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PRINTED AS MANUSCRIPT.
N? 3 rd .
i. u. P.
PUBLISHED BY THE
NATIONAL COUNCIL OF EASTERN GALICIA.
Wir ::rr v ^TEnsTn;:c: No. 9 T(iR9
In the former Austria-Hungary there was among the several
countries forming it one — the vastest of all the monarchy's
countries with 78,000 square km and 8 millions of population
Her official name was. Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria
with the Grand-Duchy of Cracow and the Principalities
of Auschwitz and Zator.
After the dlbacle of Austria-Hungary in the Autumn of
1918 the population of the Grand-Duchy of Cracow and of
the Principalities Auschwitz and Zator, viz. the Western Part
of the country specified above, attached themselves to the
revived Polish State. The population of the real Kingdom of
Galicia and Lodomeria, viz. the Eastern Part of the country
specified above, formed an independent Western Ukrainian
Republic, realizing such their right of self-determination.
The conquering Allied Powers have laid down as their
most important rule for the Reconstruction of Europe after the
Great War the principle of Self-Determination of Nations.
Yet this principle has, alas! not been applied to the Western
Ukrainian (Eastern Galician) Population. Although the latter
have unequivocally proved their will to lead an independent
political life, the sympathies of the Allied and Associated
Powers have been exclusively in favour of the Poles in the
nine month defensive war (November 1918 till July 1919) the
Western Ukrainian Republic was carrying on against the Poles.
Owing to the efficacious assistance of the Entente, owing to
the decisive intervention of the Roumanians from the South-
East and, not the least, owing to the simultaneous danger for
Galicia from the Red Armies of Bolshevistic Russia the Western
Ukrainian Government and its army were forced to quit Eastern
Galicia in July 1919.
Only on the 11 th of July 1919 there was given by the
Supreme Council of the Allied and Associated Powers in Paris
the following decision:
"The Polish Government will be authorized to constitute
a civil administration in Eastern Galicia after having formerly
with the Allied and Associated Powers
(1.) made an agreement the clauses of which will have to
warrant as far as possible the territorial autonomy as well as
the political, religious and individual liberty of the population;
(2.) this agreement will be founded on the right of self-
determination, that has to be practised, as refering to the
political position, without further appeal by the inhabitants of
(3.) the time for practising this right will be fixed by the
Allied and Associated Powers or any organ they might
authorize to do so."
In consequence of this decision Eastern Galicia was
provisorily occupated by the Poles.
The Polish occupation of Eastern Galicia has brought
Eastern Galicia, being since 1914 one of the most important
and most devastated seats of war, to the utmost extremity. In
scarcely a year about half a million of inhabitants have
woefully perished, in consequence of the unprecedented re-
pressive measures of the Polish occupation authorities as well,
as by famine and diseases -- at the least not prevented by
the Polish administration — or in the ill-famed concentration
camps of Poland. All sort of economical and cultural life of
the country has been quenched and in part completely ruined.
That such conditions are untenable, must be admitted by
everybody having but a glimpse of humanity and justice. The
degrading of five millions of men to outlawed slaves is a
matter of fact! That a country, so much larger than Belgium,
the Netherlands, Danmark or Switzerland, situated almost in
the heart of Europe, must be in such hopeless conditions is
exceedingly dangerous to the peace and order of Europe.
Considering such facts the population of Eastern Galicia,
so cruelly disappointed of their expectations and in face of
their national death, is taking all measures possible to make
themselves heard in claiming their rights by all decisive factors
of the world's politic.
These lines are written to clear up the just foundations
of Eastern Galicia's claims and to justify by facts the request
Of her people for independent political life. All attempts of the
Poles t<> find among this population but a single group, ready
ccept the union with Poland, have failed. With the ex-
ception of the Polish part of the former Austrian bureaucracy
and their petty adherents, the population of Eastern Galicia
continues, in spite of the cruel terrorism of the Poles, to claim
*) Transcription. The kind reader is requested to make use of the
following rules in pronouncing the Ukrainian names:
(1.) the vowels and consonants have in general the same value and
pronunciation as in Czechian.
(2.) c must be pronounced like ts, c like ch, ch like scotch ch,
j like y, s like sh, s like sy, v like English v but shutting a sillable after
an other vowel like french ou, y is always a short i and I must be
pronounced like s in pleasure (sounding).
I. The Galician-Lodomerian Realm.
Galicia as a state is surely no new political conception.
It is nearly as old as most states of Europe and has its
roots in the early Middle Ages.
During the 10 th century Galicia formed an essential part
of the old-Ukrainian (usually but falsely called old-Russian)
Realm of Kiev. Only her western boundaries on the Wislok,
San and Weper have been temporarily under Bohemian sway.
These boundaries, usually, called Tchervenian Castles (Peremysl
on the San, Cerven on the Hucva) have been regained by the
Realm of Kiev in 981. With this year begins the written history
of Eastern Galicia.
Eastern Galicia has got her first political organization
by the Ukrainian nation. The political tradition of Galicia
forms therefore part of the Ukrainian political tradition. Within
the old-Ukrainian realm Eastern Galicia was but for a century
a province. The realm dissolved very soon in separate princi-
palities and already in 1085 Eastern Galicia became an inde-
pendent principality under the dynasty of the Rostislavides
(1085 till 1199). In 1144 Halve" was promoted to be the capital
of the country which took henceforth the name of HalyCyna
Under the Rostislavides Galicia obtained temporarily decided
frontiers towards the West and South, which till up to the
present are more or less the same with the ethnographical
frontier of the national Ukrainian territory. The western frontier
running from the disemboguement of the Tanew into the San
towards the South-West, passing by Rudnik, Sokolow, Rzeszow,
Czudec, Jaslo, Sandez to the watergap of the Poprad and the
eastern slope of the Tatra mountains. The southern (Hungarian)
frontier was running to the South-East, passing sow,
Uzhorod, Munkacevo, Must, Rodna to the crest -lin
Eastern Transsylvanian Border-Mountains This frontiers were
formed by inpenetrahle forests, covering the Carpathian Mount
as well as their pied-mont belt. Poland began but on the Vistula,
Hungary in the Transearpathian Plain.
Already under the Rostislavides Galicia formed but the
heart, the nucleus of the state, that reached along the Dnu
and Pruth the mouth of the Danube and the Blak Sea. A still
greater growth Galicia witnessed under the sway of the Roma-
nides (1200 till 1340). They acquired definitively the country of
Wolodymyr Wolynskij, the so-called Lodomeria (Western Wol-
hynia, the country of Cholm, Podlachia and part of the country
of Polesie) and extended the frontiers of their Galician-Lodo-
merian Realm to the North as far as the Narew and Pripet,
to the East beyond the middle Dnieper. In 1253 the dynasty of
the Romanides received the royal crown out of the Pope's hands.
Though the Galician Lodomerian Realm was surrounded
on all sides by ennemies, though the Poles and Hungarians
were often meddling with the quarrels of the competitors for
the Galician crown or waging open war, though the Yatvyagians
and Lithuanians were repeatedly troubling the boundaries of the
country by their marauding incursions, the country was reaching
a great flower under her indigenous princes and kings. Halyc,
the capital of Galicia was an emporium, larger than the Vienna
or Paris of those times, it had more than 100 churches and was
carrying on grand commerce with Central and Western Europe,
Constantinople and the Islamitic Orient. Greek, Italian, German,
Arabic, Persian and other merchants had their own quarters
and store-houses there, large caravans of carriages and fleets
of vessels (on the Dniester) came with foreign good to Galki
towns and returned, loaded with grain, honey, wax. salt, furs
and manufacture, to their native country. The capital of Lodo-
meria, Volodymyr surpassed the German towns of that time in
the splendour of its buildings and the strength of its fortifica-
tions. The old towns PeremySI, Terebowla, Syanik, Zvenyhorod.
Cervenj, Plisnesk, Kolomija, Vasiliv, etc. were flourishing. New
ones were founded: Cholm (1237), Leopol (about 1250), both
by the King Danylo, Jaroslav (by King Jaroslav the Wise),
and so on. The economical conditions were splendid, the social
conditions were in good development, as the free peasantry
and the well-to-do towns-people were successfully counter-
balancing the powerful but unquiet nobility of the boyars.
This first and sole flower of Galicia was first blighted
by the Mongolian assaults of Djinguiskhan (1223) and Batu
(1240). They were followed by never ceasing Tatar Wars,
robbing the country of her eastern and shore provinces and
weakening most efficaciously the nations strength. But at the
beginning of the 14 th century there came a new rise though in
but a smaller degree. Yet the Tatar Danger, weakening the
strength of Galicia, was indirectly increasing that of the neigh-
bours, the Hungarians, Poles and Lithuanians. In this unhappy
period suddenly the dynasty of the Romanides died out in 1340
and the Dynasties of Poland, Hungary and Lithuania, related
by marriage, were at once pretending the heritage and tried
with all means possible to make themselves masters of the
The lordless country was but a decade able to maintain
her real independence. Since 1350 Galicia and Lodomeria are
deprived of their independence and are keeping up till
1772 only an autonomy within the body of alien states.
II. Galicia and Lodomeria under Polish Rule.
Neither Poland nor Lithuania or Hungary could rely in
any legal title when they rushed in upon theGalieian -Lodomerian
heritage after 1340. The crown of Hungary had at least the
appearance of a title, as the Hungarian kings were intermeddling
very much in the Galician crown-competitions at the close of
the 12 th and the beginning of the 13 ,h centuries and in spite
of the failure of their aims were investing themselves with the
title at least of "rex Galiciae et Lodomeria". The Lithuanian
dynasty based their claims in the relations by marriage with
the Romanides, besides they were in language and culture
perfectly Ruthenian. Poland could only appeal to her once
temporary possession of the Tchervenian castles (1018 till 1031
and 1069 till 1080), which (as stated above) were only enclosing
the western boundaries of Galicia. The decision in the war of
succession has been, completely against all expectations, in
favour of Poland. Casimir, the King of Poland, allied with
Hungary, acknowledged the latter's titles to Galicia and received
in recompense in force of the treaties of 1339 and 1350 Galicia
for life. Yet after his death Galicia remained but during
1370-1387 with Hungary, then she was united to Poland
without ceremony by Edwiga, the King of Hungary's doughter.
