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IN 1876 the author of the present volume pubHshed a 
smaller book, entitled " Earth's Earliest Ages and 
Their Lessons for Us," in which his object was twofold. 
He first attempted to remove some of the Geological and 
other difficulties usually associated with the commencing 
chapters of Genesis ; and then endeavoured to show that 
the characteristic features of the Days of Noah were 
reappearing in Christendom, and, therefore, that the Days 
of the Son of Man could not be far distant. 

For guidance in his efforts after the first of these aims, 
he adopted the following obvious principles — which, if 
they be admitted, render the interpretation easy and precise, 
and anticipate every possible Geological objection. 

I. That the first chapter of Genesis, equally with those 
which follow it, is, in its primary meaning, neither vision 
nor allegory, but plain history, and must, therefore, be 
accepted as a literal statement of facts. 

II. That care must, however, be taken to elicit the 
exact sense of the Hebrew text, which the English 
Authorised Version often fails to express. 

III. That, to those who really believe in a Supreme 


Being, the occurrence of supernatural interference, causing 
physical convulsions and changes, presents no difficulty, 
especially in connection with a world the moral condition 
of which was evidently out of course ages before the 
creation of our race. 

In the latter half of the volume, it became necessary to 
investigate Spiritualism, because that strange movement 
was deemed to be an incipient revival of the last and 
greatest cause of corruption in the days of Noah. And 
possibly it may have been owing to this investigation, and 
its admission of the supernatural character of phenomena 
then generally ascribed to illusion or imposture, that the 
book lay for a while in comparative neglect. When, how- 
ever, its surmises began to be verified by the spread and 
forcible intrusion upon public notice of Spiritualism, the 
speedy sale of the remaining copies, and the letters 
received by the author, testified to an awakening interest, 
and determined the reissue, in some form, of the work. 
It was, however, apparent that a mere reprint would be 
very inadequate, since, apart from the author's increased 
familiarity with the subject. Spiritualism itself had greatly 
developed, and two other waves of kindred thought, 
Theosophy and Buddhism, had followed it. 

Not only, then, has the original work been revised with 
copious additions, but fresh chapters have also been added 
to deal with the later phases of that which, in spite of 
great diversities among its supporters, we must, neverthe- 
less, regard as one threefold movement. And in no point, 
perhaps, is its real unity more easily discerned than in the 
main object of its teachings, which is, to set aside the 


salvation of the Lord Jesus, and to substitute the doctrine 
that sin must be gradually worn away by our own works 
and sufferings, either in the spirit-world or in a series of 
reincarnations upon earth. 

The latter scheme, or spiritual evolution, preceded and, 
as it were, introduced by the physical evolutionary theories, 
is, under sundry disguises and with various modifications, 
insinuating itself in quarters where its rejection might 
have been deemed certain. But Christians, at least, ought 
to perceive that it is directly subversive of the Biblical 
cosmogony and plan of salvation ; and that, by its very 
nature, it tends, more slowly, perhaps, but not less surely, 
to obliterate the great Creator Himself from the minds 
of His creatures. 

Should any of our readers be predisposed in favour of 
such a theory, we would entreat them to consider its 
pedigree as given in our chapter on Theosophy ; to note 
its avowed origin from "descending angels," who can be 
none other than those Nephilim which the Bible mentions 
as having already appeared twice upon earth ; and to 
remember that its acknowledged depositaries and guardians 
have been, not the apostles and Church of the Lord Jesus, 
but the initiates of the Mysteries, the Brahman priests, 
and the followers of Buddha. 

A solemn thought remains. It would seem to have 
been by means of this very doctrine that Satan effaced 
the primal revelation from the minds of the intellectual 
among men, and changed their faith in the only true God 
into that Pantheism which is ever found to be the basis of 
Pagan philosophy. 


But many signs appear to testify that tiie hour of the 
Powers of Darkness is again approaching— that eclipse of 
faith which, it is foretold, shall precede the coming of the 
Son of Man. And " the thing that hath been, it is that 
which shall be." 


"\ T O substantial alterations will be found in the 
text of the present edition ; but a few t}'po- 
graphical errors have been corrected, and an index 
is appended. 

We would again urge attention to the solution of 
Geological difficulties connected with the Bible which 
is advocated in this volume. Critical care in trans- 
lating the original is all that it needs for its support ; 
and while it absolutely disables the attacks of Geology 
upon the Book of Genesis, it casts no discredit upon 
the science itself For, when rightly understood, the 
Bible is found to have left an interval of undefined 
magnitude between creation and the Post-tertiary 
period, and men may bridge it as they can with their 
discoveries without fear of impugning the revelations 
of God. 

The mischief which we endeavour to combat in 
the latter half of our work is still active and spreading. 
Opinions exactly corresponding to Paul's description of 


the final apostasy, and in most cases avowedly derived 
from the sources to which he refers them, are becoming 
more and more apparent in the literature of the day. 
Stories founded upon or introducing Spiritualistic 
incidents, and presenting Theosophic or Buddhist 
doctrines, not infrequently find their way into periodi- 
cals, and are beginning to appear in the form of novels. 
Newspaper and Magazine articles on supernatural 
subjects are no longer rare, and the writers, even 
when they profess to be sceptical, often evince a 
curiosity and interest in their theme which bear 
testimony to its fascinating power. 

The last remark applies in an especial manner to 
the frequent comments on Astrology in the daily 
newspapers.* The almanacs of Moore and Zadkiel 
have been raised from their former low condition 
to respectability and repute ; and we are continually 
reminded that Astrology is a science, and not a 
superstition. The assertion may possibly be true ; 
but the science is at least a forbidden one, though, 
strange to say, some of its principles have been recently 
applied even to the elucidation of prophecy. The pre- 
tensions and confidence of its advocates will, however, 
be best set forth by an extract from the correspondence 
of a London ncwspaper.f 

* An article in the Daily News for January gth, 1885, seems 
to have attracted much attention. It described a visit to an 
Astrologer, and gave some of his forecasts for the new year. 

t St Ja7nes' Gazette, April 28th, 1885. The close connection 


" Permit me to call the attention of your readers 
to the extraordinary way in which certain predictions, 
which may be found in ' Zadkiel's Almanac ' for the 
current year, have been fulfilled during the past four 
months. It is easy to deride Astrology ; but it is 
absurd to suppose that the editor of ' Zadkiel's,' writing 
in September last, could have prophesied with this 
remarkable measure of success, if he had trusted merely 
to his natural opinion as to what was likely to happen. 
I might cite from the other Astrological almanacs 
other predictions which have been similarly justified 
by the course of events. I venture to submit that 
Astrology deserves far more serious attention than 
it commonly receives in this country, and I feci 
confident that, if it were taken in hand by the class 
of men who in former times devoted themselves to it, 
humanity would greatly profit. It should never be 
forgotten that Tycho Brahe, Kepler, Bacon, Napier, 
and others of equal eminence, studied Astrology and 
believed in it, yet nowadays people who know nothing 
whatever about it make no apology for sneering at it 
at every opportunity." " 

of Astrology with Buddhism and Theosophy is shown in the 
following extract. " We hold that the science of Astrology only 
determines the nature of effects, by a knowledge of the law of 
magnetic affinities and attractions of the Planetary bodies, but 
that it is the Karma — see p. 409 — of the individual himself which 
places him in that particular magnetic relation." — The Theoso- 
^hzst February 1885. 



Zadkiel's Predictions. 

" It will be advisable for the 
authorities to be on their guard 
against B'enian outrages, par- 
ticularly about . . . the 2nd of 

"The ruler of Germany will 
experience some sudden danger 
or trouble at the threshold of 
this year." 

"At Athens . , . positions 
presignify danger of a revolu- 
tion and violent deeds." 

" Uranus in Equator as the 
month (February) closes 
threatens physical evils (pos- 
sibly earthquakes) in Croatia. 
Vienna and Lisbon may feel 
the shock." 

jllarch — " In Canada and 
the United States martial pro- 
ceedings will be the order of 
the day. ... It will behove the 
Governor- General and his Min- 
isters to be on their guard 
against Fenian machinations, 
for there is danger of a raid 
on the frontier and of insurrec- 
tionary attempts." 

" There is reason to appre- 
hend some fighting on the 
borders of Afghanistan and 
Chorassan. . . ." 

March lofh — "Partial 
eclipse of the moon. Warlike 
acts against the power of this 
country are to be apprehended." 

"The whole month of April 
seems likely to be marked by 
intense political excitement in 

Events in Fulfilment. 

Jatiuary 2nd. — Dynamite 
explosion on the Underground 
Railway at King's Cross. 

January \(^th. — The Em- 
peror William was taken ill, 
and for some days his condition 
caused grave uneasiness. 

February. — M inisterial 
crisis, and fears of an out- 
break at Athens. 

Fcbrtia7-y zbtk and z'jth. — 
Earthquakes in Hungary. 

March. — Outbreak of Kiel's 
rebellion, notoriously fomented 
by Fenian sympathizers in the 
United States. 

March 3o//^. — General 
Komaroff attacked and defeated 
our allies, the Afghans, at Penj- 
deh, about sixty miles to the 
east of the frontier of Khorassan 
and Afsrhanistan. 

April. — Great excitement 
owing to the action of Russia 
in Afghanistan. 


England, and increase of lier April gth. — Panic on the 

army. . . . Money market suf- Stock Exchange, Announce- 

fers, and fluctuations may be mentof the immediate increase 

confidently anticipated." of our forces. 

April. — "Lower EgA^Jt un- April. — -The Bosphore- 

favourably affected by Saturn in Egyptieii incident threatens 

the third decenate of Gemini." war between France and Egypt. 

I might considerably add to thess extracts and 
illustrations. Instead of doing so I prefer to point 
out that Zadkiel predicts — and I have been at the 
pains to satisfy myself that his prediction is based upon 
the soundest Astrological data — very serious trouble 
in Afghanistan in August. Possibly the exhibition of a 
little firmness and energy now might ensure our getting 
the best of the conflict then ; but, from an Astrological 
point of view, it must be confessed that the Eastern 
horizon looks about as black for us as it can look. 

We may thus see that a transgression of old is 
being revived in our midst, and that many are again 
looking to " the Astrologers, the star-gazers, and the 
viontJily prognosticatorsl' who could by no means saue 
great Babylon from her fall.* Were there a prophet 
among us now, might he not say, in reference to our 
misfortunes and disgraces of the last few years — 
" Thou hast forsaken Thy people . . . because they 
are replenished from the Eact, and are soothsayers 
like the Philistines " .? t 

* Isa. xlvii. 14. 

t Isa. ii. 6. Of course we have also many other national sins, 
just as Judah had in the days of Isaiah. 


And again, just as it was with the ancient oracles, 
so there is often a startling amount of truth in modern 
predictions ; while at other times they as signally fail. 
This is precisely such a mingling of the supernatural 
with fraud as we may expect to find in every mani- 
festation of the Kingdom of Satan, in every work 
of his evil and unscrupulous agents, who are indeed 
possessed of power and knowledge beyond our own, 
but are neither omnipotent nor omniscient.'"' 

And not infrequently it is to a consciousness of this 
limit of power that we may trace the exposure of some 
who are, nevertheless, real mediums. For having, 
either through zeal for their faith, or, perhaps, for 
the sake of gain, resolved to exhibit their powers in 
public, and at fixed times, they are well aware that 
they cannot rely upon their supernatural aids, and, 
therefore, make preparations to satisfy an audience, 
should it be necessary, by other means. 

According to the Hindus, the success of either 
medium or adept depends on the presence in his 
body of a subtle fluid, called akasa, which is soon 
exhausted, and without which the demons are unable 

* The manner in which the Greeks and Romans explained 
difficulties arising from this limitation of power is instructive. It 
is not to be supposed that they could remain loyal to their gods 
without supernatural displays and occasional answers, or fancied 
answers, to their prayers. But they were often disappointed ; 
and, to account for such disappointment, they imagined the 
inexorable Fates, sitting in the background of Olympus, and 
wielding a power which not even Zeus might dispute. 


to act. This fluid, it is said, may be artificially 
generated by a vegetarian diet and chastity — an 
ominous sign to the student of prophetic Scripture. 

That demons do extract something vital from those 
who surrender their bodies to be tampered with is not 
improbable. Professor Crookes, in his account of the 
scientific tests to which he subjected Home, relates that 
after a successful seance the medium appeared to be very 
exhausted, and sometimes lay on the floor in a state of 
utter prostration.* And Morell Theobald speaks of 
" direct spirit-writing without known human interven- 
tion," and then explains ; — " I advisedly say ' without 
known human intervention,' because very frequently, if 
not always, when direct spirit-writings are done in the 
house, whether in the room where I am or not, I feel 
indescribable sensations either of confused headache or 
drawing pains in the lower part of the back, which 
cease as soon as the Psychogram is completed." t 

The manner in which the West is now being 
replenished from the East is well illustrated by Max 
Muller's recently published book, "Biographical Essays." 

* " In employing the terms vital force, or nervous energy, I 
am aware that I am employing words which convey very diflferent 
significations to many investigators ; but after witnessing the 
painful state of nervous and bodily prostration in which some of 
these experiments have left Mr. Home — after seeing him lying in 
an almost fainting condition on the floor, pale and speechless— I 
could scarcely doubt that the evolution of psychic force is accom- 
panied by a corresponding drain on vital force." — Researches in 
the Phenotnena of Spiritualistn^ p. 41. 

t Light, May 9th, 1885. 



In the letters to Keshub Chunder Sen, which it con- 
tains, the Professor regards the East as the parent and 
teacher of the West, and the Brahma Somaj as being 
far more Hkely to modify Christianity than to be 
absorbed by it. The aim of the founder of the Brahma 
Somaj is thus described. 

" What Rammohun Roy wanted for India was a 
Christianity purified of all mere miracles, and relieved 
of all theological rust and dust, whether it dated from 
the first Council or from the last. That Christianity 
he was willing to preach, but no other ; and in preach- 
ing that Christianity he might still, he thought, remain 
a Brahman and a follower of the religion of the Veda." 

Such is the fundamental principle of the Hindu 
Broad Church Movement, which evidently will not 
stand in the way of the future universal religion. Max 
Miiller's own conception of Christianity betrays its 
parentage very unmistakably. 

" Christianity is Christianity by this one fundamental 
truth, that as God is the Father of man, so truly, and 
not poetically or metaphorically only, man is the son 
of God, participating in God's very essence and nature, 
though separated from God by self and sin. This 
oneness of nature between the Divine and the Human 
does not lower the concept of God by bringing it 
nearer to the level of humanity : on the contrary, it 
raises the old concept of man, and brings it nearer to 
its true ideal." 


Such teaching is a manifest preparation for Anti 
Christ, and from it the Professor goes on to the Theo- 
sophic doctrine that any man may become a Christ, 
and affirms that our Lord was the " Firstborn " Son of 
God in the sense that He was the first to fully realise 
the common relationship between God and man, and 
to proclaim it " in clear and simple language." 

In another and very strange passage he denies the 
miraculous circumstances of our Lord's birth, and ex- 
plains away the resurrection of His body. And in 
support of these opinions he claims the authority of 
the late Dean Stanley, thus expressing himself to 
Keshub Chunder Sen on the subject of the resurrec- 
tion ; — 

" Of this I am perfectly certain, that if you had said 
to Stanley, * Am I a Christian if I believe only in the 
spiritual resurrection of Christ .-' ' he would have said, 
' Yes, and all the more if you do not believe that His 
body was taken up to the clouds.' I often regret that 
the Jews buried and did not burn their dead ; for in 
that case the Christian idea of the resurrection would 
have remained far more spiritual, and the conception of 
immortality would have become less material." 

Both Theosophists and Spiritualists are extremely 
anxious to destroy faith in the resurrection of the body ; 
the former, because such a doctrine renders their theory 
of transmigration untenable ; the latter, because it is 
fatally opposed to their fundamental principle, which 


requires that the spirits of the departed should become 
angels immediately after death. 

Since the issue of our last edition, the Press has 
been doing much for the new faith, and among other 
works we may notice, as an additional proof of the 
connection between Theosophy and Paganism, that the 
Hermetic fragments are being translated into English. 
" The Divine Pymander " has already appeared under 
the auspices of Hargrave Jennings ; while E. Maitland 
and Anna Kingsford have an edition of the " Virgin of 
the World " in preparation. In a paper read on the 
27th of April, 1885, the President of the London 
Hermetic Society remarked in regard to the latter 
work ; — " The very title of this celebrated fragment is 
a revelation of the identity subsisting between the 
ancient wisdom-religions and the creed of Catholic 

Even while writing these lines we observe advertise- 
ments of several new Theosophic and Spiritualistic 
books ; but the most important that has lately appeared 
in England is a translation of Schopenhauer's Die Welt 
als Wille mid Vorstelhing, which has powerfully assisted 
the spread of Buddhist ideas among the more highly 
educated classes of the West. Yet the wisdom of the 
philosopher did not enable him to walk in the paths 
which he could indicate to others, and it has been 
remarked that his definition of the universe as " one 
enormous Will, constantly rushing into life," was no 


bad description of his own spiritual constitution. " I 
preach sanctity," he himself said, " but am no saint." 
And to the last he lamented that his animal pro- 
pensities allowed him no present hope of passing into 
Nirvana by the gate of death. 

Yet, although his vigorous intellect was ever labour- 
ing to adapt Eastern thought to the Western mind, he 
seemed to meet with little or no success, and lived in 
comparative neglect. Only at the close of his career 
his power began to be recognised, and he became the 
centre of a continually increasing circle of admirers. 
" After one has spent a long life in insignificance and 
disregard," he bitterly said, " they come at the end with 
drums and trumpets, and think that is something." 

But the doctrine planted with such painful toil had 
at last taken root ; and since his death "^ it has grown 
vigorously, and bids fair to be presently surrounded 
with the whitening bones of many who have sought it 
as a Tree of Life. 

And while all these different influences are acting 
upon the West, the news from the East is also por- 
tentous. The following extract from the Times of 
India excites but little attention to-day ; how great a 
sensation would it have produced a few years ago ! 

"A novel and imposing ceremony took place on the 
5th of April (1885) at the Widyodya Buddhist College 
in Colombo, by which a young and accomplished 
*• September 2 1st, i860. 


English lady, well known in Bombay, formally pro- 
fessed herself a follower of Lord Buddha. Not long 
ago a clergj'man from England, the Rev. C. W. 
Leadbeater, took the ' five precepts ' in the presence 
of the High Priest Sumangala. This time it was 
Miss Mary Flynn who accepted the faith which is 
now becoming fashionable among the enlightened 
classes in the West, It was a curious sight to see 
an English lady, dressed in an elegant robe of black 
silk, sitting in the midst of a crowd of yellow-robed 
Buddhist priests and repeating the Pansil. The High 
Priest began the ceremony by examining the fair 
candidate as to the reasons that led her to desire to 
accept Buddhism as her faith ; and Miss Flynn replied 
that, after having studied the various religious systems 
of the world, she had found the Buddhistic esoteric 
philosophy to be most in accordance with her own 
mind and with common sense. Other questions having 
been satisfactorily answered by her, the High Priest 
administered the ' five precepts,' which Miss Flynn 
promised to observe. The ceremony ended with the 
chanting of ' Ratana Sutta ' by all the assembled 
priests. Besides these, there were also present, in the 
temple in which the ceremony took place, many of the 
most prominent Buddhists of Colombo, the captain and 
several officers of the screw-steamer Tibre, of the 
Messageries Maritimes, and a number of European 
passengers who had arrived in that vessel." 


It would, therefore, seem that the attack of the 
Madras Christian College upon Madame Blavatski 
has by no means checked the movement in which she 
has been so conspicuous an actor ; and, apparently, 
the failure is nowhere more manifest than in Madras 
itself. It was confidently predicted that the High 
Priestess of Theosophy and Buddhism would not dare 
to show her face again in that city. Nevertheless, she 
did so, and, according to TJie TheosopJiist, received a 
warm welcome not merely from the members of the 
Theosophical Societies, but also from the students of 
the various Colleges, and from many other persons. 
She was conducted in procession from the shore to 
the Patcheappa Hall, and was there presented by the 
students with an address of sympathy and admiration, 
to which, among other signatures, were appended those 
of more than three hundred members of the very 
Christian College whose professors had assailed her. 

No wonder that a letter appeared shortly afterwards 
in the Madras Standard, January 9th, 1885, question- 
ing the wisdom of attempts to diffuse Christianity by 
means of a higher education. Hitherto it has been 
usual to assume that the spread of Western culture 
would in itself prove fatal to Paganism ; but experi- 
ence and a closer acquaintance with the esoteric philo- 
sophy of the East are rapidly dissipating that idea. 
Satan is now setting in motion intellectual forces which 
will be more than a match for the missionaries, if 


they persist in carrying on their warfare in the old 

But there must be a change. The fact that the 
supernatural is largely mingled with the frauds and 
juggleries of the kingdom of Darkness must no longer 
be denied, and its true nature must be pointed out. 
Like Paul, our missionaries must recognise the presence 
and power of the spirit of Python ; they may then 
receive strength to withstand and overcome it. 

Moreover, some of them need to imitate the apostle 
of the Gentiles in another particular, in not shunning 
to declare all the counsel of God. Already Brahmans 
Buddhists and Mahometans are beginning to preach 
the near advent of their Messiah, that is, of Antichrist : 
it is high time that those who are dealing with them 
should proclaim with no uncertain voice the speedy 
coming of the Christ to take to Himself His great 
power and to reign. This doctrine was ever promi- 
nent in the teaching of the apostles, and must in no 
case be omitted by those who would enter into their 
labours and share their reward. 

Let us, then, take a momentary but comprehensive 
glance at the phenomenon before us. Three phases of 
thought of a more or less religious character are rapidly 
over-spreading every country of Christendom. Their 
influence is extended by means which vary from the 
highest philosophic teachings to the most debasing 
practices of sorcery. And yet those who take the 


trouble to investigate have little difficulty in discover- 
ing links which connect the three propagandas, and 
prove them to be parts of one great movement which 
is changing the creed of the Westerri world. In 
the general doctrines of this movement the first feature 
which strikes us is a determined effort, at once by in- 
sinuation and direct assault, to overthrow faith in the 
facts connected with the incarnation of the Lord and 
the glorious Gospel of His atonement for sin.* Then 
comes a claim to supernatural knowledge, and some- 
times even to supernatural power, obtained, whether 
by medium or adept, from the spirits of the air.t 
And, lastly, the law is laid down that those who would 
carry on the forbidden intercourse to perfection must 
abstain from flesh and alcohol, and must practise 
chastity. I 

Would it be possible to have a more complete tran- 
script into history of the great prophecy contained in 
the First Epistle to Timothy .?§ 

• I Tim. iii. i6, iv. i. It is scarcely necessary to remark that 
there should be no new chapter here. The two verses are inti- 
nately connected ; in the first the doctrines of the mystery of 
S^odliness are enumerated ; in the second, we are told that in 
atter times men will fall away from them. 

t I Tim. iv. I, 2. 

X I Tim. iv. 3. 

§ See pp. 313-6. 


'TpO the new edition of this book we might add 
many particulars illustrating the later develop- 
ment of the teachings which it attempts to expound 
and refute. We might point out, with no lack of 
examples, the still increasing prevalence of Spiritual- 
istic and Theosophic doctrines in the general literature 
of the day ; the inordinate craving for the supernatural 
which many novel-writers and journalists are now 
striving to gratify ; the appalling advance which has 
been recently made by those who are obscuring the 
true nature, gospel, and mission, of the Only Begotten 
Son of God, and gradually, but surely, changing the 
characteristics of the Christ into those of the Anti- 

We might say much in regard to the spread of the 
anti-scriptural and blasphemous doctrine that the Holy 
Spirit is a feminine element in the Trinity, We might 
exhibit the rising prominence of the two distinctive 
marks of the great apostasy — forbidding to marry, and 


commaiiding to abstain from meats ; and show how 
the world is unconsciously assisting their development, 
by its assaults upon the institution of marriage, and by 
the increasing popularity of vegetarianism. We might 
direct attention to the recent experiments in Hypnotism, 
and the terrible power which is placed in the hands 
of those who can exercise it by this revival of Black 
Magic. We might speak of the latest Spiritualistic 
and Theosophic publications — especially those of Mr. 
Laurence Oliphant and Madame Blavatski — and of the 
many novels which are being issued for the propagation 
of the apostasy, some of which seem to give indications 
of that indifference to human slaughter and suffering 
which naturally results from the theory of re-incarnation, 
that indifference which is deliberately enjoined upon 
Prince Arjuna by the god Krishna in the Bhagavad- 
Gita, and which may yet help to fill the earth with 
violence and bloodshed. And we might relate the 
story of the " Whole World Soul Communion," which 
is now essaying to encompass the earth with a circle 
of seances, and which, through its organ, T/ie World's 
Advance-Thought, claims, as one of its first achieve- 
ments, to have procured by its incantations the 
presidency of France for the spiritualist Carnot. 

But the careful reader of these pages will have 
acquired sufficient knowledge to recognise and explain 
all such phenomena for himself; we do not, therefore, 


think it necessary to add to what has been already 

It may, however, be well to notice that three 
periodicals mentioned in this book, namely, The Herald 
of Progress, The Spiritual Record, and T/ie Psycho- 
logical Review, have now ceased to exist, though their 
place is occupied by several new magazines. And 
as a proof of the vigorous progress of the apostasy, 
we may extract the following from a Bibliography of 
Spiritualism, published in the number of Light for 
September 29th, 1888. 

" The chief periodicals devoted to the subject are : — 

The Gnostic (San Francisco\ 

LigJit (London). 

Medium and Daybreak 

Two Worlds (Manchester). 

Religio- Philosophical Jour- 
nal (Chicago). 

Ba finer of Light (Boston). 

Golden Gate (San Francisco) 

Harbinger of Light (Mel- 

The Theosophist (Madras). 

Lucifer (London). 

The Path (Boston). 

The Soul (Boston). 

The Sphinx (Leipzig). 

There are also some dozens of less important journals." 

We will only add that those Christians who treat 

Spiritualism as a mere imposture arc working much 

La Revue Spirite (Paris). 
Le Spiritisme (Paris). 
Le Messager (Liege). 
La Chai/ie Magtietique 

L'Aurore (Paris). 
La Vie Posthume (Marseilles). 
Psychische Studicii (Leipzig). 
Refo7-inador (Rio de Janeiro). 
Constancia (Buenos Ayres). 
Carrier Dove (San Francisco) 
World's Advance - Thought 

(Portland, Oregon). 


harm. That many impostures are connected with it, 
is a fact ; and that it would be absurd to believe in 
the occurrence of any alleged manifestation without 
sufficient proof, is self-evident. But the Bible, as we 
have endeavoured to show, warrants us in conceding 
the possibility of an exercise of Satanic power. More- 
over, at the time of the end, false Christs and false 
prophets are to show great signs and wonders : it may 
be that they are even now arising among us. 




THE CREATION , . . . . 

THE INTERVAL . . . . ' 















xxviii CONTENTS. 





"as it was in the days of NOAH " .... 223 

Spiritualism. Part I. 


Spiritualism. Part II. 


Spiritualism. Part III. 


THEOSOPHY , . . 395 


SIGNS OF THE END ....... 459 


INDEX ..... .... 483 

iNTR on UCTIOy, 




Before we proceed to examine and attempt to explain 
-MA V,- ••„ c ,„ an important subject of revelation, it 

Modem objections \.o >■ ■> ' 

Christianity are often ^^^;\\\ be Well to ofier a fcw general 

grounded upon the , . - , 

diversity of Biblical Tcmarks on tlic mtcrprctation of the 
interpretation. -gj^j^^ P^^. j^^ ^^^ ^^^^ Christianity is 

vehemently assailed with arguments based upon the 
diversities of opinion among its professors. Men point 
with sharp sarcasm to the many sects of Christendom, 
and to the numerous and serious disagreements of 
those sects, not merely in questions of Church govern- 
ment and discipline, but even upon vital points of 
doctrine. They impugn the Divine origin of writings 
which admit of such variety of interpretation, and can 
be made the basis of so many differing, and even 
conflicting, systems. 

Nor is this sentiment confined to those who live 
in professedly Christian countries. It is beginning 
to spread even among the Heathen : it has already 
supplied them with a powerful weapon against the 


worshippers of the Triune Jehovah, and is presenting 
a new and formidable barrier to missionary success. 
Now the fact that there are countless diversities in 
The charge of diver- the nominal Church cannot be denied. 

sity is true; but its ■»•- , ,.,, [■ ., , 

cause is to be sought ^^ ^y, we must go Still further, and 
in man, and not in the j,Qj^f(,gg ^Y\^^ ^-j^g mischicf maybe dc- 

revelation vouchsafed to •' 

him. tected even among those who call upon 

the name of the Lord Jesus in sincerity, and march to 
meet the future with unfaltering step through faith in 
His once offered sacrifice for sin : for they, too, have 
differences of opinion and sundry opposing doctrines 
all claiming to be derived from the Word of God. 

What, then, shall we reply to our assailants .'* Are 
the Scriptures really so inconsistent, or so vague, that 
a multitude of conflicting opinions and doctrines can 
be fairly deduced from them .-* Were they so, the 
fact would indeed be a strong argument against their 
Divine origin. But we are by no means forced upon 
such an admission : nay, as soon as we begin to con- 
sider the enigma an obvious and certain solution 
presents itself For not the revelation of God, but 
the expounders of that revelation, are responsible for 
the diversities of Christendom : the fault rests with 
the fallen and corrupt nature of man, which so affects 
him that he cannot clearly discern truth even when 
it is set before his eyes. 

Do we doubt this .'' Let us, then, glance at the 
„,,,_., history of the first reception of the 

Proof of this from •' _ '■ 

the early history of the Gospel as rccordcQ in thcNcw Testa- 
ment. Do we not find error mingling 
with truth from the very beginning } Does it not 
seem to have been the first anxiety of an apostle, 
after planting a Church, to check the si^nultaneous 


upgrowth of rank weeds which threatened soon to 
choke it? Need we instance Corinth, Galatia, Colossae; 
the strange doctrines taught at Ephesus and Crete, 
which are mentioned in the letters to Timothy and 
Titus ; the warnings against existing heresies in the 
Epistles of Peter, John, and Jude ? And if we pass 
on to examine the uninspired writings of the early- 
Church, we shall be still more impressed with the 
same sad fact, that, from the very first, there were 
counteracting influences which impaired the purity of 
the messages of God. 

For men did not bring the tablets of their hearts 
smooth and unmarked to receive a first 

Inere were at least 

three classes of cor- grand imprcssion from the revealed 

ruptors. The first con- . , , , r ^ i • <^ i 

sisted of, perhaps, sin- Will and purposcs of their Creator ; but 

cere Christians, who^* ^^^^ fj^j^^ ^^j^j^ myths, philoSOphlCS, 
minds were not enureiy j ^ r ir ^ 

freed from the influence and prcjudiccs, which thcy could not 

of a Pagan education. , , , rr \ ... 

altogether throw off, but retamed, in 
part at least, and mingled — quite unwittingly, perhaps 
— with the truth of God. As time went on, the in- 
congruity of this human admixture became more and 
more apparent ; and yet men clung to it, because they 
felt that it softened the corrective severity of revelation, 
and forced it into some kind of sympathy with the lusts 
of fallen nature. 

And so they soon found themselves constrained to 
devise a means of blunting the sword of the Spirit, 
lest its keen edge should be used to sever the spurious 
from the genuine. Those portions of Scripture which 
were most determinedly antagonistic to the hopes and 
feelings of men were allegorised, or, as by a sad 
misnomer it was called, " spiritualised," out of their 
literal and proper meaning ; and being thus deprived 


ol the power which God had placed in them, were 
no longer able to present insurmountable obstacles to 
the entrance of false doctrine. And yet, so far, we 
are speaking only of the mischief done by those who 
may, perhaps, have been sincere Christians, but who 
corrupted the Word of God through short-sightedness 
and lack of wisdom, and, above all, through that in- 
ability to clear the mind of fixed ideas which is common 
to all mortals. 

But there was another class of corrupters described 

The second, of those by Paul as " many unruly and vain 
wC:?vefo?'rj' talkers and deceivers. . . who subvert 
>"'"^'- whole houses, teaching things which 

they ought not, for filthy lucre's sake " : * men who, 
when they saw Christianity rapidly spreading, when 
they perceived the hold it had upon the minds of 
those who were affected by it, desired, for their own 
ambitious or covetous ends, to become leaders of a 
party which promised to be so influential, which bid 
so fair for power. These had no scruple in introduc- 
ing such doctrines as suited themselves, and mightily 
helped to establish a practice which has been too 
common in all subsequent time, that use of the Bible 
which virtually regards it as a book by the aid of 
which one may justify one's own opinions. 

And lastly ; there was yet a third class of men 

The third, of those dcvotcd to the higher and more intel- 
who became nominal lectual forms of Pagan worship, initiates 

Christians for the ex- , 

press purpose of cor- of the mysteries — those secret societies 

rupting Christianity. i • i i. j ii ii • ,_ 

which had then woven their nets over 
the whole of the civilized world. These crept into the 
fold unawares, as true wolves in sheep's clothing, with 

* Titus i. 10, II. 


deliberate intent to worry and destroy the flock. For 
from the first, with an instinct of Satan, they marked 
the Christian as their mortal foe, and perceiving with 
ever increasing alarm the failure of persecution after 
persecution, from Nero to Galerius, to suppress the 
new sect, felt that it could not be exterminated by 
open warfare, and must, therefore, be seduced and cor- 
rupted by craft. This plan was far more successful 
than the violence of persecution. Where the sword 
of the World failed its flatteries were victorious. The 
astonished Church beheld the frown of her cruel 
oppressor softening into a friendly smile ; was bewil- 
dered with offers of peace and union from those who 
had hitherto breathed out threatenings and slaughter ; 
and, becoming elated with the sudden change, was not 
indisposed for compromise. And thus the World be- 
came nominally Christian, and vast crowds of idolaters 
passed within the pale of the visible Church, bringing 
with them their old gods and goddesses under new 
names, as well as their incessant sacrifices, their rites, 
their vestments, their incense, and all the paraphernalia 
of their impious worship. Nor did the philosophers 
fail to contribute their share to the perplexing con- 
fusion which speedily obscured every vital doctrine of 
Christianity. For, by skilfully blending their own 
systems with the truths of Scripture, they so bewil- 
dered the minds of the multitude that but {q.\\ retained 
the power of distinguishing the revelation of God from 
the craftily interwoven teachings of men. 

So complete, then, even in early times, was the 
corruption of the Word of God. Nor has the Church 
ever succeeded in freeing herself from it, though she did 
make a strenuous effort to do so at the epoch of the 


Reformation. From the time when the Adversary 
^. , . first sowed them, the tares have been 

1 nis early corruption, 

from which the nominal ever mingled with the wheat, as indeed 

Church has never yet , . , ,• , i t-l il 

Leen purged, is a suffi- they must contmuc to be until the 
cient explanation of the harvcst. And the result is that incon- 

diversity and incon- 
sistency of Biblical in- sistent and unsound interpretations have 

been handed down from generation to 

generation, and received as if they were integral parts 

iof the Scriptures themselves ; while any texts which 
seemed violently opposed were allegorised, spiritualised, 
or explained away, till they ceased to be troublesome, 
or, perchance, were even made subservient. From time 
to time, too, systems and sects were formed more or 
less pure than the main body, but into which the 
Adversary never failed to foist some error ; and men, 
trained to look upon their own Church as the only 
perfect one, contended fiercely for its tenets, and 
freely, though often unconsciously, perverted Scripture 
in maintaining the struggle. 

Weighing, then, all these causes, we surely need not 
accuse the Bible of vagueness or inconsistency in order 
to explain the diversities of its interpretation. For, if 
we be observant and honest, we must often ourselves 
feel the difficulty of approaching the sacred writings 
without bias, seeing that we bring with us a number of 
stereotyped ideas, which we have received as absolutely 
certain, and never think of testing, but only seek to 
confirm. And yet, could we but fearlessly and impar- 
tially investigate, we might find that some of these 
ideas are not in the Bible at all, while others are plainly 
contradicted by it. For the tracts of many a popular 
doctrine may be followed through the long range of 

■ Church history, till at length we start with affright at 


the discovery- that we have traced them back to the very 
entrance of the enemy's camp. 

We will not stay now to illustrate this fact, some 

We must, therefore, be P^OOfs of which will COmC beforC US in 

careful to study without thc coursc of OUT subjcct. But it is a 

prejudice, and with ear- . . . 

nest prayer for the guid- matter which evcFy Christian should 
ance of the Spirit. carefully test for himself, if he be really 
desirous to seek first, in preference to any other con- 
sideration, the Kingdom of God and His righteousness. 
For he need be in no perplexity as to the mode of 
procedure, and God will grant him the requisite wisdom 
if he ask it. Let him but believe that the Bible is the 
infallible word of the great Creator, and that all men 
are, and ever have been, prone to error, and he will 
readily see that to discover the truth of any doctrine he 
must first strive to divest himself of preconceived 
notions, of all that he has ever heard about it, and 
of all feeling either for or against it. And then, with 
earnest prayer for the Spirit's aid, let him examine 
every portion of Scripture which bears upon it, noting 
the simple and obvious teaching of each, and observing 
how the various texts interpret and corroborate one 
another. So will he by God's help arrive at the truth. 
But yet another precaution will be necessary ; he must 
mark the degree of prominence assigned to it in the 
Bible, and give it, as nearly as possible, the same in his 
own teaching. For even true doctrines may sometimes 
be mischievous if unduly pressed to the exclusion of 
others, to which, as we may see by their more frequent 
mention, the Spirit of God attaches greater importance. 
Were this course generally pursued, there would soon 
be an end of diversities in the real Church : the 
true followers of Christ would present an unbroken 


phalanx to the world ; the greatest obstacle to the 

Such a cours,, if gene- spread of the Gospel would be re- 
raiiy adopted, would put movcd \ and vcrv different would be the 

an end todiversiues, and ■' 

restore iu power to the rcsult botli of our prcaching at home and 

Word of God. ^ . . , , i t-> , i 

ot our missionary work abroad, r or the 
sword of the Spirit, if drawn forth keen and glittering 
from its own scabbard, and not merely picked up from 
the ground where it has been left, blunted and dulled, 
perchance, by some former warrior, is irresistible, and 
pierces through body and soul to the inmost shrine of 
the God-conscious spirit. 

We propose now to examine the testimony of the 
^, ,. , Divine oracles in regard to three deeply 

The sui.'^ect proposed. _ _ " _ 

Revived interest in the interesting subjccts — thc creation of our 

prophetic Scriptures. .v . i. v i • 1 i. t. 

earth, the changes which appear to have 
taken place in it during ages preceding the Six Days — 
though our information concerning these stupendous 
events is very fragmentary and obscure — and the his- 
tory of our own race until the terrific catastrophe of the 
Deluge. We shall then endeavour to ascertain whether 
such records of the past are able to throw any light 
upon predicted changes in the future ; also what lessons 
we should learn from them, especially in regard to that 
already widespread and continually increasing inter- 
course with the other world which is now called 
Spiritualism, or, if it be of a more philosophic order, 
Theosophy or Occultism. 

And may the Holy Spirit guide us with a wisdom 
not our own ; keep us from handling the Word of God 
deceitfully ; enable us to consider it without bias, and 
to discern the meaning which He Who gave it would 

Now the latter part of our investigation will be con- 

introduction: n 

cerned with prophecy, a subject to which, after more 
than fifteen centuries of neglect, the Spirit of God is 
again directing the minds of many of His people. For 
another long age is drawing to its close, the time to set 
seal to vision and prophet is at hand, and the Lord will 
not hide from His own what He is about to do. 

Still, however, there lingers in the minds of many 

The objection of a Christians a strong objection to pro- 
prtpheV^if u,SelL°!^ P^ctic study, though surely a little 
able. honest consideration would convince 

them of their error. For more than a fourth part of 
the Bible is prophetic : and if God chooses to say so 
much, dare we refuse to listen } If He has bidden us 
attend to these truths, shall we turn away almost con- 
temptuously, and say, " It profiteth not " } Certainly, 
if this be our course, we are setting up our own will 
in opposition to His, and would do well to inquire 
whether we really be in the faith or not. For " if any 
man have not the Spirit of Christ, he is none of His."* 
If, then, the Spirit loves to dwell on the future purposes 
of God, will not also the mind of every one that has 
that Spirit exhibit a similar desire } Must there not 
be identity of feeling .'' If the Spirit of God be really 
influencing us, should He not be accompanied in His 
testimony by our spirit } 

In the commencement of the last of the sacred books 

That study involve wc find a spccial blcssiug promised to 
three great blessings- j^j ^^^^ rcadcth, and to thcm that hear 

r irst : the grace which ' 

aiwaysfoiiowsobedience. the words of the prophccy. f This 
promise is not merely for him that readcth and is able 
to explain, nor only for them that hear and fully under- 
stand ; but for all who read or hear with earnest 

* Rom. viii. 9. t Rev. i. .^. 


attention, whether they be able to penetrate into the 
depths of the meaning or not. Nor is it difficult to see 
some of the channels through which the blessing flows. 
We will mention three of them. 

First, then, the study of prophecy is commanded,* 
and we know generally that the grace of God follows 
every act of direct obedience on our part. If we search 
out even the most minute commands of His law, and 
do them ; if we show that we would not have a word 
uttered by Him fall to the ground, we testify both to 
ourselves and to others that we do in very deed, and 
not in word only, recognise Him as our God and our 
King, the Rightful Disposer of our every thought, word, 
and action. 

Nor will He on His part be slow in acknowledging 
us as His subjects, as those who have a claim upon His 
aid and protection. He will give us grace to help in 
every time of need ; His covering shield will be quickly 
interposed when the black air begins to hurtle with the 
darts of the enemy ; His strength, by which the worlds 
are sustained, will uphold us when our flesh and our 
heart are failing ; His almighty hand will clasp and 
guide us when the last impenetrable gloom begins to 
thicken around us, and a darkness that can indeed be 
felt veils the place on which we next must set our foot. 
Nor will His grasp slacken till He has drawn us 
thr-^ugh the night, and our eyes are dazzled as we 
behold that for which He had caused us to hope, the 
golden gates of the Paradise of God. 

Secondly ; if a man read and believe prophecy, 
though he may not altogether understand it, he cannot 
at least avoid a strong conviction of the transitoriness 

* z Peter i. 19. 


of the present order of things, and is thus mightily 
helped in his efforts to look beyond it. 

Secondly ; prophecy *■ . , . , -p, . . 

teaches us the certain We are all by naturc mclined to rositiv- 

doom of the things that . i r j_i i. i. l. i. • 

are seen ; and so pre- ism, and for the most part act practi- 
pares us for a change, callv, if we do not theoretically, upon 

and aids us to fix our ■' ^ j ' s. 

hopes on the World to the liypothcsis that tilings always have 
been and always will be as they are ; 
that no changes will ever take place, except such as 
may be brought about in an ordinary way by agencies 
already at work. 

And the fact that prophecy instantly dispels this 
false security is the secret reason why, when God draws 
back the curtain of the future, men either shudder and 
turn sullenly away, or else explain what they see as no 
literal picture of that which must shortly come to pass, 
but as a figurative foreshadowing of something which 
they are careful to show is by no means alarming, and 
indeed nothing more than a natural result of existing 
influences. For they find it difficult to conceive a 
violent change such as they themselves have never 
experienced. They are quite willing to talk of develop- 
ment : they love to speak of the time when preachers 
will be more successful, and somehow contrive to per- 
suade the whole human race out of its pride, its 
selfishness, and its general ungodliness : they delight to 
increase the influence of their own particular sect — 
though in doing this they frequently confuse political 
power with the power of the Spirit, and are apt to 
forget who is the reigning Prince of this World and 
present dispenser of its brief glory. 

Or, perhaps, they are cosmopolitan in their views, 
and affect to despise the narrow-minded restrictions of 
sect ; while they altogether ignore the fact that they 


hold sufficiently defined opinions of their own, and are 
unyieldingly tenacious of them. And so, floating with 
the stream of a torrent which is now daily increasing in 
volume and impetuosity, they preach peace and good 
will towards all men from a beneficent God who has no 
idea of ever troubling us about sin, and predict a golden 
age of liberty, equality, and fraternity. And yet if you 
test in their own case the first absolutely indispensable 
condition of their Millennium, they will probably fail, in 
worse fashion than did the young lawyer, to prove that 
they love their neighbours as themselves, by going away 
not merely in sorrow but in wrath. 

Such ideas, then, man will readily adopt : for they 
are all consistent with a continuance of the present order 
of things : they can all come to their perfection — so he 
imagines — without a violent shock, without any super- 
natural interference. 

But he who with earnestness and faith looks down 
the great vista of futurity which God has opened is quickly 
penetrated by very different thoughts. He beholds the 
conflict between good and evil intensifying, until that 
which is good seems overcome and well nigh annihi- 
lated : then he feels the firm ground shaking and giving 
way beneath him : he looks, and, lo, all the cities of the 
nations are tottering in ruins upon the trembling earth: 
the sun is withdrawing its wonted light, the moon be- 
comes as blood : the once solid objects around him wave 
and reel in confusion, like the breaking up and evanes- 
cence of a vivid dream. A sudden flash speeds through 
the gloom, and he sees the Son of Man coming in the 
clouds of heaven : he starts with affright as the red 
lightnings strike the earth : he gazes with awe upon the 
many slain of the Lord. And then at length a change 


passes over the scene : the thunders cease to roll, the 
flashing of the lightning is stayed ; and forth from smoke 
and ruin comes the earth, purified and fair as the garden 
of Eden ; the towers and pinnacles of a noble city 
appear at the foot of Mount Zion, and from the summit 
of the mountain rises majestically the wondrous temple 
described by Ezekiel, before which all flesh shall come 
to worship the Lord. 

For by the outstretched hand, and by the strong arm 
of the Almighty, and not by preaching, will the world be 
taught to acknowledge her Creator, and at last find rest 
from her feverish toil. The preaching of the Gospel in 
this present time is but for the calling out of an election 
according to the purpose of God, and for a witness to 
the rest of mankind. It is only, as Isaiah tells us, 
when the judgments of the Lord are in the earth that the 
inhabitants of the world will learn righteousness.* 

These outlines, at least, the devout reader of prophecy 
will be able to trace : and so, when the close of this 
present age comes like a snare upon all them that 
dwell upon the face of the whole earth,t it will find 
him prepared and undismayed. 

Lastly ; the study of prophecy reveals to us the mind 
Lastly ; a knowledge and will of God. Sccms this a light 

of the revealed purposes . i • ^ tn • i i i • j i 

of God tends to conform thiug i Do wc indccd dcspisc thc con- 
°"'7k, '°."''' """^ '' fidence of our Almighty Creator } Let 

profitable for sanctinca- ° •' 

tion. US fear lest we so insult Him ; lest, like 

swine, we trample on the pearls offered to us. And 
regarding them in this light, how great is the practical 
value of the prophetic Scriptures ! For if we are already 
justified by Christ, we still have need of daily progress 
in sanctification, we should be ever becoming more and 

* Isa. xxvi. 9. t Luke xxi. 35. 


more transformed to the image of God. And to that 
end what greater help could we have than a revelation 
of His mind and purposes in regard to ourselves, our 
fellow-creatures, and the earth in which we dwell ; an 
estimate by Him of all temporal things, of those visible 
surroundings by which we are continually affected, and 
His declaration of their speedy judgment and destruc- 

Is it not a duty to become minutely acquainted with all 
this; to meditate on it continually ; to shape our wishes, 
hopes, and aspirations, from it ; to bring our whole 
mind into accordance with it ; to use our every endea- 
vour to spread the knowledge of it among men ; and 
so to prepare ourselves and others for that new order 
of things into which we either must enter individually 
at the unknown time of death, or may enter simultane- 
ously at any moment by the long-expected return of our 
Lord and Saviour ? 




At the very outset of our inquiry we have to encounter 
The popular error i" a dccply-rooted popukr fallacy in regard 
Tpfa^gfrU'lhe pS:^ to the creation of the world-a fallacy 
doctrine of Chaos. which cau boast of long antiquity, and 
which seems originally to have sprung from a sort of 
compromise between revelation and the legends of Pagan 

The ancient poet Hesiod tells us that the first thing 
in existence was Chaos ; that is, according to its etymo- 
logy? " the yawning and void receptacle for created 
matter." But the word soon lost its strict meaning, and 
was used for the crude and shapeless mass of material 
out of which the heavens and the earth were supposed 
to have been formed. Ovid thus describes it ; — "There 
was but one appearance of nature throughout the whole 
world : this they called Chaos, an unformed and con- 
fused bulk."* And in his " Fasti " he makes Janus, 
whom he identifies with Chaos, speak as follows : — 

" The ancients used to call me Chaos : for a primeval 
being am I. See of how remote an age I shall recount 
the events ! This air, full of light, and the three remain- 
ing elements, fire, water, and earth, were a confused 
» Metam. i. 6, 7. 


heap. As soon as this mass was separated throu<jh the 
discord of its component parts, and had dissolved and 
passed away into new positions, the flame ascended 
upwards ; a nearer place — that is, nearer to earth — 
received the air ; the earth and the sea settled down to 
the bottom. Then I, who had been but a mass and 
shapeless bulk, passed into a form and limbs worthy of 
a god."* 

Thus, according to the cosmogonies of Greece and 
Rome, the universe sprang from Chaos. Uranus, or 
Heaven, was supposed to have been the first supreme 
god. But he was driven from power by his son Cronos 
or Saturn, who afterwards received the same treatment 
at the hands of his son Zeus or Jupiter, Chaos was the 
first thing in existence, and the transient series of gods 
came subsequently into being. 

This doctrine, ancient and widespread as it was in 
... ... . - the time of our Lord, did not fail to 

Ausleading influence ' 

of this doctrine upon influence the real as well as the spurious 

the Christian world. ,-,,.. , , , . , 

Christians. Among the last mentioned, 
the important sects of the Gnostics believed in the eternity 
and intrinsic evil of matter ; but, unlike the Heathen, they 
taught that the Supreme Being also existed from eternity. 
The orthodox Christians escaped the greater error alto- 
gether; but, nevertheless, gave clear testimony to the 
influence of the popular belief in their interpretation of 
the commencing chapter of Genesis. For they made 
the first verse signify the creation of a confused mass of 
elements, out of which the heavens and earth were formed 
during the six days, understanding the next sentence to 
be a description of this crude matter before God shaped 
it And their opinion has descended to our days. But 
• Fasti i. 103-112. 


it does not appear to be substantiated by Scripture, as 
we shall presently see, and the guile of the serpent may 
be detected in its results. For how great a contest has 
it provoked between the Church and the World ! How 
ready a handle do the geological difficulties involved in 
it present to the assailants of Scripture! With what 
perplexity do we behold earth gloomy with the shadow 
of pain and death ages before the sin of Adam ! How 
many young minds have been turned aside by the abso- 
lute impossibility of defending what they have been 
taught to regard as Biblical statements ! And lastly, 
in carrying on the dispute, how much precious time has 
been wasted by able servants of God, who would other- 
wise have been more profitably employed ! 

Let us, then, turn to the Mosaic account, and en- 
^ . . , ^ deavour to elicit its plain and obvious 

Examination of the '■ 

Mosaic record. "In meaning. "In the beginning," we 
eginmng. read, "God created the heaven and the 

earth." * The beginning refers, of course, to the first 
existence of that with which the history is concerried, 
the heaven and the earth.f Here, then, is at once an 
end to speculation in regard to the eternity of matter : 
for God was before the things that are seen, and by 
His supreme volition called them into being. And 
again ; this short sentence strikes a mortal blow at all 
pantheistic identification of God and nature. Nature 
is but one of His many creatures, one of the works of 

* Gen i. i. 

t Therefore the expression has in this case a sense very dif- 
ferent from that which it bears in the first verse of John. Here it 
is use dof the beginning of time ; but there of the countless ages 
of eternity before time was. The third verse of John, "All things 
were made by Him," brings us down to the period of the first of 


1 1 is hands : her years can be numbered, the day of her 
birth is known ; but from everlasting to everlasting He 
is God. 

Now, in the inspired description of what took place 
in the beginning, the heaven and earth 

The enrth and its • i i 

surroundings are said to are not said to havc bccn mouldcd, 

have been "created" in,-,. , < , r i."iUi. 

the beginning; while in fashioncd, or madc out of material, but 
the six days they were |.q j^^^g ^gg^i Created. For, whatever 

only made. Meaning 

of the Hebrew words may have been the original meaning of 

bara, asaJi, and yatsar. , - , . ,•,!.• 

the word oara, it seems certain that in 
this and similar passages it is used of calling into being 
without the aid of pre-existing material. The Hebrew 
writers give it this sense, and Rabbi Nackman declares 
that there is no other word to express production out 
of nothing. But it is, of course, easy to understand 
that a language might not possess a verb originally 
confined to such a meaning : for the idea would scarcely 
have been conceived by men without the assistance of 
revelation. The development theories so popular in 
our days, coupled as they almost invariably are with 
more or less of scepticism, indicate the natural bent of 
human minds on this point ; and the philosophic poet 
Lucretius was an exponent of it when he declared the 
first principle of nature to be, " Nothing is ever gotten 
out of nothing by Divine power."* 

Hence we can readily understand that the word 
selected by the Holy Spirit to express creation may 
have previously signified the forming out of material. 
But its use is sufficiently defined in this and other 
similar passages. For we are told that in the begin- 
ning God created the heaven and the earth ; but the 
Scriptures never affirm that He did this in the six days. 
* De Rer. Nat. i. 150. 


The v^'ork of those days was, as we shall presently see, 
quite a different thing from original creation : they 
were times of restoration, and the word asak is generally 
used in connection with them. 

Now asak signifies to make, fashion, or prepare out 
of existing material ; as, for instance, to build a ship, 
erect a house, or prepare a meal. 

There are, however, two acts of creation mentioned 
in the history of the six days. First ; God is said to 
have created the inhabitants of the waters and the fowls 
of heaven : because these do not consist merely of the 
material mould of their bodies, but have a life principle 
within which could be conferred only by a direct act of 
creation.* Hence the change of word in this place is 
quite intelligible. Just in the same wa}^ man is said to 
have been created, though in the second chapter we are 
expressly told that his body was formed from the dust.f 
For the real man is the soul and spirit : the body, which 
is naturally changed every seven years, and must ulti- 
mately moulder in the grave, is regarded merely as the 
outward casing which gives him the power of dealing 
with his present surroundings, and the materials of 
which were appropriately taken from that earth in 
contact with which he was destined to live. 

In the detailed account of man's origin, a third word 
is used to signify the forming of his body. This is 
yatzar, which means to shape, or mould, as a potter 
does the clay.:}: 

A passage in Isaiah well illustrates the meaning and 
connection of all three verbs ; — " I have created him for 
My glory ; I have formed him ; yea, I have made 

• Gen. i. 21. t Gen. i. 27 ; ii. 7 

X Gen. ii 7. 


him."* On this verse Kimchi remarks ; — " I have 
created him, that is, produced him out of nothing ; I 
have formed him, that is, caused him to exist in a 
shape or form appointed ; I have made him, that is, 
made the final dispositions and arrangements respect- 
ing him." 

God, then, in the beginning created the heaven and 

A faint renection of thc carth, ttot mcrcly the materials out 

the creative power of ^f u'hich thcv wcrc aftcrwards formed. 

God may, perhaps, be •' 

detected in man. How tliis wondcrful work was accom- 

plished we are not told : but it may be that the creative 
power of God has a very dim analogy in the beings 
who were made after His image, an analogy which 
would well illustrate the distance between the creature 
and the Creator. We know that by force of imagina- 
tion we can not only place before our eyes scenes in 
which we were long ago interested, spots which we 
would fain revisit in the body, departed forms dear to 
us as our own lives, but are even able to paint in fancy 
future events as we would wish them to be. The vision 
is, however, shadowy, fleeting, and alas ! too often un- 
holy. Somewhat, then, perhaps, as we produce this 
dim and quickly fading picture, the thoughts of God, 
issuing from the depths of His holiness and love, take 
instant shape, and become, not an unsubstantial and 
evanescent dream, but a beautiful reality, established 
for ever unless He choose to alter or remove it. Hence 
it may be that a great part, or, perhaps, the whole host 
of innumerable suns and planets which make up the 
universe, flashed into being simultaneously at His will, 
and, in a moment, illumined the black realm of space 
with their many-hued glories. 

* Isa. xliii. 7. 


The heaven mentioned in the first verse of Genesis 

The first verse of ^^ the Starry heaven, not the firmament 

Genesis is not a sum- immediately surrounding our earth : * 

mary of what follows, . ... . g. . 

but a record of the first and smcc its history IS not lurther 
of a series of events. enfolded, it may, for aught we know, 
have remained, developing, perhaps, but without 
violent change from the time of its creation until 
now. Not so, however, the earth, as the next verse 
goes on to show : " And the earth was without form, 
and void ; and darkness was upon the face of the 

Now the " and," according to Hebrew usage — as well 
as that of most other languages — proves that the first 
verse is not a compendium of what follows, but a state- 
ment of the first event in the record. For if it were a 
mere summarj^ the second verse would be the actual 
commencement of the history, and certainly would not 
begin with a copulative. A good illustration of this 
may be found in the fifth chapter of Genesis.! There 
the opening words, " This is the book of the generations 
of Adam," are a compendium of the chapter, and, conse- 
quently, the next sentence begins without a copulative. 
We have, therefore, in the second verse of Genesis no 
first detail of a general statement in the preceding sen- 
tence, but the record of an altogether distinct and sub- 
sequent event, which did not affect the sidereal heaven, 
but only the earth and its immediate surroundings. 
And what that event was we must now endeavour to 

* See remarks on the Fourth Day in Chap. IV., and also 
the exposition of Gen. ii. 4, in the latier part ot the sanne 

t Gen. V. I. 


According to our version, "the earth was without 
form, and void." This, however, is not 

The words translated, /- i t t i i i • 

"And the earth was the scnsc o4 the Hcbrew, but a glaring 
whe„°"'Shtiy"'u'ntr- iHustration of the influence of the chaos- 
stood, describe a catas- legend. Fucrst givcs " ruin," or " deso- 

trophe which befell the ° '^ 

earth some time after its lation," as the propcr meaning of the 
noun rendered " without form." The 
second word signifies " emptiness," then, " that which is 
empty " ; so that in this case the authorised translation 
is admissible. Now these words are found together 
only in two other passages, in both of which they are 
clearly used to express the ruin caused by an outpour- 
ing of the wrath of God. 

In a prophecy of Isaiah, after a fearful description of 
the fall of Idumea in the day of vengeance, we find the 
expression, " He shall stretch out upon it the line of 
confusion, and the stones — or, as it should be translated, 
the plummet — of emptiness." * Now *' confusion " and 
" emptiness " are, in the Hebrew, the same words as 
those rendered " without form, and void." And the 
sense is, that just as the architect makes careful use of 
line and plummet in order to raise the building in 
perfection, so will the Lord to make the ruin complete. 

There is, then, no possibility of mistaking the mean- 
ing of the words in this place, and the second passage 
is even more conclusive. For, in describing the devas- 
tation of Judah and Jerusalem, Jeremiah likens it to the 
preadamite destruction, and exclaims ; — " I beheld the 
earth, and, lo, it was without form, and void ; and the 
heavens, and they had no ligh.. I beheld the moun- 
tains, and, lo, they trembled, and all the hills moved 
lightl}'. I beheld, and, lo, there was no man, and all the 

Isa. xxxiv. II. 


birds of the heavens were fled. I beheld, and lo, the 
fruitful place was a wilderness, and all the cities thereof 
were broken down at the presence of the Lord, and by 
His fierce anger. For thus hath the Lord said, The 
whole land shall be desolate ; yet will I not make a full 

We see, therefore, that the Hebrew word toJm sig- 
nifies " desolation," or " that which is desolate " ; and 
boJm " emptiness," or " that which is empty," probably 
with reference to the absence of all life (" I beheld, 
and, lo, there was no man," etc.). And again ; the 
verb translated " was " is occasionally used with a 
simple accusative in the sense of " to be made," or 
" to become." An instance of this may be found in 
the history of Lot's wife, of whom we are told, that 
"she became a pillar of salt."t Such a meaning is 
by far the best for our context ; we may therefore 
adopt it, and render, " And the earth became desolate 
and void ; and darkness was upon the face of the 

But if any further evidence be needed to prove that 
our verse does not describe a chaotic mass which God 
first created and afterwards fashioned into shape, we 
have a direct and positive assertion to that effect in 
the forty-fifth chapter of Isaiah : for we are there told 
that God did not create the earth a toJiu.\ This word, 
therefore, whatever meaning be assigned to it, cannot 
at least be descriptive of the earliest condition of earth. 
But our translators have obscured the fact by render- 
ing tohu " in vain " : they can hardly have compared 
the passages in which it occurs, or they would surely 
have seen the propriety of translating it in Isaiah's 

* Jer. iv. 23-27. t Gen. xix. 26. | Isa. xlv. 18 


manifest reference to creation by the same word as in 

It is thus clear that the second verse of Genesis 
_, . , , describes the earth as a ruin ; but 

There is, therefore, ' 

ample space between the there is HO hint of the time which 

first and second verses , , , . , , . . 

of Genesis for all the clapscd bctwcen crcation and this ruin. 

geological ages, which ^ f^ j^ jj j 

are not, however, al- •=• i3 J J ' 

luded to in Scripture, and it was pi'obably during their course 

Reason of the omission. 

that the strata of the earth s crust were 
gradually developed. Hence we see that geological 
attacks upon the Scriptures are altogether wide of the 
mark, are a mere beating of the air. There is room 
for any length of time between the first and second 
verses of the Bible. And again ; since we have no 
inspired account of the geological formations, we are 
at liberty to believe that they were developed just in 
the order in which we find them. The whole process 
took place in preadamite times, in connection, perhaps, 
with another race of beings, and, consequently, does 
not at present concern us. 

And it is to be observed that God has never, since 
the fall of man, revealed anything to gratify a mere 
thirst for knowledge ; but only such matters as may 
sufficiently illustrate His everlasting power and Godhead, 
our own fallen condition with its remedy of unfathom- 
able love, and the promise of a speedy deliverance 
from sin, a complete restoration to His favour, and a 
never-ending life of perfect obedience and perfect joy. 
Knowledge in this life is a gift fraught with peril : 

for our great task here is to learn the 

In our present con- "^ 

ditioD knowledge is a Icsson of absolute dependence upon 

dangerous possession. q^^^ ^^j ^^^j^^ Submission tO His will. 

His dealings with us now are to the end that He ma}' 


Withdraw us from our own purpose, and hide pride 
from us.* But knowledge, unless it be accompanied 
by a mighty outpouring of grace, causes undue elation. 
It was the vision of knowledge which filled the breast 
of our first parent with impious aspirations, and made 
her listen to the Tempter when he bade her hope to 
be as God. And it is an ominous fact, that, after the 
fall, the first inventors of the arts and sciences were 
the descendants, not of the believing Seth, but of the 
deist and murderer Cain. 

So in our own days the leaders of science are too 
often the leaders of infidelity, the despisers of God and 
of prayer. Except by special grace, man seems in- 
capable of bearing the slightest weight of power upon 
his shoulders without losing his balance. 

And hence the Scriptures take up just the attitude 
we should expect. They altogether, as in the verses 
before us, avoid contact with the science of men. God 
does not forbid us to search so far as we can into the 
laws of His universe ; but He utterly refuses to aid 
or accelerate our studies by revelation. For the present 
He would have us rather attentive to the moral renova- 
tion of ourselves and our fellow-creatures : but after a 
short season He will open vast stores of His wisdom 
to those who love and trust Him, and delight their 
souls with the secrets of His creative power, 

• Job xxxiii. 17. 




We see, then, that God created the heavens and the 
-. ^ , earth perfect and beautiful in theit 

bin was the cause of _ ^ 

the preadamite destruc- beginning, and that at some subsequent 
period, how remote we cannot tell, the 
earth had passed into a state of utter desolation, and 
was void of all life. Not merely had its fruitful places 
become a wilderness, and all its cities been broken 
down ; but the very light of its sun had been with- 
drawn ; all the moisture of its atmosphere had sunk 
upon its surface ; and the vast deep, to which God 
has set bounds that are never transgressed save when 
wrath has gone forth from Him, had burst those 
limits; so that the ruined planet, covered above its 
very mountain tops with the black floods of destruction, 
was rolling through space in a horror of great darkness. 
But what could have occasioned so terrific a catas- 
trophe ? Wherefore had God thus destroyed the work 
of His hands } If we may draw any inference from 
the history of our own race, sin must have been the 
cause of this hideous ruin : sin, too, which would 
seem to have been patiently borne with through long 
ages, until at length its cry increased to Heaven, and 
brought down utter destruction. 



For, as the fossil remains clearly show, not only 
were disease and death — inseparable 

The fossil remains in- . - . , , 

dicate preadamite ages companions of Sin — thcn prevalent 
;Ltd\oVeTheTeC among the living creatures of the 
notofthe Six Da>;s, but earth, but cvcn ferocity and slaughter. 

of far earlier creations. » i /• 11 . 

And the fact proves that these remains 
have nothing to do with our world ; since the Bible 
declares that all things made by God during the Six 
Days were very good, and that no evil was in them 
till Adam sinned. Through his fall the ground was 
cursed, and it was doubtless at the same time that the 
whole creation was subjected to that vanity of fruitless 
toil, of never-ceasing unrest, and of perpetual decay, 
in which it has since groaned and travailed in pain 
together until now.'^ When thorns and thistles sprang 
out of the earth, and its fertility was restrained, then 
a curse affected the animal kingdom also. There 
appeared in it a depraved and even savage nature 
which ultimately, though not perhaps in antediluvian 
times, reached its climax in a cruel thirst for blood, 
and completely changed the organization of some 
species at least. How this change was brought about, 
it is of course useless to speculate : for the hand of 
the Almighty wrought it. But that it did take 
place, and that the beasts of the earth were not 
always as they now are, we have proof in the following 

On the Sixth Day God pronounced every thing 
which He had made to be very good, a declaration 
which would seem altogether inconsistent with the 
present condition of the animal as well as the vegetable 
kingdom.f Again ; He gave the green herb alone 
• Rom. viii. 22. t Gen. i. 31. 


for food " to every beast of the field, and to every 
fowl of the air, and to every thing that creepeth upon 
the earth." * There were, therefore, no carnivora in 
the sinless world. 

Lastly ; in a great prophecy of the times of resti- 
tution we read ; — " The wolf also shall dwell with the 
lamb, and the leopard shall lie down with the kid ; and 
the calf and the young lion and the fatling together ; 
and a little child shall lead them. And the cow and 
the bear shall feed ; their young ones shall lie down 
together ; and the lion shall eat straw like the ox. 
And the sucking child shall play upon the hole of the 
asp, and the weaned child shall put his hand on the 
cockatrice's den. They shall not hurt nor destroy in 
all My holy mountain : for the earth shall be full of 
the knowledge of the Lord, as the waters cover the 
sea."t That is, that, when sin has been suppressed 
by the return of the second Adam, the curse shall lose 
its power, the savage nature of the beasts of the field 
shall disappear, the carnivora shall become graminivora, 
the poisonous shall lay aside their venom ; all shall be 
restored to their first condition, and be again as when 
God pronounced the primal blessing. % 

Since, then, the fossil remains are those of creatures 
anterior to Adam, and yet show evident tokens of 
disease, death, and mutual destruction, they must have 
belonged to another world, and have a sin-stained 
history of their own, a history which ended in the 
ruin of themselves and their habitation. 

• Gen. i. 30. 
t Isa. xi. 6-9. 

% Except the serpent, who will lose his power to injure, but will 
still exhibit the sign of his degradation. See Isa. Ixv. 25. 


And since a lord and vicegerent was set over the 
animal kingdom of our world, through 

Probable existence of , r 1 1 i • • i • i 

men in preadamite limes, wliosc fall dctcnoration, discasc and 
fhe7rcT:::oT:rn':.:d death obtained irresistible power over 
destiuction. Vastness everv Hving crcature, so we should 

ofthesubjecL ' 1,1 ... 

naturally conclude that superior beings 
inhabited and ruled that former world, and, like Adam, 
transgressed the laws of their Creator, 

But who were these ancient possessors of the lands 
now given to us ? Whence came they, and whither 
have they gone ? What fearful sin caused their own 
disappearance, and involved in one confused ruin their 
earth and its aerial surroundings .■' 

We have no records left to us : the numerous re- 
mains in primeval rocks are only those of the lower 
forms of creation. Yet, as we peer hopelessly into the 
night, a faint and unsteady gleam seems to emanate 
from the Scriptures in our hand, a very different light 
from that which they pour upon other subjects, scarcely 
more than sufficient to make darkness visible, but 
enough to reveal the outline of a shadowy form seated 
on high above the desolation, and looking sullenly 
down upon his ruined realm. 

It is our own great enemy, the Prince of this World 
and of the Power of the Air, 

Let us, then, consider the scanty hints which the 
Bible seems to offer in regard to this great mystery. 
But we must tread lightly and rapidly over the bridge 
v.hich we shall attempt to throw across the foaming 
torrent : for we cannot be sure of its foundation : nay, 
in the darkness of the night there may also be serious 
defects in its construction. Yet the revelation to which 
we shall refer was given for our learning, and, like all 


Scripture, is profitable, even if we fail to grasp the 
secret contained in it, provided we handle it with 
reverence and fear.* For the contemplation of such 
a theme gives us some idea of the ineffable magnitude 
of the events, past and future, by which time is bounded, 
and of the countless millions of actors concerned in 
them : it calls off our minds which are prone to dwell 
so complacently, and yet so irrationally, upon this pre- 
sent brief age and our still more insignificant selves : it 
strikes us with inconceivable awe : it makes us trem- 
blingly anxious to be safe in the only refuge before the 
next great storm of God's wrath comes thundering over 
our doomed world : it urges us to fulfil our minute 
duty in the stupendous drama which the great Supreme 
is rapidly hastening to its close. 

Now there are, perhaps, two sources from which we 
Sources of informa- "^^y cxtract somc information respect- 
'i°°- ing the former condition of the earth. 

First, from any passage which seems to refer directly 
to it ; and secondly, from the account given to us of 
" the times of restitution of all things," f the very name 
of which suggests that God's original purpose will not 
be frustrated by sin, but that everything will be 
restored ev^en as it was before the earliest rebellion 
of the fallen angels. 

If, then, we glance at the few particulars of Satan's 
_,.,„„. - history which have been revealed to us, 

Ine titles 'Prince of ' ' 

this World," and " God we cannot fail to observe that, besides 

of this Age." , , .,,,., 

the actual power attributed to him, he 
manifestly holds the legitimate title of " Prince of this 
World " ; or, in other words, that this dignity, together 
with the royal prerogatives which of right pertain to it, 

* 2 Tim. iii. 16. t Acts iii. 21. 


was conferred upon him by God Himself.* For there 
is no other way of explaining the fact that the Lord 
Jesus not only spoke of the Adversary by this title,! 
but plainly recognised his delegated authority in that 
He did not dispute his claim to the present disposal of 
the kingdoms of the world and their glory. % 

And it is only by recognising the legitimacy of that 
claim that we can understand a passage of Jude, in 
which the conduct of the archangel IMichael towards 
Satan is adduced as an example of due respect for 
authority, even though it be in the hands of the 
wicked. § 

The meaning of " World " is somewhat ambiguous : 
for while the signification of the Greek word may be 
confined to our earth and its inhabitants, it may also 
extend to the totality of the universe, and in the case 
before us possibly does comprehend all the spheres of 
our solar system. At least if there be truth in the 
accounts given by astronomers of the ruined condition 
of the moon, which is described as " an arid and lifeless 
wilderness," it would seem likely that Satan's power 
extends so far. And it may be also that the cata- 
strophe in the sun, which was remedied on the Fourth 
Day, testifies to bis connection with that glorious 

In one passage Paul, according to our version, styles 
him " the God of this World." || There, however, the 
Greek for " World " is a different word, and should be 
translated "Age." Satan is indeed the legitimate 

* Previously of course to his fall. See the exposition of 
Ezek. xxviii. 11-19, in the subsequent part of this chapter, 
t John xiv. 30. § Jude 9. 

J Luke iv. 6-8. |1 2 Cor. iv. 4. 


Prince of this World ; but it is only by abusing his 
power, and blinding the eyes of men, that he induces 
them to worship him as their god. At the close of the 
present age he will be deprived of his princedom ; and, 
the basis of real power being thus removed, his impious 
superstructure will immediately fall to the ground. 

But, even at the risk of interrupting the argument, 
we cannot refrain from pausing for a moment to glance 
at the solemn warning contained in the title " God of 
this Age." There is indeed reason to believe that the 
Devil has received far more directly personal worship 
than those who are not accustomed to investigate such 
matters would imagine. But it is to something more 
general that Paul refers. His own words in another 
place will best explain his meaning ; — " Know ye not, 
that to whom ye yield yourselves servants to obey, his 
servants ye are to whom ye obey .'' " * There are two 
laws set before us, that of God and that of Satan ; and 
whose law we keep, his servants and worshippers we 
are. Profession, however vehement, goes for nothing 
in the other world. We may profess the worship of 
the Supreme God, we may be very sedulous in the 
outward part of it ; but if at the same time we are 
obeying the law of Satan, his subjects we are reckoned 
to be, and to him our prayers and praises ascend. And 
the law of Satan is this ; — That we seek all our plea- 
sures in, and fix all our heartfelt hopes upon, this 
present age over which he presides ; and that we use 
our best endeavours — by means of various sensuous 
and intellectual occupations and delights, and countless 
ways of killing time which he has provided — to keep 
our thoughts from ever wandering into that age to 

• Rom. vi. i6. 


come wliich will see him a fettered captive instead of 
a prince and a god. 

But he is also called "the Prince of the Power of 
The princedom of the the Air."* This principality would 
Power of the Air. sccm to bc the samc as "the heavenly 

places" — our version incorrectly translates "high places" j" 
— which, as Paul tells us, swarm with the spiritual hosts 
of wickedness. It is by no means necessary to restrict 
it to the eighty or a hundred miles of atmosphere sup- 
posed to surround the earth : for if Satan's power 
extends to the sun, as we suggested above, and so to 
the whole of our solar system, the kingdom of the air 
would include the immense space in which the planets 
of our centre revolve ; and in such a case it seems not 
unlikely that the throne of its prince may be situated 
in the photosphere of the sun. We should thus find a 
deep underlying significance in the fact that idolatry 
has always commenced with, and in no small degree 
consisted of, the worship of the Sun-god, whether he be 
called San, Shamas, Bel, Ra, Baal, Moloch, Milcom, 
Hadad, Adrammelech and Anamelech, Mithras, Apollo, 
Sheikh Shems, or by any other of his innumerable 
names. J 

There is, perhaps, something suggestive in the word 
used to describe this kingdom : for it means thick and 

* Eph. ii. 2. t Eph. vi. 12. 

X Way there not be great significance in the fact that the very- 
name of Satan passes, through its Chaldaic form "Sheitan," into 
the Greek " Titan," which last word is used by Greek and Latin 
poets as a designation of the Sun-god? 

Indeed it would almost seem as if this connection were under- 
stood in the dark ages : for Didron, in his Christian Icono- 
graphy, describes three Byzantine miniatures of the tenth 
century, in which Satan is depicted with a nimbus, or circular 
glory, the recognized sign of the Sun-god in Pagan times. 

As the Church became Paganized, tiie nimbus began to ap- 


misty, in contrast to bright and clear, air. Hence it 
may have been selected to indicate the polluted and 
sin-defiled condition of Satan's heaven. And this view 
appears to be confirmed by a passage in the Epistle to 
the Hebrews, where we read; — "It was, therefore, neces- 
sary that the patterns of things in the heavens should 
be purified with these ; but the heavenly things them- 
selves with better sacrifices than these."* The purifi- 
cation of the latter will probably be accomplished at 
the return of the Lord, after that expulsion of Satan 
and his angels from heaven which is foretold in the 
twelfth chapter of the Apocalypse. And we may 
notice the beautiful agreement between this idea of the 
existing impurity of the first heaven and the prophecy 
of Isaiah, that, in the age to come, " the light of the 
moon shall be as the light of the sun, and the light of 
the sun shall be sevenfold, as the light of seven days.""f" 
What, then, is the nature of the power indicated by 
The spiritual powers thcsc tltlcs of Satan.? To Understand it 
of the world. ^yg must glancc at the general hints of 

Scripture concerning spiritual agencies. For, though 
unseen and little suspected by the rulers of earth, there 
are also spiritual powers,]}: all originally appointed by 
God, whether they be loyal to Him now or not. Rank 
above rank these watchers stand, each passing on his 
account to a superior until it reaches the Most High at 
the apex of the pyramid. So in Zcchariah's first vision, 
those whom the Lord had sent to walk to and fro upon 

pear in images and pictures of Christ and the saints. At the sam e 
time the Church was corrupted by the introduction of other cus- 
toms — such as the circular tonsure, and the practice of turning 
to the East — which had been connected with sun-worship from hoar 

• Heb. ix. 23. t Isa. xxx. 26. % Eccles. v. 8. 


the earth are represented as delivering their report to the 
Angel of the Lord, who then appeals to the Almighty 

And hence we read of thrones, dominions, principali- 
ties, powers.t archangels,! and angels. Nor can we know 
much of Scripture without discovering that vast numbers 
of these invisible beings, who supervise the affairs of 
men and their world, are in open rebellion against the 
Almighty ; that there are principalities, powers, and 
world-rulers, of darkness, with whom, as Paul tells us, 
we have to wage a fearful warfare.§ These all render 
account to Satan, their prince, who, in his reports to the 
Most High, makes use of their intelligence to accuse 
ourselves and our brethren before God day and night. || 
If we would know something of the manner of their 
interestingdisciosures f^le we may read God's own estimate 
of the eighty-second of it in the elghty-sccond Psalm. That 

Psalm respecting the _ , . , 

injustice of their rule, brief pocm — One of the grandest of the 
?hem' ^TlhrrenteTce rcvclations which raise the separating 
pronounced upon them, vej] ^nd permit a momentary glimpsc of 
mysteries beyond our own sphere — is so important as 
an illustration of our subject, and also as affording a 
solution of many moral difficulties caused by the present 
condition of the world, that we subjoin an amended 
translation of it, together with a {q.\v words of comment. 

* Zech. i. II, 12. t Col. i. i6. 

X But we ought not, perhaps, to speak of archangels in the 
plural ; since Michael, called the archangel, is the only one men- 
tioned in Scripture. Probably, however, there may be other 
beings of the same rank connected with other worlds. For 
Michael appears to bear the title because he is the appointed 
ruler of all faithful angels in the heaven of our earth. And hence 
we find him standing as the prince of God's chosen people and 
the great opponent of Satan (Dan. xii. i ; Rev. xii. 7 ; Jude 9). 

§ Eph. vi. 12. il Rev. xii. 10. 


1. " God standeth in the congregation of God : 

In the midst of the gods doth He judge. 

2. ' How long will ye judge perversely, 

And take the side of the wicked ? (Selah.) 

3. Defend right for the wretched and fatherless : 
Do justice to the afflicted and needy ; 

4. Deliver the wretched and poor : 

Rescue them from the hand of the wicked ! ' 

5. 'They know not, and they understand not; 
In darkness they walk to and fro : 

All the foundations of the earth are tottering.' 

6. * I have said, Ye are gods, 

And sons of the Most High are ye all. 

7. But ye shall die like men. 

And shall fall like one of the princes.' 

8. Arise, O God, judge Thou the earth : 

For Thou hast all the nations for Thine inherit- 

The Psalm thus falls into four paragraphs, the first 
of which represents the Almighty as standing among 
the angelic rulers of this world, and charging them 
with their folly. Apparently we have two examples 
•of such an assembly in the beginning of the Book of 
Job, where the sons of God, and Satan among them, 
are described as coming to present themselves before 
the Lord. In each of these cases the council, so far 
as its purposes are revealed to us, had reference to an 
inhabitant of earth, and its decisions were of the 
gravest moment to him. The Book of Kings fur- 
nishes us with a third instance, in the celestial assize 


held to determine the fate of Ahab.* And just as 
Satan takes part in the dcHbcration respecting Job, 
so here we read of the presence of a lying spirit who 
receives permission to possess and inspire the false 
prophets for the destruction of those who trusted them. 

The " gods " of the second line are angels — in this 
case, of course, fallen angels — so called as being the 
agents of God.f A similar use of the word to*^^7^? may 
be found in the ninety-seventh Psalm, in quoting from 
which Paul renders the clause, "Worship Him, all ye 
gods," by, " Let all the angels of God worship Him."+ 

In the charge which follows, how graphically is the 
present state of the world portrayed ! How plainly 
are we made to see that if lying, fraud, oppression, and 
violence are prospering ; if the tears of the weak are 
flowing ; if there is many a child of God whom, 

... "in this world's hard race 

O'erwearied and unblessed, 

A host of restless phantoms chase" ; 

if there are multitudes who can say, No man cares for 
my soul — all this is because a Rebel is swaying his 
sceptre of iron over the groaning earth. 

In the third and fourth verses we seem to discern 
a wondrous unveiling of the love of God. Not only 
over the fallen race of Adam has He yearned : nay. 
He has offered space for repentance, and would have 
shown grace, to the sinning angels also. We are 
reminded of those mysterious words which the Lord 
uttered, just after the voice from heaven had resounded 

* I Kings xxii. 19-23. 

+ So our Lord explains ; — " If He called them gods unto whom 
the word of God came " (John x. 35). 
X Compare also Heb. ii. 9, with the Hebrew of Psalm viii. 5. 


through the Temple — " Now is the judgment of this 
world : now shall the Prince of this World be cast 
out ! " For it would seem as though the irrevocable 
decree, fixing the doom of " the world-rulers of this 
darkness," had only then gone forth, and the ears of 
the Lord had, as it were, caught the thunder of the 
closing gates of mercy, which up to that time had 
stood open even for Satan and the spiritual hosts of 
wickedness. Possibly it was their hostility to the 
incarnate Son of God which filled up the measure of 
their iniquity : so that to them, as well as to the Jews, 
the Parable of the Husbandmen might have been 
applied. They had refused to offer to the great 
Creator the fruits of His earth which had been com- 
mitted to their care : they had rejected merciful plead- 
ings, such as our Psalm discloses : and finally, as soon 
as they descried the Son entering their realms, they had 
«Jestroyed whatever hope might have remained to them 
by crying ; — " This is the Heir ! Come, let us kill 
Him, that the inheritance may be ours ! " 

The fifth verse shows that God had already foreseen 
the end. He declares that His remonstrance is vain : 
the rebels will not listen. By breaking away from 
Him they have lost their wisdom, and can no longer 
understand ; they have become shortsighted after the 
manner of men, if not in their degree. They can but 
move restlessly to and fro under the darkness into 
which they have wandered, striving by incessant activi'ry 
to forget the Divine fulness of their former estate ; 
while they exhibit the reckless madness of sin by 
stretching out their hand against God and strengthen- 
ing themselves against the Almighty. 

And terrible are the consequences of their condition 


to the earth which groans bcncatli their sway. All its 
foundations are tottering : it is filled with flagrant 
abuses and crimes, the cry of which ascends to heaven : 
there is an anarchy of injustice and oppression. They 
must, then, be deposed : their power must be taken 
away : a fearful retribution must vindicate the justice 
of Him Who is King over all. 

Accordingly their sentence follows, and its terms 
should have prevented that vague interpretation of the 
Psalm which has been content to refer it to merely 
human rulers. Not to those who are called into 
existence under mortal conditions are these words 
addressed, but to beings who from the earliest hour 
of their life have rejoiced in the immortality of the 
sons of God. Nevertheless, because they have sinned 
and fallen from their first estate, they also must come 
under the law of sin and death. Like the ephemeral 
children of Adam they shall perish, and fall like one 
of the short-lived princes of Earth. 

This sentence has not yet been carried out : it will 
be so, apparently, when Satan is bound and cast for a 
thousand years into the abyss, or vast fiery deep in the 
centre of the earth, which, as we may gather from 
Scripture, is the prison-house of the lost dead.* 

The Psalm closes with a prayer. While he con- 
templates the evils brought upon the world by its 
present Prince, the Psalmist is moved to long for the 
advent of the Righteous King, for the coming of Christ 
to depose the rebel powers, to inherit all nations, and. 
to judge the earth. 

• He thus suffers the first death during the Millennium, and is 
afterwards cast into the Lake of fire and brimstone, which is the 
second death. See Isa. xxiv. 21, 22 ; Rev. xx. 1-3 ; Rev. xx. 14. 


It is then plainly revealed that spiritual as well as 
human powers are concerned in the administration of 
our earth. And these diverse agencies are mentioned 
as making up the totality of its government in a verse of 
Isaiah, where we are told that the Lord at His coming 
will depose and punish two distinct governing bodies, 
" the High Ones that are on high, and the Kings of the 
Earth upon the earth."* Of these, the former are mani- 
festly identical with Satan and his angels ; the latter 
with the antichristian world-powers. f Nor will Christ 
alter the form of government, though He change the 
rulers. For Himself and His Church will then take the 
place of the High Ones that are on high, while the first 
rank among the Kings of the Earth upon the earth will 
be given to the seed of Abraham according to the flesh. 
It is, however, a startling fact that the present disposal 
_ , . . of the regular spiritual powers of the 

The regular princi- ° '■ 1 • 1 1 j 

paiities of our earth world sccms to bc entirely in the hands 
S^'o'be unyr^'Te of Satan. This is evident from the 
sway of Satan. eighty-sccond Psalm, as well as from 

the verse of Isaiah ; since in either passage the 
spiritual rulers are stigmatised without any reserve 
as rebels against God. 

And, again, in the tenth chapter of Daniel we read of 
the Satanic Prince of Persia, and also of the Prince 
of Grecia : but the angel of the Lord who opposes 
the former does not take a similar title. Nay, from 
his own words we may see that his post is no per- 
manency ; he is merely sent down for a special purpose, 

* Isa. xxiv. 21. 

t That is, with the Gentile powers of Christendom. For after 
Israel's temporary rejection the dominion of earth was formally 
transferred to the Gentiles in the person of Nebuchadnezzar (Dan. 

ii. n, 38). 

43 EA K Til 'S EA R LI EST A CES. 

and retires when it is accomplished, leaving the Prince 
of Grccia unassailed. And how deeply significant, how 
worthy of our most solemn thought, is his complaint 
that, upon his entrance into the heaven of our earth, he 
found, with a solitary exception, all its principalities 
either hostile or indifferent I* From the whole region 
of the vast rebel empire there came forth but one loyal 
prince of God to aid him in his conflict with the powers 
of darkness. This faithful archangel was Michael : nor 
is it difficult to account for his presence in the regions 
of air. For he is described to Daniel as " your 
prince," and afterwards as " the great prince which 
standeth for the children of thy people."! It appears, 
then, that he is the spiritual ruler of Israel ; and so, that 
when God chose a people upon earth for Himself, He 
took them out of the jurisdiction (e^ovcriaj) of Satan, 
and appointed one of His own princes to govern and 
protect them. Hence with fierce enmity the Prince of 
Darkness seems to have matched himself against 
Michael, and to have directed in person his desperate 
assaults upon the alienated principality. One of his 
victories is recorded in the Book of Chronicles, where we 
are told how he " stood up against Israel, and provoked 
David to number Israel."§ 

In the third chapter of Zechariah we seem to ha\'e 

* Dan. X. 21. t Dan. x. 21 ; xii. i. 

X Acts xxvi. 18 ; Col. i. 13. 

§ I Chron. xxi. i. Dan. x. 13, 20, will show us that this was 
probably effected by a victory over Michael and the consequent 
suspension of the archangel' s protecting influence. A remarkable 
hint of the spiritual conflicts which seem to be connected with 
every earthly event may also be found in 2 Kings vi. 16. For when 
the trembling servant of Elisha told his master that Dothan was 
surrounded by the Syrians, the prophet seems to have immediately 
glanced at the spiritual forces 07i both sides, and then, 



a typical representation of the whole conflict, with a 
glance at its final result. For the angel of the Lord, 
before whom Joshua the high priest is seen standing, 
would naturally be Michael, the protector of Israel ; 
Satan himself is present to accuse ; and the Lord is 
introduced as Judge, deciding against the Adversary, 
and in favour of Joshua and Jerusalem. But this 
sentence has not yet taken effect : for Satan, by the 
vigour and pertinacity of his attacks, afterwards caused 
the ruin and dispersion of the Jewish people, thus 
apparently defeating the purpose of God, and com- 
pletely recovering his lost province. Michael's rule 
seems, therefore, for the present to be almost in abey- 
ance ; but, as we find from the prophetic Scriptures, he 
will shortly resume the battle, and gain a decisive and 
final victory.* 

From all this we may surely infer that, although 

Therefore the Prince Satan is a rcbcl, he has not yet been 

of Darkness still wields dcpHved clthcr of his title or his power. 

a mighty power : and '■ 

hence the fearful reality He is Still the great High OUC OH 

of the Christian conflict, ,.• < i-'i .1 i».. ■^• r 

high, who divides the world into dif- 
ferent provinces according to its nationalities, appoint- 
ing a powerful angel, assisted by countless subordinates, 
as viceroy over each kingdom, to direct its energies 
and bend them to his will. And so we get some idea 
of the terrible reality of Paul's meaning, when he 
affirms that our great conflict is not with flesh and 
blood, but has to be carried on against principalities, 

satisfied with what he had seen, replied ; — " Fear not ; for they 
that be with us aso. more than they that be with them." The 
subsequent blinding of the hostile army was doubless effected at 
God's command by the fiery host which protected Elisha, and the 
miracle certainly seems to imply a previous defeat of those who 
were with the Syrians. 

