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(1614— 1617), 



Cranslatetr, toitift iEotPgi anti an ilntrotruction, 












**A great naval and commercial commonwealth, 
occupying a small portion of Europe, but con- 
quering a wide empire by the private enterprise 
of trading Companies, girdling the world with its 
innumerable dependencies in Asia, America, Africa, 
Australia — exercising sovereignty in Brazil, Guiana, 
the West Indies, New York, at the Cape of Good 
Hope, in Hindostan, Ceylon, Java, Sumatra, New 
Holland — must always be looked upon with in- 
terest by Englishmen, as in a great measure the 
precursor in their own scheme of empire." 




Sir Clements Markham, K.C.B., F.R.S. , President. 

The Right Hon. The Earl of Liverpool, Vice-President. 

The Right Hon, The Lord Amherst of Hackney, Vice-President. 

The Right Hon. Lord Belhaven and Stenton. 

Colonel George Earl Church. 

Sir William Martin Conway. 

George William Forrest, CLE. 

William Foster, B.A, 

The Right Hon. Sir George Taubman Goldie, K.C.M.G., 

Pres. R.G.S. 
Albert Gray, K.C. 
Edward Heawood, M.A. 

Colonel Sir Thomas Hungerford Holdich, K.C.M.G., K. C.S.I. 
John Scott Keltie, LL.D. 

Admiral Sir Albert Hastings Markham, K.C.B 
Captain John Franklin Parry, R.N. 
Ernest George Ravenstein. 

Admiral of the Fleet Sir F. W. Richards, G.C.B. 
Sir Richard Carnac Temple, Bart., CLE. 
Richard Stephen Whiteway. 

Basil H. Soulsby, B.A., F.S.A., Honorary Secretary. 



Speilbergen's Letter of 1607 
Remarks on Various Treatises 




ODE . . . 



de Madriga's Description of Peru 
The Kingdom of Chili 
Discourse by Apoloni Schot 
Description of the Forts 
List of Vessels 









Portrait of Jacob Le Maire^ . . Opposite 165 

To THE Reader . 65 

The Journal . . .169 


INDEX .253 

^ This is not in the Spiegel, and therefore not in the List of Plates on p. 9. 


HE two journals that form the 
present volume were first pub- 
lished together in the Dutch 
edition of 1619, from which 
version this translation is made, 
the Australische Navigatien^ of 
Jacob le Maire being there appended to J oris van 
Speilbergen's^ Nieuwe Oost ende West Indische 
Navigatien,'^ '* for this reason, to wit, that in this pre- 
ceding Journal or New East and West Indian Naviga- 
tions, mention is made* in passing Magellanes Strait 
of a thoroughfare into the South Sea, and moreover, 
that this aforementioned le Maire did take ship with 
the aforesaid J oris Spilbergen in order to return 
home, but died on the voyage."^ Since then they 
have seen the light in various languages, editions. 

^ The first version of which appeared in 161 8, under the name 
of Willem CorneUsz. Schouten. See infra (note 2, p. xxxi, 
p. xlvii) and the Bibhography. 

2 Concerning the adoption of this form of the name, see note 5, 

p. XXXV. 

^ Being the running title or head-Hne to Speilbergen's Journal. 
* Pp. 42 and 46. 5 P. 164. 


and abridgments — together, apart, and even under 
names other than those of their real authors — the 
full tale being given in the accompanying Biblio- 

Of Speilbergen's narrative no thoroughly satis- 
factory edition, complete in all its details, has 
appeared since the Dutch one of 1619. In dis- 
cussing the expedition to which it relates Captain 
Burney^ says, " The prudent management by which 
so many ships were kept together through such an 
extensive navigation, the care and attention shown 
for the preservation of his men, his steady pursuit 
of his duty in preferring the honour and service of 
his country to all other considerations, are so many 
evidences which the conduct of Admiral Spilbergen 
furnishes to prove that he possessed the most 
requisite talents of a great commander ; and there 
has seldom been found in the same man such a 
union of valour and circumspection." 

This appreciation is here introduced as being 
that of an experienced navigator ; unfortunately, 
Burney has perpetuated a deplorable error (origin- 
ating in a faulty French version^) in attribut- 

1 A Chronological History of the Voyages and Discoveries in the 
South Sea. London, 1806. Pt. ii, p. 352. 

2 Recueil des Voyages qui ont servi a V etablissement et aux 
progrez de la Compagnie des Indes Orientates, formee dans les 
Proinnces-Unies des Pais-Bas. (Edited by Rene Augustin Con- 
stantin de Renneville.) 10 torn. Rouen, 1725. This edition, out 
of several, has been selected for quotation here for the reason 
that the words " revue par Tauteur et consid^rablement aug- 
mentee " appear on the title-page, and because it was the edition 


Ing^ the authorship of Speilbergen's Journal to Jan 
Cornelisz. May,^ and it being imperative to explode 
such an error, slavishly copied by later historians 
and bibliographers, by tracing it to its source, it 
consequently becomes necessary to set out, some- 
what at length, the following details. 

A long dissertation might be written, after the 
manner in which Camus^ has treated the subject, 
upon the correlation of the various editions of the 
Nieuwe Oost ende West Indische Navigatien, and 
the sequence in which they appeared ; it will pro- 
bably serve every useful purpose, however, if here 
it be simply placed upon record that a very careful 
comparison of all the earlier editions proves the 
natural sequence of publication to be also biblio- 
graphically correct — i.e., that the Dutch edition 
published by Geelkercken at Amsterdam in 1619 
is the original version, being followed most closely 
and fully (though not always with a correct render- 
ing, and often with a frank, intelligible evasion of 

used by de Brosses. (See note 2, infra, and note 5 on p. xix.) 
For the passage in question, see note 3, p. xvii. 

^ Chronological History, pp. 330 and 353. Vide p. xx, note. 

2 It was first definitely so attributed, obviously on de Renne- 
vilie's authority, by Charles de Brosses (1709-177 7), President of 
the Parliament of Dijon, in his Histoire des Navigations aux 
Terres Australes, Paris, 1756, torn, i, p. 343. ( Vide note 5, p. xix.) 

^ Armand Gaston Camus (1740-1804), Secretary to the National 
Convention and Keeper of the Archives. In his work entitled 
Memoire sur la Collection [of de Bry and Thevenot] des Grands 
et Petits Voyages (Paris, 1802, pp. 153-159) he describes Speil- 
l)ergen's Journal at some length. See also note 5, pp. xix^ xx, 


the more obscure passages) by the French of 

It is of some importance to have established this, 
for neither the Latin edition, published at Leiden 
in 1 6 19, nor the above-mentioned French edition of 
1 62 1 has the dedication to the States-General, 
signed by Joris von Speilbergen^ — the former having 
in its stead a dedication by Geelkercken to Petrus 
Graef,^ whilst the latter commences with the Preface 
to the Reader. This omission of Speilbergen's own 
dedication from two versions which would naturally 
be more generally consulted by posterity than one 
in Dutch was to be deplored, for a sight of that 
document — so very emphatic in its language as to 
authorship — would have precluded the possibility of 
the error above alluded to taking root. 

In the Latin version of the Journal, dated 1620, 
in de Bry's Collection, where it forms AmericcB 
Tomi Undecimi Appendix, the title-page has Auctore 

1 Published by Jan Jansz., at Amsterdam, the translator's name 
not being mentioned. 

^ See pp. I and 2, following on this Introduction. 

^ Pieter Schrijver, also known as Petrus Scriverius or Petrus 
Graef, in accordance with the classicising tendency of the period, 
was born at Haarlem, January 12, 1576 ; historian and poet, he 
enjoyed the friendship of Grotius, Casaubon and Vondel, the 
last hailing him as the Dutch Martial, the first as Martiali? 
redivivus, whilst his name frequently occurs in the correspondence 
of all three. He died April 30, 1660. Though the absence of 
his biography from Van der Aa's Biographisch Woordenboek is 
one of the most striking omissions in that work, a very full 
account of his life is given in an edition of his poems, Gedichten 
van Petrus Scriverius, Amsterdam, 1738. 


M. Gothardo Arthusio Dantiscano, but that, of 
course, means only that it was translated (and pos- 
sibly arranged) by Gothard Arthus, of Dantzio-. It 
is not so close nor so full a rendering as that of 
1 619, but, though differing from it in form, is most 
evidently based directly upon it/ 

Purchas, the next great collector to include the 
Journal, gives it^ (much abridged) simply as The 
Voyage of George Spilbergen . . . gathered out of 
the Latine Journal l,^ without further remarks as to 
its authorship. 

It appears next in an important collection of 
voyages published in 1646 under the title Begin 
ende Voortgangh van de Vereenighde Nederlandtsche 
Geoctroyeerde Oost-Indische Compagnie,^ the value 
of the collection being enhanced by the extreme 
purity of the text,^ whilst its fame was spread and 

^ On this point Camus' remarks are perfectly correct. 
"L'edition de de Bry, quoique faite en latin, aussi bien que 
I'edition de Leyde, ne presente pas le meme texte. . . . Cepen- 
dant il est manifeste que le redacteur a travaille d'apres I'edition 
latine de 1619, dont il a employ^ souvent les expressions : mais 
il a fait quelques retranchemens dans les details." Op. cit.^ p. 154. 

^ Purchas His Pi/grimes, 1625. Lib. II, chap. 6. 
^ By internal evidence, from the Latin edition of 16 19, and not 
from de Bry. 

* The editor was Izaak Commelin, of Amsterdam ; born 1598, 
died 1676. He also published the Hollandsch Placcaatboek^ 
Amst., 1644, 2 vols., and wrote a life of Frederick Henry of 
Nassau, Prince of Orange, in two volumes, Amst, 165 1. 

^ It is peculiarly free from the typographical errors in proper 
names so common at that period, and is altogether the most 
accurate of any of the early works consulted during the compila- 


perpetuated by reason of its beinor so often quoted, 
at second-hand, in de Renneville's imperfect French 
version,^ by later writers who were either unable to 
procure it in the original or to read it when pro- 

The error which attributes the authorship of 
Speilbergen's Journal to Jan Cornelisz. May arose, 
according to all the evidence now procurable, through 
this corrupt French version of Commelin's collection 
in the following manner. 

The Dutch edition of 1 6 1 9 of the Spiegel has a 
number of plates, each accompanied by descriptive 
text, this text being always in roman type to distin- 
guish it from the text (in black letter) of the Journals 
themselves ; the difference, too, between the rude, 
colloquial Dutch of the former and the more polished 
style of the latter being most marked.^ Immediately 
after the description of Plate No. 19 — it would not 
be misleading to say, accompanying it, as the words, 
*' I have drawn this little map" (referring only to the 
inset of Booton I.) clearly indicate — is a document 
signed ]2Xi Cornelisz. Moy,^ written in the unpolished 
Dutch of the above-mentioned descriptions ;* it was 

tion of this Introduction and the notes accompanying the transla- 
tion of the Spiegel. It has an historical preface, manifestly 
written by one who was a master of his subject. 

1 Recueil des Voyages. See note 2, on p. xii. 

2 See note i opposite p. 24. 

^ Concerning this variation of the name, see note i on p. xxxii. 

* See the facsimile^ with translation, opposite p. 128. In that 
translation it has been printed as part of the description on the 
authority of the above quotation. It is entirely missing from the 


set up in black letter/ as if it formed part of the 
text, and in black letter also in the Begin ende 
Voortgangh ; the editor of the latter collection, 
however, evidently recognising that it was an accom- 
panying document, not forming part of the text, had 
it set up in inverted commas.^ 

Though de Renneville's Recueil is quoted by 
geographical writers and bibliographers as a trans- 
lation of Commelin's Begin ende Voortgangh, it is 
nothing but an ill-proportioned, faulty abridgment 
in French of that collection, the rendering*^ of the 

French edition of 162 1, and appears in the Latin edition of 16 19 
(on p. 94) as part of the ordinary text, in a greatly abridged form, 
and without signature. 

1 Whether intentionally or not cannot be known ; it must be 
sufficient to state here undoubted facts only and to trust that the 
Dutch Archives, the classification of which is now being so 
exemplarily carried on, may one day yield evidence that will 
determine beyond all doubt (if any still exist) the true authorship 
of Speilbergen's Journal. (See p. xxi.) 

2 Begin ende Voortgangh, Deel. II, Pt. 18, p. 64. 

2 The following faulty rendering of May's note and its context 
should be compared with its true translation opposite p. 128, and 
with the accompanying /«<:i-/;«/7(? of the original, which shows how 
the continuity of the narrative was interrupted. (It will be seen 
that in the original May lays no claim to the compilation of the 
Molucca map, but only to that of the small inset of Booton I.) 

" II faut remarquer ici qu'en voulant terrir a Ternate, nous 
perdimes une journee de chemin, parce que pour nous rendre a 
la Ville, nous courilmes de I'Est a I'Ouest, au lieu que quand on 
court de I'Ouest a I'Est on la gagne. 

" Voici une Carte des Isles Moluques & de Botton, que moi 
Jean Cornelisz de Moye ai dessinee avec toute I'exactitude pos- 
sible, pendant les diverses navigations que j'y ai faites, sur tout 
dans le detroit de Botton, 011 je me suis applique a observer tout. 



descriptive note above referred to, without inverts, 
with May's mis-spelt signature brought up into the 
text, and the whole incorporated, furthermore, as 
part of the actual Journal, being but one out of a 
thousand examples of the unreliability and sloven- 
liness of the work. 

It would not be surprising if a casual reader 
of de Renneville's Recueil, chancing upon this 
passage, should think it fair evidence of author- 
ship, but for editors and writers like de Brosses,^ 

On trouve toujours fond dan ce detroit, & les chiffres qu'on y 
voit en marquent la profondeur ; les cinq zeros ooooo marquent 
les endroits ou il n'y a point de fond, ou du moins qu'il y a plus 
de ICO brasses de profondeur, ou bien il faudroit etre tout proche 
de terre. Dans une des petites bales qui sont du cote Oriental, 
il y a une bonne aiguade, ou j'ai fait deux fois de I'eau, me 
tenant sous voiles, & faisant de petites bordees, pendant qu'on 
amenoit les ft\tailles a bord, parce qu'il n'y avoit pas moien d'y 
ancrer ; ce qui se faisoit assez aisement. Au reste, je n'ai rien 
marque que je n'aie vu, ou sonde moi-meme. C'est par cette 
raison qu'on y trouve certains pais qui ne sont pas entierement 
dessinez, & vers lesquels du cote de I'Ouest git un bas-fond de 
4 a 6 brasses de profondeur, fond de roche, ainsi que me I'ont 
assur^ Jean Krijn, et plusieurs autres, qui y ont navige, & qui 
ont vu clairement le fond. 

" Le 3 d'Avril i6i6 il vint a Maleie un navire charge a la Chine. 
II fut promtement d^charge, & les marchandises furent portees dans 
les magasins." Recueil des Voyages (Nouvelle edition, revue par 
I'Auteur, 1725), tom viii, pp. 104, 105. 

^ Histoire des Navigations aux Terres Australes. Paris, 1756, 
tom. I, p. 343. It is just possible that de Brosses may have been 
confirmed in his error by misunderstanding the appellation 
nauderus (captain, skipper) applied to May in the Latin version, 
published by de Bry in 16 19 (tom. xi. Appendix, pp. 47 and 49), 
(that version being a translation, with slight abridgments, of the 


Callander/ Camus,^ Burney,^ and finally, Tiele,* to 
have accepted it as such without further investiga- 
tion is almost incredible, particularly when it is 
remembered that before the publication of the 
Recueil no mention can be found of this authorship 
attributed to May. 

Yet all these later writers put the critic on his 
guard by their ingenuous references^ and their open 

English version quoted on p. xxxi, note 2) and taking it to mean 
ships' clerk or writer. As shown in note 5, infra^ de Bry was one 
of de Brosses' authorities. 

1 John Callander, Terra Australis Cognita : or, Voyages to 
the Terra Australis. Edinburgh, 1768, vol. ii, p. 191. 

2 Memoire sur la Collection des Grands et Petits Voyages. 
Paris, 1802, p. 154. 

^ James Burney. A Chronological History of the Voyages and 
Discoveries in the South Sea. London, 1806, pt. ii, p. 330. 

^ P. A. Tiele, Librarian of Leiden University. Memoire 
bibliographique sur les Journaux des Navigateurs Neerlandais. 
Amsterdam, 1867, p. 70. 

^ de Brosses. Op. cit, tom I, p. 343. "George Spilberg, En 
Magellanique. Son journal ecrit en hollandois par Jean Cornelitz 
de Maye, est imprim^ en latin dans les grands voyages de Th. de 
Bry ; en anglois dans Purchas, tom. I, liv. ii, chap. 6 ; en frangois 
dans le VIII tom. du recueil de la compagnie des Indes. 
Rouen, 1725, in 12." 

Callander. Op. cit., vol. ii, p. 191. "George Spilberg to 
Magellanica and Polynesia. The original journal of this voyage 
was composed by John Cornelitz de Maye, in Low-Dutch, whence 
it was translated and published in Latin by Theodore de Brye. 
Purchas has inserted it in his Collection, vol. I, lib. ii, cap. 6. 
It is also to be found in the collection of voyages of the Dutch 
East India Company, tome VIII, Amst. 17 16." 

Camus. Op. cit., p. 153. " Ce voyage de Spilberg, qui forme 
I'appendix a la onzibme partie des grands voyages [of de Bry], 
publiee en 1620, a ete donne pour la premiere fois au pubhc, a 



or implied admissions that they consulted only 
certain editions, and in no case, except, perhaps, 
that of Tiele, the Dutch original of Speilbergen's 
Journal ; as has been shown above/ it was just 

Leyde, en 16x9, par Nicolas de Geelkercken, in-4° oblong. Le 
recit du voyage de le Maire y est joint ; le titre des deux ouvrages 
reunis est : Speculum orientalis occidentalisque Indies navtga- 
tionumr ... p. 154. "Lestrois editions que j'ai confrontees, 
savoir I'edition latine de Leyde en 16 19, de de Bry en 1630, 
et de I'auteur du recueil des voyages qui ont servi a I'etab- 
lissement de la Compagnie des Indes,"^ sont les memes pour le 
fond, mais elles ont des differences qui exigent qu'on les compare 
entre elles, ou plutot que Ton se fixe a I'edit.f de 16 19. Celle-ci 
paroit etre le prototype des autres et I'original de la relation redigee 
par Corneille de Maye, lequel etoit un des navigateurs. | 

Burney. Op. cit.^ pt. ii., p. 330. "An account, in the form of 
a Journal, of the voyage of Admiral Spilbergen round the World- 
accompanied with charts and plates, was published soon after the 
completion of the voyage. It was written by Jan CorneHsz May, 
alias Mensch-eter, principal mariner or Ship-master in Admiral 
Spilbergen's ship, and is the only original account of the ex- 
pedition that has appeared. Translations of May's Journal were 
published in different languages. . . . The copy followed in this 
work is a French translation printed at Amsterdam in 162 1, in a 
work entitled Miroir Oost 6^ West Judical"^ 

Tiele. Mhnoire Bibliographique, p. 70. Vide pp. xxii, xxlii. 

^ P. xiv. 

* The quotation of this title proves, of course, that it was not Commelin's 
original Dutch version, but de Renneville's abridgment that Camus consulted. 

t The Latin one, since that was the only edition of 16 19 he saw, 

X So that Camus, who does not mention the Dutch edition of 16 19 at all, 
and appears to be ignorant even of its existence, supposes the worthy skipper, 
Jan Cornelisz. May, who wrote such rude, unpolished Dutch, capable of com- 
posing the long narrative of the Journal in Latin ! 

§ But, strangely enough {vide note 4, p. xvi), May's descriptive note of 
Booton L is entirely omitted from that French translation, so that Burney 
must have obtained his erroneous information concerning the authorship of tlie 
Journal from de Renneville and de Brosses, both of whom he quotes pretty 
freely throughout his work. 


those editions from which [Speilbergen's own sig- 
nature was missing, May's descriptive note being 
absent, too, from the French edition of 1621,^ whilst 
it appears only in a mutilated form in the Latin 
of 1619.^ 

A careful search among the papers of the Dutch 
East India Company deposited in the Rijks Archief 
at The Hague, very courteously undertaken by 
Dr. J. de Hullu, who has especial charge of that 
section, has failed to bring to light any MS. Journal 
of Speilbergen's Nieuwe Oost ende West Indische 
Navigatien ; it would have been interesting to 
compare the caligraphy of such a manuscript, if 
found, with the Journal (in the Rijks ArchieP) of an 
expedition undertaken to Spitsbergen and Novaya 
Zemlya by Jan Cornelisz. May in 161 1 and 161 2.* 

My friend. Dr. A. Telting, second in command at 
the Rijks Archief, has been good enough to com- 
municate to me a resolution^ of the Board of Direc- 

^ Vide note 4, p. xvi, and note §, p. xx. 

2 Vide note 4, p. xvi. 

^ According to de Jonge, Opkomst van het Nederlandsch Gezag 
in Oost- Indie, 1862, Deel. I, p. 30. 

^ For that expedition see pp. xxix and xxx. 

^ " Resolutie van de Vergadering van XVII. Woonsdach den 
15 Mayo, 1 619. In dese vergaderinge gesien sijnde seker boeck, 
geintituleert Oost-ende West-Indische Spiegel der Twee leste 
navigatien bij Joris van Spilbergen uijtgegeven ende gedediceert 
aen de Ho : Mo : heeren Staten-Generael) ende den doorluchtigen 
Prince van Orange, is verstaen (alsoo men daer vele onwaerheden 
in is vindende ende tselve is strijdende tegens het placcaet van 
den Ho. Mo. heeren Staten-Generael) dat men sal trachten tselve 
boeck te doen ophouden door alle behoorlijcke ende mogelijcke 
middelen. Ende sijn gecommiteert d'heeren Burgermr. Gerrit 
Jacob Witsen ende Adriaen Paeuw Reynierssoon, raedt ende 


tors of the East India Company, wherein that 
assembly manifests much Irritation against the 
Spiegel {'' o\x etaient devollees," says Tlele,^ " plu- 
sleurs choses quelle auralt probablement voulu tenir 
secretes "), and suggests that this resolution Is good 
evidence that the Journal was not handed over to 
the Directors of the Company In manuscript, but 
only brought to their cognisance after It came from 
the press. 

Tiele (an eminent bibliographical authority from 
whom more close and thorough investigation might 
have been expected) further says in the passage 
quoted above, " Nous ne saurions nommer la source 
oil Meusel a pulse pour attribuer ^ dans sa Biblio- 

pensionaris der stadt Amsterdam, omme tseFve bij de Ho. Mo. 
heeren Staten-Generael te vervoorderen." 

''Resolution of the Assembly of XVII. Wednesday, 15 May, 
16 1 9. There having been seen in this Assembly a certain book, 
entitled East and West Indian Mirror of the Two last Voyages, 
published by Joris van Spilbergen and dedicated to Their High 
Mightinesses the States General and to His Serene Highness the 
Prince of Orange, it has been resolved (since many untruths are 
to be found therein and it violates a proclamation of Their High 
Mightinesses the States-General) to endeavour to stop the said 
book by every expedient and possible means. And Messieurs 
Burgomaster Gerrit Jacob Witsen and Adriaen Paeuw Reyniers- 
soon, councillor and pensionary of the town of Amsterdam, are 
charged with the furtherance of this matter in the States- 

1 Memoire Bibliographique^ p. 70. 

2 In these words : " Diarium itineris ipsum Joh. Cornelius de 
Maye conscripsit." Loc. cit. Bibliotheca Historica. histructa a 
Burcardo Gottheif Struvio, aucta a Christi. Gottlieb Budero, nunc 
vero a Joanne Georgio Meuselio ita digesta, amplificata et emendata, 
ut paene novum opus videri p&ssit. 11 vol. Lipsiae, 1 782-1 802. 


theca historica (III, 2, p. 120) la ccmposition du 
Journal de Spilbergen, et en particulier de; la carte 
du detroit de Magellan, a May — qu'il nomme a tort 
de Maye / — mais ce qui est certain, c'est que dans 
le texte du journal hollandais, a I'endroit ou est 
indiquee la carte des iles de Tlnde Orientale (No. 19), 
May se designe lul-meme comme le dessinateur de la 
petite carte du detroit de Botton ; detroit quil avail 
lui-meme plusieurs fois franchi et examine. Dans 
I'edition latine le nom et omis, mais le temoignage 
subsiste dans I'emploi de la premiere personne. 
Dans I'edition fran^aise, I'addition est entierement 

It will be seen that Tiele was " burning," as the 
children say in their game. He had all the facts 
before him. If he had only compared the Dutch 
edition, of which he speaks, with the mutilated 
version given by de Renneville, which Meusel ac- 
tually quotes as an (possibly the only) edition 
consulted by him, he would probably have detected 
where the first " deraillement" took place. 

What do we know of the man who, for exactly one 
hundred and fifty years^ has posed, malgre lui, as 
the author of Speilbergen's Journal ? 

Lack of material renders it almost hopeless, after 
this lapse of time, to compile a full account of the 

1 But quite naturally, for it has been shown above (see p. xix, 
note 5), that Meusel's predecessors, de Brosses and Callander, 
called him so. 

2 It was de Brosses, in 1756 {Vide p. xviii, note i, and p. xix, 
note 5), who was the first definitely to make the statement. 

icxiv iNTRODUCTlON. 

doings, especially of the early ones, of Jan Corne- 
liszoon May, alias Menscheter or Anthropophagus,^ 
and it was probably this fact which led to his being 
confounded, by an eminent and generally most care- 
ful bibliographer, with another navigator of a some- 
what similar name, though of a slightly earlier 

Dr. G. M. Asher, in his Introduction to Henry 
Hudson, the Navigator^ speaks of " Cornelis Cor- 
neliszoon Nai, also called Menscheter or Anthropo- 
phagus, a seaman of consideral experience,'' taking 
part, already in 1594, in an expedition to Novaya 
Zemlya fitted up by Moucheron and his Enkhuizen 
friends.^ This unfortunate transference by Asher, 
who adduces no warrant or authority for so doing* 
of the sobriquet borne by Jan Corneliszoon May to 
Cornelis Corneliszoon Nai, would naturally tend to 
the confusion of the two in the eyes of posterity, and 
it is therefore expedient, in view of Dr. Asher's 
standing, to interpolate here a few bio-bibliographi- 
cal details in order to clear up another error, lightly 
made and hitherto unrefuted. 

^ Journael ofte Beschrijvinghe van de wonderlicke reyse ghedaen 
door Will 6711 Come lis z Schouten vafi Hoorn inden Jaren 161 5, 
1616, en 1617. Amsterdam, 1624, pp. 53 and 56. See also /«/"/-«, 
note 3 on pp. xxxi, xxxii, for an earlier version, in English, 
where he is likewise so designated. 

It is most probable that the sobriquet of menscheter, or man- 
eater, is, as Tiele {pp. cit., p. 70) ingeniously suggests, a jeu de 
mots — may, maai, or made, signifying in Dutch a maggot. 

2 Hakl. Soc. Publications, i860, Ser. I, vol. 27, p. cxxxiii. 

^ Op. cit., p. cxxxv. 


Jan Huyghen van Linschoten, an authority in 
every sense of the word, who took part in the 
expeditions of which he wrote, mentions, in his 
description of the voyage of 1594 alluded to by 
Asher, as "superintendent" of the three vessels, 
*' one Cornelis Cornelisz. Nay, skipper of the Zeeland 
ship, as one who had been for some time employed 
(as Moucheron relates) as a pilot to Moscovia, and 
had by long custom good experience of the shores 
of the north. "^ And in three other passages in the 
same volume (one in the same Voyage,^ two in the 
Second Voyage^ made northwards, in 1595) the name 
of Cornelis Cornelisz. Nay is always found without 
any further suffix. 

In a much-quoted work written by two Dutch 

^ Voyage ofte schipvaert van Jan Huyghen van Linschoten^ van 
bij Noorden om door de Engte van Nassau . . . Anno 1594. 
Franeker, 1601, fol. 3. 

This edition is quoted here (and has been consulted in addition 
to the slightly earlier one published at Amsterdam) by reason of 
its being the one cited by Dr. Beke {vide infra, note 3). 

2 Fol. 23. " Alhier wesende nam den Ammerael Cornelis 
Cornelisz. sijn afscheydt van ons." 

^ Z>e Tweede Reyse afte Schipvaert van Jan Huygen van Lins- 
schoten . . . bij Noorden-o7n . . . Anno 1595. Franeker, 1601. 

Fol. 24. " Zijnde Ammerael ofte Superintendent vande Vloot 
ofte Schepen Cornelis Cornelisz. Nay op't schip van Zeelandt." 

Fol. 34. This is a protest drawn up by the Admiral Cornelis 
Cornelisz., and signed by him and others. For an English version 
see A True Description of Three Voyages by the North-East 
. . . Undertaken . . . by Gerrit de Veer. Edited by Charles 
T. Beke, Phil. D., F.S.A. {ffakl. Soc. Publications, 1853). 
Introduction, pp. Ixiii-lxxv. 


scholars at the commencement of the last century/ 
and published by the " Provinclaal Utrechtsche 
Genootschap," the Superintendent or Admiral Cor- 
nelis Cornelisz. Naij, is also constantly spoken of 
without epithet.^ 

In 1853, Dr. Charles Beke edited for the Hakluyt 
Society Gerrit de Veer's Three Voyages by the 
North-East,^ and following Linschoten closely both 
in text and in his own learned Introduction, naturally 
always wrote of Cornelis Cornelisz. Nai} What, 
then, must be our astonishment to find Asher, in 
i860, whilst making copious use of Beke's work, 
confusing us by tacking the epithet belonging to Jan 
Cornelisz. May on to Cornelis Cornelisz. Nai ?^ 
Fortunately, there came soon after him an historian 
in whose invaluable work^ implicit reliance may be 
placed, who had at hand not only the various books 
quoted above, but also in his charge the vast col- 
lection of unpublished documents known as the 
Old Colonial Archives of the Netherlands. 

^ Verhandeling over de Nederlandsche Ontdekkingen in Amerika, 
Atistralie, de Indien en de PooUanden . . . door R. G. Bennet en 
J. van Wijk, Utrecht, 1827. 

2 Op. cit,^ pp. 26, 29, 46, and in the lists ad fin. 

3 See note 3 on p. xxv. * Ibid. 

^ Vide supra J p. xxiv. 

^ Unfortunately limited to all too short a period, and modestly 
entitled De Opkomst van het Nederlandsch Gezag ijt Oost-Indie 
(1595-1610). Verzameling van onuitgegeven siukken uit het Oud 
Kolcniaal Archie/. Uiigegevcn en bewcrkt door Jhr. Mr. J. K. J. 
dejonge. 3 vol. 1 862-1 865. 



De Jonge deals very gently with Asher, whose 
work he quotes/ by making no reference to his 
contemporary's blunder, which he must have noticed, 
but speaks repeatedly, with distinct differentiation 
between the two, both of Cornelis Cornelisz., of 
Enkhuizen, who had sailed to Moscovia for many 
years for the Moucherons,"^ and of Jan Cornelisz. 
May.^ Was it likewise his extreme delicacy which 
prompted him, out of respect for Dr. Beke, whose 
work he also quotes and praises greatly,* purposely 
to omit, without comment, the surname of Nai 
in the former case, therein disregarding the high 
authority of Linschoten, who repeatedly uses it ? 
Whatever may have led him to make the omission, 
it may safely be assumed that de Jonge was unable 
to find any documentary evidence to entitle Cornelis 
Cornelisz. to the suffix of Nay f concerning May, 
however, there was no lack of material, and in de 
Jonge's own keeping, wherefore we follow him in 
resuming our account of that worthy, and the thread 
of our research into the authorship of Speilbergen's 

Jan Cornelisz. May is first introduced to us^ as 
skipper of the Vriesland, one of eight vessels that 

1 Op, cit, Deel. I, p. 27. 

2 Op. cit., Deel. I, pp. 18, 19, and 21. 
2 Vide infra, pp. xxvii-xxx. 

* Op. cit, Deel. I, p. 23. 

^ The Admiral's protest, adduced by Linschoten {vide supra ^ 
note 3, p. xxv), was signed simply Cornelis Cornelisz. 
^ De Jonge. Opkomst. Deel. II, p. 204. 


sailed from Texel for the East on May i, 1598, 
under the command of Admiral Jacob van Neck, 
the Vice-Admirals being Wijbrand van Warwijck, 
and later, Jacob van Heemskerck. A journal was 
kept by the latter from May i, 1598, to May 19, 
1600, from which de Jonge gives a lengthy extract,^ 
and wherefrom we learn that May was transferred 
to the Zee/and on January 5, 1599,^ his own ship, 
the Vrieslandy returning home. 

Under date of July 7, 11 and 12, 1599, there 
are some interesting entries,^ curiously corroborating 

1 Op, cit. Deel. II, pp. 385-454. 

2 Op. cit. Deel. II, p. 399. 

3 Op. cit.^ Deel. II, pp. 445, 446 :— 

" 7 July, Woensdachs, Jan Corneliss. ende syn stierman aen 
boort gehadt, is beslooten W.S.W. aen te loopen om de Cadipes 
ende Buton te beseylen. . . 

"11 July, Sondachs, van smorgens tot savonts langes Buton 
geseylt S.W., S.W. ten W., W.S.W., W.N.W. ; voort maendachs 
morgens N.W. ten W., doen waren wy by het eylant Cabayne. 

"12 July, Maendachs, S.O. son ontboot ick Jan Corneliss. 
schipper op Zeelandia ende wert voor best gevonden, dat wy 
onse seylen souden innemen ende dryven." 

[Transl.] "Wednesday, July 7, had Jan Corneliss. and his 
mate on board ; it was resolved to run W.S.W., in order to 
reach the Cadipes* and Buton . . . 

"Sunday, July 11, sailed along Buton from morning till even- 
ing, S.W., S.W. by W., W.S.W. and W.N.W. ; further Monday 
morning N.W. by W. ; then we were near the island of Cabayne.t 

" Monday, July 12, sun in the S.E., I summoned Jan Corneliss., 
skipper of the Zeelandia, and it was thought best that we should 
take in our sails and drift." 

* Kadoepan. See de Jonge, loc. cit. \ Cambyna. 


the document^ descriptive of Booton I. and its 
surrounding depths discussed at length above.^ On 
May 19, 1600, May returned to the Netherlands 
with Heemskerckj^and again sailed eastwards under 
Admiral Wolphert Harmensz., but in company 
once more with the former, on April 23, 1601/ 
the combined fleet of these two admirals, consisting 
of thirteen vessels, being the largest that, up to that 
time, had left the Netherlands for India. It split 
into two divisions at the Azores on May 8, 1601, 
Heemskerck proceeding direct to the Moluccas, 
Harmensz. to the Island of Mauritius and so to 
Bantam, which he reached only after a desperate 
fight with a Spanish-Portuguese Armada under 
Andrea Furtado de Mendoga in the roadstead off 
that town, wherein the Dutch were completely 
victorious. Wolphert Harmensz., still having May 
with him as skipper on the Zeeland, the Vice- 
Admiral's ship, set out homewards on August 25, 
1602, and reached Flushing in April of the following 
year.^ May's further doings until March 28, 1611, 
are not chronicled. 

On that date he sailed to the north in command 

^ Reproduced opposite p. 128. 

"^ Introduction, pp. xvi, xxi, and xxiii. 

^ de Jonge, Opkomst^ Deel. II, p. 209. 

^ Op. cit.^ Deel. II, pp. 261, 262. 

^ For the account of this voyage and famous naval encounter, 
see Begin ende Voortgangh, Deel. I, Pt. 9 (Joiirnael ofte dach- 
register vande Voyagie ghedaen onder . . . Admirael Wolfhart 
Harmansen . . . i6oi, 1602 ende 1603). 


of an expedition undertaken at the instance of the 
States-General, at the cost and under the orders of 
the Admiralty of Amsterdam, its main object bein^ to 
find a passage through Behring Straits, in those days 
called the Straits of Anian. From May to Septem- 
ber the vessels lay between Spitsbergen and Novaya 
Zemlya, reaching the latitude of fully 76 degrees; but 
they could not break through the ice, and therefore 
May proceeded west to the coasts of N. America, 
where he wintered and made important discoveries. 
On February 20 of the following year, he once 
more sailed eastwards, and reaching the shores of 
Novaya Zemlya found that the winter in those 
regions had been the severest within the memory of 
the inhabitants. There being thus no hope of 
attaining the aim for which the expedition had set 
out, he returned home in September, 1612.^ On 
August 8, 1 6 14, he sailed under Speilbergen. 

1 The MS. journal of this remarkable voyage is in the Rijks 
Archief at The Hague. De Jonge has a short resume of it in his 
Opkomst^ Deel. I, pp. 28-32. 

Here, too, it may be most expedient to remind the reader that 
Sir Martin Conway, in a work in which the present writer had the 
honour of being associated with him {Early Dutch and English 
Voyages to Spitsbergen^ Hakl. Soc, Ser. H, vol. xi, p. 83), also 
gives a useful warning in differentiating, apparently without the 
least doubt, Jan Cornelisz. May from the discoverer of Jan Mayen 
Island : — 

"In 16 14, a Dutch ship, with the pilot Joris Carolus on board, 
saw it and claimed it as a new discovery. Jan Jacobsz. May was 
the skipper, and the island takes its modern name from him. 
Later Dutch writers confound him with another skipper, Jan 
Cornelisz. May." 


In the slightly fuller account^ of Jacob le Maire's 
Australische Navigatien published under the name 
of Willem Cornelisz. Schouten- there are two pas- 
sages^ towards the end which show what position 

1 i.e.^ than the one pubhshed in this volume. 

2 The first edition in Dutch in the British Museum (Joumael 
ofte Beschrijvinghe van de wonder licke reyse ghedaen door Willem 
Cornelisz. Schouten van Hoorn inden Jaren 1615, 16 r 6 eit 161 7) 
is that of 1624 ; the first in EngHsh is that of 1619 {The Relation 
of a Wonderfull Voiage ?nade by William Cornelison Schouten of 
Home). The earliest extant is that of 16 18 in Dutch (see the 
Bibliography), and that mentioned by Camus (Memoire sur la 
Collection des Grands Voyages, Paris, 1802, p. 149) as of 161 7 
(Amsterdam, veuve Michel de Groot) cannot, according to Tiele 
{Memoire Bibliographique, 1867, p. 41), possibly have existed. 

2 These passages (which it will be interesting to compare with 
the text in this volume at pp. 229 and 231) run thus in the English 
edition above quoted, pp. 77, 78: — "The 17 we had a good 
gale, and did our best to get to Tar?iata, that morning betimes 
we saw a sayle to loofeward from us, which also made towards 
Tarnata, being the Morning Sarre of Rotterdam, of 300 Tunnes 
burthen, having in her 26 great pieces. At noone our Shalop 
came from that ship, where she had lyen 3 nights, they being in 
the Creeke of Sabou, found there the Admirall Verhaghen there, 
in one of the Admirall Speilberghis ships, by whose men we under- 
stood, that Speilberg being in the Straights of Magelan (which he 
past in 2 Monthes) had lost his smallest Pinnace, and that in the 
river of Spirito Santo, on the coast of Brasilia, hee had lost 
3 boates with men in them, that he had spoyled the towne of 
Payta, and had fought with 8 Spanish shippes, whereof he had 
suncke three, viz., the Admirall, the Vice-Admirall, and an other, 
without any great hurt, onely the losse of some men, and got 
nothing. That he had bin at Lima, and searched many creekes, 
where the Spanish ships lay up : and in one, wherein there was 
40 shippes, but did nothing, and that he sayled along by the 
coast of JVova Spania, through the Manillas to the east Indies 
being from thence gone homeward with John Cornelison Meu- 


May held in Spellbergen's fleet/ These may have 
lent some colour to the erroneous statement con- 

scheater"^^ with 4 ships : their names, the Amsterdam^ the armes of 
Amsterdam^ Zeland^ and Midleburgh.\ They also told us, that 
there were 10 ships well furnished at the Manillas, their generall 
being John Dirickeson Lam of Home, to set upon the Spanish 
fleete, that were comming to Tarnata. We also understood that 
Peter BotX sayling home with 4 Ships, was cast away, upon 
Mauricius Island, with 3 ships, by meanes of a storme that cast 
him upon the clififes, where many of his men and himselfe also 
was drowned, the 4 ship scapt. 

" The same evening we anchored before Maleye in Ternata, at 
II fathome sandy ground, with great Joy that we were come 
among our Countrymen, our Master and the Marchant went 
presently on shore, to speake with the Generall Laurence Real." 

P. 81. "Our ship being in this manner taken from us, some 
of our men put themselves into service with the east Indian 
company. The rest were put into two ships (that were to goe 
home into Holland), called the Amsterdam and the Zeland : their 
general], being George van Spielberghen, The master William 
Cornelison Schouten, and Jacob le Maire, 10 of our men, went 
with the generall in the Amsterdam, The masters name John 
Cornelison May, alias Meuscheater, and Aris Clawson and the 
Pilot Claus Peterson with 10 others in the Zeland, the masters 
name Cornells Riemlande of Midleburgh, which set sayle from 
Bantam the 14 of December." 

^ In the only instance in which his name appears in the 
Spiegel% it is spelt Moy, but little importance attaches to this 
variation of the vowel, probably a printer's error ; even admitting 

* i.e., Jan Cornelisz. May, vide infra, in the second extract. 

f Concerning the names of these vessels, vide p. 153, note. 

X An account of the interesting Hfe of this intrepid mariner (including; the 
occurrence mentioned above), is given by van der Aa {Biographisch Woorden- 
boek), whilst a relation of his first expedition to the East is found in Commelin's 
Begin ende Voortgangh (Deel. I, Pt. 6), Kort Verhael ofte Joiirnael van de 
reyse gedaen naer de Oost Indien met 4 schepen . . . onder den Admirael Pieter 
Both van Amesfort . . . in den Jar en 1599, 1600 ende 1601. 

§ Opposite p. 128. See also supra, p. xvi. 


cerning the authorship of the Journal in the eyes 
of those who never saw or heard of Speilbergen's 
Dedication to the States-General, which is to be 
found only in the Dutch versions of 1619 and 1621.^ 
That Dedication is, however, a pihe justificative 
that allows of no further discussion ; its restoration 
to its proper place restores the Journal to Speil- 
bergen, and relegates Jan Cornelisz. May to his 
skipper s post.^ 

But a much stronger and closer link than any 
forged by bibliographers binds May and Speilbergen 
together. It has been shown above^ how May 
makes his dSbut (so far as posterity is concerned) 
by serving two full years in the East under Jacob van 
Heemskerck, and fully to understand the value of 
such an apprenticeship and the influence it must have 
had upon his life and character we must read what 

the possibility that in the same fleet there could have been a Jan 
Cornelisz. Moy, competent to draw the map of Booton I. that 
forms the inset to plate No. 19 of the Spiegel^ and a Jan Cor- 
nelisz. May, skipper of the Admiral's ship and well acquainted 
with the East Indian navigation (a coincidence almost inconceiv- 
able), the extracts from Heemskerck's Journal given above* 
establish beyond all doubt the identity of Moy and May. 

1 Vide supra, p. xiv, and for the Dedication itself, pp. i, 2. 

^ No apology is, I trust, needed for the length of this exposd 
To remove a long-standing misconception, even at the risk of 
wearying the reader, I have deemed to be the unshirkable duty 
of an editor towards his author, the more imperative, indeed, 
when three centuries lie between them. 

2 Vide supra^ p. xxvii. 

* Vide p. xxviii, note 3, 


de Jonge says of Heemskerck when describing his 
return home from the expedition just alluded to. 
*' Jacob van Heemskerck, the man who had 
courageously wintered with Barendsz on the 
forbidding shores of Novaya Zemlya and was 
subsequently to lay down his life for his country 
in the Bay of Gibraltar, had now once more 
served his land and masters with zeal and dis- 
cretion. Though some decent writers have regarded 
the fame acquired by Heemskerck as being out of 
proportion to his merits, yet his conduct during 
this difficult expedition shows again how he pru- 
dently established trade in Banda, how he was 
equally ready with the pen and the sword, and how 
favourably he compared with his comrades both 
in his methods and manners. He was less of a 
rough sailor, more of a Drake or a Cavendish, a 
gentleman adventurer, somewhat proud and lofty, 
but polished and afraid of naught. He was not 
always acceptable to the old sea-dogs, for he was 
a man of a new age. When a somewhat too 
assertive and certainly too censorious factor, on 
the coast of Madura, gave utterance to the remark 
that the Company's ships and cargoes ought not to 
be so boldly risked, Heemskerck's cool, courageous 
answer was : * Where we risk our lives, the gentlemen 
of the Company must risk their ships and cargoes.' 
He had, moreover, one great merit as a commander. 
He knew how to inspire his men with a blind 
confidence in himself; and though the critic of a 
later generation may, seated at his desk, find the 


balance between fame and merit not perfectly true, 
the hands of Jack Tar were too rough to handle so 
fine an instrument. When Jacob van Heemskerck 
was on board, the sailors felt safe ; they grappled 
light-heartedly with the foe, and called the batde 
a * Heemskerck fight.' It was, too, the enterprise 
of Jacob van Heemskerck and Jacob van Neck 
that was the first to be crowned with success in 
India, and for that reason they, more than a 
Houtman,^ are to be regarded as the founders of 
the Dutch trade there. "^ 

It is surely a strange coincidence that in a letter^ 
to the States-General, dated May 9, 1607, announcing 
the death of this gallant sailor under the guns of 
Gibraltar, during an engagement in which May 
possibly (nay, probably) took part — for, as shown 
above, his doings are hidden from April, 1603, until 
March, 161 1 — we first come into touch with any- 
thing directly from the hand of Speilbergen him- 

The biography of J oris van Speilbergen,^ the 

1 See note i on p. xl. 

2 De Jonge, Opkomst van het Nederlandsch Gezag in Oost 
Indie, Deel. II, pp. 209, 210. 

3 The letter is given in extenso on pp. xlix-lv. 
^ Vide infra^ p. xxxvi. 

^ This form of the name has been adopted (in preference to 
and after full consideration of the claims of all others) for the 
following reasons. It is the form used by Speilbergen himself in 
signing the Dedication to the Journal, which appears in the 
Dutch edition of 1619; it is also the form adopted by Floris 



second Dutchman to circumnavigate the globe, has 
yet to be written ; let us hope by one of his own 
countrymen, with leisure, too, to exhaust the rich 
stores of the Netherlands Archives. The very 
meagre details given by the standard works tell us 
nothing beyond what may be learnt from the 
navigator's two Journals. 

The first of these^ (the second being the one 
published in this volume) is an account of an expe- 
dition to the East Indies equipped by Balthazar de 
Moucheron, the enterprising adventurer who, having 
been among the first to send out ships both east 
and west, was now also one of the last (before the 
establishment of the Chartered East India Company 

Balthazar — the publisher of the first Journal * — in his own 
dedication to that work in the edition of 1605, the first in 
which such dedication appeared. 

A further proof of its accuracy is furnished by a coat-of-arms 
that adorns the title-page of the edition last mentioned, the dexter 
impalement representing a spear, in pale, on a mound, crossed 
by two arrows, in fess, (the colours not being marked,) under 
which is the name Speilbergius in a panel. Spijl in Dutch 
signifies a large iron pin, skewer or arrow (speil having precisely 
the same pronunciation), and berg is, of course, a hill. 

^ Het Journae^i van /oris van Speilberghen . . . I^e/ff, 1605. 
This is the first edition of which a copy is extant in this country. 
There was but one earlier, also printed at Delft, in 1604. 

The journal is meagre in details compared with that of the 
expedition of 16 14 (except where it relates to Speilbergen's 
reception by the Maharajah of Candy), and bears internal evi- 
dencet of having been dictated. 

* See note i on this page. 

t Fide p. 62 in the above-mentioned edition. 


of the Netherlands) to send a fleet once more to the 

The expedition, which set out from Veere on 
May 5, 1601, consisted of three vessels : the Ram, 
the Schaep and the Lam, and proceeding along the 
west coast of Africa, reached on December 2nd 
(after some fighting at Puorto Dale and Refrisco^) a 
bay which **our General called Table Bay by 
reason of a high mountain, flat on top and square 
like a table."^ 

Extremely interesting, both to English and Dutch, 
must be, after this lapse of time, the following re- 
marks of Speilbergen's : — 

'' With regard to the land of the Cape de Buona 
Esperance, it is a very healthy and temperate land, 
very fit and useful to be cultivated and inhabited 
and to produce all kinds of fruits, and although it 
appears to be somewhat mountainous and hilly, 
there are also very fine and wide valleys covered 
with verdure and sweet-smelling herbs, as well as 
many green woods or bushes where herds of stags 
and deer are seen grazing, all very pleasant and 
delightful to behold. It is, moreover, also furnished 
with good water that comes from the mountains 
along streams running into the sea near the strand, 
and with animals such as oxen and sheep. Concern- 
ing the people of the aforesaid Capo de bon 
Esperance, they are yellow in colour like mulattoes, 

^ See p. 172. 

'\Het Journael van Joris van Speilberghen, 1605, p. 14. 


very ugly of feature, of medium stature, frail and 
lean in body, but very swift in running ; they have 
a strange clucking language, like Turkey cocks. 
Their clothes are skins of deer or other wild animals 
shaped like mantles."^ 

Leaving Table Bay on December 23, Speilbergen 
proceeded some way up the east coast of Africa, but 
nothing of very great moment is recorded until the 
arrival of the expedition off Point de Galle in 
Ceylon on May 28, 1602. Anchoring on the 31st 
in the harbour of Batticaloa, Speilbergen attempted 
to open up trading relations with the rajah, but the 
prince durst trust himself to no definite action, fear- 
ing the wrath of the Portuguese, whom he cordially 
hated, on the one hand, and that of the Maharajah 
of Kandy on the other. Speilbergen thereupon 
boldly determined to proceed to Kandy in person, 
accompanied by a retinue of only ten men, and was 
received at the Maharajah's court with every mark 
of friendship and esteem. This portion of the 
Journal is exceedingly interesting, life in the Cin- 
galese capital being naively described with much 
detail. With great tact did Speilbergen ingratiate 
himself with the chief ruler of Ceylon, submitting 
that he had been specially sent as an ambassador by 
Prince Maurice of Nassau, who had so recently 
defeated in a glorious naval encounter^ at Nieuport 
in Flanders the Spanish under the Archduke Albert 

1 Op. cit.^ p. 14. 

2 July 2, 1600, not i6o2, as printed in the /ournae/ {p. 37). 


of Austria. The next day a life-size portrait of 
Prince Maurice, on horseback, in all his martial 
habiliments, adorned the apartment of the Cingalese 
ruler, who in an ardent speech declared that hence- 
forth Kandy and the Netherlands must be one, that 
he and all his house would gladly carry on their 
shoulders the stone and cement should the Dutch 
desire to build a fort anywhere on the island of 

On September 2nd, 1602, Speilbergen sailed from 
Ceylon for Sumatra. Here he entered into an al- 
liance with the English to attack the richly-laden 
Portuguese carrack that annually crossed from St. 
Thomas on the Bengal coast to Malacca ; the attack 
was most successful, and after a partition of the 
spoils Speilbergen returned to Acheen. 

Nearly two years had now elapsed since Speil- 
bergen had left the Netherlands, and in that time 
the General Chartered East India Company, enjoy- 
ing many important monopolies^ had, after endless 
discussion and difficulty, come into existence.^ In 
January, 1603, two vessels, belonging to the first 
fleet sent out to the East for the account of that 
great trading body, arrived at Acheen, and Speil- 

^ " Den Coninck sprack : siet, ick, mijn Coninginne, Prins 
ende Princes sullen op hare schouderen de Steenen, Calck ende 
anders helpen dragen so de Heeren Staten ende zijn Princelijke 
Excellentie believen hier in mijn lant een Casteel te comen 
maken, sullen moghen daer toe sulcke plaetse, haven ofte Baye 
kiesen als hun sal gheraden vinden." — Het Journael^ P- 37- 

- Vide i.a.y p. 165. ^ 20th March, 1602. 


bergen deemed it expedient to sell one of his vessels 
to the Company, himself proceeding homewards 
after a brief call at Bantam.^ 

Arriving off that town on April 27th, 1603, he 
found assembled there no fewer than nine Dutch 
ships, and this number was shortly afterwards in- 
creased, to thirteen, when Jacob van Heemskerck 
dropped anchor in the roadstead. Curiously enough, 
with Speilbergen's arrival at Flushing^ on March 
24th, 1604, ^^ ^s ^ost t^ ^he eyes of posterity until 
we read of him, in his own words, fighting, almost to 

1 ''Vers 1596, les Hollandais, conduits par un homme qui a laisse 
un grand nom dans I'histoire de la fondation de la puissance colo- 
niale des Hollandais en Orient, le capitaine Houtman, parurent a 
Bantam, sur le detroit de la Sonde, ou les Portugais avaient une 
factorerie ; quatre ans plus tard,les nouveaux arrivants y fonderent a 
leur tour un etablissement qui ne tarda pas a supplanter celui des 
Portugais. En 1602, les Etats-Generaux de Hollande creerent 
la Compagnie des Indes Orientales, et avec le droit de porter son 
traiic au dela du capde Bonne-Esperance, ils lui octroyerent celui 
d'elever des forts et de soutenir leurs operations au besoin par 
les armes. Dbs I'annee 1618, le gouverneur general regut I'ordre 
de choisir dans le Grand Archipel d'Asie une localite convenable 
et d'y fonder un etablissement permanent qu'aurait le titre de 
Rendez-vous general. Le choix du gouverneur general* se fixa 
sur une localite appelee Djakatra, a I'E. de Bantam : telle fut, en 
1 6 19, I'origine de Batavia." Vivien de Saint Martin, Nouveau 
Dictionnaire de Geographie Universelle, Paris, 1884, tom. II, 
p. 965. 

2 He is generally held to have been a native of Zeeland, like 
the majority of the men who made the Dutch merchant marine 
the pride of their country and the terror of the world. 

Jan Pieterszoon Coen. Vide p. 151, note i. 


the death, by the side of the gallant Admiral in 
whose company we last left him. 

I have therefore thought it most fitting to append 
to this Introduction a translation of his letter,^ little 
doubting that the gallantry shown on the occasion 
of its despatch had much to do with Speilbergen's 
appointment to the command of so important an 
expedition as that of which the Oost- en West- 
Indische Navigatien relate.'^ 

The tenour of the concluding paragraph of Speil- 
bergen's Journal,^ wherein is given the reason 
(already adduced in the opening words of this Intro- 
duction '*) for including le Maire's Australische 
JMavigatien in the Spiegel, is little in keeping with 
the tirade against le Maire and his companions, deli- 
berately set down in writing upon their arrival at 
Jacatra, on October 20th of the foregoing year/ It 
should, however, be borne in mind, as the entry of 
December 22nd proves,^ that a companionship of 
only two months had already wrought a considerable 
change in the feelings of the Commander towards 
those whom he had more than once branded as 

^ Vide pp. xlix-lv. 

2 Very few further details concerning Speilbergen than those 
contained or indicated in this volume have yet been dug out of 
the Netherlands Archives. He died at Bergen-op-zoom, 31st 
January, 1620. 

* Vide p. 164. * Vide p. xj. 