Queen of Poland at that time. Lodomeria's largest part was
allotted to Lithuania and remained, as part of Volhynia. in her
posession till 1569. In that year Lithuania ceded all her
Ukrainian countries to Poland (Union of Lubftn). Now the
whole of the former Galician-Lodomerian Realm had come
under Polish rule that lasted for more than two centuries
The four centuries of Polish sway have been for
Galicia in reality centuries of political and economical
decay and decline.
Poland has been nominally a federative republic the single
countries of which (Waywodeships and provinces) enjoyed of
a perfect autonomy under a powerless king and a riotous diet.
The Gaiician-Lodomerian countries were newly subdivided,
but the beart of them Galicia, remained as a large autonome
unity under the name of (Red-)Ruthenia. She enclosed several
provinces (Leopol, Halyc, Belz, Cholm, etc.), her old historical
western frontier towards the provinces of Minor-Poland (Lublin,
Sandomir, Cracow) remained always unchanged during the
whole of the four centuries of Polish rule. It run over Lencna
Frampol, Tarnogrod, Rudnik, Rzeszow, Dukla and is to be
stated on all historical maps of Poland. Considering such facts
one should believe, that Galicia's population had every oppor-
tunity to develop in all directions and beyond all limits under
the protection of a Grand Power of those times and with an
autonomy that was almost independence.*
The perfect contrary has taken place. For there has
been — it is true — autonomy and liberty in Poland,
but only for those who were noblemen, catholics and
Poles. Those, who were not that, as for instance nearly the
whole population of Galicia, became rightless slaves and not
of a king but of a innumerable quantity of lords.
The Ukrainian population of Galicia, brought under
Polish sway not by conquest but by inheritance treaties, has
been treated from the beginning as a subjugated nation.
The greatest and general grievance of which the Ukrainian
nation had most to suffer was the general interior anarchy,
beginning already in the 15 th century and continually on the in-
crease up till the fall of the Polish Republic. The famous scholar
E. Reclus makes the true remark, that "Poland, nominally a
republic, was in reality a confederation of thousands of despo-
tical monarchies". Each of these petty despots, or, with other
words, each Polish nobleman and official was studious to
maintain everywhere an unconsidering politic of extermination
against everything Ukrainian. In spite of her anarchic interior
Conditions the Polish government and society were always |oi
in rank and file against the Galician Ukrainians. The Polish
pol.t.c of extermination against the Ukrainians of Qalicia has
always been a systematical one.
First the occupancy of the farmland was radically
omplished. The old titles of possession of the indigenous
Papulation were not at all regarded with it. The Polish Iciogl
and diets were not only giving away to the Polish noblemen
the old domains of the former kings and princes, but .
private land. The original usufructuaries and possessors were
simply turned off with violence. Upon the Galician Ukrainian
nobility (Boyars) was exerted a strong pressure. In spite of all
treaties and vested rights the conditions turned thus, that
whoever of the Ukrainian noblemen did not turn catholic <>r
Pole was sure to lose his influence and fortune, even his
quality as a nobleman sooner or later. To save the remainder
of their possessions nearly all the Ukrainian Prince and Boyar
families turned catholic and Poles (among them the famous
families of the Wisniowiecki, Ostrozski, Czartoryski, Zaslawski,
Rozynski, Woroniecki, Czetwertynski, Dzieduszycki, etc.). Already
at the beginning of the 17 th century great land-owners of Greek
Faith and Ukrainian nationality were a great rarity — more
than a half of the country was in the hands of the nobility
immigrated from Poland, the remainder in the hands of indige-
nous, but polonized nobility.
The premise for any official position in Poland was the
possession of land thus all magistracies fell completely in
Polish hands already in the 16 th century.
The Galician towns had been numerous and prosperous
at the time of independence, the townspeople were wealthy
and industrious. The Polish system of administration succeeded
in ruining the towns and the Ukrainian townspeople within
a short time. First turned out of the town magistracies, later
excluded by special laws from manufacture and commerce the
Ukrainian citizens were completely impoverished and removed
to the suburbs. Immigrated Germans and Armenians were but
a short time keeping alive trade and traffic, there was no Polish
townspeople to supplant them. And thus all Galician towns
came to be Jewish towns, no more centres of culture but
centres of ransacking. For the jews, suppressed and robbed
by the Polish lords were obliged to make up for their loss
by robbing the peasantry. All towns of Galicia decayed, many
towns came to be villages, Leopol had finally (1772) scarcely
more than 10.000 inhabitants.
The Ukrainian peasantry of Galicia free and invested
with a self-government at the time of independence, turned
thralls under Polish sway. The Polish lord was allowed to sell
his serf without being punished, even imprison him and mutilate,
yea murder and the Polish nobility was making but too much
use of such rights.
The Ukrainian language was first only tolerated, yet
very soon it was removed from the courts of justice, the schools
and the official life. The Ukrainian Literature, highly developed
at the time of independence (Galician-Ukrainian chronicle, Song
of Igor, etc.) was stopped in its development, the Ukrainian
language soon degraded to a despised peasant dialect.
The Ukrainian Greek-Orthodox Faith was completely
1' outlawed under Polish rule and suppressed beyond measure.
Galicia, under the rule of indigenous princes a home of perfect
toleration of all faith, became the scene of greatest fanatism
under Polish rule. Note well, fanatism against the faith
to which nearly the whole population was clinging! And
at those times faith was the chief foundation of nationality.
The bishoprics vere given away to unfit often even criminal
creatures of the Polish kings and magnates. Churches and
monasteries were turned catholic by force, the churchlands
were for the most part given away to catholic churches and
monasteries, but very often aiso to polish noblemen. The low
clergy was with intention kept in ignorance and poverty.
There would be a possibility to excuse this intolerance
by the catholic fanatism of the Poles against the orthodox
Ukrainians. But that would be an error. Already in 1439 and
1596 the Ukrainian Church had become catholic in consequence
of a union with Rome. And yet the Ukrainian churches were
rented to jews or even sold, the Ukrainian priests forced to
soccage on the polish estates, their children made serfs.
The catholic proselitism was sure to make great progi
in Galicia under such circumstances, particularly in the towns
and among the upper classes of the population. To get rid
at least the religious suppression or forced by their lords .
many Ukrainian peasants turned catholic, though they retained
their language and customs. There is the origin of the greatest
part of the "Poles" of Eastern Galicia, thus specified by the
Among all the consequences of Polish rule in Galicia the
most pernicious were the economical ones. At the time of
independence Galicia was a flourishing, rich country, the goal
of merchants from the remotest countries, a fair mediator bet-
ween the East and the West. The Polish rule was ruining the
wealth of the country and her commercial position so completely
and quickly, that the country had lost already in the 16 ,h century
all economical consequence for abroad.
After the rise of the great polish estates by the lawless
bestowals of the kings or by simply robbing the land, the era
of the illfamed "Polish slovenliness" was beginning there. The
meaning of it was reckless exhausting and thoughtless
ransacking the country. During centuries enormous quan-
tities of grain, cattle, honey, wax, wood, coal, pottassic salt, etc.
were squeezed out of the country. All that the Ukrainian peasant
was obliged to furnish by heavy soccage and oppressive imposts
and his wealth was pining away in it, the Ukrainian towns-
people was reduced to beggary, as the industry was sickening
in consequence of the general impoverishment and the impos-
sibility of export and as the commerce was almost completely
ceasing in consequence of the stopping of all traffic with the
East and of innumerable custom-houses. Between Drohobyc
andjaroslav (120 km) there were no less than 147 custom-houses.
And in return to all these blessings the Ukrainian subject
had not even the security of interior order and defence of the
borders. There was reigning anarchy in the interior, to such a
degree as to surpass by far the periode of the German robber-
knights. Brigandage was flourishing, the defence of the frontiers
was such a beautiful one as to enable the Tatars to ovverrun
the country every two years with great armies, smaller incursions
there were every year, many a time there were until 70. And
that was continuing almost until the end of the 18 th century.
Reading the description of such conditions everybody not
sufficiently acquainted with the history of Eastern Europe would
be bewildered and say: What sort of people is that, to bear
such outrages without resistance?
But reading intently the pages of the Ukrainian nation in
Galicia's history, written with blood and fire, we find this
nation, — « although cruelly drained by the continuative Tatar
incursions, burning to ashes thousands of homes every year
during the half of a millenium, murdering innumerable persons
or kidnapping them — embracing every opportunity to shake
off the cruel Polish yoke. The Oalician Ukrainians have very
early realised, that neither protestations nor law-suits could
prove effectual. Even bribery, so omnipotent in Poland at all
times, was not hitting its aim in this case. Therefore there was
left only one remedy to the Ukrainians: that of open insur-
rections. They were aiding the insurrections of Swidryhajlo
(1430—1440), Mucha (1490), Hlynsky (1506), were always ready
allies of the Moldavian Hospodars in their wars against Poland,
performed an important part in the wars of the Ukrainian
cossacks against the Poles. In 1648 and 1649 all Galicia was
rising to a man against the Poles and only after cruel and
merciless reprisals they were again subjugated. Till the fall of
Poland the Carpathian virgin forests were crowded with Ukra-
inian fugitives, returning the political and social suppression
of their nation with robbery and murder.
But for shaking off the Polish yoke the strength of the
Galician Ukrainians was not sufficient. The national energies
were paralyzed by the incessant Tatar wars, to these were
added the wars with the Turke and Swede, military insurrec-
tions and general anarchy.
A completely exhausted country, not even able to live on
her own resources, with spoiled, depopulated towns and poorly
villages Eastern Galicia was coming under Austrian rule in
consequence of the first partition of Poland in 1772.
HI. The Fate of Eastern Galicia under
Austria acquired Eastern Galicia by the partition of the
former Polish Reign and justified the aquisition by the titles
of the kingdom of Hungary, in connection with which the
territory was called "Minor-Russia and Podolia" (1772).
The Austrian government has united this Ukrainian terri-
tory with the Polish principalities Zator and Auschwitz and
later with the grand-duchy of Cracow and formed a province
of them, that derived the name of Galicia from the Ukrainian
The later official styling of the country, making distinct
her components, was: the kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria
with the grand-duchy of Cracow and the principalities of
Auschwitz and Zator.