* Dan. xii. i ; Rev. xii. 7-9. 


against powers, against the world-rulers of this age of 
darkness, against the Spiritual hosts of wickedness in 
the heavenly places.* 

But who is sufficient for these things ? For the 
whole aerial surroundings of our planet are densely 
peopled with a hostile race of beings unutterably 
superior in wisdom and power to ourselves ; having 
had during a vast number of years every conceivable 
experience of the weak points of humanity ; possess- 
ing the incalculable advantage of being themselves 
invisible, though as spiritual intelligences they are 
probably able, not merely to judge of us by our words 
and outward expression of countenance, but even to 
read the innermost thoughts of our heart ; co-operating 
with the most perfect and never-failing organization ; 
and lastly, directed by a leader of consummate wisdom 
and skill, who is assisted by powerful princes, and finds 
his subjects so numerous, that, if we are to lay any 
stress on the word " legion " in the memorable narrative 
of Luke, he is able to spare some six thousand of 
them to guard one miserable captive.f 

Truly, with such facts as these before us, we might 

But the Lord is mind- well faiut for fcar did we not know 

fui of His own, and does ^.j^^^. ^.j^g^g jg ^ mightier Power above 

not leave them unpro- o 

tected. all the hosts of the Prince of Darkness, 

One Who regards us with feelings of wondrous love, 
Who is not only able, but yearning, to shield us from 
the destroyer now, and Who purposes shortly to deliver 
us altogether from the anxiety, the terror, and the 
danger, of his assaults. For although the Lord has 
not yet formally deposed the rebel, and arranged a new 
government, He does not leave the world entirely to 
♦ Eph. vi. 12. t Luke viii. 30. 


Satan's mercy. Angels of God penetrate the realms 
of air, encamp round about them that fear Him, and 
protect them from the malignant foes to whom they 
would otherwise fall an easy prey.* Nor are their 
numbers insufficient : the servant of Elisha beheld the 
mountain full of horses and chariots of fire round 
about his master.f Angels of God are appointed to 
take the charge of whole churches, as we find from the 
first three chapters of the Apocalypse. Nay, the reins 
of government are sometimes wrested even from the 
hands of Satan's most powerful princes, and a great 
kingdom is for a while ruled by an angel of God. 
This, as we found just now, was the case with the 
empire of Persia when the Lord would have the world- 
power favourable to His exiled people. J 

It might also at first seem that the elements are 
„, f ., not left altogether in the hands of the 

The motions of the o 

elements are probably rcbcls. For the VOlCC of thc angcl of 
directed by Satan. i .1 i r 

the waters sounded not like that of an 
apostate, when John heard him saying ; — " Thou art 
righteous, O Lord, Which art, and wast, and shalt be, 
because Thou hast judged thus. For they have shed 
the blood of saints and prophets, and Thou hast given 
them blood to drink ; for they are worthy.'' § These 
are indeed the words of one who has long sighed and 
groaned for the wickedness which his eyes have seen 
and at last recognises the righteous judgment that 
overtakes it. And again ; the angel " which had power 
over fire " is evidently one of thc princes of God. j| 

But since these two, as well as those whom John 
saw holding the four winds of the earth, II are only 

• Psalm xxxiv. 7. J Dan. x. 13. || Rev. xiv. 18. 

t 2 Kings vi. 17. § R(V. x\i. 5, 6. \ Rev. vii. i. 


introduced in connection with the time of the end, it 
is probable that they are the appointed successors of 
Satan's ministers, who will hereafter take possession 
of the elements to use them in the execution of the 
wrath to come. For until the Devil be deposed from 
the throne of the air, it is likely that he will exercise 
control, to a great extent at least, over atmospheric 
phenomena. In the Book of Job we find him even 
wielding the lightning : for at his bidding the fire of 
God fell from heaven, and consumed both the flocks 
and servants of the patriarch.* And when, many 
centuries afterwards, our Lord arose from His sleep 
and " rebuked " the winds and the sea,t it cannot be 
supposed that He was chiding the mere rush of the 
blast, or the senseless waves ; but rather, those malig- 
nant spirits of air and water which had combined to 
excite the storm. 

Such, then, is the picture set before us in the Word 
of God — the whole earth divided into 

General condition of . . ri-ixTi 

the world owing to the provinccs by the Prmce of this World, 

present rebellion of its j , t* 11 _ j 1 j 

spiritual rulers and the and Systematically governed and ad- 
partiai interference of ministcred undcr his direction by his 

God. •' 

viceroys with their officers and sub- 
ordinates countless in number; this organisation, perfect 
in itself, but continually disturbed by interferences from 
a mightier Power for the protection of individuals, of 
churches, and occasionally of whole nations. And the 
product of these two influences gives us the exact state 
of the world as it is at present ; a state generally 
and systematically evil and godless, but with many 
individual exceptions, and subject at times to partial 
changes on a more extensive scale, which we call 

• Job i, 16. * Matt. viii. 26. 


reformations or revivals ; a thick darkness, illumined, 
however, here and there by burning and shining lamps ; 
an arid desert, but not without its oases ; an ever- 
restless sea, on the surface of which the broad stream 
of the spirit that now worketh in the children of 
disobedience is the prominent feature, but with some 
under-currents setting in an opposite direction. 

Let us now turn to the twenty-eighth chapter of 
-,,.,. , Ezekiel, from which we may, perhaps, 

Ezekiel s prophecy ' / ' i i > 

concerning the Prince cxtract a little morc information on 

and the King of Tyrus. .» . . • i • , <t^i r . 

These titles are not to this mystcrious subjcct. The first 
be referred to the same nineteen vcrscs of the chaptcr contain a 
very remarkable but somewhat obscure 
prophecy, consisting of two distinct parts, an address 
to the Prince of Tyrus, and a lamentation upon the 
King of Tyrus. Now there can be no doubt that 
these titles refer to two persons, and are not merely 
different appellations of the same. For in the address 
to the prince there is nothing which could not be said 
to a human potentate : but the king is manifestly 
superhuman. Of the prince it is said that he will 
be slain by the hand of strangers, and the word 
translated "slain" means "thrust through" with 
sword or spear : but the king is to be devoured by 
fire, and brought to ashes upon the earth. 

With regard, therefore, to the first ten verses, there 
, ^ is no reason why we should not apply 

Interpretation of the "^ 

address to the Prince of them to the tlicn rcignlng prince of 
^^^' Tj're, whose name, as we learn from 

Josephus, was Ittiobalus. Now Tyre was built on a 
rocky island about half a mile from the mainland, and 
was strongly fortified. Hence Ittiobalus is represei:ted 
as exulting in the strength of his sea-girt city, and 


likening himself, in proud reliance upon his inaccessible 
dwelling, to the God that sitteth above the heavens : 
he is ironically told that he is wiser than Daniel, whose 
fame was evidently world-wide at the time : his pre- 
sumption is ascribed to his wisdom, his success in 
commerce, and the vast riches he had acquired. But 
because he had set his heart as the heart of the Most 
High, therefore the terrible of the nations, that is, the 
Chaldeans, should come against him ; and, when about 
to be slain by a man, he should at length discover that 
he was no god. 

Thus far the prophecy is easily intelligible ; and we 
know that a short time after its delivery Tyre was 
besieged by Nebuchadnezzar. It is curious, too, to find 
the Tyrians in later times flattering Herod by exclaim- 
ing that his voice was the voice of a god, and not of a 
man, and so bringing upon him a punishment far more 
signal than that which befell their own ancient prince.* 
But the lamentation upon the King of Tyrus f does 
The remainder of the not SO readily yield its meaning : for 

prophecy probably refers ^y^^^^ ^^^ exprCSsionS In it which CannOt 
to Antichrist. Reasons ^ 

for this supposition. bc applied to any mortal. Now to 
adopt the too common plan of explaining these away 
as mere figures of speech, is to trifle with the Word of 
God. We have no right to use so dishonest a method 
of extricating ourselves from difficulties, a method which 
enables men to deduce almost any desired meaning from 
a passage, and makes the whole Bible an enigma instead 
of a disclosure. We must rather confess, if it be 
necessary, that we have no clue whatever to an inter- 

But there is a kind of prophecy, especially frequent 

* Acts xii. 20-23. t Ezek. xxviii. 11-19. 


in the Psalms, in which the prophet, speaking first of a 
cotemporary matter, is then borne on by the Spirit to 
some stupendous event of the last times, of which the 
incident in his own days is a faint type. And if we 
apply this principle to the passage before us, we are at 
once struck, upon considering the type, by the similarity 
of the pretensions of Ittiobalus to those of Paul's Man 
of Sin, " who opposeth and exalteth himself above all 
that is called God, or that is worshipped ; so that he 
as God sitteth in the Temple of God, showing himself 
that he is God."^ Can, then, the King of Tyrus, as 
distinguished from his type the Prince, be the great 
final Antichrist ? Let us try the key, and see if the 
wards fit. 

And first ; is there any reason why Antichrist should 
be called the King of T)Te ? It would seem so. For 
Tyre is in Palestine, and in the second verse of this 
chapter is said to be " in the midst of the seas." Now 
if we turn to Daniel's prophecy of the Wilful King, we 
shall find it predicted of that destroyer, that he will 
enter into the glorious land, and plant the tabernacles 
of his palace " between the seas."f This in other 
words seems to mean that he will invade Palestine and 
fix his abode at T}-re. 

But there is a significant change in the expression 
for Tyre. In Ezekiel's address to the Prince it is said 
to be " in the midst," or, more literally, " in the heart of 
the seas," that is, surrounded on all sides by water.f 
And it is a well-known fact, that in former times, up 
to the date of Alexander's siege at least, Tyre was an 
island. But it is now a peninsula, and is, therefore, 
likely to be so in the still future days of Antichrist : 

* 2 Thess. ii. 4. t Dan. xi. 41-45. \ Ezek. xxviii. 2 


hence the expression in the original of Daniel is merely, 
" between the seas." * And so, perhaps, we may explain 
the connection of Antichrist with Tyre. 

But what shall we say of the lamentation itself ? 
For there are assertions in it which 

Some expressions in , , , - , 

the lamentation can, so could DC truc of no mortal, not even 
oni^rsa^' ""'tl of Adam. Certainly our first father 
Antichrist will be Satan ^yas in Edcn, and in tlie garden of 

incarnate. .^^ i , 

God ; but we are not told that every 
precious stone was his covering : we know not how he 
could be called the Anointed Cherub : we do not hear 
that he was upon the Holy ^Mountain of God, and w'alked 
up and down in the midst of the Stones of Fire. Indeed, 
so far as we can see, there is but one being of whom 
some of the expressions in this passage could be used, 
and that is Satan : the whole of the remainder may be 
explained of Antichrist. 

But why this strange confusion } Why should these 
two mysterious wonders be thus apostrophized as though 
the history and personality of both were merged in one 
being } It is not difficult to find an explanation. For 
it needs but little study of Scripture to learn that all 
human energry is raised and directed by spiritual in- 
fluences. Upon the children of God comes the Spirit 
of God, and they are then able to do His will. But if 
they lose their feeling of dependence upon Him, and 
gruw remiss in prayer, they are liable to be seized and 
misdirected by spirits of evil, and fearful consequences 
may ensue. So David was once moved by Satan to 
the cost of himself and his people, t though not to his. 
final ruin ; for the Devil cannot compass that even in 
the case of the weakest of God's saints. But the wicked 
* Dan. xi. 45. t i Chron. xxi. 


are altogether subject to the spirit that now worketh in 
the children of disobedience.* 

Now while evil angels and demons are doubtless 
appointed for the ordinary work of influencing man- 
kind, yet we can easily imagine that, whenever there is 
any transcendently mighty issue at stake, their great 
leader, who excels them all in wisdom and power, 
would himself undertake the more arduous labour. 
And, accordingly, at our Lord's first advent, when the 
hour of the Prince of Darkness had come, Satan him- 
self entered into Judas, and directed him to his fearful 
crime.f So when that last great master-piece of the 
Adversary shall appear, the Antichrist, whose coming, 
as Paul tells us, is after the working of Satan, | and to 
whom the Dragon shall give his power, and his throne, 
and great authority,§ it is but reasonable to suppose 
that he will be possessed and energised by the Devil in 
person. And thus he will be a compound being, partly 
human, partly superhuman ; at once the king of Tyre 
and the Anointed Cherub that covereth ; a travesty by 
Satan of the incarnation of our Lord. Hence the great 
difliculties of this prophecy vanish : the tangled web of 
the lamentation is unravelled. For it is easily intelli- 
gible if understood to be spoken sometimes to the 
human, sometimes to the Satanic part of Antichrist. 

Nor need this twofold address seem strange to us : 
for we have a similar one in connection with the very 
earliest mention of Satan in the Bible. At his first 
introduction to us we find him commencing his work 
of ruin through the medium of a serpent's body. And 
the just sentence of God, though nominally pronounced 

* Eph. ii. 2. J 2 Thess. ii. 9. 

t John xiii. 27. § Rev. xiii. 2. 


upon the serpent alone, comprises both the punishment 

of the beast energised and that of the Devil within it. 

Thus the parallelism with our passage is complete. 

With this general clue to the lamentation let us now 

_ ., , ^ , proceed to its details. The first sen- 

JJetails of the lamen- '■ 

tation. Satan's eminence tcncc sccms to apply, primarily at least, 

in wisdom and beauty. ,r-. i- -i.i i» 

to Satan, who is said to have sealed up 
the sum, being perfect in wisdom and beauty.* His 
vast empire is often alluded to in Scripture, and, as 
we have already seen, may not improbably comprehend 
the whole of our solar system. Certainly no other 
angelic power of greater or even equal dignity has been 
revealed to us. The archangel Michael himself is 
quoted by Jude as preserving towards the Prince of 
Darkness the respect due to a superior, however wicked 
he may be, until God has formally commanded his 
deposition.! If, then, he be a being of such high 
degree, he would also in God's perfect kingdom, where 
there are no anomalies as with us, excel his subordinates 
in wisdom and beauty as much as he does in rank. 
The next clause speaks of him as having been in 
He was placed in an Edcn, the garden of God.| Now Satan 
Eden, which, however, ^^^g indccd lu Adam's Eden : he did 

bore no resemblance to 

the Eden of Adam; but not, howcvcr, appear thcrc as a minister 

rather to the New Jeru- r /^ i i ^ ^ l j l • ^ 

saiem as described in of God, but as an apostatc aud malignant 

the Apocalypse. gpjj.j^. ^^^^j. f^^. ^^^^ ^^^^ ^f ^.J^g ^^^^ 

creation. Hence the Eden of this passage must have 
been of a far earlier date. Nor did it at all resemble 
the garden in which Adam was placed. For we read 
nothing of trees pleasant to the sight and good for 
food : but the prominent feature is the covering, that 
is, probably, the pavilion or palace, of Satan, which is 
* Ezek. xxviii. 12. f Jude 9. % Ezek. xxviii. 13. 


described as being made of gold and of every precious 

Yet, while this description does not in any way 
remind us of Paradise, we cannot but be struck by its 
resemblance to that of the New Jerusalem, with its 
buildings of pure gold as it were transparent glass, its 
foundations garnished with all manner of precious 
stones, its jasper wall, and its gates of pearl. And 
that city, be it remembered, seems to be the destined 
habitation of the Church of the firstborn, who will 
then be spiritual beings of a higher order, equal to the 
angels, * and, with Christ at their head, will have suc- 
ceeded to that same power which Satan and his angels 
are now so fearfully abusing.! 

The remainder of the verse should be translated ; — 
He was a mighty prince " Thc scrvicc of thy tabrcts and of thy 

from the verj' day of his . i • i i i i 

creation. pipcs was prepared with thee on the day 

when thou wast created." % Now music is one of the 
necessary attendants of royal state. In the third chapter 
of Daniel we have an enumeration of the various instru- 
ments which were to signal the time of the king's plea- 
sure :§ and in the fourteenth of Isaiah the pomp of the 
King of Babylon and the noise of his viols are said to 
be brought down to the grave with him. |! Nay, the 
blast of a trumpet accompanied the manifestation of 
God Himself upon Mount Sinai ;^ and the trump of the 
archangel will sound at the return in glory of the King 
of the whole earth. 

The meaning, then, of this clause seems to be that 
Satan was from the moment of his creation surrounded 
by the insignia of royalty : that he awoke to conscious- 

* Luke XX. 36. X Ezek. xxviii. 13. || Isa. xiv, 11. 

t Rev. V. 10. § Dan. iii. 5. % Exod. xix. 16. 


ness to find the air filled with the rejoicing music of 
those whom God had appointed to stand before him. 
In the next verse we seem to pass from the royalty 
„ , . , of Satan to his priestly dignity. * He 

He was also a priest ^ y fc> y 

of the Most High, and is Said to have been, by God's appoint- 

hLs place was at the foot- i a • i /^ i 11 1 

stool of the throne of ment, the Anomtcd Cherub that covereth. 
^°^' Anointed doubtless means consecrated 

by the oil of anointing ; while the Cherubim appear to 
be the highest rank of heavenly beings, sitting nearest 
to the throne of God, and leading the worship of the 
universe.! Possibly they are identical with the thrones 
of which Paul speaks in the first chapter of his Epistle 
to the Colossians.J The words " that co\ereth" indicate 
an allusion to the Cherubim that overshadowed the ark ; 
but we cannot, of course, define the precise nature of 
this office of Satan. The general idea seems to be that 
he directed and led the worship of his subjects. 

He is also said to have been upon the Holy Mountain 
of God, and to have walked up and down in the midst of 
the Stones of Fire.§ The Mountain of God is the place 
of His presence in visible glory, where His High Priest 
would, of course, stand before Him to minister. The 
Stones of Fire may, perhaps, be explained as follows. 
We know that the station of the Cherubim is just 
beneath the glory at the footstool of the throne. |1 Now 
when Moses took Aaron, Nadab, Abihu, and seventy of 
the elders of Israel, up the mountain of Sinai to see 
the God of Israel, "there was under His feet as it were a 
paved work of a sapphire stone, and as it were the body 
of heaven in his clearness. . . . And the sight of the 
glory of the Lord was like devouring fire upon the top 

* Ezek. xxviii. 14. \ Col. i. 16. |i Ezek. i. 26. 

t Rev. iv. 9, 10; V. 11-14. § Ezek. xxviii. 14. 


of the mount."* This paved work of sapphire glowing 
with devouring fire, is, perhaps, the same as the Stones 
of Fire : and if so, Satan's presence in the midst of 
them would indicate his enjoyment of the full Cherubic 
privilege of nearness to the throne of God. 

The next verse shows that God is not the Author of 
At his creation Satan evil.t For evett thc Prince of Darkness 

was perfect in all his . r • 11 i 

vays. was Dv crcation perfect m all his ways, 

ai:d so continued, until iniquity was found in him and 
he .^ell. 

Ti\at which follows is more difficult. " By the mul- 
interpmation of the titudc of thy merchandise they have filled 

words " by the multitude . , . , . , . ■ 

of thy merchandise." thc midst of thcc With violcncc, and thou 
hast sinned : therefore I will cast thee as profane out of 
the Mountain of God : and I will destroy thee, O cover- 
ing Cherub, out of the midst of the Stones of Fire."t 

The first clause of this verse may refer solely to the 
human aspect of Antichrist : for there are prophetic in- 
timations that commerce will be a prominent feature 
in the perilous times of the end.§ In the past history 
of the world we have many instances of its demoralising 
effects upon nations wholly given to it, of the luxury, 
fraud, and violence, which ever seem to develop with its 

Nevertheless, the clause may apply to Satan in 
„ , , some mysterious way which we cannot 

Proposed new render- J ^ 

ing, and more probable yet explain \ for we are Only able to 

interpretation. . 1 1 • 1 • /- 1 

discern the dimmest outlines of these 
spiritual matters. Certainly such an application seems 
to be required by the context, and if the authorised 
version seems obscure, an admissible change in the 

• Exod. xxiv. 10, 17. \ Ezek. xx\-iii, i6. 

t Ezek. xxviii. 15. § Rev. xviii. n-19. 


rendering will suggest a very suitable interpretation. 
For the word translated "merchandise" may also (as 
an investigation of the root will show) * signify " de- 
traction " or " slander " ; and we know that the very 
name "Devil" means the "slanderer," or "malignant 

Now that Satan does carry to God slanderous reports 
of the actions and motives of men we learn from the 
Book of Job. And the life of the same patriarch also 
supplies us with an instance of the cruel violence 
which seems to follow these accusations so invariably 
that the whole princedom of Satan has become a realm 
of injustice, in which the servants of God suffer afflic- 
tion, while the wicked, as a rule, flourish. For the 
present the Lord permits this state of things, because 
His own children need the furnace to purge away their 
dross ; but hereafter he will assuredly require all 
their sorrows and all their tears at the hands of their 
malignant persecutor. 

From the twelfth chapter of the Apocalypse we learn 
that He will at length put an end to the slanders of 
Satan by sending Michael to drive him down from his 
throne on high, and expel him altogether from the 
heavenly places. And at the instant of his fall from 
his aerial dominions a loud voice is heard saying 
in heaven ; — " Now is come the salvation, and the 
strength, and the Kingdom of our God, and the authority 
of His Christ: for the accuser of our brethren is cast down 
which accused them before our God day and night." f 

* ^T^ to go about — (i) in order to traffic, (2) for the purpose of 
slandering. Hence Vdt a merchant, and Vsn slander, n^l, the word 
used by Ezekiel, might, therefore, incline to either meaning. 

t Rev. .\ii. 10. 


This expulsion is probably identical with the one 
mentioned in our text. For, if we adopt the rendering 
" slander," or " maglignant accusation," the cause as- 
signed for the casting out in Ezekiel exactly corresponds 
to the proclaimed result of it in the Apocalypse. 

The next verse presents no difficulty.* For that 
Satan fell through the heart of Satan was lifted up because 
'"'"^*' of his beauty, and that he corrupted 

his wisdom by reason of his brightness, we may infer 
especially from Paul's warning ; — " Not a novice, lest 
being lifted up with pride he fall into the condemna- 
tion of the Devil." "j" 

Pride in his own superiority seems to have prompted 
this wondrous being to turn to Himself that worship 
which it was his office to direct to his Almighty 
Creator. But already the ruin of God has fallen upon 
his realm : he finds his power checked and cut short 
by angels who are irresistible because they come in 
the strength of the Most High : he sees, perchance, 
the gathering armies of Michael preparing for the fatal 
onslaught which will drive him from heaven : and 
knows that they will be quickly followed by the Son 
of God, Who will hurl his blasted and helpless form 
from his last stronghold upon earth into the depths of 
the abyss. Then will he at length both feel and 
exhibit in his own person to the whole universe the 
ineffable distance between the loftiest wisest and fairest 
of created beings and the great and ever blessed 
Creator, Who alone is worthy to receive glory and 
honour and power. 

With the latter part of the prophecy, referring as it 
does to the joint downfall of Satan and Antichrist, we 

• Ezek. xxviii. 17. + i Tim. iii. 6. 


have at present no concern, since we are just now 
occupied not with the future, but with the past. 

It, therefore, only remains to put together the 

Summary of the his- information which, if our interpretation 

tory which appears to ]^^ correct, this passajTC contains. The 

be conumed in the ' '■ ° 

lamentation. outHne will be somcwhat as follows. 

God created Satan the fairest and wisest of all His 
creatures in this part of His universe, and made him 
Prince of the World and of the Power of the Air. 
Since his wisdom would be chiefly used in expounding 
the will and ways of God, we can probably discern in 
its mention his office of prophet. He was placed in 
an Eden, or region of delight, which was both far 
anterior to the Eden of Genesis — for he was perfect 
in all his ways when he entered it — and also, apparently, 
of an altogether different and more substantial character, 
resembling the New Jerusalem as described in the 

In the scanty account given to us of this Eden we 
may, perhaps, trace the lineaments of the heavenly 
Tabernacle. For, from the second chapter of Genesis, 
we find that Eden was a district, and the garden an 
enclosure within it.* Following this analogy we dis- 
cover in Satan's habitation three enclosures, Eden, the 
Garden of God, and the Holy Mountain of God, 
corresponding, possibly, to the Outer Court of the 
Tabernacle, the Holy Place, and the Holy of Holies, 
respectively. And this idea is strengthened by the 
fact that Satan is said to have been upon the Holy 
Mountain of God as the Anointed Cherub that 
covereth ; just as the images of the covering Cherubim 
were placed in the Holy of Holies. 
• Gen. ii. 8. 


He, therefore, appears to have been the great High 
Priest of his realm, dwelHng in a splendid palace of 
gold and precious stones near to the place of God's 
presence ; just as the Israelitish High Priest resided 
at Jerusalem in the vicinity of the temple. 

He was also its King, having been placed upon 
this summit of honour at his creation, and not sub- 
sequently raised to it from a lower rank. Finally ; 
he was perfect in all his ways, and apparently con- 
tinued so for a length of time. 

Now all this evidently took place before his fall and 
the preparation of the present world. And so we can 
only conclude that he is closely connected with our 
earth, and that a large portion of his history extends 
back into times far anterior to those of Adam. 

Now the analogy between Satan's office and that 
which our Lord has already taken upon 

It thus appears that tt- ir* i i -iii i 

Satan was appointed Himsclt m part, and will shortly exer- 
prophet priest and ^ise in full, is SO Striking that it is not 

King, of the world : but " 

he proved himself a easy to avoid the following inference. 

rebel Therefore the ,_, ~ , ^ ^ • -y • \ ri~ 

Lord Jesus came forth 1 hat batatt abuscd his high office of 
tTJ^l^t::tZ P'-ophet, priest, and king, and thus in- 
nities, and restore the volved the wholc of his orovincc in sin. 

confusion. ^ ' 

and the earthly part of it, at least, in a 
ruin to which allusion is made in tlie second verse of 
Genesis. That, when his return to obedience had 
been proved an impossibility — perhaps by his conduct 
towards the new creation, which may have been in- 
tended to give him an opportunity of repentance — and 
when no other created being could be found able to 
restore the confusion, the Lord Jesus Himself came 
forth from the Godhead, to take the misused power 
into His own hands, and to hold it until the rebel- 



lion be altogether suppressed, and every trace of it 

The offices of prophet and priest He is already 
exercising, but not that of king. For had He at once 
assumed the sceptre, the result would have been utter 
destruction to all living ; since all have sinned, and 
whatsoever is sinful must be cast out of His kingdom 
into unquenchable fire. It was, therefore, necessary 
first to put away the iniquity of those who should be 
saved. This He came into the world to do by the 
sacrifice of Himself : and now, having given us instruc- 
tions as to our conduct during His absence, and many 
exhortations to be ever watching for His return, He 
has departed with the blood into the heavenly Holy of 
Holies, there to appear in the presence of God for us. 
This done. He will come to earth a second time, to 
wrest the power from the hands of Satan, and, after 
destroying that which cannot be healed, bring back the 
residue of creation to purity and order. 

Seeing, then, that the government which Christ will 
Hence from the pro- shortly takc upon His shouldcrs appears 

phecies of the times of . , .» ■ ■, . . < •,^ ,^ , i • i 

restitution we may con- to be exactly idcutical With that which 
jecture the nature of ^^g q^^,^ Committed to Satan, and that 

Satan s preadamite king- ' 

dom. God's first arrangements were of neces- 

sity perfection, does it not seern likely that, when the 
times of restitution arrive, the original order of things, 
will begin to be restored in Christ's Millennial kingdom I 
If so, we can easily discover the outline of Satan's 
preadamite world. For in the Millennium, Christ and 
His Church, the members of which will then have been 
made like unto Himself, are to reign in the heavenly 
places over earth and its inhabitants. So, probably 
in remote ages, before the first whisper of rebellion 


against God, Satan, as the great governing head and 
the viceroy of the Almighty, assisted by glorious beings 
of his own nature, ruled over the sinless dwellers upon 
earth. At the same time he directed the worship of his 
subjects, and expounded to them the oracles of the 
all-wise Creator. 

But his weight of glory was more than he could bear: 
pride lifted up his heart, and he fell from his obedience. 
Then, doubtless, corruption appeared among his angels, 
and so descended to those who were in the flesh. How 
long God bore with this ; what warnings and opportu- 
nities He gave ; whether any availed themselves of His 
mercy, and are now holy angels who from time to time 
revisit the place of their ancient habitation — all such 
questions as these we can only answer by conjecture 
from the analogy of our own race. But the fact that 
we can ask them shows how rightly all our vaunted 
wisdom in this life is said to be at best but a knowledge 
in part, and how wonderful a supplement may, in the 
World to Come, be added to our present scanty informa- 
tion even in regard to the history of our own planet. 

We are, however, apparently able to discern in the 
_, . AC New Testament clear traces of the two 

The two orders of 

Satan's subjects may be orders of Satau's subjccts, the Spiritual, 

traced in the New Testa- , , , • i n i t-> 

ment. Use and meaning and thOSC WllO WCrC m the flCSh. T Of 
of the name Devil. ^j^^^.^ ^^^ ^j^^.^^ distinctivO tCrmS applied 

to the dwellers in the Kingdom of Darkness. 

The first is 6 Sta^SoXog, the Devil, a word which in this 
sense is never used in the plural, and is always a desig- 
nation of Satan himself. Its literal meaning is " the 
one who sets at variance," " the slanderer," or " malig- 
nant accuser." And how apt a name is this for him who 
began to slander God to man when he corrupted our 


first parents, and has since continued to do so by the 
stream of hard thoughts and evil suggestions Avliich he 
is ceaselessly pouring into human hearts ! Nor does 
he stop at this : for in giving in his reports of the in- 
habitants of earth he also slanders man to God. So we 
find him declaring that self-interest was the sole motive 
of Job's righteousness : * so we hear him desiring to have 
Peter that he may sift him as wheat : f so we read that 
he accuses ourselves and our brethren before our God 
day and night. | The name Devil is, then, applied to 
Satan alone : for he appears to be the only evil power 
who reports the actions of men directly to God. 

In the second place we find mention of the angels of 

The angels of the Satan,§ who are doubtless the spiritual 
^'="'- intelligences which God appointed to 

assist him in his government, and who chose to follow 
him into sin. These probably constitute the princi- 
palities, powers, and world-rulers of this darkness. || 
But another class of Satan's subjects is much more 

^^ ^ ^. ^ frequently brought before us, that of the 

Ihe demons, which cv , 

are not angels, but dis- OaifJLOVLa, OT dcmOnS ; and great con- 
embodied spirits. r • • • . -I 1 • / -1 

fusion IS mtroduced into our version by 
the erroneous translation "devils." H We may, however, 
in some measure avoid this confusion by remembering 
that the proper word for Devil has, as we have just 
said, no plural, and is only applied to Satan himself. 
Whenever, therefore, we meet the plural in the English 
Testament, we may be sure that the Greek is Sai/xwta, 
which ought to be rendered " demons." 

• Job i. 9-11. t Luke xxii. 31. J Rev. xii. 10. 

§ Matt. XXV. 41. 11 Eph. vi. 12. 

•| This mistake has been most unaccountably confirmed in the 
Revised Version, notwithstanding the protest of the American 


Now these demons are the same as evil and unclean 
spirits, as we may see by the following passages. " When 
the even was come they brought unto Him many that 
were possessed with demons ; and He cast out the 
spirits with His word."* Again, in Luke's Gospel, we 
read ; — " And the seventy returned again with joy, 
saying, Lord, even the demons are subject unto us 
through Thy name." To which the Lord responds ; — 
" Notwithstanding in this rejoice not, that the spirits 
are subject unto you.""}" So in Matthew's account of 
the lunatic boy, the demon is said to come forth from 
him ; J but in Mark's Gospel this same demon is called 
3. foul spirit, and also a deaf and dumb spirit.^ And 
Luke gives us a list of "Certain women which had been 
healed of evil spirits and infirmities," of whom the first 
mentioned is "Mary called Magdalene, out of whom went 
seven demons.^ Demons and evil spirits are, therefore, 
synonymous terms. 

But they must be carefully distinguished from angels, 
bad as well as good. For angels are not mere disem- 
bodied spirits, but — as we may learn from our Lord's 
declaration that the children of the resurrection shall be 
equal to the angels — are clothed with spiritual bodies, 
such as are promised to us^ if we "shall be accounted 
worthy to obtain that age and the resurrection from the 

This distinction was clearly understood by the Jews : 
for in the Acts of the Apostles we read that the 

• Matt. viii. 16. t Luke x. 17, 20. % Matt. xvii. 18. 

§ Mark ix. 25. 1| Luke viii. 2, t,. 

*|[ Compare Phil. iii. 21, and Luke xxiv. 39. 
** Luke XX. 35. We must carefully distinguish between the 
resurrection from, or rather, out of (e'/c), the dead and the resur- 
rection of the dead. The latter is, of course, the final uprising, 
when all who are at the time in their graves shall hear the voice 


Pharisees cried out concerning Paul ; — " We find no 
evil in this man : but if a spirit or an angel hath spoken 
to him, let us not fight against God."* And in the 
preceding verse we are told of their opponents, the 
Sadducees, that they denied the existence of angels 
and spirits. 

What then is the meaning of the term " demon " } 
The ciassica4 meaning I^lato derivcs it from Saijixoiu, an ad- 
of the term " demon." jective formcd from Sao), and signifying 
" knowing," " intelligent " ; most modern scholars refer 
it to Sai&r, to divide, as though it meant a divider or 
distributor of destiny. We incline to Plato's opinion, 
which makes the word point to the superior knowledge 
believed to be possessed by disembodied spirits. 

Its classical use is as follows. By Homer it is applied 
to the gods ; but we must remember that Homer's 
gods are merely supernatural men. It was after- 
wards used of a sort of intermediate and inferior 
divinity. "The deity," says Plato, "has no intercourse 
with man ; but all the intercourse and conversation 
between gods and men is carried on by the mediation 
of demons." And he further explains that " the demon 
is an interpreter and carrier, from men to gods and 
from gods to men, of the prayers and sacrifices of the 
one, and of the injunctions and rewards of sacrifices 
from the other." 

If we inquire whence these demons came, we shall 
be told that they are the spirits of men of the golden 
age acting as tutelary deities — canonized heroes, pre- 

of the Son of man, and shall come forth ; the former expression 
refers to the calling of a privileged few out from the great com- 
pany of the dead, and is applied only to the resurrection of Christ, 
or to the first resurrection of Rev. xx. 4-6. See Acts iii. 15 ; 
Luke XX. 35 ; Phil. iii. 11. * Acts xxiii. 9. 


cisely similar both in their origin and functions to the 
Romish saints. In Hesiod's curious description of the 
ages of the human race we find the following account.* 

" First of all the immortals, who possess the mansions 
of Olympus, made a golden race of articulate-speaking 
men. These lived in the time of Cronos, when he 
ruled in heaven. Like gods they spent their lives, with 
hearts void of care, apart and altogether free from toils 
and trouble. Nor did miserable old age threaten them : 
but ever alike strong in hands and feet they rejoiced in 
festal pleasures far from the reach of all ills. And they 
died as if overcome by sleep. All blessings were theirs. 
And spontaneously the fruitful soil would bear crops 
great and abundant. And so they occupied their cul- 
tivated lands in tranquillity and peace with many goods, 
being rich in flocks and dear to the blessed gods. But 
after that earth had covered this generation, they indeed 
by the counsels of mighty Zeus became demons, kindly 
ones, haunting the earth, being guardians of mortal 
men. These I ween, shrouded in mist, and going to 
and fro everywhere upon the earth, watch both the 
decisions of justice and harsh deeds, and are dispensers 
of riches. Such a royal prerogative is theirs." 

Now if we remember that according to Bible teaching 
the Heathen gods were really evil angels and demons 
who inspired oracles and received worship, we shall 
easily understand that the golden age of which ancient 
bards so rapturously sang was no reminiscence of 
Paradise, but of the times of that former world when 
Satan's power was still intact. A change in the 
heavenly dynasty, the expulsion of Cronos or Saturn, 
is always mentioned as having brought to a close this 
• "Works and Days," 109-126. 


age of unminglcd joy. Nor need we be startled at the 
good influence attributed by Hesiod to demons. For 
in a Heathen poem we can only expect to learn what 
the Prince of this World may choose to say, and have 
no cause for wonder if he commend his own agents. 
Such, then, are the demons of the classical writers. 
Theinddentsrecorded ^or docs thcrc appear to be any reason 
by inspired writers seem for changing thc meaning of the term 

to identify the New . ° 

Testament meaning with in tlic Ncw Tcstamcnt. For may not 
'^*^^' * these demons be the spirits of those 

who trod this earth in the flesh before the ruin de- 
scribed in the second verse of Genesis, and who, at the 
time of that great destruction, were disembodied by 
God, and left still under the power, and ultimately to 
share the f^te, of the leader in whose sin they ac- 
quiesced .'• Certainly one oft recorded fact seems to 
confirm such a theory : for we read that the demons 
are continually seizing upon the bodies of men, and 
endeavouring to use them as their own. And may not 
this propensity indicate a wearisome lack of ease, a 
wandering unrest, arising from a sense of incomplete- 
ness ; a longing to escape the intolerable condition of 
being unclothed — for which they were not created — so 
intense that, if they can satisfy its cravings in no other 
way, they will even enter into the filthy bodies of 
swine .-' * 

We find no such propensity on the part of Satan 
and his angels. They, doubtless, still retain their 
ethereal bodies — for otherwise how could they carry 
on their conflicts with the angels of God .•' — and would 
be likely to regard with high disdain the gross and 
unwieldy tabernacles of men. They may, indeed, 
* Matt. viii. 31. 


possibly enter human frames ; not, however, from in- 
chnation, but only because such a course is absolutely 
necessary for the furtherance of some great conspiracy 
of evil. 

Thus in the New Testament the spiritual subjects 
We may also distin- of Satan arc plainly divided into two 

guish the two classes of ^-j^gggg ^^^ would it be difficult tO 

batan s subjects in the ' 

Old Testament. prove a similar distinction in the Old. 

Such angels as the princes of Persia and Grecia, of 
which we have already spoken, would of course belong 
to the first order ; while the familiar spirits, and pro- 
bably also the SJicdivi, Seirint, Lilith, Tsiini, and ///;/, 
would be identical wdth the demons. 

But here a question naturally arises. Why, if a 

The absence of human Preadamite racc really existed upon 

remains in the geological earth in the flesh, do we not find some 

strata is no proof of the 

non-existence of pre- indications of it amoug the fossil remains .'' 

adamite men. /— , • i i i i i 

Certainly no human bones have been 
as yet detected in primeval rocks ; though if any should 
be hereafter discovered, we need find no contradiction 
to Scripture in the fact. 

But the absence in the fossiliferous strata of any 
vestige of preadamite man is no real obstacle to the 
view we have taken. For we are totally unacquainted 
with the conditions of life in that pristine world, which 
may not have been, and indeed probably were not, the 
same as in our own. For Adam was created after, and 
apparently, as we shall presently see, in full view of a 
previous failure. Hence it may be that death did not 
touch those primeval men until the final destruction, 
and that the decaying and dying state of the animal 
and vegetable kingdoms was a warning ever before 
their eyes of the wrath that would at length reach 


their own persons except they repented. It may be 
that their bodies were resolved into primal elements, 
leaving the spirit naked, instead of the spirit departing 
and giving up the body to decay as with us. It may 
be that they were smitten with some consuming plague 
of the Lord which changed their comely forms into 
indistinguishable masses of corruption,* or reduced 
them in a moment to ashes upon the earth. f It may 
be that the earth opened her mouth, and swallowed 
them up, with all that appertained to them, so that 
they went down alive into the pit. J It may be that 
they all perished in what is now to us the deep, and 
that their remains are covered by the deposit at the 
bottom of ocean. Evidently our habitable land was 
once the floor of the sea, theirs may be now. 

Indeed we may find hints which perhaps add some 

Either the de th of ^ittlc Confirmation to the last conjecture, 

the sea, or a place of and tcnd to link thcse disembodied 

confinement immediately . . i • i 

below it, appears to be spirits With the locality which may 

a prison of demons. ^^^^ ^^^^ ^j^^ ^^^^^ ^^ ^j^^j^. ^^^^ j^^ 

the flesh, and of the just punishment by which they 
were finally overtaken. At least there is a prison 
mentioned in Scripture, which is either in the depths 
of the sea or is connected with them, and in which 
we may with probability infer that many demons are 
already confined, while fresh captives are from time 
to time placed under the same restraint whenever an 
outrage of more than ordinary daring calls forth the 
righteous indignation of God, and causes Him to bring 
the mischievous career of its perpetrators to a sudden 
and final close. 

* Zech. xiv. 12. t Ezek. xxviii. 18; Mai. iv. 3. 

X Numb. xvi. 30. 


Certainly the knowledge of some such fact seems to 
have terrified the legion of spirits from which our Lord 
delivered the Gadarene ; or, otherwise, what meaning 
can we assign to their agonizing entreaty that He 
would not command them to depart into the Abyss ?* 
In Matthew's account their words are different, and 
they fear lest they should be tormented before the 
time.f But the latter expression probably conveys 
the same idea as the former ; and we are thus made 
to understand that at a certain fixed, and to them 
well known, time all the demons who are still at liberty 
will be cast into the same prison. It is called " the 
Abyss" ;| and in some passages, such as the ninth 
chapter of the Apocalypse, this term is evidently applied 
to a fiery hollow in the centre of the earth : but it is 
also used for the depths of the sea, a meaning which 
accords well with its derivation. For instance, in the 
Septuagint version it is the deep over which darkness 
was brooding before the Six Days, and also the great 
deep, the fountains of which were broken up to inundate 
the earth. The connection may be merely the idea of 
depth in both significations : but it seems not unlikely 
that the Abyss in the centre of the earth was so called 
from the fact that the compartment which forms it lies 
immediately beneath, and is entered through, the deep 
sea by which it is probably secured. 

Hence perhaps the reason why, after the last judg- 
ment, when all the prisoners of the Abyss will have 

• Luke viii. 31 t Matt. viii. 29. 

X a^vaaros is usually derived from a privative and ^va-aos — akin 
to ^vdos, l3(v6os, ^a6vs — "depth," and especially the deep waters 
of the sea. But this would make it mean " the depthless," " the 
shallow," rather than " the bottomless." It is better, then, to 
derive it from a intensive and [iiicra-ot, in which case it will signify 
" the great deep," "the abyss." 


been cast into the lake of fire and brimstone, there will 
be no more sea in the renovated earth. 

And regarding the sea as the bar of the pit, or 
Possible meaning of assuming that the Abyss may some- 
lea gTe%";hf did times be called the sea, just as the 
which were in it." dccp sea is Called the Abyss, we seem 

to be helped to the exposition of a passage which has 
not hitherto received an adequate interpretation. In 
the account of the last great judgment we read ; — "And 
the sea gave up the dead which were in it ; and Death 
and Hades" — that is, "the unseen world"; for the trans- 
lation "Hell" is incorrect — "delivered up the dead which 
were in them ; and they were judged every man accord- 
ing to their works." * Now the sea is commonly sup- 
posed to be mentioned as giving up the bodily germs 
of those who have been drowned or buried in it. But 
if the meaning goes no further than that, why do we 
not also hear of earth giving up the far more numerous 
dead which lie beneath its sods .'' Instead, however, of 
sea being coupled with land, we find it mysteriously 
connected with Death and the unseen world : that is, 
it is mentioned in a list of places filled, not with the 
remains of material forms, but with disembodied spirits. 
This is certainly a fatal objection to the common 
interpretation : but if the sea be the prison of demons, 
all difficulties vanish, and in that case we can well 
understand why it is \hQ: first to give up its dead. For 
every one will be judged in his order, and, therefore, 
these preadamite beings will have an awful precedence 
of the prisoners of Death and Hades, whose innumerable 
cells are, perhaps, filled exclusively with criminals from 

our present world. 

* Rev. XX. 13. 


But we must now pass on from this stupendous 
Conclusion and prac- subject : for cnough has been said to 
ticai application. exhibit the hints of Scripture in regard 

to former ages and the preadamite destruction. And 
since that which is set before us is but a shadowy form, 
we must not persuade ourselves that we see a sharply 
defined outline. To be wise above that which is written 
is to entangle oneself in a net of Satan from which it is 
all but impossible to escape. 

Let us not, however, fail to learn one lesson from the 
wondrous things we have been contemplating. Rebellion 
is ruin, no matter how noble, or wise, or fair, its leader 
may be. For even Lucifer, the bright son of the 
morning, the loftiest of the angels of God, has fallen 
low from his high estate, and ere long, shorn of all his 
wisdom, and might, and beauty, will be plunged into 
the perpetual night of the Abyss. There is but one 
attitude natural or possible for a created being, and 
that is entire submission and unreserved obedience to 
the will of Him Who created and sustains him. 

Let the proud of the earth consider this, those who 
madly turn against God the very abilities and advan- 
tages which they owe to His bounty, those wilful ones 
who walk defiantly in the ways of their own heart. But 
if any deny the law, destruction must follow, or the 
whole universe would soon be disintegrating in anarchy. 
For the sake of the remainder of His creation the mercy 
of God is restricted to a fixed limit ; and except the 
rebel repent in time, deprived of all that lifted up his 
heart, and blasted by the thunderbolts of the Omnipo- 
tent, he must sink into the horrible silence of the ever- 
lasting darkness.* 

• I Sam. ii. 9. 




We must now return to the ruined earth, the con- 
dition of which we can only conjecture 

The destruction of - , . - 

the preadamite world from what wc arc told of the SIX days 
cauTed 'by tremendous of rcstoratiou. Violent convulsions 
convulsions, and also by j^yg^. j^^^g taken place uDon It, for it 

a glacial period con- ^ i i ' 

sequent on the extinc- was inuudatcd with the occan waters : 

tion of the sun. . 111 . • • 1 1 ^i 

Its sun had been extinguished : the 
stars were no longer seen above it : its clouds and 
atmosphere, having no attractive force to keep them 
in suspension, had descended in moisture upon its 
surface : there was not a living being to be found in 
the whole planet.* 

Now the withdrawal of the sun's influence had pro- 
bably occasioned that glacial period the vestiges of 
which, as geologists tell us, are plainly distinguishable 
at the close of the Tertiary Age. And the same cause 
will also account for the mingling of the waters that 
were above the firmament with those that were below 
it. Both effects are well illustrated by the following 
extract from one of Herschel's " Familiar Lectures on 
Scientific Subjects." 

" In three days from the extinction of the sun there 

* Gen. ii. 5. 


would, in all probability, not be a vestige of animal or 
vegetable life on the globe ; unless it were among deep- 
S2a fishes and the subterranean inhabitants of the great 
limestone caves. The first forty-eight hours would 
suffice to precipitate every atom of moisture from the 
air in deluges of rain and piles of snow, and from that 
moment would set in a universal frost such as Siberia 
or the highest peak of the Himalayas never felt — a 
temperature of between two and three hundred degrees 
below the zero of our thermometers. . . . No animal 
or vegetable could resist such a frost for an hour, any 
more than it could live for an hour in boiling water." 

From this description we may form some idea of the 
ruin which befell the preadamite world. Of its main 
features there is a graphic portrayal in a grand passage 
of Job, in which the folly of contending with God is 
enforced by an obvious reference to Satan's rebellion 
and its consequences. 

•'The Wise in heart and Mighty in strength, 
Who hath defied Him, and remained unhurt } 
Who displaceth mountains, and they know not 
That He has overturned them in His wrath ; 
Who maketh the earth to tremble out of her place, 
So that her pillars rock to and fro ; 
Who commandeth the sun, and it riseth not. 
And sealeth up the stars." 

The terrific convulsions by which the earth was 
shattered and destroyed are almost placed before our 
eyes in this sublime description ; while the suddenness 
of the catastrophe is vividly presented by the poetic 
conception that the mountains were overturned before 
they were aware of it. The extinction of the sun is 


plainly indicated, and also the veiling of the stars, so 
that the thick darkness was relieved not even by their 
scanty lights,* 

How long the glacial period continued it is impos- 
sible even to conjecture ; but in the scene which the 
second verse of Genesis places before us we must suppose 
the ice to have broken up — perhaps through some 
development of the earth's internal heatj which in its 

* Job ix. 4-7. In the following verses (8-10) the patriarch 
alludes to the reconstruction of the Six Days. 

" Who Alone spreadeth out the heavens, 
And treadeth upon the heights of the sea ; 
Who maketh the Bear, Orion, and the Pleiades, 
And the chambers of the South ; 
Who doeth great things past finding out, 
And marvellous things without number." 

Here, since the spreading out of the heavens evidently refers to 
the work of the Second Day, it may be that "the heights of the 
sea" are the waters above the firmament. The mention of the 
constellations points to the reversal of God's previous action in 
sealing up the stars. In regard to the meaning of the Hebrew 
word asak — rendered " maketh " — see p. 23, and also the com- 
ment upon the work of the Fourth Day in this chapter. 

t This conjecture may derive a little support from the following 

The heat increases as we descend into the earth, and hence 
many scientific men have held that the interior of our globe is a 
reservoir of liquid fire. With this opinion the Scriptures are in 
accord : for, in Rev. ix. 2, when the well or shaft of the Abyss is 
opened, a smoke, like the smoke of a furnace, pours forth so 
copiously that the sun and air are darkened by it. Such a de- 
scription inclines us also to prefer the translation of 2 Peter iii. 7, 
which makes the Apostle speak of the earth as "stored with fire." 
And perhaps the context of the expression suggests that, just as 
God broke up the fountains of the great deep to cause the Deluge, 
so will He command His stored fires to burst through the crust of 
the earth for its future destruction. A heat will then be developed 
so intense as to fuse the very elements, or materials of which the 
crust is composed. Nor will this be a new thing : the condition 
of the non-fossiliferous strata seems to point to the occurrence of 
a similar catastrophe in former ages. 

May we not then conceive some development of these internal 


convulsive struggles may also have displaced the bed 
of ocean. Thus the whole globe was covered with 
water, on the surface of which the Spirit of God was 
already brooding. 

Then, startling the deep silence, and pealing over the 
_ , black floods of ruin, was heard the 

The First Day of re- . . , ai • i 

storation. God creates thuudcr of the voicc of the Almighty, 
howeve7, "spring from ^ud thc commaud went forth " Light 
thesun;'but wa-s, pos- be" Instantly it flashed from the 

sibly, magnetic, like the •' 

terrestrial light of tie womb of darkucss, and illumined the 

Aurora Borealis. ■ , . , , , , , , , 

rolling globe ; but only to reveal an 
overspreading waste of waters. 

This " light " of the First Day must be carefully dis- 
tinguished from the " light-holders " of the Fourth, 
since the word used conveys in itself no idea of con- 
centration or locality. Nevertheless the light must 
have been confined to one side of the planet, for we 
are told that God at once divided between the light 
and the darkness, and that the alternation of day and 
night immediately commenced. 

In past times infidels have scoffed at the idea of 
light being called into existence independently of the 
sun. And certainly it does seem difficult to conceive 
that Moses could have anticipated science by so many 
centuries except upon the one supposition that he was 
instructed by the Spirit of God, Who is not circum- 
scribed by the limits of human knowledge. But now 
science also has discovered that the sun is not the only 

fires, comparatively slight, but sufficient to melt the ice with 
which the earth was covered ? In some localities of volcanic 
Italy the soil is found to be quite warm ; and a short time ago 
the newspapers were giving accounts of a tract of land in Germany 
which had become so heated by subterranean fire that tropical 
plants were growing upon it. 


source of light ; but that the earth itself, and at least 
one other planet in our system, may under certain con- 
ditions become self-luminous. 

The light of the first day may, possibly, have been 
magnetic, like the Aurora Borealis, which seems to be 
powerful only when the sun is weak ; for its most 
brilliant displays are restricted to the long nights of the 
cold north. In more southern climes its appearance 
is rare, and its development comparatively incomplete : 
but it is more frequent and vivid at those periods, 
recurring every eleventh year, when the spots on the 
sun are larger and more numerous, and the solar power 
is consequently diminished. It would thus almost seem 
that the sun absorbs this light and afterwards diffuses 
it in a modified form. On the purely terrestrial origin 
of the Aurora Borealis Humboldt makes the following 
interesting remarks : — 

" This phenomenon derives the greater part of its 
importance from the fact that the earth becomes self- 
luminous, and that as a planet, besides the light which 
it receives from the central body, the sun, it shows 
itself capable in itself of developing light. The in- 
tensity of the terrestrial light, or rather the luminosity 
which is diffused, exceeds, in cases of the brightest 
coloured radiation towards the zenith, the light of the 
moon in its first quarter. Occasionally, as on the 
7th of January, 1831, printed characters could be read 
without difficulty. This almost uninterrupted develop- 
ment of light in the earth leads us by analogy to the 
remarkable process exhibited in Venus. The portion 
of this planet which is not illumined by the sun often 
shines with a phosi)horescent light of its own. It is 
not improbable that the moon, Jupiter, and the comets, 


shine Avith an independent light, besides the reflected 
solar light visible through the polariscope. Without 
speaking of the problematical but yet ordinary mode 
in which the sky is illuminated, when a low cloud may 
be seen to shine with an uninterrupted flickering light 
for many minutes together, we still meet with other 
instances of terrestrial development of light in our 
atmosphere. In this category we may reckon the 
celebrated luminous mists seen in 1783 and 1831; 
the steady luminous appearance exhibited without any 
flickering in great clouds observed by Rozier and 
Beccaria ; and lastly, as Arago well remarks, the faint 
diffused light which guides the steps of the traveller in 
cloudy, starless, and moonless nights in autumn and 
winter, even when there is no snow on the ground." 
The fact, then, that, at a time when terrestrial 
luminosity was probably unknown, 

The record of the , r , i • ^ r i • i ^ 

existence of light apart Moscs spoke of thc existcncc of light 
IfThfDwL^rijro^vithout the sun, is a strong proof of 
the Scriptures. Memor- ^j^g Divine source of his knowlcdge. 

able anticipation of -nM 1 • • c 

science in the book of For though the Bible gives no mior- 
•'°^' mation by which science is likely to be 

advanced, yet it does here and there drop mysterious 
utterances, the truth of one after another of which is 
discovered as scientific men become better acquainted 
with the laws of the universe. 

Perhaps the most memorable instance of this is the 
familiar passage in which God demands of the patriarch, 
" Canst thou bind the sweet influences of Pleiades } " * 
Through the long lapse of centuries since the writing 
of the Book of Job, which probably dates back into 
the past as far as three thousand three hundred years, 

• Job xxxviii. 31. 


no adequate sense was found for these words. But 
now a meaning seems to be assuming shape, and 
gradually becoming more defined and vivid, a meaning 
worthy of the great God Whose lips first uttered the 
mysterious sentence. For in 1748 the astronomer 
Bradley gave a hint, which others have subsequently de- 
veloped and confirmed, that our solar system, together 
with the whole of the sidereal heavens within range of 
our vision and telescopes, is but a portion of an incon- 
ceivably vast circle of stars revolving around one centre. 
And that centre, the pivot of the universe, is now 
supposed to be among the Pleiades. If this be the 
case, wonderful indeed are " the sweet influences of 
Pleiades " which keep the whole of the starry heavens 
in orderly motion. 

We are next told that God called the light day and 
The Six Days were the darkness night, and that the even- 
not ages, but literal ' ^^^ ^.j^^ momiug werc the First Day. 

days of twenty-four o t> J 

hours. Now in order to verify certain systems 

of interpretation attempts have been made to show that 
in this chapter a day must be understood to signify an 

And doubtless the word " day " is sometimes used 
of prolonged periods, as in the expression " the day of 
temptation in the wilderness," and many others. But 
whenever a numeral is connected with it, the meaning 
is at once restricted thereby, and it can only be used 
in its literal acceptation of the time which the earth 
takes to make one revolution upon its axis. It is, 
therefore, clear that we must understand the Six Days 
to be six periods of twenty-four hours each. 

But still further ; these days are mentioned as com- 
prising an evening and a morning, as being made up 


of day and night. Here, then, is another warning 
against the figurative interpretation, which we must 
carefully avoid lest we expose ourselves to such attacks 
as the following : — 

" It is evident that the bare theory that a day means 
an age or immense geological period might be made to 
yield some rather strange results. What becomes of 
the evening and morning of which each day is said to 
have consisted ? Was each geologic age divided into 
two long intervals, one all darkness, the other all light? 
And if so, what became of the plants and trees created 
in the third day or period, when the evening of the 
fourth day — the evenings, be it observed, precede the 
mornings — set in ? They must have passed through 
half a seculum of total darkness, not even cheered by 
that dim light which the sun, not yet completely mani- 
fested, supplied on the morning of the third day. 
Such an ordeal would have completely destroyed the 
whole vegetable creation, and yet we. find that it 
survived, and was appointed on the sixth day as the 
food of man and animals. In fact, we need only sub- 
stitute the word period for day in the Mosaic narrative 
to make it very apparent that the writer at least had 
no such meaning, nor could he have conveyed any such 
meaning to those who first heard his account read." * 

Now the justice of these remarks cannot be denied, 
and the lesson to be learnt from them is this : that, if 
believers would but keep to the plain statements of the 
Bible, there would be very little for infidels to cavil at ; 
but that as soon as they begin to form theories, and 
twist revelation into agreement with them, they expose 
themselves, and, still worse, the Scriptures, to ridicule. 

• " Essa3s and Reviews," p. 240. 


On the next day a second command went forth, and 
Second Da V. The fir- in obcdicncc to it E movcment com- 
r^^tirb^f^n^l^To-n^cnced among the waters. At the 
nounced good. word of God the firmament, or atmo- 

sphere which we breathe, was formed : and by its 
insertion the waters which float above the earth were 
again raised to their own place, and separated from 
those which are upon the earth. 

There is, however, in the account of this day's work 
an omission which is probably significant : for the usual 
conclusion, " And God saw that it was good," is in this 
case left out. And since the reasons ordinarily given 
for the omission are unsatisfactory, we venture to 
suggest the following explanation. May not the with- 
holding of God's approval be a hint of the immediate 
occupation of the firmament by demons, those, indeed, 
which are its present inhabitants .-• Since they were 
concerned in the fall of man, they must have speedily 
appeared in the newly-formed atmosphere. May they 
not, therefore, have been imprisoned in the deep, and 
having found some way of escape at the lifting up of 
the waters, have swarmed into the dominion of the 
air, of which their leader is Prince .-' In this case the 
firmament might have been teeming with them before 
the close of the Second Day, and we need not wonder 
that God refused to pronounce their kingdom good. 
In twenty-four hours the firmament was completed, 
rru- J T^ T-, afid then the voice of the Lord was 

1 nird Uay. 1 he 

waters upon the earth again heard, and in quick response the 

retire to their bounds: i i i . , i •,! ,i 

the dry land is again wholc plauct rcsouudcd With the roar 
seen, and brings forth of rushiug floods as they hastcncd from 

grass, herbs, and trees. 

Grand description in the the dry laud mto thc receptacles pre- 
Bookofp.aims, pared for them, and revealed the moun- 


tains and valleys of the earth. This grand movement 
is thus described in the hundred-and-fourth Psalm.* 

5. "He established the earth upon the foundations 

That it should not be moved for ever and evei 

6. With the deep as with a garment Thou didst cover 

Above the mountains did the waters stand. 

7. At Thy rebuke they fled, 

At the voice of Thy thunder they hasted away — 

8. The mountains rose, the valleys sank — 

To the place which Thou hadst established fot 

9. Thou hast set them a bound which they cannot 

That they turn not again to cover the earth." 

In this passage we may remark a strong confirmation 
of the view we have adopted. For while the deep is 
represented as spread over everything, the mountains, 
together, of course, with all their fossil inclosures, are 
mentioned as already existing beneath it. They had 
evidently been formed long before the Third Day. And 
in strict accordance with this fact is God's command, 
" Let the dry land appear," or more literally, " be 
seen" ; not, "Let it come into existence." The words, 
"The mountains rose, the valleys sank," are a paren- 
thesis, and describe, of course — or they would conflict 
with the statement in the sixth verse — the general effect 
of the scene to a spectator as the waters subsided to 
their proper level. 

On the same day the word of God went forth a 

* Psalm civ. 5-9. 


second time, and the now liberated soil began to cover 
itself with a garment of vegetation, the fresh verdure of 
which was diversified with the hues of countless flowers. 
Thus the earth itself was completely restored, and 
Fourth Day. Pre- ^2^5" fitted for the support and enjoy- 
paration of the light- ment of life \ it Only remained to esta- 

holders. Or and Moor, i i- i -i i i* •i.'L ii i i 

blish its relations with the heavenly 
bodies. This God did upon the Fourth Day by con- 
centrating the light-material, which He had previously 
created, into light-holders. For the word used of the 
light of the First Day is Or, and of that of the Fourth 
Maor. And this last is the same as the first, but with 
a locative prefix which makes it signify a place where 
light is stored, or a light-holder. 

Now we must carefully observe that God is not said 
to have created these light-holders on the Fourth Day, 
but merely to have made or prepared them. They 
were created, as we have seen, in the beginning : and, 
since the sun appears to be a dark body enveloped by 
luminous clouds, it was doubtless around its mass that 
the earth was revolving from the first. Probably, too, 
the great luminary of our world was also the light of 
the preadamites : but its lamp had been extinguished, 
and on the Fourth Day God gave or restored to it the 
capacity of attracting and' diffusing the light- material, 
by the exercise of which power its photosphere was 
quickly formed. 

And so the solar rays, as they hastened through 
space, struck upon the moon, and lighted up its silver 
orb in the firmament of night. 

We are next told that God made or prepared — 
not created — the stars also ; that is, apparently, so 
altered or modified the firmament, perhaps by the 


:oncentration of light into the sun, that the star.< 
, , then first appeared, or re-appeared, in 

Appearance of the '^ '^ ' J- ^ ' 

stars in the heaven of if. For that they had becn previously 

our earth. , . . r \ 

created we have positive proof. A^ 
the close of the Third Day earth was finished and 
ready for the reception of life, while the stars are not 
mentioned till the Fourth Day. But in a passage of 
Job we are told that the morning stars were admiring 
witnesses when God laid the foundation stone of the 
earth, and sang together for joy at its completion.* 
They must, therefore, have becn pre-existent. And so 
God's preparation of them on the Fourth Day must have 
had reference only to their appearance in our firma- 
ment, to the purpose which they were to serve in 
regard to our earth. 

Thus the Fourth Day came to its close: all was now 
Fifth Day. Creation read}' ; thc work of restoration was 
flsS^lScfia'':::; finished, and the habitation prepared, 
version. Then the creative power of God was 

put forth, and the waters, which had hitherto been void 
of living beings, were commanded to swarm with the 
creature that hath life. Our version, " Let the waters 
bring forth," is incorrect : the literal rendering is, " Let 
the waters swarm with swarms, with living creatures " ; 
but the text does not tell us that these creatures were 
produced from the waters. 

The following clause is still more grievously mis- 
translated, since the English is made to imply that 
even birds were formed from the same element. This 
would be a direct contradiction of the nineteenth verse 
of the second chapter, where they are said to have 
been moulded of earth. But the contradiction does 

• Job xxxviii. 4-7. 

7 HE SIX DAYS. 9; 

not exist in the Hebrew, the exact sense of which is, 
"And let fowl fly above the earth in the face ci the 
firmament of heaven." Hence in this verse both fish 
and fowl are merely commanded to appear in their 
respective elements without any hint as to their origin. 
Sea and air were thus filled with life. Then, last of 
„. , -, „ . all, on the Sixth Day, God proceeded 

Sixth Day. Creation ' J ^ r 

of cattle, creeping to pcopIc tlic carth, which was com- 

things, and beasts of ii^i- ri 11 1 

the field, all of which mandcd to bring forth — and here the 
were graminivorous. translation IS corrcct — three classes of 
living creatures — cattle or domesticated animals, creep- 
ing things or land reptiles, insects and worms, and 
beasts of the field or wild roaming animals. 

But, as was shown above, all these creatures were 
graminivorous : for in the thirtieth verse the green 
herb alone is given them for meat. Nor, of course, 
was man allowed to feed upon animal flesh : in the 
twenty-ninth verse his diet also is restricted to the 
seed-bearing herb and the fruit of trees. The present 
state of things, in which animal food is allowed and 
necessary to man, and carnivorous beasts birds and 
fishes abound, testifies to a wofully disorganised and 
uimatural condition ; such a one as would be impos- 
sible save in a world at variance with the God of order, 
peace, love, and perfection. 

We have before seen that neither the plants of the 
Further proof that Third uor the creatures of the Fifth 

the history of the .Six 1 r- • ^i 1 1 . 1 • . 1 

Days is not a record of and Sixth days havc anything to do 
geological ages. .^yj^h thc fossiHscd rcmaius found in the 

earth's crust; because that crust is assumed to have 
been formed before the great preadamite catastrophe. 
For the mountains with all their contents are described 
as already existing beneath the floods of the deep, and 


as having appeared, without need of creation or pre- 
paration, as soon as the waters retreated to their 
bounds. We are now able to add other cogent reasons 
in confirmation of this view. 

During the Six Days there were three distinct acts 
of creative power, by which vegetation, fish and birds, 
and land animals and man, were successively produced. 
And we are clearly given to understand that all the 
plants of our world were created on the third day, 
while no moving creature that has life was called into 
being until the fifth day. If, then, the theory which 
makes each day a geological period were correct, the 
remains of plants only would be found in the lowest 
fossiliferous strata. These would fill the formations of 
their own and the following age ; after which they 
would be mingled with fossil birds and fishes : then, in 
the rocks of a yet later period, the remains of land 
animals would also appear. 'And such a sequence 
would form the only possible agreement with the 
account in Genesis. 

But what is the result of an examination of the 
strata } The lowest fossiliferous system is the Silurian: 
do we find in it nothing but vegetable petrifactions .? 
Quite the contrary. The lower and middle Silurian 
rocks contain a few seaweeds indeed, but no land 
plants whatever. Yet they abound in creatures belong- 
ing to three of the four sections of the animal kingdom, 
in mollusca, articulata, and radiata. It is only when 
we get to the highest strata of the upper Silurian rocks 
that land plants begin to appear, and together with 
them some specimens of vertebrata, the remaining 
section of the animal kingdom. If, then, in this oldest 
fossiliferous system we find plants rare and yet every 


division of the animal kingdom represented, how can 
we attempt to force such a fact into accordance with 
the Mosaic narrativ^e ! 

Again ; the history of Genesis mentions, as we have 
seen, but three distinct creations — of plants, of birds 
and fish, and of land animals. But in the eight classi- 
fications of strata, from the Tertiary down to the 
Silurian, there would appear to have been at least as 
many creations as there are systems, each creation 
including a very large proportion of animals and plants 
peculiar to itself. Agassiz goes still further, as the 
following quotation will show : — 

" I hold it to be demonstrated that the totality of 
organic beings was renewed, not only in the intervals 
of those great periods which we designate as forma- 
tions, but also in the stratification of each separate 
division of every formation. Nor do I believe in the 
genetic descent of the living species from the different 
tertiary divisions which have been regarded as identical, 
but which I hold to be specifically different ; so that I 
cannot adopt the idea of a transformation of the species 
of one formation into that of another. In enunciating 
these conclusions, let it be understood that they are 
not inductions derived from the study of one particular 
class of animals — such as fishes — and applied to other 
classes, but the results of direct comparison of very 
considerable collections of petrifactions of different 
formations and classes of animals." 

Thus the crust of our earth appears to be a vast 
mound which God has heaped over the remains of 
many creations. And geology shows us that the 
creatures of these ancient worlds either perished by 
painful disease and mutual destruction, or were over- 


whelmed in an instant by the most terrific ccnvulsions 
of nature. 

Lastly ; it is recorded * that all the living creatures 
and plants created during the Six Days were given to 
man. It is reasonable, therefore, to suppose that they 
were intended to remain with him throughout the whole 
course of his world. And hence, again, the certainty 
that the fossil plants and animals, nearly all of which 
were extinct before the creation of Adam, have nothing 
to do with the creatures of the Third, Fifth, and Sixth 

The creation of the humbler inhabitants of earth 
<- .• f™ r ^ having been thus accomplished, but one 

Creation of man. Lrod o i ' 

pronounces every thing other work remained to be done. All 

to be very good, and i r i • i • r i 

rests on the Seventh was Tcady for thc mtroduction ot those 
^^^" who were to be set over the world as 

the vicegerents of the Almighty. Accordingly God 
proceeded to make them in His own image and after 
His likeness. But in the first chapter of Genesis the 
calling into being of man, male and female, is simply 
mentioned to signify his place in creation. Further 
fletails are reserved for the present, and the history 
goes on to say that God saw all He had made that it 
w-as very good. 

For no evil ever came from His hands. Let this 
truth be fixed in our hearts : and whenever we are 
troubled with the thorn or the thistle, with the poison- 
ous or useless weed, with the noxious beast, with the 
extreme of heat or cold, or with any of the other count- 
less inconveniences and pains of our present condition ; 
whenever we feel ready to faint by reason of fightings 
without and fears within, let us remember that God 

* Gen. i. 26, 29. 


made all things good, and avoiding hard thoughts of 
Him, say, An enemy hath done this. 

Then follows the institution of the Sabbath on the 
Seventh Day : and the fact of its introduction in this 
connection is sufficient to show that it was no special 
ordinance for the Israelite, but a law of God for all the 
dwellers upon earth from the days of Adam till time 
shall cease. 

And so the first section of this wondrous history 
, . closes with a summary of the subject 

Summary and intro- 
duction to the next and an introduction to the next part in 

section of the history. ,, ■. ,, t-., ., . . 

Different meanings of the words \ — Thcsc are the generations 
the expressions " the ^f ^.j^g hcavens and the earth when they 

heaven and the earth -' 

and " the earth and the were Created, in the day that the Lord 
God made the earth and the heavens, 
and every plant of the field before it was in the earth, 
and every herb of the field before it grew : for the 
Lord God had not caused it to rain upon the earth, and 
there was not a man to till the ground. But there 
went up a mist from the earth, and watered the whole 
face of the ground." 

Here the creation of the heavens and earth, that is, 
of the whole universe, refers, of course, to the creation 
in the beginning. But the making or preparing of the 
earth and the heavens points to the Six Days of resto- 
ration. And this is indicated not only by the change 
in the verb, but also by the inverted order, " the earth 
and the heavens," which is only found in one other 
passage, and is plainly significant. For the Hebrew 
word for " heavens " has no singular, and it was thus 
impossible to make in the Old Testament a distinction 
such as we often find in the New, where the singular of 
the Greek word is generally used for the first heaven 


or firmament of our earth, while the plural comprises 
the Starr)' realms and the heaven of heavens. Hence 
some other device was necessary, and the fact that 
" the heavens " in the second clause of this verse mean 
the firmament of earth is indicated by the inverted 
order. And this order is also the historical one : for 
the firmament was not made perfect, so that sun, moon, 
and stars could be seen in it, until after the entire 
restoration of the earth. The same sequence in the 
hundred and forty-eighth Psalm is explained by the 
seventh verse, " Praise the Lord from the earth." For 
this Psalm is divided into two parts : in the first six 
verses praise to God is invoked from the starry vault 
and the heaven of heavens, in the last eight from the 
earth and its atmosphere. Hence in the thirteenth 
verse the glory of the Lord is appropriately said to be 
above " the earth and the heaven," earth being first 
mentioned because here also by heaven is meant the 
firmament which belongs and is, therefore, subordinate 
to it. 

In the next verse, if we retain the Authorised 

The plants and herbs Vcrsion, which follows the Scptuagint, 

of our world were newly ^yg must of coursc Understand the verb 

introduced by God on . 

the third day, and did " make Or " prepare as appl}Mng not 
re°UcsTf fo^^ercrla! Only to carth and heaveir, but also to 
"°°- "every plant of the field/' etc. The 

sense will then be that God prepared the seeds and 
placed them in the ground ; so that the plants and 
herbs of our world did not spring from the relics of 
former creations or grow up spontaneously, but were 
newly introduced by God at that time. And this is 
corroborated by the fact that since the withdrawal of 
the salt and barren waters of the deep He had not as 


yet caused it to rain upon the earth, nor was there any 
preadamite spared from the previous destruction to 
cultivate the soil. All our verdure and plants grew 
up, therefore, from new germs placed in the ground by 
God and afterwards developed and nourished by a mist 
which went up from the earth. 

Such appears to be the meaning of the passage, and 
this special allusion to the work of the Third Day seems 
to be inserted as an introduction to the following 
account of Eden and its garden. 

In closing our remarks on the continuous histoiy of 

There is no real dis- the Six Days, wc may observe that 

crepancy between the mauy discrcpaucics havc been alleged 

narratives in the first , _ , , 

and second chapters of to cxist bctwecn the first and second 
chapters of Genesis. Some of these 
we have already explained : none of them have any 
real foundation. We have only to bear in mind the 
different objects of the two records and all difficulty 
will vanish ; for while the one chapter gives a con- 
tinuous history of the week of restoration, the other is 
evidently a supplement, adding details of man's creation 
that we may better understand his nature and his fall. 
Hence in this second account reference is made to 
other works of the Six Days only when they happen 
to be immediately connected with the main subject, 
and without any regard to the order in which they 
were performed. 




The detailed account of the creation of man which now 
^ , , . presents itself for our consideration is a 

supplementary his- '■ 
tory of the creation of SubjCCt of the dcCpCSt iutcrCSt : for it 

"^ forms the only possible basis of true 

doctrine in regard to the origin and nature of our race. 
We must, therefore, carefully examine it: but the labour 
will not be tedious, for the whole revelation is contained 
in the following brief record ; — " And the Lord God 
formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed 
into his nostrils the breath of life ; and man became a 
living soul." ''" We have thus three points to consider ; 
the formation of the body, the infusion of the breath of 
life, and the result that man awoke to consciousness a 
living soul. 

First, then, we are told that the Lord God formed 
The moulding of the ^an, that is, mouldcd his bodily shape 
^"'^y- as the potter docs the clay. Indeed 

the meaning of the Hebrew verb is so decided that its 
present participle, used as a substantive, is the ordinary 
word for a potter. To this first act of God Job refers 
when he says, " Remember, I beseech Thee, that Thou 

* Gen. ii. 7, 


hast made me as the clay ; and wilt Thou bring me 
into dust again ? " * For the material moulded was 
the dust of the ground which had just been moistened 
by a mist : and hence it is afterwards said, " Dust thou 
art, and unto dust shalt thou return." t 

The word translated " ground " is adaviah, which 
properly means red earth, and from which the name 
Adam seems to be derived. This corresponds to the 
natural colour of human skin, which is red on white, 
and in accordance with which Solomon's description of 
ideal beauty begins with the words, " My beloved is 
white and ruddy." \ 

The spirit of man had nothing to do with the forma- 
The infusion of the ^^on of its sheath. God first moulded 
sp'"'- the senseless frame, and then breathed 

into it " the breath of lives " ; for the original of the 
last word is in the plural. We have not, however, 
previously noticed this, because it may be nothing more 
than the well known Hebrew plural of excellence : the 
word, which is the common term for life, is rarely found 
in the singular. But if we wish to give significance to 
the number, it may refer to the fact that the inbreath- 
ing of God produced a twofold life, sensual and spiritual, 
the distinct existence of each part of which we may 
often detect within ourselves by their antagonism. 

This breath of lives became the spirit of man, the 
principle of life within him — for, as the Lord tells us, 
" it is the spirit that quickeneth " — and by the manner 
of its introduction we are taught that it was a direct 
emanation from the Creator. We must, of course, 
carefully avoid confusing it with the Spirit of God, from 
Whom the Scriptures plainly distinguish it, and Who 

• Job X. 9. t Gen. iii. 19. \ Cant. v. 10. 


IS represented as bearing witness with our spirit.* But, 
as we are told in the Book of Proverbs,! it is the candle 
of the Lord, capable of being lighted by His Spirit, and 
given by Him as a means whereby man may search 
into the chambers of his heart and know himself. 

Man was thus made up of only two independent 
elements, the corporeal and the spiritual : 

The origin of the soul. /-^ i , 11 • . . , . 

but when God placed the spirit within 
the casing of earth, the combination of these produced 
a third part, and man became a living soul.t For 
direct communication between spirit and flesh is im- 
possible : their intercourse can be carried on only by 
means of a medium, and the instant production of one 
was the result of their contact in Adam. 

He became a living soul in the sense that spirit and 
body were completely merged in this third part ; so 
that in his unfallen state he knew nothing of those 
ceaseless strivings of spirit and flesh which are matters 
of daily experience to us. There was a perfect blend- 
ing of his three natures into one, and the soul as the 
uniting medium became the cause of his individuality, 
of his existence as a distinct being. It was also to 
serve the spirit as a covering, and as a means of using 
the body ; nor does Tertullian seem to have erred 
when he affirmed that the flesh is the body of the soul, 
the soul that of the spirit. 

But it is interesting to notice that, while the soul is 
the meeting-point of the elements of our being in this 

* Rom. viii. i6. t Prov. xx. 2"]. 

\ Hence, possibly, the meaning- of the plural in the expression 
"breath of lives." The inbreathing of God became the spirit, 
and at the same time, by its action upon the body, produced the 
soul. It was thus the cause both of the spiritual and sensual 


present life, the spirit will be the ruling power in our 
resurrection state. For the first man Adam was made 
a living soul, but the last Adam a quickening Spirit ; * 
and that which is sown a psychic body is raised a 
spiritual body.f 

Thus in the very beginning of Scripture we are 
The doctrine of man's wamcd agaiust the popular phraseology 

threefold nature is, with c . 111 1 • 1 1 1 

one or two exceptions, of soul and body, which has long sus- 
much obscured by the taincd an erroneous belief that man 

inadequacy of our ver- 
sion, consists of but two parts. This idea 

has, indeed, taken such firm root among us that it has 
caused a deficiency in our language. For though we 
possess the nouns " spirit " and " soul " — which are, 
however, too commonly treated as synonyms — we have 
no adjective derived from the latter, and are thus unable 
to express connection with soul except by a paraphrase. 
Certainly an attempt is being made to Anglicize the 
Greek " psychic " ; but the unwonted form and sound 
of the word seem likely to prevent its adoption into 
ordinary language. Yet the need of such an adjective 
has almost concealed the doctrine of man's tripartite 
nature in our version of the Scriptures : and English 
readers are carried away from the sense by inadequate 
translations of a Greek word which signifies " pertaining 
to the soul," but is sometimes rendered " natural," some- 
times " sensual." X 

There are, however, one or two passages in which a 
reference to the threefold composition of our being 
could not be obscured. Such is the very remarkable 
verse in the Epistle to the Hebrews ; — " For the Word 
of God is quick, and powerful, and sharper than any 

• I Cor. XV. 45. t I Cor. xv. 44. 

X I Cor. ii. 14; James iii. 15 ; Jude 19. 


two-edged sword, piercing even to the dividing asunder 
of soul and spirit, and of the joints and marrow, and is 
a disccrner of the thoughts and intents of the heart." * 
Here Paul plainly speaks of the immaterial part of man 
as consisting of two separable elements, soul and spirit; 
while he describes the material portion as made up of 
joints and marrow, organs of motion and sensation* 
Hence he claims for the Word of God the power of 
separating, and, as it were, taking to pieces the whole 
being of man, spiritual, psychic, and corporeal, even as 
the priest flayed and divided limb from limb the animal 
for the burnt offering, in order to lay bare every part, 
and discover if there were any hidden spot or blemish. 

Another obvious passage is the well known inter- 
cession of Paul for the Thessalonians ; — " And I pray 
God your whole spirit and soul and body be preserved 
blameless unto the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ." "j" 

Now the body we may term the sense-consciousness. 

Respective functionsof the soul thc sclf-consciousness, and 

body, soul, and spirit. ^|^g gpjj.jj. ^j^g God-consciousncss. For 

the body gives us the use of the five senses ; the 
soul comprises the intellect which aids us in the present 
state of existence, and the emotions which proceed 
from the senses ; while the spirit is our noblest part, 
which came directly from God, and by which alone we 
jare able to apprehend and worship Him. 

This last, as we remarked above, can only act upon 
the body through the medium of thc soul : and we 
have a good illustration of the fact in the words of 
Mary; — "My soul doth magnify the Lord, and my spirit 
hath rejoiced in God my Saviour." l{l Here the change in 
tense shows that the spirit first conceived joy in God 

* Heb. iv. 12. t I Thess. v. 2}^. \ Luke i. 46, 47. 


and then, communicating with the soul, roused it to 
give expression to the feehng by means of the bodily 

But the spirit of the unconverted is steeped in a 
deathlike slumber, save when it is roused to a 
momentary sense of responsibility by that Spirit of the 
Lord, Who convinces even the world of sin, of righteous- 
ness, and of judgment. Such men are unable to hold 
intercourse with God : the soul, manifested sometimes 
in intellectuality, sometimes in sensuality, often in both, 
reigns o\er them with undisputed sway. This is what 
Jude wishes to set forth in his nineteenth verse, which 
should be rendered, " These be they who separate, men 
governed by soul, not having spirit." * And even in 
the case of the converted the powers of the spirit are 
at present in great part suppressed, their place being 
supplied, though most inadequately, by the faculties of 
soul and body. 

How inadequately which of us does not feel ? For 
when at length we awake from the dream of this world ; 
when our eyes are opened to a contemplation of realities, 
and a startling conviction of the ever decaying and 
quickly passing nature of all that is visible flashes upon 
our mind, from that moment we are possessed by one 
absorbing desire, that of attaining to life eternal. But 
to this end what guidance can we expect from the 

* ^v-xiKo'i TTveiifia fiTj ep^oi/rej. Scarcely, "the Spirit." The 
preceding \^i;;(£*:ot' makes the contrast between the human soul and 
spirit so obvious and natural that, if Jude had meant the Holy 
Spirit, he would surely have guarded his meaning by prefixing 
the article to Trvfi^a. However, it does not seem necessary to 
press the sense further than to understand that, in the men 
described, the God-consciousness is stifled by sensuousness. 
Even in their case the spirit may still be a potentiality, though as 
regards present influence it is as good as dead. 


bodily senses, whose ceaseless march is ever to the 
grave ? Nay, even the soul, however intelligent, how- 
ever diligent in its search, cannot by any pains find out 
the path of wisdom. Often indeed it essays to do so : 
but how absolutely untrustworthy its conclusions are 
we may see in the difficulty of discovering even two 
men of the highest order of intellect with an identity 
of opinion. Reason is but an uncertain and deceitful 
instrument at the best, and the blinding pride of man 
makes matters still worse. For when one has set his 
heart upon an idea — which is, perhaps, nothing but the 
creation of his own fancy, as unsubstantial as the castle 
of a dream — his powers are thenceforth used for the 
single purpose of making the picture of his imagination 
stand out as vividly and as like reality as possible. 
And thus we may easily see that intellect is not 
Reason k fallible and mcrcly fallible, but the most dangerous 
often dangerous : but the of all gifts, unlcss it bc guidcd by the 

power of the spirit is an _ _ _ 

instinctive and unerring Spirit of God. For it CaU Call Cvil gOOd, 

perception o trut . ^^^ good cvil : it Can put darkucss for 
light, and light for darkness ; bitter for sweet, and sweet 
for bitter. Nay, the wave of its magic wand can fill not 
only this life, but even the region beyond the river of 
death, with sunny landscapes and fair scenes, to all of 
which it is able to give the semblance of firm reality, 
until the fatal moment which separates spirit and body, 
when in an instant the brilliant vista is blotted out for 
ever by the fiery darkness of the lost. 

And even in the case of those who have been born 
again, who have received power to become sons of God, 
the intellectual faculty is still so incompetent that, 
though they possess truth in the Divine revelation, they 
are nevertheless, as Paul tells us, only able for the 


present to know and understand it in part. But when 
hereafter the spirit, our real Hfe, shall be released and 
restored to its throne, we shall immediately become 
conscious of powers which we can now neither apprehend 
nor even imagine ; we shall no longer people darkness 
with the phantoms of reason's dim and ever-changing 
dreams, but find ourselves in a world where there is no 
night, and endowed with a piercing and unerring vision 
which God shall give to all His redeemed. In the 
place of the uncertain and deceptive logic of the soul, 
we shall be gifted with that instinctive perception of truth 
which is the prerogative of untainted spirits. 

Thus, then, the Lord created man in His own 
Adam is placed in the image; and we can picture the joy 

garden ofEden^ and the j^j^ j^j^j^ ^^^^^ j^ ^ 

first trial ot man com- 

"lences. sciousncss in the midst of the beautiful 

world prepared for his habitation and possession. But 
fair as earth then was, the inexhaustible kindness of his 
Creator would still further ravish his heart by arranging 
for his abode a scene of pre-eminent beauty and super- 
abounding delights. Eastward in Eden the Lord God 
planted a garden, and enriched it with every tree which 
is pkasant to the sight and good for food, including 
among them the tree of life and that of the knowledge 
of good and evil. He then took the man whom He 
had made, and put him into this Paradise to dress, and, 
as our version reads, to keep it. But the Hebrew of the 
latter verb also suggests the idea of watching over or 
guarding, and seems to point to an enemy and possible 

And now commenced the first age or dispensation of 
our world, man's first trial to determine whether when 
in possession of innocence he is able to retain it. 


Earth by the work of the Six Days was filled with 
unmingled blessings, all that it contained was very 
good ; supreme dominion was given to Adam, and he 
was a pure and sinless being. Moreover, there was 
but one commandment ; and, therefore, sin was circum- 
scribed, and but one transgression possible. Of all the 
numerous trees of the garden man might freely eat, 
even the tree of life was open to him : but he was 
commanded to do homage to the great God Who had 
given him all things^ to pay a tithe in acknowledgment 
of the exhaustless bounty bestowed upon him, by 
abstaining from one tree, that of the knowledge of 
good and evil. Of this he was not to eat, or he would 
prove himself a rebel, and lose his kingdom and his 

In regard to the hostile denizens of the air he seems 
to have received no distinct warning, but only that 
which was implied in the injunction to dress and watch 
over the garden. And he needed nothing more : for 
knowing well the single prohibition of his God, he 
could at once detect a foe in any being who should 
tempt him to disobey it. 

There is no mention of this covenant with Adam in 
The two names Eiohim the first chapter of Gcncsis : for there 
and Jehovah. ^^,^ havc mcrcly a record of creation 

and restoration, while in the supplementary account we 
are concerned with the moral responsibility of man. 
And hence a change in the appellation of God, Who 
when regarded only as the Creator and Ruler is called 
Eiohim or the Mighty One, but Who takes the title of 
Jehovah — usually translated " the Lord " in our version 
— as soon as He appears in covenant relation with 
man. At its first introduction the name Jehovah is 


joined with Elohim, to obviate all doubt as to the 
identity of the Being designated by both words. 

Now it is evident that, while either of these names 
will suit some passages, there must, nevertheless, be 
many cases in which the one would be appropriate and 
the other not. Of this the sacred writers are always 
mindful, and we shall presently meet with other in- 
stances of their careful discrimination. It thus appears 
that the very fact adduced by rationalists as a proof 
that the Scriptures are a clumsy compilation of diverse 
and incongruous documents, which they call Elohistic 
and Jehovistic — that this very fact beautifully exhibits 
the unity and consistency of the whole volume. 

Yet another and crowning joy was in store for Adam. 

Adam gives names to ^Is bcnlgn Crcator, knowing that it 

animals, and must, there- ^vas Hot good for him to be alonc, 

fore, have been gifted . 

withspeechfroratheday determmed to bestow upon him a 

of his creation. • j , r i • • 

companion and partner of his joy. 
But first He brought to him the beasts of the field 
and the fowls of the air, to see what he would call 
them : that is, to see if he would claim any of them 
as bone of his bones and flesh of his flesh. Adam 
gave names to all, but to none that of w^oman ; a 
result which had, of course, been anticipated by God. 
Indeed it seems not improbable that He made the trial 
to stimulate in His creature a desire which He in- 
tended to gratify. 

And if the first man was able on the very day of his 
creation to give names — founded, doubtless, on their 
peculiarities — to beasts and fowls, it is evident that 
language was a gift bestowed upon him by God at the 
time when the breath of lives was breathed into his 
nostrils. Christians, therefore, cannot countenance the 


speculations of modern philosophers in regard to the 
gradual development of speech. 

By naming the animal kingdom Adam took posses- 
sion of his dominion before the appearance of the 
Creation of woman, womatt ; SO that she sharcd his lord- 
Adam and Eve a type gj-^jp Q^g^. crcation, not in hcr own 

of Christ and His ^ _ ' 

Church. right, but as being bone of his bones 

and flesh of his flesh. And herein we mav discern 
an evident type of the second Adam and His bride. 
For the Church, though all things are hers, will possess 
them through no merit or right of her own, but only 
as the bride of Him Who is the Heir of all things.* 

In the history of the creation of woman we should 
observe the close connection between male and female, 
and the responsibilities of mutual love which it in- 
volves ; the protection due on the one side, the sub- 
jection on the other. Each particular is so suggestive 
of the great mystery of Christ and His Church that 
it will be well to notice some of the points of com- 

First, then, the Lord began His final work by 
., . , casting Adam into a deep sleep. And 

A consideration of '-' '■ ^ '■ 

some of the details of SO did the sccond Adam lie three days 
'^^' in the sleep of death before the crea- 

tion of His bride could be commenced. 