^ Vide^^^. 151, 152. * Vide^^. 162, 163. 


mere ** claimants ;" there Is also a possibility that 
even in October Speilbergen, as a mariner, may- 
have entertained for the intrepid le Maire senti- 
ments which, as a servant of the East India Com- 
pany of the Netherlands, it was not politic or per- 
missible for him publicly to express. 

We have seen^ how Speilbergen himself, caught 
in the East by the long arm of the newly-established 
Company, had in 1603 deemed it expedient to sell 
one of his vessels to that favoured body, and imme- 
diately to proceed home. But others there were 
who regarded the Company and its valuable mono- 
polies in a more truculent spirit. Amongst these 
was Isaac le Maire,'^ of Egmont, a merchant of 
European — nay, world-wide — reputation, whose son 
was miserably to die of a broken heart on a 
stranger's ship, after gaining immortal fame by 
steering his own vessel through waters hitherto 
unknown to the civilized world. In those empire- 
building times the Netherlands traders, more esteemed 
then than now by the leisured classes, stood on the 
same plane as her statesmen and nobles, and Isaac 
le Maire fought shoulder to shoulder with no meaner 
a man than Johan van Oldenbarnevelt in attacking 
the Dutch East India Company. But a " Remons- 

^ Vide supra^ p. xl. 

2 An essay by R. C. Bakhuizen van den Brink, written in 
trenchant style, and fully setting forth the unequal combat waged 
between this typical Dutch trader and the East India Company of 
the Netherlands, appeared in De Gids in the year 1865. I am 
indebted to it for some valuable particulars. 


trance" against the increasing powers of the Com- 
pany, presented to the States-General early in 1609, 
was, after much agitation and wire-pulling, signally 
defeated, and le Maire had to fight his powerful foe 
in other fields and fashions — on 'Change and in the 
Southern Sea. 

Since the days of the earliest navigators, a belief 
had always obtained in the existence of a great 
southern continent extending along the South Pole ; 
Tierra del Fuego was held to be one of the northern- 
most forelands of that Continent, and Magellan's 
Straits the channel which separated it from America. 
The passage of those Straits, as one of the routes to 
the Indies, had in 1602 become the chartered 
monopoly of the Dutch East India Company, and 
though an isolated vessel may occasionally have 
drifted somewhat more to the south than was 
customary, it discovered little else than forbidding 
shores, whilst the Company possessed neither the 
means nor the energy to organize expeditions such 
as the later ones of Tasman and Vlamingh.^ 

" Therefore Isaack le Maire . . . being very in- 
clined to trade in strange and far-distant parts, and 
Willem Cornelisz. Schouten, of Hoorn (a man well 
experienced and very famous in navigation, as having 
already sailed three times to nearly all places in the 
East Indies as skipper, pilot, and merchant, and still 

^ For Some Particulars relating to the Voyage of Willem de 
Vlamingh to New Holland in 1696, see Early Voyages to Terra 
Australis^ edited by R. H. Major, Hakl. Soc. Pub., 1859. 


very eager after strange voyages and the visiting of 
new and unknown lands), did often speak and 
deliberate together whether it were not possible to 
come by some other way not mentioned nor for- 
bidden in the aforesaid Charter into the great South 
Sea." . . . These words, which are probably le Maire's 
own, are followed in the preface to the Australische 
Navigatien by such explicit details of the prelimi- 
naries to that celebrated circumnavigation of the 
globe, that it has been thought unnecessary to 
attempt to supplement them here.^ The Journal 
tells its own tale. 

The great victory over the East India Company 
was gained on January 24th, 1616 ; on that day the 
expedition entered the new channel to which Jacob 
le Maire gave his father's name, and this was 
followed by the discoveries of Cape Horn, of Staten 
Land, of the land they called after Prince Maurice 
of Nassau, of Barnevelt's Island, and finally of 
Willem Schouten Island. 

But so much success had to be dearly paid. At 
Jacatra, whither he had been allowed to proceed by 
Laurens Reael, who was for a short time acting as 
Governor of the Indies at Ternate, le Maire met 
one of Holland's strongest and severest men, Jan 
Pieterszoon Coen,^ whose iron rule in the East 

1 In the article by Bakhuizen van den Brink, alluded to above, 
there are set forth some Secret and Detailed Instructions for Jagues 
la Maire \sic\ upon his approaching voyage to the South. 

2 For a brief sketch of his career, vide pp. 151, 152. 


was to begin by a most harsh and tyrannical 

Scepticism with regard to le Maire's statement 
that he had come by another passage than Magellan's 
Strait, and by one not forbidden in the Charter of the 
East India Company, was to be expected; but 
straightway to brand the whole of a mariner's log 
as an infamous forgery and to confiscate his vessel 
were high-handed proceedings, especially since in 
Speilbergen's log,^ too, mention at least was made of 
what might have been the very channel claimed 
by le Maire to be first navigated by him. 

Once more it is fitting to quote Captain Burney's 
words : — ''This was a most cruel requital for men 
to meet with from their own countrymen, in return 
for having, with superior sagacity and spirit, under- 
taken and accomplished an enterprise so hazardous 
and so reputable, the lustre of which continues to 
this day to reflect honour on their country."^ 

What actually happened is recorded in a few 
words in the Journal, touching by reason of their 
simplicity and brevity. 

**On the I St of November, the President (of the 
East India Company), Jan Pietersz. Koenen, in- 
vited our skipper and supercargoes to come ashore 
to him. On their arrival he signified to them, in 
the presence of his council, convoked by him, and in 
the name and behalf of the Directors of the East India 

^ Vide pp. 42 and 46. 

2 Chronological History of the Voyages and Discoveries in the 
South Sea, 1806, Pt. II, p. 437. 


Company, that they must give up and hand over to 
him their vessel and all their goods, as was done."^ 
The writer's pen then rambles off into an inaccurate 
explanation concerning a discrepancy of dates, evi- 
dently written at random,^ but wherewith his thoughts 
were meanwhile busied may be gathered from the 
words that follow : — " So our ship remained here." 

Jacob le Maire and Willem Cornelisz. Schouten^ 
were sent home in the same vessel, but the former 
died on the way, his death, which took place on 
December 22nd, 16 16,* being, as his father alleged 
in a petition to the States-General, ''caused by the 
affront and harshness put upon him."^ Be that as it 
may, we are told that when he died '* our Admiral 
and all the others were deeply grieved, since he was 
a man endowed with remarkable knowledge and 
experience in matters of navigation."^ 

Such sentiments expressed by no less a man than 
Joris van Speilbergen, and published in his Journal 
throughout the civilized world, were probably as 
much valued by old Isaac le Maire as the decree of 
the " Hooge Raad" which, after two years of litiga- 
tion, recognized the rights of Jacob le Maire and his 
companions to their discovery by ordering the East 

^ Vide Journal, P- 231. ' Vide note on p. 232. 

* Bakhuizen van den Brink, I know not on what authority, 
states that Schouten was left behind at Jacatra. 

* He was born at Amsterdam in 1585. 

^ Vide Bakhuizen van den Brink, De Gids, 1865 : " Gecauseerd 
deur de affronte ende fiericheyt hem aengedaen." 

* Vide Speilbergen'syi?^^//^/, p. 163. 


India Company to return the confiscated vessel and 
its cargo to the owners, and to pay all costs and 
interest, computed from the day of the illegal 

The reference to the authorship of the Austral- 
ische Navigatien, wherewith the Preface to that 
portion of the Spiegel closes,- will not fail to strike 
the reader as a somewhat curious one, almost 
studiously vague, and as if veiling or vindicating 
some unfair proceeding ; and, indeed, the history of 
the publication of the earlier accounts is anything 
but an edifying one, being nothing more than the 
record of an unseemly squabble between Willem 
Cornelisz. Schouten and the friends of Jacob le 

From the Bibliography appended to this volume 
may be seen in what order and under whose name 
the various relations of the voyage appeared ; but I 
must at once warn the reader that the matter is so 
involved as to render the true authorship unknown. 

Schouten was evidently successful in getting the 
first editions to bear his name, but a man who would 
hide under the bench of a boat whilst his companions 
were being shot down^ would probably not be very 
scrupulous regarding his share of ownership in a 

1 Vide Bakhuizen van den Brink, loc. cit. 

2 See p. i68. 

^ This incident is recorded by Bakhuizen van den Brink, 
loc. cit. 


Though Tide's judgment, even in matters biblio- 
graphical, is not necessarily final, as I have attempted 
to show when dealing with Speilbergen's Journal,^ 
there has been such cross -swearing with regard to 
the authorship of the Ausiraliscke Navigatien (not, 
as in Speilbergen's case, for the past 150 years 
only, but ever since their first appearance), that 
we may safely concur in the eminent bibliographer's 
dictum — *Me veritable auteur du journal de Schouten 
est reste inconnu."^ 

^ Vide pp. xxii, xxiii. 

2 P. A. Tiele, Memoire Bibliographique sur les Journaux des 
Navigateurs Neerlandais, Amst., 1867, p. 60. 




JORIS VAN SPELBERGH, Commissary-General 
and Captain of the Zeeland soldiers under the com- 
mand of the Honourable and Gallant Jacob van 
Heemskercke, appointed Admiral by the 
Honourable and Mighty Lords the States 
of the Free United Netherlands, 
treating of the conquest of the 
Spanish Fleet. 

Written from our fleet off Cape Saint Vincent, May 9, 


Whereas we reached the latitude of 36 degrees off the 
river of Lisbon on April 10, it was resolved by Admiral 
Heemskercke and his Council to enter the said river with 
all our ships in order to capture the carracks and galleons, as 
we were well able to do : but receiving reliable news that 
the carracks had departed, that the galleons, some eight or 
nine in number, were still quite unready, their guns being 
still on shore, and that fully two months' work was neces- 
sary to get them ready, we rescinded the aforesaid resolu- 
tion, especially when some French and English, who came 
from S. Lucas^ and.Calis,^ brought us certain tidings that 
fifteen Spanish warships had set out from S. Lucas and 
Calls for the Strait of Jubaltar,^ and that amongst them 

1 See the Bibliography. 

2 S. Lucar. See especially p. Ixi. 

2 Cadiz. 4 Gibraltar. 



were eleven galleons, the rest being smaller merchant 
vessels fitted up for war. 

We therefore resolved to go and visit them, and the 
wind being against us, from the east, we met a Flushing 
man, named Loy Seylmaker, who had come through the 
Strait on April 22, and he told us that he had been 
amongst the Spanish fleet in the night, but finding himself 
outside the fleet in the morning, he imagined they had set 
their course for Calis, for the aforesaid fleet had also to get 
out of the Strait on account of the east wind. 

The wind veering to west again, we ran close past the 
bar of S. Lucas and the Bay of Calis on April 24,*but we 
could not ascertain whether the galleons had run in there : 
else we had been resolved to attack the said galleons in the 
aforesaid Bay of Calis. 

On the same day we proceeded further towards the 
Strait of Jubaltar, stoutly determined to find the galleons 
or the fleet of Spain, and attack them. 

Arriving off the town of Tanger, on the Barbary coast, 
at the beginning of the Strait of Jubaltar, on April 25, 
and perceiving no galleons, the Council was there again 
convoked on board the Admiral's ship, when it was resolved 
in God's name to attack the Spanish Armada if the latter 
were in the Bay of Jubaltar, we being well determined, 
even if it were in their own harbour, under the guns of the 
town and the castle. To that end orders were issued that 
if we found the foe there he should be first attacked by 
our Admiral and Captain Lambert Hendricksz., of Rotter- 
dam, being the rear-admiral ; these two were to get along- 
side the Spanish Admiral, and the Vice-Admiral with 
Captain Bras, of Hoorn, alongside the Spanish Vice- 
Admiral, and so each following. 

Reaching then the Bay of Jubaltar and seeing the 
Spanish Armada there, we carried out our resolution with 
God's aid and in such order as was possible, finding there 


twenty-one vessels, amongst which were French, English, 
Embdeners^ and other merchantmen. The Spanish Ad- 
miral weighed anchor and drifted to the town close to four 
other galleons. The Spanish Vice-Admiral, who had 450 
men on board, as the prisoners afterwards told us, remained 
where he was. The Spanish Admiral was joined by 
another 100 cavailleros from the shore who came to his 
assistance out of love, though he was well provided with 
men. Notwithstanding that the Spanish Admiral was 
protected by the guns of the town and castles, our Admiral 
Heemskercke and Captain Lambert, of Rotterdam, never- 
theless approached him and stoutly attacked him, and so 
did further everyone where he could the Spanish Vice- 
Admiral and the other galleons. The furious attacks and 
cannonade did, by God's mercy, after four hours' hard 
fighting, give us the victory over our foes. 

And as the galleons mostly ran ashore they were 
destroyed and their crews sent to the bottom ; amongst 
these being the Spanish Admiral, a high galleon of 400 
lasts,^ named the S. Augustine, commsinded by the General 
of the whole Armada, Don Juan Alveris d'Avila, born at 
Esturges,^ and killed here — an old soldier who had long 
served on sea under Don John of Austria — together with his 
Vice-Admiral and the colonel of the soldiers, and nearly 
all the captains of the aforesaid Spanish Armada. The 
galleons and other Spanish war-ships were immediately 
burnt and sunk, two of them running ashore, but sufficiently 
disabled to render them useless, being so riddled with shot. 

We captured the flags of the Admiral, the Vice- Admiral 
and the other galleons, with some loot, but we were unable 
to carry off any ships or cannon by reason of the great 
conflagration in the Spanish Vice-Admiral and the other 

^ From Emden, a sea-port of East Friesland. 

2 800 tons. 3 Astorga. 



galleons, which took fire and sank. We were in great 
danger of getting the fire into our ships, some of which 
had enough to do to extinguish the flames that already 
broke out in divers of them, but God preserved us. Few 
people were saved from this aforesaid Spanish Armada ; 
the bay or roadstead of Jubaltar looked as if it were sown 
with human beings by reason of the Spaniards who sprang 
overboard. On board the Spanish Admiral there lay 
two or three hundred dead, in addition to those who had 
sprung overboard. The Spanish prisoners admit that 
there were fully four thousand men in their fleet ; there 
were few prisoners, about fifty, amongst whom is the son 
of the Spanish Admiral, named Juan Alvaris d'Avila, 
captain of the galleon the .9. Augtistine. 

We have lost our Admiral Jacob van Heemskercke, 
who went into this battle with great honour and gallant 
determination, and was constantly and gallantly supported, 
through God's aid, by the Vice-Admiral and Captain 
Lambert, Captain Pieter Willemsz., and all the other 
captains of soldiers and seamen. 

On April 26 we got our ships away from the town and 
the castles, as they were constantly doing us damage with 
their fire. 

We sent some boats and men to some of the burnt 
wrecks and vessels that lay around us. The Spaniards on 
land, seeing this, themselves set fire to the Spanish Admiral, 
which lay aground disabled ; so that they themselves did 
what we intended to do. 

In defeating this Armada over eight thousand shots 
were fired from the big guns. The fighting was very hard 
and terrible, in addition to which the tremendous con- 
flagration of the Spanish galleons was awful and wonderful 
to behold, especially when the fire reached the powder. 
It seemed as if new clouds and lightning rose from the 
sea to the heavens. From a skipper named Govert den 


Engelsman, of Rotterdam, who says he is an Embden 
man, and was a prisoner in the Spanish Admiral, we learnt 
that the Admiral liberated him when he saw our ships 
coming, in order that he might deliberate with and consult 
the aforesaid skipper. He told us^that the Spanish Admiral 
would not believe that we would be bold enough to attack 
him in the harbours and bays of the King of Spain, and 
especially under the guns of the town and castle of 
Jubaltar, which opinion we have indeed taught him to 
alter. The aforesaid Spanish General was perfectly well 
advised of our coming, also how many warships, victualling- 
ships and soldiers we had, all of which we found among 
his papers ; also his general instructions and commission 
signed by the Spanish King Vo el Re. And therein we 
also found and saw with what outrageous tyranny the 
aforesaid King orders and commands that honest Nether- 
landers and those who consort with them be persecuted 
and tyrannized, especially Hollanders and Zeelanders, 
the other nations being in these instructions of his not 
regarded as entirely free or immune from molestation. 

On the 27th of the said month we set sail from the Bay 
of Jubaltar to the coast ofBarbary, first passing so close to 
Sceuta in the Bay that they in the town and in other 
places fired at us from the shore. Numbers of the Portu- 
guese were on horseback, fearing a repetition of the game 
at Jubaltar, but insecurity and inexpediency led us to 
proceed further on to the Bay of Tutuan, 5 miles from 
Sceuta, in order to re-furnish our ships, many of which had 
sustained damage to bowsprits, masts, yards and sails (the 
latter being much pierced by shot), as well as in their sides 
whilst grappling the Spanish galleons, all such being much 
battered. On arriving off Tutuan, being a place under the 
dominion of the Turks and Moors, we were made very 
welcome, so that on the 28th of the said month the 
Governor came on board with many Turkish nobles, 


bidding us welcome and offering us every friendship and 
aid we might require for our wounded or otherwise. The 
aforesaid Governor and all those of his country appeared 
to be very glad at the victory granted us by God over the 
arrogant Spaniards. 

Here follow the names of the galleons and warships that 
were destroyed, some being sent to the bottom, others 
burnt and driven ashore, so riddled with shot and damaged 
as to render them unfit for further use. 

The first galleon, on board of which was the Admiral, 
was called the 5. Augustine. 

The Vice-Admiral, Nostra Signora del Vega. 

The Rear- Admiral, Madre de Dios. 

The fourth, 6". Anna. 

The fifth, Nostra Signora de la Regla. 

The sixth, Nostra Signora de la Conceptione. 

The seventh, 6". Christoffel. 

The eighth, Nostra Signora de los Doloros. 

The ninth, 6". Nicolas. 

The tenth. Nostra Signora de Rosaros. 

The eleventh. Nostra Signora de la 0. 

The twelfth, 6'. Pedro} 

There were some smaller vessels, but their names are 
unknown to me ; fourteen of them were destroyed. 

On May 7th God granted us a favourable wind so that 
we got out of the Strait of Jubaltar and reached Cape 
St. Vincent, passing S. Lucas and Calls. We were told by 
some who were at Calis when the report of the defeat at 
Jubaltar arrived that there was such great wailing in the 
towns all around that it was like the shrieking of lean pigs, 
all crying aloud that Spain had never been so clawed as 
now by us, God be praised. 

1 It will be seen that most of these names are somewhat muti- 
lated, but they are easily recognisable. 


The ships that sail to India and Nova Hispania are 
seven in number, but the King, hearing of the brave 
exploit of the Netherlands ships, ordered them to proceed 
higher up to Porto Royal/ fearing that we might run them 
down or set fire to them. It was our intention, if there had 
been any warships in the Bay of Calis, to have visited them, 
but finding none we passed on and reached Cape St. 
Vincent this 9th of May, 1607. 

1 Puerto Real, a little east of Cadiz, and more protected than 
that city. 


hands included in Speilbergen's Journal call for a 
word or two here. 

I. The Description of the Government of Peru,^ 
" compiled by a Spanish prisoner, named Pedro de 
Madriga, a native of Lima," was, of course, written 
in that prisoner's own language, and subsequently 
translated into Dutch, probably by an officer of 
Speilbergen's fleet, and by one not too well versed 
in Spanish, as the large number of errors testify. 

That treatise was in 1643 appended (with all its 
original errors, as printed in this Dutch edition of 
1 6 19) to the Journael vande Nassausche Vloot, ofte 
Beschryvingh vande Voyagie oin den gantschen Aerd- 
Kloot ghedaen met elf Schepen onde^i V beleydt van 
den Admirael Jaques VH eremite . . . in de Jar en 
1623, 1624, 1625 en 1626. f Amstelredam. It was 
again appended to a later edition of the same work 
in 1648, and in both cases, although its authorship 
was properly ascribed to de Madriga, without ac- 
knowledgment of its source or of any indebtedness 
to Speilbergen or his publishers, the reader being 
thus led to suppose that de Madriga had really been 
taken prisoner by the Dutch Admiral, Jacques 
L'Hermite ; indeed, this misconception was kept up 
by the fact that when in 1646 Commelin published 
his Begin ende Voortgangh vande Vereeinghde Neder- 
landsche Geoctroyeerde Oost-Indische Compagnie^ to 
which it has already been necessary to allude 
(better known, as stated above, in de Renneville's 

1 Pp. 86-99, 


French version, as the Recueil des Voyages qui ont 
servi a V ^tablissement de la Compagnie des Indes 
Orientales) and included Speilbergen's Oost en West 
Indische Spiegel, de Madriga's treatise was actually 
excluded from the latter and placed at the end of 
the Journael van de Nassausche Vlooty as in the 
separate edition of 1643 of that work. It was strange 
for so careful an editor as Commelin to commit, or 
perpetuate this error, but it would have been stranger 
still to have found de Renneville rectify it ; and 
therefore de Madriga's treatise also appears in his 
collection in the same collocation as in the Begin ende 

2. The Kingdom of Chili and its Circumstances.^ 
— We have the authority of Tiele for stating that 
this short description of Chili appended to de 
Madriga's treatise on Peru forms part of an un- 
published " Declaration" made by Jacob Diricks- 
zoon van Purmerlant, pilot of a vessel in the fleet 
of Jacob Mahu and Simon de Cordes (the expe- 
dition of the Five Rotterdam Ships that set out in 
1598) who was taken prisoner at Valparaiso by 
the Spaniards, and that the original is in the 
Rijks Archief at the Hague.^ This statement 
does not appear to be quite in keeping with the 
facts related in the journals of that expedition,^ 
but it is a small matter, and possibly Tiele had 
later information, and probably saw the MS. he 

^ Pp. 100, lOI. 

^ Memoir e bibliographique^ P« 7i- 

^ See Commelin's Begin ende Voortgangh^ Deel. II, No 5, 
p. 22. 


3. A Discourse by the very renowned Apoloni 

— The author of this treatise appears to have been 
a man of many parts. Van der Aa^ knew him 
only by his learning, quoting Grotius, Heinsius, 
Barlaeus and Hooft as his friends, and laying more 
stress upon his Latin poetry and his jurisprudence 
than upon his geographical treatises. From him, 
too, we learn that A. Vorstius calls him " sidus 
fulgentissimum, omnium eruditorum fautor aestima- 
torque eruditissimus," and that J. Fr. Gronovius 
spoke of him as " vir doctrina et virtutibus prorsus 
incomparabilis, ac eo major, quo id magis tegit" 

De Jonge, on the other hand, speaks of him as 
" the gallant captain " whom Admiral van Caerden,^ 
in June, 1608, entrusted with the charge of the 
garrison at Taffasoho,^ on the island of Macjan, 
after routing the Spaniards, the Dutch occupation 
of the fort securing the whole island for the East 
India Company.^ There he remained as captain 
and chief factor until 1611,^ assisting in a successful 
attack upon the Spanish fort on Batjan Island, 
November 25, 1609,^ which resulted in an offensive 
and defensive alliance against Spain and Portugal 
between the King of Ternate and the Dutch on 
the one side, and the chief ruler of Batjan on the 

1 Pp. 133-149- 

2 Biographisch Woordenboek^ Deel. XVII, pp. 456, 457. 
2 Vide p. 135, note 2. 

* Vide The Discourse^ p. 136, in this volume. 

^ De Opkomst van het Nederlandtsch gezag in Oost Indie^ 
Deel III, p. 66. 

6 Op. cit., Deel III, p. 396. 

'^ Vide The Discourse^ p. 137, and Dejonge^ Op. cit.^ Deel III, 
pp. 104 and ^Z^. 


Other. A copy of this treaty is given in extenso 
by de Jonge,^ followed by a letter from Schot to 
the Governor of Banda, dated Jan. 3, 1610,2 des- 
cribing the conquest of Batjan Island in 1609. 

The terms in which the Discourse is alluded to 
at the end of a subsequent treatise concerning the 
forts and abandoned places^ would almost lead to 
the inference that Schot wrote it specially for in- 
sertion in the Spiegel, whilst from the fact that 
reference is more than once made in the text itself 
to "documents and letters . . . appended hereunto"* 
it would appear as if it formed some kind of 
official report. We have seen that Schot wrote to 
Hendrick van Bergel, Governor of Banda, relating 
the conquest of Batjan I., and in Commelin's 
Begin ende Voortgangh, included in a large num- 
ber of narratives appended to the Journael of 
Pieter Willemsz. Verhoeven, there comes, after 
a copy of this Discourse, another, describing a 
voyage performed by Schot to " Botton, Solor, 
and Tymor,^' dated July, 161 3, and addressed to 
Mathijs Couteel, at Bantam. Schot, therefore, as 
de Jonge leads one to suppose, was evidently as 
ready with the pen as with the sword. 

There is a divergence of opinion concerning his 
later history. De Jonge^ makes no mention of him 
after 161 1, and the letter of July, 161 3, to Couteel, 
was written on board the vessel Der Veer ;"*" Tiele^ 

^ Op. cit, Deel III, pp. 328-330. 
2 De Jonge, Op. cit., Deel. Ill, pp. 331-334- 
^ Vide p. 160. * Vide pp. 143 and 146. ^ Op. cit. 

^ Begin ende Voortgangh, Deel II, Pt. 15. 
^ Memoire bibliographique sur les journaux des navigateurs 
Neerlandais, p. 176. 


says that he perished in the river of Jacatra on the 
25th November, 161 3, and van der Aa^ states that 
he returned to Middelburg, his native town, was 
appointed pensionary and councillor, and died ist 
November, 1639. 

4. A Short Description ... of the Forts and 

Concerning some abandoned Places.^— This 
treatise has likewise been appended, in Commelin's 
Begin ende Voortgangh, to the above-mentioned^ 
Journal of Verhoeven, without further indication of 
authorship than that of following immediately upon 
Schot's " Discourse." From the fact of its being 
dated July, 161 6, which date coincides with that 
upon which the "Discourse" is interpolated in 
Speilbergen's Journal,* it appears very probable that 
this " Description " formed part of that treatise. It 
has, however, been left in this edition in the position 
it occupies in the Dutch one of 1619, to append it 
to Schot's " Discourse " being a bolder piece of 
editing than the evidence of its authorship would 
strictly warrant. 

5. A List of the Vessels,^ from its date, style and 

matter, is manifestly an accompanying document to 
the preceding. 

1 Biographisch Woordenboek^ Deel XVII, p. 456. 

2 See pp. 154-160. 3 See under 3, p. lix. 
* See p. 133. -^ Vide pp. 160-162. 


N.B.— THE SPELLING of all proper names, with their 
numerous variations, is given as in the original, but, except 
where quite superfluous for the purpose of identification, 
the modern English appellation will be found in a foot-note, 
whilst every form used is comprised in the Index. In 
general, the names of native objects have been dealt with 
in the same manner. 

The reproduction (opposite pp. 8/ and 137) of two 
pages of the original text — in addition to that of May's 
important note (opposite p. 128) — will give an idea of the 
peculiarities of the Dutch version, and likewise show the 
liberties which the diarists, and possibly also the printer, 
allowed themselves to take with the Spanish language. 
May they also serve to show that an endeavour has been 
made to render faithfully, without embellishment, both 
the sense and style of the Dutch. 

The Society is indebted to its Honorary Secretary, Mr. 
B. H. Soulsby, for the compilation of the Bibliography 
and Index. 


Of the two most recent voyages per- 
formed In the years 1614, 161 5, 161 6, 161 7 and 
1 61 8, wherein is shown in what manner JoRlS 
VAN Speilbergen circumnavigated the 
world by way of the Magellanes, with 
some battles, on sea and land, and 
two narratives, one of the East, 
the other of the West 
Indies, the number of 
forts, soldiers, ships 
and cannon. 

With the Australian Navigations of Jacob le 
Maire, who passed through a new strait in 
the South, with the many strange 
things they met with in coun- 
tries, peoples, and nations, 
depicted in 26 copper- 

Nicolaes van Geelkercken, Leyden, Anno 16 19. 

The wording of the preceding title-page, which is that of 
the Dutch edition of 1619, was, evidently also in Dutch eyes, 
so ambiguous that, on the publication of the edition of 1621 
(which, so far as the text is concerned, is merely a re-print), 
the publisher thought it desirable to draw up a fresh one, 
and this is therefore, for the sake of its greater clearness, 
also reproduced here, with an accompanying English version. 
In the second, however, as in the first, the year 161 8 was 
erroneously added. 



The Two most recent Navigations performed in 
the years 1614, 1615, 1616, 1617 and 1618. 

The one by the renowned Marine hero, J oris van 

Spilbergen, through the Strait of Magellanes, 

and so around the entire globe, 

With all the battles fought both on land and water. 

To this are added two accounts, the one of the 

East, the other of the West Indies, with the number 

of ships, forts, soldiers and guns. 

The other performed by Jacob le Maire, who 

discovered a New Strait south of Magellanes Strait, 

with a description of all countries, peoples 

and natives, All adorned with fine 

maps and plates expedient 


Jan Janssz., Bookseller, at the sign of the Pas-Caert, 
op 't Water, Amsterdam, A^ MDCXXI. 






AURICE, by the Grace of God, Prince 
of Orange, Count of Nassau, Catzen- 
elleboghen, Vianden, Diets, Lingen, 
Muers, Buren and Leerdam ; Mar- 
quis of Vere and Vlissinghen, Lord 
and Baron of Breda, the town of 
Grave and the lands of Cuyck, Diest, Grimberghen, Arlay, 
Noseroy, St. Vit and Daesborch ; Hereditary Burgrave of 
Antwerp and Bezan^on ; Governor and Captain-General 
of the United Provinces of the Netherlands ; Admiral- 
General at Sea, etc. 

High and Mighty Sirs and Most Serene 

The pleasure I derived from revealing and describing 
my previous voyages has served me as an incentive and 
caused me to omit nothing worthy of mention from this 



narrative of my last journey, performed with six vessels 
through the Magelanes, along the coasts of Chili, Peru, 
Nova Hispania and California, the Manilles, Molucques, 
and other East Indian shores, but to observe and set 
down whatever the daily circumstances and a visit to the 
localities brought before our eyes ; the more so as I 
deemed such to appertain to my office, since I had the 
honour of being employed on that journey as Commander- 
General, with a commission from Your High Mightinesses 
and Princely Excellency. I therefore beg that the Aforesaid 
may be pleased to accept the said work with a benevolence 
equal to the zeal and attachment with which the same 
is dedicated and offered to Your High Mightinesses and 
Princely Excellency by their most humble and faithful 




iRACIOUS READER, having resolved 
to set before you as in a mirror some 
strange things that the art of naviga- 
tion has brought to light — an art which 
in these our days has become so 
famous, and has, moreover, revealed to 
us many lands of which Strabo and Ptolemy make no 
mention, to wit, such lands as lie beyond the realms of Asia, 
Africa, and Europe, where in recent years we have received 
ample assurance, both from experience and from living 
witnesses, that there are various new-found lands that have 
been and are daily being discovered by Dutch navigators — I 
have therefore thought fit to depict for you, both in writing 
and copper-plates, the two most recent and most excellent 
voyages, in order to extol to the highest degree by this 
means those navigators, who, with their directors, will 
herein find for the expense, labour, danger, and trouble 
incurred by them, laurels which, in addition to the rich 
profits, will endure to the end of the world ; whilst the 

^ This is obviously merely the publisher's preface, which the authors 
of the two Journals probably never saw in manuscript. Ii would other- 
wise be difficult to conceive how either could have allowed such glaring 
inaccuracies as Mendura pana and the Straits of Tagiina Sanguine 
{vide p. 5) to pass into print. 

B 2 


reader will be greatly pleased to learn all things most 
pertinently, without risking his life in the investigation of 
these rarities, and obtain a very good knowledge of all 
foreign countries, peoples, nations and trade, just as if he 
had visited the same in person. I therefore set before you 
here in what manner Their High Mightinesses the States, 
His Princely Excellency Maurice of Nassau, and the 
Directors of the East India Company, equipped a fleet of 
six vessels, under the command of Joris van Speilbergen, to 
sail through Magelanes Strait and the Southern Sea to India. 
Thus it came about that the aforesaid Speilbergen, after 
setting out from these United Netherlands, did, by God's 
mercy, pass the Canarie Islands, the Cape Verde or Salt 
Isles, the equinoctial line, and the Tropic of Capricorn, 
skirt the coast of Brazil, from St. Vincent^ to Cape Vergine,^ 
pass through the Strait of Magelanes and along the coast 
of Schily,2 touch at the island of La Moche,* Sta. Maria, 
Conseption, Quintera,^ Valparisa,^ and Arica, and engaging 
in an encounter or battle, first by night and afterwards by 
day, off Canjette^ in Peru, with the fleet that set out from 
Lima under the command of Don Rodrigo de Mendosa, 
did enter the famous harbour of Lima, named Caljou,^ the 
harbour of Guerme,^ and capture the town of Peyta ;^^ and 
then, proceeding further along the coast of Nova Hispania, 
Aquapolco,^^ Selages,^^ St. Jago^^ and Natividat^^ as far as 

1 S. Vicente, near Santos. 

2 Cabo de las Virgenes. ^ Chile. * La Mocha. 

^ Quintero. ^ Valparaiso. 

"^ Caneta. This town is some distance inland on the river of the 
same name. 

^ Callao. ^ Huarmey. 

i<> Payta. ^^ Acapulco. 

12 The two bays of Salagua and Santiago face the neck of land on 
which the town of Manzanillo now stands. 

1' Navidad, in 19° 13' N. 


the discovery of Californis and some islands thereabouts, we 
took our course to the Lad rone Islands or Islos de Velos, 
to Cape Spirite Santos,^ Maneljos Straits,^ the Island of 
Capul, Mendura^ and other islands as far as the bay of the 
town of Manilja,* passed for the rest along Mendura^ 
pana,^ Cadera/ Mindenao,^ the Straits of Tagima^ San- 
guine,^^ as far as the rich and famous Moluques Islands, and 
anchoring with the aforesaid fleet of six vessels off the town 
of Maleyen in Ternaten, continued our voyage to Java and 
this country. For the better elucidation of the following 
journal and narratives we have, in order more fully to 
instruct the kind reader, added hereunto, with great dili- 
gence, expense, and trouble, drawings of all the afore- 
mentioned places, and also an account of the whole voyage, 
with a description of the brave assiduity and care of the 
leaders and all others of this fleet, who at all times quitted 
them in true and manly fashion for the service and honour 
of our dear country. 

Secondly, mention is made in the following Journal of a 
new thoroughfare or passage in the south, whereof we 
were assured by the most renowned Jacob le Maire, whose 
journey is added hereunto by reason of the fact that he 
died on Speilbergen's ship whilst returning, and also 
because our two voyages took place at the same time 
as the Australian Navigation was begun and completed 
by Jacob le Maire, which is likewise very pleasantly 
illustrated with his maps and figures. 

1 C. Espiritu Santo, in the Philippines. 

2 The Straits of Manila. ^ Mindoro. 
* Manila. ^ Mindoro. 
^ Panay. 

^ Cape la Caldera, the most westerly point of the I. of Mindanao. 
® The island, not the town. 

^ Between the island of Taguima, the ancient name for Basilan I., 
and the island of Mindanao. 

^^ Sangir I., called Sangnijn in the text (p. 127). 



When Ceres started up with rich ripe ears becrowned, 

And threshing-floors groaned loud 'neath many a golden mound ; 

When Autumn still was stained with wealth of Bacchus' sap, 
And dropped the luscious grape into each joyful lap ; 

Equipped was then the fleet to ride the billows blue, 
To sail around the earth and cut the ocean through : 

How great the enterprise, how glorious the deed ! 

That on their long, drear way these doughty men did lead, 

In honour of the Lord to view Earth's marvels all, 
To see the landscapes fair that rose up at His call, 

Adorned with fruits so sweet, with many kinds of creatures, 
With mountains, woods and dales, and all such varied features 

As Nature with her arts makes diff'rently appear : 
Magellan's Strait, to wit, a passage much to fear, 

Where oft they pay Death's toll who that false course would run, 
A way with dangers set, which we had liked to shun. 

Though biting cold came ever piercing through our skin. 
Steadfast and ever true our purpose we did win. 

Barbaric giants wild sprang up from out their lair, 
Human in their shape, but of all human feelings bare. 

We rode the blasting wind, the fearful tempests through. 
Which caused us much delay these Straits to get into. 

But honour was at stake, so one and all did fight 
Most bravely and like men to steer our course aright. 

So that we soon passed through, God granting this salvation, 
For the fame and honour great of the Netherlandish nation. 

We sailed the Southern Sea, where the Spaniard spied our trail. 
And brought the King's ships up to fight us tooth and nail. 

* The jingle and metre of which have been retained. 


Well armed with shot and shell, their Dons and colonels bold 
Line up their men-at-arms, who glitt'ring halberds hold 

To beat us off their coasts and drive us back again ; 
But all that mighty force strove this to do in vain. 

The Sacrament received, each blithely boards his ship. 
Intending us to hang when we're smitten on the hip. 

The vain hope Folly cherished their brav'ry could not win. 
Who digs a pit for others, oft falls himself therein. 

When now on earth all cares by slumber sweet were lightened 
The darkness of the night the flash of cannon brightened. 

The Spanish Commandant, Rodrigo de Mendoza, 
Was loth to know us there and not approach us closer. 

That arrogance of his we quickly turned to mourning, 
Three-fifty cavaliers we drowned with little warning. 

It was a gruesome sight, by hellish sounds attended, 
As though the elements were eke thereat offended. 

No brave or manly heart was wanting in the fray, 
Each fought as if his deeds alone must win the day. 

When black night by the dawn from heaven's vault was swept. 
With shouts and cries of rage each man to combat leapt. 

Full soon the Spanish arms with shame were turned to rout, 
Their men, their ships, their wealth, left scattered all about. 

The vessels that we took, the towns and forts we carried, 
I need not here relate, nor how the land we harried. 

The fortress Acapulco did pay us toll and tax 

In numbers of fat cattle, ripe fruits in well-filled sacks. 

Then joyfully our sails were set to hie away. 
And California's coast we kept in sight by day. 

God gave us wind so fair that we could scarcely fail 
The islands of Ladrone within a trice to hail. 

Here fruits of various kinds were brought us, and full soon 
These healed our sick on board, and proved indeed a boon. 

At Capul, 'tis an isle that's under Spanish rule, 

Each native came with gifts our parching throats to cool. 


Then further on we passed Manilla's Strait with speed, 
And entering the bay in triumph took our meed 

Of tribute from the Dons, for junks and sampangs came 
With goodly victuals stored to set us up again. 

And so the fleet was fed for many months right well. 
When Mindenao was reached, the natives there did tell 

That Spain their foeman was, and pressed us straight away 
For friendship, favour, help ; how could we say them nay ? 

Of poultry and of fruit they also brought great store ; 
At length, when out we'd been of months about a score, 

To Ternaten we came, for which we'd long looked out. 
Where all were well received in blithe and friendly rout. 

The Governor Reael did welcome us as friends 

To the city of Maleye ; in praise then each knee bends 

That we are brought thus far, with numbers undiminished, 
In mercy and in love, with labours well-nigh finished". 

They marvelled us to see, whilst we were glad to meet 
A fleet that had just come from far Magellan's street. 

When Governor Reael in July gave command 

That Speilberg and some men in Java's isle should land. 

The Zeeland vfdiS the one, the other A7iisterdam^^ 
That set out for Japar, Jacatra, and Bantam. 

How from Dutch lands we saw there many ships arrive. 
All filled with wealth and men, is in our Narrative. 

From Zumatra, Japan, Arabia, India, treasures 

Came, captured from our foes, and all by warlike measures. 

Ofl" Jacatra, Bantam, nigh three months had we lain. 
Ere all such cargo rich Into our holds was ta'en, 

At length, our anchors weighed, we set sail in December, 
And took good care each man his duty should remember 

To get us swift return, and God, so ends our story, 

Did grant us this, wherefore to Him be praise and glory. 

A. L. Z. 

The rhymester was mistaken ; the vessels were not so named, but 
equipped by the province of Zeeland and the town of Amsterdam 
(see pp. II, 132 and 153). 


This is the order in which the plates should i 

stand in 

relation to the pages.^ 



I. Map of the World 


2. St. Vincent^ 


3. Magelanes Strait 


4. Island of La Mocha 


5. St. Maria 


6. Conception 


7. Val Parysa^ 

. 63 

8. Quintero Bay 


9. The Battle by Night 


10. The Battle by Day 


II. Caljou de Lima . 


12. The hamlet of Guarme* . 


13. The Capture of Payta . 


14. The Castle of Aquapolque^ 


15. St. lago, Selagues,^ and Natividaet^ 


16. The Ladrone Islands 


17. Manila Strait . . . . 


18. Manila Bay 


19. Map of the Indies 


, 20. Macjan and Bacjan. 


21. Amboyna and Solor 


22. Port Desire 


23. Le Mair's Strait . . . . 


24. Cocos Island 


25. Horn Island 


1 The pagination has been transposed to that of this edition. 

2 S. Vicente, near Santos, on the Brazil coast. 

3 Valparaiso. ^ Huarmey. ^ Acapulco. 
^ Salagua. ^ Navidad, 


Historical Journal of the Voyage 

undertaken from out the United Netherlands with 

six vessels equipped by the Renowned Directors of 

the East India Company, to wit, the Groote Sonne, 

the Groote Mane, the Jciger} a yacht, the 

Meeuwe, of Amsterdam, the^^/?/^, of Zealand, 

and the Morgensfer, of Rotterdam, 

in order to sail 

Through the Straits of Magallanes to the Molucques 

under the orders of Mister JORIS VAN SPILBERGHEN 

as Commander - General of the Fleet, with a 

commission from Their High Mightinesses the 

States-General and His Princely 


ON the eighth of August of the year sixteen hundred 
and eighteen,^ we sailed out from Texel with the 
help of God with four ships, the wind being south-east : 
may the same God grant us good fortune and prosperity 
on this voyage. Amen. 

On the 9th ditto, the wind veered to the south-west. 
On the loth, the yacht and the Meeuwe got separated 
from us through a bad look-out. 

^ This is frequently referred to merely as "de Jacht" (=the yacht) ; 
where there is danger of ambiguity this designation has been retained 
in the translation to distinguish the vessel from the other yacht, " de 
Meeuwe." The size of these two vessels explains the mention of only 
"four ships" in the opening paragraph. 

2 A slip for fourteen, as is later most evident, 

12 speilbergen's journal. [Aug., 1614 

On the 1 2th, arrangements were made for dealing out 
bread, and four and a-half pounds per week were ordered 
to be given each man. 

Sailing in this fashion until the night of the i6th, we 
then saw one of our ships, the ^olus, of Vlissinghen, 
lying at anchor near the Zingels ;^ wherefore, with the 
consent of the Admiral, it was deemed proper by the 
skippers and mates to run to the Downs, which was done. 

On the 1st of September, the yacht came back to us, 
having lain so long at Pleydmuyen,^ for which the skipper 
could not find any excuse. 

On the morning of the 2nd, we had a contrary or head- 
wind, and the ^olus, coming to the Admiral, informed 
him that she was leaking badly ; wherefore we ran with all 
the ships and two other merchantmen to the Isle of Wight, 
and anchored at night off the Cow^ before the Castle. 

There we stayed some days, and on the 12th regulations 
were made regarding the beer, each man being allowed 
one tankard per day. 

On the 15th, the Admiral held a general inspection 
of the whole fleet. 

On the 1 6th, the Admiral having caused a shot to be 
fired as a signal for setting sail, we all weighed anchor and 
put out to sea. 

On the 17th, the wind blowing from the west, we had a 
stiff breeze. 

On the 1 8th, the wind veered entirely to the north, and 
we, steering our course north by west, made good progress 
for some days in this fashion. 

On the 27th, the wind being again south-west, and our 
course lying south-east, we got along pretty fairly, and at 
mid-day we were in 18° of latitude. 

On the afternoon we saw a drifting mast which had been 

* The Shingles, Dungeness. ^ Plymouth. ^ Cowes. 

Sept., 1 6 14] speilbergen's journal. 13 

struck by lightning, and some of our ships coming near it 
saw round about the said mast great numbers of fish, of 
which we caught so many that two hundred men ate their 
fill of them. Towards evening, we hauled the said mast 
on board, and it came in very handy to us for repairs. 

Sailing further along until the 3rd of October, we were 
then in the latitude of the island of Madera. 

On the 6th, the Admiral invited to his ship the two 
skippers of the merchantmen who were in our company, 
and after a friendly leave-taking many letters were given 
them to forward home. 

The same night it blew a top-gallant gale from the east, 
our course lying south-west by south. 

On the 9th we saw the high country of Canaria, and 
shortly after the land Gerensycque,^ from which the peak 
mountain rises very high. 

On the 17th, in the afternoon, we closed the starboard 
hatch, and sailed west, afterwards west by south. 

And in the evening the Admiral sent the Meeuwe on in 
front, with orders to fire a shot as soon as they spied land. 

On the 1 8th, the same breeze and progress continuing, 
we were at midday in 18° of latitude, and during the night 
the Jag-er and the Meeuwe sailed on in front. 

On the morning of the 19th we saw no land, but Job 
Cornelissen, skipper of the ^Eolus^ came to the Admiral, 
and earnestly assured him that the islands lay farther 
back ; wherefore the .Admiral, hoisting his pennant, called 
a Broad Council, and by order of the same we closed the 
hatches towards night, and set our course east-south-east. 

On the 2 1st we came in sight of He de Brave,2and after- 
wards of He de Fogue,^ which lay very high. The Admiral 
then gave orders for the Jager and the Meeuwe to run on 
in advance, and lie close under the He de Brave, in order 

1 Teneriffe. ^ Brava or Sao Joao, in 14° 49' N., 24° 45' W. 

3 Fogo, in 14° 53' N., 24° 30' W. 

14 speilbergen's journal. r^^^' i^H 

to find a good anchorage there, and to signal the same by 
the flag and a shot. 

In the afternoon we were in 15° 30' latitude, and so we 
sailed past the Salt Islands, which are not placed in the 
right latitude in the maps, as we find them marked by 
Captain Vincent^ in 17°. . ^ 

On the 24th we were not far from the land, and sailed 
towards it all together ; the Jager and the Meeuwe, how- 
ever, a little in advance close in to the shore. But finding 
that there was no anchorage for the large vessels, we put 
out to sea again, taking our course south-south-east. 

On the 25th, continual rain falling, we collected a deal 
of water in sheets, cloths, shirts, and other things, and it 
was very calm all day. 

After deliberation, it was resolved by the Broad Council 
to put forth every endeavour to double Cape Frio, and 
proceed so to the He Grande, on the coast of Braseil, in 
order to lay in a stock of wood and water. 

On the 26th, regulations were made for dealing out 
water and wine, and each man was ordered to be given 
twelve pannikins of water and two pannikins of French 
wine daily. The same afternoon we were in latitude 
13° 34', and we sailed on the whole night south by east. 

On the 28th, early in the morning during the day-watch, 
we had a squall, with rain, lightning, and much wind, 
coming from the east-south-east, and our course lying 
south and south by east. 

From October 30th until November 17th we had con- 
tinually much calm weather, a deal of rain and variable 
winds, as often happens in that clime. 

On November 22, the Admiral called up all the men. 

1 Vicente Yanez Pinzon, Spanish navigator. He supplied Columbus 
with an eighth of the expenses of the expedition to discover America, 
and v^^as himself in command of one of the vessels. He was the first 
Spaniard to cross the Line in 1499, discovered the mouth of the 
Amazon, and sailed along the coast of Brazil. 


and told them with good reasons that each man could not 
have more than eight pannikins of water per day in 
addition to his usual wine. 

The same afternoon we were in 2° 8' latitude, and sailed 
with a south-east wind, our course being south by west 
and sou'-sou'-west. 

On December 9th, after the whole fleet had hoisted 
their flags, a general prayer was offered up, and we all 
praised Almighty God that he had brought us so safely 
through the dangerous shoals of the Abroles,^ which extend 
very far out to sea. 

The same evening each mess was given a stoop of 
Spanish wine in addition to the usual allowance. 

On the nth, the wind blowing from the north, we sailed 
with a topsail west by south, in order to discover the land. 

At dawn on the morning of the 13th, we came in sight 
of the land of Brasilia, and the mates were of opinion, 
judging by the latitude they had taken that night, and the 
appearance of the land that we saw, that it was Saint 
Clara^ and Cape Santhome. According to guess, we were 
still about 4 miles from the shore, and we cast the line in 
26 fathoms. 

The land of Brasilia was rather high, full of hills, some 
very pointed, and others being big and massive, but on the 
coast it was flat. Towards evening it was thought fit and 
decided that we should again run out seawards, and return 
again to the shore at midnight, as was done. But finding 
there a great shoal, the vessel, the Groote Son, fired a shot 
in order to warn the other ships still to hold out for a 
while seawards. 

About two hours before daylight we turned and sailed 
south-south-west, running along the shore. 

On the 14th, we sailed almost the whole day along the 
shore, and in the afternoon it became very calm. 

^ Abrolhos. "^ This name has disappeared from the maps. 


Towards evening we came in for a strong squall, which 
lasted a long time, with continual rain, so that we had to 
take in all the sails. In the evening we cast anchor in 
14 fathoms. 

On the morning of the 1 5th, the Admiral had the white 
ensign hoisted, and shortly afterwards summoned the 

Towards evening we set sail with a south-east wind, 
taking a sou'-sou'-westerly course along the shore until 
after nightfall, when, about two hours after the setting of 
the watch, we came in for such a variable breeze that we 
could not keep a steady course. 

On the 19th, we sailed west and west by north, with 
a fine breeze from the east, and made good progress, 
gradually approaching the shore. The land was here 
rather high and peaked, wherefore the mates thought we 
were off Cape Frio, but the Meeuwe, which had sailed on 
in advance the whole night, coming up to us, brought us 
tidings that Rio Javero^ lay in front of us, that there were 
three islands before the mouth of the river, and hoped 
that we might still come in sight of lies Grandes that day, 
wherefore the Meeuwe was ordered to sail on again in 

On the morning of the 20th, we found ourselves close 
to the lies Grandes, and ran straight to the roadstead, 
where we anchored in 13 fathoms between two large 
islands covered with trees ; the Admiral had himself put 
ashore here in order to inspect the place. 

On the 2 1st, we sailed away with the whole fleet to 
another island about half a mile off, and anchored in 
5 fathoms. 

In these places we caught a large quantity of fish, with 
the net and otherwise, and among them were crocodiles the 
length of a man. 

^ Rio de Janeiro. 

Dec, 1614] speilbergen's journal. 17 

On the 22nd, several boats were sent out, each to a 
different channel, in order to sound the depths and seek a 
better anchorage. 

On the 23rd, the Admiral had a pennant hoisted, and all 
the skippers and mates having come on board, it was 
resolved that we should again move our ships, which 
was done, and we ran in close behind another island, 
just under the shore, in 5 fathoms, where we found two 
small huts on land, with many human bones lying under 
a rock. 

On the morning of the 24th, the Admiral and Captain 
Willem van Anssen, with the carpenters, went ashore, in 
order to set up the tents there for the sick ; and towards 
the evening the latter were taken thither from all the ships, 
and were protected at night by three corporal's guards. 

On the 28th, the Admiral hoisted the white ensign, and 
called a Broad Council on board his ship, wherein it was 
resolved that the Jager should be despatched to a river 
situated 2 miles from the fleet, in order to protect the boats 
which were to go there for water. This was accordingly done, 
and the Jager, setting sail, dropped anchor about \\ mile 
from the fleet, so that the land was hardly within range of 
her fire ; she was not acting therefore in accordance with 
orders, which were that she should anchor close under the 
shore, as a perfect protection to our boats. 

At about two hours before daylight on the morning of 
the 29th, the boat and the Admiral's barge went off for 
water. A party was also sent with them to cut some 
firewood on the island off which we lay, and as the boat and 
barge returned to the ship at midday, they again set out, 
as soon as they had discharged, in order to lay in a further 

Having again discharged their water at night, they 
thought to come aboard, but being too fast aground, they 
could not get off, and had to spend the night there until 


i8 speilbergen's journal. [Dec, 1614 

the tide rose ; and having passed the night there in a hut 
which the men from the yacht had built, they came on 
board with the tide in the morning, declaring that they 
had heard some noise of men in the bush. 

On the 30th, some boats were again sent out for water, 
one from the Mane^ the Morgenster, and the Jager, with 
nine or ten soldiers, amongst whom was Franchoys du 
Chesne, lieutenant to Captain Roelant Philipsen, the rest 
of the mariners being, contrary to the orders which had 
been given them, without their arms. 

About sunrise we saw ih^Jager was firing many a cannon 
shot at the land, and continued thus to do, wherefore we 
deemed there must indeed be something wrong and quickly 
despatched thither three boats, well manned and armed, 
which, on reaching th^Jager, learned that five canoys (which 
are a kind of skiff), filled with Portuguese and mestis, had 
come and carried off by force three of our boats and 
massacred all our men, and that the Jager's own boat had 
been taken whilst distant but a musket-shot from the 

Our men in the aforesaid three boats, seeing the place 
where the canoys still lay, set out for them ; the latter, 
observing this, made off. Our men, pursuing them, gained 
upon them hand by hand, but on turning a corner close 
under a rock they discovered two frigates protecting the 
enemy, wherefore, perceiving their disadvantage, they came 
back on board with these sad tidings. 

On the morning of the ist of January the Admiral had 
the white ensign hoisted, and a Broad Council having met, 
four sailors were brought aboard the Admiral's ship as 
prisoners, they being accused of treason, to wit, of running 
away from the Meeuwe with the yacht, in order to make 
themselves masters of the latter and use her to their own 
advantage. They were very narrowly and separately 
heard, and we learnt that the accomplices were fourteen in 


On the 2nd ditto, all the men of the Meeuive were 
distributed amongst the other ships, on account of the 
treason, and a fresh crew were put aboard her. 

And as we did not yet have our full quantity of water, 
the Jager was again sent about a mile distant from the 
fleet to lie there close under the shore as a protection for the 
boats, and the yacht, by reason of the dead calm, was 
towed thither by four boats ; the said four boats, having 
been laden, again returned to the fleet, finding on the way 
the floating body of the boatswain's mate of the yacht, with 
some arrows sticking in it, and they buried it on land. 

On the 3rd, the prisoners were examined, and a report 
of the matter drawn up. 

On the 4th, an examination was again held by the 
Council. On the same day, the Meeiiwe was ordered, by 
common agreement, to go and lie between the Jager and 
the shore, for the greater protection of our boats while 
fetching water. 

During the night, two canoys full of savages came to in- 
spect our yacht. 

On the 5th, the Admiral had the Broad Council sum- 
moned, which found two of the prisoners guilty of crimen 
IcBsce majestatis and sentenced them to forfeiture of life and 
property, wherefore each was to be hung up at the yard- 
arm and be shot through by six musketeers as he was 
being hauled up, and that on the vessel upon which each 
had served. 

On the afternoon, the Fiscal, Christiaen Stulinck, and 
the Reader were deputed to acquaint the delinquents with 
the sentence of death ; which was done, and they remained 
the whole night with the latter, in order to exhort them to 
a state of repentance and remorse for their sins. 