The Austrian bureaucratic rule has given the Ukrainian
population the abolition of villanage (1782) and soccage
on the estates of the nobles (1848), which was taken a de-
liverance from the Polish yoke by the Eastern Galician Ukra-
When Austria in 1848 was shaken to the foundations, the
Eastern Galician Ukrainians were clinging to Austria and the
Ukrainian guards were efficaciously preventing a Polish insur-
rection in Galicia.
Already at that time the Ukrainians of Eastern Galicia
made their chief national demand the partition of Galicia and
the creation of a separate Ukrainian province in Austiia out of
the Ukrainian part of Galicia, viz. Eastern Galicia.
This claim of the Ukrainians was not realized and the
Austrian constitution (1860-1867) united finally, against the will
of the population, the territory of the Ukrainian kingdom of
Galicia and Lodomeria with the Polish principalities of Cracow,
Zator and Auschwitz and formed out of them the monarchy's
province Galicia under the predomination of the Poles.
According to an arbitrament pronounced by the leading
Austrian statesman Count Beust the Ukrainians "had to exist
inasmuch as it should be found proper by the Galician diet".
Thus the Poles got not only a Polish administration of
the country, but also a great influence with the managing of
Galician affairs in Vienna.
The politic administration, headed by a Polish lieute-
nant, was polonized and executed in favour of the Polish po-
ntic's ends. The whole bureaucracy was Polish and an Ukra-
inian was on principle not appointed to the civil service.
Also the judicature has been polonized in Eastern
Galicia. There were — it is true — appointed Ukrainian officers
of justice, but they were on principle excluded from all impor-
The leading authority in the country's affairs of edu-
cation the Galician board of education, was almost exclu-
sively in Polish hands, to the effect to make the Ukrainians
perfectly unable to prevent this magistracy's polonizing edu-
cational politic in the elementary schools. The founding of
public schools with Ukrainian as the language of instruction
was depending on a vote of the Galician diet. The way in
which the Polish majority was exercising this right is shown
by the fact, that in 1914 there existed in Galicia only five
official Gymnasiums with Ukrainian as language of instruction
but 80 official public-schools with Polish as language of in-
struction and every granting of an Ukrainian public school
was to be vigorously contested for during years in the diet as
well as in parliament.
As for the universities it will suffice to state, that the
Poles were opposing with all means possible both the creation
of new chairs with Ukrainian language at the university of
Leopol, where the Ukrainians had at all times their ehairs. and
the foundation of a separate Ukrainian university in LeopoL
Just as unfavourable to the Ukrainian nation the economical
conditions were developing. Especially in the country, where
the whole population was Ukrainian, nobody cared for a reform
of the possession-titles on the land, which the peasantry was
wanting urgently for their rise but in the contrary they were on
purpose left to ruin, to force them to leave their paternal soil and
either to seek work in the towns, where they were handed over
to the perfect methods of polonizing, or to emigrate to
Thus the whole administration of Galicia was poloaized
and served only to the interests of the Poles whose chief aim
it was to prevent the free development of the Ukrainian nation
and to suppress them also in the sphere of material culture.
Galicia was all the time an Austrian province, where all
politic power was completely in the hands of the Po!es.
The struggle against this system was very difficult for the
Ukrainian nation. Condemned already by the electoral regula-
tions to be a minority both in the Galician diet and in the
Galician delegation to the Austrian parliament, they were
moreover reduced to an insignificant group in both represen-
tative bodies in consequence of the world-known "Galician
elections" arranged by the Galician administration to mean
imprisonments, dooms and even massacres for the Ukrainian
poller. Thus as well in the diet as in parliament only the
Polish representatives were taken to be the representatives of
Under such circumstances a free cultural, economical
and political evolution of the Ukrainian nation was under
Austrian rule an impossibility.
IV. The Constitution of the Western Ukrainian
National Republic (Eastern Galicia).
The Constitution of the Western Ukrainian Republic took
its rise from the first session of the Constituting National
Assembly, that took place on the 19 th of October 1918 in
Leopol and proclaimed in the name of the right of self-deter-
mination the formation of the independent Ukrainian State out
of the former Austria's Ukrainian territories. This assembly,
composed of all Ukrainian deputies that had been by universal
suffrage elected into the Austrian parliament and the diets of
Galicia and Bucovina, soon assumed under the title of "Na-
tional Council" the functions of a permanent parliamentary
representation. In the same way the first constituting parliaments
(representative bodies) of the other so-called Austrian Succession
States were formed. Thus especially in German Austria and
In the same constituting session of the National Council
of the 19 th of October 1918 the following principles of consti-
tution were carried:
"The constitution has to be based in universal direct, equal,
and secret suffrage with proportional representation for all
representative and administrative bodies. The proportional repre-
sentation serves to secure the autonomy and rights of national
minorities, to which are warranted at the same time the full
self-determination and cultural and national autonomy." (Ar-
According to this provision the country's national mino-
rities were called upon to constitute themselves as separate
bodies and to delegate into the National Council the aural
oi deputies due to their percentage In me population.
In consequence of the National Council's vote its d<
took on the I s " of November 1918 the administration <.f Has'
Qalicia in their own hands.
Then there were read by the Ukrainian National Council:
firstly the constitution bills (fundamental laws), in the second
place the land bill, authorizing the government for the solution
of that question, and in the third place the electoral regulate
which passed the house in the sessions of the National Council
in Stanislaw (April 1919) and got legal force. In conseqiu
of these fundamental laws the finally voted constitution of the
Western Ukrainian Republic presents itself as follows:
I. The state is headed by a president and a Board ot
Commissioners out of the National Council. Both the president
and the board of commissioners are elected by the National
Council. The president presides the National Council and the
Board of Comissioners and is at the same time solely exerci-
sing the rights of sovereignty for the foreign countries. He |fl
the representative of the state towards the foreign countries.
II. The executive power is exercised by the secretaries
of state. The secretaries of state are elected by the Board ot
Commissioners of the National Council by which they are
dismissed and to which they must give in their resignation.
III. The legislative power is exercised by the National
Council. The elections into the National Council are based in
universal, equal, secret and direct suffrage with proportional
The president is assisted in presiding the National Council
and Board of Commissioners by two vice-presidents. Both the
posts are reserved to national minorities in the country. All
elections by the National Council have to take place in separate
national groups (curiae) only the election of the president must
be enacted by the whole house.
The regulation of the questions of language and of education
was still in preparation. According to the fundamental principle-
of the Constituting Assembly on the 19 ,h of October 1920 these
regulations had to be based in the national autonomy and equal
privileges. Ukrainian, as the language of the population's majo-
rity is taken to be the official language but in the intercourse
of persons with the authorities all languages of the country
enjoy the same rights. Transactions with civil authorities have
to take place in the language of the person applying to the
authorities, in the courts of justice the language of the accused
has to be used. All public proclamations have to be in the
official language as well as in the languages of the national
minorities. Each nation in the state is to found and manage
its schools independently by itself under the superintendence
of the state secretary under the provision, that the system
of education must be in concordance with the premises stated
by legal regulation. In the schools of the national minorities
Ukrainian as the official language has to be an obligatory
object of instruction. The expenditure of public money for educa-
tion are to be divided among the single national bodies,
formed for educational purposes with reference to the national
registers, according to their percentage in the population.
Neither the accomplishment of the above-mentioned bills
nor the elections into the regular National Council could be
brought about as the Poles in the meantime had been invested
by the Supreme Council of the Allied Powers with the mandate
to occupate all Eastern Galicia and to constitute there a civil
administration. What this administration is like will be described
on the subsequent pages. Yet, there is to be hoped, the work
of the first representative assembly of the Western Ukrainian
Republic, inspired by a truly liberal spirit — the work that was
fit to found a peaceable intercourse of all the nations of the
state — shali not be lost.
In consequence of the Polish occupation both the National
Council and the government of Eastern Galicia were forced to
seek protection abroad and to fix their abode in Vienna and
Prague. In Leopol remained since November 1918 a delegation
of the Eastern Galician National Council but it is prevented by
the Poles to effectuate anything.
V. Eastern Galicia under Polish Administration.
Towards the End of 1918 the Poles began in Eastern
Galicia a war against the established Western Ukrainian State
to conquer Eastern Galicia for Poland. And the Poles were
cunning enough to make the leading factors of the Entente
believe, that their war was directed against the bolshevic
gangs; in consequence of that they got supply of ammunition
and clothes and the Haller army, sent over from France to
Eastern Galicia, succeeded in driving away the Eastern Galician
army beyond the river Zbrucz. Thus Eastern Galicia came
under Polish rule at the begin of July 1919, for the first but
in fact, by military superiority, yet soon also "legally" in con-
sequence of the Supreme Council in Paris' decision of the
ll ,h of July 1919.
In force of this decision of the Peace Conference at Paris
Poland received the mandate to establish a civil administration
in Eastern Galicia, being expressly stated this administration
to be only a temporary one having to give way to the definite
decision of Eastern Galicia's population.
Yet instead of an orderly civil administration Poland
introduced a wild terrorism and was behaving and managing
just as if Eastern Galicia had been for all future united to the
Polish Republic and surrendered »at her discretion.
They began with wholesale imprisonments of the
Ukrainian population, especially from among the ranks of the
educated but also from among the peasantry and to use the
Ukrainian language in the street or in offices was sufficient to
be arrested. There were built large concentration camps, where
thousands of Ukrainian citizens were mercilessly given up to
starvation and cruel treatment and perished therefore by typhus
and other diseases. Great mass of innocent people have fallen
victim to this treatment. When the American Red Cross Missions
were applying for a moderation of the regulations they were
met by the Polish government either with a rebuff or the con-
sequence was not only, a doubling of the imprisonments but
also still more cruel persecution of the interned. In the time
from July 27 th till September 4 th , 1919, only in the single con-
centration camp of Brest-Litowsk 774 interned Ukrainians have
perished by persecutions and diseases. When this number was
more and more on the increase the Polish government inter-
dicted the Ukrainian press to publish the names of the defunct.