While the first Adam slept, God opened his side 
and took out the rib wherewith He made the woman. 
So while the second Adam slept in death upon the 
cross, a soldier pierced His side, so that there came 
forth blood and water ; and by means of that blood, 
without the shedding of which there could never have 
been remission of sins, the Church is now in process 

* I Cor. iii. 21-23. 



of formation. Thou " didst purchase unto God by Thy 
blood men of every tribe, and tongue, and people, and 
nation," * is the cry of the elders when the time has 
at length come to sing the new song. 

After the rib had been withdrawn God closed up 
the flesh instead thereof. No second rib was to be 
taken : only one woman was made for Adam, though 
many were afterwards born of him. So also will it 
be with the second Adam : He, too, will have but one 
heavenly bride, the Church of the First-born, they that 
are His at His coming.-f- This body will be completed 
during His presence in the air, or first heaven, and His 
marriage will take place just before the terrible destruc- 
tion which is to precede the Millennial reign, as may 
be seen by the order of events given in the nineteenth 
and twentieth chapters of the Apocalypse. Multitudes 
will be afterwards saved by Him : kings' daughters 
will be among His honourable women ; but upon His 
right hand will stand the queen in gold of Ophir.J 

We next read ; — " The rib which the Lord God had 
taken from man made He a woman." But the last 
words are by no means an adequate rendering of the 
original, which should be translated " builded He into 
a woman." And there is a remarkable coincidence 
in the use of such a term, and the frequent application 
of the words " build " and " edify " to the Church in the 
New Testament. 

When God had made the woman He brought her 
unto Adam. So is God now bringing the elect in spirit 
to the heavenly Bridegroom, and no man can come 

• Rev. V. 9. 

t Or rather, "presence." See the chapter on the Presence 
and the Appearing in the author's work "The Great Prophecies." 
X Psalm xlv. 9. 


unto Christ except the Father draw him.* And so 
will He presently bring the completed bride in person 
to the second Adam, and at length answer that prayer; — 
" Father, I will that they also, whom Thou hast given 
Me, be with Me where I am ; that they may behold 
My glory, which Thou hast given Me."t 

Upon receiving his wife Adam exclaimed ; — "This is 
now bone of my bones, and flesh of my flesh." So the 
second Adam tells us that He is the vine and we are 
the branches ;| while His apostle still more plainly 
affirms ; — " For we are members of His body, of His 
flesh, and of His bones." § 

Adam then proceeds, " She shall be called woman, 
because she was taken out of man." hJi is the 
Hebrew for man, islia for woman. She partook of 
Adam's nature, therefore she should be called after his 
name. And at His coming Christ, having changed the 
bodies of His waiting people into the likeness of His 
glorious body and made them partakers of His nature, 
will then fulfil His promise to the overcomer ; — " I 
will write upon him My new name." |[ 

Lastly ; the words, " Therefore shall a man leave 
his father and his mother, and shall cleave unto his 
wife : and they shall be one flesh," are, in their applica- 
tion to the woman, paralleled by the Lord's saying, 
" He that loveth father or mother more than Me is not 
worthy of Me." IF And yet again by the exhortation 
to the mystic bride ; — " Hearken, O daughter, and 
consider, and incline thine ear ; forget also thine own 
people and thy father's house ; so shall the King 
greaty desire thy beauty : for He is thy Lord ; and 

• John vi. 44. § Eph. v. 30. 

t John xvii. 24. || Rev. iii. 12. 

X John XV. 5. \ Matt. x. 37. 


worship thou Him."* These words have far greater 
force if we remember that those who are saved by 
Christ but do not belong to the Church of the first- 
born will probably inhabit the earth from which they 
sprang, and not be called away from their ancient 
dwelling into the heavenly places. 

We may thus see how evidently the history of Adam 
and Eve foreshadows wondrous things to come, and 
sets forth the mystery of marriage in its reference to 
Christ and His Church. 

* Psalm xlv. 10, ii. 




Thus the man and the woman were created on the 

The mercy of God Same day ; so that Adam could only 

rrdtrfXo'T'r^have been in existence a few hours 

pride from the heart of before his wlfc. Nothing was wantiuf^j 

man, that he might be . 

afterwards restored to to complctc their joy savc tlic Certainty 

an immortal purity and .i,-, iii i,- i ,i- 

a more excellent power that it would DC lasting ; and on this 
and glory. point they probably felt no fear. For 

what suspicion had they of the power of evil : how 
could they read in all that surrounded them the de- 
struction of mightier creations ? They knew not the 
secrets of the ground on which they trod : they rejoiced 
in the flowery verdure, and saw not the ruins of world 
beneath vi^orld reaching far into the bowels of the earth. 
They dreamt not that the blue sea was rippling over 
a vast prison-house of sin ; that the very atmosphere 
above them was swarming with fallen angels and the 
disembodied spirits of those who had rebelled against 
the Most High. 

And they, too, were destined to be overcome of evil : 
they were soon to experience the meaning of that 
awful word, death, which the lips of their Creator had 
uttered; to feel the terrors of His wrath, the desolation 
of ruin the horrors of corruption. For the all- wise 


God well knew the great obstacle to perfection in the 
creature, and that, until it could be removed, He was 
unable to show forth His love and pour out His 
bounty to the full. He could not endow men with 
great power and wisdom ; He could not make them 
excellent in majesty and glorious in might, swift as the 
winds or the lightning to do His will, until they had 
passed the danger of abusing His gifts, and so falling 
as the sinful angels had done before them. 

Therefore they should not be perfect from the day 
of their creation ; but, by a painful, yet most salutary 
experience, should learn their own creature weakness : 
they should be imprisoned in bodies of humiliation :* 
they should be left to try what their own strength 
could do, to endeavour to save themselves by their own 
arm amid the hostile powers of darkness, which should 
not, therefore, be at once consigned to the doom of the 
obstinately rebellious : they should fall, but by the 
merciful pre-arrangement of God not an eternally fatal, 
not a hopeless fall : they should know what it is to 
abide in sin, and so to be consumed by His anger, to 
be troubled by His wrath, to be subjected to vanity, 
wasting, and decay : with shuddering awe they should 
enter into the thickening darkness which enshrouds the 
dread portals of death : all their beauty should turn to 
corruption, their bodies, however majestic or fair, become 
repulsive and loathsome. 

And through and out of all this they should be 
saved by a power not their own : benighted, helpless, 
distraught, not knowing whither to turn, they should 
be led by the hand of Another : their sin, which they 
would be utterly unable to expiate, should be punished 
* Phil. iii. 21. 


I'p the person of a Substitute ; the only begotten Son 
of their loving Creator should die in their stead. Thus 
should they be taught the absolute dependence of the 
creature upon the love and power of the Almighty God. 

And if they could humble themselves under His 
almighty hand ; if they could trust Him in the time 
of their darkness ; believe that He was causing all 
things to work together for their good ; and thankfully 
accept His way of peace and salvation — then, after a 
little space, the days of their mourning should be 
ended. He would wash away every stain of sin or 
tears : instead of the garment of corruption He would 
invest them with the robes of immortality : He would 
place the crown of life upon their head : everlasting 
joy should break forth upon them without the possi- 
bility of an intervening cloud : nay, many of them, 
gifted by His favour with a more complete submission, 
with a stronger faith, should even be exalted to sit 
down upon the throne of His Son, and, under Him, 
to rule in glory over that voxy earth which had been 
the scene of their hopes and fears, of their gloomy and 
toilsome wanderings, while they bore about with them 
the body of this present condition of death.* 

Such seems to be an outline of God's purposes in 

Satan was created in regard to man, as indicated in the 

glory and fell : man is Qj-j-iptures : such ' thc rcason of our 

bom into a state of ^ 

weakness and misery, sojoum hcrc in wcakncss, continual 

and does not attain to ,. , ... 

his perfection till the liability to miscry, and certain progress 
resurrection of the just. ^Q dccay. Satan first awoke to con- 
sciousness in the dazzling light of God's glory, to find 
himself a mighty prince, perfect in wisdom and beauty. "f 
But, having known no other condition, he thought that 
• Rom. vii. 24. f Ezek. xxviii. 12-15. 


his power and his splendour proceeded from himself, 
lost his sense of dependence, and fell without hope. In 
our case God's foresight and mercy prevented this irre- 
mediable ruin. 

Therefore our being begins in darkness, far from the 
light and joy of His presence : we are no princes, but 
slaves to those horrible despots sin and corruption : our 
beauty is faulty and evanescent : our wisdom is foolish- 
ness : our purposes are continually broken off : our 
bodies date their tendency to dissolution from the day 
of our birth. Yet there is a hand stretched out to lead 
us through the night : and if we grasp it, giving up our 
own ideas of the right way, it will guide us along a 
road, rough toilsome and perilous indeed, but which 
will at length bring us safely to the home of our 

And then, when this corruptible shall have put on 
incorruption, and this mortal shall have put on im- 
mortality : when, after having borne the image of 
the earthly, we shall also bear the image of the 
heavenly : when we shall rest, no long'^r in hope, 
but in abundant and never failing satisfaction after 
awaking in God's likeness : then at length shall we 
have attained the goal of our being, the position for 
which He created us, nay, to which He ordained us 
before the foundation of the world. Then shall we 
know why He bade us consider ourselves strangers 
and pilgrims upon earth : then shall we feel His 
meaning when He told us that while in the flesh we 
are but in a state of death, our real life being hid 
with Christ in God:* then, when the heavenly treasure 
is unlocked before our wondering gaze, shall we under- 

* Rom. vii. 24 ; Col. iii. 3. 


Stand to the full His dark saying ; — " And if ye have 
not been faithful in that which is Another's, who shall 
give you that which is your own ? " * 

Nor, after having been thus led through darkness 

A powerful effect ^nd perils to God, shall we feel any 

must needs be wrought wish to Stray out into the night again. 

in us when we glance i 11 1 

backward upon this life With such a rctrospcct we shall not be 
after we have left it. ^^^^^^^ ^o think that our glory and 

beauty are an inseparable part of ourselves. And not 
only shall we have learnt by a fearful experience the 
dependence of creatures, but our whole being will be 
penetrated with a burning and unquenchable love of 
our Creator. 

For even in this life how great do His mercies seem ! 
But w^hen once we find ourselves safe in the Paradise of 
God, freed for ever from the assaults of the world the 
flesh and the devil, the first backward glance at the 
dangers we have just escaped will, perhaps, act up "m us 
with greater power than the whole course of discipline 
through which we may have previously passed. For 
we shall then see our fearful accumulation of sin, under- 
stand its appalling nature, and be lost in amazen.ent at 
the love which bore with us while we went on day after 
day repeating and multiplying transgression. We shall 
look back upon the many thousand perils out of which we 
were from time to time delivered, and only a very few 
of which we had even suspected. We shall behold the 
horrid and innumerable hosts of darkness, from whcse 
malignant power we were defended for so many years, 
and at length finally rescued, by a Mightier than they. 
We shall gaze upon the pit prepared for them, into 
which we also must needs have descended had not a 

* Luke xvi. 12. 


ransom been found, even the most precious blood of 
the Lord Jesus. 

And as we turn away from these dark and painful 
scenes — during the whole time of our connection with 
which there is but a step betwixt us and death — to the 
bright smile of our reconciled God, to the glory given 
to us, to the golden city prepared for our habitation, to 
the eternity of ever deepening joy before us, shall we 
not, emptied at last of pride and self-will, and over- 
powered with humble gratitude, cry aloud, with a 
strength of love and devotion unknown to this world, 
" Blessing, and honour, and glory, and power, be unto 
Him that sitteth upon the thone, and unto the Lamb 
for ever and ever ! " 

And with such thoughts as these should we comfort 
one another whenever we are in sorrow and heaviness 
during our present brief season of trial. 

We must now return to Adam and Eve, whom we 
„ , ,, , left enjoying in innocence the pleasures 

Probable reason of j j <:> ^ i 

the hostility of the fallen which God had provided for them, 
anges. eir cunning. ^^^ short, indeed, was their time of 
happiness : for the powers of evil were already setting 
the fatal snare. And they were, perhaps, stimulated 
to their fell purpose, not only by pure malignity and 
the wish to oppose God whenever they could do so 
indirectly, but also by a desire to prolong their own 
reign. For, knowing themselves to be rebels, they 
were probably well aware that the Almighty never 
intended sinless man to be subject to them, and that 
in Adam He was raising up a seed, not merely to 
inhabit the earth, but also to take possession of the 
realms of air. Hence we can easily understand their 
anxiety to retard, at least, the counsel of God by 


reducing the new creation to their own level of sin 
and ruin. And, perchance, they may have known 
from experience that the result would be a delay of 
long ages, during which the mercy of the Supreme 
would grant His creatures time for repentance and 

The plan of Satan showed that God had not yet 
deprived him of his wisdom ; though, alas ! it had 
been changed by his fall from the noble power of a 
prince of the Most High to the cunning of a deceitful 
intriguer ! He would not make his assault with power 
and terror : for that would drive the assailed into the 
arms of their Protector instead of drawing them away 
from Him, and their earnest cries for help would 
quickly call down hot lightnings upon their daring 
foe. But he would present himself in the form of an 
inferior and subject animal, from which they would 
never suspect harm. For, like all his children of this 
world, Satan, though proud even to destruction, can 
yet degrade himself to the very dust in order to carry 
out his purposes. 

He would not essay the man and the woman together : 
Reasons which seem for Combined they might uphold one 
'Ll^::^lTZ^tt another in the obedience and love of 
assault upon Eve. God, And he wcU knew that, if he 
were once detected and baffled, a second attempt would 
be attended with far more serious difficulties ; nay, 
might by some appeal of Adam to God be rendered 
altogether impracticable. 

Again ; two reasons seem to have deterred him from 
tempting Adam alone. For had he commenced by 
overcoming the man, and then through him worked the 
fall of the woman, her ruin would have been incom- 


plete : she would not have been wholly without excuse 
before God, since she would have acted under the 
orders or influence of the one whom He had set over 

And secondly; man, as we have before seen, consists 
of three parts, spirit, soul, and body ; and of these the 
soul is predominant in consequence of its power over 
the body. Now it is just in this point that the weak- 
ness of man lies, in the fact that his body is psychic 
and not spiritual. But Adam was created directly 
from the image of God, Eve only mediately so. If, 
then, the man was an imperfect image through the 
predominance of his soul, this defect would naturally 
be increased in the woman, who would, therefore, be 
the more susceptible of outward form and beauty, and 
of all emotions connected with the sense- and self- 
consciousness, while the influence of her spirit would 
be proportionally diminished. On this second account 
also Satan would seem to have chosen her as the fittest 
object for his first attack. 

Influenced, then, by some such considerations as 
, these, the spirits of evil either watched 

Eve IS enticed to the 

locaiityof the forbidden till Adam was absent, or, perhaps, by 
""■ that mysterious power which we often 

feel but cannot explain, drew him away from his wife, 
and, when she was left alone, enticed her through the 
garden towards the tree in its midst. It may be that 
their suggestions set her musing on the strangeness of 
God's prohibition. Wherefore did He plant the tree 
in their garden if they were not to enjoy it .'' What 
so great difference could there be between it and the 
other trees of which they might eat at pleasure ? And 
then, perhaps, a foolish curiosity may have moved her 


to examine the forbidden object, in order to see if she 
could detect its pecuHarity. 

J3ut, however it happened, she at any rate suffered 
herself to be allured to the fatal spot, and so gave 
opportunity to the Devil. For we should keep as far 
as possible from that which is prohibited, nor ever 
tempt God by unnecessarily approaching it, either 
through curiosity or any other impelling cause. Had 
Eve avoided the vicinity of the tree, she could never 
have cast upon it that look which ruined herself and 
the world. And how many of her descendants have 
worked their own woe in the same way, by lingering 
on the borders of wrong, by too curiously examining, 
by wishing to understand too well, that which they 
knew to be evil ! 

While Eve was standing near the tree a serpent 

The Tempter appears approachcd and addressed her. The 

in the form of a serpent, f^^,^ ^^i^X she was not startlcd by such 

which at that time was J 

probably the most at- an occurrcnce scems to point to the 

tractive, as well as the . - . , , . 

most intelligent, of the existence oi an mtelligent communica- 
beasts of the field. ^j^^ bctwccn man and the inferior 

creatures before the fall. But we must not, of course, 
think of the serpent as the repulsive and venomous 
reptile to which we now feel an instinctive antipathy. 
For it had not then been cursed, but held itself upright, 
the most intelligent and, probably, the most beautiful 
of all the beasts of the field. It is an interesting fact 
that in that remarkable sculpture — the oldest survfvdng 
representation of the fall — which was found in the 
temple of Osiris at Phylae, Eve is seen offering the 
fruit to Adam, the tree is between them, and the serpent 
stands by in an erect posture. Perhaps it sustained 
itself by wings ; and indeed the epithet " flying " is 


applied to the saraph or fiery species in a passage of 
Isaiah.* The creature was, then, free from venom, and 
not improbably winged, while its scales glittered in the 
sun like burnished gold. Perhaps, too, it was recog- 
nized by Eve as the most intelligent and most com- 
panionable of all animals ; and thus in every way it 
would be the most fitted for pleasing her eye and 
attracting her attention. 

Little did she suspect that a powerful enemy lurked 
beneath that beautiful and apparently innocent form : 
as little as did the disciples imagine that their own and 
their Master's bitter foe was sitting at meat with them 
in the body of Judas Iscariot. Nor can we at any 
time be sure of our safety from similar ambuscades. 
But there is one test always possible, which, like 
Ithuriel's spear, compels Satan to assume his true 
form, and which might have saved Eve, We should 
surmise the worst, and act accordingly, as soon as we 
hear one suggestion opposed to God's will and laws : 
and we should be so much the more on our guard in 
proportion as it comes from an unlikely source, and is 
craftily mingled with truth. 

" Can it be true that God has forbidden you to eat 
The first words of of any trcc of the garden > " began the 
Satan to Eve. scrpcnt, Pcrhaps the fact that Eve was 

casting a longing eye upon the tree and yet abstained 
from touching it suggested this crafty question. Simple 
as it may at first appear, it was wondrously full of 
fascinating guile, marvellously adapted to the purpose 
of disturbing the moral being of Eve, and so preparing 
the way for its complete subversion. The tempter 
affects to think that she abstains because God has 
* Isa. xiv. 29. 


affects to think that she abstains because God has 
harshly forbidden herseir and her husband to touch 
any of the beautiful fruit around them. And so by 
his brief, but most skilful, interrogation he begins to 
envelop her in the mists of error from at least five 
outspringing suggestions. First ; he throws her off 
her guard by his assumed ignorance. Secondly ; he 
stirs up vanity from the depths of her self-consciousness 
by giving her an opportunity to correct and instruct 
him. Thirdly ; he uses the term Elohim, and not the 
covenant name Jehovah, to represent the Creator as 
far distant, and as having but little concern with His 
creatures. Fourthly ; he puts in a doubt as to whether 
God had uttered the prohibition, and hints at the 
possibility of a mistake. And lastly ; he insinuates 
the blasphemous thought that harshness and caprice 
on God's part are not inconceivable, but may sometimes 
be expected. 

The blinding effects of this question are immediately 
Her answer show-; evidcnt iH Eve's answcr. She replies 
d'oubt\'^d''T"rir"ady that thcy may eat of the other trees of 
caught m the snare, ^hg garden, and are only warned off 
from the one in its midst. Of this alone God had said, 
" Ye shall not eat of it, neither shall ye touch it, lest 
ye die." But God had not prohibited them to touch 
it : and hence we seem to see in the exaggeration of 
this added clause a secret discontent and an inclina- 
tion to set the command of the Almighty in as harsh 
a light as possible. 

Nor is this all : not only does she increase the strin- 
gency of the law, but she also weakens the penalty. 
God had said, " Thou shalt surely die," which she alters 
into, " lest ye die." Doubt was already doing its work 



in her mind, she was now prepared to hear the truth of 
God openly denied. 

And yet again she follows Satan's lead into the dark, 
and speaks of her Creator and Benefactor as Elohim — 
the Power, mighty indeed, but to men vague, distant, 
and almost unknown — instead of Jehovah, the God in 
covenant with her husband and herself. Satan wished to 
banish from her heart all thought of a near and closely 
connected God, and she accepts his suggestion and 
co-operates with him. For the image of Jehovah is 
rapidly fading from her mind, and self and sin are 
beginning to take its place. 

Solemn is the warning which the analysis of her 
thoughts affords to her descendants, to the offspring by 
whom her own sad path is ceaselessly trodden. For 
how often, when we are perfectly aware of some direct 
command of God which we do not wish to obey, are 
we seduced into an exaggeration of its magnitude and 
its inconvenience, till at length, by the continual play 
of evil imaginings, we almost arrive at its impossibility. 
At the same time we strive to diminish its importance, 
and the penalty which its neglect is likely to involve, 
not perceiving that, while we are thus working out our 
own will in defiance of the will of God, His Holy Spirit 
is gradually withdrawing from us, and that our God- 
consciousness — or, as it would be ordinarily termed, 
religious feeling — is becoming weaker and weaker. 
Not so, however, the sin within us, which is proportion- 
ally growing and acquiring strength, till at last, when 
our eyes are again opened, we find it like some horrible 
tumour, which, loathsome and painful as it is to bear, 
has been so long neglected that it will scarce leave life 
in us if it be removed. 


Satan quickly perceived the state of Eve's mind: his 

Satan follows up his pl^n was succecding: she had begun to 

advantage by a daring doubt. He instantlv prcsscd on his 

accusation of God, and iiii- i- -i 

an appeal to Eve's attacK by a bold he combined with a 
''''""^" truth, indeed, so far as it went, but one 

presented in characteristically Satanic fashion, so that 
the woman might miss its real import, and interpret it 
in accordance with her own rising vanity. " Ye shall 
not surely die," said this liar from the beginning, thus 
daring to place his own assertion in opposition to the 

And Eve believed him ; believed this beast of the field, 
as she supposed him to be, rather than the great Creator 
of all things! Earth laden with her countless tombs is 
ever sighing for the credulity : Ocean, as his chasingwaves 
roll over the bones of multitudes lying amid their un- 
heeded treasures, moans in response : and Hades, while 
his vast realms are being daily peopled by fresh colonies 
of unclothed spirits, solemnly proclaims that God is true. 

" For God doth know," pursued the Tempter, " that 
in the day ye eat thereof, then your eyes shall be 
opened, and ye shall be as God," — for so we ought to 
translate — " knowing good and evil." Truly Jehovah 
did know this : but why did it not occur to Eve that 
He must also have known more ; that this opening of 
their eyes would be no addition to their happiness, but 
harmful and destructive ,-' Could she not by a moment's 
reflection perceive the fearful responsibility which the 
knowledge of evil would necessarily involve, and bless 
the Lord Who had spared her from its perils .^ Or 
could she not, at least, trust Him Who had called her 
into being, and of Whose hands from that time she had 
received nothing but good, and turn with horror from 


the blasphemous impiety which suggested to her the 
possibility of in any way raising herself to His height ? 
She could not, for she was deceived : her reason was 
perverted by desire ; the vision of self-exaltation had 
intoxicated her. There was no error in Satan's judg- 
ment : he had detected the weakest point when he 
appealed to her vanity and suggested to her the idea of 
becoming as God. 

Does not the readiness with which she received the 
daring thought show the necessity of our present state 
of weakness ? Does it not sufficiently explain the fact 
that a broken and a contrite heart is the first indispen- 
sable condition of entering into the Kingdom of the 
Heavens?* And do we not continually perceive, both 
in ourselves and others, the workings of that feeling 
upon which Satan played in the case of our first parent? 
Does it not appear in self-will, which is the determina- 
tion to be obeyed as God instead of obeying ? Is it 
not evident in pride and conceit, whether arising from 
birth, ability, beauty, wealth, or any other source ? May 
it not be traced in that boundless self-confidence which 
puts forth its own wisdom and opinions as alone worthy 
of notice, and expects them to be received with grati- 
tude and deferred to by all ? And, perhaps, its very 
worst aspect is seen in the complacency with which men 
listen to reproof and correction richly deserved by them- 
selves, but which they forthwith apply only to others. 
Carried away, then, by the new feeling aroused in 
_ ^ ^ . . her, Eve turned and gazed upon the 

The temptation of _ & I 

Eve compared with that tree, while Satau pHcd her with the 
° °'" ' three temptations which from that time 

he has ever employed to ruin the human race — the 

* Matt. V. 3. 


lust of the flesh, the lust of the eyes, and the pride of 

She saw that the tree was good for food. That was 
the lust of the flesh, and corresponded to the Lord's 
temptation to turn stones into bread. But how different 
the circumstances and the result ! Eve was surrounded 
with plenty, every other tree in the garden was hers : 
yet she must needs cast a longing eye upon that which 
had not been given ; her pride and self-v/ill make that 
one seem more desirable than all the rest. The Lord 
was in the midst of a desert and faint from hunger : 
yet He would not break through the limits of His 
manhood, but submiissively waited till His Father sent 

Again ; Eve saw that the tree was pleasant to the 
eye. That was the lust of the eyes, and corresponded 
to the offer of all the kingdoms of this world and their 
glory to Christ. And though the whole garden was 
filled with objects of beauty on which she might have 
gazed with lawful pleasure, Eve, nevertheless, discarded 
them all for that which God had forbidden. The 
Lord, on the other hand, as man possessed nothing, and 
yet refused with indignation the accumulated beauties 
glories and pleasures of the whole world spread out in 
one view before His gaze. 

Lastly ; Eve saw that the tree was a tree to be 
desired to make one wise. That was the pride of life, 
and corresponded to our Lord's temptation to throw 
Himself from the pinnacle of the temple. Eve wished 
to raise her condition, and yet there was none greater 
than herself upon earth save her husband. But the 
Lord, though despised and rejected of men, and known 
only as the carpenter's son of Nazareth, refused to 


descend from the pinnacle of the temple, and be at 
once hailed b\- the assembled multitude below as the 
long expected sign from heaven, as the royal Messiah. 
Eve had thus first given way to doubt, afterwards 
Triumph of the Submitted to hear direct contradiction of 
LTi:«ivcdfbt'^inrd God. and lastly turned to gaze upon the 
deliberately. forbiddcn trcc. Then the torrent of her 

desire rose with such impetuous violence that it carried 
away every barrier ; and without waiting to consult her 
husband, without pausing to think of her God, she put 
forth her hand, and in a moment the fatal deed, which 
nearly six thousand years have not sufficed to obliterate, 
was accomplished. The days of Eve's innocence were 
ended : and shortly afterwards, upon the arrival of her 
husband, she afforded another sad instance of that 
selfishness of sin, of that insatiable and reckless desire 
on the part of the fallen to involve others in their own 
miserable ruin, which had been previously exhibited 
by Satan. For the tempted immediately became the 

Now Paul expressly tells us that Adam was not 
deceived, but only the woman.* For she, when Satan 
made known to her the qualities of the fruit, at once 
admitted as the only possible explanation of God's pro- 
hibition that He was either ungracious or feared rivals. 
But Adam probably saw both the impiety and the utter 
folly of such an imagination, knew that the command 
was undoubtedly given in God's wisdom for their good, 
and was, perhaps, not a little confirmed in this view by 
the condition in which he found his wife. We seem, 
therefore, to be driven upon the supposition that exces- 
sive love bent him to her entreaties, and made him 

* I Tim. ii. 14. 


determine to share her fate. And herein we see his 
unfitness to receive such a gift from God ; for though 
he had done well to love her better than himself, he 
was hopelessly entangled in the snare of folly when he 
so idolised her as to transgress for her sake the law of 
her Creator. 

Thus did the Prince of this World prevail. The new 
creation had been seduced to rebellion ; there was no 
longer any bar to the resumption of his dominion. 
Forth from the ground he rose triumphant, and ex- 
panded his shadowy wings over the recovered territory, 
impeding the pure rays of God's sun, and dropping 
thick the poisonous mists of sin, under which earth's 
flowers faded, her fruits withered, her plenty was 
restrained, and she brought forth evil as well as good. 




The sin was irrevocably committed : the Tempter had 
, , triumphed. But what of the affirm a- 

The nature of the '■ 

covering of glory which tion, " Your cycs shall be opened, and 

our first parents lost. 1111 /-<ii • 1 1 

ye shall be as God, knowmg good and 
evil " ? Alas ! it had indeed proved true ; but in a 
fashion widely differing from Eve's expectation. For 
in the impetuosity of her pride she had not tarried to 
reflect that the knowledge of God must needs be 
fraught with destructive peril to those who have 
neither the wisdom nor the power of God. Her eyes 
and those of her husband were indeed opened ; but 
only to see themselves, to behold their own sad 
condition of nakedness and shame. For now they 
became suddenly conscious of the vilencss of that flesh 
which had been the medium of their transgression ; 
they were bewildered with the painful sense of a fall 
from the eminence on which God had placed them, of 
their resemblance to the brutes around them, nay, even 
of their unfitness to be seen. 

And these feelings seem to have been intensified in 
no small degree by an instant and visible change in 
their outward appearance. For while they remained 
in obedience, the spirit which God had breathed into 


them retained its full power and vigour. Its pervading 
influence defended their whole being from the inroads 
of corruption and death ; while at the same time its 
brightness, shining through the covering of flesh, shed 
a lustrous halo around them ; so that the grosser 
element of their bodies was concealed within a veil of 
radiant glory.* And thus, as the rulers of creation, 
they were strikingly distinguished from all the creatures 
which were placed under them. 

But their sin was only made possible by a league of 
soul and body which destroyed the balance of their 
being. The overborne spirit was reduced to the con- 
dition of a powerless and almost silent prisoner ; and, 
consequently, its light faded and disappeared. Its 
influence was gone ; it could no longer either preserve 
their bodies from decay, or clothe them in its glory as 
with a garment. The threat of God was an accom- 
plished fact ; the reign of death had commenced. 

Nor is it difficult to prove that the recovery of a 

At the coming of visiblc glory will be the instant result 

Christ the sons of God of the restoratlon of spirit soul and 

will be manifested by 

the restoration of the body to perfect ordcr and harmony, the 

lost covering. . /• t ^ i- ii c 

Sign oi our manifestation as the sons of 
God. But it will then shine with far more intense 
brilliancy than it did in Adam : for, as we have before 
seen, the body of unfallen man was not a spiritual 
body. The spirit did indeed exercise a mighty and 
vigorous influence, but the soul was the ruling power, 
even as it continues to be : for the first man became a 
living soul.f But when the resurrection, or the change 

* Compare the description of God in Psalm civ. 2 ; — " Who 
coverest Thyself with light as with a garment." 
t I Cor. XV. 45. 


consequent upon our Lord's return, takes place, our 
bodies will become spiritual : * the God-consciousness 
will be supreme in us, holding both soul and body in 
absolute control, and shedding forth the full power of 
its glory without let or hindrance. 

Hence in speaking of that time Daniel says; — "And 
they that be wise shall shine as the brightness of the 
firmament ; and they that turn many to righteousness 
as the stars for ever and ever."f So, too, the Lord 
Himself declares ; — " Then shall the righteous shine 
forth as the sun in the kingdom of their Father." if 

And yet again ; both John and Paul tell us that, 
when we are summoned into the presence of the Lord 
Jesus, we shall be like Him, that He will change the 
body of our humiliation into the likeness of the body 
of His glory.§ Nor are we left in ignorance as regards 
the nature of the body of His glory ; for upon the 
mount of transfiguration He permitted the chosen three 
to behold the Son of Man as He will appear when 
He comes in His kingdom. Then His Spirit, ever 
restrained and hidden during His earthly sojourn, was 
suddenly freed, and in an instant His whole person was 
beaming with splendour ; so that His face did shine as 
the sun, and His raiment was white as the light. || 

The man and his wife were ashamed ; and that fact 

Attempt of Adam and was the oue glcam of hope in their 

Eve to supply them- horizon. For had they been dead to 

selves with a covering -' 

by artificial means. the shamc of guilt, thcy would have 
differed in nothing from evil spirits : their salvation 
would have been impossible. But the existence of this 
feeling showed that the God-consciousness within them 

• I Cor. XV. 44. t Dan. xii. 3. % Matt. xiii. 43. 

§ I John iii. 2; Phil. iii. 21. fl Matt. xvii. 2. 


though overwhelmed, was not altogether extinguished. 
The blaze had dimmed, but the flax was still smoking, 
and might even yet be fanned into flame again by the 
Spirit of God. 

Bewildered by their altered condition they im- 
mediately tried to supply the lost covering artificially, 
even as their descendants have ever since been doing. 
For every living creature, whether of earth, air, or sea, 
has its own proper covering, not put on from without, 
but developed naturally from within ; man alone is 
destitute and compelled to have recourse to artificial 
aids, because through sin he has lost his natural power 
of shedding forth a most glorious raiment of light. 
And hence we may see why our Lord preferred the 
robe of the humble lily to all the magnificence of 
Solomon.* For the splendid array of the Israelitish 
king was foreign, and put on from without ; whereas 
the beauty of the lily is developed from within, and is 
the simple result of its natural growth. 

Scarcely had the fallen pair arranged their miserable 
The inquisition, garments when they heard the voice of 
the Lord God, that voice which had hitherto been their 
greatest joy. But how different did it now seem, 
though its tones were as yet unaltered I They fled in 
terror to the shrubs of the garden, and endeavoured to 
hide themselves. Vain attempt ! While we are com- 
mitting sin we may, perhaps, succeed in putting away 
all thought of God, and persuade ourselves that, because 
we have forgotten Him, therefore He neither sees nor 
regards us. But when He comes forth for judgment 
this delusion is no longer possible : there is no escape : 
there may not even be delay : we must, however 
* Matt. vi. 29. 


unprepared, meet Him face to face. At the call of God 
Adam is forced to leave his hiding place. With 
trembling steps he creeps into the presence of his 
Maker, and is first constrained to acknowledge that he 
had fled through shame, and then that the shame arose 
from his transgression of the only commandment 
imposed upon him. But his confession is not a frank 
one, and he gives a miserable proof of his fallen 
condition, of the loss of all the royalty of his original 
nature, in his attempt to cast the blame upon his wife, 
nay, even to censure God Himself. " The woman," he 
says, " whom Thou gavest to be with me, she gave me 
of the tree, and I did eat." 

Nor, when the Lord turns to her, is the answer of 
Eve more satisfactory than that of her husband. For 
she does not plead guilty, and throw herself upon God's 
mercy ; but would lay all the fault upon the serpent, 
as though she were not a responsible agent. 

The Lord hears what the two culprits have to say. 

The judgment of the ^"^. patieutly givcs them every oppor- 

serpent, and the curse tunity of defending thcmsclves : but 

upon all cattle. -, t t , 1 -r -r . 

when He turns to the serpent His 
manner changes. He asks the Tempter no questions, 
gives him no chance of defence ; but, treating him as 
already condemned, immediately pronounces sentence. 
What deep thoughts are suggested by this change of 
procedure ; what fearful antecedents of rebellion seem 
to float like spectres in the gloom of this instant and 
hopeless judgment ! 

" Because thou hast done this." There is to be no 
mistake as to the reason of the curse : it is no accident, 
no merely natural misfortune ; but the deeply-burnt 
brand which testifies to God's abhorrence of him who 


brought sin into the new world. The first part of the 
sentence has immediate and literal reference to the 
serpent which co-operated with Satan ; but there is in 
it a wondrous type of the degradation of the Son of 
the Morning himself. 

The words, " Thou art cursed above all cattle," seem 
to imply a general curse upon the animal kingdom 
which is not elsewhere mentioned. Possibly it fell 
upon tha< part of creation, not through Adam's sin, but 
because the serpent, the head and representative of the 
beasts of the field, yielded itself as an instrument of evil. 
And that the curse should thus extend to every animal 
is not more marvellous than the transmission of sin 
through Adam to the whole human race. The cause 
of the fact in either case has not been revealed to us : 
the secret is one of those deep things which we cannot 
know now, but may understand hereafter when the 
mystery of God shall be finished. 

Certainly, however, there is some strange bond con- 
necting together the creatures of our world, so that all 
are mysteriously affected by, and in a measure respon- 
sible for, the conduct of each. This seems to be a 
great law of creation, and is, perhaps, intended, in part 
at least, as a means of preserving unity. At any rate 
Paul, when treating of its application to the Church, 
puts forth as its object, " that there should be no 
schism in the body." * And how welcome will be its 
fulfilment when, just as we have been born into sin 
through the transgression of Adam, we shall all be 
made the righteousness of God in Christ. 

From the first clause of the sentence upon the 
serpent it is clear that the creature did not originally 

* I Cor. xii. 25. 


crawl upon its belly. Its structure must, therefore, 

The original form of havc bcen entirely changed, and one 

the serpent was alto- ^j^^ j^ j^^^ biassed by any wish to 

gether changed by the _ •' ^ ^ 

curse. prove the inspiration of Scripture re- 

marks ; — 

" It is agreed that the organism of the serpents is 
one of extreme degradation; their bodies are lengthened 
out by the mere vegetative repetitions of the vertebrae ; 
like the worms, they advance only by the ring-like 
scutes of the abdomen, without fore or hinder limbs ; 
though they belong to the latest creatures of the animal 
kingdom, they represent a decided retrogression in the 
scale of beings." * 

By the words, " Dust shalt thou eat," we are not, 
Signification of the pcrhaps, to Understand that dust should 
words, "Dust Shalt thou be thc scrpcnt's only food; but that 
having no organs wherewith to handle 
its prey, it would be compelled to eat it from the 
ground, and so to swallow dust with it. " All its food 
has the flavour of dust," says a Jewish commentary. 

And since in undergoing this visible punishment the 
serpent is a type of Satan, with whom it directly co- 
operated, its condition is hopeless, and will not be 
improved when the remainder of creation is delivered 
from the bondage of corruption. Even in Millennial 
times dust will still be the serpent's meat, and then, 
perhaps, its only food, f The sight of its degradation, 
and the more frightful spectacle of the carcases in the 
valley of Jehoshaphat, % will serve as warnings against 
sin during the Millennial age. 

• Kalisch's " Genesis," p. 125. 
t Isa. Ixv. 25. 
X Isa. Ixvi. 24. 



So far the sentence seems to have no more than a 
_ . , typical reference to Satan. But in the 

The enmity between •' '■ 

the serpent and the following clauscs the serpcnt bcgins to 
*'°'"^"' recede from view, and the great Adver- 

sary, who had been concealed within it, is dragged 
forth to judgment, and hears of the frustration of his 
hopes, of the brevity of his triumph, and of his terrible 
and inevitable doom. Wonderfully pregnant with 
meaning are the few words of this first of prophecies : 
for they contain the germ of all that has since been 
revealed, and afford a remarkable proof of the consist- 
ency of God's purposes, of His perfect knowledge of 
the end from the beginning. 

Satan had deluded Eve into an alliance with himself 
against the Creator ; but God would break up the 
confederation : the covenant with Death should be 
disannulled : the agreement with Hell should not 
stand. " I will put enmity between thee and the 
woman," were His almighty words to the abashed and 
speechless serpent. Nor was it difficult for Satan to 
divine the meaning of this separation : he was cast 
out to perdition, but Eve the Lord would save. 

Henceforth, therefore, deprived of her beautiful home, 
driven into the accursed and uncultivated earth, and 
subjected to toil, pain, and a gradual decay which 
should at last terminate in complete dissolution, she 
should know that her false friend was the cause of all 
her misery, and so regard him as her bitterest foe. 

On the other hand, the mere fact that the woman 
would no longer be willing to subserve his purposes 
would have sufficed to provoke the anger of the fallen 
angel. Yet God presently gave him a far sharper 
incentive to hatred, when He declared that the seed 


of the deceived woman should ultimately destroy her 

For the enmity should not be confined to the serpent 
The seed of the and the woman, but should also extend 
'^^°*- to their seed. Who, then, are the seed 

of the serpent } They are those who manifest that 
spirit of independent pride by which their father the 
Devil fell : those who will not acknowledge their own 
hopeless condition, and submit to be saved by the 
merits of the Son of God ; but will either themselves 
do what is to be done, or else proudly deny the necessity 
of any doing at all, and clamour against God — if they 
have any belief in His existence — because He does not 
at once gratify all their wishes without any reference 
to His broken law. For blinded and maddened by 
self-conceit they believe the lie of the serpent, and, 
considering themselves as God, have, consequently, no 
reverence for Him, nor hesitate to defy His will if their 
own inclination prompts them to do so. Such are the 
serpent's seed, distinguished by the spirit which animates 
their father and federal head, and doomed at last to 
share with him the Lake of Fire. 

Nor was it long before this seed appeared m the 
person of Cain, " who," as the apostle tells us, " was of 
that Wicked One, and slew his brother." * Very signi- 
ficant is the remark which John adds to this declara- 
tion ; — " And wherefore slew he him } Because his 
own works were evil, and his brother's righteous." In 
other words the predicted enmity was the sole cause of 
the murder. 

Our Lord when on earth did not fail to recognise 
the seed of the serpent in those sinners whose contra- 
* I John iii. \z. 


diction He endured. " O generation of vipers," * He 
cries, using a phrase which had already issued from the 
lips of His forerunner, " how can ye, being evil, speak 
good things ?" By these words He clearly designates 
the Pharisees as a brood of " that old serpent, called the 
Devil and Satan, which deceiveth the whole world." f 
Yet again He exclaims ; — " Ye serpents, ye generation 
of vipers, how can ye escape the damnation of Hell ?" :|: 
For being the serpent's seed they must share the ser- 
pent's fate. 

The reference in both passages is obvious : but, if 
there could be any doubt,- it would be entirely dispelled 
by a third utterance, in which, throwing aside all figure, 
the Lord plainly says ; — " Ye are of your father the 
Devil, and the lusts of your father ye will do." § 

Thus far there is no difficulty ; but the significance 
The seed of the of the term, " sccd of the woman," is 

woman is the Lord . • j • x. 1 ^ t*! 

Jesus, Who was born "ot SO immediately apparent. The 
of a virgin. whole human race cannot be meant, as 

the previous remarks show. Nor would mankind in 
general be called the seed of the woman, but of the 
man ; and God is here speaking of the seed of the 
woman exclusively. For she first sinned, and was the 
cause of sin to her husband and ruin to the world. 
Therefore she had a double punishment : but lest the 
blame should rest too heavily upon her, lest she should 
be swallowed up by over-much sorrow, she was by 
God's mercy appointed to be the sole human agent 
in bringing the Deliverer into the world. 

Nor is it difficult to discover that Deliverer : for 
there is none but Christ who could in a strictly literal 

* Matt. xii. 34. % Matt, xxiii. 33. 

t Rev. xii. 9. § John viii. 44. 


sense be called the seed of the woman. Here, then, 
we have a wonderful example of the consistency of 
Scripture ; since in this primeval prophecy, uttered four 
thousand years before its accomplishment, we find it 
declared that the Lord Jesus should be born of a 
virgin. Had our translators perceived this they might 
have avoided a mistake. For in the well-known pre- 
diction of Isaiah, * as also in the quotation from it in 
the first chapter of Matthew, f they have adopted the 
rendering, " a virgin," in defiance of the original which 
has "the virgin" in both passages. They did not 
understand the meaning of the definite article, and, 
therefore, cut the knot of the difficulty by omitting it 
from their version. But Isaiah is evidently referring 
to the sentence passed upon the serpent, and speaks 
of the particular virgin who should be chosen as the 
human instrument for the fulfilment of God's purpose. 
Thus Christ is the literal seed of the woman. But 
The predicted enmity J^^t as all thosc who wilfully dcny thc 
between the seeds is truth in ungodHucss are the seed of 

being manifested in the , 

ceaseless conflict of the the scrpcnt, SO tlicrc IS also a seed that 

Church and the World. ,i -r j+' ^.i^tt* 

serves the Lord,; is accounted to Him 
for a generation, and reckoned as one with Him. He 
and His Church are one, He is the Head and they are 
the body : He and they together make up the mystical 

And hence we see the enmity of which God spoke 
in the long vista of estrangement and bitter conflict 
between the Church and the World. We behold on 
the one side the alternations of malignant persecution 
and treacherous flattery ; on the other a patient en- 
durance, and a rendering of blessing for cursing. Yet 

* Isa. vii. 14. t Matt. i. 2^, % Psalm xxii. 30. 


the part of the Church is not altogether confined to 
suffering, but is also continually aggressive. For the 
children of light are first found wandering among those 
that dwell in darkness : the lost sheep are ever straying 
into the midst of the wolves, and must be boldly sought 
and led out of danger by those who have been them- 
selves rescued from similar perils. 

But was there no hope : should the painful and 
The issue of the con- evcr-varyiug struggle go on for ever .? 
flict. The two advents, jsjo^ jt should find its end at last: it 
should be decided after many years by a deadly conflict 
between the seed of the woman and the old serpent 
himself. Christ should bruise the serpent's head, should 
deal a mortal blow : not, however, before the serpent 
had bruised His heel, had wounded Him sore, but not 
fatally, not in a vital part. 

Here, then, we have the germ of all prophecy re- 
specting the two advents of Christ. In the bruising 
of the heel we recognise His first coming to suffer what 
appeared to be an utter defeat ; to find that His own 
would not receive Him ; to endure the contradiction 
and insults of the serpent's seed ; to be rejected of His 
generation ; and finally, to lay down His life and pass 
for a short season under the dominion of him that hath 
the power of death. And the bruising of the serpent's 
head is in after prophecies developed into the second 
coming of Christ, with power and great glory, to drive 
the false king from air and earth, and cast him bound 
into the abyss. Nay, it even looks beyond this and 
the post-Millennial rebellion to the final destruction of 
Satan and his consignment for ever to the Lake of Fire 
and Brimstone. 

So far as God's words to the serpent are concerned 


the two great events which they foreshadow might have 
been ahnost simultaneous. And, indeed, throughout 
the Old Testament the advents are generally treated as 
if there were no interval between them. The Israelitish 
prophets beheld them in the remote future just as we 
might look upon some far-off mountain peaks, each 
more distant than the other, which from our first stand- 
point seem, indeed, to be very near together, but disclose 
as we journey on an ever-widening breadth of valley 
between them. 

Such was the curse pronounced upon the serpent. 

The judgment of the And here we cannot but pause in 

serpent was the first amazcmeut, and render thanks for the 

outlet of God s mercy ' 

to fallen man. great mcrcy vouchsafed to the fallen 

parents of our race. God could not, indeed, give 
Adam a direct promise at a time when the man was 
waiting as a condemned criminal to receive sentence. 
Therefore His lovingkindness devised the plan of first 
pronouncing judgment upon the serpent, and therein 
implying that the fallen should not sink hopelessly to 
the condition of their deceiver, but be set in sharp 
opposition to him ; until, after a painful struggle, the 
woman's conquering seed should bruise him under their 
feet, and make both the death from which they shrank, 
but must now undergo, and Hades the dread place of 
unclothed spirits, to pass away for ever.* And so a 
bright ray of hope broke in through their despair, and 
they were strengthened to hear their own doom of woe. 
Having thus passed sentence upon the Tempter the 
The sentence upon Lord ncxt tumcd to the womau, who 
the woman. ^^^s the first to yield to temptation. 

For the general sin she was judged in her husband as 
• * Rev. XX. 14. 


being one with him ; but, because she enticed him to 
transgress, she was to bear a special curse superadded 
to that which affected the whole human race. This is 
signified in the words, " I will greatly multiply tJiy 
sorrow " ; the force of which will be seen if we notice 
that Adam also is afterwards doomed to sorrow, the 
same Hebrew word being used in both cases. 

Lastly ; the Lord decrees the punishment of the 
The sentence upon man. Adam had excused himself on 
*^^'"^"- the ground that Eve was his tempter ; 

and God begins by showing that this very fact increased 
the heinousness of his guilt. Had Eve sinned through 
the influence of her husband she would not have been 
without a plea ; for God had made her subject to him 
But that Adam, whose duty as appointed head was to 
watch over, to restrain, to guide, and to rule, his wife 
— that he should so far forget his responsibilities as to 
follow her sinful suggestion, to obey her voice rather 
than God's, was a serious aggravation of his offence. 
Therefore the reason of the curse is, " Because thou 
hast hearkened unto the voice of thy wife, and hast 
eaten of the tree, of which I commanded thee, saying, 
Thou shalt not eat of it." 

The sentence itself is not in the main a direct one, 
as in the case of the serpent, but strikes Adam through 
his surroundings. The earth, his dominion, is cursed ; 
and in that fact wo. see a refutation of all those theories 
respecting the inherent evil of matter which figure so 
prominently in the early history of the nominal Church, 
and are now being revived by the sects of so-called 
Spiritualists. Evil proceeded, not from matter to spirit, 
but from spirit to matter. Adam was not cursed on 
account of the earth, which God had declared to be in 


itself very good ; but the earth was cursed because of 
the sin of Adam, which again originated in the spirit 
of the Evil One. As a punishment for man's trans- 
gression the soil should be henceforth comparatively 
barren. It should no longer yield spontaneous abun- 
dance, but he should be compelled to force out of it, 
with heavy toil and in the sweat of his face, even the 
bare necessaries of life. 

Nor would this be the end of the trouble. Earth 
Thorns and thistles, should now bc the parent of evil as well 

They seem to have re- i i i. • "^i ^.i j 

suited naturally from as good, and, tccmmg With thoms and 
the curse of barrenness, thistlcs, should bafflc and protract the 
labour of its tillers. 

These noxious plants probably existed, though in 
very different condition, before the curse was pro- 
nounced ; and then, owing to the sterility of the 
blighted earth, were no longer able to attain to their 
proper development and luxuriance, and so became 
what they are now found to be, abortions. The fol- 
lowing remarks of Professor Balfour will illustrate this. 

" In looking at the vegetable world in a scientific 
point of view, we see many evidences of the great plan 
upon which the all-wise Creator seems to have formed 
that portion of His works. At the same time there 
are many marks of what we may call, with reverence, 
incompleteness. Thus we see that there is in all 
plants a tendency to a spiral arrangement of leaves 
and branches, etc., but we rarely see this carried out 
fully, in consequence of numerous interruptions to 
growth and abnormalities in development. When 
branches are arrested in growth they often appear in 
the form of thorns or spines, and thus thorns may be 
taken as an indication of an imperfection in the branch. 


" The curse which has been pronounced on the 
vegetable creation may thus be seen in the produc- 
tion of thorns in place of branches — thorns which, 
while they are leafless, are at the same time the cause 
of injury to man. That thorns are abortive branches 
is well seen in cases where, by cultivation, they dis- 
appear. In such cases they are transformed into 
branches. The wild apple is a thorny plant, but on 
cultivation it is not so. These changes are the result 
of a constant high state of cultivation, and may show 
us what might take place were the curse removed. 

" Again ; thistles are troublesome and injurious in 
consequence of the pappus and hairs appended to their 
fruit, which waft it about in all directions, and injure 
the work of man so far as agricultural operations are 
concerned. Now it is interesting to remark that this 
pappus is shown to be an abortive state of the calyx, 
which is not developed as in ordinary instances, but 
becomes changed into hairs. Here, then, we see an 
alteration in the cah'x which makes the thistle a source 
of labour and trouble to man. We could conceive the 
calyx otherwise developed, and thus preventing the 
injurious consequences which result to the fields from 
the presence of thistles. 

" I have thus very hurriedly stated to you what 
occurred to my mind as to the curse of thorns and 
thistles, and I have endeavoured to show that the spines 
and hairs are abortive, and, so to speak, imperfect 
portions of plants. The parts are not developed in full 
perfection like what may have been the case in Eden, 
and like what will take place when the curse is 

Fit objects, then, are the thorn and the thistle to 


remind man of the curse. And keeping their origin 
in view we can see a deep significance in that awful 
scene when our Lord suffered Himself to be crowned 
with thorns, so that even His enemies set Him forth 
as the great Curse-bearer ; when He wore on His 
bleeding brow that which owed its very existence to, 
and was the sign of, the sin which He had come to 

Lastly ; man should no longer eat of the fruits of 
Paradise, but should henceforth find the 

Man must return unto ' 

the dust from whence he staff of his fleeting Hfc in the bread- 
producing herbs of the field, till he 
himself descended into that dust out of which he 
obtained his food : for dust he was, and unto dust 
he should return. 

How did the impious vision raised by Satan vanish 
into blackness at these last words of terror, words 
which have sunk deeply into the heart of man, and 
ever rise to the surface when he finds himself in the 
presence of his God, or when he is brought low and his 
hopes perish ! " Behold now," says Abraham, " I have 
taken upon me to speak unto the Lord, which am but 
dust and ashes."* 

Hence, doubtless, the custom of bowing to the earth, 
and the feeling which prompted the casting of dust on 
the head, in time of bitter affliction, as a sign of broken 
pride and humble acknowledgment of the truth of the 
Creator's words. So Jeremiah says of the man who 
bears the yoke in his youth that "he putteth his mouth 
in the dust, if so be there may be hope."f And in 
regard to the actual return to the dust. Job mournfully 
declares of his hopes ; — " They shall go down to the 

• Gen. xviii. 27. t Lam. iii. 29. 


bars of the pit, when our rest together is in the dust." * 
Yet again he says of the prosperous and the miserable ; 
— " They shall lie down alike in the dust, and the 
worms shall cover them." f 

But as it is to the dust that we go down at death, so 
it is from the dust that we arise at the resurrection. 
" Thy dead men shall live," is the wondrous proclama- 
tion by Isaiah, "together with My dead body shall they 
arise. Awake and sing, ye that dwell in the dust : for 
thy dew is as the dew of herbs, and the earth shall cast 
out the dead." % And Daniel also tells us that, at the 
first resurrection, " many of them that sleep in the dust 
of the earth shall awake." § So, then, even the dust is 
a resting-place of hope for the people of God. 

Thus was sentence pronounced. Upon the serpent 
The beginning of the the judgment was eternal; while the 
"'s**'- man and his wife were doomed to 

degradation and anguish, but not for ever. God then 
seems to have departed, the serpent probably slunk 
away, and Adam and Eve were left alone, like those 
who have just awakened from a dream of peace to find 
themselves pressed down and overwhelmed by every 
kind of misery and fear. 

All around them, beyond the precincts of the garden 
at least, was changing. Earth was reeling under the 
first stroke of the curse : its flowers were fading, its 
fruits were blighted ; the former luxuriance of its 
vegetation could not be supported by the now sterile 
soil and vitiated atmosphere ; the living creatures that 
passed by no longer did homage to their appointed 
lord, but wore in their eyes the wild look "of incipient 

* T 
t J 

ob xvii. 1 6. X Isa. xxvi. 19, 

ob xxi. 26. § Dan. xii. 2. 


savagery. Nay, the very sun — as we may, perhaps, 
infer from a previously quoted passage of Isaiah * — 
seems to have withdrawn six-sevenths of its light ; so 
that, although its beams may still have been as bright 
as ever they are to us, the distraught pair must have 
felt that the shadow of death had fallen upon their 
sickening world. 

The darkness, literal and spiritual, of which Scripture 
so often speaks had set in ; that dread season during 
which the principalities and powers of evil are the world- 
rulers : that gross darkness which is only illumined by 
a few light-holders placed here and there in the gloom, 
whose spirits have been kindled by the Holy Spirit, so 
that they have become lamps of the Lord : that night 
of blackness and horror during which weeping must 
endure, till joy return with the morning : that night in 
regard to which Paul cheered those of his time with the 
assurance that it was even then far spent, the four 
thousand years which had already elapsed being much 
the greater part of it : that night into the breaking 
dawn of which the wise and faithful servants are now 
earnestly gazing in expectation of the appearing of 
their Lord as the bright and morning Star, before He 
rises in all His glory as the Sun of righteousness, and 
restores light and life to the beclouded and death- 
stricken earth. 

Bewildered by these new sensations the fallen ones 
The faith of Adam as remained, perhaps, for a while mute in 
thSt gave^oTi: the torpor of deep and overwhelming 
*^fe- sorrow. But at length the light of 

faith began to steal over the softening countenance of 
Adam : he had laid hold of the implied promise : he 

* Isa. XXX. 26. 


had perceived God's mercy mingled with His judgment, 
had caught a glimpse of light beyond the darkness, and 
felt that there was yet hope in his end. 

And so, taking up again the function of naming 
which God had bestowed upon him, he called his wife 
Eve, that is. Life ; because without cavil or doubt he 
frankly took God at His word, and believed that by the 
promised seed o£^the woman he and his posterity should 
be delivered from the death to which they had become 
liable, and live for ever. Thus, if any feeling of 
estrangement had arisen between the man and his 
wife, it was now removed ; and being through the 
marvellous ways of the great Peacemaker again united 
in heart, they were better prepared to face the troubles 
before them. 

Adam had professed a simple trust in God's promise, 

The coats of skins; thougli hc had but a dim apprehension 
l'stro;'cVl7of: of its meaning, and immediately we 
fered, after His sacri- ^^^ ^j^g Lord returning to the mourners, 

ficial death, to sinners ^ ° _ 

for a covering. and rewarding their faith by further 

mercy and further knowledge. He took away their 
coverings of fig leaves, and clothed them with coats of 
skins. Most significant was the action : for by it He 
testified that their shame was not groundless, that there 
was need of a covering, but that the best the sinners 
could make for themselves was of no avail. They were 
as yet unacquainted with corruption and decay, and 
knew not that the fig leaves would quickly wither and 
fall off, an apt emblem of every device which man has 
ever contrived to cover his shame and fit himself for 
the presence of his Maker. And beyond this, they 
must learn that only by life can life be redeemed ; that 
if the sinner die not, there must be a Substitute ; that 


the Most High is holiness and jwstice as well as love, 
and can by no means clear the guilty. 

Now sacrifice as an expiation must have been or- 
dained by God Himself. Man could never have thought 
of such a thing, or have dared in his worship to take 
the life of one of God's creatures, unless he had been 
commanded to do so. Probably, then, it was at this 
most appropriate time that the Lord instituted the rite 
as a type of the great sacrifice to come. He slew 
the victims, and as He shed their life-blood Adam and 
Eve for the first time gazed upon death with affrighted 
eyes. Then He showed them how to lay the carcases 
upon the altar, that they might be an offering made by 
fire unto the Lord. Finally He took the skins of the 
slain beasts, and made of them the coats with which 
He clothed the trembling pair. 

Thus the Gospel was preached from the beginning : 
the Lamb of God slain from the foundation of the 
world was revealed as soon as sin had made His death 
necessary : the robe of His righteousness, which may 
be put on by every sinner for whom He has died, was 
shown to be the only garment which will effectually 
cover the shame of fallen man. And, by comparing 
the promise of the woman's Seed and the bruising of 
His heel with the slain sacrifice and the coats made 
from the skins of the victims, Adam may have been at 
once able to discern the outline of the great plan of 

But a precaution was now necessary. Man had 
obtained the knowledge of good and 

Adam and Eve are _ *-• ° 

expelled from the Gar- evil witliout the powcr of resisting evil. 

den of Delight. /-r-i c ^ , i • • 

Iherefore he must no longer remam m 
the beautiful garden, lest he should put forth his hand, 


take of the tree of life, and so render his state of sin 
everlasting. For to be immortal in his fallen condition 
would be the greatest of all calamities ; to continue in 
sin for ever would be nothing less than the second 
death. And it was only by passing through the first 
death that man could be restored to spotless innocence 

Hence.after another solemn consultation of the Blessed 
Trinity, the sorrowful, but no longer hopeless, pair were 
expelled from the garden of beauty, and driven into the 
cold world to seek another home. With heavy hearts 
they wended their way amid the towering pyramids of 
green brilliant with ruddy fruit or sprinkled with thick 
blossom, through the bright maze of flowers and verdure, 
until they had passed the great gate, which immediately 
closed behind them. 

They stood without, exiled from their home, under a 
comparatively chilling climate, looking upon a vegetation 
which to them must have seemed stunted and deformed, 
no longer expecting their food directly from the boun- 
teous hand of God, but doomed to labour for it with 
wearisome care and toil. Nor was there any hope of 
deliverance until they had returned to the dust from 
whence they came, until they had rendered up their 
spirits unto Him Who gave them, and left their mortal 
frames motionless and inanimate, even as the slain 
victims upon whose carcases they had lately gazed 
with shuddering awe. 

And now the Garden of Eden disappears from view, 
and is scarcely ever mentioned again until we come to 
the last of the books of revelation. But in the Apoca- 
lypse it rises before us once more in all its pristine 
beauty, and we see the sons of Adam walking on the 


banks of the crystal stream, and no longer excluded 
from the tree of life. 

How this happy restoration shall be effected is the 
subject of the whole Bible, which treats — as the signifi- 
cant fact just noticed indicates — of the dealings by 
which God conducts men round the painful circle from 
Paradise lost to Paradise regained. 

1 1 




Thus the first dispensation ended in failure, yielding 
In the second age ES its rcsult a moumful proof that man 
^herTy^overlrnt i^ a being too Weak to retain his inno- 
°°'''^^- cence even in the most favourable cir- 

cumstances. It now remained to be seen whether after 
the experience of the fall, after tasting the bitter conse- 
quences of sin, he could recover his position and become 
again obedient and holy. Of this God made trial in 
several ways. 

And first, in what we may term the age of free- 
dom, during the lapse of which He left Adam and 
his descendants almost entirely to their own devices. 
Marriage had indeed been instituted : and they were 
instructed to approach God by means of typical sacri- 
fices, and commanded to toil for their bread by tilling 
the earth. But beyond this God would neither Himself 
issue laws nor suffer men to do so. The sword of the 
magistrate might not be used for the repression of 
crime : even the murderer should be unpunished, as we 
may see by the case of Cain. No government was 
permitted : every man should go in his own way, and 
do that which was right in his own eyes. 

Thus the fitness of man for a condition of extreme 
liberty, and the worth of a trust in the innate justice 


supposed to lie at the bottom of the human heart, have 
been already tested by the great Creator. Modern 
philosophers are urging a repetition of the experiment ; 
but the history of the times of old proves the fallacy of 
their views. For the wickedness of man became great ; 
all flesh corrupted its way upon the earth, and the earth 
was filled with violence. And as it was in the days of 
Noah, so shall it be also in the days of the Son of 

Hence a consideration of the second age should be 
peculiarly interesting to us : for it will help us to 
understand our own times, and, by the course of events 
before the Deluge, give us some idea of what may be 
expected in the present dispensation, the closing scenes 
of which seem to be already projecting their dark 
shadows before them. 

After the expulsion of Adam from Paradise God 
The stages of our does not appear to have removed the 
£"71n^Ederrd beautiful garden: but its gates were 
also in the Tabernacle, inexorably closcd, and at the east end 
of it were placed the Cherubim, and the flaming sword 
which turned itself to and fro and guarded every access 
to the tree of life. And so we seem to find here also 
the rudiments of a Tabernacle, just as we found them in 
the Eden of Satan. The tree of life, with the Cherubim 
underneath it, and the Shechinah or glory around it, is 
the Holy of Holies ; Paradise the Holy Place ; and 
Eden, the district in which the garden was planted, the 
Court of the Tabernacle. 

And both in Paradise and in the Tabernacle we 
may, perhaps, discern an outline of our way to God, 
For as the district of Eden was to Adam, so to us is 
• Luke xvii. 26 


this earth, which was once, like Eden, a realm of 
delight, but is now blasted with the curse of sin. The 
fallen Adam prayed and offered up sacrifices before the 
closed gates of Paradise, in sight of the tree of life and 
the glory : and so do we with the eye of faith behold 
the throne of grace beyond the limits of this present 
world, and casting ourselves before it plead the once 
offered sacrifice of Christ. 

But at death the Paradise of God will be thrown 
open to us : for the very word is used in the New 
Testament of the place in which we abide during the 
intermediate state. " To day shalt thou be with Me in 
Paradise," * said our Lord to the dying thief. 

Now the word is of Persian origin, and had a well- 
defined meaning, which the Saviour surely intended to 
suggest when He used it. For the Persian kings and 
nobles were accustomed to surround their palaces with 
parks of vast magnitude, planted with beautiful trees 
and shrubs, and stocked with beasts wild and tame. 
Some suppose these parks to have been reminiscences 
of a tradition of Eden : at any rate a place of the sort 
was called a paradise. And so, by adopting the word, 
Christ appears to indicate that at death we pass, as it 
were, into the wondrous garden that surrounds the 
Father's house, but not into the house itself 

For He declared to His disciples that He was going 
to prepare abodes for them in that glorious palace, and 
would shortly return to fetch them ; t return, as angels 
subsequently announced, in like manner as He went 
up, \ in actual bodily presence. At death, therefore, 
we shall enter into the garden : but only at the return 
of Christ and the resurrection can we obtain access to 

* Luke xxiii. 43. f John xiv. 2, 3. \ Acts i. 11. 


the tree of life whicli is in the midst of the Paradise of 
God,* and which .'-sems to correspond to the actual 
place of the presence. 

So also the Court of the Tabernacle seems to repre- 
sent this present world, during our stay in which we 
must offer up the slain victim on the brazen altar by 
thankfully believing in the sacrifice of Christ, and must 
afterwards be cleansed and sanctified in the laver with 
the washing of water by the word.f 

Then, being clad in the white robes of Christ's 
righteousness, we shall, in the intermediate state, enter 
into the Holy Place, where the implements of our 
service will be no longer of the baser metals — which 
are continually subject to the rust of sin — but only 
of pure gold. 

Lastly; at the resurrection we shall be admitted into 
the Holy of Holies, the dwelling-place of the glory, 
into the mansions prepared for us in the Father's 

Of the Cherubim we must speak as briefly as 
The Cherubim. posslblc ; but the subjcct is very im- 

portant, since these glorious beings appear to be closely 
connected with the redemption of creation. In men- 
tioning them for the first time, the Hebrew original 
nevertheless styles them " tJie Cherubim," from which 
we may infer that their forms were familiar to the 
Israelites of Moses' time; and, therefore, that they were 
the same as those of the Cherubim represented in the 
Tabernacle. Indeed, the words by which they are 
introduced, if literally rendered, are, " And he caused 
the Cherubim to tabernacle at the east of the Garden 
of Eden." The most detailed account of their appear- 

* Rev. ii. 7. t Eph. v. 26. 


ance is that which is contained in the first chapter of 
Ezekiel, which we will now examine. 

The prophet tells us that he was among the 
Ezekiei's description Hcbrew captivcs on the banks of the 
"f'^^""- Chebar, when the heavens were opened 

to him, and he beheld visions of God. He saw a 
storm coming from the north, a mighty cloud having 
an infolding fire within it and a flashing bright- 
ness round about it. In the midst of the fire there 
was, as it were, the glancing of furbished brass : and as 
he gazed upon this glittering splendour with its terrific 
surroundings, it drew nearer to him, and he began to 
distinguish glorious forms. There were four living 
creatures, each standing beside a wheel dreadful in 
height. Stretched over the heads of these wondrous 
beings was the likeness of the firmament, of the colour 
of the terrible crystal. Above the firmament was a 
sapphire throne, and upon the throne the likeness of a 
man radiant with heavenly glory and surrounded with 
the appearance of a rainbow. It was the chariot of the 
Lord : it was Jehovah borne upon the Cherubim, and 
coming forth to judgment. 

Each Cherub was in the form of a man, that is, 
displayed the body and upright position of a man. 
But every one had four faces : the first face was that of 
a man, the second that of a lion, the third that of an 
ox, and the fourth that of an eagle. Now the lion, the 
ox, and the eagle, are the representatives of the beasts 
of the field, of cattle, and of the fowls of the air. Hence 
from this vision arose the Jewish saying ; — " Four are 
the highest in creation : the lion among the beasts, the 
ox among cattle, the eagle among the fowls, and man 
above these ; but God is the highest of all." 


In the temple of Ezekiel* the Cherubim are asso- 
ciated with palm trees, in that of Solomon f with palm 
trees and flowers. Now, the palm was considered to 
be the king of trees. Humboldt calls it " the noblest 
of plants, to which the nations ever assign the prize of 
beauty." And the flower is the glory of the herb of 
the field. 

Thus the Cherubim and the accessories with which 
.they were surrounded seem to have been made up of 
the highest forms of the animal and vegetable kingdoms, 
and to have been representatives of creature life in its 
perfection, and in obedience to and union with its 

Each Cherub had also four sides, and, apparently, six 
wangs, though four only are mentioned at first.^ Of 
these we are told that two were spread out and joined 
to the wings of those on either side, while with another 
pair the Cherubim covered their bodies in reverence. 
But it quickly becomes evident that in the commence- 
ment of the description Ezekiel is speaking only of 
their appearance from one point of view : for a little 
later he tells us that "everyone had two (wings), which 
covered on this side, and every one had two, which 
covered on that side, their bodies." § Underneath their 
wings were the hands of a man, and their feet were 
straight feet, sparkling like the colour of burnished 
brass, and the soles of their feet were as the sole of a 
calf's foot. Lastly ; their whole body, their backs, their 
hands, and their wings, as well as the w"heels beside 
which they stood, were full of eyes, indicative, perhaps, 
of intense vigilance and intelligence. 

• Ezek. xli. i8-2o. \ Ezek. i. 6 

t I Kings vi. 29. § Ezek. i. 22^. 


Each of the wheels was, as it were, a wheel within a 
^ . . J wheel, that is, one wheel passing trans- 

Description and pos- ' ' x o 

sibie significance of the vcrsely through thc Centre of another, so 
that the chariot might go in the direction 
of either of the four faces without turning. In appear- 
ance the wheels were like to the colour of beryl, or 
rather of Chrysolite : their rings, or felloes, were full of 
eyes : and the spirit of life, or, perhaps, of the living 
creature, was in them. Wherever the Spirit of God 
willed to go, thither would the chariot of the Cherubim 
speed and return as the flashing of lightning. 

Since the Cherubim appear to be symbols of 
creature life, it is not improbable that the wheels 
represent the forces of nature ; — " Fire, and hail ; snow, 
and vapours ; stormy wind fulfilling His word."* 

Such were the Cherubim as seen by Ezekiel. And 
The Cherubim aie though thcrc are some differences of 
Sai:! ri.f AJ^if detail— owing, probably, to differences 
'yp^- in the circumstancest — there can be no 

doubt that they are identical with the living creatures 
which John saw at the foot of the throne.| The word 
used in the Apocalypse is a literal translation of 
Ezekiel's " living creature," being indeed the very word 
by which the Hebrew is rendered in that passage of the 
Septuagint. But, unfortunately, in our version of the 
New Testament it is translated " beast," though it 

• Psalm cxlviii. 8. 

t For instance, in Ezekiel each Cherub has four faces, which is 
not the case in the Apocalypse. The reason of the difference 
seems to be that in the former passage, where the Cherubim are 
in attendance upon the chariot of the Lord, their four faces and 
four sides correspond to the wheel passing transversely through 
the centre of the other, and enable them to move in any direc- 
tion without the necessity of turning. But in the Apocalypse 
they are before the Throne, and movement is not required. 

X Rev. iv. 6. 


simply means a living being. It is quite a different 
term from that used of the ten-horned, and also of 
the two-horned, beast of the later chapters. 

Again ; the six-winged Seraphim of Isaiah * seem 
, also to be the same as the Cherubim. 

And probably also 

with the Seraphim of For the number of their wings corre- 
^ sponds, and they hold the same position 

in the glory, just beneath the throne. And again ; 
their cry, " Holy, holy, holy, is the Lord of hosts," is 
similar to that of the living creatures which John saw. 

The word Seraphim appears to signify the " burning 
ones," and perhaps the Cherubim were so called from 
the fervour of their worship. Or it may be that the 
change of name indicates a different function. For the 
Cherubim are represented as taking up coals of fire for 
the execution of the wrath of God : f but a Seraph 
brings a live coal from the altar, and by applying it to 
Isaiah's lips purifies him from his iniquity and sin.f 
Thus it may be that the former name is used when the 
Lord appears as a consuming fire, the latter when His 
glory is acting as a purifying flame. 

The Cherubim are evidently not angels ; for if they 
, were, their connection with the animal 

They are not angels, 

nor do they wield the and Vegetable kingdoms would be with- 
amingswor ^^^ ^ parallel in Scripture. IMoreover 

they are distinguished from angels in two passages cA 
the Apocalypse, in the first of which we read of "many 
angels," and in the second of " all the angels," standing 
round about the Throne, and the Living Creatures, and 
the Elders. § Wherever, therefore, they appear in Scrip- 
ture, whether in the garden of Eden, upon the Ark of 

* Isa. vi. 2. t Tsa, vi. 6, ~. 

t Ezek. X. 7. § Rev. v. 11 ; vii. 11. 


the Covenant, or before the Throne, we must remember 
that they ahvays retain their own peculiar forms. 

Nor did they, according to the popular conception, 
handle the fiery sword which forbade approach to the 
Tree of Life. The Hebrew expressly states that the 
sword turned itself, that is, was a revolving flame, 
corresponding to the glory which appeared above the 
Cherubim in the Tabernacle. 

In the number of the Cherubim we may, perhaps. 
Probable significance disccm another proof of their connec- 
of their number. ^ion with the earth, since four is in 

Scripture, and especially in the Apocalypse, the number 
of terrestrial creation. Thus, among other instances, 
we read of " the four quarters of the earth,"* " the four 
corners of the earth," and " the four winds of the 
earth." t Again ; created beings are described as 
" every creature which is in the heaven, and on the 
earth, and under the earth, and such as are in the 
sea " : + the human race is summicd up as " every tribe, 
and tongue, and people, and nation " ; § and there are 
" four sore judgments " for creation — " the sword, and 
the famine, and the noisome beast, and the pestilence." || 
So, too, the destined earth-rulers were directed, when 
marching through the wilderness, to pitch their tents in 
four camps, turned towards the four cardinal points. IT 
And lastly, the visions of Daniel disclose four world- 
empires, and the breaking into their number by the fifth 
changes the dispensation, and causes the glad cry to go 
forth, " The kingdom of the world is become the king- 
dom of our God and of His Christ." 

* Rev. XX. 8. § Rev. v. 9. 

t Rev. vii. I. II Ezek. xiv. 21. 

J Rev. V. 13. \ Numb. ii. 


Passing then, from these preliminary considerations, 
They appear to stand y^-Q procccd to inquire into the real 

before God as represen- . .. r xi /^i i_ • ^i i 

tativesofthe four earth- Significance of thc Cherubim, the clue 
tribes to which the pro- ^q vvhich sccms to lIc in the terms of 

inises of the Xoachian 

covenant were made. thc rSOachian COVCnant. 

We have already seen that during the Six Days God 
created six tribes of living creatures to inhabit the 
earth — the fish, the fowls of the air, the cattle, the 
creeping things, the beasts of the earth, and man. Of 
these, the first five were placed under the dominion of 
man ; but three of them were subsequently distinguished 
from the others on two memorable occasions. 

When God brought the living creatures to the father 
of our race, "Adam gave names to all cattle, and to 
the fowl of the air, and to every beast of the field " :* 
but he is not said to have done so in the case of the 
fish and of the creeping things. 

And again, there is a similar omission in the Noachian 
covenant, which is expressed in the following terms ; — 
" And I, behold, I establish J^Iy covenant with you, and 
with your seed after you, and with every living creature 
that is with you, of the fowl, of the cattle, and of every 
beast of the earth with you." t 

Now if we observe that the four tribes specially 
included in the covenant — man, the fowls, the cattle, 
and the beasts of the earth — are also those which are 
indicated by the forms of the Cherubim, we shall 
readily perceive the meaning of the latter. They stand 
before God as the representatives of the four great 
earth-tribes wath which He has made a covenant that 
He will never again destroy them utterly from the face 
of the earth. 

* Gen. ii. 20. t Gen. ix. 9, 10. 


Their representative character appears to be still 
further set forth by their Hebrew name D''5'?'5, the 
obvious derivation of which is obtained by separating 
it into CIT^, that is, " as the many." 

And their connection with the Noachian covenant 
would seem to be demonstrated by the additional fact 
that, in two of the three subsequent passages in which 
their forms are minutely described, the great sign of 
that covenant, the rainbow, is seen above them.* In 
the third passage, the tenth chapter of Ezekiel, it is not 
actually mentioned ; nevertheless there also its presence 
is implied, since the prophet observes that the glory of 
the God of Israel appeared on this occasion, just as he 
had previously seen it in the plain. f 

What is signified by the omission of the two tribes, 
The reason why the or at Icast of any spccial mention of 

tribes of fish and creep- .1 . .■< ^• . r a\ i-i 

ing things are neither thcm, m thc lists of thosc which arc 
mentioned nor repre- g^j^ ^.q j^^^g ^ccn namcd by Adam, and 

sented in the covenant •' ' 

u uncertain. to havc bccn includcd in the Noachian 

covenant, and why they are not represented in the 
symbolism of the Cherubim, it is difficult to conjecture. 
If we also remember that sin entered into our world 
through the medium of the serpent, and that in the 
renewed earth there will be no more sea, we may be 
led to infer that the tribes of creeping things and fish 
will ultimately disappear. On the other hand, it is 
possible that they may be included in the higher forms 
of life. Still, however this may be, it does not interfere 
with the fact that the Cherubim represent all the 
creatures which God is pledged to save. 

* Ezek. i. 28 ; Rev. iv. 3. 
t Ezek. viii. 4. 


But if the great Creator has entered into a covenant 

God's Covenant with that He will ncvcr destroy the four 

the four earth-tribes in- garth-tribcs, there is also of necessity 

volves also a promise oi ' _ _ ^ 

their redemption. much morc involvcd in such a promise. 

Other Scriptures, in drawing back the curtain of futurity, 
disclose the glad truth that times of refreshing and res- 
titution are approaching, when earth will be freed from 
the curse, and its inhabitants once more restored to inno- 
cence and peace. Since, therefore, the four tribes are 
to be preserved through this glorious age, they must 
also participate in its conditions, or, in other words, be 
redeemed from the consequences of sin. 

And such a destiny is certainly implied by the posi- 
tion in which we find the Cherubim on the Ark. For 
there, each of them displaying the four heads as 
described by Ezekiel,* they appear in close proximity 
to the awful Shechinah ; while the violated law beneath 
them is covered by the golden Mercy-seat upon which 
they rest in security. They thus set forth in wondrous 
symbol the redemption and reconciliation of man and 
beast through the merits and death of the Lord Jesus. 

But a significant feature of this symbol shows us 
how exclusively its prophetic fulness looks forward to 
the future, to the great changes of a coming dispensa- 
tion. The Cherubim stand in the immediate presence 
of the Almighty, and yet two of the living beings repre- 

* It is scarcely necessary to remark that there is no authority 
whatever for the conventional pictures of the Ark in which the 
Cherubim appear as angels. We have no right to represent them 
in any forms save those which are attributed to them in Scripture. 
And since the four heads are evidently necessary to the symbolism 
while there were but two Cherubim on the Ark, we must not in 
this case take our pattern from the description given in the 
Apocalj'pse, but must understand each Cherub to have had four 
heads as in the vision of Ezekiel. 


sented by the heads are unclean. But God shall 
presently cleanse them, and they will then be no longer 
common or unclean. They are also creatures of prey ; 
but when the age of rest has come, " the lion shall eat 
straw like the ox,"* and the eagle shall cease to behold 
the prey from afar, nor shall it any more be said of her 
that " where the slain are, there is she."t For, to quote 
the glowing words of the apostle, '" the creation itself 
also," which is now groaning and travailing in pain 
together, " shall be delivered from the bondage of 
corruption into the liberty of the glory of the children 
of God."^ 

Thus the Cherubim stand before the Lord for a 
Standing, then, in the purpose similar to that of the Book of 

presence of God as me- -r-) i ri'in/rii* i 

moriaisof His promise, K-Cmembrancc of which JMalachi speaks, 
the Cherubim also act ^g mcmorials of thosc earth-tribes which 

as the mmisters 01 

will. He has pledged Himself to save. Their 

special office appears to be attendance upon the Lord 
when He is engaged in the government of the world : 
they co-operate with Him in all that tends to its 
redemption : they act as His higher executive, calling 
forth the powers which inflict His judgments, and 
furnishing angels with the means of carrying out His 

Thus, at the successive breaking of the first four 
seals, each of the Living Creatures in turn cries, 
" Come ! " and instantly the horses and their riders 
appear.^ Our version has " Come and see," as though 
the cry were addressed to John : but it is now generally 
admitted that the words " and see " are a gloss entirely 
destructive of the sense. Again, in Ezekiel's vision of 

* Isa. xi. 7. X Rom. viii. 21. 

t Job xxxix. 29, 30. § Rev. vi. 1-8, 

I 3 


the departure of the glory from the Temple, one of the 
Cherubim gives to the man clothed in linen coals of 
fire to scatter over Jerusalem.* Lastly, it is one of the 
Living Creatures who brings to the seven angels the 
seven golden bowls full of the wrath of God.f 

It will now be seen that the appearance of the 
Significance of the Clicrubim in Paradisc was a glorious 
Cherubim to Adam. prophccy of hopc to the banished 
Adam. For it told him that although the crown had 
fallen from his head, and himself and all creation were 
now subjected to decay and corruption, yet the time 
would come when he should again have access to the 
Tree of Life, again draw near to God, and be reinstated 
in his sovereignty over the world, which should also be 
brought back to its original perfection and beauty. 
Thus did the mercy of God support him in his present 
trouble by glimpses of future restoration. 

But, though the emblems of hope were ever before 
The flaming sword, him, thcrc was also a revolving sword 
of flame, ceaselessly turning with lightning flashes to 
guard the tree of immortality, a fiery circle which kept 
him from his God and from life. For Jehovah is a 
consuming fire to those who are in sin ; He dwells 
in the light unto which no fallen man can approach. $ 

That the sword was connected with the Shechinah 
we can see from its counterpart, the fire infolding itself, 
in Ezekiel's vision of the glory. Its destructive power 
was shown when, at the consecration of the tabernacle, 
it flashed forth and consumed the burnt-offering upon 
the altar ; § and when its lightning flame smote Nadab 
and Abihu, so that they died before the Lord.ll 

* Ezek X. 6, 7. + Rev. xv. 7. % 1 Tim. vi. 16. 

§ Lev. ix. 24. y Lev. x. 2. 


Henceforth, therefore, man's whole attention was to 
be concentrated upon the means provided by God for 
the removal of the flaming barrier, that he might at 
length regain his natural position and be at rest. 

Adam now commenced his labour of tilling the 
„. ^ , ^ . ground, the toil of which, owing to the 

Birth of Cam and => ' » ;=> 

Abel. Significance of waut of implements and experience, 
eir names. must havc been doubly distressing. 

But after a while the first infant was born into the 
world : and we can imagine the joy of Eve at the 
thought that the promise was now realised, that the 
delivering Seed had appeared. In happy exultation 
she called his name Cain — that is, " acquisition," or 
" possession," exclaiming, " I have gotten a man with 
the aid of Jehovah I " The grammar of this sentence 
admits the rendering, " I have gotten a man, even 
Jehovah ! " but it is, to say the least, uncertain whether 
this could have been Eve's meaning. For we have no 
intimation that the great mystery of godliness, God 
manifest in the flesh, had as yet been revealed. She 
believed, however, that the promise, as she understood 
it, had been fulfilled : she thought she had gotten the 
Deliverer : she would call her son the possession of 
that which was promised. 

Alas ! how little did she know of the bitter disap- 
pointments, the heart-sickening succession of hopes 
deferred, which were henceforth to be the lot of herself 
and of all her descendants. For she was not merely 
mistaken in supposing Cain to be the Deliverer : nay, 
the son whom she loved, of whom she hoped so much, 
was actually the first of the serpent's hostile seed, the 
first link of a chain which would end, not in Christ, but 
in Antichrist. By the time of her second son's birth 


she seems to have had some apprehension of the truth : 
for her joy had then given Avay to depression, and she 
called his name Abel — that is, " a breath," or " that 
which passes as a breath " — thus showing her conscious- 
ness of the speedy mortality of her offspring and the 
fall of all her high hopes. 

Now since the birth of Seth must have followed 

Their wives. quickly upon the death of Abel, and we 

are told that Seth was born when Adam was a hundred 
and thirty years old,* there was, probably, a lapse of 
some hundred and twenty-nine years between the birth 
of Cain and the death of Abel. During this time 
Adam doubtless had many other sons and daughters, 
and Cain and Abel seem to have been directed to take 
them wives of their sisters. Such marriages could not 
be avoided in the beginning of man's history, since the 
whole race was to be united in descent from a single 
pair ; and it must be remembered that the children of 
Adam were not merely a family, but the whole human 
family. As soon, however, as the necessity had disap- 
peared, such connections were discountenanced, and 
afterwards rigorously prohibited.! 

As they grew to manhood the brothers adopted 

Their pursuits. different pursuits. Cain became a 

tiller of the ground, and, therefore, had reason to feel 
the curse in all its bitterness : but Abel was a keeper of 
sheep. And, since men were not, at that time, allowed 
to touch animal food, these sheep must have been kept 
for sacrificial purposes and for the manufacture of 
garments. Hence Cain assisted in the production of 
food for the primeval family, while Abel's duties were 
concerned with their religious services and clothing. 

* Gen. V. 3. t Lev. xviii. 9 


In process of time the brothers brought each an 

Their sacrifices. Rea- offering unto the Lord, presenting it, 

sen of Cain's rejection, probably, at the gate of Paradise. And 

God had respect unto Abel and to his offering ; but 

unto Cain and to his offering He had not respect. 

The reason of this difference is fraught with the 
deepest interest to us : for there are many in these 
latter days who, according to the prophecy of Jude,* 
have gone in the way of Cain : the theology of the first 
murderer is that of a large and perpetually increasing 
school of our times. He neither denied the existence 
of God, nor refused to worship Him. Nay, he recog- 
nised Him as the Giver of all good things, and brought 
an offering of the fruits of the ground as an acknow- 
ledgment of His bounty. But he went no further than 
this ; and, therefore, though he may have passed among 
those with whom he dwelt as a good and religious man, 
he failed to satisfy God. For being yet in his sins 
he presumed to approach the Holy One without the 
shedding of blood : he was willing to take the place of 
a dependent creature, but would not confess himself a 
sinner guilty of death, who could be saved only by the 
sacrifice of a Substitute. 

He is a type of the many in these times who will 
descant upon the benevolence and love of the Creator, 
and are ever ready to laud Him for those attributes, 
and claim the benefit of them, without any reference to 
their own unworthiness and sinful condition, without a 
thought of that perfect holiness and justice which are 
as much elements of the mind of God as love itself 
But the Most High did not accept the sacrifice of Cain; 
for none may approach to worship Him except through 
* Jude II. 


the shedding of blood, even the blood of the Lamb 
which He has provided : the sin-offering must come 
first, then the thank-offering : we can enter into the 
Holy of Holies, and cast ourselves before the Mercys 
seat, only by passing through the rent veil of Christ'- 

Abel knew something of this, and confessed it : 
therefore he brought of the firstlings of his flock, and 
poured out their life-blood in humble avowal of his own 
deserts. And God at once accepted his offering ; per- 
haps — as many have thought — by sending forth fire 
from the Shechinah to consume it, and thus showing in a 
type that His wrath in regard to Abel would be satiated 
upon a Substitute. 

At the sight of this Cain's countenance fell, and he 
was angry: he committed the appalling 

Ood s unavailing re- . x x o 

monstrance with Cain, siu of judging his Crcator, and stirring 
up human wrath at His just dealings. 
Nevertheless God would not at once abandon the sinner 
to his fate. He patiently reasoned with Cain, as with 
a wilful child : He sought to bring him back to a right 
mind, pointing out his evil condition, and that a dire 
sin was crouching at his door ready to spring upon him 
like some ravenous beast upon its prey. Nor did He 
cease without promising that, if the offender would 
repent and do well, he also should be accepted, and 
preserve that ascendency over his brother to which, as 
being chosen by his Creator for the position of firstborn, 
he was lawfully entitled. 

But the gracious expostulation was wasted : Cain 
took his opportunity, and the germ of sin which had 
been planted in Adam ripened into murder in his eldest 


It was not long before God made inquisition for 
The conviction and blood. " Where," Hc asked of Cain, 
the sentence. " is Abel thy brother ? " And so again, 

as in the case of Adam, He inquired, though He had 
full knowledge, to give the transgressor an opportunity 
of judging himself and confessing his guilt. Had Cain 
done so he would yet have found hope. But he 
branded himself a second time with the mark of the 
serpent by adding lying to murder. " I know not," he 
replied ; " am I my brother's keeper } " So hardened 
had he become that he would fain deny the truth even 
in the presence of the omniscient God. Therefore he 
was instantly dragged forth to judgment : his covering 
of lies was torn away, and his crime in all its blackness 
laid bare by the piercing words, "What hast thou done.-' 
The voice of thy brother's blood crieth unto Me from 
the ground," 

Cain was speechless : he could offer neither defence 
nor excuse, and God went on to pronounce sentence. 
The earth, which had drunk up his brother's blood, 
should be laid under a second curse, and should no 
longer yield its strength, even in response to the 
severest toil. Nor should the murderer remain with his 
parents in Eden : he should be banished from the pre- 
sence of the Lord, from the sight of the Cherubim and 
the glory, and go forth as a fugitive and wanderer upon 
the earth. But no human hand should touch him. 
Neither the other members of his family nor the 
descendants of Abel, if there were any, might avenge 
the crime upon pain of a sevenfold punishment : for 
magisterial power was not yet entrusted to man. 

