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Full text of "The East India gazetteer; containing particular descriptions of the empires, kingdoms, principalities, provinces, cities, towns, districts, fortresses, harbours, rivers, lakes, &c. of Hindostan, and the adjacent countries, India beyond the Ganges, and the Eastern archipelago; together with sketches of the manners, customs, institutions, agriculture, commerce, manufactures, revenues, population, castes, religion, history, &c. of their various inhabitants"

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Robert E. Gross 
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THE 



EAST INDIA 

GAZETTEER, 



/ 



THE 

EAST INDIA 
GAZETTEER ; 



CONTAINING 



J^aiticular iit^criptioug? 

OF THE 

EMPIRES, KINGDOMS, PRINCIPALITIES, PROVINCES, CITIES, TOWNS, 
. DISTRICTS, FORTRESSES, HARBOURS, RIVERS, LAKES, &c. 

OF 

HINDOSTAN, 

AND^THE ADJACENT COUXTRIES, 

INDIA BEYOND THE GANGES, 

AND THE 

Eastern Archipelago ; 

TOGETHER WITH 

SKETCHES OF THE :\rAN\ERS, CUSTOMS, INSTITUTIONS, AGRICUI^ 

TURE, COMMERCE, MANUFACTURES, 

REVENUES, POPUllvnON, CASTES, RELIGION, HISTORY, &c. 

OF THF.IR 

VARIOUS INHABITANTS. 



BY WALTER HAMILTON. 



LONDON: 



PRINTED FOR JOHN MURRAY, ALBEMARLE STREET, 

By Dove, St. Johns Square, Clerlicmcell, 

1815. 



TO THE RIGHT HONOURABLE 
ROBERT, 

EARL OF BUCKINGHAMSHIRE, 

President of tli£ Board of Controul, ^-c. ^c. 



My Lord, 

THE composition of the following; work 
was originally suggested by the removal of the restrictions 
on the trade to India, and by the numerous petitions pre- 
sented in support of that measure. On consideration of 
their tendency, it occurred to me, that a work containing 
in a small compass, and in the form best suited for refer- 
ence, the information dispersed through many volumes, 
might at the present period prove of utility, and assist the 
judgments of many who had not before applied their atten- 
tion to this subject. 

Having finished an arrangement of this description, it 
could not with equal propriety be addressed to any other 
person than your Lordship, under whose auspices the com- 
merce with India has been opened to the merchants of 
Britain, in a degree as great as appears consistent with 
the tranquillity of Hindostan, and with the existence of 
that Company by which those extensive regions were first 
acquired, and under whose administration they have at- 
tained so high a state of prosperity. I shall be happy 
if your Lordship will receive it as a proof of my respect 
for your public character, and for the abilities which led 
to so desirable a result. 

I have the honour to remain, 
My Lord, 
Your Lordship's most obedient 
And most humble servant, 

WALTER IIAMILTOx\. 



PREFACE. 



Xhe following work is intended to form a sum- 
mary and popular account of India, and of its va- 
rious inhabitants, adapted principally for the pe- 
rusal of those who have never visited that quarter 
of the world, and whose leisure has not admitted 
of their examining the numerous volumes in which 
the local descriptions are dispersed. Until lately 
the unceasing changes among the native powers, 
the vicissitudes of their politics, and their perpe- 
tually fluctuating boundaries, rendered the most 
accurate account that could be given, only suited 
to the particular period in which it was written; 
but since the definitive arrangements of the Mar- 
quis Wellesley in 1803 and 5, Hindostan has ex- 
perienced a tranquillity, and the relative bounda- 
ries of the different governments a degree of per- 
manence, unknown since the death of Aurensczebe 



viii PREFACE. 

in 1707. The territorial divisions continue in many 
places perplexed and uncertain, and the jurisdic- 
tions of their chiefs ill defined ; but these obstacles 
are not of such weight as to preclude an attempt 
to class the whole alphabetically. 

To form a geographical basis, Mr. Arrowsmith's 
six sheet map of Hindostan, published in 1804, and 
his four sheet chart of the Eastern Seas, have been 
selected, as they exhibit the most correct delinea- 
tion of this part of Asia hitherto presented to the 
public, and are in general use. Other maps and 
charts, subsequently engraved, have been occasion- 
ally consulted; but so seldom, that a very great 
majority of the latitudes and longitudes, distances 
and dimensions, refer to their positions in the two 
works above described. Within these limits are 
comprehended the following countries, viz. 

WEST OF THE INDUS. 

Cabul, Candahar, Baloochistan, and all Afghan- 
istan, &c. 

IN HINDOSTAN PROPER. 

Lahore, Mooltan, Sinde, Tatta, Cutch, Ajmeer, 
and Gujrat; J3elhi, Agra, and Malwah ; Oude, 
Allahabad, Bahar, Bengal, &c. 



PREFACE. ix 

IN THE DECCAN. 

Aurungabad, Bejapoor, Khandesh, Berar, Orissa, 
Gundwana, the Northern Circars, Cuttack, Nan- 
dere, Beeder, Hyderabad, &c. 

INDIA SOUTH OP THE KRISHNA RIVER. 

Mysore, the Carnatic northern, central, and south- 
ern, Malabar, Canara, Cohubetoor, Travancor, Co- 
chin, Dindigul, Barramahal, the Balaghaut ceded 
districts, Kistnagherry, &c. 

IN NORTHERN HINDOSTAN. 

Cashmere, Serinagur, Nepaiil, Bootan, and also 
the adjoining country of Tibet, &c. 

INDIA BEYOND THE GANGES. 

Ava and the Birman Empire, Siam, Pegu, Ara- 
can, Assam, Cassay, Tunquin, Cochin China, Cam- 
bodia, Laos, Siampa, Malacca, &c. 

THE EASTERN ISLES. 

Sumatra, Java, and all the Sunda chain, Borneo, 
Celebes, and Gilolo, the Moluccas, Papua, Magin- 
danao, the Philippines, &c. and also the Island of 
Ceylon. 

In arranging the alphabetical distribution, the 
great diversity of names applied to the same place 
by Hindoos, Mahommedans, and Europeans, occa- 



X PREFACE. 

sioiied a considerable difficulty, wliich has not been 
completely surmounted. To obviate it as much as 
possible, the whole of Mr. Arrowsmith's names 
have been adopted, as being those most imiversally 
known, and to enable the reader to find the place 
in the map without trouble. In many of the most 
remarkable instances the original appellation is also 
given, according to Sir William Jones's orthogra- 
phical system ; but, although a name be not quite 
correct, if generally understood, it is desirable it 
should continue permanent, as it answers every 
useful purpose, and a deviation even to a more ap- 
propriate causes much confusion. The deities of 
the Hindoos have a still greater variety of names, 
or rather epithets, than their towns ; the most com- 
mon have been selected, and adhered to through- 
out. The same plan has also been followed with 
regard to the names of persons, castes, and tribes. 
In the composition of the work oriental terms have 
been usually avoided ; but, from the nature of the 
subject, could not be wholly dispensed with. Of 
those of most frequent occurrence, an explanation 
will be found in the short Glossary annexed. 

The plan usually followed is that of Brooke's, 
Crutwell's, and other Gazetteers, which, on account 



PREFACE. Xi 

of the number of different articles, anil the conse- 
quent abbreviation, does not admit of minute de- 
tails, or the investigation of disputed facts. From 
this cause also the historical part has been con- 
tracted nearly to a chronological series of sove- 
reigns and remarkable events. The authorities for 
each description are commonly subjoined, and in 
many cases this is given as closely as the necessity 
of condensing the substance of many volumes into 
a small compass would permit. But no person is 
to be considered wholly responsible for any article, 
the materials in many instances being so intimately 
blended with each other, and with the result of the 
author's own experience and inquiries, that it would 
be impossible to define the boundaries of the re- 
spective properties. A very considerable portion 
of the most valuable information contained in this 
publication will be found to be entirely new, being 
extracted from various unpublished manuscripts, 
collected by Sir John Malcolm, while he filled im- 
portant official and diplomatic situations in Hin- 
dostan and Persia, and communicated by him in 
the most handsome and liberal manner. Of these 
and the other authorities referred to, a catalogue 
will be found in the Appendix. 



Xii PREFACE. 

In specify ins: the extent of countries the whole 
length, but only the average breadth is given, to 
enable the reader to ascertain the probable area in 
square miles. In an arrangement of this sort strict 
accuracy cannot be expected ; but it was thought 
less vague than the usual mode of stating the ex- 
treme length and the extreme breadth, and an ap- 
proximation to the reality is all that is required. 
The same observation applies to the population of 
countries that have not undergone local investiga- 
tions. When such instances occur, a comparison 
of their peculiar circumstances has been instituted 
with those of the adjacent provinces, the popula- 
tion of which is better known, and an estimate 
computed from the result. Where the number of 
inhabitants has been established on probable 
grounds, it is particularly mentioned. To facili- 
tate tlie discovery of a place on the map, besides 
its latitude and longitude, its nearest direct dis- 
tance from some distinguished city is stated, and 
likewise the name of the province which includes 
it. When not otherwise specified, the standard of 
distance is invariably the English mile, G9J to the 
degree. 

The descrii)tion of Hindostan, under the Em- 



PREFACE. Xiii 

peror Acber, compiled by Abul Fazel in 1582, is 
literally extracted from Mr. Gladwin's translation 
of the Ayeen Acberry, and is a curious remnant 
of Mogul geography. Although wrong in many 
instances, the dimensions are surprisingly exact, 
considering the era in which they w ere calculated ; 
and the limits he assigns to the provinces must ever 
form the foundation of any delineation of Hindos- 
laa Proper, as they continued to regulate the ju- 
risdictions of the viceroys for almost two centuries, 
and it Avould be in vain to follow the annually 
fluctuating principalities which sprung from the 
ruins of the Mogul empire. The distances men- 
tioned by Abul Fazel are commonly the extreme 
length and extreme breadth ; and the quotas of 
troops he enumerates mean the whole that the 
province was supposed capable of furnishing on 
any important exigence, not the actual number 
ever produced. 

Owing to the want of uniformity in the modes 
adopted by different authors of spelling the Indian 
names, the reader, it is apprehended, will at first 
experience some difficulty in discovering the place 
he is in search of, the whole of the vowels being 
substituted for each other, and also several of the 



Siv PREFACE. 

consonants, such as c for k and s, and g for j. 
When the Avord, therefore, does not occur under 
the head first suggested, it must be sought under 
one of a simihir sound, such as for Tirhoot see 
Tyrhoof, and the geographical situations being 
very minutely detailed will greatly assist the re- 
search. The east and west, north and south, sides 
of rivers, and the compass distances, in a great ma- 
jority of cases refer to their positions in the map ; 
the length of rivers, including the windings, are 
estimated according to the rules laid down in Ma- 
jor Rennel's valuable Memoir, from which also the 
travelling distances are extracted. 

Another objection to an alphabetical description 
of a country is, that the whole does not appear at 
one view, being dispersed and separated overy dif- 
ferent parts of the book, which is certainly iagainst 
an arrangement in other respects remarkably con- 
venient. To remedy this as far as is practicable, 
when a kingdom or province is described, all the 
most important towns and districts it contains 
are also specified, and by a reference to each of 
these a tolerable idea of the whole will be at- 
tained. 

In describing the portions of territory into which 



PREFACE. XV 

modern Hindostan is subdivided, the different pos- 
sessors of the present day are generally particu- 
arized at considerable length ; and where there is 
not any native proprietor named, it may be consi- 
dered (with a very few exceptions) as compre- 
hended in the British dominions. Many of the 
descriptions will be found extremely meagre, ex- 
hibiting little more than the geographical features 
of the article under discussion ; but it will have the 
good effect of pointing out to the many eminent 
men, now residing in India, how little is known in 
Europe of countries with which they are inti- 
mately acquainted, and perhaps influence them to 
supply the deficiency. The facts here stated being 
collected within a narrow compass, they will be 
enabled with little trouble to correct on the spot 
what they perceive to be erroneous ; and in a work 
of this nature numerous errors are unavoidable. 



Tttk 



Cfasit 0ntria <Jlajtttm*, 



Sfc. Sfc, 



ACHEEN. 



ABDON.-^Onc of the small Papuan 
islands, about three iniles in cu- 
t;umrerence, situated to the north of 
the island of "NV ageeoo, and rising- 
two hundred feet above the level of 
the sea. It abounds with fish and 
turtle, on which the inhabitants sub- 
sist, as they do not cultixate the land. 
L.at.O°. 30'. N.,Long. 131°. 15'. E. 

A BOO, (Abu). — A town in the 
■Kajpoot territories, in the province 
of . Ajmeer, 50 miles S. AV . from 
Odeypoor. Lat. 25°. 4'. N. Long. 
73°. 20'. E. 

• . Abtook, (Aim-). — A town in the 
Carnatic, 60 iniles N. from Tridiino- 
l)oly. J^at. 11°. 40'. N. Long. 78^. 
48'. E. 

AcBERPOOR, (Acharpura). — A 
town in tlie Nabob's tenitories in 
jthe province of Oudc, 30 miles S. 
E, from I'vzabad. Lat. 26°. 27'. N! 
Long-. 82'''. 30'. E. 

. AcBERPooR. — A small town in the 
province of Agra, district ofEtawch, 
25 miles W. front- Caini])oor. Lat. 
26°. 23'. N. Lonfr. 82°. 30'. E. 



ACIFEEN, 

.^ '(Achi).--A kingdom in the north 
y^estern extiemity of the island of 
Sumatra, bordering; on the country 
^f tlie Eattas, but not extending 
Ijilan^ aLuve SO.Hjilesty thy S.E. 



On the western coast, where its \r^ 
fluence was formerly predominant as 
far south as Indiapura, it now pos- 
sesses no farther than Baroos, and 
even there, or at the intermediate 
ports, the power of the Acheenese 
sovereign is little more than nominal, 
The air is eojiiparatively healthy, 
the country being more free from 
woods and stagnant water than most 
other parts of Sumatra. The degree 
of insalubrity, however, attending si^ 
tuations in this climate, is known 
so frequently to alter from inscrutably 
causes, that a person who has resided 
Only two or tluec years on a spot, 
cannot pi-etend to form a judgment. . 
The soil is liglit and fertile, and 
pioduces abundance of rice, excel- 
lent vegetables, much cotton, and 
the finest tropical fruits. Cattle, and 
otlicr articles of provision, arc plenty, 
and reasonable in price. In this pro- 
vince are found almost all the animals 
enumerated in the general descrip- 
tion of Sumatia. The horses, al- 
though of an inferior breed, are ex- 
ported ; and there are domesticated 
elephants, on which the inliabilants 
travel, as well as on horseback. 

Although no longer the great mart 
of eastern connnoditics, Acheen still 
ca/ries on a considerable trade, both 
with European merchants, and with 
tlie natives of the coa^st of that part 
of India called Teiinga, but whicli 



ACHEEN. 



is, by the Malays, named Kling, and 
applied to the whole coast of Coro- 
maudel. These supply it with salt, 
cotton piece goods, principally those 
called long cloths, white and blue, 
and chintz w ith dark grounds ; re- 
ceiving, in return, gold dust, raw 
silk of inferior quality, betel nut, 

{)atch leaf, pepper, sulphur, camp- 
lor, and benzoin. The two latter 
are carried thither from the river Sin- 
kel, and the pepper from Pedeer ; but 
this article is also exported from Soo- 
soo to the amount of about 2000 tons 
annually. The quality is not es- 
teemed good, being gathered before 
it is sufficiently ripe, and it is not 
cleaned like the Company's pepper. 
Prior to 1808 the Americans were 
ihe chief purchasers. The gold dust 
collected at Achcen comes partly 
from the mountains in the neigh- 
bourhood, but chiefly from Nalaboo 
and Soosoo. 

In the Acheenese territories there 
is a considerable manufacture of a 
thick species of cotton cloth, and of 
striped and checkered stuff for short 
drawers, worn both by the Malays 
and Acheenese. They weave also 
very handsome and rich silk pieces of 
a particular form : but this fabric 
has decayed latterly, owing to a 
failure in the breed of silk worms, 
and probably also to a decay of in- 
dustry among the inhalntants. They 
are expert and bold navigators, and 
employ a variety of vessels. The 
Acheenese have a small thin adul- 
terated gold coin, rudely stamped 
with Arabic characters, called Mas ; 
dollars and rupees also pass current, 
and other species of coin arp taken 
at a valuation. Payments, however, 
are commonly made in gold dust, lor 
which purpose every one is provided 
with small scale> or steelyards. 

The revenue of the crown arises 
from the export and import duties, 
and of course fluctuates considerably. 
European merchants pay betwixt 
live and six per cent, but the Co- 
romandel traders are understood to 
be charged with much higher du- 
ties ; in the whole uot less thaa 16 



.per cent, of which 12 per cent, is 
taken out of the bales in the first 
instance. This disparity of duty they 
are enabled to support by the frugal 
manner in which they purchase their 
investments, and the cheap rate at 
which they navigate their vessels. 
These sources of revenue are inde- 
pendent of the profit derived from 
the trade, which is managed for his 
master by a person who is stiled th« 
king's merchant. 

The govenunent is hereditary, and 
more or less arbitrary, in proportion 
to the talents of the reigning prince, 
who usually maintains a guard of 100 
sepoys from the Coromandel coast. 
At the king's feet sits a woman, to 
whom he makes known his pleasure ; 
by her it is communicated to an eu- 
nuch, who sits next to her, and by 
him to an officer named Kajurau 
Goodang, who proclaims it aloud to 
the assembly. Sultan Allah ud Deen, 
who reigned in 1784, when Capt, 
Fonest visited his court, had tra- 
velled, and had been a considerable 
time in the Mauritius, where he had 
been driven when proceeding on a 
pilgrimage to Mecca. Besides the 
Malay, he spoke French and Portu- 
guese, and understood the casting of 
cannon and bomb shells. His vizier 
was a Turk from Constantinople^ 
All matters relative to the customs 
and commerce of the port of Acheen 
are under the jurisdiction of the 
master attendaiit, or Shahbunder. 

The country is populous, but the 
number of inhabitants has never been 
satisfactorily ascertained. The in- 
habitants difler considerably from the 
other Sumatrans, being in general tal- 
ler and stouter, and of darker com- 
plexions. In their present state they 
cannot be considered as a genuine 
people, but are rather a mixture of 
Battas and Malays with Chalias, as 
they term the natives of the west of 
India, by whom their ports were fre- 
quented in all ages. In their disposi- 
tions they are more active and indus- 
trious than some of their neighbours ; 
they possess more sagacity, have more 
knowledge of otlxer countiics, and as 



ACHEEN. 



merchants they deal on a more liberal 
and extensive footing-. At the town 
of Acheen their conduct depends 
much on the example of the reigning 
monarch, which is often narrow, ex- 
tortionary, and oppressive. 

Tlie language of Acheen consists 
of a mixture of Malay and Batta, 
with all the jargons used by the Ma- 
hommedaiis of the east, whether Hin- 
dostany, Arab-Tainiil, or IMoplay. 
The Achceuese resemble the Moplays 
of Malabar more than any tribe of 
Malays ; as a people they have long 
been connected with them, and use 
many Moplay terms in their lan- 
guage, but they make use of the 
Malay character. In religion they are 
Mahommedans ; and, having many 
priests, and much intercourse with 
strangers of the same faith, its forms 
and ceremonies are observed with 
considerable strictness. 

Acheen has ever been remarkable 
for the severity witli which crimes 
are punished by law, but there is 
reason to believe the poor alone ex- 
perience the rod of justice. The va- 
riety of their modes of punishment 
are too numerous and horrid to ad- 
mit of thoir being detailed; but not- 
withstanding so much apparent dis- 
couragement, l)oth from law and 
prejudice, ail travellers agiee in re- 
presenting the Acheeiiese as one of 
tiie most dishonest and flagitious na- 
tions of the east, w hich the histoi-y 
of their government tends to cono- 
boratc. 

The Acheenese territories were 
Tisited by the Portuguese as early as 
1509, wlieu Diego Lopez Siqueira 
cast anchor at Pedeer, a principal 
sea-port on this part of Sumatra. 
At this time Pasay, Pedeer, any 
other places were governed by petty 
princes, occasionally suboidinate to 
the sultan of Acheen, and sometimes 
receiving tribute from him ; but the 
state of Acheen soon afterwards gain- 
ed an ascendancy, which it lias ever 
since retained. 

Even at this early stage of their ac- 
quaintance, hostiUties between the 
two nations commenced, and con- 
it 2 



tinned with very little cessation until 
the Portuguese lost Malacca in 1641. 
In the course of tiiese wars it is diffi- 
cult to determine which of the two 
is the more astonishing ; the vigorous 
stand made by such a handful of men 
as the whole Portuguese fori^e at Ma- 
lacca consisted of, or the prodigious 
resources and perseverance of the 
Acheenese monarchs. 

About tlie year 1586 the conse- 
(pience of the kingdom of Acheen 
had attained its greatest height. Its 
iriendship was courted by the most 
consideral)le eastern potentates, and 
no city in India possessed a more 
nourishing trade. The customs of 
the i)ort being moderate, it was 
crowded with merchants trom all parts; 
and though tiie Portuguese and their 
ships were continually plundered, yet 
those belonging to every Asiatic 
power appear to have enjoyed per- 
fect security in the business of tiKir 
commerce. With respect to the. go- 
vernment, the nobles, or Orang Cayos, 
formed a powerful counterpoise to the 
authority of the king. They were rich, 
had numerous followers, and cannon 
planted at the gates of their houses. 

Towards the close of the 16th cen- 
tury, the Hollanders began to navi- 
gate the Indian seas, and in the yeat 
1600 some of their ships airived at 
Acheen, when they were nearly cut 
off by treachery. The first English 
ships, under Capt. Lancaster, visited 
Acheen in 1602, and were received 
by the king with abundant respect 
and ceremony, which was usually pro- 
portioned by the Acheenese sove- 
reigns to the number of vessels and 
apparent strength of their foreign 
guests. 

In 1607, the reigning sultan, Pe- 
ducka Siri, assumed the title of sove- 
reign of Acheen, and of the countries 
of Aroo, Delhi, Johore, Paham, 
Queda, and Pera, on one side ; and 
of Baroos, Pa.ssaman, Ticoa, Sileda, 
and Priainan, on the other. In his 
answer to a letter from King James 
the First, in 1613, he stiles himself 
King of all Sumatra, a name and 
idea, which, if they exist iu the ori» 



ACHEEN. 



ffinal, he luust have learned from liis 
European connexions. In fliat letter 
he expresses a strong desire that the 
Kiug of Eiiglaud wouhl send liim out 
one of his couiitrywonion as a ^^ ii'c, 
and promised to make her eldest son 
icing of all the pep])cr countries. 
The French first visited A cheen midcr 
jCoiumodoicBeaulien, in lt;21. 
■ In the year 1640, the Dutch, Avilh 
twelve men of war, and the Sultan of 
Aciieen with twenty-live galiies, ap- 

Iieared hefore Malacca, which they 
iad for so many years harrassed ; 
and the fol!o^vingyear it was wrested 
from the Portuguese, who had so long, 
and under such diflicuUies, kept pos- 
session of it. But as if the opposi- 
tion of the Portuguese power, which 
tirst occasioned the rise of Acheen, 
iivas also necessary to its continuance ; 
the splendour and c<msequence of the 
kingdom from that period rapidly dc- 
«Uued, and in proportion its history 
became obscine. 'Ihrough the sub- 
sequent weakness of the government, 
and the encroachments^ of the Dutch, 
flie e?.teut of its ancient dominjion m as 
much contracted^ 

The year 1641 was also marked by 
the death of Sultan Pe«lueka Siri, 
one of their most jiowerful and cruel 
sovereigns, Avho lca\ ing no male heirs 
was peaceably succeeded by his 
queen, which forms a new era i» the 
history of the state, as the siiccession 
continued until A. D. 1700, in the 
iemaleline ; the Acheenese being ac- 
customed and reconciled to this spe- 
cies of govermnent, which they found 
more lenient than that of their kings. 
The last (pieen died in 1700, when 
a priest found means, by his intrigues, 
io acquire the sovereignty. Since 
that period it has continued under a 
successifni of sultans, and suilercd 
many vicissitudes ajid sanguinary ci- 
vil wars ; but it has never ceased to 
«xist as an indepeudeiit jiriucipaUty, 
notwithstanding its intcrnaj eimvul- 
.sions. (3Jarsden, Leijdeu, Funest, 
Elmore, Sc.J 

AcHiiiiN. — A town situated at tlie 
north-western extrcrmity of the island 
4if Snuutra, aud thi,- capital vf a 



principality of the same name.- h&U 
5°. 36'. N. Lojig. OcP. 45'. E. . •, 

This place stands about a league 
from the sea, on a river whicli em- 
pties itself by several channels, near 
the N. W. point of the island, na-" 
med Acheen Head, where the ship- 
ping lies in a road rendered securo 
by the shelter of several islands. 
The depth of water on the bar being 
only four feet at low water sj)ring 
tides, none but vessels of the coun- 
try can venture to pass ; it and, du- 
ring the dry monsoon not even thos» 
of the larger class. 

The city of Acheen is built in a 
plain in a w ide valley, formed like 
an an)j)hitheatr;' by lofty ranges of 
hills. It is described as extremely 
populous, containing 8000 houses, 
built of bamboos and rough timber, 
standing distinct from each other, 
and raised on piles sonie feet from 
the ground, to guard against the ef- 
fect of inundation. 'I'he apj)earance 
of the place, and the nature of the 
buildings, ditier but little from those 
of the generality of Malay bazars ; 
excej)ting that its superior wealth has 
occasioned the erection of a greater 
number of public edifices, chiefly 
mosques, but without the smallest 
pretensions to magnificence. The 
country above the town i.s highly 
cultivated, and abounds with small 
villages. 

'I'iie sultan's palace, if it deserves 
the name, is a very rude and im- 
coulh piece of architecture, de- 
signed to resist the attack of internal 
enemies, and for that purpose sur- 
rounded with a moat and strong 
walls. Near the gate aie several 
l»ieces of brass ordnance of ait 
extraordinary size, of which some 
are Portuguese ; but two, in particu- 
lar, of English origin, attract atten- 
tion, 'i'hey were sent by King- 
.lames the First to the rcigninfT 
uKJuiirch of Acheen, and have still 
the founder's name and the date 
legible on them. The diameter of 
the bore of one is eighteen inches, 
of the other twenty-two or twenty- 
four. Theii' st-rcnj^th. however, djoyes 



A'Dji lifVfin. 



Ui'( af all ronesjiontl w'lih fluir (•;>- 
librr, nor do ffjcy scoin in other 
respects of adequate dimensions. 
James, wlio a1>liorrcd bloodshed him- 
self, was resolved that liis ;>reseiit 
^fiouM not be the instnnnent of it 
in otiiers. 

Th<! eotnmeroe of the town of 
Aelieen, iiide|>eiident of that of the 
oiilports, <;ives employment to cip;ht 
or ten Coiomandel vessels of 15(> or 
200 tons burthen, whieh arrive an- 
inially from I'ortonovo and (."orin?,a 
abont the month of Ans^'ist, and 
sail ai;:iin in j'ebrnary atid March. 
Tlie Ivinu: of Aeheen, as is nsnal 
witli princes in this part of the world, 
is tlie chief merchant of his capital, 
and endeavours to be, to the utmost 
of his power, the monopolizer of its 
trade. No duties are paid on 2;ood» 
sold to him, as tliat is considered in 
the inice. On all jmrchases of i;Tulf 
g'oods by Europeans, such as brim- 
stone, betelnnt, rattans, benzoin, 
camphor, horses, S^c. the king's duties 
are six per cent. There is a ship or 
two arrives annually iVom Surat, the 
proi)erty of native merchants there ; 
from Benu;al the inhabitants arc sup- 
plied with opium, tatfattas, and mus- 
lins ; besides which, iron, and many 
other articles of merchandize, are im- 
ported l)y European traders : but it 
is necessaiy that a strict guard be 
kept on board ship while lyin<^ in 
Aeheen liarbour, as the risk of beim? 
eut olf by th<! Malay pirates is con- 
.siderable. (Marsden, Forres^, El- 
more, Sc.) 

AcKORA, (Acara). — A smalltown 
in the Afghan territories, in the pro- 
vince of CaluU, 12 miles N. W. from 
u\ttock, on the Indus. Eat. 33° 14'. 
N. Long. 71°. 6'. F.. 
» AcKWALLAH, (Aeavah). — A town 
in the Nizam's dominions, in the pro- 
vince of lierar, 53 miles S.S. AV. from 
J'^llichpoor. Lat. 20°. 42'. N. Long. 
77°. 4(i'. E. 

Adanad, ( Ad'umtlia),—X town in 
the province of INlalabar, district of 
Shirnada, celebrate<l as the throne of 
tlve Alvangiieri 'I'amburaeul, or chief 
of- the Nambnrios, who are the Braii^ 



mi us of ]\Ialabar. These Nambltrie'si' 
will neither ent nor drink with th» 
Brahmins ofother countries; but, likf 
other Brahmins, they marry andliv* 
with their wives, of whom they take 
as many as they are able to support. 
A Nambnrie'.? children are always 
considered as his heirs ; but in orde*' 
to prevent their losing dignity by be- 
con)iug too numerous, the younger 
sons of a Namburi family seldom mar-- 
ry. 'J'hey live with tlieir eldest bro-' 
thers, and assist the wives of the 
rajahs, and other Nairs of distinction, 
to keep np their families. Many 
Namburies have lost cast by having 
coi^Huitted murder, or by haviiigr 
eaten forbidden things ; in such cases" 
their children generally become Ma- 
honnnedans. 

In the district of Shirnada, the low 
hills oceu])y a very large proportion 
of the eountiy. Tho soil in most of 
them consists of a kind of indmated 
clay, whic';, on exposure to the air, 
becomes as hard as a brick. Tli« 
continuance of the rain in this neigh- 
bourhood is sutficient to ensme plenty 
of water for any crop, that does not 
require more than lour months to 
conn^ to maturity. (F. Buchanan, f)-c.) 

Adef.nagur, (Adhmgar). — • An 
Afghan town in the province of Cabuli 
district of Kameh, situated on the N-. 
side of tho river Kameh, 60 miles K. 
S, E. from the city of Cabul. Lat. 
34°. 16'. N. Long. 69°. 34'. E. 

Adilabad.— A town in the Nizam's 
teiTitories, in the province of Berar^ 
30 miles S. W. from Chandah. Lat. 
19°. 40'. N. Long. 79°. 25'. E. 

AoiLABAn. — A toyvn in the Maha- 
ratta dominions, in the pjnvinee (if 
Khandesh, situated on the N. side of 
the Poornali river, 20 miles S. from 
Boorhanpoor. Lat. 21°. 4'. N. Long. 
76°. 23'. E. Near to this place is a 
lake, held in great veneration by the 
Hindoos. 

Adji River. — A small river which 
has its source in the Paehete hills, in 
the province of Ba bar, from whenco 
it flows through the district of Birb- 
hoom, where, dining the rains, it. is 
ivdvig'able^ and at last falls into the 



6 



ADVIGARUM. 



Hoogly Branch of the Ganges near 
Cutwa. 

AuJYGHUR. — A strong fortress in 
the province of Biindelcund, situated 
at nearly equal distances fiom Cai- 
linjer and Pannah, and commanding 
a pass through the mountains from 
the former to the latter place. Within 
the fort are three large reservoirs of 
water cut in the solid rock, and the 
ruins of three magnificent Hindoo 
temples ; the name signifies the im- 
pregnable fortress. 

In 1809 it was besieged by the Bri- 
tish ; and, after a considerable resist- 
ance, in which a material loss was sus- 
tained by the assailants, evacuated by 
the garrison. "When the family of 
Lutchman Dowah,the refractory Ze- 
jnindar of Adjyghur, was ordered to 
be removed, an old man, his father- 
in-law, was sent into the women's 
apartments, to prepare the females for 
their removal. He not returning after 
some time had elapsed,, the house 
was entered by the roof, when it was 
found he had cut the throats of all the 
women and cliildren, eight in num- 
ber, and afterwards his own. The 
deed must have been perpetrated en- 
tirely with the consent and assistance 
of the females, as the persons in wait- 
ing at the door never heard the slight- 
est cries while the catastrophe was 
performing. (lUA Asiatic Eeg. M. 
S. ^c) 

Adoni, (Aclavani). — A distiict in 
the province of Bejapoor, situated 
between the I5th and 16th degrees of 
north latitude, and extending along 
the south side of the Toombuddra 
river. 'J'o the noith it has Rjchoor 
in the Nii».am's dominions, and to the 
south tlie Gcoty hills. 

On the 12th Oct. 1 800, this district, 
along with the tract of country situ- 
ated south of the 'I'oombuddra and 
Kilshna rivers, was ceded to the Bri- 
tish government by the INizani, when 
it was completely surveyed and 
placed under the Bellarycollectorship, 
but the revenue has not yet been per- 
manently assessed. {5th Report, S)X.) 

AuoNi. — A town in the province of 
Bejapoor, the capital of a distiict of 



the same name, and situated 1 45 miles 
S. W.from Hyderabad in the Deccan. 
Lat. 15°. 32'. N. Long. 77°. 16'. E. 

This city was taken in 1568 by Ali 
Adil Shah of Bejapoor, at which pe- 
riod it was placed on the top of a high 
hill, and contained within its walls 
man}'' tanks and tbuntaius of pure 
water, with numerous princely struc- 
tures. The rajahs of Bijariagur, to 
whom it before belonged, considered 
it as impregnable, and an asy^lum for 
their families in desperate emergen- 
cies; but they lost it with their em- 
pire, after the great battle fought 
with the Deccany Mahommedan 
sovereigns in 1564. 

For a short time during the 18th 
century it was the capital of a small 
independent Patau state, and after- 
wards became the Jaghire and resi- 
dence of Bazalet Jung, brother to the 
late Nizam Ali. In 1787 it was be- 
sieged, taken, and destroyed, by Tip- 
poo Sultan ; and, in 1800, along with 
the district, was ceded to the British 
by the Nizam. It is now a town of 
very little consequence, and contain- 
ing but a very scanty population. 

Travelling distance tiom SeriiTg- 
apatam 243 miles, from Madras 310, 
from Hyderabad 175, and from Cal- 
cutta 1030 miles. {Ferishta, \2th 
Register, bth Report, Rennel, Src.) 

Adrumpatnam. — A town on the 
sea coast of the province of Tanjore, 
37 miles S. by E. from the city of 
Tanjore. Lat. 10°. 20'. N. Long. 
79°. 3(/. E. 

AuRiANNA. — A large village in the 
province of Guzrat, district of Chala- 
w'ura, containing about IGOO houses. 
It is subject to the Coolies of Jhing- 
warra, from which place it is distant 
about eight mile.s. 

Allhougliplaced at sncha distance, 
this e(nnitry was infested l)y the de- 
predatory robbers of JMaliia, until 
Ihev were extirpated by the British, 
and this town was regularly deserted 
on receipt of intelligence that the 
IMallia chief had stfuted on a plun- 
dering expedition {M'Mvrdo, Sfc.) 

Advigarum. — A town in the pro- 
vince of Coimbctoor, 52 iuiles S. E. 



AFGHANISTAN. 



from Seringapatam. Lat. 12°. 1'. N. 
Long. 77°. 28'. E. 



AFGHANISTAN. 

An extensive tract of country to tlie 
west of the Indus, stretching; from the 
30th to the 35th degrees of north lat. 
and from the city of Canchiliar to the 
Indus. This region to tlie N. W. is 
bounded by the Hindoo Kho moun- 
tains, which separate it from the pro- 
vince of Bamian in Persia; to the 
N. by the countries of Kuttore, or 
Catfristan ; and to the S. by Baloo- 
chistan. Tlie Indus river forms the 
eastern boundaiy, and the province 
of Segistan, in Persia, the western. 
From N. to S. it may be estimated 
at 350 miles, and tiic average breadth 
from E. to W. at 800 miles. Many 
of thecontiguousprovinces have been 
occasionally subject to their sove- 
reigns, but the indigenous country of 
the Afghan tribes is comprehended 
within the limits specified. Cabul 
and Candahar, the two principal pro- 
vinces, are subdivided into numerous 
districts, and described under their 
respective heads, to which the reader 
is referred, for further local informa- 
tions ; this article being intended to 
collect such observations as apply 
generally to the Afghan nation. 

The country of Afghanistan proper 
is denominated by the natives Pokli- 
tankha, and is the country adjacent 
to the town of Peshawer. The district 
of Hashtanagar is situated in the cen- 
tre of Afghanistan, and in the early 
Mahommedan times was named Roh, 
from whence originated the term Ro- 
hillah. Hashtanagar derives its name 
(which signifies eight townships) from 
the eight original selllemcnts of the 
country, which are sujiposed to (cor- 
respond with the eight tbllowing dis- 
tricts ; viz. 1. Nowshehra; 2. Char- 
sada, including Paraug and Hesar ; 
3. Kezzar ; 4. ( Jtmanzei; 5. Turanzei ; 
6- Amarzei ; 7. JSherpai ; 8. Tangeh, 
or Barkazei. Tiiis region is univer- 
sally reckoned by the Afghans the 
conntiy of their lirst settlement in 
Afghanistan. 



Ningarhav is the name oCan exten- 
sive tract of countiy, ^\ atered by nine 
mountain streams, which fall into Iho 
river Jelalabad, The country of Nin- 
garhar is irregular and uneven of 
surface, though it has not any Aery 
high mountains. It is about 90 miles 
in length from cast to west, extending 
from Balikot to Surkhab- In breadth 
it extends from Caggah, or Cajjah, to 
the river Lughman, a distance of 
nearly 30 miles. The inhabitants are 
chiefly Afghans and Tajies. The 
ancient capital of tlie country was 
Adinaghm- ; but, as tiiat was difficult 
of access, and situated at a distance 
fiom the principal river, the town of 
Jelalabad was founded on the great 
route from Candahar t(» Peshawer. 

The Afghans, who occupy Ningar- 
har, are chiefly of the tribes of Moh- 
mand, Kluigiani, and Waragzei, Of 
these the tribes of Mohmand, which 
is divided into two branches, the 
Tarakzei and the Balzei, is the most 
numerous and powerful. This tract 
of cotintn i.s now distinguished in 
the maj)s by the names of Kameh and 
Lumghanat, and contains the towns 
of Adecnagnr, Surkhab, and Jelala- 
bad. The term Tajie, in the Mogul 
language, is said to signify a peasant ; 
but it is generally applied by the Mo- 
guls to the natives of Persia, who are 
neither of Arab nor Mogul extrac- 
tion. 

The race of Afghans in Hindos- 
tan are conrnionly known by the name 
of Patans, the meaning or etymology 
of which designation does not seem 
to l)e satisfactorily ascertained. The 
modern tribes of Afghans are very 
luimerous, but the principal are those 
of Lodi, Lohauni, Sur, Serwani, 
Yusefzei, Bungish, Delazai, Khaiti, 
Yazin, Khail, and Baloje. By the 
best Persian historians the Alghan.s 
are said to be descended from the 
Jews, and Sir William Jones con- 
sidered their language as a dialect of 
the scriptural Chaldaic. 

The inhabitantsof Afghanistan have 
no peculiar written character, but 
their language is distinct from that of 
the surroijnding nations. In some 



8 



AF^dHANISTA'N/ 



Jiistorics of Asia, the Afghans are de- 
sciil)etl as Tartars, but thry bear no 
resemblance to this people, either in 
persp!!, manner, or dialect. They are 
a. hardy, robust race of men ; and, 
being addicted to a state of predatory 
•\yaifari-, hav>- a fixed contempt for 
the otcupa lions of civil Hfe. Bread 
of. wheat and barley, milk, butter, and 
qhecse, eon.posc tlieir usual diet. 
Throujchnfit i iindostan the Afghan 
cliararter is of the very worst de- 
5?cription, and tiiey are reprobated as 
ferocious, sanguinary, and tieacherr 
ous; but being a l)rave and hardy 
race, they are, notwithstanding their 
grievous faults, nuich sought after, 
and entertained as soldiers by the 
native powers. 

The Gujars of Afghanistan are of 
tlie same race as those v.ho occupy 
the mountains of the Punjabs and 
XJpper Hindostan. In so)ne districts 
tJiey are nearly as numerous as the 
Afghans, especially in the territories 
of the tribe of Mandar, which form 
an extensive district about 100 miles 
Jjong, and 60 in breadth. Before the 
time of Acber, all tlie Zemindars of 
INIandar were of the Gujarrace; but 
the APrhaus had occupied tlie moun- 
tains .it a more early period ; and, de- 
scending fioni these, they gradually 
possessed themselves of the plains. 
TIjc Irujars of Afghanistan are still 
a brave peoj-.le, of pastoral habits, 
■yiliose wealth consists chiefly in cat- 
tle, and parllcalariy in buffaloes. 
They arc still numerous in the dis- 
trict of llashtaiiagur. 

It is pro!.able tliat not l-50th part 
of this \ast country is under a state 
f»f permanent cultivation. JNJost of 
the gcnniiic Afghan tribes arc niigra- 
t.ory, and fhvcll in tents, and subsist 
()n the produce ol' their Hocks; such 
ps ar< more stationary in their habits, 
are but little a(!di( ted to agriculture. 
In thcsonlh, Afghanistan is a barren 
desert of sand, and to the north of 
f aluil it is a savage and mountainous 
pou'ntry. The central part through 
.which the Cow and Cabni rivers flow, 
jS fertile, and uiulcr a tranquil go- 
Veriunent niight be rendered extrente- 



ly productive; but this "is a small 
portion of the whole; The populatibn 
is, consequently, very unecjual to the 
extent of territory; and, probably, 
does not exceed three millions of in- 
habitants of aH descriptions. Of these 
a very great proportion are jVIahom- 
mcdans of the Soonee persuasion, the.' 
Hindoos being few, and chielly set- 
tled in the towns and villages as mer- 
chants, shopkeepers, and bankers. ' 

The Hazareh are a distinct race 
fiora either tJie Afghans or Moguls^ 
although their tribes are intermixed 
with these and other races. Their 
original seat is said to have been the 
country between Herat and Balk ; 
but their possessions extend much 
wider, and they occupy a consider- 
able part of the country betvA'eeit 
Ghizni and Candahar in One direc- 
tion, and between Maidan and Balk 
on the other. They are, probably, of 
Pehlavi extiaction. 

The armies of the state are com- 
posed of a diversity of nations, but 
the best troops arc drawn from the 
Afg]ian distiicts. Cavah^ constitute 
the chief military sti-engtli ; a service- 
able horse, in this country, costing 
only about six pounds sterling. A 
corps of infantiy, armed with match- 
locks, composes also a part of the 
Afghan armies. 

The cities and towns of Afghan- 
istan are chiefly inhabited by Hin- 
doos and Mahommedans of the Pun- 
jab, who were established by the for- 
mer princes of Hindostan to intro- 
duce conmierce and civilization; 
many families of Persian and Tartar 
extraction aic also dispersed in dif- 
ferent parts of the country: the for- 
mer are denominated Parsewans, the 
other Moguls; but both have adopted 
the use of the Persian language. 

The Afu;hanH received the religion 
of Mahommed from their Tartar con- 
querors, and like them profess the 
Sooni creed, but they are by no 
means strict in the performance of 
their religious duties, and their couni 
try has been the seat of many here- 
•sies; 'mostly propagated by the. sworr?. 
The nature of their sovereignty -is 



AFGHANISTAN. 



9 



<?Gspotie,l)'ut wlien not conr4raincd 
by some exlraoitlinary power or ca- 
pacity of the rcip,nin!^ prince^ they 
disperse into societies, and resemble 
si feudal government. 

Certain territories of Afghanistan 
were conqnered in the ninth century 
by the Khans of Bokliara, of the 
Samani race, and annexed to the 
Tartar principality of Khorasan, from 
whence a subordinate chief was de- 
puted to govern at Ghizni ; but it 
does not appear that the northern 
part of the country was subdued un- 
til the rei<;n of Alahmood, th<5 se- 
cond prince of the Ghiznavi race, 
Avho completed the conquest of Af- 
ghanistan. 

No substantial tradition of the Af- 
ghans, or of the state of their coun- 
Iry, is found on record until the year 
of the Christian era A. D. 997, when 
Sebuctasjhi, a Tartar oHicer in the 
service of the Khorasan chief, who 
at that period was himself subject to 
Munsur at Samani, the groat Khan 
of Bokhara, succeeded to the terri- 
tory, renounceil the Tartar vassalage, 
and extending his con(|uests to At- 
ghanistan, made Ghizni the capital of 
his empire. 

The Ghiznavi dbminions were 
chiefly acquired by jMahmood, the 
son ofSebuctaghi,and conqnehcnded 
a large portion of Persia and Hi;i- 
dostan. This dynasty flourished for 
the space of 207 years, initil A. \). 
1159, when the power was wrested 
from it by the Afgh;iu, Mahommed 
Ghori. This prince left to a favourite 
f?lave, named Eldoze, his possessions 
Avest of the Indus, which were soon 
* oveiTun by the Persian Prince of 
Kharizm, whose successor, Jillal tul 
Deciij was eoniiucred and expelled 
by Gengis Khaib 

From this period until the invasion 
of Tamerlane, the Afghan history is 
involved in obs( mity. In the year 
•1561, l''crishta mentions that Mah- 
Tuood, a Patau King of Delhi, drove 
the Mognlsiiom Gliizni, and annex- 
ed it to the emj)ire of Hindostan. It 
is probable it continned subject to 
the Delhi thron<', until 'l^imour's ex- 



pedition info India In 1398, when 
the northern quarter of Afghanistan 
became a Mogul province. 

After Timour's death, when the' 
great fabric of the Samarcand Mogul 
empire fell to pieces, we may pre- 
sume it was governed by its nativo 
chiefs until 1.506, at which period the 
Emperor Baber, prior to his invasion 
of Hindostan, seized on Cabnl and 
(jhizni, which, with Candahar occa- 
sionally, were held by his posterity 
until tiic death of Aureugzebe (who; 
in 1678, subdued an insurrection of 
the Afghans), after which event it<< 
subjection was scarcely nominal. 
About A. I). 1720, the Afghans, un- 
der their native chiefs, conqnered 
Persia; but, in 1737, were expelled 
by Nadir Shah from that country, and 
their own subjugated. In 17;"j9, after 
the cajiture of Deliii by Nadir Sliahi 
Afghanistan was, by treaty, annexed 
to the Persian empire. 

On the assassination of that con- 
queror in 1747, Ahmed Shah Abdalli 
seized on the Afghan territorie.?, and 
having run through a long and ar- 
duous military career, died in 1773. 
By a decisive and sanguinary victory 
at Paneput, in 1761, he arrested the 
progress of the i\Iaharatta contpusts, 
which menaced the Malionwuedaii 
princes with total expulsion from 
iJiiidostau. 

He was succeeded by his son, Ti- 
mourSliah,\\ iio was at an early period 
obliged to relinquish liahore to the 
Seiks. On the east of the Indus he 
still retained the province of Cash- 
mere, the district of Atfock, with 
some scattered j)ortions of JMooltaU, 
and received tribute from the Ameers 
of Sinde. He likewise j)ossess(>fl a 
large di\ision of Khorasan, which, 
incliuling the city of Herat, extends 
on the north to the vicinity of Nis- 
habor andTarshish, ami on the south 
to the lesser Irak. 

Timour Shah died in 1792, after a 
reign of 19 years, leaving 19 sons. 
To the eldest, Humaycum, he gavR 
the sovereignty of Herat and Canda- 
har; to '/eniaiur Shah, Cabnl and tlio 
rest of^his Aljihan territories, a,s well 



10 



AGRA. 



as Cashmere and Mooltan. Hunia- 
yoon was atterwards dethroned and 
blinded by his brother Zemaun Sliab, 
who, in 1796, advanced as far as La- 
hore with an army of 23,000 cavalry, 
cansed great alarm in Hindostan, 
and retreated. 

In 1802 Zemaun Shah was de- 
throned and deprived of sight by his 
brother Mahmood Shah, who was 
shortly after expelled and pardoned 
by his brother Swjah ul Moolk, 
against whom he rebelled in 1809, in 
which year Snjah ul Moolk's army 
was discomfited, and his standard 
abandoned by most of his chieftains. 
IMahommed Khan, the viceroy of 
Cashinere, taking advantage of these 
dissensions, in 1809 erected the Hag 
of independence in that province, 
which still continues unsubdued, and 
the subjection of the other districts 
composing the Afghan empire little 
more than nominal. {Foster, Ley den, 
Wth Register, Jones, Vansittart, ^c.) 

Ager. — A large town with a stone 
fort, in the province of Malwah, 42 
jniies N. by E. from Oojain. Lat. 
23°. 44'. N. Long. 76°. 3'. E. To the 
south of this town, which is subject 
to Siudia, is a line lake. (^Hunter, Sfc.) 



AGRA. 

A large province in Hindostan, 
situated principally between the 25th 
and 28th degrees of north latitude. 
It is bounded on the north by the 
province of Delhi, on the south by 
that of Malwah; on the east it has 
the provinces of Oude and Allahabad, 
and on the west that of Ajmeer. Jn 
length it may be estimated at 250 
miles by 180 the average breadth. In 
the institutes of Acber, compiled by 
Abul I'azel, A. D. 1582, this pro- 
vince is described as follows: 

" The soubah of Agra is situated 
in the second climate. In length from 
Chatimpoor (Gau(unip«ior) which 
contines it on the side of Allahal)ad, 
to Pulwall, the boundary towards 
Delhi, it measures 175 coss ; its 
breadth is from Kaiiogc to Chaiidicc 



in Malwa. This soubah contains 1.^ 
districts, viz. 1. Agra; 2. Calpee; 3. 
Canoge; 4. Cowl; 5. Gualior; 6. 
Irej ; 7. Sanwan ; 8. Narwar ; 9. Mund- 
layer; 10. Alvar; 11. Tejareh ; 12. 
Narnoul; 13. Sehar. These districts 
are subdivided into 203 pergunnahs. 
The amount of the revenue is 
1 ,61 ,56,257 rupees. It furnishes 50,600 
cavalry, 477,570 infantry, and 221 
elei)hants." 

The surface of this province, north 
of tlie Chumljul, is in general ilat and 
oj)en, and rather bare of trees ; but 
south of that river, and also towards 
the north western frontier, it is more 
hilly, and trees become more plen- 
tiful. The climate for the greater part 
of the year is temperate, and during 
the winter months actually cold ; but 
while the hot winds prevail, like the 
otlier central coiuitries of Hindostan, 
the heat is intejise, and the climate 
generally unhealthy. Fortunately 
their continuance is not of long du- 
ration. 

The chief rivers in this province 
are the Jumna, the Chumbul, and 
the Ganges, besides which there are 
many smaller streams; but, upon the 
whole, this country is indillerently 
supplied with water, and during the 
dry season to the north of the Cluun- 
bul, excejtt in the immediate vicinity 
of the rivers, water for agiicultural 
purposes is procured from wells. A 
great proportion of the cultivation is 
consequently restricted to such crops 
as do not, like rice, require a re- 
dundant sui)ply of moisture. The 
soil is particularly adapted for the 
production of indigo, which might be 
raised in any quantity, as also sugar 
and cotton; but except in that por- 
tion of the province under the Bri- 
tish jurisdiction, all processes of agri- 
culture are in a very backward state, 
owing to the confusion and incessant 
warfare by which the province has 
been distracted ever since the death 
of Aurengzebe in 1707. In this jno- 
vince there are no remarkable or 
peculiar mineral productions, and the 
animals are the same as in iliudosr 
tan generally, but the horses art 



AGRA. 



11 



much superior to those of Bengal 
and the more eastern and southern 
provinces. 

I'he principal article manufactur- 
ed in this province is coarse clolh, 
but the export of it is not great. 
The Britisli pro\inccs to the south- 
east rccii\o tii.nually an ini]>or1alion 
of cotton from the south ol'llie Chuni- 
bul, by the route of Calpee, but a 
considerable proj'ortion of it is the 
growth of -V.iilwah, and tlie >hilia- 
ratla tcrritoiics to the south-east of 
Agra. The Doab, or ttnitory be- 
tween the Canges atid llie Jumna, 
wliith may be tetmed the garden of 
the pro\ince, exports indigo, sugar, 
and cotton. The country to the 
north-west of Agra, under the jNIa- 
clurry Rajah of Aha and other na- 
tive chiefs, beijig ill supplied with 
water, is of a very inferior quality, 
and generally unproductive. L'pon 
the whole, the province is but thinly 
peopled compared with Kc)igal,Tan- 
jore, and the more flourishing of the 
British provinces, and does not, pro- 
bably, in all its diniensions, contain 
more than six millions of inhabitants. 
'I'he Doab, and that part of it pos- 
sessed by the British, is by far the 
most fertile, populous, and best go- 
verned. At present this province is 
partitioned nearly in the following 
manner: 

The north-western and western 
districts, to the north of the Chuni- 
bul, are possessed by the Rajahs of 
Macherry and Bhnrtpoor, and other 
native chiefs in alliance w ith the Bri- 
tish government, who form a pro- 
tecting boundary towards the domi- 
nions of the Ajmecr Rajpoot chiefs, 
and those of the Mahvah Alaharattas. 

All the territory to the east of the 
Jumna, and a small district round 
the city of Agra, is possessed by the 
British governmesit, which has there 
instituted a regidar civil establish- 
ment for the coUettion ot the le- 
venuc, and the administration of jus- 
tice. 

I'he counlry to the south of the 
Chumbul, c; mprehcnding Guaiior, 
Gohud, Naiwai'j &.c. with the excep- 



tion of the town and dislrict of Cal- 
pee, are either ai the possession of, 
or tributary to, the JV'Jaharatlas, who, 
by this arrangement, aie shut out 
from the north of Hindostan. 

The principal towns in this pro- 
vince are Alvar, the capital of the 
Machrrry Rajah; Bhuttpoor, the 
capital of the Jauts ; Dceg, another 
strong Jaut fortress; AJathura, Ka- 
noge, Etaweh, Guaiior, Gohud, Cal- 
pee, and Narwar. 'I'he natives of 
this province arc, in general, a hand- 
some robust race of men, and con- 
sist of a mixture of liiu(!oos and 
]\Jahommedans. few of the iseiks 
having vet como so far soiith. A 
considerable nuiiiijcr of the culti\a- 
tors to the west of the Jumna are 
Jauts, who are a liindoo trilie, w Inch 
religion still predominates, although 
the province has been permanently 
subject, since the 13th century, to 
the Mahommedans. 1 he language 
of common intercourse thjoughout 
the Agra province is the IJhulostaiiy, 
but the Persian is used for public and 
official documents, and in conversa- 
tion among the higher classes of 
Mahommedans. Ihe ancient lan- 
guage of Kanoge is thought, by Mr. 
Colebrooke, to form the basis of the 
modern tiindostany. 

In the remote ages of Hindoo an- 
tiquity, tliis province must have form- 
ed a very important portion of Jrlin- 
dostan, as it contained Kanoge, Ma- 
thura, and Binclrai und, the seats of 
their most famous empires, and still 
among their most venerated jjlaces of 
pilgrimage. 'I'he city of Agra is also 
supposed to have beeir the birth- 
place of the Avatar, or incarnation 
of Vishna, under the naihe ot Pa- 
rasu Rama, w hose conquests extend- 
ed to and included Cejlon- After the 
Mahommcdau conquest it followed 
the fate of Delhi, and during the 
reign of Acber, vNas the leatling j>ro- 
vince of the empire. Subscqueist to 
the death of Aurcngzebe, in 1707, it 
V as alternately possessed and ravag- 
ed by the Jauts, jNiaiiarattas, and 
dilferent chiefs depulcd from Delhi, 
to restore the royal authority. One 



.f.J AHMEOABAD. 

of the liittpr, kiuljilTKIian, oovorncd 
this ])ro\iiir<' iiorili of 1h<> Cluinibul 
from 1777 to his df-alh, iiulrpendent 
of all toulrrxil from tin; Delhi so- 
Acn^igns. (Ahvl I'/izel, Scott, Colc- 
Innnkc, Wilford, (Sr.) 

AcuA. — A small (listrirf in the 
province of Agra, in Ihc immediato 
virinity of the- city of A2;ia. Jiy Abnl 
J'awi, ill 15K'l, it is described as fol- 
lows : 

■ " Sircar Asraronfains 33 njahals; 
measnremont. <),107?622 begahs ; ro- 
vomio, ]{)\,7\9,2m dams. Seynru;- 
li-,d, 14,506,818 dams. 'Ibis Sircar 
finnishos 11,660 cavalry, and 100,800 
infantry." " 

'i'hc country immediately to the 
sonth of Aura is (ht and open, and 
tolerably vveil cultivated, but bare of 
trees. l)inin<;; the cold season the 
tanks, streams, and rivnlets, areqnite 
dry, and water for agricnllnral and 
domestic inirposes is procnred iVoni 
•wells. Since isOf this district has 
been under the IJritish.jniisdiction. 

A(iin. — A city in the province of 
A'ATU, of which it is the capital, si- 
tiiated on the S. W. side of the river 
.lumna. Lat. 27°. 12'. N. Lona,-. 77°. 
56'. E. By Abul I'azel, in 1582, it 
is described as follows: 

" Ap;ra is a Iar2;e city, the air of 
which is esteemed very healthy. The 
river .Inmna rnns through it for tive 
coss. 'l"he I'.mperor A(;l>er founded 
h<Me a most magniticent city. In 
former tinics Agra was a village, de- 
pendent on Biiina." 

The most remarkable edifiec in 
miidcni Agra is the Taujc Mahal, a 
mausoleum en-cled by the JMnix-ror 
Shah .Iclian, for the crlebraled Noor 
Jcharr lUgum. It is situated on th<! 
siMidicrn banks of the .lumna, about 
thr<c miles from the fort of Agra, and 
in biidl entirely of white marble. It 
is ciselosed within a space of 300 
yards, extending along the river, and 
is nearly 190 yar<ls sqnare. The 
dome rises from the <-cntrc, and is 
about 70 feet in diann.'ter. 

The houses in Agra consist of se- 
veral stories, like those in Henares, 
;ind IImj streets are- so narrow as 



scarcely to admit apatanqueeh. Tlrti' 
greatest part of this once ilourishing" 
city is now a heap oi niins, and al- 
most uninhabiled. Six miles to the 
north Agra is the mausoleum of Ac- 
ber at Secudra. From the snnunit of 
the Minaret, in front of it, a spec- 
tator's eye may range over a great 
circuit of country, not less than 30 
miles in a direct line. The whole of 
this space is flit, and filled with the 
ruins of ancient grandeur; at a dis- 
tance the river Jumna is seen, and 
the glittering towers of Agra. 

In the month of June the river 
Jumna, at Agi"a, is about half a mile 
broad, and it is not fordable liere at 
any season. 'J'hc city rises from the 
river, extending in a vast semicircle. 
'J'he fort, in which is included tho 
imperial palace, is of great extent. 
I'his city was greatly enlarged and 
embellished in 1566, by the Em- 
peror A cber, who made it his capital; 
and it has also the honour of being 
the birth-place of Abul Fazel, his 
prime minister. It was taken by 
Aladajee Sindia, and continued in the 
possession of the IMaharattas until 
1803, when it was captured by the 
Dritish army under (General Lake, 
after a short and vigorous siege. It 
has ever since; remained in the pos- 
session of the British government^ 
and is the seat of a civil establish-. 
ment for the collection of the re- 
venue, and the admiuistratiou of just- 
ice. 

Travelling distance from Delhi 137 
miles ; from Calcutta by Birbhoom, 
830 miles. (Abid Fazel, 5 R<'g. 
Hoffocs, Rcnnel, Src.) 

AuMEDAiiAD.— A city in the pro-, 
vince of Uujrat, of which it is the 
ca|>ital. Lat.' 22°. 58', N. Long. 72°. 
36'. i:. 

This place is situated in a level 
country, on the banks of a, small 
navigable river named the Saber^ 
maty, which, together with other 
«'0)illuent streams, lalls into the gulf 
ofC'ambay, near the city of Cambay, 
which is properly the port of Ahme- 
dabad; distant about 56 road miles* 
About the.iniddlo of> Hic loth ceiiji 
3 



AHTER. 



iii 



iAXty thi* tity was the ♦apital of a 
Jli)iirisluug imloi)eiKlcMit cmpirt', pai- 
ticuhulj iluiiiig the roigu oiMulunood 
Bcgia, A. D. 1450, but it has since 
lallcn greatly to decay. It stiU rc- 
iiiaius ouc ut' tlie best tbrtilied towns 
in llie ptovince* ami made a good 
dcfeuec when taken by Genei;d God- 
durd in 1780. It was restored to the- 
jMahaiattas at the peace ot'1783, and 
with them it still conliniics. A great 
proportion of the itinerant nuisieians, 
players, and poets, named bhauaee, 
or rasdaree, so eoimnou throughout 
Cnjrat, come tVom tlie neighbotu- 
liood of this town. In the Gnjrat- 
tee villages their peribrmanccs are 
paid for at the public expense, as are 
also the bauds of jugglers aud wrest- 
lers. 

Travelling distance from Bombay 
321 uiihs; from Poonah, 38L>; froiii 
Delhi, 610; and from Calcutta by 
Oojain, riU4 miles. {Ketuiel, Drmti- 
■uiotid, S,-c.) 

vVHAiKOMJ'tiGUR. — A city in the 
tnodern province tif Aurnngabad, to 
which country this place Ibrmerly 
ffaveitsown appellation, having been 
ti>r many years the capital of one of 
<he Dcccany sovereignties. Lat. 19°. 
1'. N. Long. 75^. 4'.^!':. 

xVfter tile dissolution of the Bha- 
menee empire of the Deccan, Ahmed 
^izam S!»ah established liu' iiule- 
pendeiit state of Alimciliniggur about 
the year 1489 ; in 1493 he laid the 
tbundations of this town, and made 
it his capital. 

He died A. D 1508. 

Eijorahan Nizain Shall died 1553. 

lioussein Nizam hhah died 1565. 

jMortiza Niisam Shah became in- 
sane, and was nnndered by his sou 
Meeraun Housscin, A.D. 1487. ;. 
,;iMcerauji lioussein was assassinatp 
«■(! alter a reign of two mcmths aud 
llnee days. 

Isinaei Nizam Sliah was taken 
prisoner, and confined by liis father, 
ajtej' ;), very sh(jrt reign. 
; JJctorahan Shah died in 1594. 

Ibrahim Shah, having reigned four 
/jjonth.s^^w as kilb.'d in battle. 

'Batiaduiisluiii, aw iniant, was taken 



prisoner Ity the Moguls, and courmed 
for life in the fort of Cualior, and 
with him ended the Nizam ShaJice 
dynasty of Ahmednuggin-, about the 
year 1600. Nominal suvereigns <if 
this family existed at Douh-labad 
until 1634, whcn.it was also (aken. 
and the Nizam Shalue dominions 
Lecaine a province of the jNlogui em- 
pire. 

Anniednnggnrcontintied underlhc 
govcrinnciit (»f the Delhi sovereigns 
until the death of Aurengzebe, in 
1707, when it was at a very early 
period seized on by the iMaliaratfas, 
and continued pail of the I'eshwa's 
dominions until 171*7, vv hen Dowlet 
Bow Sinilia loieed the I'esliwa to 
cede to him tnis important fortress, 
with the surrounding dlsliid ; by 
which cession he not only obtained 
the connnand of the city of Poonali, 
but the best entrance into the ter- 
ritories of the Peshwa and of our 
ally, the Nizam. 

On the 12th of August, 1803, this 
city was taken by General Welles- 
ley, and ceded to the British by 
Dowlet Row Sindi.i at the treaty of 
peace concluded on thc^ 30th De- 
cember, 1803. In April, 1804, it was 
restored to the Peshwa, and has ever 
since continued in his possession. 

Travelling distance from Poonah 
83 miles ; from Bombay by !^;onali, 
181; from Hyderabad, 335; fiuiii 
Oojain, 365 ; from Nagpoor, 403 ; 
from Delhi, 830; and from Calcutta, 
Illy miles. {Scott, Fcrinhta, MaU 
lolm, 5th and 7th i»*i'n\y. liiiiuol, iVc.) 

Ahmedi'OOK. — A town in the pro- 
vince of Cuttaek, siiualed 11 miles 
N. from the temple at Juggernanth. 
Lat. lb°. 59'. N. Long. 86°. 2'. E. 
jjAhmooi), {Amod). — A town in the 
province of Gujrat, 24 miles N. trom 
the toivn of Broach. La(. 22°. N. 
Long. 73°. 3'. E. ^"\ ilh tin; sin-- 
rounding district, it belongs to the 
Maharatta Peshwa. 

AlUKR, {Atura). — A town in tha 
province of Agra, district of Bah- 
doriah, siinated on the sontii side of 
the Clnnnbnl river, 50 miles S. E. 
frum Ajruj and tiiUulary. to tlie M-i.- 



14 



AJMEER. 



harattas. Lat. 26°. 43'. N. Long. 
78°. 33'. E. 

AiBECCA. — ^A small town on the 
sea coast of tlie province ot" Tra- 
vancor; liavin<2; a bar harbour, and 
situated 1G3 miles N. W. from Cape 
Comorin. Lat. 9°. N. Lonjr. 76®. 
S3'. E. Small ships are built liere, 
and lime is burned from o)ster and 
muscle sh;'lis, of Mhich immense 
quantities are found in the neighbour- 
iuEf snlt lakes, and between the small 
islands. (Fra Paolo, Sfc.) 

"Aiou Baua. — A Papuan isle, five 
miles in ciicunifercnce, surrounded 
by a cluster of .smaller ones, and 
situated to the north of Wageeoo. 
Lat. 0°. 24'. N. Loner. 131°. 10'. E. 

The inhal)itnnts of 7\iou Baba, who 
are mostly Papnas, with busiiy friz- 
zled hair, cultivate these islands but 
very little, havini? great plenty of fish 
and turtle, which they dis])ose of at 
the island of Wageeoo, and receive 
sag-o in return. They also sell tor- 
loiseshell and swallo (biehe de mar) 
to the Chinese, who trade to this 
island in sloops; and occasionally birds 
of|)aradise are to be purchased here. 
These islands were formerly nomi- 
Kally subject to the Sultan ot'Tidore. 
(^Forrest, <'^-c.) 

Adjuntee Pass, {Ajcnjanti). — A 
pas:i through the mountains in the 
province of Berar, 38 miles N. N. W. 
triun Jaliiapoor. Lat. 20°. 26'. N. 
Long. 70°. 12'. E. At the head of the 
pass is the tow n of Adjuntee, which is 
under the Nizam's goverinnent. It is 
enclosed with walls, but is not a place 
of any strength. The name is a 
Sanscrit word, meaning the difficult 
or ini|)regnabie pass. 

A.IEK Hi V er. — A river in the Gujrat 
pcnin.sula, which rises near Sirdar, in 
the ctntrcofthe coun1r>', and after 
a short course divides into two 
streams at ]Madhuj)Oor, about six 
miles below Burkoo village ; after 
which both fall into the Kun, near 
Balumbaii. In point of size, the Ajee 
is next to the Mutchoo river. — 
{M'Murdo, 4-c.) 

Ajitmul, {Ajitmala). — A town in 
the pru\iucc of Agra distiittt of 



Etavveh, 25 miles west from Caun- 
poor. Lat. 20°. 23'. N. Long. 79°. 
67'. E. 



AJMEER OR RAJPOOTANA, 

(Ajamida.) 
A large province in the centre of 
Hiiidostan proper, situated princi- 
pally between the 2.5th and 30th de- 
grees of north latitude. To the north 
it is bounded by the provinces of 
Mooltan and Dellii ; to the south by 
Mahvah and Gujrat ; on the east it 
has Delhi and Agra ; and on the west 
the province of Sinde. In length, 
from north to south, this province may 
be estimated at 350 miles, by 220 
the average breadth. In the Insti- 
tutes of Acbcr, compiled by Abul 
Fazel, A. D. 1582, this province is 
described as follows : 

" The Soubah of Ajmeeris situated 
in the second climate. The length, 
from Backar and the dependencies 
of Umbeer to Bicanene of Jelmeir, 
is 168 coss ; and the breadth, from the 
extremity of Circar Ajmeer to Bans- 
wara, includes 150 coss. On the 
east lies Agra, and on the north, part 
of Delhi : it has Gujrat to the south, 
and Delialpoor of Mooltan confines 
it on the west. The soil of this soubah 
is sandy, and it is necessary to dig a 
great depth before water can be pro- 
cured ; so that the success of the har- 
vest entirely depends on the period- 
ical rains. The winter is temperate ; 
but the summer is intensely hot. To 
the south are momitains, this pro- 
vince abounding in stroug holds. 
This soubah comprehends Meywar, 
Marwar, and Nadowty, which are 
separated into seven districts, sub- 
divided into 197 perguunahs. The 
names of the districts are, 1. Ajmeer ; 
2. Chitore ; 3. Rantanpoor ; 4. Joud- 
pooi-; 5. Sarowy; 6. Nagore ; 7. 
Bicanere. The measured lands ar» 
21,4.35,961 begahs; the amount of 
the revenue, 22,841,.507 dams; out 
of which 2,326,336 dams aie Seyurg- 
hal. It can furnish 86,500 infantry, 
aud 347,000 cavalrj." 



AJMEER. 



15 



In delineating this provinee, Abul 
Fazel appears to have too much 
compressed its limits towards the 
south, where were the principal 
Rajpoot tributary states, which pro- 
bably in his time had been but lit- 
tle explored. The province of Ajmeer 
is occasionally named Marwar ; but 
this appellation is projierly restricted 
to the Joudpoor tenitories. 

The northern division of this pro- 
▼incc, comprehending Eicancre and 
the neighbouring districts, is a bar- 
ren, unfertile plain, bare of trees, and 
almost destitute of rivers and rivu- 
lets, and but very thinly inhabited ; 
the central territory, which includes 
Joudpoor and Jyenagur, is more 
hilly, and better supplied with water, 
jet not in sutlieicnt tpiantities for 
wet crops. TIjc soil is also of a re- 
markable f;aliiie nature, containing 
salt lakes and springs, and producing 
salt and saltpetre spontaneously. The 
southern division is very hilly and of 
(liihcult access ; but, in general, well 
covered with trees and shrubs, and 
watered by many mountain streams, 
besides the Banass and Chumbul 
rivers. 

The three grand modern divisions 
of Ajmeer, or Rajpootana, arc, 1st, 
The state of Odeypoor, named also 
Mewar, or the Kana of Chitoie ; 
2dly, Joudpoor, named also Marwar, 
and its sovereign occasionally de- 
seril)ed as the llhatore Rajah, being 
of that tribe; 3dly, Jyenagur, J ey- 
poor, or Ambeer. 

Under these heads respectively, 
and the names of the chief towns, 
further topographical details will be 
found ; it being intended here only to 
exhibit a general view of the province, 
v\ hicli is at present partitioned in the 
following maimer : — 

The cit) of Ajmeer, and the forty- 
six surrounding peigunnahs, belong 
to Dow let Row Sindia, and the dis- 
trict of Tonk Rampoorah to the 
Holcar family. 

The eastern quarter of tlie central 
division is occupied by the Jeynagur 
Kajah ; and the south eastern by the 
Kajahs of Kotub; £ooud«, and other 



petty Rajpoot chiefs tributary to the 
Mahrattas, and engaged in a con- 
stant state of hostilities with each 
other. 

The western parts of the central 
division are subject to the Rajah 
of Joudpoor, whose dominions are 
of great extent ; and the south-west- 
ern are possessed by the Rana of 
Odeypoor. 

From these principalities the Mal- 
wah Maharattas, when they are 
strong enough, levy annual contri- 
butions, which is the easier effected, 
on account of their disunion and un- 
ceasing internal warfare. Respecting 
the baiTcn and desolate region to the 
north, very little is known, as it has 
yet, from its poverty, attracted but 
little attention. 

The constitution of these countries 
is feudal ; each district, town, and 
even village, being governed by petty 
chiefs, dignified with the title of 
Thakoor, or Lord, who frequently 
yield but a nominal obedience to the 
l)erson who is reputed to be their 
superior or sovereign. The rents are 
very low ; but every village is ob- 
liged to furnish a certain number of 
horsemen at the shortest notice. 
The Rajpoots are hardy and brave, 
and extremely attached to their re- 
spective chiefs : they are much ad- 
dicted to the use of opium — this 
destructive diug being produced by 
them on all occasions, and presented 
to visitors as betel is in other parts 
of India. They are usually divided 
into two tribes — the Rhatore, and 
the Chohan Seesodya Rajpoots. 

Respecting the number of inhabi- 
tants but a very vague estimate caa 
be formed ; but, by compaiison with 
certain other districts, the numbers 
of which have been ascertained, al- 
though occupying so great a space, 
the population in all probability docs 
not exceed five millions; and of those 
not above one-tenth arc Mahomme- 
dans. The principal towns are Jye- 
nagur, Joudpoor, Odeypoor, Ajmeer, 
Kotah, Boondee, Rantampoor, Chi- 
tore. Amber, and Shahpoorah. 

Although this proviuco occupies 



16 



AJMEf^K. 



the centicQf Hiu«loslaii, and its east- 
ern tVouticr is -within 90 niilcs of 
'Delhi, it was luver lUoioiiglil.v suIj- 
jiiL^ated either by the Patau or Mogul 
i;iui)erors. Rajahs of Ajniccr arc 
lueiitiouod by Ferishta so early as 
A. D. lOOB; at which period they 
jcjiucd a cuuibiuatiou of Hindoo 
princes against Mahmood of Gliizui, 
and in 1193 it was conquered, or 
rather overrun by jMahonnued, the 
fust Gauride sovereign of India, 
After this date it coutinucd tributary 
to the throne of Delhi ; and, ou ac- 
count of the refractory conduct of its 
princes, was fr«(iuently invaded by 
tlie emperors, who repeatedly took 
and destroyed all their chief towns. 
Yet the proviuee ne^er became a 
fegular organized i)ossession, like 
Delhi, Agra, and many nnicli more 
remote countri(\s, but remained in 
a sort oV hall-hulepcndent state, 
paying a tribute, and furnishing the 
imperial armies with a certain num- 
ber of Rajpoot mercenaries, who 
were always held in high estimation, 
ou account of their bravery and lidc- 
lity, and formed a counterpoise to the 
ilogids and Afghans. 

After Aurengzebe's death, in 1707, 
and the dissolution of the Mogul 
empire, which soon ensued, it con- 
tinued for some time under a no- 
minal subjecliou to the Delhi throne ; 
but, about 1748, assumed total inde- 
pendence. 'l"he interval since that 
period has been lilled up by internal 
warfare, and invasions by the Mah- 
arattas and other hordes of plun- 
derers. During the latter part of the 
reign of Madhajce Sindia, and the 
commencement of that of Dowlet 
Row Sindia, they were very nearly 
comitlctcly subdued by the disciplin- 
ed troops under Generals Du lioignc 
and Perron in tlie pay of those chiefs. 
They have since recovered a little, 
hot by any intrinsic addition to their 
ow n strength, but by the depression 
of their most dangerr)us adversary, 
Dowlet Row Sindia, "who does hot 
liow possess the same powcrfid nieans 
of enforcing his extortions. In 1807, 
the Hajalis of Jyeuagur and Joud- 



pot>r continued tlieir mutual preten-' 
sions to marry the daughter of th«j 
Raua of Odeypoor, and engaged in 
hostilities, whieli were fermented and 
supported i)y Ameer. Khan, Holkar, 
Sindia, and other depredators, who 
benefit by the dissensions among the 
R aj poots. {Abid Fazcl, Rennel, Scott, 
BroKg'/iion, Maurice MS. .Vc.) 

Ajmeek. — A town in the province 
of Ajnioer, of which it is the capital. 
Lat." 20°. 3ry. N. Long. 74°. 48'. E. . 

This town, and the surrounding 
district, containing forty-six pergun-. 
nahs, are subject to Dowlet Rovr 
Sindia. It is situated in the centre 
of the Rajpoot states of Jyeuagur, 
Joudpoor, and Odeypoor, was for- 
merly rented by Amljajee, and sinet; 
his death continued to his brother 
Balarow. In 1800 it was held by M. 
Perron. The boundary to the west 
is at the town of Meerla, which scr 
parates Ajmeer from Joudpoor. 

Tiie fort of Ajmeer, named Tara- 
gur, is built on the north-east end 
of a range of hills, and consists prin- 
cipally of a plain stone w all along the 
edge of the mountain, strengthened 
with a few round bastions, lire city 
lies at the bottom of the lull, and is" 
surrounded by a stone wall and ditch 
in bad repair. The streets are nar- 
row and dirty, and most of the houses 
small, and in a state of decay. It 
still possesses a palace^ built in a 
garden by Shah Jelian ; besides 
which, there are scarcely any re- 
mains of magnilicenee to be seen, 
cither internally or externally. 

The whole country round Ajmeer 
forms a Hat sandy amphitheatre, sur* 
rounded by low ranges of hills, in 
consequence! of which the place is 
uncommonly sultry; but it. is well 
supplied with water from two lakes, 
which are close under its AValls, The 
most northern is six riiiles in circum- 
ference, and very deep ; and, at par- 
ticular seasons, both arc covered 
with Hocks of ducks and geese. 

The principal attraction of Ajmeer 
is the tomb of Khaja Moycn ud Deeii^ 
one of the greatest jMahonnnedsijji 
jiuiuts that ever lloiirished iu Hitt* 



ALLESTAR. 



17 



dosfan, wliicli happened about six 
huiKircd jtars a;j;o. It is of wJjite 
marble, but rciuavkabic neither for 
beauty nor style orarcititccture. Al- 
though the distance tVoiu tliis tomb 
to Aji,Ta be 230 miles, yet tlie great 
and wi!:e Emperor Acber made a pil- 
grimage on foot to the tomb of this 
saint, to implore divine blessings on 
bis familj', which eousisted only of 
daughters; but, after tiiis pilgrimage, 
received the addition of three sons. 
The peer zadas, or attendant |)riests, 
who subsist on the conlriinitions at 
the tomb, exceed 1100 in unnjlser, 
.and demand, or rather extort charity 
from all visitors. Madliajee and Dow- 
let Row Sindia, although Hindoos, 
Mere remarkable for their devotion 
to Mahommedan saints and customs. 
Tlie latter bestowed a snpcrb pall 
and canopy of cloth and gold on the 
tomb, and is particularly bountiful to 
the devotees ami peer zadas. lour 
miles from this city is a remarkable 
place of Hindoo pilgrimage named 
Tooshkur, or Pokur. 

Jehangccr, the son and successor 
of the Emperor Acber, occasionally 
kept his court here, which caused the 
embassy of Sir Thomas Rowe, in 
1616, when the East India Compiiny 
had a factory established here. Aj- 
mecr, or Ajinida, is tieiived liom the 
iiauie of an ancient monarch who 
ruled the ])ro\iiice. 

Travelling di.st;vnce from Delhi 
230 miles ; tiom Oojain, 256 ; from 
Iiombay, CoO ; and from Caleutia, 
1030 miles. {BroHglitDu, liennel, Sic.) 

Aklooss. — A town in the Maha- 
ratta territories, in the i)rovince of 
Bejapoor, near Assudnagur, with a 
fort and well-supplied bazar. 'I'his 
place is nearly a mile in lengtli, and 
has several handsome wells and build- 
ings. The Nera river is a little to 
the north of the town, and during 
the rains is about 100 yards broad. 
{31oor, ^-c.) 

Akrauny. — A town in the Ma- 
haratta tcrritoritvs, in the province of 
Jikandcsh ; 82 miles J^. N. E. from 
Surat. Lat 21°. 40'. N. Long. 74°. 
14'. E. 



Alacananda Rtvkr. — This river 
springs from the Himalaya moun- 
tains, in tlxi province of Serinagur, 
and joins the Bhagirathi at Dcvu- 
prayaga; the juncliou of the two 
forming the Ganges. 

A very short distance to the north 
of Bliadrinath, the breadth of the 
Alacananda does not exceed 18 or 
20 feet, and the stream is shallow, 
and moderately rapid. I'urther up, 
the stream is concealed under im- 
mense heaps of snow, wliich pro- 
bably have been accumulating here 
for ages. Beyond this point travellers 
have not dared to venture, although 
the shastras mention a place called 
Alacapura, the fabulous city of Cu- 
vera, the I'lnlus of Hindoo njytho- 
logy. At the junction at Dcvapra- 
yaga, the Alacananda is the largest 
river of the two, being 142 feet in 
breadth, and rising in tlie rainy sea- 
son 46 and 47 feet above the low 
water level. At Ranibaugh the breadth 
of the Alacananda is from 70 to 80 
yards, with a current of seven and 
eight miles an hour. 

In this river are a gi-eat many fish 
of the roher species, (Cyprimis den- 
ticulatus) four or five feet in length. 
Tliey are daily fed l)y the Brahmins, 
and are so tame as to take bread out 
of the hand. There is also a species 
of fish named roher, six or seven 
feet long: the scales on the back and 
sides are large, of a beautiful green, 
encircled with a bright golden bor- 
der ; the belly white, slightly tinged 
with gold colour ; the tail and fijis of 
a dark bronze. The flavour of this 
tish is equal to its colour, being re- 
markably line and delicate. {Raper, 

Allf.star. — A town in the pe- 
ninsula of Malacca, district of Queda, 
where the sovereign of Ihe latlir 
principality risides, in a small brick 
fort, built about 1785. It stands two 
or three leagues up a river, and has 
a very mean appearance. "^I'lie royal 
palace resembles a spacious farm 
house, with many low houses attach- 
ed to it, which coutaiu the lung's 
seraglio. 



18 



ALLAHABAD. 



The inhabHants arc composed of 
Chulias, (from the INIalabur crtast) 
Malays, and Cliinesc ; the last have 
a temple here. In 1770, AUestar was 
plundered and hurncd by the Bui;- 
gesses, in conjnuction with the king's 
own relations. {Dalrtjmple, Haeit- 
s«l, ^-c.) 

Alforezf.. — Sec Borneo. 
Alibunder. — A town subject to 
the Ameers in the province ol'Sinde, 
.situated in Lat. 24°. 20'. N. nine miles 
fast from Cuddren. At tliis place a 
small brancli of the Goonee river is 
istoppcd by a mound of earth, which 
separates it from Lnekput Bunder 
river. A great many camels may be 
procured here for the conveyance of 
baggage. {Maxjield, cVc.) 

Alima — A small river in the pro- 
vince of Coimbetoor, on which the 
town of Animaylaya is situated. 

Alishung, (Alishan). — A district 
in tl»e north-eastern extremity of Af- 
ghanistan, situated between the 35th 
and 36th degrees of north latitude. 
On the north, south, and west, it is 
bounded by mountains ; and on the 
east by Kuttore, or Catlristan: the 
thief town is Penjshehr. Respecting 
this mountainous region, we liave 
had, in modern times, but little in- 
formation: by Abul Fazel, in 1582, 
it is described as follows : — " The 
district Alishung is surrounded by 
large mountains, covered with .snow, 
in which is the source of the river 
Alishung : the inhabitants are called 
Catfres. ToomanAlislmng, 3,701, 150 
danis." 

At present the district is occupied 
by varioius wild Afghan tribeS; lujmi- 
jially subordinate to the sovereign of 
Cabul. {Abul Fazel, >yf.) 



ALLAHABAD. 

A large province iu ITindostan, 
situated between the 2-lth and 2(jth 
degrees of north latitude. To the 
north it is bounded by the provinces 
of Oude and Agra ; on the south by 
the Hindoo province of Gundwana; 
on ihu east it has tlio provinces of 



Bahar and Gundwana; and on the 
west, Malwah and Agra. In length 
it may be estimated at 270 miles, by 
120 the average breadth. By Abul 
Fazel, in 1582, this province is de- 
scribed as follows : 

" Soubah Allahabad is situated in 
the second cliniate. Its length, from 
Sunjowly Jionjjoor to the southern 
provinces,isl60coss;andthebreadtli, 
from Chowsa Ferry to Gautumpoor, 
includes 122 coss. To the east it has 
Bahar; on the north, Oude ; Baund- 
hoo (Gundvvana) lies on the south, 
and Agra on the west. The prin- 
cipal rivers of this soubah are the 
Ganges and Junma ; besides which 
are the Aruna, the Geyn, the Seroo, 
the Biruah, and several smaller ones. 
This soubah contains ten districts ; 
viz. I.Allahabad; 2. Ghazipoor; 3. 
Benares; 4. Jioiij)oor ; 5. Manicpoor ; 
6. Chunai- ; 7. Bahtgorah ; 8. Callin- 
jcr ; 9. Korah ; 10. Kurrah. These 
districts are subdi\idcd into 177 pur- 
gunnalis; the revenue being53,10,695 
sicca rupees, and 1,200,000 betel nut 
leaves. It furnishes 11,375 cavalry, 
237,870 infantry, and 323 elephants." 
In the reign of Ainengzebe the ar- 
rangement of this ])rovince was new 
modelled ; the division of Bliatta or 
Baundhoo, which belongs properly 
to Gundwana, having been added to 
it. This territory was then con- 
sidered as a new conquest, though 
long before partially subjected, and 
was subdivided into six lesser dis- 
tricts; viz. 1. Bhatta; 2. Soliagc- 
poor ; 3. Choteesgur, or Ruttenpoor ; 
4. Sumbulpoor; 5. Gangpoor; and, 6. 
Jushpoor, and formally annexed to 
the province of Allahabad. With this 
addition of 25,000 square miles of a 
high mountainousunproductive coun- 
try, Allahabad then comprehended 
C0,000 square miles ; but as this tract 
was never Uioroughly reduced to sub- 
jection, or occupied, it is proper it 
should be restored to the province 
of Gundwana, where in remote anti- 
quity it composed part of the Goaiid 
state of Gurrah. 

In 1747 the subdivisions of this pro- 
y'uiCQ wue, 1. AUahubad ; 3. Kurrak 



ALLAHABAD. 



19 



3. Korab ; 4. Tarliar ; 5. Maiiicpoor ; 
6. lieiiitres; 7. Jionpoor; 8. Ghazi- 
poor; 9. Chunar ; 10. Callingcr ; 11. 
Ahuicdabad Gohrali ; 12. Bliatta, 
&c. 

The surface of this province in the 
vicinity of the rivers Ganges and 
Jumna is flat and productive ; but to 
the south-west, in the Bund(;lcund 
territory, the country is an elevated 
table land, diversified with hi,<;h hills, 
and abounding in strong liolds. This 
part of the province is indiHcrently 
cultivated, but contains within its 
limits the famous diamond mines of 
Pannah. Between these two divi- 
sions there is a considerable difler- 
cncc of climate ; the former being 
extremely sultry, and subject to the 
hot winds, wluch is not the case with 
the more elevated region. 

Tlie principal rivers in the north 
are the Ganges, Jumna, Goomty, and 
Caramnasa, besides many smaller 
streams, which supply abuntlance of 
water, and render several of the dis- 
tricts, such as Benares and Allaha- 
bad, among the most fertile in llin- 
dostan. In the hilly country to the 
south west, the rivers arc few and 
.small(!r, the Cane and Coggra behig 
the principal. The periodical rains and 
wells are, consequently, in this quar- 
ter, chiefly depended on for a supply 
of moisture ; but, upon the whole, 
Allahabad may be considered one of 
the richest and most productive coun- 
tries in India. 

The exports from this province are 
diamonds, saltpetre, opium, sugar, 
indigo, cotton, cotton cloths, S^o. the 
imports are various; salt from tlie ma- 
ritime parts of Bengal being one of 
the principal articles in demands 

The chief towns art; Benares, Alla- 
habad, Callinger, Chatterpoor, Jion- 
poor, Mirzapoor, Chunar, and Gazy- 
poor. The population of Allahabad 
is very considerable, aud may be es- 
timated to exceed seven millions, of 
which number, probably, l-8th are 
]Mahommedans,andthe rest Hindoos 
of the Bralirainieal persuasion. In 
remote times of Hindoo antiquity, 
tliis province must have held a hi^h 

c % 



rank, as it contains Prayaga (Allaha- 
bad) and Beiiares, two of the most 
holy places of Hindoo pilgrimage, 
and the latter occupying in India 
the station which two centuries back. 
Rome did in Clnistendom. At pre- 
sent, the whole of this extensive pro- 
vince is comprehended within th« 
limits of the British jurisdiction, and 
governed by the Bengal eode of regu- 
lations, with the exception of a small 
portion of the Bundelcund province, 
which still continues in a refractory 
state. 

We learn from Abul Fazel, that this 
province was invaded so early as 
A.D. 1020, by Sultan Mahmood of 
Ghizni, tlie scourge of the Hindoos, 
who made a few compulsory con- 
verts to the Mahommedan faith. 
lie returned again, A. D. 1023, but 
made no permanent establishment. 
It was afterwards wholly subdued by 
the Patan Emperors of Delhi ; and, 
during the 15th century, contained 
an independant kingdom, the seat of 
which was Jionpoor. Along with tlie 
other Patan conquests, it devolved to 
the Moguls, and was formed into 
a distinct soiibah by the Emperor 
Acber, who named the Hindoo sanc- 
tuary or prayaga, Allahabad, an ap- 
pellation it still retains. 

After the fall of the Mogul dynas- 
ty, the northern quarter was appro- 
priated by the Nabobs of Oude; 
but, in 17G4, Korah and Allahabad 
were ceded to Shah Allum, the then 
fugitive sovereign of DeUii, through 
the interference of Lord Clive with 
the Nabob of Oude, Sujah ud Dow- 
lah. In 1772 they reverted to the lat- 
ter, when that ill-advised monarch 
returned to Delhi, and put himself 
in the custody of the Maharattas, 

The Bengal govenunent acquired 
the Benares districts by treaty with 
Asoph ad Dowlah,in 1775, and Alla- 
habad, with the adjacent territory, 
in 1801, by cession from Saadet Ali 
of Oude. The south-eastern distiicts 
of Bundelcund were received from 
the Maharatta Pesliwa in 1803, in 
exchange for an equivalent of terri- 
tory in the Carnatic, Ealaghaat, au4 



20 



ALLAHABAD, 



Gnjrat. (Abnl Fazel. J. Grant, Ctth 
Heport, ironside, fie J 

Allahabad. — A district iu the pro- 
viiK'' of Allahabiul, iuiiucdiately sur- 
roniidiiij;:: the eity ot' Allahahad, and 
intersected by the Ganges and the 
Jumna. 

\N lueat intJiis district is a principal 
crop, tlie land most ia\ourable to it 
being a rich sandy loam, which is a 
vei^y common soil here. The coju- 
mencement of the niiiis in June is 
the season when they be}i.in to iilon^h, 
and only a single stirrius:: is given 
until they cease. The held is then 
plouglied lo diflcrent times belbro 
the rieeplion of the seed, a cir- 
cnmstaiice whieii proves the inelli- 
cacy of the Indian plongh. Septem- 
l»er and C)ctol)er are the months for 
sov\ing. During the dry season the 
land nnist be walercd, which is a 
much more laborions task than the 
cultivation. Four bullocks andtlncc 
waterers are willi dillicnlty aide to 
"water an acre in nine days ; the ave- 
rage crop is reckoned 15 niauuds 
per begah, (seven quarters per acre.) 
Barley, pease, oil crops, and a yellow 
die, are often mixed with the wheat. 
I'he average rent of wheat land is 
about one pound per acre. 

The breed of sheep in this district 
is small, even lor India, and the fleece 
consists of a coarse black hair, alto- 
geth(;r unsuitable for cloth. Small 
rugs are made of it for shepherds. 
The dress of the peasantry consists 
vf a small piece of coarse cloth round 
hismiddlc, generally with oue blank- 
et, and a sort of turban made of a 
I'otton clout, which articles compose 
tiieir whole v\ardrobe. {Tcniiant, yc.) 
Allahabad. — A fortilied town in 
the j)rovinee of Allahabad, of which 
it is the capital, situated at the eoidhi- 
enceofthe tiangrs with tlie .lunma. 
I<at. 2r>o. 27'. N. I^oiig. 81°. 60'. 

This cit > does not make a handsome 
ai)peararice, thcio being oidy a lev*' 
brick buildings wiliiout ornaments, 
'l"he fort is placed at some distance 
on a tongue of land, one side being 
washed by the .Jnnin.a, and the othiT 
nearly upj<roa<,hing the Ganges. It 



is lofty and exlen-ive, and coiripletely 
connnands the navigation of the two 
rivers. There are, probably, few 
buildings of ctjual siiic in Enroi)e. 
Is'ext the two rivers it is defended 
by the old walls, with the addilitm of 
some cannon. The third side, next 
the land, is pirfer^tly regular, and 
very strong. It has three ravelins, 
two bastions, and a half bastion, and 
stands higher than any ground in 
front of it. The gateway is Grecian, 
and elegant. Tin; government-house 
is spacious and cool, and has some 
larg« subterranean rotm^ overhang- 
ing the river. In the same line, atio- 
th(.r building has been modernized 
and converted into barracks for the 
iion-eommissioned officers. In the an- 
gle isa s(|uare,wliereShah Allum had 
his seraglio when he resided here. 
U{) to 180.3 the sum expended on 
the fortifications amounted to 12 
lacks of nipees, and they aro now 
quile impregnable to a native arm} j 
to an I-luropean army a regular siege 
v\ ould be necessary ; it is, conse- 
([uently, the grand military depot of 
the upper provinces. 

The situation of Allahabad being 
alike adapted for the purposes of in- 
ternal commerce and defence, must 
have early pointed it out as an eligi- 
ble spot for the foundation of a city, 
•tMid most probably it is the site of the 
ancient Palibothra. Nine-teutlis of 
the present native buildiiigs arc of 
mud, raised on the foundations of 
njore substantial brick cdilices, which 
have long fallen to decay. 1 he in- 
habitants, exclusive of the garrison, 
are estifualcd at 20,00(). The soil in 
the vicinity consists of brick dust, 
mortar, and broken potteiy. Tho 
Ganges is here about a mile bjead, 
and does not appear to be uuich aug- 
jiienfed by the tribute of so large a 
ri\cr as tiie Jumna, alliiough the lut- 
t< r is 1400 yards across. 

liy the Erahinius Allahabad is 
named Ijhat Prajag, or by way of 
distinction, as it is the largest and 
most holy, is .simply designated by 
the name of Prayaga. 'llio oilier 
from Prayagas, or sacred coullucncvs 



ALMORA. 



21 



,of rivers, are situated in tlie province 
of .Seriiiap:ur, at the junctiim of the 
Alacanauda with otlK?r streams, and 
arc named Devaprayaga, Kinhapra- 
jaga, Caniaprayaga, and Nandapra- 
jaj^a. Part of the relisrioiis cere- 
monies enjoined to tlie llindoo pil- 
grims, um.st be performed in a vast 
suiitenanean cave in tlic middle of 
the fort, supported bv pillars. The 
vnl}j,ar believe it extends under (ground 
to Delhi, and say it is infested by 
snakes and noxious reptiles. Many 
of the pilgrims drown themselves an- 
Jinally at the junction of the Ganges 
and Junma, being conducted to the 
middle of llie river, and then sunk 
Mith pots of earth tied to their feet. 

The Emperor Aebir was paitial 
to Allahabad, and A\as tlie founder 
pf the modern eif j', intending it a^i a 
strong hold to o\erawe the surround- 
ing country, for Avhicli it v\as well 
adai)ted. It was taken, i)i 1765, by 
the British army under Sir Robert 
Fletcher. 

Following the course of the river, 
Allahabad is 8'20 from the sea, but 
the travelling distance from Calcutta 
is only 550 nnles ; from Benares, 53 ; 
from J^ucknow, 127; Irom Agra, 29f); 
and from Delhi, 412 miles. {Lord 
Vafe»tia,Teininiit, Hcpei; IteuiiclyVc.) 

Allamuady, {xUumbadi). — A town 
in the province of Coimbetoor, 74 
mih s E. S. E. from Seringapatam. 
Lat. 12°. &'. N. Long. 77°. 55'. 1^. 

Allamparva, {Alamparvti). — A 
small fort on the sea tnjast of the 
Carnatic, 67 miles S. by W. from 
Madras. Lat. 12°- 10'. N. Long. 
80°. 7'. E. 

Within this fortress are several 
veils of good water, which is not lo 
be found on all parts of the coast so 
near the sea. It was giveji to M. 
Dupleix by Muzufler Jung in 1750, 
and taken from the rvench by Col, 
Coote in 1760. 

Allygun(;k, (i4%Kjy).— a town 
in the province of Bengal, district of 
Purneah, 4<J miles N. N. E. from 
the town of Purneah. Lat. 26°. 16'. 
N. Long. 87°. 3b'. E. 
. Almou.v — A district in northern 



Hindostan, situated between the 2})th 
and 30th degrees of north latitude, 
and separated from the liarcily dis- 
tricts by the Keinaoon hills. Tiic 
face of the country, like the rest of 
northern Hindostan, is a succession 
of mountains, co\ered with imjKr- 
vious forests of tall trees and thick, 
jungle, and divided by abrnj)t vallies, 
in which are scattered the scanty po- 
pulation of the country. This district 
is properly a subdivision of the larger 
one of Kemaoon; the town of Al- 
mora being the capital, and the whole 
tributary to the Goorkhali Bajali of 
Ncpaul, 

I'hc tree producing a fat-like sub- 
stance, known to the natives of Hin- 
dostan by the name of Phulwarah, 
is found among the Almora hills. 
Tin; tree is scarce, grows on a strong 
soil on the decli\ities of the southern 
aspect of the hills below Almora, ge- 
nerally attaining the height, v\heu 
lull grown, of 50 feet, v\ith a cir- 
cumference of six. The fat is ex- 
tracted fiom the kernels. 

At Bagharghaut, in this district, 
the river Causila is about 30 yards 
Ijroad; and there being neither bridge 
nor ford, it is eros.sed by means of 
large gourds collected from the 
neighbouring villages. Tlnce or four 
of t-iese are fastened by a string, ami 
tied round the waist of a nian who. 
scr\es for a guide. A string of flie 
same kind is attached to the pas- 
senger to prevent his sinking, lujt 
no personal exertions are re<jwired 
on his part, as he has merely to 
grasp the bandage of his guide, wlio, 
being an exjtert swinnner, convex s 
him across to the o)ipositc shore. 
'l"hc baggage is transported across oa 
men's heads, the luimber of gourds 
being proportioned to the weight of 
the iiackuge. 

In the Institutes of ]Menu, it is 
said, Ih.'it all the Kha.syas, or inha- 
bitants of the snowy mountains, have 
lost their cast. If so, they nmst have 
recovered it, for there are numerous 
famiiies of Brahmins in these coun- 
tries, particularly Almora or Comanh, 
\\hu are much respected at Benares ; 



22 



ALVAR. 



the iiiliabiianls of ihat city not con- 
sitlerinjc them as liaving lofet cast, 
although the bulk of thorn be Kha- 
syas. (Raper, Roxburgh, Wilford, ^c.) 

Almora. — A town in northern 
Hindostan, situated in the district of 
Almora, of wliich it is the capital, as 
well as of Kemanon. Lat. 29°. 35'. 
N, Long. 79°. 40'. E. 

This town is built on the top of a 
large ridge of mountains, the houses 
being much scattered, and extending 
down the slope on each side. It is 
said to be more extensive and po- 
pulous than Serinagur, and a place 
of greater tiafTic, but it has not yet 
been entered by any European, al- 
though so near to the frontiers of 
Bengal. The inhabitants are chiefly 
foreigners, or the descendants of emi- 
giants from the low Jands ; and the 
town is tributary to the Ghoorkhali 
Rajah of Nepaul, who keeps a gar- 
lison stationed here. {Raper, fifc.) 

Aloor. — See Alvar. 

Aloou. — A town in the northern 
Carnatic, 114 miles N. from Madras. 
Lat. 14°. 40'. N. Long. 80°. 3'. E. 

Alpoor, {Alipoor). — A town in the 
nizam's dominions, in the province 
of Bcjapoor, 100 miles VV. S. W. 
from Hyderabad. Lat. 16°. 40'. N. 
Long. 77°. 20'. E. 

Alundy, {AlamdeT). — A village in 
th^ province of Bejapoor, situated 
about nine miles to the east of 
Poonah. This place is famous for an 
Avantara, or inferior incarnation of 
Vishnu, under the name of Nanish- 
wer, stated by some Bralunins to 
have happened 1200, and by others 
only 6 or 700 years ago. Although 
so near to Poonah. this village be- 
longs to Dowlet Row Sindia, and 
during the late war was occupied by 
a detachment of British troops. 
{Moor, cVcJ 

Alunkar, {Alancar). — A district 
in the northern portion of Afgha- 
nistan, situated abciit the 35th de- 
gree of north latitude. It borders 
on Calfristan to the north, but in 
other respects its limits, like those 
of the other Afghan districts in that 
<|uartcr, are quite undetermined. In 



1682, Abul Fazel describes it as sub- 
ject to the Emperor Acber. It is 
now inhabited by migratory tribes of 
Afghans, who, to the pastoral em- 
ployment of shepherds, unite that of 
predatory thieves, and pay little or 
no obedience to the mandates of the 
Cabul sovereign, to whom they are 
nominally stibject. 

Alvar, {Alor). — A district in the 
N. W. quarter of the province of 
Agra, situated between the 27th and 
29th degrees of north latitude, and 
in the Mahommedan histories occa- 
sionally named Mewat, and the in- 
habitants Mewatics. By Abul Fazel, 
in 1682, it is described as follows: 

" Sircar Aloor, containing 43 Ma- 
lials ; measurement 1,662,012 begahs, 
revenue 39,832,234 dams ; Sey m-ghal 
699,212 dams. This circar furnishes 
6514 cavalry, and 42,020 infantry." 

The Alvar district is a hilly and 
woody tract of country, lying on the 
south-west of Delhi, and on the west 
of Agra, confining the low country 
along the western side of the Jumna 
to a naiTOw slip, and extending to 
the west about 130 miles, and from 
north to south about 90 miles. Al- 
though this tract is situated in the 
centre of Hindostan, and approaches 
as near as 25 miles of Delhi, its in- 
habitants have always been describ- 
ed as singularly savage and brutal, 
and robbers by profession. In this 
last capacity they were formerly taken 
into pay by the native chiefs of up- 
per Hindostan, for the purpose of 
ravaging more effectually the coun- 
tries wlxich happened to be the seat 
of war. 

This territory, although hilly, is not 
mountainous, and is susceptible of 
good cultivation — a blessing it has 
never yet experienced. In general, 
there is rather a delieicncy of water, 
which in many parts can only be 
procured from deep wells. The cul- 
tivators at pregent are Jauts, Me- 
watteis, and Ahccrs, a savage tribe 
vesembling the Jauts in th<'ir man- 
ners. The district has often changed 
masters, but for some time past has 
been possessed by Row Kajah Bu- 



AMBAH GHAUT. 



23 



chawer Sing;!), a Rhalor Rajpoot, and 
known by the appellation ot the Ma- 
clieny Rajah, whose capital is the 
city of Alvar. 

In November, 1803, a treaty was 
concluded between GciKral Lake, 
on the part of tiie Britisli govern- 
ment, and the Machcrry Rnjah ; liy 
the conditions of which, the friends 
of the one p<'irty were to be con- 
sidered as standing in the same re- 
lation with the other. The Eritish 
engaged not to interfere m ith the in- 
ternal management of the rajah's 
country, nor demand any tribute; 
and the rajah undertook to assist the 
British govennnent wit/i his anIjoIo 
force, wlieu their possessions were 
attacked. 

J5y this treaty the British govern- 
ment guaranteed the security of the 
rajah's country against e\t« rnal ene- 
mies ; on which ac( oiiut, the rajah 
agreed, that if any misniulerstandiug 
should arise between him and any 
neighbouring chieftain, the cause of 
dispute should be submitted in the 
first instance to the British govern- 
ment, wlii( h would endeavour to set- 
tle it amicably: if, from the obsti- 
nacy of tile oj)posite party, amicable 
terms were not attainable, the rajah 
was authorized to demand aid from 
the British government; thecvjiensc 
fo be defrayed by tlib rajah. {Ren- 
nel, Ahul Fazely G. Thomas, Trea- 
ties, ^-c.) 

Alvar. — A town in the province 
of Agra, district of Alvar, being the 
capital and stronghold of Row Rajah 
Butchawer Singh, the Machcrry Ra- 
jah. It is situated about 77 miles 
is. S. W. from Delhi, and 84 N. W. 
from Agra. Lat. 27°. 41'. N. Lojig. 
76°. 40'. E. 

Alvarcoil. — A town in tlie dis- 
trict of I'innevelly, 70 miles N. li. 
from Cape Comorin. Lat. 8°. 50'. 
N. Long. 78°. 2'. E. 

Alyuhuk, {AUghar). — A fortified 
town in the province of Delhi, 7G 
miles S. S. E. from the city of Delhi. 
Lat. 28°. N. Long. 78°. 10'. E. This 
is a place of great antiquity, being 
ineutioned as a Hindoo fortress so 



early as A. D. 1193, under the name 
of Kole. 

1'his fortress, one of the strongest 
in Ilindostan, was stormed, in 1803, 
by the army under General Lake, and 
taken, after a most obstinate resist- 
ance, by which the assailants suffered 
a very severe loss. It was then one 
of Dowlet Row Siiidia's principal 
depots of military stores, the whole 
of which fell into the possession of 
the captors. 

It is now the head-quarters of a dis- 
trict, to which a civil establishment 
has been appointed, for the adminis- 
tratiou of justice and collection of 
the revenue, subordinate to the Ba- 
reily division of the court of circuit 
and appeal. 

Alymohun. — A town in the Ma- 
haratta territories, in the province of 
Giijrat, 66 miles N. E. from Broach. 
Lat. 22°. 7'. N. Long. 74°. 2'. E. 

Amarawati. — A small river in the 
provhice of Coimbetoor, which flow s 
pasttlie town and fortress of Caroor, 
on whicli account it is usually termed 
the Caroor River- After a short 
course it joins the Cavcry about 10 
miles below Caroor. 

Ambah GnAur — A pass from the 
Concaii province on the west coast 
of India, up the v estern Ghauts, or 
chain of mountains to the interior. 
Lat. 17°. 5'. N. Long. 73°. 40'. E- 

The mountains here rise to a stu- 
pendous height, and are ascended 
by a road which winds irregidarly 
up, the extreme steepness rendering 
an}' other mode of ascent impractica- 
ble. The acclivities of this range of 
mountains arewell covered with trees 
and underwood, which furnish shel- 
ter to tigers, and other w ild animals. 
From the summit of the pass a sub- 
lime inospect of the lower country 
is presented, Avhich throughout ap- 
pears hilly and mountainous, but 
from then- very great height no towns 
or minute objects are discernible. 
Beyond the top of the pass are hills 
still higher, from w Inch the sea is vi- 
sible to the westward, but to the 
eastward a continuation of still higher 
hills appears. (Mocn", ^c.) 



24 



AMBOOR. 



Amp.aHLAH, (AynhaJm/a). — A towft 
in the pro\ince ol' Delhi, 126 miles 
N. by W, Iroin the city of Delhi, and 
fceloH^itif? to Sei'- eliicfs. Lat. 30°. 
21'. N. Long. 76°. 1?'. E. 

This is a walled town, with a larg^c 
citadel. The former is extensive and 
populous. The houses arc mostly 
built of burnt bricks, ^mtthc streets 
are so narrow as scarcely to allow 
room for an elephant to pass. In 
1808 all the count3y between Am- 
bahlah and Muiara was subject to 
PeaCour.aiid Koop Cour,the widoM s 
of Goor Buksh Singh, and hni Sinjijb 
the deceased Zemindars of those dis- 
tricts. They could brinjj into the 
field between? and 8000fightin<? men, 
cavalry and infantry, (llth Reg.^-c.) 

Ambeh, {or Ambecr)- — A town in 
the province of Ajmecr, district of 
Jyenagur, or Jeypoor, of which it v\ as 
formerly the capital, until Miiza Ra- 
jah Jeysing, in the reign of Aureng- 
zebe, built a new city named Jeypoor, 
since when the rajahship has taken 
that name also. Lat. '26° 58'. N. 
Long. 75°. 53'. E. 

The state of Ambcer, now Jyena- 
gur, or Jeypoor, is said to have existed 
for the space of 1100 years. Jeysingli, 
or Jayasinlia, succeeded to the in- 
heritance of the ancient Kajahs of 
Amber, in the year of Vicramaditya 
1750, corresponding to A. D. 1693. 
His mind was early stored with the 
knowledge contained in the Hindoo 
writings, but he appears peculiarly 
to have attached himself to the ma- 
thematical sciences, and his reputa- 
tion was so great, that he was chosen 
by the Emperor Mahommed Shah 
to retbrm the calendar. He finished 
his tables in tijc year 1728. {Himter, 
Franklin, ^t.) 

Amuloo. — A small island in the 
eastern seas, about 1.5 miles in cir- 
cntj)ference,siluated at the s<mth-east 
extremity of Buoro. Lat. 3°. 55'. S. 
Long- 127°. E. 

I'ins island is but thinly inhabited, 
being much iiilested by the depreda- 
tions of the mop-headed Papuas 
from New Guinea, who, in the year 
1765, pluudcrcd it, aud carried oS 



many of the inhabitants. Very fine 
shells are found on the shores of this 
island. {Stavorimis, Songainvllle, i"c.) 

Amboor. — A town in the Arcot 
district, 108 miles W. S. W. from 
Madras. Lat. 12°. 51'. N. Long. 
78°. 50'. E. 

'J'he Amboor district is comprised 
within a range of surrounding hills of 
a moderate licight : the Kiver Palar 
declining from its apparent southerly 
direction, enters this district about 
three miles from the eastward, and 
washes the Amboor pettah, distant 
three miles to the southward of the 
fort The skirts of the hills are co- 
vered with palmira and date trees, 
from the produce of which a consi- 
derable quantity of coarse sugar is 
made. This tract is fertilized by 
numerous rills of water, conducted 
from the river along the margin of 
the heights, as a supply to the rice 
fields, the tobacco, cocoa nut, and 
mango plantations. In the hot sea- 
son, in the low country, the ther- 
mometer, under the cover of a tent, 
rises to 100°, and exposed to the rays 
of the sun to 120°. 

The village of Amboor is tieat and 
regularly built, its inhabitants are in- 
dustrious, and make a considerable 
quantity of castor oil, which they 
export. 

On the left side of it is a lofty iso- 
lated mountain, on which formerly 
stood a fort, almost impregnable by 
nature. The upper works have been 
destroyed since it came into the pos- 
session of the Briti.sh, and the lower 
is a place of confmement for male- 
factors. The plain on the top is 
sufficiently large to have rendered its 
cultivation au object of importance, 
and on it are two tanks, near to where 
the barracks formerly stood. The 
view from it is noble and extensive, 
uiid the air cool in comparison with 
w hat it is below. 

This district suffered greatly dur- 
ing Hyder's different invasions of 
what we call the Carnatic, frojn which 
it lias not yet altogether rccoveredi 
Near Amboor the Earramahal ends, 
and the territories of Aicot com- 



AMBOYNA. 



25 



mence. {Martitie, Salt, F. Bucha- 
nan, Sfc.) 

Amkoyna, (Anihim). — An island in 
tlic eastern seas, lyiuR" oli the S- W. 
coast of the island of Ceraai. Lat. 
3°. 40'. S. Long. 128° 15'. E. In 
length it may be estimated at 32 
miles, by 10 the avin-age breadth. 
The name is a ]\lalay Avord, sigriity- 
ing dew. 

On the S. W. it is indented by a 
deep bay, by which it is divided into 
two limbs, or peninsulas, connected 
together by a very narrow islhnnis. 
Both of these are mountainons, and 
almost overgrown with trees and un- 
derwood ; between which, at intervals, 
some clove trees are planted and cul- 
tivated by the Amboynese. The soil 
is mostly a reddish clay ; but in the 
vallies, where there are no rocks, it 
is darker coloured, and mixed with 
sand. Many of the hills yield brim- 
stone, with which their surface is in- 
crustatcd. 

Auiboyna produces all the common 
tropical fruits and vegetables, and 
likewise the cajeput tree, from the 
leaves of which the hot and strong 
oil, called cajepnt oil, is distilled. 
The clove bark tree, or Laurus sas- 
safras, and the teak tree, are also 
found here, lint the latter in small 
quantities, timber lor building being 
imported from Java. Altliough the 
quantity is not great, the varieties of 
Moods are intinite. Valentyn enu- 
merates dilferent species of the ebony 
tree, the iron tree, the casnarina, the 
wild clove tree, the samarua tree, 
which is a bastard sort of teak, and 
the nani tree, wluch the Chinese use 
for anchors and mdders. He also 
mentions that, in 1682, Rumphius, 
(the author of the Hortus Amboi- 
nensis) had a cabinet inlaid with 400 
choice and handsome woods, all pro- 
duced in the islajid. which he present- 
ed to Cosmo, the third Duke of Tus- 
cany. 

'I'he clove tree resembles a large 
pear tree, from 20 to 40 feet high. 
At nine years of age it yields cloves, 
and continues bearing to about 100 
years ; October aud November being 



the usual period of the clove crop, 
Avhen from two to three pounds are 
generally procured from each trce= 
Every Amboynese plants a clove tree 
on the birth of a child, in order by a 
rough calculation to know its age, 
ajid these the Dutch dare not extir- 
pate, for fear of an insurrection: the 
nutmeg trees, however, they manag- 
ed to destioy about 30 years ago, 
considering the produce of Banda 
sufficient. During the Dutch posses- 
sion, two years crop of cloves fur- 
nished the cargoes of three ships, and 
the total annual produce exceeded 
650.000 libs. 

Indigo, of a superior qualitj', is 
produced in Amboyna, but not in 
large quantities. The sago tree is 
found in abundance, and is a prin- 
cipal article of food used by the in- 
habitants ; an ordinary tree, from its 
twelfth to the twentieth year, when 
cut down. Mill yield 350 libs of sago. 
They are seven years of arriving at 
full growth, and last about 30 
years. 

'J he woods of Ambo5na swarm 
with deer and wild hogs, the Hesh of 
which is used by the native fresh, 
salted, and dried. The domestic ani- 
mals arc buffaloes, cows, horses, 
.sheep, goats, and hogs. The last 
only are natives of the country, the 
others having been brought hither 
by the Portuguese and Dutch from 
Java, Celebes, and the south western 
isles, 'i'here are no beasts of prey 
on the island, but plenty of snakes. 

Tlie monsoons are exactly the con- 
trai-y here to what they are along 
the islands of Java, Borneo, Bali, 
Lumbhook, and Sumbhava. Wlion 
at these islands the fine season pre- 
vails, it is the reverse at Amboyna, 
Ceram, Bauda, the east coast of Ce- 
lebes, and the adjacent seas. ITie 
diflerence appears to commence to 
the eastward of the Straits of SalayT, 
which are about longitude 120°. 30'. 
E. The cuiTcnts are not regular at 
Amboyna, neither has the moon any 
constant or equal influence on the 
tides ; high and low water some- 
times occur oucc, aud soiuetimes 
4 



26 



AMBOYNA. 



twice, in 24 hours, tlie rise being 
I'rom six to nine feet. 

p'ort Victoria is situated on tlie 
soutli-east side ofthc island, and is an 
iiTe<ciilar hexagon, with a ditch and 
roveixd way on the land side, and 
a liorn-worlc towards t)ie sea; but 
it is commanded by Imo heights 
wi*hin 700 and 1200 yards distance, 
the difiienltv of anchoring in tlie bay 
constituting the chief strength of 
the island. 

The town of Amboyna is clean, 
neatly and regularly built, and is 
well sup[ilied with water. Tlie west 
end of tlK; town is inhabited by Chi- 
ucse, and the south end by Eiu-ope- 
ans, near to which is the tomb of 
Rarapliins. On account of the fre- 
quency of earthquukes, the height of 
the houses seldom exceeds one 
i^lory. The medium heat is from 
80°. to 82°. of Fahrenheit, and the 
severest cold about 72°. 

The inhabitants of Amboyna arc, 
•the Aboiigincs, or Horaforas, the 
Amboyuese, the Emopeans, and the 
Chinese ; but of the first there are 
now very few remaining. Tlie Am- 
boyuese were converted to the Ma- 
honiinedau religion about A. T>. 
1515 ; the Portuguese afterwards 
converted a number of them to the 
Roman Catliolic religion, and the 
Dutch to the Calvinistic religion, 
but the greater proportion arc still 
Mabommedans. The principal Am- 
boyuese Christians still bear Portu- 
guese names, but their number is not 
great. The Chinese on Amboyna are 
not so numerous in proportion as 
on the other islands, yet they are the 
only strangers the Dutch permitted 
to settle here. They keep shops, 
sell provisions, and intermarry with 
each other. 

'\\ hen I'rancis Xavicr, the cele- 
brated Jesuit missionary was at Am- 
boyna, in 1.046, he observed the in- 
habitants then begitming to learn to 
write from the Arabians. The inha- 
bitants at present speak the Malay 
language. This island was diseo- 
\ered by the Portuguese about A.D. 
Idld, but was not taken possession 



of until 1564, and was conquered 
from them by the Dutch about 1607. 
In 1615, the English East India Com- 
pany's agents obtained possession of 
Cambello Castle, through the friend- 
ship of the natives, but were soon 
compelled to abandon it, being at- 
tacked by the Dutch with a superior 
force. They still, however, conti- 
nued to have a factory on Aniboyart 
until February, 1622, when the Dutch 
governor, Herman Van Speult, seized 
and tortured all the individuals be- 
longing to tlic English factory, and 
afterwards executed them. They 
consisted of Captain Towerson, nine 
English factors, nine Japanese (pro- 
bably Javanese), and one Portuguese 
sailor. Yet was this most atrocious 
villain promoted by the Dutch East 
India Com])any, in whose service 
he died during an expedition up the 
lied Sea. 

Under the subsequent Dntch go- 
vernment, the province of Amboy- 
na comprehended 11 islands, viz. 
Amboyna, Ceram, Eouro, Ambloo, 
Manipa, Kelang, Bona, Ceram Laut, 
Noussa Laut,Conimoa or Sapparooa, 
and Oma or Haroeha. 'Ihey dis- 
couraged the cultivation of rice, irt 
order to render Amboyna more de- 
pendent on Java, the original inha- 
bitants subsisting on fish and sago. 
In 1777 the Dutch public establish- 
ment here consisted of 52 persons 
in civil eiuploynients, three clergj- 
men, 28 surgeons, 46 artillerymen, 
174 s( amen and marines, 657 soldiers, 
and 111 mechanics ; in all 1071 per- 
sons, denominated Europeans. In 
1779 the charges of Amboyna were 
201,082f. and ihc whole revenues, 
including the profit on the sale of 
goods, amountt.d to no more than 
48,747r. leaving a balance against 
the Dutch East India Company of 
152,335f. or about 13,3501. sterling 
ammally. 

The Dutch here followed the same 
intemperate and destructive mode of 
life as at Batavia. Stavoiinus, their 
countryman, says, that 10 or 12 
drams of arrack, or Geneva, was no 
viitcounnon whet at Amboyna. Thtj 



AMRAN. 



27 



Dutch Company's servants usually 
married women born in the conntry, 
who beins; accnstonicil to the Malay 
tonpriie from their inrnncy, spoke 
Dutch witli ovtremc dilficulty and 
reluctance, M'hich,co!iioiiied with the 
natural taciturnity of the men, re- 
duced the conversation to Jiearly a 
simple negative and affirmative. 

L'nder the Dutch p;oYernment this 
island continued until 1796, when it 
was captured by the British, and 
515,940lbs. of cloves found in the 
warehouses. At tliis period it was 
found to contain 45,252 inhabitants, 
of Avhom 17,813 were Protestants, 
and the rest Mahommedans, except 
a f( w Chinese and slaves. It was 
restored to the Dutch at the peace 
of Amiens, and was a£:ain recaptured 
in February, 1810,' by a handful of 
jnen, after a most feeble resistance. 

In 1810-11 the imports to Ben-al 
from Amboyna were cordajfe and 
cables, 6000 Ks. timber and planks, 
465 Rs,— Total 6465 rupees. The 
exports from Bcnjiato Amboyna 
consisted of piece j;oods, 125.437; 
opium, 99,475; Madeira wine, 11, 060, 
and some other sntallcr articles of 
consumption ; the total amounting- 
to 2,73,191 sicca rupees. Goods 
were also received from Madras and 
other parts of British India, but of 
which we have not any detail. {Sca- 
vorimts and Notes, Lahillardiere, 2 
lieg. Bruce, Marsden, bth Report, 

Ambong. — A large and commo- 
dious liarbour on the north-west 
coast of Borneo, having: u,"ood depth 
of water, with a but ton-like island 
in the centre. Shi[)s, keeping this 
island on the right hand side, will 
come into a fine harbour on the south 
side, close to some salt houses. Lat. 
ti°. 14'. N. Long. 110°. 25'. E. 

Amerkote, (Amarahata, the Fort 
of the Immortals.) — A town in the 
province of Sinde, situated about 30 
miles east from the river Indus. Lat. 
26°. 23'. N. Long. 70°. 24'. E. 

This place was formerly an inde- 
pendent principality, held by the 
Jada Rapootsj but, standing on the 



confines of Joudpoor and Sinde, it 
.soon became an object of contention 
between these two states, and, at 
present, acknowledges the autiiority 
of the Kajali of Joudpoor. The 
surrounding country is so arid and 
sterile, tiiat Amcrko<(; does not de- 
rive suflicient land revenue to sup- 
port a small local military corps, al- 
though situated in the vicinity of 
many martial and predatory tribes. 
Taxes on travellers and inenhandize 
arc the only sources from which any 
revenue is procined, there being 
scarcely any agriculture. In the neigh- 
bourhood of this place stands the 
principal fortress belonging to Meer 
Ciholaum Ali, the chief amccr of 
Sinde, in which his treasures are 
supposed to be deposited. It is si- 
tuated on a hill in the desert, no 
water being found within four stages 
of it ; but the fortress contains ex- 
cellent wells. 

The Emperor Iltimayoon, after 
his expulsion from Hindostan by 
Shcre iSh;ili the Patan, in his ex- 
treme distress fled to the Rajah of 
Amerkote, in the desert, and was 
liospitably received. Here the Em- 
peror Acber was born, A. D. 1541. 
{jyiacmurdo, Kenneir, Maurice, MS, 
f>-c.) 

Ammerpoor. (Amarapnra). — A 
town in northern Hindostan, district 
of Mocwanpoor, situated on the 
north-west side of the Bagmutty 
river, 10 miles E. from the town of 
Mocwanpoor. Lat. 27°. 31'. N. Long, 
S2°. 20'. With the rest of the district 
it is subject to the Gockhali Rajali 
of Nepaul. 

Ampora. — A town in the aiaha- 
ratta tcmtories, in the provisice of 
Kandesh, situated on the north side 
of tlie Tuptee, 15 miles S.W, from 
Boorham])0or. Lat. 31°. 34'. N. Long. 
70°. 11'. E. 

A M R A N. — A town and fort rcss, wi th 
a district adjacent, situated in the 
Gujrat peninsula. Lat. 22°. 35'. N. 
Long. 70°. 35'. E. 

The fort here is small and square, 
with angular bastioiis, and a s(juiifc 
towc;^- in each curtain. The town 



2S 



AMRETSIR. 



is disfjnct from the fort, ami situated 
on a iisin<^ t?rotTud to the nortlnvard, 
aiiont the distance of a musket shot, 
'i'lic adjacent fields are uinch <;overed 
Avith a speeies of wild balm or mint, 
and the seiisilric j;lant is perceived 
growins spontiineously. Tiie soil is 
a mixture ol" liglit sand and clay, 
and is reckoned very productive. 

"^rhe district of Amrau originally 
belonged to the family of Noanagur, 
but was ceded by Jam, the chieftain 
of that place, to the family of Khow- 
as, along with the two neighbouring 
districts of IJalumba and Juria. ]\Ie- 
roo Kho-\vas, tho founder of the fa- 
mily, was the slave of a neighbour- 
ing chieftain, a)id afterwards became 
theminisler of tlie Jam of Noanagur. 
When the father of the present rajah 
died, he conlin^d the young heir, and 
received the above three districts as 
the price of his liberty. 

Amrau is at present subject to 
Hirjce Kh(»was, and has 10 or 15 
villages sidycct to it, which yield a 
revenue of about 15,000rupecs. Near 
to one ol them is a monument erected 
to connnemorate a traga, committed 
in 1807 by a Hajghur Brahmin. To 
deter his superior, Hirjee Khowas, 
from depriving him of some lands 
in the vicinity, he led his mother 
to the gate of Amran, and there cut 
off hot h<.'ad, which had the desired 
effect. Instances of this sort are fre- 
quent in (Jnjrat; and, on most oc- 
casi(ms, Oic victim, whether male or 
lemale, not only consents to, but 
glories in, tlie death inflicted. Tho 
person who is, in many eases, tho 
innocent cause of the catastrophe, 
is considered by the Bralnninieal 
rode as dannied fur <ver ; while the 
wretch who, for his own profit, pre- 
petratcs the muriler, is not only held 
iunoccnt by his fellow citizens, but 
Fullefs no pang either of heart or 
cons«cien( e. (iW]\fur(!o,\-c.) 

Amkz l'siH,( A mrituSftrax, the Foun- 
tain of NiT(ar). — A town in the pro- 
vince of l;ah(ire, 40 milts S. l). from 
the citv ofi.aliore, and the ca]iital of 
the Seik iialion. Lat. 31°. 3i'. N. 
Long. 7-1°. 2o'. 11 



Tins is an oprii town about eight 
miles in eireumlcrence. The streets 
are narrow ; the houses, in general, 
good, being loffy and buiit of burned 
bricks, but fhe apartnuuits are con- 
lined. Amretsir is the grand em- 
poi iiuii of trade ibr the shawls and 
saffron of Cashmere, and a variety 
of other commodities from the Dec- 
can and eastern j)art of India. The 
rajah levies an excise on all the mer- 
chandize sold in the town according 
to its value. Themaiuii'actures of the 
place are only a tew coarse cloths 
and inferior silks. Frojn being the re- 
sort of many rich merchants, and the 
residence of bankers, Amretsir is 
considered as a place of opulence. 
'I'iie Seik rajah lias buiit a nev/ fort, 
v^ liich he has named alter himself, 
Kunjeet Ghur, • and lie lias also 
brought a narrow canal from the lla- 
A'ec, a distance of 3-i miles. 

Annetsir, or th«* j>ool of immor- 
tality, from which the town takes 
its name, is a basin of about 135 
pacos stjuare, built of burnt bricks; 
in the centre of which stands a tem- 
ple, dedicated to GooroGovind Singh, 
In this sacred place is lodged, under 
a silken canopy, the book of laws, 
written by that Gooroo. There are 
from five to 600 akalics, or priests, 
belonging to this temple, who are 
supported by contributions. 

When AInned Shah iMwlalli came 
to Amretsir, he erased their temple 
twice, and killed cows, and threw 
them into the water to defile it. I'he 
rajah has a uunt here, at m Inch dif-^ 
ferent coins are struck in the name 
of their greatest saint, Eaba Nanoc 
Shah. 'J'he names of their teu saints 
are, Eaha Nanoc Shah, Amerdass, 
Gooroo Arjoon Shah, Gooro Tegh 
IJahadur, Gooroo Angut, Gooroo 
Kamdass, Gooroo Hurgovind, Goo-; 
roo liurkrishua, Gooroo Govind 
Singh. ■, 

(lood camels are to be purchased 
Ik re at about .50 rnju^es each. Ihey 
are brought down, A\ifh rock salt, 
liom a mine al)Out 80 miles north of 
Lahore. Stri\igs of COO are seen oa 
the road, Avilh a large lump, rp- 



ANDAMAN'S . 



29 



sembling a block of iiinvrought mar- 
ble, sUuif^ on eiich siilc. 

Some Scik autlumtirs asoril)0 the 
ftmiMlalion of Aiuielsir to Gooioo 
Hum Dass, (who died A.D. 1581,) 
■\\hirh is not correct, as it was a very 
ancient tuwii, known I'oruierly nndcr 
tiie name of Chak. Cooroo l{ani 
Dass added much to its po[iuh>tion, 
and bnilt the famous reser^oir or 
tank, named Amretsir, which, in the 
course of time, became the name 
of Ihe town, it liaviiip; h( en i'ur some 
time called Ramdasspoor. {Malcolm, 
llth liesr. Sr.) 

Amsterdam. — A small island, lying 
oil" the iiorth-w csteru extremity of the 
Island of Ceyioji, and attached to the 
district of Jafnapatnam, from which 
it is se))arated by a narrow strait. It 
is about live miles in Icni^th, by two 
in breadth, and alfords excellent 
pasturage for rearing horses and cat- 
tle. (Percii-al, i^c.) 

Anak iSuNGKi. — A district in the 
Island of Sumatra, extending; along 
tlie sea coast, oi\ the southwest side, 
from Manjuta River to that of Lrei. 

The chief bears the title of Siiltan ; 
and his capital, if such a place de- 
serves the appellation, is i\Io( omoto. 
Although the government is ]May- 
luyan, and the ministers of the sultau 
are termed Mantri, (a little borrowed 
from the Hindoos) the greatest part 
of the district is inhabited by the 
original country people. This state 
became independent about 1695, iu 
consequence of a revubition iu the 
government of Indrapoor. {Mars- 
den, Vc) 

A NAM. — A town in the Nabob of 
Oude's territories, distiict of Luck- 
i\o\\., 35 miles \\ . S. VV. from Luek- 
iiow, Lat. 26°. 32'. N. Long. 80°^ 
29'. E. 

Anambas. (North) — A cluster of 
very small islands in the China Sea, 
Lat. 3°. 3t/. N. Long. 106°. 20'. £. 

AwMBAs. (Middle) — A cluster of 
islands in the China Sea, the largcs.t 
uf which may be estimated at 20 
miles in circumference. They are 
.situated about Lat. 3°. N, Loiig. 
106'^. 50'. L. 



Anamras. (South^,— a cluster of 
very small islands iu xhv China Sea, 
situated about Lat. 2°. 20'. N. Long. 
106°. 25'. E. 

Anamsagur. — a town in the ni- 
zam's dominions, district of MtKidgul, 
20 miles N. W. from the town of 
IVIoodirul. Lat. 1G°. Vi'. N. Long. 
76°. 32'. N. 

Anantapooram, (Anantapurd). — 
A town in the Balaghant ceded t<r- 
ritory, district of A\ andicotta, 63 
miles E. N. E. from Cuddapah, Lat. 
14°. 41'. N. Long. 76°. 6'. E. British. 

AxANTPOOU, {Aiiandapnra). — A 
town iu the Balaghau : ceded territo- 
ry, district of Wandicotta, 55 miles 
S. E. from Bellar y. Lat. 14° 4:1'. N . 
Long. 77°. 40'. E. 

Andamans. — ^The Andaman islands 
are a continuation of tin; Archipfla.- 
go, iu the Bay of Bengal, which ex- 
tends liom Cape Negrais to Acheeu 
Head, stretching fnmi 10°. 32'. N. to 
13°. 40'. N. \\ hat has been consi- 
dered as the gi'cat Andaman is the 
most northern, about 140 miles ia 
length, and 20 iu br(\'idth. This 
island is, however, divided by two 
very narrow straits, whidi have a 
clear passage into tlicBay ofBengaU 
and in fact divides it into three 
isliuids: tiie little Andaman is thy 
most southerly, and lies wiliiin 30 
leagues of the Carnicobar Island. Its 
length is 28 miles l>y 17 izi breadth, 
but it does not afford any harbour, 
although tolerable anchorage is found 
near its shores. Situated in the full 
sweep of the south-west moiisooii, 
and the clouds being obstructed by 
high mountains, these islands, for 
eight months of the year, are washed 
by incessant torrents. Upon the 
whole the climate is rather milder 
than in Bengal. The tides arc regu- 
lar,tlje Hoods setting iu from the west, 
and rising eight feet at the springs. 
The variation of the needle is 2°. 30'. 
easterly. 

In the centre of the large Anda- 
man is a high mountain, named Sad- 
dlepcak, about 2400 feet high. 'I'here 
are no rivers of any considerable 
size. The most conmiou trees are 



30 



ANDAMAN'S. 



Ihepoon, dammcr, and oil trees; rod 
wood, ebony, tlic cotton tree, and 
the almo.d tree; sooudry, ehiiigry, 
and beady; the Alexandrian lainel, 
poplar, a tree rescinbUng satiti wood ; 
bamboos, eatch, the nit.liori, aloes, 
ground rattans, and a variety of 
shrubs. IMany of the trees afford 
timbers and planks fit for the con- 
struetion of sliips, and others might 
answer for masts. 