The persecutions in the concentration camps were so cruel,
that even in the Polish Diet the government was interpellated
in consequence of them ("Dziennik Nowy" in Warsaw, No. 129
from July 26 th , 1919).
Who from among the Ukrainian educated was not interned,
was either confined to an ordered residence or made subject
to endless persecutions and other vexations. Before all the
Parsons of Greek catholic Faith were persecuted and many
Ukrainian parishes deprived of their spiritual guides.
Officials of Ukrainian nationality have been removed from
service, if they denied to take an oath of the Polish Republic
(surely because Eastern Galicia is up till the present day
according to the right of nations not yet united to Poland!)
and many have been dismissed without any ceremony and
without mentioning reasons.
The Ukrainian language disappeared fully in the offices
and the Ukrainian population is exposing themselves to the
most cruel persecutions if they venture to use their, native tongue
conversing with the authorities.
What the Ukrainian nation had gained in the educational
sphere with the greatest painstaking and sacrifices under Austrian
rule was by the Poles almost completely ruined. For instance
in force of the Leopol school-board's act from May 4 th , 1919,
the Ukrainian language was abolished as language of instruction
m the elementary and upper schools and only permitted by
way of exception where the school-children were express!
requesting it. From the university and polytechnic instil
of Leopol all Ukrainian professors and lecturers were rem-
all lectures in Ukrainian language inhibited and all Ukrainian
students interdicted to attend as well the university as the
polytechnic high-school. When then the Ukrainian scientific
organizations like the Scientific "SewCenko Society" tin
"Petro Mohyla" and the "Stauropigian Institution" in Leopdl
were willing to make up for the want of high-school lee!
by private university lectures- the Polish government inter-
dicted these lectures and is throwing obstacles into the Ukrai-
nian students' way to hinder them even from completing
their studies abroad. The Ukrainian Library and the Museum
of the Basilianian Convent in Zolkicw are ruined ; the edifices
of the privat Ukrainian "gymnasiums" have been intentionally
requisitioned by the Polish military authorities.
Also the whole economical life of the Ukrainian popu-
lation has ben checked. The chief agricultural organization
"Silsky Hospodar" and the general economical union "Sojuz
hospodarskych spilok" were obliged to suspend their functions ;
most loan-banks have been dissolved and the few still extant
can prolong their life only with great difficulties as they are
exposed to permanent vexations by the authorities.
Most political newspapers in Ukrainian language h
been abolished ; for the few still extant there exists no liberty
of press at all insomuch that it is even impossible to utter the
grievances of the Ukrainian nation in their own press.
Taken all together the Polish government did not establish
peace and order, but was poisoning the political atmosphere
and creating hopeless conditions. They were not only trying to
deprive the Ukrainian nation of its educated leaders but also
to undo completely the Ukrainian peasantry. To this end were
enacted not only endless requisitionings but also the peasants
troubled by permanent searchings allegedly for weapons and
ammunitions but in fact intended to rob the Ukrainian peasant
of his property and make him, in consequence of eternal im-
prisonments, existence impossible.
There is no question at all of any action for agricultural
relief and thus many peasants have to seek shelter in sub-
terranean caves whilst great extents of farmland must always
remain without cultivation. Yet in recompense the Polish go-
vernment is maintaining a great agricultural colonization
aiming to supplant the indigenous Ukrainian element and making
it completely disappear in its own home by breaking up great
estates and parcelling them out to Polish settlers from Western
Poland. There have been given away till now 18 percents of
the great landed property in Eastern Galicia to Polish peasants
from the West and thus a methodical colonization of Eastern
Galicia by foreign colonists is executed. And to all that the
enormous costs of a voyage to America make also the emigra-
tion impossible to the peasant and thus the Ukrainian peasantry
is condemned to turn lowest proletarians.
In such a way arises — <- in consequence of the population's
hopeless condition - a situation that is threatening with the
greatest dangers the general peace and order.
Under Austrian rule a prosperous development of the
Eastern Galician population was impossible. But at least there
was a possibility to live. Under Polish occupation even life
is impossible. Punitive expeditions, pogroms, whole-sale
arrestings, inconsidering hindrances in all spheres are threatening
the Ukrainian and Jewish population of Eastern Galicia with
national and economical death. The Polish government's
systemical mode of proceeding in Eastern Galicia means an
inconsidering politic of extermination, that must be
abolished in the common interest of humanity and culture.
VI. The Galician Territory.
The old historical frontiers of the Galician-Lodomerian
realm embraced within the former Austria-Hungary the whole
East and centre of the Galician province, the whole Bucovina
and a broad bordering stripe of Upper Hungary from the Zips
to the Transsylvanian frontier with a total extent of more than
90,000 sq. km.
Yet the Western Ukrainian state's political idea — in
strict contradiction to those of the Polish and Hungarian states
— is renouncing all ambitions to territories, belonging in the
past to the Galician-Lodomerian realm but now no more in-
habited by the Ukrainian nation. The leading idea of the
Western Ukrainian state is the continuate ethnographical
territory of the Ukrainian nation within the former Austria-
Hungary. This territory contains 75,000 sq. km., yet more than
1 5,000 sq. km. of it belong to Transkarpathia (allotted toTchecho-
slovakia) and more than 5,000 sq. km. belong to the Ukrainian
part of Bucovina (occupated by Roumania). The continuate
Ukrainian national territory in Galicia embraces therefore
55,330 sq. km. with (1914) 5,450.000 inhabitants. This
territory forms at present the object of the Western Ukrainians'
The frontiers of the continuate Ukrainian national territory
in Galicia are formed by the old provincial borders and by
the Polish-Ukrainian linguistic frontier. This linguistic frontier
— according to official Austrian statistics on the nationalities
(critical comparison of the results of census in 1880, 1890,
1900, 1910) — is running in the following manner (from the
North-East to the South-West, districts and places):
District of Lancut: Kurilivka, Ozanna, Rzuchiv, Dubno;
District of Jaroslaw: Dubrovycia, Pyskorovyfi, Syniava,
Lezachiv, Radawa, RySkova volja, Konjafiv, Jaroslav, Harbari,
Vysicko, Radymno, Zamichiv, Boratyn;
District of PeremySl: Kosynyci, Macjkovi£i, Seredna,
Skopiv, Bachiv, Iskanj, Rusjke selo, Solonne;
District of Bereziv : Selyska, Volodj, Jablonycja, HroSivka,
Uluc, Lodyna, Kinsjke, Hrabivka;
District of Sjanik : Jalyn, PakoSivka, Kostarivci, Novosilci,
Odrechova, Synjava, Voltusova, Balutjanka, Zavadka;
District of Korosno: Trostjana, Hyrova, Myscova;
District of Jaslo : Do§nycja, Skalnyk, Berezova, Perehrymka,
District of HorlyCi : Bodnarka, Rozdili, Mencyna, Ropycja,
District of Hrybiv: Vav§ka, Bincarova, Bohusa, Koroleva
District of Novyj SanC: Matijova, Skladyste, Ros'toka
District of Nowy Targ: Cornavoda, Slachtova.
The territory of the intended Western-Ukrainian Common-
wealth is, considering its physiographical structure, analogous
to Switzerland. Like Switzerland it is formed by a mountain
nucleus and the belting uplands and lowlands. Only that the
mountainous territory of Galicia is smaller in extent and lesser
in absolute height, the uplands and lowlands in extent and
fertility more important than those of Switzerland. Besides
Eastern Galicia is already a typical Eastern European country
showing obviously the characteristical features of Eastern
Europe: grandour and uniformity.
Averted by the inflexible Podolian flake the folded
mountain range of the Eastern Carpathians stretches in
Eastern Galicia from the North-West to the South-East and
reaches with its softly moulded crests and summits, built out
of sandstone and slates, hardly more than 2,000 m height.
It bears vast virgin forests and immense, luxuriant mountain
Along the northern crest-line of the Carpathians there is
the zone of the East-Carpathian Upland built out of tertiary
clays, wherein are buried great treasures in petroleum, Ozocerite,
kitchen-salt, potassic salt, and brown-coal.
Towards the North follows the - interrupted zone of plains :
sabulous on the San, marshy on the Dnister, fertile on the Pruth.
Yet in the back of them the plateaus are like side-see;
protruding. Between the Pruth and the Dniester there lies the
slowly undulating, in gypsum abounding but fertile Pokutia,
in the North of the Dniester there is situated Podolia in its
eastern part steppe-like, in the margines hilly, by steeply sloped
river valleys carved but by most fertil black soil covered. Near
Leopol it is meeting with the sabulous and forested plate of
the Rostoee, flattening softly in the East to the moist depression
on the river Bougue.
The hydrographica! system of Eastern Galicia has a
structure similar to that of Switzerland. The same as Switzer-
land also Eastern Galicia is crossed by the chief river-divide
of Europe. Therefore it is embracing only the headwaters of
larger rivers, fit to furnish considerable water-power for a future
industry. Yet Galicia has also in spite of this condition
several hundreds of kilometers of navigable river-courses (San,
Bougue, Dniester, Pruth). It is true, these rivers have much
lost in navigability in consequence of Polish slovenliness during
centuries (chiefly by destroying the forests) and are now severely
damaging the country by their annual overflowings. Larger
lakes there are none in Galicia, yet there are many large ponds
and vast turfy bogs with inexhaustible supplies in cheap fuel.
The climate of Ukrainian Galicia is in the whole a tem-
perate one and very salubrious. It is already, according to
the Eastern European type — continental, more severe and dry
than the still Central European one of Poland. Yet the vege-
table garment, of Eastern — Pontic-type — is very rich, and
likewise the animal life. The conditions . for a development
of agriculture, of cattle-breeding and similar economical pur-
suits are very favourable, much more favourable than in the
Eastern Galicia is already a typically Eastern European
country, connected by all her characteristics with Eastern Europe,
and she would be with a Central European state like Poland,
just so unnatural an appendage as she was with Austria-
Hungary at her time.