Thus were our first parents deprived of both their 
sons in one day. How appalled must they now have 


been with the progress of the mischief which their trans- 
gression had brought into the world ! 

Adam and Eve are ° ^ 

comforted by the binh But thc God of all COnSOlation WaS 

merciful, and about this time gave them 
another son, whom Eve called Seth, that is, " appointed." 
" For God," she said, " hath appointed me another seed 
instead of Abel whom Cain slew," It is curious to 
notice that she here attributes the gift to Elohim and 
not to Jehovah, which is probably an indication that 
her hope had given place to despondency. After 
expecting the promised Seed for a hundred and thirty 
years she had at length lapsed into despair, and, seeing 
in Seth nothing more than a natural son, pours forth 
her thanks to Elohim, and not to the covenant- 
keeping Jehovah. But she was again mistaken. 
Long and weary had been the time of waiting 
and bitter the disappointments, but she had at last 
obtained the first link of the chain that was to end in 
the promised Seed : from the line of Seth Christ was 
to spring. 

Henceforth we find a twofold development in the 

human race : the Sethites and the 

Characteristics of the 

Cainites. The city of bauishcd Caiuitcs remain separated for 
a while, and represent the Church and 
the World. The Cainites, with the restlessness of 
men alienated from God, were ever striving to make 
the land of their exile a pleasant land ; to reproduce 
Paradise artificially, instead of longing for the real 
Garden of Delight ; were ceaselessly trying by every 
means to palliate the curse, instead of patiently follow- 
ing God's directions for getting rid of it altogether. 
Cain himself, who had been condemned to wander, was 
the first to build a city, which he called Enoch, after 


the name of his son; the first to fittempt to settle com- 
fortably upon the blasted earth. 

Some have wondered where he found inhabitants for 
his city. But they forget that, for aught we know, he 
may have built it centuries after his flight from Eden, 
and do not take into account the prodigious increase 
of population in an age when an ordinary life extended 
through eight or nine hundred years, and a man was 
contemporary with seven or eight generations of his 
descendants. Besides which, the city of Cain may 
have been at first nothing more than a fixed and 
substantial habitation for htmsclf and his family. 

Beyond a mere enumeration of names, we have no 
Lamech and his sons, further rccord of Caiu's posterity till 
aL:nt"he1esce:= wc comc to his dcsccndant of the fifth 
of Cain. generation. But the few particulars 

concerning Lamech and his family present a vivid 
picture of human corruption, of the way of the children 
of this world. We see it beginning in a sensuous life 
that involves the loss of the God-consciousness, and of 
all fear of breaking the Divine laws : we trace it as it 
goes on to make present circumstances as comfortable 
and as indulgent as possible, substituting arts sciences 
and intellectual pursuits for spiritual aspirations, and, 
with the aid of divers amusements and pleasures, 
banishing thought by excitement : and at last we find 
it ending in a thorough concentration upon self, and a 
hardened defiance of God. 

Lamech broke the primeval law of marriage, and was 
the first polygamist, thus giving proof of the utter god- 
lessness into which the Cainites had lapsed. The 
mention and names of his wives are perhaps suggestive 
of the state of society in his circle. Adah signifies 


"ornament," or "beauty"; while Zillah means "shade," 
in reference, probably, to her rich and, as it were, over- 
shadowing tresses. His daughter also was called 
Naamah, that is, " lovely." Now in the genealogy of 
Seth's family there is no mention by name of cither 
wives or daughters. Here, therefore, we, perhaps, have 
an intimation that the women among the Cainites were 
unduly prominent, and that personal beauty and 
sensuous attractions w^ere the only valued qualities. 

Of the sons of Lamech, Jabal was remarkable as 
being the first man who accumulated cattle in large 
numbers and led a nomad life. Probably, in defiance 
of God's injunction, he introduced animal flesh and 
milk as food, with the view of escaping the labour of 
tilling the accursed ground. Jubal invented music, and 
Tubal-cain the mechanical arts. 

The last piece of information which we possess con- 
Lamech's address to ccming Lamcch is contained in his 
^'* "''^■^^- address to his wives. This appears to 

be a kind of song, which may have been popular 
among the antediluvians. But it breathes a boasting 
spirit of self-reliance — arising, perhaps, from the 
weapons which Tubal-cain had forged — and of proud 
revenge, which quite prepares us to hear that the earth 
was shortly afterwards filled with violence. Literally 
translated it runs as follows ; — 

*' Adah and Zillah, hear my voice ; 

Ye wives of Lamech, hearken unto my speech : 
For I have slain a man in return for my wound, 
And a young- man in return for my bruise. 
For sevenfold shall Cain be avenged, 
But Lamech seventy and sevenfold." 

The meaning of which appears to be that he had 
quarrelled with a young man, and, having been wounded 


and bruised by him, had slain him in revenge. That 
God chose to proclaim a sevenfold vengeance upon the 
one who should kill Cain : but let all know that, if any 
one injure Lamech, the vengeance will be seventy and 
sevenfold : if any one merely wound or bruise him, he 
will surely take his life as a recompense. 

And this is the last we hear of the family of Cain as 
separated from the rest of the world. Its first ancestor 
was a murderer : and it disappeared in the person of a 
polygamist, murderer, and open worshipper of the god 
of forces. 

But when we turn to Seth's posterity the scene 
Characteristics of the changcs. Envyings, strifes, and deeds 
^"'^"^^- of license and violence, are no longer 

before us : our ears cease to be assailed with the 
lowing of herds, the strains of soft music used for the 
soothing of uneasy consciences, the clatter of the anvil, 
the vauntings of proud boasters, and all the mingled 
din which arises from a world living without God and 
struggling to overpower His curse. 

But we see a people poor and afflicted ; toiling day 
after day to procure food from the ungenial soil, 
according to their God's appointment ; patiently waiting 
till He should be gracious, and humbly acknowledging 
His chastening hand upon them. They have no share 
in earth's history : that is entirely made up by the 
Cainites. As strangers and pilgrims in the world they 
abstain from fleshly lusts : they build no cities : they 
invent no arts : they devise no amusements. For they 
are not mindful of the country in which they live, but 
seek a better, that is, a heavenly. Lastly ; as we may 
see by the allusion to it in the name of Noah,* they 

* Gen. V. 29. 


keep the curse which God laid upon the earth continually 
before them. 

In contrast to the boastini^s of the Cainite Lamech, 
^, . , ^ Scth named his first son Enos, that is, 

Meaning of the ex- 
pression "to call upon " WCakn CSS " — a humble confession of 
the name of Jehovah." ,i /■ i i 1111 r 

the feebleness and helplessness ol man, 
which is naturally followed by the next sentence, " Then 
began men to call upon the name of Jehovah." 

But in what sense are we to understand this phrase, 
which is henceforth frequently used in Scripture .' Je- 
hovah, as we have previously seen, is the name by 
which God has re\-caled Himself to those with whom 
He has made a covenant, to whom He has given 
promises. When Moses asks what answer he shall 
return to the Israelites if they inquire the name of the 
God Who sent him, the Lord replies ; — " I AM THAT 
I A]\I " : " Thus shalt thou say unto the children of 
Israel, I AM hath sent me unto you." * Now in the 
Hebrew, not the present, but the future of the verb " to 
be" is used ; and from the future the name Jehovah is 
derived. But the Hebrew future has a peculiar signifi- 
cation : it is often used to express a permanent state, 
that which exists and always will exist. Hence the 
words rendered " I A:\I THAT I AIM " might be more 
intelligently translated " I EVER SHALL BE THAT 
WHICH I AM." And thus "Jehovah" signifies the 
immutable God, the Same yesterday, to-day, and for 
ever. Whose purpose no circumstances can affect, Wliose 
promises can in no wise fail. 

Whenever, therefore, we read of Abraham pitching 
his tent in some new place, rearing an altar there, and 
calling upon the name of Jehovah,t we must regard 

• Exod. iii. 14. f Gen. xii. 3. 


him as appealing to God for protection and aid in his 
apparently aimless wanderings on the ground of the 
promises made to him. 

Again : " What," asks the Psalmist, " shall I render 
unto Jehovah for all His benefits toward me ? "* And 
the answer is ; — " I will take the cup of salvation, and 
call upon the name of Jehovah." That is, I will thank- 
fully accept the deliverance which God has wrought for 
me, and, calling upon Him by His name Jehovah, will 
thereby glorify Him as the immutable One Who never 
fails to redeem His promises. 

Lastly ; Joel tells us that in the dread time, imme- 
diately before the appearing of Christ and His Church 
in glory, when the world is affrighted with signs in the 
heavens and on the earth, blood, and fire, and pillars of 
smoke ; when the sun is withdrawing its light, and the 
silver moon is reddening to a bloody hue — that, in 
that awful hour, whosoever shall call upon the name ot 
Jehovah shall be saved.! The reference, as the context 
plainly shows, is to the Jewish remnant ; and the 
meaning, that if any man warned by the fearful sights 
around him shall bethink himself of the promises to 
Israel, and appeal to his Maker by the covenant 
name on the ground of those promises, he shall be 

It is easy, therefore, to see the meaning of the phrase 
as applied to the Sethites. The descendants of Cain, 
worshipping nothing more than the creating and ruling 
Elohim, and, consequently, having no promises on 
which to rest, settled themxselves as well as they could 
in the world, and used their best endeavours to do 
away with the inconveniences of the curse. The 

• Psalm cxvi. 12, 13. f Joel ii. 32. 


Sethites, on the other hand, made no attempt to kick 
against the pricks, or to avoid the chastisement of God, 
but looked to Him for rehef, rehed upon His prediction 
of the dehvering Seed, and began to address Him by 
His covenant name Jehovah, to keep alive their hope, 
and to express their trust in His promise. 

Hence they seem to have shown somewhat of the 
spirit which, many centuries later, actuated the Thessa- 
lonian Christians:* they made no idols for themselves 
upon earth, but served the living and true God, and 
waited for His Son from heaven. 

A curious coincidence strikes us here. In the account 
Enoch the first of the of the Cainitcs, after a few particulars 
prophets. ^f (^aiu's hlstory, just intimating the 

direction in which he guided his posterity, there follows 
a mere list of names till we come to Lamech, the 
seventh from Adam. Then we have a momentary 
glimpse of the first murderer's city, and find lawless- 
ness and violence developing in it, while its inhabitants 
are making strenuous efforts to attain to happiness 
without God. 

In the same manner we hear of Seth's humble con- 
fession of weakness, and that his community then began 
to call upon the name of Jehovah. And this is followed 
by a bare register of births and deaths till we come to 
Enoch, the seventh from Adam in Seth's line. Then 
the chronicle halts for a moment, and in a few words 
records an event of surpassing importance. 

As evil had culminated in Lamech, so had godliness 
in Enoch : for he walked with God, and had this testi- 
mony, that he pleased Him.t But the dark shadow of 
the end was already beginning to fall upon the world. 

* I Thess. i. 9, 10. t Heb. xi. 5. 


Wickedness had increased to such an extent that not 
only was the inability of man to recover himself demon- 
strated, but even the necessity of bringing the trial to 
a speedy close. The Lord, therefore, bestowed a new 
power upon Enoch, and sent him forth as the first pro- 
phet to testify against the sin of the world, and to 
proclaim that the times of forbearance would soon have 
run their course. 

Filled with the Spirit of God he moved among men 
preaching of righteousness, temperance, and judgment 
to come, and doubtless caused many to tremble. But 
there was very little permanent result : none save the 
prophet himself was thought worthy to escape the 
things which were coming on the earth. He alone 
was caught up to heaven before the perilous times of 
the great antediluvian tribulation commenced, being 
taken out of the world about six hundred and sixty-nine 
years before the flood. And although so many inter- 
vening centuries may seem a long respite, we must 
remember that, owing to the length of life in those 
days, the time would not be equivalent to more than 
fifty or sixty years with us. 

The only utterance of this primeval seer which has 

The single extant spe- come down to US is prcscrvcd in the 

cimen of Enoch's pro- Epjgtle of Tudc. It runs as follows ; 

phecy IS concerned with r j j 

a yet future event. " Bchold, thc Lord comcth* with ten 
thousands of His saints, to execute judgment upon all, 
and to convince all that are ungodly among them of all 
their ungodly deeds which they have ungodly committed, 

° In the Greek ^\6f, that is, literally, " came." But the 
prophecy is evidently describing a vision of the future which 
passed before the eyes of Enoch ; and, consequently, the present 
tense " cometh " sets the meaning of the quotation in a clearer 
light for the ordinary reader. 


and of all their hard speeches which ungodly sinners 
have spoken against Him."* 

These words do not refer, finally at least, to the 
Deluge, but concern our times, and point to the appear- 
ing of our Lord in glory with His Church. Had the 
prophecy descended to us without an inspired comment, 
it would doubtless have been made subservient to the 
" spiritualising " theory. An exclusiv^e reference to the 
flood would have been assumed, and we should have 
been admonished to observe that the coming of the 
Lord is merely a figurative expression for a mighty 
judgment, and does not signify a personal advent. 
But such a perversion of meaning is impossible ; for 
Jude tells us that in his time, after the ascension of 
Christ to the Father, the prediction was still awaiting 
its fulfilment. Hence, therefore, the reason of its 
preservation, because it refers to the personal appearing 
of the Saviour to close the present age. And Enoch's 
knowledge of this appearing, some five thousand years 
before it was to take place, shows us that the secrets 
of God are ever with them that fear Him ; while at 
the same time it testifies to the vast importance of 
that event, the first stage of which we should now be 
hourly expecting. 

Doubtless, too, the prophecy was fraught with pecu- 
liar consolation to the godly part of Seth's posterity, 
toiling as they were beneath the curse, and longing for 
the promised deliverance. For it is at the Lord's 
appearing that the battle shall at last be turned to the 
disaster of the serpent and his seed : it is then that the 
redemption of all creation from sin and death — the 
price of which was paid to the full upon the cross — 

* Jude 14, 15. 


shall be at length commenced after all the weary- 
centuries of delay. 

Enoch, then, continued walking with God, and 

Enoch's translation is testifying tothc world. Until his three 

atj-peof the future rap- hundred and sixty-fifth year, when he 

ture of the Church to • i i i 

meet the Lord in the suddcnly vanishcd : he was not : he 
had gone, and none could find him. 
For he had been caught up to the throne of the Most 
High, a first hint of the great secret that, although God 
made the earth for men, and intends them to inhabit it 
for ever, He, nevertheless, purposes to exalt an election 
from among them to a higher destiny, even to dwell 
with Christ in the heavenly places. 

And in this translation of Enoch before the terrible 
times of Noah we have a type of the manner in which 
the waiting Church will be presently summoned to 
meet Christ in the air, and so to be ever with Him, 
before the corruption of the world comes to its worst, 
before the judgments of the day of the Lord commence. 
For the world heard no sound of a trumpet, saw no 
lightning flash, when Enoch was suddenly removed : 
he merely disappeared, and his companions, perhaps, 
knew not at first whither he had gone. Nay, it may- 
be that they vainly sought him, even as the sons of 
the prophets sought Elijah for three days amid the 
mountains and valleys of Jericho. And so, probably, 
will it be at the translation of the Church ; the Saviour 
will come unexpectedly, as a thief in the night, and 
steal away His own from the unsuspecting world. 
Their beds will be found vacant in the morning, or 
they will vanish from their customary places in the 
day ; there will be no farewells to those whom they 
love, but have been unable to entice into their own 



paths : all that may be recorded of their end will be 
as the record of Enoch's departure, They were not : for 
God took them. 

Perhaps it may be objected to this parallel that, in 
^. . Paul's description of the rapture of the 

This view appears to ■"■ *• 

be confirmed by the tes- Church, thc Lord is Said to descend 
timonyo cnpture. from the high hcavcns with a shout, 
with the voice of the archangel, and with the trump of 
God.* This, at first sight, seems to intimate that 
there will be at least a momentary' proclamation of 
what is going on. But we must remember that Paul 
is writing, not to mankind in general, but only to the 
waiting Church. It does not, therefore, follow that 
the whole earth will be disturbed by the summons ; 
but only, of necessity, that those who are concerned 
will hear. 

That this will be the case among the dead is certain ; 
for our Lord Himself tells us that, when He gives the 
signal for the first resurrection, all those who hear shall 
live.t But the rest of the dead will not hear, and, 
therefore, wall not live until the thousand years of the 
Millennium are ended. And as with the dead, so will 
it probably be with the living. For although there is 
ample Scriptural proof that the Church will be removed 
from earth before the close of the age, there is, never- 
theless, no trace in prophetic passages of the world 
being suddenly alarmed at that time by the voice of 
Christ and the trump of God, The Lord's own decla- 
rations that, although unmistakable signs and wonders 
shall herald His glorious appearing to the world. He 
will come for His own as unexpectedly and noiselessly 
as a thief in the night, evidently point in the same 

* I Thess. iv. i6 f John v. 25. 


direction. So does the fact that the details of the 
Church's translation seem to correspond to those of 
Enoch, of Elijah, and of the Lord Himself; neither of 
which events was seen by, or in any way immediately 
affected, the world. 

It may be that those who are believers in Christ, 
and, therefore, a part of His redeemed ; who have 
offered up the sacrifice on the brazen altar, but have 
not yet been sufficiently cleansed and sanctified in the 
laver, and are thus not ready to pass into the heavenly 
Tabernacle — it may be that these will have some 
intimation of the summons, only to feel their own 
inability to obey it for the present. They may be as 
Elisha witnessing the departure of Elijah : or as the 
disciples on the mount of Olives when they beheld 
the cloud receiving their Master out of their sight, but 
were not yet prepared to follow Him. 

It is, however, worth while, before we pass on, to 

Real meaning of «A«v- noticc that the shout, with which Paul 
jr^a, which our trans- jjgg^j.jj^gg ^y^^ L^^.^ ^g descending, is 

lators have inadequately °' 

rendered " a shout." no mcre sound Uttered to be heard 
generally. For the Greek word KeKevafxa properly 
means a " bidding," and was then used technically for 
the word of command given by either a naval or 
military officer. 

The idea, therefore, to be conveyed is, that the 
Church resembles an army, the soldiers of which have 
already received orders to prepare for marching, have 
already been bidden to fall into rank, and to stand 
with girded loins and attentive ears ready to move 
simultaneously the instant the word of command is 
uttered by its great Leader. But there are some who, 
although they belong to the host, have neglected the 


first orders to be ready and watch, and arc not expect- 
ing"^ the second. These will be thrown into confusion 
by the sudden signal to march, and, being unable to 
follow at once, will have to rejoin their comrades by a 
circuitous and perilous route, the greater part of which 
will be 'disputed by powerful bands of the then assem- 
bled and doubly malignant foe. 

The first prophet thus passed away in a moment 
The prophecy of La- from the toils of Hfc into the presence 
mech and its fulfilment, ^f Qq^^ and left behind him his son 
Methuselah and his grandson Lamech, which last was 
the father of Noah. The name Noah signifies " rest," 
and Lamech bestowed it upon his son with the words ; 
— " This same shall comfort us concerning our work 
and toil of our hands, because of the ground which the 
Lord hath cursed."* Now this utterance cannot be a 
mere vague expression of joy at the birth of the child : 
for if so, it would scarcely have been recorded. But 
we know that Lamech's grandfather and son were 
prophets ; and, perhaps, the gift, when once bestowed, 
was transmitted to each head of the family, so that 
Enoch, Methuselah, Lamech, and Noah, were a line 
of witnesses appointed by God to testify against the 
wickedness of the world, and to declare His purpose of 

Hence the words of Lamech were probably prophetic, 
and found their accomplishment in some alleviation of 
the curse after the flood. For from the blessing of 
God when He accepted Noah's sacrifice we may, 
perhaps, infer that the condition of earth before the 
Deluge was worse than at any subsequent time.f The 
seasons v/ould seem to have been irregular and 

• Gen, V 29. Gen. viii. 21, 22. 


altogether uncertain ; there was no rain, and the mists, 
by which the earth was watered, may have been scanty 
and infrequent, so that the antediluvians often spent 
their strength in vain : their land did not yield its 
increase ; neither did the trees yield their fruit. Dense 
fogs, too, or other unknown causes, may have interfered 
with the alternations of day and night. The curse was 
fresh and in full vigour : or, perhaps, these disasters 
arose from premonitory disturbances of nature similar 
to those which will precede the great judgment of our 
own age. 

But when, after Noah's sacrifice, the Lord smelled a 
sweet savour, He said ; — " I will not again curse the 
ground any more for man's sake . . . While the earth 
remaineth, seedtime and harvest, and cold and heat, 
and summer and winter, and day and night, shall not 
cease." * Man should still toil and struggle against 
many difficulties ; but God would henceforth give him 
fixed seasons, would allow him, as a rule, to be always 
sure of some fruit of his labours. And it is not 
unlikely that the gift of rain contributed still further 
to mitigate the intense hardship of the curse ; while 
the permission to cat animal food provided an alto- 
gether easier way of obtaining a large portion of the 
necessary sustenance. 

* Gen. viii 21, 22. 




The sixth chapter of Genesis contains an account 

The history of Noah's of the clays of Noah, a description of 

times u a subject of momcntous intcrcst to us : for our 

great practical importance 

to us. Lord has declared that a similar epoch 

of worldh'ness will at length exhaust the forbearance of 
God towards the present dwellers upon earth, and cause 
Him to come with fire, and with His chariots like a 
whirlwind, to render His anger with fur}^, and His 
rebuke with flames of fire ; to plead with all flesh by 
fire and by His sword.* 

It becomes, therefore, an obvious duty to consider 
the progress of wickedness and corruption among the 
antediluvians, so far as it has pleased God to inform 
us of it : to acquaint ourselves, not merely with the 
sowing, but also with the watering, the growth, and 
the ripening, of that hideous crop against which the 
gleaming sickle of the Almighty at length flashed forth 
from heaven ; to note the various incentives to evil as 
they successively appeared, and to observe the particular 
influence of each upon the rapidly decomposing masses 
of society. For by so doing we shall arm ourselves 
against the errors and temptations which are daily 

* Isa. Ixvi. 15, 16. 


multiplying around us, and be enabled to discern the 
threatening signs of our own times. 

Now the first mentioned characteristic of those 
rr.^ ^ . . , former days of wickedness and peril is 

The characteristics of _ •' '■ 

those times. Increase tllC rapid iuCrCaSC of population ; E 

of population. . , .... •. \r ^ 

Circumstance w^hich in itself has ever 
tended, not merely to diffuse, but at the same time to 
intensify sin. For every form of evil which exists in 
thinly populated countries, will also be found where 
men have multiplied ; while there are countless vices 
peculiar to crowded districts. And, if they are numer- 
ous, men support each other in rebellion, and are prone 
to become far more daring and defiant of God, Among 
ourselves, the strongholds of rationalism and atheism 
are always to be found in large cities. 

But while the families of the earth were thus 
Rapid advanceincivi- increasing in number, they were at the 
iization, art, and science, game tlmc making vast progress in 
civilization and knowledge. Cain had taught them to 
settle in communities and build cities ;f and the sons 
of Lamech — speedily followed, no doubt, by many 
others — had introduced the mechanical and fine arts, 
and had devised unlawful means of evading the labour 
imposed by the curse.? And in that age, when, instead 
of being cut off at three score and ten or four score, 
men lived on for nearly a thousand }-ears, their immense 
accumulation of knowledge, experience, and skill, must 
have advanced science, art, and the invention and 
manufacture of all the appliances of a luxurious civiliza- 
tion, with a rapidity to us almost inconceivable. 

The one recorded specimen of antediluvian industry, 
the ark, was built by a Sethite ; and yet it equalled in 

* Gen, vi. I. t Gen. iv. 17. X Gen. iv. 20-22, 


size the Great Eastern, the ship which but a few years 
ago afforded such marvel to ourselves, and which has 
not since been surpassed. 

And doubtless many of the mighty labours accom- 
plished by the earlier descendants of Noah may be 
considered to have sprung from reminiscences of pristine 
grandeur, and fragments of 1 re, handed down by fore- 
fathers who had passed a portion of their existence in 
the previous age of human glory and depravity. Such 
may have been the daring conception of a literally cloud- 
capped tower ; the stupendous and splendidly decorated 
edifices of Babylon and Nineveh ; and the wondrous 
structure of the first pyramid, involving, as it apparently 
does, an accurate knowledge of astronomical truth 
which would seem to have been at least on a level with 
the vaunted advances of modern science. For all these 
great efforts, be it remembered, were in progress during 
the lifetime of Shem, and probably in that of his 
brothers also. 

Nor must we forget recent discoveries in regard to 
the primeval civilization of the Accadians, " the stunted 
and oblique-eyed people of ancient Babylonia," whose 
very existence was unknown to us fifty years ago. 
Their language was dying out, and had become a 
learned dialect, like the Latin of the IVIiddle Ages, in the 
seventeenth century before Christ. And yet so great 
had been their intellectual power that the famous 
library of Agane, founded at that time by Sargon I., 
was st jcked with books " which were either translated 
from Accadian originals, or else based on Accadian 
texts, and filled with technical words which belonged 
to the old language." A catalogue of the astronomical 
department, which has been preferved, contains a direc- 


tion to the reader to write down the number of the 
tablet or book which he requires, and apply for it to 
the librarian. "The arrangement," says Sayce, "adopted 
by Sargon's librarians must have been the product of 
generations of former experience." Could we have a 
stronger proof " of the development of literature and 
education, and of the existence of a considerable number 
of reading people in this remote antiquity " f 

According to Bcrosus there was an antediluvian 
" Town of Books " in Babylonia ; and Sisuthrus, the 
Chaldean Noah, " is made to bury his books at Sippara 
before the Deluge, and to disentomb them after the 
descent from the Ark." But, apart from tradition, we 
have evidence that in very early times there were well- 
known libraries at Erech, Ur, Cutha, and Larsa, to 
which observatories and universities were attached.* 

If, then, we give but their fair weight to these con- 
siderations, we seem compelled to admit that the 
antediluvians may have attained to a perfection in 
civilization and high culture which has scarcely yet been 
recovered, much as w^e pride ourselves upon our own 

Since we have no further mention of the Cainites as 
Union of the families ^ Separate tribe, and since of the 
ofCainand Seth. Scthitcs — wlio must also have incrcascd 

in numbers — but one person was translated to God 
from the evil to come, and only eight were saved through 
that evil, it is clear that the two families had at length 
mingled and intermarried. Seduced, probably, by the 
intellectual pursuits, the gay society, and the easy life, 
of the wicked, the Sethites first found a pleasure in 
their company, their luxuries, and their many skilful 

* See Sayce's "Babylonian Literature." 


and ingenious inventions ; were then enticed to yoke 
themselves unequally with unbelievers ; and, <iO, being 
drawn into the vortex of sin, disappeared as a separate 

Sad and instructive was the result of this amalgama- 
tion : for when the time of dividing- came, no true 
worshippers of Jehovah were to be found save in the 
single family of Noah. Men seem to have so prized 
their own wisdom, to have thought so little of God, that 
their religion had dwindled to a mere hero-worship of 
their own famous leaders,* those who, Prometheus-like, 
brought to them by their inventions the necessaries and 
comforts of life, and so enabled them for the time to 
foil the purposes of the Supreme Power. 

Then a new and startling event burst upon the 
, ,„ world, and fearfully accelerated the 

Irruption of fallen ^ ■' 

angels into the world of already rapid progress of evil. " The 
'°^°* sons of God saw the daughters of men 

that they were fair ; and they took them wives of all 
which they chose."f These words are often explained 
to signify nothing more than the intermarriage ®f 
the descendants of Cain and Seth ; but a careful 
examination of the passage will elicit a far deeper 

When men, we are told, began to multiply on the 
face of the earth, and daughters were born unto them, 
the sons of God saw the daughters of inen.\ Now by 
** men " in each case the whole human race is evidently 
signified, the descendants of Cain and Seth alike. 
Hence the " sons of God " arc plainly distinguished 
from the generation of Adam. 

* Gen, vi. 4. t Gen. vi. 2 

X Gen. vi. I, 2. 


Again ; the expression " sons of God (Elohim) " 

The "sons of God" occurs but four times in other parts of 

are angelic beings. ^j^g Qj^ Tcstamcnt, and is in each of 

these cases indisputably used of angelic beings. 

Twice in the beginning of the Book of Job we read 
of the sons of God presenting themselves before Him 
at stated times, and Satan also comes with them as 
being himself a son of God, though a fallen and rebel- 
lious one.* 

For the term sons of Elohim, the mighty Creator, 
seems to be confined to those who were directly created 
by the Divine hand, and not born of other beings of 
their own order. Hence, in Luke's genealogy of our 
Lord, Adam is called a son of God.f And so also 
Christ is said to give to them that receive Him power 
to become the sons of God4 For these are born again 
of the Spirit of God as to their inner man even in the 
present life. And at the resurrection they will be 
clothed with a spiritual body, a building of God ; § so 
that they will then be in every respect equal to the 
angels, being altogether a new creation.! 

The third repetition of the phrase occurs in a later 
chapter of Job, where the morning stars are represented 
as singing together, and the sons of God as shouting for 
joy, over the creation of our earth.^ 

And lastly; the same expression is found in the 
Book of Daniel ;** but in the singular number, and with 
the necessary difference that bar is the word used for 
son instead of ben, the singular of the latter being 
unknown in Chaldee. Nebuchadnezzar exclaims that 

* Job i. 6 ; ii. I. . || Luke xx. 36. 

t Luke iii. 38. •[ Job xxxviii. 7. 

% John i. 12. ** Dan. iii. 25. 
§ 2 Cor. V. 1. 


he sees four men walking in the midst of the fire, and 
that the form of the fourth is Hke a son of God,* by 
which he evidently means a supernatural or angelic 
being, distinct as such from the others. 

It appears, therefore, that in the Old Testament the 
title " sons of God " is restricted to angels.f Several 
passages are indeed adduced to prove its application to 
men : but upon examination they will all be found wide 
of the mark, the words of the original being in every case 
different, and sometimes signifying sons of Jehovah. 
This last, as we have already seen, is a very different 
expression, and would probably have been used by the 
inspired historian in the verse under our consideration 
if he had wished to distinguish the godly descendants 
of Seth from the Cainites. For, while it forms a true 
description of all saints upon earth, it would have been 
in this place peculiarly appropriate to the Sethites 
just after the mention of the fact that they had been 

^ There is no definite article in the original. 

t This is the view taken by Josephus, Philo Judasus, and the 
authors of "The Book of Enoch" and " The Testament of the 
Twelve Patriarchs"; indeed, it was generally accepted by 
learned Jews in the early centuries of the Christian era. In 
regard to the Septuagint, all j\ISS. render the Hebrew " sons 
of God" by "angels of God" in Job i. 6, and ii. i, and by 
" My angels " in Job xxxviii. 7 — passages in which there was no 
dogmatic reason for tampering with the text. In Gen. vi. 2, 4, 
the Codex Alexandrhius and three later MSS. exhibit the 
same rendering, while others have " sons of God." Augustine, 
however, admits that in his time the greater number of copies 
read "angels of God" in the latter passage also {De Civit. 
Dei, XV, 23). It seems, therefore, extremely probable that 
this was the original reading ; and certainly the interpretation 
which it involves was adopted by the majority of the earlier 
Christian writers. Those who would pursue this subject further 
can do so in a recent and exhaustive treatise by the Rev. John 
Fleming, entitled, "The Fallen Angels and the Heroes of 

X Pp. 188-90. 

2jS eartu's earliest ages. 

wont from the birth of Enos to call upon the name of 

It thus appears that the sons of God are angelic 
They are identical beings : and the mysterious statement 
menti'^'ed b?Peter"S respecting them in the sixth chapter of 
^^^^- Genesis seems to refer to a second and 

deeper apostacy on the part of some of the High Ones 
on high. But these more daring rebels are not found 
among the spirits of darkness which now haunt the air. 
They no longer retain their position as principalities 
and powers of the world, or even their liberty ; but 
may be identified with the imprisoned criminals of 
whom Peter tells us that, after they had sinned, God 
spared them not, " but cast them down to Hell, and 
delivered them into chains of darkness, to be reserved 
unto judgment."* Jude also mentions their present 
condition in similar terms.f and the context of either 
passage indicates with sufficient clearness the nature of 
their sin. They chose to leave their own world, and, 
having broken through God's limits into another, to go 
after strange flesh ; therefore He dashed them down at 
once to His lowest dungeons as an instant punishment 

* 2 Peter ii. 4. We have given the words of the Authorized 
Version, but the following- would be a more literal rendering of 
the original. " For if God spared not angels when they had 
sinned, but cast them down to Tartarus, an^ committed them to 
pits of darkness, to be reser\-ed unto judgment." Tartarus 
appears to be a place of imprisonment more terrible than Hades, 
but it cannot be the Lake of Fire and Brimstone, the flames of 
which are to be kindled specially for the Beast and False Prophet, 
the first who will be cast into it. Compare Isa. xxx. t^j, with Rev. 
xix. 20. In the Greek mythology, Tartarus was a dark abode of 
woe, as far beneath Hades as Earth is below Heaven (Hom. II. 
viii. 16) — a description which fairly corresponds to Peter's "pits 
of darkness." Very significant, too, is the faQt that it was 
thought to be the prison of Cronos and the rebel Titans. 

t Jude 6. 


of their impious outrage, and to deprive them for ever 
of the power of producing further confusion. 

The verse following the announcement of the angels' 
The Lord looks down sin is a parenthesis of solemn import :* 
upon the world. ^-j^g sccnc is for a moment shifted from 

the fearfully increasing wickedness of earth, and trans- 
ferred to the Heaven of heavens. There the invisible 
God sits enthroned, and, looking down upon the rebel- 
lion and sin beneath Him, pronounces sentence of doom 
upon the unconscious world. The end must come : 
His spirit shall not always strive with men, seeing that 
they are irrecoverably overpowered by the desires of 
the flesh : yet they shall have a further respite of one 
hundred and twenty years. 

Then the history is resumed with a brief hint at the 
Meaning of the word causc which led to intermarriages 
Nephiiim. between the sons of God and the 

daughters of men, both before and after the flood. j- 
Our translators have again omitted a definite article in 
the beginning of this verse, which should be rendered, 
" The Nephiiim — or fallen ones — were on the earth in 
those days, and also afterwards, when the sons of God 
came in unto the daughters of men." 

Through a misapprehension of the Septuagint, which 
we will presently explain, the English version renders 
Nephiiim by " giants." But the form of the Hebrew 
word indicates a verbal adjective or noun, of passive or 
neuter signification, from NapJial, to fall : hence it must 
mean " the fallen ones," that is, probably, the fallen 
angels. Afterwards, however, the term seems to have 
been transferred to their offspring, as we may gather 
from the only other passage in which it occurs. In 
* Gen. vi. 3. \ Gen. vi. 4. 



the evil report which the ten spies give of the land of 
Canaan, we find them saying ; — " All the people which 
we saw in it were men cf great stature. And there we 
saw the Nephilim, the sons of Anak, descended from 
the Nephilim : and we seemed to ourselves as grass- 
hoppers, and so we did to them."* 

It was doubtless the mention of the great stature 
of these men, together with the Septuagint render- 
ing ytyai^res, that suggested our translation " giants." 
The roots of the Greek ytyas have, however, no refer- 
ence to great stature, but point to something very 
different. The word is merely another form of yrj-yevq^; : 
it signifies " earth-born," and was used of the Titans, 
or sons of Heaven and Earth — Coelus and Terra — 
because, though superior to the human race, they were, 
nevertheless, of partly terrestrial origin. The meaning 
of " giants," in our sense of the term, is altogether 
secondary, and arose from the fact that these beings of 
mixed birth were said to have displayed a monstrous 
growth and strength of body. It will, therefore, be 
apparent that the rendering of the Septuagint correctly 
expresses the idea which was in the mind of the trans- 
lator, since he appears to have taken Nephilivi in each 
case to signify the offspring of the sons of God and the 
daughters of men. We, however, as we have explained 
above, prefer understanding the word primarily of the 
fallen angels themselves. 

Now, in speaking of the sin of some of these, Jude f 

The residence of the ^cUs US that, despisiug the pOsition 

fallen angels upon earth of dignity and responsibility in which 

was the immediate cause f-^ , , . , , , 

of their alliances with the God had placcd them, they volun- 

daughtersofmen. ^^^.jj^ j^^^ ^^j^ ^^^^^ ^^^^ j^ ^^^ 

* Numb. xiii. ^,2, ^^. f Jude 6. 


Kingdom of the Air, prompted it would seem by 
earthward desires, and began to exercise an unlawful 
influence over the human race. And, perhaps, as a 
punishment, their return was prohibited ; they were 
banished altogether from heaven, and confined to the 
limits of earth ; just as Satan and the remainder of his 
angels will be hereafter, a short time before the appear- 
ing of Christ to cast them into the still lower abyss. 

But, however this may be, they were from some 
cause dwelling upon earth at the time, and the fact 
is apparently mentioned to account for their inter- 
marriages with the daughters of men. If, then, their 
continued residence below was voluntarj', they soon 
passed on to a far more frightful sin : if, on the con- 
trary, it was penal, instead of humbling themselves 
under the mic^hty hand of God, and patiently enduring 
until He remitted His just punishment, they did not 
hesitate to defy Him still more daringly, and to violate 
the law of their being.* 

The assertion of a similar occurrence after the Deluge 
agrees with the passage in Numbers where the sons 
of Anak are said to have been Nephilim, or of the 
Nephilim ; f and seems also to account for God's 
command that the whole race of the Canaanites should 
be extirpated. For immediately after the commission 
of the antediluvian sin, the doom of the world was 
pronounced : and prophecy intimates that the future 
confinement of the angels of darkness to earth will 
be the proximate cause of the great rebellion which 

* This they did, not merely by consorting with beings of a 
different order, but also by the very act of marriage itself; since 
our Lord tells us that, in their normal condition, angels " neither 
marry, nor are given in marriage " (Matt. xxii. 30). 

t Numb. xiii. n. 


will call forth tlie Lord Jesus in flaming fire to take 

The children of these unlawful connections before 
the flood were the renowned heroes of old : the sub- 
sequent repetition of the crime doubtless gave rise to 
the countless legends of the loves of the gods, and 
explains the numerous passages in the Classics, as well 
as in the ancient literature of other languages, in which 
human families are traced to a half Divine origin. 

Before passing on, we should, perhaps, notice the 
most common objection to our interpretation, which is, 
that angels, as spiritual beings, could not take wives of 
the daughters of men. We are, however, unable to 
recognise the cogency of such an argument, because 
those who advance it lay claim to a more intimate 
acquaintance with angelic nature than we can concede 
as possible. On this point, therefore, we will merely 
quote a passage from Augustine — an opponent of the 
angel-theory — containing an admission which has been 
made by many other writers of various ages and 
climes, and which, absurd as it may have seemed to 
ourselves some years ago, is now rendered more pro- 
bable by the disclosures of modern Spiritualism. 

After citing the hundred and fourteenth Psalm to 
prove that angels are spirits, the great theologian 
proceeds as follows f : — 

" However, that angels have appeared to men in 
bodies of such a nature that they could not only be 
seen but even touched, the same most true Scripture 
declares. Moreover, there is a very general rumour 
that Silvans and Fauns, who are commonly termed 
incubi, improbos saepe exstitisse mulieribus, et earum 

* Rev. xii. ; xiii. t De Civit Dei, xv. 23. 


appetlsse ac pcregisse concubitum. Many trustworthy 
persons assert that they have had personal experience 
of this, or that they have been informed by those who 
have experienced it. And that certain demons, whom 
the Gauls call Dusii, are continually attempting and 
effecting the crime is so generally affirmed that it 
would seem impudent to deny it."* 

So Augustine. And that Paul had some such 
thought in his mind when he bade the woman to 
worship with covered head " on account of the angels," t 
is, to say the least, within the limits of possibility. 

The foundations of established order being thus 
destroyed by the irruption of the 

The earth becomes cor- c ^^ 1.1 11 111 

rapt and filled with vio- fallen angcls, the whole world be- 

lence. Simultaneous pro- ^^^^ COrrupt, and ItS morals WCrC 
gress of luxury and J^ ' 

refinement. Historical inverted. Men no longcr fccognised 
a God to Whom personally all obe- 
dience and worship is first due, and Whose equal 
relation to all men as their Creator imperatively 
demands from each a love for his neighbour as great 
as that which he bears to himself But they judged 
that whatsoever was pleasant to any man was also 
right for him ; and after thus bursting the bands of 
God asunder and casting His cords from them, it was 
not long before they went on to believe that the 
attainment of a desired end justified every means, that 
the coveted possession must be secured even if it were 
necessary to use deceit or violence. Blinded by the 

* To the prevalence of this idea we have no slight testimony in 
the fact that the name of the demons is one of the Celtic words 
which have survived in our language. It is the origin of the 
English Dense, or Deuce, which is still used in exclamatory or 
inteijectional phrases. 
+ I Cor. xi. 10. 


selfishness of the flesh, which can see nothing beyond 
itself, they pursued their several objects without con- 
sideration or even thought of their fellows, except 
when any either stood in the way or might be made 
subservient. And hence there sprang up a thick crop 
of frauds and assassinations, of open quarrels and 
violence, till the whole earth was filled with corruption 
and bloodshed. 

And yet all this seems to have existed side by side 
with luxury, a refined culture, and a love of art and 
music. Such minglings of things apparently incongru- 
ous have not been infrequent in postdiluvial times. 
The profligacy, immorality, and sensuous intellectuality 
of Athens may be cited as an example. 

A parallel might also be sought in the descriptions 
given by Tacitus, Juvenal, and others, of the times of 
the Caesars. For then the whole body of society was 
corrupted, and even the streets of Rome were accus- 
tomed to violence. And yet the worst of vices, the 
most absolute immorality, the most profligate gluttony, 
the most wanton cruelty, prevailed in company with a 
splendid magnificence, a high appreciation of music, 
sculpture, and art generally, and a taste for literature, 
and especially for poetry, so great that recitations and 
readings were a common amusement. A very charac- 
teristic production of this age was the philosopher 
Seneca, who has been lately termed a seeker after 
God, on account of his books on morals, but who did 
not find the writing of beautiful sentiments any hin- 
drance to a life of shocking depravity, and who pre- 
sented to the world, as the fruit of his combined 
teaching and example, the proverbial monster Nero. 

Nor were the times of Leo the Tenth without 


resemblance to the days of Noah ; when that famous 
Pontiff, seated amid every possible sensuous and in- 
tellectual refinement, and surrounded by the most 
brilliant cluster of stars that has ever adorned the 
firmament of art, exclaimed ; — " This Christianity ! 
how profitable a farce it has proved to us ! " When, 
in a time which produced paintings, sculpture, and 
architecture, still marvels to the world, the sun as it 
rose day by day would expose the floating corpses of 
the assassinated in the Tiber ; and infidelity and law- 
lessness kept such rapid pace with the culture of the 
beautiful that even Machiavelli, who will not be accused 
of too tender a conscience, declared that Italy had lost 
all principles of piety, and all religious feeling ; that 
the Italians had become a nation of impious cut- 

Such, though on a far greater scale, was the wicked- 
God looks down a "sss of the antediluvian world. But 
second and a third time, <^q gj^^j -^y^s approaching. God lookcd 

and then reveals to i. i. o 

Noah His purpose to down a second time upon the spreading 
estroy a es . demoralization beneath Him,* and saw 

that it would be necessary, at the close of the years of 
respite, to sweep man and beast, creeping thing and 
fowl, from the face of the earth. 

Yet a third time the Creator beheld, and lo ! evil had 
made such fearful progress that all flesh had corrupted 
its way upon earth, f Then He foretold the impending 
ruin to Noah, who alone found grace in His sight, and 
instructed him how he might avoid the universal doom. 
The commands laid upon the patriarch were a strong 
trial of his faith. He was to proclaim the speedy 
coming of a catastrophe which to unbelievers would 

* Gen. vi. 5-7. t Gen. vi. 12-21. 


appear simply irrational, of an overwhelming flood 
which should sweep away all life from the face of the 
whole earth. 

It may be that men felt a momentary uneasiness at 

Unavailing preaching the first uttcrancc of this prophecy of 
of Noah. \\o^. Discussions may have taken 

place similar to those among ourselves, when the con- 
jectured possibility of a collision between the earth and 
Donati's comet caused a brief anxiety to those who 
believed in it But, this qualm over, we can readily 
picture to ourselves the contempt and derision which 
must have been poured upon the prophet. Our own 
times will teach us how the men of science soon proved 
that such a thing as a universal flood was an absolute 
impossibility, contrary to all the known laws of na- 
ture. And since Noah persisted, the world doubtless 
settled down into a belief that he was a weak-minded 
fanatic, void of intellect, and altogether unworthy of 

But Noah was not only directed to foretell the 

Noah builds the ark, approaching doom : he was also bidden 
and IS commanded to j.q f^ai^g opcn preparations for avoiding 

enter into it. Ood closes i i i o 

the door behind him. it, preparations, too, of vast magnitude, 
and such as must have attracted general attention. 
And a grievous burden it undoubtedly w^as to endure 
the scoffs and deridings with which he must have been 
continually assailed while building his immense ship on 
the dry land, far, it may be, from any water ; but by 
faith he persevered, and at last the days of his trial 
drew on to their close. 

None had listened to his warnings: not one beyond 
the inner circle of his own family was accounted worthy 
to be saved. But the ark was now completed, and he 


was instructed to enter it with his wife, his sons and 
their wives, and all the creatures which were impelled 
by God to go with him. He was at no loss to under- 
stand the significance of the command ; he knew well 
that the wrath of God was being restrained only till 
those which should be saved had been taken out of the 
way ; and we can imagine his feelings as he watched 
the long procession slowly filing into the ark, and at 
length followed in its rear, leaving the unconscious 
world, friends and foes alike, in the inexorable grasp of 

It may be that after entering he returned to the 
door, appalled at the thought of what was about to 
happen, and moved to make one more effort, one last 
impassioned appeal, if perchance he might constrain 
some few, at least, to flee to the shelter. But, if he did, 
he found the entrance to the ark closed : God had shut 
it: there was none that could open. Affrighted crowds 
might gather around imploring admittance ; but Noah 
had no longer the power to aid them : the separation 
had been made : eight persons were safe within the 
ark, and the whole remainder of mankind was shut out 
for judgment : the acceptable year had passed by, the 
days of vengeance were come. 

And yet, as our Lord Himself tells us, the doomed 
The world continues multitudcs kncw it Hot. Thcy had 
unconscious to the last. Qf^eu heard, but had refused to listen : 
the voice of the prophet had seemed to them as the 
voice of one that mocked. Even on the morning of 
the fatal day, earth resounded with the noise of revelry 
and merriment: men were eating and drinking, marry- 
ing and giving in marriage : they were absorbed in the 
pleasures of the moment, and discerned not the slo\\ly 


rising spectre of Death amid the gathering clouds, the 
destroyer, with upHfted scythe, about to mow down all 
flesh at one fell stroke. 

But their dream of security was at length rudely 
God withdraws His dispsllcd I the shouts of riotous joy and 
"rlfwl;::: I'd t laughter were first softened into whispers 
flood ensues. of brcathless anxiety, and then ex- 

changed for shrieks of despair. On the day in which 
Noah entered into the ark the windows of heaven were 
opened, and the waters that were above the firmament 
began to descend. The world wondered ; and then, 
remembering the words of Noah; trembled at the fast 
falling raindrops, the first they had even beheld.* 

Nor was this all. A fearful roaring from the sea 
announced that some mighty convulsion, equally be- 
yond the calculation of the scientific men of the day, 
had commenced in the great deep. All its sealed 
fountains were bursting up : God had removed the 
bounds of ocean ; its proud waves were no longer 
stayed, but were rising with prodigious tumult, and 
beginning to advance again upon the dry land. 

What scenes of horror must have been presented 
beneath the dismal rainfall at this awful time ! What 
affrighted groups ! What countenances of dismay ! 
What shrieks of terror ! What faintings for fear ! 

* In Gen. ii. 5, 6, we are told that the Lord God had not caused 
it to rain, but that a mist went up from the earth, and watered 
the whole face of the ground. Probably this state of things con- 
tinued until the flood, when the windows of heaven were for the 
first time opened. The rainbow must have been a new pheno- 
menon when it was given as a token to Noah : the words of God 
imply as much. Besides which, had the bow been seen before 
the flood, its subsequent reappearance could never have sug- 
gested security. But if there was no rainbow, there could 
scarcely have been rain. 


What headlong flights to any place which appeared 
to offer safety for the moment ! 

Yet the mercy of God seems even then to have been 
Mercy mingled with Hiinglcd with his judgment. Ordinary 
judgment. mcans had failed with these sinners. 

They had received warning after warning ; but their 
eyes were so immovably fixed upon the world and its 
amusements that they could not be induced to look off 
to God. Therefore he was compelled to destroy the 
life which they were abusing : He was constrained 
to overwhelm before their eyes all their palaces and 
fair gardens and places of delight, and to hurry the 
rebels themselves into the prison of disembodied spirits. 
Yet His mercy devised a doom which, though in- 
exorable and complete, was, nevertheless, not instan- 
taneous, but gave time for repentance before death, 
that by the destruction of the flesh the spirits of many 
might be saved. 

The waters continued to increase : the ark was 

Earthisasaincovered upborne upon thcm : and it may be 

with the waters of de- that for a time its inmates ever and 

struction. . ,. • ■, 1 

anon heard, mmghng with the roar 
of the elements, the cries and prayers of some still 
surviving crowd of miserable ones who had taken 
refuge upon a height near to which they were floating. 
But this was soon over, and earth was again almost as 
it had been before the six days of restoration, covered 
above its highest mountain tops with a shoreless ocean, 
on the surface of which were drifting the dead bodies of 
the men who had transgressed against God, and the 
carcases of the beasts and creeping things and fowls 
which had been involved in their ruin. 

Woful was the proof that man, if unrestrained, if left 


to his own devices, is not merely incapable of recovering 
liis innocence, but will rush madly down the steep of 
sensuousness and impious self-will until he finds himself 
cngulphed in the abyss of perdition. The trial of free- 
dom had failed : the second of the ages was ended. 




We have thus endeavoured to trace the flow of 
history from its source to the great 

Retrospect. i i • i 

catastrophe which swept corruption 
and violence from the earth. We have seen its clear 
spring proceeding from the throne of the Everlasting 
God, and have then lost sight of it as it wound its way 
through vast regions that may not be trodden by mortal 
foot. Once or twice we have climbed an accessible 
height, and from the far distance gazed with strained 
eyes upon something which sparkled in the rays of 
God's Word, and which we supposed to be the waters 
of the river we were seeking ; but we could obtain no 
certain knowledge of the mysterious stream, until we 
saw its turbid and foaming torrent emerging in fearful 
cataract from between the dark mountains which con- 
cealed its previous course. 

We have followed it into a land of delight, in which 
it gradually calmed and brightened again, while its 
banks teemed with all that is beautiful and lovely : we 
have traced it as it passed the limits of that joyous 
realm, and hurried through dry and barren tracts, with 
ever increasing volume and rapidity, till at length its 
agitated waters were violently engulphed in the great 
ocean of the flood. 


We must not, however, dismiss the story of doom 
^ . ,^^. which we have just been consideriufr 

The warning of Christ. ■' ^ 

Does it apply to our without some reflections on the solemn 
warning drawn from it by the Saviour. 
" But as the days of Noah were," is His awful decla- 
ration, " so shall also the coming of the Son of Man be. 
For as in the days that were before the flood they were 
eating and drinking, marrying and giving in marriage, 
until the day that Noah entered into the ark, and 
knew not until the flood came, and took them all 
away ; so shall also the coming of the Son of Man 
be." * Thus the closing scenes of this present age will 
be a reproduction of the days of Noah : the same intense 
worldliness, and at last positive inability to care for the 
things of God, which was displayed by the antediluvians, 
will also be characteristic of our world when Christ 
begins the judgments that will quickly culminate in 
the glory of His appearing. 

It seems fair, then, to infer that this second mani- 
festation of the spirit that worked in them which were 
disobedient before the flood will be effected by a 
conjunction of causes similar to that which formerly 
produced it. And hence, as we have already remarked, 
it becomes a matter of the greatest practical import- 
ance to comprehend those causes : for whenever they 
are again found to be simultaneously affecting the 
masses of the world's population, the fact will afford 
a strong presumption that we are drifting rapidly 
to the great consummation of wickedness ; that the 
avenging glory of the Lord is about to be revealed, so 
that all flesh shall see it together. 

» Matt. xxiv. 37-39. 


For us, therefore, the great question is, Are these 
fatal influences now in operation ? Are they more 
universally characteristic of this epoch than of any 
other ? Mature consideration has impelled many to 
return an affirmative answer : let us see whether facts 
warrant us in holding the same view. It is impossible 
to exaggerate our interest in the investigation. If the 
present times are only beginning to take the com- 
plexion of those of Noah, they send forth a piercing 
cry of warning, admonishing us to stand with our loins 
girded about and our lamps burning, waiting for the 
summons of the Lord. For He will remove His 
Church, as He removed Enoch, before the wickedness 
of man has come to its worst. He will take away that 
which He Himself has called the salt of the earth, and 
then the corruption of all flesh will go on unchecked, 
and the world speedily ripen for its doom. 

The seven great causes of the antediluvian apostacy 
have been already noticed, and may 

The seven causes of , . r 1 1 

antediluvian corruption. DC SUmmcd Up aS follOWS. 

Are they all in present I ^ tCndcnCy tO WOrship God aS 

operation ; •' i 

Elohim, that is, merely as the 
Creator and Benefactor, and not as Jehovah the 
covenant God of mercy, dealing with trans- 
gressors who are appointed to destruction, and 
finding a ransom for them. 

II, An undue prominence of the female sex, and a 
disregard of the primal law of marriage. 

III. A rapid progress in the mechanical arts, and 
the consequent invention of many devices whereby 
the hardships of the curse were mitigated, and life 
was rendered more easy and indulgent. Also a 
proficiency in the fine arts, which captivated the 



minds of men, and helped to induce an entire 
oblivion of God. 

IV. An alliance between the nominal Church and 
the World, which speedily resulted in a complete 

V. A vast increase of population. 

VI. The rejection of the preaching of Enoch, whose 
warnings thus became a savour of death unto the 
world, and hardened men beyond recovery. 

VII. The appearance upon earth of beings from the 
Principality of the Air, and their unlawful inter- 
course with the human race. 

These causes concurred to envelope the world in a 
sensuous mist which no ray of truth could penetrate. 
They brought about a total forgetfulness of God and 
disregard of His will ; and thus, by removing the great 
Centre Who alone is able to attract men from them- 
selves, rendered the dwellers upon earth so selfish and 
unscrupulous that the world was presently filled with 
lewdness, injustice, oppression, and bloodshed. It 
remains, therefore, for us to consider whether similar 
influences are now acting upon society. 

And certainly we cannot but confess that the first 
mentioned cause is eminently charac- 

The first cause may be _ _ _ / 

detected in the universal tCristic of OUr timCS. For in all thc 
spread of Deism. (. . ,^. , ^ ,~,, . , • 

proiessmg Churches oi Christendom, 
as well as among Jews, Mahometans, and Pagans, 
there are countless and ever-increasing multitudes who 
go in the way of Cain,* acknowledging the Supreme 
Being, but not recognising His holiness and their own 
depravity, and so denying all necessity of a Mediator 
between God and man. Many of these are willing to 

* Jude II. 


look upon Christ as some great one, and will tall: of 
His wise philosophy and exemplary life : but they 
neither confess Him to be the Only Begotten Son 
of the Father, nor feel the need of His atonement. 
Consequently, they reject His revelation, as an absolute 
authority at least, trusting rather to the darkness within 
them which they call light ; and thus, closing their eyes 
to the true relations of man with his Creator, form their 
own conceptions both of the Deity and of themselves. 
This involves nothing less than a claim on their part to 
supreme wnsdom and authority : it is moulding an idol 
out of their own imagination before which to fall down 
and worship. Nor need we wonder that it leads to a 
virtual deification of men of transcendent intellect or 
great renown. Who has not detected the working of 
this leaven in his own circle } Who has not observed 
this "pure Theism," as it is called, rising to the surface 
in all the sects of Christendom .-* 

If the second cause be rightly inferred from the scanty 
hints given to us, it is also in operation 

Second cause. Change . , 1 . . • r ^ r 1 

in Ae relation of the ^t tlic prcscnt time: for the female sex 
sexes and violation of the j^^g ccrtaiuly commcnccd a migration 

law of marriage. ■' t> "••'^" 

into a new sphere and more prominent 
position. And the looseness in regard to the marriage 
tie, which has long obtained on the continent, is now 
spreading in England also, as we may see from the 
records of our recently established divorce courts. Nay, 
there are not wanting those who, instead of fearing to 
put asunder that which God has joined, openly affirm 
that wedlock should be a contract, not for life, but only 
for so long a time as may be agreeable to the con- 
tracting parties. 

At the close of the previous dispensation the same 


sin was frequent among the Pharisees, who held that 
divorce is permissible for any reason ; even, as Rabbi 
Akibah shamelessly says, " if a man sees a woman 
handsomer than his own wife." Hence the Lord's 
continual mention of adultery in His denunciations of 
the Pharisees: for the marriage after divorce which they 
legalized. He declared to be criminal. In the wonderful 
sermon contained in the fifteenth sixteenth and seven- 
teenth chapters of Luke, He brings it forward with a 
startling abruptness, as a most open and undeniable sin, 
which would at once convict His hearers of having 
proved as disobedient to the Law and the Prophets as 
they were to the Gospel.* We know the punishment 
which quickly overtook them for this and their many 
other transgressions. In a few short years their lusts 
were extinguished in their blood : the fair walls and 
streets of their city w-ere levelled with the ground : their 
beautiful temple in which they trusted perished in the 
flames, and the idolatrous shrine of Jupiter rose in- 
sultingly upon its ruins. 

Of the third cause, the spread of science, art, and 
The third cause. luxury, it is unnccessary to speak: for 

Science, art, and luxury. ^Qj^g ^^JJI ^^^^ ^^^|. ^J^Jg jg ^ gj.g^|- 

characteristic of our days : nay, the fact is a common 
subject of boasting. And alas ! how many instances 
have we of the self-deifying arrogance which frequently 
arises from a little knowledge of the laws of nature, or 
a marked success in those arts sciences and philosophies 
which are the delight of cultivated and refined intel- 
lects !t With what confidence, too, and carelessness 

* Luke xvi. i8. 

t For let it not be supposed that these remarks are directed 
absolutely against the pursuit of science and art. They are 
only intended to refer to the insubordinate and atheistical spirit 
which seems too commonly to arise from it. 


do men settle themselves amid the comforts and 
indulgences of this luxurious age ! Seeing good only 
in the present life, how little thought do they give to 
God, how deaf are they to any mention of the World to 
Come ! How incredulous, even if their mouths be not 
filled with mocking, when they hear but a whisper of that 
tempest of God's fury which will shortly burst upon 
the apathetic world, and hurry multitudes away from 
all that they love into the dungeons of His wrath! 

" For the day of the Lord of Hosts shall be upon 
every one that is proud and lofty, and upon every one 
that is lifted up, and he shall be brought low ; and 
upon all the cedars of Lebanon, that are high and lifted 
up, and upon all the oaks of Bashan, and upon all the 
high mountains, and upon all the hills that are lifted 
up, and upon every high tower, and upon every fenced 
wall, and upon all the ships of Tarshish, and upon all 
pleasant pictures. And the loftiness of man shall be 
bowed down, and the haughtiness of men shall be made 
low: and the Lord alone shall be exalted in that day."* 
"Tremble, ye women that are at ease; be troubled, ye 
careless ones : strip you, and make you bare, and gird 
sackcloth upon your loins."! " I will send a fire on 
Magog, and among them that dwell carelessly in the 
isles : and they shall know that I am the Lord."| 

To reproduce the fourth cause the Prince of this 
_, , , „ World has long been striving, and 

The fourth cause. Fra- ° *-" 

ternization of the nominal ccrtaiuly now sccms ncar to liis vic- 

Church and the World. t.».i , 1 ^, r .i 

tory. it IS the natural result 01 the 
first error, the denial of our position as sinners before 
God, as doomed to destruction unless a ransom be 
found. Let the Church surrender that truth, and what 

* Isa. ii. 12-17. + Isa. xxxii. 11. X Ezek. xxxix. 6. 


hinders her from living in perfect accord with the 
World ? If the practical teaching of religion be that 
God is fairly satisfied with our conduct, troubles but little 
about our sins, highly appreciates our works of virtue, 
even though pride be their mainspring, and looks with 
pleasure upon bold deeds and intellectual displays, why 
should such a theology clash with the cravings of fallen 
men ? How could they hate a deity so like to them- 
selves ? 

And have we not been describing the creed of vast 
numbers in the professing Church ? Are not the walls 
of the city of God thus continually broken down before 
our eyes, so that the stranger may enter at will ? Men 
do indeed frequent their churches and chapels in crowds: 
they excite a feeling, which they term religious, by 
grand buildings, by painted windows, by splendid vest- 
ments, by gorgeous ceremonies, by beautiful music, by 
sentimental or intellectual discourses, and by strong 
sectarian or political convictions. But if they clothe 
themsel\-es with the semblance of devotion in their 
worship, they altogether lose this outward distinction 
in the world, and bewilder those who are honestly 
asking what they shall do to be saved by plunging into 
all the gaieties, frivolities, pursuits, and business, of this 
life, as if they were to remain among them for ever. 
They act as though God had promised that they at 
least should not be hurried out of the world as so many 
of their fellows are, but should have due warning and 
ample space and inclination for repentance.* They 
seem to be assured that they will never be unexpectedly 
startled by the dread sentence, " Thou fool, this night 
shall thy soul be required of thee " ; "f nor suddenly 
* John vi. 44. + Luke xii. 20. 


appalled by the blast of the archangel's trumpet, and 
the thunder of the voice of God. They have conceded 
that it is rational to seek contentment and pleasure in 
an existence of awful brevity, which was only granted 
to them for the decision of one stupendous question, 
whether it shall be followed by everlasting life, or by 
shame and everlasting contempt. The powers of the 
World to Come have lost their hold upon them, they 
are even as other men : so many points have been 
yielded, amusements permitted, and vices condoned, 
that it is almost impossible to distinguish them from 
non-professors unless they recite their creed. Nay, some 
would appear to be holding a doctrine of the ancient 
Gnostics who, denying the resurrection, affirmed that, 
their spirits being saved, they were at liberty to do what 
they would with the body, inasmuch as after death they 
would have no further concern either with it or its 
deeds. And although many are ready to confess 
that the Christian must take up his cross, yet being 
thoroughly satisfied that in these modern times the 
unwearied zeal of Christ and His apostles would be 
quite out of place, they can by no means find a cross 
to bear. If, however, God in His anger smite them with 
sickness, bereavement, disappointment, or loss, they talk 
of their trials, and comfort themselves with the thought 
that they are imitating the Lord by enduring troubles 
which they cannot in any way avoid. 

Oh that those who are thus blinded by Satan would 
consider while there is yet time ; would earnestly and 
prayerfully meditate upon the words of the Lord Jesus, 
and interpret them by His most holy life ! Then 
would they see the inconsistency of their position, and 
keenly feel that they have been fulfilling to the letter 


the prophecy of the last times, that men should have a 
form of godliness, but deny the power thereof,* For 
the world will allow the mere statement of any doctrine, 
provided no attempt be made to put it into practice. 
It is only when faith begins to produce works that the 
Christian is confronted with bitter antagonism ; when 
he feels that he must redeem the time because the days 
are evil ; when, being conscious of a dispensation com- 
mitted to him, he is impelled to preach the Word in 
season and out of season, to speak as a dying man to 
dying men ; when he can no longer take part in fri- 
volous gaieties or time-killing pleasures, knowing that 
such things are but as a painted curtain used by the 
foul fiend to hide from men the brink of death on 
which they are walking, until the time comes to tear it 
away and thrust them over the precipice. 

If any be thus earnestly minded, they will have no 
difficulty in regard to the line of separation : they will 
quickly find the cross they have to bear : they will feel 
that, like their Master, they are not of this world, and 
will indeed have tribulation in it. But let them be of 
good cheer : for He is at hand, and great will be their 
joy at His coming. 

Nor are the concessions of the nominal Church in 
point of doctrine less deplorable than those which 
concern conduct. We have before seen that men were 
ever prone to soften and corrupt those parts of God's 
Word which oppose their own thoughts and aspirations. 
But a strange and impious idea now prevalent is de- 
stroying the last vestiges of Biblical authority, and 
sweeping away every remaining barrier to peace 
between the professing Church and the World. This 
• 2 Tim. iii. 5. 

•' AS ir WAS M THE DA YS OF NOAn." 233 

is a rapidly growing objection to what is called dogma. 
Now did the objection apply only to the too positive 
assertion by men of their own opinions, the sentiment 
would be wholesome : but upon inquiry we discover 
that " dogma " is practically a conventional term for 
the revelations and commandments of the Most High 
God. And many who profess a bel'ef in the Bible, 
instead of strengthening "the things which remain, that 
are ready to die,"* arc never weary of admonishing us 
to be charitable in regard to those who reject every 
vital doctrine of Scripture, and even deny the Lord Who 
bought them. We are told that, provided men be 
"honest," all will be well with them at last: that we 
must not be narrow minded : that there are other 
entrances into the fold besides the door :f that those 
are not necessarily thieves and robbers who climb over 
the wall ; but, it may be, bolder and more manly spirits 
than their fellows. 

It is easy to see that by such a line of reasoning all 
power is extracted from the Scriptures. Instead of 
being recognized as the living Word of Him Who shall 
hereafter judge the quick and the dead by the things 
which are written in them, they are regarded merely as 
an ordinary volume of advice to man, who, in assuming 
the right to accept or reject them at will, arrogantly 
places the crown of Deity upon his own head. And thus 
the great means which God has appointed for the sepa- 
ration of His Church from the World is destroyed : the 
light which reveals the continual peril and the fearful 
termination of the broad road is put out, and men go 
heedlessly on, amused with the trifles of the moment, 
until they fall headlong into the jaws of the pit. 

* Rev. iii. 2. f John x. 7. 


Upon the fifth cause there is no need to enlarge. 

The fifth cause. In- ^°''' ^ithout troubling the census papers, 

crease of the world's almost cverv Englishman could speak of 

population. , i r i • • i i 

the rapid growth oi his own neighbour- 
hood. Nor has the world ever previously beheld so 
vast an aggregation of human life as that which our 
metropolis now exhibits. Yet at the same time crowds 
of emigrants are leaving the country, and filling the 
solitary places of the earth. And statistics show that 
the population of almost every part of the world is also 

But, in addition to this, there is a phenomenon of 
gloomy portent. For, while they multiply, men are 
also beginning to exhibit impatience of restraint : and, 
since they are learning to act together, and seem to be 
growing inflated with reliance on their fancied power, 
they will probably soon go on to deeds of impious 
daring. Large organizations, which are no longer con- 
fined to the frontiers of one people, forbode a second 
rebellion of Babel. The time of the shaking of all 
nations is approaching, and the hearts of many are 
already failing them for fear, and for looking after those 
things which are coming on the earth. Let believers 
consider their ways : for the Lord will shortly descend 
to see what the children of men are doing. 

Whenever the Word of God is faithfully preached it 

The sixth cause. In- c^nnot Tctum unto Him void: it will 

creased callousness of the accompHsh that wli.'ch He pleascs, and 

world consequent upon _ '• 

the rejection of Enoch's prosper in tlic thing wlicrcto He sent 

testimony. -j. * rr ^ • , . i 

it : some eriect it must produce upon 
all who hear. It separates the wheat from the chaff: it 
either draws men nearer to God, or renders them more 

• Isa. Iv. II. 


callous than before, and prepares them for speedy judg- 
ment. " For we are unto God," says Paul, " a sweet 
savour of Christ, in them that are being saved, and in 
them that are perishing. To the one we are the savour 
of death unto death ; and to the other the savour of 
life unto life." * 

And so the powerful appeals of Enoch, his loud calls 
to repentance and threatenings of judgment to come, 
since they were slighted by the world, must have 
mightily hardened the hearts of men, and caused the 
Spirit of God to cease striving with them. Very pro- 
bably many were at first impressed and alarmed : but 
after a while, when they saw day following day without 
any sign of the predicted vengeance, they lost their 
fear : they went back to their favourite sins, as the dog 
to his vomit : they could no longer be roused as before : 
they began to be scoffers, and mocked at the most 
solemn warnings : the demon, who had been for a brief 
space expelled, returned with seven others more wicked 
than himself: so that their last state was worse than 
the first. t 

In this case also history appears to be repeating 
itself. For some fifty years God has supplied an 
unbroken stream of evangelical testimony which has 
been gradually increasing in power ; and there is now 
sounding forth such a proclamation of the Gospel as 
the world has never, perhaps, heard since the days of 
the apostles. The Spirit has fallen upon the Church 
with Pentecostal vigour : revivals, missions at home 
and abroad, and the efforts of many individuals, have 
caused the conversion of thousands. Those who are 
really Christ's seem to be strenuously urged by a sense 

* 2 Cor. ii. 15, 16. t Luke xi. 24-26. 


of their responsibilities : they are going out into the 
streets and lanes, into the highways and hedges, con- 
straining men to come in : the wedding-hall is rapidly 
filling with guests. 

And amid the calls to repentance and offers of grace, 
amid the mutual exhortations to walk as children of 
the light, there peals forth, waxing ever louder and 
louder, the solemn cry, " Behold, the Bridegroom cometh, 
go ye out to meet Him" ;* while the testimony of the 
faithful to the world is assuming its last form ; — " Fear 
God, and give glory to Him, for the hour of His 
judgment is come."t Indications of this new epoch 
have been growing more and more apparent for some 
years, and many papers and periodicals have been 
devoted to the resuscitation of the long neglected 
truth so prominently set forth by our Lord and His 
apostles. Hundreds of books and pamphlets have 
been written on the same subject ; while the majority 
of the later revival preachers, and a daily increasing 
number of other witnesses, have promulgated it to such 
an extent that it would now be difficult to find a 
moderately intelligent Christian who is ignorant of the 
great hope, even if he does not accept it as his own. 

There is also a significant change passing over this 
testimony, and rendering it far more consistent and 
powerful. For although but a short time has elapsed 
since the disagreement of prophetic writers was almost 
proverbial, the great body of them are now beginning 
to exhibit a wonderful harmony on all main points, and 
to proclaim that the solemn event which all should be 
awaiting is the command that will summon the Church 
into the presence of her Lord. We may, therefore, in 

* IMatt. XXV. 6. t Rev. xiv. 7. 


several particulars find a remarkable analogy between 
the preaching of God's people in the present time 
and the prophesying of Enoch before the days of 

But the masses of the world are again rejecting 
God's more urgent appeals, and, as a natural conse- 
quence, His Spirit is ceasing to strive with them : 
infidelity and superstition are beginning to overshadow 
even the most favoured countries of Christendom. In 
our own land, how great an excitement was caused 
some twenty years ago by the publication of " Essays 
and Reviews " : but that book, though hailed with such 
delight by those who were unwilling to submit to the 
Divine revelation, has now been swept out of memory 
by the flood of more daring infidel literature which has 
since been continually issuing from the press. How 
few of our newspapers, reviews, and periodicals, have 
escaped the contagion ! How great a multitude of 
propagating secularists does our country contain, from 
the bold blasphemer coarsely inveighing against the 
Word of God, and either denying His existence or 
charging Him with injustice, to the refined and subtle 
reasoner who would fain make the ineffable light of his 
Creator pale before the flickering lamp of human 
intellect ! It is, however, needless to enlarge on so 
obvious a matter, or to waste time in proving the 
simultaneous spread of Ritualism and Popery, which 
is now sufficiently evident even to the most careless 
observer ; while in regard to the prevalence of sorcery 
we shall have more to say anon. 

Have we not, then, reason to infer both from these 
apostacies, and from the general resemblance of our 
days to the perilous times of the end as described by 


Paul,* that Christendom, as the inevitable punishment 
of a general rejection of the Gospel, is being judicially 
blinded and irremediably hardened ? 

The seventh and most fearful characteristic of the 
„ days of Noah was the unlawful ap- 

The seventh cause. Un- ^ 

lawful intercourse with pearincc among men of beings from 

the denizens of the air. ,, ■, '-^^ • ij 

another sphere. 1 liis, many would 
quickly reply, is certainly an event which has not yet 
startled our age, strange as our experiences may be : 
we have still something at least to wait for before the 
completion of that fatal circle of influences which ruined 
the old world. But a diligent comparison of Scripture 
with the things that are now taking place among us 
will give a very different impression, and induce a 
strong conviction that the advanced posts of this last 
terrible foe have already crossed our borders. For it 
is no longer possible to deny the supernatural cha- 
racter of the apostacy called Spiritualism, which is 
spreading through the world with unexampled rapidity, 
and which attracts its votaries, and retains them within 
its grasp, solely by continual exhibitions of the mira- 
culous. It is vain to speak of that power as mere 
jugglery which has convinced some of the elite of the 
literary world, which has caught in its meshes many 
scientific men, who at first only troubled to investigate 
for the purpose of refutation. Nor indeed can anything 
be more dangerous than utter incredulity : for the 
wholly incredulous, if suddenly brought face to face 
with the supernatural, is of all men the most likely 
to yield entire submission to the priests of the new 
wonder. Better far is it to prayerfully inquire whether 
these things are possible, and if so, in what light the 

* 2 Tim. iii. 1-9. 


Bible teaches us to regard them. We shall thus be 
armed against all the wiles of the Devil. 

But an exposition of the nature and history of 
Spiritualism of sufficient length to exhibit its apparent 
identity with the antediluvian sin is a serious matter, 
and must not be commenced at the end of a chapter. 




Spiritualism. Part I. 


The mere mention of the supernatural is often 

received with a smile of incredulous 

of'eWiTpHtr:hrou: contempt. And there are not a few 

world might be reason- professingr Christians who manifest 

ably expected ^ ° 

great anxiety to limit the number 
and extent of past miracles, and to obscure the possi- 
bility of their recurrence in the present time, though 
they do not venture upon an absolute denial of God's 
power to suspend or change His own laws. But that 
Satan can work wonders they will never allow : nay, in 
many cases they even refuse him a personal existence. 

Surely such a state of mind must proceed either from 
ignorance or unbelief For does not Paul speak of the 
working of Satan as being with all power and signs and 
wonders wrought in support of a lie.-** And the simple 
assertion of Scripture, that the air which envelops our 
earth swarms with rebellious spirits, ought at least to 
prepare us for their occasional manifestation and open 
interference. Undoubtedly God has forbidden them 

• 2 Thess. ii. 9. 


either to communicate directl)- v.-ith man or to influence 
him for evil. Yet, since they are disobedient, and are 
not at present restrained by force, it is reasonable to 
believe that they sometimes break the former com- 
mandment even as they are continually defying the 
latter. And this supposition is confirmed by Scripture : 
for we find numerous allusions to dealings between men 
and demons in the Old Testament, while in the New 
witchcraft is treated as one of the manifest works of 
the flesh.* 

"Thou shalt not suffer a witch to live,"f was the 
TT, ,, . , . , injunction of the Lord by Moses. 

The Mosaic lawsagainst J •' 

witchcraft referred to no Aud that this law is not concemcd 

mere imposture, but to an . . 

actual connection with With mcre supcrstitiou or dcccption, 

fkUen spirits. ^^^ p^jj^^g ^Q ^ ^^^jj^^^^ fellowship with 

the powers of evil, we may learn from the severity of 
the punishment. Yet many would persuade us that 
the numerous Biblical terms applied to the practisers 
of forbidden arts are merely intended to indicate dif- 
ferent forms of imposture. One example will suffice to 
prove the folly of such an opinion. 

In the twentieth chapter of Leviticus we find the 
following enactment ; — " A man also or woman that 
hath a familiar spirit, or that is a wizard, shall surely be 
put to death : they shall stone them with stones : their 
blood shall be upon them."| How, then, could an 
Israelitish judge decide in the case of a person arraigned 
under this law ? Would not the whole issue depend 
upon the proof that the accused really had an attendant 
spirit .-* And is not the law an express declaration, not 
merely of the possibility, but also of the actual occur- 
rence of such connections "i 

* Gal. V. 20. t Exod. xxii. i8. 1 1 ev. xx. 27. 


Indeed the Bible, as we have already seen, mentions 
- . J . many thincrs which have no place in 

Scripture never denies . 

the actual existence of the modem philosophics, and, among them. 

Heathen gods. ,...., 

one which is ol the utmost importance 
to our subject. For it plainly recognises spiritual 
existences behind the idols of Heathenism, and affirms 
that these existences are demons. An attempt has 
been made to disprove this statement on the ground 
that two Hebrew words, the one signifying " nothings " 
and the other "vanities," are used as appellations of the 
Pagan gods, and that by such terms their non-existence 
is necessarily implied. But the fallacy of this inference 
may be exposed by a glance at the same words in 
other connections, 

" Woe to the shepherd of nothing that forsaketh the 
flock !"* exclaims Zechariah. And certainly he does 
not speak of a purely imaginary shepherd, but of a 
worthless one, who is not what he pretends to be. 
Similarly Job, when he calls his friends " physicians of 
nothing,"! does not mean to tell them that they are 
non-existent, but merely, as our version has expressed 
it, that they are "physicians of no value." The Jewish 
idea of the word as applied to Heathen deities may be 
seen in the Septuagint version of the ninety-sixth Psalm, 
where it is rendered by Baif.i6via. Hence the fifth verse 
is made to mean, " For all the gods of the nations are 
demons ; but the Lord made the heavens."t 

Again ; the singular of the word for " vanities " is 
Adc/, the name which Eve gave to her second son. 
But she had no intention of thereby denying the reality 
of his being. Nor when the preacher cries, " Vanity of 

* Zcch. xi. 17. t Job xiii. 4. 

t Psalm xcvi*. 5. 


vanities ; all is vanity,"* can we understand him to be 
affirming the non-existence of the universe. 

It is, therefore, evident that these terms when apph'ed 
to the Heathen gods do not dispute the fact of their 
being, but the truth of their pretensions. Real powers 
they are, but only finite ones ; and hence they have no 
just claim to the title of gods. 

Scripture, then, contains nothing to disprove the 
^ , ^ ^,j existence of false gods, but, on the 

On the contrary, the Old & ' ^ 

Testament treats them as Contrary, asscrts and assumes it as a 

real potencies. ^ , -p-, . , , r , ^^• 

fact, ror mstance, when foretelling 
the death of the first-born of both man and beast, the 
Lord signified His intention of also punishing the gods 
of Eg>'pt.f And, in reference to the same event, Moses 
subsequently wrote ; — " For the Egyptians buried all 
their first-born, which the Lord had smitten among 
them : upon their gods also the Lord executed judg- 

Again ; in the tenth chapter of Deuteronomy we 
have the expression, " For Jehovah your God is the 
God of gods and the Lord of lords."§ And numerous 
are the Scriptural assertions that Jehovah is highly 
exalted above all gods, to be feared above all gods, 
and so on. 

If, then. He executed judgment upon the gods of 
Egypt, they must have been living beings : if He is 
contrasted with other gods, they must be real existences. 

Nor does the Old Testament omit to hint at the 
And plainly indicates nature of thcsc so-callcd dcitics, as the 

that they are demons. _ ,, . •11 1 

T\it seirim z.'nA shedim. followmg VCrSCS Will shOW. 

"And they shall no more offer their sacrifices unto 

* Eccles. 1. 2. \ Numb, xxxiii. 4. 

t Exod. xii. 12. § Deut. x. 17. 


demons (Heb. seirini), after whom they have gone a 

" They sacrificed unto demons (Heb. shedim), not to 
God ; to gods whom they knew not, to new gods that 
came newly up, whom your fathers feared not."t 

" And he ordained him priests for the high places, 
and for the demons (Heb. seiriin), and for the calves 
which he had made." X 

" Yea, they sacrificed their sons and their daughters 
unto demons (Heb. shedim)" § 

In the place of the word seirim — which originally 
signified goats, and was afterwards used of wood- 
demons or satyrs — the Septuagint has toI<^ /xaratot?, 
that is, " vanities " : but in two passages of Isaiah it 
translates the same noun by ha.i\i6via, " demons." || 
And this latter rendering is authoritatively confirmed 
in the New Testament by the passage in the eighteenth 
chapter of the Apocalypse which is parallel to that in 
the thirteenth chapter of Isaiah. T[ SJiedim — literally 
*' mighty ones," " lords " — is invariably interpreted in 
the Septuagint by Sat/xop-ta. Thus, of the two words, 
the first appears to have been applied either to the 
Heathen idols or to the spiritual powers behind them, 
the second only to the demons themselves. 

The testimony of the Greek Scriptures is to the 

The teaching of the ^amc cffcct as that of the Hebrew, 

New Testament is to the and wc caunot better illustrate this 

same effect. Examina- 
tion of two remarkable than by examining two statements in 
passages. ^^ First Epistlc to the Corinthians. 

In the eighth chapter we read as follows ; — " We know 

* Lev. xvii. 7. § Psalm cvi. i"]. 

t Deut. xxxii. 17. || Isa. xiii. 21 ; xxxrv. 14. 

X 2 Chron. xi. 15. <ff Rev. xviii. 2. 


that there is no idol in the world, and that there is 
none other God but One. For though there be beings 
called gods, whether in heaven or upon earth — as there 
actually (coo-irep) are gods many and lords many — yet 
to us there is one God the Father, of Whom are all 
things, and we for Him ; and one Lord Jesus Christ, 
by Whom are all things, and we by Him."* 

Now the word idol {etSoiXov) signifies a creation of 
the fancy, an idea of the mind. Therefore, by the 
words, " there is no idol in the world," Paul means that 
there are no such beings as Jupiter, Mars, or Venus, 
exactly as they are represented in Heathen mythology: 
such are not to be found in the universe, but are merely 
the creatures of man's imagination. Yet, he goes on 
to say, the gods whom the Heathen worship do exist, 
and are, moreover, real potencies, though differing al- 
together in their attributes and characteristics from the 
ideals of men. But they are falsely called gods : they 
are not uncreated and self-existent beings : f their 
power, though often great, is finite and subordinate : 
and, however they may delude the Heathen, we at 
least know that there is only one God. 

The second passage is in the tenth chapter. "What, 
then, am I to say ? That a thing sacrificed to an idol 
is anything — that is, any real sacrifice — or that an idol 
is anything ? Nay, but that the things which the 
Gentiles sacrifice, they sacrifice to demons, and not to 
God : and I do not wish you to have communion with 
demons. Ye cannot drink the cup of the Lord, and 

* I Cor. viii. 4-6. 

t Nor have they any right to the title in a secondary sense, as 
being the delegates of the Supreme, those to whom the word of 
God has come (John x. 35) ; for their action is against His word. 


the cup of demons: ye cannot partake of the table 
of the Lord, and of the table of demons." * 

This quotation involves the same doctrine. An idol, 
the creation of man's fancy, is nothing ; but it is not 
possible that men could be moved to worship nothing : 
there is a real power behind. The Heathen think that 
they are sacrificing to Deity; but their offerings ascend 
to demons, and by their sacrificial feasts they establish 
a fellowship with unclean spirits similar to that which 
exists between Christ and His Church. 

It is plain, therefore, that the disembodied spirits 
Conclusion of the argu- which haunt thc air are the beings 
ment from Scripture. whom thc Hcathcn worship, the in- 
spirers of oracles and soothsayers, the originators of all 
idolatry, whether Pagan or Popish, the powers that are 
ever striving by divers means to subjugate the human 
race to their sway. 

Hence we may obtain the important deduction that 
Paganism, from its most intellectual phase down to the 
lowest fetichism, is not the mere worship of stocks 
and stones, but the cultus, whether conscious or uncon- 
scious, whether direct or through various mediums, of 
rebellious spirits. Nor can the converse of the pro- 
position be denied, that the cultus of any such spirits is 
pure Paganism. 

Now all idolatrous worship is inseparably connected 
with magic and the exercise of super- 

The great aim of ^ , i— •, • 11 

Satan is not the spread natural powcr. P Or it IS Only by a 
of absolute scepticism continual display of such power, or at 

but the subjugation of •■ ■' jr » 

the world to demoniacal least by a fixcd bclicf in it, that the 

power. - 1111-1 

human race can be held m the grievous 
bondage of demon-service. The instant a man loses 
* I Cor. X. 19-21. 


faith in the possibiHty of the supernatural, he becomes, 
in spite of any vague ideas of Divine rule, a virtual 
sceptic. In the opinion of many such a result would 
satisfy every desire of the Evil One : but the following 
considerations deter us from assenting to their conclusion. 

Whenever Scripture lifts the veil, and allows us a 
momentary glim^Dse of the Kingdom of Darkness, we 
behold a community, malignant indeed, but perfect in 
order and government, and thirsting for the subjugation 
of the human race. For the empire of Satan cannot 
be completely organized till men be as obedient to 
demons as demons are to the rebel principalities and 
powers, and these last again to their great prince. And 
so, the denizens of the air are not merely stirring up an 
aimless revolt against God, but would fain annex the 
whole of our world to their own orderly dominion. 

Therefore, although for the present Satan will allure 
men from God by any bait which pleases them, he, 
nevertheless, fosters absolute scepticism only as Jesuitical 
emissaries are said to encourage revolution and anarchy 
in order to break down the barriers which withstand the 
advance of their own system. His real plan must be 
sought in the various false religions, by comparing which 
the thoughtful student may detect many strange and 
unsuspected points of contact. Differences indeed they 
have, arising from peculiarities of race or disposition : 
they resemble the fragments of a marble block, some 
of which display more of one coloured vein, some of 
another : but if the pieces be fitted together again, line 
meets line, and the variegated pattern appears perfect. 
Originally they all issued from one centre — Babylon 
has been the golden cup to make every nation drunken * 

* Jer. li. 7. 


— and around one centre will they be reunited when 
the time for its revelation arrives. 

The grand aim, then, of Satanic miracles is to bring 
men under the influence of demons. The Devil would 
by no means destroy, but rather increase, a belief in 
the supernatural ; he would, however, point out Satan, 
and not Christ, as the head of thrones, dominions, 
principalities, and powers, and hasten the time when 
one shall sit as God in the temple of God, showing 
himself that he is God.* To this end is all the 
teaching of his signs and wonders directed, however 
carefully they may be disguised, and whether they 
be appearances of aerial forms, visions, oracles — 
which seldom afford real help, and often lure men 
on to destruction by the ambiguity of their response, 
sooth-sayings — sometimes strikingly verified, but never 
reliable, spirit-writing, voices of the unseen, magnetic 
healings, or any other exhibition of his power. Nor 
can we examine the many superstitions confirmed 
by these miracles without astonishment at the skill 
with which they are adapted to the purpose of en- 
thralling mankind. For is not this the obvious intent 
of spirit-communications, auguries, omens, tokens, lucky 
and unlucky days and seasons, purifications, holy water, 
spells, potions, amulets, charms, fetiches, relics, images, 
pictures, crosses, crucifixes, and all the countless pre- 
scriptions of demoniacal systems ? 

Now the false signs are usually exhibited through 

There are two waj-; human mcdiums selccted by the demons, 

acVire'"' su'JeThu.:" ^^ho pcrccive, it may be, some affinity 

power. The first by to themsclvcs in the objects of their 

an unlawful excitation i . • • 

of their own dormant choicc. And it appcars that there are 
two methods by which men can acquire 
• 2 Thess. ii. 


unlawful power and knowledge, and gain admittance 
to a prohibited intercourse. 

He who would follow the first — but comparatively 
few have hitherto been able — must " so bring his body 
under the control of his own soul that he can project 
his soul and spirit, and, while living on this earth, act 
as if he were a disembodied spirit." The man who 
attains to this power is called an adept ; and, according 
to a late President of the British Theosophical Society, 
" can consciously see the minds of others. He can act 
by his soul-force on external spirits. He can accelerate 
the growth of plants and quench fire ; and, like Daniel, 
subdue ferocious wild beasts. He can send his soul to 
a distance, and there not only read the thoughts of 
others, but speak to and touch these distant objects; 
and not only so, but he can exhibit to his distant 
friends his spiritual body in the exact likeness of that 
of the flesh. Moreover, since the adept acts by the 
power of his spirit, he can, as a unitive force, create out 
of the surrounding multiplex atmosphere the likeness 
of any physical object, or he can command physical 
objects to come into his presence." * 

The powers of such men are defined by the author 
of " Isis Unveiled" as " mediatorship, not mediumship." 
They may be exaggerated, but the existence, in all 
times of the w^orld's history, of persons with abnormal 
faculties, initiates of the great mysteries, and deposi- 
taries of the secrets of antiquity, has been affirmed 
by a testimony far too universal and persistent to 
admit of denial. 