The birds seen in the woods are 
pis^eoiis, crows, parroquets, king 
fishers, ciulews, fish hawks, fowls. 
Tliere are a great variety offish, such 
as mullet, soles, ponifret, rock fish, 
skate, gurnas, sardinas, roeballs, sa- 
ble, shad, aloose, cocknp, grobers, 
seeifish, ])rawns, shrimps, eray lish, 
a species of whale, and sharks of an 
enormous size. During the preva- 
lence of the north-east monsoon, fish 
are caught in great abnndarice, but 
in the tempestuous season they are 
piocnred with diflicnlty. There are 
many sorts of shell fish, and in some 
places oysters of an excellent qnalitJ^ 
A few diminutive swine are found 
on the skirts of the forest ; bnt these 
«re very scarce, and probably the 
progeny of a stock left by former na- 
vigators. Although the ordinary 
food of theAndamancrsbe fish, they 
eat likewise lizards, guanas, rats, 
and snakes. Within the caverns 
autl recesses is found the edible bird 
liests, so highly prized by the C hi- 
nese, and the shures abound with a 
variety of beautiful shells, gorgonias, 
madn poras, murex, and cowries. 

'J he veg< fable productions arc 
very lew, tJio fruit of the mangrove 
being the principal. As the natives 
possess no pot or vessel, that can 
bear the action of fire, they cannot 
deiive much advantage from such 
esculents as the forests may contain; 
and nnhappily for the Andamaners, 
the cocoa nut, which thrives so well 
attlie Nicobar Islands, close in their 
"vicinity, is not to be found here. 

The first settlement of the English 
■was made in the year 1791, near the 
southern extremity of the island, 
which was aitcrwards removed, Lu 



1793, to Port Cornwallis. A riiore 
picturesque or romantic view can 
scarcely be imagined, than that which 
Chatham Island and Cornwallis Har- 
bour present: being laud-locked oa 
all sides, nothing is to be seen but an 
extensive sheet of water, reseinbhng 
a vast lake, interspersed with small 
islands, and surrounded by lofty 
mountains covered with trees, Tlic 
original object of the undertaking 
was to procure a commodious har- 
bour on the east side of the bay, to 
receive and shelter ships of war dur- 
ing the continuance of the north-east 
monsoon. It was also intended as 
a place of reception for convicts sen- 
tenced to transportation from Ben- 
gal; but the settlement proving ex- 
tremely unhealthy, it has been aban- 
doned, and the convicts arc now scut 
to Frincc of Wales Island. 

The Audamans, together \nth tlie 
Nicobars and lesser islands, were in- 
cluded by Ptolemy in the general 
appellation of Insulae bonaeFortuiue, 
and supposed to be inhabited by a 
race of Anthropophagi, a description 
which the barbarity of the modern 
Andamaners perhaps justifies, as far 
as refers to them, lor the inhabitants 
of the Nicolars are a very dill'erent 
race. 

The population of the great Anda- 
man, and all its dependencies, docs 
not exceed 2000, or 2500 souls: these 
aie dispersed, in small societies, along 
the coast, or on the lesser islands 
within the harbour, never penetrating 
deeper into the interior than the 
skirts of the forest. Their sole occu- 
pation seems to be that of climbing 
rocks, or roving along the margin of 
the s(;a in quest of a precariuus meal 
of fish, which, during the tempestu- 
ous season, tJiey often se(>k in vain. 

It is an object of much curiosity to 
discover the orighi of a race of people 
so widely difi'eriiig, not only from all 
the inhabitants of the iieiglibouring 
conliucnt, but also from those of the 
Nicouur Islands, which :ue so near: 
hitherto, however, the inquiiies of 
travellers have produced no salislUc- 
tory couclusiou. lu staltue the A»« 



ANIMALAYA. 



31 



daniancrs seldom exceed five feet; 
their limbs arc dis[)iO(>c)iti()iiately 
sli'udor; thi-ir bellies j>iotul)craiit, 
w ith high shoulders and larajc heads; 
and they appear to be a de;;"eiierale 
rae,e of negroes, with woolly hair, Hat 
noses, and thick lips: their eyes arc 
small and red, their skin of a de<'p 
sooty black, while their countenances 
exhibit the extreme of wrctelicdness, 
a horrid mixture of famine and fero- 
city. They go quite naked, and arc 
insensible to any shame from expo- 
sure. 

The few implements tliey use are 
of the nidest texture. Their jirinei- 
pal weapon is a bow, fnun four to 
five feet long; the string made of the 
fibres of a tree, or a slip of bamboo, 
with .arrows of reed, headed with 
fish bone, or wood hardened in the 
fire. Besides this, they carry a spear 
of heavy w^)od, sliarp pointed, and h 
shield made of bark. Tiiey shoot 
and spear fish with great dexterity, 
and are said also to use a small hand 
net, made of the filaments of bark. 
Having kindled a fire, they throw the 
fish on the coals, and devour it half 
broiled. 

Their habitations display little 
more ingenuity than the dens of wild 
beasts. Four sticks fixed in the 
ground are bound at the top, and 
fastened transversely by others, to 
which branches of trees are suspend- 
ed: an opening just large enough to 
admit of entrance is left on one side, 
and their bed is composed of leaves. 
Being much incommoded by insects, 
their first occupation of a morning is, 
to plaister their bodies all over with 
mud, which ha.rdeni ng in the sun, 
lorms an impenetrable armour. Their 
woolly heads they paint with red 
ochre and water, ajid when thus 
completely dressed, a more hideous 
appearance is not tobc foimd in the 
human form. Their salutation is 
performed by lifting up one leg, and 
smacking with thcii- hand the lower 
part of the tliigh. 

Their canoes arc hollowed out of 
the trunksoftiees, by fire anduistiu- 
m&Hts et stotte; haviug nv trou in 



use among them but such as they ac- 
cidentally procure from Europeans, 
or from vessels wn'cked on their 
coast. The men are cunning and re- 
vengeful, and have a great hatred to 
strangers : they have never made 
any attempt to cultivate the land, 
but subsist on what they can pick 
up or kill. 

'J'he language of the Andamaners 
has not been discovered to posses.** 
the sUghtest alfinity to any that is 
spoken in India, or among the 
islands. 

rhey appear to express an ador.i- 
tion to the sun, the mooji, and to 
imaginary beings, the genii of the 
woods, waters, and monnlaitis. In 
storms Ihey apprehend the influence 
of a malignant being, and deprecate 
his wrath by chantiiig wild ehonis- 
ses. Of a future it is not known 
they have any idea, which possibly 
arises from our imperfect means of 
discovering their opinion. {Si/mes, 
CuL Colehrooke, Si'c.) 

Andapgorguk, {Antapnrghar), — 
A town in the province ot Orissa, 
district of Kunjeur, 60 miles v.est 
from Balasore. Lat. 21°. 33'. N. 
Long. 8G°. 20'. E. It is possess<:d by 
independent Zemindars. 

Andeah. — -A town in the province 
of Malwah, district of liaisseen, 22 
miles E. from Bilsah, and witliin tho 
tenitories of the INlaharattas. Lat* 
23°. 37'. N. Long. 7&°. 12'. E. 

Angknweel. — A town in the 
Peshwa's territories in the province 
of Concan, 95 miles S. from Bombay. 
Lat. 17°. 34'. N. Long. 72°. 55'. E. 

AndicottA. — A town in the Ma- 
Ldjar [)ro\iiice, 3S miles S. S. E. tiom 
Calicut. Lut. 10°. 54'. N. Long. 
7U°. b'. E. 

Andhra. — Tlie ancient name of 
pail of Telingana. 

An I MALAYA, {or Elephant Hill, s» 
tailed from the g-reat number of ele- 
phants and hills in the neighbourhood). 
—A town in the district of Coimbe- 
toor, 20 miles S. E. from Palicaud- 
cherry. Lat. 10°. 41'. N. Long. 77^-. 
3'. 'rhis town contains 400 house.*, 
and is situak'd oa the west .side of 



32 



ANNAGOONDY. 



tlie River Alima. It is a common 
tlioroiip;ht"are between Malabar atid 
the soutlicrn part of the Arcot domi- 
nions, being placed opposite to the 
wide passage, that is between the 
southern end of the Ghauts of Karnata 
and the hills that run north from Ca()e 
Comorin. The Madura rajahs, for- 
merly loids of tlie country, built a 
tort close to the river, which having 
fallen to ruins, the materials were re- 
moved by the Mysore rajahs, and a 
uew fort built at some distance to the 
westward. The Animalaya poly- 
t^ars are 1 2 in number. The gieater 
part of the dry field in the ueiglibour- 
hood is now over<;iownwilh woods, the 
rountry having beenmuch devastated 
by the Nairs. The exclusive privi- 
lege of collecting drugs in the hills 
south from Animalaya is liere rented 
to a particular person. The elephants 
are increasing in number, o\\itig to 
tlieir not having been hunted for some 
years past. 

The forests are very extensive, and 
contain abundance of teak and other 
valuable timber, bnt unfortunately it 
is too remote from water carriage, to 
permit its exportation. (F. Buchanan, 

Anjeoiva, (Adjaiha'pa). — A small 
island, about one mile in circumfe- 
rence, and two from the shore, lying 
off the coast of Canara, 57 mibs S. 
by E. from Gra. Lat. 14°. 4l'. N. 
Long. 74°. E. 

In 1662, Sir Abraham Sliipman, 
when refused possession of Bombay 
by the Portuguese, landed on tliis 
island with his troops, amounting to 
6()() men, where they continiu-d until 
March, 1664-6'.j. During this inter- 
val they lost, by sicknes.s, their com- 
mander, and when removed to liom- 
bay, the survivors of the whole mus- 
tered only two ollicers and 119 rank 
und file. {Bruce, ^c. St'c.) 

Anjkngo, (Anjntenirn). — A town 
and small fort, tlic residence of a 
c,ommercial agent for the Company, 
on the sea coast of Travancor, 7U 
miles N. AV. from Cape Comorin. 
Lat. 8°. 39'. N. Long. 7G°. 61'. E. 

At a siiort distaiico Horn this place 



lies Attinga, the residence of the 
Queen of Travaaeor, a title always 
given to the king's eldest sister. The 
interior distiicts of the country are 
inhabited by Hindoos ; whereas oil 
tiie sea coa.st, the greater part of tlic 
inhabitants are Chrislians and i\Ia- 
homniedans. So far back as 1G94, 
the English East India Company ob- 
tained permission, from tiie Queen of 
Attinga, to settle and fortify Ajengo, 
from whence they expected to pro- 
cure a large quantity of pepper and 
cardamonis, the staple produce of 
Travancor. I'he best coir cables on 
the Malabar coast are made here, 
and at Cochin, of the fibres of the 
Laecadive cocoa nut. The exports 
are pepper, coarse piece goods, coir, 
and some drugs; the impwrts are of 
very small amount. {Fra Paolo, 
Bruce, Sit. ^-c.) 

Anjekie.— A considerable village 
halfway up the Straits of Sunda, ou 
the Java shore, where ships may b« 
convenient ly sn pplied witlnvater, and 
every kind of refriishmcnt ; yet, bo- 
cause this side of the strait is occa- 
sionally subject to calms, which may 
sometimes cause a delay of two or 
three days, few of the outward-bound 
China ships touch here, preferring 
the Sumatran shore, where onlyMood 
and water nrv procurable, and where 
numbers of seamen yearly fall a sa- 
crifice to Malay treatJicry, and totlie 
unhealthiness of the place. Tlic 
Dutch maintained a small garrison 
hereto protect the inhabitants against 
the Malays. At this place Colonel 
Catchcart is interred, who died on 
his May to China as ambassador, in 
1785. 

Annagoondy, {Anatrnndi). — This 
is the Canara name for tiw famous 
city of Bijaiiagur. Lat. 16°. 14'. N. 
Long. 76°. 34'. E. It is situated ou 
the north bank of the Toombuddra, 
opposite to the city of AUputna, which 
Uiune, as well as Annagoondy, is 
sometimes understoodtoiu' hide both 
cities. The name of Bijana^ur is still 
retained by the Mahonnnedans. 

After the conquest of Bi janagur by 
the Mahommedaa princes of the 



AOR. 



3S 



Deccaii, ihe nominal rajahs were al- 
lowed to retain Auiiagoondy, and 
some other districts in Jaghire, for 
several generations. Prior to 1749, 
the Maharatta chiefs had imposed a 
tribute on them, which Hyder in 
1775 increased. In 1786 Tippoo en- 
tered A imagoondy, expelled the rajah, 
burned his palace and all his records, 
and annexed the district to the go- 
vernment lands. In 1790, the rajah 
again seized the district, but was 
driven out by Tippoo's general. Cum- 
mer ud Deen Khan. In 179fJ, he 
ugain made himself master of the 
eomitry, and did not submit until the 
British army approached. Pnrneah, 
the Dewan of tlie INIysore, took the 
management of the country from him, 
and gave him a monthly allowance of 
2008 rupees, Avhicli was reduced to 
1500, when Annagoondy was made 
over to the nizam, and it is now con- 
tinued at tliat rate by the British go- 
vernment. The present rajah is a 
man of mean capacity, but little re- 
moved from idiotism. (Munio, Ren- 
nel, Moor, i^c.) 

Anontpoor, {Armntapura). —A 
small town in the Rajah of ]\1} sore's 
teiTitories, district of Bcdnore. Lat. 
14°. N. Long. 75°. 22'. E. 

Anopshehkk, {Aiiupa S/if/icr). — A 
town in the province of Delhi, district 
of Bareily, 70 miles S. E. from Delhi, 
situated on the west bank of the 
Ganges. Lat. 2b°. 21'. Long. 78°. 13'. 

On the south, this town is del'eud- 
od by a large brick fort, erected chiefly 
against the attacks of cavalry, as it 
had no battery of cannon, but there 
are loop-holes for bows and arrows. 
From this citadel there is a coni- 
manding view of the Avhole country, 
and the Ganges winding thi-ough it 
for many miles. About the end of 
December this river is reduced to a 
very small breadth, but its stream is 
pure and clear. 'J'he w est bank rises 
perpendicularly about 30 feet, and 
on that side the country is not over- 
flow ed ; while, on the opposite .side, 
tlie slope from the bank is almost 
imperceptible, and the fields are in- 
Hndated. 



The land to the eastward of Anop- 
sheher is avcH cultivated, and tole- 
rably well fenced. The strong jungle 
grass is plaited into webs of a sort of 
basket work, and these, placed on 
the sides of the field, protect the 
grain fiom almost eveiy sort of cattle, 
except the wild hogs, which are here 
very numerous, as are deer and game 
of all sorts. 

The town of Anopshcher is con- 
tained within a strong mud wall ; and, 
though not of great extent, is thickly 
inhabited, the houses being a mix- 
ture of brick and mud buildings. 
The surrounding wall of this place is 
in some parts 29 and 30 feet thick. 
Formerly, in this part of Hindostan, 
when a zemindar's rent was demand- 
ed, he betook himself, with all his 
eflects, to his fort, and then held out, 
until overcome by a superior military 
fbice; frequently expending much 
more than the sum demanded in re- 
sisting thtf claim. 

From hence the high mountains to 
the north east are seen, the distance 
supposed about 200 miles. Tliey ap- 
pear like snowy clouds, towering to 
an immense height in the skies, and 
the wind which blows from them 
excessively cold, bringing fluxes and 
agues. (Tennant, ^-c.) 

Antkky, {Antari). — A walled town 
of considerable .size, in the province 
of Agra, district of Gohud, situated 
at the foot of the hills, on tlie bank 
of (he small River Dialoo. Lat. 26°. 
10'. N. Long. 78°. 17'. E. The neigh- 
bouring hills are of a quartzoze stone. 
This town is 14 miles south from 
Gualior, and is v ithin the territories 
tiibutary to the Maharattas. {Hunter, 

4t.) 

Antongherry. — A small town in 
tiic nizam's territories, district of 
Bassuni, 52 miles N. E. from Nan- 
dere, Lat. 19°. 45'. N. Long. 78°. 
10'. E. 

AoR. — A very small island in the 
Eastern Seas, lying off the east coa.st 
of INIalaeca. Lat. 2°. 25'. N. Long. 
104°. 35'. E. Ships bound from 
China to the Straits of Malacca ge- 
nerally anchor here, if they make the 



34 



AKCOT, 



island in tlie morning. It is very 
high, and covered with a close and 
lofty wood. Here is a small village 
of Malays, who supply cocoa nuts and 
vegetables. (Johnson, Ellmorey ^t.) 

Apakookit. — A town in the Ma- 
lay peninsula, district of Quedali, six 
miles S. E. from Allestar, chiefiy in- 
habited by Cliuliass. The soil is 
sandy and light, but it produces 
abundance of grain. 

Appolu. — A to.^n in the province 
of Bengal, district of Dinagepoor, 
80 miles N, N.E. from Moorsheda- 
bad. Lat. 25°. S*. N. Long. 8b°. 
59'. E. 

Aravacourchy. — A small town 
in the Coinibetoor district, 53 miles 
W. by S. from 1 richinopoly. Lat. 
10°. 48'. N. Long. 7b°. E. This place 
was formerly inhabited by a person 
of the Bayda cast, named Arava, the 
name signifying the Seat of Arava. 
It afterwards became subject to Ma- 
dma, and then to Mysore, the curlur 
or sovereign of which built near the 
town a neat loit, and gave it the 
name of Vijaya-Mangalam, by the 
Mahommedans pronounced Bija- 
mangle. About the end of Hyder's 
reign, an English army took the fort, 
at which time the town vas de- 
stroyed. It now contains above 300 
houses, and is fast recovering. The 
inliabitants speak mostly the Tamul 
language. (jP. Bvchanan, kc) 

Aracote. — A few days journey to 
the west of Hyderabad, in the pro- 
vince of Sinde ; there is a pagoda de- 
dicated to the Goddess Bhavani, at a 
place named Aracote. It is described 
as being situated in the centic of se- 
ven ranges of hills, A\hich the multi- 
tude of pilgrims who resort to it con- 
sider as too sacred for human sk'[)S, 
and the resort of aerial beings. {Max- 
Jield, df-c.) 

Arawul. — A town in the INIaha- 
ratta tenitories, in the ]jrovince of 
Khandesh, 65 miles W. by S. from 
Boorhanpoor. Lat. 21°. i)'. N. Long. 
76°. 2b'. E. 

Arcot, {Northern Division). — A 
coiiectorship in the Carnalic under 
the Madias Presidency, which also 



includes Sati^aid, Piilicat, Coon- 
goody in the Barramahal, part of the 
Balaghaut, and of the western poU 
lams, or zemindaries. 

Both divisions were transferred to 
the British government by the Nabob 
of the Carnatic in 1801. 

Arcot, {SoiUhern I>ivision\—'A. 
coUectorsliip in the Carnatic, under 
the Madras Presidency, which in- 
cludes Cuddalore and Pondicherry. 

In 1806, this district was in a very 
miserable slate, but it has since pro- 
gressively improved. At that period 
the revenue was collected with diffi- 
culty ; the villages in part deserted, 
and some w holly ; the remaining in- 
habitants practising every artifice to 
avoid paj ing their rents, and to con- 
ceal the public revenue, the general 
appearance of the country and vil- 
lages indicating extienie misery. This 
condition originated partly from the 
land being over assessed, and partly 
from the rapacious exactions of tho 
native officers, who collected there- 
venues during the nabob's admi- 
nistration. 

The principal trading ports in this 
district arc Cuddalore, Pondicherry, 
and Portonovo, The total value of 
the imports, from the 1st of May, 
1811, to the 30th of April, 1812, was 
4,56,879 Arcot rupees, of which 
2,40,791 rupees was from places be- 
yond the teiTitorics of the Madras 
government, viz. 

Erom Calcutta - - - - 26,374 

Cevlon - - - - 32,835 

Eastward - - - 1,20,580 

Prince of Wales ^ qooii 

Island - - - ) ' 

Tjavanoor - - - 1,352 

\ arious places - - 27,437. 

Arcot rupees 2,40,791 



The total value of the exports 
during the above period w as 9,74,987 
Arcot rupees, of which 5,25,418 ru- 
pees was to places bejond tlie terri- 
tories of the Madras government, 
viz. 



ARCOT. 



35 



To Calcutta 5,848 

Ceylon ----- 6,048 
I'^astward - - - - 2,10,093 
Isles of France - - - 95,G64 
Prince of Wales Island 1,88,111 
Various places - - - 13,154 



Arcat rupees 5,35,418 



Excepting small importations of 
rice and wheat from Bcng^al, the 
whole trade of Pondiehorry, in the 
above period, consisted of arrack, 
pepper, palmirahs, drawn from Cey- 
lon, Travancor, and Prince of Wales 
Island. Large supplies of piece goods 
were exported to the Isle of France, 
and a small quantity of rum to Ceylon. 

To Cuddalore the import trade 
from the eastward was very consi- 
derable, and consisted of betel nut, 
pepper, and clepliaiits' teeth. The 
exports consisted mostly of piece 
goods to Prince of Wales Island. 

Portonovo, in like manner, fur- 
nished large supplies of piece goods 
for the eastern market, and in return 
imported betel nut, pepper, benja- 
min, camphor, sugar, and elephants' 
teeth ; besides which, rice from Ben- 
gal, and tobacco from Ceylon, in 
.small quantities, were received. (^«- 
vetislMW, 5th Report ; Report on Ex- 
teriml Commerce, (.Vc.) 

Arcot, {Arriicat). — A town in the 
Carnatic, situated on the south side 
of the River Palar. Lat. 12°. 52'. N. 
Long. 79°. 29'. E. 

The bed of the River Palar is at this 
place half a mile wide, but in the dry 
season does not contain a stream suf- 
ficient to turn a mill. The hills in 
the neighbourhood are extremely 
bairen. They are of granite, and ap- 
pear to be undergoing a rapid decay. 
In many parts of the vallies, formed 
by these hills, cluuuim, or limestone 
nodules is found, wiiich in Bengal is 
called Conkar. The country from 
hence to Vellore is but thinly peo- 
pled, and a considerable portion of 
the land still waste. 

Arcot is the nominal capital of the 
Carnatic below the Ghauts, as the 
nabob's doxninions are named by the 

D 2 



Mahommcdans and English. Tlie 
town is chielly inhabited by IMaliom- 
medans, who speak the Deceany dia- 
lect, which we name Hindostani. 
The fort is large, but not in good re- 
pair. 'I'hc town surrounds tlie glacis 
on all sides, and is extensive; the 
houses also are as good as near to 
Madras. There is a manufactme of 
coarse cotton cloths here, but they 
are dearer than in Bengal. 

Arcot is said to be noticed by Pto- 
lemy as the capital of tiie Sorae, or 
Soranmtidalum, from whence cor- 
ruptly Coromandel ; but the present 
town is of modern date. After the 
Mogul armies captured Giiigee, they 
found it so extremely unhealthy, that 
they were obliged to canton on the 
plains of Arcot, which led to the 
establishment of that capital of the 
lower Carnatic in 1716. 

Anwar un Deen, the Nabob of Ar* 
cot, was killed in battle, A. D. 1749, 
after which this place was taken by 
Chundasaheb, the French candidate. 
In 1751, it was retaken by Captai a 
Clive, with 200 Europeans and 300 
sepoys. The garrison being panic- 
struck, made no resistance, although 
they amounted to 1 100 men. He was 
immediately besieged by the French 
and their allies ; but, notv\ ithstand- 
ing his garrison consisted of only 120 
Europeans and 200 sepoys fit for ser- 
vice, he resisted 50 days under every 
disadvantage, and at last compelled 
the enemy to raise the siege. It af- 
terwards fell into the possession of 
the French allies; but was finally 
taken in February, 1760, by Colonel 
Coote, after the battle of Wandc- 
wash. 

Arcot suiTcndered to Hyder the 
3d of November, 1780 ; and, with its 
vicinity, suflered greatly by bis dif- 
ferent invasions, and during the mis- 
government of the nabob's revenue 
olRcers, but tliey are now fast re» 
covering. 

Travelling distance from Madras, 
73 miles ; from Seringapatam, 217 ; 
from Calcutta, 1070 ; and from Del- 
hi, 1277 miles. {F. Buchatwn, Orme, 
Wilkes, Rennel, ^c.) 



36 ARMEGUM. 



ArdhnEllv., (ArdhanhaU). — A town 
in the territories of the Mysore Kajah, 
named also Urdanhully, 47 miles 
S. by E. from Serins;ai)atam. Lat. 
11° 48'. N. Long-. 77°. 5'. E. 

AnmsGY, (llrdhaiig-a).— A town in 
the Eoligar territory, in the southern 
Carnatic, 44 miles S. by W- from 
Tanjore. Lat. 10°. 9'. N.^Loiig:. 79°. 
4'. E. 

Aregh. — A town in the teiTitories 
of the Maharattas, province of Be- 
iapoor, situated 10 miles E. from 
Merritch. Lat. 16°. 66'. N. Long. 
75°. 11'. N. 

Arentis. — A small rocky island in 
the Eastern Seas. Lat. 5°. 14'. N. 
Long-. 115°. 10'. E. 

Arfac. — Very high mountains in 
Papua, bearing due south from Dory 
Harbour. 

Argaum, (Arigrattia). — A small 
\illage in the province of Berar, near 
Ellichpoor. On the plains, near this 
place, a battle was fou2,ht on the 
28th November, 1803, betwixt the 
British army, under General W^t^lles- 
ley, and that of the Rajah of Berar, 
in^ which the latter was completely 
defeated, with very little loss on the 
part of the British. The Maharattas 
lost 38 pieces of cannon, all their 
ammunition, elephants, and baggage, 
and sustained very great slaughter 
during their llight. After this battle, 
and the .subsequent capture of Ga- 
welghur,the Berar Bajah made peace 
on the terms proposed by General 
Wellesley. The village now forms 
part of the nizam's dominions. 

AuiANCOOPAN. — A small town on 
the s(;a-coast of the Carnatic, near 
Pondicheny. Lat. 11°. 54'. N. Long. 
79°. 56'. E. In 1748 this ^^as a for- 
tified town, and with great difliculty 
taken by Admiral Boscawen, prior 
to his unsuccessful siege of Pondi- 
cherry. {Orme, S,-c.) 

Arietoor, {Ari/iftiir). — A town in 
the Carnatic. 32 miles N. from 'J'an- 
jore. Lat. 11°. 11'. N, Long. 79°. 6'. E. 
AuiM. — A town in the jjrovince of 
Gundwana, 95 miles S. by 1*1. from 
Bultunpoor, possessed by a Goand 
uLigf, tributaiy to tkw Najfpoor rajali. 



It is a larger and more flourishing 
village than is usually found in this 
barbarous province; containing some 
weavers, and frequented by mer- 
chants. {Leckie, 5t.) 

Arinkil. — See Worangol. 
Arippo. — A village in the Island 
of Ceylon, situated on the Gulf of 
Manaar, where the civil and military 
olticers reside, who attend the pearl 
fishery during the season, when it is 
carried on. A fiag staff and field 
piece are attached to the party, to 
make signals to the boats, and to 
give notice of their going out and rc-> 
turning. Arippo is the only place in 
this neigh])ourhood w here good water 
can be procured. There is a chapel 
here for persons of the Roman Ca- 
tholic persuasion, who consist chiefly 
of Parawas and Malabars, resorting 
to this place during the season of the 
fishery, {Percival, c^r.) 

Arisdong. — A town in the south- 
ern part of Tibet, which is named in 
the maps the Narytamoe country. 
Lat. 29°. 49'. N. Long. 84°. 46'. E. 
Respecting this town, and the pro- 
vince in which it is sitiiated, very 
little is known. 

Armacotta. — A town inthesouth- 
ern Carnatic, in the district of INfa- 
rawas, 75 miles S. by W. from Tan- 
iorc. Lat. 9°. 43'. N. Long. 78®. 
65'. E. 

Armeatie. — A town in the Nabob 
of (Jude's territories, district of Ma- 
nicpoor, 47 miles S. S. W. from Ey- 
zabad. Lat. 26°. 9'. N. Long. 81°. 
45'. E. 

Armegum. — A town on the sea- 
coast of the Carnatic, 66 miles N. 
from INladras. Lat. 14°. N. Long. 
80°. 18'. E. This was the first Eng- 
lish establishment in the Carnatic, 
and until the acquisition of Madras. 
In tlie year 1625, the principal East 
India Compatiy's agents liaving ob- 
tained a piece of groiuid from the 
iiaik, or chief of the district, they 
erected a tactory at this place. In 
1628 it is described as being defend- 
ed by 12 pieces of cannon moiuitcd 
round the factory, with a guard of 23 
lactors and soidiens. {^Brnce, (Jr.) 



ARRACAN. 



37 



AnXASSOODIKTniCT. — SrC.TAOHIRE. 

Armek, {Ar<iiu).—A 1«\vu in the 
Carnatic, 7o miles S. W. tioin ^la- 
dras. I.at. 12°. 3D'. Long-. 7iP. 24'. 
}']. Diiiiiis? llTclt'i's iiivasitjii of Ihe 
Carnatic, in 1782, his f^reat uiap^a- 
ziiies were deposited in tlxe fortress 
of A nice. 

Armtimba. — A small to^vii in the 
Gujrat peninsula, situated ni the 
Halliar clistrict, not far from the 
town of Wankaiieer, and the pro- 
perty of the rajah of that phice. It 
is surrounded liy a high stone wall, 
and has a little castle. 'J'he niilk 
bush fences, common in the southern 
part of the peninsula, are not to he 
seen lierc, dry stone walls round the 
fields beinjr substituted. {3P3Iiirdo, 
4-c.) 

Aroo, — A lar2;c island in the East- 
ern Seas to the south of J'apua, the 
centre of which lies nearly in tlio 
l;35th degiee of ca5t lonji^itude, and 
the (ith of south latitude. In lenfjth 
it may be estimated at 140 miles, by 
35 miles the avera<;e breadth. I'his 
island has, as yet, been but very im- 
perfectly explored ; and little is 
known with respect to either the 
country, or the inhabitants. The 
Chinese merchants, settled at Banda, 
carry on a traftic with tiiis island, 
from whence they receive pearls, 
bird nests, tortoise shells, and slaves. 

'I'his island is supposed to be one 
of the breeding- places of the birds of 
paradise, of which seven species are 
described by A'alentyn. They are 
f aught by the inhabitants of the Pa- 
puan Isles, who draw their entrails, 
and fumigate them, having first cut 
their legs off, which gave rise to the 
fabulous report that this bird had no 
legs, but existed constantly on the 
wing in the air. The anangcment of 
their plumage is such as greatly to 
facilitate their continuing long with- 
out touching the earth ; but when 
they do, they reascend with great 
difliculty, and a particular species is 
.said to be again unable to rise. The 
largest ar« about two and a half feet 
in length. 
. A*» aromatic, resembling cinna- 



mon in its flavour, and much used 
among the eastern islands, and 
named the Missoy bark, is princi- 
jially jMoctired here and at Papua. 
It is seldom carried to Europe. 

Aroul. — A small town in the pro- 
vince of Agra, district of Kanoge, 
13 miles S. 8. E. from Kanoge. Lat. 
26°. 56'. N. Eong. 80°. E. 

Arracan, (Rnkhan^). — A large 
province in the Birman or Ava em- 
pire, which extends along the eastern 
side of the Hay of Uengal, from the 
River Nauf in Chittagong, as far south 
as Cape Negrais, where the ancient 
Pegue empire commenced. A range 
of lof(y mountains, named Anou- 
pectoumieou, bound it to the east ; 
and towards tlie south approach so 
near to the sea, that thojjghits length 
may be estimated at .'300 miles, in 
many places the breadth in land dees 
not exceed 10 miles, and no where 
more than lOt). 

I'Vwm the side of Chittagong, en- 
trance into Arracan must be eflected 
b)f a juarcli along the sea beach, iu- 
tGiTupted b}' several channels, w hicli 
chieflj' owe their waters to the action 
of the tide. From the quarter of 
IJassccn and Negrais, Arracan can 
only be invaded by water, owing to 
the numerous rivers that intersect the 
country adjacent to the sea. Chednba, 
Ramree, Arracan, and Saiidowy, 
form four distinct provinces, and com- 
prehend the whole of the Arracan 
tenitory. 

The sea coast of AiTacan is stud- 
ded Avith islands, of different sizes, 
and numerous clusters of rocks, that 
lie at a small distance from the shore, 
many of which exhibit a striking re- 
semblance to the forms of different 
animals. Behind these islands the 
sea coast is a»Teeably divcrsilied with 
hill and dale, the former covered with 
trees. 

Tlie natives of AnacanProper call 
their country Y«kein, the IJindoos 
of Bengal Rossaun. The latter, who 
have settled in great numbers in Ar- 
racan, are denominated by the ori- 
ginal inhabitants Kulaw Yekcin, or 
luuiaturaltzcd Arracaners. Tlie Mo- 



38 



ARRACAN. 



gijls know this country by the name 
of Keckan. ]Mogo is a term of re- 
Ijfrious import and hii:;h sanclitj', ap- 
plied to the priesthood and king, 
whence the inhabitants are often rail- 
ed by Europeans Mug^lis. 1'iie Ma- 
hommedans, who have been long 
settled in Arraean, call themselves 
Rooinga, or natives of Arraean. 

In 1582 Abul Tazel describes this 
country as follows : 

" To the south-cast is' a large 
country named Arkung, to which the 
Bunder, or Port of Chittagong, pro- 
perly belongs. Here are plenty of 
elephants, but great scarcity of 
horses." 

Respecting the interior of this 
country very little is known, but a 
considerable intercourse subsists be- 
twixt the maritime districts and the 
Bengal provinces. From AiTacan 
there are 40 or 50 boats of 500 
maunds each (80 libs) equipped an- 
nually by merchants who travel across 
the country from Umcrapoor, Cheg- 
Lein, and other cities in the domi- 
nions of Ava, for the Bengal trade. 
Each boat may be valued at 4000 
rupees capital, principally in silver 
bullion. One half of these boats re- 
turn with red betel nut, and this 
trade is so systematically established, 
that they even farni the betel nut 
plantations about Luckipore. The 
principal exports from Arraean, be- 
sides bullion, are salt, bees wax, ele- 
phants teeth, and rice, the latter of 
which is produced in great abund- 
ance, and the contiguous islands are 
uncommonly fruitful. Many Birnian 
boats, also, navigating during the 
n®rth-west monsoon, proceed from 
Bassein, Rangoon, and Martaban, 
along tlie Arraean coast, and make 
an annual voyage to Chittagong, 
Dacca, and Calcutta, where they 
dispose of their inoduce, and return 
with Indian and European commo- 
dities. Prior to 1764 the Dutch used 
to purchase rice and slaves here. 

I'lie Rukliing is the original lan- 
guage of the inhabitants of Arra(;an, 
who adhere to the tenets of Buddha, 
and formed, in uucient times, apart 



of the empire of Magadha, from 
which they seem to have derived the 
name of Mug, or Manga, by which 
they are generally distinguished by 
the inhabitants of Bengal. This 
dialect (the Rukhing) is the fust of 
that singular class of Indo Chinese 
languages, which may be properly 
termed monosyllabic, from the mass 
of their radical words consisting of 
monosyllables, like the spoken dia- 
lects of China. 

Until their last conquest by the 
Birmans, the tribes of Arraean seem 
for a long period to have presei"ved 
their independence ; their language 
is, consequently, purer than that of 
the Birmans, who suffered various 
revolutions. The national name of 
the AiTacan race is Ma-rum-nm, 
which seems to be only a corruption 
of Maha-vm-ma; Vurnia being an 
appellation peculiai- to tribes of Khe- 
tri extraction. A native of Arraean 
cannot, without extreme difficulty, 
articulate a wOrd which has a con- 
sonant for a final. 

Until the Birman conquest, tho 
ancient government of Arraean had 
never been so completely subdued, 
as to acknowledge vassalage to a fo- 
reign power, although the Moguls 
and the Peguers had, at different 
periods, canied arms into the heart 
of the country. During the reign of 
Aurengzebe, the unfortunate Sultan 
Sujah, his brother, was put to death 
by the Arraean Rajah. The Portu- 
guese, sometinjcs as allies, at others 
as open enemies, gained an esta- 
blishment in the countiy, which de- 
cayed only with the general ruin of 
their interests in Asia. 

In 1783 this province was con- 
quered after a very faint resistanco 
by the Birmans, and was followed 
by the sunender of Cheduba, Ram- 
roe, and the Broken Isles. Many of 
the Mughs, or subjects of the great 
Mogo, (a title assumed by the Ar- 
raean Rajahs) prefeiTcd flight to ser- 
vitude, taking refuge in the Dnm- 
buck hills, on the borders of Chit- 
tagong, and in the deep Ibrests and 
jungles that skirt the frontier) wltero 



ASSAM. 



39 



they have formed themselves into 
tril>cs of independent jobbers, and 
have since caused infinite vexation 
to the Birmans. Many have settled 
in the districts of Dacca and Chilta- 
gong. whilst others submitted quietly 
to the yoke. 

When the conquest was complet- 
ed, Arracan, with its dependencies, 
was constituted a province of the 
Birman Empire, and a maywoon, or 
viceroy, was appointed to govern it. 
Sholamboo was the first invested 
with that office, and 1000 Birmau 
soldiers were left to garrison tlie tort. 
Small parties were hkewise distribut- 
ed in the dift'erent towns, and many 
Birmans, who had obtained grants of 
lands, came with their families, and 
peltled in the country, thereby add- 
ing to the security of the state. The 
dethroned Rajah Mahasumda died a 
natural death the first year of his 
captivity, and thus the reduction of 
Arracan was completed in a few 
months. {Si/mes, Cox, Ley den, F. 
JBuchanan, Towers, Abul Fazel, ^-c.) 

Arracan. — A town in the Birmau 
Empire, province of Arracan, of which 
it is the capital. Lat. 20°. 40'. N. 
Long. 93*^. 5'. E. It is situated about 
two tides journey from the sea, on 
the west side of the Arracan River, 
which here expands to a noble sheet 
of water ; but rising in the hills to 
the N. E. has but a short course. 

This town and fort were taken by 
the Birmans, in 1783, after a feeble 
resistance. They found a consider- 
able booty, but on nothing was a 
higher value placed than an image 
of Gaudma, (the Gautama of the Hin- 
doos, a name of Buddha) made of 
brass, and highly burnished. The 
figure is about 10 feet high, and in 
the customary sitting posture, with 
•the legs crossed and inverted, the 
left hand resting on the lap, the right 
pendent. This image is believed to 
be the original resemblance of the 
Reeshee (saint) taken from life, and 
it is so highly venerated, that pil- 
grims have for centuries been accus- 
tomed to come from the remotest 
coiuitries, where the supremacy of 



Gaudma is acknowledged, to pay 
their devotions at tbe feet of his 
brazen representative. Tliere were 
also five images of Racsliyas, the 
demons of the Hindoos, oCilie same 
metal, and of gigantic stature, the 
guardians of the sanctuary. 

A singular piece of ordnance, of 
most enormous dimensions, Mas also 
found, composed of huge bars of iron, 
beaten into fonn. This ponderotis 
cannon measured 30 feet in length, 
2 and a half in diameter at the mouth, 
and 10 inches in the calibre. It was 
transported by the Birmans to Ume- 
rapoor by water, as a military trophy, 
and Gaudma,with his infernal guards, 
wore, in like manner, conveyed to 
the capital, with mncli pomp and 
superstitious parade. {St/mes, S,-c.) 

AuRAH. — A town in the province 
of Bahar, district of Shahabad, 35 
miles W. by S. from Patna. Lat. 
25°. 32'. N. Long. 84°. 42'. E. 

Arval. — A town in the province 
of Bahar, district of Bahar, situated 
on the south-east side of the yoani 
River, 40 miles S. W. from Patna. 
Lat. 25°. 15'. N. Long. 84°. 44'. E. 

AsEER. — See Hasser. 

AsHRA. — A town in the province 
of IMalwah, belonging to the Malwali 
Maharattas, 66 miles E. by S. from 
Oojaln. Lat. 23°. 4'. N. Long. 76°, 
50'. E. 

Asia Isles. — A cluster of low 
islands in the Eastern Seas, covered 
with trees. Lat. 1°. N. Long. 131°. 
30'. E. 

Ask AH. — A town in the northern 
Circars, 36 miles N. W. by W. from 
Ganjam. Lat. 19°. 44'. N. Long. 
84°. 65'. E. 



ASSAM, (ASAM.) 
An extensive countiy to the north- 
east of Bengal, situated principally 
betwixt the 25th and 28th degrees of 
north latitude, and 94°. and 99°. of 
east longitude. In length Assam 
may be estimated at 700 miles, by 
70 the aA'crage breadth. In a few- 
places of Upper Assam, where the 



40 



ASSAM. 



inoiuitains recede fdiHiest, the 
l)re:ulth considerably exceeds lliis 
proportion; bnt the probable area of 
the whole is 60,000 s(|Uiire miles. 

This region is separated liy the 
Brahmapootra into three p;rand di- 
visions, called f Mrecole, or Ootre- 
parah, Deccaticole, or Deocanparah, 
and the Majnli. The first denotes 
the provinces lying- to the north of 
the Brahmapootra, the second those 
to the south, and the third, the JNTa- 
jnli, «, large island formed by the 
Brahmapootra. The country is sub- 
divided into Upper and Lower As- 
sam : the first includes the country 
above Coleabark, where the river 
diverges into two considerable 
streams, as far as the mountainous 
confines to the north and sonth. At 
an early period tliis included the 
whob of Assam: b'lt the lower pro- 
vinces, to the westward, having af- 
terwards been annexed by conquest 
to the dominions of Surjee Deo, be- 
came a separate government. 

From the confines of Bengal, or 
Bisnee, at the Khoridar Chokey, the 
valley, as well as the river and moun- 
tains, preserve a northenr direction 
to a considerable distince, and in- 
cline to the east by north. In the 
upper provinces, Assam is bounded 
on the south-west by Bengal and 
Bisnee ; on the north by the succes- 
sive ranges of the moTintains of 
Bootan, Auka, Duflala, and Miree; 
on the south by the Garrow moun- 
tains, which rise in proportion to 
their progress eastward, and change 
the name of GaiTOW to that of Naga. 
The valley is divided, throughout its 
whole length, by the Brahmapootra, 
into nearly ecpial parts. The Assam 
territory, when it is entered from 
Bengal, commences from iJie north 
ofthe Brahma])ootra, at the Khondar 
Chokey, and at Nagrabaree HiU on 
the south, 

The number and magnitude ofthe 
rivers in Assam, probably exceeds 
that of any other country in the 
Avorld of equal extent: they are iti 
general of a suOBcient depth, at all 
seasons, to admit of a cojumcrcial 



intercoinsc on shallow boats; during 
tlie rains boats of tlie largest size 
find sufFieient depth of water. 'ITie 
number of rivers, of which the exist;- 
ence has been ascertained, amounts 
to 61, including the Brahmapootra, 
and its tv^o great brandies, the 
Dehing and tlie Looicliel: 34 of 
these flow from the northern, and 
24 from the southern mountains. 
The source of the Brahmapootra is 
unknown. 

Many of these rivers are remarka- 
ble for their extreme winding course : 
the Dckrung, although the direct 
distance of its course is only 2.5 
miles, performs a winding course 
equal to 100 miles, before it falls 
into the Brahmapootra. This river 
(the Dekrung) is also famous for tho 
quantity and quality of its gold ; 
which metal is also found in other 
rivers of Assam, more especially 
near to the mountains. 

The southern rivers are never ra- 
pid; the inundation commencing 
from the northern rivers fills both 
the Brahmapootra and southern ri- 
vers, so that the water has no consi- 
derable cutTcnt until IMay or June. 

In 1582 this country Avas described 
byAbul Fazel as follows :— " The do- 
minions of Assam join to Camroop : 
he is a very powerful prince, lives in 
great state ; and, when he dies, his 
principal attendants, both male and 
female, are voluntarily buried alivo 
with his corpse." 

The vegetable and animal produc- 
tions of Assam are nearly the same 
with those of Bengal, which country 
it much resembles in its physical ap- 
pearance and multitude of rivers. 
It furnishes, however, considerable 
quantities of gold, a metal Bengal is 
wholly without. This valuable com- 
modity is found in all the small ri- , 
vers of Assam, that flow from the 
northern and southern boundary 
hills, jiarticularly from the first. It 
forms a great proportion of the As- 
sam exportations to Bengal; the 
other articles being elephants teeth, 
lac, a very coarse species of raw silk» 
and a still coarser manufacture of 



ASSAM. 



41 



f otton. Many other valuable articles 
misflit be discovered, but the ex- 
tivnu'ly barl)arous state of tlie coun- 
try prevents commercial intercourse, 
few merchants ehusinj^ to >enture 
further than tljc Company's iVonlior 
station of Goalparah. OF the im- 
ports from Bengal salt is the princi- 
pal; the rest consist of arms and 
umminiition of ail sorts, when tliey 
can be had, a few Dacca muslins and 
cloths, and a very tritling quantity of 
European commodities. 

No probable estimate of tlie popu- 
lation of Assam can be formei!, but 
it is known to be extremely thinly in- 
habited, 7-8ths of the country being 
desolate, and overthrown with jungle, 
although one of tiie most fertile on 
the face of the earth : tiiis arises from 
the incessant warfare carried on l)y 
the petty rajahs with each other; oc- 
casionally some one gains the ascend- 
ancy, wJiich during his life bestows 
a sort of calm over the country; but 
on his death the whole is to be settled 
over again, Kafts, covered with hu- 
man heads, are sometimes seen float- 
ing down the Brahmapootra, past 
Goalparah, in Bengal; but whether 
these arc the effect of hostilities, or 
are \ictinis oflered to some of their 
sanguinajy deities, has never been 
properly ascertained. The chief town 
in Assam is Gergong, the rajali of 
which had, for a considerable period 
of time, the supremacy over the 
others, and was named the SweiTga 
Fajah, or Rajah of the Heavens; but 
.since the iusuncctio5i of the iNIoam- 
marias, about 1790, the city, palaces, 
and fort, have been converted to a 
heap of ruins. Rungpoor, a military 
station, not far from Geigong, may 
be considered as the present principal 
strong hold of Assam. 

In Assam there are several remark- 
able military causeways, which in- 
tersect the whole country, and must 
have been made with great labour ; 
but it is not known at what perittd ; 
the Mahoramedans, however, found 
them in existence, on their first inva- 
sion of this country. One of them 
extends from Coos JBahar, in Bengal, 



through Rangamatty, to thccxtreme 
eastein limits of Assam. 

Rospectiug the language orreligion 
of this region very little is known ; 
but there is reason to believe the lat- 
ter is the Brahminical. In the terri- 
tory, bordering on the Company's 
frontier, the inhabitants use the same 
dialects as are common in the adja- 
cent parts of Bengal, It may be 
supposed the history of this country 
remains in e(|ual obsciuity with the 
language and religion. In 1G38, 
during the reign of Shah Jehaun, the 
ijihaliitants of Assam sailed down the 
Brahmapootra, and invaded Bengal, 
but were rei)ulscd by that emperor's 
orticers, and eventually lost some of 
their own frontier provinces. In the 
reign of Aurengzebe, his general, 
Mauzum Khan, advanced from 
Cooch Bahar to attempt the conquest 
of Assam : he met with no obstacle 
but such as arose from the nature of 
the country, until he arrived at the 
capital Gergong. When the season 
of the rains began, the Assamese 
came out from their hiding places, 
and harassed the imperial army, 
wliich became very sickly, and the 
flower of the Afghans, Persians, and 
Moguls, perished. The rest tiied to 
escape along the narrow causeways 
tlirough the morasses : but few ever 
reached the Brahmapootra. After 
this expedition, the Mahommedans 
of Hindostan declared, that Assam 
was only inhabited by infidels, hob- 
goblins, and devils. 

About 1793 a detachment of troops 
Mas sent from Bengal into Assam, 
to assist and restore a fugitive rajah. 
They reached Gergong, the capital, 
without opposition, and effected 
their purpose ; but they subsequently 
suffered gieatly by the pestilential 
nature of the climate, which no con- 
stitution, either native or European, 
can withstand, and returned consi- 
derably diniinished in number. 

On this occasion Maha Rajah Sur- 
jec Deo, of Assam, highly sensible 
of the benefit he had experienced 
from the aid which had been afforded 
him by the Bengal govermnent, 



4-2 



ASSYE. 



agreed to abolish the injudicious sjs- 
tem of coinmorce that had hither- 
to been pursued, and to permit a 
reciprocal liberty of commerce on 
the following conditions and duties, 
Bcg^ociated by Capt. Welsh, in beh. 

ny'3. 

Imports to Assam. 

1. That the salt from Bengal be 
siibject to an impost of 10 per cent, 
on the supposed prime cost, reckon- 
ino; that invariably at 500 rupees per 
160 niaunds, of 84 sicca weight to 
tiie soer, 

2. I'hat tlie broad cloths of Eu- 
rope, the cotton cloths of Bengal, 
carpets, copper, lead, tin, tuteuague, 
pearls, hardware, jewelry, spices. 
And the various other goods imported 
into Assam, pay an equal impost of 
10 per cent, on the invoice price. 

3. That warlike implements and 
jnilitary stores be considered contia- 
band, and liable to confiscation, ex- 
cepting the supply of those articles 
requisite lor the Company's troops 
stationed in Assam, which, with 
every other article of clothing and 
provision for the troops, be exempted 
from all duties. 

Exports from Assam. 

That the duties on all articles of 
export, such as Muggadooties, 
]VIooga thread, pepper, elephants 
teeth, cutna lac, chupra and jung 
lac, nionjeet, and cotton, be inva- 
riably 10 per cent, to be paid either 
in money or kind, as may be most 
convenient to the merchant. Rice, 
and all descriptions of grain, are 
wholly exempt from duties on both 
sides. 

For the collection of these duties, 
it was agreed to establish custom- 
houses and agents at the Candahar 
Chokcy, and at Gwahatty ; the first 
to collect the duties on all imports 
and exports, the produce of the coun- 
try to the Avcstward ; and the second 
to collect the duties on all exports, 
the produce of the country parallel 
toit north and south, and also on all 
expolt^^, the produce of thecountry to 
the eastward, as far as Nowgoug. 



The agents to receive a commis- 
sion of 12 per cent, as a recompense 
for their trouble; and the standard 
fixed at 40 seers to tlic niaund, 
(about 80 lbs.) 84 sicca weight to 
the seer. 

As much political inconvenience 
had been experienced by both go- 
vernments, from granting a general 
licence to the subjects of Bengal to 
settle in Assam, it was agreed that 
no European merchant or adventurer, 
of any description, should be allow- 
ed to fix their residence in Assam, 
without having pre\iously obtained 
the permission of the B.itish govern- 
ment, and of Maha Kaiah Surjee 
Deo, of Assam. {Wade, Turner^ 
Treaties, J. Grant, Abnl Fazel, Sf-c.) 

AssoDNAGiJR, (Asadiiagar, the City 
of Liom). A district belonging to 
t!ie INIaharattas, in the province of 
IJejapoor, situated principally on 
the west side of the Beemah River. 
The priucijjal towns are Assodnagur 
and Punderpoor. 

Assodnagur. — A town in the pro- 
vince of Bejapoor, the capital of a 
district of the same name, 68 miles 
S. E. from Poouah. Lat. 18°. 6'. N. 
Long. 74°. 55'. E. 

AssvE. — A small town in the ni- 
zam's dominions, province of Berar, 
24 miles N.N.E. from Jalnapoor. 
Lat. 20^. 14'. N, Long.70°. 40 E. 

On the 23d Sept. 1803, a battle was 
fought near this place betwixt the 
British army, under General Wellcs- 
ley, consisting of 4500 men, 2000 of 
whom were Europeans, and the corn- 
lined armies of Dovvle Row Sindia 
and theBhoonslah Pajah of Nagjjoor, 
amounting to 30,000 men. Li spite 
of the disparity of numbers, the Bri- 
tish were completely victorious, al- 
though with severe loss in proportion 
to their numbers. The confederates 
tied from the field of battle, leaving 
above 1200 slain, 98 pieces of can- 
non, seven standards, and their whole' 
camp equipage, many bullocks, and 
a large quantity of amnmnition. 
This victory is the more remarkable, 
as above 10,000 of Sindia's infantry 
had been disciplined, and were in' 

i 



AURUNGABAD. 



4J^ 



part officered by Frenchmen and 
other Europeans. 

AsscwAN, {Asivan). — A town in 
the Nabob of Onde's tenitories, 32 
miles W. from LurknoM-. Lat, 36°. 
60'. N. Long. 80°.25'.E. This place 
is distant about a mile from Meah- 
gunge, and is more pleasantly situ- 
ated, overlooking a small lake; it 
has, however, been deserted for the 
latter pbce, and is mostly in ruins. 

Atama iAC:\,{Ati7nal!ica). — A town 
belonging to an independant Ze- 
mendar, in the province of Orissa, 70 
BiilesN. W. from Cuttack. Lat.21°. 
12'. N. Long. 85°. 23'. E. 

Atkerah. — A small river which 
falls into the sea on the west coast 
of India, after a course of 40 miles 
from the western Ghauts, near a 
town of the same name. Lat. 16°. 
12'. N. Long. 73°. 15'. E. 

Attancal. — A town in the Rajah 
ofTravancor's territories, 67 miles N. 
W. from Cape Comorin. Lat. 8°. 40'. 
N. Long. 76°. 58'. E. 

Attock, {Atttc, a Limi/-). — A tow-n 
in the province of Lahore, situated 
on the east side of the Kiver Indus, 
which is here, in the month of July, 
from 3-4ths to one mile across. Lat. 
33°. 6'. N. Long. 71°. 16'. E. The 
ancient name of Attock, to this day, 
is Varanas, or Benares; but it is 
more gcneially known by the name 
of Attock. The fortiess was built 
by Acber, A. D. 1581. 

It is remarkable that the three 
great invaders of Hindoston, Alex- 
ander, Tamerlane, and Nadir Shah, 
in three distant ages, and with views 
and talents extremely dilierent, ad- 
vanced by the same route, with 
hardly any deviation. Alexander 
had the merit of disco^(■ring the 
way: after passing the mountains, 
he encamped at Al(?xandria Paropa- 
misana, on the same site with the 
modern city of Candahar ; and hav- 
ing subdued or conciliated the na- 
tions seated on the north-west bank 
of the Indus, he ciossed Ihe river 
at Taxila, now Attock, the only 
place where the stream is so tran- 
quil that a bridge can be thrown 



over it. (Rennel, Wilford, Dr. Ro^ 
bertson, ^•c-') 

Attyah. — A small town in the 
province of Bengal, 44 miies N. W. 
bv N. from Dacca. Lat, 24°. 10'. N. 
Long. 8S°. 48'. E. 

Attyah. — A small Aillage in the 
Cujrat peninsula, belonging to the 
Jam of Noanaggur, and situated on 
the hanks of the Roopa Pete, or Sil- 
ver Stream, which falls into the 
Nagne near Noanagur. On the op- 
posite side is a small neat village, 
named Mora, both inh.abited by 
Brahmins and Koonbees, in good 
circumstances, 

AuBAR. — A town in the pronnce 
of Aurungabad. Lat. 19°. 34'. N. 
Long. 76°. 23'. E. 



AURUNGABAD. 

A large province in the Deccan, si- 
tuated principally betwixt the 18th 
and 21st degrees of north latitude. To 
the north it is bounded by the pro- 
vinces of Gujrat, Khandesh, and Be- 
rar; to the south by Bejapoor and 
Be.ed(T; to the east it has Berar and 
Hyderabad, and to tlie west the sea. 
In length it may be estimated at 300 
miles by 160 the average breadth. 

This province is also known by 
the names of Ahmednuggur and 
Dowlttabad; the first liaving been its 
capital during the existence of the 
Nizam Shahee djnasty, and the lat- 
ter during a short dynast)-, estabhsh- 
ed by Mallek Aniber, an Abyssinian, 
from 1600 to 1635. I'hc province 
was pariially subdued dm-ing the 
reign of Acber, w hen its lijnits werti 
in a constant state of iluclualion, 
until that of Shah Jehaiun, in 1634, 
when Dowletabad, the capital, being 
taken, the whole country was con- 
Verted to a soubah of the Mogul 
empire. Ilie capital was then trans- 
ferred from Dowletabad to the neigh- 
bouring town of Gurka; which, be- 
coming the favourite residence of 
Aurengzebe, during his vicerojalty 
of tlie Deccan, received the name of 
Aurungabad, which was subsequent- 
ly communicated to the province. 



44 



ATJRUNGABAD. 



TIic surface of Auiungahad is 
vorv irregular, and, in general, moun- 
tainoHs, paiticularly towards tlie 
western Ghauts, m here the hills rise 
to a great elevation. It consequently 
possesses no rivers of magnitude, al- 
though it contains the sources of 
many, such as the Beeniah and Go- 
davery, that do not attain to any 
considerable size until they quit its 
limits. This province also abounds 
with natural fortresses and strong 
holds, which enabled the Maharattas, 
whose nati\c country it is, to give 
such infinite trouble to Aurengzebc 
and his generals. 

A eoiisideriible dilTerence must, of 
rourse, take place in the agriculture, 
according as the land is situated in 
the moxuitaiuous or low districts; 
but, npon the m hole, tlic province is 
reckoned Tcry fertile, and capable of 
exporting grain when not harassetl 
by internal hostilities. Rice is the 
chief grain cuHivaled, the other ve- 
getable productions are the same as 
ju the rest ofHiiidostan generally, 
nor is there any thing peculiar with 
respect to the animal oj- mineral king- 
doms. Horses arc raised in great 
iiumlx^rs for the IMaharatta cavalry; 
but though a hardy breed, they are 
neither strong nor handsome ; they 
suit, however, the light weight of 
their riders. 

A great proportion of this province, 
and all the sea coast, being in the 
possession of the Mahajattas, who 
are but little addicted to commerce, 
lew ol>servations occur on this head. 
Piracy was always the favourite oc- 
cupation of such of that nation as 
ventured to trust themselves on the 
ocean, and for this they have been 
famous, oj- rather infamous, from the 
remotest antiquity. In modem times 
they continued to exercise this trade 
by sea, as they did a similar course of 
depredation by land, until both were 
coerced by the stvojig arm of the Bri- 
tLsh power. 

Three fourths of this province are 
passcssed by the Maharattas, and the 
remainder by the nizam, with the ex- 
ception of the islands of Bombay and 



Salsctte, whi(^h belong to the Bri- 
tish. The Peshua is the chief Maha- 
ratta sovereign in this province, but 
there are nmnberless independent 
chiefs, who owe him only a feudal 
obedience, some of them possessing 
fortresses within sight of Poonah, his 
capital. 

The principal towns are Aunm- 
gabad, Ahmedunggur, Dowletabad, 
Jalnapoor, Damaun^ and Basseen ; 
and in this province are found the 
remarkable Hindoo mythological ex- 
cavations of Carli and Eliora. 

The population of this territory is 
in proportion much inferior to the 
best of tlie British provinces, and 
probably even to the worst. Al- 
though it has not of late suffered 
much from external invasion, yet it 
is but indifferently populated, the 
nature of the Maharatta government 
behig, on the whole, rather unfavour- 
able to an increase of inhabitants, 
who may be estimated in this exten- 
sive province not to exceed six )nil- 
lions. Of these a very great propor- 
tion are Hindoos, of the Brachmini- 
cal persuasion ; the Mahommedans, 
in all likelihood, not exceeding on« 
20th of the aggregate. 

The Maharatta is the language 
principally used, but there are be- 
sides various provincial dialects ; 
and the Persian and Huidostani 
are frequently made use of in con- 
versation, and pubhc documents, by 
the higher classes. 

For the more remote history of 
this region, see the words Deccan 
and Ahmednuggur ; and, for the mo- 
dern, the word MaJiaratta. {Wilks, 
Ferishta, i^'c.) 

AuRUNGABAD. — A city in the Dec- 
can, the former capital of the pro- 
vince of Aurungabad. Lat. 19*^ 46*. 
N . Long. 76°. 3'. E. 

This town was originally named 
Gurka, situated a few miles distant 
from Dowletabad, which being taken 
from the short-lived dynasty of Mal- 
lek Amber, in 1634, the Moguls 
transfeiTcd the capital of their recent 
conquests from thence to the village 
of Gurka. It consequently rapidly 



AVA AND THE BIRMAN EMPIRE. 



45 



increased in size, and, becoming tlie 
favourite residence of Aurengzebe, 
during: bis viceroyalty of tlie Deccan, 
it received the name of Aiiruiif;abad, 
wbicli it eventually communicated to 
the province. This city continued 
tlie capital for some time after the 
iii/ains became independent of Delhi, 
4intil they quitted it for Hyderabad; 
■pntbably on account of its proximity 
to the territories of the INlaharattas. 
Auruugahad is no\f within the ni- 
zam's tenitories, and, like many other 
famous cities of Hindostan, much 
fallen from its ancient j;randeur, 'I'he 
ruins of Aurcngzel>c's pjilace and 
ffardens are still visible, and the 
iakeer's tomb is described as a stiuc- 
ture of considerable elegance ni the 
eastern style. In tlie bazar, which 
is very extensive, various kinds of 
commodities, European and Indian, 
^)arlicularly silks and shawls, are ex- 
posed for sale ; and the population, 
although much reduced, is still nu- 
merous. — See Ahmednuggur, Dow- 
let abad, and Deoghir. 

Tiavelling distance from Poonali, 
18G miles; from Bombay, by l^oonah, 
284; tiom Hyderabad, 295; from 
jMadras, 647 ; from Delhi, 750 ; and 
from Calcutta. 1022 miles. {Willis, 
Rennell, !^-c.) 



AVA 



AND THE BIRMAN 
EMPIRE. 



This extensive region is situated in 
-the south eastern extremity of Asia, 
usually distinguished by the name of 
India beyond the Ganges, and be- 
twixt the ninth and 26th degrees of 
north latitude. 

Tlie empire of Ava now compre- 
hends many large provinces that 
formed no part of the original Bir- 
nian dominions, but v.hich will lie 
I'ound described under their respective 
heads. To the north it is bounded by 
Assam and 'I'ibet ; to the south by 
the Indian Ocean and the Siamese 
territories; to the north-east it has 
the empire of China, and to the 
east the unexplored countries of 
Laos. Eactho. uid CaBibodia. Qvl 



the west it is seiiarated from t]>» 
Bengal districts, Tiperah and Chitta- 
gong by a ridge of mountains and the 
River Nauf. 

'S\ here not confined by the sea, 
the liontiers of this empire are in a 
perpetual state of llurluation, hut it 
appears to include the s])a<o betwixt 
the 9th and 26th <legrees of north la- 
titude, and the 92d and 104tli of 
east longitude; about 1050 geogra- 
phical miles in lengih, and GOO in 
breadth. It is probable the boundr»- 
ries extend still further to the north, 
but the breadth varies considerably. 
Taken in its most extended sense, 
that is, including countries subject to 
their influence, the Birman domi- 
nions may contain 194,000 square 
miles, forming altogether the most 
extensive n-ative government, subject 
to one sovereign authority, at present 
existing in India. Ava Proper is 
centrically situated, and surrounded 
by the conquered provinces; Avhich 
are, Arracan, Pegue, JMarlaban, 
Tenasserim, Junkseylon, JMergni, 
Tavay, Yunsiian, Eowashau, and 
Cassay. 

From the Ri\ cr Nauf, on the fron- 
tiers of Chitt;igoiig, to the north end 
of the Negrais, aie several good har- 
bours ; and from 'I'avoy io the south- 
ward of the Mergui Archipelago, are 
several others. I'he principal rivers 
are, the Irawaddy. the Keeuduem, 
the Lokiang, and the l^egue River. 
Between the Pegue and Afartaban 
rivers there is a lake, from which 
two rivers proceed; the one runs 
north to Old Ava, when it joins the 
Myoungnya, or Ijittle Ava Kiver, 
Mhich comes from mountains on the 
frontiers of China; the other river 
runs south from the lake to the sea. 

Judging from the appearance and 
vigour of the natives, the climate 
must be very healthy. The seasons 
are regular, and the extremes of heat 
and cold selilom exj>erieneed ; tha 
dnration of the intense heat, which 
precedes the comniencement of the 
rains, being so short, that it incom- 
modes but very littl(\ Exclusive of 
the Delta formed by the njouths ofth* 



4(5 



AVA AND THE BIRMAN EMPIRE. 



IrawadJy, there is very little low 
land in the Briman dominions. 'I'he 
teak does not grow in tlijs Delta, but 
in the hilly and mountainous districts 
to the northward and eastward of 
Rangoon. Even at a short distance 
from Syriani, tlie country is dry and 

hilly. 

The soil of the southeni provinces 
is remarkably fertile, and produces 
as abundant crops of rice as are to be 
found in the finest parts of Bengal, 
li'arthcr northward the country be- 
comes irregular and mountainous ; 
but the plains and vallies, particu- 
larly near the river, are exceedingly 
fruitftd. They yield good wheat, and 
the various kinds of small grain and 
legumes, which giow in Hindostan. 
Sugar canes, tobacco, of a superior 
quality, indigo, cotton, and the dif- 
ferent tropical fruits, are all indi- 
genous. In a district named Palong- 
miou, to the N. E. of Ununerapoor, 
the tea-leaf grows, but it is very in- 
ferior to the tea produced in Clnna, 
and is seldom used but as a pickle. 
Besides the teak tree, which grows 
in many parts of Ava, both to the 
north of Ummerapoor, and in the 
southern country, there is almost 
every description of timber that is 
known in India. Fir is produced iu 
the mountainous part of the country, 
from which the natives extract the 
turpentine, but they consider the 
wood of litle value, on account of its 
softness. If it were conveyed to Ran- 
goon, it might prove a beneficial ma- 
terial for the navigation of India. 
The teak tree, although it will grow 
on the plains, is a native of the moun- 
tains. The forests in Asia, like the 
woody and uncultivated parts of In- 
dia, are extremely pestiferous. The 
wood-cutters are a particular class of 
men, born and bred in the hills, but 
they are said to be very unhealthy. 

The kingdom of Ava abounds in 
minerals. Six days' journey fiom 
Bamoo, near the frontiers of China, 
there arc mines of gold and silver, 
called Badouem; there are also 
mines of gold, silver, rubies, and sap- 
phires, at present open on a mouU" 



tain near the Keendvem, called 
Woobolootan; but the most valuable 
are in the vicinity of the capital, 
nearly opposite to Keoiimmevum. 
Precious stones are found in several 
other parts of the empire. The in- 
ferior minerals, such as iron, tin, lead, 
antimony, arsenic, suljjhur, &.c. are 
met with in great abundance. Am- 
ber, of a consistence unusually pel- 
lucid and pure, is dug up in large 
quantities uear4he river; gold is like- 
wise discovered in the sandy beds of 
streams, which descend ti"om the 
mountains. Between the Keenduem 
and the Irawaddy, to the northward, 
there is a small riv< r, called the Shoe 
Lien Kioup,or the Stream of Golden 
Sand. 

Diamonds and emeralds are not 
produced in the Ava empire, but it 
has amethysts, garnets, very beau- 
tiful chrysolites, jasper, and marble. 
The quarries pf the latter are only a 
few miles from Ummerapoor. It is 
in quality equal to the finest marble 
of Italy, and admits of a polish that 
renders it almost transparent. This 
article is monopolized bj' govern- 
ment, it being held sacred, because 
the images of Gaudma are chiefly 
composed of this material. 

I'his empire also contains the ce- 
lebrated wells which produce the Pe- 
troleum oil — an article in universal 
use throughout the Jiirmaii provinces, 
and reaUzing a large revenue to the 
government, it being one of the nu- 
merous royal monopolies. — See Yay- 

NANGHEOUM. 

An extensive trade is canicd on 
between the capital of the Birman 
dominions and Yunan,in China. The 
principal export from Ava is cotton, 
of wliich there is said to be two 
kinds; one of a brown colour for 
nankeen, and the other white, like 
the cotton of India. 'I'his commo- 
dity is transported up the Irawaddy 
in large boats, as far as Bamoo, when 
it is bartered at the common jee, or 
mart, with the Chinese merchants, 
and conveyed by the latter into the 
Chinese dominions. Amber, ivory, 
precious stones, betel uut, and the 



AVA AND THE BIRMAN EMPIRE. 



47 



<dible nests, brought from the eastern 
isiauds, are also articles of commerce; 
in return, the Birmans procure raw 
and wrought silks, velvets, gold leaf, 
preserves, paper, and some ulcusiis 
ef hardware. 

The commerce bet\vixt the north- 
ern and southern quarters of the em- 
pire is greatly facilitated by the l\iver 
Irawaddy, on which several thou- 
sand boats are amiually employed in 
transporting rice liom the lower pro- 
vinces, to supply the capital and the 
uorthern districts, as also salt and 
gnapee (pickled sprats). Articles of 
foreign importation are mostly con- 
veyed up the Irawaddy ; a few are 
intioduced by the way of Anacan, 
and cariied over tlie mountains on 
men's heads. European broad cloth, 
a small quantity of hardware, coarse 
Bengal muslins, Cossimbazar silk 
handkerchiefs, cliiua ware, and glass, 
are tlie principal commodities. Co- 
coa nuts, brought from the Nicobars, 
are looked upon as a delicacy, and 
bear a high price. Merchants carry 
down silver, lak, precious stones, and 
some other articles, but not to any 
great amount. , 

In 1795, the quantity of teak, and 
other timber, imported to iVladras 
and Calcutta, from the Birman do- 
minions, requiied a return amount- 
ing to the value of 200,0001. value, 
and the trade has since been pro- 
gressively on the increase. Teak 
cannot be conveyed from the Ma- 
labar to the Coromandel coast, imless 
at so great an expense as to preclude 
tlie attempt. The imports to Ava 
from the British domiiiious consist 
chiefly of coarse piece goods, glass, 
hardware, and broad cloth ; the re- 
turns are almost wholly in timber. 
A small trade is alo carried on with 
Prince of \\ ales Island. The mari- 
time ports of this empire are commo- 
dities for shipping, and better situ- 
ated for Indian commerce than those 
of any other power. Great Britain 
possesses the western side of the Bay 
of Bengal, and the government of 
Ava the eastern. The harbour of 
Negrais is particulaily commodious. 



The quantity of tonnage annually 
built in Ava for sale and exportation 
is estimated at 3000 tons. 

The Birmans, like tlie Cliinese, 
have no coin, silver in bullion and 
lead being the current monies of the 
country. What foreigners call a 
tackal, properly kiat, is the most 
general piece of silver in circula- 
tion. It weighs 10 pennyweights, 10 
grains, and three-fourths. The sub- 
ordinate cunency is lead; and all 
conunon market articles, such as fish, 
flesh, rice, greens, &.c. are sold for 
so many weights of lead, which being 
a royal monopoly, is raised in the 
markets far above its intrinsic value. 
The average price of rice at the ca- 
pital is about 2.s.8d. for 84 pounds, at 
Rangoon and Martaban about 250 
pounds for 2s. 8d. It is necessary for 
every meichant to have a banker to 
manage his money transactions, who 
is responsible fur the quality of th« 
metal, atid charges a commissiou of 
one per cent. 

The Indian nations, east of the 
Ganges, have always been more cau- 
tious in their intercourse with foreign 
slates than those of the west. Tha 
courts of Ava and Pekin resemble 
each other in many respects, but in 
none more than in their vanity and 
pride, w hich often manifests itself in 
a ridiculous manner. Like the so- 
vereign of China, his majesty of Ava 
acknowledges no equal. Boa, or 
emperor, is a title which the present 
King of the Birmans has assumed ; 
tlie sovereign of China is termed 
Oudee Boa, or Emperor of Oudee, 
or China. The principal state officers 
at court are the follow ing : 

Four woongees, or chief minis- 
ters of state. (Woon signifies bur- 
tlien.) 

Four woondocks, or assistant mi- 
nisters. 

Four attawoons, or ministers of 
the interior. 

Four secretaries, or sere-dogees. 

Four uachangess, to take note« 
and report. 

Four sandegaans, who regulate 
the ccfcmojoialg. 



48 



AVA AND f HE EIRMAN EMPIRE!. 



Nine sandozains, whose business 
is to read petitions. 

In the Birman dominions tliere are 
no hereditary dignities and employ- 
ments — allhoHoviis and offices, on the 
demise of the possessors, revcrtinj? 
to the crown. The ttsalve, or chain, 
is the badfve of the order of nobility. 
They arc from three to 12, which is 
the highest; tlic king- alone wears 24. 
Almost every article of nse, as well 
as of ornaments, indicates the rank 
of the owner. 

It is difficult to form any correct 
judgment regardinj? the population 
of the Eirman dominions. It is said 
1o contain 80U0 cities, towns, and 
villages, witliout including Arracau. 
Few of the iidiabitanls live in solitary 
habitations ; they mostly form tlujm- 
selves into small societies ; and their 
dwellings, thus collected, compose 
their ruas, or villages. Col. Symes 
estimates them at 17,000,000, includ- 
ing Arracau, while Captain Cox, 
who succeeded him as ambassa- 
dor, does not go beyond 8,000,000, 
whicli is, probably, much nearer the 
truth. 

One-tenth of all produce is exacted 
as the authorized due of the govern- 
ment, and one-tenth is the amonnt 
of the king's duly on all foreign goods 
imported into liis dominions. The 
revenue, arising from customs on im- 
ports are mostly taken in kind. A 
small part is converted into cash, the 
rest is distribntcd and received in 
lieu of salaries to the various depart- 
ments of the court. INIoney, except 
on pressing occasions, is never dis- 
bursed from the royal coffers. To 
one man the fees of an office arc al- 
lowed ; to another, a station where 
certain imports are collected ; a third 
has land in proportion to the ini|)ort- 
ance of his employment. By thtse 
donations they are not only bound in 
their own pei-sonal servitude, but 
likewise in that ol' all their depend- 
ents. Tliey are called the sla\es of 
the king ; and, in tlieir turn, their 
vassals are denominated slaves to 
them. The condition of these grants 
includes services during war, as well 



as the civil ditties of office. A/-*- 
1 hough it seems almost impossible, 
under such a system, to ascertain in 
any standard currency the amount 
of the royal revenue, yet the riches 
of the Birman sovereign arc said to 
be immense, which is rendered pro- 
bable by the circumstance, that a 
very small portion of what enters liis 
exchequer, c\er again returns info 
circulation — the hoarding of money 
being a favourite maxim of oriental 
state policy. , 

The Birmans may be described as 
a nation of soldiers, every man in 
the kingdom being liable to i)e called 
on lor his military services. The 
king has no standing army, except a 
few undisciplined native Christians, 
and renegadoes of all countries and 
religions, who act as artillery, a very 
small body of cavalry, and perhai)S 
2000 undisciplined, iil-arnicd, naked 
infantry. The armies are composed 
of levies raised on the spur of the 
occasion by tlie princes, chobwahs, 
and great lords ; these holding their 
lands by military tenure. The ut- 
most of all descriptions, probably, 
does not exceed 60,000 men. The 
infantry are armed with muskets and 
sabres, the cavalry with a spear — all 
the latter are natives of Cassay. 'I'he 
breed of horses in Ava is small, but 
very active ; and, contrary to the 
practice of other eastern countries, 
they castrate their horses. 

The most respectable i)art of the 
Birman militaiy force is their esta- 
blishment of war boats, l^ery town 
of note in the vicinity of the river is 
obliged to furnish a certain number 
of men, and one or more war boats, 
in proportion to the magnitude of the 
place. At a very short notice, tlie 
king can collect 500 of these boats. 
'J 'hey carry from 40 to 50 rowers, 
and there arc usually 30 soldiers 
armed with nniskcts on board, to- 
gether v> ith a piece of ordnance on 
the prow. The rower is also pro- 
vided with a sword and lance, which 
are placed by his side whilst he plies 
tlu' oar. The musket was first in- 
troduced into the Pcgue and A\a. 



AVA AND THE BIRMAN EMPIRE* 



49 



conntnes l)y the Porliiguesc, aud are 
of tlie worst quality. 

The principal provinces of the Eir- 
man Empire have been aheady spe- 
cified — the names of the most re- 
markable towns are Uinmeiapoor, 
the capita! ; Ava, the ancient ca- 
pital ; Monchaboo, the birtli-place of 
Alompra; Pegue, Rauj^oon, Nyriam, 
Prome, Negrais, Persaim, and Clia- 
gaing. 

Almost all towns, and even villages, 
in the 5iinnan countiy, are snr- 
ronndedwith a stockade, which kind 
of defence the Birmaus are very ex- 
pert at erecting. 

The general disposition of the Bir- 
mans is strikingly contrasted with 
that of the natives of India, from 
V horn they are separated only by a 
narrow range of monutains. The 
Birmans are a lively, inqnisitivc lace, 
active, irasci!)le, and impatient ; the 
charactt r of their Bengal ucighboius 
is exactly the reverse. 

The females in Ava are not con- 
cealed from the sight of men, but 
are suflered to have fice intercourse 
n.s in Europe ; in other respects, how- 
ever, there aie many degrading dis- 
tinctions, and the Birman treatment 
of females, generally, is dosliliite 
both of delicacy and humanity. 'J'lie 
practice of selling tlieir women to 
stiangers is not considered as shame- 
ful, nor is the female dishonoured. 
1'hey are seldom unfaithful, and often 
essentially nsefid to their foreign 
masters, who are not allowed to carry 
their temporary wives along with 
them. Infidelity is not a character- 
istic of Birman wives ; in general, 
they have top nmch employment to 
have leisure for coiTU])tion. 

In their featmes the Birmans bear 
a nearer resemblance to the Chinese 
than to the natives of Hindostan. 
The Momen, especially in tl)e north- 
ern part of the empire, are tairer than 
the Hindoo females, but are not so 
delicately formed. The men are not 
tall in stature, but are active aud 
athletic. They have a very youthful 
appearance, from the custom of 
|>luckijig- the beard, instead of using 



the razor. Marriages are not con- 
tracted until the parlies reach the 
age of puberty. 'Ihe contract is 
purely civil, the ecclesiastical iiuis- 
diction having nothing to do with it. 
The law prohiliits polygamy, and re- 
cognizes only one \\il\t, but concubi- 
nage is admitted to an unhmited ex- 
tent. When a man dies intestate, 
three-fourths of his property go to his 
children born in wedlock, and one- 
fourth to his widow. The Birmans 
burn their dead. 

1'he Birmans, both men and wo- 
men, colour their teeth, their eye 
lashes, and the edges of their eye-» 
lids with black. 

In tiieir food, compared with tlie 
Indians, the Birmans are gross and 
uncleanly. Although their religion 
forltids the slaughter of animals la 
general, yet they ajiply the interdic- 
tion only to those that are domesti- 
cated. All game is eagerly sought 
after, aud in many -places publicly 
sold. Reptiles, such as lizards, gua- 
nas, and snakes, constitute a part of 
the subsistence of the lower classes. 
To strangers they grant the most li- 
beial indulgence, and if they chajice 
to shoot at, and kill a fat bullock, it 
is ascribed to accident. 

Among the Birmans the sitting 
posture is the most respectful, but 
strangers are apt to altrilnite to in- 
solence, what in their view is a mark 
of deference. The Birman houses 
are, in general, raised three or four 
feet from the ground, on wooden 
posts or bamboos, which is the case 
with the huts of the me.'^nest pea- 
sant in the empire. Tliey are com- 
posed wholly of bamboos and mats, 
and but indifferently thatched. Gild- 
ing is forbidden to all Birmans ; li- 
bert}' even to lacker and paint the 
pillars of their houses is granted to 
tew. 

In this empire every thing belong- 
ing to the king has the \\ ord slioe, or 
gold prefixed to it; even liis majesty's 
person is never mentioned, but^ia 
conjunction with that precious metal. 
AVhen a subject means to allirin that 
the king has Jieurd any ibiag, lie 



50 



AVA AND THE BIRMAN EMPIRE. 



says, " It luis rcachctl the {golden 
eals ;" he who li.is obtaiu«d admit- 
tance to (he loj al presence, has been 
at the " j^oldeu feet." The pcrlunie 
of Otto of roses is described as being 
grateful to the " golden nose." Gold 
among the Kirmans is the type of ex- 
cellence, yet. althoxigh highly AaUied, 
it is not used for coin in the country. 
It is enijdoyed sometimes in orna- 
ments for the women, and in utensils 
and ear-rings for th« men ; but much 
the greatest quantity is expended in 
gilding their temples, in uhieh vast 
sums are continually lavished. 

'J"he Eirmau sovereign is sole pro- 
prietor of all the elephants in his do- 
minions, and the privilege to ride on, 
or keep one of these animals, is an 
honour granted only to men of the 
Ycry fnst rank. In Hindostan female 
elephants arc prized beyond males, 
on account of their being more tract- 
able ; but, in Ava, it is the reverse, 
females being never used on state 
occasions, and seldom for ordinary 
riding. The henza, the symbol of 
the Birman nation, as tlie eagle was 
of the l^oman empire, is a species of 
vild fowl, called in India the Brah- 
miny goose. It is a remarkable cir- 
cumstance, that there should not be 
sudi an animal as a jackal in the 
A\a dominions. 

'I'he Birmans of high rank liave 
their barges drawn by war boatvS, it 
being thought inconsistent with their 
dignity lor great men to be in the 
same boat with connnon watermen. 
It is customary also tor a person of 
distinction journeying on the water, 
to have houses built for his aeommo- 
dation, at the places where he means 
to stop. The materials of thc.-^e houses 
are alw ays easy to be procured, and 
tlie structure is so simple, that a spa- 
cious and comforta!)lc dwelling, suit- 
ed to the cHinate, may be erected in 
little more than four hours. Batii- 
b<Kis, grass tor thatching, and the 
ground rattan, arc all the materials 
retprisite; not a nail is used in the 
whiile edilk-e; and, il'the whole were 
to fall, it w(mld scarcely crush a lap- 
dog. .Notvvilhslanding the well- 



formed arches of brick that are stift 
to be seen in many of the ancient 
temples, yet Birman workmen can 
no longer turn them, v\hieh shews 
how easily an art once well known 
may be lost. Masomy, in the latter 
ages, has not been much attended to v 
wooden buildings have superseded 
the more solid structures of brick and 
mortar. 

I'he Pali language constitutes, at 
the present day, the sacred text of 
Ava, Pegue, and Siam, and is nearly 
allied to the sansoit of the Brahmins. 
The character in connnon use through-' 
out Ava and Pegue is a round Nagari, 
derived from the square Pali, oi* re- 
ligious text. It is Ibrincd of circles 
and segments of circles variously dis- 
])osed, and is written liom left to 
right. 1'h(? connnon books arc conv- 
poscd of the palmjra leaf, on which 
the letters are engraved with styles. 

It is a singular fact, that the lirst 
version of Sir ^^ illiam Jones'.*; tran- 
slation of the Institutes of Hindoo 
Law , .'honld be made into theBirman 
language. It was completed tor the 
A\ a sovereign, by an Armenian, iu 
1795. 

'I'hc laws of the Birmans, like their 
religion, are Hindoo ; in fact, there is 
no separating their lav\s tiom their 
religion. The Birmans call their code 
Deinia Sath, or Sastra. It is one of 
many of the commentaries on Meim. 
'I'heir system of jurisprudence, like 
thatT)f the Chinese, provides speciti- 
cally lor almost every spe(;ies of crime 
that can be committed ; and adds a 
copious chapter of prwcedents to 
guiile the unexperienced, in cases 
where there is any dou!)l or diHiculty. 
Trial by ordeal and imprecation are 
the only absmd passages in the book, 
which, on the subject of fLUiah s, i.s 
to a European oll'ensively indecent. 

'I'lic iidiabitants of Ava constantly 
write the name Barma; though, liwiu 
afleeting an indistict pronunciation, 
they often term themsel\es Byamma, 
Bonuna, and Mv*mma, which are 
Old} vocal corrupiious of the written 
name. 
Thy Birmans arc not shuckltd by 



AVA AND THE BIRMAN EMPIRE. 



51 



Rny prejiulices of cast, restricted to 
hereditary occupations, or forbidden 
from participatint? witii straiis^ers in 
every social bond, like the Hindoos 
of the Lrahminical reli<i;ion. At pre- 
sent their laws are described as being 
wise, and pregnant with sound mo- 
rality ; and their police as better re- 
gulated than in most European coun- 
tries. A knowledge of letters is so 
Avidely diffused, that there are no 
mechanics, and few of the peasaiits, 
or even the common watermen, who 
cannot read and write in the vulgar 
tongue. Few, however, imderstand 
the more scienlilic, or sacred vo- 
Imnes. All kionms, or monasteries, 
are seminaries for the education of 
youth, to which the surrounding in- 
habitants send their children, where 
they are educated gratis by the Rlia- 
haans, or monks. The latter never 
buy, sell, or accej^t money. 

TheBirman year isdivided into 12 
mouths of 29 and 30 days alternately, 
which they rectify by an intercalation 
every third year. They reckon the 
month from the beginning to the full 
moon, after which they recede by re- 
trogressive enumeration until the 
month is finished. The week is di- 
vided into seven days, as in ilin- 
dostan. The Christian year 1795 cor- 
responds with the Birman year 1157, 
and the Mahoinmedan year 1209. 

The Birmans are extremely fond 
both of poetry and music, and pos- 
sess epic as well as religious poems 
of high celebrity. I'hey are accus- 
tomed to recite in verse the exploits 
of their kings and gcncrais. In the 
royal library the books are ranged 
with great regularity, the contents of 
each chest being written in gold let- 
ters on the lid. It is said to contain 
more books on divinity than on any 
other subject ; but there are separate 
works on history, music, medicine, 
painting, and romance. If all the 
other chests were as well filled as 
those submitted to the inspection of 
Col. Syni(!s, it is probable his Birman 
majest}' possesses a more numerous 
lil)rary than any other Asiatic sove- 
reign. 

E 2 



Buddha (of whom the Birmans are 
sectaries, as the Hindoos, are of Brah- 
ma) is admitted by Hindoos of all 
dcscriptiviis to be the 9th Avatar, or 
descent of the Deity in the character 
of preserver. He reformed the doc- 
trines contained in the Vedas, and 
severel} censured the sacrifice of cat- 
tle, or depriving any thing of life. 
His place of birtli and residence is 
supposed to have been Gay a in 
Bahar. 

Gautama, or Gautom, according 
to the Hindoos of India, or Gaudma 
among tiie iidiabitants of the more 
eastern ])arts, is said to have been a 
philosopher, and is believed by the 
Birmans to have flourished 2300 
years ago. He taugiit in the Indian 
schools the heterodox, religion and 
philosophy of Buddiia. 'ihe image 
that represents Buddha is called 
Gaudma, or Goutum, which is a 
conunonly- received appellation of 
Buddha liimself. 'J'his image is the 
primary object of worship in all 
countries (except Assam and Cassay) 
situated between Bengal and China. 
'J'he sectaries of Buddha contend 
with thoise of Brahma for antiquity, 
and are certainly more numerous. 
The Cingalese, in Ceylon, are Budd- 
hists of the. purest source, and the 
Birmans acknowledge to have re- 
ceived their religion from that island, 
which they name Zehoo, The Klia- 
haans (Birman monks) say it was 
brought first fiom Zehoo to Arracan, 
and thence was introduced into Ava, 
and probably into China. The Bon- 
zes of the latter counti-y, like the 
Rhahaans of Ava, wear yellow as the 
sacerdotal colour, and in many of 
their customs and ceremonies have a 
striking siinilitade. Sir Wni. Jones 
determines the period, when Buddha 
appeared on the earth, to be 1014 
years befoic the birth of our Saviour. 

The Binnans believe in the me- 
tempsychosis, and that having un- 
dergone a certain number of trans- 
migralions, their soids will, at last, 
either be received into their Olympus, 
on the mountain Mern, or be sent to 
sulfei torments in a place of divine 



AVA AND THE BIRMAN EMPIRE. 



punishments. "Notwithstanding the 
Biirnans are Hindoos of tlie sect of 
Buddha, and not disciples of Brah- 
ma, tliey nevert1<eless reverence the 
Brahmiijs, and ac'-a»owleds;e their 
superiority in science over their own 
priests. The king and all the chief 
oOicers liave always in tlieir houses 
some of these domestic sap;es, v.ho 
su|)|)ly thein with astrological advice. 

'I'lie BJrnians do not inflict on 
themselves disgustful tortures after 
the manner of t!ie Hindoos, hut they 
deem it nieritoii(ms to mortify tiie 
flesh by the voluntary penance of 
abstemiousness and self-denial. Like 
the other sectaries of BndiUia, they 
are much attached to their lares, or 
domestic ^ods. A Birman family is 
never without an idol in some conicr 
of the house, made of wood, ala- 
baster, or silver. 

The Kioums, or convents of the 
Rliahaans, are difi'ercut in their struc- 
ture from common houses, and much 
resemble the architecture of the Chi- 
nese. They are entirely made of 
wood, comprehending in the inside 
one hirge hall, ojien at all sides. 
There arc no a})artincnts for tlie pri- 
vate recreations of the Rliahaans — 
pulilicity is the prevailing system of 
Birman conduct. They admit of no 
secrets either in church or state. 

Yellow is the only colour worn by 
the priestliood. They have a long 
loose cloak, which they wrap round 
them, so as to cover most part of 
their body. They profess celihaey, 
and abstain from cvciy sensual in- 
dulgence. Tlie juniors are restricted 
from wandering about licentiously, 
the head of every convent having a 
discictionary ])OWcrto grant or refuse 
pennission to go abroad. The Hlia- 
iiaans, or priests, never dress their 
own victuals, holding it an a])use to 
l)erforjn any of the connnon func- 
tions of life, which may divert tliesu 
fiojn the contempiation of the divine 
essence. 'I'hey receive the coutri- 
butioas of tlie laity ready dressed, 
and prefer cold food to hot. At the 
dawn of day tlicy begin to peram- 
bulate the town, to collect supplies 



for the day ; each convent sending 
forth a certain number of its mem- 
bers, who walk at a quick pace 
through the streets, and support with 
the right arm a blue lackered box, iu 
Avhich the donations are deposited. 
These usually consist of boiled rice, 
mixed with oil, dried and pickled 
iish, sweetmeats, fruit, Stc. During 
their walk they never cast their eyes 
to the right or to the left, but keep 
them fixed on the giound. They do 
not stop to solicit, and seldom even 
look at the donors. They eat but 
once a day, at the hour of noon. A 
much larger quantity of provisions is 
commonly procured than suflicesfor 
the mevnljers of the convent; the 
surplus is disposed of as charitably 
as it M as given, to the needy stranger, 
or the poor scholars, who daily attend 
them to be instructed in letters, and 
taught their moral and religious du- 
ties. In the various commotions of 
the empire, the Bhahaans have never 
taken any active part, or publicly in- 
terfered in politics, or engaged in 
war ; and the Birnians and Peguers, 
professing the same religion, who- 
ever were conquerors, equally re- 
spected the ministers of their faith. 

There were formerly nunneries of 
viigin jiricstesscs, who, like the Rha- 
haans, wore yellow garments, cut olF 
their hair, and devoted themselves 
to chaslif V and religion ; but these 
societies were long ago abolished, as 
being injurious to the population of 
the state. At present tiiere arc a fevr 
old women, who sliave their heads, 
wear a white dress, follow funerals, 
and carry water to convents. These 
vciicraide dames have some portion 
of respect paid to them. 

Ava abounds in praws, or temples, 
in a luinous state, yet new ones are 
daily erecting. For this the Birmans 
assign as a reason, that, though to 
n.fnd a dccavcd temple be an act of 
jjicly, yet it is not so meritorious as 
to erect a new one. Those whoso 
liiiances cannot erect a new one, 
coiitenl themselves with repairing an 
old one. 

Like sU caslcni nations, the Bir- 



AVA AND THE BIRMAN EMPIRE. 



53 



lAans are fond of processions ; such 
as a funeral accompanied 1j\ a pomp- 
ous public buining, or the cere- 
mony of admitting youths into the 
convent of Khahaans. The age of 
induction is from 8 to 12 years. 

From the testimony of the Portu- 
guese liistoriaus, it appears, that in 
the middle of the 16th century, four 
powerful states occupied the re<;ions 
that he between the soutli-casteru 
province of British India, Ynnan in 
China, and the EaslerJi Sea. Their 
territories extended from Cassay and 
Assam on the N. W. as far S. as the 
Island of Junkseylon. Tliese nations 
were known to Europeans by the 
names of Aracan, Ava, Pegue, and 
Siani. Ava, the name of the ancient 
capital of the Birinans, has usually 
been accepted as the name of t!ie 
country at large, wliich is Miamma, 
and named Zomien by the Chinese. 

The Portuguese authors say, that 
the Jiirmans, though formerly sub- 
ject to the King of Pegue, became 
afterwards masters of Ava, and caus- 
ed a revolution at Pegue about the 
middle of the 16th century. 'I'he 
Portuguese assisted the Birmans in 
their wars against the Peguers, and 
continued to exorcise an influence in 
the Birnian and Pegue countries, 
and still greater in Arracan, so long 
as they maintained an ascendancy 
over the otlier European nations in 
the east. During the reign of Louis 
XIV. several splendid attempts were 
made to propagate liie doctrines of 
the church of Kome, and adv;uice 
tlie interest of the I'rcnch nation in 
the kingdom of Siam, but little is 
related of Ava or Pegue. 

The supremacy of the Birmans 
over the Peguers continued througli- 
out the I7th, and during the first 40 
years of the 18th century, when the 
Peguers in the provinces of Dalla, 
iMartaban, Tonglio, and Promc, re- 
volted ; a civil wai" ensued, a\ hich 
was prosecuted on both sides with 
the most savage ferocity. About the 
years 1750 and 1751, the Peguers, 
by the aid of arms luocined from 
Europeans trading to their povU, and 



with the assistance of some renegade 
Dutch and native Portuguese, gain- 
ed several victories oAcr the Bir- 
mans. In 1752 they invested Ava, 
tiie capital, which surrendeiod at 
discretion. Dweepdce, the last of a 
long line of Birman kings, was made 
juisoncr, with all his family, except 
two sons, who eil'ected their escape 
to the Siamese. Bonna Delia, or 
Beinga Delia, the Pegue sovereign^ 
w hen he had completed the conquest 
of Ava, returned to his own country. 

A man now arose to rescue his 
country from this state of subjuga- 
tion. Alompra, (the founder of the 
present dynasty,) a man of low ex- 
traction, then known by^ the name of 
Aundzea, or hinitsman, was conti- 
nued by the conqueror in the chief- 
ship of Monehaboo, at that time an 
inconsiderable village. His troops ot 
lirst consisted of only 100 jueked 
men, with whom he defeated the 
Peguers in several small engage- 
ments; after which, his forces in- 
creasing, he suddenly advanced and 
obtained possession of Ava, the inha- 
bitants of which, on liis approach, 
expelled the Peguers. These events 
took place about the auttuuii of the 
year 1753. 

In these wars the French favour- 
ed the Peguers, while the English 
leaned to the Birmans. In 1754 the 
Peguers sent an army and fleet of 
boats to retake Ava, but were totally 
defeated by Ahtmpra, after an obsti- 
nate and bloody battle. From this 
period the Pegue power seemed hast- 
ening toils wane; yet they still pro- 
secuted the war, and massacred the 
aged King of the Birmans, and other 
prisoners of tJiat nation, under pre- 
tetice of apprehended treacherj'. 
Upon this the Birmans in the districts 
of Pronie> Denoobeu, Loonzay, tkc. 
revolted, and exterminated the Pe- 
gue garrisons in their towns. The 
eldest son of the late king now wish- 
ed to regain the throne of his ances- 
tors; but, as this did not suit the 
views of the successful adventurer, 
Alompra, he compelled him to take 
refuge among the Siamese, lu 1754 



54 



AV^V AND THE BIRMAN EMPIRE. 



Jicinpa Delia, the Peguc Kins^, be- 
sigcd Prome; but liis annv was again 
dt-rcated, with great slaughter, by 
Aloitipra, wlio followed them so 
closely in their retreat, as to trans- 
fer the scat of war to the mouths of 
the navigable rivers, and the niinie- 
lous ereeks and eauals (hat intersect 
the lower provinees of Pegue. 

On the 21st of April, 1755, Alom- 
pra attacked and totally defeated 
Apporaza, the King of Pegue's bro- 
ther; after which the Pegners de- 
serted Eassicn, which was no longer 
a place of safety, and withdrew to 
S}riam. Abont the year 1754 Alom- 
pra subdned the Cassayer, wIjo had 
revolted, and on Ijis return south, in 
175G, attacked and took the town 
and fortress of Syria m by surprise, 
after a long blockade. The com- 
mandant, and greater part of the 
garrison, escaped to Pcgne; many, 
however, v,cre slain, and all the 
Europeans made jirisoners. It ap- 
jfcars all along to have been the de- 
termined policy of the French to 
espouse the cause of the Pcguers; 
but their assistance and supplies ar- 
rived too late, when all communica- 
tion V ith the sea was cut oil. Mon- 
sieur Dupleix, the goveinor of Pon- 
dicherry, sent two ships; but the 
first that arrived was decovedup the 
river, taken, and the whole crew 
massacred; the second escaped by 
being accidentally delayed, and 
can ied the iktal intelligence to Poii^ 
dichcrry. 

'i he fall of Syriam d' termined the 
fate of the Pegners: cut off from 
all coinmunication with the western 
countries of Dalla and Passien, 
deprived of the navigation of the 
Rangoon P.i^er and the Irawaddy, 
and shut out from all foreign aid, 
their resources failed them, and sup- 
plies by water could no longer reach 
them. In January, 1757, Alompra 
undertook the siege of the city of 
J'eguc; and the mode he adopted 
vvas that of cjrcumvallation, which 
was a lavouiite practice of warfare 
jimung the IJirmans, and famine, a 
weapon on which they place groat 



reliance. This plan proved effect- 
ual; for a negociation was opened, 
which terminated in an agreement, 
that the Pegue King should govern 
his country, under the stipulation of 
doing homage to the Birman mo- 
narch. A preliminary of these con- 
ditions was the snrrciider of the 
daughter of the Pegue sovereign to 
the victor. Notwithstanding all these 
arrangements, in their nature truly 
Asiatic, Alompra endeavoured to 
obtain possession of the to^n by 
treachery, and at last obtained his 
object by famine, when he abondoned 
it to indiscrimiiiate pimider and mas- 
sacre. 

The Tallien, or Pegue govern- 
ment being extinct, by the surrender 
of their capital, it became necessary 
for foreigners to conciliate the new 
sovereign; accordingly Ensign Lyster 
was sent as envoy by the British fao 
tory at the Negrais, who had an in- 
terview with Alompra on board his 
boat, while i»roceeding to his caj)i- 
tal. His majesty, on this occasion, 
assumed a very lofty tone ; boasted 
of his invincible prow ess, and enu- 
merated the royal captives of the 
Pegue family, who Avere led prison- 
ers in his train. 

In 1757 the Pegners revolted, and 
expelled the viceroy placed over 
them; but were afterwards over- 
thrown, in a severe engagement, 
near Rangoon, and the anival of 
Alompra in person finally crushed 
the insurrection. He aftcrw ards re- 
duced the tow n and district of Ta- 
vay, w here many Pcguers had taken 
refuge : he then determined to chas- 
tise the Siamese, for the encourage- 
ment they had given to his rebellious 
subjects. His fleet proceeded to 
Mogul, while his anny advanced 
by land; and tiie town, being ill Ibrti- 
fied, was soon taken. Leaxing a 
garrison for its defence, the Birmans 
marched figainst Tenasseriui, a large 
and populous town, surrounded by 
await and stockade; iiot\vithstand-< 
ing w hich it made a feeble defence. 

A Her a very short halt atTenasse- 
rim, he undertook an expedition 



AVA AND THE BIRMAN EMPIRE. 



55 



ag;ainst tlie cajiital of Siain; but, 
fjom various impcLlimnits, a moiitli 
elapsfd before ho reached the vicinity 
of that metropoUs, wliiili was well 
prepared for a vigorous defence. 
'l"wo days after the Eiruian army had 
erected their stockades, A loMi}>ra was 
taken ill of a disease, whicii in the 
end proved mortal. lie gaA e orders 
for an imn)edia1e retreat, in hopes 
of reachiu}? his capital alive; his in- 
tentions, however, were frustrated; 
for dcatli overlook him witliin two 
days niarcli of JMartahan, where he 
expired about the 15th May, 1760, 
after a short and active ro'v^n of only 
eiglit years, aiid before he had com- 
pleted the 50th year of his age. 

During his reign the wisdom of his 
counsels secured what liis \al()Urhad 
acquired: he issued severe edicts 
against gambling, and prohibited 
the use otL^pirituons licpiors through- 
out his dominions : he reformed tlie 
courts of justice, and abridged tiie 
power of tlic magistrates; every 
process of iniportan(;e l)eiug decided 
iu public, and e\ery decree regis- 
tered. 

He was succeeded by his eldest 
son Namdojee Fraw, who experienc- 
ed considerable dilliculty at tirst by 
the rebellion of his brother Shemhu- 
an, and afterwards by that of ]\ieinla 
Kajah, the principal general of his 
deceased fiither. Both these revolts 
be successfully subdued, although 
the latter oj>i)onent had obtained 
possession of Ava, the cajiital, 
which was recaptured by blockade, 
and all the garrison who could not 
eflect their escajic, put to deatli. 
Namdogee likew isc reduced the for! 
of Tonglio, and took prisoner one 
of his uncles who h:id rebelled, 
whom he spared, but punisiied the 
other ringleaders with ileath. The 
three succeeding years were emplo}- 
ed in reducing the refractory to obe- 
dience, j)rin( ipally the Peguers. lie 
died at his capital, about the month 
of March, 17(i4, after a rf;ign of 
little more than three years, leaNing 
one son, named Moinieii, yet an in- 
fant. 



On his decease, his brotlier Shcm- 
buan assumed the reins of govern- 
ment; nor is it ascertained that he 
ever acknowledged holding them in 
trust for the minor, whom he edu- 
cated in obscurity ainong the Rlia- 
haans, or monks. In 17(i5 he sent 
an expedition against the Siamese, 
with partial success, and went him- 
self against the Munipoor Cassayers, 
where he acquired considerable booty. 
In 17G6 the Birmaa armies marched 
south, and had an action with tlie 
Siamese, about eight days journey 
from the Port of Siam, when they 
were victorious; after which they 
laid siege to the city of Siam, and 
took it on capitulation, after a long 
blockade — the favourite system of 
Hirman warfare. 

In 1767, or 1131 of the Birman 
a^ra, the Chinese seat an army of 
50,000 men from the western frontier 
of "V unan, which advanced as far 
into the country as the village of 
Gliiboo, where they were henuned 
in by tlie Birmans. The Tartar ca- 
valry, on whose vigour and activity 
the Chinese army depended for pro- 
visions, could no longer venture out, 
either to procure provisions, or to 
protect convoys. In this situation 
their army was attacked, and wholly 
destroyed, except about 251 '0, whom 
the J?irmans sent in fetters tc» the 
capital, where they were compelled 
to ply then- trades according to the 
royal pleasure. They were also en- 
couraged to man) Birman wives, as 
are all strangers, and to consider 
themselves as Birmans, 

This custom of the Birmans is 
singular among the civilized coun- 
tries of the east, and peculiarly re- 
markable in a })eople, who derive 
their tenets from a Hindoo source. 
It is well known that in China, even 
the public prostitutes are strictly 
prohibited from having intercourse 
w ilh any other than a Chinese ; nor 
is any foreign woman permitted to 
«;nter the territories, orvisit the ports 
of that Jeulous nation, jlindoo wo- 
men, of good casts, are no less in- 
Hcccisible, and admission into d ^c- 



56 



AVA AND THE BIRMAN EMPIRE. 



spectable cast is not attainable by 
juoiiey. 

The Siamese, soon after the Bir- 
man araiy had (|nittetl then- territory, 
revolted. In \7'> 1, Deeberdee, the 
jjencral M'ho had before subdued 
them, was detached to punish them ; 
but, from diflerent obstacles, was 
compelled to retreat without pene- 
trating; into the country. A new ge- 
neral was appointed; but the Pegu- 
ers in the Birraan army suddenly 
rose on their companions, commenc- 
ed an indisciiminate massacre, and 
pursued them to the gates of Ran- 
goon, which they besieged, but were 
unable to capture. 

In 1774Shembuan sent an army, 
AThich subdued the Cassay country, 
and took the capital Munipoor; but 
10,000 men having gone forward to 
eflect the conquest of the Cachar 
ccuiitry, they v\ ere totally destroyed 
by the Caclnus and the hill fever, 
within three days marc h of Cospoor, 
the capital. A second expedition, 
tlie same year, was more successful, 
and compelled the Cachar Rajah to 
pay tribute: this year also the dis- 
tiict and fort of Alartaban were re- 
taken from the revolted Peguers. 

In 1775Shembuaa sailed down the 
Irawaddy, \\ ith an army of 60,000 
jnen; and, in the month of October, 
arrived at Rangoon, v»here he put to 
death Beinga Delia, the old and un- 
fortuiiate Pegue monarch, and many 
Tallien, or Pegue nobles 

In 1776 Shembuan left Rangoon, 
and was taken ill in the road to Ava, 
•where he died soon after his arrival, 
having reigned about 12 years. His 
character is that of an austere, in- 
telligent, and active prince. He re- 
duced the petty sovereigns of several 
neighbouring provinces to a state of 
permanent vassalage, who had before 
only yielded to desultory conquest. 
These he compelled, on staled pe- 
riods, to repair to the cai)ilal, and 
pay homage at the golden feet. 
Among them were numbered the 
Lords of Sandipoor, (Cambodia) Ze- 
mee, Quantong, and Banioo, toge- 
ther witli tlie Currianers, the Kajus, 



and other uncivilized tribes, inlia- 
biting the western hills and moun- 
tainous tracts tliat intersect the re- 
gions east of the Irav.addy. 

Shembuen was succeeded by his 
son Chenqnza, aged 18, who proved 
a debauched, blood-thirsty monster, 
and was dethroned, and put to death 
by his uncle, IMindragee Praw, in 
1782, after a short, but (as far as re- 
fers to foreign wars) tran(}uil reign 
of six years. 

Minderajee Praw was the fourth 
son of the great Alompra, the 
founder of t!ie dynast}^ One of his 
first acts was to drown his nevdiew 
Momien (the son of Namdojee l^raw, 
the second sovereign) by fixing him 
betwixt two jars, whi- li were sunk 
in the stream, conformably to the 
Birrnan mode of executing members 
of the royal family. "When he as- 
cended the tlu-oae he was 43 years 
of age, and had two sons already 
grown up to man's estate. He had 
enjoyed the throne but a short time, 
when he had nearly been deprived 
both of life and diadem, by a despe-: 
rado, named Magoung, who, with 
about 1(H> cenfederates, attacked 
him and his guards in his own palace, 
where they all perished. 

During his days of leisure this 
king had directed much of his atten- 
tion to astronomical studies, and be- 
came a thorough believer in judicial 
astrology. Brahmins, who, though 
inferior in sanctity to the Rhahaans, 
are nevertheless held in high respect 
by the Birmans, had long been ac- 
customed to migrate from Cassy and 
Arracan to Ava. JMinderajee Praw 
appointed a certain number of them 
his domestic chaplains; and, prompt- 
ed by their persuasions, he determin- 
ed to withdraw the seat of govern- 
ment fiom Ava, and found a new 
metropolis, which he did at Lmme- 
rapoor. 

In the year 1783 (conespondm^ 
with the Birman year 1145) he sent 
a fleet of boats against Arracan, which 
was conquered, after a slight resist- 
ance, and IMahasumda, the ra,iah, 
and his family, made prisoners. The 



AVA AND THE BIRMAN EMPIRE. 



57 



surrender of Cheduba, Rainree, and 
the Rroken Isles, I'ollowed the con- 
quest of Anacais. 

Ahhough the Birmans conld not 
retain the inland parts of Siani, they 
preserved the dominion over the sea 
coast as far as AJer^ni. In the year 
1785 they attacked the island of 
Jiinksejlon, Avilh a ilc ct of boats and 
an army; bnt, although first siic- 
cessiful, were ultimately compelled 
to retreat with considerable loss. 
The Birman monarch, wliose pride 
was deeply mortilied by this, resolved 
to repair the disgrace; and, in 1786, 
invaded Siam with an army of 30,000 
men, bnt was totally dclcated, near 
the frontiers, by Fictiek Single, the 
King of Siam, his useless cannon 
taken, and liimsclf with great dilii- 
culty escaping captivity. '^J'he Bir- 
mans, in this ad ion, ascribe their 
defeat to the incumbrance of their 
cannon, which were old ship guns, 
mounted on old carriages. 

In the year l/^it the Siamese ob- 
tained possession of '1 avay by 
tieachery, which the Birmans, in 
1701, regained by the same nn.ans; 
and that year compelled tlie Siamese 
to raise the siege of Mergui. In 
1793 peace was concluded wiih the 
iSiamese, who ceded to the Jiirmans 
the westenrmaritiine towns as fjir 
soiitii as _\Jeigiii. thus yielding to 
tliem the entijo possession of the 
coast of I'enasserim, and the t«o 
important sea ports of Mcrgui and 
Tavay. 

Iji 1795 his Birman majesty, 
learning tiutt three distinguisiied rob- 
bers, frouithe f-irman dominions in 
Arracan, had taken refuge in the 
British dii;irict of Cliittagong, wiih- 
out comnuniirati;!g his intention, or 
in any shape dcmandiiig the fugi- 
tives, thought proytcr to order a body 
©f 5000 men, under an olliter of 
rank, to enter the Company's terri- 
tories, with positi'.e injunctions to 
the commander not to return, unless 
he brought with him the delinquents, 
dead or ahve ; and further to suj)- 
poit this detachment, an army of 
5fO;U00 meu was held iii icadiucss at 



Arracan. In conscqnencc of this ir- 
ruption, a strong detachment was 
sent fnnn Calcutta, a battalion of 
Euroijcans by water, and the native 
sepoys by land, under the command 
of Generai Erskine. 

Seree NuniUi Kiozo, tlie Birman 
cliief, to whom the task of reclaim- 
ing tlio fugitives was assigned, after 
liis army hisd crossed the river, and. 
encamped on the opposite bank, dic- 
tated a letter to tlie Biitish .judge 
and magistrate of Chittagong, ac- 
quainting him with the reasons of the 
inroad, and that tiie captme of the 
delinquents was his sole object, with- 
out liarbouring any design of hostili- 
ties against the English. At the 
same time he declared, in a peremp- 
tory st}le, that luitil they were given 
nj), he would not depart from the 
Company's territories; and, in con- 
firmation of this metjace, fortified his 
camp witk a stockade. 'I'hese mat- 
ters being" reported to gtneriunent, 
the magistrate of Cliittagong was or- 
dered to ap])rehend the retugees, atid 
keep them in saiie custody until fur- 
ther directions. 

On the approach of General Ers- 
kiiic, Seree Nundakiazo sent a ilagf 
of mice, proposing terms of accom- 
modation, slii:ulaling lor the surren- 
der of the fagiti>es, as the basis of 
the agreement. Tire general re- 
plied, that no terms could be listened 
to while the Birmans continued on 
Enc'-lisii grnnad ; bnt tliat as soon as 
they should Avithdraw fiom their for- 
tiiied camp, and retire within their 
own frontier, he would enter on the 
subject of their conii)laints; notifying 
also, that unless tliey evacuated the 
Coinj)any's possessions in a limited 
time, tiDrce would Ijc used to compel 
them. I'he Birman chief, in a manly 
confidt nee of the British c'.iaracter, 
personally waited on General Ers- 
kine, and disclosed to him the na- 
ture of his instmctious, the enormity 
of the oifenders, and the oulrages^ 
they committed. General Erskinc as- 
sured him it was far from the in- 
tention of the Biitish government to 
screeu deliiu^ueul.s, but that it was 



58 



BABADERPOOR. 



iin})o>'.sible for him to recede from his 
first deteriiiiiiation. The Kirnian ge- 
neral agreed to Avithdraw his troops, 
aiid the retreat uas conducted in the 
jHost . orderly manner; nor had one 
act of violence l)oen ronmntted by 
the Birman troops, during their con- 
tinuance in the Company's districts. 
The guilt of the refugees being after- 
wards established, they were deli- 
vered over to the Birman magistrates, 
by whose sentence two out of the 
three underwent capital punishment. 
(Sipnes, Cox, Let/den, F. Buchanan, 
DaJrijmph, ^'c.) 

AvA. — A town in the Birman Em- 
pire, properly named Aingwa, four 
miles west from the new capital, 
Ummerapoor. Lat. 21°. 51'. IN. 
Long. 95°. 58'. E. 

This place is divided into the up- 
per and lower city, both of which are 
fortified, the lower being about four 
miles in circumforencc. Yi is pro- 
tected by a wall 30 feet high, at the 
foot of which there is a deep and 
broad fosse. Tlic communication 
betwixt the fort and the country is 
over a mound of earth crossing the 
ditch that supports a causeway; the 
Mall is sustained on the inside by an 
embankment of earth. The upper 
or smaller fort does not exceed a mile 
in circumference, and is much the 
strongest, but all the walls are mould- 
ering to decay. The mateiials of the 
houses, which consisted principally 
of wood, were transported to the 
new city of Unmierapoor; but the 
ground, when not covered with grass, 
still retains traces of former build- 
ings and streets. The disposition of 
the latter nearly resembles that of 
Ummerapoor. 

In the temple of Logatliero Praw 
is still to be seen a gigantic image of 
Gaudma, of marble, seated in its 
customary position on a pedestal. 
The height of the idol, from the top 
of the head to the pedestal on which 
it sits, is nearly 24 feet ; the head is 
eight feet in diameter, and across the 
breast it measures 10 feet. The 
Birmans assert, that it is composed 
of one entire block of marble ; nor. 



on the closest inspection, can any 
junction be perceived. The build- 
ing has evidently been erected over 
the idol, as the entrance would 
scarcely admit the introduction of 
his head. 

Within the fort stands a temple of 
superior sanctity, named Shocgunga 
Praw, in which all oaths of conse- 
quence are administered, the breach 
of which is considered as a most 
heinous crime. How this temple ob- 
tained so eminent a distinction is not 
now known. Besides these there are 
numerous temples, on which the Bir- 
mans never lay sacrilegious hands, 
dilapidating by the corrosion of time ; 
indeed, it would be difiicult to exhibit 
a more striking picture of desolation 
and ruin. {Si/mex, cVc.) 

AwASs, {Ams). — A toAvn in the 
IMaharatta territories, in the province 
of Khandcsh, 05 miles E. of Broaclu 
Lat. 21°. 4«'. N. Long. 74°. 34'. E. 

AvTi'RA. — A town in the })rovince 
of Bengal, district of Pachcte, 127 
miles N. W. from Calcutta. Lat. 
23°. 41'. N. Long. 86°. 58'. E. 

AxiMNAGUR. — A district in the ter- 
ritorities of the Poonah Maharattas, 
situated to the south of the Krishna 
Biver, in the province of Bejapoor. 
It contains no town of consequence. 

AziMGHUR. — A town in the pro- 
vince of Allahabad, district of Gaz^- 
poor, 37 miles N. E. from Jionpoor. 
Lat. 24°. ()'. N. Long. 83°. 10'. E. 

AzMERiGUNGE, {Ajamida ganj). — 
A town in the Province of Bengal, 
district of Silhet, 75 miles N. E. 
from Dacca. Lat. 24°. 33'. N. Long. 
91°. 5' E. 



B. 

Baad. — A small town in the pro- 
vince of Agra, about 10 miles S. W. 
from the city of Agra, the road to 
which is through a fertile country, in- 
terspersed with clumps of mango 
trees. Lat. 27°. 5'. N. Long. 77*. 
55'. E. {Hunter.) 

BABADliRPOOa, ( BaJiadarpur). — A 



BACKERGUNGE. 



59 



town in the IMaharatta territories, in 
the province of Kh-.mdcsh, 15 miles 
S. W. from Boorhanpoor. Lat. 21°. 
15'. N. Long;. 70°. 8'. E. 

Babare. — A town in tliP province 
of Gujrat, <iistric{ of AVorroar, situ- 
ated about 25 miles N. from l^alidiin- 
poor. This is one of the jiviticipal 
dens of Cooly thieves, and oii^aiially 
belonged to the Balooches, hut the 
Coolees have gradually superseded 
their authority. 

Baber. — A small island in the 
Eastern Seas, surrounded liy several 
others, lying betwixt the 130th and 
131st degrees of east longitude. In 
Length it may be estimated at 18 
iniJcs, by six the average breadth. 

Eap.rivA. — A district in the pro- 
vince of Gujrat, situated on the pe- 
ninsula, betwixt the Gulfs of Cambay 
and Cutch. It is but of small extent, 
and mountainous, containiug many 
stroDg holds. Various small rivers, 
Avhieh have their sources in the hills, 
flow from tlience, and fall into the 
Gulf of Cambay. This district docs 
i)ot contain any town of note, and is 
iii the possession of native inde- 
pendent rajahs. 

Baeuan. — A small island, about 
25 miles in cucumfercnce, the most 
northerly of the Philippines. Lat. 
19°. 43'.N. Long. 122°. E. 

Babuyanes Isles. — A number of 
islands lying otf the north coast of 
Luzon, the principal Philijipine, be~ 
twrxt the I9th and 20th degrees of 
north latitude. The largest islands are 
named Babuan, Calayan, Dalupiri, 
Camigncn, and Fuga, and are ti'om 
20 to 30 miles each in circumference. 
Besides these, there are many small 
rocicy isles. 

The Babuyanes Isles, although so 
far north, are much infested by the 
piratical cruizers from Magindarao. 
(Forrest, S)-c.) 

Backar, {Bhncnr). — A district ex- 
tending along the Indus, in the pro- 
vince of Mooltan, situated principally 
betw i\t the 28th and 30th degrees of 
jiorth latitude. In 1.782, it is described 
jby Abu! I'azel as follows : 

" Doubeh Beliker, containing 13 



mahals, measurement 282,013 bce- 
gahs ; revenue, 18,424,947 dams. 
Seyarghal, (j0,4l9 dams. This dis- 
trict furnishes 4690 cavalry, and 
11,100 infantry." 

The chief town is Backar; but, re- 
specting the country generally, we 
have, in modern times, had but little 
information. A considerable propor- 
tion of the district is composed of 
barren unfertile sand. 

Backar. — A town in the province 
of Mooltan, .situated on an island 
formed by the Indus, near its junc- 
tion w ith the Dummoody. Lat. 28°. 
31'. N. Long. 70°. 2'. L. In 1582, 
it is described by Abut Tazcl as fol- 
lows : 

" Behkoor is a good fort, which, 
in ancient books, is called Munsoo- 
rah. All the six rivers which pass 
through Lahore proceed past Beh- 
koor in a collected stream, after hav- 
ing divided into two, one going to 
the nortii, and the other to the south 
of the fort. Here is very little rain, 
but the fruit is delicious." 

In 1758, when Dara Shekoh fled 
from his brother Aurengzebc, he di- 
rected his course towards Sindy, 
taking possessioii of the strong fort 
of Backar, which afterwards stood a 
considerable siege. (Abul Fazel, Ber- 
nier, SiT.) 

Backergunge, (Bacargunj). — A 
district in the province of Bengal, 
formed about the vear 1800, from the 
southern quarter of the Dacca Jelal- 
pore district. A considerable pro- 
portion of this division, named Bok- 
lah, or Ismaelpoor, extends chiefly 
along the western bank of the Pud- 
dah, or Great Ganges, nearly to its 
mouth at the Island of Rabnabad, 
which forms the south-east angle of 
the Bengal Delta ; the west of Hid- 
gellee being the other. About the 
year 1584 this district was over- 
whelmed and laid waste by an inun- 
dation; and, fiom the succeeding 
ravages of the Mughs, aided by the 
Portuguese, who then inhabited Cbit- 
tagong, it continues to this day great- 
ly depopulated. 

The lauds are very capable of cul- 



m 



EADRACHELLUM. 



tivation, notwithstanding their prox- 
imity to the sea, being annually, 
during the periodical rains, over- 
flowed by the fresh water of. and fer- 
tilized by, the slimy mould deposited 
by tlie Ganges. 

The country, being so well sup- 
plied with moisture, ])roduces two 
abundant crops of rire annually, fur- 
nishing a considerable proportion of 
the grain which is consumed in, and 
exported from Calcutta. lor the 
latter purpose the dry season crop 
produced during the cold weather 
answers best. Irom the viciaity of 
this division to the Sunderbuuds, be- 
ing in a manner part of it, the innu- 
merable ri\crs by which it is inter- 
sected, and the quantity of junjde 
still covering its surface, it not only 
abounds with alligators and tigers of 
the most enormous size, but is also 
infested by dacoils, or river pirates, 
who rob in gangs to a gTcater degree 
than any other district in Eeugal. 

A strong establishment of boats 
and sepoys is kept up at Barker- 
gunge, but their eli'orts have hitherto 
been totally unavailing to suppress, 
or oven diminish the mnnbcr of these 
depredators, who appear to increase 
all over the lower districts of Br ngal. 
These dacoities, or gang robberies, 
are often attended with murder and 
torture, to compel the disclosure of 
concealed treasr.re; and always ou 
the subsequent trials with perjury, 
and subornation of perjurj , practised 
lor the most atrocious purjioses. 

The obslables to the suppression 
of th(^se crimes do not arise from any 
open resistance to the magisterial au- 
thority, but liom the extreme difli- 
culty (wliicli only those can appre- 
ciate who have experienced it) of 
discriminating the innocent froni the 
jsnilty. The evil is of great magni- 
tude and long continuance, every 
mode of remedy hitherto attempted 
having contiibutcd to aggravate, in 
place of diminishing the calamity. 

In this district there still exist se- 
veral original Portuguese colonies, of 
probably more than two centuries dn- 
Viition, wliich exhibit a mcluncholy 



proof to what an extreme it is possible" 
for Europeans to degenerate. They 
are a meagre, puny, imbecile race, 
blacker than the natives, who hold 
them in the utmost cor.tcmpt, and 
designate by the appellation of Caula 
Feringics, or black Europeans. 

BACIvliRGUNGE. — A tOWH ill tllC 

province of Bengal, 120 miles E. 
from Calcutta, the capital of a dis- 
trict ot tiie same name, and residence 
of th<! judge and magistrate. Lat. 
22°. 42', N. Long, 81;°. 20'. E. 

Badar. — A town in the province 
of Bejapoor, situated on the south 
side of the River Krishna, 30 miles 
>S. E. from Mirjee, in tiie territories 
of the PoonahMaharattas. Lat. 1G°. 
4t>'. N. Long. 76° 32'. E. 

Badarwall. — A town in the pro- 
vince of Lahore, district of Kisli- 
tcwar, 10 niiles from the southern 
range of hills w hit h bound Cashmere, 
Lat. 3i>°. 45'. N. Long. 74°. 54'. E. 
It is posses.sed by an independent 
raj all. 

Badaumy, (Badami). — A town 
in the territories of the Maharattas, 
province of Bejapoor, 80 iuiles S. E. 
tiom ai<rritch. Lat. 16°. 6'. N. 
Long. 75°. 46'. E. This is a place of 
some strength, which can be taken 
only by a regular siege, which would 
require a heavy equipment. 

Bahdoriah, (Bliadria). — A dis- 
trict in the province of Agra, inter- 
sected by the Chumbul Kiver. It is 
print ipally possessed by diflercnt 
petty chiefs; those to the south of 
the Chumbul being tributary to the 
Maharattas. 

BADKACHiiLLUM, ( Bhadrachnlam, 
the Sacred Mountain). — A town on 
the N. E. side of the Godavery River^ 
belonging to the Polooxishah Rajah, 
134 miles W. from Vizagapataiu. 
Lat. 17°. 52'. N. Long. 89°27'.E. 
At this place the Rajah ofPoIoon- 
shah collects taxes upon all goods 
passing through his country by this 
road. The merchandize is generally 
cotton, which tlie IVIaharaltas export 
to the northern Circars, importing 
from thence salt and cocoa nuts in 
exchange. There is a pagoda here 



BAGMUTTY. 



61 



of high repute, sacrxl toSccIa ; 200 
yards to the south of \vl)icli the town 
is situatod, ooiisisting; of 100 liiits, 
the whole lieiiig surrounded witli 
jungle. (Blunt, i\c.) 

Badroon. — A town m the pro- 
vince of Gnjrat, district of Broach, 
SO miles E. hy 8. from Cainl)ay. Lat. 
22°. 18'. N. Long. 7^°. 13'. E. 

Badruah. — A town in tiie jNIaha- 
latta tcnitories, in tlie province of 
Gnjrat, district of Cimmpancer, 40 
miles E. frcmi Canihay. Lat. 22°. 25'. 
N. Long. 73°. 25'. E. 

B \DKYCAZRAM, ( Vadavicasramo). 
— A province in Northern Hindontan, 
situated betvvi\t the 3 1st and 33d 
degrees of north latitude. This pro- 
vince may be considered as the nor- 
thern boundary of Hiudostan in tiiis 
quarter, being entirely composed of 
mountains, wliich rise one over the 
Other, and end in the Great Hima- 
laya Ridge. 'I'o tlie south it has the 
province of Serinagnr, of which it 
may be considered as the northern 
quarter. It has never been explored, 
except by soiue Hindoo devotees, 
who describe it as a region of ever- 
lasting snow, containing the sources 
of the Ganges and other sacred ri- 
vers. l"he name Yadavica Asrania 
signifies the Bovver of Yadiuica 
Trees. 

Bagalat.n, ( Bngelen). — A district 
in the south of .lava, nearly about 
the centre of the island, from east to 
west. The dialects of Scindo and of 
this district, are said to be very dis- 
tinct from the Javanese Proper. 
Prom the Bngelen dialect the Sooloo 
language is supposed to be derived. 

Bagaroo. — A small town in the 
Rajpoot territories, in tlie province of 
Ajmecr, 12 miles S. by W. from Jye- 
nagur. Lat. 2(3°. 47'. N. Long. 75°. 
34'. E. 

Baghput, (Bhttgapati). — A small 
town in the province of Delhi, 20 
miles N. from the citv of Delhi. Lat. 
29°. \. Long.77°.7'. E. 

Baglana, (Bkageiana). — A large 
district in the Maharatta territories, 
in the province of Aurungabad, situ- 
ated principally betvvL\t tha 20th aud 



21st degrees of north latitude. This 
country is exceedingly mountainous, 
but contains many fertile jtlains and 
vallies. Eew countries have greater 
advantages, in point of natural 
strength, which is augmented by a 
number of strong fortresses, erected 
on the summits of lofty mountains. 
The ri'( crs are small, and tliere are 
no towns of any great note; tho 
chief are Chanderc, Tarabad, and 
Iiigauvv. 

This is one of the original Maha- 
ratta provinces, and is still wholly 
possessed by dill'erent leaders of that 
nation. On account of its natural 
strength, and the martial disposition 
of the natives, it Joes not appear that 
it ever was completely subdued, ei- 
tiicr by the Deccany sovereigns or 
the Mogids 

The rajahs were often reduced to 
the last stage of independence, par- 
ticularly by Aurengzebe; but a sort 
of feudal obedience, and a tribute 
extremely irregularly paid, were the 
utmost subjection they ever submit- 
ted to. It was first concpicred by 
the Mahommedans during tlie leiou 
of Allah nd Deen, A. D. 1296; but 
it was a conquest they were unable 
to retain. About the year 1500 Bag- 
lane was governed by an independent 
rajah, who was compelled to become 
tributary to the Nizam iShahcc dynas- 
ty of Ahmednuggur. 

Baglana continued under a no- 
minal sort of subjection to tJio Delhi 
emperors, until the appearance of 
llie Maharatta chief Sevajee, wheii 
it was amongst the first that revolted, 
and has ever since remained luider 
tlie Maharatta government. Like 
many other districts subject to tfiat 
nntion, it is not wholly possessed by 
any one chief, but partitioned among 
several, whose limits frequently Hue- 
tuate. (Feris/da, Rennel, cVc.j 

Bag MUTT Y, (Baghamati, Fortu- 
nate). — This river lias its source in 
the 1-ills to. the north of Catmaudoo, 
the capital of Nepaul, from whence 
it flows in a seutherly direction, en- 
tering the British territories in the 
distiict of Tiriiaot aud province of 



62 



BAHAR. 



Bahar. It suLsequciitly falls into 
the Ganges, a few miles below 
Alonghir, having performed a wind- 
ing ct)Urse of about 3(>(» miles. 

Bagnouwangie. — A Diilcli port 
and settlement situated in the Straits 
of Bally, at the eastern extremity of 
Java, and distant five leagues from 
ttie mouth of Balaiiibonang Bay. 
Lat.8° 15'. S. Long. 11 4°. 20'. E. 

This place is intersected by a small 
river, and has a little earthen foit, 
lined with turf, and sunoundcd by a 
ditch, over which are two draw- 
bridges. The garrison consists of a 
lieutenant commandant, a company 
of Aiudurans, intermixed with 10 
Eurojjcans, and soine Samanap ar- 
tillery, with a Dutch second lieu- 
tenant and sergeant. Two pilots, 
who reside in the village, jireeede the 
ships which pass the Straits, to point 
out the proper anchoring stations. lu 
tlie neighbourhood are two tine plan- 
tations of pepper and cofiee, with an 
indigo manufactory adjoining, A 
league beyond this place, at Saiwra- 
daya, are a large old brick-built 
house, a hospital, and prison for the 
Malays. 

Adjacent to this establishment is a 
village of the same name, consisting 
of 80 Chinese and Malay families, 
where the chief, or tomogon resides. 
It is separated from Panaroukan by 
an exlen^iive desert ; and, being one 
«f the most unhealthy stations in the 
island, all the malcontents of Sania- 
rang and Sourabhaya are banished 
hither for five or six months, accord- 
ing to the degrees of their offences. 
AlltheJavan andMaduran criminals, 
condemned for life, arc sent to work 
on the plantations in this vicinity. 
I'hc fort and villages are surrounded 
by marshes, which occasion frequent 
putrid fevers among the natives and 
Europeans. (Tombe, Ic.) 

Bah (Vahu) Kiver. — ^This river 
Las its source in the province of Aj- 
meer, not far from the. city of Jjud- 
poor, and afterwards Hows in a south- 
erly direction towards the Gulf of 
Cutch, which it never reaches, ■beii>g 
absorbed by tlie way,orlostiuthc Huii. 
4 



BAHAR, 

(Vihar, a Monastery of Buddhists.) 

A large province of Hindostan, ex- 
tending from the 22d to the 27th 
degrees of iiortli latitude. It is se- 
parated from the Nepaul dominions 
by an extensive range of hills, which 
rise up on the northern frontier ; ou 
the south it has the ancient and bar- 
barous Hindoo proAince of Gund- 
wana ; on the east it is bounded by 
the province of Bengal ; and on the 
west by Allahabad, Oude, and Gnnd- 
wana. The River Caramnassa was 
the old line of separation betweeit 
the Bahar and Benares territories. 

This provuice is one of the most 
fertile, highly cultivated, and popu- 
lous, of Hindostan, in proportion to 
its extent of plain arable ground,' 
which may be computed at 26,000 
square miles, divided naturally into 
two e(|ual jxjrtions oftenitory, north 
and south of the Ganges, whiehruns 
here an easterly course of 200 miles, 

Oae of these divLsions extends 
northerly 70 miles, to the forests of 
Nepaul and Morung; is separated 
from Goracpoor in Oude, on the west, 
by the Gunduck, a:id a crooked line 
between that r vcr and the Dewah, 
or Goggrah. This northern division 
is bounded on the cast by Piirricah in 
Bengal, the whole area being one 
uninterrupted Hat, which was sub- 
diviiled by the Em})eror A(;ber intO' 
four districts, viz. I'irhoot, llajypoor, 
Sarun, with Chumparun, orBettiah, 
including tour pcrgunnahs from Mon- 
ghir. 

The central division of Bahar ex- 
tends south of the Ganges 60 miles, 
to that range of hills called in Sans- 
crit Viiidhya-chil, which separates 
tlie lower plain.s tiom the territory 
above the Ghauts. It is divided on 
the west from Chunar in Allahabad, 
by the Kiver Caranmassa ; and from 
Bengal, on the east, by a branch of 
the southern hills, extending to the 
pass of llUiaghury, o)i the confines 
of Rajemal. The district named Ba- 
har, v\]iich is in the middle of this 
ceutial division, occupies about one 



BAHAR. 



G3 



half of tljc Aviiolc level a von, the 
plains ofMoni:,hiroiK-sixtli more, the 
lest beirie,' inoiiiiiaiiiou.s, IJotas, the 
most soutii-nestcin district, lies 
chicdj' between the KiversSoaiie and 
Carninnassa ; the romainino; district, 
t>lialial)ad, extending' along tlie south 
side of the Ganges. This central di- 
vision, on acconiit of tire sup(>riority 
of the soil and produce, particularly 
of opium, yields nearly two-thirds of 
the total annual produce. 

