
servitio seculari pro anima mea et Henrici filii mei et 
pro animabus antecessorum et successorum meorum. 

Testibus Hugone de Moruille, Duncano comite, Here- 
berto camerario, Roberto de Sigillo, Randulfo de Sulis, 
Roberto Burguin, Alwino filio Archill, Roberto de Pert. 
Apud Scon. 



CLXX. CLXXII. 135 

CLXXII. 

Charter by King David granting Lesmahagow 
to the Abbey of Kelso, A.D. 1144. 

Liber de Calchou, No. 8. 

DAVID Dei gratia Rex Scottorum, Universis sanctae 
Dei ecclesiae filiis et fidelibus suis salutem. 

Sciatis me intuitu Dei et pro salute animae meae et 
omnium antecessorum et successorum meorum, consilio 
et ammonitione Johannis Glasguensis episcopi dedisse et 
hac carta mea confirmasse abbathiae de Kelchou quam 
fundavi et abbati et monachis ibidem Deo servientibus 
in liberam et perpetuam elemosinam ecclesiam de Les- 
mahagu et totam Lesmahagu per suas rectas divisas et 
cum omnimodis pertinentiis suis in bosco et piano in 
moris et mariscis in pascuis et aquis in molendinis et 
in ceteris aedificiis et mansionibus construendis in terra 
sua prout eis libuerit. 

Ita quod nullique omnino hominum liceat terras 
possessiones monachorum aliquo modo occupare nisi per 
ipsos. Et volo ut easdem terras et possessiones ita 
quiete et libere perpetualiter obtineant, sicut ego ipse 
eas unquam liberius et quietius obtinui et possedi 
solas orationes ad salutem animarum exsolvendo. Dictam 
vero ecclesiam praenominatus Johannes episcopus ex 
assensu totius cleri sui ad petitionem meam ab omni 
exactione et subjectione episcopali jure perpetuo praedictis 
abbati et monachis quietam clamavit et liberam sicut 
carta ipsius testatur et confirmat. 

Ita quod abbas et monachi Kelchoenses de ecclesia de 
Lesmahagu sicut de cella sua ordinabunt priorem et 
monachos ordinis et habitus Kalchoensis in ipsa successive 
instituendo, prout locus potuit honeste sustentare una 
cum receptione pauperum per eos transeuntium. 



136 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

Quicunque autem propter vitae vel membri periculum 
evadendi ad dictam cellam confugerint vel intra quatuor 
cruces circumstantes pervenerint ob reverentiam Dei et 
Sancti Machuti firmam pacem meam concede. 

Haec mea carta confirmata est, anno ab incarnatione 
Domini M.C.XL.IIIJ, regni mei anno XX primo, coram 
his testibus [Johanne Episcopo Glasguense, Henrico 
filio meo, Willelmo nepote meo, Edwardo cancellario 
Ascelino archidiacono, Ricardo et Johanne capellanis, 
Malcolmo filio comitis et Willelmo fratre ejus, Jordano 
Hayrun, Hugone de Moruilla, Odenello de Vmfrauilla, 
Roberto de Bruys, Willelmo de Sumervill, David Olifard, 
Willelmo de Lindesai. Apud Castrum puellarum.] 



CLXXIII. 

Confirmation by John, Bishop of Glasgow, of the 
grant of Lesmahagow to the Abbey of Kelso, 
A. D. ii 44. 

Liber de Calchou, No. 180. 

OMNIBUS has litteras visuris vel audituris Johannes Dei 
gratia ecclesiae Glasguensis minister humilis salutem in 
Domino perpetuam. 

Sciatis me caritatis intuitu ad petitionem domini mei 
David Regis Scottorum illustris, consilio et ammonitione 
virorum timentium Deum tarn clericorum quam laicorum 
ex assensu et voluntate totius capituli mei concessisse et 
hac carta mea confirmasse abbati et monachis Calchovensis 
monasterii ecclesiam de Lesmahagu cum tota parochia 
sua, prout eis libuerit in perpetuum ordinandam, monachos 
in eadem instituendo et ipsam cum monachis ibidem 
servituris ab omni exactione et subjectione episcopali 
jure perpetuo liberam dimisisse et quietam. 



CLXXII. CLXXV. 137 

Haec autem acta sunt coram domino meo Rege David 
et multis aliis tarn clericis quam laicis anno ab incarna- 
tione Domini M.c.XL.lllj. 



CLXXIV. 

King David orders Edward the monk of Cold- 
ingham to supply wood, ante A.D. 1136. 

Stevenson's Illus., p. 13, from Cott. MS. Domitian vii., f. 47. 

DAVID Dei gratia Rex Scottorum ^Edwardo monacho de 
Coll' salutem. 

Mando tibi et precor quatenus des mihi satis de tuis 
truncis ad meum rogum faciendum de Berewic in nemore 
quod est in Calang' inter te et Liulfum filium Uctredi. 

Teste Herberto cancellario. Apud Peples. 



CLXXV. 

Confirmation by Earl Henry of a grant of the 
church of Sprouston by John, Bishop of Glas- 
gow, to the Abbey of Kelso, circa A.D. 1144. 

Liber de Calchou, No. 382. 

HENRICUS filius Regis Scotiae, Episcopis comitibus vice- 
comitibus baronibus et omnibus probis hominibus totius 
terrae suae Francis Anglicis et Scotticis clericis et laicis 
salutem. 

Sciatis me concessisse et confirmasse in perpetuam 
elemosinam donum ecclesiae de Sprostun quod Johannes 
Glasguensis episcopus dedit ecclesiae Sanctae Mariae de 
Kelcho, abbati et monachis in elemosinam perpetuo pos- 
sidendam. 



138 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

Praesentibus testibus Duncano comite, Herberto came- 
rario, Rodberto de Sigillo, Radulfo de Sulis, Alwino filio 
Archilli, Waltero de Struelyn. Kalendas Julii. Apud 
Rochburge. 

CLXXVI. 

Charter by King David of Rauendena to the 

church of St. Mary and St. John, Kelso, 

circa A.D. 1145. 

Liber de Calchou, No 372. 

DAVID Rex Scottorum, Omnibus probis hominibus suis 
salutem. 

Sciatis me dedisse ecclesiae Sanctae Mariae et Sancti 
Johannis de Chelchehov libere et quiete in perpetuum 
Rauendenam cum suis rectis divisis sicut earn melius 
habui in meo dominio in terra et herba et aquis, excepta 
una carrucata terrae quam dedi hospitali de Rochesburgo 
et concede praedictae ecclesiae terram Osulfi Wittburgis 
post obitum suum, ita solam et quietam sicuti aliam. 

Testibus Henrico filio Regis, Johanne episcopo, Ead- 
wardo cancellario, Abbate de Dunfermelyn, Willelmo 
filio Dunecani, Roberto de Brus, Hugone de Moruille, 
Gervasio Ridel. Apud Rochesburge. 



CLXXVII. 

Confirmation by Earl Henry of the rights of the 

monks of St. Cuthbert in Swinton, 

circa A.D. 1145. 

The original is in the Treasury at Durham. 

HENRICUS filius Regis Scotiae, Omnibus suis hominibus 
tarn Francis quam Anglis salutem. 



CLXXV. CLXXVIII. i 39 

Sciatis me dedisse et concessisse monachis Sancti 
Cuthberti, Swintun in perpetuum possidendam et libere 
disponendam in dominicum servitium suum sicut carta 
bonae memoriae ^Edgari regis avunculi mei testatur et 
sicut pater meus eis concessit et reddidit. Et volo et 
praecipio ne aliquis de hoc molestiam vel calumpniam eis 
faciat, quia hoc eis concessi in perpetuam elemosinam pro 
salute animae meae et parentum meorum scilicet Malcolmi 
regis et Margaretae reginae et filiorum ac filiarum ipsorum. 

Testibus Eustachio filio Johannis et Roberto de 
Umframvilla et Herberto camerario et Gileberto de 
Umframvilla et Willelmo de Sumervilla. Apud Hun- 
tendunam. 

CLXXVIII. 

Confirmation by King David of the grant by 
Gospatric to the church of Coldingham of 
Ederham and Nesbit, A.D. 1147. 

The original is in the Treasury at Durham. 

DAVID Dei gratia Rex Scottorum, Omnibus sanctae 
ecclesiae fidelibus praesentibus et futuris salutem. 

Sciatis me concessisse ecclesiae Sanctae Mariae et 
Sancti Cuthberti de Coldingham et monachis ibidem 
Deo servientibus donum quod Gospatricus frater Dolfini 
dedit praedictae ecclesiae et monachis scilicet Ederham 
et Nesbitam in perpetuam elemosinam cum ecclesiis et 
aquis et pratis et pascuis et molendinis et omnibus aliis 
locis et cum eisdem rectis divisis quibus eas tenuit die 
quo fuit vivus et mortuus liberas et quietas ab omni 
servitio et omni consuetudine exceptis triginta solidis 
quos praefati monachi dabunt filio ejus Gospatrico et 
heredibus suis post eum pro conredio regis unoquoque 
anno ad festum Sancti Martini et excepto exercitu regis 
unde monachi erunt attendentes ipsi regi et ipse Gos- 
patricus de exercitu erit quiete in perpetuum. 



1 40 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

Praesentibus testibus Roberto episcopo Sancti Andreae, 
Johanne Glasguensis episcopo, Herberto abbate de 
Rochesburg, Ricardo abbate de Mailros, ^Edwardo can- 
cellario, Tror archidiacono, Hugone constabulario, Her- 
berto camerario, Randulfo de Sules, Galtero de Ridel, 
Rob. de Burneuilla, Horm fil. Malcolm, Normanno vie. de 
Berwic, Rob. fil. Widofi vie. de Rochesb., Sain sacerdote 
de Fiswic, Will, de Lambertun, Aldan de prenregeste. 
Apud Coldingham in die inventionis Sanctae Crucis anno 
M. CLXVIJ ab incarnatione Domini, videlicet illo anno in 
quo rex Franciae et multi Christiani perrexerunt 
ierusalem. 



CLXXIX. 

Charter by King David granting to the church 
of St. Mary at Stirling the lands of Cambus- 
kenneth, etc., A.D. 1147. 

Chartulary of Cambuskenneth, No. 51. 

IN nomine Patris et Filii et Spiritus Sancti, Amen. 
Ego David Dei gratia Rex Scottorum assensu Henrici filii 
mei et episcoporum regni mei comitumque et baronum 
confirmatione et testimonio, concedo ecclesiae Sanctae 
Mariae de Striueling et canonicis in ea regulariter 
viventibus ea quae subscripta sunt et pace perpetua 
confirmo. Haec itaque sunt quae praefatae ecclesiae 
concedo, terram de Cambuskynneth et piscaturam inter 
eandem terram et Pollemase et unum rethe in aqua: 
terram quoque de Colling, cum nemore et suis rectis 
divisis: terram etiam de Dunbodeuin, quae est inter aquam 
ejusdem terrae et terram de Lochin, quadraginta quoque 
solidos de redditu meo de Striueling et canum unius navis 
et unam salinam et totidem terrae quot habet una de 
salinis meis et decimam firmae de dominiis meis de 
Striueling et oblationes quae in praedicta ecclesia oblatae 






CLXXVIII. CLXXX. 141 

fuerint et insulam quae est inter Pollemase et Dunbodeuin 
et viginti cudermis de caseis redditus mei de Striueling : 
eandem quoque libertatem et consuetudinem quam ceteris 
ecclesiis terrae meae concessi et confirmavi, eidem ecclesiae 
concede et confirmo. 

Volo itaque ut quaecunque praedicta ecclesia in praesenti 
possidet vel in future possessura est, ita quiete et libere 
sicut ego praefatas terras possideo, possideant, salva defen- 
sione regni et justitia regali, si praelatus aliquo impulsu 
a justitia exorbitaverit. 

Hujus confirmationis testes sunt Comes Henricus films 
regis, Robertus episcopus Sancti Andreae, Gregorius 
episcopus Dunkeldensis, Herbertus electus de Glasgu, G. 
abbas Dunfermelinensis, abbas Sanctae Crucis, 

Robertus prior Sancti Andreae, Osbertus prior Jeddewrt, 
Edwardus cancellarius, Comes Dunecanus, Leod de 
Brechin, Hugo de Moruille, Herbertus camerarius, 
Willelmus de Sumervill, Ranulfus de Sules, Willelmus 
de Lindesai, Walterus de Ridale. 



CLXXX. 

Bull by Pope Eugenius III. in favour of the 
Abbey of Stirling, A.D. 1147. 

Chartulary of Cambuskenneth, No. 23. 

EUGENIUS Episcopus servus servorum Dei, Dilectis filiis 
Willelmo abbati ecclesiae Sanctae Mariae de Striueling 
ejusque fratribus tarn praesentibus quam futuris re- 
gularem vitam professis in perpetuum. 

Ad hoc universalis ecclesiae cura nobis a provisore 
omnium bonorum Deo commissa est, ut religiosas diliga- 
mus personas et beneplacentem Deo religionem studeamus 
modis omnibus propagare, nee enim Deo gratus aliquando 



142 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

famulatus impenditur nisi ex caritatis radice procedens 
a puritate religionis fuerit conservatus : ea propter dilecti 
in Domino filii, vestris justis postulationibus, dilecti filii 
nostri fratris Roberti prioris Sancti Andreae precibus in- 
clinati, clementer annuimus et praefatam ecclesiam in qua 
divino mancipati estis obsequio sub Beati Petri et nostra 
protectione suscepimus et praesentis scripti privilegio 
communimus : Statuentes ut ordo canonicus de Arrosia 
quae per te, dilecte in Domino fili, Willelme abbas, prae- 
veniente gratia Dei consilio et auxilio venerabilis fratris 
nostri Roberti episcopi Sancti Andreae in eadem ecclesia 
noscitur institutus perpetuis ibidem temporibus inviolabi- 
liter conservetur. 

Praeterea quascunque possessiones quaecunque bona 
eadem ecclesia in praesentiarum juste et canonice possidet 
aut in futurum concessione pontificum, largitione regum vel 
principum, oblatione fidelium seu aliis justis modis Deo 
propitio, poterit adipisci, firma vobis vestrisque successori- 
bus et illibata permaneant, quae propriis dignum duximus 
exprimenda vocabilis : terram videlicet de Dumbodelin 
cum aquis et terram de Cambuskynneth cum piscatura et 
rethe in aqua et terram de Collyne cum nemore et 
decimam de dominiis regis de Striueling et de redditibus 
regis XL solidos et canum unius navis. 

Decernimus ergo ut nulli omnino hominum liceat prae- 
fatam ecclesiam temere perturbare aut ejus possessiones 
auferre vel ablatas retinere, minuere, aut aliquibus 
vexationibus fatigare, sed omnia integra conserventur 
eorum pro quorum gubernatione et sustentatione con- 
cessa sunt usibus omnimodis pro futura, salva sedis 
apostolicae autoritate et episcopi Sancti Andreae canonica 
reverentia, si qua igitur in futurum ecclesiastica secularisve 
persona hanc nostrae constitutionis paginam sciens, contra 
earn temere venire temptaverit secundo tertiove com- 
monita, si non satisfactione congrua emendaverit, potes- 
tatis honorisque sui dignitate careat: reamqHe se divino 






CLXXX. CLXXXI. 143 

judicio existere de perpetrata iniquitate cognoscat et a 
sacratissimo corpora ac sanguine Dei et Domini Redemp- 
toris nostri Jesu Christi aliena fiat atque in extremo 
examine districtae ultioni subjaceat, cunctis autem eidem 
loco juste servantibus sit pax Domini nostri Jesu Christi 
quatenus et hie fructum bonae actionis percipiant et apud 
districtum judicem praemia aeternae pacis inveniant. 
Amen. 

Ego Eugenius catholicae ecclesiae episcopus. 

Ego Odo diaconus cardinalis S. Georgii ad Velum 
Aureum. 

Ego Abbericus Ostiensis episcopus. 

Ego Johannes Paparo diaconus cardinalis S. Adriani. 

Ego Hubaldus presbyter cardinalis Sanctorum Johannis 
et Pauli. 

Ego Ignarus Tusculanus episcopus. 

Ego Gregorius diaconus cardinalis. 

Ego Gilbertus indignus sacerdos S. Martini. 

Datum Altisiodori, per manumGuidonis sanctae Romanae 
ecclesiae diaconi cardinalis et cancellarii, tertio Kalendas 
Septembris, indictione decima, incarnationis dominicae anno 
millesimo centesimo quadragesimo septimo, pontificatus 
vero domini Eugenii tertii papae anno tertio. 

CLXXXI. 

Bull of Pope Eugenius III. giving the right of 
electing the Bishop of St. Andrews to the 
Prior and Canons of St. Andrews instead of 
to the Keledei, Aug. 30, 1147. 

Registr. Prior. S. Andreae. 

EUGENIUS Episcopus servus servorum Dei, Dilectis filiis 
Roberto priori ecclesiae beati Andreae apostoli in Scotia 
ejusque fratribus tarn praesentibus quam futuris regularem 
vitam professis in perpetuum. 



144 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

Ad hoc universalis ecclesiae cura nobis a provisore 
omnium bonorum Deo commissa est, ut religiosas diligamus 
personas et bene placentem Deo religionem studeamus 
modis omnibus propagare. Nee enim Deo gratus aliquando 
famulatus impenditur, nisi ex caritatis radice procedens, 
a puritate religionis fuerit conservatus. Ea propter, dilecti 
in Domino filii, vestris justis postulationibus clementer 
annuimus et praefatam ecclesiam in qua divino mancipati 
estis obsequio sub beati Petri et nostra protectione 
suscipimus et praesentis scripti privilegio communimus : 
Statuentes ut ordo canonicus secundum beati Augustini 
regulam, qui per Dei gratiam consilio et auxilio venerabilis 
fratris nostri Roberti episcopi nostri, et tuo, dilecte in 
Domino fili Roberte prior, labore et studio in eadem 
ecclesia noscitur institutus, perpetuis ibidem temporibus 
inviolabiliter conservetur. 

Praeterea, quascumque possessiones quaecumque bona 
eadem ecclesia in praesentiarum juste et canonice possidet, 
aut in futurum concessione pontificum, largitione regum 
vel principum, oblatione fidelium seu aliis justis modis Deo 
propitio poterit adipisci, firma vobis vestrisque successoribus 
et illibata permaneant Libertates seu immunitates ab 
episcopis sive regibus rationabili devotione ecclesiae 
vestrae concessas, auctoritate vobis apostolica confirmamus. 

Obeunte vero fratre nostro Roberto episcopo vestro, 
nullus in ecclesia Sancti Andreae quae sedes episcopalis 
est, aliqua surreptionis astutia seu violentia praeponatur, 
sed quern vos communi consensu vel fratrum ecclesiae 
vestrae pars consilii sanioris secundum Dominum canonice 
provideritis eligendum. 

Statuimus etiam, ut decedentibus Keledeis loco eorum 
regulares canonici auctore Domino subrogentur. Decrevi- 
mus ergo ut nulli omnino hominum liceat praefatam 
ecclesiam temere pertiybare aut ejus possessiones auferre 
vel ablatas retinere, minuere aut quibuslibet vexationibus 
fatigare, sed omnia integra conserventur eorum pro 



CLXXXI. 145 

quorum gubernatione et sustentatione concessa sunt usibus 
omnimodis pro futura : salva sedis Apostolicae auctoritate 
et Episcopi Sancti Andreae canonica reverentia. Si qua 
ergo in futurum ecclesiastica secularisve persona, hanc 
nostrae constitution is paginam sciens, contra earn temere 
venire temptaverit, secundo tertiove commonita, si non 
satisfactione congrua emendaverit potestatis honorisque 
sui dignitate careat reamque se divino judicio existere de 
perpetrata iniquitate cognoscat et a sacratissimo corpore 
et sanguine Domini Redemptoris nostri Jesu Christi aliena 
fiat atque in extremo examine districtae ultioni subjaceat. 
Cunctis autem eidem loco juste servantibus sit pax 
Domini nostri Jesu Christi, quatenus et hie fructum bonae 
actionis percipiant, et apud districtum judicem praemia 
aeternae pacis inveniant. Amen, Amen, Amen. 

Fac mecum, Domine, signum in bonum, Sanctus Petrus, 
Sanctus Paulus, Eugenius Papa III. 

Ego Eugenius catholicae ecclesiae episcopus S.S. 

Ego Albericus Ostiensis episcopus S.S. 

Ego Imarus Tusculanus episcopus S.S. 

Ego Huhaldus presbiter cardinalis titulo Sanctorum 
Johannis et Pauli S.S. 

Ego Gillebertus indignus sacerdos titulo S. Marci S.S. 

Ego Hugo presbiter cardinalis titulo in Lucina S.S. 

Ego Odo diaconus cardinalis S. Georgii ad Velum 
Aureum S.S. 

Ego Johannes Paparo diaconus cardinalis Sancti Adriani 
S.S. 

Ego Gregorius Sancti Auguli diaconus cardinalis S.S. 

Ego Johannes diaconus cardinalis S. Mariae Novae S.S. 

Ego Guido diaconus cardinalis S. Mariae in porticu S.S. 

Dat. Altisiodori per manum Guidonis sanctae Romanae 
ecclesiae diaconi cardinalis et cancellarii, IIJ Kal. Sept 
Indict, x, Incarnationis Dominicae anno MC.XLVII Ponti- 
ficatus vero domini Eugenii III. pp. anno IIJ. 



146 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 



CLXXXII. 

Agreement between the Bishop of St. Andrews 
and the Abbot of Dunfermline regarding the 
church of Eccles and the chapel of the Castle 
of Stirling, A.D. 1147-1150. 

Registr. de Dunfermelyn, No. 4. 

HAEC est concordia quae facta fuit apud Castellum 
Puellarum coram regem David et Henrico filio ejus et 
baronibus eorum inter Robertum episcopum Sancti 
Andreae et G. abbatem de Dunfermlin de ecclesia paro- 
chiali de Eccles et capella castelli de Struelin. 

Recordati fuerunt barones regis et in hac recordatione 
omnes concordat! sunt, quod ea die qua rex Alexander fecit 
capellam dedicare supradictam donavit et concessit eidem 
capellae decimas dominiorum suorum in soca de Struelin 
quae eadem die fuerunt dominia sua sive accreverunt sive 
decreverunt et praeterea consideraverunt quod ecclesia paro- 
chialis de Eccles habere debebat universas decimas quae 
proveniunt de hurdmannis et bondis et gresmannis cum 
ceteris consuetudinibus quas debent ecclesiae et qui 
mortui fuerint sive sint de mancipiis dominiorum sive de 
parochia supradicta, corpora eorum jaceant in cimiterio 
parochiali praenominato cum rebus quas debent habere 
mortui secum ad ecclesiam nisi forte fuerit quod aliquis 
de burgensibus aliquo subitp casu ibi moriatur, et si 
dominia postea creverunt vel in sartis vel in fractura 
veteris terrae antea non cultae, decimas eorum habeat 
praedicta capella. 

Si vero eodem modo creverunt terrae aliorum hominum 
parochialium, ecclesia parochialis decimas eorum habeat 
et si homines plures quam solebant dudum modo manent 
in dominio supradicto decimas eorum et omnium hominum 
quicumque illud excoluerint dominium habebit capella 



CLXXXIL CLXXXIII. 147 

et ecclesia parochialis habebit eorum corpora qui in 
dominio manent et si terrae quae tune non fuerunt de 
dominio creverunt in mansuris hominum parochialis 
ecclesia eorum decimas habebit et hiis omnibus praedictis 
hominibus ipsa eadem omnes rectitudines christianitatis 
propter sepulturae dignitatem faciet. 

Hiis praesentibus testibus G. episcopo Dunkelden, 
A. abbate Sanctae Crucis, W. abbate de Struelin, H. priore 
de Coldingh., O. priore de Jedd., O. priore Sanctae Crucis, 
et de laicis Duncano cornite, Gospatrico com., H. constab., 
W. de Sumervile, David Olifard, W. fil. Alani, H. earner. 
Henric. fil. Swani et aliis multis. 



CLXXXIII. 

Confirmation by Earl Henry of the grant by 
Earl Gospatric of Ederham and Nesbit to the 
monks of Coldingham. 

The original is in the Treasury at Durham. 

HENRICUS Comes filius Regis Scotiae, Omnibus sanctae 
ecclesiae fidelibus praesentibus et futuris salutem. 

Sciatis me concessisse et confirmasse ecclesiae Sanctae 
Mariae et Sancti Cuthberti de Coldingham et monachis 
ibidem Deo servientibus, donum quod Gospatricus comes 
frater Dolfini dedit praedictae ecclesiae et monachis, scilicet 
Hederham et Nesebitam in perpetuam elemosinam cum 
ecclesiis et aquis et pratis et pascuis et molendinis et 
omnibus aliis locis et cum eisdem rectis divisis quibus eas 
tenuit die qua fuit vivus et mortuus liberas et quietas 
cum omnibus libertatibus sicut cartae patris mei testantur 
et confirmant. 

Testibus his Hernaldo Abbate de Chelcho, Osberno 
priore de Gedewrde . Engellario cancellario, magistro 
Laurentio et fratre ejus Helias et Normanno vicecomite 
et Willelmo de Lambertun et Baldano de Prendergest. 



148 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

CLXXXIV. 

Charter by King David granting to the Priory of 
May a toft in Berwick, A.D. 1147-1153. 

Cartae Prior, de May, No. 2. 

DAVID Rex Scotiae, Omnibus probis hominibus totius 
terrae suae salutem. 

Sciatis me concessisse et dedisse ecclesiae de Mai et 
priori et monachis ejusdem loci ibidem Deo famulantibus 
quandam plenariam toftam in Beruwic in perpetuam 
elemosinam pro anima mea et animabus antecessorum et 
successorum meorum. Quare volo et praecipio quod ipsi 
praefatam toftam teneant adeo libere et quiete sicut aliqui 
vel abbates vel priores in tota terra mea elemosinas suas 
liberius et quietius tenent et homines qui in tofta ilia 
manebunt liberi sint ab omni servitio et exactione. 

Testibus Ernaldo abbate de Calchoh, Osberto priore 
de Jedewrt, Waltero cancellario, Hugone de Morvilla, 
Waltero filio Alani, Gilleberto de Umframvilla, Waltero 
de Bolebec. Apud Kyngor. 



CLXXXV. 

Confirmation by Robert, Bishop of St. Andrews, 
of the addition to the endowment of the church 
of St. Laurence at Berwick, A.D. 1147-1153. 

Liber de Calchou, No. 445. 

R[OBERTUS] Dei gratia Episcopus Sancti Andreae, Omni- 
bus filiis sanctae ecclesiae salutem. 

Notum sit tarn posteris quam praesentibus me concessisse 
et auctoritate episcopali confirmasse ecclesiae Sancti 
Laurentii de Berewic in jus parochiae incrementum illud 



CLXXXIV. CLXXXVI. 149 

quod abbas et conventus ecclesiae Sanctae Mariae de 
Kelcho predictae suae ecclesiae in perpetuam elemosinam 
dederunt et concesserunt scilicet decimas et rectitudines 
ceteras sanctae ecclesiae pertinentes carrucatae terrae quam 
habent in Berewic et piscationum quas habent in eadem 
villa et unius tofti quam habent in burgo. Volo itaque ut 
praedicta ecclesia decimas et rectitudines praefatas habeat 
et teneat jure parochiali sicut aliqua elemosina liberius 
et quietius ab aliqua possidetur ecclesia. 

Praesentibus testibus Willelmo abbate de Struelyn, 
Osberto abbate de Edinburg, Osberto priori de Jedd, 
Toraldo archidiacono, Aiolfo decano, Nichol. clerico apud 
Edeneburge. 



CLXXXVI. 

Charter by King David to Alexander de St. Martin 
of the lands of Alstaneford, etc. 

Acta Domin. Concilii, vol. xxxi., fol. 66-67. 

DAVID Dei gratia Rex Scottorurn, Omnibus hominibus 
totius regni sui clericis et laicis Francis et Anglis et Scottis 
praesentibus et futuris salutem. 

Notum sit vobis me dedisse et concessisse et hac mea 
carta confirmasse Alexandro de Sancto Martino, Alstane- 
furde et terram quam Arkil tenuit per divisas quae sunt 
inter Hadingtoun et Alstanefurd, silicet Robedd'ne et sicut 
ilia tendit ultra peteream usque ad metam quae dividit 
terram de Alstanefurd et de Garmeltun et de meta ilia 
usque in rivulum qui tendit ad capud de Kipduf versus 
occidentem et illam partem terrae de Drem quam retinui 
in manu mea quum dedi Drem Cospatricio et ex capite 
de Kipduf per semitam quamdam quae vadit in Radepo 
et de Radepo per divisam quamdam quae ex transverse 



150 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

versus Drem usque penes Drem et inde per divisam quam- 
dam vadit in superior! parte terrae Roberti filii Galfridi 
usque ad terram de Fortona. Quapropter volo et praecipio 
quod praedictus Alexander et heredes sui has terras teneant 
de me et heredibus meis in feodo et hereditate bene et 
in pace libere et quiete et honorifice per servicium dimidii 
militis. Ego autem omni anno dabo ei de camera mea 
decem marcas argenti usque donee perficiam ei plenarium 
feodum unius militis. 

Testibus Comite Dunecano, Hugone de Morevill, 
Waltero de Bidun, Waltero de Lindesi, Willelmo de 
Lindesi, Roberto Euenel, David Olifard, Waltero de 
Ridale, Radulfo de Sules, Nicholaio clerico, Galfrido de 
Mailuil. Apud Forfare. 



CLXXXVII. 

Confirmation by King David of the grant of Ever- 
sate to the church of St. Bees, by Matilda, the 
wife of Godardus, circa A.D. 1 147. 

Chartulary of St. Bees, Harl. 434, f. 26. 

DAVID Rex Scottorum, Omnibus probis hominibus suis 
Couplandie Salutem. Sciatis me concessisse et hac mea 
carta confirmasse elemosinam quam Matildis uxor Godardi 
videlicet Euresate dedit Deo et ecclesiae Sanctae Bege et 
fratribus ibidem Deo servientibus libere et quiete ab omni 
seculari servicio sicut cartae Willelmi nepotis mei et Ade 
filii Sweni testantur. Testibus Waltero cancellario et 
Roberto de Bruis et Hugone de Moreuilla et Ada filio 
Sweni, et Willelmo Sumeruilla et Alano filio Waldef et H. 
filio Sweni et Willelmo de Heriz et Gospatrico filio Orm 
et Randulfo de Lindeseia et Durando milite. Apud 
Lampion. 



CLXXXVL CLXXXIX. i 5 i 



CLXXXVIII. 

Grant by King David to the canons of St. Andrews 
of materials for building, circa A.D. 1148. 

Registr. Prior. S. Andreae. 

DAVID Rex Scotiae, Vicecomiti de Clacmanet salutem. 

Praecipio tibi quatenus canonicis de Sancto Andrea et 
hominibus eorum facias habere materiem ad sua aedificia 
in nemore de Clacmanet ita ne ipsi disturbentur super 
meam defensionem. 

Testibus Willelmo abbate de Struelin et Hugone de 
Moreuilla et Nicholao clerico. Apud Striuelin. 



CLXXXIX. 
King David's Charter to the Abbey of Jedburgh, 

A.D. 1147-1150. 
Adv. Lib., 34. 3. ii. 

EGO David Dei gratia Rex Scottorum divino instinctu pro 
salute animae meae et Henrici filii mei et antecessorum et 
successorum meorum, domum religiosis in villa de Jedwordie 
fundavi in qua canonicos regulares consilio et assensu 
venerabilis memoriae Joannis Episcopi ceterorumque epis- 
coporum comitum et baronum meorum atque religiosorum 
virorum regni mei constitui. Quorum aliis necessariis in per- 
petuam elemosinam dono et hujus cartae meae attestatione 
confirmo monasterium de Jedword cum omnibus ad illud 
pertinentibus videlicet decimas villarum totius parochiae 
scilicet duarum Jedwordis et Langtoun, Nesbet, Craling 
Gospatrici vicecomitis, ipsius Gospatrici capellano ejusdem 
Cralingis praedicto monasterio concedente et testibus 
legitimis confirmante et in eadem villa unam carrucatam 



152 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

terrae et dimidiam et tres acras cum duabus mansuris 
necnon et decimas alterius Craling villae Orme filii 
Gilasp. Et de Stramsburgh capellam [quae] fundata 
est super aquam Jedde in saltu nemoris contra Schor- 
winglen. Et decimam totius venationis meae in Theiudall. 
Omnes quoque redditus ad supradictum monasterium 
juste pertinentes, praeterea villas subscriptas viz. Ulmers- 
toun Almechine juxta Alvecromber et Cromseth et 
Raperlau cum rectis divisis suis ad easdem villas 
pertinentibus unam etiam mansuram in burgo meo Rothb 
et unam mansuram in Berwick et ibidem unam aquam 
liberas solutas et quietas et Cadwardisly sicut ego earn 
perambulavi et divisas monstravi. Et animalium pascua 
prope nemora mea et ligna silvarum vel materiem ad 
sua necessaria ubi ego praeter ilium locum qui vocatur 
Ouikege et multuram molendini de omnibus hominibus 
Jedword ubi castellum est et unam salinam juxta 
Striviling. Volo itaque ac firmiter praecipio ut omnia 
quaecumque modo possident vel deinceps juste possessuri 
sunt ita libere et pure omni remota exactione supradicti 
canonici mei pace perpetua cum omnibus monasterii sui 
libertatibus et liberis consuetudinibus confirmatione et 
autoritate mea possideant sicut unquam aliqui canonici 
possessiones et libertates liberasque consuetudines sui 
monasterii seu quaelibet ecclesiastica jura liberius quietius 
atque honestius possident. 

Hujus autem donationis et confirmationis meae testes 
et assentatores sunt hii viz. Henricus films meus, 
Herbertus Glasguensis episcopus, Robertus episcopus de 
SanctoAndrea,Gillebertus episcopus Dunkeldensis, Andreas 
episcopus Catanensis, Arnold abbas Calc., Gaufridus abbas 
de Dumfermlin, Albyn abbas de Sancta Cruce, Comes 
Duneth, Hugo de Morvilla [constabularius], Radulph 
films Dugall et multi alii. 



CLXXXIX. CXC 153 

cxc 

Charter by Earl Henry to the Abbey of Jedburgh, 

A.D. II47-II52. 
From Morton's Monastic Annals of Teviotdale. 

IN honorem Sanctae et Individuae Trinitatis, ego Henricus 
comes Northanhumbriorum canonicis patris mei quos in 
monasterio Sanctae Mariae de Jedworde constituit, in 
perpetuam elemosinam concede et hujus cartae meae 
attestatione confirmo, donatum illis ab eodem patre meo 
praedictum monasterium de Jedworthe, cum omnibus ad 
illud pertinentibus videlicet decimas villarum totius paro- 
chiae, scilicet duarum Jeddword et Langton, Nesbyt, Creling 
Gospatricii vicecomitis, ipsius Gospatricii capellano ejusdem 
Creling praefato monasterio concedente et testibus legitimis 
confirmante et in eadem villa unam carrucatam terrae et 
dimidiam et tres acras cum duabus maisuris. Necnon et 
decimas alterius Creling villae Orm filii Eylav : et de 
Scrauesburghe, capellam etiam quae est in saltu nemoris 
et decimam totius venationis patris mei in Thevietdale : 
omnes redditus ad supradictum monasterium juste per- 
tinentes. 

Praeterea villas subscriptas Ulvestoun juxta Jedworthe, 
Alneclive juxta Alncromb, Cromseche Raperlaw, cum rectis 
divisis ad easdem villas pertinentibus, unam maisuram 
in burgo Roxburg et unam in Berewic, et ibidem 
unam aquam, liberas solutas ac quietas et Edwordisley 
sicut earn pater meus perambulavit et divisas monstravit, 
et animalium pascua ubi patris mei et ligna silvarum et 
materiem ad sua necessaria ubi pater meus, praeter ilium 
locum qui vocatur Quikhege, et multuram molendini Jedd- 
worde, ubi castellum est, de omnibus hominibus ejusdem 
Jeddworde et unam salinam juxta Strevelin. 

Volo itaque et concede ut omnia quaecumque modo 
possident aut deinceps juste possessuri sint ita libere et 



154 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

pure, omni remota exactione, supradicti canonici patris 
mei cum omnibus monasterii sui libertatibus et liberis 
consuetudinibus pace perpetua possideant, sicut illis pater 
meus eadem beneficia carta et auctoritate sua, possidenda 
praecepit et confirmavit. 

Testibus praesentibus Herberto Glasg. episcopo, Arnaldo 
abbate de Calco, Eng. cancellario, Adam capellano, Hugone 
de Morevilla, Thoma de Londoniis, Ranu. de Sola, etc. 



CXCI. 

Confirmation by Earl Henry to Beatrice de Bel- 
chaump of her lands of Roxburgh. 

Registr. de Dryburgh, No. 145. 

HENRICUS comes films regis Scotiae, Episcopis abbatibus 
justiciariis baronibus vicecomitibus ministris et omnibus 
probis hominibus totius terrae suae Francis et Anglicis 
tarn futuris quam praesentibus salutem. 

Sciatis me concessisse et per praesens scriptum con- 
firmasse Dominae Beatrici de Belchaump terras et tenuras 
suas de Rogesburgh quas ipsa de patre meo tenuit. 

Volo itaque et praecipio quatenus illas terras et tenuras 
de me habeat et teneat libere et honorifice sicut ipsa de 
patre meo liberius et quietius tenuit. Testibus, etc. 



CXCII. 

Charter by Roger de Ov granting the church of 
Langtoun to the Abbey of Kelso. 

Liber de Calchou, No. 138. 

UNIVERSIS sanctae matris ecclesiae filiis et fidelibus 
Rogerus de Ov salutem. 



CXC CXCIII. 155 

Noverint omnes tarn posteri quam praesentes me dedisse 
et hac carta mea confirmasse ecclesiae Sanctae Mariae de 
Kelkou et monachis ibidem Deo servientibus ecclesiam 
villae meae de Langtune cum omnibus pertinentiis suis in 
liberam et perpetuam elemosinam sicut Henricus ejusdem 
ecclesiae persona earn melius et plenius tenuit. Hanc 
autem ecclesiam dedi et concessi praefatae ecclesiae de 
Kelcho pro salute animae Comitis Henrici domini mei et 
pro salute animae meae et antecessorum et successorum 
meorum. Quare volo ut jam dicti monachi de Kelcho 
praefatam ecclesiam de Langtune libere et honorifice tene- 
ant in perpetuum et possideant sicut aliquam elemosinam 
liberius et quietius tenent et possident. 

Kiis testibus G. decano de Fogghou, Hug. de Duns, 
Henrico persona de Langtune, Hug. de Ov, Thorn, de 
Ov, Roberto filio Randulphi. 

CXCIII. 

Charter by Earl Henry granting to the Abbey of 
Kelso a toft in Berwick, A.D. 1147-1152. 

Liber de Calchou, No. 29. 

HENRICUS comes filius Regis Scotiae, Episcopis abbatibus 
justiciariis baronibus vicecomitibus ministris et omnibus 
suis hominibus Francis et Anglicis clericis et laicis totius 
terrae suae salutem. 

Sciatis me dedisse et confirmasse Ernaldo abbati de 
Kalchou illam toftam Dodini de Berwic quae est super 
Twedam ad tenendum de me in feudo. 

Volo itaque et firmiter praecipio quatenus illam prae- 
nominatam toftam teneat et habeat ita plenarie sicut 
praedictus Dodyn illam unquam plenarius tenuit et habuit 
et ita libere et quiete istam toftam de me teneat in feudo 
sicut possesssiones ecclesiae suae liberius et quiecius tenet 
in elemosinam. 

Hiis testibus. . 



156 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

CXCIV. 

Confirmation by King David of the lands and 
rights of the Abbey of Kelso. 

Liber de Calchou, No. 2. 

DAVID Dei gratia illustris Rex Scottorum, Omnibus sanctae 
matris ecclesiae filiis et fidelibus salutem. 

Notum sit omnibus praesentibus et futuris me fundasse 
dum fui comes quoddam monasterium in Selechirche ad 
abbathiam in honore Sanctae Mariae Virginis et Sancti 
Johannis Evangelistae pro salute animae meae et omnium 
antecessorum et successorum meorum. Sed postquam 
divina dementia post obitum fratris mei regis Alexandri 
successi in regnum, consilio et ammonicione venerabilis 
memoriae Johannis episcopi Glasguensis, aliorumque 
procerum meorum praedictum monasterium quia locus non 
erat conveniens abbathiae apud Roxburgum transtuli in 
ecclesia Beatae Virginis quae sita est super ripam fluminis 
Twede in loco qui dicitur Calkou, quam ecclesiam 
Robertus Sancti Andreae episcopus, in cujus erat episco- 
patu, pro Dei amore et meo concessit mihi et ejusdem 
loci ecclesiae abbati et monachis solutam et quietam 
ab omni subjectione et exactione liberam, ita scilicet ut 
abbas et monachi supradictae ecclesiae a quocumque 
episcopo voluerint in Scocia vel in Cumbria crisma suum 
et oleum et ordinationem ipsius abbatis et monachorum 
et cetera ecclesiae sacramenta accipiant. 

Ego vero huic ecclesiae in elemosinam perpetuam donavi 
villam de Kelchu cum suis rectis divisis in terris et in 
aquis solutam et quietam et ab omni exactione liberam et 
quotienscunque in eadem ecclesia in solemnitatibus vel 
in aliis diebus servitium Dei audiero omnes offerendas 
meas et omnium qui mecum erunt perpetue dedi in ele- 
mosinam. Et in Edinham de molendino XIJ celdr. de brasio 



CXCIV. 157 

quolibet anno, et de mora de Edynham ad fodiendum 
cespites ad faciendam ignem a quodam fossato quod 
descendit de quadam alia mora transiendo recto tramite 
illam moram usque ad tres magnos lapides ex altera parte 
existentes. Et in burgo de Roxburge XL solidos de censu 
unoquoque anno et omnes ecclesias et scolas ejusdem burgi 
cum omnibus earum pertinentiis et unum toftum juxta 
ecclesiam Sancti Jacobi et alterum in novo burgo et terrain 
quae fu it Gauterii Cymentarii et in molendinis XX celdr. 
inter farinam et frumentum et septimam partem piscaturae 
et in Sprouistona unam carrucatam terrae et X acras et 
maisuras carrucatae pertinentes et tres acras de prato 
et ecclesiam ejusdem villae et terram ecclesiae pertinentem, 
Domino Johanne episcopo Glasguensis simul dante et 
episcopali auctoritate confirmante. Et villain Rauedene 
sicut unquam in meo dominio earn melius habui in terris et 
in aquis in pasturis de Sproustone et moram ad fodiendum 
turvas communes hominibus de Reuedene sicut hominibus 
de Sprouistone et in Berewyce unam carrucatam terrae et 
unam maisuram carrucatae pertinentem juxta ecclesiam 
Sancti Laurencii et alteram maisuram in burgo et XL 
solidos de censu ejusdem burgi unoquoque anno et 
dimidiam partem unius piscaturae quae vocatur Berewyck- 
streem et septimam partem molendinorum. Et villam de 
Middelham et Bouldene sicut unquam melius habui in 
terris et in bosco in aquis et in piano et XXXta acras 
terrae de territorio Lyllesclefe inter Alnam et rivulum qui 
dividit terram de Myddilham et de Lyllescleue et decimam 
molendini ejusdem villae scilicet Lyllescleue et Wythelawe 
cum suis rectis divisis sicut earn melius habui in meo 
dominio. Et terram de Selkyrke sicut rivulus descendens 
a montibus currit in Gierwa usque ad rivulum ilium qui 
descendens de Crossanesmer currit in Twede et ultra 
eundem rivulum qui cadit in Gieruuam, quandam par- 
ticulam terrae inter viam quae venit de castello et 
super veterem abbatiam cadit in eodem rivulo et Gierwam 



158 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

et veterem villam sicut unquam melius habui in terris et in 
bosco in aquis et in piano. Et aquas meas circa Selekirke 
communes ad piscandum suis propriis piscatoribus ut 
meis et pasturas meas communes suis hominibus ut meis 
et boscos meos domibus suis faciendis et ad ardendum ut 
mihi et Treuenlene cum suis rectis divisis sicut Vineth earn 
melius et plenius tenuit et habuit et craggam ejusdem 
villae sicut dominus Alfwynus Sanctae Crucis et Arnoldus 
abbas de Kalchou se adinvicem concordaverunt de quadam 
calumpnia quae fuit inter eos de ipsa Cragga coram 
hiis testibus R. abbe de Neubotil et aliis. 

Hanc autem Treuenlene dedi praedicta ecclesia de 
Kelchou in escambium X libratarum terrae quam habuerunt 
in Hardingesthorne juxta Northamtone quam mihi accomo- 
daverunt ad meum magnum negotium. Et in Renfriu unum 
toftum et unam navim et piscaturam unius retis solutam 
et quietam et ab omni exactione liberam. 

Et decimam animalium et porcorum et caseorum de can 
de quatuor cadrez de ilia Galweia quam vivente rege 
Alexandro habui per unumquemque annum, et decimam 
caseorum de Tweddal similiter per unumquemque annum, 
et medietatem coquinae meae de omnibus occisionibus 
meis omniumque successorum meorum ita ut ubicunque 
unum corium habuero, habeant monachi et alium et 
similiter de unctis et sepiis sicut de coreis et omnes 
pelles arietum et agnorum et decimam coriorum cer- 
vorum et cervarum quas velt a rii mei capient. Hos 
autem redditus coquinae meae et occisionum mearum dedi 
eis per illam terram tantum quam vivente rege Alex- 
andro habui. Et in Karsah unam salinam. 

Et haec omnia supra dicti monasterii abbati et 
monachis ita libere et pacifice jure perpetuo possidendo 
confirmavi ut mihi succedentium nullus nihil omnino 
solas orationes ad animae salutem de supradicta ecclesia 
exigere praesumat. 

Hiis testibus Henrico filio regis et aliis. 



CXCIV. CXCV. 159 

Et praeterea ecclesiam de Selkirke liberam et quietam 
sicut elemosina debit dari et concedi ita scilicet quod 
praedicti abbates sint capellani mei et filii mei et succes- 
sorum meorum de praedicta ecclesia. 



CXCV. 

Charter by Earl Henry granting to the Church 
of St. John in the Castle of Roxburgh a 
ploughgate of land and a toft in Roxburgh, 
etc., A.D. 1147-1152. 

Registr. Epis. Glasguensis, No. 5. 

HENRICUS comes films Regis Scotiae, Omnibus fidelibus 
suis et universis sanctae ecclesiae filiis salutem. 

Sciant tarn posted quam praesentes me concessisse et 
confirmasse in perpetuum et libere sicut rex pater meus 
antea dedit et concessit ecclesiae Sancti Johannis de 
Castro de Rokesburge unam carrucatam terrae de 
dominico meo de Rokesburge et unum plenarium toftum 
cum omnibus consuetudinibus suis et unam mansuram 
terrae infra castrum et totam oblationem illorum qui 
manent vel residentes sunt in castro et quartam partem 
oblationis meae et uxoris meae et familiae meae quum 
fuerimus in castro et decimam totam virgulti mei et totam 
decimam partis meae de sepo occisionis meae quae fit in 
Teuiedesdale et haec omnia ita libere concede praedictae 
ecclesiae sicut elemosina potest concedi liberius ecclesiae. 

Testibus Episcopo Herberto, et Arnaldo abbate, Waltero 
cancellario, Engelramo cancellario, Hug de Moreuille con- 
stabulario, et Comite Gospatrico, Willelmo de Sumerville, 
Waltero filio Alani, Roberto filio Turet, Gervasio Ridel, 
Willelmo Masculo, Waltero de Ridale. Apud Traueqayr. 



160 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

CXCVI. 

Charter by Uctred son of Liulf, granting the church 
of Molle to the Abbey of Kelso. 

Liber de Calchou, No. 176. 

NOTUM sit omnibus praesentibus et futuris quod ego 
Uctredus filius Liulfi ecclesiam de Molle pro salute 
animae meae et antecessorum meorum et dominorum 
meorum David Regis et Henrici comitis, ecclesiae Sanctae 
Mariae de Kelcho in perpetuam dedi elemosinam cum 
terra adjacenti sicut ego Uctredus et Aldredus decanus 
perambulavimus earn silicet ab Hulaues hou usque ad 
rivum ejus et a rivo per Hulaues hou usque ad vadum 
Bolbent contra ecclesiam et a vado illo sursum versus 
usque ad Hulaues hou et inde per viam usque ad Hunedune 
et inde usque ad capud rivi Hulaues hou. 

Concedo et communem pasturam Molle villae meae cum 
aisiamentis ita libere et quiete tenendam de me et heredi- 
bus meis sicut aliqua ecclesia aliquam elemosinam liberius 
et quietius possidet. 

Hiis testibus Hug. de Moruile, Ricardo filio ejus, 
David Olifard, Willelmo de Sumervile, Willelmo de 
Moruile, Horm filio Eilaf, Edmundo de Macheswel, 
Aldredo decano, Gamel de Foghou et aliis. 



CXCVII. 

Confirmation by Herbert, Bishop of Glasgow, of 
the grant by Uctred son of Liulf, of the church 
of Molle to the Abbey of Kelso. 

Liber de Calchou, No. 416. 

HERBERTUS Dei gratia Glasguensis episcopus, Omnibus 
Sanctae Matris ecclesiae filiis salutem. 



CXCVL CXCVIII. 161 

Sciatis me concessisse et episcopal! auctoritate confir- 
masse donationem ecclesiae de Molle quam Ucteredus 
filius Liolfi pro salute animae suae in perpetuam elemosi- 
nam dedit et concessit ecclesiae de Kelchou fratribusque 
ibidem Deo servientibus cum terris et parochiis et omnibus 
rectitudinibus eidem ecclesiae pertinentibus sicut carta 
ipsius Ucteredi testatur, salvis rectitudinibus et consue- 
tudinibus episcopalibus. 

His testibus Aldredo decano, Salomone clerico, Helia 
clerico, et Nicholao clerico. 



CXCVIII. 
Charter by King David to Nicolas the cleric, 

A.D. 1147-1153. 
Regist. de Dryburgh, No. 158. 

DAVID Rex Scotiae, Episcopis abbatibus comitibus vice- 
comitibus baronibus justitiariis ministris et omnibus probis 
hominibus totius regni sui salutem. 

Sciatis me dedisse et concessisse Nicholao clerico viginti 
solidos in carrucata ilia quam Petrus filius Valteri de 
Strevelyn de me tenet in Hedinham et praeter hoc 
dimidiam marcam in ilia dimidia carrucata terrae quam 
Tebaldus de Norham de me tenuit in eadem villa ita ut 
illi praedicto Nicholao firmam illam reddant sicut mini 
reddere solebant. 

Has itaque praedictas duas marcas do ei et concedo et 
per cartam praesentem confirmo in escambio illarum 
duarum marcarum quas in Bellestlene Ucteredi sacerdotis 
ex dono episcopi Johannis eidem Nicholao concesseram 
et confirmaveram ita libere et quiete ab omni servitio et 
consuetudine sicut carta ipsius Johannis testatur se ei 

praedictas duas marcas dedisse et concessisse, etc. 

L 



162 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

CXCIX. 

Charter by King David granting the right of 
forest in Annandale to Robert de Brus, 

A.D. 1147-1153. 
The original is in the Archives of the Duchy of Lancaster. 

DAVID Rex Scottorum, Omnibus probis hominibus totius 
terrae suae Francis et Anglis et Galweensibus salutem. 

Sciatis me dedisse et concessisse Roberto de Brus in 
feudo et hereditate illi et heredi suo in foresto, vallum de 
Anant ex utraque parte aquae de Anant sicut divisae sunt 
a foresto de Seleschirche quantum terra sua protenditur 
versus Stradnit et versus Clud, libere et quiete sicut aliud 
forestum suum tenetur melius et liberius. Quare defendo 
ne ullus venetur in praedicto foresto nisi per ipsum super 
forisfactum decem librarum et ne ullus eat per praedictum 
forestum nisi recta via nominata. 

Testibus Waltero cancellario, et Hugone de Morevilla, 
et Waltero filio Alani, et Odenello de Umframvilla, et 
Waltero de Lindeseia, et Ricardo de Morevilla. Apud 
Stap . . . rtune. 

CC. 

Fragment of a Charter by the Bishop of Glasgow 
to Robert de Brus (? ante A.D. 1147). 

Archives of the Duchy of Lancaster. Cartae Miscell, No. 55. 

. . . asc epc., Omnibus filiis sanctae ecclesiae totius 
parochiae suae salutem et . . . quam praesentes me 
dedisse et concessisse Rodberto de Brus in feudo et in . . . 
heredibus suis terram ecclesiae Glasguensis de Stratanant 
ad tenendum de . . . et honorifice et quiete sicut unquam 
pater suus liberius et honorificentius . . . terram de me 
tenuit. 



CXCIX. CCII. 163 

Teste David Rege, Henrico filio . . ., Dunecan, Hugone 
de Morville, Willelmo filio Turgis, Randulfo de Sules, 
Willelmo. . . . Apud Carliol. 



CCI. 

Mandate by King David that no can nor toll be 

taken from the monks of May, 

A.D. 1147-1153. 

Cartae Prioratus de May, No. 6. 

DAVID Rex Scotiae, Vicecomitibus praepositis ministris et 
omnibus hominibus totius terrae suae salutem. 

Praecipio ubicumque prior de Mai aut aliquis suorum 
fratrum aut clientium domus de Mai venerint cum rebus 
domus de Mai quatenus sint quieti de cano et tolneio per 
totam terram meam et ut licentiam habeant vendendi 
proprias res suas et emendi necessaria domus. 

Praeterea defendo ne ullus eis aut rebus eorum super 
meum forisfactum forisfaciat. 

Testibus Herberto episcopo de Glascu et Andrea epis- 
copo de Cataneis et Ernaldo abbate de Chegho. Apud 
Strivelin. 

CCII. 

Mandate by King David for payment of tithe to 
the monks of Rind^lgros, A.D. 1147-1153. 

Cartae Prioratas de May, No. 7. 

DAVID Rex Scotiae, Omnibus hominibus totius vicecomi- 
tatus de Pert salutem. 

Mando vobis et firmiter praecipio quatenus detis mona- 
chis de Rindelgros decimas vestras in blado et caseo et 
in rebus omnibus in quibus decimas dare debetis ne illas 
super meam defensionem detineatis. 

Testibus Duncano comite et Waltero cancellario. Apud 
Scone. 



1 64 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

CCIIL 

Charter by King David granting to the Abbey 
of Dunfermline a toft in the burgh of Had- 
dington, A.D. 1147-1153. 

Registr. de Dunfermelyn, No. u. 

DAVID Rex Scottorum, Episcopis abbatibus comitibus 
baronibus vicecomitibus praepositis ministris et omnibus 
probis hominibus totius terrae suae salutem. 
, Sciatis me pro salute animae meae et antecessorum 
meorum abbati de Dunfermline et fratribus ibidem Deo 
servientibus unum plenarium toftum in burgo meo de 
Hadigtun dedisse libere et quiete ab omni consuetudine 
et servitio sicut praedictus abbas tenet aliquod toftum 
melius et liberius per burgam meam. 

Testibus GG. episcopo de Dunkeld et Galtero cancel- 
lario et Duncano comite et Thoro vicecomite et Alfwyno. 
Apud Edenburg. 

CCIV. 

Charter by King David granting Ketlistoun to 
the Abbey of Stirling, A.D. 1147-1153. 

Chartulary of Cambuskenneth, No. 170. 

DAVID Rex Scottorum, Episcopis abbatibus comitibus 
baronibus et omnibus hominibus totius terrae suae salutem. 

Sciatis me concessisse et dedisse abbati de Striueling 
et canonicis ibidem Deo servientibus pro salute animae 
meae et antecessorum meorum, Ketlistoun per suas rectas 
divisas in perpetuam elemosinam libere et quiete ab 
omni seculari servitio sicut alias terras tenent quas de 
me habent. 

Testibus Waltero cancellario et Hugone de Moreuilla 
et Dufoc vicecomite de Striueling et Alfwyno et Petro 
clerico. Apud Kynross. 






CCIIL CCVI. 165 

CCV. 

Charter by King David granting to Nicolas, his 

cleric, the right of forest in Pettinain, 

A.D. 1147-1153. 

Registr. de Dryburgh, No. 48. 

DAVID Rex Scottorum, Episcopis abbatibus comitibus 
justitiariis baronibus vicecomitibus praepositis ministris et 
omnibus probis hominibus totius terrae suae salutem. 

Sciatis me dedisse et concessisse et hac mea carta con- 
firmasse Nicholao clerico meo et successoribus ejus totum 
nemus quod est infra divisas illius terrae quam Syrand 
sacerdos tenuit de me ante eum in Paduenane in firmam 
forestam et ideo prohibeo super forisfactum XL solidorum 
ut nullus omnino venetur in eo aut aliquid ibi molestiae ei 
vel successoribus ejus faciat nisi per licentiam et bene- 
volentiam eorum. 

Testibus . . . 

CCVI. 

Charter by Robert, Bishop of St. Andrews, grant- 
ing the church of Karreden to the Abbey of 
Holyrood, circa A.D. 1148. 

Charters of Holyrood, No. 9. 

RODBERTUS Dei gratia humilis minister ecclesiae Sancti 
Andreae, Omnibus sanctae matris ecclesiae filiis salutem 
et episcopalem benedictionem. 

Sciant omnes tarn praesentes quam futuri me dedisse et 
praesentis cartae munimine confirmasse ecclesiae Sanctae 
Crucis de Edenesburch et canonicis ibidem Deo servienti- 
bus ecclesiam de Karreden cum duobus carrucatis terrae 
et cum omnibus ad earn juste pertinentibus scilicet in 



1 66 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

decimis in pratis in pascuis in molendinis et in omnibus 
aliis rectitudinibus suis, ita libere et ex omni exactione 
quietam sicut aliquam in tota diocesi nostra ecclesiam 
liberius et quietius possident. 

His testibus Gaufrido abbate de Dunfermelin, Alwredo 
abbate de Striuelin, Rodberto priore de Sancto Andrea, 
Samsone et Alano monachis Dunelmi, T. archidiacono, 
Aiulfo decano, Gaufrido de Laswade, Magistro Andrea, 
Adam et Ricardo capellanis episcopi, Gaufrido clerico, 
Petro de Striuelin, et plenaria synodo. 



CCVII. 

Charter by King David to the monks of the Isle 
of May granting the moiety of Ballegallin, 
circa A.D. 1 150. 

Cartae Prioratus de May, No. 3. 

DAVID Rex Scotiae, Episcopis abbatibus comitibus justi- 
tiariis baronibus vicecomitibus et omnibus hominibus 
totius terrae suae salutem. 

Sciant tarn posted quam praesentes me pro salute animae 
meae dedisse et concessisse Deo et ecclesiae Omnium 
Sanctorum de Mai et fratribus ibidem Deo servientibus 
dimidium Balegallin sicut Gillecolm Mac chinbethin et 
Machet Mac Torfin et Malmure Thein de Chellin eis 
praedictam terram proiverunt libere et quiete ad tenendum 
de me et de heredibus meis sicut ulla elemosina in terra 
mea tenetur melius et liberius quamdiu conventus mona- 
chorum in Mai fuerit. 

Praeterea do eis et concedo communem pasturam in Sira 
de Chellin et in Sira de Cherel et per totam terram meam 
ita ne ullus pro pastura eos aut pecuniam eorum super 
meum forisfactum laboret aut disturbet. 



CCVL CCIX. 167 

Testibus Gregorio episcopo de Dunchelden et Andrea 
episcopo de Cataneis et Willelmo Giffard et Dunecano 
comite et Alwino filio Archil. Apud Dunfermelin. 



CCVIII. 

Mandate by King David to permit the monks of 

Dunfermline to have material for building, 

circa A.D. 1 150. 

Registr. de Dunfermelyn, No. 21. 

DAVID Rex Scottorum, Vicecomitibus praepositis et omni- 
bus ministris suis salutem. 

Praecipio vobis quatenus ecclesiae Sanctae Trinitatis et 
ad opus monachorum de Dunfermline permittatis habere 
materiem in nemoribus meis ad omnia sua necessaria. 

Testibus Andrea episcopo de Katenes et Waltero can- 
cellario et Duncano comite. Apud Dunfermelyn. 



CCIX. 

Confirmation by King David of all the lands and 
rights and privileges of the Abbey of Dunferm- 
lin, circa A.D. 1 150. 

Registr. de Dunfermelyn, No. 2. 

IN nomine Sanctae Trinitatis, Ego David Dei gratia Rex 
Scottorum auctoritate regia ac potestate, Henrici filii mei 
assensu et Matildis Reginae uxoris meae, episcoporum 
comitum baronumque regni mei confirmations et testi- 
monio, clero etiam adquiescenteque populo, ecclesiae 
Sanctae Trinitatis [de] Dunfermeline, praedecessorum 



1 68 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

meorum pietatis studio et largitionis initiatae omnia sub- 
scripta concedo et pace perpetua confirmo. Patris itaque 
et matris meae dona subsequentia, propono, haec scilicet 
Pardusin, Petnaurcha, Pettecorthin, Petbaclachin, Lauar, 
Bolgin, Schiram de Kirkaladinit, Inveresc minorem. 

Dona Duncat fratris mei, duas villas nomine Luschar. 
Dona Eadgari fratris mei, Schiram de Gellald. Dona 
Ethelredi fratris mei, Hales. Dona Alexandri Regis 
fratris mei, Primros, Schiram de Gatemilc, Petconmarchin 
Balcherin, Drumbernin, Keth. Dona Sibillae Reginae, 
Beeth. Et haec praedicta praedecessorum meorum dona 
concedo liberaliter praefatae ecclesiae in perpetuum cum 
omnibus suis appendiciis et rectis divisis. 

Dona denique propria subsequuntur, Dunfermelin citra 
aquam in qua eadem ecclesia sita est, Kingoren cum 
suis appendiciis qui propinquior est Dunfermelin, Foet, 
Inveresc majorem et molendinum et piscinam et Smithetun 
et Crefbarrin et ecclesiam de Infresc et Wymet cum suis 
rectis divisis, Fotheros juxta Sanctum Andream cum suis 
rectis divisis et Pethenach cum suis rectis divisis et unam 
carrucatam terrae, Petioker. 

Praeterea do et concedo assensu Henrici comitis filii mei 
pro salute animarum nostrarum et antecessorum nostrorum 
in perpetuam elemosinam Nithbren cum suis appendiciis et 
Belacristin cum suis rectis divisis in pratis et pascuis 
excepta rectitudine quam keledei habere debent, cum 
omnibus rebus ad eas juste pertinentibus, sicut datae 
fuerunt praedictae ecclesiae in dotem die qua dedicata 
fuit. Praeterea do eidem ecclesiae unam mansuram in 
Berwich aliam in Rokesburc aliam in burgo de Hading- 
tun aliam in Edenburg aliam in Linlithcu aliam in burgo 
de Striuelin et in eadem villa duas ecclesias et unam 
carrucatam terrae quae adjacet ipsi ecclesiae et omnem 
decimam meorum dominiorum in frugibus et in animali- 
bus et in piscibus de propriis retibus et etiam in denariis 
et decimam mei can totius castrensis provinciae et man- 



CCIX. 169 

siones Rogii presbiteri, ita plene sicut ipse sanus et 
incolumis tenuit, et unum rete et dimidium et unam 
mansionem in burgo Dunfermelin liberam et quietam et 
omnem decimationem denariorum firmae burgi et decima- 
tionem molendini et de omnibus dominiis meis de Dun- 
fermelin et unam mansionem in burgo de Pert et ecclesiam 
ejusdem villae et unam mansionem quae pertinet ipsi 
ecclesiae et omnem decimam de dominio meo. 

Omnia autem dona praedicta ita liberaliter et quiete 
praefatae ecclesiae concede, sicut ego terras meas proprias 
possideo, defensione regni mei excepta et regali justitia si 
abbas in curia sua aliqua negligentia de justitia deciderit. 

Concede et omnem octavam partem de omnibus placitis 
et lucris meis de Fif et de Fotherif et omnem decimam 
totius mei can et brasei de Fif et de Fotherif exceptis 
rectitudinibus quae abbatiae Dunkeldensi pertinent, et 
decimam omnium venationum quae capiuntur inter Lam- 
bremor et Tay et medietatem coriorum et seporum et 
sagiminis omnium bestiarum quae occidentur ad festivitates 
tenendas in Striuelin et inter Forth et Tay. Concede 
et ut habeant in nemoribus meis omnia necessaria 
ad ignem et ad aedificia sua sicut mihi ipsi et hominibus 
eorum sicut et meis. 

Volo denique ut omnes oblationes quae ad majus 
altare ejusdem ecclesiae offerentur sine calumpnia liber- 
aliter habeant et de selichis qui ad Kingorne capientur 
postquam decimati fuerint, concede ut omnes septimos 
selichis habeant. Salis et ferri quod ad opus meum 
ad Dunfermelin allata fuerint omnem decimam concedo. 

Praeterea pater meus et mater mea dederunt ecclesiae 
Sanctae Trinitatis parochiam totam Fothrif et sic con- 
cedo, denique do et concedo in elemosinam in perpetuum 
ecclesiae Sanctae Trinitatis tractum de Aldestelle et 
omne quod juste ei pertinet tractus isti datus est 
scilicet in Berwich liber et quietus. Praeter haec et 
prohibeo ne aliquod namum capiatur super terram vel 



1 70 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

super homines Sanctae Trinitatis pro forisfacto alicujus 
nisi pro proprio forisfacto illorum. Concedo et quod juste 
reddantur ecclesiae S. Trinitatis omnes servi sui quos pater 
meus et mater mea et fratres mei ei dederunt et omnes 
sui cumerlache a tempore Edgari Regis usque nunc cum 
tota pecunia sua ubicunque inveniantur et prohibeo super 
meum forisfactum ne injuste retineantur. Concedo abbati 
et monachis ut habeant omnes homines cum omni pecunia 
eorum in cujuscumque terra fuerint, qui fuerunt in terris 
die qua oblatae et datae ecclesiae Sanctae Trinitatis 
fuerunt. 

Concedo praefatae ecclesiae decimam de omnibus meis 
[silvestribus] equabus de Fif et de Fotherif. Concedo 
abbati et monachis ut habeant per totam terram meam 
theloneum quietum de cunctis rebus quas mercati fuerint 
ad propria eorum necessaria. Praeter ista supradicta dono 
et concede abbati et monachis ut habeant singulis annis 
V marcas argenti ad vestimenta eorum de primis navibus 
quae venient ad Striuelin vel ad Pert. 

Concedo et ecclesiae Sanctae Trinitatis passagium et 
navem de Inverkethin, sicut habui in meo dominio et tali 
conditione quod peregrinantes et nuntii ad me venientes 
et a me redeuntes et homines curiae meae et filii mei 
transeant in eadem navi sine pretio. Et si contingat 
aliqui istorum sine pretio transire non posse et abbas 
inde clamorem audierit et illud non emendaverit ut ego 
ipse illud emendare sine abbatis et fratrum ecclesiae 
molestia possim. 

Concedo et volo quatenus abbas vel monachi ecclesiae 
Sanctae Trinitatis non respondeant alicui calumpnianti de 
hominibus qui fuerunt in terris die qua oblatae et datae 
fuerunt ecclesiae Sanctae Trinitatis. Concedo et ecclesiae 
Sanctae Trinitatis decimam totius mei can de Clamanan. 
Abbas et monachi ecclesiae Sanctae Trinitatis citra Lambre- 
mor in tota regia potestate singulis sabbatis in curia habent 
unum corium et in sexto sabbato habent duo coria et 



rltioo r"\Of 4 



CCIX. 171 



duas partes de sepo et sextam pellem arietum et agnorum. 
Et concede eidem ecclesiae dimidiam partem decimi mei 
de Ergaithel et de Kentir, eo scilicet anno quum ego ipse 
unde recepero can. Supra taxatam autem ecclesiam cum 
omnibus quae Dei dante dementia in praesenti sicut praesens 
testatur privilegium et obtinet et in future eadem adquirere 
dementia valebit, in summae pacis tranquilitate et ab omni 
liberrima tarn secularis quam ecclesiasticae potestatis sub- 
jectione et exactionis inquietudine permanere decernimus 
excepta sola et canonica obedentia quae debet unaquaque 
matris suae per orbem ecclesia. Concedo et praenominatae 
ecclesiae quandam piscaturam apud Pert ita libere et 
quiete sicut meas ibi habeo. Cujus et jura in hoc 
privilegio praenotata et dignitatis privilegia inmutilata 
servare et stabilitate perpetua firmare, nos vero praesentes 
sumus successoribus nostris sub hac conditione confir- 
mando mandamus et mandando confirmamus ut siquis ea 
perturbare voluerit et nostrae defensionis statuta divellere 
imminuere ac violare contenderit, non ignoret se contra 
ipsum mundi Salvatorem niti et ideo nisi resipuerit 
aeternae dampnationis sententiam incurrere eumque 
Dominus de libro vitae deleat qui ecclesiae praefatae de 
concessae potestatis jure aliquod abstulerit. 
Amen. Fiat, Fiat. 

X Ego Rodbertus Sancti Andreae episcopus confirmo. 

X Ego GG. Dunkeldensis episcopus confirmo. 

X Ego Andreas Katinensis episcopus confirmo. 

Hujus et privilegii testes et assertores sunt Walterus 
cancellarius, Duncanus comes, Hugo de Morevilla, Walterus 
de Lyndesei, Robertus Avenel, Walterus Ridel, Herbertus 
camerarius, Nicholaus clericus, Alwynus films Arkil, Ewen 
marescallus, Gillecolmus Mac Chimpethin, Macbeth Mac 
Torfin, Mereuin films Colbain. 



i;2 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

CCX. 

Charter by King David declaring the canons of 

Stirling to be free of toll and customs, 

circa A.D. 1 150. 

Chartulary of Cambuskenneth, No. 215. 

DAVID Dei gratia Rex Scottorum, Justitiis baronibus vice- 
comitibus praepositis et omnibus probis hominibus suis 
futuris quam praesentibus totius terrae suae salutem. 

Praecipio quod canonici de Striueling et eorum dominici 
homines sint quieti de tholoneo et de omnibus recti- 
tudinibus et consuetudinibus ubicunque venerint in tota 
terra mea. 

Volo etiam et firmiter praecipio quatenus juste habeant 
meam firmam pacem ubicunque inter vos fuerint vel 
venerint. 

Testibus Herberto camerario et Randulfo de Sulis. 
Apud Chinross. 

CCXI. 

Confirmation by Robert, Bishop of St. Andrews, 
of the grants by Hugo de Moreville and Beatrix 
de Bello Campo to the Abbey of Dryburgh, 
circa A.D. 1 1 50. 

Registr. de Dryburgh, No. 14. 

ROBERTUS Dei gratia Sancti Andreae episcopus, Omnibus 
Dei fidelibus salutem. 

Sciatis me canonice religionis intuitu ecclesiam Sanctae 
Mariae de Dryburgh quam Hugo de Moravilla fundavit 
et canonicos ibidem Deo servientes in plena et Sancti 
Andreae et mea benedictione recepisse et quantum ad 



CCX. CCXII. 173 

episcopum pertinet concessisse et per hanc meam cartam 
ad ejusdem Hugonis petitionem confirmasse omnes ele- 
mosinas et donationes quas ipse et Beatrix de Bello 
Campo sponsa ejus ad eorum sustentationem assignaverunt 
et dederunt in liberam et perpetuam elemosinam pro 
salute animarum suarum scilicet ipsum locum et terram 
et aquas et piscationes adjacentes et ecclesias terrarum 
suarum in episcopatu meo quando personae decesserint qui 
modo eos tenent et omnia alia beneficia quae eisdem 
fratribus contulerunt sicut in eorum cartis continetur. 

Quare vobis et eisdem concede et confirmo ut has 
elemosinas perpetuo libere et quiete et plenarie teneant 
et possideant sicut aliqua domus religionis aliquam elemo- 
sinam liberius et quietius in episcopatu Sancti Andreae 
tenet et possidet salvo jure episcopali. 

Testibus, etc. 



CCXII. 

Charter by Robert, Bishop of St. Andrews, re- 
garding the chapel of Newton, circa A.D. 1150. 

The original is in the Treasury at Durham. 

ROBERTUS Dei gratia Sancti Andreae episcopus, Universis 
sanctae matris ecclesiae filiis qui in diocesi sua sunt 
salutem et episcopalem benedictionem. 

Sciatis quia haec conventio facta est inter matrem 
ecclesiam de Hedenham et capellam de Neuetun coram 
me et Hugone constabulario scilicet quod ipsa mater 
ecclesia debet habere omnes decimas suas et universas 
rectitudines de Neutun et quod monachi de Coldigham 
quorum est ipsa mater ecclesia, faciant cantari missam 
apud capellam tribus diebus septimanae et in Natali Domini 
et Purificatione in diebus Tenebrarum et in Pasca in 
Rogationibus et in die Sancti Cuthberti veniant ad matrem 
ecclesiam suam. Quod si homines de Neutun quicquam 



174 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

forisfecerint de decimis sive de aliis rectitudinibus contra 
matrem ecclesiam suam causa hujus capellae cesset 
divinum officium ab ipsa capella donee matris ecclesiae 
suae fuerit reconciliata. 

Testibus Turoldo archid., Aulfo capellano et Radulfo 
capellano et Suano et Goscelino presbiteris et Roberto 
clerico. 

CCXIII. 

Charter by Robert, Bishop of St. Andrews, regard- 
ing Ederham and Nesbit, A.D. 1150. 

The original is in the Treasury at Durham. 

OMNIBUS sanctae matris ecclesiae fidelibus clericis et laicis 
tarn praesentibus quarn futuris, Rodbertus Dei gratia Sancti 
Andreae episcopus salutem. 

Notum sit omnibus quod nos concessimus et quantum 
ad episcopalem auctoritatem pertinet praesentis cartae 
attestatione et munimine confirmavimus donationem illam 
quam Gospatricus frater Dolfini concessit et dedit in 
perpetuam elemosinam Deo et Sancto Cuthberto et 
monachis ipsius, scilicet Hederham cum ecclesia et villa 
quae dicitur Nesbit cum aquis pratis pascuis et molendinis 
et omnibus aliis rebus quae ad easdem villas pertinent 
sicut carta Regis et carta Gospatrici testantur. Notum 
quoque sit vobis omnibus quod nos episcopali auctoritate 
et praesentis cartae munimine concessimus et confirma- 
vimus Deo et Sancto Cuthberto et monachis ipsius, 
ecclesiam de Swintun et ecclesiam de Fiswic in per- 
petuam elemosinam et hoc fecimus prece et consilio 
venerabilium fratrum nostrorum Rodberti prioris Sancti 
Andreae, Thomae prioris de Scona, Osberti prioris de 
Gedewrtha, Osberti prioris de Sancta Cruce, Adae capellani 
regis de Rochesburh & multorum aliorum nobiscum resi- 
dentium in synodo quae sedit apud Berwic VIIJ kal. 
Novembris anno ab incarnatione Domini M.C.L. 



CCXII. CCXV. 175 



CCXIV. 

Grant by Thor to the Abbey of Holy rood of the 
church of Tranent, circa A.D. 1150. 

Charters of Holy rood, No. II. 

THORUS filius Swani, Omnibus amicis suis et dominis 
salutem. 

Sciant tarn posted quam praesentes me consilio et con- 
cessu heredum meorum dedisse et concessisse pro salute 
animae meae et antecessorum meorum in perpetuam elemo- 
sinam Deo et ecclesiae S. Crucis de Edenesburc et fratribus 
ibidem Deo servientibus totum illud donationis quod vide- 
bar habere in ecclesia de Treuernent in terris et pascuis 
et decimis, libere et quiete ab omni seculari dominatione 
et exactione et praeter ilia quae antecessores mei praedictae 
ecclesiae de Treuernent contulerunt do et concede et per 
praesentem cartam confirmo praedictae ecclesiae duas 
domes cum duabus toftis praedictis canonicis cum praefata 
ecclesia in perpetuam elemosinam confirmatas, filiis meis 
mecum praedicta omnia concedentibus et confirmantibus. 

His testibus Willelmo Morauensi episcopo, Osberno 
abbate de Jaddeuurd, Thor. arch., Aiolf. decano, Nicholao 
clerico regis, Neis filio Chiluni,^Edmundo filio Forn, Bernardo 
filio Tocce, Gilandrea ejus dapifero, yEdmundo de Fazeside, 
Alden. 

CCXV. 

Charter by Hugo de Moreville granting the church 
of Worgis to the church of St. Mary at 
Dryburgh, circa A.D. 1150. 

Registr. de Dryburgh, No. 68. 

HUGO de Morevilla, Omnibus amicis suis et hominibus 
probis suis tam futuris quam praesentibus salutem. 



1 76 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

Sciatis me dedisse et hac mea carta confirmasse Deo 
et ecclesiae Sanctae Mariae de Driburgh et fratribus 
ibidem Deo servientibus pro anima patris mei et pro 
salute animae meae, ecclesiam de Worgis cum omnibus 
pertinentiis suis in perpetuam elemosinam ita libere et 
quiete sicut aliqua elemosina potest liberius et quietius 
concedi et teneri. 

Testibus, etc. 



CCXVI. 

Charter by Hugo de Moreville granting half a 
ploughgate of land in Newtoun to the church 
of St. Mary at Dryburgh, circa A.D. 1150. 

Registr. de Dryburgh, No. 201. 

OMNIBUS Christi, etc., Hugo de Morevill salutem. 

Noverit universitas vestra me dedisse et concessisse et 
praesenti carta mea confirmasse Deo et Sanctae Mariae 
de Driburgh et canonicis ibidem Deo servientibus pro 
salute animae meae et praedecessorum meorum dimidiam 
carrucatam terrae in territorio de Newtoun scilicet quam 
Willelmus senescallus meus tenuit ab occidentali parte 
de Derestrete in longum et latum juxta metas et divisas 
de Thirlestan quae coram abbate de Driburgh et me et 
probis hominibus factae sunt, in puram et perpetuam 
elemosinam, tenendam liberam et quietam a multura et 
ab omni consuetudine firma et servitio seculari cum com- 
muni pastura quatuor bobus et uno caballo cum hominibus 
de Newtoun. Ego autem et heredes mei warantizabimus 
praedictis canonicis praedictam terram contra omnes 
homines et ad hanc cartam perpetuis temporibus robor- 
andam episcopi de Sancto Andrea et de Glasgu rogatu 
meo et voluntate sigilla sua cum meo apposuerunt. 

Testibus, etc. 



CCXV. CCXVIII. 177 

CCXVII. 

Confirmation by Earl Henry of the grants by Hugo 
de Moreville and Beatrix de Bello Campo to the 
Abbey of Dryburgh, circa A.D. 1150. 

Registr. de Dryburgh, No. 15. 

HENRICUS Comes Northumbriae, Episcopis abbatibus 
baronibus vicecomitibus ministris et omnibus probis suis 
hominibus Franciae et Angliae tarn futuris quam prae- 
sentibus salutem. 

Sciatis me concessisse et per hanc cartam meam con- 
firmasse donationes elemosinae de Dryburgh quas Hugo 
de Morevilla et Beatrix de Bello Campo dederunt Deo et 
Sanctae Mariae et fratribus ibidem Deo servientibus sicut 
carta eorum testatur et concedit. 

Testibus, etc. 

CCXVIII. 

Charter by King David granting to the Abbey 
of Dryburgh the church of Lanark, and the 
church and a ploughgate of land in Pettinain, 
circa A.D. 1 1 50. 

Registr. de Dryburgh, Nos. 43 and 209. 

DAVID Rex Scottorum, Episcopis abbatibus comitibus 
justitiariis baronibus vicecomitibus ministris et omnibus 
hominibus totius terrae suae Francis Anglis et Scottis 
et Galwensibus salutem. 

Sciant tarn posted quam praesentes me concessisse et 
dedisse et hac mea carta confirmasse ecclesiae Sanctae 
Mariae de Dryburgh et fratribus canonicis ibidem Deo 
servientibus ad tenendum de me et heredibus meis in 
liberam et perpetuam elemosinam ecclesiam de Lanark 
cum terris et decimis et omnibus rebus juste ad illam 



1 78 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

pertinentibus et ecclesiam de Pedynnane cum omnibus 
suis pertinentiis et in eadem villa illam carrucatam terrae 
quam Nicholaus clericus meus de me habuit et tenuit 
ita libere et quiete ab omni seculari exactione et con- 
suetudine eisdem fratribus perpetuo possidendas sicut 
aliqua ecclesia terrae meae elemosinas melius et quietius 
tenet et possidet ita tamen quod in ecclesiis illis omcium 
divinum honeste fiat. 
Testibus, etc. 

CCXIX. 

Charter by Beatrix de Bello Campo granting the 
church of Bosyete to the church and canons 
of Dry burgh, circa A.D. 1150. 

Registr. de Dryburgh, No. 93. 

DOMINO suo David Regi Scotiae et omnibus heredibus 
suis et Ricardo de Morevilla filio suo et omnibus heredibus 
suis et cunctis fidelibus, B. de Bello Campo salutem. 

Sciant me dedisse et concessisse Deo et ecclesiae Sanctae 
Mariae de Driburgh et canonicis ibidem Deo servientibus 
ecclesiam de Bosyete meae liberae dotis cum omnibus 
pertinentiis suis in perpetuam elemosinam ita libere et 
quiete sicut aliqua elemosina potest liberius et quietius 
concedi et teneri pro amore Dei et in remissionem pec- 
catorum meorum. 

Testibus, etc. 

CCXX. 

Charter by King David granting to the church of 
St. Kentigern at Glasgow the church of 
Cadihou, circa A.D. 1150. 

Registr. Epis. Glasguen., No. 8. 

DAVID Rex Scotiae, Episcopis abbatibus comitibus baroni- 
bus justitiariis vicecomitibus praepositis ministris et 
omnibus probis hominibus totius terrae suae salutem. 



CCXVIIL CCXXII. 179 

Sciatis me concessisse et in perpetuam elemosinam 
dedisse ecclesiae Sancti Kentegerni de Glesgu et episcopo 
ejusdem ecclesiae, ecclesiam de Cadihou sicut elemosina 
dari potest melius et liberius, Henrico comite concedente 
et assensum praebente. 

Testibus Ernaldo abbate de Chelgho et Waltero can- 
cellario et Hugone de Moreuilla et Herberto camerario et 
Galtero filio Alani et Thoma Lundoniarum et Waltero de 
Lindeseai et W. de Lindeseai et Waltero de Ridale. 
Apud Striuelin. 

CCXXI. 

Charter by King David granting Hoctor comon to 
Andrew, Bishop of Caithness, circa A.D. 1150. 

Registr. de Dunfermelyn, No. 24. 

DAVID Rex Scottorum, Omnibus probis hominibus totius 
terrae suae salutem. 

Sciatis me dedisse et concessisse A. episcopo de Katenes 
Hoctor comon liberam et quietam ab omni servitio excepto 
communi exercitu. 

Testibus GG. episcopo Dunkeld, Dune, comite, Gillan- 
dres de Scona, Alwyn Mac Archil. Apud Scona. 



CCXXII. 

Charter by King David granting lands to Walter 
de Riddale, circa A.D. 1150. 

Denmilne Coll. Adv. Lib., 15. i. 18, p. 76. 

DAVID Rex Scottorum, Episcopis abbatibus justitiariis 
baronibus vicecomitibus praepositis ministris et omnibus 
hominibus totius terrae suae Francis et Anglis, etc., 
salutem. 



1 8o EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

Sciatis tarn posted quam praesentes me dedisse et 
concessisse Waltero de Riddale, Whitimes et dimidium 
Eschetho et Lilislive per suas rectas divisas cum omnibus 
appendiciis suis juste ad eas pertinentibus in nemore piano 
pratis pascuis et aquis et stalungiis quae sunt ab occidente 
de Richeldoun, sibi et heredibus suis ad tenendum de me 
et heredibus meis in feudo et hereditate libere per servitium 
unius militis sicut unus baronum meorum vicinorum 
suorum qui libere tenet feudum suum melius et liberius 
habet et tenet. Et si ego et heredes mei Waltero vel 
heredibus suis praedictas terras propter justam alicujus 
calumniam warantizare non poterimus ego et heredes mei 
ei et heredibus suis excambium ad valentiam ad suum 
rationabile . . . dabimus. 

Testibus, Andrea episcopo de Catnes, Waltero filio Alani 
et Waltero de Lindesai et David Vinet et Nicholaio clerico 
et Ricardo de Morevilla et Alexandro Setone et Alexandro 
de Sancto Martino. Apud Scone. 



CCXXIII. 

Protection by King David to the clerics of Deer, 
circa A.D. 1 150. 

Book of Deer. 

DAVID Rex Scottorum omnibus probis hominibus suis 
salute[m]. 

Sciatis quod clerici de Der sunt quieti et immunes ab 
omni laicorum officio et exactione indebita, sicut in libro 
eorum scriptum est et dirationaverunt apud Banb et jura- 
verunt apud Aberdon. Quapropter firmiter praecipio ut 
nullus eis aut eorum catellis aliquam injuriam inferre 
praesumat. 

Teste Gregorio episcopo de Duncallden. 

Teste Andrea episcopo de Cat'. 

Teste Samsone episcopo de Brechin. 



CCXXIL CCXXIV. 181 

Teste Donchado comite de Fib et Malmori d'Athotla 
et Ggillebrite comite d'Engus et Ghgillcomded Mac 
Aed et Brocin et Cormac de Turbrud et Adam Mac 
Ferdomnac et Gillendrias Mac Matni. Apud Abberdeon. 



CCXXIV. 

Charter by King David granting Nithbren and 

Balcristin to the Abbey of Dunfermline, 

circa A.D. 1150. 

Registr. de Dunfermelyn, No. 3. 

DAVID Rex Scottorum, Episcopis abbatibus comitibus 
vicecomitibus baronibus praepositis ministris et omni- 
bus probis hominibus totius terrae suae Francis Anglicis 
et Scottis salutem. 

Sciatis me et Henricum comitem filium meum pro 
salute animarum nostrarum et antecessorum nostrorum 
in perpetuam elemosinam dedisse et concessisse ecclesiae 
Sanctae Trinitatis de Dunfermelin et abbati et fratribus 
ibidem Deo servientibus, villam de Nithbren cum suis 
appendiciis et Balcristin cum suis rectis divisis in pratis 
et pascuis excepta rectitudine quam cheledei habere 
debent, cum omnibus rebus juste ad eas pertinentibus 
sicut datae fuerunt praedictae ecclesiae in dotem die qua 
dedicata fuit, libere et quiete ab omni consuetudine et 
servitio sicut aliqua domus religionis terrae nostrae 
tenet aliquam terrain melius et liberius. 

Testibus Roberto episcopo de Sancto Andrea, Herberto 
episcopo de Glescu, et GG. episcopo de Duncheld, et Andrea 
episcopo de Katenes, et Edwardo episcopo de Aberdon, 
et Symeone episcopo de Ros, et Arnaldo abbate de Kelch., 
et Alwyno abbate de Edenb., et Willo. abbate de Struelin et 
Duncano comite, et Garuad comite, et Morgrund comite et 
Leod abbate de Breichin et Waltero filio Alani et Galtero 



1 82 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

cancellario regis et Herberto camerario, et Galtero de 
Lyndesei, et Roberto Auenel, et Alwyno filio Archil, et 
Ewaein Marescall, et Gilcolm mac chimbethin. Apud 
Dunfermelin. 

CCXXV. 

Charter by King David granting the church of 

Forgrund to the canons of St. Andrews, 

circa A.D. 1 1 50. 

Registr. Prior. S. Andreae. 

DAVID Dei gratia Rex Scottorum, R. episcopo Sancti 
Andreae et omnibus episcopis abbatibus comitibus baroni- 
bus vicecomitibus ministris et omnibus probis hominibus 
suis et fidelibus totius regni sui salutem. 

Sciatis me dedisse et concessisse Deo et ecclesiae Sancti 
Andreae Apostoli et canonicis ibidem Deo servientibus 
et servituris in perpetuam elemosinam ecclesiam de Fore- 
grund cum decimis et consuetudinibus et rectitudinibus 
omnibus ecclesiae pertinentibus de toto dominio meo et 
de omnibus hominibus meis de Foregrund et de Foregrund 
seihire pro salute mea et Henrici filii mei et pro animabus 
patris mei et matris meae et omnium antecessorum et suc- 
cessorum nostrorum et unam plenariam toftam ad hospi- 
tandum presbyterum ipsius ecclesiae et volo et praecipio 
ut bene et in pace et quiete et libere et honorifice teneant 
sicut aliqua elemosinarum mearum quietior et liberior est. 

Testibus Roberto episcopo Sancti Andreae et Edwardo 
episcopo de Aberden. et Gr. episcopo de Dunech. et 
Andrea episcopo de Cathen. et Waltero cancellario et 
Nicholao clerico et Matheo archidiacono et Dunecano 
comite et Hugo de Moreuilla et Waltero de Lindeseai 
et Willelmo de Lindeseai et Roberto Auenel et Waltero 
de Ridal et Led. abbate et Alfuin filio Archil. Apud 
Sconam. 



CCXXIV. CCXXVII. 183 



CCXXVI. 

Charter by King David granting to the Priory of 
St. Andrew's a toft in Berwick. 

Registr. Prior. S. Andreae. 

DAVID Rex Scotiae, Omnibus probis hominibus totius 
regni sui salutem. 

Sciatis me concessisse Sancto Andreae et priori Sancti 
Andreae et canonicis ecclesiae Sancti Andreae famulantibus 
quandam plenariam toftam in Berewic in perpetuam 
elemosinam liberam et quietam ab omni servitio et con- 
suetudine sicut aliqua elemosina in tota terra mea est 
liberior et quietior et homines in eadem tofta manentes 
quieti et liberi sint ab omni exactione et consuetudine et 
teloneo et omnibus aliis rebus sicut alii burgenses sunt de 
aliis elemosinis meis. 

Teste Eadward epo. de Aberden, Willelmo epo. de 
Morheuia, Andrea epo. de Katen., Will, abbate de Sancta 
Cruce, Alwred abbate de Striuelin, Osberto priore de 
Jedwortha, Waltero cancellario, Herberto camerario, 
Nicholao clerico. Apud Sanctum Andream. 



CCXXVII 

Charter by King David granting to the church of 
St. Andrew's a toft in the burgh of Haddington. 

Registr. Prior. S. Andreae. 

DAVID Dei gratia Rex Scottorum, Episcopo Sancti 
Andreae et vicecomiti et omnibus baronibus et probis 
hominibus suis de Laudonio salutem. 

Sciatis me dedisse et concessisse in perpetuam ele- 
mosinam Deo et ecclesiae Sancti Andreae et canonicis 
ibidem Deo servientibus unam plenariam toftam in burgo 



1 84 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

de Hadintona pro salute mea et filii mei et pro animabus 
patris et matris meae et praedecessorum et successorum 
meorum et volo ut bene et in pace et quiete et honorifice 
earn tenant sicut aliqua tofta de elemosina mea in burgis 
meis liberior et quietior est. 

Teste Roberto epo. Sancti Andreae et G. epo. de 
Dunkeld et A. epo. de Katenes et Waltero et Lyed 
abbate. Apud Sconam. 



CCXXVIII. 

Confirmation by Robert, Bishop of St. Andrews, of 
the grants to the Abbey of Dunfermline by 
Earl Duncan and by Elwyn Renner and his 
wife, circa A.D. 1150. 

Registr. de Dunfermelyn, No. 91. 

ROBERTUS Dei gratia Sancti Andreae episcopus, Omni- 
bus sanctae matris ecclesiae filiis salutem. 

Sciant universi nos concessisse et praesenti carta con- 
firmasse ecclesiae Sanctae Trinitatis de Dunfermelyn et 
abbati et monachis ibidem Deo servientibus ecclesiam 
de Kaledure Comitis quam Comes Duncanus praedictae 
ecclesiae in perpetuam elemosinam dedit et ecclesiam de 
Neutun similiter quam Elwynus Renner et Ede uxor 
ejus eidem ecclesiae in elemosinam perpetuam dederunt 
cum omnibus eisdem ecclesiis adjacentibus ita libere et 
quiete sicut aliqua ecclesia liberius et quietius in diocesi 
nostra ecclesias suas possidet. Volumus itaque et praecipi- 
mus quatenus eos libere teneant et absque omni 
exactione salvo jure episcopali quiete possideant. 

Testibus his T. arch., M. arch., A. decano, Suano 
presbytero, Magistro Andrea, Nigello capellano, G. de 
Lesswade, Magro. Herberto, A. de Dunbar, S. priore de 
Coldigham, W. monach. de Kelch., Johanne nepote 
episcopi et Radulpho. 



CCXXVIL CCXXX. 185 



CCXXIX. 

Charter by King David granting to the Abbot of 
Kelso the church of Selkirk, circa A.D. 1150. 

Liber de Calchou, No. 373. 

DAVID Dei gratia Rex Scottorum, Episcopis abbatibus 
comitibus baronibus justitiis vicecomitibus ministris et 
omnibus probis hominibus totius terrae suae Francis 
Anglicis et Scottis salutem. 

Sciant tarn poster! quam praesentes me dedisse et 
concessisse Ernaldo abbati de Kelchou et successoribus 
suis scilicet ejusdem ecclesiae abbatibus in perpetuam 
elemosinam ecclesiam de Seleschirche ita libere et quiete 
sicut elemosina debet dari et concedi ita scilicet quod 
praedicti abbates sint capellani mei et filii mei et suc- 
cessorum meorum de praedicta ecclesia. 

Testibus Henrico filio meo, Gaufrido abbate de Dun- 
fermeline, Hugone de Morevilla, W. de Bidun cancellario, 
Willelmode Lyndesei, Waltero filio Alani, Nicholao clerico. 
Apud Edenburge. 



CCXXX. 

Charter by Robert, Bishop of St. Andrews, 
granting the church of Lohworuora to Her- 
bert, Bishop of Glasgow, circa A.D. 1150. 

Registr. Epis. Glasguen., No. u. 

ROBERTUS Dei gratia Episcopus Sancti Andreae, Omnibus 
sanctae matris ecclesiae filiis salutem. 

Sciant praesentes et futuri nos concessisse et per libram 
saisisse Herbertum Glasguensem episcopum de ecclesia 
de Lohworuora sicut de possessione Glasguensis ecclesiae. 



1 86 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

Praesentibus et assensum praestantibus David illustri 
Scottorum Rege et Henrico filio ejus, ita ut ecclesia 
Sancti Andreae habeat omnes consuetudines episcopales 
in ecclesia de Lohworuara sicut in ceteris ecclesiis 
Laudoniae a priore de Scona, quern tradente nobis 
praefato Herberto episcopo in ... ejusdem ecclesiae sus- 
cepimus. 

Praesentibus et his testibus Gregorio Dunchelden. 
episcopo, Andrea Chatan. episcopo, Gaufrido abbate 
de Dunfermelin, Ernaldo abbate de Calceho, Alfwino 
abbate de Sancta Cruce, Willelmo abbate de Striuelin, 
Roberto priore de Sancto Andreae, Osberto priore de 
Sancta Cruce, Thoma priore Scone, Thor archidia- 
cono, Ascelino archidiacono, Eyolfo decano, Waltero 
cancellario regis, Ingelleran cancellario comitis, Magis- 
tro Laurentio, Jordane Heyrun, Waltero capellano 
de Lillesclive, Nicholao clerico, Thoma de Linnithuc, 
Dunecan comite, Hugone de Moreuilla, Willelmo de 
Sumervilla, Cospatrico filio Waltheof, Waltero de 
Lindeseai, Willelmo fratre ejus, Bernardo de Boilond, 
Willelmo de Vesci, Odenel de Unfranuilla, Waltero de 
Bolebech, Alfwino Rennere, Eadwardo constabulario, 
Thor filio Suein, Willelmo de Graham, Arturo Finboga, 
Rogero nepote episcopi Sancti Andreae, Uhtred filio 
Fergus, Radulfo filio Dunegal, Duuenald fratre ejus, 
Baldewino flam., Hug. filio Fresechin. 



CCXXXI. 

Charter by King David granting a toft in the 
burgh of Haddington to the monks of May. 

Chartulary of the Abbey of Reading. 

DAVID Rex Scotiae, Praepositis ministris et omnibus 
probis hominibus totius terrae suae salutem. 

Sciatis me in elemosinam fratribus de Mai unam 






CCXXX. CCXXXIII. 1 87 






plenariam toftam in burgo meo de Hadintune dedisse 
libere et quiete ab omni consuetudine et servitio. 

Testibus Andrea episcopo de Cateneis, Gaufredo abbate 
de Dunfermlin et multis aliis. 



CCXXXII. 

Charter by King David granting the Island of Loch 
Leven to the canons of St. Andrews, with liberty 
to expel those Keledei who refuse to become 
canons regular, circa A.D. 1150. 

Registr. Prior. S. Andreae. 

DAVID Rex Scottorum, Episcopis abbatibus comitibus vice- 
comitibus et omnibus probis hominibus totius terrae suae 
salutem. 

Sciatis me concessisse et dedisse canonicis Sancti 
Andreae, insulam de Lochleuen ut ipsi ibi instituant 
ordinem canonicalem et -Keledei qui ibidem inventi 
fuerint si regulariter vivere voluerint in pace cum eis 
et sub eis maneant et si quis illorum ad hoc resistere 
voluerit volo et praecipio ut ab insula ejiciatur. 

Testibus Roberto episcopo Sancti Andreae, Andrea 
episcopo de Katen., Waltero cancellario, Nicholao clerico, 
Hugone de Moreuill, Waltero filio Alani. Apud Berwic. 



CCXXXIII. 

Mandate by King David to the canons of St. 
Andrews to receive the Keledei of Kilrimont 
as canons, circa A.D. 1150. 

Registr. Prior. S. Andreae. 

DAVID Rex Scotiae, Episcopis abbatibus comitibus vice- 
comitibus et omnibus sanctae ecclesiae filiis salutem. 



1 88 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

Sciatis me dedisse et concessisse priori et canonicis 
ecclesiae Beati Andreae Apostoli ut recipiant Kelledeos 
de Kilrimont in canonicos secum cum omnibus pos- 
sessionibus et redditibus suis si voluerint canonici fieri 
et si noluerint canonicari hi qui nunc vivunt habeant 
et teneant possessiones suas in vita sua et post obitum 
illorum instituantur loco eorum tot canonici in ecclesia 
Sancti Andreae quot sint Kelledei ut omnia praedia et 
omnes terrae et elemosinae eorum quas habent convertan- 
tur in usus canonicorum praedictae ecclesiae in perpetuam 
liberam et quietam elemosinam sicut liberius et quietius 
tenet aliqua ecclesia in regno meo. 

Testibus A. episcopo de Katen., W. abbate Struelin, 
W. cancellario, Nicholao clerico, Hugo de Moreuille, 
W. fil. . 



CCXXXIV. 

Charter by King David granting Vithemer to the 
Abbey of Kelso, circa A.D. 1150. 

Liber de Calchou, No. 374. 

DAVID Rex Scottorum, Episcopis abbatibus comitibus 
justitiis baronibus vicecomitibus ministris et omnibus 
probis hominibus totius terrae suae salutem. 

Sciatis omnes me concessisse ecclesiae Sanctae Mariae 
et Sancti Johannis de Chalchehoh et abbati ac monachis 
ibidem Deo famulantibus villam Vithemer nomine per 
suas rectas divisas liberam et quietam ab omni servitio 
et consuetudine seculari in liberam et perpetuam ele- 
mosinam sicut aliqua abbatia in tota terra mea elemosinas 
suas liberius melius et quietius tenet et possidet 

Testibus Osberto priore de Jeddeworthe, Waltero can- 
cellario, Hugone de Moreuilla, Waltero filio Alani, 
Roberto Auenel, Waltero de Ridal. Apud Rochesburce. 



CCXXXIIL CCXXXVI. 1 89 

ccxxxv. 

Charter by King David granting the church of 
Clackmanan, etc., to the Abbey of Stirling, 
circa A.D. 1 150. 

Chartulary of Cambuskenneth, No. 57. 

DAVID Rex Scottorum, Omnibus probis hominibus totius 
terrae suae clericis et laicis salutem. 

Sciatis me concessisse et hac mea carta confirmasse 
abbati de Striuelin et canonicis ibidem Deo servientibus 
ecclesiam de Clacmanan cum quadraginta acris terrae 
et toftum sacerdotis in eadem villa et aisiamenta in 
bosco et piano et decimas omnium placitorum et lucro- 
rum meorum de Striueling et de Striuelinschire et de 
Kalenter et unum toftum in burgo meo de Striuelin 
et aliud toftum in Linlidcu in perpetuam elemosinam 
ita libere et quiete ab omni seculari servitio ut aliqua 
elemosina melius et liberius in regno meo tenetur. 

Testibus Willelmo Moraviensi episcopo et Hugone 
de Moreuilla, Waltero filio Alani, Adam de Rogesburg, 
Nicolao clerico, Waltero cancellario, Johanne capellano. 
Apud Striuelin. 

CCXXXVI. 

Mandate by Earl Henry not to molest the monks 
of Coldingham in the enjoyment of lands in 
Berwickshire which Swain had restored to them, 
circa A.D. 1 150. 

The original is in the Treasury at Durham. 

HENRICUS comes films regis Scotiae, Episcopis abbatibus 
prioribus comitibus baronibus justitiis vicecomitibus minis- 
tris et omnibus probis hominibus regni Scotiae salutem. 



190 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

Notum sit vobis omnibus Swaen presbyterum coram 
me et in mea praesentia quietas clamasse monachis de 
Coldingham et illis reddidisse apud Berewihc, Fiswihc 
cum omnibus ad illam pertinentibus in terris et aquis 
et dimidiam Prenderghest et terram quae habuit in 
Coldingham et Lummesdene. 

Volo itaque quatenus praedicti Swen omni vexatione 
remota terras suas praenominatas teneant et in pace 
possideant. 

Testibus Cancellario Hingelramo et Willelmo de 
Sumerville. 



CCXXXVII. 

Charter by King David granting Caddysleya to 
the Abbey of Dryburgh, A.D. 1150-1152. 

Registr. de Dryburgh, No. 109. 

DAVID Rex Scotiae, Abbatibus comitibus baronibus 
justitiariis vicecomitibus ministris episcopis et omnibus 
probis hominibus totius regni sui salutem. 