On the 6th, the Admiral had the blood flag of the Com- 
pany hoisted, and the Orange at the top-mast, as did also 
all the other ships. After breakfast, all the soldiers bearing 

C 2 

20 speilbergen's journal. [Jan., 1615 

arms, the Fiscal read the sentence publicly ; and after the 
Admiral with the merchant Cornelis de Vianen and Cap- 
tain Willem van Anssen had gone on before, the provosts 
with the miscreants followed, and the execution was imme- 
diately carried out, the bodies being buried on land. The 
names of the condemned were Hieronimus Hendricksen, of 
Hamburgh, about twenty-four years old, and Jan Hen- 
dricksen, of Enckhuysen, about twenty-five years old, their 
examination, confession, and sentence being registered in 
the minute-book. 

On the 8th, we got our last water in, and in the evening 
both vessels came back to the fleet. 

Before the departure from He Grande, the Broad Council 
met and resolved upon the departure, as well as upon the 
rendevous in the Strait of Magellanes, which, unless it 
should happen that some of the ships went astray during 
storm or other cause, was ordered to be Cordes^ Bay, 
and further all other bays and islands thereabouts, where a 
stake should be planted in passing, upon which each ship 
should hang a hoop or rope with some other direction, in 
order that the later comers might know which had passed 
there ; and it was ordered that the stakes should be set 
up in the most conspicuous places and in the usual 

It was then also arranged how long one should wait for 
the other in the Bay ; this was six or seven days. After 
that time, each one might pursue his journey to He 
Lamochie,^ in the South Sea, in order to await further 
orders there. 

On the nth, the Council again met, and it was proposed 
that, since the necessary victuals were not to be got here, 
and the sick were still very weak, a run should be made to 
the Bay of St. Vincent,^ the Admiral deeming this very 

* Cordus on the map herewith, but see p. 43. 

2 La Mocha. ^ S. Vicente, near Santos. 

Jan., 1615] SPEILBERGEN'S journal. 21 

necessary, and representing to all those on the Council 
how greatly victuals were needed, and how, moreover, 
sickness, and especially scurvy, was daily increasing, and 
that, according to human judgment, it was impossible to 
bring such heavy ships, which have to be tacked, turned, 
and often brought to anchor, through Magellanes Straits 
without first having sound and able-bodied crews. Some, 
on the contrary, proposed that the voyage should be con- 
tinued without first seeking fresh provisions ; but the 
Admiral, Vice-Admiral, and the majority of the Council 
resolved before all else to seek provisions, as appears from 
the minute-book, and this resulted in such great profit and 
advantage touching the preservation of our men that one 
and all had good cause to thank God therefor. 

Accordingly to a resolution passed, we took down all 
the tents on the same day, and brought the goods on 

On that shore, too, we made new boats in place of those 
which had been taken from us. And so we weighed 
anchor that night, and set sail, but with the dawn we had 
again to cast anchor on account of the exceeding calm. 

On the 14th, the Admiral had the white ensign hoisted, 
and the Broad Council being assembled, the provosts 
brought the prisoners and accomplices of the treason on 
board, and all the officers having fallen on their knees and 
begged for pardon, this was granted them by the Council, 
and the prisoners were released on parole and distributed 
amongst the other ships. 

The same day it was so very calm that the ships drifted 
without wind, the one here, the other there. 

On the 15th, the Admiral held a general inspection 
of the whole fleet. 

On setting sail at night, we set our course nor'-west by 
north, in the direction of the land. 

On the 17th, we saw a great column of smoke rising 


from the land, wherefore the Jager and Meeuwe were sent 
on in advance, the other ships following on behind. 

Towards the evening, when the Meeuwe returned to the 
fleet, the Admiral sent his boat to it and Balten Stevens, 
of Vlissinghen, commanding the Meeuwe, who had been 
several times in that country, declared that he did not 
recognize this land, and that we must have come much too 
far. The Broad Council being thereupon summoned, it was 
resolved that the Admiral's boat, carrying two swivel-guns, 
sixteen soldiers and ten sailors, under the command of 
Lieutenant Coignet, should proceed two hours before day- 
break to the place where we had seen the fire, taking with 
them a basket of beads and other trifles, in order to see 
whether they could get into friendly negotiations ; this was 
done, but with no result. 

We cast anchor there, about a mile from the shore, in 
16 fathoms. 

On the 1 8th, the Meeuwe, flying a small white flag 
astern, approached the shore, on reaching which they saw 
many people, both on the beach and in the bush. After 
they had come still closer to them, the Portuguese called 
out that we should send one man only, and that we should 
not approach the shore with any boats ; whereupon Jan 
Hendricxsz., boatswain on the Mane, sprang naked into 
the sea and swam towards them. The Portuguese and 
savages stood in great numbers on the shore, armed with 
bows and arrows, wherefore our boatswain, standing on a 
rock, called out that they should lay down their arrows, 
and that one of them should speak with him ; this was 
done, and one of them coming forward and making the 
others draw back, asked our boatswain where we came 
from, what we wanted there, and whither we wished to go ; 
whereupon he replied that we came from Flanders, that 
w^e had come thither in search of provisions for love and 
money, and that we wished to go to Rio de Plata. The 


other replied that we well knew that, by reason of the 
King's prohibition, they might not trade with us, but 
that if we would promise to keep the matter secret 
and not to proceed to St. Vincent^ to reveal it there 
they would provide us sufficiently with everything the 
next day. 

At midday the Admiral's big boat, carrying two swivel 
guns and thirty well-armed men, was sent to the Meeuwe, 
with orders for the latter to go on in advance and search 
for the bay, and that having found it, to give some signal 
by shot. This having been done, the four vessels pro- 
ceeded thither, the Jager remaining at anchor until further 
orders in the place where we had previously spoken with 
the Portuguese. 

At daybreak on the morning of the 19th, we saw two 
canoes round the corner of the river and immediately turn 
back again ; whereupon the Admiral sent the Meeuwe and 
two boats into the river in order to sound the depth there. 
But very soon after we saw a canoy bearing a small white 
flag come from the town of Sanctus,^ which was situate 
there, and where there were many people on the beach ; 
we at length approached so close to it that we could speak 
with it, and when we told them the reason of our coming 
there they said that we should write a letter to their 
governor and place it upon a stake on the beach and that 
they would bring us an answer to it. Amongst other 
things they warned us to be on our guard against the 
savages who dwelt near St. Vincent. Shortly after, the 
Meeuwe, having proceeded up the river in advance, fired a 
shot, wherefore our ships weighed anchor, and ran up the 

In the afternoon we took a letter ashore, and placed it 
on a stake. 

^ See note 3, p. 20. 2 Santos. 

24 speilbergen's journal. [Jan., 1615 

On the 20th, the Admiral had the white ensign lowered, 
and the Orange ran up in its stead, both with and without 
the pennant ; he also had the ships dressed. After that, 
some boats were sent to the spot where we had placed the 
letter on the previous day ; on arriving there, two canoys 
full of Portuguese came up to our men, and delivered to 
them a letter, which, on being opened and read by the 
Admiral and Council was found to contain nothing of 
special import ; it was therefore resolved to write once 
more, wherefore some boats again proceeded thither, 
taking with them two bottles of Spanish wine, two cheeses, 
and a parcel of knives with some beads, with which we 
presented the Portuguese who were standing there on the 

At the same time we saw on the shore of St. Vincent, 
being the place whither those of Sanctus had told us not 
to go, many people carrying a white flag, wherefore four 
of our boats immediately proceeded thither, and on 
reaching the savages were told by the latter that they 
durst not trade with us without the consent of the 
Governor, so that we presently again departed thence, 
and said that we should get some fruits from the adjacent 
island, which they neither consented to nor forbade. 

Towards evening, two of our boats came from the 
Jager, laden with apples, lemons, and a little meat. 

On the 2 1 St, Captain Willem van Anssen, accompanied 
by his ensign and Lieutenant Ruffijn, proceeded to the 
shore with three boats full of armed men, in order to 
ascertain something definite. On reaching land, a letter 
was handed them, being written in the Governor's name, 
but not signed by anyone. They brought on board with 
them two Portuguese, a mesti and a Brazilian, being their 
slave and pilot, in the place of which Lieutenant Ruffijn, 
Dirck Voedt, ensign, and an assistant from the Morgen- 
sterre, had remained on land as hostages. 

PLATE No. 2. 

Number 2 is the Illustration of Cape St. Vincent, in 

Where our ships re-victual, marked with letters, as follows^ : — 

A. Are six boats or sloops, in which the men were taken ashore. 

B. Are our soldiers drawn up in battle-array, so that we might be 

more protected whilst collecting provisions. 

C. Is a small church called St. Maria de Negue, with a mill or sugar- 

house, which after having furnished us with an adventure, was 
burnt for reasons that you may read. 

D. Is one of our ships lying on guard. 

E. Are a number of armed Portuguese and savages making their 

appearance on the beach. 

F. Is a view of the town of St. Vincent.^ 

G. Is a view of the town of Sanctus.^ 

H. Is the castle which Hes inland on that river. 

I. Are four of our boats that proceeded up the river for victuals. 

K. Is one of four ships on guard, in order to see what might befall 

our boats. 
L. Is another band of Portuguese and savages, who appeared on the 

M. A small Portuguese vessel which we captured. 
N. Is a skirmish, in which four men were killed. 
O. Is our whole fleet. 
P. How the Portuguese barque was burnt. 
Q. The mode of dress of the BraziHans, both male and female. 
R. Is how some of them sleep in a net made fast between trees. 

1 All the descriptions of the plates are loosely written, and evidently 
by a hand other than that of the respective diarists. See Introduction, 
p. xvi. 

2 S. Vicente, ^ Santos, 

Jan., 161";] speilbergen's journal. 25 

These persons, coming on board, were handsomely- 
received by the Admiral, and were shown all over the 
ship ; the commanders of the other vessels also came to 
visit them, and so they enjoyed good cheer the whole day. 

Towards evening, when they left the ship, the Admiral 
accompanied them a little way, taking them round the 
Mane and the Sonne, which they gazed at with great 
wonder ; and as soon as they were beyond musket range, 
a salute of three guns was fired from each of the two 
ships, and so they proceeded ashore. 

Our officers that were on land requested to be allowed 
to go and inspect the town of Sanctus, but the Portuguese 
replied that they had no orders for this, and so they 
returned on board with our boats. 

On the 22nd, the Jager returned to the fleet, and the 
Admiral, recognising that the Portuguese negotiations 
were naught else than deceit, and that they sought only to 
delay us, and make us lose time that was very valuable 
to us, summoned all the merchants, captains, and skippers, 
in order to deliberate hereupon. 

Meanwhile, we were procuring from the Portuguese by 
secret negotiations various fruits, pigs, fowls, sugar, and 
some preserves. 

At daybreak on the morning of the 23rd, seven boats 
full of armed men were despatched to St. Vincent, followed 
by the Jager and the Meeuwe, carrying large numbers of 
men, the Admiral and all the military commanders being 
on board too. On reaching the land, three persons ad- 
vanced with a flag of peace and placed a letter on a stake 
and a white flag near it. After which, a Portuguese 
presently advanced, took the letter, and having read it, 
showed that it did not please him ; he thereupon address- 
ing our men in angry fashion, our flags of peace were 
hauled down and the Orange run up in their place. 
Shortly afterwards we rowed up the river, where we found 


a mill into which they had all fled with their furniture, the 
said mill being large, strong, well-built, and inhabited, 
having a church named Signora de Negues ; we under- 
stood from the Portuguese that it had been built by a 
certain family of Antwerp, named the Scotch ;^ it was very 
pleasant in this spot, and the district all around was rich 
in sugar-cane. 

We plucked a quantity of fruit here, and having placed 
it in a canoy, which we found there, and then in our boats, 
we all went back on board together. 

On the 24th, the Admiral proceeded up the river to 
Sanctus with the Jager, the Meeiiwe, and five or six boats, 
in order to sec whether there was anything to be done 
there, but as it rained hard, and we saw no one, we came 
back again. 

On the 25th, the Admiral again proceeded with six 
well-manned boats and the Meeuzve to the place where we 
had been on the 23rd ; but as the Meeuive was somewhat 
behind, we ran to a sand-bank, on which stood a dilapi- 
dated house that looked like a redoubt, in order to wait 
for her, and we found some fruit there. Whilst we were 
engaged in plucking this, the Portuguese and savages, 
standing behind the house, shot a great many arrows, but 
no one was wounded ; thereupon our musketeers also shot 
very bravely with their muskets, and so drove them away. 
When we were leaving, the Admiral ordered thirty mus- 
keteers to conceal themselves in the said house, whilst the 
boats with the rest of the men should stop a short distance 
from the shore in order to see whether, according to their 
old manner and custom, they would come in numbers and 
shout after us ; but they, suspecting something, sent a spy 
near the house, and he, perceiving our men, warned the 
others. So the boats returned to the shore and took in the 

* " de Schotsen" in the text, but probably the same family as that 
of Apollonius Schot, Schotte or Scotte. See the Introduction, p. Iviii. 


musketeers, and as it rained very hard, we returned on 
board with a quantity of oranges. 

On the 26th, it was resolved (since much time had 
elapsed) to make one expedition more, and then to set sail 
with a favourable wind, in accordance with which three 
boats proceeded to a small island in order to pluck some 
fruit, but as soon as they arrived they perceived a sail 
making straight for the bay, with which new^s they imme- 
diately returned to the fleet to give information to the 
Admiral. Thereupon four boats, filled with armed men, 
were at once sent out in advance, the Admiral and Vice- 
Admiral following them on board the /<^^^r, and directly 
afterwards the Meeuwe. We were no sooner under way 
than we saw the little vessel coming along ; the latter, 
perceiving our approach, turned seawards, but as it was 
quite calm, and therefore impossible for her to escape, she 
gave herself up to us without any resistance, Maerten 
Pieterssen, skipper of the Morgensterre, and his crew being 
the first to board her, followed immediately by the Admiral 
and Vice- Admiral. 

The aforesaid barque was like a French ship in shape, 
being about thirty-six lasts^ in size, came from Lisbona to 
Rio de Javero,^ and belonged here. She had on board 
eighteen Portuguese, both crew and passengers, two guns, 
and a number of muskets and short lances. Her cargo 
was of no great consequence, other than a little iron, 
cotton, oil, salt, and such like. 

As soon as we boarded her the Portuguese, fearing for 
their lives, said that there were still ten or twelve of our 
men prisoners at Rio Javero, amongst them being Lieu- 
tenant Franchoys du Chesne, who had been wounded by 
an arrow in his breast, but had recovered, and was lodging 
there with the Governor of the country. 

1 A last was equal to two tons. '^ Rio de Janeiro. 

28 speilbergen's journal. [Jan., 1615 

Towards the evening, one of the prisoners was sent ashore 
in the canoy which we had taken on the 23rd, bearing a 
letter which the Portuguese had written and signed between 
them, in order to find out whether an exchange of prisoners 
could be effected, or whether some could be exchanged for 
fruit or cattle. 

On the 27th, we saw a peace flag on the shore, whither 
the Fiscal proceeded with two boats ; on reaching the land, 
he found placed upon a small stake a letter, which he 
presently handed to the Admiral. 

This letter smacked entirely of the Spanish style and 
temper, for the purport was that they would grant none of 
our requests, that they would, indeed, not release a single 
Flamengo for a number of Portuguese, but that if we 
desired ought we should come and fetch it ourselves at the 
point of the rapier, and that we should, moreover, make 
haste to depart. 

On the 28th, the Admiral, being moved by compassion, 
although he might well have proceeded with rigour against 
the prisoners, and desirous of releasing his own men, 
resolved to make one more attempt to arrive at some 
agreement, wherefore he charged the prisoners to write 
some letters both to their friends and to the priests, which 
he despatched to St. Vincent by a prisoner with two little 
children. The latter, on reaching land, gave the letters 
up to a Portuguese, who promised to deliver them, and 
to bring an answer the following day. 

In the afternoon, we unloaded the captured vessel and 
transhipped the goods, amongst which were some chests 
well filled with clothes, wherewith we provided our naked 
men. We also found therein many relics, crosses, grants of 
absolution, indulgences, and such-like foolery ; moreover, 
some very fine written books containing matters of theology 
and law, a chest full of beautiful prints and paintings, a 
silver gilt crown and some more silver-work. We also 

Jan., 1615] SPEILBERGEN's JOURNAL. 29 

found in the vessel two slaves and some other goods 
belonging to the Society of the Jesuits established there ; all 
of which — including vessel and crew — our Admiral offered 
to return to them if we could have had our prisoners back 
instead, but all was in vain. So that it was plain that they 
preferred to have the life and blood of a Netherlands sailor 
than much property of which they are otherwise so super- 
stitiously fond. 

We negotiated with the Portuguese in all courtesy, wrote 
very politely, yea, the prisoners themselves, being in great 
fear and trembling that we might throw them overboard, 
wrote very earnestly to the Paters and clergy requesting 
the release of our prisoners, but there was no compassion, 
nay, not even with their own fellow-citizens. 

On the 29th, we made another expedition with seven 
boats to the place where we had been the day before, and 
on stepping ashore with a peace flag, some letters were 
handed to us by the Portuguese, being of the same purport 
as the previous ones. Wherefore we proceeded to the 
building and plucked all around there oranges and lemons, 
as many as we could put in the boats, and on leaving 
we set fire to the building, the church, and all that was 
thereabouts, for the reason that the Portuguese had done 
naught else than fool us and had previously dealt very 
tyrannically with our men. As we were departing, some 
arrows were shot at us from the bush, but no one was hit. 

On the 30th, the captured vessel was set on fire by 
common agreement. 

From the letters we found in her, we observed how, not 
only here but in all places, they had long before been 
apprised of our coming, so that it must be true that there 
are some traitors in our country who give the King of Spain 
warning of all that takes place. 

At two hours before daybreak on the morning of the 
31st we made an expedition with four boats to a place 

30 speilbergen's journal. [Jan., 1615 

where we had not yet been, but as we found the mountain 
very rugged and sharp there, and guarded on all sides 
by men, we returned without doing anything. 

The wind having meanwhile veered to the north, the 
Admiral fired a shot as a signal for setting sail, but no 
sooner had we weighed anchor than we had to cast it again, 
by reason of the wind veering, and its being very calm. 

Immediately afterwards two boats, one belonging to the 
Admiral and the other to the Jager, proceeded to the land 
with five musketeers to fetch some more water, but whilst 
they were busy filling their casks, the savages ran forth 
out of the bush in great numbers, shooting arrows as 
thickly as if they were hail ; the Portuguese remained 
behind, and drove the others forward with sticks, and after 
our men had fired a few shots they fled to the boats, but 
were pursued so stoutly that the Jager^s boat was forcibly 
taken from them. Our men, taking to the other boat, 
rowed away from the shore, and meeting four of our other 
boats, which had followed them, and telling them of their 
mishap, all proceeded together to the spot ; on their 
arrival, the savages again shot valiantly with their bows, 
but as our men began to charge with muskets they took 
to flight, and our men returned to the fleet with \h<& Jaget^s 
boat, which had been sunk. 

In this expedition we lost four men, whilst all the rest, 
three only excepted, were severely wounded. 

This misfortune occurred through the fault of the 
skippers, in that they pay no heed to the orders issued, 
and carelessly send the boats to the shore without letting 
one wait for the other. 


On the 2nd, the Admiral caused four of the Portuguese 
prisoners to be released and set ashore, retaining the 
others for the service of the fleet. 

Feb., 1615] SPEILBERGEN's JOURNAL. 3 1 

Amongst these four was Pedro Alvares, skipper, who 
appeared to have had many dealings with our nation. He 
made great promises of getting our prisoners released, but 
we freed him, without paying much heed to his promises, 
because he had a wife and children, as also had the others, 
and out of regard for the fact that he had lost his ship and 
cargo. The Admiral gave him some money besides, for 
which act of benevolence they proffered us many thanks 
and expressions of gratitude, as is the custom of the 

Two hours before daybreak, on the 3rd, the Admiral 
had a shot fired as a signal for setting sail, but a dead 
calm compelled us to cast anchor again towards midday. 
Whilst weighing, the Admiral broke his anchor. As soon 
as we had cast, a canoy came alongside with a Portuguese, 
who brought a parrot, a number of fowls, and some apples, 
and offered these to the Admiral, together with a request 
that he might deign to release his brother-in-law, who was 
a prisoner with us ; and because the latter had a wife and 
children, he himself, being still a single man, offered to 
remain in his brother-in-law's stead. This was refused 
him, and he accordingly went away with the presents, 
which the Admiral caused to be replaced in his canoy. 

Before daybreak, on the 4th, we weighed anchor for the 
fourth time, but cast again about sunrise, on account of 

A fair breeze springing up after breakfast, we got out 
to sea. 

After the Council had been summoned, it was ordered 
that each man should have but one pannikin of wine per 
day, and three pounds of bread per week. 

On the 1 6th, we sailed constantly south-west by south, 
the wind coming from the north-east, for the reason that 
it had been resolved that as soon as we were in the 
latitude of Rio de Plate the Admiral should hoist the 


Prince's flag as a signal, and that we should then direct 
our course more towards the shore. We were there in 
latitude 38° 46'. 

We continued in the same course, and with the same 
wind, until March ist, when at midday we were in latitude 
46° 46'. 


On the 2nd it was very foggy, so that the ships fired 
a shot from time to time in order not to go astray, but as 
soon as it had cleared up again we perceived that two 
of our vessels, the Mane and the Sterre, had remained 
behind ; wherefore we hauled down our sails and waited 
for them. 

Here we were in latitude 47° 17', and in a depth of 
70 fathoms, the wind being north-east, and our course 
lying west by south. 

On the morning of the 5th, we sailed on to the south- 
west, with a north-west wind, and made good progress 
until noon, when the wind veered round to the north ; we 
were then in latitude 50°. 

By the evening we had come so near. the land that we 
could perfectly well see the smoke rising ; directing our 
course to the south-west, we sailed along the shore, where 
the land appeared to be very bad and without hills. 

On the 7th, the weather was very clear and bright, and 
at noon we were in latitude 52° 6\ 

There we perceived that we were only about 2 miles 
from land, and we also saw some land in front of us with 
nine mountains upon it, the whole being uniform down- 
land. We saw smoke rising there, and so we continued 
to sail along the coast with a nor'-nor'-east wind, until we 
perceived that it was the river of Rio Galeges,^ being a fine 
broad river, but very shallow. 

^ Gallegos. 

March, 1615] speilbergen's journal. 33 

On first seeing this country some thought it was the 
Strait of Magellanes, wherein they were deceived, since 
the said Strait lies in 52° 30' latitude. 

Then the Meeuwe and the Sterre were sent on in 
advance, because the skipper, Maerten Pieterssen, had 
been here several times. 

Towards evening we all cast anchor in 15 fathoms, and 
that only half a mile from the shore, near a corner 
stretching very far out, which we deemed to be Cape 

About midnight the Admiral's cable broke, so that he 
lost his anchor, wherefore he fired a shot, and showed 
two lights, finding no better measure to adopt than to 
keep out seawards under short sail. 

At last the storm grew more and more intense, so that 
we all lost sight of each other. 

Early on the 8th, the tempest increased very much, so 
that the Meeuwe alone found herself near the Admiral, the 
other ships being here and there. We were continually 
tacking, now directing our course seawards, and then to 
the shore, the constant use of the lead line showing us 
first 10, then 15, 17, 20, afterwards 25 fathoms, and finally, 
no bottom at all. 

The weather then began to calm down, but only for a 
little while, for shortly afterwards the storm increased very 
much in intensity, so that we were not without great 
danger, and therefore tacked in between the shoals, con- 
stantly casting the lead to get our depth. Then the 
Meeuwe got separated from the other ships. 

We also saw, lying sou'-sou'-east and south-east of us, 
a very high country, which we opined to be Terre de 
Fogue.^ We were then not more than 4 miles from Cape 
Virignie,^ lying nor'-nor'-west of us. But to all appearances 
we should have run straight upon la Terre de Fogue had 

^ Cabo de las Virgenes, ^ Tierra del Fuego. 



not God mercifully granted us a west wind, with which we 
sailed due north, thus gradually getting out into deep 
water, in order to avoid the shoals. 

On the 8th, all our ships being together again, a Broad 
Council was held after the Admiral had given the signal 
with shot and flag, and it was resolved that we should 
have the same quantity of bread and wine as we had 
previously been accustomed to have. 

Towards evening we sailed nor'-nor'-west, and the wind 
veering to westward at midnight, the Jacht, which sailed 
on in front and carried the light, fired a shot, whereupon 
we all tacked, and directed our course northwards and 
north by east. 

On the loth, the gale abating, it was very fine weather, 
and with a north-west wind, our course being north-east, 
we sailed on all night north-east by north. 

At noon on the nth we had sailed back one degree, for 
the boatswains could make it no more than 51° 30'. The 
whole night it blew very hard from the west-sou'-west. 

On the morning of the 12th, the wind being west-sou'- 
west, and our course north-west, we tacked, and the gale 
increasing, we had to range along with only a try- 

At noon on the 13th, we were in latitude 50° 20', with 
fine weather. The wind veering to the north towards the 
evening, we sailed during the night south and south by 

Closing the hatches on the morning of the 14th, we ran 
towards the shore. At midday we were again in 51° 26'. 
Towards night the wind rose higher, wherefore we sailed 
all night to the north-west with a south-west wind. 

From the 14th to the 20th we had much storm and foul 
weather, with very variable winds, so that, with much 
trouble and tacking, we got near the land at the same 
spot in which we had been on the 7th, to wit, in lati- 
tude 52". 


That same night, before daybreak, the Jacht and the 
Meeuwe, which had been separated from us since the 8th, 
came back to us, having been as far as the Straits, where 
they had left the Morghen-sterre lying near Puguine 

On the 2 1st the Admiral, in order to have fuller in- 
formation, sent to those vessels Skipper Blauwen Willem, 
who learnt that, having got separated from us some time 
ago by the storm, they had come as far as Cape Virginia, 
where they had anchored in order to await better weather ; 
and that on the 17th March they had come to the Piguine 
Islands, where they had again anchored 2 miles from each 
other. There a great tumult had arisen on board the 
Meeuwe, the sailors having made themselves masters of 
the ship, obtained possession of the gun, and compelled 
the skipper and ship's clerk to do as they desired, making 
the clerk their cook ; and they would also have murdered 
him in the cabin had not the skipper interceded for him, 
submitting to them that his death could not help them, 
which to some extent satisfied them. But at last (being 
drunk and full) two of them jumped up and came into the 
cabin, each with a sword in his hand, in order to take the 
clerk's life. They two were young fellows, the one, named 
Warnaert, being from Friesland, and not more than twenty 
years old ; the other from Dort, in Holland, a scamp who 
would have been strung up long ago had not his father 
obtained pardon for him. Continuing their knavery, they 
were minded to cut the cable asunder, but were again 
prevented by the skipper, so that the anchor being weighed, 
they drifted into the Strait. 

The wanton spirit of these rioters having somewhat 
calmed down, a dispute arose as to who should be captain, 
and this quarrel gave opportunity and courage to the 
skipper, the barber, and some others who were innocent of 

1 Penguin Islands. 

D 2 

36 speilbergen's journal. [March, 1615 

treason, to break, sword in hand, into the cabin, and to 
attack these two principal mutineers, wounding them, 
whereby, with more help and support of other guiltless 
ones, they obtained the mastery of all the others, who, 
easily made obedient, excused themselves, laying all the 
blame upon the two aforementioned. 

This being done, it was agreed to throw those two 
overboard, which, too, was immediately done, and attes- 
tations were drawn up of all that took place. 

Bringing such grievous tidings, the Meeuwe came up 
with us, wherefore the Admiral sent the Vice- Admiral to 
make further inquiry into everything. The Admiral also 
summoned the clerk and skipper to his presence, in order 
to hear everything from them verbally, and offered, if they 
had any further distrust of their men, to place them on 
other vessels, and put others in their stead ; whereupon they 
answered nay, and that they trusted their own crew suffi- 
ciently, wherefore the Council decided to send them back, 
and to charge the Vice-Admiral to take heed that every- 
thing went on smoothly. 

On the morning of the 25th, after much trouble, storm, 
and contrary winds, we came in sight of Cape Virginia, 
and making towards it, reached it about noon. But not- 
withstanding that we cast three anchors, one after the 
other, it was impossible for them to hold, on account of the 
softness of the bottom, whereby the whole afternoon was 
spent in re-weighing them each time ; and towards the 
evening the Admiral, by two shots, gave the signal for 
setting sail again, directing his course west-nor'-west, but 
he was followed by none of the other ships. 

On the 26th, the Admiral kept on tacking until he 
finally came near the land of the nine hills, where, finding 
no more than 10 fathoms of water, he again turned sea- 

On the 27th, the wind veering to the west, the Admiral 
again ran to Cape Virginia, sailing all the time along the 


coast, which was low and flat, being very like the shores of 
England. At the same place, the Admiral sighted the 
Meeuwe, which, by firing a shot, gave a signal that it was 
dangerous to run so near the land, wherefore the Admiral 
again turned seawards, where, after much tacking, he 
found the three other ships, to wit, the Mane, the ^olus, and 
the y<2^^r, all of which had anchored together near Terre 
de Fogue. The Meeuwe cast anchor in another place 
somewhat further off, so that in the night she was driven 
far back by the strong wind. 

During these contrary winds, and whilst we lay drifting 
in this way trying to enter the Straits, many began to 
mutter that we would have difficulty in passing through in 
such big vessels. Some spoke of going to winter in Porto 
Desirado,^ where Candis^ and Olivier van Noort had been ; 
others said that it would be better to make our way 
betimes to Cape de Bonne Esperance,^ and so to the East 
Indies, and more such-like opinions. 

There also came to the Admiral in his cabin Pieter Buers, 
a merchant, and declared in the presence of many others 
that he and his skipper would like to know whither they 
were to sail in the event of their being frustrated, and 
unable to get through the Straits, whereupon the Admiral 
replied : " Our orders and charge are to sail through the 
Magellanes ; I know of no other way to show you ; take 
heed to do your best and keep up with us." Through this 
prompt and resolute reply the mutterings were stopped, 
and each one did his best to get through these dread 

After midnight, on the 28th, the Admiral fired a shot as 
a signal to set sail, and when daylight was come we saw 
the Meeuwe nowhere, neither before nor behind, whereat 

^ Port Desire. Vide infra. 

2 Thomas Cavendish, the third circumnavigator of the globe, who, 
on his way to the Straits of Magellan, discovered Port Desire, so 
named after his own ship, the Desire, on 17th December, 1586. 

^ Cape of Good Hope. 

38 speilbergen's journal. [March, 1615 

we were not a little astonished, and of opinion that she had 
certainly deserted, on account of the two sailors who had 
been thrown overboard ; so that with four vessels we tacked 
into the Strait, the weather being fine and the wind west 
and west by south. 

In the evening we anchored in 28 and 30 fathoms, nearer 
to the northern than the southern shore. 

On the 29th, the wind being west and west by south, 
with fine weather, the stream ran with such force out of the 
Strait that we were obliged to lie at anchor the whole day. 
But towards the evening a strong gale sprang up, so that 
the cable of the Admiral's ship slipped its anchor, and 
whilst we were engaged in hauling in the loose end, we 
drifted over a shoal where there was a depth of not more 
than 16 or 17 fathoms, but finding greater depth shortly 
after, we let her drift out of the Strait the whole night. 

On the 30th, we drifted without a sail until noon, when 
we unfurled the main- and fore-sail, and directed our course 
north by west, with a west wind, that is, of course, the 
Admiral alone, he having got separated from the other 



On the 1st, the weather being fine, we crowded all sail, 
taking our course south-west, with a nor'-nor'-east wind. 

On the 2nd, the weather was dark, and the wind veered 
to the north-west, but this did not last long, for very soon 
it turned to east-south-east, with fine weather, so that about 
midday we sailed into the Strait once more, taking our course 
south-east by south, and gradually somewhat more wes- 
terly, in order to get the weather-shore to the north. After 
that we sailed due west-north-west, constantly casting the 
lead until the first quarter was up ; we then dropped 
anchor, to our great good fortune, in 25 and 30 fathoms, for 
as soon as we weighed anchor in the morning, we found 
shallower water on all sides. 

On the 3rd, we had a fine breeze from the north-north- 

PLATE No 3. 

Number 3 is the Map of Magellanes Strait 

As it was navigated by Admiral Joris Spilberghen and his fleet. Here 
follows the explanation thereof, indicated by A, B, C : — 

A. Is one of our ships that was mastered through the treason of some 

sailors, and finally made off with. 

B. Are the five other ships successfully sailing into the Strait. 

C. Is a human being who often made his appearance on the south 


D. Shows how the savages surprise our fellows with clubs, and 

kill them. 

E. Are a number of savages who came to us on the beach, and spoke 

with some of our men in a strange tongue. 

F. Shows how the savages were treated to Spanish wine and were 

given other things, they giving signs that these pleased and 
were acceptable to them. 

G. Are some red berries of very good flavour that grow there in 

H. Is a penguin, which are to be seen in great numbers there. 
I. Are some sailors shooting birds on land. 
K. Is the shape of their canoys^ or skiffs. 

April, 1615] speilbergen's journal. 39 

east, and took our course all along the northern shore to 
the north-west and north-west by west. And as we came 
into the narrows, we found a reef a quarter of a mile in 
width, where we got first 98, then 76, and at last only 
5 fathoms of water. Shortly afterwards it began to get 
deeper again, and then we first saw the channel of the first 
narrows, which was not wider than half a mile, and getting 
into calm water there, we were carried into the channel on 
a tide, and cast the lead in 40 fathoms, but without a good 
bottom for anchoring. 

Here we saw on the shore of Terre de Fogue a human 
being of very big stature make his appearance several 
times, sometimes climbing up some eminence or little hill 
the better to see us. 

This land of Terra de Fogue was very dry and dune- 
like in the first narrows, being not unlike the dunes in 

As it continued calm we launched our boat, and were 
towed through the first narrows, casting anchor at noon 
between the first and second narrows in 16 fathoms, and 
thanking God that we had so passed, not without great 
trouble and danger. 

At about noon on the 4th, we set sail again with a nor'- 
nor'-west wind, our course lying west by south, and so we 
continued with a fine breeze and good weather until late in 
the day, when we were obliged by contrary winds to anchor 
in 16 fathoms, near the tongue of the second narrows, off 
the northern shore. 

On the 5th, the wind being west by south and the 
weather fine, we set sail again in the afrernoon, and con- 
tinued tacking inwards, but we could not make much 
progress on that tide by reason of strong wind, wherefore 
we again cast anchor in 24 fathoms. 

On the morning of the 6th, it began to blow very hard, 
so that at noon, one arm of our anchor breaking, we began 
to drift to the lee-shore, but we hoisted the fore-sail and 

40 sPEilbergen's journal. [April, 1615 

ran to the spot where we had passed the night on the 4th, 
dropping the anchor there behind a tongue of land in 
25 fathoms. 

On the morning of the 7th, the merchant, Cornelis de 
Vianen, went ashore, followed by the Admiral, in order to 
inspect the locality, but they found no living person, though 
they indeed saw two ostriches, which ran so fast that it 
would have been difficult to keep up with them on horse- 
back. They found there a river of fresh water, being very 
large and broad, with small trees growing around it, bearing 
black berries, which were of good flavour. In the after- 
noon, we again set sail, with a north-west wind and fine 
weather ; but as it grew calm we again anchored till in 
the night, when we continued our course, but with little 

The cape of this country was given the name of Vianen 
by our people. 

On the afternoon of the 8th, we again set sail, directing 
our course towards the south-west as far as the corner of 
the second narrows, where we turned to the sou'-sou'-west 
An hour or two after sunset we arrived near the Piguines 
Islands, of which there are three, and which were named by 
us as follows : that lying to the south, the Great Shore ; 
the middle one, being the largest, Patagones or Giant's 
Island ; and the most northerly, being the smallest, 
Cruyck's Island. 

At daybreak on the morning of the 9th, the Admiral 
sent the Fiscal and some soldiers to Great Shore Island, 
in order to see whether he could find any signs there of 
any of our ships that might have been there. Coming on 
land, he found a stake, hanging to which was a hoop 
with a letter that the Morghen-sterre had left there, 
that vessel having departed thence into the Strait on 
March 25th. 

These tidings having been received, a similar mission 
was sent to Cruyck's Island, where they found indeed a 


stake with a hoop, but no letter, from which we presumed 
that the Morghen-sterre had set this up too. 

Thereupon the Admiral proceeded in person to Great 
Shore Island, where he found two dead bodies that had 
been buried after a fashion, having a little earth over them, 
and enclosed all around with bows and arrows. The 
bodies were found in penguin skins, one being of about 
our average height, the other not longer than 3^ feet, and 
having round the neck a chaplet, very finely made of small 
shells, which shone as clear as any pearls. The Admiral 
ordered them to be put back in the ground, which was 
done, and so we returned on board. In the afternoon we 
set sail, always hugging the northern shore, until the 
evening, when we anchored in 22 fathoms, close to the 

On these islands we found absolutely no means of 
subsistence, for the land appeared to be very barren, 
nothing growing there but some grass, and being burrowed 
out by penguins, just as the dunes in Holland are by 

At dawn, on the lOth, we set sail, with fine weather and 
a north-east wind. At about noon we came near a very 
fine sand bay, where the Spaniards had once built a town 
named Philippus, but which was entirely in ruins. We 
dropped anchor there in 15 fathoms, on a good bottom. 
It then began to blow very hajd, so that we were obliged 
to take down our top-masts ; but it did not last long, for 
shortly afterwards the weather turned fine again. 

On the nth April, the weather being very calm, the 
Admiral proceeded ashore with two boats, well manned 
and armed ; but he found nothing particular there, except 
a place where there was fine fresh water, and round about 
it the footprints of animals, from which we presumed that 
the latter come to drink there. Near by there were also 
three huts, wherein no human beings appeared to have 
been for a long time. 

42 SI^EILBERGEN'S JOURNAL. [April, 1615 

About midday we again set sail, with a nor'-nor'-east 
wind, keeping our course along the north shore, where the 
land was thickly wooded, and in some places quite flat ; so 
that it appeared as if the Spaniards had once used it for 
growing crops upon. Along the coast it was very deep, 
so that no bottom can be got for anchorage until one is 
quite close to the shore. 

Towards nightfall we anchored in 30 fathoms, so close 
to the land that it was quite within musket range. 

We were surprised to see here, on the south side, very 
fine green woods and many parrots, being then in. 54° of 
latitude. We also saw here, to our great astonishment, a 
gap forming a thoroughfare or passage through which we 
could see the open sea, and if we had had the Jacht with 
us, the Admiral would have sent the same thither, for in 
our opinion we might very quickly have come through 
there into the Silean^ Sea, but as that vessel had got 
separated from us before the first narrows, it could not be 

Early on the morning of the 12th, we again sailed south 
and south by east, until we came to a great tongue of land, 
behind which there was a large bay which appeared to be 
a good roadstead. Here the land began to be high and 
hilly, with the snow lying as white upon the mountains as 
if it were midwinter. 

And thus we sailed in a south-westerly direction to the 
third narrows ; but as the wind was very variable, we cast 
anchor as evening fell in 42 fathoms, just before the third 

On the morning of the 13th, the Admiral sent the 
smallest boat to a great inlet, where we supposed Mossel 
Bay to be. Moreover, the Admiral himself, with many 
others, went ashore, where we found nought else than fresh 
water. In the same spot were trees, the bark of which 

1 Chilean. 


was as strong as pepper ; wherefore we gave the same the 
name of Pepper Bay, although similar trees also stood in 
other places. Very soon afterwards we went back to the 
ships, and set sail, but made no progress, indeed, rather 
drifting back on account of variable winds, which came 
blowing down from the high country, so that we had to 
cast anchor again. 

On the 14th and 15th it blew very hard, so that we had 
to stay at anchor. 

Two or three hours before daybreak, on the i6th, the 
wind veered to the east, whereupon we set sail, going first 
south by east, afterwards south, and finally south-west, 
because the land trends here in so westerly a direction, 
indeed, entirely towards the north-west. Thus we sailed 
past Mossel Bay, close to which lies a small islet. The 
land here was very high, hilly, and enveloped in snow. 
Towards evening the Admiral fired a shot, in order to let 
our ships hear it in the event of there being any about. 

About eventide we saw smoke rising, wherefore we 
fired another cannon shot, and shortly afterwards we saw 
a boat come rowing along, which brought us tidings that 
our four ships lay in Cordes Bay,^ having only arrived 
there that very day, and being still occupied in anchoring. 

^ So called after Simon de Cordes, one of the chief commanders of 
the expedition of five ships of Rotterdam which set out from Goeree 
in 159b and anchored here from April, 1599, until the end of August. 

" Les peines qu'ils souffrirent en hivernant dans cette baie, alors 
nommee la Baie Verte, la disette ou ils se trouverent, la perte qu'ils y 
firent de plus de six-vingts hommes, leur fit venir la pensee de la 
nommer la Baie de Cordes, en memoire de tous ces accidents qui leur 
etoient arrivez sous le General de ce nom." Reaieil des Voyages qui ont 
servi a l^ etablissement . . . de la Compagnie des Indes Orie?itales. 
Amsterdam, 1702, p. 654. 

Burney {A Chronological History of the Voyages and Discoveries in 
the South Sea^ Ft. II, pp. 189 and 332) professes to find some difficulty 
in identifying this bay with the hart)our of Fort Galan or Gallant ; 
this difficulty, however, does not arise out of the text of the Spiegel^ 
either in the French version, which Burney saw, or in the original 
Dutch, but rather from the fact of Burney having written his note 
concerning this bay on the text of the Voyage of the Five Rotterdam 
Ships in 1598 and then subsequently referring his readers to that note 
without further consulting the text of the Spiegel, 


It was a wonderful mercy of God that such big ships had 
come with such great trouble, contrary winds and storms 
through such narrow channels, various turns, and many 
whirlpools, at the same time and day to their appointed 
Rendevous, especially as they had got separated from 
each other, and had passed the first narrows at different 

Towards the evening we cast anchor in 17 fathoms, and 
shortly afterwards the Vice-Admiral, with the merchants, 
captains, and skipper, came to welcome the Admiral ; each 
telling what had befallen him, and thanking God for such 
a happy meeting. 

During that day there were many savages with their 
wives and children on the shore, with whom Maerten 
Pieterssen Cruyck, skipper of the Morghen-sterre, and 
some others had spoken, evincing much friendship for 
them, and giving them some knives and other wares, 
treating them also to Spanish wine, whereupon they 
made signs that they liked it very much. In exchange, 
they gave our people certain pearl shells strung together, 
and very finely made. But these savages did not come 
back again as long as we lay there, the cause whereof we 
opined to be that they had been frightened by the shoot- 
ing, for we went ashore daily with guns, in order to shoot 
geese, ducks, and other birds. 

On the 17th, it was so calm that we had to be towed, in 
order to get to the other ships in the bay, where we cast 
anchor in 13 fathoms. 

On the 1 8th, the Broad Council met, and resolved to 
abide in that place another week, and to provide ourselves 
in the meanwhile with water, firewood, and other neces- 

On the same day, the Jager was towed by the boats 
behind a small island lying in the bay, and was cleaned 

During the week, all the ships were well provided with 


all that they required, and the crews well refreshed with 
mussels, which are very large and good there ; also with a 
kind called " clipcouses," superior in flavour and quality to 
oysters ; there was also much watercress, parsley, salad 
and many red berries. 

For joy at our re-union, the Admiral invited all the 
principal officers to dinner on board his ship, and they 
were well regaled there with many fresh dishes of meat, 
pork, poultry, oranges, lemons, candied peel and marma- 
lades, most of which we had procured at Saint Vincent ; 
also with olives, capers, good Spanish and French wine, 
Dutch beer, and many other things which it would take 
too long to mention here ; and, moreover, we enjoyed there 
a fine concert of various instruments, and music of many 

Before daybreak on the 24th, we set sail again, the wind 
being north by west, and so we tacked till past a corner. 
On the other side, opposite to us, we saw a number of 
people who had kindled a fire, and having by them some 
canoys, one of which rowed some way towards us, and 
made signs to us with an oar, but they durst not come on 
board. Towards evening, we anchored in 16 fathoms, 
under a small island, near which there were quite seven or 
eight islets more, to which such names were given as may 
be seen in the map of the Magellan Straits. 

On the 25th, the Admiral sent out three boats, the one 
hither, the other thither, in order to seek a good roadstead 
and proper anchorage. They finally found a fine bay, 
situated about a mile and a-half distant from us, having 
good anchorage in 16, 18, and 20 fathoms, whither we 
sailed in the afternoon, with a south-east wind, that shortly 
afterwards veered round, so that we could not reach the 
bay, but had to cast anchor a little to the east in 
25 fathoms. 

At daybreak on the 26th, we weighed anchor again, and 
set sail with an east-nor'-east wind, and making a little 


progress, but the wind soon veering to the north, with a 
strong gale, we were compelled to anchor to the south of 
an island, in 25 fathoms. 

From this place we saw a passage and thoroughfare into 
the South Sea, and the Admiral and many others, going 
ashore, climbed up the mountains, whence they opined 
that it was a direct thoroughfare, as we have also narrated 
in other places, and especially in the entry of the 
nth April; but our orders and instructions were always 
to follow the Strait of Magellanes, without trying any 
other passage. 

We are sufficiently informed that there were passages on 
the south, as one may read in the History of the East 
Indies, written by Le Padro Josephus de Coste^ in the 
Spanish language, and afterwards^ translated^ by Jan Huy- 
ghens van Lindschoten f and among other places at the end 
of his tenth chapter,^ where he says that Don Gaua^ Men- 
doza. Governor of Chili, having sent Captain Ladrillero 
with two vessels in search of the passage south of the 
Magellanes, the latter found the passage and entered the 
Sea, sailing from north to south, without continuing along 
the aforementioned Strait.'^ 

Further, all other historians are of the same opinion, and 
hold it certain that there is in the Magellanes a way out 
by which one can reach the open sea, and in a short time 
the Silean Sea.^ 

On the 29th, at noon, the Morghen-sterre ran into the 

^ Acosta (Joseph de), Historia natural y moral de las Indias, 
Sevilla, 1590. 

2 In 1598. ' Into Dutch. 

^ Linschoten (Jan Huygen van). 

s Of the Third Book. « Garcia. 

^ For a contemporary English rendering of the passage and its 
context, see Sir Clements Markham's edition of Acosta's work, Hakl, 
Soc, Ser. I, 60, pp. 137 et seq. 

® Chilean Sea, 


bay which we had found on the 25th, casting anchor in 
25 fathoms. This bay was very fine, having good an- 
chorage, near which there grew very many red and blue 
berries, that were of very good flavour. There was also 
near by a fresh-water river that ran down from the hills 
through the bush into the sea. In addition to this, there 
was here an abundance of mussels, " clip-couses," and other 
things of that kind, wherefore the Admiral had this bay 
named after himself, to wit, Spilberghen. 

On the 30th, the other ships entered the bay, and all 
anchored together. 


On the 1st, the Admiral sent out Maerten Pieterssen, 
skipper of the Morghen-sterre^ and Hendrick Reyers, boat- 
swain's-mate, with a boat, to look for the right passage. 

Before these had gone very far from us they saw some 
fine birds sitting on the shore, wherefore four of the hands 
sought and obtained permission to go on land and shoot 
these birds. No sooner were they ashore than the savages, 
each bearing a club, suddenly pounced upon them with 
wild shouts, and slew two of the sailors from the Morghen- 
sterre, to wit, an arquebusier and the cabin-boy, whilst the 
two others escaped. The Admiral having been informed 
of this was not at all pleased that permission had been 
given the men to go ashore, no orders having been issued 
to that effect. 

On the 2nd, fresh officers were appointed in place of 
those who had remained on Ilo Grande, and had died on 
the way. 

About noon, we again set sail with an east-south-east 
wind and fine weather, and sailed until the evening, when 
we cast anchor in 10 fathoms, in a very fine bay, near 
which there was a fresh-water river. 

During the night of the 3rd, one of the Admiral's ser- 

48 speilbergen's journal. [May, 1615 

vants named Abraham Pieterssen, of Middelburch, died ; 
and we buried him in the morning on an island close to 
the river, wherefore we gave the latter the name of 
Abraham's River. 

In the afternoon, the Admiral sent the boat of the 
j^olus on in advance, in order to sound the bottom, and 
look for a good anchorage. 

Meanwhile, the Admiral and Vice-Admiral, with three 
boats well-manned and armed, rowed into the river, in 
order to inspect the same ; but as soon as they were in it 
they found that the tide was carrying them up with such 
force that they had enough to do to get each boat out 
again with eight oars. 

Along this river we saw many small huts, which the 
savages had inhabited, but from which they had now fled. 
In the entrance to the river were a large number of stakes, 
looking like a fishery. 

The Admiral then came aboard again and waited for the 
boat sent out, which did not return until the night, without 
having found any proper anchorage, for the reason that it 
was so deep all around that the least they had found was 
130 fathoms. 

On the 4th, the Admiral summoned all the pilots on 
board his ship to hear their opinion concerning the advisa- 
bility of setting sail or not, and it was thereupon resolved 
to send out two boats again to sound the depths. This 
having been done, and the wind veering to the east in the 
afternoon, we set sail, and directed our course to the west- 

On the northern shore we saw a big channel, nearly as 
wide as the Strait itself, into which the tide ran with great 

Sailing thus, the Admiral ordered a shot to be fired 
from time to time in order to inform the boats, which had 
rowed on in advance, that we were under sail, 


Towards the evening the two boats came back, saying 
that the channel extended west-nor'-west straight before 
us ; wherefore they deemed it advisable that we should 
sail on the whole night, since wind and current served. 
Some were opposed to this, saying that it was better to 
cast anchor and await daylight ; to which end Maerten 
Pieterssen, skipper of the Morghen-sterre, the mates of the 
Mane, the ^olus, and some others, came on board the 
Admiral's ship to get him to anchor, especially as we were 
becalmed between high coasts near Cape Maurity. But 
whilst we were busied therewith, the wind rose so much to 
our advantage that by the common agreement of all we 
proceeded through the Strait that night. Maerten Pieters- 
sen sailed on somewhat in advance with the Jacht, and it 
was very fearsome and awful to behold such great ships 
sailing between such high coasts without a bottom for 
anchorage, and that by night. 

On the 5th, the channel began to get gradually wider, so 
that we could see straight out to sea, and as the wind 
dropped, the Admiral's ship drifted to the southern shore, 
wherefore he fired a shot as a signal for the boats of the 
other ships to come and help him get away from the lee- 
shore ; but no sooner had the boats got alongside of him 
than the wind improved, so that we sailed on the whole 
day and night north-west by west, making good progress. 

At daybreak, on the morning of the 6th, we had a strong 
wind and drizzling weather. We then saw the south 
corner, which is very steep and conspicuous, having some 
peaks that look like turrets. 

So we sailed out along the southern shore, since against 
the north shore were many rocks and islets that were very 
dangerous. And the same day we came, with God's help 
into the South Sea, for which He must be praised in 

In the afternoon, the wind increasing very much, we 



tried to haul the boats on board, but the waves were so 
violent that the Admiral's big boat was smashed in pieces, 
and drifted away ; we managed to get the others up with 
difficulty, and not without great danger of loss of life. 
The ships themselves were in no less peril on account of 
the islands that lay to leeward of us, and upon which we 
feared to be driven by the strong wind. 

The whole night long the wind increased in force, with 
continual rain and hail. 

These islets, lying in the South Sea at the end of the 
Magellan Strait, we gave the name of Sorlinges, because 
they were not unlike the Sorlinges^ outside the English 

The exit of this Strait of Magellanes presents a very 
fearful and dangerous appearance, by reason of the number 
of islets and rocks of great height that lie there, and there 
seems to be no place where, in time of peril, a ship could 
anchor or seek shelter. 

The southern cape, called Cape Desirado, is of a very 
unusual shape, as may be seen by the map, and as soon as 
the same is passed the wind generally rises, and the sea 
becomes tumultuous, so that, in addition to the danger of 
passing through the Strait, one has still to endure various 
extremes and hardships, as bear witness thereto the narra- 
tives and journals of those who have previously passed here. 

Towards evening, on the 7th, the wind blowing very 
hard, we ran towards the north, so that we took in our 
topsails and tacked the whole night, continually turning 
again and again. 

On the 8th, the weather continued the same, but grew 
better on the 9th, and we, still tacking, found ourselves in 
latitude 50° at noon. 

On the lOth, our Vice-Admiral, who had got separated 

^ Sorlingues, the French name for the Scilly Islands, 


from us on the 8th by the storm, came back to us. We 
then set our course to the west, the wind being nor'-nor'- 
west, and increasing in strength during the night, with 
rain and fog. 

Sailing in this fashion, we came in sight of the land of 
Chili on the 21st; wherefore we turned seawards again, 
west-nor'-west, and saw lying in that direction an island 
which we deemed to be La Mocha, and on casting the 
lead we found 38 fathoms, with a very good sand bottom. 
All the afternoon we had a boisterous wind from the 
nor'-nor'-east, with drizzly weather. 

On the morning of the 22nd the same weather con- 
tinued, with much rain ; towards midday it grew calm, the 
wind veering to the west, and we took our course to the 

Very early on the 23rd, we could see the Island of La 
Mocha distinctly, wherefore, the wind coming from the 
south, we sailed eastwards under full sail until noon, when, 
on account of the wind falling, we could make no further 
progress. The Admiral then caused a cannon-shot to be 
fired in order to summon the Broad Council. And towards 
the evening we took in the top-sails in order to make less 
progress, casting the lead in 60 and 70 fathoms until night- 
fall, when it grew quite calm. 

Before daybreak on the morning of the 24th, we got the 
wind from north by east with a fine breeze, and set our 
course east by north, so that by daybreak we were two or 
three miles athwart the land, casting anchor in 18 fathoms 
upon a very good and proper bottom. 

Since we could not get to the island on account of the 
contrary wind, we tacked the whole day long until night- 
fall, when we cast anchor in 17 fathoms, about a mile from 
the island, there being on the north side low land of great 
extent and on the south side many rocks, against which 
the sea dashed with a great roar. 

E 2 


On the morning of the 25th, we set sail again, trying to 
get up the river by tacking, but could make no progress 
the whole of that day until the evening, when we anchored 
half a mile from the shore in 13 fathoms, where the 
Admiral had the Broad Council summoned. 

At daybreak on the 26th, the Admiral again summoned 
the Council, when it was resolved that four boats, well 
armed and manned, should be sent to the land with some 
merchandise. Wherefore, the Admiral himself and many 
others of the Council shortly afterwards proceeded thither. 
On landing, they found numbers of the inhabitants on the 
shore, having with them many kinds of provisions — such 
as sheep, fowls, and other poultry, both cooked and raw ; 
and offering all these to us, they bade us welcome, evincing 
every kind of friendship and good-will towards us. 

At noon the Admiral came on board with all the 
provisions, bringing with him the chief of the island and 
his son, who were very well received and entertained by 
the Admiral and other officers. After dinner, the Admiral 
had them taken all over the ship, showing them the guns 
and their use, and indicating to them by signs that we 
came to fight the Spaniard with these, which they gave us 
to understand was agreeable to them, as being enemies of 
the aforesaid. They remained all night with the Admiral, 
and they were regaled with good cheer as in the evening. 

On the 27th, the Admiral had all his troops drawn up in 
order on the ship fully armed, which pleased these Chileans 
very much. 

After breakfast, these two were accompanied ashore by 
nearly all the nobles of our fleet, and were honoured by a 
salute of a few guns. 