VII. The Population of Eastern Galicia.
According to the official results of the census of 1910
in Eastern Galicia (jurisdictional territory of the Leopol Court
of Appeal) were using as "language of converse" :
Ukrainian: 3,132,233 = 58-9%
Polish: 2,114,792 = 39-8%
German: 64,845 = 1-2%
Others: 5,288 - Oi %
among a total population of 5,317,158 inhabitants. From among
3,759 communities of Eastern Galicia the Ukrainian "language
of converse" is predominant in 3,173 communities (84*4 %)> tne
Polish one is predominant only in 352 scattered communities
"Language of converse" means not the same as native
tongue or nationality. But as there have not been in Austria
proper national statistics, the numbers for the "language of
converse" must be taken as a scale for measuring the national
From the official specifications given above we see, in
spite of their inadequateness, that Eastern Galicia is an
Ukrainian country, wherein the absolute majority of popu-
lation is speaking Ukrainian.
Yet the official ? statistics tell us also, that about 40 percents
of the country's population are speaking Polish. In this fact
the Polish imperialistic politicians base their thesis that Eastern
Galicia is a territory with mixture of nations. The Poles
should be in number — as they admit — a minority, but, from
an economical, cultural and political point of view, the only
decisive element in the country.
This thesis is perfectly false. Within the ethnographical
frontiers of Eastern Galicia given above the Poles arc forming
not 40 , but hardly 12% of the population and they are living
scattered in small isolated groups, their economical preponde-
rance is a fiction, as the jews are the decisive element of
Eastern Galician economical life, their political preponderance
the Poles got thanks to the former Austria's artificial system
of governing and the by her appointed bureaucracy.
The chief reason and at the same time the most important
prop for the Polish imperialistic politicians' false theses as
given above, are the incredible falsifications of the Austrian
statistics, having been executed by all census (1880, 1890,
1900, but most shamelessly 1910).
Above all the Galician statistics of the "language of con-
verse" have conjured away the whole of one of the most
important components in the Galician population. These
are the Eastern Jews of Galicia that, although they are
speaking a German dialect and have a strongly marked national
and cultural peculiarity, have been all together registered
as Poles. To get out their number, we must make use of
the official statistics regarding faith.
There were 1910 in Eastern Galicia:
Greek catholics: 3,291,218 = 617%
Roman catholics: 1,350,856 = 253%
Israelits: 659,706 = 124%
Others: 34,397 - 07%.
All the Greek catholics are (with exception of single
persons, ethnographical phenomena), of Ukrainian nationality,
in the same way all Israelits are of Jewish nationality. It is
a very rarely occuring fact, that jews are speaking the Polish
language correctly, but a jew taking himself really a Pole is a
still rarer bird.
The numbers in the statistics about faith (about 62°
Ukrainians, more than 12% Jews) are more approaching to
truth. But only by several paces, For the first they only show,
that the statistics about nationality have reckoned 172,000 Ukrai-
nians and 660,000 jews to the Poles. As for the Ukrainians the
number of 172,000 is to be taken only as minimum. The official
specifications about the Greek-Catholics are for about 200,000
inferior to the numbers, given by the Greek-catholic parishes
and indicating the number of souls. Thus we see the statistics
in regard to faith nearly as much counterfeited as those in
regard to language. We offer for example (one from among
innumerable the village of Kryv^yci near Leopol. It had
1880 17% of Greek-catholics, 74% of Roman catholics
1890 18% ; „ „ 72% „ „
1900 96% „ „ „ 1% „ „
1910 2 / „ „ „ 97 / „ „ „
and all that, athough it had not witnessed any catastrophe and
nothing is known of wholesale apostasy. All has taken place
only on the patient paper of the official census-registers.
According to the official statistics there would remain for
the Poles of Eastern Galicia only the 25 percents of Roman-
catholics in the population. For Polish Politicians since times
immemorial all Roman-catholics in all Eastern Europe and thus
also in Eastern Galicia pass for true Poles. Yet hardly a half
of Eastern Galicia's Roman-catholics are Poles, the other half
are Germans, Tchechs and other people of different nationality
together with more than half a million of Ukrainians with
Roman-catholic faith (about 570,000) — descendants of those
who have professed the "Polish" faith still at the time of Polish
rule to avoid at least the religious suppression.
In conformity with scientifical researches by Professor
Dr. Stepan Tomasivskyj, who has critically compared and com-
pilated all numbers furnished by the census and all other ethno-
graphical specifications, the picture of Eastern Galicia in regard
to statistics of nationality presents itself as follows :
Areal ^jjJJ 1011 Ukrainians Jews Poles Germans
55,300sq.km 5,450,000 4,055,000 670,000 659,000 65,000
74-4% 12-3% 12-1% 1-2%
This picture is essentially different from the official one.
What the latter is only indicating the scientifical picture is
proving: the fact, that Eastern Galicia is really an Ukra-
inian country, just as much as for instance Congress-Poland
must be called Polish. Only the Ukrainian population is here
indigenous all elements with other language have later immi-
grated and have only in insignificant part taken root in the country.
Only the Polish great land-owners up to 2,000 in number, yet,
it is true, possessing a quarter of the land, and about 100,000 1
lish peasants (colonists called into the country by the Polish
colonization) German colonists, Jewish tradespeople and mer-
chants in the towns are really settled elements. The whole
remainder, in the first place 5 sixth of Eastern Galicia's Poles
are a fluctuating element. They are former Austrian officials,
subordinate officials, servants of offices, police-soldiers, railway-
personal, etc. all of them Poles, immigrated from all territories
of Poland, the task of which it was to polonize Eastern Gali-
cia in favour of Austria. Therefore the Eastern Galician towns
seem to a foreign traveller to be Polish islets in Ukrainian
territory. In reality the Eastern Galician towns have a population
mixed up out of jews and Ukrainians with a slight upper
stratum of Polish bureaucracy.
Even the official statistics of 1910, counterfeited beyond
measure, were not able to give in the larger Eastern Galician
towns more than 355% of "Poles" together with 38'5% of
jews, 24*8% of Ukrainians and 1*2% of others. Besides the
Ukrainian townspeople is very much on the increase. In the
30 years from 1881 till 1910 the Ukrainian population of Leopol,
for instance, has increased for 149%- If the Polish bureaucracy
and their followers are removed to their proper place, i. e. to
the ethnographically Polish territories, the Polish appearance
of the Eastern Galician towns will disappear as by witchcraft.
VIII. Social and Economical Conditions of Eastern
Agriculture forms the chief means of living of the Eastern
Galician population. According to the statistics of 1910 in
regard to occupation 77"86% of the population were occupated
in agriculture, 8'26% in manufacture and 7'88% in commerce,
6% finally were belonging to the public service and other
In agriculture there is especially to be noticed the diffe-
rence between the great landed property and the small farmland
of the peasantry.
In 1912 in Eastern Galicia there embraced:
kind of property
great estates . . .
property of the
great estates . . .
property of the
f o rests
ha | ' %
ha ! o/o
16,667 i 80'3
Since the middle of the 19 th century the extent of the
great estates is diminishing, by parcelling out of 3,000 until
10,000 ha a year during the last decades and selling them over
to the peasantry. Thus Eastern Galicia is a country of small
farmers and the rate of agricultural property as regards the
extent is to be seen in the following table:
Seize of the establishments number of establishments
in hcktars m percents
until 05 5.5
from 05 until 1 12*6
1 » 2 235
2 „ 5 372
,.5 „ 10 144
..10 „ 20 37
„ 20 ,.50 07
.,50 ,,100 02
more than 100 034.
In consequence of this table we see the greatest percentage
belonging to the petty rural establishment with an extent of
until 2 ha (42-6%), then follows the property of small farmers
with an extent of 2 until 5 ha (37'27 ), a seize, not sufficing
to support the whole family of the farmer, but forcing several
members of the family to seek occupations away from the
agricultural sphere. To the remaining kinds of landed property,
offering the farmer the possibility to live with his family on
the produce of his land, only a small percentage is belonging.
Thus the Eastern Galician peasant's hunger for farmland
and the fact of his whole-sale emigration to America or season-
migrations for harvest-work abroad, in spite of the fertility of
his paternal soil, are to be explained. Hence follows also
the urgency of a reform of the possession-titles to farmland,
with the object of procuring the farmer — though for compen-
sation — as much soil as will suffice for supporting him.
The Eastern Galician peasant is as a rule tilling the soil
himself and is usually aided by his family. Agricultural day-
workers and labourers are a rare exception with the peasant
and are only to be seen on the great estates. To this Is added,
that the greatest percentage of peasants in Eastern Galicia are
Ukrainians, whilst the number of Poles among them is very
insignificant. Great landed proprietors are almost without ex-
ception Poles or jews.
In spite of this unhappy conditions in the repartition <>t
soil and the very often still antiquated ways of tillage, Eastern
Galicia was one of the richest in grain and meat among
the former Austria's provinces and supplying the remainder
Industry and Commerce are but poorly developed in
Eastern Galicia in spite of her great riches in raw-produce.
World-famed is the production of Ozocerite and Petroleum. In
the working of Petroleum there have been extant in 1907
344 establishments with 1,675 shafts and more than 12,000
In the other branches of industry there are very few
establishments of the seize and managing of factories and the
trade is mostly exercised as primitive handicraft. According to
their number and percentage-rate the shoemakers occupy the
first place, after them come the weavers, in the third place the
tailors, in the fourth place the smiths etc. Weaving is almost
exclusively a domestic industry of the farmers.
Among the factories only sawmills, tobacco-manufactories
and breweries are worth mentioning.
In general there were extant in the district of the Leopol
Chamber-of-Commerce in 1902 79,010 manufacturing establish-
ments with 161,812 workmen and in the district of the Brody
Chamber-of-Commerce 28,288 manufacturing establishments
with 43,727 workmen.
About two thirds of all manufacturing establishments in
Eastern Galicia consist in a single person ; in 5 % of them
also members of the family are aiding; the remainder belongs
to such establishments in which alien workers are employed.
Considering the whole amount of all persons, occupied
in industry and trade we see 34% belonging to independent,
3*5% to clerks and 62*5 % to workmen and servants. The
type of the independent small establishment is prevailing.
Also commerce is carried on chiefly in the ways of the
independent small establishment. The statistics (1902) count
55% of independent, 87% of clerks and 36%, of workmen
The public (civil) service and the liberal pro!
embraced (1902) 20",,, of independent, 57-5",, officials and
clerks and 22*5 °,'o workmen and assistants.