Exclusive of these two divisions 
there is a stragoiini;- liilly country of 
8000 square miles, which produces 
but little. 

Still further to the south there is a 
third and elevated region, eontaiaini^ 
18,000 square miles, though propor- 
tionally of inconsiderable value. This 
highland territory includes the mo- 
dern subdivisions of lalarnow, Rani- 
ghur, and Chuta >iai^poor; bounded 
on the west by the Soiibali of Alla- 
habad, on the south by (Jrissa, and 
on the east by IJeiigal. This last di- 
vision is geograjthically termed the 
'ihrcc Bellads,or Cantons, and is also 
sometimes described luider the ap- 
pellation of Kokcrah, but more com- 
monly named Nagpoor, tiom the dia- 
mond inliics it contains. 

Square miles. 

The assessed lands of < iglit 
districts of this province 
contain - 26,287 

The lauds belonging to Pala- 
mow, Ranigluir, and Nag- 
I)oor - - 18,553 

Portion of hilly country in 

JMonghir, Khotas, &.e. 7133 



Total superficial contents 
of the province - - - 



61,973 



In the Institutes of Acber, com- 
piled by Abul J azel, A. D. 1582, this 
province is described as follows: 

" 'I'lie length of liahar, from Gur- 
her to Hotas, i.s 120 coss, and the 
breadth, from Tirhoot to the northern 
mountains, includes 110 coss. It is 
bounded on the east by Bengal, has 
Alluhabud and Oudc to the west, 



and on the nortli and south are large 
mountains. The princij)al rivers of 
this soubah arc the Gauges ar.d the 
Soane. The River Giuiduck comes 
from the north, and empties itself 
into the Ganges near liadjypoor. 
The summer months are here very 
hot, but the winter is temperate. The 
rains continue for six montlis. lu 
the district of ]\longhir is raised a 
stone wall, extending from the Gan- 
ges to tlie mountains ; and this wall 
is considered to be the boundary be- 
tween Bengal and Bahar. This sou- 
bah contains seven districts, viz. Ba- 
liar, INlonghir, Chumparun, liaj} poor, 
Sarun, Tirhoot, and Rotas. 'I'hesc 
are subdivided into 199 pergunnahs; 
the gross amount of the revenue is 
55,47,985 sicca rupees. It furnishes 
11,415 cavalry, 449,350 infantry, and 
100 boats " 

I'hc province of Bahar possesses 
great natural advantages, a temper- 
ate climate, high and fertile soil, 
well watered, productive of the drier 
graiu§^ and all the luxunes required 
by ^j^more active inhabitants of the 
nortn, • Its geographical situation is 
centrical, having easy communica- 
tions internally, and ser\ing as a 
thoroughfare for the commerce of 
Bengal and of foreign maritime 
countries, with the ]>rovinees of liin- 
dostan. 'I'hcse advantages brought 
Bahar into a high state of prosperity 
soon after the Patau conquest, which 
continued under the Mogul dj nasty. 

In Bahar, and the districts con- 
tiguous to it, a parching m ind Ijom 
the westward prevails during a large 
portion of the hot season. It blows 
with great strength during the day, 
but is commonly succeeded at night 
by a cool breeze in the opposite di- 
rection. Sometimes it ceases for days 
or weeks, giving way to easterly 
gales. Beyond the limits of Bahar 
the parching winds are still more 
prevalent ; refreshing breezes, or 
ctwiing showers of rain and hail, 
more rare. During the cold season 
a blighting fiust is sometimes expe- 
rienced iu tlie Bahar and Benares pro- 
vinces. 



64 



BAHAR. 



AgTicultiirp, mamifactiires, and 
commerce, have always greatly flou- 
rishcil in tliis province. Opium may 
be considered as its pccnliar produce 
and staple commodity^ of the coun- 
try; saltpetre is principally manu- 
factured in the districts of Ha jypoor 
and Sarun. Cotton cloths lor ex- 
portation are manufactured every 
where, in addition to which are the 
ordinary jiroduetions of grain, sugar, 
indigo, oil, betel leaf, &c. 

'i'lic manufacture of saltpetre 
scarcely passes the eastern limits of 
JBahar. It is a practical remark, that 
the production of nil re is greatest 
during the prevalence of the hot 
winds, which are perhaps essential to 
its formiftion. Tiicse parching- winds 
from tiic west did not formerly ex- 
tend beyond the eastern limits of Ba- 
har, but by the change of seasons 
which have been remarked within 
these 30 years, the hot winds have 
extended their influence to Bengal 
Pro})er. Perhaps the manufacture of 
saltpetre might, on that account, be 
attempted with success in majjy dis- 
tricts of BeJigal. 

The actual extent of the saltpetre 
manufacture would ailmit of a pro- 
duction to whatever amount com- 
merce required. What is delivered 
into the Conipany's warehouses does 
not usually cost more than two ru- 
pees per maund of 801bs. the rest, 
after paying duty and charges of 
transportation, and alfoidiiig profit 
to several intermediate dealers, sells 
in general at four and live rupees per 
maund, for internal consumption, or 
for traffic with diil'erent paits of In- 
dia. The export of saltpetre to iLu- 
rope is at all times principally con- 
fined to the Company's investment, 
but private persons are also occa- 
sioually permitted to export it under 
certain limitations. 

The opium produced in the pro- 
vinces of Bahar and Benares is 1:20- 
Bopolized by the government, and 
sold in Calcutta by public sale. For 
vajions reasons, liiis monopoly seems 
less exceptionable than many others. 
The common produce is ci^id pounds 



of. opium per bee;?ali (one-fliird of 

an acre), besides which the cultiva- 
tor reaps about 14 pounds of seed; 
and many cultivators, frojn the same 
land, obtain a crop of potherbs, or 
some other early produce. 'I'he pre- 
paration of the raw opium is under 
the immediate superintendance of 
the Comi)any's agent. It consists in 
evaporating, by exposure to the sun, 
tiie watery particles, which are re- 
l)laced by oil of poppy seed, to pre- 
vent the drying of the resin. The 
opium is then formed into cakes, and 
covered with the petals of the poppy, 
and, when sufficiently dried, it is 
packed in chests, with the fragments 
of the capsules, from which po])py- 
seeds have been thrashed out. The 
adulteration of opium is difficult to 
discover: it has commonly been sup- 
posed to be vitiated with an extract 
from the leaves and stalk of the pop- 
py, and with gum of the mimosa. 

Bahar, like the greater [lart ofHin- 
dostan, was anciently supplied with 
salt from the Lake of Sambher, in 
the province of Ajmeer; but it now 
consumes the Bengal salt, and a 
small portion of that imported from 
the coast of Cororaandel. 

In the nature of landed property 
there are several distitictions betwixt 
Bengal and Bahar, of which the fol- 
lowing are the principal : 

In Bengal the Zemindaries aro 
very extensive ; and thatof Burdwaa 
alone is equal in produce to three- 
fourths of that of Bahar, in which 
province the Zemindaries aie com- 
pariti\ cly sniall. The pow er and in- 
tluence of the jwincipal Zemindars 
in Bengal are proporlionably great, 
and they are able to maintain a de- 
gree of iiidepeudenc(.', Avhich the in- 
ferior Zemindars of Bahar have lost. 
The latter, also, luniiig been placed 
under a provincial administration, 
from distance as well as comparative 
infeiioiity, have been precluded 
from that degree of information, 
which the Zemindars of Bengal, 
from their vicinity to Calcutta, and 
access to the officers of govcruiiiejuit, 
have bcca able to obtaio. 



BAHAR. 



65 



The lands of Bahar have, from 
timeinuiieinorial, been let to farm, 
and no penci al settlement, since the 
acquisition of the Dewanny, had 
been concluded between trovern- 
nicntand the proprietors of the s«)il, 
until the final and perpetual assess- 
ment in 1792. 

'J'here arc few instances of jaghircs 
in Bengal, probably not more than 
three or four; but they are frequent 
in Bahar. 

The custom of dividinp^ the pro- 
duce of the land, in certain propor- 
tions, between the cultivator and go- 
vernment, was almost universal in 
Bahar; but in Bengal this custom 
was very partial and limited. Upon 
the w hole, the proprietors of the soil 
in Bahar were in a degiaded state, 
comparatively w ith those of Bengal. 
In Bahar there are but three princi- 
pal zemindars, viz. the Rajahs of 
Tirhoot, Shahabad, and Sunnotc Te- 
le aroy. 

The principal rivers of Bahar are 
the Ganges, theSoane, the Gundiick, 
the Dummoodah, the Caramnassa, 
and the Dcwah ; the two latter being 
boundary rivers: besides these there 
are many small streams, the flat part 
oflhis country being very well sup- 
plied with moisture. The chief towns 
are Patna, Mongliir, Boglipoor, 
Buxar, Dinapoor, Gayah, and Rotas. 
The race of men visii>ly improve in 
Bahar compared with Bengal, as they 
are taller and much more robust. 

Bahar having been, at an early 
period, conqnered by the Mahom- 
medans, anil afterwards retained in 
])crmanent subjcclion, contains a 
considerableproportion of inhabitants 
professing that religion, particularly 
in the northern and more (cultivated 
districts. Although Gayah, the birth- 
place of Buddha, the great prophet 
and legislator of the more eastern 
nations, be within the limits of this 
province, and is stili a place of pil- 
grimage for sectaries of that persua- 
sion, yet among the resident inhabi- 
tants remarkably few Buddhists are 
to be foinid, the Brahminical being 
the prevailing religion. 



In the tcmote periods of Hindoo 
history, Bahar appears to have been 
the seat of two independent sove- 
reignties ; that of Magadha. or South 
Bahar, and that of Mithila (Tirhoot), 
or North Bahar. 

An intimate connexion has always 
subsisted between this pro\ince and 
Bengal, on which account their his^ 
tories and political economy are una- 
voidably much blended; the reader 
is, therefore, referred to the article 
Bkngal, for Anther information ou 
these subjects, and more particularly 
resi)ecting the population. {J. Grant, 
Abnl Fazel, Colebrooke, Shore, Gho' 
laiim, Hosscin, Sit) 

Bahar— A large and fertile dis- 
trict in the province of Bahar, situ- 
ated betwixt the 24th and 2Gth de- 
giees of north latitude. It is bounded 
on the north by the Ganges, on the 
south l)y Ramgur and Monghir, on 
the east by Monghir, and on the west 
by the River Soane and the district of 
Rotas. 'J'his district occupies about 
one half of the whole level area of the 
district of Bahar Proper, to the south 
of the Ganges. In all its dimen- 
sions, according to iMajor Rennel, it 
contains 6680 square miles, besides 
hilly teiTitory, dismembered from Pa- 
lamow, Nagpoor, and Ramgur. 

In 1582 Abul i'azcl describes the 
district as follow s : 

" Sircar Bahar, containing 46 ma- 
hals, measurement 952,698 beegahs, 
revcmie 83,196,390 dams, seyurghal 
2,270,147 dams. Tliis sircar fur- 
nishes 2115 cavalry and 67,350 in- 
fantry." 

A great proportion of this district 
is level and highly cultivated land; 
but towards the centre are some high 
grounds, named the Rajegur Hills, 
not equally fertile. 

Although extremely well watered 
by the Ganges, Soaiie, and number- 
less smaller rivers, this is not pro]>er- 
Jy a rice country, wheat of an excel- 
lent quahty being the chief produce. 
The other articles are opium, in ^ery 
large quantiiies, cotton, castor oil, 
and saltpetre, besides all the other 
fruits and vegetables common to 



66 



LAILURA. 



Hiiidoslnfii. Thronglumt llif nbtriot 
cotton goods are iiiaiudiuducd, and 
a large (iiiaiitity of saltpetre is amm- 
ally sent to Calcutta oa the Coiii- 
paiiy's account, 

"Jho culture of this district, in the 
viciiiity of Patiia, is far siipt-rior to 
■\vliat is "cueraliy met with in Ben- 
gal. I'or several miles round the vil- 
lages of Bankijioor and Diiiapoor, 
the lieids a^^sume the appearance of 
rich and a\ ell-dressed gardens, and 
Ihe oi)eration of catering the holds is 
carried on 'with great labour and 
jierseverance. The surfncc of the 
ground, in this part of the province 
of Eahar, does not ris* more than 
30 feet above tlie level of the Gau- 
ges, and in many places the eleva- 
tion is still more inconsiderable. The 
most common crops are cotton, doll, 
and the castor oil plant (the Hicinus 
communis). The latter rises to the 
height of a large shrub, and shelters 
below its broad leaves the doll and 
cotton plants. Uarley alone is mixed 
with the common pea, is also a very 
connnon produce in this vicinity, 
but is not equal to that of Britain. 

'I'his district is on the w hole ex- 
tremely well populated, in the pro- 
portion of one Mahonuuedan to four 
Hindoos, and the euitivalion of the 
land is rapidly extending. The 
chief towns arePatua, Dinajiodr, Ba- 
Jiar, and Ga\ah. (./. (riant, 'J'cnnant, 
Coki/roohe, Ahul FtizeL See.) 

Bahar. — A town in the pro> intse 
of Bahar, district of Bahar. 05 miles 
S. E. from Patna. Lat. 25°. 13'. N. 
Long. 85°. 37'. E. 

Baharkj: BivKii. — This liver has 
its source among the .lendah n.oun- 
tains in northern llinilostan, troui 
■whence it Hows south through the 
province of Oude, to the east of the 
Coi'Cgrah, which it joins about '2fj 
uules above F}Z?.bad. 

Bahotty, (Vdhiitlacati). — A small 
town ^^itln^l the ,Seik territories, in 
the prfivinec of Lahore, siluated on 
the east side of the Jhylaia l^iver. 
Lat. 32°. /'. N. Long. 71°. .%'. 11. 
About six miles further down for- 
inerly stood the fort of Shabat-deeU; 



on the Island of Jamad, and to the 
south arc salt hills, 'i'his place is 
about 112 miles W. N. W. from the 
city of Lahore. 

IjAIIUY, {BariX — A town in the 
pvovincc of Agra, situated al»out 10 
sniles to the north of the Chumlnd. 
Lat. 20°. 4^'. N. Long. 77*^. 35'. IL 
This is the second town in jioint of 
consequence in the Kana of Dhool- 
poor's dominions. TIk; streets are 
narrow, but many ol tlic houses, 
which are built of red stone, are 
two stories high, and have a greater 
appearance of eomlbrt than is usmdi 
in Lidian habitations, 'i his place 
has. for many years, been chielly in- 
habited by Patans, and possesses se- 
veral handsome Mahommedan tombs, 
'j'hc surrounding country is frequent- 
ly haras.sed by depredations, and 
consijquently ill culti\ atcd. {Brongh- 
ton, St.) 

Baidyanath. — A village in Nor- 
thern >lindostan, in the district of 
Kemaoon, near the boundary of the 
Gerwal and Kemaoon dislricts. Lat. 
29°. 56'. N. Long. 79°. 40'. E. 

This village derives its name from 
a large temple, now in a ruinous 
condition, and no longer appropri- 
ated to sacred w orship. The images, 
which eom))rchend a large proportion 
of the Hindoo pantheon, are lodged 
in a smaller temple, which has the 
appearance of great antiquity. It 
stands on the banks of the Gautna- 
thi Bi\cr, in which are a lunnber of 
fish, that arc daily ted !>> ihe Brah- 
mins and Fakirs. An aiunuil festi- 
val is held at this ])laee, during the 
time of the Hurdwar lair, which is 
munevousl} allended by people from 
all parts of the hills, 'ihe village 
coirlains only eight or 10 houses, in- 
habited ])riucipally by Gosains; but 
there are a few' Canoje Brahmins, 
who have the superinlendanee of the 
temple The Gaumathi Biver after- 
wards fails into the Goggrah, or 
Sarjew" Biver. Badyanath, or Vaid- 
janatha, is the name of the Hindoo 
god of medicine. {Itttper, &c.) 

VuV.i.VRX. — A small town in the 
Kajuii of Mysore's country. Lat. 12°. 



BALAGHAUT CEDED DISTRICTS. 



67 



65'. N. Long:. 76°. 3'. E. Near to 
tliis town is the small River Tihadri, 
the couijtry to tlie west of wliicli is 
called Malayar, or the Hills, while 
th;it to the east is called Meidaun, or 
the open eouiitry. In Malayar there 
are uo slaves. A eonsiderable trade 
is carried on betwixt Bailnru and Je- 
manlabad, in the Malabar province. 
Cochineal to the extent of about 
1500 pounds vveij^lit is made here, 
upon the nopals raised by the farmers 
as a fence round their gardens. The 
cochiner.l is of the inferior kind,whieh 
has been introduced into lisdia. and 
the plant is the cactus, which is ab- 
original in the country. Tliis town 
in Sanscrit is named Kailapura, and 
stands at a little distance from the 
lihadri River. It has a good fort 
l)uilt of stone, with a suburb con- 
taining above 600 houses. {F. Bu- 
chntinn, ^-c.) 

Bajulpoor. — A town in the INIa- 
liaratla territories, .situated among 
the Vindaya mountains, ,35 miles S. 
fromOojain. Lat. 22°. 43'. N. Long. 
75°. 39'." E. 

B.\LAB.\c. — A small island in the 
Eastern Seas, aliout 18 miles in 
length, by four the average breadth, 
lying oil the southern extremity of 
♦he Island of Palawan. Lat. 8°. N. 
Long. 117°. 10'. E. 

B\LABALAGAN. A cUlstcr of 13 

small flat islands in tlie Straits of 
Macassar, covered with trees, and 
having navigable channels between 
them, but uneven anchorage. They 
are also named the Little Paternoster 
Isles. I'he Boadjoos fish here for 
sea swailo, or biche de mar, which 
tliey strike on the saiid at the bottom, 
in eight and 10 fathoms water, with 
an iron pronged instrument. {For- 
rest, <^r.) 

BaLAGHAUT CEnF.D DrSTRlCTS. — 

In the south of India a stupendous 
wall of mountains, named the Gliauts, 
rises abruptly from the low country, 
supporting in the nature of a terrace 
^ a vast extent of level plains, which 
arc so elevated as to alFect tlie tem- 
jjciature, and render the climate 
cooler. This table land extends from 

F 2 



the Kri.shna to the southern extremity 
of the Mysore, and is nanied Bala- 
ghaut, or Above the CJhauts. in eon- 
tradistinclion to Payenghaiit.orBelow 
the Ghauts. This extensive and fruit- 
ful region tbrmed the aneieiil Hindoo 
empire of Karnata, no part of which 
was below the mountains, althougii, 
in moderu times, the term lias been 
so misapplied by the Mahommedans 
and Europeans, as to signify exclu- 
sively the country below the Ghauts. 

In the present article the Jiame 
Balaghaut is restricted to that terri- 
tory acfpiired by the British govern- 
ment in 1800, and since subdivided 
into til.' two coUectorsliips of Bellary 
and C'udapah. 

This tract of country was acquired 
by treaty with the nizam, dated the 
r2th Oct. 1800, and compreliends all 
the territory situated south of the 
'J'oombuddra and Krishna rivers, 
which fell to the nizam's share by the 
treaties of Seringapatam in 1792, and 
Mysore in 1799, together with the 
Talook of Adoni, and all his high- 
nesses other districts south of these 
rivers. 

This large portion of country is 
what is now called the Ceded Dis- 
tricts; and to these, two-thirds of 
Pnugauoor were added, and part of 
Goodiput; having been excl'.anged 
for certain distiiets, which had been 
reserved by the treaty of Mysore, as 
the eventual poition of the i'e.sliwah 
of the Maharattas, but which, by the 
supplementary treaty of IMysore, in 
Dec. 1803, fell into the posscssioa of 
the Company. 

Under the ancient native govern- 
ments, this (juarler of the Balaghaut 
was subdivided into many districts, 
the chief of whieli were Carnoul, 
Adoni, Conmiim, HarpouuUy, Ky- 
droog, Balhary, Gooty, ^A'andicotta, 
or Gundicotta, Cudapah, Gurrom- 
coudah, Funganoor, ai:d Sidhout. 

The principal towns are Bijanagur, 
Balhary, Adoni, Gooty, Ctidapah, 
Harponully, and Gununicondah. 

Ironi the elevated surface of this 
region it has no large rivers exempt 
the IvJuisua and Tooinbuddra/ivhich 



68 



BALAGHAUT CEDED DISTRICTS. 



are its proper boundaries, but it pos- 
sesses many smaller streams. Much 
the greater portion of the lauds is 
under the dry rultivation, it being- 
calculated, that in the Ceded Districts 
the wet cultivation does not exceed 
seven per cent, of the whole 

lu the Ceded Districts there are 
vast tracts of land unoccupied, which 
may be j)loughed at once, without 
the labour and expense of clearing 
away forests, as there are above tluce 
millions of acres of this kind, which 
were formerly cullivatcd, and might 
be retrieved and occupied. 

In the ceded territories, di.stricts 
are subdivided into villages under 
the management of potails, or head 
farmers, by whom the ryots are 
guided. In all villages the latter are 
in the habit of meeting and debating 
on the subject of rent, but there are 
many villages in which they settle 
among themselves the exact propor- 
tion of the whole rent that each in- 
dividual is to pay. These are cal;ed 
vcespuddi, or sixteenth villages, from 
the land rent being divided into six- 
teenth shares. A great part of the 
Cuddapah province is composed of 
these sorts of villages, and tliey are 
scattered, though more thinly, over 
the other parts of the country. A^ hen 
the season of cultivation draws near, 
the ryots of the vcespuddi villages 
assemble to regulate their several 
rents for the year. The pagoda is 
usually the place chosen for this pur- 
pose, from the idea that its .sanctity 
will render their engagements with 
each other more binding ; every vil- 
lage in this manner being a small 
collectorate, managed by the potail, 
or head farmer. 

In 1806, after the survey of these 
districts was completed, instructions 
were circulated to nutke out new re- 
turns of the number of the inhabitants 
in every village, as far as was practic- 
able by actual muster, except with 
those casts who seclude their women 
from public view. The total numljcr 
of inhabit ants amounted to 1,917,376", 
which shewed an increase of one- 
fourtli in the population iu five years 



of tranquillity, partly arising frojfl 
the return of persons who had emi- 
grated during the nizam's govern- 
ment, but the remainder nmst be at- 
tiibutcd to the falsity of former re- 
turns. These population lists tended to 
prove, that the males were one-tenth 
more numerous than the females. 

The number of cattle and sheep 
cannot be ascertained with the same 
aceuracy, not only because the 
owners are averse to giving true re- 
ports, but because herds and flocks 
more ficquently migrate from one 
part of the country to another for the 
sake of pasture, and many herds are 
actually wild. The number of black 
cattle was estimated at 1,198,613, 
and that of buffaloes 493,906; the 
shccj) 1,147,492, and the goats 
694,633. 'J'he actual number of the 
two last is probably more, as their 
owners have a superstitious prejudice 
against their being counted by others, 
or even by themselves ; and it is, 
therefore, more difficult to obtain 
correct stuteiuents of them than of 
the larger cattle. 

In the Ceded Districts indigo is 
raised and exported in considerable 
quantities, the coarse sugar manufac- 
tory is also on the increase. Cotton 
is one of the chief productions, but 
has not increased lately. The pea- 
santry are a very industrious race, 
and most of them husbandmen by cast. 
In a political and military point of 
view these districts are of great 
value, for they are now what the 
Carnalic formerly was, the countries 
from which our armies in the Deccan 
must draw all their supplies of cattle 
and provisions. When under the 
nizara, the revenue of the ceded dis- 
tiicts was rapidly declining every 
year. An army was constantly in the 
tjeld, the expense of which consumed 
the collections, and the country was 
altogether in such a distracted state, 
tiiat the nizani seemed to have given 
it up to the Company, because he 
could not retain it m subjection. 
The Ceded Districts, when obtaiuedi 
in 1800, vrcre placed under Colonel 
Thomas Muiuo. This extensive tiacj 



BALASORE. 



6.0 



of country, ■nhich, inclmlinEf the tri- 
bntaiy district of Karnonl, is larger 
than Scotland, and contains a popu- 
lation of above two luillions, liad 
sunk to the lowest point of declen- 
sion, by a weak «nd improvident 
j^ovcnnncnt. The value at which it 
■was ceded was 16,51,545 star pa- 
godas, including; all heads of revenue. 
The collector, iu the first instance, 
fixed his rents at a rate much below 
what had been the former demand, 
increasii!^ it only as the means of 
the cnllivator, and the state of the 
country, im))ro\'cd. In tlic course 
of seven years, the land revenues 
alone increased from 10,06,693 pa- 
t^ados to 15,17,272 ; and, by the able 
conduct of Col, Alunro, tlie inhabit- 
ants of the province, from disunited 
hordes of lawless freebooters, became 
a,s far advanced iu civilization, sub- 
mission to the lav\s, and obedience 
to the magistrates, as any of the sub- 
jects under the Madras government. 
The total collections in 1808-9 
amounted to 18,02,570 star pagodas, 
of which 16,69,908 consisted of land 
revenue only. 

Up to 1810 no permanent settle- 
ment had been made in the Ceded 
Districts, but the cultivators were so 
for protected in the enjoyment of 
their property, that a fixed rent had 
been settled on all land, and every 
ryot could retain his farm, provided 
he paid that iixed rent. 

The ceded teiritories are novir di- 
vided into two collectorships, or dis- 
tricts, viz. Bellary and Cudapah. 

This part of India having been 
brought under tlu; Mahominedan 
yoke at a late period, and never 
thoroughly subdued or settled, the 
proportion of that religion to the 
Hindoo is small, probably not jnore 
than one in lo- 
in remote times these provinces 
formed part of the last existing Idin- 
doo kingdom <tf Jiijaiiagur, to which 
article tlie reader is releiTed for some 
historical particulars. A great pro- 
portion of the modern polygars claim 
tjcseent from the oflicers of the Bija- 
jiagur empire, and some from the 



royal family. On the fall of the Mo- 
gul dynasty it contained several small 
independent states, particularly the 
Patau Nabobs of Adoni and Cuda- 
pah, and sullered encroachments frotn 
the Curtnrs of the Mjsore. It was 
mostly conquered by Hyder, between 
1766 and 1780, and 'in 1800 was 
transferred to the British go-.ern- 
ment. {Col, T, Munro, bth Report, 
Rcnnel, Tliackeraij, Hoclson, ^-c.) 

Balambangan. — A small island in 
the Eastern Seas, about 15 miles in 
length, by three in breadth, lying off 
the northern extremity of Horuco. 
Lat. 7°. 15'. N. Long. 117°, 5', E. 
The harbour called the North East is 
the largest ; but at that on the south 
side, where the English settled, the 
ground is suampy. It is very con- 
venient for watering, as by means of 
a hose the water may bo conducted 
on board without landing the; casks. 
The soil is rich and fruitful, and tlio 
haibonr abounds with fi»h. At the 
north east harbour the soil is sandy 
and banen. 

In 1774 the East India Company 
formed a settlement here with a view 
to the spice trade, but were trea- 
cherously expelled by the Sooloos in 
1775, who surprised the Buggess 
centinels, turned the guns against 
the guard, and drove the settlers ou 
board their vessels. The settlemeat 
was re-established in 1803, but after- 
wards abandoned. It does not a[)- 
pear that this settlemciit would have 
answered any purpose capalde of 
compensating the great expenditure 
requisite to sustain it. The island, 
prior to 1774, was uninhabited, and 
has proliably remained so ever since 
the British quitted it. (Forrest, 5"c.) 

Balasore, {Valeswaru).- a town 
in the province of Orissa, district of 
Mohurbunge, 1 10 miles S. W. from 
Calcutta. Lat. 21°. 31'. N. Long. 
87°. 13'. E. 

This town is built along the Booree 
Bellaun River, where the tide com- 
monly rises eight feet, 'I'he streanj 
is not avigable for vessels of greater 
burden than 10!) tons, and even these 
can only get over the bar at spring 



70 



BALKY. 



tides, Balasore ^yas formerly a flou- 
rishing port, but their manufactory 
of Saiiaes cloths is very much fallen 
otf, both in quality and qi;antity. At 
a very eaily period the Portuguese, 
Dutch, and Eui^lish, had factories 
here, long a2;o in ruins. 

On the 2luh Nov, i68S, during a 
rupture between the East India 
Company and Aurengzebe, Captani 
I feaUi landed a body of troops and 
seamen, attacked and took a battery 
of 30 pieces of cannon, and plini- 
dercd the town of Balasoro. I'he 
English factory was burned by the 
governor, and the Company's ser- 
vants carried prisoners up the coun- 
try, and it does not appear that they 
were ever released. 

The native vessels from Balasore 
and Cultack, which carry most of 
the grain from Bengal to Madras, 
arc larger and of a superior descrip- 
tion to other native vessels employed 
on tliis coast. After having made 
one voyage lo Madras, they usually 
return for a second cargo, wiiiuh they 
gciicraliy land there in the latter end 
of April, or beginning of May. They 
afterwards proceed toCoringa, which 
is a favourable port, both for obtain- 
ing repairs, and cargoes of salt for 
Bengal. 

Tlie town of Balasore was ceded 
to the British government, along with 
this part of Orissa, by the Nagpoor 
Maharattas, during the administra- 
tion of the Marquis Wellesley in 
1803. Pilots for the Calcutta Kiver 
are procincd in Balasore Roads. Tra- 
veUing distance from Calcutta to Ba- 
lasore 141 miles S. W. {1st Register, 
Leckie, Bruce, Rowel, Reports, ^-c.) 
BiLCHORAH. — A town in the Bri- 
tish territories, in the province of 
Oude, situated near the northern 
luouataius. Lat. 28°. 42'. N. Long. 
81°. 12'. E. 

Balfxundah, (BaJikhanda). — A 
town in the nizam's territories, iu 
the province of llyderabad, situated 
oi» the south side of the Godavery. 
Lat. 19°. 10'. N, Long. 70°. 2L»'. E. 

Balg AUM. — A town in the province 
of Gujrat, situated on the read be- 



tween Tlahdunpoor and Therah, a 
few miles south of the latter, and be- 
longing to an independent Cooly 
chief. I'wo miles north of it is ano- 
ther Cooly chief's den, named Ba- 
ningpoor. The surrounding country 
is overspread witii jungle about 15 
feet high. {3P3Iurrlo,\c.) 

Balharv, (Bcllarif). — ^The terri- 
tories ceded by the nizam, in 1800, 
werw subdivided into two coilector- 
shi])s — Balhary and Cudapah; the 
former comprehending the western, 
and the latter the eastern districts. 
(See Balaghaut ceded territories.) 

Balhary, {Vidannri). — A town, 
situated on the west side of the Hog- 
gry River, 187 miles N. from Se- 
ringapatam, and the capital of one 
of the Balaghaut collectorships, info 
which the ceded districts were di- 
vided. Lat. 15°. t/. N. Long. 76°. 
55'. E. 

Ballary is a lull fort, with a forti- 
fied pettah, near to which is fixed the 
head quarters and cantonments of a 
military division. 

The ancestors of the Balhary po- 
lygars held the oflice of Dewan under 
tlie Rayeels of Annagoondy, and ac- 
quired several zemindaries. His de- 
scendants paid tiibute to the Beja- 
poor sovereigns, and afterwards to 
Aurengzebe. In 1775 Hyder took 
Balhary, when the polygar made his 
escape;. He returned, and levied 
contributions in 1791, but was driven 
out the year following, and is since 
dead. With him the family becamp 
extinct, although several pretenders 
afterwards appeared. (2'. Mmn-o, 
12 Retr. ^-c.) 

BvLKY, (Phalaci). — A town in the 
nizam's tcnitories, in the province of 
Boeder, 45 miles N. E. horn Kalber- 
gah. Lat. 17°. 49'. N. Long. 77°. 
29'. E. This is a large town, but 
now greatly decayed. It was former- 
ly surrounded by a wall, with a num- 
ber of round bastions, and its rajah 
possess(!d the pcrgunnahs of Nitone, 
Moorg, and Balky. It now answers 
the description of a large village bet- 
ter than that of a town. (Upton, 
Reg. S)-c.) 



BALOOCHISTAN. 



71 



BALT,ANnotTAKG. — A district, situ- 
ated ill the sonth-oasti'rn extiTiuity 
of the Island of Java, aloui^ the Straits 
of Bally. 

A (liaia of hif::li mountains com- 
mences in this district, and extend 
to the westward, decretisin'? jjra- 
dually in heii;!it. This n.li;e di\jdes 
.lava l<in^it\idinal!y into two portions, 
of which the noHhern is the largest 
and the best. From these mountains 
many rivers descend, but none of 
them arc navi^,able for larfic vessels; 
the most considerable is that of Joana. 

IJallanbouani;- Bay, the oitrauce of 
which begins at Gooningikan, in the 
Straits of iJaly, is entirely desert, 
and covered with thick woods down 
to the water's edge, and haunted by 
various sorts of wild beasts. The 
ianding at Kallandjouftiig is diflieuit, 
and the coast dangerous, i)arljcularly 
to tiie north of the river, where there 
is a sand bank. 

In the Ballaiibouang district tliero 
are some pepper and <;oflee planta- 
tions, but the climate is tlestructivc, 
and the c^nst little Irequcuted. {Sia- 
rurhiiis, Tonibe, cVf.) 

Ballapili.y, {Balapnii). — A town 
in the JJalaghaut ceded territory, dis- 
trict of Commim. Lat. 15°. 45' N. 
Long. 78°. 38'. K. 

Ballapoou. — A town in t!ie ni- 
zam's territories, in the province of 
Berar, 3.5 miles W. lioni l';Hich[)oor, 
Lat. 21°. ly'. N. Long. 77°. 32'. J',. 

Baliaghaut. — 'I'his is the Ghaiit 
or Port of Calcutta, on the Salt Lakes 
to the east, where boats and cralt 
land their cargoes. It was formerly 
tuo miles from Calcutta, and the 
road dangerous to travellers, from the 
number of tigers that inhabited the 
jungles on ea(-h side. A remark able* 
change has since taken place, there 
being an avemje of houses and gar- 
<lcns the whole way. Some old inlia- 
bitants, still resident in Calcutta, re- 
collect a creek which ran from Chand- 
paul Ghaut to Baliaghaut. They 
pay that tlie drain from the govern- 
ment house is where it took its course, 
and there is a ditch to the soutii of 
the Be} takJianab, whicli shews evi- 



dent traces oftlie continuation of this 
creek. {5ih Report, iVc) 



liALOOCllISTXN, (Bahdiaatfiaii). 

A large province to tJie west of the 
Indus, bounded on the north by Can- 
dahar and Seistau in Persia; en the 
south by the sea ; on the east it has 
Shekarpoor and the j)roviiice of Siu- 
de; and on the west, IMckran, iu 
Persia, The space comprehended is 
principally situated between the 25tli 
and 30th degrees of north latitude, 
and the G2d and 69th of east longi- 
tude ; but the political limits of tlic 
province are in such a perpetual state 
of Ihictuation, that it is almost im- 
jiossible to deline them. 'J li»' nanies 
of th»; principal provinces are Jala- 
wan, Sarawan, Zukrce, Mekran, Ijis, 
and Mutch ; but this includes t( rri- 
toiies not subject to Mahmood Khan, 
the prcK* nt Ameer of Kelat, the ca- 
pital of the province. 

'J'o the south. Baloochistan Proper 
connncnces at K obi nee, 25 mdes 
N. I;;, li-om Bajla, in latitude 20° 
3.5'. N. from which place it e\tend.s 
to Nuoshkv, 79 miles N. AV. from 
Kelat. Lat" 30°. N. This country is 
described as a confused hcaj) of 
inountHins, through w iiieh the roads 
generally lead in water courses, a.'id 
tiie beds of small rivers. Jhalawan 
is tlie most southern district of 15a- 
loochistan, and Sarawan the most 
northerly. They are amass of moun- 
tains from Kohunwat, on the fron- 
tiers of Lus, to the desert which di- 
vides them from Candahar ; theiciigtii 
of this stupendous range being 350 
miles, but varying in brt adtii at dif- 
f<!rent places. 'J'hc.se mountains are 
barren, and chieily cojuposi'd of hhjck 
i,r gr(-y stone ; but the valbcs of 
AViidd, Khozdar, andSohrab, are ca- 
pable uf cultivation. The climate of 
this Alpine region sussimilates, in a 
considerabl dv'gree, to that of Eu- 
rope, there being four distinct sea- 
sons — spring, sumuier, autumn, and 
winter. 'I'he heat is seldom un- 
pieasaatly great, but the cold is iu- 



72 



BALOOCHISTAN. 



tense dnrinp; the nionlhs of Decem- 
ber, January, and lebriiary. 

The plains ofWiidd, Kliozdar, and 
Sohrab, produce t'avonrable seasons, 
plentiful crops of wlicat, barley, and 
joaroe ; and in some of tke lesser 
vallies grass grows al.undantly. — 
Flocks of sheep and cuttle aie nu- 
merous in e\ cry part of the country. 
Jhalawan and Sarawan arc subdi- 
vided into smaller districts, and each 
district into innumerable khcils or 
gocieties, each of which finnish their 
quotas of troops according- to its y.o- 
pulation, or the exigence of the scr^- 
>ice. 

Shal and Mustung, two stages to 
tlie northward of Kelat, Avere given 
to Nassir Khan by Nadir Shah, for 
his services at Meshed, and Anund 
Dajil for those in Hindof:tan. The 
chmate of Cutch Gundava is exces- 
sively hot, the winds which prevail 
there in the summer being often fatal 
even to the natives. 

Nooshky is a small tract of about 
36 square miles, at the base of the 
Kelat mountains. It is an arid tract, 
the sand hills of which are continu- 
ally shifting with the winds. A small 
stream, called the Xysuj, issues from 
the hills, and irrigates a small por- 
tion of the country. 7'here are also 
small patches of land capable of cul- 
tivation in (iiiierent parts of the sand, 
but which frequently become sterile 
for want of rain. l1ie inhabitants of 
this quarter of Baloochistan dwell 
Under black felts, stretched over a 
frame of wickerwork made of the 
guz plant ; this species of village is 
named 'lomun, or Kheil, and in 
most of them a few Hindoos are to 
l)e found. 

The soil of this district being so 
.•sandy, tin; heat is excessive during 
the summer months, at which timo 
the inhabitants migrate to the moiui- 
tains for cool air and water, as the 
stream fails in the valley at that sea- 
son. The inhabitants import grain 
from Cutch Cundava and Seistan, 
and dates from Mekran. Tiic 13a- 
Jooch o Ik re arc called Nljarroes, or 
Rukshaoii, aad j^re related to those of 



tlie same tribe in Seistan and Bun- 
poor. In appearance they are tall 
nien with small bones, are extremely 
idle and dissolute, and addicted to 
tiiieving. They undertake predatory 
incursions to Mekran, and carry off 
into slavery any person they m* et 
with; sonif they sell at Kelat and 
Candahar, the remainder are brought 
in the horde, and incorpoiatcd with 
the tribe. In. this part of the country 
all the Balooches understand Per- 
sian, but thty speak a dialect of the 
Euioochy language among them- 
selves, different trom that of the 
Kooigalee spoken by the Bra- 
hooees, 

Sohrab is a fine valley extending 
north and south nearly 50 miles, by 
about 12 miles in breadth. The centre 
through which the water from the 
hills runs, is well cultivated, with 
small villages scattered about half a 
mile asunder. The mountains, in 
many parts of Baloochistan, are inha- 
bited by shepherds, who reside in 
temporary huts erected on any spot 
that offers good pasturage. 

There are few countries in tlie 
world so wholly without commodities 
suited for commercial exchange as 
Baloochistan, which originates partly 
from the dispositions of the natives, 
who are adverse to all the arts of 
civil life, and partly to the nature of 
the country, cojisistiiig either of stu- 
pendous mountains, or of arid plains, 
destitute of water or vegetation. Nei- 
ther has Baloochistan the benefit of 
a ny navigable river to transport its ma- 
nufactures or natural productions, if it 
l}ad any ; and the roads are generally 
nothing but the dry beds of torrents. 
The population is also dispersed into 
small societies, generally hostile to 
each other, and yielding but a no- 
minal obedience to any chief. 

The Baloochys and Brahooees, the 
two principal tribes, are subdivided 
into many different khejis or tomuns, 
but thrir actual number has never 
been ascertained with any correct- 
ness. In religion they are of the 
Sooni sect of Mahommedans, and 
strenuous aclvcrsaries of the fcJhecasi, 



BALOOCHISTAN. 



73 



The following: are the 
tribes of Brahooecs, \iz. 



pr 



iiicipal 
Men. 



Tlie Kumbnranee (the tribe 
of the Chief, Malimood 
Khan), estimated at - - 1000 
The tribe of Meiigul, esti- 
mated at ----- 12000 

Zuicree - - 6000 

Panduraiii - 6000 

Nahari ------- 6000 

Imaum Hosseiug - _ - - 4000 

Beguiigje ------ luOO 

The Balooches, railed Nharroe or 
Riikshani, inhabit that part of Ba- 
loochistau lyinj? west of the desert, 
and are a tribe of 1000 tip;hting- men, 
by whom the jiidgails, or eiiltivators, 
have been nearly exterminated out 
of Northern Mekran. 1'he P.^w Bra- 
hooees that have settled in Mekran, 
are naturalized with the Brahooees 
of that country. In Cutch Gundava 
there are no Brahooees, but Baloo- 
ches of the tribes of Kind and Mwg- 
ree, who formerly emigrated from 
Mekran, and live in villages, which 
retain the appellation of 'Foomuns. 

The Brahooees of Balottchistan are 
a strong, hardy raee of men, their 
bones being short, and unconmionly 
thick. Their cast of countenance is 
extremely diiVerent from that of Asia- 
tics in general, having round faces 
and blunt features, more like Eu- 
ropeans. They are hard working 
men, and eat voraciously of halt- 
dressed meat and sour milk. All the 
Balooches are exeelleiit workmen, 
but none are equal to the Brahooees 
in strength and courage. They train 
greyhounds with great care, and fre- 
quently cxeliange them for one or 
two camels, or pay 400 rupees for 
one when of a superior quality. Their 
breed of shcpli."rds' dogs is also ex- 
cellent. The broad-sword exercise 
and shooting at a mark are favourite 
amusements with the Brahooees, and 
as swordsmen they are said to excel. 
Their coinmon dress is an undercoat, 
which fits close to the body, and is 
worn over the pyrahun, or shirt ; their 
trowscrs are gathered up at the aiiklc, 
4 



and they wear a small round flat- 
topped cap of felt silk. The shep- 
herds wear a covering of white felt 
above the shirt in winter, with cloth 
trowsers, and a small felt cap. The 
Brahooees sometimes breed horses 
large and hardy, equally accustomed 
to the cold of Kelat, and the heat of 
Gundava, but they are often vicious. 

Amongst the dispersed societies of 
Baloochistan there are a few Hindoos 
scattered, who carry on the miserable 
traffic of tlie country, and act as mo- 
ney-changers and agents to the na- 
tive chiefs. It is probable, that long 
after the first Mahommedan invasion, 
a great proportion of the country still 
continued in the occupation of the 
Hindoos ; but for more than a cen- 
tury past the Mahommedan tribes 
liave been so progressively increasing; 
in barbarity, that no medium could 
be observed, and the native Hindoos 
have either undergone compnlsory 
conversion, or deserted the country. 
The few who are still resident seldom 
bring their families, and have pro- 
bably much degenerated, as travellers 
have not observed that they have the 
repugnance to flesli-meat, which cha- 
racterizes most of the purer casts in 
India. 

Two centuries ago the city of Ke- 
lat, with the sunounding country, 
was possessed by Sewah Kajah, a 
Hindoo, at which period the Baloo- 
ches (as at present) tended flocks of 
slieep in the mountains. I'he inha- 
bitants Mere much infested by the 
depredations of the people residing 
in the low country, lying between 
Kelat, Sinde, and Shekarpoor; and 
to protect them the rajah sent for 
Kuraber, a Baloochy chief, and took 
him into his service, allowing him 
five bundles of glass and wood per 
day for each man. In the progres- 
sion of time this chief increased his 
followers, and seizing the govern- 
ment, raised the tribute to 100 bun- 
dles of grass and wood daily, besides 
a contribution of horses, camels, and 
footrunners. This tribute is still oc- 
casionally exacted by the Khan of 
Kelat, aud paid by the dehuars, or 



74 



BALLY. 



pcasanfrj'. ifi the immediate nci<:^li- 
boiirhood, who are said to have come 
oiit^inally from Persia, although they 
Iiave miieh the appearance and man- 
ners of Hindoos. 

Kiunber, the first usurper, was 
succeeded by his son 

Sumbar, the father of the next 
prince, 

Mahommed Khan, who was suc- 
ceeded by his son 

Abdulla Kiian, the father of 

Nassir Klian, who ascended the 
throne after putting to death his bro- 
ther, Hajce Khan. This prince per- 
formed some important services to 
Nadir Shah, who rewai-ded him with 
the donation of several adjacent pro- 
\inces ; and, being a man of consi- 
derable abihties, greatly extended 
the Baloochistan dominions, wiiich 
he left, in a comparatively floinish- 
ing state at his death, in 1795, to his 
eldest son, Malmiood Khan, who 
then ascended the throne. Since this 
period, the territories subject to Ke- 
lat have been greatlj' curtailed by the 
Ameers of Sinde, and other neigh- 
bouring princes, the talents of IMah- 
inood Khan being veiy inferior to 
those of liis father. He is at present 
about 29 years of age, and his bro- 
ther, Mustapha Khan, about one 
year younger, I'he latter is repre- 
sented as being of an active martial 
disposition, loud of the chace, and 
desirous of improving the hereditary 
dominions, by the suppression of the 
numerous bands of robbers, by which 
the country is desolated. 

'JTie temtory immediately subject 
to IVIahmood Khan comprises tho 
high hilly country of Siwislan, and 
the low lands of Cuteh Gundavaand 
Amund Da jil to the eastward, bound- 
ed on the north by Khorasan ; !»outh, 
by Lus and Sinde; on the west l)y 
^lekran, and on the east by Sinde. 
His whole clear revenue does not ex- 
ceed three lacks of rupees, and is 
collected from Anund Daji!, Cuteh 
Gundava, and the bazar tolls of Ke- 
lat. 'I he Khans of Baloochistan ac- 
knowieilge the paramount authority 
of^the Cabul sovereigns, to whom 



tliey are feudatories; but tlicir de- 
gree of obedience is in proportion to 
the talents of the reigning prince, 
and the political circumstances of the 
Cabul goverimient. Upon an mgent 
emergency, it is supposed the terri- 
tories of Mahmood Khan are capable 
of furnishing 25,000 infantiy and ca- 
valry, but so great a ninuber has ne- 
ver yet been collected together, nor 
would it be easy, in so bancn a 
country, to support them if they 
were. {Christie, Kinneir, ^-c.) 

Bally, {Bali, or Little Java). — 
An iidand in the Western Seas, se- 
parated from Java by the Straits of 
Bally, and lying betw ixt the 8th and 
0th degrees of south latitude. In 
length it may be estimated at 70 
miles, by 35 llie average breadth. 

This island is well cultivated on 
the south side, and many of the 
lands are inclosed. It is populous, 
and the inhabitants spin a great deal 
of cotton yarn, which the Chinese 
export to Bencoolen, as also check- 
ered cloth. The Chinese also carry 
in sloops, from Bally to Bencoolen, 
pickled pork and jerked beef, w hi(Ji 
the Malays call ding-ding. Tl^e Bug- 
gesscs export cotton, both raw and 
spun into yarn, from this island to 
Cebbes, packed in baskets. 

At the ro.ad of Carang Asseni on 
this island, refreshments for ships 
may be had ; and in the Straits of 
Lombhook, west of Carang Asscni, 
are several places well iidiabited, 
named Padaug. Casamba, and 'I"u- 
bang. The Straits of Bally are dan- 
gerous, and but seldom frequented 
by European vessels. 

The languages spoken by the in* 
habitants of Bally api)ear to be dia- 
lects of the Javanese. The greater 
part of them profess tlu; religion of 
their ancestors, resemble the Hin- 
doos in their looks, wear the Hindoo 
mark on their forehead, and tlve wo- 
men burn tiiemsclves with their de- 
ceased husbands, according to the 
practice of the Hindoos. They aro 
peculiarly addicted to the worship of 
Indra, Suna, and Vishnu. 

An intfe'icuursu is carrij^d on be* 



BAMIAN. 



75 



fween the natives of Bally and the 
Dutih settlement at Baitiiowaiigie, 
oil the opposite shore of the Straits 
in the Island of Java, but none arc 
received, unless I'nrnislied witlj a 
passport vvrilien on a badainier leaf. 

A lea,c;iie and a half within the 
western coast of BaJly, opposite to 
Baf^nowangie, there is a v'okano, 
which frequently discharges a sliower 
of ashes, which cover the Dutch port 
and ^illfige, and ail the vicinity ; and 
to this vnlcano, with great injustice, 
settlers at Bag;nowaugie atlri'>ute the 
inihealthiness of the station. {For- 
rest, Let/den, lontbe, ^x.) 

Balumba. — A town and fortress 
possessed by the Rajah ot Aiuran, in 
the Gujrat Peninsula, situated on 
the Gulf of Cutch. 

Balny. — A town in the Dindigul 
district, 26 miles W, by N. from the 
town of Dindigul. Lat. 10°. 2(i'. N. 
Long. 77°. 41'. E. 

Bambarah. — The niins of a city 
in the province of Sinde, district of 
Tatta. Lat. 24°. 40'. N. Long. 6/°. 
.50'. E. The i-ite <jf this place was 
on a hill now covered with trees and 
bushes, and exhibiting in the neigh- 
bomhood many totnljs of ^indyaa 
warriors, who tell lure in a battle 
fought between Ghoianm Shah and 
Meer Ali. 'I'he niins now perceptible 
at Bambarah arc conjectured to be 
those of an ancient city, named 
Brahminabad by the Persian aut!;ors, 
which, in the 10th century, was the 
capital of a nourishing Hindoo prin- 
cipality. {Maxfield, ifc) 

Bambere. — A town in the IMaha- 
ratta territories, in the province of 
Khandesh, 70 miles E. from Surat. 
Lat. 21°. 18'. N. Loiig. 74°. 1'. E. 

Bameeny, {Yamani). — An island 
lying olf the coast of Cliittagoitg, in 
the province of B<.Migal, formed by 
the sediment deposited by the great 
Kiver INlegna, and like the adjacent 
islands very little elevated above the 
level of the water. In length it may 
be estimated at 12 miles, by live the 
average breadth. '1 he tide runs in 
this vicinity \\\\\\ frightful rapidity, 
which renders the passage to and 



from the island extremely dangerous. 
Tlie govenmient have liere an esta- 
blishment for the manufacture of 
salt, suijordinate to the Buiwah and 
Chittagoug agency. 

Bam I AN, {Baini}/an). — A city in 
Persia, the capital of the province of 
Bamian, which is bounded on tlie 
east by Cabul. Lat. 34° 30'. N. 
Long. 60°. 57'. E. 

Although this tovv^n be situated to 
the west of the Hindoo Kho moun- 
tains, and appertains geographically 
to Persia, yet, during the reign of 
Acber, it was subject, with the dis- 
tiict, to the throne of Delhi, as ap- ' 
pears by the foUowins: description by 
Abul I'azel, A. D. 1582. 

" In the distiict of Zohak Bamian 
is the castle of Zohak, a monument 
of great antiquity, which is in good 
condition, v\ bile the fortress of Ba- 
niian is in ruins. Tooraan Zohalc 
Bamian 861,750 dams." 

This fanious city, tlie Thebes of 
tlie east, is situated on the road be- 
tween Bahlac and Caind, eight days 
joiuney liom the latter place. Like 
Thebes of Egypt, it is entirely cut 
out of an insulated mountain. To 
tlie south of it, at the distance of 
two miles, are the ruins of an an- 
cient city named Ghulghuleh, v\hich, 
according to tradition, was destroyed 
at a very early period by the Ma- 
hommedans. The city of Bami}an 
consists of a vast number of apart' 
uients and recesses, cut out of the 
rock ; some of which, on account of 
their extraordinary dimensions, are 
supposed to have been temples. In 
the Ayeen Acberg, composed by 
Abul Tazel. it is saiil there are 12,000 
of these recesses in the district of 
Bamian. 

I'he attention of travellers, how- 
ever, is principally attracted by two 
colossal statues, 50 cubits high, 
which are. erect, and adhere trt the 
mountain in niches. At some dis- 
tance from these two is a smaller 
oise, 15 cubits high. One of the largo 
statues is supposed to represent a 
male, und one a female, and the 
small one their sou. They are all 



76 



BAMCA. 



much disfigured, and the legs of the 
male broken; for the Mahoiiimedans 
never march that way, Mithoutfiriiij? 
two or three shots at tiiem; but, 
owing to their wajit of skill, they 
seldom do much mischief. From the 
numerous fragments remaining, it 
would appear as if there had been 
many hundred statues in this district; 
and Praun Poory, the Hindoo ascc- 
tick, who visited tliis place betwixt 
1770 and 1780, mentioned with ad- 
Biiration the number of statues tliat 
then existed, althougli the place had 
been long deserted by its inliabitants. 
In A. D. 1220 it was taken and des- 
troyed by Gengis Khan. {Wilford, 
Duncan, Abul Fazel, S)C.) 

Bamoo. — A town in the northern 
quarter of the Binnan empire, only 
20 miles from the frontiers of the 
province of Yunan, in China. Lat. 
21°. N. Long. 96°. 66'. E. This 
toM'n and province were taken from 
Hie Chinese by the Birmans, since 
the accession of the present dynasty. 
The road from this town to Manche- 
gee, or Yiinan, lies through moun- 
tains, and this is the usual route of 
the Birman envoys going to Pelcin. 
(Sipncs, ?fc.) 

Bamori. — A small village in Nor- 
thern Hindostan, containing 30 or 
40 huts, situated in the district of 
Almora. Lat. 29° 16'. N. Long.79°. 
35'. E. 

This village belongs to the Mewa- 
tis, who have termed a small colony 
in these forests, and levy a contri- 
bution on all goods and passengers, 
on their way to and trom the hills. 
An annual lair is held here in the 
dry season, to which the hill peo[>le 
bring their merchandize for sale, or 
to exchange it for the productions 
of the low lands. Bamoii is the li- 
mit of the Goorkhali tcnitorics in 
tliis quarter. {Kaper, ^c.) 

Bampoor. — A town in the IVIaha- 
ratta territories, in the province of 
Malwah, 33 miles S. from Kotah. 
Lat. 24°. 44'. N. Long. 75°. 43'. E. 

Bamuaguii, (Paniaraghar). — A 
town in the province of Urissa, situ- 
at«l oa the cast side of tlie Brah- 



miny Noy River, 73 miles N. W. 
from Cuttack. Lat. 21° 4'. N. Long. 
85°. 12'. E. A few miles to the 
south are iron mines and forges, 
which, with the town, are possessed 
by independent zemindars. 

Banass River. — SccBunnass. 

Banaul. — A small district about 
the 34th degree of north latitude, 
situated among the southern hills, iu 
the province of Cashmere. 

At tile distance of five miles to 
Uie south-east of the village of Ba- 
naul, begins a boundary of a divi- 
sion of the Cashmere territory, lying 
without the greater circle of moun- 
tains. The governors of Cashmere 
permit the fertile valley of Banaul, 
which is 10 miles iu length, to re- 
main uncultivated, that it may not 
atlord shelter or provision to the bor- 
dering Hindoo states; who, in for- 
mer periods, have, through this 
tract, approached the interior passes 
of Cashmere. The Banaul district is 
mountainous, and looks down on the 
plains of Cashmere to the north. 
(Foster, ^-c.) 

Banaul. — A town in the province 
of Cashmere, district of Banaul, 43 
miles S. E. from the city of Cash- 
mere. Lat. 33°. 65'. N. Long. 74°. 
18'. E. 

Banaavara. — AtoAvnin the Rajah 
of Mysore's territories, situated on 
the side of a large tank, with a good 
mud fort. Lat. 13°. 14'. N. Long. 
76°. 14'. E. 

This place is in a fine open coun- 
tiy, and contains about 500 houses, 
many of which are inhabited by 
Brahmins. (/". Bnchanan, ^c) 

Banca. — An island lying off the 
north-eastern coast of Sumatra, from 
which it is separated by the Straits of 
Banca. In length it may be esti- 
mated at 130 miles, by 35 miles the 
average breadth.' 

'J'he tin mines on this island are 
reported to have been discovered in 
1710 by theburning of a house. 1 hey 
are worked by a Chinese colony, 
said to consist of 25,000 persons, un- 
der the nominal directions of the 
King of Palemhang, but for the ac- 



BANCAPOOR. 



77 



count and benefit of the Dutch Com- 
pany, which endeavoured to mono- 
polize the tiade, and actually ob- 
tained two millions of pounds ainui- 
ally. Privjtte 'merchants, Eus^iish 
and Americans, also found moans to 
participate in the trade. jMany car- 
goes arc yearly carried to CMiina, 
■\vlicrc the consumption is chielly for 
religious purjK)ses. It sells there 
lather higher than the English grain 
tin, as the Cluuese say it is more 
malleable, and on that account pre- 
fer it. Of the Banca tin sand, 133 
pounds is said to yield about 75 
pounds of the metal. There are 
seven principal places where it is 
dug, which are under the directions 
of Chinese man;igers, who provide 
and pay the miners. The latter are 
arrived at much perfection in reduc- 
ing the ore into metal, employing 
wood as fuel. In tbrmer times, tlie 
profit from it to the Dutch East India 
Company was estimate d at 150,()0Ul. 
bnt very little was sent to Europe. 

At the island the price of the tin, 
in a great measure, de|)ends on the 
number of ships that are in want of 
it. Spanish dollars are tlie only 
article that can command a cargo, 
the sale of goods being (luubtlul,and 
ducatoons not liked. The Chinese 
have taiight the Malays to put iron 
shot and stones into the middle ofthe 
slabs; it is necessary, therefore, to 
have them well examined. 

Banca is opposite to the River 
Palembang, in the Island of Suma- 
tra, on which the nominal sovereign 
of Banca, possessor also of the tor- 
ritoiy of I^alembang, resides. The 
island and tin mines were taken 
possession of by the British, in 1813. 
{Marsden, Staunton, Stavorinus, El- 
more, Dnanmond, i^-c.) 

Banca, (Straits of). — ^The island 
of Sumatra forms the western side, 
and tiiat of Banca the eastern side 
of the straits. In passing through 
them, tli(; coast of Sumatra may be 
approached somewhat closer than 
that of Banca. The country is co- 
vered with wood down to the water's 
edge, and the shores are so low, that 



the sea outflows thclaiid, and washe.^ 
the trunks ofthe trees. 

I'hc depth of water is very irregu- 
lar, the water shoaling, in some 
s[)ots, in one cast of the lead, from 
12 to seven fathoms, and in others 
from seven to four. There are also 
coral shoais so near the surface, as to 
be easily distinguished by the whiten- 
ed sheet of water over them. The 
Straits of Banca should always be 
entered with a favourable monsoon, 
according to the destination of the 
vessel. 

At the small Nanka Isles, wood 
for fuel, and water of an excellent 
cpuility, may conveniently be pro- 
cured. The tide in these roads rises 
and falls about 11 feet. It is per- 
fectly sheltered from S. \^', by S. to 
N. W. and there can be no high sea 
with any wind, as the land is but a 
short distance on the open points. 
The latitude ofthe Nanka Road is 
2°. 22'. S. Long. 106°. 41. E. 
{Staunton, King, ^c.) 

Banca. — A very small island, sur- 
rounded by a cluster of smaller, ly- 
ing oil the noi th-eastern extremity 
of Celebes. Lat. 1°. 50'. N. Long, 
125°. E. This island has a harbour at 
its south end, abounds in cocoa nuts, 
limes, jacks, fish, turtle, and rattans, 
and is well inhabited. Near Banca. 
is the Harbour ofTclUisyang, called 
Talissc by \alentyn, aj which are 
some wild cattle,' but no inhabit- 
ants. 'J'hcse islands are much fre- 
quented by the piratical cruizers 
from iVIagindanao and Sooloo. {For- 
rest, Sf-C.) 

Bancapoor. — A district in the 
province of Bejapoor, possessed bv 
diHeient jaghiredars, the feudatories 
of tlie Maiiaratta Peshwa. Informer 
times this district was frequently do- 
nominated Shalmoor Bancapoor. 

Bancapoor. — A town in tlie pro- 
vince of Bejapoor, in the Maharatta 
territories, .'iO miles S. S. E. from 
Darwar. Lat. 14°. 5b'. N. Long. 
75°. 16'. E. This is a large town, 
and was ibrmerly a pli<cc of impbrt- 
aiice. Tiie fort was dismantled by 
Tippoo's army, diaing one of his 



78 



BANDA. 



campaigns against the Maharattxs, 
at which time this wns one of the 
chief Ibitilications in tlic Shahurutr 
district, and was to distinguisli it 
from other places of the same name, 
called Shauoor Bancapnor. The 
city of Sliahnoor is in sight five or 
six miles to the north-east. {Moore, 
§-c.) 

Bancapoor. — A town in theRoiah 
of tiie Mysore's territories, IU8 miles 
N. W. from Scriu2;apatam. Lat.l3°. 
33'. N. Louf^. 75°. 45'. E. 

Bancook. — A sea port in the king;- 
dom of Siam, situated on the east 
side of the Siam River. Lat. 13°. 
40'. N. Long. 101°. 10'. E. 

This place is properly the sea port 
of tiie city of Siam, ships of burthen 
seldom ascending the river higher, 
and it is distant from it about 42 
Diiles. Towards tlie end of the 17th 
century, when an alUance subsisted 
between Louis the XIYth and the 
sovereign of Siam, tliis place was 
ceded to the French, who here 
erected a fortress, wiiieh they re- 
lahicd for several years. It does not 
appear, however, that they ever de- 
rived any essential benefit frem it, 
as their trade w ith Siam was always 
insigniticant. On the degradation 
and subsequent death of Coustan- 
tiiie Faukon, prime minister to the 
King of Siam, they were expelled 
from the country, and have never 
since attempted to recover then- iu- 
tiuence in it. 

Bancoot River. — A small river 
in the Concan province, on the west 
coast of Jndia. which rises in the 
Western Ghaut INIouutaius, and 
falls into the sea. after a shortcourse, 
near to Fort Victoria. 

Banda. — ^The islands of Banda, 
situated about 120 miles E. S. E. 
from Ambayna, arc 10 in number, 
viz. Banda Neira, Goouong Assi, 
Banda Lantour, Pulo Ay, Pulo 
Rundo, Rosyugen, Pulo PLsang, 
Craka, Capella, and Souangy; that 
of Banda Neira hing in Lat. 4°. 
30'. S. Long. 130°. E, being the 
scat of the supreme goverameut of 
tLc whole. This. island has a spar 



cious harbour, but very difficult io I 

be entered. Ships anchor under the 
cannon of two forts, named Belgica 
and Naiissan. The rise of the tide 
is seven feet. 

The next island is that of Lantoir, 
or Banda Proper, which is about 
eight miles in lengtji, and, at (he 
eastern extremity, live miles in 
breadth. The third and fourth isles 
in importance are PiUoway and Pu- 
lorun. These four islands were the 
only places where the cultivation of 
the nutmog tree was allowed by the 
Dutcb East India Company. Oa 
the island of Rosyngeii there is a re- 
doubt, to which state prisoners were 
often bauished, and Goonong Api 
has a volcano constantly emitting 
smoke, aiid often flames. Under the 
Dutch there were several other 
islands belonged to the Banda go- - 
vernment, known by tlie appellation 
of the Southwestern and South East- 
ern Islands. Their inhabitants sup- 
plied the Dutch settlers with con- 
siderable quantities of different sorts 
of provisions, which they bartered 
for piece goods and other articles. 

I'he Banda Isles are all high. The 
soil is a rich black mould, covered 
with trees, chiefly nutmegs. The 
Dutch Company were the absolute 
proprietors of the soil, as well as of 
the slaves who cultivated it. The 
rearing of the nutmegs being the 
chief object, the islands were divided 
into a number of plantations for that 
purpose, under the management of a 
mixed race of Europeans and In- 
dians, either as proprietors or lessees 
of the spice plantations. The nut- 
meg grow s to the size of a pear tree, 
ajid it;; h-avcs resemble the laurel. 

It appears from experience that 
two-tiiirds of all uutnicg trees are 
barren, yet it cannot be discovered 
until the r2th or 14th year, so that 
they cauiiot be cut dov, n at an ear- 
lier'age. Its fruit bearing quality is 
of short duration, as it will only yield 
w ii liom the 12rii to the 20th year, 
and geueially perishes at the age of 
24 jear.s. Each tree will produce 
about 10 pounds auuualiy. From 



BANGALOOR. 



7JI 



Ihc imperfect nutmegs an oil is ex- 
pressed. 

F.xclusivc of the provisions sont 
annually by the Dutch from I'.atavia, 
piece <j,<^uiJs, cutlery, iron, ajul other 
articles of merchandise, %\(re im- 
ported. The Burg;hers and Chinese 
merchants exportrd these articles to 
Aroo, New Guinea, Ceram, and the 
South West Islands. In return they 
received from Ceram, sago in bread 
and llower, and sometimes salted 
deer ; from Aroo they imported pearls, 
bird nests, and tortoise shells. J'roui 
these islands they also procured 
slaves. Cattle and grain Mere im- 
ported from liatavia. 

The real quantity of nutmeg and 
maee(a membraneous substancewhieh 
envelopes the nutme<;) produced iu 
the Banda Isles has ne^ er been ex- 
actly ascertained. When captured 
by the EngUsh, in 1796, tlie annual 
produce was about 163,000 pounds 
of nutmegs, and 46,000 pounds of 
mace; the number of inhabitants 
5763. Under the old Dutch govern- 
ment the produce w as much greater, 
and may again be restored to its for- 
mer amount if wanted. At the peace 
of Amiens these islands were de- 
livered up to tlic Batavian govern- 
ment, and were retaken by the Bri- 
tish in 1810. {Stavoiimis, Asiatic 
Registeis, Sx.) 

Banditti Isle. — A small island in 
the Straits of Lombhook, about 20 
miles in circnmt'erence. Lat. 8°. 50'. 
N. Long. 115°. 35'. E. 

Bandooguu. — A town in the pro- 
\-ince of Gundwana, 60 miles N. by 
E. from Mundlah. Lat. 23°. 32'. N. 
Long. Sl°.25'. E. 

Baundhoo, or Bhatta, iu the tune 
of Aurcngzebe, was the name of the 
northern part of the tiindoo province 
of Gundwana, then by an irapcriid 
edict annexed to the Soubah of Al- 
lahabad, though actually indcpend- 
f nt. It is now possessed by an in- 
dependent Goand chief. (J. Grant, 

Banga, (Blianga). — A town in the 
province of Jjcngal, district of Sylhet, 
34 miles E.byS. iiom the to\v'n ol' 



Svlhet. Lat. 24°. 51'. N. Long. 92°. 

lb'. !■;. 

Bangaloor, (Batigalmii). — A for- 
tified town in the Rajah of Mysore's 
territories, founded bv Hvder. I^at- 
12°. 5;'. N. Long. 77°. 46'. K Y.y 
barometrical observations it stands 
2901 [cct above Madras. 

The country is very naked from 
Catcolli to this place, about one-tenth 
only appearing to be arable, and not 
above one-twentieth of the latter is 
watered. The pasture is ratlier bet- 
ter than what is usually seen above 
the (jihauts. To the south of Ban- 
galoor, about Kingara and Windy, 
there is a great deal of stunted copse 
Mood abounding with tigers. The 
villages are ]io<ir and small, and arc 
not fortified like the othi-rs in the 
country, the woo<!s by which they 
arc sunounded ha\uig, probably, 
been suilicient to keep off the irre- 
gular tioops that attend Indian ar- 
mies, and which consist generally of 
cavalry. 

At Bangaloor. and the adjacept 
country, Indian hemp, gunny, or ero- 
talaria juncea, is a considerable pro- 
duction, from vhieli a coarse but 
very strong sackcloth is made. Castor 
oil is made indifferently from either 
the large or the small varieties of the 
riehms. It is the common lamp oil 
of tiie country, and also used in me- 
dicine. 

I'ht; fort, constructed by ITydcr 
after the best fashion of Mahornme- 
dan architecture, was destroyed by 
his son TipiKX), after he found how 
Uttle it was littcd to resist British ar- 
mies, but, in 1802, was repaired by 
the Dewan, Pnrueah. 

The gardens made by Hyder and 
Tippoo are extensive, and divided 
into square plots separated by m alks. 
The Mahonnnedan tashion is to have 
a separate piece of ground allotted 
for each kind of plant, liius one 
plot is entirely filled vvith rose trees, 
another with pornegTanatcs, and so 
forth. In this climate the cypress and 
vine grow luxuriantly, and the apple 
and the pea^-h^ both produce fruit : 
strawberries iiKo ujc r;iist;vl in the 



80 



BANGALOOR. 



sultan's gardens, and probably most 
European fruits and vrgetubles 
would, in this elevated re^Jiion, arrive 
at perfection. Some oak and pine 
plants introduced from the Cape secin 
to thrive well. 

Duiing; Hjder's reign this city was 
\cry populous; Tippoo began its mis- 
fortunes by prohibiting trade with 
the dominions of Arcot and Hyder- 
abad, because he detested the pos- 
sessors of both countries. IJe then 
sent laige quantities of goods which 
he forced the merchants to take at a 
high rate. These oppressions greatly 
injured the place, but it was still po- 
pulous, and many individuals were 
rich, M hen Lord Cornwaliis anived 
before it, in great distress from want 
of provisions. This reduced him to 
the necessity of giving the assault 
immediately, and tiie town was con- 
sequently plundered. 

Below the Western Ghauts the 
people of Bangalore principally trade 
with the inhabitants of Maugalorc, 
named here Codeal, or Cowdal. 'I'o 
that place are from hence sent cotton 
cloths, both white and coloured, and 
manufactured in this neighbourhood ; 
the returns are raw silk and silk 
cloths. The trade to Calicut was 
formerly considerable, but latterly 
much reduced. 'Ihe chief import 
from tlie nizam and Maharattan ter- 
ritories is cotton wool, which is very 
considerable, with some coarse cot- 
ton thread; the returns from Banga- 
loor are made chielly in money, with 
some few cotton and silk cloths. 

The imports from the Comjjany's 
tenitories in the Lower Carnatic are 
salt, sulphur, tin, lead, zinc, copper ; 
European steel, paints, and glue ; in- 
digo, nutmegs, cloves, camphor, and 
benjamin ; raw silk and silk cloths ; 
Englisli woollen cloths, canvass, and 
blankets; English and native paper; 
English hardware, glass ware, and 
looking glasses ; china, sugar candy, 
Bengal sugar, dates, and almonds. 

The returns from Bangaloor are 
chiefly betel nut, sandal wood, black 
pepper, true cardammos, shicai, and 
tajnaiinds. TIk.; balance of mouey 



is generally due by the low cotinlry 
merchant. Tanjore merchants bring 
hither pearls, and take away money. 
Betel nut at Bangaloor is the most 
considerable article of trade, and 
next to that the country black pep- 
per and sandal wood. Numbers of 
cumlies, or Idack blankets, are sold 
here. A kiiul of drug merchants, 
called Gandhaki, at Bangaloor, trade 
to a considerable amount. There is 
a great deal of salt brought from the 
lower Carnatic, as none but the poor- 
est people will eat that made in 
the country. Goods of all sorts are 
transported on the backs of bul- 
locks, which animals, when employ- 
ed in carriage, are always shod 
with light iron shoes. The salt and 
grain carriers generally use asses, or 
a very }ioor sort of bullock, which 
gets nothing to cat except what they 
can pick up by the road side. 

Tlie clothes nuide here, being en- 
tirely for country use, and never hav- 
ing been exported to Europe, are 
made of different sizes, to adapt 
them to the dresses of the natives. 
The Hindoos seldom use tailors, but 
wrap round their bodies the cloth as 
it comes from the loom. The silk 
weavers make cloth of a very strong 
fabric, of the silk that is imported in 
a raw state, but which may in time 
be raised in tlie country. The intro- 
diietion of the silk worm has not ycit 
succeeded in the Lower Carnatic, 
but there is reason to believe the 
country above the Ghauts, havirig a 
more temperate climate, m ill be found 
more suitable. There is a small duty 
levied here on every loom, which is 
gradually diminished on those who 
keep many. At the weekly markets 
the cotton is bought uj) in small 
quantities by the poor women of all 
casts, exccj>t the Brahmins ; tor 
these never spin, nor do their hus- 
bands ever plough the soil. The 
women of ail other casts spin, and 
at the weekly markets sell the thread 
to the weavers. 

At Bangaloor (here are many in- 
haintar.ts of the Mahommedan re- 
ligion ; and, owing to the change of 



BANJARMASSIJ^. 



81 



igrbvcMinient, many of tlieni in great 
distress. Above the Ghauts the le- 
prosy, in which the skin becomes 
viiite, is very common among the 
natives. The persons troubled with 
It enjoy, in every other respect, good 
health, and their children are like 
those of other people. 

The only year used above the 
Ghauts is the Chandranianam, or 
hiiiar \oar, by which, among the 
Brahmins, all religious ceremonies 
are performed. At Bangaloor, the 
iC'hristian era of 1800 corresponds 
with the year 4893 of the Cali Yiig, 
and 1722 of Salivahanani, which is 
iji universal use in the south of India. 

This place was first acquired to 
the Mysore state in 1687, during the 
reign of Chick Deo Raj. 

Travelling distance from Seringa- 
patam, 74 miles ; from Madras, 215 ; 
and from Hyderabad, 352 miles. {F. 
Buchanan, Willis, Lord Valentia, Ren- 
neJ, c.S"c.) 

Banglor, (Bangalnrn). — A small 
town in the Mysore Rajah's territo- 
ries, 20 miles S. E. from Bangaloor. 
Lat. 12° 47'. N. Long. 78°. 2'. E. 

Banouey. — A small island, situ- 
ated off the northern extremity of 
Borneo, 23 miles in length, by 11 
the average breadth, on which there 
is a small river of fresh water, and 
})Ienty of tintle. Lat. 7°. 15'. N. 
Long. 117°. 25'. E. 

Banhangur. — A town in the pro- 
vince of Gundwana, district of Singh- 
rowla, 88 miles S. S. W. from Be- 
nares. Lat. 24°. 4'. N. Long. 82°. 
35'. E. It is in the possession of in- 
dependent Zemindars. 

Baniack, (or Pooh Baniack). — A 
small island lying off the west coast 
of Sumatra, about Lat. 2°. 10'. N. In 
length it may be estimated at 17 
miles, by seven the average breadth. 
Poolo Baniack is known by a peaked 
hill, resembling a sugar loaf, on the 
N. \V . end of it, and has a chain of 
ishnids to the N. E. 

Banjarmassin. — A town and dis- 
trict on the south eastern coa.st of 
Borneo. Lat. 3°. S. Long. 114°. 65'. 
E. The River BanjaiTuassin has a 





sliallow bar at the entrance, over 
which a boat cannot float, though 
light, until after the first quarter of 
the flood. Ill this river there is a 
poisonous fish or prickle, which 
wounds the people in the feet who 
attempt to drag the boats over the 
bar. This brings on an immediate 
swelling in the leg, with violent in- 
flammation, causing shortly after de- 
lirium ami death, no antidote being 
hitherto discovered for its cure by the 
natives. Ships anchoring in the Har- 
bour of Tombanjou, or Tombornio, 
near the mouth of the river, can be 
supplied with water, and also with 
plenty of fowls and ducks, and ex- 
cellent fish, both salt and fresh. — 
Many Chinese reside in this place 
and neighl>()urhood, from whence a 
considerable trade is carried on with 
China. The imports to Banjarmassin 
consist chiefly of opium, piece goods, 
coarse cutlery, gunpowder, small can- 
non, and fire arms ; the exjiorts are 
pepper, camphor, gold dust, wax, 
rattans, bird nests, biche de mar, 
and some spices. 

The Dutch for a long time main- 
tained a factory here for tlie collection 
of, or purchasing of pepper and 
rough diamonds. They used to re- 
ceive 600,000 lbs. of pepper ; the 
other articles of tiade were wax, 
canes, and sago. Banjarmassin was 
of no importance to the Dutch East 
India Company, as they did not pos- 
.•iess a foot of land beyond their 
fort, and were obliged constantly to 
guard against the attacks of tlie na- 
tives. It was originally a conquest 
made by Kings of Bantam in Java, 
which afterwards devolved to the 
Dutch. 

In 1636 the English factors at 
Bantam sent a small vessel to Ban- 
jarmassin, and obtained 150,000 lbs. 
of pepper ; and, in 1700, while the 
two East India Companies existed 
together, the English, or new Com- 
pany, established a factory here. 

In 1706, the English settlement at 
Banjarmassin consisted of one chief 
four members of council, one factor' 
and three writers; one officer, 25 



82 



BANTAM. 



English, three Dutch, and 10 Ma- 
cassar soldiers; nine J';uroj)can ar- 
tificers, 31 Javanese carpenters, five 
Chinese carpenters, two Chinese 
bricklayers, 70 labourers, 36 slaves, 
and nine European seamen. In ad- 
dition to this the council requested 
from home a large supply of military 
stores, and 100 Europeans, two years 
being required to complete the forti- 
fications. This is an instance of 
the rage for multiplying settlements, 
which then existed, the establish- 
ment being equal in magnitude and 
expense to that of Calcutta, yet the 
trade so insignificant, and the cUmate 
so destructive, that it was soon aban- 
doned as worse than useless. As an 
inducement to persevere in maintain- 
ing the settlement, the agent re- 
ported to the Court of Directors that 
the island yielded pepper, gold, dia- 
monds, dragons' blood, wax, cloves, 
bark, and canes. Pepper was the 
chief article, of which it appears 
1000 tons were procured annually. 

On the 27th of June, 1707, the 
natives suddenly attacked the Eng- 
lish settlement ; and, though they w ere 
at first beat ofl", the loss of the Eng- 
lish in killed was so great, that it m as 
resolved to abandon the place. The 
Company's treasure was saved, but 
the damage sustained on shore Avas 
estimated at 50,000 dollars. This 
attack from the Banjauiens was 
ascribed by the surviving settlers to 
tlie instigation of the Chinese, who 
were jealous. of the English. 

Banjarmassin has always been 
famous for steel, which is reckoned 
equal to that of Europe. {Bruce, 
Stavorinns, Sfc.) 

Bankybazak. — A small town in 
the province of Bengal, on the cast 
side of the Hooghly Biver, 13 miles 
north from Calcutta. The Dutch had 
formerly a factory here, frojn which 
they were expelled by Aliverdi Khan. 

Bansy, (Vansi). — A town in the 
British territories, in the province of 
Oude, 44 miles N. E. Irom Fysabad. 
Lat. 27° 7'. N. Long. 82° 53'. ]<:. 

Bantam. — A town in Java, the ca- 
pital of a district, comprehending 
3 



the western extremity of that island. 
Lat. 6°. 4'. S. Long. 106°. 3'. E. 

The Bay of Bantam, which, in 
early times, vas the principal ren- 
dezvous of the shipping from Europe, 
is so choaked up with daily acces- 
sions of new earth washed down from 
the mountains, as well as by coral 
shoals extending a considerable way 
to the eastward, that it is inaccessible 
at present to vessels of Imrthen. 
With the trade of Bantam, the power 
of the sovereign has declined, and 
the king has for many years acted as 
a sort of viceroy for the Dutch. 

Bantam is situated 53 miles from 
Batavia, and is a town of consider- 
able extent, but only fortified on 
the land side. It is built v holly of 
bamboo, and stands on the Bay of 
Bantam, near the mouth of a river 
Avhich falls into the bay. The king 
resides in a kind of palace built in 
the European style, within an old 
ruinous fort, containing 80 pieces of 
cannon, of all sizes, some without 
carriages; but the whole unservice- 
able. Contiguous to it is the Dutch 
fort, which conunands tliat of the 
king as w ell as the city, and is in a 
good stale of repair. The Dutch 
garrison here consists of a command- 
ant, four artillery officers, and 50 
Europeans, who encamp on the out- 
side of the city, on account of its un- 
healthiness. 'I'he Dutch East India 
Company kept a garrison here no- 
minally to defend the king from all 
hostile attempts; but, in fact, to have 
him always in the Company's power. 
The chief authority on the part of the 
Dutch East India Company was vest- 
ed in a senior merchant, with the 
title of Commandant, who had the 
management of the trade, which con- 
sisted chiefly in pepper and some cot- 
ton yarn. To the conmiandery at 
Bantam also belonged the residencies 
at Lampong, Toulang, Baunang, and 
Lampong Samanca, situated on the 
southern part of Sumatra. The Ban- 
tam sovereigns possessed the power 
of life and death over their subjects, 
but paid an annual tribute of pepper 
to the Dutch, of which tins state, 



BANTAM. 



83 



with its dcpendeJicies, furnished an 
annual supply of six millions of 
pounds. The King of Bantam was 
also deprived of the power of nomi- 
nating;: his successor, the Company 
selecting one of the royal family for 
that office. On great public days tlie 
King of Bantam assumes the Eu- 
ropean costume, and dresses in an 
embroidered scarlet or other coloured 
coat, with boots, spurs, a sword, and 
poinard. The inhabitants of Bantam 
in general wear their hair loose, with 
Ji small cap,.and nanow round hat 
witliout a brim. 

Prior to the Dutch invasion Ban- 
lam was a powerful state, the sove- 
reigns of which had made many con- 
quests on the neighbouring islands, 
particularly Sumatra and Borneo, 
which afterwards devolved to the 
Dutch. To this king's dominions 
also belonged all the islands in the 
Straits of Sunda, from Prince's Island 
to Pulo Baby, or Hog Island. Many 
of these are inhabited, but others are 
desert, and the resort of pirates and 
smugglers. 

Since the Dutch took possession of 
the adjacent province of Jacatra, and 
interrupted tlie communication with 
the rest of tlie island, the limits of 
Bantam have been much contracted, 
it still comprehends a considerable 
extent of territory, from the River 
Taganrong, two leagues from Ba- 
tavia, to the western extremity of 
the island. Its population is consi- 
derable, and is nnich augmented by 
Madman deserters, slaves, Chinese 
bankrupts, and even murderers, who 
take refuge within its boundaries, 
where the police officers of Batavia 
dare not pursue them, although the 
principality be tributary to the Dutch. 

In 1595, the Dutch Commander, 
Houtman, with four ships arrived at 
Bantam, being the first Dutch squa- 
dron that had reached India. He 
assisted the king against the Portu- 
guese, and obtained leave to build a 
factory. In Sept. 1G03, Capt. Lan- 
caster completed his cargo at this 
place, settled a foctory, and then re- 
turned to England. 

G 2 



In 1674 the King of Bantam equip- 
ped ships on his own account, and 
sent tliem with produce to the coast 
of India, and even into the Persian 
Gult^ These ships were mostly man- 
ned by seamen who had deserted 
from the East India Company's ser- 
vice, and managed by some of their 
inferior civil servants. In 1677 Mr. 
White, the agent on the part of the 
East India Company, and the greater 
part of the civil servants, were mas- 
sacred by the Javanese during an 
excursion up the river, the sultan 
being either ignorant of this attack, 
or affecting to be so. In 1681 the 
King of Bantam dispatched ambas- 
sadors to England, requesting assist- 
ance; but, it appears, without suc- 
cess ; for, in 1682, Bantam was taken 
by the Dutcli, tliey having assisted 
the king's son to expel his father. In 
1683 tiiey dethroned the son, and as- 
sumed the trade and government of 
Bantam and its dependencies ; upon 
which event the English East India 
Company's establishment quitted the 
place, and retired to Surat. 

The climate of Bantam is still 
more pestilential than that of Bata- 
via, of which a remarkable instance 
is mentioned. On the night of the 
18th March, 1804, the King of Ban- 
tam was murdered by one of his 
grand nephews, who had concealed 
himself under his bed, and who was 
afterwards discovered, and put to 
death. An embassy was sent from 
Batavia, to elect and instal the new 
king in the name of the Dutch Com- 
pany, part of which ceremony con- 
sists in lia\ ing him weighed in a pair 
of scales at the palace gate, after 
having feasted for 15 days. This de- 
putation was composed of a coun- 
sellor of India, four senior merchants, 
a major, lieutenant, Serjeant, two 
corporals, 18 I'Vencli and 18 Dutcli 
grenadiers. The external forms oc- 
cupied 15 days ; at the end of which 
time, or soon after their return, the 
whole of the European grenadiers 
and subalterns died, except two or 
three of the French who escaped. 
The counsellor, his wife, who had 



84 



BARBAREEN. 



accompanied him, the niajoi-, and 
four merchants, all returned with 
putrid fevers, whicli bronglit them to 
tlie l)rink. of tlie grave, and the se- 
cretary died. In 1811, after the eon- 
({uest of Batavia, the town and dis- 
trict of Bantam surrendered to tlie 
British arms without resistance. (Sta- 
vorinns\ Tombe, Bruce, Staunton, Qnar- 
te7-hj Review, ^'c.) 

Ij^R, — A town in the province of 
Bahar, district of Bahar, 35 miles 
E. S. E. of Patna. Lat. 25°. 28'. N. 
Long. 85°. 46'. E. 

B.4RKABUTTER.— A fortrcss in the 
province of Cuttack, about a mile 
N. W. from the town of Cuttack, 
built of stone, and surrounded by a 
very broad ditch, filled tVoiu the Ma- 
hanuddy River. This was tl;c strong- 
est fortress possessed by the Maha- 
vattris in the province, but was taken 
by storm by the British forces on the 
14th Oct. 1803, and was ceded at 
the peace along with the surrounding 
country. {LecJue, Upton, Vc) 

Barahat. — A town in northern 
Ilindostan, situated amongthc moun- 
tains in the province of Serinagur. 
Lat. 30°. 48'. N. Long. 78°. 22'. E. 

The houses of this town are budt 
of large stones, with a slated roof, 
and su tiered greatly by an eartluiuake 
in 18U3, wliich almost destroyed it. 
Barahat is the capital of aTalook of 
the Kowain, and originally acquired 
its name from being the chief mart ol 
12 \ illaa;es. Its central position en- 
ables it to maintain a free comnnuii- 
cation with all parts of the hills, and 
pilgrinw going to Gangotri in general 
halt here, and lay in a slock of pro- 
visions for 10 (tr 14 days, as there are 
no interme<liate villages where they 
could l)e certain of pro< uring sup- 
plies. The only article brought from 
anv distance is salt from Bitotan, but 
the quantity is snutll. The distance 
from hence' to Gangotri is seven days 
journey, to .Janiautri five, to Kidar- 
nauth 12. and to Seriiuignr si\ ; but, 
excepting to the latter place, the 
roads are very bad and dillicult. 

Near this village is a curious tri- 
dent, tlie pedestal of which is made 



of copper, the shaft of brass about 
12 feet long, and the forks of the 
trident about six feet long. By what 
means it came hither has never been 
discovered, and although the inscrip- 
tion be legible, it is said to be neither 
Nagari, Persian, nor Sanscrit. There 
was formerly a temple over it, whieli 
w;is thrown down by the great eartii- 
quakc in 1803, {Roper, Vc.) 

IJauaiche, {Bharech). — A district 
in the province of Oude, extending 
along the north side of the Devali. 
or Goggrah River, and separated 
from the dominions of Nepaul by a 
ridge of lotfj hills. Some part of 
this district was ceded to the British 
government in 1 800, but a great pro- 
portion of it still reniauis in the pos- 
session of the Nabob of Oude. The 
northern part is very hilly, and co- 
vered with forests, but towards the 
Dewah, on the south, it is more level 
and fertile. 'I'he Dewah and Baharee 
are the principal rivers, and the chief 
towns Baraiche and Bulrainpoor. 

In 1582 this district is described 
by Abul Fazel as follows : — '* Sircar 
Barayitch, containing 11 mahals, 
nieasurement 1,823,435 beegahs, re- 
venue 24,120,525 dams. Seynrghal 
46(i,482 dams. This Sircar furnishes 
1170 cavalry, and 14,300 infantry." 

Baraiche. — A town in the Nal>ob 
of ( hide's territories, district of Ba- 
riache, of which it is the ca|)ital. 
Lat. 27°. 31'. N. Long. 81°. 36'. E. 
It is described by Abul Fazel as 161- 
lows : — " Bariache is a largo city, de- 
lightfully situated on the River Sy. 
Sultan Alassaood, and Rejeb Sillar, 
are both buried here, and held in 
great veneration." 

Baran River. — ^This river has its 
.source in the Hindoo Kho moun- 
tains, from whence it thjws in ,\n 
easterly direction through the N. 1 1. 
quarter of the province ofCabul, and 
atterwards joins the Chuganscrai 
liiver in the district of Kameh. 'J'heir 
united streams afterwards fall into 
the Cabul, or Attock River. 

Barbareen. — A small village on 
the S. AV. coast of Ceylon, with a 
sort of harbour formed bv a projet- 



BAREILY. 



85 



tioii of laud, wlifio llif river rims 
into tlic M-a. Lat. 0°. 33'. N. Long". 
79°. 5.V. F. 

Tliis is almost tliP only part on the 
roast Mherc tliP liitili surf ami rocky 
shore permits ships' boats, of (h(> Eu- 
ropean construction, to land. 'I hero 
is a manufactory liere for makiuj? 
eor(la<;e from the fibres of the cocoa 
nut husk. A few miles farther south 
the best oysters on the island are 
found, which are of a dilferent sort 
from the pearl oysters at IManaar. 
Barbareen is a ^lahommedan viUag^e, 
and the IModeliar, or chief, is also a 
Mahommedan. The inhabitants are 
fhiedv artisans, who besides the rope 
niamifactory, work in all kinds of 
metal, and make swords. poi;;nards, 
and thin scabbard of jrood workman- 
ship. (Pcrciral, M. (Jra/iam, S)C.) 

'liAV.CELOR^,{B(tssuritrn). — A town 
on the sea coast of the i)rovincc of 
Canara, Lat. 13°. 37'. N. Lonj!;.74° 
46'. E. This i)lace was probably the 
port l?arace of the ancients. In 
157.5 IJarcelore was governed by a 
female sovereign, or ranny, the 
daughters always succeeding to the 
government, and the men serving 
under them as officers. A consider- 
able trade formerly subsisted be- 
tween tliis station and the Arabian 
coast. 

BaREILY, (Barali). — A district in 
the j)rovince of Delhi, situated prin- 
cipally betwi\t the 28th and 29th 
degrees of north latitude. In the 
Institutes of Acber it was compre- 
hended in the Sircar of Budayoon, 
and descril'.ed under that name, but 
the original appellation of a great 
proportion of the country pnor to 
the Itoiiillah compiest was Kuthair; 
subsequent to this latter event it was 
incorporated with the province of 
Kohilcund. 

The surface of this district is, in 
general, level and well watered by 
many smaller rivers besides the Gan- 
ges, which bounds it to the west. 
The chief towns are Bareily, Anop- 
sheher, Rampoor, and Budayoon. In 
summer, notwithstanding its north- 
ern latitude, the heat is very intense; 



but dining the winter months, when 
the wind blows from the northern 
mountains, the thermomcler falls be- 
low 30°, aud water in the tents 
freezes. 

After the conquest of Kohilcund, 
in 1774, by Sujah ud Dowlah, as- 
sisted by the British troops, it rapidly 
declined, and became almost a w aste. 
Betwixt Anopsheher and Bareily ex- 
tensive wastes, formerly under cul- 
tivation, every where meet the eye. 
'1 liey are covered with long grass, 
v\hich, in the hot season, becomes 
so parched as to be easily combusti- 
))le ; and abounds with foxes, jack- 
alls, hogs, hares, and every sort of 
game, w hich range these wide plains 
immolested. 

In 1802 this large district was 
ceded to the Biitish government, 
when it was subdivided into col- 
lectorships, and a general court of 
appeal and circuit appointed to ad- 
minister justice. At this time their 
internal situation was very unpro- 
mising, aiul the inhabitants greatly 
imjjoverished. Since then, travellers 
w ho iiave visited this territory, men- 
tion the general st.ate of prosperity 
and im|>roved cultivation which it 
now exhibits, compared with its de- 
solate appearance when ceded to the 
Company. On this event fairs were 
instituted by Lord Wellesley upon 
the borders of the Rohilcund coun- 
try, for barter with the people of 
Nepaul and Serinagur. 

In this division ot Bohilcund there 
are few Hindoo temples to be found 
of any considerable magnitude, 'i'he 
zeal of the Mahommedans appears 
to Iiave been too intolerant, and 
their ])ossession too pennanent to 
permit them. The natives are a tall 
handsoine race of j.eoplc, and when 
«'omjiared with the more southern 
inhabitants of India, are white and 
well featured. 

Bohilcund Euj-ruckabad, and the 
upper part of the Doab, abound with 
a warlike race of Mahonnnedans 
ready to join any leader. Some 
thousands of this description served 
under llolkar, and many are now 



86 



BARRACKPOOR. 



with their countryman Ameer Klian. 
They are disaflected to the British 
government, not because it is unjust 
or oppressive^ but because there is 
no employment for them, and they 
are left inactive, without distinction 
and >vithout subsistence. Few of 
these people enlist in the British ser- 
vice, because they cannot bring 
tliemselves to submit to tlie strict- 
ness of European discipline. These 
Patans are, in general, reduced to 
much distress ; they are idle, and 
with difficulty and reluctance apply 
to any profession but that of arms. 
Amongst them the influence of a 
rebellious or disaflfected chief over 
his followers is very great, and is not 
founded in the popularity or suppos- 
ed justice of his cause, and very httle 
on the probability of his success. 
Though he be a mere robber, and 
his situation quite desperate, still his 
people will adhere to him to the last, 
and never betray or forsake him. 

The Bareilly division of the court 
of circuit comprehends the following 
districts, viz. 1. Caunpoor; 2. Fur- 
ruckabad; 3. Etaweh; 4. Agra; 6. 
Allyghur ; 6. South Saharunpoor ; 7. 
Moradabad ; 8. Bareily. 

The Mahommedan inhabitants of 
this district approach nearer to an 
equality of numbers witli the Hin- 
doos than in most of the others of 
Hindostan, but still are considerably 
inferior. {Tennant, H. Strachei/, 5th 
Report, Foster, 8fc.) 

Bareily. — A town in the pro- 
vince of Delhi, district of Bareily, 
of which it is the capital ; and, at 
present, of Rohilcund generally. Lat. 
28°. 22'. N. Ijong. 70°. 21'. !■:. 

This town is situated on the banks 
of the united streams of (he Jooah 
and Sunkra, about 40 miles from the 
Ganges, and is a large and populous 
city. The fort is a great inegular 
mass of building, equally destitute of 
elegance or strength, and without 
bastions for guns. Brazen water 
pots are manufactured here in great 
numbers. I'his was the capital of 
Hafez Rahmut, a Rohillah chief, 
slain at the battje of Cuttcrah, and 



here he lies interred. In 1774 it was, 
along with the district, added to the 
dominions of Oude ; and, in 1802, 
transferred to the British. 

Tiavelling distance from Delhi 142 
miles; from Calcutta, by Moorshe- 
dabad, 910; by Birbhoom, 805 miles ; 
from Lucknow, 156 miles. {Hard- 
wicke, Franklin, Rennet, <^c.) 

B A REND A, {Varendra). — A district 
in the province of Aurungabad, si- 
tuated partly in the nizam's territo- 
ries, partly in those of the Maha- 
rattas. The country about the town 
of Barenda is level and open, but 
the nizam's portion is of a more 
mountainous nature. The principal 
river is the Seena, and the chief 
towns Barenda and Pangauw. 

Barenda, or Perinda. — A towii 
in the province of Aurungabad, 125 
miles E. by S. from Poonah. Lat. 
11°. 19'. N. Long. 75°. 51'. E. This 
is a large city, now much decayed, 
with a stone fort. 

Barkope, {Varaciipa). — A village 
in the province of Bengal, nearly in 
the centre of the Jungleterry of Bog- 
lipoor. 

Barnag ORE, ( Varanagara). — A 
small town on the east side of the 
Hooghly River, about three miles 
above Calcutta. It was originally a 
Portuguese settlement, but after- 
wards came into the possession of 
the Dutch. Here the coarsest sort 
of blue handkerchiefs are manufac- 
tured. 

Barooly Ghaut. — A pass into 
the hills which bound the province of 
Bcrar to the north, through which 
there is an ascent to a table land. 
The source of tlie Wurda River is 
two miles north from Baroolj\ 

Barrackpoor. — A town in the 
province of Bengal, situated on tlie 
cast side of the Hooghly River, 16 
miles above Calcutta. Here are the 
xmfinished arches of a house begun 
by the Marquis Wellesley, but dis- 
continued by the frugality of the 
court of Directors. In the park there 
is a menagerie, but it contains few 
animals of any sort. Horse races 
arc run here iu the cold season, go- 



BARRAMAIIAL. 



a7 



vcrnmcnt having: discouraged those 
at Calcutta. (3/. Gruham, Jiv.) 

Baukakur. — A river in Wui pro- 
vince of Bahar, which, after a sliort 
course, joins the Dumniooda, in the 
district of Pachete. 

Barkamahal. — A district in the 
south of India, situated bclwixt the 
12th and 14th degrees of north lati- 
tude. The 12 places properly con- 
stituting the Barraniahal are all in 
Dravida Desain, which is hounded 
on the west by the Ghauts, au<l on 
the east by the sea. These 12 places 
are Krishnagiri, Jacadeo, Varina- 
ghada, Maharaj'-ghada, Bujunga- 
ghada, Tripatura, Vananibady, Gan- 
gana-ghada, Sudarshana-ghada, and 
Tatucallu. 

After the fall of Seringapatam, in 
1799, several districts of Karnata 
were annexed to this province ; viz. 
the talooksof Dcnkina Cotay, Hosso- 
uru, Kellamangaluni, Ratnagiri, Vin- 
catagiri, Cotay, and that ])ortion of 
the Alhimbady Talook which lies to 
the left of the Cavery, together with 
the Polyams, or feudatory lordships 
of Punganiu-H, Pcdda, Nayakana, 
Durga, Bagaluru, Suligiri, and An- 
kusagiri. All the polygars were re- 
stored 1o their estates, and put on a 
looting similar to that of the zemin- 
dars in Bengal. They pay a fixed 
rcjit or tri'>ute for their lordships, but 
have no juiisdiction over the inhabi- 
tants. 

In these annexed districts the na- 
tives of the Barraniahal will not set- 
tle, on account of the coldness of the 
climate during the rainy season. A 
considerable proportion of the land 
remains nncultivated. In the an- 
nexed districts the rice cultivation is 
not important ; dry seeds, kitchen 
gardens, and plantations of cocoa 
nuts, and Areca palms, are the chief 
articles cultivated, and the manufac- 
tures are coarse, and only fitted for 
the lower classes. In the districts 
annexed to the Baramahal, the pro- 
perty of the soil is vested in the 
state, except in the Polyams, and a 
few small free estates. When a rich 
man undertakes to construct a reser- 



voir, at his own expense, for the ir- 
rigation of land, he is allowed to 
hold in free estate, and by hereditary 
right, one fourth part of the lands so 
watered ; but he is bound to keep the 
reservoir in repair. Tanks of this 
sort arc notoriously kept in better 
repair than those which the govern- 
ment supports. The reason assign- 
ed by the natives is, Ihat they can 
compel the holder of the free estate 
to perform his duty, but the state has 
no master. It would therefore seem 
advisable to give rich natives every 
encouragement to employ their mo- 
ney this way. 

On the fall of the Rayaroo of An- 
nagoondy, the Baramahal, with 
Rayacott'ih, and many other dis- 
tricts, became subject to Jagadeva, 
the polygar of Clienapattans. On 
the overthrow of this family, its ter- 
ritories were divided between the 
Nabob of Cudapah, and the Rajahs 
of Mysore. The former took the 
Barraniahal, and the latter the do- 
minions of the Cheiiapattan familj'. 
Hydcr annexed the Barraniahal to the 
dominions of Mysore; and, in 1792, 
it was ceded to the Britisli govern- 
ment at the treaty of Seringapatam. 

When ceded, the country was in 
a very miserable state; but the good 
effects of a just and moderate gt)- 
vernmcnt were soon exhibited, while 
it was under the superintendance of 
Colonel Alexander Read. In the 
course of five years the revenues 
were more than doubled, w hile the 
rents were diminished in an etjual 
proportion ; and since the introduc- 
tion of the permanent system, this 
district has attained a still higher 
degree of cultivation. It is now 
comprized in the collectorship of 
Salem and Kistnagherry. 

This district contains a very great 
proportion of Hindoo inhabitants, 
probably at least 19-20ths, it never 
having been subdued by the Ma- 
hommedans, until its conquest by 
the Nabob of Cudapah, about the 
middle of the 18<h «eiitury. {F. 
Bucha?ian, Sydenham, T. Munro, 5th 
Report, <^c.) 



88 



BASSEEN, 



BarrahTuckrah. — The districts 
of Hundah and Cowrah, in the 
northern extremity of tiie i)rovince 
of Delhi, are denominated tlie Ear- 
rah Tucicrah, or Twelve Divisions, 
being certain j)ortions of tenitory 
bequeathed by a chief of Boliaspoor 
to Iiis younger son, about 1 10 years 
ago. They now belong to the chief 
of Bellaspoor. {Foster, ^-c.) 

Barreah. — A town in the pro- 
vince of Gujrat, district of Gudarah, 
90 miles E. from Ahmcdabad. Lat. 
22° 53'. N. Long. 74°. 3'. E. It is 
now held by a rajah, tributary to the 
Gwickar. 

Barren Isle. — An island and vol- 
cano in the Bay of Bengal, situated 
in Lat. 12°. 15'. N. and 15 leagues E. 
of the northernmost Andaman. 
This island rises to the height of 
1800 feet. The eruptions of the 
volcanos are sometimes very violent ; 
stones of the weight of three or four 
tons have been known to be dis- 
charged from it. The parts of tlie 
island that are distant from the vol- 
cano are thinly covered with wi- 
thered shrubs and blasted trees. 
{Col. Colebrooli, Sfc. ) 

Baroos. — A town on the west 
coast of Sumatra. The inhabitants 
here have benzoin and gold, and 
procure camphire from the interior. 
The imports are the same as specified 
under the articic Sinkcl ; to which 
may be added white beads, pulicat 
handkerchiefs, chintzes, with large 
flowers and grounds, white Dunga- 
ric^ salt, rice, ghee, oil, a few metal 
watches, and gilt hilted swords. {El- 
more, Sfc.) 

hAR\XAH. — A village in Bundel- 
cund, 67 miles W. N. W. from (iiat- 
tcrpoor, so called from a rivulet 
named the Bcrwa, which runs past 
it, and by an embankment is made 
to form a large pond (in liindui 
called Sagor,) at the back of 1 lie fort, 
liat. 25°. 24'. N. Long. 78°. 55'. E. 
'I'hc ca.stle very much resLinbles an 
old Gothic building, and was erected 
by the ancient rajahs of Ouncha. 

In 1790 the Hindoo Sonbahdar, 
of this district, was an uncommonly 



accomplished person, and hod ac- 
ciuired a very considrral)le know- 
ledge jf European sciences. At tlio 
advanced age of 60 he had formed 
the project of studying the Enghsli 
language, in order to cuniprehcud 
the Encyclo])edia l^ritainiica, of 
which he had acquired a copy. 
Such, however, is the in(;onsist!'u«\y 
of human nature, and the strength 
with which Hindoo prejudices ad- 
here, that, abo)it five ;>ears after- 
wards, having been seized with 
some complaint, which he consider- 
ed as incurable, he repaired to Be- 
nares, and there drowned himself iu 
the Ganges. {Hantor, w.) 

Barv, {Bari). — A town in the 
Nabob of Oudo's territories,- in tlie 
province of Oude, 28 miles N. 
from Lucknow. Lat. 2?°. 15. N. 
Long. 80°. 52'. E. 

BAS0UDHA,(F«SKrf/<«). — A town in 
the province of Malwah, 46 miles 
N. E. from Bilsah, situated on the 
cast side of the Kiver Betwah. ImX. 
23°. 54'. N. Long. 78°. 13'. E. This 
is a large town belonging to the dis- 
trict of Bilsah, and tributary to the 
Mahaiattas. The .soil in the neigh- 
bourhood is alternately a black 
mould and a reddish clay, with 
stones of a ferruginous appearance. 
{Hunter, ^-c.) 

Basseen. — A sea port town in the 
province of Aurungabad, separated 
from the Island of Salsette by a nar- 
row strait. Lat. 19°. 18. N. Long. 
72°. 54'. E. 

The district around this town is in 
a very unproved state of cultivation, 
although under a Maharatta govern- 
ment, and fornjs a most CMraordi- 
nary contra:<t with the desolation that 
prevails in the neighbouring Island of 
Salsette, under tlie British govern- 
ment. Many of the cultivators are 
Roman Catholic Christians. The 
Teak tbrests, which supply the ma- 
rine yard at Bombay, lie along the 
western side of the Ghaut moun- 
tains, to the N. and N. Iv of Bas- 
seen, the numerous rivers which de- 
scend from them afibrding water car- 
riage. 



BATACOLO. 



89 



In 1531 tlic Poilui^nese obtained 
possession of Jiasscen, by treaty 
with tlie Rinji; of Cambay; after 
which tliey fortified it. I'roni them 
it was wrested, about 1750, by the 
Mahrattas. It was taken by General 
(Joddard's army, from the JNIaharat- 
tas, but restored at the jjoace, and 
now belongs to the Peshu a. 'I'ra- 
veliinfjj distiuiee from liomI)ay, 27 ; 
frojn Poonah 114 miles. {Dhdcohn, 
Rennel, BrucK, Sydenham, ]Ma!et, \c.) 

Bashef, Isles. — A cluster ol small 
rocky islands, lying due north of 
Luzon, the largest Philippine, and 
between the 2dth and 21st degrees 
of north latitude. 

These islands are situated between 
Formosa and I^uconia, and are live 
in number, besides four small rocky 
islets. Dampier gave the tbllowiiig 
names to the live largi r of them, viz, 
Grafton Isle, Monmouth Isle, Groat 
Isle, Orange Isle, and Bashee Isle. 
'I'hey are inhabited hy a race of 
strong athletic men. Grafton isle is 
about 13 leagues in circumference, 
and has good anchorage on the 
western side. 'I'his island produces 
abundance of fine yams, sugar cane, 
taro, plantains, and vegetables ; be- 
sides hogs and goats in great plenty. 
Iron is the favourite article of ex- 
change, but money is also now un- 
derstood. The water on the island is 
Tery line, and in great abundance, 
close to the beach. 

The Spaniards took possession of 
these islands in 1783, in order to 
procure the golil wlnih is washed 
down with the torrents in considera- 
ble quantities. The inhabitants ma- 
inifacture it into thick wire, which 
they wear as an ornament. They 
aie an inoH'ensive race of people, 
w hose chief delight consists in drink- 
ing a liquor called bashee, which is 
distilled from rice and sugar-cane ; 
after which they engage in dancing 
with every mark of satisi'action and 
gratification. 

The Spanish governor resides on 
Grafton Island, with about 100 sol- 
diers, several otticers, a few priests, 
fl,u4 six pieces of cannon. 



Those islands were visited by 
Dampier, who gives a favourable ac- 
count, both of the civility of the inha- 
bitants, and tl)e plenty of hogs and 
vegetables with whicii the country 
abounds. They Mere afterwards 
seen by Byron and Wallis, who 
passed without landing. {Meares, 
Kiii^, Sfc.) 

Basseelan. — An islaud lying off 
the south-Avestern extremity of IMa- 
gindanao, and sunounded by a 
cluster of smaller islands, lii length 
it may be estimated at 40 miles, by 
60 miles the average breadth, 'i'his 
island has a range of mountains in 
the centre, but is low towards the 
east. It is thinly inhabited, and 
destitute of good harbours. The 
chief production is grain, which the 
soil yields plentifully; cowri(>s also 
are abundant. It now belongs to the 
Sooloos. {Fomst, Dalrpnple, fyc) 

Ba,s.sum, {Basam). — A district in 
the nizam's domitiions, in the pro- 
vince of Nandere; situated betwixt 
the 21st and 22d degrees of north 
latitude. It has an uneven hilly 
surface, intersected by several small 
streams, which flow into the Goda- 
very. Bassam, the chief town, is 
situated six miles from the Gunga. 
Kespecting this part of Nandere very 
little is known: in the Institutes of 
Acber, Abul Fazel describes it as 
follows : 

" Sircar Bassum, containing eight 
mahals; reveime 32,625,250 dams: 
seyurghal 1,826,260 dams." 

Batang. — An island lying off the 
south-eastern extremity of the Malay 
Peninsula, and surrounded by num- 
berless small rocky islets. It is se- 
parated from the Island of Bintang 
by a nanow strait, and may be esti- 
mated at 26 miles in length, by 10 
miles the average breadth. 

Batacolo. — A small fori and gar- 
rison on the east coast of the Island 
of Ceylon. Lat. 7°. 46'. N. Long. 
81°. 50'. E. Owing to the wild state 
of the country, this place has little 
or no connexion with the south and 
west parts of the island, and is a 
place of small importance, tlie liar- 



90 BATAVIA. 

boiir only admitting small craft. The and villas within a circint of 10 miles, 

shore in the neighbourhood is nn- contained a population of about 

commonly bold; and many of the 116,000 souls, consisting of 

immense rocks have acquired names -in,„ rk.w^i r- t /-< » 

from the grotesque figures thev re- ^^^ ^"*f ' f ^- Co'nP«"y's 

present; such Jo the Friar's Hood. ^^^ ^^ ^^^^y descnp- 

IheElephant and the Pagoda Rocks. Burghers;rf;e'citi;ens,ri38; 

{r'€}cwai,^c.) •,,„♦„ J ^ff with their families - - - 6660 

Batalin. — An island situated oti ^ j ^ »t ^ ^r,Xn, 

«u * rr- I K^., ^u,..,i ^^.^^oAiU Javanese and free Malays - 6800 

the coast ot Celebes, about the 1 24th p,-:_„„- ^ « „^„ 

degree of cast longitude, and betwixt ^/""t'' ff^ 

the first and second degree of south ^^^^^^ ^^'""" 

latitude. In length it may be esti- , ncQAn 

mated at 25 miles, by seven tiie ^^^^^ ' "^'^"^ 
average breadlh. Very little is 

knowTii respecting this island, which The total population of the go- 
appears never to have been explored, vernment, immediately subordinate 

Batang, {or Patamj Hook). — A to the city of Batavia, is reckoned at 

port in the Gilolo passage, situated 150,000 souls. 

on the east coast of Cilolo. Lat. 0°. Besides the walls of the city, com- 

9'. S. Long. 128°. 48'. E. posed of well-built bastions, en- 

Ou Patany Hook, or Point, is a closed by a wet ditch, very deep and 

very strong and capacious natural wide, there is a good citadel, with 

fortress, accessible only by means of four bastions, also of stone. This 

ladders, up the face of a perpendicu- citadel commands the city, and dc- 

lar rock. 'I'he top is fiat ground, fends the entrance of the River Ja- 

contaiuing many houses, gardens, catra, wlxich, flowing tluough Bata- 

&c. the whole being about tluee via, fills its ditches and those of the 

miles in circumference. The people citadel. On the extremity of the left 

here, in 1770, supplied the French bank is a fort called Watercastel, 

vessels with clove plants, which went which is washed by the sea. Its 

no further east than the Island of platforms are of stone, and the para- 

Gibhy. I'ormerly the Dutch kept pets are well covered with turf, and 

criiizcrs here, to prevent the smug- it contains thirty 16 and 24 pounders, 

jling of spices. {Forrest, ^c.) This fort is flanked by batteries, 

Batavia. — A large city in the raised on the right and left bank, in 

Island of Java, and the capital of the front of the citadel and fortifications. 

Dutch settlements in the east. Lat. The left wing is defended by four 

6°. 10'. S. JiOng. 106°. 51'. £. works, viz. a redoubt called the 

The ground plan of the town is in Flute, above the moutli of the Ancka 

the shape of a parallelogram; the River, which it commands; a very 

length of which, iVom north to fine causeway communicates with it, 

south, is 4200 feet, and the breadth extending to the city walls. There 

3000 feet. The streets are laid out are many other redoubts and batte- 

in strait lines, and cross each other rics scattered along the shore, and 

at right angles. The public build- erected at assailable points, which it 

ings consist of the great church, the is unnecessary to particularize, as 

trxpcnse of erecting which was they contribute little or nothing to 

80,0001. a Lutheran and Portuguese the defence of the town, and when 

church, a Mahommedan mosque and attacked, in 1811, by the troops un- 

Chinese temple; the Stadlhouse, the dor Sir Samuel Achnmty, were 

Spinhousc, the Infirmary, and the abandoned without resistance. This 

Chamber of Orphans. In the year left wing is so sickly, owing to the 

1792 Batavia contained 6270 taxa- morasses in which it is placed, and 

blc houses, which, added to villages tlieir pestilential exlialatious^ that tlie 



BATAVIA. 



91 



nwrtality among the soldiers who 
gaiTison it is almost incredible, and 
the country houses, which formerly 
stood in its \iciiiily, have long ago 
been deserted. All the plain which 
forms the defence is composed of 
mnddy impracticable swamps, which 
extend beyond tlie citj', and are in- 
tersected by canals. 

The whole city of Batavia is pro- 
verbially unhealthy, not so nmch 
from the heat of llie climate, as from 
its injudicious situation and misplac- 
ed embellishments. It is not only 
surrounded with water nearly stag- 
nant, but every street has its canal 
and row of evergreen trees. These 
canals become the reservoirs of all 
the offals and tilth wliich the city 
produces; and, having scarcely any 
current, require constant labour and 
attention to prevent their being 
choaked up altogether. On the land 
side of the city are gardens and rice 
grounds, intersected in every direc- 
tion by ditches and canals, and tiie 
whole shore of the bay is a bank of 
mud, mixed with putrid substances, 
sea Aveed, and other vegetable mat- 
ter, in a state of fermentation. To 
these swamps, morasses, and mud- 
l)anks, may be ascribed the insalu- 
brity of Batavia, and the prevalence 
of acute inllanmiatory febrile di- 
seases. 

At the mouth of the Anoka, called 
by the natives Caiman's River, be- 
cause it abounds with alligators, the 
bottom is mud and sand, as is also 
the bank which has accumulalcd at 
its mouth ; but at Slingerlaud Point 
the bottom begins, on the coast, to 
be a mixtme of sand and coral, with 
occasionally small shells; and, being 
consequently less unhealthy, country 
seats, small villages, and hamlets, are 
seen in the vicinity. 

In a place so low and maishy the 
number of noxious reptiles must be 
considerable, but not much damage 
is ever sustained from them. No 
stone of any kind is found for several 
miles roimd the city of Batavia ; 
marble and granite, for particular 
«ses, are imported from China. The 



usual temperature, in the middle of 
the day, is from 84 to 90; it is not,, 
therefore, to the great heat, that must 
be ascribed the destructive eflects of 
the climate on the human race. 

A circluar range of islands pro- 
tects the harbour of Batavia from 
any heavy swell, and renders it safe 
anchorage ; some of them, such as 
Anmst, Edam, Cooper's Isle, and 
Purmerend, are occupied by the 
Dutch, who have fortified them, and 
erected warehouses, liospitals, and 
naval arsenals. From the roadsted 
there aie scarcely any of the build- 
ings of Batavia visible, except the 
great church, the rest being hid by 
the palms and other high spreading 
trees. 

On that side of the city which is 
iidand, the industrious Chinese carry 
on their various manufactures, such 
as tanning leather, burning shells 
into lime, baking earthen ware, 
boiling sugar, and distilling arrack. 
Their rice giounds, sugar plantations 
and gardens, well stocked with all 
kinds of vegetables, surround the 
city, which abounds iu all sorts of 
tropical fruit; pine apples are in 
such profusion, tliat they are sent 
to the market in carts, piled up like 
turnips. 

In the town the Chinese are mer 
chants and shopkeepers, butchers 
and fishmongers, green grocers, np- 
Jiolstcrers, tailors, shoe-makers, ma- 
sons, carpenters, and blacksmiths. 
They contract for the supply of what- 
ever may be wanted in the civil, 
military, or marine departments, 
and farm from the Dutch the several 
imposts, the export and import du- 
ties, and the taxes. Their campong. 
or town, close to the walls of the 
city, is a scene of bustle and busi- 
ness, resembling a bazar in China. 
It consists of about 1500 mean hou-. 
ses, huddled together, containing 
20,000 inhabitants and 400,000 
swine. 

The commerce of Batavia is con- 
siderable ; but it is principally a 
trade of barter, the exportation of 
bullion being prohibited.. When a 



9'Jt 



CAT A VIA. 



Tcs.sel nirivf^s, the cajtfinn iiirloses 
his hill vl' lailiiig to Uip slialibuiider, 
•who serlrts llie ,ii tirlos, tho oxrltisive 
Iradc ill wiiich is reserved for Ihe 
East-India Conijiaiiv; siirli as opi- 
um, raiuplior, bmzoiii, calin, pow- 
ler, iron, sallpotrc, <nn)poMdor, 
ginis, ^c. and fixes on wiiat is to be 
given in o\chanj,'e. and at what 
price. I'ormerly the Dutch Com- 
pany insisted, that one quarter, or 
one third of a!l the returns should 
be talcen in sj)ices. 

From Bent,^al the principal articles 
imported are opium, drups, patna 
cloths, and blue cloths, of diflerent 
kinds. Of the first article there were 
Ibnnerly from 8(H) to 1000 chests 
disposed of here. I'rom Sumatra are 
received camphor, benzoin, bird 
nests, calin, and elejjlinnts' leetli. 
From the Cape of Cood Hope are 
imported kitchen jjardcn seeds, but- 
ter, Madeira and Constantia wines; 
and from China immense <jn:intities 
of porcelain, teas, silks, nankeens, 
alum borax, brimstone, cinnabar, 
mother of pearl, paper, sweetmeats, 
and tol>ac<;o. 

The Dutch being^ the only nation 
who keep up a correspondence Mith 
,la|ian, a ship is sent annually from 
Jiatavia, laden with kerseymeres, 
line cloths, clock-work, spices, ele- 
phants' teeth, sapan wood, tin, and 
tortoise-shell. The returns fron> Ja- 
pan are principally in coi)per, which 
is converted into a clumsy sort of 
coin for paying- the native and Euro- 
jican troops. These ingots arc of 
the finest red copj»cr, about a fingi-r's 
thickness, and arc c;ist into two, 
lour, six, and eight sous pieces of 
Holland, having the \:due stamjied 
on them. Various other articles arc 
sujugglcd in by the ofliccrs, such as 
.sabre blades of an cMiellcnt temper, 
Japan camphor, soy. china ware, 
bukcrcd ware, and silk goods. 'Ihe 
caigo always contains a present for 
llu'^lMupcn»r of Japan, and he, in 
return, sends one t(t the (loyernor- 
Ocncral of the Dutch possessions in 
India. It consists in general of desks, 
chests of drawers, and close stools of 



valuable inlaid wood, covered with a 
varnish peculiar to Japan, and in- 
crustrated with flower:;, and other de- 
signs, in niother-oi-pcarl of various 
colours. 

The staple articles of export from 
Batavia are pepper, sugar, rice, cof- 
fee, and arrack. The Chinese san- 
choo (or burned wine) is an ardent 
.spirit, di.stilled from various kinds of 
strain, but most comnioidy rice. This 
is kept in hot water until the grains 
are swollen ; it is then mixed up with 
water, in which a preparation has 
been dissolved, consisting of rice- 
flower, lirjuorice root, aniseed, and 
garlic, after which the mixture un- 
dergoes fennentation. The liquor 
thus j)repared is the basks of the best 
arrack, M'hich in Jav a is exclusively 
the manufacture of the Chinese, and 
is merely a rectification of the above 
sjiirit, with the addition of molasses 
and the juice ot the cocoa nut tree. 
Besides tlie staple articles, there are 
exported to China bird nests, biche 
de mar, cotton, spices, tin, rattans, 
sapan wood, sago, and wax. To the 
Islands of Borneo, Celebes, the Mo- 
luccas, &.C. a variety of piece goods 
and oj>ium, ly ith a very small quan- 
tity of I'iUropean articles. All the 
Dutch settlements to the eastward 
are supplied with rice from hence, 
Java being considered as the granary 
of this part of the world. In Ba- 
tavia there are few shops for Eu- 
rojxan goods, which proves there is 
no great demand from the interior. 

Tlie customs and duties at I?ata- 
via are arbitrai-y , and it is dilTicnlt to 
procure redress for impositions. The 
Dutch Company's customs are usu- 
ally eight per cent, and are farjned 
by a Chinese ; but there are many 
other fees exacted by the diflerent 
subordniatc oflicers. The exportation 
of specie is rigidly forbid<lcu, and all 
shii)s arc s ri('tly examined by the 
Chinese who farms the customs. If 
any bullion be discovered it is con- 
fiscated, and the owners sulijected to 
fine and imprisonment. 'J'lie grand 
import of the Dutch East India Com- 
pany from Europe before tlie Frcncb 



B ATA VI A. 



93 



Revolution was bullion, which ave- 
raged in amount near half a niillioa 
ainuially ; the remaining imports were 
principally on account of tiie ollicers 
of ships, and consisted of liardwarc, 
haberdashery, liijuors, oilmairs stores, 
dress, and millinery, for the use of 
llio Europeans on the island, and 
among the more eastern <okmies. 
Accounts at Batavia are kept i:i rix 
dollars, an imaginary coin like the 
pound sterUng^, each 48 slivers; but 
the currency is doits, stivers, duh- 
beltjees, schillings, and rupees. Tiie 
jfold coins are the milled Duleh du- 
cat, worth ys. 4d. ; old Japan eo|»ang, 
21. Is. 3d.; new Japan copang, 
II. 3s. 9d. ; English guineas, East 
India mohurs. and douliioons. 'I'he 
silver coins are the lloriii, or guilder, 
value Is. Bd. and the milled diieatoon. 
The administration of aiiairs at 
Batavia is conducted by a governor- 
general, who is president; a direclor- 
general, intitled Governor of Java, 
with nine counsellors, and two se- 
cretaries. The authority of this coun- 
<;il is absolute : it makes and sus- 
pends laws, maintains troops, ap- 
points kings, declares war, and makes 
peace and alliances with the eastern 
princes. It takes cognizance of all 
matters, commercial, civil, and mi- 
litary, 'i'he whole authority of the 
^council may be considered as united 
ill the governor-general who presides, 
xis he may adopt, on his own responsi- 
bility, any propositions which are re- 
jected contrary to his opinion by the 
council. 

A fiscal is at tlie head of police and 
criminal aflairs, and possesses great 
authority. He inflicts lines and pu- 
nishments arbitrarily. A shahbimder, 
or agent-general for trade, acts as 
consul for all nations, is the medium 
of every operation of trade, and in- 
troduces foreigners to the council. 
A marine fiscal superintends what- 
ever relates to the police of the road- 
steds, rivers, and navigable canals. 

Notwithstanding the republican 
form of the Dutch government, in no 
pyrt of the world is the distinction of 
»aiiks so tninutely and frivolously ;;^t- 



tcnded to as at Batavia, and the sa- 
laries allowed tlie Dutch Company's 
servants, being iiiadc(piate to tlie 
stipport of the establishment, they 
think necessary, lor the support of 
their dignity, corruption and bribery 
are universal, in society, every in- 
dividual is as stiff and Ibrmal, and as 
feelingly alive to every infraction of 
his privileges, as if his happiness or 
misery depended on the due observ- 
ance of (hem. Nothing is more par- 
ticularly attended to at entertain- 
ments by the master of the house, 
than the seating of every guest, and 
drinking tlieir healths in the exact 
order of precedency. 

To jiixivide against future disputes 
on the subject of precedency, the 
respective^ ranks of all the Company's 
servants were ascertained by a reso- 
lution of government, which was re- 
vised and renewed in 1764. The act 
by which these rules were established 
consistss of 131 articles, and enters 
into the most minute details respect- 
ing the carriages, horses, chairs, ser- 
vants, &:c. See. of the Com[»any's ser- 
vants. 

By the eighth article, little chaises 
for children, drawn by the hand, 
must not be gilt or j)uinted, but in 
exact proportion to the rank of the 
parents. Ijadies, whose husbands are 
below the rank of counsellors of the 
Indies, may not wear at one time 
jewels more in value than 6000 rix 
dollars; wives of senior merchants are 
limited to 4000 ; others to three, two, 
' and 1000 ri\ dollars. 

Article 49th permits ladies of tho 
higher ranks to go abroad w ith three 
female attendants, who may wear 
" ear-rings of single middle-sized dia- 
monds, gold hair pins, petticoats of 
cloth, of gold, or silver gauze ; chains 
of gold and of beads, and girdles of 
gold ; but they iinist not v\ ear dia- 
monds, pearls, nor any kind of jewel 
in their hair." Wives of senior mer- 
chants may have two, and ladies in 
an inferior station one female attend- 
ant, who may wear " car-rings of 
small diamonds, gold hair j)ins, a 
jacket vf tine hnt-n, and a. chintz pet- 



94 



BATAVIA. 



ticoat; but no gold or silver stuffs, 
or silks, or any jewels, true or false 
pearls, or any ornament of gold." — 
The 83d article recommends to the 
Dutch East India Company's ser- 
vants in liengal, not to surpass their 
predecessors in pomp of dress and 
ay»pearanee; and the 110th permits 
the director of tlie factory at Sural, 
wiien he goes abroad in state, to 
carry, among other things, four fans, 
made after the fashion of the country, 
with the feathers of the bii-d of para- 
dise and cow hair, with gold cases 
and hands. It is remarkable, that in 
these regulations the tax on carriages 
increases dowmvards,from the higher 
to the lower ranks, and penalties are 
attached to the infraction of these 
statutes. 

In addition to the baleful effects of 
the climate, and the marshy miasma 
of Batavia, the manner of life among 
the European part of the iidiabit- 
ants contributes not a little to fre- 
quent and fatal diseases. A plenti- 
ful dinner at noon, Avith an after- 
noon's siesta, and a still more plen- 
tiful supper, terminates the day ; in 
the course of Avhich an immoderate 
quantity of claret, madeira, gin, and 
- Dutch beer are consumed. Few Eu- 
ropeans can stand the effect of such 
a life. If one in three of the new 
comers siUTives the first year, he maj' 
account himself a favoured person ; 
one in five annually is reckoned as 
the average of Europeans of all de- 
scriptions of men, including the 
troops. 

To those who have stood the first 
attack, or seasoning, the fe\er be- 
comes at last constitutional, and re- 
curs at the moist and hot season re- 
gularly, without much inconvenience 
to the patient ; sudden deaths, how- 
ever, iire so frequent, that they make 
little impression on the minds of the 
inhabitants. A Dutchman at Ba- 
tavia, when he marries, makes his 
will, but this also usually accompa- 
nies a wedding in Holland, and is 
partly intended to regulate the pro- 
perty according to the wishes of the 
parties. 



Most of the white women seen at 
Batavia are born in India, and many 
so altered in figure, manners, and 
complexion, as to resemble the de- 
generate offspring of the Portuguese. 
'I'hey dress, when at home, exactly 
in the manner of their slaves, bare- 
headed, bare-footed, and wrapped in 
a loose long goAvn of red checkered 
cotton cloth, descending to the an- 
cles, witli large wide sleeves. They 
anoint their coarse black hair, with 
cocoa-nut oil, and adorn it with the 
tuberose, and other strong-.scentcd 
tlowers. In this loose and airy dress 
they loll about among their slaves 
(to whom tliey are occasionally very 
cruel), or sit on the ground, having 
their legs crossed under them, chew- 
ing betel, with which they are inta- 
tuated. 

These ladies soon ripen, and soon 
decay: they are manageable at 11 
and 12 years of age, and are ac- 
counted old before 30. They hav e 
no resources within themselves, and 
many of them can neither read nor 
write, and are ahnost totally unqua- 
lified for the pleasiu-es of social inter- 
course. Indeed the two sexes rarely 
meet in companies except at great 
entertainments, when each liave ge- 
nerally their separate coteries ; the 
men drinking and smoking in one 
apartment, the women chcAving be- 
tel with their slaves in another. 

When they go abroad in the cool 
of the evening to some grand assem- 
bly, they dress themselves in a mag- 
nificent style. Their jet black hair» 
twisted close to the head, sparkles 
with a profusion of diamojids, pearls, 
and jewels of various kinds, mingled 
M'ith flowers of the Arabian jessa- 
mine and tuberose. Each lady has a 
female slave, almost as richly dressed 
as herself, sitting at her feet. Before 
.supper is announced, tiiey usuallj 
retire to put on their cotton night- 
gowns, and the gentlonien do the 
same, to exchange their heavy vel- 
vets for white cotton jackets ; and the 
elderly gentlemen their wigs for 
night-caps. In this manner the day 
is concluded with a smoking hot sup- 



BATAVIA. 9§ 



pet, and its accompaniments, after 
which they retire to rest. 

There is a race of Portuguese still 
remaining at Batavia, many of whom 
are artificers and servants in fami- 
lies. Their language is common here, 
and still continues to be understood 
in most of the old European settle- 
ments, which shews how deep a root 
that nation had taken during its 
prosperity. At Batavia their lan- 
guage has survived their dominiun, 
and even their religion, which is still 
more extraordinary; their descend- 
ants having gradually embraced the 
Calvinistic tenets of the go% ernment 
— a singular instance of Portuguese 
prayers and congregation out of the 
pale of the Roman communion. 

Most of the slaves at Batavia aae 
imported from Celebes and the other 
eastern islands, particularly from that 
of Neas, off the western coast of 
^Sumatra. The species of slavery at 
Bata\ ia is of the very worst descrip- 
tion, and the cruelties exercisetl on 
these forlorn wretches so great, as 
frequently to drive them to such an 
excess of desperation and madness, 
as to run the muck, and destroy 
whatever they approach, man or 
beast. The punishments inflicted by 
the Dutch go^ernmeJlt for this and 
other crimes, were so horrible and 
incredible, as to leave a doubt whe- 
ther the perpetrators were human 
creatures, or devils in a human shape. 
That the severity of the punishment 
never prevented the crimes is proved 
by the fact, that at the British settle- 
ment of Bcncoolen, where the pu- 
nishments art! of the mildest nature, 
the running the muck, or any despe- 
rate Clime, scarcely ever occurs, 
while tlie reverse is the case ot Ba- 
tavia, and the Dutch settlements ge- 
nerally. 

When a rich proprietor is about to 
return to Europe, it is not unusual to 
manumit his slaves, but it is more 
frequent when he is at the point of 
death. A manumitted slave gene- 
rally liires a small patch of ground 
from the sei-vants of government, in 
'Which iie cultivatt^s flowers, fruits, 



and vegetables for the Batavian mar- 
ket. The most numerous, expert, 
and industrious of all the slaves im- 
ported to Batavia, are (hose from the 
Island of Celebes, and known by the 
natne of buggcsscs and niacassars. 

Men. 

In 1804 the garrison of Batavia 
consisted of French auxiliary 
troops ------- 240 

23d Dutch battalion - - - 600 

National troops, three batta- 
lions, of M'hom 200 oflicers 
and grenadiers were Emopc- 
ans, the remainder Madu- 
rans and Samanaps - - - 2400 

One battalion infantry chas- 
seurs, Madurans and Sama- 
naps -------- 4()0 

Float artillery, mostly recruits, 
Madurans ------ 600 

One company light artillery - 100 

European cavalry - - _ _ 200 

Total 4540 

There was also a corps of military 
engineers, mostly Europeans. All 
the troops, not absolutely requisite 
for the duties of the fortifications, are 
quartered in the en\ irons, on account 
of the unhealthincss of tlic city ; but 
the camps of Wcltc Freden and Ja- 
catra, although a league and a half 
distant, are not exempt from disease, 
yet are, on the whole, healthier 
than the towii. It has by some been 
ct)njectured, that the insalubrity of 
Batavia entered into the political 
system of the Dutch, with a view to 
its defence, and that the seasoned in- 
habitants are not particularly de- 
sirous of impro^^ng its climate, as it 
prevents the intrusion of foreign set- 
tlers, and gives them a monopoly of 
commerce, and the emoluments of 
office. 

In 1799, the new camp at AVelto 
Freden was established in a woody 
plain, a league and a half up the 
country, the land adjacent being dry, 
and the viciriity but little marshy. 
The road is along a fine causeway, 
with couRtry seats on one side, aad 



m 



BATt ISLE. 



on the oilier a iiavip;able canal. The 
barracks, wliich are bnilt ot" wood 
and stone, oceiipy a third of the 
groiuul on the opposite Kide of the 
entrance, Tatniabanj?. a large Malay 
villag:e, in which tiiere are .several 
Chinese laniilirs, stands on a hei^Oit 
two and a half leajjucs from the 
city. 