Sciatis me dedisse et concessisse ecclesiae Sanctae 
Mariae de Driburgh, landam illam qua vocatur Caddys- 
leya cum . . . infra forestam meam circumquaque 
pro salute animae meae et filii mei Henrici et animabus 
antecessorum et successorum meorum in perpetuam 
elemosinam liberam et quietam. Quare volo et praecipio 
quod praefata ecclesia et canonici ibidem Deo famulantes 
teneant earn libere et quiete sicut aliqua ecclesia totius 
regni mei aliquam elemosinam liberius et quietius tenet 
et habet. 



CCXXXVI. CCXXXIX. 1 9 1 



CCXXXVIII. 

Charter by Beatrix de Bello Campo granting a land 

in Roxburgh, etc., to the church of Dryburgh, 

A.D. 1150-1152. 

Registr. de Dryburgh, No. 143. 

DOMINO suo David Regi Scotiae et omnibus heredibus 
suis Rpcardo] de Morevilla filio suo et omnibus heredibus 
suis et cunctis fidelibus, Beatrix de Bello Campo salutem. 

Sciant me dedisse et concessisse Deo et ecclesiae 
Sanctae Mariae de Dryburgh et canonicis ibidem Deo 
servientibus totam illam terram de Rogesburgh quam 
emi a Rogero janitore et decimam molendini de Naythin- 
thern in perpetuam elemosinam ita libere et quiete sicut 
aliqua elemosina potest liberius et quietius concedi et teneri 
pro amore Dei et in remissionem peccatorum meorum. 

Testibus . . . 

CCXXXIX. 

Confirmation by King David of the grants by Hugo 
de Moreville and Beatrix de Bello Campo 
to the Abbey of Dryburgh, A.D. 1150-1152. 

Registr. de Dryburgh, No. 239. 

DAVID Rex Scotiae, Episcopis abbatibus comitibus baroni- 
bus justitiariis vicecomitibus praepositis ministris et omni- 
bus probis hominibus totius terrae suae clericis et laicis 
Francis et Anglicis tarn futuris quam praesentibus salutem. 
Sciatis me concessisse et hac mea carta confirmasse 
ecclesiae Sanctae Mariae de Driburgh et fratribus canonicis 
ibidem Deo servientibus et servituris ipsum locum de 
Driburgh et omnes donationes et elemosinas quas Hugo 
de Morevilla et Beatrix de Bello Campo uxor ejus ad eorum 
sustinementum concesserunt in perpetuam elemosinam et 
eis dederunt scilicet in terris et in aquis in piscationibus 



I 9 2 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

et pascuis et in ecclesiis terrae suae et in omnibus aliis bene- 
ficiis sicut cartae eorum testantur et conformant. Quare 
volo et praecipio ut praenominati fratres has elemosinas ita 
libere et quiete et plenarie perpetuo teneant et possideant 
sicut aliqua elemosina in regno Scotiae liberius et quietius 
tenetur et sicut cartae eorum confirmant. 
Testibus, etc. 

CCXL. 

Confirmation by Richard de Moreville of grants to 
the Church of Dryburgh by his mother and his 
sister, circa A. D. 1152. 

Registr. de Dryburgh, No. 92. 

RlCARDUS DE MOREVILLA, Omnibus amicis et probis 
hominibus suis salutem. 

Sciant tarn praesentes quam futuri me concessisse et 
hac mea carta confirmasse Deo et ecclesiae Beatae 
Mariae de Driburgh et canonicis ibidem Deo servientibus 
donationem matris meae de ecclesia de Bosyete et molen- 
dinam de Nathanthern et terram suam cle Rogesburgh 
quam emit a Rogero janitore et donationem Adae sororis 
meae scilicet decimam molendini de Newtoun in per- 
petuam elemosinam ita libere et quiete sicut aliqua 
elemosina liberius et quietius potest concedi et teneri pro 
salute animae meae et animabus antecessorum et succes- 
sorum meorum. 

Testibus . . . 

CCXLI. 

Charter by Earl Henry granting a toft in Rox- 
burgh to the Church of Dryburgh, 
A.D. 1150-1152. 

Registr. de Dryburgh, No. 146. 

HENRICUS comes films regis Scotiae, Episcopis justi- 
tiariis abbatibus baronibus vicecomitibus praepositis 



CCXXXIX. CCXLII. 193 

ministris et omnibus probis hominibus suis de Teuidall 
salutem. 

Sciant me dedisse ecclesiae Sanctae Mariae de Dri- 
burgh et canonicis ibidem Deo servientibus illud toftum 
quod fuit Johannis capellani in burgagio extra murum 
de Rogesburgh et volo et praecipio ut ecclesia supra- 
dicta illud habeat et teneat libere et quiete ab omni 
consuetudine et servitio sicut meam liberam elemosinam. 

Testibus . 



CCXLII. 

Charter by King David to the Abbey of Dry- 
burgh, A.D. 1150-1152. 

Sir James Balfour's Transcripts Adv. Lib. 
Printed in the Registr. de Dryburgh, p. Ixix. 

DAVID Rex Scottorum, Episcopis abbatibus comitibus 
justitiariis baronibus vicecomitibus ministris et omnibus 
hominibus totius terrae suae Francis Anglis et Scottis 
et Gallowidensibus salutem. 

Sciant tam posteri quam praesentes me concessisse et 
dedisse et hac mea carta confirmasse ecclesiae Sanctae 
Mariae de Drybrughe quam fundavi et fratribus canoni- 
cis ibidem Deo servientibus pro salute animae meae et 
pro salute animarum praedecessorum et successorum 
meorum ad tenendum de me et heredibus meis in liberam 
et perpetuam elemosinam, ecclesiam de Drybrughe cum 
capellis decimis oblationibus et omnimodis pertinentiis 
suis, ecclesiam de Lanarke cum terris et decimis et omni- 
bus rebus ad illam juste pertinentibus et ecclesiam de 
Pedynane cum omnibus suis pertinentiis et in eadem 
villa illam carrucatam terrae quam Nicholaus clericus 
meus de me habuit et tenuit ita quiete et libere ab omni 
seculari exactione et consuetudine eisdem fratribus per- 
petuo possidendas sicut aliqua alia ecclesia vel ecclesiae 



i 9 4 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

terrae meae elemosinas suas melius et quietius tenent 
et possident ita tamen quod in ecclesiis illis officium 
divinum honeste fiat. Dedi eis insuper landam illam quae 
vocatur Caddysleya cum pastura infra forestam meam 
pro salute animae Henrici filii mei in liberam et per- 
petuam elemosinam et unum manerium in burgo meo 
de Caraile eis dedi cum tribus rudis terrae ad illam 
pertinentibus. Dedi dictis fratribus et eis confirmavi 
illam terram et omnia ad earn pertinentia quam Beatrix 
de Bello Campo de Rogero janitore emit et eis in 
liberam et perpetuam elemosinam dedit et illud etiam 
toftum extra portam occidentalem de Rogesburghe quod 
Johannis capellani fuit ita liberum et quietum eis con- 
cede sicut carta Henrici comitis filii mei eis donat et 
confirmat. 

Concede etiam et confirmo eis illam terram quae est 
inter murum ejusdem portae, quam Ada capellanus 
meus eis concessit et in liberam et perpetuam elemosinam 
dedit cum eadem libertate quam eidem Adae concesseram 
scilicet ut nullus super plenarium forisfactum meum de 
ilia terra censum aut aliquam omnino consuetudinem 
quae in burgo advenerit praesumat exigere. 

Praeterea praefatis fratribus concede ut liceat eis in 
nemoribus meis accipere ea quae necessaria habuerint 
in usibus suis et aedificiis ita ut nullus eos injuste dis- 
turbet et ut sint liberi et quieti in omni regno meo 
de teloneo et omnibus secularibus exactionibus et con- 
suetudinibus sicut aliqui viri religiosi in tota terra mea 
liberiores inveniuntur, videlicet quantum ad se et propria 
catalla sua. 

Volo itaque et praecipio ut praedicta domus praenomi- 
natas elemosinas donationes et libertates ita libere quiete 
et honorifice teneat et possideat sicut aliqua ecclesia in 
omni regno meo liberius et quietius tenet et possidet. 

Testibus Henrico comite filio meo, Ada comitissa sua, 
Waltero cancellario, Duncano comite, Hugone de Morvilla, 



CCXLIL CCXLIII. 195 

Waltero de Lindesei, Roberto Avenell, Waltero Ridel, 
Herberto camerario, Nicholao clerico, Aluino filio Arkill, 
Ewen marischallo, Gillecolme Mackthumpethin, Macbeth 
Macktorphin, Meuin filio Colbani. 

X Ego Robertus S. Andreae episcopus confirmo. 

X Ego Gregorius Dunkeldensis episcopus confirmo. 

X Ego Andreas Katenensis episcopus confirmo. 






CCXLIII. 



Confirmation to the Abbey of Dryburgh by 
King David of the grants by Beatrix de 
Bello Campo and granting right to take 
wood, etc., in the King's forests and freedom 
from toll and secular service, A.D. 1150-1153. 

Registr. de Dryburgh, No. 147. 

DAVID Rex Scotiae, Episcopis abbatibus comitibus 
baronibus justitiariis vicecomitibus praepositis ministris 
et omnibus probis hominibus totius terrae suae clericis 
et laicis Francis et Anglicis praesentibus et futuris 
salutem. 

Sciant me concessisse et hac mea carta confirmasse 
Deo et ecclesiae Sanctae Mariae de Driburgh et canoni- 
cis ibidem Deo servientibus illam terram et omnia ad 
earn pertinentia quam Beatrix de Bello Campo de 
Rogero janitore emit et eis in liberam et perpetuam 
elemosinam dedit ita libere et quiete perpetuo tenendam 
sicut aliqua elemosina liberius et quietius tenetur et 
possidetur et illud etiam toftum extra portam occiden- 
talem de Rogesburgh quod Johannis capellani fuit, ita 
liberum et quietum eis concede sicut carta Henrici 
comitis filii mei eis donat et confirmat. 

Concede etiam et confirmo eis illam terram quae est 
inter murum ejusdem portae quam Ada capellanus meus 



1 96 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

eis concessu meo in liberam et perpetuam elemosinam 
dedit cum eadem libertate quam eidem Adae concesseram 
scilicet ut nullus super plenarium forisfactum meum de 
ilia terra censum aut aliquam omnino consuetudinem 
quae burgo advenerit praesumat exigere. 

Praeterea praefatis fratribus concede et hac praesente 
carta confirmo ut liceat eis in nemoribus meis accipere 
ea quae necessaria habuerint in usibus suis et aedificiis 
ita ut nullus eos injuste disturbet et ut sint liberi et 
quieti in omni regno meo de teloneo et omnibus 
secularibus exactionibus et consuetudinibus sicut aliqui 
viri religiosi in tota terra mea liberiores inveniuntur 
scilicet quantum ad se et propria catalla sua. 

Volo itaque et praecipio ut praedicta domus praenomina- 
tas elemosinas donationes et libertates ita libere et quiete 
et honorifice perpetuo teneat et possideat sicut aliqua 
ecclesia in omni regno meo liberius et quietius tenet et 
possidet. 

Testibus . 



CCXLIV. 



Charter by Earl Henry to the Abbey of Holm- 
cultram, A.D. 1150-1152. 



Dugdale, Monasticon, v., p. 594. (Ex Miscell, G. in Col. 
Corp. Christi Cantebr., p. 271.) 



HENRICUS comes, films Davidis Regis Scotiae, Episcopis 
abbatibus comitibus justitiis baronibus vicecomitibus 
ministris et omnibus probis hominibus totius terrae suae 
clericis et laicis Francis et Anglicis tarn praesentibus 
quam futuris salutem. 

Sciatis me dedisse et concessisse in perpetuam ele- 
mosinam duas partes Holmcoltriae, abbati et monachis 
ibidem Deo servientibus quas ego et plures probi 
homines mecum perambulavimus in primis inter eos et 






CCXLIII. CCXLIV. 197 

Alanum filium Waldeff, quando ego tertiam partem 
praedictae Holmcoltriae praenominato Alano ad vena- 
tiones suas concessi. 

Praeterea vero concede et hac mea carta confirmo 
donationem ejusdem Alani filii Waldeff et Waldeff filii 
sui de ilia tertia sua parte Holmcoltriae quam illi ad 
venationes suas concesseram, quam ipse in praesentia 
patris mei et mea et baronum meorum, apud Carleo- 
lum, praedicti loci abbati et monachis in perpetuam 
elemosinam dedit et concessit et carta sua testante 
confirmavit 

Volo itaque ut abbas Holmcoltriae et monachi ibidem 
Deo servientes habeant plenarie Holmcoltriam per suas 
rectas divisas, in nemore et piano pratis et pascuis 
piscationibus et aquis, et Rabi cum suis rectis divisis 
sicut ego et barones mei mecum ipsas perambulavimus 
inter praedictos monachos et Anthetillum filium Udardi. 

Concedo etiam eis materiem in forestam de Engles- 
woda ad aedificia sua et ad omnia domi suae neces- 
saria facienda et pasturam porcis eorum sine pasnagio. 
Cum his autem praedictis infra terminos abbatiae 
Holmcoltriae et divisas suas tantam pacem et libertatem 
constituo, quantam abbatia de Maylros et abbatia de 
Neubotla concessione patris mei tranquillius et sanctius 
et quietius possident, et possessionibus suis infra per- 
fruuntur. 

His testibus Adulpho Carleoli episcopo, Waltero priore, 
Waltero de Bidun regis cancellario, Engerram comitis 
cancellario, Hugo de Morevilla, Willielmo de Sommer- 
villa, Willielmo de Heriz, Willielmo Engaine, Raun. de 
Soil., Raun. de Lundeseai, Waltero de Ridale, Cos- 
patrico filio Orm, Henrico filio Suani, Waltero fil. Alani, 
Hugone Ridill, Alano de Laceles. 



1 98 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

CCXLV. 

Confirmation by King David of the grant by his 
son, Earl Henry, to the Abbey of Holm- 
cultram, A.D. 1150-1153. 

5 Dugdale, Monasticon, p. 594, ex Registro Cartarum Abb. de 
Holmcoltram nuper penes Will. D. Howard de Naworth, Cestr. 
fol. lob. 

DAVID Rex Scotiae, Episcopis abbatibus comitibus 
baronibus vicecomitibus praepositis ministris et omnibus 
probis hominibus totius terrae suae et filii sui clericis 
et laicis tarn praesentibus quam futuris salutem. 

Sciatis me concessisse et hac mea carta confirmasse 
donationem filii mei de Holmcoltram quam ipse 
abbati et monachis ibidem Deo servientibus donavit et 
concessit in elemosinam. Confirmo etiam eis aliam ter- 
tiam partem de Holmcoltram quam Alanus films Waldef 
eisdem monachis pro salute animae suae dedit et con- 
cessit cum caeteris omnibus quae carta filii sui continet 
et testatur. 

His testibus Adeulfo episcopo Carleolensi, Waltero 
priore, etc. 



CCXLVI. 

Charter by Earl Henry to the church of Brink- 
burne, A.D. 1150-1152. 

Chart, de Brinkburne. 

HENRICUS Comes films regis Scotiae, Justitiariis suis et 
baronibus vicecomitibus et ministris et omnibus probis 
hominibus suis totius Northumbriae salutem. 

Sciatis me dedisse et concessisse Deo et ecclesiae Sancti 
Petri de Brinkburne et canonicis ibidem Deo servientibus 
pro anima mea et animabus antecessorum meorum salinam 



CCXLV. CCXLVII. 199 

unam de salinis meis de Werkeworth in perpetuam 
elemosinam. 

Volo itaque quatenus praedicti canonici de Brinkburne 
illam salinam habeant et teneant ita libere et quiete et 
honorifice sicut ipsi aliquam elemosinam liberius quietius 
in terra mea habent et nullus vestrum super plenarium 
forisfacturum meum eis injuriam vel contumeliam inde 
conferat nee fieri permittat 

Testibus Englr' cancellario comitis, Hugone Ridel et 
aliis. 

CCXLVII. 

Charter by Earl Henry to the church of Brinke- 
burne, A.D. 1150-1152. 

Chart, de Brinkburne. 

HENRICUS films regis Scotiae, Justitiariis vicecomitibus 
ministris et omnibus suis fidelibus totius Honoris sui tarn 
praesentibus quam futuris salutem. 

Notum sit omnibus nobis quod ego concede et confirmo 
in feudum et elemosinam locum qui Brinkeburne dicitur, 
cum silvis et terris et omnibus quae Willelmus Bertram 
concessit et dedit priori et fratribus ecclesiae Sanctae 
Mariae de Insula et quae juste derationare poterit et quae 
deinceps vel ab eo vel ab aliquo meorum hominum dari 
contigerit. 

Haec, inquam, omnia hac mea carta rata corroboro 
usibus et sustentationi Christi pauperum ibidem commor- 
antium cum omnimoda libertate sine omni inquietudine 
modis omnibus in perpetuum pro futura. 

Sciatisque me suscepisse et retinuisse eosdem fratres et 
sua omnia in mea custodia et tuitione et manutenentia 
sicut meos proprios dominicos canonicos. 

Quam volo et firmiter praecipio quod ipsi et omnia sua 
ubique per potestatem meam habeant meam pacem et 
manutenentiam et prohibeo super forisfactum meum quod 



200 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

ullus eis vel suis dampnum inferat vel injuriam vel 
contumeliam vel ullam inquietudinem faciat vel facere 
permittat. 

Et siquis de dampno eorum vel injuria comprobatus 
fuerit nisi ipsum iidem condempnaverint sicut mihimet 
ipsi illatum fuerit per ministros meos dampnum plenisse 
emendetur. 

Siquis etiam aliquid boni eis pro Dei amore et pro 
salute animae suae impendent, de Deo remunerationes 
accipiat de me autem gratias. 

^ Praesentibus testibus Eustachio filio Johannis, Randulfo 
de Merlay et aliis. Apud Corbrig' VI Idus Novembris. 



CCXLVIII. 

Charter by King David confirming to Baldwin a 
toft in the burgh of Perth, A.D. 1150-1153. 

Registr. Prior. S. Andreae. 

DAVID Rex Scottorum, Justitiis vicecomitibus praepositis 
et omnibus burgensibus de Pert salutem. 

Sciatisme dedisse et concessisse huic Balduino clienti 
meo suum toft quod tenet et habet in Pert libere et 
quiete ab omni servitio burgi excepta vigilia infra burgum 
et claustura burgi secundum suam possessionem. Reddendo 
mihi inde per annum i turet et ii coleres et pro hoc 
quietus sit ab omni alio servitio et defendo ne ipse de 
aliquo placito sui alicui [respondeat] nisi in praesentia 
mea aut justitiae meae. 

Praeterea concedo ei ut cum Baldewinus voluerit a 
villa recedere quatenus possit domum suum et suum toft 
in burgagium vendere. 

Testibus Andrea episcopo de Cathen. et Waltero filio 
Alani et Waltero de Lindeseai, Waltero de Ridale, 
Nicholao clerico. Apud Sconam. 



CCXLVIL CCL. 201 

CCXLIX. 

Charter by King David granting to the church 
of St. Andrews a toft in Clacmanan. 

Registr. Prior. S. Andreae. 

DAVID Rex Scotiae, Omnibus probis hominibus totius 
terrae suae salutem. 

Sciatis me dedisse et concessisse ecclesiae Sancti 
Andreae et canonicis ibidem Deo famulantibus quandam 
plenariam toftam in Clacmanan ad oportunitatem domus 
suae et ad usus suos et negotia sua liberam et quietam 
ab omni servitio et consuetudine seculari. 

Teste Waltero cancellario, Herberto camerario. Apud 
Clacmanan. 

CCL. 

Charter by King David granting to the church 
of St. Andrews, forty Shillings annually from 
the can of ships at Perth. 

Registr. Prior. S. Andreae. 

DAVID Rex Scotiae, Episcopis abbatibus comitibus 
justitiis baronibus vicecomitibus praepositis et omnibus 
fidelibus clericis et laicis tarn futuris quam praesentibus 
totius regni sui salutem. 

Sciatis me dedisse et concessisse Deo et ecclesiae 
Sancti Andreae et canonicis ibidem Deo servientibus et 
servituris in perpetuam elemosinam XL solidos singulis 
annis de cano navium de Pert ad vestimenta canonicorum 
praefatae ecclesiae. 

Testibus Roberto epo. Sancti Andreae, Thor. archi- 
diacono, Dunecano comite, Roberto camerario, Cospatrico 
filio Waldef, Eadward cunestabulario, Waltero de Ridalis. 
Apud Clinros. 



202 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

CCLI. 

Charter by Gaufridus de Percy granting a ploughgate 
of land in Heton to the Abbey of Kelso, 

A.D. II52-II53. 
Liber de Calchou, No. 358. 

GALFRIDUS DE PERCI, Omnibus sanctae matris ecclesiae 
filiis et fidelibus salutem. 

Sciatis me dedisse et in perpetuam elemosinamconcessisse 
Deo et ecclesiae Sanctae Mariae de Kelcheho et conventui 
monachorum ibidem Deo servientium pro salute animae 
meae et Davidis regis et Henrici filii ejus et antecessorum 
et successorum meorum unam carrucatam terrae in 
Hetona de quinquies viginta acris et quatuor proxi- 
mam terrae hospitalis de Rokesburg, liberam et quietam 
ab omni servitio intrinseco et forinseco cum omnibus 
aisiamentis ejusdem villae in terris et pasturis et aquis 
ad tantam terram in eadem villae pertinentibus. 

Concedo autem et confirmo quod ecclesia de Kelcheho 
praenominata terram praedictam teneat et habeat et in 
perpetuam elemosinam possideat ita libere et quiete et 
honorifice sicut ipsa ecclesia de Kelcheho aliquam elemo- 
sinam liberius et quietius et honorificentius habet et possidet. 
Annuente et confirmante Henrico fratre et herede meo. 

Testibus praesentibus et audientibus Herberto Glas- 
guensi episcopo, Willelmo episcopo de Muref, Osberto 
abbate de Jedd., Willelmo abbate de Edenb., Acelino 
archidiacono et aliis. 

CCLIL 

Charter by Gaufridus de Percy granting to the 
church of Whitby a ploughgate of land in 
Oxnam, A.D. 1152-1153. 

Chart. Whitby, No. 57. 

OMNIBUS filiis sanctae matris ecclesiae omnibusque 
hominibus tarn praesentibus quam futuris, Gaufridus de 



CCLL CCLIII. 203 

Perci, salutem in Christo, sciatis me dedisse et concessisse 
Deo et Sancto Petro et Sanctae Hyldae de Wyteby 
fratribusque nostris et monachis ibidem Deo servientibus 
unam carrucatam terrae in Oxanaham pro salute animae 
Regis Davidis qui mihi praedictam terram dedit et pro 
anima Comitis Henrici et filiorum et filiarum suarum 
et etiam pro salute animae patris mei et matris meae et 
meae animae et fratrum meorum et parentum in liberam 
et quietam elemosinam tarn quietam et liberam sicut 
aliqua ecclesia quietius aut liberius aliquam tenet aut 
possidet elemosinam. 

His testibus Gaufrido clerico fratre meo, Roberto Tyrel, 
Alano filio Raulfi, Godefrido de Bellung et alliis. 



CCLIII. 

Charter by Alan de Percy of land in Oxnam and 

Heton to the church of Whitby, 

A.D. 1152-1153. 

Chart. Whitby, No. 59. 

SciANT omnes videntes et audientes litteras istas, quod 
ego Alanus de Perci pro salute animae meae et pro 
domino meo Rege David et ejus filio Henrico comite 
et heredibus eorum et pro anima Alani de Perci patris 
mei et pro anima matris meae et pro animabus heredum 
meorum et omnium parentum meorum, dedi Deo et 
ecclesiae Sancti Petri et Sanctae Hyldae de Wyteby 
et monachis ibidem Deo servientibus duas carrucatas 
terrae unam in Oxeneham et alteram in Hetune cum 
communi aisiamento utriusque villae in elemosinam 
perpetue libere et quiete de omni servitio et consuetudine 
seculari. 

His testibus Willelmo de Perci et Henrico de Perci 
fratribus meis, Pichot de Perci et aliis. 



3y 

: 



204 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

CCLIV. 

Confirmation by King David of the grants by 
Alan and Gaufrid de Percy to the church of 
Whitby, A.D. 1152-1153. 

Chart. Whitby, No. 62. 

DAVID Rex Scotiae, Episcopis abbatibus comitibus justitiis 
baronibus vicecomitibus praepositis ministris et omnibus 
hominibus totius terrae suae clericis et laicis tarn futuris 
quam praesentibus salutem. 

Sciatis me concessisse et hac mea carta confirmasse Deo 
et ecclesiae de Wyteby et fratribus monachis ibidem 
Deo servientibus elemosinam quam Alanus de Perci et 
Gaufridus frater suus dederunt Deo et ecclesiae Sanctae 
Hyldae de Wyteby scilicet unam carrucatam terrae in 
Hetune et aliam in Oxenam ad tenendam illam terram 
de me et de heredibus meis in perpetuam elemosinam 
libere et quiete ab omni servitio secular! et exactione. 

Testibus Willelmo abbate de Castello Puellarum et 
Willelmo capellano et Ha. capellano de Rochesbur. et 
Duncano comite. [Apud] Castellum Puellarum. 

CCLV. 

Charter by King David to the monks of 
Urquhart, A.D. 1150-1153. 

Registr. de Dunfermelyn, No. 33, and Reg. Episcop. Morav., No. 254. 

DAVID Rex Scottorum, Episcopis abbatibus baronibus 
justitiariis vicecomitibus et omnibus hominibus totius 
terrae suae Francis Anglicis et Scottis salutem. 

Sciant tarn posted quam praesentes me ad domus Dei 
dilatationem et ad sanctae religionis propagationem 
dedisse et concessisse Deo et ecclesiae Sanctae Trini- 
tatis de Urchard et hac mea carta priori et fratribus 
ibidem servientibus confirmasse Urchard per suas rectas 



CCLIV. CCLVI. 205 

divisas et duas Finfans per suas rectas divisas et 
Fochoper per suas rectas divisas et communionem 
pascuum animalibus et unam piscariam in Spe et in 
firma burgi de Elgin xx solidos et de dominicis hominibus 
eorum qui sunt in Fochoper rectitudinem piscis quae ad 
thaynum pertinet et decimam cani de Ergaithel de 
Muref et placitorum et totius lucri ejusdem Ergaithel. 

Praeterea concede et hac mea carta confirmo dona- 
tionem abbatis et totius conventus de Dunfermelyn scili- 
cet Pethenach juxta Eren per suas rectas divisas et 
scalingas de Fathenechten et omnes rectitudines quas 
monachi de Dunfermlyn in Muref habere solebant quas 
tali conditione ecclesiae de Urchard et fratribus ibidem 
Deo servientibus liberas et quietas ab omni exactione 
mea concessione et confirmatione concedunt ut obeunte 
persona alia de electione fratrum et de consilio abbatis 
de Dunfermlyn et assensu Regis si idoneus ibi inven- 
iatur subrogetur sin autem de ecclesia de Dunfermelyne 
accipiatur. Haec personarum subrogatio inviolabiliter in 
perpetuum inter eos sicut praedictum est conservetur. 

Volo etiam et praecipio quod ecclesia praedicta et prior 
et fratres ejusdem loci habeant et teneant res praedictas 
ita libere et quiete sicut aliqua ecclesia in terra mea 
habet et tenet quietius et liberius. 

T. Andrea episcopo et multis aliis. 

CCLVI. 

Confirmation by Robert, Bishop of St. Andrews, of 
the lands and privileges of the Abbey of Dun- 
fermline, A.D. 1150-1153. 

Registr. de Dunfermelyne, No. 92. 

UNIVERSIS sanctae matris ecclesiae Robertus Dei gratia 
minister humilis ecclesiae Sancti Andreae salutem et 
episcopalem benedictionem. 

Quum ad officium nostrum spectare novimus in 



206 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

ecclesia Dei aedificare et quae aedificata sunt in melius 
emendare, dignum duximus ut ea quae in ecclesia 
Dunfermelensis confirmanda exstiterant carta nostra quan- 
tum ad nos pertinet confirmarentur. Dominica gratia 
moniti et freti auctoritate tarn absentibus quam prae- 
sentibus innotescimus nos concessisse et carta nostra 
confirmasse ut praefata ecclesia omnia ilia quae sibi in 
elemosina data sunt ita libere et quiete ab omni servitio 
et exactione seculari possideat sicuti aliqua ecclesia 
melius et liberius possessiones suas tenere debet et 
maxime ea quae ad episcopalia jura pertinent videlicet 
ecclesiam de Perth et illam de Struelin et scolas et cetera 
omnia ad eas pertinentia et ecclesiam de Nithbrin et 
ecclesiam de Kinglassin et ecclesiam de Kircalethin et 
capellam de Innerkethyn et ecclesiam de Inviresc 
et capellam de Cousland et decimas de Keeth et 
ecclesiam de Wymet et ecclesiam de Hala cum omnibus 
appendiciis salvo jure episcopali et consuetudine. Huic 
cartae siquis instimulatione diabolica agitatus obviaverit 
et ex his aliquod perverse diminuerit nisi ad congruam 
satisfactionem inde venerit ab eo Dominus misericordiam 
suam auferat et ipsum de libro viventium deleat. 

Testibus abbate W. de Sancta Cruce, et R. priore de 
S. Andrea, et T. arch, de Laudonia, et M. arch, de S. 
Andrea, et A. decano, et W. capellano, et Magistro 
Thoma, et Magistro H. 

CCLVII. 

Mandate by Earl Henry to Gilbert de Umfranville 

to protect the monks of Durham, 

circa A.D. 1 152. 

The original is in the Treasury at Durham. 
HENRICUS Comes films Regis Scotiae, Gilleberto de 
Unfranville conestabulo suo et ceteris baronibus et 
hominibus suis omnibus salutem. 



CCLVI. CCLIX. 207 

Sciatis quod terra monachorum Dunelm. et possessiones 
suae in propria manu mea sunt et in propria mea 
protectione et in mea pace. Propterea mando vobis 
omnibus et praecipio quatenus terrae suae et possessioni- 
bus suis omnibus pacem teneatis et teneri faciatis ab 
omnibus vestris constanter et ubique sicut me diligitis. 

Testibus priore de Jeddewrde et Ricardo priore de 
Hestoudesham. Apud Jeddewrde. 

CCLVIII. 

Charter by Bernard de Baliol granting a fishing in 
the Tweed to the Abbey of Kelso, 

A.D. 1153. 
Liber de Calchou, No. 52. 

BERNARDUS DE BAILLIOL, Omnibus fidelibus sanctae 
ecclesiae filiis quam futuris quam praesentibus salutem. 

Notum sit vobis me dedisse et concessisse Deo et 
ecclesiae Sanctae Mariae et Abbati de Kelchou et fratribus 
ibidem Deo servientibus aquam piscatoriam in Twede 
quae pertinebat ad Wudehorn, pro anima Henrici comitis 
et filii mei et antecessorum et successorum meorum in 
perpetuam elemosinam et ad piscandum cum retibus 
eorum absque omni disturbatione. Annuentibus et confir- 
mantibus dominis meis videlicet David Rege Scottorum 
et Malcolmo et Willelmo nepotibus ejus et hoc idem 
testantibus Wydone filio meo et Bernardo et aliis. 

CCLIX 

Confirmation by King David of Bernard de Baliol's 
gift of a fishing in the Tweed to the Abbey 
of Kelso, A.D. 1 153. 

Liber de Calchou, Nos. 25 and 33. 

DAVID Rex Scottorum, Omnibus probis hominibus totius 
regni sui salutem. 



208 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

Sciant omnes tarn posteri quam praesentes me con- 
firmasse et hac praesenti carta coroborasse donum illud 
quod Bernardus Baliol dedit ecclesiae de Kelchou et Abbati 
et monachis inibi Deo famulantibus videlicet quandam pis- 
cariam quam habuit in Tweda. Quare volo et praecipio 
ac praesenti scriptura confirmo quam firmum et ratum 
donum praedictum in perpetuum habeatur sicut litterae 
et carta ipsius Bernardi testantur. 

Testibus . . . 

CCLX. 

Charter by Countess Ada granting a toft in 
Haddington to the Abbey of Dunfermlin. 

Registr. de Dunfermelyn, No. 152. 

ADA Norhumbriae Comitissa, Praeposito suo et burgensibus 
suis et omnibus probis hominibus suis de Hadigtunes 
scyra Francis et Anglis, clericis et laicis, salutem. 

Notum sit vobis me concessisse Domino Deo et Sanctae 
Mariae et ecclesiae de Dunfermelyn unum plenarium toftum 
in burgo meo de Hadingtona libere et quiete et in perpetua 
elemosina pro salute animae Comitis Henrici domini 
mei et pro salute animae meae et omnium praedecessorum 
meorum et omnium fidelium Dei defunctorum. 

Testibus hiis Magistro R., Alexandro de Sancto Martino, 
Hugone Giffard. Apud Perth. 

CCLXL 

Charter by Robert, Bishop of St. Andrews, con- 
firming the right of the Abbey of Dunfermlin 
to the church of St. Leonard at Perth, 
A.D. 1150-1153. 

Registr. de Dunfermelyn, No. 90. 

ROBERTUS Dei gratia ecclesiae Sencti Andreae episcopus, 
Omnibus sanctae matris ecclesiae filiis salutem et epis- 
copalem benedictionem. 



CCLIX. CCLXII. 209 

Notum sit omnibus tarn praesentibus quam futuris nos 
d'edisse et praesenti munimine confirmasse ecclesiam 
Sancti Leonardi de Perth, ecclesiae Sanctae Trinitatis de 
Dunfermelyn in perpetuam elemosinam ut membrum 
ecclesiae Sancti Johannis Baptistae ejusdem villae. 

Testibus Andrea episcopo de Katenes, Matheo archi- 
diacono Sancti Andreae, Magistro Herberto, Johanne 
nepote episcopi et Radulfo de Boilestune, Adam 
capellano episcopi et Ricardo. 



CCLXII. 

Charter by Andrew, Bishop of Caithness, granting 
to the Abbey of Dunfermline the church of 
the Holy Trinity at Dunkeld, A.D. 1150-1153. 

Registr. de Dunfermelyn, No. 123. 

OMNIBUS Sanctae Matris ecclesiae filiis, Andreas Dei 
gratia Katenensis episcopus salutem et episcopalem 
benedictionem. 

Noscant tarn posted quam praesentes me dedisse et 
praesentis scripti munimine confirmasse Deo et ecclesiae 
Sanctae Trinitatis de Dunfermelyn in perpetuam elemo- 
sinam pro salute animae Illustris David Regis Scotiae 
et praedecessorum suorum et successorum et pro salute 
animae meae ecclesiam Sanctae Trinitatis de Dunkelden 
cum omnibus his quae ad earn juste pertinent scilicet 
Fordouin, Dunmernach, Bendactehin, Cupermaccultin, 
Inchethurfin, Chethec. 

Si quis autem ausu temerario contra hoc venire prae- 
sumpserit sciat se contra ipsum mundi Salvatorem niti 
et ideo nisi resipuerit, aeternae dampnationis sententiam 
incurrere. 



2io EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

CCLXIII. 

Grant of the Priory of Lochleven by Robert the 

Bishop to the Priory of St. Andrews, 

A.D. 1152-1153. 

Registr. Prior. S. Andreae. 

OMNIBUS Sanctae Matris ecclesiae filiis Robertas Dei 
gratia minister humilis ecclesiae Sancti Andreae salutem 
et episcopalem benedictionem. 

Sciant omnes tarn praesentes quam absentes nos dedisse 
et concessisse ecclesiae Sancti Andreae et Roberto priori, 
abbatiam de insula Lochlevene cum omnibus ad earn 
pertinentibus ad canonicos regulares constituendum in ea. 
Hoc est cum Findahin et omnibus suis appendiciis, et 
cum Portemuoch et suis appendiciis et cum molendinis 
ad pontem et cum uno molendino in terra Findachin et 
Chircness cum suis appendiciis omnibus. Et cum dimidia 
villa de Urechehem cum suis appendiciis et villa ecclesi- 
astica de Sconin et suis appendiciis et cum xx tj melis casei 
et uno porco de Marchinche et cum XX melis casei et 
nil melis de breis et uno porco de Ecmor et cum XX 
melis ordei de Balecristin et cum XX melis casei et 
uno porco de Bolgin ft Hi Thorfini et cum decimis de 
domo nostra de insula et cum decimis totius redditus 
quern recepturi sumus ad eandem domum et cum vesti- 
mentis ecclesiasticis quae ipsi Chelede habuerunt. 

Et cum his libris, id est cum pastorali, graduali, missali, 
origine, sententiis abbatis Clareuallensis, tribus quaternioni- 
bus de sacramentis, cum parte bibliotecae, cum lectionario, 
cum Actibus Apostolorum, textu evangeliorum Prospero, 
tribus libris Salomonis, glosis de canticis canticorum, 
interpretationibus dictionum, collectione sententiarum, 
expositione super Genesim, exceptionibus ecclesiasti- 
carum regularum. 

His testibus Gregorio episcopo de Duneheldin et 






CCLXIIL CCLXV. 211 

Guillelmo abbate de Sancta Cruce et Thoraldo archi- 
diacono et Matheo archidiacono, Aiulfo decano, Magistro 
Thoma, Magistro Herberto, Ricardo capellano episcopi. 

CCLXIV. 

Charter by Robert, Bishop of St. Andrews, 
granting to the Canons the right of electing a 
Prior. 

Registr. Prior. S. Andreae. 

ROBERTUS Dei gratia Sancti Andreae episcopus, Omnibus 
Sanctae Matris ecclesiae filiis salutem et episcopalem 
benedictionem. 

Noscant tam posted quam praesentes me concessisse 
et praesentis scripti munimine confirmasse Dompno 
Roberto primo Priori ecclesiae Sancti Andreae ejus 
successoribus prioratum canonicorum in ecclesia Beati 
Andreae Deo servientium eorum benedictionem et debitae 
obedientiae professionem. 

Nihilominus etiam ejusdem loci fratribus liberam 
prioris electionem concedimus et cuicumque totum con- 
senserit capitulum vel ejus pars sanior ipse in eorum 
regimen sullimetur, eique debitae professionis obedientiam 
servent subjecti. 

His assistentibus testibus Willelmo epo. Morauie, 
Osberto abbate de Jedeuurth, Math, archid., Thoraldo 
archid., Roberto priore de Rostinoth, Aiulfo decano, 
Magistro Andrea, Johanne cancellario episcopi, Magistro 
Thoma, Magistro Hereberto. 

CCLXV. 

Charter by Robert the Bishop to the Priory of 
St. Andrews of a toft in Chilrimund. 

Registr. Prior. S. Andreae. 

ROBERTUS Dei gratia Sancti Andreae episcopus, Omnibus 
Sanctae Matris ecclesiae filiis salutem. 



212 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

Sciant universi me dedisse et praesenti munimine 
confirmasse illam toftam super quam statuta est domus 
Archidiaconi Mathei in Chilrimund cum tribus toftis 
juxta aquam Kines tenure de Kininemoneth canonicis 
ecclesiae Sancti Andreae servientibus in perpetuam 
elemosinam. 

Testibus his Matheo archidiacono, Magistro Hereberto, 
Johanne nepote episcopi, Adam capellano episcopi et 
Ricardo, Waltero dapifero. 



CCLXVI. 

Confirmation by King David of the grant to the 
Priory by Robert, Bishop of St. Andrews, of 
Kinninmount and a toft in Kilrimont. 

Registr. Prior. S. Andreae. 

DAVID Rex Scottorum, Episcopis abbatibus comitibus 
justitiis baronibus vicecomitibus et omnibus fidelibus suis 
tolius regni sui Francis et Anglicis et Scottis tarn futuris 
quam praesentibus salutem. 

Sciatis me concessisse et hac mea carta confirmasse 
Roberto priori et canonicis regularibus Sancti Andreae 
donationem quam episcopus Robertus eis fecit de 
Kinninmuneht cum omnibus appendiciis suis, et cum 
tofto de Kilrimuneht sicut carta praedicti episcopi 
testatur. 

Quare volo ut praedicti canonici terram illam cum 
omnibus ad illam pertinentibus libere et quiete teneant 
et possideant sicut aliqua alia elemosina liberius et 
quietius tenetur et possidetur in regno meo. 

Testibus Andrea episcopo de Cathen., Greg. epo. 
Dunkeld, Willo. abbate de Streuel., Hugone de Moreuilla, 
Dunecano comite, Herberto camerario, Radulfo de Sules, 
Nicholao clerico. Apud Struelin. 



CCLX V. CCLX VI II. 213 

CCLXVII. 

Charter by King David to the brethren of the 
Hospital of St. Andrews. 

Registr. Prior. S. Andreae. 

DAVID Rex Scottorum, Omnibus probis hominibus totius 
terrae suae salutem. 

Sciatis me meam firmam pacem dedisse fratribus 
Hospitalis de Sancto Andreae ubicunque in tota terra 
mea venerint. 

Quare defendo ne ullus eis aut rebus eorum injuste 
forisfaciat et si quis eis aliquod debitum debet praecipio 
ut cito juste reddatur eis et qui eis aliquod bonum pro 
amore Dei et salute animae suae impendent ad sustenta- 
mentum pauperum peregrinorum a Deo recipiet remu- 
nerationes et a me maximas grates. 

Testibus Herberto camerario et Symone filio Michaelis 
et Hugone de Camera. Apud Clacmanech. 

CCLXVIII. 

Charter by Robert, Bishop of St. Andrews, 
granting three tofts to the Priory. 

Registr. Prior. S. Andreae. 

ROBERTUS Dei gratia Sancti Andreae episcopus, Omnibus 
Sanctae Matris ecclesiae filiis salutem et episcopalem 
benedictionem. 

Sciant universi me dedisse et praesenti munimine 
confirmasse ecclesiae Sancti Andreae et canonicis ibidem 
Deo servientibus in perpetuam elemosinam tres toftas in 
burgo Sancti Andreae videlicet toftam Elfgar et toftam 
Arnaldi et toftam Willelmi coci ita liberas et quietas 
sicuti fratres de templo Domini in Jerusalem liberius et 



214 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

quietius in aliquo burgo tenent vel aliqui alii in regno 
regis Scottorum. 

Testibus Matheo archidiacono, Magistro Hereberto, 
Magistro Thoma, Johanne nepote episcopi, Adam capel- 
lano et Ricardo, Rogero camerario, Gamello de Findathin. 



CCLXIX. 

Charter by Robert, Bishop of St. Andrews, grant- 
ing to the Priory six shares of the offerings 
of the altar. 

Registr. Prior. S. Andreae. 

ROBERTUS Dei gratia Sancti Andreae episcopus, Omnibus 
Sanctae Matris ecclesiae filiis salutem. 

Sciant omnes tarn posteri quam praesentes nos con- 
cessisse et episcopali auctoritate confirmasse priori Sancti 
Andreae et fratribus ibidem Deo servientibus omnes partes 
oblationum altaris excepta septima quae de jure competit 
episcopo liberas et quietas et ab omni exactione immunes. 

His testibus Willelmo episcopo Murauie, Osberto 
abbate de Geddeuuhte, Aiulfo decano, Magistro Andrea, 
Magistro Herberto, Johanne nepote episcopi, Magistro 
Thoma, Adam capellano. 

CCLXX. 

Charter by Walter de Lyndesey granting Erchel- 
dune to the Abbey of Kelso. 

Original in the Treasury at Durham. 

IJNIVERSIS fidelibus sanctae ecclesiae, Gauterius de 
Lyndesey salutem. 

Noverint tarn futuri quam praesentes me dedisse et 
concessisse et hac mea carta confirmasse ecclesiae Sanctae 
Mariae de Kelcho et monachis ibidem Deo servientibus 



CCLXVIII. CCLXXI. 2 1 5 

ecclesiam de Ercheldune cum una carrucata terrae et 
caeteris omnibus ad illam ecclesiam pertinentibus in 
perpetuam elemosinam pro anima scilicet Regis David et 
pro anima Henrici Comitis filii ejus et pro anima Gauterii 
avunculi mei et pro anima mea et uxoris meae et pro 
animabus omnium praedecessorum et successorum meorum, 
Et Hospitale in eadem villa quietum erit ab omni redditu 
decimarum. 

Concedente et testificante Willelmo filio meo. 

Testibus Hugone clerico, Willelmo capellano, Johanne 
capellano de Sprostune, Ricardo sacerdote de Bothelden, 
Roberto scriptore. 



CCLXXI. 

Charter by Earl Malcolm, son of Earl Henry, to 
Brinkeburne, A.D. 1153. 

Chart, de Brinkburne. 

MALCOLM' de Gwarenne comes Northumbriae, Justitiariis 
suis et baronibus vicecomitibus et ministris et omnibus 
probis hominibus tarn laicis quam clericis totius North- 
umberland salutem. 

Sciatis me dedisse et concessisse Deo et Sanctae Mariae 
et ecclesiae Sancti Petri de Brinkeburne et canonicis 
ibidem Deo servientibus et servituris pro anima Henrici 
comitis dilectissimi patris mei necnon etiam et pro anima 
mea et animabus antecessorum meorum eandem salinam 
quam pater meus Henricus comes apud Werkewurthe 
in tempore vitae suae eis in perpetuam elemosinam dedit et 
concessit. Concede etiam et confirmo praedictis fratribus 
totam donationem Rogeri Bertram scilicet locum qui 
dicitur Brinkeburne cum omnibus pertinentiis suis. 

Volo etiam quatenus praedicti canonici de Brinkeburne 
praedictam salinam et omnia sua habeant et teneant 



216 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

ita libere et quiete sicut ipsi aliquam elemosinam liberius et 
quietius in terra mea habent et nullus vestrum super 
plenarium forisfactum meum eis injuriam vel contumeliam 
inde conferat nee fieri permittat. 

His testibus Gilberto de Umfravilla, Willelmo de 
Vescy, Rogero de Merlay et aliis. 




NOTES 



NOTES 



IN 1860 there was discovered in the Public Library of Cambridge, 
among Bishop Moore's books, a small MS. volume containing the 
Gospel according to St. John and portions of the other Gospels, in 
Latin, written in the ninth century. On margins and on blank pages 
are several writings in Irish and one in Latin, which were written not 
before A.D. 1150. A translation of the Irish was first printed by Mr. 
Cosmo Innes in a postscript to " Scotland in the Middle Ages," 1860 ; 
afterwards in the Saturday Review, 8th December, 1860; by Dr. 
Robertson in vol. 4, p. 545, " Illustr. Aber. and Banff." The whole 
MS. was published by the Spalding Club in 1869. Facsimiles of some 
of the pages were given in that edition and in the National MSS. of 
Scotland. 

The "Book of Deer" was received with enthusiasm by Bradshaw, 
Stokes, Cosmo Innes, and by many others. 

Dr. Reeves (Culdees, p. 26) spoke of it as a " precious book," and 
as " the oldest book of Scotland as well as the sole relique of its early 
literature." 

Mr. Skene (2 Celt. Scot., p. 280) said " it is an invaluable record," 
and treated it as containing authentic history (3 Celt. Scot., p. 55). 
Mr. Robertson, Early Kings, 2, p. 499, has a long note on it. 

Dr. Stuart who edited it for the Spalding Club said of the marginal 
writings : 

"They enable us to discover the condition of the Celtic popula- 
tion of Alba, separated into clans, under the rule of the mormaer, 
with their chiefs or toisechs and their bishops or judges. 

" We discover the division of the country into town-lands, with fixed 
boundaries, and can trace the different and co-existing rights in them, 
of the ardrigh, the mormaer, and the toisech. 



220 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

" We are likewise furnished with notices of various kinds of burdens 
to which they were subject the amount of some of these was 
determined by the number of davochs comprised in the territory, 
affording the earliest instance in our records of a system which, at a 
later period, formed the basis for apportioning the national taxes. 

" The period embraced in these entries is towards the conclusion of 
the Celtic period, while the patriarchal polity had not yet given way to 
the feudal kingdom ; the monastic system at least in the northern 
districts was yet flourishing, and the parish and territorial diocese 
were unknown. . . ." (Stuart's Preface, Book of Deer, p. vi.). 

I venture to say that the value of these notitiae has been exaggerated. 
The account of the foundation of Aberdour and Deer is a picturesque 
tradition written nearly 600 years later than the time of St. Columba. 
The rest is little more than a list of donations of lands to an 
unnamed church of St. Drostan. There is little to fix the date of 
any of them. The record is meagre. It is not safe to draw from it 
conclusions as to the state of the people and of the church in 
Scotland prior to the twelfth century. 

It has been assumed that this copy of the Gospels belonged to a 
Columban house at Deer. I doubt if there was a monastery at Deer 
prior to 1219. Nothing had been heard of it before the MS. was 
discovered, there is no trace of it in any record, and no local tradition 
of it at Deer itself; the only notice in the MS. which connects these 
donations with Deer is a fragment of a charter in Latin, of a late date, 
which is perhaps spurious. 

It is almost impossible that a monastery continued to exist at Deer 
from the time of St. Columba till the reign of David I. A little more than 
a century after the death of St. Columba his clergy were expelled from 
the kingdom of the Northern Picts and though in many places they 
were replaced by other monks, the troubles of the eighth and ninth 
centuries destroyed most of the Northern monasteries, and in those 
ages Christianity was almost extinguished in Scotland and in the 
north of England. 

These notitiae may have been written by an Irishman, one of 
the secular clergy serving at Aberdour or Deer, in the twelfth 
century, who may have collected the traditions of grants of lands to 
Drostan's churches, writing in Irish and using titles Mormaer and 
Toisech known in Ireland. 

p. i. Notitiae. By notitiae I mean writings made after an event 
or grant, recording how lands had been acquired. (Du Cange ; Innes, 
Sketches of Early Scottish History, p. 30 ; Introduction to the Scottish 
National MSS.) 

E. W. Robertson, Early Kings (i., p. 249, and II., p. 499): "Such 



NOTES I. 221 

were the Irish charters in the Book of Kells, . . . the Welsh in 
the Book of Llandaff, and the Memoranda in the Register of the 
Priory of St. Andrews." 

p. i. Gaelic. Much interest was excited by the language in which 
the notitiae are written. It is Irish. Mr. Cosmo Innes (National 
MSS. of Scotland) said : "We cannot assert that it is identical with 
the Scotch Gaelic, for we have no other Scotch Gaelic writing within 
many centuries of its date." 

Mr. Whitley Stokes (Saturday Review, 8th Dec., 1860): "There is 
hardly any distinction between the Gaelic of this MS. and the Irish of 
the same period. The important difference between modern Irish and 
Erse must accordingly have arisen since the twelfth century." 

Mr. Skene assumed that the notitiae were written in the early part 
of the reign of David I., and said: "They thus furnish us with a 
specimen of the written language of the period, it is unquestionably 
identic with the written Irish of the period." 

p. i. Columcille. St. Columba was born circa A.D. 521. In 563 
he crossed from Ireland with twelve pupils to the island of lona 
and settled there ; afterwards he went to the mainland and 
converted to Christianity, Brude the King of the Northern Picts. 

Bede, Hist. Eccl. Gen. Angl. (Lib. in. cap. IV., i Plummer, 133) : 

"Siquidem anno incarnationis dominicae DLXV quo tempore 
gubernaculum Romani imperii post lustinianum lustinus minor 
accepit, venit de Hibernia presbyter et abbas habitu et vita monachi 
insignis, nomine Columba Brittaniam, praedicaturus verbum Dei 
provinciis septentrionalium Pictorum, hoc est eis quae arduis atque 
horrentibus montium jugis ab australibus eorum sunt regionibus 
sequestratae. . . . 

" Venit autem Brittaniam Columba, regnante Pictis Bridio filio 
Meilochon, rege potentissimo, nono anno regni ejus, gentemque illam 
verbo et exemplo ad fidem Christi convertit." 

See also the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, under date A.D. 565 (Rolls 
edition, vol. 2, p. 16). 

p. i. Drostan. A life of St. Drostan is in the Breviary of Aberdeen. 

" Beatus Drostanus regali progenie Scottorum ortus, cum ad matu- 
ram pervenisset aetatem, audito Dominicae incarnationis et passionis 
mysterio in ipsis puerilibus annis repletus Spiritu Sancto omnipotente 
Deo toto mentis affectu servire studuit agnoscentes ergo parentes 
puerum Drostanum summo desiderio Deo deditum, ipsum tradiderunt 
Beato Columbae avunculo suo in Hibernia conversant!, liberalibus 
studiis imbuendum. Cumque postea apud Dalquongale habitum 
religionis suscepisset defuncto ejus abbate ejusdem loci beatus 
Drostanus electus in abbatem ubi aliquamdiu commorans, monachis 
quibus turn prefuit exemplo vitae et doctrinae multum prodesse 
studuit. 

" Aliquanto tempore elapso commissi sibi gregis curam non deferens 
sed summo pastori Christo committens, ad secreta eremi in partibus 
Scotiae se transtulit : ubi vitam eremiticam ducens in loco qui dicitur 
Glenu Eske ecclesiam construxit. Omnia pro Christo secundum 
evangelium reliquit qui de dignitate terrena sive honore regio quibus 
jure hereditario potiri potuit non curavit et terreno renuntians regno, 



222 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

humanum renuit principatium ut ad Christ! fugeret famulatum. . . . 
" Ossa viro sanctissimi confessoris Drostan apud Aberdon [Aberdour] 
in tumba reconduntur lapidea ubi multi diversi morborum languoribus 
praegravati ejus meritis restituuntur sanitati." 

Adamnan in the Life of St. Columba does not mention Drostan. It 
is doubtful when he lived (Forbes, Kal., p. 327). 

p. i. I, the Island of lona. Bede says of Columba : " Et praefatam 
insulam [Hy] ab eis in possessionem monasterii faciendi accepit. 
Neque enim magna est, sed quasi familiarum quinque juxta aestima- 
tionem Anglorum, quam successores ejus usque hodie tenent, ubi et 
ipse sepultus est." 

To this Haddan and Stubbs add (Concil. 2, p. 107): "The Ann. 
Tigh. A.D. 574 record the death of Conaill Mac Comgaill King of 
Dalriada who in the I3th year of his reign 'oferavit insolam la 
Columcille."' 

The island is three and a half miles long, and one and a half broad, 
comprising about 2000 acres, of which 600 are under cultivation. 

p. i. Abbordobboir is Aberdour, a parish in a sheltered bay on the 
rocky shore of Buchan in Aberdeenshire. It was here that Drostan 
was buried, and the church was dedicated to him. In the beginning 
of the fifteenth century the bones of the saint were preserved in a 
stone chest, and many cures were believed to have been effected by 
them. In the face of the rock, near where the stream falls into the 
sea, is "Durstan's well." (Stuart's Book of Deer, Preface, p. n ; 
2 Illustr. Aber. and Banff, p. 373.) 

p. i. Bede the Pict, morraaer of Buchan. The Gaelic is "acus bede 
cruthnec robomormaer buchan." Mr. Skene says the Irish form is 
Besaidh. Adamnan does not mention Bede, nor any mormaer. It 
would not be safe to infer from this notitia that an officer of the King 
or a ruler of Buchan was called " mormaer " in the sixth century. An 
Irish writer in the middle of the twelfth century might use an Irish 
word which indicated the great man of the district. 

Buchan is the north-eastern division of Aberdeenshire. Originally 
it comprised the land between the Don and the Deveron. Except 
in the "Book of Deer" there is no evidence that there ever were 
mormaers of Buchan. 

Mr. Stokes in the Saturday Review (8th Dec., 1860) : "This legend 
is historically valuable first as preserving the title of Mormaer hitherto 
only known from the Irish Annals, and next as giving the Celtic name 
for Pict (Cruthnech), lastly as affording by the name Bede an argu- 
ment, if such were now wanted, in favour of the Celticity of the Picts, 
for that Bede is the Gaulish, Bedaios (Orelli, 1964) can hardly be 
doubted." 

p. i. The other town. Deer is in Buchan in Aberdeenshire about 
twelve miles inland from Aberdour. 

The only trace of a tradition which connects Drostan with Deer is 
a notice in the Aberdeen Almanac for 1703 "Dustan fair at Deer" 
on the 1 4th of December. 

Dr. Pratt (Buchan, p. 128) suggested that the Columban house may 
have stood on the Chapel hillock near the Chapel well in Stuartfield. 
Old people were remembered who had spoken of these as St. Colm's 
hillock and St. Colm's well. 



NOTES I. 223 

I have already said that I am not certain that there was a monas- 
tery at Deer prior to the Cistercian house founded in 1219, but 
many religious houses founded in Scotland before the twelfth century 
were deserted or suppressed ; their existence may be inferred from 
the frequency of the word Abthania, which meant Abbatia. W. F. 
Skene (Notes to Fordun) mentions the Abthainries of Dull : Mad- 
dyrin : Melginch : Kylmichel and Lerenach : Old Munros : Monifod 
Ecclesgreig : Rossinclerach : Kyngorne : Lismore. 

There were doubtless many others. It would not be wonderful 
if a little community at Deer was forgotten. 

p. 2. Mormaer. Mr. Skene was of opinion that Scotia was of 
old divided into seven provinces " Angus : Athol : Strathern : Fife : 
Mar : Moray : Caithness, and that the rulers of each of these originally 
bore the title of Ri (King), being inferior only to the Ardri (Supreme 
King), and. that in the tenth century each such ruler was styled 
Mormaer." (3 Skene, Celt. Scot., p. 156.) 

There are few instances of the title of Mormaer in the Celtic 
Chronicles. In the Pictish Chronicle (written A.D. 971-995), (Chron. 
P. and S., p. 9), A.D. 939 : " Et post unum annum mortuus est Dubucan 
films Indrechtaig Mormair Oengusa." 

Annals of Tighernac (written circa A.D. 1088), "A.D. 976: Cellach 
son of Findgaine, Cellach son of Baireda, Duncan son of Morgaind, 
three Mormaers of Alban." (Chron. P. and S., p. 77 ; Collectanea 
de Rebus Albanicis, p. 265.) 

Annals of Buellan and Annals of Ulster : " 1014 At the battle of 
Cluantarp, slain on the part of the Irish, Domnale son of Eimin son 
of Cainig Mormaer of Marr, in Alban." (Collect, de Rebus Alban., 
p. 271 ; Chron. P. and S., p. 368.) 

Annals of Tighernac, A.D. 1030. " Findlaec mac Ruaidhri Mormaer 
Moreb a filiis fratris sui Maelbrigdi occisus est." (Chron. P. and S., 

P- 77-) 

" A.D. 1032, Gillacomgain son of Maelbrigde, Mormaer of Moray, 
burned with 50 of his followers." (Chron. P. and S., p. 368.) 

"A.D. 1215, ' Muredach son of the Mormair of Lennox' slew the 
chief of the Cenel Fergusa, with his brother, with great slaughter." 
(Chron. P. and S., 374.) 

I venture to think that there is no Scottish evidence that there 
was a Mormaer over each province of Northern Scotland. 

Angus. The earliest mention is Dubacan films Indrechtaig 
Mormaer Oengusa, who died A.D. 939. Some connect him with Gil- 
lebrith, Earl of Angus (1135-1197), imagining that Dufagan Conies, 
who appears as a witness to Alexander I. Charter to Scon, was an 
Earl of Angus, a descendant of the Mormaer who died in 939. 
Even if the Scon charter be genuine, there is nothing to show that 
'Dufagan Comes' was of Angus nor that the father of Gillebrith, 
Earl of Angus, in the twelfth century, was Dufagan. 

Athol, Strathearn, Fife. There is no record of Mormaers of these 
districts. 

Mar. There is a record of one Mormaer of Mar, between whom 
and the first earl no connection has been traced. 

Moray. The notice in the Annals of Tighernac is ambiguous. It 
has been translated " Mormaer of the sons of Croeb " and " Mormaer 



224 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

Moreb." Taking it as Mormaer Moreb, that and the notice under 
date A.D. 1032 are Irish evidence that in the eleventh century there 
were Mormaers of Moray. 

Caithness. There is no record of a Mormaer of Caithness. 
Caithness did not form a part of Celtic Scotland ; it was held by 
the Norsemen. 

If there were mormaers of Buchan, it seems to me probable that they 
were officers of the king, collectors of the royal revenues and dues. 

p. i. And left it at his word. The misfortunes of the house of Keith 
Marischal, were attributed to its having appropriated the lands of 
the Cistercian Abbey of Deer, which it is said were given with 
these words : " Cursed be those that taketh this away from the holy 
use to which it is now dedicat." (View of the Diocese of Aberdeen, 
Coll. Aber. and Banff, p. 191.) 

p. i. Deara. The Gaelic word for a tear is 'deur.' The derivation 
given in the Notitia has been rejected by Gaelic scholars. 

p. 2. Toisech. Toisech is a Gaelic word meaning a leader. (Skene's 
Notes to Fordun, p. 446 ; 2 Riddell, p. 574 ; i Chal. Caled., p. 451). 

p. 2. Comgeall ... to God and to Drostan. Comgeall, Moridach, 
Caerill, Culi, Baten, Domnall, Girec, Maelbrigte, Cathal, Morcunt 
and Morcunn, Ruadri, Maelcoluim, Culeon, are forms of Pictish and 
Irish Gaelic names. Though Mr. Skene (3 Celt. Scot, p. 56) was of 
opinion that the donors were successively mormaers of Buchan, he 
acknowledged that " there is nothing to shew what the connection of 
these mormaers with each other was, nor when they lived." 

p. 2. Orti to Furene, etc. The lands "from Orti to Furene" and 
Achad-naglerech have not been identified. Altere may be Altrie ; 
Bibdin may be Biffie ; Pett in Mulenn may be an old mill on the Ugie. 

p. 2. And it was he who was mormaer and was toisech. This is, 
I understand, the literal translation of "acusbahe robomormair acus 
robothosec." Skerie preferred " the one was mormaer and the other 
was toisech." 

p. 2. Maelcolouim son of Cinaed. King Malcolm Mackenneth ; he 
reigned A.D. 1005-1034. 

p. 2. Bibdin and Pett meic Gobroig. The king's share in Bibdin, 
a land which Domnall son of Ruadri and Maelcoluim son of Culeon 
had given to the church. 

p. 2. Two Davochs of Upper Rosabard. A davoch was a measure 
of land ; it usually comprised four homesteads or small farms each a 
ploughgate. (Gordon of Straloch, Coll. Aber. and Banff, p. 10 ; Skene, 
Celtic Scotland, 3, p. 223 ; Innes, Scotch Legal Antiquities, p. 271.) 

p. 2. Maelcoluim son of Maelbrigte. It is said that here we have a 
man known in history. Ruadri, mormaer of Moray, left two sons, 
Finlaec and Maelbrigte. Finlaec was the father of Macbeth ; Mael- 
brigte was the father of Malcolm and Gilcomgain, who killed their 
uncle Finlaec in 1020. Malcolm died in 1029. 

Dr. Stuart said : " If the lands conveyed by them were in the neigh- 
bourhood of Deer, as is likely, it is not easy to understand how the 



NOTES I. 225 

Mormaers of Moray could have any title as such to lands in a province 
obviously subject to their rivals the kings of Alba" (Preface, Bk. of 
Deer, lii.). Robertson, Early Kings, 2, p. 500: "The grants of Mal- 
colm Malbride and of Lulach's son Malsnechtan, would appear to 
mark the tenacity with which the family of Moray clung to their 
claim of exercising proprietary rights in that province in which both 
the kings who sprung from their race met their death." 

p. 2. Malsnecte son of Luloeg. In a tract on the Scots of Dalriada 
(Chron. P. and S., p. 317) there is a pedigree: " Maelsnechta mac 
Lulaig mic Gillicomgan mic Maelbrigde mic Ruadri mic Morgaind 
mic Domnall mic Cathmail mic Ruadri mic Aircellach mic Ferchair 
fhoda." Annals of Ulster (Chron. P. and S., p. 370), A.D. 1085, " Maels- 
nectai mac Lulaigh ri Muireb suam vitam feliciter finivit," which is 
supposed to mean that he became a monk. Skene and Stuart and 
Sir Archibald Dunbar identify Lulaigh ri Muireb with Lulach, who 
was king of Scotland for six months in 1057. 

There is an obscure passage in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, 2, p. 183, 
A.D. 1078 : " In this year King Malcolm won the mother of Maelslaet . . . 
and all his best men and all his treasure and his cattle, and he himself 
escaped with difficulty." 

On the authority of that passage, Freeman, Nor. Con., IV., p. 
662; Robertson, Early Kings, i., p. 139; Skene, Celt. Scot., I., 
p. 427, and Sir Archibald Dunbar, Scottish Kings, p. 28, narrate a 
revolt of the Moray men under Malsnechtan in 1078, and a sanguinary 
and decisive victory for Malcolm, followed by Malsnechtan's retreat 
to Lochaber, and his death there seven years afterwards. 

p. 2. Domnal, son of Mac Dubbacin. This seems to record the gifts 
of three brothers, Domnal, Cathal, and Cainnech who gave lands, 
while Cathal besides gave his toisech's share and a dinner each 
Christmas and Easter to a hundred people who came to the church. 
Cainnech may be the father of Gartnait. (No. xcv., ante, p. 77.) 

p. 2. Alterin alia, etc. Skene reads " Alterin of Ailvethenamone " 
and " Eddarun." 

p. 2. All these offerings. The words from " in freedom . . . judg- 
ment " are written in a different ink. Presumably these donations and 
this exemption from mormaers and toisechs were granted after King 
Grig (circa A.D. 880) " dedit libertatem ecclesiae Scoticanae quae sub 
servitute erat usque ad illud tempus ex consuetudine et more 
Pictorum." (Chron. P. and S., p. 151.) 

p. 2. And the Lord's blessing, etc., is taken from another page of 
the MS. 

p. 2. After them, then comes the grant by Gartnait, No. xcv., ante, 
P. 77- 

p. 2. Donchat, son of Mac Bethad. The editor of Illustr. Aber. 
and Banff, 4, p. 548, thinks that this grant was made between A.D. 
1132-1153. Perhaps it was attested by witnesses. 

p. 2. Achad Madchor may be Auchmachar, three miles from Deer. 

p. 3. Scale Merlech may be Skellymarns, about a mile beyond 
Auchmachar to the north. 



226 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

p. 3. Clan Canan. Dr. Stuart presumes that the Clan lived in 
Buchan, near enough to Deer to give the toisech an interest in the 
Monastery. Alden may be Aden ; if so, the description perhaps 
includes part of the high ground at Pitfour. 

p. 3. Against it. Following this is the grant by Colbain the mor- 
maer and his wife, No. evil., ante, p. 84, and then the Latin charter 
No. CCXXIIL, ante, p 180. 



II. 

This letter is not in Quercetanus' edition of Alcuin's works 
published in 1617. 

A part of it was printed by Archbishop Ussher in De primordiis 
Brittan. Ecclesiae, p. 669, and in Froben's edition of Alcuin, Vol. i., 
p. 297, published in 1777. 

Haddan and Stubbs (2 Concil., p. 8) printed the whole letter from a 
MS. in Cott. MSS. Vesp. A. 14, fol. 160. 

Alcuin desires the prayers of the monks of Candida Casa. In 
poems sent to him by his pupils at York he had lately heard of the 
learning and holiness and miracles of St. Ninian. He has sent a 
silk cloth to cover the shrine. 

Alcuin was born at York, A.D. 735. He described himself as " ab 
Eboracensibus ab infantia usque ad virilem aetatem educatum." 
About 781 he went to Aachen to assist the Emperor Karl the Great 
in his reform of education. 

He spent two years in England, in 790-92. Leaving Aachen about 
796 he lived at Tours as abbot of St. Martin's, and afterwards as head 
of the school, till his death, igth May, 804. 

p. 3. Diaconus. Alcuin in many of his letters styles himself 
" humilis levita," in others " diaconus." 

p. 3. Fratres Sancti Niniani Candidae Casae. These were the 
monks of the monastery of Candida Casa in Wigtonshire. 

The earliest notice of St. Ninian is in Bede, lib. 3. cap. 4, written 
circa A.D. 731 (Plummer's edition, I., p. 133). 

" Namque ipsi australes Picti qui intra eosdem montes habent 
sedes multo ante tempore, ut perhibent, relicto errore idolatriae, 
fidem veritatis acceperant praedicante eis verbum Nynia episcopo 
reverentissimo et sanctissimo viro de natione Brettonum qui erat 
Romae regulariter fidem et mysteria veritatis edoctus ; cujus sedem 
episcopatus, Sancti Martini episcopi nomine et ecclesia insignem, ubi 
ipse etiam corpore una cum pluribus sanctis requiescit, jam nunc 
Anglorum gens obtinet. Qui locus, ad provinciam Berniciorum pertin- 
ens, vulgo vocatur ad Candidam Casam, eo quod ibi ecclesiam de 
lapide, insolito Brettonibus more fecerit." 



NOTES I.-II. 227 

Dr. Plummer's note to this is (2 Bede, p. 128) : " It is to be noted 
that Bede does not profess to give the account of St. Ninian as 
more than a tradition * ut perhibent. ' " 

The date when St. Ninian lived has not been fixed with certainty. 
Ailred stated that the church of Candida Casa was being built when 
St. Martin died (circa A.D. 400), but Ailred's Life of St. Ninian is 
historically worthless : he wrote more than 600 years after St. Martin's 
death. 

Several writers who are entitled to the highest respect (Bishop 
Forbes, W. F. Skene, and Dr. Plummer) are of opinion that about 
A.D. 500 Candida Casa at Whithern was a "great seminary 
of secular and religious instruction." They identified it with a 
" Magnum Monasterium " called " Rosnat." The evidence for this 
seems insufficient, but whether Rosnat was at Whithern or in Ireland, 
it must have been a poor school of virtue. 

Drust, King of the Britains (A.D. 523-526), sent his daughter Drustice 
to Rosnat to be taught by Mugent, a famous teacher. Drustice fell in 
love with a fellow pupil, Reoch. Another student personating Reoch 
got the princess with child. Mugent ordered a youth to lie in wait 
in the church to strike the seducer with an axe, and the blow fell on 
Mugent's own head. His pious prayer on the occasion is preserved 
(Kalendars of Scottish Saints, p. 292). Bishop Forbes says of this story: 
" It is a little picture of early manners which enlivens the scene." 

In the sixth century the church founded by St. Ninian and 
dedicated to St. Martin had fallen into decay (2 Concil., p. 5). 
It is probable that a new church (dedicated to St. Ninian) was 
built by St. Monenna (who died A.D. 517). Galloway again became 
heathen (2 Bede, p. 343). In the eighth century Christianity was 
restored, and a Bishopric was founded at Candida Casa, of which 
Pecthelm was Bishop, about A.D. 731. (Bede, Hist. Eccl., lib. v. ch. 23.) 
He died in A.p. 735 (2 Plummer's Bede, p. 343, 2 Concil., p. 7). There 
was a succession of Bishops which ended with Badulf, who lived until 
A.D. 803 (2 Concil., p. 7). 

After the death of Bishop Badulf the church and monastery fell 
into ruin. The Bishopric with a chapter of canons was revived in 
the reign of King David I. (Nos. LXIII. and LXIV., ante, pp. 53-54). 

p. 3. Per carmina metricae artis. Froben says: "Utinam (ita 
optandum cum commentatore Antverpiensi) ad nos pervenissent car- 
mina ilia ! cum enim auctor illorum ad S. Niniani aetatem accedat 
propius, certiora haberemus monumenta ad illustranda ejusdem gesta: 
quae enim nunc supersunt non nisi dubiam notitiam actorum sancti 
episcopi subministrant." 

p. 3. Nostros discipulos Eboracensis ecclesiae. Alcuin was a teacher 
at York for many years. There are several letters from him "ad 
fratres Eboracenses." 

p. 4. Nyniga corpus [velum]. The MS. has "suum." Haddan and 
Stubbs read "velum" (2 Concil., p. 8), Dr. Plummer suggested 
"sagum" (2 Bede, 129). 

The Irish said that St. Ninian died at Chiam Conaire in Leinster, 
but the Scots believed that the Saint died and was buried at Whit- 
hern. There was a constant stream of pilgrims to St. Ninian's grave at 
Whithern until the Reformation (Bp. Forbes' Kalendars, pp. i and u). 



228 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 



III. 

This notitia is in the Register of the Priory of St. Andrews among 
other documents relating to St. Serf's island, compiled " ex antiquis 
donationibus et collationibus Regum Scotiae ad ecclesiam Sancti Ser- 
vani de insula Loch Leuin . . . et ea quae in subsequentibus brevi- 
loquio tangemus omnibus ambagibus abjectis et circumscriptis veteris 
voluminis antique Scotorum idiomate conscripti. . . ." It was printed 
in the Bannatyne Club Edition of the Register, p. 113; in Reeves' 
Culdees, p. 125 ; and in 2 Concil., p. 147. 

By this the abbot and brethren of St. Serf's island, about A.D. 950, 
resigned their property to Bishop Fothad, on condition that the Bishop 
should give them food and clothing and his episcopal protection. 

p. 4. Brude filius Dergard. Skene (Celt. Scot., 2, p. 258) was of 
opinion that King Brude, who befriended St. Serf, was not the last 
King of the Picts (who died A.D. 843), but an earlier King Brude, 
son of Derili, who died A.D. 706. 

" If St. Serf was a contemporary of St. Adamnan, it is impossible 
that the King who assisted him was the last King of the Picts. If 
the story of King Brude and St. Serf be not altogether legendary, 
the King who befriended him was Brude who died in 706." 

A chronicle of the Picts and Scots (Chron. P. and S., p. 201) records 
" Brude fitz Dergert xxxi. an. En quel temps vient Sains Servanus 
en Fiffe." 

Wyntoun, v., 12, line 5199 : 

Brwde Dargardys sowne, in Scotland 
Kyng oure the Peychtyis than regnand 
Was movyd in gret crwallte 
Agayne the Saynct and his menyhe 

Bot this Kyng ourtakyne wes 

Suddanly wyth gret seknes 

And at the prayer specyalle 

Off Saynt Serffe he wes mad hale 

The Kyng than fell fra that purpos 

And gave till Saynt Serffe all Culros 

Syne fra Culros he past ewyn 
To the Inche off Lowchlewyn 
The King Brud off devotyoune 
Mad till Saynct Serff donatyowne 
Off that Inch. . . . 

Dr. Reeves (Culdees, p. 125) holds that the Brude who in this 
notitia is said to have given the island of Loch Leven to St. Serf 
was the last King of the Picts, Brude, son of Feredach, who reigned 
for one year and died in 843, " the chronological note of his having 



NOTES III.-IV. 229 

been the last King of the Picts is a stronger traditional feature than 
his parentage." 

p. 4. Insulam Lochleuine. Loch Leven is an inland lake in Fife and 
Kinross shires. The island is now known as St. Serf's ; it is about 80 
acres in extent, 5 furlongs long, and 4 furlongs wide at its widest part. 

p. 4. Sancto Servano. It is supposed that St. Serf lived in the 
latter part of the seventh century. His life is given by Wyntoun 
(5. 12, line 5138 et seg.). In Bishop Marsh's Library in Dublin is 
the MS. of which Wyntoun made use, which Mr. Skene printed (Chron. 
P. and S., p. 412). See also Forbes' Introduction to Life of St. 
Kentigern, p. Ixv. The earlier part of the life is legend ; possibly 
it begins to be authentic when it says that Servanus left Rome, and 
after perils of journey came to the Firth of Forth ; that there he met 
Saint Edheunanus, who ordered him to convert the people of Fife ; 
that Brude, king of the Picts, gave him Culenros, where he dedicated 
a cemetery and a church ; that afterwards Edheunanus gave him the 
island in Loch Leven, where he founded a monastery. 

p. 4. Keledei. The writer of this notitia applied to the early settlers 
on the island in Loch Leven the name Keledei, by which they were 
known when he wrote. But the name was not applied to hermits 
until the end of the eighth century. (2 Concil, p. 118, and Reeves' 
Culdees, p. 8.) 

p. 4. Precario. Precarium was an alienation of property (commonly 
with a view to protection at the hands of the alienee), the alienor 
retaining the usufruct in whole or in part. It was a grant reserving 
the granter's liferent. (2 Concil., p. 147.) 

" On appelait precaire, au moyen age, toute concession viagere des 
biens de 1'Eglise, soit qu'on recommandait sa propriety et qu'on la 
reprit seulement en usufruit, soit que 1'Eglise soignait une donation a 
la propriete qu'elle rendait en usufruit. 

" On sait que la duree du prdcaire dtait determinee et qu'elle se 
bornait d'ordinaire a la vie du preneur et a celle de sa femme, s'il etait 
marie. 

"II n'etait pas rare cependant que les donateurs reservassent le 
precaire k leurs descendants, avec obligation de payer la redevance a 
laquelle ils etaient eux-memes assujettis." (Aurelien de Courson, 
Chartulaire de 1'Abbaye de Redon. Prolegomene, p. 297.) 

p. 4. Fothath filio Bren. Fothad, " in Scottis summus episcopus." 
Before A.D. 955 (2 Concil., 148 ; Chron. P. and S., p. 190), he was 
expelled by King Indulf, who reigned from A.D. 954-962. The Bishop 
died A.D. 963-970. (2 Concil., p. 148 ; Skene, Celt. Scot., 2, 327 ; Keith, 
p. 5 ; Reeves, Culdees, 125.) The cover for his copy of the Gospels 
was preserved and bore this inscription : " Hanc evangelii thecam 
construxit aviti P'othud, qui Scotis primus episcopus est" (Keith, 
Pref. xvii). 



IV. 

This is in the Register of the Bishopric of Aberdeen. A. fol. 47, 
B. folio 36. Spalding Club Edition, p. 3. (A) The Registrum Album 



230 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

was compiled not earlier than A.D. 1350, (B) was written as late as 
1520-1550. 

The charter is spurious (2 Skene, Celt. Scot., p. 379 ; I Rob., Early 
Kings, p. 99; I Hill Burton, p. 36; Cosmo Innes, Preface to Reg. Epis. 
Aber., xi; 2 Concil., p. 154). It is of no consequence whether the 
author meant to pass it off as a charter of Malcolm II. or of Malcolm 
III. I think it was intended to be read as one by the earlier King. 

p. 4. Malcolmus Rex Scottorum. The tradition was that the monas- 
tery of Mortlach was founded by Malcolm II. as a thank offering for 
a victory in 1010. " Anno regni sui septimp de multimodis sibi collatis 
a Deo beneficiis continue recolens, quid illi retribueret, mente solicita 
revolvit. Spiritus Sancti tandem operante gratia, divinum augere 
cultum corde concipiens, novam episcopalem [constituit] sedem 
apud Murthillach, non procul a loco, quo, superatis Norguigensibus 
victoriam obtinuit, ecclesiis et praediorum redditibus plurimis prae- 
dotatam " (Fordun, 4. 40). 

Boece, Bk. XL, Ch. 16, wrote that, in a battle at Mortlach between 
Malcolm II. and the Northmen, at a moment when the result was 
uncertain, the King raised his hands towards a chapel of Saint Moloc 
and prayed for aid, and vowed to build a church, and, being victorious, 
he founded the monastery. 

p. 5. Episcopo Beyn . . . sedes episcopalis. (Fordun, 4. 40 :) 
"Hujus autem dyocesis sive territorium ab amne sive fluvio qui dicitur 
Dee transversum protendens usque fluvium de Spec, ... ad hanc 
sedem primus episcopus vir Sanctus et episcopatu dignus cui nomen 
Beyn ad regis instantiam a Domino Papa Benedicto promotus est." 

Haddan and Stubbs consider that Mortlach was an Episcopalian 
Monastery rather than an Episcopal See. 

Of Bishop Beyn, Skene, Celt. Scot., 2, p. 380, says, " In the Scottish 
Calendars, St. Beyn appears both on 26 October and on 16 
December. The Breviary of Aberdeen has on 26 October : * Beyn 
Episcopus,' and in Adam King's Calendar he is called Bishop of 
Murthelach, but in the Martyrology of Aberdeen he is identified with 
St. Beyn of Fowlis in Strathern, who, we learn from the life of St. 
Cadroe, lived in the ninth century. Dempster in his Menologium has 
him also at 16 December as Bishop of Murthlach, but this is also 
the day of St. Mobheoc in the Irish Calendar, whose name was also 
Beoan, ... he must have lived before the eighth century." 

p. 5. Morthelach is a parish in the centre of Banffshire. It is 
probable that a church dedicated to St. Moloc existed before the time 
of King Malcolm II. That Saint (known also as Lughaid of Lismore) 
is said to have been a pupil of St. Brandan. He died A.D. 593 ; his 
festival was on the 25th of June (Ann. Tigh., Chron. P. and S., 
p. 67). 

p. 5. Ecclesiam de Cloueth : Clova in Aberdeenshire, now united 
with Kildrummy. 

p. 5. Ecclesiam de Dulmech. Either Drumoak, which in early 
times was called Dulmayok, while the common pronunciation was 
Dalmaik, or a chapel in the parish of Glass. 



of P L 



NOTES IV.-V. 231 

p. 5. Octavo die mensis Octobris anno regni meo sexto, A.D. 1010 
or if by Malcolm III., A.D. 1063. 



V. 

In the Register of the Priory of St. Andrews, fol. 51 a, Bannatyne 
Club Edition, p. 114, it is headed "qualiter Machbet filius 
finlach et Gruoch dederunt Sancto Servano Kyrknes." 

It records a gift of the land of Kirkness by Macbeth and Gruoch, 
King and Queen of Scotland, A.D. 1040-1057. The monk proceeded 
to describe the boundaries of Kirkness, one of which in his day was 
called the Irishmen's Stone, so he digressed to tell how, in the reign 
of Malcolm III., it got that name. 

p. 5. Macbeth filius Finlach began to reign I4th August, 1040 
the day on which he murdered King Duncan and reigned until i$th 
August, 1057, when he was killed in battle. 

5. Kyrkeness. It lies in the parish of Portmoak to the south-east 
och Leven. The grant was repeated by King Donald Bane. 
The boundaries of Kirkness were frequently in dispute (see No. 
LXXX., ante, p. 66, and Reg. Prior. St. And., pp. I, 6). The Priors of 
St. Serf's resided at the Prior's Ward in Kirkness. Kirkness passed 
with the other lands of the Priory to the Priory of St. Andrews. After 
the Reformation the superiority was held by the Earls of Morton for 
several generations. In 1591 Kirkness, with the Manor-house of the 
Priors, belonged to the Aytons of Kinaldie. 

p. 5. Pethmokanne. Haddan and Stubbs suppose that it is now called 
Portmoak. I doubt if 'Pett' could become 'Port. Pettmochan is 
probably the field of Mochan, possibly the Mochan who burned the 
Irishmen. Moneloccodhan. may be the " Maresium de Monlochty" 
from which flows the water of Lochty, mentioned in a perambulation 
of the lands of Kirkness and Lochore in 1369 (Reg. Prior. St. And., 
p. 3). One of the boundaries mentioned on p. i of the Register is 
a marsh " which is called Polnevere, and in the vulgar * the water of 
Louchty. 3 " 

p. 5. Hinhirkethy, probably Inverkeithing. 

p. 5. Saxum Hiberniensium, may be the "lapis acer qui dicitur in 
vulgar! Lykyrstyne," a boundary of Kirkness (Reg. Prior. St. And., p. i). 

p. 5. Malcolmus Rex filius Duncani, King Malcolm (Canmore) III., 
reigned 1057-1093. 

p. 6. Cum omni libertate . . . suffragiis. This is on the same folio of 
the Register (51 a). It is headed "De libertate Kyrkenes collata a 
rege Macbet filio finlac et a Gruohc Regina." 

The reference to the King's son, to ' vicecomites ' and to the duty of 
repairing bridges, and to ' exercitus and venatio,' seem to me to show 



232 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

that this part of the notitia was composed as late as the reign of 
King David I. 

It does not appear that the making and mending of bridges was 
a burden on land in Celtic Scotland. It was part of the Saxon 
law of land tenure in England as early as A.D. 694 (2 Rob., Early 
Kings, p. 336 ; Lappenburg, Thorpe's Transl., I., p. 198). 

We find traces of its being enforced in Scotland in the reigns of 
David I. and his grandsons. 

The church sought the exemption of the tenants and vassals 
of Church lands from military service, except when a levy of all men 
capable of bearing arms was called for. As a later charter by King 
David to the Bishop of Caithness expresses it, "libera et quieta ab 
omni servitio excepto communi exercitu." 

" The Feacht and Sluaged (expeditio et exercitus) consisted of a 
general obligation, originally upon the members of the tribe and 
afterwards upon the possessors and occupiers of what had been tribe 
territory, to follow their superiors and chiefs as well as the Ardri or 
sovereign in his expeditions and wars. . . . These obligations seem 
to have constituted what is called in charters Scottish service (ser- 
mtium Scoticanuin) and were of two kinds, internal and external, 
the one representing the Feacht or expedition, the other the Sluaged 
or hosting." Skene, Celt. Scot., 3, p. 234. 

Venatio, I understand to be the right of the king or overlord to 
hunt over his vassals' land. In David I.'s charters there are several 
instances of the right of forest and of exemption from venatio. 

p. 6. Cum summa veneratione. This is in the Reg. Prior. St. Andr., 
fol. 5 a, Bannatyne Club Edition, p. 12. 

p. 6. Bolgyne filii Torfyny. I think that the word "terram" has 
been omitted, the land of Bolgyn son of Torfyny. Afterwards the land 
was called Bolgyn (Bolgie in the parish of Abbotshall). Malcolm III. 
granted Bolgyn to the Abbey of Dunfermline (Reg. Dunf., i, 2). 
That gift was confirmed by David I., Malcolm IV., William, Alex. 
II., and Alex. III. In the Register of the Priory of St. Andrews 
(pp. 15 and 178), and in the Register of Dunfermline (p. 421), it 
appears that the Abbey of Dunfermline received from Bolgyn half 
a mark annually, the right to which, John, Abbot of Dunfermline 
(ob. A.D. 1251), surrendered to the Priory of St. Andrews (p. 421, Reg. 
Dunferm.). 

While Dunfermline had right to half a mark from Bolgyn, the Priory 
of St. Serfs had right to twenty meli of cheese and one pig from the 
same land. 

In the fifteenth century the lands of Bolgyn were the property of 
William de Berkeley, Lord of Cullerney (in Dunbog, Fifeshire). He 
had a prolonged litigation with the Prior of St. Andrews regarding 
delivery of eight bolls of meal and a pig annually at Martinmas. 
The litigation lasted for years (Reg. Prior. St. And., pp. 6, 7, 8, 
9, 10, 11-14, 15, 16, 19, 20, 21). William de Berkeley was obstinate, 
and would not pay. All steps were taken against him, even to excom- 
munication. 

The family of Barclay lived at Cullerney for at least 450 years. 

A David de Berkeley was at Cullerney as early as 1350. Six 



NOTES V.-VI. 233 

generations later, about 1510, there was a Sir David Barclay, and 
some generations after him, in 1630, another Sir David. 

Robert Barclay of Cullerney was fined by Cromwell. In 1747, the 
family was represented by a lady, Antonia Barclay of Cullerney, 
who married one of her name, Mr. Harry Barclay; they got ^215 
as compensation for the abolition of the office of Hereditary Bailie of 
the Regality of Lindores. 

The Barclays sold the estate to Balfour of Fernie ; the castle of 
Cullerney is a ruin. 



VI. 

This is on folio 51 (b) of the Register of the Priory of St. Andrews ; 
p. 116 of the Bannatyne Club Edition. Reeves, Culdees, p. 128; 
2 Concil., 151 ; Keith, p 5, footnote c. 

Malduin was Bishop of St. Andrews A.D. 1028-1055. 
In the Annals of Tigernac under date A.D. 1055, "Maelduin, son of 
Gillaodran, Bishop of Alban, the giver of orders to the Gael of the 
clergy, died in Christ" (2 Skene, Celt. Scot., p. 343; 2 Concil., p. 153). 
Wyntoun, vi., 20, line 2505 : 

" Alwyne that tyme yherys thre 
Wes Byschape off Saynct Andrewys Se 
Maldowny MakGillandrys than 
(Off lyff [he] wes a haly man) 
Wes Byschope sevyn and twenty yhere 
Off Sanct Andrewys quhen he on bere 
Wes brocht, efftyr hym than Byschope 
Twalda wes." 

p. 6. Markinch is in Fifeshire, 4^ miles east of Leslie. There is 
a tradition that there was a Culdee cell on the northern side of a ridge 
in the parish. 

From this notice it appears that in the eleventh century the church 
of Markinch " cum tota terra " belonged to the Bishop of St. Andrews, 
who granted it to the Keledei of St. Serf's island. Towards the end 
of King David's reign the monastery of St. Serf's and all its possessions 
including Markinch were granted to the Priory of St. Andrews. 

In the latter part of the twelfth century Duncan, Earl of Fife, granted 
the church of Markinch to the Priory of St. Andrews, which grant 
was confirmed by Robert, Bishop of St. Andrews (Reg. Prior. St. And., 
pp. 43, 152, 242), with the pertinents, i.e. twenty meli of cheese and 
a pig. 

Egius the son of Hugh the son of Gillemichel, Earl of Fife, granted 
to the Canons of St. Andrews the church of Markinch with its tithes 
and a toft on the east of the church (Reg. Prior. St. And., p. 216). 

Between A.D. 1203-1228, Malcolm, Earl of Fife, confirmed his father 
Earl Duncan's grant of the church of Markinch to St. Andrews (p. 244), 



234 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

and the same Earl granted to God and the church of " Modhrust de 
Markinge" a toft of one acre (p. 245). 

On the I4th day before the Kalends of August, 1243, David, Bishop 
of St. Andrews, consecrated the church of St. John the Baptist and 
of St. Moldrust, confessor, at Markinch (p. 348). Bishop Forbes says 
that St. Modhrust is St. Drostan. 

VII. 

On folio 51 (b) of the Register of the Priory of St. Andrews, 
Bannatyne Club Edition, p. 116. This was printed by Keith, p. 6, 
and by Reeves, Culdees, p. 128, and in 2 Concil., p. 153. 

Tuthald was Bishop of St. Andrews for four years, A.D. 1055-1059 
(or A.D. 1061-65). Keith, p. 4 ; 2 Skene, Celt. Scot., 344 ; Wyntoun, 
VI., cap. xx., line 2510. 

p. 7. Sconyn is a parish of about 4000 acres, on the south coast of 
Fife, forming the west side of the bay of Largo. 

As part of the possessions of the Keledei of St. Serfs island the church 
passed by the grant of King David and of Robert the Bishop to the 
Canons of the Priory of St. Andrews (Reg. Prior. St. And., p. 43). 
The right of the Priory to the " villa ecclesiastica de Sconyn," and to the 
church, was confirmed by Pope Lucius III. (p. 59) and by later Popes. 

The Canons, fearful lest the old title was insufficient, obtained from 
Duncan, Earl of Fife, a grant of the church of Sconyn with the land 
belonging to the church, and the tithes and the offerings, and all rights 
and benefits (p. 241). This was confirmed by King William the Lion 
(p. 220) and by Malcolm the son of Earl Duncan (p. 244). 

A grant of 20 merks annually from the revenue of the church of 
Scoonie towards the building of the Cathedral was made by William, 
Bishop of St. Andrews. The vicar had to take an oath that he would 
pay this half-yearly, under penalty of loos, for each month's default 
(p. 160). Bishop David in 1247 enlarged the grant to the building 
fund "salvo altaragio vicariis qui pro tempore in eadem ecclesia minis- 
traverint cum terram et decimam garbarum de Kinmuc." The Prior 
and the Convent were to apply the rest of the fruits of the benefice "in 
usus fabrice ecclesie" (p. 168). 

29th May, 1243, Bishop David consecrated the church to St. Memme 
Virgin. 

The patronage and the church land remained the property of the 
Priory till the Reformation. 

The lands of Scoonie belonged to the Priory of St. Andrews by a 
separate title (Reg. Prior. St. And., pp. 51, 54, 58, 122, 131, 143, 145, 
150, 190, 206,214,233, 329). 

VIII. 

In the Register of the Priory of St. Andrews, fol. 51 b ; Bannatyne 
Club Edition, p. 115, headed "de villa Ballecristin et ejus libertate." 

Malcolm III. was the son of King Duncan. He was born about 
1031. After his father's death he lived in England for about seventeen 



NOTES VI.-VIII. 235 

years. On the defeat and death of Macbeth and Lulach, Malcolm 
became King of the Scots in March, 1057. . 

It is believed by some that about A.D. 1^65 he married tngibiorg,, 
the widow of Earl Thorfin, and by her was the father of King Duncan. 
About the year 1/70 he married Margaret, daughter of Eadward 
^theling, and niece of King Edward the Confessor, and had six sons 
and two daughters. 

This notitia records the grant of the vill of Balcristie which the 
King and Queen made to the Keledei of Lochleven. 

Lord Hailes, Annals, I., p. 35, said : " It is remarkable that Malcolm 
and his Queen, zealous as they were for religion, made few donations 
to the church. They began an endowment of Benedictines at Dun- 
fermline, and granted an inconsiderable portion of land to the Culdees 
in Fife. No other traces of their liberality to ecclesiastics are to be 
discovered." This is not accurate. Queen Margaret's biographer 
says that the king and queen built a " nobilis ecclesia " in honour of 
the Trinity at Dunfermline, which they decorated with costly gifts, 
that they gave a very beautiful crucifix to the church of St. Andrews^ 
and that the queen built on both sides of the Forth houses for the 
crowds who went to St. Andrews to pray. 

We know too that Queen Margaret restored or rebuilt the church in 
lona, and settled monks there. 

She built the chapel in the Castle of Edinburgh. 

Queen Margaret visited the church of St. Laurence. "De B. 
Laurentio dulce esset memoratu . . . qua poena arceatur omnis 
feminarum accessus ab ecclesia, quae ejus apostolatui exstructa et 
consecrata est in Scotia : ut nuper Regina Scotiae, inclita Margareta, 
cum oblationibus aditum tentare ausa, subito sit percussa atque repulsa 
sed clericorum prece restituta." (Robertson, Preface, Conciliae Scotiae, 
p. xxi note ; Gosceline of Canterbury, Act. Sanct. Maii, t. v. r 
pp. 881-883, and Act. Sanct. Feb., I., p. 294). 

Some antiquaries refer the establishment of a monastery or bishopric 
at Mortlach to Malcolm III., others ascribe it to Malcolm II. Malcolm 
III. founded a monastery at Monymusk. 

p. 7. Ballecristin. Balcristie is in the parish of Newburn in Fife- 
shire. Though this grant is of the "villa" which might include the 
whole land, the monks of St. Serf's had no more than a can or rent. 
David I. gave to the Abbey of Dunfermline "Balcristie cum suis 
rectis divisis in pratis et pascuis excepta rectitudine quam Keledei 
habere debent cum omnibus rebus ad eas juste pertinentibus sicut 
datae fuerunt praedictae ecclesiae in dotem die qua dedicata fuit." 

When the lands of the Priory of St. Serf's were transferred to the 
Priory of St. Andrews, the rights of the former in Balcristie were 
twenty meli of grain (ordei) (Reg. Prior. St. And., p. 43). 



236 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

This joint ownership of St. Andrews and Dunfermline led to a 
dispute which was heard by King William the Lion. He decided that 
the monks of Dunfermline had right to the land, paying to the canons 
of St. Andrews the " elemosina " which the Keledei had from Balcristie 
in the time of King David (Reg. Dunf., p. 34). 

The Priory of St. Andrews as representing St. Serfs retained an 
interest in Balcristie until the beginning of the fourteenth century, and 
probably till the dissolution of the house at the Reformation (Reg. 
Prior. St. And., pp. 125, 175, 177). 



IX. 

Printed in Scala Chronica, ed. Stevenson, Edinb., 1836, Note, p. 
222, from MS. Cotton (probably Nero A. vn.), in Epistol. Lanfranci, 
No. 61, and in 2 ConciL, p. 155. 

This letter was written after A.D. 1070, the year in which Lanfranc 
became Archbishop of Canterbury and in which Queen Margaret was 
married, and before A.D. 1089, when the Archbishop died. 

The queen had asked Lanfranc to send her an able churchman, 
probably to assist her in the reform of the Scottish church. He sent 
Goldwin and two " fratres." 

It is difficult to reconcile these relations between the court of 
Scotland and the see of Canterbury with the statement of some 
historians that in A.D. 1072, at the Council of Windsor, Lanfranc 
assigned to York the primacy over Scotland. Alexander I. said that 
Scotland was no party to this compact, but " if a chronicler of York, 
writing in the fourteenth century, can be trusted it was . . . sanctioned, 
on the part of the Scottish state, by King Malcolm and Queen 
Margaret, and on the part of the Scottish church by the Bishop 
of St. Andrews." (Stubbs, Chron. Pontif. Eccl. Ebor., col. 1709, 
quoted by Jos. Robertson, Preface, Concil. Scotiae, p. xxv). 

Queen Margaret, however, chose Lanfranc as her spiritual father, and 
sought his advice and help. 

Mr. Joseph Robertson (Preface, Concil. Scotiae, p. xxii) collected 
the evidence as to the reforms desired and insisted on by the Queen : 

(1) That Lent should commence on Ash Wednesday instead of on 
the Monday after it ; 

(2) That the Eucharist should be celebrated on Easter day ; 

(3) That Mass should be said according to the use of the western 
church and not (as in some parts of Scotland) after a barbarous 
ritual ; 

(4) That Sunday should be observed as a day of rest ; 

(5) That marriage within prohibited degrees should not be recog- 
nised ; 



NOTES VIII.-X. 237 

(6) And that other abuses contrary to Holy Scripture should be 
corrected. 

It is not improbable that Goldwin and the other monks took part 
in the Council at which Queen Margaret endeavoured to convince the 
Scottish clergy of their errors. We know nothing of the time and 
place of the meeting of the Council. It would be interesting to be 
told what was the attitude of Bishop Fothad did he oppose or 
approve Queen Margaret's views ? 

p. 7. Lanfrancus was born at Pavia, circa A.D. 1005. He became 
prior of Bee in 1045, and abbot of Caen in 1066. In 1070 he was 
consecrated Archbishop of Canterbury. He died in 1089. 

p. 7. Lectis litteris tuis quas . . . misisti. These letters have not 
been preserved. 

p. 8. Non sum quod putas. Haddan and Stubbs read " Non sum 
quod petas." 

p. 8. Carissimus frater noster dominus Goldewinus . . . Mr. Freeman 
(Norm. Con., iv., p. 511) says that the name Goldewinus suggests that 
he was an Englishman. 



X. 

This is in the MSS. collection of Sir James Balfour in the Advocates' 
Library, Edinburgh. Printed in the Bannatyne Club Edition of the 
Register of Dunfermline, Appendix I., p. 417. 

All are agreed that the charter is a forgery. The certificate by 
Sir James Balfour, "concordat cum autographo in omnibus," is an 
instance of that antiquary's want of accuracy, nay of truthfulness. 

p. 9. In Monte Infirmorum, a fanciful name for Dunfermline. 

Dunfermline was a royal residence in the reign of King Malcolm III. 
He was residing there when Edgar Atheling and his sisters arrived in 
the Forth in 1068, and there they stayed the whole winter (Freeman, 
Nor. Con., iv., p. 195). 

Mr. Freeman in Note BB., Nor. Con., iv., p. 782, discussed the 
evidence as to the date of the marriage of Malcolm and Margaret ; 
he held that it took place in 1070. 

"Erat enim locus ille naturaliter in se munitissimus, densissima 
silva circumdatus, praeruptis rupibus premunitus. In cujus medio 
erat venusta planicies, etiam rupibus et rivulis munita, quod de 
ea dictum esse putaretur, non homini facilis, vix adeunda feris 
(Fordun, V., 15). 

In the Life of Queen Margaret it is said that immediately after her 
marriage with Malcolm III. the Queen, in that place where the nuptials 
were celebrated, as a lasting memorial of her name and her piety, 



238 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

founded a church, which she dedicated to the Holy Trinity, and 
enriched with numerous ornaments, vessels of solid gold, and an 
inestimable crucifix formed of gold, silver, and precious stones. 

p. 9. Concessi enim . . . abbatiae. The monastery at Dunfermline 
did not become an abbey until A.D. 1128. 

p. 9. Omnes terras et villas Pardusin. . . . Though this charter is 
spurious, it is certain that Malcolm III. and his queen did endow 
the church of Dunfermline. 

Pardusin, Pitnaurcha, Pittecorthin, Petbachichin, Lauar, and Bolgyn 
lay in Fife not far from Dunfermline. Kirkcaldy is on the coast of 
the Firth of Forth, to the east of Dunfermline, and Inveresk is near 
Edinburgh, on the other side of the Forth. 

p. 9. Testibus. Sir James Dalrymple, Coll., p. 228, says : " Nothing 
in the matter or the witnesses to this charter disagreeth with the time, 
for in his reign M'Duff is said to be Earl of Fife and Merles wine to 
have come to Scotland with Prince Eadgar and his sister Margaret : 
I would rather take it to be a charter by Malcolm IV., for I have seen 
one by Arnold, Bishop of St. Andrews, in the Lawyers Librarie, and 
.amongst the witnesses are Duncanus comes, Merleswine and Neis 
films Will. And as Arnold was Bishop in the reign of King Malcolm 
IV., so I have seen a charter ... by King William in the beginning of 
his reign to Merleswine of the lands of Ardross ; no doubt this 
Merleswine was descended of that Merleswine that came in with 
Queen Margaret." 

The list of witnesses is spurious ; there is no mention in any other 
record of " Ivo Kelledeorum abbas." I will not say, as some do, 
that Macduff is a myth, but it may be doubted whether the Macduff of 
Macbeth's time survived until the marriage of Malcolm and Margaret. 
Duncan did not become Earl of Fife until about A.D. 1136. " Araldus 
comes " is unknown. 

Merleswain (Freeman calls him " Sheriff" Maerleswegn, N. Con. 
IV., p. 195) accompanied Edgar Atheling and his sisters to Scot- 
land in 1068 (Anglo-Saxon Chron., pp. 171, 174), but it does not 
appear that he settled in Scotland. 

There were Merleswains in Fifeshire in the thirteenth century, 
Merleswain son of Merleswain, Merleswain son of Colban, Christina 
daughter of Merleswain and wife of Ewin de Monorgrunt, and several 
others. Neis son of William and Merleswain lived in the reign of 
William the Lion. 