On landing, we again exchanged some hatchets, beads, 
and other trifles for a large number of sheep. They gave 
us for a service axe two fat sheep, and received us with 
every amiability, but they did not permit any of us to 

PLATE No. 4. 

No. 4 is the Island of Mocha, 
With the explanations as shown under A, B, C. 

A. Are our boats in which we rowed ashore to trade with them. 

B. Is the manner in which we traded with the people of La 

Mocha, exchanging hatchets and knives for sheep, fowls, and 

C. Is the manner of sitting with their legs cross- wise, like the tailors 

sit in Christian countries. 

D. Is the manner in which our trumpeters and other musicians gave 

a grand concert on the beach. 

E. Are the La Mochyanes who listened to that playing with great 


F. Are their houses or huts, into which they would not let our 

comrades come. 

G. Is the manner in which they bring along their sheep and other 

commodities to barter them. 
H. Was our yacht, which lay close to the shore. 
I. Are our four other ships, with which the boats kept up constant 

K. Is their manner of dress or clothing. 
L. Is the strange shape of some of their sheep, which have a hump 

on the back like a camel. 

May, 1615] speilbergen's journal. 53 

come into their houses or near their wives, bringing every- 
thing to the boats themselves. At last, they made signs to 
us with their hands that we should get into our boats and 
depart, which, by order of the Admiral, was immediately 
done, and at the same instance we weighed anchor and 
set sail with a southerly wind, taking our course to the 

In this last journey we had made ashore we brought 
back on board a sheep of a very wonderful shape, having 
a very long neck and a hump like a camel, a hare lip, 
and very long legs. They till their land with these sheep, 
employing them instead of asses or horses. Of other 
sheep we procured here more than a hundred, which were 
very large and fat, having white wool as in our country, 
and in addition to these a large number of fowls and other 
poultry, by which our men were greatly set up, for which 
the Admiral gave them some hatchets, knives, shirts, hats, 
and other similar things, so that we parted from each other 
in great friendship. 

These Chilenoises were well-mannered, very polite and 
friendly, very orderly in their eating and drinking, of 
good morals, and almost equal to Christians ; and if the 
Admiral had been willing to tarry there longer, they 
would not have refused to provide us with more sheep 
and other things, but the resolution had been arrived at 
to pursue our journey in God's name. 

On the morning of the 28th, we had a good wind from 
the south and sailed nor'-nor'-east, so that by midday we 
came in sight of the continent, which we opined to be 
Sancta Maria.^ Meanwhile, the Admiral had the Council 
summoned to arrive at a further resolution ; in doing this, 
the Jager collided with the Admiral's bow, doing much 
damage, breaking the spritsail yard and tearing some sails 

1 The island of Santa Maria, in 36'' 59' S. 

54 speilbergen's journal. [May, 1615 

to pieces, so that being locked together they were at last 
got apart with great difficulty. 

Towards the evening, we were close under the shore, 
near which lay an island that we had previously taken to 
be Sancta Maria, being a very rugged rock and entirely 
surrounded by rocks. Wherefore we again put out to sea, 
moving to and fro the whole night whilst awaiting the day. 

On the 29th, not being far from the land, we crowded 
all sail and proceeded along the coast until we came in 
sight of the real island of Sancta Maria, where we entered 
the roads in the afternoon, anchoring in 6 fathoms. 

Shortly afterwards, there appeared here twenty-five or 
twenty-six men on horseback, each holding a lance in his 
hand and riding to and fro ; wherefore the Council met, 
after a given signal, and resolved that the Fiscal should be 
sent ashore with four boats, well-manned and equipped, in 
order to ascertain whether it would be possible to deal in 
a friendly manner with these Indians. This was done, and 
the Fiscal presently returning, brought with him a Spaniard 
and an Indian, for whom he had left a sergeant as hostage. 

These two hostages remained on board the whole 

Upon our first arrival off this island, we saw a barque 
lying round the corner, which, as soon as she perceived us, 
had set sail and fled. 

On the nor'-nor'-east side of this island lay a reef 
extending quite three miles out to sea. 

On the morning of the 30th, the Admiral had all the 
men of his ship drawn up armed in battle array, and shown 
to the Spaniard, who observed them very closely. He 
was afterwards taken to the Vice-Admiral's ship, where 
the troops stood in like manner under arms, and was 
honoured by the Admiral with a salute of one gun, and 
by the Vice-Admiral with a charge of musketry. 

The Spaniard having invited the Vice-Admiral and a 

PLATE No. 5. 

Number 5 is the Island of Sancta Maria, 
With an explanation of all things shown in the plate, as follows : — 

A. Is the continent of Chili, called Cabo de la Vapii.^ 

B. Are a number of Spanish horsemen who made their appearance 

in divers places with much defiance. 

C. Are our soldiers and a number of sailors drawn up in battle array. 

D. Is the small town of Sancta Maria, which is being burnt. 

E. Are some skirmishes with the Spaniards, in which some were 


F. Is the spot in which our men landed and re-embarked with sheep 

and provisions. 

G. Are our boats rowing to and fro with what they had obtained for 

their requirements. 
H. Is one of our ships lying on guard close to the shore. 
I. Is the rest of our fleet, 

^ Punta Lavapie. 

May, 1615] speilbergen's journal. 55 

few others to dinner, they proceeded ashore together, to 
wit, the Vice- Admiral, a few merchants, and the captain. 

They were no sooner on land and had not yet sat down 
to table, than the Jagers boat rowed off to them in all 
haste, informing them that their men had from the top- 
mast seen a troop of armed men marching straight for the 
place in which they were to go and dine ; upon hearing 
which they put off from the shore in all haste, coming on 
board with the Spaniard, whom they brought with them a 

At daybreak on the 31st, the Admiral proceeded ashore 
with three companies of soldiers and some sailors, and 
drew them up in order there, but as soon as they landed 
the Spaniards fled from thence, after having set fire to 
their church. 

Our troops, therefore, marched forward as far as their 
quarters, obtaining there a large quantity of sheep, fowls, 
and other necessary provisions. 

In the skirmishes, only two of our men were wounded 
and four of the enemy killed, for as they were on horse- 
back we could not pursue them as we wished. 

On leaving, being well provided with all kinds of food, 
we set fire to all their dwellings, which burn very easily 
and quickly, since they are made and covered with cane. 

Towards the evening, we rowed back to our ships with 
our booty. 

The island of Sancta Maria is very good, fertile, and 
healthy. It has no gold or silver mines, but abundance of 
wheat, barley, beans, sheep, fowls, and the like, whereof we 
brought away in this last expedition some five hundred 
sheep, and many other things. 

56 speilbergen's journal. [May, 1615 



All captains and skippers in command of ships and 
crews are beholden to have the following order promptly 
carried out with all diligence. 

The Constable, his mate and arquebusiers, shall see that 
all the guns are ready and fit for use, each in its proper and 
appointed place, as well as the mortars and other ordnance, 
with trained and experienced men near them, so that all 
may be done with order. 

The cannon-balls, cross-bar shot, lanterns and other 
things, must be ready and at hand near each gun. 

For each gun there must be at least ten cartridges, so 
that on no account shall it be necessary whilst fighting to 
go into the powder-magazine. 

The cartridges must stand below in the hold, in order to 
be spared, as far as possible, from all accident, and whilst 
giving battle or fighting, experienced men must be near 
them to bring them up as they are required. 

The ships' captains or skippers shall take care that each 
man of their crew shall in due order pay heed to his gun 
or piece of ordnance, some be in charge of the sails, others 
be in readiness with their guns for defence or attack. 

The carpenters shall be holden to have all their tools in 
readiness, so that they may repair, if necessary, any leaks 
or shots piercing the ship, and during a battle or fight 
they shall give quick and careful heed in all places where 
any cannon-balls may enter, either above or below 

The aforesaid captains or skippers shall endeavour to 
make all their other officers of the ships' crews take heed 

May, 1615.] SPEILBERGEN's JOURNAL. $7 

that all the ship's rigging is in order, all the yards well 
secured with chains, the ships well provided with waste- 
cloths, especially in the top-masts, in order to protect the 
latter as much as possible from musket-shots, since it is 
mostly found necessary to place men in them to carry on 
all manner of attack and defence with muskets, fire-balls, 
grenades, and otherwise. 

The mates shall especially be at hand and superintend 
the due observance of this order, paying good heed to 
loading and firing with the greatest and best advantage, 
according to time and opportunity. 

The long and the short pikes, as well as broad-swords 
and other such things, must be fit for use, ready and at 

All watches at their appointed work, with the men of 
each watch, according as occasion may require, ready near 
their arms. Hatchets and other things at hand, to cut 
away any ropes, yards or other things for our safety or the 
foe's hurt. 

The quartermasters shall see to it that all around the 
orlop or spare deck, both fore and aft, there shall stand 
ready divers tubs of water, with empty pails near them, in 
case of fire (which God forfend !), to quench the same, and 
whilst fighting, it is well for the ship to be sprinkled with 
water, lest, any powder having been spilt through haste, 
some matches might accidentally be dropped into it. 

Whereas we heard in Sint Maria that in April last 
there were two great galleons and a patache there, having 
together one thousand men on board, all Spaniards and 
experienced mariners, the large vessel mounted with more 
than forty metal guns, the other in proportion, which 
aforesaid galleons were equipped and sent out to seek and 
find us, having been warned many months ago of our 
coming, as the detailed declaration and confession of the 
Spanish prisoner shows. 


It has, therefore, been resolved to go in search of the 
aforesaid galleons — 

Firstly, in the Bay of Conception, then in Valparese, 
thence along the coast as far as Arica, which might be 
captured, and so proceed to Pannanra.^ Besides these 
galleons (according to what the Spaniard said), there are 
more such galleons in readiness, and waiting for us in 
Lima, for which many troops are ready, having also 
German and other constables, but as we hope to find the 
first galleons, these are postponed till further orders. 

In addition to the foregoing order of the ships' captains 
or skippers, the captain or other officer of the soldiers shall 
hold himself in readiness, upon any ship that it may be, to 
inspire his men to put forth every effort for the foe's over- 
throw and the safety of our fleet. 

The captain, lieutenant, or other officer, shall betake 
himself and move his men to any spot which the Admiral 
or Vice- Admiral shall point out. If the aforesaid Admiral 
be not there, it shall be done by the ship's captain or 
skipper, who should be acquainted with the manner and 
order of fighting on ship-board, so that the soldiers and 
sailors do not get mixed up in disorder, the authority of 
the super-cargo remaining intact and nought to occur 
without his knowledge. 

During the fight or battle, no soldier or sailor shall be 
permitted to move from his appointed place, except by 
order of his captain, or other officer. 

Those who happen to be wounded shall be carried away 
by others appointed to do so. 

In the event of the fight or cannonade lasting a long 
time so that the cases got empty, no one shall be permitted 
to leave his place, but shall hand over his bandolier to the 

1 Evidently meant for Panama. 

May, 1615] speilbergen's journal. 59 

person appointed for that purpose, who shall immediately 
supply it with powder, balls, and other things. 

In the event of the galleons being found to be higher or 
bigger than our ships, and seeking to grapple us and board 
us in large numbers, each commander, captain, or skipper, 
shall, according as the circumstances demand, take such 
careful measures as may prevent our soldiers and sailors 
from being killed where they can do no good, and shall 
place them in a safe spot under the quarter-nettings fore 
and aft, in order to annihilate the boarders by the fittest 
means, wherewith each ship is well provided in the shape 
of mortars and other things. 

Should the galleons further get alongside of us and set 
their men aboard, the Constable, the mate and the arque- 
busiers shall make all haste to lower the aim of as many 
guns as possible and hit the galleon below the water-line ; 
and in getting away, when the galleon has sent her men 
aboard of us, care must be taken to fire our guns as 
gallantly as possible. 

In the event of the galleons keeping away from us, we 
must, after having exterminated all the men they have put 
aboard us, make them as unfit and disabled as is possible 
by means of our cannon as aforesaid, and we must see 
whether it is advisable and advantageous to board them in 
our turn, but not without notable advantage. 

We must always take heed and remember that we have 
a further voyage to perform, as our detailed instructions 
show, well knowing that there is little or no chance of 
making good whatever we may lose, having come a long 
way, being surrounded by our foes and far from our friends. 

If it chance that these two galleons and forces meet us, 
the Admiral shall give battle with the Sonne and the 
jfEolus to the Spanish Admiral, bombard him, grapple 
him, and whatever else time and circumstance may demand. 

The Vice-Admiral, with the Mane and the Morgen-ster, 

66 speilbergen's journal. [May, 1615 

shall deal in like manner with the Spanish Vice-Admiral, 
but the/ager shall proceed to disable the patache with her 
fire as far as possible, to obstruct its course in every way, 
and make every effort to avoid being grappled or boarded, 
all in the aforesaid order, as above. 

This order is only in the event of our meeting the 
galleons at sea. Meeting them in any roadsteads, ports 
or bays, the attack shall be made in the following manner. 
Getting close alongside of them, if possible, and forcing 
them with our cannonade, it shall, if it seem advantageous, 
be permissible to board them in order to master, burn, or 
sink them, all according to circumstances, which the good 
God grant us. 

Should it happen that six, seven or eight galleons met 
us at sea, which number we deem to be the very greatest 
that they could assemble in the South Sea, we shall shape 
our course according to the wind, keeping always a point 
or two away from the foe, but in such a way as con- 
veniently to exchange shots with him. Should any one 
of the galleons, out-sailing the others, seek, with their 
usual audacity, to board any of our ships, we must in all 
vigilance endeavour so to meet that galleon that she may 
injure none of our company. 

Should we be unable to keep these galleons off with our 
fire and they board us, in keeping with their courage and 
audacity, and having the advantage of numbers in their 
crews, we shall, nevertheless, trust firmly in God — our aid 
shall He be — and seek to damage the galleons by sinking 
them with our shot or setting fire to them ; thus putting 
forth every endeavour in defence and attack, and surrender- 
ing no ship under any circumstances, except to the Lord 
God, in whose honour we all promise to fight to the 
death with ship, means, and body, in which God help us ! 

With regard to any galleons laden with merchandise, 
or any other particular ships in the South Sea and else- 


where, we shall act as may be best and most proper on 
the occasion ; whoever comes in sight of any by day or 
night shall give due signals by shots, lights, and other 
means, and shall, moreover, endeavour to overtake such 
galleon, ship, or barque. 

In order that these aforesaid regulations may be obeyed 
in the best possible manner, all commanders, especially 
ships' captains and skippers, shall diligently admonish 
their crews, officers, and others, to pay heed to their 
honour, and especially exhort all mates, second mates, 
and quarter-masters, to be on their guard, and keep a 
diligent look-out, lest by want of care and negligence we 
lose one or other of our fleet. 

All the aforesaid regulations and precepts should be 
carefully observed, as well as any that we may still frame 
and order to follow hereupon. 


On the 1st of June, in the afternoon, we again set sail, 
directing our course first to the continent, and afterwards 
to the north-east, until the evening, when we anchored in 
30 fathoms at the end of the great reef, of which we have 
already spoken. 

In the night the wind veered to the north, so that we 
were compelled to remain lying there. 

Here we were not far from Auroca,^ being a small town, 
in which there is ordinarily a garrison of some five hundred 
Spaniards, who are in daily warfare with the Chilenoises. 
In this spot the Spaniards have their strongest force, but 
the continual fighting prevents them from using this to 
obtain complete mastery of the country. 

At daybreak, on the morning of the 3rd, we again set 
sail, keeping with a south wind along the shore until the 

^ Arauco. 

62 speilbergen's journal. [June, 1615 

afternoon, when we found ourselves near an island not far 
from the mainland and named Quinquina, round about 
which we sailed to a hamlet called Conception, in which, 
as we learnt from our prisoners, there lay some two 
hundred Spaniards, besides many Indians, but as the wind 
was not strong enough to carry us to the hamlet, we cast 
anchor in 26 fathoms. 

In these quarters, situated in latitude 33° 23', we re- 
mained until the nth of the same month, without doing 
anything in the meantime. On that day the Vice-Admiral 
visited the Admiral, and it was resolved by them to shape 
our course straight for the land, which was done ; and we 
arrived at a cape lying near a valley running down from 
the top of the mountains, which we opined to be the 
roadstead of Val-Parijsa, but afterwards we discovered the 
contrary, wherefore we sailed on until sunset, and then 
cast anchor in 40 fathoms close to another cape, similar to 
the first, and being a beautiful spot and country. As soon 
as we were at anchor the Council met, in order to pass 
resolutions concerning all and sundry matters ; and mean- 
while Maerten Pieterssen, skipper of the Morghen-sterre, 
came on board, declaring he had heard a horn on land, 
and had also seen fire. The Admiral therefore sent three 
boats in haste to the shore, well manned with armed crews. 
The latter, on landing, found only a few persons coming 
down from the hills, and on the beach they saw a few 
animals ; near the hills they saw some huts, but no one 
went to them, since the Admiral's orders did not permit 
of it, and so they came on board again. 

At daybreak on the 12th, we set sail again with a 
southerly wind, hugging the coast all the time. About 
midday we entered the aforementioned bay of Val-Parijsi,^ 
where there was good anchorage for many vessels. 


PLATE No. 6. 

Number 6 is CONCEPTION,^ 
With an explanation thereof indicated by A, B, C, as follows : — 

A. Is an illustration of the Bay of Conception,^ in latitude 36^40'. 

B. Is the island of Quiri-quyna,' upon which stood some straw huts 

that were set on fire. 

C. Is the hamlet of Conception, in which were many Spaniards. 

D. Is our fleet, lying in 26 fathoms. 

E. Are some wild horses, which are there in numbers. 

F. Is their manner of dress. 

* La Concepcion. 

2 Now also known as Talcahuano Bay. 

3 Quinquina I. 

Number 7 is Valparijse,^ 

Which is the harbour of the town of St. Jago,^ situated 18 miles 
inland ; the explanation is, for the rest, alphabetically indi- 

A. Is the harbour of Val-parijse, as it is in reality. 

B. Are our forces on land, drawn up in order of battle to fight the 


C. Is a Spanish ship which was burnt between the rocks. 

D. Is our fleet, which occasionally fired upon the Spaniards. 

E. Are divers troops of Spanish horse, with lances. 

F. Are our musketeers, who had some skirmishes with the Spaniard. 

G. Are some houses which were set on fire. 

H. Is the spot at which our men landed and re-embarked. 
I. Is the form of the natives there. 

^ Valparaiso. ''■ Santiago. 

PLATE No. 7. 

June, 1615.] speilbergen's journal. 63 

On the shore we saw three houses, and a ship lying at 
anchor before them, but the crew of the ship had no 
sooner seen us than they let slip their cable and set fire to 
the vessel, drifting in this manner all aflame into a little 
creek lying amid many rocks. Seeing this, we sent some 
boats out with armed men in order to capture the said 
vessel, but they could nut well get to it, since many 
Spaniards lying behind the rocks opened a heavy musket 
fire upon them ; yet they finally advanced by force as far 
as the said ship, in which the fire had already made such 
progress that it was impossible to save it, and so they 
came back to our ships, which lay anchored right in front 
of the aforesaid houses, the Jager alone remaining near the 
burning ship. 

The Council having met concerning these matters, the 
Admiral, the Vice- Admiral, and many others, went ashore, 
accompanied by about two hundred soldiers. By the time 
these landed, the Spaniards had already set fire to the 
aforesaid houses, and drawn themselves up, moreover, in 
battle array, both on horse and foot, without, however, 
daring in any wise to approach us, fearing our cannon 
very much, which was constantly firing upon them. 

At last, as they did nothing, but only withdrew the 
more we advanced towards them, and as, moreover, the 
evening was approaching, the Admiral determined to 
sound the retreat, and so all came on board again, and 
we immediately weighed anchor, and proceeded under full 
sail out to sea. 

At midnight we hauled down the sails, fearing that we 
might pass the harbour of Quintero. 

In all these places, in Val-Parijse as well as in St. Jago 
and Sancta Maria, they had already long before been 
warned of our coming, as we likewise understood from 
Josephi Cornelio, our Spanish prisoner, who declared that 
Rodrigo de Mendozza had already been three months in 


search of us in Baldavia^ and some other places in the 
South Sea, with two galleons and a patache. 

We have also already mentioned the letters written from 
Rio Gevera^ in Brazil, from which we could likewise observe 
that they had already, long before, had tidings of us and of 
our coming. 

The above-mentioned place of Val-Parijse is the bay or 
harbour of St. Jago, situated 18 miles inland. 

On the 13th, it was very calm, so that we did our best 
to make the land again. 

At noon we were in latitude 32° 15'. 

In the afternoon, we entered the Bay of Quintero, being 
a very fine and pleasant place, in which ships lie in such 
security that no wind in the world could hurt them. We 
anchored there in 20 fathoms. 

The same evening, the Admiral rowed ashore with three 
boats, full of armed men, partly to inspect the locality and 
situation, and also to look for fresh water, of which we 
were already in great need. 

In this country, we saw from afar many animals which 
at first we deemed to be cows and sheep, but at last we 
perceived that they were wild horses, coming there to drink 
at a small river into which the fresh water ran down from 
the top of the mountains. These horses had no sooner 
caught sight of us that they fled with great rapidity, and 
never returned while we lay there. 

The next day, the 14th, the Admiral, Vice- Admiral, and 
some captains proceeded ashore again with a large number 
of soldiers, in order to guard the rivulet, so that the sailors 
might get in their supply without any danger. The 
Admiral had a half-moon thrown up close to the rivulet, 
so that we might take shelter behind it in the event of the 
enemy surprising us. 

^ Valdivia, ^ Rio de Janeiro, 

PLATE No. 8 

Number 8 is QuiNTERO, 
With its explanation all well indicated as follows : — 

A. Is the Bay of Quintero, well sheltered, and situate in i8 degrees. 

B. Is Crevecuer, a half-moon made by our men for protection whilst 

getting water. 

C. Is our entire fleet lying at anchor. 

D. Are our soldiers trying to lure on the Spaniards. 

E. Are a number of Spanish horsemen who came to surprise us each 


F. Are a number of our soldiers guarding the west side whilst the 

water is being got. 

G. Are our boats bringing the men to and fro. 
H. Are a number of wild horses. 

I. Is their manner of dress, as is customary there. 

June, 1615] speilbergen's journal. 65 

The foe made his appearance with some mounted troops, 
but although we lured them on, they durst never attack us, 
either from fear of our heavy guns, or for other reasons, 
and remained without budging in a valley at the corner of 
a wood. 

On the 1 6th, we released and sent ashore two Portuguese 
we had brought from St. Vincent, and an old Chilenois 
from St. Maria, who were overjoyed at this unexpected 
release of theirs, for which they thanked both the Admiral 
the whole Council with all humility. 

The Bay of Quintero is fine and pleasant, having a well- 
situated anchorage, and in addition to that, one could not 
find in the world a better place for getting water, the latter 
being very clear and sweet of taste. 

In this spot Mr. Candijs^ likewise got in his supply of 
water, but with the loss of many men. So far as we are 
concerned, we lost not a single man, nor was anyone 

The half-moon which we had thrown up was strong and 
defensible enough, wherefore we named it Crevecoeur. 

In this place we also found yet another river, in which 
we caught a large quantity of all kinds of fresh fish. 

There was, besides this, a good opportunity for laying in 
a stock of timber, so that this place must be regarded as 
the fittest of any for re-victualling and getting the neces- 
sary supplies. 

On the 17th, having shipped all our stock, we set sail 

and proceeded right out to sea with a favourable wind, 

pursuing our way for the rest of this month without 

encountering aught. 


On the 1st of July, we sailed along the shore until the 

evening, when we hove to in order not to pass the hamlet 

of Aricqua. 

1 Thomas Cavendish. Vide supra, p. 37. 

66 speilbergen's journal. [July, 1615 

On the 2nd, we arrived, with a favourable wind, towards 
evening off the aforesaid hamlet of Aricqua, situated in 
18° 40' latitude. 

On one side of this hamlet there is a high mountain, and 
on the slope of the latter a widely-extended village, 
consistingof many houses, and on the other side a pleasant 
green spot, planted with all kinds of trees, amongst others, 
oranges and citrons. 

To this place, Aricqua, all the silver from the whole of 
Potesia^ is brought, and is again trans-shipped thence to 
Pannama, and afterwards taken by land to Porta Vela,^ or 
otherwise re-shipped and sent direct to Spain. 

And as we then found no ships or galleons for shipping 
silver, we set sail and put out to sea. 

On the loth, it was very calm and drizzly weather, 
which set us wondering, since the Spanish prisoner in- 
formed us that it was always fine weather here, and that 
for many years they had known of no rain here. 

The Vice- Admiral, having boarded the Admiral's ship, 
said he had seen a sail afar off, wherefore two boats well 
manned were presently sent out to obtain tidings thereof 
The said boats, having rowed for some time, could make 
out no vessel, except one very small sail ; with these 
tidings they returned aboard towards the evening. We 
opined that the small sail must be some spy, in order that 
our coming might be made known on all sides ; this we 
afterwards found to have been the case, for in Lima, the 
capital, they had each day and every hour had tidings of 
what we did, and in what spot we were. 

On the nth we were in 13° 30'. 

In the afternoon, the aforesaid sail again made its 

1 Potosi. 

2 Porto Bello, on the N. coast of the isthmus of Panama, the terminus 
of a paved way constructed by the Spaniards to connect Panama and 
the Caribbean Sea. 


appearance, when the Jacht turned its course towards it, 
meaning to overtake it, but it was in vain, since it rowed 
on very rapidly. 

In the evening it grew quite calm, so that we made no 

On the 1 2th, we made straight for the land, wnere we 
anchored in the evening in 50 fathoms. 

On the 13th, we set sail, but by reason of the intense 
calm we had to cast anchor again, without having gained 

On the 14th, the Admiral sent two shallops full of 
soldiers ashore with some merchandise, in order to see 
whether any friendly dealings could be held with the 

As soon as our men came near the land, they saw many 
houses and buildings, so that it looked like a town or 
fortress, and on getting still nearer we saw two edifices, 
after the manner of some monastery or castle, in front of 
which there was a high wall, serving as a defence, that was 
very old and dilapidated. Behind the said wall there was 
a troop of armed men, both mounted and on foot, firing 
bravely on our men with muskets, in order to prevent 
them from landing ; but their orders were not to go ashore 
and give battle under these circumstances. 

These horsemen, amid continual beating of drums, came 
several times to the edge of the sea-shore, riding to and 
fro with great bravado, and three or four of them were 
hurled on the sand by the musket-shots of our men, thus 
compelling them to run back behind the wall without 
making their re-appearance, so that all our men came back 
without anyone having been hurt or wounded. 

In the afternoon, we weighed anchor and sailed along 
the shore, though this did not last long, for a sudden calm 
forced us to cast anchor again. 

On the i6th of this month of July, 161 5, at the first 

F 2 


peep of day, we saw a ship out on the open sea, to which 
the Admiral immediately despatched four boats filled with 
armed men, who had no sooner come alongside the said 
ship than she was given up to them without resistance. 
The skipper, with the greater part of the sailors, intended 
to make off in the shallop, but they were soon overtaken 
by our men and all brought at the same time to the fleet* 
They were nineteen persons in all, and amongst them 
some passengers. The cargo they carried was of little 
importance — among other things, some olives and the like. 
There was also a good sum in copper coin, the greater 
part of which was distributed and shared among the 
soldiers and sailors. 

The skipper, Jan Baptiste Gonsales by name, a very 
good and honest man, was on his way from Aripica^ to 
Caliou de Lima. 

As soon as we had unloaded the ship, we knocked a 
hole in her and sank her. 

The same evening, we saw eight sail out at sea, and, to 
all appearances, of wonderful size ; in order to know some- 
thing of them, the Admiral asked our Spaniards what 
they thought of the said vessels, and whether they did not 
know whence and with what intention they were come. 
Whereupon they, and especially Jan Baptista, replied that 
they were certain it was the fleet which had been equipped 
already a long time ago by the King of Spain expressly 
to await us, and that it would undoubtedly attack us. 
As it indeed did, although we afterwards heard from the 
prisoners that the Grand Council of Peru had been very 
much opposed to it, alleging that it was inexpedient for a 
royal fleet to betake itself beyond its advantages and 
forts, and that it would have been more expedient to await 
our coming, of which they were certain, in Caliou, and 

^ Arequipa. 

July, 1615] SPElLBERGEN'S JOURNAL. 69 

that, in order to fight with greater advantage, some pieces 
of ordnance should be plkced on the shore, so that under 
cover of the same they might overpower all our ships. 
Which proposition had been opposed by Don Rodrigo de 
Mendozza, Commander-General of the Fleet, being a 
cousin of the Marquis des Montes Claros,^ Viceroy of 
the kingdoms and provinces of Peru and Chilli, who 
replied (being more impelled by a frivolous imagination 
and youthful wantonness than by any experience of war) 
that two of his ships were powerful enough to conquer all 
England, how much more us, whom he regarded as chicks 
or hens. 

Amongst other things, he also submitted that the long 
voyage which we had performed must have weakened and 
tried us to such a degree that probably a large number of 
our men were already dead, ill, or at least disabled. 

That our ammunition and provisions must be greatly 

Finally, he assured the Council of Peru that he was 
quite certain we would not dare to await his coming, and 
that upon his first attack we would easily surrender to 
him, as, he said, many others had done before. 

This having been heard by the Viceroy there, who was 
not less puffed up by ambition than this Rodrigo, he said : 
" Go, then, you have nought else to do but to bind them 
hand and foot and bring them here." Mendozza, en- 
couraged by these words to a still greater degree, took an 
oath, and promised never more to return unless he had 
beaten us, or at least brought some of our ships into the 
harbour of Cailiou,^ taking the Sacrament on this condition. 

These proposals having been made on the one side and 

^ Burney, A Chronological History of the Voyages and Discoveries 
in the South Sea, Ft II, p. 338, calls him de Monte Castro ; but see 
p. 86. 

* Callao. The reader is reminded that all proper names are repro- 
duced as they stand in the original. 


the other, the Council was of opinion that Rodrigo de 
Mendozza had good reasons, and that what he had alleged 
was not without a sound basis. 

And as he had received his orders, he set sail with this 
royal armada, putting out from the harbour of Cailiou 
with eight great galleons on the nth of July. 

Here follow the names of the enemy's ships, and the 
particulars of each, whereof we afterward received a 
detailed account from Caspar Caldron, the captain who 
was taken prisoner. 

The Admiral's ship, called the Jesu Maria, mounted 
twenty-four big metal guns, was proportionately well pro- 
vided with all ammunition and material of war, had on 
board three hundred men, sailors as well as soldiers and 
arquebusiers, and, amongst others, two captains, one 
sergeant-major, one ensign-in-chief, and in addition twenty- 
four ensigns and sergeants on half-pay, each with his pages 
and servants, excepting the person of Rodrigo de Men- 
dozza, who was besides accompanied by many Dons and 
Cavalleros, all amounting to four hundred and sixty souls. 

This vessel had cost the King a hundred and fifty 
thousand ducats. 

The second, named the St. Anna, mounted fourteen big 
metal guns, besides many small metal pieces. 

She was commanded by the Vice-Admiral Pedro 
Alvares de Pigar,^ renowned as one of the best and most 
valiant soldiers that had ever been sent to these parts, it 
being he who had some years ago captured an English 
ship in this Southern Sea. 

He had for his second Caspar Caldron, upon whom the 
command would have devolved in his absence. 

She carried two hundred men, sailors, soldiers, and 
arquebusiers, and in addition a captain in command of 
the soldiers, an ensign, a sergeant, and many other 

1 Pilgar. Burney, op. cit.^ Pt. II, p. 340. 

July, 1615] speilbergen's journal. 71 

volunteers, with their pages and servants, the number 
being three hundred men in all. 

This was the most powerful and finest ship that had 
ever been in the Indies, having cost the King a hundred 
and fifty thousand ducats. 

The third was also a fine and powerful vessel named 
the Carmer, commanded by Captain the Field-Marshal 
Don Diego de Strabis, carrying eight big metal guns, two 
hundred men, both sailors and soldiers, besides all the 
officers, suites, and other followers. 

The fourth, named the St. Diego, was of equal size and 
strength, carrying also eight metal guns and about two 
hundred soldiers and sailors, besides six captains from 
Chilli, and other half-pay officers and their retinue in 
proportion, especially commanded by the Field-Marshal 
Jeronimo Peraca. 

The fifth, named Le Rosario, commanded by Don Mingo 
de Apala, carried four big metal guns, and about a 
hundred and fifty men. 

The sixth, named the St. Francisco^ was commanded by 
Captain St. Lowys Albedin, and carried a crew of seventy 
musketeers and twenty sailors, and no cannon, which 
vessel was, during the first encounter by night, sent to the 
bottom, as will be narrated hereafter. 

The seventh, bearing the name St. Andries, was com- 
manded by Captain Don Jan de Nagena. a native ©f 
Germany, and carried eighty musketeers, twenty -five 
sailors, and many other officers, but likewise had no big 

The eighth was a vessel which the Viceroy had des- 
patched after the departure of the others, in order to 
render them assistance if it were necessary, but how it 
was mounted, or how many men it carried, those of the 
fleet themselves did not know. 

The next day, July 17th, the said armada began to 

Jl StEiLBERGEN^S JOURNAL. [july, 1615 

approach us, as we did them, so that by the evening both 
fleets were not far from one another, which being observed 
by the Vice-Admiral, who, as has been said, was an old 
and experienced warrior, he was of opinion that this could 
not bring them any advantage, but that, on the contrary, 
it was temerity on their part to get so near the foe during 
the night. He therefore quickly sent a small fisher-boat, 
which they usually had by them, to Rodrigo, the Admiral, 
in order to warn him that he should on no account attack 
us by night, but that if, on the contrary, he did so, that 
he protested his guiltlessness, and would not hold himself 
responsible for any hurt or damage that might result 

All this notwithstanding, Don Rodrigo, with great self- 
conceit, came up with our Groote Sonne^ on which was our 
Admiral, at about ten o'clock at night, and after some 
words had been exchanged between them, they fired upon 
each other, first with a salvo of musketry, and afterwards 
with the guns, which seemed not only strange, but horrible 
in the hour of night. After our Admiral had got all his 
musketeers to fire in good order, he hurled himself so 
forcibly with his cannon upon the said Mendozza that the 
latter sought every means of escaping from the fray, but 
the total absence of wind for a long time prevented these 
two Admirals from getting clear of each other, there being 
in the meantime constant charges on both sides of cannon 
and musketry, continual beating of drums, sounding of 
trumpets, and amidst it all the indescribable yelling and 
shrieking of the Spaniards. 

The Spanish Admiral having now passed by, there 
followed another ship, which, sailing somewhat more 
swiftly, got away with better luck, and without sustaining 
much damage. 

Then followed the third, called St. Francisco, and com- 
manded by Captain St. I.ovis Albedien ; this, by reason 

PLATE No. 9. 

Number 9 is the Battle by Night, 
With its illustration and explanation in what manner the Spaniards 
approached us, and how we gave them battle, all alphabetically 

A. Is the Spanish admiral ; the vessel was named Jesu Maria^ upon 

which was D. Rodrigo de Mendose.^ 

B. Is the Admiral Joris Spil-berghen, who bravely attacks the 

Spanish Admiral in the night. 

C. Is the Spanish Vice- Admiral ; the vessel was named St. An7ia^ 

upon which was the Vice-Admiral, named St. Pedro Alvares de 

D. Is the Spanish Rear- Admiral. 

E. Was another Spanish ship, as is narrated in the Journal. 

F. Is our Vice-Admiral, den Hovelingh by name. 

G. Is the Morghen-sterre. 

H. Is the jEoIus^ which, becalmed, could not well get near the 

Spaniard that night. 
I. Is a Spanish ship that was engaged with our Vice-Admiral. 
K. Are two Spanish ships which fired a shot from time to time. 
L. Is \k\t,Jagher., which sank a Spanish ship with its fire. 
M. Is a Spanish ship which sinks after being repeatedly struck. 

1 Vide p. 69. =^ Vide p. 70. 


of the calm, drifted alongside of our Admiral, who riddled 
her so with the force of his cannon that it seemed as if she 
must presently sink, but the said vessel, still drifting 
until she came near our Jacht, fired a charge of musketry 
at the latter and grappled her, thinking easily to mastet 
her. The JaMs crew, however, drove them back with 
great force and courage, so that their vessel going to 
the bottom, the greater number of the Spaniards were 
slain by our men, to the great good fortune of the Jacht^ 
since the Spanish Admiral, during this fight, had also 
drifted near, and was beginning to fire bravely upon her, 
for which the Jacht^ the fight with the other vessel being 
ended, soon took her revenge. Nevertheless, she would 
still, by reason of the strength of the Spaniards, have finally 
come to an ill end, had not the Admiral, observing this, 
sent to her aid a boatful of well-armed men, and ordered 
the Vice- Admiral to do the same ; this was done, but as 
soon as our aforesaid Admiral's boat came near the Jacht^ 
the latter, not recognising the occupants, although they 
repeatedly cried " Orange, Orange ! " fired a cannon-shot 
upon them, which was so well aimed that the boat presently 
sank, whilst its crew were saved by the Jacht^ with the 
exception of one man, who was drowned. Meanwhile the 
boat from the Vice- Admiral arrived and rescued th^Jachty 
so that she escaped without suffering much damage. 

The same evening, some Spanish ships also attacked 
our Vice-Admiral, but were greeted by him in such fashion 
that they had no desire to return the next day. 

During the whole of the night we could nowhere see the 
Admirant, or Spanish Vice- Admiral, accompanied by some 
other vessels, wherefore we were of opinion that he must 
be engaged with our ships, the ^olus and Morghen-sterre, 
which, by reason of the great calm, had drifted so far from 
us that we could get no news of them in the darkness of 
the night. 

74 SPEiLBERGEN^S JOURNAL. [July, 1615 

This calm, continuing all night, prevented the ^olus and 
Morghen-sterre from joining the fleet, and therefore, at the 
approach of day, being the i8th of July, the said vessels 
were attacked by the Spanish Admiral himself, who hoped 
to have better luck there, but he met with such a stout 
resistance that all he sought were means to escape. 

The wind rising in the meantime, five of the enemy's 
ships got together and repeatedly sent their shallops to 
their Admiral to assure him that they were resolved to get 
clear of us by every means in their power, as we were 
afterwards informed by our prisoners, and amongst others 
by a captain and the chief pilot. These ships, too, had 
been so attacked and damaged in the night that they had 
lost all desire to commence afresh by day. 

Our Admiral and Vice-Admiral remarking this, made 
straight for Rodrigo, the Spanish Admiral, and for his 
Vice-Admiral, or Admirant, the two being separated from 
the other ships, and they, seeing this, took to flight ; 
Rodrigo, however, noticing that his Admirant could not 
keep up with him, waited for him with lowered sails, so 
that our Vice-Admiral, coming up with them first, began to 
charge them with great fury until he was supported by the 
Admiral's arrival, when a very hot fight ensued between 
these four ships, the one riddling the other with shot and 
musket-fire. At last, our ^olus also arrived on the scene, 
discharging its guns upon the Spaniards, who finally laid 
their vessels right alongside of each other, and so gave our 
men a great advantage in being able to attack them from 
all quarters. This, indeed, reduced them to such a state 
that the crew of the one sought safety on board of the 
other, and a large number of the Vice-Admiral's men 
sprang into the Admiral's ship, fearing that their own, 
being quite riddled, would soon go down ; but on coming 
into the Admiral's ship they found therein not more than 
forty or fifty men alive, who had collected together in the 

PLATE No. 10 

Number lo is the Battle by Day, 

Showing how the Spaniards take to flight after some of their ships 
have been shot and sunk, all properly indicated. 

A. Shows how the Halve Maen, through absence of wind, got in 

between two Spanish galleons, and how bravely they defended 

B. Are those two galleons fighting the Maen. 

C. Are two boats which are being sent to the aid of the Maen. 

D. Is the Morghen-Ster^ which, becalmed, had to be towed by two 


E. Is the Admiral, Joris Spilberghen. 

F. Is the Spanish Admiral, which was thoroughly riddled. 

G. Are two of our ships that still pursued the Spaniard. 

H. Is a Spanish ship that fired many rockets whilst sinking, and 

whereof the crew shrieked piteously. 
I. Is another Spanish ship, which, after much firing upon, also went 

K. Are the Spanish ships that were left, taking to flight. 
L. Is the third Spanish ship, sunk whilst fleeing. 


fore part of the vessel, as we afterwards heard from their 
own narratives. 

In the meantime they hoisted a white flag as a sign of 
peace, which flag was several times hauled down again by 
some cavaliers, since the latter preferred death to giving 
themselves up to us. Wherefore we kept up a continual 
cannonade upon them, and the deserters from the Vice- 
Admiral seeing this, returned to their former ship, and, 
being inspired with fresh courage, resumed the battle. 
Finally, the waves carried our Vice-Admiral in between 
the two ships of the enemy, who fired heavily upon him 
from either side, though this did not prevent him from 
taking his revenge on both. 

But as he at length got quite close to the Spanish 
Admiral, the enemy boarded him in a great heap, and 
were so well resisted by our men from under the quarter- 
nettings with short pikes, swivel guns, and other arms that 
the greater part were slain. 

Meanwhile, we did not desist from doing our best with 
the big guns, so that the two enemy's ships gradually 
began to part company, and the Spanish Admiral to show 
his heels, but he was constantly pursued by our Admiral, 
and bombarded until the evening, when darkness shut 
him out from sight, after which we never saw him more. 
And in all probability he could not have got so far away 
from us that night, but that we should still have seen him, 
as we did the other vessels, the next day, especially as it 
was quite calm that night, wherefore we were of opinion 
that he had met with the same fate as had previously 
befallen the St. Francisco, and which also befallen the 
Admirant, of whom we shall speak hereafter ; as, indeed, 
we subsequently received a complete account of the same 
from the Indians in Guiarme^ and Peyta.^ 

^ Huarmey. 2 Payta. 

76 speilbkrgen's journal. [July, 161 5 

Our Vice-Admiral and the y^olus remained in constant 
pursuit of the Spanish Vice-Admiral, riddling him so with 
shot that no means of escape was left him and that it 
appeared as if he must go down every moment. He 
therefore at length hoisted the white flag as a signal of 
peace, offering to hand everything over to us if we let them 
off with their lives. This being observed by our Vice- 
Admiral, he despatched two boats full of armed men to 
board him, charging some captains to bring back with them 
the Spanish Admirant in person. But when these came 
on board and explained the purport of their charge, the 
Admirant would not consent, declaring that he wished to 
remain still that night on his ship unless some captain 
would remain in his place as a hostage, which was 
declined. Our men therefore warned him again that he 
should no longer trust himself in a ship which looked as 
if it would seek the bottom every hour. But all this 
notwithstanding, he remained obstinate, finally agreeing 
to go if the Vice-Admiral came for him in person, but 
declaring that otherwise he would rather die with honour 
in his present capacity, and on his ship, in the service of 
his king and country. During these negotiations one 
of the sailors of the ^olus climbed the rigging and hauled 
down the Admirant's flag, and so our boats, seeing that 
there was no chance of agreement, came aboard again, 
leaving behind ten or twelve of our men who had, contrary 
to orders, boarded the Admirant's ship in the hope of 
being first at the loot. 

Night having fallen, the Spaniards, aided by our sailors 
who had remained there, attempted by pumping and other 
means to keep their ship above water, but, seeing that all 
was of no avail and that they had nought but death to 
expect, they kindled many lights and torches, and amidst 
much shrieking, weeping and wailing to move those who 
might hear them, they finally went down in our presence 
with all aboard. 

July, 1615] speilbergen's journal. y>j 

The next day, being July 19th, our Admiral sent four 
boats to the spot in which the Spanish Admirant had 
gone down, in order to ascertain whether the said 
Admirant or any other officers had not saved himself on 
some planks, masts, or the like. 

These boats, on coming to the said spot, found about 
sixty or seventy men drifting on planks, spars, and other 
objects ; these, on the arrival of our men, thinking them 
to be Spaniards, shouted only for help and assistance, but, 
on finding they were enemies, all shouted " Misericorde ! 
Misericord e ! " 

As our boats could not find the Admirant, who, they 
were told, had gone down in the night, he having, more- 
over, received two wounds in the last battle, they rescued 
the chief pilot and his mate, with one captain and a few 
soldiers, leaving the rest to the mercy of the waves, 
although some of our sailors slew a few Spaniards, 
contrary to the orders they had received. 

Behold the result of this battle, for which God must be 
praised and thanked in eternity in regard to the victory and 
mercy granted us, since the power of the Spaniards was 
most considerably weakened by the loss of these three ships. 

With regard to our dead and wounded, they were, God 
be praised, few in number, most of them being on the 
Morghen-sterre, our Vice- Admiral, and amounting in all 
to sixteen killed and from thirty to forty wounded, these 
casualties having mostly occurred at thetime that the 
Vice-Admiral was thrown in between the two Spanish 

The whole remainder of all the other vessels did not 
amount to more than twenty-four dead and sixteen or 
eighteen wounded. 

On the same day we sailed straight for the island Caliau 
de Lima, but as it was very calm we could not make much 


On the 20th, the wind being favourable, we passed by 
the aforesaid island and sailed straight to the harbour, 
where we saw about fourteen vessels of all kinds which 
carried on trade with Peru, continually going and coming 
along the coast ; for which reason we could not get near 
them, since it was not deep enough for us so near the 

We therefore decided to carry out our first intention of 
anchoring in the roadstead of Caliau dc Lima, in order to 
learn whether perchance the Spanish Admiral might not 
have escaped, but not finding him there, we felt certain 
that he must have gone down, whereof we were fully 
assured in Gwarme^ and Peyta, as will be told here- 

When we had now come nearer Lima de Caliau, our 
Admiral, sailing in advance of the others, cast anchor in 
9 or 10 fathoms, and that close to the shore. But no 
sooner had he anchored than the enemy, having planted 
on land a gun firing thirty-six pound iron shots, and a few 
other small ones, fired many times upon him, but still 
without doing him any damage. Our Jagher, also lying at 
anchor beside the Admiral, got a shot from the aforesaid 
gun right through her, so that she was very near having 
been sent to the bottom. 

Meanwhile, as we saw upon the shore a large number of 
troops, amongst whom, as we afterwards learnt, was the 
Viceroy himself, escorted by eight companies of horse and 
four thousand men on foot ; as we further heard that 
the ships lying along the shore had also troops and the 
necessary means of defence on board ; and as, moreover, 
we were, by reason of the land-firing, like to lose our 
masts or rigging, which might have retarded our voyage : 
it was, therefore, after mature deliberation, resolved by the 

^ Huarmey. 

PLATE No. 11. 

Number ii is Caliou de Lima,^ 
A very fine bay, with its explanation alphabetically indicated. 

A. Is the battery on the beach, with a few heavy guns. 

B. Is a fine building in the town. 

C. Is a church in which they perform their ceremonies. 

D. Are two troop of horsemen with lances. 

E. Are two regiments of infantry on either side of the batteries. 

F. Are two troop of Spaniards, both horse and foot. 

G. Another band of Spaniards appearing on the beach, on the other 

side of the river. 

H. Is a number of Spanish ships lying at anchor. 

I. Is our Admiral, Joris Spilberghen. 

K. Is iht/agher, which kept sailing to and fro near the vessels. 

L. Is the yEolus^ which was struck by a great iron ball. 

M. Is the Morghen-sterre. 

N. Is the Halve Maen. 

' Callao. 

July, i6t5] speilbergen's journal. 79 

Admiral and all the officers, since no advantage was to be 
gained here, to retire a mile or two, which was immediately- 
done, as appears from the minutes of the General Council. 
Also, that we cast anchor at the entrance to the harbour of 
Caliou de Lima, where we lay until the 25th of this month 
of July, meanwhile making every effort to capture some 
of their ships ; but this was in vain, since the said vessels, 
going and coming along the shore, sailed more rapidly 
than ours, so that we gained no advantage, except that 
our boats captured and brought to the fleet a small vessel 
that was scarcely of any value. 

On the 26th, we once more set sail to continue our 
voyage, hugging the shore as closely as possible until the 
afternoon, when we saw a small vessel quite near the land, 
to capture which our Admiral sent out three well-manned 
boats, our fleet not waiting for these but proceeding on 
its course until the evening, when we cast anchor in 
15 fathoms. This having been done, our boats returned, 
bringing with them the aforesaid little vessel, which was 
laden with salt and about eighty tons of syrup, this being 
divided amongst us in equal shares. 

On the approach of our men, the Spaniards on the 
vessel had fled on shore, taking with them as much as 
they had been able to carry. 

The Admiral, deciding to keep this vessel with our fleet, 
placed upon her a crew consisting of a few sailors, with 
Jan de Wit as captain. 

Here follows the Order. 

The following Order has been framed, and shall be obeyed 
as closely as possible, in the event of our falling in 
with the Armada of Pannama : — 
Attacking the same with all our strength of ordnance, 

which is our greatest and also our most advantageous 

8o speilbergen's journal. [July, 1615 

force, in order to injure the enemy. And keeping free of 
their ships as far as possible, for the reasons narrated 

We may not push matters so desperately as may our 
foe, mindful and knowing well that we are in strange seas 
and surrounded by our enemies ; so that if we got into any 
difficulties — from which God preserve us — we have no 
means of escape, as in a harbour, from the harm which 
might befall us, except only that which we carry with us. 
Considering also the long voyage we still have to do, and 
the service which the seigniors of this fleet expect from it 
in the Manillies and other places, for which purpose this 
fleet was despatched, and whereas in the battle we already 
fought with the Armada of Lima, it was much to our 
disadvantage that we were not together, and that the 
calm prevented us from assembling, it is therefore neces- 
sary to keep together as far as wind and weather 
serve us. 

In the event of God granting that we might force some 
of the enemy's ships to surrender, it is expressly com- 
manded that all ship's captains, skippers, mates, and others 
shall remain aboard their ships, and that neither shall the 
captains of the soldiers leave their ships to go aboard any 
enemy's vessels. But they shall compel them to come 
aboard in their own boats, so that we may not get into con- 
fusion, as happened lately, losing our advantage and 
causing a loss of life amongst ©ur men by carelessness and 
unseemly looting. In the event of its being considered 
advisable and approved to send some of our boats to the 
enemy's ships, this shall be done by command of the 
Admiral, or, in his absence and according to circumstances, 
by the Vice-Admiral, and for that shall be appointed com- 
petent persons acquainted with the Spanish tongue, who 
shall carefully execute what they are charged to do. 

No. 12 is GUARME,^ 

Where our ships re-victualled, and brought their water across the 
beach in barrels with great difficulty. 

A. Is a ruined castle, occupied by our men. 

B. Is how our men got the water. 

C. is our ship thejagher^ lying close in to the shore. 

D. Is a captured Spanish vessel. 

E. Is our fleet, with the boats coming to and fro. 

F. Are a number of our soldiers, in search of provisions. 

G. Is the village or hamlet of Guarme, which our men entered in 

search of provisions. 
H. Are some Spanish horsemen taking to flight. 
I. Is how they fish in the fresh water. 

' Huarmey. 

PLATE No. 12. 


On the 27th, we once more set sail, the wind being north- 
west by north, with fine weather. 

On the 28th, we reached the roadstead of Guarme,^ 
situated in the latitude of 10° south of the Line. 

This town of Guarme is very fine and pleasant, and has 
a very large and well-situated harbour, in which many ships 
can lie. There is also a constant pool of fresh water, from 
which we got our supply. 

On first arriving, the Admiral sent a troop of soldiers 
ashore, but they found only empty dwellings, since the 
inhabitants, being informed of our coming, had fled to the 
woods, so that our men got little booty. 

As long as we lay here the Admiral repeatedly sent 
ashore Jan Baptista, skipper of the little vessel we had 
captured the day before the battle, in order to examine 
all the commodities and obtain some supply of provisions. 
But after the aforesaid had examined everything, he found 
in the end only some oranges and other fruits. 

The sailors also found in the houses some fowls, pigs, 
and meal. A faithful and discreet man was also sent out 
to obtain tidings of Don Rodrigo and his fleet, and at last 
he learnt with certainty that both the King's galleons had 
gone down, and that not a single individual had been 

A ugust. 

On the 3rd of August, the Admiral released and set 
ashore some Spanish prisoners, who expressed much grati- 
tude to him for this favour. 

In the afternoon, we unfurled our sails and shaped our 
course to the north-west in very fine weather, proceeding 
thus until the sixth. On that day, we came in sight of the 

^ Huarmey. 

82 speilbergen's journal. [Aug., 1611; 

island de Loubes/ where we passed between the mainland 
and the aforesaid island, situated in 6° 40', and having 
received this name de Loubes from a sort of fish^ of which 
there is great quantity here. 

On the 7th, we continued to hold a nor'-nor'-westerly 
course until the evening, when we saw a strange sail, of 
which we lost sight on account of the darkness coming on, 
and pursuing it no further in order not to delay our 

Towards evening, on the 8th, we cast anchor in a fine, 
well-situated harbour, near the town of Peyta.^ 

On the 9th, after the Broad Council had met, eight 
shallops were sent to the shore with three hundred well- 
armed men, who marched in good order straight to the 
town of Peyta ; but, as they found the enemy entrenched 
on all sides, and were of opinion that they would not be 
able to overcome him without a great loss of men, they all 
came back on board after some skirmishes, in accordance 
with the orders of the Admiral, who was especially careful 
regarding the preservation of his men. 

In the skirmishes we lost only one man, Pieter Evertsz. 
by name, and had only three or four wounded. And from 
the same quarters orders were given for the ^olus, the 
Morghen-sterre and \hQjacht to set sail, and to betake them- 
selves close under the town of Peyta, which was done, and 
they blockaded the same as closely as possible. 

. 1 The Lobos Islands. These are divided into two groups— Lobos 
de Tierra and Lobos de Afuera, the first, consisting of one island, 
situated in 6° 29' S., the second, consisting of several, in 6° 56'. As 
the writer speaks only of one island, it was probably Lobos de Tierra 
at which the expedition touched. 

2 Lobo, a small fish, a kind of loach ; it is also the Spanish name 
for the sea-wolf, and Burney {op. cit., vol. ii, p. 341) assumes the latter, 
calling them sea-calves. This seems absurd, in view of the text and 
especially of the illustration D on Plate 13, where the natives are seen 
with jars, evidently to hold the fish, 

3 Payta. 

PLATE No 18. 

Number 13 is Payta, 

As it was besieged, stormed, and captured ; and how the Spaniards 
fled, and the town was finally set on fire ; also some of their 
vessels, with a wonderful bird of incredible size. 

A. Depicts how our men were brought ashore and enter the town in 

battle array. 

B. Shows how the Spaniards, whilst retreating, fight our men. 

C. Are three of our ships, to wit, the ^olus^ the Sterre^ and the 

Jagher^ bombarding the town. 

D. Is one of the savages' vessels, called^ ^^/j<?w. Here they have fish 

aboard, and they can sail swiftly with these vessels in the wind. 