Mester Cornelis is a small fort, a 
league beyond Welte Freden, snr- 
ronndcd by small Javanese, Malay, 
and Chinese viilag,es. The ground 
rises iuseasibly to Mester Cornelis, 
which is seen half a mile oil'. 'I'liis 
fort lies in a hollow on the bank of 
the great ii\er, commaiided by a 
sniall height. On the right and left 
of th<! road are Ijaniboo barracks for 
the Madnran artillery, of whieii this 
is the depot. 'I'he fort is built of 
stone, but is not strong, the demi- 
bastions being seareely two feet thick, 
by four high, and surronnded by a 
dry ditch. '1 he entrance is by a stone 
bridge, within which is the guard- 
house, and near to it another house 
occupied by the European artillery. 
The fort is quitted by another bridge 
on the opposite side, connnunicating 
with a range of wooden barracks, in 
which are the artillery officers and 
the companies under training. 

A. D. 1619, the Dutch governor, 
General John Pieterson Coen took 
the tow n of Jacatra by assault, and 
in a great measure destroved it. He 
afterwiirds founded another city, not 
exactly on the same spot, but very 
near to it, to which he ga\e the name 
of JJatavia. During the hostilities 
which followed the French Kcolu- 
Intion, Ja^a was never attacked by 
the Ihitish, until the United States 
of Holland were formally annexed to 
the I'rench doniinions. In 1811 an 
expedition was prejtared at the Bri- 
tish sctllenients in India, which ar- 
rived in the roads of Batavia on the 
4th of August of the same year, when 
the troops were ininiediately landed. 
On the Hth the city of Batavia sur- 
rcnderi (1 at discretion to Sir Samuel 
Achinuty, General Jan.sens having 
retired to the fortilied camp at Mester 



Cornelis, where, on the 25fli of Alii- 
gust, 1811, he was attacked by the 
British forces, and totally defeated. 
{Stavori)ins, Barrow, Cluarterly Re- 
view, Toinbe, Staunton, cVc.) 

Batchian Isle. — One of the Mo- 
lucca Islands, se|>aratcd from Gilolo 
by a narrow strait, and situated be- 
tween the equatorial line, and the 
first degree of south latitude. It is 
of an irregular shape, but in length 
may be estimated at 52 miles, by 20 
the average breadth. In 1775 the 
Sultan of Batchian claimed dominion 
over the islands of Ooby, Ceram, and 
Gorani, but was himself entirely sub- 
ject to the iniluence of the Dutch. 
The iuhahitants of Batchian are Ma- 
lay, and of the Mahommedan re- 
ligion, {Forrest, ^r.) 

Bate Isle. — An island belonging^ 
to the province of Gujrat, situated 
at the south western-extremity of the 
Gulf of Cutch. Lat . 22°. 22'. Long. 
69°. 21'. E. Bate signilies an island 
of any kind, but the proper name of 
this island is Shunkodwara. 

This ishind has a good harbour 
well secured from the prevaihng 
winds, but the anchorage is rocky. 
The fort of Bate has lately been 
much improved, but is still an in- 
significant place, being merely a 
square with a double wall on one 
side. It was, notwithstanding, at- 
tacked by a British force without 
success in 1803, which was attribnted 
to the want of regular land ibrees- 
On this occasion many brave men 
lost their lives. About 150 vessels 
of diflerent sizes belong to the port, 
which are employed chiclly to and 
from Mandavee, and until the in-^ 
terference of the British, were the 
piratical vessels so much dreaded by 
the traders on the western coasts of 
India. The destruction or occupa- 
tion of the fort of Bate, will be the 
only efl'ectual means of allorditig pro- 
tection to the trade of the Gulf of 
Cutch, and would, proiiably, benefit 
both the inhabitants and the temples. 

This island does not produce suffi* 
cient food for its own support, and 
consequently imports large quantiticb 



EATINDA. 



97 



of gliee, sugar, grain, &c. which are 
consumed by the numerous pilgrims 
resorting to the holy places. The 
town of Bate contains about 2000 
houses, chiefly inhabited by Brah- 
mins, but all sorts of trades are also 
to be found. Vegetables, riased in 
small quantities, and milk, compose 
a considerable part of the food of the 
inhabitants; the iSsh, with which 
their shores abound, being held sa- 
cred. The Bate government has 
also Aramra, Positra, Bhurwalla, for- 
tified places, and the little -village of 
Rajpoor, subject to it. The whole 
revenue arising from the temples, the 
port duties, and the sliare of pirated 
property, probably, does not exceed 
two lacks of ru|)ees per annum. 

By an agreement executed with 
Major Walker, on the 14th Dec. 
1807, Coer Babjee, of Bate, and 
Rana Sree Suggarraanjee, of Aramra, 
engaged not to permit, instigate, or 
connive at, any act of piracy com- 
mitted by any person under their au- 
thority, and also to abstain fiom 
plundering vessels in distress. A free 
and open commerce to be permitted 
to all British vessels paying the re- 
gulated duties. The British, by this 
treaty, engaged to afford the temple 
at Bate suitable protection and en- 
couragement. 

Shunkodwar is the proper name of 
tlie Island of Bate, and is derived 
from that of a Hindoo demon so 
named, from his dwelling in a laige 
shuuk, or conch shell, wherein he 
concealed the sacred Vedas which 
lie iiad stolen from Brahma. An in- 
carnation of Vishnu, under the ap- 
pellation of Shunknarrayan, cut 
open the shell, and restored the Ve- 
das to their lawful owner. The de- 
mon pleaded as his excuse, that he 
hoped to have been put to death by 
Vishnu for the theft, which would 
have secured him future ha{)piness. 

In consequence of this exploit 
Shunknarayan (Vishnu), or the de- 
stroyer of the shell demon, establish- 
ed his own worship on the island, 
where it continued paramount until 
the llislit of another Hindoo deity, 

H 



named Runclior, fromDwaraca, from 
a Mahommedan army, since which 
time Runchor has been supreme on 
Bate. This place was taken, in 1462, 
by Sultan Mahmood Begra, of Ah- 
medabad and Gujrat. {M'Murdo, 
Treaties, Si~c.) 

Batheri. — A small village in 
Northern Hindostan, situated among 
the mountains in the province of Se- 
rinagur. Lat. 30°. 49'. N. Long. 78°. 
30'. E. This village is placed on the 
hill about 300 feet above the bed of 
the Bhagirathi, or Ganges, and has. 
a small temple sacred to Mahadeva. 
In some parts of this neighbouihood 
tlie poppy is cultivated, and the 
opium extracted is said to be of au 
excellent quality. On the opposite 
side of the river is an extraordinary 
cascade, which issues from the sum- 
mit of the mountain, and exhibits 
five distinct falls of water, one above 
the other. The top of the mountain 
is generally covered with snow, from 
the melting of which this cascade 
derives its chief supplies. {Raper, ^c.) 

Batneer, {Bhatnir). — A town in 
the province of Delhi, district of 
Hissar Firozeh, 170 miles N. W. 
from Delhi. West of this a banen 
sandy desert begins, there being no 
other town until the Sutuleje is ap- 
proached. The chiefs of the Battle 
country, of w hich this is the capital, 
are called Rajpoot Mahommedans; 
the common people are Jauts, most 
of whom have also become of that 
religion. This town was taken and 
destroyed by Timour in 1398. \G. 
Thomas, S,-c.) 

Batinda. — A district in Hindos- 
tan, situated partly in the N. W. 
quarter of the province of Delhi, and 
partly in the northern extremity of 
the province of Ajmeer. This dis- 
trict comprehends the Lacky jungle, 
so much celebrated for the fertility 
of its pasture lands, and for an ex- 
cellent breed of horses. This jungle 
forms a circle of about 40 miles each 
way. On the north it is bounded by 
the country of Roy Kellaun, cast by 
the province of Hurrianeh, south by 
Batueer, and west by the great De- 



98 



BATTAS. 



seit[. If is situated 35 miles iiortli 
from Batnecr, and 80 wcstlVoiii Pat- 
tealch, to the chief of which place 
the Rajah of the Lacky jungle is 
tributary. The soil being sandy, the 
wells are excavated to a great depth. 
The country yields rice, bajerah, and 
other sorts of grain, but not abun- 
dantly. The original breed of horses 
in tills country has been much im- 
proved by Persian horses, which 
were introduced during the invasions 
of Nadir Shah, and Ahmed Shah 
Abdalli. (Thomas, cVf.) 

Eatool. — A large fortified village 
and tank, situated near the sources 
of the Tuptce, among the mountains 
which bound the north of the Berar 
province. From Barooly Gliaut to 
Eatool is a table land, well cultivated 
with wheat, sugar-cane, Eengalgram, 
and other pulses. The village is po- 
pulous, and placed in a fertile valley, 
near the ancient Kusbaof Kurreem, 
now in ruins, three miles distant. 
(yith Register, ^c.) 

Battalah, (or Vutala). — A town 
in the province of Lahore, 75 miles 
E. S. E. from the city of Lahore. 
Lat. 31°. 34'. N. Long. 75°. 3'. E. 

This is a large town, and stands 
on a fine ojien plain, about 24 miles 
east from Annutsir. It is surrounded 
by groves of mango trees and tanks 
of water, and is considered the 
healthiest place in the Punjab. There 
is an excellent plum grows at this 
place, named alooeha ; their apples 
also are larger and better tlian in 
most other parts of llindostan. The 
hills lie about 70 miles distant, and 
in winter are covered witli snow. 
(lUh Register, (^c.) 

Battanta. — A small island in the 
Eastern Seas, about the 131st de- 
gree of east longitude, and sepa- 
rated from the island of SallaMatty 
by Pitts Straits. In length it may 
be estimated at 35 miles, by five 
miles the average breadtli. 

Battamandk. — A point on the 
N. W. coast of Borneo, lat. 6°. 60'. 
N. Long. 116°. 45'. E. To the south- 
ward of Batoomande is a commo- 
dious bay, at the mouth of the Pau- 



doossan River. From Pirates Point, 
which lies in 7°. N. are several bays, 
where shipping, working up and 
down the coast, may anchor safely, 
and get water from the shore. {El- 
more, Si'c.) 

Batanpally Isles. — ^Two small 
islands off the western coast of Wa- 
geeoo, about the 130th degree of east 
longitude. They are both (compre- 
hended within the circumference of 
18 miles. 

B ATT AS, (Bntak). — A country in 
the Island of Sumatra, bounded on 
the north by that of Acheen, and on 
the south by the independent district 
of Race; extending along the sea 
coast, on the western side, from tho 
River Singkel to that of Tabuyong, 
bttt inland to that of Ayer Bangis, 
and generally across the island, 
which is narrow in that part, to the 
eastern coast ; but more or less en- 
croached upon by the Malayan and 
Acheenese establishments. 

I'he soil is fertile, and cultivation 
so much more prevalent than in the 
.southern countries of the island, that 
there is scarcely a tree to be seen, 
except those planted by the natives, 
about their villages, which are 
found wherever a naturally strong- 
situation presents itself. Water is 
not so abundant as to the south- 
ward, the country being compara- 
tively level; about the Bay ot'Tapa- 
nooly the land is high and wooded. 
The Singkell River, which bounds 
this country, and is the largest on 
the west coast of Sumatra, rises in 
mountains about 30 miles from the 
sea. The Batta country is divided 
into many small districts, which 
yield gold, benzoin, cassia, cam- 
phor. Sec. 

The natives of the sea coasts ex- 
change their benzoin, camphor, and 
cassia, (the quantity of gold dust is 
very small) for iron, steel, brass 
wire, and salt ; of which last article 
100,000 bamboos measure are annu- 
ally taken olf in the Bay of Tappa- 
nooly. These they barter again with 
the more inland inhabitants, for the 
couvciiicuce of w liicli fairs ar»; est*- 



BATTAS. 



9^ 



blislietl at the back of Tappanooly. 
Having no coin, all value is esti- 
mated amonp; them by certain com- 
modities. The ordinary food of the 
lower classes is maize and sweet po- 
tatoes, rice being reserved for the 
rsjahs and great men. Their houses 
are built of frames of wood, with the 
sides of board, and the roof covered 
with Ijoo. 

The country is very populous, and 
chiefly in the central parts, M'hero are 
extensive open plains, on the bor- 
ders, it is said, of a great lake. The 
government of the Batta country, al- 
though nominally in the hands of 
three or more sovereign rajahs, is 
efiectively divided info numberless 
petty chicfships, and it does not ap- 
pear likely, from the manners and 
dispositions of the peojjle, tliat the 
whole country was ever united under 
one supreme head. It is asserted 
that the succession to the chiefship 
goes to the nephew by a sister, as 
among the Nairs of Nalabar. Tlie 
standard of the Battas is a horse's 
head, with a flowing mane, which 
seems to indicate a coiniexion with 
the Hayagrivas, of Sanscrit history. 

The Battas, although of an inde- 
pendent spirit, have a superstitious 
veneration for the Sultan of Menan- 
cabow, and shew a blind submission 
to his relations and emissaries. In 
their persons, the Battas are rather 
below the stature of the Malays, and 
their complexions are fairer. I'heir 
dress is a sort of cotton cloth, ma- 
nufactured by themselves. Their 
arms are matchlock guns, spears, 
and swords ; the first they purchase 
from the Menancabow traders, and 
the last they make themselves, as 
also their gunpowder. The spirit 
of warfare is excited among these 
people by the slightest provocation ; 
in fact, their life appears to be a 
.state of perpetual hostility. They 
fortify all their villages ; and, instead 
of tower or watch-house, they con- 
trive to have a tall tree, which they 
ascend to reconnoitre or fire from. 

The men are allowed to marry as 
many wives as they please, or can 

H 3 



afford to have ; half a doKcn is not 
uncommon. The daughters are 
looked upon, as all over Sumatra, as 
the riches of the father. The condi- 
tion of the women appears to be no 
other than that of slaves, the hus- 
bands having the power of selling 
their wives and children. They 
alone, besides their domestic duties, 
work in the rice plantations. The 
men, when not engaged in war, 
lead an idle inactive life, passing the 
day playing on a sort of flute. Like 
the rest of the Sumatrans, they are 
all much addicted to gaming: when 
a man loses more than he is able to 
pay, he is confined, and sold for a 
slave. 

The most extraordinary of the 
Eatta customs, though certainly not 
peculiar to this people, is the prac- 
tice of eating the bodies of their 
enemies, whom they kill in battle, 
and also of a certain description of 
criminals. This extreme depravity 
has been long doubted, but is now 
established by a weight of testimony 
not to be resisted. The Battas are 
said to eat the body as a species of 
ceremony; as a mode of shewing 
th fir detestation of particular crimes 
by an ignominious punishment, and 
as a savage display of revenge and 
iusnlt to theircuemics. The objects 
of this barbarous repast are prison- 
ers taken iji war, especially if badly 
wounded; the bodies of the slain, 
and ofl'cnders condemned for certain 
crimes, particularly adultery. The 
prisoners unwounded (but the Bat- 
tas are not much disposed to give 
quarter,) may be ransomed or sold 
as slaves, where the quarrel is not 
too inveterate. Convicts rarel}^ sui- 
fer, v^hen their friends are in cir- 
cumstances to redeem them, by the 
customary equivalent of 80 dollars. 

Mr. Marsden confines their can- 
nibalism to the above twu cases; 
but Dr. Ijcyden thinks that they 
frequently eat their own relations, 
when aged and infirm ; not so much 
to gratify their ajipctite, as to per- 
form a pious ceremony. Thus when 
a man becomes aged aud iniinuj he 



100 



BATTECOLLAH. 



is said fo invite his own children to 
eat liini, in the season when salt 
and linies are cheapest. This, Dr. 
Leyden says, is the aecoont Avhich 
the Batlas give of themselves, as 
well as of the Malays dwelling in 
Iheirvieiuity, This singular eustoni 
of Anthropophagy, practised by a 
naUon in other respects more civi- 
lized tlian the iAlalays,by whom they 
are sunonnded, attiactcd early the 
attention of Europeans, and led to 
the establishment of the fact. 

The religion of the Batlas, like 
that of all tlie other inhabitants of 
the island, who are not Mahomme- 
dans, is so obscnre in its principles, 
as scarcely to afl'ord room to say 
that any exists among them. They 
have, however, rather more ceremo- 
nies than the otlier Sumatrans, and 
there is an order of persons, called 
by them Gooroo (a well known Hin- 
doo term), who may be denominated 
priests, as they are employed in ad- 
ministering oaths, foretelling lucky 
and unlncky days, making sacrifices, 
and the performance of religions 
rites. The ceremonies that wear 
most the appearance of religion are 
those practised on taking an oath, 
and at their funeral obsequies. 

Europeans not being settled 
among the Eattas on the sam6 
footing as in the pepper districts, 
the principles or practice of their 
laws is not well known. Open r«b- 
bei-y and murder are punishable 
with death, if the parties are unable 
to redeem their lives by a sum of 
money. In cases of double adul- 
tery, the man, upon detection, is 
punished m ith death ; but the wo- 
man is only disgraced by having her 
head shaved, and being sold for a 
slave, which in fact she was before. 

The Batta language is probably 
the most ancient in Sumatra, and is 
the chief source of that diversity of 
dialect, which is discoverable in the 
languages of the islaiul, llu; al- 
phabet consists of 19 letters, each 
variable by siv vocalic sounds. This 
language has a remarkable pecu- 
Umty ; it is written neither ironi the 



left to the right, nor from the right 
to the left, nor from top to bottom ; 
but in a manner dhectly opposite to 
that of the Chinese, from the bottom 
to the top of the line. The material 
for writing on is a bamboo, or branch 
of a tree, and the instrument for 
writhig the point of a creese. The 
Battas sometimes read the bamboos 
horizontally, instead of perpendicu- 
larly ; but they consider the correct 
mode of reading to be from the bot- 
tom to the top. 

I'he Battas sometimes write on 
growing trees, and in this case^ if a 
blank space occurs, it is towards the 
top of the division, a circumstance 
which determhies what they con- 
sider as the natiual position of their 
characters. It is remarkable that 
the proportion of people who can 
read and wiite, is much greater than 
pf those who cannot. 

'I'hat this extraordinary nation has 
preserved the rude genuineness of 
its character and manners, may be 
attriboted to various causes; such 
as the want of the precious metals, 
the vegetable riches of the soil ■easily 
obtained, their ignorance of naviga* 
tion, the divided nature of their go- 
vernment, which are circumstances 
unfavourable to the propagation of 
new opinions and customs; and 
lastly, the ideas entertained of the 
ferociousness of the people, from the 
practices above described, which 
may well be supposed to have damp^ 
frd the ardour, and restrained the, 
zeal of religious irmovators. {Mart' 
den, JLei/de7i, Sfc.) 

Battecollah, {Batneala). — A 
town on the sea coast of the British 
district of North Canara, which sig- 
nifies the round town. Lat. 13°. 
56'. N. Long. 74°. 37'. E. 

This place stands on the north 
bank of a small river, the Sancada- 
holay, which waters a very beautiful 
valley, suiTOunded on every side by 
hills, and in an excellent state of cul- 
tivation. At the public expense 
eight dams are yearly made, in or- 
der to water the rice grounds, 
wliich are constructed of earth, and 



BATTU. 



101 



«n!y intended to collect the stream 
during the dry season. 

Battccollah is a large open to>vn, 
containiiig 500 houses. It has two 
mosques, one of which receives an 
allowance of 100 pagodas from the 
Company, and the other half as 
much. Many of the Mahommedans 
are wealthy, and go on commercial 
speculations to diflerent parts of the 
coast. In this part of the country 
there are -none of the Bnntar cast, 
hor does the language of Tulava ex- 
tend so far north. BattecoUah is 
properly in the country named Hai- 
ga, and the most common fanners are 
a kind of Brahmins, named Haiga, 
after the country, and a low cast of 
Hindoos, named Halepecas. There 
are here a great many guddies, or 
temples, belonging to the followers 
of Vyas. There are two Jain tem- 
ples, the only remains of 68, that 
were formerly in the j)lace. In this 
part of the country the Ikeri princes 
seem almost to have extinguished 
the Jains; but towards the north 
they appear to have met with a more 
vigorous resistance. {F. Buchafian, 

Eatties, {Bhatti). — The country 
of the Batties, or Bhatties, is bound- 
ed on the north by the Punjab and 
the River Sutuleje ; east, by the dis- 
tiict of llurrianah ; west, by the 
desert; and south, by Bicanere. — 
From north to south it extends about 
150 miles, and from east to west 
about 100, and comprehends part of 
the provinces of Lahore, Delhi, and 
Ajmeer. 

The part of the country best 
adapted for cultivation is along the 
banks of the liiver Cuggur, tiom 
the town of Futtehabad to Batneir. 
This portion of temtory is very pro- 
ductive, which is caused by the 
abundance of water M'hich descends 
from the mountains during the rainy 
season, and makes the Cuggur over- 
flow. The land w ithin the influence 
of this inundation produces wheat, 
rice, and barley, but the remainder 
of the Bhatty country, owing to a 
scarcity of moisture, is sterile and 



unproductive. The River Cuggur is 
afterwards lost in the sands to the 
west of Batneer, though it is said 
formerly to have joined the Su- 
tuleje in the vicinity of leroze- 
poor. 

Batneeris the capital of the Bhatty 
country ; the other towns o' note are 
Arroali, Futtehabad, Sirsah, and 
Ranyah. There is but little com- 
merce carried on in tliis countrj , the 
inhabitants being more addicted to 
thieving than industiious pursuits. 
With the exceptiou of the sale of 
their sur|)lus grain, ghee, and cattle, 
they have little intercourse m ith the 
neighbouring states, and that prin- 
cipally through petty merchants of 
the Shiekh Fereed sect. Their im- 
ports are coarse white cloth, sugar, 
and salt, but the trade is very incon- 
siderable. 

The Bhatties are properly shep- 
herds; various tribes of them are 
found in the Punjab, and they are 
also scattered over the high grounds 
to the east of the Indus, from the 
sea to Uch. In the Institutes of 
Acber tliese tribes are called Asham- 
batty. Their chiefs were originally 
Rajpoots, but are now Mahomme- 
dans. A majority of the present in- 
habitants of the Bhatty coimtry « ere 
originally Jauts, who atterwaids 
turned Mahommedans. Their cha- 
racter is bnt inditierent, being de- 
scribed by their neighbours as cruel, 
savage, and ferocious thieves from 
th(-ir birth, and in the practice of 
adding murder to robbery. The 
Bhatty females sac allowed to ap- 
pear in public unveiled, and with- 
out that species of concealment so 
common over Hindostan, especially 
among the followers of Mahommed. 
{Thomas, Wilford, Drummond, ifc.) 

BArrowAL. — A town in the ter- 
ritories of the Poonau Maharattas, 
in the province of Aurungabad, 60 
miles N. by W. trom Ahmcdnuggur. 
Lat. 19°. 52'. N. Long. 74°. 5o'. E. 
Battu, {PhIo Batu). — An island 
lying olf the western coast of Su- 
matra, situated imm diately to the 
southward of the equinoctial line. 



102 



BAZAAR. 



In lengfh it may be estimated at This river rises in tlie hills of Cho- 



40 miles, by 10 miles the average 
breadth. 

This island is inhabited by a co- 
lony from the Island of Neas, who 
pay a yearly tax to the Rajah of Ba- 
luaro, a small fortified village in the 
interior of the island, belonging to a 
different race, whose ntimber it is 
said amounts to only 100, which it 
is not allowed to exceed, just so 
many children being raised as are 
sufficient to repair the deaths. They 
are reported to bear a resemblance 
to the people of Massacar and the 
Buggesses, and may have been ad- 
venturers from that quarter. The 
influence of the Buluaro Rajah 
over the Neas inhabitants, who ex- 
ceed his immediate subjects in the 
proportion of 20 to one, is founded 
on a superstitious belief, that the 
water of the island will become salt 
wlien they neglect to pay the tax. — 
He, in his turn,;being in danger from 
the Malay traders, who resort hither 
irom Padang, and are not influenced 
by the same superstition, is com- 
pelled to pay them an annual tribute 
of 16 ounces of gold. 

The food of the people, as in the 
other islands of the Sumatra coast, is 
chiefly sago, and their exports cocoa 
nuts, oil in considerable quantities, 
and swalio, or sea slug. No rice is 
cultivated here. This island is vi- 
sible from Natal Hill in Sumatra, and 
is entirely covered with wood. — 
(^Marsden, ^«?.) 

Battulaki. — A harboTir, situated 
at the northern extremity of the 
Island of Magindanao. Lat. 5°. 
42'. N. Long. 125°. E. 

This harbour is known ])y a re^ 
markable rock, abont the size of a 
large dwelling-house, of a pipe-clay 
colour, between which and the main 
is a reef of rocks, over whith boats 
may pass at high water. In tiie har- 
bour there is 10 fathoms water. 'I'he 



teesgur, in the province of Gundwa- 
na, and receives all the streams that 
have their sources on the S. W. side 
of the hills, which separate the 
champaign country of Choteesgur 
from Berar. Its comse has never 
been completely traced, but it is 
supposed to join the Inderowty Ri- 
ver, which flows into the Godavery, 
near Badrachellum. {Blunt, S,-c.) 

Baaveet. — A small fortified town 
in the province of Cutch, situated 
on the road from Luckput Bunder 
to Mandavee, on the Gulf of Cutch, 
from which it is distant about 15 
miles to the northward. 

This place stands on the side of a 
hill to the northward of an extensive 
tank. The adjacent comitry is well 
cultivated, and the inhabitants ap- 
pear industrious. From hence to 
Mandavee the road is generally good, 
but the country is less cultivated. 
{Max field, 4'c.) 

Baypoor. — A town on the Mala- 
bar Coast, about 16 miles south from 
Calicut. Lat 11°. 12'. N. Long. 76°. 
52'. E. Tippoo new named this 
place Sultanpatnem, and intended 
to have established it as one of his 
places of trade. Teak ships of 400 
tons have been built here from tim- 
ber procured in the neighbourhood. 
The teak tar is here extracted from 
the cliips and saw-dust of the ves- 
sel, and is said to excel the Norwe- 
gian tar. 

Bazaar. — A small village in the 
province of Cabul, three-fourths of 
a mile from the western shore of the 
Indus, about 20 miles above the 
town of Attock. Lat. 33°. 19'. N. 
Long. 71°. 16'. E. The stream is 
here rapid, with a rough, undulating 
motion, and about three-fourths of 
a mile, or a mile in breadth, where 
it is not interrupted by islands, and 
having nearly a W. by S. course. 
The water is mucli discoloured by a 



Dutch once attempted a settlement fine black sand, which quickly sub- 
here, but were driven off by the na- sides when put into a vessel. It is 
lives. {Forrest, iSc.) also very cold, owing to the mix- 
Baum Gunoa, or Wainy River, ture of snow from the mountains, 
(Vam Ganga, rapid as an arroiv).-— when thawed by the summer heat. 



BEDNORE. 



103 



This place has been conjectured to recourse to tliis nalive salt, ascainst 
be the Baziia of the ancients. {Foster, whicli, however, tlioy have a strong' 



Wilford, &iT.) 

Beacul, {Vyacula). — A strong na- 
tive fort in the distiict of South Ca- 
uara, placed, like Cananore, on a 
high projecting point into tlie sea, 
towards the south, arid having within 
it a hay. Lat. 12°. 22'. ^'. Long. 
75°. 9'. E. 

The town .stands north from the 
fort, and contains al)out 100 houses. 



prejudice. The black sand ore of 
iron abounds here in the torrents. 

The country in this neighbourhood 
is exceedingly bare, and the ])opnla- 
tion scanty. AH the houses are col- 
lected in villages, and the smallest 
village is fortified. Baydamungaluni 
was tbrmerly a considerable place, 
and the residence of a polygar. In 
the dispute for the dominion between 



I'he inhabitants are cliiefiy INIopla} s its ancient lord and Hyder, the town 

and Muccas, with a icw 'I'iars, and .suffered exceedingly, and is now 

people of the Concan, mIio have greatly deduced, 'llie people in the 

long settled in Canara as shop-keep- adjacent country are a mixture of 

ers. Beggars swarm here, as is the Taniuls, Telingas, and Carnatacas, 

case every where in India, except or Canares, with a considerable num- 

Malabar, where there are very few. ber of Malrommedans. {F. Btt~ 

{F. Buchanan, ^t.) chanan, ^c.) 

Beawull. — A town in the jMaha- Bednore, (Beiduntru). — A dis- 

ratta territories, in the province of trict in the north-westorn extremity 

Khandesh, 35 jnilcs S. W. liom of the Rajah of Mysore's territorie 



Boorhanpoor. Lat. 21°. i>'. N. Long. 
75°. 48'. E. 

Bedagur, (Vedaghar). — A town 
in the district of (jiurrah, on the 
south side of the Nerbuddah River, 
10 miles S. W. from Gurrah. Lat. 
23°. 6'. N. Lonff. «0°. 5'. E. 



situated on the summit of that range 
of western hills, which o%erlooks the 
provinces of Canara and Malabar, 
and named the Western Ghauts, 
These mountains, elevated liom four 
to 5000 feet above the level of the 
sea, present to the west a surface in 



Bedamungalum, {or Betumnnoa- many places nearly perpendicular to 
him). — A town in the iiajah of M5- the horizon, and by their height in- 
soie's tenitories, near the eastern tercept the clouds of the western 
frontier. Lat. 12°. 58'. N. Long, monsoon. Nine rainy months in the 
78°. 24'. E, This place is situated year are usually calculated on in this 
about 300 yards west of the Palare chmate, and for six of that number 
River, which is not here above 40 it is customaiy to make the same 
feet wide, and in the month of May preparatory arrangements for provi- 
contains only two or three feet depth sion (water excepted), as are adopt- 
of water, nearly stagnant. In the ed in a ship proceeding on a voyage, 
rainy season it fills several fine re- This extraordinary moisture is not 
servoirs, or tanks, for the use of cul- only favourable to the growth of the 
tivation. All over the country in pecuhar products of the province, 
this vicinity common salt (muriate but covers the face of the covntry 
of soda) is very commordy diffused, with timber of great stature, with 
It is found in low wet grounds, con- underwood scarcely peneti able, 
tained in a poor and bhiek soil, and 'I'he exports from this district con- 
in Tippoo's reign was extracted in sist chiefly of pepper, betel nut, san- 
considerable quantities. At that dal wood, and cardamoms. The 
time the trade with the Lower Car- imports are salt, rice, cocoa nuts, 
natic being entirely contraband, so oil, turmeric, and cotton cloths. The 
bulky an article as salt could not be roads being bad, most of the goods 
smuggled in sufficient quantities for are carried to Mangalore by porters, 
the consumption ; the inhabitants the most important article being be- 
were consequently obliged to have tel nut. The difference of elevatioai 



T04 



BEEDER. 



makes this climate a month later tilling and selling spirituous liquors, 
than it is on tlie sea coast. The cat- 'J'ippoo carried them all to Seringa- 
tie, like those below the Ghauts, are patam. 

remarkably small. The country Travelling distance from Seringa- 
breeds more than is required for its patam 187 miles N. W. from Ma- 
cultivation, and a considerable sur- dvas 445 miles ; from Poonah 382 



plus is annually exported to the sea 
coast, "^rhe horses are indifferent, 
but might be improved by sending 
into the district a few stallions. 



miles. (JP. Buchanan, Wilks, Rcti- 
nel, Src.) 

Beechipoor. — A village in the 
province of Sinde, situated on the 



When conquered by Hyder, in -west side of the Goonee, on the 

1762, the Bednore dominions ex- route from Hyderabad, the capital 

tended over the maritime province of Sinde, to Mandavee, a sea port 

now named Canara, and to the east on the Gulf of Cutch, by th^ way 

over a tract of more open country, of Luckput Bunder. Lat. 24^^. 35'. N. 

extending to Sunta, Bednore, and In this neighbourhood are a num- 

Hoolukera, wiihin 20 miles of Chit- ber of fine trees resembling the ap- 



ple tree, also the Laurestinus cherry 
and drooping willow, and abundance 
of the lye bush. The soil is rich, 
but except close to the banks of the 
river is wholly uncultivated, and 
covered with jungle. Nor is any 
advantage taken of the numerous 
natural canals with which the coun- 
try is intersected. They remain over- 
grown with rank weeds and bushes, 
which impede the navigation, and 
{Maxfieldf 



teldroog. (WiM, F. Buchanan, S'c.) 
Bednore. — A town in the Ra,jah 
of Mysore's territories, the capital 
of a district of the same name. Lat. 
13°. 48'. N. Long. 75°. 6'. E. 

This place was originally named 
Biderhully, or Bamboo Village, un- 
til the scat of government was re- 
moved from Ikeri to this toM'n, after 
which it was named Bideruru, or 
Bamboo Place. On this transfer, the 

whole revenue of the country being vitiate the atmosphere, 
expended here, Bednore immediate- ^'c.) 
ly became a city of great magnitude Beeder. — A province in the Dec- 
and commerce, and is said to have can, now possessed by the Nizam, 
then contained 20,000 houses, be- situated principally betwixt the 16tli 
sides huts, defended by a circle of and 18th degrees of north latitude, 
woods, hills, and fortified defiles. To the north it is bounded by Au- 
When taken by Hyder, in 1763, it rungabad and Nandere; on the south 
was estimated at eight miles in cir- by the River Krishna ; to the cast it 
cumference, and it is said the plun- has the province of Hyderabad ; and 
der actually realised amounted to 12 to the west the province of Bejapoor. 
millions sterling. He afterwards In length it may be estimated at 140 
changed its name to Hydernagur. miles, by 65 the average breadtli. 

This place was taken and plun- The surface of this province is uiv- 
dered by the British detachment even and hilly, but not mountainous, 
from Bombay, under Gen. Mat- and it is intei-sected by many small 
thews, in 1783, but they were after- rivers, which fertilize the soil, and 
wards attacked by Tippoo, assisted flow into the Beemah, Khrisna, and 
by the French, and all destroyed, or Godavcry. The country is very pro- 
made prisoners. ductive, and under the ancient Hin- 
AtTippo's death it contained 1500 doo government contsuned a redun- 
honses, besides huts, and it is fast dant population, but it is now thinly 
recovering, being a convenient tho- inhabited compared with the British 
roughfare for goods. During the provinces. Although long the seat 
Banny's government, 100 families of of a Mahommcdan sovereignty, and 
Concan Christians settled at Bed- still subject to princes of that reli- 
nore, and subsisted chiefly by dis- giou, the Hindoos probably still ex- 



BEENISHENR. 



105 



eeed tlie Mahommedans in the pro- cept the east side, wTiich is a rising 
portion of 10 to one. The junction ground about 100 yards high. It is 
of the three languages, Telinga, Ma- 
haratta, and Canara, takes place in 



this province, somewhere near its 
capital. 
This province is now wholly com 



much decayed, but the remains of 
many good buildings are still to be 
seen. It was formerly noted for 
works of tutenague inlaid with silver. 
Before the Mahommedan invasion 



prehended within the dominions of Bedecr was the capital of a Hindoo 



the Nizam, and governed by his olB 
cers. The principal towns arcBeeder, 
or Ahmedabad, Kalbergah, and Ca- 
liany. 

After the Mahommedan conquest 
this province was the seat of the 
Bhamener dynasty of Dcccan sove- 
reigns, the first of whom was Sultan 
Allah ud Deen Houssun Kangoh 
Bhamenee, A. D. 1347, whose ca- 
pital was Kalbergah. Besides the 
princes of the Nizam Shahy, Adil 
Shahy, and Koottub Shahy, founded 
on tlie ruins of the Bhamenee dy- 
nasty, there arose two others, com- 
posed of parts of their once exten- 
sive dominions. One was founded 



sovereignty. Near the ruins of the 
old Beeder, Ahmed Shah Bhamenee 
founded the city of Ahmedabad, 
which he made his capital in place 
of Kalbergah, and this is the modern 
Beeder. 

I'ravelling distance from Hyder- 
abad 78 miles, from Delhi 857, from 
Madras 430, and from Calcutta 980 
miles. {Upton, Scott, Remiel, Sfc.) 

Beejapoor. — A town in the Ma- 
haiatta dominions, in the province 
of Aurungabad, 65 miles N. from 
Ahmediuiggur. Lat. 19°. 64'. N. 
Long. 75°. 1'. E. 

Beemah River, (Bhinia, terrific). 
— ^This river rises in the mountains 



by Ameer Bereed about 1518, the to the north of Poonah, not many 
prime minister, or rather confiner of miles from the source of the Goda- 
the two last Bhamenee Sultans, and very, and passes within 30 miles to 
called from him Bereed Shahy. His the east of Poonah, where it is call- 
dominions were small, consisting of ed Bewrah, as well as Beemah, and 
the capital Bedeer, and a few dis- is esteemed a sacred river. It is onh 
tricts round that city. The honours of the principal rivers that join the 
of royalty did not long remain in his Krishna, which it does near the town 



family, his territories being wrested 
from his grandson by the other Dec- 
can princes, and the kingdom of 
Beeder destroyed. 

Along with the other Deccany 



of Firozegur, in the province of 
Beeder. The length of its course, 
including the windings, may be esti- 
mated at 400 miles. 
The horses most esteemed by the 



pro^inces, it fell under the INIogul Maharattas are those bred on the 
dominion towards the conclusion of banks of the Beemah. They are of 



the 17th century, during the reign 
of Aurengzebe, from whose succes- 
sors it was separated in 1717 by Ni- 
zam ul Muluck, and has ever since 
been possessed by his posterity, the 
Nizams, resident at Hyderabad. {Fe- 
rislUa, Scott, Mackenzie, ^c.) 

Beeder. — A town in the province 
of Beeder, of which it is the capital. 
Lat. 17°. 47'. N. Long. 77°. 48'. E, 

This city is fortified with a stone 
wall, a dry ditch, and many round 
towers. The wall is six miles in 
circumference, and the town it en- 
doses stands in au open plain, ex- 



a middle size, and strong, are rather 
a handsome breed, generally dark 
bay, with black legs, and are called, 
from the country which produces 
them, Beemarteddy liorses. {Reii- 
nel, 5th Register, ^c.) 

Beenishenr. — A town in northern 
Hindostan, situated close to the Hi- 
malaya mountains, in the district of 
MuUiboom, of which it is the ca- 
pital. Lat. 28°. 21'. N. Long. 84°. 
20'. E. This town stands at the con- 
fluence of the Salegrami, or Gun- 
duck, and a small stream named the 
Hehagde. It is an entiepot of con- 



106 



BEJAPOOR. 



siderable trade, and is sometimes 
named Bccni-jee, by way of emi- 
nence. {Kirkpatrick, ^-c.) 

Beggah, {Bhiga). — A small town 
formerly fortified in the province of 
Bahar, district of Ram2;ur, 82 miles 
S. from Patna. Lat, 24°. 25'. N. 
Long. 85°. 20'. E. 

Behawulpoor. — A town in the 
proA ince of Mooltan, 37 miles S. by 
E. from the city of Mooltan. Lat. 
30°. 4' N. Long. 71°. 30'. E. This 
town is situated near the Ghairah 
Biver, in a very bad part of the de- 
sert. It derives its name from the 
Nabob BhawnlKhan, of the Abassi 
family, and suriiamed Dadpootee. 
He died in 1808, leaving a son under 
age, whose territories were in a si- 
tuation of great danger from tlie am- 
bitious views of tiie Ameers of Sinde, 
Tire BehH.wiilpoor state extends a 
considerable way towards Bieancre, 
but is tributary to the sovereigns of 
Cabu!. To travel in this arid re- 
gion, it is necessary to have an esta- 
blishment of camels to carry a suji- 
p}y of water, as in the deserts of 
Arabia. {Registers, Smitk, 4'c.) 

B UK RAD. — A small district in the 
province of Cabul, situated betwixt 
the 34th and 35th degrees of north 
latitude. It has the district of Mun- 
derar to the north, a range of hills 
to the south, the liiver Chuganserai 
to the east, and the River Alishung 
to the west. 

In 1582 it is described by Abul 
Fazel as follows :— " 'J'he district of 
Bekrad is full of infidels. Instead 
of lamps they burn green fir, which 
gives a very good light. Here is an 
animal called a flying fox, which 
flies about an ell from the ground. 
Here are also mice, which have a 
fine musky scent. Pooluk Bekrad 
2,045,451 dams." 

Behut RivKR. — See Jhylum. 

Beiduru. — An open village in the 
district of North Canara, containing 
about 150 houses. Lat. 13°. 49'. N. 
Long. 74°. 43'. E. 

Beiduru once had a foi-t, and was 
then a large place, belonging to a 
Jain princess, named Byra Devi, 



but the Jain sect are now quite' ex- 
tinct herei At this place there is a 
temple dedicated to Siva, in which 
are many inscriptions. These in- 
scriptions, among the Hindoos, seem 
to be what the legends on the coins 
are among the Mahommedans, and 
so long as there is a nominal king all 
inscriptions and legends are made in 
his name. {F. Buckanan, ^-c.) 

Bejagur, {Vijayaghar). — A dis- 
strict in the province of Malvvah, 
situated about the 22nd degree of 
north latitude. Although to the soutli 
of the Nerbuddah, in the Institutes 
of Acber, A. D. 1582, it is placed 
in the viceroyalty of Maluah, and is 
described as follows : — " Sircar Bee- 
jagur, containijig 32 mahals, mea- 
surement 283,278 beegahs, revenue 
12,249,121 dams. Seyurghal 3574 
dams. It furnishes 1773 cavalry, 
and 19,480 infantiy." 

'i'his district is now possessed by 
diflerent Maharatta chiefs. The chief 
towns are Awass, Sindwah, and 
Gherowd. 



BEJAPOOR. 

A large province in the Deccan, 
extending from the 15th to the 19tli 
degrees of north latitude. To the 
north it is bounded by the province 
of Aurungabad ; on the south by the 
Toombuddra River, and district of 
North Canara; on the east by Au- 
rungabad and Beeder ; and on the 
west by the sea. In length it may 
be estimated at 350 miles, by 200 
miles the average breadth. 

The western districts of this pro- 
vince are very moun4ainous, parti- 
cularly in the vicinity of the Ghauts; 
but towards the cast the country is 
more level, and watered by many 
fine rivers, the principal of which 
are the Krishna, the Beemah, the 
Toombuddra, and the Gutpurba. 
I'rior to 1790 the latter was the 
boundary which separated the do- 
minions of Tippoo from those of the 
Maharattas. 

There is nothing peculiar in the 
agricultiuc or production ol this pro- 



BEJAPOOR. 



107 



vince, whicli are Ihe same as in the 
other regions of the Deccan. The 
horses reared on tlie banks of the 
-Beemah are held in great estimation 
by the Maharattas, and furnish tlie 
best cavalry in their armies. All the 
sea coast being in the possession of 
that nation, Avho are little addicted 
to maritime commerce, the greater 
part of what traffic subsists is carried 
on by land carriage ^vith the interior, 
but the extent of this species of in- 
terchange all over the. Deccan is 
considerable. 

Four-fifths of this province have 
long appertained to the. Maharattas, 
and the remainder is under the go- 
vernment of the Nizam. The Peshvva 
is the nominal lord of the whole, but 
possesses efl'ective jurisdiction over 
but a small portion, the maritime 
district of Concan being the largest 
territory actually within his own 
power. The principal cities are 
Poonah, Bejapoor, Satarali, Mer- 
ritch, or Mirjce, Darwar, Punder- 
poor, Hubely, and Huttany. 

The population of this province 
cannot be compared with the best of 
the British territories, but is pro- 
bably equal to that of the Balaghaut 
ceded territories, which being a re- 
cent acqui.sition, have not had suffi- 
cient time for improvement. Taking 
the latter as a scale of comparison, 
the inhabitants may be estimated at 
seven millions ; of which number, 
probably, not more than one-twen- 
tieth are Mahommedans, the rest 
being Hindoos of the Brahminical 
persuasion. 

In this province, approaching the 
Krishna from the southward, the 
Maharatta tongue comes more and 
more into use; leaving this river to 
the south, the Canara dialect de- 
clines in a similar proportion, so that 
the Krishna may be deemed the di- 
viding boundary of the two lan- 
guages, but the Cauara is rather 
more spoken to the northward, than 
the Maharatta to the south of the 
river. The Krishna is also remark- 
able for dividing dillerent stiles of 
building. To the south the houses 



of the lower class arc flat roofed, and 
covered Avith mud and clay ; north- 
ward the voofs are pitched and 
thatched. 

After the dissolntion of the Blia- 
menee dynasty of the Deccan, Abou 
ul MuziiU'er Adil Shah founded the 
Adil Shahy sovereignty of Bejapoor, 
A. D. 1489, comprehending witliin 
the circle of his government all the 
country fiom the River Beemrah to 
Bejapoor. In 1502 he introduced 
the ceremonies of the Shicah sect of 
Mahommedans, which did not, prior 
to this period, exist in the Deccan. 
He died A. D. 1510, and his suc- 
cessors were, 

Ismael Adil Shah, died 1534. 

Muloo Adil Shah, deposed and 
blinded, having reigned six months. 

Ibrahim Adil Shah, died 1557. 
During liis illness this prince put to 
death several physicians who had 
failed in eflecting his cure, behead^ 
ing some, and treading others to 
death with elephants, so that all the 
surviving medical practitioners being 
alarmed, fled his dominions. 

Ali Adil Shah, assassinated 1579. 
In the year 1564, the four Mahom- 
medan Sultans of the Deccan formed 
a confederacy against Ram Rajah, 
the Hindoo sovereign of Bijanagur; 
and having totally defeated and slain 
him in battle, took and plundered 
his capital. With him ended the 
long established and powerful Hin- 
doo dynasty of Bijanagur. 

Ibrahim Adil Shah the Second, 
died 1626. In tliis reign the Mogul 
power began to be severely felt ia 
the Dekkan. 

Mahommed Adil Shah, died A. D. 
1660. In this reign Sevajee the Ma- 
haratta revolted, which, wilh the 
Mogul conquests, reduced the Beja- 
poor principality to the last extre- 
mity. 

AU Adil Shah the Second. This 
prince died in 1672, after a turbulent 
reign, during which he enjoyed tittle 
more of royalty than the name, his 
countiy being usuiped by Sevajee, 
and other vassals. 
Secunder Adil Shah, who never ac- 



loa 



BEJAPOOR. 



quired any real power, bein^ merely 
an instrument in the hands of his 
nobility; and with him the Adil 
Shahee dynasty ended in 1689, when 
Bejapodr was beaeged and taken by 
Aurengzebe, Secunder Adil Shah 
being among the prisoners. 

This Mahommedan dynasty of 
Bejapoor was remarkable for the 
practice of conferring Hindoo titles, 
they being, m general, exclusively 
Arabic. 

The destruction of the Bejapoor 
Deccany empire, and the beginning 
of that of the Maharattas, happened 
so nearly at the same time, that this 
province cannot with strictness be 
said ever to have been subject to the 
throne of Delhi, although regularly 
enumerated in tlie list of soubahs. 
During the reign of Aurengzebe its 
possession was disputed with much 
slaughter, liut his successors early 
abandoned it to the Maharattas, and 
with them the greatest proportion 
has remained ever since. 

At the conclusion of the war be- 
tween the British and Sindia in 1804, 
the whole of the Maharatta terri- 
tories in this province exhibited a 
scene of the greatest anarchy; and 
although nominally subject to the 
Peshwa, his authority scarcely ex- 
tended beyond the city of Poonah, 
and was resisted by the chief of 
every petty village. The different 
chiefs and leaders of banditti, by 
whom the country was occupied, 
were almost innumerable ; but the 
names and designations of the prin- 
cipal were Goklah, Appah Saheb, 
and Bala Saheb (the sons of Purse- 
ram Bhow, and heads of the Put- 
wurden family), Appah Dessaye, 
Furkiah, Bapoojce Sindia, Madarow 
Rastiah, the Ra.jah of Colapoor, I'ut- 
teh Singh Bhoonslah, Chintamuny 
Bow (the nephew of Purst-ram 
Bhow), Tautia, Punt Pritty Niddy, 
and others of inferior note depend* 
jng on these leaders. 

Owing to the long confusion that 
had subsisted, the country had been 
ravaged and depopulated in various 
modes, and amongst others by the 



rapid succession of governors ap- 
pointed by tlie Peshwa, the preced- 
ing one always strenuously resisting 
his successor. The chiefs above nam- 
ed v,ere not properly Jaghiredars, 
although distinguished by the appel- 
lation of the Southern Jaghiredars. 
They Mere the Serinjamy Sirdars of 
the Poonah state ; and it is pecu- 
liarly the case with Serinjamy lands, 
that the possession of tliem may be 
changed annually, and are granted 
for the payment of troops actually 
employed in the senice of the state. 
The chiefs in question, however, had 
retained possession of the lands for 
many years, and had also properties 
of other descriptions under the Poo- 
nah government. 

To reduce this chaos to order, the 
British government was obliged to 
interpose its arbitration, and began 
by endeavouring to ascertain the ex- 
tent of the service to which the 
Peshwa was entitled from the Sou- 
thern Jaghiredars, with the view of 
inducing them to aflord that service. 
On the other hand, it was resolved 
to protect the Jaghiredars from the 
oppression of the Peshwa's govern- 
ment, and to guarantee to the Jag- 
hiredars their possessions, while they 
continued to serve the Peshwa with 
fidelity. On this occasion the Mar- 
quis Wellesley was obliged to ex- 
press liis utter disapprobation of the 
Peshwa's projects of vengeance and 
rapine against the principal familie:^ 
of the Maharatta state in immediate 
subjection to Poonah, and particu- 
larly his highness's designs agiunst 
the Putwurden family. 

To accomplish this most desh-e- 
able ariangement, and to restore 
tranquillity and good government to 
a region long deprived of both. Gen. 
Arthur Wellesley (now Duke of 
Wellington) was instructed to enter 
into negociations viith the different 
chiefs, during his march southwards 
in 1804, to reconcile their dissen- 
sions, and adjust their disputes with 
their sovereign the Peslnva. DiflTi- 
cult as the task appears, he effected 
it without bloodshed by his tempe- 
4 



BEJAPOOR. 



109 



rate and decided conduct, and more 
especially by ihe penetration with 
which he at once fixed on a proper 
mode of commencing the settlement 
of so many complicated claims and 
discordant interests, in which he was 
ably seconded by Col. Close, then 
resident at Poonah, and Mr. Stra- 
/ chey, whom he had appointed agent 
Avitli the Southern Jaghiredars. 
{MSS. Ferishta, Scott, Moor, WiUis, 
Sfc. 

BejapooR, (Vijayapura, the Im- 
pregnable). — A city in the province 
of Bejapoor, of which it mjis the 
capital, when an independent king- 
dom. .Lat. 17°. 1/. N. Long. 75° 
42'. E. In old European books it is 
generally named Viziapoor. 

When taken by Aurengzebe in 
person, A. D. 1689, it stood on an 
extensive plain, the fort being one 
of the largest in the world. Between 
it and the city wall there was room 
for 15,000 cavalry to encamp. With- 
in the citadel was the king's palace, 
the houses of the nobility, and large 
magazines, besides many extensive 
gardens, and romid the whole a deep 
ditch, always well supplied with wa- 
ter. There were, also, without the 
walls, very large suburbs and noble 
palaces. It is asserted by the na- 
tives, with their usual exaggeration, 
that during its flourishing state it 
contained 984,000 inhabited houses, 
and 1600 mosqnes. 

After its capture the waters of the 
reservons and wells in the fort de- 
creased, and the country round be- 
came waste to a considerable dist- 
ance. At present it exhibits almost 
nothing but ruins, which prove the 
•vast magnitude of tliis city during 
its prosperous state. 

The outer wall, on the western 
side, runs nearly north and south, 
and is of great extent. It is a thick 
stonewall, about 20 feet high, with 
9, ditch and rampart. There are ca- 
pacious towers, built of large hewn 
stones, at the distance of every hun- 
dred yards ; but are, as well as the 
wall, much neglected, having in 
inany places fallen into the ditch, 



and being in others covered with 
rubbish. A mile and a half from the 
western wall is a town called Toor- 
vee, built on the remains of the foi- 
mer city, and surrounded by mag- 
nificent piles of ruins, among which 
are the tombs of several Mahom- 
modan saints, attended by their de- 
votees. The court way of the fort 
is from 150 to 200 yards broad, and 
the ditch, now filled with rubbish, 
appears to have been a very formid- 
able one, excavated out of the solid 
rock on which the fort stands. The 
curtain is nearly 40 feet high from 
tiie berm of the ditch, entirely built 
of huge stones strongly cemented, 
and frequently adorned with sculp- 
tural representations of lions, tigers, 
&c. The towers Hanking the cur- 
tain are \ ery rmmerous, and of vast 
size, built of the same kind of ma- 
terials. Measured by the counters- 
carp of the ditch, the fort is proba- 
bly about eight miles in circumier- 
ence. The curtain and towers in 
the southern face are most battered, 
as it was against these Aurengzebe 
raised his batteries. 

The mosque and mausoleum of 
Ibrahim Adil Shah are built on a 
basement 130 yards in length, and 
52 in breadth, and raised 15 feet. 
Inside it is a plain building, 1 15 bjf 
76, covered by an immense dome, 
raised on arches. The mausoleum 
is a room 57 feet square, enclosed 
by two verandas 13 feet broad, and 
22 feet high. Besides these there 
are many other public buildings, 
mucli injured by time and the Ma- 
Larattas. 

1 he fort in the interior is adorned 
with many handsome edifices, in 
rather better preservation than the 
fort. The great mosque is 97 yards 
by 55 yards. Tlie wings, 15 yards 
broad, project 73 yards from the 
north and south ends, enclosing on 
three sides with the body of the 
mosque a large reservoir for water, 
and a. fountain. The mausoleum of 
Sultan Mahmood Shah is a plain 
building, 153 feet square, over which 
is reared a dome of 117 feet diameter 



110 



EEJAPOOR. 



ill it? conravity, called by the na- 
tives the great cupola. 

The inner fort consists of a strong 
curtain, frequent towers of a large 
size, a fausse bray, ditch, and co- 
vered way; the whole built of massy 
materials, and well constructed. The 
ditch is extremely wide, and said to 
have been 100 yards; but its ori- 
ginal depth cannot now be discover- 
ed, being nearly filled up with rub- 
bish. 'I'he fort inside is a heap of 
i-uiiss, none of the buildings being 
in any repair, except a handsome 
little mosque built by Ali Adil Shah. 
This inner fort was kept exclusively 
for the palaces of the kings, and ac- 
commodation of their attendants. 
The fort now contains several dis- 
tinct towns, and although so great a 
part is covered with ruins, tliere is 
still room found for some corn fields 
and extensive enclosures. The in- 
ner fort, which is more than a mile 
in circumference, appears but as a 
speck in the larger one, wliich, in 
its turn, is almost lost in the extent 
occupied by the outer w all of the 
city. 

Most of the buildings (the palaces 
in the fort excepted) appear to have 
had little or no wood used in their 
construction. They are, in general, 
built of the most massy stone, and 
in the most durable stile ; notwith- 
standing vphich the workmanship of 
some is minutely elegant. The city 
is well watered, having, besides nu- 
merous wells, several rivulets run- 
ning through it. To the north there 
are but few hills, the country being, 
in general, level, and the soil rich ; 
yet it is described as destitute of 
wood, and but little cultivated. The 
city is but thinly inhabited, and is 
now comprehended in that part of 
the Bejapoor province belonging to 
the Maharattas. According to tia- 
dition it must have once been im- 
mensely rich, and it is said that large 
sums of money and valuables are 
still found secreted among the ruins. 

Some enormous cannon, still re- 
maining here, correspond with the 
magnitude of the fort, Oiily 12 we 



said to be left, the dimensions of the 
three largest are as follows : 

1st. A Malabar gun. 

Feet. Inches. 
Diameter at the breach 4 5 

Length from breach to 

muzzle - - - - 21 5 

Circumference of the 

trunnions - _ _ 4 7 
Diameter at the muzzle 4 3 
Ditto of the bone - 1 9 

The second is a brass gun cast by 
Aurengzebe to commemorate the 
conquest of Bejapoor. 

Feet. Inches. 
Diameter at the breach 4 10| 
Ditto at the muzzle - 4 8 
Ditto of the bone - 2 4 
Length -----14 1 

Circumference in the 

middle - - - - 13 7 

The third gun is called 

the high-flyer, and 

measures in length 30 3| 
Circumference at the 

breach - - - - 9 2 
Circumference overthe 

moulding, measured 

at the smallest part 6 
Diameter of the bone 1 1 

The first and last of these guns 
are constructed of bars ofiron, hoop- 
ed round, not upon caniages, but 
lying on blocks of wood. I'he brass 
gun is fixed on its centre, on an im- 
mense iron fixed in the ground, and 
grasping its trunnions in the manner 
of a swivel, its breech resting on a 
block of wood, supported by a thick 
wall, so that it cannot recoil. For 
the calibre of this gun an iron bullet, 
weighing 2646 pounds, would be re- 
quired. {Moor, Scott, Src.) 

Bejapoor. — A district in the pro- 
vince of Bejapoor, intersected by the 
River Eeeniah, the country to the 
east of which belongs to the Nizam, 
and to the west to the Poonah Ma- 
harattas. The chief town is Beja- 
poor. 

Bejapoor. — A town belonging to 
the Maharattas, in the hilly districts 
of Khandesb, 80 miles E. uf Boor- 



BELLUxMCONDAH. 



Ill 



Iianpoor. Lat. 21°- 26'. N. Long. 

Bejapoor. — A town in Northern 
Hindostan, situated on the banks of 
the Cousey River, which is navigjable 
tioni Dholatghaiit to Khoorkiit<;haiit, 
■within three hours' journey of Beja- 
poor, which stands to the east of 
the Nei)anlese territories. Lat. 26°. 
55'. N. Long. 86°. 25'. E. 

Bejighur. — A town in the Maha- 
ratta territories, in the province of 
Agra, about 70 miles S. ^^^ from 
the city of Agra, and 15 S. W.from 
Subbulghur. Tliis place stands at 
the extremity of a low hill, and has 
an upper and lower fort. On a 
plain, at the bottom of the lull, is 
the pettah, inclosed by a stone v. ail 
of good construction. The walls of 
the fort are nev,', but they are ill- 
pro^^ded with artillery; and the 
ascent to them is not ditficuit. 

The surrounding country consists 
of ranges of low hills much covered 
■with jungle, and separated from 
each other by intermediate plains, 
intersected by deep ravines ; but, 
upon the whole, well supplied with 
water from wells, which have been 
dug, and from nullahs. {MSS. St.) 

Bejiporam. — A town pos.sessed 
by independent zemindars, in the 
province of Orissa, 90 miles W. bv 
N. from Vizii^apatam. Lat. 18°. 6'. 
N. Long. 82°. 8'. E. 

Bejurah, {Bijorali). — A small 
town in tlie province of Bengal, dis- 
tiict of Dacca, 53 miles jS. E. from 
the city of Dacca. Lat. 24°. 7'. N. 
Long. 91°. 10'. E. 

Belah. — A town in tho province 
of AgTa, British district of Etaweh; 
43 miles E. from the town of Eta- 
weh. Lat. 20°. 46'. N. Long. 79°. 
40'. E. 

Bejwarah. — A town in the Seik 
territories, ni the province of La- 
hore, 113 miles S. E. from the city 
of Lahore. Lat. 31°. 20'. N. Long. 
75°. 35'. E. 

Belande. — A town in the Maha- 
ratta terntories, in the province of 
Khaudesh. Lat. 21°. 0', N. Long. 
74°. 50'. E. 



Belaspoor. — A town in the pro- 
vince of Delhi, district of Bareily, 
38 miles N. from the town of Bareily, 
aiid formerly included in Fyzoolah. 
Khan's small territory. Lat. 28°. 
56'. Long. 79°. 15'. E. 

Bflgaum, {Balcrgrama). — A town 
in the Northern Circars, 42 miles 
W. by N. from Cicacole. Lat. 18° 
42'. N. Long. 83°. 27'. E. 

Belgram. — A town in the Nabob 
of Oude's territories, 12 miles N. E. 
fi-om Kajioge. Lat. 27°. 13'. N. 
Long. 80°. 3'. E. This is a to'.vn of 
some aiitifpiity, being described by 
Abul Fazel, in 1582, as being very 
healthy, and famous for producing 
men with melodious voices. It is 
still distinguished by a ruinous fort 
and moat. The ruined buildings 
appear to have been in the best style 
of Mogul architecture ; but the pre- 
sent inhabitants, few in number, 
dwell in small stnictures. either of 
mud or timber. {Abul Fazel, Ten- 
nant, <St.) 

Belhauy, (VaMian). — A very 
ancient town in the northern extre- 
mity of the province of Giunhvana. 
The old ( Joand fort still remains, to 
which the iMaharattas have made 
some additions. 

Belini>a. — A town in the pro- 
vince of Allahabad, district of Cur- 
rah. Lat. 25°. 54'. N. Long. 80°. 
65'. E. 

Bella RY. — See Balhary, 

Bellaspoor. — A town in the pro- 
vince of Dellii, situated on the east 
side of the Sutubje River, which is 
here 100 yards broad whon the wa- 
ters are at the lowest. Lat. 31°. 
35'. N. Long. 76°. 21'. E. Bellas- 
poor is a well-built town, and ex- 
hibits a regularity not often seen in 
this part of Hindostan. The streets 
are paved, though roughly, and the 
houses built of stone and mortar. 
From Bellaspoor fertile vallies, 
though not wide, extend to Bij)olie. 
This is the residence of the raimy. 
or female ruler of the Calowr terri- 
tory. {Foster, St.) 

Bellumcondah. — A town in the 
Northern Circars, district uf Giiii- 



112 



BENARES. 



toor. Lat. 16°. 22'. N. Long. 79°. 
64'. E. 

Belour.^— A town in the province 
of Agra, district of Kanoge, 52 miles 
west from Lucknow. Lat 26°. 52'. 
N. Long. 80°. 5'. E. 

Belugura. — A fortified village in 
the Rajah of Mysore's territories, 
containing about 200 houses. Lat. 
13°. 27'. N. Long. 76° 18'. E. This 
place is in the Garuda Giri district, 
which has long formed part of the 
dominions of the Mysore femily. 
In the sunounding countiy there 
are many sheep, and but few black 
cattle. The shepherds and their fa- 
milies live with their flocks, llie 
men wrap themselves up in their 
blankets, and sleep in the open air 
among their sheep. The women 
and children sleep under hemisphe- 
rical baskets, about six feet in dia- 
meter, and wrought with leaves, so 
as to turn the rain. At one side a 
small hole is left, through which 
they can creep, and this is always 
turned to leeward, tliere being no- 
thing to cover it. 

Benares, (Varanasi). — A large 
district, or zemindary, in the pro- 
"vince of Allahabad, situated princi- 
pally betwixt the 24th and 26th de- 
grees of north latitude. When 
ceded, in 1775, by A soph ud Dow- 
lah, the Nabob of Oude, tliis zemin- 
dary was divided into 62 pugunnahs, 
containing 12,000 square miles, of 
which 10,000 are a rich, cultivated 
flat on both sides of the Ganges. The 
chief subdivisions are Benares, Ga- 
zypoor, Jionpoor, and Chunar. In 
the Institutes of Acber, A. D. 1582, 
Abul Fazel describes it as follows : 

" Sircar Benares, containing eight 
mahals ; measurement 136,663 bee- 
gahs; revenue, 8,169,318 dams. — 
Seyurghal, 338,184 dams. This Sir- 
car furnishes 830 cavalry, and 8400 
infantry." 

The atmosphere of this province, 
which in winter is so severe as to 
render fires necessary, becomes so 
heated for three months after March, 
by the setting in of the hot winds, 
as to destroy all verduye, aud woulc^ 



probably prove destructive to all Eu- 
ropean artificial glasses, were the 
cultivation introduced. Turnips, ra- 
dishes, and a variety of greens and 
garden stuifs are raised by the na- 
tives, principally for the Europeans. 

There is not much land employed 
in the raising of rice, the chief arti- 
cles of produce being barley, w heat, 
and several species of the pea. A 
small quantity of flax is raised in the 
skirts of almost every field, for the 
sake of the oil ; its use, as an article 
of clothing, is not here understood. 
Every field of barley contains a mix- 
ture of grain or pease ; and at the 
distance of six or 10 feet, there is 
planted a beautiful yellow flowering 
sluub used in dyeing. 

A considerable quantity of sugar 
is produced in this district. The ap- 
paratus is extremely simple. A stone 
mortar and wooden pistern turned 
by two bullocks, the Avhole not worth 
12 rupees, constitute the most ex-i 
pensive pait of the operation. The 
boiling pots are of tlie commoa 
earthen ware, and here, as in the 
West Indies, the sugar harvest is a 
joyous and busy season. 

From Patua to Buxar, Gazypoor, 
Benares, and Mirzapoor, much cul- 
tivation and a rich country presents 
itself, and the numerous clumps of 
mango trees give the district the 
appearance of a forest, and afl'ord 
an agreeable retreat to the cattle. 
Both "sides of the river a little way 
above Mirzapoor formerly belonged 
to the Nabob of Oude, and exhi- 
bited a marked contrast to the flou- 
rishing state of the Benares districts; 
which, probably, in the scale of prosn 
perity, excel all others in India, ex.- 
cept Burdwan in Bengal. 

Plain and flow ered muslins, adapt- 
ed to common uses, aie manufac- 
tured in the northern, baftas in the 
western, and sanaes in the eastern 
parts of the province. Tissues, bro-, 
cades, and ornamented gauzes are a 
general manufacture. Benares is 
supplied with salt of its own manu- 
facture, joined with importations 
tiooa Sambher La Ajmeer, and other 



BENARES; 



113 



places. A great quautitj' of excel- 
lent indigo is annually raised and ex- 
ported from this pro^^nce, A\hich 
also rurnislies a proportion ol' the 
Company's opium. The principal 
rivers are the Ganges, tlie Goonit>", 
flie Caramnassa, and the Soane, the 
two latter being boimdaiy rivers ; 
and, on the vvliole, tlie countiy is 
extremely Avell supplied with w ater. 
The principal towns are Benares, 
IVIirzapoor, Jioupoor, Chunar, and 
Gazypoor. 

In 1801, by the directions of the 
Marquis Wellesley, then governor- 
general, the board of revenue cir- 
culated various questions to the col- 
lectors of the dirterent districts on 
statistical subjects. The result of 
tlieir replies proved, tliat the Benares 
province contained 3,000.0(X) of in- 
jjabitants, in the proportion of one 
Maliommedan to live Hindoos, and 
that the zemindar's annual proflt on 
his lands exceeded 10 per cent, on 
the revenue derived from them by 
the government. 

The code of regulations for Ben- 
gal has, with very little alteration, 
been extended to Benares ; but, in 
consideration of the high respect 
paid by the Hindoo ii)habitants to 
the character of their Brahmins, thiy 
have received some special indulg- 
cncies in the mode of proceeding 
against them on criminal charges ; 
anil it has further been provided iu 
their favour, tliat. in all cases, where, 
by law, a Brahmin would be ad- 
judged to sufler death, the sentence 
ijhall he changed to transportation, 
or mitigated at the discretion of go- 
vernment. 

At the same time some evil prac- 
tices of the Brahmins were sup- 
pressed ; one of which was, the hold- 
ing out the threat of obtaining spi- 
ritual vengeance on tlicir adversa- 
ries by suicide, or tlie exposure of 
the life, or tlie actual sacrifice of one 
of their own children or near rela- 
tions. It was ordered, tliat occur- 
rences of this nature should not, in 
future, be exempt from the cogni- 
2;aiicc of the magistrate, and the 



usual course of criminal law. Ano- 
ther tribe of Hindoos, residing ia 
the province, named Rajcoomars, 
were accustomed to destroy their 
female infants, in consequence of 
the difficulty experienced in suitably 
marrjing them. P'rom this practice 
tliey were prevailed on to desist by 
the resident, Mr. Duncan ; and au 
observance of it now subjects the 
oflendcr to the ordinary punishment 
of minder. 

Musuram, the grandfather of Cheit 
Singh, possessed originally but half 
the village of Gungapoor, by addi- 
tions to which, in the usual modes 
of Hindostan, he laid the founda- 
tion of the zemindarj' of Benares. 
lie died iu 1740, and was succeeded 
by his son, Bulwant Singh, who, in 
30 years of his own management, 
increased his acquisitions to the pre- 
sent size of the province. Cheit 
Singh received tlie zcmindary in 
1770, and was expelled in 1781, 
during the government of Mr. 
Hastings. (Tennant, J. Grant, Cule- 
broohe, uth Report, ^c.) 

Br.NARES. — A celebrated city in 
the province of Allahabad, the ca- 
pital of the Benares districts. Lat. 
25°. 30'. N. Long. 83°. E. The 
Sanscrit name is Varanaslii, from 
Vaia and Nashi, two rivers. 

The Ganges here forms a fine 
sweep of about four miles in IcMgtli ; » 

on the external side of the curve, * 
which is the most elevated, is situ- 
ated the hoi)' city of Benares. 
It is covered with buildings to the 
water's edge, and the opposite bein^ 
level, the whole may be viewed at 
once. Gliauts, or landing-places, 
built of large stones, are verj' fre- 
quent, and arc 30 feet high before 
they reach the level of the street, 
the erection of them being frequently 
excecuted by Hindoos as an act of 
piety. 

The streets are so extremely nar- 
row, that it is difficult to penetrate 
them, even on horseback. The 
hcKises are built of stone, some six; 
stories high, close to each other, 
with tciTaces on the summit, and 



114 



BEVARES: 



extremely small windmvs, <o kcrp 
tlicm cool, and prevent inspect ion. 
The opposite sides of the streets, in 
some places, approach ;;o ne;ir io 
ouch other, as to i)e united by {gal- 
leries. The number of stone and 
lirick houses, from one to six stories 
hii!,!), is upwrnds of 12,000. The 
nnid houses, Rhove 16.000; and, in 
1803, the permanent inhabitants, by 
enumeration, exceeded 582,000. — 
This is exclusive of the attendants 
of the three Mogul jirinces, and se- 
veral other foreigners, mIio may 
anioiuil to 3000; and, dnnij<j the 
festivals, the concoijise is beyond all 
cakulation. The jNIahommedans are 
not suppofsed to be wore thaa one 
in ten. 

The mosffue, vitli its minars, was 
built by Anrenp;zcbe, to mortify the 
Hindoos. Not only is it placed on 
the highest point of land, and most 
conspicuous, from being; close to the 
ri\er ; but the foundations are laid 
on a sacred spot, A\hcre a Hindoo 
temple before stood, m hich was de- 
stioycd to make room for it. From 
the top of tiie minars there is an ex- 
tensive view of the tmvn and adja- 
cent country, and of the numeruns 
Hindoo temples scattered over the 
city and the sunoundiiig- jdains. 

'i'he liouscs of the Knglisli at Se- 
cr()le are handsome, althougii they 
look naked from the want of trees ; 
bnt this is absolutely necessary in 
India, on account of the harbour 
they all'ord to inus(|uetoes. 

'J'he Hajah of Eenares resides at 
Famnagur, on the op}!Osite side of 
tlie river, about live miles froin Be- 
ijares. In this city there arc 8000 
houses occupied by Brahmins, Avho 
receive charitable contributions, al- 
though each has projcrty of his own, 

'j'here arc but lew Enropeans 
here; a jadge, collector, and re- 
gister, with a few other civil ser- 
vants, constitute the Avhole of the 
Company's establishment ; to a^ hich 
iitay be added, a few pri\ ate mer- 
chants and planters. Amidst such a 
crowd of natives, and in sy sacred 
A town, it may be supposed the 



mendicants are very niim<?rons; mi* 
ny of the natives, however, possess 
large fortunes, and are actively en- 
gaged in trade as merchants or 
bankers. Eetiares is the great mart 
for diamonds and other gems, brought 
principally from the Bundelcund 
country. The land in and about 
Eenares is extremely high priced, 
and law-suits respecting it unceas- 
ing, 

Eeading and writing are tauglit 
here at tlie same time, 'the boys 
are collected on a smooth flat of 
sand ; and, with the finger, or a small 
reed, form the letters in tlie sand, 
which they learn to pronouiice at 
the same time. '\\ hen the space 
bpfbrc each scholar is filled up with 
writing it is eflkced, and prepared 
for a new lesson. 

I'his city has long been celebrated 
as tlie ancient seat of ]?rahminica| 
learning, and it >s so holy, that se- 
veral foreign Hindoo Rajahs havo 
vakeels, or delegates, residing here, 
who jjcrform for them the re(|uisitc 
sacrifices and ablutions. Its ancient 
name was Casi (tl)c splendid), whiel? 
it siiil retains, but there are not any 
notices concerning it in the Avorks of 
the ancient geograph.ers, all'aough 
they specify Maihura(Metl!ora) and 
Clisol)ara,AAhich lay near the Jumna. 

In the year 1017, Sultan Mah- 
mood of Ghizni took Benares, and 
the town of C'risinn or Casuma, now 
Patna, and Avcnt as far as the coun- 
try of Ougauam, or Unja, to (ho 
AA( st of the Cossimbazar Bker. 'i'hc 
next year be overrun these countries 
again, and penetrated as far as Kis- 
raji, or Cacii'ha R;i,ia, or Cooch Ba- 
har. From that time the Hindoos, 
in tliis pait of India, remained for a, 
long time xinniolested by the Ala- 
hnmnndnns, as it does not appear 
tliey made any permanent conquests 
in this province before the end of the 
12th century, or about 1190. 

On the 14th Jan. 1799, Mr. Cherry, 
the resident, and three otiicr Engli>h 
genticmeu, Avere treacherously mur- 
d(!red here by "S'izier Ali, the depos- 
ed jSabob of Oude, and spurious 



EENEER. 



115 



son of the late AsojjJi nd Dowlah. 
Mr. Davis, the .jufl2;c of the city, 
defended himseU" ami fiiniily v.itli a 
short spear, at tiie top of a iiai row 
winding" stair-case, on tlic thtl roof 
of the house, until assistance ar- 
rived. 

The Benares division of the court 
of circuit comprehends the follow- 
ing districts, \\z. 1. Mirzapoor; 2. 
Allahabad ; 3. Bundelcund ; 4. Ju- 
anpoor; 5. Gonickpoor; G. City of 
Benares. 

The travelling distance from Be- 
nares to Calcutta by Birbhoom is 
4G0 miles, by Moorshcdabad 5G5, 
from Allaliabad S3, Buxar 70, Ba- 
rcily 345, Caipy 239, Kanoge 259 
miles. ( Lord Valentin, Tejinant,3d 
Register, Wilford, Renne/, 5th Re- 
port, 6,-c.) ' 

EencoolTvN, (Bencauhi, or J^ort 
Marlborough). — The chief establish- 
ment possessed by the East India 
Company, situated on the S. W. 
side of the Island of Sumatra. Lat. 
3°. 50'. S'. Long. 102°. 3'. E. 

By agreement \\\{\\ the neighbour- 
ing chiefs the lands for tliis settle- 
ment were taken ])osse>siou of so 
far back as 1685, but iiiany years 
past before it attained a stable form, 
owing to the opfiosition of the Dntch, 
and other cireuinstanccs. ISo early 
as 1698, this settienieut had already 
cost the J'/ASt India Company 
200,0001. and m as at tlie same lime 
so unhealthy, that, in the year 1705, 
the governor, three civil servants, 
and 41 sla\es, died. Ihe founda- 
tions of 1 ort MarliiOiougii were laid 
in 1714; but, in 1719, the settlers 
were expeiied by ihe natives, who, 
glowing alarmed lest the Dutch 
should take advantage of the ab- 
sence of the English, soon after per- 
mitted them to resettle, and com- 
plete the foit. 

From this time the Company's af- 
fairs on tliis coast rentained in a 
slate of ti-anquillity until 17G0, when 
t])e French, under Compte d'Es- 
taigu, destroyed all the English set- 
tlements on the coast of Sumatra; 
but tliey were so«u re-established, 

1 2 



and possession secured by the treaty 
of Paris in 1763. Fort Marlborough, 
which had hitherto been a subordi- 
nate of Fort George, or Madras, 
was then foimed into an independ- 
ent presidency. 

The expenses of the government 
of Bencoolen having increased very 
much, exceeding the revenue 90,0001. 
per annum, and the settlement hav- 
ing become of little importance as a 
commercial establishment, sincepep- 
per, the only produce of the adja- 
cent country, could be more advan- 
tageously suijplied from Prince of 
V> ales Island and Malabar, it was 
not judged expedient to keep up the 
establishment as a principal govern- 
ment. In Aug. 1801, accordingly, 
the directors ordered it to be reduc- 
ed to a residency, under the manage- 
ment of a resident and lour assist- 
ants, subject to the innnediate di- 
rection of tiie government of Bengal. 
The ci\il servants, rendered super 
numeraries by this anangcment, 
were transferred to Madras. 

There is now only one solitary 
cargo of jiepper of the value of 
15,0001. sent annually from Ben- 
coolen, which is all its commerce 
with England. In 1810 the woollon 
goods exported by the East India 
Company to Bencoolen, were valued 
only at427GI. 

in IslO, the Company's property 
at this place in buildings and forti- 
tications was 

Valued at - - - - £243,640 
Plate, turniture, planta- 
tions, hums, vessels, 
and stores - - - 74,544 



£318,184 

Provisions and refreshments of all 
sorts arc scarce and expensive at 
Bencoolen, and the trade insignili- 
cant. 'I'lie principal imports are 
opium, piece goods, and griiin; and 
the elsief exports pepper, and other 
sj)ices, and bullion. (Marsden, Mac- 
p/ierso)!, IJrure, ^a'c.) 

Benecr, ( liarJier). — A small dis- 
trict in the province of Cabul, ejc^ 



116 



BENGAL. 



tending alons^ the west side of tlie 
Indus, and silnatcd about the 34th 
degree of nortli latitude, rioni the 
geographical position it appears to 
be tiie district doscrihed by Abul 
Jsazel under the name of Beinbher, 
viz. 

" TJic length of Bembher is 10, 
and the breadth 12 coss. On the 
east lies Puckcly, on the north Ki- 
nore and Casligur, on the south At- 
tock Benares, and Seivard is the 
western extremity, 'i'here are two 
roads horn it to liindostan ; one by 
the heights of Surkhaby, and the 
other by the iMoIundery IJills. Nei- 
ther of these roads are good, but tJic 
first is most diflieult to pass." 

In modern times Bcneer has been 
estimated at 40 miles in length, and 
nearly the same in breadth ; but, 
like the other regions of this part of 
Asia, its extent is not accurately 
known. ( Ahul Fazcl, Lcyden, Sfc) 



BENGAL, (Banga/a). 

A large province in liindostan, 
.situated between the 21st and •27th 
degree of north latitude. To the 
north it is bounded by the dominions 
of Ncpaul and Bootan ; to the south 
by the Bay of Bengal ; on the east 
it has Assam and the Ava territories; 
and on the west the province of Ba- 
har. In length (including INlidna^ 
poor) it may be estiniuted at .350 
miles, by ."JOO miles the axcrage 
bread(h. By Abul I'azel, in 1582, 
it is described as follows : 

" 'i'he soubah of Bengal is situat- 
ed in the second climate. From 
Chittagong to Kurliee is 400 coss 
clifiercnce of longitude, and tiom the 
northern range of tnouiitains to the 
southern extremity of Sircar IMada- 
ruii (Biilihoom) comprehends 200 
coss of latitude. When Orissii was 
added to Bengal, the additional 
length was com])uted to be 43 coss, 
and the breadth 20 coss. Bengal 
was originally called Bung. Ilie 
soubah of Bengal consists of 24 sir- 
cars, and 787 mahals. The revenue 



is 1,49,61,482 sicca rupees, and ilre 
zemindars (who are mostly koits) 
fnrnish 23,330 cavalry, 801,158 in- 
fantry, 170 elephants, 4260 cannon, 
and 4400 boats." 

When Abal Fazel compiled the 
Institutes of Aeber, the govermnent 
of Bengal extended to (Uittack, and 
along the Mahanuddy Biver, Orissa 
not being then formed into a distiiut 
soubah, whieh ap)>e«rs from the ar- 
rangement of the 24 sircars, viz. 

" 1. Ondumldicr, or Tandeii ; 2. 
Jcnnetabad; 3. Futtehabad;4. iMah- 
moodabad ; 5. Khalifelabad ; 6. Bo- 
kla; 7. Purneah ; 8. Taujepoor; 9. 
Ghoraghaut ; 10. Pinjerah ; 1 1. Bar- 
buckabad; 12. Bazooha; 13. Soo- 
nargoiig ; 14. Silhet ; 15. Chatgong ; 
16. Shereetiibad ; 17. Solimabail ; 18. 
Siitgoiig ; 19. Madamn ; 20. Jellasir ; 
21. Buddruek; 22. Cuttck ; 2;3. Kul- 
langdunp'aut; 24. Biije Mahindra. 
The five last are in Orissa." 

The natural situation of Bengalis 
singularly happy with respect to se- 
curity from tlie attack of foreign 
enemies. Along the whole northern 
frontier from Assam westwards, there 
runs a belt of low land from 10 to 
20 miles in breadth, covered with the 
most exuberant vegetation, particu- 
larly of a rank weed, named in Ben- 
gal the augeah grass, which grows 
to the height of 30 feet, and is as 
thick as the wrist, and mixed with 
these are tall forest trees. Beyond 
this belt rise the mountains of North- 
ern Hiudostan, containing a thinly- 
siattered »nd unwarlikc population. 
On the south of Bengal is a sea 
coast guarded by shaliows and im- 
penetrable woods, ^\ilu only one 
port, and that of extremely difficult 
access. It is on the west only that 
any enemy is to be apprehended, 
anil there the natural iiontier is 
strong, and the adjaecnt countries 
sterile and thinly peo|;kd. The Gan- 
ges inter.sects Bengal in a soutii- 
easterly direction, and separates it 
into two teiritorial di^is!ons nearly 
e<pial in extent; in case of invasion 
the tract to the east of that river 
woiUcl be exempt from the lavascs 



BENGAL. 117 

of war, and present an asylum to was anciently called B^nr, whence, 
tlic inhabitants, esiiceially against probably, the name Bengal M'as de- 
armies of cavalry. The north-west rived; the upper parts of Bengal, 
is tlie mf)st assailable quarter, but which arc not lial»le to inundation, 
possesses many strong points of de- were called Barendra. 
fence. Rice, which is luxuriant in the 

The area of Bengal and Bahar is tract of inundation, thrives in all the 

1 4y,217 square miles, and with Be- southern districts ; but, in the ascent 

iiares not less than 162,000 square of the Ganges, it is observed gra- 

milcs. The following pruportiiins of dually to yield the first place in hus- 

this surface are giounded on many bandry to wheat and iiarley. 

surveys after making allowance for The nuili)eiTy, ai climated in the 

large nvers. middle provinces of Bengal, shews 

Parts, a better defined limit when it meets 

Bivers and lakes (one-eighth) - 3 the culture of the poppy, which is 

Deemed irreclaimable and bar- peculiar to the northern and western 

ren (one-sixtii) ----- 4 provinces. 

Site of towns and villages, high- In the opinion of the Hindoos, the 

ways, ponds, &c. (one-twenty- resort of tlie antelope sanctifies the 

fomth) ---_.-_i couiitry graced by his presence, an 

Free lands (tluee-eighths) - - 3 opinion more connected with phy- 

Liable for revenue. sical observation, than with popular 

In tillage (three-eights) - - - 9 prejudice. The wide and open range 

Waste (a sixth) ----- 4 iu which the antelojie delights, is 

— equally denied by the forests of the 
24 mountains, and by the inundation 

— of the fens. 

Prior to the cessions made by the The periodical winds that prevail 

Nabob of Oudo in 1801, the regions in the Bay of Bengal, extend their 

immediately governed by the jire- influence over the flat country until 

sidcncy of Calcutta comprehended they are diverted by chains of moun- 

the whole soubahs of Bengal and tains into another direction, nearly 

Bahar, a part of the adjoining sou- correspondent, however, with tiie 

balls of Orissa, Allahabad, and Be- courseof the Ganges. Northeriy and 

rar, and some tracts of country which southerly winds blow alternately", 

had maintained their indcp(;ndencc during unequal portions of the year, 

t'ven in the most flourishing period over that portion of the province 

of the Mogul empire. The latter whicli faces the head of the bav. 

consisting of part of the Mornng, The northerly wi d prevails diuiiig 

Cooch Bahar, and other districts, the cold season, a southerly one diir- 

which have become tributary since ing the hot; but the period of their 

the English acquired their present change seems earlier on the eastern 

influence in Bengal. side of the Delta than on the west : 

The first aspect of this province corresponding herein with a similar 

suggests for it the designation of a dill'ercnC' in the periodical winds 011 

flat campaign country. The elevated the respective shores of the bay. The 

tracts it contains are only an exccp- seasons of Bengal conform nearly 

tion to the general uiiiformity, and with these changes of the prcvailini'- 

the inundation which annually takes winds. They are commonly di,<tin- 

place in the regions watered by the guished by the terms cold, hot, and 

Ganges, seems the consequence of a rainy. 

general descent, and does not any In the beginning of April, and 

further invalidate the notion of a ge- sometimc^s earlier, particulaily in the 

ueral level. sonth-easternqnarter of l!enga!, there 

The tract of annual imuidaliou arc frequent storms of thunder, ligiU- 



118 



BENGAL.- 



nina:, wind, and rain, from ilie iiorllx- 
■\vcst quarter, which happen more 
frequently towards the close of the 
day than at any other time. During 
tliis season nuuh attention and care 
is required in Jia\ie,aling the large 
rivers. These squalls moderate llie 
heat, and continue rmtil the setting 
in of the jjeriodical rains, which ge- 
nerally couimence the beginning of 
Jinic. If the rains break up early iu 
September, the weather is intensely 
hot, and the inhaliitants.especially tlie 
Emopean part, become very sickly. 

The natives, from the result of 
their own experience, assign six sea- 
sons to the year, each containing two 
months. The spring and dry season 
occupy four months, durisig which 
the heat progressively increases, un- 
til it becomes almost intolerable, 
even to those born in the country. 
In the middle distnctsit is lessened 
by the occasional thunder storms, 
named north-westers ; and, in the 
eastern, mihler showers of rain are 
still more ticquent, and retresii the 
atmosphere. 

The scorched inhabitants are, at 
length, relieved b^ the rainy season, 
"which, ii: general, commences nearly 
at the same time throughout the 
whole province. During the first 
two months the rain is heavy and 
continual. In this period an interval 
of many successive days is rare, and 
the rain poiu's with such force and 
perseverance, that three, four, and 
even five inches of water have fallen 
in a single day. In the two subse- 
quent montlis tlie intervals are more 
frequent, and of longer duration, and 
the weather more sultry. The rivers, 
and especially the Ganges, which 
begins to rise even before the com- 
menceinei.t of the rainy season, con- 
tinue to incrciisc during the two first 
months oi'it, and Ihe (Janges reaches 
its greatest height in the third. l\y 
this time the ri\crs of liengal are 
.swollen, and the Delta of the Uanges 
overflowed. The average annnal fall 
of rain in the lower parts ol' Ikntgal 
is seldom .shorf of 7U, and as rarely 
exceeds §0 inches. 



At the approach of winter tlie 
rivers begin to decrease, the showers 
cease to fall, and the inundation 
gradually diains off and evaporates. 
logs, the natural consequence of 
siich evaporation in cold weather, 
arc frequent in most parts of Bengal 
Proper. Dew, at this season, is 
every where abundant and penetrat- 
ing ; and, in the higher latitudes of 
India, as well as in the mountainous 
tracts of it, frost and extreme cold 
are experienced. Even in the flat 
country ice is obtained by the sim- 
ple artifice of assisting evaporation 
in porous vessels, although the at- 
mosphere be much warmer than the 
free zing temperature. I'hroughout 
the whole winter, in Bengal, dews 
continue copious, and gr^atiy assist 
vegetation, afibrding nearly as much 
moisture as corn requires in a soil 
so loose. 

The general soil of Bengal is clajj, 
with a consideralde proportion of si- 
licious sand, fertilized by various 
sal'.s, and by decayed substances, 
animal and vegetable. In the flat 
country sand is every where the 
basis of this stratum of productive 
earth, which indicates an accession 
of soil on land which has been gain- 
ed by the dereliction of the water. 
A period of 30 years scarcely covers 
the barren sand with soil suflicient 
to lit it for rewarding the labours of 
the husbandman, the lapse of half a 
century does not remove it half a, 
span from the surface. In tracts 
which are annually in>indatcd, the 
progress is more rapid, because the 
snp( rincumbent water, having dis- 
solved clay, deposits it in the pro- 
gress of evaporation. Running wa- 
ter deiHisits sand, and keeps the 
(•lay, calcareous matter, and other 
ferliiizing substances, susprnded. If 
the variable |>roi)ortions of clay and 
sand, and t!ic « ircnnislancc of frc- 
qn<'nt alterations in the cliannelsof 
rivers, be considered, gn at inequa- 
lity of soil may be expe( ted, though 
it be composed of few substances. 

In the tract subject to annual in- 
undation, insulated habitations, and 



BENGAL. 



119 



fields considerably raised above the 
level of the romitry, exliibit the ef- 
fects of j)nliei)t indu.-stiv. In the 
sauiefrart, during the scusdn of rain, 
a scene presents itself, inleresling* 
by its novelty ; a navigation over 
tields submerged to a (-onsiderable 
ileptli, A\in!c the ears of lire float on 
tlic surface. .Stupendous dikes, not 
altog-ether pieveuUnf!: inundalion, 
but eheclxing its excesses. 'l"he pea- 
t;ants repairing to the markets, and 
even to the fields, on einI>arkalions, 
accompanied by tiieir faniihes and 
domestic animals, from an appre- 
hension that the water might rise 
.suddenly, and drown their childrcMi 
juid eattie, in the absence of tlieir 
boats. AV lieu the peasant's habita- 
tion is passed, and the; height oli- 
served of the flood, nearly to the 
level of the artificial mound on which 
bis dwelling stands, his ]>recautiou 
does not apjjear supeifluous. 

The assemblage of peasants in 
their villages, their small farms, and 
the w ant of enclosures, bar all great 
improvements in husbandry; in a 
country, however, so infested by 
tigers and gang robbers (dacoits) 
or river pirates, solitary dweUings, 
and unattended eattie, would be in- 
secure. 7\noihcr obstacle to im- 
provement is the mixture of trades ; 
the peasants indifl'e.rently quitting 
the plough to use the loom, and the 
loom to resume the plough. 

In Bengal and Eahar only one- 
4hird of the land is estimated to be 
tilled, but this is exclusive of lays 
or fallows. In England there are 
ibur acres of arable and meadow 
land for every inhahitant ; in EcngaJ 
little more than one acre of lilied 
ground for e\cry inhabitant. The 
natural seasons ol' rice are ascc^r- 
tainod from tiie prepress of the wild 
plant. It sows itself in the first 
.month of the >\ inter, and vegetates 
with t'iie early moisture at the ap- 
proach of the rains. During the 
period of the rains it ripens, aud 
drops its scod with the eouimeuee- 
>Bient of winter. 
. I'lie common husbandry sow s the 



rice at the season when it should na- 
turally vegetate, to gather a crop in 
the rains; it also withhohis seed un- 
til the second month of thnt seastm, 
and reajjs the hardest in the begin- 
ning of V. inter. 'J'he rice of this last 
crop is esteemed tlie best, not heing 
equally liable « ith the other to decay. 
The several seasons of cultivation, 
added to the influence of soil and 
ehuiate,havc multiplied the diirei ent 
species of rice to an endless di\ e; ity. 

Otiier corn is more liiniled in its 
varieties and in its seasons. Of 
wheat and barley few sorts are dis- 
tinguished ; they are all sown at the 
commencement of the cold season, 
and rea])ed in the spring. A gicat 
variety of different sorts of pulse, 
(such as pease, chiches, pigeon pease, 
kidtn y beans, ^.<•.j finds its place also 
in the occunati<ins of husbandry, no 
season being without its appropriate 
species; but must sorts are sown or 
reaped in winter. These constitute 
a vahiable article in tlie Bengal hus- 
bandi-j , because they thrive e\ en on 
poor soils, and require but little cul- 
ture. Millet and other small grains 
are also of importance ; se\ ei al sorts, 
restricted to no particular season, 
and vegetating rapidly, are useful, 
because they occupy an interval after 
a tedious harvest, which does not 
permit the usual course of hu;^baiulry. 
Maize is less culti\ated in ]]e;igal 
than in most countries where it is 
acclimated. It is the most general 
j>roduce of poor soils in hill\ e<jun- 
tiics, and is, eon>e(iuentiy, \ery ge- 
nerally cultivi'.ted in the more wesl- 
ein provinces, which are of an irre- 
gular surface. 

'i lie universal an<l vast coneuinp- 
tion tjf vegetable oiis in Bengal is 
sujiplied by the extensive cultivation 
oi' mustard seed, linseed, scsauiuu, 
and palma ehristi, besides what is 
procured from the cocoa ntit. 'Jhe 
lirst occupy the cold season; the se- 
samuni ripens in the rains, or early 
after tiicii close. 

Among the most important of the 
prodjict.ous of IjCugal arc, tobacco, 
sugai', indigo, cotton, the mulberry, 



120 



BENGAL. 



and poppy-rinost of which require 
land solely appropriated to the cul- 
tivation of each. 

The plough in this province is 
drawn by a single yoke of oxen, 
guided by the ploughman himself. 
Two or three yoke of oxen, assigned 
to each, relieve each other until the 
daily task is completed. Several 
ploughs, in succession, deepen the 
furrows, or rather scratch the sur- 
face ; for the implement which is used 
throughout India wants a contrivance 
for turiiing the earth, and the share 
has neither width nor depth to stjr a 
new soil. A second ploughing crosses 
the first, and a third is sometirnes 
given diagonally to the preceding. 
These, frequently repeated, and fol- 
lowed bv the branch of a tree, or 
some other substitute for the harrow, 
pulverize the soil, and prepare it for 
the reception of seed. The field 
must be watched several days, to de- 
fend it from the depredations of nu- 
merous flocks of birds. It is neces- 
sary, also, to prolong the defence of 
the field in those districts, which are 
much infested by wild boars, ele- 
phants, buffaloes, and deer. For 
this purpose a bamboo stage is erect- 
ed, and a watchman stationed on it 
to scare wild animals, should any ap- 
proach. In all districts, maize and 
some sorts of millet, when nearly 
ani\ed at rnaturitj, generally need 
defence from the depredations of 
birds by day, and of larger bats by 
night, 

Tlie sickle, for the scythe is un- 
known, reaps every harvest. With 
this the peasant picks out the ripest 
plants, yet often suffers another field 
to stand long after the greatest part 
of the crop is arrived at maturify. 
— The practice of stacking corn, in- 
tended to be reserved for seed, is 
\ery unusual, the husk which covers 
rice preserves it so effectually. At 
the peasant's convenience, the cattle 
tread out the corn,or his staff tlu-eshes 
out the smaller seeds. The grain is 
^vimiowed in the wind, and is stored 
either in jars of unbaked earth, or in 
baskets made of large twigs. 



The practice of storing grain in 
subterraneous hoards, which is fre- 
quent in Benares and the western 
provinces, and also in the south of 
India, is not adapted to the damp 
climate and moist soil of Bengal, 
where grain is hoarded above giound, 
in round huts, the floor of whifh is 
raised a foot or two from the surface. 

In the management of forced rice, 
by irrigation, dams retain tlie water 
on extensive plains, or preserve it in 
lakes to water lower lands, as occa- 
sion may require. Reservoirs, ponds, 
water courses, and dikes, arc more 
generally in a progress of decay than 
of improvement. The rotation of 
crops, which engrosses so much the 
attention of enlightened cultivators 
in Europe, is not understood in India. 

A course of husbandry, extending 
beyond a year, Mas never dreamed 
of by a Bengal farmer. In the suc- 
cessipn of crops within the year, he 
js guided by no choice of an article 
adapted to restore the fertility of 
land impoverished by a former crop. 
The In(kan cultivator allows his land 
a lay, but nevpr a fallow. T|io cattle 
kept for labour and subsistence are 
mostly pastured on small commons, 
or other pasturage, intermixed with 
arable lands, or they are fed at home 
on cut grass. The cattle for breed- 
ing and for the dairy are grazed in 
numerous herds in the forests or on 
the downs. The dung, in place of 
being applied to the fields, is care- 
fully collected for fuel. The Bengal 
farmer restricts the use of manure 
to sugar cane, mulberry, tobacco, 
poppy, and some other articles. Few 
lands unassisted are sufficiently fer- 
tile to afford these articles. Of the 
management of manure little occurs 
worthy of particular notice, except, 
to menlion, that oil cake is occasionr 
ally used as a manure for sugar cane. 

The simple tools which the native 
cmi)loys in every art, are so coarse, 
and apparently so inadequate to their 
purpose, that it creates surprise how 
he can effect his inidertaking; but 
the long continuance of feeble efforts 
accomplishes what, compared \>'itl^ 



BENGAL. 



121 



the means, appears impraciiraLle. — 
The plough is amon-^ the inslnunents 
that stand most in need of improvc- 
jncnt. The readiness A\ith which 
the Indian can turn from liis nsiuil 
occupation to another braiidi of the 
same act, or to a new profession, is 
characteristic of liis coiuitry, and the 
success of his earliest efl\)rls, in an 
employment new to him, is daily re- 
marked with surprise. 

Tlie want of capital in manufac- 
tures and a!;ricnUure prevents the 
subdivision of labour. Every niaun- 
facturer and every artist working, 
on his own account, conducts the 
whole process of his art from the 
formation of his tools to the sale of 
his production. Every labourer and 
artisan? who has freipiently occasion 
to recur to the lahours of the field, 
becomes a husbandman. 

In Bengal, where the revenue of 
the state has had tlie form of land 
rent, the management of the public 
finances has a more immediate influ- 
ence on agriculture, than any other 
bran'^h of the administration. It 
may be presumed, however, the lands 
in Bengal are better cultivated and 
rendered more productive, as not- 
withstanding the increased export of 
grain, (from ;30 to 45,000 tons annu- 
ally), and the large tracts of country 
required for tlie growth of sugar, in- 
digo, and other articles exported by 
sea, the price of rice, and every other 
kind of food used by the natives, so 
far from being enhanced, was consi- 
derably lower on the average of the 
10 years, from 1790 to ISOO, than 
during any preceding period since 
the acquisition of the province ; nor 
has Bengal suflercd a famine of any 
severity since the year 1770, which 
is more than can be said for any 
other part of India. 

The orchard in this province is 
what chietly contributes to attach 
the peasajit to his native soil. He 
feels a superstitious veneration for 
the trees planted by his ancestors, 
and derives comfort anil i)rofit fi'om 
their fruit. Orchards of mango trees 
4iversity the pl^ia in every part of 



Bengal; the palmira abounds in Ba- 
har. 'J'he cocoa nut thrives in Ihose 
parts of Bengal whicli are not re 
mote from the tropic. The dale tree 
grows every where, but especially in 
Bahar. Plantations of areca are 
common in the cenliical parts of 
Bengal. The bassia thiives even on 
the poorest soils, and abounds in Ilni 
hilly districts. Its inflated enrols 
arc esculent and nutritions, and 
yield, by distillation, an intoxicating 
spirit. The oil expressed from its 
seeds is, in mountainous districts, 
a common substitute for butter. — 
Clumps of bamboos abound and flou- 
rish as long as they are nottoo abrupt- 
ly thimied. This plant is remarkal)le 
tor the rapidity of its growth. Its 
greatest height is completed in a 
single year; and, during the second, 
its wood acquires all the hardness 
and elasticity which render ii ^o usc- 
fid. They supply the peasant with 
materials for building, and may also 
yield him profit, as it is probable a 
single acre of thriving bamboos i)ro- 
duces more wood than ten of any 
other tree. 

Potatoes have been introduced 
into Bengal, and apparently with tiie 
most beneficial eil'ect. The quan- 
tity procured by Europeans, at al- 
most every season of the year, shews 
they are not unsuited to the climate. 
The small potatoe is little, if at all 
inferior in quality to that of England ; 
but the crop being less ai)undant. 
this arti(!le in the market is gene- 
rally dearer than rice. Tlie watery 
insipidity of tropical plants is a cir- 
cumstance universally noticed by 
Europeans on their aiTival in the 
East Indies. Asparagus,eanliflower, 
and other esculent plants, are raised, 
but they are, comparatively, tasto- 
less. 

A cultivator in Bengal, who em- 
ploys servants, entertains one for 
every plough, and pays him monthly 
wages, which, in an average, do not 
exceed one rupee permoirfh: in a 
very cheap district the wages are so 
low as half a rupee ; but the task on 
the medium of one-third of an aero 



192 BENGAIv* 

per day is coniplei^'d b* noon. The 
t'&iile ai'c th<:^ii left <o <lie lierdsnian's 
caie, and l!ic ploughman follows 
other occupations during tlic renjaiii- 
dcr of the day. Generally, he culti- 
vates SQine land" on his own account, 
•and this he couunoniy rents from his 
employer Ibr a payment in kind. 
, If the Iicrd be sufficicufiy nunve- 
Xpiis to ocxupy one jjcrson, a servant 
is entertained, and receives in iood, 
money, and ciothijjg-, to the value of 
,oj)c rupee and a half per incuscm. 
The plou2,li itself costs loss than a 
ru}>cc. 'I'he callie eni]jloyed in hus- 
bandry are of the smallest kind ; the 
cost, on an avciage, being not moie 
than fi\c rupet s each. The price of 
labour may be com])uted from the 
usual hire of a plough with its yoke 
of oxen, which maybe stated on the 
medium to be aljout 4d. per day. — 
The (leaning of Ibe rice is exe- 
cuted witii u wooden pestle and 
mortar, the allowance for luisking it 
being nearly uniform; the person 
perfonning tins contracting to deli- 
ver back live-eighths of the weight in 
clean rice — the surpltjs, ^viti^ the 
chailorbran, j)a5ing for the labour. 
Five quarters uf rire per acre arc 
reckoned a large produce, and a re- 
turn of 15 for one on the seed. 

As a middle course of husbandry, 
two yearly harvests may be assumed 
from each field ; one of \\ bite corn, 
and another of pulse, oil seed, or 
millet. Tlie price of com in Bengal 
fluctuates much more than in Europe, 
and has a considerable inlluence on 
the %alue of most other articles, 
though it camiot regiilate the price 
of all. ^Yhcn the crops of corn haj>- 
pen to be very al)i:nda!it, it is not 
only cheap, but wants a ready mar- 
ket; and, as the payment <jf Ihe rent 
is regulalcd by the season of the har- 
\.&st, tiic cultivator thereby sustjiins 
considerable detriment. 

I'hc proiits of cattle consist in tlie 
increase ol' slock and the milk of but- 
faloes, wliich are giazed at a very 
small expense, not exceeding half a 
rupee annually, and quarter a rujiee 
ibr cows. Cattle constitute a consi- 



derable portion of tlie peasant's 
wealth, arid the profits of stock would 
be much gieater, did the corisump- 
tioii of animal food take ofl' barren 
cows, and oxen which have passed 
their prime. This is not sufficient to 
render the stock of sheep an object 
of general attention. Their wool 
supplies the home consuni})<ibn of 
blankets, but it is too coarse, and 
produces too low a price, to afford a 
large profit on this species. of stock. 

The abundance of lisb alford a 
supply almost attainable to every 
class, and in the Ganges and its iji- 
numerablc branches are many differ- 
ent kinds. Their plenty at some sea- 
sons is so great, that they become the 
ordinary food of the poorest natives, 
who are said to contract diseases 
fiom too liberally indulging them- 
selves. The smallest kind are all 
Cipially acceptable in a euny, the 
standing dish in every native family 
throughout liindostan ; in fact, witii 
a pilau, it nearly comprehends tlieir 
whole art of cookery. The bickty, 
c;r ( ockup, is an excellent iish, as ks 
also the sable fish, which is uncom- 
monly jich. But the best and higli- 
est-lla\ oured fish, not only in Bengal, 
but probably in the whole world, is 
the mango fish, so named from its 
appearing in the rivers during the 
mango season. They arc atavourito 
dish at every Eurojieau table, parti- 
cularly during the two months when 
they are in loe. Small mullet abound 
in all the livers, and may be killed 
w ith small shot, as they swim against 
the stream, with their heads partly 
out of the w ater. Oysters are pro- 
cured from the coast of Chittagong:, 
not as large, but fully as well ila- 
A oured as those of Europe. Alliga- 
tors and porpusses abound in all tho 
Bengal ri\ers, when there arc also 
fncredible quantities of .small turtle, 
which are, however, of a Aery bad 
quality, and only eaten by some in- 
ferior casts of natives. 

Tlie native Bengally horse, or tat- 
too, is a thin, ill-shaped, and every 
way contemptible aniiiial, and is ne- 
ver used in a team, builucks bciuff 



BENGAL* 



123 



scTrrt/'tl for that purpose. Tlie Boii- 
gajlv cart is iitarly as bad as their 
pIdUirh. with ill made whiels and 
axle trees, which never bcnui: oiled, 
Diake a loud seroaking; noise ; nor eaa 
the native driver be prcAailcd upon 
to alter what was tlie eusloui of his 
forelathcrs. 'I'he elephants, canicls, 
and o\en, attached to the Company's 
tioops, are kept in execliiMit condi- 
tion. 'J'lie bufi'aloes are generally jet 
black, with long semi-circular horns, 
vhich, instead of standing erect, or 
bending forward, are laid iiackwards 
on the neck. When he attacks, he 
pnts his snout between iiis forelegs, 
which enables him to point his horns 
forward. The Bengally sheep are 
jiatnrally of a diniinutive breed, tliiu 
and lank, and of a dark grey colonr; 
but when lattcmed for the table, the 
mutton eqn;ds thai of Europe. Some 
liave foui horns, tv. o on each side of 
the head. 

Pariah dogs infest the sti'ccts of all 
the towns in ilengal; and the ap- 
proach of evening is announced in 
the country^ by the howling of nume- 
rous flocks of jackals, wliich then 
quit their retreats in the jwngles. — 
Apes and monkies swarm in all tiic 
ivoods, and sometimes plunder i!ie 
fruit sho[)s of a village. Eeiug a sa- 
cred animal, the nati\es often volun- 
tarily supply their Mants, and sel- 
dom injure them, 'i'he brahminy, 
or sacred bull of the Hindoos, also 
rambles about the villages with- 
out intciTUption ; he is cares.sed and 
pampered by the people, to fce<l him 
being deemed a meritorions act of 
religion. The crow, kite, mayana, 
and sparrow, hop altout the dwell- 
ings of the Jjeiigalcse with a fami- 
liarity and sense of safety unknown 
in Europe. Storks are r^eeii in great 
numbers; and, ironi their military 
stmt, arc named adjutants by the 
J'AUopean .soldiers. 'i\)ad.s, snaki'N, li- 
zards, and insects, which also uboiuid, 
are theii' food. 

The staple i)rodnctions of Bengal 
for exportatiuii are, sugar, tobacco, 
iiilk, cotton, indigo, and opium. 

/i'obacco it is probable wiis un- 



known to India as ■well as to En- 
rope, before the discovery of Ame- 
rica, It appears from a proclama- 
tion of the JEmperor J(!hangire, men- 
tioned by that prince in his o\\ )i me- 
moirs, that it was introduced by 
Europeans into India, either hi his 
own reign (the beginning of the 17th 
century), or during that of his father 
Aeber. The Hindoos have names 
for the plant in their own language; 
but, these names not exceptijig the 
Sanscrit^ seem to be corrupted from 
the European denomination of the 
plant, and are not to be found in old 
compositions. The practice, how- 
ever, of inihaiing the smoke of hemp 
leaves, and other iuloxieating diugs, 
is ancient ; and for this reason the 
use of tobacco, when once intro- 
duced, soon bt^came general through- 
out India, 'i'he plant is now culti- 
vated in every part of Ilindosfan. 
It requires as good soil as opium, 
and the land nmst be well manured. 
Though it be not absoluieiy limited 
to the same districts, its culture pre- 
vails mostly in the nortiiern quailer, 
and is but thiidy scattered in the 
southern. Including every charge 
for duties ajid agency, it maybe pro- 
cured in Calcutta at about eight shil- 
lings per maund of 80 pounds. 

'llie sugar cane, the name ofv-'hieti 
was scarcely known to tlie ancient 
inhabitants of Europe, grew bixuri- 
antly thioughout Bengal in the re- 
motest limes. From India it was 
ir»troduced into Arabia, and t"ro!<\ 
thence into Europe and Africa. From 
Benares to Rungpoor, and from tlie 
borders of Assam to Cuttack. there 
is scarcely a district in Bengal or its 
dependent provinces, wherein tiie 
sugar cane does not llourish. It 
.t}ni\ es most especially in the districts 
.of Benares, ]>ahar, Bungpoor, iiirb- 
hooiu, Brudwaji, and Aliduapoor — is 
succes.sfuily cultivated in all; and 
there seems to be no otiior bounds to 
the possible ]jroduotion cf sugar ia 
L'cngid, than the limits of the de- 
mand, and the cunsequent vent for 
it. 'i he growth ibr home consump- 
tion and lor inland trade is vast, and 
4 



124 



BENGAL. 



it onl^' needs rnronras^cment lo equal 
tlie (innaiul for Europe also. It is 
elioaply produced, and frugally nia- 
imlaetiHcd. Raw svipar, prepared in 
a nio<lc peculiar to India, but aiiala- 
jifo'.is to the proees:; of making mus- 
covado, inay gsiKTally be purchased 
in the Calcutta market, under sie(^a 
rupees C 18s. 6d.) per niaund of about 
80 pounds wciijcht. 

{'olloii is (udlivated throughout 
I'en!;!;al, and has lately been raised 
and exported by sea in increased 
»]uantities. Besides what is pro- 
duced ill the countr}^ a large impor- 
tation takes place from the banks of 
the Jumna and the Deccan. It is 
there raised so mncli more cheaply 
than in liengal, that it supports a 
Kuccessfulconipetition,notwithstand- 
ing the heavy expenses of distant 
transport by land and water. A fine 
i;ort of cotton is grown, in tlic more 
rasternpaits of Bengal, for the most 
delicate manufactures ; and a coarse 
kind is gathered from every part of 
the province, from plants thiidy in- 
terspersed in fields of pulse. The 
names of cotton, in most European 
langtiages, are obviously derived from 
the Arabic word kutn (pronounced 
cootn). Some sorts are indigenous 
to America ; others are certainly na- 
tives of India, which has at all times 
been the country most celebrated lor 
cotton manufactures. 

Difi'erent sorts of cotton, very un- 
equal in quality, are imported into 
Bengal ; the best is brought by land 
from Nagpoor, in tlie Deccan to Mir- 
zapoor, in the province of Benares, 
which town is the principal inland 
mart tor cotton. Its average price 
may be reckoned there, at 21. 6s. 
per cwt. The usual price at Nag- 
poor, from a variety of averages, is 
equivalent to two pence halfpenny 
per pound. Cotton is also imported 
from Jalooan, a town situated to the 
•west of the Jumna Biver, fromHatras 
in till! province of Agra, and from 
other places. 

Europe was anciently supplied 
■with silk through the medium of 
Indian commerce. The ancient lan- 



guage of India has names for the 
silk worm and manufactured silk; 
and, among the numerous tribes of 
Hindoos, derived from the mixture 
of the original tribes, there are two 
classes, whose appropriate occupa- 
tions were the feeding of silk-worms 
and the spinning of silk. A peasant, 
who feeds his own silk-worms, has 
full employment for his family. The 
rearing of the silk-worms is princi- 
pally confined to a part of the dis- 
tiict of Burdwan, and to the vicinity 
of the Biiagirathi and Great Ganges, 
from the tbrk of these rivers, for 
about a hundred miles down their 
streams. The stations where the 
Company's investment of silk is prin- 
ci])idly procured, are, Comercully, 
Jungeypoor, Bauliah, Malda, Rad- 
nagore, Rungpoor, and Cossimba- 
zar. 

There is also a considerable quan- 
tity of silk obtained from wild silk- 
worms, and from those which arc 
fed on other plants, besides the mul- 
berry. Much silk of this kind sup- 
plies home consumption ; much is 
imported from tlie countries situated 
on the north-east border of Bengal, 
and on the southern frontier of 
Benares; much is exported, wrought 
and unwrought, to the western parts 
of India, and some enters into manu- 
factures, which are greatly in request 
in Europe. Four crops of mulberry 
leaves arc obtained Irom the same 
field in the course of each year. Th« 
best is in December. 

The manufacture of indigo ap- 
pears to have been known and jjrae- 
tised in India from the earliest 
l)eriod. Erom this country, whence 
it derives its names, Europe was 
anciently supplied with it, until the 
produce of America engrossed the 
market. The spirited and persever- 
ing exertions tif a few individuals, 
have restored this commerce to Ben- 
gal, solely by the superior quality of 
their manufactures; for so far as re- 
gards the culture, no material change 
has been made in the practice of the 
natives. The profit depends in a 
great measure on the quality of the 



BENGAL. 



i2i 



article, and tliis is very unrcpial 
since it varies according to the skill 
of the manutUcturc*. In 1807-8, tin- 
total manufacture of iudii;o, on a 
correct estimate, Avas not less than 
120,000 factory maunds (8,880,000), 
of wliich probal)]y 20,000 maunds 
Tiere wasted or consumed in tiio 
country niannfactures. The total 
f^uautity of indigo Britisii property, 
M'hich Mas sold at the East India 
Company's sales in 1810, amounted 
to the enormous weight of 5,25;?,489 
pounds, and the sale price 1,942,3281. ; 
but the average cannot be reckoned 
at more than 1,200,0001. annually, 
almost the whole being exported 
from Bengal. In 1786 the quantity 
sold at the Company's sales amount- 
ed to only 245,011 pounds. 

Bengal, fiom its western lK)uudary 
to the sea, is watered by the Ganges, 
and is intersected in every direcitiuu 
hy many navigable streams, wliich 
fall into that river. I'hcre is no dis- 
trict wholly destitute of internal navi- 
gation during the rains; and, even 
during the driest season, there is 
scarcely any part 20 miles from a 
navigable river. In most of them, 
lakes, rivulets, and water-courses, 
communicating with great riveis, 
conduct boats to the peasant's door. 
But his valuable produce, being 
reaped at other seasons, and from 
necessity disposed of as soon as ga- 
thered, he derives less benefit from 
the inland water communication, 
than the survey of its extent would 
lead us to suppose. Land eariiage 
conveys the greater part of pio(ince 
from the place of its growth to that 
of its embarkation on the Ganges. 

The internal navigation docs never- 
tlieless employ a vast number of ves- 
sels, and it is interesting to note, at 
a mart of great resort, the various 
construction of boats assembled there 
from dilfcrent districts, each adapted 
to the nature of the rivers they gene- 
rally traverse: the ilat clinker-built 
vessels of the western district, would 
be ill adapted to the wide and stormy 
navigation of the Lower Ganges. 
I'lie unwieldy bulk of Ujc lofty boats 
4 



used on the Ganges, from Patna to 
Calcutta, would not suit the rapid 
and shallow rivers of the vvestciii dis- 
tricts, nor the narrow creeks which 
the vessels pass in the eastern navi- 
gation; and the low but deep iioatii 
of these districts, are not adapted to 
the shoals of the wcsteni rivers. 

In one navigation, wiierein the 
vessels descend with the stream and 
return with the track rope, their con- 
struction consults neither aptitude 
for the sail, nor for the oar. In the 
other, wherein boats, during the pnt- 
grcss of the same voyage, are assisted 
by tlie streams of one creek, and 
opposed by the current of the next, 
as in the Snnderbunds, and under 
banks impracticable for the track 
rope, their principal dependance is 
on the oar; for a winding course in 
narrow passages permits no reliance 
on the sail. Often grounding in the 
shallows, vessels would be unsafe if 
built with keels ; and all Bengal con- 
structions want this addition so ne- 
cessary for sailing. 

These vessels are cheaply found. 
A circular board, tied to a bamboo, 
forms the oar ; a wooden frame, load- 
ed with some weighty sui)stanee, is 
the anchor; a few bamboos lashed 
together supply the mast; a cane of 
tlie same species serves for a yard to 
the sail, which is made of coarse 
sackcloth ; some from the twine, made 
of the fibrous stem of the rushy cio- 
tularia, or of the hemp hibiscus. 'I'he 
trees of the country afiord resin to 
pay the vessels, and a straw thatch 
with mats supply the place of a deck, 
to shelter the merchandize. The 
vessels are navigated with equal 
frugality; tiie boatmen receive little 
more than their food, which is most 
commonly furnished in grain, toge- 
ther vvitii an iiiconsiderublo allow- 
ance in money, foi- the purchase of 
salt, and lor the supply of other petty 
wants. Thirty years ago in Major 
Rcnnel's valuable work, the whole 
number of boatmen employed on the 
rivers of Bengal and Bahar, were 
estimated at 0!dy 30,000; but pro- 
bably some mistake must have oc- 



i^6 



BENGAL. 



cun ed in the calculation, as they 
ccttainly arc at present much nearer 
300,000'. Besides this tiade, most 
offhein follow the petf^occupalions 
ot's>griculturc, or fiH up Ihe intervals 
of their employments as fishermen, 
and occasionally aiiginent the hands 
of dacoits or river pirates. 

Ill the land carriage, tlie owners of 
cattle arc also the principal traf- 
fickers, oi'tener purchasing at one 
market to sell at anotiier, than let- 
ting their cattle to resident mer- 
chants. 7'hey transport the iner- 
c'aaiidize njion oxen trained to hur- 
then, somcstimcs hnt not frequently, 
upon horses of the tattoo breed and 
still more r;neiy on biiifaloes. The 
latter, although more docile, are 
more sluggish and slower travelieis 
than the ox ; and do not bear a much 
greater burthen, although much 
larger in size. Tliey are also too 
fond of lying down in the water, 
which they have so often occa- 
siuu to wade through, with their 
loads. 

The higfiways tln-oughout Bengal 
are not generally in a condition for 
distant journeys on wheel carnages. 
At a former period the communica- 
tion was better assisted. A magjii- 
ficerit road from tlie banks of the 
Goggrah or Dcwah to the Firahma- 
pootra, formed a safe and conve- 
nient comnnaiication at all sea- 
sons, in a length of 400 miles, 
through countries subject to annual 
inundation. Of the causeways and 
avenues which formed the road some 
remains may yet be traced. At pre- 
sent, the beaten path tlnoughout 
Uengal directs the tiaveller, but no 
artifii'lal road, or any other accom- 
modation; and, in the rainy season, 
his progress by land is altogether 
baired. The total decay of the pub- 
lic roads must be ascribed to the 
want of substantial and durable ma- 
terials for th<.Jr construction. The 
llengal government lia\c complet- 
ed a road from Calcutta to Ee- 
iiares, which was principally done 
with a view to tlie expediting of 
Biilitaiy luoveiiicnts ; but has, at the 



same time, proved a very genehA 
convenience. 

I'he exportation of grain from 
corn districts, and the returns of salt, 
constitute the principal object of in- 
ternal trade. The importation of 
cotton from the western provinces, 
and the exchange of tobacco for 
betel nut, together with some sugar, 
and a few articles of less note, com- 
plete the supply of iiiterr.al con- 
sumption. Piece goods, silk, salt- 
petre, opium, sugar, and indigo, 
formerly pasi5ed almost wholly 
through the Company's hands; but 
now all sorts of traffic are nuich more 
open, and practised generally by 
every description ofmerchant. Grain, 
the internal commerce of which is 
entirely conducted by the natives 
themselves, supplies the consump- 
tion of the cities, and the export 
trade of Bengal. Except in cities, 
the bulk of the j)eople is every where 
subsisted from tlie produce of their 
immediate neighbourhood. 

I'lain muslins, distinguished by 
their various names, according to th« 
fineness or closeness of the texture, 
as well as flowered, striped, or check- 
ered nmslins, denominated from 
tlieir patterns, are fabricated chiefly 
in the province of Dacca. The ma- 
nufacture of the thinnest sort of fine 
muslins is ahrost confined to that 
pro\iiice: other kinds, more closely 
wove, are fa])ricated on the western 
side of the Delta of the Ganges; 
and a diiferer.t sort, distingi'.ished by 
a more rigid texture, does not seem 
to be limited to an\ particular dis- 
tricts. Coarse muslins, in the shape 
of turbans, handkerchiefs, &c, are 
made almost in every province ; and 
the northern parts of Benares alibrd 
both plain and flowered muslins, 
which arc not ill adapted for coni- 
moji uses, though incapable of sus- 
taining any competition with the 
beawtiful and inimitable fabrics of 
Dacca. 

Under the general name of cali- 
coes are included varioiis sorts of 
clotii, to which jio English names 
have bccu yet idSxcd;and arc, fur tli« 



BENGAL. 



I2t 



most part, known in Europe ])y the chintzes; •which appears to be an 

Indian dcnomitiations. Cossaes origiiiai art in India, invented long 

(khasahs) are fabritutod in that part since, and broiigiit to a perfection 

of Bengal which is sitnated north of not yet surpassed in Europe. Dinii- 

Ganges; hotween the Aiahanuddy ties, of various kinds, and damask 

and Isainutty rivers, from Vlanlda to linen, arc ner.v made at Dacca, 

Berbazic. Clotlis, siuiilar in quality, Patna, Tauuda, and other places, 

and bearing the same name, are The neighi»uurhood of Moorshe- 

inade near Taiida in the Nabob of dabad, is the chief scat of the nianu- 

Ondc's dominions. Baftasare nianu- facture of wove silk and tafcta, both 

facturcd iu the south-east corner of plain ajid flowered. 'I'issucs, bro- 

Bengal, near Luckiporc ; and again, cades, and ornamented gauzes, are 

on the Avestern frontier of B iiares, the manufacture of Benares. Plain 



in the neighbourhood of Ailaliabad, 
aud also in the province of Bahar, 
and some other districts. Sanaes 
are the cliicf fabric of Orissa; some 
are made in tiie district of Midna- 
poor; some are imported lioin the 
conliguons countries. A similar 
cloth, .under the same denoniinati(m, 
is wrought in the eastern parts of the 
province of Benares. Gurraes arc 
the nnuiu facture of Birbhoom; still 
coarser cloths, na)ned gezis aud gc- 
zinas, arc wove in every district, l)ut 
especially in the Doab of the Ganges 
asid Jumna. Other sorts of cloth, 
the names of which are less familiar 
to the English reader, are found in 
various distiicts. 

Packtiuead is wove into sack- 



gauzes, adapted to, the u.ses of the 
country, are wove in the western and 
soutliciu corner of Bengal. 'I'lje 
weaving of mixed goods, made with 
silk and cotton, flourishes chiefly at 
Maulda, at Boglipoor, and at some 
towus.ia the district of Burdwan. 

x\ considerable (piantity oi'lilature 
silk is exported to the western parts 
of India ; and much is sold at Miraa- 
jjoor, aud passes thence to the Mn- 
haratta dominions, and the centrical 
parts of Hindostan., 

'I'he tisser, or wild silk, is procured 
in abundance from comitries border- 
ing on Bengal, and !rom some dis- 
tricts included \a ithin its limit.s'. The 
wild silk-'.vorms are there tbund in 
several sorts of trees, which are com- 



cloth iu many places, and especially mon iu the forests of Silliet, Assam, 



on the northern frontier of J5engal 
Proj)er, where it is cjnjiloyed as 
clothing by liie nioutaineers, A sort 
tof canvas is made liom cotton in the 
iK'ighbourliood ai'( 'hittagong, Patna, 
^nd some other places ; aiid blankets 



and t^ie JJeccan. llie cones ar« 
large, but spaiingly covered with 
silk; and, in colour aud lustre, this 
species of siik is far inferior to that 
of the domesticated insect. Its 
cheapness renders it useful, in the 



hrc made every v, here for common fabrication of coarse silks. Thepro- 

iise. A coarse cotton cloth, dyed duction of it may be increased by eii- 

red, with cheap materials, is very couragcment, and a very large qnan- 

gcnerally used, aud is chiefly manu- tity may Be exported in the raw state, 

tactured iu the centre c^f the Doab. at a moderate expense. It might be 

Other sorts, died ol' various < olours, used in Europe for tiie preparation 

but especially blue, are prepared for of silk gi)ods, and mixed with wool 

inland conunerce, aiid exportation and cotton, might Ibrm, as it now 

by .sea. Both fine and coar.se call- does in India, a beautiful and ae- 

coes receive a topical dying with ceptable manulkcture. 'I'he manu- 

permanent and witii fugitive colours, facture of saltpetre scarcely pas.s<'.s 

for conmion use, as \\v\[ as fm- ex- tlie eastern limits of the Bahar pro- 

portatiou. The ijrovinco of Benares, vince, under which head it Avill be 

tiie city of Patua, and tiie ncigli- found described, 

bourhood of Calculla, are the prin- The export of hides from Bengal 

♦•ipal scats of this niauuiucture of might be greatly increased. It is 



128 



Uengal. 



calculated that, inchiding Luflaloos, 
these provinces contain at)Ove 50 
inillious of cattle. Until reeontly 
tlio demand was so smaH, that the 
rairier often neglected to fake the 
hide oil the cattle that died a natural 
death. About 1797, some Eino- 
peans engaged in the tanning of lea- 
ther, and manufacture of boots and 
shoes; which, although not so strong 
or water-proof as the British, answer 
so well, that they have greatly re- 
duced the importation. The natives 
have also arrived at considerable per- 
fection in the fabrication of saddles, 
harness, military accoutrements, and 
other articles of leather. Buflalocs 
horns might also become an article 
of export, although so bulky and dif- 
ficult of stowage. An excellent 
.species of canvas is now manu- 
factured in Calcutia, and sold nuich 
cheaper than that imported from 
Europe. 

Should freight ever be reduced to 
Ihe lowest price at which it can be 
aflbrded, cornmightbe exported from 
Bengal to Europe, Rice, barley, 
and wheat, may be shipped in Cal- 
cutta, fol- nearly the same price ; 
namely, two and a half rupees per 
hag, containing two maunds, or from 
3s. 4d. to 3s. 6d. per cwt. Rum 
might be exported from Bengal, at 
from Is. 6d. to Is. yd. per gallon; the 
quality is as yet inferior to the Ja- 
maica rum, but might be improved to 
equal it. Liquorice and ginger are 
produced in Bengal, and might be 
exported to any extent. 

it is extremely probable that an- 
notto, madder, coii'ee, cocoa, cochi- 
neal, and even tea, would thrive in 
British India, which now^ compre- 
hends every variety of tropical cli- 
mate. The plant from the seeds of 
which annotto is prepared, by se- 
parating the colouring matter which 
adheres to theui, is already cultivat- 
ed in Bengal, and coft'ce plants have 
thriven in botanical and private gar- 
dens. Madder is a native of the 
mountainous regions which border 
.on Bengal, and this province pos- 
ses.ses, besides many ailicles which 



miirht be brought info notice fcy si 
more extended commerce. 

Various dnigs used in djing are 
exported to England, such as galls„ 
turmeric, saiBower, or carthamus; 
also myrobalans, which are here used 
in preference to galls. Roots of mo- 
rinda, w hich dye a permanent colour 
on cotton, and blossoms of the nyc- 
tanclics, which give a permanent 
colour to silk. 

Glim arabic, and many other sorts 
of gums and resins for manufactures, 
arc fhe produce of frees that grow 
spontaneously in Bengal, besides a 
mulfitude of medicinal gums and 
drugs which abound in India and 
the adjacent countries. Vegetable 
oils, particularly hnsecd, might be 
supplied from these provinces, which 
are also adapted for the cultivation 
of flax, lineal, brought from the 
high table land of Tibet, is among 
the imports to Bengal; and vege- 
table and mineral alkalies may here- 
after become a considerable object 
of commerce. The fossil alkali is 
found in abundance, and the woods 
of Bengal arc capable of furnishing 
potash in large quantities. The pre- 
paration of sal anmioniac might be 
advantageously connected with the 
manufacture of saltpetre. 

Besides the articles already men- 
tioned, ^\ hich have a reference prin- 
cipally to Bengal, India furnishes 
aloe^', assafoetida, benzoin, camphor, 
cardamums, cassia lignea, and cas- 
sia buds, arraugoes, couries, china, 
root, cinnabar, cloves, cinnamon, 
nutmcgr., mace, elephants' teeth, 
gums of various sorts, mother of 
pearl, pepper, (quicksilver and rhu- 
barb from China), sago, scammony, 
senna, and saffron ; and might sup- 
ply anise, coriander, a)id cumin seeds, 
and many other objects which would 
occujjy too much room to enumerate. 
Of hemp and flax, with all their 
varieties, and also of the different 
substitutes for these articles, Bengal 
possesses greater abundance than 
any other countiy. The true hemp 
is fotuidin many places, but is little 
Used by the natives, except for the 



BENGAL. 



129 



ft'-od oii, for medicine, aiid for an Manilla, indigo of a verj' fine qna- 

jntoxicatingingrtdicnt which is often lify, sugar, sapan wood, and specie, 

mixed with the tobacco of the Hoo- From the i\Ialabar const are im- 

kali. ported sandal wood, coir rope, pep- 

Forniprly the exports to Europe, per, sonic cardnnioius, and occa- 

and to the United States of Amciica, sionally cargoes of cotton wool ; the 

constituted the most considerable balance is general sunk in tlie an- 

portion of Bengal coninienie. nual supplies with which Piengal 

The principal articles of export to furnislics Bombay. From Pegnie are 

]VIadras and the Coast of Coroman- brought teak timber, elephants' 

del are grain, pulse, sugar, sahj)elre, teeth, lac, Sec. ]'or a more detailed 

molasses, ginger, long pepper, cla- statement of the external commerce 



rilicd butter, oil, silk, wrought and 
unwrouglit, muslins, spirits, and pro- 
visions. 

After the Coromondcl trade, tJie 
next in importance is tliat of the 



of Pengal see the article Calcutta. 

The inhabitants of Bengal are cer- 
tainly numerous in proportion to the 
tillage and manufactures that em- 
ploys their industry. In 1789, the 



eastward and China, to which (piar- inhabitants of Bengal and Bahar 
ters the exports, besides opium, con- were estimated at 22 millions,, and 
sist of grain, saltj)etrc, gunjjowder, Sir ^\ illiam Jones reckoned them at 
i'on (ire arms, cotton, silk, and cot- 24 millions. In 1793, Mr. Cole- 
ti)n piece goods. I'he tiade to Bom- brooke was decidedly of opinion, 
bay is next, consisting cliiefly of alter mature consideration, that, in- 
grain, sugar, raw silk, some silk and eluding Benares, they could not be 
cotton piece goods, saltpetre, ginger, estimated at less than 27 millionSj 



long pepper, sacking, and liempen 
roj)es, 

'l"o t]ie Gulfs of Arabia and Persia 
Bengal sends grain, .<ugar, silk, and 
cottiin piece goods. To Ava and the 
Birman empiie, silk and cotton 
gijods, fire arms, iron, nails, naval 



Mhicli corroborates Sir "Wm. Jones's 
calculation. Another estimate made 
in 1790, which is not so nnieh to be 
depended on, cariies the population 
of Bengal, Bahar, and Benares, so 
high as 32,987,500 inhabitants. In 
1801 a more accurate survey than 



and military stores, and a variety of any of the preceding was taken by 
European goods. the directions of the Marquis Wei- 
Bengal imports from Europe me- lesley, but the result has never been 
lals of all soils, wrought and nn- conmnniicated to the public in an 
wrought, woollens of \arious kinds, authentic form. Upon the whole, 
naval and military stores, gold and the average of 200 to a .square mile, 
silver coin and bullion, and almost in districts which are well peopled, 
every article of Ijuope, for the Eii- may be admitted as tolerably eor- 



r/)pean ynvt of the iuhaititants. 

The returns iiom .Madras and the 
Coast of Coromandel consist of .salt, 
red wood, some iine long clolh, iza- 
nees, and chinizcs. The balance due 
to Bengal is either settled by go- 
vernment bills, ori<mitled in specie. 
From the llastern Islands, and the 
Malay Coast, Bengal receives pep- 
|>er, tin, wax. danimcr, brimstone, 
gold dust, specie, betel nut, spices, 



rect; and we may estimate the total 
population of Bengal, Bahar, and 
Benares, not to exceed 30 millions, 
nor to fall short of 28 millions of in- 
habitants. 

