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Full text of "Eastern Galicia an independent commonwealth"




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PRINTED AS MANUSCRIPT. 



N? 3 rd . 



i. u. P. 



EASTERN GALICIA 



AN 



IDEPENDENT COMMONWEALTH. 



PUBLISHED BY THE 
NATIONAL COUNCIL OF EASTERN GALICIA. 



5JS/1I0TEKA 
KAPOANOr B0J1I 

NARODNA WOLA, 

Scraaton, Pa. 

N0...1. 



Wir ::rr v ^TEnsTn;:c: No. 9 T(iR9 

TELEPttON 13-4-30 



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1065187 



Introduction. 

In the former Austria-Hungary there was among the several 
countries forming it one — the vastest of all the monarchy's 
countries with 78,000 square km and 8 millions of population 
Her official name was. Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria 
with the Grand-Duchy of Cracow and the Principalities 
of Auschwitz and Zator. 

After the dlbacle of Austria-Hungary in the Autumn of 
1918 the population of the Grand-Duchy of Cracow and of 
the Principalities Auschwitz and Zator, viz. the Western Part 
of the country specified above, attached themselves to the 
revived Polish State. The population of the real Kingdom of 
Galicia and Lodomeria, viz. the Eastern Part of the country 
specified above, formed an independent Western Ukrainian 
Republic, realizing such their right of self-determination. 

The conquering Allied Powers have laid down as their 
most important rule for the Reconstruction of Europe after the 
Great War the principle of Self-Determination of Nations. 
Yet this principle has, alas! not been applied to the Western 
Ukrainian (Eastern Galician) Population. Although the latter 
have unequivocally proved their will to lead an independent 
political life, the sympathies of the Allied and Associated 
Powers have been exclusively in favour of the Poles in the 
nine month defensive war (November 1918 till July 1919) the 
Western Ukrainian Republic was carrying on against the Poles. 
Owing to the efficacious assistance of the Entente, owing to 
the decisive intervention of the Roumanians from the South- 
East and, not the least, owing to the simultaneous danger for 
Galicia from the Red Armies of Bolshevistic Russia the Western 
Ukrainian Government and its army were forced to quit Eastern 
Galicia in July 1919. 



Only on the 11 th of July 1919 there was given by the 
Supreme Council of the Allied and Associated Powers in Paris 
the following decision: 

"The Polish Government will be authorized to constitute 
a civil administration in Eastern Galicia after having formerly 
with the Allied and Associated Powers 

(1.) made an agreement the clauses of which will have to 
warrant as far as possible the territorial autonomy as well as 
the political, religious and individual liberty of the population; 

(2.) this agreement will be founded on the right of self- 
determination, that has to be practised, as refering to the 
political position, without further appeal by the inhabitants of 
Eastern Galicia; 

(3.) the time for practising this right will be fixed by the 
Allied and Associated Powers or any organ they might 
authorize to do so." 

In consequence of this decision Eastern Galicia was 
provisorily occupated by the Poles. 

The Polish occupation of Eastern Galicia has brought 
Eastern Galicia, being since 1914 one of the most important 
and most devastated seats of war, to the utmost extremity. In 
scarcely a year about half a million of inhabitants have 
woefully perished, in consequence of the unprecedented re- 
pressive measures of the Polish occupation authorities as well, 
as by famine and diseases -- at the least not prevented by 
the Polish administration — or in the ill-famed concentration 
camps of Poland. All sort of economical and cultural life of 
the country has been quenched and in part completely ruined. 
That such conditions are untenable, must be admitted by 
everybody having but a glimpse of humanity and justice. The 
degrading of five millions of men to outlawed slaves is a 
matter of fact! That a country, so much larger than Belgium, 
the Netherlands, Danmark or Switzerland, situated almost in 
the heart of Europe, must be in such hopeless conditions is 
exceedingly dangerous to the peace and order of Europe. 

Considering such facts the population of Eastern Galicia, 
so cruelly disappointed of their expectations and in face of 
their national death, is taking all measures possible to make 



1 



themselves heard in claiming their rights by all decisive factors 
of the world's politic. 

These lines are written to clear up the just foundations 
of Eastern Galicia's claims and to justify by facts the request 
Of her people for independent political life. All attempts of the 
Poles t<> find among this population but a single group, ready 
ccept the union with Poland, have failed. With the ex- 
ception of the Polish part of the former Austrian bureaucracy 
and their petty adherents, the population of Eastern Galicia 
continues, in spite of the cruel terrorism of the Poles, to claim 
their independence.*) 

*) Transcription. The kind reader is requested to make use of the 
following rules in pronouncing the Ukrainian names: 

(1.) the vowels and consonants have in general the same value and 
pronunciation as in Czechian. 

(2.) c must be pronounced like ts, c like ch, ch like scotch ch, 
j like y, s like sh, s like sy, v like English v but shutting a sillable after 
an other vowel like french ou, y is always a short i and I must be 
pronounced like s in pleasure (sounding). 



I. The Galician-Lodomerian Realm. 

Galicia as a state is surely no new political conception. 
It is nearly as old as most states of Europe and has its 
roots in the early Middle Ages. 

During the 10 th century Galicia formed an essential part 
of the old-Ukrainian (usually but falsely called old-Russian) 
Realm of Kiev. Only her western boundaries on the Wislok, 
San and Weper have been temporarily under Bohemian sway. 
These boundaries, usually, called Tchervenian Castles (Peremysl 
on the San, Cerven on the Hucva) have been regained by the 
Realm of Kiev in 981. With this year begins the written history 
of Eastern Galicia. 

Eastern Galicia has got her first political organization 
by the Ukrainian nation. The political tradition of Galicia 
forms therefore part of the Ukrainian political tradition. Within 
the old-Ukrainian realm Eastern Galicia was but for a century 
a province. The realm dissolved very soon in separate princi- 
palities and already in 1085 Eastern Galicia became an inde- 
pendent principality under the dynasty of the Rostislavides 
(1085 till 1199). In 1144 Halve" was promoted to be the capital 
of the country which took henceforth the name of HalyCyna 
(Galicia). 

Under the Rostislavides Galicia obtained temporarily decided 
frontiers towards the West and South, which till up to the 
present are more or less the same with the ethnographical 
frontier of the national Ukrainian territory. The western frontier 
running from the disemboguement of the Tanew into the San 
towards the South-West, passing by Rudnik, Sokolow, Rzeszow, 
Czudec, Jaslo, Sandez to the watergap of the Poprad and the 



eastern slope of the Tatra mountains. The southern (Hungarian) 

frontier was running to the South-East, passing sow, 

Uzhorod, Munkacevo, Must, Rodna to the crest -lin 
Eastern Transsylvanian Border-Mountains This frontiers were 
formed by inpenetrahle forests, covering the Carpathian Mount 
as well as their pied-mont belt. Poland began but on the Vistula, 
Hungary in the Transearpathian Plain. 

Already under the Rostislavides Galicia formed but the 
heart, the nucleus of the state, that reached along the Dnu 
and Pruth the mouth of the Danube and the Blak Sea. A still 
greater growth Galicia witnessed under the sway of the Roma- 
nides (1200 till 1340). They acquired definitively the country of 
Wolodymyr Wolynskij, the so-called Lodomeria (Western Wol- 
hynia, the country of Cholm, Podlachia and part of the country 
of Polesie) and extended the frontiers of their Galician-Lodo- 
merian Realm to the North as far as the Narew and Pripet, 
to the East beyond the middle Dnieper. In 1253 the dynasty of 
the Romanides received the royal crown out of the Pope's hands. 

Though the Galician Lodomerian Realm was surrounded 
on all sides by ennemies, though the Poles and Hungarians 
were often meddling with the quarrels of the competitors for 
the Galician crown or waging open war, though the Yatvyagians 
and Lithuanians were repeatedly troubling the boundaries of the 
country by their marauding incursions, the country was reaching 
a great flower under her indigenous princes and kings. Halyc, 
the capital of Galicia was an emporium, larger than the Vienna 
or Paris of those times, it had more than 100 churches and was 
carrying on grand commerce with Central and Western Europe, 
Constantinople and the Islamitic Orient. Greek, Italian, German, 
Arabic, Persian and other merchants had their own quarters 
and store-houses there, large caravans of carriages and fleets 
of vessels (on the Dniester) came with foreign good to Galki 
towns and returned, loaded with grain, honey, wax. salt, furs 
and manufacture, to their native country. The capital of Lodo- 
meria, Volodymyr surpassed the German towns of that time in 
the splendour of its buildings and the strength of its fortifica- 
tions. The old towns PeremySI, Terebowla, Syanik, Zvenyhorod. 
Cervenj, Plisnesk, Kolomija, Vasiliv, etc. were flourishing. New 



ones were founded: Cholm (1237), Leopol (about 1250), both 
by the King Danylo, Jaroslav (by King Jaroslav the Wise), 
and so on. The economical conditions were splendid, the social 
conditions were in good development, as the free peasantry 
and the well-to-do towns-people were successfully counter- 
balancing the powerful but unquiet nobility of the boyars. 

This first and sole flower of Galicia was first blighted 
by the Mongolian assaults of Djinguiskhan (1223) and Batu 
(1240). They were followed by never ceasing Tatar Wars, 
robbing the country of her eastern and shore provinces and 
weakening most efficaciously the nations strength. But at the 
beginning of the 14 th century there came a new rise though in 
but a smaller degree. Yet the Tatar Danger, weakening the 
strength of Galicia, was indirectly increasing that of the neigh- 
bours, the Hungarians, Poles and Lithuanians. In this unhappy 
period suddenly the dynasty of the Romanides died out in 1340 
and the Dynasties of Poland, Hungary and Lithuania, related 
by marriage, were at once pretending the heritage and tried 
with all means possible to make themselves masters of the 
Galician-Lodomerian Realm. 

The lordless country was but a decade able to maintain 
her real independence. Since 1350 Galicia and Lodomeria are 
deprived of their independence and are keeping up till 
1772 only an autonomy within the body of alien states. 



II. Galicia and Lodomeria under Polish Rule. 

Neither Poland nor Lithuania or Hungary could rely in 
any legal title when they rushed in upon theGalieian -Lodomerian 
heritage after 1340. The crown of Hungary had at least the 
appearance of a title, as the Hungarian kings were intermeddling 
very much in the Galician crown-competitions at the close of 
the 12 th and the beginning of the 13 ,h centuries and in spite 
of the failure of their aims were investing themselves with the 
title at least of "rex Galiciae et Lodomeria". The Lithuanian 
dynasty based their claims in the relations by marriage with 
the Romanides, besides they were in language and culture 
perfectly Ruthenian. Poland could only appeal to her once 
temporary possession of the Tchervenian castles (1018 till 1031 
and 1069 till 1080), which (as stated above) were only enclosing 
the western boundaries of Galicia. The decision in the war of 
succession has been, completely against all expectations, in 
favour of Poland. Casimir, the King of Poland, allied with 
Hungary, acknowledged the latter's titles to Galicia and received 
in recompense in force of the treaties of 1339 and 1350 Galicia 
for life. Yet after his death Galicia remained but during 
1370-1387 with Hungary, then she was united to Poland 
without ceremony by Edwiga, the King of Hungary's doughter. 
Queen of Poland at that time. Lodomeria's largest part was 
allotted to Lithuania and remained, as part of Volhynia. in her 
posession till 1569. In that year Lithuania ceded all her 
Ukrainian countries to Poland (Union of Lubftn). Now the 
whole of the former Galician-Lodomerian Realm had come 
under Polish rule that lasted for more than two centuries 
till 1772. 