Already from this short representation follows, that the
social organization in Eastern Galicia is presupposing such a
Common-wealth as is based in the peasants and small citi/
the workmen-proletariate is but insignificantly represented
The till now low condition of industry, commerce and
trade is owing to the fact, that Eastern Galicia was also under
Austrian rule surrendered at discretion to the Polish authorities.
The latter did never care for the development of commerce
and industry in Eastern Galicia but spent the taxes, payed by
the Eastern Galician population, in keeping alive by artificial
means the Eastern Galician great estates and in the economical
improvement of Western Galicia and her Polish population.
They came even to the outrage of suppressing all the Ukrainians'
attempts to improve by their own forces commerce and industry.
Yet in spite of all suppressions the Ukrainian nation has
made great progress in the sphere of economical self-help.
Since 1883 a great many of Ukrainian cooperatives have
arisen, united in five great cooperative unions. The Ukrainian
Provincial Loan-Cooperative in Leopol, the Provincial Cooperative
Stores "Narodna Tarhovla", the Provincial Dairy Cooperative,
the Provincial Cooperative for Utilisation of Cattle and the
Union of Agricultural Cooperatives. Thanks to these economical
organizations the wealth of the Ukrainian population was
gradually rising as the Ukrainians have procured themselves
their own loan-banks and were carefully watching to avoid
economical ransacking by dishonest people.
Besides the above mentioned organizations there were
founded Ukrainian insurance-companies colonization-establish-
ments and industrial-banks, savings-banks and the Ukrainian
rural mortegage-bank, which, in spite of all the permanent
hindrances and vexations by the Polish authorities, have
essentially contributed towards the development of the Ukrainian
population's economical conditions. An important part was
performing with regard to that, the Ukrainian agricultural
society "Silskyj Hospodar", embracing before the war more
than 100 district branches and about 3,000 local organizations
with nearly 200,000 members.
By this active and very fertile organizing work the Ukra-
inian nation of Galicia has proved its great qualities for coope-
ration in the important mission of the European East. But to
accomplish that it will be necessary to rescue the Ukrainian
nation from the Polish leading-strings, born till now, and to
give them the possibility to decide freely by themselves the
economical conditions of the own country.
IX. The Cultural Work of the Galician Ukrainians
in the Last Decades.
When, after the partition of Poland, Eastern Galicia was
united to Austria the Ukrainians seemed, in consequent
the Polish terrorism during centuries, to be no more able to
keep up their national and cultural originality and to develop
themselves. In consequence of the polonizing of the upper
classes the Ukrainians came to be an amorphe mass of pea-
santry out of which not even the Ukrainian clergy was able to
elevate themselves as they were also wanting almost all edu-
cation. From among all their many old cultural institutions the
Ukrainians could bring only one savely over the time of Polish
suppression: The Stauropigian Institution in Leopol (founded
in the 16 th century, with printing office, bookseller's shop,
library, museum, etc.).
Thus it seems almost miraculous, that this peasantry, con-
demned to national death, was able to produce men like the
eminent poet Markian Sa§kevy£ (1835) and others, working
eagerly all their lives lo give their also under Austrian rule
suppressed nation the first glimpses of national consciousness
and higher culture.
When in 1867 (begin of the constitutional era) the possi-
bility for a useful cultural work in Galicia was given, the Ukra-
inians of Eastern Galicia founded the first society for enlighte-
ning the people "Prosvita" (enlightening) at Leopol (1868),
doing great work in all Eastern Galicia. In the Eastern Galician
towns were founded branches and in the villages reading-
halls by the Prosvita and at the begin of the war nearly all
Ukrainian communities, in Eastern Galicia were provided with
The aim of "Prosvita" was to awake and develop cultural
interests in the Ukrainian nation by popularly written books
and booklets. It was caring for the foundation of people-
libraries, for the arranging of performances in theater and
was editing for the latter popular plays, it organized singing-
chorusses and musical bands, arranged courses for teaching
analphabets and lectures on all subjects of national, cultural
and economical life, that were lectured also by wandering
teachers. The cultural work of the "Prosvita" is continued till
up to the present day.
Whilst the enlightening society "Prosvita" was considering
it their chief task to elevate the cultural niveau of the Ukrainian
peasantry the Ukrainian educated founded a spiritual center for
uniting the scientifical work. Thus in 1874 the Ukrainian So-
ciety of Sciences was founded in Leopol, called after the name
of the greatest Ukrainian poet Sewcenko. There was, before
all, working the Professor of university Omeljan OhonowSkyj,
giving the chief foundations of Ukrainian philology and writing
the first history of Ukrainian literature.
The cultural work done by the "Sewcenko- Society of
Sciences" was immense, especially from the moment, when the
Ukrainian historian Prof. Michael Hrusewskyj, called from Kiev
to the Leopol university, was elected to preside it. Prof. Michael
Hrusewskyj, one of the greatest modern historians of Eastern
Europe, wrote a monumental history of the Ukraina, a work,
forming, in consequence of the great quantity of collected mate-
rials, originality and grandour of ideas, the best source for the
Western European scholars in studying the cultural and histo-
rical problems of Eastern Europe. He was bringing up several
scholars, either developing the ideas of their teacher or going
their own individual ways as for instance Stepan Tomasiwskyi,
Myron Korduba, Ivan Kriypjakevyc, Ivan Kreveckyj, Volodymyr
Hnatjuk and others. All sections of the "Sewcenko-Society of
Sciences", before all the historical and philological ones, the
section for natural philosophy, the mathematical and medicinal
ones can boast of great work done to the Ukrainian as well
as the general European science and culture. There were lec-
turing: Mathematicians (V. Levyckyj, M. Cajkovskyj, K. Hlibo-
vyckyj), physicists (J. Puluj, K. Cchelskyj, V. Kitfer), chewl
(J. HorbacevSkyj, J. Hirniak), geographers and geolog
(J. Niedzvjeckyj, S. Rudny£kyj, H. Velycko), biologen (J. Ra-
kovskyj, S. Sydorjak), phllologers (O. Kolessa, K. Studynskyj,
J. Svencickyj, M. Voznjak), etc., etc. To the circle of the' "Sev-
ce'nko Society of Sciences" were also belonging the greatest
poets and authors as for instance. Dr. Ivan Franko, wh
works have been translated into several European laoguag
Besides the SevCenko Society, that possesses a gi
library and museum (also a printing-office, and book-binder's
and bookseller's shops) there are existing in Leopol : the Ukra-
inian National Museum and the institution "Narodnyj dim",
both with great libraries, the Society for Popular University
Lectures ("Petro Mohyla") and several other scientifical and
cultural societies, doing great work till they have been recklessy
suppressed by the Polish occupation authorities and now,
without protection, condemned to dy.
In the sphere of national education the Ukrainians were
obliged to struggle obstinately against the Oalician-Polish pro-
vincial government's polonizing practices, favoured by Austria.
Whilst the Poles possessed 80 by the state supported public-
schools before the outburst of the European War, the Ukra-
inians were obliged to struggle during a decade for a single
"gymnasium", in consequence of which they could wrest hardly
five public-schools till 1918 from the Austrian government. For
this reason the Ukrainian Pedagogical Society was suppor-
ting by the means of the Ukrainian society nine private gym-
nasiums and founded many boarding-houses for poor school-
children. The Poles were doing their best to prevent the brin-
ging-up of an Ukrainian educated youth and thus it was ex-
ceedingly difficult to obtain subventions from the state for the
Ukrainian privat-schools and boarding-houses for pupils.
As it is known, the Ukrainians were obliged to struggle
obstinately for obtaining their own university in Leopol. The
Leopol university, originally destinated for the Ukrainians, was
later polonized and only several chairs remained Ukrainian.
Although the struggle for the Ukrainian university was continued
for years and blood and even lives of several students were
spent in it, it was without success till up to the outburst of
the European war.
Here must also be mentioned the Galician Ukrainian press,
developing itself from humble origins to be a potent factor in
the cultural vand national life of the Ukrainian nation.
Also in the sphere of economical life, in industry and
commerce the Ukrainians in Eastern Galicia made great progress
in the last decades before the outburst of war. There were
founded banks, commercial associations and factories and thus
the economical life of the nation could show forth in the last
time before the war pleasing results and facts in all spheres,
proper to a modern highly cultivated nation.
* Thanks to the fact, that under Austrian rule the Ukrainian
language could enjoy of relative liberty and the Ukrainian
publishing firms were able to work without obstacles, also the
spiritual life of the whole Ukraina, suppressed by Russian
despotism, was concentrated in Leopol. Thus Eastern Galicia
became the Piemont of the Ukrainian national idea.
X. Viability of the Western Ukrainian Common-
Since the fall of Austria-Hungary the Polish politicians
are exerting themselves to convince all factors of importance
in the politic of the world of the impossibility of a viable in-
dependent state in Eastern Galicia. They declare it to be
too small, too poor in produce of all kind, her population not
mature enough in politics to administrate the country themselves.
It is, as they say, an urgency for Eastern Galicia to be for all
future united to Poland.
These assertions, perseveringly propounded through all
the world by the cunning Polish diplomacy and press, are
completely false and serve but as a cover-shame for the
Polish state's lust for imperialistic expansion.
Eastern Galicia is not too small to become an in-
dependent state. With her area of 55,000 sq. km Eastern Galicia
would surpass Switzerland, the Netherlands, Belgium, Danmark
(without the annexes), Albania, Montenegro; with her population
of five millions and a half surpass Bulgaria, Greece, Serbia,
Norway, etc. and be nearly equal to Sweden. The objection to
smallness will be in consequence treated with contempt.
Eastern Galicia is one of the countries in Eastern
Europe richest in natural treasures. She is not only able
to support herself but also to export many articles of food
and raw produce and possesses great premises for the deve-
lopment of industry and commerce. Rescued from foreign ran-
sacking Eastern Galicia would be one of the European countries
most approached to the ideal of economical autarchy.
We shall have a critical supervision of the chief natural
treasures and branches of economical life in Eastern Galicia,
to prove our assertion.
Forestry. Eastern Galicia is a country rich in forests.