Under the Britisli government tlie 
population of Bengal has undergone 
a progressive increase, which still 
continues, and surpasses that of 
England in the cultivated districts. 
It has occasionally, however, met 



benzoin, ike. From China tutenague, with cheeks, as happened in 1770, 

sugar-candy, tea, allum, dammer, when it is supposed, on a moderate 

{lorcclain, lacquered ware, and a va- coinpiifation, that a l\f^i of the in- 

riety of niatluraetmcj goods. From habitants perished by famine: in 

K 



130 



BENGAL. 



1784 the snme calamity prevailed, 
but ui a much less degree ; in 1787 
many lives were lost in the eastern 
provinces by inundation, and in 1788 
by a partial scarcity ; but since this 
last period famine and scarcity ha\ e 
been wholly unknown. In 1793, it 
was reckoned that 4,000,000 niaunds 
of salt, equal to 320,000,000 pounds 
of salt, were consumed in Bengal 
and Bahar, exclusive of Benares. 

In 1793 the estimated produce of 
the lands in maunds of 80Ibs. each 
was as iollows, but the value aflixed 
appears too high. 

Rupees. 
150,000,000 maunds of 

rice, wheat, and bar- 
ley, at 12 annas - 112,500,030 
60,000,000 of n;illet, &c. 

at 8 annas - - - 30,000,000 
90,000,000 of pulse, at 

10 annas - - - 56,250,000 
43,000,000 maunds of 

seed, reserved for the 

following season - 28,380,000 
Oil seeds - - - 12,000,000 
Sugar, tobacco, cotton, 

&c. 70,000.000 

Sundries - - - - 20,00d,000 

Gross produce of land 329,130,000 



fi-om the observations on the reve- 
nues of Bengal by the late James 
Grant, Esq. that the assessment was 
limited not to exceed in the whole n, 
fourth part of the actxjal gioss pro- 
duce of the soil. In early times the 
demands of the Hindoo sovereigns 
were more moderate. The INIahab- 
harat states, that the prince was to 
levy a fiftieth of tlie*i>roduce of the 
mines, and a tenth of corn. Menu, 
and other legislators, authorize the 
sovereign to exact a tenth, an eighth. 
or a twelfth part of grain, according 
to circumstances, and a sixth of the 
clear annual produce of trees. 

Witii respect to the much disputed 
nature of landed properly in Ben- 
gal, in one point of view, the ze- 
mindars, as descendants of the an- 
cient independent rajahs, seem to 
have been tributaiy princes. In an- 
other light they appeared only to be 
officers of government. Probably 
their real character jiarlook of both- 
This, however, must bo ob\iously 
restricted to rajahs who jjossessed 
great zemindarics. Numerous land- 
holders subordinate to these, as well 
^tis others independent of them, can- 
not evidently be traced to a similar 



In the revenue system of Bengal 
the rjot, or CTiltivator, is described 
as a tenant paving rent, and his su- 
perior as a landlord or landholder ; 
but, strictly speaking, his payment 
heretofore was a contribution to the 
state, levied by officers named ze- 
mindars, standing between him and 
government. In the rule for divid- 
ing the crop, whether under special 
engagements, or by custom, their 
proportions are known, *iz. 

Half to tlie landlord and half to 
the tenant. 

One-third to the landlord and two- 
Uiirds to the tenant. 

Two-fifths to the landlord and 
three-tifths to the tenant. 

'J'he standard for the regulation of 
rates has been lost, but we learn 



The zemindars are now acknow- 
ledged for various reasons, and from 
considerations of expediency which 
decided tlic question, as proprietors 
of the soil. Yet it has been ad- 
mifted, iiom very high authority, 
that anciently the sovereign was the 
superior of the soil, that tJie zemin- 
dars Mere oHlcers of revenue, just- 
ice, and police, and that their office 
was licquently, but not necessarily, 
hereditary. To collect and assess the 
contribu ions, regulated as they were 
by local customs, or particular agree- 
ments, but A ai-)ing at the same time 
■v\ ith the necessities of the state, was 
the business of the zemindar, as a 
l)ernianent, if not as a hereditary 
ollicer. I'or the due execution of 
his charge, he was checked by per- 
manent and hereditai-j' ofliccrs oS re- 
cord and account. 

The saycr revenue of the nature 
3 



BENGAL. 131 

of land rent, consists of ground rent expenses of collection at 40 per 
tor tlie site of houses and gardens, cent. 

revenue drawn fioni fruit tiees, pas- In 1793 the territorial revenue, 
tures and malh, and rent of fisheries, which had before fluctuated, was 
Other articles of sayer collected permanently and iirevocably fixed, 
within the village have been abo- during the administration of Lord 
lished ; such, for example, as market Cornvvallis, at a certain valuation of 
tolls and personal taxes. Ground the property, moderately assessed ; 
rents were not usually levied from but this permanent settlement has 
ryots eng:aged in husbandry. not yet been introduced into the ter- 

A poll tax, called jaziyeh, was ritories obtained by cession from the 
imposed by the Kalif Omar on all NabobofOude, or by conquest from 
persons not of the JNIahommedan the Maharattas. The mighty mass 
faith. The Musselmaun conquerors of papers which the agitation of this 
of Hiiidostan imposed it on the Hin- question introduced among the Com* 
doos as infidels, but it was abolished pany's records, proves the ability, 
by the Em|)eror Acber. At a sub- labour, and anxiety, with which it 
sequent period Aureng-zebe attempt- was discussed, 
cd to revive it, but without success. The following are the pai-ticulars 
Free lands are distinguished ac- of the revenue and disbursements of 
cording to their appropriations, for the Bengal presidency in 1809. 
Brahmins, bai-ds, encomiasts, asce- 
tics, priests, and mendicants, or for revenues. 
a provision for several pubUe officers. Mint ------- ^10,819 

'J'he greatest part of the present fiee Post office ----- 34,800 

lands of Bengal hroper, were origi- Oude and ceded provinces 1,694,131 
Jially granted in small portions of Land ------ 3,851,128 

waste ground. The more extensive Judicial ------ 104,831 

tracts of free land are managed in Customs ----- 6i(j,.509 

the same mode as estates assessed Salt ------- 1,815,822 

for revenue. Opium ------ 594,978 

Prior to 1790 half the revenues of Stamps -----.. 81,633 

Bengal were paid by six large ze- Conquered provinces - -1,111,807 

mindaries, viz. Raujeshy, Burdwan, . 

Dinagepoor,Nuddea, Birbhoom,and Total revenues ^9,816,458 

Calcutta. .; 

In Bengal the class of needy pro- CHARGES, 

prictors of land is very numeious, Mint ------- 33,955 

but even the greatest landlords are Post office ----- 31,690 

not in a situation to allow that in- Oude and ceded provinces 409,320 
dulgenec and aeconnnodation to the Civil charges in general - 600,906 
tenants, Avhich might be expected on Supreme court and law - 46,400 
viewing the extent of their income. Adawlets (courts ofjustice) 646,567 
Besponsible to government for a tax Militaiy ------ 2,990,673 

originally calculated at ten-elevenths Marine ------ 75^082 

of the expected rents of their estates, Buildings and fortifications 34,800 
they have no probable surplus above Revenue ------ 524,086 

tlieir expenditure to compensate for Customs ------ 70,760 

their risk. Any accident, any cala- Salt advances and charges 406,000 
niity, may involve a zemindar in Opium ditto - w - - - 100,920 
difficulties from which no economy Stamps ------ 10,642 

or attention can retrieve him. About Conquered provinces - -596,285 
1790 the gross rent paid to the land- Interest of debt - - - 1,421,938 

holders in Bengal was estimated at 

neaily six crores of ruf>ees, and the Total charges 7,898.^34 

K ? 



132 



PENGAL. 



Tn 1809 the debt owinp; liy ihe Irihe are inchidcd not only the trnr 
East India Company, at ti)is prtsi- Sudras, Init also llic SLveral castes. 



20,286,644 



dency, 

Amonnted to 

The amount of assets, 

debts, &c. bclongfhio; to 

the Company at tlic 

same period was - 8,518,131 



whose origin is asciilied lo tlie pro- 
miscnous intercourse ot" tlie tour 
classes. In practice Utile astentioii 
is paid to the liuiitalionsot'the castes, 
daily observation shews e%en Erah- 
mins exercising the menial profes- 
sion ot" a siidra. Every caste forms 
Excess of delil above itself into clubs and lodges, consist- 

the assets - ^'ll,768,ol5 ing of sevcraliudividualsoi'lhal caste 

residing within a small <listance. 

The Company arc also possessed I'hese clubs govern themselves by 
of property to a eonsideralile amount particular rules and customs, or by 
ut this presidency, which, iVoin not laws. It may, however, be received 
being considered as available, is not as a general ma\im, that the occu- 
inscrted among the assets. This patioti appointed for each tribe, is 
pro]ier1y consists of plate, honscliold entitled merely to a preference ^ 
furniture, guns on the ramparts, every profession, v\ itli a few e\eep- 



arms, and military stores. The build- 
ings might be added, Init their cost 
is supposed to be included in the 
charges as well as the fortifications. 
The whole, how ever, must have ori- 
ginally been luocnred by lulvancc of 
tiinds cither in England or India. 



tions, being open lo every descrip- 
tion of persons. 

'Ihe civil and military govcnimcnt 
of the territories under the IJengal 
presidency, is vested in a governor- 
general ^ind three coun.'^eilors. Va- 
cancies in the council are supplied 



. In 1810 the sum estimated to have by the directors, and the counsellors 

been expended on buildings ami tor- are taken from the civil servants of 

tifieations was - - -5,494,354 not less than 12 years standing. For 

Plate, furniture, i)ianta- theaduiinistralionofjustice through- 

tions, farms, vessels, out the provinces sul>ject to the pre- 

storcs, &c. - - - - 1,496,114 sidency, there are in the ci\il and 

criminal departments, 

^£6,990,468 One supremo court stationed at 

Cakutta. 

Six courts of appeal and circuit 
attached to six ditfercnt divisions. 

I'orty inferior courts, or rather 
magistrates, stationed in so many 
dilierent districts and cities, viz. 



Asira 



Among the native popidation in 
the eastern districts of Bengal . the 
Mahommedans are almost equally 
numerous with the Hindoos; in the 
middle part they do not constitute a 
fourth part.of the pojmlalion, to the 
westward the disproportion is still Ailahal)ad 
greater. As an average of the whole, Alyghur 
the jMalionnnedaus may be com- 
puted at onc-tcnth of the jiopula- 
tion. Of the four great classes, the 
aggregate of the IJramin, Khetri, and 
\aisja, may auiount. at the most, 
to a iifth jiart of the total popidation. 
Commerce and.agiieulture arc uni- 
versally i)crmiitcd to all classes, and 
under the general designation of ser- 
vants to the other three tribes, the 
t^udras seem to be aUovved to pro- 
secute any manufacture. In thi* 



Dacca Jelalpoor 

Denagepo<n- 

Etavveh 

Eurruckabad 

Goracpoor 

Hooghly 

Jessonc 

J ion poor 



liackergunge 
I'arcily 
Ilahar 
lienares 
I'irbhooiK 

IU)glipoor(oi]Mong-\leerat 
Jhndwan [hir) IMidnapoor 
Cawitpoor Mirzapoor 

Chittagong INlynuinsiugh 

Ealasore ( in Moorshedabad. 
•luggeraauth i Cuttaek, Moradabad, 
and Buudclcuiiti 



BENdAL. 



133 



Niuldoa Sarnii 

]'iiriie-ali iSiiahahud 

J^aujeshy Sillict 

IJauigiiiir 'rijKiali 

l^uii<;poor 'J"i!lio(jt 

Saliarunpoor 24 |K'r};nnahs 
The cuiirts of oirciiil consist of 
tliK^e judges,, ^vitll an assistant ; to- 
•{jotlier \vith ualiNc ofliceis, hotli i\Ja- 
hoitmiodau and Hindoo. Tlif juds^es 
make their circuits at stated ])eiiods 
of the year, and liold also n ,<i;idara!id 
frequent jail deliveries, 'liny try 
criminal oHences accordiiij^ to ti«e 
Mahominedan huv ; liiit when tlic 
sentence is capital, or iniprisounient 
is aw ardcd beyond a d( Hued period, 
it does not take elVcct until it re- 
ceives eonlirinatioii from the siiijerior 
criminal conrt stationed in Calcutta, 
named the Nizamnt Adawlet. T!ie 
principal business of this co<nt is to 
revise trials ; but it is in no case per- 
mitted to aggravate the se\ ority of 
the sentence. 

In the countiy distiicts, the oflicer 
who, in his criminal capacity, has 
the appellation of magistrate, is also 
the civil judge of tlie city or district 
ill which he resides. He tries all 
suits of a civil nature, pro\ided the 
cause of action have originated, the 
property concerned be situated, or 
the defendant be resident, within his 
jurisdiction. To try suits ol a small 
iimited amount, the judge may ap- 
point native commissioners, from 
whose decisions an appeal lies to the 
judge. With a few exceptions, the 
decisions of the judge are appealable 
to the provincial courts of appeal, 
Avithin the jurisdiction of which he 
resides. 

'I'he ultimate court of appeal, in 
civil matters, sits in tlie city of 
Calcutta, and is st^hnl the Sudder 
Dewanny Adawlet. 'J'o this court 
all causes resiiecting personal pro- 
perty beyond 5000 rupees value are 
appealable; with regaid to real pro- 
perty, it is ascertained by certain 
rules, diirering iiccording to the na- 
ture and tenure of the property. 
I'rom tliis comt an appeal lies to the 
kin^ ill covuicil, if i\u: value of the 



pro]K.'rty concerned amounts to 50001. 
sterling. 

Liidi:r the Mahominedan govern- 
ments, suitors pleaded their own 
causes, and the practice continued 
until 1793, when regiilar native ad- 
vocates were appointed, 'i'hese ad- 
vocates are cliosen out of the INIa- 
hommcdan College at CaU-utta, and 
Hindoo College at Benares, and the 
rate of fees is fixed by public regu- 
lation. This institution ensures 
suitors against negligence or miscon- 
duct on tlie part, either <»'.' the judge, 
or of his native assistant, the advo- 
cates being often as conversant in 
the business of the court as either of 
those oilicer.s. As an ultimate secu- 
rity for the purity of justice, provi- 
sions have been made against the 
corruption of those wlio administer 
it. 'I'iie rrceiving of a sum of money, 
orotlif r Mdnable as a gift, or present, 
or under colour thereof, by a British 
subject in the .service of the Com- 
pany, is decMiicd to be taken by ex- 
tortion, ai;d is a uiisdemeanor at 
law. 

A\ ritten pleadings have been in- 
troduced in the native languages, l<)r 
the purpose of bringing litigation to 
a point, and entbrcing, in legal pro- 
ceedings, as much precision as the 
habits of the people will admit. Be- 
fore this, the charge and defence 
consisted of confused oral com- 
plaints, loudly urged on one side, 
and as loudly retorted on the (jther. 
In receiving evidcaee, gieat indul- 
gence is granted to the scruples of 
caste, and the prejudices against the 
l)ul)lic appearance of females, so pre- 
valent in eastern countries. 

'I'he Mahoninicdan law still con- 
tinues, as the British found it, the 
ground work of tJie criminal juris- 
j)rudence of the country. In civil 
matters, the Hindoos and Mahom- 
medans substantially enjoy then- re- 
spective usages. The prejudices 
of both are treated with indulgence, 
and the respect which Asiatic man- 
ners enjoins to women of rank is 
scrupulously enforced. 

The body of ser\ ants, who fill the 



134 



BENGAL. 



commercial, political, financial, and 
judicial officers in Bengal, are sup- 
plied by annual recruits of young 
men, under the appellation of writers, 
who generally leave England for 
India about the age of 18. When 
they have completed three years re- 
sidence in the country, they are ele- 
gible to ail office of 50()1. per an- 
imm, emoluments upwards ; after six 
years, to 15001. upwards; after nine 
years, to 30001. upwards; and after 
twelve years, to 40001. per annum, 
or upwards. The directors of the 
Company generally appoint annually 
about 30 writers for the ci^il ser- 
vice. In 1811, the number of civil 
servants in Bengal was 391 ; under 
the Madras presidency, 206 ; and un- 
der that of Bombay, 74 ; — in all, 671. 
— The pay, allowances, and emolu- 
ments of the civil service in Bengal, 
including European uncovenanted 
assistants, amounted, in 1811, to 
1,045,4001. sterling. 

The stations of the commercial re- 
sidents, for purchasing the invest- 
ment for the Company, are, 
Bareily Keerpoy 

Baidiah Luckipore and 

Commercolly Chittagong 

Cossimbazar Maulda 
Dacca IMidnapoor 

Etaweh Patna 

Golagore Badnagore 

Goracpoor Rungpoor 

Hunial Santipoor 

Hurripaul Soonamooky 

Jungeypoor 

The collectors of the government 
customs are stationed at 
Benares Furruckabad 

Calcutta Hooghly 

Cawnpoor Moorshedabad 

Dacca Patna 

The diplomatic residents are at 
Delhi, Hyderabad, Lucknow, My- 
sore, Nagpoor, Poonah, and with 
Dovvlet Bow Siiidia, who seldom 
stays long in one place. 

The native, or sepoy troops, un- 
der the three presidencies, including 
the non-commissioned officers, who 
are also natives, amount to 122,000 



men; of whom aboitt 9000 are ca- 
valry, equally divided between IVla- 
dras and Btjngal. European offi- 
cers, attached to tliis Ibice, are 
nearly 3000. Of Emopean regi- 
ments, each presidency is fuinished 
with one, besides artillcr>' and engi- 
neers; and the total number of these 
troops, with their officers, exceeds 
4000. The officers rise by seniority. 

It has become usual for tiie British 
government at home to send to In- 
dia a certain number of regiments 
from the army of his ma,jesty, which 
are for the time placed at the dis- 
posal of the Company, and co-operate 
with the army immediately subject 
to that body. About 22,000 king's, 
troops are now usually stationed in 
India, at the entire expense of the 
Company. The commander-iti-chief 
in both king's and Company's Ibrcesis 
usually the same j)er.«o)i, nominated 
both by the king and by tiie Conit 
pany to the command of their re- 
spective armies, and acting by virtue 
of a commission tiom each. In 
1811, the total number of kirig's 
troops in India was 21,488; the ex- 
pense 1,154,6951. per annum; and 
the Company's Bengal army, of all 
descriptions of regulars, was 58,690 
men. 

The annual appointment of cadets? 
for tiie three presidencies may be 
averaged at 120 for the military, and 
10 for the marine service, annually. 
In 1811, the number of oll;cers in 
the Company's service, on the Ben- 
gal establishment, was 1571; the 
pay and allowances amounted to 
872,0881. per annum. 1 he number 
of resident Europeans out of tlie ser- 
vice, in the pi ovinces under the Jien- 
gal presidency, Calcutta included, in 
1810, were computed at 2000. 

I'he districts into winch, in modern 
times, the province of Bengal has 
been subdivided, are Backergunge, 
Birbhoom, Burdwau, Chittagong, 
Hooghly, Jessore, Mymunsingh, 
Moorshedabad, Nuddt-a, Purneab, 
Baujeshy, Rungpoor, bilhet, Tip- 
perah, the 24 pergunuahs, and to 
wliich, from its long comi«xion, 



BENGAL. 



135 



must be added Midnapoor, although 
it properly beloni^K to OrisKa. 

\\ ithiii these limits arc coniprc- 
Jionded throe very large cities: Cal- 
cutta, Moorshedabad, and Dacca; 
and many prosperous inland trading 
towns, of from 10 to 20,000 inhabit- 
ants, such as Hoogiilj, Boguangola, 
harraiugiinge, Cossimbazar, Nud- 
dea, Maulda, Mungulhaut, &c. I'he 
small villages, of from 100 to 500 in- 
habitants, are beyond number, and 
in some parts of the country seem to 
touch each other as in China. While 
passing them by the inland na\iga- 
tion, it is pleasing to view ti)e cheer- 
ful bustle and crowded population 
by laud and water; men, old w omen, 
children, birds, and beasts, all mixed 
and intimate, evincing a sense of se- 
curity and appearance of happiness, 
seen in no part of India beyond the 
Company's territories. Nor have 
the natives of Bengal any real evils 
to complain of, except such as ori- 
ginate from their own litigious dis- 
positions, and from the occasional 
predatory visits of gang-robbers. To 
secure them from the last, the exer- 
tions of government, and of their 
sei-vants in the magistracy, have been 
most stri nuous ; neither pains nor 
expense have been spared: but, it 
must be confessed, hitherto without 
tlic desired success, and partly owing 
to the want of energy in the natives 
themselves. AVith respect to the 
first, the Bengalese are, from some 
cliaiacteristic peculiarity, particu- 
larly prone to legal disputation ; and, 
politically pacific, seem socially and 
domestically martial. Among them 
wai"s seenv tiittered down into law, 
and the ferocious passions dwaifed 
down to the bickering and suarhng 
of the hut and village. 

In this province there are many 
female zemindars, generally subser- 
vient to, and under the management 
of, the family Brahmin, who con- 
houls their txjiisciences. This pcr- 
.son has his own private interests to 
attend to, and witliout appearing, 
exerts an influence over the pubUc 
business. The ostensible managing 



agent submits to the contix>ul of a 
concealed authority, which he nuxst 
conciliate ; and the interests of the 
state and zemindar equally bend to 
it. A Brahmin in Bengal not only 
obtains a lease of land on better 
terms, but has exemptions from va- 
rious impositions and extortions to 
w Inch the in erior classes are ex- 
posed. 

Beyond Brngal the natives of the 
northern mountains pro\e, by their 
features, a Tartar origin. They 
people the northern boundary of 
Bengal. 

On the eastern hills, and in the 
adjacent plains, the peculiar features 
of the inhabitants shew with equal 
certainty a distinct origin; and the 
cle\ atcd tract ^\ hich Bengal includes 
on the west, is peopled from a stock 
obviously distinct, or rather by se- 
veral races of mountaineers, the pro- 
bable aborigines of the coimtry. The 
latter are most evidently distinguish- 
ed by their religion, character, lan- 
guage, and manners, as well as by 
their features, from the Hindoo na- 
tion. Under various denominations 
they people the vast mountainous 
tract which occupies the centre of 
India, and some tribes of them have 
not yet emerged from the savage 
state. 

In the mixed population of the 
middle districts, the Hindoos may 
be easily distinguished from the Ma- 
honnncdans. Among the latter may 
be discriminated the Mogul, the 
Afghan, and their immediate de- 
scendants, from the naturalized Mus- 
selmaun. Among the Hindoos may 
be recognized the peculiar traits of a 
Bengalese, contrasted w ith those of 
the Hindostany. The native Ben- 
galese are generally stigmatized as 
pusillanimous and cowardly ; but it 
should not be forgotten, that at an 
early period of our military history 
in India, they almost entirely tbrmed 
several of our battahons, and distin- 
guished themselves as brave and 
active soldiers. It nuist, however, 
be acknowledged, that throughout 
Hiudostan the Bengalese name has 



1.36 



BENGAL. 



never been lield in any repute; and 
that Hie descendants of foreigners, 
settled in Ecnaal, are fond of tracing 
their origin to the countries of their 
ancestors. 

The men of ojjulcnce now in Bon- 
gal are the Hindoo merchants, hank- 
ers, and banyans of Calcutta, with a 
few at the principal provincial sta- 
tions. The greatest men formerly 
were the Maliomniedan rulei-s, whom 
the Biitish have superseded, and 
the Hindoo zemindars. These two 
classes are now reduced to povcrtj', 
and the lower classes look up to the 
oflicial servants and domestics of the 
English gentlemen. No native has 
any motive to distinguish himself 
greatly in the army, as he cannot 
rise higher than a soubahdar, a rank 
inferior to an ensign. 

Slavery, in its severest sense, is 
not known in r>engal. Throughout 
some districts the labours of hus- 
bandly is executed chiefly by bond 
servants. In certain other districts 
the ploughmen are mostly slaves of 
the peasants, for whom they labour, 
but are treated by their masters 
more like hereditary ser\ants, or 
niancipatcd hinds, tiian like pur- 
ciiased slaves. Though the fact 
must be admitted, that slaves may 
be found in Fcngal among the la- 
bourers ill husi)andry, jet in most 
parts none but free men are oc- 
cupied in the business of agricul- 
ture. 

Many tribes of Hindoos, and even 
some Erahmias, have no objections 
to the use of aiiiiiial food, beef ex- 
cepted. At their entertainments it 
is generally introduced; by some it 
is daily eaten ; and the institutes of 
their religion re(jiiire,that tlesh should 
be tasted even by Brahmins at so- 
lemn sacrifices; forbidding, however, 
the use of it, unless joined with the 
performance of such a sacrilice. Dr. 
Leyden was inclined to think, that 
anthropophagy was practised by a 
class of mendicants, named Agora 
Punt'h, in Bengal and other parts of 
India. 

Of the existence of Bengal as a 



separate kingdom, with the limits 
assigned to it at present, there is no 
other evidence than its distinct lan- 
guage and peculiar written charac- 
ter. At the time of the war of the 
Mahabharat, it constitiited three 
kingdoms. Afterwards it formed 
part of ihe empire of Magadha, or 
Bahar, from which, however, it was 
t'lismemb' red before the IMahoimne- 
dan invasion. The last Hindoo 
prince of this province was named 
Lacshmanyah, and held his court at 
Nuddea. A.D. 1203, daring the 
reign of Cuttub ud Deen, on the 
Delhi throne, Mahomraed Eukhtjar 
Khilijee was dispatched by that 
sovereign to invade Bengal, and 
marched with such rapidity, that he 
surprised and captured the capital, 
and expelled Rajah Lachsmaiiyah, 
who retired to Juggernauth, \a here 
he had the satisfaction of dv ing. — 
Tlie Moliammedan general then pro- 
ceeded to Gour, where he established 
his capital, and reared his mosques 
on the ruins of Hindoo temples. — 
According toMahommedan testimo- 
nies, this large province was com- 
pletely subdued in the course of one 
year. 

I'Vom this period Bengal was ruled 
bj' governors delegated by the Delhi 
sovereigns until 1340. when I'akhcr 
udDeen,havingassassinated his mas- 
tei", revolted, and erected an inde- 
pendent monarchy in Bengal. After 
a short reign he was defeated and 
put to death, and was succeeded by 

A. D. 

1343 Ilyas Khauje. 

1358 Secunder Shah ; killed in an 

engagement with his son, 
1367 Gyasud Deen. He eradicated 

the eyes of his brothers. 
1373 Sultan Assulateen. 
1383 Shunis ud Deen ; defeated and 

killed in battle by 
1385 Baja Cansa, who ascended the 

throne, and was succeeded by 

his son, 
1392 Chietmull Jellal ud Deen, who 

became a convert to the Ma- 

hommedan religion. 
1409 Ahmed Khan, who sent an em- 



BENGAL. 



137 



A. D. bassy to Shah Rokh, tlie son 
of'l'iiiiour. 

1426 Nassh-Sluid; succocdeil by !iis 
son, 

1457 Barbek Shah. This prince in- 
troduced mercenary fj^nards 
and forces, composed ot" negro 
and Abyssian slaves. 

1474 Yiiseph Shah, son of the last 
monarch, succeeded by his 
uncle, 

1482 Futteh Shall, murdered by 
his eunuchs and Abyssinian 
slaves; on which event one 
of the eunuchs seized the 
crown, and assumed the name 
of 

1491 ShahZadeh; but after a reign 
of eig:ht months, he was assas- 
sinat»Ml,and t!ie vacant throne 
taken possession of bj' 

1491 Feroze ShaliHelisiiy, an Abys- 
sinian slave, succeeded by his 
son, 

1494 JVIahmeod Shah, murdered by 

his vizier, an Ab\ssinian, who 
ascended the throne ui.der 
the name of 

1495 Mu'/iff'er Shaii, a cruel tyrant, 

slain in battle. 

1499 Seid Hossein Shah. This 
prince expelled the Abyssi- 
nian troops, who retired to 
the Dcecan and Gnirat, m here 
they afterwards lieeame con- 
spicuons under the appella- 
tion if Siddees. He also in- 
vaded Camroop and Assam, 
but was repulsed with dis- 
grac{\ He was succeeded by 
his son, 

1520 Nusserit Shah, who was as- 
sassinated by his eunuchs, and 
his son J'erose Shah placed 
on the <inone; but, after a 
reign of threes months, he 
was assassinated also by his 
xincle. 

1533 Mahmood Shah was expelled 
by -Shere Shah the Afghan, 
and with him, in 1638, ended 
the series of independent 
monarchs of Bengal. Some 
Portuguese ships had enter- 
ed the Ganges so eaily as 



1517; and in 1586 a squa- 
droj) of nine ships, was sent 
to the assistance of Mah- 
mood Shah; but these suc- 
cours arrived too late, and 
Bengal once more became 
an appendage to the tlirone 
of Delhi. 

Shere Shah and his suc- 
cessors occupied Bengal un- 
til 1576, vhen it was con- 
quered by the generals of 
the Emperor Acber; and iu 
1580 formed into a soubah, 
or vice-royally, of the Mo- 
gul empire, by Raja Tooder 
Mull. 
The governors of Bengal, under 
the Mogul dynasty, were 

A. D. 

1576 Khan Jehan. 

1579 Muzuffir Klian. 

1580 R a jail Tooder Mull. 
1582 Khan Aziu). 

1584 Shahbaz Khan. 
1589 Rajah Mansingh. 

1606 Cuttab ud Deen Kokultash. 

1607 Jehangire Cooly. 

1608 Sheikh Islam Khan. 
1613 Cossim Khan. 
1618 Ibrahim Khan. 
162-> Shah Jehan. 

1625 Khanczad Khan. 

1626 Mokurrem Khan. 

1627 Fedai Khan. 

1628 Cossim Khan Jobumg. 

1632 Azim Ki.an. During the go- 
vernment of this viceroy. 
A. D. 1634, tlie English ob- 
tained permission to trade 
with their ships to Bengal, 
in conse(jueuce of a firmaua 
from the Emperor Shah Je- 
han; but were restricted to 
the port of Pipley, where 
they established their fac- 
tory. 

1639 Sultan Shujah, the second son 
of Shah Jeha!!, and brotiier 
of Aurengzebi. lu 1642, 
Mr. Day, the agent, v>ho had 
so successfully establi.shed 
the settlement at Madras, 
proceeded on a voyage of ex- 
periment to Balasorc ; lioin 



138 



BENGAL. 



A. D. whence he sent tlip first re- 
gular dif;patch, received by 
1he Court of Directors from 
Er-ng-ai, rfConimcndi!!g a fac- 
tory at Balasore. In 1656, 
owing to the extortion and 
opprcKs-ion which the Com- 
pany experienced, Iheir fftc- 
tories wcic withdrawn tiom 
Bengal. 

1660 MeerJiirala. 

1664 Shaista Khan. During the go- 
vernment 9f this viceroy, the 
French and Danes establish- 
ed themselves in Bengal. He 
expelU^dtheMughsof AiTacan 
from the Island of Snndeep ; 
and his administration was in 
other respects able and ac- 
tive, although described by 
the East India Company's 
agents of tliat period in the 
blackf si colours. 

1677 1 edai Khan. 

1578 Snllan Mahommed Azim, the 
3d son of Aurengzebi. 

1680 Shaista Khan was re-appoint- 
ed. This year Mr. Job Char- 
nock was restored to his 
fiitualion of chief at Ccssim- 
bazar; and, in 1681, Bengal 
was couslituted a distant 
agency from fort St. George 
or Madras. On the 20th De- 
cember, 1686, in consequence 
of a rupture with the I'ouj- 
dar, or native military oIKcer 
of Hooghly, the agent and 
council retiiedto Chattanuttee 
or Calcutta, from Hooghly, 
considering the first as a safer 
station. 

1689 Ibrahim Khan. In 1693 Mr. 
Job Charnock died, and was 
siicceed'td by Mr. Eyre ; the 
seat of the Company's trade 
continuing at Chattanuttee. 
In 1693 Sir John Goldes- 
borough was sent out as ge- 
neral superintendant and com- 
missaiy of all the Company's 
possessions; but he died in 
Bengal in 1794, having con- 
firmed Mr. Eyre as chief. In 
1696. during the rebellion of 



A. D. Soobha Singh, the Dutch af 
Chinsura ; the irench at 
Chandeuagore ; and the En- 
glish at Chattanuttee (Cal- 
cutta), requested pennission 
to put their factories in a 
state of defence. 'J he vice- 
roy having assented in gene- 
ral terms, they proceeded with 
great diligtnce to raise wails, 
bastions, and regular fortifica- 
tions ; the first suffered by the 
Moguls, witliin their domi- 
nions. 

1697 Azim Ushaun, giandson to 
Aurengzebe. This prince in 
1700 permitted the agents of 
the East India Company, in 
consideration of a valuable 
present, to purchase thi'ee 
towns with the lands adja- 
cent to their fortified factory, 
viz. Cliattanuttee,Gorindpoor, 
and Calcutta. Mr. Eyre, the 
chief, in consequence of in- 
structions from iiome, having 
strengthened the works of the 
fort, it was denominated 1' ort 
William, in compliment to 
the king. 

1704 Moorshnd Cooly, or JalTier 
Khan. This nabob, in 1704, 
transferred the seat of go- 
vennnent from Daccaf o Moor- 
shedabad, as beuig more cen- 
trical. The annual surplus 
revenue, during his adminis- 
tration, amoimtcd to from 
130 to 150 lacks of rupees 
(1,500,0001.), and was regu- 
larly transmitted to Delhi 
every rebruary, accompanied 
by valuable presents. In 
1706 the whole stock of the 
united East India Company 
had been removed to Cal- 
cutta; where thegairison con- 
sisted of 1 29 soldiers, of whom 
66 were Emopeans, exclu- 
sive of the gunner and his 
crew. 

1725 Shujah ud Deen, son-in-law of 
the last governor. He was 
succeeded by his son. 

1739 Serferaz Khan, who was day 



BENGAL. 



155 



A. B. throned and killed in battle 

by 
1740 Ali Verdy Khan. It does not 
appear, that tliis nabob ever 
remitted any part of the re- 
venue to Delhi. After the 
invasion of Hindostan, by 
Ahmed Shah Abdalli in 1746, 
and tiie death of the Emperor 
Mahommed Shah in the fol- 
lowing year, the Mogul em- 
pire may be considered as 
wholly at an end, bc.vond the 
immediate vicinity of the city 
of Delhi. 
1756 Serajc ud Dowlah, gjandson (o 
the late nabob, in April tiiis 
year, took undisputed jiosscs- 
sion of the three provinces ; 
but, it does not appear, he 
even received or applied for 
in vesture from Delhi. On the 
20th June, he captured Cal- 
cutta, and shut the prisoners, 
146, in a room 20 feet square, 
where they all perished ex- 
cept 23- On (he 1st Jaiiuaiy, 
1767, CalciLtta vvas retaken 
fiom him by Admiral Watson 
and Colonel Clive; on the 
20th June, he was defeated at 
riassey, and the beginning of 
next July was assassinated by 
order of the son of his suc- 
cessor, in the 2011i year of his 
age, and 15th month of his 
government. For the subse- 
quent native princes of Ben- 
gal, see the article Moorshc- 
dabad. 
From this era may be dated the 
commencement of the British go- 
vernment in Bengal, although the 
dewanny was not obtained until 
1765, when Lord Cilve procured it 
from the Emperor Shall Alliun, upon 
the condition of payiug hitn 26 lacks 
of rupees per aimum, besides secur- 
ing him a considemble teiritory in 
Upper Hindostan; both of which he 
subsequently forfeited in 1771, by 
putting himself in the power of the 
Maharattas. 'I'his important busi- 
ness (the acquisition of the de- 
)vaxxuy), observes a native lustorian. 



was settled without hesitation or ar- 
gument, as easily as the purchase of 
an ass or any other animal, without 
envoys or reference, eitiier to the 
King of England or to the Com- 
pany. 

Lord Clive retunicd to England in 
1767, and was succeeded by Mr. 
Verelst and Cartier. in 17V 2 Mr. 
Hastings was appointed governor, 
and continued until 1785 ; when he 
Avas succeeded by Kir John Mac- 
pherson, who administered the af- 
fairs of government, until the airival 
of Lord Cornwalhs in 1787. 

During his lordship's govern- 
ment, which lasted until August, 
1793, the land revenue was perma- 
nently settled, a code of regulations 
enacted, and (he army and magis- 
tracy n(\v modelled ; which improve- 
ments vvcie prosecuted by his suc- 
cessor, Lord 'i eiguHioutb, and com- 
pleted by the IVlarcjuis Wellesley. 
'I'his nobleman reached India the 
26th April, 1798, and left Madras 
for England the 20th August, 1805. 

The Marquis Cornwalhs anived at 
Calcutta, on his second mission in 
July, 1805, and died at Ohazipoor, 
near Benares, ihe 6(h of next Ucto- 
bei". He was succeeded by Sir 
George H. Barlow, who contiimtd 
at the head of the supreme govern- 
ment, until the arrival of Lord 
Minto, in July, 1807. Lord Minto 
retitrned (o Europe iii 1813, and v\ as 
succeeded as governor general by 
the Eari of Moua, who still tills that 
important station. (Colebroohe, 
Stewart, R. Grant, Tennant, J. 
Grant, Lambert, Bruce, Lord Tei^n- 
nioidh. Sir Henry Strachetf, Milbiirn, 
— LJdiiwurg/i Review, SfX.) 

Bengal. Bay of. — 'I'his portion 
of the Indian (Jceaii has (he tigiuc of 
an equilatural triangle, very much 
resembhng in shape, tliough larger 
in size, than that formed by the con-, 
tiuent of the Deccan and south of 
India, and usually, but improperly 
denominated the Peninsula. Un th© 
west, one limb extends from Bengal 
to Ceylon ; on the east, from Bengal 
to Juukseylon; and the third, ataoss 



140 



BEOKE. 



Iho bay from Ceylon fo Jnnkseyloii. 
Isadi lini!) may bo cstimaicd at 1120 
miles in leiipjth, nud th« uholc ia 
coinpieiieiidcil vithiii the latiliulcs 
of b°. and 20°. Jiorlh. At the bot- 
tojn of tlic buy, the dificience of 
lon;j;;1i1iule bt (\vc( ii tlie towns of Ka- 
lasoie and fhitia^onj on the oppo- 
Kite sides, 4°. 53'. ' 

The west coast of (he Bay of Ilen- 
JCalisinihospitahle for shippijij":, there 
hoiiii;; no harljonr ihr larf;e shijis ; but 
the opposite coast a ll'ords many excel- 
lent harboiu'S, such as Arraean, Chc- 
duba, Ne;j,Tais, andSyriam in Pe;;'nc, 
a harbour near IMarlaban, Tavoy 
Kivev, Kir.;:!:'s island, and seveial har- 
bours in the INfcrgui ArehipelaE^o, 
besides Jnnkse^lon, Telebone, and 
Pnla Jiada. In other respects the 
two coasts diiier materially. Coro- 
"inandel bas no sf>nn(iings al-ont 30 
miles fi(;m the ;liorc; (he east coast 
bas soim!.iinii,"s two degrees off. Co- 
vomandel is comparatively a clear 
• country ; the east coast of the bay is 
covered with ^^ood. Coromandel 
is often parched with heat, from 
winds blowing- over barren sand ; the 
ca,st coast is always cool. On the 
west coast, the mouths of the rivers 
are baired with sand; on the east 
coast, they are deep and muddy. 
Coromandel has often destructive 
j^ales; the cast coast lias seldom 
any. 

The numerous rivers that open on 
the coast of the bay, bring down 
.such quantities of slime and mud, 
that tlie sea apjjcars turbid at a great 
distance from the shore. In these 
parts, the tides and currents run 
M'ith great velocity ; and when coun- 
ter ciuTents meet, a rippling is form- 
ed, extending several miles in a 
straight line, attended with a noise rc- 
sendjiing breakers. 

The winds m tlic Eay of Bengal 
-arc said to blow six months from the 
N. E. and the other six from the 
S. W. This is not precisely the 
case, but is sufticieutly accurate for 
general purposes. It is remarkable, 
that in many parts of India, during 
Alarcli and April, there are on shore 



strong winds blowing directly from 
the sea ; while in the offing it is a 
perfect calm. Thus at Bengal, there 
are in that season very strong sou- 
therly winds, while in the bay, calms 
prevail until May and June On 
the coast of Malabar, the south-west 
monsoon does not commence blow- 
ing with strength until the begin- 
ning of the rainy season; but, on 
shore, there are strong westerly 
Avinds from about the venial equi- 
nox. 

In the Hindoo Puranas by the 
term Caiinga is understood the sea 
coast at the summit oithe bayof Beii- 
ga!,fro!n Point Goda^ er} to Cape Ne- 
grais. It isdivided into three jjarts. — 
Caiinga iMoper, which extends from 
Point Godavcrj to the western l)ranch 
of the Ganges. The inhabitants of 
this country arc called Calingi, by 
Aelian and Pliny. 2dly. Madliya 
Caiinga, or the Middle Caiinga, 
which is in the Delta of the Ganges, 
and is corrujjtly called Medo Ga- 
linca by IMiny. 3dly. Moga Ca- 
iinga extends tiom the eastern bra neh 
of the Ganges to Cape Negrais, iu 
tlie country of the Mias or Muggs ; 
this is the Macco Calingac of Pliny. 
I'he name Caiinga implies a coun- 
try abounding Mith creeks, and is 
equally ajijilieable to the sea shore 
about the mouths of the Indus. 
(Forrest, WiJford, Johnson, l-ioincJ, 
/»'. Jjitc/ianan, S^'c.) 

Bkngermow. — A to«ii in the 
Nabob of Uude's teiritories, district 
of Lucknow, 43 miles E. frojn Luck- 
now. Lat. 36^*. 53*. N. Long. 80° 
13'. E. 'ibis town is situated on a 
snn)ll river, is surrounded Avith 
clumps of UKingo trees, and has the 
ajipearance of having been formerly 
much more consideiable. 

Bkore. — A district in the Nizam's 
dominions, in the province of Au- 
rungai)ad, situated about the 19th 
degree of north latitude. It is a 
very hilly district, and Jnis not any 
river of consequence. The chief 
town is Beorc, and there are besides 
several strong holds. 

Broke. — A town in the Nizam's 



BERAR. 



141 



dominions, in the province of An- in tin! province of Ciny.Uvraia; T.l 



rniif^abad, 42 miles S. tioni the (!ity 
of Aunuifrabad. Lat. 19°. 10'. N 
Lons. 76° 12'. E. 



BERAR. 

A larg:c province in tlic Dcccan, 
CNtcnJinrc from the IQlli to llic 22d 
Ucgrces of nortli latitiuic. To tin; 
north, it is bounded by Khaiidesh 
and Allahabad ; to the south by 
Aurunj;;abad and the Godavery; to 
tlie east by the provin<;e of d'und- 
■vvana; and to the west by Khan- 
desh and Anrungabad. Its limits 
we very inactinatcly defined; but, 
inclndino; the . modern small pro- 
vince of Nandere, which properly 
belongs to it, the lens^th may be 
estimated at 230 miles, by 120 miles 
tlie averaj^e breadth. In the Insti- 
tutes of Aeber, compiled by Abul 
i'azel, A. D. 1682, it is described as 
to Hows: 



lichpoor b( iii^" liie proper capilal of 
this country. Tlie souuah of Rerar 
was formed during tite reign of 
Acber, from conquests made south 
of the Nerbuddah ; but the Ci>«tcrn 
parts were probably never (com- 
pletely subjugaled. 

'I'his province is ccntrically situat- 
ed in the Dccean, nearly at an equal 
distance from the two seas. 'J'iie 
surface is in geueral elevated and 
hilly, and abounds in strong holds; 
some of whicii, sueli as (iav\elghnr, 
were deemed inspregnable by the 
luilivcs, until taken by the army 
under General ^V ellesley. It has 
many rivers, l!ic principal of which 
:u(- the Gt)(hn<'ry, Tufitec, I'oornali, 
AV urda, and Kaitna, besides siuailcr 
streams. 7\ II hough so well supplied 
with wabr, it is but little cultivated, 
and thini} ;n!iabited. 'i'liere are 
some jtarts of t!ie [)rovince, however, 
which aie so favoured by climate 
and soil, as to be as well cultivated 
IS any part of India, [>rodueing rice, 



" The ancient names of this Sou- 
bah are Durdatnt, Ruddavoodyut, wheat, barley, cotton, opium, silk (iw 
and Eittkener. It is situated in the small quantities and coarse), and 



second climate. The length from 
Putaleh to Beiragurh is 200 coss, 
and the breadth iiom Bunder to 
tlindiah. measures 180 coss. On 
the east it joins to Beeragurgh ; on 
tlie north is Settarah ; on the south 
Hindia; and on the west Tilingana. 
It is divided into the following dis- 
tricts; viz. 1. Kaweel; 2. Poonar ; 



sugar — and the whole is susceptible 
of great improveuici'.t. 'l"he Rerar 
bullocks ar(^ reckoned the best in 
the Deccan. The principal tow ns are 
Ellichpoor, Gawelgiiur, Narnallah, 
Poonar, Xandere, and Palcr\. 

At present three-fourths of the pro- 
vince are included v ithin the terri- 
tories of the Nizam, and the re- 



3. Kehrleh; 4. Nernalah; 5. Knllem; maindcr is either occupied by, or 
(j. Bassnm; 7. Mahore ; 8. jManick- tributary to the Nagpoor and Mal- 



durgh; 9. Patna; 10, Tilinganch ; 
11. Ramgiu-; 12. Bheker; 13. Puli"- 
yaleh." 

It will be perceived, that the pro- 
i^ince of Rerar, described by Abul 
I'azel, dillers considerably from the 



wall Maharattas. Ry the treaty of 
peace coucltKled \\ ith the Nagpoor 
Rajah, in December, 180.j, the River 
Vvurda v\as declared the boundary 
betwixt his dominions and those of 
the Nizam. I'roni varitnis causes 



modern acceptation of the name; this province has never attained to 

(he latter including (but improperly) any great population, the inhabitants 

the wliol(! country betw ecn DowJeta- probably not exceeiling two niiilions, 

bad and Orissa, the eastern part of of which number not more than onc- 

which v\ as certainly not rednced by, tenth arc Mahonnnedans, tiie roit 

and probably not known to the Em- being Hindoos of the Rrahminical 

peror Acber. Nagpoor has generally sect. A singular practice prevails 

beeii supposed to be the capital of :imong tlie lowest tribes of the i)i- 

lierar; but this is a mistake, as it is habitants of Rerar and Gundwana. 



142 



BETAISOR. 



Suicide is not unl'requently vowed 
by such persons in return for boons, 
solicited from idols. To fulfil bis 
vow, the successful votary throws 
himself from a precipice called Ca- 
iabhairava. situated iu the mountains 
between Tuptee and Xerbuddah ri- 
vers. The annual fair held near 
that spot, at the bcsiuning: of each 
spring, usually witnesses eight or 
10 victims of this superstition. 

Among the states which arose out 
of the ruins of the Bharaenee sove- 
reigns of the Deccan, A. D, 1510, 
one consisted of the southern part of 
Berar, named the Ummad Shahy 
dMiasty. It was so called from the 
founder Ummad ul Moolk, ar.d last- 
ed only through four generations. 
The last Prince Boirahan Ummad 
Shah, Mas only nominal sovereign; 
the power being usurped by his mi- 
nister Tuffal Khan. He was re- 
duced by Motiza Nizam Shah, who 
added Berar to the other dominions 
of Ahmcdnuggur in 1574, and along 
with the latter sovereignty Berar 
fell under the Mogul domination, to- 
wards the end of the 17th centurj, 
(Abul Fazel, Rennel, Ferishta, C'olc- 
krooke, Leckie, 5th Register, S,-c.) 

B ERKNG, ( Varanga) — A small cen- 
tral distinct in the province of Cash- 
mere, situated about 34°. 30'. N. 
The chief town is of the same name. 

Beheng. — A town in the province 
»f Cashmere, 37 miles E. of the city 
of Cashmere. Lat. 34° 18'. N. 
Long. 74°. 23'. E. Near this town 
is a long strait in a mountain, in 
which there is a reservoir of v\ ater 
seven ells square, which the Hin- 
doos consider as a place of great 
sanctity. (Abid Fazel, §-c.) 

BERNAGHUR,(Fm(ffg-flr.) — A small 
town in the province of Bengal, dis- 
trict of Baujshy, five miles N. from 
Moorshedabad. Lat. 24°. 16'. N. 
Long. 88°. 13'. E. 

Bernaver. — A smnll tovni in ilie 
province of Delhi, formerly compre- 
liended in the district of Sumroo 
Begum, 35 miles N. N. E. from the 
eity of Delbi. Lat. 29*. 10'. N. 
Long. 77° 19'. E. 



Besouki. — A large village in the 
north-eastern quarter of the Island 
of Java, situated about three leagues 
from the coast. Lat. 7°. 45'. N. 
Long. 113°. 50'. E. The surround- 
ing country is an immense plain 
of rice fields interspersed with 
thickets. The village of Besouki is 
the capital of a small Malay princi- 
pality ; the chief, or tomogon, of 
whicli, in 1804, was of a superior 
description as a native, possessing 
some knowledge of mathematics and 
physics, although of Chinese origin. 
His palace is built of large white 
stones, in the European manner, 
Jiaving;n front an extensive court, 
with a wooden gate. (Tomhe, Sfc.^ 

Besseek. — A distri-t in Nortjiern 
Hindostan, situated about the 32d 
degree of north latitude. It is in- 
tersected by the Jumna, and bound- 
ed on the east hy the Ganges, with 
the province of Lahore on the west. 
It has been but little explored, ex- 
cept by the Goorkhali armies, it 
being tributary to the Nepaid go- 
vernment. 

Bessklv Ghaut, (Bisavali-ghat). 
— A pass through the v^estern range 
of mountains, leading from the Mj^« 
sore into the maritime province of 
Canara. This road has been formed 
with great labour out of a bed of 
loose rock, over which the tonents 
run during the rains with such force, 
as to wash away all the softer parts ; 
and, in many parts, leaving single 
rocks four or five feet in diameter, 
standing in the centre of the road, 
not al)ovc two feet asunder. Th# 
trees in the vicinity are of an enor- 
mous size, several of them being 
100 feet in the stem, without a 
branch to that height. The descent 
is very steep, yet it is often travelled 
at night by torch light, which has a 
very grand effect among the trees 
and precipices. By this pass nume- 
rous flocks of oxen descend to the 
sea coast with grain, and return with 
salt. (L&rd Valentia, Sc.) 

Betaisor. — A town in the pro-, 
vinee of Agra, situated on the S. W, 
side of Uie Jumua, 37 miles S. S. £. 



BEZOARA. 



143 



from Apra. Lat. 26®. 58'. N. Long. 
78°. 2S'. E. 

Bettiah, (B/iattia, named also 
Cimmparun). — A district in the pro- 
vince of Bahar, situated fjctween 
the 27th and 28th degrees of north 
latitude. It is bounded on the north 
by the Terriani, on the cast hy Moc- 
wanny and Tirhoot, and on the west 
by the River Gimduck. This district 
was not completely subdued until 
the acquisition of the dewanny by 
the Company, v.hen it ^yas annexed 
to Chumparun ; and, together, they 
contain, iii their greatest extent, 
2.546 square miles. 

The chief towns are Bettiah and 
Boggah, and the principal river the 
Gunduck; on the banks of which, 
and indeed all over the district, large 
timber trees for ship building arc 
procured, and firs fit for masts. In 
cultivation and manufactures it is 
much inferior to the more central 
districts of Bahar, a considerable 
proportion of the counUy still re- 
maining coveicd with primeval fo- 
rests, (J. Grant, Verelst, ^c.) 

Bettiah. — A town in the pro- 
yincc of Bahar, district of Bettiah, 
90 miles N. N. W. from Patna. Lat. 
26°. 47'. N. Long. 84°. 40'. E. 

Bettooriah, {Bhitoria). — A dis- 
trict ia the province of Bengal, si- 
tuated principally betwixt the 24tli 
and 25th degrees of north latitude, 
and now comprehended, with its ca- 
jiital Nattore, in the laiger division 
of Raujeshy. The principal river is 
the Ganges, but it is cut and inter- 
sected, in all directions, by smaller 
rivers, miHahs, and water courses; 
and ha.s, besides, large internal jeels 
or lakes, which, in the height of the 
rains, join and form one vast sheet 
of water, interspersed with trees and 
villages built on artificial raoimds. 
It is fertile, and well adapted for the 
rioe cultivation, of which grain it 
produces, and exports large quanti- 
ties. A. D, 1386, Rajah Causa, the 
Hindoo zemindar of tliis district, re- 
"belled against Shums ud Decn, the 
sovereign of Bengal, who was de- 
feated and slaiu> Od tlus event Ra^ 



jah Cansa ascended the vacant 
throne, which, after a reigu of seven 
years, he transmitted to his .son 
Chcetmul, who became a Mahom- 
mcdan, and reigned under the name 
ol Sultan Jcllal ud Doen. 

Betwah, (Vttava). — This river, 
from its source soutli of Bopal in 
the province of Malwah, to its con- 
tluence with the Junma below Cal- 
pee, describes a course of ,340 miles 
in a north-easterly diiection. Near 
the town of Barwali, ia (iie month 
of March, it is about three furlongs 
broad, sandy, and full of round 
stones, and the -water only knee 
deep; but, dnringthe rains, it swells 
to such a height as to be impassable. 
{Hunter, 4t.) 

Beyah, {Vipasa). — ^This riverrises 
in the province of Lahore, near the 
moTUitains of Cashmere, and not far 
from the source of the Sutulcje, 
v^ Inch it afterwards joins, i'or tlie 
first 200 miles its course is due 
south, after w hich it pursues a west- 
erly direction. The whole length of 
its present journey maybe estimated 
at 350 miles ; it appears, however, 
that it formerly fell iuto the Sutuleje, 
much below the place w here they 
now meet, there being still a small 
canal, called the Old Bed of the 
Beyali, Abul Fazel writes, that the 
source of the Beyah, named Abya- 
koond, is in the mountains of Keloo, 
in the pergunnah of Sultanpoor. 

This is the fourth river of the 
Punjab, and is the Hyphasis of 
Alexander, after its junction with 
the Sutuleje, about the middle of its 
course. In 1805 Lord Lake pur- 
sued Jeswunt Row Holkar to the 
banks of this river, where he at last 
sued for peace. {Rennel, Makobn, 
Abul Fazel, .^x.) 

Beyhar, (Vihar). — A town in 
the province of Bengal, district of 
Coos Beyhar, situated on the cast 
side of the Toresha River. Lat. 26°. 
18'. N. Long. 89°. 22'. E, 

Beykaneer. — See BiCANEnE, 

Bezoara, {Bijora.) — A town ia 
the Northern Circars, district of 
Condapilly, situated ua the east bank 



144 



BHADEINATH. 



of the Krishna river. Lat. 16°. 32'. 

N. Loiin:. 80° 2?', N. 

BilADlUNATH, {Vadarinatha.) — A 
town and tenijile in Norllicrji IJiti- 
dostan, iii the province of Scrinagnr, 
siUialed on tlie west bank of the 
Alncananda River, in tlie centre of a 
valley, abo'it four miles in length, 
and one niiie in its greatest lj)eadth. 
Lat. 311°. 43', \. Lonff. 7i;°. 38'. E. 

Tliis town is bnilt on the sloping 
bank of the river, and contains only 
20 or 30 hnts, for the acconimodatiou 
of the Jirahinins and otlier attend- 
ants on the temple. The strnctnre 
of this editice is by no means answer- 
able to the reputed sanctity of tlie 
place ; for the support of which large 
sums are aiurnally rceived, inde- 
pendent of the land revenue appro- 
priated for its maintenance. It is 
built in the form of a cone, with a 
small cupola, suiinounted by a square 
.shelving roof of copper, over which 
is a golden ball (gilt) and spire. The 
height of the building is 4t» or 50 feet, 
and the era of its foundation too re- 
mote to have reached us even by 
tradition; it is, consequently, sup- 
posed to be the work of some sujje- 
rior being. This specimen of Hin- 
doo divine architecture, however, 
Avas too weak to resist the shock of 
the last earthquake, vvhicli left it in 
so tottering a condition, that human 
efforts were judged expedient to 
preserve it from ruin. 

Here is a w;n la bath, supplied by 
a spring of hot water that issues from 
the mountain, with a thick steam 
strongly tainted with a sid|)hureous 
smell. Close to it is a cold si)ring. 
B*»sides these there are numerous 
other springs, having their pecidiar 
names and virtues, which are turned 
to a good account by the Bralnnins. 
In going th<^ round of purilicalion, 
the poor jiilgrim finds his purse 
lesson as Ijis sins decrease; and the 
numerous tolls that arc levied on 
this higli road to paradise, may in- 
duce him to think that thestraightest 
path is not the cheapest. 

'I'he principal idol, Jlhadrinath, is 
about three feet high, cut in black 



stone or marble, dressed in a suit of 
gold and silver brocade, the head 
and hands oidy being uncovered. 
His temple has more beneficed lands 
arlached to it than any sacred Hin- 
doo establishment in this part of In- 
dia. If is said to possess 700 vil- 
lages, situated in different parts of 
Gerwal or Kemaoon, Avliich are all 
under the jurisdiction of the high 
l)riest, who holds a paramount au- 
thority, nominally independent of the 
ruling power. 

The selection for tlie office of high 
priest is confined to the casts of Dec- 
cany Brahmins, of the Chauli or 
Namburi tribes. In former times 
the situation was a permanent one; 
but since the Nepaulese conquest, 
the pontificate is put up fo sale, and 
disposed of to the highest bidder. 
— ^"riie territorial revenue probably 
forms the least part of the riches of 
this establishment; for ev^ry person 
who pays his homage to 'he (leity is 
expected fo make otlerings in pro- 
]iortion to his means. In return for 
these oblations, each person receives 
what is called a ])resad, which con- 
sists of a liffle boiled rice, whicli is 
distributed with a due regard to th» 
amoimt of the oflei ir.gs. 

A large establishment of servants 
of every descripfion is kept up; and, 
during the months of |)ilgrimmage, 
the deity is well clothed, and fines 
sumjifuously ; but, as soon as the 
winter connnenccs, the priests take 
fhcir de|)arfure, until the periodical 
letniii of the holy season. The trea- 
sures and valuable utensils are bu- 
ried in a vault under th»! fenjple, 
which was once robbed by a few 
mountaineers, who were afterwards 
discovered, and put fo death. The 
III ahminsv\ ho reside here are chiefly 
from the Deccan, and do not colo- 
nise. 

'i'he number of pilgrims wlio visit 
Bhadrin;:th annually is estimated at 
50,000, the greater part being fakirs 
(devotees), who come fioin (he re- 
motest quarters of India. All these 
people assemble at tiurdwar, and, 
us soon as the fair is concluded, 



BIUTTIA. 



145 



♦ake their departure for the holy 
land. 

( )u tlie 29th of May, 1808, masses 
of snow, about 70 feet thick, still re- 
mained undissolved on the ruad to 
liliadi inath ; and the tops of (he high 
nunnitains were covered with snow, 
which remains congealed through- 
out the whole year. (Raper, cSr. J 

Bh AG MUTTY, {Bhugumuti). — Tlie 
mountain of Sheopoori, near Cat- 
mandoo, bordering tlie Nepaid val- 
ley, gives rise to the Bhagniutty and 
Bishenmutty rivers. The .sources of 
the first (which also bears the name 
of Brimha Sera.ssuti) are situated or 
the north .side of the mountain, round 
the east foot of which the river 
v\ inds, and enters the valley of Ne- 
paul. A short distance below Cat- 
mandoo, the Bishenmutty joins it, 
and loses its name. The cour.se of 
the Bliagmutty from thence, until it 
pa.sses Hiiirecpoor, is imknown ; it 
afterwards continues its course to 
ISIunniary, where it cnterit. the Com- 
pany's territories, and falls into the 
(ianges a few miles below Monghir. 
Its course, including the windings, 
may be estimated at 400 mile.s. 

'i'his river is navigable dining the 
rains for boats of all burthens, as 
liigh a.s Seriva in the Nepaul tenittv 
ries, and probably much further up. 
{Kirhpatrick, •^•c.) 

BHAGwr'NTGiR. — A rajpoot vil- 
lage, in the province of Ajmcer, 
dei)eudent ou the district of Ban- 
taiiipoor, with a small fort or watch- 
house on tlie top of the hill, 65 miles 
..S.S. E. from JvonaKur. Lat, 26°. 
7'. N. Long. 7(j°. 12'. £. 
. Bhajepocr, (Bajpur). — A town 
Su the jnovince of Oude, district of 
Baieily, 107 miles N.from Lucknow. 
Lat. 26°. 3'. N. Long. 8U° 58'. E. 

Bhareh, or Bharragharry. — A 
■town in Northern fliudostan, in the 
dominions of Nepaul, which, although 
the ordinary residence of the Soubah 
of the AVestcrn Turrye, is a mean 
place, coutainiug only fioin 30 to 40 
.huts. Lat. 26°. 50'. N. Long. 85°. 
.25'. E. 'Ihe fort is not more re- 
spectable than the town; nor would 



the governor's habitation attract no- 
tice any wher<> else, alllioiigh built 
of well-burne-1 bricks and tiles. 

The situation of Bhareh is very 
unhealthy ; and Capt. Kinloch's de- 
tachment, N^hich remained here tor 
some time after the unfortunate at- 
tempt in 17G9 to penetrate into Ne- 
paul, suffered greatly from the jiesti- 
lenlial etl'ect of the climate. (An7i- 
patrick, i^c.) 

Bhatgan, or Bhatgon'g. — A town 
in Northern llindostan, situated in 
the valley of Nepaul. Lat. 27°. 32'. 
N. Long. 85°. 45'. E. 

Bhatgong lies east by south of 
Catmandoo, distant nearly eight 
road miles. Its ancient name was 
Dhu.'iuaputten, and it is called by 
the Newars Khopodaise, who de- 
scribe it as resembling the dumbroo, 
or guitar of Mahadeva. This towu 
is the favourite residence of the 
Brahmins of Nepaul, containing 
many more families of that order 
than Catmandoo and Patn together; 
all those of the khetri cast (military) 
flocking to the capital, while Patu is 
chiefly inhabited by Newars, 

In size it is the most considerable of 
the three, being rated only at 12,000 
houses ; yet its palace, and the build- 
ings in general, are of a more striking 
ajipcarancc, owing chiefly to the ex- 
cellent quality of the bricks, which 
are the best in Nepaul — a country 
remarkable for the superiority of its 
bricks and tiles. The former sove- 
reigns of this state possessed the 
smallest share of the valley; but 
their dominions extended a consi- 
derable way eastward to the banks 
of the Coosey. Bhatgong is the 
Benares of the Ghoorkhali domi- 
nions, and is said to contain many 
valuable ancient sanserif mauu- 
scripts. {Kirhpatrick, kc.) 

Bhatgoxg. — See Bhatgan. 

Bhattia. — A town in the v.'estcrn, 
extremity of the Gujrat Peninsula, 
situated a few miles to the east of 
Oak a. 

This place contains about 500 
houses, chiefly inhabited by Ahcers, 
au industrious aad uaeful class of tine 



140 



BHORSET. 



peasantry, originally herdsmen, but 
who of late years liave applied them- 
selves to the enhivation of land. — 
The country to the north of Bhaltia 
exhibits an appearance of cultivation 
and prosperity superior in general to 
the rest of the peninsula. The grain 
chicily raised is bajeree. {31'3Iurdo, 
$-c.) 

Bhavani FivEn. — A river in the 
Coinibetoor province, which flows 
past the town of Sathuuugalum, and 
afterwards joins the Cavery at Bha- 
wani Kudal. 

Bhawam Kudal. — An old ruin- 
ous fort in tlie Coitnbetoor distiict, 
.situated at the junction of the Bha- 
wani with the Cavery. Lat. 11°. 
25'. N. Long. 77°. 47'. E. 

Tliis place contains two celebrated 
temples ; the ojic dedicated to Vish- 
nu, and the other to Siva, and was 
built by a polygar, named Guttimo- 
daly, who held all the neighbouring 
countries as a feudatory under the 
rajahs of Madura. At that period 
the dominions of the latter, including 
Saliem, Treehinopoly, and all the 
country south of Sholia or Tanjore, 
were called by the general title of 
Angaraca, and comprehended the 
two countries of Chera and Pan- 
dava. 

AtApogadal, 10 miles from this 
place, a sandy loam is reckoned most 
favourable for the cultivation of rice ; 
and, according to its four qualities, 
lets for 41. 2.s., 31. 12s., and 31. 4s. 
per acre. Inferior soils let so low 
as 18s. per acre. {F. Buchanan, §*c.) 
Bheels, {Bhailu). — A savage 
tribe, scattered over Hindostan Pro- 
per and the nortli of the Deccan, 
particularly along the course of the 
Nerbadilah River. They are a jungle 
people, and in a state of great barba- 
rity. I'hcy arc used by the Maharat- 
tas as guides, and travel with a bow 
and aiTovvs, subsisting by rapine and 
plunder. The Bheels are supposed 
to have been the aborigines of Guj- 
ral an<l t!i?; adjacent quarters of Hin- 
dustan, in common with the Coolees. 
The lirst now inhabit the interior, 
niid live ou what tlicy can prociue 



by hunting and thieving ; the latter 
are generally found in the western 
districts of Gujrat, and along the sea 
shores, where they employ them- 
selves in fishing and piracy. 

'Jlie whole range of mountains 
from Songiiur (a frontier town be- 
longing to the Guikar), to its south 
limits, is in the possession of th« 
Bheels. (7o?(e and 6th Register.) 

Bhehera (Fi/tffr) River, — A river 
of the Punjab, or province of Lahore, 
which has its source in the hills to- 
wards the frontiers of Cashmere, 
from whence it Hows in a south- 
westerly direction, and afterwards 
joins the Jhylum, or Hydaspc* 
Kiver. 

Bhehera. — A town in the Seik 
territories, in the Lahore, situated 
on the west side of the Bhehera, or 
Bhember Biver, 98 miles W. by N. 
from Lahore. Lat. 32°. 2'. N. Long. 
72°. 11'. N. 

BHEiL,orBHALSA. — A small town 
in the province of Lahore, 65 miles 
N. by A¥. from MooItaQ. Lat. 31®. 
29'. N. Long.71°. 2'. E. 

Bhey. — A small village in ths 
Gujrat Peninsula, situated on the 
Run, about 15 miles from the fort- 
ress of Mallia. It consists of a few 
houses, principally inhabited by Go- 
sains, with several large and appa- 
rently ancient tanks in the vicinity. 
The soil here is rich, deep, and 
marshy. {M'Murdo, ^c.) 

Bhind. — A town in the province 
of Agra, district of Bahdoriah, 30 
miles E. N. E. from Gohud. Lat. 
36°. 34'. N. Long. 78°. 47'. E.— 
This place was guaranteed to the 
Rannah of Gohud in January 1804. 

Bhiroo. — A town in the Nizam's 
territories, in the province of Bi-rar, 
20 miles south of Chandah. Lat 
19°. 51'. N. Long. 80°. 5'. E. 

Bhon'Gaung. — A town in the pro- 
vince of Agra, district of I'.laweh, 
65 miles E. from Agia. Lat. 27®. 
15'. N. Long. 79°. 7'. E. 

Bhorset. — A town ia the pro- 
vince of Gujrat, district of Broach, 
20 miles E. from Cambay. Lat, 
22°. 21'. N. Lonff. 73°. 5', £. 



BHURTPOOR. 



147 



Bhowanny. — A town and fortress 
in the iirovince of Delhi, district of 
Hunianah, taken by assault by th.e 
British forces on thc"29th Sept. 1809, 
after a most obstinate resistance. 

Bhurtpoor, {Bhuratapura). — A 
town in the province of Ao^ra, 28 
miles W. N. W. from the city of 
Agra. Lat. 27°. 13'. N. Long. 770^ 
28'. E. 

The Rajah of Bhnrtpoor is one of 
the principal chieftains of the tribe 
of J ants, and possesses a conside- 
rable territory and several forts in 
tlie vicinity of Agra and IMathura, 
on the south-west or right bank of 
the Jumna, 

The tribe of Jauts for the first time 
attracted notice in Hindostan about 
the year 1700, when having migrated 
from the banks of the Indus, in the 
lower part of the province of Mool- 
tan, they were allowed to settle in 
the avocations of husbandly in seve- 
ral parts of the Doab of the Ganges 
and Jumna. ^ Their subsecinent pro- 
gress was uncommonly rapid; and 
during the civil wars, carried on by 
the successors of Aurengzebe, the 
Jauts found means to secure them- 
selves a large portion of country, in 
which they built forts, and accumu- 
lated great wealth. The title of rajah 
is a Hindoo distinction, which some 
of them have assumed ; but to which 
they have no more real right, than 
their ancestors had to the contents 
of the imperial caravans, Avhich they 
were in the habit of plundering. 

During Anrengzebe's last march 
towards the Deccan, Churanum, the 
Jaut, pillaged the baggage of the 
army, and with part of the spoil 
erected the fortress of Bhurtpoor. 
Sooraj Mull, one of his successors, 
new modelled tJie government, and 
"Was afterwards killed in battle with 
Nudjifl' Khan, A. D. 1763. He was 
succeeded by his son, Jewar Singh, 
■who was secretly nnudered in 1768. 
At this period the Jaut territories 
extended from Agra to within a few 
miles of Delhi on the west, and to 
near Etaweh on the east. They 
also possessed a, tiact of land south 

L 2 



of the Jumna ; and, bp<;iclos places 
of inferior strength, h;ul three forts, 
which were then deemed impreg- 
nable. About 1780, Nudjifl' Rhaii 
subdued great part of the Jaut coun- 
try, and left the rajah little besides 
Bhurtjioor, and a small district of 
about seven lacks of rupees per ann. 
On the death of Jewar Singh, in 
1768, his brother, Ruttun Singh, as- 
cended the throne ; and, being also 
assassinated, was succeeded by his 
brother, Kairy Singli. On the death 
of this chief, his son, Runjeet Singh, 
assumed the sovereignty, in posses- 
sion of which he still continues. — 
When Madajec Sindia first under- 
took the conquest of Hindostan Pro- 
per, he experienced essential assist- 
ance from Runjeet Singh, who, on 
tliis account, was treated with great 
comparative lenity by the Maha- 
rattas. 

In September, 1803, a treaty of 
perpetual friendship was concluded 
by General I^ake, on the part of tli« 
British government, with Ra,jah Run- 
jeet Singh, of Bhurtpoor, by which 
the friends and enemies of the one 
state were to be considered th» 
friends and enemies of the other; 
and the British government engaged 
never to interfere in the concerns of 
the rajah's country, or demand tri- 
bute from him. I'he rajah, on the 
other hand, engaged, that if an eno- 
my invaded the British territories, 
lie Mould assist with his forces to 
compel his expulsion ; and, in like 
manner, the British government un- 
dertook to assist the Bhintpoor ra- 
jah in defending his dominions 
against external attacks. 

Notwithstanding this ti'eaty, con- 
cluded in the most solenm manner, 
and with all the customary formali- 
ties, in 1805, the rajah most nnac-» 
countably embraced the declining 
cause of Jeswant Row Holkar, re- 
peatedly discomfited by Lord Lake, 
and admitted him with the shattered 
remains of his army into the fortress 
of Bhnrtpoor. The consequence 
was, a siege commenced, which will 
be memorable in the annals of ladia^ 



148 



BICANF.RE. 



for the sanguinary obstinacy both of 
the attack and (Id'cnce. The i^nr- 
rison repulsed Avitli vast shur^hter 
tiie most desperate assaults of the 
besicoers, who, from the I)readth and 
deepness of the wet ditch, never 
could get in sufficient numbers to 
close (jnarters, although afew, halt- 
swimmiiip;, half wading, did reach 
and ascend tiie ramparts, but only 
to be tuu)l)led hack into the ditch, 
in the course of this siege the ]jri- 
tisli sustained a greater loss of men 
and olTicers, than they liad suiTercd 
in any tlirec of the greatest pitched 
battles they had fought in India ; 
but the rajah perceiving that the 
British perseverance must ultimately 
j)revail, sued tijr peace, sent his son 
to Lord Lake's camp A^ith the keys 
of the fortress, and agreed to compel 
Holkar to quit Bhurtpoor. 

Ou tlie 17th of April, 1805, the 
siege being thus conchided, a second 
treaty was arranged, by which the 
former conditions of friendsliip A\ere 
renewed, but with stipulations cal- 
culated to ensure a stricter jierforin- 
aucc of them on tlie part of the ra- 
jali, who agreed, that, as a security, 
one of his sons should constantly 
remain with the ofhccr connnanding 
the British forces in Upper Hindos- 
tan, until such time as the British 
government should be perfectly sa- 
tislicd in regard to the rajah's fide- 
lity ; upon the estabhslmicnt of 
[ Avhich they agreed to restore to him 
. the foi-tress of Dccg. 

In consideration of the peac'c 
granted, the rajah bound himself to 
pay tiic British government 20 lacks 
of rupees, live to be paid innnedi- 
ately, and the remainder by instal- 
ments. In consequence of the pa- 
cilication, the country before pos- 
sessed Ity the rajah was restored to 
liim, and he engaged to assist the 
Biitish against all invaders, and not 
to receive any Europeans into his 
service. As by the second article 
of t!ie treaty the Britisli government 
became guiuantcc to tlic rajah for 
tin' security of his country against 
"•xtcrnal tucmies, it was agreed, that 



in case a misunderstanding afose 
between him and any other chief, he 
would, in the first instance, submit 
the cause of dispute to the British 
government, v\hich would endea- 
vour to settle it amicaljly ; but if, 
from the obstinacy of the opposite 
party, this was unattainable, the ra- 
jah was authorized to demand aid 
from the British government. 

The extent of the rajah's territo- 
ries has never been accurately defin- 
ed, but they contain no town of con- 
sequence besides Bhurtpoor, Biana, 
and Deeg, wliich last was restored 
to him. At present he apjjears to 
be cordially attached to the British 
government, and really sensible of 
the important protection aifordert 
him by the treaties suhsisting with 
that state ; as a proof of which, h« 
permitted, and even invited, the 
Biitish officer Mho was surveying 
that p;nt of Hindostan, in 180(i, to 
survey his territories also. {Marquis 
WcUcxIcif, Hunter, Franklin, Craiv- 
furrl^ treaties, 3ISS. vVr.) 

BiAN'A, (Bi/ana). — A town in the 
province of Agra, 44 miles W. S. W. 
from the citv of Aa,Ta. Lat. 2G°. 5G'. 
N. Long. 7/°. 1()Ce. 

This town preceded Agia a.s tlio 
capital of the province, as we learn 
from Abul Fazel that Sidtan Seeuu- 
der liodi made it his metropolis, and 
kept ids comt here, while Agra was 
a village dependent on it. It was 
first concjuered by the IMahomme- 
dans in 1197. Biana is still con- 
siderable, and contains niany large 
stone houses, and the whole ridge 
of the Iiill is covered with the re- 
mains of buildings, among which is 
a fort, containing a high |>illar, con- 
spicuous at a great distance. lu 
1700 the town and district belonged 
to Banjeet Singli, the Itajah of 
Bhurtpoor, and with him it probably 
still remains. {Abul Fazel, Hunter, 

BiCANERE, (Bicamr). — A large 
district in the province of Ajineor, 
situated about the 29th degree of 
north latitude. It is bounded on the 
iiorth bj the country of the Battles, 



EIJANAGUR. 



149 



wrst by the dcswt, S. W. by Jcssel- 
nieip, south by Joudpoor, S. E. by 
.?«'yi)oor, and east by tlie district of 
IJiiiTianah. 

Tfie country is elevated, and the 
soil a liglit brown sand, from the 
nature of \vliicli the rain is al^sorbed 
as soon as it falls, ^^"ells aie, con- 
sequently, of absolute necessity, 
and are made of brick, generally 
from 100 to 200 feet deep. Ivdch 
family has, besides, a cistern for the 
collection of rain water. A\ itli the 
exception of a few villages towards 
the eastern frontier, the cultivation 
of Bicanere is precarious ; bejurah, 
and other species of Indian pulse, 
being the only produce, the inhabi- 
tants depending greatly on the neigh- 
bouring provinces for a supply of 
provisions. Horses and bullocks, of 
an inferior breed, are raised, and arc 
nearly the sole export. 

This district imports coarse and 
fine rice, sugar, opium, and indigo. 
The former articles are l)rought from 
Ijahorc by Rajghur and Churoo. 
Salt is procured from Sambher, and 
wheat from the Jeypoor country ; 
s])ices, copper, and coarse clotlj, from 
Jesschncre. The chief place of 
strength is the city of Bicanere. 
Churoo, Raugeham, and Bahudra, 
arc reckoned strong places by the 
jiatives, but they are ill supplied 
■with water. The country being an 
extensive level plain, contains few 
natural strong holds, or fortified 
jdaccs. To cross the Desert of Bica- 
nere requires a march of 1 1 days. 

ITie country is governed by the 
Rhatore Rajpoots, but the cultiva- 
tors are mo^tIy Jants. In 1582, this 
district was desci i!)ed by Abul i'azel 
as follows : " Sircar Reykanecr, con- 
taining 1 1 mahals, revemic 4,750,000 
dams. This sircar furnishes 1200 
cavalry, and 50,000 infantry." {17to- 
iiuis, Franklin, SfC.) 

BiCANERi:. — A. town in the pro- 
vin(!e of Ajmeer, the capital of a 
district of the same name, 220 miles 
W. by N. horn Delhi. 

This city is spacious, well built, 
and siuToundcd bj a wail of CoiUv.er. 



On the south Mest side is the fort, 
where the rajah resi<les. It is a place 
of considerable strength, built in the 
Indian style, and encompassed by a 
broad and deep ditch ; but the chief 
security of both tlie city and fort,, 
arises from the scarcity of water in 
the sunounding country. 

In the service of the Bicanere 
Rajah are several Europeans of dif- 
ferent nations, who reside within the 
fort. The Battles nnd this rajah are 
generally in a state of hostility ; and, 
in Nov. Ibi08, the city and fort were 
blockaded by the ]?!ijah of Joudpoor 
and his allies, {Thomas, llth Re- 
gister, (^-c.) 

BicKUT. — A town tributarj' to the 
Mahardttas, in the province of Agra, 
district of Narwar, 40 miles east 
from the city of Narwar. Lat. 25°. 
43'. N. Long. 78°. 52'. E. 

BlDZFEGL'R, (Vijai/agliar). — A 
town in the province of Allaliabad, 
district of Chnnar. Lat. 21°. 37'. 
N. Long. 83°. 10'. E. 

The fort is a circumvallation of a 
rocky hill, measniiug from the im- 
mediate base to the sinnmit about 
two miles. Its strength consists in 
the height and steepness of the hill, 
atid the unhealthy nature of the sur- 
rounding countiy. Three deep re- 
servoirs, excavated on the top of the 
liill, supplied the garrison with wa- 
ter. It was taken by the Brilisli 
forces in 1781, dining the revolt of 
Cheit Singh, and has ever since 
been neglected, and in ruins. 'JVa- 
velljng distance from Benares 56 
miles. {Foster, Rennel, ^r.) 

BijANAGUK, {Vidipiagar). — A city 
in the Balaghaut Ceded Tcnitorii.-s, 
in the south of India, now in ruins, 
but once the capital of a great Hin- 
doo empire. Lat. 15°. 14', N. Long. 
76°. 34'. i:. 

'i'he remains of this citj' are si- 
tuated on the south bank of the 
Toombuddra River, directly oppo- 
site to Annagoondy. On the north 
side of Comlapoor fort arc a great 
number of rugged hills, covered with 
pagodas. The city has been enclos- 
ed with strong stone walls on the 



150 



BIJORE. 



east side, and botvnded by the river 
6n the west, the circiimrerence of 
the whole appearing to be about 
eight miles. Betwixt the immense 
piles of rocks crowned with pagodas, 
several streets can be traced from 30 
to 45 yards wide, and there is one 
remains yet perfect. There are a 
number of streams flow through the 
ruins of the city, which is named by 
the natives on the spot AUpatna. 
The river at one place, at the ibot of 
these ruins, is only 1 6 yards \v ide, 
l^elow Avhich there lias been a stone 
bridge. Annagoondy, wliich was 
formerly only a part of the city, is 
now the Canarese name for the 
whole. 

The building of this metropolis 
was begun A. t). 1336, and finished 
in 1343, by Aka Hiirryhur, and Buc- 
ca Hurryhur, two brotlicrs, the for- 
mer of whom reigned until A. D. 
1350, and the latter until 1378. It 
was at first named Vidyanagara, the 
city of science, but was afterwards 
named Yijeyanagara, the city of 
victory. 

The Chola (Tanjore), the Chera, 
and the Pandian (Madura) dynasties 
were all conquered by Nursing Ra- 
jah, and Krishna Rajah of Bijanagur, 
in the period between 1490 and 
1515, The kingdom was then called 
Bisuagar, and Narsinga, in old Eu- 
ropean maps, and comprehended the 
whole Carnatic above and below the 
Ghauts ; when visiled by Caesar 
Frederic, who described the city as 
liaving a circuit of 24 miles, and 
containing withjn its walls many hills 
and pagodas. 

A state of incessant hostility sub^ 
sisted between the Mahommedan 
sovereigns of the Deccan, and this 
Hindoo principality ; notwithstand- 
ing which we learn from Ferishla, 
that Rajah Deo Ray, of Bijanagur, 
about 1440, received Mahommedaus 
into his service, and erected a mos- 
que for them in his capital, com- 
manding that no person should mo- 
lest them in the exercise of their re- 
ligion. He had 2000 soldiers of this 
xciigion in his army, fighting against 



the Bliamenee Mahommedan princes 
of the Deccan. At that era they 
were reckoned more expert bowmen 
than the Hindoos. 

In 1564 the four Mahommedan 
Deccany Kings of Ahmednuggur, 
Bejapoor, Goleonda, and Beeder, 
combined, and totally defeated Ram 
Rajah, the sovereign of Bijanagur, 
on the plains ofTellicotta, and after- 
wards marched to the metropolis, 
which they plundered and sacked, 
I'he city was depopulated by the 
consequence of this victory, and de-p- 
sorted by the successor of Ram Ra- 
jah, who endeavoured to re-establish 
at Pcnnaconda, the ruins of a once, 
powerful dynasty. About 1663 the 
Sree Rung Rayeel, or Royal House 
of Bijanagur, appears to have be- 
come extinct, as we hear no more of 
it after that period. For the history 
of the nominal rajahs who followed, 
see the article Annagoondy. The 
latter are said for many years to 
have kept an exact register of the 
revolutions in the Deccan and south 
of India, in the vain hope of being, 
by some future turn of the wheel, 
reinstated in their ancient rights. 
Travelling distance from Madras, 
386,' from Seringapatam, 260, from 
Calcutta, 1120, fiom Delhi, 1106, 
and from Hyderabad, 264 miles. 
{Wilks, Rennel, Fcrishta, Scott, Sfc.) 

BuEYGUB. — A town and fort in 
the province of Agia, district of Fm- 
ruckabad, 45 miles N. N. E. from 
Agra, Lat. 27°. 47'. N. Long. 78°. 
11'. E. It was taken, in 1803, by 
the British forces, after considerable 
resistance by the zemindar, 

BuoRE, {Bajatver). — A small Af- 
ghan district in the province of Ca- 
bul, situated about the 34th degree 
of north latitude, and coinp'chend- 
ed within the division of Sewad. 
Abul Fazel, in 1582, describes it as 
follows : 

'- Bijore is in length 25, and in 
breadth from five to 10 coss. On 
the east lies Sewa<l, on the north 
Kinorc and Cashghur, on the south 
Bicliram, and on the west Guznoor- 
gul. The iur of this district re» 



EINDRABUND. 



15t 



seinWes that of Sc^vad, exccptincf 
Uiat tlie heat and cold are rather 
»nore severely felt here. It has only 
three roads; one leading to Hindos- 
tan, called Danishcote, and two that 
go to Cabul ; one of which is named 
Summej, and tlie other Guznoorgul. 
Danislicote is the best road. Ad- 
joining to Bijore, and confined by 
tlie mountains of Caljul and Sinde, 
is a desert, nieasnring in length 30 
coss, and in breadth 25 coss." 

'J'his distiict contains eight exten- 
sive vallies, of which Rod is the 
largest. It is only partially possessed 
by the Yusefzei tribe, many portions 
being occupied by the jMohniand, 
.SaJii, Shinwari, and Turcalani tribes. 
{Abitl FcLzel, Lejiden, ir.) 

BiJORE. — An Aigliaa town in the 
province of Cabui, tlie capital of a 
district of the same name, 55 miles 
west from the Indus. Lat. 34°, b'. 
N. Long. 70°. 43'. E. 

BiLAUAH. — ^A townin the Rajpoot 
tenitories, in the province of Aj- 
nieer, 52 miles E. by N. from (.)dev- 
poor. Lat. 25°. 50. N. Long. 74°. 
62'. E. 

BiLESUK, {Bilesnara). — A town 
in the dominions ol" the Maharattas, 
m the province of Bejapoor, 20 miles 
west from Satarah. Lat. 17°. 53'. 
N. Long. 73. 45'. E. 

BiLGY. — A town in the Bajah of 
Mysore's territories, 102 miles N.W. 
from Seringa])atam. Lat. 14°. 23'. 
N. Long. 74°. 53'. E. 

BiLLETON. — An island in the East- 
ern Seas, about the 3d degree of 
north latitude, situated betwixt Su- 
jnatra and Borneo. In length it may 
be estimated at 50 miles, by 45 the 
average breadth. Little is known 
respecting this island. 

BiLLouNJAH. — A small district in 
the province of Gundwana, bounded 
ou three sides by the British pro- 
vince of Bahar, and to the south by 
the district of Singhrowlah. The 
Soaiie, which is the northern boun- 
dary, is the principal river, and the 
chief town is Ontairee. It is pos- 
sessed by independent zemindars; 
but, although so ucar to the coun- 



tries being occupied by the British, 
very little is known respecting it. 

BiLSAH, {Bihesa).—A town be- 
longing to DowletrowSindia, in the 
province of JMalwah, situated on the 
Betwah Riven which takes its rise 
from a large tank near Bopal. Lat, 
23°. 33'. N. Long. 77°. 50'. E. 

The town, or fort of Bhilsali, is 
enclosed with a stone wall, furnished 
with square towers, and a ditch. 
The submbs without the walls are 
not very extensive, but the streets 
arc spacious, and contain some good 
houses. This place is situated nearly 
on the S. W. extremity of the dis- 
trict, where it is contignous to that 
of Bopal. The town and surround- 
ing country are celebrated all over 
India for the excellent quahty of the 
tobacco, Avhich is botight up with 
great eagerness and exported. 'J'he 
country is open, and well cultivated. 
To the east^\ ard of the town, at tlie 
distance of six furlongs, is a high 
and steep rock, on the top of whicli 
is a durgah, consecrated to the me- 
mory of a Mahommedan saint, nam- 
ed .Jelalud Dcen Bokhari. It was 
first conquered by the Mahonime- 
daus about 1230, and again in 1292. 

Travelling distance from Oojain, 
140 miles, from Nagpoor, 249, from 
Benares, 416, from Calcutta, by 
Mundlah, 867 miles. {Hunter, Fe- 
rista, Reiuiel, cS'c.) 

BiMA. — Sec SUMRHAWA. 

BiMLIPATAM, {BIdmalapaian). — A 
town in the Northern Circars, si- 
tuated on the Bay of Bengal, 12 
miles N. from Vizagapatam. Jvat, 
17°. 50', Long. 83°. 35'. E. The 
Dutch had formerly a fort here, the 
road before which was practicable 
from Dec. to Sept. In the adjacent 
country piece goods of various sorts 
are manufactured. 

BiNDRABUND, {Vrindavana). — A 
town in the province of Agra, near 
to Mathura, situated on the west 
side of the Jumna River, 35 miles 
j^'. by W. from Agra city. Lat. 27°. 
37'. N. Long. 77°. 38'. E. The name 
Vrindavana signifies a grdv*- of tuisi 
trees, and the place is famous as Vhs 



152 



BISNEE. 



scene of some of the youthful sports 
of Krishna, the favourite deity of 
the Kiudoos ; and, on that account, 
continues to be a place of piij^iiniage 
much resorted to. 

BiNDiKF.E. — A town in the pro- 
vince of Allahabad, 62 miles S. W. 
from Lnrkiiow. Lat. 26°. 3'. N. 
Long;. 80°. 34'. E. 

BiNDou.ui. — A town in the terri- 
tories of the INIaharattas, in the pro- 
Yince of Agra, 80 miles E. S. E. 
from Gnahor. Lat. 26°. 2'. N. Long. 
79°. 3 1'. E. 

BiNTAXG. — An island lying oil' the 
sonth-easiern extremity of tlie JMu- 
lay Peninsula, about the fa-st degree 
of novtii latitude. In length it may 
be estimated at 35 miles, by 18 the 
average breadth. The chief town 
is Rebio, or Rio, a port of consider- 
able trade. This island is surround- 
ed by niinibcrless small rocky isles 
and islets, which render the naviga- 
tion intricate and dangerous. 

BiRBOOM, {Vtrab/ttimi, the Land 
of Heroes). — A disti ict in the pro- 
A'ince of Bengal, situated about the 
24th degree of north latitude. To 
the nortii it is bounded by Monghir 
and Rajemal ; to the south by Biird-- 
■wan and Pachcte; to the east it has 
Banjishy ; and to the west rilonghir 
and Pachete. By Abul I ::zel it is 
named Madarun. In 1784 the su-. 
pcrficial extent comprehended 3,868 
.s'vjuarc miles, a considerable propor- 
tion of which is hilly, jiuigly, and 
bat thinly inhabited. The revenue 
was then 611,321 rupees. I'he Ad.ji 
is the chief navigable river, and this 
district is, on the whole, one of the 
worst ott' in the province, Mith re^ 
spect to water carriage. The agri^ 
culture and population are inferior 
to the more eastern parts of Bengal, 
and the principal maimfacturc is 
tliat species of calicoes named gur- 
ras. The chief towns are Surool, 
Sooro, and Nagore. 

]>irbooin is the largest Maliomme- 
dan zeinindary in Bengal, and was 
originally conferred on Assud UUah, 
lather of Budder ul Zemaun, of the 
Afjjhttu or Patau tiibe, who was al- 



lowed to settle here about the time' 
of Sliere Shah, for the political pur- 
pose of guarding the frontiers of the 
west against the incursions of the 
barbarous Hindoos of Jeharcund. 
A warHke iMahommedan militia 
were entertained as a standing army, 
with suitable territorial allotments 
under a principal landholder of the 
same faith. la some respects itcor- 
respo;)ded with the ancient military 
tiefs of Liirope, certain lands being 
exempted from rent, and appro- 
priatt J solely to the maintenance of 
troops. This privilege was resumed 
by Cossiui Ali in 1763, and is now 
still more uimccessary. 

In 1801, by the directions of the 
Marquis Wellesley, then governor- 
general, th(; board of lexeimc cir- 
culated various queries to the col- 
lectors of the diflerent districts ou 
statistical subjects. The result of 
their replies proved that the district 
of Birbhoom contained 700,000 in 
the proportion of one Mahommedan 
to 30 Hi)idoos, and that any lands 
advertised tor sale readily met witli 
purchasers. {J. Grant, Colebrooke, 

SfC.) 

Birch ££.■ — A town in the Maha- 
ralta territories, in the province of 
Khandesh. Lat. 21°. 20'. N. Long. 
74°. 47'. E. 

BiRHEMABAD, {Bralimahacl). — A 
small town in the province of Agra, 
10 miles N. W. from Kauoge. Lat. 
27°. 8'. N. Long. 79°. 41'. E. 

BiSANO, — A small island, about 
20 jniles in circumference, lying off 
the north-eastern extreniiiv of Ce- 
lebes. Lat. 2°. 5'. N. Long. 125° 
5'. E. 

BisEYPOOR,(F/.yK;«;?!<rfl'). — A town 
in the Nabob of Oude's territories,, 
in the province of Oude, situated on 
the east side of the Dew ah, or Clog-, 
grab River, 53 miles N. W, from 
Jbvzabad. Lat. 27°. 18'. N. Long. 
8i°. 33'. Ji. 

BiSNEi;, {Bi}iiee).-r-A. district in 
Assam, situated ou the south side of 
the Brahmapootra, and lying be- 
tween Goalparah (in Bengal) and 
Nagerbarya, To the south it is 



BISSUNPOOR. 



153 



bounded hy the GaiTOw mountains. 
The Rajah of Bisnee, besides the 
lands lie possesses within the Com- 
pany's i)roviuces, lias also tenitorics 
in tiie adjacent Bootan countrj'. The 
Chaantciiieu Kivcr, which passes 
Wandipoor in Bootan, flows along 
the flat surface of this distiiet into 
the Biahinapootia. {Wade, Turner, 
I2th Register, Src.) 

B I s s E N G u R ,( F/.v// mighar). — A town 
in the province of Bahar, district of 
Rainnnr. Lat. 23°. 6'. N. Long. 
85°. 56'. E. 

BisSENPRAAG, {Vislinvpmyagd). — 
A village in Northern Hindostan, 
situated at the junction of the Ala- 
cananda, with a river called the 
Dauli or Leti, in the province of 
Seriuauur. Lat. 30°. 36'. N. Long. 
79°. 39'. E. 

This place contains only two or 
three houses, and is not held in great 
veneration ; for, alliiough in point of 
magnitude, tliispra\aga may be con- 
sidered next to Devaprayaga, no 
particular ablutions are here enjoin- 
ed by the Shastras. The mountains 
to the northward on each side rise to 
a stupendous height, and nearly 
meet at their base, lea%ing only a 
passage of 40 or .50 feet tor the cur- 
rent of water, which is obstructed 
by large masses of rock. The Ala- 
cananda, above this confluence, is 
called the ^ isluui Ganga, from its 
flowiug near the feet of Vishnu at 
Bhadrinath. It comes from the 
north, and is in breadth from 25 to 
30 yards, with a rapid stream. The 
banks are stecj) and rocky, and the 
passage of the river is ellected on a 
platform about )i\ e feet broad, and 
extending from shore to shore. {Ra- 
per, l^T.) 

EissoLEE, (Visavali). — A district 
belonging to the Seiks. in the pro- 
vince of Lahore, extending along 
the north-west .side of the Ravey 
River, and situated between the 32d 
and 33d degrees of north latitude. 

Jroni Bcliasi)oor fertile vallies, 
though not wide, extend to Bissolee, 
where the country is covered with 
fcjj^h hills, \\ hich extend with little 



variation of the limits of Cashmere. 
The chief town is Bisselee, and the 
greater part of the district is n.sually 
tributai-)' to the Jamboe Rajah. 

Bissolee. — A town belonging to 
the Seiks, in the province of Lahore, 
73 miles N. E. frosn the city of La- 
hore. Lat. 32°. 22'. N. Long. 74° 
52'. E. This plaee stands on the 
N. W. side of the Ravey River, 
which is here 120 yards broad, when 
the waters are at the lowest, and 
very rapid. It is fortified, and com- 
mands the entrance to the northern 
hills. 

BissoLiE. — A town in the pro- 
vince of Delhi, district of Bariely, 
30 miles W. from Bariely. Lat. 28° 
20'. N. Long. 7«°. 50'. E. This was 
a flourishing place during the early 
periods of the Mogul empire, and 
afterwards under the Rohillahs. Se- 
veral of the family of the Rohillah 
founder, Ali Mahommed, are Vmried 
here. Jt is now very desolate, com- 
])ared with its former state. {Frank' 
lin, St.) 

BissuNPOOR, {Visfinupura). — A ze- 
mindarj , in the province of Bengal, 
now comprehended in the district of 
Burdwan, which, in 1784, according^ 
to Major Rennel, measured 1256 
square miles, and the revenue was 
3,86,707 current rupees. This zc- 
mindary appears to be one of the 
most ancient <states in the province; 
for, by an era peculiar to itself, it 
nmst have been in the possession of 
the present proprietor'sfamily through 
a course of 1099 years; during which 
period they were nearly independent, 
paying only a small tribute to the 
sovereign until 1715, during Jaflier 
Khan's administration, when the 
country was completely reduced. 
The zemindars are of a Rajpoot fa- 
mily, and possess a list of 56 succes- 
sive rajahs, who governed the coun- 
try in regular succession. (Davis, 
J. Grant, ^-c.) 

BissuNPOOR, (Vishnapoor). — A 
town in the province of Bengal, dis- 
trict of Burdwan, 77 miles N. W. 
from Calcutta. Lat. 23°. 4'. N. Long. 
87°- 35'. E. 



154 



BOBILEE. 



BiswAH, (Viswa), — A town in the 
Nabob of Oude's tenitorics, in the 
province of Oude, 37 miles N. by 
JE. from Liicknow. Lat. 27° 20'. 
N. Loii^. 81°. E. 

BissY, {Vesi). — A town belonging 
to the Nagpoor Maharattas, in the 
province of Gmidwana, 25 miles S. 
bj E. from Nagpoor. Lat. 20°, 48'. 
M. Long. 79°. 55'. E. 

Bo, or Hod. — A cluster of small 
islands lying E. S. E. from the sou- 
thern extremity of Gilolo. They are 
inhabited, and supplies of cocoa- 
nuts, and salt, and dried fish, may 
be had liere. 

BoAD, {Bcdha). — A large fenced 
village in the province of Orissa, si- 
tuated on the south side of the Ma- 
hanuddy River, whicli at this place, 
in the month of October, is 1| miles 
broad. Lat. 20° 50'. N. Long. 84° 
18'. E. The face of the whole coun- 
try', in this neighbourhood, is moun- 
tainous, interspersed with vallies 
from foiu- to 16 miles in circumfer- 
ence. The ■\illages are fenced with 
bamboos, to protect the inhabitants 
and their cattle tiom wild beasts. 
In the fields the women are seen 
holding the plough, while the female 
children drive the oxen. It is pos- 
sessed by an independent zemindar. 
{\st Register, iSt.) 

BoADjoos. — See Borneo. 

BoBiLEE. — A town in the Nor- 
thern Circars, 33 miles west from 
Cicacole. Lat. 18°. 27'. N. Long. 
83°. 28'. E. 

In 1757 the first in rank of tlie 
polygars of this country m as Kan- 
garoo of Bobilee. His fort stood 
about 60 miles N. E. of Vizagapatam, 
close to the mountains; the de- 
pendent district being about 20 
square miles. Tliere had long been 
a deadly hatred betwixt tliis poly- 
gar and "V'izcram Rauze, an adja- 
cent polygar, whose person, how 
much soever he feared his power. 
Kangaroo held in the utmost con- 
tempt, as of low extraction, and of 
new note. Yizerara Rauze per- 
suaded the French commander M. 
Bussy, to espouse his side of the 



quarrel ; and the latter not foresee- 
ing the terrible event to which he 
was proceeding, determined to re- 
duce the whole connti-j', and to ex- 
pel the polygar and his family. 

A polygar, besides his other towns 
and forts, has always one situated in 
the most diflicult part of his country; 
which is intended for the last refuge 
for himself, and all his blood. The 
singular construction of this fort is 
adequate to all the intentions of de- 
fence, among a people unused to 
cannon, or the means of battery. 
Its outline is a regular square, wliich 
rarely exceeds 200 yards; a round 
tower is raised at each of the angles, 
and a square projection in the 
middle of each of the sides. The 
height of the wall is generally 22 feet; 
but the rampart within only 12, 
which is likewise its breadth at the 
top, although it is laid much broader 
at the bottom. The whole is of 
tempered clay raised in distinct 
layers, of which each is left exposed 
to the siui, until tlioroughly harden- 
ed before the next is applied. 'J'lie 
parapet rises 10 feet above the ram- 
part, and is only three feet thick. 
It is indented five feet down from 
the top in interstices six inches 
M ide, which are three feet asunder. 
A foot above the bottom oi" these 
interstices and battlements runs a. 
line of round holes, another two 
feet lower, and a third two feet from 
the rampart. 'I'hese holes are usually 
formed with pipes of baked clay, and 
serve for the emplojnient of fire, 
aims, anows, and lances. The in- 
terstices are for the freer use of these 
arms, instead of loop holes, which 
cannot be inserted or <;ut in the 
clay. 

The towers and the square pro-' 
jection in the middle, have the same 
parapet as the rest of the wall ; and 
in two of the ])rojections in the op- 
posite sides of the fort are gateways, 
of which the entrance is not in front, 
but ono one side,from whence itis con- 
tiimed through half the mass, and then 
turns by a right angle into the place. 
On any alarm, tli« whole passage i& 



BOBILEE. 



155 



choked upwith trees; and tlicoutside 
surrounded, to some distance, with a 
strong bed of thick brambles. The 
rampart and parapet is covered by 
a shed of strong thatch, supported 
by posts ; the eves of this shed pro- 
ject over the battlement. Tiiis shed 
affords shelter to those on tlie ram- 
part, and guards it against the sun 
and rain. An area of 500 yards or 
more, in every direction round the 
fort, is preserved clear, of which the 
circumference joins the high wood, 
which is kept thick, three or four 
miles in breadth, around this centre. 
Few of these forts permit more than 
one path through the woods. The 
entrance of the path from without, 
is defended by a wall exactly simi- 
lar in construction and strength, to 
one of the sides of the fort ; having 
its round towers at the ends, and 
the square projection in the middle. 
I'rom natural sagacity, they never 
raise this redoubt on the edge of the 
wood, but at the bottom of a recess 
cleared on purpose ; and on each 
side of the recess, raise a breast- 
work of earth or hedge to gall the 
approach. The path admits only 
tluee menabreast, winds continually, 
and is every where commanded by 
breast-works in the thicket; and has 
in its course sca oral redoubts similar 
to that of the entrance, and like that 
flanked by brcast-woiks on each 
hand. Such were the defences of 
Bobilee, which are given at length 
as a general specimen of all polygar 
forts; against which JM. Bussy 
marched with 750 Europeans, of 
whom 250 were horse, four field 
pieces, and 1 1,000 peons and sepoys, 
the army of Yizeram Rauze, who 
commanded them in person. 

The attack com)nenced at break 
of day, on the 24th January, 1767, 
Mith tlie field pieces against the 
four towers; and by nine o'clock, 
several of the battlements were 
broken. All the leading parties of 
the i'our divisions then advanced at 
the same time with scaling ladders ; 
but, after much endeavour for au 
hour, not a man had been able to 
4 



get on the parapet, and many had 
fallen wounded. Other parties fol- 
lowed with little success, until all 
Avere so fatigued, that a cessation 
was ordered ; during m hich the field 
pieces, having beaten down more of 
the parapet, gave the second attack 
greater advantage ; but the ardour 
of the defence increased with tli© 
danger. The garrison ibnght Mith 
the indignant ferocity of wild beasts, 
defending their dens and famiUes; 
several of them stood as in defiance 
on the top of the battlements, and 
endeavoured to grapple with the 
first ascendants, hoping with them 
to twist the ladders down, and this 
failing, stabbed with their lances; 
but being wholly exposed, were 
easily shot by aim from the rear of 
the escalade. The assailants ad- 
mired, for no Europeans had seen 
such excess of courage in the na- 
tives of Hindostan, and continually 
offered quarter, which Avas always 
answered by menace and intention 
of death ; not a man had gained the 
rampart at two in the afternoon, 
Avhen another cessation of attack 
ensued. On this Kangaroo assem- 
bled the principal men, and told 
them there was no hopes of main- 
taining the fort; and that it was 
immediate!}^ nccessai-y to preserve 
their Avives and children from the 
violation of the Europeans, and th» 
still more ignominious authority of 
YizfMam Rauze. 

A number, called without distinc- 
tion, Avere allotted to the Avork. 
They proceeded every man Avilli his 
lance, a torch, and his poinard, to 
the habitations in the middle of ti)e 
fort; to Avhich they set fire indis- 
criminately, pljing the flame Avith 
straAv prepared aa ith tutch or brim- 
stone ; and every man stabbed Avilh- 
out remorse, the woman or child, 
Avhich soever attempted to escape 
the flame and suflbcation. Tiie 
massacre being finished, those who 
accomplished it, returned like men 
agitated by the furies, to die them- 
selves on the w alls, 

INIr Law, avIio commanded one of 



156 



BOGLIPOOR. 



the divisions, ohserverl, while looking 
at (ho couHagnition, that the mnn- 
l)er oi' (I(>feiidors was considerably 
diminished, and advanced again to 
the attack. After several ladders 
had iailcd, a few grenadiers got over 
the parapet, and maintained their 
tooting in the toMcr, until more se- 
<;ured the posses- ion. Kangaroo, 
hastening to the defence of the 
tower, was killed by a musket-ball, 
liia fall increased the desperation of 
his friends, wlio crowding to revenge 
his deatli, left other parts of the 
rampart bare. 'J'he other divisions 
of the French troops having ad- 
vanced, numbers on all sides got 
over the parapet without opposition; 
nevertheless none of the defenders 
quitted the rampart, or would ac- 
cept quarter, but each advancing 
against or struggling with an an- 
tagonist, would resign his poinard 
only with death. 

The slanghter of the conflict being 
over, anotlier mui'h more dreadful 
presented itself in the area below. 
Ihe transport of victory lost all its 
joy ; all gazed on each other with 
silent astonishment and remorse, 
and the iiercest could not refuse a 
tear to the deshuetion spread before 
them. Four of the soldiers of Kan- 
garoo on seeing him fall, concealed 
themselves in an unfrequented part 
of the fort, until the night was far 
advanced ; when they dropped down 
from tiie walls, and speaking the 
same language, passed unsuspected 
through the quarters of Yizeram 
Kaijze. '^J'hey concealed themselves 
ill the thicket, and the third night 
after, two of them crawled into the 
tent of Yizeram Katize, and stabbed 
him in 32 places, ajid were innne- 
diately cut to pieces. Had they 
failed, the other two remaining in the 
forest, were boinul by the : ame oath 
to perform the deed or perish in the 
attempt. {Ornie, Vc) 

BotiCAH. — A town in the pro- 
vince of liahar, district of Bcttiah, 
situated on the cast side of the River 
(Jundnck, 120 miles N. N. W. from 
Tatua. Lat. 2°. -t'. N. Long. ^i°. 



13'. E. Excellent thnber for ship 
building is procured in this neigh- 
bourhood, and floated down tha 
Gunduck and Ganges to Calcutta. 

RoGAKiAH. — A town in the pro- 
vince of Bahar, district of ]Monghir, 
130 miles N. W. from jSIoorsheda- 
bad. Lat. 24°. 53'. N. Long. 86°. 
52'. E. 

BoGELA or BoGALCUND, {BJutge- 
hlikanda). — A district in the pro- 
vince ofGundwana; but, during the 
reign of Aurengzebe, anjiexed by 
edict to the Soubah of Allahabad, 
although it was never actually sub- 
jugated by his forces. It is situated 
about the 24th degree of north lati- 
tude, and is boxuidcd on the west 
by the British tenitories in Bundel- 
cund, and to the east by the small 
district of Manwas. The Soane is 
the principal river, and the chief 
town is Rewah, where an indepen- 
dent rajah resides. 

The produce of the countiy is 
Avheat, barley, and diller.'nt kinds 
of pease, and the inhabitants possess 
large Hocks of cattle and sheep ; the 
land, however, is but little cultivat- 
ed, tlie natives scarcely raising grain 
enough for their own subsistence. 
Except Kewah, there is no town 
that deserves the name ; and the 
country is occupied by many petty 
independent rajahs, who carry on 
an incessant predatoiy warfare with 
each other ; nor are there any re- 
mains found to indicate a former and 
superior state of civilization. 

BoGLU'(>oR,(l?//ffg-t'//)oor).- — A dis- 
trict in tiie province of Bahar, novr 
comprehended in that of jVlonghir, 
to which it sometimes communi- 
cates its name. It is nearly equally 
divided by the Ganges, and origi- ' 
)ially contained 2817 square miles. 
It is well supplied with water and 
fertile; the weaving of mixed goods 
made with silk and cotton, flourishes 
in the town of Boglipoor, and the ad- 
jacent eoTuilry. 

Near (Joganallah, one stage from 
Boglipo«n-, is a monument resem- 
bling a pagoda, erected to the me- 
mory of Mr. Clcvclaud, by tlic ef- 



BOMBAY. 



lo7 



fleers and zemindars of ilio Jun^l- 
'teny of Hajeniahai; who, prior to liis 
time, wore a race of savaijes, and 
wlioiH, by conciliating^ ineasures, he 
induced to ])lacc themselves under 
tlie protection of the Biitish {govern- 
ment. A corps of 300 of these na- 
tives liave been taken into the ser- 
vice of the East India Con)pany, and 
now protect the territory they nsed 
to desolate. (J. Grant, Colehrooke, 
Lord Valentin, Sfc.) See Monghir. 
Bog LI POOR. — A town in the j)ro- 
vince of Bahar, district of Alonghir, 
situated about two miles from the 
main ))ranch of the (ranp:es. Lat. 
25° 11'. N. Lono-. 86°. 5U'. E. A 
majority of the inhabitants arc jMa- 
honimedans, and a college of that 
relisrion still exists, but in a state of 
great decay. There are two very 
singular round towers, about a mile 
N. W. from the town. The Rajah 
of Jyenagur consider them so holy, 
that he has erected a building" to 
slielter his subjects who \isittliem. 
There is a noble banyan tree at the 
entrance of the town. — (Lord Va- 
lentia, ice.) 

BoGWAXPOOR, (Bhagavanpura). — 
A town in the province of Bahar, 
district of Rotas, 47 miles S. E. from 
Benares. Lat. 2.5°. N. Long. 83° 
40'. E. 

BoGWAN'GOLA, (BhascnviDi Gola). 
— A large inland trading town in the 
province of Bengal, eight miles N. V,. 
from Moorshedabad. Lat. 24°. 21'. 
-N. Long. 88°. 29'. E. 'J'his is a 
. great mart for grain, from which the 
to\vnofMoorsliedai)ad is principaliy 
supplied. The tow n, which is en- 
tirely built of bamboos, mats, and 
thatch, has been more than once re- 
moved, on account of the encroach- 
ments of the Ganges, and exhibits 
more the appearance of a temporary 
fair or encaijijmient than that of a 
town. (CoL Colcbronke, Ve.) 

BoHANDEvi. — A small village in 
Northern Hindostan, situated among 
the mountains in the proviut-c of 
Serinagur. Lat. 30°. 36'. N. Long. 
78°. 12'. E. In this neighbourhood 
are many European productions, 



such as the peach, aprieot. walnut, 
strawberry, rasben y, dandelion, but- 
ter-llower, and v\bite rose. Here 
arc also forests of sjtreading firs of 
very large dimensions, and yielding 
much pitch. {Raper, ^c.) 



BOMBAY. 

A city and island on tlie west 
coast of India, (ormerly eompre- 
lu'iided in the province of Aurunga- 
bad, but now the principal British 
settlement on tlic west coast of In- 
dia. Lat. 18°. 58'. N. Long. 72°. 
38'. E. 

Bombay is about 10 miles in 
length, by three the average breadth, 
and has now lost all pretensions to 
its insular name; as, in 18U5, Mr. 
Duncan completed a causeway, or 
vcllard, at Sion, across the narrow 
arm of tlie sea, which separated it 
from the contiguous island of Sal- 
sette, an operation of infinite sersice 
to the farmers and gardeners who 
supply the Bombay nuirket, but 
which is said to have had a preju- 
dicial ell'ect on the harbouj'. 

The fortifications of Bombay have 
been improved ; but are esteemed 
too extensive, and would require a 
numerous garrison. Towards the 
sea they are extremely strong, but to 
the land side do not offer tiie same 
resistance ; ajid to an enemy landed, 
and capable of making regular ap- 
proaches, it mu^t surrender. The 
town within the walls was begun by 
tiie Portuguese ; and even tiio.vc 
liouses that have since beeu built 
are of a similar construction, wiih 
wooden pillars supporting wooden 
verandahs; the consequence of which 
is, that Bombay bears no external 
resemblance to the other two presi- 
dencies. The government liouse is 
a handsome building, with several 
good apartments; but it has the 
great inconvenience, of the largest 
apartment on both floors being a 
passage-room to the others. 

The northern part of the fort is 
iidiabited by Parsee families, w ho are 
not remarkably cleanly in thtir d'>- 



158 



BOMBAY. 



mestic conocrns, nor in the streets 
where they live. The view from the 
fort is extremely beautiful towards 
the bay, which is here and there 
broken by islands, many of which 
are covered with trees, while the lofty 
and curious shaped hills of the table 
land form a striking back 2:round. 
The sea is on three sides of the fort, 
and on the fourth is the esplanade ; 
at the extremity of Avhich is the 
black town, amidst cocoa-nut trees. 

Bombay is the only principal set- 
tlement in India where the rise of 
the tides is sufficient to permit the 
construction of docks on a large 
scale; the very highest spring tides 
reach to 17 feet, but (he nsuul height 
is 14 feet. The docks are the Com- 
pany's property, and the king's ships 
pay a high monthly rent for repairs. 
They are entirely occupied by Par- 
sees, who possess an absolute mono- 
poly in all the departments ; the per- 
son who contracts for the timber 
being a Parsee, and the inspector of 
it on dehvery of tiie same cast. On 
the 23d of June, 1810, tlie Minden 
74, built entirely by Parsees, with- 
out the least European ass^istance, 
was launched fiom these dock-yards. 
The teak forests, from whence these 
yards are supplied, lie along the Mest- 
ern side of the Ghaut mountains, and 
other contiguous ridges of hills on 
the north and east of Easseen; the 
numerous rivers that descend from 
them alfording water carriage for the 
timber. 

The common and sweet potatoe 
are ^ ery good at Bombay ; but the 
vegetable for which Bombay is cele- 
brated all over the cast, is the onion. 
Potatoes are now produced in this 
quarter of India iu the greatest abun- 
dance, altliough so recently intro- 
duced ; the Bombay market is saip- 
plicd with this root tiom Gujrat, and 
also with some cheese, Avhich is hard 
and ill flavoured. The bnflalo fur- 
nishes the milk and butter, and oc- 
casionally the beef; but Europeans 
in general are prejudiced agtiiust it. 

The Bazar mutton is hard and 
lean ; but, when well fed^ is AS geod 



as the English. Kid is always g-ooa, 
and the poultry abundant; but not 
good, unless fed on purpose. The 
fish are excellent, but the larger 
kinds not plentiful, 'i'he bumbelo 
resembles a large sand eel, and, after 
being dried in the sun, is usually 
eaten at breakfast, with a dish of 
rice and split pease, coloured with 
turmeric, named kedgeree. The 
prawns are uncommonly fine. Tiie 
island is too small to furnish much 
game ; but the red-logged partridge 
is nut uncommon, and snipes are 
sometimes seen. The frogs here are 
large, and are eaten by the Cliinese 
and Portuguese. 

'I'his little island commands the 
entire trade of the north-west coast 
of India, together with that of the 
Persian Gulf. The principal cargo 
of a ship, bound from Bombay or 
Surat to China, is cotton; in the 
stowing and screwing of which, tl*e 
commanders and olliccrs are remark- 
ably dexterous. Some of the large 
ships Mill cany upwards of 4000 
bales, containing about 2,500 Bom 
bay candies, of 560 pounds avoir- 
dupois, or total, 1,400,000 pounds. 
The other part of their cargo con- 
sists of sandal wood and pepper, 
from the Malabar coast; gums, 
drugs, and pearls from Arabia, Abys- 
sinia, and Persia; elephants' teeth, 
cornelians, and other produce of 
Cambay, sharks' fins, bird nests, &c. 
from the Maldive and Lackadive 
Islands. These sliips generally ar- 
rive at Canton in the month of June, 
or beginning of July, and lie there 
idle (except delivering their cargo 
and recei\ ing the return cargo) un- 
til the month of December or Janu- 
ary. In 1808, the quantity of cotton 
brought to Bombay for ic-exporta- 
tion was 85,000 bales, of 375 pounds, 
the half of which is procured from 
the couutry on the Ner!nuldah, and 
the rest from Gujrat and Cutch ; the 
quantity, however, is not usually so 
large. The cotton screw is worked 
by a capstan, to each bar of which 
there are 30 men, amounting, in the 
Wliole, to about 240 to eaoh st>revf. 



BOMBAY. 



159 



Hemp is.packed in the same man- 
ner ; but it requires to be carefully 
laid in tlie press, for the fibres are 
Hable to be broken if they are bent. 
I'or the European market, Bom- 
bay is an excellent place to procure 
g»ais and dnigs of all sorts. Mocha 
coflce, barilla, cornelians, agates, and 
also blue and other Surat goods. In 

1810, the prime cost of the goods, 
exported from England to Bombay 
l^- the East India Company, amount- 
ed only to 116,7871. 

Commerce of Bamhai/, from the \st 
May, 1811, <w the siith April, 1812. 

Tlie total value of goods imported 
from London, from the 1st May, 

1811, to the 30th April, 1812, 
amounted to 2,045,363 rupees, viz. 
Grain and other articles of food 4,772 
Articles for the use of the 

natives 75,363 

Sundries for Europeans 1,313,661 
Ditto for manufactures - 368,293 
Ditto for re-exportatiou - 202,942 
Piece goods - - - - 80,332 



deira, during 1811-12, amounted to 
70,360 rupees. I'here were no ex- 
ports. 

The impoi-ts of merchandize from 
the Brazils in 1811-12 was 160,750 
Treasure 1,357,650 



Treasure 



2,045,363 
13,579 



Rupees 2,068,942 



The value of the exports to Lon- 
don, during the above period^ was 
041,282 rupees, viz. 
Surat manufactines - - 3,183 
'l"hc produce of Madeira - 39,880 
Ditto j\Iosambi(pie - - 15,834 
Ditto Bengal - - - - 62,957 
Ditto Penang & eastwards 54,142 
Ditto Malabar ic Canara 81,169 

Ditto Persian Gulf - - 14,678 
Ditto Arabian Gulf - - 401,603 
Ditto Cashmere - - - 12,683 
Ditto Gujrat . - - - 49,450 
Piece goods - - - - 110,650 



Treasure 

Horses 



941,282 

589,018 

7,500 



Rupees 1,537,800 



Rupees 1,518,400 

The exports direct from Bombay 
to the Brazils were only 43,334 ru- 
pees; the Portuguese ships having, 
as usual, proceeded from hence to 
Demaun and Surat for their home- 
ward bound cargoes. 

In 1811-12, the imports from the 
Isles of France amounted to 634,1 83 
rupees, of which cloves composed 
two-thirds ; the rest prize goods re- 
captured on the surrender of the 
islands. TIic exports to the Isles of 
France amoimted in value to 263,403 
rupees, consisting principally of Eu- 
ro])can articles, Bengal produce, and 
piece goods, llie treasure cxpoiled 
was 59,250 rupees. 

In 1811-12 the value of goods im- 
ported from China amounted to 
32,06,298, viz. 
Grain, and other articles of 

food 288 

Articles for the use of the 

natives 10,82,218 

Sundries for Europeans - 281,514 
Ditto for manufiictures - 470,322 
Ditto tor exportation - 940,634 
Piece goods - - - - 431,628 
Sundries ----- 794 



Treasure 



32,07,398 
8,57,256 



Rupees 40,64,654 



The exports to China, during 
1811-12, amounted to 37,06,254 ru- 
pees, viz. 

Snrat manufactures - - 481 

The produce of Europe 10,839 

Ditto Madeira - - - 12,.560 
Ditto America - - - 27,872 
Ditto Mosambique - - 139,471 
Ditto Penang and eastward 7000 



The imports to Bombay from Ma- 



Carried forward 188,22S 



160 



Broiig;lit fonvard 


198,223 


Ditto Malabar ami Canara 99,879 


Ditto Persian 


Gulf - - 


149,317 


Ditto Arabian Gulf - - 


21,802 


Ditto Cashmere - - - 


425 


Ditto Gujrat 


_ _ - _ 


3,222,911 


Ditto Cutch 


_ _ _ _ 


2000 


Piece goods 




11,617 




3,706,174 






10,048 
1300 








Rupees 




37,17,522 



BOMBAY. 

Raw silk 14,01,683 

Piece goods - - - - 647,361 

Sugar 243,688 

Gunnies _ . . _ _ 27,521 

Grain - 266,902 

Suiidri«s - - - - - 182,997 

Rupees 27,70,051 



In tills period; there was a con- 
siderable deialcation in the exports 
to China, ou account of the singu- 
larly untavonrable state of the mar- 
kets of that country, and the sus- 
pected credit of tlie Chinese mer- 
chants. 

In 1811-12 the imports from Ma- 
nilla amounted to 2,29,350 rupees, of 
which the article of sugar alone was 
1,56,667 ru[»ecs in value. The ex- 
ports were only 78,837 rupees, and 
consisted almost entirely of iron and 
wine. 

'i'liere were no imports fiom Pegue 
during 1811-12, and the exports to 
that country amounted to only 6458 
rupees. 

In 1811-12 the imports fiom 
Prince of Wales's Island, and the 
rastwai-d, amounted to 4,90,629 
IVciisure ----- 9357 



Rupees 499,886 



In 1811-12 the exports to Bengal 
consisted of a great variety of small 
articles, and 1,13,905 of Europe 
goods were exjiorted, the value of 
the whole amounting 
To ------- 314,455 

Treasure 82,760 

Horses 28,400 



Rupees 4,25,615 



In 1811-12 the exports to Prince 
of Wales's Island, and the eastward, 
of merchandise, amounted 
'I'o ------- 471,852 

Treasure 276,808 Treasure 

HoiTses 5900 



In 1811-12 the imports from tlie 
coast of Cororaandel amounted to 
only 80,771 rupees, the exports to 
that quarter to 1,87,464 rupees. 

In 1811-12 the imports from Cey- 
lon amounted to 1,14,331 rupees, 
consisting almost entirely of sundry 
articles for Europeans ; the exports 
to 67,048 rupees. 

In 1811-12 the imports from Ma- 
labar and Canara amounted to 
30,01,139 rupees of merchandise, 
viz. 
Grain, and olhcr asliclesof 

food ------ 658,316 

Articles for the use of the 

natives 750,214 

Sundries for Europeans 39.305 

Ditto for manufactures 660,381 

Ditto for re-exportation 695,422 
Piece goods - - - - 197,148 
Sundries ----- 358 



3,001,139 
46,916 



Rupees 754,560 



Rupees 30,48,055 



During the above period the ex- 
In 1811-12 the imports from Ben- ports to Malabar and Canara con- 
gal amounted to 27,67,615 rupees, sistcd of a great variety of articles, 
of merchandize, viz, amouatiug, in tlic whole, 



BOMBAY. 



ro - - ' 

iioiscs 



- - - 957,780 

- - - 706,413 

- - - 102,000 

Rupees 1,766,193 



In 1811-12, the imports from Goa 
and the Concan amounted to 
1 ,932,637 of merchandize, viz. 
Grain, and other articles of 

food 1,117,812 

Articles for the use of the 

natives • - - - - 249,014 
Sundries for Europeans 24,780 

Ditto for manufactures - 62,476 
Ditto for re-exportation 89,277 

Piece goods - - - - 388,768 
Sundries ----- 501 



1,932,637 
Treasure 107,727 



Rupees 2,040,364 



In 1811-12, tlie exports to Goa and 
the Concan amounted to 3,766,471 
rupees of merchandize, viz. 



Surat manufactures 


_ _ 


13,263 


The produce of Europe 


825,223 


Ditto Madeira 


- - 


121,433 


Ditto America 


- - 


23,079 


Ditto Bengal - - 


- - 


1,125,325 


Ditto Penang, and 


the 




eastward - - 


- - 


181,461 


Ditto Malabar and Canara 381,192 


Ditto Persian Gulf 


- 


217,614 


Ditto Arabian Gulf 


- 


6,442 


Ditto Cashmere 


- 


51,292 


Ditto China - - - 


- 


264,113 


Ditto Gujrat - - - 


- 


118,040 


Ditto Concan - - 


- 


5,273 


Ditto Ceylon - - 


- 


17,486 


Ditto Cutch - - - 


- 


7,909 


Ditto piece goods - 


- 


375,002 


Ditto sundries - - 




21,555 




3,766,471 


Treasure - - - - 


. - 


1,287,956 






74,795 




pees 


Ru 


5,129,222 



In merchandize 
Treasxne - - 



161 

354,036 
9,646 



Rupees 363,682 



In 1811-12, the imports from Bas- 
sein, and sundry adjacent villages, 
uniouuted to 



The exports to Bassein, &c, dur- 
ing the above period, were various, 
and amounted altogether to 296,179 
rupees. 

In 1811-12, the total imports from 
Cutch and Sinde amounted to 
In merchandize - - - 267,759 
Treasure ----- 3,059 

Horses 55,850 



Rupees 326,668 



During the above period tlie ex- 
port of merchandize to Cutch and 
Sinde amounted to 1,111,227 ru- 
pees, of which Chinese goods were 
nearly one half, and European goods 
only 81,775 rupees. The remainder 
consisted of a great variety of goods, 
but the commerce with these pro- 
vinces happened, for different rea- 
sons (particularly the unsettled state 
of the China cotton market) to be 
small compared with the prior years. 

In 1811-12, the imports to Bom- 
bay from the Persian Gulf amounted 
to 1,151,211 rupees of merchandize, 
viz. 
Grain, and other articles of 

food 279,429 

Articles for the use of the 

natives 293,015 

Sundries for Europeans - 22,213 
Ditto for manufactures - 466,192 
Ditto for re-exportation 88,356 

Piece goods - - - - 1,388 

Sundries ----- 618 

1,151,211 

Treasure 813,704 

Horses 175,825 



Rupees 2,140,740 



In 1811-12, the exports to the Per- 
sian Gulf amounted to 1,939,705 of 
merchandize, viz. 



162 



BOMBAY. 



Snrat mamifactnres - - 27,407 

The produce of Europe - 139.360 

Ditto Madeira - - - - 11,510 

Ditto America - - - - 1,850 

Ditto Mosambique - - 1,040 

Ditto Bengal - - - - 469,154 

Ditto Penang and eastward 178,328 

Ditto Malabar and Caaara 173,333 

Ditto Persian Gulf - - 500 Ticasme 

Ditto Arabian Gulf - - 138,192 

Ditto Cashmere - - - 16,046 

Ditto Cliiua - - - - 236,965 

Ditto Gujrat - - - - 17,141 

Ditto Concan - - - - 9,183 

Ditto Cutch - - - - 49,185 

Ditto piece goods - - - 469,685 

Ditto sundries - - - - 530 



Brought forward 58,832 



Sundries for Euiopcans - 
Ditto for manufactures - 
Ditto for re-exportation - 
Piei e goods - - _ _ 
Sundries - - - _ - 



60,048 

28,111 

331,474 

486,567 

2,818 

966,850 
63,406 



Rupees 1,030,336 



In 1811-12, the exports of mer- 
chandize frouj Bomljay to Surat 
aaiiounted to 1,429,351 rupees, viz. 



Treasure - - - 



1,939,705 

8,500 



Rupees 1,948,205 



In 1811-12, the imports from the 
Arabian Gulf amounted to 
Mcrchaudize - - - - 425,908 

Treasure 511,184 

Hoi-ses 7,200 



Rupees 944,292 



The exports during the same pe- 
riod, in merchandize, amounted to 
364,731 rupees, of which only 73,483 
consisted of European goods. 

In 1811-12, tlic imports of mer- Treasure 
chandize to Bombay from the east Horses 
coast of Africa, amounted to 137,886 
rupees. 

The exports of merchandize, dur- 
ring the same period, amounted 
To ------- 44,339 

Treasure 2,110 



Surat manufactures - - 601 

The produce of Eiuope - 2;')2,764 

Ditto Madeira - - - - 34,736 

Ditto America - - - - 63,108 

Ditto iMosam1)ique - - 38,315^ 

Ditto Bengal - - - - 602,183 
Ditto Penang and eastward 27,059 

Ditto Malabar and Canara 109,586 

Ditto Persian Gulf - - 13,645 

Ditto Arabian Gulf - - 9,333 

Ditto Cashmero - - - 9,802 

Ditto China - - - - 77,628 

Ditto Gujrat - , - - 8,710 

Ditto Concan - - - - 540 

Ditto Ceylon - - - - 891 

Ditto Cutch - - - - 1,629 

Ditto piece goods - - - 176,757 

Ditto sundries - - - 2,064 



1,429,351 

475,981 

1,700 



Rupees 1,907,032 



Rupees 46,449 

In 1811-12, the imports of mer- 
chandize from Surat amounted to 
966,850 rupees, viz. 
Grain, and other articles of 

food - - - - - - 1,287 

Articles for the use of the 

natives 67,045 



In 1811-12, the imports of mer- 
chandize from the northern ports of 
Gujrat amounted to 5,062,012 ru- 
pees, viz. 
Grain, and other articles of 

food 1,467,825 

Articles for the use of the 

natives 376,107 

Sundries for the Europeans 58,991 
Ditto for manufactures - 27,086 
Ditto for re-exportation - 2,786,564 
Piece goods _ - - - 344,559 
Sundries ----- 880 



Carried forward 58,332 



Carried forward 6,062,012 



BOMBAY. 



163 



Brought forward 5,062,012 
Treasure ----- 41,974 

Horses ------ 7,650 



Bombay, le.tweentheXst May,\%\\, 
and the 30th April, 1812. 



In 1811-12, the exports of mer- 
chandize from Bombay to tlie north- 
ern ports of Gujrat amounted to 
3,915,057 rupees, viz. 
Suiat maiuifac'ures - - 2,852 
Tlic produce of Europe - 1,057,609 
Ditto Madeira - - - - 64,266 
DiUo America - - - - 180,«89 
Ditto Mosambique - - 64,370 
Ditto Bengal - - - - 1,268,593 
Ditto Penang and eastward 124,061 
Ditto Malabar and Canara 601,377 
Ditto Persian Gulf - - 144,268 
Ditto Arabian Gulf - - 22,786 
Ditto Cashmere - - - 3,460 
Ditto China - - - - 184,256 
Ditto Gujrat - - - - 5,173 
Ditto Concan - - - - 9,348 
Ditto Cejlon - - - - 17,077 
Ditto Cutch - - - - 17,317 
Ditto piece goods - - - 144,444 
Ditto sundries - - - 12,911 



Arrived under English tons. 

Rupees 5,111,636 colours 62 ships measuring 25,601 
Arrived under Spanish 

colours 2 ships measuring 960 
Arrived under Porteguese 

colours 3 ships measuring 1950 
Anived under Aral 

colours 12 ships measuring 3660 



Treasure 
Horses 



Rupees 3,915,057 

- - - 36,615 

- - - 1,900 



Rupees 3,953,572 



In 1811-12, the total value of mer- 
chandize imported to Bombay 
Was ------ 16,970,626 

Treasure imported - - 3,737,084 
Horses 239,875 



Rupees 20,947,585 

In 1811-12, the total value of the 
merchandize exported from Bombay 

Was - 14,550,642 

Treasure 3,027,963 

Horses 229,473 



Rupees 17,808,100 



^Statement of the Ships and Tonnage 

which arrived at and departed from 

U 2 



79 



32,161 



Departed under English 

colours 93 ships measuring 38,337 
Departed under Spanish 

colours 2 ships measuring 950 
Dejjarted under Portuguese 

colours 1 ship measuring 750 
Departed under Arab 

colours 14 ships measuring 4551 

110 44,588 

Launched in 1811-12 one 

ship of 457 63-94 

Ditto ditto of 1283 82-94 

Ditto ditto of 985 35-94 

On the 31st Dec. 1811, 26 large 
ships belonged to Bombay, the ton- 
nage of which was 15,899 tons. 

The ships built at Bombay ar« 
reckoned one-third more durable 
than any other India built ships. 

The Company's marine at Bombay 
consists of 15 fighting vessels, be- 
sides armed boats, advice boats, and 
other craft, and gives employment 
to a regular establishment of officers 
and seamen. The maintenance of 
this force is rendered necessary by 
the swarms of pirates who infest the 
western coast of India, from tlie 
shores of the Persian Gulf to Goa, 
and who are distinguished, particu- 
larly those who lurk in the more 
northerly tracts, by their courage, 
cunning, and ferocity. These nau- 
tical banditti have haunted the very 
same regions since the time of Alex- 
ander the Great, and probably longer. 
Out of 104 marine covenanted ser- 
vants, Bombay employs 93. 



164 



BOMBAY, 



A court of jiidicaliuc is held at 
Bombay, by a sinsjlc jml-^c AVitli the 
tiUe of recorder, the authority and 
practice of tliis tribunal bciiip: al- 
together conformable to those of the 
supreme court at Calcutta. The law 
ftraetitioners of this court iire three 
barristers, and eight attorneys. 