The four centuries of Polish sway have been for 
Galicia in reality centuries of political and economical 
decay and decline. 

Poland has been nominally a federative republic the single 
countries of which (Waywodeships and provinces) enjoyed of 
a perfect autonomy under a powerless king and a riotous diet. 
The Gaiician-Lodomerian countries were newly subdivided, 
but the beart of them Galicia, remained as a large autonome 
unity under the name of (Red-)Ruthenia. She enclosed several 
provinces (Leopol, Halyc, Belz, Cholm, etc.), her old historical 
western frontier towards the provinces of Minor-Poland (Lublin, 
Sandomir, Cracow) remained always unchanged during the 
whole of the four centuries of Polish rule. It run over Lencna 
Frampol, Tarnogrod, Rudnik, Rzeszow, Dukla and is to be 
stated on all historical maps of Poland. Considering such facts 
one should believe, that Galicia's population had every oppor- 
tunity to develop in all directions and beyond all limits under 
the protection of a Grand Power of those times and with an 
autonomy that was almost independence.* 

The perfect contrary has taken place. For there has 
been — it is true — autonomy and liberty in Poland, 
but only for those who were noblemen, catholics and 
Poles. Those, who were not that, as for instance nearly the 
whole population of Galicia, became rightless slaves and not 
of a king but of a innumerable quantity of lords. 

The Ukrainian population of Galicia, brought under 
Polish sway not by conquest but by inheritance treaties, has 
been treated from the beginning as a subjugated nation. 

The greatest and general grievance of which the Ukrainian 
nation had most to suffer was the general interior anarchy, 
beginning already in the 15 th century and continually on the in- 
crease up till the fall of the Polish Republic. The famous scholar 
E. Reclus makes the true remark, that "Poland, nominally a 
republic, was in reality a confederation of thousands of despo- 
tical monarchies". Each of these petty despots, or, with other 
words, each Polish nobleman and official was studious to 
maintain everywhere an unconsidering politic of extermination 
against everything Ukrainian. In spite of her anarchic interior 

10 



Conditions the Polish government and society were always |oi 
in rank and file against the Galician Ukrainians. The Polish 
pol.t.c of extermination against the Ukrainians of Qalicia has 
always been a systematical one. 

First the occupancy of the farmland was radically 
omplished. The old titles of possession of the indigenous 
Papulation were not at all regarded with it. The Polish Iciogl 
and diets were not only giving away to the Polish noblemen 
the old domains of the former kings and princes, but . 
private land. The original usufructuaries and possessors were 
simply turned off with violence. Upon the Galician Ukrainian 
nobility (Boyars) was exerted a strong pressure. In spite of all 
treaties and vested rights the conditions turned thus, that 
whoever of the Ukrainian noblemen did not turn catholic <>r 
Pole was sure to lose his influence and fortune, even his 
quality as a nobleman sooner or later. To save the remainder 
of their possessions nearly all the Ukrainian Prince and Boyar 
families turned catholic and Poles (among them the famous 
families of the Wisniowiecki, Ostrozski, Czartoryski, Zaslawski, 
Rozynski, Woroniecki, Czetwertynski, Dzieduszycki, etc.). Already 
at the beginning of the 17 th century great land-owners of Greek 
Faith and Ukrainian nationality were a great rarity — more 
than a half of the country was in the hands of the nobility 
immigrated from Poland, the remainder in the hands of indige- 
nous, but polonized nobility. 

The premise for any official position in Poland was the 
possession of land thus all magistracies fell completely in 
Polish hands already in the 16 th century. 

The Galician towns had been numerous and prosperous 
at the time of independence, the townspeople were wealthy 
and industrious. The Polish system of administration succeeded 
in ruining the towns and the Ukrainian townspeople within 
a short time. First turned out of the town magistracies, later 
excluded by special laws from manufacture and commerce the 
Ukrainian citizens were completely impoverished and removed 
to the suburbs. Immigrated Germans and Armenians were but 
a short time keeping alive trade and traffic, there was no Polish 
townspeople to supplant them. And thus all Galician towns 

11 



came to be Jewish towns, no more centres of culture but 
centres of ransacking. For the jews, suppressed and robbed 
by the Polish lords were obliged to make up for their loss 
by robbing the peasantry. All towns of Galicia decayed, many 
towns came to be villages, Leopol had finally (1772) scarcely 
more than 10.000 inhabitants. 

The Ukrainian peasantry of Galicia free and invested 
with a self-government at the time of independence, turned 
thralls under Polish sway. The Polish lord was allowed to sell 
his serf without being punished, even imprison him and mutilate, 
yea murder and the Polish nobility was making but too much 
use of such rights. 

The Ukrainian language was first only tolerated, yet 
very soon it was removed from the courts of justice, the schools 
and the official life. The Ukrainian Literature, highly developed 
at the time of independence (Galician-Ukrainian chronicle, Song 
of Igor, etc.) was stopped in its development, the Ukrainian 
language soon degraded to a despised peasant dialect. 

The Ukrainian Greek-Orthodox Faith was completely 
1' outlawed under Polish rule and suppressed beyond measure. 
Galicia, under the rule of indigenous princes a home of perfect 
toleration of all faith, became the scene of greatest fanatism 
under Polish rule. Note well, fanatism against the faith 
to which nearly the whole population was clinging! And 
at those times faith was the chief foundation of nationality. 
The bishoprics vere given away to unfit often even criminal 
creatures of the Polish kings and magnates. Churches and 
monasteries were turned catholic by force, the churchlands 
were for the most part given away to catholic churches and 
monasteries, but very often aiso to polish noblemen. The low 
clergy was with intention kept in ignorance and poverty. 

There would be a possibility to excuse this intolerance 
by the catholic fanatism of the Poles against the orthodox 
Ukrainians. But that would be an error. Already in 1439 and 
1596 the Ukrainian Church had become catholic in consequence 
of a union with Rome. And yet the Ukrainian churches were 
rented to jews or even sold, the Ukrainian priests forced to 
soccage on the polish estates, their children made serfs. 

12 



The catholic proselitism was sure to make great progi 
in Galicia under such circumstances, particularly in the towns 
and among the upper classes of the population. To get rid 
at least the religious suppression or forced by their lords . 
many Ukrainian peasants turned catholic, though they retained 
their language and customs. There is the origin of the greatest 
part of the "Poles" of Eastern Galicia, thus specified by the 
Austrian statistics. 

Among all the consequences of Polish rule in Galicia the 
most pernicious were the economical ones. At the time of 
independence Galicia was a flourishing, rich country, the goal 
of merchants from the remotest countries, a fair mediator bet- 
ween the East and the West. The Polish rule was ruining the 
wealth of the country and her commercial position so completely 
and quickly, that the country had lost already in the 16 ,h century 
all economical consequence for abroad. 

After the rise of the great polish estates by the lawless 
bestowals of the kings or by simply robbing the land, the era 
of the illfamed "Polish slovenliness" was beginning there. The 
meaning of it was reckless exhausting and thoughtless 
ransacking the country. During centuries enormous quan- 
tities of grain, cattle, honey, wax, wood, coal, pottassic salt, etc. 
were squeezed out of the country. All that the Ukrainian peasant 
was obliged to furnish by heavy soccage and oppressive imposts 
and his wealth was pining away in it, the Ukrainian towns- 
people was reduced to beggary, as the industry was sickening 
in consequence of the general impoverishment and the impos- 
sibility of export and as the commerce was almost completely 
ceasing in consequence of the stopping of all traffic with the 
East and of innumerable custom-houses. Between Drohobyc 
andjaroslav (120 km) there were no less than 147 custom-houses. 

And in return to all these blessings the Ukrainian subject 
had not even the security of interior order and defence of the 
borders. There was reigning anarchy in the interior, to such a 
degree as to surpass by far the periode of the German robber- 
knights. Brigandage was flourishing, the defence of the frontiers 
was such a beautiful one as to enable the Tatars to ovverrun 
the country every two years with great armies, smaller incursions 

13 



there were every year, many a time there were until 70. And 
that was continuing almost until the end of the 18 th century. 

Reading the description of such conditions everybody not 
sufficiently acquainted with the history of Eastern Europe would 
be bewildered and say: What sort of people is that, to bear 
such outrages without resistance? 

But reading intently the pages of the Ukrainian nation in 
Galicia's history, written with blood and fire, we find this 
nation, — « although cruelly drained by the continuative Tatar 
incursions, burning to ashes thousands of homes every year 
during the half of a millenium, murdering innumerable persons 
or kidnapping them — embracing every opportunity to shake 
off the cruel Polish yoke. The Oalician Ukrainians have very 
early realised, that neither protestations nor law-suits could 
prove effectual. Even bribery, so omnipotent in Poland at all 
times, was not hitting its aim in this case. Therefore there was 
left only one remedy to the Ukrainians: that of open insur- 
rections. They were aiding the insurrections of Swidryhajlo 
(1430—1440), Mucha (1490), Hlynsky (1506), were always ready 
allies of the Moldavian Hospodars in their wars against Poland, 
performed an important part in the wars of the Ukrainian 
cossacks against the Poles. In 1648 and 1649 all Galicia was 
rising to a man against the Poles and only after cruel and 
merciless reprisals they were again subjugated. Till the fall of 
Poland the Carpathian virgin forests were crowded with Ukra- 
inian fugitives, returning the political and social suppression 
of their nation with robbery and murder. 

But for shaking off the Polish yoke the strength of the 
Galician Ukrainians was not sufficient. The national energies 
were paralyzed by the incessant Tatar wars, to these were 
added the wars with the Turke and Swede, military insurrec- 
tions and general anarchy. 

A completely exhausted country, not even able to live on 
her own resources, with spoiled, depopulated towns and poorly 
villages Eastern Galicia was coming under Austrian rule in 
consequence of the first partition of Poland in 1772. 



U 



HI. The Fate of Eastern Galicia under 
Austrian Rule. 

(1772—1918.) 

Austria acquired Eastern Galicia by the partition of the 
former Polish Reign and justified the aquisition by the titles 
of the kingdom of Hungary, in connection with which the 
territory was called "Minor-Russia and Podolia" (1772). 

The Austrian government has united this Ukrainian terri- 
tory with the Polish principalities Zator and Auschwitz and 
later with the grand-duchy of Cracow and formed a province 
of them, that derived the name of Galicia from the Ukrainian 
territory. 