According to specifications based on the land-register, Eastern
Galicia possesses 1,450,301 ha of forested land (26*2 %)• In
spite of the reckless Polish destruction in the forests of Eastern
Galicia the country was able to save part of her forest-riches.
Yet this happy circumstance is only due to the incredibly great
natural increment of timber in the Eastern Galician forests
(4— 41/., cub. m. for^the hektar and year). For the management
was even in the forests of the state not the best one and in
the private forests was only reigning reckless cutting-down,
furnishing the Polish aristocracy the means for leading a luxu-
rious life but procuring the greatest damages to the country
(overflowings and covering of the country with moraines, etc.).
Before the great war Eastern Galicia was producing about
6,000,000 cub. m. of wood and exported more than 1,000,000 cub. m.
of timber beyond the frontiers of Austria-Hungary. There remained
enough for the own demand, to such a degree even that in the
larger towns of Eastern Galician wood was the chief fuel.
United to Poland, poor in wood, Eastern Galicia would
cease to furnish Europe with wood. Only in an independent
Eastern Galician Commonwealth reasonable forestry and plenti-
ful export of its produce will be possible.
Hunting and Fishing have very favourable prospects in
Eastern Galicia. Rescued from Polish misrule, Eastern Galicia
could not only gain from that branch of economy an important
supply for food but also be able to furnish for export.
Agriculture. Eastern Galicia was since the mediaeval
times taken to be a country rich in grain and was contributing
so much to the grain export of Poland in the 16 th and 17 th cen-
tury, that she was finally exhausted and ruined. Under Austrian
rule Eastern Galicia was recovering but only in part as the
Austrian-Polish administration was taking all means pottJ
to prevent the rise of the Eastern Galician Ukrainians. As the
peasantry of Eastern Galicia counts nine tenth of Ukrainians agri-
culture was very badly influenced by this Austrian-Polish politics.
The Austrian-Polish social politic was exerting all means
possible, low taxation, subventions, sinecures, etc. to keep up
the Polish great estates, more and more decaying since a
long periode. Before all the natural crumbling of the badly
managed vast estates of Eastern Galicia was kept back by
artificial means and their repartition among the Ukrainian pea-
santry, hungry for farmland, at the least considerably delayed.
In consequence of that the great landed property was embracing
still in 1912 no less than 37% of the whole Galician area
whilst the Ukrainian peasant could buy nowhere farmland
neither for love nor money.
He was obliged to break up his land in small lots, every
reasonable managing of these petty farms was impossible and
pauperism and emigration were sure to follow.
The Austrian-Polish cultural politic was trying to prevent
the Ukrainian peasant's cultural development, to procure for the
present servile subjects and cheap workers and to clear the
space for a Polish immigration to Galicia in the future. The
elementary schools were only hot-beds of analphabetism, pro-
fessional schools existed only for the training of clerks for the
great estates . . . The exertions of the peasantry to get profes-
sional training and professional organizations were treated as
dangerous political conjurations and suppressed as far as could
be done. Hence came the Ukrainian peasant's antiquated ways
But the wonderful tenacity of the Ukrainian farmer nation
and their innate love of agriculture were able to elevate the
produce of the Eastern Galician soil so much, that even during
the European war there was never the question of hunger
here. Only under Polish occupation 1919 -1920 hunger made
his entrance in Eastern Galicia.
The arable area of Eastern Galicia was 1902: 2,596,259 ha,
i. e. 47% of the whole area. Of this the peasants were tilling
73%, the gread landed proprietors only 27%(!).
The produce was (average rate of 1905 - 1914) in
rye . .
oats ; .
maize . .
millet . .
grain . .
From these numbers is to be seen at once, that Eastern
Galicia would be able, in spite of the illfamed Polish misrule,
to support herself. If the obstacles for a sound economical
development are removed by the declaration of her independence,
Eastern Galicia is not only able to answer the own demand
but also to export great deal beyond her frontiers. The unsound
conditions in the rural possession-titles must be put in order
by a radical land-purchase-act. Only then it will be possible
to wrench the Ukrainian peasant from analphabetism and to
give him the proper professional training in his own language.
By that better ways of tillage will soon be accepted. According
to the opinion of expert agronomes the produce of the immen-
sely fertil Eastern Galician soil are easily to be increased to
the double and triple amount, and then Eastern Galicia would
be an important exportation-country for grain. Not in the less
productive great estates (see table on page 32) lies the future
of Galician agriculture, but in the eagerly managed small farms.
The social conditions and the economical development up to
the present are leading Eastern Galicia to this way, to become
a state of farmers, chiefly cultivating agriculture and able to
give away to foreign countries a great deal of her abundance.
Orcharding and Cultivation of Vegetables is, in con-
sequence of the unsound condition in regard to land-titles and
the systemical prevention of a training of the farmers, not very
much developed. But already now enough is produced. In the
last decade before the war Eastern Galicia had 91,217 ha of
gardens and was producing only in cabbage 1,333,003 q; in
carrots 175,037 q, etc.; in fruit 293,219 q (official specificati
at least five times too low) and also some wine.
Of industrial plants Eastern Galicia was furnishing a
year (1905-1914) 81,832 q of rape-seed 4,660 q ofl poppy-
seed, 1,500 q of aniseed and fennel 42,682 q of linseed
65,889 q of flax fibres, 2,420 q of gold of pleasure, 95,398 q of
hemp-seed, 117,624 q of hemp-fibres, 33,937 q of tobacco.
9,055 q of hops, 2,728 q of chicory, 920,045 q of sweet turnips
With the end of Polish misrule and suppression this branch
of agriculture would surely have an incredible development.
Eastern Galicia was at the time of her independance the
promised land of cattle-breeding. Still to the middle of the
17 th century immense herds of oxen were brought every year
from Galicia to Central Europe. The Polish rule has ruined
these riches, the Austrian rule prevented the recstablishment,
forcing Eastern Galicia to become — especially during the last
decades before the war - the chief furnisher of cattle for
Austria. In spite of that, Eastern Galicia possessed in 1910
still 681,087 horses, 1,551,934 cattle, 305,830 sheep, 10,345 goats,
1,317,513 hogs, 7,917,114 fowl. These numbers, great enough
in themselves, are insignificant in regard to the possibilities of
Galician cattle-breeding. Eastern Galicia has 499.530 ha of
meadows and pasturages, among them mountain-meadows sur-
passing in fertility by far te Swiss and Tyrolian alpine pastures,
she produces 42,868,799 q of straw, 14,273,667 q of hay,
5,850,640 q of clover, 1,434,008 q of mash, 4,192,026 q of
cattle-turnips, etc., etc. The greatest obstacle for cattle-breeding
in Eastern Galicia are the great estates of the Polish nobility,
that are breeding ten times less cattle than the Ukrainian small
farms, when compared the proportion of area, and hinder by
a peculiar politic the development of cattle-breeding. On great
estates (more than 100 ha) hardly 137% of the horses, 5 7
of the cows, 6*3% of the sheep, 3'3% of the swines were
bred. Ukrainian cooperatives for utilization of cattle and dairy-
produce and the trade in cattle were shamefully retrained.
Only political independence can warrant a prosperous
development of Eastern Galician cattle-breeding.
Very remarkable is the apiculture of Eastern Galicia. It was
managing in 1910 more than 285,074 bee-hives and produced
more than 25,000 q of honey and wax a year.
No less in importance than agriculture and cattle-breeding
are the Mineral Riches of Eastern Galicia. They are, it is
true, not various enough and to insignificant in mass, to make
ever Eastern Galicia a manufacturing country. But they suffice
perfectly well to cover many demands of the country and to
make possible the development of an industry, almost sufficient
for the home-demand.
Eastern Galicia's chief Mining-Produce are Petroleum
The petroleum-fields of Eastern Galicia embrace a terri-
tory of more than 10,000 sq. km stretching along the border of the
Carpathians and enclosing part of the Flysch-zone of the
mountains and a stripe of the upland. Within this zone, several
hundreds of kilometers in length, there have been opened in
several hundreds of places rich petroleum-springs, but peculiarly
rich ones within two regions : at DrohobyC (Borislav, Sidnycja,
Tustanovyci) and at Kolomyja (Sloboda rangurska, Kosmac).
The Galician raw oil is equal in quality to the American one,
it yields 50% and more in refined petroleum.
Together with the petroleum there is to be found in some
places (Boryslav, Truskavecj, Dzvynjac, Starunja) Ozocerite,
a mineral to be found in no other place in greater mass.
The petroleum and Ozocerite mining of Eastern Galicia
possesses great possibilities of development and would be able
to become the most important source of wealth. But te illfamed
Polish slovenliness has perhaps been in no other branch of
economy so pernicious as just in this. The Galician output of
petroleum (nearly 90% of the whole the sole Boryslav fields
are furnishing at present) was furnishing 1909 still 20,770,000 q.
of petroleum, 1910 there were but 17,620,000 q., 1911 but
14,580,000 q., 1912 but 11,870,000 q, 1913 11,150,000 q. The
spoiling of terrain and material, lunatic mania for speculation,
most unsound conditions for credit and in employing the work-
men have had the greatest influence in this decay. The Galician
produce of petroleum can only be increased and form an im-
%£££ ft ln h hl,nd 7 d / *^*5ft£5
Fastorn r^r ' beg,n of Austrjan ™>* "0 yean am
Etttem Gal icia was counting 92 salt-minings and brine-pans'
Salt being m Austria monopoly of the state, the numbe of
minings and It* quantity of produce were diminishing v^ry As
EateTn nJ^ °l ^ there Were ^ 9 sa.f-woTk i
Ka usD^ ' C,a , (La " jke ' Dr ° h0bye ' Stebnik ' Bo,e ^iv, Dolyna
th "n i mZ'a T yn u K p° SiV) WUh " ° UtpUt ° f hard 'y «£
Man 1,000,000 q. of salt. Rescued from the Polish yoke Eastern
Q.I.C.. would be able to produce the tenfold quantity o t
the greatest importance are the Potassic Salts of Eastern
Galicia (Sylvin , Kainit). The rich layers are situated near Ka us
but have been till now more spoiled than exploited
rich/TpT 'r , Sa,t T ° n,y thC m ° St im P° rtant mi »-a.
riches of Eastern Galicia, but there are also a great deal of
other useful minerals.