I have not, in the text, included a Charter of Homage, which has 
been unanimously rejected as a forgery. It is as follows : 

"Malcolmus Dei Gratia Rex Scotorum et Insularum adjacentium 
omnibus Christianis ad quos praesentes litterae pervenerint salutem, 
tarn Danis et Anglis quam Scotis, Sciatis nos et Edwardum primo- 
genitum filium nostrum et heredem, Comitem de Carrick et de 
Rotsaye recognovisse nos tenere totum regnum nostrum Scotiae et 
insulas adjacentes de excellentissimo domino Edward o filio Ethelredi 
nuper Regis Angliae superiore domino regni Scotiae et insularum 
adjacentium per Hpmagium ligium et fidelitatem prout antecessores et 
progenitores nostri pro antea temporibus retroactis satis notabiliter 
recognoverunt et fecerunt prout per antiquiora recorda coronae satis 



NOTES X.-XI. 239 

nobis constat. Quare ex jure directo nos devenimus homines vestros 
O Domine noster serenissime Edwarde fili Ethelredi Rex Angliae et 
superior Dominus Scotiae et insularum adjacentium, durante vita 
nostra contra omnes homines vobiscum vivere et mori tanquam ligii 
subditi vestri fidelis et ligiam fidelitatem vobis et heredibus vestris 
portabimus sic Deus nos adjuvet et Sanctum Dei judicium. 

"In cujus rei testimonium praesentibus sigillum nostrum apponi 
fecimus pro nobis et filio nostro praedicto apud Eboracum quinto die 
Junii anno regni nostri nono in parliamento praedicti domini superioris 
nostri ibidem tanto ex consensu et consilio Margaretae consortis 
nostrae filiae Edwardi filii Edmundi ferrei lateris Edgari Atheling 
fratris ejusdem consortis nostrae et quam plurium magnatum aliorum 
regni nostri praedicti." 

"The laborious Rymer, searching for materials for his great work, 
discovered in the Chapter House at Westminster the forged Charter 
of Homage by Malcolm Canmor and his son to Edward the Confessor. 
Somewhat rashly, 'perhaps unwittingly' (as Sir Thomas Hardy says), 
he gave it an importance to which it was by no means entitled, by 
causing it to be engraved in facsimile." " Sir Francis Palgrave has 
given a full and interesting account of this charter and some other 
forged documents of a later date, still in the Exchequer, where they 
were deposited, November 1457 (36 Hen. VI.), by John Hardyng, the 
poet and chronicler, who professed to have obtained them at the risk 
of his life, and to have been offered one thousand marks of gold by 
James I. to give them up. He was rewarded by a pension of ,2,0 
out of the Exchequer, and there can be little doubt he was the author 
of the whole collection. Apart from its having been the occasion of a 
great literary warfare, the document is a curiosity in its bold anachron- 
isms and sweeping acknowledgment of homage." Duffus Hardy, 
Foedera, Vol. I., Pref. xxxix. 

The charter was printed by Anderson in 1705 in his "Essay on 
Scotland, Imperial and Independent." He professed to have taken 
it "from a copper-plate copy, the original being of late somewhat 
defaced." 

Margaret was not married to Malcolm III. until after the death of 
Edward the Confessor ; Edward, their eldest son, could not have done 
homage to a king who died years before he was born ; the eldest son 
of the King of Scotland was not styled Earl of Carrick and Rothesay 
until the reign of Robert the Bruce. 



XI. 

In the Register of the Priory of St. Andrews, fol. 52 a, Bannatyne 
Club Edition, p. 117. Reeves, Culdees, p. 128. 

Haddan and Stubbs (2 ConciL, 153) identify Bishop Modach as 
Fothad, the second Bishop of St. Andrews of that name, from A.D. 1059 
till A.D. 1093. 



240 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

This bishop performed the ceremony of the marriage of Malcolm 

and Margaret : 

" Off Saynt Andrewys the byschape than 
The secimd Fothawch, a cunnand man 
Devotly mad that sacrament, 
That thai then tuk in gud intent." 

(Wyntoun, vn. iii., line 271.) 

Fothad, " Chief Bishop of Alban, is said to have professed subjec- 
tion to the Archbishop of York between A.D. 1070 and 1093, . . . but 
the authority for the story is . . . that of apartizan" (2 Concil., p. 160). 

Annals of Ulster A.D. 1093, " Fothadh, high bishop of Alban, rested 
in Christ." 

p. 9. Hurkenedorath. It has been suggested (Reeves, Culdees, 
p. 129), that this is Auchterderran, a parish in the Deanery of 
Fothrif, in the S.W. of Fife, of nearly 8000 acres, now rich 
in minerals. So far as I know, Auchterderran did not belong to 
St. Serf's, and the word Hurkenedorath could not, I think, become 
Auchterderran. I am not able to identify it. Hurkenedorath is the 
same (I suppose) as the villa de Hurhynderach (Reg. Prior. St. And., 
p. 16). It is called Hurhyndemuch (Bull of Pope Innocent, IV., 
ib. p. 104). Hurwarderec occurs in a charter by John, Prior of 
St. Andrews, of the barony of Kirkness (ib. p. 177). 

p. 10. Prestationes et canones. "Tria pensitationum genera re- 
censent scriptores, canonem oblationem et indictionem, ac canon sunt 
quidem seu canonici tituli solemnes et antiquae praestationes, indictio 
quicquid praeter canonem indicitur, oblatio denique aurum et argen- 
tum quod largitionibus infertur." 

Chalmers, Caledonia, I., p. 433 : " This is a very curious, but 
obscure extract from the Register of the Priory of St. Andrews. . . . 
It is apparent, however, that all those prestations were customary dues 
of ancient times, before the age of Fothald, the word canon being 
formerly used for any prestation, pension, or customary payment. . . . 
The Chudreme is the Irish Cudthrom . . . which signified weight. . . . 
The ' Male ' seems also to be a Celtic term for some payment. ' Mai ' 
in the Irish signifies a rent, a tribute." . . . Compare the Scottish term 
" Maills and duties." 



XII. 

The original charter on parchment is preserved in the Treasury 
of the Cathedral of Durham. It has often been printed, by Sir 
Jas. Dalrymple in 1705 (Collect, p. 229), by Canon Smith in A.D. 1722, 
in his folio edition of Bede, p. 760, and by Haddan and Stubbs 
(Concil., 2, p. 165). A facsimile is given by Anderson, Diplomata, 
pi. iv. ; Robertson's Index, p. 153, A.D. 1798; and in the National MSS. 
of Scotland, Pt. I. 



NOTES XI.-XII. 241 

Lord Hailes (Annals, i., p. 49) : " I should be apt to suspect the 
authenticity of this charter, if so many antiquaries had not appealed to 
it as genuine. . . . The form of the seal and the style of the figure 
on it are not free from suspicion." 

Chalmers impugned the genuineness of the charter on account of 
both its form and its substance. He said, confidently, " The Charter 
of Duncan is as putative as his birth and title." 

Mr. Cosmo Innes (Scotland in the Middle Ages, p. 79): "The 
rude pinning of a seal to it has raised some suspicion with regard to 
its genuineness, but I think without foundation. The appending of 
the seal is apparently a modern and clumsy attempt to add a sort of 
authentication which the charter did not want." 

Canon Smith described the seal : " In sigillo cernitur effigies 
hominis armati equo sedente circa quam inscriptio haec est. + Sigillum 
Dunecani regis Scotorum." 

Mr. W. Robertson inspected the charter at Durham in 1793. ^ e 
said (Index, p. 153): "It has a seal appended at the right hand 
corner, on brownish wax, with the impression of a warrior on horse- 
back. There has been a circumscription, now crumbled off, but * sigill 
. . . orum ' is still legible." 

Dr. Raine, N. Durham, pp. 374-75, dealt at great length with 
Chalmers' objections to the charter. He said : "The more attentively 
I have considered it, the more firmly I am convinced that it is a genuine 
document." Mr. Skene and Sir A. Dunbar accepted it as genuine. 

Duncan was a son of Malcolm III., but whether he was a bastard 
or was a legitimate son of a marriage with Ingibiorg, widow of Earl 
Thorfin, is uncertain. He was given as a hostage by King Malcolm 
to William the Conqueror, was a prisoner at the time of the Con- 
queror's death, was released by Duke Robert, was knighted, and 
served at the English court. 

If this charter be genuine it was probably granted when Duncan 
was at Durham, in A.D. 1094, on his way to Scotland to attack King 
Donald and to try to win the kingdom. Turgot, prior of Durham^ 
may have urged him to grant to St. Cuthbert lands in Lothian which 
had of old belonged to the church. Though he describes himself as 
a king, Duncan was then only a claimant. 

King Donald was defeated, Duncan was accepted as king, but soon 
the Scots gathered together and killed almost all his followers ; he 
and only a few escaped ; afterwards he agreed to dismiss his English 
and French comrades, but on 12 November, 1094, about six months 
from his first entering Scotland, he was killed, and the Scots again 
took Donald to be their king. 

Q 



242 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

p. 10. Tiningeham, etc. Two estates are granted in this charter : 

(1) Tiningeham, Aldeham, Scuchale, and Cnolle are in the parish 
of Whitekirk and Tyningham. 

(2) Hatherwick and Broxmouth are in the parish of Dunbar. 
They belonged of old to a monastery at Tyningham. 

When St. Cuthbert was a boy, his home was on the banks of the 
Tyne near Tyningham, and one of his early miracles was effected in 
aid of the monks. Between A.D. 651 and 686 the monks were re- 
placed by nuns. In 686 St. Cuthbert visited the nunnery when Verca 
the abbess gave him a shroud. 

St. Baldred (ob. A.D. 756) restored the monastery at Tyningham. 
Simeon of Durham speaks of "Tota terra quae pertinet ad monas- 
terium Sancti Balthere quod vocatur Tinningaham a Lombormore 
usque ad Escemuth" (Surtees edn., p. 140). 

In A.D. 941, Anlape "spoiled the church of St. Baldred and burned 
Tyningham." 

There is no evidence as to the possession of the lands of the monas- 
tery of Tyningham between A.D. 941 and A.D. 1093. 

This grant of Tyningham, etc., was inoperative ; the monks of St. 
Cuthbert at Durham never possessed these lands. 

Fodanus Episcopus, Fothad, Bishop of St. Andrews (p. 239). 
Haddan and Stubbs, 2 Concil., p. 165 : "The lands granted were part 
of the endowments of the see of St. Andrews, to which they again 
reverted : probably when Duncan's usurpation of the Scottish throne 
came to an end." 

Saca et soca mean " with jurisdiction over the tenants." Cf. soc or 
soken in Anglo-Saxon, socken in Norse, and sucken in old Scots. 

Pro uxore mea et pro infantibus meis. His wife is said to have 
been Ethelreda, daughter of Gospatric, Earl of Northumberland ; 
his son William was conspicuous at the court and in the army of 
King David I. Gylnertus, son of Duncan, is a witness to the 
doubtful charter by King Edgar. 

The names of the witnesses seem to me to create a grave doubt 
as to the genuineness of the charter. The granter speaks of the 
concurrence of his brothers, and Malcolumb and Eadgar may have 
been two sons of Malcolm III.; there is, however, no other record 
of a Malcolm, he was not one of the six sons of King Malcolm and 
Queen Margaret. 

The other witnesses to the charter, Accard, Ulf, Hermer, Hem- 
ming, CElfric, Teodbold, Vinget, and Earnulf, have not been identified. 
It seems strange that a charter to the church was not attested by a 
churchman. 

XIII. 

This notitia is in the Register of the Priory of St. Andrews, fol. 51 b ; 
Bannatyne Club edn., p. 115, between notices of a grant by King 
Malcolm and Queen Margaret (ante, p. 7) and of a grant by Ethelred 
(ante, p. 11). Probably it records a grant by King Donald Bane ; if 
so, the transcriber, writing at least as late as the reign of King 



NOTES XII.-XIV. 243 

David I., misread the name of King Donald's father, who was 
Duncan, not Conchat. 

Dr. Reeves' Culdees, p. 127: "Conchat is so written for Donchat 
. . . the original Mac Donchat causing an assimilation of the initial 
D, just as Mac Donnell is often written Mac Connell, and when the 
translator rendered the Mac by filius, he left the assimilated Conchat 
unrestored." 

Donald was a brother of King Malcolm Canmore, on whose death, 
in 1093, he was chosen king by the Scots. He was defeated by his 
nephew Duncan in 1094, whom he slew in the same year, and he 
reigned as king until he was defeated by Edgar in 1097. He was 
taken prisoner, blinded, and maimed. 

The story told by Wyntoun that Donald in his old age murdered 
the eldest son of David I. is manifestly untrue. 



XIV. 

This notitia is in the Registr. Prior. St. And., fol. 5ib ; Bannatyne 
Club edition, p. 115 ; Reeves' Culdees, p. 127. 

It speaks of Ethelred as "vir venerandae memoriae," whence it 
may be concluded that he was dead before the notice was written. 
Robertson (Early Kings, I., p. 151) says that Ethelred survived his 
parents only a very short time. 

The grant was given at Abernethy, and confirmed by David and 
Alexander, two of Ethelred's brothers, in presence of the Earl of Fife, 
and of several priests of Abernethy. 

There is another version in Sir Robert Sibbald's Collections (Adv. 
Lib., 34. 6. 24, p. 1 6) : 

" Nos Edelredus Dei gratia filius Malcolmi regis Scotie Abbas Dun- 
kelden et insuper Comes de Fyfe, damus et concedimus pro salute 
anime nostre et animarum antecessorum et successorum nostrorum 
Deo Omnipotenti et Sancto Servano et Keledeis eremitis de Loch- 
levin cum summa reverentia et honore et omni libertate terras de 
Auldmure ita libere ut aliquis rex, episcopus vel comes in toto regno 
Scotie dedit, per omnes rectas metas suas et divisas : Testibus, 
Maddock, comite ; Edmundo, fratre meo, filio regis, et Sirach, capel- 
lano. Apud Dunfermlin." 

Ethelred was the third son of King Malcolm III. and Queen 
Margaret. He cannot have been older than fifteen or sixteen in 
1093 when his father and mother died. 

In his youth he received Admore from his parents, possibly as 
part of the Earldom of Fife. It seems to me probable that he 
became a monk, and that he remained in the retirement of the Abbey 



244 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

of Dunkeld during the stormy years when his uncle Donald was 
king. 

I do not agree with Skene and other writers who assume that 
Ethelred was a ' lay ' abbot. 

That opinion is founded partly on the fact that Ethelred was an 
earl, and partly on the fact that a former abbot of Dunkeld, Crinan 
(Ethelred's great-grandfather), was married, and fought and fell in 
battle, but these circumstances are not incompatible with holy orders 
in those early days. 

Wyntoun, prior of St. Serf's, makes no mention of Ethelred in 
his Chronicle. Fordun said (5. 24): "De Ethelred nihil certum 
scriptis invenio ubi sit mortuus vel sepultus : praeter ut quidam 
asserunt in antiqua ecclesia S. Andreae de Kilrimont humatus 
requiescit." 

p. ii. Abbas de Dunkeld. The tradition was that King Kenneth 
Macalpine built the church of Dunkeld, to which he translated the 
relics of St. Columba circa A.D. 849. 

A.D. 865, Tuathal Mac Artguso "primus episcopus Fortrenn et 
abbas Duncaillen dormivit." A.D. 873, " Flaithbertach mac Mur- 
certaigh princeps Duincaillden obiit." A.D. 965 a battle between the 
men of Alban among themselves, when many were slain about 
Duncan, abbot of Dunkeld. 

A.D. 1027 Dunkeld was entirely burned. A.D. 1045 " Battle between 
the Albanich on both sides in which Crinan, Abbot of Dunkeld, was 
slain and many with him, viz. nine times twenty heroes." (Chron. P. 
and S., pp. 78, 361, 362, 364, 368.) 

Mr. Skene, Celt. Scot., 2, p. 337 : " We see it (Dunkeld) first as a 
Culdee church founded shortly before the accession of the Scottish 
kings to the Pictish throne ; then as a Scottish monastery, its abbot 
filling the high office of Bishop of Fortrenn, the new kingdom acquired 
by the Scots. 

" Then the bishopric passes to Abernethy, and the successor to the 
abbot, who was first bishop, appears as 'princeps 5 or superior of Dun- 
keld, a term which leaves it doubtful whether he was a cleric or a 
layman. 

" Then we find Duncan, Abbot of Dunkeld, slain in battle while 
fighting for one of the kings in a war of succession evidently a 
layman. Then we have Crinan, Abbot of Dunkeld, marrying one of 
the daughters of the king . . . The character of these abbots as great 
lay lords seems plain enough." 

Insuper Comes de Fyf. "Insuper" may be a mistake for a word 
meaning "formerly." G. E. C. suggests that Ethelred was Earl of 
Forthrif, and Constantine Earl of Fife. It was an early tradition that 
Macduff was Thane of Fife in the reign of Macbeth, and that in the 
time of King Malcolm he became Earl. Mr. Skene thinks Macduff 
is 'fictitious,' the creation of Fordun, and Robertson (Early Kings, 
I., p. 124): "Fife was 'in the Crown' in the days of Malcolm Can- 
more, who granted the Earldom to his son Ethelred. The Macduff, 



NOTES XIV. 245 

Earl of Fife, of the fabulists a being unknown to Wynton must be 
put down as a myth." These eminent writers are mistaken. Macduff 
may be a myth, but he is certainly not the creation of Fordun. 
Wyntoun, who calls him Thane of Fife, gives a long account of him 
which agrees with Fordun. 

p. ii. Admore, now Auchmoor, at the east end of Loch Leven. 
The first bridge over the Leven at the end of the Gullets is Auchmoor 
Bridge. The land remained part of the endowment of the priory of 
Loch Leven till the end of the thirteenth century. It passed with the 
other property of St. Serfs to the Priory of St. Andrews. 

p. 12. Abyrnethyn : Abernethy in Perthshire. "The Scottish tradi- 
tion concerning this church, as expressed in the oldest historical 
monument of the country, the Chronicon Pictorum, is, that it was 
founded by St. Brigid in virtue of a grant made to her by Nechtan, a 
Pictish king, who, while an exile in Ireland, had visited her at Kildare 
and sought her intercession for his restoration to the throne. John of 
Fordun found a similar statement in the private records of the place, 
so that, whatever difficulty there may be in reconciling King Nechtan's 
date with that of St. Brigid, it is clear that the ancient Scotch admitted 
the Irish origin of this church." Reeves, Culdees, p. 53. 

(Chron. P. and S., pp. 6, 28, 399 ; Skene, Celt. Scot., 2, p. 32 ; 
Reeves, Adamnan, p. 230.) 

King Garnald, A.D. 584-596, built a church at Abernethy to St. 
Brigid of Kildare (Chron. P. and S., p. 201). 

There is a tradition (Scotichron., 4, 12) that Abernethy was the see 
of the chief Bishop of Scotland. " Et in ilia ecclesia fuerunt tres 
electiones factae, quando non fuit nisi unus solus episcopus in Scotia. 
Nunc fuit locus ille sedes principalis regalis et pontificalis per aliquot 
tempora totius regni Pictorum." Mr. Skene (Celt. Scot, 2, 311) said : 
"We are driven to place it ... between the death of Tuathal, first 
bishop of the Picts, in the year 865, and the first appearance of ... a 
Bishop of St. Andrews ... in the year 908." 

But whether Abernethy was the see of a bishop, or whether bishops 
of Dunkeld or Fortrenn or in partibus were consecrated there, matters 
little. For, centuries before this grant by Ethelred, there had been a 
church and monastery at Abernethy. 

In 1072 King Malcolm Canmore did homage to William the Con- 
queror at Abernethy. 

In Ethelred's time the monastery had not yet been secularized ; less 
than a century afterwards part of the endowments had passed into the 
lands of Laurence, the son of Orm, who in one charter is called the 
abbot. In 1272 Abernethy was made a priory canons regular 
from Inchaffray displacing the Culdees. 

p. ii. Constantinus, Comes de Fife, was probably the son, or 
grandson, of Macduff of Fife, who lived in the reigns of Duncan I., 
Macbeth, and Malcolm III. 

Constantine Macdufe is one of the witnesses to the doubtful charter 
by Edgar to Durham (No. XV., ante, p. 12). 

Constantine Comes is a witness (circa A.D. 1 128) to the great charter 
by David I. to Dunfermline Abbey (No. LXXiv., ante, p. 61), with 
Gillemichel Mac duf, whom I take to be his son and successor in the 
Earldom. 



246 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

Here he is described as " vir discretissimus," and in the record of 
the suit between the brethren of St. Serf and Sir Robert Burgonensis 
(circa A.D. 1128, No. LXXX., ante, p. 66) he was one of the judges ; he 
was styled " magnus judex in Scotia" and " vir discretus et facundus." 
He appeared at the trial "cum satrapy s et satellitibus ex exercitu de 
Fyf." He is mentioned in Charter xciv., ante, p. 76, as having with- 
held by force the shire of Kirkcaldy from the Abbey of Dunfermline. 

p. n. Nesse et Cormac, etc. These were members of the religious 
house of Abernethy. 

p. 12. Rector scolarum de Abyrnethyn. The rector of the schools 
was probably the same as the Irish " Ferleighinn lector," a man of 
learning (Skene, Celt. Scot., 2, p. 445 ; Dr. Robertson's Scholastic 
Offices in the Scottish Church, Miscell. Spalding Club, v., p. 68). 



XV. 

This was printed by Dr. Raine (Appendix, N. Durham, p. 2, No. 
VII.) from a copy in a handwriting of the fifteenth century preserved 
in the Treasury of Durham Cathedral. There is an earlier version 
in the Registrum Primum of Durham, described in the index as 
"Carta originalis Regis Scotiae de xxx villis datis Episcopo Dunelm. 
et Priori," which purports to have been granted in the reign of 
William the Conqueror ; it was printed in the Dugdale, Monast, 
p. 238. 

This charter was first published in the Monasticon Anglicanum, I., 
p. 45, in A.D. 1655. In 1704 Atwood relied on it as decisive proof of 
the feudal superiority of the King of England over the Kingdom of 
Scotland. Anderson in his Diplomata asserted that it was a forgery ; 
Dr. Raine maintained it was genuine (N. Durham, p. 377). 

Later writers have held it to be spurious. Skene, Celt. Scot., I., 
p. 444 : " The expressions it contains, and especially the names of 
the witnesses, seem to me to mark it as unmistakeably spurious." 
Haddan and Stubbs (2 Concil., p. 116) are unable to distinguish 
between this charter and No. vn., which is undoubtedly a forgery. 

This charter purports to have been granted to William, the Bishop 
of Durham (who died January, 1096), and to have been confirmed " eo 
anno quo Rex Willelmus, filius magni Regis Willelmi, fecit novum 
castellum apud Bebbanburgh super Robertum comitem Northanhym- 
brorum" ; that was in A.D. 1095. 

Edgar did not become King of the Scots until October, A.D. 1097. 

Dr. Raine (N. Durham, p. 378), in defending the genuineness of the 
charter, said : " I admit that Edgar did not in fact accede to the 
throne of Scotland until the year 1097, whereas the Bishop (William) 



NOTES XIV.-XV. 247 

is known to have died in 1096 ; but then be it remembered that 
Edgar became King of Scotland de jure the moment his father . . . 
died in 1093 ; that as King de jure he was for two years at least 
contemporary with the Bishop, and that, during that period he resided 
in England, may be presumed from the fact that he was in 1097 
placed on his throne by an English army." 

But Edgar was not de jure king from the moment of his father's 
death. If Duncan was legitimate, he was de jure king until his 
death on 12 November, 1094. There were then two surviving sons 
of King Malcolm III. older than Edgar. Ethelred may have been 
disqualified, being a priest holding the abbacy of Dunkeld, but 
Edmund was a layman, and there are some who say that in 1095 he 
was reigning in Scotland as joint king with his uncle King Donald. 

Mr. Freeman acknowledged the difficulty ; he avoided it by 
suggesting that this charter was not given to William, the bishop who 
died in January 1096, but to Bishop Ranulf about A.D. noo. The 
words of the charter, however, are unambiguous ; they imply that it was 
granted in August, 1095, when William was still bishop, and when 
Edgar was not yet king. 

By it many lands were granted to the bishop of Durham. 

(i) Berwick. Whatever was the size of Berwick at the end of the 
eleventh century it soon afterwards became a burgh of considerable 
importance. It is unlikely that in 1095 it would be called a 'mansio. 3 

Fordun (5. 26) said that the grant of Berwick was made after Edgar 
became king, in gratitude for the assistance accorded to him by 
St. Cuthbert in 1097, and that afterwards the grant was revoked. 
" Addidit etiam vir magnificus sed et rex munificus, munus muneri, 
hoc est, villam nobilem de Berwyk cum appendiciis, episcopo et 
suis successoribus Dunelmensibus dedit et confirmavit possidendam. 
Quantum et quale donum regis episcopatus totus gratanter acci- 
piens in pace bona possedit, donee Ranulfus episcopus illud non 
immerito hoc modo demeruit. Edgaro rege ad regem Angliae 
Willelmum secundum tendente, Robertus ille, films Godwini de quo 
superius fit mentio de licentia regis ad terram, a rege sibi datam, 
in Laudonia moratus est, et dum castellum ibidem aedificare niteretur 
a provincialibus subito et baronibus tandem Dunelmensibus circum- 
ventus, eodem Ranulfo episcopo agente, captus est : in qua tarn en 
captione magnam suae virtutis memoriam apud totius regionis incolas 
dereliquit. Quod Rex Edgarus rediens ut audivit ilium, ex praecepto 
regis Angliae liberatum, secum in Scociam reduxit cum honore et 
quicquid ante episcopo donaverat, omnino sano consilio sibimet 
reservabat." 

Edgar's reign began in Oct., 1097. Ranulf Flambard was conse- 



248 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

crated Bishop of Durham on 5 June, 1099. William Rufus died on 
2 August, noo. 

(2) Lands in Berwickshire : Greiden (now Milne Graden), Leinhale 
(now Lennel), Dilsterhalle (not identified), Brigham (or Birgham), 
Edrom, Chirnside, Hilton, Blackadder, Chynbrygham, Hutton, 
Hadrington (Edrington), Horford, Upsetinton (Upsettington), Cold- 
ingham and the mansions, Regnington, Paxton, Fulden, Morthyng- 
ton, Lamberton, the other Lamberton, Fiskwick. Some of these 
lands were granted by King Edgar after A.D. 1097, others never 
belonged to the priory of Durham. 



The list of the attesting witnesses in this copy is corrupt, and varies 
from the version in the Registrum, in which the witnesses are Edgar 
Rex, Alexander frater ejus, Ligulfus films Inemanni, Gylnertus films 
Dunecani, Oularis films Oghe, Unteedus Fuderne, and Edgar 
Atheling. 

The witnesses, Uhtredus, filii Macdufe Constantini, Rodbertus de 
Humet, Aetele, Agulfus, Alimodus son of David, do not appear in 
the Registrum. 

Robert de Humet. The de Humets were a Norman family 
members of which held the office of constable of Normandy in the last 
half of the twelfth century. 

(Round's Select Charters, pp. 56, 59, 91, and Farcer's Lancastr. 
Pipe Rolls, pp. 371, 395, 398.) 

p. 13. Haec carta firmata est. The second part of the document is 
a confirmation by Edgar in the cemetery, at Norham, on the 4th 
day before the Kalends of September, in the year in which King 
William, the son of the great King William, made the new castle at 
Bebbanburgh against (' super ') Robert, Earl of the Northumbrians. 

Dr. Raine says this was the 29 August, 1095. 

Robert de Mowbray, Earl of Northumberland, refused in 1095 to obey 
King William II., who, with an armed force, took Newcastle from him. 
De Mowbray still held Bamborough. The king besieged it in the 
autumn of 1095 ; at Michaelmas the king left Northumberland for 
the south. 

This confirmation represents Edgar, King of the Scots, as holding 
a sort of court at Norham, attended by the Bishop and the Prior 
of Durham. 

Ansketillus praepositus de Norham. In 1095 there was no praepositus 
of Norham, because the castle of Norham was not erected until 
A.D. ii2i ; the small town was afterwards built round the castle. 
Ansketil was Constable of Norham Castle after 1121. 



NOTES XV.-XVI. 249 

Ilgerus de Corneford. So far as I know, there is no Corneford ; 
there is a place called Cornhill or Cornhall. 

Walter De Valoniis. The family was of rank and influence in the 
north sixty years later. 

Galfred de Aldreius. Perhaps the writer of the charter meant to 
designate a member of the family of Audrey, which, however, did not 
settle in the north until thirty or forty years after 1095. 

John de Amundeville. The Amundevilles were a Lincolnshire and 
Yorkshire family (Round's Select Charters, p. 39 ; Farrer, Select Pipe 
Rolls of Lancashire, p. 345). 

Dr. Raine, in supporting this charter, relied on a MS. in hand- 
writing of the earlier half of the twelfth century, in the Library of 
Trinity Coll., Cambridge, " de donis a diversibus regibus datis Sancto 
Cuthberto " ; but it does not accurately describe this charter, for it 
speaks of two gifts one of Berwick and its appurtenants to the 
bishop of Durham, the other of Coldingham and its appurtenants 
to the monks of St. Cuthbert ; this charter gave all to the bishop. 



XVI. 

This, and another to the same effect, are preserved in the Treasury 
of Durham. The other was printed in facsimile in the National MSS. 
of Scotland, No. vn. 

Each of these charters has a seal appended to it. One is figured 
in the National MSS. of Scotland ; it is given with greater beauty in 
Wyon's Great Seals. 

In the Relatio de Sancto Cuthberto in MS. Gale, O. iii. 55, 2 Archeol. 
^Eliana, p. 6, and Simeon of Durham, Surtees Soc. ed., Vol. 51, p. 236, 
the gift of King Edgar to Bishop William is recorded, " Isto eodem 
rege Willelmo laudante et concedente ALdgarus rex Scotiae donavit et 
reddidit Sancto Cuthberto et Willelmo episcopo in Lodoneio Berewic 
cum omnibus suis appenditiis ; et monachis in ecclesia Dunelmi Deo 
et Sancto Cuthberto servientibus Coldingham cum suis omnibus 
appenditiis, sicut in carta continetur ; quam ipse et fratres sui propria 
manu signaverunt et firmaverunt." 

There are only three other examples of King William II.'s Great 
Seal two at Eton, and another (broken) in the Record Office ; the 
Durham seal alone has been published ; it is similar to the Great 
Seal of the Conqueror. 

It is difficult to reject the confirmations, and with them the 
charter No. XV. ; there is evidence that Edgar, before he became 



250 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

king, made a grant to Durham, of land in Scotland ; it is improbable 
that the monks of Durham forged a charter for lands, some of 
which they never possessed. It is difficult to believe that they forged 
two confirmations by the king of England, to which were appended 
impressions of the Great Seal. 

Still it is hard to accept as genuine a charter and its confirma- 
tions which purport to have been granted by King Edgar to 
Bishop William, who died more than a year before the king began 
to reign. 



XVII. 

The original, with a seal, is in the Treasury at Durham. It was 
printed by Dr. Raine (N. Durham, Appendix, No. vui.). 

Dr. Raine (p. 380) said : " This charter is a most palpable forgery, 
fabricated apparently for the express purpose of establishing the 
superiority of England. 

"... Never, perhaps, was there so miserable an attempt at imita- 
tion. The parchment, unlike that of the eleventh century, is thin and 
imperfectly prepared, the ink is bad and in some places fading away, 
and the phraseology and every other characteristic of the document 
belong to a period later by centuries than the reign of Edgar. But 
the seal gives the finishing stroke to the whole. It is in fact a bad 
imitation, upon a very reduced scale, of the Great Seal of Robert I. or 
Robert II. The name indicating the name of the king being broken 
away, ... the charter is probably one of the alleged forgeries of 
Harding, the poetical chronicler, who lived in the reign of Henry 
VI., and received an annuity from the Crown for his services." 

As Dr. Raine condemns the charter, I need say no more to show 
that it is spurious. This throws suspicion on the previous charter, XV. 
If the monks could forge the one, they could forge the other, which is 
much to the same effect. 



XVIII. 

The original charter was formerly in the Treasury of the Cathedral 
of Durham ; it is now lost. There is a facsimile of it in Anderson's 
Diplomata. It was seen by Mr. Wm. Robertson on 3 October, 1793 
(Index, p. 152). Raine, N. Durham, Appendix, p. 3, No. IX. 



NOTES XVI.-XVIII. 251 

It was confirmed by King Robert III. of Scotland, 26 January, 
1393 (Robert., Index, p. 154). 

It has been accepted as genuine. The date is probably soon after 
King Edgar's accession in 1097. 

It is a grant to the monks of St. Cuthbert of the lands of Colding- 
ham, and a confirmation of all their lands in Lothian. 

It is to be noticed that the king grants lands only ; there is no men- 
tion of a church at Coldingham, nor of tithes. 

It has been erroneously said that King Edgar, by this and sub- 
sequent charters, founded the ' Priory ' of Coldingham. The monks 
of Durham held the lands, and afterwards built a church ; but there 
was no Priory at Coldingham before 1147. 

p. 1 6. Edgarus. Edgar was the fourth son of King Malcolm and 
Queen Margaret. He was born about A.D. 1074. He accompanied 
the army in the invasion of Northumberland in 1093 and brought the 
news of his father's death to his mother, who was then on her death- 
bed in Edinburgh Castle. 

Probably he remained in England from 1093 till 1097. In the 
autumn of 1097 the English king allowed an English force to follow 
Edgar Atheling to Scotland, when King Donald was defeated and 
Edgar was accepted as king. 

The legend is that, at Durham, St. Cuthbert appeared to Edgar in a 
vision, and ordering him to take his banner, promised him victory. 

Fordun (5, 25): "Cui erga natale solum properanti et hostium 
seditionem timenti astitit in visu noctis silentio beatus Cuthbertus, 
dicens: 'Fili, noli timere, quia placuit Deo dare tibi regnum: et hoc 
tibi signum, cum vexillum meum tecum de monasterio Dunelmi 
tuleris, et contra adversaries illud erexeris, tibi exurgam in auxilium, 
et dissipabuntur inimici tui, et qui oderunt te fugient a facie tua.' 

" Expergefactus itaque adolescens, avunculo suo Edgaro rem retulit 
et ille, Deo se et omnes suos de patrocinio Sancti Cuthberti com- 
mittens, quod Sanctus hortando jusserat, animosius adimplevit. 

" Postea facto congressu, et Sancti Cuthberti vexillo levato, quidam 
miles Anglicus genere, Robertus nomine, filius antedicti Godwini, 
paternae probitatis imitator et haeres, duobus tantum militibus comi- 
tatus, in hostes irruit, et fortissimis, qui ante aciem quasi defensores 
stabant, peremptis, antequam insimul appropinquarent exercitus, 
Donaldus cum suis in fugam conversus est, et sic incruentam vic- 
toriam, Deo propitio, meritis Sancti Cuthberti feliciter optinuit." 

St. Cuthbert's banner was preserved in the Cathedral of Durham. 
It could not be removed from the shrine without the express consent 
of the Prior (Raine, N. Durham, p. 264). 

More than four hundred years later, the banner of St. Cuthbert was 
carried before the English army at the Battle of Flodden. 

Bishop Ruthal, writing to Cardinal Wolsey, 20 September, 1513 
(Nat. MSS. of England, Vol. n.), a few days after Flodden : "There 
were that day many good and toward captains who did their parts 
well : howbeit the Lord Howard was the first setter on and took most 
pain in conducting the vaward of the English army, to whom joined 



252 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

St. Cuthbert's banner with the whole retinue of the Bishoprick : and 
albeit the Scots had most disrespect to the said banner and set most 
fiercely upon it, yet what by the grace of God, the assistance of St. 
Cuthbert to his banner . . . there they got no advantage. . . ." 

p. 1 6. Omnibus per regnum suum Scottis et Anglis. In the recital 
of this charter in a confirmation by King Robert III. (1390-1406), 
" probis " is inserted : " Omnibus probis per," etc. 

p. 1 6. Sancto Cuthberto. St. Cuthbert was greatly revered in the 
north of England and the south-east of Scotland. He was born about 
A.D. 635. In his youth he was a shepherd near Childeskirk (Channel- 
kirk) in Lauderdale. He was admitted into the monastery of Old 
Melros, and was initiated by Eata. When Eata was removed to 
Lindisfarne, Cuthbert accompanied him and he became Prior of 
Lindisfarne. He spent his life preaching and converting the people 
of Northumbria and the Lothians. He was made a bishop A.D. 685, 
but after three years he returned to the monastery where he died. 

p. 16. Monachis ejus. These were Benedictine monks brought to 
Durham by Bishop William de Carileph from the monasteries of 
Wearmouth and Jarrow. 

p. 1 6. Coldingham is a large parish in Berwickshire. 

About A.D. 635 Oswyn took refuge in lona where he was converted 
to Christianity ; afterwards he became King of Northumbria. His 
sister Ebba founded a nunnery near Coldingham, on the coast of 
Berwickshire, then part of Northumbria, at the place now called St. 
Abb's Head (Dugd. Mon., 6, p. 1149). 

For nearly two hundred years, the nunnery of St. Abb's flourished 
and had a great reputation for asceticism and holiness. It was here 
that Ethelrida, Queen of Egfrid, took the veil A.D. 673 ; she afterwards 
founded the church and nunnery of Ely. 

Bede said of her (iv., cap. xvn. (xix.), Plummer, i, p. 243), 
"Intravit monasterium Aebbae Abbatissae, quae erat amita regis 
Ecgfridi, positum in loco, quern Coludi urbem nominant, accepto 
velamine sanctimonialis habitus a praefato antistite Uilfrido. Post 
annum vero ipsa facta est abbatissa in regione, quae vocatur Elge," 
and (iv., cap. xxin. (xxiv.), Plummer, i, p. 262) : " His temporibus 
monasterium virginum quod Coludi urbem cognominant cujus et 
supra meminimus, per culpam incuriae flammis absumtum est. Quod 
tamen a malitia inhabitantium in eo, et praecipue illorum qui majores 
esse videbantur contigisse omnes, qui novere facillime potuerunt 
advertere. Sed non defuit puniendis admonitio divinae pietatis, qua 
correcti per jejunia, fletus, et preces iram a se, instar Ninevitarum justi 
judicis averterent." 

St. Abb's nunnery was destroyed by the Danes circa A.D. 870. From 
that time until the time of King Edgar, it was probably in ruins. 

There are still vestiges of buildings which may have been erected 
in the old time. 

M'Gibbon and Ross, Ecclesiastical Architecture of Scotland, vol. 3, 
P- 437 : " There are scanty but distinct traces of two churches on St. 
Abb's Head, about three miles north of Coldingham. They are 



NOTES XVIII.-XIX. 253 

situated about half-a-mile apart, one to the west of the promontory 
and the other to the south-east, and both stand on high cliffs over- 
looking the sea. 

" The one to the south-east, called St. Abb's Chapel, is situated in 
the centre of a churchyard. ... At the time Carr wrote his History 
of Coldingham Priory (publ. 1836) the walls of the church were stand- 
ing to a height of some three or four feet, now only the grass founda- 
tions remain. These indicate a chancelled building, the outside 
dimensions of which are : length of chancel from east to west, about 
21 feet ; width, about 24 feet ; length of nave, 56 by 30 in width. . . . 

" The other chapel at St. Abb's Head is in very much the same 
state. More of the masonry is visible. It measures, on the inside, 
about 69 feet long by 22 feet wide, with walls about 4 feet thick. In 
the centre of the west wall there is a recess about 6 feet long by 2^ feet 
wide. At the north-east corner there is a notch about 9 feet square 
cut out of the chapel as it were, forming to all appearance a chancel 
narrower than the nave on one side instead of in the centre. The 
remains are very scanty." 

p. 1 6. Omnes illas terras ... in Lodoneo. This general confirma- 
tion may refer to the traditional claims of his monks to the territory of 
St. Cuthbert, north of the Tweed, and to the lands which King Duncan 
had promised to Durham. 

Et volo et praecipio. The king professed to give the monks 
immediate possession. Doubtless the land was held by Crown 
tenants who in future would pay dues or rents in kind to the monks 
instead of to the king. 



XIX. 

The original is in the Treasury at Durham. The seal is missing. 
Robertson, in October, 1793, saw a ta g to which some remains of wax 
still adhered. Printed in Smith's Bede, p. 760 ; Anderson's Diplo- 
mata, with a facsimile, Plate VI. ; Raine's N. Durham, Appendix, p. i, 
No. II. ; National MSS. of Scotland Facsimile, No. vi. 

It was granted after No. xvm. (of which there is a copy 
only), which it virtually confirms, with the addition of the homesteads 
in Coldingham. 

The doubtful charter, XV., said to have been granted before Edgar 
became king, conveyed a much larger estate than these charters, 
XVIII. and XIX., which grant only Coldingham and its farms ; Ald- 
cambus, Lumsden, Renton, Reston, Swinewood, Farndun, the 
two Aytons, Prendergest, Cramsmouth. 

These were probably the ' Coldinghamshire ' of No. XX. ; they 
formed an estate which comprised the modern parishes of 
Coldingham, Eyemouth, Ayton, Mordington, and part of Cock- 
burnspath. 



254 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

All that the king transferred to the Priory of Durham was 
the right to receive rents and services from the owners or permanent 
tenants. We see from No. xx. that these rents and services 
were commuted for the annual payment of half-a-mark of silver 
for each plough. 

The grant was made ' in elemosinam,' absolutely free from secular 
burdens and from feudal casualties. 

p. 17. Mansio is a word seldom found in Scottish charters. It 
means a farm ; it survives in ' mains,' the home-farm of an estate, 
and in manse, the house of the minister of a parish. 

"La manse comprend une etendue de terres plus ou moins grande, 
avec les bailments d'exploitation et la maison d'habitation, ce que 
nous appellerions aujourd'hui une ferme." (Preface to the Chartulaire 
de S. Victor de Marseille, p. 59.) 

" Throughout the Exeter Doomsday the word ' mansio ' is used 
instead of the manerium of the Exchequer Record, and even in the 
Exchequer Record we may find these two terms used interchangeably." 
(Maitland, Doomsday Book and Beyond, p. 109.) 

p. 17. Goldingham : in Coldingham 'G' and 'C' are frequently 
interchanged, e.g. Gospatric and Cospatric. 

On the estate granted to Durham the monks built a church in 
the little town (supposed to be the Urbs Coludi of Bede), which lies in a 
valley about a mile distant from the sea and more than two miles from 
the precipice on which the old nunnery of St. Abba stood. 

Few lived at the place where the monks settled, and to help to 
bring a population, King Malcolm IV. (1153-1164) permitted them 
to remove 'their men,' I fancy the 'nativi' or * adscriptitii glebae,' 
from other parts of Coldinghamshire "ad hebergandam villam de 
Coldingham." (Raine, N. Durham, App., No. xxvin.) 

p. 17. Aldcambus lies north of Coldingham, in the parish of 
Cockburnspath. The ruins of the old church of St. Helen's stand on a 
high cliff above the sea. As early as the twelfth century Edward de 
Alcambus was a man of consequence ; he exchanged Aldcambus with 
the monks for Lumsden (Raine, N. Durham, App., No. CLXXVIL). In 
the same century Arnold and David and Thomas of Quickswood held 
a great part of Aldcambus (Raine, N. Durham, App., No. CLXXX. 
et seq.\ where they endowed a Hospital for Lepers (ib. Lix. and 

CLXXXVI.). 

p. 17. Lummesdene is an estate which lies between Coldingham 
and Aldcambus. The family of Lumsden of that Ilk held lands here; 
the priory in 1298 A.D. had six ploughgates, equal to about 624 acres of 
arable land, in demesne. In Wester Lumsden, on the rocky coast, 
stands Fast Castle. It was an old stronghold, which is heard of from 
time to time as being taken and retaken in the fourteenth and fifteenth 
centuries. It was rebuilt about 1521, and it is interesting as the 
gloomy prison in which the Gowrie conspirators intended to confine 
James VI. 

p. 17. Regnintun and Ristun are now Renton and Reston, estates 
in the Parish of Coldingham. A little story in one of the many 



NOTES XIX. 255 

charters relating to Reston, preserved at Durham, is interesting. 
Roger de Riston hired John, ' porcarius,' as his substitute in a wager of 
battle. The swineherd fought and won. He got a toft and a croft 
and three acres of Great Riston as his fee, which he then granted to 
the Priory. (Raine, N. Durham, App., No. cccxcvn. et seq.} 

p. 17. Swinewde. Swinewood was a forest of the Priory. There 
are many charters relating to it at Durham. (Raine, N. Durham, 
App., CXVIII.-CXLV.) 

p. 17. Farndun. I doubt whether this be Foulden (a parish adjoin- 
ing Ayton), because Foulden in after years was not the property of the 
monks of St. Cuthbert ; it was not included in the confirmation by 
King David (ante, p. 54), and it does not appear in the accounts of the 
Revenue, etc., of the Priory, published by the Surtees Society. Ander- 
son (Diplomata) suggested that Farndun was Fairneyside, a land in 
the parish of Coldingham. 

p. 17. Eitun et alia Eitun. Ayton is a parish on the coast of Ber- 
wickshire, south of Coldingham. It is probable that the other Eitun 
was the land to the south now called Mordington and Lamberton. 
The Courts of the Priory were held at Ayton ; the castle was destroyed 
by the English in 1448. 

p. 17. Prenegest is Prendergest, an estate in Ayton. Some of the 
Prendergests of that Ilk were conspicuous ; many of their charters are 
preserved at Durham. 

p. 17. Cramesmudhe is a part of Burnmouth, a village on the coast, 
to the south of Coldingham. 

p. 17. Teloneis. 'Teloneum' means both the right to demand a toll 
and also the privilege of exemption from it. In an old writing printed 
by Dr. Raine (N. Durham, App., p. 106) toll is defined : " Tol hoc est 
quod vos et homini vestri de toto homagio vestro sint quieti in omnibus 
mercatis de Tolneto pro omnibus rebus emptis et venditis." 

Mr. Cosmo Innes (Legal Antiquities, p. 56) says : " In the common 
case. ... I prefer the interpretation which makes thol the definite 
technical privilege the right of exacting the duty, rather than the 
right of refusing to pay it." 

There is some evidence that the monks of Coldingham exacted a 
custom on merchandise landed at the harbour of Eyemouth (Priory of 
Coldingham, Surtees Society, pp. xxxix and xcv). The Priors of 
Coldingham afterwards obtained special grants of freedom from toll. 
(Raine, N. Durham, App., Nos. XXXI., xxxii., XLVII., XLVIIL, and 

LXIII.) 

p. 17. Fracturae navium. A wreck, provided it was totally 
abandoned and had no living thing on board, was inter regalia, 
but it was sometimes granted to subjects. It was a valuable right 
to those owning land on the rocky and inhospitable coast of 
Berwickshire. 

There is an interesting fragment of old law on the subject of wreck 
printed by Sir John Skene as a law of Alexander II., "De Wrecko 
maris," but as it seemed to be from an English writer, it was not 
included in the Record edition of the Scots Acts. 



256 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 



XX. 

The original is preserved in the Treasury at Durham. It was 
printed by Anderson, Diplomata (Facsimile, Plate vi.) ; by Canon 
Smith, Bede, p. 760 ; Raine, N. Durham, Appendix, No. iv. ; National 
MSS. of Scotland Facsimile, No. IV. The seal is now missing. 
Anderson described it as having the superscription : " Imago Edgari 
Scottorum Basilei." 

When the monks got Coldingham from King Edgar, the old 
buildings of St. Abb's nunnery were in ruins, and they had to 
build a church on their new property. The King attended the 
dedication, and then gave them the lands of Swinton which lay a few 
miles from Coldingham to the west. He laid on the altar a symbol 
of his gift. This charter was written afterwards. 

p. 17. Super altare obtuli. The ceremony of laying on the altar a 
symbol of a grant was common. Du Cange gives illustrations of this 
under " In altari offerre," and Marculfus, Formula I., " De Dona- 
tionibus quae fiebant ecclesiae earum instrumentis super altaria 
positis, quo solenniores essent ac ipsi Deo factas constaret." 

A knife was a common symbol ; the donor opened and shut the 
blade and laid it on the altar. In the Treasury at Durham there are 
two charters with knives appended. (Raine, N. Durham, p. 77.) 
Another symbol was a sod of earth. (Chron. Picts and Scots, p. 
187.) " La motte de terre, la glebe, etait transported devant le preteur 
romain au moyen-age ; on la deposait sur 1'autel dans 1'eglise et 
dans les monasteres en presence de nombreux temoins." (Preface 
to the Chartulary of the Abbey of Re"don.) 

When King Alexander I. restored lands to the Church of St. 
Andrews, he led his Arab horse and armour up to the altar as a 
symbol of the grant. 

p. 17. Swintun, a parish in Berwickshire. The vill was granted, 
but it is clear from later charters that the right of the monks was 
disputed, and that they did not get possession of the whole. 

p. 17. Liulf. In Charter ci. (ante, p. 80) King David described 
Swinton as formerly held by Udard, the son of Liulf, the son of 
Edulf. Mr. Round (5 Genealogist, p. 27) was of opinion that Liulf of 
Swinton was Liulf of Bebbanburch, one of the witnesses to this charter, 
an opinion in which I am not able to agree. It seems to me that it is 
here implied that Liulf had held the land so long ago that it had 
become waste and needed twenty-four oxen to restore it to cultivation, 
and if Liulf, who formerly held Swinton, was "de Bebbanburch," 
he surely would have been so designated in the body of the charter. 

p. 17. xxiiii animalia : three yoke of 8 oxen each for ploughing. 

p. 17. Eandem pacem. This is the earliest notice of the King's 
peace in Scotland. The privileges of those who had or who claimed 
the King's peace, and the penalties on those who violated it, were the 
subject of many subsequent laws. 



NOTES XX. 257 

p. 17. Eilande : Islandshire, included Holy Island and Norham, 
both in North Durham. 

p. 17. carruca : a plough. The owners of each plough engaged to 
pay half a mark of silver annually. Each presumably held a car- 
rucate, equivalent to an English hide. 

Dr. Maitland has shown that in theory, if not always in fact, a 
carrucate consisted of 120 acres. In Scotland an acre was measured 
by a longer rod and was larger than an acre in England. So that 
104 acres Scots were equal to 120 acres English. An oxgang was 13 
acres, and 8 oxgangs was a ploughgate of 104 acres. 

p. 17. Testibus, Aelfwinus. In Anderson's Diplomata, Aelfwinus 
and Oter are joined as the name of one man. In the original, Oter 
seems a distinct name. Neither Aelfwinus nor Oter has been 
identified by me. Thor longus : a well known man. (See Charters 
xxiv., ante, p. 19 ; xxxill., p. 25, and xxxiv., p. 26.) Aelfricus pincerna : 
the king's butler. He is a witness to the Foundation Charter of Scon, 
No. xxxvi., ante, p. 30. 'Aelfric' witnessed King Duncan's Charter, 
No. XII., p. 10. Algarus presbiter : this maybe"Algar the priest," 
who held the churches of St. Oswald and Aldan of Bamborough 
(Farrer, Lancashire Pipe Rolls, p. 384). Algar was Prior of Durham 
in the reign of David I. Osbern presbiter, probably the same as 
Osbern the Chaplain, in Charter XXXIL, ante, p. 25. 

p. 1 8. Cnut Carl s. Anderson (Diplomata) suggested that this is 
' Cnut Carleolensis,' but I think it is ' Carl's son.' If so, can this be the 
Cnut referred to by Freeman, Norman Conquest, Vol. IV., p. 525 ? 

About 1073 "with all his piety and patriotism the spirit of North- 
umbrian deadly feud was deeply rooted in the heart of the new Earl 
[Waltheof]. Long before his own birth, in the days of Harthacnut, 
his mother's father Earl Ealdred had been treacherously murdered by 
his sworn brother Carl. . . . The old tragedy was now to be acted 
over again. . . . The sons of Carl . . . were feasting in the house of 
their elder brother at Seterington in Yorkshire ; a party of young men 
sent across the border by the Earl of the Northumbrians came upon 
them . . . when they were thus unarmed and unsuspecting. The 
whole family, all the sons and grandsons of Carl, were cut off, save one 
son Sumerled who chanced not to be present and another Cnut whose 
character had won him such general love that the murderers them- 
selves could not bring themselves to slay him" ("Praeter Cnutonem 
cui pro instita illi bonitate vitam permiserunt"). "The slayers re- 
turned to their master with the spoils of their victims, and the ancient 
crime of Carl was thus avenged by a still deeper crime on the part of 
Waltheof." 

p. 1 8. Ogga et Lesing. " Leysing et Oggo Cumbrenses judices" 
are two of the jurors who gave evidence regarding the lands of the 
Church of Glasgow. (No. L., ante, p. 46.) " Ogga and Leising" 
are witnesses to the Great Charter of Holyrood. (No. CLIIL, p. 119.) 

p. 1 8. Swein Ulf kill's son, I have not identified. 

p. 1 8. Ligulf de Bebbanburch. Mr. Round is of opinion that he was 
the same as the Liulf of Swinton mentioned in this charter, and that 
he was the son of Eadwulf, who lived at the time of the Conquest, and 

R 



258 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

the father of Udard, the Sheriff of Northumberland to whose son 
William, King Henry I. granted a confirmation of all the lands his 
father had held. In my opinion there is not sufficent evidence either 
to connect Liulf of Swinton with him of Bebbanburch or to prove that 
Bebbanburch was the son of Eadwulf. 

p. 1 8. Uhtred Eilaue's sune, I have not identified. 

p. 1 8. Uniaet thwite is 'Uniet Albus' of other charters. He held 
land near Edinburgh and gave a part of Craggenemarf to Holyrood 
Abbey (No. CLIII., p. 118). He attested several of King David's 
charters (ante, pp. 57, 58, 63, 65, and 82). He may be the Vinget of 
King Duncan's charter (XIL, p. 10). 



XXI. 

The original charter is in the Treasury at Durham. It has been 
printed: Robertson, Index, p. 153; Smith's Bede, p. 761; Raine, 
N. Durham, App., p. 2, No. v. ; National MSS. of Scotland. 

There is a seal attached by a tag at the left hand corner, having 
the figure of a king seated on his throne. A few letters only of the 
superscription are legible, "... E ... n ha." 

The King here adds to his former gifts to the monks of St. Cuth- 
bert, Paxton, a pleasant land on the Tweed some miles from Colding- 
ham in what is now Hutton parish in Berwickshire. The Paxtons 
' de eodem ' attained respectable rank. There are many charters at 
Durham printed by Dr. Raine which throw light on the early history of 
the land. Part of the service due by the church tenants in Paxton 
was to labour on the Prior's demesne of Fishwick. 



XXII. 

The original is in the Treasury at Durham. It was printed by 
Smith, Bede, p. 761 ; Raine, N. Durham, App., p. 2, No. vi. ; 
Nat. MSS. of Scotland, No. III. 

Robertson copied this charter in October, 1793. He describes the 
seal as " on brownish wax at a tag on the left hand corner, represent- 
ing a King sitting on his throne with a sceptre in his right hand and 
a sword in his left. The circumscription is much decayed. These 
letters are still legible . . . Edgar . . . ottorum basilei" (Index, 

P. 153). 

This is a grant 'in elemosinam' to the monks of St. Cuthbert, of 
Fishwick, with the lands adjacent, and especially that land which 
lies between Horndean and Cnapdene. The grant was confirmed by 
King Alexander I. (xxxi., ante, p. 24), and by King David I. (LXV., 
ante, p. 54). 



NOTES XX.-XXIV. 259 

p. 1 8. Fishwick is in Berwickshire, on the banks of the Tweed, 5^ 
miles from the town of Berwick, in the parish of Hutton. 

In 1298 the Priory of Coldingham had in demesne about 192 
acres of arable land, 50 acres of pasture and fishings in the river. 
Swain, the priest of Fishwick (mentioned in charters CVI., cxi.), 
restored to the Priory its rights in Fishwick, which he seems, for 
a time, to have usurped (ccxxxvi., ante, pp. 189-190). The greater part 
was afterwards held by " husbandi, cottarii et firmarii " on the tenure 
of cultivating the Prior's lands, making and driving peats, threshing 
corn, etc. I do not find any vassal holding by feudal tenure. 

p. 1 8. Horuerdene. Probably Horndean in the parish of Ladykirk, 
which adjoins Fishwick. After the death of King Edgar when Earl 
David held land in Berwickshire, the respective rights of his Thegns 
and Drengs and of the monks were in dispute (xxxii., ante, p. 25), 
Horndean was afterwards acquired by the Abbey of Kelso. 



XXIII. 

From the Register of the Priory of St. Andrews, fol. 5 1 b, Bannatyne 
Club Edition, p. 115 ; Reeves, Culdees, p. 127. 

It is a Notitia that Edgar King of Scotland, son of Malcolm, 
granted in alms to God Almighty and to the Keledei (of St. Serf's), 
Petnemokane with all rights stated in the Register of St. Serfs Priory. 

p. 19. Petnemokane adjoined Kirkness. See v., ante, p. 5, and note, 
p. 231. 



XXIV. 

The original is in the Treasury at Durham. It was printed by 
Canon Smith, Bede, p. 763 ; Anderson's Diplomata, LXIX. ; Raine, 
N. Durham, App., p. 38, No. CLXI. 

Thor Longus seems to have been a wealthy man, capable of 
bringing waste land into cultivation, a devout man who built a 
church and gave it and a ploughgate of land to the monks of St. 
Cuthbert, and a devoted servant of King Edgar, for whose soul and 
for the souls of the King's father, his mother and brothers and sisters, 
this grant was made. The charter shows his affection for his brother 
Leswinus, a captive, possibly taken prisoner in the Crusade. Thor 
wrote a letter (xxxill., ante, p. 25) to his dearest Lord, Earl David, 
commending this grant to his protection, and Earl David confirmed it 
(xxxiv., ante, p. 26). 

p. 19. Ednaham (now called Ednam), a parish of about 4000 acres 
in the shire of Roxburgh, 7.\ miles from Kelso, on the river Eden. 



26o EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

King Edgar either did not grant the whole of Ednam to Thor Longus, 
or else part of it was reassumed by the Crown, because King David 
had land there, held under him by Gilbert the priest of Stitchel for 
a payment of two shillings a year, which the King granted to the 
monks of St. Cuthbert (cxi., ante, p. 86). 

King David had also a mill from which he gave twelve chalders of 
malt, and a moor land in which he gave a right of turbary to the 
monks of Kelso. 

Towards the end of his reign King David had two tenants in 
Ednam, Peter the son of Walter of Stirling (who held a ploughgate for 
twenty shillings) and Tebald de Norham (who held half a ploughgate 
for half a mark). These rents the King assigned to his cleric Nicolas 
(cxcvm., ante, p. 161). King Malcolm IV. gave land in Ednam to 
William the son of Nigel (Robertson, Index, p. 24). King William 
gave the monks of Kelso three ploughgates in Ednam in exchange for 
inter alia the twelve chalders of malt from the mill. Dryburgh Abbey 
acquired right to part of the land which St. Nicolas the cleric got. 
(Reg. de Dryburgh, pp. 113, 117.) 

Mr. Cosmo Innes (Sketches, p. 109) notices a confirmation by King 
Alexander II. of a sale of half a ploughgate in Ednam. There was a 
Hospital there (Reg. de Dryburgh, p. 113). At the end of the twelfth 
century a considerable part of the manor was held by the Priory of 
Coldingham and by the Abbots of Kelso and of Dryburgh and by the 
Hospital. What remained of the Crown land was granted by King- 
Robert the Bruce to Walter the Steward on his marriage to the King's 
daughter (Robertson, Index, p. 9). Robert the Steward (afterwards 
King Robert II.) granted Ednam to Sir Robert Erskine and his wife, 
and on their resignation it was given in 1390 to Sir John de Edmon- 
ston and his wife Isobel, Countess of Angus. The Edmonstons held 
it until 1773. 

p. 19. Desertam. Desertum in Ireland meant a hermitage or 
asylum for penitents (Pref. Nation. MSS., Ireland) ; here it means 
uncultivated or abandoned land. 

p. 19. Et si quis : " Parmi les clauses finales des documents les plus 
anciens, celles qui ont pour objet d'en menacer les violateurs eventuels 
occupent une place importante. Elles se rencontrent, plus ou moins 
developpees, dans la plupart des chartes anterieures a la seconde moitie 
du xii. siecle et ont persiste jusqu'au xin. et meme au dela dans un 
certain nombre de documents. 

" Ces clauses peuvent se deviser en deux categories : les unes 
menacent de chatiments spirituels, d'autres de peines temporelles et 
en particulier d'amendes " (Giry, Manuel de Diplomatique, p. 562). 



XXV. 

From Gerberon's edition of Anselm's Letters, Lib. m., Epist. 132, and 
2 Concil, 169. 

This is a letter of the Archbishop of Canterbury in answer to one 
from King Alexander I., in which he had asked the Archbishop for his 



NOTES XXIV.-XXV. 261 

prayers for King Edgar, who had lately died. The Archbishop con- 
gratulates the king on his accession, and prays that he may be a wise 
and successful ruler. 

p. 20. Anselm was born at Aosta in Italy, A.D. 1033 ; he became a 
monk at Bee A.D. 1060, and was abbot there A.D. 1073-93. King 
William Rufus appointed him Archbishop of Canterbury in 1093. He 
died in 1109. He had the best of friends and biographers in Eadmer, 
whose Historia Novorum is a history of the life and times of 
Anselm. 

p. 20. Alexander I., King of Scots, was the fourth son of King 
Malcolm III. and Queen Margaret. He was born about 1077. In his 
youth it is probable that he lived in England. He was at Durham on 
4 September, 1104, when the body of St. Cuthbert was translated and 
placed in the Cathedral. Alexander held the lordship of Gowrie, 
where he had a castle Baledgar. He succeeded his brother Edgar 
as king on 8 January, 1107, and reigned for seventeen years. 
The Chronicon Elegiacum (Chron. P. and S., p. 181) said : " Tota . . . 
pax firma vigebat." Wyntoun and Boece record the energy with 
which he repressed and punished a conspiracy, and a revolt in the 
north. 

Ailred, Abbot of Rievaulx (Twysden, 368, copied by Wendover, 
Wyntoun, 7. 5, line 21, Fordoun, 5. 36), wrote of him: "Clericis et 
monachis satis humilis et amabilis erat, caeteris subditorum supra 
modum terribilis, homo magni cordis ultra vires suas se in omnibus 
extendens. Erat autem litteratus et in ordinandis ecclesiis, in reliquiis 
sanctorum perquirendis in vestibus sacerdotalibus librisque sacris 
conficiendis et ordinandis studiosissimus, omnibus etiam advenientibus 
supra vires liberalissimus, circa pauperes vero ita devotus ut in nulla 
re magis delectari quam in eis suscipiendis, lavandis, alendis, vestien- 
disque videretur." 

The chronicles and charters of his time were connected with the 
church ; so that we know more of his relations to churchmen than of 
his rule over Scotland. 

In June, 1107, six months after his accession to the throne, the King 
appointed Turgot, Prior of Durham, to the Bishopric of St. Andrews. 
After disputes as to whether he should be consecrated by the Arch- 
bishop-elect of York or by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Turgot was 
at last consecrated by York. He retired to Durham, where he died in 
1115. 

It was not until 1120 that the celebrated Eadmer was chosen to be 
Bishop of St. Andrews, but he and King Alexander did not agree. 
He resigned his see, and St. Andrews was again left without a bishop. 

John, Bishop of Glasgow, who had had some experience of Scotland 
and of the king, was consulted by Eadmer, who said : " If as a 
son of peace you desire peace, you must seek it elsewhere than in 
Scotland. As long as Alexander reigns, it will be vain for you to 
expect any friendly intercourse with him or quiet under his government. 
We are thoroughly acquainted with his disposition ; it is his will to 
be everything himself in his own kingdom. He is incensed against 
you, though he knows no reason for his resentment, and he will never 
be perfectly reconciled to you, although he should see reason for a 
reconciliation. You must therefore either abandon this country, or, by 



262 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

accommodating yourself to its usages, dishonour your church and 
hazard your salvation." 

Two years afterwards Eadmer offered to return to Scotland, but the 
king did not listen to him, and it was not until Eadmer's death, in 
1124, that King Alexander appointed another bishop to the see of St. 
Andrews. 

While those bishops found the king a difficult man to deal with, he 
was, in his own way, liberal to the Church. In the legend of St. Andrew 
(Chron. P. and S., p. 189) he is called "Sanctae Dei Ecclesiae 
specialis amator." 

Sir Archibald Dunbar says that he established the Bishoprics of 
Dunkeld and Moray in June, 1 107, on the day on which Turgot was 
elected to St. Andrews ; but for that statement there is no evidence. 

He restored lands and made valuable gifts to the Church of St. 
Andrews, probably about the time when Bishop Robert was elected. 
He also granted lands to the Church of Dunfermline. He confirmed 
King Edgar's gifts to the monks of St. Cuthbert. He founded a 
monastery at Scon and liberally endowed it. He also founded a 
religious house on St. Colm's Island. 

It is an interesting question whether Alexander was king of all 
Scotland, or whether his brother David ruled over part of the country 
south of the Forth and Clyde. Ailred, in the History of the Battle 
of the Standard, makes Robert de Brus say that King Edgar 
bequeathed to David a portion of his kingdom, which Alexander was 
driven to yield from fear of the Normans or English ; and the 
anonymous writer of the Introduction to the Registry of the Bishopric 
of Glasgow speaks of David as princeps and dux of Cumbria. 
Many writers of Scottish history have asserted or assumed that the 
kingdom was dismembered in the reign of Alexander ; but in my 
humble opinion Earl David was not a prince or ruler, independent of 
the King of the Scots. He was only the owner or overlord of lands 
which Edgar had bequeathed to him. The often-repeated statement 
that during King Alexander's reign David was ruler of Cumbria is, 
I think, without foundation. 

King Alexander married Sibylla, an illegitimate daughter of King 
Henry I., a woman without character or attractions, who died in 1122. 
It is said (Sir Archibald Dunbar, Scottish Kings, p. 53) that the king 
had an illegitimate son, Malcolm, who gave trouble to King David ; 
but the paternity of that Malcolm is quite uncertain. Sir Archibald 
Dunbar carefully examined the chronicles as to the date of Alexander's 
death, and the result of his investigations is that the king died at 
Stirling on 23rd April, 1124. He was buried in the church at Dun- 
fermline, and was succeeded by his brother, Earl David. 

In the Treasury of Durham there are three original charters by 
Alexander, Nos. xxvi., xxvil., and xxxi., pp. 21, 22, and 24. 

p. 20. Pro fratre vestro : King Edgar, who died in January, 1 107. 
Ailred said of him : "Edgarus homo erat dulcis et amabilis cognato 
suo regi Edwardo per omnia similis, nichil tyrannicum nichil durum 
nichil avarum in suos exercens, sed cum maxima caritate et benevo- 
lentia subditos regens " (Twysden, 367). 

p. 20. serviant is a clerical error for serviunt. 

p. 21. ' De fratribus nostris' : monks sent by the Archbishop. 



NOTES XXV.-XXVIII. 263 



XXVI. 

The original charter is at Durham, with a seal. It was printed in 
Smith's Bede, p. 761 ; Raine's N. Durham, Appendix, p. 3, No. X. ; 
Anderson, Diplom., Plate vni. ; a facsimile in the National MSS. of 
Scotland, No. vm. Smith describes the seal : " In sigilli ejus obversa 
facie cernitur Rex cum corona, habitu regio indutus, cum gladio in 
dextra et orbe in sinistra, in throno sedens. Inscriptio est X Alex- 
ander Deo Rectore Rex Scottorum. In aversa facie eques armatus 
cum eadem inscriptione." 

The monks of St. Cuthbert had not succeeded in obtaining or in 
keeping quiet possession of the land of Swinton, which King Edgar 
has granted to them by Charter XX., ante, p. 17. King Alexander 
here announces to Algar, the Prior of Durham, that he and Earl 
David, his brother, confirm King Edgar's gift, and order the Prior 
and the monks neither to bring nor to defend action regarding Swinton 
in any court, but to wait until it be heard by the king personally or by 
those specially commissioned by his letters. 

p. 21. Algaro priori, Prior of Durham, 1109-1133, 

p. 21. frater meus David. Swinton must have been part of the land 
held under the Earl ; hence the king adds that his brother joins in 
confirming King Edgar's grant. 



XXVII. 

The original is at Durham, with a seal. It was printed in Smith's 
Bede, p. 761 ; Raine's N. Durham, Appendix, p. 3, No. XI. ; Ander- 
son's Diplomata, Plate vin. ; National MSS. of Scotland, No. ix. 

This is a repetition of the command to Prior Algar not to litigate 
regarding Swinton, except in presence of the king. The king informs 
the Prior that he has many things to say to him in private. 



XXVIII. 

From Eadmer, Hist. Nov., p. 117 (Selden's edition) ; Rolls' edition 
(Vol. 81), p. 236 ; 2 ConciL, 191. 

This is a letter by the king to the Archbishop of Canterbury : 
" Help us to a successor to Turgot of St. Andrews ; the Pope or the 
Archbishops of Canterbury have always consecrated the bishops of 
that see." (Dr. Robertson, Preface to Statuta, p. xxv j Hailes' 
Annals, I., p. 57.) 



264 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

p. 22. Radulfus . . . Cantuar. Archiepis. Ralph d'Escures, some- 
times called Ralph de Turbine, became a monk of Seez in 1079 ; 
abbot, 1089. He fled to England to avoid the violence of Robert de 
Belleme in noo. In 1108 he was consecrated Bishop of Rochester; 
in 1109 he was administrator of the Province of Canterbury on Arch- 
bishop Anselm's death, and in 1114 he was elected Archbishop of 
Canterbury. He had a prolonged dispute with the Archbishop of 
York regarding their respective rights. He died in 1 122. 

p. 22. Episcopus . . . videlicet Turgodus. There are two accounts 
of the early life of Turgot. In the continuation of Simeon of Durham 
it is said that Turgot was a descendant of a respectable Saxon family, 
and that, after the Norman Conquest, he was confined as a hostage in 
the Castle of Lincoln, from which he escaped. After a residence of 
several years in Norway he returned to England, where he was 
received by Walcher, Bishop of Durham, and was elected Prior of 
Durham, an office which he held until he was elected Bishop of St. 
Andrews in 1 107. 

Another account is, that he and Aldwine were monks of Jarrow, and 
that they resided for a time in a monastery at Melrose, that he became 
Confessor to Queen Margaret, and that he was the author of the Life 
of the Queen, written at the request of her daughter, the Queen of 
England. He was Prior of Durham, 1087-1109. He was elected 
Bishop of St. Andrews by King Alexander, ' clero et populo.' 

The continuation of the History of Simeon of Durham (ed. Hinde, 
I., p. 96) states : " Sed per annum et eo amplius dilata est ejus 
ordinatio propter dissensiones Eboracensis ecclesiae atque ecclesiae 
Sancti Andreae Scotiae. . . . Sed ne diutius pastore [viduata] vacil- 
laret ecclesia, rogatus a Rege Scottorum Rex Henricus praecepit, ut 
Eboracensis Archiepiscopus Thomas junior, hunc sine ulla subjectionis 
exactione consecraret, salva utriusque ecclesiae auctoritate, ut postea, 
ubi et quando et a quibus ratio exigentur, debitus finis controversiam 
utriusque partis dirimeret. Veniens ergo sic consecratus Scotiam." 

Turgot found his position in Scotland a difficult one : " Cum causis 
emergentibus digne non posset episcopate officium exercere, Romam 
ire disposuit, ubi consilio et judicis domini Papae Paschalis vitam 
suam transigeret. Sed ne id ad effectum perduceret, invalescentibus 
inter ipsum et regem causis, prae angustia spiritus decidit in melan- 
choliam." (2 Concil., p. 189.) 

He left Scotland and returned to Durham, and thence to Wear- 
mouth, and died in 1115. Immediately after his death King 
Alexander I. wrote this letter, No. xxvm. Nothing was done. The 
Archbishop of Canterbury left England in the autumn of 1116 and 
remained abroad till 1120. 

p. 22. Kal. Septembris : perhaps a mistake for April. See 2 Con- 
cil., p. 191. 

p. 23. Lanfrancus nescimus quo pacto. This refers to a compact 
between Archbishop Lanfranc and Archbishop Thomas I. of York at 
the Council of Windsor, A.D. 1072, assigning to York the primacy 
over Scotland. (2 Concil., p. 159.) 



NOTES XXVIII.-XXIX. 265 



XXIX. 

The original charter is at Durham. Printed in Smith's Bede, 
p. 762 ; Raine, N. Durham, Appendix, p. 23, No. Cl. ; facsimile in the 
National MSS. of Scotland, No. xin. ; Anderson's Diplomata, fac- 
simile, Plate x. 

Smith describes the seal : "In sigillo Davidis comitis cernitur eques 
armatus cum hac inscriptione + Sigillum Davit Comitis Anglorum 
Regine fratris." 

This confirmation was granted (probably soon after No. XXVI.), at 
the Court of Henry I., and is witnessed by Matilda, the Queen of 
England, and by William, her only son. 

p. 23. David was the youngest son of King Malcolm III. and Queen 
Margaret. He was born about A.D. 1080, and was not more than 
thirteen or fourteen years of age when his father was killed at Alnwick. 

He is said to have consented to a grant by his brother Ethelred to 
the monastery of St. Serf's. He may have been then in Scotland, but 
generally, before he succeeded to the throne, he lived in England at 
the Court of Henry I., whose queen was David's sister. He suc- 
ceeded to lands and rights in the south of Scotland on the death of 
King Edgar. 

Ailred, Battle of the Standard (Twysden, 343), represents Robert 
de Brus as saying to King David just before the battle : " Putasne 
igitur O Rex quod aequis oculis aspiciet celestis ilia Majestas, 
quod illos insistis absumere per quos tibi tuisque regnum procuratur 
et securitas in regno ? . . . Tu ipse rex cum portionem regni quam 
idem tibi frater moriens delegavit a fratre Alexandro reposceres, 
nostro certe terrore, quidquid volueras sine sanguine impetrasti." 

In the Register of the Bishopric of Glasgow it is stated that, in the 
reign of Alex. I., God sent to the inhabitants of the Bishopric, David, 
the brother of the king, "in principem et ducem," and, later, "David 
vero Cumbrensis regionis princeps amore precipue Dei partim quoque 
(ob) religiosi dilectionem et ammonitionem terras ecclesiae Glasguensi 
pertinentes singulis Cumbriae provinciis que sub dominio et potestate 
ejus erant non vero toti Cumbrensi regione dominabatur inquirere 
fecit." From these passages, and from the fact that Earl David 
restored the Bishopric of Glasgow and founded an abbey at 
Selkirk, and had lands and rights in the south of Scotland, 
many of our best historians have held that on the death of King 
Edgar, the Kingdom of Scotland was divided between Alexander and 
David. Lord Hailes, I., p. 54, said : " Edgar had on deathbed 
bequeathed that part of Cumberland which the Scottish kings 
possessed to his youngest brother David. Alexander at first disputed 
the validity of this donation, but perceiving that David had won over 
the English barons to his interest, he acquiesced in this dismember- 
ment of the Kingdom." 

Robertson, Early Kings, I., p. 170: "Edgar . . . with his latest 
breath bequeathed the appanage of Scottish Cumbria to his youngest 



266 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

brother David," and on p. 183 he speaks "of the dismemberment of the 
Kingdom by the separation of Scottish Cumbria." 

Hill Burton, I., p. 422 : " Edgar left it as a bequest or injunction 
that Cumbria should be ruled by his younger brother David. . . . 
the disjunction of this part of the dominion of the King of Scots, 
though it was but a brief arrangement, was still important in history." 

Skene, Celt. Scot., I., p. 455: "The death of his brother Edgar 
placed him, by his bequest, in possession of almost the entire Scottish 
territory south of the Firths of Forth and Clyde with the title of Earl. 
The districts thus possessed by him, extended on the east from the 
Tweed as far at least as the Lammermoor range, beyond which was the 
Earldom of Gospatric of Dunbar ; while the district extending from 
the Esk to the Forth was retained by King Alexander." 

On the same page Skene speaks of Earl David's "independent posi- 
tion," and p. 456: "David's possessions in Cumbria consisted there- 
fore of the counties of Lanark, Ayr, Renfrew, Dumfries, and Peebles 
... he was overlord of Galloway and his rule extended also over 
Lothian and Teviotdale and the Counties of Berwick, Roxburgh and 
Selkirk." 

Mr. Hume Brown said of Edgar, p. 69, that he " sought to make an 
arrangement which would ensure a peaceful succession to his own 
Government. He desired that his brother Alexander should rule with 
the title of King of the Scots over the country to the north of the 
Forth, inclusive of Lothian, as far as Edinburgh. To his younger 
brother David he proposed to give Cumbria and the greater part of 
Lothian with the title of comes or earl." 

Mr. Andrew Lang, p. 99: "Alexander I. only received Scot- 
land north of Clyde and Forth, including Edinburgh. David got 
Lothian and Cumbria, with the title of Earl." " Mr. Skene makes the 
probable conjecture that this arrangement was intended to evade 
English claims on Scotland of the Scots.' " 

Sir Archibald Dunbar, p. 47 : " The Sovereignty of Cumbria and 
Lothian south of the Lammermoors was delegated by King Edgar 
when dying to his brother Earl David, in January, 1106-7." 

Thus our best historians are agreed that Alexander did not rule 
over the whole kingdom of Scotland, it may seem rash to attempt to 
withstand the weight of such authority, but, nevertheless, I venture to 
express the opinion that Alexander was King of the whole of Scotland, 
and that the ' portio regni ' which Edgar bequeathed to David, and 
which David possessed during his brother Alexander's reign, was only 
a considerable extent of land in the west and south of Scotland, with 
no greater rights than Earl David had in his earldom in England, 
which undoubtedly he held under the King. 

Between A.D. 1110-1114 David married Matilda, Countess of 
Northampton, the daughter of Countess Judith (niece of William the 
Conqueror) by her marriage to Earl Waltheof. 

After Earl Waltheof was beheaded in 1075, William the Conqueror 
proposed to give the Countess Judith in marriage to Simon de St. Liz, 
but because he was lame the Countess rejected him. The King then 
gave to him in marriage Matilda, the Countess Judith's eldest daughter, 
with the Earldom of Northampton and the Honour of Huntingdon. 
Simon de St. Liz joined the crusade, and died abroad about mo ; his 
widow soon afterwards married Earl David. She was some years his 



NOTES XXIX.-XXX. 267 

senior, for she was born not later than 1073, and David, as already 
mentioned, was born about 1080. After their marriage they lived 
at Yardley, in Northamptonshire, until the Earl succeeded to the 
throne of Scotland. 

p. 23. Mathildis Reginae. Maud, the wife of Henry I. of England, 
the daughter of Malcolm III. and Queen Margaret. She and her 
sister Mary, after the death of their parents, were educated in the 
nunnery of Romney. She was married to Henry I. on nth 
November, noo, at Westminster. She died ist May, 1118, and 
was buried in Westminster Abbey. 

p. 23. Willelmi filii sui. The only son of King Henry I. and 
Queen Maud. He was drowned in the wreck of the white ship 
crossing from Normandy in 1120 when he was 18 years of age. The 
chronicles do not speak well of the habits of the Prince and his 
companions. 



XXX. 

The original is in the Treasury at Durham. The seal is missing. 
Printed in Raine, N. Durham, App., p. 23, No. C. ; National MSS. of 
Scotland, No. XII. 

It was granted between the election of John, Bishop of Glasgow, 
circa 1115, and the death of Queen Maud of England in 1118, 
probably at the same time as xxix. ; that is addressed to the Prior of 
Durham, this to John the Bishop and others and to the Earl's faithful 
Thegns and Drengs of Lothian and Teviotdale. 

It is a confirmation by the Earl of all the rights which the monks of 
St. Cuthbert had at the death of King Edgar, with a special con- 
firmation of their rights in the whole lands of Swinton. Berwickshire 
lay within the Bishopric of St. Andrews. Probably the reason why this 
mandate is addressed to the Bishop of Glasgow is that the see of St. 
Andrews was vacant between the death of Turgot in 1115 and the 
election of Eadmer in 1120. 

p. 23. Johanni Episcopo. Keith describes John as "a person of 
good learning and great probity, who had travelled both into France 
and Italy for his improvement, and had had the charge of the 
education of Earl David." He was appointed Bishop of Glasgow, 
1115, probably Earl, "consilio clericorumque suorum auxilio in epis- 
copum elegit" (Reg. Epis. Glasg., p. 4), but in later years the 
Archbishop of York asserted that John was elected in the Church 
of York as a suffragan. He was consecrated by Pope Paschal before 
Jany., 1118. The Register of Glasgow states that John was unwilling 
to accept the Bishopric (" licet invitus "). 

Early in his episcopate the Bishop refused to recognise the 
authority of the Archbishop of York. Successive Popes in vain ordered 
him to be obedient. Pope Gelasius wrote to that effect in 1118 ; in 
November, 1119, Pope Calixtus also wrote to him. John not only 



268 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

did not submit, but he is said to have advised Eadmer, Bishop of St. 
Andrews, to refuse to conform. On 22nd August, and again on I5th 
January, 1122, Pope Calixtus wrote the letters XLIV. and XLV. (ante, 
pp. 40 and 41), enjoining submission to York. 

The bishop did not obey, and he was suspended. He then went to 
Rome to plead his cause, and having failed to convince the Pope, he 
went to Jerusalem, and there he stayed with the Patriarch for some 
months. (2 Concil., 21.) 

In 1123 he obeyed an order to return to his diocese, and it is 
probable that he was in Scotland in April, 1124, when King Alexander 
died and David I. became king. 

In the summer of 1125 the Papal Legate, John of Crema, came to 
Roxburgh with instructions to enquire into and to report to the Pope 
on the dispute between the bishops of Scotland and the Archbishop 
of York. If an enquiry was made, no record of it has been preserved. 

Shortly after Michaelmas, 1125, Bishop John accompanied the 
Archbishops of Canterbury and York and the Bishop of Lincoln to 
Rome, and in December of that year the matter was heard by the 
Pope. The record runs : " Quia vero Johannes Glesguensis Episcopus 
ibi in curia praesens erat, Thurstinus Archiepiscopus clamavit se de 
ep coram Apostolico, eo quod ipse Johannes in Eboracensi Ecclesia 
sicut suffraganeus ejus electus, et per literas suas a Papae Paschali 
consecratus, postea nee propter literas ejusdem Papa Paschalis, neque 
Kalixti, quas ibi recitari fecit, quicquid obedientiae vel reverentiae ei 
voluit exhibere : similiter et de Episcopis Scotiae conquestus est. 
Persuasum fuerat Papae Scotiam non esse de regno Angliae, quia 
volebant pallium requirere Episcopo Sancti Andreae, et ita Archi- 
episcopum ibi creari. Sed Archiepiscopus Thurstinus et secreto et 
palam in curia ostendit Scotiam de regno Angliae esse, et Regem 
Scotorum ligium hominem Regis Angliae esse. Glesguensis autem 
Episcopus querelae Archiepiscopi ita respondit, se non venisse voca- 
tum, et in legatione domini sui Regis Scotiae ibi esse. Decretumque 
est diem illi statuere, et Episcopos Scotiae et absentes per literas 
Domini Papae summonere. Statuitque Papa, Thurstino Archiepiscopo 
et Johanni diem a proxima Quadragesima in alteram, sic dicens 
Johanni Episcopo, Frater in quibus bonae memoriae Papa Gelasius 
te ligavit, nos (non ?) te absolvimus. Episcopos Scotiae ad diem 
designatum per literas vocare disposuit." (2 Concil., p. 23 ; Twysden, 
1719; Stubbs, Act. Pont. Eborac., taken from Hugh the Chanter; 
Raine, Fasti Ebor., 197.) 

The Archbishop of York and the Bishop of Glasgow remained in 
Rome all the winter of 1125 (2 Concil., p. 23). They returned to 
England in 1126. The Bishop of Glasgow continued disobedient 
to the commands of the Pope. Honorius II. wrote to him on 9th 
December, 1126 : "Obey Thurstin of York." (Reg. Mag. Alb. Ebor., 
p. i, fol. 5ib ; 2 Concil., p. 24.) 

On I7th July, 1127, the Bishop was at Roxburgh when the Bishop of 
St. Andrews acknowledged that the Church of Coldingham was free 
from aid, cain, or conveth (ante, p. 59). He assisted at the con- 
secration of Robert, Bishop of St. Andrews, and he was a witness 
to the acknowledgment by York that St. Andrews had been con- 
secrated " sine professione et obedientia " (ante, pp. 63 and 64). 

Possibly for a few years the relations between Glasgow and York 



NOTES XXX 269 

were less strained, but on 29th November, 1131, Pope Innocent had 
occasion again to write to the Bishop of Glasgow enjoining obedience 
to York (ante, p. 81). 

Bishop John exercised episcopal functions both in Scotland and 
Cumberland, which excited the displeasure of the King of England. 
" Hie Henricus . . . videns Johannem Episcopum Glasguensem per 
Cumberlandiam ecclesias dedicare, et cetera officia pontificalia 
secundum morem juris antiqui perficere, cum nee sibi nee Archi- 
episcopo Eboracensi vellet inde ut domino et praelato obsecundare ; 
incitante Turstino Eboracensi Archiepiscopo, constituit per vim et 
violentiam Eadwaldum Episcopum in Cumberlandia, ad titulum 
Carleolensem, contra eum, quia non erat qui ei resistere audebat. 
Quod cum vidisset Episcopus Johannes Episcopatum suum Glasguen- 
sem taliter dimembrari, et neque per legem neque per Regem defendi, 
transfretavit, et in monasterio Tironensi sese in monachum obtulit." 
(Fordun, Scotichron., VIIL, 3 ; Book of Pluscarden, Book vi., ch. xviii., 
Vol. II., p. 7 ; 2 Concil., p. 27.) 

It is doubtful whether Bishop John left his diocese and became a 
monk as early as the year 1133. There are letters from Pope 
Innocent II. one to the Archbishop of York (2nd May, 1134) 
and another on 22nd April, 1136, and to the Archbishops of 
Canterbury and York (2 Concil., pp. 28, 29, 30), which seem to 
me to imply that the Bishop of Glasgow was in Scotland as late as 
1136. 

The Bishop's name is not among the witnesses to a charter by King 
David granted on the occasion of the consecration of the Church of 
Glasgow on I7th July, 1136 (Reg. Episc. Glas., No. in.). Finding a 
note of a visit to the Orkneys in 1137 of a Bishop John, Robertson 
(Early Kings, I., p. 404) suggested that the Bishop of Glasgow was in 
the north of Scotland in that year. 

He was recalled to his diocese in 1138. 

"A.D. 1138, Sept. 26-29. Provincial Council of Scottish Bishops 
at Carlisle under the Legate Alberic : Et quoniam cognovit quod 
Johannis Glesguensis Episcopus curam animarum quam habuerat 
nulli commiserat, et sine licentia et clanculo Episcopatum suum 
reliquerat, et, nulla evidente necessitate cogente, apud Tironam 
monachus effectus est, de illo definivit, ut regius nuntius cum ipsius et 
Regis pariter litteris pro eo mitteretur ; et se redire nollet, sententia 
super ilium daretur et ita factum est" (2 Concil., p. 31 ; R. of Hexham, 
Twysden, 325 ; Hailes, p. 91. J. Prior of Hexham, Twysden, 
264.) 

During the next nine years John remained in Scotland, occupied 
with the affairs of his diocese. He founded the Priory of Jedburgh, 
and was liberal to many churches. In 1140 Hugh de Morville founded 
the Abbey of Kilwinning, in the diocese of Glasgow, to which were 
brought monks from the monastery of Tiron, where Bishop John 
had been a monk; and in 1144 monks from Tiron were brought to 
Lesmahagow, in Lanarkshire, which was made a cell of Kelso. 

In May, 1147, Bishop John assisted at a ceremony at Coldingham 
at which were present the King, the Bishop of St Andrews, the 
abbots of Roxburgh and Melrose, and many others. A few days 
afterwards, on the 28th of the month, the bishop died. (Chron. de 
Mailros, p. 73.) 



270 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

John of Hexham, under date 1148, Twysden, 276: "Defunctus est 
eodem anno Johannes Episcopus Glasguensis, propter excellentiam 
virtutis David Regis Scotiae familiarissimus. Sepultusque est in 
ecclesia de Jedderwirth in qua conventum regularium clericorum ipse 
disposuit." 

S23. Cospatrico et Colbano et Rodberto fratribus. These pro- 
ly were three monks. 

p. 23. Tegni et Drengi. The Thegns and Drengs were the Earl's 
vassals holding lands under him in Lothian and Teviotdale. I take 
the following from Dr. Maitland's Doomsday Book and Beyond, 
p. 308 : 

" Point by point we can compare the tenure of these ministri and 
equites of the tenth with that of the thegns and drengs of the twelfth 
and thirteenth centuries, and at point after point we find similarity, 
almost identity. They pay rent ; they have horses, and their horses 
are at the service of their lord ; they must ride his errands, carry his 
stores, assist him in the chase ; they must fight if need be, but the exact 
nature of this obligation is indefinite. Dependent tenure is here, and 
we may say feudal tenure, and even tenure by knight's service, for 
though the English cniht of the tenth century differs much from the 
knight of the twelfth, still it is a change in military tactics rather than 
a change in legal ideas that is required to convert the one into the other. 
As events fell out there was a breach of continuity ; the English thegns 
and drengs and knights either had to make way for Norman milites or, 
as sometimes happened, they were subjected to Norman milites, and 
constituted a class for which no place could readily be found in the 
new jurisprudence of tenures." 

Land was held in Lancashire by the tenure of Thegnage and 
Drengage (Farrar, pp. 2 and 35). In Berwickshire Cospatric, the 
Earl, addressed a charter " omnibus meis probis hominibus theinis et 
drengis clericis et laicis," and another "omnibus probis hominibus 
meis theinis et drengis clericis et laicis (Cartae Monalium de Cald- 
strem, pp. 6, 8). 



XXXI. 

The original is at Durham, with a seal. It was printed in Smith's 
Bede, p. 761 ; Raine's N. Durham, App. (No. ix., p. 3) ; facsimile in 
Anderson's Diplom., Plate IX., in Nat. MSS. of Scotland, No. x. 

It was written early in the reign of King Alexander; he seems 
to speak of King Edgar as recently dead. It is a general confirmation 
of all King Edgar's gifts to Durham, " et nominatim" that land 
which lies between Horndean and Cnapdene. 



XXXII. 

The original charter is at Durham, with a seal attached. It was 
printed in Smith's Bede, p. 761 ; facsimile in the National MSS. of 



NOTES XXX.-XXXII. 271 

Scotland, No. XI. ; in Raine's N. Durham App., p. 23, No. XCIX. ; 
facsimile in Anderson's Diplom., Plate XL 

By charter (ante, XXII., p. 18) King Edgar granted Fishwick and the 
land between Horewordene and Cnapdene, which was confirmed by 
Alexander I. (No. xxxi., p. 24). Disputes arose between the monks 
and the Earl's drengs of Horndean. The Earl held that if the monks 
could prove that they had right to Horndean they should be main- 
tained in quiet possession. The monks then produced a ' breve ' and 
'donum' by King Edgar, which the earl sent to the Bishop of 
Glasgow and to Colban and Cospatric, and directed them to maintain 
the monks in possession of all the land which that 'breve' gave. 

The breve has not been preserved. It was not No. XXII., in 
which the land between Horndene and Cnapdean was granted, for 
this dispute related to Horndean itself. 

p. 25. Willelmi nepotis mei. He was the son of King Duncan II., 
by Ethreda, daughter of Earl Gospatric. (Chron. Cumb., Dugdale 
Monast., III., p. 584, and 2 Bain Cal., p. 8, No. 64.) William was still 
very young when his father was killed in 1094. If Duncan was legiti- 
mate, William was the heir to the throne. The older chroniclers 
and writers called Duncan "nothus," a bastard, but when Torfaeus, 
relying on the Orkneyinga Saga, stated that Malcolm Canmore had 
married Ingibiorg, the widow of Earl Thorfin, and had by her a 
son, Duncan, later Scottish historians began to consider Duncan 
to be legitimate. 

I venture to doubt the authority of the Saga even as to the marriage, 
for Ingibiorg was old enough to be Malcolm's mother, being an 
elderly lady when her husband Earl Thorfin died, about 1064, 
even if she did marry the Scottish king it is by no means certain that 
she bore him a son. William Fitz Duncan was never recognised as 
the heir to the crown, and the position which he and his family held 
seems to me to show that his father was not legitimate. 

William was the constant attendant of King David. He witnessed 
a great many of the king's charters, sometimes styled "Willelmus 
nepos Regis," sometimes "Willelmus films Duncani." The Chronicle 
of Cumbria and the Tower document call him " Comes de Murraye." 
Angus was Earl of Murray until 1130, when he was killed at the battle 
of Strikathro. It is possible that William held the earldom for a 
time, but he is not designated earl in any Scottish record. He com- 
manded a division of the Scots army which invaded Northumberland 
in 1137. After failing in an attempt to take the castle ofWark, he 
wasted Yorkshire with great barbarity and with monstrous cruelty to 
women and children. (Rich, of Hexham, Twysden, 318.) 

In 1 138 William Fitz Duncan with a force of Galloway men advanced 
into Craven, and in a battle at Clithero, near the source of the Ribble, 
he gained a victory on the Qth of June. 

" Willielmus filius Dunecan circa Clitherou caedens et persequens, 
procinctum militiae Anglorum in turmis quatuor sibi occurrentem 
excepit. Quern prima congressionis constantia in fugam actum 
internicioni dedit, multamque praedam et multitudinem captivitatis 



272 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

adduxit. Hoc bellum factum est inter Anglos, Pictos et Scottos apud 
Clitherou feria sexta die quindecimo ante Nativitatem Sancti Johannis 
Baptistae anno praedicto, id est 1138 "(John of Hexham, Twysden, 
p. 261). 

Two months afterwards (22nd August, 1138) William Fitz Duncan 
was in command of a part of the Scots army at the battle of the 
Standard. He prevented King David from yielding to the appeal 
made to him by Robert de Brus on the field of battle. Ailred 
(i Twysden, 345) : " Sed Guillielmus regis nepos, vir magni animi et 
belli praecipuus incentor superveniens, ipsum Rodbertum cum maximo 
furore arguit proditionis, regemque a sententia flexit." 

William Fitz Duncan married Alice de Romelie, a great English 
heiress. She was the daughter of William Meschin, Lord of Copeland, 
and of Cecilia de Romelie, the heiress of Skipton in Yorkshire. 

If a charter printed by Dugdale (Monast., vi., p. 203) be genuine, 
William Fitz Duncan's marriage took place before 1140, for it 
is addressed to Thurstan, Archbishop of York, who died in 1140, 
but as it was witnessed by the abbots of Kirkstall and Sallay, 
abbeys which were not founded until 1147 and 1153, it is pro- 
bably spurious. When William married Alice de Romelie, her 
mother Cecilia was still alive. There is a charter by that lady and 
" gener meus Willielmus nepos regis Scotiae Dunecani," granting 
Kildwyke to the church of Embessy " per unum cutellum . . . super 
altare S. Mariae et S. Cuthberti." Dugdale, Mon., vi., p. 203. 

There is a genuine charter by William, of which a facsimile is 
given by Dr. Whitaker in his History of Craven, p. 162. 

" W. Dunecani filius omnibus hominibus de Craua Francis et Anglis 
salutem. 

"Sciatis me concessisse Domino Deo et Sanctae Mariae et Sancto 
Cuthberto de Ameseia et canonicis ejusdem loci totam villam de 
Childeuuic cum molendino et cum socca molendini et quicquid ad 
praedictam villam pertinet in bosco in piano in aquis et pascuis, in 
elemosina libere ab omni seculari servitio et absolute pro salute animae 
meae et uxoris meae et antecessorum meorum. Testibus Adam Suani 
filio et Ranulfo de Lindesia et Waltero Vianeis et Roberto Engerranni 
filio et Durando et Willelmo de Archis et Heltone Malleurer et 
Ricardo Elsulf filio et Rogero Tempeste et Simone Gospatrici filio 
et Rogero Faisinton et Aldredo Ulfi filio et Ranero fratre suo et 
Willelmo de Risletonae et Drogone breuifactore." 

There is a curious passage in the history by John, prior ot 
Hexham, under date A.D. 1152 (i Twysden, 279): "Et Rex tune 
cum exercitu suo confirmavit Willielmum filium Dunecani nepotem 
suum in Honorem de Sciptun et Crafna, munitiunculamque ab 
hostibus constructam effregit, ejectisque militibus diruit. Peccaverunt 
ibi Scotti in direptionibus ecclesiarum, quo quibus rex dato unicuique 
ecclesiae calice argenteo satisfecit." 

It is difficult to understand how the King of Scotland had power to 
interfere by force in Yorkshire, and why William needed his assistance. 
The Tower document, No. ^jp (2 Bain, Cal., p. 17), seems to say that 
King David was at one time opposed to William Fitz Duncan : "War 
was moved between the King of Scotland and William." I do not 
profess to understand either this passage or that in John of Hexham. 
William Fitz Duncan died before 1151, survived by his widow Alice 



NOTES XXXII. 273 

de Romelie, a son, William of Egremont, and three daughters. Several 
charters by Alice de Romelie have been preserved (Whitaker's 
Craven, pp. 430, 438, 456). 

Their son William was by some supposed to have been the "Boy of 
Egremont" who was drowned at the Strid in the Wharf, his hound 
holding back when he sprang across the stream. The news was 
brought to his widowed mother by the falconer, who said : 

" What is good for a bootless bene ? 
She made answer : Endless sorrow, 
For she knew that her son was dead. . . . 
Long long in darkness did she sit, 
And the first words were : Let there be 
In Bolton, on the field of Wharf, 
A stately Priory." 

It is probable, however, that the Boy of Egremont was a brother and 
not a son of Alice de Romelie. The Priory of Embessy was founded 
by her mother, possibly in memory of a son, and when the monks of 
Embessy, in 1151, were removed to Bolton by Alice de Romelie (the 
terms of the charter suggest that William Fitz Duncan was then dead), 
her son William of Egremont consented. 

It is thus clear that the Priory of Bolton was not founded in memory 
of the later William, for he himself was one of its founders. William 
of Egremont died young. The three daughters, Cecilia, Amabel, 
and Alice, were in ward of King Henry II., who gave them in marriage 
to men of rank ; the eldest married the Earl of Albemarle, who had 
commanded the English at the battle of the Standard, in which 
William Fitz Duncan was engaged on the side of the King of the 
Scots. 

The Orkneyinga Saga stated that " King Melkolf and Ingibiorghad 
a son Dungad, King of Scotland, the father of William, who was a 
good man. His son was William the Noble, whom all the Scots 
wished to take for their King" (Coll. de Rebus Alban., p. 346). If 
William " the good man " was William Fitz Duncan, certainly William 
the Noble was not William of Egremont, but another William, of 
whom we have no contemporary Scottish account. 

In 1179 King William the Lion had some trouble with a revolt of 
the men of Ross and Moray under a claimant who (Fordun says) , 
" pretended to be the son of William the son of Duncan the Bastard." 

p. 25. Osbern the chaplain is probably Osbertus capellanus, a 
witness to Earl David's charter to the Abbey of Selkirk. 

p. 25. Hugo de Mprevilla was a Northamptonshire baron, the lifelong 
friend of King David. He witnessed a large number of the king's 
charters. In 1131 his name appears in the English Pipe Rolls as a 
proprietor in the counties of Northampton, Huntingdon, and Rutland, 
when he was excused from payment of Danegeld. His son was given 
as a hostage to England in 1 139. In 1 140 Hugh de Moreville assisted 
William Cumin in the attempt to get the Bishopric of Durham. 

No charter to De Moreville has been preserved ; but it is known 
that David I. gave him lands in Lauderdale and in the Lothians, and 
the lordship of Cunningham in Ayrshire. 

About the middle of the twelfth century he was Constable of Scot- 

S 



274 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

land. He founded and endowed the abbeys of Kilwinning and Dry- 
burgh. His wife was Beatrix de Bellocampo, of a noble Northamp- 
tonshire family. 

They had at least three sons and a daughter: (i) Richard. (2) 
Malcolm, who, when hunting, was accidentally killed by Adulf, the 
brother of Alexander de St. Martin (Reg. de Dryburgh, pp. 68, 69). 
(3) Roger, alias Robert (Reg. de Dryburgh, p. 3). Ada (Reg. de 
Dryburgh, p. 68). 

Hugo de Moreville took the habit of a canon regular in Dryburgh ; 
his son Richard, in a charter (Reg. de Dryburgh, p. 4), said : " Pre- 
terea . . . confirmo eidem ecclesiae donationes patris mei quas . . . 
eisdem fratribus dedit . . . die qua pater meus canonicalem habitum 
sumpsit." He died in 1162 (Chron. of Melros, p. 78). 

The relationship of Hugo de Moreville to the Cumberland family of 
De Moreville of Burg is not certain. Probably Simon de Moreville, 
who married the heiress of Ranulf Engaine of Burg and who held that 
barony in the fourth year of King Henry II. (1158), was his nephew. 

Hugh de Moreville, who had a grant of Knaresborough Castle and 
other lands in Yorkshire and Westmorland in 1158, who was a 
benefactor to Holmcultram Abbey, and who was one of the murderers 
of Archbishop Thomas a Becket in 1 1 70, was a son of Simon de 
Moreville, and a grand-nephew of Hugo de Moreville of Lauderdale 
and Cunningham. 



XXXIII. 

The original is in the Treasury at Durham, with a seal. It was 
printed in Smith's Bede, p. 763 ; facsimile in Anderson's Diplom., 
LXIX. ; Raine, N. Durham, App., p. 38, No. CLXII. ; National MSS. 
of Scotland, No. xiv. 

The seal : " Effigies hominis sedentis, nudi caput, tenentis capulum 
gladii in dextra et laminam ejusdem in sinistra. Haec autem est 
sigilli inscriptio THOR ME MITTIT AMICO." 

It is a 'breve' addressed by Thor Longus to his dearest lord, 
David the Earl, repeating his gift to the monks of St. Cuthbert, 
and requesting Earl David to confirm the grant. 



XXXIV. 

The original has not been preserved. This is taken from Raine, 
N. Durham, App., p. 23, No. Cii., he found it in the smaller Char- 
tulary of Durham. 

It was granted after the appointment of John to the Bishopric of 
Glasgow in 1115, and before the death of King Alexander in 1124. It 
is a fragment, without witnesses, in which Earl David confirms Thor's 



NOTES XXXII.-XXXV. 275 

grant of Ednam (xxiv., ante, p. 19 ; XXXIII., p. 25). Thor did not 
mention the Earl's wife, though here David said the grant was " pro 
anima . . . conjugis meae." 