The later official styling of the country, making distinct 
her components, was: the kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria 
with the grand-duchy of Cracow and the principalities of 
Auschwitz and Zator. 

The Austrian bureaucratic rule has given the Ukrainian 
population the abolition of villanage (1782) and soccage 
on the estates of the nobles (1848), which was taken a de- 
liverance from the Polish yoke by the Eastern Galician Ukra- 
inians. 

When Austria in 1848 was shaken to the foundations, the 
Eastern Galician Ukrainians were clinging to Austria and the 
Ukrainian guards were efficaciously preventing a Polish insur- 
rection in Galicia. 

Already at that time the Ukrainians of Eastern Galicia 
made their chief national demand the partition of Galicia and 
the creation of a separate Ukrainian province in Austiia out of 
the Ukrainian part of Galicia, viz. Eastern Galicia. 

15 



This claim of the Ukrainians was not realized and the 
Austrian constitution (1860-1867) united finally, against the will 
of the population, the territory of the Ukrainian kingdom of 
Galicia and Lodomeria with the Polish principalities of Cracow, 
Zator and Auschwitz and formed out of them the monarchy's 
province Galicia under the predomination of the Poles. 

According to an arbitrament pronounced by the leading 
Austrian statesman Count Beust the Ukrainians "had to exist 
inasmuch as it should be found proper by the Galician diet". 

Thus the Poles got not only a Polish administration of 
the country, but also a great influence with the managing of 
Galician affairs in Vienna. 

The politic administration, headed by a Polish lieute- 
nant, was polonized and executed in favour of the Polish po- 
ntic's ends. The whole bureaucracy was Polish and an Ukra- 
inian was on principle not appointed to the civil service. 

Also the judicature has been polonized in Eastern 
Galicia. There were — it is true — appointed Ukrainian officers 
of justice, but they were on principle excluded from all impor- 
tant positions. 

The leading authority in the country's affairs of edu- 
cation the Galician board of education, was almost exclu- 
sively in Polish hands, to the effect to make the Ukrainians 
perfectly unable to prevent this magistracy's polonizing edu- 
cational politic in the elementary schools. The founding of 
public schools with Ukrainian as the language of instruction 
was depending on a vote of the Galician diet. The way in 
which the Polish majority was exercising this right is shown 
by the fact, that in 1914 there existed in Galicia only five 
official Gymnasiums with Ukrainian as language of instruction 
but 80 official public-schools with Polish as language of in- 
struction and every granting of an Ukrainian public school 
was to be vigorously contested for during years in the diet as 
well as in parliament. 

As for the universities it will suffice to state, that the 
Poles were opposing with all means possible both the creation 
of new chairs with Ukrainian language at the university of 

16 



Leopol, where the Ukrainians had at all times their ehairs. and 
the foundation of a separate Ukrainian university in LeopoL 

Just as unfavourable to the Ukrainian nation the economical 
conditions were developing. Especially in the country, where 
the whole population was Ukrainian, nobody cared for a reform 
of the possession-titles on the land, which the peasantry was 
wanting urgently for their rise but in the contrary they were on 
purpose left to ruin, to force them to leave their paternal soil and 
either to seek work in the towns, where they were handed over 
to the perfect methods of polonizing, or to emigrate to 
America. 

Thus the whole administration of Galicia was poloaized 
and served only to the interests of the Poles whose chief aim 
it was to prevent the free development of the Ukrainian nation 
and to suppress them also in the sphere of material culture. 
Galicia was all the time an Austrian province, where all 
politic power was completely in the hands of the Po!es. 

The struggle against this system was very difficult for the 
Ukrainian nation. Condemned already by the electoral regula- 
tions to be a minority both in the Galician diet and in the 
Galician delegation to the Austrian parliament, they were 
moreover reduced to an insignificant group in both represen- 
tative bodies in consequence of the world-known "Galician 
elections" arranged by the Galician administration to mean 
imprisonments, dooms and even massacres for the Ukrainian 
poller. Thus as well in the diet as in parliament only the 
Polish representatives were taken to be the representatives of 
the country. 

Under such circumstances a free cultural, economical 
and political evolution of the Ukrainian nation was under 
Austrian rule an impossibility. 



17 



IV. The Constitution of the Western Ukrainian 
National Republic (Eastern Galicia). 

(1918—1919.) 

The Constitution of the Western Ukrainian Republic took 
its rise from the first session of the Constituting National 
Assembly, that took place on the 19 th of October 1918 in 
Leopol and proclaimed in the name of the right of self-deter- 
mination the formation of the independent Ukrainian State out 
of the former Austria's Ukrainian territories. This assembly, 
composed of all Ukrainian deputies that had been by universal 
suffrage elected into the Austrian parliament and the diets of 
Galicia and Bucovina, soon assumed under the title of "Na- 
tional Council" the functions of a permanent parliamentary 
representation. In the same way the first constituting parliaments 
(representative bodies) of the other so-called Austrian Succession 
States were formed. Thus especially in German Austria and 
Tchecoslovakia. 

In the same constituting session of the National Council 
of the 19 th of October 1918 the following principles of consti- 
tution were carried: 

"The constitution has to be based in universal direct, equal, 
and secret suffrage with proportional representation for all 
representative and administrative bodies. The proportional repre- 
sentation serves to secure the autonomy and rights of national 
minorities, to which are warranted at the same time the full 
self-determination and cultural and national autonomy." (Ar- 
ticle IV.) 

According to this provision the country's national mino- 
rities were called upon to constitute themselves as separate 

18 



bodies and to delegate into the National Council the aural 
oi deputies due to their percentage In me population. 

In consequence of the National Council's vote its d< 
took on the I s " of November 1918 the administration <.f Has' 
Qalicia in their own hands. 

Then there were read by the Ukrainian National Council: 
firstly the constitution bills (fundamental laws), in the second 
place the land bill, authorizing the government for the solution 
of that question, and in the third place the electoral regulate 
which passed the house in the sessions of the National Council 
in Stanislaw (April 1919) and got legal force. In conseqiu 
of these fundamental laws the finally voted constitution of the 
Western Ukrainian Republic presents itself as follows: 

I. The state is headed by a president and a Board ot 
Commissioners out of the National Council. Both the president 
and the board of commissioners are elected by the National 
Council. The president presides the National Council and the 
Board of Comissioners and is at the same time solely exerci- 
sing the rights of sovereignty for the foreign countries. He |fl 
the representative of the state towards the foreign countries. 

II. The executive power is exercised by the secretaries 
of state. The secretaries of state are elected by the Board ot 
Commissioners of the National Council by which they are 
dismissed and to which they must give in their resignation. 

III. The legislative power is exercised by the National 
Council. The elections into the National Council are based in 
universal, equal, secret and direct suffrage with proportional 
representation. 

The president is assisted in presiding the National Council 
and Board of Commissioners by two vice-presidents. Both the 
posts are reserved to national minorities in the country. All 
elections by the National Council have to take place in separate 
national groups (curiae) only the election of the president must 
be enacted by the whole house. 

The regulation of the questions of language and of education 
was still in preparation. According to the fundamental principle- 
of the Constituting Assembly on the 19 ,h of October 1920 these 
regulations had to be based in the national autonomy and equal 

19 



privileges. Ukrainian, as the language of the population's majo- 
rity is taken to be the official language but in the intercourse 
of persons with the authorities all languages of the country 
enjoy the same rights. Transactions with civil authorities have 
to take place in the language of the person applying to the 
authorities, in the courts of justice the language of the accused 
has to be used. All public proclamations have to be in the 
official language as well as in the languages of the national 
minorities. Each nation in the state is to found and manage 
its schools independently by itself under the superintendence 
of the state secretary under the provision, that the system 
of education must be in concordance with the premises stated 
by legal regulation. In the schools of the national minorities 
Ukrainian as the official language has to be an obligatory 
object of instruction. The expenditure of public money for educa- 
tion are to be divided among the single national bodies, 
formed for educational purposes with reference to the national 
registers, according to their percentage in the population. 

Neither the accomplishment of the above-mentioned bills 
nor the elections into the regular National Council could be 
brought about as the Poles in the meantime had been invested 
by the Supreme Council of the Allied Powers with the mandate 
to occupate all Eastern Galicia and to constitute there a civil 
administration. What this administration is like will be described 
on the subsequent pages. Yet, there is to be hoped, the work 
of the first representative assembly of the Western Ukrainian 
Republic, inspired by a truly liberal spirit — the work that was 
fit to found a peaceable intercourse of all the nations of the 
state — shali not be lost. 

In consequence of the Polish occupation both the National 
Council and the government of Eastern Galicia were forced to 
seek protection abroad and to fix their abode in Vienna and 
Prague. In Leopol remained since November 1918 a delegation 
of the Eastern Galician National Council but it is prevented by 
the Poles to effectuate anything. 



20 



V. Eastern Galicia under Polish Administration. 

(1919 1920.) 

Towards the End of 1918 the Poles began in Eastern 
Galicia a war against the established Western Ukrainian State 
to conquer Eastern Galicia for Poland. And the Poles were 
cunning enough to make the leading factors of the Entente 
believe, that their war was directed against the bolshevic 
gangs; in consequence of that they got supply of ammunition 
and clothes and the Haller army, sent over from France to 
Eastern Galicia, succeeded in driving away the Eastern Galician 
army beyond the river Zbrucz. Thus Eastern Galicia came 
under Polish rule at the begin of July 1919, for the first but 
in fact, by military superiority, yet soon also "legally" in con- 
sequence of the Supreme Council in Paris' decision of the 
ll ,h of July 1919. 

In force of this decision of the Peace Conference at Paris 
Poland received the mandate to establish a civil administration 
in Eastern Galicia, being expressly stated this administration 
to be only a temporary one having to give way to the definite 
decision of Eastern Galicia's population. 

Yet instead of an orderly civil administration Poland 
introduced a wild terrorism and was behaving and managing 
just as if Eastern Galicia had been for all future united to the 
Polish Republic and surrendered »at her discretion. 

They began with wholesale imprisonments of the 
Ukrainian population, especially from among the ranks of the 
educated but also from among the peasantry and to use the 
Ukrainian language in the street or in offices was sufficient to 

21 



be arrested. There were built large concentration camps, where 
thousands of Ukrainian citizens were mercilessly given up to 
starvation and cruel treatment and perished therefore by typhus 
and other diseases. Great mass of innocent people have fallen 
victim to this treatment. When the American Red Cross Missions 
were applying for a moderation of the regulations they were 
met by the Polish government either with a rebuff or the con- 
sequence was not only, a doubling of the imprisonments but 
also still more cruel persecution of the interned. In the time 
from July 27 th till September 4 th , 1919, only in the single con- 
centration camp of Brest-Litowsk 774 interned Ukrainians have 
perished by persecutions and diseases. When this number was 
more and more on the increase the Polish government inter- 
dicted the Ukrainian press to publish the names of the defunct. 
The persecutions in the concentration camps were so cruel, 
that even in the Polish Diet the government was interpellated 
in consequence of them ("Dziennik Nowy" in Warsaw, No. 129 
from July 26 th , 1919). 