E. Is a sma\l dalsem, without a sail. 

F. Are our Son and Maen^ lying at anchor. 

G. Is the captured Spanish vessel. 

H. Is a bird two yards in height and three yards broad, captured on 
Loubes Island, near the town of Payta. 


In the afternoon, a fisherman came in from the sea, to 
whom Jan de Wit was immediately sent with his little 
vessel, and, returning in the evening, he brought the said 
fisherman with him, the latter having a boat and sails 
very wonderfully made, and in it were Indians, all young, 
strong, and robust men ; they had been out fishing for two 
months, and had a great quantity of dried fish of very good 
flavour, which was distributed amongst the fleet. 

On the loth, we again sent our troops ashore, but in 
greater force than on the previous day, and our three ships 
bombarded the aforesaid town so furiously with their 
cannon that everything around shook ; this lasted until 
our troops, marching in good order, had come close up to 
the town, when, finding the said town already open and 
empty, all the inhabitants having fled to the mountains 
and taken as much as possible with them, they immediately 
carried out the Admiral's orders to set fire to it, so that in 
a short time the greater part of the aforesaid town lay 
in ashes. 

In the evening, all our troops and others came back 
on board. 

On the 1 2th, the Admiral sent the Jacht a mile and 
a-half to the south of us, in order to anchor and lie on 
guard there. In the meantime, we left the harbour of 
Peyta with the whole fleet, and all anchored together at a 
corner near an inlet, to await there those three ships that 
were to come from Pannama, and we lay there some 

Meanwhile, the Admiral sent Jan de Wit and his little 
vessel out to sea daily, in order to look out for the arrival 
of any ships, as well as to find out, concerning the fleet 
from Pannama, the place at which it might be stopping. 

The said Jan de Wit came back to the fleet every night. 
There were also sent ashore five of our Indians, both for 
the purpose of plucking some fruit, as also to obtain further 

G 2 

84 speilbergen's journal. [Aug. 1615 

news concerning the Spanish Admiral ; these at length 
brought us some tidings that the latter had gone down 
with his vessel and all aboard, except five or six persons 
who had miraculously saved their lives. 

There was one among these Indians of ours who revealed 
to us many secrets and matters of importance, to which we 
gave the more credence, since we had found the man to be 
a very faithful and discreet person. The Indians also 
delivered letters written by Captain Caspar Caldron to 
Dona Paula, wife of the Commander of Peyta, who had 
taken refuge in the town of St. Michiel, situated twelve 
miles inland, to which letters they brought back a reply 
from the aforesaid Dona, expressing the great compassion 
she felt for the said captain and all the other prisoners, 
and declaring that, were she not kept back by important 
reasons, she would herself have come to our Admiral to 
intercede for them in person. She sent us great abundance 
of lemons, oranges, cabbages, and other provisions, which 
were all distributed in proper order. 

This Dona Paula is very renowned on account of her 
beauty, good grace and discretion, having great authority 
throughout the land of Peru. She made frequent inter- 
cession and supplication to the Admiral to release some of 
the prisoners, but this was courteously refused her, with 
thanks for her gifts, and assurances that, had we in the 
beginning been acquainted with her courtesy and kind- 
ness, we would, for her sake, have spared the town of 

This town was strong and well entrenched, especially on 
the side of the sea, where, with all the strength of cannon 
it would not have been possible to make a breach. 

In it there had been two churches, a cloister, and many 
other fine buildings and dwellings. They also had the 
best port of the whole country, at which all the ships 
and armadas that come from Pannama arrive and dis- 


charge, making their way from here to Caliau de Lima, 
as being the most expedient on account of the contrariness 
of the constant currents. 

The Viceroy had warned the people of the town of our 
coming, and had sent them many arms, banners, and such 
Hke, in order to resist us, but although they all made a 
sufficiently manly defence the first day, they all finally lost 

During the time that we were at anchor, the Admiral, 
seeing that our victuals were beginning considerably to 
diminish, sent four well-equipped boats to the aforesaid 
Island de Loubes, in order to catch some of these fish 
named loubes. This they did, bringing a large quantity, 
some still alive, others dead, and which, when cooked, were 
of good flavour, and afforded perfect nourishment. This 
enabled us to save our other supply of food, until some 
wranglers (of whom there are generally some to be found 
at such times of difficulty) incited the others to set them- 
selves against it, contending that these fish were not eatable 
food, and that they might easily make some of us ill, so 
that the Admiral, in order to avoid further bother, had no 
more caught, although they brought them daily in great 

On the island, our sailors also caught two birds of 
marvellous size, having a beak, wings, and claws shaped 
like an eagle, a neck like a sheep, and combs on the head 
like cocks, being formed in a very wonderful manner. 

The Admiral, seeing that the greater part of our prisoners 
were very incapable and unfit, set a large number of the 
same ashore free, and we kept only the chief pilot, Caspar 
Caldron, the captain, and about thirty other persons. 

The above-mentioned Indians were also released, and 
their vessel was restored to them. 




Compiled by a Spanish prisoner, named Pedro de 
Madriga, a native of Lima.^ 

The Kingdoms of Peru, Chili, and Terra Ferma are at 
present governed by Don Joan de Mendosa and Lima, 
Marquis Montes Claros,^ Viceroy, Stadholder or Lieutenant, 
in the place of the King of Spain, and wielding the same 
power here as His Majesty does in Spain, both in bestowing 
gifts and conferring offices, which are called corrigimento^ 
in these kingdoms, as well in the administration of the 
Indian revenues and the appointment of Alcaldias, being 
the masters or governors of the mines. 

This aforesaid office of the Viceroyalty is conferred by 
the King for six or eight years, or for as long as he pleases, 
the appointed Viceroy receiving an annual grant of 40,000 
ducats, besides a sum of 1,000 pesos ensaiados (each peso 
worth twelve and a-half reals a-piece) every Christmas 
Day, Twelfth Day, and on each of two other Festivals, 
being those of the Holy Ghost and Easter, since he then 
entertains all the Councillors of the Audiencia ; in addition 
to this, the Viceroy, on going annually to the harbour of 
Galao,* in order to despatch the fleet of the King's silver, 
receives from the King 2,000 pesos ensaiados to defray 

1 See the Introduction for further facts concerning this treatise. 

2 " Juan de Mendoza y Luna, Marquis de Montesclaros, Viceroy of 
Peru, 1607- 16 1 5, the fourth Viceroy of this illustrious house." — Sir 
Clements Markham, History of Peru^ pp. 172, 173. A full account of 
his life is given by Mendiburuj Diccionario^ 1885, torn, v, pp. 227-296. 

3 The Spanish words, even when mutilated, have been allowed to 
stand as in the Dutch text. 

* Callao. The names of places given in the notes are the modern 
appellations, and it is not intended to suggest that the original writer 
was always incorrect (where he differs) for his period ; in some 
instances, as in the modern mutilation of Casmala (a barren, desolate 
district) to Casma (see p. 99), the change is to be deplored. 


his expenses, besides his above-mentioned salary. The 
Viceroy is served in his palace by many nobles and 
warriors of every sort and quality, for kings hold the 
offices of major-domo or steward and maystro de sala, 
or captain of his guard or watch, as well as that of 
chamberlain ; besides these, there are also a large number 
of pages, who serve in and out of doors, and many servants 
who wait upon the aforesaid gentlemen. When he goes 
out, he is accompanied by all the state nobles, and has 
thirty soldiers, who are here called halberdiers, and if he 
goes outside the town, there go with him a hundred pike- 
men and fifty musketeers, these being soldiers who are 
here called the watch of this kingdom. The pikemen get 
800 pesos ensaiados, and the musketeers 400 a-year, for their 
services, or king's salario. In this kingdom there are four 
Audiencias, being one in Pannama, one in the Province of 
Quito, one in Charlas,^ and the fourth in Lima, although the 
kingdom of Chili also possesses an Audiencia, so that His 
Majesty constantly provides that kingdom with a governor, 
the present one being named Don Alonso de la Ribera. 
These Audiencias are counsellors of the king, who decide 
all cases, both civil and criminal ; but when an appeal to 
a higher tribunal has been allowed and is to be heard, all 
the civil matters are finally determined by oydores, who 
are appointed as commissioners for that purpose, and the 
criminal ones by alwaldas.^ All of these wear the same 
costume, for which each one enjoys an annual payment of 
3,CXK) pesos ensaiados of twelve and a-half reals. The town 
in which the Viceroy lives is called Civita dos de los [szc] 
Reyos,^ or King's Town ; it has been built in a fine large 
valley, and is in my opinion a mile and a-half in length, 
and three-quarters of a mile broad. It has more than 
10,000 inhabitants, besides those who daily come and go 

^ Charcas. '^ Alcaldes. ^ Ciudad de los Reyes, i.e., Lima. 


in large numbers to sell their wares. This town has four 
places or markets ; the first is where the Royal Council- 
house stands and the justices assemble, and where the 
merchants foregather and conclude their contracts ; and in 
these places all the necessary provisions and victuals are 
sold. In this town dwell many Indian artizans, such as 
tailors and shoemakers, and they dwell in a place called 
Cercado, which is situated close to the aforesaid town. 
And in that settlement there are many laborers who live 
by tilling the soil and sowing such produce as grows there ; 
axicoca/ cabbage, salad, radishes, cucumbers, melons, 
also maize, camotes, which in Spain are called patates, 
and all such things, are sold in the aforesaid big places or 
markets. The Indians who live in this settlement of 
Cercado number about 2,000, more or less ; the second, 
called St. Anna, is also very large ; the third is named 
St. Diego, and is somewhat smaller, and yet another place 
is called El Sato de los Cavalles, because horses, mules, 
and asses are daily bought and sold there. In this town 
resides the Archbishop, named Don Bertholome Lobo 
Guerrero,^ who enjoys an income or revenue of 50,000 or 
60,000 pesos, according to the rise or fall of the tithes, 
and if tithes are high it is about 60,000 pesos, and 
if they are low about 50,000. The great church has 
twenty-four prebendaries, one archdeacon, schoolmasters, 
canons, priests and chaplains, who receive 2,000 pesos or 
more, according to the state of the tithes. This church 
has four priests, and each one has an income of 1,500 
pesos from the king to live upon ; this great church is 
called Don Juan Evangheliste. Besides this parish church, 
which is the metropolis, there are four others, one called 
Sinto Marcello, with two priests, each having an income of 
1,000 pesos ; another, Jan Sebastiaen, with two priests and 

^ " Axij" in the original, but see p. 91. 

2 Bartolome Lobo Guerrero, Archbishop of Lima, 1609-1622. See 
Mendiburu, DiccionariOy 1885, torn, v, pp. 55-62. 

speilbergen's journal. ^9 

the same income ; another, Santa Anna, with two priests 
and the same income ; and the last is the Orphan Hospital 
with one priest, who is at the service of the four priests of 
the cathedral church, they giving him a salary of 500 pesos. 
This town has the following monasteries of monks, being 
S. Francisco, S. Domingo, S. Augustin, and one of Nuestra 
de les Marsedes, and each of these has two monasteries ; 
S. Francisco has three, to wit, its principal monastery, the 
second that of the barefooted friars, and the third that of Our 
Dear Lady of Guadelupe. Besides these, there are two of 
the Jesuits, who are called Teatinos^ in this country; in each 
of these principal monasteries there are two hundred and 
fifty monks, and in the monastery of the Minores, twenty. 
In addition to these monasteries there are five belonging 
to the Beguins, one called La Incarnation, the second La 
Conception, the third the Santissima Trinedada, the fourth 
St. Josepho, and another St. Clara ; in addition to these 
monasteries there is a church of Nstra Montecorate, one 
of N'stra Prado, and one of Loretto. There are four 
hospitals, the first called St. Andries, in which poor people 
are treated gratis ; in this hospital there are generally more 
than four hundred patients. Another hospital is called 
St. Anna, in which the Indians are treated ; another is 
called St. Pedro, in which priests and churchmen are 
treated ; and yet another called La Caridade, in which 
poor women are treated. There is also a house called 
San Lasaro, where men having no income are treated for 
old sicknesses ; there is another called El Spirito Santo, 
where seafaring men are treated. There are in this town 
more than six hundred mass-priests, besides some thousand 
students more. In addition to these, there are three 
colleges of students ; the first is the King's, where there 
are twenty-four students, whom the king supplies with 
board, clothes, and whatever they may require ; the second 

^ Theatins, a religious order founded by Pope Paul IV, 


college is named St. Torinio, after the Archbishop, where 
there are also twenty-four students, who are supported by 
the Bishop ; then there is one called Jan Martin, where 
are more than four hundred students, each of whom has to 
pay 2CX) pesos ensaiados for board and tuition. The Uni- 
versity, in which all the liberal arts and canon law are 
taught, has thoroughly instructed in the Holy Scriptures 
more than two hundred licentiate doctors, both theologians 
and jurists, for which the professor annually receives i,ooo 
pesos ensaiados from the king. 

Besides that, there are still two classes or auditoria, in 
one of which canon law is thoroughly taught in the morn- 
ing, in the other in the afternoon ; there are two masters, 
each receiving 600 pesos ensaiados annually. The teachers 
of the liberal arts receive 400 pesos ensaiados annually, as 
do also those entitled " La Instituta ; " these doctors 
annually elect a Rector whom they call Jues, or judge, of 
all the students. In this town there are within and with- 
out the walls more than 20,000 slaves ; there are many 
more women than men — that is to say, Spanish women. 
The Indians of this country are as free as the Spaniards 
themselves, except that they are bound to pay every six 
months to the king, or to whomsoever he appoints, two 
pesos ensaiados and a fowl worth a real, one fenega of 
maize, which is worth 8 reals, and half a piece of cloth of 
which they make their clothes. And if the Indians live in 
the valley or in the plain, the material must be cotton, but 
if they live in the mountains, they make it of wool. Each 
Indian is bound to serve the king for thirty days in the 
year ; they begin to serve in the mines in May, until the 
end of November, and not at any other period ; those who 
live near the mines serve in the latter, and those who do 
not live near them must serve in agricultural work, and 
the master who employs them is bound to pay them 
2^ reals per day as wages, and to feed them on bread, meat 


axicoca^ and salt. They must also serve in the fields in 
order to tend the cattle, which are here in great number, 
for, in addition to there being many Spanish sheep, there 
are also large numbers of others belonging to the country, 
as large as a half-grown horse, and the shape not unlike a 
camel. And these have been from time immemorial down 
to the present day, employed in place of horses and mules 
in this country, but principally in Potosi, for there they 
employ those sheep to bring down from the mountains the 
ore that they extract from the mines. 

From the harbour of Arica to Potosi these animals carry 
wheat-meal, maize and axicoca,^ which is a kind of green 
herb that the Indians usually put into their mouth, and 
greatly esteemed by them. The Spaniards transport all 
their merchandize on these animals, notwithstanding that 
there are horses and mules in abundance. The Indians of 
this country make a drink from maize, and call it " tchica ;" 
it is wholesome, and is drunk cold. F'or the rest, this town 
of Los Reyes^ is abundantly provided with victuals, bread, 

1 In the original " axgen," but see next paragraph. 

2 In this treatise the word appears in three forms : axij (p. 88), axgen 
(p. 91, hne i), and as above ; there is Httle doubt that the herb meant 
is coca {erythoxylon coca\ as described by Sir Clements Markham in 
his History of Peru. " The coca leaf was the great source of comfort 
and enjoyment to the Peruvians, and is now in demand for medicinal 
uses throughout the civilised world. Coca is cultivated between 5,000 
and 6,000 feet above the level of the sea, in the warm valleys of the 
eastern slopes of the Andes, where the only variation of climate is 
from wet to dry, and where frost is unknown. It is a shrub from four 
to six feet high, the branches straight and alternate, leaves alternate 
and entire in form and size like tea leaves, flowers solitary with a 
small yellowish-white corolla in five petals. Sowing is commenced in 
December and January when the rains begin, which continue until 
April . . . After eighteen monttis the plants yield their first harvest, 
and they continue to be fertile for about forty years . . . No Indian 
is without his chuspa or coca bag, and he derives great enjoyment 
from chewing the leaves. The smell of the leaf is agreeable and 
aromatic, and its properties are to enable a great amount of fatigue to 
be borne with little nourishment." 

A much earlier but not more authoritative description of the coca 
plant and its uses is to be found in Joseph Acosta's History of the 
East and West Indies^ Book IV, chap. xxii. 

^ i.e.^ Lima. 

^± speilbergen's journal. 

meat, and fish, of all sorts ; i6 ounces^ of bread costs a 
real, whether wheat is cheap or dear. Wheat generally 
costs three pesos, although in the last few years it has 
been up to ten and twelve pieces of eight. Meat costs 
four and a-half, sometimes five, reals per aroba,^ according 
to proclamation made in the town. A pound of fresh fish 
costs three-quarters of a real. There is a good deal of fish 
here of various sorts, taken from the sea, and also caught 
within the town walls. By these walls runs a river, which 
in the rainy season, or during a rush of water, becomes very 
violent, for a bridge which was built over the said river, 
of hewn stone, with nine arches, and as strong as one could 
imagine it, was carried away by the current ; it has also 
many and various sorts of toothsome fish. In this town 
there is an assembly of twenty-four councillors. There is a 
King's House, the contractation,^ with four royal officers, 
being the Treasurer, Condador,* Factor, and Medoor. In 
that house is the king's treasure and revenue ; here is also 
a tribunal of the Inquisition, with two Inquisitors, who 
have an income of 3,000 pesos, and their own prison, their 
mayor and two notaries, each of these receiving 1,000 
pesos a year. Here is also a tribunal of St. Crusada, with 
indulgence and relics, and having similar incomes. In this 
town are sixteen companies of soldiers, eight mounted 
and eight on foot, and it is situated two miles from 
the sea. 

The harbour of this town is named El Callao, where 
reside about eight hundred Spaniards, more or less ; close 
to this there is a small village of about two hundred 
Indians, all of whom speak Spanish well, for they have 
mostly been brought up among the Spaniards and serve 
them, helping them to till the land for wheat and other 

1 Evidently Spanish, 16 ounces forming a pound, whilst in a Dutch 
pound there are only five. ^ ^ Spanish weight of 2$ pounds. 

3 Contratacion. ^ Contador = accountant. 


necessary things, although quantities of wheat and wine 
come by sea from Pisco, Yca,^ and La Nacha.^ This town^ 
transports to Potosi all kinds of Spanish wares, both cloth 
and other stuff for garments, and also native wares, which 
are made around Lima, for the dress of the people. This 
place of Potosi is named La Valla Imperiael, and has 
within its limits a very high mountain, upon which is 
found the metal for making silver. It is fearful and 
wonderful to enter these mines, which descend by quite 
four hundred steps into the earth ; and upon entering, it 
is so dark that no one can go without a candle. In these 
mines there are more than twenty thousand Indians at 
work, who excavate the metal, and then there are others 
who bring it down to the river in the mills, of which there 
are quite a hundred, to crush and refine it, and extract the 
silver. And when it is well ground to powder, they put it 
into a square trough with water, add to it salt, broken 
wheat, and a certain quantity of quicksilver, which is a 
material that separates silver from the earth ; and when 
it is separated from the earth it mixes with the quick- 
silver, whereupon, in order to separate these two materials, 
silver and quicksilver, they have made an oven, such as 
that in which copper-founders melt their metal, except 
that it is open at the top, and is heated from beneath, like 
a pan. A cowl is then made of clay or loam, to hang 
loose over it and free of the oven, and through the heat 
from the fire the quicksilver is driven up into this aforesaid 
cowl hanging there, whilst the cleansed silver remains in 
the oven. The aforesaid quicksilver is collected out of 
the cowl, and used again for refining. This place is cold, 
so that no fruit grows for 4 miles around, except a herb 
which the Indians call ycho ; all supplies of bread, wine, 

1 Yea or lea, situated in a valley on a river of the same name, 
180 miles S.E. by S. of Lima ; it was ruined by earthquakes in "1644 
and 1647. ' Nasca. ^ i.e.^ Lima. 


meat, and maize, and all sorts of fruit, are mostly brought 
there by carts and animals from Arica, which is the 
harbour of Potosi ; it is, indeed, sometimes dear, but there 
is no lack of anything. There are in this village about 
six thousand men, more or less, without reckoning some 
two thousand who make their living here by bringing 
supplies of food from Arica, and also from some valleys 
near Potosi ; each brings wine and flour, according to his 
resources. The wine of Peru costs lo reals of eight, the 
wine of Castile 20 reals, and an aroba of meat costs a real. 
Bread costs 2 reals a pound, and often more, but not less ; 
but this town is situated about 180 Spanish miles from 
Arica, its harbour, and on the way there are many villages 
inhabited by Indians, one every 8 or 10 miles, and also 
many that have been destroyed. In this town thete is a 
corrigidor, appointed by the king for six or eight years, if 
it so please him. On the way from this place to the 
interior lies the town of Chuquisacas,^ where there is a 
King's Audiencia that has four Ceydores^ and a Fiscal ; it 
has also a President, who occupies the same position there 
as does the Viceroy in Lima, and he, too, has the same power 
there in the country, but does not bestow any offices or 
incomes, administering only justice. The ordoros [szc] of 
this Audiencia fill the offices of the alcaldes de corte, and 
have cognisance of both civil and criminal matters. This 
town is very good, although not very large ; it has also a 
bishop, who has an income of 30,000 ducats. The great 
church has also its dabildo^ or assembly, like that of Lima ; 
and the same monasteries, although the monks are not there 
in such numbers. The inhabitants number between three 
and four thousand ; and were any disorders to occur in the 
country, or on the coast of Peru, the inhabitants are 
bound to come down to Potosi, and thence accompany 

^ Sucre, ^ Oidores, see p. 87. ^ Cabildo, 


the inhabitants of Potosi as far as Arica. There are in 
the town of Potosi about fifteen hundred loafers, who hold 
no office, but go occasionally to Arica, and then return to 
Potosi ; they play cards, and cheat the folks who come to 
trade, getting hold in this way of the foreign merchants* 
goods. About 70 miles on one side of this place is 
another, where are mines that are called Oruro, from which 
much silver is got of the same alloy as that of Potosi. 
This place has about two thousand citizens, and many 
people who come and trade, bringing all kinds of food and 
drink. Still somewhat further, and closer to Lima, is 
another place where are mines, and called Chocoloichora ;^ 
but here not so much silver is obtained as at Oruro or 
Potosi. There are about five hundred Spaniards and 
between three and four thousand Indians, who work in the 
mines. The climate here is as cold as in Potosi. Still 
closer to Lima is another place called Castro Vireyna,^ 
where some silver is also extracted, and here are also 
about five hundred Spaniards and three thousand Indians. 
These places are supported and victualled by the town of 
Yla,3 which lies in the valleys ; their seaport is Pisco, 
whence they get wine, flour, and maize for the Indians. 
In each of these places is a governor, who is appointed by 
the Viceroy, and receives a salary of 2000 pesos ensaiados ; 
20 miles distant from these places is a town named 
Juamabeluca,^ which is a place with houses, like Potosi, 
although 2 miles from there many cattle are raised, and 
much butter and cheese is made. These places are 
furnished by Pisco and other valleys with wine and other 
necessities ; from Juamanga,^ too, preserves are brought, 

^ The town known to-day as Corocoro. 

2 Still so known to-day. 

^ lea ; see p. 92. * Huancavelica. 

^ Its name was changed to Ayacucho in 1824, in honour of the 
victory over the Spanish in the neighbouring plain of Ayacucho in the 
War of Independence. 

96 speilbergen's journal. 

that being a district in which much sugar cane grows. 
From Potosi to Cusco is about 150 miles, all consisting of 
poor valleys called callao, and everywhere studded with 
Indian villages, each 10 or 12 miles from the other; 
indeed, so many that one has scarcely left one village 
before seeing another. In these parts there are many 
merchants plying their trade, and also many gamblers 
who proceed from one tambos to the other in order to 
cheat these folk. These tambos are inns that are called 
ventas in Spain, and in our country as above. Cusco is a 
town almost similar to Lima, for it is very large, but 
rather barren and uneven, by reason of being built at the 
foot of a high mountain ; there is much rain here. It has 
about six thousand Spanish inhabitants, and round about 
the place are many Indian villages, having altogether 
about two thousand inhabitants. There is a corrigidor and 
bishop, and monasteries as in Lima ; also two colleges of 
students, with about six hundred of the latter. The 
bishop has an income of about 30,000 ducats. The great 
church has also a cabildo, there being, moreover, a cabildo 
belonging to the town with alcaldes, or royal officers. 
This district has many fine valleys, in which quantities of 
victuals, such as wheat and meat, are collected at cheap 
prices. The wine is brought hither from Araquipa,^ a 
seaport situated about 100 miles from Cusco. In this 
district are many Spaniards carrying on trade, and in this 
valley are many sugar-mills. 

Fruit, such as apples, pears, quinces, etc., and other 
fruit called dierasno melocotones,^ are preserved here to 
be sent to Potosi, and to all the other mines. These 
Indians have commanders appointed by the king, whom 
they recognise as their masters, paying the latter taxes, as 

1 Arequipa, on a river flowing into the Pacific. 

2 This obviously read in the original Spanish of de Madriga, duras- 
nos/ melocotones, /.<?., nectarines and peaches. 

speilbergen's journal. 97 

mentioned above. Guamanga^ and Cusco are about 60 or 
70 miles distant from each other, a very bad and stony- 
way. The former is a very large town, and is also a 
bishopric ; the bishop is named Don Fray Augustijn de 
Arbatal. The country around is not rich, because there 
are no mines near ; there is therefore not much money in 
circulation, but all the necessities of life are cheap. Much 
wheat is produced here, and other native herbs for the 
Indians. There are also large numbers of oxen and sheep, 
and many fine big horses are bred, which become very 
strong, and are much transported to Lima, Chusco, and all 
the provinces. Juancabelica^ is a town in which, as I have 
already said, quicksilver is manufactured. Here is also a 
high mountain, as near Potosi, similarly rugged and steep, 
with corners, for, in order to descend from the summit, 
they climb down ladders made of rope, like those used for 
getting up the masts. The mine is fearfully deep, and the 
specie is brought out at the top upon the shoulders of the 
Indians. This specie is stone from which the quicksilver 
is then extracted, and it sometimes occurs whilst the 
Indians are climbing up and down, for they all go one 
behind the other, that when one of them falls all the others 
under him must also fall ; from the top to the bottom 
there are between three and four hundred steps. This 
place has a river which turns into stone everything put 
into it, and whoever drank of this water would immediately 
die. From Juancabelica one descends. to the Xaura,^ which 
is situated 40 miles from Lima. Here is a goodly valley, 
with a fertile soil yielding abundantly, and a healthy 
climate. Much Spanish cattle is also raised here, and the 
Indians of this valley sow much wheat and maize, a good 
deal being sent to Juancabelica ; much pork is also sent 

1 Ayacucho ; see p. 95. ^ Huancavelica. 

* Jauja, town and river. The whole valley was evidently so called 
already in early times, 



to Lima and other places. There are in this valley more 
than 40 Indian villages, in which there are ten thousand 
Indians. Amongst these dwell many Spaniards who take 
provisions in exchange for combs, knives, needles, beads, 
ear-rings, and other things of smaller value. They give 
these wares for fowls, maize, and other things, and these 
the Spaniards sell at Lima and Juancabelica, getting their 
living and amassing riches too thereat. From Valle de 
Xaura one comes to another named Quorogerij,^ situated 
12 or 14 miles from Lima, but the district is entirely 
inhabited by Indians, no Spaniards dwelling among them, 
except here and there. And thence to Caljou de Lima 
are these places — Aburco, Pachacama, and Chica Abia, 
these being Indian villages, thinly inhabited and very poor. 
For the rest there is barren country as far as Cannetto,^ a 
village inhabited by Spaniards ; there are about eighty 
families, who make some wine, sow wheat, and raise much 
cattle, to wit, cows and oxen, as well as many mares and 
mules, which they sell at Lima. Along the coast, from 
here to Arica, there are many villages on the way in- 
habited by Spaniards, such as Pisco, where a great quantity 
of wine is made ; that village, with the valley, has about 
fifty men. Then follows Yca,^ which has the same trade ; 
thereupon follows La Nasca,* where much wine is also 
produced. After that we get a number of Indian villages, 
and then come to the town of Ariquipa, which is a fine 
town, and has more than two thousand Spanish in- 
habitants ; there is also a corrigidor, a bishop, and a 
cabildo of each kind. For the rest, the way from here to 
Arica is mostly lonesome, and without many inhabitants. 
Further, we have knowledge of some places below^ Lima. 
At Chaucay^ there live about as many Spaniards as at 

1 Huarochiri. 2 Caiieta. 

* lea ; see p. 93. * Nasca, on the R. Grande, 

" But meaning beyond, northward of Lima, * Chancay. 


Cannetto, and round about it live some Indians, who 
support themselves by sowing crops, and especially by 
raising cattle, many Spanish sheep and goats, and by 
curing pork. But this coast has few Indians, though 
these speak Spanish very well. Immediately after this, 
lower down,^ follows Guara,^ which has about eighty in- 
habitants, or a few more; here are few Indians. Its trade 
consists of sugar, meal, or syrup, which is conveyed thence 
to Lima. From Guara one goes to Varancas,^ which is an 
Indian village with about two hundred families ; its trade 
consists of wheat and maize, which is sent to Lima ; then 
comes Guarmey,* which has the same trade, but in these 
villages there are, strange to say, no Spaniards, except one 
here and there. From Guarmey one comes to a place 
called Casmala ;^ high, barren country, few inhabitants, and 
totally desolate. 

Then follows Santa, a small Spanish town, with some- 
what more than a hundred families and a few Indians. 
Hereupon follows the town of Truxillo,^ a fine place, where 
there is now a bishop. The country is poor, and has about 
two thousand Indians ; its seaport is named Guanckaco.^ 
In this district are many sugar-mills, and much wheat is 
sown ; much flour is made here, which is taken to Panama, 
and in the interior many Spanish cattle are raised, and 
farms kept for breeding horses and mules. Fruit and 
provisions are cheap, but there is little money in circula- 

Here you have what we were able to learn concerning 
the circumstances of this country from our Spanish 
prisoner, who declared that he had good knowledge and 
cognisance thereof, especially as he was born in the said 
country, and had been brought up in it since his infancy. 

^ Higher up, we should say. ' Huaura. 

^ Barranca. * Huarmey. 

^ Casma, * Trujillo, ^ Huanchaco. 

H 2 

loo speilbergen's journal. 

We have also deemed it expedient to add here- 

The capital town of this kingdom is St. Jago, which is 
inhabited by the Indians ; in the said town is a gold mine, 
from which the king derives no profit. 

The second town is Coqunibo,^ having abundance of 
copper, of which all the cannon and the bells are made in 

The third is Waldavia,^ being very rich in gold ; the 
inhabitants of this town stormed and captured it in 1 599, 
killed all the Spaniards, and kept their wives, to the 
number of eight hundred. Any one of these can be 
re-purchased for a pair of spurs, a bridle, a rapier, or a pair 
of stirrups, but this has been expressly forbidden by the 
king, in order to prevent the Chilenese from getting hold 
of any arms. 

Having, as has been said, obtained possession of the 
town, and driven out and slain the rest of the Spaniards, 
they took the governor alone prisoner, and poured molten 
gold into his mouth and ears, afterwards making a 
drinking-cup of his skull, and a trumpet of his shins or 
legs, as a sign of the victory they had gained over 
their foe. 

The fourth town is Auraco,^ close to which the Spaniards 
have a fort, which is held by a company of soldiers who 
can with great difficulty find enough there to feed them, 
and they would often be in danger of perishing were they 
not assisted by the ships. It is about a year and a-half 
ago that a Biscayan captain came in a small vessel with 
thirty men, expressly to provide these men with food, but 
he was so cast about by the current that he fell, against 

^ Coquimbo, ^ Valdivia, ^ Arauco. 

Aug., 1615] speilbergen's journal. ioi 

his will, into the hands of the inhabitants there, who slew 
the captain and all the others, excepting only the trumpeter, 
named Laurens, born in the town of Berghen, in Norway, 
of Dutch parents. 

In the town of Conception, of which we have already 
spoken, resides a Spanish governor, who is generally 
accompanied by four hundred soldiers, and in the town are 
some pieces of ordnance for his defence. Notwithstanding 
that the soil of this district is the most fertile in the 
whole kingdom, the Spaniards cannot raise any crops 
on it, or till it, on account of the great ruin and havoc 
wrought there by the savages themselves before their 

Chilue is a town situated on the extreme limits, being 
also under the dominion of the Spaniards, but of little 
importance, for a captain named Anthoni Swart, from the 
Netherlands, overpowered the said town some time ago 
with thirty men, and captured it. 

A vessel, too, named the Trouwe^ lying at anchor off 
the said town in order to await the tide, thirty Spaniards 
gave themselves up to the crew of, the aforesaid ship, and 
being afterwards set ashore at Guayaquyl, they were 
apprehended by the Viceroy of Peru, and sent back to 
Chili, where they were hung up by the feet and shot with 

In the said kingdom there are still a few other places, 
but of no great importance, as far as we could understand 
from one of our prisoners ; and making an end hereof, we 
shall continue our story. 

On the 2 1st August, in the afternoon, we again set sail,^ 
shaping our course out to sea towards the north, with mild 
and very fine weather. 

From Payta Point ; see p. 83. 


On the 22nd, we again turned towards the shore, where 
we anchored early in the evening in 40 fathoms. From 
that time onward we observed that the current was so 
violently opposed to us that it was scarcely possible to 
make any progress, except with a very favourable wind. 

On the 23rd, the wind blowing strong and in our favour, 
we set sail, constantly keeping close to the shore until the 
evening, when we anchored just before the river named 
Rio de Tomba,^ which river it is impossible to enter even 
in boats, on account of its shallowness, as well as by reason 
of the strong stream that flows out of it. 

At daybreak on the 29th, we weighed anchor, but the 
calm and the contrariness of the current compelled us 
soon to cast it again. 

On the 24th, the General Council assembled, when it 
was resolved that we should shape our course direct for 
Coques Island,^ situated in 5° south^ latitude, for the reason 
that the said island is very convenient, and offers ad- 
vantages for re-victualling, as some of our men knew from 
their own experience. So the wind veering to the west 
in the afternoon we set sail, shaping our course to nor'- 

On the 27th, we still kept the same course until the 
evening, when we sighted a vessel in front of us, and made 
every endeavour to overtake it ; but the darkness of the 
night caused us to lose sight of it, so that we again set our 
course as before. Here we were near the Cape of Santa 
Helena, ij° south of the Pole.* 

In this fashion we continued the 28th, 29th, and until 
the afternoon of the 30th, when we set our course more to 
the west. In this locality we were much subjected to all 
kinds of tempests, whirlwinds, rain, lightning, and the like. 

1 R. Tumbez. ^ Cocos I. 

3 Really 5? N. lat. * A slip for Line. 

Sept., 1615] speilbergen's journal. 103 


On the first day of September we had a very favourable 
wind, so that at night we were again in the latitude of four 

On the 2nd, the wind remaining in the same quarter, we 
gained the latitude of 4° 30', and from that day until the 
7th we were constantly searching for the aforesaid Coques 
Island, but could not find it, by reason of the continual 
tempests, rain, thunder, and the like. On the same day, 
Jan de Wit had to leave his little ship on account of her 
having sprung a bad leak through the strong winds and 
waves, and no sooner had we transshipped the provisions 
and crew than she sank. 

From the 7th to the 13th neither the storm, rain, nor 
lightning abated : this gradually beginning to cause various 
maladies amongst us, the more so since we had obtained 
no fresh food for so long a time. 

The 14th was the first day that the tempest abated, with 
very fine calm weather. Here we were in the latitude 
of 8° 10'. 

On the 15th, the weather being clear and bright, the 
pilots found at night that we were just in the latitude 
of 10°. 

On the 1 6th the wind rose high, with continual rain, 
from the south-west, our course being north-west. 

On the 17th we were in the latitude of 12° 30'. 

On the 1 8th, it was fair and favourable weather by day, 
but in the night a storm arose, with continuous rain, which 
caused the wind to veer to the north, so that we shaped 
our course to the west. 

On the 20th, we came in sight of the land named Nova 
Hispania, which at first appeared to be quite flat, but is 
covered with hills and mountains of wonderful height. 

On the 2 1 St, we were in the latitude of 13° 30', and the 


wind then veering to the south, we set our course north- 
wards again until midday, when it grew quite calm. 

On the 22nd the said calm continued, without our 
making much progress, until the evening, when such a 
furious storm and whirlwind arose that the ships were 
driven together, the yacht colliding with the Admiral's 
ship, and breaking the bowsprit for her, tearing many of 
the sails, and doing other damage. 

The same wind continued blowing until noon on the 
23rd, when we were in the latitude of 14° 50'. 

On the 24th the wind fell a good deal, veering to the 
east, wherefore we set our course west by north. 

On the 25th, the aforesaid storm again arose with such 
sudden violence that it tore the Admiral's mainsail to 
shreds, so that we could scarce retain it. 

At the same time the wind also veered right against us, 
wherefore we tacked first on one, then on the other side, 
until midnight, when it grew quite calm. 

On the 26th the wind turned again to the east, where- 
fore we shaped our course west by north, sailing with good 
progress, and gained the latitude of 14° 42'. 

On the 27th, we kept up the same rate of progress until 
the evening, when the weather grew quite calm, and con- 
tinued so the whole night and the following day. 

On the 29th, the wind being as before, we proceeded 
west by north without ever losing sight of the aforesaid 

At midday we were in the latitude of 15° 30'. 

In the evening we gradually approached the shore of 
the aforesaid land, but the wind veering to the west, we 
again proceeded out to sea under full sail. 

On the 30th we again attempted to make the land, but 
as we could not get along according to our wish, we once 
more put out to sea. 

Oct., 1615] speilbergen\s journal. 105 


The first day of October we tacked all day and night in 
order to make the land, so that on the approach of day we 
found ourselves very near the coast. 

On the said day, being the 2nd, we saw smoke rising 
in various places on the shore, wherefore the Admiral 
sent out a boat with armed men in order to learn fuller 

Our yacht was also sent on in advance in order to sound 
the bottom in all directions, and to look for a proper 
anchorage ; she at length returned, and told us that there 
was no fit place anywhere, and that she had found no 
harbour or roadstead. 

This caused us some surprise until the evening, when 
our boat came alongside, and informed us that a very con- 
venient bay had been found close to the shore, where we 
could anchor quite comfortably in 15 or 16 fathoms. 

We also learnt that the men in the boat had spoken at 
a distance with the people on land, and that the latter had 
promised them all kinds of victuals if they would only 
come and fetch them, but as their orders did not permit 
of this, they had been unwilling to undertake it. 

As the wind was so very much against us that we could 
not make the roadstead that night, we were again com- 
pelled to put out to sea. 

This country appeared to be very fine and pleasant, 
being planted with many kinds of trees and verdure. 

On the 3rd we were in latitude 16° 20', and on the same 
day we put forth every endeavour to make the roadstead 
and to anchor, but in vain, and we continued so to do 
until the 5 th. 

On that day we saw numbers of masts, bound fast 
together, floating out in the open sea ; these we imagined 

lo6 SiPEIL^ERGEN's JOURNAL. [Oct., 1615 

at first to be some ship, but at last we got to know what 
they were by a boat we sent out for that purpose. 

Another boat was also sent to the shore in order to 
inspect the locality and find out whether it was possible 
to land some troops and obtain a supply of food, of which 
we were greatly in need. But they came back with the 
reply that it was impossible, since the waves beat against 
the shore with such violence that they would easily have 
capsized our boats. 

On that day we nevertheless cast anchor with the whole 
fleet in 40 fathoms, our latitude being 16° 40'. 

On the 6th, after the Broad Council had assembled, it 
was resolved that we should send three boats to the shore 
to look out for some means of re-victualling, but these, on 
coming near the land, found, as has been said, the violence 
of the sea to be so great as to render it impossible to put 
in. They saw some people standing on the shore, who 
motioned to them to approach, but it was not to be done ; 
they also saw several herds of cattle grazing in the 

On the 8th, three boats were again sent out in order to 
seek some profit, but it was labour lost for them as well as 
for the others, except that a few sailors undressed, sprang 
into the sea, and swam ashore, where they saw some 
millions of does and stags, which, being very wild, ran off 
very swiftly as soon as they perceived our men. 

On the 9th we again proceeded further, always sailing 
along the shore. 

We continued to do so, too, on the loth, until the 
evening, when we anchored near a tongue of land behind 
which lay the town of Aquapolque,^ having a fine and well- 
situated harbour. 

On the nth we set sail, making every endeavour to get 


Number 14 is Aquapolque,i 

With its explanation in what manner the Spanish prisoners were 

A. Is our fleet, consisting of five ships and a small Spanish vessel, 

which is lying on guard outside the bay. 

B. Is the first meeting, each holding a small white flag as a sign of 


C. Are our boats, with the Spanish prisoners, who are released and 

set at liberty. 

D. Are a number of asses, bringing our men victuals from the 


E. Are a number of sheep, oxen, and other animals being shipped. 

F. Is a castle occupied by Spaniards, and well provided with cannon. 

G. Is the church or monastery. 

H. Is the hamlet or town of Aquapolque. 
I. Is a wonderful fish that is caught off" the coast there. 
K. Are some horsemen we saw with some more victuals that are being 
brought to us. 

^ Acapulco. 

PLATE No. 14. 

Oct., 1615] speilbergen's journal. iof 

into the harbour, which, by reason of the great calm, we 
did not enter until the afternoon, and cast anchor with all 
our ships close to the castle, from whence about ten 
cannon shots were fired at us without damaging us in any- 
way. To stop this, the Admiral sent out a boat with a 
white flag, in token of peace, and the Spaniards, seeing 
this, came to meet our boat, not only offering us every 
friendship, but also promising to give us what they could 
to help and assist us. In conformity with which there 
came for the same purpose on board our Admiral's ship 
two Spaniards — to wit, Pedro Alvares, serjeant-major, and 
Francisco Menendus, ensign, being well versed in the 
tongue of the Netherlands, as having travelled and served 
there many years. These gave our Admiral repeated 
promises of help and assistance, and after some com- 
pliments they returned to the town. 

During the night we towed all our ships up and 
anchored them so close under the castle that we could 
distinctly see their guns and every detail. 

On the 1 2th, we conceived the opinion that the 
Spaniards were intent on some mischief against us, 
wherefore we placed our ships opposite the castle, getting 
ready the cannon and all that belongs thereunto. But as 
we had sent out a boat to obtain more certain information, 
the above-mentioned persons came aboard again, offering 
to place themselves in our hands as pledges and hostages 
for the performance of what they had promised us, and 
after many fine words, it was agreed that all our prisoners 
should be released and placed in their hands, and that 
they should deliver us for the same thirty oxen, fifty 
sheep, and a quantity of fowls, cabbages, oranges, lemons, 
and the like. 

As soon as this contract was made, there came on board 
to visit us many other captains and cavallieros, amongst 
them Captain Castillo, who had served in the Netherlands 

io8 speilbergen's journal. [Oct., 1615 

for more than twenty years, all of whom showed us much 
kindness and courtesy. 

On the same day we sent many men ashore in order to 
obtain a supply of both fresh water and wood for the 
kitchen, and the like. 

On the 13th we again obtained a similar supply, and in 
the evening the Spaniards sent a row-boat to us, with 
promises that they would send us the promised cattle and 
fruit the following day. 

On the 14th, the inhabitants of the town, after having 
fired several cannon shots in our honour, brought us the 
promised oxen, sheep, and fruit, which caused incredible 
joy and recuperation amongst our men. 

On the 15th, there came aboard our Admiral's ship 
Don Melchior Harnando, a cousin of the Viceroy of Nova 
Hispania, being charged to inspect a fleet which was 
powerful enough to conquer a royal armada such as that 
of Don Rodrigo ; he was received and entertained by our 
Admiral, who had all our troops drawn up armed and in 
array in order to display them to him. 

Meanwhile, our Admiral's son had gone ashore with the 
Fiscal, and was very honourably received and entertained 
by the Governor. 

In the evening each ship fired three cannon shots, 
besides some charges of musketry. 

The next day all our Spanish prisoners were released, 
for which the inhabitants of the town thanked us very 
much, promising to do the like in the event of any of our 
people happening to fall into their hands. 

During this anchorage we were most diligent in getting 
in our supply of water, wood, and such like. 

This re-victualling, too, was most necessary for us, since 
sickness was daily increasing largely, and especially in the 
vessel the Sonney in which there were more than sixty 
sick ; wherefore we had even resolved, in the event of the 

Oct., 1615] speilbergen's journal. 109 

Spaniards not having amicably allowed the provisions to 
go to us, to obtain the same by force of arms, though such 
would have been sufficiently difficult for us to do, since 
they had seventeen metal guns in the castle, besides many 
muskets and other arms and ammunition sent there 
expressly on our account, they having been informed of 
our coming already more than eight months before. 

The Governor of this town, named Don Gregorio de 
Porreo, had under his command for the defence of the 
castle four hundred men, besides many nobles and 
volunteers, whilst he had previously been used to have 
no more than forty men and three pieces of ordnance. 

This town of x^quapolco has no abundance of food 
supplies, since they have to fetch everything from very far 
in the interior, and also because all the ships from Manilles 
take in their cargoes and provisions here ; wherefore we 
were surprised to receive such kindness and courtesy from 
the Spaniards, contrary to their usual manner and custom, 
for although we should have attacked them with force of 
arms, and have managed to overcome them, this would not 
have availed us aught, since they had means for getting 
away from the town, and escaping with all they wished 
into the woods and wildernesses. 

On the 17th, we began to make preparations for our 

On the 1 8th, we sailed out to sea with a favourable wind 
until the evening, when it grew very calm, continuing so 
until the 20th and 21st. 

From the 21st until the 25th we tacked again and 
again without making much progress, by reason of the 
calm still continuing, when in the evening we saw in front 
of us a ship, which we hoped to be able to overtake that 

The next day we saw that the said ship lay at anchor 
close under the shore, and four well-equipped boats were 


sent out by the Admiral to take it. But as soon as the 
crew of the ship saw our men approach, they cut away the 
masts and sprits, and, binding these together, twelve 
persons made their way ashore on them and escaped. 

Eleven persons were still left on board the vessel, 
amongst these being two monks and a pilot, who had not 
dared to trust themselves upon the aforesaid masts. On the 
approach of our boats they fired a few musket shots, but 
this did not deter our men from attacking them, taking 
them, and bringing them, ship and all, to our fleet. 

This vessel was laden only with a few pieces of fur- 
niture of little importance, and with some provisions, 
which were dealt out amongst our ships. She had been 
out fishing for pearls, but had caught nothing ; was well 
equipped with four metal guns and two small mortars, 
some hooks and other arms and ammunition, so that she 
seemed to have been fitted out for war rather than for 

Here we were in the latitude of 18 degrees, and 10 or 12 

On the 27th, Jan Hendricksz., boatswain of the Maen, 
and twenty-two men, both soldiers and sailors, were placed 
on the aforesaid vessel to navigate her, and follow the 


On the first day of November mild and perfectly calm 
weather set in, and continued until the loth. Towards 
the evening of the latter day we cast anchor immediately 
before a seaport named Selagues,^ situated in 19°. Our 
prisoners informed us that there was a river here full of all 
kinds of freshwater fish, besides many lemons and other 
fruits,^ and that two miles from thence there was a pasture 

1 Salagua. 

2 In Dutch colonies the expression " in the river " includes also the 
land for some distance back on each bank, 

PLATE No. 15. 

Number 15 is S. I ago/ Selagues,i and Natividaet,^ 
Very carefully indicating how our men fought with the Spaniards. 

A. Is the Bay of S. I ago, where our fleet lay. 

B. Is the small Spanish vessel lying on guard. 

C Is Selagues Bay, where the Jagher lay, with the places where the 
Spaniards are attacking our men. 

D. Is how the Spaniards came running out of the wood. 

E. Is their reception on the other side. 

F. Are a number of dead left on the spot. 

G. Are our sailors guarding the boats. 

H. Is a place or bay a little way off, named Natividaet. 

I. Is a very fine river of fresh water. 

K. Is another sort offish which is much caught in this country. 

^ The two bays of Santiago and Salagua ; they face the neck of 
land on which the town of Manzanillo now stands. 
2 Navidad, in 19? 


in which the cattle graze. In order to ascertain this, two 
boats filled with armed men were sent to the shore, and on 
arriving there they found the aforesaid river and fruit 
trees, but also saw on the bank the footprints of many 
men who went shod ; therefore they durst not go farther, 
but came back on board. This made us think, by reason 
of the shoes, that it must be the Spaniards of Aquapolco ; 
because our prisoners assured us that hereabouts there 
dwelt but two or three Spaniards in all, and that the 
country was inhabited by Indians. 

For this reason the Admiral sent one of our prisoners 
ashore in a boat with a letter, in which he expressed his 
sole desire amicably to obtain some cattle and fruits for 
the nourishment of his men ; but as there was no one, the 
letter was hung upon the branch of a tree on the shore. 

On the nth we proceeded ashore with two hundred 
soldiers, placing some white flags in the bows of our boats 
as a sign of peace ; but the Spaniards on the contrary, 
standing on the banks, waved a blue banner, and showed 
by signs that there was nought for us but war. 

As soon as we had come on shore a great band of 
Spaniards sprang out from the wood in which they had 
been concealed, falling with loud cries very suddenly upon 
our men, who, in the first moment, took fright, and, but for 
the presence of some of our officers, would have fled ; but 
afterwards, having taken courage, they stoutly charged the 
foe, so that he shortly after took to flight, our men not 
pursuing him further through fear of another ambush, but 
returning to the boats, especially as some had little powder 

In this encounter there were killed of the enemy one 
captain and many other Spaniards, there being moreover 
some wounded, and of our men there were only two killed 
and six or seven wounded. 

On the 15th, the wind serving us, we weighed anchor 

112 speilbergen's journal. [Nov., 1615 

and sailed to the port named Natividaet,^ which was 
situated only 3 miles off, and we relied upon getting 
supplies of fresh water and fruits there without any 

As the wind dropped very much we did not enter the 
aforesaid port until the next day, when we anchored 
towards the evening in 20 fathoms, and our yacht went to 
lie a stone's throw off the mouth of a freshwater river, so 
that we could get in our supply of water sufficiently under 
her protection. 

On the 17th, the Admiral went ashore with many soldiers 
and sailors, in order to take the superintendence and 
secure himself the more against an attack from the enemy 
and as he found the place free on all sides he sent the 
boats back to fetch all the empty casks, which were at 
once filled with water. 

On the same day, the Admiral sent the youngest of our 
monks ashore to some of the Indians' huts, in order to 
procure some victuals from them by friendly means. 

The aforesaid monk stayed with the Indians until the 
next day, being the i8th, when he returned in the after- 
noon with two persons laden with fowls and various kinds 
of fruit and promising to bring us as much again the next 
day, which he faithfully performed. 

He also informed us that at that moment there was not 
a Spaniard thereabouts, but that the band which had 
previously attacked us had passed through that place in 
search of us. 

During the going to and fro of our monk we obtained 
all the desired supplies of water, wood, and other neces- 
saries, so that we began to make preparations for our 

During the night of the 20th we set sail and left the 

^ Navidad, 

Nov. 1615.] speilbergen's journal. 113 

harbour for the open sea, pursuing our course until the 
24th with a fairly favourable wind. 

On that day, being not far from Cape Corentien,^ we were 
in the latitude of 20°. 

On the 25th, the Broad Council met, and it was finally 
decided to shape our course for the Bay of St. Lucas.^ 

On the 26th, we were in latitude 20° 26'. 

And whereas they of the Council were of opinion that it 
would delay us too much to await the coming of any ships 
or advices from the Manilles, it was resolved to sail direct 
for the Ladrone Islands, praying to God to grant us His 
aid herein. 

On December 2nd, we set our course to the west-sou'- 
west, making good progress. 

On the 3rd, we saw two islands,^ which caused the pilots 
surprise, they finding it strange that there were islands 
situated out in the open sea so far from the land. 

On the 4th, at break of day, we saw afar off a rock,* 
which we at first thought to be a ship, to the joy of us all, 
being of opinion that we were then encountering what we 
had so long expected, to wit, a vessel from the Manilles, 
but on coming closer to it we found that we were 
deceived. This rock was situated in the latitude of 19°, 
and more than 55 miles out from the mainland, having no 
other land at all near it. 

At noon on the 6th, we were in latitude 18° 2d. On the 
same day we saw another island having five small hills, 
each of which looked like a small separate island. 

From the 6th until the ist day of January, 1616, we 
proceeded, with a favourable wind, constantly in a west-by- 

^ Cape Corrientes. 
Cape St. Lucas, the southern extremity of Lower California, but 
as will appear later, that course was no t kept. 
^ San Benedicito and Socorro. * Rocca Partida. 


114 speilbergen's journal. [Jan., 1616 

westerly direction. Meanwhile, complaint was made to the 
Admiral that the officers on board the foreign vessel had 
been indulging in wine to excess, and had given the 
ordinary seamen only water in place thereof; the Council 
having inquired more narrowly into this, it was found to be 
true, for they had lavishly used two-thirds of their stock, 
drinking as much in thirty-six days as ought to have 
served them, according to the regulations, for four months. 

Notwithstanding the good fortune and progress that had 
marked our voyage, sickness, nevertheless, increased very 
much in our fleet, so that many began to die, and amongst 
others the Admiral's chief gunner, named Jan Otten, of 
Essen, Thomas Jansz., provost, Joris Jansz., of Meden- 
blick, mate, and many others, of whom we shall make no 
mention here. 

Towards evening on the 23rd, we came in sight of the 
land of Ladrones, for which we all thanked God Almighty. 
This land was very low and flat, wherefore, since night was 
approaching, and we feared we might be nearer the land 
than we indeed thought, we lowered all the sails, drifting 
all night without making any progress. 

On the morning of the 24th, we found ourselves close to 
the land, and being perceived by the Indians on shore, 
they came rowing all around our fleet in their little skifls, 
without coming quite close to us. The Broad Council 
therefore having met, it was resolved to make for the shore 
with the whole fleet, which was immediately done, and as 
soon as we were on land we traded and bartered with the 
Indians in all friendship. 

At midday on the 25th, our supercargo of the Morghen- 
sterre, Sybrant Cornelissen, whilst seated at table in good 
health, was suddenly seized with a fainting fit from which 
he presently died, to the great astonishment of all who 
were present. 

Our Admiral having been informed of this, he had the 

PLATE No. 16. 

Number i6 are the Islas de Las Velas, or Ladrones, 
With its explanation, of ships, people, and their lettering. 

A. Is our Admiral, the Son. 

B. Is our Vice-Admiral, the Maen. 

C. Is the Morghen-ster. 

D. Is the ^olus, of Rotterdam. 

E. Is the Jagher ; the savages in their canoes, or skiffs, came 

swarming round these vessels in such quantities as if they were 

Y. Is the captured vessel, navigated by our men. 
G. Are the canoes, which they row ; and the things which are 

attached to the sides are for keeping them balanced. 
H. Are their ships, or canoes, in which they sail. 
I. Is the way in which the savages, or Ladrones, go about. 

Jan., 1616] speilbergen's journal. 115 

Broad Council summoned, when orders were given to 
weigh anchor in the evening and to keep away from the 
shore until the next day, which was done. Meanwhile, the 
Indians kept continually coming and going, bringing us 
all kinds of fruits and herbs, by which our sick were much 
refreshed and restored. 