XXXV. 

The original charter has not been preserved. This is taken from 
the Liber de Calchou in the Library of the Faculty of Advocates 
which is a collection of copies of charters belonging to the monastery 
of Kelso, compiled between 1300-1325. 

While David was Earl he founded at Selkirk a house for monks, who 
came, at his request, from the Abbey of Tiron, near Chartres, in 
France. Selkirk, the site selected, proved to be unsuitable ; and 
about ten or fifteen years after the arrival of the monks they were 
removed to Kelso, on the Tweed, close to Roxburgh. 

On the occasion of the foundation of the abbey at Selkirk, and 
during the next few years, the Earl was liberal in his grants. I am 
inclined to think that each of these was made by a separate writing, 
and that this charter is a later composition made by uniting the 
several grants, and at the end massing the names of all the witnesses 
who had attested each charter. 

It is difficult to give this an approximate date. The abbey is 
said to have been founded in 1113, but this charter cannot have been 
written before 1119, for it mentions Herbert, who became abbot in 
that year. Radulf, the first abbot, resigned in 1117. William, the 
second abbot, remained less than two years, as in 1 1 19 he too returned 
to Tiron. Herbert, the third abbot, persuaded the king to remove the 
monks to Kelso about the year 1128. 

p. 26. Selechirche. Selkirk is a town and parish in the shire of 
that name, on the River Ettrick, below its confluence with the 
Yarrow, and above its confluence with the Tweed. It was a demesne 
of the Crown, part of the land bequeathed by King Edgar to his 
brother David. 

p. 27. Gieruam : the Yarrow. Though, after the confluence of the 
Yarrow and Ettrick, the stream is now called the Ettrick, at the date 
of this charter it was called the Gierva. It requires a local know- 
ledge, which I do not possess, to identify the stream which, descend- 
ing from the hills, pours into the Gierva, and that on the other side, 
which, descending from Crossinemara, pours into the Tweed. I do 
not find them identified by Mr. Craig Brown. 

p. 27. Ultra eundem rivulum. To understand and explain this 
demands a minute knowledge of Selkirk. The description seems to 
refer to a bit of land near the old castle. The king did not give to 
the monks the whole of Selkirk ; he retained some land, and in later 



276 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

days, while the monks of Kelso owned Abbot's Selkirk, there were 
lands and a church of King's Selkirk. 

p. 27. Middelham, Bothendena, and Aeldona comprised a consider- 
able estate of about 1000 acres in the parish of Bowden, lying to the 
east of Selkirk. 

p. 27. Totum dominium meum de Malros. Melrose is on the 
Tweed some miles below Selkirk, to the east. The Earl's demesne 
lands there must not be confounded with those of the old monastery 
fragrant with memories of St. Cuthbert. Sproston. Sprouston is a 
village in Roxburghshire on the Tweed, about two miles and a half 
from Kelso, at some distance from Selkirk ; and the estate there 
granted was a valuable one. Berewyce. This ploughgate and farm- 
steading in Berwick were probably outside the burgh walls, but not 
far off, because the maisura was below the church adjoining the river. 
There were many fishings in the river ; of one of these (which is 
not stated) the monks of Selkirk were to have half the fish. The 
seventh of the mill was enjoyed by the abbey till the reign of 
Alexander II., when there was an agreement between the abbey 
of Kelso and the community of Berwick regarding it. The monks of 
Lindisfarne had right to eight shillings from the mill by a grant from 
William the Lion. 

p. 27. Census. From Berwick, as from all the king's burghs, the 
king had right to an annual rent or census ; and grants from the 
revenue from burghs are frequent in all the Scottish chartularies. 
This grant of forty shillings from Berwick was confirmed by Malcolm 
IV. and by William the Lion. 

p. 27. Rokesburge. The grants of lands and rights in Roxburgh are 
almost identical with thos^e granted in Berwick. They show the rights 
which the Earl as overlord had in these burghs. 

p. 27. Galweia. The early history of Galloway is obscure. From 
this it appears that the Earl had from it a can or rent payable in 
cheese. 

p. 27. Dimidietas, etc. This is the earliest example of what is found 
in other chartularies, a grant of a share in the surplus of the kitchen 
hides, fat, fleeces, deerskins, etc. The value of these must have 
depended on the length of time that the Earl or King remained in his 
castle near the abbey ; for I take it the grant was only of skins, etc., 
from the kitchen of that castle. It cannot have been a grant of all 
hides from every house at which the king ate, as it would be impossible 
to collect kitchen-stuff at distant places. 

p. 27. Veltrarii, I think, means huntsmen. Spelman (Glossarium> 
p. 551) says that "veltris" is a hound. 

p. 27. Hardingestrop, or Hardingestrorna, was a demesne of Earl 
David as Earl of Northampton. It lay close to the town of North- 
ampton (see Note to No. XLVI.) 

p. 28. Haec omnia. This made a large estate more than enough, 
one would think for a small community of twelve or thirteen monks. 
It is interesting to observe that there is no grant of tithes nor of 
churches, and nothing is said as to an abbot's court. 



NOTES XXXV. 277 

p. 28. John, Bishop of Glasgow, in whose diocese Selkirk lay. 

p. 28. Herbert was the third abbot of Selkirk. He was the 
first abbot of the new monastery at Kelso. For many years he 
was called abbot of Roxburgh. In 1147 he was promoted to the 
bishopric of Glasgow, and died in 1164. He must not be confounded 
with Herbert the Chancellor, who was a different man (pp. 82 and 85). 

p. 28. Testibus. There is here a great array of witnesses. It is not 
said where, or on what occasion, they met. The list seems to me 
either the accumulation of the witnesses to the several grants of which 
this was a confirmation, or the invention of the writer, entering the 
names of most of the notable men who attended Earl David. 

p. 28. Henry, son of the Earl : the only son of David I. If this 
charter was granted in 1119 Henry was then a boy of four or five 
years old. 

p. 28. Gvalthelinus, Osbert, and Alwyn were probably chaplains 
of the Earl's household. 

p. 28. Robert de Bruis : see note to the Annandale charter. 

p. 28. Robert de Umframvilla : probably a son or a grandson of 
Robert de Umframville who got Redesdale in Northumberland from 
the Conqueror (i Dugd., Bar., 504; I Chalmer's Caledonia, p. 510). 
Robert de Umframvilla was a witness to several of the earlier charters 
by King David. He had two sons, Odenel and Gilbert. 

p. 28. Walter de Bolebec (' in ' is a clerical error), of a Northumbrian 
family (6 Hodgson, Northum., 224), witnessed two of King David's 
charters. He founded Blanchland Abbey in Northumberland. I do 
not know that he had any land in Scotland. 

p. 28. Robert de Paintona : so far as I know, he appears in no 
other Scottish record. 

p. 28. Gospatric frater Dolfini, the son of Earl Gospatric, formerly 
Earl of Northumberland, who got the lordship of Dunbar from 
Malcolm III. 

p. 28. Paganus de Braiosa William de Braose got lands in 
England from the Conqueror. Paganus was probably his son. The 
Braoses became a distinguished family in England, Wales, and 
Ireland. William de Braose about 1201 rebelled against King John. 
His wife and son were seized and starved to death, while he 
escaped as a beggar to Paris. Paganus is the only member of the 
family known in Scottish Records. He witnessed this charter by 
Earl David, and he is one of those named as a witness in the 
Inquisitio (ante, p. 47). He also appears in two charters of Colding- 
ham, LXV., ante, p. 55, and xc., ante, p. 73. 

p. 28. Robert Corbet. Not much is known of him. The Corbets 
held Drayton in Northamptonshire, under Earl David. Robert 
Corbet is a witness here, and to several charters by King David 
(pp. 42, 47, 50, 63, 69, 77, 82), all granted in the early part of 
his reign. Robert Corbet either died or returned to England 
before the war with Stephen (A.D. 1138). It is possible (i Chalm. 
Caled., p. 506) that he was the father of Walter Corbet, who in the 
reign of Malcolm IV. and William I., held Malcarveston and other 



278 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

lands in the south of Scotland. The granddaughter of Walter Corbet 
married William, a son of Patrick, Earl of Dunbar. Her three sons, 
Nicholas, Walter, and Patrick, took the name of Corbet, and possessed 
lands in Northumberland (Laing's Charters). Men of the name 
appear from time to time in Scottish records, but their descent from 
this Robert has not been traced. 

p. 28. Reginald de Muscampf (de Musco campo). King Henry I. 
gave Wooley in Northumberland to Robert de Muscamp. The 
family flourished for some generations (i Banks, 146; Raine, N. 
Durham, p. 266). I am not able to state the relationship between the 
Reginald de Muscampf here mentioned and others of the name. As 
Reinaldus de Muscans he appears as a witness to the Inquisitio (ante, 
P- 47). 

p. 28. Walter de Lyndeseia. He was the earliest of the name 
known in Scottish history. He appears as a witness to the Inquisitio 
(ante, p. 47), and he witnessed the charter of Earl David to Glasgow 
(ante, No. XLVI., p. 42). 

In the Lives of the Lindsays it is said that this Walter disappears 
after the reign of Alexander I., and that the Walter de Lindesay of 
later charters in King David's reign was his son. I do not know 
any evidence that the first Walter acquired land in Scotland. 

p. 28. Robert de Burnetvilla was a witness to the Inquisitio (ante, 
p. 47), to the Charter to Holyrood, of Airth (ante, XCIII., p. 76), to 
the Charter to Coldingham, of St. Mary's Church at Berwick (ante, 
xcix., p. 79), to the Great Charter of Holyrood as Robert de Burne- 
ville (ante, No. CLiil, p. 119), and to the Charter to Coldingham, A.D. 
1147 (ante, CLXXVIII, p. 140). A Robert de Burneville and Robert his 
son are witnesses in the reign of William the Lion. I do not know 
where Burnet (or Burne) ville was. 

p. 28. Cospatricus vicecomes : a witness to the confirmation by 
King David to the monks of St. Cuthbert, A.D., 1126 (ante, LXV., p. 55), 
and to the charter to the church of St. John, Roxburgh (ante, 
LXXXIIL, p. 69). I am not sure whether there be anything to show of 
what place he was Sheriff. 

p. 28. Cospatric son of Aldeue. Cospatric filius Alden is a witness 
to the Inquisitio (p. 46). 

p. 28. Uchtred son of Scot is a witness to the Inquisitio (p. 46). 

p. 28. Macchus : probably Maccus son of Undweyn, who was a 
witness to the Inquisitio (p. 46), and to the Great Charter of Melros, 
(CXLI., p. 108). He is supposed to be the ancestor of the Maxwells. 

p. 28. Colbanus : may be the Colbanus (pp. 23 and 25), to whom Earl 
David addressed charters. 

p. 28. Gillemichel : possibly the same Gillemichel who witnessed 
King David's charter to Govan (p. 82). He may be the son of Con- 
stantine. Earl of Fife. 

p. 28. Odard, the Sheriff of Babenburch : Hinde, History of 
Northumberland (1858), Pt. I., pp. 203-4 ; Wilson, Ancestor, No. 
III., p. 74; Prescott's Wetherhal, pp. 145, 146; Round, Genealogist, V., 
p. 25. Hinde says : " Odard, the first sheriff under the Crown on 
record, occurs as a witness to the foundation charter of the Abbey of 



NOTES XXXV.-XXXVI. 279 

Selkirk in 1113, and is there described as vicecomes de Bebbanburch. 
He is mentioned by Richard of Hexham in connection with the early 
history of the monastery founded in 1114, and by Symeon of Durham 
in 1 12 1." Mr. Round says that Odard's father was Ligulf de Bebban- 
burch (xx., ante, p. 18), and that Odard vicecomes de Babenburch 
is the same as Udardus vicecomes, who at one time held Swinton 
(ci., ante, p. 80). 

p. 28. Liulf son of Uchtred. There was a Liulf, son of Uctred, who 
held land near Coldingham (CLXXIV.) in the reign of David I. 

p. 28. Radulf Anglicus and Aimar Galleius have not been identified. 

p. 28. Roger de Lerecestria : Hugh de Lerecestria was the Earl's 
sheriff in Northampton. Roger probably was connected with the 
earldom. 

p. 28. Adam camerarius : Earl David's chamberlain. 



XXXVI. 

The original has not been preserved. It is in the recent Chartulary 
of Scon in the Library of the Faculty of Advocates, printed in the 
Liber de Scon. Maitland Club edition, p. i, No. I. 

Translation : In the name of the Holy and Undivided Trinity, in 
which one God is adored, and worshipped, and believed. For as 
David the king and prophet testifies that holiness always becomes the 
house of God, I, Alexander, by the grace of God, King of Scots, son 
of King Malcolm, and Queen Margaret, and I, Sibilla, Queen of Scots, 
daughter of Henry, King of England, wishing to adorn the house of 
God, and to exalt his dwelling-place, do grant and hand over to God, 
and to St. Mary, and St. Michael, and St. John, and St. Laurence, and 
St. Augustine, the church dedicated to the Holy Trinity which is in 
Scone, free, exempt and quit from every exaction and disturbance 
from which the royal dignity and power are able to free, protect, 
and defend it. Accordingly, to extend and exalt the worship and 
honour of God, it has pleased us to request Dominus Adelvald, the 
Prior, [to send us] some of the canons who served God in the 
church of St. Oswald, the fame of whose religion had become 
known to us by the honourable testimony of upright men. These 
having been granted to us by the Prior himself, free from any 
profession and subjection, to them have we committed the care and 
custody of the said church, so that they might there establish the 
service of God canonically according to the rule of St. Augustine. 
The lands, possessions, and customs assigned to that church, for 
ourselves and for the souls of our fathers and mothers, and brothers 
and sisters, our ancestors and our successors, who die in the faith, 
We grant to be possessed for ever. And in order that no one may 






28o EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 



presume to violate these grants by sacrilegious violence, We by our 
royal authority confirm them, by the evidence of this charter. 

Now the lands and possessions are these : Infervus with five plough- 
gates of land, Benchorin with three ploughgates, Fotheros with one 
ploughgate, Kynochtred with one ploughgate, Fingask with one 
ploughgate, Dufrothni with three ploughgates, Cleon with three 
ploughgates, Liff with six ploughgates, Grudin with ten ploughgates, 
Invergowrie with three ploughgates, and five ' mansiones,' one in 
Edinburgh, one in Stirling, one in Inverkeithing, one in Perth, and 
one in Aberdon ; the free use of the water of Tay, so that they may 
fish in it, as for the use of the king ; and the can of one ship, whether 
that of the brethren themselves, or of him whom they shall nominate ; 
one-half of the skins from the king's kitchen, and all the skins of rams 
and lambs, and half of the fat and lard, and the tenth of the king's 
bread, wherever he may be, north of Lambremor. 

I, Alexander, by the grace of God, King of Scots, with my own 

hand confirm these, and seal them with the seal of my image. 

I, Sibilla, by the grace of God, Queen of Scots, with my own hand 

confirm these. 

I, Gregory, Bishop by the authority of God, and of the Holy 
Apostles Peter and Paul, and of St. Andrew the Apostle, that 
no one may presume to violate these, confirm them under 
anathema. 

I, Cormac, Bishop by the authority of God and of the Holy 
Apostles Peter and Paul, and of St. Andrew the Apostle, 
that no one may presume to violate these, do confirm them 
under anathema, or /$' J*ot*i\\, 

I, Alexander, nephew/of King Alexander, adhibit my testimony to 
these. I, Beth, Earl, the same. I, Gospatric (brother) of 
Dolfin, give assent. I, Mallus, Earl, give assent. I, Madach, 
Earl, give assent. I, Rothri, Earl, give assent. I, Gartnach, 
Earl, give assent. I, Dufagan, Earl, give assent. 
Also of this, are these other witnesses, William brother of the 
Queen, Edward the Constable, Gospatric son of Walthef, Usieth, 
Alfricus pincerna. 
I, Forn, give assent. 



Although this charter has been accepted as genuine by many 
historians and antiquaries, I venture to think that it is spurious. 

(i) It is not in the older Register of Scon, compiled about 1320 (the 
earliest deed in which is the Bull of Pope Alexander III., A.D. 1164). 
It appears in the later Register, written between 1450 and 1460. 






NOTES XXXVI. 281 

(2) There is evidence that, long before the Register in which it 
appears was written, the old charters of the monastery of Scon had 
been lost or destroyed. 

In a charter which purports to have been granted by Malcolm IV. 
(1153-1164) it is said: " Inde est quod ad honorem Dei et ad re- 
formationem ecclesie de Scon in principali sede regni nostri fundatae, 
quam incendio vastatam esse. Cognovimus ... ad ipsius ecclesiae 
firmitatem et provectum abbatem in ea constituimus. Privilegia 
vero antecessorum nostrorum quae predicto incendio in favillam 
redacta sunt sigilli nostri munimine innovavimus bona vero et pos- 
sessiones et libertates eidem ecclesie ab antecessoribus nostris rege 
scilicet Alexandro, bonae memoriae viro et illustri regi, David avo 
nostro necnon et a nobis collatas eidem ecclesie et abbate et canonicis 
ibidem Deo servientibus et servituris in perpetuum damus et con- 
cedimus. Inspectis siquidem privilegiorum predictorum transcriptis 
donationes prefatas prout eidem ecclesie a predictis regibus et a 
nobis collate sunt in present! ordinamus pagina." 

Even these copies, and with them many later charters were 
destroyed. In 1298 Thomas the abbot stated that the monastery had 
been destroyed by the English army, " celaturis ecclesiae, refectorii, 
dormitorii, claustrorum, camerarum, hostiis, fenestris, altarium, 
armariolis quam in cistis et scrineis . . . et ubicunque in diet 
monasterio inventis confractis et serruris earum avulsis et asportatis 
quod quidem factum ita horribile et enormiter perpetratum. Evi- 
dentia facti sine onere alterius probationis unicuique intuenti. Ita 
manifestum erat et notorium quod nulla posset tergiversatione celari 
cistas in quibus tarn cartae et munimenta regum bone memorie David 
Malcolmi, Willi. Alexandri et Alexandri quondam regum Scotie, etc." 
(Lib. de Scon, p. 89). 

(3) The style is unlike that of other charters of the early part of the 
twelfth century. 

Mr. Skene (Celt. Scot., 3, p. 59) said, "It was framed upon the 
model of the Saxon charters." After the Conquest the phraseology of 
the Saxon charters went out of fashion and was replaced by the terser 
Norman style. This charter looks like the work of a scribe who had 
before him a copy of a charter belonging to the earlier Saxon period. 

(4) It states that the King asked Adelwald, the prior of St. Oswald's, 
to send him some of his canons and that the request was granted. 
Adelwald did not become prior of St. Oswald's until 1128, four years 
after King Alexander died. 

(5) The manner in which the king announces that he makes the 
grant is abnormal. He professes to have both signed and sealed it. 



282 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

The statement that he and the queen marked with their own hands 
shows (I think) that this charter is the production of a later time than 
1113-1124. 

(6) Most of the consenters and witnesses are unknown. I think 
that some of the names are the inventions of the writer of the charter. 

p. 28. In nomine, etc. This is an unusual commencement to 
charters of the twelfth century. Only one of those collected in this 
volume, and none of the ancient English charters in Mr. Round's book, 
commence with an invocation. Many old charters on the Continent 
and in England in the Saxon time so commence, but in the twelfth 
century it had become rare, and from that time is to be found only in 
Testaments and in Instruments by notaries public. 

Giry, Manuel de Diplomatique, p. 533 : " Invocation n'est pas 
une formule essentielle. Tres ge*ne"rale a la fin du x. si&cle, on ren- 
contre des le XI. beaucoup d'actes qui en sont de*pourvus. Elle est 
depuis le XII. siecle exceptionnelle dans les actes des rois de France et 
en disparait totalement sous le regne de Philippe le Bel . . . Mais 
elle a persiste dans les actes des notaires apostoliques et dans les 
testaments, ou la tradition s'en est conservee jusqu'a nos jours." 

p. 28. Filius regis Malcolm! et reginae Margaretae . . . filia Henrici 
regis Angliae. This strikes me as having been written by one who, 
writing long after, desired to fix which of the Scottish kings called 
Alexander was the granter. I doubt whether Sibylla, an illegitimate 
child, would call herself the daughter of the King of England. 

p. 29. Ecclesiam . . . dedicatam. This implies that the charter 
was not granted until after the church of the monastery was completed 
and dedicated. The church (it is stated) was dedicated to the Holy 
Trinity, and it was granted and handed over to God, St. Mary, 
St. Michael, St. John, and St. Laurence. This is an unusual multipli- 
cation of saints. 

p. 29. De ecclesia Sancti Osualdi ... a domino Adelualdo priore 
requirere. St. Oswald's at Nostell in Yorkshire was originally a house 
of poor hermits (dedicated to St. James), in which Ralph Adlave, 
chaplain and confessor, settled, and where he afterwards founded 
a priory in Archbishop Thurstan's time. The earliest charter to it 
by Henry I. is dated loth January, 1121 (Dugdale's Monasticon, 
vi., pp. 89-92 ; Allen's History of Yorkshire, III., p. 224). 

p. 29. Adelualdus : second prior of St. Oswald's, 1128-1133. 

p. 30. Ego Alexander . . . propria manu mea haec confirm . . . 
Ego Sibilla ... In the twelfth century the invariable method of 
authenticating writs was affixing of the seal of the granter. " Until 
quite modern times, no charters, even of private individuals, were 
subscribed by the granters. The deed was completed by affixing 
the granter's seal" (Cosmo Innes, Legal Antiquities, p. 68). 

p. 30. Gregorius Episcopus. His see is not stated. 

Gregory, the Bishop of Moray, was a witness to another charter 
of Alexander I. and to a charter to Dunfermline (circa A.D. 1128). 
Sir Archibald D unbar says that the bishopric of Moray was founded 
on 2oth June, 1 107 (the day on which Turgot was elected Bishop of 
St. Andrews), but there is no authority for that statement. Mr. Robert- 



NOTES XXXVI. 283 

son, Early Kings, I., p. 334 ; Mr. Cosmo Innes, Preface to the Registr. 
Morav., p. xi ; and Mr. Skene, Celt. Scot., 2, pp. 368 and 375, accept 
this ' foundation charter ' of Scon and the other charter (XLIX., ante, 
p. 43) as proof that the bishopric was founded in the reign of King 
Alexander ; but neither of these charters can be relied on. The Bishop 
of Moray is not mentioned in the letters by the Popes enjoining 
obedience to York between 1115 and 1125. 

It would be rash to say positively that there was not a Bishop of 
Moray before 1124, but it is permissible to say that there is no good 
evidence that there was. 

p. 30. Cormac Episcopus. Cormac, the bishop, is also a witness to 
the charter by King Alexander to Scon (No. XLIX., ante, p. 44). Bishop 
Dowden suggests that the absence of the name of his see shows that 
" at the date of these charters he was a bishop without a see in one of 
the monasteries of the Celtic foundation." 

Cormac, Bishop of Dunkeld, is a witness to two of King David's 
charters to Dunfermline, No. IV. (ante, p. 63) and No. xxix. (ante, 
p. 76) ; he is named in a charter in the Book of Deer (ante, p. 78), 
dated the eighth year of David's reign, i.e. 1131-32. He must have 
died shortly afterwards. 

Sir Archibald Dunbar says that the bishopric of Dunkeld was 
founded by Alexander I. on 2Oth June, 1107, the day on which Turgot 
was elected Bishop of St. Andrews, but he gives no authority. 

The tradition at Dunkeld as recorded by Mylne, a canon of that 
church in the fifteenth century, was that about the year 1127 King 
David I. suppressed the Keledei and created a bishop and canons. 
Sir James Dalrymple, Lord Hailes, and Haddan and Stubbs have 
accepted Mylne as authority for the statement that David I., and not 
Alexander, founded the bishopric. 

Bishop Dowden's opinion of Mylne's work is that it " is worse than 
useless for determining the succession of the early bishops of the see. 
It is careless, confusing, and positive in tone where it ought to have 
been hesitating and conjectural. It is often demonstrably wrong." 

p. 30. Alexander nepos regis Alexandri. Sir James Dalrymple 
(Coll., p. 376) : " I cannot certainly describe who ' Alexander nepos 
regis Alexandri' is, but I take him to be a son of King Duncan, 
and older than ' Willielmus films Dunecani nepos regis.' . . . He 
hath been a person so much had in respect that he is ranked before 
all the great men consenters to this charter. ..." 

This is almost certainly a forged name. 

King Alexander had no nephew called Alexander. Edgar had no 
son ; Duncan's son was William ; David I. had an only son, 
Henry ; Matilda, queen of Henry I., had an only son, William ; 
Mary, wife of the Count of Boulogne, had an only son, who died 
young. 

p. 30. Beth comes. He is a witness to King Alexander's charter to 
Scon, No. iv. I venture to think that this is another spurious name. 
Sir James Dalrymple passes him without remark. Mr. Robertson 
(Early Kings, I., p. 184) thinks that Beth is an error for Heth, 
Earl of Moray, who married a daughter of Lulach, and had a son, 
Angus, Earl of Moray ; but Mr. Robertson was surprised to find 



284 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

Heth concurring with King Alexander, because Heth was " an 
inveterate opponent of the reigning family." 

Skene (Celt. Scot., 3, p. 287) finds no place for an Earl Beth or 
Heth among the Mormaers or Earls of Moray. Sir Archibald 
Dunbar has doubts whether Earl Beth was Earl of Angus. 

G. E. C., in the Complete Peerage : " Beth was possibly Earl of 
Moray, though more probably Earl of Fife. He may (not impro- 
bably) have acquired some right to the earldom of Moray by marriage 
with a sister of Maelsnechtan, Mormaer of Moray." 

In short, nothing is known of Beth comes. 

p. 30. Gospatric Dolfini : the scribe omitted ' frater.' He was a 
man of importance in the south of Scotland in the reign of Alexander 
I., but he had no interest in the north ; and it is difficult to under- 
stand why his consent should have been asked or given as to the 
foundation of a priory at Scon. 

p. 30. Mallus comes : probably Malise, Earl of Strathern (Sir 
James Dalrymple, p. 376, ' G. E. C.' voce Strathern, and Robertson, 
Early Kings, I., p. 184). Malis comes is a witness to several other 
charters (ante, pp. 43, 63, 77, 85, and 102). 

p. 30. Madach comes. It is assumed that he is identical with 
Madeth comes in No. LXXIV., ante, p. 63; with Madoc comes 
CXXVIL, ante, p. 97 ; with Maduc consul and Madd' comes, witnesses 
to the two charters of Swinton (c. and Ci., ante, pp. 79, 80) ; and with 
Madd' Comes, witness to CXLI., ante, p. 108. 

To him Sir James Dalrymple (Coll., p. 378) allotted the earldom of 
Atholl, on the authority of a passage in Torfaeus (Hist. Oread., lib. I., 
cap. 22, p. 100): "Elocata Margareta Comitis Haconis filia Maddado 
Comiti de Atjoklis omnium Scotiae principum facile nobilissimo, 
patrueli quippe Davidis Scotiae Regis in praesens regnantis ; sato 
patre Melcolmo fratre Regis Melcolmi Davidis patris " ; and, cap. 
25, p. 109 : " Sveinus Asleisis filius, Haebudis in Scotiam ad amicos 
salutandos profectus, longo tempore Joclis, alias Atjoclis (alpibus seu 
montanis) apud Comitem Maddadum, qui Margaretam Comitis 
Haconis Pauli filiam uxorem duxit, moratus," etc. 

Sir James Dalrymple and Lord Hailes (Annals, I., p. 52) are of 
opinion that Torfaeus was wrong in saying that Melcolm was the 
father of Maddad, Earl of Atholl, they say he was Donald Bane. 
Sir Archibald Dunbar calls Maddad's father Melmare, a brother 
of Donald Bane. Earl Maddad is said by Torfaeus (p. 100) to have 
married Margaret, daughter of Earl Haco, G. E. C. (Complete 
Peerage) and others have difficulty in holding that this lady could be 
the mother of Malcolm, whom they call the second earl, and they 
make Margaret, Earl Maddad's second wife. 

p. 130. Rothri comes. Mr. Robertson (Early Kings, I., p. 184) does 
not know what to make of this Earl ; he says he may be assigned to 
Angus, Mar, or Buchan. Mr. Skene (Celt. Scot., 3, p. 291) gives 
him the earldom of Mar, identifying him with " Ruadri, Mormaer of 
Mar." Skene is followed by G. E. C. This is mere conjecture. 

p. 30. Gartnach conies. He is supposed to be the same as Gartnait, 
a donor in the Book of Deer (ante, p. 77), described (ante, p. 78) as 
the son of Cainnech, and as the father of Eva, wife of the Mormaer 









NOTES XXXVI. 285 

of Buchan (p. 84). Garuad comes is a witness, ante, p. 181. 
Mr. Skene (Celt. Scot., 3, p. 288) states that he was the Earl of 
Buchan. 

p. 30. Dufagan comes. Here, I think, the authorities are wrong. 
Sir James Dalrymple (Collections, p. 38) and Robertson (Early Kings, I., 
p. 124) say that Dufagan was Earl of Fife, father of Earl Constantine, 
but Constantine was Earl before the accession of King Alexander. 
I venture to think that Dufagan is a forged name. 

p. 30. Willelmus frater Reginae. It is unlikely that the William 
here mentioned was the legitimate son of Henry I., who was 
drowned at the age of eighteen, in the year 1120. It is possible that 
he was William, an illegitimate son of Henry I., who died in 1135 ; but 
illegitimate children by different mothers are not usually styled 
brother and sister. There is no evidence that that William was ever 
in Scotland. William ' frater Reginae ' was a witness to Charter XLIX. 
(ante, p. 44), which, if genuine, was granted more than two years 
after the queen's death. I regard the name of this witness as an 
invention of the writer. 

p. 30. Edwardus Constabularius was a witness to several of King 
David's charters. Many of our later writers, E. W. Robertson, 
Skene, and Dunbar, on the authority of Ordericus Vitalis, state that he 
was the successful general who in 1130 won the battle of Stracathro, 
and defeated Angus, Earl of Murray. Orderic stated that Edward 
was the name of the leader of King David's forces, and that he was 
the son of Siward, Earl of Mercia, and a cousin of David I. 
(Ordericus Vitalis, B. VIII., c. XXII., as translated in Skene, Celt. 
Scot, i., p. 461.) 

Shortly after the Norman Conquest a Siward Beorn was a pro- 
minent man in the north of England, who accompanied Edgar 
Atheling and his sisters to Scotland in 1068. 

Mr. Robertson (Early Kings, I., p. 189) says that that Siward 
Beorn was the father of Edward the Constable (but I have 
not discovered the authority on which he relied). M. Prevost, 
the learned editor of Ordericus Vitalis (Vol. in., p. 403), expresses 
dissent from the opinion of M. Stapleton regarding the parentage 
of Edward the Constable, and when these authorities differ it is 
probable that the difficulty is considerable. The conjecture that 
Edward the Constable of this charter is the same as Edward son 
of Siward, who many years after King Alexander's death witnessed 
the Foundation Charter of Dunfermline, is very unlikely ; Edward, 
son of Siward, appears low down in the list of witnesses, and was 
probably not a man of high rank. 

Lord Hailes (i., p. 76) said of Ordericus : " He is an historian so ill 
informed, especially with respect to the affairs of Scotland, that I dare 
not rely on this evidence. Of ... Edward, ' the son of Earl Siward,' 
I know nothing." 

p. 30. Gospatricius son of Walthef is a witness to a doubtful 
charter to Scon (No. iv., p. 44), and to the charter cxxi. (p. 93). 
Waltheof son of Earl Gospatric, and brother of Dolfin, had an illegiti- 
mate son called Gospatric, to whom (2 Bain, p. 16) his brother 
Alan gave lands in Cumberland. 






286 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 



Sir James Dalrymple (Coll., p. 381), with good sense, said, 
" It is uncertain who this witness was, the names of Walthef and 
Gospatric being so frequent in these times." 

p. 30. Forn appears as an assenter, " assensum prebeo " ; he poses 
as a man of rank and influence. 

Although I am of the opinion that this Foundation Charter is 
spurious, I do not doubt that Alexander I. founded a monastery at 
Scon, and granted charters to it, the substance of which is preserved 
in the Bull of Pope Alexander III., issued in December, 1164 (Liber 
de Scon, p. 13, No. 18) and in the charter by King Malcolm IV. in 
the eleventh year of his reign, 1163-1164 (Lib. de Scon, p. 5, No. 5). 

Scon was the seat of the kings of Scotland, and probably from an 
early time there was a church there. In the Chron. de Mailros, p. 65, 
under date 1115, it is recorded, in a hand later than the context : 
"Canonicis tradita est ecclesia de Scon." Fordun, v., 28, says of 
Alexander I. : " Ditaverit . . . ecclesiam Sconensem ... in honore. 
Sanctae Trinitatis et Sancti Michaelis Archangeli in superiore sede 
regni Scona. . . . Ipse est itaque, qui tot et tanta privilegia praestitit 
ecclesiae predictae Sanctae Trinitatis de Scona quam fundatam 
aedificavit loco, quo reges antiquitus tam Scoti quam Picti sedem 
regni primam constituerunt, dedicari fecit, ad cujus dedicationem, 
praecepto regis urgente, totum pene regnum concurreret. . . . Ipsam 
quidem ecclesiam, Deo disponente, cum pertinentiis omnibus, 
canonicis regularibus, ab ecclesia Sancti Oswaldi de Nostle vocatis et 
ceteris post eos usque finem seculi Deo servituris libere tradidit 
gubernandam." 

Wyntoun, vii., v., line. 658, says that the king founded Scon soon 
after the defeat of the northern rebels. A chronicle of the Scots, 
written between 1482-1500 (Chron. P. and S., p. 38) : "And he in the 
sewynt yere of his rigne foundit Scon ye abbey," i.e. 1114-1115. 

This is probable, but the monks to whom Scon was given, cannot 
have been brought from St. Oswald's at Nostell so early as 1115 
because St. Oswald's was not then a house of canons regular. 

This charter and the Bull of Pope Alexander and the charter of 
King Malcolm agree in the names of the lands granted by King 
Alexander to the Priory. 

It is curious that Scon itself, the land on which the church and the 
monastery were built, is not mentioned. 

p. 29. Infervus was afterwards called Innerbos ; it was a land in the 
parish of Scon which remained in the possession of the monks until 
the Reformation, when it passed first to Lord Ruthven, and afterwards 
was feued out in eighteen shares, of which a family of Blair got the 
greater portion ; the eighteen shares probably represented the eighteen 
remaining monks of the abbey. 

p. 29. Benchorin is Banchrie, in the parish of Bendochy. The Abbey 
of Cupar had the church and lands in Bendachty. In 1225 there 
was a settlement of a dispute by which the Abbey of Cupar took a 
lease from the Abbey of Scon of the tithes of Benchory, Kinslatin, and 
Crochin, and they agreed as to the boundaries of these lands and of 
Kinnochtrie and Fotherins (Lib. de Scon, p. 52). At the Reformation 



NOTES XXXVI. 287 

Benchory was divided, and the Halyburtons of Pitcur, the Mercers of 
Melginch, Robertson of Hill of Cowie, Dickson, glove-maker in 
Perth, and Chalmers got portions. 

p. 29. Fotheros, Kynochtred, are probably Foderance, Kinnochtrie. 
Fingask afterwards belonged to the Dundas family. 

p. 29. Dufrothni, said to be Duffertyn, appears in the charter by 
Malcolm IV., and in the Bull by Pope Alexander, but I have not 
traced it as being in the possession of the abbey afterwards. 

p. 29. Cleon was a grange belonging to the canons ; they got a 
charter from Alexander II. to make Cleon a warren, and free forest. 
At a visitation in 1315 the bishop recommended the abbot to see to 
the cultivation of the grange of Cleon. (Lib. de Scon, p. 138.) 

p. 29. Liff is a parish in Forfarshire. It continued to be the 
property of the abbey till the Reformation. 

p. 29. Grudin may be Gurdie. 

p. 29. Invergourin is Invergowrie in Forfarshire. It is said to have 
been given to Alexander I. by his uncle. Wyntoun, Bk., VIL, 5, line 
624: 

"In Invergowry a sesowne 
Wyth an honest court he bade, 
For thare a maner-plas he hade, 
And all the land by and by 
Wes hys demyd than halyly." 

There are in all 33 ploughgates of land granted ; and if each was of 
the usual size, 104 acres, the Priory got from King Alexander a large 
estate of 3600 acres. Of course these were not all in demesne ; the 
monks received only a fixed rent and services from permanent owners. 
In the reign of Malcolm IV. it was arranged that each ploughgate 
should pay one cow, two pigs, four bags (clavini) of meal, ten thraves 
of straw, ten hens, 200 eggs, ten handfuls of candles, four ' mumae ' of 
soap, and 20^ melae of cheese. 

p. 29. Quinque mansiones domuum. ' Mansiones ' is here used in a 
different sense from that of the mansiones of Coldingham. King 
Malcolm and the Pope call them tofts. It may be inferred that in 
the reign of Alexander I. Edinburgh, Stirling, Inverkeithing, Perth, 
and Aberdeen were burghs in which the king held a great part of 
the land. 

p. 29. Communionem aquae de Thei ut in ea possint piscari sicut ad 
opus regis. The writer of the charter perhaps tried to enlarge the 
abbey's rights. If we can trust the charter of Malcolm IV. and the 
Bull of the Pope, King Alexander granted, not an equal right with the 
Crown in all the fishings of the Tay, but only two nets, the one at 
Kincarrekin and the other at the King's Inch. This charter omits 
what the charter of Malcolm and the Pope's Bull include, viz., ' a net 
in the Forth at Stirling.' 

p. 30. Omnes pelles arietinas et agninas . . . Lambremor. This is 
so differently expressed from the charter of Malcolm IV. and the 
Papal Bull that they cannot have been copied from the same original. 
The Bull probably most accurately represents what Alexander gave. 



288 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

p. 30. A northo de Lambremor. This slip on the part of the writer 
stamps this part of the charter as the production of at least two 
centuries after King Alexander died. 



XXXVII. 

Eadmer's Historia Nov. Angliae, Lib. V., Selden's edition, p. 130; 
Rolls' edition, p. 279 ; 2 Concil., p. 196. 

The Archbishop of Canterbury had been abroad since the autumn 
of 1116. He returned on 4 January, 1120, and King Alexander at 
once sent this letter by the hands of " quidam honorati et strenui viri 
scilicet monachus et prior ecclesiae Dunifermelinae, Petrus nomine, 
clerici duo et unus miles." 

The king congratulates the archbishop on his return, and, reminding 
him that the church of St. Andrews had long been destitute of pastoral 
care, he begs that the archbishop will allow Eadmer, a monk whom 
many had praised, to be enthroned as bishop. The king fears lest he 
has grievously offended the Pope by allowing the bishopric of St. 
Andrews to remain so long vacant. He relies on the archbishop's 
advice, reminding him of their old friendship, and that he had been 
spiritually adopted by the archbishop as his son. 

Fordun says that Eadmer was elected to St. Andrews in 1117, 
but that is a mistake. Haddan and Stubbs (2 Concil., 197) suggest 
that negotiations may have been going on between 1115 and 1120, 
although Eadmer says : " Nee per se nee per quemlibet hominum 
unquam de ipso negotio aliquo modo apud quemquam egisse." 

On receiving this letter from King Alexander the archbishop wrote 
to King Henry I., requesting that permission be given to Eadmer to 
go to Scotland and be consecrated Bishop of St. Andrews (ed. Selden, 
p. 131 ; W., i., 394, 395 ; 2 Concil., 197). The king assented (2 Con- 
cil., p. 198): " Volo et concede, ut monachum ilium, unde Rex Scotiae 
te requisivit, liberum ei concedas ad consuetudinem terrae suae in 
Episcopatu S. Andreae." Whereupon Eadmer was sent, taking with 
him letter No. xxxvm. by the Archbishop to King Alexander. 



XXXVIII. 

Eadmer, Hist. Nov., Rolls' edition, p. 281 ; 2 Concil., p. 198. 
" Eadmer is sent according to your request ; send him back as soon as 
possible to be consecrated." 



NOTES XXXVI.-XXXVIII. 289 

Eadmer described his reception and election : " Veniens itaque 
frater ipse in Scotiam, mox tertio die adventus sui, illo qui fuit dies 
festivitatis gloriosissimorum Apostolorum Petri et Pauli, suscepit, 
eligente eum clero et populo terrae, et concedente Rege, pontificatum 
Sancti Andreae Apostoli Chenrimuntensis. Quae res ita disponente 
Deo acta est, ut nee virga pastorali vel anulo a Rege investitus 
fuerit, nee hominium ei fecerit. Laetus itaque dies habitus est, atque 
in laudem Dei alacriter expensus. In crastino autem Rex, cum electo 
de consecratione illius secretius agens, et modis omnibus eum a 
pontifice Eboracensi consecrari exhorrens, ubi, eo docente, accepit 
auctoritatem ecclesiae Cantuariensis ex antiquo toti Brittaniae prae- 
minere, et iccirco ipso disponente, se Cantuariae episcopalem bene- 
dictionem velle requirere, conturbatus animo surgens discessit ab eo. 
Nolebat enim ecclesiam Cantuariensem anteferri Ecclesiae S. Andreae 
de Scotia. Vocans itaque Willelmum monachum Sancti Edmundi, 
qui post Thurgodum eidem episcopatui praepositus, pene ilium evacua- 
verat, praecepit ut more solito in episcopatu se haberet, exspoliato 
noviter investito. Expleto autem post haec mense integro, et his 
quae supererant jam terris episcopatus funditus evacuatis, pro voto 
principum regni Rex Alexander ipsum electum convenit, vixque ab eo 
obtinuit ut quia super inimicos suos exercitum ducere disponebat, 
virgam pastoralem de super altare, quasi de manu Domini, susciperet, 
ut ita in toto regno curae animarum omnium pro posse deinceps 
intenderet. Post haec ad ecclesiam S. Andreae venit, et occurrente 
ei Regina, susceptus a scholasticis et plebe, pontificis loco successit." 

Eadmer remained in Scotland for some months. Thurstan, Arch- 
bishop of York, induced Henry I. to order Ralph, Archbishop of 
Canterbury, not to consecrate Eadmer, and King Henry wrote three 
letters to King Alexander to the same effect (2 Concil., p. 200), which 
have not been preserved. 

Eadmer said that he desired to go to Canterbury for consecration, 
but King Alexander insisted that he (Eadmer) was " penitus absolutum 
ab ecclesia Cantuariensi . . . se que in vita sua consensum non 
praebiturum ut episcopus Scotiae subderetur pontifici Cantuariorum." 

Eadmer consulted John, Bishop of Glasgow, and two Canterbury 
monks of his own company, who advised him that he must either adopt 
the ' usus Scottorum ' or resign, and that, if he chose the latter course, 
he must return the ring which he had received from the king and the 
pastoral staff which he had taken from the altar. 

Eadmer returned the ring to the king and the staff to the altar; he 
declared that he resigned the bishopric, " quia vis mihi infertur 
adquiesco ut eum tempore Alexandri Regis non reclamem nisi 
pontifex et conventus (Cantuariorum) Rex Anglorum aliud mihi 

T 






290 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 



super his consilium dederint," and returned to Canterbury. The king's 
account of what happened is given in xxxix. 

p. 33. Valete. The letter in the Rolls' edition ends : "Omnipotens 
Deus vos et conjugem vestram custodial et ab omni malo defendat, 
Amen." 



XXXIX. 

Selden's edition of Eadmer's Hist. Nov., v., p. 134 ; Rolls' edition, 
p. 286 ; Warton, I., 395, 396 ; and 2 Concil., p. 200. 

This was written in 1120. King Alexander informs the Archbishop 
of Canterbury that Eadmer would not comply with the customs of the 
Scots, that he insisted on resigning the see, and had returned to 
England. 

p. 33. Consuetudinibus . . . hominum. The King does not state 
what were the customs with which Eadmer would not comply. 
Eadmer himself afterwards said that one difficulty was, that he desired 
to be consecrated by the Archbishop of Canterbury, whereas the 
King of Scotland said that he must be consecrated in Scotland by 
Scottish bishops, while the Pope ordered that he should be conse- 
crated by the Archbishop of York as Metropolitan. Another difficulty 
stated by Eadmer was that he had been deprived of property belong- 
ing to the see, and that the King's friends virtually forced him to 
resign. 

p. 33. In praesentia quorundam episcoporum. The King states that 
the formal resignation had been made at a Council attended by 
several bishops and earls and " probi homines " of the country, that 
they took part in the proceedings, and that the King acted on their 
advice. The archbishop, after hearing Eadmer, wrote to Alexander 
the letter No. XL. 



XL. 

Selden's edition, Eadmer, Hist. Nov., Lib. v., p. 134 ; Rolls' edition, 
p. 287 ; 2 Concil., 201. 

" Your letter (No. xxxix.) and Eadmer's statements do not agree. 
We will discuss the matter when you come to England. 

The archbishop does not express doubt as to the legality of 
Eadmer's resignation of the bishopric. Afterwards in the same 
year (1120) Eadmer was advised, probably by Nicolas, Prior of 
Worcester (2 Concil., 202), to be consecrated by the Pope. " Dissolve 
litigium de te Cantiae et Eboracae, principumque Angliae Scotiae- 
que : et favore Regis Scottorum Apostolicum sacrandus expete." 



NOTES XXXVIII.-XLII. 291 



XLI. 

Selden's edition (pp. 139, 140) of Eadmer, Hist. Nov., vi. ; Rolls' 
edition, p. 299 ; W., I., 404, 405 ; 2 Concil., 206. 

Eadmer wrote this letter to the king about a year and a half after 
his return to Canterbury, but before igth September, 1122, when 
Archbishop Ralph died. He thanks King Alexander for his kindness 
to him from the time the king chose him to be bishop. If they 
could meet, he would tell the king in secret what he had learnt since 
he resigned the bishopric. He assures the king of his loyalty to him, 
and of his zeal for the honour of the country. He says that those 
who have heard " qualiter electus, susceptus, et pontificatu saisitus et 
loco pontificis substititus fui," assure him that he cannot resign the 
bishopric, nor can any be substituted for him so long as he lives. 
He ascribes his former resignation to the "perpes discordia" 
and "interminabiles inimicitiae" shown to him on the king's side by 
those "quos vobis familiares esse sciebam" and also to the king 
having twice illegally deprived him of property belonging to the see. 

But Eadmer says that he desires to return to St. Andrews. He will 
do so with loyalty to the king and to the see, and he will make con- 
cessions with regard to the King of England, to the Archbishop 
of Canterbury, and to consecration. As he cannot explain himself 
fully in a letter, he desires exceedingly to speak to the king in private. 

At the same time Archbishop Ralph wrote to King Alexander letter 
No. XLII. 

P- 37- Qua me bis rebus. The Rolls' edition has " his rebus." 



XLII. 

Selden's edition (p. 140) Eadmer, Hist. Nov., vi. ; Rolls' edition, 
p. 301 ; W., i., 405 ; 2 Concil., 208. 

Written in 1122, before the Archbishop had heard of the death of 
Queen Sybilla, who died on I2th June of that year. The archbishop 
recommends the king to invite Eadmer to return to St. Andrews, the 
king had canonically elected him to be bishop, he had been sent to 
Scotland, he was wedded to his see and could not be divorced, so 
long as he lived he must be Bishop of St. Andrews. 

p. 39. Domina regina uxore vestra. She was Sibylla, an illegiti- 
mate daughter of King Henry I. of England. 

It does not appear that King Alexander replied to these letters 
from Eadmer and the Archbishop. The controversy was soon to be 
closed by death. The Archbishop died I9th September, 1122; 
Eadmer died I3th January, 1123; and the King 23rd April, 1124. 



292 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 



XLIII. 

Reg. Alb. Ebor., P. I., fol. 51, and in., fol. 57 ; Warton, I., 481 ; 
Dugdale, Monast., vi., pp. 1187, 1188 ; 2 Concil, p. 205. 

This, and the next two letters from the Pope, refer to the question 
whether the Scottish Bishops were suffragans of the Archbishop of 
York. The claim of York had been denied. 

On 20 Nov., 1119, Pope Calixtus II. wrote to the Scottish Bishops a 
letter preserved in Reg. Alb. Ebor., I., 50 b (printed 2 Concil., p. 192), 
commanding them to render canonical obedience to the Archbishop 
of York, and on the same day the Pope addressed a letter to the 
Bishops of Durham, the Orkneys, and Glasgow, ordering them to 
obey the Archbishop of York as their metropolitan. (Reg. Alb. 
Ebor., P. I., fol. 51. Printed in Dugdale's Monast, vi., 1187, and 
2 Concil., p. 192.) 

From the terms of that letter it seems that the Bishops of Glasgow 
and of the Orkneys were then the only Bishops in Scotland. 

In 1119 Ralph, Archbishop of Canterbury, wrote to the Pope assert- 
ing that the Bishops of Scotland were subject to Canterbury. (The 
latter is printed in 2 Concil., p. 193, from W., I., 398, 399, 400, 402, 
from MS. Cott. Domitian A. V. 2 ; Twysden, 1735-1748.) 

On 15 January, 1122, Pope Calixtus wrote this letter (No. XLIII.) to 
King Alexander I., complaining that he had received no answer to his 
previous letters, and commanding him to refuse to permit his Bishops 
to be consecrated unless by license from the metropolitan, the Arch- 
bishop of York. On the same day Pope Calixtus wrote : " Dilectis in 
Christo fratribus universis per Scotiam episcopis Ebor. ecclesiae 
suffraganeis" (Reg. Alb. Ebor., I., 51 b, MS. Cott. Cleop. C., iv.; W., 
I., 481 ; 2 Concil., p. 205), ordering them to render reverence and 
obedience to the Archbishop of York. 



XLIV. 

Reg. Alb. Ebor., P. I., fol. 51 ; Dugdale, vi., p. 1188 ; 2 Concil., p. 20. 

This letter to John, Bishop of Glasgow, is dated on the same day 
as No. XLIII. to the King: "At the request of the Church of York 
you were consecrated bishop by our predecessor, Pope Paschal. You 
ought to have humbly acknowledged this, but you were puffed (so we 
have heard) with such pride that you would neither profess to your 
metropolitan, the Archbishop of York, nor obey our order. Know that 



NOTES XLIII.-XLVI. 293 

we can endure no longer the pertinacious continuance of this con- 
tempt. We repeat the order. Be not an ungrateful son ; profess 
obedience to our venerable brother, Thurstan, your metropolitan. We 
confirm the sentence which he has justly pronounced against you." 



XLV. 

Cott. MSS. Claud. B. in., fol. 131 a; -Reg. Alb. Ebor., P. I., fol. 51, 
and P. ill., fol. 57 ; Dugdale, VI., 1187 (bis) ; 2 Concil., p. 22. 

Bishop John disregarded the command of the Pope, conveyed to 
him by the letter XLIV., and on 26th August, 1122, the Pope wrote this 
letter, XLV., " Obey the Archbishop of York within 30 days." Bishop 
John still refused to obey, having been suspended, he left his diocese 
and went to Rome. (Simeon of Durham, Hist. Reg. Angl., ann. 
1 1 22 ; Twysden, 245.) 

XLVI. 

In the Register of the Bishopric of Glasgow, Maitland Club edition, 
p. 8, No. 2. 

This was granted towards the end of King Alexander's reign, 
probably after the return of Bishop John from Jerusalem in 1123. It is 
a grant by Earl David of a hundred shillings annually from the rents of 
Hardingestrorna for the building and restoration of the church of 
Glasgow. 

p. 41. David Comes : Earl of Northampton, jure uxoris. 

p. 42. Hardingestrorna, now called Hardingstone St. Edmund, a 
parish 2^ miles from the town of Northampton, within David's earl- 
dom. The Earl had lands in demesne in Hardingestrorna, and from 
the rents of these he ordered this payment of loos. He had granted 
several acres there " in dominio " to the Abbey of Selkirk (ante, p. 27). 

p. 42. Ecclesia. This was the church which was consecrated in 
1 136, of which no part now remains. 

p. 42. Testibus : Robert, son of Nigel, occurs also on p. 58, possibly 
he is the same as Robert son of Ingell on p. 47 ; Roger son of Nigel 
is mentioned on p. 51. 

p. 42. Hugo Bret, variously spelt le Bret and Britton, was a witness 
also to charters, pp. 55, 69, 73, 85, 86, 92, 96, 101, 108, and 110. 

p. 42. Walter son of Winemarus. He was of a Northamptonshire 
family. His name occurs as a witness, ante, p. 47. 



294 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

XLVII. 

In the recent Chartulary of Scon, printed in the Liber de Scon, 
Maitland Club edition, p. 3, No. 2. 

I am not sure that this is genuine, it is not engrossed in the older 
Chartulary. 

King Alexander grants to the Church of the Holy Trinity at 
Scon, the island of Loch Tay in honour of God, of the Virgin, 
and of All Saints, in order that a church may be built there for 
the King and for the soul of the late Queen Sibylla, the King- 
intends to increase the gift, so that the place may be more worthy of 
the service of God. 

This gift was confirmed by Malcolm IV., by Pope Alexander III., 
A.D. 1164, and by Pope Honorius III., A.D. 1226. These confirmations 
do not mention the name of Queen Sibylla, the island of Loch 
Tay is not referred to in the Liber de Scon later than 1226. 

p. 42. Queen Sibylla. Wyntoun says she was the daughter of 
William the Conqueror, but that is an error. She was an illegitimate 
daughter of Henry I. of England. Simeon of Durham, Hist. Reg. 
Angl. : "Sybilla regina Scottorum filia Henrici regis." Ordericus Vitalis : 
" Filia Henrici Regis Anglorum." (Prevost's edition, Vol. ill., p. 400.) 

This was doubted by Freeman (Norman Conquest, v., p. 848), 
because Sibylla's name is not in the list of King Henry's thirteen 
illegitimate children given by Robert de Monte (VIIL, 29), the 
continuator of the history of William of Jumieges. 

There is no record of the marriage of King Alexander and Sibylla, 
the date is not known. It may have been unattended with state 
ceremony or recognition. Ordericus Vitalis says (Vol. ill., p. 400) : " Ex 
concubina uxorem duxit." 

Hailes' Annals, I., p. 71, quotes William of Malmesbury (v., 400) : 
" Alexandrum, Henricus affinitate detinuit, data ei in conjugem filia 
notha, de qua ille viva nee sobolem, quod sciam, tulit, nee ante se 
mortuam multum suspiravit, defuerat enim feminae, ut fertur, quod 
desideraretur vel in morum modestia vel in corporis elegantia." 

She granted to the Abbey of Dunfermline ' Beeth,' a valuable 
property in Fifeshire, which remained in the possession of the abbey 
till the Reformation. Simeon of Durham says that she died suddenly, 
and this charter states that she died on the island of Loch Tay ; 
possibly she was drowned. The date of her death was 12 June, 1122. 
She had no children. 

p. 42. Insula de Lochtei. Near the eastern end of Loch Tay, 200 
yards from the north shore, is a small wooded island about 400 yards 
in circumference, on which are some ruins, ut ecclesia Dei, etc. In 
the account of the religious houses in Scotland Keith says : " Loch 
Tay . . . was a cell or priory belonging to Scone, founded by King 
Alexander in the year 1122. . . . The most part of the buildings 
of this monastery are still extant." 



NOTES XLVII.-XLVIII. 295 

I doubt whether either of these statements be correct. King 
Alexander did not make the "aliud augmentum unde locus in 
Dei obsequium exaltetur," nor (as far as I know) is there any 
contemporary record of a priory on the island. Still the story 
that a priory was built has been generally accepted. 

Sir Walter Scott, in "The Fair Maid of Perth," described the burial 
of the Chief of Clan Quhele on the island in 1398. "The 
building rose into the towers and pinnacles of a priory where 
slumbered the remains of Sibilla, daughter of Henry I. of England, 
and consort of Alexander I. of Scotland." He added in a note : 
" The priory of Loch Tay was founded by Alexander I. and the 
care of it committed to the small body of monks ; but the last 
residents on it were three nuns, who, when they did emerge into 
society, seemed determined to enjoy it in its most complicated and 
noisy state, for they came out only once a year, and that to a market 
at Kenmore, hence that fair is still called Fiell na m'han maomb or 
Holy woman's market." 

Hume Brown, I., p. 70, speaks of " an Augustinian priory on an 
island of Loch Tay." These statements are supported by the retour 
of James, Earl of Annandale, 18 May, 1642, in which is included 
" terras, castra etc. ad temporalitatem, patrimonium et proprietatem 
prioratus de Loch Tay ab antiquo pertinentia." 

As early as the middle of the fifteenth century the island was 
the residence of the Campbells of Glenurchy ; the first laird built the 
enclosing walls (M'Gibbon and Ross, V., p. 556), and Sir Duncan 
Campbell, the second laird, who fell at Flodden, 1513, "biggit the 
great hall, chapel and chambers of the Isle of Loch Tay" (Black Book 
of Tay mouth). In 1646 an act of Parliament was passed giving 
warrant for maintaining a garrison of 40 men kept on the island 
of Loch Tay for 14 months by Campbell of Glenurchy ; the island was 
then one of the places of retreat of the Marquis of Argyll's regiment. 

p. 42. Herbert the chancellor. This is the earliest mention of a 
chancellor in Scotland. It is stated in many books that Herbert the 
chancellor and Herbert the abbot of Kelso were the same persons, but 
that is incorrect. Herbert the abbot and Herbert the chancellor were 
different men ; they were witnesses together in King David's charter of 
Govan to Glasgow (ante, No. civ., p. 82). Herbert was chancellor until 
his death about 1135, while Herbert the abbot became Bishop of 
Glasgow in 1147. 



XLVIII. 

From the recent Chartulary of Scon. Maitland Club edition, p. 3, 
No. 3. 

King Alexander, addressing all the merchants of England, announces 
that he has granted in alms to the priory of the church of the Holy 
Trinity at Scon the can and customs of a ship, and he orders that all 
merchants dwelling beyond Scotland who desire to bring that ship with 
its cargo up to Scon shall have the peace of God and of the king 



296 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

in coming and going, and that they shall be liable in customs to 
no one except to the Prior and the brethren. 

If this charter be genuine, it was granted during the last four 
months of King Alexander's life, after the election of Bishop Robert 
and before the king's death in May, 1124, but I doubt whether it was 
granted by King Alexander I. It is in substance identical with a 
charter by William the Lion, of which the original is preserved, 
and which is recorded in the older Chartulary (Liber de Scon, p. 21, 
No. 29). However, there is evidence that King Alexander I. did grant 
a similar privilege. Pope Alexander III. reciting King Alexander's 
grant says that it gave " canum et consuetudines unius navis singulis 
annis," and in the Bull of Honorius III. (Liber de Scon, p. 67) the 
words are "Canum et consuetudines unius navis in burgo de Perth." 

p. 43. Can et consuetudines unius navis. The king had right to exact 
payment or custom from trading ships, and this is a renunciation 
as regards one ship consigned to the priory of Scon. 

The word ' can ' was used not only for a duty on land produce, 
but also for duties on ship-borne merchandise. 

David I. granted to the Priory of Dunfermline the can of one ship 
"ubicunque in regno meo applicuerit" (Reg. Dunf., No. i., p. 4), and 
"omnes rectitudines de omnibus navibus quae in portu de Inveresc 
applicuverint " (p. n, No. Kill.), by charter (No. xiy., p. 12) he 
declared the ship of the Abbot of Dunfermline and all its cargo free 
" de omni consuetudine mihi pertinenti." To the canons of Cambus- 
kenneth King David granted the can of one ship (Bull of Pope 
Eugenius, No. CLXXX.), which Malcolm IV. commuted for an annual 
payment of fifty shillings. King David granted loos, per annum to 
Holyrood from the can levied on ships trading to Perth. 

By charter No. cxvi., ante, p. 89, King David granted to the 
Church and Bishop of Aberdeen a tithe of the can of ships going 
to Aberdeen. The same king granted to the Priory of St. Andrews 
405. from his can of the ships at Perth (CLXIIL, ante, p. 128, and 
No. CCL., p. 201). 

The amount of the can varied. In a fragment (i vol. of the Acts of 
Parliament, p. 725) it is said: "Thar is aucht for a last of wol 
for canage xviij pennies, qwhar it aucht to be gyfyn as at Berwyk on 
Twede. And thar is aucht for the canage of a last of hydys xij 
pennies, of last of crouf j pennies." This is in the "law and custume 
of schippis," in the Bute MSS., which (Preface, p. 181, vn.) may be 
ascribed to the reign of Robert II. By that time the exaction of a part 
of a ship's cargo had been converted into money payments. In the 
earlier days of Kings Alexander I. and David, delivery in kind was 
exacted. 

p. 43. Ascendere atque in Sconam venire voluerint. Robertson 
(Early Kings, I., p. 443) said that Scon "was probably the port to which 
foreign traders brought their wares in the days of Malcolm and 
Margaret," but then, as now, the river Tay can have been navigable 
above Perth only by very small boats. 



NOTES XLVIII.-XLIX. 297 

p. 43. Robert, bishop elect. Eadmer died on 13 January, 1123. 
King Alexander died on 23rd April, 1124. Simeon of Durham, Hist. 
Reg. Angl. ann. 1124 and Chronica de Melros, p. 68: " Ipso 
autem anno Alexander, quatuor ante suam mortem mensibus in 
episcopatum ecclesiae Sancti Andreae quae in Scotia est fecit elegi 
Rodbertum Priorem Canonicorum Regularium apud Sconam." Allow- 
ing a few days for the news of Eadmer's death at Canterbury to 
reach the king, barely three months elapsed between Eadmer's 
death and the King's. Keith (p. 6) says that Robert, Prior of 
Scon, was an Englishman who had been a canon of St. Oswald's at 
Nostell. I do not know that he had any authority for that statement. 
Robert was consecrated in 1127 by Thurstan, Archbishop of York, 
"sine professione salva utriusque ecclesiae dignitate." He liberally 
endowed the priory of St. Andrews and assisted to found the burgh. 
He granted charters to the monasteries of Holyrood (ante, pp. 67, 74, 
165), of Dunfermline (ante, pp. 184, 205), of Kelso (ante, pp. 68, 148), 
of Coldingham (pp. 59, 173, 174), of Dryburgh (pp. 172, 195), and 
to the bishopric of Glasgow (p. 185). 

Three nephews of his are mentioned in the charters : Radulf, Roger, 
miles, and John. He had a dapifer, a chamberlain, and many 
chaplains. He was often with King David and witnessed charters at 
Dunfermline, Scon, Stirling, Haddington, Perth, Chinros, and Berwick. 
He seems to have been a reasonable, liberal, hard-working man, 
"bonae memoriae," said the chronicles of Holyrood and Melrose. He 
died in 1159, after an episcopate of 35 years. 



XLIX. 

In the recent Chartulary of Scon : Maitland Club edition, p. 4, 
No. 4. I am not sure that this is a genuine charter, if genuine it 
was granted between January, 1123, and April, 1124 ; I suspect that it 
is really a charter by King Malcolm IV., who gave to the priory 
of Scon (Liber de Scon, No. 9, p. 9) the right "curiam suam 
habendam in duello in ferro in aqua cum omnibus libertatibus 
ad curiam religiosorum juste pertinentibus cum libertate nulli 
respondendi extra curiam suam propriam," and in the charter 
confirming King Alexander's foundation " curia cum duello ferro 
et aqua cum omnibus libertatibus aliis ad curiam pertinentibus cum 
libertate nemini respondendi extra curiam suam." King William 
the Lion (Scon, p. 22, No. 31) confirmed the jurisdiction, "sicut 
carta Regis Malcolmi fratris mei testatur." Pope Alexander III. 
makes no mention of this when confirming the grants of King 
Alexander I. 

In a charter of the reign of William the Lion mention is made of the 
island " qua solet fieri duellum de Scon " (Lib. de Scon, p. 36, No. 56). 

The recognition of the right of religious houses to order or to 
permit judicial combat is not common in Scottish chartularies. 



298 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

It is conferred by the great charter to Holyrood. "Examen duellii 
aquae et ferri calidi quantum ad ecclesiasticam dignitatem pertinet" 
(Holyrood Charters, p. 3, No. I.). 

This charter seems to me to mean that the Priors' court of Scon was 
to have the same rights as the higher secular courts. There are so 
few records of the early proceedings of courts in Scotland that it is 
difficult to say to what extent the wager of battle was practised. 
Among the ancient Irish the battle ordeal undoubtedly existed (Lea, 
Superstition and Force, p. 92), but Mr. Skene makes no allusion to it 
in his exhaustive History of Celtic Scotland, so I conclude that he 
found no reference to the subject in the Celtic records. 

The duellum was unknown to the Anglo-Saxons (Pollock and 
Maitland, History of English Law, Vol. I., p. 28). Lea (p. 96) says : 
"Judicial combat is not referred to in any of the Anglo-Saxon or 
Anglo-Danish codes. There seems, indeed, no reason to doubt that 
its introduction into English jurisprudence only dates from the time of 
William the Conqueror." 

An Abbots' court had jurisdiction in all disputes between occupiers 
of the church lands. In civil cases relating, say, to the ownership 
or possession of land, or to debt or contract, if the amount were 
sufficient and where evidence was not procurable, each of the parties 
had right to challenge the other to the duellum, and either (if physi- 
cally weak) could appear by a champion. 

It is probable that the judge had the power of deciding whether 
the wager of battle should be permitted, and perhaps this grant and 
the ' examen duellii ' of Holyrood meant that the Abbots' court had 
jurisdiction to allow or to refuse it. 

But while it is uncertain to what extent battle was practised in the 
courts of Scotland, there is enough, both in record and in legislation, 
to show that it was not infrequent. 

It appears from some ancient Scottish laws that it was the duty of 
the court in certain criminal cases to allow the accused an option 
between trial by combat and trial by compurgation. By Ass. Dav. I., 
c. 2, it was provided that a man accused of theft was to have the 
option of battle or of compurgation by twelve leal men : " Any one 
denying an accusation of theft has the choice of assize or battle ; 
if he choose battle he must find pledges to the complainer, and if 
he has no pledges he must submit to an assize" (Ouon. Att., c. 8, 
I., 649). 

I doubt whether the ordinary thief or murderer was listened to 
if he demanded a duellum, although in theory he had the right 
to claim it. I suppose the judge had a discretion to allow or to 
refuse it. 



NOTES XLIX.-L. 299 

p. 43. In ferro was the ordeal of treading on or of holding a red-hot 
iron (Lea, Superstition and Force, p. 230, et seq.\ Fossa was the 
ordeal or 'judicium aquae frigidae. 5 The accused was lowered into 
water ; if he sank he was innocent ; if he did not sink he was guilty, 
the basis of the ordeal being the belief that pure water could 
not receive a perjurer. The right here conferred was the right of 
ordering an accused person to undergo the ordeal in connection 
with causes coming before the Priors' court ; it was different from 
the fossa et furca (power of life and death) possessed in later 
times by baronial courts. The ordeals of ferrum and fossa were 
abolished by the statute of Alexander II., 1230, c. 6 (Acts of Parl. of 
Scot., vol. i., p. 400). 

p. 44. Testibus. All the witnesses here except Robert, Bishop elect 
of St. Andrews, and Herbert, the chancellor, are mentioned in the 
note to the Foundation Charter of Scone, xxxvi. 

L. 

The Registrum Vetus of the Bishopric of Glasgow is " an octavo 
volume of vellum. . . . The ancient part of the register consists of 
67 leaves, the early portion of which is written in a hand of the 
twelfth, and no part of it much later in date than the middle of the 
thirteenth century" (Pref. Reg. Epis. Glas., pp. x and xi). 

This notitia is on the 2ist folio. It is followed by a charter of date 
probably A.D. 1152. On the 67th folio are several charters dated 
circa A.D. 1250 ; thus this document is in a volume compiled 150 years 
after the reign of Alexander I. 

As an introduction to the Registrum the compiler gives a short 
history of the see of Glasgow from the time of St. Kentigern 
until the return of Bishop John from Jerusalem, and at the end 
of his narrative, he gives an account of an Inquisitio ordered by 
Earl David as to the lands which of old had belonged to the church of 
Glasgow, in each of the provinces of Cumbria. 

The editor of the Maitland Club edition gave the introductory 
history a title which the writer gave to the latter part only. This 
transposition of the title appears to me to ascribe to the notitia as 
a whole, a meaning which does not truly belong to it. 

The writer did not quote the actual words of the Inquisitio. If he 
had the record before him, he gave only a somewhat careless summary 
of its contents. He added a list of witnesses, "Hujus rei . . . 
audientes et videntes," which it is probable he himself made, introduc- 
ing the names of the leading personages who were associated with 
David when Earl. There was no grant made nor act done by the 
Earl which witnesses could attest. 

The document is interesting, but undue value has been attributed 
to it. 



300 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

p. 44. In Cumbria itaque, regione quadam inter Angliam et Scotiam 
sita. This refers to the old times before St. Kentigern's episcopate, 
and the use of the word Cumbria is an anachronism. It is certain 
that the south-west of Scotland was not then called Cumbria, nor its 
inhabitants Cumbrenses. 

Mr. Skene, in a note contributed to Bishop Forbes' Lives of St. 
Ninian and St. Kentigern, says : " The terms Cumbria and Cumbri 
are not applied to any part of the territories and people of Britain by 
any writer prior to the eleventh century." 

Bede terms the people Britones. Gildas knows nothing of 
Cumbria and Cumbri. To Nennius they were equally unknown, 
though he refers to their kings by name. Adamnan calls Rhydderch 
Hael a king 'qui in Petra Cloithe regnavit,' but knows nothing 
of Cumbri or Cumbria. The Irish Annals term the kings who reigned 
during the whole of the eighth century Reges Alocluaithe, but have no 
term to express the district they reigned over (Lives of St. Ninian 
and St. Kentigern, Forbes' edition, p. 331). 

p. 44. Proceres regni, etc. Jocelin in the Life of St. Kentigern 
(c. 40) : " By divine prompting the king and the clergy of the 
Cambrian region with other Christians, albeit they were few in 
number, came together, and after taking into consideration what was 
to be done to restore the good estate of the church, which was 
well nigh destroyed . . . approached St. Kentigern and elected him 
in spite of his remonstrances and strong resistance to be the shepherd 
and bishop of their souls . . . they enthroned him, and having called 
one bishop of Ireland after the manner of the Britons and Scots 
of that period, they caused him to be consecrated Bishop ... St. 
Kentigern . . . established his cathedral seat in a town called Glesgu 
which is interpreted, the Dear Family" (Life of St. Kentigern, chapter 
XL, Forbes' edition, pp. 54, 55). 

There are two Memoirs of St. Kentigern : (i) By an unknown author 
who wrote at the instance of Herbert, Bishop of Glasgow (1147-1159) 
printed by Mr. Cosmo Innes, Reg. Epis. Glas., Vol. I., pp. Ixxviiii ; 
Ixxxvi ; (2) By Jocelinus, a monk of Furness, circa 1185, 
dedicated to Josceline, bishop of Glasgow printed by Capgrave, 
Nova Legenda Angl., fol. ccvii and ccxii ; by Pinkerton, Vitae 
Antiquae Sanctorum Scotiae ; and by Bishop Forbes and in Acta 
Sanct. Jan., p. 815. It is impossible to separate what is true and 
what is false, what is myth and what is history, in these memoirs. 
It is probable that Kentigern was born between A.D. 518 and 530 and 
that he died about A.D. 603, for the next 500 years the history of 
the church of Glasgow is really unknown. 

p. 45. Alexandro ... in Scotia regnante, misit eis Deus David . . . 
in principem et ducem. I have already discussed the question as 
to the rights of Earl David in the south of Scotland during the 
reign of Alexander I. 

p. 45. Johannem quemdam religiosum virum. The writer implies that 
Earl David revived the bishopric and immediately appointed John ; but 
there is evidence that a previous bishop, Michael, was consecrated 
Bishop of Glasgow at York between 1 109-1 1 14. " Possibly or probably 
an early death precluded Bishop Michael from coming to Glasgow as 



NOTES L. 301 

bishop. He died and was buried at Morland in Westmoreland" 
(Haddan and Stubbs, 2 Concil., p. 14). 

p. 46. Inquisitio per David principem, etc. These words are written 
on the margin opposite the words " David vero," etc. 

p. 46. Singulis Cumbriae provinciis. None of the lands afterwards 
mentioned lay south of the Solway, and the limitation "quae sub 
dominio et potestate ejus erant (non vero toti Cumbrensi regioni 
dominabatur) " must refer to the Earl's lordships north of the Solway, 
because we know that at least as early as the time of William 
Rufus, Cumberland was part of England, in that reign Ranulf 
Meschin was Lord of Cumberland and strengthened the borders 
against the Scots. 

p. 46. Inquirere fecit . . . subscribuntur. He probably issued a 
brieve ; the names of those to whom it was addressed have not been 
recorded. 

The names of the lands have been carefully scrutinised by Mr. 
J. T. T. Brown in "The Earliest Document relating to Glasgow." 

p. 46. Carcleuien : " Cardowan, near Glasgow, in the Barony 
parish. The ancient clerk read the letter ' d ' as * cl,' a very common 
error of charter copyists " (Brown). There is a land Cardowan within 
the Barony which may have belonged to the church, but the name 
does not appear in the register of the bishopric. Camcar : " ' Caddar.' 
The scribe blundered in transcribing 'dd'" (Brown). I doubt 
whether Camcar can be Cadder, because Cadder (a parish four 
miles north of Glasgow) was granted to the see by Malcolm IV. 
Camcachecheyn. " This is Camlachie. The slight change of the 
letter 'c' to an '!' restores the word to Camlatheteyn " (Brown). 
There is no mention in the Register of Camlachie, which 1 suspect 
is a modern corruption of an old name. Lengartheyn. Mr. Brown 
suggested that this is Garnkirk in the parish of Cadder. He says : 
"It is resolved from Llan a kirk and Gartheyn a garden . . . Garn- 
kirk belonged to the see and was only secularized in 1587 by charter 
of the Commendator of Glasgow to John Stirling." Neither Len- 
gartheyn nor Garnkirk are mentioned in the Register. Lengartheyn, 
in my opinion, has not been identified. Pathelanerch. "This is 
Barlanark" (Brown). Barlanark certainly belonged to the church 
and lay within the Barony ; in later times it was a prebend of the 
Cathedral. Bishop Forbes (Lives of St. Ninian and St. Kentigern, 
p. 370, note) suggested that Pathelanerch is Partick. 

Cunclut : " a croft now part of Glasgow Green, situate near the 
Clyde, between the lands of Milndam on the N.E. and Peitbog on 
the S.W. It came to be known as Kinclaith" (Brown). It is 
puzzling to find it stated that Conclut was church land in the 
reign of Alexander I., because it was granted to the see of Glas- 
gow by King Malcolm IV. (1153-1164), in terms which imply that 
the king was giving a land which the church had not previously 
owned. He gave it "pro salute mei et pro salute animarum Comitis 
Henrici patris mei et Regis David avi mei et omnium aliorum 
antecessorum meorum et pro remissione et absolutione mihi et eis 
habenda a predicta ecclesia de omnibus transgressionibus quas ego et 



3 02 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

ipsi in predictam ecclesiam et in ejus pastores et ministros gessimus : 
si in aliquo erga eos transgressionem fecimus et nominatim pro terris 
quas ego baronibus et militibus meis dedi usque ad diem qua baculum 
peregrinationis Sancti Jacobi suscepi " (Reg. Epis., Glas., No. 15, 
p. 1 6). Chefcarnenuat. " I am not satisfied that Carnwath in the 
Upper Ward is meant. ... I incline to look for the name in Cadder, 
Monkland, or the Barony parish " (Brown). Carnethyn : " Carntyne 
in the Barony" (Brown). Carnedin is included in the Bull of Pope 
Urban III. (Reg. Epis. Glas., p. 55). Caruil : "Carmyle in old Monkland 
parish . . . spelt Kermil and Kermyl in the Registrum, and in 
the Rental Book Carmyl, Carmile, and Carmyill" (Brown). Carmyle 
was the property of the bishop and chapter, Bishop Herbert gave it to 
the Abbey of Newbattle. Quendal : "(Gwendall), now Wandell, a 
part of Lamington, in Lanarkshire." There is no mention of Quendal 
in the Register subsequent to this " Inquisitio." Orig. Paroch. Scot., 
172: "It does not appear that the successors of St. Kentigern held 
any right in the parochial benefice or its advowson, which seem 
rather to have belonged to the lord of the manor of Hertesheuede. 
The parochial territory from an early period was divided into two 
portions ; the smaller, known as Quendal, . . . continued in the 
possession of the bishopric until 1484." (Act. Dom. Con., p. 102.) 
Abercarf : " an ancient name of a small property at the confluence 
of the Polntarf (now the Tarth) with the Lyne in Newlands 
parish, Peebleshire. It early passed to the Church of St. Mary of 
Kelso, and was probably included in the confirmations by Bishop 
Jocelyn, 1195-99" (Brown). I do not find authority for this. Abercarf 
is not mentioned in the Chartulary of Kelso, and so far as appears 
the see of Glasgow did not own land in the parish of Newlands. 
Mecheyn, " spelt Maychan and Mauhan in the Registrum, is now 
Dalserf parish, Lanarkshire. There is still a small estate called 
Machan within the parish. In ancient Hamilton charters it is called 
Machanshire" (Brown). The church did not belong to Glasgow. 
The chapel, dependent on Cadihou, is mentioned in the Bull of 
Urban III., 1186 (No. LXIL). The church of Cadzovv was not an 
early possession, it was given to the see by David I. about A.D. 
1150. Planmichel. Mr. Brown hesitated between Carluke and 
Carmichael. Planmichel is not mentioned in the Papal Bulls. The 
editor of Orig. Paroch. Scot., I., p. 1 50 : " Beyond the resemblance 
of the names there is nothing to identify this place, Planmichel, 
with the Carmichael of later days." 

p. 46. Stoboc : Stobo in Peeblesshire, became a meusal barony 
of the see. Orig. Paroch. Scot., I., p. 196: "The ancient parish of 
Stobo was of large extent, including . . . the parishes of Lyne, Brough- 
ton, Drummelzier, Tweedsmuir, Dawic, and perhaps also Glenholm. 
This wide district contains all the vale of the Tweed, from its source 
to the point where, turning eastward, it meets the Lyne, together with 
the Fruid, Cor, Talla, and some smaller streams." Penteiacob is 
Eddleston in Peeblesshire. " The ancient name was changed in the 
1 2th century to Gillemoreston from the Celtic name of its then owner ; 
and having before 1189 been granted by Richard de Moreville to 
Edulf, the son of Utred, it was ever after known as Edulfstoun 
gradually softened to Eddleston ..." (Brown). 



NOTES L. 303 

Richard de Morville, the Constable, granted to Edulf, the son of 
Utred, Gillemoreston, " quae antiquitus vocabatur Peniacob per ser- 
vitium unius militis," confirmed by Will, de Moreville, the Constable. 

Elene, daughter of Alan of Galloway (wife of Roger de Quincy), 
acknowledged that the villa de Edeluestune belonged to the church 
of Glasgow, although Alan of Galloway and other predecessors had 
unjustly detained it. (Reg. Epis. Glas., pp. 138, 139, 140.) 

Adam, the son of Edulf, confirmed to Constantine his son, "pro 
homagio et servitio suo," a certain part of his land in the territory of 
Eduluistun " quae olim vocabatur Peniacob." There are many other 
charters relating to the land in the Register. Alnecrumba :' " now 
Ancrum in Roxburghshire. It belonged to the see, down to the 
Reformation. The bishops had a castle there." The barony of 
Ancrum was created into a free regality, in favour of the Bishop. 

Treueronum. " Here the name follows Ancrum without any stop 
between, looking as if it were a compounded name. In the 
Registrum, however, it is plain that the names are separate. The 
place is Tryorne in Roxburgh" (Brown). I am by no means sure 
that it is Tryorne. I think that the land has not been identified. 

Llllescliva, now Lillesleaf, "a village lying between Jedburgh and 
Selkirk." It adjoins Ancrum and Ashkirk. The Bishops of Glasgow 
had one part of the lands of Lillesleaf ; the Riddells had the other. 
Asheschyrc : Ashkirk in Roxburghshire, which belonged to the see until 
the Reformation. Hodelme: Hoddam in Dumfriesshire. In the Vita 
Kentigerni, Jocelyn says : ' The holy bishop Kentigern, building 
churches in Hodelm, ordaining priests and clerics, placed his see 
there for a certain reason for a time ' the reason probably being that 
Rydderch's stronghold was then near at hand for protection. 
Edyngaham. Mr. Brown says : " Now Edenham or Ednam " ; but 
he is mistaken. Ednam never belonged to Glasgow. If the see 
possessed a land with a name like that, it may be in Dumfries- 
shire. There was an Ednemland "supra territorium burgi de 
Annand" (Retours, Dumfriesshire, No. 148). Abermelc. Mr. Brown 
said : " An ancient parish in Annandale. It was named from the 
confluence of the River Milk with the Annan, the church being 
dedicated to St. Kentigern. It is now in the parish of St. Mungo." 
Driuesdale : a parish of Annandale, Dumfriesshire. Dryfesdale, St. 
Mungo, and Hoddam adjoin. Colehtoun has not been identified. Mr. 
Brown suggested that it may have been Coldanis, above Castlemilk. 
Trevertrold. Mr. Brown said this was Trailtrow in Cummertrees 
parish in Dumfriesshire, but neither Trevortrod nor Trailtrow appears 
in the Register as a land belonging to the bishopric. Aschebie may 
be Esbie, near Hoddam. Brumescheyed has not been identified. 
Treuergylt. It has been said that this is probably Torgill, in 
Dumfriesshire ; but there is no reason to think so. 

p. 46. Poblis is Peebles. The right of Glasgow to the church of 
Peebles was confirmed by successive Popes. (Reg. Epis., Glas., pp. 23, 
3 43> 5j an d 95-) It was assigned to the archdeacon. Treverquyrd : 
Traquair, in Peeblesshire. The church continued the property of 
the see ; the lands and castle belonged to the Crown. Mereboda, 
Morebattle, a village in Roxburghshire, on the Cheviots, 10 miles 



304 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

from Jedburgh. The church, dedicated to St. Laurence, was in 
the possession of the bishopric of Glasgow till the Reformation. 

p. 46. Has terras juraverunt. It may be inferred that these jurors 
spoke from their personal knowledge, and were practically witnesses 
in the modern sense. Dr. Prescott seems to be of the opinion that 
Uchtred, Gille, Leysing, and Oggo were all Cumbrenses judices. I 
would limit the designation to Leysing and Oggo. 

Uchtred son of Waldef appears in no other Scottish document, nor 
have I discovered his name in the Pipe Rolls or other records of 
Cumberland. 

Gille filius Boed. Dr. Prescott identified him with Gilbertus filius 
Boet, who is mentioned (A.D. 1155-1157) in a charter by Henry II. as 
the former owner of the barony of Gilsland, in Cumberland, then 
granted to Hubert de Vallibus. 

In the Foundation Charter of Lanercost (Illust. Doc., XXIIL, 
Wetheral Priory, p. 419), and in a confirmation by Pope Alexander III. 
in 1181 certain lands are described "per has divisas quas Gille filius 
Bueth illam melius et plenius in vita sua tenuit," and, again, " Dedi 
autem eis omnem corticem de merremio meo proprio ... in boscis 
meis infra baroniam meam de terra quae fuit Gille filius Bueth." 

Except the similarity of name, I am not sure that there is evidence 
that the juror in the Glasgow Inquisitio was the lord of Gillesland. 

Leysing et Oggo were witnesses to the charter to the abbey of 
Selkirk. 

Cumbrenses judices. It is difficult to explain this. David had no 
rights over Cumberland at the date of the Inquisitio. He may have 
obtained the assistance of experienced Englishmen to ascertain the 
rights of the old church, but men of Cumberland (one would think) 
would not have sufficient knowledge to warrant their giving evidence 
as to the history and possessions of the bishopric of Glasgow. 
However, ' Cumbrensis ' here may mean, men of the south of Scot- 
land, in some chronicles and charters of the twelfth century, Cumbria 
is used, for part of the old kingdom of Scottish Strath Clyde. 

Halden filius Eadulf. I have not found his name in any other record. 

p. 46. Hujus rei testes sunt. I have already said that I regard this 
list as a spurious addition. I am unable to suggest oh what occasion 
and for what purpose, this large assemblage of distinguished persons 
could have met. 

p. 46. Matildis comitissa : the wife of Earl David. She is repre- 
sented as here consenting " ex sua parte," but what she consented to 
or what interest she had in the lands of the church, I cannot imagine. 



LI. 

From the MS. Chartulary of Daventry Priory, British Museum, 
Claud. D. XIL, fol. i. 
Earl David, addressing all his barons and friends, French and 



NOTES L.-LIII. 305 

English, announces that all the lands and tithes which the monks 
of Daventry hold in his fee shall be held ' in elemosina.' 

p. 47. Daventry : in Northamptonshire. The manor was part of 
the Earldom of Northampton (i Whalley, p. 44 ; Dugdale, Monast., 
v., p. 176) : "Hugh de Leycester, Sheriff of Northamptonshire, . . . 
placed in the church of Preston Capes (or West Preston) . . . four 
Cluniac monks, who, labouring under want of water and other incon- 
veniences, were in a few years, removed to the town of Daventre, 
where Hugh, near the parish church (wherein were then four secular 
canons), built a priory to the honour of St. Augustine, the monk, sub- 
ordinate to St. Mary de Caritate in France." 

Among the early benefactors were Simon, Earl of Northampton, and 
the Countess Matilda his wife. They, by charter addressed to Robert, 
Bishop of Lincoln, stated that Robert, the son of Vitalis, in the year in 
which Anselm, Archbishop of Canterbury, died (A.D. 1109), came to 
Northampton and asked them to confirm his gift to Daventry Priory 
of the churches of his Manor of Foxton, viz. Lubenho, Scaldeford, 
Guthmundelay, Bitlesbroc and Braibroc." After Earl Simon's death 
the Countess Matilda married Earl David, hence this charter. 

p. 47. Testibus : Hugh de Leicestria, the founder of Daventry, 
sheriff of Northampton and steward of the Earl. Robert son of 
Ingell : a mistake for Robert son of Nigel. Apud Jerdelai : Yardley 
Hastings in Northamptonshire, one of the castles of the earldom. 



LII. 

From the Chartulary of Wetheral Priory, printed in Dugdale, 
Monast., in., p. 583 ; Register of the Priory of Wetheral (Prescott, 
p. 194). 

A confirmation by Earl David of a grant by Robert Brus of 
the vill and church of Karkarevil to the Abbey of St. Mary, at 
York. 

p. 47. St. Mary's Abbey of York. The cell of Wetheral, in Cum- 
berland, was given by Ranulf Meschin to the Abbey before A.D. 
1120(3 Dugdale, Monast., 581). 

p. 47. Eboracensi : clerical error for Eboraci. 

p. 47. Karkarevil. I do not know where it was ; it must have been 
a land of the Bruces of which Earl David was overlord, possibly in 
the Earldom of Northampton. Dr. Prescott thinks it was in 
Annandale. 

p. 47. Robertus Brus : the elder Bruce, to whom Annandale was 
granted (see note to LIV.). 

LIII. 

The original is in the Archives of the Duchy of Lancaster. A 
tag shows that there has been a seal which is now missing. Printed 
in Bain's Calendar, I., pp. i, 557. 

u 



306 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

" Earl David to Edward the reeve (praepositus) and to all his 
successors and to all his men of the land and soc in London 
and Totenham, greeting : Know ye that I have granted and 
disponed to Roger the Archdeacon and his heir all that land which 
Alwyn Kybbel and Ailward, his sub-tenant (subsessor), held, freely, 
with sac and soc, he paying every year three shillings for rent and 
eight pence for sac and soc ; and Agelward shall go to support the 
pleas of the Earl, and the Archdeacon himself, if he shall be in London 
disengaged and shall be summoned, shall maintain the Earl's pleas ; 
and those who hold under him shall have no risk of being summoned 
into court ; nor shall the Archdeacon raise Agelward's rent beyond 
what he is wont to receive, nor shall the rent of the Archdeacon 
himself be raised ; and no one shall be lodged in the Archdeacon's 
house save Robert Foliot and his esquire, unless by the Archdeacon ; 
but if a Bishop or other churchman come to the Earl, if necessary, he 
shall be entertained. To this grant the witnesses are William Peverell, 
etc. 35 

p. 48. Totenham, in Middlesex, north of London, was a manor 
which belonged to the Countess Matilda. I do not know whether it 
belonged to her father Earl Waltheof (Lyson's Env. of London, II., 
part ii., p. 746), or whether it was one of the manors granted by the 
Conqueror to her mother, Countess Judith. Countess Matilda and her 
first husband, Simon de St. Liz, gave the tithe of Todeham to the 
monks of St. Andrew's, Northampton. 

Some years after this grant by Earl David, his son, Earl Henry, 
granted to Uctred de London seven score acres in the Hangre of 
Toteham and a half holm which Engelram held, and four trunks of 
trees for firewood, and free pannage for five pigs, for a rent of a mark 
of silver (British Museum, Cottonian Charters, Cartae Antiq., XVIIL, 
46). Malcolm IV. granted these 140 acres to Robert son of Swain 
(Dugdale, Monast, IV., p. 83). 

King John confirmed the manor to a later Earl David (brother 
of William the Lion) in 1199, and it was a part of the dower of his 
widow. In 1254 a survey was taken of the capital messuage of 
Totenham (i Bain, Cal., p. 368). It was divided between Robert de 
Brus, John de Baliol, and Henry de Hastings, the co-heirs of the 
Earl. 

The church of Totenham was given by David, King of Scotland, to 
the canons of the church of the Holy Trinity in London (Charter 
XCVIIL, ante, p. 78), to whom it belonged until the Reformation. In 
1544 it was granted by King Henry VIII. to the Dean and Chapter 
of St. Paul's. 

p. 48. Roger the archdeacon. In Dugdale's Monast., St. Paul's, p. 
237, mention is made of Roger the archdeacon, son of Robert the 
archdeacon, holding the prebend of Cadington Major. 

p. 48. Alwinus Kybbel et Ailwardus. I have not discovered any 
other notice of these. 



NOTES LIII.-LIV. 307 

p. 48. Testibus : Robert Foliot was the Earl's steward. William 
Peveraell (Bain, Cal., Pref. xvi) : "possibly the great baron of that 
name, reputed son of the Conqueror." 



LIV. 

The original charter is preserved in the Archives of the Duchy 
of Lancaster ; National MSS. of Scotland. Printed, i Act. Par.1. 
Scot, p. 92. 

King David, addressing all his barons and vassals and friends, 
French and English, informs them that he has granted to Robert de 
Brus, Estrahanent (Annandale) and all the land from the boundary of 
Dunegal of Nithsdale to the boundary of Randulf Meschin. He wills 
and grants that de Brus may have and hold that land and its castle 
with all the rights which Randulf Meschin ever had in Carduill and in 
his land of Cumberland. 

p. 48. David Dei gratia Rex Scottorum. Earl David succeeded to 
the throne on the death of his brother Alexander I., 23rd April, 1124. 

p. 48. Robert de Brus (the son of a Norman who acquired many 
manors in Yorkshire) held the land of Exton in Rutland in the 
Earldom of Northampton. He and Earl David became friends, 
probably at the court of Henry I. Ailred states that de Brus at 
the battle of the Standard appealed to King David's recollection 
that as early as 1107 he and other Normans had sufficient influence 
in Scotland to force King Alexander to yield a part of the kingdom 
to his brother David. 

Robert de Brus was a frequent witness to the charters of David I. 
(pp. 28, 42, 51, 52, 55, 58, 70, 71, 73 bis, 78, 82, 87, 89, and 99). He 
resided in England, and was an English rather than a Scottish man. 
He had two sons, Adam and Robert. Adam succeeded to the 
estates in England. To Robert, his father in his own lifetime gave 
Annandale. 

In 1138 Robert de Brus was of the party which supported 
Stephen, and at the battle of the Standard, de Brus and his son 
Robert were on different sides. The elder de Brus immediately 
before the battle renounced his fealty to King David. The son Robert 
was taken prisoner by his father, and by the order of the King 
of England he was placed in the custody of his mother. He 
complained that Annandale yielded no wheat for bread which he 
could eat and his father gave him the lands of Hert and Hertness in 
Skelton, Yorkshire. Robert de Brus the elder, to whom this charter 
was given, died in 1141 and was buried in Guiseburn Abbey, which he 
had founded in 1129. 

Annandale is the middle division of Dumfriesshire. It is bounded 
north by Lanarkshire and Peeblesshire, north-east by Selkirkshire, 
east by Eskdale, west by Nithsdale, north-west by Lanarkshire, and 
south by the Solway Firth. It includes the parishes of Annan, 
Cummertrees, Dalton, St. Mungo, Hoddam, Middlebie, Tundergarth, 



308 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

Dryfesdale, Kirkmichael, Lochmaben, Johnstone, Applegarth, Hutton, 
Corrie, Wamphray, Kirkpatrick Juxta, Rainpatrick, Moffat, Gretna, etc., 
and has an acreage of above 200,000 acres. 

King William the Lion confirmed to Robert de Brus the younger 
" terram quam pater suus et ipse tenuerunt in villa de Annand' per 
easdem divisas per quas pater suus earn tenuit et ipse per patrem 
suum : tenendam sibi et heredibus suis de me et heredibus meis 
in feudo et hereditate in bosco et piano in pratis et pascuis in moris et 
mariscis, etc., ita libere et quiete sicut pater suus vel ipse earn 
tempore regis Davidis avi mei vel regis Malcolmi fratris mei. 
Exceptis regalibus quae ad regalitatem meam spectant scilicet, causa 
de inventione thesauri, causa de murdro, causa de assaltu premeditato, 
causa de femina efforciata, causa de arsione, causa de rapina, Quas 
causas mihi reservavi, Concedo etiam ei ut haec causae sint attachiatae 
per unum hominem de feudo suo quern eligero et tractatae et placitatae 
per ante justicias meas infra comitatum de Ka . . et tales consuetu- 
dines capiet de hominibus regni mei quales capiuntur apud Rokesburg 
excepta assisa baroniae suae. Volo . . . per servitium centum militum 
excepta custodia castellorum meorum . . . ipsum quietum clamavi." 
(Nat. MSS. Scotland with facsimile.) 

p. 49. Dunegal de Stranit. Chalmers (Caledonia, III., p. 71), 
followed by later writers, states that four sons of Dunegal Randolph, 
Duvenald, Duncan, and Gillespic after his death shared his ex- 
tensive possessions in Nithsdale. 

p. 49. Randulfus Meschin. " Meschin (i.e. junior, Latin meschinus, 
French meschin le jeune) was the son and heir of Randolph 
Vicomte de Bayeux, by Matilda, sister of Hugh Earl of Chester ; 
he acquired, about A.D. 1092, the lordship of Cumberland" 
(Prescott's Wetheral, App., pp. 468-470). "To protect his pro- 
vince of Cumberland against the Scots he provided three baronies : 
Lyddale which he gave to Turgis Brundis, Burgh by Sands to Robert 
de Trivers, and Gillesland to his brother William Meschin." He 
resigned the lordship of Cumberland about 1122 on succeeding 
to the earldom of Chester. 

p. 49. suum castellum was Lochmaben. 

p. 49. Carduill is Carlisle. The continuator of Simeon of Durham, 
sub anno 1122, says: "Hoc anno rex Henricus post festum S. 
Michaelis Northymbranas intrans regiones, ab Eboraco divertit 
versus mare occidentale, consideraturus civitatem antiquam quae 
lingua Brittonum Cairlel dictus, quae nunc Carleol Anglice, Latine 
vero Lugubalia appellatur, quam data pecunia castello et turribus 
praecepit muniri" (Simeon of Durham, Surtees' edition, p. 119). 

p. 49. Testibus : Eustace Fitzjohn, nephew and heir of Serlo Burg 
who founded Knaresborough Castle, was a leading baron in the north 
of England. He was a friend of King David. He witnessed several 
charters by that king and by his son Earl Henry, most of them 
relating to lands in England (ante, pp. 64, 65, 89, 95, 101, 139, and 
200). He was sheriff of Northumberland along with Walter Espec, 
temp. Henry I. (2 Brand, Northumberland, p. 5). He founded the 
abbey of Alnwick in 1147. He married the daughter of Ivy de Vescy, 
through whom he got the great baronies of Alnwick and Malton. 
Their son William took the name of de Vescy. He was sheriff 



NOTES LIV. 309 

of Northumberland 1157-1170 (Farrer, p. 10). By another wife 
Eustace Fitzjohn had a son, Richard Fitz Eustace, constable of 
Chester and baron of Halton and Widnes. Eustace Fitzjohn fell in 
the ambuscade of Welshmen at Counsylth, near Basing werk, in July, 
1157, when King Henry was invading North Wales (Prescott, 
Wetheral, p. 19). 

p. 49. Alano de [Perci]. See note to No. CCLIII. In the original 
the word is incorrectly written. " Perci " is supplied by all those 
who have quoted the charter. 

p. 49. William de Sumerville was an Englishman, a friend of King 
David, who accompanied him to Scotland and settled there. He 
and his son witnessed many of the king's charters (pp. 72, 79, 93, 
94, 100, 105, 108, ii2, 128, 136, 139, 141, 147, 150, 159, 160, 186, 190, 
197). Chalmers is ifi error when he states that the Chronicle of 
Melrose shows that William de Sumerville died in 1142. The only 
record of a death of Sumerville in that chronicle is under date 1242. 

He left a son, William, who died circa 1161, and from whom the 
family of Somervilles in Scotland was descended. I Chalmers, 
Caled., 509 : " Gualter de Somerville . . . obtained from (the Conqueror) 
Whitchnour in Staffordshire and Somerville Aston in Gloucestershire. 
He left several sons, at the commencement of the twelfth century, 
Gualter, who inherited his estates in England ; and William, his second 
son, who attached himself to David I. He obtained the manor of 
Carnwath." 

p. 49. Berengarius Engaine. The Engaines (or Ingaines) were a 
Northamptonshire family ; for their pedigree see I Baker, Northamp., 
p. 9 ; Round, Feudal England, p. 154 ; I Chalmers' Caledonia, p. 511. 
Berengarius Engaine, probably, was a vassal of David, Earl of 
Northampton, and accompanied him to Scotland. He acquired the 
land of Crailing in Roxburgh : he was a benefactor to Jedburgh 
Abbey (Morton's Monastic Annals, p. 50). I do not know whether he 
left sons to inherit his lands in Scotland. A relative of his (but 
whether father, uncle, or brother, I do not know), Ranulf Engaine, 
married the heiress of Robert d Estrivers, and with her acquired 
the barony of Burgh in Cumberland, which their grand-daughter 
brought to her husband de Morevilla. 

p. 49. Randulf de Sules. Ranulph de Sules accompanied David I. 
from Northamptonshire to Scotland. ... He witnessed many charters. 
He got a grant of Liddlesdale. He granted to the monks of Jedworth 
the church of Dodington near Barton in Northamptonshire and 
the church of Liddlesdale with half a carucate of land in the manor of 
Nisbet (Morton's Monastic Annals, p. 51). In Liddlesdale he built 
a castle at Castletown. He held the office of Pincerna Regis for some 
time in the early years of the reign of William the Lion, and died not 
long before 1170, he was succeeded in his estates by his nephew 
Randulf, the son of William de Sules. The de Sules remained in 
Scotland and held a prominent position for the next two centuries. 
One of the family was a competitor for the Crown in 1291. 

p. 49. William de Morvilla: he appears as witness, p. 160. Henry 
son of Warinus. I have not been able to identify him. Edmund the 
chamberlain. In the charter to the Abbey of Selkirk (xxxv., ante, 



3io EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

p. 28), Adam the chamberlain is a witness ; Edmund, who succeeded 
him, was in turn succeeded by Herbert, a frequent witness to charters 
by David I. 

LV. 

Printed in Haddan and Stubbs, 2 Concil., p. 211 ; Robertson's Con- 
cil., Preface, p. xxvi ; and Wilkin's Cone. Mag. Brit, et Hib., Vol. I., 
pp. 406-7. 

Pope Honorius desires King David to receive and to honour his 
Legate, Cardinal John, and to cause the Bishops of Scotland to attend 
his council. The controversy between the Archbishop of York and 
the Scottish bishops will be carefully enquired into by the Legate. 
The Pope reserves the right of final decision. 

Honorius II. was Pope for six years, A.D. 1124-1130. 

Lord Hailes and Dr. Joseph Robertson say that a council was held 
at Roxburgh ; but it seems to me that, though the Legate met King 
David at Roxburgh, there is no evidence that he held council. The 
council assembled in London after the Legate's return from Scotland. 
The Chronica de Mailros (p. 68), A.D. 1125: "Johannes Cremensis 
legatus Angliam venit et ad regem David apud Rokesburc, et in 
reditu apud Lundoniam concilium tenuit." 

" Hac auctorite Johannes praedictus circuiens Angliam etiam ad 
regem Scottorum David pervenit apud fluvium Twedam qui Northym- 
briam et Loidam disterminat in loco qui Rochesburh nominatur ubi 
officio legationis peracto, rediens apud Londoniam celebrant con- 
cilium, quod de capitulis subter annexis habetur in hunc modum." 
(Simeon of Durham, I Twysden, p. 252.) 

Hoveden, quoted in Thorpe's edition of Florence of Worcester, n., 
p. 8 1, said: "Cum enim in concilio severissime de uxoribus sacer- 
dotum tractasset, dicens summum scelus esse a latere meretricis ad 
corpus Christi conficiendum surgere, cum eadem die corpus Christi 
confecissit, cum meretrice post vesperam interceptus est. Res aper- 
tissima Lundoniae gesta negari non potuit. Summus honor prius 
ubique habitus, in summum dedecus versus est. Remeavit igitur in 
sua. Dei judicio confusus et ingloriosus." It is possible that this is 
untrue. Ciaconius, Vol. I., p. 919. 

LVI. 

From the MS. Register of the Priory of Northampton, British 
Museum, Cott. MSS. Vespas. E., xvn. 

King David, addressing Robert, Bishop of Lincoln, and Hugh, the 
Sheriff of Leicester, and all his officers and liegemen, French and 



NOTES LIV.-LVIII. 311 

English, announces that he has granted the church of Potton to the 
church of St. Andrew of Northampton. 