Who from among the Ukrainian educated was not interned, 
was either confined to an ordered residence or made subject 
to endless persecutions and other vexations. Before all the 
Parsons of Greek catholic Faith were persecuted and many 
Ukrainian parishes deprived of their spiritual guides. 

Officials of Ukrainian nationality have been removed from 
service, if they denied to take an oath of the Polish Republic 
(surely because Eastern Galicia is up till the present day 
according to the right of nations not yet united to Poland!) 
and many have been dismissed without any ceremony and 
without mentioning reasons. 

The Ukrainian language disappeared fully in the offices 
and the Ukrainian population is exposing themselves to the 
most cruel persecutions if they venture to use their, native tongue 
conversing with the authorities. 

What the Ukrainian nation had gained in the educational 
sphere with the greatest painstaking and sacrifices under Austrian 
rule was by the Poles almost completely ruined. For instance 
in force of the Leopol school-board's act from May 4 th , 1919, 
the Ukrainian language was abolished as language of instruction 

22 



m the elementary and upper schools and only permitted by 

way of exception where the school-children were express! 
requesting it. From the university and polytechnic instil 
of Leopol all Ukrainian professors and lecturers were rem- 
all lectures in Ukrainian language inhibited and all Ukrainian 
students interdicted to attend as well the university as the 
polytechnic high-school. When then the Ukrainian scientific 
organizations like the Scientific "SewCenko Society" tin 
"Petro Mohyla" and the "Stauropigian Institution" in Leopdl 
were willing to make up for the want of high-school lee! 
by private university lectures- the Polish government inter- 
dicted these lectures and is throwing obstacles into the Ukrai- 
nian students' way to hinder them even from completing 
their studies abroad. The Ukrainian Library and the Museum 
of the Basilianian Convent in Zolkicw are ruined ; the edifices 
of the privat Ukrainian "gymnasiums" have been intentionally 
requisitioned by the Polish military authorities. 

Also the whole economical life of the Ukrainian popu- 
lation has ben checked. The chief agricultural organization 
"Silsky Hospodar" and the general economical union "Sojuz 
hospodarskych spilok" were obliged to suspend their functions ; 
most loan-banks have been dissolved and the few still extant 
can prolong their life only with great difficulties as they are 
exposed to permanent vexations by the authorities. 

Most political newspapers in Ukrainian language h 
been abolished ; for the few still extant there exists no liberty 
of press at all insomuch that it is even impossible to utter the 
grievances of the Ukrainian nation in their own press. 

Taken all together the Polish government did not establish 
peace and order, but was poisoning the political atmosphere 
and creating hopeless conditions. They were not only trying to 
deprive the Ukrainian nation of its educated leaders but also 
to undo completely the Ukrainian peasantry. To this end were 
enacted not only endless requisitionings but also the peasants 
troubled by permanent searchings allegedly for weapons and 
ammunitions but in fact intended to rob the Ukrainian peasant 
of his property and make him, in consequence of eternal im- 
prisonments, existence impossible. 



Z'i 



There is no question at all of any action for agricultural 
relief and thus many peasants have to seek shelter in sub- 
terranean caves whilst great extents of farmland must always 
remain without cultivation. Yet in recompense the Polish go- 
vernment is maintaining a great agricultural colonization 
aiming to supplant the indigenous Ukrainian element and making 
it completely disappear in its own home by breaking up great 
estates and parcelling them out to Polish settlers from Western 
Poland. There have been given away till now 18 percents of 
the great landed property in Eastern Galicia to Polish peasants 
from the West and thus a methodical colonization of Eastern 
Galicia by foreign colonists is executed. And to all that the 
enormous costs of a voyage to America make also the emigra- 
tion impossible to the peasant and thus the Ukrainian peasantry 
is condemned to turn lowest proletarians. 

In such a way arises — <- in consequence of the population's 
hopeless condition - a situation that is threatening with the 
greatest dangers the general peace and order. 

Under Austrian rule a prosperous development of the 
Eastern Galician population was impossible. But at least there 
was a possibility to live. Under Polish occupation even life 
is impossible. Punitive expeditions, pogroms, whole-sale 
arrestings, inconsidering hindrances in all spheres are threatening 
the Ukrainian and Jewish population of Eastern Galicia with 
national and economical death. The Polish government's 
systemical mode of proceeding in Eastern Galicia means an 
inconsidering politic of extermination, that must be 
abolished in the common interest of humanity and culture. 



24 



VI. The Galician Territory. 

The old historical frontiers of the Galician-Lodomerian 
realm embraced within the former Austria-Hungary the whole 
East and centre of the Galician province, the whole Bucovina 
and a broad bordering stripe of Upper Hungary from the Zips 
to the Transsylvanian frontier with a total extent of more than 
90,000 sq. km. 

Yet the Western Ukrainian state's political idea — in 
strict contradiction to those of the Polish and Hungarian states 

— is renouncing all ambitions to territories, belonging in the 
past to the Galician-Lodomerian realm but now no more in- 
habited by the Ukrainian nation. The leading idea of the 
Western Ukrainian state is the continuate ethnographical 
territory of the Ukrainian nation within the former Austria- 
Hungary. This territory contains 75,000 sq. km., yet more than 
1 5,000 sq. km. of it belong to Transkarpathia (allotted toTchecho- 
slovakia) and more than 5,000 sq. km. belong to the Ukrainian 
part of Bucovina (occupated by Roumania). The continuate 
Ukrainian national territory in Galicia embraces therefore 
55,330 sq. km. with (1914) 5,450.000 inhabitants. This 
territory forms at present the object of the Western Ukrainians' 
political ambitions. 

The frontiers of the continuate Ukrainian national territory 
in Galicia are formed by the old provincial borders and by 
the Polish-Ukrainian linguistic frontier. This linguistic frontier 

— according to official Austrian statistics on the nationalities 
(critical comparison of the results of census in 1880, 1890, 
1900, 1910) — is running in the following manner (from the 
North-East to the South-West, districts and places): 

District of Lancut: Kurilivka, Ozanna, Rzuchiv, Dubno; 

District of Jaroslaw: Dubrovycia, Pyskorovyfi, Syniava, 
Lezachiv, Radawa, RySkova volja, Konjafiv, Jaroslav, Harbari, 
Vysicko, Radymno, Zamichiv, Boratyn; 

25 



District of PeremySl: Kosynyci, Macjkovi£i, Seredna, 
Skopiv, Bachiv, Iskanj, Rusjke selo, Solonne; 

District of Bereziv : Selyska, Volodj, Jablonycja, HroSivka, 
Uluc, Lodyna, Kinsjke, Hrabivka; 

District of Sjanik : Jalyn, PakoSivka, Kostarivci, Novosilci, 
Odrechova, Synjava, Voltusova, Balutjanka, Zavadka; 

District of Korosno: Trostjana, Hyrova, Myscova; 

District of Jaslo : Do§nycja, Skalnyk, Berezova, Perehrymka, 
Volja ceklynsjka; 

District of HorlyCi : Bodnarka, Rozdili, Mencyna, Ropycja, 
Bilanka, Losi; 

District of Hrybiv: Vav§ka, Bincarova, Bohusa, Koroleva 
rusjka ; 

District of Novyj SanC: Matijova, Skladyste, Ros'toka 
mala, Virchomla; 

District of Nowy Targ: Cornavoda, Slachtova. 

The territory of the intended Western-Ukrainian Common- 
wealth is, considering its physiographical structure, analogous 
to Switzerland. Like Switzerland it is formed by a mountain 
nucleus and the belting uplands and lowlands. Only that the 
mountainous territory of Galicia is smaller in extent and lesser 
in absolute height, the uplands and lowlands in extent and 
fertility more important than those of Switzerland. Besides 
Eastern Galicia is already a typical Eastern European country 
showing obviously the characteristical features of Eastern 
Europe: grandour and uniformity. 

Averted by the inflexible Podolian flake the folded 
mountain range of the Eastern Carpathians stretches in 
Eastern Galicia from the North-West to the South-East and 
reaches with its softly moulded crests and summits, built out 
of sandstone and slates, hardly more than 2,000 m height. 
It bears vast virgin forests and immense, luxuriant mountain 
meadows. 

Along the northern crest-line of the Carpathians there is 
the zone of the East-Carpathian Upland built out of tertiary 
clays, wherein are buried great treasures in petroleum, Ozocerite, 
kitchen-salt, potassic salt, and brown-coal. 

26 



Towards the North follows the - interrupted zone of plains : 
sabulous on the San, marshy on the Dnister, fertile on the Pruth. 

Yet in the back of them the plateaus are like side-see; 
protruding. Between the Pruth and the Dniester there lies the 
slowly undulating, in gypsum abounding but fertile Pokutia, 
in the North of the Dniester there is situated Podolia in its 
eastern part steppe-like, in the margines hilly, by steeply sloped 
river valleys carved but by most fertil black soil covered. Near 
Leopol it is meeting with the sabulous and forested plate of 
the Rostoee, flattening softly in the East to the moist depression 
on the river Bougue. 

The hydrographica! system of Eastern Galicia has a 
structure similar to that of Switzerland. The same as Switzer- 
land also Eastern Galicia is crossed by the chief river-divide 
of Europe. Therefore it is embracing only the headwaters of 
larger rivers, fit to furnish considerable water-power for a future 
industry. Yet Galicia has also in spite of this condition 
several hundreds of kilometers of navigable river-courses (San, 
Bougue, Dniester, Pruth). It is true, these rivers have much 
lost in navigability in consequence of Polish slovenliness during 
centuries (chiefly by destroying the forests) and are now severely 
damaging the country by their annual overflowings. Larger 
lakes there are none in Galicia, yet there are many large ponds 
and vast turfy bogs with inexhaustible supplies in cheap fuel. 

The climate of Ukrainian Galicia is in the whole a tem- 
perate one and very salubrious. It is already, according to 
the Eastern European type — continental, more severe and dry 
than the still Central European one of Poland. Yet the vege- 
table garment, of Eastern — Pontic-type — is very rich, and 
likewise the animal life. The conditions . for a development 
of agriculture, of cattle-breeding and similar economical pur- 
suits are very favourable, much more favourable than in the 
neighbouring Poland. 

Eastern Galicia is already a typically Eastern European 
country, connected by all her characteristics with Eastern Europe, 
and she would be with a Central European state like Poland, 
just so unnatural an appendage as she was with Austria- 
Hungary at her time. 

27 



VII. The Population of Eastern Galicia. 

According to the official results of the census of 1910 
in Eastern Galicia (jurisdictional territory of the Leopol Court 
of Appeal) were using as "language of converse" : 

Ukrainian: 3,132,233 = 58-9% 

Polish: 2,114,792 = 39-8% 

German: 64,845 = 1-2% 

Others: 5,288 - Oi % 

among a total population of 5,317,158 inhabitants. From among 
3,759 communities of Eastern Galicia the Ukrainian "language 
of converse" is predominant in 3,173 communities (84*4 %)> tne 
Polish one is predominant only in 352 scattered communities 

(9-3%). 