The development of these faculties is, doubtless, 
possible but to few, and even in their case can only be 

* Wild's "Spiritual Dynamics." 


compassed by a long and severe course of training, the 
object of which is, to break down the body to a complete 
subjection, and to produce a perfect apathy in regard 
to all the pleasures, pains, and emotions, of this life, 
so that no disturbing elements may ruffle the calm 
of the aspirant's mind and hinder his progress. And 
two initial rules, laid down as indispensable to the 
discipline, are — abstinence from flesh and alcohol, and 
absolute chastity. In other words, he who would be 
an adept must conform to the teaching of those demons, 
predicted leaders of the last apostacy, who forbid to 
marry, and command to abstain from meats. 

Thus, but doubtless not without the aid and instruc- 
tion of evil spirits as well as of already perfected adepts, 
those latent powers are educed, which certainly exist 
in all men, but are as certainly forbidden by God to 
be used, or even sought out, in this life. For it is 
every man's duty, for the present, to preserve a clear 
and undisturbed consciousness of the world in which 
he is placed, of those material surroundings by dealing 
with which, in accordance with the Divine laws, it is 
appointed that he shall find the discipline needful to 
his sanctification. And for this reason our spiritual 
independence of time and space, and superhuman 
power of knowing doing and influencing, are sup- 
pressed by the nature of our bodies. Man is a spirit 
in prison, and so he must be content to abide, until 
God unlocks the door of his cell. But if he will have 
instant enjoyment by a premature excitation of potenti ■ 
alities which are reserved for future development, he 
can only do so by feloniously breaking through his 
dungeon bars, and thus shattering the harmony of his 
present nature. 


The second method is by a passive submission to 
the control of foreign intelligences, 

The second, by a pas- • i i i i • • c 

sive submisi^ion to the who, cithcf by thc direct action ot 

control of other spirits. ^j^^j^ ^^^^^ ^^^^^^^ ^^ ^^ guidlHg thc 

application of certain means, will draw out the spirit 
of their subject and free it from the boc^y. If this 
process be effected by demons,* the patient is termed 
a medium ; but he must be a person whose spirit can 
be easily detached from the body, either because the 
latter is weak and diseased, or from causes which are 
not obvious. In such a manner he is brought into 
intelligent communication with spirits of the Air, and 
can receive any knowledge which they possess, or any 
false impressions which they may choose to impart. 
By practice the facility of this intercourse becomes 
much greater ; and as the fellowship progresses, and 
men become more enamoured of their aerial visitants, 
the demons seem permitted to do various wonders at 
their request, and, finally, to reveal themselves to sight, 
hearing, and touch. Since, however, the spirits of som.e 
persons seem by their very nature to possess powers 
akin to those of the trained adept, it is at times difficult 
to decide in which way such phenomena are produced. 
As we before remarked, the escape of the medium's 
spirit may be effected by the unassisted action of the 
demons. But it is often necessary to supplement that 
action by various aids — such as the Sukra and Manti 
of the Hindu Soma-mystery ; or a cup of poisonous 
drugs similar to that which enabled the Chaldean 
initiate to behold the glittering form of the great 

* For it may be done by a spirit still in the flesh, that is, by a 
magrietizer or mesmerist, in which case the patient is a mesmeric 


goddess passing by at the top of the cave ; or a 
mephitic vapour, hke that of the Delphic oracle ; or 
the whirling dance of the dervish ; or the long fasting 
and watching of the Ojibbeway Indian ; or the gazing 
fixedly upon a metal plate or crystal held in the hand ; 
or that fascinating power of a fellow-creature which in 
modern times is called mesmerism. 

By such and other means the activity of the outward 
senses is diminished or altogether checked, and the 
consciousness passes into another sphere, where the 
spirit gazes upon wondrous visions ; is able to hold 
intercourse with supernatural beings, to reveal secrets, 
and in some degree to foretell ; can travel in a moment 
to any part of the world, and accurately describe places, 
houses, and the condition and actions of those who are 
living in them ; has the power of seeing the internal 
mechanism of its own body or those of others ; and will 
give a diagnosis of disease and prescribe for it. Indeed 
the spirit seems to leave the body just as at death — ■ 
save that some silver cord is not yet snapped — and 
often, as in the case of trance-mediums, another spirit 
enters it, and speaks with a different voice and with 
different knowledge. 

But since all such proceedings as these are a trans- 
A„ • • ^- ^ ^ .:. gression of the limits of humanity as 

All spirits which hold " _ ■' 

intercourse with men in laid down by the Crcator, it follows 

either of these two ways .1 , n . 1 1 • 1 

■ are evil spirits, from that all supcmatural beings who sanc- 
™^nl"f,inTh. \J. tion them and hold intercourse with 

communication be once 

opened, it is ditVicuit to the transgrcssor must be spirits of evil. 


And the unlawful confusion brings its 
own immediate punishment, in addition to the fearful 
judgment to come. For our body appears to be not 
only a prison, but also a fortress, and is, not improbably, 


devised for the very purpose of sheltering us hi some 
degree from the corrupting induence of demons. In its 
normal condition it effectually repels their more open 
and violent assaults : but if we once suffer the fence to 
be broken down, we are no longer able to restore it, 
and arc henceforth exposed to the attacks of malignant 

It is but seldom that a person can be mesmerised for 
the first time without his own consent ; and when such 
cases do occur they are probably to be referred to some 
special weakness, which may not infrequently be traced 
to a special sin. But if submission be once yielded, it 
is hard to withdraw it : and every fresh exercise of the 
power upon the same patient increases its influence. 

So, in the case of fellowship with demons, there are 
but few who can become mediums without perseverance : 
but when a communication has been once established, 
the spirits are loth to relinquish it, and are wont to 
persecute those who, having become conscious of their 
sin, are determined by the grace of God to transgress 
no more. 

We will now proceed to examine the Scriptural 
^ . . , ^,^ terms used to describe those who 

Examination of Old 

Testament words applied practisc supcmatural arts, giving in 

to sorcerers. , , 1 t t 1 i • 1 

each case the Hebrew word with an 
attempted explanation. 

Chartinmnim (D''^p")n). " The sacred scribes."* This 
is a name given to the magicians of Egypt in the times 
of Joseph and ]\Ioses,t and also to those of Babylon in 
the days of Daniel. The word seems to be connected 
with the Hebrew cheret (l^^lO)' ^ style or pen, and to 
signify those members of the priestly caste, who, 

* Gen. xli. 8. f Exod. vii. u. 


although they also practised other kinds of magic, were 
mainly concerned with writing. Perhaps they were 
identical with the writing mediums of our days, who, 
according to the author of "Glimpses of a Brighter 
Land," are divided into five classes as follows. Those 
whose passive hand is moved by the demon without any 
mental volition on their own part : those into whose 
mind each word is separately insinuated instantaneously 
with its automatic inscription on the paper : those who 
write from the dictation of spirit-voices : those who 
copy words and sentences which they are made to see 
written upon the air, or upon some suitable object, in 
letters of light : and, lastly, those in whose presence 
spirit-hands, sometimes visible, sometimes invisible, will 
take up the pen and write the communication. 

OiakJianiim (^*'l2i2Xy). "Wise men."* But since this 
word is joined to chartiunmim, and since it appears that 
the chakhamim turned their rods into serpents, it follows 
that they were so called, not as mere philosophers or 
men of experience, but as having intercourse with 
supernatural beings, by whose assistance they displayed 
a greater than human wisdom, and could exhibit mira- 
culous power. We may compare our own term "wizard," 
which originally meant a wise man, or sage. 

In the eighteenth chapter of Deuteronomy there is a 
remarkable passage which in the English version reads 
as follows; — "There shall not be found among you any 
one that maketh his son or his daughter to pass through 
the fire, or that useth divination, or an observer of times, 
or an enchanter, or a witch, or a charmer, or a consulter 
with familiar spirits, or a wizard, or a necromancer. 

* E.xod. vii. II. 



For all that do these things are an abomination unto 
the Lord."* 

This list of abominations begins with him " that 
maketh his son or his daughter to pass through the 
fire," a phrase which must not be understood of the 
burning of children as a sacrifice to Moloch, but of a 
sort of purification by fire, or fire-baptism, by which 
they were consecrated to the god, and supposed to be 
freed from the fear of a violent death.f This, as being 
a kind of charm or spell, is of course classed among 
sorceries. We will now examine the remaining terms 
in the order in which they stand. 

Qosem (Cpp). A diviner, one who discovers the hidden 
things of past present or future time by supernatural 
means. This appears to be a comprehensive term, 
being used of a diviner by omens and tokens or by 
direct spirit-communication. 

Meonen (piVO) is derived by some from a root which 
would supply a choice of significations : for the word 
might either mean a practiser of hidden arts, or a 
diviner by clouds. But a connection with ayi7i (j?!?), the 
eye, is much more probable ; and we may then deduce 
the meaning of a fascinator with the eyes, or, in modern 

* Deut. xviii. 10-12. 

f That this practice is still kept up in many parts of Christendom 
by the midsummer fires of St. John's Eve is a fact too well known 
to need illustration. We may, however, mention that a copy of 
the Hei'e/ord limes is now before us, containing a report of a 
lecture on "Home Heathenism," delivered at Wolverhampton by 
Mr. Gibson, a Wesleyan minister, in which the following state- 
ment occurs. " They had heard of the fire-worshippers of Persia, 
little thinking, perhaps, that they had fire-worshippers within a 
distance of sixty or seventy miles. At Midsummer, on many of 
the hills of Herefordshire, fires were burning while the peasantry 
danced around them, and the ceremony was not completed until 
some of the young people had passed through the fire." 


language, a mesmerist, who throwing another into a 
magnetic sleep obtains oracular sayings from him. 
Many, however, prefer the signification of an "observer," 
that is, one who makes minute inspection of the entrails 
so as to deduce the omens, in contradistinction to the 
augur who divined by tokens requiring the use of the 
ear as well as that of the eye, 

Menachesh (C^n^^). This word is connected with 
nacJiasIi (K'ni), a serpent, and is usually explained to 
mean a hisser or whisperer, and then a mutterer of 
enchantments. But the use of the verb of which it is 
the Piel participle seems to point in a different direction. 
In the thirteenth chapter of Genesis, Laban entreats 
Jacob to stay with him : " for," says he, " I divine — or, 
more literally, perceive by observation — that the Lord 
hath blessed me for thy sake."* And again ; when to 
the pleading of Ben-hadad's servants Ahab replied, 
" Is he yet alive .'f He is my brother," we are told that 
the men " divined," " took an omen," from what he had 
said. Hence the verb seems to have been used primarily 
of drawing an inference from rapid observation, and 
then of divining. From the first meaning comes nacJiash, 
a serpent, on account of its quick intelligence : from the 
second menachesh^ an augur, one v.^ho divines by observing 
signs and tokens, such as the singing and flight of birds, 
aerial phenomena, and other sights and sounds. 

MekJuishshcph (^'2ly). The root of this word 
signifies " to pray," but only to false gods or demons. 
Hence it is, perhaps, applied to those who use incan- 
tations or magical formulae. 

ChobJier cJiebJier O^H I^IH). Literally, a binder of a 
band or spell. That is, either a fabricator of material 
* Gen. XXX. 2"]. t 1 Kings xx. t^2, 2)'h- 


charms and amulets ; or, much more probably, one who 
by incantations and spells brings demons into associa- 
tion with himself, so as to obtain aid or information 
from them. It is a common practice to open a modern 
seance by chanting or singing hymns to invoke the 
presence of spirits.. 

Shod obJi (IS'lX /Xb'). A consulter of demons. That 
is, one who has established such a fellowship that he 
can communicate with them directly, and neither needs 
to do so mediately by means of signs or omens, nor 
even requires the aid of spells to draw them to 

An obJi is a soothsaying demon : but by an earlier 
use the word is also applied to the person connected 
with such a demon. Originally it signified a skin 
bottle, and its transition from this first meaning to 
its second may be clearly detected in the following 
exclamation of Elihu ; — " For I am full of matter, 
the spirit within me constraineth me. Behold, my 
belly is as wine which hath no vent ; it is ready to 
burst like new bottles."* The word appears, then, to 
have been used of those into whom an unclean spirit 
had entered, because demons, when about to deliver 
oracular responses, caused the bodies of the possessed 
to grow tumid and inflated. We may, perhaps, com- 
pare Virgil's description of the soothsaying Sybil :t for 
he tells us that her breast began to swell with frenzy, 
and her stature appeared to increase, as the spirit of 
the god drew nearer. According to some, however, the 
medium was called an obh merely as being the vessel 
or sheath of the spirit : but in either case the term was 
afterwards applied to the demon itself. 

* Job xxxii. i8, 19. t ^n. vi. 48-51. 


That the spirit actually dwells within the person who 
divines by it, we may see from a previously quoted 
passage of Leviticus, the literal rendering of which is, 
" A man or a woman when a demon is in them," etc.* 
And in strict accordance with this is the account of the 
Philippian damsel who had a Pythonic spirit. t For 
Paul compelled the spirit to come out of her, and she 
instantly lost all her supernatural power. 

From the stories of mediaeval witches, and from what 
we hear of modern mediums, it seems likely that a 
connection with an obh is frequently, if not always, the 
result of a compact, whereby the spirit in return for its 
services enjoys the use of the medium's body. Indeed 
there is reason to believe that a medium differs from a 
demoniac, in the ordinary sense of the term, merely 
because in the one case a covenant exists between the 
demon and the possessed ; whereas the frightful duality 
and confusion in the other arise from the refusal of the 
human spirit to yield a passive submission and acquiesce 
in a league with the intruder. 

And let us not suppose that the age of demoniacs is 
past : the lapse of a few centuries has not reconciled 
demons to the disembodied state, they are still as eager 
as ever to clothe themselves with bodies. In the course 
of an interesting conversation which the writer had with 
the late Dr. Forbes Winslow, the latter expressed his 
conviction that a large proportion of the patients in our 
lunatic asylums are cases of possession, and not of 
madness. He distinguished the demoniac by a strange 
duality, and by the fact that, when temporarily released 

• Lev. XX, 27, 

t The reason for this deviation from our version will be found in 
a note towards the close of the chapter. 


from the oppression of the demon, he is often able to 
describe the force which seizes upon his limbs, and 
compels him to acts or words of shame against his 

Yidoni 0^^*^!*). A knowing one : that is, a person 
who is able to supply required information by means of 
the spirits with which he is associated. 

Doresh el Jiammethiin (Cn^n 7i^ ^^). A seeker 
unto the dead, a necromancer, one who consults the dead 
for advice or information. The familiar was supposed 
to summon the spirit required, just as in modern 
Spiritualism ; but, as we shall presently see, in many 
cases at least, and possibly in all, it is probable that 
the ohh itself personated the dead. 

Such, then, are the abominations mentioned in the 
eighteenth chapter of Deuteronomy ; but there are yet 
other terms in Scripture applied to the practisers of 
sim lar or kindred arts. 

Ittim (D''tii!s). This word occurs in Isaiah * : it seems 
to mean whisperers or mutterers, that is, those who 
repeat spells or charms. 

In Isaiah's description of the downfall of Babylon, 
the city so famed for its astrologers, we find mention of 
HobJire SJiamayim (C^'^^ ''112^), t that is, dividers of 
the heavens, astrologers who divide the heavens into 
houses for the convenience of their prognostications. 

The same persons are then described as Chozini 
hakkokhabhim (D"'13''53 D''in), star-gazers, those who 
study the stars for the purpose of taking horoscopes. 

Lastly; the}' are said to be Llodiim lecJiodasJiim 
(CJi'iri? D'^yni^), deliverers of monthly predictions 
from their observations. 

* Isa. xix. 3. t Isa. xlvii. 13. 


In Daniel we have two other terms applied to those 
who were conversant with forbidden arts. 

AsJisJiapJi (?1l^*N).* a sorcerer. Properly a practiser 
of hidden arts: for the word is connected with asJipah 
(ri3iyX), a quiver, that in which arrows are hidden. 

Gasrin (r^IS).! Deciders, determiners, practisers of 
the art of casting nativities. Used of astrologers who, 
from a knowledge of the hour of birth, determined the 
fate of men by the position of the stars, and by various 
arts of computation and divining. 

Remarks on words ex- Jj^ ^J^g ]^g^ TcstamCnt thc following 
pressive of sorcerj- in the _ ° 

New Testament. namcs, all of which appear to be com- 

prehensive and general, are applied to those who deal 
with the powers of darkness. 

Mctyot. Originally the Magi were a Persian religious 
caste; but their influence was subsequently extended 
to many countries. They acted as priests, prescribed 
sacrifices, were soothsayers, and interpreted dreams and 
omens. OrigenJ affirms that they were in communica- 
tion with evil spirits, and could consequently do whatever 
lay within the power of their invisible allies. Certainly 
— if we may trust the statements of early Christian 
writers — they were well acquainted with mesmerism 
and every practice of modern Spiritualism. 

^apfxaKev?. One who uses drugs, whether for the 
purpose of poisoning, or for magic potions or spells — 
significations which are carefully distinguished by Plato 
in his De Legibiis. In the Nubcs of Aristophanes, 
Strepsiades suggests the hiring of a Thcssalian witch 
{(f)ap[jiaKL<;) to draw the moon down ; and the verb 
(f)apixaKeveLV is used by Herodotus in reference to the 

* Dan. i. 20. t Dan. 11. 27. 

t Contra Cclsum, I. 60. 


sacrifice of white horses whereby the Magi sought to 
charm the Strymon. Again ; (^ap/xa/ceta is employed in 
the Septuagint to express those arts by which the 
magicians of Egypt imitated the miracles of Moses. 
These examples are sufficient to show that the word 
soon became a general term for a sorcerer ; and, in 
tracing its meaning, we must not forget that drugs were 
often administered by the ancients for the purpose of 
producing an effect similar to that of mesmerism. 

Twice in the New Testament sorcery (<^ap/xaKeta) and 
idolatry are coupled together : * and in commenting 
upon the first passage Lightfoot well remarks that 
idolatry signifies the open recognition of false gods, and 
sorcery the secret tampering with the powers of evil. 

06 TO. irepiepya 'npd^avTe<;.'t Those w^ho had practised 
curious — that is, magical — arts. Perhaps, among other 
things, they trafficked in the celebrated amulets called 
Ephesian letters, which were said to be copies of the 
mystic words inscribed on the image of Artemis, and 
to have the property of preserving their wearers from 
all harm. The books which they destroyed may have 
contained astrological computations, the " Babylonios 
numeros " of Horace. 

From this list of terms it will be observed that 
The practices of sorcery dcmoniacal arts fall readily into three 

may be divided into three . <t>i r- . • 1 1 i • i 

classes. classes. 1 hc first comprises all kmds 

of divination by omens, tokens, and forbidden sciences ; . 
the second the uses of spells and incantations as a 
means of accomplishing what is desired : and the third 
every method of direct and intelligent communication 
and co-operation with demons. 

With regard to the first class, the signs and omens 

Gal. V. 20 ; Rev. xxi. 8. t Acts xix. 19. 


were doubtless arranged by demons, who, after inducing 
a belief in their rehabihty by presenting them before the 
occurrence of certain events, could thenceforth easily act 
upon human minds, and, by simple appearances, either 
deter men from their purpose, or urge them on to enor- 
mities of ev'il. 

As to forbidden sciences, since it is probable that 
everything in nature affects us, there rnay be a founda- 
tion of truth in them — indeed Scripture seems to hint 
that there is in the case of astrology. But such lore is 
for the present positively interdicted by God : nor is it 
difficult to discover reasons for His prohibition. For 
the mind of man is altogether unable to grasp and 
handle knowledge so profound and so complicated : 
with his present powers he would waste a whole life, 
and gain nothing but a miserably imperfect and alto- 
gether unreliable acquaintance with the mysterious law. 
Nor in his fallen condition could he be trusted with such 
tremendous secrets, even if he could comprehend them. 
His pride and independence would swell, nothing would 
be withheld from him, and his wickedness would devise 
crimes which can now scarcely find place even in his 

The spells and incantations may either be mere 
arrangements of the demons, who, by bringing about 
the desired effect when they could, have established a 
faith in them : or, perhaps, they are in some cases 
grounded upon a real potency in the means employed, 
which has thus been unlawfully disclosed by rebellious 

Direct communication with demons, whether by 
writing, clairvoyance, clairaudience, or in other ways, 
is now becoming universally prevalent. It is sustained 


by what is called mcdiumistic power, a faculty which, 
as we have before remarked, some seem to develop 
instinctively, but which in many cases can only be 
obtained by a sedulous and persevering use of the 
means prescribed.* 

Having thus examined the Scriptural terms applied 
^,. . , . , to dealers with demons, let us now 

Historical notices of 

Spiritualism in the Bible, glancc at the historical facts illus- 
erap im. trativc of the subject. Upon the 

antediluvian sin we have already commented, and 
observed that its repetition in postdiluvian times seems 
to have originated all Heathen systems and mytho- 
logy. We will, therefore, now proceed to the next 
indication of Demonism, which appears in the mention 
of teraphim. 

The derivation of this word has caused much trouble : 
but the conjecture of R. S. Poole, in Smith's " Dictionary 
of the Bible," is worth consideration, and brings the 
teraphim into very close connection with Spiritualism. 
Their use appears to have commenced in Chaldea ; but 
the affinity between that country and ancient Egypt in 
language as well as religion is well known, and hence 
Mr. Poole traces the name to an Egyptian root, and 
explains it as follows : — 

" The Egyptian word tcr signifies ' a shape, type, 
transformation,' and has for its determinative a mummy: 

* In a case which came under the obser\'ation of the ■writer, it 
was only after a perseverance of three months that the aspirant to 
demon-intercourse compassed his desire. But it was not long 
before he began to perceive the diabolical natureof the fellowship 
into which he had entered, and resolved to abjure it. That which 
had been difficult to acquire was, however, far more difficult to 
renounce ; and for some considerable time he was so incessantly 
tormented by the spirits, to whcsi influence he had yielded him- 
self, that he well nigh lost his life, or at least his reason. 


it is used in the Ritual, where the various transforma- 
tions of the deceased in Hades are described. The 
small mummy-shaped figure, Shcbtee, usually made of 
baked clay covered with a blue vitreous varnish, repre- 
senting the Egyptian as deceased, is of a nature 
connecting it with magic, since it was made with the 
idea that it secured benefits in Hades ; and it is con- 
nected wath the word tej', for it represents a mummy, 
the determinative of that word, and was considered to 
be of use in the state in which the deceased passed 
through transformations, tciii. The difficulty which 
forbids our doing more than conjecture a relation 
between ter and teraphim is the want in the former of 
the third radical of the latter ; and in our present state 
of ignorance respecting the ancient Egyptian and the 
primitive language of Chaldea in their verbal relations 
to the Semitic family it is impossible to say whether it 
is likely to be explained. The possible connection with 
the Egyptian religious magic is, however, not to be 
slighted, especially as it is not improbable that the 
household idolatry of the Hebrews was ancestral wor- 
ship, and the SJiebtee was the image of a deceased man 
or woman, as a mummy, and therefore as an Osiris, 
bearing the insignia of that divinity, and so in a 
manner as a deified dead person, although we do not 
know that it was used in the ancestral worship of the 

If there be any truth in this idea, the use of teraphim 
was precisely analogous to the consultation of the dead 
by modern Spiritualists. And, whatever be the deri- 
vation of the word, the fact at least remains, that the 
images signified by it were kept for the unlawful 
purpose of divination. But this fact is sometimes 


obscured in our version by the substitution of "idols," 
or "idolatry," for " teraphim." The well-known v/ords 
of Samuel to Saul should be rendered ; — " For rebellion 
is as the sin of divination, and stubbornness is as idolatry 
and teraphim."* And Zechariah should be made to 
say ; — " For the teraphim have spoken vanity, and the 
diviners have seen a lie, and have told false dreams," t 

But those who used teraphim, though they broke the 
law of Jehovah by seeking unto the dead and establish- 
ing a fellowship with demons, do not seem to have 
openly denied Him. This we may see by the cases of 
Laban, Michal the wife of David, and the heretical 
Israelites of later times. And herein we may discover 
another point of resemblance between the less advanced 
of modern Spiritualists and the ancient diviners by 

We have already noticed the appearance of dream- 
interpreting mediums in Joseph's time. 

The cup which was . • • i , r i • j i • 

found in Benjamin's An uicident ot the samc pcriod CilS- 
^^'^^■- closes the prevalence of another super- 

natural art. For the steward, when he accused Joseph's 
brethren of stealing his master's cup, exclaimed ; — " Is 
not this it in which my lord drinketh, and whereby 
indeed he divineth ? ";jl Now we are not for a moment 
to suppose that Joseph followed the magical practices 
of Egypt : the words were merely devised by the 
steward, in reference to a universal custom of the 
country, to enhance the value of the cup. For when 
interpreting the dreams of the chief butler and chief 
baker, as well as when summoned into the presence 
of Pharaoh, Joseph disclaimed all intercourse with 
demons, and declared that the revelation he was about 

* I Sam. XV. 23. t Zech. x. 2. \ Gen. xliv. 5. 


to make had come directly from God. When, there- 
fore, he afterwards says to his brethren, " Wot ye not 
that such a man as I can certainly divine?"* we must 
understand him to be disguising himself by an affecta- 
tion of the customs of Egypt. He is not, however, 
referring to the previous words of the steward : for 
he could not have divined by a cup which was not at 
the time in his possession. 

The practice to which the steward alluded was pro- 
bably the same as that which is still in vogue among 
Egyptian magicians, and consists in pouring something 
into a cup, by gazing fixedly at which a person is 
mesmerised and enabled to see in the fluid whatever 
may be desired. Lane, in his " Modern Egyptians," 
gives a remarkable and well-known account of a 
sheikh who divined in this way : but with the imma- 
terial difference that the boy who was to be mesmerised 
looked into a black liquid poured upon his hand. 

When Moses began to exhibit the marvels of God 
Conflict of the Egyptian bcfore Pharaoh, theEgyptian mediumsf 
magicians with Moses, •were immediately summoned, as being 
themselves also accustomed to work wonders. And up 
to a certain point they did succeed in imitating the 
Hebrew prophet, though they were utterly unable to 
counteract his miracles and give relief to their country- 
men. They caused their rods to become serpents : 
they turned water into blood : they brought frogs out 
of the river Nile : but there the power of their lord 
ceased, for, great as it was, it was finite. All their 
efforts to imitate the next miracle were in vain : they 
were compelled to fall back, and confess that they 
could no longer contend with the Almighty. 

• Gen. xliv. 15. t Or, adepts. 


We may now understand the frequent reference in 
Reason of the frequent the Iew of Siuai to practisers of all 

denunciation of sorcery in j^j^jg q|- sorCCrV. It WaS nCCeSSarV 

the law. Ihe mediums J •' 

destroyed by Saul. botli to destroy the influence of the 

Egyptian magicians, and to prepare the peoi)le of 
God for the, perhaps, worse dangers which awaited 
them in the Land of Promise. For Canaan contained 
many descendants of the Nephilim,* and consequently 
teemed with mediums, through whose influence, since 
the law was not put in force against them, the Israel- 
ites were seduced to idolatry and involved in bitter 

Saul, probably at the instigation of Samuel, destroyed 
these evil doers with such vigour that the few who sur- 
vived could only practise their wicked arts in secret, 
and a long time elapsed before sorcerers and false 
prophets recovered their power in Judah. 

Yet, after a while, the destroyer himself appealed for 
help to one who had escaped the edge of his sword, 
and verified the prophet's warning that rebellion is as 
the sin of divination, and that stubborn self-will is as 
idolatry and teraphim.f For when Samuel uttered 
those words, Saul had already been guilty of rebellion 
and stubbornness : he was, therefore, also capable of 
the crimes of divination, idolatry, and the consultation 
of teraphim, heinous as they at the time appeared to 
him. Let our heart but be estranged from God, and 
there is no sin so great, so outrageous, as to be impos- 
sible to us. The close of Saul's history is a mournful 
proof of this, and shows how easy a prey man becomes 
to the Powers of Evil when the multitude of his provo- 
cations has at length caused the Spirit of the Most 
* Numb. xiii. t^}^. f i Sam. xv. 2}^. 


High to depart from him, and he stands alone amid 
the ruins of his broken purposes, while the gathering of 
his fears portends a pitiless storm upon his unsheltered 

The dark shadow of approaching death was beginning 
The history of Saul and to stcal over thc wayward king: he 
the witch of En-dor. gg^^^ ^^ glittering helms and spears 
of the invading army, and his heart trembled with 
gloomy forebodings.* The Spirit of the Lord no 
longer came upon him as in the day when he sent 
forth the bloody tokens, and indignantly summoned 
all Israel to march with him to Jabesh-Gilead.f Nay, 
the phantoms of past sins, and, perchance, the gory 
forms of the slaughtered priests, | floated continually 
before his eyes, and took away all rest, all stedfastness 
of purpose. The prophet who had so long borne with 
him, so often entreated for him, was dead. He essayed 
to pray, but found that if any regard iniquity in his 
heart the Lord will not hear him. For Jehovah, Who 
had pleaded with him so patiently, forgiven him so 
many times, had at last turned away, and would 
answer him no more, neither by dreams, nor by Urim, 
nor by prophets. The gates of salvation, which had 
remained open all the day in vain, were suddenly closed 
at nightfall, and there was neither form seen nor voice 
heard in response to his now despairing cry. 

Then he yielded to an evil thought : he remembered 
the dealers with familiar spirits and the wizards whom, 
in obedience to the law, he had destroyed from the 
land : he knew that they were reputed able to call up 
the dead ; and, perhaps, stifling his conscience with the 
plea that it was a prophet of the Lord with whom he 
* I Sam. xxviii. f i Sam. xi. 7, % i Sam. xxii. 18. 


would converse, determined, since God would not hear 
him, to appeal to the Powers of Darkness. 

Had he but said with Job, " Though He slay mc, yet 
will I trust in Him,"* he might have found mercy even 
at the last. But faith is rarely given at the close of life 
to those who have spurned repeated offers of grace : 
experience teaches the general rule that, as a man lives, 
so does he die ; and thus it was with Saul. Turning 
to his companions he asked if they knew of any sur- 
viving dealer with demons. The question must have 
filled them with astonishment : for could Saul, who had 
so mercilessly destroyed the mediums in the name of 
the Lord, be about to stultify himself by inquiring of 
them ! But the king was evidently in earnest, and sore 
troubled : they, therefore, told him of a witch f who was 
at that time concealed in one of the caves of En-dor, 
not more than seven or eight miles from the camp. 
En-dor ! There seemed to be a good omen in the 
name : for was it not there that two great enemies of 
Israel, Jabin and Sisera, perished, and became as dung 
for the earth 1 % 

Saul waited for the shelter of night, and then, with 
two companions, went forth to fill up the measure of 
his iniquities. He arrived at the north-eastern slope of 
the Little Hermon, and the dexterity with which his 
attendants found out the witch's cave in the darkness, 
and amid the numerous perforations of the mountain, 
seems to prove their frequent habit of resorting to it. 
Passing into the recess of the cavern, dimly lighted, 
perhaps, by a fire of wood, the king accosted the 

* Job xiii. 15. 

t Or, if we render the Hebrew literally, " a woman who was 
mistress of a demon." 
% Psalm Ixxxiii. 9, 10. 


woman with words which show the absolute identity 
of her craft with that of the modern medium. " I pray 
thee," he said, "divane unto me by the familiar spirit, 
and bring me him up whom I shall name unto thee." 
The witch was at first suspicious : but Saul reassured 
her by a strange oath, and swore by the name of 
Jehovah that no harm should befall her for breaking 
the law of Jehovah. Thereupon she inquired with 
what spirit he would communicate, and being requested 
to call up Samuel commenced her preparations. 

Now the obJi was supposed to have the power of 
summoning the dead ; but, since we cannot admit that 
this power extended to the spirits of the just, the 
familiar must, in many cases at least, have personated 
the spirit required. Any necessary information could, 
of course, have been procured with lightning speed from 
the demons who had watched the life of the person 
invoked.* And so the woman's familiar would doubt- 
less have presented itself as Samuel, and, perhaps, have 
uttered soothing words to the king. But the usual 
procedure was cut short by a sudden interference, and 
the medium shrieked with terror as she perceived, pro- 
bably through her familiar, that the inquirer was her 

* This seems the most probable way of accounting' for that 
accurate knowledge of the past which is often displaj'ed b}' 
mediums : but how shall we explain their still more wonderful, 
though altogether unreliable, predictions of the future ? Perhaps 
somewhat as follows. The dealings of God with man, and the 
different stages of human probation, are doubtless both syste- 
matic and consequential ; and, therefore, evil spirits, acquainted, 
it may be, with laws hidden to us, and taught by an experience of 
six thousand years, would be likely to have a general prescience 
of coming events. But they are by no means able to penetrate 
the deep counsels of the Almighty, and hence their calculations 
must be often baffled by an unexpected fiat of His will. We may 
thus understand why their predictions are often strikingly verified, 
while at times they as signally fail. 



great enemy king Saul, and, still worse, that all her 
powers were held in abeyance, and her Satanic accom- 
plice paralysed, by the apparition of a being with whom 
she felt that she had neither part nor lot. For since 
Saul would seek unto the dead, God had in anger sent 
up the real Samuel as the bearer of a fearful message 
of doom. 

We need follow the history no further : the dread 
utterance of Samuel, the despair of Saul, his return to 
the camp, and his miserable end on the next day, are 
matters with which we are not at present concerned. 
We have only to remark that the woman was evidently 
well known to the officers of Saul ; that she was assisted 
by an attendant spirit ; that she was confident in her 
power of producing a supernatural voice, as well as an 
apparition which she, at least, could see and describe ; 
that she recognised Saul by supernatural information ; 
and that she was terrified at the appearance of the real 
Samuel in the place of the counterfeit one whom she 
had expected. Lastly ; w^e are expressly told that the 
crime of consulting a medium sealed the doom of the 
first king of Israel.* 

From this time there is no mention of mediums in 
Spiritualism in the his- the history of Judah until the days of 
toryofjudah. Isaiah. Then the streams of wicked- 

ness were returning upon the land from the surrounding 
Heathen nations, and idolatry and sorcery were rapidly 
overspreading it. And accordingly the prophet ex- 
claims ; — " Thou hast forsaken Thy people, the House 
of Jacob, because they are replenished from the East, 
and are mesmerisers like the Philistines, and abound 
with the children of strangers."! It is clear from this 
* I Chron. x. 13. t Isa. ii. 6. 


verse that Demonism was again beginning to prevail, 
and strong are the words of Isaiah against it, and 
especially against those practices which have now re- 
appeared in modern Spiritualism.* 

Upon the accession of Manasseh, the wicked son of 
Hezekiah, the revolt was openly headed by the king : 
for of him we are told that he did evil in the sight of 
the Lord after the abominations of the Heathen, whom 
the Lord cast out before the children of Israel.t It 
will be instructive to mark the details of that evil as 
showing the connection of Spiritualism with Idolatry, 
and, therefore, with Romanism, which, owing to the dis- 
coveries of Layard, Rawlinson, and others, now stands 
clearly convicted of descent from the system of Babylon, 
and the Baal- worship of old. For the following is 
the explanation of the term " abominations of the 
Heathen " ;| " He built up again the high places 
which Hezekiah his father had destroyed ; and he 
reared up altars for Baal, and made an Ashtaroth- 
symbol, as did Ahab king of Israel ; and worshipped 
all the host of heaven, and served them. And he 
built altars in the house of the Lord, of which the 
Lord said. In Jerusalem will I put My name. And 
he built altars for all the host of heaven in the two 
courts of the house of the Lord. And he made his 
son pass through the fire, and divined by mesmerism 
and augury, and set in office one who had a familiar 
spirit and wizards : he wrought much wickedness in 
the sight of the Lord, to provoke Him to anger." 

The consequence of these abominable practices was 
a fearful threatening of woe.|l Jehovah would send a 

* Isa. viii. 19; xix. 3 ; xxix. 4; xlvii. \?.-ii^. ■\ 2 Kings xxi. 2, 
X 2 Kings xxi. 3-6. || 2 Kings xxi, 12, 13. 


judgment so terrible that both the ears of him who 
heard of it should tingle : He would level Jerusalem 
with the ground, even as He had destro}'cd Samaria : 
He would treat the Holy City as a man does a dish, 
when, after wiping away the moisture, he turns it over 
lest a single drop should remain. 

The next king, Josiah, did indeed put away the 
abominations and remove the mediums from the land : 
but they soon returned, as we may see by the com- 
plaints and denunciations of Jeremiah. To the very 
last the infatuated nation trusted in them, and turned 
away from the servant of Jehovah when he cried ; — 
"Hearken not ye to your prophets, nor to your diviners, 
nor to your dreamers, nor to your mesmerisers, nor to 
your enchanters, which speak unto you, saying, Ye shall 
not serve the king of Babylon : for they prophesy a lie 
unto you, to remove you far from your land ; and that 
I should drive you out, and ye should perish." * 

Thus the effects of Josiah's reformation were trans- 
ient, and, therefore, the threatened judgment and 
overthrow of Jerusalem quickly followed. And this 
is the third instance which has presented itself to us of 
speedy destruction consequent on a more open and 
general intercourse with the rebel inhabitants of the 

In the kingdom of Israel, the spread of sorcery was, 
Traces of Spiritualism of coursc, a natural rcsult of Baal- 
in the history of Israel, ^vorship. The false prophcts, as well 
as those who were active in the last days of the king- 
dom of Judah, were doubtless mediums inspired by the 
agents of Satan. And awful, yet instructive, is the 
scene in which a lying spirit receives permission to 

* Jer. xx\'ii. 9, 10. 


enter into the prophets of Baal, the mediums of the 
royal household, in order that by their influence the 
miserable Ahab may be led away to meet his death,* 

A little later we have an unmistakable hint of the 
prevalence of mesmerism in Syria. For when Naaman 
heard the message of Elisha, he was indignant that the 
prophet did not appear, and angrily exclaimed ; — 
" Behold, I thought, He will surely come out to me, 
and stand, and call on the name of the Lord his God, 
and move his hand up and down over the place, and 
recover the leper." f It will be observed that we have 
adopted the marginal rendering, which alone expresses 
the correct meaning of nuph in the Hiphil. For that 
verb signifies to wave up and down, and is the root of 
teiiiiphaJi, the wave offering. 

Now Naaman well knew the mode of mesmeric 
healing as practised by the priests of Rimmon and the 
false prophets of his own land, and, therefore, expected 
Elisha to make passes over him in the same way. 
Hence we can understand the treatment he received. 
For had Elisha himself come forth and lifted his hand 
over the leprous spots, Naaman would doubtless have 
ascribed his recovery to the mesmeric influence of the 
prophet, who was, therefore, directed not to see him, 
but to send him to wash in the waters of Jordan. 

" What peace, so long as the whoredoms of thy 
mother Jezebel and her witchcrafts are so many .'' " was 
the indignant reply of Jehu to Jehoram. And the 
teachings of some modern Spiritualists seem likely to 
remind us of the close connection of the two crimes. 

• I Kings xxii. 21-23. 
t 2 Kings V. II. 
\ 2 Kings ix. 22. 


Of the references to mediums in the prophetical 
A prophecy of Zecha- books wc have already noticed so 
'*^- many that we will only further men- 

tion a remarkable promise by the mouth of Zechariah. 
„ And it shall come to pass in that day, saith the 
Lord of hosts, that I will cut off the names of the 
idols out of the land, and they shall no more be 
remembered : and also I will cause the prophets and 
the unclean spirit to pass out of the land."* A con- 
sideration of this passage with its context makes it 
apparent that Spiritualism will be prevalent among 
the Jews when they return in unbelief to their own 
land : but that, upon the advent of their King, they 
will be for ever freed from that curse which was the 
cause of their former expulsion. 

In the New Testament there are hints of the same 
Spiritualism in the New sin, and the later inspired writers take 
Testament. ^]-,g gamc vicw of it. Wc liave already 

mentioned the Philippian damsel who had a Pythonic 
spirit, by which we are, probably, to understand that 
her familiar was a subordinate of the great power 
worshipped under the name of Apollo, the Sun-god, and 
the inspirer of the Delphic oracle.f But this inference 

* Zech. xiii. 2. 

t Such would certainly be the idea conveyed to the mind of a 
Greek or Roman by the significant adoption of this Pagan term. 
Python was originally the name of the great soothsaying serpent 
of Delphi, which was slain by Apollo. Hence the god took his 
title of Pythius, and became the inspirer of oracles and sooth- 
sayers. His priestess at Delphi was called Pythia or Pythonissa ; 
and latterly the term Python was transferred to any soothsaying 
demon which gave responses in the name of Apollo. 

In Acts xvi. 16, the reading Uvdava is preferable to UvBavos, 
and the literal rendering will be "a spirit a Python," that is, a 
Pythonic spirit, 

TertuUian [De Anim, xxviii.) divides the demons who are 
connected with magic into three classes : (i) parabolic spirits 


IS entirely obscured in our version by the inaccurate 
substitution of "a spirit of divination" for "a Pythonic 
spirit " : and, consequently, the hint that the being 
called Apollo really had to some extent the attributes 
assigned to him is veiled to English readers. Such 
should, however, be no longer the case : for the autho- 
ritative connection of Spiritualism with the ancient 
gods is of peculiar importance at a time when Apollo 
is reappearing as a mighty angelic existence in poems 
which claim to be demoniacally inspired. 

We have also previously noticed Paul's inclusion 
of witchcraft among the manifest works of the flesh, 
and the conversion at Ephesus of those who had 
practised magical arts, and will only add that sor- 
cerers are twice mentioned in the closing chapters of 
the Apocalypse. They are found in the catalogue of 
those who shall have their part in the lake that burneth 
with fire and brimstone,* and are warned that they 
shall never walk in the streets of the golden city.f The 
prophetical passage in the First Epistle to Timothy we 
designedly pass by for the present. 

Thus the testimony of the Bible is everywhere 
consistent : nor could it be better expressed than 
in the emphatic words of Moses, that all practisers of 
demoniacal arts " are an abomination unto the Lord."t 

which throw men on the ground; (2) paredral spirits which keep 
ever at their side ; and (3) Pythonic spirits which cast them 
into trances. If this be a true classification, the Philippian 
damsel must have been a clairvoyant or trance-medium. 
* Rev. xxi. 8. f Rev. xxii. 15, J Deut. xviii. 12 



Spiritualism. Part IT. 


In passing from the infallible utterances of inspired 
writers to the countless multitudes 

Introduction. Repeti- ^ n i • 11 

tlons of the antediluvian who, by floatmg their StOrCd know- 
sin in postdiluvian times, j^^gg ^^^^ ^j^g g^j.g^j^ Qf. ^jj^g^ j^^^g 

united to furnish us with records of the past, we must 
premise that we are far from attempting an exhaustive 
treatise. We shall merely adduce a few plain indi- 
cations of the existence in ancient times of what is 
now called Spiritualism, and leave further investigation 
to the curious, whose task, if they are competent to 
examine the monuments of antiquity, will be suffi- 
ciently easy. 

Nor do we wish to dwell upon the fearful culmi- 
nation of sorcery, by which it is identified with the sin 
of the antediluvians. Such a matter is no subject for' 
ordinary discussion. But, seeing that the danger is 
again threatening Christendom, it is well that the 
leaders of religious opinion should consider that which 
has been, that they may be stimulated to check with 
all the strength of their influence the first symptoms of 
its return. 


Let, then, those whose duty it is ponder the state- 
ment of Herodotus in regard to the chamber on the 
summit of the tower of Bclus, with its richly-adorned 
couch, its golden tabic, and its solitary inmate * — let 
them, by the light of modern Spiritualism, consider 
whether the assertion of the Chaldean priests, that 
the god visited this chamber, may not have been 
something more than a mere myth or figure.! Let 
them weigh the fact that such things were said to take 
place at other temples also, as, for instance, at that of 
the Theban Jupiter, and at the Patarean oracle of 
Apollo. Let them read the strange history of Paulina, 
as narrated by Josephus,+ and say if the priests of Isis 
must not have felt themselves supported by an ancient 
and universally recognised custom- when they ventured 
to demand a chaste and noble Roman matron from 
her husband for the god Anubis. Let them reflect 
upon the story of Cassandra, and other similar tales of 
classical mythology, and upon the numerous claims to 
descent from the gods put forth by the heroes of Greece 
and Rome. To this let them add the many legends of 
the same kind which may be found in the ancient 
records of almost every nation, the case of the incubi 
and succub^, the price reported to have been paid by 
mediseval witches for their supernatural power. And 
then, if with these hints of past time they compare 
the information which may be gathered from current 
Spiritualistic literature, they will not fail to find grave 
matter for thought. 

But we hasten to examples of the more avowed 
practices of Spiritualism. Nor are they difficult to 

• Herod, i. 181. t Herod, i. 182. 

\ Joseph. Anfiq. xviii. 3, 4. 


discover : for demons, Pythonesses, sibyl, nymphs, 
augurs, and soothsaying men and women, are con- 
tinually before us in the secular annals of early 

The astrologers of ancient nations, and above all 
those of the Chaldeans, are too well 

Astrologers and oracles. i - i • i 

known to need more than a simple 
mention : nor can the impartial student fail to 
recognise a superhuman foresight and wisdom in many 
answers of the famous oracles. This is especially true 
of those said to have been inspired by Apollo, whose 
ability to confer powers of divination is, as we have just 
seen, distinctly asserted in Scripture.f We will adduce 
one instance as a specimen, the celebrated history of 
Croesus and the Delphic oracle, as related by Herodotus.^ 
For, unless we absolutely refuse credence to the super- 
natural, there is no reason for disbelieving the story, 
and the splendid presents of Croesus were to be seen 
at Delphi in the days of the historian. 

A little more than five centuries and a half before 

* Through the discoveries at Nineveh the whole subject of 
Chaldean Spiritualism has now been laid open to us ; and, 
among many sources of information, some fragments of a vast 
work on magic, found by Mr. Layard in the royal librar}'' at 
Kouyunjik, are the most important. The treatise of which the}- 
form a part originally comprised not less than two hundred 
tablets, each of which was inscribed with from three to four 
hundred lines of writing. It is divided into three books, the 
first of which is entitled "The Wicked Spirits"; the second 
appears to be made up of formulae and incantations for the cure 
of maladies ; while the third is a collection of magical hymns to 
certain gods, to the chanting of which a mysterious power was 

The identity of many of the doctrines in this work with those of 
modem Spiritualism is very striking. 

t Acts xvi. 16. 

\ Herod, i. 46-51. 


Christ, the king of Lydia, becoming alarmed at the 
spread of Persian power, was con- 

The famous test applied . , . , i i i ^ c 

by CrcEsus king of Lydia sidermg how to checK the growth OI 
to the oracle at Delphi. ^^^ ^j^^j ^^^^^^ Naturally his mind 

turned to the oracles as the only sources of Divine 
guidance : but to which of them should he give the 
preference ? For the world was filled with soothsaying 
shrines, all of which claimed to be inspired. He 
determined to make trial of those that were in highest 
repute, and to let the result decide his choice. Accord- 
ingly he sent out messengers in different directions ; 
some to Abae in Phocis ; some to the speaking oaks 
and doves of Jupiter at Dodona ; some to test the 
wondrous prophetic dreams which, after due purifi- 
cation, might be experienced at the tomb of the deified 
Amphiaraus ; some to the dread cave of Trophonius, 
into which whosoever entered came forth pale and 
trembling with affright ; some to Branchidae in Milesia ; 
some to the famous temple of Jupiter Ammon, which 
stood in solitary grandeur amid the desert wastes of 

But we are at present concerned only with one of 
these embassies, that which was despatched to the 
great oracle of Apollo, and which was thus instructed. 
The messengers were to reckon a hundred days from 
the date of their departure, and were then to inquire 
of the god what Croesus the son of Alyattes, king of 
Lydia, was doing at that moment. 

At the appointed time, after due preparation, they 
bound their heads with the mystic bay, and entered 
the precincts of the sanctuary. Then, as soon as the 
customary sacrifice had been offered and the lots drawn, 
they moved forward, gazing in wonder at the monu- 


ments and sculptures which h'ncd the road, until they 
came to the steps of the noble shrine itself. But what 
followed, and the awe-inspiring circumstances of con- 
sultation, could not be better described than in the sub- 
joined extract from the Arnold Prize Essay for 1859. 

"And now the jubilant trumpets of the priests pealed 
out, with notes that rang round the valley, and up 
among the windings of the Hyampeian cliff. Awed 
into silence by the sound, he crossed the garlanded 
threshold : he sprinkled on his head the holy water 
from the fonts of gold, and entered the outer court. 
New statues, fresh fonts, craters, and goblets, the gifts 
of many an Eastern king, met his eye : walls em- 
blazoned with dark sayings rose about him as he 
crossed towards the inner adytum. Then the music 
grew more loud : the interest deepened : his heart 
beat faster. With a sound as of many thunders, that 
penetrated to the crowd without, the subterranean 
door rolled back : the earth trembled : the laurels 
nodded : smoke and vapour broke commingled forth : 
and, railed below within a hollow of the rock, per- 
chance he caught one glimpse of the marble effigies of 
Zeus and the dread Sisters ; one gleam of sacred arms ; 
for one moment saw a steaming chasm, a shaking 
tripod, above all, a Figure with fever on her cheek 
and foam upon her lips, who, fixing a wild eye upon 
space, tossed her arms aloft in the agony of her soul, 
and, with a shriek that never left his ear for days, 
chanted high and quick the dark utterances of the 
will of Heaven." 

When the ambassadors of Croesus approached the 
shrine, the Pythoness gave them no time to put their 
question, but immediately accosted them as follows ; — 


" I can count the sands, and know the measures ol' 
ocean : 

I understand the dumb, and hear him that spcaketh 

On my sense there stole the savour of a strong- 
shelled tortoise 

Boiling in a cauldron with the flesh of a lamb : 

Brass is the couch underneath it, and brass the 
robe laid upon it." 

They hastened to convey the strange response to 
Sardis, and the king, when he heard it, performed an 
act of adoration, and declared that the Delphic oracle 
was indeed worthy of confidence. For on the appointed 
day, wishing to do a most inconceivable thing, he had 
with his own hands cut to pieces a tortoise and a lamb, 
and boiled them together in a brazen cauldron covered 
with a lid of the same metal. Crcesus sent magnificent 
presents to Delphi, and was thenceforth completely 
under the influence of the oracle, which shortly after- 
wards, by an ambiguously worded response, lured him 
on to destruction.* O that those who are now giving 
heed to wandering spirits and teachings of demons 
would accept the warning afforded by his fate ! 

Mesmerism was evidently practised in Egypt from 
. ^ . . ,. the earliest times, as we may see by 

Egyptian Spiritualism. 

the pictures of priests making passes 
and patients under manipulation which are found among 

* When he sent to consult the P}'thoness in regard to his 
projected invasion of Persia, she gave the dubious response; — 
" Croesus, if he crosses the Halys, will destroy a great empire." 
Naturally concluding that Persia was the empire indicated, 
CrcBsus passed the boundary stream, was quickly defeated, and 
perceived too late that the oracle was being fulfilled in the 
destruction of his own po\^er. 


the temple-paintings. There are also many historical 
hints of the same fact, some of which have been already 
mentioned in the previous chapter. We may now add 
the strange history of Rhampsinitus, the predecessor of 
Cheops, as narrated by Herodotus.* That king is said 
to have descended alive into Hades, and, after playing 
at dice with Demeter, to have returned unhurt — a story 
which is, probably, to be explained as describing the 
experience of a mesmeric trance. 

Indeed all the mysterious wisdom of Egypt appears 
to have been connected with forbidden arts, and how 
continually her priests were employed in practising 
them we may further infer from their diet, which was 
such as mesmerists and clairvoyants find necessary. 
For Clement of Alexandria tells us that they were not 
permitted to feed on flesh. "j" 

The shrines of Isis and Serapis had a world-wide 
^ ^ J ^ reputation for the magnetic cures per- 

Cures effected at the '■ _ •-' '■ 

temples of Isis and formed iu them, and for prescriptions 
^"^^^'^^ which appear to have been dictated by 

clairvoyants precisely as they are in our days. And 
the frequently mentioned temple-sleep was undoubtedly 
a mesmeric trance, induced sometimes by making passes, 
sometimes by the fumes of a particular kind of incense 
accompanied by the music of the lyre. 

Strabo \ mentions the temple of Serapis at Canopus 
as affording such startling instances of supernatural 
cures that the most famous men believed in them, and 
were willing to be entranced either for their own benefit 
or for that of others. Persons were appointed to keep 
a register of the cures effected, and also of the oracular 
answers which had proved true. But what struck the 
* Herod, ii. 122. t Clem. Sirom. vii. 6. X Strab. xvii. i. 



geographer most of all was the vast number of pilgrims 
who kept coming to the shrine by the canal from 
Alexandria, and made the air resound with the noise 
of their flute-playing and dancing as they floated by. 

Herodotus * supposes that " pilgrimages, proces- 
Piigrimages and pro- ^ions, and iutroductions (Trpocraywyas)," 
cessions of the Eg>-ptians. originated with the Eg}-ptians. The 
technical meaning of the last of the three terms is 
uncertain : but it probably refers to the admission of 
pilgrims into a sanctuary where some sacred relic, or 
the statue itself of the deity, was exhibited by the 

The historian goes on to mention five annual pil- 
grimages of the Egyptians to various shrines,^ and 
gives a vivid account of the one to Bubastis, describing 
the long train of boats crowded with men and women, 
some of whom were piping and striking castanets, while 
the others sang and clapped their hands. The natives 
affirmed that about seven hundred thousand persons, 
exclusive of children, were usually present at this 

Another place of great resort was the temple of Isis 
at Busiris ; § where the pilgrims, both male and female, 
were wont, after offering a strange sacrifice, to beat 
themselves before the shrine. The marvellous popu- 
larity of this goddess is partly explained by the follow- 
ing extract from Diodorus Siculus. 

* Herod, ii. 58. 

t It would not be diflBcult to apply these terms to modem 
pilgrimages. The first would express the journey to the locality 
of a shrine ; the second, the processional march from the railway 
station to the sacred place ; and the third, the admission into the 
church or grotto. 

X Herod, ii. 59, 60. 

§ Herod, ii. 61. 


" Now the Egyptians say that Isis was the discoverer 
, , , ,. of many potions for the preservation 

Account of the healing -^ ■"■ _ _ _ 

power and apparition of of health, and is Very skilful in the 

Isis, by Diodorus Siculus. , r ^• • 1.1.1 • 1 

art or medicme ; and that, having by 
this means attained to immortality, her greatest pleasure 
is to heal mortals. For to those who beg her help she 
dictates remedies during sleep, openly manifesting both 
her own apparition and her beneficence toward her 
suppliants. And they add that they offer in proof of 
this no fables, such as the Greeks tell, but self-evident 
facts. For almost the whole world supports their 
testimony by the zeal with which men worship Isis 
because of her visible appearance when she is per- 
forming cures. For she stands over the sick in their 
sleep, and prescribes remedies for their diseases : and 
those who obey her directions are most unaccountably 
healed. Numbers are thus cured after they have, 
through the malignancy of their disease, been given up 
by physicians ; and many persons who have been 
absolutely deprived of sight, or disabled in any other 
part of the body, are restored to their previous sound- 
ness as soon as they have recourse to this goddess." * 

We see, then, that the dict'ation of prescriptions by 
clairvo}-ants is not peculiar to the modern phase of 
Spiritualism. And it is difficult to read of the appari- 
tion of Isis and the pilgrimages to her shrines without 
being reminded of what is now said and done in con- 
nection with the " Holy Mountain " of La Salette, 
Lourdcs, and other places. 

The influence of Isis afterwards spread to Rome, 
where, in the depraved times of the early emperors, 
the goddess became the favourite deity. But the 

* Diod. Sic. i. 25. 


abominable impurity which characterised her worship 
provoked several attempts to abolish it, and caurcd 
repeated destructions of her temples : indeed, upon one 
occasion, Tiberius went so far as to crucify the priests 
and throw the statues of the goddess into the river. 
All, however, was in vain : Isis retained her power in 
the great city until, as time went on, it was deemicd 
advisable to change her name and worship her, with 
some modifications, under the title of the Vii^in Mary. 
We will add but one more instance of Spiritualism 
., . , , in Egypt, the well-known story of 

Vespasian and the "-"^ -^ _ _ •' 

temple of Serapis at Vcspasiau's visit to tlic tcmplc of 
Serapis in Alexandria. It is recorded 
in the histories of Tacitus and Suetonius, and affords 
an early example of what is now said to be of frequent 
occurrence, the apparition of a living person at a great 
distance from the place of his bodily presence. 

Tacitus * relates that two men, the one blind and 
the other suffering from a diseased hand, were directed 
by the oracle of Serapis to apply to Vespasian, who 
was then in Alexandria. They were promised that, if 
the Roman consul would consent to anoint the eyes of 
the one with saliva, and to step upon the hand of the 
other, both of them should be restored. Vespasian at 
first hesitated to comply with their strange requests : 
but at length, yielding to the importunity of the sufferers 
and the persuasion of his courtiers, he did what was 
required in the presence of a great multitude. Imme- 
diately the blind man recovered his sight, and the 
diseased hand was healed. 

After remarking that these cures were well attested 
by eye-witnesses, who could have no object in support- 

* Tacit., Hist. iv. 8i. 


ing a lie, seeing that the family of Vespasian was then 
extinct, Tacitus proceeds as follows * ; — 

" These miracles strongly inclined Vespasian to visit 
the shrine, and consult the god in regard to the fortunes 
of the empire. Accordingly he ordered the temple to 
be cleared, and entered it alone. Then, while he was 
worshipping the deity, he saw standing behind him one 
of the nobles of Egj^pt named Basilides, whom he knew 
to be at that moment detained by sickness at a distance 
of some days' journey from Alexandria. He inquired of 
the priests whether Basilides had entered the temple 
that day : he asked those whom he met if the man had 
been seen in the cit}^ Lastly ; by despatching some 
horsemen, he ascertained that, at the moment when he 
had seen the apparition, the invalid was eighty miles 
distant from Alexandria. Then he concluded that the 
vision was divine, and inferred the answer conveyed by 
it from the name Basilides." 

That is to say, that, since the word Basilides signifies 
" royal," Vespasian regarded the apparition as a pro- 
phecy of his succession to the throne of the world. 
And Suetonius, f in his version of the story, adds that 
shortly afterwards letters arrived announcing the ruin 
and death of Vitellius. 

The subjoined sentence from the Amphitryon of 
„ , J Plautus appears to be an allusion to 

Mesmerism alluded to . ^ ^ 

by Plautus. The trac- mcsmcrism, and since it is introduced 
incidentally bears the stronger testi- 
mony to the prevalence of the art about two centuries 
before the Christian era. 

" Quid si ego ilium tractim tangam ut dormiat ? " 
' What if I stroke him to put him to sleep .' " X 
•Tacit., HisL iv. 82. t Suet, VesJ). vii. % Plaut., Amph. I. i. 160. 



Probably, too, the well-known tractatorcs exercised a 
kind of mesmeric power. And they have many modern 
imitators : for the advertisements of " Curative Mes- 
merists and Rubbers," as well as of " Medical Clair- 
voyants," may be seen in almost every Spiritualistic 

But the specimens we have given are sufficient to 
show that the classical authors abound with allusions 
to Spiritualism ; we must therefore now descend to 
later writers. 

And first we will glance at the Recognitions of 
„ , ,, . Clement and the Clementine Homilies, 

Remarkable passages in 

the writings ascribed to works wliich at any rate do not seem 

the Roman Clement. ,, 11, ^i ^i,i'j 

to have appeared later than the third 
century, and may be of an earlier date, and which contain 
many passages worthy of consideration. In the be- 
ginning of each book the author tells us that, while a 
Heathen, he was much perplexed with doubts respecting 
the immortality of the soul. How he proposed to 
resolve those doubts we will leave him to describe in 
his own words. 

" What, then, should I do, but this } I will go to 
Eg}^pt, and cultivate the friendship of the hierophants 
and prophets of the shrines. Then I will inquire for a 
magician, and, when I have found one, induce him by 
the offer of a large sum of money to call up a soul 
from Hades, by the art which is termed necromancy, 
as though I wished to consult it upon some ordinary 
matter. But my inquiry shall be to learn whether the 
soul is immortal. And I shall not care to know the 
reply of the soul, that it is immortal, from its speaking 
or my own hearing, but simply by its becoming visible ; 
that, after seeing it with my very eyes, I may have a 


sufficient and reliable proof of its existence from the 
mere fact of its appearing. And so the doubtful words 
which the cars hear will no longer be able to overturn 
that which the e}'es have made their own."* 

This proposition strangely corresponds with the oft- 
repeated argument of Spiritualists, that the existence of 
another world is best proved by intercourse with the 
demons which are living in it. Shortly afterwards 
Simon IMagus is introduced, and relates a story closely 
resembling the countless narrations of spirit-help which 
crowd the literature of the new religion.! 

" Once when my mother Rachel ordered me to go 
to the field to reap, and I saw a sickle lying, I ordered 
it to go and reap ; and it reaped ten times more than 
the others." i 

The following enumeration of Simon's wonders 
may be found in the second of the 

List of bimon s mira- •' _ 

cles from the Clementine ClcmCntine HomilicS. 

"And they told me that he makes 

* Clem., Horn. i. 5. 

t As a specimen take the following statements made at one of 
the meetings of the British National Association of Spiritualists. 

" Mr. Morse said he had been informed that miners had mani- 
festations in their pit-workings, and that a little boy, employed in 
a coal mine near Glasgow, was in the habit when tired of calling 
upon a spirit to help him to push his truck, which it generally 
did. On one occasion the spirit, it was said, used such violence 
as to damage the truck considerably." 

" Mr. Latham mentioned an instance in which spirits had 
manufactured pills that were afterwards taken, with marked 
benefit, by a lady of his acquaintance." 

Dr. Gully said that " in his house it was no uncommon thing 
for spirits to appear to members of the family, to remove articles 
from one room to another while all the doors were locked, to 
make his bed at night, and to walk up and down the stairs with 
a tread as heavj' as that of an ordinary man." 

\ Clem., Recogn. ii. 9. It would appear that Simon was an 


statues walk about ; rolls himself upon fire, and is not 
burnt ; and that sometimes he even flies. And he turns 
stones into loaves : he becomes a serpent ; changes 
himself into a goat ; becomes two-faced ; and trans- 
forms himself into gold. He opens fastened doors, 
melts iron, and at banquets produces phantoms of 
every conceivable shape. And lastly ; he causes the 
vessels in his house to be seen moving about, as if 
spontaneously, to wait upon him, those who are bearing 
them not being visible. I wondered to hear them 
speak thus ; but they assured me that they had seen 
many such things done in their presence." * 

If we may believe Spiritualists, some of these wonders 
are now matters of daily occurrence. They are possibly 
exaggerated ; but we may, nevertheless, infer from the 
mere mention of them that powerful mediums were not 
unknown at the time when the Clementines were written. 

Another reported deed of Simon bears a striking 
resemblance to modern practices. 
^^:'^l "And he even began to commit 
mesmerism and the pro- murder, as hc himself revealed to us 

duction of spint-forms. 

while we were yet friends. For by 
abominable incantations he separated the soul of a 
child from its own bod\', that it might become his 
assistant for the production of whatever apparition 
he might require. And he drew a likeness of the 
boy, and keeps it set up in the inner chamber where 
he sleeps, affirming that he once formed him of air 
by transformations such as the gods cause, and, after 
painting his likeness, gave him back again to the air. 
And he explains what he did in the following manner. 
He affirms that, in the first place, the spirit of a man, 

* Clem., Ho})i, ii. ^2. 


after it had been changed into a hot condition, drew to 
itself and sucked in the surrounding air, just hke a 
gourd ; and that he thereupon converted this air, after 
it was enclosed in the form of the spirit, into water. 
And he added that, since, owing to the consistency of 
the spirit, this enclosed air could not escape, he changed 
it into the nd.ure of blood ; and that he afterwards 
solidified the blood, and made flesh of it. Then that, 
the flesh being thus solidified, he exhibited a man made, 
not of earth, but of air. And so, when he had thus 
convinced himself of his power to produce a new kind 
of man, he said that he reversed the changes, and 
restored him to the air."* 

By the light of the nineteenth century we may inter- 
pret this passage without much difficult}'. It would 
seem that by mesmerism Simon had drawn out the 
spirit of a boy into the higher magnetic state, and 
then omitted to recall it, so that the spirit had been 
finally separated from the body : and that he had done 
this for the purpose of procuring a familiar. The latter 
part of the passage, which describes the production of 
a temporary spirit-form, exactly accords, in its results at 
least, with the practices of modern mediums. This we 
shall show in the next chapter. And Simon may, 
perhaps, have denied the murder of the boy by assert- 
ing that he had merely resolved a spirit-form which he 
had himself produced. 

We will add one more story of this renowned 
magician, taken from the " Apostolical 

Remarkable description /^ . . „ t 

of Simon's " levitation " Lonstitutions. It provcs that what 
Scottitio'rls/''""' is now called "levitation" is no new 
thing ; but has been a conception of 
• Clem., Horn. ii. 26. 


men's minds, at least, for many centuries. Perhaps, 
too, the explanation given by the author of the 
" Constitutions " may help us to understand the mys- 
tery of Mr. Home. Nor is the statement that Simon's 
.niracles were used as credentials of a false religion 
altogether unworthy of consideration. The story is 
supposed to be related by the Apostle Peter, who is 
represented as thus speaking. 

" Now when he came to Rome, he greatly harassed 
the Church by subverting many persons, and winning 
them over to his own party. And he astonished the 
Gentiles by a display of magic and the operation of 
demons, insomuch that once he came forward in the 
middle of the day, and, bidding the people drag me 
also into their theatre, promised that he would then fly 
through the air. But, while all the multitude was in 
a state of suspense at this bold offer, I kept secretly 
pra}'ing. And verily he was raised up by demons, 
and began to fly aloft into the air, crying out, as he 
rose higher, that he was returning to the heavens, and 
would bestow blessings upon them from thence. Then, 
while the people were glorifying him as a god, I lifted 
up my hands toward heaven with my heart, and en- 
treated God, that, for the sake of Jesus our Lord, He 
would cast down the injurious deceiver, and cut short 
the power of the demons, since they had used it to 
mislead and ruin men ; that He would smite Simon to 
the ground, and yet not kill, but only bruise, him. 
And so, fixing my eyes upon him, I said in answer to 
his words ; — ' If I be a man of God, a true Apostle of 
Jesus Christ, a teacher of piety, and no deceiver such 
as thou art, Simon, I command the wicked powers of 
the apostate from piety, by whom Simon the magician 


is now being supported and borne along, to let go their 
hold, that he may be thrown down from on high, and 
be exposed to the ridicule of those whom he has be- 
guiled.' As soon as I had thus spoken, Simon was 
deprived of his powers, and cast down with a great 
noise. And, being dashed violently upon the ground, 
he had his hip and the flats of his feet broken. Then 
the multitude cried out, saying, ' There is one God 
Whom Peter justly declares to be in very truth the 
only One.' And many of Simon's disciples left him : 
but some, who were deserving of perdition with him, 
continued in his evil doctrine. And in this manner 
the most atheistical sect of the Simonites was first 
introduced at Rome, and the Devil went on working 
by means of the rest of the false apostles." * 

If we examine the writings of the Alexandrian 
^, , . Neoplatonists, whose important School 

The jSeoplatonists '■ \ '■ 

were Spiritualists. Ex- was founded, in the early part of the 

tracts from Kingsley. . i • j . j . • j • i 

third century, upon doctrmes derived 
from the ancient sages of the East, we discover that 
they were pronounced Spiritualists, or, perhaps we 
should say, Theosophists, Ammonius Sacchas, Plotinus, 
lamblicus, and others, were powerful adepts famed for 
their mesmeric healings, and general magic. But since 
we have not time to prove this, and can only give a 
concise assertion of the fact, we will do so in the words 
of another whose opinion will be less suspected of bias 
than our own. The following extracts are taken from 
the late Canon Kingsley 's " Alexandria and her 

" So they set to work to perform wonders ; and 
succeeded, I suppose, more or less. For now one 

• A post. Const, vi. 9. 


enters into a whole fairyland of those very phenomena 
which are puzzling us so nowadays — ecstasy, clair- 
voyance, insensibility to pain, cures produced by the 
effects of what we now call mesmerism. They arc all 
there, these modern puzzles, in those old books of the 
long bygone seekers for wisdom. It makes us love 
them, while it saddens us to see that their difficulties 
were the same as ours, and that there is nothing new 
under the sun." 

" But again. These ecstasies, cures, and so forth, 
brought them rapidly back to the old priestcrafts.- 
The Egyptian priests, the Babylonian and Jewish 
sorcerers, had practised all this as a trade for ages, 
and reduced it to an art. It was by sleeping in the 
temples of the deities, after due mesmeric manipula- 
tions, that cures were even then effected. Surely the 
old priests were the people to whom to go for informa- 
tion. The old philosophers of Greece were venerable. 
How much more those of the East, in comparison with 
whom the Greeks were children .-' Besides, if these 
demons and deities were so near them, might it not 
be possible to behold them .'' They seemed to have 
given up caring much for the world and its course — 

" * Effugerant adytis templisque relictis 
Di quibus imperium steterat.' 

" The old priests used to make them appear — perhaps 
they might do it again." 

These remarks strikingly illustrate the tendency of 
Spiritualism to induce idolatry. And how could it do 
otherwise, seeing that it is an establishment of intelligent 
communication with the very demons which have ever 
been worshipped by the Pagan world. However, in the 


case of the Neoplatonists, the influence of Christianity 
had waxed too strong to admit of a return to avowed 
Heathenism. If the worship of countless demons, the 
magnetic cures, the esctasies, and the apparitions, were 
to be continued, this could only be effected by a pro- 
fession of Christianity and the adoption of a Christian 
nomenclature. So the wolves put on sheep's clothing, 
and in course of time the Papal system was developed. 
Let us now consider a passage in the Apology of 
Remarkable allusions TcrtulHan, which may be thus rendered. 

to Spiritualism in the c -n r • r • • 

^/o/oijofTertuiiian. " Moreovcr, if cvcn magicians pro- 

duce apparitions, and bring into evil repute the spirits 
of men who are now dead ; if they mesmerise boys to 
obtain an oracular response ; * if they perform many 
wonders in sport by their conjuring illusions ; if they 
even send dreams by the aiding power of angels and 
demons whom they have once for all summoned to 
their assistance, through whose influence also goats and 

* How common this practice was may be seen by the subjoined 
extract from the Defence of Apuleius. That distinguished orator, 
romancer, and philosopher, had been accused of sorcerj^ and the 
proof first adduced was that he had a habit of purchasing various 
kinds of fish presumably for magical purposes. This charge he 
disposes of as altogether novel and absurd, and then, after affirm- 
ing that his accusers were well aware that it must break down, 
proceeds as follows ; — 

"They found it necessary to concoct a more plausible charge 
in connection with things which are better known and are already 
matters of ordinarj' belief. And so, in accordance with generally 
received opinions and common report, they invented the story 
that, with a little altar and lamp, and in a sequestered spot from 
which spectators had been removed, I had with magic spells be- 
witched a certain boy ; and that, a few witnesses being pri\y to it, 
the boy had, when bewitched, fallen to the ground, and had after- 
wards awakened in such a condition that he did not know himself. 
They have not, however, dared to go further than this in their 
lying fabrication. For, to complete the tale, they should have 
added that the boy became prescient and uttered many predictions, 
inasmuch as that is the advantage which we obtain from the use 


tables have been made to divine ; how much more will 
that Satanic power be zealous to do with all its 
strength, of its own will, and for its own purposes, that 
which it does to serve the ends of others."* 

Now there is no reason why the apparitions here 
mentioned should not have been produced in precisely 
the same way as the spirit-forms of our own days. 
Nor need we feel any astonishment at the next clause, 
which evidently refers to necromancers resembling 
modern mediums. For it appears that spirits of the 
dead were evoked, and that either they themselves, if 
they obeyed the summons, or, otherwise, the demons 
which personated them, were guilty of unworthy and 
disgraceful utterances. 

In the succeeding sentence there are two readings. 
The first is elidunt : that is, they " strangle " boys, put 
them to death, either as a sacrifice, or to take omens 
from their motions or entrails. But the second, eliciunt, 
is much more probable, and will give the sense of 

of spells. Nor is this wonderful power of boys ceitified merely 
by the opinion of the multitude, but also by the authority of the 
learned. I remember that in the books of Varro the philosopher 
— a most accurate and polished scholar — I read, among other 
things of the same kind, the following account. When the in- 
habitants of Tralles were making inquiries by a magical process 
in regard to the issue of the Mithridatic war, a boy, who was 
gazing upon the reflection of a statue of Mercury in the water, 
uttered a prophecy of the future in a hundred and sixty rjlhmical 
lines. Varro also relates that Fabius having lost five hundred 
denarii went to consult Nigridius about it. The latter so inspired 
boys by his spells that they pointed out the spot in which the 
purse had been buried together with part of the money, and 
intimated that the remainder of it had been distributed, nay, even 
that one denarius had come into the possession of Cato the 
philosopher. And Cato afterwards admitted that he had received 
the coin from an attendant as a contribution for Apollo." — Apul., 
De Magia, xlii. 
* Tert., ^^o/. xxiii. 


drawing out the spirit by mesmerism, putting the 
patient into a clairvoyant state, so that he is able to 
utter oracular responses.* The " many wonders " 
could scarcely be more numerous than those of which 
we are now continually hearing, and to the genuineness 
of which competent persons bear their testimony. 

What we are to understand by "goats and tables" 
has always been a myster}- : but we would suggest the 
following as a solution. We have already mentioned 
the seiriin, and explained that, while usually signifying 
" goats," the word also denoted " satyrs," or some order 
of demons. May not Tertullian, for lack of a dis- 
tinctive term, have rendered the Hebrew by its literal 
equivalent in Latin .? And, in this case, the divination 
by demons and tables, that is, by tables which demons 

* " And yet I agree with Plato that there are certain divine 
powers— intermediate both in their nature and locahty — stationed 
between the gods and men, and that these powers preside over 
all kinds of divination and the wonders which are exhibited by 
magicians. Moreover, I consider that a human mind, and 
especially the artless mind of a boy, can, either by the allure- 
ment of spells or by the soothing influence of odours, be lulled 
to sleep and calmed into a forgetfulness of the things before it ; 
and that, becoming for a little time unconscious of the body, it 
can be restored and return to its own nature, which is un- 
doubtedly immortal and divine ; and so, that it is able, while 
apparently in a kind of trance, to perceive beforehand what is 
about to happen. But — be this as it may — if we are to give any 
credit to such matters, the boy who is to foresee ought, so far as 
I understand, to be selected for the beauty and soundness of his 
body, the intelligence of his mind, and the fluency of his speech ; 
so that either the divine power may becomingly lodge in him as 
in a fitting habitation — if indeed it ever is inclosed in the body 
of a boy — or that his mind itself, as soon as it has been awakened, 
may be quickly restored to its own power of divination, which, 
being so implanted in it as to be readily called forth, and being 
neither injured nor dulled by forgetfulness, can thus be easily 
resumed. P"or, as Pythagoras used to say, one ought not to carve 
a Mercury out of any log of wood." — Apul., De Magia, xliii. 


cause to move, will find its exact counterpart in modern 

And that such is the meaning of the African 

Instance of spirit-corn- apologist a strangc story from the 

ritbet^"b°;hi-'^tory of Ammianus Marcellinus will 

Ammianus Marcellinus. go far tO prOVC. For that Writer tclls 

US that, in the reign of Valens, certain Spiritualists 
were arrested at Antioch upon the charge of having 
endeavoured to ascertain the name of the emperor's 
successor by means of magical arts. The table which 
they had used was brought into court, and placed before 
the judges : and after two of the accused, flilarius and 
Patricius, had been subjected to the torture, Hilarius 
made the following confession. 

" Under dire auspices we did, most noble judges, 
construct of laurel twigs, and according to the pattern 
of the Delphic tripod, this ill-omened little table which 
is now before you. Then, after we had consecrated it 
in due form by invocations of mystic spells and by 
many and protracted manipulations, we at length 
succeeded in getting it to move. 

" And, whenever we were wishing to obtain answers 
respecting things unknown, the process of making it 
move was as follows. It was placed in the middle of a 
house which had been ceremonially purged on all sides 
with Arabian incense ; and upon it was set a plain 
round dish, composed of various metallic substances. 
On the circular rim of this dish the twenty-four letters 
of the alphabet had been cut with great skill, and were 
separated by carefully measured intervals. 

" Now after the deity who gives the responses has 
been propitiated by means of prescribed invocations, 
according to the laws of ceremonial science, a person 



clad in white linen, shod likewise with slippers of the 
same material, with a turban twisted about his head, 
and the boughs of an auspicious tree in his hand, 
stands over the tripod and balances a ring suspended 
by a very fine piece of Carpathian thread. The ring, 
which has been previously subjected to an initiation of 
mystic rites, darts forth at distinct intervals, and strikes 
upon each particular letter which attracts it. In this 
manner it spells out heroic verses, which return a 
suitable answer to the questions proposed, and are quite 
perfect as regards number and rhythm, being similar, 
indeed, to those which are uttered by the Pythoness or 
at the oracle of Branchida;. 

" In this house, then, at the time referred to, we were 
inquiring who should be the successor of the present 
emperor — a question which was suggested by a prior 
announcement that he would be in all points a finished 
character. The ring darted to the rim of the dish, and 
had already touched the two syllables THEO with the 
final addition of the letter D, when one of those pre- 
sent exclaimed that Theodorus was indicated by the 
decree of fate. Nor did we make further inquiry into 
the matter, since it was sufficiently clear to all of 
us that Theodorus was the man for whom we were 

Hilarius generously added that Theodorus himself 
knew nothing of this sc^ance : but the latter was, 
nevertheless, quickly seized and despatched. Nor did 
his death suffice to allay the suspicions of Valens : 
many innocent persons were afterwards executed solely 
because they had the misfortune to bear names com- 
mencing with the fatal syllables THEOD. But the 
* Amm. Marc, xxix. i, 29. 



prediction of the ring and table was not falsified : for 
upon the death of Valens, after his defeat by the Goths 
at Hadrianople, the celebrated Theodosius was pro- 
claimed emperor of the East. 

This remarkable story seems to prove that the 
tripod so often mentioned in classical writers was 
not merely connected with divination, but, in certain 
cases at least, with divination of a kind similar to 
that which is now in vogue : for it appears to have 
been necessary to impregnate the table with something 
which communicated motion before consultations could 
be held. And this motion was in all probability 
produced much in the same manner as by modern 
Spiritualists. From the details of the subsequent 
proceedings we may learn that the use of the alphabet 
for spirit-communication, which is generally supposed 
to be of so recent a date, was well known to the 
initiated fifteen centuries ago. Lastly ; the issue of 
the stor}^, in the succession of Theodosius, is another 
instance of the marvellous, though unreliable, fore- 
knowledge of demons. 

Passing by about half a century of the world's annals 

^ . . we come to Augustine, by whom the 

Opimons of Augustine. . . . - , _^ 

mspiration of the Roman oracles and 
soothsayers, nay, the very administration of their 
government, is again and again ascribed to demons. 
The numerous gods he treats as evil spirits, and 
powerfully exposes the utterly corrupting influence 
of their well-known history and of the lewd cere- 
monies of their public worship, although they did 
hypocritically put forth certain obscure teachings of 
morality.* He recounts with indignation, that demons 

* De Civit. Dei, ii. 26. 


had predicted success to the monster Sylla, accom- 
panying their predictions with miraculous signs ; but 
had never cried, Forbear thy villanies, Sylla ! * He 
descants upon the declaration of Hermes Trismegistus, 
" that visible and tangible images are, as it were, only 
the bodies of the gods, and that there dwell in them 
certain spirits which have been invited to come into 
them, and which have power to inflict harm, or to 
fulfil the desires of those by whom divine honours and 
services are rendered to them."t He believes these 
Gvil spirits to be capable of producing appearances 
and visions at will, and concludes his story of the 
sacred bull of the Egyptians with the remark ; — 
" For what men can do with real colours and sub- 
stances, the demons can very easily effect by showing 
unreal forms." t 

But it is needless to spend longer time in proving a 

fact so obvious as the continual inter- 
Further illustration is , , ..-.,, 

forbidden by the limit and coursc bctwecn the spiHts of evil aud 

object of this work. ^j^g ^^^^ ^f ^^^^ -pj^^ iuStaUCCS We 

have adduced are amply sufficient for our purpose, 
and have already exceeded their proper limits. We 
must, therefore, pass by the magicians, enchanters, 
astrologers, wizards, and witches, of medieval times ; § 

* Ibid., ii. 24. t Ibid., viii. 2t^. \ Ibid., xviii. 5. 

§ But the following- extract from Ramusio's edition of " Marco 
Polo" is interesting, showing, as it does, the prevalence of 
Spiritualistic practices at the court of the mightiest monarch 
of the East in the latter half of the thirteenth century. 

"Now the Great Kaan (Cublay) let it be seen well enough 
that he held the Christian faith to be the truest and best — for, as 
he says, it commands nothing that is not perfectly good and 
holy. But he will not allow the Christians to carry the cross 
before them, because on it was scourged and put to death a 
Person so great and exalted as Christ. 

" Some one may say; — 'Since he holds the Christian faith to 


the levitations, apparitions, and miraculous cures, of 
Popery ; the demon-stories of tlie East ; the obi men 
of Africa, who seem even to have retained the Hebrew 
name ; and the vast multitude of persons and incidents 
which would have claimed notice had we undertaken an 
exhaustive history of demon-intercourse. 

Too curious, however, to be omitted is the following 
^ ^, . . , extract from a Jewish writer of the 

1 able-turning practised •" 

byGermanjewsacentury early part of thc Seventeenth century, 
^^°' quoted by Delitzsch in his " Biblical 


" We make the table turn in playful times by magic, 
and whisper into one another's ears, Schemoth, Schel, 
Schedim (names of demons), and then the table springs 
up, even when laden with many hundred-weight." 

In the year 1 6 1 5 Zalman Zebi defended this table- 
be best, why does he not attach himself to it, and become a 
Christian ? ' Well, this is the reason that he gave to Messer 
Nicolo and Messer IMaffeo, when he sent them as his envoys to 
the Pope, and when they sometimes took occasion to speak 
to him about the faith of Christ. He said ; — ' How would you 
have me to become a Christian ? You see that the Christians of 
these parts are so ignorant that they achieve nothing, whilst you 
see the idolaters can do anything they please, insomuch that 
when I sit at table the cups from the middle of the hall come to 
me full of wine or other liquor without being touched by anybody, 
and I drink from them. They control storms, causing them to 
pass in whatever direction they please, and do many other 
mar\^els ; whilst, as you know, their idols speak, and give them 
predictions on whatever subjects they choose. But if I were to 
turn to the faith of Christ and become a Christian, then my 
barons and others who are not converted would say ; — ' What 
has moved you to be baptized and to take up the faith of Christ ? 
^Vhat powers or miracles have you witnessed on His part ? ' (You 
know the idolaters here say that their wonders are performed by 
the sanctity and power of iheir idols.) Well, I should not know 
what answer to make ; so they would only be confirmed in their 
errors, and the idolaters, who are adepts in such surprising arts, 
would easily compass my death.' " — Yule's " Marco Polo." 


turning as being effected, not by means of magic, but 
by the power of God. The ground of his argument is 
that they sang excellent songs while manipulating, as, 
for instance, " The Lord of the world be exalted." 
There could not, he urges, be any work of the Devil 
going on when God is remembered. This is very like 
the reasoning of certain modern table-turners : but 
history will supply an endless array of proofs that 
men are ever profaning the name of God by thrusting 
it into connection with nefarious deeds. Nor is it 
always clear who they mean when they invoke God ; 
for they cannot be appealing to Him Who made the 
heavens and the earth if they are asking for help that 
they may break His laws. And there are yet two 
Lords of the world, though the reign of one of them is 
all but ended. 

We have merely to add that the accounts of modern 
^ travellers prove Spiritualism, and espe- 

bpintualism is well 
known beyond the boun- cially the CUltUS of dcmOUS SUppOSCd tO 
daries of Christendom. 1,1 • •, r ^ 1 i* 

be the spirits of ancestors or relations, 
to be almost universal among Pagans and barbarous 
tribes, whether in the heart of Africa,* in the remote 
countries of Asia, or among the Indians of America. 

• Ample proof of this may be found in the works of recent 
travellers, such as Livingstone and Schweinfurth. The following 
extract is taken from Livingstone's " Last Journals." 

" Suleiman-bin- Juma lived on the mainland, Mosessam6, 
opposite Zanzibar. It is impossible to deny his power of fore- 
sight, except by rejecting all evidence, for he frequently foretold 
the deaths of great men among the Arabs, and he was pre- 
eminently a good man, upright and sincere — ' Thirti ' ; none 
like him now for goodness and skill. He said that two middle- 
sized white men, with straight noses and flowing hair down to the 
girdle behind, came at times and told him things to come. He 
died twelve years ago, and left no successor ; he foretold his own 
decease, three days beforehand, by cholera." 


A few years ag^o such ideas were nearly confined to the 
more unenlightened parts of the earth : but now the 
tide of Dcmonism has again set in, and is rapidly over- 
flowing Christendom. The evil spirit is returning with 
seven others worse than himself, and the result will be 
a far darker Heathenism than the world has yet 
experienced, seeing that it will be Heathenism received 
back after a trial and deliberate rejection of the Lord 
Jesus Christ. And " if we sin wilfully after that we 
have received the knowledge of the truth, there 
remaineth no more sacrifice for sins, but a certain 
fearful looking for of judgment and fiery indignation, 
which shall devour the adv^ersaries." 



Spiritualism. Part III, 


The Scriptures contain many prophetic intimations 
Scriptural intimations, that in thc latter days demoniacal 
5'e^c7inThe°Ffrs"EV'^t°e influence Will mightily increase, and 
to Timothy. ^|- jg^g|- culminate in an open mani- 

festation of Satanic power. One of these predictions, 
perhaps the most remarkable of all, we propose now to 
consider. It occurs in the First Epistle to Timothy, 
and has been usually applied by Protestant inter- 
preters to the Papal heresy, which, however, bad as 
it has been, cannot as yet be said to have fulfilled the 
requirements of this prophecy. We will first give a 
literal translation of the passage, following the most 
simple and natural construction of the Greek, and 
then endeavour to ascertain its import. 

" And confessedly great is the Mystery of godliness ; 
Who was manifested in flesh, justified in spirit, seen 
of angels, preached among nations, believed on in the 
world, received up in glory. Nevertheless the Spirit 
expressly declares that in latter times some shall fall 
away from the faith, giving heed to deceiving spirits 
and teachings of demons, who speak lies in hypocrisy, 
though they have been branded in their own con- 


science, forbid to marry, and command to abstain from 
meats, which God created for them that beheve and 
have full knowledge of the truth to partake of with 
thanksgiving. For every creature of God is good, and 
nothing is to be refused, if it be received with thanks- 
giving ; for it is sanctified by the word of God and 
supplication.' * 

The verb translated "fall away" must be noticed: 
for from it is derived the noun which expresses " the 
falling away " — there is a definite article in the original 
— mentioned in the second chapter of the Second 
Epistle to the Thessalonians. Both passages evidently 
refer to the same event, and from the latter we learn 
that out of this apostacy will be developed the Man 
of Sin, the Lawless One. Its first symptom was to 
be a decline of faith in the great Mystery of godliness ; 
that is, in the Mystery the apprehension of which is 
at once the source and support of all real godliness. 
And this is explained to be the Lord Jesus, manifested 
in flesh, justified in spirit, seen of angels, preached 
among nations, believed on in the world, and received 
up in glory. 

The apostacy was, therefore, to commence with a 
waning of faith in Christ, not necessarily amounting to 
a total denial of Him, but beginning with incredulity 
in regard to the miraculous circumstances of His past 
advent, and so gradually obscuring the only source and 
centre of every godly aspiration. 

The word rendered " deceiving " is more commonly 
used in the signification of wandering or roaming, a 
sense very suitable to this passage. We may com- 
pare Satan's account of himself as going to and fro in 

* I Tim. iii. i6 — iv. i^. 


the earth, and walking up and down in it ; * his name 
Beelzebub given to him as Prince of the Demons,t 
and probably meaning " the Lord of Unrest " ; and 
Christ's description of the ejected spirit wandering in 
dry places, and vainly seeking rest, t 

The succeeding clauses probably refer to the demons, 
and not to those whom they deceive : for this is 
certainly the simplest construction of the original. 

What, then, is the plain meaning of the prophecy ? 
That in the latter days there should be a great 
defection of faith in the fundamental truths con- 
nected with the incarnation of Christ. That this 
defection should be brought about by the direct 
teaching of unclean spirits or demons, who, though 
bearing a brand on their own conscience — that is, 
having their own inward nature defaced by sin as 
indelibly as a criminal is disfigured by branding — 
would nevertheless pretend to goodness and sanctity 
that they might gain credence for the lies which 
they would seek to propagate. And finally ; that 
two prominent features of their doctrine would be a 
prohibition of marriage, and a commandment to abstain 
from certain kinds of food. 