Thinking that the charter implied that Queen Matilda was 
still alive, I dated this as granted prior to 1130; but that cannot 
be the right date, if Robert be the name of the Bishop of Lincoln 
to whom the charter was addressed, because Robert (Blount), the 
first Bishop of Lincoln of that name, died in 1122, before David I. 
became king, and the next Bishop Robert was not elected bishop 
until 1147, long after the queen's death; in 1147 David no longer 
held the Earldom of Northampton. I suspect that the scribe wrote R. 
for A. (Alexander), who was Bishop from 1123 until 1147. 

p. 50. Hugo vicecomes de Leycestria is Hugh of Leicester, the 
Sheriff of Northampton. 

p. 50. Poltona : this is a mistake for Potton in Bedfordshire. In 
1214 there was a dispute between Earl David, brother of King 
William the Lion, and others regarding 12 virgates in Potton. Henry 
de Braboc got the land, to be held under Earl David for the fourth 
part of a knight's service, (i Bain's Calen., No. 598.) 

p. 50. St. Andrew de Northampton : a Cluniac Priory, in the north- 
west part of the town of Northampton, near the wall bordering on the 
river ; a monastery repaired and largely endowed by Simon de St. 
Liz, first husband of Queen Matilda. He replenished it with Cluniac 
monks from the abbey of St. Mary de Caritate, in which he was 
afterwards buried. (Dugdale, Monast., v., p. 185.) 



LVII. 

From the Register of the Priory of St. Andrew of Northampton 
British Museum, Vespas. E., XVII. 

King David confirms to the monks of St. Andrew of Northampton 
all the lands which they held as his vassals on the day when he 
became King of Scotland. 

p. 50. eo die quo factus sum Rex Scotiae : i.e. 23 April, 1124. 

p. 50. praecipue dapifero meo : his steward in the Earldom. 

p. 51. Testibus : Michaele de Hamesl., Ilbard de Agenho and 
Ogerus de Hotton. I have not identified these witnesses. 



LVIII. 

Register of the Priory of Northampton in the British Museum, 
Vespas. E., XVIL, 1 1 fol. (86). 

Mandate to Reginald de Bull to pay to the prior and to the monks 
of Northampton 405. from the rents of Bedford (205. at Easter and 205. 
at Michaelmas). 



312 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

p. 51. Reginald de Bull was probably King David's steward, who 
collected the rents, etc., due by the tenants of the Earldom of North- 
ampton, in Bedford. 

p. 51. Grimbaud : a Northamptonshire baron, who gave to St. 
Andrew, Northampton, the church and tithe of Moulton, with the 
tithe of Budon and a ploughgate of land. 

LIX. 

King David, addressing all his lieges and friends, announces that he 
has granted to God and to St. Mary de Caritate, and to the church of 
St. Augustine at Daventry, and to the monks there serving God 
in alms whatever they hold of him in feu. William and Hugh, 
who are canons there, shall hold their prebends for their lives, unless 
they cease to be monks. This was granted on the day of the dedica- 
tion of the church of St. Andrew at Yardley. 

p. 52. Jerdelai. Yardley Hastings was one of the seats of the Earl, 
where probably he spent much of his time between his marriage 
and his accession to the throne, and to it he returned when the 
church was dedicated. Alexander, Bishop of Lincoln (1123-1147), 
consecrated it, and there were also present the archdeacon and 
and the king's chancellor, besides the friends Hugo de Moreville and 
Robert de Brus. Guido de Chanin and William de Hoct, or Hocton, 
we may believe, were Northamptonshire or Bedfordshire barons. 

LX. 

King David, addressing Hugh the sheriff, and Grimbald, and all his 
officers, gives orders that the monks of Northampton shall hold the 
church of Brayfield, with the virgate of land which belongs to it, free 
of all service due to the king. He further grants two cartloads of 
rushes from the wood at Yardley. 

p. 52. Hugh was probably the Sheriff of Northamptonshire, 
Grimbald was a Baron, probably an officer of the Earldom. 

Braufield is the parish of Brafield, on the Green, joined with Little 
Houghton St. Mary, in Northamptonshire. (Whalley, Northampton- 
shire, i., p. 452.) It had been granted by Simon de St. Liz, and 
Maud, his wife, to St. Andrew, Northampton. 

LXI. 

Registrum de Dunfermelyn, fol. 6 a ; Bannatyne Club edition, p. 9, 
No. 6. 

King David, addressing William the sheriff and his officers of 
Stirling, orders that they cause all the tithes and rights due to the 
monks of Dunfermline to be as fully rendered to them as the king had 
gifted. 



NOTES LVIII.-LXII. 313 

The monastery of Dunfermline had right to half of the hides and 
fat, etc., of all the beasts killed for feasts at Stirling and between 
Forth and Tay, to a ' mansura ' in Stirling, to the two churches of 
the town, to a ploughgate of land which adjoined the church, to a tithe 
of the fruits, animals, and fish from the king's demesne, and to a 
tithe of the king's rent from the burgh, to a tithe of the whole of the 
' Castrensis provinciae' to the house of Roger the priest, and to a net 
and a half of the fishing. 

These tithes, and rights, and rents, it may be believed, were too 
numerous and too varied to be easily collected and preserved, and the 
intervention of the Sheriff of Stirling was necessary. 

By the time of the Reformation all that remained to the abbey of 
their rights in or near Stirling was the church and its teinds. In 1561 
the glebe (probably the old ploughgate of land) yielded ^10, and 
the teinds were leased to the laird of Garden for ^8 a year. 

p. 52. Castrensis provinciae : probably the domain attached to the 
castle of Stirling. 



LXII. 

Registrum de Dumfermelyn, fol. 7 b; Bannatyne Club edition, p. 15, 
No. 26. 

This was granted between 1124 and 1127, while Robert was still 
bishop elect. He was consecrated in 1127. (2 Concil., 214.) 

King David, addressing Robert, Bishop (elect) of St. Andrews, and 
his earls, barons, and liegemen, informs them that he has given for 
ever in alms to the Church of the Holy Trinity at Dunfermline the 
tithe of all his demesne lands of Dunfermline, except of those which 
belong to other churches, and also a house (mansura) in the burgh of 
Dunfermline, another in Stirling, another in Perth, and another in 
Edinburgh. 

It was confirmed by King David (CCIX., ante, p. 167), King 
Malcolm IV. (Reg. de Dunf., p. 20) and King William (ib. pp. 
28, 29). 

p. 53. Dominiis meis. I understand 'dominia' to mean Crown 
lands in the King's possession within the ' shire ' of Dunfermline. 
This grant acknowledges the obligation to pay tithe to the church, 
while it recognises that the landowner had right to select to what 
particular church tithe should be paid. The tithe of some of these 
demesne lands in Dunfermline already belonged to other churches ; 
what remained was for the future to be paid to the church of Dun- 
fermline. 

p. 53. In burgo meo. Round the King's houses in Dunfermline, 
Stirling, Perth, and Edinburgh, on the King's land, burghs had long 



314 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

before this time been built. During the reign of David I. they increased 
in size and importance. In theory the land within a burgh belonged 
to the King ; the burgesses were his immediate tenants, who had 
privileges attached to, or conferred on, the King's men, his land, port, 
or market. The King granted many lands and tofts and * mansurae,' 
etc., within burgh : sometimes the grantees were exempted from the 
duties of watching and warding, and even of payment of rent, which 
were the usual conditions of burgage holdings. 

p. 53. Roberto electo. Robert was elected Bishop of St. Andrews 
in 1124 and consecrated in 1127. 



LXIII. 

Cott. MSS. Claud. B. in., fol. 131 b; Reg. Alb. Ebor., I., fol. 52, 
and ill., fol. 57 b ; Dugdale, Monast., vi., p. 1187, No. 49 ; 2 Concil., 
p. 24. 

A letter from Pope Honorius II., directing Gilla Aldan, the Bishop 
(elect) of Candida Casa, to seek consecration by the Archbishop of 
York. Pope Honorius II. was enthroned 21 December, 1124: this 
letter was written (probably) in 1126 (2 Concil., p. 24). Gilla Aldan 
was the first bishop when the see was re-established by Fergus of 
Galloway. 

LXIV. 

Cott. MSS. Claud. B. in., fol. 22 a; Reg. Alb. Ebor., n., fol. 17; 
Dugdale, Monast., vi., p. 1188, 1189, No. 64 ; 2 Concil., p. 25. 

Bishop Gilla Aldan was consecrated by the Archbishop of York in 
A.D. 1127, after making this profession of obedience to his metropolitan 
Stubb's Acta Pontificum Ebor. (Twysden, 1720.) 



LXV. 

The original charter, in duplicate, is in the Treasury at Durham, 
with seals attached. Both were printed by Dr. Raine, N. Durham, 
App., p. 4, Nos. XV. and xvi. King David confirms King Edgar's 
charters of lands to the church of St. Cuthbert (xix., p. 16 ; XX., p. 
17 ; XXL, p. 18 ; xxil., p. 18). 

p. 55. Lodoneis : the lands lay in Berwickshire, then a part of 
Lothian. 

p. 5 5. Goldingeham . . . Cramesmuthe : these have already been 
noticed. Lamberton, an estate in Berwickshire, was of old in the 
parish of Ayton ; it is now in Mordington. 

p. 55. Sacca et socna, etc. These remains of Anglo-Saxon phrase- 
ology are here little more than words of style, conferring generally 
baronial jurisdiction. 



NOTES LXII.-LXVI. 315 

p. 55. the third year of his reign: i.e. between 23 April, 1126- 
24 April, 1127. 

p. 55. Apud Peblis : Peebles, where the King had a castle. 

p. 55. Testibus. Ascelinus, the Archdeacon of Glasgow, witnessed 
many of King David's charters (ante, pp. 68, 69, 73, 79, 93, 108, 136, 
1 86, 202). He held a land at Partick under the King (cix., ante, 
p. 85). He was Archdeacon till the reign of King Malcolm IV. 
(Mun. Melros., p. 8). 

LXVI. 

Registrum de Dunfermlyn, fol. 7a; Bannatyne Club edition, p. 12, 
No. 16. 

King David, addressing all his barons and liegemen, orders that no 
one shall take any distress on the land or from the men of the Church 
of the Holy Trinity for wrongs done by any than themselves. 

p. 56. " Namum capere " : Spelman, Glossarium : " Namium et 
Namus, captio, a Sax. naman al. nyman capere. Voces prisci 
fori, haec apud Scotos, ilia apud Anglos veteres usitatior. Res, 
bona, animalia quae per distinctionem capiuntur significantes. 
Hoc est ea quae a possessore auferuntur legitimeque retinentur, 
mulctae vel pignoris nomine quousque, id fecerit vel praestitit quod 
non sine injuria recusaverit." Twysden, Glossary : " Namium, voca- 
bulum forense et leguleis nostris satis notum, licet quodammodo 
antiquatum, ut ab eis in verbum nunc dierum usitatius 'distresse,' paris 
significationis (pignoris enim captionem signat) mutaturn est enim a 
Saxon. ' Name,' i.e. pignus vel pignoris prehensio : ut illud a nyman 
capere, prehendere." 

Distress was a prominent subject in Celtic law. Mr. Handcock, the 
editor of the Senchus Mor, vol. I., Preface, p. xlvi : " It appears to 
have been the universal remedy by which rights were vindicated and 
wrongs redressed. . . . The plaintiff or creditor, having first given 
the proper notice, proceeded ... to distrain. . . . The distress, 
when seized, was, in certain cases, liable to a stay, . . . which was a 
period . . . during which the debtor received back the distress and 
retained it in his own keeping, the creditor having a lien upon it. 
Such a distress is a ' distress with time,' but, under certain circum- 
stances, ... an ' immediate distress ' was made, the peculiarity of 
which was, that during the fixed period of the stay, the distress was 
not allowed to remain in the debtor's possession, but in that of the 
creditor, or in one of the recognised greens or pounds. . . . The dis- 
tress remained in the pound a certain period, according to its nature, 
. . . and the expense of feeding and tending ran against the distress, 
and was payable out of it for this period. At the end of the delay in 
pound, the forfeiting time . . . began to run, during which the distress 
became forfeited at the rate of three ' seds ' per day until entirely 
forfeited. If the entire value of the distress thus forfeited was exactly 
equal to the original debt and the subsequent expenses, the debt was 
liquidated ; if it was less than this, a second distress was taken for 
the difference, or, if more, the overplus was returned. . . . But if, 



316 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

instead of allowing his cattle to go to pound, the debtor gave a suffi- 
cient pledge ... to the creditor that he would . . . try the right to 
the distress by law, the creditor was bound to receive such pledge. If 
the debtor did not go to law, the pledge became forfeited for the 
original debt." 

In the Ancient Laws of England, vol. i., p. 387, there are many 
regulations as to distress ; for instance, the Secular Law of King 
Cnut, No. 19 : " And let no man take any distress either in the shire 
or out of the shire before he has three times demanded his right in 
the hundred." The right to distrain was restricted by the law of 
Henry L, cap. 51, sec. 3 : "Et nulli sine judicio vel licencia namiare 
liceat alium in suo vel alterius." 

The law of distress in Scotland was harsh. A creditor could distrain 
not only the goods of the debtor, but also those belonging to his 
kin or neighbours. The severity of this law was relaxed in favour of 
the tenants of some monasteries. In the charter to Dunfermline it 
was restricted to distress on the goods of the debtor. That was 
repeated in a subsequent charter, cxxvm. (ante, p. 97) : " Prohibeo 
quod nullus super meum forisfactum aliquod namum in praedicta 
terra ullo modo capere praesumat pro ulterius extrinsecus forisfacto." 
And CCIX., ante, p. 169 : " Prohibeo ne aliquod namum capiatur super 
terram vel super homines Sanctae Trinitatis pro forisfacto alicujus 
nisi pro proprio forisfacto illorum." 

King David to Holyrood (ante, p. 119): "Et prohibeo ne aliquis 
capiat pandum super terram Sanctae Crucis nisi Abbas loci rectum et 
jus facere recusaverit." To St. Andrews, LXVIL, ante, p. 56 : " Pro- 
hibeo quod nullum namum capiatur usquam in terris pertinentibus 
ecclesiae Sancti Andreae pro ulterius forisfacto vel debitis aliorum " ; 
and CLXIII., ante, p. 127: "Praecipimus etiam ut nullus namum capiat 
in terris suis pro alterius forisfacto vel pro debitis aliorum." 

There are many other examples of the restriction of the right to 
take pledges ; for instance, Malcolm IV. to Scon : " Prohibeo firmiter 
ne quisquam super terram Abbatis de Scon namum capiat pro alicujus 
debito neque pro debito ipsius Abbatis aut alicujus hominum suorum 
nee pro ipsius Abbatis aut aliquo suorum defectu nisi Abbas ipse aut 
ejus homo in curia ipsius Abbatis calumpnianti prius defecerit de 
recto super meam plenariam forisfacturam." (Lib. de Scon, p. 12.) 

William the Lion to the Abbey of Holyrood : " Aut super eorum 
homines namum capiant nisi sit pro dominicis debitis suis aut pro 
debitis hominum suorum " ; and to the Abbey of Kelso : " Mando et 
firmiter praecipio nequis unquam namum capiat super Abbatem de 
Kalchou neque infra neque extra terras ejusdem ecclesiae priusque 
ipse abbas vel minister sui requirantur de rectitudine facienda." 

The same king conceded to the burgesses of Moray that their goods 
be poinded only for their own debts, (i Act. Parl., p. 88.) The 
Assize of David, cc. 21, 22, 23, prohibited poinding without the leave 
of the lord or the bailie, while the goods of a burgess could not be 
poinded without the leave of the provost. (Leg. Burg., c. 4.) 

In 1273 Malcolm, Earl of Lennox, conceded to the Abbey of Paisley 
that no "captiones" be taken for him from the goods of the monks. 
(Chart. Paisley, p. 203.) In 1318 the exemptions in favour of Religious 
Houses were extended to all. It was then enacted that no one be 
poinded except the debtor and the surety (i Act. Parl. Scot., p. 468), but 



NOTES LXVI.-LXVIII. 317 

that perhaps was not immediately obeyed, for as late as 1398 King 
Robert III. to the Abbey of Paisley: " Concessimus etiam eisdem re- 
ligiosis ut nullus namos suos aut hominum suorum capiat pro alicujus 
debito plegiagio vel forisfacto nisi pro eorundem proprio debito plegiagio 
vel forisfacto. Salvis burgis nostris." (Chartul. of Paisley, p. 96.) By 
the laws of the Marches (i Act. Parl. Scot., p. 414) a Scottish creditor 
could lawfully poind for his debt the goods of men in England of the 
same rank in life as the debtor. 

LXVII. 

Registrum Prioratus S. And., fol. 79 a, Bannatyne Club edition, 
p. 183- 

King David, addressing his Barons, sheriffs, officers, and all his 
liegemen, announces that he prohibits the taking of any distress on the 
lands of the church of St. Andrews for the default or debts of 
strangers. (See note to LXVI.) 

p. 56. Herbert the chamberlain was the constant attendant and 
faithful servant of King David during his whole reign. He was a 
witness to charters ante, pp. 72, 80, 86, 91, 95, 97, 100, 106, 107, 119, 
121, 122, 124, 129, 134, 138, 139, 140, 141, 171, 172, 179, 182, 183, 195, 

201, 212, 213. 

He perambulated the land of Rindalgros with King David and 
William Giffard, p. 123. He continued to hold office under Malcolm 
IV. till at least A.D, 1160. (Reg. Prior. S. And., p. 207, and Regis. 
Epis. Glasg., p. 14.) 

LXVI 1 1. 

Registrum de Dunfermelyn, fol. 7 a ; Bannatyne Club edition, p. 13 
No. 19. 

King David grants to the church of Dunfermline, Ragewin, Gille- 
patric, and Ulchil, just as his own men. 

Presumably these men were serfs, the personal property of the 
King, passing by grant and delivery; men more servile than the 
' nativi ' and ' adscriptitii glebae,' who could not be sold except with 
the land on which they were born, lived, and laboured. I give a few 
of many instances of gifts and sales of slaves in Scotland in the 
eleventh and twelfth centuries : 

William the Lion granted to the Abbey of Dunfermline " Gillandreas 
Mac Suthen et ejus liberos et illos eis quietos clamasse de me et here- 
dibus meis in perpetuum " (Reg. de Dunf., p. 36, No. 64). Waldeve, 
the Earl, granted to Kelso Abbey " Halden et Willelmum fratrem 
ejus et omnes liberos eorum et omnes sequaces eorum" (Liber de 
Calch., p. 198). Richard de Moreville, the Constable, sold to Henry 
de St. Clair Edmund the son of Bonda, and Gillemichael, his brother, 
and their sons and daughters, and all their progeny, for the sum of 



3i8 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

three merks (i Act. Parl. Scot., p. 94). In the Liber de Inchaffray : 
in 1250 Malise, Earl of Strathern, granted to the Priory " Gilmory 
Gillendes servum nostrum cum tota sequela sua" ; A.D. 1278, John 
Cumyne granted " Gilchrist Roch filium Gilleththeny cum omni sequela 
sua ab ipso progressa et in perpetuum progressura " ; and in 1287 the 
Earl of Strathern gave " Starnes filium Thome filii Thore cum tota 
sequela sua." 

p. 57. Gillemichel the Earl was the son of Constantine, Earl of Fife. 
As Gillemichel Macduf he witnessed the charter to Dunfermline, 
LXXIV., ante, p. 63, with his father, the Earl. He succeeded to the 
Earldom about 1129. As Earl he witnessed charters LXXXIV., p. 69 ; 
cm., p. 82, and CLIII., p. 119. 

Though G. E. C. (Complete Peerage) says that Earl Gillemichel 
died in 1139, he died certainly before 1136, when his son Duncan was 
Earl ; and, if we can trust a charter in the Book of Deer, Duncan was 
Earl as early as 1131-32. 

Earl Gillemichel had a second son, Hugh, whose son, Egius, was a 
benefactor to the Priory of St. Andrews. 

p. 57. Waldef frater Dolfini. He was the legitimate son of Earl 
Gospatric of Northumberland, who settled in Scotland in the reign 
of Malcolm III. Waldef seems to have seldom been in Scotland. 
His name appears only here and in the possibly spurious list of wit- 
nesses to the Inquisitio, p. 46. Waldef acquired from William (brother 
of Ranulf Meschin) the barony of Allerdale "inter Wathenpole et 
Derwent," and the whole land " inter Cocar et Derwent simul cum 
quinque villis scilicet Brigham, Egylysfeld, Dene, Bramthwaite, 
Gisothon et duo Cliftons et Stainburne." See infra, p. 327. It is 
possible that he became a monk and was Abbot of Croyland. Waldef, 
brother of Dolfin, died before 1138, leaving a legitimate son and 
heir, Alan, and a daughter, Guynold, who married Uchtred son of 
Fergus of Galloway. 

p. 57. Maldouenus judex. He was the Maldouenus Mac Ocbeth who 
witnessed the great charter to Dunfermline (ante, p. 63), who is called 
" Meldoinneth films Machedath judex bonus et discretus" in the report 
of the complaint against Sir Robert Burgonensis (ante, p. 67). 
Probably he is the Malduuenus Mac Murdac, who was a witness to 
CIX., ante, p. 86. All we know of him (and that is much) is that he 
was a good and discreet judge. 

p. 57. Unyet Albus : see note to Charter XX. 

p. 57. Robert Burgeis : see note to Charter LXXX. 



LXIX. 

Registrum de Dunfermelyn, fol. 7 a; Bannatyne Club edition, p. 15, 
No. 25. 

King David, addressing all his liegemen, and especially the ' prae- 
positi ' of Perth, announces that he has granted a toft in his burgh of 



NOTES LXVIII.-LXX. 319 

Perth in alms to the church of Dunfermline. He orders that 
the monks be put in possession of that toft which Swain held. 
The King gave the Abbey of Dunfermline a dwelling-house in Perth, 
No. LXIL, ante, p. 53. The grant of a house in Perth was confirmed, 
ante, pp. 61 and 167. Alexander I. gave a 'mansio' in Perth to the 
Priory of Scon (ante, p. 29). The Priory of St. Andrews had a toft 
there (Reg. Prior. S. And., pp. 148, 214). The abbeys of Aberbrothoc 
and Cupar had houses in Perth. 



LXX. 

Registrum de Dunfermelyn, fol. 7b; Bannatyne Club edition, p. 17, 
No. 32. It is headed " De fugitivis qui vocabantur Cumberlache." 

" David, King of Scots, to his faithful in Scotland and in Lothian, 
greeting. I order that Cumerlache be quickly restored to the Church 
of the Holy Trinity at Dunfermline, and all the slaves whom my 
father and mother and my brothers gave to it and their Cumerlache 
from the time of King Edgar until now, with all its goods wherever 
these may be found, and I forbid that these be unjustly retained." 

p. 57. Cumerlache. In the general confirmation by King David 
the words of this order are repeated ; and on the margin opposite the 
word ' Cumerlache ' is written " . i. fug'itivi." 

The words are the same in the charter of confirmation by King 
Malcolm IV. ; but in a charter by King William (Reg. de Dunf., 
p. 37, No. 68) there is a variation : " Praecipio firmiter ut ubicunque 
monachi de Dunfermelyn aut servientes eorum Cumerbas et Cumer- 
lachos suos invenire poterint eos juste habeant," etc. 

In a charter to the Priory of Scon (Lib. de Scon, p. 24) : " Mando 
et firmiter precipio ut in cujuscunque vestrum terra aut potestate 
Abbas de Scon aut ejus serviens invenire poterit cumlawes et cum 
herbes ad terras Abbaciae de Scon pertinentes eos juste absque 
dilatione habeat. Nullus itaque quemquam ex illis ei injuste detineat 
super firmam defensionem meam et forisfacturam meam." 

In the charters by Kings Alexander II. and Alexander III. to 
Dunfermline the word is " Cumelach." 

Graham Dalyell, notes on the Chartulary of Dunfermline, p. 41, said 
of Cumerlache : " Whether these were a particular description of bond- 
men or acquired that appellation from being fugitives, or whether it 
was the surname of a distinct family of bondmen, if surnames were 
then generally known, I shall not presume to decide." 

Mr. Skene, in an unsatisfactory passage, said (Celt. Scot., 3, 
p. 222) : " In the last syllable of the name Cumherbes, or Cumar- 
herbe, we can recognise the Irish word ' Orba,' applied to that part of 
the tribe territory which had become the private property of the 
chiefs ; and this name was no doubt applied to that class of serfs 
whose bondage was derived from their possessing servile land. They 
were the 'ascripti glebae' of feudal times. The term Cumlawe or 



320 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

Cumarlawe is simply a translation of the Latin term manutenencia, 
which characterized the third class of bondage above described, and 
whose tie to their master, being a personal one, led to their frequently 
escaping from hard usage and being reclaimed as fugitives." 

He added in a footnote : " These names [Cumlawe and Cumarlawe] 
seem to be derived from the verb Cum, tene, retine ; and in the one 
caseforfia or orba terra, and in the other Cainh, manus with or without 
the preposition ar, upon. The word Cum is no doubt the root of the 
Irish Cumal, the primary meaning of which was a female slave." 



LXXI. 

From the Register of the Priory of St. Andrew at Northampton, 
Dugdale, Monasticon, v., p. 191. 

Grant by King David to the monks of the church of St. Andrew of 
Northampton of the tithes of his demesne lands, both of flocks and 
fo the fruits of the earth. He confirms their rights in the vill of 
Scaldeford, viz. a mill and a ploughgate of land. The monks shall 
hold the rest of the land they have there, with the same liberties as 
Robert Fitz Violi, the lord of the vill, who had acknowledged before 
the King that the monks owed no service to him. The King gives 
permission to break up and sow the land called Williges. 

p. 58. Scaldeford is a hundred in Leicestershire. In the survey of 
1124-1129 (Round's Feudal England, p. 202): " Hundredum de 
Scaldeford in eadem villa Rex David XL car. et dim. Ricardus 
Basset dim. car." Scaldeford became a part of the barony of Foxton, 
held by Vitalis Palfrey, and after him by his son Robert Fitz Violi. 

p. 58. Robert filius Vitalis. In the Register of Daventry there is a 
pedigree of the family : " Vitalis Palfrey qui venit cum Domino 
Willielmo Bastard habuit ex dono ipsiiis Willielmi baroniam de 
Foxton, qui genuit Robertum et Robertus, Simonem et Simon, 
Ricardum primum," etc. A charter by Robert Filius Violi is in the 
Register of the Priory of Daventry: "Universis Sanctae Matris 
ecclesiae filiis et Christi fidelibus, clericis et laicis, Francis et Anglis. 
Robertus filius Violi, veram in Christo salutem. Notum sit omnibus 
vobis dilectissimis, quod tertio anno postea quam Osbertus prior de 
Daventre, cum quibusdam monachis suis, dirationaverat apud Leices- 
triam in conspectu Alexandri Lincolniensis episcopi, ecclesias totius 
terrae meae Foxtune, videlicet Lubeho Guthmundelay Scaldeford, 
Bitlisbroc, Braibroc, cum omnibus pertinentiis suis, unde eos injuste 
dissaisiveram, poenitentia ductus Daventreiam veni et ecclesiam 
Sancti Augustini bono animo et benevolo resaisiavi de ecclesiis prae- 
dictis quas antea et donatione mea ab anno quo Anselmus Can- 
tuariensis Archiepiscopus mortuus est, habuerat et usque ad annum 
regni regis Stephani nonum quo earn investivi inconcusse possederat, 
culpam et injustam actionem meam ibidem coram plurimis clericis et 
laicis aperte recognovi et veniam a Domino et a Sancto Augustino 
quern offenderam postulavi et a monachis quantum in ipsis fuit Dei 
Gratia, impetravi. Quapropter vobis, filii Dei et amici charissimi 



NOTES LXX.-LXXII. 321 

scribo et scribendo enixius supplico quatenus pro Deo amore et 
animae nostrae salute eleemosinam nostram ut in ea mecum per Dei 
misericordiam participemini, ad utilitatem ecclesiae Daventrensis et 
monachorum ibidem Deo servientium ubicunque et in quocunque 
poteritis manuteneatis et juvetis : Quia volo oro et desidero et in 
quantum mihi licet praecipio quod bene et honorifice teneant libere et 
quiete perpetuo possideant. Hujus rei et actionis testes sunt Johannes 
capellanus de Daventre, Thomas sacerdos de Norton, Nicholaus 
sacerdos de Foxtone, Jordanus filius ipsius Robert filii Violi et multi 
alii." (Whalley, Northampt, I., p. 46 ; Nicholls, Leicestershire, vol. 2, 
p. 561.) 

Simon, son of Robert Fitz Violi, confirmed his father's charter, 
adding : " Ecclesia de Scaldeford tres virgatas terre habet et III. 
mansuras Dirnanni : scilicet Aswi et Willa Slinge, quae simul . . . 
virgatae forinsecus serviunt ; dimidia vero virgata quam ego in 
eleemosinam eidem ecclesie dedi in nativitate Ricardi primogeniti 
mei, omni modis libera est." 

p. 58. Exton, in Rutland, was in the Earldom of Northampton. 
It was possessed by Earl David (brother of King William the Lion), 
and by the marriage of his daughter Isabella to Robert de Bruce 
it became the property of the Bruces, who held it for several genera- 
tions, then it passed to Cottons and Culpeppers ; it was sold to Hicks, 
and afterwards to Noels. The rectory of Exton was given by a de 
Bruce to the Priory of Northampton. 

p. 58. Williges. This may be the same as Willa Slinge in Simon's 
charter. 

p. 58. Gerdelai is Yardley Hastings in Northamptonshire. 

p. 58. Michael de Hanesel. : doubtless the same as Michael de 
Hamesl., a witness to LVII., p. 51. He and Bruce and Robert 
the son of Nigel held of King David in Northamptonshire. 



LXXII. 

The original charter was in the Panmure Charter Chest. Printed 
in Holyrood Charters. Bannatyne Club edition, p. 7, No. 3. 

This was granted to the church of St. Cuthbert before the foundation 
of the Abbey of Holyrood. Addressing all his liegemen of Lothian, 
clerks and laymen, French and English, King David states that he 
had granted to the church of St. Cuthbert the land under the castle (of 
Edinburgh), from the spring which rises close to the corner of the 
King's garden, and along the road which leads to the church and on 
the other side under the castle until a road is reached which runs 
under the castle to the east. 

p. 59. Testibus. Henry the King's son was still a youth not more 
than twelve or thirteen years old. Willelmus de Graham was a witness 
to several charters : cxxi., p. 93 ; cxxxiv., pp. 101, 103 ; CLIII., p. 
119 ; and ccxxx., p. 185. Chalmers (Caledonia, i., p. 545) followed 
by Douglas (Peerage, 2, 233) stated that William de Graham had a 

x 



322 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

grant from David I. of the lands of Abercorn and Dalkeith, but though 
Dalkeith belonged to a William de Graham it is uncertain that he was 
the William de Graham who lived in King David's time ; certainly 
Abercorn did not belong to him, for it was held by the Avenels and 
passed to the Grahams on the marriage of Henry de Graham with the 
heiress, Roger de Avenel's daughter (Northern Notes and Queries, Vol. 
XVIL, p. 87). Thor de Travernent, the son of Swain ; he held the manor 
of Tranent in Haddingtonshire, and he was a sheriff. He witnessed 
CLX., p. 123. Malbead de Liberton. Liberton is a parish near Edin- 
burgh. Malbead held a considerable estate there in King David's reign 
(Chal., Caled., 2, p. 789). He witnessed a charter to Holyrood, CLX., 
ante, p. 123, and a charter to Newbattle, CXLVIIL, ante, p. 114. 
He was one of those who perambulated the land of Clerkington, 
cxxxiv. and cxxxv., ante, pp. 101, 103. 



LXXIII. 

The original is in the Treasury at Durham with a seal " Episcopus 
in pontificalibus nudato capite, sinistra baculum pastorale, dextra 
benedicens. X Sigillum Roberti Epi. Scottorum." 

Printed in Anderson's Diplomata, facsimile ; Raine, N. Durham, 
App., p. 81, No. CCCCXLVi. ; National MSS. of Scotland with fac- 
simile ; Stevenson's Illustrations, n, 12. 

Robert, Bishop of St. Andrews, addressing all the faithful to mother 
church, lay and clerics, announces that in presence of King David, of 
the Archbishop of York, the Bishops of Durham and Glasgow, the 
Abbot of St. Albans, and others, he had summoned Algar, Prior of 
Durham, before the door of the church of St. John the Evangelist in 
Roxburgh, and had there acknowledged that the church of Coldingham 
was free from claim, custom, can, or conveth, and from all services by 
or to the Bishops of St. Andrews. 

This proves that the Bishop of St. Andrews was consecrated on or 
before the I7th of July, 1127. One of the first acts of the Bishop was 
to declare that the church of Coldingham, which belonged to Durham, 
was free from service to the Bishops of St. Andrews. 

p. 60. Ranulf, Bishop of Durham, A.D. 1099-1128. 

Gaufrid de Gorram was the sixteenth abbot of St. Albans. 
1118-1146. (Twysden, 503, 509.) 

Cana, delivery of produce, animals, poultry, etc., as part of the 
rent by tenants or of the dues by a vassal to his superior. 

Conveth was a Celtic duty paid to ecclesiastical superiors ; 
allied to convectum (i Chal., Cal., 447). It "was the Irish Coin- 
medha or Coigny, derived, according to O'Donovan, from Coinmhe 
which signifies feast or refection. It was the Dovraeth of the Welsh 
laws and was founded upon the original right which the leaders in the 
tribe had, to be supported by their followers. It came to signify 
a night's meal or refection given by the occupiers of the land to their 



NOTES LXXII.-LXXIV. 323 

superior when passing through his territory, which was exigible four 
times a year. ..." See Holyrood Charters, p. 61 ; Regist. Morav., 
p. 8 ; Reg. Prior. St. And., p. 238. 

p. 60. Sancti Kentigerni Martyris, a clerical error for St. Kenelmi, 
whose festival was on the I7th of August. 

Testibus : Blehanus, priest of Litun, probably a mistake for 
Ayton. Adulf, priest of Aldehamstoc, a parish in Haddingtonshire. 
Henry, priest of Leinhale Leinhale was the old name of Coldstream. 
Orm, priest of Edenham Ednam. John, priest of Lidgardeswood 
Legerwood in Berwickshire. Godwin dapifero, probably 'meo' is 
omitted. Godwino camerario meo. Did the writer make a mistake, 
had the Bishop a dapifer and a camerarius both called Godwin? 
Balsan, probably ' de Prendegest.' 



LXXIV. 

Registrum de Dunfermelyn, fol. 8 a ; Bannatyne Club edition, p. I, 
No. i ; i Act. Parl. Scot., p. 359. The last sentence in the Register 
from ' Amen Fiat . . . Capellanis ' was reproduced in facsimile, p. 4 
of the Bannatyne Club edition. 

This is a general confirmation by King David of his grants and of 
those of his predecessors to the church of Dunfermline. Probably it 
was granted when Geoffrey, the first Abbot, was consecrated by the 
Bishop of St. Andrews in 1 128. That was almost the only occasion on 
which so large a number of Prelates and Earls and great Barons were 
likely to have met at the Abbey of Dunfermline. It was suggested by 
the editor of the Acts of the Scottish Parliament that this confirmation 
was approved at a Parliament or Council by the King, Queen, 
and the King's son, Bishops, Earls, and Barons, "clero etiam 
acquiescente et populo," but there is no evidence that in the reign 
of King David there were recognised " estates of the realm " which 
were wont to meet to legislate or to confirm the acts and grants of the 
King. In this charter little is granted with which the estates of 
the realm had concern. The King and his predecessors had conferred 
lands and rights which belonged to the Crown, and which hardly 
touched the rights of subjects. 

I am not satisfied that the charter in its present state is genuine. 
It seems to me to have been revised and added to by some monk 
vigilant to increase the property of the church. 

p. 61. Ecclesia S. Trinitatis. There must have been a church at 
Dunfermline in old times attached to the castle, but it probably 
was mean and small and served by priests of the Scottish 
church. Shortly after her marriage Queen Margaret caused a church 
to be built, which was dedicated to the Holy Trinity, in which she 
placed Benedictine monks, possibly under the supervision of Goldwin 
and the two brethren whom Archbishop Lanfranc sent to Scotland at 



324 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

the Queen's request. In the beginning of the reign of King David 
the Priory was enlarged; in 1128 it became an Abbey with an abbot 
and twelve monks from Canterbury. 

p. 6 1. Patris atque matris meae. This is the earliest authentic record 
of the grants by Malcolm and his queen to the church of Dunfermline. 
If these grants were in writing the charters have perished. No. x., 
ante, p. 8, is spurious, composed long afterwards from the material 
furnished by this confirmation by King David. The lands granted by 
King Malcolm and Queen Margaret lay for the most part in the west 
of Fifeshire, in the neighbourhood of Dunfermline. Inveresk Minor 
was the nucleus of what afterwards became a considerable estate 
in Lothian, propono should be praepono. Pardusin, Pardew, alias 
Broomhill, near Dunfermline, which shortly before the Reformation 
was feued by the abbey to James Murray (Reg. Dunf, p. 381). 
Pethnaurcha appears in the confirmations of Kings Malcolm IV., 
William the Lion, Alexander II. and III., and in a Bull by Pope 
Alexander III. Petcorthin, Pitcorthy, near Dunfermline ; it remained 
the property of the abbey till the Reformation, when it yielded 
17 6s. 8d. rent and 10 bolls teind beir. It was feued to the Drurys. 
Petbachelin, near Dunfermline. In 1235 Constantinus of Lochor 
acknowledged he had no right to it (Reg. Dunf., p. 101). Marjory 
of Petbachly of that ilk died and her heir sold half of the land to the 
abbey in 1456 (ib. pp. 340-345); at the Reformation it was feued to 
Wardlaws. Lauer appears in the confirmations by later kings. 
Bolgin, see ante, p. 232. Schiram de Kircalethyn, Kirkcaldy in Fife- 
shire. Earl Constantine for some time deprived the abbey of this 
shire (Reg. Dunf., p. 16). Kirkcaldy was afterwards made a burgh, 
from which, and from lands and saltpans in the parish, the Abbey of 
Dunfermline drew rents. 

Duncan patris : a clerical error for Duncani fratris. It is very 
interesting to find that Duncan during his brief and precarious 
reign of six months gave, lands near Dunfermline, to the church 
founded by his father. No written grant of it has been preserved. The 
church of Dunfermline was more fortunate than the church of Durham, 
for while Duncan's grant to the latter, of land in East Lothian proved 
ineffectual, the church of Dunfermline retained rights in the two 
Luskers until the Reformation. 

Edgaris patris mei : clerical error for Edgari fratris. His charter 
has not been preserved. Schiram de Gellald : it was a grange of 
the abbey. David II. gave leave to the abbey to make a port either 
at Gellald or at Wester Rossyth. (Reg. Dunf, p. 270.) 

Ethelredi : Ethelred, son of Malcolm III. Pope Gregory IX. said : 
" E. frater clarae memoriae Davidis Regis Scotiae villam de Hales 
cum pertinentiis suis pia liberalitate monasterio donasset" (Reg. 
Dunf., p. 173). Hale : Hailes, in the barony of Musselburgh and shire 
of Edinburgh. Abbot Archibald de Douglas, who died 1198, sold 
Hailes to Thomas of Lestalrig (Reg. Dunf., p. 190). A later abbot 
revoked the sale, and the land was confirmed to the abbey by Pope 
Honorius III. in 1226 and again by Pope Gregory IX. in 1233. But 
the Lestalrigs kept it ; in 1226 Thomas de Lestalrig agreed with the 
parson of Hailes about a mill dam (Reg. Dunf, p. 135); and in 



NOTES LXXIV. 325 

1284 the Court of the abbey at Musselburgh decided that Symon, the 
son and heir of Sir John of Lestalrig, should hold Hailes of the abbey 
for his life (Reg. Dunf., p. 147). In 1448, on the resignation of Logan 
of Lestalrig, the abbey sold Easter and Wester Hailes to Sir William 
de Crichton of that ilk (Reg. de Dunf., p. 287). The abbey held the 
church ' in proprios usus ' (Reg. de Dunf., p. 62). 

p. 61. Dona Alexandri Regis fratris mei : King Alexander I., 1107- 
1 123. Duninad is mentioned in King David's second charter (cc.) and 
in King Malcolm's confirmation. It is omitted in the subsequent con- 
firmations by William, Alexander II., Alexander III., and Pope 
Alexander III., and its place is taken by "Primrose," which is a land 
in Dunfermline (p. 425). Schiram de Gatemilc is in Kinglassie 
parish. It continued the property of the abbey till the Reformation. 
Petconmarthin, afterwards called Petconmerk, is now a part of the 
Raith estate (Reg. de Dunf., pp. 370, 491, 496, 562). Balekerin 
et Drumbernin : the last time these lands are mentioned in the Regis- 
trum is in a confirmation by King Alexander III. in 1276. Keeth, 
part of Humble, in Haddingtonshire (Reg. de Dunf., pp. 68, 96, 97, 
1 06). 

Sibillae Reginae, the wife of Alexander I. Beeth : in the 
parish of Dunfermline, where coal was afterwards worked for the 
abbey, was subdivided into many farms Bayth Murton, Bayth 
Stewart, Bayth Keir, Bayth Trimbill. Wester Baith, Nether Bayth, 
and Bayth under the hill, are also mentioned (Reg. Dunf., pp. 425, 
426). Seyer de Quincy gave Beeth Waldef (id. pp. 36, 52, 90) ; 
Malcolm de Moravia gave Wester Beeth (ib. pp. 54, 120, 121, 122) ; 
Alexander de Seton gave Beeth Fleming (ib. p. 101). 

Dona denique propria. King David added to the gifts of his 
father and brothers by granting a part of Dunfermline, the part of 
Kinghorn which lay near Dunfermline, Foeth, the greater Inveresk 
with the mill and fishings, dwellings in Berwick, Edinburgh, Stirling, 
Dunfermline, and Perth, the church of the burgh of Perth, and a rent 
of one hundred shillings from England. 

Dunfermlin citra aquam. This seems to give the land on which the 
church was built ; probably until then it was Crown land, in qua 
ecclesia : ' eadem ' has been omitted ; a clerical error. Kinghorn : a 
parish and burgh on the coast of Fife. The church belonged to the 
Abbey of Dunfermline (Reg. Dunf., pp. 58, 59, etc.) ; the abbey 
had a toft in the burgh (ib. p. 32). Foeth : a land in Dunfermline 
parish (Reg. de Dunf., p. 426). Inveresk major, etc. : see note to 
LXXIX. 

Ecclesia burgi de Perth. This was the church of St. John 
the Baptist, to which King Malcolm IV. granted a fishery (Reg. 
de Dunf., p. 24). The abbey did not treat the vicars sufficiently 
generously, and the Bishop of St. Andrews had to interfere in 1237 
(ib. p. 64). In 1440 the abbey and the community of the burgh made 
certain agreements regarding the church (ib. pp. 291, 293, 294, 298, 
299). The church remained the property of the abbey till the 
Reformation. Inveresc major : this was Musselburgh, which in after 
years was the seat of one of the principal Courts of the abbey, and the 
town and port of a large barony belonging to the abbey, redditum 



326 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

centum solidorum in Anglia. This is not repeated in later charters. 
It is not stated from what land in England the loos, were to be paid. 
I suspect that this is an unauthorised addition by the transcriber. 

p. 62. Defensio regni mei excepta. The men on these lands were 
not exempted from the duty to defend the kingdom. They must, 
when called on, join the army. Justicia regali. An appeal and the 
right of the King to remove a cause from the Abbot's court, if it 
appeared that justice had not been done, were reserved. 

octavam partem de omnibus placitis et querelis meis de Fif 
et de Fotherif. This was repeated and confirmed by successive 
kings (Reg. de Dunf, pp. 20, 29, 41, 47, 152). In early days the fines 
imposed on offenders were divided between the Court which tried the 
offender, the person who had been injured, and the King or Earl. In 
the King's Courts, and in other Courts when these dealt with Pleas of 
the Crown, two-thirds of the fines were paid to the King and one-third 
to the Earl. In A.D. 1126 and 1230 Alexander II. ordered his sheriff 
"quatenus Abbati de Dunfermlyn faciatis habere octavam partem 
quam eum contingit de lucris et finibus quae ad opus nostrum in 
baillia tua adquiretis " (Reg. de Dunf., p. 44, Nos. 78, 79). In 1339 
the Justiciar north of the Forth ordered the Sheriff of Fife to pay to 
the abbey the eighth part of the fines of Fife and Fothrif (ib. p. 259). 
In 1449, decree by the Lords' Auditors and King's Council in favour 
of the abbey for the eighth penny (ib. pp. 310, 311). 

Other abbeys had similar grants ; Holyrood had a tithe of the 
pleas and profits of Courts from Avon to Coldbrandspeth, and half of 
the pleas of Kintyre and 'de ErrogeilP (Holyrood Charter, pp. 5, 6). 
King David gave to the church of Glasgow the eighth penny of the 
King's pleas in Cumbria (cxxvi., p. 96). The Priory of Urquhart had 
a tithe of the pleas of Argyle (Reg. Morav., p. 205). 

Can . . . praebendae : payment of rent or in kind, i.e. pigs, fowls, 
cheese, etc., and in grain. Venationum : a tithe of the deer and 
game brought to Dunfermline. 

medietatem coriorum. This is one of many grants to monas- 
teries of the surplus of the King's kitchen. The King's apartments 
were either in, or not far from, the abbey, and it was right to give 
to the abbey share of the provisions consumed, nor were the monks of 
Dunfermline to be forgotten when feasts were held at Stirling, and 
between Forth and Tay. Can of a ship, see note to XLVIII. 

Seliches: seals caught on the shores of the Firth of Forth at 
Kinghorn. After a tenth was taken, every seventh seal of the remain- 
ing nine was to be given to Dunfermline. Also a tithe of the salt and 
iron brought to Dunfermline for the King's use. 

Siquis : this is an elaborate example of the clause, see note to xxiv. 

p. 63. Testes et assertores, Ed. Conies, probably " Head " Comes, 
ante, p. 77, but who he was I do not know. Constantinus Comes, of 
Fife, see note, 246. Malise Comes (Strathern), Rotheri Comes, 
Madach Comes, see notes to xxxvi. Gillemichel Macduf, note to 
xxxv. Herbert the Chancellor, note to LXVII. Hugo de Moreville, 
note to xxxii. Robert Corbet, note to xxxv. Robert de Monte 
Acuto, a witness to the foundation charter of Holyrood, ante, p. 119. 
He is the only member of the great English house of Montagu who 



NOTES LXXIV.-LXXV. 327 

appears in Scottish records of the [time of David '-I. Uniet Albus, 
note to XX. Maldouenus, note to LXVIII. Maldounus de Scona (vice- 
comes de Scon). He was a witness, pp. 77, 86. Gillepatric Mac 
Impethin. He may be of the same family as Gilcolm Mac Chimpethin 
(Reg. Dunf., pp. 7, 8) 

p. 63. Alwyn Mac Arkil. It has been stated by many genealogists 
that he was a noble Northumbrian. He is often called Alwyn films 
Archil, but the frequency with which he is styled ' Mac Arkil ' makes it 
probable that he was a Scottish Celt. He appears as a witness (ante, 
pp. 82, 86, 96, 98, 120, 122, 129, 138, 171, 179, 182, 195). It is doubtful 
whether he was the ancestor of the Earls of Lennox. 

Edwardus filius Siwardi. The question whether this be Edward 
the Constable and who Siward was has been discussed in the note to 
the foundation charter of Scon. 



LXXV. 

In the Reg. Alb. Ebor., P. ill., fol. 57. Printed in Dugdale's Monast, 
vi., Hi., p. 1187 ; No. LIU. ; 2 Concil., 215. 

King David announces that Thurstan, Archbishop of York, had 
consecrated Robert, Bishop of St. Andrews, without profession of 
obedience, saving the claim of York and justice to St. Andrews. 

The continuator of Florence of Worcester (an. 1128) writes: 
"Thurstanus Eboracensis Archiepiscopus, Rodbertum, quern Alexander 
Rex Scotiae Ecclesiae Sancti Andreae intruserat, petente David fratre 
ac successore Alexandri in Episcopum Eboraci consecravit ; in quo 
officio Rannulfum Dunholmensem episcopum et quendam Ranulfum 
ad Orcadas insulas jam olim in Episcopum ordinatum sibi adjutores 
asciverat. . . . Ab his itaque Rotbertus consecratus nullam ut dicitur 
professionem de quavis subjectione vel obedientia Ecclesiae Ebora- 
censi aut ejus pontifici facere permissus a Scottis est, licet Eboracensis 
canonicus erat" (Ed. Thorpe, n, 89 ; Legend St. And. ; Skene, Chron. 
Pict. and Scot., p. 191 ; Fordun, Supp., vi., 24.) 

p. 64. Testibus : Ranulf, Bishop of Durham, A.D. 1099-1128. Radulf, 
Bishop of the Orkneys. Gaufrid, the third Abbot of York for a year 
and six months ; he died 1132. Herbert, Abbot of Roxburgh (Kelso), 
1128-1147. Wold, Abbot of Croyland, Waldeve or Wlfretelus. Wal- 
deve was Abbot of Croyland from 1 124 till 1 138, when he was deposed 
by Alberic the Legate. Ordericus Vitalis (vol. n., p. 289) says that 
Waldef was the brother of " Gospatric de magna nobilitate Anglorum." 
M. Prevost in a note, vol. IV., p. 428 : " Nous pensons que . . . 
Waltheof etait frere de Cospatric, comte de Dunbar en Ecosse. 
Voyez sur ce dernier personnage le Monas. Anglican, t. I., p. 400. 
Ce Cospatrick ou Cospatric posse'dait de grandes propriete's dans 
1'Yorkshire. Lui et son frere etait probablement fils de Cospatrick 
Comte de Northumberland en 1069. II fut depose en 1138 par le 
legat Alberic." Waldeve, son of Gospatric and brother of Dolfin 



328 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

and Gospatric, obtained Allerdale and other lands in Cumber- 
land ; he married and had children. It is possible that he became a 
monk in Croyland Abbey and was abbot for the fourteen years between 
1124 and 1138 (see ante, p. 318). Adelof Prior Sconensi the writer 
has omitted some words Adelwald was Prior of St. Oswald's at 
Nostell. Nicolas was Prior of Scone. Gaulterus de Gaunt. Ailred, 
De bello Standardi (Twysden, 337) describes him : " Waltherus 
quoque de Garit morti jam ultima senectute vicinus, vir mansuetus at 
pius qui et ipse valdissimam manum de Flandrensibus et Normannis 
adducens tarn sapientia quam pondere sermonum reliquam multitu- 
dinem plurimum animavit." Roger de Eummers, same as Roger 
Coyneres in No. LXXVI. 



LXXVI. 

MS. Cott. Titus A., XIX. Printed by Wharton, A. S., n., p. 237. 
2 ConciL, p. 215. 

Declaration by the Archbishop of York that he had consecrated the 
Bishop of St. Andrews "sine professione et obedientia." It is almost 
identical with the preceding declaration by King David. It shows 
how easily transcribers of charters made mistakes in copying the 
names of witnesses. 

LXXVI I. 

Registrum de Dunfermelyn, fol. 7 a ; Bannatyne Club edition, p. 12, 
No. 17. 

The King informs Malbride Mac Congi that he has granted to the 
Church of the Holy Trinity at Dunfermline the tithe of his house at 
Perth. The King gave a tenth of the provisions brought to his 
house at Perth on a special occasion, probably a feast to which the 
King was going. In the great charter King David confirmed to 
Dunfermline the right to half the hides and fat, of all beasts killed for 
feasts held at Stirling, and between Forth and Tay. 

p. 65. Malbride Mac Congi : the King's steward at Perth. If, as is 
likely, he could speak Gaelic only, one would think that instructions 
to him would have been in Gaelic. Possibly this is a translation. 

p. 65. Uniet Albus was a frequent witness to David's charters. He 
may have been one of the King's household, whose duty it was to give 
orders to the steward at Perth. 



LXXVIII. 

Registrum de Dunfermelyn, fol. 7 b ; Bannatyne Club edition, p. 16, 
No. 28. 

King David informs all his lieges that he has granted to the church 
of Dunfermline, in alms, a tithe of the gold which may come to him 
from Fife and Fothrif. 



NOTES LXXV.-LXXX. 329 

p. 65. Fothris is a clerical error for Fothrif. 

p. 65. Auro. Mr. Dalyell, p. 30, says : " Whence it has been con- 
jectured that gold was formerly found in these districts. It is possible, 
nevertheless, that it may infer the King's rents or revenues." 

p. 65. Testibus. The list is carelessly transcribed. The name of 
the Chancellor is omitted, probably Herbert. John the Bishop : his 
name should have preceded the other two. 

Elbotle, with an island in the Forth (now called Fidra), was a barony 
in the parish of Dirleton, East Lothian. Elbotle, on the mainland, 
was an old residence of the Scottish kings, and continued to be used 
till the reign of Malcolm IV., who granted a charter there (Reg. Prior. 
S. A., p. 201). The castle was called the 'old' castle as early as 
A.D. 1 220. On the island there was a hermitage. 

About A.D. 1220 William de Vallibus, Lord of Dirleton, gave the 
island to the Abbey of Dryburgh, and the church of St. Nicholas on 
the isle became a cell where the canons of Dryburgh served (Reg. 
Dryb., pp. 15, 16, 73, 74, 75). Twenty years later Alexander de 
Vallibus "considerans imminentia pericula temporum quam pre- 
sentium quam futurorum," released the Abbey of Dryburgh from the 
obligation of having a chantry on the island ; and, instead of it, one 
canon was to serve and celebrate at Stotfold, and another in the abbey 
church of Dryburgh, for the souls of the ancestors and successors of 
the de Vallibus (Reg. Dryb., p. 237, No. 289). Elbotle belonged after- 
wards to the Homes, and passed to Erskines and Forrests. About the 
end of the seventeenth century it became the property of the Nisbets 
of Dirleton, in whose possession it now is. 



LXXIX. 

Registrum de Dunfermelyn, Bannatyne Club edition, p. 17, No. 30. 
King David grants to the Church of the Holy Trinity at Dunfermline 
the church of Inveresk, reserving the liferent of Nicolas, the priest. 

p. 66. Inveresk is a parish to the east of Edinburgh, on the Forth. 
Inveresk minor was given to the church of Dunfermline by Malcolm 
III. David I. added Inveresk major, with the mill and fishings. He 
now gives the church, which apparently was a rectory held by Nicolas. 
The right of the abbey to this church was confirmed by successive 
kings of Scotland, and by the Pope, and by the Bishop and Chapter of 
St. Andrews, in which diocese Inveresk lay (Reg. Dunf., pp. 19, 28, 40, 
44, 46, 56, 57, 63, 66, 8 1, 154, 157, 321). At the Reformation the tithe 
of Inveresk was let for ,53 6s. 8d. 



LXXX. 

Registrum Prioratus S. Andreae, fol. 52 a ; Bannatyne Club edition, 
p. 117. 2 Concil., p. 209 ; Reeves' Culdees, p. 129. 

It is headed in the register : " Perambulatio inter terras de Kyrk- 
ness et Lochore" ; but that is not a correct title. Nothing is said in 
this of a perambulation, which, however, may have followed the decree. 



330 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

It is a contemporary unofficial record of the trial of a complaint 
made to the King by the Keledei of St. Serf's that Sir Robert Bur- 
gonensis had taken possession of a part of the lands of Kirkness. The 
King ordered a trial. 

p. 66. Robertas Burgonensis miles. Sir Robert was a frequent 
witness to charters in the earlier years of King David's reign. M. 
Merlet suggests that he was the " Seigneur de Sable ' troisieme fils d'un 
autre Robert de Bourgignon Seigneur de Sable qui s'etait croise ' en 
1096." 

Kirkness, originally granted to St. Serf's by Macbeth, and 
afterwards by Malcolm III. and Queen Margaret. Reeves (Culdees, 

E. 129) suggested that Lochore belonged to Sir Robert, and that he 
ad wrongfully taken a fourth of Kirkness as part of his land. 

Fyf et Fothrithi. These two territories comprised the present 
counties of Fife and Kinross, and their respective boundaries are 
shown by the distribution of the parishes in the old Deaneries of Fife 
and Fothri (Reg. St. And., pp. 32, 33; Reeves' Culdees, p. 129). Kirk- 
ness was in Fothri. 

in unum locum. The writer does not say where, possibly Dal- 
ginch (near Markinch), which was the head place of the earldom 
of Fife. 

p. 67. Satrapa : " Chartam ./Ethelredi regis Angliae post Duces 
subscribunt aliquot viri nobiles, cum hoc titulo, Satrapa regis. Quae 
appellatio eadem est forte quae ministri" (Du Cange). Satelles : 
Vasallus minoris dignitatis. Exercitus de Fyf. The writer exagger- 
ates the importance of the Earl, The 'exercitus' probably consisted 
of those who held land in the Earldom on the tenure of military service. 

Macbeath thaynetum de Falkland. Macbeath doubtless originally 
the name of an individual, 'the son of Beth,' became a sur- 
name. Mr. Skene recognises Falkland as a thanedom (i Celt. Scot, 
268). It was afterwards a forest and a residence of the kings. 
Primicerii : " Primus cujusque ordinis, dignitas militaris tribuni digni- 
tate proxima" (D'Arnis). 

Lumnarchas. Dr. Reeves suggests that this stands for Mimen- 
archas.' Limenarcha was a port officer ; " qui portubus praeest " 
"commandant du port" (D'Arnis). Exercitus episcopi : probably the 
Bishop's tenants. Soen, ducem . . . cum familia sua : some words are 
omitted in the Register. 

Dufgal filium Mocche : Dr. Reeves (Culdees, p. 130) says: "He 
resembles old Dubhgall of Scone, who is mentioned in the Irish tract 
on the men of Alba preserved in the Book of Ballynote and MacFirbis 
Genealogical MS. Old Dubhgall was father of Raingee, whose son 
Aiscdhe was a progenitor of the Clann Considhe in Bib in Fife. But 
he occurs far too high in the pedigree, to admit of his being contem- 
porary with King David. See the genealogical table of the Dalriadie 
kings in Reeves' St. Columba, opposite p. 458." 

Meldoinneth filium Machedath. Reeves' Culdees, p. 130, suggests 
that this is a corruption of Meldomnach. In other charters 



NOTES LXXX.-LXXXII. 331 

he is styled Maldouen Mac Oebeth and Maledoun, son of Macbeth, 
and ' Maldouen judex.' 

p. 67. Duftah sacerdos et abbas. Probably a Culdee abbot of St. 
Serfs. 

Douinalde nepos Leod. Reeves' Culdees, p. 130: "Mr. Innes, 
finding in the Reg. of Dunfermline, a Leod Abbas de Brechin 
among the lay witnesses to a charter by King David (No. 3, p. 8) and 
Leod de Brechin similarly placed in the Register of St. Andrews, 
p. 182, and further meeting with Dovinalde nepos Leod in a composi- 
tion under King David (ib. p. 118), connected them with Dovenald 
Abbas de Brechyn (in 1212 Reg. Vet. de Aberb., No. 74), and con- 
structed a conjectural succession thus : Leod, Abbot of Brechin, father 
of Samson, father of Dovenald, Abbot of Brechin. But Dovenald, 
grandson of Leod, was a cleric and juror in an arbitration at Fife, with 
which he was locally connected before 1130, whereas Leod of Brechin 
was his contemporary, and the Dovenald (of Arbroath, 74) makes his 
grant 70 years later." 

Isti sunt clerici. Whether these were witnesses or compurgators 
is doubtful ; if compurgators, they swore to the truth and justice 
of the complainant's case. 

LXXXI. 

The original was in the Panmure Charter Chest. It was printed with 
a facsimile in the Bannatyne Club edition of the Holyrood charters, 
p. u, No. 10. 

Robert, Bishop of St. Andrews, announces that he has confirmed to 
the abbot and canons of Holyrood the grant which Leuing made of 
the church of his ' vill,' saving the rights of the see of St. Andrews. 

I suggested the date circa 1128, but it now seems to me that it is of 
the same date as No. CCLVI., ante, p. 205, which I have assigned to 
the last years of David's reign, 1150-1153. The charter by Leuing 
to Holyrood has not been preserved. 

p. 68. Villa de Leuing, Livingston, a parish in Linlithgowshire of 
5360 acres, Leuing was succeeded by his son Thurstinus and he 
by his son Alexander, the Livingstones of that ilk held the land for 
many generations. It now belongs to the Earl of Rosebery. 

Testibus, T. Archidiaconus is Thoraldus the archdeacon of 
Lothian. A. decano is Aiulfus the Dean. He is a witness, ante, pp. 
149, 166, 175, 184, 186, 206, 211, 214. Magister Thomas, W. Capel- 
lanus, Magister H., were witnesses to charter, ante, p. 205. R. de 
Boilestunea is Radulf of Boilestune, ante, p. 209. 

LXXXII. 

Liber de Calchou, fol. 161 ; Bannatyne Club edition, No. 443. 
The Registrum Cartarum de Kelso is a MS. in the Library of the 
Faculty of Advocates, written in the first quarter of the fourteenth 
century. 



332 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

The Bishop of St. Andrews grants to the Abbey of Kelso, the church 
of St. Mary at Kelso and allows the abbot and convent to get 
' crisma ' and oil and ordination from any Bishop in Scotland or in 
Cumbria; The date must be between 1127 when Bishop Robert was 
consecrated and 1131 when Queen Matilda died, probably it was 
granted in 1128 on the day when the abbey church was founded, in 
presence of the King and Queen and their son and the Bishops of 
St. Andrews and Glasgow, an Archdeacon, two Priors, etc. 

p. 68. Robert, Bishop of St. Andrews. The maps prepared for Mr. 
Innes in " Scotland in the Middle Ages" and for Mr. Skene represent 
Kelso as in the diocese of Glasgow,, but it lay within the diocese of St. 
Andrews, the Tweed forming the boundary. 

Crisma, i.e. "Oleum quod in ecclesia consecratur, Duplex est ; 
aliud enim oleo et balsamo conficitur . . . et eo unguntur qui baptizan- 
tur, in vertice et qui confirmantur, in fronte, denique qui ordinantur ; 
Alterum verum est simplex oleum ab Episcopo consecratum quo 
unguntur Catechumeni in pectore et scapulis et in fronte, antequam 
abluantur. Infirmi quoque et energumeni eodem oleo unguntur" (Du 
Cange). All our abbeys were not equally free to select their Bishop. 
Pope Innocent, in the time of Alexander III., in confirming the 
privileges of the Abbey of Scon, required it to receive the crisma and 
oleum, the consecration of altars and churches and the ordination of 
clerics from their own diocesan Bishop (Lib. de Scon, p. 76). 

Adelulfus, Prior of St. Oswald's from 1128-1133 when he was 
appointed the first Bishop of Carlisle. The other witnesses have been 
already noticed. 

LXXXIII. 

In the Registrum Epis. Glasguensis ; Maitland Club edition, p. 9, 
No. 4. 

It was granted before Queen Matilda's death in 1131. King 
David states that he had granted to the church of St. John in the 
castle of Roxburgh a ploughgate in his demesne of Roxburgh and 
a full toft and a ' maisura ' within the castle and all the offerings 
of those who dwell within the castle ; he orders that one of his chaplains 
shall have a fourth of the offerings made by the King and his family 
whenever he is in the castle and a tithe of his brushwood (virgulti) and 
of the fat of beasts killed when he is in Teviotdale. All these are 
given in free alms. This was confirmed by Earl Henry, by King 
Malcolm IV., and by several Popes and Bishops of Glasgow. 

p. 69. The Castle of Roxburgh was an old residence of the Scottish 
Kings ; round it was the burgh, which was a place of importance until 
the middle of the fifteenth century, after which it decayed ; it is now 
entirely demolished. 

p. 69. Deciraam pattern. This is another instance of a grant of 



NOTES LXXXII.-LXXXIV. 333 

a share of the surplus of the royal kitchen when the King was 
in residence in the neighbourhood of a monastery. 

p. 69. Waldef filio Reginae, the younger son of Queen Matilda by 
her first marriage to Simon de St. Liz. " A life of Waltheof contain- 
ing many marvellous stories, was written, about fifty years after his 
decease, in a continued strain of eulogy, by Josceline, a monk of 
Furness." " His stepfather, by whom he was much beloved, took him 
to Scotland in 1124, . . . there he completed his education along with 
his friend Ailred, afterwards Abbot of Rievalle. ... He resolved to 
embrace the monastic life . . . retired to the convent of St. Oswald's 
at Nostell where he was admitted into the order of Canons Regular of 
St. Augustine. While he held the office of sacristan in that monastery 
he was called by the unanimous voice of the canons in Kirkham to be 
their Prior. . . . The excellent order and discipline maintained at 
Kirkham . . . brought the virtues of Waltheof's character so much 
into notice that when the see of York was vacant the clergy 
would have elected him Archbishop if they had not been pre- 
vented by King Stephen. . . . (Waltheof) resigned the Priorship 
and retired into the Cistercian convent at Warden in Bedford- 
shire, where he began his novitiate in that order greatly to the 
displeasure of his brother Simon, Earl of Northampton, who . . . 
endeavoured ... to deter him from it. ... Waltheof removed to 
the monastery at Rievalle. He continued at Rievalle till the year 
1148 when he was elected Abbot of Melros. . . . Upon the death of 
Robert, Bishop of St. Andrews, in 1159, Waltheof was unanimously 
fixed upon to succeed him ; but he declined. He died in August, 
1159, and was buried in the Chapter House at Melrose." 



LXXXIV. 

Registrum de Dunfermelyn, fol. 7b ; Bannatyne Club edition, p. 17, 
No. 31. 

King David grants to the church of Dunfermline and the monks 
serving there exemption and freedom from all work on castles and 
bridges and other like work. 

Malcolm IV. repeated this (Reg. Dunf., p. 27) with the addition 
"quare prohibeo ne ab illis exigatur nisi abbas et monachi spon- 
tanea voluntate illud facere voluerint." Kings William and Alex- 
ander II. and III. (pp. 30, 42, 48) confirmed it as a privilege 
granted by King Malcolm IV. King William : " Sciatis quod quando 
firmare feci castella mea in Ros. homines abbatis et monachorum 
de Dunfermelyn ad petitionem meam de bona voluntate sua operati 
sunt cum a-liis probis hominibus meis ad eadem castella firmanda. 
Quare volo et precipio quatenus hoc quod ilia vice ad petitionem 
meam inde fecerunt non trahatur in exemplum quare aliud in posterum 
in talibus facere debeant qiiam fecerunt tempore meo et temporibus 
antecessorum meorum ..." (id. p. 32). It is probable that the 
liability to repair castles and bridges was laid on all lands in Scot- 



334 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

land in early times. In the notitia of a grant of Kirkness by 
Macbeth and Gruoche, King and Queen, occur the words "sine 
refectione pontis," but similar exemptions are rare. 

p. 70. Strathyrewen in Galwegia. This cannot, I think, be Irvine in 
Ayrshire. I am not able to identify the place. 



LXXXV. 

Registrum de Dunfermelyn, fol. 7 a ; Bannatyne Club edition, 
p. 13, No. 18. Granted before 1128, when the monastery buildings 
were still incomplete, probably at the same time as No. LXXXIV. 

This is addressed to Constantine and to the men of the church of 
Dunfermline who seem to have refused to render to the church its dues 
and to have hindered the building of the monastery. It orders the 
King's ' praepositus,' Swain, not to suffer this neglect ; he must assist 
the Prior so that the church may get from its tenants as much as the 
King gets from his men. 

LXXXVI. 

Registrum de Dunfermelyn, fol. 6 c ; Bannatyne Club edition, p. 10, 
No. 8. 

Mandate to the Sheriff and 'praepositi' of Stirling to pay to 
the Abbot of Dunfermline a tithe of the pennies of the King's census of 
Stirling, to be paid as the pennies come in. Granted after A.D. 1128 
when Dunfermline became an abbey. King David gave 2os. from the 
rent of Stirling to the Abbey of Holyrood (ante, p. 117) and 403. from 
the same rent to the Abbey of Cumbuskenneth (pp. 140, 142). 

LXXXVI I. 

Registrum de Dunfermelyn, fol. 6 b ; Bannatyne Club edition, 
p. n, No. 13. 

David, King of the Scots, to all the liegemen of his realm, greeting. 
Know that I have given and granted to God and to the church of the 
Holy Trinity at Dunfermline and to the Abbot and monks serving God 
there all rights from all ships which touch at the port of Inveresk and 
anchor on their land, reserving my toll, if the merchants of the ships 
sell their goods there or if they buy other goods within my land to take 
with them. 

p. 72. Testibus. Thor son of Swain (ante, pp. 175, 186) is Thor de 
Travernent (ante, pp. 59, 123) and probably Thor vicecomes (ante, 
pp. 122, 164). 



NOTES LXXXIV.-XC. 335 



LXXXVIII. 

Registrum de Dunfermelyn, fol. 6 b ; Bannatyne Club edition, p. 12, 
No. 14. 

David the King, addressing all his liegemen, states that he has 
exempted from all the King's customs the ship of the Abbot of 
Dunfermline and all that it contains. 

This seems to be an order relating to the arrival and clearance of a 
particular ship. It did not apply to all their ships in future. 

LXXXIX. 

The original is in the Treasury at Durham. The seal is missing. 
Printed in Raine, N. Durham, App. 4, No. xvn. 

King David states that, in his presence at Roxburgh, the Bishop of 
St. Andrews had summoned Algar, Prior, and Roger, sub- Prior of 
Durham, before the door of the church of St. John the Evangelist 
at Roxburgh and had declared that he had no claim on the church 
of Coldingham and conceded that it should be free from all custom 
and service, save only obedience to the Bishop. The King added his 
confirmation. 

This refers to the concession by the Bishop of St. Andrews (No. 
LXXIII., ante, p. 59). The confirmation by the King followed soon 
after. This should have been printed next after No. LXXIII. 

p. 73. Testibus. The witnesses have been noticed in previous 
notes. 

XC. 

The original is in the Treasury at Durham. Raine, N. Durham, 
App., p. 4, No. XIV. 

It was granted probably on the same day as No. LXXXIX. The 
witnesses are the same. There had been a dispute as to the boundary 
between the lands of Coldingham and of Bonkyl, and the King himself 
'cum probis hominibus' perambulated the bounds from Middlehead 
by Mereburnhead towards the west as far as Crachoctre and then by 
the same road to Eiford. The King declares these to be the true 
marches. 

p. 73. Bonkyl is now called Buncle, a parish in Berwickshire to the 
S.W. of Coldingham. Bonkyl belonged to the Bonkyls of that ilk. 
The daughter and heiress of Sir Alexander de Bonkyl (circa A.D. 1288) 
married Sir John Stewart ; their descendants the Earls of Angus held 
Bonkyl, and from them, the lands have descended to the Earl of 
Home. 



336 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

XCI. 

Registrum de Dunfermelyn, fol. 6 b ; Bannatyne Club edition, 
p. n, No. 12. 

King David, addressing all his liegemen of Lothian, announces that 
he has granted to the church of Dunfermline a plough gate of arable 
land in Craigmillar and the houses in which the wife of Roger Cass 
lived, reserving her liferent. 

I ascribed this to circa 1130, though I do not know in what year 
John the Bishop was chancellor, indeed I doubt whether he ever was 
chancellor. The name of the chancellor may here have been omitted. 

p. 74. Craigmillar is in the parish of Liberton, a few miles S.E. of 
Edinburgh. It is distinguished by the ruins of a castle built in the 
fourteenth century by the Prestons. 

p. 74. Roger Cass. Nothing is known of him and his wife. Long 
afterwards there were people of the name of Cass, feuars of Monkton- 
hall and other places under the Abbey of Dunfermline. 

XCII. 

The original is in the Panmure Charter Chest. Printed in the 
Bannatyne Club edition of the Holyrood Charters, p. 7, No. 2. 

Robert, Bishop of St. Andrews, addressing all the sons of the Holy 
Mother church, gives his episcopal blessing and announces that he, 
with the assent of his chapter, confirmed all the grants which King 
David made in alms to the church of Holyrood, viz. the church of the 
Castle with a willow plantation, the church of St. Cuthbert, the church 
of Crostorfin with two bovates and six acres, the church of Ereth 
and two ploughgates and a saltpan with twenty-seven acres, the 
church of Livingstone with half a ploughgate, the church of Hamere 
and Hamera and Forda. Also Broctuna and Inverlet and Petendreia 
with a general confirmation of everything which the King gave, 
reserving the dignity and rights of the Bishopric. 

This was granted before King David gave the great charter to 
Holyrood, from which it differs in some details. 

For the churches and lands here mentioned, see the note to the 
King's charter to Holyrood, No. CLIII. 

XCIII. 

The original is in the Panmure Charter Chest. It was printed in the 
Charters of Holyrood, p. 8, No. 5. 

Granted about A.D. 1130. It is a mandate to the Bishop of St. 
Andrews and to the Sheriff and all the liegemen of Stirlingshire to see 



NOTES XCI.-XCV. 337 

that the Abbot of the Holy Rood of Edinburgh shall enjoy all the 
customary rights in Heret (Airth), which belong to that church, as fully 
as when the King had it in his demesne. 

Heret : Airth, a parish in Stirlingshire of about 6400 acres. In the 
confirmation by the Bishop of St. Andrews (ante, p. 74) it is stated 
that two ploughgates and a saltpan with six acres belonged to the 
church. 



XCIV. 

Registrum de Dunfermelyn, fol. 7 b ; Bannatyne Club edition, p. 16, 
No. 29. 

King David confirms the right of the Abbey of Dunfermline to the 
shire of Kirkcaldy, which had been granted to the church of Dunferm- 
line by Malcolm III. and Queen Margaret, and had in later years been 
withheld from the abbey by force by Constantine, Earl of Fife, 
who died about 1129. If his heirs made a claim to Kirkcaldy, the 
monks need not answer but possess in peace. 

p. 76, The shire or parish of Kirkcaldy included Abbotshall, 
Dunikier, Raith, etc., and the burgh. 
Testibus. The witnesses have been noticed in previous notes. 



XCV. 

This is on fol. 4 of the MS. Book of Deer, Spalding Club edition, 
p. 93, with facsimile, Plate V. 

The Irish is : " Dorat Gartnait acus ingen gillemicel ball domin ipet 
ip^ir do Crist acus do Colimcilli acus do drostan. Teste Gillecalline 
sacart acus feradac Mac Malbncin acus Mdlgirc Mac tralin." 

Following the authorities, I call this a grant to the church of Deer, 
but Deer is not named, it is a grant to Christ, to Columba, and to 
Drostan. 

p. 77. Gartnait and the daughter of Gillemichel are probably the 
same as Gartnait son of Cainnech and Ete daughter of Gillemichel, 
who are the donors in charter No. xcvu. (ante, p. 78), circa 
A.D. 1132. It has been said that Gartnait is Gartnach Comes, a 
witness to the Foundation Charter of Scon. Here, however, he does 
not style himself Comes, which surely he would have done had he 
been an Earl since the days of King Alexander I. 

The lands Ball Domin and Pet Ipair which Gartnait and the 
daughter of Gillemichel gave have not been identified. Spuir is a 
clerical error for Ipdir. 

From the word 'Teste' it seems probable that the writer of the 
'Notitia' had before him a Latin charter, an abstract of which he 
wrote in Irish. 



338 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 



XCVI. 

The original is in the Panmure Charter Chest. Printed in the 
Charters of Holyrood, Bannatyne Club edition, p. 8, No. 4. 

King David, addressing all his liegemen in the shire of Edinburgh, 
prohibits the seizure of grass, turf, etc., on the land which he had given 
to the canons of Holyrood. 



XCVII. 

From the Book of Deer MS., fol. 4, Spalding Club edition, p. 93. 

The Irish is : " Gartnait mac Cannech acus 6te ingen gillemichel 
doratsat pet mec cobrig ricosecrad eclasi crist acus petir abstoil acus 
do columcille acus do drostan ser dnahulib dolodib cona"nascad d6 
cormac escob dunicallenn inocmad bliadi rigi da. Testibus istis 
nectan escob Abb . . . acus leot ab brecini acus mdledoune mac 
meic bead acus dlgune mac a~rcill acus rviadri mormar ma"rr acus 
matadin brfthem acus gillecrist mac cormaic acus malpetir mac 
domnaill acus domongart ferleginn turbruad acus gillecolaim mac 
muredig acus dubni mac malcolaim." 

Mr. Skene and G. E. C. agree that Gartnait was mormaer of 
Buchan, but they differ as to how he attained that dignity. Mr. 
Skene (Celt. Scot., 3, p. 56) holds that he was the son of Cainneach 
and grandson of MacDobharcon, mormaers of Buchan ; while G. E. C. 
says that Gartnait derived his title " through his wife Ete daughter of 
Gillamathil." 

p. 78. Pet-mac- Cobrig. Mac is a clerical error for ' Mec.' No 
place in the district now bears a like name. This grant purports to 
have been made on the occasion of the dedication of a church to 
St. Peter, which Mr. Skene supposed marked a change in the consti- 
tution of the Abbey of Deer, bringing it in conformity with Rome ; 
but this notitia does not name Deer and the mention of St. Peter 
cannot safely be held to mark any change. 

With the gift to, or, as Dr. Robertson translates it, 'and bound 
to,' Cormac, Bishop of Dunkeld. There is no other record of any 
connection between Dunkeld and Deer. 

The eighth year of King David's reign was 23 April, 1131, to 
22 April, 1132. 

These are the witnesses : in the MS., ' Testibus istis.' The writer 
had before him a Latin charter, of which he gave an abstract or 
translation in his own language. 

Nectan, Bishop of Aberdeen. The see of Aberdeen was founded 
about 1125 (Preface to Reg. Epis. Aber., p. 19; 2 Concil., 154). 
Nectan was the first Bishop (charter cxvi., p. 89). 



NOTES XCVI.-XCVIII. 339 

Leot, Abbot of Brechin. Leod de Brechin, or Leod Abbot, is a 
witness to several charters. Mr. Cosmo Innes says that by the time 
of David I. the Abbey of Brechin had been secularized, and the Abbot 
was a layman, taking his rank among the lay lords. 

Maledoun son of Mac Bead (Mac Meic Bead). He was prob- 
ably the same as * Maldouenus mac ocbeth,' witness to the great 
charter to Dunfermline, LXXIV., p. 63, and as Meldoinneth son of 
Machedath, * judex bonus et discretus,' LXXX., p. 67. 

Algune mac Arcill, the same as Alwyn mac Arkil, see note, p. 337. 

Ruadri, mormaer of Marr. Mr. Skene thinks that Ruadri is the 
same as * Rothri Comes ' of the Foundation Charter of Scon. 

Morgrund is the earliest Earl of Mar on record. 

Matadin the Brehon : " Matadin brithem." This, so far as I know, 
is the only mention of a Brehon in Scotland. It is a Welsh word. 
Robertson, Early Kings, I., p. 26, note, and p. 237. 

Domongart Ferliginn. Skene (2 Celt. Scot., p. 446) says: 
" Ferleighinn lector, or man of learning, in the monasteries. . . . We 
find him at lona in 1164, when the Ferleighinn Dubside appears 
among the prominent functionaries of the monastery. In the follow- 
ing century the name of Ferleiginn is still preserved in connection 
with the church of St. Andrews and its schools." (Reg. Prior. S. 
And., pp. 317, 318; Dr. Joseph Robertson, Scholastic Offices in the 
Scottish Church, pp. 26, 27.) 

Turbruad : is supposed to be Turriff. 



XCVIII. 

In the Register of the Priory of Holy Trinity, London. 

King David grants, for the weal of his own soul and for the souls of 
his sister, Matilda the Queen, and of his wife, Matilda the Queen, and 
of all his ancestors, the church of Toteham to the canons of the 
church of the Holy Trinity in London. 

p. 78. Gilbert, Bishop of London. Gilbert Universalis, a canon of 
Lyons, was consecrated Bishop of London on 22 January, 1128. He 
died in 1134. 

Toteham, Tottenham, see note, p. 306, 

The Priory of the Holy Trinity in London was founded by Queen 
Maud, wife of Henry I. and sister of David I. 

Waltero a 'Espec, Lord of Werk, was a great English baron. 
He founded Kirkham Priory, in Yorkshire, in 1122, while he endowed, 
with the village and church of Carham, the church of Newton in 
Glendale, the church of Ilderton, etc. He also founded and endowed 
Rievalle, in Yorkshire, in 1132, and Warden, in Bedfordshire, in 1136. 
He took a leading part in opposing King David in 1138. 

Ailred, Historia de Bello Standardi, Twysden, 337: "Affuit et 
Walterus Espec vir senex et plenus dierum, acer ingenio, in consiliis 



340 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

prudens, in pace modestus, in bello providus, amicitiam sociis, fidem 
semper regibus servans. Erat ei statura ingens, membra omnia 
tantae magnitudinis, ut nee modum excederent et tantae proceritati 
congruerent. Capilli nigri, barba prolixa, frons patens et libera, oculi 
grandes et perspicaces, fades amplissima, tractitia tamen, vox tubae 
similis ; facundiam quae ei facilis erat, quadam soni majestate com- 
ponens. Erat praeterea nobilis carne, sed Christiana pietate nobilior. 

Nempe cum liberis careret haeredibus, licet ei nepotes strenui non 
deessent, de optimis tamen quibusque possessionibus suis Christum 
fecit haeredem. Nam in loco amoenissimo Kircham nomine monas- 
terium regularium condidit clericorum, multis illud donariis ornans et 
ditans possessionibus, insuper et palatia sua, thalamos suos, cellaria 
sua in servorum Christi habitacula commutans. 

Cisterciensem quoque ordinem cujus vix famam audierat Anglia, 
favente sibi glorioso rege Henrico in has partes advexit, suscipiens 
fratres de monasterio nobilissimo Clarevallis per manum Deo dilecti 
abbatis Bernardi. Qui venientes in Angliam anno ab incarnatione 
Domini MDXXXII. nacti locum in valle profundissima. super ripam Riae 
fluminis, unde ipsum monasterium Rievallis nomen accepit, multos 
suae religionis fama ad optimorum studiorum aemulationem incita- 
verunt, unde in brevi multiplicati super numerum, plurima in regno 
utroque, Angliae scilicet et Scotiae coenobia condiderunt. 

Nam praedictus Walterus, nee dum tantis satiatus beneficiis, in 
territorio Wardunensi famosissimum per eosdem fratres fundavit 
monasterium. Porro eodem anno adventus eorum in Angliam quidam 
monachi de ecclesia Beatae Mariae Eboracensi Cisterciensem purita- 
tem et paupertatem zelantes, auxilio freti venerabilis Turstini Archi- 
episcopi, relinquentes divitias et delicias monasticae puritati contrarias, 
maxima paupertate, miro favore vi. Kal. Januarii Fontanense Coeno- 
bium creaverunt. 

Haec autem omnia bona quis debitet viro illi strenuissimo 
ascribenda, tantorum fructuum semen deprocul advexit et locum in 
quo seminaretur invenit. Hie igitur cum ab universe exercitu, turn 
propter aetatem turn propter sapientiam patris more coleretur, 
ascendens machinam quam circa regium signum fabricaverant, super- 
eminens universe populo ab humero et sursum, hac oratione dejectos 
quadam formidine erexit animos, promptos acrius inflammavit." 

Ailred records a spirited speech by Walter Espec, ending : " Sed 
quid moror ? Certe aut vincendum nobis est, aut moriendum. Quis 
enim victoriae Scottorum se velit esse superstitem, ut videat uxorem 
suam Scottorum subjacere libidini, parvulos suos lanceis perforari." 
At the end of the battle, when the English were victorious, " Sane 
Anglorum duces omnes sani incolumesque reversi et circa Walterum 
Espec, quern ducis et patris loco venerabantur conglobati, immensas 
gratias Deo omnipotenti pro insperata victoria retulerunt." 

Walter Espec took the religious habit in the Abbey of Rievalle 
two years before his death, which happened in 1153. 



NOTES XCVIII.-CI. 341 



XCIX. 

The original charter is in the Treasury at Durham. The seal 
is missing. Raine, N. Durham, App., p. 5, No. XVIIL 

King David addressing all his Bishops, Earls, etc., announces that 
he has granted to the monks of St. Cuthbert the church of St. Mary at 
Berwick in exchange for the church of Melrose. 

Melrose was an ancient possession of the monks of St. Cuthbert, 
and when the King gave it to the Cistercians he compensated Durham 
by giving the church of St. Mary at Berwick. There were two 
churches in Berwick : that of St. Mary, granted to Durham, and 
that of St. Laurence, which was endowed (ante, p. 148) and was 
granted to the Abbey of Kelso (CXLIV., p. 157). 

p. 79. Testibus : most of the witnesses have been already noticed. 
Estmundus clericus : compare ' Estmundus elemosinarius/ ante, p. 108. 
Gualera, the chaplain, ante, p. 75. Robert Grimbal: compare Grim- 
bauld, p. 51, and Grimbald, p. 52. 



C.-CI. 

The originals are in the Treasury at Durham. They were printed 
by Anderson, Independence of Scotland, p. 54. No. c. was printed in 
Douglas' Baronage, p. 127. Both were printed by Raine, N. Durham, 
App., pp. 3, 4, Nos. xil., xiil. There are facsimiles in the National 
MSS. of Scotland. Genealogist, Vol. xv., p. 133. 

I have given too early a date. Earl Duncan, a witness, did not 
succeed to the earldom before 1 1 36. 



No. C. 

David, King of Scots, and Henry his son, addressing all the sheriffs 
and all the barons, French and English, announces that he has given 
to this fellow, Hernulf his soldier, Swinton in feu to him and to his 
heirs, with all the men and their property, to hold as freely and 
honourably as any of the King's barons hold, and by the same rights as 
Liulfus the son of Edulf and Udard his son held, of St. Cuthbert and 
of the King, paying forty shillings to the monks of Durham without 
any other services. 

No. CI. 

David, King of Scots, addressing all his earls, barons, sheriffs, 
officers, and all his lieges, cleric and lay, announces that he has 
granted to that fellow Arnulf, his soldier, the whole land of Swinton 



342 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

with the cattle and the men, etc., in feu and heritage to himself 
and his heirs as freely and honourably as Udard the sheriff held it, 
by the same service to the monks of Durham as Udard performed. 

Of the nine witnesses to No. c. four are witnesses to ci. The first 
was granted at Haddington, the second at Traquair. 

I am not sure that these charters are genuine. I suspect that they 
were forged by the monks to support the claims of the church on the 
land of Swinton. Swinton was granted to Durham by King Edgar by 
charter (xx., p. 17) in terms which imply that the monks were not to be 
merely the overlords : they were to possess, and twenty-four oxen were 
given to them to cultivate the land ; but it is plain that in the reign of 
Alexander I. the right of the monks was disputed (charters XXVI., 
xxvii., xxix., xxx., ante, pp. 21, 22, 23). King David confirmed the 
rights of Durham in Swinton, and Earl Henry specially confirmed King 
Edgar's charter (CLXXVIL, p. 138), so that it seems strange that by 
these charters King David should grant Swinton in feu to Hernulf. It 
may be that Edulf, Liulf, Udard, and Hernulf all held Swinton under the 
Priory of Durham, and that these two charters, C. and ci., are con- 
firmations of grants by the church, though I doubt whether they can 
be so read. If Hernulf held, adversely to the monks, as the heir of 
Udard, it would have been to the advantage of the priory to have 
charters from the King, nominally in Hernulf's favour, which contained 
a distinct obligation on him to hold under the church. The monks 
must have considered these charters as confirming their right, else why 
were they kept at Durham ? indeed, how came they to have them ? 
If genuine the charters should have been in possession of the grantee. 
It strikes me as suspicious that there are two charters with certain 
differences, as if the monks had made two experiments in forgery. 
Having expressed this doubt, I must treat these charters as genuine. 
They are granted to Hernulf and Arnulf, who were certainly the same 
man. He is somewhat contemptuously spoken of'huic meo militi" 
and " isti meo militi." By 'miles,' I think, is meant a soldier, not one 
on whom the honour of knighthood had been conferred he was 
probably one of the King's Drengs. 

Sir George Sitwell drew attention to the expression " sibi et heredi 
suo " as meaning a lease for two lives ; but that is not the meaning in 
Scottish law : a grant to a man and his heir is not limited to the first 
heir, but extends to heirs for ever ; and in the charter CI. the grant is 
to Arnulf " in feudo et in hereditate sibi et heredibus." 

There has been much discussion as to whether Hernulf was a son of 
Udard and grandson of Liulf; it is not certain that he was related to 
them. Genealogists have taken for granted that Hernulf was the 



NOTES CI.-CII. 343 

ancestor of the family of Swinton of that ilk, but there is not sufficient 
evidence for that assertion. The descent of Sir Alan de Swinton 
(who lived in the end of the twelfth century) from Hernulf has not 
been proved ; it was not until the fifteenth century that Sir John de 
Swinton, the ancestor of the family, acquired the barony, half of it 
by purchase from the daughter and heiress of Henry de Swinton and 
half by charter from the Priory of Coldingham. It is probable that 
Sir John was one of the old family ; but he possessed by purchase, 
not by inheritance. 

p. 80. Liulfus films Edulfi et Udardus filius suus, and in the CI. 
charter * Udardus vicecomes/ I am unable to concur in identifying 
Liulf son of Edulf with Liulf of Bebbanburgh, and I think that it is 
not proved that ' Udardus vicecomes ' was sheriff of Northum- 
berland. 

Consule. Consul is not uncommonly used for comes. Maduc is 
supposed to have been Earl of Athole. 

Radulf Nuuel. He was not Radulf Novellus (Twysden, 1713), 
a priest in the church of St. Peters at York, who was consecrated 
Bishop of the Orkneys by Thomas, Archbishop of York, and who took 
part in the Battle of the Standard. " Stans, in eminentiori loco, cum 
populo preliandi necessitatem in remissionem peccatorum indixisset, 
tundentes pectora, erectis manibus divinum auxilium precabantur. 
Factaque super eos absolutione, episcopus benedictionem solempni 
voce adjecit, cunctis altera voce respondentibus, Amen, Amen" 
(Ailred, Twysden, 345). John Brompton (Twjysden, 1026) gives a long 
speech which he then made to the soldiers. Radulf, Bishop of 
Orkney, was a witness to the declarations by King David and by the 
Archbishop of York regarding the consecration of the Bishop of St. 
Andrews (ante, p. 64). 

Morsel Marmiun. Marmion was a well-known English family. I 
do not find any of the name of Marsel mentioned in records. 



CII. 

This is taken from Haddan and Stubbs, 2 Concil., p. 26, and the 
reference there is to Reg. Alb. Ebor., P. I., fol. 523. It is printed 
in vi., Dugdale, Monast., p. 118, No. 50. 

It is a letter from Pope Innocent II. to John, Bishop of Glasgow, 
reminding him that he had been consecrated by Pope Paschal (saving 
the rights of the Archbishop of York), and that Pope Calixtus and 
Pope Honorius had ordered him (Bishop John) to render obedience 
and reverence to Thurstin, Archbishop of York, as to his Metropolitan; 
but though the Bishop had promised to do so, he had not fulfilled 
his promise. Now the Pope orders him without further delay or 
pretence to obey the Archbishop. Written at Auxerre, 29 November, 



344 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

1131. Haddan and Stubbs (2 Concil., p. 26) say, "A letter to the 
same effect was sent the same day to the Scottish Bishops in general." 
Honorius II. died 13 February, 1130, on 14 February, 1130, Cardinal 
Gregory was declared Pope as Innocent II., and a son of Pierleone 
as Anaclete II. Innocent II. secretly took ship and escaped to 
France, where his protector was Bernard, Abbot of Clairvaux. He 
returned to Rome in 1133, but again fled from it in August of 
that year. Pope Anaclete died 25 Jany., 1138, and Pope Innocent II. 
was then recognised as Pope at Rome. 



CHI. 

From the Registrum de Dunfermelyn, fol. 7b, Bannatyne Club 
edition, p. 15, No. 27. 

The King received annually from the tenants or vassals of 
Crown lands in Fife, Fothrif, and Clackmannan, flour, cheese, money 
in lieu of food, barley for brewing, pigs, and cows. This mandate 
orders the King's stewards to give to the monks of Dunfermline the 
tithe of this ' can ' when the produce was received ; their share was to 
be set apart before the remaining nine-tenths were sent to the King. 
Possibly the holders of Crown lands in Fife and Fothrif had to 
send 'can' only when the King was at Dunfermline. One reason 
why the Kings of Scotland frequently moved from place to place 
and had no fixed capital was that a considerable part of the royal 
revenue consisted of supplies due in different parts of the country. 
The tenants were not bound to send their quota beyond their district, 
or at least not to a great distance, and here the King seems to antici- 
pate that the 'can' from Fife, Fothrif, and Clackmannan shall be 
delivered to his stewards, to be sent by them to Dunfermline when 
he is in residence there. 

In the Great Charter to Dunfermline (No. LXXIV., p. 62) the grant 
is : "Omnem decimam totius mei can quod afferetur ad Dunfermelin et 
omnem decimam praebendae quae afferetur ibidem de Fif et de 
Fotherif," and in the later charter (No. ccix., p. 169) : " Omnem 
decimam totius mei can et brasei de Fif et Fothrif exceptis rectitudin- 
ibus quae Abbaciae Dunkeldensi pertinent." 

p. 8 1. Fife and Fothrif : these two territories comprised the present 
shires of Fife and Kinross. The respective boundaries survived in the 
deaneries of Fife and Fothrif, the latter was the south-western 
portion. (Reg. Prior. S. And., pp. 32, 33 ; Reeves, Culdees, p. 129.) 

p. 82. Philippus camerarius. I think that this is a mistake of the monk 
who transcribed the charter in the reign of William the Lion when 
Philip was chamberlain ; he wrote that name instead of ' Herbert.' 



NOTES CII.-CV. 345 



CIV. 

Registrum Episcop. Glasguensis, Maitland Club edition, p. 10, 
No. 6. 

King David grants the church of Govan to the church of St. Kenti- 
gern of Glasgow. Date, after 1128, when Gaufrid and Herbert 
became abbots of Dunfermline and of Roxburgh, and before 1136, 
when Herbert ceased to be chancellor. It should have preceded 
No. CHI., because in this, Gillemichel seems to have not yet succeeded 
to the earldom of Fife. 

p. 82, Govan lay on the south of the Clyde. From this charter and 
from cix, p. 85, it seems that Govan and Partick were separate 
manors. Govan at this time was in the King's hands, the church 
was dedicated to St. Constantine, who it is said founded a monas- 
tery there, where he was buried after suffering martyrdom in 
Kintyre. Govan was made a prebend of the Cathedral by Herbert, 
Bishop of Glasgow, by a charter which Mr. Cosmo Innes dated 
between 1147 and 1153. I have not printed it in the text because it 
seemed to me that it was granted after the death of King David, I 
give it now. 

" Herbertus Dei gratia Glasguensis Episcopus Universis, etc., 
Salutem. 

" Sciatis me dedisse et concessisse et episcopali auctoritate confir- 
masse, Helpo clerico meo in liberam et quietam elemosinam unam prae- 
bendam in ecclesia Sancti Kentigerni de Glesgu, ecclesiam de Guvan 
cum omnibus ecclesiasticis rectitudinibus eidem ecclesiae pertinentibus 
et insulas inter Guvan et Perthec et illam partem de Perthec quam David 
Rex Scotiae dedit in dotem ecclesiae de Glasgu in ejusdem dedicatione 
et aliam partem de Perthec quam idem Rex David postea dedit prae- 
dictae ecclesiae de Glesgu et Johanni episcopo ejusque successoribus 
in liberam et perpetuam elemosinam, pro salute animae meae et 
animarum antecessorum meorum, quam partem prius ad praebendam 
non pertinentem pro augmento honoris et dignitatis ecclesiae meae 
praedictae praebendae augeo, dono et perpetualiter confirmo cum 
insulis adjacentibus et piscinis. Ita libere et quiete, etc., sicut ante- 
cessor suus tenuit liberius, etc., et cartae successorum episcoporum 
penitus testantur et confirmant (Reg. Epis. Glasg., p. 11, No. 7). 

Testibus . . . Alwinus Rennere. He and his wife, Eda, granted 
the church of Newton to the Abbey of Dunfermline (No. ccxxvin., 
p. 184). He was a witness to a charter of Robert, Bishop of St. 
Andrews (No. ccxxx., p. 185). There was a Gillexus Rennerius in 
the reign of William the Lion (Reg. de Dunf., p. 36). 



CV. 

From the Registr. de Dunfermelyn, fol. 6 b, Bannatyne Club edition, 
p. 12, No. 15. 

This is an order by the King, addressed to the Earl and all the 



346 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

liegemen of Fife, that the men of Nithbren, of the Abbey of Dun- 
fermline, shall not be subject to the jurisdiction of any other Court 
than that of the Church of the Holy Trinity and the Abbot of 
Dunfermline, the King's judge of that province shall be present, in 
order that justice be done. 

p. 83. Nithbren is Newburn, a parish in south-east Fifeshire. The 
vill was granted to Dunfermline by David I., with the consent of 
Earl Henry, his son, on the day when the Church of the Holy Trinity 
of Dunfermline was dedicated, (ccix, p. 167 ; CCXXIV., p. 181.) 

In curia S. Trinitatis. ' Ecclesiae ' has been omitted by the writer 
of the register. 

Judex meus. Probably the Earl of Fife. Earl Constantine was 
called "Judex discretissimus." 
Apud Scona. Clerical error for ' Sconam.' 



CVI. 

Taken from Raine's N. Durham, App., p. 6, No. xxiv., in the Small 
Chartulary of Durham. The original is lost. 

King David grants to the church of St. Mary at Coldingham a 
fishing in the Tweed at Fishwick. 

I have ascribed it to circa 1135, but perhaps it is of later date than 
charter ccxxxvi., p. 181, for when this was granted, Swain's posses- 
sion of Fishwick was at an end. 

p. 83. St. Mary of Coldingham. It is to be noticed that this is not 
a grant to the Priory of Durham, but to the church of Coldingham. 
The Priory of Coldingham had not yet, I think, been established. 

quam . . . fecit et a saxis liberavit means, that he had cleared 
away rocks which interfered with the drawing of the nets. 

[presbyter]. Dr. Raine says that the word ' pecunia ' in the 
chartulary has been erased and ' piscat ' inserted. He suggested 
' piscator.' I think ' presbyter ' is the better reading (see ccxxxvi., 
p. 189). Swain, the presbyter of Fishwick, held the lands of Fishwick, 
and was a man of note and importance in his day. 

Fishwick was granted to the monks of St. Cuthbert by King Edgar 
(charter xxn., p. 18), confirmed by King David (charter LXV., p. 55), 
and afterwards by Earl Henry (ccxxxvi., p. 189), and by King 
William the Lion (Raine, N. Durh., Appendix, No. XLVI.). 



CVII. 

In the Book of Deer. 

This is the last of the Irish writings in the ' Book. 3 Bradshaw 
was of opinion that it was written shortly after the death of David I. 
Mr. Whitley Stokes said : " Its handwriting is certainly more modern 
than that of the other Gaelic documents." From the words 'his 



NOTES CV.-CVII. 347 

testibus ' it seems probable that it is a translation of a Latin charter. 
It would not be safe to conclude that in the middle of the twelfth 
century there was a Mormaer of Buchan and a Toisech of a Clan 
Morguinn, for these may be the Irish words which the writer thought 
were the nearest in meaning to the titles in Latin. What does this 
entry mean? Is it a confirmation of the lands and privileges of the 
churches of St. Drostan, or is it a grant by Colbain and Eva and 
Donnachac of new privileges ? The transcriber or translator omitted 
to give the names of the lands and of the church to which the lands 
were granted. 

p. 84. Colbain Mormaer of Buchan (Colbain mormaer buchan). 
Colbain is not mentioned in any other record. G. E. C., in the Com- 
plete Peerage, under Buchan: " A.D. H35(?) Eva, daughter and 
heir of Gartnach, married Colban, who in her right became Earl of 
Buchan." Colbain is not styled Earl ; and when in 1170-1179 Roger, 
Earl of Buchan, confirmed to the keledei of Monymusk (Reg. Prior. 
S. And., p. 370) the grant of Gartnach "avus meus," he does not 
mention his father Colbain. (Skene, Celt. Scot., 3, p. 288 ; Reeves, 
Culdees, p. 135 ; Robertson, Coll. Aberdeen and Banff, 172.) Mr. 
Skene gives the pedigree : 

Macdobharcon 

Cainnech Gillemichel 

1 I 

Gartnait = Ete 

Eva = Colbain 

Roger, Earl of Buchan. 

Donnachad son of Siting, chief of Clan Morguinn (toisech Clenni 
Morguiun). The man and the clan are unknown. 

For a share of four davochs, etc. The original is : " Apstal ona- 
hulib dolaidib archuit cetri dabach do ni thissed arardmandaidib 
Alban cucotchenn acus arardchellaib," which is supposed to mean that 
the payments or services due by this church were restricted to the 
amount due by the owner of four davochs, although the church had a 
larger extent of land. Colbain, and Eva, and Donnachac doubtless 
dealt only with dues exigible by themselves. They do not profess to 
act for the King. The sentence is obscure ; I doubt whether the 
writer knew the meaning of the original which he was translating. 

Testibus. Several of the witnesses appear in other entries in the 
Book of Deer. Brocein (Brocin) and Cormac Abbot of Turbruaid 
appear in ccxxn., ante, p. 181. I do not know that there is any 
record of a monastery at Turriff, except in this ' Book.' Domongart 
Ferliginn of Turbruad is a witness (xcvu., ante, p. 78). In 1272 
Alexander Cumyn, Earl of Buchan, founded a i domus elemosinarum' 
at Turriff, which was dedicated to God and to St. Congan. In his 
charter mention is made of a " via monachorum," which may refer to 
an old religious house. (Reg. Epis. Aber , I., pp. 30, 31.) 



348 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

Morgann son of Donchad, etc., is a clerical error for Donnchad. 
Possibly Donnchad was the chief of Clan Morguinn, one of the 
granters. Malaechin. I know of no other record in which the name 
appears. The two sons of Matne. Gillendrias Mac Matni is a 
witness to ccxxni., p. 181. The nobles of Buchan. The original is 
" acus Mathe buchan." Elan is Ellon, the principal messuage (caput) 
of the earldom of Buchan. 



CVIII. 

Registrum de Dunfermelyn, fol. 6b; Bannatyne Club edition, p. 10, 
No. 10. 