"Language of converse" means not the same as native 
tongue or nationality. But as there have not been in Austria 
proper national statistics, the numbers for the "language of 
converse" must be taken as a scale for measuring the national 
conditions. 

From the official specifications given above we see, in 
spite of their inadequateness, that Eastern Galicia is an 
Ukrainian country, wherein the absolute majority of popu- 
lation is speaking Ukrainian. 

Yet the official ? statistics tell us also, that about 40 percents 
of the country's population are speaking Polish. In this fact 
the Polish imperialistic politicians base their thesis that Eastern 
Galicia is a territory with mixture of nations. The Poles 
should be in number — as they admit — a minority, but, from 
an economical, cultural and political point of view, the only 
decisive element in the country. 

28 



This thesis is perfectly false. Within the ethnographical 

frontiers of Eastern Galicia given above the Poles arc forming 
not 40 , but hardly 12% of the population and they are living 
scattered in small isolated groups, their economical preponde- 
rance is a fiction, as the jews are the decisive element of 
Eastern Galician economical life, their political preponderance 
the Poles got thanks to the former Austria's artificial system 
of governing and the by her appointed bureaucracy. 

The chief reason and at the same time the most important 
prop for the Polish imperialistic politicians' false theses as 
given above, are the incredible falsifications of the Austrian 
statistics, having been executed by all census (1880, 1890, 
1900, but most shamelessly 1910). 

Above all the Galician statistics of the "language of con- 
verse" have conjured away the whole of one of the most 
important components in the Galician population. These 
are the Eastern Jews of Galicia that, although they are 
speaking a German dialect and have a strongly marked national 
and cultural peculiarity, have been all together registered 
as Poles. To get out their number, we must make use of 
the official statistics regarding faith. 

There were 1910 in Eastern Galicia: 

Greek catholics: 3,291,218 = 617% 
Roman catholics: 1,350,856 = 253% 
Israelits: 659,706 = 124% 

Others: 34,397 - 07%. 

All the Greek catholics are (with exception of single 
persons, ethnographical phenomena), of Ukrainian nationality, 
in the same way all Israelits are of Jewish nationality. It is 
a very rarely occuring fact, that jews are speaking the Polish 
language correctly, but a jew taking himself really a Pole is a 
still rarer bird. 

The numbers in the statistics about faith (about 62° 
Ukrainians, more than 12% Jews) are more approaching to 
truth. But only by several paces, For the first they only show, 
that the statistics about nationality have reckoned 172,000 Ukrai- 
nians and 660,000 jews to the Poles. As for the Ukrainians the 
number of 172,000 is to be taken only as minimum. The official 

29 



specifications about the Greek-Catholics are for about 200,000 
inferior to the numbers, given by the Greek-catholic parishes 
and indicating the number of souls. Thus we see the statistics 
in regard to faith nearly as much counterfeited as those in 
regard to language. We offer for example (one from among 
innumerable the village of Kryv^yci near Leopol. It had 
1880 17% of Greek-catholics, 74% of Roman catholics 
1890 18% ; „ „ 72% „ „ 

1900 96% „ „ „ 1% „ „ 

1910 2 / „ „ „ 97 / „ „ „ 

and all that, athough it had not witnessed any catastrophe and 
nothing is known of wholesale apostasy. All has taken place 
only on the patient paper of the official census-registers. 

According to the official statistics there would remain for 
the Poles of Eastern Galicia only the 25 percents of Roman- 
catholics in the population. For Polish Politicians since times 
immemorial all Roman-catholics in all Eastern Europe and thus 
also in Eastern Galicia pass for true Poles. Yet hardly a half 
of Eastern Galicia's Roman-catholics are Poles, the other half 
are Germans, Tchechs and other people of different nationality 
together with more than half a million of Ukrainians with 
Roman-catholic faith (about 570,000) — descendants of those 
who have professed the "Polish" faith still at the time of Polish 
rule to avoid at least the religious suppression. 

In conformity with scientifical researches by Professor 
Dr. Stepan Tomasivskyj, who has critically compared and com- 
pilated all numbers furnished by the census and all other ethno- 
graphical specifications, the picture of Eastern Galicia in regard 
to statistics of nationality presents itself as follows : 

Areal ^jjJJ 1011 Ukrainians Jews Poles Germans 

55,300sq.km 5,450,000 4,055,000 670,000 659,000 65,000 

74-4% 12-3% 12-1% 1-2% 
This picture is essentially different from the official one. 
What the latter is only indicating the scientifical picture is 
proving: the fact, that Eastern Galicia is really an Ukra- 
inian country, just as much as for instance Congress-Poland 
must be called Polish. Only the Ukrainian population is here 

30 



indigenous all elements with other language have later immi- 
grated and have only in insignificant part taken root in the country. 
Only the Polish great land-owners up to 2,000 in number, yet, 
it is true, possessing a quarter of the land, and about 100,000 1 
lish peasants (colonists called into the country by the Polish 
colonization) German colonists, Jewish tradespeople and mer- 
chants in the towns are really settled elements. The whole 
remainder, in the first place 5 sixth of Eastern Galicia's Poles 
are a fluctuating element. They are former Austrian officials, 
subordinate officials, servants of offices, police-soldiers, railway- 
personal, etc. all of them Poles, immigrated from all territories 
of Poland, the task of which it was to polonize Eastern Gali- 
cia in favour of Austria. Therefore the Eastern Galician towns 
seem to a foreign traveller to be Polish islets in Ukrainian 
territory. In reality the Eastern Galician towns have a population 
mixed up out of jews and Ukrainians with a slight upper 
stratum of Polish bureaucracy. 

Even the official statistics of 1910, counterfeited beyond 
measure, were not able to give in the larger Eastern Galician 
towns more than 355% of "Poles" together with 38'5% of 
jews, 24*8% of Ukrainians and 1*2% of others. Besides the 
Ukrainian townspeople is very much on the increase. In the 
30 years from 1881 till 1910 the Ukrainian population of Leopol, 
for instance, has increased for 149%- If the Polish bureaucracy 
and their followers are removed to their proper place, i. e. to 
the ethnographically Polish territories, the Polish appearance 
of the Eastern Galician towns will disappear as by witchcraft. 



31 



VIII. Social and Economical Conditions of Eastern 

Galicia. 

Agriculture forms the chief means of living of the Eastern 
Galician population. According to the statistics of 1910 in 
regard to occupation 77"86% of the population were occupated 
in agriculture, 8'26% in manufacture and 7'88% in commerce, 
6% finally were belonging to the public service and other 
callings. 

In agriculture there is especially to be noticed the diffe- 
rence between the great landed property and the small farmland 
of the peasantry. 

In 1912 in Eastern Galicia there embraced: 



kind of property 


arable land 


meadows 


gardens 


ha o/ 


ha 


ha o/o 


great estates . . . 

property of the 
peasantry .... 

great estates . . . 

property of the 
peasantry .... 


707,108 
1,897,978 


272 
72-8 


148,043 
547,340 


213 
7S-7 


11,701 12-9 
78,994 87-1 


pasture ground 


f o rests 


ponds 


ha | ' % 


ha ! o/o 


ha % 


94,129 18-9 
404,858 811 


1,229,082 48-8 
221,046! 15-2 


16,667 i 80'3 
4,101 197 



Since the middle of the 19 th century the extent of the 
great estates is diminishing, by parcelling out of 3,000 until 
10,000 ha a year during the last decades and selling them over 



32 



to the peasantry. Thus Eastern Galicia is a country of small 
farmers and the rate of agricultural property as regards the 
extent is to be seen in the following table: 

Seize of the establishments number of establishments 

in hcktars m percents 

until 05 5.5 

from 05 until 1 12*6 

1 » 2 235 

2 „ 5 372 

,.5 „ 10 144 

..10 „ 20 37 

„ 20 ,.50 07 

.,50 ,,100 02 

more than 100 034. 

In consequence of this table we see the greatest percentage 
belonging to the petty rural establishment with an extent of 
until 2 ha (42-6%), then follows the property of small farmers 
with an extent of 2 until 5 ha (37'27 ), a seize, not sufficing 
to support the whole family of the farmer, but forcing several 
members of the family to seek occupations away from the 
agricultural sphere. To the remaining kinds of landed property, 
offering the farmer the possibility to live with his family on 
the produce of his land, only a small percentage is belonging. 
Thus the Eastern Galician peasant's hunger for farmland 
and the fact of his whole-sale emigration to America or season- 
migrations for harvest-work abroad, in spite of the fertility of 
his paternal soil, are to be explained. Hence follows also 
the urgency of a reform of the possession-titles to farmland, 
with the object of procuring the farmer — though for compen- 
sation — as much soil as will suffice for supporting him. 

The Eastern Galician peasant is as a rule tilling the soil 
himself and is usually aided by his family. Agricultural day- 
workers and labourers are a rare exception with the peasant 
and are only to be seen on the great estates. To this Is added, 
that the greatest percentage of peasants in Eastern Galicia are 
Ukrainians, whilst the number of Poles among them is very 
insignificant. Great landed proprietors are almost without ex- 
ception Poles or jews. 

33 



In spite of this unhappy conditions in the repartition <>t 
soil and the very often still antiquated ways of tillage, Eastern 
Galicia was one of the richest in grain and meat among 
the former Austria's provinces and supplying the remainder 
of her. 

Industry and Commerce are but poorly developed in 
Eastern Galicia in spite of her great riches in raw-produce. 
World-famed is the production of Ozocerite and Petroleum. In 
the working of Petroleum there have been extant in 1907 
344 establishments with 1,675 shafts and more than 12,000 
workmen. 

In the other branches of industry there are very few 
establishments of the seize and managing of factories and the 
trade is mostly exercised as primitive handicraft. According to 
their number and percentage-rate the shoemakers occupy the 
first place, after them come the weavers, in the third place the 
tailors, in the fourth place the smiths etc. Weaving is almost 
exclusively a domestic industry of the farmers. 

Among the factories only sawmills, tobacco-manufactories 
and breweries are worth mentioning. 

In general there were extant in the district of the Leopol 
Chamber-of-Commerce in 1902 79,010 manufacturing establish- 
ments with 161,812 workmen and in the district of the Brody 
Chamber-of-Commerce 28,288 manufacturing establishments 
with 43,727 workmen. 

About two thirds of all manufacturing establishments in 
Eastern Galicia consist in a single person ; in 5 % of them 
also members of the family are aiding; the remainder belongs 
to such establishments in which alien workers are employed. 

Considering the whole amount of all persons, occupied 
in industry and trade we see 34% belonging to independent, 
3*5% to clerks and 62*5 % to workmen and servants. The 
type of the independent small establishment is prevailing. 