From these last particulars many have endeavoured 
^ to fasten the prophecy upon the Church 

1 his prophecy has i. i. j i. 

never yet been fuifiled of Romc, in that she forbids her priests 

in the Papal apostacy. , . . . , ■^ r 

to marry, and has set apart days for 
fasting. But the utterance of Paul seems to require 
that those of whom he speaks should openly and 
avowedly receive their doctrines from wandering spirits, 
which is not the case with Papists. Nor does the 
forced celibacy of the Roman clergy by any means 

* Job i. 7 ; ii. 2. f Matt. xii. 24. \ Matt. xii. 43. 


satisfy the words, " forbidding to marry," which evi- 
dently point to something far more general, nothing 
less, indeed, than an entire repudiation of God's first 
ordinance. So, too, the command with regard to meats 
does not appear to refer to particular fast- days, but to 
a total abstinence from certain kinds of food. 

There is, however, a delusion now rapidly spreading 

But its conditions are in ^lic midst of US which bids fair to 

beginning to appear in f^jf^i ^W the conditious of the prophccv, 

Spiritualism. Origin of _ i i y ' 

this apostacy in its and ' to bccome its undoubted mate in 
em orm. history. And that delusion is Spiritual- 

ism, the strange origin of which, in its modern phase, 
dates only from the forty-eighth year of the present 
century. Then, while the storm of democracy was 
beating fiercely upon the thrones of Europe, and the 
demons of anarchy were breaking their chains, an 
apparently trivial occurrence was commencing a mighty 
revolutio in America. 

On the night of the thirty-first of IMarch, some seventy 
or eighty persons were assembled in the house of one 
Fox, a farmer of Hydesville in the state of New York. 
They had come together for the purpose of investi- 
gating certain unaccountable rappings and disturbances 
which were alleged to take place in the sleeping room 
of ]\Iargaret and Kate Fox, girls of twelve and nine 
years of age. These children had devised a means of 
intelligent communication with the author of the noises, 
who would reply by a correct number of raps to numeri- 
cal questions, and would answer other interrogations by 
a rap for an affirmative and silence for a negative. The 
younger Fox had also discovered that she could obtain 
a response to dumb signs ; so that the spirit could see 
as well as hear. 


Proceeding upon this experience the crowd of neigh- 
bours elicited the following communication. That the 
mysterious existence was the spirit of a pedlar who 
had been murdered in the house some five years 
previously by the tenant of that time, a blacksmith 
named Bell ; and that his bodily remains might be 
found, where they were buried, in the middle of the 
cellar, ten feet below the surface. With some difficulty 
an excavation was subsequently made in the place in- 
dicated, and, after passing through a plank at a depth 
of five feet, the investigators found pieces of crockery, 
charcoal, quicklime, and, finally, some human hair and 

This result stimulated curiosity, and, every effort to 
detect imposture having failed, many became interested ; 
committees of inquiry were formed ; the manifestations 
were no longer confined to rappings : " and it soon 
became evident that an organized attempt was being 
made by the denizens of the spirit-world to establish 
a method of communication with mankind." * On one 
occasion it was proposed that the alphabet should be 
called over, and the unseen intelligences invited to 
respond to the necessary letters, and so to spell out 
a sentence. The suggestion was greeted with a shower 
of raps, which was supposed to indicate an enthusiastic 
assent : the experiment succeeded, and those who were 
present received, with some degree of awe, the first 
message : — " We are all your dear friends and rela- 
tions." The spirits were then asked by what sign 
they would in future intimate their wish to avail 

* " How to Investigate Spiritualism." A Pamphlet by J. S. 
Fanner, on the cover of which is the announcement, " First 
issue of 100,000 copies." 


themselves of this mode of communication, and they 
responded by making five distinct raps. Whenever, 
therefore, this was repeated in subsequent seances^ it 
was understood to be a call for the alphabet ; and 
thus an intelligible code of signals was instituted. 

As soon as it had been made clear that the power 
,. of mediumship was not confined to 

Unparalleled rapidity ^ 

of its dissemination. Its the Foxes, and that other spirits were 

literature and organs. , , . , , , , i ^ 

ready to communicate as well as that 
of the" pedlar, the excitement became intense, and the 
new faith spread through the United States with so 
potent an influence, that in 1871 the number of its 
supporters was variously reckoned at from eight to 
eleven millions. Nor could the waves of the Atlantic 
set bounds to its progress. It was not long before 
its apostles were active on the ether side of the main, 
where they preached its doctrines, and exhibited its 
wonders, with such effect that it already reckons its 
adherents by myriads in England and on the Continent. 
It has also gained a firm footing in most of the colonies 
and dependencies of the British Empire. 

But Hindustan, and some other parts of Asia, are 
regarded by its votaries as the ancient abodes which 
it has never relinquished, and in which the great adepts 
of its higher mysteries are still to be found. Indeed, 
its appearance in America and Europe — accompanied, 
as it has been, by Eastern lore from the Vedas, mostly 
conveyed through the medium of German philosophy, 
and followed by doctrines of evolution and re-incarna- 
tion, and by all but avowed Buddhism — would seem 
to be heralding the close of a great cycle, and to 
signify that the old religion of the Aryan race is over- 
taking, and again enfolding within its meshes, those 


recreant tribes which, in remote ages, escaped from 
its influence to the lands of the West. 

The Htcrature of Spiritualism is extensive and varied, 
and the volumes, which follow each other in quick 
succession, and are frequently handsome and costly, 
seem to find a ready sale. A recent catalogue of the 
Psychological Press Association — which owns one of 
the three or four shops established in London for the 
dissemination of Spiritualistic books — presents a list 
of some four or five hundred works, among which 
may be found vigorous attacks upon the Christian 
faith from almost every conceivable quarter. The 
greatest number of assailants seem, however, to be 
either Buddhists or Agnostics. Politics — but only 
those of the party to which all communicating spirits 
appear to be attached — are also admitted ; for the 
descriptive title of the catalogue includes " Liberal 
and Reform Subjects." 

But the sale of these and similar books is by no 
means confined to the shops which are exclusively 
devoted to it. Not long ago the writer observed a 
Theosophic treatise in two volumes in the window of 
a well-known bookseller in Piccadilly. Upon entering 
the shop he noticed one cr two copies lying on the 
counter, while others were piled upon the floor. An 
inspection of the title page revealed the fact that the 
book was then in its fifth editi n ; and yet the pub- 
lished price was two guineas ! 

In regard to regular organs, a Spiritualistic tract, 
issued some years ago, asserted that the new faith was 
at the time represented on the Continent and in some 
parts of Africa and South America by no fewer than 
forty-six periodicals. In the United States there are 


many, the best known in this country being two long- 
estabHshed weekly papers — Tlie Banner of Light 
(Boston), and TJie Rcligio-Philosop/iicaiyournal{CW\C7igo). 
A magazine pubHshed at Boston is styled, The Voice of 
Angels, A Semi-Monthly Paper, Edited and JManagcd 
by Spirits. 

In England, the most important organs are, The 
Psychological Review, Light, The JMedinm, The Herald of 
Progress, and The Spiritual Record. The last-mentioned 
has been recently denounced by one of its contempo- 
raries for a manifest leaning towards the Church of 
Rome. The TJieosophist, specially devoted to Occultism 
and the religion of Buddha, is published in Bombay, 
but appears to have a considerable circulation in 
England. The Harbinger of Light, a Melbourne paper, 
has been established for several years, and also finds 
its way into this country. 

Setting aside for the present the general contents 
of these papers, one can scarcely look through the 
lists of associations and meeting places, the notices 
of forthcoming lectures trance-addresses and seances, 
and the advertisements of mediums and clairvoyants 
of every kind, wonder-working, prophetic, detective, and 
medical, without conceding that the new religion has 
indeed extended itself widely, and is already wielding 
considerable influence. And while the learning and 
philosophy, which is now beginning to be developed 
in its higher branches, will satisfy the educated and 
intellectual, its careless free thought, and the strongly 
Radical and Communistic tendency of all its doctrines, 
will gain much favour for it as soon as it begins to 
percolate more freely through the middle into the lower 
strata of society. It is certainly no longer possible to 


regard it as a mere vulgar imposture, and the confi- 
dence and expectations of its supporters are well illus- 
trated in the following remarks of Gerald Massey : — 

" I cannot help laughing to myself at times as I 
think of what this much-maligned and despised 
Spiritualism is about to accomplish. Here are our 
clergy asserting Sunday after Sunday, in the name 
of God, any number of things which any number of 
listeners do not believe, only they have heard them 
repeated till past all power of impugning — things 
which they themselves do not believe, if they ever 
come to question their own souls. And here is this 
new thing in our midst that is destined to put a new 
soul into belief, and usher in a resurrection day. It 
is like watching the grim black thunder-clouds mount- 
ing the dead calm sky with a deliberate haste that 
makes you hold your breath till they touch the sharp 
edge of each other." 

There is, then, little doubt as to the rapidity with 
which Spiritualism is spreading, and the claim which it, 
consequently, has upon our most serious thought. We 
propose, therefore, to investigate its miraculous phe- 
nomena and its doctrines, drawing our information 
from books and papers accredited by the leaders of 
the movement. W'e will then briefly consider the 
kindred system of Thcosophy, and its Eastern form, 
the religion of Buddha, which has of late been exer- 
cising a powerful influence in Ciiristendom, and is 
by its quiet spells attracting to itself many of the 
educated and refined. Finally, we will give a few 
reasons for our inference, that the revolution which 
is now taking place in religious thought portends the 
clos'ng scenes of the age. 



Now, in regard to the first point, to give a compre- 
hensive view of the miraculous phe- 

Mr. Wallace's sum- , i . . ^i. 

mary of the physical Homena, wc cannot do better tnan 
and menial manifesta- qyote " E summarv of the more im- 

tions of Spiritualism. •■• ^ 

portant manifestations, physical and 
mental," from the very able and remarkable articles 
on Spiritualism contained in the Fortnightly Reviezu 
for the May and June of 1874, and subsequently 
published in a separate volume. These were written 
by the well-known naturalist and author, Mr. A. R. 
Wallace, and seem to give a fair and reliable account 
of Spiritualism in its present phase. 

The following is the summary, beginning with phy- 
sical phenomena. 

1. Simple Physical Phenomena. — Producing sounds 
of all kinds, from a delicate tick to blows like that of a 
heavy sledge-hammer. Altering the weight of bodies. 
'Moving bodies without human agency. Raising bodies 
into the air. Conveying bodies to a distance out of 
and into closed rooms. Releasing mediums from every 
description of bonds, even from welded iron rings, as 
has happened in America. 

2. Chemical. — Preserving from the effects of fire. 

3. Direct Writing and Drawing. — Producing writing 
or drawing on marked papers placed in such positions 
that no human hand (or foot) can touch them. Some- 
times, visibly to the spectators, a pencil rising up and 
writing or drawing apparently by itself. Some of the 
drawings in many colours have been produced on 
marked paper in from ten to twenty seconds, and the 
colours found wet. (See Mr. Coleman's evidence in 
Dialectical Report, p. 143, confirmed by Lord Borth- 
wick, p. 150.) Communications are often obtained 


in the following manner : — A bit of slate pencil, an 
eighth of an inch long, is laid on a table ; a clean slate 
is laid over this, in a well-lighted room ; the sound of 
writing is then heard, and in a few minutes a com- 
munication of considerable length is found distinctly 
written. Some of these communications are philo- 
sophical discussions on the nature of spirit and matter^ 
supporting the usual spiritual theory on this subject. 

4. Musical Phenomena. — JNIusical instruments, of 
various kinds, played without human agency, from 
a hand-bell to a closed piano. With some mediums, 
and where the conditions are favourable, original musical 
compositions of a very high character are produced. 

5. Spiritual Forms. — These are either luminous ap- 
pearances, sparks, stars, globes of light, luminous clouds, 
etc. ; or hands, faces, or entire human figures, generally 
covered with flowing drapery, except a portion of the 
face and hands. The human forms are often capable 
of moving solid objects, and are both visible and tan- 
gible to all present. In other cases they are only 
visible to seers, but when this is the case it sometimes 
happens that the seer describes the figure as lifting 
a flower or a pen, and others present see the flower 
or the pen apparently moving by itself. In some cases 
they speak distinctly ; in others, the noise is heard by 
all, the form only seen by the medium. The flowing 
robes of these forms have in some cases been examined 
and pieces cut off, which have in a short time melted 
away. Flowers are also brought, some of which fade 
away and vanish ; others are real, and can be kept inde- 
finitely. It must not be concluded that any of these 
forms are actual spirits ; they are probably only tem- 
porary forms produced by spirits for purposes of test. 


or of recognition by their friends. This is the accomit 
invariably given of them by communications obtained 
in various ways ; so that the objection once thought 
to be so crushing — that there can be no " ghosts " of 
clothes, armour, or walking-sticks — ceases to have any 

6. Spiritual Photographs. — These demonstrate by 
a purely physical experiment the trustworthiness of 
the preceding class of observations.* 

We now come to the mental phenomena of which 
the following are the chief : — 

I. Automatic Writing. — The medium writes involun- 
tarily ; often matter which he is not thinking about, 
does not expect, and does not like. Occasionally defi- 
nite and correct information is given of facts of which 
the medium has not, nor ever had, any knowledge. 
Sometimes future events are accurately predicted. The 
writing takes place either by the hand or through a 
planchette. Often the handwriting changes. Some- 

* In the IMarch of 1872 Mrs. Guppy, a well-kno-mi medium, sat 
for her portrait, and when the picture was developed there ap- 
peared also a spirit-form upon the plate. Curiosity was aroused, 
many experiments were made, especially by Mr. Hudson, of 
London, and INIr. Beattie, of Clifton, and it is now asserted that, 
if a powerful medium be present, recognisable portraits of dead, 
friends may be readily obtained. The subjoined is an extract 
from a letter of Mr. William Howitt published in the S;piritical 
Aj-agaztne for October 1872. 

" During my recent short and hurried visit to London, I and 
my daughter paid a visit to Mr. Hudson's studio, and through 
the mediumship of Mr. Heme — and, perhaps, of Mr. Hudson 
himself — obtained two photographs, perfect and unmistakable, 
of sons of mine, who passed into the spirit-world )'ears ago. 
They had promised to thus show themselves, if possible. 

" These portraits were obtained under circumstances which did 
not admit of deception. Neither Mr. Hudson nor Mr. Heme 
knew who we were. Mr. Heme I never saw before. I shut him 
up in the recess at the back of the studio, and secured the door 


times it is written backwards ; sometimes in languages 
the medium docs not understand. 

2. Seeing, or Clairvoyance, and Clairaudience. — This 
is of various kinds. Some mediums see the forms of 
deceased persons unknown to them, and describe their 
peculiarities so minutely that their friends at once 
recognise them. They often hear voices, through 
which they obtain names, dates, and places, connected 
with the individuals so described. Others read sealed 
letters in any language, and write appropriate answers. 

3. Trance-speaking. — The medium goes into a more 
or less unconscious state, and then speaks, often on 
matters and in a style far beyond his own capacities. 
Thus Serjeant Cox — no mean judge in a matter of 
literary style — says, " I have heard an uneducated bar- 
man, when in a state of trance, maintain a dialogue 
with a party of philosophers on Reason and Fore- 
knowledge, Will and Fate, and hold his own against 
them. I have put to him the most difficult questions 

on the outside, so that he did not — and could not — appear on the 
scene. Mr. Benjamin Coleman, who was with us, and myself 
took the plates at haphazard from a dusty heap of such ; and 
Mr. Coleman went into the dark chamber with the photographer, 
and took every precaution that no tricks were played there. But 
the greatest security was, that, not knowing us, and our visit 
being without any previous announcement or arrangement, the 
photographer could by no means know what or whom we might 
be expecting. Mr. Coleman himself did not know of the existence 
of one of these children. Still further, there was no existing like- 
ness of one of them. 

" On sending these photographs to Mrs. Howitt in Rome, she 
instantly and with the greatest delight recognised the truth of 
the portraits. The same was the case with a lady who had known 
these boys most intimately for years. A celebrated and most 
reliable lady-medium, whom they had spiritually visited many 
times, at once recognised them perfectly, and as resembling a 
spirit-sister, whom they told her had died in infancy long before 
themselves, and which is a fact." 


in psychology', and received answers always thoughtful, 
often full of wisdom, and invariably conveyed in choice 
and elegant language. Nevertheless, a quarter of an 
hour afterwards, when released from the trance, he was 
unable to answer the simplest query on a philosophical 
subject, and was even at a loss for sufficient language 
to express a commonplace idea" ("What am I?" Vol. ii., 
p. 242). That this is not overstated I can myself 
testify from repeated observation of the same medium. 
And from other trance speakers — such as Mrs. Har- 
dinge, ?vlrs. Tappan,* and INIr. Peebles — I have heard 
discourses which, for high and sustained eloquence, 
noble thoughts, and high moral purpose, surpassed 
the best efforts of any preacher or lecturer within 
my experience. 

4. Impersonation. — This occurs during trance. The 
medium seems taken possession of by another being ; 
speaks, looks, and acts, the character in a most marvel- 
lous manner ; in some cases speaks foreign languages 
never even heard in the normal state ; as in the case of 
Miss Edmonds already given. \\'hen the influence is 
violent or painful, the effects are such as have been in 
all ages imputed to possession by evil spirits. 

5. Healing. — There are various forms of this. Some- 
times by mere laying on of hands, an exalted form of 
simple mesmeric healing. Sometimes, in the trance 
state, the medium at once discovers the hidden malady, 

* To this lady's power Martin F. Tupper, who is not a Spiri- 
tualist, bears the follov>ing testimony : — 

" At the Brighton Pavilion I gave her, for a theme to be versified 
on the spot, my own heraldic motto, " L'espoir est ma force," and, 
to my astonishment, in a burst of rhymed eloquence she rolled off 
at least a dozen stanzas on Hope and its spiritual power" {Lt'ghi, 
January 6th, 1883). 


and prescribes for it, often describing very accurately 
the morbid appearance of internal organs. 

Such, then, are the miraculous phenomena at present 
exhibited by Spiritualism. And those who are inti- 
mately acquainted with the subject will feel compelled 
to admit the truth of Mr. Wallace's conclusion ; — " My 
position, therefore, is, that the phenomena of Spiritualism 
in their entirety do not require further confirmation. 
They are proved quite as well as any facts are proved 
in other sciences." * 

Since, however, the fifth class of physical phenomena, 
, ^ the appearance of tangible spiritual 

Instances of the ap- ^^^ _ . 

pearance of tangible forms, Is important to ouc sidc of our 
spin- onus. argument, some illustration is in this 

case necessary. We will, therefore, quote, from another 
part of Mr. Wallace's essay, his notice of the seances of 
Miss Fox with I\Ir. Livermore, a v/ell-known New York 
banker, and an utter sceptic before commencing the 

" These sittings were more than three hundred in 
number, extending over five years. They took place 
in four different houses — Mr. Livermore's and the 
medium's being both changed during this period — 

* Lest any one should suppose that no other man of science or 
intellect would have spoken so strongly, we subjoin a few quota- 
tions, which might be indefinitely multiplied. 

"In short," says Professor Challis, "the testimony has been 
so abundant and consentaneous, that either the facts must be 
admitted to be such as are reported, or the possibility of certify- 
ing facts by human testimony must be given up." 

Camille Flammarion, the French astronomer, thus expresses 
himself; — " I do not hesitate to affirm my conviction, based on 
personal examination of the subject, that any scientific man who 
declares the phenomena denominated ' magnetic,' ' somnam- 
bulic,' 'mediumic,' and others not yet explained by science, to 
be impossible, is one who speaks without knowing what he is 


under tests of the most rigid description. The chief 
phenomenon was the appearance of a tangible visible 
and audible figure of Mr. Livcrmorc's deceased wife, 
sometimes accompanied by a male figure purporting to 
be Dr. Franklin. The former figure was often most 
distinct and absolutely lifelike. It moved various 
objects ii: the room. It wrote messages on cards. It 
was sometimes formed out of a luminous cloud, and 
again vanished before the eyes of the witnesses. It 
allowed a portion of its dress to be cut off, which, 
though at first of strong and apparently material gauzy 
texture, yet in a short time melted away and became in- 
visible. Flowers which melted away were also given." 
Mr. Wallace likewise mentions the production in 
London of a visible tangible and audible female figure, 
just after his first article had gone to the press. This 
spirit-form, clad in white robes, was walking and talking 
with the company for more than an hour, and suffered 
itself to be clasped by Mr. Crookes, who found it to be, 
apparently, a real hving woman. The experiment was 
frequently repeated in ]\Ir. Crookes' own house, and the 
efforts made by himself and Mr. Varley to detect im- 
posture simply confirmed the belief of those scientific 

talking- about. ... I have acquired, through my own obser\'a- 
tion, the absolute certainty of the reality of these phenomena." 

The philospher J. H. Fichte was moved by his experiences to 
write a pamphlet in his eighty-third year, giving the following 
reason for so doing-. " Notwithstanding my age, and my exemp- 
tion from the controversies of the day, I feel it my duty to bear 
testimony to the great fact of Spiritualism. No one should keep 

And lastly, the hard and rugged mind of Lord Brougham so 
yielded to the evidence placed before him, that, in his preface to 
" The Book of Nature," he remarked : — " Even in the most cloud- 
less skies of scepticism I see a rain-cloud, if it be no bigger than 
a man's hand : it is modem Spiritualism." 


gentlemen in the reality and superhuman nature of the 

During the last few years such materializations ap- 
pear to have become matters of common experience, 
and many strange narratives, often attested by respect- 
able names, may be found in the Spiritualistic periodicals. 
As a specimen, we may mention an account given by 
Dr. T. L. Nichols, late of Malvern, of a seance held 
through the mediumship of Mr. Bastian. After several 
female forms had presented themselves, a tall male 
figure, with a long full beard, floated out of the cabinet. 
One of the company expressed a wish to see him 
dematerialized : the medium's familiar assented to the 
request, and directed that the shade should be taken off 
the lamp, in order that the light might be stronger. 
The tall figure then moved just in front of those who 
were present, and, in that position, became gradually 
shorter, until his head was close to the carpet, when it 
soon disappeared, as did also a little white mass which 
seemed to be the remains of his drapery. The process 
occupied about thirty seconds. 

" In half a minute more," continues Dr. Nichols, " we 
saw a white spot on the carpet, which grew like a little 
cloud, and from it emerged the head, then the body, 
then, little by little, the full form of the tall bearded 
figure which had disappeared. 

" This was in a small carpeted room in my own 
house, in the presence of seven persons not likely to 
be deceived, and with conditions that made any such 
deception impossible." 

* This extraordinary series of experiments, carried on at in- 
tcr\'als during six months, is described in "The Phenomena of 
Spiritualism," by W. Crookes, F.F.S. 


In the course of the same sdance, a female figure 
appeared with a baby in her arms, and was immediately 
recognized by a gentleman present as the wife whom 
he had lost some years before, together with the child 
whose premature birth had been the cause of her death. 
The child was identified by a conspicuous malforma- 

We will add one other case, in which the medium 
was a IMiss Showers,t of Tcignmouth, and the narrator 
a Mr. Charles Blackburn, of Parkfield, Manchester, 
whose letter appears in the Spiritual Magazine for 
October 1874. On the occasion referred to, three 
experiments were made ; spirit-voices being produced 
in the first, and spirit-faces in the second. The third 
is thus described. 

" The same little dressing-room and curtained door 
was used, but the curtain was nailed to the top of the 
moulding of the door to shut out all light, and a couch 
was placed inside. Now in this important test I took 
her left earring out, and passed a threaded needle 
through the aperture, with five yards of thread. Miss 
Showers lay down on the couch, and I threaded the 
two ends of the string through where the door hinges, 
and fastened them to a nail driven by a gentleman into 
the door casing, and visible to all ; thus she had a sing'le 

* Light, November 25th, 1882. 

t This lady, "the daughter of a general officer of the Bengal 
Staff Corps," suddenly ceased her manifestations. In reply to 
inquiries her mother published a letter in Light (January 28th, 
1882), from which we extract the following statement : — 

"The spirit-manifestations, which commenced when Miss 
Showers was only sixteen years old, nearly cost her life, and she 
will probably never entirely recover from their effects. For more 
than six months she lost the use of her limbs, and lay in a par- 
tially cataleptic state of utter helplessness, but with the awful 
and unspeakable reality of Spiritualism ever before her." 


tliiead through her ear in her dark room, and we had 
the two ends in the light room. She was quickly 
entranced, and very shortly a spirit named * Lenore ' 
came forth amongst us, perfectly destitute of any thread 
fastening. We all felt her ears ; she had no boring 
whatever through her ears, and the lobes were very 
thin and far smaller than Miss Showers's. She had 
only one large toe to each foot ; the other four toes 
were ossifications, and not toes at all. We all examined 
her very small feet with our own hands and eyes ; nor 
are we in the slightest degree mistaken. She told us 
her feet would have been perfected had there been more 
power. When this figure retired, we all went into the 
cabinet with faint light, and awoke Miss Showers. 
She had the thread through her ear just as when she 
first lay down on the couch. We cut the thread close 
to her ear, and traced it directly to the nail without a 
knot or piecing in it. Miss Showers's feet, I scarcely 
need say, are perfect, and were examined." 

These instances will serve as specimens of what is 
now going on in many private families, as well as at 
the seances of professed mediums. 

In a book entitled "An Angel's Message" — of which 
-. . . , . we shall have more to say presently — 

Explanation of the J ^ •' 

appearance of spirit- the appcaraucc of Spirit- hauds is thus 
explained. The " angel " affirms that a 
spirit can " take of the effluvia from the person of the 
medium, or from the various members of the circle 
present, and, by condensing it, can form a temporary 
covering for his spirit-hand, which shall be quite solid 
and tangible, so that it can be grasped by }'ou, and can 
convey external objects from one part of the room to 
another. These hands can take hold of an}-thing just 


as well as you can ; but if you retain them long in 
your hand, they will melt or dissolve away. They can 
be seen by all present. It does not require any spiritual 
preparation to see them, for they are quite material 
(during the time of their existence." 

If this be true of spirit-hands, it will naturally follow 
that the entire forms exhibited by spirits 

Complete figures are , 

probably formed in the are simply material coverings manu- 
*^^*^^' factured for themselves by these dis- 

embodied rebels.* Perchance invention and progress 
are not confined to our world : it may be that, just as 
men have sought out many devices for alleviating the 
sorrows of the curse, so demons have at length dis- 
covered a means of temporary relief to the cravings of 
their bodiless spirits, or, at least, a way by which they 
may increase their influence over mankind. Perhaps, 
however, they have had the knowledge before, but, save 
in a few instances, lacked the impious daring to use it. 

The death-like trance of the mediums seems no 
unnatural concomitant of their large contribution to 
the spirit-form. Their weariness and exhaustion when 
restored to consciousness is often described. 

If material forms ever appear without the aid of a 
medium, these cannot be demons, but must be angels 
of Satan, who, as we have before shown, are not un- 
clothed spirits, but possess spiritual bodies which they 
can render visible and tangible at will. 

The reader will now have a better comprehension of 
Mr. Wallace's fifth class of physical phenomena. But 

*Theosophists, however, insist that no spirits can materialize 
themselves except the lower grades, or goblins, which they term 
Elementals, or Elementaries. But they admit that higher spirits 
can sometimes control these Elementaries, and make them assume 
appearances to suit their own purpose. 


a grave reflection presents itself: for if lost spirits are 
thus openly active in the midst of us, to what times of 
confusion do we seem to be helplessly drifting ! Who 
can wonder at the general excitement which is already 
beginning to unsettle the world ; the rapid and unex- 
pected succession of events ; the threatening growth of 
armies and fleets ; the vastly increased mental activity 
of men ; the strange philosophies and creeds which 
are springing up on every side ; the spread of discon- 
tent, insubordination, and lawlessness ; the selfishness, 
dishonesty, unscrupulousness, immorality, and other 
signs of evil energy, which are daily multiplying around 
us ! 

But these exhibitions of supernatural power, wild as 

The miraculous phe- ^hey somctimes are— for seances are 

nomena are put forth by often dcscribcd as sccnes of truly 

demons as credentials . , ^ ■' 

authorising their teach- dcmoniacal Hot — have a definite aim 
'"^"^ in view. They are intended to disturb 

the minds of men, and to bring them back from scep- 
ticism to superstition ; to shake their faith in old creeds ; 
and so, by reducing all diversities of opinion to one 
dead level, to forward a more rapid propagation of the 
teachings which the Prince of this World would now 
specially press upon his human subjects. And lastly ; 
the signs and wonders are made to serve as credentials 
to these teachings. 

We now pass on to the second division of our sub- 
Examination of Spirit- J^ct,* and proceed to examine the 
uaiistic doctrine. Inter- doctriucs which are avowedly put forth 

course with the dead is , . - 

absolutely forbidden by aS tCaChmgS Of dcmOUS. 

the Scriptures. p^^^ ^^^^ . ^^^ ^^^j^^ ^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^^ 

•Our limits will not allow us to speak of Planchette, which is, 
however, by no means a modem invention. " To this day," says 


foundation of the new faith is laid in direct defiance of 
the law of God. For the Scriptures emphatically for- 
bid all inquiry of the spirits of the dead, and ev^ery 
kind of intercourse with them. " But whereas," pleads 
Isaiah, " they will say unto you, Inquire of them that 
have familiar spirits and of the wizards that chirp and 
mutter : should not a people inquire of their God } 
For the living should they inquire of the dead ? " * 
And had an Israelite asked what harm there could 
possibly be in the latter course, the prophet would, 
perhaps, have replied in the terrible words of the law ; 
— " The soul that turneth after such as have familiar 
spirits, and after wizards, to go a whoring after them, 
I will even set My face against that soul, and will cut 
him off from among his people."-}- The great abomina- 
tion of Spiritualism, whether ancient or modern, is that 
it is based upon an idolatrous substitution of spirits 
of the dead for the Everlasting God. 

Hence nothing could be stronger than the Biblical 
repudiation of the whole system. The Old Testament, 
as we have already seen, commands that wizards, 
witches, dealers with familiar spirits, necromancers, and 
sorcerers, of every kind, should be inexorably de- 
stroyed. Nor is a milder fate assigned to them in the 
New : for " the fearful, and unbelieving, and the 
abominable, and murderers, and whoremongers, and 
sorcerers, and idolaters, and all liars, shall have their 

i\Ir. LilHe, " the Buddhist temple is the home of marvels ; and, 
in China, there is in front of many statues of Buddha a table on 
which an apparatus similar to a planchette is used for ghostly 
communications. This planchette has been known for many 
hundred 3'ears " (" Buddha and Early Buddhism," p. 39). 

* Isa. viii. 19. 

t Lev. XX. 6. 


part in the lake which burneth with fire and brimstone : 
which is the second death." 

A strange attempt has indeed been made to show 
Christ did not set that our Lord abrogated the statute 
riliottTftltfii" against seeking to the dead when He 
■"^"on- spoke with Moses and Elijah on the 

Mount of Transfiguration. It has been said that He 
broke the law before the very face of the lawgiver, 
" and by His example taught His disciples, the future 
proclaimers of His new law to the world, to do the 
same." Moreover, that " the disciples, admitted to a 
convocation which would have brought the penalty of 
death upon their ancestors, found it so good for them, 
that they desired to build tabernacles, and remain with 
those illustrious dead."* 

This argument is much used by Spiritualists, who 
seem to regard it as conclusive. It is, however, put 
forth without the least regard either to the context of 
the narrative and other passages which refer to it, or 
even to the plain facts of history. Attention to these 
points will show that the Transfiguration cannot in any 
way be associated with necromancy, but was designed 
to effect the following purposes. 

First ; to fulfil the Lord's promise, that He would 
revea Himself in the glory of His kingdom to some 
of the disciples while they were yet in the flesh. 

And secondly ; to teach that He was exalted far 
above Moses and Elijah, the representatives of the Law 
and the Prophets ; that they were but servants, while. 
He was the beloved Son. 

So John, in a manifest reference to the scene, says ; 
— " And we beheld His glory, the glory as of the only 
♦Howitt's " History of the Supernatural," Vol i., 197. 


Begotten of the Father," And Peter proves that he 
had not followed cunningly-devised fables by declaring 
that he had been an eye-witness of the majesty of the 
Lord Jesus when he was with Him on the Holy Mount, 
and had heard the voice of the Father acknowledging 
Him as His beloved Son. 

But the disciples, it is urged, found it so good to be 
in the company of the " illustrious dead " that they 
wished to remain with them. It is true that Peter may 
have had feelings akin to those of modern Spiritualists 
when he said, " Master, it is good for us to be here : 
and let us make three tabernacles ; one for Thee, and 
one for Moses, and one for Elias." But what was the 
answer to his proposal .? In a moment the glorious 
vision was swept from his sight by a cloud, out of 
which there pealed the cry, " This is My beloved Son 
in Whom I am well pleased : hear ye Him." And 
when he looked up to see Who was thus indicated, he 
saw no man, save Jesus only. Could there be a plainer 
warning against seeking to any other than the Son of 

Lastly ; the expression, " illustrious dead," is alto- 
gether inappropriate ; for it does not appear that any 
unclothed spirit was present at the Transfiguration. 
Certainly Elijah was not one ; since he had never 
died : and in all probability Moses also was in the 
body. Or wherefore was his corpse wrested from 
Satan by the archangel Michael .'' Why was not he 
who had the power of death permitted to reduce it 
to corruption, and to deal with it as he did with all 
other bodies 1 Is it not likely that God preserved it 
for this very occasion .? And thus the Lord did indeed 
exhibit the fashion of His kingdom : for Moses and 


Elijah represented His raised and changed saints, while 
both of them were clad in glorified bodies like unto 
His own. 

It is, then, impossible to find in Scripture any 
M,„„»,^io„»„.:»c» sanction for the consultation of the 

Many evil agencies are 

mentioned in Scripture, dead. Aud Ict the following state- 

but all good spiritual in- . , , , , 

fluence is ascribed to the mcnt be wcU wcighcd by those who 
pinto o a one. ^^^ ^^j^ Qpgj^ ^-q conviction. We hear 

of the unlawful association of men with demons in 
the Old Testament : we have miserable beings pos- 
sessed with unclean spirits, and the Philippian damsel 
inspired by a Pythonic spirit, in the New : we are told 
of the spirit that now worketh in the children of dis- 
obedience, of wandering spirits and demons that teach 
lies in hypocrisy, and of the three unclean spirits like 
frogs, the spirits of demons, • which shall hereafter go 
forth and incite the haters of God to their last great 
effort. But throughout the whole Bible there is no 
instance of a spirit influencing men for good save the 
Spirit of God alone. This significant fact must be 
carefully remembered : for Spiritualists are wont to 
confuse the minds of the unwary by ignoring it, and 
to argue that Scripture sanctions demoniacal manifes- 
tations, because it records operations of the Holy Spirit 
and speaks of angelic messengers. But the point at 
issue is the lawfulness of communication with spirits 
of the dead, and that question can neither be solved, 
nor in any way affected, by revelations concerning the 
Spirit of uod and the missions of angels. 

Utterly irrelevant, therefore, are the frequently 
quoted words of David, in reference to the building 
of the temple ; — " All this, even all the works of the 
pattern has He taught by writing from the hand of 



Jehovah which came upon me."* For though it is 
sufficiently clear that the plans of the temple were 
communicated to David in. some supernatural way, and 
though the mode of communication may possibly have 
resembled that of modern spirit-writing, yet the influ- 
ence is expressly said to have come from Jehovah 
Himself, and not from spirits of the dead. 

The case of the writing which came to Jehoram 
from Elijah the Tishbite also falls without the limits 
of this controversy. For even if we admit the assump- 
tion that Elijah had previously departed from earth, 
and that he had not left the writing behind him, but 
had returned to communicate it, there remains, never- 
theless, the fact that he had never passed the threshold 
of death. It would, therefore, be absurd to draw any 
inference as to the condition of the dead from what is 
recorded of a translated prophet, f 

We may, therefore, assert that the peremptory law 
against seeking to the dead was never cancelled or 
even suspended. 

Of the ministry of angels Scripture frequently speaks ; 

Angels are, indeed, fre- but thcSC, aS WC haVC bcforC SCCn, 

r;t'enol"SL'of th" are not disembodied spirits. Nor are 
dead. they the glorified forms of any who 

have lived in the flesh during our age. For the Lord 
Himself marks them out as a distinct creation, and 
tells us plainly that we cannot be like them until the 

* T Chron. xxviii. 19. 

t But it is probable that Elijah was still living upon earth at 
the time when the writing came to Jehoram. For the date of his 
translation cannot be fixed, and the incident which is supposed 
to prove that it must have taken place before the expedition of 
the Israelitish Jehoram against Moab is hardly conclusive. The 
servant of the king of Israel did indeed say, " Here is Elisha the 
son of Shaphat which poured water on the hands of Elijah" : 


first resurrection, which is to take place upon His 
return to the precincts of our world.* 

Spiritualists do indeed strive to evade this difficulty 
by teaching, in defiance of Scripture, that the resurrec- 
tion takes place at death, and is, therefore, accomplished 
in the case of all the dead. But we can only reply 
by including them in the same category as Hymenasus 
and Philetus, of whom Paul affirmed that they erred 
concerning the truth in saying that the resurrection is 
past already, and were overthrowing the faith of some.t 

And yet again ; angels bring messages of God, in- 
Nor do their messages fallible words, which must bc rcccivcd 

in any way resemble the implicitly aS absolutC trUth. But hoW 
communications of de- i^ ■' 

mons. different is this from the confessedly 

uncertain utterances of demons at a seance : for Spirit- 
ualists admit that their familiars can, as a rule, only 
give opinions. One of their canons is, " That commu- 
nications from the spirit-world, whether by mental 
impression, inspiration, or any other mode of transmis- 
sion, are not necessarily infallible truth ; but, on the 
contrary, partake unavoidably of the imperfections of 
the minds from which they emanate, and of the channels 
through which they come, and are, moreover, liable to 
misrepresentation by those to whom they are ad- 
dressed." J 

but it does not necessarily follow that he meant to speak of Elijah 
as no longer on earth. It may be that he was merely thinking 
of some past occasion^perhaps an appearance of the prophet at 
court — on which he had seen Elisha ministering to him. 

• Luke XX. 35, 36. 

t 2 Tim. ii. 17, 18. 

\ We add a further illustration of this uncertainty from the 
pen of the well-known inspirational writer T. L. Harris. " There 
is no dependence to be placed on the mere verbal statements of 
spirits as to their real belief. One class deceives purposely ; they 
are simply flowing into your general thought, and coinciding with 


And, since Spiritualists tell us that the writers of 
the Bible were much the same as modern mediums, it 
is easy to see that their doctrine of uncertainty not 
merely proves the worthlessness of their own oracles, 
but also undermines the authority of Scripture. Thus 
it unites its supporters with rationalists and infidel 
philosophers, tending, as it does, to refer everything 
to the discretion of human reason. 

We may now push our argument still further : for, 

Scripture testimony is if wc exccpt the casc of Samucl, who 

against the possibility of ^^5 ggj^^ ^p jj^ Qod's angcr, there is 

communication with the *■ '-' 

blessed dead. not in Scripturc a single hint of the 

possibility of communication between the departed in 
the Lord and those who still remain on earth. Nay, 
the whole weight of evidence is opposed to such an 
idea. " When a few years are come," exclaims Job, 
"then I shall go the way whence I shall not return."* 
" I shall go to him, but he shall not return to me," 
said David of his lost son.f And Paul consoles the 
Thessalonians in their bereavement, not by suggest- 
ing communications with disembodied spirits, but by 

your most devout convictions, for the purpose of obtaining a 
supreme and ruinous dominion over your mind and body. Another 
class are simply parasites, negatives, drawTi into the personal 
sphere of the medium, and seeking to sun themselves in its light 
and heat by absorbing the vital forces, on which they feed, and 
by means of which they, for a time, revive their faded intelligence 
and apathetic sense. To the Mohammedan they confirm the 
Koran ; to the Pantheist they deify nature ; to the believer in the 
Divine Humanity they glorify the Word. Fighting, as every 
upward growing man is, to obtain deliverance from the self-hood, 
with its dead obstructions, its faltering limitations, it is most 
dangerous to become interlocked with the deadly self-hoods of 
sects, of inversine human society, or of clans, hordes, tribes, and 
wandering banditti, of the Spiritual world." — The Spiritualist, 
June 25th, 1875. 

* Job xvi. 22. t 2 Sam. xii. z^. 


bidding them look forward to the return of their Lord 
and the resurrection, when dead and living shall be 
again united never more to part.* 

Nor need Spiritualists expatiate on the difficulty 
The usual objections iuvolved in a belief of the resurrection, 

to a resurrection of the . , 1 • j • 1 1 • r 

body are altogether un- ^ttd on the mextricablc mixture of 
founded. atoms, any one of which may have 

helped to form the material portion of many men and 
animals. Did the difficulty exist, it would be sufficient 
for those who believe in God — that is, in a real God, 
and not a mere deification of their finite selves — it 
would be sufficient for such to know that He had under- 
taken the solution. But the Scriptures never affirm 
that we shall rise in the actual flesh in which we lived : 
and to him who suggests such a resurrection Paul 
replies with asperity ; — " Thou fool, that which thou 
thyself sowest is not quickened, except it die : and that 
which thou sowest, thou sowest not that body that shall 
be, but a bare grain, it may chance of wheat, or of some 
other grain ; but God giveth it a body as it hath pleased 
Him, and to every seed its own body." f 

So will each of God's people receive his own body 
on the great dayj a body, not identical with that in 
which he lived on earth, but connected with it as the 
stalk of wheat is with the decayed grain out of which 
it sprang. And of ficsh and bones will our immortal 
dwelling be composed, even as our Lord's resurrection- 
body, by which, as His own mouth declared,;}: He was 
distinguished from an unclothed spirit, from that which 
He had Himself been during His intermediate state, 
when, being put to death in the fiesh but quickened in 
the spirit, He had descended to the darkness of Plades. 

* Thess. iv. 13-18. t I Cor. xv. 36-,i8. % Luke xxiv. 39. 


We must not, however, pass by a frequently quoted 
... f T u • verse which is supposed to imply com- 

Meaning of Johns ^ i^ '^ ' 

direction to "try the munication with disembodied spirits. 
" Beloved," says John, "believe not every 
spirit, but try the spirits whether they are of God." * 
It is argued that such a precept not only proves the 
existence of Spiritualism in the early Church, but even 
gives positive apostolic sanction to intercourse with 
the dead in Christ. 

Now from the way in which John speaks we can see 
that he is referring to the exercise of some familiar and 
lawful gift, of which we may, therefore, justly expect to 
find notice in other parts of the New Testament. And 
such notice we do find : for the apostle is clearly legis- 
lating for those cases of prophetic utterance and speak- 
ing with tongues which were then common in the church, 
and of which Paul treats at length in the First Epistle to 
the Corinthians. 

But by what power were these manifestations pro- 
duced } Not by spirits of the dead, but by the direct 
action of the Spirit of God. Paul is at great pains to 
set forth this fact in his preliminary enumeration of 
spiritual gifts, and not content with having six times 
mentioned it, he concludes with the emphatic words, 
" But all these worketh that one and the selfsame Spirit, 
dividing to every man severally as He will." t In 
perfect accord, too, is the narrative of the day of Pente- 
cost, which states that the disciples " were all filled 
with the Holy Spirit, and began to speak with other 
tongues, as the Spirit gave them utterance." \ 

Since, then, there is but one Spirit working in the 

* I John iv. I. +1 Cor. xii. ii. 

\ Acts ii. 4. 


children of God, it is evident that the command to try 
the spirits refers, not to the inspiring cause, but to the 
spirits of those who claimed to be prompted by the 
Holy Ghost, the plural being used as it is by Paul when 
he affirms that " the spirits of the prophets are subject 
to the prophets." * And this interpretation will be 
found to suit the whole context. 

Nor was the apostolic warning superfluous : for, as 
might have been anticipated, Satan quickly began to 
counterfeit the manifestations of the Spirit by introduc- 
ing false and demon-inspired prophets among the true 
believers. Unmistakable traces of this mischief may 
be detected in Paul's affectionate entreaty to the Thes- 
salonians, " That ye be not soon shaken in mind, or be 
troubled, neither by spirit, nor by word, nor by letter as 
from us, as that the day of Christ is present."! The 
demon-teachers were already abroad ; the Mystery of 
Lawlessness was even then working. 

Therefore the duty inculcated by John is that of 
testing the spirits of prophets, to discover whether they 
are influenced by the Spirit of God or by demons. And 
the Ephesians seem to have obeyed the precept when 
they tried those who said they were apostles, but were 
not, and found them Hars.^ Had, however, any one 
presented himself as an avowed dealer with spirits of 
the dead, he would have been at once rejected without 
any trial : for the apostles recognized only the influence 
of "that one and the selfsame Spirit" on the Lord's 
side, and knew that every necromancer was an abomina- 
tion to Him. 

Finally ; the Bible gives us no reason to suppose 

• I Cor. xiv. 32. + 2 Thess. ii. 2. 

X Rev. ii. 2. 


that departed saints can even see what is going on in 

The spirits of the ^^is world. Indeed in one instance it 

dead in Christ are pro- secms to bc assumcd that they cannot. 

bably unable even to see _ . 

what is taking place on For the good Shcphcrd, after finding 
^^^ ' the lost sheep, calls His friends and 

neighbours, tells them that He has recovered His own, 
and bids them rejoice with Him.* Now His neigh- 
bours are probably the angels, for they dwell where He 
is : and is it not likely that the spirits in Paradise are His, 
friends ? " Henceforth," He said to His disciples, " I 
call you not servants : for the servant knoweth not what 
his lord doeth : but I have called you friends ; for all 
things that I have heard of j\Iy Father I have made 
known unto you." j" It would seem, then, that, when- 
ever any poor wanderer is brought back to the fold, the 
Lord calls the spirits of his relations and friends who 
have already entered into rest, tells them that the lost 
is found, and rejoices with them in the knowledge that 
His beloved and theirs is reconciled to the Father, and 
will soon join their happy and never-ending fellowship. 
But if it be necessary for Christ to announce this good 
news to the blessed spirits, it is clear that they cannot 
be watching their friends who are still in the flesh. 
There is, however, a passage in the Epistle to the 
The "cloud of wit- Hebrews which is often explained as 
nesses" is, probably, to implying that thcy are so employed. 

be understood of testi- j. >■ ■/ - 

fiers, and not of specta- " Whercfore, says Paul, " seeing we 
also are compassed about with so great 
a cloud of witnesses, let us lay aside every weight, and 
the sin which doth so easily beset us, and let us run 
with patience the race that is set before us, looking 
unto Jesus the Author and Finisher of our faith." % 

* Luke XV. 6. f Joliri xv. 15. \ Heb. xii. i. 


Now even if we admit tliat the spirits of those who 
died in faith are here represented as beholding our 
actions upon earth, there is, nevertheless, no hint of 
either lawful or possible communication with them, 
much less of any help to be obtained from them. To 
Jesus alone are w^e directed to look : the dead can but 
testify by the record of their past lives to His power 
and love. If, therefore. Spiritualists be allowed to in- 
terpret the passage in their own way, they can find no 
support for their fundamental doctrine. But such an 
explanation, although it sets a perfect metaphor before 
us, does not appear to suit the context. 

For in the treatise upon faith, of which this verse 
commences the practical application, the verb of the 
same root as the word translated " witnesses " is used 
five times, occurring finally, indeed, in the very sentence 
preceding the one under our consideration.* In each 
case it has the sense of " testifying to," and not of 
" witnessing " a spectacle : nor does it seem likely 
that Paul in drawing an inference from his argument 
would suddenly change the meaning of so important 
a word. 

In all probability, therefore, the witnesses are not 
spectators of our faith ; but witnesses to faith in the 
abstract, to what could be accomplished by it even 
before the unfolding of that love of God, which, being 
now known, should act as a far more powerful stimulant 
upon us. Such a sense both falls in with the line of 
thought, and removes the necessity of finding in this 
place a doctrine which cannot be elsewhere discovered 
in Scripture. 

The case of the wicked may be different. Coming 
* Heb. xi. 39. 


by death more completely under the sway of him 

The spirits of the lost that hath the power of death, it may 

may possibly have the ^g ^hat in Certain circumstances they 

power of communicating 

vith earth; but even have the range of his principality of 

Uiis is uncertain, ,■, a • a j t 't • u 

the Air. And if so, it is by no means 
improbable that they communicate at times with con- 
genial spirits still in the flesh. But even this cannot 
be proved, and indeed seems unlikely. For the rich 
man in Hades, when troubled in regard to his brothers, 
speaks of them as far away, feels his own inability to 
help them, and hoping that the condition of the blessed 
may be different, entreats that Lazarus may be sent to 
them. What follows is striking, and again casts the 
dark shadow of God's reprobation over the whole 
system of Spiritualism. Abraham answers that they 
have Moses and the prophets, and should hear them. 
And when the rich man, with the sentiment of a modern 
Spiritualist, urges that if one could but go to them 
from the dead they would repent, he is finally told that 
the God of mercy has devised a message to fallen men 
containing all that can be really effectual in turning 
them from their sins, and that, if they are hardened 
against His words, nothing will sav-e them, not even the 
return of one from the dead. 

If, therefore, the spirits of the lost who have lived 
in our world are able to communicate with their friends 
at all, it can only be in exceptional cases : unless 
indeed the Powers of Darkness are already hastening 
the end by breaking down the barriers within which 
God would have them confined. It is probable, how- 
ever, as we have before pointed out, that the beings 
who inspire mediums, and work wonders to establish 
a lie, are the blasted relics of some former world. 


Thus the whole weight of Biblical evidence pronounces 
^ . . ,. ^ as^ainst communication with the dead, 

Spintualism subverts '-' 

all the teachings of re- even If it admits its possibility. But 
the demons retaliate: for their teach- 
ings are openly and daringly subversive of all the 
doctrines of revelation, and will, if they prevail, quickly 
obliterate the very names of Father, Son, and Holy 
Spirit, substituting a worship of deified humanity. And 
this we will now endeavour to prove by exhibiting the 
opinions of some Spiritualists of mark upon the great 
fundamental truths of Christianity. 

First, then, we would ask, What think they of Christ ? 
Its doctrbes concern- Very little, apparently I for, even by 
ing Christ. those writcrs who still profess to regard 

Him as the Son of God, He is either explained away 
as a mere Divine efflux, or almost lost amid a cloud of 
benevolent demons. But the majority of Spiritualists 
regard Him simply as a powerful medium, and compare 
Him as a teacher with Buddha, Confucius, or Zoroaster. 
Others, again, adopt a kind of Unitarianism, similar 
to that of Swedenborg, making Christ and the Father 
the same Person, and, in some cases, adding an expla- 
nation of the Trinity which is simply appalling in its 

Amongst those who speak reverently is Mrs. De 
Christ represented as Morgan: but what Can we say of the 
a mere efflux. followiug cxposition in hcr book en- 

titled " From Matter to Spirit " } 

"The Word of God, then, is the phrase used in 
Scripture to express the outpouring efflux from our 
heavenly Father in its creating, life-giving, and inspiring 
energy, and in its redeeming and sanctifying power ; 
and the Bible is the history of the Word in all its 


degrees of action and modes of manifestation, from the 
simple processes of magnetic healing and clairvoyance 
to its full and perfect manifestation in the person of 
the Saviour, the Word made flesh." 

The prevailing doctrine is, however, that which 
„, . . , regards Christ as nothing more than a 

Chnst regarded as a ^ ° 

medium of extraordinary powcrful mcdium : and great stress is 
laid upon the verse, " He that believeth 
on ]\Ie, the works that I do he shall do also : and 
greater works than these shall he do." * The remainder 
of the sentence, " because I go unto My Father," is 
usually suppressed ; since it too strongly urges the fact 
that the works can only be done in and through Christ. 
Nor is it found expedient to quote the promise which 
follows : for in what way could the Lord more empha- 
tically proclaim Himself to be God than by the words, 
" Whatsoever ye shall ask in My name, that will I do, 
that the Father may be glorified in the Son. If ye 
shall ask anything in My name, I will do it" .-"t 

Yet the first part of this passage is most unfairly 
adduced as a proof that the miracles of Christ were no 
miracles at all, but simply the results of a natural law 
of which His mediumistic power enabled Him to avail 
Himself: and that it is, therefore, open to modern 
mediums to display similar marvels. Thus the gulf 
which separates Spiritualists from the modern phase 
of infidelity called Positivism is spanned, and there is 
no difficulty in accounting for the favour with which 
the London Dialectical Society has recently regarded 
Spiritualism. For the Positivist never objects to recog- 
nise wonders if he can be convinced that they are the 
result of natural laws. And the new religion will even 

* John xiv. 12. t John xiv. 13, 14. 


enable him to profess a belief in the miracles of Christ 
^vithout at all giving up his fundamental doctrine, that, 
" since the fathers fell asleep, all things continue as they 
were from the beginning of the creation."* 

In his " Heterodox London," Dr. Maurice Davies 
Inspirational address Tcports an inspirational address by 
of Mrs. CoraTappan. jyjj-g^ Q^^^ Tappan, a wcll-known trance- 
speaker. The subject was chosen by a committee of 
five, selected from the audience after the commence- 
ment of the meeting, and including three non-spiritualists. 
It was, " What Great Teacher has produced the most 
Potent Effect upon Society, and Wliy ?" In a speech 
of considerable power, in the course of which she threw 
much doubt upon the miraculous circumstances of our 
Lord's birth, the speaker contended that the palm was 
due to Him in preference to Buddha, Zoroaster, Confu- 
cius, Socrates, or Aristotle. 

When she had finished her oration, she offered, being 
still under the influence of the demon, to answer any 
questions put to her by the audience, and was imme- 
diately asked, " Do you regard Christ as really God, or 
merely as a human teacher ?" To which she evasively 
replied, " We were not asked for our theological views ; 
we were only requested to state what great teacher had 
had the greatest influence upon human society." 

Another person expressed his surprise that she had 
not assigned Christ's superior power to the fact that 
He was God. Upon which she made the following 
remarks. " For ourselves, we believe that all truth is 
of God, and that Christ embodied in His form as much 
of Deity as the truth He expressed ; that He was the 
Son of God, and that He represented the possible of 

• 2 Peter iii. 4. 


man, inasmuch as He promised the same gifts to others 
that He Himself possessed. But we certainly decline 
entering into any discussion on the creed of the Trini- 
tarian or Unitarian, or any form of theological contro- 
versy. Christ's words when He says, ' I and My Father 
are One,' did not mean that He was God ; if He and 
His Father were One, it merely signified that they were 
One in spirit ; and the promise given to earth's chil- 
dren, the same as to Christ, is a proof that Christ could 
not have been a greater embodiment of Deity than the 
Divine and perfect humanity He represented." 

Comment would be superfluous : for the voice of the 
Opinions of Gerald dragon Is easily detected in this answer. 

Massey and "M.A. •' 

Oxon." Smce, however, the point is important, 

we will quote the opinions of two other leaders of the 

" I do not find," says Gerald Massey, " that Christ 
claimed for Himself more than He held out as pos- 
sible for others. When He identified Himself with 
the Father, it was in the oneness of mediumship — He 
was the great Medium or Mediator." * 

And the controlling spirit of " M.A. Oxon." exhorts 
him to " discriminate between God's truth and man's 
glosses ; " and to know that the Divinity of the Lord 
Jesus is " a fiction, which He would disown, and 
which man has forced upon His name." f 

Another heresy in regard to Christ is that which 
Identification of Christ speaks of Him as the Father, ignoring 
^^^JU^.^ the other Persons of the Trinity as 
of the Trinity. revealed in Scripture. 

"Jesus, God-Messiah, Who 
Is Mediator, Father too," 

* " Concerning Spiritualism," p. 65. 
+ " Spirit Teachings," p. oo. 


says the inspirational poem A Lyric of the Martyr 
Age. And the author afterwards reveals what he terms 
the true doctrine of the Trinity, that Jesus is the Father, 
and that man and woman in the everlasting condition 
of marriage are the Son and Spirit. This poem con- 
tains many grand and beautiful passages, but the 
blasphemy of its sentiments is most offensive. On the 
page fronting its commencement are the lines ; — • 

" It bears no date of place or time, 
This poem from the Spirit-clime ; 
Nor may the outward reader claim 
To know the fountain whence it came." 

If, however, the reader believe and trust it, he may 
hereafter meet the author stripped of all disguise, and 
start back with worse affright than did the victim of 
Khorassan's veiled prophet, when at length she caught 
a glimpse of the visage she had so long desired. 

Space will permit us to mention but one other idea 
A dual nature assigned rcspccting Christ, tho rccklcss doctriue 
Hackni" '■letSH: which assigus to Him a dual nature, 
is in the secret chambers." ^nd SO forms onc of thc connccting 
links between Spiritualism and Theosophy. It is put 
forward with special emphasis by the sect of T. L. 
Harris, whose head-quarters are at San Francisco, but 
who includes some respectable English names among 
his followers. In the visions of this seer, Christ, when 
He appears to give revelations, is described as evolving 
from Himself a female form, named Yessa, which stands 
beside Him ! And among English Spiritualists revela- 
tions have been circulated announcing the speedy 
epiphany of a female Messiah, " the second Eve and 
the Mother of all living." * Indeed the dual Messiah, 

* See Appendix B. 


though at present manifested only to a favoured few, 
is supposed to have already returned to earth, as may 
be seen by the strange account which follows. 

Not long ago an " Inner Circle of the Mystery of 
the Divine Presence " was formed, in connection with 
the " Christian Spiritualist Mission," in Hackney. At 
its first^seance — October 13th, 1882 — one, calling him- 
self " the Messenger" commissioned to declare the actual 
return of Christ to our earth, read the first portion of 
" The New Revelation," which is to explain the Mystery 
of God as being the feminine element in the Deity. 
He " was listened to with enraptured attention by the 
circle, as the mystery was unfolded and shadowed forth 
in the rites, ceremonies, and visions by priest people 
.patriarch and king, of the Old Testament."* 

" On the finishing of the delivery of the Revelation, 
the Lord appeared standing at the back of the reve- 
lator, with the celestial feminine personality, one on 
each side — by their glorious presence, both to support 
their Messenger and to corroborate the Revelation. A 
long vista of innumerable angels and bright spirits, 
attendants and spectators of the scene, stretched away 
in the distance, herein fulfilling again the Scripture 
concerning the second coming. The words shone out 
in letters of light, ' Be not afraid ; for I am with you ! ' 
and the influence of the presence was shed upon all." f 

The impious daring of this and other attempts t<? 
introduce a feminine element into the Godhead, in direct 
opposition to the express terms of Scripture, will be 
exposed in the next chapter. And the reported 
appearances — for this is not a solitary instance — of the 

* Herald of Progress, October 20th, 1882. 
t Ibid., October 27th, 1882. 


Lord to a select few, in closed rooms, are also a grave 
sign of the times : for they probably furnish the clue 
to His meaning when He uttered the warning 
words ; — " Wherefore, if they shall say unto you . . . 
Behold, He is in the secret chambers ; believe it 
not." * 

Such, then, are some of the various modes by which 
r,„,, •„„, ...„:„„ the demon-teachers seek to obliterate, 

Uoctnnes concerning ' 

the Holy Spirit. or, at Icast, to disfigure, the glorious 

form of the Only Begotten Son of the Father ; nor 
are their doctrines in regard to the Holy Spirit less 
dangerous. Perhaps the most prevalent error is the 
blasphemous fable that He is the feminine element in 
the Trinity ; t but this belongs rather to Theosophy 
than Spiritualism, 

The most common doctrine of the latter creed is 
that which Owen puts forth in his " Debatable Land," 

* Matt. xxiv. 26. 

t This idea has long been working, and will presently revive 
the worship of the Babylonian Queen of Heaven, and, perchance, 
bring about an ultimate fulfilment of Rev xvii. 3-6, which we 
had little suspected. It is now some years since the well-known 
A. J. Davis gave utterance, in the fifth volume of his "Great 
Harmonia," to the following sentiments respecting Ann Lee : — 

" She unfolded a principle, an idea, which no man, not even 
Jesus, had announced, or, perhaps, even surmised. That 
principle, in brief, is this: — God is dual — 'He and She' — 
Father and Mothc}-.' Hindu teachers obtained a golden glimpse 
of this impersonal truth. Forming and destroying principles, male 
and female energies and laws, were perceived and taught by the 
early inhabitants. But not one person, from God Brahma to 
President Buchanan, has done what Ann Lee did for this 
world-revolutionising idea. She centrifugated it in a thousand 
forms of expression. It took wings in her spirit. Better than 
the Virgin Marj^'s saintly position in the ethical temple, is the 
simple annonncement that God is as much woman as man." 

They that be Christ's hav2 in truth need to pray ; — "Hallowed 
be Thy Name : Thy kingdom come." 



when he suggests that " Holy Ghost " signifies " Holy 
Breath," and affirms that our Lord meant no more 
when He spoke of the " Spirit of Truth." * 

If this be so, why, in the passage quoted by 
Mr. Owen, does our Lord emphatically continue, " He 
— eKCti/o? — shall guide you into all truth," * although 
the word for Spirit — to irvevfia — is of the neuter 
gender ? But Gerald Massey goes even further. 

" We talk of believing in the communion of the 
Holy Spirit, in a vague general way, but what com- 
munion could be holier than that betwixt the child on 
earth and the spirit of the parent gone before } What 
form more natural than that could be assumed by the 
Holy Spirit of God Himself.'' ' I will send you the 
Comforter,' said Jesus Christ, and why should not the 
promise be realized by the bereaved mother through 
the spirit of that child which she thinks lost to her, 
because she lost sight of the beloved face as it entered 
the cloud } " 

Communicating spirits, supposed to be those of the 
dead, are thus substituted for the Holy Spirit. It is 
painful to quote these teachings of demons : but multi- 
tudes, who have at present no idea of denying either the 
Son or the Spirit, are trifling with Spiritualism, and 
what can we do but sound a note of alarm } 

A very little reading will show that the majority of 
Spiritualistic writers agree with the 

Tendency of Spiritual- ,. , • ,i i , . , ,_ 

ism to set natural affec- scntimcnt lu thc last cxtract respect- 
tion^in the place of love jj^g natural affcction. They seem eyer 
to regard it as the most holy thing, 
while God occupies, at best, but the second place in 
their thoughts. Thus they completely reverse the 

* John xvi. 13. 


Scriptural order, which sets the Creator before us as 
the great Centre. For, although the Bible docs indeed 
enjoin the tendercst love to our kinsmen and friends, 
it, nevertheless, teaches that the spring of our affection 
should be the fact that God has united the loved ones 
to us, and that Christ died for them. 

But there are not wanting indications that Spiritual- 
T. . t, J ists are pressing on to a denial of the 

It seems to be gradu- -i " 

ally obscuring the very Father Himsclf, as wcU as the Son and 

idea of God. Figuier's _, . . , • • c 

explanation of con- Spirit, and to an open ascription 01 
"^'^""" everything to their demons. Is there 

not a strong tendency to this in the following remarks 
of the great naturalist Louis Figuier .? 

" In our belief conscience is the impression trans- 
mitted to us by a beloved being, snatched from us by 
death. It is a relative, a friend, who has left the earth, 
and who deigns to reveal himself to us, that he may 
guide us in our actions, trace out the path of safety for 
us, and labour for our good. Cowardly, perverse, base, 
and lying men exist, of whom we say that they have 
no conscience. They do not know how to distinguish 
good from evil ; they are entirely wanting in moral 
sense. It is because they have never loved any one, 
and their souls, base and vile, are not worthy to be 
visited by any of those superior beings, who only 
manifest themselves to men who resemble them, or who 
have loved them. A man without a conscience is, then 
one who is rendered unworthy, by the vicious essence 
of his soul, of the lofty counsels and the protection of 
those who are no more." 

So is one great witness to the presence and power of 
God in our midst taken away. Conscience is to be 
regarded, no longer as the fear of the Almighty and of 


His judgment to come, but as an impression transmitted 
to us by some dead friend ! 

Nor is this all. We are told that disembodied 
„. ^ , spirits can also sjive us advice and 

His theory of procur- ■■• "-■ 

ing aid and advice guidancc, providcd wc " kccp up the 
cultus of their memory " ; and to them 
we are directed to look in every perplexity. In support 
of this doctrine, Figuier, in his " Day after Death," 
adduces the following cases, for the authenticity of which 
he vouches. 

" Dr. V — , a professed materialist, one who, according 
to the popular phrase, believes in nothing, believes, 
nevertheless, in his mother. He lost her early, and has 
never ceased to feel her presence. He told us that he 
is more frequently with his mother, now that she is 
dead, than he used to be when she was living. This 
professed apostle of medical materialism has, without 
being aware of it, conversations with an emancipated 

" A celebrated journalist, M. R — , lost a son, twenty 
years of age, a charming gentle youth, a writer, and a 
poet. Every day M. R — has an intimate conversation 
with his son. A quarter of an hour of solitary recol- 
lection admits him to direct communication with the 
beloved being snatched away from his love. 

" M. L — , a barrister, maintains constant relations with 
a sister who, when living, possessed, according to him, 
every human perfection, and who never fails to guide 
her brother in every difficulty of his life, great or small. 

" Another consideration suggests itself in support of 
the idea which occupies us at present. It has been 
remarked that artists, writers, and thinkers, after the 
loss of one beloved, have found their faculties, talents, 



and inspirations, increased. We might surmise that 
the intellectual faculties of those whom they have 
loved have been added to their own. I know a 
financier who is remarkable for his business capacities. 
When he finds himself in a difficulty, he stops, without 
troubling himself to seek for its solution. He waits, 
knowing that the missing idea will come to him spon- 
taneously, and, sometimes after days, sometimes after 
hours, the idea comes, just as he has expected. This 
happy and successful man has experienced one of the 
deepest sorrows the heart can know ; he has lost an 
only son, aged eighteen years, and endowed with all 
the qualities of maturity, combined with the graces of 
youth. Our readers may draw the conclusion for 

Can these instances be described as anything but 
that seeking to the dead which the Lord hates ? And 
if blessings are thus obtained from the spirits of lost 
friends, to what purpose do we worship God ? Among 
those who believe in it, will not the cultus of the dead 
speedily absorb every other kind of devotion } 

But in Mr. Wallace's essay on modern Spiritualism 
we find a statement yet more startling, 

Mr. Wallace's expla- . ., ^ • i , i , ^ 

nation of the efficacy of sincc it secms to imply that even those 
*^raycr7* ^^"""^ prayers which are presented to the Most 
High in the name of the Lord Jesus 
depend, sometimes at least, for their answer upon the 
good will of the spirits of the air. 

" Prayer may be often answered, though not directly 
by the Deity. Nor docs the answer depend wholly on 
the morality or the religion of the petitioner ; but as 
men, who are both moral and religious, and are firm 
believers in a Divine response to prayer, will pray 


more frequently, more earnestly, and more disinterest- 
edly, they will attract towards them a number of 
spiritual beings who sympathise with them, and who, 
when the necessary mediumistic power is present, will 
be able, as they are often willing, to answer the prayer. 
A striking case is that of Mr. George Miiller of Bristol, 
who has now for forty years depended wholly for his 
own support and that of his wonderful charities on 
answers to prayer. . . . The Spiritualist explains all 
this as a personal influence. The perfect simplicity, 
faith, boundless charity, and goodness, of George 
Miiller, have enlisted in his cause beings of a like 
nature ; and his mediumistic powers have enabled them 
to work for him by influencing others to send him 
money, food, clothes, etc., all arriving, as we should say, 
just in the ' nick of time.' " 

" It is not necessary," says an inspirational book, 
" for a man to pray before he can be helped, but it is 
advisable ; because, although his spirit friends can read 
his thoughts and understand his wants, he loses the aid 
of many others who cannot read his thoughts, but who 
would be attracted to him by his prayers, and would 
help him if they knew he wanted help. Prayer is, 
therefore, something like advertising your wants in the 
newspapers." * 

Those who can receive teachings such as we have 
Open denial of the quotcd must soon lose thc last remnant 
existence of God. q{ their vague belief in God. And, 
indeed, a Spiritualistic writer in the Westminster 
Review t does not hesitate to express himself as 
follows ; — 

* " Life Beyond the Grave," pp. 140-1, 
t October 1875. 


" Furthermore, the conception of the Reign of Law 
harmonises with the mental fabric of the age, whereas 
that which it supplants does not. We have ceased to 
embod}' the conception of the State in a person, and it 
is time that we should cease similarly to embody the 
conception of the universe. Loyalty to a personal 
ruler is an anachronism in the nineteenth century, but the 
sentiment which inspired it may find ample satisfaction 
in disinterested devotion to the welfare of the community. 

" In like manner loyalty to a Divine Person will some 
day become extinct as a manifestation of the feeling 
which ought to sway us in our relations to that whole 
whereof we form so insignificant a part, but its place 
will be taken by a conscious and cheerful accordance 
with the laws which make for the well-being of the 
universe. We shall transfer to the commonwealth of 
things that loving allegiance which we were wont to 
render to the Great King." 

"This is the Antichrist," says John, "who denieth 
the Father and the Son." And certainly Spiritualism 
seems to be training men for the teachings of that 
terrible being. 

We must now devote a few moments to the general 
Demon-teachings are subjcct of spirit-communications. A 

defiant of God in their g^^ j. ^f ^y^ |^j^ absolutC 

descriptions of the state •=> t 

after death. nonscnsc or such common-placcs as we 

may easily hear in our own world. When, however, 
they affect to be didactic, they often propound views 
bearing a striking resemblance to certain rationalistic 
theories, but are also frequently descriptive of the 
spirit-land, and of the state after death. 

And here again we detect the utterance of rebels : 
for God has altogether withheld this kind of know- 


ledge. The Bible never enters into particulars of the 
intermediate state : it does not, like the Koran, group 
together all that is pleasing to the gross earthly senses, 
and hold up the picture as the prize for him that over- 
comcth : it does not unfold the nature of that which is 
provided for us between death and resurrection : nay, 
it even seems, as we shall presently show, to give a 
conclusive reason for its reserve. It merely tells us 
that we shall have rest, comfort, and the presence of 
Him whom our soul loves : it only reveals that on the 
very day of death we shall find ourselves in Paradise, 
the beautiful garden of the Lord, and then its direct 
information ceases. 

But, though it never enters into details, it describes 
The lessons to be de- to US thc cffcct produced upon the only 
£:?frp.t?!r^th: man-so far as we know-who has 
Paradise of God. bccu permitted to view the condition of 

the dead in Christ and return in full consciousness to 
earth ; while at the same time it gives us a partial 
reason, at least, for the absence of further revelation. 
For those who were raised from the dead by our Lord 
and His apostles have nothing to tell us : and, since 
God intended from the first that they should live again 
in the bodies which they had left, it may be that their 
spirits were held in a state of unconsciousness. Or, if 
they did for a while tarry in the abode of the departed, 
impenetrable forgetfulness fell upon them when they 
returned to this life, and the great secret was still 

But Paul knew something of it : for he was caught 
up alive into the Third Heaven, and into Paradise.* 
Yet instead of satisfying our curiosity, he tells us that 

• 2 Cor. xii. 1-7 


it would be impossible to do so, for that he heard un- 
speakable words which it is not lawful for a num to 
utter. We are thus positively forbidden to pry into the 
matter : but we are at least permitted to infer that 
what Paul saw was transcendently beautiful, full of such 
ravishing joy as we cannot now conceive. For, when 
he returned to earth, he was so elated by what he had 
experienced, so thoroughly unstrung for this lower life 
by his short taste of that which is to come, that he 
would have been incapacitated for further service in 
this world had not God brought him down to his 
former level by a painful affliction, a thorn in the flesh, 
a messenger of Satan sent to buffet him. It was, 
therefore, no Purgatory which Paul saw — he would not 
have needed a thorn in the flesh to keep him from 
elation after such a sight as that — but a Paradise of 
beauty and joy far beyond the comprehension of man. 

Two reasons for the mention of this vision seem 
obvious. And first ; from Paul's experience we may 
at least feel sure that we should even now, while still 
in the flesh, heartily appreciate what God has in store 
for us could we but see and understand it. 

Secondly ; we may learn why we must be satisfied 
with generalities for the present. A full knowledge of 
the bliss which will soon be ours would so occupy our 
mind, and unfit us for our daily duties, that God would 
be compelled to visit us with far more heavy and pain- 
ful affliction than is necessary now. In mercy, then, 
this knowledge is withheld from us. And into which 
of the great Father's arrangements can we ever pene- 
trate far without discovering that He is love } 

But those communications which God has denied, 
and through Paul pronounced unlawful, demons are 


ever willing to impart. And hence, if we look upon 
the Bible as a revelation of the mind of the Almighty, 
we have another proof that the wisdom of Spiritualists 
is not that which comes down from above. 

The forbidden teachings are usually given by demons 
^ . , , professing to be spirits of the departed 

bpecimens of demon- •■ --^ ^ >■ 

teachings in regard to who are commissioncd to describe 

the state after death. ,, . . . .1 • r • 1 "-r^i 

their experiences to their friends. 1 hey 
often commence by giving an account of their own 
death and their feelings immediately after dissolution : 
but the bliss they enjoy seems to be invariably ascribed, 
not to the atoning sacrifice of Christ, but to their own 
works and virtues. In " Glimpses of a Brighter Land," 
an inspirational book, a spirit gives the following as the 
words addressed to her by an angel after her eman- 
cipation from the body ; — 

" The threads that connected you with the frail clay 
were easily severed. God hath ever dwelt in your 
mind ; sincerely did you seek to do His will and 
pleasure while yet on earth ; tenderly did you give 
a cup of cold water to the thirsty, and bind up the 
wounds of the sick ; gladly did you pour balm and oil 
into troubled minds, and now will you reap your re- 
ward. Happiness is in store for you far greater than 
any of which you have ever conceived. Pure as a lily, 
such shall be your spirit-name. Pearls are the fit 
emblem of your spirit-mind." 

The descriptions of the realm of air consist of fairy 
landscapes, rich foliage, gorgeous temples, and stately 
private mansions ; they are such, indeed, as might be 
ascribed to the shade of De Quincey, or that of the 
author of the " Arabian Nights." The forms of the in- 
habitants float about, clad in loose robes of the purest 


white or the most brilliant colours, with girdles of gems 
and crowns of glory ; and conversations are often given 
in which the spirits of the great dead* are sometimes 
prominent. The following, from " Glimpses of a Brighter 
Land," may serve as a specimen of the scenes pre- 

" Here I found other companions, who kindly wel- 
comed me to a more beautiful mansion and garden. 
The flowers were more brilliant, their perfume more 
delicious, and the trees and shrubs more luxuriant. 
The mansion in which I now dwelt was spacious, and I 
could entertain and receive my friends therein. We 
often met together, and endeavoured in sweet converse 
to instruct one another by imparting all the knowledge 
we had each separately attained. Sometimes one of 
our guardian angels would invite us to a feast of wis- 
dom. We then met in a spacious temple, the walls of 
which were of crystal, pure and transparent, emblematic 
of the purity of heavenly wisdom and truth, the dome 
was of pure gold, and the pillars that supported it. 
The pavement was white with a pattern in crimson 
upon it. Our seats were around the building. In the 
centre was a slightly raised platform, on which our 
instructors stood when they imparted knowledge to us. 
Ever and anon, while they spoke, light played above 
and around them. Roseate clouds filled the edifice, 
and from time to time words of divine love and was- 
dom would appear, as if written in letters of fire, 
around the building." 

A well-known pamphlet, called " Heaven Opcned,"con- 

■* It is, however, admitted that the lower grades of spirits fre- 
quently assume the names of illustrious men for the purpose of 
adding weight to their own communications. 


sists of a series of messages alleged to have come from 
the spirits of young members of the author's family, 
including some who had died in infancy. These 
describe their new existence, and the children's sphere 
in spirit-land. One of them, a girl of sixteen, found 
herself immediately after death on a " couch of flowery 
essence," and " the most beautiful horse, with a bright 
shining star over his eyes," presented himself to carry 
her through the surrounding gardens. The little spirits 
sit on the flowers: "the big clever spirits" form all 
sorts of couches and carriages of the flowers, and carry 
the little ones about in them. Lastly ; when the air 
moves the flowers sing, while the little birds take the 
prayers of the spirits upon their wings. An aunt is 
described as having several mansions, one in the City 
of Zion, another a beautiful retreat in the country, and 
so on. 

The demons who personate these children also urge 
that they are constantly present wath their friends in the 
flesh, and are their natural advisers and protectors. 
The influence which results is of course enormous : nor 
will those who have established it fail to take full ad- 
vantage of their power. 

But such puerilities are by no means the most serious 

spirituaiisn, teaches ©^ dcmon-dcccptions. For, the Bible 

that, even if men neglect doctrinc that now is thc acccptcd time, 

their salvation in this 

life, they may, never- and thc Only day of salvatiorT; is entirely 

theless, repair the mis- . • ^ i . , r i 

chief in the life to come, set asidc by thcsc falsc messengers. 
The seven spheres. Qur Lord's waming that even in the 
intermediate state the destiny of man is fixed, and that 
he is either in the Paradise of God awaiting the resur- 
rection of the just, or in the prisons of the lost dreading 
the judgment of the Great White Throne, is altogether 


rejected. The demons remove this terror of the Lord, 
which has been the beginning of wisdom to so many, 
and substitute the old Babylonian doctrine of the seven 
spheres. But since we prefer that Spiritualists should 
expound their own creed, we subjoin Miss Houghton's 
statement on this point. 

" The spirits dwell in various regions. The unhappy 
spirits in places of darkness and misery beyond the 
power of man's imagination to conceive. There they 
remain, until repentance for sin begins to awaken ; they 
then desire light, which is immediately vouchsafed to 
them, and the blackness with which they are surrounded 
becomes rather less dense. Spirits of a higher grade 
may then be listened to when they strive by teaching 
to strengthen the repentant feelings ; but alas ! their 
companions in misery are often unwilling to witness an 
improvement in which they are not inclined to share, 
and endeavour to detain them from an upward progress. 
Many are the trials to which they must be subjected as 
they rise through the different degrees into the next 
sphere, there being seven spheres, and seven degrees in 
each. . . . Those spirits who still remain in the lower 
spheres have but little power of locomotion, but in the 
higher ones they can travel through infinite space, the 
limits being only according to their own onward progress; 
for as they become more etherealized by their own ever 
increasing sense of happiness in their advance through 
the various degrees of the different spheres, they can 
rise to more rarefied regions, so as ever to be approach- 
ing nearer to the perfect light of heaven itself. A 
radiancy surrounds each spirit, of more or less brilliancy, 
according to the sphere they have reached. This 
radiance is of certain hues for each sphere, gradually 


increasing in size, and altering somewhat in form for 
each degree. Spirits in the two lower spheres have no 
radiance, the only difference being in rather less of 
blackness. In the third and fourth it may scarcely be 
called such, but it is, at any rate, a kind of light : thus 
in the third it is brown, gradually becoming lighter, and 
in the fourth it is grey. In the fifth the green hue of 
hope is seen, in the sixth violet ; and in the entrance 
to the seventh a bright blue light, gradually acquiring 
vivid rainbow tints, which then fade off to a light so 
vivid that scarcely any colour is to be seen, all being so 
gloriously mingled." 

In many communications spirits representing them- 
selves as denizens of the higher spheres narrate their 
descents into the lower to awaken and help the 
irrepentant. The Gospel which they preach is not, 
however, that of the Lord Jesus ; but, so far as we have 
read, consists merely of admonitions to the sinful to 
repent, to look to God, in which case they will be drawn 
upwards to Him, and to do what they can for those 
around them. We have never met with a single 
reported instance of a spirit entering the lower spheres 
with the glad tidings, " Believe on the Lord Jesus Christ, 
and thou shalt be saved." 

On the contrary, among Spiritualists, as with Theo- 
utterance of the fa- sophists and Buddhists, sin can be 
miiiarof'M.A. Oxon." expiated Only by personal suffering; 
and this dogma is often enforced with a fierceness 
such as might be expected from the reckless envy and 
anger of those fallen beings whose nature the Lord did 
not take upon Himself, and whose testimony He would 
not receive. " Sin," shrieks the familiar of " M.A. 
Oxon," " is remediable by repentance and atonement 


and reparation personally wrought out in pain and shame, 
not by coward cries for mercy, and by feigned assent 
to statements which ought to create a shudder."* 

We give thanks to the God of all comfort that He 
does not contemn cries for mercy, nor despise the sigh- 
ing of a broken and a contrite heart. And as we listen 
to Imperator's t frank avowal that the Messengers, or 
Messiahs, whom he recommends would not spare the 
sinner, but " let the lash be laid on,"| we arc moved 
with unspeakable gratitude to Him Who took upon 
Himself the chastisement which should bring us peace, 
and endured cruel stripes that we might be healed. 

As to " feigned assent," it is a very old trick of lying 
rhetoric to set up an image of its own fashioning, in 
order to produce an effect by striking it down. But 
our Scriptures never' promise salvation to him who 
feigns to believe in Christ. On the contrary, they 
declare that the hope of the hypocrite shall perish ; and 

♦ " Spirit Teachings," p. 78. We add two other specimens of 
this kind of doctrine. In a weird Occultist narrative, called 
" Ghost Land " (p. 43), the " flying soul " of a murderer is inter- 
rogated, and relates the following ; — " There, too, I saw the still 
living and radiantly glorious soul of my old pastor, Michael H. 
Sternly, but sorrowfully, he told me I had committed a great and 
irreparable crime ; that all crime was unpardonable, and could 
only be wiped out by personal, and not by vicarious atonement, 
as he had falsely taught whilst on earth ; that my only means 
of atonement was suffering, and that in kind, or in connection 
with my dreadful crime." 

And Mrs. Hardinge Britten, in her " Nineteenth Century Mira- 
cles," quotes a strange story involving the same doctrine, the 
narrator of which exclaims ; — " Great Heavens ! If this be indeed 
a true picture of the life hereafter, should it not make us afraid of 
doing wrong ! But, above all, what a wicked and soul-destroying 
delusion has been the clerical farce of salvation by a vicarious 
atonement ! " 

t The name assumed by the communicating demon. 

\ " Spirit Teachings," p. 159. 


are careful to point out that, although wc are indeed 
saved through faith alone, yet that faith cannot be 
existing in us unless it presently discovers itself in 

In place, however, of the Gospel, we find foolish 

Tendency of Spirit- storics of the appcarancc to the repent- 

uaiism to amalgamate ^nt of Hghts which gradually take the 

with Poperj- and absorb . 

all other false religions sliapc of crosscs '. and lustructing angcls 
and philosophies. aresomctimes introduced with flaming 

crosses in their hands. In the pamphlet " Heaven Opened," 
referred to above, some of the communications are 
interspersed with crosses, upon which the writer thus 
remarks : — " I have been told by my spirit-guides that 
the crosses as given in the messages are a sign of the 
truth of the message and the holiness of the spirit. 
An evil spirit cannot give the sign of the cross." Truly 
this last sentence contains a wonderful piece of infor- 
mation, but one which it is difficult to reconcile with 
the world's history. 

We have, however, in the use of the emblem of the 
cross an indication — and there are many such — of a 
tendency in the new faith to coalesce with Romanism. 
Doubtless, too, the reader will have observed that the 
doctrine of the seven spheres is all but identical with 
that of Purgatory. And since Spiritualism is merely a 
revival of the influence which first produced Paganism, 
while Poper>' is nothing but Paganism under a changed 
name, and covered with a gauzy veil of Christianity, it 
seems likely that these two systems will presently find 
no serious obstacle to their amalgamation. 

The striking agreement of Spiritualism with the 
method of Positivism we have already noticed : nor is 
there much difficulty in discerning its points of affinity 


with Other creeds, and especially with Buddhism. In 
fine, it appears to be preparing the way for that univer- 
sal reHgion which has already been suggested in some 
of our papers and periodicals. That this is the design 
of its members we may see from Mr. Herbert Noyes' 
enumeration of the missions of Spiritualism, the seven- 
teenth of which he declares to be ; — "To winnow the 
wheat of truth from the chaff of theology, and reconcile 
antagonistic creeds by eliminating their errors, and 
making manifest the spiritual truths which underlie all 
systems of religious belief in the world." 

A remarkable passage in Mr. Wallace's essay aptly 

Specimen of the me- iHustratcs thc dcstructlvc power which 

thod by which Spiritual- Spiritualism is already exercising upon 

ism is undermming all o i 

that opposes it in other Other crecds, and the method by which 
it seems to be reducing the various 
religions to that dead level which must be effected 
before the great apostacy can tower without a rival 
over Christendom and the world. 

" The mediums have, almost all, been brought up in 
some of the usual orthodox beliefs. How is it, then, 
that the usual orthodox notions of heaven are never 
confirmed through them ? In the scores of volumes 
and pamphlets of spiritual literature I have read, I have 
found no statement of a spirit describing ' winged 
angels,' or ' golden harps,' or ' the throne of God ' — 
to which the humblest orthodox Christian thinks he will 
be introduced if he goes to heaven at all. There is no 
more startling and radical opposition to be found be- 
tween the most diverse religious creeds, than that between 
the beliefs in which the majority of mediums have been 
brought up and the doctrines as to a future life that are 
delivered through them ; there is nothing more mar- 



vellous in the history of the human mind than the fact 
that, whether in the backwoods of America or in 
country towns in England, ignorant men and women 
having been almost all brought up in the usual secta- 
rian notions of heaven and hell, should, the moment 
they become seized by the strange power of medium- 
ship, give forth teachings on this subject which are 
philosophical rather than religious, and which differ 
wholly from what had been so deeply ingrained into 
their minds. And this statement is not affected by the 
fact that communications purport to come from Catholic 
or Protestant, Mahometan or Hindu spirits. Because, 
while such communications maintain special dogmas 
and doctrines, yet they confirm the very facts which 
really constitute the spiritual theory, and which in 
themselves contradict the theory of the sectarian spirits. 
The Roman Catholic spirit, for instance, does not de- 
scribe himself as being in either the orthodox purga- 
tory^, heaven, or hell ; the Evangelical Dissenter who 
died in the firm conviction that he should certainly "go 
to Jesus " never describes himself as being with Christ, 
or as ever having seen Him, and so on throughout. 
Nothing is more common than for religious people at 
seances to ask questions about God and Christ. In 
reply they never get more than opinions, or more fre- 
quently the statement that they, the spirits, have no 
more actual knowledge of these subjects than they had 
while on earth." 

The general tendency of this paragraph is manifest. 
In regard to particulars, we may remark that a change 
in the opinions of those who have just been possessed 
by demons is by no means marvellous : the alleged 
cause is quite sufficient to explain the effect. And 


seeing that mediums are influenced by organised spirit- 
bands from the kingdom of Satan — in which, though 
love be wanting, there is no lack of unity — we should 
reasonably expect the teachings of all to point in the 
same direction. 

The fact that demons present themselves as Pro- 
testants, Papists, Mahometans, Hindus, and so on, 
merely proves that the order of Jesuits is not the only 
society which finds advantage in professing the creed of 
others for the purpose of propagating its own. That 
none of the communicating spirits speak of being near 
the Throne of God seems anything but strange to us ; 
in regard to Christ, however, the rule laid down by 
Mr. Wallace has very many exceptions. In " Pleaven 
Opened," for instance, there is a description of Christ, 
and He is represented as nursing the infant spirits ! 

Lastly ; if demons can only give opinions, or are 
compelled to confess that they know no more than we 
do, of what use is it to waste time in consulting them } 
And if it be urged that they have information upon 
other points, and are only deficient in that which con- 
cerns God and His redemption of mankind, we reply 
that we more than suspect those who would substitute 
vain philosophies for the positive assertions of Scripture, 
and for the glorious and free salvation purchased by the 
blood of Christ. 

We must now bring our remarks on the general sub- 
conciusion of general ject of demou-tcaching to a close. So 
remarks on Spiritualism, f^r as they go, we believc that the 
quotations given above form a fair statement of the 
doctrinal development of Spiritualism. Of course want 
of space compels us to omit many other points which 
demonstrate its extreme antagonism to Scripture : 


but surely what has been said is sufficient to set the 
most unwary Christian on his guard, to show that the 
great falling away may have commenced, that the de- 
ceiving spirits are, perhaps, already engaged in their 
final mission of delusion. 

But two prominent features of the last apostacy were 

The two specially men- to be a forbiddiug to marry, and a 

tioned doctrines of the ^Qj^j^^j^(jjj^ ^.Q abstaiu from meats, 

apostacy. A prohibition o 

of certain kinds of food, that is, from Certain kinds of food — 
what kinds we are not told. 

Now the latter of these prohibitions, if we take it as 
applying to flesh, is well known to have been recognised 
in every age as an indispensable condition of great 
mediumistic power : it must, therefore, naturally become 
a law among those who would hav^e much direct com- 
munication with demons. Indeed, it is not impossible 
that the permission to eat flesh, given as it was imme- 
diately after the angel-transgression, may have been 
intended to render man less capable of conscious and 
intelligent intercourse with supernatural beings, and, 
consequently, less exposed to their wiles. And if so, 
the desire on the part of the demons to withdraw it is 
easily understood.* 

However, be the cause what it may, this predicted 
sign of the final apostacy is certainly manifesting itself 
among Spiritualists ; while, as we shall see in the next 
chapter, it forms a fundamental law of Theosophy. 

* Thefollowingpassa^efrom"Oahspe, the New Bible," seems to 
confirm this view ; — "Verily, I say unto you : ye have not fulfilled 
the first law, which is to make clean your ON\'n corporeal bodies. 
Because ye have stuffed yourselves with carnal food, my holy 
angels cannot approach 3'ou" {Book of Judgmei2t,yMm.. iiV The 
context shows that we are to understand " carnal food,' in its 
literal sense, of flesh. 