Grant by King David to the church of Dunfermline of the fishing 
called Aldestelle, and all that belonged to it, and of a toft in Berwick, 
free from all services. The grant of the ' tractus de Aldestelle ' was 
confirmed by King David (ccix., pp. 167-169), King Malcolm (Reg. 
Dunferm., p. 20), King William (ib. p. 29), King Alexander II. (ib. p. 41), 
King Alexander III. (ib. p. 47), Pope Alexander III. (ib. p. 152), King 
James II. (ib. p. 322). 

In the reign of King James III., A.D. 1467, there was an Inquisitio 
regarding the fishing of the Aldstell belonging to Dunfermline and 
the fishing of the Calate belonging to the King. (Reg. Dunf., p. 358.) 
King David gave the abbey a mansura in Berwick, probably the same 
as this toft. 

p. 85. Testibus : Robert Frebern does not attest any other charter 
by King David, but he appears in the reigns of King Malcolm IV. and 
King William. (Lib. de Calchou, p. 178 ; Reg. de Dunfermelyn, pp. 
87, 92, 101.) He had a son Roger (Lib. de Calchou, p. 222). In the 
thirteenth century there were Freberns of Lamberton in Berwickshire 
(Raine, N. Durham, App.. p. 67, Nos. CCCLi. and CCCLii. See Reg. 
Dunf., p. 249.) 

Hidda. I cannot identify him. William de Lamberton was a 
witness to CLXXVII., p. 140, and to CLXXXIIL, p. 147. Probably he 
belonged to the family of Lamberton of that ilk in Berwickshire. 
(Raine, N. Durham, App., p. 66, No. CCCXLIX.) 



CIX. 

In the Registrum Epis. Glasguensis, Maitland Club edition, p. 9, 
No. 3. 

A charter by King David to the church of Glasgow of a land in 
Partick. It is stated in the charter by Bishop Herbert (ante, p. 345) 
that King David granted part of Partick on the day of the dedi- 
cation of the church of Glasgow ; and as it is probable that this 



NOTES CVII.-CIX. 



349 



charter is that referred to, it has commonly been dated n July, 
1136, the day on which the church was dedicated. Another part 
of Partick was given by the King to the church, and to John the 
Bishop, by a charter which has not been preserved. 

p. 85. Partick lies to the west of Glasgow, from which it was 
separated by the River Kelvin. Ailsi and Tocca formerly held it of 
the King, and afterwards Ascelinus the Archdeacon, and he, by this 
charter, was directed to pay annually to the church of Glasgow the 
mark of silver which he had hitherto paid to the King, and, on his 
death, the church was to hold this part of Partick free from any duty 
or service. 

Ascelinus Archidiaconus : see note to charter LXV. 

Testibus. It seems from this that the dedication ceremony 
was attended by the King, the Abbot of Roxburgh, William the 
Chancellor, William son of Duncan, the King's nephew, and by the 
Earls Malis and Duncan, by Fergus of Galloway, and by many others. 
It is strange that the dignitaries of the church, and some of the clergy 
of the diocese do not attest the grant. 

William the Chancellor. Herbert, who had been chancellor since 
the accession of David, died, and William Cumyn was appointed 
Chancellor. It has been supposed by some that he was a son of 
Robert de Comines, Earl of Northumbria, and by others that he was 
a son of Richard Comyn, who in 1105 married Hextilda, grand- 
daughter of King Donald, through whom John Comyn claimed the 
throne of Scotland in 1291 ; but from the way in which he is spoken 
of by Simeon of Durham, I think he was a priest of unknown or of 
mean birth. He was for a time chaplain to Galfrid, who was Bishop 
of Durham from 1133 till 1140. William the Chancellor was taken 
prisoner at the Battle of the Standard on 22 August, 1138. Alberic, 
the Papal Legate, ordered him to be set at liberty in September of the 
same year, when he returned to Scotland. I shall give the particulars 
of his daring attempt to become Bishop of Durham in a note to 
charter cxxxill. 

pp. 85, 86. Testibus . . . Aad cum barba, to distinguish him from other 
beardless Adams. Malduuenus mac murdac occurs here only. Malo- 
deni Scona : at p. 77 he is called Vicecomes de Scona. Radulf and 
Duunenald, sons of Dunegal ; see note to charter No. Liv. Uchtred 
son of Fergus, probably Uchtred of Galloway. Gilbert Fimboga : 
Arthur Fimboga is a witness, p. 186. Dufoter de Calatria. Calatria 
(now Callander, in Stirlingshire) was the district between the Avon 
and the Carron, comprehending the parishes of Falkirk, Muiravonside, 
and Polmont, and part of Slamannan. It was of old a Thanage. 
Skene identifies Dufoter de Calatria with Dufoc vicecomes de Strivelyn 
Malcolm, Thane of Kalentyr, was a witness to Cambuskenneth, No. 
79, and about 1190 there was a Dominus Alwynus of Kalentyr. In 
the reign of David II. Patrick Calentyre was forfeited. 



350 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 



CX. 

Registrum de Dunfermelyn, fol. 8 a ; Bannatyne Club edition, p. 18, 
No. 34; Illust. Aberd. and Banff, vol. 2, p. 129. 

King David, addressing the bishops, abbots, earls, etc., and all his 
liegemen in Murray and in Scotland, announces that he has granted 
twenty shillings a year from the rent of the burgh and fishings of Elgin 
for the clothing of the monks of Urchard, so long as they dwell together 
according to their religious vows. 

p. 86. Urquhart is near Elgin. It is not improbable that this 
endowment of the priory was made soon after the defeat of the Earl 
of Murray at Stracathrow in 1130. In that year David I. went to 
England (as several entries in the Pipe Rolls of Cumberland show). 
He was selected as an arbiter of rank and experience to decide a 
question which had arisen between the King of England and an 
English baron Geoffrey de Clinton (Ordericus Vitalis, Prevost's edn., 
Vol. in., p. 404 and note). In King David's absence, Angus, Earl of 
Murray, attempted to gain the kingdom. It is uncertain whether he 
himself claimed the Crown as the grandson of Lulach (who was King 
for six months after the death of Macbeth) or whether the claimant 
was Melcolf, a bastard son of Alexander I. 

The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, 2, p. 227, A.D. 1130, " In this year 
Anagus was slain by the Scots army and there was a great slaughter 
made with him. Then was God's right avenged on him, because he 
was all forsworn." The Chronicle of Melros, p. 69: "Anno 1130 
Anagus comes Murauensis a Scottis interfectus est cum gente sua 
a Scottis." The battle is mentioned in the Annals of Inisfallen 
(Chron. P. and S., p. 170) and in the Annals of Ulster (Chron. 
P. and S., 371): "Battle between the men of Alban and the men 
of Moray in which fell four thousand of the men of Moray with their 
King, Oengus son of the daughter of Lulag. A thousand also of 
the men of Alban in heat of battle." Ordericus Vitalis says that 
Aragois, Earl of Moray, with Melcolf, a bastard son of Alexander I., 
who desired to deprive King David of the Crown, entered Scotia with 
an army of five thousand men in King David's absence in England 
and were defeated at Stracathrow by Edward 'princeps militiae.' 
Aragois Consul was slain " totumque regionis spatiosae ducatum Deo 
auxiliante, nactus est. Sic David aucta potestate super antecessores 
suos exaltatus est." Fordun, v., 33 : " David anno septimo . . . 
comes Moraviensis Angusius apud Stracathrow cum gente sua 
peremptus est." 

It is possible that there was an old Scottish monastery at 
Urquhart to which David I. brought Benedictines from Dunfermline, 
to which abbey the Priory of Urquhart became attached (Haddan and 
Stubbs, 2 Concil., p. 209, and No. CCLV., ante, p. 204). 

Elgin. I do not know whether the castle and burgh of Elgin 
were in the King's hands before the defeat of the Earl of Murray 
in 1130; certainly by the time this charter was granted Elgin was 
a King's burgh, and the rent due to the Crown was collected by the 



NOTES CX.-CXII. 351 

' praepositus,' who is here directed to pay twenty shillings a year from 
the rent and the fishings as the money came in. 

Banef is Banff in Moray. The King possibly visited Banff on 
his return from England, after the battle of Stracathrow. 

CXI. 

The original is in the Treasury at Durham. Printed by Dr. Raine, 
N. Durham, App., p. 5, No. XXII. The words in italics were supplied 
from the Chartulary. 

King David grants to the church of St. Cuthbert at Coldingham the 
toft in Ednam (which Gilbert the priest of Stitchel held of the King) 
to be held of the King free of all service in feu and in alms for 
a yearly payment of two shillings. 

p. 87. Ednam. The church and a ploughgate of land had been 
granted to the monks of St. Cuthbert by Thor Longus. Stitchel is a 
parish in Berwickshire, near Ednam. 



CXII. 

Register of the Priory of Daventry ; British Museum, Cott. MSS. 
Claud. D. XIL, No. 3. 

I understand this to be a renunciation by the Earl of the feudal dues 
and services hitherto rendered by the Priory of Daventry to the Earl 
of Northampton and a grant of all their lands to be held in alms. 
Further, William, the canon, was to hold his prebend as freely as 
any prebend was held. 

King Henry I. died on I December, 1135. David, King of Scotland, 
promptly raised an army and marched into England to support the 
claim to the throne of his niece, the Empress Matilda. Carlisle, Wark, 
Norham, Alnwick, and Newcastle surrendered to him. ^Stephen 
hastened to the north, and, by liberal concessions, David was induced 
to recognise Stephen and to make peace. His son Henry received the 
Earldom of Northampton and the Honour of Huntingdon with Don- 
caster and Carlisle. 

" Tandem vero in eadem provincia habita collocutione et pace facta 
inter duos reges, Henricus filius David Regis Scotiae homagium 
Stephano Regi apud Eboracum fecit. Deditque Rex illi cum consulatu 
patris sui Huntadun, Carlel et Doncastriam cum omnibus quae ad ea 
pertinent" Richard of Hexham (Twysden, 312). 'Cum consulatu 
patris sui ' implies that Earl Henry got his father's Earldom of 
Northampton and perhaps that is the meaning of ' in augmentum ' in 
the following passage from Simeon of Durham. " A.D. 1 136 occurrit ei, 
(David), Rex Stephanus in capite jejunii Non. Feb. apud Dunelmem, 



352 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

ibi commoratus diebus xv David quoque Rex in Novo Castello se 
recepit. Habita igitur collocutione de pace inter eos, Henricus filius 
regis Scotiae fecit homagium Regi Stephano apud Eboracum in aug- 
mentum Honoris de Huntedun datis ei Dunecastra et Karleol. 
Caeteras munitiones et terras quas occupavit Rex David restituit. 
In Paschali vero festivitate Rex Stephanus eundem Henricum in 
reverentia praeferens ad dexteram suam sedere fecit. Ic circo Williel- 
mus Archiepiscopus Cantiae et quidam proceres cum Ranulfo Comite 
Cestriae in juvenem contumeliosa locuti, a curia Regis se amoverunt " 
Simeon of Durham (Twysden, 258). 

Henry de Knyghton (Twysden, 2385): "Et cito post haec recepit 
ad concordiam David Regem Scotorum, qui nuper dolose ceperat 
Castellum de Caerliell et castrum super Tinam et dedit ei Huntyng- 
donam in Anglia, homagium autem et fidelitatem a filio ipsius David 
recepit, non ab ipso David, quia David prius juraverat fidelitatem 
Imperatrici." 

John Bromton's Chronicle (Twysden, 975). On the death of King 
Henry (I.), Simon the son of Simon de Sancto Licio " comitatum 
Huntyndoniae intravit pacifice et possedit " ; that possession was 
interrupted by the grant to Earl Henry in 1136, but about two 
years later Earl Henry with his father were in arms against King 
Stephen, and at the Peace of Durham, in 1 139, Henry got Northumber- 
land, and the Earldom of Northampton and the Honour of Hunting- 
don were restored to Simon de St. Liz, who died in 1153. In 1157, 
Malcolm IV. resigned the Earldom of Northumberland to the King 
of England, who gave him the Earldom of Northampton, which was 
held by his brother David until his death in 1199. 



CXIII. 

From the Registr. Prior. S. Neoti, No. 97 ; British Museum, Cott. 
MSS. Faustina, A. IV. 

Henry the Earl, the son of the King of Scotland, addressing all his 
liegemen, announces that he has granted to the church of St. Neots, 
and to the monks in alms who serve God there, twenty shillings a year 
from his mill of Huntingdon for their sustentation, and further that he 
has confirmed their right to the church of Eynesbury which his mother 
had granted to the monks. " The village of Enesbury and the con- 
tiguous town of St. Neot's are situated upon the eastern bank of the 
Ouse in the county of Huntingdon" (Gorhams' Eynesbury, p. i). 

St. Neot was a Cornish saint who died about A.D. 877 and was 
buried in Cornwall ; about a century later his remains were translated 
to Huntingdonshire by Earl Alric and his countess, Ethelfleda, who 



NOTES CXII.-CXIV. 353 

founded a priory at Eynesbury, subordinate to the recently estab- 
lished monastery at Ely. In honour of the saint the name 
of the place was changed to St. Neots. At the beginning of the 
eleventh century the priory was burned by the Danes. It was 
refounded about 1078 by Richard Fitz Gilbert de Clare, and filled 
with monks from the French abbey of Bee. The manor of Eynesbury 
belonged to the Countess Judith, who was succeeded by her daughter 
Matilda, wife successively of Simon de St. Liz and of David I. 
Countess Matilda and her first husband were among the early bene- 
factors of the priory. Another benefactor was Hugh de Beauchamp, 
Lord of Eaton Socon, of the same family as Beatrix de Bello Campo, 
the wife of Hugo de Moreville. 

It appears from the abstract of deeds in the chartulary of St. Neots 
(Gorham, p. 290) that Henry, the son of the King of Scotland, granted 
four charters to St. Neots : De Molendin' in Hunt., c. 22 ; De Molend' 
in Paxtona c. 23 ; De Herdwik et Caldecote, c. 24 ; De donationabus 
antecessorum, c. 25 ; of these I have had only one copied, that now 
printed as No. CXIII. 

CXIV. 

From the Register of the Priory of St. Andrews at Northampton, 
Cott. MSS. Vespas. E. XVIL, No. 33. 

Earl Henry, addressing Robert Foliot, his Steward, and all his 
liegemen of Huntingdon, orders an annual payment of forty shillings 
to be made to the monks of St. Andrews at Northampton from his 
rent of Huntingdon, in lieu of the alms which these monks had from 
Bedford by the gift of the Earl's mother, which the Earl had granted 
to Hugo de Bror, to be paid until the Earl could give the monks some- 
thing of the same value in a convenient place. 

The Countess Judith held seven manors in Bedfordshire ; her son- 
in-law, Earl Simon, gave 405. from the rents of the town to the monks 
of Northampton. King William Rufus conferred the barony of Bed- 
ford on Pain de Bello Campo, but a portion of it was recognised to be 
a part of the Honour of Huntingdon, which in 1136 was given to Earl 
Henry. In 1138, when King David and his son again opposed 
King Stephen, Bedford was taken from the Scots, and it was 
given to Hugo de Bello Monte, with the title of Earl of Bedford. 
Earl Hugh held it for only a few years, afterwards he lost his lands 
and state, and was known as Hugo Pauper. Earl Henry did not 
regain Bedford in 1 139 when the Honour of Huntingdon was restored 
to him by the treaty of Durham. The Beauchamp family got Bed- 
ford. King Malcolm IV. of Scotland made a claim to it, which was 
denied. 

z 



354 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

p. 88. Hugo de Bror, to whom Earl Henry granted the forty 
shillings from the rents of Bedford, was probably a Northamptonshire 
baron. Earl Henry here pretends that his inability to continue 
the payment to the monks of St. Andrews was due to his own 
voluntary gift to Hugo, instead of to his having been deprived by 
force by King Stephen of all his rights in Bedford. 

Roberto Folio dapifero suo was Robert Foliot, who appears in the 
charters, ante, pp. 92 and 101. 

St. Andrews, Northampton. See note to LXXI. 

Roberto son of Nigel : witness, ante, pp. 42, 58. 

Apud Chingor. This may be Kinghorn, in Fifeshire, but probably 
a place in the English earldom. 



cxv. 

From the Register of the Priory of St. Andrews at Northampton, 
Cott. MSS. Vespas. E. xvn., No. 32. 

Earl Henry confirms to the monks of the church of St. Andrews at 
Northampton all the lands which they held of the Earl and his 
vassals, and he specially charges his steward to support the monks 
in their rights. 

CXVI. 

From the Regis. Episcop. Aberdonensis, Spalding Club edition, 
Vol. i., p. 3. 

A charter by King David, granting and confirming many lands to 
the church and Bishop of Aberdeen. 

Mr. Cosmo Innes, in the Preface to the Registrum, said that this 
charter cannot be sustained as a perfect transcript of the original. He 
regarded it as a memorandum of a grant, " to which the scribe had 
stupidly affixed the conclusion and mode of testing which were in 
fashion in the charters of his own time." The last clause : " Teste 
me ipso apud Forfar anno regni mei decimo tertio tricesimo die 
mensis Junii," is certainly spurious. The confirmation by Malcolm IV. 
(p. 4) is equally doubtful, but the Bull of Pope Adrian IV., A.D. 1157, 
is said by Mr. Innes (Pref., xix) to afford all the materials for testing 
its authenticity, and, submitted to all the tests, stands undeniably 
authentic. 

p. 89. Beato Machorio. St. Machor was an Irish disciple of St. 
Columba, who converted many in the northern parts of the Pictish 
kingdom, and, settling at Aberdeen, founded the church there. The 
tradition was that of old there was a Bishop of Mortlach, David I. 
moved the see to Aberdeen, circa 1125, where Nectan was the first 



NOTES CXIV.-CXVII. 



355 



Bishop. (2 Reg. Aber., pp. 125, 246-7.) In the Book of Deer, ante, 
p. 78, Nectan is a witness in the eighth year of King David's reign. 
He is mentioned in a charter by William the Lion (Reg. of Aber- 
deen, I., p. 12). 

Aqua de North, i.e. of the Don. This cannot mean that the King 
granted half of the fishings in the River Don ; probably he gave 
only a half share of one fishing or net in the river, where it flows past 
Old Aberdeen. 

Sclaty is in Old Machar or Newhills. Goul is in New Machar, 
where the Bishop had a castle in the loch. Murcroft : probably 
Murcar, in Old Machar. The Dean of Aberdeen held as his prebend 
the church of Kirkton and the lands of Murcroft. Kynmondy and 
Malmeulach : estates in New Machar. Schiram de Clat : Clatt is a 
parish in the Garioch, 33 miles from Aberdeen. Schiram de Tulinestyn 
is Tullynessle, in Alford, adjoining Clatt. Schiram de Rane : Rayne, 
a parish in the Garioch. Schiram de Dauyot : now called Daviot, a 
parish in the Garioch adjoining Rayne. 

This charter confirms or grants three estates : the first in and near 
Old Aberdeen, consisting of Sclaty, Goul, Murcroft, Malmeulech, 
Kirkton, and Kinmundy ; the second, comprising Clatt and Tullynessle ; 
and the third, Rayne and Daviot. 

Decimam annonae. Annona is grain ; * in eodem loco,' is 
Aberdeen. 

Decimam meam de redditibus de Aberden. In the Bull of Pope 
Adrian it is expressed : " totam decimam regis de burgo Abbirdon." 

Decimam thanagiorum. In the Bull of Pope Adrian IV.: "Decima 
eorum quae sunt inter duas aquas quae de De et de Spe dicuntur," and 
in a charter by King Malcolm IV. : " (decimam) omnium escaetarum 
me contingentium inter duas aquas. . . ." Mr. Skene has an exhaus- 
tive note on thanages, their number and situation (Fordun, Vol. II., 
p. 416). 

CXVII. 

The original is in the Treasury at Durham. Dr. Raine, N. Durham, 
App., p. 25, No. CXI. ; facsimile, Anderson's Diplom., plate 71. 

This may have been granted any time between 1124 and 1138, when 
Earl Gospatric was killed at the Battle of the Standard. It was con- 
firmed by King David, A.D. 1139 (No. cxxi., ante, p. 93), and by the 
Bishop of St. Andrews, A.D. 1150 (No. ccxili., p. 174). Earl Gos- 
patric, addressing all the sons of the Holy Mother Church, higher and 
lower, ordained and lay, announces that he has granted in alms to 
God and to the monks of St. Cuthbert, the vill of Ederham and its 
church and all its chapels, and the other vill called Nesbite, for the 
souls of King Malcolm arid of his sons, the kings Edgar and Alex- 
ander, and for King David and his son Henry, and for the weal of the 
granter and his wife and sons, and for the souls of all his relations ; 
and, if any one impugn the grant, let God deal with him. May God 



356 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

take both this life and the kingdom of heaven from any one who 
diminishes this grant. 

p. 90. Gospatricus comes frater Dolfini. Gospatric was a son of 
that Gospatric who was for a time Earl of Northumbria in 1067, and 
again from 1069 till 1072. Gospatric, the younger, usually described 
himself as the brother of Dolfin, who was Lord of Cumberland (per- 
haps under the Scottish king) until he was deprived of his lordship by 
King William Rums. While his brothers Dolfin and Waltheof had 
great possessions in England, Gospatric got from his father the earl- 
dom in the south of Scotland which his descendants afterwards called 
the Earldom of Dunbar. Besides his Scottish earldom Gospatric held 
lands in Northumberland. He is supposed to be the ' summus dux 
Lodonei' who was killed at the Battle of the Standard in 1138, and it 
seems certain that he died in that year. From him descended a long 
line of earls, and, if any of the name of Dunbar can trace their 
pedigree to him, they are of the best blood in Scotland. 

Ederham is Edrom, a parish in Berwickshire. The forger of the 
charters XV., xvi., and XVIL, ignorant that the land was the gift of 
Earl Gospatric, included it among the lands granted by King Edgar. 

Nesbit is an estate in the parish of Edrom. 

Testibus : Gospatrico filio ejus was the son of the granter, not the 
son of William. He succeeded to the Earldom. Ulkil filio Meld 5 is 
the same as Ulchil son of Maldred, ante, pp. 64, 65. If there be truth 
in the statement that Earl Gospatric's grandfather was Maldred, 
brother of King Duncan I., this may be the Earl's uncle. Rand de 
Lindesai. He was a witness, ante, pp. 150, 157. Lord Lindsay, in 
the Lives of the Lindsays, I., p. 20, says : " Contemporary with the 
original Walter de Lindsay and his successor William, lived another 
De Lindsay, probably the brother of the former, by name Randolphus 
or Ranulphus, who obtained large estates in Cumberland ... in mar- 
riage with Ethelreda of Allerdale, granddaughter of the illustrious 
refugee Cospatrick, and sister of Gunilda, wife of Uchtred, the Pictish 
Prince of Galloway. Randolph witnesses charters of King David, of 
Henry, Prince of Scotland, and of his uncle, Earl Cospatrick the 
second, and is otherwise known by his gifts to the Priory of St. Bees 
in Cumberland . . . and to the Priory of Carlisle, whose representa- 
tives, the Dean and Chapter, still hold the manor of Lorton in virtue 
of his donation." I am uncertain whether he left issue. 

S. presbitero : probably Swain, the priest of Fishwick. John the 
chaplain. He is a witness to charters, pp. 136, 189. He held a land 
in burgage, in Roxburgh (ante, pp. 193, 194, 195). Gosp' filio Crin 
and Aldan his brother are unknown. Lamberton dapifer. I think he 
is the same as William de Lambertun, pp. 85, 140, 147. 



CXVIII. 

Registrum Prioratus S. Andreae, fol. 79 b ; Bannatyne Club edition, 
p. 1 86. 

King David, addressing the Bishops, Abbots, Earls, Barons, and all 



NOTES CXVII.-CXVIII. 357 

his liegemen, announces that he has granted to God and to St. Andrew 
the Apostle, in alms, the church of Linlithgow, with its chapels and 
lands, both within and without the burgh, for the purpose of lighting 
the church and to clothe the canons there serving God. 

This is a spurious charter. It is witnessed by William the Chan- 
cellor, who ceased to be chancellor in 1140, and the canons were not 
brought to St. Andrews until 1144. Another charter in the same 
register, fol. 90 a, granting Linlithgow to St. Andrews is, I think, 
genuine. 

" David Dei gratia Rex Scotorum,cunctis catholicae ecclesiae fidelibus 
totius regni sui salutem. Sciatis me concessisse et dedisse in per- 
petuum in elemosinam Deo et Sancto Andreae Apostolo, ecclesiam de 
Linlidcu cum capellis et terris et omnibus aliis rectitudinibus prae- 
dictae ecclesiae pertinentibus ad luminaria ecclesiae Sancti Andreae 
invenienda. Et si quid superfuerit, sustentationi ministrorum altaris 
Sancti Andreae tribuatur. Volo itaque et firmiter praecipio quod 
ecclesia Sancti Andreae et eidem ecclesiae servientes et servituri ita 
bene et in pace libere et quiete et honorifice hanc habeant elemosinam 
et teneant in capellis et terris et decimis et in omnibus aliis rebus 
ecclesiae pertinentibus sicut ulla ecclesia in regno meo melius et 
honorificentius sua jura tenet. Testibus Willelmo Cancellario et 
Hugone de Morevilla et Herberto Camerario. Apud Kinros." 

I prefer it, because it omits the words ' canonici ' and 'ad vesti- 
tum canonicorum,' which, I think, were introduced to benefit the 
canons who were appointed some time after the grant of the church of 
Linlithgow to the church of St. Andrews. King David, in the con- 
firmation (CLXIIL, p. 127), speaks of his gift of the church of Linlith- 
gow. In King William's confirmation it is said to have been the gift 
of Robert, Bishop of St. Andrews. A later charter by King Alexander 
II. states that it was the gift of the King and of the Bishop. (Reg. 
Prior. S. And., p. 233.) This grant was confirmed by the Bulls of 
successive Popes (Reg. Prior. S. And., pp. 54, 57, 63, 68, 72, 77, 92, 
99, 103), and by Bishops of St. Andrews (pp. 130, 142, 145, 147, 149, 
155, 159, 167). 

p. 90. Linlithgow was a burgh which grew up round the castle which 
belonged to the Crown. The church of St. Michael was in the castle. 
King David granted a toft in Linlithgow to the Abbey of Stirling 
(ccxxxv., ante, p. 189); a mansura in Linlithgow to the Abbey of 
Dunfermline (ccix., p. 168) ; and he granted to the Abbey of Holy- 
rood the skins of sheep, " de castello et de Linlitcu quae moriuntur in 
meo dominio" (No. CLIII., ante, p. 116). 



358 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 



CXIX. 

Dugdale, Monast., HI., p. 313. It is taken from the Register of St. 
Albans in the British Museum, Cotton. MSS. 

David, King of Scots, to the bishops, abbots, earls, sheriffs, barons, 
and all his liegemen of his land, French and English and Scots and 
Galloway men, announces that he has granted his peace to the church 
of St. Mary and St. Oswin the Martyr at Tynemouth and to the 
monks and to their men and property, and to all those who were in 
the peace of St. Mary and St. Oswin on St. Barnabas day, 1 138. This 
he granted for the souls of his father and mother and of his brother 
Alexander, who had granted his peace to the same church, and for the 
soul of his sister Matilda, the Queen of England, and for his ancestors 
and successors. His son Henry assenting. The peace which was 
arranged in 1136 between King David and King Stephen was of 
short duration. In 1137, King David, in the absence of King 
Stephen in Normandy, demanded the Earldom of Northumbria for 
his son Henry. A truce was arranged until Stephen's return ; then 
in February, 1138, the English King marched across the border into 
Roxburghshire. He retreated, and the Scots took the offensive. 

The King and his son Henry ravaged Northumberland, where 
his army committed horrible barbarities. Simeon of Durham 
(Twysden, 259 et seg.}. The monastery at Tynemouth avoided 
destruction by a payment of twenty-seven marks of silver to King 
David, and this charter of protection was granted. 

William Fitz Duncan was for a time successful and won a battle 
at Clitheroe in June, 1138. This charter was granted shortly after 
the 1 6 June, St. Barnabas day, while King David was besieging 
Norham castle. 

Richard of Hexham (Twysden, 318), after describing the cruelty with 
which King David and William Fitz Duncan ravaged Northumber- 
land and Durham, says that a serious discontent arose in the Scots 
army on account of a woman, and that the danger was increased by 
the rumour of the approach of a great army from the south of England. 
David I. commenced to retreat to Scotland. Gaining confidence on 
his way northward, the King besieged the castle of Norham, while 
part of the army under William Fitz Duncan went into Yorkshire and 
there won the battle of Clitheroe. The garrison of Norham consisted 
of only nine soldiers, who maintained a successful defence for a long 
time. Having no hope of assistance from the Bishop of Durham, they 
surrendered, for which they were blamed because the castle was not 
injured and there was abundant food. King David offered to restore 
the castle to the Bishop if he would abandon the cause of King 



NOTES CXIX.-CXXI. 359 

Stephen. On his refusing to do so, it was partially destroyed. While 
the siege was going on the church of Tynemouth bought this 
protection. 

p. 92. Gospatric, the Earl. Shortly afterwards he was killed at the 
Battle of the Standard. Hugo de Moreville. In Ailred's History of the 
Battle of the Standard, Moreville's name is not mentioned, but this 

E roves that he accompanied the King in the invasion of Northumber- 
md and was at the siege of Norham. 



cxx. 

The original is in the Treasury at Durham. Printed by Raine, 
N. Durham, App., p. 6, No. XXIII. A seal attached. 

It appears from this that the rights of the monks to lands gifted by 
Gospatric (by CXVii., ante, p. 90) had been disputed, probably by his 
son and heir, Gospatric the Earl. The King orders his Sheriff of 
Roxburgh, G. Ridell, to hold the lands until the King go into the 
district. The 'breve' is imperfect. 

p. 92. Ponatur in respectum. " Ponere in respectum," ' to delay, to 
sequestrate or put land which is in dispute in neutral custody until 
the dispute be settled.' "Demandam de 28 lib. ponat in respectum 
usque ad reditum Regis de partibus transmarinis " (26 Henry III., 
Abbrev. Rot., I., p. 4). 9 Rich. I.: "Assisa Magna . . . ponitur in 
respectum usque ad adventum justiciariorum in partibus illis." Charta 
Edw. III., 1328; Rymer 4, 367: "Et homagia illorum qui nobis 
homagia facere tenentur, ponatis in respectum quamdiu nostrae 
placuerit voluntati" (Du Cange). 



CXXI. 

The original is in the Treasury at Durham, with a seal. Printed 
by Raine, N. Durham, App., p. 5, No. XX. 

Confirmation by King David of the grant by Gospatric, brother of 
Dolfin, of Ederham and Nesbit to the church of Coldingham (ante, 
CXVii., p. 90). Probably this was issued after the King went to 
Berwickshire and made the enquiry contemplated in the mandate 
No. cxx. 

p. 93. Testibus . . Daniel, Prior de Geddewrda. This is the only 
notice in Scottish record of this prior. It proves that the Priory of 
Jedburgh was founded before September, 1139. Duncan the Earl: 
this shows that he succeeded his father, Earl Gillemichel, before 
16 August, 1139. The other witnesses have been already noticed. 



360 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 



CXXII. 

Register of the Priory of St. Andrews, fol. 78 a ; Bannatyne Club 
edition, p. 180. 

It is a grant in free alms to God and to the church of St. Andrew at 
Chilrimont (St. Andrews) of the church of St. Mary of Haddington with 
the chapels, lands, and rights which belong to it, viz. the whole of 
Haddingtonshire, to be held as freely as the then existing tenants 
held of the King and of Theinus and of others. It was, I think, 
granted between 1138 and 1140, i.e. after Bishop John returned from 
Tiron in 1138, and before 1140, when William ceased to be chancellor, 
and when Nicolas, the prior of Scone, died. 

p. 93. Haddington. The church of Haddington was one of the 
richest and most important of the parish churches in Scotland. It 
continued attached to the Priory of St. Andrews until the Reformation. 
This grant was confirmed by Popes Lucius III., Gregory VIII., 
Clement III., Innocent III., Honorius III., and Innocent IV. 
(Reg. Prior. S. And., pp. 58, 63, 68, 72, 77, 92, 99, 103.) The 
church was served by a vicar. " Oblationes obventiones totius 
parochiae de vivis et de mortuis tarn de capellis quam de matrici 
ecclesia, et omnes decimae negotiationis burgensium et aliorum 
negotiatorum et conductiorum et decimae ortorum infra burgum cum 
medietate feni et domus juxta ecclesiam in qua vicarius residere 
consueverat in usus et sustentationem vicarii cedant" (Reg. Prior. S. 
And., p. 158). There are many charters in the Register of the 
Priory relating to the church of Haddington. 

p. 94. Cum capellis. The chapels were dedicated to St. Laurence, 
St. Martin, St. Catherine, St. Kentigern, and St. John. 

Hadintunschir : the parish included a considerable part of Athel- 
staneford and Gladsmuir. 

Theinus was, I think, not a thane, but the name of the overlord of 
some of the lands held by the church of Haddington. 



CXXIII. 

From Dugdale's Monasticon, in., p. 584, taken from the original in 
the Charter Chest of St. Mary's at York. It is not included in Dr. 
Prescott's edition of the Registrum Prior, de Wetheral. 

King David, addressing the earls, justiciars, and all his liegemen of 
Cumberland, French and English and Cumbrians, announces that he 
has granted to the monks of St. Mary's at Wetheral a mark of silver 
annually, to be paid from the profits of his mill at Scotby with the 
tithe of that vill. 

p. 95. Scotby, in the parish of Wetheral, was one of several manors 
in Cumberland which had belonged for a long time to the kings 



NOTES CXXII.-CXXV. 361 

of Scotland ; others were Penrith, Langwathby, Salkeld, Great 
Carlton, and Soureby. Uchtred, son of Liulf (who held the mill of 
Scotby under the King of Scots), granted it to the Priory of Wetheral 
(Prescott, p. 41). A rent was due to the King, and by this grant of a 
mark of silver annually the King renounced right to the payment 
due to him by the priory. The tithe of the vill of Scotby had long 
before been granted to Wetheral. The King confirmed the grant. 
Wedheral is Wetheral near Carlisle. The church was dedicated to 
the Holy Trinity and to St. Mary and St. Constantine. Before A.D. 
1 1 12, Ranulf Meschin, Lord of Cumberland, made it a cell of the 
Abbey of St. Mary at York. 



CXXIV. 

Dugdale's Monast., III., p. 584. Dr. Prescott does not include it in 
his Registrum de Wetheral. 

It is a mandate by Earl Henry that the monks of Wetheral be free 
of toll throughout all his land. After the temporary successes of the 
Scottish army at Clitheroe and at Norham in June, 1138, Kind David 
was defeated at the Battle of the Standard in August of that year ; 
by the intervention of the Papal Legate, and especially of the Queen, 
the wife of Stephen, who was a niece of the Scottish King, the 
Scots got better terms than they were entitled to. John of Hexhani 
(Twysden, 265). " Instantia vero Reginae Anglorum pax convenit inter 
duos reges Henrico filio regis Scotiae apud Dunelmum accipiente 
comitatum Northymbriae. Confirmata est haec concordia per Reginam 
et Henricum filium Regis Scotiae apud Dunelmum V Idus Aprilis 
coram Comitibus et Baronibus Angliae datis obsidibus a Scotia in 
firmamentum fidei. Profectus est autem cum Regina, Henricus Comes 
ad Regem Angliae ad Notingaham et obseqiiens ei per aestatem 
impensas munificas fecit. Qui et accepit conjugem Ada. ..." 

After his marriage Earl Henry took possession of his Earldom of 
Northumberland. 

p. 95. Gilebertus de Umfraville, a son of Robert de Umfraville. 
William de Herziz (a clerical error for Heriz) was a witness to charters 
CLXXXVII. and CCXLiv., ante, pp. 150, 197. The Heriz were vassals of 
the de Bruces, with whom they were often associated. Apud Carl', at 
Carlisle. 



CXXV. 

Regist. Epis. Glasguensis, Maitland Club edition, p. 12, No. 9. 
King David, addressing his barons, officers, and all his liegemen of 
his whole kingdom, as well Galloway men as English and Scotsmen, 



362 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

announces that he has granted to God and to the church of St. Kenti- 
gern of Glasgow, in perpetual alms, the tithe of his ' chan ' in beasts 
and pigs due to him annually from Strathgriua and Cunegan and 
Chul and Karric, except when the King himself stays in those districts 
and consumes his ' chan.' 

p. 96. Chan has been already explained to be rent payable in kind 
to the owner or overlord of land. Earl David had can from Gallo- 
way, a part of which he granted to the Abbey of Selkirk (ante, xxxv., 
p. 27). 

Strathgriua is Strathgryfe, the valleys of the Gryfe and its tribu- 
taries, which comprise almost the whole of the shire of Renfrew. 
The Gryfe rises in the parish of Greenock, and flows through Kilma- 
colm, Houstoun, Kilbarchan, Erskine, Inchinnan, and Renfrew, where 
it joins the Cart which traverses the rest of the shire. Strathgryfe 
was granted to Walter the son of Alan, probably by King David I. ; 
certainly Walter held it in the reign of Malcolm IV., to whom he was 
dapifer or steward. 

Cunegan is Cunningham, the northern division of Ayrshire, which 
David I. granted to Hugo de Moreville, who in it founded the 
Abbey of Kilwinning. 

Chul is Kyle, the middle division of Ayrshire. 

Karric is Carrick, the southern part of Ayrshire, which was 
either granted to Fergus of Galloway or was part of his paternal 
inheritance. Fergus de Galweia was the descendant and representa- 
tive of the old chiefs of Galloway. He is never styled ' comes ' ; the 
Chronicle of Holyrood calls him 'princeps.' He married an illegiti- 
mate daughter of King Henry I. of England. He founded the 
monasteiy of Dundrennan, and restored the Bishopric of Candida 
Casa. In 1160 he became a canon in Holyrood Abbey, where he 
died. 



CXXVI. 

Registrum Epis. Glasguensis, Maitland Club edition, p. 12, 
No. 10. 

The King, addressing his justices, sheriffs, barons, and all his officers 
of Cumberland, announces that he has granted to the church of St. 
Kentigern of Glasgow, the eighth penny of all his pleas throughout 
' Cumbria, 3 both in money and cattle, and he orders that the church 
may enjoy this share as freely as any ' elemosina ' can be given and 
held. 

It is a question of difficulty what is here meant by "iota Cumbria." 
In some chronicles the name Cumbria is applied to part of the south 
of Scotland, corresponding generally to the diocese of Glasgow, and 
this may be a grant of the eighth part of the King's pleas in that 



NOTES CXXV.-CXXVII. 363 

part of his own kingdom ; if so, it is the " octavum denarium in auro 
et argento et animalibus de placitis regis qui fiunt in episcopatu tuo" 
which Pope Alexander III. confirmed to the Bishop (Reg. Epis. Glas., 
p. 22). In 1172, the same Pope confirmed to the see "decima octavi 
denarii de placitis regis" (Reg. Epis. Glas., p. 26). On the other hand, 
Cumbria may mean Cumberland, and the fact that this charter is 
addressed to the justices, sheriffs, etc., of Cumberland supports that 
view. King David and his son Henry had rights in Cumberland 
under the King of England after 1 136. For a time they lost them, but 
again from 1139 till 1157 Carlisle and a part of Cumberland were in 
the possession of the Scottish kings, David I. often resided at 
Carlisle. His right to Carlisle was disputed by Ranulf Meschin, 
Earl of Chester. John of Hexham (Twysden, 268), under date 1141 : 
" Eodem anno Henricus Comes cum conjuge sua ad regem Angliae 
profectus est. Insurrexit in inimicitias in eum Ranulfus Comes 
Cestriae propter Karlel et Cumberland quam jure patrimonii sibi 
reposcebat. Voluit que eum in reditu cum armata manu involvere." 
King David, however, continued to hold Carlisle, and in 1150 it was 
agreed between him and the Earl of Chester that the Earl should get 
the Honour of Lancaster instead of Carlisle. John of Hexham 
(Twysden, 277). 

It is by no means clear what King David's position was in Cumber- 
land. He was not earl, and I do not know whether he had right to 
the fines, etc., in pleas of the courts of Cumberland. I find no trace 
of the Bishop of Glasgow having any rights or privileges in Cumber- 
land after the institution of the Bishopric of Carlisle in 1133. This 
charter was granted at Cadzow near Hamilton. A large number of 
the witnesses are Scottish men : 'Fergus of Galloway, Radulf and 
Donald, sons of Dunegal, and Alwin Mac Archil. 



CXXVII. 

Registrum de Dunfermelyn, fol. 6b ; Bannatyne Club edition, p. 10, 
No. 9. 

A mandate to the Sheriff of Stirling to give to the Abbey of Dun- 
fermline a saltpan near the King's saltpans, apart and free as the 
King's pans are ; the men of the abbey working there to be in the 
King's peace. 

p. 97. Salina. The saltpan presumably was within the shire of 
Stirling, on the shore of the Firth of Forth. 



364 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

p. 97. Gillebertus vicecomes : the same as Gilebertus de Striuelin, 
p. 86. There were three sheriffs of Stirling in the reign of David I.: 
William, Gilbert, and Dufoc. 



CXXVIII. 
Registrum de Dunfermelyn, fol. 7 a ; Bannatyne Club edition, p. 14, 

NO. 22. 

King David, addressing the bishops, earls, barons, etc., of his king- 
dom of Scotland, announces that he has granted in perpetual alms to 
the church of Dunfermline the land of Petheneach with all its pertinents 
and rights and its woods free from hunting. The King prohibits distress 
being taken on that land for the wrong done by any stranger. The 
men and the land and all their goods have the King's peace. 

p. 97. Petheneach ' juxta Eren ' in Moray. This grant was confirmed 
by David I., Malcolm IV., William the Lion, and Alexander II. and 
III., and also by Pope Alexander III. The Abbey of Dunfermline 
afterwards granted Petheneach to the Priory of Urquhart. 

p. 98. Malisio marescall : probably the same as Malodenus marescal, 
a witness, p. 86. 



CXXIX. 

The original is in the Treasury at Durham ; a seal attached ; fac- 
simile, Anderson's Diplomata, p. xx ; Raine, N. Durham, App., p. 24, 
No. evil. 

Earl Henry, addressing the justices, barons, sheriffs, etc., of his 
Earldom of Northumberland, announces that the lands and possessions 
of the monks of Durham are in his peace and under his care, and he 
orders all his officers to support the men of the church lands, and 
prohibits any from doing them injustice. 

By the treaty of Durham, 9 April, 1139, Henry the King's son 
acquired the Earldom of Northumberland, which he held until his 
death in 1152. 

p. 98. Engelram. When he became Earl of Northumberland, 
Earl Henry appointed as his chancellor Engelram, the Rector of 
Peebles and Archdeacon of Glasgow, who afterwards became chan- 
cellor of Scotland in the reign of Malcolm IV. He succeeded 
Herbert as Bishop of Glasgow in 1164. At Norham he denied the 
authority of the Archbishop of York as Legate and appealed to Rome. 
He was consecrated by Pope Alexander III. at Rome. (Chron. 
Melros, p. 79.) Keith says he was a brother of the laird of Dunsyre 
in Lanarkshire ; but that is a mistake. Helias of Dunsyre was the 
brother of Bishop Joceline ; not of Bishop Engelram (see Liber 
de Kelso, No. 356). 



NOTES CXXVII.-CXXXII. 365 



cxxx. 

The original is in the Treasury at Durham, with a seal attached ; 
Raine, N. Durham, App., p. 24, No. CIV. 

Henry the son of the King of Scotland greets Gospatric the Earl, 
orders him (i) to permit the land of Edrom and Nesbit, given by his 
father in alms, to be free and quit (as had been agreed in the year 
before in presence of the King and Robert de Bruce and other 
barons) until the King returns, and (2) quickly to restore the oxen with 
sureties. Probably granted in 1141 when King David was in England 
with his niece the Empress. Earl Henry did not accompany his 
father to London and Winchester. 

p. 99. Ada vicecomes was sheriff of Northumberland. A charter by 
him is given by Bateson in his History of Northumberland, printed 
in Genealogist, Vol. XV., p. 135: "Omnibus baronibus comitatus 
Northumb. Francis quam Anglis et cognatis et amicis suis Adam vice- 
comes Northumbrie (deed damaged) . . . fratrem meum Willelmum 
concessisse et dedisse Deo et Sancto Cuthberto propter elemosinam 
et . . . iam ipsius Sancti, Arkil de Matefen cum tota [sequela] sua, Et 
ego Adam haeres ejus hoc idem concede pro anima fratris mei et 
heredum ejus et mea anima et heredum meorum, concedente Johanne 
fratre meo et Ernaldo fratre meo. Testibus Bernardo clerico, etc." 



CXXXI. 

The original is in the Treasury at Durham, with a seal attached ; 
Raine, N. Durham, App., p. 25, No. CX. 

Henry the son of the King of Scotland, addressing his justices, 
sheriffs, barons, and all his men of Northumberland, French and 
English, announces that he, at the request of Nicolas, had granted to 
the monks of St. Cuthbert a fishing in the Tyne called Bradyair which 
Nicolas held of him, with Croc which belongs to it, free and quit of all 
service. In addition Henry grants the ploughgate of land in Cran- 
linton which the same Nicolas gave to them with three tofts and thirty 
acres of moor, fifteen acres on one side of the vill and fifteen on the 
other, and a croft of meadow surrounded by an old ditch. 

These fishings and lands were in Northumberland, and as Earl, 
Henry now confirmed the grants of Nicolas to the church. 



CXXXII. 

Registrum de Dunfermelyn, fol. 7 a ; Bannatyne Club edition, p. 14, 
No. 23. The heading is "De Durnach." 

King David, addressing Reinwald, Earl of Orkney, and the Earl 



366 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

and all the liegemen of Caithness and Orkney, commands them as 
they love the King to cherish the monks who live at Dornoch in 
Caithness, and to see that none do them any injury. 

p. 100. Reinwald. Paul, Earl of Orkney, on the death of his 
brother Harold, 1139-1140, obtained possession of the whole of Caith- 
ness. The King of Norway, however, divided Caithness and the 
Orkneys between Paul and his cousin Kali, a nephew of Earl Magnus : 
Kali received the Earldom of Orkney and took the name of Rognwald, 
he went on a pilgrimage to Jerusalem, and died leaving an only 
daughter, who married Eric Slagbrellis, she had three sons, of 
whom Harold Ungi became Earl of Caithness ; he was slain in 1 198 
by Earl Harold the elder. His sister married Gillebride, Earl of 
Angus, and their son Magnus, in 1232, became Earl of Caithness. 
Their family held the earldom until about A.D. 1300. 

Durnach is Dornoch in Sutherland. The original parish church of 
Dornoch, the date of whose foundation is unknown, was dedicated 
to St. Bar (Finbar or Fymber), a native of Caithness and Bishop of 
Cork. There seems to be no record of a monastery at Dornoch. 



CXXXIII. 

The original is in the Treasury at Durham, with a seal attached ; 
Raine, N. Durham, App., p. 24, No. cm. 

Henry, Earl by the grace of God, son of David, King of Scots, 
announces that he has granted to the church of St Mary and St. Cuth- 
bert at Coldingham and to the monks serving there, in perpetual alms 
Ederham and Nesbit as Gospatric the brother of Dolfin held them on 
the day of his death, as freely as they hold the other lands which 
belong to Coldingham. Earl Henry here repeats the charter of his 
father the King (ante, p. 93), granted at least two years earlier. 
The Earl's charter was given at Durham, where William Cumyn 
the chancellor held the castle and the temporalities of the see 
during his unsuccessful attempt to be elected as Bishop. The 
attempt of the Scottish chancellor to take the Bishopric of Durham 
is an interesting episode in King David's reign and one in which, 
I fear, the Scots- King and his son did not play perfectly credit- 
able parts. In April, 1140, William Cumyn went to Durham, and 
seeing that the Bishop, Galfrid, was about to die, he took immediate 
steps to secure the see. The Bishop died before the prepara- 
tions were completed ; his death was kept secret and the dead 
body of the prelate lay unburied, rudely preserved in salt. Some of 
the monks of Durham were in William Cumyn's favour ; but the more 
influential, including the Prior and the Archdeacon, were his deter- 
mined opponents. William Cumyn secured the castle and prevented 



NOTES CXXII.-CXXIII. 367 

the chapter meeting for an election. At one time success seemed 
assured. Mr. Round (Geoffrey de Mandeville, p. 85): "The would 
be Bishop of Durham, William Cumin, had come south with the King 
of Scots (whose chancellor he was) accompanied by certain barons of 
the bishopric and a deputation from the Cathedral chapter. Nominally, 
this deputation was to claim from the Empress and the Legate a 
confirmation of the chapter's canonical right of free election ; but, in 
fact, it was composed of William's adherents, who purposed to secure 
from the Empress and the Legate, letters to the chapter in his favour. 
The Legate not having arrived at Court when they reached the 
Empress, she deferred her reply till he should join her. In the result, 
however, the two differed, for while the Legate, warned from Durham, 
refused to support William, the Empress, doubtless influenced by her 
uncle, had actually agreed as sovereign to give him the ring and staff, 
and would undoubtedly have done so but for the Londoners' revolt." 
After many delays, William de St. Barbara, the Dean of York, was 
elected Bishop of Durham. The new Bishop was consecrated in 1143. 
William Cumyn still held the castle. In the course of 1 144 an arrange- 
ment was come to, Cumyn's nephew got the Honour of Alvertun, and 
he himself and his followers were released from the excommunication 
under which they had been laid. Bishop William de St. Barbara 
entered into the see on 18 October, 1144. The last that is heard of 
William Cumyn is that he was imprisoned by Richard de Luvetot and 
cruelly treated. I give the passages from Simeon of Durham and John 
of Hexham; they throw light on the the position and actions of the 
Scots King and his son. Simeon of Durham, Historia de Dunelmensi 
Ecclesia (Twysden, 63), speaking of Gaufrid, Bishop of Durham : 
" Sed in ipsius obitu contigit ecclesiam gravissimas tempestatum pro- 
cellas incurrere. Erat enim clericus quidam regis Scotiae Cancellarius 
jam pridem eidem ante episcopatus notus et a secretis siquidem et 
eum ab annis adolescentiae educaverat, qui paululum ante obitum 
ejusdem Dunelmum veniens et cum eo familiariter conversatus cum 
finem episcopi appropinquare cerneret, familiares quosque clericos 
castellanos etiam sibi fide vel sacramentis associat, ut mortuo Episcopo 
eidem castellum committerent. Eo igitur mortuo ab eisdem extorsit, 
ut episcopus celaretur donee cum rege Scotiae loqueretur ut ipsius 
adjumento episcopatum acquireret. Proinde quia cadaver aliter 
teneri non potuit, evisceratus est a suis Episcopus et a monachis 
absconditus, ne rem cognoscerent a tertia feria usque ad sextam feriam. 
Tune enim eodem a curia reverso prior et monachi admittuntur 
castello jam ad voluntatem ipsius disposito. Erat eo tempore maxima 
regni turbatio. Siquidem Rex Stephanus dum Comitem Cestriae in 
Lincolnia obsideret, idem Comes furtim egreditur et sociato sibi Comite 



368 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

Gloucestriae, ceterisque Imperatricis fautoribus ad urbem regreditur, 
ubi inter eos praelio facto, rex milite destitutus capitur, non tamen 
absque detrimento capientium. Erat siquidem robustus viribus et 
rebus bellicis eo tempore incomparabilis. Eo igitur incarcerate, 
Imperatrix, Regis Henrici filia, cum magno favore a Londoniensibus 
excipitur. Quo comperto, Rex Scotiae David ad curiam ejusdem 
proficiscitur, secum Cancellarium suum ducens qui pretio ab eodem 
exegerat ut ejus causa erga Imperatricem ageret. lamque se Dunel- 
mensem electum vocari volebat, quod facile adulatoribus undecunque 
concurrentibus persuasum est. Denique in curia jam constitutus tam 
a Rege Scotiae quam caeteris mediantibus tandem in assensum 
Imperatrix inducitur. Factoque consensu, cum jam jamque se baculo 
episcopal! ab Imperatrice investiendum speraret, in ipsa curiae 
coadunatione subito turba exoritur, a regiis commota fautoribus, et 
Imperatrix cum suis omnibus aufugit, Londoniensium conspiratione 
comperta. Nee multo post cum Imperatrix Wintoniae moraretur 
ibidem a gente Londoniensium obsidetur, qui reginam evocaverant et 
ei Londoniam tradiderant. Illic congressione facta a baronibus huic 
inde pro partis utriusque favore confluentibus, Rodbertus, Comes 
Glocestriae capitur, Rex Scotia fugatur, caeteri quique hue illucque 
disperguntur. Hac vero captione contigit ut rex libere dimitteretur. 
Rege Scotiae repatriante, Cancellarius predictus Dunelmi remansit 
per tres annos, quibus vocabat episcopatus, operibus praetendens quo 
respectu episcopatum desideraverit, nisi quantum eum spes honoris 
adipiscendi refraenabat. Multa in episcopatu cupiditatis, imo crudeli- 
tatis signa reliquit. Monachis tamen jocundus semper et affabilis 
erat, a quibus se praemovendum sperabat. Sed cum sua spes fefellit, 
secundo siquidem anno ex consilio capituli, Prior ecclesiae Eboracum 
proficiscitur communicato primitus consilio ut quern ipse cum majoribus 
ecclesiae eligeret ad hunc caeteri domi residentes animum intenderent 
excommunicatis primitus ex sententia capituli Willielmi fautoribus." 

John of Hexham (Twysden, 270) gives rather a different version 
under date A.D. 1142: "Post Pascha Galfridus Episcopus Dunelmi 
defunctus est. Super quo parentes ejus taciturn habentes, eviscere 
turn et sale conspersum et infusum eum inhumatum reservaverunt 
donee sub auctoritate David Regis Scotiae in munitionibus Dunelmi 
reciperent Willielmum Cumin, Cancellarium ejusdem Regis. Fuerat 
enim idem Willielmus clericus et alumpnus ejusdem Galfridi episcopi 
in obsequiis Henrici Regis. Videns itaque David Rex multa 
competere in Imperatricis neptis suae promotionem post ascencionem 
Domini ad earn in Suth Angliam profectus est. Divertensque ad 
Dunelmum receptus est in oppidum praecipitque omnia arbitrio 
Imperatricis reservari : Willielmum que Cumin rerum gerendarum 



NOTES CXXXIII. 369 

curam interim gerere. A.D. 1142 (Twysden, 271-273, John of Hex- 
ham, Surtees Soc., Vol. 44, p. 141): Willielmus quoque Cumin, ex 
datione Imperatricis dominatus in rebus episcopalibus Dunelmensibus 
plurimos plurimum afflixit. Potestas ejus quiddam tyrannicum sapuit. 
Ranulfus Archidiaconus Dunelmensis, nepos Ranulfi Episcopi Dun- 
elmi, vir praeclarae probitatis in ecclesiasticis necessitatibus, egressus 
est, malens exulare quam intrusion! qua Willelmus Cumin ad epis- 
copalem dignitatem spiravit acquiescere. Secutus est eum citius 
Rogerus Prior ejusdem ecclesiae . . . Nee multo post in ecclesia 
Dunelmensi interdictum est divinum officium cessavitque in ea omne 
divinum canticum." 

"Apostolicus vero posuit Willelmum Cumin sub anathemate et 
Archidiaconatus ejus quern habuit in Wigornensi ecclesia sine spe 
reposcendi, alii datus est. Qui super his exasperatus, in clericos et 
laicos quoscunque comprehendit, instar immanissimi praedonis grassa- 
tus est totamque pecuniam exhausit provinciae. Non erat princeps 
neque dux qui ejus violentias comprimeret. Erat enim miles quidam 
Rogerus de Coincneriis vir bonus et fidelis, hie non acquievit com- 
municare actibus Willelmi Cumin. Unde in possessione sua, scilicet 
in Biscoptun firmavit se munitiunculam quia locus congruebat, circum- 
cinctus palude. In hac receptus est Willelmus Episcopus, fuitque 
positus in moerore quia vidit homines et res episcopales affligi. 

Henricus Comes filius regis Scotiae et Alanus Comes Richemundi 
pecuniis Willielmi Cumin corrupti, episcopum cassis obsequiis saepe 
deluserant. Venit idem episcopus cum multitudine ad Dunelmum 
ecclesiam Sancti Egidii vallo circumcingere elaborans ut habent 
locum ilium ad munimen sui. Et monachi qui inclusi erant occultum 
aditum paraverant per quern episcopum cum suis introducere pro- 
posuerant. Innotuit res Willielmo Cumin qui cum satellites suis 
armatis irruens, violenter irrupit in monasterium, monachos que circa 
corpus beati Cuthberti prostratos in angustia spiritus reperiens, jussit 
trucidari, licet nullus acquiesceret, reposuitque illic custodes et arma." 

A.D. 1144: "His diebus juvenis miles, Willielmus nepos Willelmi 
Cumin, cum favore multorum edoctus res militares disponere et negotia 
populi amministrare apud Merringtun ecclesiam Sancti Johannis 
Evangelistae vallo circumcinxit et custodiam militum ibi disposuit. 
Perdidit autem sensum juvenis quidam cementarius et periit, qui pro- 
pugnacula in muris ecclesiae construxit. Percussus est et ipse miles 
passione et morte subsequente, citius mulctatus est. Quo mortuo 
concidit spes et fiducia Willelmi Cumin. Jamque modestius sapere 

2 A 



370 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

didicit et velle reconciliari episcopo priusquam de eo similis expeteretur 
vindicta. Mediante ergo Willelmo Archiepiscopo, Willelmus Epis- 
copus et Willielmus Cumin convenerunt in foedus pacis ut Ricardus 
Cumin teneret de episcopo Alvertun et totum ilium honorem, caetera 
de integro resignarentur in manu episcopi. Erat autem iste Ricardus 
nepos Willelmi Cumin frater illius Willelmi defuncti. Die itaque 
Sancti Lucae Evangelistae, Episcopus in sedem episcopalem introniza- 
tus per manum Willelmi Archiepiscopi et Willelmus Cumin cum 
multitudine sua absolutus est. Prosecuta est tamen eum debitae 
ulcionis poena a Domino. Post aliquot enim dies miles quidam Rod- 
bertus de Mundavilla in quern et in uxorem ejus scilicet filiam Galfridi 
episcopi Dunelmensis idem Willielmus Cumin nequiter egerat, per- 
cussit nepotem ejusdem Willelmi, Osbertum adolescentum militem 
amantissimum omnibus qui in obsequio Henrici comitis filii Regis 
Scotiae fuerunt et militem cum eo Stephanum potentem viribus et 
strenuum inter socios Willelmi Cumin. Ipsum etiam Willielmum 
Cumin, Ricardus de Luvetot comprehendit et per multos dies in carceris 
tormentis gravibus et poenis afflixit" (Twysden, 274, John of Hexham, 
Surtees Soc., Vol. 44, pp. 147-148). 

CXXXIV. 

Registrum Prioratus S. Andreae, fol. 78 a, b ; Bannatyne Club 
edition, p. 181; Anderson's Diplomata, Plate xvn. 

David, by the grace of God King of Scots, to the bishops, abbots, 
earls, justices, barons, etc., announces that he has granted in perpetual 
alms to the church of St. Mary at Haddington, Clerchetune by the 
boundaries which William de Graham and others perambulated 
after an agreement between the King and Thorald the Archdeacon 
at Peebles. He also grants to the same church a full toft, beside 
the church in the town of Haddington and all the tithes and church 
rights in Haddingtonshire both in mills and other subjects. He orders 
that the church shall hold the land of Clerchetune of him and of Thein 
and of all others who have held Haddington of the King and his heirs 
and of them and their heirs. Henry, the King's son, assents. 

Chalmers (Caled., 2, p. 514) supposes this charter to have been 
granted about A.D. 1134. It is probable that after St. Mary's church 
was given to the church of St. Andrews by charter CXXII., ante, p. 93, 
disputes arose as to the extent and boundaries of its lands in Hadding- 
tonshire, which were settled at a meeting at Peebles of the King 
and Thorald the Archdeacon of Lothian on behalf of St. Andrews. 
The definition of the boundaries of Clerkington was referred to 
William de Graham, Durand the Sheriff, and others, and the limits of 
the church lands having been ascertained, the King granted the charter. 



NOTES CXXXIII.-CXXXV. 371 

p. 101. Clerchetune is Clerkington, an estate a little more than 
a mile from the town of Haddington. Ex utraque parte aquae, i.e. of 
the river Tyne. Willelmus de Graham, note to LXXII. Durandus 
the Sheriff, probably of Haddingtonshire ; a different man from 
Durandus miles, who is a witness to CLXXXVI. Richard ' clericus, 5 
I think, omitted. Osbert, Prior of Edinburgh. He became the 
second abbot of Hoiyrood in 1150, and died in the same year. 
Malbet de Libertune. See note to LXXII. Gillandris son of Oggu 
may be the son of that Oggu who was one of the * Judices Cum- 
brenses 3 of the Inquisitio (p. 46). Gille son of Mercheh, Ulfchil 
son of Merewin, and Sewale miles are here said to have assisted in 
the perambulation, their names are omitted in the charter by Earl 
Henry, cxxxv. Toraldus archidiaconus, Archdeacon of Lothian. 
See note to LXXXI. 

Villa de Hadintune. It is not here called a burgh ; but in charters 
ccni. and ccxxx. the King speaks of his burgh of Haddington. 
In CCLX. Countess Ada says, " In burgo meo de Hadingtona." 

p. 102. Theinus (p. 94, cxxn.) was one of the King's vassals. 
The grant of the church lands was not to interfere with the rights of 
those already holding land in Haddingtonshire. Testibus. There is 
a long array of witnesses who met at Perth on the I4th of June. 
The year is not given. Most of the witnesses have been already 
noticed. Roger, the Prior of Dunfermline, is not mentioned else- 
where though Roger Presbyter is a witness to several charters 
in the Register of Dunfermline. Robert de Sigillo, a witness on 
pp. 102, 104, 132, 134, 138. Can he be the Robert de Sigillo who 
received the Bishopric of London from the Empress Maud in July, 
1141, and died in 1151 or 1152? " Vacarit sedes Lundoniaet ad ipsius 
favorem Rodbertus de Sigillo . . . qui fuit Cancellarius regis Henrici 
nunc Monachus de Redingas vir bonus ad regimen illius sedes 
accitus est." John of Hexham (Twysden, 269). 

CXXXV. 

Registrum Prior. S. Andreae, fol. 91 b ; Bannatyne Club edition, 
p. 191. 

Earl Henry repeats the grant made in the King's charter cxxxiv. 
It is curious that though the King stated that his son Henry assented, 
Henry in this charter says nothing about the King's grant ; he speaks 
as if he had agreed with the Archdeacon, and as if he alone granted or 
confirmed Clerchetune to the church of St. Mary. It is possible that 
the King's charter was granted when Haddington was in the King's 
hand, that it afterwards was given to Earl Henry and his wife, the 
Countess Ada, and that to make the rights of the church more secure 
this confirmation was obtained, in which Earl Henry's chancellor 
contented himself with copying the King's charter, leaving out the 
names of three of those who perambulated and correcting a mistake 
in the King's charter where " ecclesia " had been inserted in a wrong 
place. 



372 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

p. 103. Testibus . . . The names of the witnesses and the place of 
granting are different from those in the King's charter. William 
Masculus appears also in the charters on pp. 105 and 159. He is 
supposed to be the ancestor of the Maules. 

CXXXVI. 

Cartulaire de 1'Abbaye de Thiron, edited by Lucien Merlet, 
Chartres, 1883, No. 60, foL 49. 

The Abbey of Tiron, near Chartres, in France, was founded by St. 
Bernard, circa A.D. 1109. St. Bernard was held in great reverence 
and affection by King Henry I. of England. Before David I. 
succeeded to the throne of Scotland he was the pupil and friend 
of St. Bernard, who gave him some of his monks to fill the monas- 
tery of Selkirk, the earliest of David's foundations. St. Bernard 
died in 1116. From the mention of John, the Bishop of Glasgow, and 
from the witnesses, I think that this charter was granted soon after 
the return of the Bishop from Tiron in 1138. 

Tiron was a quiet inland monastery in rural France, far from the 
sea, and this grant exempting from can a ship of the convent, 
wherever it may touch in Scotland, seems a privilege of which the 
monks would never have the opportunity of getting any advantage ; 
but perhaps they looked for a supply of dried sea fish from the 
Scottish coast, and this charter may have been of use to those from 
whom they bought fish. 

p. 104. Testibus ... M. Lucien Merlet, the learned editor of the 
Chartulary, has several notes on the witnesses. He says that Robert 
Burgunnus was Robert de Bourguignon, Seigneur de Sable, third 
son of Robert de Bourguignon, Seigneur de Sable", who joined the 
Crusade in 1096. This is doubtful. Robert Burgunnus, was, I 
think, the Sir Robert Burgonensis who held lands in the west of 
Fife, and with whom the Keledei of St Serf's had a litigation early in 
King David's reign. M. Merlet identifies ' Edward ' as the son of 
Siward " lequel etait lui-meme le second fils d'un autre Siward Comte 
de Northumberland et de Huntingdon, dont le fils aind etait Waltheof 
le beau-pere de David." This is at best uncertain. Dunecano comite. 
The witnesses are not arranged in order of their rank, and M. Merlet 
confuses this Duncan, who was Earl of Fife, with an unknown descen- 
dant of King Duncan II. Rogerio. M. Merlet says: " Neveu de 
1'Eveque de S. Andre et le fils de Robert aux Blanches mains, Comte 
de Leicester et de Peronnelle de Grandmesnil. II succeda a son oncle 
dans I'eVechd de S. Andre." I am obliged again to differ from the 
learned editor. Robert, Bishop of St. Andrews, was of humble birth, 
in no way connected with a subsequent Robert, Bishop of St. Andrews, 
who was nephew of King David's daughter-in-law, Ada, Countess of 
Northumberland. Apud Cluni is, I think, Cluny in Perthshire, and 
not the celebrated French abbey. It is not likely that so many Scots- 
men would be together in France. 



NOTES CXXXV.-CXXXVIII. 373 



CXXXVII. 

From the Cartulaire de PAbbaye de Thiron, fol. 48, Vol. 2, p. 14. 
The original charter on parchment is said to be preserved. 

This is a repetition and confirmation by Henry, Earl of Northumber- 
land, of his father King David's grant to the Abbey of Tiron. 

p. 104. ' at ' comes, clerical error for ' et.' 

Applicaverit and applicaverint, clerical errors for applicuerit and 
applicuerint. 



CXXXVII I. 

Farcer's Lancashire Chartulary, p. 274 ; Register of Shrewsbury 
Abbey, No. 322. 

King David grants protection to the Abbey of Shrewsbury and con- 
firms its right to half of the land of Biscopham. It is probable that 
King David acquired the Honor of Lancaster, north of the Ribble, in 
1139 by the Treaty of Durham. Mr. Farrer (p. 296), speaking of the 
first treaty in 1136, said that King Stephen gave as the price of peace 
Lancashire north of the Ribble, though King David held the Honor 
until Whitsuntide, 1149, when he resigned it to Ranulf, Earl of Chester. 
John of Hexham (Twysden, 277, Surtees Soc., Vol. 44, p. 159): 
" Remisit autem idem Ranulfus indignationem qua Karleol sub patri- 
monial! jure reposcere consueverat, fecitque homagium eidem regi 
David. Convenit enim sermo inter eos ut pro Karlel haberet honorem 
de Lanecastre ; filiusque Ranulfi Comitis ducturus foret uxorem unam 
de filiabus Henrici filii regis Scotiae. His diebus rex Stephanus 
venit Eboracum . . . et Rex David et tyro Henricus dux Norman- 
niae et Ranulfus Comes Cestriae in unam sententiam convenerunt, 
junctis viribus in regem Stephani pergere. Processitque rex David 
cum copiis suis ad Lancastra et Henricus praedictus cum eo, ibi 
enim Ranulfus Comes promisit cum collectis agminibus suis occurrere 
illis. Qui, nichil eorum quae condixerat prosecutus, avertit propositum 
eorum. Ic circo Henricus dux in patriam suam reversus in militaribus 
se exercuit disciplinis. . . ." 

p. 105. The Benedictine abbey of St. Peter's of Shrewsbury was 
founded about A.D. 1087 by Earl Roger de Montgomery, who brought 
monks from Seez (Eyton, History of Shropshire, I., p. 35 ; V., p. 170). 
In 1094 Earl Roger granted to the Abbey of St. Martin of Seez the 
church of St. Mary of Lancaster, and confirmed the grant by Godfrey 
the Sheriff, of the tithes of Bischopeham (Farrer, p. 290). There is a 
writ (Farrer, p. 273) from King Henry I. to Stephen, Count of Mortain, 
A.D. 1129-1133, commanding him to allow the monks of Shrewsbury to 



374 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

hold the moiety of Bispham free from all dues, pleas, and services. 
Before 1141, the Abbot of Shrewsbury gave to the Priory of Lancaster 
one team land of his demesne of Bispham and the tithes of Laton and 
Warbreck (Farrer, p. 276). In 1147 the Abbot of Shrewsbury granted 
the chapel of Bispham to the Abbey of Seez (Farrer, p. 283). 

Bispham is on the coast of Lancashire, north of Blackpool ; it is 
now united to Norbreck. 

Testibus . . . Hugh de Morevill. Farrer says he was the Lord 
of I shall and Burgh-upon-Sands ; but that is a mistake ; the wit* 
ness was Hugh de Moreville, the King's friend, in Scotland Lord of 
Lauderdale and Cunningham. Henry son of Swen is a witness to a 
charter by King David to Dunfermline, No. 4. He had a great 
estate in Cumberland. Chulch, probably Kelso, but Mr. Farrer 
suggests that Chulch in this charter and 'Novum Castellum de 
Culchet' in charter CXXXIX. are Culquith in Cumberland, which 
appears as Culchet in the Pipe Rolls of Cumberland, in the 5th year 
of King John. 



CXXXIX. 

Register of the Abbey of Shrewsbury, No. 87 ; Farrer, p. 275. 
Charter of protection and confirmation by King David to the 
monks of Shrewsbury of the church of Kirkham and land of Bispham. 

p. 106. Chircheham. Kirkham is a parish in Amounderness in 
Lancashire, north of the Ribble. In 1094 Roger 'the Poictevin' 
granted to the brethren of St. Martin of Seez at Lancaster the church 
of Kyrkham (Farrer p. 290), and about the same time Godfrey the 
Sheriff granted the same church to the Abbey of Shrewsbury (Farrer, 
p. 270). The two monasteries disputed as to their rights. Bernard, 
Bishop of St. David was chosen arbiter. He gave this award : 

" Bernardus Episcopus Dei gratia de Sancto David universis 
sanctae ecclesiae fidelibus eternam in Domino salutem. 

" Scire volo fraternitatem vestram quod ego interfui placito inter 
Abbatem Salopesberiae et fratres Sagienses apud Lancastriam agitato 
de ecclesia de Kirkeham, in quo idem fratres cernentes non se posse 
obsistere multiplicibus munimentis quae Abbati de justa ejusdem 
ecclesiae possessione suppetebant, concesserunt justae ejus calumniae 
ita ut Prior eorum Johannes nomine ecclesiam ipsam cum omnibus 
appendicibus Abbati per clavem contraderet, omne jus abnegans quod 
in ea prius habere videbantur, decimam quoque Dominii de Waliton 
quam ipsi fratres de Lancastro tenebant, concesserunt imperpetuum 
Ecclesiae Salopesberiae. Abbas vero pro confirmanda inter eos con- 
cordia dedit eis de dominio suo in Biscopeham terram unius carucae 
et decimam de Latona et de Wardebrec, quibus ita determinatis 
spopondit memoratus Prior quod hanc conventionem in capitulo Sagii 
confirmari faceret, et literas Abbatis sui inde adquieret, et tarn ipse 
quam omnes successores ejus res monachorum Salopesberiae sibi 
vicinas pro posse suo manutenerent et ad placita eisdem rebus 
necessaria rogati venirent. Huius conventionis ego mediator ac testis 
extiti et mecum Jordanus Cancellarius Regis Scotiae, et clerici mei 



NOTES CXXXVIII.-CXLI. 375 

Johannes et Walterus, Hugo presbiter et plures alii." (Register 
Shrewsbury Charter, 373 ; Farrer, Lancashire Chartulary, p. 276.) 

Between 1144-1147, William, Archbishop of York, granted a charter 
to the monks of Shrewsbury (Farrer, p. 280), reciting that during the 
episcopates of his predecessors the monks of Shrewsbury had often 
complained that they had been unjustly deprived of the church of 
Kirkham ; he (thereto commanded by the Papal Legate) had heard 
the case in the Synod at York, and the Synod had unanimously 
agreed that the church of Kirkham should be restored to Shrewsbury, 
the Abbot of Shrewsbury in return giving to the brethren of See"z at 
Lancaster a part of Bispham and the tithes of Laton and Warbreck ; 
David, King of Scots, holding the Honor of Lancaster, granted these 
two charters. In 1147-1148 there was a composition between the 
Abbot of Shrewsbury and the Abbot of Seez confirming the church 
of Kirkham to Shrewsbury (Farrer, p. 282). 



CXL. 

Registrum Prioratus de Wetherhal, Dr. Prescott's edition, p. 312; 
Dugdale's Monast, in., p. 595. 

David, King of Scots, addressing the barons, sheriffs, and all his 
liegemen of the whole of Cumberland and Westmoreland, announces 
that he has confirmed the land and place which Adam the son of 
Swain granted in perpetual alms to the church of St. Mary at York 
and to the monks of Wetheral. The King declares that the monks 
and their servants in the foresaid place are in his peace and under his 
protection. 

p. 1 06. Adam the son of Swain the son of Alric had great estates in 
Yorkshire, Cumberland, and Westmoreland (Farrer, Lancash., p. 294) ; 
he was Lord of Hornby aud Croxton. He had a large tract of country 
east of the river Eden, including the parishes of Kirkland, Melmorby, 
and Ainsleth, granted to him by Henry 1. He gave land to the 
Priory of Pontefract ; he founded the Priory of Monkbretton (Dug- 
dale, Monast, V., p. 136). In the Pipe Rolls for A.D. 1159 he appears 
as receiving a hundred shillings under the King's writ. 



CXLI. 

The original is preserved in the Charter Chest of the Earl of 
Morton. The seal is missing. It was printed with a facsimile by 
Anderson, Diplomata, and in the Liber de Melros (with a facsimile). 
Bannatyne Club edition, I., pp. 3 and 365. 

Melros was the first Cistercian monastery founded in Scotland. In 
1098 the Abbey of St. Mary at Citaux was built by some Benedictines 



376 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

who adopted more austere rules and who were thereafter known 
as Cistercians. About 1128 two monasteries of the new order were 
established in England at Waverley and at Furness, and in 1132 
Walter Espec brought Cistercian monks to Rievalle. From that 
Yorkshire abbey King David brought a colony in March, 1136, to 
a place on the Tweed not far from old Melros, where, some centuries 
earlier, there had been a religious house connected with Lindisfarne, 
of which at one time St. Cuthbert was the Abbot. The old monastery 
at Melros had been destroyed long before 1136, but the Priory of 
Durham retained some rights in the church, for the loss of which 
Durham was compensated by a grant of the church of St. Mary at 
Berwick. 

The Cistercian monastery at Melros was founded immediately after 
the agreement between King Stephen and King David in February, 
1136. The earlier charters have not been preserved. This charter is 
a curious composition, embodying two grants, the first made probably 
in 1136, the second not earlier than 1143. The earlier of the two was 
of the lands of Melros, Eldon, and Darnwick, with rights in the King's 
forests and fishings in the Tweed. It was given at Erchildun in June, 
probably June, 1136; but many writers are of opinion that Bishop 
John (who is a witness) left his diocese in 1133 and was a monk in the 
monastery of Tiron until he was recalled in 1138. There is, however, 
reason to hold that Bishop John did not go to Tiron before the end of 
1136, and to me it seems probable that the grant of Melros, Eldon, 
and Darnwick, was made soon after the Cistercian monks arrived 
from Rievalle, or at latest on the day of the foundation or dedication of 
the church. The King and his son were present with a number 
of Norman barons, who are placed first in the list of witnesses, then 
follow the names of " homines de eadem terra," which I take to be 
Tweeddale. The first of these is Gospatric the Earl. If this grant 
was made in 1136, he was the Gospatric who was killed in 1138 at the 
Battle of the Standard. Another of the men "de eadem terra" was 
' Robert Brus Meschin,' the son of the great Yorkshire baron, to 
whom his father transferred Annandale. The lands granted include 
the site of the monastery and the surrounding land, with two granges, 
Eldon and Darnwick, on the other side of the Tweed. King David 
afterwards granted as an ' incrementum ' the land of Galtuneschalech 
and the land and wood of Galtunesside, as these had been perambu- 
lated by the King and by his son Henry and Abbot Richard on the 
Friday, the day after Ascension Day, in the second year after Stephen, 
King of England, was taken prisoner. 

p. 107. Rieuall. The Abbey of Rievalle or Rievaulx was founded in 
1132 by Walter Espec on the bank of the Rie, in Yorkshire. In the 



NOTES CXLI. 377 

version in Anderson's Diplomata instead of 'de Rievall' are the 
words ' Cysterciensis ordinis.' 

Melros, Eldune, and Dernewic are described in the endorse- 
ment on the charter as three granges, and from this and from the 
manner in which they are described, it is probable that the monks had 
a grant in full demesne of these lands ; they were not the feudal 
superiors of vassals holding the lands under them, they were to hold 
and possess and cultivate. Besides these, they had the right to 
pasture their animals, ' averia,' which included cattle and sheep, and 
to take wood for burning and for building (' ligna et materiem ') from 
the King's lands. 

p. 1 08. Galche et Leder, the rivers Gala and Leader. 

Praeter . . . Ridel. These words are interpolated in the original 
charter, which, I think, ran on from ' ubique ' to ' volo itaque.' 

Galtuneschalech and Galtunesside. The first of these lands does 
not appear in the Register of Melros, except in the charters of 
David I. and his son Earl Henry. Galtunesside is Gattonside on 
Tweed. 

Abbas Ricardus. (Morton, Mon. Ann., p. 202) : " Richard the first 
abbot is said to have been a man of strict piety and integrity and 
greatly esteemed at Court on account of his learning, eloquence, 
and other good qualities, but little loved by his convent on account of 
the warmth of his temper and the harshness with which he exercised 
his authority. For the faults which sprang from this defect in his 
character he was removed from his office by William, Abbot of 
Rievalle. ... He retired to the Abbey of Clairvaux, in France, 
where he died. ... He opposed the appointment of William Cumin, 
Chancellor of Scotland, to the see of Durham, having discovered that 
the letters he produced, as from the Pope, confirming his election were 
forged." 

Die Veneris crastino Ascensionis, the day after Ascension Day. 

Anno scilicet secundo quo Stephanus Rex Angliae captus est. King 
Stephen was taken prisoner at Lincoln on the 2 February, 1141. 
Ascension Day in the second year after that was 14 May, 1143. 

Hoc praesens donum is the second gift the ' incrementum ' of 
Galtuneschalech and Galtunesside witnessed by John the Bishop 
of Glasgow, William the King's nephew, Hugh de Moreville, William 
de Sumerville, and Gervase Ridel. 

Testibus . . . These are the witnesses to the Foundation Charter 
to Melros. Willelmo cancellario shows that it was granted before 
May, 1140. Madd. comes is probably Madach, Earl of Athol. The 
others are well-known English friends of King David ; many of them 
held lands under him in the Earldom of Northampton. 



378 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

CXLII. 

Registr. Vetust. of Melros, in the Adv. Library, Edinburgh. 
Printed in the Liber de Melros, p. 4. 

This is the confirmation by Henry, the King's son and heir, referred 
to in the preceding charter by King David. It was granted some 
years after Earl Henry's marriage in 1139, for he refers to his wife, 
the Countess Ada, and to their sons. The Countess Ada was a 
daughter of William Warrenne, second Earl of Surrey, by Elizabeth 
de Vermandois, formerly the wife of Robert de Beaumont, Earl of 
Leicester. Her mother left her first husband and lived for many 
years with Earl Warrenne, and had eight children by him before she 
married him. 

In 1139 Countess Ada married Henry, Earl of Northumberland, 
only son of David, King of Scots. She got for her dower Haddington 
and Crail. They had six children: Malcolm, born March, 1142 
(King of Scots, 1153-1165) ; William, born 1143 (King of Scots, 1165- 
1214); David, Earl of Huntingdon, born 1144, died 1219; Ada, 
married in 1161 Florence III., Count of Holland ; Margaret, married 
in 1160 Conan III., Duke of Bretagne ; her daughter Constance 
married Geoffrey, son of Henry II., and is the Constance of Shake- 
speare's King John ; Matilda, died unmarried in 1152. 

The Countess Ada was the sister of William, 3rd Earl Warrenne, 
who was killed by the Turks at Laodicea in Jany., 1148, and half- 
sister of Waleran, Count of Meulan, and of Robert, Earl of Leicester. 
Her nephew became Bishop of St. Andrews ; one of her sisters, 
Gundred, married Roger, Earl of Warwick ; a niece married William 
de Blois, a son of King Stephen. Her husband died in 1152; she 
survived him for 26 years, and died in 1178. 

CXLIII. 

Registrum de Dunfermelyn, fol. 6b ; Bannatyne Club edition, p. 10, 
No. 7. 

It appears from this, that before 1147 the canons of Stirling held 
land in Cambuskinel, which owed tithe to the Abbey of Dunfermline ; 
by this the King gave to Dunfermline the tithe of Brixwald's land in 
Atherai in exchange for the tithe of the canons' land in Cambuskinel. 

CXLIV. 

Registrum de Neubotle, Bannatyne Club edition, p. 3, No. 2. 
King David states that he has granted Neubotle in perpetual alms 
to the church and monks of St. Mary's, except two ploughgates which 



NOTES CXLII.-CXLVI. 379 

he had given to Robert the iron-smith. His son Henry assents to and 
confirms the grant. 

The Abbey of Newbattle was the second Cistercian monastery 
founded by King David. Shortly before i November, 1140, the 
monks were brought from Melros with Radulph, who was the first 
Abbot. 

p. in. Neubotle, where the abbey was placed, is in Mid-Lothian, 
on the Esk. 

Robert Ferrario ferrario, erroneously printed Ferrario. He was 
not one of the noble family of de Ferrers, but a local blacksmith. 
The date, I Nov., 1140, corrects the Chron. of Holyrood, which gives 
1141 as the year in which the Abbey of Newbattle was founded. 

Hugo de Moreville, constable. This is his earliest appearance as 
constable. Perhaps Edward the Constable, his predecessor, was 
killed at the battle of the Standard in 1138. 



CXLV. 

The original is in the possession of the Marquis of Lothian. The 
seal is missing. Bannatyne Club edition of the Registrum de Neubotle, 
p. 13, No. 17 ; with a facsimile. 

David, King of Scotland, addressing the bishops, abbots, earls, etc., 
and all the liegemen of his kingdom, French, English, and Scots, 
announces that he has granted to God and to St. Mary of Neubotle 
and to the monks serving God there, Morthwait, described by 
boundaries, to be held "in elemosina." 

p. in. Morthuweit is Moorfoot, an extensive hill district of about 
10 miles in length and 6 miles in breadth in the county of Edinburgh. 
In the next charter it is stated that King David had perambulated the 
boundaries. 

p. 112. Castellum puellarum, Edinburgh Castle. 



CXLVI. 

Registrum de Neubotle, Bannatyne Club edition, p. 14, No. 18. 
King David states that he has granted to the church of St. Mary of 
Neubotle, and the brethren serving God there, Neubotle and Morth- 
wait, which he had perambulated, accompanied by Hugo de Moreville, 
Walter de Rydale, Richard de Castello, Petrus son of Kercambaldus, 
and other barons. He also confirms to the abbey its right to 
Ruchalech, and the land which Robert the blacksmith gave, and a salt- 
pan in Blankeland and pannage in the King's forest and wood for 
building. 



380 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

p. 112. Neubotle: granted by charter CXLIV. Morthwait: granted 
by charter CXLV. Ruchalech was granted by charter CXLVIII., which 
ought to have preceded this. Blankeland probably was on the sea 
coast. 

Totum forestum. There was a tract of uncultivated land on the 
Pentlands and Moorfoot hills which the King held as a forest, and 
in which he here gives a right of pannage and to take timber for 
building. 

Praesentibus testibus. Oswaldo Carliolensis episcopo : the tran- 
scriber made a mistake, Ethelwald was the name of the bishop, 
which is rightly given in Earl Henry's confirmation, No. CXLVII. 



CXLVII. 

Registrum de Neubotle, Bannatyne Club edition, p. 14, No. 19. 

Earl Henry repeats his father's grant, CXLVI., some years later than 
1142. The Abbey of Stirling was not founded until 1147. Alwyn 
resigned the Abbacy of Holyrood in 1150, about which time Osbert 
the Prior became Abbot of Jedburgh. 



CXLVIII. 

Registrum de Neubotle, Bannatyne Club edition, p. 3, No. I. 

King David grants Ruchale to the monks of Neubotle. On the 
margin of the Register is written " Situs Monasterii." Ruchale is the 
same as Ruchalech in charters CXLVI. and CXLVII. 

p. 114. Alwyn, Abbot of Edinburgh, 1128-1150. Gilbert the Prior. 
There is no Prior Gilbert mentioned in the Charters of Holyrood ; 
probably he was Prior of Newbattle. Edward the Chancellor. 
Edward became chancellor after William Cumyn ceased to hold the 
office, when he went to England to take forcible possession of the 
Bishopric of Durham, Edward remained chancellor until he was 
elected Bishop of Aberdeen. Edward the Chancellor was a witness 
to charters on pp. 115, 119, 120, 121, 122, 124, 131, 136, 138, 140, 141. 
He was succeeded in the chancellorship by Jordan, who held the office 
for a short time, and was succeeded by Walter de Bidun. 



CXLIX. 

Registrum de Neubotle, Bannatyne Club edition, p. 131, No. 162 ; 
endorsed "Carta Reg. DD. de Salina in Carsa." 

King David grants to the brethren of Neubotle a saltpan in 
Kalentyr Callendar, in Stirlingshire, on the Forth. This was con- 
firmed by King Malcolm IV. (p. 131, No. 163) with the addition of a 
common easement in pastures and waters and fuel for the saltpan from 



NOTES CXLVI.-CL. 381 

the wood of Kalentyr with common pasture, free of all custom and 
secular exaction. The monks of Newbattle became owners of many 
saltpans. King Malcolm IV. granted to the monks the arable land 
which they had in Kalentyr in perpetual alms, paying therefor to the 
King's 'Bondi 3 four shillings sterling annually. King Alexander II., 
on the occasion of the dedication of the church of St. Mary of 
Neubotle, confirmed its right to saltpans, the brethren of Torphichen 
and the nuns of Manuel received a payment from the rents of these, 
which payment the King engaged to make in the future. King 
Alexander by another charter (No. 166, p. 133) assigned to the 
Abbey of Neubotle four marks annually from the rents of his 
saltpans in the Carse. David de Lindesay granted to the abbey the 
saltpan which King William granted to William de Lindesay, his 
grandfather. The monks took on lease, for twenty shillings a year 
from the Abbey of Dunfermline, the saltpan lying between that of the 
monks of Kelso and that of the canons of Cambuskenneth ; Newbattle 
also took on lease from the Abbey of Kelso its saltpan for half a mark 
a year, and a saltpan from the master and brethren of the Temple 
(at Blantrodoch) for fifteen shillings a year. The abbey continued to 
increase its salt works, for it got from Nicolas de Sules the saltpan 
in the Carse of Callendar, which Walter, son of Alan the Steward, 
gave to him. In 1255 the Abbot and Convent of Neubotle leased 
to the Abbey of Holyrood two saltpans which they held of Walter 
Olyfard and Sir David Cumyn (Reg. de Neubotle, p. 135, No. 171). 



CL. 

Registrum de Neubotle, Bannatyne Club edition, p. 4, No. 4. 

A grant by the Abbot and Convent of Holyrood to the Abbot 
and Convent of Newbattle of the land of Ruenhale instead of the 
land of Dalkeith which Holyrood received from the King. 

p. 114. Alwynus was the first abbot of Holyrood. Father Hay 
(Dipl., 280, Charters of Holyrood, Preface, p. xviii) said of him : 
" Alewynus, Sancti David regis confessor : scripsit is homilias pias 
lib. i. epistolas ad di versos lib. i. Dempst. Cultu publico fato 
functus venerabatur, populi frequentia, beneficia nee frustra postulantis, 
invocato etiam in litaniis ejus auxilio. Ejus meminit liber diplomatum 
de Newbotle, ad pag. 257 ubi Alwynus dicitur. Communi accla- 
matione totius populi censetur Sanctorum Albo ascriptus. Excitatum 
super corpus ejus altare, qui mos canonizandi Sanctorum turn erat 
receptus, nondum edita Alexandri III. constitutione. Eo vivo, Rex 
utensilibus Fanum locupletavit : alii donaria et redditus contulerunt. 
Dempsterus tradit ecclesiam contemplatione abreptum, curae re- 
nunciasse, anno 1141." That date, 1141, is a mistake, because the 
Chronica S. Crucis states that he resigned in 1150. Chalmers, 



382 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

Caledon., 2, p. 753, says that the abbot died in 1155 ; but he gives no 
authority. Abbot Alwyn was a witness to charters, pp. 113, 117, 147, 
152, 158, 181, 186. 

Ruenhale may be Ruchale, or Ruchalec, which King David 
granted to Newbattle by charters CXLVII. and CXLVIIL, p. 113. 
The land in Dalkeith was granted to Holyrood by King David in 
exchange for ' Rhuchale' by charter CLX., p. 122. 



CLI. 

The original is in the Charter Chest of the Marquis of Lothian at 
Newbattle. It is printed in the Bannatyne Club edition of the 
Regist. de Neubotle, p. 5, No. 5, with a facsimile, and in Holyrood 
Charters, p. 9, No. 7. It is endorsed " de remotione de Pettendrei." 

Alwyn, Abbot of Holyrood, announces to the King, and to the 
bishops, earls, and barons of Scotland, that he and his chapter had 
acknowledged to Ralph the Abbot and Convent of Newbattle, with the 
approval of King David, that the vill of Pittendreia should never be 
moved nearer towards Newbattle than it was on the day when the 
convent first went there. 

p. 115. Ralph Abbot. Mr. Cosmo Innes in the Preface to the 
Register of Newbattle, said : " Father Hay, not speaking loosely after 
his usual manner, but evidently founding on some monastic authority 
which has not been preserved to us, narrates the numerous privileges 
and gifts which this Abbot obtained for his convent and his consecra- 
tion of a cemetery within a precinct of the monastery. The Abbot," 
he says, " was a person of beautiful presence. He was continually 
occupied in divine meditation, for from his youth he had loved his 
Creator with all his heart. It is said that once, while he was engaged 
in prayer in his cell, the devil appeared to him, blacker than pitch. 
Abbot Ralph assisted at the settlement of a controversy concerning 
the Crag of Treverlen between the Abbots of Holyrood and Kelso, 
some time before the year 1 1 50. In the last year of the pontificate of 
Innocent II. he obtained a bull, confirming to Neubotle the general 
Cistercian privilege of immunity of lands in their own occupation from 
tithes, and ratifying the grants already made to the new abbey, 
especially those of King David and his son, Earl Henry. Of his 
death we have no record." 

Pettendreia, Pittendreich, near Lasswade, was the property of the 
Abbey of Holyrood (charter CLIIL, ante, p. 117). It was leased in 
1377 to Sir James de Douglas. 

Proprius is a clerical error for 'propius.' 

Fundata enim . . . The Chronica de Mailros, p. 71, states under 
the year 1140 " Facta est abbatia de Neubotle." The editor of that 
chronicle in a note says : " Fordun I., 296, agrees with this date 
(1140), but it is placed a year later by a chronicle of little authority 
in the Harl. MS., 2363, fol. 46 b." Keith says 1140. The charter 
CXLIV. to the abbey is dated November, 1 140. 



NOTES CL.-CLIII. 383 

cm. 

The original was in the Panmure Charter Chest. Printed in the 
Charters of Holyrood, Bannatyne Club edition, p. 10, No. 8. 

Norman, the Sheriff of Berwick, addressing all his men of Crostorfin, 
announces that he has granted in perpetual alms to the Holy Rood of 
Edinburgh, and to the abbot and brethren serving God there, his 
chapel of Crostorfin. 

p. 115. Normannus Vicecomes de Berwic was a witness to charters 
pp. 79, 105, 119, 140, 147. 

Crostorfin, 3 miles west of Edinburgh, named probably from a 
cross erected by Torphin. The chapel was dependent on the church 
of St. Cuthbert in Edinburgh. It had two bovates and six acres 
of land. The chapel was disjoined from St. Cuthbert's in the 
reign of Alexander II. and was made a separate parish; the 
church remained the property of the Abbey of Holyrood till the 
Reformation. The barony of Crostorfin, in the reign of Alexander 
II., belonged to the King's Marshal. David, the King's Marshal, 
gave a part of his land in exchange for two acres which belonged 
to the chapel (Holyrood Charters, p. 215). Sir David the Marshal 
was forfeited in the reign of David II., when the lands passed 
to Sir William More of Abercorn (Rob., Chart., 120). They 
were sold (temp. Robert II.) to Adam Forrester. Sir John Forrester 
founded the church of St. John, which in 1429 was made a collegiate 
church. 

Edward the Chancellor, see note to CXLVIII. Turold the Arch- 
deacon, note to LXXXL, p. 68. Richard the cleric of Edinburgh, 
pp. 69, 103. 

CLIII. 

The original charter is the property of the City of Edinburgh. It 
was printed with a large facsimile in the Charters of Holyrood, 
Bannatyne Club edition, p. I, and in I Act. Parl. Scot., p. 358. 

It is a confirmation by King David of the lands, rights, and 
privileges, of the Abbey of Holyrood. There was a tradition that on 
the festival of the Exaltation of the Cross, after mass, King David 
went hunting, contrary to the advice of Alwyn, his confessor. In the 
forest under Arthur's Seat the King was attacked by a stag which had 
between his antlers a holy cross, which the King took, and the stag 
vanished at the Rood Well. That same night, by a vision in his sleep 
the King was admonished to build an Abbey of Canons Regular at the 
place where the stag surrendered the holy cross to him. He obeyed 
the directions of the vision ; canons were brought, and Alwyn the con- 
fessor was appointed the first abbot. At first the canons were lodged 
in the castle ; in 1128 the foundations of the abbey were laid on the 
present site. 



384 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

This charter was written some years after the church was conse- 
crated, when the canons, under their first abbot, Alwyn, were in 
residence. Though the charter is undoubtedly genuine, all the 
witnesses cannot have been present together ; they may be those 
who attested the separate grants of which this is a confirmation. 
For instance, Edward the Chancellor was not a contemporary of 
Gillemichael the Earl, nor of Gospatric the brother of Dolfin ; both of 
these were dead before Edward became Chancellor. 

p. 1 1 6. The words "assensu Henrici filii mei et episcoporum regni 
mei comitum quoque baronum confirmatione et testimonio, clero etiam 
acquiescente et populo " do not imply a meeting of the estates of the 
realm, at which the question of approval was put ; they seem, to me, 
to be a statement by the King that all the people of his kingdom 
approved. 

Ecclesia . . . castelli. The King, some years before, had granted 
to the church and canons of Holyrood the church of the Castle of 
Edinburgh ; that grant (if it was in writing) has not been preserved. 

Examen duelli was a grant of jurisdiction. The priory of Scon 
had a grant of jurisdiction "scilicet in duello in ferro in fossa et in 
omnibus aliis libertatibus ad curiam pertinentibus." Only the 
superior Courts had right to allow the wager of battle or the 
ordeal of fire or water. In these higher courts the King's Justiciar 
sat to see that justice was done. The grant of the right to allow 
the ordeals, the ' examen duellii,' etc., was an extension of the 
right given in ordinary Baronial Courts. 

Salectunia, or ' Saletunia,' is a plantation of willows. 

Liberton, a parish of 6600 acres, 2.\ miles S.E. of Edinburgh. The 
church of Liberton was a chapel of St. Cuthbert's. It was served by 
a chaplain appointed by the canons of Holyrood. The land of Upper 
Liberton, with the church, in the reign of David I., belonged to 
Macbead ; his grant of the chapel and of two bovates of land and 
of rights in Legbernard has not been preserved ; it is here confirmed 
by the King. It is not clear what were the rights "tarn de vivis 
quam de mortuis de Legbernard." Chalmers 2, p. 780, says Leg- 
bernard cannot now be traced, but later investigations have made it 
probable that Legbernard is Leadburn in the parish of Penicuik. 
Sir Gregory de Malvilla granted to the monks of Neubotle a stone 
of wax yearly from the rents of his lands of Legbernard. The King 
owned another part of Liberton, for in this same charter King 
David granted to the canons 30 cart-loads of bush, I presume for 
firewood. The mill of Liberton belonged to the Crown, and grants 
of chalders of barley and meal and of money from the mill were 
made by David I. and by William the Lion (p. 170, etc.). Macbead 
of Liberton witnessed three charters by King David : Holyrood 3 
(p. 8) and 6 (p. 9) and Neubotle i. There was in later times a family 
of ' de Liberton.' 

King David's grant of the church of Hereth (Airth) is preserved, the 
King added to the endowment by giving a saltpan and 26 acres of land, 
which he and 'probi homines' ' perambulated,' he also gave permission 



NOTES CLIII. 385 

to the canons to have a mill there and to enjoy all the rights which 
the King had in his demesne. 

p. 117. Broughton lay between Edinburgh and Leith. 
Inverleith. This is now the burgh of Leith, and probably included 
what was afterwards called Newhaven. 

Petendreiam, Pittendreich, near Lasswade. When the King gifted 
land adjoining to it to the Abbey of Newbattle, the Abbot of Holy- 
rood engaged to preserve the then existing boundary. In 1377 the 
abbey leased it to Sir James Douglas of Dalkeith. 

Hamere, Whitekirk, in East Lothian. The church was dedicated 
to the Blessed Virgin. Robert, Bishop of St. Andrews, confirmed the 
right of the canons to the church of Hamere with all its appurten- 
ances, and Hamera and Forda with their right boundaries. Richard, 
Bishop of St. Andrews, confirmed the right to the church. William 
the Lion confirmed Hamera and Forda, with the boundaries, and 
the church of the same vill, with everything which belonged to 
it, as the charter of Robert, the Bishop of St. Andrews, witnessed. 
Alexander III. confirmed " Brochtun et Hameram." 

Fordam : Forda, a land in Whitekirk, where, it seems, there was an 
hospital for travellers. In 1611, John Lord of Holyrood House was 
served heir of his father in the lands of Whitekirk and Furde. 

Quadraginta solidos de meo burgo de Ewinesburg : a clerical error 
for Edwinesburg. I copied from the Charters of Holyrood ; but it is 
Edwinesburg in the original. The grant was confirmed by William 
the Lion and by Robert I. 

Cano meo de Pert. If the King's can from ships at Perth did not 
amount to the large sum of one hundred shillings, that sum was to be 
made up by an additional forty shillings from the rent of Edinburgh, 
forty shillings from that of Perth, and twenty shillings from that of 
Stirling. The King granted tofts in Stirling, Edinburgh, Berwick, 
and Renfrew. 

Scypwel : a fishing in the Tweed. 

Particarum : an error for ' perticarum. 5 

Allechtia is a misspelling of 'allecia. Allecium,' a herring. Though 
' ibi ' in this charter refers to Renfrew, herring are so essentially sea 
fish that it is doubtful whether they ever came so far up the river 
Clyde. In the foundation charter to the Abbey of Paisley, Walter's son 
Alan grants " vi retia ad allecia capienda." The Leges Burgorum, 
No. 9, and the Statuta Gildae, Nos. 26, 27, 41, regulate the sale 
of ' allec ' or ' alleces,' which is translated ' herring ' in the old Scots 
version. In the confirmation of this charter to Holyrood by King 
William, the words " et ibi piscari ad allechtia," etc., are omitted, and 
though the Bull of Pope Eugenius mentions the toft in Renfrew, it 
says nothing of fishings either of salmon or herring. 

p. 118. Camera. Mr. Cosmo Innes, in a note to the Preface to the 
Act. Parl. Scot., says : '"Camera regis' in early Scotch charters, as in the 
writings of the Continent, was the technical name for the Treasury." 
The King's Camerarius was a frequent witness, and to him doubtless 
were paid the King's rents and can, etc. 

2 B 



386 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

The other privileges granted to the Abbey of Holyrood are numerous 
and varied. 

Although the early kings of Scotland had only a precarious tenure of 
Argyll and the Western Islands, King David here granted to Holyrood 
a half of the tithe of the can, pleas and gains of the Crown in Kentyr 
and Errogeil, which was confirmed by King William the Lion, King 
Robert Bruce, and by subsequent kings till James II. in 1450. A little 
later than this grant to Holyrood, King David granted the other half 
of the tithe of Kentyr to the Abbey of Dunfermline, which grant was 
confirmed by subsequent kings. King David granted the tithe of the 
royal can, pleas and gains of Argyll to the Priory of Urchard in 
Morayshire. 

The canons availed themselves of the license to build and create a 
burgh on the land between the church of Holyrood and the King's 
burgh of Edinburgh by making the burgh of the Canongate. Within 
their burgh the burgesses had the same rights of buying and selling in 
the King's market as the King's burgesses had. 

p. 119. Theloneo . . . consuetudine : is a complete exemption from 
toll and custom throughout the kingdom. 

Pandum is the same as ' namum ' ; ' pandum capere,' to take pledges 
or to distrain. 

Sicut episcopus . . . habent. Very little is known of the jurisdic- 
tion of these courts. The style "Abbot of Kelso" shows that this 
charter was granted after Kelso was founded in 1128. For several 
years after its foundation the abbot was called the Abbot of Rox- 
burgh. The Priory of Dunfermline was not raised to the rank of an 
abbacy until 1128. 

His testibus. These witnesses were not all contemporaries. Robert 
de Monte Acuto was a witness to the Great Charter of Dunfermline 
along with Herbert the Chancellor and Constantine, Earl of Fife. 
Peter de Brus and Turstanus de Crectune do not appear in any other 
record of King David's reign. Oggu and Leising were 'judices 
Cumbrenses 3 as early as 1120. It seems to me probable that when 
the canons of Holyrood applied for a general charter of confirma- 
tion, they sent to the Chancellor their written grants of lands and 
privileges and that these were embodied in this confirmation ; the list 
of witnesses here being a selection from the names of the witnesses of 
each of the older grants. 