Also commerce is carried on chiefly in the ways of the 
independent small establishment. The statistics (1902) count 
55% of independent, 87% of clerks and 36%, of workmen 
and servants. 

34 



The public (civil) service and the liberal pro! 
embraced (1902) 20",,, of independent, 57-5",, officials and 
clerks and 22*5 °,'o workmen and assistants. 

Already from this short representation follows, that the 
social organization in Eastern Galicia is presupposing such a 
Common-wealth as is based in the peasants and small citi/ 
the workmen-proletariate is but insignificantly represented 

The till now low condition of industry, commerce and 
trade is owing to the fact, that Eastern Galicia was also under 
Austrian rule surrendered at discretion to the Polish authorities. 
The latter did never care for the development of commerce 
and industry in Eastern Galicia but spent the taxes, payed by 
the Eastern Galician population, in keeping alive by artificial 
means the Eastern Galician great estates and in the economical 
improvement of Western Galicia and her Polish population. 
They came even to the outrage of suppressing all the Ukrainians' 
attempts to improve by their own forces commerce and industry. 

Yet in spite of all suppressions the Ukrainian nation has 
made great progress in the sphere of economical self-help. 
Since 1883 a great many of Ukrainian cooperatives have 
arisen, united in five great cooperative unions. The Ukrainian 
Provincial Loan-Cooperative in Leopol, the Provincial Cooperative 
Stores "Narodna Tarhovla", the Provincial Dairy Cooperative, 
the Provincial Cooperative for Utilisation of Cattle and the 
Union of Agricultural Cooperatives. Thanks to these economical 
organizations the wealth of the Ukrainian population was 
gradually rising as the Ukrainians have procured themselves 
their own loan-banks and were carefully watching to avoid 
economical ransacking by dishonest people. 

Besides the above mentioned organizations there were 
founded Ukrainian insurance-companies colonization-establish- 
ments and industrial-banks, savings-banks and the Ukrainian 
rural mortegage-bank, which, in spite of all the permanent 
hindrances and vexations by the Polish authorities, have 
essentially contributed towards the development of the Ukrainian 
population's economical conditions. An important part was 
performing with regard to that, the Ukrainian agricultural 
society "Silskyj Hospodar", embracing before the war more 



than 100 district branches and about 3,000 local organizations 
with nearly 200,000 members. 

By this active and very fertile organizing work the Ukra- 
inian nation of Galicia has proved its great qualities for coope- 
ration in the important mission of the European East. But to 
accomplish that it will be necessary to rescue the Ukrainian 
nation from the Polish leading-strings, born till now, and to 
give them the possibility to decide freely by themselves the 
economical conditions of the own country. 



3fi 



IX. The Cultural Work of the Galician Ukrainians 
in the Last Decades. 

When, after the partition of Poland, Eastern Galicia was 
united to Austria the Ukrainians seemed, in consequent 
the Polish terrorism during centuries, to be no more able to 
keep up their national and cultural originality and to develop 
themselves. In consequence of the polonizing of the upper 
classes the Ukrainians came to be an amorphe mass of pea- 
santry out of which not even the Ukrainian clergy was able to 
elevate themselves as they were also wanting almost all edu- 
cation. From among all their many old cultural institutions the 
Ukrainians could bring only one savely over the time of Polish 
suppression: The Stauropigian Institution in Leopol (founded 
in the 16 th century, with printing office, bookseller's shop, 
library, museum, etc.). 

Thus it seems almost miraculous, that this peasantry, con- 
demned to national death, was able to produce men like the 
eminent poet Markian Sa§kevy£ (1835) and others, working 
eagerly all their lives lo give their also under Austrian rule 
suppressed nation the first glimpses of national consciousness 
and higher culture. 

When in 1867 (begin of the constitutional era) the possi- 
bility for a useful cultural work in Galicia was given, the Ukra- 
inians of Eastern Galicia founded the first society for enlighte- 
ning the people "Prosvita" (enlightening) at Leopol (1868), 
doing great work in all Eastern Galicia. In the Eastern Galician 
towns were founded branches and in the villages reading- 
halls by the Prosvita and at the begin of the war nearly all 
Ukrainian communities, in Eastern Galicia were provided with 
such reading-halls. 

37 



The aim of "Prosvita" was to awake and develop cultural 
interests in the Ukrainian nation by popularly written books 
and booklets. It was caring for the foundation of people- 
libraries, for the arranging of performances in theater and 
was editing for the latter popular plays, it organized singing- 
chorusses and musical bands, arranged courses for teaching 
analphabets and lectures on all subjects of national, cultural 
and economical life, that were lectured also by wandering 
teachers. The cultural work of the "Prosvita" is continued till 
up to the present day. 

Whilst the enlightening society "Prosvita" was considering 
it their chief task to elevate the cultural niveau of the Ukrainian 
peasantry the Ukrainian educated founded a spiritual center for 
uniting the scientifical work. Thus in 1874 the Ukrainian So- 
ciety of Sciences was founded in Leopol, called after the name 
of the greatest Ukrainian poet Sewcenko. There was, before 
all, working the Professor of university Omeljan OhonowSkyj, 
giving the chief foundations of Ukrainian philology and writing 
the first history of Ukrainian literature. 

The cultural work done by the "Sewcenko- Society of 
Sciences" was immense, especially from the moment, when the 
Ukrainian historian Prof. Michael Hrusewskyj, called from Kiev 
to the Leopol university, was elected to preside it. Prof. Michael 
Hrusewskyj, one of the greatest modern historians of Eastern 
Europe, wrote a monumental history of the Ukraina, a work, 
forming, in consequence of the great quantity of collected mate- 
rials, originality and grandour of ideas, the best source for the 
Western European scholars in studying the cultural and histo- 
rical problems of Eastern Europe. He was bringing up several 
scholars, either developing the ideas of their teacher or going 
their own individual ways as for instance Stepan Tomasiwskyi, 
Myron Korduba, Ivan Kriypjakevyc, Ivan Kreveckyj, Volodymyr 
Hnatjuk and others. All sections of the "Sewcenko-Society of 
Sciences", before all the historical and philological ones, the 
section for natural philosophy, the mathematical and medicinal 
ones can boast of great work done to the Ukrainian as well 
as the general European science and culture. There were lec- 
turing: Mathematicians (V. Levyckyj, M. Cajkovskyj, K. Hlibo- 

38 



vyckyj), physicists (J. Puluj, K. Cchelskyj, V. Kitfer), chewl 
(J. HorbacevSkyj, J. Hirniak), geographers and geolog 
(J. Niedzvjeckyj, S. Rudny£kyj, H. Velycko), biologen (J. Ra- 
kovskyj, S. Sydorjak), phllologers (O. Kolessa, K. Studynskyj, 
J. Svencickyj, M. Voznjak), etc., etc. To the circle of the' "Sev- 
ce'nko Society of Sciences" were also belonging the greatest 
poets and authors as for instance. Dr. Ivan Franko, wh 
works have been translated into several European laoguag 

Besides the SevCenko Society, that possesses a gi 
library and museum (also a printing-office, and book-binder's 
and bookseller's shops) there are existing in Leopol : the Ukra- 
inian National Museum and the institution "Narodnyj dim", 
both with great libraries, the Society for Popular University 
Lectures ("Petro Mohyla") and several other scientifical and 
cultural societies, doing great work till they have been recklessy 
suppressed by the Polish occupation authorities and now, 
without protection, condemned to dy. 

In the sphere of national education the Ukrainians were 
obliged to struggle obstinately against the Oalician-Polish pro- 
vincial government's polonizing practices, favoured by Austria. 
Whilst the Poles possessed 80 by the state supported public- 
schools before the outburst of the European War, the Ukra- 
inians were obliged to struggle during a decade for a single 
"gymnasium", in consequence of which they could wrest hardly 
five public-schools till 1918 from the Austrian government. For 
this reason the Ukrainian Pedagogical Society was suppor- 
ting by the means of the Ukrainian society nine private gym- 
nasiums and founded many boarding-houses for poor school- 
children. The Poles were doing their best to prevent the brin- 
ging-up of an Ukrainian educated youth and thus it was ex- 
ceedingly difficult to obtain subventions from the state for the 
Ukrainian privat-schools and boarding-houses for pupils. 

As it is known, the Ukrainians were obliged to struggle 
obstinately for obtaining their own university in Leopol. The 
Leopol university, originally destinated for the Ukrainians, was 
later polonized and only several chairs remained Ukrainian. 
Although the struggle for the Ukrainian university was continued 
for years and blood and even lives of several students were 






spent in it, it was without success till up to the outburst of 
the European war. 

Here must also be mentioned the Galician Ukrainian press, 
developing itself from humble origins to be a potent factor in 
the cultural vand national life of the Ukrainian nation. 

Also in the sphere of economical life, in industry and 
commerce the Ukrainians in Eastern Galicia made great progress 
in the last decades before the outburst of war. There were 
founded banks, commercial associations and factories and thus 
the economical life of the nation could show forth in the last 
time before the war pleasing results and facts in all spheres, 
proper to a modern highly cultivated nation. 
* Thanks to the fact, that under Austrian rule the Ukrainian 
language could enjoy of relative liberty and the Ukrainian 
publishing firms were able to work without obstacles, also the 
spiritual life of the whole Ukraina, suppressed by Russian 
despotism, was concentrated in Leopol. Thus Eastern Galicia 
became the Piemont of the Ukrainian national idea. 



40 



X. Viability of the Western Ukrainian Common- 
wealth. 

Since the fall of Austria-Hungary the Polish politicians 
are exerting themselves to convince all factors of importance 
in the politic of the world of the impossibility of a viable in- 
dependent state in Eastern Galicia. They declare it to be 
too small, too poor in produce of all kind, her population not 
mature enough in politics to administrate the country themselves. 
It is, as they say, an urgency for Eastern Galicia to be for all 
future united to Poland. 

These assertions, perseveringly propounded through all 
the world by the cunning Polish diplomacy and press, are 
completely false and serve but as a cover-shame for the 
Polish state's lust for imperialistic expansion. 

Eastern Galicia is not too small to become an in- 
dependent state. With her area of 55,000 sq. km Eastern Galicia 
would surpass Switzerland, the Netherlands, Belgium, Danmark 
(without the annexes), Albania, Montenegro; with her population 
of five millions and a half surpass Bulgaria, Greece, Serbia, 
Norway, etc. and be nearly equal to Sweden. The objection to 
smallness will be in consequence treated with contempt. 

Eastern Galicia is one of the countries in Eastern 
Europe richest in natural treasures. She is not only able 
to support herself but also to export many articles of food 
and raw produce and possesses great premises for the deve- 

41 



lopment of industry and commerce. Rescued from foreign ran- 
sacking Eastern Galicia would be one of the European countries 
most approached to the ideal of economical autarchy. 

We shall have a critical supervision of the chief natural 
treasures and branches of economical life in Eastern Galicia, 
to prove our assertion. 