On the very first page of " Oahspe, the New Bible," we 
read the following ; — 

" But the Beast said : Think not I am come to send 
peace on the earth ; I come not to send peace, but 
a sword. I come to set man at variance against 
his father ; and a daughter against her mother. What- 
soever thou findest to eat, be it fish or flesh, eat thou 
thereof, taking no thought of to-morrow, 

" And man ate fish and flesh, becoming carnivorous, 
and darkness came upon him, and he no more heard 
the voice of Jehovah, or believed in Him, This was 
the fifth era." 

There is little need to remark upon this profane pas- 
sage. The reader will notice the distortion of two of 
our Lord's sayings, the origin assigned to them, and the 
way in which they are used to throw discredit upon the 
Noachian Covenant, 

A few pages further on, we are told that the spirit of 
man takes its place in the first heaven "according to 
his diet and desires and behaviour,"* And in the Book 
of Judgment the following verses occur ; — " All men 
profess to desire resurrection ; they like to ascend to 
exalted heavenly spheres. Yet many will not even 
strive to exalt themselves. He saith in one breath : 
To not eat the flesh of anything created alive is the 
highest. But straightway he filleth his belly with 


During the last few years, however, a second reason 
for abstinence from flesh has been rising into promi- 
nence. Theories at first confined to physical evolution 
have been applied to the soul with the result that 
transmigration has become a common doctrine among 

• " Oahspe," p. /. f " Oahspe," p. 784. 


the more intellectual Spiritualists. Thus the great 
barrier between Buddhism and Western ideas is swept 
away, and a horror induced of any food that involves a 
sacrifice of life. For what man would devour the body 
of an existence destined, perhaps, ere long to be his 
own child ? Or who would violently strip the spirit 
of a peccant and retrogressive ancestor ? 

But this doctrine belongs rather to Thcosophy : we 
Figuier's theory of will, therefore, postpone its considera- 
Transmigration. ^j^^^^ merely subjoiuing a passage from 

Figuier's " Day after Death," which the reader may com- 
pare with the more elaborate Occultist theory to be pre- 
sently described. 

" Let us think of the emanations from souls dwell- 
ing in the sun descending upon the earth in solar rays. 
Light gives existence to plants, and produces vegetable 
life, accompanied by sensibility. Plants, having re- 
ceived this sensible germ from the sun, communicate it, 
aided by heat likewise emanating from the sun, to 
animals. Let us think of the germs of souls, placed 
in the breasts of animals, developing themselves, be- 
coming perfected by degrees, from one animal to 
another, and finishing by becoming incaVnate in a 
human body. Let us think, then, of the superhuman 
being succeeding to man, springing up into the vast 
plains of ether, and beginning the series of numerous 
transmigrations which, from one step to another, will 
lead him to the summit of the scale of spiritual per- 
fection, from which every material substance has been 
eliminated, and where the soul, thus exalted to the 
purest degree of its essence, penetrates into the supreme 
abode of happiness, and of intellectual and moral 
power — the sun. 


" Such may be this endless circle, such this unbroken 
chain, binding together all beings in nature, and passing 
from the visible to the invisible world." 

The second specially predicted doctrine of spirit- 

The second specially teaching, E forbidding to marry, has 

predicted doctrine of the bgen gfaining Strength for some years, 

apostacy. Direct pro- o o ^o 

hibition of marriage. and is propagated in two ways, both of 
which, as we shall presently see, lead to the same goal, 
a repetition of the Antediluvian crime. 

The first way is that of direct prohibition. Conti- 
nence is often taught among Spiritualists ; and in some 
of their sects, such as the " Brotherhood of the New 
Life," and the " Millennial Church," it seems to be 
regarded as, at least, an ultimately indispensable condi- 
tion of membership. So in the " New Bible " celibacy is 
significantly set forth as the higher condition ; while 
among Theosophists it is affirmed to be absolutely 
necessary to perfection, and, therefore, a state to which 
all must attain either in the present or in some future 
earth-life. For, urges Dr. Wild, if woman as a form be 
worshipped in the place of spirit, the essential, this leads 
to the idolatry of matter. And " thus the love towards 
the woman is the substitution of external for internal 
delights, and calls forth the jealousy of the ' Divine 
Sophia,' with whom those who, with profound reverence, 
worship God as a Spirit, and thus evoke their spiritual 
centre and find the Logos, are united. These know 
that there is a spiritual marriage incompatible with that 
of the flesh."* 

The last sentence soems to afford a clue to the mean- 
ing of this continence : those who practise it are 
reserving themselves for aerial visitants. " I do not 

• " Theosophy and the Higher Life," pp. 8, 9. 


believe," says T. L. Harris, " that sexlcssness charac- 
terizes man in his higher and final evolution." Upon 
such a subject we would, of course, wish to say and 
quote as little as possible, but must, at least, summarize 
so much a5. \s necessary to be known. 

Following the teachings of Jacob Bohme — whose 
The doctrine of the doctrincs appear to have been, partly at 
Two-in-one. Icast, derived from those of the ancient 

Mysteries — many Spiritualists have been wont to dis- 
tinguish, as different events, the creation of man 
mentioned in the first chapter of Genesis, and that which 
is described in the second. In the former, they under- 
stand the words, " In the image of God created He him ; 
male and female created He them," to signify that man 
was originally an Hermaphrodite, " two-in-one, the 
female issuing out of the side of the male, and the male 
issuing out of the side of the female ; each at will 
making himself or herself objective." 

The fall is supposed to have caused a separation of 
these two principles ; so that marriage became necessary 
as a temporary alleviation of the separate condition. 
But the time has now come for a restoration of the 
original perfection, and " there must be a cessation of 
the old generative principle altogether, before there can 
be a regeneration after the order and pattern of the 
kingdom of God. We must gather up the spilled drops 
of the sea of life, from whence all humanity have had 
their existence, and conserve the life for higher forma- 
tions, as shall please Him, Who has the forming power 
in His own hands, to construct a people for Himself, 
who shall neither sin nor die.* 

* Similarly T. L. Harris writes ; — "We think that generations 
must cease till the sons and daughters of God are prepared for 


" That can only be accomplished by the involution 
of a spiritual nature from the Lord, Himself assuming 
humanity, here and now, among a select few, who 
welcome Him in their whole frame, body and soul con- 
secrated to Him, that He may form within them the 
' missing link,' which is their counterpartial life brought 
back to them, that they may be recreated in His image, 
two-in-one, as at first : not only in a transitory form — as 
it is seen in mediums of the present day, who can have 
during their trance-sleep many spirits coming out of 
them, or through them, as the door of exit, and this 
only for a short time — but when each one who has 
been recreated, regenerated, shall receive his counter- 
part, to be with him and in him, as the control is in a 
medium, and is able at times to make itself objective, 
or, in other words, materialize itself, so that others may 
see it and converse with it."* 

The reader who has perused our ninth chapter will 
easily understand the drift of this teaching respecting 
" the glorious marriage of earth and sky." For while 
it seems probable that only demons, and not angels of 
Satan, will carry out the theory of the Two-in-one, yet 

the higher generation, by evolution into structural and bi-sexual 
completeness, above the plane of sin, of disease, or of natural 

' ' The doctrine of the Divine-human Two-in-one, in whose spiritual 
and physical likeness we seek to be re-born, is the pivot of our faith, 
and the directive force of our life. The ages wait for the Mani- 
festation of the sons of God. Thus we are adventists, not in a 
sectarian sense, but in the sense of a Divine involution, and 
thence of a new degree inhuman evolution" ("Sermons," by T. L. 
Harris, p. xiii.). Mr. Harris does not profess to discover his doc- 
trine in Scripture. " If," says he, " we find one vein of know- 
ledge, or possibly correct surmise, in Swedenborg, we find other 
veins in Spinoza, or Bohme, or Comte." 

• For this exposition, "from the pen of a clergyman," I am 
indebted to Mrs. McHardie's " Midnight Cry." 


the object will be to prepare the world for the final 
crime. The fallen angels themselves will not be likely 
to take up their abode in human bodies, nor, so far as 
we know, .vill their intercourse go beyond the daughters 
of men. But when — by means of the power which 
they still retain, though only for a short time — they 
present themselves in apparently celestial glory, previous 
teachings and events will cause those who are abandoned 
of God to receive them as angels of light, or even — so 
the quotation just cited seems to suggest — as the Lord 

" This New Dispensation, or Fourth Generation," says 
The realization of the Countess of Caithness, " is now 
!o\Ive°''r^'dy^col- dcclarcd open to all who are ready to 
nienced. enter into the joy of their Lord." So 

that she is " expecting a manifestation both of the Sons 
and of the Daughters of God in whom the new life has 
already commenced, in whom the Divine Word has 
already become flesh." Could blasphemy go further ; 
and if such sentiments are being openly disseminated, 
can we wonder at the terrific prophecies of the Apoca- 
lypse which are now awaiting their fulfilment ! 

According to the same lady, the year 1881 was the 
last of the old state of things, and 1882 commenced a 
new cycle, or the Spiritual Dispensation. In that case, 
then, the predictions, coming from so many quarters, 
that the age would end w^th the year 1881, were, after 
all, inspired ; not indeed by the Spirit of God, but, like 
the oracles of old, by demons. And, if we are to 
believe the Countess and other Spiritualists, they were 
by no means falsified ; so that now it is open, to those 
who are ready, to unite themselves with beings from 
another sphere. 


From what has been already said, it will be evident 

Discussion of a text that the doctrine of the Two-in-one is 

quoted in the spurious ^ot ncw \ indeed traces of it may be 

Clementine Epistle, i • t->i i • 

which contains the doc- discovcred m Plato and m many other 

trine of the Two-in-one. .. wt •^\ • ^ • j. i 

writers. \v e will cite one instance only, 
a famous text quoted in the so-called Second Epistle of 
the Roman Clement, which maybe rendered as follows. 

" For the Lord Himself being asked by a certain 
person, when His kingdom should come, replied ; — 
When the two shall be one, and that which is without 
as that which is within, and the male with the female, 
neither male nor female." 

We have but to mention that " the without " is used 
for the man and " the within " for the woman, and the 
reader will at once perceive that every word in this 
passage refers to the doctrine which we are considering. 
Its meaning is, that, as soon as the human race recovers 
its alleged original condition, and its individual mem- 
bers receive their counterpartial lives from " heaven," 
the kingdom of Christ will have come. And it is easy 
to see how this text may be shortly used to glorify the 
kingdom of Antichrist. 

For Spiritualists would have us accept it as Scripture ; 
but its origin is scarcely satisfactory. Clement of 
Alexandria, who also quotes it in an extract from 
Julius Cassianus, the Docetic leader, informs us that the 
person who asked the question was Salome, and that 
" we do not find the saying in the four Gospels which 
have been handed down to us, but in the Gospel of the 
Egyptians."* Now the latter was a Gnostic and not a 
Christian work, and the particular sect which held it in 
the greatest esteem was that of the Encratites. Con- 

* Clem. Alex. Strom, iii. 13. 


cerning these, we learn from Hippolytus that they were 
very vainglorious, thinking themselves better than other 
men, because they never ate the flesh of anything that 
had lived, drank nothing but water, and abjured mar- 
riage. And the bishop promptly confutes their teachings 
by citing the prophecy in the First Epistle to Timothy.* 

The doctrine, then, which was pleasing to the Encra- 
tites may reasonably be so to their modern imitators ; 
but neither by its apparent origin and its supporters, 
nor by its tendency, does it commend itself to Chris- 

Now Plato, the Gnostic leaders, and the Theurgic 

Was the realization Nco-Platonists, were — like the majority 

of the Two-in-one the ^f educated men in their centuries — 

great secret of the 

Mysteries? initiates of the Mysteries. Since, 

then, they all seem to have been acquainted with 
the theory of the Two-in-one, is it not possible that the 
attainment of that state may have been the consumma- 
tion of the Mysteries } The account of them given in 
the next chapter will be found to agree well with such 
a conclusion ; and the book quoted there, "The Perfect 
Way," contains a sketch of a bas-relief in the Temple of 
the South, in the isle of Elephantine on the Nile, which 
adds a little further confirmation. The subject of this 
ancient work of art is an initiation scene : the candi- 
date stands holding a cross,]- with the initiating priestess 

* Hifipol. Refut. Omn. Haer. viii. 13. 

t " The vertical line being the male principle, and the horizon- 
tal the female, out of the union of the two at the intersection 
point is formed the cross — the oldest symbol is the Egyptian 
history of gods. It is the key of heaven in the rasy fingers of 
Neith, the celestial virgin, who opens the gate at dawn for the 
exit of her first begotten, the radiant sun. It is the Stauros of 
the Gnostics, and the philosophical cross of the high-grade 


of Isis, bearing the rosary of the five wounds, on the 
one side, and the male representative of Hermes on the 
other — an obvious type of the junction of male and 
female. Over his head hovers a dove, intended, per- 
haps, for the spirit which is about to enter into and 
possess him, and in the background is an attendant 
priestess, holding a cross in one hand, and " the chalice 
of Existence or Incarnation," fixed upon the staff of 
Hermes, in the other. The apparel of either priestess 
consists, apparently, of a head-dress and deep collar 

But if we may interpret this scene of the union of a 

Is it that of which demon with the initiate, according to 

Paul speaks as the ^j^g thcory of the Two-iu-onc, it would 

Mystery of lawless- ■' ' 

ness? seem that we may go even further. 

For, upon such an assumption, may not this be the 
particular crime to which Paul referred when he spoke 
of that ]\I}-stery of Lawlessness which was working 
secretly in his days, but would afterwards, when the 
hindrance should be removed, be disclosed to all, as the 
set time for the revelation of the Lawless One drew 
nigh ^ Such a conclusion is far from improbable : and 
should it be correct, it would follow that Satan's last 
stake is now being thrown ; and that the great secret, 
guarded with such jealousy for many centuries, has at 
length been revealed to the world. It may be that the 
influences of the Spirit of God are even now in process 
of withdrawal, as He prepares for that departure from 

Masons. We find this symbol ornamenting the tee of the 
umbrella-shaped oldest pagodas in Thibet, China, and India, as 
we find it in the hand of Isis, in the shape of the " handled cross." 
In one of the Chaitya caves, at Ajunta, it surmounts the three 
umbrellas in stone, and forms the centre of the vault" ("Isis 
Unveiled," vol. ii., p. 270). 


earth which will leave it open for Nephilim, sevenfold 
worse than those who formerly dwelt in it, to enter, and 
for a short season to work their will upon the human race. 

There is yet another point which may be illustrated 
The advent of the ^Y ^^ initiation scene described above, 
Divine Mother. t^g f^ct that many Spiritualists and 

Theosophists are looking for the advent, in some mode, 
of a Divine mother, or female Messiah, to preside over 
the new era. For, in the bas-relief, a woman is taking 
the place of Isis as initiator, while the representative of 
Hermes occupies a secondary position. By this arrange- 
ment some expectation is probably indicated which is, 
perhaps, accommodated to Western minds by the 
announcement of a female as well as a male Messiah, a 
second Eve to supplement the second Adam. 

But we must leave this dreadful theme, which we 
have treated at once, although it, perhaps, belongs more 
properly to the next chapter. The foundations of the 
world are shaking : but the Lord knoweth them that 
are His, and He shall deliver them from every evil 
work, and preserve them unto His heavenly Kingdom. 

We have yet to consider the second way in which 

Indirect prohibition marriage is forbidden, not by direct 

of marriage. prohibition, but by strange doctrines 

concerning elective affinities and spiritual alliances, 

which tend to an utter rejection of it as ordained by God. 

In spite of our Lord's express declaration to the 
contrary. Spiritualists of the school with which we have 
now to deal teach that the marriage of male and female 
is the great institution of the next life, and that every 
person has an affinity who will be his or her spouse for 
eternity ; but that in this present time there are fre- 
quent mistakes, and that, consequently, those who are 


not spiritual affinities being joined together are unable 
to agree and live in union. This they affirm to be the 
cause of all misfortune in wedded life. 

In some of their books the victim of an unsuitable 
marriage is exhorted to bear his calamity, and to com- 
fort himself with the certainty of receiving his own 
spouse in the next world, though hints that relief may 
come in the present life are occasionally given.* But, 
apart from its opposition to Scripture, how unlikely is 
such an idea to sooth the irritation of ill-assorted 
couples ! Many Spiritualists, however, go much 
further, and declare that marriage should last only so 
long as the contracting parties may be disposed to live 
together : in short, that God's first ordinance, like every 
other restraint, is to be snapped asunder as soon as it 
becomes wearisome. 

Let the reader judge what is likely to result if the 

Mr. Herbert Noyes' subjoincd opiuions bccomo prevalent. 

sentiments in regard to fhc cxtracts arc takcu from a paper 

marriage, . . . 7 r^ • 

on Matrimonial Relations and Social 
Reforms, read by Mr. Herbert Noyes before the London 
Dialectical Society. 

After expressing his opinion that " divorce should 
be prompt and free whenever mutually desired," and 
obtainable under certain conditions and safeguards even 
when demanded by one only of the pair, Mr. Noyes 
remarks, that the main obstacle to such a state of things 
" consists of untenable ecclesiastical fallacies." He 
then gives utterance to the following sentiments ; — 

"Of all the mischievous inventions blasphemously 
ascribed to the Almighty, and published as His Word, 

• The following is an example; — " WTiether partnerships for 
life are to be the law of the future, time will show. We have our 


I doubt if there be one more mischievous and mistaken 
than the text which asserts that there is no marriage in 

" I maintain that the churches are entirely in the 
right in affirming true marriage to be indissoluble ; 
entirely in the wrong in asserting that their own rites 
are sufficient to constitute a true marriage. It is my 
firm conviction that affection and affinity are indispens- 
able to an indissoluble marriage, and that animal 
passions temporarily excited are not reliable indications 
of these indispensable elements of the true matrimonial 
relations. I am disposed to think that in a true 
marriage man and wife are not so much one flesh as 
virtually one spirit and one soul — one in time and 
one for eternity ; and I believe that when we begin to 
elevate the art of mesmerism into the status of a science 
— the science of soul — we shall begin to understand 
mysteries of which but the faintest glimmer is now 
dawning on our intelligence." 

"The adventitious sanctity of marriage derived from 
ecclesiastical ceremonies is doomed to be ignored by 
coming generations. The true sanctity of marriage 
relations, based on the Divine laws of human nature, 
must come to be recognised in its place, when the 
future race are fully initiated in the mysteries of Will." 

It would be worse than useless to multiply quota- 
^. . . r tions upon so painful a subject. What 

Direct opposition of ^ ^ '■ ^ ■' 

these ideas to Scripture, we havc given wiU suffice as a specimen 

They form a bond of - . . 1 • 1 1 1 r 

unionbetween Spiritual- of opmious which have bccn tor some 
bts and Secularists. ^j^^g Spreading and developing. We 

own opinions on that subject, which are based, not on theories, 
but on facts ; and these all point in one direction. Be that as it 
may ; at present, alliances are made for life " (" Life Beyond the 
Grave," p. 135). 


will only add that American Spiritualists are even 
more advanced than their English brethren. 

The awful opposition of such views to Bible doctrine 
needs no demonstration. For the law of God enacts 
that man and woman when joined together are one 
flesh, not one spirit,* and that neither of them may 
leave the other, save for the single cause of faithless- 
ness,! till death severs the bond, when the survivor is 
free. But the whole paper from which we have quoted, 
and especially the clause respecting " the mysteries of 
Will," is gravely portentous of an approaching wave of 
lawlessness, which may, for the time, almost sweep the 
primal institution of the Creator from the face of the 

And in their ideas of marriage, and of the Divine 
right of human will, Spiritualists are strongly supported 
by numbers of Secularists,^ from whose ranks they are 
receiving continual accessions. Strange that they who 
scoff at the miracles of God should give heed to those 
of Satan ! How do the words of our Lord seem again 
to apply ; — " I am come in My Father's name, and ye 
receive Me not : if another shall come in his own name, 
him ye will receive !"§ 

But, as we have before seen. Spiritualists teach that 
^, . , ^ .„ all will marry in the next world, if they 

Marriage of those stiU ^ ^ ' ^ ' 

on earth with beings in do not in this ; and that true marriage 

lasts through eternity. The natural 

inference is that the true spouses of some are already 

in the spirit-land. And to such an extent is this infer- 

* Gen. ii. 24. 
t Matt. V. 32. 

X The programme of the International League includes the 
abolition of marriage. 
§ John V. 43. 



ence followed out that many are reported to be receiv- 
ing visits and communications from those spiritual 
beings with whom they are to be united for ever. An 
inspirational poem by T. L. Harris, entirely devoted to 
the subject of spirit-marriage, contains these lines ; — 

" Day passes on. The purple twilight ends, 
Each forest tree grows radiant to behold ; 

A skyey Paradise above extends. 

Angels descend, their Loves below to fold 
In sweet embrace. With amethyst and gold 

Their deathless fonns are clad. At last ascends 
That heavenly landscape ; but 'tis Eden still, 

And the heart takes of love divine its liquid fill." 

The ceremonious marriage of a woman to a demon 
IS a thing not unknown in the United States : whether 
it has ever taken place in England we cannot say. 

But there is before us a book called "An Angel's 
, . Message," and claiming to be communi- 

Account of a book . ... ^-. , 

entitled "An Angel's cations from E spiHt — who affirms that 
^^^^ he has become an angel — to an English 

lady, his destined bride for eternity. This awfully 
blasphemous composition might deceive many by its 
apparent sanctity, and by the frequent truths with 
w^hich the strange doctrine is mingled. But let us call 
to mind the prediction that the deceiving demons 
should speak lies in hypocrisy : let us remember that 
he who would press the poisoned cup takes care that 
the vehicle of his deadly drug shall be good wine. A 
few extracts from the communications will reveal the 
abyss to the brink of which the votaries of Spiritualism 
are apparently hastening, and will force upon us an 
awful inference. 

The communicating demon describes himself as the 
spirit of a man of deep religious feeling, who, during 


his sojourn in the flesh, was accustomed to visit the 
house of the medium's father, though at that time he 
found no attraction in the medium herself. In course 
of years he died, as did also the mother of the lady. 
Soon after the decease of the latter her daughter began 
to receive communications understood to come from 
her, and among them the following with which we are 
at present concerned. 

" I have seen how happy I have made you by all 
Extracts from the that has bccn Written. Love and bless 
communications. Yixm Who has showH you, dear J — , 

that you have some one that loves you here. Dear 
W — sees that you love his memory. He sees that, 
before I told you of his love for you, my dear child 
had always thought him a very high spirit, but now 
that I have been permitted to tell her, she will be sure 
to believe it is indeed true." 

" I shall now tell you more about W — . I see that 
this opens your heart to him who loves you more than 
I can tell you. For he is your own W — , he is your 
conjugal partner, the one heaven has intended for you 
from all eternity. I see that you are now thankful 
that you never formed any connection in the world." 

" I will now tell you what will give you great con- 
fidence. W — himself will write through you in his 
own hand." 

" I see that I have given you great happiness. I 
have no more to say. When you begin again W — 
will write through you." 

Henceforth the demon-lover inspired the medium, 
and, after a little hypocritical talk about her faults and 
their remedy, got rid of the difficulty of our Lord's 
declaration that in heaven they neither marry nor are 


given in marriage by remarking that the Sadducees 
asked their question in a natural sense, and that the 
Lord answered them in the same way. 

" For in the world a woman may have seven 
husbands, and yet not one of them may be spiritually 
uniued to her. There may have been no union of the 
soul with any of the seven, or there may have been 
with one, but with one only ; and she shall surely be 
his wife in heaven, and none other. 'They twain shall 
be one flish, and let no man put them asunder.'" 

The Header will not fail to notice the daring mis- 
application of the texts quoted, as well as the inference 
which is thereby suggested. So are God's barriers of 
morality being broken down that the flood of corrup- 
tion may rush in. 

" She who writes these lines is my wife more than 
may be thought possible by those who have not had a 
similar state opened in themselves. She is not so as 
to her natural body, but she is so as to her spiritual 
body. For * there is a natural body, and there is a 
spiritual body.' The one is within the other as a 
kernel within a shell. 

" But this state can come to the outward perception 
of those only who are open to spirit-intercourse. No 
others can perceive, during their life in the world of 
nature, that which belongs to the spirit alone. This 
state constitutes mediumship ; for she who is mine is 
not only a writing medium, but she is also susceptible 
of very palpable impressions of my presence with her. 
We are one ; and she has received the assurance of 
that truth by other means than the merely being told 
so in these writings." 

There is much more to the same effect ; but that 


which we have quoted is sufficient to unveil the danger 
which may be threatening many. We will only further 
show what form manifestations often take, by extract- 
ing the subjoined account of intercourse between the 
medium and the demon represented to be the spirit of 
her mother. 

" She has received the ardent caresses of her loved 
spirit-mother when in a state for open communion ; 
but this was also before her writing mediumship com- 
menced. On one occasion the visitation was preceded 
by the appearance of a white dove of a very brilliant 
aspect, sitting on an eminence and looking towards 
her. She calmly contemplated this vision and remarked 
to herself how beautiful it was ; being perfectly awake 
— yet her bodily eyes were sealed, so that she could 
not open them, though earnestly desiring to do so. On 
the disappearance of the dove she was palpably em- 
braced, but she saw no form ; her spirit-eye could see 
the dove, but not the angelic being who then ap- 
proached her. Well did she know it was the spirit of 
her she loved, for I was then unknown to her. Plainly 
did she perceive that ardent sphere of love ; palpably 
did she feel the living breath ; clearly did she hear the 
whispering voice — but could not catch the words it 
uttered, for her spirit-ear was not sufficiently opened — 
rapidly did that angel-form pass over her passive 
frame, and she opened her eyes to the world of nature, 
filled with the tears of joy, for well she knew that it 
was an angelic visitation. She has also received kisses 
on her forehead, when so fully awake that she has 
asked if they might be repeated, and they were repeated 
as plainly as before ; the feeling being precisely as 
though her brow were pressed by human lips, though 


none were in the room with her. She has felt drops 
of cr}'stal water fall on her forehead, and has also 
asked if it might be repeated, which was done. These 
latter cases occurred when she was perfectly awake, for 
in the last instance she was about to rise, as the morn- 
ing sun warned her it was already day." 

What, then, shall we say to these things } There is 

Inference from these nothing ncw undcr the sun. Are the 
extracts. so-callcd myths of Leda, of Europa, and 

of Ilia, actual history after all ! Is it a literal fact that 
an evil spirit loved Sara the daughter of Raguel ! Had 
Pope Innocent the Eighth a real insight of the truth 
when he fulminated his decretal against intercourse 
with the incubi and succubae ! And are the Nephilim 
again threatening a general descent upon our world 
and a repetition of the great sin of the days of old ! 
Unless we are prepared to stigmatize large numbers 
of our fellow-creatures as deliberate impostors, we seem 
almost forced to such a conclusion. 

In the twelfth chapter of the Apocalypse it is plainly 

Prophetic intimation annouttccd that, beforc the development 
fauen anS: ITu a'S ^^ Antichrist and the unparalleled woes 
appear among men. of the cnd, Satau and his angels will 
be driven out of heaven, swept down from their aerial 
abodes, and confined to the narrow bounds of earth. 
Then will all the Nephilim, who are yet at liberty, be 
among men, and will quickly make them feel the mean- 
ing of that awful utterance, " Woe to the inhabiters of 
the earth and of the sea ! for the Devil is come down 
unto you, having great wrath, because he knoweth that 
he hath but a short time." Then, not merely the 
demons, but the great Angels of Darkness, the Princi- 
palities, the Pov/ers, and the World-rulers, maddened 


by the thought that they have lost their fair realms for 
ever, and that the Lord is at hand to complete their 
destruction, will in their rage break through every 
restraint, and recklessly gratify their own evil desires. 
And so, in the most appalling sense, the earth will 
again become corrupt and filled with violence. 

For this terrible inroad Spiritualism appears to be 
_.. ,. preparing the way. The army of demons 

Spiritualism seems to *• *■ ° "^ _ •' 

be a preparation for this has bcen scnt forth in advance to bring 
about a universal apostacy from God 
and denial of Christ, and to establish a general com- 
munication between the Powers of Darkness and the 
children of disobedience. Years ago these demons 
predicted the future appearance upon earth of spiritual 
beings in material bodies : what- has been their aim 
but to open men's hearts for the reception of the 
banished angels } Manifestations are continually in- 
creasing in power ; appearances of tangible forms from 
the unseen world are matters of common occurrence ; 
women are being taught that they are the wives of 
angels ; the world is becoming accustomed to super- 
natural visitants ! Surely the Prince of the Air must 
have heard that the legions of Michael are marching, 
and is hastily preparing his place of retreat. 






URING the last few years another strange phase 
of thought has appeared in the wake of Spi- 
rituahsm, equally destructive of faith 
and boldly avowing its Pagan origin. 
We allude to Theosophy, now so common a subject of 
conversation, and which, in various forms, is ever pre- 
senting itself in the periodic and other literature of the 
day. And since we understand it to be the revival of 
a philosophy communicated by the Nephilim, and believe 
that the signs of the last apostacy may be detected in 
its teachings, we admit a claim upon our consideration 
which we will now endeavour to discharge. 

For many centuries the true nature of the early 
^ . ,. . systems of relicfion was unsuspected by 

The ancient religions •' ^ ^ "=* '^ •' 

were able to satisfy the Christians. It has been usual to regard 

cravings of intellect. _ . 1,1 1 • /• 

Paganism as a mere brutal worship of 
stocks and stones, as a gross superstition, so utterly 
devoid of intellectuality that, when once expelled, it 
could never return and again deceive an enlightened 
and educated world. It was carelessly assumed to 
have sprung from ignorance and mental incapacity ; 
whereas its wonderful power of adapting itself to the 
carnal mind should rather have suggested an emanation 


from those Powers of the Air which efTected the ruin 
of our first parents. And to suppose that anything 
which comes from such a source need be wanting in 
intellectual vigour and beauty, would be a folly as 
great as that which represents the fallen Son of the 
Morning under the guise of a horned monster. There 
is little chance of escaping his snares unless we recog- 
nise the fact that the resources of intellect are yet at 
the command of himself and his hosts, that still 

" There is some soul oi greatness in things evil." 

And so we might reasonably expect to find a faint 
reflection, at least, of this greatness in those who were 
inspired by fallen angels, and who learnt to own them 
as lords. Nor would such an expectation be dis- 
appointed ; for if we investigate early Paganism by the 
light of recent discoveries, we soon perceive that its 
chief strength lay in its intellectual attractions, and that 
many of its priests and initiates were distinguished as 
philosophers and men of science. 

But — still more strange ! — if, after our investigation, 

Hence the present wc glancc at the world of to-day, we 

revival of their doctrines see the mcn of this nineteenth ccntury 

and practices, which 

were originally commu- rctuming to the wlsdom of long past 

nicated by Nephilim. ■, ■, ,-, ■, . , • • •. 

ages, and modern thought sustammg its 
flight upon the wings of ancient lore. Nay, almost 
every characteristic of antiquity seems to be reappear- 
ing. Open intercourse with demons is being renewed 
on a vast scale in the very heart of Christendom, and 
even among the hitherto somewhat Sadducean Pro- 
testants : numerous circles are carrying on magical 
practices : attempts are being made to restore the 
influence of those ancient Mysteries which are said to 


have been always kept up by a few initiates : the old 
mesmeric healings are again performed : star-gazers 
and planet-rulers have greatly increased, while many 
amateur students are zealously assisting to re-establish 
the power of astrology over the human race : the use 
of the divining rod, and countless other practices of 
primal and mediaeval times, are once more becoming 
common. And, impossible as it would have seemed a 
few years ago, all these " superstitions " are floating 
back to us upon the tide of " moder.i thought." They 
come no longer veiled in mystery, nor claiming to be 
miraculous or Divine ; but, in accordance with the 
spirit of the age, present themselves as the fruit of 
science, as an evidence of the progress of knowledge 
in regard to the laws of the visible and invisible worlds. 
" Unless we mistake the signs," says the writer of 
" Isis Unveiled," "the day is approaching when the world 
will receive the proofs that only ancient religions were 
in harmony with nature, and ancient science embraced 
all that can be known. . . . An era of disenchantment 
and rebuilding will soon begin — nay, has already begun. 
The cycle has almost run its course ; a new one is 
about to begin, and the future pages of history may 
contain full evidence, and convey full proof, that 

" * If ancestry can be in aught believed, 

Descending spirits have conversed with man, 
And told him secrets of the world unknown.' " • 

They may indeed : for the Apocalypse foretells a 
yet future sojourn of fallen angels upon earth, an event 
which will quickly dispel scepticism in regard to the 
past. But even now the evidence is ample, and may 

• " Isis Unveiled," vol. i., p. 38. 


be found, not merely in the Biblical account of the 
Nephilim, but in the myths of all nations. What sig- 
nificance, for example, are we to attach to the story 
that Ceres instructed men in agriculture ? Why is 
music attributed to Apollo, eloquence to Mercury ? 
Whence arose the legend of the great Titan, who, in 
defiance of Zeus, expounded the civilizing arts to men, 
taught them medicine, astronomy, and divination, and 
stole fire for them from heaven ? Or, again, is there 
no basis of fact for the catalogue, contained in the 
mysterious book of Enoch, of arts which the Nephilim 
are said to have introduced among men ;* no reflection 
of truth in the appeal of Michael and his companions, 
when they say ; — " See, then, what Azazal has done ; 
how he has taught all wickedness on earth, and has 
revealed the secrets of the world which were prepared 
in the heavens" ?t 

If, however, the ancient philosopher drew his earliest 
information from such a source, we cease to wonder at 
its extent. The hints of an acquaintance with the 
spherical form of the earth, and with the fact of its 
motion round the sun, alleged to be found in the Vedas, 
are no longer incredible. We can listen with equanimity 
to the astronomical revelations of the Great Pyramid. 
Nor are we bewildered by the assertion that many of 
the vaunted results of modern science were included in 
the instruction given to the initiates of the Hermetic, 
Orphic, Eleusinian, and Cabbalistic mysteries, and were 
familiar to Chaldean Magi, Eg}^ptian Priests, Hindu 
Occultists, Essenes, Therapeutae, Gnostics, and Theurgic 

* Book of Enoch, ii. 8. 
t Ibtd., ii 9. 


And since we are also told that all occult societies 

Occult science pro- havc been affiliated, and, therefore, have 

babiy transcends all jj^ somc sort Carried on a continuous 

merely human know- 
ledge, and contains the study, wc are fain to admit, upon this 

eerms of the philoso- , . ,14,1 1 „ 

phies and religions of the assumption, that they may long ago 
''■°''''^- have passed beyond the limits of modern 

science, seeing that the latter is the accumulated expe- 
rience of comparatively few generations. Still more 
ought they to have advanced in metaphysics and psy- 
chology, studies which they have ever regarded as the 
most important. 

"There is thus," in the words of A. P. Sinnett, 
" something more than a mere archaeological interest 
in the identification of the occult system with the doc- 
trines of the initiated organisations in all ages of the 
world's history, and we are presented by this identifica- 
tion with the key to the philosophy of religious deve- 
lopment. Occultism is not merely an isolated discovery 
showing humanity to be possessed of certain powers 
over Nature, which the narrower study of Nature from 
the merely materialistic standpoint has failed to develop ; 
it is an illumination cast over all previous spiritual 
speculation worth anything, of a kind which knits to- 
gether some apparently divergent systems. It is to 
spiritual philosophy much what Sanscrit was found to 
be to comparative philology ; it is a common stock of 
philosophical roots. Judaism, Christianity, Buddhism, 
and the Eg}'ptian theology, are thus brought into one 
family of ideas."* 

The last sentence is undoubtedly true, provided we 
remember that "Judaism" here stands for the Cabbala; 
and that " Christianity" does not mean the pure and 

* "The Occult World," p. 6. 


simple faith set forth in the New Testament, but the 
ecclesiastical compound of Heathenism to wliich the 
writers of "The Perfect Way" thus frankly express 
their obligation ; — 

" For, like the Puritans, who coated with plaster and 
otherwise covered and hid from view the sacred images 
and decorations which were obnoxious to them, Ortho- 
doxy has at least preserved through the ages the 
symbols which contain the truth beneath the errors 
with which it has overlaid them." 

When the real meaning of these symbols becomes 
generally known, the object of the initiates in foisting 
them upon the Church will be very apparent. A reve- 
lation of their true nature will shatter the faith of those 
who rest upon them in the fond delusion that they are 
Christian, and make many a rough place smooth for 
the advance of the great apostacy. 

Thus, by means of various secret associations, Occult- 

The Asiatic Brother- ism appears to havc bccn handed down 

SnTo^ommunlr^: ffom the timcs of thc Mysteries to our 

nation to communicate -' 

with the world. o^vn days. The only Brotherhood at 

present mentioned in the outer world is one which 
extends its branches throughout the East, and of which 
the headquarters are reported to be in Thibet. It is 
open to any person who can prove himself fit for mem- 
bership ; but the Neophyte, or Chela, must undergo a 
discipline of many years, and pass through terrible 
ordeals, before he can be completely initiated. These 
trials, it is affirmed, are neither arranged by caprice, 
nor designed to support a jealous exclusiveness ; but 
are necessary to the pupil himself, to prepare him for 
the tremendous revelation which will at last reward 
his successful perseverance. 


But — as we are informed by those who claim autho- 
rity for their statements — the advances of Modern 
Science, and especially the spread of evolutionary 
philosophy, having fitted the world for deeper teaching-, 
the Brothers decided that the time had come to com- 
municate with it, and openly influence its religion and 
philosophy. They have, however, become so etherealized 
by their practices that they are unable to endure con- 
tact with coarse human nature ; it was, therefore, 
necessary to employ intermediaries. 

The first person known to have been chosen for this 
,, , „, , . purpose was a Madame Blavatski,* a 

Madame Blavatski ■c^ -t^ ' 

and the Theosophicai Russian gcntlewoman, granddaughter of 
Princess Dolgorouki of the elder branch, 
and widow of General N, V. Blavatski, Governor, during 
the Crimean war and for many years, of Erivan in 
Armenia, This lady, after devoting herself to occult 
pursuits for some thirty years, repaired to a Himalayan 
retreat, where she spent seven years under the imme- 
diate direction of the Brothers, and was initiated and 
instructed for her mission. She was then dismissed to 
the outer world, and, having proceeded to America, and 
attracted there a number of sympathising minds, she 
organized the Theosophicai Society, at New York, under 
the presidency of Colonel Olcott. This was in the year 
1875. Then, after crossing to England and establishing 
the Society in this country, she returned to India, where 

• Lately two Indian natives, Ramaswamy, a Government official 
at Tinnevelly, and Damodar, have been mentioned, and Colonel 
Olcott has become a chela. The latter is said to have seen the 
Brothers both in the flesh and in the astral form. " By a long 
series of the most astounding thaumaturgic displays, when he 
was first introduced to the subject in America, he was made 
acquainted with their powers " {Light, December 22nd, 1883). 



her flattery of the natives and dislike to their British 
rulers, together with her nationality, caused her, and 
not without reason, to be regarded as a spy. At last, 
however, perceiving her mistake, she changed her mode 
of action, and, having obtained introductions to British 
officials at Simla, began to make some progress. The 
objects of the Society were then set forth as follows. 

I. To form the nucleus of a Universal Brotherhood 
of Humanity. 

II. To study Aryan literature, religion, and science. 

III. To vindicate the importance of this inquiry. 

IV. To explore the hidden mysteries of Nature, and 
the latent powers of man. 

Subsequently a fifth object of the Society, the destruc- 
tion of Christianity, was revealed. " Later it has deter- 
mined to spread among the ' poor benighted Heathen' 
such evidences as to the practical results of Christianity 
as will at least give both sides of the story to the 
communities among which missionaries are at work. 
With this view it has established relations with asso- 
ciations and individuals throughout the East, to whom 
it furnishes authenticated reports of the ecclesiastical 
crimes and misdemeanours, schisms and heresies, con- 
troversies and litigations, doctrinal differences and Biblical 
criticisms and revisions, with which the press of Christian 
Europe and America constantly teems. Christendom 
has been long and minuteh- informed of the degradation 
and brutishness into which Buddhism, Brahmanism, and 
Confucianism have plunged their deluded votaries, and 
many millions have been lavished upon foreign missions 
under such false representations. The Theosophical 
Society, seeing daily exemplifications of this very state 
of things as the sequence of Christian teaching and 


example — the latter especially — thought it simple justice 
to make the facts known in Palestine, India, Ceylon, 
Cashmere, Tartary, Thibet, China, and Japan, in all of 
which countries it has influential correspondents. It ma}' 
also in time have much to say about the conduct of the 
missionaries to those who contribute to their support." * 

It will, therefore, be seen that this foe has made a 
formal declaration of war. By the autumn of 1883 
there were already seventy branches of the Society in 
India, and " many thousands of Mahomedans, Budd- 
hists, Hindus, Parsecs, Christians, officials and non- 
officials, governors and governed, have been brought 
together by its instrumentality."t As proofs of its 
levelling power, the following incidents will not be with- 
out significance to these who know the peoples of India. 

"In the year 1880 a mixed delegation oi Hindus 
and Parsecs were deputed by the Bombay Branch to 
assist the founders in organizing Buddhist Branches in 
Ceylon. In i88i the Buddhists reciprocated by sending 
over delegates to Tinnevelly to assist in organizing a 
Hindu Branch, and these Buddhists were, together with 
Colonel Olcott, received with rapturous welcome i)iside a 
most sacred Hindu Temple, in the enclosure of which 
they planted a cocoa-nut tree in commemoration of their 
visit." % 

Satisfied with these results, and with their success in 

Dissemination of o^^^^r countdcs, the Brothcrhood autho- 

Theosophy in England rised A. P. Sinuctt to revcal some 

and France, 

portions of their philosophy to the 
Western world, which he did in the spring of 1883, in 

* " Isis Unveiled," vol. i., pp. xli., xlii. 

t "Hints on Esoteric Theosophy," No. I., p. 18. 

\ Ibid., pp. 18, 19. 


a volume entitled " Esoteric Buddhism." But a more 
remarkable book had been published in the previous 
}ear, "the inner inspirations" of which Mr. Sinnett 
supposes to be identical with those of his own work.* 
It is called " The Perfect Way, or the Finding of 
Christ," and its anonymous writers — for they claim 
inspiiation, and decline to be styled authors — certainly 
display considerable ability ; though in the case of the 
Hebrew and Greek Scriptures they exhibit a knowledge 
far less accurate than that which they claim in regard 
to the doctrines of the Mysteries. Sometimes also, to 
suit their purpose, they give strange meanings to words, 
without condescending to hint at the process by which 
they reached their conclusion. 

Yet again, two or three years before the appearance 
of this work, " Les Quatres Evangiles expliques en 
Esprit et en Verite" had been published in Paris by 
M. Roustaing. This gentleman affirms that he wrote 
from the dictation of the four evangelists and the other 
apostles, who were sent to make the communication to 
him. He is not without admirers and exponents in 
England, among the foremost of whom are the Countess 
of Caithness and IMiss Anna Blackwell. His work is 
a further development of the philosophy of Allan 
Kardec, whose volumes have obtained an immense 
circulation throughout France. f 

Now the fundamental theory of all these books, 
however much they may differ in comparatively unim- 
portant details, is the doctrine of the evolution of the 
soul by means of repeated incarnations, or, as the 

* It would seem, however, to be a production of Western rather 
than Eastern Occultism. 

t One of these, " The Spirit's Book," was some time ago trans- 
lated by Miss Anna Blackwell from the I20th thousand. 


writers of "The Perfect Way" put it, *' the Pre-existence 
and Perfectibihty of the Soul." To expound this doc- 
trine, we will take the last mentioned treatise as our 
text book. 

Its writers, in explaining their position, declare the 
Theosophy is iden- identity of their teaching with that which 

ti'cal with the doctrines • ^ ^i • -i- ^ ■ n ^_^ i 

of the Mysteries. In- ^^as given to the initiates in the sacred 
tuitionai Memory. Mysterlcs of antiquity." But, they con- 
tinue, " now, as of old, those Mysteries comprise two 
classes of doctrine, of which one class only — that which, 
being historical and interpretative, belongs to the Lesser 
Mysteries — may be freely communicated. The other, 
known as the Greater Mysteries, is reserved for those 
who, in virtue of the interior unfold ment of their con- 
sciousness, contain within them the necessary witness."* 
" For reasons arising out of this necessary reserve" the 
writers can give no precise account of the origin of 
the inspired fragments which they frequently quote as 

What they mean by the unfoldment of the conscious- 
ness, or "the faculty of intuition," is soon made apparent. 
During the ages which we pass in countless embodi- 
ments, " that in us which perceives and permanently 
remembers is the Soul." And although, owing to the 
grossness of our present nature, we are beclouded and 
have lost the use of her treasures of memory, neverthe- 
less " all that she has once learnt is at the service of 
those who duly cultivate relations with her."t 

• "The Perfect Way," p. xiii. 

t Ibid., p. 4. Indeed, the man who successfully cultivates these 
relations seems to gain unbounded power. For "it is not his own 
memory alone that, thus endowed, he reads. The very planet of 
which he is the offspring, is, like himself, a Person, and is pos- 
sessed of a medium of memory. And he to whom the soul lends 


" The Intuition, then, is that operation of the mind 
whereby we are enabled to gain access to the interior 
and permanent region of our nature, and there to possess 
ourselves of the knowledge which in the long ages of 
her past existence the soul has made her own."* And 
Intuitional Memory' must be "developed and otherwise 
assisted by the only mode of life compatible with sound 
philosophic aspirations," " the mode, therefore, invariably 
from the first followed by all candidates for initiation 
into the sacred mysteries of existence. It is only by 
living the life that man can know of the doctrine." ")" 
But if we inquire what are the rules of this life, the 
whole system is instantly condemned by the reply, that 
marriage is prohibited to the neophyte, and that he 
must abstain from flesh' and alcohol. We at once 
recognise the " falling away" of which Paul wrote, and 
perceive that the so-called Intuitional Memory is no 
recovery of a knowledge which lies hidden in man, but 
an inspiration from demons who speak lies in hypocrisy. 

Affirming, then, that their information was obtained by 
Fourfold nature of mcans of Intuitional Memor}% the writers 
"^ proceed to teach that man is possessed 

of a fourfcid nature, and that " the four elements 
which constitute him are, counting from without inwards, 
the material body, the fluidic perisoul or astral body,? 

her ears and eyes may have knowledge not only of his own past 
history, but of the past histor>' of the planet, as beheld in the 
pictures imprinted in the magnetic light whereof the planet's 
memory consists. For there are actually ghosts of events, manes 
of past circumstances, shadows on the protoplasmic mirror, which 
can be evoked" (" The Perfect Way," pp. 8, 9). 

* Ibid., pp. 3, 4. 

t Ibid., p. 4. 

X This is the so-called do^;peIgdnger, which can be projected 
from the material body and made to appear at any distance. 


the soul or individual, and the spirit or Divine Father 
and life of his system."* They then give their evo- 
lutionary theory, of which the following is a rapid 

The interplanetary ether, known in the terminology 
The manifestation of of Occultism Es the Astral Ftuid, is the 
NL'Ter'The'^Para^ first manifestation of Substance, that 
Trinity. which sub-stands all phenomena ; and 

its ultimate expression is what we call Matter. There 
is but one Substance : and, therefore. Spirit and Matter 
are not two things, but are two states of the same 
thing ; just as solid, palpable, incompressible ice is, 
under another condition, the same thing as fluid, 
invisible, compressible vapour. 

Since, then, there is but one Substance, therefore the 
substance of the Soul, and therein of all things, and the 
substance of Deity, are one and the same. " And of 
this Substance the Life also is called God, Who, as 
Living Substance, is at once Life and Substance, one 
and yet twain, or two in one. And that Avhich 
proceeds from these two, and is, theologically, called the 
Son and the Word, is necessarily the expression of 
both, and is, potentially, the Universe ; for He creates 
it after His own Divine image by means of the Spirit 
He has received. Now the Divine Substance is, in its 
original condition, homogeneous. Ev^ery monad of it, 
therefore, possesses the potentialities of the whole. Ot 
such a monad, in its original condition, every individual 
soul consists. And of the same Substance, projected 
into lower conditions, the material universe consists. 
It undergoes, however, no radical change of nature 
through such projection; but its manifestation — on 

* " The Perfect Way," p. 5. 


whatever plane occurring — is always as a Trinity in 
Unity ; since that whereby substance becomes manifest 
is the evolution of its Trinity. Thus — to reckon from 
without inwards, and below upwards — on the plane 
physical, it is P'orce, universal Ether, and their offspring 
the Material World. On the plane intellectual, it is 
Life, Substance, and Phenomenon. On the plane 
spiritual — its original point of radiation — it is Will, 
Wisdom, and the Word. And on all planes whatever, 
it is. in some mode. Father, Mother, and Child."* 

The last few sentences wc have cited without abbre- 
viation because of their importance. They contain a 
clear exposition of the false Trinity as, fundamentally, 
it is taught in all Pagan systems. Its irreconcilable 
and blasphemous opposition to Biblical revelation we 
will presently explain, but must now proceed with our 

The monads of the Divine substance are at first 
The process of evoiu- incarcerated without individualisation 

tion, whereby the Soul, • .■, ■ , • ■, a j a ^1 

imprisoned at first in 1" somcthmg material. And there is 
inorganic matter, pro- „q modc of Matter in vvhich thc poten- 

gresses until it ulti- _ _ ■*■_ 

mateiybecomesaDeity. tiality of personality, and therein of 
man, does not subsist. For every molecule is a mode 
of the universal consciousness. Without consciousness 
is no being. For consciousness is being. The earliest 
manifestation of consciousness appears in the obedience 
paid to the laws of gravitation and chemical affinity, 
which constitute the basis of the later evolved organic 
laws of nutritive assimilation. And the perception, 
memory, and experience represented in man are the 
accumulations of long ages of toil and thought, gradu- 
ally advancing, through the development of the 

* " The Perfect Way," pp. 17-18. 


consciousness, from organic combinations upward to 
God. Such is the secret meaning of the old mystery- 
story which relates how Deucalion and Pyrrha, under 
the direction of Themis (Wisdom), produced men and 
women from stones, and so peopled the renewed earth."* 
Passing, then, at length from the mineral kingdom, 
the monad is manifested in the lowest modes of organic 
life, and at this point is individualised by self-generation, 
and becomes a soul or nucleus to the cell in which 
it has manifested itself. " And once formed, it is 
capable, on the breaking up of its cell, of passing into 
and informing another cell."t And so it progresses, in a 
series of lives, from the vegetable to the animal, and 
from the animal to the human. After experiencing 
many existences in the last mentioned state of being, 
the conditions of each rebirth being determined by the 
results, or karma, of the preceding life, it rises to the 
supernatural. And so at length it relinquishes its 
existence for the being from which it was originally pro- 
jected ; but returns with conscious individuality, and 
the full advantage of all its experiences. And return- 
ing it becomes reunited to the Deity ; so that we must 
" conceive of God as a vast spiritual body constituted 
of many individual elements, all having but one 
will, and, therefore, being one. This condition of one- 
ness with the Divine Will and Being constitutes what 
in Hindu mysticism is called the celestial Nirvana. 
But though becoming pure spirit, or God, the individual 
retains his individuality. So that, instead of all being 
finally merged in the One, the One becomes many. Thus 
does God become millions. God is multitudes, and 

* "The Perfect Way," p. 19. 
t Ibid., p. 18. 


nations, and kingdoms, and tongues ; and the voice of 
God is as the sound of many waters."* 

Such is an outline of this daring attempt to deny 
'^oth the Father and the Son, and to set before men, in 
a manner peculiarly seductive, the old temptation, " Ye 
shall be as God." It was one of the secrets taught to 
the initiates of antiquity, and several of the great sages 
are said to have remembered previous incarnations, 
especially Crishna, Pythagoras, Plato, Apollonius, and 
the Buddha Gautama. " This last — the Messenger, 
who fulfilled for the mystics of the East the part which 
six hundred years later was, for the mystics of the West, 
fulfilled by Jesus — is stated to have recovered the 
recollection of five hundred and fifty of his own incar- 
nations. And the chief end of his doctrine is to induce 
men so to live as to shorten the number and duration 
of their earth-lives. 'He,' say the Hindu Scriptures, 
' who in his lifetime recovers the memory of all that his 
soul has learnt, is already a god.' "f 

Now, since the Prince of this World apparently 
BibHcai texts quoted dccms that thc timc has come to pro- 

in support of the doc- . .... 

trine of Transmigration, curc tlic samc Unanimity in his human 
as in his spiritual kingdom, and would, therefore, 
propagate this evolutionary philosophy in lands which 
have been long influenced by the revelation of God, 
testimony in its favour must needs be produced from 
the Christian Scriptures. We adduce a few specimens 
which will enable the reader to estimate the value of 
such a support. 

In the Baptist's impassioned address to the bigoted 
Jews, he points to the pebbles on the shores of the 
Jordan, and exclaims ; — " Think you that God cannot 

* "The Perfect Way," p. 46. t Ibid., pp. 22-3. 


do without you because you are sons of Abraham ! 
Had he need of such, His power could in a moment 
change every one of these innumerable stones into a 
child of Abraham."* And again, when our Lord would 
show the Pharisees that God's purposes are irresistible, 
He says ; — " I tell you that if these shall hold their 
peace, the stones will cry out." These two passages 
are supposed to furnish clear evidence that both John 
and our Lord were aware of the presence in the stones 
of Divine monads which would be educated, by means 
of various embodiments, until they were able to assume 
the human form ! 

Again ; Daniel receives the promise that he shall 
'rest, and stand in his lot at the end of the days, when 
the resurrection which has just been revealed to him 
takes place. This is supposed to indicate reincarnation. 
The Lord says of John ; — " If I will that he tarry till I 
come, what is that to thee t " The comment is ; — " It 
was intimated by Jesus that he should tarry within 
reach of the earth-life, either for reincarnation or 
metempsychosis, when the appointed time should come." 
The Lord is described by Paul as the Captain of our 
salvation made perfect through suffering : such an 
expression " obviously implies a course of experience 
far in excess of anything that is predicable of a single 
brief career." And so the Gnostic Carpocrates was 
right when " he taught that the Founder of Christianity 
also was simply a person who, having a soul of great 
age and high degree of purity, had been enabled through 
his mode of life to recover the memory of its past." 
It is true that our Lord in speaking of the blind man 
positively denied that he was born so on account of his 

• "The Perfect Way," p. 20. 


sin in a former existence ; but that proves nothing, 
since " His refusal to satisfy the curiosity of His dis- 
ciples is readily intelligible on the supposition that He 
was unwilling to disclose the affairs of other souls." 

Finally ; the Countess of Caithness boldly affirms 
that our Lord taught the doctrine of reincarnation 
when He said ; — " Except a man be born again, he 
cannot see the Kingdom of God."* Yet Xicodemus is 
rebuked for understanding the words in such a sense, 
and numerous other passages show that the rebirth 
takes place upon conversion, and that the initial rite of 
baptism expresses the man's death and burial to the old 
life and resurrection to the new, in which he is exhorted 
thenceforth to walk. Besides which, we have Paul's 
emphatic assertion that " it is appointed unto men once 
to die." t 

Such, then, are some of the best arguments which 
^ ,. , Theosophists are able to produce from 

1 heosophical account 

ofthe FaiiandRedemp- the Biblc in support of tlicir funda- 
mental theory. To state them is a 
sufficient refutation ; and we are not surprised to find 
that other views advanced by these philosophers are 
directly opposed to Divine re\'clation. " The Fall of 
man," we are told, " does not mean, as commonly 
supposed, the lapse, through a specific act, of particular 
individuals from a state of original perfection. ... It 
means such an inversion of the due relations between 
the soul and the body of a personality already both 
spiritual and material, as involves a transference of the 
central will of the system concerned, from the soul — 

* " Serious Letters to Serious Friends," p. 129. 
t Heb. ix. z"]. The Greek ana^ is also a strong word mean- 
ing: " once for all." 


which is its proper seat — to the body, and the conse- 
quent subjection of the soul to the body, and liabih'ty of 
the individual to sin, disease, and all other evils which 
result from the limitations of matter."* And connected 
with this exposition is the following strange doctrine, 
leading up, as all Paganism does, to the worship of the 
great Goddess, the Mother and Child, and also to a 
reversal of God's order in Creation. 

" Whatever the sex of the person, physically, each 
individual is a dualism consisting of exterior and interior, 
manifested personality and essential individuality, body 
and soul, which are to each other masculine and feminine, 
man and woman ; he the without and she the within." "f" 
And, to summarize the remainder of the paragraph, 
just as the woman is to the man on the planes intel- 
lectual and spiritual, so is she on the planes physical 
and social. She is the proper head of creation : the 
subjection of the feminine to the masculine in the 
individual was the Fall ; the subjection of the woman to 
the man in the world is the outward and visible sign of 
the Fall. And it is only by "the complete restoration 
crowning and exaltation of the woman, in all the planes, 
that redemption can be effected." 

Now we have already seen that Theosophists describe 
man as consisting of four elements, two of which are 
the body and astral body, constituting the masculine 
principle, while the third is the Soul, which is feminine. 
The remaining part is spirit, and this, as being an 
emanation from God, is, therefore, God ; so that every 
man carries God within himself! ! The Soul, then, is 
placed between the Divine element and the Body : and 

* "The Perfect Way," p. 215. 
t Ibid., p. 186. 


" in order properly to fulfil her function in regard to the 
man, and attract his regards upwards to her, she must 
herself aspire continually to the Divine Spirit within 
her, the central sun of herself, as she is that of the 
man," * But if she fails in this, she falls, becomes 
wedded to the Body, and the whole man is as the first 
Adam, of the earth earthy. " The result, on the other 
hand, of the soul's steadfast aspiration towards God — 
the Spirit, that is, within her — and of her consequent 
action upon the Body, is that this also becomes so per- 
meated and suffused by the Spirit as at last to have no 
will of its own, but to be in all things one with its Soul 
and Spirit, and to constitute with these one perfectly 
harmonious system, of which every element is under 
full control of the central Will. It is this unification 
occurring within the individual which constitutes the 
At-one-ment. And in him in whom it occurs in its 
fullest extent, Nature realizes the ideal to attain which 
she first came forth from God." "j" The marriage of the 
Spirit and Bride has taken place, and the result is the 
new birth, the man is born of Water and the Spirit — 
water being the symbol of the woman. This " man 
who is reborn in us of water — our own regenerate self, 
the Christ Jesus and Son of man, who in saving us is 
called the Captain of our salvation — is said to be made 
perfect through suffering. This suffering must be borne 
by each man for himself. To deprive any one of it by 
putting the consequences of his acts upon another, so 
far from aiding that one, would be to deprive him of 
his means of redemption." ^ 

* "The Perfect Way," p. i88. 
t Ibid., p. 217. 
\ Ibid., p. 217-8. 


" Although redemption, as a whole, is one, the process 
is manifold, and consists in a series of 

According to Theoso- ... 1 » * r^ 

phists the Acts of the acts. Spiritual and mental. * Space 

Mysteries typified the -w . •, . . • . ,• 

Redemption of man, Will not permit US to enter into a parti- 
whereby he becomes " a c^lar description of thcsc ; we can only 

Christ, and attams to ^ ■' 

the Nirvana of the Budd- mcution that they ai'c affirmed to have 
been typified by the six acts of the 
Lesser and Greater IMysteries, The first three of these 
— the Betrothal, or initiatory purification by Baptism, 
the Temptation or Trial, and the Passion or Renuncia- 
tion — " belong to the Mysteries of the Rational 
Humanity as distinguished from those of the Spiritual 
Humanity." The particular act whereby the Passion 
" is consummated and demonstrated is called the Cruci- 
fixion. This Crucifixion means a complete unreserving 
surrender — to the death, if need be — without opposition, 
even in desire, on the part of the natural man." f It 
"is the last stage of the Lesser Mysteries," which belong 
to the Queen's Chamber of the Great Pyramid, J " and 
closes initiation into them. Immediately upon giving 
up the ghost — or renouncing altogether the lower life — 
the Christ enters into His kingdom, and the veil of the 
Temple is rent from the top to the bottom. For this 
veil is that which divides the covered place from the 
Holy of Holies ; and by its rending is denoted the 
passage of the individual within the kingdom of God, 
or of the Soul — typified by the King's Chamber." 

♦ "The Perfect Way," p. 220. 

t Ibt'd., p. 220. 

X Occultists affirm that " the Pyramid is designed to illustrate, 
both in character and duration, the various stages of the soul's 
histor>% from her first emergence in Matter to her final triumphant 
release and return to Spirit.'' The building was, they say, used 
for the celebration of the mysteries. 


" The last three acts — the Burial," for which the coffer 
found in the Great Pyramid was wont to be used, " the 
Resurrection, and the Ascension — belong to the Greater 
Mysteries of the Soul and Spirit, the Spirit being the 
central Lord, King, and Adonai, of the system, and the 
Spouse of the Bride or Soul." * " The seventh and con- 
cluding act of the whole process follows the accom- 
plishment of the three stages of the Greater Mysteries 
of the King or Spirit, and is called the " Consummation 
of the ]\Iarriage of the Son of God." In this act, the 
King and Queen, Spirit and Bride, rrvevixa and vvixcfyrj, 
are indissolubly united ; the Man becomes pure Spirit ; 
and the Human is finally taken up into the Divine." f 
" This is ' the Sabbath ' of the Hebrews, the ' Nirv^ana ' 
of the Buddhists, and the Transmutation of the Alche- 
mists." I 

The man who attains to the consummation of the 
Greater jMysteries is, then, not merely an adept, but " a 
Christ." Such a dignity, however — " though open 
potentially to all — is actually in the present open, if to 
any, but to few. And these are necessari'y they only 
who, having passed through many transmigrations, and 
advanced far on their way to maturity, have sedulously 
turned their lives to the best account by means of the 
steadfast development of all the higher faculties and 
qualities of man ; and who, while not declining the 
experiences of the body, have made the Spirit, and not 
the body, their object and aim."§ And to accomplish 
their end, they have submitted " to a discipline and 
training the most severe, at once physical, intellectual, 
moral, and spiritual." Such were Osiris, Mithras, 

• "The Perfect Way," p. 249. f Ibid.,^. 250. 

\ Ibid., p. 251. § Ibid., pp. 226-7. 

7HE0S0PHY. 417 

Crislina, Zoroaster, Dionysus, Buddha, and Jesus : for 
although there is none other name given under heaven 
whereby men can be saved except that of Christ, yet 
that name has been shared by many.* 

Such a statement prepares us for the assertion that 

Theosophists desire Christianity is no rival to Buddhism, 

the union of corrupted ^y^ ^^.^g |-]^g dircct and nccessarv sequel 

Christianity with Budd- •' ^ 

hism and Mahometan- to that systcm, the two being parts of 
"^ one continuous and harmonious whole. 

" Buddha completed the regeneration of the mind : and 
by his doctrine and practice men are prepared for the 
grace which comes by Jesus. Wherefore no man can 
be properly Christian, who is not also, and first, Budd- 

Hence, of course, the union of the two religions is to 
be desired, and Moslems also are exhorted to join the 

" They who seek to wed Buddha to Jesus are of the 
celestial and upper ; and they who interpose to forbid 
the banns are of the astral and nether. Between the 
two hemispheres stand the domain and faith of- Islam, 
not to divide, but, as umbilical cord, to unite them. 
And nought is there in Islamism to hinder its fulfil- 
ment of this high function, and keep it from being a 
partaker of the blessings to result therefrom. For not 
only is it the one really monotheistic and non-idolatrous 
religion now existing ; but its symbolic Star and 
Crescent are essentially one with the Cross of Christ, 
in that they also typify the elements masculine and 
feminine of the Divine existence, and the relation of 
the Soul to God. So that Islamism has but to accom- 
plish that other stage of its natural evolution, which 

• " The Perfect Way," p. ^-j. t Ibid., p. 257. 



will enable it to claim an equal place in the Brother- 
hood of the Elect. This is the practical recognition in 
* Allah ' of Mother as well as Father, by the exaltation 
of the woman to her rightful station on all planes of 
man's manifold nature. This accomplished, Esau and 
Ishmael will be joined together with Abraham Isaac 
and Jacob* in Christ. In this recognition of the Divine 
idea of humanity, and its ultimate results, will consist 
w^hat are called the Second Advent and Millennial 
reign of Christ.""!" 

Such, then, is the Theosophic system as put forth 

Theosophy is thus ^y the ablcst of its exponents. So is 

leading to a second -^q. history of humau souls traced from 

league of Babel, which . . . 

will cause the return of their alleged incarceration in stones 

until, having worked their way to man's 

estate, and afterwards progressed so as to know " the 

* "The Perfect Way," pp. 262-3. ^^^ not the reader suppose 
that these names are used in any ordinary sense : the Theosophic 
idea of them, which we subjoin, is pecuUar, and a good example 
of the wa}^ in which the Bible is wrested to suit any theory. 

" Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, were types of Truth, ancestors 
of the spiritual Israel, and representatives of the several sacred 
Mysteries of whose ' kingdom ' the Man Regenerate is always, 
the world regenerate will be ultimatel}^ by adoption and grace, 
the inheritor" (" Perfect Wa}^" p. 259). The writers then give 
an exposition which we can only summarise. 

Abraham— Brahma — represents the Mysteries of India, which 
are those of the Spirit, sacred to the Supreme Being. 

Isaac — a name identical at once with Isis and Jesus (!) — the 
Mysteries of Eg\^t, which are those of the soul, sacred to Isis, 
the goddess of the Intuition, and Mother of the Christ. 

Jacob, the Mysteries of Greece, which are those of the body, 
sacred to Bacchus, whose mystic name, lacchos, is identical 
with Jacob. 

So that, according to these teachers, to be initiated into the 
Mysteries is to become a Member of the Spiritual Israel. 

t In the closing words of this paragraph, the reader will notice 
a furtive attempt to make void the promise of the Lord's return. 
Sometimes, however, the onslaughts of Theosophical writers upon 


truth," they will become able — whether Jews, Christians, 
Buddhists, or Mahommedans — to unite in a universal 
belief of the doctrine that sin is expiated by transmi- 
grations, and in the worship of " the Great Goddess." 
The conception of a second league of Babel has been 
formed in the minds of Theosophists. And as surely 
as it progresses towards its realization, so surely may 
Christian believers know that ere long the Lord will 
again say ; — " This they begin to do : and now nothing 
will be restrained from them which they have imagined 
to do. Come ! Let us go down ! " 

At present the rapid spread of the Theosophic 
philosophy and — which is, perhaps, even more signifi- 
cant — of various ideas, which, harmless or even good as 
they may be in themselves, belong to, and tend to unite 
with, its system, is undeniable. Christians who take 
the trouble to reconnoitre in the darkening twilight are 

this doctrine are much more direct. For instance, Madame 
Blavatski suggests that the early Christian Church must have 
been well versed in Asiatic philosophy ; " otherwise it would 
have neither erected into an article of faith the Second Advent, 
nor cunningly invented the fable of Antichrist as a ;precautioti 
agai7ist future incarnations'' {" Isis Unveiled," vol. ii., p. 535). 
It is, however, difficult to understand how the early Christians 
could have "invented" Antichrist, seeing that they were 
acquainted with very circumstantial prophecies respecting that 
terrible being, which were uttered six or seven centuries before 
the Christian era. And the same remark may be applied with 
still greater force to the Second Advent. 

But both Spiritualists and Theosophists have a special aversion 
to these doctrines, and are eager to explain away any Scripture 
which refers to them. They have no desire to realize the brevity 
of the triumph which will crown their rebellion : it is not their 
wish that the true character of the leader, whom they will rejoice 
to deify, should be exposed : nor have they any pleasure in anti- 
cipating that sudden interposition of the Omnipotent whereby the 
stately image of their power will be in a moment ground to dust, 
and the fallen Son of the Morning, who sustained it, hurled into 
the depths of the Abyss. 


well aware that hostile forces are converging from 
various quarters, but with unmistakable concert, upon 
their camp; while that camp itself is, alas! becoming 
thinned by the almost daily desertions of those who 
cease to believe in the Bible as the only revelation from 
God, and in the Lord Jesus as the One Christ and 
Saviour, Who bare our sins in His own body on the 
tree, and gave His life a ransom for many. As to the 
particular teaching which we have been endeavouring to 
explain, it is so obviously opposed to the Christian 
Scriptures that — since we are at present addressing our- 
selves solely to those who believe in the latter — com- 
ment is almost superfluous. It seems merely necessary 
to k7iow of the doctrines, and of the proposed alliance 
between the great religious systems of the world ; that 
we may understand what are likely to be the tactics of 
the foe, and may pray for grace to hold fast that which 
we have until our Lord come. We shall, therefore, 
offer but a few brief remarks upon some important 

In the first place, then, we are told that Occultism is 

Thephi'osophyofthe the wisdom of primal ages, a revival of 

Mysteries is commended the Only truc philosophy, hcld by all 

neither by their apparent ^ ^ 

origin, nor by their re- the great Tcachcrs of the world, and 
communicated to the initiates of the 
INIysteries. And we are admonished that Christianity, 
although it did contrive to displace the old religion in 
the West, has proved a failure ; and that we must, there- 
fore, return to that which is better, and confess to the 
superiority of ancient sages. 

Now, so far as the origin of Theosophy is concerned, 
we are quite willing to admit the account given by our 
opponents. Of course none but initiates can speak 


positively on such a subject : but all that can be noticed 
by one outside would certainly incline him to acquiesce 
in this statement. 

But, by comparing the Bible with old Mythologies 
and the opinions of modern Theosophists, we have 
shown that the whole system of the jM}-steries was 
probably communicated by those fallen angels who 
transgressed just before and immediately after the 
Flood. And such a source, though undoubtedly ancient, 
can scarcely be expected to inspire confidence. 

Moreover, the past results of this philosophy afford 
but little ground for boasting. Neither time nor oppor- 
tunity had been lacking to it when the crisis came, and 
its leaders were trembling at the rapid progress of 
Christianity : but what was the state of the world after 
so long a subjection to the power and guidance of the 
initiates ? It was a state of moral ruin ; and there 
would be no great difficulty in selecting passages from 
contemporaneous writers which would furnish material 
for a sketch of the universal depravity of the times of 
the Csesars such as would make many a modern indiffer- 
entist stand aghast. Meanwhile, Christianity has never 
yet had the world under her power, as the initiates had 
for so many centuries. Her beginnings were small and 
contemptible : she was not assisted by organized 
Lodges, whose members included almost all the edu- 
cated and respectable men in nearly every town of the 
Empire. On the contrary, she was at first environed 
with cruel persecutions ; and then, as soon as it became 
evident that neither fire, nor wild beasts, nor the tor- 
tures of the executioner, could drive her out of the world, 
she was stealthily seized from behind by those very 
initiates who are now held up to our admiration, and 


who, when the}' had made good their hold, distorted 
her form, disfigured her heavenly beauty with the brand 
of Satan, and compelled her thenceforth to walk the 
earth loaded with the heavy fetters of political Heathen- 
ism. Yet, after all this maltreatment, she retained 
sufficient force to ameliorate somewhat the condition of 
the whole world, and to become the power of God and 
the wisdom of God to those who received her in 

Before leaving this subject we will give a specimen 

DeciaratLns of Hip- of tlic feclings with which contemporary 

poiytus, Bishop of Per- Christians regarded the Mysteries. A 

tus, in regard to the <=> J 

Mysteries. cuHous fragment describing the tenets 

of certain philosophers and logicians had descended to 
us fpom antiquity : it was entitled " The Philosophu- 
mena," and was inserted in the Benedictine copy of 
Origen's works. However, the style was not at all 
that of Origen, nor did the personal allusions suit his 
circumstances ; so that the Benedictine editor suggested 
that Epiphanius might have been the writer. But 
nothing further was known until the year 1842, when 
a manuscript was discovered, in a convent on Mount 
Athos, including seven books of the " Philosophumena, 
or a Refutation of all Heresies." These proved to be 
the greater portion of the work — originally consisting 
of ten books — to which the fragment mentioned above 
also belonged ; and scholars soon found reason to con- 
clude that the author of the whole treatise was 
Hippol}'tus, who had been Bishop of Portus in the first 
half of the third century. 

Now, from the knowledge to which this Hippolytus 
lays claim, it is clear that he must have been an initiate 
of the Greater Mysteries : but upon his conversion he 


appears to have conceived the greatest horror of them, 
both as regards associations and teachings. In the 
preface to his treatise, he affirms that the secret finally 
imparted was " the consummation of wickednesses " ; 
that it was only through silence and the concealment 
of their Mysteries that the initiated had avoided the 
charge of atneism ; and, further, that if any person had 
once submitted to the purgation necessary before the 
secret could be communicated, there was little need to 
secure his silence by oath ; since the shame and mon- 
strosity of the act itself would be sufficient to close his 
mouth for ever. 

Such, then, are some of the reasons which forbid us 
to rejoice at the prospect of a restoration of the Mys- 
teries. Moreover, we cannot but observe a sinister 
omen. Just as the initiates were the avowed enemies 
and persecutors of the early Church, so a great number 
of Theosophical utterances are already breathing a 
terrible spirit of hatred against pure Christianity, which 
they sometimes term " Paulism," and delight to charge 
with all the sins of Pagan and infidel Christendom.* 

Turning now to the doctrines presented to us, we 
No proof of the doc find that wc are required to accept 

trine of Transmigration ^ gygtem SubvCrsivC of all OUr hoOCS, a 
IS oilered : its reception •' i ' 

must depend upon faith, cold iuexorablc fatalism, which knows 
no God of Mercy, no Son of His love ; but demands 
that every sin and stain be burnt out of us by ages of 
pain and trouble, by a succession of hundreds of earth- 

* See extract from " Isis Unveiled" on p. 402. Kenealy, in 
his " Commentary on the Apocalypse," pp. 655-6, makes the 
Beast of Rev. xiii. represent the British Empire, and remarks ; — 
" The Dragon is said to have given it dominion, because the 
Dragon represents Atheism, or the denial of God, which Paulism 
is, and England has done more to extend the dominion of this 
baneful heresy than any other land. The Bible Society distributes 


lives ; many of them spent in the most extreme misery, 
in the worst of circumstances ; some of them in one 
sex, some in the other. But how can we be assured 
of the truth of this astounding theory ? That, Thcoso- 
phists say, is just our strong point. Christianity is the 
offspring of bhnd faith, whereas Theosophy is founded 
upon personal experience, and, therefore, upon true 
knowledge. We fail to see this. Their own theories 
teach that none but adepts can gain an insight into 
realities — Plato's to. ovTa — and how many Theoso- 
phists profess to have acquired the faculty of Intuition .-' 
According to all the authorities we have consulted, 7tol 
a single person who is accessible I Even the writers of 
" The Perfect Way " must have obtained their informa- 
tion through the intuitional memory of some other 
beings, since they do not profess to be the authors of 
their book. Indeed, so far as we are aware, the only 
adepts specifically mentioned are the members of the 
invisible Asiatic Brotherhood, to which reference has 
already been made. And yet, as regards evidence, all 
other Theosophists must simply believe the adept ; so 
that the faith required of them is as absolute as that of 
the Christian. But it is faith in those who come in 
their own name, and project their influence out of 
mystery and darkness, in place of faith in Him Who 
came in His Father's name. Who openly went about 
doing good and healing the people, and of Whose deeds 
and sufferings His apostle was not afraid to say boldly 

millions of our corrupted Scriptures yearly." In his "Book of 
Enoch," the same writer remarks of Paul; — "I do not wonder 
that Swedenborg, who had studied his works for over forty years, 
thought he saw him in Hell ' connected with one of the worst of 
devils ' ; I do not feel surprised that he speaks of him as ' a 
nefarious character' " (p. vii.). 


in the presence of both Roman and Jewish rulers of 
the land ; — " This thing was not done in a corner." 
Theosophy, again, teaches the existence of a feminine 
The conception of a element in the Deity. So did the 

feminine person of the • , -n i- • 1 j •, • 

Trinity is altogether ancient FagaH rcligions : but it IS one 
Pagan and is directly of thc great distinctions between these 

contradicted by bcnp- ^ 

ture. and the Bible that the latter rigidly 

excludes such an idea. Its Trinity is fully unfolded in 
the New Testament, as Father Son and Spirit ; so that 
the only Person Who could represent the IMother would 
be the Holy Spirit. And, true to its Pagan origin, the 
Roman Church seizes upon this apparent opening, and 
elevates to the Godhead her who was never more than 
blessed among women. 

But, on turning to the New Testament, we find that, 
whereas the Greek expression for the Spirit, to TTPevfia, 
is neuter, yet whenever, to emphasize His personality, 
the gender of a connected pronoun is changed, the 
pronoun becomes masculine.* 

Again ; the adjective TrapccKiXi^Tos is sometimes used 
substantively, and applied to the Holy Spirit as the 
Comforter : in such a case it is invariably found in the 
masculine gender, although, grammatically, it might just 
as well have been made feminine.f 

The significance of these facts is unmistakable ; but 
the Divine revelation seems to go still further. In the 
third Gospel we find the following momentous passage ; 
— " The children of this age marry, and are given in 
marriage : but they that are accounted worthy to attain 
to that age, and the resurrection out of the dead, neither 
marry, nor are given in marriage : /or neitJier can they 

* John xvi. 13, 14. 

t John xiv. 16, 26 ; xv. 26 ; x\ i. 7. 


die any more : for they are equal to the angels ; and 
are children of God, being children of the resurrection."* 
It is somewhat strange that the English Authorised 
Version leaves out the " for," or " because," of the clause 
in italics, thereby destroying the sense. Yet this word 
is found in all the best MSS., the only one of any 
importance — so far as we are aware — which omits it 
being the Codex Wolfifii B.f Restoring, then, the 
rejected conjunction — which our Revisers also have 
been careful to do — we educe the meaning, that those 
who are raised to an equality with the awgels do not 
marry, because, being no longer subject to death, they 
have no further need of that succession and renewal 
which marriage is appointed to supply. 

And adding this testimony to that which is revealed 
to us respecting the Trinity, we may fairly infer that 
sex exists only in those orders of beings whose 
numbers are liable to diminution by death. But the 
Pagan conception of a Deity always subjects him more 
or less to human conditions, and frequently, as we may 
learn from the disgraceful lives of the Classic gods, to 
human failings also. 

The doctrine that woman is the true head of creation, 
^^ J . ^ , and that her present subordination to 

The doctrine that the _ '■ 

woman is the head of man is abnormal, a sign of the Fall, 
and the cause of all misery, is a com- 
plete reversal of Biblical revelation, and helps to form a 
group of such reversals on which we shall presently 

* Luke XX. 34-36. 

t Usually known as Codex H., and dating from the ninth cen- 
tury, or later. 

\ From this we may see how emphatically the New Testament 
discountenances the prevalent and monsti'ous doctrine that the 
angels of God are Hermaph.rodites. Into what sanctuar}' will 


have something to remark. Of the difficuity in the 
second chapter of Genesis the writers of " The Perfect 
Way " make short work : they simply change " a help 
meet for him " into " a ruler for him," without conde- 
scending to offer reason or precedent for their arbitrary 
translation. Nor — if they be allowed to give whatever 
meaning pleases them to that word — do they explain how 
it comes to pass that the subjection of the woman is 
consistentl}' taught throughout the Bible ; that she is 
exhorted to obey, and not to rule, her husband ; and is 
admonished that the woman was made for the man, 
and not the man for the woman. 

The so-called atonement is, of course, effected with- 
^, , . , out the help of the Lord Jesus, Who doctrine of atone- '^ _ -^ _ 

ment, or the unification bccomcs lost amid a crowd of " Christs," 

of soul and spirit. . . , , , ^ . 

and IS no longer needed as a baviour 
by those who believe that they can both overcome sin, 
and exalt themselves to be as God, by their own 
unaided strength. Nor is this atonement described as 
a reconciliation to His Father, but as "the unification " 
of soul and spirit within the man. Indeed, the Personal 
God, if He be in any sense recognised by Theosophists, 
is merely mentioned to satisfy the scruples of the pre- 
judiced, and has no real part in the great drama of 
transmigrations. We are reminded of Stuart IMill's 
assurance to his disciples that he was far from objecting 
to the idea of a Supreme Being, and only (!) required 
them to admit that, if there were a God, He never 
interfered with the ordinary course of things. It is 

presumptuous mortals not dare to intrude ? The Countess of 
Caithness pushes the idea so far that she explains the " Immacu- 
late Conception " by it, affirming that our Lord's mother came 
into the world in angelic nature. This knowledge she declares 
to have been given to her by inspiration ! 


clear, therefore, that Theosophy will oftcr no opposition 
to Antichrist's predicted denial of the P^ather and the 

Indeed, all its teachings are but too manifestly 
, directed to the same point. As we 

Ihe assertion that ■*• 

the principal events in havc already sccn, it would have 

our Lord's life were i i- i , x i> it • ^i 

taken from the acts of US Dclieve that our Lord s hlc m the 

the ancient Mysteries. Qospcls,* thoUgh thcrC may bc SOmC 

foundation for it in history, is mainly intended to repre- 
sent the upward struggles of a typical man, until he at 
length attains to Nirvana. And it adds that the principal 
events of that life are mere transcriptions into a history, 
or story, of the acts of the Mysteries, the object of 
which was " to symbolize the several acts in the Drama 
of Regeneration as occurring in the interior and secret 
recesses of man's being."! 

As we before remarked, nothing can, of course, be 
known in regard to the Mysteries save that which the 
initiated may think proper to disclose : but if these acts 
really did correspond to the principal events in our 
Lord's life, we see little reason for surprise. Believing, 
as we do, that much of primal wisdom was communi- 
cated by fallen angels, and that those angels — even if 
we assume that they had no other sources of informa- 
tion — would, with their penetrating vision and collateral 
knowledge, easily decipher the plans of God from His 
prophecies, we cannot wonder if they used what they 
so discovered for their own purposes. And what more 
subtle scheme could they have devised than that of 

* " Their object is, not to give an historical account of the 
physical life of any man whatever, but to exhibit the spiritual 
possibilities of humanity at large, as illustrated in a particular 
and typical example " f " The Perfect Way," p. 230). 

t Ibid., p. 238. 


malcinc^ the very utterances of the AlmiHity the basis 
of their teaching, in order that, by confusing the min,ds 
of men, they might induce them to reject the Son of God ? 
Accordingly, just as the Roman king caused eleven 
The twelve Theoso- shiclds to bc made exactly similar to 
phic Messiahs, the last ^j^^^ which fell from heaven, in order 

of whom IS even now ' 

expected. that no onc might be able to discover 

upon which of the twelve the fate of the Imperial City 
depended ; so the upholders of the Mysteries speak of 
eleven other Messiahs besides the Lord Jesus, and affirm 
that they were from the first appointed to appear at 
intervals, one in each cyclic period termed a Naros, 
•which includes six hundred years. Into the lives of 
many of these false Christs they have contrived to 
interweave stories similar to the facts of the Lord's life, 
especially in regard to the virgin mother, mentioned, 
as we have already seen, in the first of prophecies. 
Eleven of these " Messengers " have already appeared, 
and, according to Kenealy, their names are — Adam, 
Enoch, Fohi, Brigu, Zoroaster, Thoth, Moses, Lao-Tseu, 
Jesus, Mohammed, and Chenzig-Khan. 

These " Messengers " for the most part affected par- 
ticular nations only, and, owing to corruption and the 
ignorance of those who followed them, their teachings 
often seem contradictory. But it " would appear " 
" that the Twelfth Messenger's proper mission is to 
harmonize into one the perverted teachings of the 
Mighty Ones who have preceded him."* And in this 
way he will succeed in establishing " an Universal 
Religion which shall recognise the Messiahs of all 

• Kenealy's "Comm. on the Apoc," p. 685. 
t Ibid., p. 684. 


Again ; of the " Messengers " which have already- 
appeared, Moses Mohammed and Chcnzig-Khan were 
Cabiri, that is, Avengers, or Destroyers ; while the 
remaining eight were properly Messiahs, or Peace- 
bringers. But the Twelfth is to unite the two offices 
in himself We do not doubt it : he will, as Daniel 
predicts, first destroy " the mighty and the holy people,"* 
and " cast down the truth to the ground " ; t and then 
all the world will wonder after him, and worship him, 
and say, " Who is like unto the Beast ? Who is able to 
make war with him ? "J For in this expected Twelfth 
Messenger we recognise the Antichrist, the Lawless 
One, and the Beast, of the Bible, the Parasu-Rama of 
the Hindus, and the Mahdi of the INIahometans, to 
whom power shall be given over every tribe and people 
and tongue and nation, and who will succeed in unit- 
ing East and West in a blasphemous worship of himself, 
until heaven cleaves asunder, with lightning flash, and 
reveals the awful majesty of the Everlasting God. 

But Theosophists give one other particular applying 

Behold, He is in the ^o ^ the expcctcd Twelfth Messenger 
d^^*^"' which has a special interest for those 

who study the prophetic warnings of the Lord Jesus. 
It is contained in the following extract from " The 
Perfect Way." 

'* The man who seeks to be a Hicrarch must not 
dwell in cities. He may begin his initiation in a city, 
but he cannot complete it there. For he must not breathe 
dead and burnt air — air, that is, the vitality of which is 
quenched. He must be a wanderer, a dweller in the 
plain, and the garden, and the mountains. He must 
commune with the starry heavens, and maintain direct 

* Dan. viii. 24. t Dan. viii. 12. J Rev. xiii. 3-4. 


contact with the great electric currents of living air, 
and with the unpaved grass and earth of the planet, 
going bare-foot, and oft bathing his feet. It is in 
nnfrequefited places, in lands such as are mystically 
called the " East," where the abominations of " Babylon " 
are unknown, and where the magnetic chain between 
earth and heaven is strong, that the man who seeks 
Power, and who would achieve the " Great Work," 
must accomplish his initiation,"* 

Even so. Those were, then, no vague and specula- 
tive words to which He, for Whose return w^e are 
looking, gave utterance, when He said ; — " For there 
shall arise false Christs, and false prophets, and shall 
show great signs and wonders ; insomuch that, if it 
were possible, they should deceive the very elect. 
Behold, I have told you before. Wherefore if they 
shall say unto you. Behold, He is in the desert ; go not 
forth : Behold, He is in the secret chambers ; believe 
it not. For as the lightning cometh out of the East 
and shineth even unto the West ; so shall also the 
coming of the Son of Man be,"t 

There remains one doctrine of Theosophy, for which 
^. , , we have not hitherto found place, but 

Theosopnical doc- _ ^ 

trines concerning the wliich must bc mcntioncd bcfore we 

Devil and Satan. , ,i-i , itti -i 1 

close this chapter. We have considered 
the subtleties whereby, Christ being done away, the 
hopes of the world are turned toward the coming Anti- 
christ : it will be well to know what Theosophists have 
to say respecting the Prince of Darkness himself. 

" There is," we are told, " no personal Devil. That 
which, mystically, is called the Devil, is the negation 

* " The Perfect Way," pp. 229-30. 
t Matt. xxiv. 24-27. 


and opposite of God. And whereas God is I A"M, or 
positive Being, the Devil is NOT."* But " the Devil 
is not to be confounded with ' Satan,' though they are 
sometimes spoken of in Scripture as if they were 
identical. In such cases, however. Scripture represents 
but the popular belief. The truth concerning Satan 
belongs to those greater mysteries which hav-e always 
been reserved from general cognition. The ancient 
rule in this respect is still in force."t 

Yes : but it is not likely always to remain so : the 
education of the world is rapidly progressing, and men 
will soon be ready to receive the great secret, which 
will probably be found to have some connection with 
the subject of the note on the fortieth page of this 

There is little doubt that the culmination of the 
]\Iysteries was the worship of Satan himself: many 
facts point to this, and among them we may mention 
the system of the Gnostics, with whom the Demiurge, 
said to be the Creator of the present world and the 
inspirer of the Bible, is an inferior deity, subject to 
another in the far distant background. It would 
appear, then, that from remote ages, probably from the 
time when the Nephilim were upon earth, there has 
existed a league with the Prince of Darkness, a Society 
of men consciously on the side of Satan, and against 
the Most High. And when the feelings of re\erence 
and godliness still retained by the human race have 
been sufficiently submerged by the flood of demon- 
influence which is now being poured upon us from the 
Air, the world will be invited to join the league, to 

* "The Perfect Way," p. 69. 
t Tbid., pp. 70-1. 


reject God and His Anointed, and to worship Anti- 
christ and that old serpent, called the Devil and Satan, 
who will give him his power. 

One of the great secrets of lawlessness has already- 
been offered to and accepted by mankind : the spells 
by which spirits may be summoned from the unseen 
are now known to all ; and those unearthly forms, 
which in past times were projected from the void only 
in the labyrinths caverns and subterranean chambers 
of the initiated, are now manifesting themselves in 
many a private drawing-room and parlour. Men have 
become enamoured of demons, and ere long will receive 
the Prince of the Demons as their God. 

But then the red dawning of the Day of Wrath will 
begin to appear, and the Lord will arise to shake 
terribly the eartli. 