On the 26th, we traded all day with the Indians, whereby 
we obtained a good supply of many fine fruits and other 

On the same day we buried the supercargo, firing many 
rounds of big guns and muskets, which frightened the 
Indians so, notwithstanding that they had been previously 
warned for what reason it would be done, that they dis- 
dispersed themselves with their skiffs, one here, the other 
there, and durst not come back. Therefore we hoisted our 
sails the same day, and shaped our course straight for the 

But as it was very calm all night we did not make much 
progress, so that we were not very far from the shore the 
next day, which being seen by the Indians, they came 
again in large numbers in their skiffs, following us very far 
out to sea, and bringing with them all kinds of fruit and 
other necessaries, until the wind began to rise, and it 
became impossible for them to follow us further. 

On that day there died and was cast into the sea Dirck 
Voet, ensign on the yacht, born at Harderwijck. 

The whole of the following night we proceeded under full 
sail, so that by the next day we had lost sight of the land. 

These islands, the Ladrones, were first discovered in the 
year 15 19 by Ferdinandes Magellanes, who called them 
the Velos on account of the large numbers of sailing-boats 
that are to be seen there, very cunningly made. 

These Indians have not their equal in the whole land in 
the art of swimming, for they get into the sea and dive 
down to the bottom, which we have seen on many 

I 2 

ii6 speilbergen's journal. [Jan., 1616 

occasions, throwing some pieces of iron into the sea which 
they fetched from the bottom and brought up. 

They are also much addicted to thieving, which was 
probably experienced by the aforesaid Magellanes, and 
therefore the name of Ladrones was given them. 

Both men and women are very robust, also most intelli- 
gent and clever in all matters ; they go about quite naked, 
except that some wear hats made of straw, and that the 
women cover their privy parts with some leaves. 

These islands are also very abundant in fowls and other 
poultry, and especially full of fisheries. 

With regard to their laws and religion we could learn 
nothing, but we could only observe that they served idols 
and worshipped images. 

On the 31st, half an hour before daybreak, Job Wil' 
lemsen, Provost-General of the troops, lying ill in bed, got 
up secretly and went below to one of the ports, acting as if 
he wished to do his needs ; but before anyone had know- 
ledge thereof he lay in the sea and was drowned, leaving us 
in ignorance whether it had occurred intentionally or by 


For some consecutive days we sailed with fair progress 
until daybreak on the 9th of February, when Cape de 
Spirito Santo came in sight, and sailing past the same we 
made that day such progress still that we anchored in the 
evening in the mouth \sic\ of the Cape des Manilles,^ in 
13 fathoms and 15 minutes, the island ofCapul being there 
according to our computation. 

On the loth, we went ashore, making signs of peace, and 
on holding converse with the Indians, they told us that the 
island of Capul was situated still further out, showing us 

1 Their anchorage was in what is now known as the Embocadero^ 
or S. Bernardino Passage. 

Number 17. Manilles Strait, 
As it was navigated by Joris Spilberghen. 

PLATE No. 17 

F'eb., 1616] SPt:iLBERGEN*S JOURNAL. 117 

this by signs. We desired from them some victuals, in 
order to refresh ourselves, but these were refused us, they 
saying that they well knew we came for no other purpose 
than that of fighting the Spaniards, their allies. And in 
spite of many friendly entreaties we made they would on 
no account accede to them, and so the Admiral and the 
Council not deeming it expedient to use violent measures, 
all the boats were called back to the ships. 

Before daybreak on the nth we weighed anchor, sailing 
to the island of Capul, near which we arrived at midday, 
and cast anchor in a very safe harbour, near some houses 
standing at the water's edge. 

We were no sooner on land than the Indians bartered 
and traded with us, although they well knew that it was 
our intention to wage full war upon the Spaniard to his 

They brought us at first fowls, pigs, and the like, 
promising to do the same next day, which, too, they did, 
but all in exchange for some small trifles. 

We remained in the same place until the 19th, and then 
we weighed anchor, shaping our course north-west by 
north, and sailing straight into Magellanes^ Strait, doing 
so well with the help of two Indians, who served us as 
pilots, that in a short time^ we made the harbour and cape 
of Manilles. 

During the time that we were proceeding through these 
narrows we went ashore every day to gather nuts and 
other fruits, which were very good and wholesome for our 
sick ; therefore we also laid in big supplies of the same. 

The inhabitants hereabouts were folk of fair intelligence, 
clad in long frocks made after the manner of a shirt. 
They showed great respect for ecclesiastics, which we 

^ Should, of course, be Manila. 
^ i.e.y the 28th February ; see infra. 

n8 speilbergen's journal. [Feb., 1616 

noticed in regard to one of our monks, for as soon as they 
saw him they came and kissed his hands, behaving in a 
very meek and humble manner towards him. Their 
women did not make their appearance before us, but hid 
themselves in the woods and other places. 

On the evening of the 19th we came to anchor close to 
the large island named Lucon,^ upon which the town of 
Manilles is situated. 

Here we saw a house very cleverly built on the tops of 
some trees, which from afar appeared to be the house of 
some noble or chief 

The same evening the Broad Council assembled, in 
order to consider what was best to be done in the present 

At daybreak on the 25th, the Council having again 
been assembled, four boats well manned were sent off 
to procure fuller details concerning the aforesaid house, 
and these, returning, explained that it was an old dilapi- 
dated building and that they had found no living creature 
near it. 

It was our intention to capture some Spaniard in order 
to obtain information from him concerning what we had 
heard at Capul, to wit, that a Spanish armada, any 
certain news of which we had until now been unable to 
obtain, had already for a long time been awaiting our 
arrival in the Manilles. 

The same day we proceeded under sail along the coast 
(passing a mountain of incredible height, named Albaca,'^ 
that was constantly burning and was full of sulphur and 
such-like things) until the evening, when we anchored 
in 25 fathoms, close to a tongue of land upon which the 

1 Luzon. 

'^ Albay, one of the most active volcanoes in the archipelago. The 
first partial ascent was made by Esteban Solis in 1592, and the first 
complete ascent by Paton and Stewart in 1858. 

Feb., 1616] speilbergEn's JOUkNAL. tl9 

inhabitants had kindled a fire to inform their neighbours 
of our arrival. 

On the 2 1st we again set sail, proceeding constantly 
along the Strait. 

We continued doing the same, moving by night and day 
with fair progress, until the evening of the 24th, and then 
we saw the mouth or exit of the Strait, looking very 
narrow, and at the approach of night we cast anchor 

On the 25th three boats were sent on in front in order 
to find the channel through the mouth, and they very soon 
made signs, whereupon we followed with the whole fleet, 
and with the help of the current we got through and so 
into the open sea again, without lowering our sails in the 
least the whole of the ensuing night. 

On the 26th we did our best all day to reach the 
harbour of Manilles, but as it was quiet and the wind 
against us, we could not attain our object. 

We saw fires and other lights at various places on land, 
from which we opined that our arrival had been every- 
where revealed, and we felt the more certain of this, since, 
during our passage through the Strait, and even after it, a 
small skiff had constantly followed us, sailing to and fro 
with such rapidity that it was impossible for us to over- 
take it, which skiff had been watching us, and spreading 
the news on all sides. 

From the 27th to the 28th we were constantly at work 
tacking to and fro to reach the harbour of Manilles, but we 
made very little progress, and finally cast anchor in 
40 fathoms, about a mile from the harbour, close to a 
tongue of land which extended as far as the port. 

We did not remain lying here longer than midnight, for 
then the Admiral fired a shot as a signal to set sail again, 
which was done, and we tacked the whole night without 
getting any further, and similarly the next day ; but all 


the same we did not get in, and in the evening we anchored 
outside the entrance to the harbour, off the island named 
Maribela,^ which has two very high rocks, and behind 
which the town of Manilles lies. 

A watch is generally kept at night on this island of 
Maribela, and the pilots lie there, awaiting the ships from 
Cyna,^ in order to bring these up to the town of Manilles, 
since the entrance is very dangerous in some places, 
whereof we were warned by our Spanish pilot. 


Early in the morning on the ist day of March we saw 
two sail running from one shore to the other and sent 
three well-manned boats after them, with orders to do their 
best to obtain some prisoners out of whom we might get 
some information, but the said boats having performed 
their labour in vain by reason of the rapid progress of the 
aforesaid ships, returned to the fleet towards the evening. 

On the 2nd, after the Admiral had called together all 
the pilots, skippers, and other officers, it was resolved that 
as soon as we might get some advantage from tacking we 
should weigh anchor and do our best to get into the 

On the morning of the 3rd we weighed anchor and 
after having tacked the whole day we had advanced but 
little by the evening, so that we again anchored close to a 
small island extending along the main land. 

Behind the said island we saw four sampans, to which 
four boats were immediately despatched, and these showed 

^ Undoubtedly the island of Corregidor, as a comparison between 
the chart herewith and a modern map will show. Mariveles is the 
name of a village situated near the extremity of the promontory on the 
north ; for the romantic legend attached to its appellation see The 
Philippine Islands^ by John Foreman, F.R.G.S. 1889, pp. 495,496. 

2 China. 

PLATE No. 18. 

Number i8 is the Bay of Manilles, 

With the immediate surroundings very correctly explained and 


A. Is the Bay of Manilles. 

B. Is the harbour in which many of their vessels lay. 

C. Is the town of Manilles, very populous. 

D. Is a fort named the Cabitta.^ 

E. Is the island of Maribella.^ 

F. Is our fleet, consisting of six vessels. 

G. Are our boats, with which we were very diligent to obtain some 

H. Are some of their vessels, which they call junks. 
I. Are two of our vessels bringing two of their sampans to our fleet. 
K. Is one of our boats making one of the Indian sampans haul down 

its sail, and bringing it to the fleet. 

^ Cavite, ^ I. Corregidor. See note i to p. 120, 

March, 1616] SPEILb£RGEN's JOURNAL. t2i 

such diligence that they came rowing back to our fleet 
with the former, and this, too, without any resistance, since 
those who had been in the aforesaid sampans, seeing our 
men coming, had taken to flight, carrying with them all 
the cargo of three ; but the fourth, being the largest, was 
laden with rice, oil, fowls, fruit, and other food, which was 
very serviceable for the sick in the fleet, since want was 
daily on the increase. 

The following day, being the 4th, all the merchants 
came aboard the Admiral's ship, and apportioned the 
captured goods in equal shares. 

And as we considered it, above all, necessary to get hold 
of some living person in order to obtain from the same 
positive information both of the country and other matters, 
four boats with a good number of armed men were again 
sent ashore, and these found on the beach a sampan laden 
only with chalk, without any crew ; but afar off" they saw 
a large number of people who would hold no parley 
with them, and so they came aboard again towards the 

While the sun was setting, we saw close to the land a 
sampan in full sail, after which two well-equipped boats 
were sent out in all haste, and these overtook and 
captured the former in the night ; but as the wind was 
very boisterous, and the sampan only laden with timber, 
of use for carpentry, they left it lying at anchor, bringing 
with them six Chinese whom they had taken prisoners ; 
wherefore the Broad Council was summoned, in order to 
examine these men as to what they might have know- 
ledge of. 

In the first place they revealed to us that there were 
more sampans in these parts laden with all sorts of food 
and with merchandise, wherefore two boats were again 
sent out, with orders to make every endeavour to find the 
said sampans. 

\22 St>feTLiERG£N S JOURNAL. [March, l6l6 

At midday on the I5th,^ we saw two sail coming in from 
sea straight towards us, whereupon our Jager and the 
other small vessel (which we named the Perel) were sent 
to capture the same. 

During the night our two boats attacked and captured 
two sampans which were manned by some Chinese and 
a Spaniard, whose duty it was to collect the tribute which 
the surrounding places annually pay the town of Manilles. 

These two sampans were laden with rice, fowls, other 
victuals, and some merchandise. 

On the 6th the yacht and the Peerle came back, bringing 
with them three sampans, two of these being laden with 
deer-skins, tobacco, fowls, and other merchandise of less 
importance, which were shared out amongst all. 

From those who were in these sampans we heard all the 
particulars concerning the Spanish armada fitted out in 
the Manilles ; that it had sailed under the command of 
Don Jan de Sylves*^ to the Molucques, in order to wage 
war against our countrymen, and that, too, with ten 
galleons of wonderful size, two yachts, four galleys, and 
two thousand Spaniards, in addition to the Indians, 
Chinese, and Japanese, also in great numbers. God grant 
that their intention may not be realised, and that they be 

On the 7th, our Admiral sent three Chinese in a sampan 
to the town of Manilles, with letters to the principal 
councillors there, offering to exchange some prisoners, 
Spaniards, Chinese, and Japanese, for any prisoners from 
our country whom they might have there. 

On the 8th, our yacht proceeded to the shore with some 
boats, in order to fetch four sampans which had been 
previously captured by our men, but which had been left 
at anchor there on account of the boisterous weather. 

The next day, being the 9th, the yacht came back with 

Really March 5th. ^ juan de Silva. 

March, 1616] SPEILBERGEN^S JOURNAL. 12^ 

the boats, bringing also the four aforesaid sampans, laden 
with nuts and other fruits, and, moreover, two oxen and a 
deer, which they had shot with a gun. 

On the same day the Great Council assembled, and it 
was resolved that, in the event of the Chinese not return- 
ing, we should set sail next day, and go and help our 
countrymen in the Molucques. 

The Admiral having learnt that Don Jan de Sylves, 
equipped in the manner related above, had not started 
upon his voyage to the Molucques until the 4th of 
February, decided, after mature deliberation by the whole 
Council, not to lose any time, seeing that the monsoon did 
not change here till the month of -April, which would 
otherwise have delayed us another six months. 

It is true that about the middle of April the junks from 
China make their way here, and that we might have got 
much booty and profit out of them, but it was considered 
more advisable for the common weal not to tarry longer, 
but immediately to shape our course for Ternata, to aid 
and succour our countrymen there in accordance with the 
tenour of our commission. 

We were the more animated to do this by the considera- 
tion that our fleet still consisted of six vessels, manned by 
good sound soldiers, and that we had still our full com- 
plement of ammunition. And the intention of Don Jan 
des Silves was, as we had been informed, to make himself 
master of all the Molucques on this occasion with so 
powerful a fleet that he had spent more than three years 
in its equipment ; in this we hoped (with the help of the 
Almighty) to frustrate him, and bring our friends every 
help and assistance. 

On the loth, having received no tidings of the Chinese, 
we weighed anchor and set sail, shaping our course direct 
for the Molucques. 

On the same day all our Chinese and Japanese prisoners 
were by order of the Admiral, released, and sent ashore 

124 Si^EILBERGEN's JOURNAL. [March, l6l6 

with their sampans, and we kept only the aforesaid 
Spaniard and an Indian, whom we took with us to the 

On that day we made little progress, by reason of 
intense calm, and towards the evening we anchored close 
to the land. 

Very early on the nth we set sail again, making very 
little progress in the forenoon, but in the afternoon the 
wind sent us along with such a topsail breeze that we 
came to the many islands by the evening, and there we 
found ourselves in the midst of such numerous islands that 
we could perceive no thoroughfare either on one side or 
the other. 

We therefore summoned the Spanish pilot, who, knowing 
the place, advised us not to proceed any further on account 
of the approach of night ; and so we lay tacking first on 
one side and then on the other. 

At noon on the I2th we sailed with a favourable wind 
and with the aid of the aforesaid pilot through all the 
narrows right into the open sea. 

Before we were yet properly out at sea, we saw in the 
direction of the shore a small barque, to which three boats 
with armed men were sent ; but the crew of the barque, 
perceiving the approach of our men, made for the shore, 
abandoning everything and taking to flight. 

Our men brought the barque into our fleet, where it was 
unladen of rice, some fruits, and a few chests. 

On the 13th we sailed the whole day and night to the 
sou'-sou'-east, and sometimes to south-east by south, with 
a fairly good wind. 

On the 14th we lay still just ofl" the island of Paney, 
because our Spanish pilot warned us that hereabouts were 
many sand-banks, which we should be unable to pass at 
night without danger. 

On the iSth we proceeded all day along the shore, 

March, 1616] speilbergen's journal. 125 

making good progress until the evening, when we again 
hauled down some sail, in order to avoid all peril during 
the night. 

On the 1 6th we again set all sail, going along with good 
progress, and our course being south-east. 

And so we continued until very early on the morning of 
the 1 8th, when we found ourselves off the island of Men- 
danao, and then we sailed along the shore until the 
evening, since some declared that hereabouts were some 
hidden rocks, and therefore we again put out seawards. 

The following day, the 19th, we again sailed towards 
the land, but by reason of the calm we made little progress. 
In the evening we cast anchor in 36 fathoms, close to an 
arm of the land, where a skiff from the shore immediately 
came to one of our ships, promising us that they would 
bring on board next day all kinds of victuals without its 
being necessary for any of our people to proceed ashore. 

On the 20th the people from the shore, in accordance 
with their promise, brought us in their canoes much victuals, 
and amongst others fowls and fresh fish, which they sold 
us, very cheaply ; and had it not been for the wind, which 
was blowing greatly in our favour, they would still have 
brought us a great number of pigs, but it was found 
expedient and most advisable to set sail again and con- 
tinue our voyage, which we did with such progress that 
we made in a short time the Cape de Cadera,^ where 
Spanish ships going to the Molucques take in their supply 
of water. 

As soon as we had arrived there, some boats were sent 
out to obtain news of Don Jan des Sylves, but the inhabi- 
tants did as if they knew nothing about him, saying only 
that two days before a Spanish ship and a yacht had been 
there, sailing for the Molucques, and that they had taken in 
supplies there. 

^ Cape la Caldera, the most westerly point of the I. of Mindanao, 

126 speilbergen's journal. [March, 1616 

From the 20th until the 23rd it was very still and calm, 
so that we made almost no progress, except only with the 
current, which having slackened, we again cast anchor from 
time to time. Between the two islands of Mindenao and 
Tagimo^ we encountered strong and opposing currents, 
which delayed our progress the more. 

On the 23rd we got a topsail breeze, so that in a short 
time we came through the narrows of these islands. 

During our delay here the canoes from the shore brought 
us quantities of fowls, pigs, goats, fresh fish,^ tobacco, all 
kinds of fresh fish^ and other provisions, for which our 
merchants gave some money, linen, knives, beads, and the 
like, wherewith the savages were very well satisfied. 

The Admiral, too, permitted each one privately to barter 
for something, such as tobacco, fruit, and the like, for it 
was a place surpassing all others in abundance and fertility, 
and the inhabitants of which, too, evinced great friendship 
for us and enmity to the Spaniards. Of this we had 
greater certainty by the fact of their chief offering our 
Admiral to accompany us with fifty small vessels, equipped 
after their fashion, in order to assist us against the 

They also showed us an open letter signed by Laurens 
Reael,^ in which he informed us that these inhabitants of 
Mindenao were great friends of ours, and requesting us 

^ Taguima, the ancient name for Basilan I. ^ 5/^^ again. 

^ Laurens Reael, born at Amsterdam 22nd October, 1583, pro- 
ceeded to the East Indies in 161 1 in command of four vessels and 
established himself at Ternata as Governor of the Molucca Islands, 
defending himself stoutly against the Spaniards under Don Juan de 
Silva. On the death of Reynst, the Governor-General of the Dutch 
East Indies, in December, 1615, Reael was unanimously appointed in 
his stead. He resigned his charge in 161 8 and was succeeded by Jan 
Pieterszoon Coen. He returned to Holland in 1619, was subsequently 
appointed Vice- Admiral of a fleet to act in conjunction with the English 
against Spain (but which effected very little) and also a Director of the 
Dutch East India Company. In 1626 he was sent to England as 
Envoy Extraordinary at the coronation of Charles I, who created 

March, 1616] SPEILBERGEN'S JOURNAL. 127 

that we, on our part, should show them every courtesy 
and kindness in return. 

And so we continued on our way until the 26th, sailing 
always to the south-east, and sometimes to the south, with 
good progress. 

On that day, in the afternoon, a rough, boisterous wind 
arose, and that, too, with continual rain, tearing the 
Admiral's sail to pieces, and also doing damage to the 
other ships and sails. 

On the 27th, having the wind in our favour, we passed 
the island of Sangnijn,^ keeping our course towards the 
south-east. Near this island we obtained a view of many 
others, both large and small, specifically to name all of 
which we have deemed it unnecessary, on account of their 

On the 29th, we reached the island of Ternata, upon 
which is situate the town of Maley, being part of our 

As soon as the inhabitants of the town became aware of 
our arrival, there came aboard the Admiral's ship Captain 
Hamel and Franchoys Lenimens, the Governor's secretary, 
bidding us all welcome ; and so we came into the harbour, 
casting anchor just in front of the town. In the afternoon, 
the Governor himself^ came on board, and after compli- 
ments and toasts had passed between him, our Admiral 
and other officers, they all went on shore together, in 
accordance with the orders of the Directors. 

It must be noted that upon arriving at Ternata on the 

him a knight, his arms henceforth being enriched with the English 
rose. He died of the plague, at Amsterdam, in 1637. 

Reael was not only a great patron of the arts and sciences, but his 
versatility was such that he became renowned both as an astronomer 
and a poet, collaborating in the former capacity with Grotius, Vossius 
and Galileo, and in the latter, both in Latin and Dutch, with Hooft, 
Roemer Visscher and Vondel. For a fuller account of his life and 
works, see Van der Aa, Biographisch Woordenboek der Nederlanden. 

^ Sangir L ^ Laurens Reael, vide supta^ 

128 speilbergen's journal. [March, 1616 

29th we had lost a day, since in sailing to the town we had 
shaped our course from east to west, whilst those who sail 
from west to east gain a day, as many others have ex- 
perienced before.^ 


On the 3rd of April, a vessel arrived at Maleya from 
China, laden with all kinds of merchandize, which were 
presently brought ashore. 

On the 5th, the yacht named the Arent came and 
anchored near us in the harbour, having been out to obtain 
a stock of pigs, fowls, foods, fruits, and other necessaries, 
both for the ships as well as for the town and the surround- 
ing forts. 

On the 8th, Cornelis van Vyanen left us in order to 
proceed with our yacht to Banda ; he was convoyed by 
our ^olus, which returned to the fleet on the i6th. 

During our anchorage the Governor came on board a 
second time, showing his commission and its tenour, by 
which he had been given the absolute government of all 
the Molucques, Banda, and Amboina, though without 
restriction or prejudice to our Admiral's command of his 
fleet. After this had been done, all our troops proceeded 
ashore in good health and contentment, wherefore God 
must be praised for so safely conducting and succouring us 
upon so long and dangerous a voyage. 

On the first day of May, the Admiral invited to dinner 
on board his ship all the captains of the soldiers, the lieu- 
tenants, ensigns and other officers, as well as the merchants, 
skippers and pilots, giving them all the best cheer possible 

1 The descriptive note signed Jan Cornelisz. Moy accompanying 
the inset map of Booton I. on Plate No. 19 {vide facsimiles of both 
opposite) stood here in the original. See the Introduction, pp. xvi- 
xxi, xxiii and xxviii. 

PLATE No. 1!). 

Number 19 is the Map of the Molucques, 

Very correctly drawn, with all its islands and forts, and with a 
sketch of Botton's^ Strait.^ 

I have drawn this little map of Botton as I know it from close 
observation and from having several times navigated it, both through 
the strait and round about it ; and I have found Botton Island and all 
these other places to be in form as shown. With regard to the Strait 
there is bottom everywhere, as is shown in cyphers, but where these 
00000 are put there is no bottom for a hundred fathoms. Outside 
the Strait, round Botton Island, there is no bottom for a hundred 
fathoms, except perhaps very close to the shore. In some small bays 
on the east side there is a good watering-place, where I have got 
water twice ; there was no bottom for anchoring, and I kept on going 
to and fro under sail until the water was got aboard, which was done 
with ease ; but in this aforesaid little map I have drawn nothing but 
what I have seen and have carefully sounded, for which reason 
some countries are not fully drawn. Also close hereby, about two 
miles westward, lies a shoal of rocks at a depth of four to six fathoms, 
as I have heard from Jan Krynen and others who have been there 
and seen the bottom very clearly. 

Thus done by Jan Cornelisz. Moy.^ 

1 Booton. 

2 Between the islands of Booton and Pangassani, S.E. of Celebes. 

^ For a full discussion of this document (reproduced herewith in 
the original) see pp. xvi-xxi, xxiii and xxviii of the Introduction. 


as a token of gratitude, and thanking them for the faithful 
services they had rendered as far as the Molucques. 

Before daybreak, on the 2nd, we set out with six vessels 
from Maleya for Macian, in order to prevent the enemy 
from supplying foreign vessels there with cloves. 

The wind was so favourable that we reached Macian in 
a short time, and cast anchor there immediately in front of 
Fort Mauritius. 

The Admiral, going ashore, inspected all the circum- 
jacent places and forts, travelling, for instance, from 
Maurice to Taffasor, from there to Tabelale, and as far as 
Nahaca, and so came back to Mauritius. 

Here should also be noted what we had heard on the 
1 2th of May at Tidor, from Mr. Casselton,^ General of the 
four English ships, namely^ that the Commander Jan 
Dircksen Lam'-^ had arrived at the islands of Banda with 
twelve warships, many soldiers and sailors, and that on 
the loth of April he had taken the island of Poleway^ by 
force, that being the richest and most fertile of them all 
and producing the most nutmegs and mace. 

The order of battle of that exploit had been as follows : 

The vanguard was under Lieutenant-Colonel Gysbert 
van Vyanen, a native of Utrecht, accompanied by Captain 
Henrick-Steur van Somerdick, Captain Henrick Gosdey, 
Captain William Jacobsz., of Ter-vere, and consisted in all 
of two-and-forty men, besides some Japanese. 

The battle was fought by Captain Lambrecht Adamsz., 

^ " Captaine Castleton went to the Moluccas with foure ships, the 
Cloave, Defence^ Thomas and Concord^ the better able to defend 
themselves against the Hollanders : but being threatened by eleven 
saile of theirs, they returned without doing any great matter, onely 
a few Cloaves laded in the Cloave; the Captaine himselfe dying there 
of the fluxe, to whom the fault is imputed with other things laid to 
him." Purchas His Pilgritnes. 1625, Part I, p. 533. 

^ Jan Dirkszoon Lam ; he rose to the rank of Admiral. 

^ Pulo Way — the Water Island — is about 400 or 500 feet high, 
consists of coral rock, and is esteemed the healthiest of the group. 


I30 speilbergen's journal. [May, 1616 

called Lanckhaer, a native of Aix-la-Chapelle, seconded by 
Pieter Backer, of Antwerp, Jan Verhoeven, of Thiel, and 
Isbrant Cornelissen, of Amsterdam, captains, and two 
hundred and fifty soldiers. 

The rear-guard was under Captain Henrick Beverlin, of 
Tergouw, accompanied by Captains Abraham Hailing, of 
's Gravenhaghe, and Henrick van Herentals, with two 
hundred and thirty soldiers, besides a great number of 
sailors and marines. 

In addition to these, two captains from Zeeland had the 
command and leadership of all the other marines who were 
charged with the service of the guns and with the care of 
all appertaining thereto. 

The sergeant-major of these troops was Captain Adriaen 
van der Dussen. And all these did their duty so well that 
in a short time they obtained the mastery of the aforesaid 
island, whereby the inabitants of the aforesaid circumjacent 
islands were compelled to make a fresh alliance with our 
countrymen, to the great profit and advantage of the East 
India Company. God grant that they may long continue 
therein ! 

On the 1 6th, the Governor left Tidor and Maleya. 

On the 1 8th, the Admiral redeemed, both from the 
Spanish galleys and from the prisons, seven Dutch cap- 
tives, who had been kept there already more than four 
years ; and that in exchange for a monk, a Spanish pilot, 
two Spaniards whom we had captured in the South Sea, 
and yet another Spaniard whom we had brought with us 
from the Manilles. 

These prisoners were loud in expressing their joy at 
their unexpected release, for they had entertained no other 
hopes than of ending their days miserably in such tyran- 
nical slavery and imprisonment. Wherefore they before 
all else most fervently thanked God Almighty, and there- 
after our Adniiral, 

May, 1616] speilbergen's journal. 131 

As night approached another prisoner, also from the 
Netherlands, named Pieter de Vyvere, came aboard ot us 
with his wife, he having for a long time sat in the Spanish 
galleys, but because he had married a Spanish woman and 
was, moreover, a goldsmith and a good artificer, so much 
liberty was granted him that he at last found means to 
give himself and his wife up into our hands. 

On the 25th, when we had again gone to Maleya with 
our ships, our Admiral received a communication there 
from the Governor of Maleya informing him that a 
Spanish ship had arrived from the Manilles, and was lying 
at anchor off Gammelamme, for which reason our Vice- 
Admiral soon after sailed to Maleya. 

On the 27th, the Morghen-sterre returned to our fleet. 

In the afternoon of the same day a boat came from 
Maleya, bringing a letter from the Governor to our 
Admiral, which having been read, we immediately set sail 
and shaped our course right past Tidor, where those in the 
fort fired seven or eight cannon shots at us, without, how- 
ever, damaging any of our vessels. 

On the 28th we arrived with four of our ships in the 
harbour of Fort Maria, where we cast anchor. Imme- 
diately afterwards our Admiral had himself rowed to the 
town of Maleya, and returned to his ship in the after- 
noon, accompanied by the Governor and some other 
officers, all of whom proceeded inside the aforesaid Fort 

On the 29th our Admiral, being unwell, came back on 

On the 30th, the Governor was informed by letters 
arriving from Macjan that our people had seen some 
vessels out at sea without knowing what or whence they 
were, wherefore we were ordered to set sail, which we did 
with much diligence, so that in a short time we had got 
far out at sea, cruising there to and fro. 


132 speilbergen's journal. [June, 1616 


On the 1st day of June we came in from sea again, by 
express orders, and cast anchor in the harbour of Maleya. 

On the same day, twelve more of our vessels arrived 
from Amboina and joined our fleet, so that we were 
seventeen in number. 

Some were of opinion that something should be 
attempted in the way of an attack or otherwise, either 
upon Tidor or the circumjacent places of the Spaniards, 
but nothing of the kind was effected. 

On June 19th, Laurens Reael was appointed Governor 
and Commander-General by the consent and agreement of 
the whole Council of India, and was installed and con- 
firmed in his office with every respect and ceremony. 


On the 1 8th of the month of July, our Admiral received 
an order and commission from the whole Council and the 
Governor-General to proceed to Bantam with the two 
vessels belonging to Amsterdam and Zeeland,^ over which 
he was given command and jurisdiction, to act in all 
things as he might deem upon good counsel to be 

On the I5th2 we reached Botton Island^ with the two said 

^ Vide^. 153. 2 Of August. 

^ Booton I., lying off the south-eastern peninsula of Celebes. 




Among the blessings and advantages which the king- 
dom of Portugal enjoyed over all other kingdoms, poten- 
tates, and republics, one of the most excellent and 
important was the carrying on of so famous and profitable 
a trade as the Portuguese secured by the possession of the 
Molucques, both in cloves and other spices, which nearly 
the whole world had to receive out of their hands, to the 
sorrow both of the Venetians, from whom they had diverted 
that rich trade, as well as of other kingdoms and republics, 
who envied it them (not without reason), and sought to 
supplant them therein. 

At first the Spaniards and Portuguese waged fierce 
warfare upon each other for the possession of the 
Molucques ; the English, under Francois Draeck,^ made 
some contracts with the King of Ternate to establish 
a trade here, which they afterwards sought to keep up 
on two separate occasions under the direction of the 
Middeltons ;^ finally, our extensive Dutch navigation suc- 
ceeded in getting the Portuguese ousted from the places 
which they occupied in the Molucques and the Castilians 
reinstated with the help of the people of Tidor, the 
Ternatan king being taken prisoner with a number of the 
principal Indians. The remaining Ternatans, amongst 

1 Apollonius Schotte or Scotte. For further facts relating to this 
Discourse and its author, see the Introduction, pp. Iviii-lx. 

2 See T/ie Second Cir cum- Navigation of the Earth : or the Renowned 
Voyage of Sir Francis Drake . . . begun in . . . 1577. — Purchas His 
Pilgrimes^ 1625, Ft. I, pp. 54 et seq. 

3 For the voyage of David Middleton in 1606, see Purchas His 
Pilgrimes, 1625, Ft. I, pp. 226 et seq.^ and for that of General Sir 
Henry Middleton in 1610, see loc. cit.^ pp. 247 et seq. 

134 speilrergen's journal. 

whom were some chiefs and their subordinates, having 
fled before the Spaniards to the mainland and other places, 
rejoined their countrymen, through the aid of Admiral 
Matelieff,^ in as large numbers as possible, upon the island 
of Ternate ; and building a fortress there named Oranien, 
they entered into an alliance with our nation, as may be 
seen by a certain contract made, and from time to time 
so much was done that we have now come into possession 
of no small part of these clove-producing islands, such as 
the greater portion of Ternaten, the whole of Mottir,^ 
Macjan, and Bacjan, the Spaniards remaining possessed of 
the whole of Tidor, the big town in Ternate, and a number 
of places on the mainland of Gilolo, concerning the pre- 
sent condition and circumstances of which, both as regards 
ourselves and the enemy, I have undertaken to discourse a 

In Ternata we possess three forts : Maleya, also called 
Oranien, being that which Admiral Matelieff first con- 
structed, where the king of that country and all the nobles 
reside, and situated at the east end of Ternate ; Fort 
Molucco, also called Hollandia, lying about half a mile 
north of Maleya upon an eminence, and built entirely of 
stone and cement ; it was placed there by us for fear that 
the Spaniards might come and obtain a foothold there, 
and so render the whole roadstead of Maleya unsafe for us, 
and also in order to bring back to their old homes the 
populace of those places, who mostly dwelt in Maleya, and 
to secure other advantages which the said fort affords ; 

^ Cornelis Matelief, a famous Dutch seaman, eminently instrumental 
in extending and consolidating the Dutch empire in the East. No 
particulars are procurable of either his birth or death. Of his chief 
exploit there is extant -<4« historicall . . . discourse of a voyage made by 
the Admiral C. Matelief into the East Indies^ who departed out of 
Holland in May, 1605/ With the besiegifig of Malacca and . . . with 
other discourses. Translated out of the Dutch (London, 1608). 

> Mortier : Purchas sometimes calls it Mutir. 


Fort Tacome, also called Willem-Stadt, situated on the 
north-west side of Ternate, was erected by Vice-Admiral 
Symon Jansen Hoen, in spite of the opposition of the 
enemy, who had his own eye upon the spot, intending to 
seize it at some time or other ; but by the building of this 
fort, which protects the whole country between Maleya 
and Tacome, the natives, who had fled to the mainland of 
Gilolo, were re-united with our countrymen. It is the 
place where most of the cloves grow, and under the above 
circumstances they may be gathered in security, and so 
they come for the most part into our hands. 

The island of Mothir,^ lying between Tidor and Macjan, 
remained for a long time desolate and uninhabited, by 
reason of the internal warfare waged between Tidor and 
Ternate. Admiral Wittert, at the request of the Ter- 
natans, built a fortress at the north end for our security, 
and peopled it with a number of native inhabitants who 
had fled to Gilolo, as well as with all the inhabitants of 
Gane, lying at the south end of the mainland of Gilolo, 
near Bacjan, and subjects of the Ternatans. Having 
learnt that the Spaniards intended to attack and occupy 
the said fort with the greater part of the sailors who had 
taken refuge in Tidor, our countrymen, with the aid of the 
inhabitants, armed themselves against this and for their 
safety. The number of the inhabitants of this island is 
over two thousand. 

With regard to the island of Macian, it was conquered 
by Admiral van Caerden,^ and fortified with three forts : 
Taflasor, lying on the west side, Noflagina, on the north 

.1 Mortier. 

2 Paulus van Caerden, or Caarden ; two voyages of his to the 
East Indies are described in Commelin's Begin ende Voortgangh van 
de Vereenighde Nederlandtsche Geoctroyeerde Oost-Indische Com- 
pagnie^ one in Deel I, one in Deel II. They appear also in de Renne- 
ville's Recueil, torn. Ill and VI. For an account of his naval exploits 
see Van der Aa, Biographisck Woordenboek, 


side ; and Tabelole, on the east side of the said island ; 
which three places are well peopled, as well as some other 
small towns that lie round the island. I estimate the 
number of inhabitants of the said island to amount to 
nine thousand souls, including the inhabitants of an island 
named Cayoa,^ who live at Tabelole, having been trans- 
ported to the latter place in 1609, because they were not 
in safety in their own places. It is indeed the most fertile 
island, and the richest in cloves of all the Molucques, its 
fruits sufficing for its own consumption, and for partition 
amongst the circumjacent islands, since Tidor and Ter- 
nate are very necessitous places, drawing their supplies 
from elsewhere. This is because these two nations are 
courageous and proud, living more by warfare than by 
agriculture, marauding and pillaging each other, since they 
are constant and sworn enemies ; first the one and then 
the other gaining the upper hand, they have ever aimed 
at great dominion, endeavouring to lord it over all the 
other islands lying hereabout, whilst the Macjans and 
Motirese are more inclined to labour, and pay more 
attention to their lands. 

Batiai^ is a kingdom dependent upon itself, a great 
desolate country, overflowing with sago and abundant in 
all kinds of fruit. It is rich, but little populated, and has 
a lazy, careless people, who are addicted to nothing but 
voluptuousness and a wanton life, this being the cause 
that they have been reduced from a mighty kingdom to 
their present poor condition. This neglect of theirs is 
also the cause of many cloves that grow on this island 
rotting and coming to nothing. This place having been 
from the beginning in alliance with the Spanish and 
Portuguese, who had a fort at Labona,^ usually occupied 
by twenty Spaniards, and where about seventeen Portu- 

^ Kajao. ^ Batjan or Bachian. ^ Laboua. 

PLATE No. 20. 

Number 20 are the islands of Macjan^ and Bacjan,"- 
With all their explanations, shown as follows : — 

A. Is the island of Macjan, the south corner of which is situated 

8 minutes north of the Equinoctial line. 

B. Is the bay of another island named Bacjan, lying opposite the 

aforesaid island, just as much south of the line as the other lies 
north of it. 

C. Is the town of Bacjan, shown on a large scale. 

D. Is Fort Bernevelt, built of stone. 

E. Is the rice-house and sink-hole. 

F. Is a stone house over the gate. 

G. Is the guard-house. 

H. Are the outworks or walls, built with a stone coping. 

I. Are entrances or gates. 

K. Is a ruined bastion made of galid galla. 

L. Is the Council-house of the Indians. 

M. Is a fine well of fresh water. 

^ Mackian. - Batjan. 


guese and eighty Labonese^ households, all Christians, 
still reside, it was conquered by the Vice-Admiral^ in 
November, 1600,^ and the fort rebuilt, where we now have 
a fair garrison, such as the place requires. 

On the mainland we have retained possession of only 
one place, named Gamme-duorre,^ and very populous ; the 
inhabitants of Sabongo^ and all its outlying places be- 
took themselves hither, deserting the Spaniards, and at 
their request our countrymen fortified the place, and 
garrisoned it with thirty soldiers, or more, as necessity may 

All these places are well provided, both with soldiers and 
with other necessary ammunition of war, in order to with- 
stand the probable attacks of our declared foe, and that, 
too, for so long as we can remain in friendship with the 
inhabitants of this country. This, it is to be feared, will 
not be for ever, since, when they called us to their assist- 
ance, great promises were made which cannot be fulfilled 
on either side, and contracts were then made more to our 
advantage than to theirs. For instance, there is an article by 
which they hand over to us all lolls, both from their own 
subjects as well as from strangers, for the purpose of re- 
imbursing us for all that may be spent in these Molucqucs 
upon fortifications and other things tending to their good, 
in addition to which exemption from tolls is also accorded 
us ; but some of the nobles already say that they know 
naught of this, and seek to incite the natives in this way. 
In addition to the aforesaid extracts,^ other great promises 
were made us which, up to the present, we have not been 
able to get fulfilled, whereat we are not too well pleased, 
since experience teaches us that the nations which, in need, 

^ Labouese. ^ Simon Jansz. Hoen. 

^ Should be 1609, vide Introduction, p. Iviii, andde Jonge, Opkomst^ 
Deel III, p. 104. 
* Gamakora. " Sabougo. '^ Sic^ for contracts. 


have gladly subjected themselves to those they thought 
might help them, have, after this has been done, ofttimes 
attempted to rid themselves of their assistants, though 
some nations with more courtesy and less ingratitude than 
others, according to the religion and policy practised by 
them. I would that every nation or individual were by 
nature immune from the desire lightly to withdraw from a 
promise once made, and to recognise by experience that a 
nation which readily accepts foreign assistance with small 
advantage to its country is little to be trusted, for when at 
peace they endeavour to regain their former freedom, 
considering no arguments or good deeds, however fine 
these may be, and not allowing any such to turn them 
aside from their aims. Besides this, we have still to con- 
sider that these Ternatans are a brave nation, somewhat 
passionate now, but of old accustomed to rule over others 
with great authority and power, so that they cannot but 
take it amiss for anyone to exercise full dominion over 
them, which, indeed, we do not claim to do. Moreover, 
our affairs and theirs are beginning to have so much in 
common that it might sometimes be expedient to let them 
exercise authority and make our own subservient thereto, 
only safe-guarding our interests by treaties and contracts ; 
but this would give us no security in these countries, since 
this nation has no such consideration, long memory, and 
good judgment of past and future matters as those of 
Europe, though many of our people at home think so. On 
the contrary, we find every form of faithlessness, in keeping 
with the nature of the Moorish religion, which permits the 
breaking of oaths and promises so long as this may appear 
advantageous to them. I therefore know of no better 
means for reducing this people to perfect obedience than 
that of holding out to them future advantages that appear 
very possible of attainment, and that promise results 
which shall immediately bring them to a proper and 


faithful course of life, and keep them in devotion to us ; 
but this demands an execution prompt and based on 
reason. With regard to authority, endeavours should be 
made to bring this into unison with that of the country as 
far as possible, and our divine and natural laws should 
serve herein as follows. Experience sufficiently teaches 
us that the Ternatans are are a worldly and brave nation, 
much addicted to warfare and pillage, whilst the chief 
among them are not averse to proper authority, based on 
reason. With regard to honesty and truthfulness, they 
know better how to discourse of these virtues than to 
practise them, they themselves saying that their religion 
tolerates this. In war they are very open to the adoption 
of European methods ; all their actions aim at worldly 
honour, splendour, and position — not politically, but in 
affairs of war, for often they will rather fight to the death 
than show cowardice, since faint-heartedness is greatly 
despised by them. Further, they are in their ways very 
credulous and very addicted to seeking novelty ; hence 
their ineradicable customs and the number of islands their 
kings formerly possessed.^ On various occasions, too, the 
latter have been deserted by their subjects and brought 
into contempt, and that by reason of their harsh tyranny, 
when previously they had been respected and highly 
esteemed. It is their custom to exact big tolls and 
tribute from their subjects, according to the pleasure of 
the king's commissioners or of the king himself, without 
the observance of any fixed rule in the matter, whereby 
great injustice often took place through the Ternatan 
authorities not paying due heed to circumstances. So 
that occasionally there was murmuring among some of 
the Tarnatan vassals under the protection of the State, as, 

^ Though this sounds fairly lucid, if not very logical, the purity ot 
this passage in the original seems dubious. 


for instance, the Machianese inhabitants of the mainland, 
and others, who up to now have resisted the same as far as 
it was possible for them to do, by every pacific means ; 
but this has not had the proper effect, so that the 
murmurings do not cease and should move us to invent 
some measure for holding these people in check. 

They are people of unstable nature, very prone to 
change, and can easily be brought so far as to hate the 
name of their master, especially if another offers them a 
few agreeable things ; this was sufficiently apparent at the 
time that Don Jan de Silva was in the Molucques and by 
his liberality and pomp (which he well knew how to 
assume) brought matters so far that the Tarnatan authori- 
ties and most of the towns were very inclined and resolved 
to enter into a peace with the Spaniards, to our prejudice, 
as will be narrated more fully hereafter. 

We must also take into due consideration that a nation 
which has been accustomed to have no other master but 
themselves is very difficult to govern except by the 
employment of some ingenuity. Further, the conduct of 
the war is our province, since, not trusting their own 
people with the command, they handed it over to our 
countrymen, for their faulty regulations and leadership in 
matters of war has tended more to their ruin than all the 
forces of the Spaniards and of their foes. 

To be wanton and prone to violence are generally the 
qualities that mark those who are governed by young, 
lascivious, and badly brought-up princes, and this may be 
seen in the present young king of Tarnate, who is more- 
over (and this shows the nature of this people) assisted by 
selfish and uncaring counsellors, who pay no heed to the 
future nor think of past events, easily forgetting all good 
deeds, which is the cause of their being despised. 

With regard to the three last kings who ruled over 
Tarnate, they were brave in war and severe in their rule 


compared with the other Indian nations, and this was the 
cause of this people attaining to such great renown and 
dominion, though they were indeed also good soldiers of 
whose bravery and honour much might be said. But now, 
by reason of the bad order that reigns amongst them, they 
degenerate and fall off, and among them are no good 
leaders. Each one of the chiefs is almost an independent 
king, paying no heed to the common weal, for even should 
an agreement be made with one, another will probably 
upset it, so that they are not to be trusted as much as 
European nations. It is easy to compute what we may 
expect from a wanton, lascivious, fierce, greedy, tyrannical 
nation of perjurers ; let us not trust too firmly in the 
Tarnatan rulers, whom I have also heard praised very 
highly for their virtues, but it behoves us to be reliant 
upon our own strength and not upon the simulated friend- 
ship of Moors. And for this one of the two following 
measures is requisite, to wit : to keep strong garrisons in 
the places which we possess here, which would occasion 
enormous expense, or else permit our own countrymen to 
do what several soldiers, mostly hirelings, have already 
tried, that is, to settle as citizens under our rule, enjoying 
some liberties in trade and navigation without prejudice 
to the Company, and binding themselves and their pos- 
terity in such fashion to the Company that they could 
always be employed for our service, wherefore detailed 
orders and regulations should be framed, too long to be 
set out here. In this way these places would be peopled 
with fresh Christians, who could be placed in some heathen 
countries, such as Ceram and others equally proper, and 
opportunely seek to play off as far as possible the Moorish 
inhabitants against their enemies, whilst we could gradually 
introduce more Christians and the Christian religion, this 
being the only means of establishing our affairs here (since 
there is nothing that binds the hearts of men so closely 


together as unity of religion), and the right means for 
reversing the condition of the inhabitants. 

This is so far as concerns our relations and friendship 
with the Moluccan inhabitants and how we should act 
with regard to them : now follows the condition and 
circumstances of our common foe and how we should 
safeguard ourselves against him. 

In this island of Tarnate the Spaniards are in possession 
of the large town which they took from the Tarnatans, 
now called Neustra signora del rosario. With its flanking 
ramparts it is entirely encircled with cement and stone, 
well provided with ordnance and ammunition, the stock of 
which is supplied from the Manilles, where they keep 
their stores of war material. It is at present garrisoned 
by two hundred Spanish soldiers and ninety Papaugos, 
who are inhabitants of the Philipines, well exercised in 
warfare and doing service with the Spanish soldiers, 
besides which thirty married Portuguese with their 
families also reside there, seventy or eighty Chinese, who 
carry on all kinds of handicraft, and some fifty or sixty 
whites from these Molucques with their wives and 

Between this town and Maleye they have yet another 
fort named Pedro and St. Paulo, situated on an eminence. 
Its ramparts are also made of stone and cement, and it is 
well provided with ammunitions of war, amongst others, 
with six pieces of ordnance, whilst Neustra signora del 
rosario aforesaid has some three-and-thirty metal pieces. 
This place has usually a garrison of twenty-six Spaniards, 
twenty Papaugos, and a few others from the Manilles. 

In the island of Tidor, the whole of which is in their 
possession, they have also three forts — to wit, in the big 
town, in which the king resides, a fortress situated on an 
eminence and named Taroula, stronger by its position 
than other forts ; it is usually garrisoned by fifty Spaniards 


and eight or ten Papaugos, and provided with ten big 
metal pieces of ordnance. 

The second is the old Portuguese castle that Cornelis 
Bastiaensz.^ captured, and which they have now rebuilt 
and garrisoned with thirteen Spaniards, supported by the 
inhabitants ; it is provided with two pieces of ordnance. 

The third place is called Marico, and lies in sight of 
Neustra signora aforesaid ; it is a small town, well peopled 
with Tidorese and encircled by stone walls, where the 
Spaniards have erected two bastions, garrisoned by 
fourteen Castilians and a few Papaugos, and mounted 
with two pieces of ordnance. In this island are a few 
other small towns in which none but native inhabitants 
dwell, and through warfare it is not so populous. Accord- 
ing to our information it could not produce a thousand 
Tidorese capable of bearing arms. This king has more 
subjects on the mainland, whence the necessary supplies, 
such as rice and sago, are sent him. 

On the mainland of Gilolo they have several fortresses ; 
firstly, Sabougo, which Don Jan de Silva took from us in 
the year 161 1, violating the truce concluded and previously 
submitted to him, whereby we were to remain in pos- 
session, as is shown by the documents and letters con- 
cerning this which are appended hereunto,^ and to which 
I refer. 

They have fortified this place with four bulwarks and 
with a half-moon at the mouth of the river; it is garrisoned 
by sixty Castilians and fifty armed Papaugos. The in- 
habitants have deserted the Spaniards and joined our 
countrymen at Gamconorre,^ as I have already stated. 

^ The only fact that can be gleaned about this man with any 
degree of certainty is that his name was really Corneh's Sebastiaensz. 

^ These are not in the book. See also the Introduction, p: lix. 

2 Ganiakora, 


This fort is also well provided with heavy guns and 
ammunition of war. 

The second, called Gilolo, was also seized in an under- 
hand manner by Don Jan de Silva on the aforesaid date, 
and taken from us with the connivance of the tractable 
king of Tarnate, but the inhabitants, under a king belong- 
ing to this town (the same king who is now in Maleya) 
left the Spaniards, only about fifty or sixty families 
remaining with the latter. They have fortified this place 
and garrisoned it with fifty or sixty Spaniards and a few 
Manilles ; it is also well provided with ordnance and 
ammunition of war. These two places He about 7 miles 
distant from Maleya, on the west side of Gilolo. The 
third place, called Aquilamo, situated on the west side of 
Gilolo, opposite Macjan, is a hamlet encircled by walls 
and lies on a small river ; it is inhabited by natives of the 
country and garrisoned by a few Spaniards and about 
forty Tidorese whom the King of Teydoor keeps there, 
since supplies of food are annually brought thence to 
Teydoor. There is a bastion mounted with two guns. 

On the coast of Moro, which is the east side of Gilolo, 
they have three forts, being Tolo, Isiau, and laffougho, 
which places are garrisoned by about forty-five Spaniards 
and inhabitants, most of whom are converts to Christianity. 
From this place the Spaniards obtain great quantities of 
rice, sago, and other victuals wherewith to supply the 
Spaniards who live in Tarnata and Teydoor. From 
Maleya to Gilolo is quite 60 miles sailing, and about a 
day's journey by land. 

They usually keep at sea a galley and a frigate, besides 
some row-boats in which they employ slaves and other 
prisoners, in addition to the soldiers they put on board 
of them, impressing these from their garrisons in time 
of need. 

They have usually been well provided with a stock of 


arms, ammunition, and other requisites of warfare, all of 
which they get from the Manilles, which lie very handy 
for them. 

For victuals they are often very badly off, this frequently 
being the cause of their servants, other common folk and 
sometimes even some Spanish soldiers deserting them, 
since everything is very dear with them, and difficult to 
get by the lower orders. 

With regard to trade, everyone is permitted to carry it 
on. Of the stock of cloves the king takes a whole half at 
the place where it is sold, this trade being mostly in the 
hands of the Portuguese, who transport the cloves to 
Malacke and other places. During the past six years 
trade has not been very flourishing with them, and the 
war imposes great expense upon the king, who has had 
little or no profit to show for it, but is hoping for great 

The affairs of the King of Spain are administered here 
on his behalf by a Governor, who belongs to the govern- 
ment of the Philipinas, the one in office at the present 
time here in the Molucques being Don Jeronimo de Silva, 
who came from Spain for that purpose and departed 
thence after the publication of peace in Europe. Before 
his arrival we were informed that he had ratified the 
places which were to be included in the Peace. 

This governor is assisted by a sergeant-major and 
captains, a contatoor,^ a pagadoor,^ and a king's merchant, 
whom the Governor summons to his council at his pleasure. 
When any extraordinary matter is to be decided, they 
have still many other officers, such as alcaldes,^ barachelos,* 
cap.^ del campo, and many intretandos^ and retormados,^ 

1 Contador, an accountant or auditor. 

2 Pagador, a paymaster. ^ Justices of the Peace. 
'* Barrachelos, head-constables. ^ Capitanes del campo. 
^ Intendentes, superintendents. 

^ Reformados, officers on half-pay. 


in accordance with the customs and regulations which the 
Spaniards are wont to keep up in their garrisons and 
armies. The present Governor is well experienced in 
European warfare, a courtier, very severe and haughty, 
ruling with splendour and resorting to stratagem in all his 
affairs. Whilst he was in negotiations with our country- 
men concerning peace in Europe he was well able to keep 
his own views from some delegates sent by him to us, 
though we could readily understand that on his departure 
from Spain he had been charged with the maintenance or 
discontinuance of the Peace, according as circumstances 
might dictate, as you will be able to see from some 
answers sent to us, copies of which go herewith.^ This 
Don Jeronimo de Silva is a person of authority and 
experience, of nature and position as has been stated ; he 
has ere this served the King of Spain in important 
matters both in the Netherlands and Spain, whence he has 
now been sent hither with greater authority than that 
wherewith former Spanish Governors have ruled this place. 
He is the uncle of the Governor-General of Philipinas, so 
that I am of opinion that greater results for the well-being 
of the pretended monarchy of Europe are expected from 
his rule. We had recently some Portuguese here from 
Malacke and other places who, relying (as they said) upon 
the concluded Peace, had come to Amboyna and Banda 
to make some profit as merchants, but have ceased their 
dealings by reason of the Peace not having been ratified 
here, wherefore they are making great complaint and 
railing at the Spanish Governor, who does not pay much 
heed to this. They say, and we see, too, that the truce 
concluded is being observed by the Portuguese, though 
better in one place than another, this according to the 
circumstances of each and according to what we might be 

* See note 2 on p. 143. 


able to effect there. As a final conclusion, we must give 
it as our opinion of the Spanish pronouncement that they 
would indeed have maintained and observed the peace in 
the Molucos, or at least not have published their pro- 
nouncement so soon had their losses in the Manilles been 
as great as was their good fortune in defeating Admiral 
Wittert. In addition to which, fortunately for them, they 
also succeeded in capturing Admiral van Caerden,^ whereby 
they were made acquainted with our weak position at that 
time in the Molucques, since they had obtained many 
papers and reports wherein that position was found to be 
set out with sufficient detail. The information which Don 
Jan de Silva obtained concerning our country by the 
capture of vessels in the Manilles, as well as by that of the 
yacht De Goede Hoope was not slight, as may be imagined 
when we consider that they got hold of all the secret 
instructions, despatches and letters, together with some 
plans of attack and other indiscretions, which everyone 
can suppose were well pondered on by persons of that 
kind in such vessels. There can therefore be no doubt 
that he informed the King of Spain of everything, counter- 
attacks to which we have to expect now and for all time, 
both in peace and war, for they have never before obtained 
such cognizance of our condition ; wherefore it were very 
necessary to introduce some change into our affairs, both 
in administrative and in various other matters, whereunto 
we have given heed and shall continue to do so as much 
as possible. May Your Honour also be pleased to give 
this your attention. It is likewise to be borne in mind 
that the King of Spain has secured no small subsidy for 
his impoverished coffers in the excellent booty, exceeding 
some millions in gold, he got by the defeat of Admiral 
Wittert in the Manilles, and that it would grieve him more 

1 See p. 135. 

L 2 

148 speilbergen's journal. 

to hand over all such treasure to his enemies, who might 
well claim it since they obtained it from his subjects in 
fair warfare, than now lawfully to claim to keep his own 
by reason of having retaken it from his foes. And it 
must be remembered that in the event of a truce he 
is bound to do the former, since Admiral Wittert 
captured the aforesaid treasure here in India during the 
war, whilst it was recovered by the Spaniards in time 
of peace. 