Forestry. Eastern Galicia is a country rich in forests. 
According to specifications based on the land-register, Eastern 
Galicia possesses 1,450,301 ha of forested land (26*2 %)• In 
spite of the reckless Polish destruction in the forests of Eastern 
Galicia the country was able to save part of her forest-riches. 
Yet this happy circumstance is only due to the incredibly great 
natural increment of timber in the Eastern Galician forests 
(4— 41/., cub. m. for^the hektar and year). For the management 
was even in the forests of the state not the best one and in 
the private forests was only reigning reckless cutting-down, 
furnishing the Polish aristocracy the means for leading a luxu- 
rious life but procuring the greatest damages to the country 
(overflowings and covering of the country with moraines, etc.). 

Before the great war Eastern Galicia was producing about 
6,000,000 cub. m. of wood and exported more than 1,000,000 cub. m. 
of timber beyond the frontiers of Austria-Hungary. There remained 
enough for the own demand, to such a degree even that in the 
larger towns of Eastern Galician wood was the chief fuel. 

United to Poland, poor in wood, Eastern Galicia would 
cease to furnish Europe with wood. Only in an independent 
Eastern Galician Commonwealth reasonable forestry and plenti- 
ful export of its produce will be possible. 

Hunting and Fishing have very favourable prospects in 
Eastern Galicia. Rescued from Polish misrule, Eastern Galicia 
could not only gain from that branch of economy an important 
supply for food but also be able to furnish for export. 

Agriculture. Eastern Galicia was since the mediaeval 
times taken to be a country rich in grain and was contributing 
so much to the grain export of Poland in the 16 th and 17 th cen- 
tury, that she was finally exhausted and ruined. Under Austrian 
rule Eastern Galicia was recovering but only in part as the 

42 



Austrian-Polish administration was taking all means pottJ 
to prevent the rise of the Eastern Galician Ukrainians. As the 
peasantry of Eastern Galicia counts nine tenth of Ukrainians agri- 
culture was very badly influenced by this Austrian-Polish politics. 

The Austrian-Polish social politic was exerting all means 
possible, low taxation, subventions, sinecures, etc. to keep up 
the Polish great estates, more and more decaying since a 
long periode. Before all the natural crumbling of the badly 
managed vast estates of Eastern Galicia was kept back by 
artificial means and their repartition among the Ukrainian pea- 
santry, hungry for farmland, at the least considerably delayed. 
In consequence of that the great landed property was embracing 
still in 1912 no less than 37% of the whole Galician area 
whilst the Ukrainian peasant could buy nowhere farmland 
neither for love nor money. 

He was obliged to break up his land in small lots, every 
reasonable managing of these petty farms was impossible and 
pauperism and emigration were sure to follow. 

The Austrian-Polish cultural politic was trying to prevent 
the Ukrainian peasant's cultural development, to procure for the 
present servile subjects and cheap workers and to clear the 
space for a Polish immigration to Galicia in the future. The 
elementary schools were only hot-beds of analphabetism, pro- 
fessional schools existed only for the training of clerks for the 
great estates . . . The exertions of the peasantry to get profes- 
sional training and professional organizations were treated as 
dangerous political conjurations and suppressed as far as could 
be done. Hence came the Ukrainian peasant's antiquated ways 
of tillage. 

But the wonderful tenacity of the Ukrainian farmer nation 
and their innate love of agriculture were able to elevate the 
produce of the Eastern Galician soil so much, that even during 
the European war there was never the question of hunger 
here. Only under Polish occupation 1919 -1920 hunger made 
his entrance in Eastern Galicia. 

The arable area of Eastern Galicia was 1902: 2,596,259 ha, 
i. e. 47% of the whole area. Of this the peasants were tilling 
73%, the gread landed proprietors only 27%(!). 

43 



The produce was (average rate of 1905 - 1914) in 

4,656,446 q 

4,295 „ 
4,627,216 „ 
2,582,544 „ 
4,588,932 „ 

5,258 „ 



wheat . 
spelt 
rye . . 
barley . 
oats ; . 
mang-corn 
maize . . 
buck-wheat 
millet . . 
grain . . 



legumes 
potatoes 



1,089,906 q 
40,296,809 „ 



837,290 „ 
163,929 „ 



17,998,354 q 



From these numbers is to be seen at once, that Eastern 
Galicia would be able, in spite of the illfamed Polish misrule, 
to support herself. If the obstacles for a sound economical 
development are removed by the declaration of her independence, 
Eastern Galicia is not only able to answer the own demand 
but also to export great deal beyond her frontiers. The unsound 
conditions in the rural possession-titles must be put in order 
by a radical land-purchase-act. Only then it will be possible 
to wrench the Ukrainian peasant from analphabetism and to 
give him the proper professional training in his own language. 
By that better ways of tillage will soon be accepted. According 
to the opinion of expert agronomes the produce of the immen- 
sely fertil Eastern Galician soil are easily to be increased to 
the double and triple amount, and then Eastern Galicia would 
be an important exportation-country for grain. Not in the less 
productive great estates (see table on page 32) lies the future 
of Galician agriculture, but in the eagerly managed small farms. 
The social conditions and the economical development up to 
the present are leading Eastern Galicia to this way, to become 
a state of farmers, chiefly cultivating agriculture and able to 
give away to foreign countries a great deal of her abundance. 

Orcharding and Cultivation of Vegetables is, in con- 
sequence of the unsound condition in regard to land-titles and 
the systemical prevention of a training of the farmers, not very 
much developed. But already now enough is produced. In the 
last decade before the war Eastern Galicia had 91,217 ha of 



44 



gardens and was producing only in cabbage 1,333,003 q; in 
carrots 175,037 q, etc.; in fruit 293,219 q (official specificati 
at least five times too low) and also some wine. 

Of industrial plants Eastern Galicia was furnishing a 
year (1905-1914) 81,832 q of rape-seed 4,660 q ofl poppy- 
seed, 1,500 q of aniseed and fennel 42,682 q of linseed 
65,889 q of flax fibres, 2,420 q of gold of pleasure, 95,398 q of 
hemp-seed, 117,624 q of hemp-fibres, 33,937 q of tobacco. 
9,055 q of hops, 2,728 q of chicory, 920,045 q of sweet turnips 
With the end of Polish misrule and suppression this branch 
of agriculture would surely have an incredible development. 

Eastern Galicia was at the time of her independance the 
promised land of cattle-breeding. Still to the middle of the 
17 th century immense herds of oxen were brought every year 
from Galicia to Central Europe. The Polish rule has ruined 
these riches, the Austrian rule prevented the recstablishment, 
forcing Eastern Galicia to become — especially during the last 
decades before the war - the chief furnisher of cattle for 
Austria. In spite of that, Eastern Galicia possessed in 1910 
still 681,087 horses, 1,551,934 cattle, 305,830 sheep, 10,345 goats, 
1,317,513 hogs, 7,917,114 fowl. These numbers, great enough 
in themselves, are insignificant in regard to the possibilities of 
Galician cattle-breeding. Eastern Galicia has 499.530 ha of 
meadows and pasturages, among them mountain-meadows sur- 
passing in fertility by far te Swiss and Tyrolian alpine pastures, 
she produces 42,868,799 q of straw, 14,273,667 q of hay, 
5,850,640 q of clover, 1,434,008 q of mash, 4,192,026 q of 
cattle-turnips, etc., etc. The greatest obstacle for cattle-breeding 
in Eastern Galicia are the great estates of the Polish nobility, 
that are breeding ten times less cattle than the Ukrainian small 
farms, when compared the proportion of area, and hinder by 
a peculiar politic the development of cattle-breeding. On great 
estates (more than 100 ha) hardly 137% of the horses, 5 7 
of the cows, 6*3% of the sheep, 3'3% of the swines were 
bred. Ukrainian cooperatives for utilization of cattle and dairy- 
produce and the trade in cattle were shamefully retrained. 

Only political independence can warrant a prosperous 
development of Eastern Galician cattle-breeding. 

45 



Very remarkable is the apiculture of Eastern Galicia. It was 
managing in 1910 more than 285,074 bee-hives and produced 
more than 25,000 q of honey and wax a year. 

No less in importance than agriculture and cattle-breeding 
are the Mineral Riches of Eastern Galicia. They are, it is 
true, not various enough and to insignificant in mass, to make 
ever Eastern Galicia a manufacturing country. But they suffice 
perfectly well to cover many demands of the country and to 
make possible the development of an industry, almost sufficient 
for the home-demand. 

Eastern Galicia's chief Mining-Produce are Petroleum 
and Salt. 

The petroleum-fields of Eastern Galicia embrace a terri- 
tory of more than 10,000 sq. km stretching along the border of the 
Carpathians and enclosing part of the Flysch-zone of the 
mountains and a stripe of the upland. Within this zone, several 
hundreds of kilometers in length, there have been opened in 
several hundreds of places rich petroleum-springs, but peculiarly 
rich ones within two regions : at DrohobyC (Borislav, Sidnycja, 
Tustanovyci) and at Kolomyja (Sloboda rangurska, Kosmac). 
The Galician raw oil is equal in quality to the American one, 
it yields 50% and more in refined petroleum. 

Together with the petroleum there is to be found in some 
places (Boryslav, Truskavecj, Dzvynjac, Starunja) Ozocerite, 
a mineral to be found in no other place in greater mass. 

The petroleum and Ozocerite mining of Eastern Galicia 
possesses great possibilities of development and would be able 
to become the most important source of wealth. But te illfamed 
Polish slovenliness has perhaps been in no other branch of 
economy so pernicious as just in this. The Galician output of 
petroleum (nearly 90% of the whole the sole Boryslav fields 
are furnishing at present) was furnishing 1909 still 20,770,000 q. 
of petroleum, 1910 there were but 17,620,000 q., 1911 but 
14,580,000 q., 1912 but 11,870,000 q, 1913 11,150,000 q. The 
spoiling of terrain and material, lunatic mania for speculation, 
most unsound conditions for credit and in employing the work- 
men have had the greatest influence in this decay. The Galician 
produce of petroleum can only be increased and form an im- 

46 



%£££ ft ln h hl,nd 7 d / *^*5ft£5 

Fastorn r^r ' beg,n of Austrjan ™>* "0 yean am 

Etttem Gal icia was counting 92 salt-minings and brine-pans' 
Salt being m Austria monopoly of the state, the numbe of 
minings and It* quantity of produce were diminishing v^ry As 
EateTn nJ^ °l ^ there Were ^ 9 sa.f-woTk i 
Ka usD^ ' C,a , (La " jke ' Dr ° h0bye ' Stebnik ' Bo,e ^iv, Dolyna 

th "n i mZ'a T yn u K p° SiV) WUh " ° UtpUt ° f hard 'y «£ 
Man 1,000,000 q. of salt. Rescued from the Polish yoke Eastern 

Q.I.C.. would be able to produce the tenfold quantity o t 
the greatest importance are the Potassic Salts of Eastern 
Galicia (Sylvin , Kainit). The rich layers are situated near Ka us 
but have been till now more spoiled than exploited 

rich/TpT 'r , Sa,t T ° n,y thC m ° St im P° rtant mi »-a. 
riches of Eastern Galicia, but there are also a great deal of 
other useful minerals. 