CLIV. 

The original has not been preserved. It was printed from the Small 
Chartulary of Durham by Dr. Raine, N. Durham, App., p. 6, No. xxv. 

It is a mandate to the Sheriff of Berwick and his officers to place 
and keep Edward the monk of Coldingham in quiet possession of the 
tithe of the fishing of Halwarestelle and of all waters justly belonging 
to the church of St. Cuthbert of Holyland. In a short letter (p. 137) 



NOTES CLIII.-CLV. 387 

King David requested Edward 'the monk' of Coldingham to send him 
wood to Berwick. 

p. 120. Halwarestelle was a fishing in the Tweed. 'Stelle' was a 
word for a fishing (pp. 85, 169) in a river. Aldstelle and Woodhornstelle 
are the names of other fishings in the Tweed ; "piscatio Coldsteill" is 
mentioned in the Berwickshire Retours, No. 283. 



CLV. 

Cartae Prioratus Insulae de May, Dr. Stuart's edition, p. 3, No. 4. 
It is in the Chartulary of Reading : " Carta Davidis Regis Scotiae de 
donatione Pendevven et Inverin ecclesiae de Mai." 

King David grants Petneweme and Inverin to the church and 
brethren of May. 

The islet of the May in the Firth of Forth, six miles south of 
the Fife coast, is a mile long by three-quarters of a mile broad. 
The tradition was that Adrian, a Hungarian, with a large com- 
pany, converted many of the people of central Scotia in the ninth 
century, and that he was killed on the island of May by the Danes 
circa A.D. 875. Wyntoun, VI. 8, line 629 : 

" And apon Haly Thurysday 
Saynt Adriane thai slewe in May 
Wyth mony off hys cumpany 
In to that haly He thai ly." 

In the Breviary of Aberdeen (Skene, Chron. Pict. and Scot., p. 425) : 
"In prefata insulade Maya ad honorem Dei omnipotentis Sanctorum- 
que ejus martyrum egregio lapideo tabulatu antiquitus structum monas- 
terium fuerat, quod ab Anglorum gente bellorum insultu destructum 
est, sed ibidem hactenus restat ecclesia saepe a fideli populo propter 
tot virtutum prodigia indies frequentata, ubi mulieres spe prolium 
habendi venientes non defraudantur, restat insuper ibi cimiterium quam 
celebre ubi illius et supercelestis chorus roseo sanguine candidati 
legionis corpora requiescunt." 

It is probable that on the isle of May in the beginning of the twelfth 
century there was a small fraternity of Culdees or monks of the old 
Scottish Church. King David granted the Priory of May to the 
Cluniac Abbey of Reading, probably after 1135, when his brother-in- 
law, King Henry I., was buried in that abbey. May was granted to 
Reading " in liberam et puram elemosinam . . . ita . . . quod eidem 
monachi et successores sui Prioratu praedicto per novem de co- 
monachis suis sacerdotibus pro anima praefati Regis David et anima- 
bus predecessorum et successorum suorum regum Scotiae divina 
celebrantibus in perpetuum facerent deservire." 



388 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

The monastery on the May stood in a hollow on the south-east 
of the island, protected by higher ground to the west. After the 
priory became a cell of Reading, the priors were appointed by the 
English abbey ; more than one of the priors were promoted to the 
abbacy ; later the monks of Reading leased the priory to the canons 
of St. Andrews for a rent of ten merks a year. Towards the end 
of the thirteenth century the lease was assigned to the Bishop of St. 
Andrews, and the connection of May and Pittenweem with the Abbey 
of Reading ceased. A convent was built at Pittenweem, and the 
monks deserted 'the May,' leaving a priest there. It was a place 
of pilgrimage till the Reformation. In 1503, 1505, 1506, and 1507, 
King James V. visited the island and gave alms to the priest of May. 
In 1508 the hermit of May brought a seal to the King, and got a 
present of fourteen pence. 

p. 1 20. Inverin quae fuit Averni. Formerly it was supposed that 
Averin was the old name of the place, which had been changed to 
Inverin, showing a change from the Pictish to the Celtic language ; 
but a closer reading of the record showed that Avernus was the name 
of the former owner. Inverin is now called St. Monan's. The Priory 
of May did not retain it. Morgrund, Earl of Mar, granted part of 
Inverin to the Priory of St. Andrews (Reg. P. S. A., p. 284), and 
William Cumyn and his wife, the Countess of Buchan, granted half a 
mark from another part of Inverin to the same priory (ib. p. 282). 



CLVI. 

Cartae Prioratus Insulae de May, No. 5, and Chartulary of Reading 
headed " Carta ejusdem de communitate nemoris de Clacmanet." 

King David, addressing his bishops, earls, sheriffs, officials, the 
gilleserfs of Clackmannan, and all his liegemen, informs them that he 
has granted to Achardus the Prior and to the brethren of May, in alms 
a common right in the wood of Clackmannan. 

Gilleserfis. Dr. Stuart, the editor of the Cartae Prior, de May, says : 
" The term refers to certain officers in the shire of Clackmannan known 
as the servants of St. Serf, and it is the only instance of which I am 
aware where such a designation occurs in a Scotch charter. . . . That 
the district around Clackmannan was connected with St. Serf at 
an early period . . . seems plain from various circumstances. . . . The 
term ' gilleserfis ' might be applied to the occupants of lands which 
formerly belonged to a monastery of St. Serf." 

p. 121. Clackmanec was part of the demesne lands of the Crown. To 
the Abbey of Cambuskenneth was granted the church and forty acres 
of land ; there are frequent references to the ' nemus,' which remained 
a forest in 1382, when it was in the possession of Sir Robert Erskine. 



NOTES CLV.-CLX. 389 



CLVII. 

Registrum de Dunfermelyn, fol. 6 a ; Bannatyne Club edition, p. 9, 
No. 5. 
Grant of Crefbarrin by King David to the Abbey of Dunfermline. 

p. 121. Crefbarry is Carberry in Mid-Lothian ; it was part of Inver- 
esk. This grant was confirmed by Malcolm IV., William I., 
Alexander II., Alexander III., and James II. (Reg. de Dunf., pp. 19, 
28, 40, 46, 321), and by Popes Lucius and Gregory IX. The 'boscum 
de Crebarrin ' is mentioned ib. p. 103. The Abbot and convent were 
the overlords ; the lands were held by a family of the same name. 
Shortly before the Reformation Carberry was feued to Mr. Hugh 
Rigg : the Rigg family held Carberry for several generations. 



CLVIII. 

Registrum de Dunfermelyn, fol. 7 a ; Bannatyne Club edition, p. 13, 
No. 20. It is headed " De muliere leuif et suis fugitivis." 
p. 121. Suos fugitives, clerical error for ' suis fugitivis.' 
It is a mandate by King David to all his liegemen that wherever H. 
leuif may be able to find any fugitives they shall be justly restored to 
her, and that no one unjustly detain them. 



CLIX. 

Liber de Calchou, fol. 142 ; Maitland Club edition, p. 298, No. 375. 
Grant by the King to the Abbey of Kelso of a saltpan in the 
Carse of Stirling, on the Forth. 



CLX. 

From the Charters of Holyrood, p. 9, No. 6. The original was in 
the Charter Chest of Lord Panmure. This should have been printed 
before CL. 

The King granted Ruchale to Newbattle by charter No. CXLVIII. 
(p. 113), but he found that it already had been granted to Holyrood, 
and now he compensates Holyrood for the loss of Ruchale by a grant 
of fifty-two acres in Dalkeith and the tithe of the mills of Dene and 
of his burgh of Edinburgh and of Liberton. In the Great Charter to 
Holyrood (No. CLIII., p. 118) the grant is of the tithe of the mills 
of Libertune and of Dene and of the new mill of Edinburgh. 



390 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 



CLXI. 

Cartae Insulae de May, Stuart's edition, No. i., p. i,from Rot. Cart. 
35, Edw. L, No. 31, per Inspeximus ; Chartulary of Reading : " Carta 
Davidis Regis Scotiae de donatione manerii de Rindalgros." 

King David, addressing his venerable brethren and friends E the 
abbot and Sir Briencius and the whole convent of Reading, announces 
that for the weal of his soul and for their needs he grants to God and 
to the church of St. Mary and to the convent of Reading, Rindalgros, 
within the boundaries which the King, William Giffard, Herbert the 
Chamberlain and others had perambulated, to be held in perpetual 
alms, free from all claims, as freely as any abbacy in the king- 
dom holds its possessions. If the King or his heirs should so add to 
the gift that a monastery can be maintained, Reading shall establish 
a convent at Rindalgros. 

I have given as an approximate date 1143-1147, believing these to 
be the years in which Edward was chancellor. 

p. 123. Rindalgros is Rhind, a parish in Perthshire, at the junction 
of the Earn and the Tay. There is a mandate by King David (repeated 
by King Malcolm IV.) to the men of the Sheriffdom of Perth to pay 
the tithes due to the monks. No monastery was built at Rindalgros ; 
the tithes and the patronage of the church passed to the Priory of 
May, and afterwards to the Priory of St. Andrews, and were included 
in a lease to the Commendator on 2 September, 1552 (Cartae Insulae 
de May, p. cii). The lands of Rhind were feued out in 1535 and 1542 
to George and John Moncreiff, the tenants, whose lands had suffered 
by an inundation. 



CLXII. CLXIII. CLXIV. 

These three charters by Robert, Bishop of St. Andrews, King 
David, and Earl Henry, establish, endow, and confirm the rights of 
the Priory of St. Andrews. They are taken from the Register of the 
Priory, Bannatyne Club edition, pp. 122, 189, 192. 

The Bishop's charter is dated 1144 ; those of the King and the Earl 
were granted shortly afterwards. The Legend of St. Andrew, written 
about A.D. 1279, gives an account of the circumstances under which 
these charters were granted. Robert, Bishop of St. Andrews, had at 
first no cathedral and no chapter. The altar offerings and the en- 
dowments of the church of St. Andrew were divided into seven por- 
tions, which probably represented the seven churches which tradition 
(Chron. P. and S., p. 187) said were originally founded in Chilrymont, 



NOTES CLXI.-CLXIV. 391 

viz. : of St. Regulus, St. Aneglas the Deacon, St. Michael the Arch- 
angel, the Virgin Mary, St. Damian, St. Brigid, Muren a Holy 
Virgin. Of these seven portions the Bishop had devoted one to 
the building of the church probably the chapel of St. Rule. 
The amount was small, but by the help of the King gifts were 
received from the laity, and the work progressed. It is probable 
that the other portions were held by Culdees who opposed the 
Bishop. To assist him, Bishop Robert obtained from Adelwaldus, 
Bishop of Carlisle, Robert, a canon of St. Oswald's, as Prior of St. 
Andrews. When Prior Robert went to St. Andrews he had no clergy 
to assist in the service ; he remained patient. The King and his 
son Henry the Earl, accompanied by many earls and magnates 
of the realm, went to St. Andrews in the year 1144 to pray. Next 
day, after mass, the King going into the cloister, "such as it then 
was," proposed to the Bishop that part of the endowment of the 
Bishopric should be set apart for the support of the clergy of the 
church. The Bishop answered that it was not lawful for him to deprive 
his successors of lands which had been given to the see. The King 
replied that it would be sufficient if the Bishop gave the 'Cursus Apri,' 
which he could lawfully do, because the lands of the Boar's chase had 
been granted by King Alexander I., not to the bishopric, but in order 
that religion should be established in the church of St. Andrews. King 
David and his son promised to assent to the appropriation of the 
Cursus Apri. The Bishop yielded to the King's request; he did 
more, because "quasi sponte coactus" he gave two-sevenths of the 
altar oblations ; these two-sevenths were " de terris personarum quae 
abeuntibus eis in manum ejus obvenerant." 

The first of the new canons was Robert, the uterine brother of the 
Bishop, who renounced the world and placed himself in the hands ot 
Prior Robert, giving his church of Tyningham and fifty shillings a 
year to the church. 

The lands 'Balrimund' and others were in Fifeshire in the Cursus 
Apri. Martyn (St. Andrews, p. 93) : " The Cursus Apri i.e. the Boar's 
run or the Boar's chase is hard to be defined and bounded now . . . 
it would seem that (it) contains all the lands from Pitmillie inclusive to 
the New Miln at Dairsie, that is from east to west about eight miles in 
length, and in breadth two, three, four, five miles in some places." 

The next Bishop, Ernald, by a charter, in November, 1160, granted 
"Omnem oblationem altaris sui quam in septem partes divisam 
personae septem non communiter viventes tenuerunt quondam prae- 
dictis canonicis regularem vitam professis et in communem degentibus 
totam integram illibatamque rationabili provisione et necessaria con- 
cedendam esse decrevimus. Quern qui altari deserviunt et de altaris 



392 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

vivere debent neque secundum regulares clericales ibi oblationum 
portiones fieri debent ubi communitas viventum unum facit quo- 
damodo omne quod possidet." 

The lands in King David's confirmation are the same as those in 
the Bishop's charter, with the addition of * Balgoua ' ; the spelling is 
rather different, ex grat. Barrimund and Balrimund, Castdouenald and 
Gastduvenald, Chinemone and Kinnamone, etc. 

Wyth consent off Dawy yhyng 

Hys ayre, nest for to be Kyng, 

Hys brodyr, and Erie off Huntyngtown, 

At Sanctandrewys religyowne 

Fra thine to be gave his gud will. 

And this purpos to fulfill, 

The Barys Rayk in regale 

To the Kyrk the Kyng gave hale. 

Wyntoun, vn., v., line 674 et seq. 

p. 125. Hospital of St. Andrews. This hospital was founded "in 
susceptione hospitum et peregrinorum," and the Bishop, in addition to 
giving to it one-seventh of the altar offerings, endowed it with a half 
of the tithe of his ploughs and cows and sheepfolds and piggeries and 
horses in the parish of the Holy Trinity, and the tithe of the Bishop's 
can from the same parish, and his tithe from Bladebolg and other places, 
which is brought to St. Andrews. The ' vetus Hospitium' was 
afterwards occupied by the Prior as his principal residence. About 
1512 the Prior of St. Andrews founded St. Leonard's College and 
endowed it with the revenues of the hospital. 

Omnes libros nostros. It seems strange that the Bishop should give 
all his books ; doubtless he intended to found a Cathedral Library. 

p. 126. Ego Thoraldus . . . confirmo. These words probably were 
written with a cross by the Archdeacon himself. King David does 
little more than confirm the Bishop's gifts. The land Balgoua in the 
King's charter is omitted in that of the Bishop. The King gives the 
church of Linlithgow. There is a charter (ante, p. 90) of that church 
to the canons of St. Andrews, which I wrongly dated circa 1138 ; as I 
have explained in the note to that charter, I think it is a forgery: I 
printed the genuine charter which was granted after 1144, and before 
the King confirmed the Bishop's grants. A mark of silver from the 
King's rent from Perth was given to light the church before the founda- 
tion of the Priory. The charter giving a fishing in Berwick is printed 
ante, p. 132, and the charter of the fishing in the Tay, ante, p. 133. 

p. 127. Curiam suam. This is the usual grant of jurisdiction to the 
Prior's Court. 

Foregrund. The charter granting this church ante, p. 182. 

Namum capiat. The grant is printed ante, p. 56. 

Materiem in bosco meo de Clackmanan, ante, p. 151. 

The King's charter was granted at the same time as No. CCL., ante, 
p. 201. 



NOTES CLXIV.-CLXV. 393 

The confirmation by Earl Heniy, No. CLXiv., is remarkable only 
because in it the Earl styles himself "Deo propitio haeres et rex 
designatus." 

p. 128. XL solidos de meo chan de navibus de Perth, charter ante, 
p. 201. 



CLXV. 

Registr. Prior. S. Andreae, fol. 20 a ; Bannatyne Club edition, p. 47 ; 
2 Concil., 123. 

This is a Bull by Pope Lucius II., dated 14 May, 1144, confirming 
the grants by Robert, Bishop of St. Andrews, to the Prior and canons 
and giving the papal benediction and protection to the priory. 

p. 130. Of the cardinals who concur and attest, Conradus de 
Suburra, Cardinal Bishop, was made a Cardinal by his uncle, Pope 
Honorius II. in 1126. Theoduuinus Germanus (Theoduuninus is an 
error) was made a Cardinal by Pope Innocent II. in 1135, and died in 
1153. Albericus Belluacensis, Gallns, was a Cluniac monk, appointed 
Bishop of Ostia in 1 135, and Cardinal in 1138. Pope Innocent II. sent 
him as a legate to England. " His legate, Alberic, Bishop of Ostia, re- 
quested permission to pass through England, that he might announce 
to the Scottish people the undisputed right of Innocent to the Papal 
throne. The royal consent could not be refused. . . . But it soon 
became apparent that the Bishop of Ostia had clandestinely obtained 
admission into England to further the designs of the Bishop of 
Winchester. The legate, contrary both to canon and precedent, took 
it upon himself to hold visitations in the monasteries and collegiate 
churches of England. . . . Having felt his way, and having found 
that he did not meet with the resistance he expected, the legate 
undertook to convene a synod . . . which met at Westminster on the 
13 December, 1138." Theobald was elected Archbishop of Canter- 
bury. " The legate and Henry of Blois, though defeated in their 
object, were too wise to show any resentment. They entertained no 
unfriendly feelings towards Theobald. They officia'ted at his con- 
secration on 8 January, 1139, and in company with the Bishop of 
Ostia, the new Archbishop proceeded to Rome to receive his pall." 

Frater Ymarus, Gallus, monachus Cluniacensis, Episcopus Cardi- 
nalis Tusculanus, was made a Cardinal by Innocent II. in 1142: 
" Legatione functus est in Anglia Lucii II. Romani Pontificis jussu ;" he 
died in 1164. Petrus de Papareschis, brother of Pope Innocent 
I L, Episcopus Cardinalis Albanus, made a Cardinal by Innocent II. 
in 1142. Magister Gilbertus, Presbyter Cardinalis titulo Sancti Marci 
Evangelistae. Raynerius, Presby. Card, titulo S. Stephani in Coelio 
Monte, created Cardinal by Pope Celestine II. in 1144. 

p. 131. Guido Pisanus ex Comitibus Capronae, Presbyter Cardinalis 
titulo Sanctorum Cosmae et Damiani, made Cardinal by Calixtus II. 
Baro Scriptor Apostolicus et Sanctae Romanae Ecclesiae Sub- 
diaconus Procancellario fuit. 



394 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 



CLXVI. 

In the Chartulary of Reading. "Carta ejusdem de piscibus ven- 
dendis." 

This confers on the monks of May and their men liberty to sell 
their fish in their own harbour, as if in a burgh. The King orders 
that the monks be charged no more on goods bought by them in the 
harbour than is charged on goods bought in the King's burghs. 



CLXVII. 

Chartulary of the Abbey of Reading. " Carta ejusdem de quiet- 
ancea navis monachorum ab omni consuetudine." 

The ship of the monks of May to be free of can and toll and 
custom whenever it arrives in the King's land. No one shall injure 
them or their goods. 

CLXVIII. 

Registrum Prior. S. Andreae, fol. 78 b ; Bannatyne Club edition, 
p. 182. 

King David grants to the Church of St. Andrew in Scotland, and the 
canons serving God there, a fishing in Berwick, and a toft next to the 
church, in alms and free from all secular service. He orders that the 
canons and their men be quit and free of toll, both within and without 
his burghs, and with leave to buy grain and flour in any way they 
like, for their own use. No one may disturb them they are under 
the King's peace and protection. 



CLXIX. 

From the Black Book of St. Andrews, in the City Archives. Printed 
in the first volume of the Act. Parl. Scotiae, Preface, p. 53 (47). 

The Black Book was compiled by John Mutto, clerk of St. 
Andrews: it was described in 1611 as "A memoir and record 
of the infeftments, evidents, and writs made to the said Provost, 
baillies, council, and inhabitants of the said City of St. Andrews and 
their predecessors, by the Bishops and Archbishops thereof, and by 
the Kings of Scotland of old, of their common land, ... the princi- 
pallis quhairoff, be ressoun of the pest, civile and foreyne weir, oft 
times are not extant but destroyit." 



NOTES CLXVI.-CLXIX. 395 

If this be a genuine charter, it shows that King David had given 
to the Bishop of St. Andrews the ' villa ' of St. Andrews ' in elemosina.' 
This villa did not include the Cursus Apri which already belonged 
to the church, nor the land occupied by the Keledei. Probably 
the castle was a 'burh,' which, until the reign of David I., was the 
King's castle. David gave it ' in elemosina ' to the Bishop, with the 
adjacent villa ; and from that time the castle ceased to be the King's ; 
it became the Bishop's castle. The King allowed the Bishop to make 
this villa a burgh, and he gave him Maynard the Flambard, the King's 
own burgess in Berwick. Maynard was rewarded for his pains, by the 
office of prefect, and a grant of three tofts. 

This charter in favour of Maynard is not a charter creating the 
burgh : the fact that the Bishop had founded it is incidentally stated. 
Maynard Flandrensis had been a "proprius burgensis regis," not 
entirely a free man, for the King gave him to the Bishop 'in 
elemosina.' Probably he was specially bound to cultivate the King's 
land in or near Berwick, or to do some onerous service which he 
could not abandon without the King's permission. He may have 
been one of those on whom was laid the duty of maintaining the walls 
of Berwick. 

The Laws of the Burgh show that burgesses could not leave the 
burgh when they pleased : only burgesses who had purchased land 
could sell it and go wherever they liked (see 21 and 42 L.B.). 
Maitland, Doomsday Book and Beyond, p. 199, gives instances of 
exceptional cases where burgesses were free to commend themselves 
to whomever they would. 

Nummus argenti, in classical times, meant a sesterce, the fourth 
part of a penny. Mainard was to pay 16 nummi, and it is explained 
that that was 4d. for each virgate. The Bishop gave three tofts which 
were afterwards granted to the Priory and to the Hospital (pp. 
54, 131, 143, 145, 150, 206, 214, 233). Avicia, Bishop Ernald's sister, 
had a toft which passed to the church of St. Andrew (p. 134); 
we hear of the toft of Peter Flandrensis in North Street, which 
he held of the Hospital of Jerusalem, p. 139, and of a perticate of land 
" in burgo Sancti Andreae in vico australi." Later we read of a toft 
which Robertus de Bonaire held, and another which belonged to 
Cuthbert the Dean, and a perticate of land which Will. Brunus held, 
and a toft which Master Herbert held, p. 152. Adam the son of 
Odo held a land in the town " de priore et conventu," which he sold 
to John the Prior and the Convent for 40 marks of silver, " inter viam 
qui ducit a vico australi ad aquam fluentem ad abbaciam ex una parte 
et Hospitale St. Leonardi ex altera," p. 281. There was a sale of a 
land in the villa (p. 285) Teste tota curia Burgensium Sc. And. ; the 



396 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

brethren of the Temple of the Lord in Jerusalem held three tofts 
(p. 124), and there is a record of the tofts of Elgar, of Arnald and of 
William Cocus. 

Maitland (Doomsday Book and Beyond) says, p. 200, " Traces are 
few in Doomsday Book of any property which can be regarded as the 
property of a nascent municipal corporation, or even of any which can 
be called the joint or common property of the burgesses. In general 
each burgess holds his house in the town of the King, or of some 
other lord by a several title, and if he has land in the neighbouring 
fields, this also he holds by a several title," and this, I think, was the 
case in St. Andrews. 

p. 133. His testibus. The name of the Prior is omitted, but he must 
have been Robert, who held the priory from about 1140 till 1162. 
Willelmus Torreld was probably William, the son of Thorald, who 
was a witness to a charter by Waldeve the son of Gospatric (Reg. 
Dunfermelyn, p. 94). He had a son Alexander (Reg. Dunf., pp. 34, 
94), who gave two bovates of his land of Ockiltre to the church of St. 
Michael in Linlithgow (Reg. Prior. S. And., p. 321). 



CLXX. 

Registrum Prioratus S. Andreae, fol. 78 b ; Bannatyne Club edition, 
p. 183- 

King David, addressing the bishops, abbots, earls, etc., announces 
that he has granted to the brethren of St. Andrews the right to have a 
net in the Tay where the King's own net fishing is. This was 
granted at Scone in presence of eight of the King's friends, magnates 
of the kingdom. 

CLXXI. 

From a transcript in the Register House, Edinburgh, from the 
original at St. Andrews. 

King David grants to the Hospital of St. Andrews the land of Ken- 
lachyn, free from secular service. This was granted on the same day 
as CLXX., at Scone, in presence of the same witnesses. Robert, 
Bishop of St. Andrews, gave to the Priory (p. 123) " Hospitale Sancti 
Andreae in susceptione hospitum pauperum peregrinorum cum terris 
possessionibus et redditibus eidem Hospitali pertinentibus" (confirmed 
by Pope Alexander III.: R.P.S.A., p. 54; Pope Lucius III., p. 58; 
Gregory VIII., p. 63; Clement III., p. 67; Innocent III., p. 72; 
Honorius III., p. 77; Innocent IV., pp. 92, 99). 

See Note to CLXIV. 



NOTES CLXIX.-CLXXIII. 397 



CLXXII. 

Liber de Calchou, fol. 10 ; Bannatyne Club edition, p. 9, No. 8. 

King David, with the assent of the Bishop of Glasgow, grants to 
the Abbey of Kelso the church and the land of Lesmahagow, free 
from all exaction by, or subjection to, the Bishop, to be a Priory 
under the Abbey. The King grants his firm peace to all who, to 
avoid peril to life or limb, take refuge within the four crosses of the 
cell of Lesmahagow. Dated at Edinburgh in the year 1144. 

p. 135. Lesmahagow is a large parish of 41,500 acres, in the Upper 
Ward of Lanarkshire. The church was dedicated to the Virgin and 
to St. Machutus, who was buried there, and from whom the place 
derived its name. A Priory was built, the Prior had in after years a 
seat in Parliament ; at the Reformation the rental was 1214 45. 6d. 
Scots in money, and 16 chalders of barley, 12 chalders meal, 4 chalders 
oats, and Easter dues amounting to ^i 12 is. 2d. 

p. 136. Quiquidem autem propter vitae vel membri periculum, etc. 
To a certain extent all churches were sanctuaries, from which a man 
in danger of life or limb could not lawfully be taken and punished 
without trial. But there were in Scotland 'girths' which had greater 
privileges as sanctuaries ; of these the ground within the four crosses 
at Lesmahagow was one. A man guilty of a crime punishable by 
death or loss of limb, reaching this girth, was under the King's peace. 
He had to find security that he would appear in the court having 
jurisdiction and stand his trial. In 1335 John of Eltham, a brother of 
Edward III., burned the Priory, in which many had taken refuge. 
The tradition was that King Edward III. took his brother to task for 
this, and when John of Eltham answered angrily, the King struck him 
with his sword, so that he died. John of Eltham died on 5 Oct., 
1336, at Perth. Edward III. left Perth in the end of September of 
that year. The story was believed in Scotland, and was told by 
Fordun and Wyntoun. 

Testibus. The names of the witnesses are omitted in the Liber de 
Calchou ; they have been supplied from a copy of the charter pre- 
served in the Haddington Collection in the Advocates' Library. 
Malcolmo filio comitis et Willelmo fratre ejus were sons of Duncan, 
Earl of Fife. Jordan Hayrun is a witness to charter, ante, p. 186. 
David Olifard, of a Northamptonshire family, was a godson of King 
David, and rescued him at the defeat at Winchester in 1141. He was 
rewarded by a grant of land in Scotland, and was a witness to several 
of King David's charters. 



CLXXIII. 

Liber de Calchou, Bannatyne Club edition, p. 149, No. 180. 

A declaration by John, Bishop of Glasgow, that from kindness, at 
the request of the King, and by the advice of God-fearing men, 
clerics and laymen, and with the assent of his chapter, he confirmed 



398 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

to the abbot and monks of Kelso, the church of Lesmahagow and the 
whole parish, in order that they may place monks there who shall be 
free for ever from episcopal exaction and subjection. Granted in 
presence of King David and many others in the year 1144. 



CLXXIV. 

Mandate to Edward, the monk, to send wood to make the King's 
stack of wood at Berwick. 

p. 137. Calang'. I have not found a place of this name. 



CLXXV. 

Liber de Calchou, Bannatyne Club edition, p. 301, No. 382. 
Confirmation by Earl Henry of the grant of the church of Sprouston 
to the Abbey of Kelso by John, Bishop of Glasgow. 

p. 137. Sprouston is a parish in Roxburghshire, on the banks of the 
Tweed. Between the river and Hadden rig, there is a considerable 
extent of rich arable land. Sprouston was part of the property held 
by Earl David, who, in 1113, granted to the Abbey of Selkirk a 
ploughgate of land and ten acres, and a maisura of a ploughgate 
thereto appertaining. After the monks of Selkirk were removed to 
Kelso, John, Bishop of Glasgow, granted to them the church. 
King David confirmed to Kelso the ploughgate and the ten acres 
and the maisura formerly given to Selkirk, " Dom. Episcopo Glasg. 
similiter dante et episcopali auctoritate confirmante." The rights of 
the monks in Sprouston were increased by subsequent grants by King 
David, and by King Malcolm IV., and by the family of De Vesci, 
and in 1300 the monks held two ploughgates and an oxgang of land, 
and extensive pasture lands for oxen, cattle, and sheep, besides six 
cottages, each with land attached. 



CLXXVI. 

Liber de Calchou, Bannatyne Club edition, p. 297, No. 372. 

The King grants to the Church of St. Mary and St. John at Kelso, 
Rauendena, as fully as the King had it in demesne (except one 
ploughgate of land which had been given to the Hospital of Roxburgh), 
and the land of Osulf Wittburg, reserving Osulf s liferent. 

p. 138. Rauendena, now Redden, in the parish of Sprouston, a 
fertile tract of land along the Tweed, next to Carham. The monks 
had a grange there of five ploughgates and pasturage for 14 score of 
sheep, besides land for the husbandmen, etc. 

Hospital of Roxburgh. "The Hospital or Maison Dieu of Roxburgh 



NOTES CLXXIII.-CLXXVIII. 399 

stood on the right bank of the Teviot, within the modern parish of 
Kelso, but probably within the ancient parish of Roxburgh. About 
the year 1140 King David I. granted to the Hospital ... a plough- 
gate of land in his demesne of Rauendeno. About 1152 the Hospital 
had lands in its immediate neighbourhood, within or immediately 
adjoining the territory of Heton. . . ." Origines Paroch., vol. I., p. 46. 



CLXXVII. 

The original is in the Treasury at Durham, with a seal ; Raine, N. 
Durham, App., p. 26, No. Cix. 

Earl Henry confirms the rights of the monks of St. Cuthbert 
in Swinton, as it was granted by the charters of King Edgar and 
King David. I ascribed this to circa 1145, but that may be too late. 
It was granted at Huntingdon in presence of Eustace Fitz John, 
two of the Umfravilles, William de Sumerville, and the Chamber- 
lain. King Edgar's charter is xx., ante, p. 17. King David's charters 
xxix., ante, p. 23, and LXV., p. 54. 



CLXXVII I. 

The original is in the Treasury at Durham ; the seal is missing ; 
Raine, N. Durham, App., p. 5, No. xxi. 

King David announces that he has granted to the church of St. 
Mary and St. Cuthbert at Coldingham and to the monks serving God 
there the gift which Gospatric the brother of Dolfin made to the monks, 
viz. Ederham and Nesbit, with all the rights he had in these on the 
day he died, free from all service and custom except payment of thirty 
shillings by the monks to the son of Gospatric and his heirs 'pro 
conredio regis' annually at Martinmas, and except service in the 
King's army, when the monks shall attend on the King. Gospatric 
shall be quit for ever of service in the army for these lands. 

Dr. Raine says of the date, "1167, lege MCXLVII Dormitat scriptor." 
It was granted in presence of a large number of witnesses at Colding- 
ham on the Festival of the Finding of the Holy Cross in the year 
1147 namely in the year in which the King of France and many 
Christians advanced to Jerusalem. 1147 was the date of the second 
Crusade. The 3rd of May is the Festival of the Finding of the Cross. 
The grant by Gospatric is cxvn., of which the original is in the 
Treasury at Durham. It was confirmed by King David, cxxi. 
(p. 93). There had been difficulty as to possession by the monks. 
This meeting on the 3 May, 1147, may have been on the occasion 
of the establishment of a Priory at Coldingham, hitherto only a church 



400 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

in the possession of Durham, served by Edward the monk. John, 
Bishop of Glasgow, died a few days after this charter was granted, 
and was succeeded by Herbert, Abbot of Kelso. Edward the Chan- 
cellor, a short time after this, was appointed Bishop of Aberdeen. 

p. 139. Die quo fuit vivus et mortuus seems to imply that Gospatric 
the granter was owner till the day of his death, whereas the terms of 
the original grant were a grant in alms with immediate possession. 
These words are perhaps words of style ; they also occur in the King's 
confirmation (p. 93). 

Pro conredio regis. The owners of most, if not of all, lands held 
by feudal tenure were bound to supply food and necessaries for the 
King or overlord when he passed through the land or its neighbour- 
hood. By granting land in alms to the church, Gospatric did not 
relieve himself of this feudal burden nor of the burden of furnishing 
men for the royal army. By this agreement the church paid Gospatric's 
heir, thirty shillings annually as the share of the ' corody,' and the 
church assumed the burden of supplying the quota of men of the 
army due from Edrom and Nesbit. 



CLXXIX. 

Chartulary of Cambuskenneth, Grampian Club edition, p. 71, 
No. 51. 

David, King of Scots, with the assent of Henry, his son, and with the 
approval of the bishops of the kingdom and of the earls and barons, 
grants to the church of St. Mary in Stirling and to the Canons Regular 
the land of Cambuskenneth and the fishing between it and Pol- 
maise and a net in the river : the land of Colling, with the wood : the 
land of Dunbodeuin between the river and the land of Lochin, forty 
shillings from the rent of Stirling and the can of a ship and a saltpan 
with the land appropriate to one of the King's saltpans and the tithe 
of the rent of the King's demesne in Stirling and the offerings made in 
the church of St. Mary and the island which lies between Polmaise 
and Dunbodeuin and twenty 'cudermi' of cheese of the King's rent of 
Stirling, with the same freedom and custom which other churches 
possess in the kingdom, these to be held and possessed as freely as 
the King holds his own land, saving the defence of the kingdom and 
the King's justice, if the prelate should by some impulse have done 
wrong. 

This charter was granted between 29 May, 1147, when John, 
Bishop of Glasgow died, and 24 August, 1147, when Herbert was 
consecrated Bishop by the Pope at Auxerre in France. The Abbey 
of Cambuskenneth established by this charter and by the Bull of Pope 
Eugenius, No. CLXXX., was a house of Canons Regular of St. Augus- 
tine. There was a church in Stirling which had been endowed 



NOTES CLXXVIII.-CLXXX. 401 

by King Alexander I. Early in the reign of David I., perhaps in 
the reign of King Alexander, William, the Prior, brought from 
Aroise (near Arras in France) some Canons Regular, who 
at first served the church of St. Mary at Stirling. King David 
encouraged them and gave them lands on the Forth, Cambus- 
kenneth and Logie and Tullibody, besides the land of Cowie in 
the parish of St. Ninians. Prior William, in July, 1147, accompanied 
Herbert (Abbot of Kelso), Bishop-elect of Glasgow, to Auxerre, where 
Pope Eugenius III. was, and after Herbert was consecrated Bishop, 
the Pope gave to William a Bull recognising him as Abbot, granting 
him and the brethren protection, and confirming the order of canons 
at Stirling. Fifty years later the monastery was removed to Cambus- 
kenneth ; thenceforward the abbot was styled Abbot of the monastery 
of St. Mary of Cambuskenneth. The canons, as years rolled on, got 
gifts and endowments ; but they never became rich. 

p. 140. Cambuskynneth. The lands of Cambuskenneth, Polmaise, 
Collyn (probably Cowie in St. Ninians), Dunbodeuin (Tullibody), 
Lochin (Logie), are all in the neighbourhood of Stirling. 

Quadraginta solidi de redditu meo de Striueling. King David 
granted to the Abbey of Dunfermline a tithe of the pennies of his 
'census' from Stirling (ante, p. 71), and to the Abbey of Holyrood he 
gave twenty shillings from the rent of Stirling (ante, p. 117), and now 
he grants to the Abbey of St. Mary forty shillings from the same rent 
and the can of one ship, besides the tithe of the rent of his lordships 
in Stirlingshire, and in addition twenty ' cudermi ' of cheese. 

p. 141. Praelatus is an unusual word in Scottish charters. It means 
here the abbot in his judicial capacity. Du Cange gives the meanings 
" Magistral, chef d'une ville, juge, echevin, maire, eVeque, abbe de 
monastere, prevot, cure." 

Testes. The witnesses have already been noticed. This shows 
that Edward was chancellor as late as the summer of 1 147. 



CLXXX. 

Chartulary of Cambuskenneth, Grampian Club edition, p. 38, 
No. 23. 

A Papal Bull by the Pope confirms the institution and the endow- 
ments of the Abbot and Monastery of St. Mary of Stirling. Dated 
3oth August, 1147, six days after the consecration of Herbert as 
Bishop of Glasgow. All the gifts contained in the King's charter are 
confirmed except the fishing between Cambuskenneth and Polmaise, 
the island between Polmaise and Dunbodeuin, and the oblations in 
the church. 

2C 



402 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

p. 143. Of the cardinals who attested this Bull, Odo or Otho, 
diaconus cardinalis Sancti Georgii in Velabris (not ad Velum Aureum), 
was made a cardinal by Pope Innocent II. in 1130 and was a man 
of note. Abbericus (properly Albericus), Belluacensis Gallus, cardin- 
alis Ostiensis. Paparo (properly Joannes de Papiro) diaconus 
cardinalis Sancti Hadriani. He was made a cardinal in 1144; after- 
wards he was a Legate to Ireland. Hubaldus presbyter cardinalis 
Sanctorum Joannis et Pauli titulo Pammachii ; cardinal in 1140, died 
1150. Ignarus (properly Ymarus) Gallus monachus Cluniacensis 
episcopus cardinalis Tusculanus. There were at this time three 
cardinals of the name of Gregory : Gregorius Tarquinius Romanus 
diaconus cardinalis Sanctorum Sergii et Bacchi prior diaconorum; 
Gregorius S. R. E. diaconus cardinalis; Gregorius diaconus car- 
dinalis Sancti Angeli. Gilbertus presbyter cardinalis titulo Sancti 
Marci Evangelistae (not S. Martini). 



CLXXXI. 

Registrum Prioratus de S. Andreae, fol. 20 b ; Bannatyne Club 
edition, p. 48 ; 2 Concil., p. 225 ; Reeves' Culdees, p. no. 

A Bull by Pope Eugenius III. (A.D. 1145-1153) addressed to Robert, 
Prior of St. Andrews, taking the church of St. Andrews under the Papal 
protection, confirming their possessions and privileges, granting to the 
prior and brethren of the church the right to elect the Bishop of St. 
Andrews, and directing that as the Keledei die they shall be succeeded 
by canons regular. The heading "instead of to the Keledei" is 
wrong and should be deleted. 

p. 144. Secundum Dominum : Dr. Reeves reads ' Deum.' 
Ut decedentibus Keledeis. Dr. Reeves' Culdees, p. 1 10, says : 
" The same provision is repeated in the Bulls of Adrian IV., A.D. 1156; 
Lucius III., A.D. 1183; Gregory VIII., A.D. 1187; Clement III., A.D. 
1187; Innocent III., A.D. 1206; Honorius III., A.D. 1216; Innocent 
IV., A.D. 1248. Thus for nearly a century the Keledei held their 
ground against Papal as they had previously done against Royal 
authority." 

p. 145. Albericus Belluacensis Gallus episc. cardinalis Ostiensis. 
D. Ymarus Gallus monachus Cluniacensis episcopus cardinalis Tuscu- 
lanus. Hubaldus (not Huhaldus) presbyter cardinalis Sanctorum 
Joannis et Pauli titulo Pammachii. Gilibertus presbyter cardinalis 
titulo Sancti Marci Evangelistae. Hugo presbyter cardinalis titulo S. 
Laurentii in Lucina. Otho diaconus cardinalis Sancti Georgii in 
Velabris (not ad Velum Aureum). Joannes de Papiro (not Paparo) 
diaconus cardinalis Sancti Hadriani. Gregorius diaconus cardinalis 
Sancti Angeli (not Auguli). D. Joannes canonicus Regularis Sancti 
Fridiani Lucensis diaconus cardinalis Sanctae Mariae Novae. Petrus 
(not Guido) diaconus cardinalis Sanctae Mariae in porticu. Guido 
Piscanus diaconus cardinalis S.S. Cosmae et Damiani S.R.E. Cancel- 
larius. 



NOTES CLXXX.-CLXXXIL 



403 



CLXXXII. 

Registrum de Dunfermelyn, fol. 6 a ; Bannatyne Club edition, p. 8, 
No. 4. 

An agreement made in the Castle of Maidens in presence of King 
David and his son Henry and their barons, between Robert, Bishop 
of St. Andrews, and Gaufrid, Abbot of Dunfermline, regarding the 
parish church of Eccles and the chapel of the Castle of Stirling. The 
King's barons unanimously held it proved that on the day on which 
King Alexander caused the chapel to be dedicated, he gifted and 
granted to it the tithes of his demesne lands within the juris- 
diction (soca) of Stirling, whether these demesne lands increased or 
decreased, that the parish church of Eccles ought to have all the 
tithes which come from 'hurdmanni' and 'bondi' and 'gresmanni,' 
with the other rights which the church ought to have ; that the bodies 
of those who die, whether they be serfs (mancipii) of the demesne or 
of the parish, shall lie in the parish churchyard, with the things 
which dead bodies ought to have with them in the church, unless 
by chance a burgess die there suddenly ; that if the demesne lands 
increase, by cultivation or by breaking them up the first time, the 
chapel shall have the tithe, if the lands of other men of the 
parish increase, the parish church shall have the tithe, and if 
the number of men in the demesne increase, the chapel shall have 
their tithes, and also those of all the men who cultivate the demesne ; 
that the parish church shall have the bodies of those who dwell in the 
demesne ; and if on the lands which were not demesne, houses 
shall increase, the parish church shall have their tithe, and shall 
render to these men the rites of Christianity in seemly burial. 

Castellum Puellarum is a name first applied to the Castle of Edin- 
burgh in the reign of David I. Its earlier name was Dunedin. 
Buchanan says that the name, " Castle of Maidens," was derived from 
French romances. It is more likely to be a monkish version of the 
Celtic May-din, a fort. 

p. 146. Eccles is the parish now called St. Ninians. In 1264, 
Pope Alexander confirmed the gift of the King of Scotland of the 
church of Egglyge (Camb. 40) ; Pope Celestine confirmed to Cam- 
buskenneth the church of Egglis, the gift of Robert, Bp. of St. 
Andrews (p. 44); Robert, Prior of St. Andrews, stated that Robert, 
Bp. of St. Andrews, had granted the church of Egles to William, first 
Abbot of Stirling (p. 142). 

Chapel of the Castle of Stirling. The monks of Dunfermline ac- 
quired it (Reg. de Dunf., No. 72, p. 38). King William gave them 
a land in exchange for land which the King had enclosed in his 
park. Confirmation by Bishop Rich, of St. Andrews to Dunfermline 



404 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

of the chapel of the Castle of Stirling (Dunf., p. 57, No. 94). 
Other confirmations are on pp. 63, 66, 81, 154, 157, 418 of the 
Register of Dunfermline. Before 1359 th. e chapel became a Chapel 
Royal for the King's household and musicians. 



CLXXXIII. 

The original is in the Treasury at Durham, with a seal attached ; 
Raine, N. Durham, App., p. 24, No. cv. 

Earl Henry, son of the King of Scotland, addressing all the faithful, 
announces that he has confirmed the gift of Edrom and Nisbet by 
Earl Gospatric, the brother of Dolfin, to the church of St. Mary and 
St. Cuthbert at Coldingham. 



CLXXXIV. 

Cartae Prioratus Insulae de May, Dr. Stuart's edition, p. 2, No. 2. 

King David grants to the Prior and to the monks of May a full 
toft in Berwick, in perpetual alms, with all the rights and exemptions 
of any l elemosina ' in the kingdom. Those who live in the toft shall 
be free from services and from all exactions. 

CLXXXV. 

Liber de Calchou, Bannatyne Club edition, p. 340, No. 445. 

Confirmation by Robert, Bishop of St. Andrews, of the increase to 
the endowment of St. Laurence at Berwick made by the Abbey of Kelso 
granting the tithe of a ploughgate of land at Berwick, and the fish- 
ings and a toft in the burgh. The title, ante, p. 148, is quite wrong. 
Date between 1147 and 1150. 

p. 148. Ecclesiae Sancti Laurentii. It appears from the charter by 
Malcolm IV. (Lib. de Cal., 6) that the Abbey of Kelso got this 
church from Robert the son of William, whose charter has not been 
preserved. Can he be Robert son of Widon ? (pp. 87, 140). The 
church of St. Laurence had two bovates of land which the monks gave 
to William the Lion, and in exchange he gave two bovates next 
Prestebridge (p. 12). 

CLXXXVI. 

This was copied for me by Mr. Paton from the XXXI. volume of the 
Acta Dominorum Concilii in the Register House, Edinburgh. The 
original charter was put in evidence in the year 1518 by James 
Bisset, a litigant before the Lords of the Council. 



NOTES CLXXXII.-CLXXXVII. 405 

King David grants to Alexander de St. Martin, Alstanefurd and the 
land which Arkil held, by the boundaries between Haddington and 
Alstanefurd, to be held of the King by the service of half a knight ; 
and the King engages to pay every year from his treasury (camera) 
ten marks of silver until he make up a full knight's fee. 

p. 149. Alexander de St. Martin was a vassal of the Countess Ada 
in her dower lands of Haddington. He is mentioned on pp. 207-209 of 
the Registr. of the Priory of St. Andrews, and he was a witness to 
several charters in the reign of William the Lion (St. Andr., pp. 216, 217, 
248, 249, 250, 313). His brother Adulf accidentally killed Malcolm 
de Moreville when hunting, and the land of Langlaw was given to the 
Abbey of Dryburgh in reconciliation (Reg. de Dryburgh, pp. 68 
et seg.}. Alexander de St. Martin got a charter from the Countess 
Ada (No. 2 of the Laing Charters). "Ada the Countess, mother of 
the King of Scots, grants to Alexander de St. Martin the lands of 
Elstaneford, by those same marches by which King David gave the 
same Elstaneford to him. She, moreover, gave Barowe, Donecanes- 
laye, Bangelaye, and that land which Uhtred son of Gilise held, and 
that land which is on the east side of Seton, by those marches by 
which her men walked the lands and delivered them to him : also the 
site of his mill on the Tyne, and one carucate of land in Carelsira, 
to wit, in Petollin, and one full toft in Hadinton, and another toft in 
Carel, all to be held in fee and heritage for the service of one knight, 
with sake and soke, tol and theam, infandthef and other liberties. 
Witnesses : David, son of the Countess, Hugh Giffard, [ ] of 

Cenef, Roger of Valouin, Walter Giffard, Hugh of Baillol, and 
William Giffard." 

Alexander de St. Martin left a daughter, Ada, who granted half a 
mark annually to the Abbey of Holyrood from the rent of her mill 
at Athelstaneford. Magister Alexander de St. Martin was a promi- 
nent member of the chapter of St. Andrews in the beginning of the 
thirteenth century. 

Alstaneford is a parish in Haddingtonshire which Countess Ada got 
as part of her dower. It was afterwards granted to John de Mont- 
ford, who gave half a stone of wax from it annually to the Abbey of 
Newbattle. In the time of King Robert the Bruce the lands were 
forfeited, and were granted to Richard Hereiz (Robertson, Index, 11); 
Athelstanefurd was granted by King Robert III. to John Dolas 
(Rob., Index, 141). 



CLXXXVII. 

Copied from the MS. Chartulary of St. Bees ; Harl. MSS., 434, 
fol. 26. 

David, King of the Scots, to all his liegemen of Copeland, announces 
that he confirms Euersate, the ' elemosina ' which Matilda, the wife of 
Godard, gave to the church of St. Bega, and to the brethren serving 
God there, free of all secular service, as the charters of William, the 
king's nephew, and of Adam son of Swain attest. There was an old 



4 o6 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

religious house at St. Bees, on the Cumberland coast, which, in the reign 
of Henry I., was restored by William Meschin for a prior and six 
Benedictine monks and attached, as a cell, to the Abbey of St. Mary 
at York. 

p. 150. Matilda was the wife of Godard de Boyvill the Dapifer, 
the second Lord of Millum ; she gave Anderset, alias Agnes Seat, to 
St. Mary's of York. I do not find any land with a name like Eversate 
among the possessions of the Priory of St. Bees ; this confirmation 
probably refers to Anderset. 

sicut cartae Willelmi nepotis mei et Ade fil. Sweni testantur : these 
charters have not been preserved. 

William Fitz Duncan : by right of his wife was overlord of many 
lands in Cumberland. 

Adam the son of Swain : see note to CXL. 

Testibus. Gospatric son of Orm held several manors within the 
barony of Egremont, and was Lord of Seaton in Derwentward ; he 
got Lamplugh and Workington from William de Lancaster in ex- 
change for Middleton in Lonsdale. He gave Salter Hall in Lamplugh 
to St. Mary's Abbey at York ; it subsequently belonged to St. Bees. 
Thomas the son of Gospatric gave Lamplugh to Robert, who 
assumed the name. Henry the son of Swain was a brother ot 
Adam ; he held Langwathby and Edenhall, ante, pp. 105, 108, 147, 
197, 374- 

CLXXXVIII. 

Registrum Prior. S. Andreae, Bannatyne Club edition, p. 183. 

King David orders the Sheriff of Clackmannan to see that the 
canons of St. Andrews get timber from the wood of Clackmannan for 
their building, and they be not disturbed. 



CLXXXIX. 

A copy in the Advocates Library, 34. 3. II. 

King David, prompted by Heaven, for the weal of his soul and for 
the souls of Henry his son and of his ancestors and successors, had 
founded a monastery at Jedworth, in which, with the advice of John, 
the Bishop, and of his other bishops, earls, and barons, and religious 
men, he had placed canons regular. He grants and confirms to the 
monastery a considerable number of lands and tithes and houses in 
Roxburgh and Berwick, a saltpan in Stirling, etc. The text is 
corrupt, the Latin is bad, the names of the lands and of the witnesses 
have been very carelessly copied. This was granted between 1147, 
when Herbert became Bishop of Glasgow, and 1150, when Alwyn 
resigned the Abbacy of Holyrood. 



NOTES CLXXXVII.-CLXXXIX. 407 

It is uncertain in what year the Priory of Jedburgh was founded. 
Wyntoun, vn. v., line 7 line 785 : 

" A thowsand and a hundyre yhere 
And awchtene to rekyne clere." 

" Gedword and Kelsowe, Abbayis twa, 
Or Dawy wes Kyng, he fowdyd tha." 

Though Sir Archibald Dunbar accepts that as the date, the foundation 
was much later, as late as about 1138, after the return of Bishop 
John from Tiron. Morton (p. 4) suggests that the canons were first 
brought to Jedworth at the time assigned by Wyntoun, "and that the 
establishment, which was at first a priory, was made an abbey, and 
received other additions to its privileges and importance at the time 
assigned by Fordun." The earliest appearance in record of a Prior 
of Jedburgh is when Daniel the Prior witnessed charter cxxi., ante, 
p. 93, in A.D. 1139. 

p. 151. The King granted the vills of the two Jedworths ; these 
are Old Jedworth and the site of the new priory. Old Jedworth lies 
four and a half miles higher up the valley of the Jed than the other, 
which is two miles above the confluence of the Jed with the river 
Tweed. Old Jedworth belonged to the monks of St. Cuthbert at 
Durham. At New Jedburgh there was a small burgh round the 
castle of the kings. Malcolm IV. died at Jedburgh in 1164, Alex- 
ander, a son of Alexander III., was born there in 1263, and that King 
there married his second wife, Joletta de Dreux, in 1285. The castle 
was in the hands of Edward I. in 1291. It was given to Douglas by 
King Robert the Bruce. 

Langtoun is not Langton in Berwickshire, but a land near Jed- 
burgh. Richard Anglus gave the abbey two bovates of land in 
Langton. In 1513: "Sir Roger Fenwick with 300 men burnt the 
town of Langton, and destroyed all the cornes therein, which town 
is in the heart of the country, two miles beyond Jedburgh." 

Nesbet is in Crailing, now a station on the railway to Jedburgh ; 
it must not be confounded with the Nisbet granted to Coldingham by 
Earl Gospatric. 

Craling. The text here is corrupt. Earl Henry's charter is more 
intelligible : " Creling Cospatricii vicecomitis, ipsius Gospatricii 
capellano ejusdem Creling praefato monasterio concedente, etc." 
This Gospatric the Sheriff was a witness to charters, ante, pp. 28, 
55- 

p. 152. Craling villae Orrae filii Gilasp. In Earl Henry's charter he 
is called Orm son of Eylaf, and in King William's charter Oromus 
son of Eilavus, who was a witness, ante, pp. 108 and 160. In later 
times Berengarius Engain and David Olifard gave parts of Craling to 
Jedburgh Abbey. 

Stramsburgh is called Scrauesburgh in the charters by Earl Henry 
and King William, and the latter adds that two bovates there were 
given by Richard Anglus. 



4 o8 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

p. 152. Capellani et quod fundata est super aquam Jedde in saltu 
nemoris contra Schorwinglen. The text is corrupt. Earl Henry's charter 
has "capellam etiam quae et in saltu nemoris," and King William's 
"capellam quoque quae fundata est in saltu nemoris contra Xern- 
wingeslawe." Christiana, wife of Gervase Ridel, gave to the abbey a 
third of Hernwingeslawe. Morton suggests it is Mervinslaw, a little 
above Old Jedburgh. Theiudall is Teviotdale. Ulmerstoun : Ulves- 
toun in the charters by King Malcolm and King William, is Ulston, 
a hamlet about two miles from Jedburgh. Almechine juxta Alve- 
cromber is a blunder of the scribe for Alneclive, juxta Alncromb 
now Ancrum. Raperlau is in the parish of Lilliesleaf. 

Besides these lands the King granted a house in the burgh of Rox- 
burgh, and a house and a fishing in Berwick. In King William's charter 
the fishing is identified as the water opposite the island called Tonsma- 
hop. Cadwardisly is another error of the transcriber ; it is Edwardsley, 
near Jedburgh. The King himself perambulated it and showed its 
boundaries. 

These were the King's donations to the Abbey, which were con- 
firmed by Earl Henry, who did not add any of his own. In addition 
to these, we know from King William's charter that King David 
granted 10 lands in Hardingesthorn (Northamptonshire), which 
were afterwards exchanged for Rule Herevei, now called Abbot- 
rule. King Malcolm IV. gave the church of Barton and Grendon 
in Northamptonshire, and in the burgh of Jedworth a toft and 
seven acres. The monks had the privilege that in their houses in 
Berwick "nullus ministrorum regis tunella vini a mercatoribus illic 
allata et ibi evacuata exigere presumat." Gospatric the Sheriff gave 
in Crailing a ploughgate and a half and three acres with two 
maisurae. Berengarius Engain gave a mark of silver in the mill 
of Crailing, and two bovates of land " cum uno villano," and a toft, 
and for the maintenance of the chaplain of Crailing two bovates 
of land with another toft, and a toft near the church. David Olifard 
gave the tithe of the mill of Crailing. Orm son of Eilaf gave a 
ploughgate of land in the other Crailing. Richard Anglus gave two 
bovates in Scrauesburgh, and two bovates in Langtun. Gamel, the 
cleric, with the consent of his sons Osulf and Ughtred, gave Cavers. 
Margaret, the wife of Thomas de Loudon, with the consent of her 
sons, Thomas and Henry Lovel, gave Ughtredesxaghe. Christiana, 
wife of Gervase Ridel, gave a third of Hernwingeslawe. Gaufrid 
de Percy and Henry de Percy gave the church and lands at Oxnam 
and Newbigging. Rod son of Duneg and his wife Bethoc gave a 
ploughgate of land in Rughecestre. Turg. de Rossedale gave the 
religious house of Liddel, and the church of Kirchanders. Guido de 
Rossedale, with the consent of Radulf his son, gave 42 acres between 
Esk and Liddel, where they join. Ranulf de Sules gave the church 
of the valley of Liddel, and the church of Dodintun, juxta Ber- 
tona (in Northamptonshire), and half a ploughgate in Nasebith. 
Gervase Ridel (who became a monk at Jeddeworth), and Radulf his 
brother, gave the church of Abboldesle. William de Veteri Ponte gave 
a ploughgate of land in his lordship of Carriden. 

Testes et assentatores : the names are misspelt. Andreas Episcopus 
Cataneus (Catanensis). The Bishopric of Caithness was founded by 
King David between 1146 and 1150. The first Bishop was Andrew, 



NOTES CLXXXIX-CXCII. 409 

who was, it is said (2 ConciL, 217), a monk in the Abbey of Dunferm- 
line. He held the church of Dunkeld and its lands. Bishop Andrew 
witnessed many of the later charters of King David's reign ; he 
was a leading man in the reign of King Malcolm and King William ; 
he died 30 December, 1184. It is probable that he was only titular 
Bishop of Caithness ; King David could not put him in possession 
of his diocese, because Caithness was still under the rule of the 
Norse Earls of Orkney. Mr. Cosmo Innes says that prior to the 
episcopate of Bishop Gilbert (A.D. 1233-1245) there was only one priest 
to celebrate mass in the cathedral church. More than a hundred 
years later (1259-1281), Earl Harold had power to order a penny to be 
paid to the bishop for each inhabited house in his earldom. It was a 
lawless land ; John, the next bishop, was cruelly treated ; his tongue 
and eyes were torn out in 1201. Adain, the third bishop, was burned 
to death in 1222. Gilbert, the fourth bishop, was more appreciated, 
at least after his death, for he was canonized as St. Gilbert. 



cxc. 

This is taken from Morton's Monastic Annals of Teviotdale, p. 53. 
He does not say where the original was. 

Henry, Earl of Northumberland, confirms to the canons whom his 
father placed in the monastery of Jed worth, the gifts to the priory. 
I see no reason to refuse to accept this as a copy of a genuine 
charter. The lands are the same as in King David's charter ; there 
are a few differences in spelling and in expression. Morton gives a 
charter by King William " ex autographo in Archivis Ducis de 
Buccleuch." This was granted between A.D. 1147, when Herbert 
became Bishop of Glasgow, and A.D. 1152, when Earl Henry died. 

CXCI. 

Registrum de Dryburgh, Bannatyne Club edition, p. 103, No. 145. 

Earl Henry confirms the right of Beatrix de Belchaump to land in 
Roxburgh which she held of the King. 

p. 154. Belchaump. She was the wife of Hugo de Morville and is 
called de Bello Campo in other charters. 



CXCII. 

Liber de Calchou, fol. 53 ; Bannatyne Club edition, p. 106, 
No. 138. 

Grant by Roger de Ov to the Abbey of Kelso of the church of his 
villa of Langtune in free alms, as Henry the parson of that church 
held it at its best. Granted for the weal of the soul of Earl Henry, 
Lord of Henry de Ov. 



410 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

From this and many similar charters it appears that the owner of a 
manor who paid tithe to the parson of the church, and who had or 
claimed right to the patronage, assumed that he had right to alienate 
to a religious house the patronage, the tithes, and the church lands. 
This grant was confirmed by William the Lion and by several Bishops 
of St. Andrews. Roger de Ov was of a Northumbrian family 
(Chalm., Caled. 2, p. 244). The barony was held for two hundred 
years by the de Veteri Ponte family, and afterwards from about 1333 
till the middle of the eighteenth century by the Cockburns, when it 
was sold to Mr. Gavin ; on whose death it passed to the Marquis 
of Breadalbane. 

p. 154. Langton is a parish of about 7000 acres in the centre of 
Berwickshire. It is said that Earl Henry gave a part of Langton to 
William de Veteri Ponte (2 Chalm., Caled., p. 369). William the Lion 
granted a charter to William de Veteri Ponte of the lands of Boulton, 
Caredyn, and Langtoun in warennam (Rob., Index, p. 79), his wife 
was Emma de St. Hilario, the heiress of Blackness and Carriden, he 
was also the owner of Oggilface (in Linlithgowshire), which he granted 
to Holyrood. William de Veteri Ponte confirmed the grant of the 
church of Langton to Kelso and added a ploughgate of land described 
by boundaries. He died in England and there was a dispute regard- 
ing the removal of his body to Kelso for burial, which was settled by 
the monks discharging a debt of thirty shillings due by his son and 
heir, besides paying him forty shillings and engaging that the soul of 
his father should be specially mentioned in the masses said for the 
benefactors of the church. 

p. 155. G. Dean of Fogghou. Fogo is a parish in Berwickshire, 
the prebend of the rural Dean of the Merse. John decanus de Fogghou 
occurs as a witness to a charter temp. William the Lion. Hugo de 
Duns. Duns is a parish in Berwickshire. Henry parson of Langton 
had a toft in which there was an old ditch (' fossa ') in which he had 
his fold ('faldum') (Lib. de Kelso, Nos. 140, 141, 142), which perhaps 
was not his private property, but church land. The priest of Clack- 
mannan had a toft in Langton (Chart. Cambusk., No. 57). Was 
Robert son of Randulf a grandson of Dunegal of Stranit ? 



CXCIII. 

Liber de Calchou, foL 17 ; Bannatyne Club edition, p. 26, No. 29. 

Earl Henry grants and confirms to Ernald, the Abbot of Kelso, the 
toft of Dodinus in Berwick on the Tweed, to be held in fee of the Earl, 
as Dodin held it. 

The Earl here professes to be the overlord of Berwick. From this 
and from other charters he seems to have had the same rights in the 
south of Scotland as his father had in the reign of Alexander I. In 
1177 this toft in Berwick was in dispute between the Abbey of Kelso 



NOTES CXCII.-CXCV. 411 

and Lambertonus, who claimed it by hereditary right. The dispute 
was settled by the Bishops of St. Andrews and Glasgow. Dodyn gave 
to the Abbey of Kelso the church of " Lintun Ruderich " (Lib. de 
Cal., p. 335, No. 436). Probably he was Dodin of Dodingtoun (Lib- 
de Cal., p. 226). Richard de Dodenstun is mentioned (Lib. de Cal., 
pp. 197 and 348 and Charters of Holyrood, p. 215) and Hugo de 
Dodinvilla (Charters of Holyrood, pp. 28 and 76). 

CXCIV. 

Liber de Calchou, fol. 8 ; Bannatyne Club edition, p. 5, No. 2. 

King David confirms the lands, rights, and privileges of the Abbey 
of Kelso. 

This appears to me to be a spurious charter, written after 1147, 
the year in which John, Bishop of Glasgow, died (he is here 
spoken of as 'venerabilis memoriae'). It seems to be an attempt 
to forge a charter by King David; the compiler having before 
him the genuine charter of King Malcolm IV., omitted many lands 
and churches so that it might appear to be a deed by the earlier king ; 
his heart failed him when he came to the end and he gave no 
witnesses ; he added what he thought he ought to have in- 
cluded a grant of the church of Selkirk. There are numerous 
omissions of names and places which ought to have appeared in a 
genuine confirmation by King David. This charter speaks of a 
dispute between the Abbots of Holyrood and Kelso having been 
settled "coram hiis testibus R. abbe de Neubotil et aliis." The 
charter of Malcolm gives the names of all the witnesses. This 
charter omits the grant to Kelso of Lesmahagow, which was made in 
1144. One land called Botheldene in the charters by David I. (to 
Selkirk) and by Malcolm IV. and William the Lion (to Kelso) is in 
this charter changed to Bouldene, showing that this was written 
when the modern name of Bowden was coming into use. There are 
other changes : the seventh part of the mill of Roxburgh is com- 
muted for twelve chalders " inter farinam et frumentum," Truenlene 
is given in exchange for Hardingesthorne at Northampton, which the 
monks of Kelso had given up to the King "ad suum magnum 
negotium." 

CXCV. 

Registrum Vetus Epis. Glasguensis, fol. 58 ; Maitland Club edition, 
p. 10, No. 5. 

Earl Henry confirms the grant which his father King David had 
made to the church of St. John in the castle of Roxburgh of a plough- 



412 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

gate of land in his demesne and a full toft and a ' mansura terrae ' 
within the castle and all the church offerings of those who live in the 
castle, and a fourth of the offerings of the Earl and his wife, a tithe 
of his brushwood, and a tithe of the fat of the beasts killed for the 
Earl in Teviotdale. It is not stated to whom the remaining 
three-fourths of the Earl's offerings in church were to be given. 
The grant is almost in the same words as the King's gift, No. 
LXXXIII., ante, p. 69. The chapel in the castle of Roxburgh was 
afterwards granted to the Bishopric of Glasgow, in whose possession it 
remained. The charter was granted at Traquair, where the Earl 
had with him the Bishop of Glasgow, the Abbot of Kelso, Walter his 
father, the King's chancellor, and Engelram his own chancellor, the 
Constable Hugh de Moreville (he is styled Constable, ante, pp. ill, 
152 and 159), Earl Gospatric, William de Sumerville, Walter the son 
of Alan, Robert son of Turet (unknown), Gervase Ridel (p. 47), 
William Masculus (p. 103), Walter de Ridale (pp. 153, 179). 



CXCVI. 

Liber de Calchou, fol. 72 ; Bannatyne Club edition, p. 144, No. 176. 

Uctred son of Liulf grants 'in elemosina' to the Abbey of Kelso 
the church of Molle and the land adjoining it, as the granter and 
Aldred the Dean had perambulated it. 

p. 160. Molle or Mow, a large district of nearly twenty square miles, 
with extensive pasturage, in Roxburghshire on the Cheviots. It is now 
part of Morebattle. Of old it was owned by several families, each of 
whom was called ' de Molle.' 

Uctred son of Liulf was the father of Eschina de Molle, 
who married Walter son of Alan, the first Stewart. She gave a 
ploughgate in Molle to the Abbey of Paisley, where her daughter 
Margaret was buried, and land to the Abbey of Kelso, where 
another daughter was buried. The Stewarts continued to have an 
interest in Molle until about A.D. 1236 (Liber de Melros, 134, 261 
and 262). In the twelfth and thirteenth centuries many distin- 
guished families intermarried with the de Molles : Avenel, Maleverer, 
de Lincoln, de Vesci. The pedigree is interesting, but difficult; it 
would be out of place here to attempt to trace it. Mr. Morton 
(Monastic Annals of Teviotdale, p. 118) has a long note on Molle and 
its owners. 

Aldred the Dean, who, with Uctred, perambulated the land of the 
church, was the rural Dean of Teviotdale in the diocese of Glasgow. 



NOTES CXCV.-CXCIX. 



413 



CXCVII. 

Liber de Calchou, fol. 152 ; Bannatyne Club edition, p. 320, No. 416. 

Herbert, the Bishop of Glasgow, confirms the grant by Uctred, son 
of Liulf, of the church of Molle to the Abbey of Kelso. The witnesses 
are clerics of the diocese of Glasgow, of whom Nicolaus is well known. 



CXCVII I. 

Registrum de Dryburgh, Bannatyne Club edition, p. in, No. 158. 

It appears that Peter, the son of Walter of Stirling, held of the King 
a ploughgate of land in Ednam, and that Tebald de Norham held half 
a ploughgate in the same vill. The King had granted to Nicolas the 
cleric twenty shillings from Peter de Stirling's ploughgate and half a 
mark from Tebald de Norham's half ploughgate, equal to two marks, 
in exchange for two marks which the King had granted to Nicolas 
from Bellestlene which belonged to Uctred the priest by the gift of 
Bishop John of Glasgow. 

p. 161. Nicholas the cleric: see note to No. xcn. 
Bellestlene. I have not discovered where this land was. 



CXCIX. 

Copied from the original in Public Record Office ; no seal. Ancient 
Deeds, L. 78; Box A. 115, Duchy of Lancaster Archives; Bain's 
Calendar, L, p. 6 ; National MSS. of Scotland, facsimile. 

David, King of Scots, to all the good men of his whole land, 
French, English, and Galwegians, grants to Robert de Brus in fee and 
heritage to him and his heir, in forest, the valley of the ' Anant,' on 
both sides of the water of Annan as the bounds are from the forest 
of Seleschirche as far as his land stretches toward Stradnitt and 
towards Clud. No one shall hunt in the said forest save de Brus him- 
self, under penalty of ten pounds, and none shall pass through except 
by the straight way marked out. Date between 1147 and 1153. Mr. 
Cosmo Innes says : " The writer is not strong in his Latin. He 
writes ' foresto ' instead of ' foresta,' ' vallum 3 instead of * vallem,' and 
{ venatur ' instead of ' venetur ' ; but, after all, our old charter Latin 
is not so bad as the French, which confounds all grammar." 

p. 162. Robert de Brus was the son of Robert de Brus to whom 
Annandale was granted by King David. 

Valley of the Anant : Annandale, which is separated from Selkirk- 
shire by Mirkside, Chirnside, and Ettrick Pen rising to a height 



414 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

of 2223 feet. It is separated from Nithsdale by a range of hills 
in Closeburn, Kirkmahoe, and Tunwald, and by the Locher Moss. 
The Clyde has its source in Moffat, in Annandale. Staplegorton, 
where this charter was granted, is a pastoral district in Eskdale, 
formerly a parish, but now united with Langholm. One can imagine 
the King and a party, the two de Morevilles, Walter the son of Alan, 
Odenel de Unframvilla, Walter de Lindesay, and Walter the Chan- 
cellor, hunting in the wilds of Annandale and Nithsdale ; this 
charter, written on the spot, may be the result of an interruption 
in the day's sport by some one hunting or travelling over the hills, 
which the King in his anger resolved should not happen again, and 
which induced him to give de Brus exclusive and stringent rights of 
forest, and of prevention of trespass. 



CC. 

A fragment, without a seal, in the Record Office, among the Archives 
of the Duchy of Lancaster. Cartae Miscell., No. 55. It is cut across, 
and part is missing. 

This is a feu or lease by a Bishop of Glasgow, probably Herbert, 
who was bishop from 1147-1164,10 Robert de Brus, the younger, of 
the church lands in Annandale, to be held of the bishop on the same 
terms as Robert de Brus, the elder, held them. The King himself 
is a witness, and the charter was granted at Carlisle, where David I. 
resided in the last years of his reign. 



CCI. 

Cartae Prioratus Insulae de May, Dr. Stuart's edition, p. 4, No. 6. 

King David, addressing the sheriffs, officers, and all his lieges, 
orders that the monks of May and their servants shall be exempt from 
can and toll throughout the kingdom, with liberty to sell their goods 
and to buy necessaries for the house. 

p. 163. Chegho is the quaint misspelling of Kelso by the English- 
man who copied the charter. 

CCII. 

Cartae Prioratus Insulae de May, Dr. Stuart's edition, p. 4, No. 7. 

Mandate by King David to his sheriffs, etc., of Perth, that tithes 
are to be paid to the monks of Rindalgros. This seems to imply 
that there was a settlement of monks at Rindalgros, but I doubt 
whether the Abbey of Reading ever built a house there. 



NOTES CXCIX.-CCV. 415 



CCIII. 

Registrum de Dunfermelyn, fol. 6 b ; Bannatyne Club edition, p. 1 1, 
No. ii. 

King David grants to the Abbey of Dunfermline a toft in the burgh 
of Haddington. The monks of Dunfermline had a long connection 
with Haddington. By a charter (ccix., p. 167), King David gave 
them a ' mansura ' there, which was confirmed by succeeding kings 
(Reg. Dunf, pp. 19, 28, 40, 46, 321), and by Popes Alexander, Lucius, 
and Gregory (ib. pp. 152, 157, 175). Countess Ada gave a "plenarium 
toftum" in the burgh of Haddington (No. CCLX., p. 208). King 
William gave an annual payment of three marks from the rent (firma) 
of the burgh to the church of Dunfermline (Reg. Dunf., pp. 31, 36). 
David de Lindesay granted to Dunfermline Abbey the superiority of 
a toft in Haddington which William Brown held of him (ib. p. 107). 
At the Reformation the bailies of Haddington paid 403. per annum 
to the Abbey (ib. p. 430). 

CCIV. 

In the Chartulary of Cambuskenneth, Grampian Club edition, p. 
250, No. 170 ; Facsimile, p. 251. 

King David grants to the Abbey of Stirling the land of Ketliston 
in alms, as free from all secular service as the Abbey holds its other 
lands of the King. This was confirmed by King Alexander II. (Chart. 
Cambus., p. 250). 

p. 164. Ketliston, alias Ketilstoun or Katelistune, is near the town 
of Linlithgow. It continued the property of the Abbey of Cambus- 
kenneth till the Reformation. On pp. 251 and 252 of the Chartulary 
are records showing that the men of Ketlistun were subject not to the 
jurisdiction of the Sheriff, but to the Abbot's Court. 



ccv. 

Registrum de Dryburgh, Bannatyne Club edition, p. 38, No. 48. 

King David grants to Nicolas his clerk, the wood in Pedynane, 
which Syrand the priest held of the King, with the privilege of 
hunting. 

p. 165. Pedynane is Pettinain, a parish in Lanarkshire. The land 
held by Nicolas was granted by King David to the Abbey of Dryburgh ; 
probably the original charter to Nicolas was then delivered to the 
abbey. Syrand. He appears only in connection with this land which 
he held of the King. 



416 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

p. 165. Nemus in firmam forestam : ' in liberam forestam ' is the more 
usual phrase. The wood is called 'Imbriston' in the heading to 
charter No. 44 in the Chartulary of Dryburgh. 



CCVI. 

The original was in the Panmure Charter Chest. Printed in the 
Charters of Holyrood, Bannatyne Club edition, p. 10, No. 9. 

Robert, Bishop of St. Andrews, grants the church of Carriden with 
two ploughgates of land, to the Abbey of Holyrood. 

This may be of later date than 1 1 53. There is a difficulty about the 
witnesses : it is generally understood that Ailred did not become 
Abbot of Stirling until 1164, so it is impossible he could witness 
a charter by Robert, Bishop of St. Andrews, who died in 1 159 or 1160. 

p. 165. Carriden is a parish in Linlithgowshire of 2078 acres. The 
church continued to belong to Holyrood. The lands of Carriden 
were the property of the family of the Veteri Ponte (or Vipunts) for 
some generations. About 1200 W. de Veteri Ponte, eldest of the 
three sons of W. de V. Ponte and Emma de Sancto Hylario, granted 
to the Abbey of Holyrood a tithe of his coal of Kareddin and a tithe 
of the profits of all ships and boats loading and unloading at Blakenes. 

p. 1 66. Gaufrid, Abbot of Dunfermline. There were two Abbots of 
Dunfermline named Gaufrid : the first from 1128 till 1154, the second 
from 1154 till 1178. 

Samsone, monk of Durham : perhaps Samson who afterwards 
became the Bishop of Brechin. 

Plenaria synodo, a provincial synod ; see Dr. Jos. Robertson 
Preface, Concilia Scotiae, p. clxxxiii. 



CCVI I. 

Cartae Prioratus Insulae de May, Dr. Stuart's edition, p. 2, No. 3. 

King David grants to the monks of May half of Ballegallin and 
pasturage in Kelly and Crail. This was confirmed by King William 
the Lion. 

p. 166. Ballegallin. Dr. Stuart does not say where this land is. 
The Abbey of Dunfermline had some rights in it ; they confirmed to 
the Priory of May its right to the tithes. Sira de Chellin is probably 
Kelly in Fifeshire. Sira de Cherel is Crail, a burgh and parish in Fife. 



CCVIII. 

Registrum de Dunfermelyn, fol. 7 a ; Bannatyne Club edition, p. 13, 
No. 21. 

Mandate by the King to the Sheriff, etc., ordering that the monks of 
Dunfermline have materials for building from the King's woods. 



NOTES CCV.-CCIX. 



417 



CCIX. 

Registrum de Dunfermelyn, fol. 9 a ; Bannatyne Club edition, p. 5, 
No. 2. 

King David, exercising the royal authority and power, with the 
assent of Henry his son and of Matilda the Queen, his wife, and with 
the assent of the bishops, earls and barons of his kingdom, the 
clergy and the people acquiescing, confirms to the church of Dun- 
fermline the gifts of his predecessors. He affirms the gifts of his 
father and mother, the gifts of his brothers Duncan, Edgar, Ethelred, 
Alexander the King, and of Sibilla the Queen. The King also con- 
firms his own gifts. In addition, he, with the consent of Henry his 
son, grants Nithbren and Belacristin and 'mansurae' in Berwick, 
Roxburgh, Haddington, Edinburgh, Linlithgow, and a mansura in 
Stirling with two churches and a ploughgate of land, and the tithe of 
his lordships and the tithe of the can of the whole 'castrensis provincia' 
and the houses of Roger the priest and fishings, and a mansio in the 
burgh of Dunfermline, the tithe of the rent of the burgh and of the 
mill and of all his lordships of Dunfermline and a mansio in Perth 
and the church of the burgh, with its mansio, and the tithe of his 
demesne. 

The King grants these lands to be held as freely as his own lands, 
reserving the burden of defending the realm and the right to hear 
appeals, if the abbot shall fail to do justice in his court. He grants a 
tithe of all the pleas and gains of Fife and Fotherif, reserving the rights 
of the Bishop of Dunkeld, a tithe of the produce of all game taken 
between Lammermoor and Tay and a half of the hides and fat and 
lard of all beasts killed for feasts in Stirling and between Forth and 
Tay, with timber for fire-wood and building in the King's wood. 
He also grants all the offerings at the great altar, and every seventh 
seal taken at Kinghorn, and a tithe of salt and iron brought to Dun- 
fermline for the King's use ; he confirms to the church of the Holy 
Trinity his father and mother's gift of the whole parish of Fotherif, 
and he grants in alms the fishing of Aldestelle at Berwick ; he 
prohibits the taking of distress on the land, or on the men, of the 
church, except for their own debt ; he confirms the right of the 
church to their ' servi,' and orders that all fugitives and ' cumerlache ' 
be restored. 

The King grants a tithe of his unbroken mares in Fife and 
Fotherif, an exemption from toll on all necessaries, five marks of silver 
a year (for clothing) from the first ships which come to Stirling or 
to Perth ; the passage and boat of Inverkeithing, on condition that 

2D 



4i 8 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

travellers and messengers to the King and men of the court of the 
King and of his son be carried free. The King warrants the Abbey 
from claims on men who were on the lands at the date of the grants. 
He gifts the tithe of the can of Clackmannan, and of hides, fat, and 
fleeces, half of the tithe of Argyll and Kintyre, exemption from 
subjection and exaction, both secular and ecclesiastical, and a fishing 
at Perth. 

Although from the mention of Queen Matilda, the King's wife, it 
might be supposed that she was alive, it is plain from the witnesses 
that this was granted after 1147, probably in 1150, on the occasion 
of the dedication of the church of Dunfermline. The beginning, 
and indeed the greater part of this charter, is a repetition of the 
great charter of confirmation granted probably in 1128 (ante, p. 167). 
The Abbey of Dunfermline had lost very little and had gained a great 
deal in these twenty-two years. It has already been said that the 
charters of King David's predecessors have not been preserved, for 
that at one time ascribed to Malcolm III. is spurious. Of King 
David's own gifts, a few separate charters recorded in the Register, 
ante, LXIL, p. 53 ; LXVI., p. 55 ; LXIX. and LXX., p. 57 ; LXXIX., p. 
66 ; cm., p. 81 ; cv., p. 83 ; CVIIL, p. 84 ; CXXVIIL, p. 97 ; CLVII., p. 
121 ; CCVIIL, p. 167, are embodied in this charter of confirmation. 

p. 1 68. Fotheros juxta Sanctum Andream : a land in Fifeshire. 

Nithbren and Belacristin were granted by King David and Earl 
Henry by charter ccxxiv., p. 181, which ought to have preceded this 
charter of confirmation. 

p. 169. Exceptis rectitudinibus quae Abbatiae Dunkeldensi pertinent. 
These rights were not reserved in the first great charter to Dunferm- 
line which granted " omnem decimam praebendae quae afferetur 
ibidem de Fif et de Fotherif." 

Parochiam totam Fothrif. In the spurious charter, ante, p. 8, 
appears a grant of ' tota schira de Fotriffe.' Fothrif was a large 
district in which other religious houses and laymen had lands and 
churches, and, at no time, had Dunfermline exclusive right to it. 

p. 170. Inverkethin. Inverkeithing is a seaport in Fife, on the 
Firth of Forth, and from this it appears that the ferry across the 
Forth at that time landed at Inverkeithing. In later times, the ferry 
was between South and North Queensferry. The Ordnance Gazetteer 
states that the last assembly of the Culdees took place at Inver- 
keithing in the reign of David I., a statement for which there is no 
authority ; and it also states that " the original parish church, St. 
Peter's, was bequeathed in 1139 to Dunfermline Abbey by Waldeve 
son of Gospatric " ; the charter by Waldeve was granted nearly a 
hundred years after 1139 (Reg. Dunf., p. 94). 

Singulis sabbatis in curia habent, etc. ' Sabbatum ' in medieval 
writings had several meanings, every church festival, or the whole 



NOTES CCIX.-CCXI. 



419 



week, or the seventh day, Saturday or Sunday. I am not aware of 
any grant similar to this in any Scottish charter ; it is a grant of 
hides (presumably to make parchment for the use of the Abbots' 
Court), one to be given each week and two to be given every sixth 
week, with two portions of fat and the sixth of the skins of goats and 
sheep. 

p. 171. Decimi mei : so written in the Registrum. 

Ergaithel et de Kentir. The northern and southern parts of the 
modern shire of Argyll. " King David granted to Holyrood Abbey 
(ante, p. 1 18) half of the tithe of the pleas and profits of Kentyr and of 
Errogeil." 

Piscaturam apud Pert. The writer had overlooked this gift of a 
fishing which he inserts in the concluding paragraph. 

Robert, Bishop of St. Andrews, Gregory, Bishop of Dunkeld, 
and Andrew, Bishop of Caithness, confirm the grant ; these were 
the Bishops principally interested. Dunfermline lay within the diocese 
of St. Andrews ; the Abbey of Dunkeld had rights in Fife and 
Fothrif, hence the Bishop of Dunkeld confirms this ; the consent 
of the Bishop of Caithness was desired because he had rights in 
Dunkeld. 

Testes et assertores. The name of Walter the chancellor shows 
that this was granted after 1147. There are an unusual number of 
native Scottish witnesses : Alwyn Mac Arkil, Ewen Marescallus, Gille- 
colmus Mac Chimpethin, Macbeth Mac Torfin, Mereuin filius Colbain. 



CCX. 

From the Chartulary of Cambuskenneth, Grampian Club edition, 
p. 312, No. 215. 

The King orders that canons of Stirling and their tenants shall be 
free from toll and custom throughout the whole kingdom. Similar 
exemption was granted to Coldingham, ante, p. 17 ; to the Abbey of 
Holyrood, p. 119 ; to the Priory of St. Andrews, p. 132 ; to the Priory 
of May, p. 163 ; to the Abbey of Dunfermline, p. 170. 



CCXI. 

From the Registrum of Dryburgh, Bannatyne Club edition, p. 9, 
No. 14. 

Confirmation by Robert, Bishop of St. Andrews, of the grants by 
Hugh de Moreville and Beatrix de Bello Campo to the Abbey of 
Dryburgh. 

In the year 1150 Hugo de Moreville and his wife Beatrix de Bello 
Campo founded an abbey of Premonstratensian canons at Dryburgh in 
Berwickshire, on the banks of the river Tweed. The canons were 



420 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

brought from the Abbey of Alnwick in Northumberland, where a 
monastery of Premonstratensians had existed for thirty years. 

The cemetery was consecrated on St. Martin's day, 1 150 ; the canons 
entered into residence on 13 December, 1152. Dryburgh lay within 
the Lordship of Lauderdale, which had been granted to Hugh de 
Moreville. Hugh de Moreville gave the canons the churches of 
Channelkirk and of Salton ; his wife and daughter and son were 
also benefactors. The King gave the churches of Lanark and Pet- 
tinain and Caddysleya, a land which afterwards became a fertile 
grange of the abbey. 

CCXII. 

The original is in the Treasury at Durham ; a seal ; Raine, N. 
Durham, Appendix, p. 82, No. CCCCXLVH. 

Robert, Bishop of St. Andrews, announces to all the faithful sons 
of mother church in his diocese that before him and Hugh the 
Constable an agreement has been made between the mother church of 
Ednam and the chapel of Newton, that the former should have all the 
tithes and church rights in Newton and that the monks of Colding- 
ham, to whom the mother church belongs, should cause mass to be 
sung in the chapel on three days of the week and that the men 
of Newton shall come to the mother church on Christmas and on 
Candlemas, on ' diebus Tenebrarum,' on Easter day, on Rogation days, 
and on St. Cuthbert's day. If the men of Newton should fail to pay 
tithe to Ednam, divine service in the chapel shall be discontinued 
until they are reconciled to the mother church. There is a duplicate 
at Durham, No. CCCCXLVin. of Raine's N. Durham, which differs 
from this only in including Whitsunday among the festivals to be 
attended in the mother church, and in adding the monks, Roger 
and Waldef, as witnesses. 

p. 173. Newton (Newton-Don in Berwickshire) is now part of the 
parish of Nenthorn. In 1316 the Bishop of St. Andrews exchanged 
the chapels of Newton and Nenthorn for the church of Cranston 
belonging to the Abbey of Kelso (Lib. de Calch., pp. 252-256). 



CCXIII. 

The original is in the Treasury at Durham ; a seal ; Raine, N. 
Durham, Appendix, p. 82, No. CCCCXLIX. 

Robert, Bishop of St. Andrews, confirms the gift by Gospatric, 
brother of Dolfin, to the monks of St. Cuthbert, of Edrom and its 
church and Nesbit and also their right to the churches of Swinton and 
Fish wick. This was granted on 25 October, 1150, at a synod at 



NOTES CCXI.-CCXVI. 421 

Berwick, and was witnessed by several churchmen : the Priors of St. 
Andrews, Scon, Jedburgh, Holyrood, by Adam, the King's chaplain at 
Roxburgh, and many others. 

p. 174. Synodo. This was a Provincial Synod: see Dr. Jos. Robert- 
son, Preface to Concilia Scotiae, p. clxxxiii. Bishop Robert granted 
a charter to Holyrood, ante, ccvi., p. 165, 'in plenaria synodo.' 



CCXIV. 

The original is in the Panmure Charter Chest. Printed in the 
Charters of Holyrood, Bannatyne Club edition, p. n, No. n. 

Thor the son of Swain grants to God and to the church of the Holy 
Rood at Edinburgh the church of Tranent free from all secular service, 
and, in addition to the gifts of his ancestors, Thor gives two houses and 
two tofts. 

He was a witness to several charters (ante, pp. 59, 72, 123, 186). 

p. 175. Tranent. The parish formerly included Prestonpans. In 
the reign of William the Lion the de Quinceys were owners of the 
estate. 

Testibus. The Bishop of Moray, the Abbot of Jedburgh, Thoraldus 
the Archdeacon, Aiolfus the Dean, Nicolas the King's clerk, Neis the 
son of Chilunus, Edmund the son of Forn, Bernard the son of Tocca, 
Gilandreas the (Thor's) steward, Edmund of Fazeside and Alden. 



CCXV. 

Registrum de Dryburgh, Bannatyne Club edition, p. 51, No. 68. It 
is headed " Prima donatio super ecclesia de Worgis." 

Hugh de Moreville grants to the church of St. Mary at Dryburgh, 
for the soul of his father and for the salvation of his own soul, the 
church of Worgis in perpetual alms. I am by no means sure that this 
is a genuine charter. 

p. 176. Worgis is now called Borgue, a parish in the Stewartry of 
Kirkcudbright, in Galloway. About 1170, Sir Ralph de Campania 
granted the church to Dryburgh, which grant was confirmed by his 
grandson Nicolas de Campania and by two Bishops of Candida Casa 
(Reg. Dryb., pp. 49, 50, 51, 52). 



CCXVI. 

Registrum de Dryburgh, Bannatyne Club edition, p. 145, No. 201. 

Hugh de Moreville grants and confirms to the Abbey of Dryburgh 
half a ploughgate of land in Newton, which William his steward held, 
from the west of Derestrete to the bounds of Thirlestane. The monks 



422 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

were to have pasturage for four oxen and a horse, in common with the 
men of Newton. 

The charter was sealed with the seals of the Bishops of St. Andrews 
and Glasgow, and of the granter. 

This charter is not alluded to in the confirmations to Dryburgh 
by Kings Malcolm, William and Alexander, pp. 178, 180, 181. Per- 
haps it is not genuine. 

p. 176. Newton is now Newton-Don, which belonged to the de 
Morevilles ; Ada, daughter of Hugo de Moreville, gave to Dryburgh a 
tithe of the mill of Newton. She married Roger Bertram, who con- 
firmed her grant (Reg. Dryb., pp. 106, 180, 181). 

Derestrete probably was an old road ; it is mentioned again, Reg. 
Dryb., p. 123. 

Thirlestan. This must mean the lordship of Thirlestane. The 
castle of Thirlestane, on the Leader, close to the town of Lauder, is 
a long way from Newton. 

CCXVII. 

Registrum de Dryburgh, Bannatyne Club edition, p. 10, No. 15. 
Confirmation by Henry, Earl of Northumberland, of all the grants 
to Dryburgh by Hugo de Moreville and Beatrix de Bello Campo. 

p. 177. Sicut carta eorum. No charter by Hugo de Moreville and 
his wife has been preserved. 

CCXVIII. 

Registrum de Dryburgh, Bannatyne Club edition, p. 34, No. 43. 
There is a duplicate, No. 209, p. 151. 

King David confirms to Dryburgh Abbey the churches of Lanark 
and Pettinain, and the ploughgate of land in Pettinain, which 
Nicholas his clerk held of him. 

"The craftsmen and herdsmen, whose dwellings grew up under 
the protection of the King's Castle at Lanark, no doubt cultivated 
the royal manor : while each had his toft and the privilege of pasturing 
his cattle on the moor, in return for which, according to immemorial 
usage, maills or rents would be exacted by the King's bailie " (Records 
of the Royal Burgh of Lanark, Preface). 



CCXIX. 

Registrum de Dryburgh, Bannatyne Club edition, p. 68, No. 93. 

Beatrix de Bello Campo grants to the Abbey of Dryburgh the 
church of Bosyete in Northamptonshire. This grant was confirmed 
by Richard de Moreville, the son of Beatrix de Bello Campo (No. 



NOTES CCXVI.-CCXXI. 423 

CCXL., ante, p. 192), by Malcolm IV., William the Lion, Alexander 
II., and by Pope Lucius, Pope Celestine, Pope Gregory, and Pope 
Alexander. Dryburgh Abbey granted to the canons of the church of 
St. James of Northampton the church of " Bosgitta, reddendo an- 
nuatim in vita Adelardi post decessum Algari patris sui viginti 
solidos et unum bitantium vel duos solidos pro bitancio ; post 
decessum vero ipsius Adelardi ipsi canonici de Northamtoun reci- 
pient ipsam ecclesiam de Bosgitta in manu sua liberam et quietam 
et reddent praenominatis monachis de Driburgh duas marcas et 
dimidiam annuatim in perpetuum. . . ." There was afterwards an 
arrangement by which this payment was partly satisfied by a trans- 
fer of land in Lauder which Helene de Morville had granted to the 
House of St. James of Northampton (Reg. Dunf., p. 91). 



CCXX. 

Registrum Epis. Glasguensis, Maitland Club edition, p. n, No. 8. 

King David, addressing the bishops, abbots, earls, barons, justices, 
sheriffs, provosts, officers, and all the liegemen of his whole kingdom, 
informs them that he has granted in alms to the church of St. Kenti- 
gern of Glasgow, and to the Bishop of that church, the church of 
Cadihou, as freely as any alms can be held, Henry the Earl assenting. 

p. 179. Cadihou, Cadzow, in the parish of Hamilton. "The old 
church legend assigns it as the residence of the Princess to whom 
St. Kentigern miraculously restored the ring. Cadzow was a royal 
demesne, and an occasional residence of David I. and his succes- 
sors till William I. gave it to his son, Rob. de Lundres " (i Orig. Par. 
Scot., 106). 

Chelgho, an eccentric way of spelling Kelso. The scribe probably 
was a stranger. 

Thomas Lundoniarum. Probably the Thomas de Lundin, a witness 
to two charters by Malcolm IV. (Reg. Prior. S. And., p. 207 ; Lib. de 
Melros, p. 9). Was he Thomas de Lundin, afterwards called Dur- 
ward, who contested the legitimacy of Morgund, Earl of Mar ? 



CCXXI. 

Registrum de Dunfermelyn, fol. 7 a ; Bannatyne Club edition, p. 14, 
No. 24. 

King David, addressing all his liegemen, announces that he has 
granted to Andrew, Bishop of Caithness, Hoctor comon, free from all 
service except service in the army. 

p. 179. Hoctor Comon. The editor of the Origines Paroch. Scotiae 
(2, p. 598) suggests that this was Huchterhinche, assigned by Bishop 
Gilbert to the chantry. 



424 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 



CCXXII. 

This is taken from the copy in the Denmylne Coll. in the Advocates' 
Library, 15. i. 18, p. 76, No. 105. 

I do not know whether the original exists. Sir James Dalrymple 
(p. 348) and Mr. Riddell (Stewartiana, p. 109) professed to have 
seen it. 

King David, addressing the bishops, abbots, justiciars, barons, sheriffs, 
' praepositi,' officers, and all the men of his land, French and English, 
informs them that he has granted to Walter de Riddale, Whitimes and 
the half of Eschetho and Lilislive, with the pertinents which are from 
the east of Richeldoun, to be held in feu by the service of one knight 
as freely as any of the King's barons, de Riddale's neighbours, hold 
their lands, and if the King or his heirs cannot warrant the grantee in 
the possession of these lands, others of the same value shall be given 
to him. 

p. 179. Walter de Riddale belonged to the family of de Rydale, in 
Yorkshire ; he was not related to his contemporary, Gervase Ridal, 
the ancestor of the Riddells of Cranston (Bain, 6 Geneal., p. i). 
The Riddells of Cranston never prefixed * de ' to the name ; the de 
Riddales of Riddell almost always did so. Walter de Riddale 
witnessed many charters in the reign of King David (ante, pp. 123, 
140, 141, 150, 159, 171, 182, 195, 197, 200, 201). He died without 
issue, and left his property to his brother Ansketin by a will, which 
was confirmed by Pope Adrian IV. (Dalrymple, Coll., 348, etc.). 

p. 180. It is not certain whether G. Ridell, Sheriff of Roxburgh, was 
Gualterus or Gervasius probably the latter. 

Whitimes is probably a mistake of the transcriber for Whittune. 
Eschetho was afterwards called Riddell. 

Lillisleaf. The estate of Riddell lies in the parish of Lillisleaf. 

Richeldoun. I do not find this on the map, nor in the Retours. 

Per servitium unius militis. Compare the St. Martin charter, * per 
servitium dimidii militis' (p. 150). 

Testibus. Alexander Seton. This is the earliest mention of a 
Seton in Scottish record. He does not appear in any other of King 
David's charters. Chalmer's assertion (i Caled., 517) that Seiher de 
Say got land in East Lothian from David I. and called it Sayton, and 
that his son, Alexander, took the name of de Seton, is unsupported by 
any evidence. The other witnesses have been already noticed. 



CCXXIII. 

On the 40 fol. of the Book of Deer, Spalding Club edition, p. 95, 
plate xiv.; National MSS. of Scotland, No. xvm. 



NOTES CCXXII.-CCXXIII. 425 

Dr. Stuart, in the Preface, p. lix, said : " The last document en- 
grossed in the book is in a different hand from that used in the Celtic 
grants, while it yet partakes to a considerable extent of the same 
character." It is a charter in Latin which purports to have been 
granted by King David, declaring that the clerics of Deer are free 
from services due by laymen, and from exactions which they do not 
owe, as is written in their book. They pleaded at Banff, and swore at 
Aberdeen. Wherefore the King emphatically orders that no one dare 
to injure them or their goods. 

This seems to me to be, at best, an unskilful abbreviation of a 
longer document, but I suspect that it is a fabrication, though I cannot 
suggest when or why it was fabricated. 

p. 180. Clerici de Der. Here only is a grant made to ' Deer.' 'Clerici' 
is used in a charter of Alexander II. as applicable to the Keledei of 
Brechin (Reg. Brech., p. 4). 

Quieti et immunes. Dr. Stuart translated that 'free from all lay 
interference,' and Haddan and Stubbs (2 Concil., p. 216) render it 
' secure from lay exactions,' but the words mean ' free from all duties 
or services due by laymen'; in the National MSS. translated 'free 
from all duty of laics.' 'Servitium' was the word in ordinary use, 
' officium ' is unusual. 

Sicut in libro eorum scriptum est. This seems to me to be an 
attempt to give authority to the preceding Irish writings. It is 
unlikely that the gospel book with its marginal writings had been 
seen by the King and his Chancellor, and very unlikely that they 
would confirm informal writings, mainly the tradition of the church. 

Dirationaverunt. Something has been omitted. Does the writer 
refer to a particular litigation in which the rights of the clerics had 
been in question, and in which they had succeeded after pleading and 
making oath ? Dirationare occurs in an early charter by Alexander I. 
regarding Swinton : it means to litigate, to support a cause by 
argument. The editor of the National MSS. translates it 'as they 
made good by proof at Banf.' 

Juraverunt may mean the oath of compurgators or of witnesses 
taken on the gospels in the church, and before the Bishop of 
Aberdeen. 

Teste. Gregory was Bishop of Dunkeld from about 1135 till 1169. 
Andrew was Bishop of Caithness from about 1 1 50, Samson, Bishop of 
Brechin ; until the Book of Deer was discovered, antiquarians had 
been of opinion that the bishopric of Brechin was not founded before 
1150, and that the first bishop, circa 1155-1156, was T. (known 
only by his initial). Bishop Samson was bishop in the reign of 
Malcolm IV. 

p. 1 8 1. Donchadus comes de Fib. Duncan was Earl in David I.'s 
reign. In no other charter is he styled 'of Fife,' only 'Duncanus Comes.' 
Malmori d'Athotla. This seems to me a forged name ; imaginative 
Peerage writers say that Malcolm, Earl of Athole, in the twelfth 
century was a son of Madach Comes and a descendant of Mel- 



426 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

mare, brother of Malcolm III. Ggillebrite comes d'Engus. Mr. 
Skene (Celt. Scot. 3, p. 290) thought that Dufagan was Earl of Angus 
in the reign of Alexander I., and that this Gilbert must be his son! 
Gilbert, Earl of Angus, is said by G. E. C. to have been at the Battle 
of the Standard ; but I know no authority for that. It is certain that 
Gilbert was Earl of Angus towards the end of the twelfth century ; he 
was a hostage for William the Lion in 1174. G. E. C. says that he 
died before 1198. If the witness here be the same earl, he held the 
earldom for nearly fifty years. Brocin and Cormac de Turbrud are 
witnesses to the grant by Colbain, Mormaer of Buchan, and Eva, his 
wife (ante, evil., p. 84). Gillendrias Mac Matni is doubtless one of 
the sons of Matni in that grant. 



CCXXIV. 

Registrum de Dunfermelyn, fol. 6 a ; Bannatyne Club edition, p. 8, 
No. 3. 

King David, addressing the bishops, abbots, earls, sheriff and 
barons, etc., of his whole land, French, English and Scots, informs 
them that he and Henry the Earl, his son, for the salvation of their 
souls and for the weal of their ancestors, had given in perpetual alms 
to the church of the Holy Trinity at Dunfermline and to the abbot and 
brethren serving God there, the vill of Nithbren and Ballecristin 
(reserving the rights of the Keledei). These lands were given on the 
day on which the church of Dunfermline was dedicated, as free and 
quit of all custom and service as the lands of any religious house in 
Scotland. 

The church built at Dunfermline by Queen Margaret was probably 
small and unfitted for the use of the monastery. Since 1128 the 
monks had been busy building, and there is more than one order by 
the King to assist them and to give them the wood and material 
they required. In 1150 the church was completed and dedicated, in 
presence, we may believe, of those who are witnesses to this charter 
six Bishops, three Abbots, three Earls, Leod, Abbot of Brechin, Walter 
the son of Alan, the Chancellor, the Chamberlain, de Lindsay, Avenel? 
the Marshal, and Gilcolm mac chimbethin. 

p. 181. Testibus. Most of them have been already noticed. Edward, 
Bishop of Aberdeen, was Bishop of that see from about 1 1 50. He 
witnessed charters of King David to St. Andrews (ante, pp. 182, 183). 
In 1157 Pope Adrian IV. confirmed to him the lands which had 
formerly belonged to the church of Morthlach. In the year 1160 
or 1161 he attended King Malcolm's court at Perth (Reg. Dunferm., 
41) ; he died in 1171 (Chron. Mail.). Symon, Bishop of Ross. Keith 
and Sir Archibald Dunbar are of opinion that he succeeded Bishop 
Macbeth (Dalrymple, Coll., p. 247). Symon was Bishop until 1160 
or 1161. This is the only charter which he witnessed in the reign of 



NOTES CCXXIII.-CCXXVI. 427 

David I . Rosemarkie is near Fortrose in Rosshire. Garuad Comes. 
He cannot be the same as Gartnach or Gartnait whose daughter Eva 
married Colban, for that Gartnait died long before 1150. Morgrund 
Comes. Morgrund was Earl of Mar. Whether he was the son of 
Rpthri who is said to have been Earl of Mar in the earlier part of 
King David's reign or whether he was the son of Gillocher is not 
known. He was a witness to a charter by King Malcolm in 1154 to 
Dunfermline. Selden, in "Titles of Honor," printed a charter by 
William the Lion, A.D. 1171, granting the Earldom of Mar to Mor- 
grund son of Gillocherus, formerly Earl of Mar; but Dr. Joseph 
Robertson says it is impossible to accept it as authentic. Between A.D. 
1 1 53- 1 178 Earl Morgrund of Mar confirmed the gift of Countess Agnes, 
his wife, to the church of Migvie in Cromar to the Priory of St. 
Andrews, and between 1165 and 1171 he gave the church of St. 
M'huluoch of Tarland in Cromar to St. Andrews and also the vill 
of Inverinch (Reg. Prior. S. And., pp. 248, 249). It is said by G. E. C. 
that his legitimacy was challenged by Alan, son and heir of Thomas 
Durward. He died (probably) before 1178. 

p. 182. Ewaein Marescall. He is a witness to the doubtful Founda- 
tion Charter of Dryburgh, No. CCXLH., pp. 193-195. 



ccxxv. 