In 1811 the number of civil ser- 
vants on the Bombay establishment 
was 74, and the pay, allowances, 
and emoluments of the whole civil 
service, including the European un- 
covenanted assistants, amounted to 
174,2381. In the same year the pay 
and allowances of the military officers 
on the Bombay cstablislHiient, 549 
in number, was 171,4501. and the 
amount of the Cinnpany's I^ondiay 
regular army of all descriptions 
20,988 men. Surgeons 40, pay and 
allowances 22,8761. Chaplains five, 
])ay and allow ances 47951. In the 
l?ombay army a veiy great ])ro])ortion 
of the sepoys come from the Maha- 
ratta country in whole fai-.iilics to- 
gether, and, mixing but little with 
the other sects, still retain their na- 
tive langnage. 

Bombay is supposed to contain 
above 220,000 inhabitants. Of this 
inrmbcr about 8000 arc paisees, and 
nearly as many iMahommedans, and 
three or 4000 Jews ; the remainder 
are Portuguese and Hindoos ; the 
latter composing more than thrce- 
iourthsof th<' whole population. The 
houses of the rich are of great ex- 
tent, because the children of the 
family coutinne to live in the same 
house even after they ar(> manicd. 
The lower classes have small huts, 
mostly of clay, covered with a mat 
made of the leaves of tlic palmyra. 
' 'i'hcir wages are a great deal higher 
than in Bengal, but food is dearer; 
palan(p7in bearers receive scvcji and 
eight rupees per month. 

Among the liUropeans the rage 
lor coiuitry houses prevails as gene- 
rally as at Madras, and is attended 
with t'le sanu^ ineonvcnieuces, all 
businrss being necessarily transacted 
in the tijit. The geueraiijy of the 
loinitrv hoiijcs aio comfortable and 



elegant, and, although not st> splendid 
as those of Calcutta and Madras, 
are better adapted to the climate, 
and enjoy most beautiful views. Th« 
only English church is in the fort. 
The Poriiiguese and Armenian 
churciies are nunjerons, both within 
and without the walls ; and there are 
three or four synagogues, with many 
temples and mos<]ues. The largest 
pagoda is in the Black 'i'own, l^ 
miles from the fort, and is dedicated 
to ]Momba Devi. 

The Parsee inhal)itants of Bom- 
bay possess nearly the whole of the 
island, and seem to have perfectly 
domesticated themselves in their 
new abode, shicc their e\j)ulsion 
from Persia by the Mahommcdans. 
They are an active and loyal body of 
men, and contribute greatly to the 
prosperity of the settlement. In 
every European house of trade there 
is a J'arsce partner, who usually 
jnoduces the largest portion pf the 
eai)ital. They wear an Asiatic dress, 
but they eat and drink like the Eng- 
lisij. In the morning and evening 
they crowd to the esplanade to ])ay 
their adoration, by prostration to the 
sun ; on these occasions the females 
do not ajipear, but they still go to 
the well for water. 

Most of the original Parsee cus- 
toms continue unaltered, particu- 
larly the mode of sepulture, which 
is as follows : 

The body of the defunct is de- 
posited in a circular building, open 
at the top, al)onf 55 feet in diameter, 
and 25 in height, filled up to within 
five feet of the top, excepting a well, 
15 feet in diameter in the centre, 
the part .so filled being terraced w ith 
a slight declivity toAvards the weH. 
Two circular grooves, tJnee inches 
deep, are raised round the Well, the 
first at the distance of four, and tlie 
second at the distance of 10 feet 
from the well. Grooves of the like 
depth and height, and four feet dis- 
tant liom each other at the outer 
part of the outer circle, are carried 
straight tiom the wall to the well, com- 
municating with the circular ones to 



BOMBAY. 



165 



»'aiTy off the water. Tlie tomb is, 
by this means, divided info three 
circles of j)artitions ; the outer for 
men, the middle for women, and the 
inner for children. There they are 
respectively placed, wrapped loosely 
in a piece of cloth, and left to be 
devoured by the vultures; which is 
soon done, as muiibers of these birds 
are always seen hoveiin^ and w atch- 
ing about these charnel houses for 
their prey. The friends of the de- 
ceased, or tiie persons wlio have 
charge of the tond), come at the 
proper time, and throw the bones 
into their receptacle, the well in the 
centre. From the bottom of the 
well subterranean passages lead to 
remove the bones, to prevent the 
Avell from filling. Meji of great pro- 
perty sometimes build one of the 
above sort for themselves. The pub- 
lic tombs are five in number, but not 
all in use, and are .situated about 
three miles north-westerly tiom 
Bombay Fort. The stin and the sea 
partake with lire in the adoration of 
the Parsees ; their year is di\ided 
into 12 lunar months, but they have 
no division of time into weeks. 

There is a great difference be- 
tween the character and habits in 
society of the natives of our prin- 
cipal settlements and those of the 
interior. A person who has resided 
only at Bombay, cannot have an in- 
timate know ledge respcctuig the ha- 
bits and manners of the natives in 
the interior provinces of India. Not 
many years ago, a widow at Bom- 
bay wanted to burn herself with her 
Imsband's corpse, which being pre- 
vented, she applied to the governor, 
who refused permission ; upon which 
she crossed the harbour to the Ma- 
haratta shore, a!id there underwent 
the ceremony. That few crimes of 
magnitude occur at Bombay, is 
proved by a statement made in open 
court by the recorder in May, ISIO, 
that, for six years prior to that pe- 
riod, he never had had occasion to 
condemn any criminal to the punish- 
ment of death. 

'I'he society here is Jess numerous, 



and the salaries of Ihc public ser- 
vants smaller than at the two chief 
presidencies ; economy is conse- 
quently more attended to, but the 
stile of living is iiet|uenlly elegant, 
and always condbrtable and abun- 
dant. Bice, the chief fond of the 
lower orders, is frequt^ntly imported 
from Bengal,' even in favourable 
years. 

A society has been establislied at 
Bombay on a plan somewhat simi- 
lar to the Bengal Asiatic Society; 
but it intends to limit itsidf to tlve 
present state of manners among the 
inhabitants of the country. The 
situation of Bombay ought to be 
healthy, but it is said to be tiio re- 
verse, and that the liver is a com- 
plaint more frequent and fatal here 
than in any other part of India. Ex- 
posure to the land breeze, which sets 
in every evening, is frequeuUy fol- 
lowed by a fever ; moderate living, 
cautiously avoiding opposite ex- 
tremes, is found most conducive to 
healtlv 

The travelling distance from Bom- 
bay to Calcutta is 1300 miles; to 
Delhi, 965; to Hyderabad, 480; to 
Madras, 770; to Poonah, 98; to 
Seriugapatani, 620; and to Smat, 
177 miles. 

As a i)laee of consequence Bom- 
bay owes its oiigin to the Portu- 
guese, to whoui it was ceded in 
1530, having been before a depend- 
ence on a (;liief residing at Tannah, 
inSalsette. On account of its fin« 
harbour a fort « as erected b\ tliem, 
but the vicinity of Goa, the Portu- 
guese capital, prevented its becom- 
ing in their hand a place of any con- 
quence. 'J'wu deri\ati(>ns are as- 
signed to the name, one from the 
Portuguese Euon bahia(a good bay), 
and the other from the Hindoo G'od- 
dess, Bomba Devi. 

This island was ceded to King 
Charles the Second in June 1661, as 
part of Queen C^atluiine's portion ; 
and in March, 16(j2, a licet of five 
men of war, under the ronunand of 
the Earl of Marl!)orough, was di.s- 
patched, with 5Ui) troops under Sir 



ICO 



BOMBAY. 



Abraham Shipman, and arrived at 
Bombay on the 18th of September, 
1662 ; but the Portuguese Governor 
evaded the cession. The English 
admiral demanded Bombay and its 
dependencies, comprehendijig Sal- 
sette and Tannali, and the Portu- 
guese interpreted the treaty to sig- 
nify Bombay only. The troops were 
removed to the Island of Anjidiva, 
where the mortality was so great, 
that the surviving commanding of- 
ficer, Mr. Cooke, was glad to accept 
the Island of Bombay on any terms, 
and to this place they were trans- 
ferred in February, 1664-65, the sur- 
vivors musteiing only 119 rank and 
file. Such was the unfortunate com- 
mencement of this afterwards flou- 
rishing settlement, which in the 
hands of the Portuguese had re- 
mained almost a desait. jMr. Cooke 
may be considered as the first Eng- 
lish Governor of Bombay ; on the 
6tli of November, 1666, he was suc- 
ceeded by Sir Gervase Lucas. 

It was soon discovered that the 
king had made an unprofitable ac- 
quisition, and that the East India 
Company wore much injured by tlic 
ti-ade carried on by persons in the 
king's senice, who sold European 
goods, for which they paid no freight. 
In consequence of these and other 
reasons, the king, on the 27th of 
March, 1668, by letters patent, trans- 
ferred the Island of Bombay from 
the cro^vn to the East India Com- 
pany, in free and common soccage, 
as the manor of East Greenwich, on 
payment of the annual rent of 101. 
in gold, on the 30th of September 
of each year. The revenue of the 
island, shortly after the cession, was 
estimated at 28231. ])cr annum. 

Sir Gervase Lucas died the 21st 
of March, 1667, and was succeeded 
by the deputy-governor. Captain 
Henry Geary. At the commence- 
ment of this government, Mr. Cooke, 
the first governor, endeavoured to 
assemble a force at Salsettc, assisted 
by the Jesuits of Goa, to re-esta- 
blish himself in the Island of Bom- 
bay, but ineffectuidly. In 1667-68, 



the revenues had increased to 64901. 
the garrison was 285 men, of which 
number 93 were Englishmen, and 
the rest French, Portuguese, and 
natives. 

On the 23d of September, 1668, 
Bombay was taken possession of 
for the East India Company by Sir 
George Oxinden, the chief Com- 
pany's governor, and tiie troops 
were transferred from the king's to 
the Company's service, along with 
the arms, ordnance, and stores. Sir 
G. Oxinden died on the 14th of July, 
1669, and was succeeded by Mr. 
Gerald Augier, as Chief of Sural 
and Governor of Bombay, which 
continued extremely unhealthy, and 
much infested by the depredations 
of the Maharatta pirates. 

In 1672-3, a strong Dutch fleet ap- 
peared otf Bombay, and created 
great alarm ; but, after reconnoitiing 
it, disappeared without making any 
attack. In the succeding year there 
were 100 pieces of cannon mounted 
in the fortifications, and the garrison 
consisted of 400 regulars, of which 
the greater proportion were topasses, 
and 300 militia. In 1676, letters 
patent were obtained tVom the king 
to establish a mint at Bomba}', at 
which they were empowered to coin 
rupees, pice, and budgerooks. 

Mr. Augier died in 1677, and was 
succeeded at Bombay by Mr. Henry 
Oxinden. At this time Bombay 
continued of very little pohtical or 
commercial importance, which in 
part proceeded liom the vigorous 
goverument of Aurcngzebe on th» 
Delhi throne, and the rising power 
of the Blaharattas, under the mar- 
tial Sevajee. In 1679, the Island of 
Kenery was occupied by the troops 
of Sevajee, and the beginning of the 
next year the Island of Kenery was 
seized on by the siddee, or Mogul 
Admiral, the Bombay government 
not daring to oppose either, and 
from their proximity being kept in a 
state of continual alarm. 

In 1681, Mr. John Child, the bro- 
ther of Sir Josiah Child, was ap- 
pointed President at Surat, one of 



BOMBAY. 



1(57 



the junior counsellors being' appoint- 
ed to act as tU'puty-j^oveinor of 
Bombay, la 16«;i-4, tlie Court of 
Directors, in consequence of tlie 
rapture of Bantam by tiio Dutch, 
constituted Bombay an independent 
English settlement, and tlie sent of 
the power and trade of the Eiifjlish 
nation in the East Indies. 

On the 23d of December, 1683, 
Captain Richard Kegwin, who com- 
manded the Company's garrison, as- 
sisted by Ensign Thouipson and 
others, seized on jMr. Ward, the 
deputy-governor, and such members 
of the council as adhered to him, 
and assumed the goNermnent. 'J'he 
garrison, consisting of 150 English 
soldiers, and 2U0 topasses, were 
joined by the itdialtitants of the 
island, who elected Captain Keg- 
win governor, and declared they 
would only acknowledge the king's 
authority, although, in the interval 
betw i\t the acquisition of the island 
and this period, the East India Com- 
pany had expended 300,0001. at 
Bombay on fortifications and im- 
provements. 

In 1684-5, Captain Kegwin ne- 
gocialed a treaty with Rajah Sam- 
bajee, from whom he recovered 
12,000 pagodas due to the Com- 
pany ; and on the 19th of Novem- 
ber, 1684, he surrendered the island 
to Sir Thomas Grantham, on con- 
dition of a general pardon to him- 
self and his adherents. He had not, 
it appears, embezzled any of the 
Company's money in the fort, which 
was restored to them entire, but had 
subsisted on the revemies of the 
island. 

In 1686, the seat of the English 
government was ordered to be trans- 
fened from Surat to Bombay, and 
next year, Sir John Child dying, the 
oflice of Presideiil devolved on Mr. 
Harris, then a prisoner atSmat, but 
released by the Mogul goveiiior 
next year. 

In 1688-9, the siddhee's ileet (Mo- 
gul's admiral) invaded Bombay, and 
got possession of JMahein, Maza- 
gong, and Sion, and kept the go- 



vernor and garrison besieged in the 
town and castle. An order was soon 
after obtained from Anrengzebe, di- 
recting the sidhee to withdraw his 
troops; but the evacuation did not 
take place until the 22d of June, 
1690, when the lands belonging to 
the Portuguese Jesuits were seized, 
they having been active in promoting 
the views of the siddee during the 
invasion. 

In 1691-2, the population of Bom- 
bay Avas much reduced by the })lague, 
of the civil servants only three re- 
maining alive ; and in 1694, Sir Jo- 
shua Gayer arrived, asGovernor.it 
Bombay, which he found in a dis- 
astrous state, principally caused by 
the depredations of the English pi- 
rates on the Mogul ships. Atireug- 
zebe insisting that all the loss sus- 
tained by his subjects should be 
made good by the I^ast India Com- 
pany. These pirates in 169ft pos- 
sessed two frigates, of 30 guns, off 
Cape Comorin, under Captain Kidd, 
who was afterwards taken and hang- 
ed ; one of 50, one of 40, and one 
of 30 guns, off the Malabar Coast. 

In 1798-9, Sir Nicholas Waite 
w as appointed resident at Surat, on 
the part of the New or English Com- 
pany ; and in 1700, by his intrigues, 
pro(!ured the imprisoiunent of Sir 
John Gayer and xMr. Colt, the Old 
or London Company's servants. At 
this time B<mibay was in a very 
weakly state, and under constant 
alarm of invasion from the INlaha- 
rattas, Arabs, or Portuguese. In 
1702-3, it was again visited by the 
plague, which carried off many hun- 
dreds of the natives, and reduced 
the garrison to 76 men. 

In 1708, the two rival Companies 
having united. Sir Nicholas Waite 
was dismissed, but Sir John Gayer, 
the legitimate governor, still con- 
tiiming in confinement at Surat, Mr. 
Aislabie was appointed ; and such 
was the continued feebleness of the 
settlement, that the Bombay govern- 
ment this year declined receiving an 
envoy from the King of Persia, for 
tear be should observe the weak- 



168 



BONARATTE. 



jiess of the plaee, both by sea and 
land. 

With the junction of the rival 
Companies, in 1708, Mr. Bruce's 
authentic History of the East India 
Company conchides, and we have 
no documents that can be depended 
on to fill up the interval since that 
period. The history of the infancy of a 
colony is, however, always the most 
interesting ; and it will be seen, from 
the foregoing- nanative, with what 
pcrseverauce the East India Com- 
pany supported a settlement, from 
which, for many years, they derived 
no profit, and experienced much 
trouble. 

At presenl Bombay may be said 
to rule the whole Avestern coast of 
India, and its inlluence is felt along 
the coasts of Persia and Arabia ; but 
the territorial possessions under its 
immediate jurisdiclion are small, 
rompiu-cd with those of Bengal and 
Madras. They consist principally of 
the districts of Surat, Broach, Cam- 
bay, Goelwarah, and other coun- 
tries extending along both sides of 
the Gulf of Cainbay, a considerable 
proportion of which were obtained 
since 1802 from Anund Row Gui- 
cowar, a Maharatta prince, and the 
whole are contained within the pro- 
vince of Gu jrat, of which they com- 
pose by far the most fertile, highly 
cultivated, and popidous portion. 
The inhabitants of this region are 
anioiig the most iiitelligent and in- 
dustrious of Hindostan, and from 
hence large quantities of cotton nia- 
luifactures are exported to all parts 
of the world. From these districts 
also a great export of the raw ma- 
terial takes place, partly the produce 
of the lands v.ithin the Company's 
influence, and partly brought from 
the interior on the large navigable 
rivers, such as the Nerbuddah, Tup- 
tee, Mahy, and IMehindry, which, 
with many others of smaller note, 
empty their streams into the Gulf of 
Cambay. 

The principal sea port towns, be- 
sides Bombay, are Surat, Broach, 
Cambay, and Gogo, from >\ Inch are 



procured the best native seamen in 
India, the natives along the gulf, 
particularly on the west side, being 
much addicted to navigation. The 
contiguous Island of Salsette is aLso 
subordinate to this government, but 
most unaccountably continues to ex- 
hibit the same state of desolation iu 
which it was originally received. 

It is difficult, with any precision, 
to define the extent of the Bombay 
territorial possessions, as some of 
the peshwa's districts are intennin- 
gled with tlieni, and ajiproach within 
a few miles of the city of Surat. On 
a rough estimate, how ever, they may 
be calculated to comprehend 10,000 
square miles, containing a popula- 
tion exceeding altogether two and a 
half millions, in the probable pro- 
portion of one Mabommedan to 1.5 
Hindoos. Nearly nine-tenths of all 
the existing Parsees are resident 
within the Bombay limits, but no 
estimate of their numbers, approach- 
ing to exactness, has even been 
made. {Lord ValeiUia, Bruce, M. 
Graham, Moore, Elmore, h. Grant, 
Blalcohn, Macpherson, Rennel, 12 
Reg. ^c.) 

BoNAA. — A small island iu the 
Eastern Seas, 25 miles in circum- 
ference, lying off the N. W. ex- 
tremity of Ceram. Lat.3°. S. Long. 
128°. 5'. E. 

BoNAWASi. — A small town in the 
province of North Canara, district 
of Soonda, on the confines of the 
Bednore district. Lat. 14°. 2?'. N. 
Long. 76°. 12'. E. In Hydrr's time 
it contained 500 houses, but is now 
nuich reduced. Its walls are ruin- 
ous; and, although it has been aplace 
of great celehrity, do not appear to 
IiaAc been of considerable exteiit. 
A great part of the adjoining eoun- 
tiy is waste, and overgrown with 
forests, but not containing much 
teak. This place is noted by Pto- 
lemy, and is said fo have had a dy- 
nasty of kings, who nilcd 1450 yearsi 
before the Christian era. {F. Bu- 
chanan, Si'c.) 

BoNARATTE. — A Small island ia 
the Eastern Seas, due south of Sale-^ 



BONY 



1(59 



yer, principally inhabited by Biig- 
gesscs. On this island, and Ca- 
lawc, a small island in tlie neigh- 
botuliood, the Bng[;ess sovercii^n is 
said to have an establishment tor the 
education of his dancing girls. 

BoNUHiK, {Vanag/iiri, a uoodi/ 
mountain). — A district in the Ni- 
zam's dominions in the province of 
Hyderabad, situated between the 
17th and 18th degrees of north lati- 
tude. It is better peopled and cid- 
tivated than a great proportion of 
the Nizam's country, but has no 
river of consequence. The chief 
towns are Bonghir and Hydcrshy. 

BoNGHiR. — A town in the pro- 
vince of Hyderabad, district of 
Bonghir, 21 miles E. from livdera- 
bad. Lat. 17° 18'. N. Long. 7i>° 
6'. E. 

BoNH.ARA. — A town in the pro- 
vince of Gujrat, district of Broach, 
35 miles E. of Surat. Lat. 21°. 7'. 
N. Long. 73°. 33'. E. 

BoNNEE BiVEK, (Vaui). — The 
Soank, which rises in the district of 
Chut a Nagpoor, joins liic Burkee 
Biver, about Lat. 21°. 43'. N. Long. 
84°. 50'. E. Irom m hence the united 
streams pursue a comse of ai)Out 
110 miles, under the appellation of 
the Braminy Noy River, \s hich it 
then changes for that of the Boinice 
Biver. Its course is afterwards 
nearly due east, until it is joined by 
the Coyle, or B\turnee River, when 
they flow together into the Bay of 
Bengal, 10 miles north from Point 
Pahniras. '1 he whole course, from 
the rise of the Soank, may be esti- 
mated at 360 miles, iiicluding the 
windings; andtiie countries it passes 
through are Chufa Nagpoor, Gang- 
poor, Sumbhulpoor, aad Cuttack. 

BoxsoLO. — A district in the terri- 
tories of the Poonah Maharattas, on 
the sea coast of the province of Be- 
japoor, betwten the 16th and 17th 
degrees of north latitude. It is inter- 
sected by many mountain streams, 
■which How from the ^^ estern Ghauts, 
such as the Gheriah, Denghur, and 
Atkerah Rivers, so named iiom for- 
tresses at their junctions ^v^th the 



sea, and formerly the resort of the 
])iratical fleets v,hich inU^sted t'.iis 
coast. The pririeij)al towns are Ghe- 
riah, Raree, and Vingorla. A great 
proportion of this district belongs to 
an independent JMaharatta Chieli 
named the Rajah of Colapoor. 

BoNTAiN. — A small district in 
the Island of Celebes, situated at 
the soutliern extremity. It was an- 
ciently considered among the de- 
pendent allies of Macassar, but was 
afterwards ceded to the Dutcli East 
India Company. Captain Carteret, 
who |)ut into the Bay of Bonlain, in 
Lat. 5°. 33'. S. Long. 119°. 47^ i:. 
gives a very good character of tJia 
inliabitants. He describes Bontain 
Bay as large and capacious, and 
says, that ships may lie in safety 
there during both monsoons. In 
this bay there are several small 
tow ns ; that which is called Bontain 
lies to the north, and has a small 
pallisadoed fort. Wood and water 
are to be procured here in great 
plenty, and also fresh provisions. 
Eowls and fruits abound, and rice 
may be had in any quantity. There 
are great numbers of wild hogs in 
the woods, which may be liad cheap, 
as the natives, being Mahommc- 
dans, never eat them. The titles 
are very irregular; commonly it is 
liut once high water, and once low 
w ater in 24 hours, and the diiicrcnce 
is seldom more than six feet. {Sta- 
vori7iiis, WiJcocke, i^c.) 

BoNV. — A kingdom in the Island 
of Celebes, extending 20 leagues 
along the western shore of the Gulf 
of Bony, from the River Chinrana to 
the River Salinico. This gulf, or 
arm of the sea, is named by the na- 
tives, Sewa, and by the Euro})eans, 
Buggess Baj, and deeply indents 
the Island of Celebes to the south. 
Witli the kingdom of Bony a consi- 
derable trade is carried on, it pro- 
ducing gold, rice, sago, cassia, tor- 
toise shells, pearls, i^c. 6ve. 

To the north of Bony, along the 
bottom of t!ie bay, the country is 
w ell iidiabited, and abounds in sago, 
which is very cheap ; also cassia and 



170 



BONY. 



pearls. Near tlie bottom of tlie gulf, 
at the River Loo, boat building is 
carried on; also a tiade in gold, 
sago, cassia, and seed pearls. The 
inhabitants along the sea-coast fish 
for swallo, (named also sea slag, tri- 
pana, and biche de mar) which they 
carry to Macassar, and sell to the 
Chinese junks. On the east side of 
the bay the country is not so well 
inhabited as on the w est, and navi- 
gation of the bay is extremely ha- 
zardous to ships of burthen, on ac- 
count of the numbeiless shoals and 
small rocky clusters in it. 

This is the proper countrj' of the 
Buggesses, (bugis, or bouginese) 
who are remarkably industrious and 
skilful in all kinds of curious filla- 
gTce work in gold and silver, and in 
weaving the striped and checked 
cotton cloths worn in all the Malay 
islands, 'i hey excel also in making 
jnatchlocks, firelocks, and all kinds 
of arms and accoutrements, and in 
building large prows and other ves- 
sels. 'J'his ancient, brave, and mar- 
tial nation became known to Euro- 
peans only in their decline. In cou- 
rage, enterprise, fidelity, and even 
fair dealing in commerce, they are 
placed at the head of the Orang 
Timor, or eastern men. I'he nation 
to which the bugis exhibit the great- 
est resemblance are the Japanese. 

Tlie Bugis may be reckoned the 
originril language of the island of 
Celebes. On the sea-coast it is 
much mixed with the Eastern Ma- 
lay, and is found pme only in the 
ancient books, and in the interior of 
Celebes. The alphabet consists of 
22 letters; the form of the character 
is peculiar, but resembles the Batta 
andTagala. The Koran has been 
translated into the Bugis language, 
and they also [losscss traditional and 
historical songs and romances in that 
dialect. 

'J 'he Buggesses possess a code of 
V ritten laws ; but they also deter- 
mine many disputes by single com- 
bat, never avenging themselves by 
personal assassination. In tiiis they 
difter essentially from the Sooloo na- 



tion, who never think of patting: 
themselves on an equality w ith their 
antagonist, but always attack him 
in the dark, or when ofi his guard. 

According to Stavorinus, the first 
monarch of tlie Buggesses, affirmed 
by them to be of celestial origin, in- 
stituted the laws of tlie country, 
which are still observed. He ap- 
pointed seven electors, the dignity 
to be hereditary in particular fami- 
lies, and descending to females as 
well as the other sex. All matters 
of importance must be decided by 
this electoral college, their power 
extending to the deposition as well 
as the appointing of their kings, and 
also the making of peace or war. 

In the beginning of the 17th cen- 
tury, the Buggesses were compelled 
by the Macassars to adopt the Ma- 
hommedan, but we have no account 
of their prior religion. The king- 
dom of Bony w as once so poweriwJ, 
that the state could bring 70,000 
lighting men into the lield, and 
greatly assisted the Dutch in the 
conquest of Macassar, of which they 
have since had reason to repent. 

Rajah Polacca, a powerful prince 
and sovereign of Bony, died in 1(J96, 
and was succeeded by his son, La- 
patoua, who died in 17 13. 

'i'he daughter of the latter, Bat- 
tara Todja, succeeded him as the 
16fh sovereign of Bony, and resigned 
in 1715, when she was succeeded hy 
her half-brolher, Lapadang Sajati, 
who was deposed in 1720, and the 
Queen Battara Todja restored. Her 
reign was a perpetual scene of civil 
and foreign war; during which she 
was repeatedly dethroned and re- 
elected, and the capital taken and 
plundered by the contending parties 
several times. In 1749, she died, 
and was succeeded by her half-bro- 
ther, Lama Ossong, under the namtt 
of Abdul Zabshab jelaluddeen, who 
reigned in 1775, and was then above 
80 years of age. Prior to this period 
tlie state of Bony had been brought 
under subjection by the Dutch, to 
whom the king Avas obliged to take 
an oath of fidelity and allegiance. 



BOONDEE. 



171 



Tlie policy of the Dutch was to keep 
tlie Maciissars ami BiJS?,esscs in a 
state of perpetual hostility, by which 
they at last subdued the former prin- 
cipality, and tiic latter soon followed. 
On the decline of the Dutch power, 
the state of Bony aj;ain attained in- 
dependence, which must have been 
confirmed by the conquest of the 
Dutch settlements in Celebes, in 
1812, by the British. (Starorinitf, 
Forrest, Leijden, Qnarterhj Review, 
Dahijmph, <St.) 

BooBooAN. — A small island in 
the Eastern Seas, lying off the south 
end of the Island of Basseelan, and 
having a small hnmmock on the 
north part of the island, whicli is 
very woody, but inhabited. 

BooDicoTTA, {Buddhacatn). — A 
town in the Baraniahal district, 30 
miles E. by S. from Bangaloor. Lat, 
12°. .51'. N. Long. 78°. 18'. E. 

BooGECOOGi., {BImjahhnj). — A 
town in the province of Cutcb, pos- 
sessed by independent native chiefs, 
situated about 10 miles inland from 
the Gulf of Cutch. Lat. 23°. 15'. N. 
Long. 69°. 45'. E. 'I'he fort of this 
district is named Mnddi, and stands 
at the mouth of a small river, about 
20 miles distant from Boogebooge, 
and is one of the chief places of ex- 
port in the province of Cutcli. In 
1809, the name of the chief of Booge 
was Futtcli Mahommed, who had 
extended his infliu'nce a<ross the 
(Julf of Cutch, and placed a garri^:on 
in Po.sitra, in Okamundel, from 
whence he claimed a share of all 
piratical captures. By the natives 
this place is frequently named Cutch 
Bhoojung, and reckoned the capital 
of the province. 

Bool. — One of the southernmost 
of the Philippine Isles, situated about 
the 10th degree of north latitude. 
In length it may be estimated at 
<ib miles, by 30 miles the average 
breadth. 

Bool, or Bullum. — A small dis- 
trict above the ^^ estern Ghauts, but 
now comprehended in the British 
province of Canara. It is situated 
about the 13th dt^re« of north lati- 



tude, and is so mountainous and 
covered with forests, that although 
nominally subject to tlie former My- 
sore sovereigns, it ne\ er v\ as ellcc- 
tually conquered until militan roads 
were 'opened througii the ioiTst 
towns by Gen. \\ elleslev in 1801-2. 
It contains no town of consequence, 
and being situated on the top of a 
ridge of hills, its rivers are mera 
mountain streams. 

BooLACooMBA. — A district sul>- 
ject to the Dutch, situated at the 
southern extremity of the Island of 
Celebes. The land is fertile in rice, 
abounds with game, and has exten- 
.sive forests ; but the timber is not 
well adapted for tJie construction of 
houses. During the west monsouu 
the road before Boolaeoomba is dan- 
gerous lor ships; small vessels, how- 
ever, can ruu into the River KaU- 
kongaimg. Near th« mouth of this 
river stands the Dutch pallisadoed 
fort Carolina, in which a resident 
WAS. stationed, who also had the su- 
perintendence of the kingdom of 
Bera. The men of the latter pro- 
vince are, in general, good warriors 
both by sea and land. The richest 
are merchattts; others employ tJrera- 
selves in building prows, and in ma- 
nufacturing a coarse cloth from the 
cotton, v.hich is ])lenty. A small 
tribute of these cloths was annuall}' 
paid to the Dutch East India Com- 
pany. {Stavvrimts, cVc.) 

BooNDKE, {Bimdi). — A town in 
the province of A j me, r, district of 
Harowt>. tributarv to the Iviaharaf- 
tas. Lilt. 25°. 26'. N, Long. 75°. 
35'. E. 

I'his town is situated on the south- 
erly <leciivity of a long range of hills, 
which runs nearly from cast to west. 
The j»alace of the rajah, a largo 
massy building of stone, is about 
halfway up the hill, and a kind of 
forthication extends to the top. The 
Bondce Kajah is of the llara tribe, 
and was formerly ol' considerable 
power and possessions, but both 
have been greatly reduced by the 
Slahrattas. >lis territories, though 
of small extent and revenue, are of 



172 



BOORO. 



importance, as thej' command a 
principal pass into Upper Hindostan. 

During the retreat of Col, Mon- 
son, in 1804, the Booudee Rajah 
gi-eatiy assisted him in his distress ; 
and his conduct had been uniformly 
friendly to the English ; 3'et, at the 
peace of 1 805, he was abandoned by 
ilie British govennnent to the ven- 
geance of the Maharattas. {Mal- 
colm, Hunter, cVc.) 

BooNTAL, {Bhavmttala). — A small 
district in the northern part of the 
Lahdack country, situated betwixt 
the 35th and 36th degrees of north 
latitude ; respecting which nothing 
is known, except its geographical 
position. 

BooREE Rapty River, (Revati). 
— ^^rhis river has its source in the 
hills which separate the province of 
Oudc from the Nepanl territories in 
Northern Hindostan, from whence it 
flows thiongh the Goracpoor district, 
and joii'S the Goggrah, a few miles 
belowf Dooryghaut. 

BooiiPHANA. — A small town in 
the province of Delhi, within the for- 
mer district of Siimroo Begum, 42 
miles N. N. W. from Delhi. Lat. 
29°. 18'. N. Long. 77°. 20'. E. 

BooRGHAUT. — A ghaut, or pass, 
through the western range of moun- 
tains, which is ascended on the road 
from Bombay to Poonah. This pas- 
.sage, although very rugged and 
steep, is not so mucli so as the Am- 
bah pass ; yet the hills are of great 
height, and present many fine scenes 
to the artist to delineate. Near the 
summit is a small village, named 
Coondallah, and another at tlie bot- 
tom named Expoly, with a handsome 
tank of great extent, enclosed with 
a stone wall, and havhig a flight of 
.stone steps to the vatcr. {liJoor, 

BooRHANPOoR. — A City HI the 
]Maharatta tenitories,in the province 
of Khandesh, of wliich it was former- 
ly the capital, situated on the N. W. 
side of the River Tui»tee. Lat. 21°. 
20'. N. Long. 76°. 20'. E. 

This town is the head-quarters of 
a singular sect of iVlahoiumedans, 



named Bohrah, whose monllab, or 
iiigh priest resides here. They dis- 
tinguish their own sect by the name 
of Ismaeeliah, deriving their origin 
from one of the followers of the pro- 
phet, who flourished in the age im- 
mediately succeeding that of Ma- 
hommed. They form a very large 
society, spread over all the countries 
of the Deecan, and carry on an ex- 
tensive commerce in all the provinces 
where their members are dispersed, 
appropriating a certain portion of 
their gains to the maintenance of 
their high priest. In Surat, there 
are 6000 families of Bohrahs, aud iu 
Oujain 1500. A younger brother of 
the niouUah resides at Oujain, and 
exercises a temporary and spiritual 
authority over the Bohrahs resident 
there. 

This city was taken possession of 
by the British army under Colonel 
Stevenson, on the 16th Oct. 1803, 
witliout resistance ; but was restored 
at the conclusion of the peace, in 
Dec. 1803. It is much fallen ofl" 
from its former grandeur; and the 
decay is likely, tiom the nature of 
the govennnent to which it is at 
present subject, to continue. 

Travelling distance from Oojain, 
154; Nagpoor, 256; Poonah, 288; 
Bombay, 340 ; Agra, 508 ; and Cal- 
cutta, by Nagpoor, 978 miles. {Huu~ 
ter, Rennel, ^c.) 

BooRKoo. — A small village in tlie 
Gujrat Peninsula, situated near the 
Run, six miles S. W. from Annan, 
and surrounded by a wall of black 
rock, which abounds in the adjacent 
country. 'Phis village belongs to 
Siinderjee Sewjee, the agent for 
horses to the Bombay government. 

BooRO. — An island in the eastern 
seas, situated betwixt the 3d and 
4th degrees of of south latitude, and 
the 126th and 127th of east longi- 
tude. In length it may be estimated 
at 75 miles, by 38 miles the average 
breadth. 

I'he principal settlement on tliis 
island is Cajelli, situated at the bot- 
tom of a gulf of the same name, in a 
maishy plain. The Dutch built a 



BOOTAX. 



173 



sibne fort here, wliicli was 1)lown up 
in 1689; since wliich they liavc only 
had an inclosnre of pallisailoes, tlio 
island proving hnt an unprofitable 
settlement to them, as it prodnced 
no spi«'ercis. Buflaloes and liec are 
to be had here in abmulanee, and 
also cocoa-nuts, bananas, lemons, 
citrons, hitter oranges, a few ])inc 
apples; and it is on this island that 
the best cajepnta oil is procnrcd, 
Booro produces dilferent sorts of 
ebony, and also the sago, palm, and 
teak trees. Ships may be supplied 
here with rice, cattle, and other 
refreshments, and tiie MOods abound 
with tlie babi ronssa or hog deer. 

Tiie Chinese trade here tor cabi- 
net woods, and f<ir ditterent species 
of dye woods. Part of the inhabit- 
ants are Mahomsnedans, and have 
a mosque here; but the interior of 
the island is inhabited by the abo- 
rigines or horaforas, who live dis- 
persed among the inaccessible monn- 
tains, and subsist on sago, fruits, and 
the produce of the chacc. The south 
of Kooro is much infested by the 
Papuas from New Guinea. {Forest, 
La Sillardiere, Bougainville, Stavo- 
rinus, S'c) 

BoosNAH. — A town in the pro- 
vince of Bengal, district of Jessore, 
60 miles, W. by S. from Dacca. 
Lat. 23°. 31'. N. Long. 89°. 39'. E. 



BOOTAN, {Bhutan). 

A country in Nortliern Hindosf an, 
situated principally between the 
27th and 28th degrees of north 
latitude. By the inhabitants of 
Hnidostan it is also named the 
t-ountry of the Deb Kajah ; and by 
the inhabitants of 'I'ibet, Dukba, 
The boundaries are very inaccurately 
defined; but, as an approximation, 
the province may be estimated at 
^00 miles in length, by 9(t miles tlie 
average breatlth. To the north it is 
.separated from Tibet by the Hi- 
malaya, or Soomoonang iVIountaiiis, 
to the south is tlie province of 
Bengal ; to the east it has an un- 
t^xplored region north of Assam; and 



to the west the Kyrant country, sul>- 
ject to the Nepaulese. 

'I'his province presents nothing to 
the view, but the most mis-shapea 
irregidarities ; mountains covered 
with eternal verdure, and rieli willi 
abundant forests of large and lofty 
trees. Almost every mountain has 
a rapid torrent at its base, and many 
of the loftiest have ])opulous vil- 
lages amidst oixhards and other 
plantations. In its external appear- 
ance it is the reverse of Tibet, which 
is a level" table land. 

The mountains of Bootan fonii 
part of tlie great chain, which geo- 
graphers term Afons Imaus ; and of 
which frequent mention is made iu 
the mythological histories ot the 
Brahmins, by the name of Himalaya. 
At the foot of the chain of hills, to- 
wards the Bengal frontier, is a j)laiii 
of about 25 miles iu breadth, choked 
up with the m.ost luxuriant vegeta- 
tion ; and from its inaptitude to sup- 
ply the wants, or facilitate tiic func- 
tions of human life, may be con- 
sidered as appertaining properly to 
neither. The exhalations arising 
from the multitude of .springs, which 
the vicinity of the mountains pro- 
duces, are collected and confined 
by tlie woods, and generate a most 
pestilential atmosphere. The trees 
are large, and the forests abound 
with elephants ; the human inhabi- 
tants arc much debased in form, 
size, and strengtii. 

The climate of Bootan, affords 
every degiee of variation ; for, at tlie 
time the inhabitants ftf I'nnakha are 
cautious of exposing th(;mseives 1<» 
an ahnost vertical sun, (hose of 
Gliassa feel :U1 tlic rigour of >\ inter, 
and are cliiiicd by perpetual snows; 
yet both places arc within sight of 
each other. 

In this province almost every 
favourable aspect of the mountains, 
coated Avith the smallest quantity of 
soil, is cleared and adapteil lor culti- 
vation, by being shelved into hori- 
zontal beds, 'i he country abounds 
with excellent limeslone; Imt the 
natives apjicar unacquainted with 



174 



BOOTAN. 



its uses, cilhcr for building; or for 
agricultural purposes. The season 
of the rains about Tassisudon, the 
capital, is remarkably moderate; 
there are frequent showers, but none 
of those heavy torrents which ac- 
company the monsoon in Ben;;a!. 

In Bootan are to be foimd straw- 
bcnics, raspbenies, and blackberries, 
growing wild; there arc also the 
apple, pear, peach, and apricot trees ; 
also the ash, birch, maple, yew, pine, 
and lir, but no oak trees. The 
forests abound with a variety of 
handsome timber, and the iir is often 
found eight and 10 feet in circum- 
ference. The turnips are remark- 
ably good, being large, free from 
fibres, and very sweet. The best 
fiaiits are oranges, ])cachcs, apricots, 
pomegranates, and walnuts. For 
iiTigation the Booteas conduct wa- 
ter across the chasms of the moun- 
tains, through the hollow trunks of 
frees. In this country great part of 
tlie field labour falls on the females. 
They plant, weed, and to them 
eventually the task f:\ils of ap|)lyiug 
the sickle, and brandishing the tlail. 
In all laborious odices they are ex- 
posed to hardships and inclement 
weather. 

A\'ild animals are not numerous 
in Bootan, but monkies of a large 
and handsome kind aboTuid, and 
are held sacred by the Booteas, as 
well as by the liindoos. The spe- 
cies of horse, which is indigenous to 
Bootan, is called Tannian or 'J'aJi- 
gun, from Tangustan, the general 
appellation of that assemblage of 
mountains, which constitutes the 
territory of Bootan; the breed being 
altogether confined within these li- 
nu'ls. Thev are usuaily 13 hands 
high, and remarkable Ibr their sym- 
metry and just proportions. I'hey 
are distinguished in general by a 
tendency to piebald, those of one 
colour being rare. 'Jhey are short 
bodied, clean limbed, and though 
decj) in the chest, extremely active. 
Acctjstomcd among their native 
mountains to stmggle against op- 
position, they seem to inherit this 



spirit as a principle of theiriiattircj 
and hence, have acquired among 
Europeans, a character of beinghead- 
strong ajid ungovernable, though 
in reality it proceeds from an excess 
of eagerness to perform their task. 

I'rom Bootan a caravan annually 
visits the district of Ruugpoor in 
Bengal, bringing with it oranges, 
walnuts, and the coarse woollen 
manufactures of that country, v^ ith 
the horses that cany them, tor sale. 
The same privilege has never been 
allowed by the Bootan government 
to the inhabitants of Bengal. The 
presents sent by the Deb Kajah to 
the Bengal presidency, in 1772, con- 
sisted of sheets of gilt leather, 
stamped with the black eagle of the 
Bussian armorial, talents of gold 
and silver, and bulscs of gold dnst ; 
bags of genuine musk, narrow v^ool- 
len cloths, the manufacture of Tibet, 
and silks of China. The chests 
which contained them were of good 
v\orkmanship, and joined together 
by dovetail work. The Nanaiuee, 
a base silver coin struck in Coos 
Bahar, is cunent through Bootan, 
as in that countrj' there are local pre- 
judices against a mint. It is of the 
value of about lOd. or one-third of 
a sicca rupee ; the name is derived 
from the Hindoo mythology. 

The Deb (devaj Rajah who re- 
sides at Tussudon is the supreme 
head of the province, and his autho- 
rity is obeyed by a considerable part 
of it, particularly the country adja- 
cent to the road leading liom Ben- 
gal to the metropolis. ^^ illi the 
country to the east and west of this 
line we are but httle acquainted ; 
and it is quite impossible to form 
any rational estimate of the ])opu- 
lalion, which from the remotely 
scattered sites of the towns and vil- 
lages, and tlie precipitous natme 
of the country, we may conjecture 
to be very scanty. The principal 
towns are Tassudon the capital, Poo- 
naUha, Wandipoor, (Jhassa, and 
Murrichom. I'ilo is the title given 
to a provincial governor, and soubah 
to those of inferior rank. 



BOOTAN. 



175 



Tlic military weapons of the Boo- 
teas are the bow and arrow, a short 
straif^ht sword, and a faulchion re- 
flected like a pruning; knil'e. I ti war 
they use jwisoncd arrows ; the poi- 
son (hey procure from a plant as yet 
unkno\\ H to lilui-opeans, and it is an 
inspissated vegetable juice, in con- 
sistence and appearance much re- 
sembling crude opium. Their 
matchlock muskets are very con- 
teniptiljle, and of no use, except in 
the finest weather when the match 
will burn, and the priminj in an 
open pan take fire. In the manaojc- 
ment of the sword and shield they 
are very dextrous, and most ex«;el- 
!cnt archers. They have wall pieces, 
but no cannon. A slrong jealousy 
of all intercourse witli the inhabi- 
tants of Hindostan Projx^r, prevails 
universally among the nHti\ es on its 
northern frontier; and it does not 
appear that Bootan was ever con- 
<}uered, or even seriously invatlcd by 
the Mahommedans, 

There is a remarkable dissimi- 
larity between the feeble bodied and 
meek spirited natives of Bengal, and 
their active and Herculean ncigh- 
bom-s the mountaineers of Bootan. 
A shong similaiity of features per- 
vades the whole race oftheBooteas, 
who are much fairer and more ro- 
bust tlian their Bengalesc neigh- 
bours, with broader faces and high 
cheek-bones. Tlicy arc greatly af- 
flicted with glandular swellings in 
the throat, from which the natives 
of Bengal are exempted; it being 
calculated that one person iu six 
is affected with this distemper. 

The Booteas have black hair, 
which they cut close to tlie head. 
The eye is a very remarkable fea- 
ture of their faces, small, black, and 
svitli long pointed corners, as if 
stretched and extended by artificial 
means. Tlieir eye-lashes are so thin 
as to be scarcely perceptible, and 
the eye-brow is but slightly shaded. 
Below the eye is the broadest part 
of the face, which is rather flat, and 
narrows from tlie cheek-bones to the 
■t'hin. Tlus chsiractei- of counte- 



nance prevails among tlie Tartar 
tiibes, butismore remarkable among 
the Chinese. The skins of the 
Booteas are smooth, and most of 
them arrive at a very advanced age, 
before they have even the rudiments 
of a beard ; their aa hiskei-s also arc 
of a very scanty growth. Many of 
them are six feet high ; and, taken 
altogether, their complexions are not 
so dark by several shades as those 
of the European Portiigucse. 

Their houses are in general but of 
one story; but the palace of the 
Deb Rajah, at Tassudon, consists of 
many floors, the ascent to which is 
by lofty stairs, which is an unusual 
circumstance in Bootan. In a coun- 
try composed of mountains, and 
abounding with torrents, bridges 
musr necessarily be very frequent; 
and a traveller has commonly to 
pass one or more every daj's jour- 
ney. They are of various construc- 
tion, generally of timber, but some- 
times of iron chains. 

Woollen cloth for raiment, meat, 
spirits, and tea, are in use among 
the Booteas, who are strangers ta 
the subtle niceties and refined dis- 
tinctions of the Hindoos, which con- 
stitute the absurd perplexity of caste. 
As a refreshment tea is as common 
in Bootan as in China, but it is 
made in a very different way from 
that which Europeans are accustom- 
ed to follow. The Booteas make a 
eomjiound of water, flour, salt, but- 
ter, and bohea tea, with some other 
astringent ingredients, all boiled and 
beat up together. Wheti they hav« 
finished the cup, they lick it in order 
to make it clean ; the liigher classes 
afterwards wrap it up in a piece of 
scarlet silk. In some instances their 
medical practice is rendered unplea- 
sant to the physici.'in, who, when 
the Bootan Bajah takes a dose of 
physic, is obliged to swallow, how- 
ever unseasonably, a i)ro]ioi tionat« 
quantity of the same medicine. 

The ministers of religion in Boo- 
tan are of tht- sect of Buddha, and 
a distinct class, confined solely to 
the duties of their faith. Th« com- 



176 



EOREA. 



mon people jMctciidiiig; to iioinlorlVi- 
ence in maltcrs of spiiitn;»l concern, 
leave religion, wifli all its I'ornis and 
ceremonies, to those Avho are at- 
tached trom eaiij' habit to its obliga- 
tions and prescriptions, (hnn nunuiec 
paimee ooni, a form of words to 
which ideas of pecniiar sanctity are 
annexed by the inhabitants of Boo- 
tan and Tibet, arc placed on most 
of their consecrated buildings. 'J'hey 
are frequently also engraved on tlie 
rocks in large and deep characters, 
and sometimes seen on tlie sides of 
liills, formed by means of stones 
fixed in tlie earth, and of so great a 
size as to be visible at a considerable 
distance. In the performance of any 
religious duty, the Booteas admit of 
no interrnption jNliatever, Avhich has 
proved the cause of mu( h delay and 
inconvenience to those who have 
had business to transact with their 
chiei's. {Turner, Saunders, Hcunel, 

BooToN. — An island in the East- 
ern Seas, hing off the south-eastern 
extremity of Celebes, about the 5th 
degree of south latitude. In length 
it may be estimated at So miles, by 
20 miles the average breadth ; and 
it is separated from the Island of 
Pangansane by a strait, whidi is 
passable for square rigged vessels. 

This island is high and woody, 
but well cultivated, and produces 
rice, maize, yams, a variety of tro- 
pical fruits, and abundance of the 
wild bread fruit tree, tlie kernel of 
which is indigestible. Fowls, goats, 
buiialoes, and fish, arc also to be 
procured here, in payment of which 
money is prefeired by the natives to 
any species of barter. The inhabi- 
tants are very tawny, of short sta- 
ture, and ugly; their language, on 
tlie sea coast, is the JMalay, and 
tlicir religion the Mahommedan. 
The Dutch had lormerly a settle- 
ment here in the Bay of Booton, 
and lield the chief of the island un- 
der a sort of subjection as an ally. 
They paid him isu rix dollars an- 
nually, in return for which he per- 
mitted tliem to send an officer an- 



nually, named the exlirpafor, who 
inspected the woods, and destroyed 
the clove trees. 

On the east side of this island is a 
>)ay, named by the Dutch Dwaal, or 
Mistake Bay, into Avhich if a ship 
])(! drifted by the currents, she can- 
not get out until the west monsoon 
s(>ts in, and even then it is difficult. 
A Dutch governor, going to Banda, 
was detained in this vexatious gulf 
a whole year. {Stavoriiius, Labcl~ 
JariUere, Forrest, Bougainville, ^'c. 

BoPAL, {Bhupala, a King). — A 
town in the province of Malwah, 
107 miles east of Oojain, the capital 
of a small state tributary to the Ma- 
harattas. Lat. 23°, 16'. N. Long. 
77°. 27'. E. 

'I'his place is extensive, and sur- 
rounded with a stone wall, on the 
outside of which is a large gunge, or 
mart, with wide and straigiit streets. 
On a rising ground to the S. W. on 
the outside of the town is a fort 
called Futtehghur, built on a solid 
rock. It has a stone wall w ith square 
towers, biit no ditch. To the south- 
west, under the walls of this fort, is 
a very extensive tank, or pond, 
formed by an embankment at the 
confluence of five streams, issuing^ 
from the neighbouring hills. The 
tank is aboxit six miles in length. 
The hills in tUe neighbourhood con- 
tain a soft free stone, and a reddish 
granite, from which issues the small 
liver Patarah, and the Betwah also 
has its source in this vieinit}'. 

The town and territory of Boi)al 
are occupied by a colony of PataiKS, 
to whom they Mere assigned by Au- 
rengzebe. In 1790 the revenue of 
Bopal was estimated at 10 lacks of 
nqiees, but it has been since greatly 
reduced by the depredations and en- 
croachments of the Maharattas. 
(Uiinter, ic) 

BoREA. — A town in the northern 
extremity' of the province of Delhi, 
situated in the Doab of the Jumna 
and Sutulege rivers. 'J he country^ 
in the neighbourhood, is inhabited 
by Singhs and Sieks, 
3 



BORNEO. 



177 



BORNEO, Cftmtni). 

The lariACst of the Asiatic Isles, 
p\f(;nilirig (Voin llic seventh piiraliil 
olnoitli.t'j tlicfointh parallel ol'south 
latitude, aud from the IWtli to the 
1 18lh (deast longitude. Tliis island 
is of a mole solid eompaet ligine, 
and not so nuieh indented hy arms 
of tlie sea as the; rest of the Eastern 
Archipelago, ulthongii it possesses 
many bays and harbours, some of 
Iheni as jet but little explored. It 
is sunouuded by inimberless small 
islands and rocky islets, many of the 
latter not larger than a common Eu- 
rojiean house, aTid in length nuiy be 
estimated at 750 miles, by the 3a0 
miles, tlic average b-readth. 

'Jlie interior of this! island bein^ 
■wholly unexplored, we are compelled 
to trust to llie inaccurate (•(•minuni-' 
iiications of the ignorant natives to 
Ihc Europeans formerly settled on 
the island, or occasionally visiting 
the sea-coast on tradings voyages. 
This species of information is obvi- 
ously not entitled to much attention; 
iVoiJi a concurrence of tesliinony, 
liovvcYcr, we may infer, that in ge- 
neral, for above 30 miles inland, it 
continues marshy and covered with 
jungle, but inhabited, and in some 
degree cultivated. Further inland 
it becomes mountainous, and is co- 
vered \tith forests of tall ti-ees, 
swarming with wild animals, and 
j)roducing that species of large n\)c, 
iianu'd by tlic Malays the orang 
ootang, or man of the woods. If we 
may credit tiie IMalay accounts, this 
centrical tract is also inhabited, as 
they assert that many of the ai tides 
of traflie sold to Europeans are 
Itrongbt from a distance of 20 dajs 
jouincy up the country. 

The rivers of tills island best 
knowi) to Europeans are those of 
Ijorneo, Barjarmassin, and I'assir, 
which are ascertained to be navi- 
gable fitr boats above 60, from then* 
junction with the ocean; but they 
liave never been ascended higher by 
Europeans, and very seldom by Ma- 
Jays. From the nature of the coun- 
tiy, it is probable tlicy do not con- 

N 



tinuo navigable much further up> 
which is an additional obstacle to 
the examination of the centrical 
tracts, to those presented by the Ma- 
honmicdau inhabitants of the sea- 
coast, v\ ho endeavoiu" to monojiolize 
all the tralhc, and prevent any inter- 
course between the natives of tiie 
interior and the Chinese or Euro-* 
peans. 

TJie climate of the northem pfti t 
of Borneo nnich resembles that of 
('e\lon, being from the abundance 
of verdure always cool, and not sub- 
ject to hot land winds, like the coast 
of Coromandel. It is watered also 
by a number of fine rivers, several of 
which fall into the Bay of Maloodoo, 
without bars. The Sooloos, who 
jiretended to a sovereignty over this 
part of the coast, many yeais ago 
made a grant of it to the English, 
M'ho nc\ct took possession, and the 
right of the donors thus to dispose 
of it may reasonably be doubted. 
In tiiis quarter of the island is the 
high mountain Keeneebaloo, near 
to v\hich live the wild idaan, named 
also inaroots, lioraforas, or aUbrcze. 
The "\\ hole of this tract, however, to 
European constitutioits is singularly 
nnheallhy. 

On the mainland, on tlie north 
coast op[)Osite to Balambangan anti 
Banguey, there are forests of tall 
timber without underwood, a'ud free- 
stone is also found in abundance. 
Here aie large cattle called lisang, 
and liOeks of tlecr and wild hogs feed 
on the extensive j)Iaitis without fear 
of the tiger. Tlie country produces 
all sorts of tropical fruits, and some 
few species not to be '.uuud oa thy 
other islands. 

The principal native town is that 
of Borneo; and the chief European 
settlements, . Passir, Banjarmassiii, 
andPontiana. Under their respeelivo 
titles some jiarliculars will be found 
resi^ectingthe commerce and exports 
of Borneo, and for fuithcr niiseclia- 
neoiis details, see the articles, Man- 

O KKDA RA , M \ I.LOonoO, PaIT AN, Pa P- 

I'AL, and Mamtava. 
The sea-coast, aud tlic mouths of 



178 



BORNEO. 



the iia\i<;able livas of Borneo, arc cfl tJicin- in streni!:tlj and activity. 

ii)habitt'd b} Mahomnu'daus, vho Thcy-iUG luiivei sally iiulc and lui- 

rccoi\e I'lam Enropciius the <::on(Tal Ictterod ; and, Mheii lliey have not 

name ol' Malays. They are an iin- been reduced to the stale of shives 

pure nu\tiire of Macassars, Java- of the soil, their manners have a ge- 

iicse, INlalays, Arabs, and some con- ucral resemljianee, 

verted Biajoos, or aboi igiuf.s, and In tiieii- manners, the most singu- 

aro a rapacious, treacherous race, hu" feature is, the necessity imposed 

niuch addicted to piracy, with -whom on every person, of sonielinie in his 

Europeans have never jet been abb; life, emhruuig his hands in hunutti 

to establish a secure intercourse. It is blood; and, in general, among ail 

a remarkable fact, lio\ve\Vr, that the llieir tribes, as Aveii as the idaan, no 

unarmed and un[)rotcct('d Cliinese ])erson is permitted to marry, injtil 

trade uitiiout dillicultv on a coast so he can shew the skull of a man he 



fatal to Europeans; jet tlie cargoes 
arc valuable, and their vessels de- 
fenceless. The chiefs, or rajahs, of 
these piratical states, possess, each, 
one or more strong holds,from m hieh 
they have, assisted by the pcstilen- 



has slaughtered. They eat the tlesh 
of their enemies like the battas of 
Sumatra, and drink out of their 
skulls. The ornaments of their 
honses are human skulls and teeth, 
which are, conseiiuenlly, in gieat 



laal climate, repeatedly repelled En- rcipiest among Iheni ; as formerly in 
ropcans, with severe loss. Trading Sumatra, the ancient inhabitants of 
ships, while lying oft" the coast of w hich arc said to have had no other 



Borneo, should be particularly ou 
their guard, and always ready to re- 
sist an attack. 

'i"he inhabitants of the interior, or 
aborigines, have usually recci\cd ihe 
iiame of idaan, and in every respect 



circulating medium than the skulls 
of their enemies. The horaforas are 
found in all the Moluccas, in Cele- 
bes, the Phillipiues, and Maginda- 
nao, where they are termed sabano 
ormunubo; and the ferocious race, 



;ippeartoresenil)lethc raceofhorafo- mentioned by Marsden, who li\e 

fas, or alfoers, as they are termed by inland frojn Samanka in Sumatra, 

the Dutch, being, except the Papuas, and are accustomed to atone for 

in all probability, the most ancient their own faults, by offering the 

and original race of the Eastern Isles, heads of strangers to the chiefs of 

The idaan are sometimes termed villages, are probably of the same 

maroot, which is tlie Sanscrit name descrij.i1 ion. 

of the 49 regents of the winds, and The Sooloos assert, that the idaan. 

companions of Indra. They are a of the interior' believe that their gods 

barbarous, but brave and active race, are pleased with human victims, and 

iiud their language, which is reckon- that several in poorer circumstances 

ed original, but has no wiitten cha- will club togelijcr to buy a Philip- 

raeter, is named, indiscriminately, pine slave, or any other person that 

the biajoo, tiroon, or idaan. They is to be sold cheap, fhat all may 

are certainly the original inhabitants partake in the merit of the execu- 

of Borneo, and resemble the hora- tion. Their anus are long knives 

foras in stature, agility, colour, and and soompiltans, a, tube of wood 

murmcrs. about six feet long, through which 

Th<; horaforas aro indigenous in they blow small arrows, j»oisoned at 

almost all the l:;a:5tern Isles, and are one end ; having, at the other, a small 

fcothcli^nes Ibund in the same island bit of cork wood, just large enough 

with the Papuas, Ol' oriental negroes; to fill up the liollow of the tube, 

bat the lalter have never yet been They are 'generally well acquainted 
discovered in Borneo. They are with poisons. The jioisonous juice 
often lighter in coloui than the PJa- used for this ptnpose is extracted 
■ hoimnedau races, and gcucrally ex- from a tree, which bus not ytt bccu 



BORNEO. 



179 



ascertiiincd by Europeans, and the 
V ound caused by it is mortal. 

These idaan, althou^ii of such 
barbarous and sanguinary liabits, are 
Hot mere savages, 'i ney cuUivato 
the eartli, and raise fruits and vege- 
tables, which they carry to the sca- 
eoast, and exchange with the Bia- 
joos and Malays for salt ; this arlieio 
in lumps passiii'; in the market for 
cuirency. These idaan rear hogs, 
and sympathize with the Europeans 
wlien they see tliem eat pork, which 
the Malays hold in abhorrence; but 
they consider the latter advanced a 
step beyond themselves in ci^i!iza- 
tion, as having a religion^ wliile they 
have, in fact, not any. 

The Biajoos may be considered 
as the same race with the idaan and 
horaforas, tlieir manners being some- 
what diversified by the nature of 
their pursuits, which are those of a 
maritime life. They are in reality a 
species of sea gipsies, or itinerant 
fishermen, who live in small covered 
boats, and enjoy a perpetual sum- 
mer on the Eastern Ocean, shifting 
to leeward from island to island, 
with the variations of the monsoon. 
In some of their customs, this sin- 
gular race resemble the natives of 
the Maldive Islands. They annu- 
ally perform their ottering to the god 
of evil, by launching a small bark, 
loaded with all the sins and misfor- 
tunes of the nation, which are ima- 
gined to fall on the unfortunate crew 
that may be so unlucky as to meet 
with it. 

The Biajoos, on tlie norlh-wcst 
coast of Borneo, are more civilized 
than the others ; and, when the Eng- 
lish coioiiy at Balambaugan existed, 
used to supply it with rice, fowls, 
and other provisions ; by the Malays 
they are named oran laiit, or men 
of the sea. 'J'hese fishing Biajoos 
have boats of about five or six tons, 
with whole families on board, who 
fish for swallo, or sea slug, in seven 
snid eight fathoms water. 'I'hey also 
dive for it; the best, which is the 
black, being procured in deep water, 
souiit of them of tUe w ei^jht of half 

N 2 



a pound. It is sold to the Chi- 
nese at foiu- and live debars per 
pecul, (133| pounds). Some Biajoos 
dwell close to the sea on the islands 
round Borneo, and at the moullis of 
rivers, their houses being raised on 
posts. Many of this last class have 
become converts to the Mahomme- 
dan religion. 

On the north-cast coast of Borneo 
is a savage people, named orang ti- 
dong, or tiroon, who ap])ear to ho 
another variety of the Biajoo race. 
They reside up the rivers, and lit out 
pirati('al vessels to cruize among the 
Philippines, and on the north-east 
coast of Borneo. They are a hardy 
race, and subsist mostly on sago 
during their cruizes. The Mahom- 
mcdans of Magindanao and the lUa- 
nos att'ect to despise them ; but when 
they meet among the Pliilippines, 
Avhich arc their common prey, they 
do not molest each other. They are 
described as eaters of human flesh 
occasionalh'. Their boats are small, 
and the planks are sewed together, 
of which they take pieces and cany 
overland, when enclosed in any of 
the bays by the Spanish armed ves- 
sels. Their conduct to theii' prison- 
ers is cruel in the extrenjc, often 
mutilating the stoutest, or leaving 
them to perish on some sandy desert 
island, 'i'hey sell a great deal of 
sago to the Sooloo islanders, wiio 
afterwards dispose of it to the Chi- 
nese junks. 

There remains another class of 
Biajoos, who wander about Celebes, 
Borneo, and the Philippines, and 
who Cvre composed of a medley of 
dillerent nations ; such as Chinese, 
with long plaited hair ; Javanese, 
Avith bare throats, plucked beards 
and whiskers ; and Macassars, with 
black shiiiing teetli. Their religion 
is said to be Mahonnncdaii and 
Chinese; and their boats arc ma- 
naged by the women as well as the 
men. 

Comparing the state of this island 
in civilization and cultivation with 
other parts of India, the population 
of whicli is a^cmt^uad, 'AlLUuuglx of 



IBO 



BOrSLAGUR. 



so immense a size, we eannot assinii 
a greater iiinjiber than three uiillious 
to the iiihahitants of Borneo; not 
including in tlie estimate the orans: 
outungs, whieli some authors assert 
is also a cooking aniina!. 

The inhabitants ol" the north coast 
of Borneo iia ve a tradition, that their 
country was once subject to China; 
l)Ut when lir^t AJsited by the Portu- 
guese, in 1530, tiiey ibuiid the Ala- 
honniieilan religion firmly establish- 
ed all along the sea coast. 

The Dutcii had Ibrnierly a settle- 
ment at Banjarmassin; and, in 1778, 
obtained 1 andak and Succadana by 
cession from the King of Banttun, 
Avhose ancestoi-s in remote times had 
conrjuered them. They sent a small 
force to take possession of them, and 
erected a fort at I'ontiana ; but, like 
many olher of their establishments, 
tliey never realized profit fiom it 
equal to the expense incurred; yet 
among the exports are enumerated 
rough diamonds, eamphire, benzoin, 
canes, iron, copper, bezoar, sago. 
Max, bird nests, and gold. {For- 
rest, Dalnpnple, Lnjden, Stavoriims, 
Wilcocke, Ebnore, Sc.) 

Borneo. — A town on the N. W. 
coast of the Island of Borneo, situ- 
ated 10 miles u|> a river of tiic same 
name. Lat. 4°. 50'. N. Long. 114°. 
44'. E. The river is navigable far 
above the town for ships oi burthen ; 
but the month is narrow, and has a 
bar, over wliich there is scarcely 17 
teet at high water. U]) to the town 
the water is salt, and the tide runs 
at tlie rate of four miles an hour, 
in the mid<lle is six fathoms water; 
and here lie moored, head and stern, 
the Chinese junks, four or five of 
whicli, abjut500 tons burthen eacli, 
arrive atumally from Amoy. The:-e 
junks carry to China a great quantity 
of black viood, which is uoiked up 
into furniture ; abuj rattans, danmier, 
eiove l)ark. swallo, or biche de juar, 
tortoise-shell, bird nests, and (!\eel- 
leni nalivv' cam|tiiire. On aceouiit 
'of thi" goodness and plenty of timix-r, 
the Chinese freciuently buihl junks, 
Bome so lar^c as 5U0 tons, which 



they load with the roiigli produce of 
the islam!, and send to China. This 
industrious pro|)le have many pep- 
per gardens in the niiglibomhood of 
the t?jwn, keep shops both on board 
their ships and on shore, and infnse 
life into the town. i>y a proper 
management, it is probable, th.it 
wooli(;ns might be convejed through 
this channel into China. 

T!ie houses of this town are built 
OR each side of the river uiion posts, 
and are ascended by stairs and lad- 
ders. It resembles Venice, in hav- 
ing small water channels in place of 
streets ; and all traflic is transacted 
on board of boats, wliich float up 
ajid (low n the river with the tides, 
and are in general managed by wo- 
men. 

The captains and supercargoes of 
Euro[)ean trading-ships should be 
careful of Ncntiiringon shore here, 
nor should tlicy on any account take 
their ships ui) the river, for' fear of 
treat liery. The IVIalay and Cliinese 
vessels, trading to this port, hang ;i 
bag of lime in the water close lor-' 
ward under each bow, wliich, im- 
pregnating the water around, in their 
opinion keeps off the worm. 

The form of govermnent at this 
place is difiicuit to understand. 'J'he 
chief person is styled eang de pa- 
tuan, and the second sultan ; then 
come tile pruigerans, or nobles, 15 
in number, m ho tyrannize over th« 
people. Formerly there was ait 
English factory here, but it has long 
since been abandoned.. (Forrest, 
Ehnorc, Ath Register, Vc.J 

BoRow. — A town in the province 
of Gujrat, 27 miles N. W. from 
Camba'v. Lat 22°. 33'. N. Loiig. 
72°. 2-1'. E. 

BouJi'.POOR, {Bhojapurn\ — A 
town in the province of Bahar. dis- 
trict of Shahabad,68 miles W. from 
Batna. Lat. 25° 36'. N. Long. 84<». 
y. TL 

BoUSLAGUK, (BhomlngJiar). — A 
large grand village in the j)rovinee 
of Gnndwana, 110 miles S. froia 
Buttuui)oor. Lut. 20°. 4U'. N. Long. 
82°. 28'. B. 



BRAHMAPOOTRA RIVER. 



181 



About ihis place tlie streams are 
ohservi'd to rnn \\ estward, Ihe couu- 
try beiiii; drained into the Goda\ ery ; 
to the north of this tlie little rivers 
mil eastward, and tail into the M.\- 
hanuddy. I'roni Conkair to tliis 
place, a dislanee of 40 niilej^, there 
is not a single habitation lliat ean he 
called even a handet. A hut or two 
are observed liere and there, w itii 
small spots of land somewhat clear- 
ed; when; the Goands, having cut 
down (he trees to within three feet 
of the o^round, and having intcr- 
\vo\ eu the bjanehes, so as to fence 
Jheir plantations against the incur- 
sions of wild beasts, clear a spot, 
and cultivate a little uiaize. (^Bhuit, 

330UTAN.— A high round island, 
vith several smaller ones near it, 
l}ing olf the north-east coast of tlie 
3Ialay Peninsula. Lat. 6°. 32'. N. 
Loti'l 9iP. 10'. K. 

IjOWal. — A village in the province 
of Bengal, district of Dacca ilclal- 
pore, 20 miles N. bv E. from the 
«:ity of Dacca. Lat. 2;i° 57'. N. 
Long. 90°. 23'. E. The country sur- 
rounding this place swarms with 
game of all sort.s, among which may 
be enumerated eleiihauts, tigers, 
leopards, bears, buflaloes, \\ iid boars, 
deer of many varieties, foxes, hares, 
jackals, tiger cats ; and, of the fea- 
liiered tribes, florekins, peacocks, 
the doiuesiic fowl in a wild state, 
diil'crent sorts of partridges, snijies, 
fjiiail, wild ducks, leal, and wild 
pigeon.s. 

Bkahmapootra River, — The 
largest river ol India, known iu 
'J'ibct by the; name of the Sanpoo. 
The sources of this ri-.er have never 
been e\i>lored, luit it is probable they 
are separated from those of the 
Ganges only by a narrow range of 
snow clad j)eaks, alioiit tlie 32d de- 
gree of north latitude, and 82d of 
cast longitude. l''r.)ni hence the 
Jhabmapootra takes its eoiu-se east- 
ward through the <'<nuitry of Tibet, 
north of the Himalaya Mountains, 
where it is known by the name of 
JJanpoo, or Zauchoo, which is im- 



derstood to mean the river, as Gunga 
is among the Rrahmiuical sect of 
Hindoos. Li its course eastward, 
it passes to tlie north of Teshoo 
Loomboo, the residence of Teshoo 
Lama, wlieie it is stiled E^nchoom- 
boo, and thence flows in a v\ ide-ex- 
tended bed, through many channels, 
and forming a multitude of islands. 
Its principal channel is described as 
narrow but deep, and never ford- 
able. At this place it receives the 
tributary waters of tlie Painomtchieii, 
and many other streams, before it 
jiasses Lassa, and p;'ii'.i;atcs tlie 
frontier mountains that diudc Tibet 
from A.s.sam. In this part of its 
course it takes a \ ast circuit through 
the mountains, before it enters the 
latter khigdom, and approaches 
vvitiiin 220 nules of Yunan, the 
most western [jrovince of China. 
Here it turns suddenly west through 
Assam, where it re(;ei\es a copious 
supply from that region of rivers, 
before with increased vohime it 
rushes, to the notice of Europeans, 
below Rangamatty; on the borders 
of Bengal. Eroni hence it hastens 
to meet the Ganges; these rivers 
being nearly related in their birth, 
as well as united in their tenninu- 
tiou. 

After entering Bengal, it makes a 
eirciiit round the western ])oint of 
the Garrow Mountains, and then al- 
tering its course to the south, in the 
Dacca province, is joined by the 
Mcgna, which, although net the 
10th part of its size, nio.st unaC' 
couiitably absorbs its name, and coui- 
inunicates its own to the great mass 
of waters, ui.-til they iuiermi\: with 
those of the Ganges, near ilu: L'ay 
of Bengal. The whole kno\vrt 
cour.se of .tids river, including its 
windings, may be estimated at 1G50 
miles ; but it is the fate of the Brah- 
mapootra to penetiate a rude cli- 
mate and stubborn soil, seldom ap- 
proaching lh(' habitation of civilized 
men; while tiie Ganges, en the con- 
trary, tlows along a fertile territory, 
and through rich and polished na- 
tions. Until 1700 the Bralmiapcotra 



■m: 



182 



BRAMBANAN.- 



was imkno-wn in Europe as a ca- 
pital river of India. 

I'his river, during a course of 400 
miles through Bengal, bears so inti- 
mate a resemblance to the Ganges, 
that one description answers both, 
except that, during the last 60 miles 
before then- jnnction, imder tlie name 
of Mcgna, it fonns a stream, which 
is regiilai'ly from four to five miles 
Avide, and, but for its freshness, 
might pass for an arm of the sea. 
The junction of these two mighty 
rivers below Luckipoor now forms 
a gulf interspersed with islands, 
some equal in size to the Isle of 
"Wight. The Bore, which is a sud- 
den and abrupt influx of the tide 
into a river or narrow strait, prevails 
in the principal branches of the 
Ganges, and in the Megna; but the 
Hooghly River, and the passages 
between the islands and sands, situ- 
ated in the gulf, formed by the con- 
fluence of the Brahmapootra and 
Ganges, are more subject to it than 
the otlur rivers. {Turnerf RenncI, 
§'c. c5-c.) 

Brahminabad. — The extensive 
ruins of BandKuah, in the province 
of Tatta, are supposed to be those 
of the ancient city of Brahminabad, 
named also Manhawar and Ma- 
lianra by Persian authors. Lat. 24°. 
40'. N. Long. 67°. 60'. E. In the 
10th centuiy Brahminabad was the 
capital of a powerful Hindoo king- 
dom. {Khmer, Wilford, Ferislita, 

Bra LA. — A small island, lying oft 
the eastern coast of Malacca. Lat. 
4°. 55'; N. Long. 103°. 40'. E. 

BkambaNan. — A village in the 
district of Mataram, in the Island 
of Java, and nearly in the centre of 
the latter. It stands at the northern 
base of a range of mountains, jun- 
ning east and west to a great ex- 
tent, ami called V by the Javanese, 
from their position, the Mountains 
of the South. 

At this place are many extraor- 
dinai7 remains of Hindoo images, 
temples, and inscriptions. The area 
occupied by tlie ruius of all descrip- 



tions, is equal to 10 miles. Over 
this smface there are scattered, at 
various distances, the niins of se- 
veral temples ; but the most remark- 
able niins are known to the native^ 
by the name of the Thousand Tem- 
ples. This collection constitutes a 
sqTiare group of buildings, each mea- 
suring about 250 paces. In the cen- 
tre of the square stood one laige 
temple, which was surroimded at 
eqriai distances by three square rows 
ot smaller ones, each row but a few 
feet distant from the other. At each 
of the four cardinal points, where 
there appeared to have been once 
gates, were two gigantic statues, 
named by the Javanese Gopala, one 
of the names of Krishna. Each of 
them had a mace in his hand, and a , 
snake twisted round his body. 

In the large temple there are no 
images ; but, from tlie remaining pe- 
destals, it appears there once Merc 
some. T!ie inside ^^ alls were adorn- 
ed v.itli ijgures of tlie conch shell, 
of water vases, and of the sacred 
lotus, ail indicating a Hindoo origin. 
On the outside of the large temple 
are figures of Brahmins. In some 
of the small temples there are still 
some images ; and among the other 
ruins there is a group of large tem- 
ples, one of which still contains an 
entire fignre of Bhavani, and ano- 
ther of Gancsa; on an adjacent 
building are sculptured many Hin- 
doo figures in relief. Abut a mile 
and s half distant from the Thou- 
sand Temples there is another clus- 
ter of buildings, close to which is 
an oblong slab of granite, seven feet 
long and three broad, one face of 
which is covered with aninscrii)<ion, 
asserted to be the common Deva 
nagari character, containing a le- 
gend from the Mahabharat: other 
stones with inscriptions are also 
scattered about. 

The stones of these buildings are 
of hewn granite, admirably well 
cut and polished, and laid on each 
other with great skill and nicety. 
No mortar has been made use of, 
but, instead of it, the lower suifaco 



ERODRAH. 



183 



of each stonr ha<! a promiiipnce, 
wliicli fits accurately into a j^roove 
in the upper suvfiice of the one tiii- 
dcriiealh, b\ wlsicli contrivance the 
stones are (irmly retained in Iheir 
situations. The roofs of the tem- 
ples arc all, like tlie rest of the 
buiidinfi:, of hewn granite; and it is 
in their construelion that the great- 
est skill has heen displayed. Every 
thinj rei^ardiiip; these ruins is wrap- 
ped in the u,i«'atest obscurity. 'I'iic 
fabulous accounts of the .lavanese 
asciihe them 1<> a person celebrated 
in tlieir romances, whom they naine 
Bandung, whose skill in magic is 
said to have raised them in one 
night. A Javanese manuscript a.s- 
serts then to have been creeled in 
the Javanese year 1188 (A. D. 
1261). 

The neighbourhood of Rramba- 
nan, to the extent of 20 miles, is 
cultivafed with cotton, which is here 
produced in greater ahundance, and 
of better (piality, than in any other 
part of tlie island. The village of 
Brambanan is, in fact, the lirst, if 
not the only mart in Java for cotton, 
V hich is here known by the Hindui 
name of Kapas. {Edinburgh Re- 
vieiCy rf-c.) 

Brourah, {Broderti). — A town 
in the province of Gujrat, district 
of Cliamj)aneer, 40 miles N. N.W. 
from the citv ot Broach. Lat. 22°. 
13'. N. Long. 70°. 24'. E. 'J'his is 
the capital of a iVIaharatta Ciiicflain, 
known by the family name of the 
Guicovvar (Gaikcvad). vvlio divides 
with the peshwa and the British tiie 
largest and fuiest jxirlionof (Uijrat ; 
liis particular share hiiig piineipally 
in the norfhein districts. In Aii- 
rengzebe's reign this a\ as a large and 
wealthy town, and still continues a 
place of considerable trade, but we 
have no detailed (bscription of it. 

PillajeeGiiieowar(t he great grand- 
father of the present Giiicowar) in- 
vaded the province of Gujrat iu 
1726, and iu 1730 was confirmed in 
liis concpiest by Saiioo IJajah, the 
grandson of Sevajee, and reigning 
swvcfciga of the Muharattass. Pil- 



lajee was sttcoeedcd by his son Da- 

majee, who was taken prisoner by 
tlte Peshwa Bajerow, but afterwards 
ransomed, and received a snmiud 
for (he half of Gujrat. His successor 
was his son I'utteh Singh, who dying 
in 1789 was succeeded by his bro- 
ther jVlanajee, who died in 1792, 
when another brother, named Go- 
vind Row, ascended the throne. This 
chief died in 1 800, and was succeeded 
by his .son, Anund Bow Guicowar, 
who .still continues at the head of 
the government. 

This state was first noticed in the 
political transactions of th(; British 
about tlie year 1782, vvlicn, at the 
peace conchided with the JVIaha- 
ratta Chiefs of I'oonah, it was stipu- 
lated, that the established Jaghire 
of l''uttch Singh Guicovvar (who had 
sided wi(h the Bri(ish) should con- 
tinue in Ins possession, the said Fut- 
teh Singh Guicowar performing the 
same obedience, and paying ths 
same tribute to the peshwa as had 
before been ciLstomary. By the 
treaty of BasscLu, concluded with 
Ww peshwa on (he 31st of Deeem- 
bf^r, l!i;02, the Bvitish engage to ar- 
bi(ratc and atljiist all dilferenccs be- 
tween the peshwa and Anund Row 
Guicowar. 

In 1802 Malliar Bow commenced 
hostilities against Anund Row, and 
took possession of Vessanagur. The 
latter .solicited t!:c assistance of the 
British, and a delachnient v\ as sent, 
which defeated Mulhar Row, ex- 
pelled him (rom the Guieowar's 
couniry, and took the fort of Kurree 
and the rest of his possessions. An 
alUance was then foimed with the 
Guicowar, who made several ces- 
sions of territory to reimburse the 
expense incurred by the British, and 
consented lo receive and support a 
.subsidiary force of 2000 regular in- 
fantry, and also (o reduce an ex- 
pensive corps of Arabians, which he 
had in his service. By this treaty it 
was dcterinined, likewise, that all 
the Guicowai's political aiTrange- 
rnents at Poonali should be con- 
ducted by tiio Biilish Ilc.sidont, 



184 



BROACH. 



conjimctly with the Giiicowai's Va- 

teel. 

By a supplementary treaty, con- 
chided on the 18th of I'cbruary, 
1803, between the Guicowar, and 
Major Walker on the part of the 
British, the followino^ districts were 
peruiaiiently ceded for the support 
of the subsidiary force, viz. 

The pcrpfnnnah of Dolka, 

yicldinsf a revenue of - 450,000 

r>itto of Neryad - - - 175,0(K) 

Ditto of Bejapoor - - - 130,000 

Tlie Tuppa oi' Kuirce, con- 
tiguous to Bejapoor - 25,000 



Rupees 780,000 



On the 2d of June, 1803, the 
Cjuicowar as^rced to subsidize an ad- 
ditional body of 1000 irdantr}', tor 
the payment of wliich the ioUowing 
districts were made over ; 

The pcrgnnnah of flatter, 

valued at - ^ _ - - 130,000 
Ditto of Modha - ^ - 110,000 
The customs of Kiinkato- 

dra, north of the Tuptce 50,000 



Rupees 290,000 



Tlie actual extent of the Gui- 
cowar's influence, and the limits of 
his vemaiuiug- territories, it is almost 
impossible to disciiminato, and de- 
pend g;reatly on the talents of the 
rei;,',iiiiig prince. His cl.iims to tri- 
bute are very indefinite, and extend 
over the whole province ; but the na- 
ture of the goveinmeat being wholly 
feudal, only occasional obedience is 
paid by his vassals, who arc more 
ice]it in awe by his alliance with the 
British, than from any diead of his 
own intrinsic resources. What re- 
venue he leceives is generally col- 
lected by the presence of a military 
force, and but a small portion of it 
ever reaches the treasury at the ca- 
pital. {Marquis Welleslcij, Treaties, 
ijC. <St.) 

Broach, {Barigosha). — A district 
ill tl;e province of Gujrat, situated 



between the 21st and 23d degrees 
of north latitude, and bounded on 
the Avest by the (iulfof Cambay. In 
1582 it is described by Abul Fazel 
as follows : 

" Sircar Bchroatch, containing 14 
niahals, measurement 349,771 bee- 
gahs, revenue 21,S45,b"()3 dams, 
Seyurghal 141,820. 'J'liis sircar fur- 
nishes 990 cavalry, and 20,800 in- 
fantry." 

'I'hjs is one of the best cultivated 
and populated territories on the 
west coast of India; and was ac- 
quired iiually by the British, at the 
treaty of peace concluded with 
I>o^^ let Row Sindia. in Dccenil)er, 
18t!3. As a j)articular favour, the 
peslnva was allowed to retain the 
perguiuiahs ofAhmood, .Jumbosier, 
and Dubboi, being old fiefs of his 
family; and even the town of Olpar, 
v\ ithin seven niiles of Sural. 'I'his 
intermixture of dominion is not un- 
common in Hjndostan, but was .al- 
ways more customary among tlio 
Maharattas, than any other nation. 

A smaller tract of country, imme- 
diately adiaccui to the city, is pro- 
perly called the distriit of Broach. 
Three-fourths of this territory, con-^ 
taiuiug 122 villages, are named ka- 
num lands, which posses a rich soil, 
preferable to tlie Barra land, close 
to the sea. The annual govern- 
ment assessment upon kanum land, 
inconstant cultivation, is 12 rupees 
per acre; but, after a year of fallow, 
it is double that rate. Land v\ liich 
is allowed to lie fallow is named 
vassel, in contradistinction to tliat 
named bhoot, which is tilled every 
season. The crop on the lirst, is 
double that on the last, and the 
rent in proportion. About the town 
of Broach, a begah (one-ihird of an 
acre) of common vassel, is assessed 
at eight rupees, aiid one of biioot at 
four rupees, I'o raise tliis double 
])roduee, the spot must also be iur- 
])roved by exposure, ii ligation, and 
manures. 

loity villages, bordering on tlie 
sea-coast, compose the division of 
AmUsecr and ruckujia; and tUeir 



BKOACH. 



155 



earned away the bunks of the i ihiid 
whi re it jiTows, ;>iid alun;;; with tlieui 
siu-li parts of the tree, a., liad ex- 
tended their roots so far. Wliat 
still rciiiaitis is about 2(J0f) feet ia 
circiuiiR'it'iicc, nieasiirinj:^ round thg 
different stems; but, the hiinj.;iiig 
branches, the roots of wiiich havo 
not yet readied tlie ground, cover a 
iinuh larj>,er extent. The chief 
trunks of this tree amount to 300, 
all sujierior in size to the generality 
of Euj^lish oaks and elms; and tiie 
sniidier stems, forming strong- sup- 
jioitors, arc niore than 3000, and 
from each of these new brandies 
banjinc; roots are proccdin^-, wliich 
time will form trunks, and become 
the parents of a fiit'ue projcj'.y. 
This is the tree de;>eril>ed by iVlil- 
ton in Parailise Lost; and tiie natives 
have a tradition that u 3000 years 
old, and assert that 7000 persons can 
!ej)ose under its shade. 

Being so conveniently situated, 
the Bom bay government made many 
attempts to obtahi this district, and 
had possession of it for a shjrt tiiue 
prior to 17S2; but. at that period, in 
order to procure the concurrence of 
Madhajee hindia to tiie treaty of 
Salbey, Broai h with its valuable 
territory yielditjp a revenue 200,0001. 
was a private and separate agree- 
ment ceded to him. ( Drnmmond, 
Lord Valeiitia, Moore, dtk liigister. 

Broach. — A town in the province 
of Gujrfit, district of Broach, of 
which it i.s tlie capital, situated on 
the norlli boiik of the Xerbuddah 
River, about 25 miles above its junc- 
tion with the sia. Lat. 21° 41'. N. 
Long. 75". 6'. E, . 

TiiLs place is said to derive its 
name from the Hindoo saint or de- 
votee ]>hrigu, and to be properly 
W'rittcii Bbrigu Kshetra or Bin'igu-r 
pura, the tov/n or place of J3!)rign. 
It is thougiit to have been tiie B.ary- 
gaza of tin: ancients, and when it 

named Kuveer Bur, in honour of .surrendered to the EiJiperor Acber, 

a famous saint, and was formerly in 1572, continued to be a place of 

much larger tiiaii at present; for great trade. 

Jii^h Uooda have at dillcrcut times Very fine bafts and other cotton 



soil and climate are considerably 
different, from the rest of the mari- 
time tract. In tliis particular terri- 
tory, which is named Barra, cultiva- 
tion docs not commence until Au- 
pist and September. On this spe- 
cies of land, the government assess- 
ment may generally be a^eraged at 
three rupees per begah, or one gui- 
nea per acre. The soil in the dis- 
tricts of Broach, Jumoosier, and the 
adjacent ojies east of the Gulf of 
Cambay, suits extremely well with 
the cultivation of cotton ; which is 
sown on fallowed spots along with 
rice, the latter being of speedy 
growth, and reaped at tlie opening 
of the rainy s3a.son. The grassia 
lots of land in the Broach district 
in 1804, exempted from the revenue 
As.sessments, amounted to 58,000 
begahs. 

The number of violent deaths and 
robberies in this district, have greatly 
decrea.sed since it has fallen under 
the Britisli government. In former 
times, the deiinqueuts being almost 
universally punished by the intiic- 
tion of lines, by no means propor- 
tioned cither to the crime or to the 
amount of their i)roperty, the rich 
could com.'uit crimes \\ illi inipunity ; 
at present the punishments being 
personal, their apprehensions of the 
conscfjucnces are nnich gn ater. 

When sinking under the weight 
of years, or absorbed in spiritual con- 
templation, Hindoo devotees not un- 
frequently descend into a pit dug 
hy themselves or disei])les, and then 
sidjmit to be smothered alive. This 
is related of Kuveer, from whose 
tooth-pick the natives assert sprung 
the great tree, on an island in the 
Reva or Nermada, of which tlic fol- 
lowing is a deserij)tion : 

On an island in the Nerhuddah, 
10 miles from the city of Broach, 
stands the famous banyan tree, sup- 
po.sed to be the largest and most 
extraordinary in existence. It is 



II 



BUBOORARA. 



jfoods ar^ .mnmifao^irrefl heiP, and 
the T.a1<;rs <>i tlio NeilMidda!! are 
said io Irave a pindiar jmiperty in 
blcacliiul;' ejolliyto a pure white. 
At Eroadl the hire of an ahle-hodicd 
mail fur the Avhdle day issmeii pice, 
or 4d. English; a woinaii five pice, 
and boys mni a;irl!j from a haU'pomiy 
tit 2d ; Ihc Avliole of which rates arc 
ahiiost do\iblc those of Bengal, in 
the liiasmfacturin";- districts. The 
price of f(Jod for conimon occasions 
is from one to two .tarlhiiigs per 
pound, and on festivals they can af- 
ford a relish of milk or tish. 

At the period of the great famine, 
in 1791, the number of houses in the 
district immediately attached to the 
lown of Broach was 14,835, and the 
inhabitants 80,922. AftiT tlic fa- 
mine, it Avas found that 2351 of the 
former had been abandoned, and 
tliat 25,295 of the latter liad died. 
In 1804, the wliole number of resi- 
dents in Broadi fort and the enri- 
rons was reported to be 22,468 souls, 
but at present it is believed to be 
more than double tluit nundier, Tlie 
town and district immediately at- 
tached to Broach may be estimated 
to cojitain 100,000 inhabitants. In 
1807, there were 25 nats, or socie- 
ties, in Broach, of the banyan caste, 
tomjuchendini;- 5261 individuals of 
both sexes; and, by ;x census taken 
the same yCar,. it was found there 
•were 3101 parsees of the mobid 
(sacerdotal) and belidcea classes, 
(laity) in tlie city and suburbs. 

Atthis pUtce there is a piujrapole 
or hospital tor animals, supported by 
donations from the Hindoo inhabi- 
tants. Every marriage and mercan- 
tile transaction is taxed for the pin- 
jrapole, by which aliove 10001. is 
raised aiunially, a g^reat portion of 
which is absorbed into tlu; coffers of 
the nuMiagers. The only animals 
it at pres(;iit contains, are milk cows, 
which yield the expense of their 
keepinjj;. In the sural piujrapole, 
the only animals kept that cost any 
Ihiiijt, ;ue a ft.-w wild bulls, and some 
inonkies. 

By the ticaty cflucludcd with the 



Peshwa, and the combined Malva- 
ratta poAvers iu June, 1782, the city 
and perjruimah of Broach, were 
ceded to the East India Company. 
In July, 1782, they were made over 
to Madhajee Sindia, ostensibly a» 
a recompense for his humane treat- 
ment of the British prisoners and 
hostages taken at Wnrganm ; but, 
in reality, for his assistance in bring- 
ing aliout the paeilication, which, 
at that time, on account of Ifyder's 
invasion of the Carnatic, was urgent- 
ly wanted. 

In 1772, Broach was be.'iieged by 
an army from Bond)ay, commanded 
by General Wedderburue, who was 
killed under the walls ; and a fc\y 
days after his death, it was captured 
by storm, although then a place of 
very considerable strength. It re- 
mained in the possession of the Bri- 
tish until 1782, when it was ceded 
along with the district to Madhajee 
Sindia, at the treaty of Salbcy ; but 
was agam taken from his successor, 
Dowlet Row, on the 29th August, 
1803, by the anny under Colonel 
"W oodington, and has remained witli 
the British ever since. 

Travelling distance from Bombay 
221, from 'Onjain 266, and from 
Poonah 287 miles. (Drinnmond, 
WUford, T'reaties, Moor, Rennel, 

BuBooRARA. — A Tillage in the 
province of Sinde, situated on tlie 
road from Hyderabad to Luckput 
Bunder, and about 24 miles N. from 
Luckput Bunder. Lat. 24°. 10'. N. 

This place stands on the edge of 
the Run or desert; and, during the 
dry season, is abandoned by the in- 
habitants. There is a small tank of 
good water about a mile and a half 
to the north, round which there is a 
little grass. The rest of the couiir 
tiy is a banen, salt, marshy desert. 

Erom henee to Luckput Bunder, 
the road is over the desert in a 
southerly direction for about 16 
miles, where stands a small hill 
named Teyroy, on which are four 
wells of good water, but the whole 
coutaiujng only a small tiuautKy* 



BUJANA. 



187 



From TejToy to Luckput Bunder 
Fiver, is ovtr a soft iniuldy swiurip 
for seven miles. {Maxfield, S-c.) 

BucKRAH. — A town ill the pro- 
vince of CKuie, situated on thelianks 
of tlic Buekrah Jecl, named also the 
Lucinnersar Lake, the theme of a 
popular sons? in I Jindoslan. Lat. 26°. 
64'. N. Long. 83°. 4'. E. 

BucKRAH. — A town in the pro- 
vince of Bahar, district of Hajvpoor. 
Lat. 26^ 2'. N.- Long:. 85°. 8'. N. 

BuDAYOON, {Budavaii). — A town 
in the province of Delhi, district of 
Bareil.v, 30 miles S. AV". from the 
town of Bareily. Lat. 28°. 3'. N. 
Long. 70°. 4'. E. In 1582 it is de- 
scribed by Abul Fazcl as follows : 

" Sircar Budayoon, containing 13 
mahals, measurement 8,093,850 bc- 
gahs, revenue 34,717,063 dams. Sc}- 
W'ghal 457,181 dams. This sircar 
furnishes 2850 cavalry, and 26,700 
infantry." J?udayoon was first con- 
quered by the Maliommedans, A. D. 
1203, and continued a town of con- 
siderable note during the Patau and 
Mogul governments, giving; its name 
to the adjacent country, now com- 
prehended in the district of Bareily. 

BuDDOO, {Bnddlui). — A village in 
the province of Lahore, 72 miles 
N. E. from the cit\' of Lahore. I^at. 
32°. 35', N. Long'. 74°. 38'. E. An 
annual fair is held on the 11th April 
at this place, which is tributary to 
tlie Rajah 6f Jamboe. 

BuDDUA KiVER, {Bhadra, excel- 
lent). — ^"I'his river has its somee in 
the hilly district of the jMysore coun- 
ti7, not far from the frontiers of 
Coorg, from whence it flows in a 
northerly direction until it joins the 
Tunga River, the junction of the 
two forming the Tungabhadra, or 
Toombuddra River. 

BuDUKUCK, (Vadarica). — A town 
in the province of Cuttack, 44 aniles 
S. W. tiom Balasore. Lat. 21° 5'. 
N. Long. 86°. 44'. E. This place is 
situated on the north bank of the 
Sollundee River, which, at one sea- 
son of the year, is here 300 yaids 
broad, and at asiother is fordable. 
From this part of Orissa come most 
4 



of the people termed, in Calcutta, 
Balasore l)earers. {\st IicQ;istci\ ^c.)' 

BCDGEBl'DGE, {Bhujabhuj). — A 
small town in the province of Ben- 
gal, situated on the east side of the 
J{ivcr Uooghly, 10 miles below Cal- 
cutta in a straight line, but almost 
double that number following the 
windings of the river. Lat. 22°. 29'. 
N. Long. 88°. 20'. E. 

During the government of Seraj 
ud Dowlah, this place had a separate 
fortress, which, on the 29th Dec, 
1756, was besieged in form, and a 
breach cflected by the forces under 
Admiral Watson and Colonel Clive, 
who intended a general assault a 
little before day-break. During the 
night, however, it was most inform- 
ally stormed by a sailor of the names 
of Strahan, who, happening to get 
drunk, wandered up to the breach, 
and fired a pistol at some of the gar- 
rison, who, supposing he must be i'ol- 
lowed by the whole army, fled out 
by the opposite side, and left him in 
possession of the place. {^Ives, cVc.) 

BuDGERooNS. — Three small rocky 
islets in the Straits of Salayr, off the 
southern cxtjemi(y of Celebes. The 
passage is betwixt the souihernmost 
and middlemost, and is about a mile 
broad. 

BuGANO. — An island about 50 
miles in circumference, lying off the 
si'uth-eastcru coast of Sumatra. I^at. 
5°.20'.S. Long. 102°. 25'. E. There 
is fresh water to be had on the east 
side of this island. 

BuGGEssES. — Sec Boj^Y and Ge- 

LEIiES. 

BuJANA. — A large and populous 
town in the province of Gujrat, dis- 
trict of Jutwar, situated on the south 
bankof the Ruii,which, in December, 
is in maiiy places merely moist nmd, 
and in others an extensive sheet of 
shallow water. Lat. 22°. 55'. JN. 
Long. 71°. 25. E. 

The present chieftain of Bujana is 
aJhut, named Mulliek Sujah, who, 
in concert with his brother, Deria 
Khan, manages the district. He is 
indebted for his elcvaiion to the 
Mulliek of Bujana, and is installed 



183 



BUNDELCL'ND. 



by having a hirban confened on him. 

(lW3Iur(/o, .Sr.) 

BULDAMCIliiTTY.— A towji 111 the 
province of Baliar, district of Chuia- 
nagpoor, 226 miles ^y. N. W. IVom 
Calcutta. Lat. 23° 10'. N. Long. 
« i°, 58'. E. 

BuLRAMPOOR. — A iown in the 
Nabob of Oudo's tenitorics, in the 
province of Oudc, 44 miles north 
IVojn I'jzabad. Lat. '27°. 22'. N. 
Long. S2^M0'. E. 

Bvsx}V-LCVSD, {Baudiflkhand). — A 
lar-;e.district in the province of Alla- 
habad, situated princij>ally bet\vi\t 
the 24lh and 26t!i degrees of north 
latitude. It is formed of the whole 
c'ircar mentioned by Abul lazel un- 
der tlie name of Ahniedabad Gohrah, 
Avith three- fourths of <]iat of Cal lin- 
ger, stretching nortli to the southern 
banks of the Junma, over an extent 
of 11,000 square miles. 

The country is high and moun- 
tainous, and but imperfectly culti- 
vated. The snumiits of the hills, 
though mostly rocky, are covered 
v.ith small coppice wood, there being 
few timber tiecs of a large size. 
About Adjygluu- the whole of the 
Ghauts, and almost every hili in this 
part of Bnndclcund, is a ta')le land, 
and the country one of the strongest 
in the world,, every hill being a na- 
tin-ai fortress froin their great height 
and steepness. The face of the 
country presents a heavy close jun- 
gle ; the soil, in many places, but 
not generally, is rich, and produces 
a number of teak trees, which ap- 
pear to he' of (he bastard kind, beuig 
of stunted growth. 

This district is comprehended be- 
tween the. Bctwah and Cane rivers, 
but lias no river of magnitude flow- 
ing thvougli it. The south-western 
frontier towards Gundwana begins a 
few miles soiitli of the village of 
DoMM a. Lat. 24°. N. Long. SU. 45'. 
31 -I'he famous diamond mines of 
Pannah, in the timeof Acber valued 
at tight lacks of rupees, are within 
tliis district, but are not now so pro- 
dnetiv^ ; the other chief towns are 
Chatte^poor, TeaiT, aiid Jyghtpcor, 



Callinjer, Jhansi, t)ulteen, and Be- 
jaour. Under the chiefs who ruled 
in the last and preceding centuries, 
the government of this countrj' was 
denominated the Hindupati of Bun- 
delcund, the rajahs being of the, 
Bundela tribe of Rajpoots. The 
founder of this family was Bajah 
Beer Singli, from whom the family^ 
of the Oorcha chief is descended. 
The greater pait of his di)niiuions. 
Avas Mrested fiom him by Kajah; 
who was the last sole possessor of 
the Blnlde!cundpro^ince, then esti- 
mated to produce a land revenue cf 
one crore (10 millions) of rupees an- 
nually. At that period its capital 
was Callinger, one of the sfrongebt 
fortresses in Hindostan ; but tlie re- 
sidence of the rajah was tlic city of 
Purna, or Pannah, situated above, 
the Ghauts, and celebrated iVom all 
antiquity for its diamond mines. 

During the government of Rajah 
Chuttersal, Bnndclcund Mas invaded 
by jMahommed Khan Eungish, the 
Pattan chief of Furruckabad, and 
the peshwa Sewai Bajerow was in- 
vited from ilie Deecan to assist in 
repelling the invasion. AVhcn thi* 
M as accomplished the rajah adojjted 
the peshwa as Ids son, and di\ided 
his territory between his two sons» 
Ijirdee Sah and Juggeth Sail, and 
the peshwa, his son by adoption. 
The tv.o portions assigned tollirdee 
and Juggeth Sah continued to be 
held by their numerous descendants, 
or by the nominal adherents and de- 
clining branches of that family, uu- 
ti! a long series of domestic dissen- 
sion and civil war in the Bundelcund 
province had prepared it for subju- 
gation by a foreign power. 

]\ladhaiee Sindia, dming his last 
and successful attempt in 1786 ou 
the expiring Delhi sovereignty, was 
accompanied by a strong detach- 
ment (,'f Deccany troops, under the 
command of Ali Baiuidur, an ille- 
gitimate grandson of the first Peshwa 
Bajerow, by a jMahommedan wo- 
man. The peshw a's object, in march- 
ing this body of troops, was to ob- 
tain possession of the northeih dis' 



nUNDELCLND. 



1B9 



tvicts of the Doab, df the Cniigcs, 
and Jinniia, to bo s^ovonuHi in Ali 
Bfiluiuder as his iT]trcsciit;iti\o. 

Ill the army of iMadliajof Kiiidia 
v.as also lh.' late Rajah iiiinnmt 
Balmiider, a poworiul cojiinKuitlrr 
of a hiige body of horse, and of a 
iiuiDorOH.s party of g•o^aills, (tr nan- 
gas, a pc'ouliar class of armed ijv^- 
gars and religious devotees, ai)(l of 
Mhoin Kajah IJimmut v as not only 
the military leader, but also the sjii- 
ritnal head. 'J'his chief falling lui- 
tlcr the susiiieioii of Sindia, to es- 
cape seizure and imprisonment, took 
refiige under the Zurecn Pntka, or 
principal banner of the Mahaiatta 
empire, which had been entrusted 
by the pcsh« a in this expedition to 
Ah Bahauder, and is always guarded 
by a select body of troops. In con- 
sequence of this measure, a breach 
ensued. between Sindia and Ali Ba- 
Ilander, ^vhose views on the Doab 
were vsholly frustialed, Sindia de- 
termining to establish his own inde- 
pendent authority in that country. 
, Ali B'lhander, thus di-appointed 
of aggrandisement in I'pper Hin- 
dostan, prepared to return to Foo- 
nah, but destitute of funds for the 
support of his army. When, in tiiis 
distress, Rajah Iliuuniit Bahauder 
suggested to him the entire eoncpiest 
of JJundclcnnd, of which country 
he was a native ; and au agTOemcnt 
Avas conchuled betwixt them, by 
which a large portion at the province 
was, wiieii coiKpieied, to be con- 
signed to the iudependent iiianagc- 
Hient of ilimnuit IJaliauder, and the 
revenue appropiiated to the support 
of flic trbtjps, v\ hi!:h he engaged to 
maintain in the service of Ali Ba- 
hauder, 

'i'he distracted and turbulent state 
of the province was such, that an 
invitation was soon received from 
one of the contending parties, and 
ihe invasion undertaken A. D. 17S9. 
Jii a short time the country was 
iioarly wholly subdued, but it re- 
quired several years before the Ma- 
haiatta authority could be ])ropeily 
established in a region wlicr« every 



village was a forties^, and, in fact, 
accoiding to Juiropcau ideas, its i«- 
dnction never was aceoiupii^hed. 

At this period an arrangement 
was made with the Fcshwa, by 
vvhieli he Avas ai^knowledgcd the so- 
vercigii and paramouiit h rd of all 
the conquests made by Aii Bahau- 
der in Bundcicund, vvho engaged to 
obey him and furiiisli a triijute, but 
neither of these conditions v.ere, in 
fact, ever fullilLxl. In the mean 
time, Kajah Ilimmnt Bahauder, 
afraid that the return of tranquiHltr 
would bring about the downrall of 
his own po'.ver, was contiaually ex- 
citing disafieetion and disttn-batices 
in all tlie districts subject to the 3Ia- 
harattas, in M'hieh he was Aveli se- 
conded by tiie restless and tmbulent 
disjiositions of tlie native chiefs. 

'Ihe Nabo!), Ali Bahauder, died 
in 1802, during the blockade of Cal- 
liujer, wliicli he was unable to take, 
having been 14 years employed i;i 
the reduction of Bundelenud ; at the 
end of whicli time his progress was 
no greater than it had been in the 
third year. Shumsherc Balmuder, 
his eldest son, was then in his 18th 
year, and resident 'at Poonah ; and 
Bajaii Hirnnrut Bahauder, whose 
intluence was now pietiominant, ap- 
pointed a distant Mahonnnedaii re- 
lation, named Gliunee Bahauder, as 
regent during his aljsence. 

At this period tiic war of the Bri- 
tish with DowletRow Sindia and tiiw 
other Maharatta chiefs oiiginated, 
consequent to tlie treaty of Basseiri 
v\ ith the peshwa ; and it appeared 
the inteiitioi'i of Holkar io use the 
inilueiice of ShnmsJiorc Bahauder, 
as a m^ans of invading the British 
possessions in the Benares province 
through Bu/ideleund. Kajah Him- 
mut ]Jahandcr also foreseeing the 
annihilation of Iris own povv'er by the 
success of tlie latter, deterniinVd to 
endeavour to elieet the transfer of 
that province to the British; on se- 
curing an advantageous indemnity 
to himself. 

AVlien alfairs were in this state, a 
proposal on the part of the peshwj 



190 



BUNDKLCUND. 



was iDade for ;i cession of a j)oi'Hon 
of tcnitdrv in liundclcuml, in lieu 
of the tlisliicls in the Deceit n which 
had been ceded by the tfcaty oflias- 
sein. 'J'his proi-)osid havini;- been ac- 
cepted by the jiritirjh guvennnciit, a 



T'ajiih Hiinnnit Bahauder died in 
1804, niter \\ liicli his (enitorics were 
rcsnnjcd by the Britisli g:overnnieut. 
Ills irrep;tilar troops disbanded, ajid 
his family pro%idcd for. In 1805 the 
estimated revenue of the British 



deed of cession to the l^ast India portion of Eundelcund was as foi 
Company olterritory in Kundelcnud h)ws, viz. 
of 32 hicks and 16,000 rupees in 
place of the subsidy, and of four 
Jacks of rupees for the exjxuise of 



1,533,184 



500,000 



subduing it. By this arrai!,:;en>ent 

the peshwa, whose authority o\er 

the conquests of Ali Bahauder had 

been hitherto merely uomiuai, and 

who had nevei- dt rived any revenue 

from it, was enabled to liquidate the 

claims of the British government, i'or 

the payment of tlie subsidiary force 

which ])rotectcd his hereditary pos- 
sessions, 

'i'he occupation of the province of 

Bundelcund during the war, by the 
British troops, liecame necessaiy for 
the defence of the countries in the 
Doab,- as well as of the town and 
district of Mirzapoor, and the city 
of Benares, which v\ ere all exposed 
to invasion from this quarter. Nor 
without it could the secure navi-ga- 
tion of the Jumna be depended un, 

from the restless and turbulent cha- 

lactcrs i)i' the Buudelah chiefs. In 1807 a considerable tract of 

S«bse(i|uent to this peiiod, while country in this province, containing 
the British detadimcnt was oc* u- mi::i(;rous villages above the Ghauts, 
pied with the siege and conquest of and some diamond miaes, was grant- 
Calpee, a eonciliatoi-y negociatiun ed to Biijidi Kishore Singh, the de- 
was opened with Shumshcre Bahau- sccjidant of Kajah Hirdee Sah, and 
der, to whom a tenitory of foiu- the ancient family of Bundelcund, 



'l"he several districts then 

actually possessed by 

government, including 

Calpee, and part of Ry- 

poor, on the banks of 

the Jumna - - - - 1,400,000 
The territory of Raj all 

Himnuit Baliauder 
The districts of Callinjer, 

Jeypoor, Iluldtn, and 

part of Cutolee, below 

the Ghauts, estimated 

at five lacks of rupees, 

but chargeable with 

Jaghires and provisions 

for the native leaders - 
The city and diamond 

mines of Pannali, with 

a porti(»n of tenitory 
■ adjacent, the probable 

revenue being - - - 200,000 



Rupees 3,633,184 



lacks of rupees per annum was se- 
cured in the peshwa's remaining 
share of Bundelcund, of which ho 
was afterwards appointed govcrnoi. 
With the Soubahdar of Jhansi, and 
the Rajahs of Dulteen and Simtheer, 



but who had longbeen dispossessed by 
difi'erent chiefs, under the condition 
tliat he woidd guard the passes, and 
suppress ail marauders and dis- 
turbers of the ])ublic peace. At this 
time considerable progress had been 



conciliatory arrangements were also made in restoring tranquillity to this 
concluded, and a short time after* long distracted country, by the re- 
wards with the Rajahs of Churkaree, duetion of the district of Koonch, 
Jeytpoor, Jind Bejaour. By the mea— and the expulsion of the refractoi^ 
eures adopted every hereditary chief- zemindars, which was completed, iu 



tain, who possessed power or in- 
fluence in Bundelcund, has been 
concihated or subdued, and placed 
i« due subjection to the British au- 
thority. 



1810, by the capture of CaJlinjer. 

In 1804 Bundelcund was formed 
into a British district, subordinate 
to the Benares court of circuit, and 
a civil cstabUshmcut appomted for 



BUNWOOT. 



191 



the administration of justice, and 
collccliou of the revenue. ( MSS.' 
J. Grant, Scott, Ironside, lieiiud, 
Colehrooke, Truatits, Sw) 

liuNDEKMALANCA, {Bunder vmhii 
lanca). — A town ou tlu; sea-coasl ot" 
the NortliciuCireais, 67 uiik'.s E. by 
N. tVoiu ]M:i.sulij)at;nu. Liit. 1G°. 28'. 
N, Long. 82°. 7'. E. TraAcllini;- dis- 
tance, from .Madras 358 miles. 

BuxGSH AT, {Bang-a<>luit). — A dis- 
triet in tlie province of C'abul, siUi- 
ated about the 3od doj^rce of nortii 
latitude. It is bounded on the east 
by the Indus, and is intersected by 
the Kiver Cow, or Cowmull; .alonu; 
the south side of \^hich, near its 
junction w ith tlie Indus, Scylax is 
conjectured to have built his \ essc-ls, 
and from thence to have sailed down 
the Indus. The princi])al towns are 
Goohauf , Bunnou, and Kohaut. 

Tirah is one of the di'.isions of tlie 
Bangasliat, or districts occupied by 
tfie bungish clan, which is one of 
the most powerful, numerous, and 
>aliant tribes among the Afghans. 
This tribe occupies the difficult hill 
country to the south of the moun- 
tains of Lughman, which is about 
200 miles in length, and 1(X) in 
breadth on a rough ( alculution. The 
district of Tirah is about 150 miles 
in length, extending from Iriah to 
Kohaut, and is divided into nume- 
rous glens and mountain \ allies, part 
of which is occupied by the tribe 
afridi, and the rest by the blmgish. 
{Leyden, iSt.) 

BuNJABUKE Ghaut. • — A pass 
among tlie hills, in the province of 
Gundwana, ll)8 iniles S. W. from 
Buttunpoor. Lat.2l°. lo'.N, Long. 
81°. 20'. E. This is so high a spot 
of ground, that it causes the ueigh- 
boming rtvers to take opposite 
courses. (lAickie, ^-c.) 

EuNNASs RiVER.^This river has 
its source in the province of .'Vjmeer ; 
in passing through which it attains 
to a very consideralite bulk, and 
even when pursuing its course from 
Detsa, tlnough the Mehwass, its 
size is notiusigniticaitt'i but it after- 
Wards loses itself yx the k^kiesc, 



and by the time' it Tcaelics Rahduu- 
po(ir is dwindled to a sniall stream. 

'rlirte miles hel-.iW Hahduiijiuor 
th(> iu'd of ihe river is about Indf a 
mile in breadth; but nui m«m: than 
20 jards of this space, ia lb*' dry sea- 
sou^ contains water. 'Ihecmreut at 
this period is nither rapiil, an<l ai»out 
two and a half feet in depth ; the 
water isof anevceilcut quality. The 
baidcs, at this part of its course, ar« 
nearly on a level with the surround- 
ing conntry, which is inuiidatcd du- . 
ring the ruins to the extent of two 
miles. (M'Mnrdi^ ^c.) 

Bt NNoo. — A town in the provinro 
of Cubul, district of Buugshat, 33 
miles west from the Indus. Lat, 
32°. 5C/. N. Long. 70°. 2o'. E. 

BuNTWALLA. — A towu in the pro- 
vince of South Canara, 17 miles from 
Mangalore. Lat. 12°. 4b'. N. Long. 
75°. 9'. E. 'i'his place contains about 
300 houses, and is siiuated oii the 
north bank of a river passing Areola, 
which is named the Netiawati. The 
tide flows 110 higher than Areola; 
but canoes, carrying 160 bushels of 
rice, can at all seasons ascend 10 
and 11 iniles from Xagara. The 
channel is very wide and full of 
rocks, which in the dry si-ason form 
many islands. 'I'liis town is fast im- 
proving, being the tiioroiighfare tor 
the trade betu een Mysore and Ca- 
nara ; the iiihabJtants are mostly 
Braliniins, but of an inferior caste. 
{F. Jinvhanan, Lord Valeutia, Sc.) 

Blnvvoot. — An island abouj 18 
miles in circumference, lying oil" 
Pollok Harbour, in Magindanau. 
Lat. 7°. 14'. N, Long. 124°. 28'. L. 
On the 12th September, 1775, this 
island was ceded to Capt. Thomad 
Forrest, for the East India Company, 
by the sultan and government of tiie 
City of AJaj!;indaiiao ; the grant being 
written in Spanish by a native of 
Pampanga, once a F.lave, but vviio 
obtained his liijeriy by turning Ma- 
honunedaii. This island is covered 
with tall trees, cFear of underwood, 
and, at the date of tiie grant, was 
luiiniiabitcd. There are fcwspriiigs, 
but uiauy pouds of liesh rain -^yater ; 



m 



BURDWAN'. 



nnd it abounds \a 1th wild lioo:s, iiioii- 
kcysj giuiiioi, and stiKiit Kjuikcs tibont 
is iiicljcs ioii:;. In tlris state it jdo- 
biblyroiiiaiiis, as it was never taken 
j»oss(ssiou of. (T'orrcsi, St.) 

EuRi\LLE. — A town ii'i llieiN'izam's 
trrrifories, in t!io p)o\ii;('e ot lierar, 
iV7 miles S. \V. lioni Eiliclipoor. 
JLat. 20°. 3(/. N. Long-. 77". S'i'. E. 
EuRDKK. — A town in the proviiiet; 
<jf Allahabad, situated on the south 
?ide o!" the same river, 60 miles 
iS. S, Vv , fje.ui Eenares. l^at. 24°. 
87'. N. Long-. 82°. 27'. E. 'llic 
coinrhy aionnd this piaec is very 
desolate, and much covered with 
jnnp^le. The Burdre rajah's territo- 
ri 's are intcrnii\ed with those of the 
Company. {Bhmt, cVc.) 

Euro WAN, (Vardhaman, produe- 
tive). — A district in the province of 
Eei!sr,i], situated between tlie 22d 
and 24l!i degrees of north latitude. 
l\ is bounded on tlie nortli by Bir- 
boom andKanjeshy; on the south 
by Midnapcor and f loog hly ; on the 
east by the I'iver Hooghly ; and on 
west by Tvlidnajjoor and Pachete. 

In 1784, this district contained 
5174 square miles, according- to Ma- 
jor Keiiucl's measnrement ; and, in 
j)i-()portion to its dimensions, is tlie 
best ciiitivated, and most productive 
of any similar extent of territory in 
India. It b«'came subject to the 
IJiitish governinent, along Anth the 
-other ceded lauds, in 176U. It is 
environed by the jungles of Midna- 
■poor i<j Orissa, of Paclicte, and Eir- 
booni, and appears iike a garden 
surrounded by a vv ikiernoss, It pro- 
duces grain, cotton, silk, sugar, and 
indig^o, in g^reat abundance, and of 
exccHent quality. The weaviixg of 
mixed goods, made with silk and 
cotton, llonrisiics at several towns in 
tiiis difitrict. 

'J'he zeniindary, or estate, known 
'bythe Jianie of the Enrduan zemin- 
■dary, ona rough estimate, maybe 
taken at 73 miles long: and 46 broad, 
. t-omprehonding about .3280 miles, 
■•jicarJy the whole of which is in a 
Jijgh state of cultivation, and well 
sttocked with inhabitants. Subse- 



quent to 1722, it was bosto-wcd (M 
KecrutChund,otthckhctriormihtary 
caste, the first known progeiitor of 
tlie present fanrily; and, in 1700, the 
existing rajah paid a yearly rent to 
g-ovcrnmciit of 400,0001. sterhng. lit 
1784, the revenue of the whole dks- 
trict was 4,358,020 current rupees, 
'i'he chief tow ns are Eurdwan, Bis- 
snnpoor, and Keerpay; and the 
principal rivers, the llooghly and 
Dunnnood-rth; but this district has 
not generally the advantage of a 
good inland navigation; the com- 
merce, however, lias been much fa- 
cilitated and extended by the open- 
ing of three giand roads loading to 
Hooghly, Cnhia, and Cutwa. 

In 1802, from the number of vil- 
lages, and of the houses in each vil- 
lage, the inhabitants were estimated 
at 1,780,000, supposing each house 
to contain four iidiabitants, which is 
too low an average. The actual 
number probably exceeds two mil- 
lion.s, one-sixteenth of whom are 
supposed to bo i\lahomniedans. 
I'hen; are no brick or nmd forts in 
this district ; but the remains of sc- 
veial are visible, originally con- 
structed for protection against the 
Maharattas. 

'i'he oiih persons possessing rank 
ar(! the Eajahs of Eurdewaii and 
Eissunjioor; but neither of these 
novt maintain many followers in their 
.service. Eor puijtoses of state or ce- 
remony, when they apjiear abroad 
they hire a retinue ; but before the 
inti-oduction of the permanent sys- 
tem, the number of persons called 
7:eniindary pykes, employed for po- 
lice and other purposes, was above 
21,000. I'he other zemindars are 
of no considerable rank; many of 
the principal manage their estates 
by means of an agent, having their 
own residence in Calcutta. There 
are many considerable native mer- 
chants, who carry on an extensive 
counui'ice in salt, tobacco, grain, 
and cloth ; but the indigo works are 
entirely inanagcd by European.s. 
The peasanliy arc pcculiaily opu- 
lent. 



BURTAPOOR. 



193 



TIric are few villages in this dis- 
trict ill Mliicli there is not a school 
where ( hiiiiren are taii;;ht to read 
Mild write; but there arc no seliools 
lor iiistruciion in the Maliomniedaii 
or Hindoo law. 'J'he most learned 
t)f the latter are found in ihv adja- 
cent district of Nuridca,froin vheiue 
and from l^euares the other stations 
uie supplied. The IMahonnnedans 
bear but an inconsiderable propor- 
tion to the mass of inhabitants, and 
r(-'ceive their education in the com- 
iiion branches, from the village 
sclioolmasters, or from their own 
relations, (iang i-obl)cry is the crime 
most prevalent in this, as in all the 
lower districts of Bengal. 

That this district continues in a 
progressive state of impiovcmeiit, is 
evident from the number of new vil- 
lages erected, and the increasing 
miinbcr of brick buildings, both for 
«loinestic and religious purposes. To 
Burdwan must be assigned the first 
lank in all India, for productive agri- 
cultural value, in proportion to its 
size; the second may be claimed by 
Tanjoie. {E. Thompson, J. Grant, 
Colchroohe, 5th Report, Lord Corn- 
wallis, ^-c.) 

Burdwan. — A town in the pro- 
•vince of Bengal, district of Burdwan, 
60 miles N. N. AV . from Calcutta. 
Lat. 23°. 15' N. liong. 87°. 57'. E. 

BuuGUNDAH. — A town in the pro- 
vince of Hyderabad, belonging to the 
T<izani, 73 miles N. W. tiom Raja- 
luundey. Lat. 17°. 52'. N. Long. 
«1°. 19'. E. 

BuRHAMPOOR, {Barhaiipnr). — A 
town in the province of Bengal, dis- 
trict of Kaujeshy, situated on the 
east bank of the Bhagirathi, or Cos- 
.simbazar River. Lat 24°. 3'. N. 
Long. %b°. 14'. E. Here a brigade 
of troops are stationed in commo- 
dious cantonments, which consist of 
a fine range of buildings on one side 
of a large open Jawii, aionnd which 
are the houses of dill'crent European 
gentlemen. It is distant five miles 
tiom Moorsliedabad. {Lord Valen- 
tin, Src.) 

BiRlAS. — One of the Pliilippinc 

o 



Isles, lying due south of Luzon- 
Lat. 13°. N. Long. 123° E. In 
extreme lengtli it may be estimated 
at 43 miles, but the average breadth 
does not exceed nine miles. Al- 
though this island is situated in the 
very centre of the Philippines, and 
so near to the great Islaiiil of Luzon 
and its capital iVfanilla ; y<'t, in 1775, 
it was jwssessed by a colony of pi- 
ratical Illanos cruizcrs from Magin- 
danao, the Spaniards not having been 
able to dislodge them. This island 
is surrounded with rocks and shoals 
to a considerable distance. [For- 
rest, iSc.) 

BuRMOOL. — A small fortified vil- 
lage on the frontiers of the province 
ofCuttack. Lat.20° 21'. N. Long. 
85°. 10'. E. Tlie whole way from 
this place to Kliussumgliur may be 
called a pass; but that part, named 
Burmool Ghaut, is moie particularly 
strong. The entrance is 600 yards 
from Burmool, and it continues near 
a mile. It is ibrmed by two lofty 
mountains, almost perpendicular, 
200 yards fiom each other, between 
which the road lies. 

BuRRAMooTEE. — A large town in 
the province of Bejapoor, 44 miles 
S. E. from Poonah, and one mile 
froniMemd. Lat. 18° 14'. N. Long. 
74°. 31'. E. This place has a strong- 
fortification, divided by tlie Kuirah 
River. 

Eerruah, {Bharua). — A town in 
the province of Cuttack, 29 miles 
N. E. from tlie town of Cuttack. 
Lat. 20°. 47'. N. Long. 86°. 45'. E. 

BuRRUMGHAiJT. — A towu in the 
Nabob of Oude's territories, in the 
province of Oudc, situated on thr 
south side of the Dewah, or Goggrah 
River, 50 miles N. W. by W. from 
Fvzabad. Lat. 27°. 5'. N. Long. 
8i° 25'. E. 

BuRSEAH. — A town in tlie Malia- 
ratta territories, in the province of 
Mahvah, 30 miles N. from Bopal. 
Lat. 23°. 42'. N. Long. 77°. 32'. E. 

BuRTAPooR, {Bharatapura). — A 
town in th« British territories, in th» 
pronncc of Oude, 120 miles N.N.W, 
from Fvzabad. 



194 



BUXEDWAR PASS. 



BuKWA, (Bharwu). — A town in 
the province of Oiid«', flistiict of 
Chuta Natrpoor, 240 miles W. N.^^^ 
from Calcutta. Lut. 23°. 20'. N. 
Long-. 84°. 46'. E. 

BuawARAH. — A mud Tort, with 
round bastions and a ditcli, in tlie 
Kajah of Jvenagvir's teiritoiit^s, in 
the piovincc of Ajmeer, 7G miles 
S. S. E. from the citv of Jvnianur. 
Lat. 26°. N. Lous:. 76°. 8'. i-. ' 

Bi.'ssEA. — A town in the province 
of Bahar, district of Chula ISaa^poor, 
210 miles W. N. W. from Calcutta. 
Lat. 22°. 58'. N. Long-. 85°. 1 1'. E. 
BusTAK, (Vistar), — A town in Ihe 
province of Giindwana, tlie capital 
of an independent rajah. Lat. 19°. 
44'. N. Lo)ij?. 82°. 38'. E. 177 
miles south from Kuttiinpoor. The 
Goand inhabitants of <lie Bnstar 
country arc probably amongst the 
wildest of Hindoslan. 'J'hcy arc de- 
scribed, both men and women, as 
going about in a state of entire na- 
kedness. {Blunt, Sir.) 

BusTEE, (Basli, a dwelling). — A 
town in the British territories, in the 
province of Oude, 37 miles E. from 
Fvzabad. Lat. 26°. 48'. N. Long. 
82°. 45'. E. 

Bus'SUNDAR. — A town in North- 
ern Hindostan, district of Keniaoon, 
subject to the Goorkhali Kajah of 
Nei)aul. Lat. 29°. 48'. N. Long. 
80°. 41'. E. 

BusvAGoN. — One of the Cala- 
maine Isles, belonging to the Phi- 
lippines, situated about the 12th 
degree of north latitude. In length 
it may be estimated at 50 miles, by 
13 the average breadth. 

Bi'TTooL, {Battlmli). — A small 
district in the northern extremity of 
the jirovince of Oude, situated be- 
twixt the 27th and 28th degrees of 
north latitude. On the north it is 
separated by hills and forests from 
the territories of the Goorkhali Ba- 
jah of Ncpaul. This territory was 
ceded to the Comptiny by the treaty 
concluded on the lOth Nov. 1801, 
between the Nabob of Oude and the 
Manjuis Wellcsley. 

BijXak.— A town in the province 



of Bahar, district of Shahabad, situ- 
ated on the S. E. side of the Ganges. 
Lat. 2.3°. 35'. Long. 83°. 58'. E. 

The fort of Buxar, tliough of very 
inconsiderable size, commands the 
Ganges ; but it is now dismantled, 
nor is there a single fortified place 
befwecn Calcntta and Allahabad. 
I'A'ery boat passing up and do«n 
the Ganges is obliged to come to at 
this place, and produce her pass ; 
every traveller by land dcx^s th« 
same, the ])olice being very strict. 

A celebrated victory was gained 
here, in Oct. 1764, by the British 
forces under Major, afterwards Sir 
Hector Mumo, over the united ar- 
mies of Sujah ud Dowlah and Cos- 
sim Ali Khan. The British army 
consisted of 856 Europeans and 6215 
sepojs, of whom 87 Fanoi)oans and 
712 sei)oys A\cre killed and wound- 
ed; the eondnnetl troops were com- 
puted at 40,000 men, 2000 of whom 
are supposed to have been slain in 
the battle. 

The tlight of the allies was so ra- 
]>id, that they did not sto]> at Buxar, 
bnt hastene<l to a nullah (small river) 
beyond it, vhicli being very full, 
many were drow ncd and slaughtered 
in attempting to pass. The plunder 
was very great, as they left their 
tents standing, and their whole train 
of artillery, consisting of 133 pieces 
of various sizes, were taken. 

A native historian describes the 
camp of the two chiefs in the follow- 
ing terms: " A bridge of boats being 
thrown over the Ganges, the allied 
ainiies began their march in num- 
bers not to be reckoned; but, fiom 
the ignorance of the generals, and 
want of discipline, murdering and 
plundering each other. It was not an 
army, biit rather a moving nation." 
Travelling distance from Benares, 
70 miles ; from Calcutta 'by Moor- 
shedabad, 485; by Birboom, 408 
miles. {Lord Valeulia, Foster, Gho- 
lairni, Hosscin, Reimel, St.) 

BuxEDVVAR Pass, {or Pasahn). — 
A remarkable pass in Nortliern J-lin- 
dctstan, in the province of Bootan. 
Lut. 25°. 47'. N. Long. 19°. 21)'. Iv 



I 



CABUL. 



195 



j^iixedwar is a place of great na- 
tural strenf^th, and, being a frontier 
station of llicse mounlains, iias been 
rendered stronger by art, Tlie vil- 
lage consists of 10 or 12 houses, in- 
visible until tlie very moment of ap- 
proach. It is placed upon a second 
table of levelled rock, upon which is 
very little soil; yet it is covered with 
verdure, in conse<pieuce of its shel- 
tered situation, sinrounded on three 
sides by lofty niountains, and open 
only to the south, which atfords a 
narrow prospect of Bengal. 

'I'he country continues tlat to the 
foot of the Buxedwar Hill. The 
ascent to Santarabarry is easy, but 
the ]oad afterwards becomes abrupt 
and precipitous, the hills being co- 
vered with trees to their sunnnits. 
AtSautarabarry are extensive orange 
groves, and raspberry bushes are 
found in the jungles. {Turna; kc.) 

Bux I POOK, {Bahshipurd). — A toAvn 
in the province of Bengal, district 
of Baujishv, 51 miles S. E. from 
Moorshcdabad. Lat. 23°. 48'. N. 
Long. 88°. 69'. E. 

BuxYGUNGE. — A town in the pro- 
vince of Bengal, district of Diiiage- 
poor, 84 miles N. N. E. from Muor- 
shedabad. Lat. 25° 16'. N. Long. 
88°. 56'. E. 

Bydell. — ^A town and small pcr- 
gimnah in the province of Bengal, 
•which, although surrounded by the 
district of Dinagepoor, yet was foini- 
erly under the jurisdiction of that 
Purncah; situated 95 miles N. from 
Moorshcdabad. Lat. 26°. 32'. N. 
Long. 88°. 10'. E. 

Byc' NBARRY, (T7«'crt,'/^//a Ban). — 
A town in the pr(Aiiie(^ of Bengal, 
district of Mymiiiisingh, of which it 
is the capital. It is situated on the 
west side of the Brnlunapootra, about 
75 miles N. by E. from the city of 
Dacca. Lat. 24°. 4G'. N. Long. 
90°. E. 

BYR.\HGUR,(Frte>tfo/mr). — A town 
in the province of Gundwana, dis,- 
trict of Chandah, 133 miles S. by E. 
from Buttunpoor. Lai. 20°. 25'. N. 
Long. 83°. 

This place formerly belonged to 

o 2 



Chandali, and the countiy still bears 
that name, though they aie now se^ 
parate soubahdanies. It is ctuisi- 
dered by the iVlaharattas, whose au- 
thority is well established here, as a 
strong town, and consists of about 
300 thatched and tiled houses. It 
has a stone fort on the north-west 
side, under the east face of which 
runs the Kobragur, which after- 
wards falls into the Wainy, or Baura 
Gunga. 

Byrahgur is a place of some traffic, 
and nnich frequented by Brinjarries 
fiom Choteesgur, and the northern 
circars. The trade is prinripally in 
cotton, which is brought from the 
nortli-west parts of Berar and Clio- 
teesgur. 'fhis is purchased by mer- 
chants from the circars, who give in 
exchange salt, betel, and cocoa imts. 
{Blunt, Sfc.) 



c. 

CABUL. 

A largo province in Afghanistan, 
situated betwixt the 33d and 35th 
degiees of north latitude. On the 
north it is bounded by KuKore, or 
Caflristan ; on tlu' south, by C'anda- 
liar and Balloochistan ; to the east it 
has the Indus ; and to the west, the 
Hindoo Kho INIountaius, and pro- 
vince of Bamian, in Persia. In 
length it may be estimated at 250 
miles, by 150 the average breadth. 

In 1682, this jirovince is described 
by Abul I'azel as follows: 

"• Sircar Cabul is situated in the 
third and fonith clintates. The 
length, from Attock Benares, on the 
banks of the Sinde, to Hindoo Kho, 
is 150 coss ; and tlie breadth, from 
Carabagh to Cliuganserai, 100 coss. 
On the east lies Hiadostan ; on the 
west, inclining to the north, are 
mountains, between which is situ- 
ated Gliour ; on the north is Inderal) 
of Badakhshan, and Hindoo Kho; 
on the south, Fermed and Nughz, 
The water and air of this province 



196 



CABUL. 



arc cxcellonf. 'J'lic parts in which 
snow falls, ;\ud those \vhic!i are *.'ii- 
tirt'ly frre from it, are so near to 
each other, that ;\ on may pass from 
heat lo cold in the course of a day. 
The snow licc,i!istofall iiilhe moun- 
tains in September, but uot in the 
plains until November. 

"I'he fniits of lliis country are 
delicious, excepting the melons, but 
the harvests are not very nourishing:. 
The surromiding mountaijis and 
wilds defend Calml fiom sudden in- 
vasion. Hindoo Koh lies in llie 
centre, between Cabul, Eadakh- 
slian, and 13a Ik. There are seven 
roads from Tooran to Cabul, and 
six trom Cabul to Ilindostan. No 
less than 11 languages are used in 
the viceroyalty of Cabul, each na- 
tion speaking its own ; viz. Turkish, 
INIughooly, Persian, Iliudy, Afgha- 
neejPusbtowey.Piuvatehy.Gncbree, 
Burkee, Lunighanec, and Arabic. 

" Tlie natives arc chieily of the 
tribes of II ezareh and Afghan, which 
possess all the pasturage. The tribe 
of the Hezarch are the remains of 
the Chaghlai army, which Mangu 
Khan sent to the assistance of Hola- 
koo Khan, and they inhabit the 
country from Ghizni to Candahar, 
and are upwards of 100,000 families. 
The Afgliaussay they are descended 
from the eliildren of Israel. Some 
Afghans consider themselves to be 
of Egyi»tian extraction, asserting, 
that when the children of Israel re- 
turned from Jerusalem to I'^gypt, 
tins tril)C migrated to Hinduslan, 

" Sircar Cabul, conlaiuing 22 ma- 
hals; reveime, 80.507,40.0 dams. 
.Seynrghal, 137,178 dams. This sir- 
car furnishes 28,187 cavalry, and 
217,700 infantry." 