The best and only means of re-establishing our affairs 
in India and of making ourselves entirely masters of the 
Molucques is, in my opinion, to despatch a fleet and 
armada, provided with all proper ammunition and crews, 
direct to the Philippinas, in order to attack the Spaniard 
there ourselves, and to overpower all the places and strong- 
holds it may be possible to capture, whereby we should 
obtain a passage and access to the rest. 

For there is nothing that would make them more faint- 
hearted and discouraged than our offensive warfare and 
hearing the clink of our arms in places where they least 
expect it. 

It is sufficiently well known to everyone that here 
in the Molucques the places are amply provided and 
garrisoned with very experienced troops, for the very 
fittest are obtained from the Manilles, and in their stead 
are left unfit and untried men to defend the places with 
the Spanish merchants. Moreover, it is not to be doubted 
that our coming would be quite unexpected in the said 
quarters, for our foes allow themselves to imagine that we 
would not dare to attack them and return to those places 
where we formerly met with such damaging and un- 
fortunate encounter. 

In the event of this attack succeeding to any extent, it 
would tend to the furtherance of all our interests, for, in 
the first place, we should have the most important trade 

Aug., 1616] speilbergen's journal. 149 

with the Synese/ and secondly, since it is a land of fertility 
and abundance, the other countries which are under our 
dominion could be furnished with all their requirements 
either of food supplies or of men to people their lands. 
All of which would serve to weaken and exhaust our 
enemies in the Molucques, who would otherwise get all 
their stock of food from the latter. 

Here you have briefly the condition and circumstances 
of the Molucques and of the Spanish possessions in the 
same, with the best remedy not only of resisting the latter 
by defensive warfare but also of completely shattering 
them and of finally putting an end to all their power. 

The means for avoiding the harm which some other 
European nations are through envy attempting to inflict 
upon us are sufficiently well known to those who are most 
interested and injured thereby. Nothing further, there- 
fore, should be recommended to us than the protection 
and maintenance of a realm which all the world is 
attempting to win and upon which depends the welfare of 
our country and the highest interests of its inhabitants. 

On the 25th of August we reached Japarre,^ where we 
took in supplies of rice and other provisions. 

On the 15th of September we arrived at Jacatra,^ and 
there our ships were caulked and coppered before loading ; 
whilst we were doing this we were still constantly mindful 

1 Chinese. 

'^ Japara, on the N. coast of Java. 

^ Its name was changed to Batavia, on March 4th, 1621 by procla 
mation of the Directors. See also note i on p. 151. 

f50 SPEILBERGEN^S JOliRNAL. [Sept., l6l 

of Don Jan de Silva's armada, for we were well aware and 
had been circumstantially informed that he was to come 
from Malacca to Bantam and Jacatra for the purpose of 
conquering us. 

On the 30th of the said month we received reliable 
tidings of Don Jan de Silva's death at Malacca, which we 
opined to have been occasioned by poison, and that his 
fleet, being much weakened and diminished both in men 
and in stores, had started to return to the Manilles. 

We have already related how they spent four whole 
years in the equipment of this fleet, without having per- 
formed anything with it except squander their men, 
ammunition, and stores, and that to the great hurt and 
weakening of their interests there. 

During the time that we lay at anchor at Jacatra several 
ships arrived from the Molucques, Banda, and other parts, 
laden with all kinds of spices for the account of the 
General Company. Meanwhile vessels also arrived at 
various times from home, among them four ships of extra- 
ordinary size, well equipped with soldiers, sailors, stores, 
and large quantities of Spanish reals, another that came 
from Japon,^ similarly laden with reals and uncoined silver, 
besides copper, iron, and all kinds of good provisions, 
nearly all of which had been captured and taken by the 
conquest of a Portuguese ship proceeding to Macoro.^ 

Among the aforesaid Dutch vessels was the ship West 
Vriesen, from Hoorn, on board of which some mutiny had 
been got up by twenty-eight men who had intended to 
overpower the said vessel and make themselves masters of 
it ; but the treachery having come to light, the ringleader 
of the aforesaid traitors was quartered at Bantam, some 

^ Japan. 

2 This must, of course, be Macao, which was granted to the Portu- 
guese, subject to an annual rent, by the Chinese emperor in 1 586, in 
return for assistance against pirates. 


of them hanged, after their fingers had been cut off, and 
the rest, who were least guilty, condemned to the galleys 
and other forms of slavery. 


On the 20th there arrived at Jacatra the ship named the 
Eendrackty of Hoorn, under the command of Jacques le 
Maire, having set out from the Netherlands on the 
15th July, 161 5, and come south of Magellanes, and 
whereas it was found that the said vessel was not asso- 
ciated with the General Company and that she had set 
out on this voyage without their orders, the President, 
Jan Pieterssen Coenen,^ confiscated the said ship on behalf 

1 Jan Pieterszoon Coen, the fourth of the Dutch Governor-Generals 
of India, was born January 8th, 1587, at Hoorn. He proceeded to 
India, in the service of the East India Company, in 1607, and was 
made Governor-General at the early age of 31. 

" Hitherto, the seat of government had been at Amboyna, in the 
Spice Islands, this locality, on account of the paramount value of the 
spice trade, being considered at the time the most appropriate and 
convenient. Koen's prescience soon discovered to him that a seat of 
government more central, and in a country of superior resources to 
the Moluccas, was indispensable tor the consolidation of the Dutch 
power, and he naturally fixed on Java, and that portion of it which 
appeared accessible to him. The first site chosen was the mouth of 
the river Tangeran, three leagues west of Batavia, and within the 
same wide bay. This, however, belonged to the Prince of Jacatra, 
who persistently refused to cede the necessary territory The strong- 
minded Koen, nothing daunted, determined at once on fixing the 
future capital at Jacatra itself, where the Dutch had had a factory 
since 161 1 ; and with this view he transferred the principal part of the 
commercial and military establishments from Bantam, surrounded the 
factory of Jacatra with a rampart, and virtually founded the city of 
Batavia, in 161 8 and 1619. From this time may be dated the founda- 
tion of the Dutch Empire in the Archipelago, which, most probably, 
would never have come into existence had the seat of government 
continued in the remote Moluccas, or been established, according to 
the recommendation of the home authorities, in the barren island of 

" Koen surrendered the government in 1625, and once more returned 
to Holland ; but after a residence in Europe of four years, was again 
appointed Governor-General, the only example in the Dutch annals of 
a second nomination to this high trust. . . . The active and laborious 
life of Koen was brought to a close (on the 20th September, 1629) by 
a sudden stroke of apoplexy, in the forty-second year of his age. 

" Koen was, without doubt, a man of great ability, full of resource. 

152 speilbergen's journal. [Oct., 1616 

of the General Company and transferred her crew to our 

On a voyage of such long duration they had with this 
vessel discovered no unknown nation, no countries of fresh 
intercourse, nor anything that might be for the common 
weal ; although they claimed to have found a shorter 
passage than the usual one, yet this was without any 
probability, since they had spent on their voyage as far as 
Ternata just fifteen months and three days, and that, too 
(according to their own admission) with a favourable wind 
and only one ship, which is not called upon to wait for 
others, as happens in a whole fleet. These claimants to 
the discovery of a new passage through the South Sea 
were greatly surprised that the fleet under Commander 
Spilbergen had been so long before at Ternata, after 
having passed through the Strait of Magellanes with such 
big ships (making that passage within eight months from 
their departure), and that, too, notwithstanding the delays 
it had also sufl'ered in visiting many places and countries 
such as Peru, as far as AcapuF in Californes, in addition 
to those experienced in the Ladrones, in the passage of 
the Manilles, in sailing past Cadera^ and Tagima,* as we 

and secret, skilful, and bold in the execution of his projects. His 
countrymen describe him as a man of great integrity, and a lover of 
justice ; but the patent parts of his administration attest that he was 
unscrupulous, even beyond the measure of other adventurers of the 
seventeenth century. . . . He was the greatest man that Dutch India 
has produced, and may be said to occupy in the Dutch annals the 
same place that Alboquerque does in the Portuguese and Clive in the 
English. He is the real founder of the Dutch Empire in India ; and, 
although but a mere civilian, he was enabled, by the native strength 
of his character, to effect what those men had done, clothed with 
military reputation. His countrymen, however, are either insensible 
to his merits or negligent to reward them, for, down to the present 
day, no monument has ever been erected to his memory." — John 
Crawfurd, A Descriptive Dictionary of the Indian Islands^ 1856, 
pp. 198, 199. Van der Aa {Biographisch W oordenboek) prefers to 
spell his name Coen, on the authority of autographs which he had 
himself seen. 
2 Acapulco. 3 Cape la Caldera. * Taguima. 

Oct, 1616] speilbergen's journal. 153 

have related above, and finally in waging two distinct 
battles, before our arrival at the Molucques with the whole 
fleet of six vessels at the end of nineteen months in all. 

On the loth of November there arrived in the roadstead 
at Bantam the ship Nassau, under the command of Pieter 
van den Brouck •} it came from the Red Sea, where it had 
traded in the town of Moca, and had a good stock of both 
Spanish reals and Turkish ducats. 

On the 1 2th of December there arrived in tlje harbour 
of Bantam Commander Steven Doessens with two vessels, 
to wit, Het Wapen van Amsterdam, and the ship named 
Middelburchy having come from lambie^ through the Strait 
of Malacca, without much cargo. 

On the 14th of the same month Commander Spilbergen 
made all preparations for sailing home with the two 
aforesaid ships,^ the tonnage of the vessel belonging to 
Amsterdam being 700 and that of the one belonging to 
Zeeland 600 lasts.* God grant us a good and prosperous 

1 His Historische ende Journaelsche aentey ckeni7tgh^ covering the 
years 1606 to 1630, is included in Commelin's Begin ende Voortgangh^ 
Deel II. In de Renneville's Recueil it forms part of torn. 7 in the 
edition of 1725. 

2 " lambe is on the East-side of Sumatra. It yeeldeth like great- 
grained Pepper as Priaman, but is not subject to the King of Achen, 
as are . . . other places on the West-side." — Purchas, op. cit.^ Pt. I, 

p. 532. 

^ From this entry we may deduce that Speilbergen returned home 
with two ships of his own {vide p. 132) in company with but not in 
command of the two vessels under Steven Doessens. The fact is 
corroborated in Schouten's version of the Australische Navigatien {vide 
the note on p. xxxii in this volume), where Speilbergen's own ships 
are erroneously alluded to as the Amsterdam and the Zeeland^ an 
error copied by the rhymester in his Ode (p. 8) ; those vessels were 
probably the Groote Sonne and Groote Maane^ one belonging to the 
town of Amsterdam, the other to the province of Zeeland. That 
Speilbergen took little heed of Doessens' vessels is evident from his 
statement {vide p. 164) that on July ist, 1617, he " reached, with these 
two richly-laden vessels [these being, of course, his own, since the 
others were, as mentioned above, ' without much cargo'], the harbour 
of" his country. 

^ A last was equal to 2 tons. 

154 speilbergen's journal. 


Of the number and position of the Forts, Troops, Heavy 

Ordnance and Appurtenances in the service of the 

General Company in the Indies, under the rule 

of Their High Mightinesses the States 

General of the United Netherlands 

and of His Pr. Ex. Maurice of 

Nassau, Prince of Orange, 

July, 1616. 

Firstly, in the islands of the Molucques. 

In the town of Maleya, in the island of Ternata, were 
the following captains : — 

Captain Frederick Hamel, of 's Gravenhaghe in Holland. 

Captain Willem Eetvelt, of the city of Brussels. 

Captain Pieter Backer, of Antwerp. 

Captain Roelant Philipsen, of 's Hertoghen-bossche. 

Captain Goossen van Mammeren, of Berghen-op-zoom, 
each of their companies comprising about one hundred 
men, making together a goodly number of soldiers. 

This town is moreover well built and fortified with 
curtains, bastions and flankings, and provided with good 
troops, both metal and iron guns, and all that the defence 
of a town can require. 

On this and the surrounding islands there are also many 
forts and strongholds well equipped for war, such as 
Taloveque, situated not far from Maleya, for which the 
town provides the guard. 

The forts of Tacome and Zabou, in the island of Gilolo, 
are manned by the garrisons from Tarnata. 

In the island of Tidor there is a fort named Marieco, 

* See the Introduction, p. Ix. 

PLATE No. 21 

Number 21 shows Solor/ Amboyna,^ 

And the island of Nera^ with Mount Canapus,* with its explanation 
indicated as under. 

A. Is the Bay of Solor, which is of the shape as you can see depicted 


B. Is the entrance, between two hills, the one somewhat higher than 

the other. 

C. Is the other entrance or exit, with two equally high hills. 

D. Is the fort, situated on a hill, and surrounded by houses in which 

the inhabitants dwell. 

E. Is their custom or manner of going about, with a servant behind 


F. Is the fort on the island of Amboyna, with three villages lying 

close by. 

G and E. Is the fashion of dress on the island of Amboyna ; they are 
a very courageous nation, brave in combat with sword and 

H. Is the island of Nera, where are two forts, one of which is called 
Nassau, the other Belgica. Down by the water we have a 
redoubt, inside and outside of which there are houses. 

I. Is Mount Canapus, which often has eruptions, throwing out in- 
credible stones, sulphur, flames and smoke, so that the 
effluvia and violence make the land all around barren. 

1 An island off the eastern extremity of Flores, in the Malay Archi- 

'^ One of the Molucca Islands, lying to the south of the western 
extremity of Ceram. 

2 Neira, or Pulo Nera, one of the Banda Islands. 
^ Gounong Api ; vide p. 219. 

speilbergen's journal. 155 

being very strong and well bastioned, where Willem van 
Anssing holds command, lying there with his whole 

In the island of Motier there is a strong fort, surrounded 
by stone walls and encircled with good fortifications, where 
Heyndrick Mayer, of Mastricht, is in garrison and has the 
command, with a fine body of men. 

The island of Macjan is under the command of the 
Lieutenant-Governor, Gysbrecht Vyanen, of Utrecht, 
having three fortresses under him, well provided with 
ammunition and troops, such being Tafasor, Tabalole, and 
Noffaca, near which lies the harbour. 

The island of Batsian is governed by Barthelomeus van 
Speelberghen, born at Antwerp, he being the chief factor, 
and having under his command the fort named Barnevelt, 
which is very well built, fortified with stone, and garrisoned 
with many soldiers, in addition to some bands of Chinese. 

In the island of Amboyna we have a royal castle, lying 
within its ramparts and bastions, in which Henrick Steur, 
of Somerdam,^ holds the command with a hundred and 
fifty good soldiers, besides some other strongholds, such as 
Coubella, the redoubt of Hittou and the fort of Louw, 
which is defended and garrisoned by the Tarnatans ; and 
the general command of the whole island belongs to 
Adriaen Block- Mar ssens, with the troops under his orders. 

In the island of Banda we have the two undermentioned 
forts, both built of stone : in the island of Nera, Fort 
Nassau, which is manned by a hundred and twenty soldiers 
of our nation, besides a large number of Indians, Chinese 
and the like. The other is Fort Belgica, manned and 
provided like the last, and both are under the command of 
Captain Hendrick Beverlingh, of the town of Ter-Goude. 

In the island of Poleway^ we have a fort named Revenge, 

^ Somerdick, on p. 1 29. ^ Pulo Way. 

156 speilbergen's journal. 

which is generally manned with a hundred and sixty 
soldiers under the command of Van der Dussen and Jan 
Verhoeven, of Tiel, both captains. 

On the frontiers of Cormandel, in Palataque,^ our country- 
men have erected a very magnificent castle, defended only 
by a lieutenant and a hundred and twenty soldiers. 

The two towns of Negapata'^ and Massepatan^ are en- 
tirely on our side, granting us free trade and intercourse, 
wherefore our countrymen have at their request presented 
them with a few pieces of ordnance and other necessaries : 
and in all these places the chief direction of all matters is 
in the hands of Mr. Hans de Hase, of Antwerp, who is 
moreover a Councillor of India. 

In the town of Jacatra, in the island of Java Major, 
distant one day's journey from Bantam, a large, roomy 
and excellent building has been erected, in which folk of 
various handicrafts dwell. And here is also the most 
important magazine of war stores, provisions and every- 
thing requisite for the equipment of ships, this being 
likewise in the charge and at the disposal of the Comptoir 
of Bantam. And this place is as well provided with 
troops and heavy ordnance, with all its appurtenances, as 
any other place of importance could be. 

The frigates which we generally keep here are very well 
equipped and furnished with cannon and troops, besides 
many slaves and prisoners who are also employed thereon. 

These are briefly the position and details of the forts 
and places which we have in this part of the world. All 
of which places are according to their requirements well 
provided with soldiers and with metal, iron and stone 
ordnance, the total number of which is here given. 

1 Pulicat, on the Coromandel Coast. " Paleacate standeth in thir- 
teene degrees and thirtie minutes." — Purchas, op. cit.^ Pt. I, p, 315. 

2 Negapatam. ^ Masulipatam. 



. 3000 

Metal guns 

. 193 

Iron guns 

• 320 

Stone and metal niortars 


Concerning some Abandoned Places. 

In the island of Gilolo we had a fortress named Gemma- 
lanor, which is demolished and abandoned because we had 
no attack to expect on that side and because the foe could 
not get up any enterprise there. 

Similarly, we have abandoned a stronghold built of 
stone in Botton Island,^ between the Molucques and Java, 
because we considered it unnecessary. 

We have also abandoned the fort situated in the islands 
of Salor^ and Timor, whither two vessels were recently 
sent, to wit, the Arent and the Sterre, in order to enter 
into a fresh alliance with the inhabitants. 

In the town of Gresei,^ ^v'^^g in the island of Java, we 
used also to have a factory, but for various reasons it fell 
into disuse. 

Similarly, the factory in the capital town of Aschien^has 
been abandoned, because our countrymen had fallen into 
displeasure with the king, but we have again sent two 
vessels thither in order to use every endeavour to restore it. 

Of all barbarian kings there is not one who holds our 
countrymen in greater favour than the King of Joor,^ 
although he has no support nor any fortress of ours ; 
wherefore his enemies inflict much harm and damage in 
his lands, which would be prevented if our countrymen 
had some free places there whither they might repair. 

In the island of Selebes^ the town of Macassar was 
abandoned by young and inexperienced men who did not 

1 Booton \. 2 solor. ' Gressik. 

^ Acheen. ^ Johore, « Celebes, 

158 speilbergen's journal. 

take into consideration the great trade that this place gave 
us in rice and sago, which we use instead of bread, and in 
other necessaries of life ; but we have again begun to 
make alliances. 

We have sent some ships to the western frontiers of 
Sumatra, to the towns of Ficos,^ Priaman and Silbe,^ in 
order to introduce the trade there in whole pepper. 

In the town of lambi,^ on one of the islands of Sumatra 
aforesaid, near the Strait of Malacca, we have a trade and 
store of pepper, more profitable than any other, and here 
Andries Surij, being the chief of the merchants, resides 

In the kingdom of Borneo we have also free trade in 
diamonds and lapis bezoar,* under the direction of the 
merchant Hendrick Vaeck. 

In the famous kingdom of Japon^ we have, too, a 
magnificent building in which we carry on trade under the 
direction of the merchant Jacob Speck, he being the 
author of the said building. 

It is true that in the duchy of Firando,^ situated in the 
aforesaid kingdom, the trade used to be poor and small, 
but now the condition of things there has been so im- 
proved and set right that all timber work^ has been 
brought to greater perfection and renown than in China 
itself, besides many victuals and necessaries of life we get 
from there. 

In this duchy of Firando there were formerly assembled 
many Jesuits who, with their usual subtlety, had not only 
attracted to themselves the chief wealth and treasure of 

1 Tiku. 2 sileda. ^ See note 2, p. 153. 

■* Lapis lazuli. ^ Japan. 

^ The island of Firando, Firato, Hirato or Hirando, in the Strait of 
Corea, off the extreme west coast of Kiu-shiu. The town, where the 
Dutch had a fort from 1609 to 1640, is on the east coast of the island. 

^ Houdtwercken in original, but probably to be read handtwercken 
= handicrafts ; the work abounds in misprints. 

speilbergen's journal. 159 

the country, but had moreover so captured the hearts and 
minds of the principal inhabitants that the latter claimed 
to be Christians, after their fashion, possessing only the 
superficial knowledge to recite the Ave Maria and to make 
a cross : but the Duke finally becoming more fully alive to 
the means employed for swallowing up his goods and 
treasures drove these holy fathers right out of his duchy, 
after having first had a large nnmber of them executed, by 
which course the said country has since that time been rid 
of that plague. And the inhabitants have moreover 
been compelled to drop what they had learnt from the 
Christians and to return to their former laws. 

In the island of Java Major there is a king who is called 
the Great Macaran, under whose rule we have many 
factories and all kinds of commerce, the most important of 
which is in Japara, there being abundance of all food stuffs, 
such as rice, oxen, sheep, goats, beans, peas, dried fish and 
such like, all of which are just the things of use to us for 
provisioning the Molucques, Banda, and other places. 

In order to cement more solidly our friendship with the 
aforesaid king or Great Macaran, Frederick Druyfif, of 
Enckhuysen, has now been sent thither as an ambassador 
of the General Company, having taken with him many 
presents and gifts^ to bestow upon the aforesaid Macaran. 

In the aforesaid island of Java is situated the very 
renowned city of Bantam, which is governed by the 
Pangoran, who holds even the king himself in subjection. 

In this town are the principal stores and trade of the 
whole Indies, but all under the direction and arbitrament 
of the said Pangoran. 

In the harbour of this town all the ships load and 
discharge, receiving here, too, their orders and instructions 

1 Gheschencken ende giften, thoug^h the two words are as synony- 
mous as in the English. 


from Mr. Jan Pieterssen Coenen, of Hoorn,^ as President- 
General and Director of all trade, factories, and matters 
pertaining thereunto, and in his hands must be placed 
all the books and accounts of the whole Indies, which 
are entered here in a general book, so that at any time 
the condition and progress of all affairs can be seen 

Details of the wealth and power of the Molucques, 
Ternata, Macjan, Amboina, Tidor and the islands of 
Banda, as well as all other particulars have been given 
above by the renowned Captain Apollonius Schot, of 
Middelburch, a man of reason and experience, whereof he 
hath given ample testimony throughout the Indies and the 
fruits of which are still annually accruing to the advantage 
of the General Company. 


Which were at divers places in the Indies from the month 
of July, 1616, until the end of that year. 

Off the town of Maleya in the island of Ternata in the 
Molucques. The vessels named : 

De oude Sonne. 

De oude Maene. 

De nieuive Sonne. 

De nieuwe Maene. 


Den Engel, of Delft. 

De Hoope. 

De Morgensterre, of Rotterdam, and 

De Jacht, sailing for Amboina. 

^ See note i, p. 151. 

2 See the Introduction, p. Ix. 

speilbergen's journal. i6i 

At Japatra :^ 

Lies the Hollandia, also called the Brandaris, loading 

there in order to proceed to the Molucques. 
Off Bantam lay before sailing for Amboina and Banda : 

De Trouw. 



De Jacht, from Japon.^ 
For Japon there sailed : 

Den swaj'ten Leeuw. 
For Timor and Solor : 

Den Arent. 

De Sterre. 
For Aschien -? 

Den Valck. 

De Jacht. 
For the frontiers of Cormandel and Negapatan : 

De7t Neptunus. 

Den gouden Leeuw, of Rotterdam. 
For lamby :* 

A barge and 

De halve Maene. 
For the island of Inganfe^ and the frontiers cast of 
Sumatra : 

De Eendracht, and 

Het cleyn Hollandia, in order to take on board the 
crew that had escaped from the ^olus, which, whilst 
coming from the frontiers of Cormandel, laden with 
merchandize, had been wrecked there, with very little 
of its cargo saved. 

1 Manifestly Japara, for Jacatia is specified below. Cf. le Maire's 
entry of October i6th, 1616, on pp. 230, 231. 

2 Japan. ^ Acheen. 
•* lambe. See note 2, on p. 153. 

^ Engano, aboiit 125 miles west of the south end of Sumatra. 


i62 speilbergen's journal. [Dec, 1616 

In the harbour of Jacrata^ lay : 

The Vfieslandt, of Enckhuysen. 
And at Bantam, 

The Nieuw Vrieslandt, of Hoorn, 

Het Wapen van Amsterdam, and 

The Middelburch, of Zeeland. 

From the frontiers of Cormandel is daily expected the 
vessel Tergoes. 

From the aforesaid islands there sailed this year for 
home Den swarten Beer, laden with indigo. 

There also sailed for home : 

In October, the yacht named Het Hert, and 

The vessel Amsterdam. 
In December, '/ nieuw Zeelant. 

We received tidings here that from home the following 
had sailed hitherwards : 

UEeudracht, from Amsterdam ; 
^olus, from Zeeland. 

At Banda we keep two frigates. 

At Jacrata^ and Bantam we have moreover some barques 
and shallops to the number of thirty-seven, besides many 
barges and boats, all furnished with pieces of ordnance, 
hooks, ammunition and troops, and which are fit to be used 
in all encounters. 

This is briefly our condition and equipment in the Indies. 
We shall now once more proceed, in order to bring our 
voyage to an end with a few words. 

On the 22nd of December there died Jacques le Maire, 
who had commanded the aforementioned Amsterdam vessel 
throughout the passage of the South Sea, wherefore our 

^ Jacatra, 


Admiral and all the others were deeply grieved, since he 
was a man endowed with remarkable knowledge and ex- 
perience in matters of navigation. 

On the 24th of January of the year 16 1 7, we arrived 
towards nightfall off the island of Mauritius,^ where we 
anchored, taking in a supply of water and other provisions. 

On the 30th we set sail from the bay called the harbour 
of Molucques, proceeding thence in an eastward direction. 


The first day of February we saw and passed the island 
named Massarius.^ 

And whereas we should, in our opinion, not see any more 
land, being in the latitude of thirty-five degrees, and all 
the pilots were found to be wrong in their reckoning, since 
we could get no bottom at 120 fathoms, we therefore 
altered our course on March 1 1 to north-west by north, 
because all were of opinion that the Cape de Bonne 
Esperance must lie to the east of us.^ 

On the 30th of the said month, four hours after sunrise, 
we came in sight of the land of Sancta Helena, whereat 
everyone showed great joy, thanking God for His goodness. 

We have related above^ that we had got separated from 
our other Zeeland vessel already more than three months, 
but by God's sufferance we found it here in the harbour of 
this land, whereby still greater joy and gladness was 
occasioned. And so we took in our supply of fresh water 
and other provisions in all haste. 

^ Taken possession of by the Dutch in 1598, and abandoned in 

1 7 10. 

'^ Reunion or Bourbon. Originally called after Mascarenhas, who 
discovered it early in the sixteenth century. 

^ The wording of this paragraph is loose, but all this later portion 
of the Journal, from December onwards, bears evidence of hurried 

* That is not so. 

M 2 

l64 SPEILBERGEN'S JOURNAL. [April, 1617 


On April 7th we set sail for St. Helena. 

On the 14th of the same month we saw the Island of 
Ascension by night, on account of the brightness of the 

On the 23rd, we saw two ships out at sea, and notwith- 
standing the signal we made they would not speak with us. 


On the 13th of the month of May we passed north of 
the Salt Islands. 


On the 1st day of July, throu^^h the mercy of the 
Almighty, we reached, with these two richly-laden vessels, 
the harbour of our country in the province of Zealand, 
to which we had so long looked forward, wherefore we all 
thanked and praised God Almighty for the mercy shown 
us and for bringing us back from so long and not less 
perilous a voyage. 

Here endeth the Journal of Joris Spilberghen, whose 
passage is wonderful and very entertaining to read. Further 
are appended hereunto the Australian Navigations of 
Jacob le Maire, for this reason, to wit, that in this preceding 
Journal or New East and West Indian Navigations, mention 
is made in passing Magellanes Strait of a thoroughfare 
into the South Sea, and moreover, that this aforementioned 
le Maire did take ship with the aforesaid Joris Spilberghen 
in order to return home, but died on the voyage in Joris 
Spilberghen's presence, and so rests in the Lord. 

dc yAisUcuru)^ zfnMrwm rwnvinc cla/u^ , 
jacovus ^mayniLS orti pitcbat , 

tfU sua. 


from the Dutch Edition^ 1 622, 
of Antonio de Herreras ^^Indias Occidentales'' 


discovered by 


in the years 1615, 1616, and 1617, 

Wherein is shown in what manner they found a new 
thoroughfare on the south of Magellanes Strait 
extending as far as the South Sea, with a 
description of the strange nations, 
peoples, countries and ad- 
ventures which they 
saw and met 

To THE Reader. 

Whereas by a certain Charter of Their High Mighti- 
nesses the States General of the United Netherlands 
(granted to the General East India Company), it was 
forbidden to all merchants and inhabitants of the aforesaid 
Netherlands to sail east of the Cabo de bona Esperance 
eastwards and through the Strait of Magellanes westward, 
either to India or to any other known or unknown 
countries, Therefore Isaack le Maire, a renowned merchant 
of Amsterdam, dwelling at Egmont, being very inclined to 
trade in strange and far distant parts, and Willem 
Cornelisz. Schouten, of Hoorn, (a man well experienced 


and very famous in navigation, as having already sailed 
three times to nearly all places in the East Indies as 
skipper, pilot, and merchant, and still very eager after 
strange voyages and the visiting of new and unknown 
lands) did often speak and deliberate together whether it 
were not possible to come by some other way not men- 
tioned nor forbidden in the aforesaid Charter into the 
great South Sea, where they were of opinion they would 
discover great and rich countries in which ships would 
obtain rich cargoes, since the aforesaid le Maire said he 
had some knowledge thereof : or should they not succeed 
in this according to wish, that they should then sail along 
the aforesaid great South Sea to East India and certainly 
trade there with profit. They finally agreed to go and 
make a search in the most southerly and unknown part of 
the earth, to look for a thoroughfare south of the Strait 
Magellani extending to the aforesaid South Sea, of which 
they thought there was no small probability, from various 
particulars concerning the aforesaid Strait of Magellanes 
discovered by others at divers times. And in order to 
bring this matter about they agreed that Isaac le Maire 
should raise one half and Willem Cornelisz. Schouten the 
other half of the monies for such projected voyage from 
good friends and admirers, the care of furthering the affair 
and arranging everything being left to Willem Cornelisz. 
Schouten, who induced Messieurs Pieter Clementsz. 
Brouwer, formerly burgomaster of the town of Hoorn, Jan 
Jansz. Molenwerf, alderman, Jan Clementsz. Kies, Secretary 
of the said town, and Cornells Segertsz., citizen there, to 
become the chief participants and to allow themselves to 
be used moreover as directors together with the aforesaid 
Willem Schouten, Isaac le Maire and Jacob le Maire, son 
of the aforesaid Isaac ; and these did in a short time 
collect such a sum of money as they understood was 
necessary for their projected equipment, without however 


giving any of the participants any revelation or knowledge 
of the projected voyage, but keeping that secret amongst 
themselves, the aforesaid directors. In order, then, to 
undertake this voyage the aforesaid directors equipped 
and fitted out at Hoorn a big ship and a yacht, the big 
ship being named the Eendracht, of about no lasts,^ the 
skipper being the aforesaid Willem Cornelisz. Schouten, 
and the supercargo and commander of the voyage the 
aforesaid Jacob le Maire and his brother ; it carried sixty- 
five men, nineteen iron guns, twelve mortars, muskets and 
other ammunitions of war in proportion, and, for the safety 
of the ship, a big sailing shallop, a shallop for rowing, a boat 
and a skiff, being further well provided with anchors, cables, 
sails and othe^ necessary things. The yacht named Hoorn, 
of about 55 lasts, of which the skipper was Jan Cornelisz. 
Schouten and the supercargo Aris Claesz., carried twenty- 
two men, eight iron guns, four mortars and other arms in 
proportion, and was further well provided with everything 
necessary for the performance of such a voyage. And as 
they made their intention known to no one, as has been 
said, they engaged all the sailors necessary for their 
service, as well as boatswains and officers, on this con- 
dition, that they should proceed whithersoever it should 
please the skipper and supercargo. Wherefore very diverse 
opinions obtained among the crews concerning this voyage 
and these ships, which were finally called the Goldseekers, 
but the aforesaid directors called their assembly the 
Australian Company. The vessels being equipped, all 
the crews were inspected by the sheriff and aldermen of 
the town of Hoorn on May i6th, 161 5 ; on the 25th, the 
Eendracht sailed from Hoorn and arrived at Tessel^ on the 
27th. The yacht followed from Hoorn on June 3rd, and 
arrived at Tessel the following day. What befell them 

^ 220 tons. '' T^xel. 


further and on the whole of their voyage has been truly- 
set out in the following narrative from the writings and 
verbal accounts of those who saw and experienced the 
same, and who were not of the meanest in that voyage, 
either in rank or service.^ 


* Concerning the rival claims to the authorship of this Journal, see 
the Introduction, pp. xlvii-xlviii. 


Discovered by JACOB LE Maire in the years 1615, 1616 

and 161 7, wherein is shown in what manner they 

found a new thoroughfare on the south of 

Magellanes Strait extending as far as the 

South Sea, with a description of the 

strange nations, peoples, countries 

and adventures which they 

saw and met with. 

June, 161 5. 

Towards evening on June 14th we sailed out of the 
harbour of Tessel.^ 

On the morning of the i6th we came in sight of Duyn- 
kerchen^ and drifted that day with the high tide and fine 
weather as far as the Straits. 

On the morning of the 17th we anchored in the Downs 
on account of contrary winds ; there Skipper Willem Cor- 
nelisz. Schout went ashore at Doeveren^ and hired an 
English gunner, who came on board on the morning of the 
19th with the men who had been to get water. 

At midday on the 19th we set sail thence ; towards the 
evening a big fleet of Dutch salt-ships met us near the 

On the 2 1 St we had a storm from the south-west, which 
still continued on the 22nd, wherefore we dropped a 

1 Texel. 2 Dunkirk. » Dover. 

* The Shingles, Dungeness. 

1^6 JACOB Lfi MAIRE^S [June, 1 615 

driving anchor and ran into Wicht/ where the skipper 
tried to engage a carpenter but could not get one. 

On the 2Sth we sailed out of Wicht and arrived at 
Pleymuyen^ towards noon on the 27th, where the skipper 
engaged a carpenter of Medenblick. 

Early on the morning of the 28th we sailed out of 
Pleymuyen with an east-nor'-east wind. 

On the 29th the weather was fine, and the skipper and 
clerk of the yacht came aboard the big vessel ; it was 
resolved that on the 4th of the ensuing month rations 
should be dealt out, that is to say, on long voyages food 
and drink are dealt out to the crew by weight and measure 
each man receiving a portion which must serve him. 


On the 4th, according to resolution, the first rations were 
dealt out, to wit, to each man a tankard of beer per day, 
four pounds of bread, and half a pound of butter (with 
allowance for melting) per week, and five cheeses for the 
whole voyage. 

On the 8th, in the latitude of 39" 25', near the Baerels,'* 
the second carpenter of the yacht died, after an illness of 
not two days. 

On the 9th and loth we had a northerly and north- 
easterly wind, and went briskly along, so that we came in 
sight of Porto Santo and Madera on the nth, passing 
them on the east. 

On the morning of the 12th we saw Salvages,* passing it 
about two miles to larboard. 

On the morning of the 13th we saw the islands of 
Tenerifa and Great Canaries ; about noon we ran through 

1 The Isle of Wight. 2 Plymouth. 

^ Meaning the Cabreras, the southern group of the Azores being 
early so called ; this error, like many others, is evidently that of a 

* A group of rocky islets in 3o'-3o' 9' S., 15^ 59'-i6° 6' W. 

July, 1615] AUSTRALIAN NAVtGAttONS. t^l 

between both with a stiff nor'-nor'-east wind and good 

Between the 14th and 15th we passed the Tropic of 
Cancer with the same wind and progress. 

On the morning of the i6th we encountered big waves 
with a nor'-nor'-east wind ; the boat that trailed behind 
the big ship filled with water and the ropes broke, so that 
we lost her, though we had safely towed her from Hoorn 
as far as tjiis. At noon we were in latitude 20" 30'. 

On the 17th and i8th we had fine weather and made 
good progress ; the wind being in the north, nor'-nor'-west 
and north-west, we proceeded west and south and reached 
latitude 14^ 45' by noon on the 19th. 

On the morning of the 20th we found ourselves north of 
Cabo Verde, were in 8 fathoms when we first sighted land, 
sailed along the coast and at daybreak the cape lay west 
by south of us, so that with a nor'-nor'-westerly wind we 
were unable to double it, and therefore obliged to anchor 
close to the shore in 32 fathoms. The following night it 
blew hard with much thunder and rain. 

On the morning of the 21st the wind was sou'-sou'-east, 
and variable at daybreak, so that we set sail, shaping our 
course out to sea, first west by north, afterwards north- 
west, but we made only about 6 miles the whole of that 

On the 22nd we drifted nearly all day in a calm, with 
our sails down ; Cabo Verde lay east of us and towards 
evening we saw a sail to the south of us, running to the 

On the morning of the 23rd the wind was south, so that 
we were unable to double the cape but obliged to anchor 
on account of the current. Towards noon we set sail 
again with a westerly wind, got round the cape and came 
to anchor at night inside of the second island, in the usual 
roadstead, in 10 fathoms and on a sandy bottom. 

t7i JACOB LE maire's [July, 1615 

On the 24th it rained very much and we made prepara- 
tions for getting in a supply of water. 

On the 25th the Alkayer (who is as much as Governor) 
came aboard, and we arranged with him that for eight 
rods of iron we might get water for both ships in peace. 

On the 26th, it was dark rainy weather and we saw a 
ship come in from sea and anchor 2 miles from us close to 
the shore ; it was a boat from Rotterdam which came 
there to trade with the shore. 

On the 28th and 29th we took in a supply of water, 
and our yacht went under sail to the place where the 
Rotterdam vessel lay in a bay named Refresco/ in order 
to ascertain whether we could get any lemons there, but 
she came back in the evening without having been able 
to obtain any. 

On the 31st, a French vessel came in from sea to lie at 
anchor with us in the roadstead. We had the same day 
kept on board a negro who showed us at night a good 
place in which to fish, and our men, having gone ashore 
with the drag-net, caught as much fish of various kinds as 
both crews were able to eat in two days. 

On the morning of August ist we set sail from Cabo 
Verde together with the little Rotterdam vessel, which 
parted from us at noon, shaping her course for the Salt 
Islands. We had fine weather for the next twenty-four 
hours and a fine continuous breeze from the north, and 
proceeded towards the south-west. 

From the 2nd to the i8th we had many variable winds. 

^ To-day there is a town here known as Rufisque, which name is a 
corruption of Rio Fresco, the river that runs into the bay. The bay 
itself is still called Goree — a corruption of Goeree (or Goede 
Reede = good roadstead) — the name originally given to it by the 
Dutch, not appropriately, for the roadstead is a bad one, but in 
honour of the town in Holland from which they set out. 


On the 1 8th and 19th the wind continued as before, and 
we resolved to set our course for Sierra Liona in order 
to provision there, since our crew was fast beginning to 
contract scurvy and we were forced by strong contrary 
winds to lie to daily ; it was also too late for a speedy 
passage across the line, nor should we have got much 
provisions at the Cape. During these twenty-four hours 
we had fine weather and a fair breeze, and at noon we 
reached the latitude of f 55'. 

At noon on the 20th we were in latitude 7° 25', with 
fine weather and a lively breeze from the south, proceeded 
east and east by north, and saw many land birds and 
changes of water. Towards the evening we cast the lead 
in 30 fathoms on a sandy bottom and found the land some 
40 miles before we had thought to do so, anchoring at 
night in 16 fathoms on the western side of the Baixos of 
S. Anna.i 

On the morning of the 21st we set sail at daybreak and 
saw the high land of Sierra Liona about 6 miles from us 
north-east by north ; we also saw the islands of Mabra- 
bomba,^ which lie at the south corner of the high land of 
Sierra Liona, north of the Baixos of S. Anna. Sierra 
Liona is a very high land, so that there is in those parts 
no land so high between Cabo Verde and the coast of 
Guinea, wherefore, too, it is easily distinguishable. We 
did our best to get near the land that day and had the 
current mostly in our favour, running along the shore and 
also past the Baixos of S. Anna in 10, 9, 8, 7, and 5 fathoms 
of water. When we sailed to the north it got deeper, 
when to the east shallower, so that at high tide in the 
evening we anchored in 5| fathoms on a soft bottom, 
though at low tide in the night it was not deeper than 4J 
fathoms, but it was fine clear weather. 

1 The'!Shoals of St. Ann. See next paragraph. 

2 Banana Is. 

174 JACOB LE MAIRE'S [Aug., 1615 

At daybreak on the morning of the 22nd the skipper, 
Willem Schouten, went aboard the yacht and sailed on in 
advance with her, the big ship following. With a north- 
westerly wind we ran to the nor'-nor'-east on an ebb tide, 
getting into 18 fathoms immediately after leaving the 
Baixos and coming near the islands of Mabrabomba. 
These are very high and are situated, three of them in 
a row, S.S.W. and N.N.E., half a mile out to sea from the 
south corner of Sierra Liona. There we got into shallow 
water of 5 and 4 fathoms, with a bad muddy bottom. 

We anchored about a mile from the shore, landed there, 
but found it uninhabited by human beings, though we 
saw numerous footprints of big wild beasts ; the country 
was desolate, full of wildnesses, low swamps and high 

On the morning of the 23rd the supercargo, Jacob le 
Maire, went aboard the yacht and thence rowed ashore 
with both the boats. They found a river before which lay 
some rocks and reefs, so that no ships could get into it, 
but once inside it was deep and wide enough for ships to 
tack. They found no people here either, but saw three 
wild oxen and numbers of marmosets, as well as some 
birds that barked like dogs. They went up some 3 miles 
on the rising tide, found here and there a wild palmite, but 
came back on board in the evening without having seen 
any signs of human beings or of any fruits that could be 
of use to them. 

On the 24th both the skiffs proceeded ashore again in 
order to look for human beings or for some edible fruits, 
each going up a different river, Aris Claesz., of the yacht, 
with one of the assistants, in the one, and Claes Jansz. Ban, 
with our second mate in the other ; both went up for some 
5 miles, and returned on board on the morning of the 25th. 
The supercargo of the yacht had been in a salt-water 
river e^nd had had no luck, bringing only five or six wild 


palmites. But Claes Jansz. Ban had been in a fresh-water 
river and had found a spot there with eight or nine lemon 
trees ; these they had shaken and had got from them about 
750 lemons, which were almost ripe and fit for keeping. 
They had also seen there many turtles and some crocodiles, 
but no human beings. We resolved to make an attempt 
to get into that fresh-water river with both our ships in 
order to provide ourselves there with fresh water and 
lemons ; we set sail but found too little water, so that 
we had to anchor in 6 fathoms. The yacht anchored in 
front of the river, near the lee-shore, but found bad water 
on account of the whirl from the Baxios of S. Anna. The 
supercargo, Jacob Ic Maire, and Aries Claesz., supercargo 
of the yacht, proceeded up the river in the boat, in very 
rainy weather. 

On the i6thi it blew a stiff breeze from the sou'-sou'- 
west, so that we could do nothing in the way of sailing, 
but the yacht ran to the south corner of the bay, which is 
about 5 miles wide, from the northern to the southern 

On the morning of the 27th we weighed anchor, in order 
to sail to the yacht and about noon the supercargo, Jacob 
le Maire, came back on board in the yacht's boat, bringing 
with him about 1400 lemons which they had obtained 
here and there in the aforementioned river, without having 
seen any human beings. In the evening we came near 
the yacht and anchored there in 4 J fathoms. 

On the 28th, our first mate proceeded with two boats up 
the river before which we were lying and returned in the 
evening, having found no country fit for exploration nor 
any sign of human beings, but only a buffalo with its 
calf, and for the rest swamp and trees, which stood in the 
salt water. 

* Should, of course, be 26th. 

1/6 JACOB LE MAIRE'S [Aug., 1615 

On the 29th, having found that we were not in the 
river of Sierra Liona we decided very early to set sail and 
ran along north of the high land. At noon we sailed past 
the islands of Mabrobomba/ that is, to the west of them, 
and towards the high land on the north, in 12 and 15 
fathoms all the time, and in the evening got round the 
corner, where we anchored in 1 5 fathoms. 

On the morning of the 30th we weighed anchor and 
drifted with the current and a southerly wind off the 
village in the roadstead of Sierra Liona, anchoring there 
in 8 fathoms on a sandy bottom, about a musket shot 
from shore, where wc saw eight or nine huts thatched with 
straw. The blacks called to us in their language that we 
should fetch them on board since they have no canoes 
there. We sent our boat ashore, which immediately 
returned with five blacks, one of whom was the inter- 
preter. The latter desired that some men should stay as 
hostages, for shortly before a French ship had come there 
and had carried off two blacks. Aris Claesz., who had 
gone ashore in the boat, remained as a hostage, having 
with him a few beads, which he bartered away that 
afternoon for some 700 lemons, nearly quite ripe, and two 
bunches of bananas, also nearly ripe. The interpreter 
spoke all sorts of languages mixed. As it was fine 
weather all the time, our men made another journey that 
day for water, which is very easily obtainable there, 
running down from the mountains right into the harbour, 
so that all we did was to hold the barrels under the 
cascade and then place them in the boat. It was very 
good water. 

On the 31st we got our casks full of water and in the 
morning Jacob le Maire, Aris Claesz., Claes Jansz. Ban and 
all the assistants went ashore and got that day by barter, 

^ Vu/e supra, p. 17,4. 


at a guess, some twenty-five thousand lemons, all for a few 
beads and some poor Nuremberg knives. We could have 
got a hundred thousand, had we desired them, for there 
were whole forests full of them. In the evening we also 
bartered \vith the negros for a quantity of fish. 


On September ist, in the afternoon, we weighed anchor 
and drifted down again with the current, with fine weather 
and a good breeze. Towards evening we anchored near 
the mouth of the sea,^ before a small stream. 

On the morning of the 2nd our yacht proceeded to the 
beach at high tide, in order to be cleaned ; the place 
afforded a good opportunity, the water rising and falling 
seven feet. In the evening our men came aboard again 
bringing with them a small white animal called an antilopy 
which they had found in the bush in a trap set by the 
negroes. They also brought some lemons aboard and 
towards evening the boat went out fishing, bringing back a 
good quantity, with a number of palmites, which the men 
had cut down in the bush. 

On the 3rd, in the afternoon, the yacht returned from 
the beach already cleaned ; our skipper, too, went out 
fishing, and brought a good quantity of fish aboard in the 
evening, fish of a shape like shoemakers' knives. The men 
also brought aboard 1 50 lemons apiece. 

Early on the morning of the 4th we weighed our anchors 
and set sail from Sierra Liona, with little breeze, but 
anchored again at night on account of contrary winds in 
14 fathoms, on a good bottom. 

On the 5th, in the first watch, we weighed anchor again 
and set sail. 

bij de mondt vande Zee." 


178 JACOB LE MAIRE's [Sept., 161 

From the 6th to the i8th we had much calm weather, 
with variable winds, and dropped anchor several times. 

At noon on the i8th we set sail, and our yacht lost its 
cable and anchor by reason of the pitching whilst it was 
being weighed. It was blowing a stiff breeze and the 
waves were pretty high. 

On the morning of the 19th we resolved to put in to 
Sierra Liona again for refreshment and water, since we 
still had contrary winds and were quite weary of the sea 
on account of the daily storms and rain. In the afternoon 
we again got the right wind from the north-west, wherefore 
we once more altered our course towards the south in 
order to proceed on our voyage. 

On the 20th we still had the right wind and kept on our 
way to the south ; at noon we were in latitude 8° 30'. 

On the 2 1st and during the rest of the month we had 
variable winds and much calm weather, with heavy and 
furious rains each day. At noon on the 30th our latitude 
was five degrees. 


In the beginning of October we had variable winds and 
occasional calms, and it rained heavily for whole days and 
nights together. 

On the 5th we were in latitude 4° 27'. About noon there 
was such a din forward, at the bow of the vessel, that our 
skipper, who was aft, in the gallery, thought that a man 
had fallen from the bows of the ship or from the bowsprit 
into the water, but on looking over the side he saw that the 
sea was quite red with blood, as if a large quantity of 
blood had been poured out, whereat he was astonished, not 
knowing what it could mean. But afterwards we dis- 
covered that a great horned fish or sea-monster had struck 
the ship with his horn with most wonderful force, for when 
we reached Porto Desire and beached the vessel in order to 


clean her, we found sticking in the ship, forward in the 
bow, about seven feet below the water-line, a horn, very 
similar in shape and thickness to the end of an ordinary- 
elephant's tusk, not hollow, but full of very firm, strong and 
exceedingly hard bone. It pierced through three sheath- 
ings of the vessel, to wit, through two stout fir planks, 
through another of stout oak and partly through another rib, 
where it was finally stopped, to our great good fortune, for 
if it had penetrated between the ribs into the interior of 
the ship it would possibly have made a larger hole and 
have endangered the safety of the vessel with all aboard. 
This horn was sticking in the ship's side to the depth of 
quite half a foot, with nearly half a foot protruding, where 
it had been broken off short with great violence, this having 
caused the monster to bleed so profusely. 

From the 6th to the 19th and 20th we made fairly good 
progress and saw many whales ; the preceding night we 
passed the equinoctial line. 

On the 28th we had the same wind and course as before. 
Until this moment we had sailed without anyone aboard 
our vessels (excepting only our Skipper and Director, 
Willem Cornelisz. Schout, and the supercargo, Jacob le 
Maire), knowing whither we were bound : then they read 
read out before all of us the aim of our voyage, which was 
that we should try to get by a way other than the Strait of 
Magellanes into the South Sea in order to discover there 
certain new countries in the south where it was thought 
great wealth could be got, or, if that did not succeed 
according to desire, that we should then sail along the 
great South Sea to the East Indies. There was great joy 
among the crew that day concerning this declaration, for 
they now knew whither they were being taken, and each 
one hoped to get something on his own account out of a 
prosperous voyage and to profit by it. 

N 2 

i8o JACOB LE M aire's [Nov., 1615 


On November ist we were in latitude 13° 30' and passed 
the sun, so that now we got the latter to the north of us at 

On the 3rd our latitude was 19° 2d. We saw some 
black birds and two or three gannets, and in the afternoon 
we sighted one of the islands of Martin Vaes^ named 
Ascension ;^ it lay south-east by east of us, in the latitude 
of 20°, and we found there increasing north-east variations 
of 12°. The wind continued to blow from the north and 
nor'-nor'-east, as on the preceding days, and we kept our 
course to the south. That day the crew received a double 
ration of wine because we had passed the dangerous shoals 
of the Abrolhos. 

The following days, down to the 20th, we sailed mostly 
to the south and south-west. 

On the 20th our latitude was 36° 57'. We saw many 
quails floating about and great quantities of sea-lice, 
vermin very similar to lice, of about the size of a small fly. 

On the 22nd the Council ordered each man to be given 
a quartern of Spanish wine daily and a quartern of oil 
weekly, the French wine and butter being finished. 

On the 23rd we saw a number of whales and a pale sea ; 
at noon our latitude was 40° 56'. 

On the 24th we still saw many large fish and a deal of 
rock-weed floating about ; we got some high seas from the 
west and saw a large number of birds. 

On the 30th we got into pale water, as if we were near 
land; our latitude was 46° 15' and we again saw many 

^ Not, of course, to be confounded with the better-known Ascension 
in 70° 56' S. The Martin Vaz Islands are a rocky group of five 
between 20° 27'- 20' 29' S. 

Number 22 is PoRTO Desire, 
With an explanation of some references in the following map. 

A. Is Spieringh-Bay where (having sailed into it in error) we lay all 

night in very great danger of losing the ship. 

B. The spot where we were driven ashore with the vessels and got 

aground, so that it was possible to walk dry-shod under the 
yacht, very awful to behold. 

C. Vogels- Island, where we captured many young birds. 

D. Leeuwen Island. 

E. Coninckx Island, behind or inside of which we lay at anchor. 

F. The spot where our yacht, the Hoorn^ stood on tbe rocks and got 

burned from below. 

G. The spot where, after long and frequent search, we found fresh 

water which we had to carry on board in small barrels. 
H. The graves of very tall human beings, whose skeletons we found, 

10 and II feet long, and whose skulls (on being opened at the 

base) could be put over our heads like helmets. 
I, K. Are drawings of the sea-lions and lionesses, a few of which we 

captured and ate. 
L. A kind of animal, almost like deer, but having necks as long as the 

whole of their bodies ; they are very swift running animals and 

we saw many such on the mountains daily. 
M. Ostriches, many of which we also saw here. 
N. Is a forked branch, of stone, shaped most wondrously by nature ; 

from afar it looks like a post or beacon, put up by human 


PLATE No. 22. 



On the 2ncl of December, in latitude 47° 45', we saw 
much rock-weed floating about. 

On the 4th we still saw much rock-weed, pale water 
and many birds. At noon our latitude was 47° 25', and 
we got 16 degrees of increasing north-east variation of the 
needle. Towards the evening we cast the lead and found 
a sandy bottom at 75 fathoms. 

On the morning of the 5th we found the bottom at 
65 fathoms ; saw many birds and much rock-weed. At 
noon our latitude was 46° 25' ; in the evening we found a 
bottom at 45 degrees^ and saw many whales. 

At daybreak on the morning of the 6th we were in 
46 fathoms and proceeding in a west-sou'-westerly direction 
with a north-west wind ; at noon our latitude was 47° 30', 
and in the afternoon we found the bottom in 42 fathoms. 
At about four o'clock we saw the land ; it was not very 
high and had a bad coast, whiteish to the eye. We made 
the land, according to wish and desire, just north of the 
harbour of Porto Desire, casting anchor in the evening in 
10 fathoms about a mile and a-half from the shore. We 
caught an ebb tide running south with as much force as 
in the Straits of Dover or off Flushing. 

On the morning of the 7th we weighed anchor and 
proceeded under sail in a southerly direction until about 
noon, when we reached the harbour of Porto Desire, 
situated in latitude 47° 40'. We ran towards the entrance, 
reaching it with the sea up to high-water mark, so that 
the rocks of which Olivier van Noort^ writes as having to 

^ 5/V, for fathoms. 