Registrum Prioratus S. Andreae, fol. 90 a ; Bannatyne Club edition, 
p. 187. 

King David, addressing Robert, Bishop of St. Andrews, and all the 
bishops, abbots, earls, barons, sheriffs, officers, and all the liegemen of 
his kingdom, informs them that he had granted to God and to the 
church of St. Andrew the Apostle and the canons serving God there, 
in perpetual alms, the church of Foregrund, with the tithes and 
customs of the church from the whole of his lordship and his men of 
Foregrund and Foregrundshire and a full toft as a house for the priest 
of that church. 

p. 182. Foregrund et Foregrunde seihire. The priory of St. Andrews 
had two churches called Forgrund, one in the Deanery of Fife which 
was afterwards called Forgan, the other in Gowry. It was the former 
which was granted by King David to the Priory of St. Andrews. 
King Malcolm IV. added half a ploughgate of land called Chm- 
goth (Reg. S. And., p. 205). Towards the end of King William 
the Lion's reign, his brother, Earl David, had a controversy regard- 
ing Forgrund with the canons of St. Andrews (Reg. St. And., p. 
237). Part of Forgrund in Fife belonged to Alan de Lasceles and 
his descendants. 

Gr. episcopo de Dunech., i.e. of Dunkeld. 

CCXXVI. 

Registrum Prioratus S. Andreae, fol. 79 a J Bannatyne Club edition, 
p. 184. 



428 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

King David, addressing all his lieges, announces that he has granted 
to God, and to St. Andrew, and to the prior and convent of St. 
Andrews, in perpetual alms, a full toft in Berwick. They shall hold 
it as freely quit of all service and custom as any 'elemosina' in 
his kingdom is held, and the men dwelling in that toft shall be as 
exempt from exaction and custom and toll as other burgesses of the 
King's grants in alms. 

What strikes me in this and similar grants is their vagueness ; no 
particular toft is named, it is hard to say that anything was conveyed ; 
perhaps they meant that if the Priory already held, or should after- 
wards acquire, a house in Berwick, it should be held as free of service 
as the tofts of any burgesses who held of the King. 

p. 183. Berwick. Many houses in Berwick were granted in King 
David's reign. When Earl he gave a ' mansura ' to the Abbey of 
Selkirk. He granted to the monks of May a 'plenaria tofta.' 
Earl Henry granted to Kelso the toft which had belonged to 
Dodyn. King David gave to Kelso a 'maisura' there and a toft 
near the church of St. James ; to Dunfermline he granted a 
* mansura, 5 to Holy rood a toft, to Jedburgh a * mansura.' 

William, Abbot of Holyrood. He succeeded as abbot in 1152. He 
witnessed many charters in the reigns of King Malcolm and King 
William. He was abbot for 18 years: "Is cum prppter corporis 
infirmitatem ad onus non sufficeret, vovit Deo ut singulis diebus 
psalterium ex integro legeret. Monasterium muro firmo atque stabili 
etiam adversus impetus hostiles quadrato nempe lapide cinxit " (Hay's 
Dipl., 281, 290 ; Preface to the Charters of Holyrood, p. xx). 

CCXXVII. 

Registrum Prioratus Sancti Andreae, fol. 79 a, b ; Bannatyne Club 
edition, p. 185. 

The King, addressing the Bishop of St. Andrews, and the sheriff 
and all the barons and liegemen of Lothian, states that he has granted 
in perpetual alms to God, and to the church of St. Andrew, and to the 
canons serving God there, a full toft in the burgh of Haddington, and 
he wills that they hold it as peacefully, quietly, and honourably as any 
toft is held in alms in the King's burghs. We have seen the close 
connection between Dunfermline and Haddington. Here another 
religious house gets a toft in that burgh. 

p. 184. Waltero : the scribe has omitted * cancellario.' 

Lyed abbate : Led of charter ccxxv. 

CCXXVIII. 

Registrum de Dunfermelyn, fol. 22 b ; Bannatyne Club edition, 
p. 55, No. 91. 



NOTES CCXXVI.-CCXXX. 429 

Robert, Bishop of St. Andrews, confirms the right of the church of 
the Holy Trinity of Dunfermline (i) to the church of Kaledure 
Comitis, which Earl Duncan had given in alms ; (2) to the church of 
Neutun, which Elwyn Renner and his wife Ede had given in alms. 
They were to hold these churches free from all exaction " salvo jure 
episcopal!." 

It is not certain that this charter was granted in the reign of David 
I. It may have been as late as 1159, when Bishop Robert died. It 
was confirmed by King Malcolm IV. (Reg. Dunf., p. 25). 

p. 184. Ecclesia de Kaledure Comitis is now called West Calder ; it 
lies to the west of the River Calder, which divides it from East Calder. 
It derived its name from the Earl of Fife, while East Calder was called 
Calder Clere, from Radulf Clere. Calder Comitis remained the pro- 
perty of the Earls of Fife until the fourteenth century. 

Ecclesia de Neutun is now called Kirknewton, a parish in the shire 
of Edinburgh. 

Elwynus Renner and Ede his wife. He was a witness to ccxxx., 
ante, p. 185. Gillexo Rennerius is a witness to a charter by King 
William (Reg. Dunf., p. 36). 

Testibus. These are ecclesiastics, most of whom have been already 
noticed. 

CCXXIX. 

Liber de Calchou, Bannatyne Club edition, p. 297, No. 373. 

King David, addressing his bishops, abbots, earls, barons, justices, 
sheriffs, servants, and all his liegemen, French, English, and Scottish, 
informs them that he has granted to Ernald, Abbot of Kelso, and his 
successors, in perpetual alms, the church of Selkirk, in order that the 
abbots may in that church be the chaplains of the King and his son. 
This was granted between 1147, when Ernald became abbot, and 
1153, when King David died. This was the original grant of which 
the compiler of the chartulary inserted the following abstract at the 
end of the general confirmation to the Abbey of Kelso : " Et prae- 
terea ecclesiam de Selkirk liberam et quietam sicut elemosina debit 
dare et concedi ita scilicet quod praedicti abbates sint capellani 
mei et filii mei et successorum meorum de praedicta ecclesia." 

p. 185. Testibus. These have been already noticed. The name of 
Walter the Chancellor ' de Bidun ' is given. 



CCXXX. 

Registrum Epis. Glasguensis, Maitland Club edition, p. 13, No. u. 

Robert, Bishop of St. Andrews, states that he has granted " et per 
libram saisisse" the church of Lohworuora to Herbert, Bishop of 
Glasgow, " sicut de possessione Glasguensis ecclesiae." The King and 



430 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

his son Henry were present and assented to the grant. The Bishop 
reserved to the church of St. Andrews all episcopal rights in the 
church of Lohworuora as in other churches in Lothian. 

It is not easy to understand this, because the church of Locherwort 
belonged to the monastery of Scone and continued to belong to it long 
after the reign of David I. King Malcolm confirmed the right of 
the Priory of Scon to the church of Louchforuer as having been 
granted to Scon by King David (Lib. de Scon, p. 6), Pope 
Alexander (p. 14), King William (pp. 19, 28, 29), Bishop Richard of 
St. Andrews (p. 31), Bishop Hugh (p. 32), Bishop William (p. 35), Pope 
Honorius III (p. 67), and Bishop William (p. 81). 

p. 185. Lohworuora is called Lothwerverd in a Life of St. Kentigern, 
Forbes, p. 234 ; Lochoruer in the Bull of Pope Alexander III. in 1174 ; 
Loheworuerd, Bull of Pope Alexander in 1178; Lohewhouerd, 
Bull of Pope Lucius in 1181. Lohworuora was Borthwick in the 
shire of Edinburgh. The church was dedicated to St. Kentigern 
and the tradition was, that he lived there for some years and erected 
a cross. The jurors in the Inquisitio did not include Lohworuora 
among the lands and churches of the see of Glasgow. It does not 
appear in the Register of the Church of Glasgow after 1181. In the 
fifteenth century the land belonged to the Hays and under the name of 
Lochwarret or Locherwart it was sold to the first Lord Borthwick, 
who built a castle there and called it and the barony by his own name 
Borthwick, by which it is now known. 

p. 1 86. Testibus. I am not able to suggest a reason for the long 
array of witnesses. On what occasion can the King and his son have 
met four bishops (including the granter and grantee), four abbots, 
three priors, two archdeacons, a dean, the chancellor of the King and 
the chancellor of the Earl, five clerics, an earl, and twenty barons ? If 
the list be genuine, the date is between 1147, when Ernald became 
Abbot of Kelso, and 1150, when Abbot Alwyn resigned ; but I am 
inclined to the opinion that the compiler wrote names just as they 
happened to strike him. I am puzzled to find Edward the Constable 
as a contemporary of Walter the Chancellor ; Hugo de Moreville had 
succeeded Edward as Constable before Lohworuora was granted to 
Herbert, Bishop of Glasgow. I am still more puzzled to find Hugo 
de Fresechin, who flourished in the end of the reign of King 
William the Lion and died in 1214. The more the list is 
examined the more doubtful it appears. Most of the wit- 
nesses have been already noticed. Bernard de Boilond may be 
intended for Bernard de Baliol ; but there was a place and family 
called Boilond. Jordan Heyrun may be one of the Northumberland 
Herons. William de Vesci appears in charters towards the end of 
King David's reign. Arthur Finboga does not occur elsewhere ; 
a Gilbert Fimboga was a witness (ante, p. 86). Walter the 
Chaplain of Lilliesleaf. Lilliesleaf was a church of the Bishopric 
of Glasgow served by a vicar ; the vicar may have been the Bishop's 
chaplain. Thomas de Linnithuc may be a bad spelling for Linlithgow, 
and he may have been a churchman ; in my opinion the list is a 
fabrication. 



NOTES CCXXX.-CCXXXIII. 431 



CCXXXI. 

In the Chartulary of Reading in the possession of the Earl of 
Fingall. 

King David, addressing provosts and officers and all the liegemen 
of his land, informs them that he has granted to the brethren of May 
a full toft in his burgh of Haddington, free from all custom and service. 



CCXXXII. 

This was first printed in Smith's Bede, p. 762 (A.D. 1722); he stated, 
" Hac carta quae in Archivis Dunelmensibus usque hodie conser- 
vatur." 

It was printed in Crawford's Officers of State, p. 6 (A.D. 1726), 
and in Anderson's Diplomata, with a facsimile, No. XII., and he 
stated on p. viii that he got the original "ex chartophylacio 
Academiae S. Andreae " ; in Keith's Bishops, p. 7 ; Reeves' Culdees, 
p. 131. The charter is recorded in the Registrum Prioratus S. And., 
p. 1 88, with a facsimile of the original and of the transcript in the 
Register, Preface, pp. xvi, xvii. 

Dr. Raine, N. Durham, App., p. 6, No. xxvi., printed it from 
Anderson's Diplomata, trusting to Canon Smith's note ; Dr. Raine 
said the original had been at Durham in 1722, and was now unfortu- 
nately lost. 

I doubt whether the charter was ever in the Durham Treasury ; it 
is more likely that it was preserved at St. Andrews. 

King David, addressing the bishops, abbots, earls, sheriffs and all his 
lieges, announces that he has granted to the canons of St. Andrews 
the island of Loch Leven, in order that they may there institute 
the order of canons regular, that any of the Keledei of the island 
who consent to live as canons shall remain, but that any who resist 
the change shall be expelled from the island. 

CCXXXIII. 

Registrum Prioratus S. Andreae, fol. 89 b ; Bannatyne Club edition, 
p. 186 ; Reeves, Culdees, p. no. 

The King states that the Prior and Canons of St. Andrews may 
receive the Keledei of Kilrimont with all their possessions and rents if 
they are willing to become canons ; if they are unwilling, they may 
have and hold their possessions for their lives, but after the death of 
each, his place shall be taken by a canon, so that in future there shall 



432 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

be as many canons as there were Keledei ; all their goods and lands 
and alms shall be converted to the use of the canons. 

The Keledei of St. Andrews were treated with more consideration 
than those of St. Serf, for if any at Loch Leven refused to become 
canons, they were to be ejected from the island ; if the Keledei 
of St. Andrews refused, they were to remain undisturbed till they 
died. This order by King David was not obeyed. The Keledei 
were too strong ; more than fifty years later, in 1199, the prior and 
the canons were obliged to come to an agreement with them. 

" Haec est conventio facta inter Gilbertum priorem Sancti Andreae 
et conventum ejusdem loci, et inter Kelledeos de Sancto Andrea pro 
lite sopienda quae inter illos erat de decimis, scilicet quod dominus 
prior et canonici concesserunt Kelledeis ut habeant et teneant sine omni 
calumpnia et contentione in perpetuum rectas decimas plenarias in terris 
suis, scilicet Kingasc, Kinnakelle cum Petsporgin et Petkennin, Lethene 
cum Kininis, Kernes cum Cambrun. Ceteris in manu canonicorum 
retentis scilicet sponsaliis, purificationibus, oblationibus, baptismo, 
corporibus defunctorum exceptis corporibus Kelledeorum qui ubi 
voluerint, sepelientur. Praeterea Kelledei habeant omnes decimas et 
omnes obventiones de Kinglassin excepto baptismo et corporibus 
defunctorum, Kelledei siquidem dederunt praefatis canonicis, Tresti- 
rum per rectas divisas suas in perpetuum, libere et quiete ab omnibus 
prout ipsi Kelledei liberius et quiecius villam illam habuerunt, et ad 
hoc confirmandum confirmationem Domini Regis Willelmi et confirma- 
tionem Domini Rogeri episcopi eos habere facient. . . . Testibus, 
etc." (Reg. Prior. S. And., p. 318). 

In 1309 Thomas Randolph the Guardian decided a controversy 
between the Keledei and the Bishop : " Et inventum est et solempniter 
in communi publicatum quod infra Cursum Apri non sunt nisi tres 
baroniae, videlicet baronia Domini Episcopi S. Andreae, baronia 
Domini Prioris S. Andreae et baronia Kalediorum quaequidem 
baroniae cum inhabitantibus immediate sunt subjectae Episcopo S. 
Andreae et ecclesiae et nulli alio. Unde ratione dictae subjectionis 
praedictae baroniae tarn de jure quam de consuetudine approbata 
tenentur facere seCtam curiae died Domini Episcopi et ibidem tam de 
visnetis et dictamentis interesse quam ad alia judicia de condemp- 
natis facienda." 

" Item inventum est quod si aliquod judicium infra curiam Domini 
praepositi Kalediorum seu alicujus baroniae infra Cursum Apri sit per 
aliquem falsatum, ad curiam Domini Episcopi est appellandum et ibi 
dictum judicium est determinandum et declarandum, etc." (From the 
Black Book of St. Andrews, printed in the Bannatyne Club edition of 
the Reg. Prior. S. And., Preface, xxxi). 



NOTES CCXXXIII.-CCXXXVI. 



433 



CCXXXIV. 

From the Liber de Calchou, Bannatyne Club edition, pp. 298 and 
374- 

King David states that he had granted to the church of St. Mary 
and St. John of Kelso, and to the abbots and monks serving God there, 
the vill called Vithmer free from all secular service or custom in 
perpetual alms, as freely as any abbey in the kingdom holds its alms. 
It is in the parish of Selkirk. Morton, p. 124, says: "The grange of 
Whitmer consisted of two ploughgates . . . the vill . . . contained 10 
husband lands . . . with bond services . . . and 8 cottages." 



CCXXXV. 

Chartulary of Cambuskenneth, Grampian Club edition, p. 77, 

No. 57. . 

The King states that he has granted to the Abbot of Stirling and 
the canons serving God there, the church of Clackmannan, with forty 
acres of land and the toft of the priest and easements in wood and 
plain and the tithe of all the King's pleas and profits of Stirling and 
Stirlingshire and Callander and a toft in Stirling and another in 
Linlithgow. 

This was granted after the confirmation of the original endowments 
of the abbey by Pope Eugenius in 1147, for these gifts are not therein 
mentioned. The church and church land of Clackmannan continued 
the property of the abbey until the Reformation ; there are several 
charters and Bulls regarding it in the chartulary. As late as 1505 
there was a ' Perambulatio ' of the forty acres belonging to the church, 
the boundaries of which were then ascertained (Chart. Cambusk., 
p. 85, No. 64). 



CCXXXVI. 

The original is in the Treasury at Durham ; a seal attached. 
Printed by Dr. Raine, N. Durham, App., p. 24, No. cvi. 

Earl Henry states that, in his presence at Berwick, Swain the priest 
quitclaimed and restored to the monks of Coldingham, Fishwick with 
its appurtenants and the half of Prenderghest and the land which 
Swain had in Coldingham and Lummesdene. The Earl's pleasure is 
that the monks may hold and possess these lands in peace, un- 
disturbed by Swain. 

2E 



434 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 



CCXXXVII. 

Registrum de Dry burgh, Bannatyne Club edition, p. 78, No. 109. 

King David states that he has granted Caddysleya in perpetual alms 
to the church of St. Mary of Dryburgh, with pasturage within his 
forest. 

A confirmation by King Malcolm (Reg. Dryb., p. 179) implies that 
this was given after Earl Henry's death : " Quam avus meus eis pro 
anima patris mei dedit et concessit." 

Afterwards King William added another bit of land next Caddys- 
leya. The boundary between the lands of the Abbey of Dryburgh 
and those of the Abbey of Melrose and of Earlstoun was carefully 
settled (Reg. Dryb., pp. 80, 81, 82, 172). Caddysleya lay close to, if 
not within, the lordship of Lauderdale, which belonged to de More- 
ville. The King had a forest adjoining. The words in the Register 
of Dryburgh are " cum pasonis infra forestam meam " ; the editor 
suggested and inserted * pasnagiis,' but it is clear from the charters 
of confirmation by King Malcolm and King William that the word 
should be ' pascuis.' 

p. 190. Landa meant an uncultivated land. 

Caddysleya became a grange and home farm of the abbey and one 
of its most fertile and valuable possessions ; it is now called Kedslie. 

CCXXXVIII. 

Registrum de Dryburgh, Bannatyne Club edition, p. 102, No. 143. 

Beatrix de Bello Campo, addressing King David and Richard 
de Moreville, her son, states that she has granted to the canons of 
Dryburgh that land in Roxburgh which she had bought from Roger 
the gatekeeper (janitor) and also the tithe of the mill of Nenthorn 
in alms for ever. 

This was, I think, granted after Hugo de Moreville became a monk, 
otherwise his wife would have addressed him and not her son, or 
would have signified his assent. 

p. 191. Naythinthern is Nenthorn, a parish in Berwickshire which 
belonged to Hugo de Moreville. 



CCXXXIX. 

Registrum de Dryburgh, Bannatyne Club edition, p. 178, No. 239. 
King David, addressing the bishops, abbots, earls, barons, justiciars, 
sheriffs, ' praepositi,' officers, and all the liegemen of his land, laymen 



NOTES CCXXXVII.-CCXLI. 435 

and clerics, French and English, present and future, announces that he 
confirms to the church of St. Mary of Dryburgh, and to the canons 
there serving God, Dryburgh and all the gifts of which Hugo de 
de Moreville and Beatrix de Bello Campo his wife had granted to 
them in alms for their support. 



CCXL. 

Registrum de Dryburgh, Bannatyne Club edition, p. 68, No. 92. 

Charter by Richard de Moreville, confirming to the canons of 
Dryburgh, his mother's gift of the church of Bosyete and the mill of 
Nenthorn, and her land in Roxburgh, which she bought from Roger 
the janitor, and also the gift of his sister Ada of a tithe of the mill of 
Newton. 

p. 192. Bosyete. Whalley (Northamptonshire, 2, p. 158) describes 
" Bosiate " as in the Hundred of Higham, in Northampton, bounded on 
the east by Bedfordshire, and on the south by Warrington and Olney 
in Bucks. Part of the manor belonged to William Peverel, and part 
to the Countess Judith, from whom it passed to Matilda, wife of 
David I. Whalley does not show how the patronage of the church 
belonged to Beatrix de Bello Campo. He said (2, p. 160) : "The 
church of Bosegayte is said to have been given by Walter de Isel to 
St. James' convent, near Northampton. Previous to this benefaction, 
the right of patronage appears to have been in the abbot and convent of 
Dryburgh, founded by King David of Scots, in Scotland ; they after- 
wards gave up their pretensions, and the abbot of St. James obtained 
the patronage on paying the said convent of Dryburgh two marks and 
a half yearly, which pension the convent assigned to St. Andrews in 
Northampton. This agreement between the two monasteries was 
confirmed by Richard de Moreville, constable to the King of 
Scotland." 

Newton, now Newton-Don, in the parish of Nenthorn, Berwickshire. 



CCXLI. 

Registrum de Dryburgh, Bannatyne Club edition, p. 104, No. 146. 

Earl Henry, addressing the bishops, justiciars, and all his liege- 
men, announces that he has granted to the canons of Dryburgh that 
toft in Roxburgh outside the wall which was held in burgage by John 
the Chaplain. 

p. 193. in burgagio : meaning that the toft, though outside the wall, 
was held by the same tenure as a * burgagium ; within the burgh. 



436 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 



CCXLII. 

This is not in the Registrum de Dryburgh. A copy is in the MSS. 
of Sir James Balfour, in the Advocates' Library, F. 33, 2. 5, W. 2, 29. 

It is probably spurious, a composition of an age later than that 
of King David I., by whom it purports to have been granted. It 
represents King David as claiming to be the founder of the Abbey of 
Dryburgh, 'quam fundavi,' but it is certain that the abbey was 
founded by Hugo de Moreville on his own land in his lordship of 
Lauderdale. The writer makes some mistakes. The King is said to 
have granted the church of Dryburgh with its chapels, but there was 
no church at Dryburgh before the abbey church was built, and no grant 
by the King of a church there has been preserved. 

The King granted the churches of Lanark and Pettinain and the 
ploughgate of land which Nicolas held, No. ccxvin., ante, p. 177- 
Caddesleya he granted by charter CCXXXVIL, ante, p. 190. There is 
no grant by David I. of a 'manerium' in Craill. The toft in Craill 
was granted by Countess Ada, the mother of the King of Scotland 
(Reg. Dryb., pp. 10, n). This 'foundation' charter was written after 
King David's death. 

The grant by Beatrix de Bello Campo (charter ccxxxvui., p. 191) 
of the toft in Roxburgh which belonged to John the Chaplain ; 
the grant by Adam, the King's Chaplain, are referred to and con- 
firmed by King David (charter CCXLIIL, ante, p. 195) ; the charter 
by Adam has not been preserved. The witnesses have all, I think 
been noticed, except Meuin son of Colban. 



CCXLIIL 

Registrum de Dryburgh, Bannatyne Club edition, p. 104, No. 147. 

King David confirms to the Abbey of Dryburgh the grants by 
Beatrix de Bello Campo, by Earl Henry, and by Adam the Chaplain. 
He grants to the monks permission to take from his woods all that 
they need, and the privilege of freedom from toll and from all secular 
exactions and customs as fully as any ' religiosi ' are exempt through- 
out the kingdom. 



CCXLIV. 

The original has not been preserved. This is taken from Dugdale's 
Monast., v., p. 594 ; Prescott's Wetheral, p. 421. There are several 
registers of the Abbey of Holmcultram : British Museum, Harleian 



NOTES CCXLII.-CCXLIV. 



437 



MS., 3891, 3911, and a modern transcript, No. 1881 ; Library Corp. 
Christ. Coll. Camb., MS. cxi., 121. 

Earl Henry founded an abbey for Cistercians at Holmcultram, in 
Cumberland, A.D. 1150. He endowed it with two-thirds of the manor ; 
the other third he had already given to Alan son of Waldef as a 
chase for hunting. That third, Alan soon afterwards gave to the 
abbey. After the cession of Cumberland by Malcolm IV., King 
Henry II. took Holmcultram Abbey under his protection and con- 
firmed its endowments. In Dugdale there are printed above eighty 
charters to the abbey, of which a Bull by Pope Clement III. in 1190 
is one of the most important. It is said that the abbey was pillaged 
by the army of Alexander II. of Scotland in 1216, and again in 1322 
by King Robert the Bruce. The clear income of the abbey at the 
Reformation was ^428. 

Hugo de Moreville gave to Holmcultram the church of Burg, of 
which he was the patron. This is not the Hugo de Moreville who was 
King David's friend. The relationship between the Scottish and 
the Cumberland de Morevilles has not been exactly ascertained. 
Hugo de Moreville of Burgh had a daughter Johanna, who married 
Richard de Gernun, and who confirmed her father's grant to Holm- 
cultram. Among other donors of land to Holmcultram was Gospatric 
I son of Orm, his sons, Thomas and Alan, and his grandson, Patrick, 
| and his great-grandson, Gilbert, and great-great-grandson, Gilbert 
de Culvennan. Another donor was Alicia de Romelie, the daughter 
William "nepos regis." 

p. 197. Alan was the son of Waldef who was the brother of Dolfin and 
Gospatric. Waldef obtained from William Meschin, Lord of Cope- 
|land, the whole land 'inter Cocar and Derwent, 3 and the vills, 
Brigham, Eglysfeld, Dene Bramthwait, Gisothon, the two Cliftons and 
Stainburn. Alan, his son, was a great lord in Cumberland ; his 
only son, Waldef, predeceased him, and Alan is said to have been 
succeeded by his nephew, William Fitz Duncan, but that is 
doubtful. William Fitz Duncan was a cousin, not a nephew, of 
I Alan. His mother is said to have been a sister of Waldef, Alan's 
ither. Alan had sisters to whom he gave land. William Fitz 
>uncan acquired large estates in Cumberland with his wife. 
Rabi. At the Reformation the abbey had Rayby Grange of the 
mnual value of 4 193. 

Anthetillus son of Udard. Prescott reads * Aschetillus.' Richard 
of Anketillus, in the reign of King Richard I., resigned to Holm- 
iltram the land below Kirkebride. 
materiem : Prescott reads ' materiam.' 

Fo resta de Engleswoda was a large forest in Cumberland which is 
lentioned in the Bull of Clement III. King John granted a charter 
de Hermitoria S. Hildae in Foresta de Engleswoda.' 



438 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 



CCXLV. 

From the Holmcultram Register printed in Dugdale, Monast., Vol. 
V., p. 594. 

This is a confirmation by King David of the preceding charter 
by his son, Earl Henry. It was probably granted at Carlisle, where 
David died in 1153. The witnesses are the Bishop, and Walter, 
the Prior of Carlisle. 

CCXLVI. 

Chartulary of Brinkburn, No. CLXXIV. ; Surtees Society, Vol. 90, 
p. 141 ; Dugdale's Monast., VI., p. 332. 

Earl Henry, son of the King of Scotland, grants to God and to the 
church of St. Peter at Brinkburn and the canons serving God there, 
one of his saltpans at Werke worth in perpetual alms. 

p. 198. Brinkburn was an Augustinian priory founded in the 
reign of Henry I. by William Bertram, on the river Cocquet in 
N orthumberland. 

p. 199. Salina . . . de Werkeworth. Wark worth is on the sea, at 
the mouth of the Cocquet. In Dugdale the witnesses are " E. . . . 
cancellario comitis, Hugone Belet et aliis." 

In the chartulary of Newminster (Surtees Society, Vol. 66, p. 212) 
there is another grant of a saltpan by Earl Henry. 

" Henricus Comes filius regis Scotiae justiciae suae et baronibus 
vicecomitibus et ministris et omnibus probis hominibus suis totius 
Northumberlandiae, Francis et Anglis, salutem. 

Sciatis me concessisse monachis de Novo Mon. pro salute animae 
nieae et patris mei et matris meae et antecessorum et successorum 
meorum salinam unam apud Werkworth propinquiorem scilicet villae 
quam Comes Simon frater meus illis dedit et concessit. 

Volo itaque et firmiter praecipio quod salinam illam in perpetuam 
elemosinam teneant et habeant liberam et quietam ab omnibus sicut 
aliqua elemosina in terra mea liberius et. quietius habetur. Testibus 

J) 

This Is preceded by a charter : " Notum sit tarn praesentibjus quam 
futuris quod ego Simon Comes Northumbriae monachis Novi Mon. 
concessi et dedi pro salute animae meae et meorum antecessorum 
propinquiorem salinam de Werkword in feudo et elemosina et volo ut 
teneant illam salinam bene et in pace et honorifice sicut unquam 
melius earn tenui." 

I do not know that there is any other record that Simon ever held 
or claimed to hold the Earldom of Northumberland. Sir Robert de 
Mowbray was Earl of Northumberland ; he rebelled against William 
Rufus and was defeated and taken prisoner in 1095, from which 
time until 1139, when Henry, son of the King of Scots, received the 
earldom from King Stephen the earldom was 'in the Crown.' If 
this charter can be trusted, Simon de St. Liz sometime in the interval 



NOTES CCXLV.-CCXLVIII. 439 

called himself Earl, possibly he was recognised as Earl by King 
Stephen, whose cause he supported. Simon de St. Liz got the earl- 
dom of Northampton on his mother's death in 1130. He died in 
August, 1153 (G. E. C., Complete Peerage). 



CCXLVII. 

Chartulary of Brinkburn, Surtees Society, Vol. 90, p. 193. 

Henry, son of the King of Scotland, addressing the justiciars, 
sheriffs, officers, and all the lieges of the whole of his Honor, informs 
them that he has granted and confirmed in feu and alms, Brinkburn, 
which William Bertram gave to the prior and brethren of the church 
of St. Mary on the Isle. 

p. 199. William Bertram : Baron of Mitford. 

p. 200. Randulf de Merlay, son of Roger de Merley ; he founded 
the Priory of Newminster. 

Corbrig'. Corbridge is on the Tyne, below Hexham, in Northumber- 
land. 

CCXLVIII. 

From the Reg. Prior. S. And., Bannatyne Club edition, p. 187. 

King David, addressing the justices, sheriffs, provosts and all the 
burgesses of Perth, informs them that he has granted to Baldwin, his 
servant, " huic Balduino clienti meo," the toft which he holds and has 
in Perth, free of all service " excepta vigilia infra burgum et claustura 
burgi. . . . Reddendo . . . i turet et ii coleres " and for that he shall 
be free of every other service, and the King forbids that he be sued in 
any court except before the King himself or his justice. He further 
grants that when Baldwin wishes to leave the town he may sell 
his house and his toft. 

A similar charter ascribed to Malcolm IV. is on p. 204 of the 
Register ; the only difference is that Walter the Chancellor is added 
to the list of witnesses and that it was granted at Perth while this 
was granted at Scone. It is difficult to say which is the original. 
I think I was justified in printing this by David I. as genuine. 
King Malcolm granted the following charter to (I presume) the same 
Baldwin : "Malcolmus Rex Scottorum omnibus probis hominibus 
totius terrae suae clericis et laicis salutem. Sciatis me concessisse 
et regiae potestatis munimento confirmasse Deo et ecclesiae Sancti 
Andreae de Scotia et canonicis ibidem Deo servientibus edificia Bald- 
win! lorimarii de Pert cum terris in quibus ipsa consistunt optinenda 
in libera elemosina, soluta et quieta ab omni servitio et redditu et 
consuetudine seculari excepta vigilia burgi et claustura quantum inde 



440 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

pertinet ad edificia ilia et ad terras illas. Testibus Nichola camerario, 
Waltero de Lindesai, Johanne de Wallibus, Radulfo de camera. Apud 
Rochesburc" (Reg. Prior. S. And., p. 204). 



CCXLIX. 

Registrum Prioratus S. Andreae, fol. 79 a ; Bannatyne Club edition, 
p. 184. 

The King has granted to the church of St. Andrews and the canons 
serving God there a certain full toft in Clackmannan for the convenience 
of the monastery and for the use and business of the canons, free from 
all service and custom. 

CCL. 

Registrum Prioratus Sancti Andreae, fol. 79 b ; Bannatyne Club 
edition, p. 185. 

King David grants in perpetual alms to God and to the church or 
St. Andrews and the canons serving there, forty shillings annually 
of the can of ships of Perth for the vestments of the canons. This 
was, I think, granted earlier than 1 1 50 ; if so, it is not in its proper 
place. 

CCLI. 

Liber de Calchou, fol. 137 ; Bannatyne Club edition, p. 286, 
No. 358. 

Galfrid de Percy grants in alms to the church of St. Mary at Kelso 
a ploughgate of land in Heton, consisting of 104 acres, near the land 
of the hospital of Roxburgh, free of all service ; Henry, his brother and 
heir, agrees and confirms the grant. 

p. 202. Galfrid de Percy, a son of the great Alan de Percy who 
died circa 1132-1135. 

Heton is a land near Roxburgh, on the road to Crailing. It after- 
wards belonged to the Colvilles. 



CCLII. 

Chartulary of Whitby, No. 57, Surtees Society edition, Vol. 69, 
p. 58. 

Galfrid de Percy granted to God and to St. Peter and to St. Hilda 
of Whitby and to the monks there serving God a ploughgate of land 
in Oxnam for the weal of the soul of King David, who gave that land 
to de Percy, and for the weal of the souls of Earl Henry and of his 



NOTES CCXLVIII.-CCLIV. 441 

sons and daughters, and also for the weal of the souls of the father and 
mother and brothers and relations of the granter. 

p. 203. St. Hylda of Wyteby. The church and monastery of Whitby 
on the coast of Yorkshire were founded by William de Percy in the 
reign of the Conqueror. William de Percy was succeeded by Alan de 
Percy, whose sons, Alan and Galfrid, acquired land in the south of 
Scotland and gave part of it to Whitby. 

Oxanaham. Oxnam is a border parish in Roxburghshire, on the 
Cheviot hills. Galfrid de Percy is said to have granted the church of 
Oxnam to the Abbey of Jedburgh. 

Testibus : Gaufrido clerico fratre meo : in another charter he is 
called Gosfridus. 



CCLIII. 

From the Chartulary of Whitby, No. 59, Surtees Soc., Vol. 69, p. 59. 

Grant by Alan de Percy to the church of St. Peter and St. Hilda, at 
Whitby, of two ploughgates of land, one in Oxnam and the other in 
Heton, for the weal of the souls of King David and of Earl Henry, 
and of the donor's father, Alan de Percy. 

This ploughgate in Oxnam is in addition to the one granted by 
Galfrid (ante, No. CCLll). Galfrid and Alan had each a ploughgate 
in Oxnam, and each a ploughgate in Heton. Galfrid gave his Heton 
ploughgate to Kelso Abbey, and his Oxnam ploughgate to Whitby 
Abbey, while Alan gave both his ploughgates to Whitby. There is a 
duplicate, No. 59, of the Whitby Chartulary, witnessed by William, 
Walter, and Gaufrid de Percy, the donor's brothers and others. Alan 
was a son of the great Alan de Percy. It is not clear whether he was 
legitimate. "Alan magni Alani films nothus" was present at the 
battle of the Standard. The legitimate son was called Alan le 
Meschin. This grant by Alan de Percy was confirmed by his brothers 
Henry and Galfrid (Whitby Charters, LX. and LXL), by David I. (CCLIV., 
ante, p. 204), by King Malcolm, by Philip de Coleville, and by Thomas 
de Coleville. 



CCLIV. 

Chartulary of Whitby, No. 62, Surtees Soc., Vol. 69, p. 61. 

King David, addressing the bishops, abbots, earls, etc., of his land, 
announces that he has confirmed to the monks of Whitby the gift in 
alms which Alan de Percy and Galfrid his brother made to the church 
of St. Hilda, viz., a ploughgate of land in Hetun, and another plough- 
gate in Oxnam, to be held of the King in perpetual alms free of any 
secular service or exaction. 



442 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

I doubt whether this be a correct copy of King David's charter. 
The two Percies had given to Whitby two ploughgates in Oxnam, and 
this mentions one only. The abbot of Holyrood is here called Abbot 
de Castello Puellarum. William became Abbot of Holyrood in 1152 ; 
King David died in 1153 at Carlisle. 

CCLV. 

Registrum de Dunfermelyn, fol. 8 a ; Bannatyne Club edition, p. 17, 
No. 33 ; and Registrum Epis. Morav., Bannatyne Club edition, p. 329, 
No. 254. 

The King, addressing the bishops, abbots, barons, justiciars, 
sheriffs, and all the men of all his land, French, English, and Scots, 
states that he, for the extension of the house of God, and for the pro- 
pagation of holy religion, had granted to God and to the church of 
the Holy Trinity of Urchard, and to the prior and brethren serving 
there, Urchard and Finfans and Fochoper, and common pasturage for 
beasts, and a fishing in the Spey, and twenty shillings from the rent 
of the burgh of Elgin, and in Fochoper the right of fishing which be- 
longs to the thain, and a tithe of the can of Ergaithel and of Moray, 
and the whole of the profits of the same Ergaithel. The King confirms 
to Urchard the donations by the Abbey of Dunfermline, of Pethenach 
juxta Eren, of the sheilings of Fathenechten, and of all the rights which 
the monks of Dunfermline were wont to have in Moray, fully and 
freely, and exempt from all exactions, on the condition that on the 
death of the ' persona ' (the head of the House of Urchard) the assent 
of the Abbey of Dunfermline and of the King should be obtained to 
the election of a successor, and that if no fit person be found in 
Urchard, one should be accepted from Dunfermline. 

p. 204. Urchard : the Church and priory of Urquhart have been 
noticed in the note to charter ex. Urquhart is a parish in Elginshire, 
five miles N.E. of Elgin. 

p. 205. Finfans is a farm in Urquhart parish. 

Fochoper, now called Fochabers, a small town in Bellie parish, in 
the shire of Elgin. 

Can of Ergaithel of Muref. In the second great charter to the 
Abbey of Dunfermline, King David granted the half of his tithe of 
Ergaithel and of Kentir "eo scilicet anno qu ego ipse inde recepero can." 
This is the only mention of a grant of the tithe of the can of Moray. 

Pethenach juxta Eren. Eren was the old name for Auldearn, near 
Nairn ; probably this was a farm in Auldearn parish. 

Scalingas de Fathenechten. Scalingae were sheils, or sheilings, 
huts erected each summer for the use of those who tended the cattle 
sent to graze on the hills. Fathenechten may be the same as 
Pethenach. 



NOTES CCLIV.-CCLVIII. 



443 



CCLVI. 

Registrum de Dunfermelyn, fol. 22 b ; Bannatyne Club edition, p. 55, 
No. 92. 

The Bishop of St. Andrews confirms the right of the Abbey of 
Dunfermline to the churches (i) of Perth, (2) of Stirling, with the 
schools, (3) of Nithbren, (4) Kinglassin, (5) Kirkcaldy, (6) the chapel 
of Inverkeithing, (7) church of Inveresk, (8) chapel of Cousland, (9) to 
the tithes of Keeth, (10) to the church of Wymet, (n) to that of 
Hailes. I am not sure that this was granted before 1153; it may 
have been granted between 1153 and 1159. 



CCLVII. 

The original is in the Treasury at Durham ; a seal attached. 
Printed in Raine, N. Durham, App. 24, No. cvm. 

Earl Henry, addressing Gilbert de Unfranville, his constable, and 
his barons and liegemen, announces that the lands of the monks of 
Durham are under his protection. 

p. 207. Richard, Prior of Hexham. He was a canon of the Augus- 
tinian Priory of Hexham, in Northumberland, and became prior in 
1141. He wrote a history of the Church of Hexham, and " De gestis 
regis Stephani et de bello Standardi." 

Apud Jeddewrd : Jedburgh. 



CCLVIII. 

Liber de Calchou, Bannatyne Club edition, p. 43, No. 52. 

Bernard de Balliol, addressing all the sons of Holy Church, 
announces that he has gifted to God and to the Abbey of Kelso, a 
fishing in the Tweed which appertains to Wudehorn, to be fished 
with nets without hindrance, with the assent of David, King of 
the Scots, and of Malcolm and William, his grandsons ; witnessed 
by Wydo the granter's son, and Bernard and others. Bernard 
de Baliol (the son of Guy de Baliol, who received many lands 
in Northumberland and Durham from the Conqueror) was a great 
baron in the north of England. He built Barnard Castle. 

p. 207. Wudehorn. A charter by Richard, Bishop of Durham 
(Liber de Calchou, No. 54, p. 44), describes a land as lying in the 
territory of Tweedmouth, next to the fishings of Wudehorn and Blake- 
wel, in the river Tweed, and in a charter by Hugo de Baliol (*& 
No. 53, p. 43), the fishing is called Wudhornestell. 



444 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 



CCLIX. 

Liber de Calchou, Bannatyne Club edition, p. 24, No. 25. 

King David confirms Bernard de BalioPs gift of a fishing (No. 
CCLVIIL, p. 207). If the fishing was on the English side of the 
Tweed, it would be strange that the Scottish King should affect to 
confirm the grant ; but perhaps the monks of Kelso begged him to 
confirm it lest there should be any question whether the fishing was in 
England or in Scotland. 

CCLX. 

Registrum de Dunfermelyn, fol. 83 a ; Bannatyne Club edition, 
p. 88, No. 152. 

Countess Ada, addressing her provost and burgesses and all her 
liegemen of Haddingtonshire, informs them that she has granted 
a full toft in her burgh of Haddington in free alms for the soul of her 
lord, the Earl Henry, and for her own soul, etc. 

This was granted after Earl Henry's death in 1152. King 
David had granted a toft in Haddington to Dunfermline, ante, pp. 
164, 167. In later years the abbey seems to have had only one toft 
there. 



CCLXI. 

Registrum de Dunfermelyn, fol. 22 a, and duplicate, fol. 22 b ; Banna- 
tyne Club edition, p. 55, No. 90. 

The Bishop of St. Andrews confirms to the Abbey of Dunfermline 
the church of St. Leonards at Perth, a chapel ('membrum') of the 
church of St. John the Baptist. 

p. 209. ' Membrum ' is not a common word in Scottish charters. 
Du Cange says it is " partie d'un tout, dependance, accessoire." 

Testibus. Magister Herbert is probably the Magister H. of charter 
CCLVII., p. 207. He witnessed several charters to Dunfermline 
Abbey. 

CCLXII. 

Registrum de Dunfermelyn, fol. 75 a; Bannatyne Club edition, 
p. 74, No. 123. 

Charter by Andrew, Bishop of Caithness, granting to the Abbey of 
Dunfermline the church of the Holy Trinity of Dunkeld and its lands. 



NOTES CCLIX.-CCLXIII. 



445 



The church of the Holy Trinity at Dunkeld was not the cathe- 
dral, but the parish church, endowed with many lands of which Andrew, 
the Bishop of Caithness, was owner and patron. 

The Bishop of Caithness reserved his liferent, as appears from the 
confirmation by King Malcolm IV., which stated that the gift to Dun- 
fermline was to take effect on the Bishop's death (Reg. de Dunf, 
No. 36, p. 22). The grant was confirmed by King William (ib. p. 30), 
by King Alexander II. (ib. p. 42), by King Alexander III. (ib. p. 48), 
by Pope Alexander III. (ib. 418), and by Richard, Bishop of Dunkeld 
(ib. 419) : " Concede etiam eis conversationem in episcopatu meo et ut 
divinum exerceant officium et subditorum suorum curam habeant 
animarum et ut conversantes in diocesi mea a me quae ad Chris- 
tianitatem pertineret accipiant." 

In 1255 David de Lochore, Sheriff of Perth, alleged that the Abbot 
and Convent of Dunfermline owed suit in the Sheriff's Court of Perth 
for the lands of Fordouin, Cupermaccultin, Bendhautine, Ketheker- 
bege, Inchethurfin and Dunmernech, which are the same as those in 
this charter ; the claim was proved to be unfounded (ib. p. 51). 

Fordouin, Dunmernach, Cupermaccultin, Bendachten, Incheturfin, 
Chethec, were all in the Sheriffdom of Perth, near Cupar Angus. The 
Abbey of Dunfermline feued them to Malcolm of Ferenderach, and 
they were for some time part of the estate of Frendaught (Reg. Dunf., 
pp. 217, 278). In later times they passed into the hands of other 
vassals of the abbey. 



CCLXIII. 

Registrum Prioratus S. Andreae, fol. i8b ; Bannatyne Club edition, 
p. 43 ; Reeves' Culdees, p. 130. 

Bishop Robert of St. Andrews grants to the Canons Regular the 
abbey of St. Serfs island, hitherto held by the Keledei, with all its 
pertinents, namely Findahin, Portemuoch, the mills at the bridge, a 
mill in Findahin, Chircness, half of Urechehem, the church land of 
Sconin, twenty meli of cheese, one pig from Markinche, twenty 
meli of cheese and four meli of malt and one pig from Ecmor ; 
twenty meli of barley from Balcristin, twenty meli of cheese and 
one pig from Bolgin son of Torfin, the tithe of our house of 
the island, the tithe of the whole rent which we are to receive at 
that house, and the church vestments which the Keledei had, and the 
books. 

p. 210. Abbatiam: used here as a monastery; St. Serf's was a 
priory. 



446 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

p. 210. Findahin and Urechehem are not mentioned elsewhere as 
parts of the endowments of St. Serf's. 

Books. The library of the Abbey of Loch Leven, in the reign 
of David I., consisted of sixteen books. 

" Four were probably for the public service of the church. Of the 
Scripture, there were the Gospels after the text of St. Prosper, a 
zealous follower of St. Augustine : the Acts of the Apostles : and three 
books of Solomon. There were commentaries on Genesis and on the 
Song of Solomon : the works of Origen . . . the Sentences of St. 
Bernard, who is styled Abbot of Clairvaux . . . and another collection 
of Sentences. * Interpretationes dictionum,' perhaps the same treatise 
which was engrossed in the Regi strum Magnum under the title of 
1 Tractatus de dictionibus Bibliae ' ; a treatise of the Sacraments ; 
pars bibliothecae . . . and a treatise concerning exceptions from 
ecclesiastical rules " (Preface to Reg. Prior. S. A., p. xvi). 

Haddan and Stubbs, Concil., 2, p. 228 : " It has been rightly inferred 
from the mention here of the Keledean Pastoral, Gradual and Missal 
as transferred from Keledei to Augustinian canons, that the ' barbari 
ritus' and 'mos suus' of the former were merely matters of circum- 
stance and of indifferent externals and certainly did not touch 
doctrine." 

Dr. Reeves, Culdees, p. 131 : * The character of the books is 
just what might be expected in a small monastic establish- 
ment of that date and the ritual works are those which were in 
general use. (i) a Pastorale or Ritual ; (2) a Graduale or Anti- 
phonary ; (3) a Missale or Liturgy book ; (4) an Origo or Origines 
if the former, some tract like the popular * Origo Mundi 3 ; if the latter, 
some of the writings of Origen (whose name is sometimes written 
' Origines ' instead of ' Origenes,' see Panzer) ; (5) the Sententiae of 
St. Bernard ; (6) a treatise on the Sacraments in three staves ; 
(7) a portion of the Vulgate Bible ; (8) a Lectionarium or book 
of Epistles and Gospels ; (9) the Acts of the Apostles ; ( 10) the 
Four Gospels ; (u) a Prosper (probably some work of Prosper Aqui- 
tanus) ; (12) three books of Solomon; (13) Glosses on Solomon's 
Song; (14) Interpretations of Words; (15) a collection of Sententiae 
or Religious Maxims ; (16) exposition of Genesis ; (17) excerpts of 
Ecclesiastical Rules." 



CCLXIV. 

Registrum Prioratus Sancti Andreae, fol. 55 a; Bannatyne Club 
edition, p. 126. 

Robert, the Bishop of St. Andrews, addressing all the sons of the 
Holy Mother Church, and granting his episcopal benediction, states 
that he had granted to Robert, the first prior of the church of St. 
Andrews, and to his successors, his benediction. He grants to the 
brethren of that place the right to elect the prior. On whomso- 
ever the majority agrees, he shall be raised to the government of the 
house. 



NOTES CCLXI1I.-CCLXVII. 447 



CCLXV. 

Registrum Prioratus Sancti Andreae, fol. 54 b ; Bannatyne Club 
edition, p. 124. 

Charter by Robert, the Bishop or St. Andrews, granting to the 
Priory of St. Andrews a toft in Chilrimund, and three tofts on the 
water of Kines tenure of Kininmonth. 

p. 212. Kinninmonth is near Ceres. 



CCLXVI. 

Registrum Prioratus Sancti Andreae, fol. 90 b ; Bannatyne Club 
edition, p. 189. 

A confirmation by King David of the grant by the Bishop to the 
Priory of Kinninmuneth, and of a toft in Kilrimund. This may refer 
to the preceding, No. CCLXV. There is another charter by the bishop 
(Registr. S. And., p. 125) : " Robertus Dei gratia humilis minister eccle- 
siae Sancti Andreae, Universis Sanctae Matris ecclesiae filiis salutem. 
Innotescat tarn posteris quam praesentibus nos dedisse et in liberam 
elemosinam concessisse Deo et ecclesiae Sancti Andreae et canonicis 
ibidem Deo servientibus Kinninmuneth cum tofta de Kilrimund et 
cum omnibus aliis appenditiis suis. Quapropter volumus et prae- 
cipimus quatenus ipsi hanc elemosinam ita libere et honorifice 
teneant ut decet elemosina teneri. Et si quis de hac elemosina 
injuriam ecclesiae Sancti Andreae et praedictis fratribus intulerit, 
vinculo anathematis constringatur nisi digne satisfecerit. Testibus 
Hereberto episcopo Glasguensi, Willelmo episcopo Moraviensi, Arnaldo 
abbate de Chalchou, Gaufrido abbate de Dunfermelyn, Willelmo 
abbate de Sancta Cruce, Ysaach abbate de Striuelin, Matheo archi- 
diacono, Thoraldo archidiacono, Aiulfo decano, Nicholao clerico regis, 
Willelmo capellano episcopi, Magistro Andrea, Magistro Herberto, 
Johanne nepote episcopi, Radulfo nepote episcopi." 

p. 212. The rights of the priory in Kinninmunet were repeatedly 
confirmed; by Pope Adrian IV. (p. 51), Pope Alexander III. (p. 54), 
Pope Lucius III. (p. 58), the Bishops of St. Andrews (pp. 131, 143, 150), 
by King Malcolm (pp. 200, 206), by King William I. (p. 214), and by 
King Alexander (p. 233). 

CCLXVII. 

Registrum Prioratus Sancti Andreae, fol. 92 a ; Bannatyne Club 
edition, p. 193. 

Charter by King David granting his protection to the Hospital o. 
St. Andrews. King David, by charter CLXXL, ante, p. 134, granted 



448 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

Kenlachyn to the hospital. The rights and privileges of the hospital 
were often confirmed by successive Popes (Reg. St. And., pp. 54, 56, 
63, 67, 72, 77, 92, 99); by Bishops of St. Andrews (ib. pp. 123, 130, 
143, 145, M8, 151, 



p. 213. Testibus. Symon son of Michael gave a ploughgate of 
land in Cathelai, which he had perambulated. His grant was con- 
firmed by King Malcolm IV. (Reg. Prior. S. A., p. 195), and King William 
(p. 212) confirmed the ploughgate of land in Chathelach, with common 
pasture for twenty-four beasts and eighty sheep, which Symon son of 
Michael gave, and his son Alan confirmed. " Ita quod Simon et 
heredes sui terram illam adquietabunt de exercitibus et operationibus et 
de omnibus secularibus exactionibus excepto quod idem hospitale 
adquietabit illam carrucatam terrae de Geldo regio quod communiter 
capietur de terris et de elemosinis per regnum Sociae." The descen- 
dants of Simon took the name of Kinnear and were the vassals of 
the priory in the lands of Kathlac, etc., which they held till the begin- 
ning of the eighteenth century. 



CCLXVIII. 

Registrum Prioratus Sancti Andreae, fol. 54 b ; Bannatyne Club 
edition, p. 124. 

Charter by Robert, Bishop of St. Andrews, granting three tofts 
in the burgh of St. Andrews to the priory : (i) the toft of Elfgar, 
(2) the toft of Arnald, (3) the toft of William Cocus. 

p. 213. Patres de Templo, a clerical error for 'fratres.' The 
brethren of the Temple of the Lord in Jerusalem had settlements in 
Scotland in the reign of King David. They were replaced by the 
Knights of St. John. 



CCLXIX. 

Registrum Prioratus Sancti Andreae, fol. 55 a ; Bannatyne Club 
edition, p. 125. 

When the Bishop endowed the priory (charter No. CLXII., ante, 
p. 124) he gave to the canons two out of the seven portions of the revenue 
of the old church ; now he enlarged the gift and gave six out of the 
seven portions, reserving one portion to himself as Bishop. 



CCLXX. 

The original, with a seal attached, is in the Treasury at Durham. 
Printed by Raine, N. Durham, App., p, 38, No. CLXiv. ; facsimile in 
the National MSS. of Scotland, No. xxvi. 



NOTES CCLXVII.-CCLXXI. 



449 



The editor of the National MSS. of Scotland included this among 
the charters of the reign of David I., but I doubt whether it was 
granted before 1160; it is not in the Chartulary of Kelso which 
was compiled after the church of Ercheldune was declared to belong 
to Durham, at which time it is probable that this charter was sent to 
Durham, where it has remained ever since. 

Walter de Lyndesay, with the consent of William his son, grants to 
the Abbey of Kelso, the church of Ercheldune and the ploughgate of 
land belonging to it. 

His right to do so was challenged by the Priory of Durham on the 
ground that Ercheldune was a chapel of the mother church of Edrom, 
which had been granted to the monks of St. Cuthbert by Earl Gos- 
patric by charter (No. CXVIL, ante, p. 90). Pope Alexander III. about 
the year 1160 referred to the Bishop of St. Andrews and the Abbots 
of Rievaulx and Melrose the issue whether the priory of Durham had 
had prescriptive possession of the chapel of Ercheldune for forty 
years ; the possession was proved by the oaths of twelve priests, of 
one deacon, and of two laymen, which carried the possession of 
Durham back to 1129. William de Lindesay gave a charter (CLXV., 
Raine, N. Durham, App., p. 39) granting to Durham the church 
of Ercheldune and a ploughgate of land. (Raine, N. Durham, App., 
I, Nos. 459, 460, 461.) Bertram (III.), Prior of Durham (1189-1209), 
granted a concession from the altarage of the church of Ercheldune 
to the nephew of the Prior of Coldingham " nomine vicariae " (Raine, 
N. Durham, App., p. 95, No. DXXXIII.). 

p. 215. Ercheldune, Earlston, a parish in Lauderdale, Berwickshire. 

Gauterius avunculus raeus : the paternal uncle of the granter. He 
was a witness to Earl David's charter to Selkirk and to many of the 
early charters of the King. 

Hospitale in Ercheldune. I have not found any other reference to 
a hospital there ; its lands were exempt from tithe, f 



CCLXXI. 

Chartulary of Brinkburn, Surtees Society, Vol. 90, p. 142. 

This is a confirmation of No. CCXLVL, ante, p. 198. 

I followed Mr. Page, the editor of the Brinkburn Chartulary for the 
Surtees Society. He had the MS. before him, and read the name of 
the granter as Malcolm' de Gwarrenne, but there is authority for 
ascribing the charter to William, the second son of Earl Henry. 

Dugdale, Monast, Vol. vi., page 332, and the abbreviated copy 
in Dodsworth's MSS. XLV. 6a, (vol. 44 of the Surtees Society, Illust. 
Doc., p. xiv, note) gives it as a grant by William de Gwarrenne, Earl 
of Northumberland. 

2 F 



450 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

Pope Urban (Chartulary of Brinkburn, p. 197) confirmed the gift 
of a saltpan in Werkeworth by Henry the Earl and W., his son, King 
of Scotland. 

Henry, Earl 'of Northumberland, died on 12 June, 1153. 

John of Hexham (Surtees Society, 44, p. 165) said that William 
was recognised as Earl of Northumberland on the death of his 
father Earl Henry. 

" Post Pentecosten defunctus est cognatus ejus, Henricus Comes, 
films David regis Scotiae, modestissimi spiritus princeps, homo 
disciplinatus et timoratus et devotus in misericordiis pauperum ; 
sepultusque est in monasterio monachorum apud Calcehou secus 
Rochesburh quod David pater ejus construxerat. 

"Rex autem David dissimulate moerore super interitu Reginae 
Angliae neptis suae et filii sui unici tulit continue Melcholmum 
primogenitum filii sui et dato ei rectore Dunecan comite cum 
exercitu copioso jussit eundem puerum per provincias Scotiae 
circumduci et proclamari heredem regni. Juniorem vero filium 
Willelmum ipse assumens venit ad Novum Castellum acceptisque 
obsidibus a principibus Northymbriae omnes ejusdem pueri dominio 
subditos fecit." Fordoun and Wyntoun copied John of Hexham. 

There is a charter by William as Earl of Northumberland (Surtees 
Soc., vol. 44, Illus. Doc., p. xiv): 

"Willelmus comes Northumbrie illustris, constabulariis suis, vice- 
comitibus suis omnibus, necnon omnibus hominibus suis Francis et 
Anglicis Northumb' qui sunt et qui venturi sunt, salutem. Notum 
vobis facio quatinus do et concede Willelmo de Vescy ut habeat 
forum suum apud Sanctum Walericium qui vocatur Neubiginge cum 
omnibus rebus et rectitudinibus omnibus quae melius et liberius 
pertineant ulli foro totius Northumbriae, ita libere quiete et honorifice 
sicut aliquis in tota Northumbria habet et tenet territorium suum 
liberius et honorabilius. Volo et jubeo quod idem Willelmus de Vescy 
teneat predictum forum et habeat. Testantibus hiis Osberto priore 
de Jeddeworth, A comitissa matre ejus, Gilberto constabulario, 
Odenel Denframvilla, Edmundo Camerario, Hugone Giffard, Willelmo 
Masculo, Rodberto de Baillioll, Magistro Ricardo de DeveP, Waltero 
de Pelet . . . nigro, Godfredo. Apud Edinburgh." 

p. 215. de Gwarenne comes Northumbriae. William assumed his 
mother's surname of de Warenne ; she was the daughter of William 
de Warenne, 2nd Earl of Surrey. Unlike their successors, Balliols, 
Bruces, and Stewarts, the ancient kings of Scotland, had no sur- 
name. 

Roger Bertram : William Bertram was the founder of the priory, 
see charter CCXLVIL, p. 199 ; ' Roger' is probably a mistake. 

Salina . . . apud Werkewurthe : see note to CCXLVI., p. 438. 



NOTES CCLXXI. 451 

p. 216. William de Vescy, Roger de Merlay, Ada his wife, and 
Ranulf his son, and Alicia his mother, were benefactors to Brinkburn. 

Roger de Merlay was a son of Ranulf de Merlay the founder of 
Newminster, who married Juliana, a daughter of Gospatric, Earl of 
Northumberland and sister of Dolfin, Gospatric, and Waltheof. 
De Merlay had with her a charter from Henry I. of Marsale in North- 
umberland. (Surtees Soc., Vol. 44, Illust. Docs., p. ix ; i Bain, 
Calendar, p. 312.) 

On 24 May, 1153, David I. died at Carlisle. 

After the death of King Stephen in 1 154, Ailred, Abbot of Rievaulx, 
addressed to King Henry II, a lament on the death of King David, 
which Fordoun embodied in his Chronicle ; it is in terms of warm and 
perhaps exaggerated praise, but as it was written by one who knew 
the King intimately, and who had not scrupled to blame his conduct 
in the war of 1138, it may be accepted as a truthful tribute to the 
memory of a good King. 

Most of the events of King David's life have been noticed in my 
notes. I followed Sir Archibald D unbar in stating that David was 
born about 1080. I now think that he was born not before 1085, for 
in 1 105 he was still a young man (adolescens) serving in the court of 
his brother-in-law Henry I. He told Ailred that his sister the Queen 
sent for him to assist her in ministering to lepers, that in his youth- 
ful pride and ignorance he refused, and returned laughing to his 
companions. In 1107, he succeeded to lands and lordships in 
Scotland by the bequest of his brother King Edgar. Between mo 
and 1 1 12 he married the Countess Matilda, a widow many years 
older than himself, for her father was beheaded in 1173. 

As a King's son he probably was styled ' Earl ' before his marriage ; 
after that he had an Earldom, that of Northampton, with the Honor 
of Huntingdon, and at Yardley Hastings, he and his wife lived 
until he succeeded to the throne of Scotland in 1124. They had four 
children, of whom Henry alone lived to manhood ; a son and two 
daughters died in infancy. Wyntoun tells a gruesome story of the 
cruel murder of Malcolm, the elder boy, by the old, blind and 
maimed Donald Bane ; but it cannot be true. Donald was imprisoned 
at Rescobie, where it is very unlikely that David and his family ever 
lived, and Wyntoun said that the shock to the Countess brought on 
premature confinement and that she died when her son Henry was 
born. But she lived for more than sixteen years after Earl Henry's 
birth and died Queen of Scots in 1130-1131. Another version is that 
the murder was committed by an outcast priest, but that is pro- 
bably untrue. 

Before he succeeded to the throne, Earl David, attracted by the 
fame of St. Bernard at Tiron, begged him to give some monks for the 
monastery which the Earl founded at Selkirk. I said (ante, p. 372) 
that St. Bernard was David's teacher and friend, but I find from the 
life of the Saint by Geoffroi le Gros (Migne, Vol. 172, pp. 1426-27) 
that David never met St. Bernard. In the early part of the year 
1117 the Earl made the arduous journey to Tiron, near Chartres, in 
France, but he arrived too late. St. Bernard died before David 
reached Tiron ; he knelt beside his tomb, and inducing twelve monks 
and an abbot to go to Scotland, he placed them at Selkirk and largely 
increased the endowments of the Abbey. 



452 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 

Earl David's possessions gave him great influence in the south of 
Scotland. About 1118 he restored the Bishopric of Glasgow and 
caused an enquiry to be made regarding the old endowments of the 
see. The new Bishop, John, was not an obedient son of the Church 
of Rome, and it is not clear what position Earl David took in the 
contest . 

Ailred says that when David succeeded to the kingdom he shrunk 
from those services which, after the manner of their fathers, were 
rendered by Scottish men to a king on his accession, and that it 
was with difficulty that the Bishops induced him to receive them. 
He was accompanied to Scotland by many friends and vassals from 
Northamptonshire, of whom Robert de Brus, Hugo de Moreville, and 
others got grants of lands. 

During the greater part of his life King David resided frequently 
in England, at the Court of Henry I. in the Earldom of Northampton ; 
at Carlisle he lived for many years, and died there. 

He was diligent in founding and endowing monasteries and in 
creating and restoring bishoprics. In 1130-31 he was in England 
for several months. There are entries in the Pipe Rolls of Corrody 
for him ; he sat as a judge in a cause between the King of England 
and Geoffrey de Clinton. In his absence from his kingdom, the 
Earl of Moray rose in rebellion, but he was defeated and killed at 
Stracathrow. 

On December 2, 1135, Henry L, King of England, died, and King 
David at once took up arms to oppose Stephen and to support the 
claim of the Empress Maud. The history of the next four years 
has been partly told in the notes. King David advanced to the 
neighbourhood of Durham, and on the approach of King Stephen he 
retired to Newcastle; a temporary peace was arranged in 1136; 
Henry, the King's son, did homage to Stephen for the Honor of 
Huntingdon, and for Carlisle and Doncaster, which were given to 
him ; and King David restored to the King of England the castles 
and lands in England which he had taken. 

The King founded the Abbey of Melros in 1136, and in the same 
year the Cathedral church of Glasgow was consecrated. Next year, 
1137, when King Stephen was abroad, King David invaded Nor- 
thumberland ; a truce was arranged until Stephen's return. In 
March, T 138, Stephen advanced as far as Roxburgh and then retreated, 
while King David with his nephew, William Fitz Duncan, laid waste 
the north of England. Temporary success was gained by the Scots at 
Clitheroe and at Norham, but at the battle of the Standard King 
David was defeated on 22 August, 1138. The history of this war 
is fully told by Richard and John of Hexham and by Ailred. It 
was carried on with cruelty and barbarity by the Scots under 
William Fitz Duncan. Ailred stated that this was done against the 
express commands of the King, but that he accepted the responsibility, 
and so severely blamed himself that he wished to resign his crown and 
to join the Crusade as a penitent. Peace was arranged inn 39, on 
terms more favourable to the Scots than they deserved. The Earldom 
of Northumberland was conferred on Earl Henry ; he married Ada, 
daughter of the Earl of Surrey, and was received as a friend by King 
Stephen. King David retained Carlisle and part of Cumberland. 



NOTES CCLXXI. 453 

King David remained constant in his support of the Empress ; he 
joined her in 1 141, and he and his son engaged in what seems to me to 
have been a discreditable attempt to gain for his chancellor, William 
Cumyn, the Bishopric of Durham ; the defeat at Winchester, from which 
the King escaped with difficulty, brought his active interference in 
the affairs of England to an end, and for the last eleven years of his 
reign he was at peace with Stephen. For part of that time he held 
the Honor of Lancaster, north of the Ribble, which he resigned about 
the year 1149. He knighted Prince Hemy, afterwards Henry II., at 
Carlisle in 1149. Between 1140-1153 he founded and endowed many 
monasteries, and he created and restored several bishoprics. 

Towards the end of his reign there was trouble in the north, caused 
by Wimund, the Bishop of the Isles, whom Ailred calls a pseudo- 
episcopus, who falsely stated that he was a son of Angus, Earl of 
Moray ; it is said that King David bought him off by a grant of 
Furness, which he held as part of his Honor of Lancaster. 

Ailred speaks of King David's daily administration of justice, he 
was accessible to all who had complaints to urge and wrongs to be 
redressed. In the latter years of his reign the King was assisted 
by his son Earl Henry, a capable and popular prince, who besides 
taking part in the affairs of Scotland did his duty as Earl of Northum- 
berland and lord of Huntingdon. In 1152 the King's niece, the wife 
of King Stephen, died, and shortly afterwards he lost his only son. 
The King caused Malcolm, his eldest grandson, to be taken through- 
out Scotland and proclaimed the heir to the throne, he himself 
took his second grandson, William, to Northumberland and installed 
him as Earl. After a reign of more than twenty-nine years he died 
at Carlisle on the 24 May, 1153. 



INDEX. 



A, decanus. See Aiulfus. 

Aachen, 226. 

Aad cum barba, 85-86, 349. 

Abbey, privileges granted to, by a 

Bishop, 332. 

Abboldesle Church granted to Jed- 
burgh, 408. 
Abbot of Croyland deposed by the 

Legate, 327. 
Abbotrule, 408. 
Abbots' Courts. See Court. 
Abbotshall, 337. 
Aberbrothoc Abbey, its house in 

Perth, 319. 
Abercarf, 46, 302. 
Abercorn, 322. 
Aberdeen, Bishop of, charter by King 

David to the, 89, 354. 
Edward, 181, 182, 183, 426. 
Nectan, 78, 89, 338, 355. 
Bishopric, history of the, 338, 354. 
Breviary of the, 224, 387. 
Register of the, 4, 229, 354. 
"View of the Diocese," quoted, 

224. 
Burgh, a mansio in, granted to Scone 

Priory, 29, 287. 
charter granted at, 181. 
dean of, 355. 
oaths taken at, "juraverunt apud," 

1 80. 

tithe "annonae" at, 89, 355. 
tithe of the King's rents of, 89, 355. 
tithe of the can of ships at, 89. 
Aberdeen, Old, Villa de, 89. 
Aberdeenshire, 222. 
almanac for, 1703, 222. 
tithe of the thanages, rents, and 

escheats in the shire, 89. 
Aberdour (Abbordoboir), I, 220, 222. 



Abermelc, 46, 303. 

Abernethy, 12, 100, 243, 244, 245. 

Bishopric of, 244, 245. 

priests of, 12, 243, 246. 

Priory of canons regular, 245. 
Abthania, meaning of, list of 

Abthainries, 223. 
Aceard (Accard), 10, 242. 
Achad Madchor, 2, 225. 
Achadnaglerech, 2, 224. 
Achad toche temni, 2. 
Acres, 27, 75, 257, 336, 408. 

English and Scottish, 257. 

a carrucate contained 120 acres, 

257. 
Acta Dominorum Concilii, extract 

from, 149, 404. 
Ada, Countess, wife of Earl Henry, 

105, 109, 194, 208, 378, 405, 

4I5> 451- 

Ada, daughter of Earl Henry, 378. 
Adam camerarius, 28, 279, 310. 
Adam, capellanus, 154, 166, 174, 194, 

195, 196, 209, 212, 214, 436. 
Adam Mac Ferdomnac, 181. 
Adam, son of Edulf, 303. 
Adam, son of Edward, 80. 
Adam, son of Odo, 395. 
Adam, son of Swain, 107, 150, 272, 

375 405. 

Adam vicecomes, 99, 100, 365 ; 
charter by, 365 ; his brothers, 

S^S- 
Adamnan, life of St. Columba 

noticed, 222, 228. 
Adelardus, son of Algar, 423. 
Adelwaldus (Adelof, Adelulfus), prior 

of St. Oswald's, 29, 64, 65, 68, 

281, 282, 328. 

Bishop of Carlisle, 113, 391. 
Aden, 226. 
Adhelwold, father of Alden, 65. 



INDEX 



455 



Adlave, Ralph, chaplain and con- 
fessor ; founded the priory of St. 
Oswald, 282. 

Admore (Auchmoor, Ecmor), II, 12, 
210, 243, 245. 

Adscriptitii glebae, 254, 317. 

Adulf, brother of Alexander de St. 
Martin, 405. 

Adulf, priest of Aldehamstoc, 60, 323. 

^Ed, father of Comgeall, 2. 

Aedmundus, son of Forn, 175. 

Aeldona (Eldon), 27, 275. 

Aelfricus, capellanus, 119. 

Aetele, 13, 248. 

Agelwardus, 48, 306. 

Agenho, Ilbard de, 51, 311. 

Agnes Seat, 406. 

Agulfus, 13, 248. 

Ailred, abbot of Rievaulx, quoted, 
227, 261, 262, 272, 328, 339, 359. 

Ailsi, 85, 345, 349. 

Ailvethenamone, 225. 

Ailwardus, subsessor, 48. 306. 

Aimarus, 55, 64-65, 73. 

Aimarus Galleius, 28. 

Ainsleth, 375. 

Airth, church and land granted to 
Holyrood, 75, 76, 117, 336, 337. 

Aiscdhe, 330. 

Aiulfus, capellanus, 174. 

Aiulfus, decanus, 68, 75, 149, 166, 
175, 184, 186, 206, 211, 214, 

33 1 , 447- 

Alan, father of Walter. See Walter. 
Alan, monk of Durham, 166. 
Alan, son of Gospatric, son of Orm, 

437- 

Alan, son of Raulfus, 203. 
Alan, son of Waltheof, 93, 150, 197, 

198, 285, 318, 437. 
Alba, 219 ; men of, 244. 
Alban, Bishop of, 233 ; chief resi- 
dences of, 84. 
Albanensis Episcopus, Cardinal, 

Petrus, 130, 393. 
Albanich, 244. 
Albemarle, Earl of, at the Battle of 

the Standard : his marriage, 273. 
Albericus (Abbericus), Bishop of 

Ostia, Cardinal, Legate, 130, 

143, 145, 269, 327, 393, 402. 
Albus. See Uniet Albus. 
Alcuin, letter to the brethren of 

Candida Casa, 3, 226 ; his life, 

226. 

Aldan of Bamborough, Church of, 257. 
Aldan, brother of Gosp" and son of 

Crin, 90. 



Aldanus, son of Alsimald, 64. 
Aldcambus, granted to the Priory of 

Durham, 13, 14, 15, 17, 55, 253, 

254- 

Aldcambus, Edward de, 254. 
Aldeham, 10, 242. 

Aldehamstoc, Adulf, priest of, 60, 323. 
Alden, 175, 421. 
Alden, son of Adhelwold, 65. 
Aldestelle (a fishing), 85, 169, 348, 

387- 

Aldeue, father of Gospatric, 27, 46. 
Aldin Alenn, 3. 
Aldormann, Edwinus, 48. 
Aldred, son of Ulf, 272. 
Aldredus decanus, 69, 160, 161, 412. 
Aldreio, Galfrid de, 13, 249. 
Aldwine, monk of Jarrow, 264. 
Alexander, brother of King Edgar, 

II, 13, 248, 261. 
Alexander I., 20, 21, 22, 23, 25, 27, 

28, 30, 33, 35, 36, 42, 43, 45, 

61, 90, 92, 156, 158, 168, 236, 

248, 256, 261, 307, 355, 391, 401, 

403- 

letter to, from Anselm, Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, 20. 
letters by, to Ralph, Archbishop 

of Canterbury, 22, 30, 33, 263, 

288, 290. 
letters to, from Ralph, Archbishop 

of Canterbury, 31, 34, 38, 288, 

290, 291. 
letter to, from Pope Calixtus, 39, 

292. 

letter to, from Eadmer, 35, 291. 
charters by, to the Priory of Dur- 
ham, 21, 22, 24, 262, 263. 
charters to Scone Priory, 28, 42, 

43, 279-281, 294, 295. 
gifts to Dunfermline, 1 68, 325. 
protection to the Church of Tyne- 

mouth, 92. 
extent of his kingdom. Had 

David an independent rule ? 262, 

265, 307. 
his marriage, life, death, and 

burial, 261, 262, 289. 
his bastard son, Melcolf, 350. 
his nephews, 283. 
seal described, 263. 
Alexander II., 255, 260, 381, 389, 

415, 437- 

Alexander III., 389, 407. 
Alexander, nepos regis, 30, 283. 
Alexander, son of Alexander III. , 407. 
Alexander, son of Waltheof, 396. 
Alford, 355. 



456 



EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 



Alfricus pincerna, 18, 30, 257. 
Alfricus, priest of St. Bartholomew, 

48. 

Alfwyn, 17, 164, 257. 
Algar, father of Adelardus, 423. 
Algar, prior of Durham, 21, 22, 23, 

60, 72, 257, 263. 
Algarus, priest, 18, 257. 
Algune, son of Arcill, 78. 
Alice, wife of William Fitz Duncan, 

272 ; their daughters, 273. 
Alimodus, son of Makodi, 13. 
Alimoldus, 13, 248. 
Allechtia (herring), 117, 385. 
Allen's History of Yorkshire, 282. 
Allerdale, Barony of, 318, 328. 
Almechine juxta Alvecromber, 152, 

408. 

Almodus, father of William, 13. 
Alna, 157. 

Alneclive juxta Alncromb, 153, 408. 
Alnecrumba, 46, 152, 153, 303, 

408. 
Alnwick, Malcolm III. killed at, 

265. 

surrendered to King David, 351. 
Alnwick Abbey, 308, 420. 
Alnwick, Barony of, 308. 
Alocluaithe, Reges, 300. 
Alric, Earl, and his wife, Ethelfleda, 

352. 

Alsimald, father of Aldan, 64. 
Alstan, father of Ulchel, 46. 
Alstanefurde, 149, 360, 405. 
Altar, laying a grant on the, 17, 23, 

256, 381. 

Altere, Altrie, 2, 224. 
Alterin alia nethe na camone, 2, 

Altisiodorum (Auxerre), 81, 143, 145. 

Alvecromber, 152, 408. 

Alvertun, 367, 370. 

Alwyn MacArkil, 63, 77, 78, 82, 86, 
96, 98, 104, 120, 122, 129, 134, 
138, 167, 171, 179, 182, 195, 

327- 
Alwynus, abbot of Holyrood, 114, 

115, 117, 152, 158, 380, 381. 
charters by, to Newbattle, 114, 

"5- 

Alwynus, chaplain [of the Earl], 28, 

48, 383- 
Amabel, daughter of William Fitz 

Duncan, 273. 
Ameseia, Church of, 272. See 

Embessy. 

Amounderness, 374. 
Amundeville family, 249. 



Amundivilla, Johannis de, 13, 249. 

Amundivilla, Robertus de, 15. 

Anagus comes Muravensis, 350. 

Anant, Vallum de, 162, 413. See 
Annandale. 

Ancrum, 303, 408. 

Anderset, alias Agnes Seat, 406. 

Anderson's Diplomata, 246, 250, 256, 
257, 263, 364, 370, 375, 377, 431. 

Anderson, Essay on Scotland, Im- 
perial and Independent, quoted, 

239, 341- 
Andreas, Magister, 166, 184,211,214, 

447- 

Anglicus, Radulf, 28 ; Richard, 108. 
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, 221, 225, 

35. 

Anglus, Richard, 407, 408. 
Angus, Earl of, Dufagan, 223, 426 ; 

Ggillebrite, 1 8 1, 223, 366, 426. 
Angus, Countess of, Isobel, wife of 

Sir John de Edmonstone, 260. 
Angus, Earls of, held Bonkyl, 335. 
Angus, Mormaer of, 223. 

Dubacan, 223. 
Angus, province of, 223. 
Animalia, oxen for ploughing, 17,256. 
Anlape, 242. 
Annals of Buellan, 223. 
Annals of Innisfallen, 350. 
Annals of Tighernac, 223, 233. 
Annals of Ulster, 223, 225, 350. 
Annan, parish of, 307. 
Annan, water of, 413. 
Annandale, 303, 305, 307, 413. 
charter of, by King David to 

Robert de Brus, 48, 307. 
given by his father to Robert de 

Brus, junior, 307. 
charter of the forest, 162, 413. 
King William's charter to Robert 

de Brus, 308. 
church lands in, 162, 414. 
James, Earl of, 295. 
Annonae, tithe of, 89, 355. 
Anselm, Archbishop of Canterbury, 
305, 320 ; letter to Alexander I., 
20, 260. 
Anselm's Letters, Gerberon's edition, 

260. 

his life, 320. 

' nepos' of Bishop John, 103. 
Ansketil, constable of Norham, 248. 
Ansketillus, praepositus of Norham, 

13, 248, 249. 

Anthetillus, son of Udard, 197, 437. 
Antistes, Lanfrancus "indignus S. 
Cantuar." Eccl., 7. 



INDEX 



457 



Appeal to the Court of the Bishop of 

St. Andrews from the Court of 

the Culdees, 432. 
to the King's justice, 62, 326. 
Applegarth, parish of, 308. 
Aqua de North, 89. 
Araldus Comes, 9, 238. 
Archardus, Prior of May, 121, 388. 
Archidiaconus, Bleinus, 119. 
of Glasgow. See Ascelinus. 
of Lothian, Turoldus, 75, 115. 
Rann, 100. 
Robert, 306. 
Roger, 47, 306. 

Archis, de, DurandusandWilliam,272. 
Ardena, Osbert de, 47, 108. 
Ardrigh, 219, 223. 
Argyll (Errogeil), placita et lucra de, 

Il8 ; tithe of, 171, 205. 
Argyll's, Marquis of, regiment, .295. 
Argyllshire, 419. 
Arkil, 149, 405. 
Arkil de Matefen, 365. 
Armiger, 48. 
Armour, 256. 
Arnald, toft of, 213, 396. 
Arnaldus, 48. 
Arnulfus, charter to the King's 

'miles' of Swinton, 80, 341. 
Arnulphus, brother of Makodus, 13. 
Arrosia, ordo canonicus de, 142, 401. 
Arson, a plea of the Crown, 308. 
Arth, father of Radulf, 48. 
Arthur's Seat, 383. 
Ascelinus, Archdeacon (of Glasgow), 

55, 68/69, 73, 79, 85, 93, 108, 

136, 1 86, 202, 315. 
Aschebi, 46, 303. 
Ascripti glebae, 319. 
Asheschyrc, 46, 303. 
Ash Wednesday, 236. 
Assault, premeditated, a plea of the 

Crown, 308. 
Assentatores, 152, 408. 
Assertores, 171, 419. 
Assize, option between battle and an, 

298. 

Assize of David, 316. 
Aswi, 321. 

Athelstaneford, 149, 360, 405. 
Atherai, no, 378. 
Atholl, Earls of, Maduc, 108, 284, 

343. 377, 425- 
Malcolm, 425. 

Malmori d'Athotla, 181, 425. 
province of, 223. 
Atjoklis, Comes de, 284. 
Atwood, Mr., 246. 



Auchmachar, 225. 

Auchmoor Bridge, 245. 

Auchterderran, 240. 

Auco, Hugo de, 92. 

Audrey family, 249. 

Augustinus, priest of the Keledei, 12. 

Auldearn, 442. 

Auldmure, 243. 

Aurum, 65 ; meaning of, 329. 

Auxerre, 81, 145, 343, 400, 401. 

Auxilia, 60, 117. 

Avenel, 322, 412. 

Avenel, Robert, 104, 150, 171, 182, 

188, 195. 

Avenel, Roger de, 322. 
Avenels of Abercorn, 322. 
Averia, 108, 109, 377. 
Averin, 388. 
Avernus, 120, 388. 
Avicia, Bishop Ernald's sister, 395. 
Avon, river, 118. 
Avon and the Carron, Calatria, the 

district between, 349. 
Aymarus, miles, 64, 65. 
Ayton alia Ay ton, granted to the 

monks of St. Cuthbert, 13, 14, 

15, 17, 55, 253, 255, 323. 
Ayton Castle, 255. 
Ayton, parish of, 253, 314, 323. 
Aytons of Kinaldie, 231. 

B 

Baculum peregrinationis S. Jacobi, 

Badulf, Bishop of Candida Casa, 227. 
Bain's Calendar, 285, 305, 306, 307. 
Baireda, father of Cellach, 223. 
Balcristie, granted to the Keledei of 

Loch Leven, 7, 234, 235, 236; 

to the Priory of St. Andrews, 210. 
granted to the Abbey of Dunferm- 

line, 168, 181. 
Baldewin Flam., 186. 

lorimarius, 439. 

Baldwin, the king's "cliens," 200, 439. 
Baledgar Castle, 261. 
Balegallin (Ballegallin), a moiety 

granted to the monks of May, 

166, 416. 
Balekerin (Balcherin), granted to 

Dunfermline by Alexander I., 61, 

168, 325. 

Balemacdunechin, 125, 127. 
Balfour, Sir James, his MSS. : his 

inaccuracy, 193, 237, 436. 
Balfour of Fernie, 233. 
Balgoua, 127, 392. 
Balhucca (Balucca), 125, 127. 



458 



EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 



Ball Domin, 77, 337. 

Balliol, Bernard de, 207, 208, 430, 

443. 444- 

Hugo de, 405, 443. 
John de, 306. 
Robert de, 450. 

Ballothen (Ballochen), 125, 127. 
Balrimund (Barrimund), 124, 127, 

391, 392. 

Balsam, a crisma of oil and, 332. 
Balsan, 60, 323. 

Bamborough, 248. See Bebbanburch. 
Bamborough, Churches of St. Oswald 

and Aldan, 257. 
Banchrie (Benchorin), 29, 286. 
Banff (Banb, Banef),86, 180, 351, 425. 
Banff, charter granted at, 86. 
Banff, thanages within the Sheriff- 

dom, 89. 
Bangelaye, 405, 

Banner, St. Cuthbert's, 251, 252. 
Baptism, crisma used in, 332. 

rights of the Priory of St. An- 
drews with regard to, 432. 
Barba, Aad cum, 85-86, 349. 
Barclay of Cullerney, 232. 
Barlanark, 301. 
Barnard Castle, 443. 
Baron capellanus et scriptor apos- 

tolicus, 131, 393. 
Barons, the King's, 403. 

sicut ullus ex meis baronibus tenet, 

80, 341. 
sicut unus baronum meorum . . . 

tenet, 180, 424. 

"in presentia . . . baronum meo- 
rum," 197. 
recordati fuerunt barones regis, 146, 

403- 
Barons, Hugh de Moreville, Walter 

de Rydale, Ricardus de Castello, 

Petrus fil. Kercembaldi, styled 

Barons, 1 1 2. 
Barons, assent of, to charters, 9, 

116, 140, 151, 167, 384, 417. 
Barons, charters addressed to, 47, 48, 

53, 55. 56, 58, 61, 73, 74, 76, 77, 

79, 80, 83, 86, 87, 90, 91, 93, 94, 

95, 96, 97, 98, 99. IOI > I02 > I0 4, 

105, 106, 107, in, 112, 113, 

115, 122, 126, 133, 134, 137, 

J 54> I 55 J 6i, 164, 165, 166, 

172, 177, 178, 179, 181, 182, 

183, 185, 188, 189, 190, 191, 

192, 193, 195, 196, 198, 201, 

204, 2O6, 212, 215. 

Baronia et manerium, 15. 
" assise baroniae suae," 308. 



Baronies, three in the Cursus Apri, 

A.D. 1309, 432. 
Barony parish, 302. 
Barrimund. See Balrimund. 
Barrowe, 405. 
Barton, Church of, 408. 
Barys Rayk, 392. 
Basileus Scottorum. 

Malcolm III., 8. 

Edgar, 256, 258. 
Basset, Ricardus, 320. 
Baten, 2, 224. 
Bateson's History of Northumberland, 

366- 
Battle, judicial combat, 43, 116, 255, 

297, 298, 384. See Duellum. 
Bayeux, Vicomte de, Randolph, 308. 
Beauchamp, Hughde, of Eaton- Socon, 

353- 
Beauchamp. See Belchaump, Bello 

Campo. 

Beaumont, Earl of Leicester, 378. 
Bebbanburch, Ligulf de, 1 8, 256, 257, 

279. 

Odard, Sheriff of, 28, 278, 279. 
Bebbanburgh (Bamborough), novum 

castellum apud, 13, 246, 248. 
Bee, Abbey of, 261. 

prior of, 237. 
Bedaios, 222. 
Bede the Pict, mormaer of Buchan, I, 

222. 
Bede, the Venerable, quoted, 221, 222, 

226, 252. 
Bedford, grant to the monks of 

Northampton of 403. from the 

rents of, 51, 311 ; exchanged for 

405. from Huntingdon; the 403. 

from Bedford given to Hugh de 

Bror, 88, 353. 
Hugo, Earl of, 353. 
Bedford a part of the Honour of 

Huntingdon, 353-354 J granted 

to Pain de Bello Campo, 353. 
Bedfordshire, Countess Judith's manors 

in, 353- 

Beeth, granted to Dunfermline by 
Queen Sibilla, 61, 168, 294, 325. 
divided into many parts, 325. 
Belchaump, Beatrix de, 154, 409. 
Belldme, Robert de, 264. 
Bellestlene, 161, 413. 
Bel lie parish, 442. 

Bello Campo, Beatrix de, 154, 173, 
177, 178, 191, 194, I95 2 74, 
353, 409, 419, 435. 
charters by, to Dry burgh, 178, 191. 
Pain de, Bedford granted to, 353. 



INDEX 



459 



Bello Monte, Hugo de (Earl of Bed- 
ford, Hugo the Pauper), 353. 

Bellung, Godefridus de, 203. 

Benchorin, 29, 286. See Banchrie. 

Bendachty (Bendhantine), Bendac- 
tehin (Bendachten), 209, 286, 

445- 

Bendochy, parish of, 286. 
Benedictines, 323-324, 350, 373. 
Benefactors, masses for, 410. 
Beollanus, father of Malnethte, u. 
Berbeadh rector scolarum, 12, 246. 
Berkeley of Cullernie, 232. 
Bernard, abbot of Clairvaulx, 340, 

abbot of Tiron, 372, 451. 
Bernardus clericus, 365. 
Bernardus, son of Tocca, 175? 4 21 - 
Bertona, 408. 
Bertram, Roger, 215, 422, 451. 

William (Baron of Mitford), 199, 

438, 439> 451- 
Berwick, 12, 14, 15, 27, 50, 61, 79, 

85, 114, 117, 125, 127, 132, 

133, 137, 148, 149, 152, 153. 

155, 157, 168, 169, 174, 183, 

187, 190, 247, 276, 348, 385, 

386, 392, 394, 395> 404, 408, 

410, 449. 
mansio de, granted by King Edgar 

to Durham, 12, 14, 15, 247 ; 

the grant revoked, 247. 
a mansura in, granted to Dun- 

fermline, 61, 168, 325. 
a fishing granted to Dunfermline, 

169. 
a toft granted to Dunfermline, 

84-85. 
a mansura in, granted to Jedburgh 

Abbey, 152, 153, 4 o8 - 
a toft and a fishing granted to 



Holyrood, 117, 385. 

:o Kel 
155, 410. 



toft granted to Kelso Abbey, 



a ploughgate, two maisurae and 

405. from the census and fishings 

and mills granted to Kelso 

Abbey, 149, 157. 
grant to the Priory of May of a 

toft, 148, 404. 
a fishing granted to the Priory of 

St. Andrews, 125, 127, 132, 394. 
a toft granted to the Priory of St. 

Andrews, 132, 183, 392. 
land and rights in, granted to 

Selkirk Abbey, 27, 276, 408. 
Earl Henry's rights in, 410. 
the King's 'rogum' at, 137, 398. 



Berwick continued. 

charters granted at, 50, 79, 85, 

H5. 187. 

a Synod at, in 1150, 174. 
Church of St. Mary granted to the 
monks of St. Cuthbert, 79, 341. 
Church of St. Laurence, endow- 
ment increased, 148, 341 ; 
granted to Kelso Abbey, 157, 
341, 404; granted by Kelso to 
Durham, 449. 

Mainard, a burgess of, 133, 395. 
Sheriff of, mandate to the, 1 19, 386. 
Sheriff of (Norman), 78, 105, 115, 

119, 140, 383. 
Berewyck streem, 157. 
Berwickshire, 248, 255. 
Beth comes, 30, 44, 283-284. 
Bethoc, wife of Rod, 408. 
Beyn, Bishop of Morthelach, 4, 5, 230. 
Bidbin (Bibdin), 2, 224. 
Bidun (Bydun), Walter de, 124, 150, 
185, 197, 429. See Chancellor, 
Walter. 
Biffie, 224. 
Bishop of St. Andrews to be elected by 

the prior and canons, 144, 402. 
profession of a, to his Metropolitan, 

54- 

Eadmer resigned the bishopric of St. 
Andrews in presence of several 
bishops, 290. 

a bishop duly elected, received, 
and placed in possession of the 
bishopric cannot resign, 36, 39. 

the Church of Leuing given to 
Holyrood free of episcopal ex- 
action, save only reverence to the 
Bishop, 68. 

Bishop of St. Andrews exempted 
the Abbey of Kelso from his 
jurisdiction. It might get crisma 
from any Bishop, 68. 

Coldingham exempted from epis- 
copal exaction and payments to 
the Bishop, 60, 72-73, 335. 

Lesmahagow to be free of all 
episcopal exaction and subjec- 
tion, 135, 136. 

the Priory of St. Andrews, declared 
independent, " Salva episcopi 
nostri canonica justitia ac rever- 
entia," 130. 

the Bishop to be entertained in the 
house of the archdeacon, 48, 306. 

the Keledei of St. Serfs island 
place themselves under the Bishop 
of St. Andrews, 4, 228. 



460 



EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 



Bishop continued. 

land given by Ethelred to the 

Keledei "sine exactione et peti- 

tione . . . episcopi," n. 
Biscoptun, 369. 
Bispham (Biscopham), 105, 106, 373, 

374- 

Bisset, James, 404. 
Bitancia, 423. 
Bitlesbroc, 305, 320. 
Blackadder, 12, 14, 15, 248. 
Blackness, 410, 416. 
Blackpool, 374. 
Bladebolg, tithe of the can of, 125, 

127, 393- 

Blahanus, presbyter de Litun, 60, 323. 
Blair, of Innerbos, 286. 
Blakewel, a fishing, 443. 
Blancheburne, in. 
Blanchland Abbey, 277. 
Blankeland, 112, 113, 380. 
Blantrodoch, 381. 
Bleinus, Archdeacon, 119. 
Blois, Henry of, 393. 
Boece, quoted, 230. 
Boed, father of Gille, 46, 304. 
Boilestune, Radulf de, 68, 209, 331. 
Boilond, Bernard de, 186, 430. 
Bolbent, 160. 
Bolebec, Walter de, 28, 101, 148, 

186, 277. 
Bolgin (Bolgie, Bolgyne), 6, 9, 61, 

168, 210, 232, 238. 
Bolgyne, son of Torfyn, 6, 210, 232. 
Bolton Priory, 273. 
Bonaire, Robert de, 395. 
Bondage, 319. See Serfs. 
Bondi, 381, 403. 
Bonitas Vestra, 33, 34. 
Bonkyl (Bonekil), 73, 335. 

of that Ilk, 335. 

Sir Alexander de, his heiress, 

335- 
Book of Ballynote, 330. 

of Deer, 219-220, 337, 338, 346, 

424. 

ofKells, 221. 
of Llandaff, 221. 
of Pluscarden, 269. 
Books belonging to the Priory of 

Loch Leven, 210, 446. 
Books of the Bishop of St. Andrews 
given by him to the Priory, 125, 
127. 

Borgue (Worgis), 175, 421. 
Borthwick Castle, 430. 
Borthwick Church, 430. 
Borthwick, Lord, 430. 



Bosyete (Bosiate, Bosgitta), 178, 192, 

422, 423, 435. 

Bothelden, Richard, Sacerdosde, 215. 
Boulogne, Count of, 283. 
Boulton, 410. 
Bourguignon, Robert de, Seigneur de 

Sable, 372. 
Bovarius, 27. 

Bovates, 75, 336, 396, 404, 407, 408. 
Bowden (Botheldene, Bothendena, 

Bouldene), 27, 157, 276, 411. 
Boyvill, Godard de, the dapifer, 406. 
Bradjere, a fishing in the Tyne, 99, 

365- 

Bradshaw, Mr., 219, 346. 
Brabroc, Henry de, 311. 
Braibroc, 305, 320. 
Braiosa, Paganus de, 28, 47, 55, 73, 

277. 

Braiosa, de, family, 277. 
Bramthwaite, 318. 
Brand's History of Northumberland, 

306. 

Braseum (barley), 118, 156, 169, 344. 
Brayfield (Brawfeld) Church of, 52, 

312. 
Bread, xxx panes decocti cum antiqua 

mensura farinae ibi apposita, 10. 
decima panum regis ubicunque 

fuerit a northo de Lambremor, 30. 
" panem et cervisium," 119. 
Annandale yielded no wheat for 

bread, 307. 

Breadalbane, Marquis of, 410. 
Brechin (Leot, Leod), abbot of, 78, 

181, 33i, 339- 
Dovenald, abbas de, 331. 
Leod de, 102, 124, 141, 339. 
Bishopric of, 425. 
Bishop of, Samsone, 180, 416, 425. 
T., Bishop of, 425. 
Brehon, Matadin the, 78, 339. 
Bren, father of Bishop Fothad, 4, 229. 
Bret (Brett, Brito, Brittone), Hugo, 

42, 55, 69, 73, 85, 86, 92, 96, 

101, 108, no, 293. 
Bretagne, Duke of, 378. 
Breve, 23, 24, 25, 271, 399. 
Bridges, making and repairing, 6, 70, 

231, 232, 333. 
Bridius filius Meilochon, King of the 

Northern Picts, 221. 
Briencius Dominus (of Reading), 123, 

390- 
Brigham (Bricgham, Brygham), 12, 

14, 248, 318, 437. 
Brinkburn, Church and Priory, 198, 

199, 215, 418, 451. 



INDEX 



461 



Brithem, 339. 
Britones, 300. 
Brixwald, no, 378. 
Brocein (Brocin), 84, 181, 347, 426. 
Broi, Hugo de, 105. 
Broomhill, 324. 
Bror, Hugo de, 88, 353, 354. 
Broughton (Brochton, Broctuna), 
granted to Holyrood, 75, 117, 

336, 38S. . 

Broughton parish, 302. 
Brown, Mr. J. T. T., notes on the 

Inquisitio, 301. 
Brown, William, 415. 
Broxmouth (Broccesmuthe), 10, 242. 
Broy, Walter de, 47. 
Bruce, Robert de, married Isabella 

daughter of Earl David, 321. 

Bruce of Exton, 321. 

Bruces de, the, 361. 

Brus, Adam de, 307. 

Peter de, 119, 386. 

Robert de, 27, 42, 47, 48, 49, 51 

S 2 , 55> 5 8 > 70, 71, 73, 78, 82, 87 

89i 99, 136, 138, 162, 262, 272 

306, 307, 312, 413, 414. 

granted KarkareviltotheAbbe 

of York, 47, 305, 
charter to, of Annandale, 48, 

307- 
at the Battle of the Standard, 

262, 272. 

Robert, Meschin,io8; taken prisoner 
at the Battle of the Standard, got 
Annandale, and Hert and Hert- 
ness, 307 ; charter of Annandale 
to, by William the Lion, 308. 
Brude, King of the Northern Picts, 

converted by Columba, 221. 
Brude, son of Dergard, King of the 
Picts, befriended St. Serf, 4, 228. 
Brude films Derili, 228. 
Brude, son of Feredach, 228. 
Brumescheyd, 46, 303. 
Brunus, Will., 395. 
Buccleuch, Duke of, 409. 
Buchan, 222 ; subject to the Kings of 

Alba, 225. 

Earls of, Alexander Cumyn, 347. 
Roger, 347. 
Countess of, 388. 
Mormaers of, 224, 347. 
Bede, I, 222. 
Colbain, 84, 347. 
nobles of, 84, 348. 
Buchanan, George, quoted, 403. 
Budadh, leader of the army of the 
Bishop of St. Andrews, 67. 



Budon, 312. 

Bull of Pope Eugenius III. to the 

Abbey of Stirling, 141,401. 
to the Priory of St. Andrews, 143, 
402. 

Bull of Pope Lucius II. to the Priory 
of St. Andrews, 129, 393. 

Bull of Innocent II. to Newbattle, 382. 

Bull, Reginald de, 51, 311, 312. 

Bulmer, Aschetinus de (Anketinus), 
64, 65. 

Buncle parish, 335. 

Burg Serlo, 308. 

Burgagium, 193, 200, 435. 

Burgesses, the King's immediate 
tenants, 133, 314, 395, 422; a 
burgess could not sell his house 
and leave the burgh, 395 ; special 
privileges, 439 ; right to buy and 
to sell, 118, 119, 131, 163, 394; 
common property of, 396 ; duties 
f> 395 5 Vigilia and Claustura, 
200, 439. 

Burgh of St. Andrews founded by 
the bishop, 133, 395. 

Burgh of Canongate, permission to 
the abbot of Holyrood to make 
a burgh, 118, 386. 

Burgh on Sands, Cumberland, 308, 

309, 374- 

de Moreville, of, 374. 
Burgh, Church of (Burg), 437. 
Burghs, King's, in the reign of David I. 
Aberdeen, 29, 89. 
Berwick, 27, 157. 
Crail, 194. 

Dunfermline, 53, 61, 169. 
Edinburgh, 53, 61, 117. 
Elgin, 86, 205. 
Haddington, 164, 183, 1 86. 
Inverkeithing, 29. 
Linlithgow, 91. 

Perth, 29, 53, 61, 117, 169, 200. 
Roxburgh, 27, 157, 193. 
Stirling, 117, 164, 168, 183, 186. 
Burgonensis, Sir Robert, 57, 63, 66, 
67, 104, no, 134, 246, 318, 320, 
372. 

Burgorum, Leges, quoted, 316. 
Burguillun, Robert, no. 
Burial, 146, 403, 410, 432. 

"corpora eorum jaceant in cimiterio 

parochiali," 146. 
" ecclesia parochialis habebit eorum 

corpora," 147. 

dispute regarding the burial of W. 
de Veteri Ponte in Kelso Abbey, 
410. 



462 EARLY SCOTTISH CHARTERS 



Burnetvilla (Burnevilla), Robert de, 
28, 47, 76, 79, 119, 278. 

Burnmouth, 255. 

Burton Hill, 230 ; opinion as to Earl 
David's share of the kingdom in 
Alexander I.'s reign, 266. 

Busche, carratae de, 1 1 8, 384. 

Bute MS., 296. 

Butler, the king's, 257. See Pincerna. 



Caddar, Gadder, 301. 
Caddesleya, 190, 194, 420, 434. 
Cadington Minor, Prebend of, 306. 
Cadrez of cheese, 158. 
Cadwardisly (Edwardsley), 152, 408. 
Cadzow (Cadihou), 96, 178, 179, 302, 

S^S, 423- 

Caen, Abbot of, Lanfranc, 237. 
Caerill, 2, 224. 
Cainig Mormaer of Marr, father of 

Eimin, 223. 
Cainnech, 2, 347. 

son of MacDobarchon, 2. 
Caithness, 100, 223, 224, 366, 408, 

409, 419, 425. 
Bishops : Adam, 409. 

Andrew, 152, 163, 167, 171, 179, 
180, 182, 183, 184, 186, 187, 
188, 195, 200, 205, 209, 212, 
232 ; granted the church of 
Dunkeld to Dunfermline, 209, 
425, 444, 445. 

Gilbert (St. Gilbert), 409, 423. 
John ; his tongue and eyes torn 

out, 409. 

the Bishop to get id. for each in- 
habited house in the Earldom, 
409. 

Bishopric, when founded ? 408. 
Earls of, Harold, 366, 409 ; Harold 

Ungi, 366 ; Magnus, 366. 
Calang', 137, 398. 
Calate, fishing of the, 348. 
Calatria, boundaries of, 349. 

Dufoter de, 86, 349. 
Calchou, Liber de, 275. See Kelso. 
Caldecote, 353. 
Calder Clere, 429. 
Calder Comitis, 184, 429. 
Callendar (Kalentyr, Kalenter), tithe 
of the King's pleas in, granted to 
the Abbey of Stirling, 189, 433. 
saltpan in, granted to Newbattle, 

114, 380. 

Calentyre, Patrick, forfeited, temp. 
David II., 349. 



Cambridge, Library of Trinity Col- 
lege, 249. 

Public Library, 219. 
Cambrun, 432. 

Cambuskenneth, grant to St. Mary's, 
Stirling, of the land of Cambus- 
kenneth and other lands and 
rights, 140, 400-401. 

the Abbey founded, 400-401. 

Bull of Pope Eugenius III., 141, 
401. 

grant of Ketlistoun, 164, 415. 

the canons to be free from toll and 
custom, 172, 419. 

grant to, of the church of Clack- 
mannan, and tithes and tofts, 

189, 433- 

land of, 140, 142, 400, 401. 

see also Stirling, Abbey and 

Church. 

Cambuskinel, no, 378. 
Camcachecheyn, 46, 301. 
Camcar, 46, 301. 
Camera, Hugo de, 213. 

Radulf de, 440. 
Camera regis, 118, 385, 405. 

;io from, for lighting the church 
of Holyrood, 1 1 8. 

10 marks from, to Alex, de