Brown Coal is to be found in Eastern Galicia as well 
"n the piedmont-belt of the Carpathians (Mysyn, Dzunv, Novo- 
selyqa, Rozn.v) as also in the Rostoce (Hlynsjko, Skvarjava 
Polany, Potylyc, Ruda). Although the annual output before the 
war was insignificant (about half a million of q.), there are yet 
not altogother wanting good prospects for a future brown coal 
mining m Eastern Galicia. 

To counterbalance the scarcity of coals Eastern Galicia 
has not only her immense forests but also her vast turf-mosses. 
Eastern Galicia possesses more than 200,000 ha of most rich 
turf-mosses, the exploitation of which has hardly begun and 
but to a small degree. This branch of economy has a great 
future in Eastern Galicia. 



47 



In Iron Eastern Galicia is very rich : spherosiderites in 
the Carpathian zone of sandstone, limonites (bog-ironore) in 
the plains. The ironworks, once very actively managed (e. g. 
near Tisna, Majdan, Skole, Veldiz, Myzunj, Perehynsjko, Pa- 
sicma, etc.) were blighted by the Western Austrian competition. 
After recovering her independence Eastern Galicia's produce of 
raw-iron could be revived and succesfully managed. 

Eastern Galicia possesses vast layers of Gypsum (in the 
upland belt of the Carpathians, in Podolia and in Pokutia) 
together with which also Sulphure is to be found. Gypsum 
is extant in many places as pure Alabaster. Many places of 
Eastern Galicia have great quantities of fireproof Clay and 
common potter's clay. 

There are good building-stones in abundance. The 
layers of Devon-sandstone at Terebovla could furnish pavement- 
plates for all Europe. Eastern Galicia is super-abounding in 
cement-marl, brick-clay and lime. 

To complete the picture of Eastern Galicia's natural riches 
we must also mention the many Mineral Springs (Krynycja, 
Zegestiv, Truskavecj, Vysova, Lubinj, Burkut, etc.) and, before 
all, the very important Water-powers of the country. They 
are to be esteemed at least to 500,000 horse-powers the hardly 
twentieth part of which are made use of at present. 

From this picture of the country's natural ressources are 
to be deduced for everybody not prejudiced the following facts: 

(1.) That Eastern Galicia is rich enough in provisions 
and raw produce, to be able as an independent state to support 
herself even now after a many years' war; 

(2.) that Eastern Galicia is already now able to export 
raw-produce, especially petroleum and timber. Independent and 
protected from foreign ransacking it will already after few 
years export many victuals (grain and cattle, salt, etc.) ; 

(3.) that Eastern Galicia, althoug there is no prospect for 
her to become a manufacturing state, chiefly by reason of 
scarcity of the most important raw-materials (coal, iron and 
other metals), yet has good prospects of development in some 
branches of industry, being able to supply an export (chiefly 
chemical industry and preparing of provisions). The demand 

48 



Oi the country herself will he covered within some 

»n indigenous industry, working with water-powers 
petroleum-motors. 

The present state ol Galician Industry is still a quite 
primitive one. The Domestic Industry of the Western Ukrai- 
nian nation (weaving, tanning, shoemaking, pottery, iron-forging) 
d-work, etc.) is, in spite of the various obstacles of every 
kind till now and the dangerous competition of the factor 
still very important and able to be developed. It will cover the 
chief demand of the peasantry also in the future. 

The Commerce of Eastern Galicia, so important at the 
time of independance, has been almost perfectly checked under 
Polish and Austrian rule. The leading Austrian-Polish factors 
were suppressing all independent mercantile pursuits in Eastern 
Galicia and. on the one hand, monopolizing the export of 
provisions and raw-produce, on the other hand the import of 
foreign manufacture. In this way the population of Eastern 
Galicia was twice cheated. The Ukrainians were struggling 
against this system of ransacking by means of their grand 
cooperative organizations and got more and more the better. 
The last Polish occupation has destroyed also these small 
successes and rendered over Galicia at mercy to the Polish 
commercial adventurers. 

And yet there are opened great prospects for Eastern 
Galicia's commerce, if her independence is reestablished. The 
geographical situation opens for Eastern Galicia easy communi- 
cations towards the South-East (Roumania, the mouths of the 
Danube) and East (Ukraina, Russia) on the one hand, and the 
West (Tschechoslovakia and Poland) on the other hand. Al- 
though the net of railroads and likewise that of macadamized 
high- ways is a very sparse one and the navigability of the 
rivers has suffered very much from the dreadful Polish sloven- 
liness and the country is consequently very much damaged by 
high-waters (amount of damage in 1884 27 millions of crowns, 
in 1893 20 millions of crowns!), Eastern Galicia will, after 
having recovered her independence, become again an impor- 
tant intermediator and thoroughfare between Eastern 
and Central-Europe. What prospects an independent Eastern- 

49 



Galician Commonwealth is offering for the world's capital, 
everybody will be able to imagine, considering these circum- 
stances. 

We see from the informations given above, that Eastern 
Galicia has an important and sufficient foundation for her in- 
dependence in her seize and natural riches. A second and to 
the same degree important foundation of this commonwealth 
the Eastern Galician people offers. Setting aside the handful of 
Polish officials and ransackers the Austrian-Polish system of 
administration the country has blessed with, we see a sound, 
unspoiled, persevering, most frugal and, before all, patriotic, 
nationalistic farmer nation. There will never be want of active 
farmer hands ready to work in Eastern Galicia. She was in 
other times able to send many workers abroad. The Jewish 
towns-people are very active and modest, with the tolerant 
Ukrainian population they have always been living in best 
peace and harmonious cooperation. There will be no trace of 
national quarrels in Eastern Galicia after the removal of the 
Polish oligarchs. 

There is still less a danger of social quarrels. If the chief 
basis of the Eastern Galician population, the peasantry will 
gain good conditions for life and work by enacting a just land- 
purchase-act, they will keep the state for all future sound and 
fit for eve'ry kind of development. Eastern Galicia will hardly 
become a country with many and great towns, the town pro- 
letariate, till now very few in number will hardly ever increase 
in number and importance. The industrialism and thus also the 
preponderance of capitalism and its consequences (socialistic 
and communistic machinations) will have but very slow progress 
in Eastern Galicia. Social peace will be secured the Eastern 
Galician commonwealth for all future. 

Considering these numbers and informations only persons 
who are prejudiced by false informations or who will inten- 
tionally back the Polish imperialistic aspirations, so dangerous 
for the future peace of Europe, will doubt of the viability of 
an independent Eastern Galician commonwealth. 



50 



Concluding Remarks. 

Importance of an Independent State in Eastern 

Galicia for the Consolidation of the International 

Situation in Eastern Europe. 

In consequence of all her characteristics Eastern Galicia 
belongs to the European Ea8t first and foremost to Great- 
Ukraina. The country is according to as well her physiogra- 
phical structure as also river-systems and climate a typically 
Eastern European country. The circumstance, that in Eastern 
Galicia the same Ukrainian nation is indigenous as in Great- 
Ukraina and animated by the same national, cultural and poli- 
tical aspirations forms, besides the nature of the country, the 
second important tie knotting Eastern Galicia to Eastern Europe. 
The identity of economical and social conditions forms the 
third tie. 

The political Union of Eastern Galicia with Great Ukraina, 
perhaps with the great federation of free nations in preparation 
already on the territories of the Czars' former realm, would 
consequently be the most natural solution of the so-called Ga- 
lician question de facto et de jure a historical restitutio in 
integrum — and should be accepted by the whole Ukrainian 
nation with enthusiasm. 

Yet in consequence of the peculiar geographical situation 
and the conditions created by her history Eastern Galicia's 
territory and fate are of such minute importance that the idea 
to create a separate independent state in Eastern Galicia 
is more and more forcing its way in the decisive diplomatical 



circles of Europe. And we will point out shortly the peculiar 
circumstances leading to such a decision. 

Eastern Galicia forms, thanks to her geographical situa- 
tions, the connecting link between Central and conse- 
quently also Western Europe and the East — so immen- 
sely rich in vast natural riches — and just for this reason 
Eastern Galicia was the gate-way, obstinately contested for by 
all nations, eager to possess themselves of the key. Through 
this gate-way the wave of colonization was rolling towards the 
East where it trickled away. Streams of blood were shed to 
get possession of the key . . . 

The powerful Realm of Kiew was the first to get a firm 
footing in Eastern Galicia and defended this gateway of nations 
against the envious neighbours. For all neighbouring states, 
Hungary as well as Poland, and in the further course of history 
also Lithuania, were perfectly aware of Eastern Galicia's great 
importance as a thorough-fare between East and West. To 
control the most important routs of traffic, running through 
Galicia, Poland as well as Hungary were using all their strength. 
Their aspirations were, as is known, frustrated by the rise of 
an independent Galician-Lodomerian Realm. We have seen, how 
consolidated and prosperous the political and economical situ- 
tion was in this part of Europe at the time of this realm. But 
when Galicia was surrendered to the Polish rule the political 
balance and the economical prosperity were lost. 

To reestablish this balance of power Lithuania in the 15 th 
and the newly constituted Cossack-state of Bohdan Chmelnyckyj 
in the 17 th centuries were exerting themselves. But neither 
Lithauia nor the Cossacks succeeded in possessing themselves 
of Galicia and her commercial roads for a longer time. Galicia 
was pining away under the rule of Poland and with the par- 
tition of the latter she was not allotted to Russia but to 
Austria. The political balance and the economical prosperity 
remained further disturbed. 

Never since Austria had got possession of Galicia, Russia 
was ready to accept this fact for a final one. Galicia was, 
according to Russia's aspirations, sooner or later to be retro- 
ceded as a part of the former Realm of Kiev. It is also an open 

52 



ret that the reunion of Eastern i to Russia was for 

the latter, besides the conquest of Constantinople the chief end 
in the Great War (1914 1918). In the so-called Treaty of London 
the cession of Eastern Galicia to Russia had been expressly 
promised to Czar Nicolas II. And this treaty was also after the 
constitution of the Russian Republic revindicated to the Allied 
Powers by Kerensky. . . . 

The idea, to constitute Eastern Galicia as an independent 
state, suggests itself to the European diplomacy, as it would 
thus be possible to save for all future the much contested-for 
country, attracting all her neighbours by her important natural 
riches, out of the Eastern European political anarchy and strife 
and by neutralizing the zone of danger for the peace of nations 
in the East, for that the country is and ever has been, to con- 
tribute decidingly to the consolidation of the international situ- 
ation in this part of Europe. 

The thus established state, in reality only the reestablished 
state of HalyC-Wladimir but now called Western Ukrainian 
National Republic, should be, of course, taken under the special 
protection of the Liga of Nations and her integrity and sover- 
eignty must be warranted by international treaties. 



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