Brown Coal is to be found in Eastern Galicia as well
"n the piedmont-belt of the Carpathians (Mysyn, Dzunv, Novo-
selyqa, Rozn.v) as also in the Rostoce (Hlynsjko, Skvarjava
Polany, Potylyc, Ruda). Although the annual output before the
war was insignificant (about half a million of q.), there are yet
not altogother wanting good prospects for a future brown coal
mining m Eastern Galicia.
To counterbalance the scarcity of coals Eastern Galicia
has not only her immense forests but also her vast turf-mosses.
Eastern Galicia possesses more than 200,000 ha of most rich
turf-mosses, the exploitation of which has hardly begun and
but to a small degree. This branch of economy has a great
future in Eastern Galicia.
In Iron Eastern Galicia is very rich : spherosiderites in
the Carpathian zone of sandstone, limonites (bog-ironore) in
the plains. The ironworks, once very actively managed (e. g.
near Tisna, Majdan, Skole, Veldiz, Myzunj, Perehynsjko, Pa-
sicma, etc.) were blighted by the Western Austrian competition.
After recovering her independence Eastern Galicia's produce of
raw-iron could be revived and succesfully managed.
Eastern Galicia possesses vast layers of Gypsum (in the
upland belt of the Carpathians, in Podolia and in Pokutia)
together with which also Sulphure is to be found. Gypsum
is extant in many places as pure Alabaster. Many places of
Eastern Galicia have great quantities of fireproof Clay and
common potter's clay.
There are good building-stones in abundance. The
layers of Devon-sandstone at Terebovla could furnish pavement-
plates for all Europe. Eastern Galicia is super-abounding in
cement-marl, brick-clay and lime.
To complete the picture of Eastern Galicia's natural riches
we must also mention the many Mineral Springs (Krynycja,
Zegestiv, Truskavecj, Vysova, Lubinj, Burkut, etc.) and, before
all, the very important Water-powers of the country. They
are to be esteemed at least to 500,000 horse-powers the hardly
twentieth part of which are made use of at present.
From this picture of the country's natural ressources are
to be deduced for everybody not prejudiced the following facts:
(1.) That Eastern Galicia is rich enough in provisions
and raw produce, to be able as an independent state to support
herself even now after a many years' war;
(2.) that Eastern Galicia is already now able to export
raw-produce, especially petroleum and timber. Independent and
protected from foreign ransacking it will already after few
years export many victuals (grain and cattle, salt, etc.) ;
(3.) that Eastern Galicia, althoug there is no prospect for
her to become a manufacturing state, chiefly by reason of
scarcity of the most important raw-materials (coal, iron and
other metals), yet has good prospects of development in some
branches of industry, being able to supply an export (chiefly
chemical industry and preparing of provisions). The demand
Oi the country herself will he covered within some
»n indigenous industry, working with water-powers
The present state ol Galician Industry is still a quite
primitive one. The Domestic Industry of the Western Ukrai-
nian nation (weaving, tanning, shoemaking, pottery, iron-forging)
d-work, etc.) is, in spite of the various obstacles of every
kind till now and the dangerous competition of the factor
still very important and able to be developed. It will cover the
chief demand of the peasantry also in the future.
The Commerce of Eastern Galicia, so important at the
time of independance, has been almost perfectly checked under
Polish and Austrian rule. The leading Austrian-Polish factors
were suppressing all independent mercantile pursuits in Eastern
Galicia and. on the one hand, monopolizing the export of
provisions and raw-produce, on the other hand the import of
foreign manufacture. In this way the population of Eastern
Galicia was twice cheated. The Ukrainians were struggling
against this system of ransacking by means of their grand
cooperative organizations and got more and more the better.
The last Polish occupation has destroyed also these small
successes and rendered over Galicia at mercy to the Polish
And yet there are opened great prospects for Eastern
Galicia's commerce, if her independence is reestablished. The
geographical situation opens for Eastern Galicia easy communi-
cations towards the South-East (Roumania, the mouths of the
Danube) and East (Ukraina, Russia) on the one hand, and the
West (Tschechoslovakia and Poland) on the other hand. Al-
though the net of railroads and likewise that of macadamized
high- ways is a very sparse one and the navigability of the
rivers has suffered very much from the dreadful Polish sloven-
liness and the country is consequently very much damaged by
high-waters (amount of damage in 1884 27 millions of crowns,
in 1893 20 millions of crowns!), Eastern Galicia will, after
having recovered her independence, become again an impor-
tant intermediator and thoroughfare between Eastern
and Central-Europe. What prospects an independent Eastern-
Galician Commonwealth is offering for the world's capital,
everybody will be able to imagine, considering these circum-
We see from the informations given above, that Eastern
Galicia has an important and sufficient foundation for her in-
dependence in her seize and natural riches. A second and to
the same degree important foundation of this commonwealth
the Eastern Galician people offers. Setting aside the handful of
Polish officials and ransackers the Austrian-Polish system of
administration the country has blessed with, we see a sound,
unspoiled, persevering, most frugal and, before all, patriotic,
nationalistic farmer nation. There will never be want of active
farmer hands ready to work in Eastern Galicia. She was in
other times able to send many workers abroad. The Jewish
towns-people are very active and modest, with the tolerant
Ukrainian population they have always been living in best
peace and harmonious cooperation. There will be no trace of
national quarrels in Eastern Galicia after the removal of the
There is still less a danger of social quarrels. If the chief
basis of the Eastern Galician population, the peasantry will
gain good conditions for life and work by enacting a just land-
purchase-act, they will keep the state for all future sound and
fit for eve'ry kind of development. Eastern Galicia will hardly
become a country with many and great towns, the town pro-
letariate, till now very few in number will hardly ever increase
in number and importance. The industrialism and thus also the
preponderance of capitalism and its consequences (socialistic
and communistic machinations) will have but very slow progress
in Eastern Galicia. Social peace will be secured the Eastern
Galician commonwealth for all future.
Considering these numbers and informations only persons
who are prejudiced by false informations or who will inten-
tionally back the Polish imperialistic aspirations, so dangerous
for the future peace of Europe, will doubt of the viability of
an independent Eastern Galician commonwealth.
Importance of an Independent State in Eastern
Galicia for the Consolidation of the International
Situation in Eastern Europe.
In consequence of all her characteristics Eastern Galicia
belongs to the European Ea8t first and foremost to Great-
Ukraina. The country is according to as well her physiogra-
phical structure as also river-systems and climate a typically
Eastern European country. The circumstance, that in Eastern
Galicia the same Ukrainian nation is indigenous as in Great-
Ukraina and animated by the same national, cultural and poli-
tical aspirations forms, besides the nature of the country, the
second important tie knotting Eastern Galicia to Eastern Europe.
The identity of economical and social conditions forms the
The political Union of Eastern Galicia with Great Ukraina,
perhaps with the great federation of free nations in preparation
already on the territories of the Czars' former realm, would
consequently be the most natural solution of the so-called Ga-
lician question de facto et de jure a historical restitutio in
integrum — and should be accepted by the whole Ukrainian
nation with enthusiasm.
Yet in consequence of the peculiar geographical situation
and the conditions created by her history Eastern Galicia's
territory and fate are of such minute importance that the idea
to create a separate independent state in Eastern Galicia
is more and more forcing its way in the decisive diplomatical
circles of Europe. And we will point out shortly the peculiar
circumstances leading to such a decision.
Eastern Galicia forms, thanks to her geographical situa-
tions, the connecting link between Central and conse-
quently also Western Europe and the East — so immen-
sely rich in vast natural riches — and just for this reason
Eastern Galicia was the gate-way, obstinately contested for by
all nations, eager to possess themselves of the key. Through
this gate-way the wave of colonization was rolling towards the
East where it trickled away. Streams of blood were shed to
get possession of the key . . .
The powerful Realm of Kiew was the first to get a firm
footing in Eastern Galicia and defended this gateway of nations
against the envious neighbours. For all neighbouring states,
Hungary as well as Poland, and in the further course of history
also Lithuania, were perfectly aware of Eastern Galicia's great
importance as a thorough-fare between East and West. To
control the most important routs of traffic, running through
Galicia, Poland as well as Hungary were using all their strength.
Their aspirations were, as is known, frustrated by the rise of
an independent Galician-Lodomerian Realm. We have seen, how
consolidated and prosperous the political and economical situ-
tion was in this part of Europe at the time of this realm. But
when Galicia was surrendered to the Polish rule the political
balance and the economical prosperity were lost.
To reestablish this balance of power Lithuania in the 15 th
and the newly constituted Cossack-state of Bohdan Chmelnyckyj
in the 17 th centuries were exerting themselves. But neither
Lithauia nor the Cossacks succeeded in possessing themselves
of Galicia and her commercial roads for a longer time. Galicia
was pining away under the rule of Poland and with the par-
tition of the latter she was not allotted to Russia but to
Austria. The political balance and the economical prosperity
remained further disturbed.
Never since Austria had got possession of Galicia, Russia
was ready to accept this fact for a final one. Galicia was,
according to Russia's aspirations, sooner or later to be retro-
ceded as a part of the former Realm of Kiev. It is also an open
ret that the reunion of Eastern i to Russia was for
the latter, besides the conquest of Constantinople the chief end
in the Great War (1914 1918). In the so-called Treaty of London
the cession of Eastern Galicia to Russia had been expressly
promised to Czar Nicolas II. And this treaty was also after the
constitution of the Russian Republic revindicated to the Allied
Powers by Kerensky. . . .
The idea, to constitute Eastern Galicia as an independent
state, suggests itself to the European diplomacy, as it would
thus be possible to save for all future the much contested-for
country, attracting all her neighbours by her important natural
riches, out of the Eastern European political anarchy and strife
and by neutralizing the zone of danger for the peace of nations
in the East, for that the country is and ever has been, to con-
tribute decidingly to the consolidation of the international situ-
ation in this part of Europe.
The thus established state, in reality only the reestablished
state of HalyC-Wladimir but now called Western Ukrainian
National Republic, should be, of course, taken under the special
protection of the Liga of Nations and her integrity and sover-
eignty must be warranted by international treaties.
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