We hav^e seen that the rise of Spiritualism, which is 
Spiritualism and a rctum to the demon-intercourse and 

Theosophy, which are , i • r • , > • 

exoteric and esoteric wonder-workmg of ancient times, soon 
forms ofthe same system, rcsultcd in a rcvival of Occultism, or 

are popularising Budd- ^, -p, i -i 1 ^i 

hism in Christendom, thc Tagan philosophy. Ihese systems, 
therefore, though they may be at issue upon one or two 
unimportant points, have no real antagonism. They 
are but different aspects of the same faith, and will 
doubtless continue to exist side by side, just as they 
did in the old Heathen world — Theosophy becoming 
the creed of the educated and intellectual, while 
Spiritualism influences the masses of mankind. 

But Theosophy identifies its teachings with those 
of the Mysteries, and declares that it is the system 
" which all the great religions of the world have, under 
various guises and with varying degrees of success, 
striven to express." Surely, then, the motive which 
impels thc Prince of the Air to revive such a system in 
countries which have for three hundred years professed 
the name of the Lord Jesus, is sufficiently obvious. 
The hour of his brief triumph is at hand : he is begin- 
ning to draw men into confederation by those teachings 
of Nephilim which were successful in Antediluvian 


times and at Babel : he is organizing his forces with 
the intention of raising again the standard of 
universal rebellion against God and against His Christ. 
He will, therefore, commence in the very heart of 
Christendom that process which shall knit together the 
great religious bodies ; so as, by their combined efforts, 
to overwhelm and destroy the one irreconcilable com- 
munity, the Church of the Lord Jesus. Accordingly, 
we see both Spiritualists and Theosophists, and even 
Agnostics, stretching out the right hand to Buddhism,* 
and procuring for it so much favour in our own country 
that we must not conclude without a few remarks upon 
its origin and doctrine. 

But, in the first place, the close connection subsisting 
between England and the East suggests that Buddhism 
may have had something to do with the propagation of 
its Western form, Theosophy.t For many years Anglo- 
Indians, not strongly attached to the Christian faith, 
have been wont, upon their return home, to express 
great admiration for the purity and self-denial of 

* And if they offer the right hand to Buddhism, the left is at 
the same time extended towards Islam, as we may see in the 
extract on p. 417. The following words, from the preface to E. 
Arnold's " Pearls of the Faith," will also illustrate a widely-spread 
feeling on this point. 

"Thereby that marvellous and gifted Teacher — Mahomet — 
created a vast empire of new belief and new civilization, and 
prepared a sixth part of humanity for the developments and 
reconciliations which later times will bring. For Islam must be 
conciliated ; it cannot be thrust scornfully aside or rooted out. 
It shares the task of the education of the world with its sister 
religions, and it will contribute its eventual portion to 
' that far-off divine ev'ent, 
Towards which the whole creation moves.' " 

t Had Theosophy appeared only in England, we might have 
been inclined to regard its origin as exclusively Eastern. But its 
prevalence on the Continent seems to countenance i\Iadame 


Buddhism. And of late a considerable impulse has 
been given to the study of its sacred literature, and 
some surprise has been excited by the discovery that 
its grosser forms are confined to the more uneducated 
classes, while its esoteric teachings are, at least, equal 
to the philosophies of the West. Its plan of salvation, 
again, does not, like Christianity, strike at the root of 
mortal pride ; and its gradual deification of the human 
race is gratif}'ing to those who will own no higher 
power than man. 

In 1879 the interest already awakened in it was 
Arnold's "Light of ^^'i^^e^y cxtcndcd by the appearance of 
Asia." Edwin Arnold's " Light of Asia." This 

exquisitely beautiful poem relates the story of Sakya 
Muni, and describes his " gentle and far reaching doc- 
trines," in so attractive a manner that it passed rapidly 
through edition after edition, and has done more than 
any other work to popularise Buddhism in England and 
America. But its levelling tendency, as regards the 
Christian religion, may be seen in the following extract 
from an American review. 

" Surely it is by such messages as this poem bears 
that the Christians who believe too narrowly, and the 
sceptics who believe not at all, learn the truth of what 
our own Lowell sang ; — 

God sends His teachers into every age and clime 
With revelations suited to their growth.' " 

But alas ! the great religion of Buddha is but a 

Blavatski's hints of Secret Brotherhoods in various parts of 
Europe, and of adepts, who, preserving a strict incognito as to 
what they really were, have attracted attention as nobles etranget's 
in Paris and elsewhere, and to whose presence in the past she 
attributes the great French Revolution (" Isis Unveiled," vol. ii., 
pp. 402-3). 


slightly altered form of that rebellious creed which men 
probably adopted before they were scattered from Babel. 
It is directly opposed to Divine revelation, because it 
teaches that sin is done away by personal suffering, and 
not by the expiatory sacrifice of the Son of God ; and, 
beneath all its pretended humility, it fosters human 
pride by the Satanic promise, " Ye shall be as God," 
In 1 88 1 a significant event occurred. Mr. Rhys 
Continued influx of Davids, whilc delivering the liibbert 
Buddhist literature into Lccturcs, announccd that a society had 

England. Reprisals 

upon the Christian bccn formcd for the purposc of publishing 
issionary ocieties. trustworthy texts of the early Buddhist 
literature. This society, according to its report issued in 
1823, has met with a success far surpassing the expec- 
tations of its promoters. The interest excited was so 
great that it has been joined by many scholars and 
representatives of public institutions in England, on the 
Continent, and in the United States. Besides which, 
more than seventy leading members of the Buddhist 
Order in Ceylon have enrolled themselves in its ranks, 
and the subscription list includes iJ^200 from the King 
of Siam, and i^20 from H.R.H. Krom Mun Devavansa 

But a great flood of Eastern literature and philosophy, 
in a more popular form, is pouring into England from 
other quarters : nor are the humbler modes of propaga- 
tion neglected ; for we have before us now the second 
edition of an elegantly printed booklet, sold for three- 
pence, which undertakes to prove the superiority of 
Buddha to Christ. Its prefator}^ remarks are summed 
up in the words; — "Buddhism is to Christianity as is 
a palace of light to a fetid dungeon." The result of 
these efforts is already beginning to appear in our 


literature, and their influence is effecting a great change 
in public sentiment. " It is no very uncommon thing," 
says Mr. ]\Iassey, "to meet in society men who declare 
themselves, ' if anything/ Buddhists." 

Meanwhile, many ideas and theories in accord with 
the spirit of Buddhism, and, therefore, 

Con temporaneous '• 

movements and opinions favourable morc or less to the spread of 

favourable to Buddhism. . , . n • . 1 . 

its mfluence, are just now prevalent ; 
some of them, perhaps, owe their origin to it. " The 
learned," sa}'S a Buddhist, " have puzzled themselves 
stupidly over Buddhism ; while the most ignorant in 
Sweden, at the Don, and in America, construct their 
happiness with it, and, in fact, its thoughts are stealing 
unseen through the whole West. We see its effects in 
the great leading lines of Western thought ; in Broad- 
churchism, Universalism, Comtism, Secularism, and 

Certainly the revival of Mysticism, of which we get 
many proofs through the press and a few from the 
pulpit, is opportune for its progress: and the same may 
be said of the popular evolutionary philosophy. Were 
the latter kept within its proper limits, and applied only 
to the changes which have really taken place, through 
variations in clim.ate circumstances food and other 
causes, and which have doubtless multiplied species 
during the last six thousand years, the study would be 
interesting and harmless. But when, in defiance of 
Scripture and Geology, attempts are made to carry it 
further, and to prove that the six earth-tribes, which 
God created to form the present world, f were not at 
first distinct types, but were evolved from each other ; 

* " Christ and Buddha Contrasted,"' pp. 92-3. 
t See p. 174. 


such teaching is not merely false in itself, but also pre- 
pares the way for the Buddhist dogma of transmigra- 
tion, and leads very decidedly in the direction of virtual 

Again ; the temperance-crusade, which is now being 
carried on with such ardour, is doubtless a necessity in 
consequence of the abuse of stimulants. But, while 
very many of those who take part in it are earnest 
Christians, there are others whose enthusiasm uncon- 
sciously exalts abstinence to the place of religion. 
These may presently notice that Christ has never pro- 
hibited the use of wine, but left it among the things that 
are lawful, though, of course, circumstances may render 
them inexpedient, or even dangerous ; whereas Buddha, 
on the other hand, has forbidden it altogether.* 

Lastly ; most praiseworthy efforts have been for some 
years made to mitigate the sufferings of animals. But 
the writer has lately seen letters from one or two 
Christians engaged in the anti-vivisection movement, 
complaining that their society is being swamped, and 
their periodicals occupied, by Theosophists who have 
taken up the work on Buddhist principles, because they 
believe in transmigration. Other instances might be 
cited : but from these it will be evident that many 
causes are just now conducing to a favourable reception 
of Buddhism, and to the removal of prejudices which 
might have stood in the way of its recognition as one 
of the great and beneficial religions of the world. 

* The following- verse is taken from the "Buddhist Beatitudes," 
as given by Mr. Rhys Davids in his " Buddhism." 

" To abhor, and cease from sin, 
Abstinence from strong drink, 
Not to be weary in well doing, 
These are the greatest blessing." 


Since, then, it appears to be rising into such unexpected 
prominence, it may be well to give a slight sketch of 
its origin. 

When the rebellious confederacy of the sons of Noah 
Migration of Aryan ^^'^s brokcn up by the confusion of 
tribes to Hindustan. tongucs, it would sccm that the ancestors 
of the Aryan nations left the plains of Shinar in a bod\-, 
and moved towards the East. They appear to have 
spoken a common language, and doubtless carried with 
them the religion and philosophy which had, perhaps, 
been handed down from antediluvian times by Ham, 
or revealed by the Nephilim themselves subsequently to 
the flood.* Probably they journeyed on through Asia 
until they reached Bactria, and at the time of their 
sojourn in that country seem — so far as we can discover 
from an examination of the roots which are common 
to all Aryan languages — to have made considerable 
advance in civilization. Then, whether from increasing 
numbers or other causes, they appear to have separated 
into several tribes, some of which wandered Westward 
from place to place, until they settled in Europe, and 
eventually became known as Greeks, Romans, Teutons, 
and Slavs : others moved to the table-land of Iran : a 
third multitude swarmed into the valley of the Indus, 
and made their home amid the Seven Rivers.f Upon 
these last, however, fresh tribes kept pressing from 
behind ; so that at length they began to pass the 
boundaries of the Panjab, and to advance, driving the 
Dravidians and Kolarians before them, into the Land 

• In Gen. vi. 4 — see pp. 209-10 — they are said to have dwelt 
upon earth after the flood as well as before it. 

t The date of this immigration is uncertain : probably it took 
place about 2000 B.C. 


of the Ganges, where they founded the great kingdom 
of Magadha. 

Then followed a season of comparative peace, during 

Formation of the which thc ucw inhabitants settled, and 

c.-.stes, and ultimate began to apply thcmselvcs to quiet 

supremacy of the Brah- ° i. sr j i 

mans. pursuits. By force of circumstances, 

they soon fell apart into three distinct classes, or castes. 
The military nobility, or Kshatriyas, were, at the close 
of the long war, naturally regarded as first in rank : 
the Brahmans, or minstrels and priests, came next. 
And, lastly, there were the farmers and peasants, who 
tilled the soil, and did not go out to war except in 
times of emergency : these were called Vaisyas,* and 
formed the third caste. But in addition to thc Aryan 
immigrants themselves, there was also a population of 
Turanians, suffered to live among their conquerors as 
inferiors and slaves : these, under the name of Sudras, 
made up a fourth caste.f 

For some centuries the Kshatriyas retained their 
supremacy : but at length, by craft and compromise, 
the Brahmans succeeded in procuring the recognition of 
themselves as the first order, and from that time took 
eveiy possible precaution to strengthen and perpetuate 
the institution of caste. Hence the rigid laws which 
forbade intermarriage, and inexorably confined every 
man to the caste in which he was born : while, as a 
check upon the discontent which naturally resulted, the 

* The word Vaisya originally meant a tribesman, or comrade, 
and was applied to all Arj-ans to distinguish them, as the ruling 
people, from the subject aborigines. In course of time, however, 
it became the special name of the third caste. 

t This fourth caste was, however, absolutely excluded in all 
matters of religion, and was recognised neither in the Avesta, or 
law of East Iran, nor in that of the Ganges. 


Brahmans found a powerful aid in the doctrine of trans- 
migration.* They affirmed that it was necessary for 
every bein^f, in working his way to perfection, to pass 
successively through all the castes ; so that in subse- 
quent lives an exemplary Sudra would become a 
Vaisya, a Vaisya a Kshatriya, and so on. 

The sacred books of theie people were the four Vcdas 
TheVedas. — the Rig-vcda, the Yajur-veda, the Sama- 
veda, and the Atharva-veda, the contents of which 
prove the Brahman religion to be the most comprehen- 
sive ever instituted. Each of them consists of three 
parts, the IMantras, the Brahmanas, and the Upanishads, 
of which the ^Mantras are the oldest. These are hymns 
of prayer and praise, some of the more ancient, without 
doubt, the common property of the whole Aryan family, 
chanted, it may be, in remote ages by our own ancestors ; 

* Spiritualistsapprehendthatthe forces which they are helping- to 
set in motion will render a similar check again necessary, if the 
world is to be preserved from anarchy. And that the minds of 
some of them are, consequently, turning towards Buddhism the 
following remarkable passage will show. 

" The spectacle of our sickly faiths drooping and perishing in 
a hostile intellectual environment is the most dismal that a mind 
of any sincerity can contemplate. We seem to be approaching 
a time when the ' organized hypocrisy ' of our churches will be as 
cr)-ing a scandal to human intelligence as monasticism had 
become to human morality three-and-a-half centuries ago. And 
when it comes, it will be a period of upheaval in more than one 
direction. The positive unbelief, which is visibly extending from 
the intellectual aristocracy to the multitude, will almost certainly 
react with destructive force upon political and social arrange- 
ments. It cannot but suggest the redress of inequalities in this 
world to those who have lost the shadowy hope of compensation 
in the next. Many a thoughtful mind must have dwelt with 
anxiety on this prospect, without seeing from what quarter the 
reconstruction of religious faith upon a permanent basis could be 
expected. Can it be that to ' the bloodless and innocent record 
of Buddhism ' will be added this claim upon human gratitude 
and love?" (C. C. Massey, in Light, June i6th, 1883.) 


while Others were subsequently added. If recited, or 
sung, in due form, they were supposed to exercise a 
magic power which not even the gods could resist, and 
to this day they are used as spells, either for impreca- 
tion, or for the purpose of averting the influence of evil 
spirits. In verse, which sometimes rises to a lofty 
strain, they inculcate a worship of the powers of nature, 
and testify to a fear of malignant demons exactly 
similar to that w^hich is expressed in the Chaldean 
magical spells. Their subjects are various. " The 
Vedas," says Lillie, " contain the root-idea of most of 
the dogmas and religious rites of the world." They 
reveal a Trinity in unity, and from the initials of one 
set of its names — Aditi, Varuna, Mitra — it is probable 
that the mystic word Auni, or, as it is sometimes 
written, O'ln, was formed. 

]\Iost of the IMantras seem to have been in use while 
the Aryans still tarried in the valley of the Indus ; but 
the Brahmanas are of a later date. They mark very 
decidedly the change from the religion of the prophet, 
or Rishi, to that of the priest, and expound the sacrifi- 
cial system and ritualism of the Brahmans, developed 
after the immigration into the Land of the Ganges. 

Lastly ; the Upanishads — called the Jndna Kdnda, 
or Department of Knowledge — contain the philo.sophy 
of Brahmanism, and begin to date, apparently, only 
from the sixth century before Christ. These writings 
work out the doctrine ; — " There is but one Being, no 
second." " That is," in the words of Monier Williams, 
" nothing really exists but the one Universal Spirit, and 
whatever appears to exist independently is identical 
with that Spirit." The result of the controversies 
arising from these Pantheistic treatises was Buddhism : 


unless we should rather say that both the Upanishads 
and Buddhism were results of that wave of thought 
which was at the time passing over the civilized world. 
For Buddha in Hindustan was not the only great 
teacher of his age. In the same epoch Zoroaster would 
seem to have been communicating his philosophy to the 
Persians ; while Pythagoras was instructing men in 
Greece, and Confucius in China. 

In the beginning of the sixth century, then, the Brah- 
Brahmanism super- m^ns wcrc at the height of their power, 
seded by Buddhism. ^j^d mctt wcrc Writhing beneath the 
tyranny of caste, and were harassed by the necessity of 
endless expiatory sacrifices and purifications, a neglect 
of which would bring danger to liberty and present 
life, besides involving terrific punishments in the many 
hells of which their priests taught, and in future incar- 
nations. But thoughtful minds began to reflect as they 
looked around on the misery of the world, and to 
inquire whether the doctrines which produced such 
bitter fruits could possibly be true : a leader was 
needed to inaugurate a new order of things : he 
appeared in the person of Buddha : caste, sacrifice, 
ritual, and priestcraft, were rapidly undermined and 
swept away : and Buddhism rose to the supremacy in 
Hindustan, and maintained its position for many long 
centuries, until at length, having become corrupted, it 
gradually yielded to that compound of itself with 
Brahmanism which may be termed Hinduism. 

But its triumphs were by no means confined to 
,„ ,, Hindustan : its power was acknowledged 

Propagatfon of Budd- *■ ° 

hism beyond the limits from the Volga to thc Japancsc islands. 

in ustan. j^ entered Africa and penetrated to 

Alexandria : the secret societies of the Therapeutae and 


the Essenes drew their inspiration from it : the Gnos- 
tics were its children.* Nay, recent investigations have 
made it probable that Buddha was once the god of 
Northern Europe, and that his name is philologically 
identical with that of Woden, from which we take our 
appellation of the fourth day of the week. And, 
finally, it appears to be demonstrated that, in the fifth 
century, some Chinese Buddhists succeeded in reaching 
America, and established their faith in that remote land, 
more than nine hundred years before a thought of its 
existence entered the mind of Columbus. Even at the 
present time Buddhism dominates some five hundred 
millions of souls, or about forty per cent, of the whole 
human race, and stands, without a rival, the most 
widely extended, and, in point of numbers, most 
successful religion of the world. 

Those who worship majorities are already beginning 
to adduce the facts just stated as a proof of Buddha's 
superiority to Christ. But students of Scripture are 
not troubled by such an argument. They are well 
aware that the characteristic of this age, as foretold by 
their Lord, is ; — " Strait is the gate, and narrow is the 
way, which leadeth unto life, and fczv there be that find 
it " ; and they remember His charge ; — " I have told 
you before it come to pass, that, when it is come to 
pass, ye might believe." They know that His " little 
flock " must patiently wait until He returns to take the 
Kingdom : then everything will be reversed, and He 

* The idea that Gnosticism was a kind of Christianity is one of 
the strangest figments of ecclesiastical history. It was rather, 
as Chifiet defines it, " the spirit of Asiatic antiquity endeavouring 
to usurp the empire over the human soul by insinuating itself into 
the Christian Church." 


must needs at length have the supremacy in numbers 
as in all thinc^s. 

We cannot, of course, find space to discuss the story 
' The similarity of the of Buddha : it is probablc, however, 
IrMstolyTcL^: that there is very little history in it. 
is only superficial. ^s Tcgards its alleged parallelism with 
the life of Christ, we have already remarked that Satan 
must have known the prophecies of God respecting the 
latter. He must also have been aware that he was 
himself to play no inconsiderable part in its stupendous 
drama, and would, within certain limits, be permitted to 
arrange its temptations, whether in the wilderness, in 
the garden, or on the cross, according to his own plans. 
We have, then, no cause for surprise if, with a purpose 
which is now becoming too evident, he rehearsed some 
of the scenes beforehand. 

But with all their similarity there is an inexpressible 
difference between the legends of Buddha and the 
history of Christ, and of this we will give one or two 
instances. In the Gospels, the circumstances of the 
conception are narrated with the dignity and reserve 
which become so transcendent a mystery. But Buddha 
comes down from heaven, and enters the womb of his 
mother in the shape of a white elephant, with a head 
the colour of cochineal, and with tusks of gold. Nor 
are these the only particulars given. 

Again ; the history of our Lord's birth, and of His 
cradle in the manger, because there was no room for 
Him in the inn, bears upon it the stamp of truth. 
Buddha's mother, on the other hand, was in the garden 
of Lumbini when he was born. Surrounded by sixty 
thousand beautiful cloud-nymphs, she proceeded towards 
a stately tree, which immediately bent down its branches 



to salute and ovcrsliadow her. According to the 
Thibetan version, as soon as the infant Buddha touched 
the ground a large white lotus sprang up : he seated 
himself upon it, and cried, " I am the chief of the world : 
this is my last birth," in words which rolled forth with 
mighty sound through all the worlds. Then two 
serpent-kings, Nanda and Upananda, appeared in the 
sky, and rained down water upon the child. 

We need not pursue the subject further : it will be 
sufficiently evident that these Eastern stories are 
altogether different from the Gospels. It may, however, 
be replied ; — But they are merely legends : why not 
deal with the history of Buddha t Unfortunately the 
historical data are of the very vaguest description, and, 
if we leave the legends, we must give up the miraculous 
conception, and all the main points of the alleged 
parallelism with the life of Christ. It is scarcely 
necessary to add that no detailed prophecies of the 
advent of Buddha were promulgated centuries before 
his appearance, as in the case of Christ. 

The system of Buddha may be briefly summed up as 

The teaching of fol^OWS :— 


I. There is no God, save what man can himself 

* Mr. Lillie has attempted to dispute this statement against 
the weight of authority. But one consideration seems fatal to 
his argument: the evolutionary system of Buddha, and "the 
infiexilDle justice of Karma,'''' leave no room for the action of a 
Supreme Being. " The wondrously endowed representatives of 
occult science," says Mr. Sinnett, "never occupy themselves 
at all with any conception remotely resembling the God of 
Churches and Creeds." Buddhists are, however, able to gratify 
that irresistible disposition of the human mind to worship 
something : they can venerate their saints, those deified men, 


II. The state of Nirvana, or perfection, is reached by 
means of transmigrations, or a succession of earth-h'ves, 

III. So long as a man retains any desire for earthly 
things he must continue to be reborn upon earth, 

IV. Therefore, the shortest way to Nirvana is by a 
severe asceticism, suppression of all action, abstract 
meditation, and a concentration of all desire upon the 
extinction of earth-life. 

V. Animal sacrifices, and every kind of vicarious 
suffering, are useless, and must be done away. 

VI. All men are equal : therefore, caste must be 

Such are the main points of Sakya Muni's teachings : 
for the present our brief commentary must be no more 
than this. The circumstances which led to the rise of 
Buddhism, as described above, and its consequent 
doctrines, could not but bring it into favour with the 
iconoclastic and levelling spirit which is now abroad. 
Its severe asceticism is no bar to this : since in our 
self-indulgent age nothing is more common than to hear 
men warmly supporting a theory in the abstract, without 
any intention of submitting to it in practice. Its, at 
least, virtual Atheism renders it attractive to Secularists : 
its mysticism and introspection allure minds disposed to 

like the gods of Homer, who have attained to Nirvana ; but 
who, powerless to interfere in the troubles of their votaries, 
may only take their part in turning the slow, dreary, monoto- 
nous, inexorable, and endless Wheel of Life. "Within the 
limits of the solar system " — we are again quoting Mr. Sinnett 
— "the mortal adept knows, of his own knowledge, that all 
things are accounted for by law, working on matter in its 
diverse forms, plus the guiding and modifying influence of the 
highest intelligences associated with the solar system, the 
Dhyan Chohans — or Planetary Spirits — the perfected humanity of 
the last preceding mafwaniara " ("Esoteric Buddhism," pp. 


Quietism. In all essentials its doctrine is csotcrically 
identical with that of Theosophy, upon which we have 
already remarked. In both s}'stcms we are undoubtedly 
confronted with Satan's plan of salvation, communicated 
from the earliest times — probably by the Nephilim — 
to those who could bear it, and preserved in the esoteric 
teachings of the Rishis, the Brahmans, and the Budd- 
hists of the East, and in the Mysteries of the West. 
And the plan is, that, without God or Saviour, men 
must wear away their own sins, and as soon as they 
have done so will become gods. 

But if the esoteric teaching of Buddhism coincides 

Connection of Budd- with Thcosophy, its general practice is 

hism and Spiritualism, jj^ entire Sympathy with Spiritualism. 

lomb-worship, relics, j sr j r 

and images. For worship — if wc may so term it — 

among the Buddhists is largely connected with the 
cultus of the dead, who are believed to have the power 
of conferring aid and blessings upon those who seek to 
them. But an addition was made to this doctrine, 
which has been adopted by Romanists, and is beginning 
to show itself in the churchyard-mediums and some 
other features of Spiritualism. While the spirit of a 
deceased person was not supposed to remain in his 
corpse, " there was evidently a belief that a certain 
animal magnetism, or some occult force, made it more 
easy for the disembodied spirit to return and communi- 
cate with living mortals when they were in the actual 
presence of his corpse. This explains much in the 
rites of both the Brahmans and the Buddhists, the 
tomb-worship, relic-worship, and image-worship."* 

For the doctrine was extended to any portion of 

* Lillie's " Buddha and Early Buddhism," pp. 36-7. 


human remains. Hence, " in the Cingalese history of 
the famous tooth of Buddha, the tooth is constantly 
represented as acting as if the remainder of Buddha's 
person, though invisible, joined the tooth when great 
miracles were necessary." * As the natural result of 
such an idea, " Bengal was by-and-by covered with 
stately topes and columns, each supposed to contain a 
minute fragment of Buddha's relics." And, probably, 
the skulls and bones worn by the Brahman Rishis who 
frequented the cemeteries are to be explained in the 
same way. 

The introduction of images, again, seems to have 
been an advance upon corpse and relic-worship. A 
likeness of the departed was supposed in some way to 
attract his spirit to it, and hence " the solemn marble 
Buddhas, each seated on his throne, the four great 
Dhyani Buddhas, the eighteen great disciples that figure 
in every temple in China, and the crowd of minor saints. 
Directly the crystal eyes are put into an image in China, 
the spirit of the departed is supposed to animate it." \ 

Mr. Lillie sums up his chapter on Buddhist demon- 
ology, from which the above extracts are taken, in the 
following words. " Buddhism was plainly an elaborate 
apparatus to nullify the action of evil spirits by the aid 
of good spirits operating at their highest potentiality 
through the instrumentality of the corpse, or a portion 
of the corpse, of the chief aiding spirit. The Buddhist 
temple, the Buddhist rites, the Buddhist liturgy, all 
seem based on this one idea that a whole, or portions 
of a dead body was necessary." 

» Lillie's " Buddha and Early Buddhism," p. 38. 
t Ibid. , p. 39. 


There can be .little doubt that the Buddhist tope is 
Affinity of Buddhism thc Original of the Roman Church, the 
and Romanism. ^^^^^ fcaturc of which Is its high altar 

containing beneath it some relic of the patron saint.* 
But the two religions have very many other things in 
common, among which we may mention the crozicr, 
mitre, dalmatic, cope, and censer swinging on five 
chains ; sacerdotal celibacy, worship of saints, fasts, 
processions, litanies, holy water, the tonsure, confession, 
relic-worship, the use of flowers lights and images on 
the altar, the sign of the cross, the worship of the Queen 
of Heaven, the aureole, the mystic fans of peacocks' 
feathers carried on either side of the Popes and Llamas on 
grand festivals, the orders of the ministry, and the 
architectural details of the churches. 

But if both religions are daughters of Babylon — and 
who can study the slabs and cylinders in the British 
Museum without feeling sure that they are } — the strong 
family likeness is no matter for wonder. And by 
helping to make this obvious, and bringing Buddhism 
into the favourable notice of Christendom, Spiritualists 
have removed a great obstacle to the coming religious 
union of the world. 

With one more remark we close this necessarily brief 
Buddha or Christ? and impcrfcct chapter. According to 
the statement of the Himalayan adepts, an ordinary 
being must pass through some eight hundred incarna- 
tions before he can complete his purification from sin, 
and attain to the rest of Nirvana. During the weary 
ages of these existences he must struggle with blind 

* Thus, if we look back to their origin, neither tope nor church 
is a place of worship used as a cemeter}', but a cemetery utilized 
as a place of worship. 

BUDDIIIS^^, 455. 

fate and with his own corruptions ; there is no God of 
love and of all comfort to Whom he can look and pray : 
he must either, by his own painful and unaided exer- 
tions, raise himself to the gods, or retrograde, in ever 
increasing misery and vileness, until he drops unpitied 
into the bottomless abyss of annihilation^ 

" Higher than Indra's ye may lift your lot, 
And sink it lower than the worm or gnat ; 
The end of many myriad lives is this, 
The end of myriads that. 

" Only, while turns that wheel invisible, 

No pause, no peace, no staying place can be ; 
Who mounts will fall, who falls may mount; the spokes 
Go round unceasingly." 

It is said that the incarnations of one soul, together 
with the intervening periods spent in Devachan or 
Avitchi — Paradise or Purgatory — would occupy some 
seventy millions of years ! There is a certain wisdom 
in this calculation leading us to suspect that it comes 
from a source wiser, at least, than any which is merely 
human. It exhibits some appreciation of the frightful 
nature of sin, and of the gigantic task set before the 
man who would fain be his own Saviour. 

With what thankfulness should we turn to the gracious 
Lord Whose blood speaks better things to us ; Who, 
looking on the sin-stricken and penitent face of the 
paralytic, said, " Son, be of good cheer ; thy sins are 
forgiven," and in a moment effected that work for 
which Buddha demands ages ; Who beholding with 
pitying gaze the fast-falling tears of the contrite woman 
at His feet, took the burden of her guilt upon Himself, 
and bade her depart in peace. 

No melancholy, unbefriended, and almost endless 


way lies before His disciples. Nay, He Himself is 
with them ahvay, even unto the end : He guides His 
sheep through the wilderness of life, gently leading 
those that are with young, and carrying the lambs in 
His bosom. He has not only borne the sins of His 
people, but will also sanctify them wholly, spirit soul 
and body, and present them faultless before the pre- 
sence of His glory, with exceeding joy, by that mighty 
working whereby He is able even to subdue all things 
unto Himself. 

Thanks be unto God for His unspeakable giftl 




We have finished our brief survey of the strange 
Theory of Transmi- phases of thought now affecting the 
^''''°°- theology and philosophy of Christen- 

dom : it only remains to group together those 
features of the movement which, as we compare them 
with the ancient predictions of Scripture, almost seem 
to take bodily shape before our eyes, and, like heralds, 
to announce the near approach of Antichrist and the 
close of the age. 

And first the reader will have observed that Salva- 
tion without a Saviour is the characteristic doctrine of 
the three systems at which we have been glancing ; 
and that this doctrine rests, solely in Theosophy and 
Buddhism, and to an increasing extent in Spiritualism, 
upon the theory of reincarnations. One would have 
thought such a prospect sufficiently dismal ; neverthe- 
less, it appears to find favour with many, chiefly, no 
doubt, because it brings with it a delusive hope of that 
independence which unregenerate man is ever craving. 
And it falls in with a common fancy, that, on rare 
occasions, some dim memory of a former acquaintance 
with persons or places has been known to flash across 


the mind — an idea which D. G. Rossctti thus 

expresses ; — 

" I have been here before, 

But when, or how, 1 cannot tell : 
I know the grass beyond the door, 
The sweet keen smell. 
The sighing sound, the lights around the shore. 

" You have been mine before — 
How long I may not know : 
But just when at that swallow's soar 
Your neck turned so. 
Some veil did fall — I knew it all of yore. 

*' Then, now — perchance again ! 

O round mine eyes your tresses shake I 
Shall we not lie as we have lain 
Thus for love's sake, 
And sleep and wake, yet never break the chain ? " 

These verses may have been suggested by the 
teaching of Buddha respecting himself and his wife 
Yasodara ; at least they are an exact transcript of it. 
In Wordsworth's Intimations of Immortality, again, 
we find the following lines ; — 

" Our birth is but a sleep and a forgetting : 
The Soul that rises with us, our life's Star, 
Hath had elsewhere its setting. 
And Cometh from afar." 

And even ]\Irs. Hemans, in dealing with " the spirit's 

mysteries," says ; — 

" The power that dwelleth in sweet sounds to waken 
Vague yearnings, like the sailor's for the shore. 
And dim remembrances, whose hue seems taken 
From some bright former state, our own no more ; 
Is not all this a mystery ? Who shall say 
Whence are those thoughts, and whither tends their way ? " 

Undoubtedly such imaginings strike a responsive 
chord in human hearts, and discourse sweetly and 
soothingly of a thought congenial — as its universality 


shows — to human minds. But we may not mould the 
articles of our faith from poetic musings, which have 
ever been the mightiest agencies for the spread of 
delusion. To receive ideas as truths because they come 
in ravishing form, and we are moved by every impulse 
of our fallen nature to love them, is indeed to surrender 
ourselves to the power of Maya. It is nothing less 
than, like the ostrich, to hide our head in the sand, 
content to revel in fond dreams for a moment, while 
the Rider on the pale horse scours the plain towards us, 
brandishing his glittering dart, and bringing Hades and 
Eternity in his train. For of things beyond our 
natural ken we can understand only what is revealed : 
and if we must cross the fixed boundary into forbidden 
lands, our expedition will simply procure for us teach- 
ings of demons, having no connection with truth, but 
only representing the views which the Powers of Evil 
are anxious to disseminate at the time. 

But, to return to our immediate subject, the growing 
^ ^ . . popularity of the doctrine of transmi- 

The Transmigration ^ -^ ^ 

theory is essentially gration in so-callcd Christian countries 

Antichristian. . • . 1 1 1 , • /• • 

is an unmistakable preparation for the 
end. For this theory not only denies the Son, in that 
it does not include His atoning sacrifice, but also 
virtually ignores the Father, Who is by no means indis- 
pensable to its cheerless scheme.* 

• We have noticed the Atheism of Buddhism : it might seem 
as thoui;h Hinduism were setting in the opposite direction to this 
doctrine of Antichrist. But the contrary is really the case : both 
religions appear to be much the same esoterically. " The 
bloodthirsty idols and gluttonous gods " of Hinduism are for the 
masses : the initiated assign them all to the domain of Maya, or 
Hlusion. The formal creeds are but gross and temporary bodies, 
through which those who have the eye of knowledge see the real 
spirit ; and he who has learned to do this is not troubled with 


Thus the great threefold movement which is spread- 
ing among us is beginning to develop the spirit which, 
according to the plain statement of the Apostle John,* 
will culminate in Antichrist. 

Yet again ; while in the case of professing Christians 

The systems described i^ IS dcstroying thc foundations of the 

above are provoking faith, it is eIso raising the world in 

judgment by defymg the ^ ^ , 

primal laws given to the insurrcction against God, as will appear 

World before the elec- /• , , i • • i • i ^ • 

tion of Israel and the irom the suDjomed Considerations. 


In the fourth chapter of the Apocalypse there is a 
grand description of the Almighty seated upon His 
throne of judgment. The crisis, as discovered by the 
context and other prophecies, is important : for the 
Church has just been removed from earth, because the 
time to restore the kingdom to Israel has come.f But, 
since that kingdom was formerly transferred to the 
nations in the days of Nebuchadnezzar, its surrender 
cannot be demanded without just cause : for which 
reason the Lord would seem to have come down in 
awful majesty, that He may hold His great controversy 
with the Gentiles, and, after judging their failure, close 
the times of their dominion. 

The accessories of the throne are significant, and 
point to the Noachian covenant : for the rainbow 
encircles it, and at its base sit the Cherubim, the repre- 

refarence to his belief in the popular gods. On the other hand, 
to satisfy the cravings of the ignorant, Buddhists have been 
forced to invent deities, especially the Queen of Heaven, the Lily 
Lady, the Mother of Buddha, Marichi, or our Lady, by each of 
which titles this goddess is known in China. All false religions 
alike seem to have two sides — for the multitude, superstition ; 
for the intellectual, Pantheism. Hence it will, perhaps, be- no 
very difficult task for a master-mind to fuse them into one. 
* I John ii. 22. t See "The Great Prophecies." 


sentatives of those earth-tribes to which the promises 
were made. But tliis covenant was God's final call to 
the world to arrange its government in accordance with 
Divine principles — a call which, as the rebellion of 
Babel and the history of the Cities of the Plain too 
evidently testify, was utterly disregarded. Then the 
plans of the Almighty were changed, and, restricting 
His more direct dealings, for a time, within narrower 
limits, He miade two successive elections from the great 
masses of mankind. First His choice fell upon the 
children of Abraham, whom He placed under a special 
covenant : subsequently the Church was separated off, 
from Jew as well as Gentile, by peculiar laws, and by 
privileges and promises available only to such as should 
pass within her pale. 

But the remainder of men, who are neither Israelites 
by natural nor members of Christ by spiritual birth, 
cannot, at least, avoid their responsibility to obey laws 
which were imposed without distinction upon the whole 
race of Adam, which have never been repealed, and the 
violation of which will, consequently, be visited with 
punishment at the hand of the Creator, the Lord God 
Almighty. Indeed, it is manifestly to judge the world 
for its disobedience to these laws that God sits upon the 
rainbow-encircled throne. 

Now it is a grave fact that the advocates of modern 
thought array themselves against every principle of 
these early revelations of the Divine will. In proof of 
this the readers of our previous chapters will need little 
more than a bare enumeration of what we may call the 
cosmic or universal laws, which are as follows : — 

I. The law of the Sabbath.* It was to the world 

* Gen. ii. 3 


that God declared the Seventh Day sanctified, not to the 
IsraeHtes : therefore, the world is responsible. To the 
Israelites God merely said, " Remember the Sabbath 
day, to keep it holy,"* thus admonishing them not on 
their part to neglect the long established and universal 

II. The headship of the man over the woman. f This 
is not simply denied ; attempts arc actually being made 
to reverse it. 

III. The institution of marriage, and its indissolubility 
during life on the ground that the man and woman 
become one flesh. i The varied antagonism to this 
law, resulting in part from the false teaching that the 
really married are one spirit rather than one flesh, has 
been sufficiently discussed. 

IV. The law of substitution, that life must atone for 
life, and that without shedding of blood there is no 
remission, as taught in type by animal sacrifices.^ 
Latter-day philosophers affect the utmost horror of such 
a salvation, and will have none of Christ. 

V. The command to use the flesh of animals as 
food. (I This is rejected by many Spiritualists, and by 
all Theosophists and Buddhists. 

VI. The decree that "whoso sheddeth man's blood 
by man shall his blood be shed."*I[ This is opposed 
on the ground of its inhumanity (!), and because by the 
execution of a murderer "you cut him off debased, 
degraded, sensual, ignorant, mad with rage and hate, 
thirsting for vengeance on his fellows : you remove 

* Exod. y.x. 8. 

t Gen. ii. 18-23 ; iii. 16 ; i Tim. ii. 11-14. 
X Gen. ii. 24; Matt. xix. 4-9 ; Rom. vii. 2, 3. 
§ Gen. iv. 3-5. || Gen. ix. 3. ^ Gen. ix. 6. 


from him the great bar on his passions, and send him 
into spirit-Hfe to work out without hindrance the 
deviHsh suggestions of his inflamed passions." * In 
such terms are the spirits of evil daring to withstand 
the counsels of the living God. 

VII. The direction to multiply and replenish the 
earth t — a mandate which implied dispersion and the 
forming of those nations for which, as Moses tells us, 
God divided out the earth, % and which are to remain 
until the close of the Millennium. At Babel the world 
resisted this ordinance, and now men are renewing 
their efforts to the same end by maintaining that we 
should be humanitarians, cosmopolitans, anything but 
lovers of our own country. This is, perhaps, a prepara- 
tion for the reign of Antichrist " over every tribe and 
people and tongue and nation." Cosmopolitanism 
will, apparently, be as necessary to his development as 
it was to the primal insurrection of Nimrod. 

The new phases of thought are, then, obliterating all 
the first principles which God laid down for the human 
race as the basis of its mode of life, society, and 
government — a fact ominous of coming judgment. 
And from this point of view the movement may be 
regarded as a revolt of the world against God. 

But it is also, as the reader will have observed, 

Every particular of the fulfilling to the letter the important 

prophecy in the First prophccyln the First Epistle to Timothy. 

Epistle to Timothy is^^. *^, ^ 

now in process of fulfil- Men are confessedly receiving instruction 

from demons ; and if we glance at the 

published specimens of spirit-teachings, we have no 

difficulty in detecting the lies spoken in hypocrisy. 

* " Spirit Teachings," p. 19. 
+ Gen. ix. I. J Deut. xxxii. 8. 



I\Iany are teaching abstinence from flesh : the aboHtion 
of marriage, either avowed or virtual, is being un- 
scrupulously preached. And these signs are appearing, 
as Paul predicted that they would, coincidcntly with an 
apostacy, or falling away, from the great truths re- 
specting the Godhead and incarnation of the Lord 

Again, the monstrous theory of a plurality of 

" Christs " has been invented, and is 
pJpheL'^'^^"^"''^'" being taught, not, we may be sure. 

without a plan for its application to 
coming events. Already signs and wonders are being 
shown by prophets who will, perhaps, ere long proclaim 
their Messiahs ; already the cry has been raised. Behold, 
He is in the secret chambers ; and, as we have seen 
reasons for supposing, we may probably ere long hear 
rumours that He is in the wilderness. 

Lastly ; the characteristic features of the days of 

Noah are reappearing, and, above all, 

Recurrence of the cha- .... 

racteristics of the days a free commuuication has been esta- 
^wfroHdsJ^Sepa'ritblished bctwcen the spirits of the air 
^'°"i°^^!^^ "^""°' °fand the human race with a view, 

the Nephilim. 

apparently, to a sojourn once more of 
Nephilim upon earth. Unlawful secrets, known in 
past times only to those few who seem to have acted 
as Satan's agents in directing the course of this world, 
are now recklessly offered to all men. The remembrance 
of that appalling scene, when their brethren were hurled 
by omnipotent lightnings into pits of darkness, would 
seem to be fading from the minds of the fallen angels ; 
and the usual course of sin, most frightful of insanities, 
is urging them on to the brink of the precipice from 
the abysmal depths of which the groans of their blasted 


companions ascend. Meanwhile, numbers of the puny 
inhabitants of earth are ready, at their bidding, to essay 
any deeds of madness. For not a few even of the 
learned and wise, unable by reason of vanity to 
maintain the bare conception of a God, unless His 
awful majesty be displayed before their eyes, have 
resolved, either avowedly or virtually, that there is 
none greater than themselves, or, at least, than their 

All things seem to be prepared for the fulfilment of 
the solemn prediction in the twelfth chapter of the 
Apocalypse, when Michael, leading the van of the host 
which will come with Christ to take the kingdom, shall 
drive the rebel High Ones down to earth. And in the 
following chapter we see the consequences of that 
marvellous event : the peoples of Satan's last refuge, of 
the only remaining portion of his once vast dominions, 
must be organised for the final struggle. And so, out 
of the troubled sea of anarchy and perplexity of 
nations, there arises, in greater majesty and power than 
it ever before possessed, the resuscitated empire of 
Rome under the immediate direction and government 
of the Wicked One. 

But of far more intense interest to those who love 
the Lord Jesus, and long for His appear- 

The waiting Church . • ,i , i • i • • •/- » i • 

will be removed before mg, IS that which IS Signified as taking 
drivef^own^rLr place just previously to the expulsion of 
the Devil and his angels from heaven.* 
For without going into details, which we have con- 
sidered elsewhere,! we may mention our conclusion 
that the birth and rapture of the man child refer to 

* Rev. xii. 1-5. 

t In "The Great Prophecies" (Messrs. Hodder & Stoughton). 


the completion of the mystic Christ — of which the 
personal Christ is the Head and His Church the body 
— as manifested by the sudden translation of all waiting 
saints, whether dead or alive, to meet their Lord in the 

It thus appears that this long expected event will 
precede Satan's banishment from heaven, and, therefore, 
also its results, the revival of the Roman empire, and 
the revelation of the INIan of Sin. Like Enoch, the 
Church of Christ will be called away before earth is for 
a time abandoned to the Nephilim, before the fearful 
woes of the end. 

If, then, the fallen angels appear to be already 
^^ , . „ preparing for their descent ; if the great 

therefore, in all pro- . 

babiiity, the Lord is at apostacy, which will at last evolve the 
Lawless One, be even now spread- 
ing ; who can be sure of a day or an hour .-' Who of 
Christ's watching people can tell, when he rises in the 
morning, whether he will not have left the scenes of 
earth before close of day .-' Who, when he retires to 
rest, knows whether he will be awakened by the return- 
ing light, or by the summons of the Master, the voice 
of the archangel, and the trump of God ? Are we not 
living in solemn times : is not the air full of warnings : 
does it not behove every believer to arise, gird up his 
loins, and trim his lamp } Is it not the sound of the 
King's chariot which we hear : should not every sleeping 
servant rouse himself and prepare to meet the Lord with 


It may be that His voice will be heard in the morning, 
when the sun is high and men are hurrying to their 
various occupations : it may be that He will call at 
even, when the west is crimson with the setting sun, 


and the weary are seeking their homes after the toil and 
excitement of the day : it may be that His summons 
will startle the midnight air, and bring forth His own 
from the darkness of their chambers or their graves into 
the dazzling glory of His presence : it may be that at 
early dawn He will speak the word, and in an instant 
be surrounded by the myriads of His elect, countless as 
the dewdrops that spring from the womb of the 
morning and glisten in the reddening beams of the sun. 
" Watch, therefore, for ye know neither the day, nor the 
hour, wherein the Son of man cometh." * 

"Surely I come quickly"! was His last message to 
His widowed Church : let no man think that he has the 
Spirit of Christ till he can fervently respond, " Amen. 
Even so, come, Lord Jesus." 

• Matt. XXV. IT. t Rev. xxii. 20. 



We transcribe a few paragraphs from an essay on the Rationale 
of Spirituahsm by Mr. F. F. Cook. They exhibit the views of 
an inteUigent and able Spiritualist on some interesting points 
and difficulties of the movement. 

" The time having arrived in the order of human progression 
to widen the avenue of comnmnication between the two worlds, 
two methods were open to the spiritual powers — to admit only 
the higher class of minds at first, and let the truth in diluted 
and contracted form work downward ; or, taking the opposite 
course, to start the movement at the very foundations of 
society, diversify it to the utmost, employ chiefly blind forces, 
and hedge the whole about with mystifying safeguards. The 
first course represents the human method of teaching; the 
last is the mode adopted by the more enlightened spirit-world. 
The difference is expressed by preaching and practising. In 
this lies the solution to all the mystery. 

" It is charged against the movement that it is almost wholly 
confined to the uncultured. While the ranks of the believers 
contain many of the most enlightened minds of the age, I am 
free to admit that its potency lies, as yet, chiefly with a class 
untrammelled by precise definitions or exact thought — that it is 
these who give it substance, stamp it with their peculiarities, 
and represent it in the eyes of the v/orld. 

" One day mankind will rejoice that it is so — that in the 


infancy of this dispensation the blunders of human wisdom 
were kept out of its experience, and that the guides were 
wholly spiritual. 

" We sometimes learn most of the true side of a question by 
studj'ing its false side. Let us suppose, therefore, that the 
spirit-world had taken the human-wisdom course in this 
instance, and confided its secrets first to the learned. See a 
scientific world in the direst confusion, despairingly searching 
for its most cherished and now exploded premises ! Behold a 
religious world in the throes of soul-agony, sitting haggard 
and distracted amid the debris of its shattered creeds ! Reli- 
gious beliefs have their roots in the heart, and when you tear 
them out by force, you take that which is almost dearer than 
life itself. The late Walter Bagehot well remarked : ' One of 
the greatest pains to human nature is the pain of a new idea.' 
No, a wise dispensation would not thus afflict the race. It 
would work precisely as it is working. It is stealing upon the 
world hke a thief in the night. The change comes, but no 
man knows whereof. It operates as a gentle amelioration ; its 
disintegrating force, though potent, is scarcely perceptible ; 
fully one-fourth of the native-American element is even now 
converted ; another fourth has become quite familiar with the 
idea, and is ready for acceptance without a pang ; and with all 
this wonderful work accomplished, within less time than is 
allotted to a generation, the mischief done is a minimum. This 
shows how completely the destructive forces of the movement 

are hedged about." 


" Spiritualism is Revolution, not simply Reform. Reform 
works downward ; it is scientific in its spirit, and, though not 
generally regarded so, is practically conservative. Revolution 
works upward ; it reasons far less deeply than it feels. In 
rare instances the revolutionist and reformer are blended. The 
difficulties that attend a religious transition are enormous. 
Man is by nature lawless. Religion, whether expressed by 
Fetichism or an ethical refinement, aside from brute force and 


the love of kindred, is the sole influence that can keep this 
lawlessness under control. Now a readjustment is decided 
upon ! what an uprooting must not take place ! and while the 
transition is in progress, what care must not be exercised I 
Elements in their revolutionary or readjusting stage are always 
extremely destructive. Conservatism is simply another word 
for adjustment accomplished. In view of the trifling mischief 
that is doing during this most wonderful and radical of all 
transitions, I would call conversions to Spiritualism a process 
of spirit selection. It is so wiselj'^ ordered that the light is 
vouchsafed only under carefully guarded conditions. It seeks 
and blends only with such elements as are in affinity and 
individualized. Somewhat of notoriety is bound to attach to 
all things that are in their nature marvellous, but the aim is 
ever to minimize the excitement, as essential to a rational 

" The observant student, as he passes along with the jostling 
crowd, will note great gaps marked ' exposures.' The pre- 
sumption is that these expose mediums ; but, in fact, only 
human ignorance — they are safety-valves— s&cn^ces to the 
Moloch of prejudice — meat cast to ravenous wolves. Some- 
what in the line of " exposure " is always kept on the stage. 
But in the meantime, another work is going forward — a process 
of spirit selection. There is an esoteric Spiritualism into 
which there is no prying except by consent of the spirit- world. 
The crowd that clamours to be admitted is carefully scanned. 
Perhaps not above 25 per cent, of those who investigate at 
any time, be their motives never so good, are chosen. Some- 
times it happens that a person is refused at one stage and 
admitted at another — the result depending on all the condi- 
tions, social, religious, moral, intellectual, or otherwise, which 
environ, or promise in the future to environ the investigator. 
You have all probabl}' heard that ' conditions ' are necessary 
to manifestations. This word has been much abused because, 
as related to Spiritualism, it is little understood. The 
* conditions' to a successful seance are the most subtle factors 


that can be imagined. They are far less physical than mental, 
but they are both, and much beside — they are also spiritual." 

•)< -if. ■i(i i/i -if. if. 

" What are the results sought to be accomplished ? Nothing 
short of revolution in every department of thought ! It means 
all this or nothing ; it is either an intelligent, most potent, and 
wise dispensation, or the maddest freak that ever possessed the 
human mind. I hold it to be the first, and upon those who 
shall choose the last I will put this task ; — Explain to me the 
genesis and evolution of the delusion ! Where or in what are 
its antecedents ? There is no effect without an adequate cause : 
now in what subjective potency lie these tremendous results, 
regarded as delusion ? I have been at some pains to study 
this subject, but nowhere can I discover a parallel ; for be it 
remembered that Spiritualism flourishes best where scepticism 
is most active. It works hand and hand with the materialist- 
Literally it lives, grows, and thrives, upon what, according to 
all scientific prescriptions, should kill it." 

it if. if. if. 1^ i(i 

"Spiritualism, as I have before said, is revolutionary in its 
present relations to society, and requires revolutionary ele- 
ments for its personnel. Respectability, except it have a strong 
dash of philosophy in it, is not revolutionary' — is, the rather, 
eminently conservative. Now, to my way of looking at it, the 
longer you can keep this mass from cooling into dead formality — 
premising, of course, that in the meantime it be not violently 
destructive — the better for the world. It is not a bloody 
revolution ; it has not and will not cost a single life — except it 
be too seriously interfered with. But I anticipate no trouble — 
the movement is provided with too many safety-valves. At 
any time a single, well-advertised, so-called * exposure ' con- 
verts it from a formidable bristling man-of-war, in the eyes of 
the world, into the most harmless of hulks, fit to receive, 
instead of hot-shot and shell, only the sneers and mockirj 
jeers of its vaunting but hoodwinked adversaries." 


We subjoin two specimens of inspirational utterances in 
regard to the expected female Messiah. The first — an extract 
from the " New Revelation," delivered by " the Messenger " 
mentioned on p. 352 — will also throw light upon the theory of 
the Two-in-one. 

"Adam, created, stood alone upon the earth, yet not alone. 
One yet two! For his Dual Nature was manifested at the will 
and touch of his Creator : the inner spirit cleft in twain, one- 
half evolved into outer nature, and taking form ever from the 
body of the man, as woman stood beside him ! 

"Together they stood — Two, yet One. And God saw that it 
was good ; for in His own image created He him : male and 
female created He them : a mystery to themselves : a Figure 
of the mystery of God : and a T3-pc in the foreknowledge of 
God of the Man that was to come ! 

"Man, therefore, was created Dual : One being in Twd ex- 
pressions : One spirit cleft in Twain, manifested in Two 
outward forms. And as the things of this world are but the 
figures of the heavenly — and as man is made in the likeness of 
God, and God is manifested to us through Christ, ' the express 
Image of His Person ' — and as the Second Adam, the Lord 
from Heaven, has stood once upon the earth — 

"So also, at the time appointed by the Father, shall appear 
from Heaven 

The Second Eve, 

Who Is 

The Mother of all Living." 


Our second specimen is extracted from "TIic Perfect Way," 
being a vision accorded to one of the writers, and is entitled, 

"A New Annunciation." 

"A golden chalice, like those used in Catholic rites, but 
having three linings, was given to me by an Angel. These 
linings, he told me, signified the three degrees of the heavens 
— purity of life, purity of heart, and purity of doctrine. 

" Immediately afterwards there appeared a great dome- 
covered temple, Moslem in style, and on the threshold of it a 
tall angel clad in linen, who, with an air of command, was 
directing a party of men engaged in destroying and throwing 
into the street numerous crucifixes, Bibles, prayer-books, altar 
utensils, and other sacred emblems. As I stood watching, 
somewhat scandalized at the apparent sacrilege, a Voice, at a 
great height in the air, cried with startling distinctness, ' All 
the idols he shall utterly destroy ! ' Then the same Voice, 
seeming to ascend still higher, cried to me, ' Come hither and 
see ! ' Immediately it appeared to me that I was lifted up by 
my hair and carried above the earth. 

"And suddenly there arose in mid-air the apparition of a man 
of majestic aspect, in an antique garb, and surrounded by a throng 
of prostrate worshippers. At first the appearance of this figure 
was strange to me; but while I looked intently at it, a change 
came over the face and dress, and I thought I recognized Buddha 
— the Messiah of India. But scared}' had I convinced myself 
of this when a great Voice, like a thousand voices shouting in 
unison, cried to the worshippers : 'Stand upright on your feet: 
worship God only ! ' And again the figure changed, as though 
a cloud had passed before it, and now it seemed to assume 
the shape of Jesus. Again I saw the kneeling adorers, and 
again the mighty Voice cried, * Arise ! worship God only ! ' 
The sound of this Voice was like thunder, and I noted that it 
had seven echoes. Seven times the cry reverberated, ascend- 
ing with each utterance, as though mounting from sphere to 
sphere. Then suddenly I fell through the air, as though a 


hand had been withdrawn from sustaining me, and again 
touching the earth. I stood within the temple I had seen in the 
first part of vay vision. At its east end was a great altar, 
from above and behind which came faintly a white and 
beautiful light, the radiance of which was arrested and 
obscured by a dark curtain suspended from the dome before 
the altar. And the body of the temple, which, but for the 
curtain, would have been fully illumined, was plunged in 
gloom, broken only by the fitful gleams of a few half-expiring 
oil-lamps, hanging here and there from the vast cupola. At 
the right of the altar stood the same tall Angel I had before 
seen on the temple-threshold, holding in his hand a smoking 
censer. Then, observing that he was looking earnestly at me, 
I said to him, ' Tell me what curtain is this before the Light, 
and why is the temple in darkness ? ' And he answered, 
' This veil is not One, but Three ; and the Three are Blood, 
Idolatr}', and the Curse of Eve. And to yow it is given to 
withdraw them ; be faithful and courageous ; the time has 
come.' Now the first curtain was red, and very heavy ; and 
with a great effort I drew it aside, and said, ' I have put away 
the veil of blood from before Thy face ; shine, O Lord God ! ' 
But a Voice from behind the folds of the two remaining cover- 
ings answered me, ' I cannot shine because of the idols.' And 
lo, before me a curtain of many colours, woven about with all 
manner of images, crucifixes, madonnas. Old and New Testa- 
ments, prayer-books, and other religious symbols, some strange 
and hideous like the idols of China and Japan, some beautiful 
like those of the Greeks and Christians. And the weight of the 
curtain was like lead, for it was thick with gold and silver 
embroideries. But with both hands I tore it away, and cried, 
' I have put away the idols from before Thy face ; shine, O Lord 
God ! ' And now the Light was clearer and brighter. But 
yet before me hung a third veil, all of black, and upon it was 
traced in outline the figure of four lilies on a single stem 
mverted, their cups opening downwards. And from behind this 
veil the Voice answered me again, ' I cannot shine because of 


the curse of Eve.' Then I put forth all my strength, and with 
a great will rent away the curtain, crying, ' I have put away 
her curse from before Thee ; shine, O Lord God ! ' 

"And there was no more veil, but a landscape more 
glorious and perfect than words can paint, a garden of absolute 
beauty, filled with trees of palm, and olive, and fig; rivers of 
clear water and lawns of tender green ; and distant groves and 
forests framed about by mountains crowned with snow ; and 
on the brow of their shining peaks a rising Sun, whose light 
it was I had seen behind the veils. And about the Sun, in 
mid-air, hung white misty shapes of great Angels, as clouds at 
morning float above the place of dawn. And beneath, under 
a mighty tree of cedar, stood a white elephant, bearing in his 
golden houdah a beautiful woman, robed as a queen, and 
wearing a crown. But while I looked, entranced and longing 
to look for ever, the garden, the altar, and the temple, were 
carried up from me into Heaven. 

" Then, as I stood gazing upwards, came again the Voice, at 
first high in the air, but falling earthwards as I listened. And 
behold, before me appeared the white pinnacle of a minaret, 
and around and beneath it the sky was all gold and red with 
the glory of the rising Sun. 

"And I perceived that now the Voice was that of a solitary 
Muezzin standing on the minaret with uplifted hands and 
crying ; — 

" ' Put away Blood from among you I 
Destroy your Idols ! 
Restore your Queen 1 ' 

" And straightw^ay a Voice, like that of an infinite multitude, 
coming as though from above and around and beneath my 
feet — a Voice like a wind rising upwards from caverns under 
the hills to their loftiest far-off heights among the stars- 
responded — 

"' Worship God alone ! '" 


From the first volume of a series intended " to bring within 
the reach, intellectual and pecuniary, of all classes of readers 
the teachings contained in the book after which it is named " — 
that is, " The Perfect Way " — we extract some remarks upon 
the new cycle mentioned on p. 378. 

" Already have some of the more enthusiastic among the 
faithful adopted the stjde indicated on our title-page, by 
reckoning 1882 as the first year of the New Era, and calling it 
Anno Dominae — the year of our Lady — i, considering that tne 
reign of the masculine and force-element is past, and the reign 
of the feminine and love-element has begun, the turning point 
of the change being in 1881, from which hereafter will be dated 
the beginning of the removal of the ' Curse of Eve,' and the 
rehabilitation and restoration, to her true place in the divine- 
human system, of the Woman as representative of the soul 
and of the intuition " (" How the World came to an End in 
tSSi," p. 83). 



Abel, his name, his wife, and his 
pursuits, iSo; his offering, 181-2. 

Abraham, an alleged representative 
of the sacred mysteries of India, 
418, note. 

Abyss, the, 75 and note. 

Accadians, primeval civilization of, 

Adam, derivation of name of, 104; 
was not deceived, 134-5 ; judg- 
ment of, 152-6. 

Adept, powers of described by Dr. 
Wild, and defined in "Isis Un- 
veiled," 252 ; method of develop- 
ing pow'ers of, 252-3. 

Advents of Christ, treated in Old 
Testament as though there would 
be no internal between them, 


Agane, ancient library of, 203-4. 

Age of Freedom, the, 165-6. 

Air, purification of the, 40-I. 

Ammianus Marcellinus, strange 
storj^, in his history, of spirit- 
communication by the use of the 
alphabet, 304-6. 

Anak, sons of, 210, 211. 

Angels, called gods, 44 ; functions 
of, 51-2 ; not disembodied spirits, 
69, 338-9; communications of 
different from those of demons, 

Angels, fallen, are the spiritual 
rulers of the world, 47-8; con- 
flicts of with angels of God, 
47-9 and note ; assaults of upon 
men, 49-50 ; are the highest order 
of Satan's subjects, 68 ; probable 
cause of their hostility to man, 

Animal kingdom, naming of the, 

Antediluvians, civilization of, 202- 
4; security of, 217; why de- 
stroyed by a slow process, 219; 
their great sin known also among 
the Post-diluvian ancients, 283-4. 

Antichrist, remarks of Madame 
Blavatski on prophecies of, 419, 
note; Theosophic doctrines in 
accord with predicted teaching 
of, 427-8 ; may be identified with 
the Twelfth Messenger of Theo- 
sophists, 429-30. 

Apostasy of the latter days, predic- 
tion of in I Tim. iii. 16 — iv. 5, 
313-6, 465-6. 

" Apostolic Constitutions," story of 
Peter and Simon Magus from, 

Apuleius, account of prescience in 
mesmerised boys from his de- 
fence, 301-2, note ; remarks of on 
this power, 303, note. 

Arnold, E., on Islam, 438, note ; his 
" Light of Asia," 439. 



Aryan tribes, migration of to Hin- 
dustan, 443-4. 

Asah, to make from pre-existing 
material, 23. 

Ashshaph, a sorcerer, 263. 

Astral body, 406. 

Astral fluid, 407. 

Astrologers, 262 ; deliverers of 
monthly prognostications, 262. 

Atonement, Theosophic doctrine of, 
413-4; remarks on this doctrine, 

Augustine of Hippo, on intercourse 
with demons, 2 1 2-3; his general 
ideas respecting them, 306-7. 

Aum, or O'm, 446. 

Aurora Borealis, a terrestrial light, 
85 ; remarks of Humboldt on, 85. 


Babylonian numbers, 264. 

Bara, to create, 22. 

Beelzebub, meaning of the name, 


Birds, not produced from the 
waters, 92-3. 

Blavatski, Madame, 401-2. 

Body, the moulding of, 103-4 ; 
functions of, 107 ; forms a pro- 
tection against demons, 255-6. 

Bohme, Jacob, taught that man was 
originallyan Hermaphrodite, 376. 

Brahmanas, 446. 

Brahmanism, Atheism of esoteric, 
461, note. 

Brahmans, caste of, 444 ; wrest the 
supremacy from the Kshatriyas, 
444 ; give prominence to the doc- 
trine of transmigration, 444-5. 

Breath of lives, 104; probable mean- 
ing of the expression, 105, note. 

Brougham, Lord on Spiritualism, 
328, note. 

P/iiddha, alleged parallelism ol 
legend of with the history of 
Christ, 449-50 ; summary of sys- 
tem of, 450-1 ; Atheism of, 450-I, 
note ; Christ and Buddha, 455-6. 

Buddhism, admiration of Anglo- 
Indians for, 438 ; opposition of 
to Divine revelation, 440 ; an 
English society formed for the 
purpose of publishing its litera- 
ture, 440 ; spread of its influence 
and of ideas in accord with it, 
440-2 ; sketch of its origin and 
progress, 443-8; in its esoteric 
form it bears a great resemblance 
to Spiritualism, 452 ; rationale 
of its tomb-worship, relic-wor- 
ship, and image-worship, 452-3 ; 
has very much in common with 
the Roman Church, 454. 

Caesars, corrupt times of, 214, 421, 

Cain, the first of the Serpent's seed, 
147, 179; birth and name of, 
1 79 ; reason why his offering was 
rejected, 181-2; his anger, crime, 
and sentence, 182-3 » his city, 

Cainites and Sethites, 184; inter- 
marriage of, 204-5. 

Caithness, Countess of, on the 
"New Dispensation "commenc- 
ing with 1882, 378; on the 
" angelic " nature of the Lord's 
mother, 427, note. 

Cattle, the curse on, 144. 

Chakhaynim, 257. 

Chaldean Magic, great work on dis- 
covered at Kouyunjik, 285, note. 

Challis, Professor, on Spiritualism, 
237, note. 



Chaos, errors arising from Pagan 
doctrine of, 19-21. 

ChartuHiinini, 256 ; were, perhaps, 
writing-mediums, 257. 

Cherubim, 168-78; description of, 
168-71; identical with Living 
Creatures of the Apocalypse, and 
the Seraphim of Isaiah, 171-2; 
not angels, 172; did not wield 
the fiery sword, 173 ; significance 
of number of, 173 ; represent four 
of the six earth-tribes, 174; 
twice distinguished from the 
other two, 174; connection w'ith 
Noachian covenant, 1 74 ; mean- 
ing of name, 175; tribes re- 
presented by them not to be 
destroj^ed, therefore must be re- 
deemed, 176; on Ark of Cove- 
nant, 1 76 ; their forms always to 
be understood as described by 
Ezekiel and John, 176, note; 
stand before the Lord as memo- 
rials, 177 ; their functions, 1 77-8 ; 
were a prophecy of hope to 
Adam, 178. 

Chobher chebher, one who uses 
spells, 259-60. 

Christ, Spiritualistic opinions con- 
cerning, 347-53 ; denial of His 
divinity by Cora Tappan, Gerald 
Massey, and Stainton Moses, 349- 
50; view of T. L. Harris con- 
cerning Him in A Lyric of the 
Martyr yige, 351 ; blasphemous 
doctrine assigning a dual nature 
to Him, 351 ; reported appearing 
of at a seance in Hackney, 352 ; 
"Behold, He is in the secret 
chambers ! " 353 ; Theosophic 
doctrine that every man should 
become a Christ, 414; this is to 
be effected by attaining to the 

consummation of the Greater 
Mysteries, 416; plurality of 
Christs, 466. 

Church, the, fraternisation of with 
the world in conduct and doc- 
trine, 229-33. 

Clementine Homilies, their author's 
plan for resolving his doubts, 
294-5; stories of Simon Magus 
from, 295-7. 

" Cloud of witnesses," meaning of, 

Coats of skin, the, 158-9. 
Codex Wolffii B., or Codex H., 426 

and note. 
Conscience, according to Figuier, 

an impression transmitted by a 

dead friend, 355. 
Corrupters, three classes of in the 

early Church, 5-6. 
Corruption in Antediluvian times, 

213-4; historical parallels to, 

Cox, Serjeant, evidence of in regard 

to Trance-speaking, 325. 
Creative power, dim analogy to in 

man, 24. 
Croesus, his famous trial of the 

Delphic Oracle, 285-8. 
Crookes, Professor, experiments of 

in materializations, 328. 
Cross, use of sign of by demons, 

368 ; explanation of symbolism 

of, 3S0, note. 
Crucifixion, Theosophic meaning of, 

Crust of the earth, a cemetery of 

many creations, 95. 
Curious arts, 264. 


David, alleged spirit-writing by, 



Day; the word must be taken in a 
strictly literal sense whenever it 
is connected with a numeral, 87 ; 
the First Daj-, 84; the Second, 
89; the Third, 89; the Fourth, 
91 ; the Fifth, 92 ; the Sixth, 96 ; 
the Seventh, 97. 

Days, mention of evenings and 
mornings in the case of the six, 

Days of Noah, are to be repeated, 
224 ; their seven characteristics, 
225-6; reappearance of these 
characteristics in our days, 226- 


Delphic Oracle, famous trial of by 
Croesus, 285-8; description of 
consultation of from Arnold 
Prize Essay for 1859, 287. 

Demoniacal arts classified, 264-6. 

Demon-intercourse, ditticult to re- 
nounce, 266, note. 

Demonism^ in Isaiah's time, 274-5 ; 
in the reign of Manasseh, 275 ; 
brought destruction upon Jerusa- 
lem, 276; now returning upon 
Christendom, 310. 

Demons, the same as evil spirits, 
69; derivation of name of, 70; 
Plato's account of, 70 '> Hesiod's 
description of, 71 ; are the gods 
of the Heathen, 249 ; divided by 
TertuUian into three classes, 27S- 
9, iiote. 

Deucalion and Pyrrha, Theosophic 
interpretation of myth of, 408-9. 

Deuce, derivation of, 213 and note. 

Devil, meaning of the word, 67 ; 
has no plural, 68 ; Theosophic 
doctrine concerning the Devil, 

Diversity of Biblical interpretation, 
3-4 ; cause of, 4-9. 

I Divining cup in the story of Joseph, 
268-9; analogous procedure of 
modern Eg^'ptian magicians, 

Divorce, Rabbi Akibah's rule for, 

Dogma, false objection to, 232-3. 

Doresh el hammethim, a necro- 
mancer, 262. 

Dry land, not created on the Third 
Day, but bidden to appear, 90. 

Dualism of human beings taught 
by Thcosophists, 413. 

Dust, man's return to, 155-6. 


Earth, the; depicted as a ruin in 
Gen. i. 2, 25-8; internal heat of 
83-4, note. 

Eden, exhibits the rudiments of a 
Tabernacle, 166-7. 

Egj'ptians, Demonism of, 288-93 » 
pilgrimages and processions of, 

Elementals and Elementaries, 332, 

Elijah, alleged spirit-communica- 
tion from, 338 and note. 

Elisha, angelic guards of, 4S-9, note. 

Encratites, 379-80. 

Enoch, a prophet, 191 ; his extant 
prophecy has reference to the 
second advent, 192; his trans- 
lation corresponds to the first 
ascension of believers, 193-4. 

Ephesian Letters, 264. 

Error, speedy upgrowth of, 4, 5. 

" Esoteric Buddhism," 404. 

"Essays and Reviews," 237 ; quo- 
tation from, 88. 

Eve, temptation of, 127-34; her 
j temptation compared with the 
I Lord's, 133-4 ; meaning of her 



name, 158; the second Eve, 382, 
477; "the curse of Eve," 479-80. 

Evil, proceeded from spirit to 
matter, 152-3. 

Evolutionary theory, of Figuier, 
374; of Theosophists, 407-10; 
was one of the secrets of the 
mysteries, 410; pretended proof 
of from the Scriptures, 410-2. 

Exposures of mediums, are safety- 
valves, 475 ; go on side by side 
with a process of spirit-selection, 
475 ; why permitted by spirits, 

Fall of man, Theosophic account of 

the, 412-3. 
Female Messiah, 352, 382, 477 ; 

Annunciation of, 478-80; gives 

name to New Era, " the year of 

our Lady," 481. 
Feminine Person, proof that there 

is none in the Trinity of the 

Bible, 425-6. 
Fichte, J. H., testimony of to the 

facts of Spiritualism, 328, note. 
Figuier, his explanation of con- 
science, 355 ; his doctrine of 

spirit-guidance, 356-7; his theory 

of transmigration, 374-5. 
Fire-baptism, 258 ; still practised 

in Herefordshire, 258, note. 
Firmament, the, possible reason 

why it was not pronounced good, 

Flammarion, Camille, testimony of 

to the facts of Spiritualism, 327, 

Flesh, abstinence from, helpful to 

spirit intercourse, 372 and note ; 

extracts from Oahspe respecting, 

373; a natural sequence of the 
doctrine of transmigration, 373-4. 

Flood, the, probable alarm at first 
announcement of, 216. 

Forbidden tree, the, 1 1 1. 

Fossil remains, are those of crea- 
tures anterior to Adam, 34-5. 

Fox, Mi-garet and Kate, 316. 

Gazrin, those who cast nativities, 

Genesis, no discrepancy between 

the first and second chapters of, 

Giants, real meaning of the word, 

Gnostics, were connected with 

Buddhism, 448 and note. 
God, denial of by a Spiritualistic 

writer in the Westminster Review, 

God of this Age, title of, 38-9. 
Gods of the Heathen, recognised in 

Scripture as real existences, 245- 

6 ; Hebrew words used of them 

do not disprove this, 245-6. 
Gospels, Theosophic account of, 

428 and note. 


Heavens, the, and the earth ; 

difference of meaning between 

this expression and " the earth 

and the heavens," 97-8. 
Hermes Trismegistus, on statues ot 

the gods, 307. 
Hierarch, completion of initiation 

of, 430-1. 
High Ones that are on high, 47. 
Hindustan, an ancient centre of 

Spiritualism, 318. 



Holy Spirit, Spiritualistic doctrines 

respecting, 353-4. 
Howitt, William, testimony of to 

spirit-photography, 324-5, note. 

Idols, meaning of word, 248; in 
what sense there are none in 
the world, 248; sacrifices to, 

Incarnations, number of necessary 
to the attainment of Nirvana, 


Intellect, a fallible and even dan- 
gerous guide, 109. 

Intermediate state, not described 
in the Scriptures, 360; Paul's 
experience of, 360-1 ; frequent 
subject of spirit communications, 

International organizations, 234. 

Intuition, the faculty of, 405-6; 
the discipline necessary to those 
who would obtain it, 406. 

Isaac, alleged to be a representative 
of the mysteries of Egypt, 418, 

Isis, famed for her miraculous heal- 
ing of suppliants, 290-1 ; attempt 
of Tiberias to check her worship 
at Rome, 292. 

"Isis Unveiled," 252, 380-I, 397, 
note, 402-3, 419, note. 

Islam, union of with Christianity 
and Buddhism contemplated by 
Theosophists, 417-8 ; remarks of 
Edwin Arnold upon, 438, note. 

Ittim, repeaters of charms, 262. 

Ittiobalus, Prince of Tyre, 53, 55. 

Jacob, said to be a representative of 
the mysteries of Greece, 418, note. 

Janus, identified with Chaos, 19 ; 
described by Ovid, 19-20. 

Jehovah, meaning of the name, 

Jewish table-turning in the seven- 
teenth century, 308-9. 

Jezebel, charged by Jehu with 
witchcraft, 277. 

Joshua, the High Priest, 49. 


Kardec, Allan, 404 and note. 

Karma, 409. 

Kenealy, E. V., his interpretation 
of the Beast, and opinion of the 
Bible Society and of Paul, 423-4, 

King of Tyre, not the same person 
as the Prince, 53. 

Kings of the Earth upon the earth, 

Kingslej', Charles, on the Spiritual- 
ism of the Neoplatonists, 299, 

Knowledge, a dangerous power to 
fallen men, 28. 

Kshatriyas, caste of, '\'\^, 


Lamech, the Cainite, a polygamist 
and murderer, 185-7 ; his wives, 
185-6 ; his sons, 186; his speech 
to his wives, 186. 

Lamech, the Sethite, was a prophet, 
196; his prediction and its pro- 
bable meaning, 196-7. 

Language, originally a gift of God, 


Leo the Tenth, times of, 214-5. 
Libraries, ancient, 204. 
Light, creation of, 84 ; exists inde- 
pendently of the sun, 84-5. 



Light-holders of the Fourth Da}', 

"Light of Asia," the, 439. 
Lily, flower of the, why preferable 

to Solomon's magnificence, 142. 
Livingstone, his account of Suli- 

man-bin-Juma, 309, note. 
Love of God, the, would have saved 

fallen angels as well as men, 44-5. 


Magi, the, 263 ; Origen's account 
of, 263. 

Magic, inseparably connected with 
idolatry, 249. 

Han, creation of, 103; threefold 
nature of, 106-7; possible reason 
of creation of in weakness, 1 19-24; 
nakedness of when fallen, 139-40; 
his covering of glory will be 
restored, 140-I ; expulsion of 
from Eden, 159-60; alleged to 
have been originally an Herma- 
phrodite, 376; a fourfold nature 
assigned to him, 406-7. 

ilantras, 445-6. 

Marco Polo, account of Spiritual- 
istic practices at the Court of the 
Great Kaan from Ramusio's 
edition of, 307-8, note. 

Marriage, obligations of loosened, 
227 ; institution of assailed in 
two ways, 375 ; direct pro- 
hibition of, 375 ; Theosophic 
reason for prohibition of, 375 ; 
virtually forbidden by the doc- 
trine of elective affinities and 
spiritual alliances, 382-3 ; opinions 
of Mr. Herbert Noycs concerning, 
383-4 ; agreement of Spiritualists 
and Secularists in desiring aboli- 
tion of, 385 ; demon-marriages, 

Massey, C. C, .on Buddhism as a 
check to lawlessness, 445, note. 

Massey, Gerald, on Spiritualism, 
321 ; on the Divinity of the Lord 
Jesus, 350; on the Holy Spirit, 

Matter, not eternal, 21. 
Mediumistic faculties, development 

of, 254-5. 
Mediums, Egyptian of Pharaoh's 

days, 269 ; how they obtain their 

knowledge of past and future 

time, 273 and note. 
Mekhashshcph, an enchanter, 259. 
Menachesh, probably an augur, 259. 
Meonen, probably a mesmerist, 

Messenger, mission of the Twelfth, 

429-30; the Twelfth will be 

Antichrist, 430. 
Messengers, the Twelve, 429. 
Michael, the Archangel, 4S-9, 58, 

62, 467. 
Mill, John Stuart, his idea of God, 

Millennial Age, the two warnings 

against sin during, 145. 
Modern thought, is subverting all 

the primal and universal laws of 

God, 463-5. 
Mysteries, the Greater and the 

Lesser, 405 ; sj'stem of com- 
municated by fallen angels, 421 ; 

have failed to regenerate the 

world, 421-2; opinion of Hip- 

polytus of Portus concerning the, 



Naaman, expected Elisha to make 

passes over him, 277. 
Naros, 429. 
Neoplatonists, possessed of magic 



power, 299; Canon Kingslcj-'s 
account of, 299-300; result of 
their teaching, 300-I. 

Nephilim, the, 209; derivation and 
meaning of name of, 209; on 
earth after the Flood, 210, 211 ; 
brought destruction upon the 
Canaanites, 211; about to be 
driven down to earth again, 
390-1 ; SpirituaHsm is a prepara- 
tion for their coming, 391. 

Nichol's, Dr. T, L., account of a 
materialization-seance, 329-30. 

Night, the, of the world, 157. 

Nimbus, the sign of the Sun-god, 
40, note; Satan depicted with, 
40, note. 

Nirvana, not supposed to destroy 
individuality, 409-10. 

Noachian covenant, 174, 462-3. 

Noah, meaning of his name, 196-7 ; 
commanded to build an ark, 
216; shut in by God, 217. 

Numbers, superiority in is no 
proof of a true Church, 448-9. 


Obh, a soothsaying demon, 260 ; 
causes the body of the possessed 
to swell, 260 ; dwells within the 
person who divines by it, some- 
times by compact, 261. 

Occult science, said to have an- 
ticipated modem discoveries, 
398-9; IS the key to the philoso- 
phy of religion, 399 ; has been 
handed down by secret associa- 
tions, 400; discipline of the 
neophyte, or chela, of, 400. 

O'm, or Aum, 446. 

Oracles, the ancient, were demon- 
inspired, 285. 


Paganism, true nature of, 395-6; 

returning upon Christendom, 

396-7 ; its system derived from 

fallen angels, 395-8 ; presents 

superstition to the multitude. 

Pantheism to the intellectual, 

462, note. 
Paradise, meaning of the word, 

" Perfect Way," the, 3S0, 404, and 

in Chapter XIV. passim. 
(pap^oKivQ, a sorcerer, 263-4. 
Philippian damsel, the, 278-9 ; her 

histor}' proves the existence and 

powers of Apollo, 279. 
Philosophumena, the, 422. 
Photographs, spiritual, 324 and 

Planchette, found in Buddhist 

temples, 333-4, note. 
Plautus, incidental mention of 

mesmerism in his Amphitryor, 

Pleiades, "sweet influences of," 

Population of the world, increase 

of the, 234. 
Praj'er, efficacy of explained by 

A. R. Wallace, 357-8; remarks 

on in " Life Beyond the Grave," 

Preaching of to-day resembles that 

of Enoch, 234-7. 
Preadamite race, 36 ; they are 

probably the present spirits of 

the air, 70-3 ; no fossil remains 

of their bodies to be found, 73 ; 

possible reasons of this, 73~4- 
Prince, of this World, 37-8 ; of the 

Power of the Air, 40 ; of Tj're, 



49 r 

Princes, Satanic, of Persia and 

Greece, 47. 
Prison of demons, is either in the 

depths of the sea or immediately 

below it, 74-6. 
Prophecy, objections to study of, 

II ; study of involves three 

blessings, 11- 16. 
Pythius, name of Apollo, 278, note. 
Pythonic spirit, 278, note. 
Pyramid, use of for the celebration 

of the mysteries, 415-6. 


Qosem, a diviner, 258. 


Rain, probably none before the 
flood, 2x8, note. 

" Recognitions of Clement," Spiri- 
tualistic stories in the, 294-5. 

Redemption, Theosophic doctrine 
of, 413-4; said to be typified by 
the Six Acts of the Lesser and 
Greater Mysteries, 415-6. 

Reincarnations, theory of falls in 
with a common fancy, 459 ; 
examples, 460. 

Resurrection, denied by spiritual- 
ists, 339; nature of, 341. 

Rhampsinitus, story of, 289. 

Rich man, the, in Hades, 346. 

Rishi, 446. 

Roustaing's " Les Quatres Evan- 
giles expliques en Esprit et en 
Verite," 404. 

Ruin of Gen. i. 2 ; probable cause 
of, 81-2; description of by Job, 
82-3 and note. 


Sacrifice, institution of, 159. 
Satan, was the sun -god, 40 ; 

derivation of name of, 40, note ; 
represented with a nimbus, 40, 
note ; together with his angels is 
doomed to death, 46 ; rules in 
the air assisted by his angels 
and demons, 50 ; has power 
over the elements and even the 
lightning, 51-2; history of in 
Ezek. xxviii. 58-65 ; his fall and 
its consequences, 65-6 ; his plan 
for the ruin of mankind, 125-6; 
his great object is to bring men 
under the influence of demons, 
250-1 ; the means whereby he 
strives to eff'ect this object, 251 ; 
Theosophic doctrine concerning 
him, 432 ; has been and will be 
worshipped, 432-3. 

Saul, visit of to the witch of Endor, 
270-4; doomed to death for the 
crime of consulting a medium, 

Scepticism, not the ultimate object 
of Satan to produce it, 250. 

Sea, what is meant by its giving 
up the dead which are in it, 76. 

Second advent, Theosophic attacks 
upon doctrine of, 418 and note ; 
nearness of, 467-9. 

Setrim, 247. 

Seneca, 214. 

Serapis, temple of at Canopus, 
famous for oracles and the 
healing of disease, 289 ; pilgrim- 
ages to, 290 ; Vespasian's visit 
to temple of at Alexandria, 292-3. 

Serpent, the, condition of before 
the fall, 127-8 ; sentence upon, 
143-51 ; in what sense dust is 
its food, 145 ; seed of, 147-8. 

Seth, birth of, 184; meaning of 
his name, 184. 

Sethites, character of, 187 ; begin 



to call on the name of Jehovah, 

iSS; union of with the Cainites, 

Seven spheres, the, doctrine of, 

Shedint, 247. 
Shoel obh, a consulter of demons, 

"Shout"; real meaning of word 

so translated in i Thess. iv. 16, 


Showers, Miss, mediumship of, 
330-1 and note, 

Simon Magus, stories of, 295-9 ; 
wonders performed by him, 
295-6; psj-chic murder by, 296- 
7 ; levitation of, 297-9. 

Sin, according to Spiritualists must 
be expiated by personal suffer- 
ing, 366-7 and note. 

Six Days, the, not the time of 
original creation, 22-3 ; literal 
days and not ages, 87-8 ; the 
works of, cannot be made to 
harmonise with the geological 
strata, 93-6. 

Sons of God, are angels, 205-8 ; 
intermarriage of with the 
daughters of men, 208 ; cause 
of their intermarriage, 209-11 ; 
offspring of, 212. 
Sorcery, reason of strict injunction 
in the law against every kind of, 
Soul, the, produced by the contact 
of spirit and bodj', 105 ; Ter- 
tuUian's description of, 105 ; no 
adjective in English to express 
connection with, 106 ; functions 
of, 107. 
Spirit, the, origin of, 104; functions 
of, 107 ; is dormant in the un- 
godly, loS ; powers 01", no. 

Spirit of God, the only Spirit 
which influences for good, 337. 

Spirit-communication, unreliability 
of, 339 and note ; no possibility 
of with the blessed dead, 340-1, 

Spint-hands, 331-2. 
Spirit-help, 295 and note. 
Spirits, all that communicate must 
be evil, 255 ; intercourse with 
the of the dead forbidden, 334; 
meaning of the command to try 
the, 342-3 ; the of departed saints 
are unable to see what is going on 
in the world, 343-5 ; the of the 
lost not likely to have the power 
of communication, 345-6. 

"Spiritual Dynamics,'' quoted, 252. 
Spiritual powers, 4 1 -2; described 
in Psalm Ixxxii., 42-6; the regu- 
lar of this world all in the hands 
of Satan, 47. 

Spiritualism, will be prevalent 
among the Jews when they return 
to Palestine, 278; origin of 
modern, 316-8; summary of 
phj'sical and mental manifesja- 
tions of by A. R. Wallace, 322-9 ; 
mission of, according to Herbert 
Noyes, to unite all other creeds, 
369 ; remarks of A. R. Wallace 
on, 369-71 ; gains many converts 
from the ranks of sceptics and 
materialists, 348-9, 476. 

Spiritualistic literature, 319-20. 

Spiritualists, set natural affection 
in the place of love to God, 
354-5 ; deny the Father, 355-9. 

Stars, not created on the Fourth 
Day, 92. 

Study of the Bible, method of, 9. 

Subjects of this book, 10. 

Substance, Theosopnical doctrine 



of one only, 407; manifestation 

of al\va3-s as a trinity in unity, 

Sudras, caste of, 444 and note. 
Superhuman power, two ways of 

acquiring it, 251-5. 
Supernatural, the, denial of by 

Christians, 243; taught in the 

Scriptures, 243-4, 
Sword, the fierj-, not wielded by 

the Cherubim, 173 ; identical with 

the Shechinah, 178. 


Tabernacle, the; meaning of its 
three courts, 166-8. 

Tartarus, 208, note. 

Teraphin, 266 ; conjectural deriva- 
tion of ■ their name by R. S. 
Poole, 266-7; consultation of 
analogous to modern Spiritual- 
ism, 267 ; those who used them 
did not openly deny Jehovah, 

Tertullian, his division of demons 
into three classes, 278-9, note; 
remarkable allusions to Spiritual- 
ism in the Apology of, 301-4. 

Theism, spread of, 226-7. 

Theosophical Society, the, 401 ; 
principles of, 402-3 ; rapid pro- 
gress of in India, 403. 

Theosophists, sentiments of to- 
wards Christianity, 402-3. 

Theosoph}', in England and France, 
403-4 ; hopelessness of its system, 
454-5 ; not really antagonistic to 
Spiritualism, 437 ; seeks to draw 
the world into a confederation of 
Babel, 417-9, 437-8. 

Thorns and thistles, Professor 
Balfour on, 1 53-4. 

Titan, derived from Satan through 

the Chaldean Sheitan and Creek 
Teitan, 40, note. 

Tonsure, the ; origin of the circular, 
41, note. 

Tractatores, 294. 

Transfiguration, the, history of 
contains nothing favourable to 
Spiritualism, 335-7. 

Transmigration, remarks on doc- 
trine of, 423-4; suggested as a 
substitute for the doctrine of 
future rewards and punishments, 
445, note; theory of virtually 
denies the Father and the Son, 

Trinity, the Pagan, 407-8. 

Tupper, Martin F., testimony ot 
to Mrs. Tappan's inspirational 
power, 326, note. 

Two-in-one, theory of the ex- 
plained, 376-8; allusion to in 
the so-called Second Epistle of 
Clement, 379-80; attaining to 
condition of may have been the 
Mystery of Lawlessness, 381. 

Tyre, besieged by Nebuchadnezzar, 
54 ; was formerly an island, 55. 

Upanishads, 446. 


Vaisyas, caste of, 444 and note. 
Vedas, description of the four, 

Vespasian, miraculous healing in 
connection with, 292-3; his 
famous visit to the temple of 
Serapis, 293. 


Wallace, A. R., summary of miracu- 
lous phenomena of Spiritualism, 





Winslow, the late Dr. Forbes, on 
possession by demons, 26 1 -2. 

Witch, or wizard, of Scripture, 
possessed of supernatural power, 
244 ; witch of Endor and Saul, 

Woman, creation of, 113; type of 
the Church, 113-6; why Satan 
assailed her rather than Adam, 
125-6; seed of, 148-9; conflict of 
her seed with the seed of the 
serpent, 150; sentence upon, 

151-2; Theosophic doctrine that 
she is the true head of creation, 
413, 426-7, 464. 

World, the, present condition of, 
52-3 ; is rejecting the more 
urgent appeals of God, 237. 

Writing mediums, five classes of, 


Yatzar, to mould, 23. 
Yuioni, a wizard, 262. 

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