The country of Cabul, in respect 
to its naturalgeography, is divided 
into two parts, separated b} a ridge 
of very high mountains usually co- 
vered with snow, whicli runs from 
west to east from the neighbourhood 
of Gliizni to that of Deenkote on 
the Indus, below Attock. The tract 
lying to the north of this is named 
Luuighanat, and to the south Bun- 



gishshat ; each having one or more 
considerable rivers intersecting their 
whole length, and disemboguing 
themselves into the Indus. That tif 
Lumghanat is the Bivcr of Cabul. 
named also the Kameh. and in its 
low er part the Attock ; tliat of Bun- 
gishshat is the Cov\', or Cowmull 
River. 

Cabul is a country highly diversi- 
fied, being made u}) of soowy moun- 
tains, hills of moderate height, ex- 
tensive plains and forests. I'nmi the 
Indus to the city of Cabul there is 
an invariable delieieney of wood, 
insonnich that the lower class of 
])eopie, in the winter season, sutler 
nnuh from a want of fuel. Near 
Baranunv there is a sandy, uninha- 
bited valley, 20 miles in length. The 
air in the country aroimd Gunda- 
mouck is ))robably strongly impreg- 
nated with nitrous paiticles, the ex- 
posed part of the body Ijeing co- 
vered with a white scaly substance 
of a saline taste, which excoreates 
the skin. The chief towns are Ca- 
bul and Pesiuuver; and the prin- 
cipal rivers have been already men- 
tioned. 

The central districts about the ca- 
pital, possessing few Indian conmio- 
dities, receive .sugar and cotton 
cloths mostly from Pcshawer, whi- 
ther they send iron, leather, and to- 
bacco. To Candahar are exported 
iron, leather, and lamp oil, whence 
the returns are made in sundry ma- 
nufactures of Persia and Europe. 
The Tartars of Bochara bring to 
Cal)ul thehorses of "^{'urkistau, furs, 
and hides, the latter resembling 
those termed in FiUropc Bulgar; the 
])roeecdsare applied to the ])urchasc 
of indigo, and other productions of 
liindostan. 

The roads throughout this ])ro- 
vinee are much infested by the na- 
tive Afghans, a most ungovernable 
race, and averse lo all peaceful occu- 
pations. This i)articularly applies to 
a sect nauKHl the Plybers, who arc 
greatly aided in the ])ursuit of a 
fiee-JMHitiug hfe by the .situation of 
their country, whicli forms a chaiu 



CAEUL 



197 



of nioinitains, -whose scanty slips of 
v:ilky allbrds bill little food. This 
nulc race of nicti still durll in (•■•ivcs, 
or in the fissures of roeks. They 
profi'ss the Mahoinmedau rclij^^ion 
of the iSooiii persuasion, and hate 
the Persians, and all the se(!laries 
of All. The libber dialeet is found- 
ed on the eonimon lanj;iia<!je of the 
Afghans, bnt is harshly <;nttural, 
and ill understood by tlie adjacent 
tribes. 

The province of Cabiil, en ac- 
count of its mountainous snrlaee, 
Avas orio^nally named Hob, from 
Avhence is derived the term Kohiilah; 
it is also somelimes named Zabu- 
lislan from Zabul, one of the names 
of (ihii^ni. 

In A. D. 997, Avhen Cabul Avas in- 
vaded by Sebuc(a£,i, the first sove- 
reign of the Ghizni dynasty, the 
eastern tpiarler of this province, aj- 
thounh situated to the west of the 
Indns, Avas still occupied by Hin- 
doos, subject to a i)rince of that re- 
ligion named Jjpal, whose capital 
was named Balhinda, and vhosc 
ilominions extended, in a north- 
west direction, from Lahore to Lum- 
ghanat, and in a south-east line 
iiom Cashmere to JNlooltan. The 
whole Avas finally subdncd by Sultan 
Mahmood about A. D. Iu08, and it 
Avas severed from the Delhi empire 
by Nadir Shah in 1739. (See xii- 
ghanistan.) 

In 1809, in consequence of the 
confederacy A\ith the state of Persia, 
projected by the French, for the 
purpose of invading the Abdalli do- 
minions in Afghanistan, and ulti- 
mately those of the British govern- 
ment in India, the lioiiouraljle 
Mountstiiart Eljihinstone Avas dis- 
patched as embassador to the Cabul 
court, on the j)arl of Lord .Miu'io, 
then governor-general, for the pur- 
pose of concerting Avitli the Cahnl 
government the means of mutual 
defence against tlie exjtecled inva- 
.sion of the i'reneh and i^rsians, and 
of explaining the friendly and bene- 
ficial ol)ject of his mission. 

The Cabul suveieign, sensible of 



the advantage of alliance and co- 
operati<ui betv\ eon the two states, di- 
rected his ministers to confer Avith 
Mr. l.lpiiinstone, and, consulting the 
welfare of both governments, to con- 
clude an arrangement. It was in 
consc<pience agreed, that, if the 
I'rench and Persians endeavonred to 
pass through tiic; Cabul territories, 
the armies of that .state shixild use 
tlic utmost cNcrtion to repel them, 
and |)revent their elVoetuating this 
o!>ject ; and that if, hi pursuunce of 
tlieir coiifederacA, the enemy should 
adAance towards the King of Cabui's 
country,in a hostile manner, the Bri- 
tish state shall hold themselves liable 
to alford the exjienses uc^cessurv for 
the above-nii'iitioned service, to the 
exti'ut of their ability : tiiese condi- 
tions to be in tbrce while the eoiife- 
dcracy l)et\veen the 1 rench and Per- 
sians continued. {Faster, Rennei, 
Abid Fazel, Treaties, Stewart, Scott, 
^■c. <St.) 

CAhUL. — A city in Afghanistan, 
the capital of the province ofCabnl. 
Lat. 34°. 31'. N. Long. 68°. 34'. E. 
Ill 1582 it is described by Abul 
I'azel as folloAvs : 

" Cabul is a very ancient and beau- 
tiful city, of Avhicli Pusheng is said 
to be the founder. There are double 
Avallsofnmdofconsiderablestrength: 
on the south-east side is a small hill, 
named Shah Cabnl. Inoni early an- 
ti(piity, Cabul and Candahar have 
been reckoned tiie gates of Ilin- 
dostan ; one afioiiling entrance; from 
Tooian, and the other iicmi Iran." 

This city at jiresent is the resi- 
dence and capital of the Abdalli so- 
vereigns of Afghanistan. It stands 
in a V. ide plain, Avell Avatered, and 
interspersed Avith AvalUnl villages. — 
The Cabul River runs through the 
plain, overAvhich, at tlie distance of 
four or five miles to tiie sonthward 
of the city, is a iiridge l)ni!t of brick. 
It is surrounded by a wall about one 
mile and a half in i ireinnleience, and 
is situated on tlu- e:(st(,-rn side of a 
range of two united hills of a semi- 
cireuiar figure. The ibrtiiicalions are 
of a very simple construction, Avifli 



198 



CACHAR. 



scarcely any ditch ; the houses avo 
built of rough stones, clay, and iin- 
burncd bricks, and exhibit a very 
mean appearance. 

Baiarc-sir, the name of the king's 
palace, slands on a rising; ground iji 
the eastern quarter of the city, and 
does not at all correspond to the 
view with the dignity of its master. 
A!i ]Merdan Khan, a celebrated no- 
bleman in tiic reign of Jehangeer, 
erected here four spacious bazars in 
the centre of tlie city, ^vbich were 
supplied with fountains ; the last are 
now choked up with tilth, and the 
first occupied by the meanest order 
of mechanics. The fmits in the 
market are of a good kind, and in 
great plenty, as apples, pears, peach- 
es, poinegianates, and a vaiiety of 
grapes. The environs of the city 
are chiefly occupied by garden 
grounds, and watered by numerous 
stieams, the largest of which runs 
tliroiigh the town, and hfis a small 
bridge over it. To the S. W. of Ca- 
biil the hills are of a moderate 
height, but the country is thinly 
cultivated. On account of the prox- 
imity of this cat'ital to the Indian 
Caucasus, or Hindoo Kho Moun- 
tains, the temperature of the at- 
mosphere is liable to very sudden 
variations. 

The great bazar here is I'requently 
crowded with Lsbeck Tartars, who 
have the same cast of features as 
the Chinese and Malays, but more 
harsh ; and here are to be found the 
remains of a colony of Armenians, 
captured by Nadir Shi.h during his 
I'urkish wars. ]Many Hindoos fre- 
quent this city, chiefly from Pe- 
.shawer, who contribute greatly to 
its prosperity, and are carefully pro- 
tected by the Afghan govenmient. 

Travelling distance lioni Delhi, 
839 miles; from Agra, 976; from 
Liuckuow, 1118; and from Calcutta, 
1815 miles. {Foster, Rennel, Abul 
Fazel, AC.) 

Cabul JRivER. — This river has its 
source in the western part of Cabul, 
near the Hindoo Klio Mountains, 
and flows past the city of Cabui, 



from whence it proceeds in a S. W". 
course towards the Indus, Avhicli it 
joins in front of the town of Attock, 
after receiving the addition of many 
streams. From Jelalabad down to 
Pcshawer its proper name is Ka- 
meh, after which it is IVequrutly 
named the Attock, and Hindostan 
connnences at its junction a\ ith the 
Indus. At Jelalabad it is navigable 
for jalehs, or rafts of a particular 
construction ; and its vn hole course, 
including the windings, may be esti- 
mated at abov e 300 miles. 

Cabyna. — A snrall island about ^ 
21 miles in length, by 15 in breadth, 
King due south of the eastern limb 
of Celebes. Lat. 5°. 18'. S. Long. 
121°. 53'. E. 

Cachar, {Cosari). — A district tri- 
butaiy to the Bii man empire, situ- 
ated about the 25th degree of north 
latitude. To the north it is bounded 
b} Assam, and to the south by t!io 
Cassay country ; to the east by Cas- 
say, and to the west by the districts 
of Tipperah and Silhet, in the pro- 
vince of Bengal. Its dimensions arc 
uncertain, but are known not to bo 
great. 

A communication exists by water 
through Assam to the centre of both 
Cachar and Genliah, although hi- 
tiierto deemed inaccessible even by 
land, lormerly the connnerce be- 
twixt Beng!'.! and Cachar was carried 
on by land from.Silhel; for the As- 
samese at tiiat period were so jealous 
of their Bengal neighbours, that no 
acce'<s whatev er was allowed tluough 
the Brahmapootra, 

Although so far to tlie east, and 
for many centuries almost com- 
pletely interdicted all communica- 
tion with Hindostan, the inhabitants 
of tiiis country are, like their neigh- 
bours the Cassayers, Hindoos of the 
Brahniinical persua:ion. The Ra- 
jaji of Cachar, who is a Khetri of 
theSuryabansi (Children of the Sun) 
race, nevertheless occasionally sends 
several ga} als to be sacrificed on cer- 
tain hills in his country. The Ca- 
char country is fertile, but greatly 
overgrown with jungle, and thinly 



CAFFRISTAN. 



199 



populated. It is nmcli less known 
ilia II its iminciiiato vicinity to the 
})!oviiicc of ]Bcii;;al would had lis to 
t:\ppct. 'J'lie name of tlic capital is 
C'ospoitr. 

Ill 1774 Onndaboo, the i^eneral of 
Shcuibiiaii, tlie reigning" Birman nio- 
iiarcli, uuiiicm)il)eiod vvith hag2:ap,c 
or artillery, marclied against Cliewal, 
the Kajah of Cachar; who jios- 
sessed the sovereignty of a produc- 
tive though mountainous country, 
iiorth-west of ^Iiuiipoor. In his ad- 
vance he overcame Anoup Siugli, 
prince of a country called Mugge- 
loo, and advanced within three days 
march of Cospoor, the metropolis of 
Cachar. Here he was opposed by 
Chawal, leagued \<,[\h the Gossain 
Rajali ; and his troops being" at- 
tfick'Hl by the hill fever, (a disease 
fataliy known to the British troops), 
his army was dispersed, cut off in 
detail by the natives, or perished by 
disease. 

A second expedition under Ka- 
meouza (anoiiier general) was more 
successful, who, aniving at the pass 
of Inchamutty, \nthin two dajs 
march of Cospoor, the Ra jah Clia\val 
consented to pay, besides a sum of 
money, the homage of a maiden of 
the royal blood to the King of Ava, 
and also to send him a tree witli tlio 
roots bouud in the native clay, as an 
unequivocal jtroof of vassalage. 
(Si/»ies, Wade, Colebrookc, d)T.) 

Cadutinada, (or Cartiuaad). — 
A small distrii t in the Malabar pro- 
Aince, the rajah ofwliich resides at 
Kutiporam. It is tolerably well cul- 
tivated, and is naturally a rich couu- 
try, but does not produce grain 
adequate to the sustenunee of the 
inhabitants. The liigher part of the 
hills are overgrown with wood,>\liivh 
the Nairs formerly eucouraged, as 
aflording them protection against 
invaders. lu the hills which form 
the h)wer parts of the Ghauts iu 
Cadutinada, and other northern dis- 
tiicts of Mala) a, are certain jilaces 
that naturally produce cardamoms. 

The female Nairs in this part of 
Hie country, while thildrcu, go 



throTigh tlie ceremony of marriag:© 
both with Namliouries and Nairs; 
but licre, as well as in the south, the 
mau and wife never cohabit. When 
the girl is come to maturity, she is 
taken to live in the house of some 
other Namhuri or Nair. A Nair 
here is not astonished when asked 
who his fa'iher was, and a mau has 
as nnich certainty that the children 
born in his own house arc his own, 
as a European htjsband has; yet, 
such is the perversity ef custom, that 
he would be considered as unnatu- 
ral, w ere lie to have as much alfec- 
tion lor liis omu children, as for 
those of his sister, which lie may 
perhaps never have seen. In 1761, 
the Bombay government concluded 
a treaty with the chief of this coun- 
try, for the purchase of pepper, iu 
w hich he is sliled tlie King of Cai- 
tenaddu. {F. Buchanan, Treaties, 

Caffristan, (or Knttore). — An 
extensive mountainous country, 
bounding Cabul to the north ; the 
general level of which is consider- 
ably elevated above the countries 
on each side of it, and extending 
northward from the 3oth dcgTce of 
north latitude. 

Kuttore appears to be the general 
name of this tract, Mhich has the 
Seward, Bijore, and Puekoli dis- 
tricts to the south, and extends from 
tlu north west frontier of Cabul to 
Cashmere, ll has also obtained the 
name of Cailristan, or the land of 
iulidels, from the ^Mahommedans. It 
is classed as a (h^peiidency of Cash- 
gar, by the people of Hiiidostan, but 
seems to have been but little known 
to Ihem. The expedition of Ti- 
mour to tiie mountains of Kuttore 
is paiUcularly related by iSherilled- 
din ; by which it appears, that 'i'i- 
mour proceeded tiom iiadakhshan 
to Kawuek or Khawick, the furtliest 
or most eastern of the passes, leading 
through (he HiudooKhu Mountains, 
into the province of Cabul. In ol- 
der to arrive at tiie fortress of Kut- 
tore, he crossed several ranges of 
high mouutaius, rising one above th« 



200 



CALCUTTA. 



other, some of them covered \vi<Ii 
snow. The fortress was situated at 
the foot of the further range, havingc 
a river of great depth and rapidity 
close under its walls. 

Since this remote period, we have 
heard very little of tlicsc Alpine re- 
gions ; we may conclude, however, 
that they have contributed their share 
of military adventurers to the invad- 
ing armies of IJindostan. At pre- 
sent we are ignorant of the nature 
of their government, the inimber of 
inhabitants, and the religion they 
profess. The Mahommedan is the 
most probable ; but, as Kuttore bor- 
ders on Tibet, where the doctrhies 
of Buddha under the Lama hierarchy 
prevail, it is likely there is an inter- 
mixture of the latter sect. The 
nature also of the counti^ gives us 
reason to suppose it is possessed by 
numerous petty and independent 
chieftains, the leaders of hostile 
clans or tribes, in a state of per- 
petual warfare Avith each other. 
None of (he eastern con.'iucrors ever 
reduced this country into a state 
of permanent subjection, nor does 
the object seem adequate to the 
trouble and dilliculty. 

Calagody, (Calag/iudi). — A town 
in the province of Tinnevclly, 113 
miles N, E. from Cape Comorin. 
Lat. 9° 13'. N. Long. 78°. 30'. E. 
British. 

Calamaines. — A number of small 
islands in tlic Eastern Seas belonging 
to the Philippines, situated about 
half-way be<ween Mindoro and the 
Island of Palawan, about the r2th 
degree of north latitude. The two 
largest are named Busvagon and 
Calamianc, the latter being about 
23 miles in length, by five miles the 
average breadtli. The coast around 
these islands is surrounded by num- 
berless shoals, rocks, and liagments 
of islets, which reader the navigation 
exti'eniely dangerous. 

Calanore. — A small district in 
the Scik territories, in the province 
of liahorc, situated betwixt the 31st 
i»nd32d degrees of north latitude. 

Calanore. — A town in the pro- 



vince of Lahore, 70 miles E. from 
<iie city of Lahore. Lat. 31°. 51'. 
E. Long. 75°. 0'. E. Here Acber 
was first proclaimed emperor, on the 
death of his father Hamayoon in 
1556. 

Calastry. — A town in tlie Car- 
natic, 65 miles N. W. from Ma- 
dras. Lat. 13°. 42'. E. Long. 79°. 
43'. E. 

Calayan. — A small island, one of 
the Philippines, about 23 miles ia 
circumference, situated due north 
of the large Island of Luzon or 
Luconia. 

Calcergah. — Sec Kalueugah. 



CALCUTTA, (CaUcata.) 

A city in the province of Bengal, 
of which it is the modern capital, 
and the seat of the supreme govern- 
ment of British India. Fort Wil- 
liam, its citadel, stands in Lat. 22°. 
33'. N. Long. 88°. 28'. 1^. 

The local ?;itualion of Calcutta is 
not fortunate, for it has extensive 
muddy lakes, and an immense forest 
close to it ; and was at fast deemed 
hardly less unheallhy than Bata\ia, 
which it resembled in being placed 
in a Hat and marshy country. 'I'hc 
English, it has been remarked, have 
been more inattentive to the natnral 
advantages of situation than the 
I'Vench, who have always in India 
selected better stations for founding 
their Ibreign settlements. The jun- 
gle has since been cleared asvay 
to a certain distance, ti^e streets 
properly drained, and the punds 
filled U|) ; by which a vast surface of 
stagnant water has been removed, 
but the air of the town is still 
much alltctcd by the vicinity of the 
Sunder bunds. 

The city sttands about 100 miles 
from the sea, on fhe cast side of )he 
western branch of the Ganges, 
named by Einopcaus the Hooghly 
River, but by the natives the Blia- 
girathi or true Ganges, and con- 
sidered by them peculiarly holy. At 
high water the river is here a fuU 



CALCUTTA. 



201 



mile in breadth ; but, during the 
ol)b, the opposite side to Calcutta 
exposes a loiijv rauf^e of dry sand 
banks. In approaching Calcutta 
tVoni the sea stranger a is nuuh 
stiiick witli i(s magnificent appear- 
ance ; the elegant villas on each side 
of the river, tlie Cfnnpany's botanic 
gardens, tiic; si)ircs of the eliiuches, 
temples, and minarets, and the 
strong and regular citadel of Ftsrt 
William. It exhihiied a very dif- 
ferent appearance in 1717, of which 
the following is a conect descrip- 
tion : 

The present town was then a vil- 
lage ajipertaining to the district of 
Nuddea, the houses of which were 
scattered about in clusters of 10 or 
12 each, and the inhabitants chiefly 
husbandmen. A forest existed to 
the southwiu-d of Cliandpaul (ihaut, 
which was afterwards removed by 
degrees. Jjctueen kidderpoor and 
the forest v\cre two villages, whose 
inhabitajits were i;ivitcd to settle in 
Cakulta, by tiie ancient fuiiily of 
the Seals; who were at tliat time 
merchants of great note, and very 
instrumental in briogiiig Calcutta 
into the form of a town. Fort W il- 
liam and the esplanade are the 
site where this forest and the two 
villages abovc-mentioMcd forineily 
stood. Ihere an; still inhabitants 
alive, who recollect a creek wfiich 
extended from Cliandpaul Chant to 
lialliaghaut; and who say, that the 
drain before the goverinnent-lumsc 
is w here it took its course, 'i'o the 
south of the Eeytakhanah tliere is 
still a ditch, which shews evident 
traces of the coniiiiuation of this 
creek. In 1717 there was a small 
village, consisting of straggling 
houses, surrounded by pu<Ulies of 
water, where no v. stand the elegtmt 
houses at Chowruigliee; and Cal- 
cutta may, at this period, be des- 
<*ribed as extending to Chitpore 
Eridge, but tl;e intervening s{)ace 
consisted of ground covered with 
jungle. In 17 W a ditch was dug 
round a considerable part of tlie 
boundaries of Calcutta, ta prevent 



the incursions of the Maliarattas; 
and, it appears from Mr. Oriue's liis- 
tory of the \\ ar in Bengal, that at 
the time of its capture in 175G, thei(^ 
were about 70 houses in the town 
belonging to the English. Wliat 
are now called the esplanade, the 
site of Fort W illiam and Chowrin- 
ghee, were so late as 17.56 a com- 
plete jungle, interspersed with a few 
huts, and small pieces of gj-azing and 
arable land. 

The modern town and suburbs of 
Calcutta extends along the east side 
of the river aljove .six miles, but 
the breadth varies very nmch at dif- 
ferent [)laces. The esplanade be- 
tween tlie town and J'ort Williaui 
leaves a grand opening, along the 
edge of which is placed the nc\r 
govcrjunent-honse erected by the 
Marquis Wellesley ; and, coiitnmed 
on ill a line with this edilice, is a 
range of magnificent houses, orna- 
mented with spacious verandalis. 
Chowringliee, Ibrmerly a collection 
of native huts, is now an entire vil- 
lage of palaces, and extends for a 
considerable distance into the coun- 
try. The architectiue of t lie houses 
is Grecian, which does not appear 
the best adapted for the country or 
climate, as the pillars of the veran- 
dahs are too much ehxated, to keep 
out the sun durii\g the morning and 
evening, although at both these times 
the heat is excessive ; and, in the 
wet season, the rain beats in. Per- 
haps a nior(> coniine<l iJindoo stile 
ofbuilding, although less ornamental, 
might be found of more practical 
comfort. The princij)al square ex- 
tends about oOO yards each way, 
aiid. contauis in the centre an ex- 
tensive tank, surrounded by a hand- 
some wall and riuling, and having a 
gradati<in of steps to the bottom, 
which is 60 feet from th'- top of its 
l)anks. A range of indillercnt look- 
ing houses, known by the name of 
the ^V riter's Unildings, occupies one 
side of the sipiare ; anil near to it, 
on the site of the old fort, taken by 
Seraje ud Dowlah, in 17o7. is a cus- 
tom-house and several other liaiiJ- 



202 



CALCUTTA. 



some bnildings. . The hiack Iiolc is 
now |)<ut of a waiehousc, aiul lilled 
with merchandize. A inonmucjit is 
erected fticiiig; the gale, to coinme- 
moratc the uidortiinate poisons who 
there perished ; but it ]ias been 
struck by lightning, and is itself fast 
going to decay. A quay lias been 
ibrmed in front of the cnstom-honse, 
which promises to be a gieat im- 
provement : and it would be a still 
greater, were the emb;irkKient ex- 
tended along the whole face of the 
town next tlic river. 

'i'he goveniment-house is the most 
remarkable public edifice in Cal- 
cutta. The lower story forms a rus- 
tic basement, with arcades to the 
building, which is ionic. On the 
north side there is a flight if steps, 
under which carnages drive to the 
entrance ; and, on the south, there is 
a circular colonnade with a dome. 
The four wings, one at each corner 
of the building, arc connected with 
it by circular passages, so long, as 
to secure their enjoying the air all 
round, from which ever (juarter the 
"wind blows. These A\iiigs contaiji 
all the private apartments ; and in 
the north-east angle is the coniicil- 
room, decoiated like the other pub- 
lic rooms with portraits. The centre 
«if the buildiug contains two un- 
connnonly fine rooms: the lowest 
is paM'd wiUi dark grey marble, and 
supported by done columns chu- 
named, resembling marble. Above 
tliis hall is the ball-rooin, floored 
with dark poli.-;hed MOod, and sup- 
porteil b} ionic piiiars. Both rooms 
are lighted by a profusion of cut 
glass lustix's, suspended from the 
painted ceiling, where an excellent 
taste is displaced in the decora- 
tif>ns. 

Besides the government-house the 
other publii' buildings are a town- 
house, the court of justice, and two 
churches of the establislu;d religion, 
one of which nuikes a very hand- 
some appearance, but the other is a 
plain building. There are also 
churches lor the Portxiguese Catho- 
lics, auotherof the Greek persuasiou, 



an Armenian church, and many small 
Hindoo temples and Mahonnnedau 
mosques. The hospital and jail are 
to the south of the to^^'n. The bo- 
tanic garden is beautifully situated 
on the west bank of the river, and 
gives the name of Garden Reach to 
a bend of the river. Above the gar- 
den there is au extensive plantation 
of teak, which is not a native of this 
part of Intlia, but which thrives well 
here. There is a private dock-yaid 
nearly opposite to Fort William, and 
another one mile below it on" the 
same side of the river. 

'I'he black town extends along the 
river to the north of Calcutta, and 
cxliibits a remarkable contrast to 
the part inhabited by the Europeans. 
It is extremely large, and swiuming' 
with population. The streets are 
narrow, dii ty, and unpaved ; the 
houses of two stories are of brick, 
with flat-terraced roofs; but the great 
majority are mud cottages, covered 
with small tiles, with side walls of 
mats, bamlioos, and other combusti- 
ble materials. Fires are, conse- 
quently, of frequent occurrence, but 
do not in the least affect the Euro- 
pean quarter, which, from the mode 
uf building, is wholly incombustible. 
In this part the houses stand de- 
tached from each other within a 
space enclosed by walls, the generid 
approach being by a flight of steps 
under a large verandah, their whole 
appearance being uncommonly ele- 
gant and respectable. 

Eiicks, mortar, and wood, are not 
scarce in Calcutta, yet the money 
siMik in building a house is very con- 
siderable ; and, Iteing a perishable 
commodity, requiring constant re- 
pair, house rent is proportionally 
high. The white ants are so de- 
structive in their operations, that, 
sometimes, every beam in a house 
may be completely excavated in- 
ternally, while outwardly it appears 
pcrlictly sound. 

Foit V^ illiam stands about a quar- 
ter of a mile below the town, and is 
superior iii strength and regularity to 
any fortress in India. It is of au 



CALCUTTA. 



203 



octagon form, five of llic faces arc 
regular, \vhilethe forms oftlic other 
throe next the viver are aecorilinj;- to 
the local circumstances. As no ap- 
proach by land is to be ai)prchoiuleil 
on this siile, tho river cominp; up to 
th(^ glacis, it m as niere!\' necessary 
to u»ar<l against an attack by water, 
by providin<? a great snperiorily of 
lire, which purpi>se has been attained 
by giving" the citadel towards the 
water the form of a large salicist 
angle, the faces of wiiich cnlilade 
the conrse of the river. I'roMi these 
faces the guns (M>ntinue to bear upon 
the object till it approaches very 
near the city, when they would re- 
ceive the lire of batteries parallel to 
the river. 'J'liis part is likewise de- 
fended by the adjoining bastions, 
and a counter-guard that covers 
them. 

'I'iie five regular sides are towards 
the land; Ihe bastions have all very 
salient orilions, behind which are re- 
tired circular Hanks, extremely spa- 
cious, and an inverse double flank 
at tlie height ol' the bevnie. Ttiis 
<louble flank would be an excellent 
defc>i;e, and would serv to retard 
the passages of the dilcii, as from 
its form it cannot be enlilad(>d. ''I'he 
orilion preserves it from the effect of 
ricochet shot, and it is not to be 
seen from any |)araHel. Th(! bcrme 
opposite to t!ie curtain serves as a 
road to it, and contributes to the 
defence of the ditch like a fausse- 
bray. 

The ditch is dry, with a cunette 
in the middle, wiiicli receives the 
Avatcr of (he river by means of two 
sluices that are comnnuided by the 
fort. The counterscarp and covered 
way are excetient, vyeij curtain is 
covered witii a large half moon, with- 
out ilatiks, boriuet, or redoubt, bnt 
the faces mount 13 jiieces of lieavy 
artillery each, thus giving to the de- 
fence of these ravelins a tire ol' 2G 
guns. The deini-bastiotis, which 
terminate the live regular fronts on 
each side, are covered by a counter- 
guard, of wliich the taces, like the 
half-moons, arc pierced with 13 em- 



JL 



brasurcs. Tliese cour.ter-guardsare 
tomiected with two redoul)ls, con- 
si ructed in the ])lace of a! ins of the 
adjacent re-enlering angles; th« 
whole is faced and pallisadoed v.ith 
care, kept ii\. admirable condition, 
an<l capable of making a vigorous 
defence against any army, however 
formidable. The advanced works 
are executed on an extensix c scale ; 
and the angles of the half moons 
being extremely acute, project a 
great way, so as to be in view of 
each other beyond the flanked angle 
of the polygon, and cai)able of tak- 
ing the trenches in the rear at an 
early period of the approach. 

Tills citadel was connnenced by 
I^ord Ciive soon alter the battle of 
Plassey, and was iMtcnded by him to 
be complete in every respect, but it 
has since been discovered that it is 
erected on too extensive a scale to 
answer the purpose for which it was 
intended, that of a tenable post in 
case of extiemity, as the number of 
troops required to garrison it properly 
woidd be able to keep the lield. It 
is capable of containing 15,000 men, 
and t!ie works are so extensive tiiat 
10,000 would 1)0 required to defend 
them eihcieiidy, and from lirst to 
last have cost tlu; East India Com- 
pany two millions sterling. The 
works are seareely at ail raised above 
the level of the surrounding country, 
of course do not make an imposing- 
appearance from without, nor are 
they pcrceptilde until closely ap- 
proached. This excites great sur- 
prise in the natives coming from the 
interior, who alw ays coimect the idea 
of great strength with great eh^va- 
tion, and generally mistake the bar- 
racks for the fort. 

The fort only contains buildings 
that arc absolutely necessary; such 
as the residence ot'thc co)nmandaut, 
quarters for the ollicers and troops, 
and the arsenal. The barracks make 
a very handsome appearance, and 
afford excellent acconnnodation both 
to the privates and oiriccus. The in- 
terior of the fort is perfectly ojien, 
presenting to the view large grass 



204 



CALCUITA. 



plots and prravcl walks, kept cool by 
ro\vs of tiers ; and, ia tlie finest or- 
der, intermixed ^ith piles of can- 
non, bomb shells, and balls. E;ich 
gate has a house over it, destined for 
the residence of a major. Between 
the fort ;;;id toMn an extensive level 
space intervenes, called the Espla- 
nade. 

The gaiTison wsually is composed 
of two or three European battalions, 
one of artillery, with ariiticers and 
workmen for the arsenals. '1 he na- 
tive corps, amounting: to about 400G 
men, are generally cantoned at Ear- 
rackpoor, 15 miles hij^her up the 
river, and supply about 1200 monthly 
to perform the duty of the tort. The 
wells in th.e diflerent outworks of 
I'ort William, some of which are 
500 yards from the river, during the 
hot season become so brackish as to 
be unfit either for culinary purposes, 
or forwashiuE;. Government has, in 
conscipience, formed an immense re- 
servou", occ-upying- one of the bas- 
tions, to be fillod when required with 
rain water. 

Calcutta possesses the advantage 
of an excellent inland navigation, 
foreign imjjorts being transported 
with great facility on the Ganges, 
and its subsidiary streams, to the 
jiortliern nations of Ilindostan, while 
the valuable productions of the in- 
terior are received by the same chan- 
luls. 'I'hcre are seldom less than one 
million sterling in cloths belonging 
to native merchants deposited in 
Calcutta for sale, and every other 
species of merchandize in an equal 
pro))ortion. l"he total capital be- 
longing to the native monied and 
commercial interests has been esti- 
mated to exceed 16 millions sterling, 
which is emjiUned by them in the 
government funds, loans, and dis- 
counts to indi\i(luals, internal and 
external trade, and in various other 
wa\s. The formerly timid Hindoo 
now lends moniy on respondentia, 
on distant voyages, engages in spe- 
culations to various parts of the 
world, ensures as an miderwriter, 
and erects indigo works in diflerent 



parts of the provinces. He ha.s the 
advantage of trading on his own ca- 
j)ital with much greater frugality 
than a European ; and, exclusive of 
the security of his property, enjoys 
the most perfect toleration of his re- 
ligion. In Sept. 1808, the Calcutta 
go\ernment bank was established 
with a capital of 50 laeks of rupees, 
of whi( h goA ernment have 10 lacks, 
and individuals the remainder. Tiie 
notes issued are for not less than 10 
rupees, or more tlian 10,000. I'ur- 
tlier commercial information, wjtli 
the details of the external commerce 
of the port of Calcutta, will be found 
at the conclusion of this article. 

Tliere have been various opinions 
as to the po])ulation of Calcutta, but 
it does not appear any very correct 
census has ever 1)een taken, lu 
1802 tiie police magistrates estimat- 
ed the population of Calcutta at 
(500,000 ; a few yeais ago Sir Henry 
Russel, the chief judge, estimated 
the population of Calcutta and its 
environs at one million ; and Gen. 
Kyd the population of the city alone 
at betw een four and 500,000. Pro- 
bably half a million will be a toler-. 
ably correct approximation to the 
real nundjer. 'I'he adjacent country 
is also so thickly inhabited that, in 
1802, the police magistrates calcu- 
lated that Calcutta, with a circuit of 
20 miles, comprehended 2,225,000 
souls. 

The number of houses, shops, and 
other habitations in the tov\ n of Cal- 
cutta, in 1798, belonging to indivi- 
duals, was as follows : 
Eritish subjects - - - - 430a 

Armenians _ _ _ - - 640 
Poitugucse and other Christ- 
ian inhabitants - - - 2650 
Hindoos ------ .56,460 

IMahommedans - - - - 14,700 

Chinese ------ 10 



Total 78,760 



The above statement does not in- 
clude the new and old forts, and 
many houses the property of tli^ 
East India Company. 



CALCUTTA. 



205 



The Enropcan society in .r;ilru(tu 
is iui:iierous, gay, atid cuiivivia!, and 
the fetes given by the "ovoinors- 
gcneral splendid and welt arriuiged. 
Eaeh of ilic principal ofTicers of go- 
vernment \Mi\(i Iheir public days for 
the recei.ti^iii of their friends, inde- 
pendent of Avhicli not a day passes, 
particnlarly during the cold season, 
V ithont seveial large dinner jiarties 
being formed oi' from 30 to 40. A 
subscription assenrbly also subsists, 
but it is unthsliionable, aUliongli it is 
the only place of public amusement, 
the society l)eing much subdivided 
into parties. 

It is usual, in ralcutfa, to rise 
early in order to onjoy tlie cool air of 
the morning, uliicii is particularly 
pleasant before sunrise. Betwixt <ine 
^md two a meal is taken, wiiich is 
called tiliin, after wliich many retire 
to i>ed for two or three hours. 'J'lie 
dinner is couuivonly after sunset, 
whieli necessarily keeps the guests 
up until midnight. The viands are 
excellent, and scned in great [sro- 
fusion ; and as the heat of tin; cli- 
mate does not admit of their being 
kept, great ])art are at last thrown 
out to tbe pariah dogs and birds of 
prey. The lower orders of Portu- 
gncse, to whom alone they would be 
serviceable, cannot consume the 
whole ; and the religious prejudices 
of the native servants prevent their 
tasting any food belonging to a per- 
son not of their caste or religion. 
To this circumstance is to be attri- 
buted the amazing docks of crows, 
kites, and vultures, which, undis- 
turbed by man, live together hi ;imi- 
cable society, and almost cover tiie 
houses and gardens. In their pro- 
fession of scavengers the kites and 
crows are assisted, during the daj', 
by the Iarg«! adjutant stork, and at 
Jiight by pariah dogs, foxes, and 
jackals, w hieh tiien emerge from the 
neighbouring jungles. 

'I'he wines cliii lly drank are iMa- 
deira and claret ; the former, which 
js excellent, during the meal, the 
latter afterwards. The claret being 
medicated for Ibe vovaoe. is bv some 



considered too strong. The Calcutta 
market supplies a great variety of 
game, such as snipes, wild ducks, 
l)artridges, and various species of the 
ortolan tribe — the whole compara- 
tively cheap. 'J'lie v,ild venison is 
much inferior to tliat of Ihitain, but 
the park or stall fed is equally good, 
'i'he lir.re is a vei-y poor animal, and 
diflers in many qualities from tiiat of 
J'higland, being deficient in size, 
strengtii, and swiftness, whicli ob- 
senation also apjjlies to the Bengal 
fox. The tables of the gentlemen in 
Calcutta are distingnished by a vast 
profusion of most beautiful fruits, 
procured at a ^•ery mcjdcrate ex- 
pense, such as jtine apjiles, plan- 
tains, mangoes, jjomeloes, or shad* 
docks, melons of all sorts, oranges, 
custard apples, gua'/as, peaches, and 
an endless variety of other orchard 
fruits. 

The usual mode of visiting is ia 
palampiins, but many gei'.tiemeii 
have carriages adapted to the cli- 
mate, and the breed of horses has 
lately been greatly improved. It is 
universally the custom to drive out 
between sunset and diimer, and, as 
itbecomes dark, servants withtorches 
go out to meet their masters, and 
nui before their carriages with an 
astonishing raj.idity, and for a great 
length of time. It was formerly the 
fashion (and it is still adhered to u\t 
the country) for gentlemen to dress 
in white cotton jackets on ail o<-ca- 
sions, being well suited to the cli- 
mate, but being thought too much of 
an undress for piibhe occasions, they 
are now laid aside for coats of i'hig- 
lish cloth. 

The Ihitish inhabitants stationary 
in Calcutta, and scattered through- 
out the pro^^nces, are generally ho"— 
pitable in the highest degree, and 
most liberal where their assistanee is 
wanted. \\ hen an oflicer of respect- 
ability dies, in either ser\ ice, leaving 
a widow, or children, a .subscription 
is immediately commenced, which, 
in every instance, has pro^ed gene- 
rous, and not imfrequently has con- 
ferred oti the parties a degree of a.f- 



206 



CALCUTTA. 



flucnce, that llie life of the Imsbaiid 
or parent could not for many years 
have acoompli.shed. 

The Company s;iai!t a princely al- 
lowance to their civil rorvaiits, l)irl, 
larj^e as it is, it docs not always snl- 
iice for the expenses of the juniors ; 
juany of whoai, on their first aniva!, 
set up an extravagant establishment 
of horses, carria,2:cs, and servants, 
and tliercby involve tliemseives in 
embarrassments at a v<My early pe- 
riod of their lives. To support tliis 
profuse manner of livini? they are 
ol)liged to borrow Irom their Dewan, 
who is generally a monied nati\e of 
rank, who snpjjlies tiieir extrava- 
gance, and encouraaes tbeir dissi- 
pation, until their difficulties are al- 
most inextricable. While the young 
civilian remains in an inferior situa- 
tion, the debt to the Dewan con- 
tinues to acciunniate; and when 
higher appointments are at length at- 
tained, it requires years to cleai- oif 
the embarrassments of his juvenile 
thoughtlessness. ' Instances of this 
sort are rare now compared to what 
they were at an early period of the 
Company's accjuisitions, and not- 
M'ithstamling the nudtiplied tempta- 
tions, a very great majority of those 
Avho arrive at the higher stations 
wholly escape their innuence, .and 
arc distinguished for the most un- 
sulhed integrity of t:haracter. ^^ hen- 
ever a deviation has occurred, it 
could invariably be tiaced to the 
imprudence of tiie young man on his 
first arrival, and his subsequent de- 
pendence on his Dewan. 

The British merchants of Calcutta 
are a numeroiisand respectal)le body 
of men, many of whom have ac- 
quired large fortunes by their in- 
dustry and cnterjtrising spirit, and 
f-onduce essentially to the i)rosiif'rity 
of the province. 'I'liey here disiday 
a liberality in their manner of living 
seldom equalled in any oth(>r i)art of 
the world, and their acts of charity 
and munilicence to persons in dis- 
tress have never been surpassed by 
any shnilar nuiuber of men of any 
r^uik whatever. 



The Armenians arc a rcspccfaWrV 
and, probably, the most numerous* 
body of foreign merchants at tht" 
presidency. 'I'hey cany on au ex- 
tensive trade to Cliina and the cast- 
ward, and to the west as far as the 
Arabian Gulf, or Bed Sea. Some of 
the most respectable aie commonly 
invited to the public balls and enter- 
tainments. The number of Greek 
uicrrhants in Calcutta is not con- 
siderable. Tliey maintain one clergy- 
man, who pcrtbrms religious worsliip 
according to their rites. The Portu- 
guese houses of agency are, in pomt 
of number, next to those of the 
English. A very considerable num- 
ber of the progeny of that nation re- 
side in Calcutta and tlic environs, 
and have approxin.ated very closely 
to the natives in colour and manners. 

Among the various classes of the 
mercantile comuiunity no mention is 
made of Jews. Few <>f that nation 
have settled in Ilindostan, and Cal- 
cutta is p.robabiy the only very opu- 
lent town that is wholly free from 
them. Their practices and occn])a- 
tions arc engrossed by the native 
bari}ans, sircars, and writers, most 
of vvhom are quite a match for any 
Jew. The shops of these petty traf- 
fickers, althought better than their 
houses, are mean and disagreeable. 
The European shops aie singularly 
splendid. 

'J'he maintenance and education 
of children belonging to Emopeans 
in India, have, on account of tiieir 
nnndjer, Ijccomc objects of great 
im])ortance. Two institutions of this 
sort have been formed, one tor the 
education of ollicers' children, and 
the otiier I'or those of private soldier.:. 
To these charitable foundations ma^ 
be added a irec-.school and native 
hospital, 

^\ ithuut being attached to some 
department of the service, or edu- 
cated to some mecham'cai trad«! or 
l)rofession, tliere is hardiy any hope 
of prosperity to a young man com- 
ing out on chance from Europe. 
Here all the inferior simations of 
clerks, overseers, ike. are iiecesprily 



CALCUITA. 



207 



occupied by natives, and it is by 
tliosc gradations that in Europe 
youn^ nu>n rise to opnlence in tlic 
commercial world. It is sciueely in 
the power, even of a governor-u;en- 
eral, to assist a person of" r('S])eet- 
able eonnexions, who is nol in one 
of the services or liberal professions, 
Althoiiuli Ihe ilimate is not essen- 
tially improved, Europeans are now 
nnieh better aecpiainted villi the 
means of eounteraetiiij!; i<s elfcets 
than formerly, and dc.idis aie far 
from being so frequent. Kegidarity 
of living, avoiding too inneh expo- 
sure to the sun, and all extremes, 
(even of abstinenee), are nnich more 
jiraetised by the present iidiabitants 
than they were by the first adven- 
turers. Yaeaueies, e<)nsequent!y, in 
any line oi- trade are of much r:uer 
occurrence. 

The stipreme court of justice at 
Calcutta consists of a chief-justice 
and two puisne judges, nominated 
to their situations in India by the 
king. Its cognizance extends to all 
British subjects; that is, natives, or 
the descendants of natives oi' Great 
Britain, in India, and to all live in- 
Jiabitants of Calcutta; but tins court 
is allowed no cognizance over the 
land revenue. In suits, to which 
the natives are j)arties, the judges 
are enjoined, by act of parliament, 
Jo respect the usages of the country. 
In matters of inheritance, or con- 
tract, the rule of decision is to be 
the law acknovxledged by the liti- 
gant parties. Should only one of 
the parties be a Mahummedan or 
Hindoo, it is to he the law aeknow- 
ledged by the defendant. Criminal 
offences are tried by a jury, consist- 
ing, exclusively. t)f British sidjjeets ; 
in trials of a civil natme the judges 
decide both on the law and on the 
fact. The supreme court also tries 
criminal charges against the Com- 
pany's servants, and civil suits in 
uhich the Compajiy or the C\>m- 
pany's servants are con<erned. '^I'he 
law practitioners, attached to the 
supreme couit, are 14 iittoruies and 
sd\ barristeis. 



Little morality is learned in a 
court of justice ; and, notwithstand- 
ing the severity of the police and of 
the English laws, it appears probable 
that the morals of th<^ native inha- 
bitants are worse in Calcutta than 
in the provincial districts. This is 
not t(t be attributed solely to the size, 
population, and indisciiminate so- 
ciety of the eajjital, but in part to 
the supreme court, every native con- 
nected with which ap])earing to have 
his morals and maimers contami- 
nated by the coimexion. In men- 
tioning this evil, it is not intended, 
in the mo.st remote degree, to attri- 
bute it to any individual or body of 
men, or to speak with <lisrcspect of 
the institution itself; but merely to 
mention a fact, v\lii(h has probably 
been rtnuarkcil by every judge th;'l 
ever sat on that bench. \\ ithin tlKse 
few years the natives liaAC attained a 
sort of legal knowledge, as it is usu- 
ally denominated. This consists ol"<i 
skill in themts of collusion, intrigue, 
perjury, and subornation, whicli ena- 
bles them to jierjjlex' and balile the 
magistrates with inliuite facility. 

Notwithstaufling the temptations 
to which the natives are exposed, it 
is surprising how .stldom thefts of 
burglaries are committed on the pro- 
pel ty of Eumpcans in Bengal, who 
scarcely take any precaution against 
them. In some families 30 and 40 
domestics sleep during the niglit 
within the enclosure, or in tlie jias- 
sages and verandahs of the house, 
wheie every door is open, and dct('(<- 
tioii almost iinpossi!»ie. Eroin their 
extreme timidity, they seldom ven- 
ture to rob opeiil), or on .a largB 
scale, but prefer a more eiieuitous 
and complicatetl mode of small pil- 
fering and cheating. 

The court of appeal and ( iretiit 
for the Calcutta divisi"n compre- 
hends the following districts, viz. 1. 
Buidwuii; 2. Jungle Mahals; 3. 
^lidnaiioor; 4. Cuttack; 5. Jessore; 
G. Nuddea ; 7. Hooghly ; 8. The fo- 
reign settlements of Chaudcrnagoic, 
Chinsura, and Serampore: 9. The 
21 pcrguunahs. 



2oa 



CALCUTTA. 



Commercirtl ihtails of the prkalc 
trade, from the \st June, 1811, to 
the SOth April, 1812, pi months). 

Diirinp; llio al)ove jKniod the pai- 
ticuhiisofUic external commerce of 
Calcutta were as follows : 
Imports. 
Merchandize 11,338,692 
Treasme - G,785,(;9S 



I-Jrot. fonvard 
Java - - - 
Pcuaiig and 
Eastward - 
China - - 
New South 

Wales 
Pexuc - - 



£• 



Sicca rnpe<'s 18,124,390 2,265,549 



M<^rchandi;:e 
Treasure 



ENjiorts. 
34,003,009 
614,673 

34,617,682 4,327,210 



52,742,072 6,592,759 



l.eavins: a !Mt defirit in the trade 
of the preeedi:i<v vear of sicca rupees 
19.433,053, or 1,304,1321. 

This deficiency Avas in the imports, 
as there wa;^ an excess on the ex- 
ports of sifca rupees 410,649. 

The actual falling off of (he jm- 
ports was, ;^icca rupees 10,843,702, 
or 1,355.4631. 

The rejection of one month in 12 
partly accounts for this defalcation ; 
but the ^Tcat deficiency in the inr- 
ports was in the article of treasure; 
for ou merchaiidize there was an in- 
creased iuijxirt to the amount of 
sicca iUj)ees 853,815. 



I.MPOUF OF 



TRKASURE. 

In In 

1810-11. 1811-12. 



T'rom London 
Jltazils - - 
America 
Isles of Trance 
Manilla - - 
Aral)ia & Per- 
sian Gulfs 
Coast of Su- 
matra - - 
Coast of Cora- 
mandcl 



127,922 3,637 

1,623,206 1,341,093 

6,513.605 459,869 

25.000 
2,366,931 

399,520 463,456 

457,907 255,985 

142,470 33,000 



11,656,561 2,5.57,04!t 
222,(X>7 

1,960,753 1,111,300 
4,824,492 2,877,801 



41,209 



17,550 



18,483,015 6,785,698 
Deduct 6,785,698 



12,001,010 
303,493 



Deduct 
Net decrease 11,697,517 orl,462,19<3 



£ 



IMPORTS FIICJI LONDON'. 

1810-11. 1811-12. 



Broad cloth - 
Cutlejy - - 
Copper & co])- 

per nails 
Carriages - - 
Corks - - - 
Claret - - - 
Towling-iiicces 
and pistols - 
Flannels, blan- 
kets, ^ carpets 
Glass ^^are 
Hosiery - - 
Ilaherdasliery 
Hardware 
Hats - - - 
Hoojjs ic jivets 
Hock - - - 
Iron - - - 
Ironmongc^ry - 
IMusical itistiu- 
nients - - 
Lead; red and 
while - - 
I\Iall liiiuors - 
Madeira wine 
Morocco lea- 
ther - - - 
Oilman's stores 
Perfumery 
Piece goods - 
Paints - - - 



147,882 
27,451 

438.100 
78.2U8 
21.629 

465,273 



52,73.*? 

52,52a 

38,7.50 

46,918 

44,829 

663,162 



38,813 22,832 



24,312 

222,933 
50.323 
90,453 
33,946 
78,173 
47,;X.2 
21,818 
86,619 
62,217 



46,166 
313,756 
36,378 
70,452 
43,439 
1] 7.806 
53,520 
33,3«)0 
31,9;>8 
79,793 



16,852 48,614 



42,884 
17.5.154 
251,526 

24,715 
119,216 

39,782 
73,446 

10,089 



26,080 
191,482 

183,742 

.39,193 
201,816 
44,325 
88,499 
38,092 



Caniedforwardl 1,656,561 2,557,040 Canied fonvard 2,689,716 2,610,466 



CALCUTTA. 



209 



1810-11. 1811-12. 



l^rot. forward 2,689.716 2,610,466 

I'oitwiiie - - 94,392 154,187 

Slalioncry - 101,791 80,006 

Sundries - - 863,403 1,095,961 



3,739,.302 3,940,610 
Treasure 127,922 3,637 



Sicca rupees 3,867,224 3,944,247 



EXPORTS TO LONDON. 

Piece goods - 465,681 429,180 

Shawls - - 42,.501 31,213 

Indigo - - 5,136,300 5,426,521 

Sugar - - - 91,.346 10.4.58 

Silk - - - 461,805 1,409,116 

Cotton - - 133,167 9,351 

Lac lake - - 210,600 69,550 

Sundries - - 146,930 300,334 



6,688,330 7,685,723 
Re-exports 399,436 612,395 



7,087,766 8,198,118 
Treasure 314,673 



Sicca rupees 7,087,766 8,512,791 



In 1811-12, the amount of imports 
from the Brazils were, 

Merchandize - - - - 157,110 
Treasiue - - - - 1,341,093 



Sicca rupees 1,498,203 



EXPORTS TO THE BRAZILS. 
Piece goods - - - - 2,785,579 
Shawls ------ 2,300 

Indigo 82,642 

Silk 6,605 

Grain --_-_. 7,980 
Bengal rum - - - - 156 

Sundries ----- 9,458 



Imports re-exported 



2,894,720 
37,095 



Total exports, sicca rupees 2,931,815 



AMERICA. 

In 1811-12, the amount of imports 
from America were, 
Merchandize - - - - 126,565 
Treasure ----- 459,869 



Total imports 585,434 



EXPORTS TO AMERICA. 

Piece goods - - - - 1,434,081 

Indigo 31,469 

Sugar ------ 30,065 

Canvas 4,304 

Sundries ----- 31,606 

1,631,525 
Imports re-exported - 63,849 

Total exports, sicca rupees 1,695,374 

In 1811-12, the intercourse with 
America was almost wholly inter- 
rupted ; the importation from thence 
amounling to only 586,434 rupees, 
(73,1791.), which includes 469,869 
rupees, (57,4841.) of specie, shew- 
ing a decrease of imports in the 
prior year (which had also been a low 
import year) of 6,186,460 mpees, 
(773,3081.) 

In the exports to America there 
was also a serious defalcation in 
the value of everj' principal article, 
amounting in the whole to 6,240,991 
rupees, (656,1241.) 

MANILLA. 

The imports from Manilla, were, 
In 1810-11 - - - - 2,969,942 
In 1811-12 - - - - 327,450 

Difference 2,642,492 

The exports to Manilla were, 
In 1810-11 - - - - 1,270,641 
In 1811-12 - - - - 873,481 

Difference 397,060 

In 1811, the exports to Manilla 
were. 

Piece goods - - - - 643,756 

Bengal rum - - . - 410 

Canicd fonvard - 644,160 



210 



CALCUITA. 



4^'^ 



Brought forward 61i,l()f) 

0|iinm ----._ 110,4"! 5 

t'auvris ------ 3,727 

Sundries - _ . - ^ 8,Gi>7 



Imports re-exported 



7;y7,00o 
100,476 



Sicca rupees 873,481 



In 1811-12, Conner was llie only 
article ofnieiTliandize imported lioui 
jMani'.la, and there was a falling off 
in il tii' ■2t),6.jU rupees, TJie pre- 
ceding >far hrondit 2,306,931 ru- 
pees (•2!/5,8o6l.) of treasTire from M;\- 
liiila ; but in 1811-12 there was uoiic 
recei^ed. 

In the exports the dcficienc}'^ fell 
wholly on piece floods to the amount 
of sicca rupccs504,801, (63,1001.); in 
opium there was an increase in the 
sum of 86,559 rupees, (10,8201.); ii« 
sundries, 10,13a rupees, (1,2671.); 
and in re-exports, 11,047 rupees. 

This stagnation <jf trade bct'.veen 
Calcutta and Manilla was in part 
owing to the enoriuous quantity of 
goods sent to the ■Manilla market in 
1808-9, ori the first oi)eniug of the 
intercourse, and occasioned a glut, 
w hieli it did not recover for several 
years. 

ARABIAN AND PERSIAN GULF.S. 

In 1811-12, the amount of imports 
from the Arabian and Persian Gulfs 

were 976,115 

Treasare ----- 463,456 



Sicrca rupees 1,439,571 



EXPORTS. 

Piece goods - - - - 2,312,146 

Shawls 5,860 

Indigo _ - _ _ - 457,654 

Sugar 103,483 

.Silk - 6,132 

Grain ------ 202,808 

Canvas ----- 1,072 

Suutlrics 14,621 



ftnports re-exported 



3,103,796 

74,783 



In 1811-12, the imports fi-om the 
I'ersian and Arabian (Jnlfs increased 
in merchandize 435,625 rupees, 
(54,4531.); to whicli sum must also 
be ad<!cd an increase in the amount 
of treasure of 63,936 rui)ees, (7,9921 ), 
making the total increase of this 
year's importation, compared with 
that of the preceding year, 499,561 
rupees, (62,4451.) 

The articles on w hich there w as an 
increase were copper, cowries, horses, 
guns, timber, and planks. The de- 
crease fell cliietiy on corals, collee, 
spices, and galls. > 

The exports to the two Gulfs shcAV 
a neat increase of 988,371 laipecs. 
Piece goods, grain, and sundries 
composed this increase; in the ar- 
ticles of indigo, sugar, and raw silk, 
tliere w as a decrease. 

PRINCIi or V/ALES'S ISLAND (PKNANC), 
AND THE EASTWAHD. 

l"he imports fronr Penang were. 
In 1810-U - - - - 3,264,297 
In 1811-12 - - - - 2,097,239 



)ecrease - 1,167,058 



The exports were, 
In 1810-11 - - 
In 1811-12 - - 

Decrease 



- 2,534.351 

- 2,528,183 



6,1C3 



In 1811-12, the imports consisted 

of, Alerchandize - r - 985,939 

Treasure ... - 1,111,300 



Sicca rupees 



2,097.239 



Sicca rupees 3,178.579 



EXPORTS. 

Piece goods _ - - - 641,910 

Shawls - 1,520 

Indigo ------ 678 

Sugar 1,320 

Grain 4-5,167 

Bengal rum - . - - . 16,294 

Opium -1,768,780 

Cotton ------ 12,239 

Canvas 10,893 

Sundries 84,019 

Canied forward 2,482,720 



(■i^^<: 



CALCUTTA. 

Brought forward 2,482,720 Brought forward 

Imports re-exported - 45,463 Beng:al ram - - - 

Canvas - - - - 

Sicca rupees 2,528,183 Sundries - - - 



In 1811-12, the ti-easure imported 
from Penaug and tlie eastward is 
less than the preceding year by the 
sum of 849,453 rupees, (106,1321.) 
which is the principal defalcation. 

'I'he net decrease in the exports 
was in the articles of piece goods, 
cotton, and in re-exports; but there 
being a considerably increased ex- 
port of opium, grain, and sundries, 
brought the net amount of the two 
years nearly to a level. 

CHINA. 

In 1811-12, the amount of imports 
from China were, 
INIerchandize - - - 1,923,348 





rupees 
China ^ 




Sicca 


4,801,149 


TJie exports to 


fvere, 


Piece goods 


- 


- 55,136 


SJiawls - 


- 


2,977 


Grain 


- 


- 25,600 


Opium - 


- 


4,542,968 


Cotton - 


- 


1,532,389 


Canvas 


- 


4,485 


Sundries 


- 


- 10,853 



Imports re-exported 



6,174,458 
47,551 



Sicca nipces 6,222,009 



PEGIJE AND THE BIRMAN EMPIRE. 

In-1811-12, tlie amount of the im- 
ports from Pegue were, 
Merchandize - - - 400,924 
Treasure _ _ - 17,550 



Sicca rupees 418,474 

Tlie exports to Pegue were. 
Piece goods - - - 63,906 
Shawls - - - - 600 
Sugar - - - - 4,704 
Grain - - - - 5,326 



Imports re-exported 



211 

74,43G 

16,552 

1,900 

21,164 

114,0.52 

22,890 



Sicca rupees 136,942 



MALDIVES ISLANDS. 

In 1811-12, the amount of imports 
from the Maldives Islands were mer- 
chandize sicca ru})ces 302,367. 

There appears an increase in the 
importuUons over the preceding years 
to the amount of 162,620 rupees, 
(20,3281.); cocoa nuts Avrre im- 
ported in less quantities than the 
preceding year, but spices, timber, 
pianks, and sundries, were increased. 

EXPORTS TO THE MALDIVES. 

Piece goods ----- 16,405 

Sugar 19,280 

Grain 46,320 

Opinm 1,610 

Sundries ------ 2,537 

Sicca rupees 86,152 



Carried forward 74,436 



NEW SOUTH WALES. 

In 1811-12, the amount of imports 
from Botany Bay Aerc merchandize 
sicca rupees 26,526. 

EXPORTS TO NEW SOUTH WALES. 

Piece goods 93,803 

Shawls 800 

Indigo ------ 1,745 

Sugar 100,363 

Grain 4,.548 

Bengal rum 39,976 

Ojjium 59,425 

Canvas - 6,107 

Sundries 68,820 

365,587 
Imports re-exported - - 101,547 

Sicca rupees 467,134 



r 2 



212 



CALCUTTA. 



COAST OF SUMATRA. 

Ill 1811-12, the amonrit of imports 
from the coast of Sumatra were. 
Merchandize - - - - 78,400 
Treasure ------ 255,985 



Sicca rupees 334,385 



EXPORTS TO SUMATRA. 

Piece goods ----- 494,934 

Shawls ------ 600 

Sugar ------- 240 

Silk ------- 1,120 

Grain 10,050 

Opium ------ 546,875 

Canvas - 1,100 

Sundries ------ 39,827 



less by sicca rupees 106,329(13,2911.) 
than the preceding year. 

MADRAS AND THF. COUOMANDEL 
COAST. 

In 1811-12, the anxount of imports 
from Madras and the Coromandel 
Coast were, 

Merchandize - - - - 945.191 
Treasure ----- 33,000 



1,094,746 
Imports re-exported - - 63,878 

Sicca nipees 1,158,624 

Upon the exports to Sumatra there 
w as, this year, an increase equal to 
the sum of'831,010 rupees (103,8761.) 
above the exports of the j»receding 
year. 

BOMBAY AND THE MALABAR COAST. 
In 1811-12, the amonut of imports 
from Bombay and tl)e Coast of Ma- 
labar were morehaiulize 572,695 ru- 
pees, which exc<>eds the amount of 
the two prior years considerably. 

EXPORTS TO BOMBAY, &:r. 

Piece goods 603,918 

Shawls 14,427 

Indigo ------ 18,850 

Sugar ------- 180,073 

Silk 1,029,441 

Grain - - 124,612 

Bengal rum 310 

Canvas 40,(k">9 

Sundries ------ 80,918 

2,092,687 
Imports re-exported - - 3i),732 

Sicca rupees 2,132,370 

I'he exports to Bombay and the 
Coast of Malabar were, tins year, 



Sicca rupees 978,191 



EXPORTS TO MADRAS AND CORO- 
MANDEL. 

Piece goods ----- 198.-353 

Shawls ------ 8,236 

Indigo - 22,744 

Sugar ------ 43,827 

Silk - - 248,-576 

Grain ------- 698,091 

Bengal rum ----- 20,739 

Opium ------ 60,575 

Canvas ------ 36,775 

Sundries ------ 171,062 



Imports re-exported 



1,508,982 
- 207,716 



Sicca rupees 1,716,698 

The exports this year exceeded 
those of the preceding year 593,242 
nipees (74,155!.) 

CEYLON. 
In 1811-12, the amount of imports 
from Ceylon were more!iandize94,913 
nipees. being an incrcjise of 32,290 
ru|jees (40361.) on tlie preceding year. 
'I'h;.' import of rum and arrack iiom 
Ce\lon decreased, but that ofehanks 
(large sliclls) pepper, and sundries, 
increased. 

EXPORTS TO CEYLON. 

Piece goods ----- 22,176 

Sugar 9,9.'?5 

Grain ------- 83,044 

Bengal rum ----- 1,544 

Opium 1,725 

Canvas ------ 1,374 

Carried forward 119,79* 



CALCUTTA. 



Brought forward 
Siincliics - - - 



Imports re-exported 



119,798 
23,831 

143,629 
11,022 



Sicca rupees 154,651 



AMBOYNA, 

In 1811-12, the amount of imports 
from Amboyna were merchandize 
sicca rupees 1238. 

EXPORTS TO AMBOYNA. 

Piece goods ----- 147,995 

Grain 3,100 

Bengal rum ----- ] ,275 

Opium ------ 167,720 

Canvas ------ 1,500 

Sundries 23,470 

345,060 
Imports re-exported - - 44,336 

Sicca rupees 389,396 

The exports this year exceeded 
those of the preceding year 116,205 
rupees (14,5261.) 

ISLES OF FRANCE. 

Rupees. 
Amount of imports from 

the Isles of France in 

1810-11, merchandize 134,688 
Ditto, ditto, 1811-12, ditto 337,715 

Net increase 203,027 

The articles spices, copper, bran- 
dy, and sundries, gave tlic increased 
importation. Coflee and betel nut 
decreased. 
Exports to the Isles of 

France in 1810-11 - - 572,807 
Ditto, ditto, in 1811-12 -1,451,280 

Increase 878,473 



EXPORTS IN 1811-12. 



Piece goods - 
Shawls - 



Carried forward 



635,287 
47,462 

682,749 



Brought forward 

Sugar - - - 
Silk 

Grain - - - 

Bengal rum - 

Cotton - - - 

Canvas - - - 
Sundries 



Imports re-exported 
Treasure 



213 

682,749 
8,159 
33,810 
70,134 
17,914 
37,702 
27,483 

- 121,739 

999.690 

- 151 .590 

1,151,280 

- 300,000 



Sicca rupees 1,451,280 



The specie 300,000 rupees (37,5001.) 
formed an unusual article of expor- 
tation from tliis j)residenc}' as private 
trade ; a favourable remittance to 
England in bills drawn by the go- 
vernment of the Isles of France in- 
duced the speculation. 

JAVA. 

In 1811-12, the amount of imports 
from Java Mere, 

Merchandize - - - 123,444 
Treasiue - - - 222.007 



Sicca rupees 345,451 



EXPORTS TO JAVA. 



Piece goods 
Shawls - 
Sugar 
Grain 

Bengal rum 
Opium 
Canvas - 
Sundries - 



Imports re-exported 



273,106 

150 

3,482 

53,606 

22.937 

459,705 

7,490 

112,318 

934.794 
138,691 



Sicca rupees 1,0V3,485 



Abstract of the Tinportx and Exports 
comiected with the Bengal Presi- 
dency, of which the detail is given 
as above, for 11 months of lSll-12. 



214 



CALCUTTA. 





Imports. 


Exports. 


London 


3,944,247 


8,512,791 


Brazil - - 


1,498,203 


2,931,815 


America 


585,434 


1,595,374 


Isles of 






France - 


337,715 


1,451,280 


CapeofGood 






Hope - - 


19,142 


8,718 


Manilla - - 


327,450 


873,481 


Arabian and 






Persian 






GiiUs - - 


1,439,571 


3,178,579 


Coast of Su- 






matra - - 


334,385 


1,158,624 


Malabar and 






Bombay - 


572,695 


2,132,370 


Ceylon - - 


91,913 


154,651 


Aral)oyna - 


1,238 


389,396 


Java - - - 


345,451 


1,473,485 


Pcntinp; and 






eastward 


2,097,239 


2,528,183 


China - - 


4,801,149 


6,222,009 


N»w South 






Wales 


26,526 


467,134 


Pegue and 






Ava - - 


418,474 


136,842 


Slaldives Is- 






lands 


302,367 


86,152 


Sicca rupees 


18,124,390 


34,617,682 



Total imports from the in- 
terior to Calcutta - 26,054,270 

Total exports to ditto from 

ditto - - - 6,527,074 



Tlie revenue which "government 
derived from the imports and ex- 
ports of external private trade, 
amounted to 851,881, according to 
the following statement. 

Government duty on ex- 

poils - - - - 54,006 
Ditto on imports - - 833,071 



Sicca rupees 32,581,344 

If to the above sum of 13,851 ru- 
pees be added the net revenue yield- 
ed by the external commerce, the 
total sum which goverument received 
on the external and internal private 
trade of this presidency amounted 
to t!ie net sum of 865,732 rupees, 
(108,2161.) 

The East India Company's external 
Commerce. 

The extent of the East India Com- 
panj's commerce is given, in order 
to exhibit, in one view, the whole of 
the external commeice of Bengal, 
both public and private ; and to 
shew, at the same time, the resources 
of the provinces subordinate to this 
presidency. 

The Company's consignments of 
merchandize from England to Ben- 
gal, received between the 1st June, 
1811, and the 30th April, 1812, toge- 
ther with the value of salt imported 
from the coast, and spices from Am- 
boyna, amounted to 9,960,331 ru- 
pees; to which, having added the 
imports of private trade during the 
same period, the total iimount of tlic 
imports, public and private, received 
in Calcutta in the year 1811-12, 
gives a sum of 28,084,721 rupees, 
or 3,510,5901. sterling. 



Deduct drawbacks on ex- 
portation - - - 



587 735 East India Compatnfs Imports. 

From Europe, merchandize 2,605,320 
35 g54 Marine stores 87,812 



Sicca rupees 851,881 
Or (106,4851.) 



Tlie inland trade of Calcutta, in 
the year 1811-12, amounted to the 
sum of sicca rupees 32,581,344, 
(4,072.6081.) yielding a clear revenue 
of 13,851 rui)ces, after deducting 
drawbsicks allowed the importer. 



721,869 



Sicca rupees 2,753,132 
Salt from Coro- 

mandol - - 708,072 } 
Rock salt - - 13,707 J 
Imports of treasiue from 

Bombay - - - 5,150,000 
Spices from Amboyna and 

eastward _ - - 1,335,330 



Canicd over 9,960,331 



CALCUTTA. 



215 



Total E.T.Comp.'s exports 9,960,331 

Add imports ol' private 
traiU' : 

IMcrchnndize 11,338,692 ? iq ,o4 ooa 
Treasure - 6,78o,098 ) ' ' 



rr 4 1 r • • * ~) 28,084,721 

Total foreijrii imports, f ' .' 

sicca rupees - j .^.-^^"^Ir^g^i 



The above is exclusive of military 
stores, as nsnal, and iiills shoi't l>y 
3,108,140 of llicamoiuil imported 011 
tlie iiiii)li<- aeeoiiiit of s^'ovrmncut 
and private individuals iu the \ear 
1810-11. 

Exports of the East India Company 
ill 1811-12. 



To London 
St. Helena 



10,976,583 
22,356 



Ca. ofGoodTlopt 


426,500 


To Indian Ports 




Bencooleu 


97,658 


]Madras 


8,337 


Eomba}' 


113,235 


Penang- 


456,182 


China 


921,212 


Cevlou 


3,576 


Amhoyna 


51,838 



10,989,939 



2.078,598 

Total E. 1. Co.'s exports 13,077,537 
Exports of private trade 31,617,682 

Total foreign exi»orts 47,695,21 9 



Of the above exports, sicca rupees 
19,489,374 (2,436,1721.), in value of 
niei chandize, was consigned to Eng- 
land in the foliowiisg proportions: 
East India Company's ex- 
ports - - 10,976,583 
Exports of private trade 8,512,791 

The total amount of tlu^ imports 
and exports oi' the o.tcrnal eoni- 
meree, eanied on between Calcutta 
and the ports and phiees with which 
it had inlercoinse, from t!ie 1st June, 
1811, to the 3011» April, 1.S12, will be 
found in the following abstract siate- 
juent : 

4 





^ ^-« 








y' E 


K 














X X ^^ 






























■r. -r 


^ 




if- 


W-- 


^ 




C' 


*'.-' 


r; 




CO 


■C CO 


o 




4> 


r^ CO 


_, 






W GC 


P 












'vl 


O S5 


^ 




o 


~. (O 


s 






o w 


f^ 


2 








^ 

V 


05 
35 M 


nJ 


< 
> 


c 


— X 






*. V 


V. 


Pl 










03 


5: Ci 


^ 


H 


^ 


<i o 


;!t 


93 


"" 


CO X 




5 


in 


CO —' 




io 


4^ X 






M 


CT* ^ 


i»^ 




4^ 


^^ iO 


O^ 




li 


•vj (#* 


5. 




'^ 


Ci CO 






».1 


or -^ 






to 


lO o 






^ 




^ 




j>-J 


*n 


W 


00 




en 


;M 




■^• 


H 


35 


§1 


E' 




C> 


s 


? 


QC 


<s 


rt 


O 


Cr> 


p 




ii^ 






H 


ft 


w' 


£ 


c 


o 


o 




•J. 


^ 


o 


c; 




r" 


o 


o 


o 


u» 


o 


o 






JO 

:-5 


wP 




H 
?3 


o 


'- CO 


H 




£^ 


> 


X 


i}\ -j; 


7" 


PI 




^- 






<l 


1^ (O 


'£\ 




o< 


M QO 


o 








n 




v» 


c- o 






-> 


::; X 


mm 




o 


C"' kJ^ 


— 












o 


ti --5 


rS 




^ 


— 10 


-^ 


H 


o 


O t- 


y. 


O 








■* H 


o 


Oi CO 


?^ 


^ 


',t^ 


O 0' 




" 


M 


c: — 


rj* 




1-5 


-^ o 


;; 












1:^. 


C:C> 


— ■ 




cc 


O CD 
to O 


aq 




<o 





If to sicca i-upees 76,779,940, (the 
sum total of ovternal commerce) the 
value of the inland or iateriial trade 
be addeii,tlie grand total will amount 
to the sum total of sicca ru[)ees 
108,361,284, or 13,545,1601. sterling ; 
giving au excess of 4,799,063, oi' 



216 



CALICUT.^ 



599,8831. sterling, beyond the capital 
engaged in the internal and external 
commerce of the year 1810-11. 

Ships and Vessels arrived at Calcutta 
in 1811-12. 

Uuder English colom-s, 193 

tonnage - - 78,504 

Under Portuguese do. 11 4,180 

Under American do. 8 2,313 
Under Indian, including 

donies - - 389 60,227 

601 151,224 



Ships and Vessels departed from Cal- 
cutta in 1811-12. 
Under English colours, 194 

tonnage - - 77,072 

Under Portuguese do. 10 4,020 

Under Spanish do. - 1 650 

Under American do. 8 2,369 
Under Indian, including 

donies - - 386 65,650 



Tons 599 149,761 



(Parliamentary Reports, Lord Va- 
lentia, Tennant, Melburn, M. Gra- 
ham, R. Grant, Sir H. Stracheij, 
J. T. Brown, Rennel, Williamson, 

Calian. — A town in the province 
of Aurungabad, 32 miles N. E. from 
Bombay. Lat. 19°. 17'. N. Long. 
73°. 12'. E. This place sustained 
numerous sieges, during the wars of 
the Mahommedans and Maharattas ; 
and is surrounded with ruins of dif- 
ferent sorts. It is still a populous 
town, and carries on some trailic in 
cocoa-imts, oil, coarse cloths, brass, 
and earthen-ware. Its appearance 
indicates a former state of superior 
grandeur; but it is now a poor 
Mahommedan town. The travelling 
distance from Poonah is 91 miles. 
(il/. Graham, Rennel, Sec.) 

Calicut, (Calicodii). — A district 
in the province of Malabar, extend- 
ing along lh(! sea coast between the 
parallels of 10°. and 12°. north 
latitude; and one of the principal 
3 



countries of that extraordinary Hin- 
doo sect the Nairs, the Calicut Ra- 
jah or Zamorin of the Europeans 
being one of their chiefs. By his 
own caste, and the other natives, he 
is called the Tanuui Rajah. 

All the males of the family of Iho 
Tamuri Rajah or Zamorin, are called 
Tamburans, and all the females are 
called Tamburctties. All the chil- 
dren of every Tamburetti are en- 
titled to these appellations ; and, ac- 
cording to seniority, rise to the high- 
est dignities that belong to the fa- 
mily. These ladies are generally 
impregnated by Namburis, (Brah- 
mins of high caste), and sometimes 
by the higher rank, of Nairs; but the 
sacred character of the Namburis 
always procures them a pret'erence. 
The ladies live in the houses of their 
brothers, and never have any inter- 
course with their husbands, which 
would be reckoned scandalous. 

The oldest man of the family by 
the female line is the Taumri Kajah, 
or Zamorin, who is also named 
Mana Yicrama Samudri Rajah, and 
is regularly crowned. 'J'his chief 
pretends to be of a higher rank than 
the Brahmins, and to be only in- 
ferior to the invisible gods, which 
pretensions are acknowledged by his 
lay subjects; but held absurd and 
abominable by the Brahmins, who 
treat him as a Sudra. The Zamorin, 
although of a caste inferior to the 
Cochin Rajah, and possessed of less 
extensive dominions, was commonly 
reckoned of equal i-ank, which is 
attributed to the superior prowess 
of his people. In 1766, when Hyder 
invaded Malabar, the Cochin Rajah 
quietly submitted to pay tribute ; 
while the pride of the Zamorin re- 
fused any kind of submission ; and, 
alter an unavailing resistance, being 
made prisoner, set fire to the house 
in which he was confined, and was 
burned with it. Several of his per' 
sonal attendants, who were acci- 
dentally excluded when he shut the 
door, aftciAvards threw themselves 
into the flames, and perished with 
their master. 



CALLAO. 



217 



It tippoars from iho records of 
TilliolK'ry, that the Eti<;lish first be- 
gan to trallic in the Zamorin's domi- 
nions in the year 1GG4. Hydcr 
invaded the country, in person, in 
the year 17C(J ; but, was soon after- 
wards called away, by a war in the 
dominions of the Naijob of Arcot. 
Tlie Tanuiri Rajahs embraced this 
opportunity, and iiaving re-possessed 
themselves, held their lands fur seven 
years. A Brahmin named Chinavas 
Row, was then sent against tiiem, 
and drove thcni into the dominions 
of Tratancore. After nine years of 
his administration, the British came 
and took Falighat; but, in the ap- 
proach of Tippoo, were oblis^ed to 
retreat by Paiiiaui. The Rajahs 
continued in exile until ITDO, when 
a little before the battle of Tiruvana 
Angady, they joined Colonel Hart- 
ley with 5000 Nairs. At the peace 
with Tippoo, in 1792, this district, 
consisting of (53 talock, and the 
resemie estimated at ei;.!,ht and a 
lialf Jacks of pagodas, was ceded in 
per|>ctuity to the Company. 

Formerly the chiefs of Pnnatoor, 
Talapuli, MannacoUalil, Tirnma- 
iiachcry, Agenicutil, and many 
othei-s, were tributary to tlie Za- 
morin, and tiiruished on emergencies 
quotas of troops. He has now no 
authority whatever, and is subsisted 
by the bounty of the British govern- 
ment. Further particulars respect- 
ing this district will be found under 
the article Malabar. {F. Buehanau, 
Wilkes, Duncan, Sec.) 

Calicut. — A town on the sea 
coast of the Malabar province, the 
capital of tlie district of Calicut. 
Lat. 11*^. lb'. N. Long. 75°. 50'. 
li. 

The Portuguese under Vasco do 
Gama, arrived at Calicut on the 
18th May, 1498, 10 months and two 
days after their departure from Lis- 
bon. In 1509, Don Fernando Cou- 
tinho, Marechal of Portugal, with 
3000 troops attacked Calicut; but 
was slain in the attack, and his army 
repulsed with great loss. In 17G6 
>t was invaded and conquered by 



IFydcr, who enlarged and improved 
the fort; but 'I'ippoo afterwards 
destroyed both town and fort, and 
removed the inhabitants to Nellnru. 
the name of which lie cha»ge<l to 
Furrnckabad being like all the .Ma- 
hommedans of India, a great changer 
of the old Pagan names. Fiiteen 
months after this forced emigration, 
the English con(|uered the province, 
and the inhabitants returned with 
great joy to their old habitation. 
The town in 1800 contained above 
5000 houses, and Avas rapidly im- 
proving. The inhabitants were 
chiefly Moplays. The priricipal ex- 
ports are pepper, teak, sandal wood, 
cardamums, coir cordage, and wax. 
Travelling distance iioin Seringa- 
patam 129 miles, S. AY. (/'. Ba- 
chanttn, Wilks, Bruce, Rennel, lio- 
bertson, ^-c.) 

Calicooth, (Calicuta). — A town 
in the Northern Circars, near the 
Chilcah Lake, 20 miles N. W. from 
Ganjam. Lat. 19^^ 20'. N. Long. 
85° 21'. E. 

Caligauw, (Caligrnma). — A town 
in Northern Ilindnstan, tributary to 
the Ghoorklmli. Rajah of Nepaul, 
and situated in tli(^ countn of the 
24 rajahs. Lat. 2S°. 40'. N. l-.ong. 
33°. 56'. E. 

Calingapatam. — A town on the 
sea coast of the Northcrii Circars, 70 
miles N. E.from Vizaifapatam. Lat. 
18°. 25'. N. Long. 84°. 15'. E. 

Callacoil. — A town in the dis- 
trict of Marawas, 34 inilcs E. from 
Madura. Lat. 9°. 53'. N- L-JUg. 
79°. 41'. E. 

Callacaiid. — A town in the pro- 
vince of Tinevelly, 42 miles N. by E. 
from Cape Coniorin. Lat. 8°. 31'. 
N. Long. 7/°. 44'. I). 

Callao. — ^Tliis island lies opposite 
to the coast of Cocliin China, and 
about eight miles to (he eastward c>r 
a considerable river, on the banks 
of which is situated the town of 
Faifoo, a place of some note, not lar 
from the harbour of Tinon. The 
extreme points of the island lie in 
Lat, 15°. 53'. N. and 15°. 57'. N. 
The greatest lengtii is about live 



218 



CALLINGER. 



miles, and the average breadth two 
miles. 

The only inhabited part is the 
S. W. coast. One of the mountains 
to the south is about 1500 leet high; 
tlie low grouful contains about 200 
acres, 'ihis beautiful spot is diversi- 
fied with neat houses, temples, clus- 
ters of tiees, small hillocks covered 
with shrubbery, and frees of various 
kinds. A riil of water is carried 
along tlie upper ridg^es of the vale, 
to water the rice grounds. The 
juimbcr of (he houses on the island 
are about 60. This would be a 
most advantageous spot to establish 
a settlement. A very few men 
Mould seive for a garrison, a j^reat 
part of the coast being already forti- 
fied by nature. The depth of water 
in the bay and road is sufficient for 
ships of any burthen, and there is 
shelter from every wind except the 
south-west; on this quarter, how- 
ever, the distance of the continent is 
so inconsiderable, lliat it nould break 
the force of the sea. {Staunton, ^-c.) 

Callianpook, {Cali/aiipnra, the 
flourishing town). — A town on the 
sea coast of the province of Canara, 
36 miles N. by W. from Mangalore. 
jLat. 13°. IS'. N. Long. 74°. 48'. E. 

Call! ANY, {Cahjaui). — A small 
district in the Nizam's temtories, in 
the province of Becder, situated be- 
twixt the 17th and 18th degrees of 
north latituile. 

Calliany — A town in the pro- 
vince of Becder, the capital of a dis- 
trict of the same name, 77 miles W. 
by N. from llvderabad. Lat. 1<°. 
22'. N. Long. 77°. .13'. E. 

Calling ER, (Calatijara). — A dis- 
trict in the province of Allahabad, 
situated about the 25t!i degree of 
north latituile. It is bounded on the 
north by the River Jumna, and on 
the west by Bundelcund, its sou- 
thern limits are micertain. The 
Cane and Jumna are tlie principal 
rivers, and the chief towns Callinger, 
Senrab, and Attouah. In 1582 it is 
described by Abnl Fazel as follows : 

"Sircar Callinger, containing 11 
mahals, measurement 508,273 bee- 



gahs, revenue 23,839,474 dams. 
Seyurghal 614,580 dams. The circar 
furnishes 1210 cavalry, 12 elephants, 
and ] 8,000 infantry." 

This district was ceded to the 
British in December, 1803, by the 
]Maharatta Peshwa, in exchange for 
other districts nearer to his own 
capital. Tiie jMaharattas early ren- 
dered this territory nominally tribu- 
tary, but derived no benefit tiom it; 
being in reality unable to enforce 
their authority, from the refractory 
disposition of the iidiabitants, and 
the number of natural strong holds 
they possessed. 

Callinger. — A town and strong 
fortress in the province of Allaliabad, 
the capital of a distiict of the same 
name. Lat. 24°. 68'. N. Long. 8t.° 
25'. N. Abul Fazel in 1582 des- 
cribes it as follows: — Callinger is a 
stone fort, situated on a lofty moun- 
tain. Here is an idol named Kal- 
bihroop, 18 cubits in height. At 
the distance of 20 coss from the fort 
husbandmen sometimes find small 
diamonds, and in tlie neighbourhood 
is an iron mine." 

Rajahs of Callinger are mentioned 
so early by Mahommedan historians 
as A. i). 1008 ; but, it was not con- 
quered until 1203, and then not per- 
manently retained. In 1.545, it was 
stormed by the troops of Shere Khan, 
who lost his life during the assault, 
by the explosion of some ammuni- 
tion. 

This fortress resembles in its situa- 
tion, and exceeds in its size and natu- 
ral strength the fortrcssof (jiualior, be- 
ing built on a high rock of great ex- 
tent, which forms one of the ranges of 
mountains extending tiom Rhotas 
or Sasseram, to the cunfuies of 
Ajmeer. To garrison it efficiently 
M ould require 5000 men. After the 
iu\asion of Bundelcund by Ali Ba- 
hauder and Rajah llinnnut Ba- 
hauder, the siege of this ])lace was 
attempted; but, at an early period, 
for want of a battering train was 
converted into a blockade, which 
lasted for many years, but withont 
ultimate success. Tiie power and 



CAMS AY. 



219 



influence of tlic KollaJar of Callinp;er 
were tiu" chief obstacl(;s to the suc- 
cess of All Bahadcr, duriiig the last 
five years of his lil'c, ami compelled 
him to encamp a considerable part 
of his army in the vicinity of that 
fortress. 

The same opposition with in- 
creased energy was continued after 
the cession of the conntry to the 
British, and Callinp,er became an 
asylum for all the disaffected asid 
banditti in the pro\iuce. After 
many inetiectual attempts to obtain 
possession by an amicable arrauj-'c- 
ment with the Killadar or gov rnor, 
it was in 1810 besiej;ed in form by 
the British, who were repulsed wmi 
great slaughter, in an attempt to 
carry this nearly iiupregnable for- 
tress by storm. 'I'lie garrison, how- 
ever, although successful, were so 
intimidated by tlie determination 
displayed by the assailants, that they 
evacuated it during the night. {3IS6'. 

Calliokdroog, (Cahjanadurgn). — 
A town in the Baiaghaut ceded 
districts, situated on the west sid« 
of tlie Hoe,gry River, 44 miles S. by 
E. Irom Bel'lary. Lat. 14°. 30'. x\. 
Long. 77°. 9'. E. 

Calowk. — A very liilly and woody 
distiict, situated principally in the 
province of Lahore, about the 32d 
degree of north latitude. It is bound- 
ed on the north by the Kaugrah dis- 
tricts; to the eastward by a large 
tract of country named Bessecr ; to 
the southward by Nhan ; and to the 
west by Punjab. In 17S3 it was 
sobject to the Rannv of Bellaspoor. 
and the revenue was estimated at 
12 lacks of rupees. The Sutuleje is 
the only river of consequence, and 
Bellaspoor the principal town. 
{Foste?-, Sj-c.) 

Cali'Ee. — Sec Kalpy. 
Caltuka. — A village and small 
fort, about 28 miles to the south of 
Columbo, in the Island of Ceylon. 
Lat. 6°. 42'. N. Long. 7<j°. 54'. E. 
The river at Caltma is one of the 
largest branches of the IMuliwaddy, 
and is here about a mile broad. It 



washes two sides of the fort by 
wliich it is conmiimdod, and is navi- 
gable by boats to the sea. Some 
tracts of cinnamon are scattered up 
and down in the vicinity ; but a short 
way further south we come to the 
termination of ihe fertile district of 
Columbo, which contains so great a 
proportion of the wealth of Ceylon. 
A quantity of arrack is made from 
the produce of the cocoa-nut trees, 
and there is a large plantation of 
sugar canes, and a distillery of rum 
carried on by some Dutehuien, 
which is much inferior in qualily 
to the West India rum. (PercivaL, 

Calygong Hills, {Caligrama). — 
A ridge of hills betwixt the Tuptec 
and Nerbnddah rivers, which bound 
the province of Berar to the north. 
As yet they have been but little ex- 
plored. 

Calymere Point. — A promontory 
on the sea coast of the province of 
Tanjore, near to which are some pa- 
godas visible from the sea. Lat. 10°. 
20'. N. Long. 79°. 54'. E. 

Camandoo. — A town in the Scik 
territories, in the province of La- 
hore, situated on the east side of the 
Eevah River, 124 miles N. E. from 
the citv of Lahore. Lat. 32°. 26'. 
N. Loiig. 75°. 50'. E. 

Cameay, (Camhoja). — A town in 
the i)rovince of Gnjrat, situated at 
the uiioer part of the Gulf of Cam- 
bay. ' Lat. 22°. 23'. N. Long. 72°. 
45'. E. 

Near the town the tides of the 
gulf run with great rajjidity, and rise 
and fall 40 feet, so that at high water 
ships can anclior near the town, but 
at low water the river runs almost 
dry, so that the ve:^sels in tlie river 
Hiust lie aground in the mud. When 
Ahmedabad, in Gnjrat, flourished 
the capital of an independent slate, 
Cambay was its sea-j>ort, and ex- 
perienced great prosperity, but it 
decayed with its metropolis, and is 
now much redueed. Elephants' 
teeth and coineiians are procured 
here lor the China market, but the 
chief article of export is cotton to 



220 



CAMBODIA. 



Bombay, and grain ; tlie imports are 
tlie same as in (he {»rovince of Gujrat 
generally. 

Mnior A^'ilford is of opinion, that 
in the .5th centiiry Tamra-nap:ara, or 
Cambat, (Canibay) was the capital 
of the Balarayas, and perhaps of the 
Hindoo enipernrs of the west, when 
the two dig-nities happened to be 
united in the same person. Osorio, 
a l^ortug;uese m liter, says, that when 
Francis d'Almeida landed near Cam- 
bay, in the year 1.515, he saw the 
ruins of sumptuop.s buildings and 
temples, tlie remains of an ancient 
city. It is said such ruins exist to 
the present day to the south of Cam- 
bay, OH the Broach side, m here theie 
are temples and other buildings half 
buried in the sand, with which this 
place Avas overwhelmed. Cambay 
was taken and jiiilaged by the Ma- 
hommedans in A. D. 1297, during 
the reign of Alia ud Deen. 

At this town, and others in Guj- 
rat, are Hindoo subterranean tem- 
ples, which have been constructed 
since the Wahominedan invasion, 
and still remain. In the houses of 
Ojjulcnt persons are also freciuently 
found apaitments under ground, 
Avhcre they conceal their females 
and property during times of alarm. 
In a .Tain subterranean tejnple, at 
Cambay, are two massy statues of 
their deities, one of which is white, 
and the other black. The inscription 
on the tirst intiniates that it is an 
imago of Parsw anatha, a Jain deity, 
carved and consecrated in the reign 
of the Jilmperor Acber, A. D. 16U2. 
The black one has merely the date 
inscribed, 1651, with the names of 
the two Banyans who brought it 
th«n-e. 

Tiic natives of Cambay are reckon- 
ed the most e\j)ert plaisterers in the 
(ilujrat province. In the north-west 
•piarter of India, it is supposed that 
the saline particles in the water, even 
M lure remote liom the ocean, give 
that appearance of dampness and 
coarseness to the walls for which 
they are remarkable, when com- 
pared with those of Coromandol. 



This town is now comprcliended in 
the British territories under the 
Bombay presidency. 

Travelling distance from Bombay, 
281, from Delhi, 663, from Calcut- 
ta, 1253 miles. (Drmnmmid, Wil- 
ford, Malet, Maurice, Elmore, Ren- 
nel, 5c.) 

Cambay, Gulf of. — A gulf on 
the north-west coast of India, which 
penetrates about 150 miles into the 
province of Gujrat. 

The tides in this gulf run with 
amazing velocity, and at low water, 
during spring tides, leave the bottom 
of the l)ay dry from lat. 22°. 3'. N. 
to Cambay town. No vessels at- 
tempt to go above Gongway in one 
tide trom Jumbosier, it being often 
attended w ith bad consequences ; for 
if they cannot get into Cambay 
Creek, they must return to Gong- 
wa}', which is distant five leagues; 
In maijy places the current is so 
rapid, that if a ship takes the ground 
she immediately upsets, and, in aM 
probability, every person on board 
perish. It is supposed that the depth 
of water in the Gulf of Cambay has 
progressively decreased for more 
than two centuries past. 

Fifteen miles east of Cambay city, 
the bed of the gnlf is reduced to six 
miles broad, and is dry at ebb tide ; 
but the passage ought never to be 
attempted, either ou horse or foot, 
without a natiy<' guide, as there is a 
danger of wandering among the mud 
and quicksands, and being overtaken 
by the flood tide, which rushes fu- 
riously in, like the bore in the Cal- 
cutta Kiver. {Elmore, Driaumond,&-e.y 

Cambodia, (Camboja). — A coun- 
try in India beyond the Ganges, .si- 
tuated principally betwixt the 10th 
and 15th degrees of north latitude, 
and extending along the east side ot' 
the Bay of Siara. To the north it 
is bounded by Laos, to the south by 
sea ; to the cast it is separated from 
Cochin China by a ridge of moun- 
tains, and to the west it has Siam 
and part of the Birman empire. In 
length it may be estimated at 35tt 
miles, by 150 the average breadth. 



CAMBODIA. 



221 



Rcspcclinjc this ronntry wc have 
wry little recent iurormation, and 
tJie ohl is either obsolete, or nut to 
be depended upon. It is likewise 
named t'aniboja, Cainbu-chat, and 
by the Birmans Yoodra-shan, and 
extends to the southernmost point 
of India beyond the (jan':i;es, (Ma- 
lacca excepted) wliere tlic whole 
coast from Cambodia point, to the 
westcru point of tlic f!;reat Cam- 
bodia River, is covered with un- 
derwood, and exceedingly low. In 
this part the sea is so shallow, 
that at the distajiec of fiv<; or six 
miles tiom the sliore ti)e water is 
seldom more than four fatiioms deep, 
and nothinj:!: lur-^er than a boat can 
approach within two miles. 1'his 
southern extremity of Asia sinks 
into the sea by very slow gradations. 

The vegetable j)rodnctions of this 
provin<c are the same as of tiie 
neighbouring countries, Ava and 
Siain ; the colouring matter, named 
gamboge, derives its name from this 
kingdom, beiugthe concrete resinous 
j«ice of certain trees found here of 
superior quality, but produced like- 
wise in other })arts of It)dia. Very 
little external conunerce has at any 
time subsisted with the European 
settlements of India, but the cojui- 
try is extremely well adapted for an 
inland navigation, as the rivers of 
Cambodia ami Siam communicate 
in the interior by a considerable 
branch named the Annan. 'J"he Chi- 
nese and IVlacao Portuguese still 
carry on a small trallic, importing 
silk goods, China and lackered ware, 
tea, sweetmeats, tin, and tutenague; 
and exporting a variety of dried tish 
and woods, such as sapan wood, 
rose wood, black wood, &:c. drugs, 
mother-of-pearl, slielLs, and skins of 
dillerent sorts. The chief port of 
export is Saigong in Siampa. The 
IVIayl^aung (properly Mekon) or 
Cambodia or Don-iiai River, rises 
in Tibet, and is navigable lor boats 
during a considerable part of its 
oomse, part of whidi is through the 
province of Yunan in China, lor 
^•hip? it is navigable 40 miles from 



its junction with the sea, where the 
city of Saigoe.g is situated. It has 
several braiiehes, but the width of 
the principal branch is about two 
miles broad, and the water Acry 
deep. The eliief town is Lowaick, 
but, like the river, is also riiuned 
Cambodia by Europeans, but there 
are only three other eolIeetii>ns of 
houses that deserve the name of 
towns. Lower Cambodia being in- 
corporated with Cochin China, en- 
tir«"ly resembles it. 

Tiie Khomen language is used by 
a nation of that n;ntie, who reside 
(»n the banks of the jMe-kon, or 
Hiver of Cambu Cha't, or Cambo- 
dia, 'i'he khomen are reckoned au 
ancient and learned peo])le, and were 
formerly subdued by the T'hay J'hay, 
or ancient Siamese race. Tlie mo- 
dern T'hay, or Siamese, still deno- 
minate the Bali character, Nangsu 
Khom, or the Khomen letter from 
this nation. They are not, however, 
supposed to have existed as a polish- 
ed people so early as the Law (Laos). 
but are believed to have derived their 
origin from the warlike race of moun- 
taineers named Kho, the Gueos of 
the Portuguese historians ; who are 
still represented as practising their 
ancient customs, of eating human 
llcsh, and tattoing their bodies. Th« 
name of Camboja is often mentioned 
in the Ramayon, and other ancient 
Hindoo poems, where its horses ar« 
celebrated; but the designation, pro- 
bably, refers to Cambay in Gujrat, 
as we can scarcely suppose that, in 
the remote times of Hindoo anti- 
quity, an intercourse subsisted be- 
twixt t)ude, the cai>ital of the great 
Ram, and this remote country. 

\^ ith the present state of the in- 
terior we arc wholly nnae(piainted. 
and its religion can only be guessed 
at. Sunounded on all sides iiy na- 
tions professing to follow the do<'- 
trincK of Buddha, the njajori^y of the 
inhabitants of Cambodia arc, pro- 
bably, sectaries of the same religion. 
The accounts we have of tl»e numn- 
taineers assimilate them to the bar- 
barous aborigines foHud all over In- 



222 



CANANORE. 



dia, wliPFP neither the Hindoo nor 
the Mahommedan religion has pene- 
trated, or made any lasting inipies- 
sion. (Leyden, Staunton, F. Bu- 
chanan, Si/nies, De Bissachere, ^c.) 

Cambodia. — A city ni India be- 
yond the Ganges, the capital of the 
jkingdom of Cambodia. Lat. 13°. 
Long. 104°. 35'. E. By the Eirmaiis 
it is named Lowaick, and is situated 
on the Hiver Mekon, or Cambodia, 
about 150 miles from the sea. 

Cambing. — A small island, abont 
30 miles in circumference, lying off 
the north coast of Timor, bctniYt 
the 8th and 9th degrees of south 
latitude. 

Cambyna. — An island in the East- 
ern Seas, about 60 miles in circum- 
ference, lying off the south-eastern 
extremity of Celebes. It is veiy 
mountainous, and one hill in parti- 
cular is of a very gieat elevation. 

Camigten. — A small island, one 
of the Philippines, about 10 miles ia 
length, by lour the average breadth, 
situated due north of the island of 
Luzon. There is a considerable trade 
carried on here for wax, gold, cocoa 
luits, and cassia. 

Camroop, (Camarnpa, the aspect 
of desire). — A province in Assam, 
uhich formeily gave its name to an 
extensive kingdom, of which Kan- 
gamalty seems to have been the ca- 
pital. It extends from the Candar 
Chokey in Ootrecole, along the banks 
of the Brahmapoo(ra to the province 
of Dehrung. Goalparah and the 
Candar Chokey to the west, are the 
natural boundaries of Assam, for 
they are in reality the natural boun- 
daries of a new climate. 

This province is intersected in va- 
rious directions by rivers flowing from 
the mountains, and by branches of 
the Biahmapootra, m hich are navi- 
gable during the inundation for boats 
of any size. The breadth of this 
province^ from the banks of the 
Brahmapootra to the mountains is, 
on an average, 40 miles ; its length, 
from Candar Chokey, to the Burra- 
nuddee, is about 100 miles. A mi- 
litary causeway extends from Cooch 



Bahar to the north of this and other 
districts, to the utmost limits of As- 
sam. In most places it is now in a 
state of decay. 

This province was invaded by Ma- 
hommcd Bukhtyar Khiiijee in 1204, 
innnediately after the conquest of 
Bengal by the Mahommcdans ; but 
he was com])elled to retreat after 
losing nearly the whole of his armj'. 
It is probable the dominions of Cam- 
roop, at this ])criod, extended much 
further to the westward than the 
modern tenitor)% and included many 
districts since annexed to Bengal, 
such as Bangamatty, Rungpoor, and 
Cooch Bahar. The mode of defence 
adopted by the princes of these coun- 
tries Avlien invaded, was to retiie 
with their families and effects into 
the jungles, until the violence of the 
rains, the inundation of the country, 
and the pestilential effects of an un- 
healthy climate, compelled the ene- 
mies to capitulate, or to attempt a 
destiaictivc retreat. {Wade, Stewart, 

eye.) 

Cananobe, (Camtra). — A town 
on the sea coast of the province of 
Malabar. Lat. 11°. 52'. N. Long". 
75°. 27'. E. 

The countiy about this place con- 
sists of low hills and nanow vallies ; 
the hills inland are covered with 
bushes, and beautihilly skirted with 
plantations. The rice grounds are 
extensive, well drained, and care- 
fully supplied with water. 

Caiianore was piuchased from the 
Dutch by the ancestors of the Bil)y,- 
(female sovereign) who is a Moplay, 
or jMahommedan. Prior to this the 
family were of little consequence, 
and entirely dependent on the Che- 
rical rajahs; but having acquired a 
fortress, considered by the Nairs as 
impregnable, they became powerful, 
and were looked up to as the head 
of all the Mahommedans of Malabar. 
'J'ho succession goes in the female 
line as usual in Rlalabar. The chil- 
dren of the Biby's son will have no 
claim to the sovereignty, but will be 
succeeded by tlie son of his niece, 
who is the daughter of liis sister. 



CANARA. 



223 



The lenitory of lliis princess on 
the rontiiieiit is verv small; \ot she 
jjuvs a n'\enue of 14,000 rupees as 
l;iiid-ta\, and llie T'^ast India Com- 
l^iiiY receive all the customs, 'i'hc 
liiliy is allowed to collect all the re- 
venue, hut her pmfit from tliencc 
must he inconsiderable. IMost of 
the Laceadives are siiliject to her ; 
but they are wretched islands, ])ro- 
ducing no <^rain, nor an\ tliinj;^ hut 
cocoa-nuts, hetd nut, and plaintains. 
Tlic Biby of Cananore possesses seve- 
ral vessels that sail t() Arabia, and 
carries on ii considerable trade to 
Bengal, Arabia, and Sumatra. 

This town is situated at the bot- 
tom of a small bay, which is one of 
the best on the coast, and contains 
several good houses belonging to 
Mahommedan merchants, 'I'lie peo- 
ple here have no communication 
with the Maldives, although the sul- 
tan and inhabitants of these islands 
are Moplays also. Cananore is de- 
fended by a fortress, situated on the 
point which Ibrnis the l>ay; and it 
has been strengthened with w'orks 
after the European fashion, since the 
province was ceded 1o the Company ; 
and it is now tiic liead-qiiarters of 
tlie goverrmient. 

The small district of Cananore ex- 
tends no where more than two miles 
from the glacis of the fort. The sur- 
face is high and uneven, bitt not so 
much as to prevent the whole from 
being cultivated once in three, six, 
or nine years, according to the q\ia- 
lity of the soil. In 1800, the num- 
ber of houses in Cananore and the 
district of Chcrical w as 10,386, and 
of slaA es there were 4G70. In Che- 
rical and Cotiote there are slaves, 
chiefly of the Poliar and Pariar 
castes ; but the greater part of the 
cultivation is carried on by panicar, 
or hired men. A trade is canied 
from hence with Arabia, Bengal, 
Sumatra, and Surat; from whence 
liorses, ainjonds, piece goods, sugar, 
opium, silk, benzoin, and camphire 
are imported; the exports are, prin- 
cipally, pepper and cardamums, san- 
dal wood, coir, and sharks' fins. So 



early as 1505, the Portuguese had a 
fort at Cananore. {F. Jiuvhana/t, 
Bruce, i-c.) 



CANARA, {Carmta). 

A province on the west coast of 
India, exteiiding from the I'ith to 
the 15th degree of north latitude. 
To the north it has the Maharalta 
territories, in the province of Bcja- 
poor; to the south the Malabar dis- 
tricts ; on the cast it has Mysore, 
and the I?ahigliaut teriitories; and 
to the west the sea. In length it 
may be estimated at 200 miles, by 
35 miles the average breadth. The 
province was transferred to the 
Company in 1799, and now forms 
one of the coUcctorships under tiie 
Madras presidency ; but, in geogra- 
phical description, is usually divided 
into north and south Canara, under 
which heads furtlier topographical 
details will be found. 

The tract distinguished in our 
maps as the province of Canara. by 
a fatality nnexampled in the history 
of nations, neither is, nor ever was 
known by that name to the people 
of the country, or of any part oi' In- 
dia. Voyagers and Mahommedan 
strangers, finding that it was a de- 
pendency of the kingdom of Canara^ 
and probably that the officers of go- 
vermnent spoke that language, gave 
the name of Canara to the district 
called by the natives Tulava, which 
name, however, applies more parti- 
cularly to the country noi th of the 
River Chandragiri. Canara is a cor- 
niption of Karnata, the table land 
above the Ghauts ; the British pro- 
vince of which is composed of the 
maritime countries of l^ilava, Uai- 
ga, and tlu; adjacent parts of Alala- 
bar and the Hindoo kankana. 

'^i'he province of Canara continued 
undisturbed, under a Hindoo go- 
vernment, until 1763, when it \\as 
subdued to Hyder. On his taking 
possession, it w as a highly improv(<i 
country, tilled with industrious in- 
habitants, who enjoyed greater ad- 



224 



CANAEA. 



Tanta<i:cs than tliciv iicighboxTrs abcive 
the Ghauts; the small estates into 
which it was subdivided were consi- 
dered the actual property of the 
liolders, and the assessment tixed 
and moderate. Prior to the aecjui- 
sition of this province by the Com- 
pany, the popuhitiou was much re- 
duced in consequence of wars and 
internal fends, tlie destruction of 
many principal towns by Tippoo 
ISultan, and to his sending above 
G0,000 Christian inhabitants captives 
into Mysoie, from whence but a 
small uuml)er ever returned. The 
country was consequently found in 
a state of desolation, and contained 
large tracts of unclaimed waste, ovcr- 
proAvn with woods, particularly in 
the vicinity of tiie Ghauts. 

From tiie first transfer of Canara 
to the British authority, it has con- 
tinued a solitary example of tranqnil- 
Jity; of ail easy and rcgidar realiza- 
tion of the revenue and of general 
property. Tliis has been attributed 
to the nature of the temues by m Inch 
landed property is held in tliis pro- 
vince, to the moderate re\enae 
exacted, and to its local situation, 
which is advantageous for the dis- 
posal of its produce. 

The rent at present received by 
proprietors from fixed tenants and 
tenants at will, is estimated to be 
generally about one-half of the 
gross produce, the government tax 
being about 60 per cent, of the land- 
lord's rent, and 30 per cent, of the 
gioss produce. Since the cession 
a great improvcnieiit has been 
exhibited among the people in 
dress, mode of living, and other per- 
sonal comforts; and the aggregate 
revenue has increased, and is rea- 
lized with singular' punctualitj', 
notwithstanding thq numberless 
estates lron\ which it is collected, 
'j'his last circumstance arises from 
the natural division and subdivision 
of propertj' under the Hindoo laws, 
and amounted, in one district of the 
province only, to above 22,000, some 
of which yielded only one fanam of 
rent. All the land here is private 



property, deri\ed from gift or puf-* 
chase, or descent trom antiquity too 
remote to be traced. 

In a country so rocky and uneven 
as Canara, where cattle are not only 
scarce, but can rarely be employed; 
where every spot, before it can be 
cultivated, must be levelled with 
great labour liy the hand of man;* 
the expense of the lirst preparation 
of waste land mast have been so 
great, that it never would have been 
attempted unless the revenue assess- 
ment had been very moderate. Even 
after the land is brought into culti- 
vation, if it be neglected for a few 
years, it is soon broken up by deep 
gullies, formed by the torrents which 
fall during the monsoon. In this 
proviikc, and also in that of Mala- 
bar, the liroprietor of land bestoAvs 
on his little spot all that minute la- 
bour and attention, which is so im- 
portant to Indian husbandry. Each 
man lives on his estate; and tlie 
neatness of the culture and of the 
enclosures shew tiie attention with 
which the proprietor improves and 
embellishes iiis ground. 

Canara will probably never be a 
manufacturing country, because it 
produces none of the raw materials 
necessary to render it such ; and be- 
cause the heavy rains, which last so 
great a part ol' the year, are insur- 
mountable obstacles to all operations 
M Iiicli require to be carried on in the 
open air under a clear sky; but the 
same rains that deny it manufac- 
tures, give it a succession oi' never- 
fiuiingcrops oi'riee,wlnch is exported 
to Malabar, Goa, Bombay, and 
Araiiia. 

The principal places recorded as 
trading ports in tJiis province are 
Mangalore, Ankala, Onore, Cunda- 
poor, Barkoor, and Becul. Manga- 
lore is the emporium fioni whence 
and from others, in a .small degree, 
arc exported to Araijia cardamoms, 
coir, pepper, moories, pc/on spars, 
lice, sandal wood, oil, betel nut, 
ghee, and iron ; to Goa, large sup- 
plies of rice, horn, grain, and to- 
bacco; to the Maharatta conn- 



CANARA, (NOnTH). 225 

tries, iron, rice, betel mit, iiatdicriy, the mountains. Tlie part of the 

ScC. Hindoo Kankann (Concan) included 

I'loni Arabia are imported dates, in this division, l()riiiin;r tlie district 

briinslone, salt fish, and horses; of Ancola, is larger than either of 

from Uombay, brimstone, sup;ar, and the districts into which Haiga is di- 

horses; lioin the Maharatta conntiy, vided. All the country fi-om Onore 

horses, shawls, blue cloths, Sec. in<;Iusive as faras Gaukarna, is called 

The total value of imports from Haiga, and is said formerly to have 

plae<>s beyond the territories of the been under the influence of Ravana, 

Madras jiovernment, between the KingofLanca or Ceylon. Li 1800 it 

1st May, 1811, and the 3()lh April, paid only 29,000 pagodas,whileOnore 

1812, was, Arcot rupees 470,082, produced .51,<X)0, and Kundapura 

viz. 50,000, ^\hich arose from Ancola's 

I'Vom Arabia ----- 67,248 having long been in an unsettled 

Calcutta ------ 22,293 state, and much ravaged by the 

Bombay ------ 97,472 Maharattas. 

Ciiina ------ 3,562 North Canara produces sandal 

Maharatta country - - - 244,853 wood trees, sugar canes, teak, wild 

Various places - - - - 44,474 cinnamon, nutmegs and pepper, and 

cut or teira japonica. In the south- 

Arcot rupees 470,082 eru part the quantity of rice ground 

is small, and a great part of the 

The total value of the ex])orts country is covered with low woods, 

during the above period, to places inwhieh are to beseenthe inclosures 

beyojid the limits of the Aladras of former gardens. The water in 

j::overnment, was, Arcot rupees the wells is nowhere at any great 

2,284,876, viz. distance from the surface. To the 

To Arabia _ - - - 336,943 north of Battecolla much of the soil 

Calcutta ----- 2,867 is poor ; in many places the laterite 

Bombay ----- 854,956 being entirely naked. About Bei- 

Ceylon ------ 16,516 luru are many groves of the calo- 

Gnjrat .-_--- 861,069 phylhun inophyllum, from the seed 

^laharatta country - - 152,970 of which the common lamp oil of the 

Various places - - - .59,655 country is expressed, and in this 

neighbourhood a good cocoa nut 

Arcot rupees 2,284,876 tree is reckoned to produce 50 nuts 

anmiallj'. In 1800, the number of 

From tlie 1st May, 1811, to the teaktreescutdowiiannuallyamount- 

30tli April, 1812, 943 vessels and ed to about 3000. The mimosa ca- 

craft, measuring 36,951 tons, arrived techu grows spontaneously on all 

in the province ; and 882, measuring the hills in South Concar, from which 

24,576 tons, departed. {WUhs,Mun- the terra japonica, or cut, is made. 

ro, F. BncJuumn, Riports, Hudson, The only cattle in the part of the 

Thacheray, Lord William Benlinch, district named Haiga are butialocs 

§-c.) ^ and oxen, an equal number of which 

Canara (NortiO. — The noltheni are yokevl in the plough. In Haiga 

division of the pro\ince of Canara, carts are not used, 

situated betwixt ilie 13th and 15th The sea coast is principally occu- 

^legrees of north latitude, and con- pied by villages of Brahmins, the 

taining three smaller districts — Kun- interior parts belong to the Buntar 

dapura, Onore, and Ancola. On caste. About Ancola it is not llie 

leaving Devakara, in North Canara, custom for the iiihal)itants to live in 

the Karnata country begins, which towns. A few shops are collected 

extends below the Ghauts, and oc- in one place, and all the oliier na- 

cupics all the defiles leading up to tives of M'hat is called a viUas; e, ar« 

9 



226 



CANAKA, (SOUTH). 



scattered upon their farms. Most 
of the people about Aiicola are of 
Karnata extraction, and but few of 
Coiican descent remain, except a 
particular kind of Brahmins, who 
are all merchants, as those of Haiga 
are •cultivators. Being originally 
descended of the Pansh Cauda, or 
Brahmins of the North of India, 
those of Concan arc held in great 
contempt by the Dravida Brahmins, 
or division of the south, one of the 
strongest reasons assigned for which 
is, that they eat lish. 

In the country about Battecola 
there are none of tljc Euntar caste, 
nor does the language of I'ulava ex- 
tend so far to tlie nortii. Battecola 
is properly in the llaiga countiy, 
and the most common farmers arc a 
kind of Brahmins, named Haiga, 
after the country, and a low caste of 
Hindoos named Halepecas. 

The Comarapeka in this district 
are a tribe cf Concau descent, and 
seem to be sudras of pure birth, who 
properly belong to the country, in 
the same manner as the IS airs are 
Ihe pme sudras of Malabar- By 
birth they are all cultivators and sol- 
diers, and, as usual with this class 
of men among the Hindoos, strongly 
inclined to lobbery. I'rom the 
anarchy which had long prevailed 
in tlijs part of Caiiara, they had ac- 
quired an extraordinaiy degree of 
cruelty, and had even comi)elIed 
many Brahmins to assume their 
customs, and adopt their caste. 

The principal towns in the district 
of North Canara are Battecola, An- 
cola, Cai-war, Mirjaow, and Onore : 
on account of the siiort distance be- 
tween the Western Ghauts and the 
sea, there are no rivers of great mag- 
nitude, but many mountain streams. 
In this district, in 1800, there wcro 
385 houses occupied by Christians; 
1.500 by Mahomme'dans; 4834 by 
Brahmins; 147 by Sive Bhactars; 
and 87 .Tains. 

A Brahmin of tliis district, v.lio 
luid written an account of the cap- 
ture of. Seringapatam by General 
■ Wains, although he knew it hap- 



pened on a Saturday, yet, beraus& 
Saturday is an uiducky day, altered 
it to Monday, as it now stands in iiis 
liistory. Such discordailcics, there- 
fore, in Hindoo Chronology must 
not be considered by the antiquary 
as any proof of either ignorance or 
ciTor. (F. Buchanan, Vc.) 

Caxaka (South).— The southeni 
division of the province of Canara, 
situated principally betwixt the 12th 
and 14th degrees of nortJi latitude. 
Tlie country to the north of the lli- 
ver Chandragiri, A\hcre Malabar 
ends, is called Tulava hy the Hin- 
doos, and South Canara by the 
British. 

The soil of Tulava gradually grows 
worse for grain, as it is distant from 
the sea. The best in quality extends 
irom Mangalore to Buntwala, the 
next from thence to Puujalcotta, and 
the worst liom tlience to the hills. 
About Cavila, cast of Mangalore, 
some of the hills are covered with 
tall, thick forests, in which the teak 
tree is found, 'j'hestrat^i of Tulava, 
near the sea coast, resemble entirely 
those of Malabar, and consist of la- 
terite, or brickstoue, with a very 
few rocks of granite interspersed. 
Poor land of every description le- 
quires more seed than richer land of 
the same kind. A garden of 300 
arecas requires the labour of six 
people if it be watered fiom a vfell, 
but of only three if it be watered 
Irom a tank. Cultivators who arc 
rich keep froin 20 to 25 ploughs, but 
at least one half of the actual farm- 
ers have only one. Frojn Urigarato 
Hossodurga, the eountiy near the 
sea is low and sandy, and too poor 
to produce even cocoa nuts. 

The exports by land consist chiefly 
of salt, salt tish, betel nut, ginger, 
cocoa nuts, cocoa nut oil, and ravr 
silk. The imports by land arc chiefly 
cloths, cotton, thread, blankets, to- 
bacco, and black cattle, with a small 
quantity of peeper and sandal wood. 

In 1800, thi-s di\ isicn of the Ca- 
nara province containc<l 206.633 
males, and 190,039 fciiiales. Thi-s 
excciss of the males over the fouiuls 



CANARA, (SOUTH)* 



227 



pop\ihiIon, has also Loon foimd to 
prevail in tlie Banau);ihal and other 
parts of ll)c south of India. The 
iuunber of houses was ahout 80,000, 
of whicli there were 2545 inhabited 
.by Christians ; 5223 by Mahom- 
liiedans; 71H7 by Brahmins; 2700 
by Jains ; and tlie remainder by di!- 
fercnt low castes of Hindoos. 'I'he 
number of slaves of both sexes was 
7924. Swine are kept by some of 
the low castes, but the porlc of tame 
.swine is an abomination with the 
Bunts, as with all the higher ranks 
of Hindoos, although many of theui 
relish the ilesh of the wild hos:. No 
horses, sheep, goats, or asses, are 
bred in Tulava, nor have its inha- 
bitants any carts. 

To judge from appearances, the 
occupiers of laud in this district arc 
richer than those of ?»Ialabar, Avho 
are probably in easier circumstances 
than tliose of Coimbe(oor, or those 
above the Ghauts. The universal cry 
of poverty in India, and the care 
with which every thins; is concealed, 
render it veiy .difficult to ascertain 
the real circumstances of the culti- 
vator. A good slave sells for about 
10 paijodas, or four guineas; free 
lueji of low caste, if they be in debt 
or trouble, sometimes sell theusistei-s' 
childicu, who are their heirs. They 
have no autiiority over tlieir own 
children, who belong to their ma- 
ternal uncles. The Bialimins of 
Tulava, like the Namburis (Brah- 
mins) of INIalabar, pretend, that the 
country was created expressly for 
their use by Parasu Rama, and that 
they are the only persons entitled to 
be called proj)rietors of the soil. In 
the northern parts of South Canara 
there are two castes, called Baca- 
daru and Batadaru, both of whom 
are slaves, and have exactly the 
same customs ; yet each disputes for 
pre-eminence, and will not eat or 
intermarry together. 

Along the sea coast, from Cavai 
to Ui igara, the inhabitants are prin- 
cipally Moplays (JMahommedans), 
wiio now possess the sea coast, as 
Hie Nairs do the interior. Although 

2 



the Nairs arc more numerous than 
the jMoplays, yet, during Tippoo's 
reign, ^\ hen not protected by govern- 
ment, the Hindoos were obliged to 
skulk in tlie woods, and ail such as 
could be catched were circinncisctU 

This mode of conversion, however 
involuntary, is perfectly eifectual, 
and the convert immediately be- 
comes a* good Mahonnncdan, a;* 
othenvise he would iiave no caste at 
all ; and although the doctrine of 
caste be no part ol' the faith of Ma- 
hommcd, it lias yet been fully adopt- 
ed by the lower rank of Maliom- 
inedaus in India. 

The chief towns in this district are 
Barcciorc, INlangalore, and Callian- 
poor ; there are no ri\ ers of niagiii- 
tude or consequence, but many 
mountain streams. The lan'guage 
of Tulava, or South Canara, has a 
strong resemblance to that of IMa- 
labar, and the w rittcn characters ar« 
the same ; but in the language of 
Tulava, there is a gieat admixture 
of words from all the countries, con- 
taining the five simthern nations of 
India, viz. Teling'a, jMaharashtra, 
Karnataca, Gujura, and Dravida. 
In Tulava the era of Salivahanam is 
in use, by which the year A. D. 1800 
corresponds with 1722; but to the 
north it is reckoned the year 1723. 
Tiie year is solar. The people of 
this division, although longer sub- 
jected to a foreign yoke than tliose 
of jMalabar, never were so entirely 
subdued as the greater part of tli* 
Hindoos, and have alwajs been able 
successfully to resist the pretensions 
of their governors, to be proprietors 
of the soil. 

The former sovereigns of this 
country, princes of the house of 
Ikcri, had always given great en- 
couragement to the Christians, and 
had induced 80,000 of them to settle 
in Tulava. They m ere all of Con- 
can descent, and retained the lan- 
guage, dress, and mamicrs of the 
people of that country. I'lie clergy 
adopted the dress of the order to 
which they belonged, but they arc 
ali natives, dcsetndud Uom Coxiciiit 



228 



CANARA, (SOUTH). 



families, and were purposely edu- 
cated in a seminary at Goa, where 
tliey were instructed in the Portu- 
guese and Latin languages, and in 
the doctrines of the Churcli of Rome. 
In Tulava they had 27 churches, 
each provided with a vicar, and the 
whole under Inc coutroul of a vicar- 
general, subject to the Ar<]i1)ishop 
of Goa. Tippoo threw the priests 
into dungeons, forcibly converted to 
IslamisiTi the laity, and destroyed 
the churclics. The Christian religion 
does not, like the Hindoo, prevent 
the re-admission into the church of 
such delimpients; and these invo- 
luntary Muhonimedans have, in ge- 
neral, reconciled tlieniselves with 
the clergy, more than 1:3,000 having 
rcturaed to JNTangalore and its vi- 
cinity: 10,000 made their escape 
from Tipfioo to JMalabar, from 
whence they are also returning. 
These poor people have none of the 
vices usuall} attributed (o the native 
Portuguese, and their sujjerior in- 
dustr}' is acknowledged by the neigh- 
bouring ]-findoo«. 

The Jain sect abonnd more in this 
province than any of India, and at 
no remote distance of time must 
have been the prevailing sect; many 
J'ain temples still remain. 

The ])ropcr name of the Jain sect 
is Arliita, and they acknowledge 
that they are one of the 21 sects Avho 
were considered as heretical by San- 
kara Acharja. Like other Hindoos, 
they are divided into Brahmin, 
Khi'tri, Vaicya, and Sudra. These 
castes capnot intermany ; nor should 
widOAvs biun with their husbands. 
TheVedas aiid the 18 Purans of the 
lirahmins, the Jains reject as here- 
tical. They say that tiiese books 
were composed by a saint, named 
Vyasa, whom the orthodox Bralimins 
consider as an inearnalion of the 
deity. Their chief book of doctiino 
is named Voga. It is written i!i 
the Sanscrit language and character 
of Karnata, and is explained by 2^1 
purans, all wrilteii by its author, w !>o 
was named VtishajiaSayana, o saii't, 
who, by long coutinued prMyer, Isad 



obtained a knowledge of divine 
things. They admit that all Brah- 
mins are by ])irth of equal rank. 
The gods of the Jains arc the spirits 
of perfect men, Avho, on account of 
their gieat virtue, have become ex-" 
em])t from all change, and are all of 
eqtjal rank and power. They are 
called collectively by various titles, 
such as Jineswara, Arhita (the 
worthy), and Siddha (the holy). — ■ 
These saints reside in a heaven called 
Moeslia. Concerning the great gods 
of the 18 Purans of the orthodox 
Brahmins, the Jains sa) that Vishnu 
was a rajah, who, having performed 
certain good works, was born a se- 
cond time as a rajah, named Rama. 
At first he was a great hero and con- 
queror; but aftenvards lie retired 
from the pleasures of the world, and 
becanjc a Sannyasi (a solitary de- 
votee), and lived a life of such pu- 
rit)', that he obtained Siddha under 
the name of Jina, vvhii^h he had 
assumed when he gave up his earthly 
kingdom. 

By the orthodox Brahmins, who 
follow the doctrines of Vyasa, the 
Jains are frequently confounded with 
the Saugata, or vvorshippers of 
Buddha. 'I'heir doctiine has, in 
many points, a great resemblance to 
that Avhich is taught in Ava by th« 
followers of Buddha. The Jain 
Brahmins abstain from lay affairs, 
and dress like those who follow the 
doctrines of Vyasa. 'I'heir gooroos, 
or cliicf priests, have the power of 
fining their followers who cheat or 
lie, commit murder or adultery. I'he 
fijies are given to the gods, that is to 
say, to the priest. 

The '.lains extend throughout In- 
dia, but at present thoy are not nu- 
merous, except in South Canara. 
They have two sorts of temples, one 
covered with a roof, aud called 
Busty; the otlier an 0])!>u area, sur- 
roiuldcd by a wall, acd called Betta, 
whi(-h signifies a hill. In tiie tenqiles 
called T^ctta, the only image of a 
saint li tl'.Jtt of a person named 
Oomnta Baya, who \tln\c on earth 
Avas a powerful king. 'I'he imag<j» 



CANDAHAR. 



22Q 



of Gonuita l^aya arc naked, and al- 
ways of a colossal size. 'I'liu one at 
C'aniilla is niadt; of a single piece of 
Pfranilc, the extreme diiricusioiis of 
\vl)i( li, above {ground, are 38 feet in 
height, lUv.ia breadth, and 10 i'ect 
in thickness. By an inscri|i1iou on 
it, il ap[X'ars to have been made in 
theycar A.D. 1431. 

The IJralnniiis generally abound 
in the odium theologicum ; it is, 
however, between tlie jMadnal and 
the Sri Vaisliiiavam, although botli 
followers of Vishnu, that the most 
violent antipathy prevails. Tlio 
Smartal Bralmiins, although ad- 
herents of Siva, or Mahadeva, agree 
nmoh better with the Madual; and 
in South Canara and IMalabar these 
two live on tolerable t<irms. In Sonth 
Canara it is not unconmion for cnie 
temple to belong to both gods ; and, 
in most places there, the temples of 
Vishnu and Siva are built near to 
each other, and the same chariot 
serves for the procession of both 
idols. To the cast of the Ghauts, 
the JNIadual Brahmins scorn to sene 
as priests, even in the temples of 
Vishnu, and are the proudest of the 
whole sa(!rcd order. 'I'hey look with 
abhon-ence on the doctrine which 
inculcates, that the spirits of good 
men arc after death absorbrd into 
the deity ; in \Vhich they dilfcr both 
from the Smartal or Siva Bramins, 
and the Sri Vaishnavam Brahmins. 
Madua Acharya, the chief of the 
Uladiial Brahmins, was born at Pa- 
dnca Chaytia, about six centuries 
ago, bat had gone through several 
prior incarnations. 

Travancor, Malabar, and South 
Canara, aloneescaped Mahonnnedan 
conquest, until the two latter were 
invaded by H.Adcr, A.D. 1765-6. 
(/^. Jihchaiian, (St.) 

CwK Hivi;k, {Kena). — This river 
has its source on the north side of 
the Viiidhva Mountains, in the pro- 
vince of Malwah, and, after a wind- 
ing course of about 2.00 mileti, falls 
into the Junma, in the district of 
Curnih. Major Rennel thinks itistlic 
Caina.':; ur Cane of Anian and i'iiny. 



Candhar, {Ganihara). — A town 
in the province of Agra, 80 miles 
S. E. of Jev;>oor. Lat. 26°. 2'. N. 
Long. 76°. 30'. E. This fortress be- 
longs to the Rajalis of Jeypoor, or 
Jyenagur, and was built about 80 
years ago bj' one of the rajahs of 
that state. It is deemed impreg- 
nable by the natives, but its chief 
strength consists in its elevated situ- 
cition, amidst rugged and projecting 
rocks, covered with jungle to the 
top. {Bruiigliton, tVc.) 

Candhak. — A town in the Ni- 
zam's dominions, in tlie province of 
Nander, 16 miles S. from the town 
of Nandcre. Lat. 18°. 66'. N. 
Long. 77°. 37'. E. 
• Candesh. — Sec Khandfsh. 

C.ANDAHAR, {Ganclhava). — A })ro- 
vincc in Afghanistan, situated prin- 
cipally between the 31st and 34th 
degrees of north latitude. To the 
north it is bounded by the province 
of Balk, in Little I'artary ; to the 
south, by Baloochistan ; on the east 
it has Sinde and Baloochistan ; and 
on the west the province of Segistan, 
in Persia. Having been but little 
explored, its modern boundaries are 
wholly unknown. By Abnl Fazel, 
in 1582, it is described as follows: 

" Sircar Candahar is situated in 
the tliird climate. 'l'h(^ length, iioni 
Kelat Bujarch, is 300 coss, and it 
measuies in bieadth, from Sindo 
to Furreh, 260 coss. On the cast 
lies Sinde; on the north, Gour and 
Ghourghistan; on tb,;' south, Sewee ; 
and on the Mcst, Furreh and Cabul. 
On the norlh-w est it is bounded by 
(ihuzneen. The \yhcat of Candahar 
is \ cry white, and is seat to a dis- 
tance as a great rarity. In the vici- 
nity of the town of Candahar arc 
the ruins of a great city, the native 
place of the Gharian Sultans. Be- 
tween llirmund and Candahar is si- 
tuated the well known city of Mcy- 
mund, mentioned in old astronomical 
tables." 

'J'hc quarter of Afghanistan about 
Killaut (70 miles V.. by N. from 
Candahar) has the general aspect of 
a desert, and, excej)t small portions 



230 



CANDAHAR. 



of arable land contig^ious to the in- 
habited places, no other cultivation 
is scon. From Ghizni to Candahar 
the road tends to the south-west, and 
has universally a barren appearance. 
The buildings, from a scarcity of 
timber, arc constructed, as in the 
province of Cabul, of sun-burned 
bricks, and covered with a flat roof 
of tlie same materials. 

This province having been seldom 
visited by Europeans, we remain 
but little acquainted with its inha- 
bitants or productions. A native 
traveller, of 1795 (Seid Mustapha), 
among other productions, mentions 
V'heat, riLC, joarce, gram, peas, 
and seeds of diflerent sorts ; dates, 
almonds, saffron, and otr of roses. 
The cultivators he describes as com- 
posed of Moguls and Afghans ; and 
the language of the country the 
Pushtoo". Among the inhal)itants he 
reckons a considerable number of 
Hijidoos (partly Kanogc Brahmins), 
both settled in the towns as traf- 
fickers, and cultivating fields and 
gardens in the vicinity. 

The face of the country through- 
out is hilly and rocky, and in many 
places destitute of fresh water; but 
some of the vallies exhibit verdure 
and feitllily. The climate during 
tin; winter is very cold, although not 
so much as about Ghizni, in C abul ; 
bv>t during the summer the opposite 
e\lrenie is experienced. In the cold 
sea:ion, the ])oorersort of inhabitants 
Avear a species of coarse blanket, 
and the richer classes shawl gowns 
and long silk caps. Like the rest of 
Alghanistan, tlie country is very 
thinly peopled, a c'onsiderable por- 
tion of the natives still leading a 
pastoral and migratory life. The 
pnncipal domestic animals are ca- 
mels and dogs, the latter being men- 
tioned as a very superior breetl for 
strength, sagacity, and courage, — 
Among the wild animals are tigers, 
buffaloes, deer, and antelopes. Iron 
is procured fiom ores found in <he 
hills, and precious stones of various 
sorts, particularly diamonds and to- 
pazes in diller cut p arts of the pro vince, 



With respect to religion, the great 
bulk of the inhabitants are Mahom- 
medan« of the Soonee persuasion ; 
and the country abounds with 
mosques, in which, Seid Mustapha 
asserts, both IJindoos and Mahoni- 
medans worship, and in other re- 
spects nearly assimilate. This pro- 
vince has, in general, been consi- 
dered as an integral part of the 
Persian Empire ; but was for many 
years subject to the Delhi sovereigns, 
from whom it was wrested by Nadir 
Shah. On th^ death of this usiu-per 
it became subject to Ahmed Shah 
Abdalli, the Afghan Chief of Cabul, 
and has ever since remained attached 
to that government, although under 
a veiy fluctuating degree of obe- 
dience. {Seid MusLaplia, Abul Fazel, 
Foster, <S"c.) 

Candahar. — A fortified town in 
the province of Candahar, of which 
it is the cajjital, Lat, 33°. N. Long, 
65°. 34'. E. By Abut Fazel, ux 
1582, it is described as follows: 

" Candahar is the capital of this 
Sircar. It has two forts. The heat 
is very severe, and the "cold tem- 
perate, except in the months of De- 
cember and January, when water 
freezes. Here are flowers and fruits 
in abundance." 

Nadir Shah destroyed the old 
fortress of Candahar, which stood 
on the top of a high rocky lull, and 
founded on a contiguous plain a city 
named Nadirabad, which was com- 
pleted by Ahmed Shah Adalli, but 
is now only known by the name of 
Candahar. This modern city, coift- 
prised within an ordiiuiry forfilica- 
tion of about three miles in circuin-r 
ference, and of a square form, is 
populous and flourishing, and stand- 
ing on the great road which connects 
Hindostan with Persia and Tartaiy, 
lias long been a distinguished mart. 
It is plentifully and cheaply supplied 
with provisions. The grapes and 
melons are high flavoured, and equal 
to those of Europe." 

The environs of Caudahai'. occupy 
an extensive jtlain, covered with 
fxiiit gardens and culti\a1iou, aii<l 



CANDY. 



2?31 



infersprfod by nnmerons streams. 
Tlip adjacent hills arc of a moderate 
hei{:;Iit, and the climate a medium 
fcetwoen the heat of India and the 
cold of Ghizni. Two or three miles 
to the northward of Caiuhdiar are 
tlie remains of the old fortress on 
the sumaiit of a rticky mountain. 
Six miles from this city are some ca- 
verns and ancient excavations, ap- 
parently of Hindoo origin ; and at 
two niiies distance is the mosqne of 
of Zaafer Tayer, a Mahommedan 
saint, who came from iVIecca 700 
years ago. South from Candahar is 
the mosque of the celebrated ISfoval 
Ali, where arc shewn the marks of 
his feet in stone. In the vicinity are 
t\vo enormous pillars lyins; on the 
ground, described by Seid Mustaplia 
as being- the length of a palmjra 
tree, regardinsj the oiigin of which 
he relates a fabulous storj^. 

At Candahar arc established many 
Hindoo families, cliiefly of Mooltan 
and the Rajpoot districts, Avho, by 
their industry and mercantile know- 
ledge, have essentiallj' aHg;mented 
its trade and wealth. I'he Turco- 
maun merchants of Bokhara and 
Samarcand also freqicjit this muit, 
wliCJice the}' transport into .heir own 
countiy a <onsidera1)le quantity of 
iudi^o, wliich is received frorn Hiii- 
Uoslan. Among- the iidiabitants are 
a few Jews, but it is obsened they 
are never numerous where the Hin- 
doos ha\e scttk'd as merchants and 
mouc}' chaugers. I'he Cabtil sove- 
reign has a iuint established here, 
whi( h has not of lute had much em- 
ployin!>nt. 

>\ ])ilc the Persian and IMogul 
en!]iires existed in a st-ate of pros- 
perity, Ctmdaiiar was a liontier city, 
and the object of mueh competition. 
It was betrayed to the Ku)pcror Jo- 
hangircby the Persian governor, Ali 
Merdan Khan, in 1(338. On the 
decay of both cini)ires, it was, for 
a short time, possessed by native 
Afgiiau chiefs ; but, in 1737, Nadir 
jShali, havinsf deposedThamas Mirza, 
tutered Ai'ghauistaii wifh a large 
anny, and took Candahar, ut tiiis 



time held by an Afghan cliief, named 
Hossein KJian, alter a siege, from 
tirst to last, of 18 months. < )n Na- 
dir's assassination, Ahmed Shah Ab- 
dalli obtained possession, and in-» 
tended to make it his capital, but in 
this design he did not persevere ; it 
has, liowever, ever since contimied 
attached to the Cabnl sovereignty. 

Travelling distance from Delhi by 
Cabul 1071 miles; fromAgva, 1208; 
and from Calcutta, 2047 miles. {Fos- 
ter, Scid Miistapha, Rennd, AbuL 
Fazel, <§-e. 

CANDY. 

A territory in the .centre of the 
Island of Ceylon, which forms the 
present dominions of the King of 
Candy. AVoods and mountains, al- 
most impenetrable, cut off this re- 
gion on all sides from the countiy 
on the sea coast, possessed by Eu- 
ropeans. The passes which lead 
through these to the interior are 
extremely steep and difficult, and 
scarcely known even to the natives. 
10 or 20 miles inland, the country 
differs greatly from the sea coast, in 
soil, c!imat<', and appearance. Af- 
ter ascending the moiuitains, and 
passing the woods, the country 
seems not advanced many stages 
beyond the first stage of inipiove- 
mt- nt ; as we proceed towards the 
centre of the island, tlie country 
gradually rises, and the woods and 
mountains ^\hich separate the dif- 
ferent jiaris become more steep and 
impervious. It is in tlie midst of 
these jastnesses that the native 
prince still preserves those remains 
of territory and power, which have 
been left him by successive in- 
vaders. 

The provinces which still remain 
to him are Noorecala\a and Hot- 
courly, towards the north aiul north- 
west ; while JVIatuly, comjirehending 
the districts of Eintana, Velas, ]*a- 
noa, with a ll-w others, occupies those 
parts more to the eastward. To tlie 
south-east lies Ouvale, a province of 
some iiote; the western parts art 



232 



CANDY. 



chiefly included in the provinces of 
Cotemal and Kolleracorley. These 
different provinces are subdivided 
into corles, or districts, and entirely 
belong to the native prince. 

In the hiffhest and most central 
part of this sovereign's tenitories lie 
the corles of Oudanour and Tata- 
no ur, in which are situated the two 
principal cities. These districts are 
pre-eminent above the rest, and are 
better cultivated, and more popu- 
lous, than the others ; and are distin- 
fuished by the name of Conde Udda. 
"his province of Conde Udda is still 
more inaccessible than the others, 
and forms as it were a separate king- 
dom. On every side it is surroiiiided 
by lofty mountains coveredwith wood, 
and tho paths by which it is entered 
seem little more than the tracts of 
wild beasts. Guards are stationed 
all round to prevent entrance and 
escape. 

In this province are the ruins of 
some tov.iis, which appear to have 
been larger and better built than 
those at present existing. • In the 
province of Nourse Calava, in the 
northern part of the kingdom, are 
tlie 1 uais of the city of Anuvodg- 
buiro. It stands aLnost at the north- 
ern extremity of the Candian domi- 
nions, and liordt rs on the district of 
Jafnapatnam. In former ages this 
was the residence of the Kings of 
Ceylon, ajul has long been the place 
of their binial. 'i he Portuguese 
captured and destroyed this town. 

The whole of the CanJian teni- 
tories, with the exception of the 
plains arouiid Anurodgburro, pre- 
sent a constant interchange of steep 
mountains and deep vailies. The ex- 
cessive thickaessof tiie wooiis,wbieh 
_ cover tlie grcitttv part of tlso coun- 
try, causes heavy fogs and unwlule- 
some ii.impt: lo prevail ; every evf n- 
jug the fogs fall with the close of tlie 
day, and au not again dissipated 
until the uv. i.^a acquired great 
power. I'he vailies are, in general, 
marshy, full of springs, and excel- 
lently ada. tc.i for the cultivation of 
jrice, and rearing of cattle. 



The high range of mountains, 
which extend acres? the country 
of Candy, seems to divide the island 
into two different climates. It has 
been a continued drought on one 
side of them for years, while it has 
rained on the other without inter- 
mission. The seasons among the 
mountains in the interior are regu- 
lated by diflerent laws, and do not 
correspond exactly with either of the 
monsoons. Among them it rains 
incessantly during the months of 
March and April, at which period it 
is dry in the low lands. The coun- 
try of Candy can never receive any 
improvement from internal naviga- 
tion : several large rivers intersect 
it; but, during the rainy season, 
tliese are rendered so rapid by the 
torrents from the hills, tliat no boat 
can venture on them ; while in the 
opposite season they are dried ujj. 

The intercourse betwixt the Cin-. 
galese under the European govern- 
ments, and the Candians of the in- 
terior, has always been more com- 
pletely cut oil', than betwixt .any of 
the most savage and hostile tribes of 
North America. Even during the 
intervals of peace no connnunication 
is opened, nor is there au} attempt 
on either side to carry on a secret 
traffic, or coiTcspond with each 
other. The poUcy of the Dutch, 
therefore, succcede<l in rendering the 
Candians completely insulated ; and 
to make them look with apprehen- 
sion and hostile jealousy, on the ap- 
proach of a sti anger. 

The Candians are divided into 
caste;>, which lake precedence of 
each other according to the most 
scrupulous regiilaMons. The first 
rank includes the nobles; the next 
the arlUicers, such as goldsmiths, 
painters, carpe.iters, smiths, is>c. the 
third is composed of lower occupa- 
lioiis, su(h as barbers, potters, wea- 
vers, &.C. with \\honi the common 
soluiers raak ; aiid the 4th caste 
comprehends the peasantry, and la- 
bourers of all descriptions, who 
either cultivate the lands lot them- 
selves, or are hired out to work for 



oHiors. The preference given to 
artificers over husbandmen and sol- 
diers, is a very uncoiiiiuon I'act in 
the arrangement of caste, and pe- 
culiar to Ceylon. 

Besides these castes, there is here, 
as in other parts of India, a wretched 
race of outcasles, the martyrs from 
n^o to age of this barljarous institu- 
tion. They are allowed to exercise 
no trade or profession, nor to ap- 
proach any of the human race but 
the companions of their miserj', and 
whatever they touch is polluted and- 
accursed. As they are not allowed 
to work, they are obliged to beg 
contiimally for sustenance, and thus 
from generation to generation be- 
come a dead Aveight on soci(;1y. 
As they are degratled. so low, tliat 
they cannot by good conduct ever 
retrieve their condition, it is an ob- 
ject worthy a benevolent govern- 
ment to attempt converting this lost 
body of men, by instructing them in 
a superior system of religion, which 
umst be the first step towards atfect- 
ing their improvement. These people 
of no caste are obliged to pay the 
lowest of the Candians as mucli res- 
pect and reverence, as eastern ser- 
vility ordains the latter to pay to the 
king. 

Although the Candians are go- 
verned Mith the most complete des- 
potism, y(>t as their prejudices and 
customs are shared and respected by 
their nioiiarehs, they arc proud of 
being lice from a tbreign yoke, and 
despis(^ the Ciiigaline in the British 
.service, as a mean antl servile race, 
'J'he Candian women have scarcely 
ever been seen by Junopeans, which 
concealment must have originated 
in political motives, as the Can- 
dians are by no means jealous of 
their females. 

'i'he king of Candy on tlie tinonc 
in 1800 was a native of the Island of 
Kaniiseram on the Malabar coast, 
opposite to Manaar; and was a 
descendant of the royal family by 
a female branch, l)ut by no means 
tli<" nearest heir. He was brought 
iu hy the iuilucuce of Iho adigur, a 



CANDY. 233 

minister. When the last king lias 
no innnediate descendants, and when 
the hereditary right lies between 
equidistant males and females, the 
pref(uence, by the Candian laws, is 
given to the female branch. In the 
year 1795, the reigning king of 
Candy manied a IVlalabar princess 
of his own countiy, and a near rela- 
tion to the liajah Ramnaad. 

The King of Candy yields to no 
eastern branch in the nuiuber and 
extravagance of his titles, and they 
are attended with a corresponding 
reverence on this part of his subjects. 
The adigar, or minister, is the only 
one wiio has access to liis person, he 
consecpiently issues what mandates 
he pleases, and is in eOect the sove- 
reign. There arc generally two 
adigars, whom the king endeavours 
to api)oint from opposite factions; 
but one generally engrosses tiie 
power. And appoints the other. Tlie 
officers next in rank 'to the adigarx 
arc the dessauvas, who are go- 
vernors or corles or districts, and 
are the principal military com- 
manders. 

I'he bulk of the king's revenues 
consists of presents or contrii)ulion8 
brought him by the people, orratiier 
irregularly enibn.ed by his officers, 
tw o or three times each year. Tliose 
contributions consist of money, pre- 
cious stones, ivoiy, clolh, curii, Iviiit^ 
honey, wax, arms, and other articles 
of their own nianuficliue, such as 
spears, arrows, pikes, targets, &.c. 
&c. The regular troops amoimt to 
about 20,000 men ; but, ilie inhabi- 
tants are oi)liged, without disliiic- 
tion, to take arms whtn conunanded. 
Their armour is of a very motley na- 
ture; spears, pikes, swords, targets, 
bows and arrows, niatchioeks, with 
about 1000 fusees or nnisUets, and 
bajonets, all in bad order. 'Jheir 
pay and subsistence coiisi.>is of a 
small allowance ol rice and salt, ami 
they are exempted liom taxes and 
all other services. 

To lide on horseback is a royal 
privilege, monopolized by the mo- 
narch. There arc no horses kept iu 



254 



CANTAL. 



llie interior, eXc<'pt lliose belonging' 
to the rojal stud ; wliicb have Ijeen 
received as presents from the Euro- 
pean governments on the coast. In 
1782 Mr. Boyd went as ambassador 
to Candy from Trincolmale. On his 
anival within 20 miles of that place, 
be was desired l)y the Candians to 
go round about 1o the Columbo 
road, and approach from thence, as 
they would not otherwise have exact 
precedents for the ceremonies to be 
performed. Their capital punish- 
ments are always attended Avith 
some aggravating cruelty, and the 
administration of justice is mostly 
intrnsted to the dessauvas and adi- 
parS. There are Hindoo temples in 
Candy, the present idng being of 
Ihe 'Hindoo Brahminical religion, 
■while the great majority of his sub- 
jects are worsltippers of Enddha. 
(Percival, Knox, Harrington, Boyd, 

Candy. — 'A city in the Island of 
Ceylon, the capital of the Candian 
dominions. Lat. 7°. 23'. N. Long. 
80°. 47'. 

This town is situated at the dis- 
tance of about 80 miles from Co- 
lumbo, and tM ice as far from Trin- 
colmale, in the midst of lofty and 
steep hills covered with thick jungle. 
The narrow and difiienlt passes, by 
which it is approached, are intersect- 
ed with thick hedges of thorn ; and 
hedges of the same sort are drawn 
round the hills in the vicinity of 
Candy, like lines of circumvallalion. 
Tluongh them the only passage is 
by gates of the same tliorny mate- 
rials, so conlnved as to be drawn up 
and let down by ropes. I'hese hedge 
rows form the chief forlifieations of 
Candy. The Mali\agonga Kiver 
nearly sunounds the hills on which 
it stands, and is here broad, rocky, 
and rapid; and on the banks of it 
a strict watch is kept by the Can- 
dians, 

The town is a poor miserable 
place, about two miles lojig, and 
consists of one" principal street, ter- 
minated by the palace at the upper 
•nd. There ure many lesser streets 



branching off, but of no great lengtlt. 
The palace is built with a sort of 
chunam or cement, perfectly white, 
with stone gateways. It contains a 
great many rooms, painted in a gro- 
tesque maimer, and many of th« 
walls covered with pier glasses. The 
houses of the town are mean and 
low, but their foundations are raised 
in such a manner, or rather the 
street is so sunk, that they seem 
lofty to passengers. The palace 
consisfs of two enclosed squares, 
one wilhin the other; and in the 
inner are the royal apartments, 
where the court is held, and audi- 
ences given. 

This town has been several times 
burned by the Europeans, and was 
once deserted by the king, who re- 
tired to a still more inaccessible 
part of his dominions. The ambas- 
sadors sent to Candy were always 
conducted into the town at night 
by torch-light, and re-conducted be- 
fore morning, on which account few 
particulars A\'ere known of the town 
until the 20th Feb. 1803, when it 
was captured by the British, having 
previously been evacuated by the 
king. 

I'he garrison left here, under Ma- 
jor Davie, were singularly unfor- 
tunate. From February to June, 
officers murdered by the Canadians 
16, died from the effects of the cli- 
mate 16, of the civil service 5; total 
37. Privates of the 19th regiment 
nuudered 172, died of the eftects of 
the climate 120, died after their re- 
turn to Columbo 300 ; total 592. 

About six or seven milcf to tlie 
south of Candy lies the town of 
Nelemby Ncur, where the king has 
also a palace and stone houses. (Pcjv 
cival, bth Register, ifc.) 

Canouj. — See Kanoge. 

Candroody. — A small district iw 
the province Gundwana, situated 
betv\ixt the 23d and 24tli^de.grees of 
north latitude. It is intersected by 
the Soane River, and is possessed by 
independent chiefs, but contains n» 
town of note. 

Cantal, {Catifttl, th» jack fvftit 



CANTON. 



235 



irec). — A small mountuinoTis district 
in Nortliern Hindoslaii, l)€t\vi\t the 
S4th and 35th dcfjrees of north lati- 
tude; and adjoining the oiistein ex- 
treniit}' of the piovinee of Cashmere. 
It is remarkable for the hip,h peak of 
Canlal, or Kciiti, called Lar b) the 
Cashmerians. 



CANTON. 

A sea-port in the empire of China, 
io Avhicli the Eurojiean maritime 
traffic is cxclnsivelv eonlined. Lat. 
23°. 7'. N. Lat. 113°. 14'. E. 

This city stands on th-e eastern 
bank of the Fe-kiang River, ^vhich 
flows from tlie interior in a navif;,able 
stream of 300 miles to this town, 
where it is ratlicr broader than the 
Thames at London Bridge, aud from 
hence falls after an additional course 
of 80 miles in the southern sea of 
China, near its junction, with ^Aiiich 
it takes among foreigners the name 
of Bocca Tigris. The town is sm- 
touuded by walls about five miles in 
circumference, on which a few can- 
non are mounted ; but the whole of 
its fortifications, Avith a view to de- 
fence, are in every respect despi- 
cable, and only serve to prevent the 
intrusion of Europeans. 

Although Canton is situated near- 
ly, in "the same pajallel of latitude 
with Calcutta, yet there is a consi- 
derable diH'ercnce in their tempera- 
ture; the former being much the 
coolest, and requiring fires during 
the winter months. Ihe suburbs 
may be frecjuented by Europeans; 
bnt they ;u-e not permitted to enter 
tiic gates of the Tartar city, which, 
however, in its building and exterior 
appearance, entirely resembles the 
suburbs. The streets of Canton are 
very narrow, paved with little round 
iitones, and ilagged close to the sides 
of the houses, 'J'he front of every 
house is a shop, and those of parti- 
cular streets are laid out for the sup^ 
ply ofstrjyigers; China-street(named 
by the seamen llog-lane) being ap- 
propriated to Europeans, and here 
tlie productions of almost every part 
4 



of the globe arc to be found. On« 
of the shopkeepers is always to bo 
seen sitting on the counter, writing 
with a camel's hair brush, or calcu- 
lating with his swan-pan, on which 
instrument a Chinese M'ill perform: 
operations in numbers with as much 
celerity as the most expert Europeau 
ai ithmetician. This part of Canton 
being much frequented by the sea- 
men, every artifice is used by th« 
Chinese retailers to attract their at- 
tention, each of them having an Eng- 
lish name for himself pauitod on the 
outside of his shop, besides a num- 
ber of advertisements, composed for 
them by the sailors in their peculiar 
idiom. 'I'he latter, it may he sup- 
posed, are often duped by their Chi- 
nese fiiends, who have, in general, 
picked up a few sea phrases, by 
which they are ©uticed to enter the 
shops ; but they suit extremely well 
together, as the Chinese dealers pos- 
sess a command of temper not to be 
provoked, and humour the seamea 
in all their sallies. 

The foreign factories extend for a 
considerable way along the banks of 
the river, at the distance of about 
100 yards. The^ are named by the 
Chinese hongs, and resemble long- 
courts, or closes, without a thorough- 
faie, which generally contain four 
or live separate houses. They are 
buill on a fine quay, and have a broad 
parade in front. This promenade is 
railed in, aud is generally called the 
respondentia walk ; and here the 
European merchants, com'uanders, 
aud officers of ships meet after cbn- 
ner, and enjoy the cool of the even- 
ing. The English hong, or factor} , far 
surpasses the others in elegance and 
extent, and before eacii the national 
(lag is seen tlying. Tlie neighbour- 
hood of the factories is occupied with 
M'arehouses for the reception of Eu- 
ropean goods, or of Chinese produc- 
tions, until they are shipped. 

For the spa( e of four or five mile* 
opv.ositc to Canton the river resem- 
bles an extensive floating city, con- 
sisting of boats and vessels ranged 
parallel to each other, lea> iug a nar- 



23(5 



CANTON. 



row passage for vessels to pass and 
repass. In these the owners reside 
•with their IamiHcs,the latter of wliom 
but seldom visit the shore. Tlie 
Chinese junks that trade to Batavia 
and the Eastern Islands lie in the 
centre of the river, moored head and 
stern, many of them exceeding 600 
tons burthen. A Chinese ship, or 
junk, is seldom the property of one 
man. Sometimes 40 or 50, or even 
100 didereut merchants purchase a 
vessel, and divide into as many com- 
partments as there are partners, so 
that each knows his ow u particular 
part in the ship, M'luch he is at liberty 
to fit up and serure as he pleases. 
The bulk heads, by which these di- 
visions are formed, consist of stout 
planks, so well caulked as to be 
completely water-tight. A ship thus 
formed may strike on a rock, and yet 
sustain no serious injury ; a leak 
springing in one division of the bold 
will not be attended with any da- 
tnage to articles placed in another, 
and from her firmness she is qualified 
to resist a more than ordinary shock. 
A considerable loss in stowage is of 
course sustained; but the Chinese 
exports generally contain a consi- 
derable value in a small bulk. Some 
of these sliips are not less than 1000 
tons burthen, ha^ ing a crew of 500 
men, owners of goods and seamen, 
besides other passengers, wlio leave 
their country to better their fortunes 
at Batavia, ' Manilla, and among 
the Eastern Islands. The Chinese 
coasting vessels are usnally divided 
into 13 distinct compartments, M'ell 
caulked and ^^ ater-tight. In navi- 
gating these vessels the same com- 
pass is used as in Europe; but in 
China the south alone is considered 
as the attracting power, the Chinese 
compass is named ting-nan-ching, or 
the needle pointing to the south. 
'J he Chinese junks generally sail 
with one monsoon, and return with 
another. In the north-east monsoon 
they sail to ]\Ianilla, I'anca, and Ba- 
tavia, and return to Emoy and C.ui- 
ton with that from the south west. 
There are liAc junks annually from 



Emoy to Batavia, on board of which 
a considerable number of Chinese 
emigrate. 

Canton is about 15 miles above 
Wharapoa, and in tliis distance are 
five chop, or custom-houses, where 
boats are examined. The head ton- 
tiff, named by the mariners John 
Tuck, regulate the emperor's duties, 
respecting M'hich the importer re- 
mains entirely ignorant, as they are 
paid by Ihe purchaser of the goods, 
which are generally weighed and 
carried ofi' immediately on landing. 
'I'he cargoes are weighed with Eng- 
lish weights of 50, instead of 56 
pounds, and afterwards reduced to 
Chinese catties, by multiplying by 
three and dividing by four; and then 
converted to peculs, by dividing the 
product by 100. A pecul M-eighs 
133| pounds English, and catty 1§ 
po- nd ; but the Chinese sale weights 
are generally inaccurate, and must 
be attended to. All goods in China 
are bought and sold by weight, even 
articles of food, such as milk, fowls, 
hogs, &c. The long measure is the 
cubit of about 141 inches. A tael is 
equal to 5798 decimal, troy weight ; 
and in the East India Company's ac- 
counts the tael of silver is reckoned 
at 6s. 8d. sterling. 

The Chinese measure a ship from 
the centre of the fore-mast to the 
centre of the mizen-mast for the 
length, and close abaft the main- 
mast from outside, taking the ex- 
treme for the breadth. I'he length 
is then multiplied by the breadth, 
and divided by 10, the result being, 
according to their ideas, the mensu- 
ration of the ship. At the custom- 
house, ships that arrive are classed 
under three denominations, first, se- 
cond, and third rates; and ships, 
however small, pay as third rates, 
which is a heavy charge on the small 
vessels that frequent the port ; nor is 
the duty augmented on ships exceed- 
ing the size of what they term first 
rates. The proportions are, 
1st rates, 74 cubits long &. 26 broad 

2d 71 ditto 22 to 23 do. 

3d ... .65 to 71 ditto ... .20 to 23 do. 



CANTON. 



237 



The duties on sliips of the smallest 
«lass amount, on an average, to about 
4000 dollars, and not a ,^cat deal 
inure is exacted for ships of larger 
dimensions. Small country ships 
frequentlj' lie off about Linliug l<'ora, 
or Large Ba}', until some of the large 
China ships from Europe come i« 
sight, j\iien they shift their cargoes 
on board of them. It is usually car- 
ried up to Canton for one per cent. 
by wliich expedient the duties, cus- 
toms, and measurement on tiie ship 
are saved, as well as the emperoi's 
present. 

The monopoly of all foreign trade 
is consigned by the policy of the 
Chinese government to a limited 
number of merchants, seldom ex- 
ceeding eight, l)ut occasionally more; 
ill 1793 tiiey were 12, and in 1808 
14. All foreign cargoes pass through 
the hands of these merchants, who 
are commonly men of large propci-ty, 
and by them also the reti;rn cargoes 
are furnished. AVith them the East 
India Company's supercargoes tran- 
sact the concerns of their employers ; 
they dispose of the goods imported, 
and purchase the commodities which 
compose the homeward-bound cargo. 
At the close of tlie season they are 
generally indebted to the Company 
above half a million sterling, and 
have, besides, property in their hands 
belonging to the Company and other 
British subjects, the aggregate of 
which has been estimated at two 
niillions sterling. 

The whole establishment of the 
Ikist India Company here consists 
of 12 supercargoes and eight writere. 
The latter have a small annual allow- 
ance and a free table ; and they suc- 
ceed i» rotation to the situations of 
the former, who have also, a free 
table, and annually divide among 
themselves, in shares proportioned to 
tlieir seniority, a sum seldom falling 
short of 80,0001. sterling. This arises 
from a per centage on the import and 
export .cargoes, producing to the 
chief, ou au average, 86001. per an- 
num; and, to the first, second, and 
tiiird nienjl>€rs of tlie select commit- 



tee, above 71001. The senior super- 
cargo has ahout 60001. per annum, 
and the juniors in proportion declin- 
ing on a graduated scale; but none 
of the supercargoes have less than 
15001. per anniun. Having an addi- 
tion to this, the accommodation of a 
free house and table, they may b« 
considered as the best paiil service 
in the world. The services to b« 
performed for this liberal remunera- 
tion consist in a residence for throe 
or foiH" months every year at Can- 
ton, during the season of intercourse 
with the hong, or security merchant, 
to whom they deliver the imported 
goods, and receive the teas and other 
return produce. AVheu the business 
of the season is fini.shed, the ships 
laden and dispatched (o England, 
they retire to Macao for the rest of 
the >ear, where they remain until 
the opening of the ensuing season. 
Here they have very Httle tb do, and 
are cooped up within a space not 
exceeding two or three miles, with 
scarcely any .society but what is 
formed among themselves. 

Tlic external commerce of Canton 
is verj' considerable, and the articles 
of export numerous ; but their com- 
parative importance is almost ab- 
sorbed in that of tea. The imports 
are more miscellaneous. From Bom- 
bay and the Alalabar coast they con- 
sist chiefly of cotton, pepper, sandal 
wood, putchick, sharks' fins, oliba- 
num, elephants' teeth, rhinoceros* 
horns, pearlr,, cornelians, and beads. 
From the countries adjacent, to th»« 
straits of Malacca, tin, pepper, betel 
nut, rattans, sea swallo, (biche de 
mar) and bird nests are imported. 
The principal articles imported to 
Canton by the Ea.'^t India Company 
arc cloths, long ells, camblets, lead, 
and tin. In 1808-9, the value of 
woollens iinpoi ted at Canton by th« 
East India Company was 877,5691, ; 
the total \alue of all their imports, 
1,095,3171. sterHng. Li 1786, th« 
imports of woollens amounted to only 
202,02.31. Prior to the commutation 
act, in 1784, tlie imports of that ar- 
ticle were Small and 'extremely diffi- 
- 4 



CANTON. 

cult to sell. The proLily, punctu- about 60,000 bales. Opium is pro* 

ality, and credit of the East India hibited by the Chinese government, 

Company and their agents js known yet above 2000 chests are annually 

to be such by the Chinese, that their imported, the avertige Kale- price 

^oods are taken away as to quantity being about 1200 dollars per chest. 

and quahty for what they are declared The imports from the East'jrii Archi- 

iu the invoice, and the bales with pelago are various, gold is the most 

their mark pass in trade, without ex- material, but it is impossible cor- 

amination, through many hands and rectly to estimate the qnaritity. The 

an immense extent of coimtry, and imports of merchandize from foreign 

arc never opened until they reach Europe and from America are, in 

the shop of the person who sells for many respects, siniiiar to those from 

actual consumption. The (luanlity England, but small in quantify, bul- 

of British tin imported by the East lion being depended on for the pnr- 

India Company varies, but may be chase of the homeward bound "cargo, 

averaged at 300 tons annually ; the Of this article the average import 

Chinese, for many uses, prefer tlic from America amounted to half a 

Banca tin, which they assert is more million annually, and about 100,0001. 

malleable. The other articles im- in goods. 

ported from England as private trade The principal exports from Cantoa 
by the officers and commanders of are tea, cliina ware, gold in bajs, 
the Company's ships are lead, skins sugar, sugar candy, rhubarb, china 
and furs, cochineal, window glass, root, snake root, sarsaparilia, leather, 
clocks, watches, the latter varying tuteuague, japan copper, varnished 
from 40s. a pair to the highest cost, and lacquered ware, drugs, leaf gold. 
To suit the Chinese taste they nmst utensils made of white and red cop- 
be sold in j)airs. The other articles per, cast iron, silk raw and wrought, 
are small quantities of cutlery, hard- thread, nankeens, mothcr-ot-pearl, 
ware, looking glass, and coral; the gamboge, quicksilver, allum, dam- 
whole private trade being estimated mer, red lead, vermilion, furniture, 
at 220,0001. per annum. toys, and a great variety of drugs. 

The imports from British India are In 1809-10 the cost and charges 

very considerable, but are liable to on the goods exported from Canton 

imich fluctuation in quantity. In by the East India Company amount- 

1805 the total imports from the Bri- ed to 2,378,8831. sterling, arid sold 

tish possessions in India amounted in England for 3,723,1161. The sale 

to 15,060,577 rupees, consisting of amount of goods exported by the 

Cotton ------ 9,452,619 commanders and officers in private 

Opium - 3,284,570 trade amounted to 353,4181; The 

Piece goods - - - - 470,661 quantity of tea sold at the East In- 

Pearls ------ 422.987 dia Company's sales in 1810 was 

Saltpetre ----- 287,000 24,540,923 pounds,the duty on which 

Sandalwood- - - - 275,674 was 3,548,8601. In 1806-7 the quan- 

Shark fins ----- 251,223 tity of tea shipped at Canton on 

Craitt ------ 156,500 board English ships amomited to 

32,683,066 libs. 

Sicca rupees 14,606,724 On board of two unknown 

ships 1,534,267 

The remainder was made up of In 1806 on boaid of Ame- 

articles of smaller amount and value. rican ships - - - - 9,644,667 

Until 1802 the cotton was received • 

entirely fiom Bombay, but since tliat Total 43,862,000 

period Bengal has- supplied a con- — — 

siderable proportion, the whole an- In 1807 there was shipped o;i 

miiii imj^oit, ou au average, b^ing boa^d of Amoricaxi sliips £i-oui Caa* 



CANtOY. 239 

♦on 7,730,933 libs. In 1810-11 there lapidaries cut diamonds, and Heir 

was no tea sliip[)ed tioai Canton on artists are extreiuely expert in imi- 

board either foreign or American tatinj;; European works. They mend 

ships ; on board of British shipa and e\en make watches, copy paint- 

27,lG3,0fi6 pounds. The price of the ings and colour drawings witli great 

East India Conipaijy's teas has con- success. They also make coarse silk 

tinned nearly stationary for above 40 stockings, and have beoj long celo- 

ycars. Nankeens are made of Chi- brated for their toys, known by tli« 

nese cotton in a particular province, names of balanceis and tujnblers. 

and are exclusively a Chinese ma- They generally assay their gold hero 

inifactnre. The new teas seldom with touch needles, by which it is 

reach Canton, fiom the interior, be- said t])ey can detect so snial! a djf- 

fore tJie month of November. fereuce as l-20Qth part of the ini.v- 

In 1805 the total exports to tlie ture. 
British possessions in India amount- Provisions and refreshments of all 

cd to sicca rupees 12,G7G,51 9, con- sorts arc abundant at Canton, and, 

listing of in general, of an excellent quality, 

Bullion ----- 8,181,815 nor is the price exorbitant. Every 

Piece goods - - - - 699,142 deseiiption of them, dead or alive, is 

Sugar and sugar candy 957,048 sold by weight. It is a curious fact, 

Tntenague - - - - 692,431 that the Chinese make no use of 

Camphor ----- 361,703 milk, either in its liquid state, or ia 

Tea ------ 301,398 -the shape of curds, butler, or cheese. 

Raw silk ----- 207,743 Among the delicacies of a Chinese 

Nankeens - - - - 200,295 market are to be seen horse flesii, 

China ware - - - - 110,637 dogs, cats, hawks, and owls. The 

country is well supplied with tis!i 

from the canals and numberless 

The remainder was composed of rivers that intersect the country, and 

Tarious articles of smaller value and the inhabitants breed also great mim- 

amount. The Chinese make a spe- bers of gold and silver fish, wliich are 

cies of paper from the bamboo, which kept in large stock ponds, as well as 

is an article of export. in glass and china vases. 

Ihe Russians are excluded from The lower orders of Chinese, who 

the sea-ports of China, because a engage as servants to Emopcaus at 

trade is carried on with tlicm on the Canton, jue extremely ready iu ac- 

frontiers of Siberia at Kiateha, and quiring a smattering of the English 

the Chinese do not admit of two language, and fertile in inventions 

places of trade with the same nation, for making tliemselves intclligibio to 

The glass, beads, and buttons, of their employers. All the business at 

various shapes and colours, worn by Canton with Europeans is transacted 

persons of rank in China, are chiefly ia a jargon of the English language, 

made at Venice ; and this is among The sounds of such letters as R, D. 

the remnants of the great and al- R, and X, are utterly unknown in 

most exclusive trade which the Ve- China. Instead of these they sul^^ 

iictians canied on with the east, stitute some other letter, such as Lt 

The inhabitants of China make great for R, which occasions a Chinese 

use of spectacles wliieh are made at dealer in rice to olFer for sale in Eng- 

Canton, but the artists do not seem lish a very unmarkttabie commodity, 

to understand any principle of op- The common Chinese sahitaticm is 

tics, so as to form the eye glasses of " hou, poo hou," the literal meaning 

such convexities or concavities as to of which is, " well, not well. Tlic 

rectify tlie various defects of vision, name mandarin is unknown among 

but leave their customers to find out tlie Chinese, Cuehin Chinese, and 

what suits tUeiB b«3t. The Cauton Tunquiucse, the word wsed by all 



240 



CAP AND BUTTON ISLES. 



these nalions for a per,son in anlho- 
rity being quaii. Maiidaiiu is a Por- 
tuguese Avord derived from the verb 
mandar, to conimaiid. No correct 
estimate of the population of Canton 
has ever been formed, but it is known 
to be very great. 

The intercourse between Europe 
and China, by the way of the Cape 
of Good Hope, began in tlic year 
1517, when Emanuel, King of Por- 
tugal, sent a fleet of eight ships to 
Cliina with an ambassador, who was 
conveyed to Pekin, and obtained 
permission to establish a trade at 
Canton. About 1G34 some ships 
from England visited Canton, but 
made a most inauspicious com- 
mencement, as a rupture and battle 
immediately took place ; but peace 
was afterwards restored, the misun- 
derstanding bei g attributed to the 
treachery of the Poitugnese. In 
16G7 the Court of Directors in their 
lotter to the agent at Eantam in Java 
desire him, " to send home by these 
ships 100 pounds of the best tcy 
(tea) that you can get ;" but the first 
importation of tea is supposed to 
have taken place in 1G69, when two 
canisters, containing 143f i)0unds, 
were received by the way of Bantam, 
as it does not appear any direct in- 
tercourse then existed with China. 
In the year 1G78 tiie Company im- 
ported 4713 pounds of tea, but so 
large a quantity seems to have glut- 
ted the market, for the imports of 
tea for six subsequent years amount- 
ed in all to 410 pounds, purchased 
generally at Surat or Madras. In 
1680 we find the first notice of a 
ship sent direct by the East India 
Comptny to Cliina. In 1700 ther*? 
were three ports open for the recep- 
tion of English vessels, viz. Limpo, 
Canton, and Amoy. 

Since that period the commerce 
with Canton has progressively in- 
creased, although it has occasionally 
met wich accidental intenuptions; 
as in 1734 and 1801 when two Chi- 
nese were killed by shot from Bri- 
tish vessels. The most recent dif- 
ference took place in 1806, when au 



expedition ha\ing been sent from 
Bengal to garrison iYlaeao with Bri- 
tish troops, the trade was stopped, 
but the troops being subsequently 
withdrawn, an amicable arrangement 
took place, and the trade resmued 
its usual course. 

Tchieu-Lung, the old Emperor of 
China, resigned his throne to liis 
15tli son, the present sovereign Kea- 
King, in February, 1796, having com- 
pleted a reign of 60 years. He died 
in February, 1799, aged 89 years. 
Since the accession of the present 
monarch the reins of government 
appear to have been considerably re- 
laxed, as insurrections have been 
frequent, anil some of them at no 
great distance from Canton. Al- 
though, in general, there are a much 
greater number of troops quartered 
throughout the province of Canton 
llian in any other, a precaution ne- 
cessary on account of the great in- 
flux of foreigners to the port. The 
sea coast has also been so much in- 
fested by pirates as to threaten the 
extinction of the Chinese coasting 
and foreign trade in their own ves- 
sels. {Staunton, Harrow, Milhw'n, 
Elmore, Johnson, Macphcrson, Quar- 
terli/ Review, ^c.) 

Canyapura, {the Town of the Vir- 
gin). — A small town, containing 
about 200 houses, in tlie district of 
South Canara, situated on the south 
banks of a river which surrounds the 
town and fort of Cimily. Lat. 12°. 
34'. N. I,ong. 7.'>''. 4'. E. The inha- 
bitants are chiefly Moplays, Mucuas, 
JVIogajers, and Coucanies. {F. Bu- 
chanan, 4'i'.) 

Cap and Button Isles. — ^Two 
small isles in the Stiaits of Sunda, 
the first lying in lat. 6°. .58'. S. Long. 
105°. 48'. E. ; the second in lat, 5°. 
49°. S. Long. 105°. 48'. E. They 
appear to have been originated by a 
subaqueous volcano. 

In the Cap are two caverns nin- 
ning liorirontally into the side of the 
rock, and in these are found a num- 
ber of the bird nest? so mu(;h prized 
by the Chinese. Thej^ seem to be 
composed «f £ue filaments, cement- 



CARIMATA. 



*'xi toEjelhci- by 1rans|)aicnt viscous 
Inall* r, not unlike \\ hat is hit hy the 
tbaiu of the sea upon stones alter- 
nately eoveied with the tide, oi- those 
!;('latinous animal substanees found 
lloating; on every coast. The birds 
that build these nests are small p^rey 
sv. allows, AVith bellies of a dirty 
white. They are veiy small, and so 
r|uick of flight, as to be shot with 
difficulty. 'J he same nests are said 
to be tbund in deep caverns, at the 
foot of the highest mountains iu tlic 
middle ot" Java, at a great distance 
from the sea, from which, it is 
thouglil, the birds derive no mate- 
rials, either for their food or the 
construetiou of their nests. They 
feed on insects which they find hover- 
ing over stagnated pools Ijctween the 
mountains, and it is supposed they 
.prepare their nests from the rem- 
nants of their food. 

The nests are placed in horizontal 
rows, at different depths, from .50 to 
500 feet. Their value is chiefly de- 
termined by the unifoim fineness and 
delicacy of their texture, those that 
are white and transparent being most 
esteemed, and often selling in China 
for their weight in silver. The birds 
having spent two n)onths in prepar- 
ing their nests, lay each two eggs, 
which arc hatched in about 15 days. 
When the birds become fledged their 
iiests arc seized, v\ hich is dojie re- 
gularly thrice a year, with the assist- 
ance of bamboo and rope ladders. 
These nests are an object of con- 
siderable traffic among the Javanese, 
but it does not appear that the sw al- 
loAVs frequent the southern extremity 
of Sumatra. 

A good birds' nest is about the 
size of a small china cup, almost as 
white as writing ])aper. and as trans- 
parent as isinglass, with a a cry few 
downy feathers hanging about it. 
The common l)lack nests are more 
plentiful, and may be had any where 
to the eastward, but they are full of 
featheis and dirt. 'I'iic thickness of 
the nests is about that of a silver 
spoon, and their weight, when dry 
and brittle, fVoni a quaj tcr to half 



241 

(Staunton, Elmore, Sfc. 



an ounce. 

.3-c.j 

Capaluan. — A small island, one 
of the Philiippines, lying due south 
of the Island of Jjuzon, distant four 
miles, Lat. 1.3° 50'. N. In length it 
may be estimated at 14 miles, by 
ti\e the average breadth. 

Caramnassa, (Carina nasa, the 
destruction of pious ivorks). — A small 
Minding river, which separates the 
province of Bahar horn that of Be- 
nares. 

By an ancient text the Hindoos 
were ibrbidden even to touch the 
waters of the Caramnassa, but the 
inhabitants on its banks claim an 
exemption which is admitted by the 
other Hindoos, although their aver- 
sion to the Caramnassa continues as 
great as ever. By the contact alone 
of its baneful waters, pilgrims sup- 
pose they lose the fruit and efficacy 
of their religious austerities and pil- 
grimages, and they always cross it 
with the utmost caution. Major 
Rennel thinks it is the Commenasses 
of Arian. 

Oji crossing this river on service 
fiom Bahar, the Bengal officers re- 
ceive an additional pay, to enable 
them to defray the increased ex- 
penses they are subjected to in the 
upper provinces. {Wilford, Foster^ 

Caranja.— A small island ia the 
harbour of Bombay, nanjed by the 
natives Uran. 

Carci LLA. — An open town in the 
province of South Canara, contain- 
ing aboAC 200 houses. Lat. 13°. 12'. 
N. Long. 75°. 4'. E. Near this place 
are the ruins of the palace of the 
Byrasu wodears (chiefs), the most 
pow erful of the former Jain Rajahs 
of Tulava, or Soutli Canara. (F, 
Buchanan, ^t.) 

Carimata. — A small island, about 
30 miles in circumference, lying off 
the west coast of Borneo, betwixt 
the first and second degrees of south 
latitude. This island is high and 
woody, with a peak in the middh;, 
which is generally cloud capped. It 
is inhabited. 



242 



CARNATIC. 



Carimon Java. — An island about 
20 miles in circuinfcTcuce, in the 
Java sea, suiTonnded by a cluster of 
smaller ones. Lat. 5°. 4.V. S. Long". 
110°. 15'. K. The mi;Idl(> one is of 
considerable size, and as ^vcil as the 
smaller ones that encompass it, is 
covered with wood. 

Carawang. — A distriet on the 
north-west coast of ihe island of 
Java, adjacent to Batavia. 

Carli. — Some reniari<.able caverns 
in the province of Auriingabad, si- 
ti'.ated Oj)positc to the !brt of Log- 
hur, from which they are distant 
about four miles, and 30 miles N. W. 
liom Poonah. 

The chain of hills here nuis cast 
and west, but the one in which the 
caves are protrudes from tiiem at 
right angles. The chief cave fronts 
clue west. Here are an extensive 
line of caverns, the principal of which 
consists of a vestibule of an oblong 
square shape, divided from the tem- 
ple itself, which is arched and siip- 
ported by pillars. The length of Uie 
■whole is 126 feet, the breadth 40 
feet. No figures of the deity arc to 
be found within the pagoda, but the 
walls of the vestiijule are covered 
■with carvings in alto relievo of ele- 
phants, of human figures of both 
sexes, and of Euddha, who is re- 
presented in some places silting cross 
legged, and in others erect. There 
are numerous inscriptions on the 
Avails. The ribs of the roof arc tim- 
ber, and cannot be supposed of equal 
age ^^ith the excavation, und are 
difficult to be accounted fo.'-, the 
worsi)ip of Buddha having been so 
long superseded by the Brahminical 
religion. 

A line of caves extends about loO 
yards to the north of the gretit one. 
These are flat roofed, and of a square 
form, and probably were occupied 
by the attendants on the temi)le. In 
the last is a (igurc- of Huddlia. The 
Carli caves are said to be GCOO feel 
above the !e\el of the sea. 

'J''hc diifeierK c between the ca- 
verns of Elcphanla and Carli are 
striking. Here are no persouiiica.- 



tions of the deity, and no scparatft 
cells for sacred rites. The religious 
opinions which consecrated them are 
no less different, Ibe first haviug been 
dedicated to the deities of the Brah- 
minical sect, and the last to those of 
the Buddhists, or of the Jains. (Lord 
VaJentia, 31. Giakam, ^c) 

Carmulla, {Cariinalln). — A town 
in the territories of the Poonah Ma- 
harattas, in the province of Aurun- 
galiad, 100 miles E. from I'oonali. 
Lat. 18°. 23'. N. Long. 75°. 32'. E.- 
This is a consideralde town, w itli a 
stone fort, which has a double wall, 
and a ditch between them ; a long 
ditch also surnnuuls the outer Avail. 
{Upton, \-c.) 

Cakxaprayaga. — A village in 
northern llindostan, in the province 
of Seiinagur, situated at the con- 
fhu-nec of the Alacanaiida Avitli the 
Pindar River, which comes from the 
S. I-:. Lat. 30°. 17'. N. Long. 79°. 
15°. E. This is one of the five pra- 
yagas, or holy places, mentioned in 
the Shnstras, and considered as the 
third in point of consequence. I'he 
village consists only of six or eight 
houses, Avith a math, or shrine, in 
A\hich is placed the image of Kaja 
Carna. {Rapcr, kc.) 



CARXATIC, {Carnata). 

The large province, denominated 
the Carnatic by Europeans, compre- 
hends the former dominions and de- 
pendencies of the Nabob of Arcot, 
and extends from the 8th to the 16th 
degrees of north latitude. 'I'he north- 
ern boundary connnences at the 
southern limits of the Guntoor cir- 
C;;r, defined by the small River Gun- 
dezama, which falls into the sea at 
j\!oiitapiliy. From hence if stretches 
soiitli to Cape Coinorin, a distance 
of about 560 miles in length, but of 
an unequal brea<lth, the averags 
being about 75 miles. 

The region south of tlic River 
Coteroon is called the Southern Car- 
natic, and AAas rather tributary to 
the Nabobs of Arcot than a real pos- 



CARNATiC. 



243 



Sl^ssion. Prior to the British sove- 
VciiViify it was occiipird by iinmher- 
Jt\ss nijalis, polygars, and (ithcr putty 
rliiol's. and subdivided into the dis- 
tricts of Timievelly, Madiria, :VIa- 
rawas, tiie polygar's teniloiy, part 
of 'rrichiiiopoly and 'I'anjoro ; the 
piiiicipal towns being" Tan joro, 'IVi- 
rliinop(»ly, iMadnra/lVanqucbar, Ne- 
gapatam, and 'Jiiincveily. 

The central Carnatic extends from 
tiie Coleroou to tlie Ri\er Pennar, 
and contained the remainder of Tri- 
chino])oiy, "\ olconda, Paianicotia, 
Gingee, Wandewash, Conjee, > el- 
lore, Chingleput. Chandf^herry, Ser- 
damilly, and part of Nelloor; the 
chief towns being- Madras, Pondi- 
cherry, Arcot, VS^allajahbad, A^el- 
lore, Cuddalorc, Ging^ee, Pnllicat, 
Chandgherry, and Nelloor. 

The Northern Carnatic extended 
from the Rixer Pennar to the Hiver 
Gundi'zama and the Gnntoor circar, 
and included the remainder of Nel- 
loor, Ongole, and some smaller dis- 
tricts ; the chief tow ns being On- 
j^ole, Carwaree, and Samgaum. This 
last region in ancient Hindoo limes 
was termed Andhra, and reached to 
the Godavery. The sovereigns were 
called Andhras about the begiiniing 
of the Christian era, at which time 
the Andhra, or Andara; kings, were 
Very powerful in India. 

'I'he pr!nci|)al rivers are the Pcn- 
Jiar, the J'alar, the Cavery, and the 
Vaggaroo, all of which have their 
sources in the table land above the 
Ghauts. The vast height of these 
mountains, and their great extent, 
not only fix the boundaries of the 
two Carnatics above and below the 
Ghauts, but by stopping tlie course 
of tlie winds likewise divide the 
seasons. 

The climate of tlie Camatic may 
be considered as one of the hottest 
in India, although somewhat reliev- 
ed on the sea coast by llie pri^va- 
lencc of the land and sea .breezes. 
It is common in May, June, and 
July, to have occasional showers, 
and at some periods of that time to 
have even three or four days heavy 

R 3 



rain, which rools the air, and ena- 
bles tlie (uiltivation for dry grains to 
take place. The weather in July, 
though iiot, is cloudy, with strong 
winds from the west. 

In the j^reater proportion of the 
Carnatic the soil is sandy, and water 
being scarce, much exertion is re- 
quired to procure it. In such dis- 
tricts as have not the advantage of 
being watered by considerable rivers, 
or in parts where the water cannot 
be convex ed from them to tie adja- 
cent ti'-lds, t;<iiks are made, wliieh 
being lilled during the periodical 
rains, furnish water for the rice fields, 
and for the cattle in the dry season. 
Some of these are of gi'eat extent, 
and were originally made by enclos- 
ing deep and low situations \\ ith a 
strong mound of earth. Others of 
less magnitude for the use of tem- 
ples, towns, or gardens, are of a 
quadrangular form, lined vvith stone, 
and descending inregular steps from 
the margin to tlie bottom. 

In the towns, as well as the vil- 
lages, and along some of the prin- 
cipal high roads, are choultries, in 
the native language called chauvadi, 
from which probaldy the English 
term choultry is derived. These 
public buildings, for the reception of 
travellers, have been erected and 
endowed by the magnificence of the 
prince, the generosity of some rich 
individual, or not uncommonly in 
consequence of some pious vow. A 
Brahmin resides near, who furnishes 
the traveller vvith food and a mat to 
lie on ; and contiguous is a tank, or 
well, for the pilgrims to perform 
tJieir ablutions. Every where, with- 
in 40 or 60 miles of Madras, such 
useful buildings are very common, 
and have been erected and endowed 
by rich native merchants of that city. 

The only trees that grow sponta- 
neously on the baiTcn parts of the 
Carnatic are, the melea azadirachta, 
and the robinia mitis, the last of 
which ilourishes both on the arid hills 
of the Carnatic, and on the muddy 
hanks of the Ganges. Very little of 
the soil betwixt Ori Permalairu and 



2J4 



CAllNATJC. 



Vira Pennal Pillays Choultry will, at on wltirh they nre j)iaocd will for 
tlie usual rent repay tUe expense of ever remain, and point out their 
tullivatioii, and in the present state former site. Villages and towns in 
of the population it won Id not be an open eonntry are bul a daj in 
expedient to let it at low rents, as duration, eoinjiaied with fortresses, 
by thai means useful labourers miscld especially w hen the latter derive any 
be taken from more valuable laisds, portion of their strength for their 
The only gxxxl water in this neigh- natural situation, 
bourhood is preserved in tanks ; that The great mass of the popidation 
which is fouutPin wells is cilled salt in Ihis extensive proviiic<> profess the 
by the natives, although the qnan- Hindoo religion of the Brahminical 
lity of umriat of soda contauied in persuasion, the Mahommedans being 
it is very snialL Famines and searci- buttliinly scattered over the country, 
tics are nnich more fri-cpient in the except at the nabob's court, and a 
Carnatic and south of India, than in few olher places. In 1785 there 
the Bengal proA inces. A\ere reckoned to be about 20,000 

In lill those districts of the Car- native Christians of tlie Konian Ca- 
jiiatic, into ivhich the permanent sys- tholic sect ; and the Christians of all 
tern of revenue assessments has been descriptions probably amount, at pre- 
introduced, the eonditfbn of tliecnl- sent, to double that number. The 
tivators has been improved; because, population of tlie Carnatic, in its 
although the assessment Mas ori- most extensive sense, may be esti- 
ginally tixed at one half of the pro- mated at live millions of souls. They 
duce, in the eoinsc of time, by im- are considered inferior in bodily 
provcmcnts, the half is reduced to strength to the Kajpoots, and other 
one tliird, one fourth, ;uid even to a natives of Iliiidostan Proper, 
liilh part of the actual produce. The greater part of the llralnnins 

There are few countries that can tlnonghout the Lower Carnatic fol- 
rxhibit so many large temples, and low secular professions. They al- 
other public monuments of wealth most entirely till the dilfercnt offices 
and civilization, as the Carnatic ; al- in the collection of the revenue and 
most all the pagodas aie built of the administration of justice, and they 
same fbrni. A large area, which is are, exclusively, employed as mes- 
commonly a square, is enclosed by scngcrs and keepers of choultries, 
a wall 16 or 20 Icct high, and in the Much of the land is rented by 
middle of the area are the temples, them, but, like the Jews, they sel- 
■vvhich, as if intended to^be con- dom put their hand to actual labour, 
cealcd from public view, are never and on no account will they hold 
raised above the height of the sur- the [)lough. Their farms are chiefly 
rounding wall. In the middle of cultivated by slaves of the inferior 
one or more of the .sides of this wall castes called Sudras, ami Punehum 
is a gateway, over which is built a Eu; dum. Ihese last are by fai- the 
high tower, not designed as a de- must la()orious people of the country, 
fence of the pagoda, but as a iiisto- but (he greater part of them aro 
rical monument of the gods to whom slaves. So sensible was Hyder of 
it is dedicated, representing the at- tlieir value, that, during his incur- 
tributcs and adventures of tliese di- sions, this was the caste he princi- 
vinities. j)a!ly endeavoiu-ed to carry away, 

'i'herc were an astonishing num- 'i'hcre are a few Mahonnnedan larm- 
bcr of forts -and fotrresses formerly ers who possess slaves, but the most 
in the Carnatic, niOitly built of a nuineroys class of fanners is eom- 
Kcpi are form. Tfuy.ure now, in eon- posed of Sudras. Some of these pos- 
xecj.icnce of t'i<. -jng internal trim- sess slaves, but many of them culti- 
qniility, rapidij going to d'-ca) ; but vate their tUrjns with their own 
the natural straigth of. the situations hands. 



CARN'ATIC. 



245 



Tliiotigliout lliis ])roviuco tlio ass 
is a very louuniiii animal. 'TIic breed 
is siiiall, as in Ilciij:;al, hut llicn; is 
an uiuuiumon variety ol" colt)ur 
aiuoiif;- them. Some arc ot'tho usual 
ash colour, while others are almost 
))laek, in Avhieh case the cross on 
their shouhler disappears. The} are 
kept by five classes oC pertple, who 
are all of low castes, the hijjher 
ranks dis(lainin<^ the use of so im- 
pure an animal. One ol" these is a 
Mretched caste, named Chensu Ca- 
rir, wlio are described as having; 
neither house nor cultivation. One 
common article of their food is the 
white ant, or termes. They travel 
from place to place, couvejing their 
rhildien and bagr,a>re on asses. — 
Every man has also a cow, instructed 
like a stalking horse, by means of 
vvliich he approaches game, and 
shoots it with arrow s. 

The most numerous class of Brah- 
mins (comprehending- one half of all 
the Bralunins in the Lower Car- 
natic) is named the Smartal sect, 
who are votaries of Mahadua ov 
Siva, and followers of Sankara 
Aehanya. Throughout both Carna- 
tics, except at Madras, the Brah- 
mins appropriate to themselves a par- 
ticular quaricr of every town, and 
generally that which is best fortified. 
A Sudra is not permitted to dw. 11 in 
the same street with a Brahmin, 
while he exacts the same deference 
from the Whalliaru or Pariar, and 
otlicr low castes. These pco}»le ge- 
nerally live in wretched huts about 
the suburbs. 

Ill both the Upper and Lower 
Carnalies taking siniff is imich more 
common than in Bengal ; smoking, 
on the contrary, is in great disrc|)nte. 
The liookah is totally unknown, 
except among Mahommedans. The 
lower classes smoke cigars, but a 
Brahmin would lose caste by such 
a practice; and it is eonsidered un- 
becoming even among the richer 
part of the Sudra tribe. 

Throughout tlu; southern parts of 
India fowls are a common article of 
diet with the lower castes, whereas 



in Begal their use is confined en- 
tirely to iMahommedans. In Bengal 
ducks and geese are commonly used 
by the Hindoos, but in the south of 
India these birds are not at all do- 
mesticated, except by Europeans. 

Notwithstanding the great resort 
of Europeans, and other foreigners 
to the Carnatic, the genuine Hindoo 
maimers are retained by the great 
majoiity in wonderful purity. If any 
person, leaving Madras, goes to the 
nearest Hindoo village, not a mile into 
the country, he is as much removed 
from i'luropean manners and cus- 
toms, as if he were in the centre of 
Ilindostan. 

From that part of the Carnatic 
situated between the Hivei-s Palar 
and Coleroon, tlie articles of pro- 
duce or manufactures exported to 
INIadras are chielly piece goods, con- 
sisting mostly of blue clotlis, salam- 
pores, coarse chintzes, i<c. the blue 
cloths arc again re-exported, as are 
many of the other coloured goods, 
to the eastern markets. Among tin; 
other articles sent from this quarter 
to IVladras, arc ruin, indigo, grain, 
and numerous smaller commodities. 
The imports from Madras are very 
inconsidirable. 

The first irruption of the Mahom- 
medans into the Carnatic was in 
A. D. 1310, during the reign of 
Allah ud Deen on the Delhi throne, 
when they defeated Belal Deo, the 
Hindoo sovereign. After this pe- 
riod occasional tribute was paid to 
til ■ Deccany so\creigns, and subse- 
quently to i\\Q Mogul emperors, but 
actual possession does not appear 
to have been taken until towards 
the conclusion of Aurengzeljc's 
reign, in the commencement of the 
18lh century. In the year 1717, 
Nizam ul Mulk obtained possession 
of the Mogul conquests in tlic Dec- 
can and south of India, which from 
that period ceased to form part of 
th(i empire. 

In 1743 Anwar ud Deen was ap- 
pointed Nabob of Uie Carnatic and 
Arcot by Nizam ul Muik, tin; Sou- 
bahdar of tlie Deecan ; and, in 17o-l, 



346 CARNOUL. 

after severe contests betwixt the dif- 
ferent claimants, aided by the French 
and English East India Companies, 
his son, Mahommcd Aii, was left in 
possession of that portion of the 
Carnatic recovered for him by the 
British arms. In 1763 it was again 
sunend(^red to the Nabob Mabom- 
med Ali, after being wrested from the 
French, the contest having, in all, 
lasted 15 years ; in 1783 the British 
had again to reconquer it from Hy- 
der Ah. 

Mahommed Ali died the 13th of 
October, 1795, and was succeed- 
ed by his son, Omdut ul Onira, who 
died the 15th of July, 1801, when 
Azim ul Amrah was raised to the 
throne. 

In 1801, the whole of the posses- 
sions of the Nabob of Arcot, situ- 
ated in the Carnatic, with the ex- 
ception of a small portion reserved 
by him as the household lands of 
himself and family, w ere transferred 
to the Company by treaty. Of the 
lands situated in the southern divi- 
sion of the Carnatic, consisting of 
the Tincvelly and Manapara Pol- 
lams, and the two niarawars, Ran- 
nad and Shevagunga, and of those 
situated to the westward, called the 
Western Pollams, the Company had 
collected the tribute since 1792. In 
1795, the Pollams of Karnnad came 
directly under the charge and ma- 
nagement of the Company. 'I'he 
remaining part oi" the Carnatic ter- 
ritories, acquired by the treaty of 
1801, consisted of the districts of 
Palnaud, Nelloor, Angole, the pro- 
vince of Arcot, the Pollams of Chit- 
toor, and the districts of Sativaid, 
Tinevelly, and Madura. 

By the treaty, the nabob reserved 
to himself a clear revenue of from 
two to three lacks of pagodas an- 
imally, nnineinnbered by any charge, 
the British government undertaki);g 
to support a suHicieut civil and mi- 
litary force for the protection of the 
country, and colie* tion of the reve- 
nue. A liberal establishment was 
als<^) provided for the other branches 
of the fanii ly of Mahomiued A li Klian, 



Alter this event the country was 
subdivided into the following eol- 
lectorships, which comprehend also 
a few districts from the Upper Car- 
natic, viz. 

1. Nelloor and Ongole, including 
part of the western pollams, or ze- 
mindaries. 

2. The northern division of Arcot, 
including Sativaid, Pullicat, Coon- 
goody in the Barramahal, part of 
Balaghaut, and the western pol- 
lams, or zemiiidaries. 

3. Chingleput, or the Jaghire. 

4. The soutliern division of Arcot, 
includingCudalorc and Pondichcrry. 

5. Triehinopoly. 

6. Tanjore. 

7. Dindigul, including Madura, 
Manapara pollams, Ramnad, and 
Shevagunga, partly in the Carnatic, 
and partly in Mysore. 

8. Tinevelly, in the Southern Car- 
natic. 

{F. Bvchatian, 5th Report, T, 
Munro, MaJcohn, J. Grant, Rennel, 
Wilford, Fra. Paolo, ^c.) 

Carnoul, {Candannr). — A district 
in the Balaghaut ceded districts, ex- 
tending along the south side of the 
Toonibuddra River, and situated be- 
twixt the 15th and 16th degrees of 
north latitude. When ceded to the 
British by the Nizam in 1800, it was 
in a very desolate state, on account 
of the ravages it had sustained, but 
its condition has been since greatly 
ameliorated. The chief town is Car- 
noul. 

Carnoul, — A town in the Bala- 
ghaut ceded districts, situated ou 
the south side of the Toonibuddra 
River. Lat. 15°. 50'. N. Long. 77° 
58'. E. 

In 1752 this Avas the capital of a 
petty Patan sovereignty, w hieh had 
never been completely sul)dued by 
the Miigul dynasty. It was then 
taken by the Nizam Saiabut Jung, 
through the assistance of M. Bassy's 
army, and its ganison of 4000 Pa- 
tans cut to pieces. It is still the re- 
sidence and jaghire of a Patan chief, 
Mho is tributary to the Company, 
whose northern boundary in tliis 



CARRIANERS. 



247 



qiiartor is the Tooinbuddra, which 
joins <hc Krislina, a il'w miles be- 
low Cariioul. 

TiaNollinp: distance from Hydera- 
bad 127 miles S. S. W. fVoin Ma- 
dras, 279; and from Seringapalam, 
279 miles. {Orme, 5th Report, Rtu- 
nel, Sf-c.) 

Carnoul. — A town in the pro- 
vince of Rahar, district of Hajy- 
poor, 60 miles N.froni Patiia, Lat. 
26°. 16'. N, l.on<r. 85°. E. 

Cakoor. — A town in the south of 
India, in the district of South Coim- 
betoor, 42 miles W . from the ttiw n 
of Trichinopoly, Lat. 10°. 55'. N. 
Lono;. 78°. 12'." E. Tliis town is si- 
tuated on the U(>rth bank of the 
Amarawati. or Caroor River, and 
contains abo^e 1000 houses. At a 
little distance from the town is a neat 
fort, ^\ith a large tenii)le, and a gar- 
rison of sepoys. Tlie supply of wa- 
ter in the Amarawati does not last 
the whole year, so that in some 
seasons there is only one crop of 
rice. Near the river the rice grounds 
are extensive, and fully cultivated. 

The river of Caroor was the an- 
cient boundary between the domi- 
nions of Mysore and Trichinopoly, 
and this conterminal situation, un- 
der the security of a strong Ibrt, and 
its rule over a rich and extensive 
district, had I'ormerly rendered it a 
place of great mercantile resort and 
opulence. This place was taken in 
1760, during the Carnatie wars, by 
Captain Richard Sniilh, from'JVichi- 
noi)oly, and probably before this 
event no Isuropcan troops had ad- 
vanced so far west inland. 

Caruak. — A town in the province 
of Bejapoor, district of Mortizabad, 
situalecl on the south side of the Ri- 
Acr Krishna. Lat. 17°. 25'. N. J^ong. 
74°. 15'. E. 

This is a considerable town, being 
a mile in length, and nearly as nnieli 
in breadth, \\r\\ iulialiited, and with 
a good market. Nearly in the « entre 
of the town are two pagodas of great 
height and elegant workmanship. 
There is a fort here, but without 
guns. Eroni hence to Satarah is a 



pleasant valley, w ell inhabited and 
ctdtivated, being intersected bymany 
streams. {Moor, ^t.) 

Carrianers. — A singular de- 
scription of people in the Rinnan 
empire, who inhabit dilferent parts 
of the couuOy, i)arlicularly (he 
western provinces of Dalla and Ras- 
seen, several societies of whom also 
dwell in the districts adjacent to 
Rangoon. 'J'hey are a simple, imio- 
cent race, speaking a language dis- 
tinct from that of the Rinnans, and 
entertaining rude notions of religion. 
They lead a pastoral life, and arc Iho 
most industrious subjects of the 
slate. 'J'heir \illages form a select 
connnunily, fromwhieh they exclude 
all other sects ; and Ihey never re- 
side; in a city, intermingle, or marry 
with slrangers. 'liiey profess, and 
strictly obser\ e, universal peace, not 
engaging in Avar, or taking any part 
in the contests for dominion ; a sys- 
tem that necessarily places them in 
subjection to the ruling power of the 
day. Agiicullure, the care of cattle, 
and reaiing of poultry, are almost 
their only occupations. A great part 
of the provisions used in the country 
is raised by the Carrianers, and they 
particulaily excel in gardening. 
They have of late years been hea- 
vily taxed and ojjpressed by the great 
Rinnan landliolders, in consec|uence 
of which numbers have withdrawn 
into the mountains of Aracan. 

'J'hey ha\e traditional maxims of 
jurisprudence lor their internal go- 
vernment, but are wiihont any writ- 
ten laws. Custom with them con- 
stitutes law. Some learn to .speak 
the Rinnan language, and a few can 
A\rite it imperi'eeUy. I'hey are ti- 
morous, honest, mild in Uieir man- 
ners, and exceedingly hospitable to 
strangers. This people are not found 
higher up than Prome. One of 
them being intenogatcd, accoinited 
for their state of ignorance, and as- 
signed as a reason, that (jod once 
wrote his laws ami conunands uj.on 
the skin of a bulialue, and called 
upon all the nations of the carlh to 
coiue and take a copy, which tliev 



248 



CARWAR. 



all obeyed except the Carrianers, 
vho had not leisure. {Synies, .Vc-) 

Carnaul. — A town iii the pro- 
vince of Deliii, 70 miles N. by W. 
from the city of Deihi. Lat. 29°. 
41'. N. Long. 76°. 48'. E. 

Carnicobar Isle. — The most 
norlherly of the Nicobar Islands, in 
the Bay of Eeng^al. Lat. }>°. 8'. N. 
Long. 92°. 53'. E. 

This island is low, of a round 
figure, about 40 miles in circumfe- 
rence, and appears, at a distance, to 
be entirely covered with trees. The 
soil is of a black kind of clay, and 
marshy, and i>roduces in great abun- 
dance, with little care, most of the 
tropical iinits, such as piue apples, 
plantains, cocoa mits, also excellent 
yams, and a root named cachu. — 
The only qnatbupeds in the island 
are hogs, dogs, large rats, and a 
large animal of the lizard kind. 
There are poultry, but not in plenty. 
Snakes abound, some of the venom- 
ous kind. There is great plenty of 
timber, and some of it remarkably 
large. The )iatives require money 
for their provisions, and also expect 
knives, handkerchiefs, and other 
useful articles as presents. Shi|)S 
calling here may obtain pigs, fowls, 
cocoa nuts, betel nut, papaus, plan- 
tains, limers, and shaddocks. A 
species of ginger glows wild in the 
island. 

The natives are low in stature, but 
well made, and surprisingly active. 
They are copper-coloured, and their 
features have a caste of the Malay ; 
the females are extremely ugly. 
Iliey are naturally gay and lively, 
and drink arrack, when oifered 
them, in large quantities. Many of 
them speak a broken English, 
mixed with Portuguese, which faci- 
litates intercourse with ships. Their 
hogs are remarkably fat, being fed 
upon cocoa nut kernel, which is the 
food also of tlieir dogs, fowls, and 
other doirsestic animals. The houses 
of the natives are generally built 
upon the beach, in villages of 15 or 
20 houses each. They are raised 
iibout 10 feet from the ground, and 



resemble bee-hives, having no win- 
dows. The entry is through a trap- 
door below, where tlie family mount 
by a ladder, which is drav. n up at 
liight. 

'1 hey do not manufacture any cloth ; 
what they have is procured from 
ships, which come to trade for their 
cocoa nuts, Avhich arc reckoned the 
best in India. The articles they pre- 
fer in exchange are cloths of differ- 
ent colouis, liatchcts, and hanger- 
blades. 1 hey have no moiicy of 
their own, and use part of the coin 
which they procure as ornaments. 
Their intercourse with strangers is 
so frequent, that they have acquired, 
in general, the barbarous jargon of 
the Poituguese, so common over 
the Indian sea-coast. 

Wlien a man dies all his goods are 
burned Avith him, A\hich prevents 
disputes among the heirs. On this 
occasion his wife nnist confonn to 
custom, by having a joint cut off 
from one of her fingers ; and if she 
refuses this, she mustsui)mit to have 
a deep notch cut in one of the pillars 
of her house. Their religion is im- 
periectly understood, but seems to 
liave no affinity with that of any of 
the adjacent nations. I'hcre appears 
to subsist a perfect equality among 
them ; the more aged are respected, 
but exercise no coercive authority. 

The Danes formed a settlement- 
about 1760 on this island^, to which 
they conveyed a considerable num- 
ber of cannon, and named New 
Denmark; but the pestilential na- 
ture of the climate compelled them 
to abandon it. (6^. Hamilton, Lord 
Valentia, Haensel, SjT.) 

Cartinaad. — See Cadutinada. 

Carvvar, {Cadawada). — A town in 
the province of North Canara, 54 
miles S. by £. liom Goa. Lat. 14°. 
49'. N. Long. 74°. 4'. E. 

This was formerly a noted seat of 
European commerce, the English 
East India Company having had a 
factory here so early as 1673; but, 
during the reign ofl'ippoo, the town 
went to total ruin. It is situated in 
that part of the Concan, conjpre- 



CASHMEKi;. 



24?) 



h\ni(\(Ml by llic P>ii<ish in ihi' <lis- bounded !)y the moniilr>in? of Tibet ; 
triit ofNorlli C';i!i;iia. A ronsidcr- on the sonth-oast anil south by 
able quanlity of cut *)r terra ja- Kishtewar, in th<' piovince of |,a- 
poiiicu is prociind here, iioiie of liore; and ou the S. \\ . \i\ l/.i- 
whieh jJ^■o^vs alKJVc the Chaiils 'ihc hoie, Miiznn'erahad, and some other 
AfahaiattH merchants also eome for independent districts. Inehidin^ th« 
salt, 'J'o the north of C'arwar tlie siirronnding' moiiiilains. Cashmere 
conntry is %ery thinly inhabited, the may he cstimaled at 120 miles in 
hills prodiuinp: nothins, hiit bushes length, and 70 in extreme hreadlh, 
or stunted trees, anKMiij uhieh there thf tic^ure nearly an o\al. The li- 
arc scarcely any leak. mits of Caslimerc towards tlie west. 
It would ai)pear that at on<' tinie, ailjoiaing Muzulierabad, are termi- 
all the lands ol this district belom^ed nated by a low thick wood, liie edge 
to Jain landhohhrs; but, all these of which is skirted hy a rivulet ; and 
liave been killed or so oppressed, on the other side rises a eliaiii of 
that they have disappeared. There lofty mountains stret(-iiiii<!; to the 
are not any slaves here. 'Ihis part north and soutii. la 158'i this pro- 
of the Conean, on the fall oftheSul- vince is deserihed by Abnl Tazcl as 
tans of liejapoor, Ijecame subject to follows: 

the Kajahsof Soonda; one of whom, " Mic soubah of Cashmere is 

named fciedasiva l\ow\ built the Ibrt situated partly in the thir<l, and partly 

at the mouth of the river, and called in the Iburth climate. ltiseo)Jiposed 

it by Jiis own name. The dialect of of Cashmere, Ehemher, 8e\^ad, Bi- 

Conean is used by the natives of jorc, Cundaiiai', and Zcbulestaii 

this })lace in tlieir own houses, but (Cabnl). I'ormerly it liad Ghizni, 
from having been long" subject to lie- 



japoor, almost all of them. can speak 
the Maharatta. (F. Bndianan, <S;c.) 

CAKWARtK. — A towTi in the Car- 
natic, 78 miles N. N. ^^ . from 
Madras. Lat. 14°. 3'. IS. Long-. 79°. 
52'. E. 

Carwarke. — A town in the nor- 
thern Carnatie, district f)f Ongole, 
148 miles N. from 'XFadras. Lat. 
15°. 12'. N. Lous-. 80°. 5'. E. 



but now it has Cabul lor its capital. 
The length from kimherdine to 
Kishengunjj; is 120 eoss, and tli<! 
breadth from 10 to 25 eoss. On the 
east lies I'eeristan and tiie i\iver 
Chenaub ; on tiie south-east BaiikuJ 
and the mountains of Juaimoo; oa 
the N. E. C.reat'J'ihet; on the west 
Puekhoji and Kishengung'; on the 
south-Mcst the territory of Gickher; 
and on the north-west Little Tibet. 
, ^ . -. It is eueom})assed on ail sides with 

lofty mountains. '1 here are 26 roads 
CASII.MEKE, {Cusmua.) into Hindustan, but those of Ehem- 

A province of Xorthern llindos- her and Fuckholi are the best, being 
tan, situated prim ijjally between the passaide for horses." 
34th and 35th tiegrees of north The whole of Cashmere represents 
latitude. 'I'he A alley of Cashmere a garden in jjcrpetual s[iriiig, and 
is of an elliptic form, and extends the fortilications witli which natnre 
about 90 miles in a v\ inding diree- has furnished it are of an astonish- 
tion from the south-east to the north- ing height. The water is remark- 
west. It widens gradually to Is- ably good, and the cataracts mag- 
lamabad, wliere tlie i)readth is about nificent. It rains and snows here 
40 miles; Mhich is continued with at the same season as in Tartary and 
little variation to the town of Persia; and, during the periodical 
Sampre, whence the mountains by a rains in Uindostan, here also light 
regular inclination to the westward showers fall. The soil is j)artly 
come to a point, and .Si])arate Cash- marshy, the rest well watered bv 
mere from Mu/ull'erabad. To the rivers and lakes. "Niolcts, roses, nai- 
north and iiorlli-east Cashmere is cissuses, and iununicrablc otJier 



250 



CASHMERE. 



flowers gi-ow wild here. Eaitli- 
quakes arc very IVequcnt ; on which 
accouul tlie houses arc built of 
wood. The hihal)ilants live chiefly 
upon rice, Ircsh and dried llsh, and 
vegetables, and they drink Mine. 
Their horses are small lnit hardy; 
they breed neither clepliunis nor 
camels. In tlieir cities and towns 
are neither snakes, scoipions, nor 
other vcnonior.s reptiles; bnt the 
country in j^eneral abounds with 
flies, glials, bugs, and lice. Most of 
the trade of the country is carried on 
by water, but great burthens are 
also transported on men's shoulders. 

'J'he Cashmeiiaiis have a language 
of their own ; but their books are 
written in the Sanscrit tongue, al- 
though the charticter be sometimes 
Cashmerian. They write chiefly 
wpon tooK, M'hich is the bark of a 
tree. The Mahommedans are partly 
Suiinies, and others are of the sects 
of Ali and Nciorbukhshay. Here are 
many delightful singers, but they 
want variety. 

The Hindoos regard the whole of 
Cashmere as holy land; 45 places 
are dedicated fo Mahadeva or Si^a; 
64 to A ishnu; three to Brahma; and 
22 to Durga (the wife of Mahadcra). 
In 700 places are carved figures of 
snakes, which they also worship. 

xMthough formerly government 
was said to take only a third of the 
produce of the soil; yet. in fact, the 
husl)andmen was not left in tlie en- 
joyment of nearly one-third. His 
majesty (Acber) has now command- 
ed that tlie ( rojis shall be equally 
divided, between the husbandman 
and the state. There are but few 
troops in Cashmere, the native stand- 
ing army being only 481)2 cavalry, 
and 92,400 infantry. 

The ancients divided Cashmere 
into tAvo jiarts only, calling the east- 
ern division Aleraje, and the west- 
ern Kamraj. In the history of 
Cashmere, it is said, that in the early 
ages of the world, all Cashmere, ex- 
cejit the mountains, was covered 
vith water, and was then named 
Snttysir. Sutty is one of the names 



of Mahadeva's wife, and sir signifies 
a reservoir. In tlio year of the 
Hijera 948, (A. D. l'541), Mirza 
Hyder was sent against Cashmere 
by the Emperor Humayoon, and by 
the help of some of the natives con- 
quered the Mliole of that country, 
and part of Great Tibet." 

The lower range of mountains, 
which suiTound Cashmere, aie of a 
moderate height, and covered with 
trees and verdure, affording excel- 
lent pasture for all sorts ofcatrle and 
wild graminivorous animals ; and con- 
taining none of the larger and more 
ferocious carnivorous animal, such 
as lions and tigers. Beyond this 
range are mountains of a more ele- 
vated description, whose snow-clad 
tops, soaring above the fogs and 
clouds, appear perpetually bright and 
luminous. By ascending from the 
plains up the mountains any de- 
gree of cold may be attained. From 
these mountains flow innumerable 
cascades and rivrdets, which the in- 
habitants conduct through their rice 
fields, for the purpose of irrigation ;and 
in their course form small lakes and ca- 
nals, thejunction of which afterwjuds 
forms rivers, navigable for boats of 
considerable magnitude even within 
the limits of Cashmere ; and, increas- 
ing as they flow southward, form 
several of the laigest rivers by which 
Hiudostan is fertilized. Among- 
these mountains are many romantic 
vallies, the inhabitants of which 
have scarcely any cominunicatiou 
with those of the plains ; and, on 
account of their poverty and the in- 
accessible situation of their dwel- 
lings, never have been subdued by 
any of the conquerors who ha\e 
devastated Cashmere. The religion 
of primitive tribes is unknown, but 
is probably some modification of the 
Brahminical tenets. 

The Aalley of Cashmere is cele- 
brated throughout Asia for the ro- 
mantic beauty of its situation, the 
fertility of its soil, and the tempera- 
ture of its atinosjihere. It is gene- 
rally of a flat surface, and being 
copiously watered, yields abundant 



CASHMERE. 



251 



crops of rice, whidi is Iho co/nnion 
fond orilioiimai)it;ints. '1 lie tacility 
of prucmiiis \v;iter rusiuvs llie crop 
s^gainst tlic injuries of a droii^lil, 
and the niildnoss of the climate 
against the seorcliino- ollect of the 
sun. At (he base of the snnuund- 
ing hills where the land is higlicr, 
wheat, barley, and various other 
grains arc cultivated. In this pro- 
vince arc found most of the plants, 
flowers, fruit, and forest trees, com- 
mon to Europe ; partieularly the 
apple, pear, plumb, a])ri(S!t and nut 
trees, and abundance of grapes; and 
in the gardens are many kitchen 
herbs peculiar to cold countries. A 
superior sort of saflron is also pro- 
duced in Cashmere, and iron of an 
excellent quality is found in the 
niojuitains. Hie setigcrah. or wa- 
ter-nut, which grows in the lakes, 
forms a considcral)lc portion of the 
lood of the lower classes. 

Many lakes are spread over the 
country, and there is a traditit)n, 
wliich appearances tend to contirni, 
that the Cashmere V alley was once 
the bed of a large lake, w hich at last 
opened itself a passage into Hindos- 
tan, by the channel of the Jliylum 
River. Besides this river and ihe 
Chota Singh River, there are num- 
berless mountain streams supplied 
by the risins, wliich fall among the 
hills with groat violence from June 
to October, and form many cascades 
and small cataracts w Inch are pre- 
cipitated into the valley, w here the 
periodical rains arc desciibed as 
only descending in gentle shower.». 
The principal towns of the province 
arc Cashmere, named alsoScriuagur, 
Islamabad, and Sampre. 

'I'hc wealth and fame of Cashmere 
liave greatly arisen from the manu- 
facture of shawls, the wool of which 
is not pro<luced in the country, but 
brought frouj districts of Tibet, ly- 
ing at the distance of a month's 
journey to the north east. It is ori- 
ginally of a dark grey colour, and is 
bleached in Caslnnere by the help of 
a preparation of rice flower. 'I'his 
raw material of the Caslunere shawls 



is a wool, or rather a down, that is 
protected by the course hair of a goat, 
which is bred in Tibet. Neither the 
Delhi emperors, who made Aarions 
attempts to introduce tiie breed of 
the shawl goat into the upper jiro- 
vinces of India, nor the sovereigns 
of Persia, have e\cr been aide to 
succeed in procuring wool of an 
equally fine quality wil!i that of Ti- 
bet. The Persian shawl from the 
wool of Kerman comes nearer the 
Cashmere shawl tiian the l.nglish. 

After the yarn of the wool is pre- 
pared, it is stained with such colours 
as may be pidged best suited for a 
sale, and after being w ove the ])iece 
is once w ashed. The iiorder, which 
usually displays a \ ariety of figures 
and colours, is attached to the shawls 
after fabrication; but, in so delicate a 
manner, that the. junction is not dis- 
eeriiiide. The price at the loom of 
an ordinary shawl is eight rupees; 
thence, in proportion to quality, it 
produces iiom 15 to 20 rupees, and 
some of a very fine (piality sell so 
high as 40 rupees the first cost. The 
flowered work greatly adds to the 
expense, and altogether 100 rupees 
is occasiojially given. A large pro- 
portion of th(> Cashmere revenue is 
transmitted to the capital in sliawl 
goods. 

The Cashmerians also fabricate 
the best writing-paper of the cast, 
w Inch w as formerly an article of ex- 
tensive Irallic, iis were its lacquered 
ware, cutlery, and sugar; l)ut trade 
of all sorts is now in a very languid 
State. A wine resembling Madciia 
is manufactured in this province, 
and a spirituous liquor is also dis- 
tilled from the grape. Amritsir, in 
Lahore, the Seik ca})ital, is at pre- 
sent the grand enrporium for the 
shawls and saifron ofCasln;ierc. The 
boats of Cashmere are long and nar- 
row, and are nuncd with paddles. 
The coimtry being intersected by 
numerous streams, navigable for 
small ^essels, might greatly benefit 
under a bitter government by this 
commodious internal conveyance. 
As there are no caravanserais iH 



/ 

CASHMERE. 



])ratcd for tFic Icaruingii of its Braft- 
mins and the niagiiiliceiice of it* 
temples. TJic period of its subjuga- 
tion is uncertaiu ; but it was attack- 
ed and ravaged by JIahmood of 
Ghizni so early as A.D. 1012. It 



252 

/ 

Caslnnorc, conimeicial stjange>/are 
generally lodged with their brokers. 

In the time of Aurcngzebc the re- 
venue collected in Caslimere was 
three and a half lacks of ni])ees per 
annum; in 1783, the Alghan go- 
vernors, on behalf of the Cabul sove- was governed in a long succession 
rei"n, extorted above 20 lacks. At by a race of Tartar princes, of the 
that time the army of the prmince Chug or Chugatay tribe, until 158G, 
was about 3000 horse, chiefly At- Avhen it was subdued by Acb( r, and 
o-hans, the natives seldom engaging remained annexed to the liousc of 
fi>. any military occupation, which is Timur for 160 years, after which it 
avers« to their genius and disposi- Mas betrayed l)y the Mogul go\'er- 
•jioD, nor, about 1754, to Ahmed Shah 

The natives of Cashmere are a Duranny, and constituted a province 

stout, well-formed people, and their of tlio Afghan sovereignty of Cabtil 

complexions what in France or Spain until 1809, when Mahonnned Khan 

would be termed brunette. They tlie soubahdar, on the part of the 



are naturally a gay and lively people, 
and eager in the pursuit of wealth. 
They are accounted much more 
acute and intriguing than the natives 
of riindostan generally, and prover- 
bially liars. They are also much ad- 
dicted to the cultivation of literature 



Cabul, revolted, and has ever since 
maintained his independence, both 
against the Afghan sovereigns, and 
Funjeet Singh, the Seik Kajah of 
Lahore. {Foster, A bid Fazel^ Bev- 
iiier, licmiel, Malcolm, ,5'c.) 

Casumkre, {or Seriiiagiir). — A 



and poetry, and the common jseoplc town in t!ie province of Cashmere, 
remarkably ingeniotis in cabinet -^ -^■■■^- -^ ■■ *^- -—''"^ t „+ o^o 
work of all descriptions. Tliey have 
not the slighest resemblance to their 
Tartarian neighbours, who are an 
ngly race of people; on the contrary, 
the Cashmerian females have been 
celebrated for their beauty and com- 
plexions, and on that account much 
souglit after for wives by the Mogul 
Boljility of Delhi, that the breed 
might not degenerate. Although 
fertile, the country is not thickly po- 
pulated, on account of the miserable 
governments to which it has so long 
been subjected. The whole number 



of vhicli it is the capital. Lat. 34°. 
20'. N. Long. 73°. 43'. E. In 1582. 
it is described by Abul Fazel as 
follows : 

" Serinagur, the capital of Casli- 
mere, is four farsangs in length. The 
last mentioned one is dry during a 
part of the year, and the Mar ii 
sometimes so shallow, that boats can- 
not pass through it. This city has 
been for ages in a llomishing state ; 
and here are niairafactured shawls 
and other tiue woollen stufis. On 
the east side of the city is a high 
lill, called the mountain of Solimau^ 



are probably nuich under half a mil- and adjoining are two large lakes,, 
lion, a great proportion of whom arc which arc always full." 



Hindoos, professing to follow the 
Erahminical doctrines. All Cash- 
mere is reckoned holy land by the 
Hindoos, and abounds with miracu- 
lous fountains. The language of 
Cashmere springs from a sanserif 
stock, and resembles that of the Ma- 
havatias; their songs are composed 
in the Tersic, which they consider 
less harsh. 

l^ior to the IMahommedan con- 
quest of India, Cashmere Avas celc- 



l"he town of Cashmere Avas for- 
merly known by the name of Seri- 
nagur, but now by that of the pro- 
vince. It extends about three miles 
on each side of the Ri\er Jalum, 
over wliich are four oi- five wooden 
bridges; and it occujiies, in some 
part of its breadth, which is inicqual,, 
about two miles. The houses, many 
of them two and three stories high, 
arc slightly built of brick and mor- 
tar, with a large intermix tiue of tint- 



CASSAY. 



253 



hcT. On the wooden roof is laid a 
co\Tniig of cartli, uliicli uH'oids 
warmtlj ia winter, and diiiiiii;- ti)e 
sumiiier is planted w itii lloweis. 'I'lie 
streets are iiarntw, and elioked witli 
the tilth of the inliabitants, wlio aic 
I)ioveibially uiieleun ; and tlterc arc 
no l)uiidiii;j;s worthy of remark. The 
soubahdar, or j<overnor of Cashmere, 
resides in a fortress, called shere- 
ghnr,()C(;n]>vinj;- the south-east cfiiar- 
ter of the city. 

The benefit which this elty enjoys, 
in a mild salubrious air, and a river 
flowiiiu; through its centre, is essen- 
tially ailou'd by its conliiicd eon^ 
strnction and the extreme lilthiness 
of the people. 'Ihere are <overed 
floating-baths ranged along; the sides 
t)f the river. 

The Lake of Cashmere, named in 
the provincial language the Dall, has 
long been celebrated for its beauties. 
It extends fi-oni the norHi-east quar- 
ter of the city, in au oval cireum- 
feren^-e of live or six nuhs, and joins 
the Jaluni l>v a narrow^ <hanuel, near 
the suburbs. The northern view of 
the lake is terminated, at the dist- 
ance of 12 miles, by a tletached 
range of mountains, whi<li slope 
Ironi the centre t(» each aiigie ; and 
from the base, a spacious plain, pre- 
sei-ved in constant verdure by nume- 
rous streams, extends with an easy 
declivity to the surface of the water. 
In the centre of the jilain, as it ap- 
proaches the hike, one of the Delhi 
emperors, probably Shah Jelian, con- 
estructed a spacious garden, called 
Shalimar. 'I'hc; numerous small 
islands in the lake ha\e the effect of 
ornamenting the scene. 

Rcrnier, who visited this conntiy 
in l(j6',i, when travelling in the suit 
of the Jjnperor Auiengzebc, gives a 
most interesting and romantic de- 
ji* Tipti4iu of this city ; but since the 
«iismcjnberincnt of Cashmere from 
the empire ofliiudostan bytheAl- 
ghans, tliis city luis greatly decayed, 
itnd its Itnildings been sutfercd to 
^rtnnble into ruins. Travelling dist- 
al nee liom Lahore, 587 miles; from 
Ajfra. 724; from Lucknow. 866; 



from Bombay, 1277 ; from Cal- 
cutta, 15Gi; and from Madras, 1882 
n)iies. {Foster, Itcnnel, Abid Fazel, 
Bernkr, Vc.) 

(Jashy, {Cashhi). — A small dis- 
trict in Northern liindostuu, tril)u- 
tary to the (Jhoorkali Hajahs of Ne- 
panl. and situated between the 28th 
and 29th degrees of north latitude. 
Respecting this petty state very liltle 
is known, except that it forms part 
of tiie region named the countiy of 
the 24 Rajahs, 'i'he country is vei-y 
mountainou.^. 

Cashy. — A towii in Northern Hin- 
dostan, the capital of a small di.stiict 
of the same name, in the country of 
the 24 Rajahs, and tributaiy to Ne- 
paul. Lat. 28° 42'. N. Long-. 82°. 
49'. E. 

Cassai River.— This river has its 
Sonne in the piovince of Rahar, dis- 
tiict of l^amghur, and not far from 
the town of Ramghur, from whence 
it Hows in a south-easterly direction, 
passing the town of Midnapoor in its 
<!oursc ; after which it falls into tha 
western, or Hooghly branch of tha 
River Ganges, a few miles below 
Diamond Point. 

C ASSAY. — A province in the Bir- 
man empire, situated about the 24th 
degree of north latitude. This coun- 
try is bounded on the north by Ca- 
char and Assam; on the south In 
Aracan, and the rude tribes border- 
ing- im that country; on the west it 
has the Bengal districts of Tipperali 
and Sylhet ; and on the cast it is se- 
parated from the original Birman 
territories by the River Keenducm, 
which, taking a south-eastern course, 
unites its waters witli those of th» 
Irravaddy, a short way alwve th« 
town of Sembev^ ghewn. The capi- 
tal city is Munipoor, and by the in- 
haljitants of Bengal the Cassayers 
are called Muggaloos, an appellation 
with which they them.selves aie to- 
tally unacquainted. Tlvis name the 
Europeans have applied to the coun- 
try, turning it into Meckley. Katthce 
is the name given to this people by 
the Birmans, which has been taken 
for the nam« of the country, and 
3 



254 



catarmahal. 



corrupted into Cassaj-; the natives 
of which call themselves Moitay. 

The Cassayers have a softness of 
countenance much more resemblin;ij 
the natives of Hindostan than the 
Birmans, with whom they have very 
little aflinity eitlier in manners or 
appearance. Many of these peo])le, 
taken prisoners in the wars, are now 
settled in the neighbourhood of the 
Birman caj>ital, Ununerapoor, where 
their superior skill and industry, 
in different branches of handicraft 
Avork, supply them with a comfort- 
able subsistence. They cultivate 
pulse, greens, onions, and such vege- 
tables as the Birmans use, and trans- 
port them across the lake to Umme- 
rapoor, where they retail them in the 
market. 

The gunsmiths of the Birman em- 
pire are all Cassayers, but their s^uns 
are extremely defective. They arc 
also much better horsemen tlian the 
natives of Ava, and on that account 
are the only cavalry employed in the 
Bumaii armies, and very mucii re- 
semble those met with in Assam. 
They ride like all oiieiitals, with 
short stirrups and a loose rein ; tlicir 
saddle is hard and higli, and two 
large circular (laps of hard leather 
hang down on each side, which are 
painted or gilded according to tlie 
quality of the rider. The music of 
the Cassayers is remarkably pleasant 
and consonant to the English taste, 
ill which the time varies suddenly 
fiom quick to slow. With the reli- 
gion of the Cassayers we are imper- 
fectly acquainted ; but there is rea- 
son to believe a great ma,jority pos- 
sess the Brahminical doctrines; and. 
in the basis of their character and 
dispositions, they much more re- 
semble a regular Hindoo tribe, tlian 
the harsh and brutal followers of 
Buddha. Their country may be 
considered as the extreme limits of 
the Brahminical Hindoo sect to the 
eastward, as from hence the preva- 
lence of the Buddhist doctrine in 
some shape is universal. 

In the year 17-54, when Alompra, 
the Eirraan mojiarch, left the city of 



Ava to relieve Promo, he detached li 
body of trooi>s across the Keendueni 
to chastise the Cassayers, who had 
hitherto enjoyed only a temporar}"^ 
independence, when the contests of 
the BiiTnini and Pegue states left 
them no leisme to enforce obedience. 
They were always leady to revolt, 
and quickly reduced to submission. 
The Rajah of the Cassayers, residing 
at Munnipoor, sued for peace, which 
was concluded on advantageous 
terms tor the Birmans; and, as is 
the custom, a young man and young 
woman of the rajah's kindred were 
delivered as hostages. 

In 1757 Alompra again attacked 
the Cassayers, and ravaged their 
country, but mus prevented com- 
pleting the conquest by the revolt of 
the Peguers. In 1765, Shcmbuan, 
the son of Alompra, invaded the 
Cassay country, and obtained consi- 
derable booty, but appears to have 
intended nothing beyond a predatory 
excursion ; but, in 1774, he sent a 
formidable force against the Cassay- 
ers, which, after a long and obsti- 
nate battle, took the capital Munni- 
poor, the rajah having withdrawn to 
the Corrun hills, five days' journey 
north west of that place. From this 
period the Cassay country has re- 
mained subject to the Birmans. 
{Sijmes, F. Buchanan, &fc.) 

Catanduanes Isle. — One of the 
Philippines, situated oft" the east 
coast o! Luzon. Lat. 15'. N. liOng. 
124° 30'. E. In length it may be 
estimated at 36 miles, by 20 the 
aveiage breadth. 

Catarmahal, {Chatnrmahal). — A 
village in Northejn Hindostan, situ- 
ated in the y\iniora district, iiihal)ited 
principally by pataris, or dancing- 
women. "Lat. 2y°. 40'. N. Long. 
79°. 38'. E. 

Above the town, under the peak 
of the mountain, stands a large and 
apparently very ancient ti niple, sa- 
cred to Aditya. It is built at tho 
west extremity of a square, and sur- 
rounded hy 51 siiiallei |)ynuniilical 
temples, which were formerly sup- 
plied with idols, but few of them 



CAULABAUGH. 



255 



now rcniaio in a perfect state. Tra- 
ditJoii reports' it to have been built 
Ijy the Pandoos. An annual fair is 
held here in the month of Paush. 

C>TCHouRA, {Cachor). — A town 
and fort in the jnovince of A 2:r!!, dis- 
trict of I'nrruekabad.from vvliich tlie 
zemindar, being n'lractury, was ex- 
pelled by the liritisli forces in Mnreh, 
1803. with considerable lo.ss on the 
part of the assailants. 

Catochin. — A small district in 
the eastern quarter of the Lahore 
province, situated about the 32d de- 
jjree of north latilud;». ll is named 
indiscriminately Catochin and Kaiui- 
pah, and is now possessed by the 
Seik tribes. It is a very hilly and 
woody district, and is intersected by 
the River Beyah. 

Catmandoo, (Casht/iamaixlh; the 
wooden metropolis). — A town in 
Northern Ijindostan, situated in the 
valley of \epaul Proper, 40 miles 
from the loftv Himalav a Mountains. 
Lat. 27°. 33'". N, Long. 85°. 39'. E. 

This place is reckoned the present 
capital of Nepaul, Ijcing the resi- 
dence of the (JhoorkhaJi rajah. It 
stands on the east bank of the Bis- 
henmutty, along which it extends 
about a mile ; its breadth is incon- 
siderable, no wliere exceeding lialf a 
mile, and seldom extending beyond 
a quarter of a mile. The name by 
which it is distinguished in ancient 
books is Gongool-putten ; the Ne- 
wars call it Yindaise, whilst among 
the Parbuttees, or mountaineers, it 
is stiled Kathipoor, an appellation 
which seems to proceed from the 
same popidar source with Catman- 
doo, a name derived, it is said, from 
its numerous wooden temples. These 
appear to differ nothing from the 
wooden mundabs, or nnmdirs, oc- 
casionally met with in other parts of 
India, and arc principally remark- 
able for their number and size. Be- 
sides these there are many brick 
temples, with three or four sloping 
roofs. 

The houses are built of brick and 
tile, with pitched or pent roofs to- 



wards the .street. They arc of two, 
three, and four stories, and almost 
without exception of a mean ap- 
pearance, even the rajah's house 
being but a sorry bi;ilding. 'i'he 
streets are very nanow, and nearly 
astilihyas those of Benares. Cat- 
mandoo was reckoned to contain 
22,000 houses during the time of Jye 
Pnrkliaush, and they have since aug- 
mented at the expense of Patu and 
Biiatgong. This statement must be 
understood to oomi)reliend, not only 
the population of the town its<lf, but 
of its dependent villages, there not 
being above .5000 houses on the 
ground oecu])icd by the city. Al- 
lowing 10 persons to a liouse or fa- 
mily, which is probably a low esti- 
mate for tl'.e houses of Catmandoo, 
its population v\ ill amount to 50,000 
souls. 

At the same rate, the numbers oc- 
cupying the remaining 17,000 houses, 
formerly included within the juris- 
diction of Catmandoo, would be 
170,000; but, in the country, eight 
may be taken as the average, which 
would give 186,000 for the totiU po- 
pulation of the capital and its dis- 
tricts. Among the latter, in this 
estimate, are not included Doona- 
baise, Noakofe, Nerjah, nor any of 
the dependencies of the Catmandoo 
sovereignty lying beyond the valley. 
( KirlipcUrich, S^-c.) 

Caugmarry, {Cagniari). — A small 
town in the province of Bengal, dis- 
trict of IMymnnsingli, 38 miles N. 
N. W. from Dacca. Lat. 24°. 15'. 
N. Long. 89°. 48'. K 

C AULA HANDY. — A town possessed 
by independent chiefs, in the pro- 
vince of Orissa, 50 miles N. E. from 
Bnstar. Lat. 20°. 7'. N. Long. 83**. 
15'. E. 

CaulabadGII, (Khsharabag, thr 
garden of salt). — A town on the wesi 
side of the Indus, in the province of 
Cabul, 116 miles N. by W. from 
iMooltan. Lat. 32°. 11'. N. Long. 
70*. 46'. E. 

At this place the country inha- 
bited by the real Afghans begins, 
and from hence to Peshawer are a. 



250 CAUNPOOR. 

c,Tcat variety of tiibcs. It is here 
also that the Indus is first coiiliiied 
to one stream, hetween the banks of 
%vliich it cannot ovcrllow. Caula- 
l)angli lias been long- noted fur an 
inexhaustible store of the finest rock 
salt, and it is enriched by considoi- 
able allum works. The salt is sold 
at 25 maund (of 80 libs.) per ru{)ee, 
and transported on camels and bul- 
locks to the Pintjab, Mooltau, and 
tlie other lower parts of the Cabul 
dominions. The alhini also is bar- 
tered in trade. 

The lionses of the inhabitants are 
bnilt on platforms cut out of the de- 
ehvity of the hill, and the inhabi- 
tants are an Afghan tribe, named 
Awans. The stream of the Indus 
at Canlabangh, between the tv.o 
nearest points of the opposite hills, 
is from three to 400 yards broad. 
The adjoining hills arc remarkable 
on account of their fantastic shapes, 
the lain Inuina; Avashed doAAii tiuiir 
crumbled substance, leaves to the 
last the highest and hardest parts, 
which often are seen standing on 
bases much smaller than their snm- 
inits. (11^/t Register, S,-c.) 

C Avyi¥ ooR, {K/mupura). — A town 
in the province of Allahabad, si- 
tuated on the west side of the Gan- 
f!,es, 49 miles S. W. from Lucknow, 
i.at. 26°. 30'. N. Long. 80°. 21'. E. 
A brigade of Company's troops is 
cantoned here, it bejiig considered 
as the chief militaiy station in the 
ceded provinces. There are barracks 
for 400 artillery, two king's regi- 
ments, one of cavalry, thn-c of na- 
tive cavalry, and 7000 native infan- 
try, 'i'he oiliceis of every descrip- 
tion fnul their oAvn lodgings, m Inch 
consist of very commodious and ele- 
gant bungalows, binit without any 
regularity, on a space extending about 
six miles along the Canges. 

Caunjioor is situateil on the upj)er 
part of th;it vast plain, which e\- 
tonds from the Bay of Lcngal to 
the northern mountains approaching 
Tibet. Tiie soil of it is not only ail 
arable, but with j'roper cultivation 
•apable of being reiidered e\tremely 



fertile. Agrieulknc in ilie iieigfj- 
boinhood of Cainipoor has profited 
by the stinnilus of a Eurctj)ean mar- 
ket and high prices. Indian corn, 
grain, barley, and M'heat, arc culti- 
vated ; and turnips, cabbages, and 
European vegetables, arc, during 
the season, in great abundance, not 
only in the gardens of the olliccrs, 
but in the fields cultivated by the 
natives. Grapes, peaches, with a 
piofusion of fruit, have long been 
supplied by the Europeans. 

In their season sugar canes, arid 
other crops, tlourish in this part of 
the country in great luxuriance ; cul- 
tivation is, however, often inter- 
rupted by the intervention of ex- 
tensive wastes, w Inch might be easily 
lendercd as productive as the rest of 
the land. 

The troops here, during the dry 
season, suffer great annoyance from 
the dust, whicii they cannot possibly 
avoid. From the middle of Octo-* 
ber to the middle of June there is 
seldom a shower of rain ; the groimd, 
consequently, becomes parched to a 
cinder; all vegetation, except on wa- 
tered fields, being destroyed. The 
tread of horses, camels, and bullocks, 
loosens each day a certain quantity 
of dust from the surface, which tlic 
w inds that regularly blow in the af- 
ternoon raise into the air in the form 
of a thick cloud, which nearly hides 
the sun, and enveloj)es the station 
in darkness. The history of the 
counlry affords many iii.stances of 
battles, lost and avou, according to 
the direction of the dust, the wind- 
ward position giving a decided ad- 
vantage. A^'ohes abound licre» 
v.hiclificquontlydash into some cor- 
ner of the camj), and carry children 
under five years of age, whi(;li hap- 
pen to be straggling among the huts. 

Aficr the cession of the surround- 
ing eouutry of the Doab, in 1802, by 
the Nabob of Oude, a district was 
altachcd to the Canispoor station^ 
and a civil establishment ajipointed 
for (he adip.iuishatiou ofjuslice, and 
the collection of the revenue. {Ten-' 
naiit, Lord Valentia, Iltnnel, 'Sfc.) 



CAVITE. 



257 



Cavai. — A small jNToplny town in 
tJic province of i\r;ilal)ur, '28 niilos 
N. \. W. Iioni TclliclKMv. Lut. 12° 
n'. N. Lon?,-. 75°. 20'. \\. lu 1719 
the Knulish luul a riictoiy here, 
which foiisistcd of a puiidiahi, or 
haiiksall ; whicli Dutch word has 
now, in general, been adopted by 
tlic natives of the whole INIalabar 
ro;ust. 

In l?^ the French built a fort on 
the soutii side of the river, w'licro 
they remained 10 years. Afterwards 
an Eliii Rajah (as the husband of the 
Eibby of Cananore i:J nained) built 
a fort on each side of the sonlhcru 
liver. These two forts are now in 
rnins, and the influence of the Ca- 
iiaiiore family entirely superseded by 
that of Choiicara l\!ousa, a INla- 
liominedan merchant of I'ellichcrry, 
whose authority e.vtcnds unrivalled 
over the ftloplays from Cavai to 
Mangalore. (F. Buchanan, .Vr.) 

Cavery, (Caveri). — A river in the 
south of India, which lises among 
the Coorg hills, near the coast of 
IMalabar, passes through the Mysore, 
Coiml)ctoor, and the Carnatic below 
the Chauts ; and, after a winding 
course of nearly 400 miles, falls into 
the sea by various mouths in the pro- 
vince of Tanjore. 

Opposite to Trichinopoly, in the 
Carnatic, the Cavery separates into 
tw^o branches, and forms the Island 
of Serinj;iiam. About 13 miles to 
the eastward of the point of separa- 
tion the branches again approach, 
but tlie northern branch is at this 
place 20 feet lower than the southern. 
The northern branch is permitted to 
run V aste to tlie sea, and is named 
the Coleroon ; but the southern, 
wlii(;li retains the name of Cavery, 
has been led into a variety of chan- 
nels by the skill and industry of the 
early Hindoos, to iriigate the pro- 
vince of Tanjore, and is the cause 
of its extraordinary fertility. Near 
to the east end of the Island of Sc- 
ringhum is formed an innnense 
mound, to ])reveut the waters of the 
Cavery from descending into the 
Coleroon. {Wilks, ic.) 

s 



Caverypauk. — A large town in 
the Carnatic, district of Conjee, Lat. 
12^. 59'. N. Long. 79°. 32'. E. Here 
is a great eray, or taiik, about eight 
miles long by three broad, whicli 
fertilizes a considerable tract of coun- 
try. From Onluorto Caverypauk the 
barren ridge on which the road leads 
is narrow, and the country bein;j 
abuiidantly sui)plied with water from 
the great tank has a handsome ap- 
jKaranoc. After passing Caverypauk 
towanls Arcot, the barren ridge is 
more extensive, and in most places 
consists of immense beds of granite, 
-or of that rock decomposed into 
coarse sand, almost destitute of ver- 
dure. (F. Buchanan, 4t.) 

Cavfuvpatnam. — A town in the 
south of India, district of Kistnag- 
herry, situated on the banks of the 
Panaur Kiver, 103 miles east from 
Seringapatam. Lat, 12°. 29'. N. 
L(,ng. 78°. 22'. E, 

Cavf.iiyporum. — A town in tiie 
district of North Cuimbetoor, 85 
miles S. E. from Scringapatam, Lat. 
ll*. 49'.N, Long. 77°. 55'. E, This 
tov\'n is situated on the banks of the 
Cavery, which, in the rainy season, 
is here a wide, strong, but smooth 
stream, no where fordablc; but in 
the dry season there are many lords. 
The country is, in general, level, but 
very stony, and full of rocks even 
with the surface. 

'Jlie tort of Caveryporum is said to 
have been built by Guttimodaly, who 
was polygar of a considerable part of 
the neighbouring country, llic su- 
burbs contain about 100 houses, witli 
the ruins of a much greater number. 
There is a custom-house here, this 
being an entrepot of trade betv\een 
the countries above and below the 
Ghauts. The goods are carried on 
oxen, and tobacco is the principal 
article. {F. Buchanan, ^c) 

Cavite. — A town in the Philip- 
pines, situated three leagues S, W. 
from jNfanilla, within the Eay of 
Manilla, it being the proper harbour 
of that city. Lat. 11° 34'. N. Long. 
120°.4S'. E. 

It was once of g^reater si39 '^d 



258 



CERAM LAUT ISLES. 



consequence, but now has, in g;e- 
iieral, only a gairison of 150 men, 
M ho occ»])y the castle of St. Pliilij), 
which is of a square form, wlih four 
bastions. All the other inliahiiants 
arc niulatocs, or Indians, eraj)lo) ed 
at the ar.scna!, and, with th* ir fa- 
milies, form a population of 4000 
souls. The .Jesuits formerlj possessed 
a very handsome house here, but Ihe 
whole is much decayed ; the old stone 
houses being abandoned, or occupied 
by Indians, who never icpair Ihem. 
The depth of water is excellent, as 
ships may lie within musket shot of 
the arsenal ; but Ca\ite Bay is in- 
fested by a species of worm, which 
penetrates tlie planks and timbers of 
ships, and renders theju .»;oon unlit 
to keep the sea. Although so near 
to Manilla, being actually within the 
bay, boats going from the one to the 
other art! often taken by j)iratical 
Malay prows, and the people sold 
for slaves. {La Peyroiise, Sonnerat, 

CayagaxSooloo Islf.s. — A clus- 
ter of islands in the Eastern Seas, 
lying oft" the north-eastern coast of 
Borneo. Lat. 7°. N. Long. 118° 
50'. E. The largest, about 20 miles 
in circumference, is of a middling 
height, covered with trees, and the 
soil rich and luxuriant. In 1774 this 
island was dependent on Sooloo, and 
much frequented by the mangaio, or 
piratical prows. 'I'he tide rises here 
six feet on the springs. {Forrest, 

Cayle River. — A small river, 
which has its source in the districts 
to the south of Palamow, in the pro- 
vince of Bahar, liom whence it pur- 
sue.; a northerly-winding course un- 
til it joins the Soanc in the dislii( t 
of Rotas, after a course, iiidudiug 
the turnings, of about 150 n)iics. 

Cayvakum. — A town in liie south 
of India, district of (Jurrumconda, 
85 miles S. W. from Cudapah. Lat. 
13''. 30'. N. Long. 78°. 21'. K. 

Ceded Districts, — See Bala- 

GHAUT. 

Cera Tsle. — A small island, about 
20 miles in circumference, lying oil' 



the west side of Timorlaut. hong, 
131°. 50'. E. 

Ceram. — A large island in the 
Eastern Seas, extending from the 
128th to the 130th degrees of east 
longitude, and situated principally 
bctv^'ixt the third and fourth degrees 
of south latitude. In length it may 
be estimated at 185 miles, by 30 
miles the average breadth. 

A chain of very high mountains^ 
parallel in their direction, runs from 
east to west, the vallies betwixt 
which shew every sign of a vigorous 
vegetation. The highest of these 
mountains from the sea appears to 
be 7000 feet in elevation. The pe- 
ninsula of Bocwamoehil, or Little 
Ceram, is joined to the main laud by 
a narrow isthmus, and, in ancient 
times, produced large quantities of 
cloves and nutmegs, but the trees 
were extirpated by the Dutch about 
the year 1657. The \iood v\ Inch is 
usually called Amboyna, and the 
Salmoni, both of which are exported 
from Amboyna, for cabinet work, 
are mostly the production of C«;ram. 
At present the peninsula of Hoewa- 
moehil is covered with sago trees. 
Along the shores of Ceram uncom- 
monly line shells are found. 

Rumphius describes the wild 
mountains and interior of this island 
as being inhabited by the Horaforas, 
or Alforcze, the aborigines of all the 
islands west of the Papua, or Ori- 
ental Negro Isles. He says they 
are a tall, strong, and savage peo- 
ple, in general taller than the inha- 
bitants of the sea shores. Both sexes 
go nearly naked, only wearing a 
bandage about their v aists, made of 
the bark of a tree. I'heir weapons 
aie a bamboo sword, and bows and 
arrows. They had many barbarous 
and bloody religious rites, which the 
Dutch writers have greatly exag- 
gej ated. {Stavorinvs and Notes, La- 
/nlfardiere, Bovgainville, ^-c.) 

Ceram Laut Isles. — A cluster of 
small islands lying olf the east end 
of the Island of Ceram, about the 
130th degree of east longitude, and 
Lat. 3°. 55'. S. 



CELEBES. 

A larj^e island in tin- Eastern Seas, 
of a most irrennlar shape, separated 
from Borneo i»y the Straits of Ma- 
cassar. It extends iVoin latitude 2°. 
N. fo nearly latitude 6°. S. and from 
119°. to 125°. east lonsitndo; but the 
coast is so indented hy three deep 
J)avs, that it is diffirult to form an 
estimate of its actual surface. iVJak- 
injs; allo\vance, however, for the in- 
equality of its figure, it may be esti- 
mated at 500 miles in lengtJi^ by 150 
miles the average breadth. 

'J'his island is called by theiiativfes 
and Malays Neegree Oran Buggess, 
or Buggess Man's Country, and 
sometimes Tanna Macassar. It is 
situated between the great island of 
Borneo on the \i est, and the islands 
of Gilolo, or Halamahcra, Poby, Cc- 
rani, and Amboyna to the east ; to 
the south lies Salayer, divided from 
Celebes by a strait, called by the 
Butch the Budgeroons. Further to 
the sotith lies Floris, or Ende, Ti- 
mor, and Sumbhawa ; to the north 
there is a broad sea, and the Island 
of Sangir to the north-east. 

A deep gulf runs into the island 
from the south called Sewa by the 
natives, but Buggess Bay by the 
English. There is also a deep gulf 
penetrates the norlh-east part of the 
island, the projjcr name of which is 
'I'omince ; but it is also named Go- 
rantellu, or Gunongtellu (Hill Har- 
bour). It reaches so deep tVom the 
north-east into the island, that the 
isthmus which divides it from the 
west sea is very narrow, forming a 
peninsula. On the north-east of this 
peninsula is Manado, or I'ort Am- 
sterdam, a Dutch settlement, whence 
much gold is received in exchange 
for opium and Hiiidostan piece 
goods, chiefly blue cloths, tine Ben- 
gal cossacs, hummums, iron, and 
steel. There is also a third gulf, but 
not so deep as the other two, which 
indents the east quarter, called Tolo 
Bay, 

'i"hc principal native states, or di- 
visions, of this island, according to 
the Dutch authorities, are Macas- 

s 2 



CELEBES %^g 

Sar, Boni (tlie Buggess countrv)> 
Tello, Sopiiig, Li»oboe, Tancte, 
Mandhar, VVarjoor, or Wadjo, Tout 
radja, and Cajelee, under which 
heads respectively further topogia- 
phical details will be found. 

Celebes has three rivers : Chin- 
rftna, the most considerable, takes 
its rise in the \\'arjoo country, runs 
throjjgh Bony, and discharges itself 
by several mouths into t'le Sewa 
Gulf. European ships can ascend 
this river a considerable way over a 
muddy bottom. The second is the 
Biver Boli, with three fathoms water 
on its bar, which discharges itself, 
after a winding course at Boli, on 
the north coast. The third discharges 
itself on the west coast of the island, 
a considerable way south of Macas- 
sar. 

On the east coast of Celebes the 
Dutch have the two settlements oi 
Manado and Gorantalo, Irom whence 
they exported rice and other neces- 
saries to Ternate. These stations 
yield a considerable quantity of gold, 
about 24,000 taels of 1| dollars in 
weight yearly, amounting to 120,0001. 
and also the esculent bird nests so 
much admired by the Chinese. In 
exchange for these commodities, the 
natives, besides the articles above 
enumerated, take a considerable 
quantity of Bengal opium. 

The chief productions of this island 
are rice, which it can afl'ord to ex- 
port ; and cotton, of which the na- 
tives make womens' dresses, called 
cambays, which are much esteemed 
ail over the Eastern Archipelago. 
The Buggess cambays, though often 
only one garment, which completely 
covers the wearer, are often sold 
from six to 10 Spanish dollars each. 
Some arc as tine as cambric, very 
strongly wove, but dull coloured, 
being a chequered fabric, resembling 
tartan. The export to Bencoolen of 
cambays Mas formerly so great, that 
it w;»s necessary to lay a heavy duty 
on the article, as it interfered with 
the importations from Hindostau. 
The Buggesses also manufacture, 
from the inner bark of a small tree, 



200 



CELEBES. 



a kind of paper, in Avhich ihey wrap 
their fine camba} s. Thit; paper they 
dye of various colours, and export 
much of it to jManilla, and various 
other places. It resembles the Ota- 
heitc clothing. The Bug-gesses im- 
port cotton, both raw and spun, into 
yarn, from the Island of Bally, and 
manufactmc beautifni silk belts for 
their creeses ; we are not informed 
from whence they procure the silk, 
but it is probably the production of 
China. 

The Macassars and Bng;p:esses 
make fire arms, but they cannot 
make gun locks. They also cast 
small brass gutis, which they call 
Rautakha, and are curious in filla- 
gjee-work, both in gold and silver. 
The large rautakhas are aliout six 
feet long, and carry balls of halt-a- 
poand Aveight They build tluir 
prows very tight, by dowling their 
planks together, as coopers do the 
head of a cask, and putting the back 
of a tree between them. whi( li af- 
terwards swells. Tlieythen fit their 
timbers to the plunks as at Bombay, 
but do not rabbit the planks, as is 
the cnstoni there. I'lieir largest 
prows seldom exceed 50 tons bnr- 
thcn, and they are bigotted to old 
models and fixtures in fitting up 
their vessels. 

The natives of Celebes have a 
great disposition for eounnerce, na- 
Tigation, and piracy. In these prows 
they are to be met Avith all over the 
Eastern Seas, and are often found 
on the northern coast of New Hol- 
land, where they go to fish for sea 
swallo, or biche de mar, which they 
sell to the annual Chinese junk when 
it arrives at Macassar. To Bencoo- 
len they used to carry, in fieets, a 
mixed cargo, consisting of spices, 
wax, cassia, sandel wood, dollars, 
and tlie cloths of Celebes, called 
caml)ays. This tratlic is now , in a 
great ivcasiue, transfeired to Prince 
of Wales Island ; and they also, in 
their prows, visit Malaeea, Ac been, 
Queda, and i\Ianilla; ou trading 
vo.yagcs. 

The gold of Celci>os is generally 



procured, as on Sumatra, from the 
beds of rivers and torrents. There 
are many springs issuing from cre- 
vices of rocks, that bring some little 
gold along Avith their water, Avhich, 
filtering through a vessel bottomed 
with sand, leaves the metal behind. 
Of the various nations Avho inha- 
bit Celebes the Bounians, or Bou- 
ginese (called Bugges.ses by the 
English), and the iMacassars, arc 
the best known ; the lattei- Jiavirig 
been long in subjection to the Dutch. 
The Buggesscs are at present the 
most powerful nation on the Lsland. 
Tlic}'^ are of a middling stature, 
strong and muscular, and of a light 
broAvn complexion. The Macassars 
arc not so handsome, bnt have a 
more manly and martial appear- 
ance. Their dress consists of a 
]>iece of cotton cloth, red or blue, 
Avound round the body, and draAvn 
tight between the leg.s. Upon their 
heads they AA'ear a ])iece of cotton 
cloth like a handkei chief, « ith Avhich 
they cover their hair, Avhich is very 
black and long. I'heir food is rice, 
fish, and pisang, and their drink 
Avater ; though they likewise have 
sagwire, or pahn Avinc. The Bou- 
ginese A\'omeu are, in general, hand- 
somer than the females of the other 
islands, and the Macassars and Bug- 
gesses are considered, by the other 
insulars, as a class of superior man- 
ners. The Malays affect to copy 
their style ofdre.s.s, and irequent al- 
hisions are made in their songs to 
the feats and atchievements of the 
Buggesscs, Avho are a high-spirited 
people, fond of adventures and na- 
vigation, and capable of undertaking' 
tlie most dangerous enterprises. 
Among Eurojjeans in the Eastern 
Isles the Avord Buggcss has come to 
signify a soldier, the same as sepoy 
on the Continent of Hindostan. 
'J'hcir laAVs are administered accord- 
ing to old customs handed doAvn 
lioHi tlicir ancestors, and generally 
merely retained in the memory <»f 
their oran tuo, or old men, tboiigii, 
in some parts, they are conmiitted 
to writing, lu dubious ca.scs they 



CEYLON. 



261 



rcfir to the Koran, if applicjible. 
The relip;ioii of l!ioM;i(ass:iis, IjHR- 
fCesscs, and Malays of the sea-coast, 
is the iMaliommcdan, wliich allows 
the men four h'^n\ wives, if they 
can maintain them; but, in the in- 
terior, there are tril)os not yet eon- 
vertcd from their ancient religion, 
and others who do not seem to liave 
any. 

Tiie Bnggcss may he reckoned 
the oriijinal Ian2;ua»e of tlie Island 
of Celebes. The AFalays on the 
sea-coast sjicak a dialect j^reatly 
mix<-d with Brii'g;('ss, and often nse 
the Bng£?ess character to e\{)rcss 
tJieir own lan<;iiag,e. Celebes was 
formerly divided into seven princi- 
palities, which were all nnited un- 
der an elective and limited mo- 
narchy. Ill this state the island was 
the centre of eastern commerce, and 
extended its conquests, on the one 
hand, as far as the Island of I'aliy ; 
and, on the other, beyond the IMo- 
Inrcas. I'hc i>u<rs;;ess langna<ie was 
assidnonssy cnltivated, and their an- 
cient mytiiolojiy, traditions, laws, 
and history, preserved in books, the 
greater part of wiiich are still ex- 
tant, especially in the interior, 
among" the tribes who still adhere to 
iheir ancient reli2,ion. The dial<^ct 
of JMaeassar dill'crs considerably 
Iron) the proper Bn;j,j!;ess; but tlic 
dialects of Loboe, Jilmekaii';-, Aland- 
bar, and esi)ecially of Toaradja, ap- 
pear almost (liliereiit !anu:na,<!,cs. 

'J'liis island appears to have been 
known to .Ma|;clian and l'i»afetta, 
nnder the name of Celebi, but was 
not explored until liV25. 'J'he Por- 
tuguese early obtaiueil a seltiement 
near Macassitr, but were expelled by 
the Dutch in 166U, who have, until 
lately, entirely controlled the island, 
the Chinese alone htiw^ i)ermitted to 
trade with it. In cunse<jncnccofthe 
increasing strength of the state of 
Boni, the proper country of the 
Bugn-esses, dnriiii;; the last half of 
the iHth century, the power of the 
Dutch had been much on the de- 
cline in Cehibcs, and it was linally 
amaiiilatcd, in Ibl'i, b} the reduc- 



tion of IMacassar, and Fort Rotter- 
dam, in 1812, by the British forces. 
{Forrest, Stavorinus and Notes, Leij- 
den, Marsdeiiy ^-e.) 



CEYLON, {Smgluda). 

This island is situated at the 
western entrance of the Bay of Ben- 
gal, between b°. 40'. and 10°. 30'. 
N. and 7L»°. and 82° E. On the 
N. W. it is' separated from the 
Coromandel Coast by the Gulf of 
Manaar, and is distant about 160 
miles from Cape Comorin. From 
I'oint Pedro, at the northern ex- 
tremity, toDondraheadin the south- 
ern, the extreme length is about 300 
miles. The breadth is very unequal, 
being, in some parts, only from 40 
to 50, while, in other paits, it ex- 
tends to 60, 70, and 100 miles. To- 
wards the southern part it is much 
broader than in the northern, and 
nearly resembles a ham in shape. 

From the sea it presents a fresher 
green, and more fertile appearance 
than most parts of the Coromandel 
coast. 'I'he eastern shore is bold and 
rocky, and the water deep. The 
north and north-west coast from 
Point Pedro to Columbo is flat, and 
indented with inlets from the sea. 
The largest of them extends almost 
(piitc across the island from IMulli- 
pati to Jafnapatnam, of which it 
ionns the peninsula. Several of these 
inlets form small harbours, but so 
full is the N. W. coast of sand banks 
and shallows, that if is impossible 
for vessels of a large size to approach 
them. 

The interior of the island abounds 
with steep and lofty moimtains, 
covered with thick forests, and full 
of almost impenetrable jungles,which 
completely sinrotuid the dominions 
of the King of Candy. The most 
lofty range of mountains divides the 
island nearly into two jjarts, and so 
completely separates them from each 
other, that both climate and season 
dilferon the respective sides. These 
mountains als(i terminate the cliect 
of tho monsoons, which set iu pe- 



262 



CEYLON. 



riodically from opposite sidesof them, 
and are connected with Ihose on the 
Goromandel and Malabar coasis, and 
very nearly correspond with them. 
On the wes side, where Columbo 
lies, the rains prevail in the months 
of May, June, and July, the season 
they are felt on the Malabar coast. 
During; its continuation tlie northern 
parts of the island are hut little af- 
iected, and are generally dry. In 
tlic months of October and Novem- 
ber, when the opposite monsoon sets 
in on the (.'oromatulel coast, it is the 
north of Ceylon which is affected, 
and scaicely any impression is made 
in the south. 

All hough Ceylon lies so near to 
the equator, the heat is not so oppres- 
sive as on many parts of the Coro- 
maudel coast ; but this temperature 
is chiefly coniincd to the seu coast, 
where the sea breezes have room to 
circulate. 

Tiie principal harliours in the 
island for large ships are Trincomale 
and i-oint de tialle; they also come 
to anchor, and at certam seasons of 
the year moor securely in the roads 
ofCohmibo. 71iere are several other 
infeiior ports all round the island, 
whit ;: afford shelter to smaller fish- 
ing vessels. These are Batacolo, 
Barbareen, Matura, and Caliura, on 
the south east; and on tlic north- 
west coast are Negumbo, Chilou, Cal- 
penteen, Manaar, and Point Pedro. 

The rivers are seldom navigable to 
any considerable distance inland; 
the two principal are the MahAa- 
gonga and the Mulivaddy. The 
first takes its rise among the hills to 
the south east of Candy, almost sur- 
rounds that city, and afterwards falls 
into the sea near Trincomale. The 
Mulivaddy rises at the foot of a very 
high mountain, known to Europeans 
by the name of Adam's Peak, and 
situated about 60 miles to the north 
east of Columbo. Besides the rivers 
of Ceylon, there are many lakes and 
canals comtnunicatiug with them, 
particularly in the neighbourhood of 
Columbo and Nigumbo. 

Ceylon was originally divided into 



a number of distinct petty kingdoms, 
separated by rivers and mountains, 
and subject each to its own inde- 
pendent sovereign. In process of tima 
the whole country was subjected by 
the King of Candy, and divided into 
a few great provitices, viz. Cand}, 
Coiton, INIatura, Dambadar, and Sit- 
tivacca, which last formerly included 
the rich cinnamon districts on the 
west coast. The chief of these pro- 
vinces was Candy, the residence of 
the king, and where he still holds 
his court. The abovementioned 
provinces were subdivided into dis- 
tricts, known in Ceylon by the name 
of corles, which subdivisions were 
continued in the districts wrested 
from the natives by the Dutch. 

The great divisions of the island 
are now reduced to two; the one 
comprehending those parts under 
the dominion of Emopeans, and the 
other the centrical country remain-, 
ing to the natives. 

The internal wealth, as well as 
population of Ceylon, lies on the 
west and south-west coasts ; while 
Trincomale, the secure station for 
shipping, which renders the island of 
so much importance to the British 
nation, lies at the opposite side, and 
on the most barren quarter of the 
island. The sea coast, from Manaar 
to Nigumbo, a distance of 125 miles, 
presents in general nothing but the 
most barren and desert appearance, 
except where it is covered by almost 
impenetrable jungles. A gieat va^ 
riety of curious shells are found 
along the shores, and some of them 
very valuable. The mountain, called 
Hammalleel, or Adam's Peak, is one 
of the highest in Ceylon, and lies 
about 60 miles to the north east of 
Columbo. 

The proper name of this island is 
Smghala, from which the term Cey-. 
Ion was probably derived; by the 
Hindoos, on the contijient, it is 
named Lanca ; and, by the Mahom- 
niedans, Serendib. It is also frcr- 
quently named Taprobane ; a name 
which, perhaps, originates from Ta-t 
poo Havana, or the Island of Ravau, 



CEYLON. 



263 



a ni)tIu)looi(aI soveicig:ii, in limes of 
I'finolc Hindoo anliqiiil}, conquered 
|jy tlic great Kama, King of Oiide, 
as narrated in the Kainayoon. 

The first meridian of the Hindoos 
passes through the city of Oojain, in 
tiie province of Malwah, of uhich we 
know tlie position ; but as Lanca 
(which signifies the equinoctial j)oint) 
falls therefore to the Avest of Ceylon, 
the Indians believe tiiat the island 
had formerly a much larger extent; 
and appearances between Ceylon 
and the Maldives Islands, in some 
degree, justify that belief. The Ri- 
ver Mavaligoiiga has probably taken 
its origin frojn liali, a hero famous in 
Jlindoo romance; from whom, also, 
tile town of Mavalipuram, on the 
Coroniandel coast, derives its appel- 
lation. 

The soil of Ceylon is, in general, 
sandy, with but a small mixture of 
clay. In the south-west parts, par- 
ticularly about Columbo, there is a 
great deal of marshy land, very rich 
and productive. This tract is chiefly 
occupied with cinnamon plantations ; 
and the island, taken altogethei-, does 
not produce rice suflicient for the 
inhabitants — yearly supplies from 
Bengal and other parts being re- 
quired. 

Tlie seeds of all European plants 
degenerate very much in this climate 
ill a few years, and soon yield but 
an indifferent produce. To preserve 
the quality it is absolutely necessary 
to have a fresh importation of seeds 
nearly every year from their natural 
climates. The agriculture of the 
Ceylonese is still in its rudest stale. 
'I'hcir soil, when it can be watered, 
yields them a sufficient quantity of 
lice to maintain their existence ; and 
this seems to be as much as they 
desire. Tlieir jdough consists of a 
crooked piice of wood, shod with 
iron, which tears ratlier than ploughs 
np the ground. After the first plough- 
ing, the fields are flooded, and then 
ploughed anew ; and weeds are ex- 
tirpated with gieat care. When the 
ploughing season anives, each vil- 
lage makes it a common concern, 



and every one attends with his 
]j|ough and oxen, until the whole of 
the fields befonging to the society 
are finished ; and the same method 
is follow ed in reaping the grain, after 
which oxen are employed to head it 
out. 

The extreme indolence of the Cey- 
lonese makes them employ every 
expedient to escape from labotn-; 
and the small' quantity of food w liieh 
is necessary for the support of their 
existence enables them, throughout 
the greater part of the year, to live 
without doing any thing. 

Ceylon possesses a gref.t variety of 
animals, at the hend of which must 
be pineed the elephant. In 1797, 
17G of these animals were caught on 
account of government, and sent 
over for sale to the continent. The 
superiority of the Ceylon elephants 
does not consist in their size, for they 
are in general not so tall as those of 
the continent, but in their hardiness 
and strength, and in their great do- 
cility and freedom from vice and 
passion. The natives of Ceylon are 
so possessed with the idea of the ex- 
cellence of their own elephants, as 
to affirm, that the elephants of all xhe 
other parts of the world make a 
salam (obeisance) before those of 
Ceylon, and thus instinctively ac- 
knowledge their superioiity. 

Ceylon produces but few animals 
for domestic purposes, such as the 
horse, the latter being bred in the 
small islands in the Jafliiapatnani 
district. The oxen of Ceylon arc 
remarkably small; the beef, how- 
ever, is sometimes good, and is the 
chief food of the European soldiers 
stationed on the island. IJuflaloes 
are frequently employed in drav ing 
burthens, and are found in great 
numbers on the island, both wild and 
tame. Among the wild animals are 
deer, elks, gazelles, hares, wild hogs, 
and a small species of tiger. The 
larger kind, called the royal tiger, is 
not an inhabitant of Cev Ion ; but 
there are tiger-eats and leopards. 
There are no foxes; but jack alls, 
hyaenas, and bears, are numerous, 



264 Cr.YLON. 

besides an infinite variety of the 
inunkey tribe. 

All the European domestic poul- 
try are natives of Ceylon, as are also 
pheasai'.ts, parrots, and parroquets, 
both ^vik! and tame. Snipes, tlori- 
tans, storks, cranes, herons, water- 
fowl of all descriptions, piijeons, wild 
and domesticated, and a tiew pai- 
tridges of the red-ieg,j;ed kind. 
Among the variety of birds is the 
honey-bird, which points out where 
the bees have deposited their combs. 
Crows here, as in every other part of 
India, arc exceeding!}- impudent and 
abundant. There are also taylor- 
Lirds, two species of fly-catchers, and 
peacocks, wild and tame — also the 
common fowl in a wild state. 

The reptiles of Ceylon are exceed- 
ingly numerous; serpents in parti- 
cular abound, and are a gTeat annoy- 
ance to the inhabitants. Covra ca- 
pellas, or hooded snakes, ; ovra ma- 
iiillas, Mhip and grass snakes, arc all 
poisonous; the tliree last are of a 
very smail size. AVater and wood 
snakes are harmless. The rock snake 
is an immense animal, extending 30 
feet in length; but, though formi- 
dable from their size, they are per- 
fectly free from poiuon. They de- 
stroy some of the smaller animals, 
such as kids, goats, and poultry ; 
but the stories of their devouring 
larger aninjals, such as tigers and 
buffaloes, arc altogether fabulous. 
Alligators, of a prodigious sixe, infest 
the rivers of Ceylon, and have been 
killed 20 feet long, and as thick as 
the body of a Imrse. There are gua- 
nas, toads, lizards, blood-suckers, 
camelioiis, and leeches; as also flying 
li.'iards, and every species of tropical 
insect. Fish arc found in great abun- 
dance in the lakes and rivers of Cey- 
lon, as well as in the surrounding 
jicas. 

Ceylon is very prolific in plants. 
Among th.e fruits are apples, oranges, 
pomegramtcs, citrons, lemons, water 
melons, pumpkins, melons, sfjuashes, 
figs, almonds, mulberries, bilberries, 
mangoes, shaddocks, mangusteens, 
tose apples; cusLoo apples and uuls, 



custard appless, plaintains, jack fruit 
(a species of the bread-fruit), cocoa- 
nuts, and several sorts of pepper, 
cardamoms, coflee and '-.ugar tree, (a 
species of palm). The tea plant has 
also been discovered a native in the 
forests of the island. Of trees, Cey- 
lon contains the banyan, cotton tree, 
naudo wood, satin Avood, calaman- 
der wood, and ebony. 

As the food of the natives consists 
chiefly of rite, so their greatest la- 
bour is employed in its cultivation. 
They usually sow in July and Au- 
gust, and reap in February. \\ hen 
proper advantage