^^ Olivier van Noort set out from Rotterdam for his renowned circum- 
navigation of the globe (his aim being to attack the Spanish and 
Portuguese establishments beyond the seas), September I3tb, 1598, 
and returned, without having effected anything very great, August 26th, 
1 60 1. The Beschrijving van de Voyagie cm den geheelen Werelt Clcot 

l82 JACOB LE MAIRE'S [Dec, 1615 

be left on the north when entering the harbour were 
already submerged, but at the southern corner some rocks 
were visible which we took for the former. We therefore 
ran south of them, but came south of the right entrance 
into the impasse of a wrong inlet, and anchored there at 
high tide in 5J fathoms. When the tide was out we were 
in not more than 14 feet of water, so that the Eendracht 
had her stern firmly aground on a bottom entirely of rocks. 
The wind, fortunately for us in our position, was blowing 
westerly from the land, for had we had an east wind 
blowing at all freshly we should certainly have lost the 
ship. We found many eggs on the rocks there and 
caught fine mussels and fish, amongst others smelts six- 
teen inches long, wherefore we called this inlet Spierincx 

Our sloop proceeded to the Pinguijns Islands, situated 
2 miles east-south-east of Porto Desire and returned 
aboard late in the evening, bringing two sea-lions and 
150 penguins, which we ate next day. 

At daybreak on the morning of the 8th we sailed out 
of the Spieringh bay with a land breeze and anchored 
right before the harbour of Porto Desire, sending our 
shallop to sound the entrance. She returned at noon, 
having found 12 to 13 fathoms of water in the entrance. 
Immediately after noon with the tide at high-water mark 
and an east-north-east wind we again set sail, with the 
yacht on in advance, and went straight into the entrance. 
When we had proceeded about a mile and a half up the 
river we came against the wind and dropped our anchor 
in 20 fathoms. The bottom there was of smooth stone, 
for half an hour afterwards a strong wind sprang up from 

Rotterdam, 1602, is the first edition of his journal, the first English 
version appearing in Purchas his Pilgrimes in 1625, Pt. I, pp. 71 
et seq. 
^ Spiering = a smelt. 


the north-west, and both vessels, each having two anchors 
out, immediately drifted against the southern shore— nay, 
twenty five anchors would not have held them — so that 
we firmly believed we had lost both ships. The big ship 
lay side on upon the rocks and as the tide fell she 
slipped down a bit at intervals, but remained tight ; the 
yacht, however, settled upon the rocks in such a manner 
that the ebb left her dry, and at low tide it was possible 
to walk under her keel near the mainmast without wetting 
one's feet. The keel stood more than a fathom out of the 
water, a thing terrible to behold. And as it blew hard 
from the nor'-nor'-west, she was prevented by the wind 
from falling over; this was evident from the fact that 
when the gale abated she fell to windward from the 
shore upon her side, with her deck three feet lower than 
her keel, whereat we were all very terrified, thinking that 
the yacht was quite lost to us, but the tide rising and 
the weather remaining calm, she floated again, at which 
we were all not a little glad. 

Whilst it was still calm in the evening we got away 
from the shore and during the night the yacht joined us. 

On the morning of the 9th we again proceeded up 
stream under sail and came near Coninckx Island, so 
named by Olivier.^ The yacht got behind it and anchored, 
but we could not get inside with the Eendracht on account 
of contrary wind. Our men landed on the island, which 
was almost entirely covered with eggs. A man standing 
still, with his feet together, could touch with his hands 
fifty-four nests, each containing three or four eggs similar 
in shape to (but somewhat bigger than) plovers' eggs. 
They belonged to the black-backed gull, and we brought 
them on board by thousands and ate them. 

^ Olivier van Noort (see p. 181). Beschrijzing van de Voyagie (tn 
den Geheelen Werelt Cloot^ Rotterdam, 1602, p. 16. September 29th, 
1599 : — " Vonden een Eylant dat wij Conincx Eylant ncemden." 

184 JACOB LE maire's [Dec, 161 5 

On the loth our boat proceeded to the north bank of 
the river to look for fresh water, but could find none. 
The men dug pits, some of them 14 feet deep, but found 
all the water brackish, both on the high hills and in the 
valleys. In the evening they came on board again, bringing 
birds and eggs in great numbers. 

On the nth the boat proceeded downstream to the 
south bank in order to look for water and human beings, 
but found only brackish water. We saw some ostriches 
and animals almost like deer, with very long necks, which 
were very shy of us. On the summit of the mountain we 
found some graves, consisting of a few heaps of stones, 
and as we did not know what these meant we overturned 
one heap and found under it the bones of human beings 
10 and II feet in stature. They lay the dead down on the 
summit of the mountains and cover them with a quantity 
of stones, only to protect them from beasts and birds. 

On the 1 2th, 13th, 14th, 15th and i6th our men went 
ashore daily in search of water but found none, bringing 
only many birds and quantities of fish on board. 

On the 17th, we beached our vessel behind Conincx 
Island in order to clean her ; we managed to get a very 
dry berth, so that we were able to go right round her 

On the 1 8th our yacht was also beached about two 
musket shots distant from our ship in order to be cleaned. 

On the 19th whilst we were occupied in cleaning both 
our vessels and were burning the bottom of our yacht the 
flames unexpectedly and very quickly flew up as far as the 
rigging 3.nd took hold of her, so that in an instant there 
was no more chance of putting them out, especially as the 
yacht was beached some 50 feet from the water; and we 
were therefore compelled to see her totally burnt before 
our eyes without being able to do aught to prevent it. 

At high tide on the 20th we got our ship, the Eendracht 


off again and proceeding to the yacht, put out the fire, 
but she was burnt right down to the water's edge. On the 
following days we broke up what was left of her, stowing 
away what timber and ironwork we could get, with the 
guns and anchors. 

On the 25th our men found, at a good distance inland, 
some pits containing fresh water, but it was white and very 
thick ; we fetched water from them daily. Some of the 
men carried the water in small barrels on their shoulders, 
whilst the others went armed with muskets in order 
to protect them. Others fetched daily many birds and 
eggs, also young sea- lions, which we ate and found to 
be fairly good in flavour. These sea-lions are animals 
similar in size to a small horse, having heads like lions and 
long rough hair around their neck; but the females are 
almost hairless and not half as big as the males. They 
could only be killed by shooting them in the breast or 
brain with a musket, for even if they had received one 
hundred blows with hand-spikes or crow-bars until the 
blood flowed from their mouth and nostrils, they would 
still run away. Whilst we lay here in this river we had 
many strong winds, and sometimes much rain and storm. 


On January 9th we shipped our last water, and on the 
lOth we set sail to prosecute our voyage, but towards noon 
the wind began to blow from the sea so that we anchored 
again near Leeuwen Island; we caught much fish and 
many birds that day. 

On the 1 2th our shallop proceeded to the Pinguins^ 
Islands to get some penguins, but could not get back to the 
ship that day on account of bad weather, remaining over- 
night in Spieringbay. It returned next day, early in the 

* See Introduction, p. Ixi, line i. 

i86 JACOB LE MAiRE's [Jan., 1616 

morning, laden with penguins, but they were spoilt on 
account of their great number, and we threw them over- 

On the 13th, in the afternoon, we sailed out of Porto 
Desire, but as the weather became calm we anchored 
outside the harbour ; subsequently, a breeze sprang up 
again, we weighed anchor and sailed out to sea. 

On the morning of the i8th we saw Sebalds Islands 
about 3 miles south-east of us ; according to what Sebaldt 
,de Weert wrote, they lie separated from the Strait, about 
50 miles east-nor'-east and west-sou'-west.^ At noon our 
latitude was 5 1 degrees. 

On the 20th we saw much rock-weed floating about. 
We observed that there was a strong current running to 
the south-west. At noon our latitude was 53 degrees, and 
we computed that we were 20 miles from land south of the 
Strait of Magellanes. 

At noon on the 21st, our latitude was 53 degrees. 

Early on the morning of the 23rd the wind rose in the 
south, but towards noon it fell, subsequently veering to 
the west. At noon we cast anchor in 50 fathoms on a 
black sandy bottom with small pebbles. Then we got a 
northerly wind, with shallow water and fine weather. The 
water was as pale as if we were inland and we sailed in 

1 " A short and true. Account of what befell certain five Ships sailing 
from Rotterdam to the Straits of Magellan, the 27th June, 1598, to the 
2 1 St January, 1600, on which day Captain Sebald de Weert, leaving the 
said Strait with the Ship V Gheloove^ was forced to return home. 
Also how the aforesaid Captain, not without having experienced great 
dangers, arrived again at Rotterdam on July 13th of the said year." 

The original Dutch Verhael^ from which the above title is translated, 
forms the fourth journal of Deel I of Commelin's Begin ende Voort- 
gangh^ edit. 1646, and the following passage will illustrate Speilber- 
gen's statement. Fol. 30 [Translation] : — "On the morning of the 24th 
(January, 1600) they sighted a-lee of them three small islands, which 
had hitherto not been known in any maps : these they called Sebalt's 
Islands, lying about 60 miles from the main land in latitude 
50° 40'." 

Number 23 is the Chart or Itinerary of Jacob le Maire, 

Showing Your Honours in what manner the aforesaid Jacob le Maire 
passed [into]^ the South Sea by a new strait, and so to the Indies. 

^ See note to number 2 (opposite p. 24). 

PLATE No. 23. 


a south-by-westerly direction. At about three in the 
afternoon we saw land in the west and south-west, and 
shortly after we also sighted it in the south. In the 
evening we had a northerly wind and sailed east-sou'-east 
in order to keep away from the land. It blew very hard 
on a rough sea so that we hoisted our top-sails. 

Early on the morning of the 24th we sighted land to 
starboard, lying not more than a good mile away ; we 
found the bottom in 40 fathoms and had a westerly wind. 
The land ran east by south with very high mountains, 
which were all white with snow. We continued to sail 
along the land, and about noon we came to the end of it 
and saw more land east of the last, also very high and 
dangerous looking. These countries lay in our opinion 
about 8 miles from each other, and there appeared to be a 
good channel between them both ; this we opined the 
more firmly because we observed that a strong current to 
the south ran in between these two countries. At noon 
our latitude was 54° 46'; in the afternoon we got a 
northerly wind. We made for this channel, but towards 
the evening the wind fell, and we drifted on all night with 
a strong current and little wind. We saw immense 
numbers of penguins here, also whales by thousands, so 
that we were compelled to be constantly on our guard, 
loofing up and with a drag-sail set, in order to avoid the 
whales and not run into them. 

On the morning of the 25th we were close to the more 
easterly land, which was very high and perilous, extending 
on the north side to the east-south-east, as far as we could 
see. We gave this the name of Staten-landt, but the land 
to the west of us we called Mauritius de Nassauw. We are 
of opinion that good roadsteads and sand-bays would be 
found on both sides, for there was on both sides fine sandy 
beach and gently rising sand bottom. Fish, penguins and 
seals are there in great abundance, also birds and water in 

1 88 JACOB LE M aire's [Jan., 1616 

sufficiency, but we could see no trees. We had a northerly- 
wind to carry us into the channel, sailing sou'-sou'-west, 
with good progress. At noon our latitude was 55° 36', 
when we set our course south-west, with a fresh breeze and 
rain, with excellent progress. We saw the land south of 
the channel stretching away from the most westerly end 
of Mauritius de Nassauw land to the west-sou'-west and 
south-west, as far as our eyes could carry : all very high 
and perilous land. In the evening the wind veered to 
the south-west, and we then ran southward that night 
with a heavy roll from the south-west and very blue 
water, from which we opined and were certain that we had 
open and deep water on the weatherside, not doubting that 
it was the great South Sea, whereat we were very glad, 
holding that a way had been discovered by us which had 
until then been unknown to man, as we afterwards found 
to be the truth. We saw here enormously large gannets 
or sea-gulls, bigger in body than swans ; their wings when 
extended were each more than a fathom long. These 
birds, unaccustomed to the sight of human beings, came 
and sat on board our ship and allowed themselves to 
be seized by the men and killed. 

At noon, on the 26th, our latitude was 37°, with a flying 
storm from the west and south-west that lasted the whole 
of twenty-four hours, and a very rough, blue sea. We kept 
her head to the south with a try-sail, and saw more high land 
in the north-west ; at night we turned her to the north-west, 
still with a try-sail. 

At noon, on the 27th, our latitude was 56° 51'; the 
weather was cold, with hailstorms and rain. The wind was 
was west and west-sou'-west ; we first ran to the south, 
afterwards turning to the north under try-sails. 

On the morning of the 28th, we hoisted our top-sails 
again, and had a heavy roll from the west. The wind was 
at first westerly, afterwards north-easterly, we sailing first 


to the south, then west by south, afterwards west and west 
by south. At noon our latitude was 56° 48'. 

At daybreak, on the morning of the 29th, we had a 
south-west wind and proceeded in a south-westerly 

After breakfast, we saw two islands ahead of us, to the 
west-sou'-west, but we were unable to sail to the windward 
of them, so that we circumnavigated them on the north. 
They were barren grey rocks, with a few smaller ones lying 
around them, and situated in 57° of latitude south of the 
equator. We gave them the name of the Islands of 

We continued to sail to the west-nor'-west ; towards the 
evening we again saw land to the north-west and nor'-nor'- 
west of us. This was the land south of the Strait of 
Magellaen, which stretches away to the south. It consisted 
entirely of high mountains covered with snow, and ends in 
a sharp corner, which we called the Cape of Hoorn, and 
which lies in latitude 57° 48'. 

We then had fine weather, and in the evening got a 
northerly wind, with a heavy roll from the west. We con- 
tinued upon a westerly course, and found a strong current 
there going in the same direction. 

On the 30th, we still had a heavy roll from the west 
with blue water and a strong current still running west, 
which inspired us all with the firm belief that we had 
an open way to the South Sea. At noon our latitude was 

57° 34'. 

On the morning of the 31st, we had the wind blowing 
from the north, and proceeded in a westerly direction. At 
noon our latitude was 58°. In the afternoon the wind 
veered to the west and west-sou'-west, and was variable. 
We had then passed the Cape of Hoorn, and could see no 
more land, but had a heavy roll from the west and 
very blue water, which made us still more and fully certain 

I90 JACOB LE M aire's [Jan., 1616 

that we had the open South Sea before us, without any 
land. We had here variable winds, with much rain and 
hailstorms, so that we often tacked. 

On February i, we had cold weather with a storm from 
the south-west, so that we lay to under try-sails, keeping 
her head north-west and west-nor'-west. And we kept up 
a northerly course from the ist of January,^ until the ist of 
March, suffering much cold and hardship in the latitudes 
marked on the chart. 


At daybreak, on the morning of March i, we saw the 
Islands of Juan Fernando right in front of us, to the nor'- 
nor'-east ; we had a south wind, with a fresh breeze and 
fine weather. At noon we got near them, our latitude 
being 33° 48'. These islands are two in number, both 
very high. The smaller, which is the more westerly, is a 
dry, barren island, consisting only of bare hills and rocks, 
but the larger, which is the more easterly, though also 
covered with high mountains, is full of trees and very 
fertile. There are numbers of cattle, such as pigs and 
goats ; on the coast are indescribable quantities of good 
fish, so that the Spaniards sometimes come and fish there, 
and in a short time fill their ships, which they take to Peru. 

We ran on along the west side of these islands, which 
was the wrong thing to have done. We should have gone 
round by the east in order to reach the roadstead, which is 
situated near the eastern corner of the bigger island, for on 
coming round from the west under the lee of the shore we 
got into still water on account of the land being high and 
steep, so that we were unable to get near the shore to 
anchor. We therefore sent our boat out sounding towards 

^ Should, of course, be February. 


the land, and returning in the evening she brought news 
that close to the shore the lead had been cast on a sandy 
bottom in 40 and 30 fathoms, which gradually shelved up 
to three fathoms and was quite fit for an anchorage. Close 
by was a fine verdant valley, which was full of green trees, 
lovely to behold, but the men had not landed, as time was 
short. They had also seen fresh water in abundance 
running down here and there from the high land, as well 
as many goats and other animals on the mountains, which 
they could not well distinguish from afar. They had also 
caught a good quantity of fish in a short time ; no sooner 
had they dropped the hook in the water than a fish was 
immediately upon it, so that they had constantly done 
nothing but draw up fish without stopping. These were 
mostly corcobado and gilt-heads, and they had also seen 
numbers of sea-wolves. These tidings made all the crew 
very glad, especially some who had scurvy, and who hoped to 
recuperate here and become sound in body. In the night the 
wind fell, so that we then drifted a bit with the current. 

On the morning of the 2nd we were again close to the 
shore, but could not get near enough for anchoring, how- 
ever much we tried. We again sent a few men ashore, 
some to fish, others to go in search of cattle ; they could 
indeed see numbers of fine pigs, goats and other animals, 
but impeded by the underwood they could neither stalk 
nor snare them. Whilst some were getting water those 
who were in the boat had caught about two ton of fish, all 
with the line. And with that we had to leave this fine 
island, without enjoying it further. 

On the morning of the 3rd we had drifted about four 
miles below these islands, notwithstanding that we had 
done our best for the whole of twenty-four hours to reach 
them under sail, which at last began to vex us, seeing that 
it was impossible to make them. It was therefore then 
agreed and decided by the Council that we should leave 

192 JACOB LE MAIRE's [March, 1616 

the islands and pursue our course in the prosecution of our 
voyage, since we had a very favourable wind each day 
which we were neglecting to use — this to the very great 
pain and sorrow of the sick, who thereby saw all their 
hopes of life lost, but God gives relief. These islands lie 
in latitude 33° 40'. 

This resolution having been arrived at we set our course 
north-west by west, with a fresh breeze from the south and 
good progress. 

On the nth we passed for the second time the tropic of 
Capricorn, with a south-east wind and a nor'-nor'-westerly 
course. From March 12 to July^9 we made good progress. 

On the gth^ there died Jan Cornelisz. Schouten, skipper 
of the yacht and brother of our skipper, Willem Cornelisz. 
Schouten, after suffering more than a month from a very 
grievous malady. 

On the morning of the loth after prayers had been read, 
the deceased was put overboard. After breakfast we saw 
land about three miles to the north-west and to the north- 
west by north of us ; it was a low island, and not large. 
We also saw here a large quantity of gulls and fish, and 
shaped our course towards the island, intending to get 
some refreshments there, but our ships could not land, 
as the sea was rough. Still, some of our men swam 
ashore, but found nothing that could refresh our sick, 
wherefore we went on until the 14th, when we saw an 
island, whereat we were all very glad. We proceeded 
towards it, changing our course, and towards the evening, 
when our vessel was still quite a mile from the land, a 
canoe came to meet us containing four Indians, who were 
quite naked and red of colour, with very black and long 
hair. They kept a good way off the ship all the time, 
calling us and making signs that we should come ashore, 

' Should be April. - i.e., 9th April. 


but we could not understand them nor they us, although 
we called to them in Spanish, Malay, Javanese and in our 
Dutch language. In the evening, at sunset, we came near 
the land, but found no bottom nor any change in the 
water, although we got so close to the shore that we could 
have fired upon it with a musket, wherefore we turned sea- 
wards again, whilst the canoe went to the land, where a 
large number of Indians were on the beach awaiting it. 
A little while afterwards another canoe set out from the 
shore for the ship, but, like the other, would not board us. 
They shouted, indeed, and so did we, but we could not 
understand each other, and their canoe capsized before our 
eyes, but they soon had it righted again and were imme- 
diately in it with great rapidity. They kept on motioning 
us to the land and we them to the ship, but they would not 
come, wherefore we proceeded on our way and left the 
island, sailing south and sou'-sou'-west, in order to keep 
off the land. This island is not wide, but very long, being 
full of trees, which we took to be palmites and coker-nut 
trees; it lies in latitude 15° 15', and has a white sandy 
beach. In the night we saw fires on the land in various 

On the morning of the 15th, having proceeded about ten 
miles sou'-sou'-west during the night, we sailed along close 
to the shore, where we also saw many naked persons on the 
beach calling and shouting (so it seemed) that we should 
land. Again a canoe with three Indians put off to come 
to us ; they also shouted, though, as before, they would not 
come aboard ; but they rowed towards our shallop, close to 
which they came, and our men showed them every 
kindness, giving them some beads and knives, but they 
could not understand each other. Having been near the 
shallop a little while they left it and came so close to the 
ship that we threw them a line which they took, but they 
would not come aboard, though they did indeed get into 

194 JACOB LE MAIRE'S [April, 1616 

our shallop, which returned Jrom shore without having 
effected aught. However, after they had been a long time 
alongside of us one at length got into the gallery and 
pulled out the nails in the port-holes of the cabins belong- 
ing to the supercargo and the skipper, hiding them away 
and concealing them in his hair ; they were very greedy 
after iron, indeed, they pulled at and thought they could 
drag out the bolts in the ship. We wished to keep one 
aboard and send one of our crew ashore in the canoe in his 
place in order to make friends with them, but they would 
not. They were very thievish folk and went about quite 
naked ; all they wore was a small strip of matting over 
their privy parts. Their skin was marked with various 
figures, such as snakes, dragons, and monsters of that kind, 
which stood out quite blue, as if they had been burnt in 
with gunpowder. We gave them some wine while we were 
sitting in the canoe and they would not give us back the 
pannikin. We again sent our shallop to the shore with 
eight musketeers and six men with swords. Our under- 
factor, Claes Jansz., and Aris Claesz., the factor of the 
yacht, went too, in order to see what there was on the 
island, and in order to make friends with them, but as soon 
as they touched the beach and the men ran up through the 
surf, fully thirty Indians, armed with great clubs, came out 
of the bush and tried to deprive our men of their arms and 
to drag the shallop out of the water, taking also two of 
our people out of the shallop and intending to carry them 
into the bush. But the musketeers whose muskets were 
still dry fired three shots into the band, so that our men 
had no doubt that a few were shot dead or mortally 
wounded. They also carried long sticks with certain long 
spiked things at the end, which, so we thought, were the 
swords of sword-fish ; they also cast with slings, but, thank 
God, wounded none of our people. They had no bows and 
arrows, as far as we could see. Our people also saw some 


women who fell upon the men's necks and shrieked ; they 
did not know what this meant, but supposed it was to 
separate them. This island we gave the name of the 
Bottomless Island,^ because we could find no bottom there 
on which to anchor. On the edge there was a narrow strip 
of land full of palmites, but in the interior it was full of 
salt water. And as we saw there was nothing to be gained 
here we decided to leave the place, and therefore shaped 
our course in a westerly direction seawards, with an east 
wind. We had shallow water here and no roll from the 
south, as on the preceding days, wherefore we presumed 
that there must be more land to the south. It'^ lies in the 
latitude of 15 degrees, many — about 100 — miles from 
Honden Island. 

At daybreak, on the morning of the 1 8th, we saw another 
island that lay north of us. We sailed towards it and on 
coming near found that, like the preceding one, it had no 
anchorage, being inside also entirely submerged ; but at 
the edge it was full of trees, though neither palmites nor 
coker-nut trees. We launched our shallop for sounding, 
which, on reaching the shore, found no bottom, wherefore 
they returned to the ship without having affected aught or 
having seen any human beings. We afterwards sent them 
out again in order to see whether they could find any re- 
freshment or water ashore, and returning they said that in 
a well or pit not far from the beach they had found fresh 
water, which could indeed be brought to the beach in 
galley barrels, but was very difficult to get aboard, for by 
reason of the surf there the shallop was obliged to remain 
lying with a drag-rope out whilst the men had to haul 
each other ashore through the water with a line and so on 
board again, so that it was very dangerous and difficult to 

^ 't Eylant sender gront. 

2 This must, of course, mean the island just visited. 


196 JACOB LE MAIRE'S [April, 1616 

land, wherefore we did not fetch more than four barrels 
of water. We also found such a herb here as we had 
found on Honden Island, tasting like garden cress, and 
of which we brought a sackful on board ; also some crabs, 
as well as shells and horns, in which there were snails 
of very good flavour. In the evening we again proceeded 
on our course westwardly ; the wind was east, and we 
had now a fair breeze, with rainy weather and a bad sea. 
On the same day our latitude was 14° 46'. This island 
lies 15 miles from the preceding one, and we called it 
Waterlant, because we had obtained some water there. 

We gave our crew six quarterns of water that day, and 
boiled a large kettleful of pottage with the green herb 
like garden cress that we had gathered on Waterlant 
Island, from which the crew derived considerable good as 
a remedy against scurvy. 

Shortly after, we found another island ; there were 
many wild trees and inside it was also full of salt water. 
Our men, on returning aboard, were entirely covered with 
flies, to such a degree, that we could recognize no part 
of them ; their faces, hands, boats, and everything, yea, 
even the oars, as far as they were out of the water, were 
all covered black with flies, a wonder to behold. These 
flies came on board with them and flew so thick upon our 
bodies and faces that we did not know where to hide from 
them, so that we could scarcely eat or drink. Everything 
was filled with them ; we rubbed our faces and hands, hit 
and killed as many as we could. This lasted two or three 
days with great torture ; then we got a stiff* breeze, by 
which and by constantly pursuing them we got rid of 
them at the end of three or four days. We called this 
island Vliegen Island^ and proceeded thence in a westerly 

^ The Island of Flies, 



At noon, immediately after dinner, we saw a sail, which 
we took to be a barque, coming out of the south and 
running to the north across us. We at once headed for 
her, and when she got close to us we fired a shot from our 
bows over her starboard to get her to haul down, but she 
would not do it, wherefore we fired another shot, but 
still she would not haul down. We therefore launched our 
shallop with ten musketeers to take her, and whilst these 
were rowing towards her we again sent a shot abaft her, but 
all without intention of striking or damaging her, but still 
she would not haul down, seeking rather to outsail us as 
nKich as possible. She got to the luff of us, but the 
shallop, which was too smart for her, overtook her, and 
when our men were about half a musket shot off they 
fired four times with a musket. When we approached 
her, and before our men boarded her, some of her crew 
sprang overboard from fright ; amongst others there was 
one with an infant and another who was wounded, having 
three holes in his back, but not very deep, for they were 
caused by a grazing shot, and this man we got out of the 
water again. They also threw many things overboard, 
which were small mats, and amongst other things, three 
hens. Our men sprang on board the little vessel and 
brought her alongside of us without the least resistance on 
the part of her crew, as indeed they had no arms. When 
she was alongside of us we took on board two men who 
had remained in her and these immediately fell down at 
our feet, kissing our feet and hands. One was a very old 
grey man, the other a young fellow, but we could not 
understand them, though we treated them well. And the 
shallop immediately rowed back to the aforesaid men who 
had jumped overboard, in order to rescue them, but they 
got only two who were floating on one of their oars and 
who pointed with their hands to the bottom, wishing to 
say that the others were already drowned. One of these 

198 JACOB LE maire's [April, 1616 

two, who was the wounded man, and whose wounds we 
bound up, had rather long yellow hair. In the vessel were 
some eight women and three young children, still at the 
breast, as well as some who were perhaps nine or ten years 
old, so that we thought they must have been in all quite 
twenty-five strong ; both men and women were entirely 
naked and wore only a bagatelle over their privy parts. 
Towards the evening we put the men on board their vessel 
again ; they received a hearty welcome from their wives, 
who kissed them. We gave them beads (which they hung 
around their neck) and some knives, and showed them 
every kindness, as they likewise did in turn to us, giving us 
two handsome finely-made mats and two coker nuts, for 
they had not many of them. This was all they had to eat 
and drink, indeed, they had already drunk the milk out of 
the nuts, so that they had nothing more to drink. We 
also saw them drink salt water from the sea, and give it, 
too, to their infants to drink, which we thought to be 
contrary to Nature. They had certain small cloths of curious 
colour, which they wore over their privy parts and also as 
a protection against the heat of the sun. They were red 
folk who smeared themselves with oil, and all the women 
nad short hair like the men in Holland, whilst the men's 
hair was long and painted very black. Their little vessel 
was in shape as it is depicted in the drawing herewith, very 
wonderful to behold. It consisted of two long handsome 
canoes, between which was a fairly good space. On each 
canoe, at about the middle, two very wide planks of bright 
red wood had been placed to keep out the water, and on 
these they had placed other planks, running from one 
canoe to the other and firmly bound together. Both fore 
and aft the canoes still protruded a good length, and this 
was closed in on top very tightly in order to keep out the 
water. In the forepart of one canoe, on the starboard 
side, a mast stood at the prow, having a forked branch 


supporting a rod with the mizzen sail. This was of 
matting, and from whatever quarter the wind blew they 
were nearly always ready to sail ; they had no compasses 
or any nautical instruments, but plenty of fish-hooks, 
the top of which was of stone, the bottom part of black 
bone or tortoiseshell ; some hooks, too, were of mother-of- 
pearl. Their ropes were of bright colours and as thick as 
a cable, made of such material as the fish-baskets in Spain. 
When they left us they shaped their course towards the 

On the 20th the wind was sou'-sou'-east and south-east 
by south, our course being west and sou'-west. In the 
morning, after breakfast, we saw on the larboard side very 
high blue land, lying about 8 miles south-west by west of 
us. We proceeded towards it, and sailed nearly all day 
with a fine breeze, but could not make it, wherefore we 
kept tacking for the night, and in the evening we saw a 
sail a good distance off the shore, and shortly afterwards 
yet another, also a good distance from land. These we 
took to be fishing-boats, for they frequently went to and 
fro ; during the night they burnt lights and came together. 

At daybreak on the morning of the 21st we came near 
an island which was very high, and about 2 miles south 
of it we saw another long low island. As it dawned we 
sailed over a bank in 14 fathoms with a stony bottom, 
lying about 2 miles from the land. As soon as we were 
clear of it we could find no more bottom. 

One of the aforesaid small sail came towards us. We 
let a galley-cask down behind, intending that they should 
climb on board by that means, but they could not catch it, 
so that one man jumped overboard and secured it. They 
loosened it and took it into their boat, fastening two coker- 
nuts and three or four flying fish to the rope in its place, 
and shouting to us all the time ; although we could not 
understand them we thought it meant that we should haul 

200 JACOB LE MAiRE*S [April, 1616 

the rope aboard again. These people also carried a canoe 
which they can launch as occasion arises, and are very 
clever seamen. These vessels were of the same shape as 
has been mentioned above, are well provided with sails, 
and sail, too, so swiftly that there are few ships in Holland 
which would outdo them. They navigate them from the 
stern with two oars, a man standing aft upon each canoe, 
and sometimes they run forward, too, with their oars when 
they wish to turn ; the canoe would also turn itself if they 
only took the oars out of the water and let it go, or only 
let the wind carry it along. We launched our shallop for 
sounding, and on its return the men said they had found a 
shell bottom in 15, 14 and 12 fathoms about a gun-shot 
from the shore, so that we ran thither to anchor and took 
in our sails. The savages, seeing this, motioned us 
repeatedly to go to the other island, sailing on, too, in 
front of us, but nevertheless we anchored off the end of the 
island in a sandy bottom in 25 fathoms, a long gun-shot from 
the shore. This island is one of the Islands of Molucken ; 
it is full of trees, mostly coker-nut trees, wherefore we 
called it Cocos Island. The other island is much longer, 
but lower, extending east and west. 

As soon as we had anchored three small vessels came 
sailing to and fro around our ship. Quite nine or ten 
canoes also came alongside, both from the shore as well as 
from the small vessels, there being, amongst others, two 
that flew small peace flags, which we likewise did. Their 
canoes, each of which carried three or four men, were 
broad at the prow and pointed astern, cut entirely from one 
piece of red wood. They could row exceedingly swiftly in 
these, and when they were near the ship they sprang out 
and proceeded to swim aboard us, having their hands full 
of coker-nuts and obes roots, exchanging these with us for 
nails and beads, after which they were very eager. They 
gave four or five coker-nuts for one nail or a small string 
of beads, so that we obtained that day quite 180 nuts, 

PLATE No. 24. 

Number 24 shows Cocos and Verraders^ Islands. 
With the explanations given, as follows : — 

A. Is Cocos Island, so called on account of the quantities of coker- 

nuts that grow there. 

B. Is Verraders Island, so called because they mostly came from that 

island who tried to betray us. 

C. Is a skirmish with the savages, in which some were killed. 

D. Is one of the ships of the savages, which they well know how to 


E. Is our shallop, capturing the vessel from the savages. 

G. Is our ship, round about which the savages swarmed in numbers, 

in order to exchange their wares with us. 
H. In this manner the savages sprang down into the sea after they 

had stolen something or other. 

1 Verrader^ a traitor or betrayer. 


indeed, they finally came aboard in such numbers that we 
scarcely knew where to turn. We sent our shallop off to 
the other island to see whether it would not be better to 
lie there, for here we lay in the open sea, but the shallop, 
as soon as it had left the ship, and whilst sailing along 
the shore, was surrounded by twelve or thirteen canoes 
from the other island, and subsequently by many others, the 
crews in which seemed like mad, having sticks of hard 
wood in their hands, like assagays, sharp at the point and 
somewhat burnt. Coming alongside our shallop they 
endeavoured to get it away from our men, but the latter, 
compelled to rescue and defend it, fired a musket three 
times amongst them, whereat they first laughed and made 
fun, thinking it was child's play, but the third time one was 
hit in the chest, the bullet coming out at the back. His 
mates seeing this, immediately rowed in his direction to 
help him, and finding that he was so wounded, they all 
made off at once from the shallop, rowing towards one 
of the small sailing vessels, shouting to her and desiring 
her, so we thought, to sail down upon us, but she would 
not, for her captain had been aboard of us, where he had 
been well treated and shown much kindness. 

After breakfast on the morning of the 24th^ many 
canoes came alongside again with coker-nuts, bananas, 
obas roots and a few small pigs, some, too, with dippers 
full of fresh water, and we took in barter that day some 
1,200 coker-nuts ; we had eighty-five mouths to feed, and 
each man received twelve nuts. Each wanted to get aboard 
before the other, those who were unable to get alongside 
the ship springing out of their canoes and diving under the 
others to reach the vessel and sell their wares. They had 
obes roots and bunches of coker-nuts in their mouths and 
clambered up the vessel in such numbers that we had to 
keep them off with sticks. When they had finished their 

^ Evidently an error for 22nd. 

202 JACOB LE MAIRE'S [April, 1616 

bartering they jumped from the ship and swam back to 
their canoes. They were greatly surprised at the size and 
strength of the vessel ; some climbing down aft, near the 
rudder right under the ship, knocked against the bottom 
with a stone to see how strong it was. There came a 
canoe from the other island bringing us a young wild 
black pig which the king sent us as a present ; we wished 
to present the bringer with something in return, but he 
refused, showing by signs that the king had forbidden him 
to take aught. In the afternoon the king came himself 
in a big sailing-prow, in shape as mentioned above, like an 
ice-sleigh, and accompanied by fully thirty-five canoes. 
This king or chief was called Latou by his people. We 
received him with drums and trumpets, whereat they were 
greatly astonished, as something they had never seen or 
heard. They showed us much honour and amity, according 
to appearances, bowing their heads, beating their foreheads 
with their fists and performing other strange ceremonies. 
When he was still a little way off the king began to call 
aloud and to rave as if he were offering up prayer in his 
fashion, and all the other people did the same, without 
our knowing what it meant, but we presumed it was their 
welcome. Shortly afterwards the king sent us a mat by 
his servants to whom we gave in return an old hatchet, a 
few beads, some old nails and a piece of linen, which he 
received with gladness, laying the same three times upon 
his head and then bowing his head low, as a sign of 
reverence and gratitude or respect. The men who came 
aboard fell on their knees and kissed our feet, and were 
exceedingly astonished at the sight of our vessel. This 
king could not be distinguished from the rest of the 
Indians, for he, too, went about quite naked, except by 
the fact that they obeyed him and that he had good 
authority over his men. We motioned the Latou to come 
over the side into our ship. His son came aboard and 


we treated him well, but he himself durst not or would 
not come ; all of them, however, made signs that we 
should come to the further island with our vessel, that 
there was enough of everything to be got. We ob- 
tained by barter from them three fishing rods made of 
cane, as in Holland, but a little stouter, with mother- 
of-pearl hooks upon them. The king's son went back 
ashore and the canoe which accompanied him had on the 
larboard side a piece of wood whereby it was held upright. 
On this wood their rod lay always ready for fishing. 

On the morning of the 2^rci there came some forty-five 
canoes alongside of us in order to trade, accompanied by a 
fleet of some twenty-three small sailing-vessels, shaped like 
ice-sleighs ; each of these had, on an average twenty-five 
men aboard, two small canoes having four or five, and 
that without our knowing what they had in mind. The 
canoes still kept on trading with us, exchanging coker-nuts 
for nails, and still acted as if they were great friends of 
ours, but we subsequently found out otherwise. They 
still kept on making signs that we should sail to the other 
island. When we had had our breakfast we weighed 
anchor and set sail in order to proceed to that other 
island. The king, or chief, who had come near our vessel 
the previous day, also came towards us in a small sailing- 
vessel, and they shouted very loudly all together. We 
would have liked to have had him on board, but he would 
not, whereat we were not easy in our mind, fearing some 
evil, especially as all the small vessels and canoes kept 
close around our ship, and the king got out of his vessel 
to sit in a canoe whilst his son sat in another. Immediately 
after this they beat a small drum which had been left in 
the king's vessel, and then all the people began to shout, 
which seemed to us to denote that they would all attack 
us together in order to take our ship ; and, indeed, the 
little vessel out of which the king had got, came up with 

204 JACOB LE MAIRE'S [April, 1616 

US at a speed so swift that it seemed as if she wished to 
run us down, but she struck our ship with such force that 
the two prows of the canoes that protruded underneath were 
broken into splinters, those men who were on her (amongst 
whom there were some women, too), springing into the 
water and swimming off to windward. The others began 
to throw stones at us most bravely, thinking to frighten us 
thereby, but we fired upon them with muskets and three 
guns (charged with musket balls and old nails) so that all 
the people in the little vessel that lay alongside of us 
sprang into the water. We calculated that some of them 
forgot to go home at all, and that others had got some 
brave wounds ; and so they retreated. They knew 
absolutely nothing about shooting, but when they saw 
how some of their men fared by it they all kept very far 
beyond the fire of our ship. We then proceeded on our 
voyage, taking a westerly and west by southerly course. 
We were of opinion that the king had on that occasion 
brought all his forces together, for there were some 
thousand or more men. We called this island 't Verraders 
Eylandt,^ because the greater part of the people who tried 
to betray us had come from that island. 

On the morning of the 24th we saw another island right 
in front of us, about 7 miles off. We sent out a shallop to see 
whether there was any bottom, but they found none except 
close to the shore. The savages, perceiving this, imme- 
diately came up with fourteen canoes, out of which some 
sprang into the sea, intending to attack or to capsize the 
shallop. Our men, seeing this, fired amongst them with 
muskets (for there were six musketeers in the shallop, and 
the others were well provided with swords and pikes), 
so that they shot two dead in the canoes, one of whom 
immediately fell out by his own weight, whilst the other 

1 Traitors' Island. 


kept his seat and wiped the blood from his chest with his 
hand, but also dropped overboard. Those in the canoes 
were so frightened by the occurrence that they hastily 
made off; we also saw many people on the beach who 
were yelling and shouting lustily. Seeing that there was 
no proper anchorage there, we hauled our shallop up again 
and proceeded on our course to the south-west. When we 
were under sail the Council decided to proceed in a 
northerly direction in order not to drop too far below 
Nova Guinea, and this was done. 

On the 28th, the wind was south, our course north. In 
the afternoon we saw two islands about 8 miles north-east 
by east of us and appearing to lie about a gun-shot distant 
from each other, wherefore we then proceeded north-east- 
wardly in order to make the land, having fine weather, but 
not much breeze. 

On the 29th the wind was nor'-nor'-east ; we did our 
best to tack towards the land. 

On the 30th the wind was easterly, occasionally with a 
slight breeze ; when we were still about a mile from land 
some twenty-three canoes came alongside, and though we 
made all signs of friendship to the occupants, one of them 
having a wooden assagay (with sharpened end) in his 
hand, threatened to throw it at one of our comrades ; and 
they also shrieked loudly as in the other islands, which we 
took to be a signal for attacking us, wherefore we fired 
twice with a metal gun, and several times with muskets, 
so that two were wounded, whereupon the others imme- 
diately rowed off, throwing overboard during their flight a 
shirt they had stolen from the gallery. Subsequently some 
of the same canoes were emboldened to come alongside 
once more, and as we had come somewhat nearer the shore 
and could find no bottom we launched our shallop and 
eight musketeers to take soundings, but they found no 
bottom, and when they wished to return to the vessel they 

206 JACOB LE M aire's [April, 1616 

were surrounded by six or seven canoes, the occupants of 

which attempted to enter the shallop and take away the 

sailors* arnns. At this they were compelled to fire among 

them with muskets, so that six were killed and many 

must have been wounded, for our men rowed towards a 

canoe which was entirely bereft of its crew with the 

exception of a dead man, who was still hanging to it by 

his legs and whom they cast overboard. They brought us 

the canoe, in which we found a club and a long stick like 

a short pike. They returned aboard in the night and had 

found no anchorage, wherefore we tacked all that night 

near the shore. 


On the 1st of May we did our best to make the land, 
and on coming near it sent our shallop shorewards to take 
soundings ; they found a shell bottom in 50 fathoms, 
about a gun-shot from the land, whither we sailed with 
our vessel, right opposite a fresh-water river which came 
running down from the mountains ; many canoes again 
came alongside and brought us all sorts of things. Their 
huts stood all along the beach ; they were made of the leaves 
of trees, and circular in form, tapering to a point at the 
top for the water to run down ; about 25 ft. in circum- 
ference, 10 to 12 ft. high, with a hole one had to stoop to 
get into. Inside we saw only a few dried herbs, like hay, 
to sleep on, with a fishing-rod or two, and in some a 
wooden club. That was all the furniture as Well in the 
large ones (nay, even in that of the chief or king himself) 
as in the small. 

On the 2nd we again bartered for many coker-nuts 
and ubas roots, which were brought on board in the 
canoes ; a very large number of people assembled on the 
beach that day, who appeared to have come from different 
parts of the island, being generally astonished to see our 

PLATE No. 25. 

Number 25 is HooRN Island, 

With an explanation of some indications given in the following 

A. Are the two kings meeting and welcoming each other with many 

strange ceremonies. 

B. The two kings sitting on mats under the belay. 

C. Our trumpeters and drummer playing before the kings, who took 

great pleasure therein. 

D. Peasants of the country chewing a certain green herb, called by 

them kava, upon which, after it is chewed, they pour water, and 
so make a drink of it, greatly esteemed by them. 

E. Is the shape of their huts, being round and pointed on top, and 

covered with leaves of trees. 

F. The picture of the king, having a long plait of hair hanging down 

from the left side of his head to beyond his hips, bound up with 
a knot or two. 

G. Are those of the king's nobles or council, having their hair tied up 

in two (or sometimes more) plaits ; a few wore it ornamentally 
curled as under H, others standing straight up on end like 
pigs' bristles, but a quarter of an ell long, as under I. 

K. A woman of that island, wearing her hair shaved short. 

L. Are coker-nut trees, upon which the coker-nuts grow. 

M. Eendracht Bay, where we lay with our ship at four anchors. 

N. The rivulet near which we lay and where we got our water. 

0. The king's belay ^ in the shade of which he sat daily. 


On the 3rd, Aris Claesz. and Regnier Symonsz. Snoeck, 
an assistant, went ashore with Cornelis Schouts, our cabin- 
boy, as hostages, to enter into friendship with the inhabitants, 
we receiving in return six of their chiefs on board, to whom 
we showed every kindness, giving them food and drink 
and also some presents, as they likewise regaled our men, 
giving them coker-nuts and obas to eat and water to drink. 
The king showed our men great respect, presenting them 
with four small pigs, and our fellows fetched that day some 
five boatfuls of water, all in amity, for when any savages 
approached our boat the king himself immediately came 
in person and drove them away, or had it done by some of 
his servants, he having very good authority over his people. 
For a sword having been taken from us, and we having 
informed one of the king's nobles thereof, this man gave 
orders for the sword to be restored ; in a very short time 
man who had taken the sword was pursued, and although 
he was already a good way off, he was overtaken and 
brought back. The sword was laid at our feet and the 
man beaten with sticks, and they made signs by passing 
their fingers over their throats that if he, the herico (that is 
the king), knew it he would have his head cut off; and 
after that time we did not perceive that anything was 
stolen from us, either on shore, on board the vessel or 
anywhere else, indeed, they durst not take a fish caught by 
us. These people were very frightened of the shooting, 
for if we fired off a musket they ran away in fear and trem- 
bling, and we made them still more afraid when we showed 
them that we could also shoot with the big guns, which the 
king desired us once to do ; but when it was done they 
were all so astonished and amazed that all of them seated 
together near the king under the balay,^ were, notwithstand- 
ing all the warnings and assurances that had been given 

1 See Plate No. 25 (O). 

208 JACOB LE M aire's [May, 1616 

them, not to be kept from panic, but fled to the woods, 
leaving our supercargoes sitting alone. After a while they 
came back and calmed down with difficulty. 

On the 4th Aris Claesz., Claes Jansz., and Daniel le 
Maire again went ashore to obtain some pigs by barter, 
but they would not treat with us for any. The king, after 
having offered up his prayer (which he was accustomed to 
do when he landed), showed us every kindness, and we did 
the same to him. 

On the 5th the supercargoes, Jacob le Maire and Aris 
Claesz., went ashore, but could get no pigs from the inha- 
bitants, the latter having too much need of them themselves, 
since they had little else to eat than obas roots, coker-nuts, 
a few pigs and some bananas. Our men were very welcome 
there, and great respect was shown them, for they had to 
walk everywhere on mats, and the king and the under- 
king both presented them with their crowns, which they 
took from their heads and placed, one each, on the head of 
Jacob le Maire and Aris Claesz., in exchange for which 
le Maire also gave them some presents of little value, 
wherewith they were very pleased. The aforesaid crowns 
were made of long narrow white feathers, adorned at both 
the top and bottom ends with small red and green feathers, 
since they have many perrequitos there, as well as some 
pigeons, which they hold in great esteem, for all those of 
the king's council had a pigeon sitting near them on a 
small stick. These pigeons are white on top as far as the 
wings and for the rest black, but underneath, on their belly, 
they have reddish feathers. We continually fetched water 
that day, and got many coker-nuts and obes roots in 

On the 6th and 7th we were mostly engaged in getting 
our water aboard, the skipper himself, Willem Cornelisz. 
Schouten, and Aris Claesz., proceeding ashore with the 
trumpeters (since the king liked to hear them blow), and 


getting^ two pigs with a deal of difficulty. The king of the 
other island came that same day to visit this king, and they 
presented each other, amid much homage and wonderful 
ceremonies, with small roots and other things, finally 
making a very great hubbub, the reason being, so we 
thought, that the king of the other island wished to try and 
take our vessel and keep our crew, which this king would 
not consent to, fearing that this might bring him harm. 

The under-king or king's son came on board our ship 
once and was well regaled, being greatly astonished at 
everything. In the evening our men danced with the 
savages, who were very pleased thereat, being surprised 
that we treated them so familiarly and with such kindness. 
We got to be as free and easy there as if we had been at 

On the morning of the 8th, our supercargo, Jacob le 
Maire, and Aris Claesz., late supercargo of the yacht, 
proceeded ashore with Claes Jansz. Ban, under-factor, and 
one of our mates. They went into the interior and climbed 
up the mountains in order to see what products grew 
there and to inspect the situation of the country, and as 
they were ascending the mountains there came to them the 
old king and his brother, in order to accompany them. 
They saw nought else than wildernesses and a few valleys, 
which were quite bare on account of the great rains ; they 
also found some red dye with which the women there 
besmear their head and cheeks. When they observed that 
the difficult path was trying to our men, they made signs 
to return to the ship and brought them along a good path 
to a clump of coker-nut trees, which were full of nuts ; 
there they made our men sit down, and the under-king 
tied a bandage round his feet or legs and climbed with 
great dexterity and swiftness up a straight tall tree, and in 
a moment brought down ten coker-nuts, which he opened 
very easily in a moment by a peculiar knack with a small 


2IO JACOB LE maire's [May, 1616 

piece of wood. They made us understand that they 
sometimes waged war against the people of the other 
island, and showed us many caves and hollows in the 
mountains, also bushes and thickets along the ways, from 
which they surprised and attacked each other. Towards 
noon our men returned to the ship, bringing with them the 
young king and his brother, who then dined with us. As 
we sat at table we showed them that we intended to 
depart in two days' time, whereat the young king was so 
glad that he immediately jumped up from the table and 
went into the gallery shouting out that we intended to 
depart in two days' time. They were sore afraid of us. 
When the meal was over the upper king came on board ; 
he was, after their fashion, a stately, distinguished-looking 
person, a man of sixty years, bringing with him sixteen 
members of his council or nobility. We received him well, 
according to his due. When he came aboard the ship he 
fell upon his face and offered up his prayer ; after that we 
took him below where he again recited his prayer as 
before ; he was surprised beyond all measure at what he 
saw, as we, too, were at his manners. His people kissed 
our feet, took hold of our feet with their hands and placed 
the former on their heads and necks. The king further 
inspected the whole ship, above and below, fore and aft ; 
he was astonished at the big guns, for two days before he 
had heard them boom forth in his honour. When the 
king had now inspected the ship according to his wish and 
desire he was anxious to proceed ashore, and departed with 
a great show of respect. Our supercargoes accompanied 
him ashore again as far as his belay, where he usually sat. 
In the evening we went to the king ; there we found a 
number of maidens dancing naked before the king. One 
of them played upon a piece of hollow wood like a pump 
that gave forth some sound, whereupon these maidens 
danced very prettily and entertainingly and with much 


grace to the measure of that music, so that our people 
were surprised to see the like amongst these savage folk. 
Night had fallen some time when they returned on board 
with the fish. 

On the morning of the loth the king sent us two small 
pigs as a present. That same day the king of the other 
island came to visit this king, bringing with him sixteen 
pigs and some three hundred men, all of whom had hanging 
from their waists certain green herbs from which they 
make their drink. When that king had almost come up 
to the other he began to bow and to bend before him from 
afar with strange ceremonies and homage, falling with his 
face to the earth and praying incessantly, with much shout- 
ing and raving, and with very great zeal, so it seemed to 
us. The other king went to meet him, and similarly with 
much noise and strange gestures he showed him great 
respect and honour. After much ado they finally got up 
and went and sat down together under the king's belay, 
bringing together a large number of people, probably some 
nine hundred persons. As they were about to sit down 
they recited their prayer again, according to their wont, 
with their heads hanging down, bowing to the ground and 
clapping their hands together, all of which was wonderful 
for us to behold. Our clerk, Aris Claesz., having already 
proceeded ashore in the forenoon, Jacob le Maire and 
Claes Jansz. Ban were also invited in the afternoon. They 
went ashore, taking with them four trumpeters and a 
drummer, and came to the kings ; they blew on the trum- 
pets together and beat the drum before both the kings, 
who were seated together and took exceeding pleasure 
therein. After that a number of peasants from the smallest 
island came to the kings, bringing with them a quantity 
of green herbs, which they called kava, such as the three 
hundred men mentioned above carried around their bodies, 
and commenced all together to chew those herbs with their 

P 2 

2i;2 JACOB LE maire's [May, 1616 

mouth. When these had been chewed quite small they 
took them out of their mouth and placed all this together 
in a big wooden trough, poured water upon it, stirred and 
kneaded it together, and gave it to the kings, who drank 
thereof with the nobles. They also offered it to our men, 
but these had more than enough at the sight of it. They 
also brought a quantity of obes roots, which they had 
roasted, and sixteen pigs, which had merely had the entrails 
taken out, and all bloody and unwashed as these were, 
some heated stones were put into them, their bristles were 
singed off a bit over a fire, they were well roasted after 
the fashion of these people, and so eaten with much relish. 
This nation showed their superiors much honour and 
respect, for all the dishes which they brought before the 
king (whom they called herico in their language) they 
placed upon their head, then sat down so upon their 
haunches and so set the food down before the king. Of 
these aforesaid pigs we received one from each king, who 
made us a present of it. They themselves first placed 
these upon their head, and kneeling, laid them with great 
reverence at the feet of our men ; they also gave us eleven 
small live pigs and a few of medium size. We presented 
them in return with three small copper pails, four knives, 
twelve old nails and some beads, wherewith they were 
well satisfied. 

On the morning of the 12th the kings of both islands 
came on board our vessel with their suite of nobility, after 
their custom. The head men or chiefs amongst them all 
wore green leaves of coker-nut trees around their necks, 
which were tokens of peace. W^e received them (as they 
had done us) with great respect and conducted them to 
the cabin and everywhere in and on the vessel ; when they 
had inspected everything thoroughly they presented us 
with six pigs. Both the kings themselves first placed 
these one by one upon their heads and then at our feet 


with great veneration, bowing their heads to the ground ; 
meanwhile we had the pigs taken away and conducted the 
kings back to the cabin, where we in turn presented them 
with two bunches of beads and each king with two knives 
and six nails, whereupon they took leave of us amicably 
and proceeded ashore. Our supercargo, Jacob le Maire, 
accompanied them on land and was further presented by 
them with three pigs, which he brought on board, and we 
made preparations to set sail, to the great satisfaction of 
the inhabitants of that island, since as long as we were 
there they were in constant fear that we should kill them 
and take their land. The people of that island were stout- 
hearted folk and tall of stature, for the ordinary men 
amongst them were no shorter than the tallest of ours, 
whilst the tallest of them stood out far above the latter. 
They were strong men and very well made in body and 
limb ; they could run very swiftly and swim and dive in 
masterly fashion. They were quite a brownish yellow in 
colour, were intelligent, and adorned their hair in very 
different ways ; some had it curled, others beautifully 
crimped, others again had it tied up in four, five and six 
plaits, whilst a few (a strange thing to behold) had their 
hair standing straight on end more than a quarter of an 
ell long, as if it had been pigs' bristles. 

The king wore a long plait on the left side of his head, 
hanging down his side lower than his hips, and tied up 
with a button or two. His nobles had two such plaits, one 
on each side of their head, and all alike, men and women, 
went about quite naked, except that their privy parts were 
somewhat, but scantily, covered. The women were very 
unsightly, both in face and body, with their hair cut short, 
like the men in Holland ; they had long hanging breasts, 
which, in some, hung down like empty bags as far as their 
belly. They were very unchaste and allowed themselves 
to be used in all men's presence, even close to the king. 

ii4 Jacob Le Maire's [May, 1616 

with only a small mat over them. We could not perceive 
that this people worshipped any god or gods or that they 
cultivated any religion, small or great, living only a life 
free of care, like the birds in the forest. They knew 
nought of buying or selling, but by fits they presented us 
with something and we them. They neither sow nor mow 
nor do they perform any kind of work ; the earth of itself 
gives them all that they need to support life, such as 
coker-nuts, obes, bananas and similar products. On 
leaving we gave these islands the name of the Hoorn 
Islands, after our native town of Hoorn, and the bay 
in which we had lain that of Eendrachts Bay, after our 
ship. We were engaged the greater part of the day in 
getting out of the bay and in weighing our anchors ; one 
of our cables had been worn asunder by the sharp bottom 
so that we lost that anchor. Whilst weighing one of the 
bow-anchors its cable got fixed round a rock and snapped, 
whereby we lost that anchor too. 

This bay is situated in a bend on the south side of the 
island ; on one side there is a reef which stands out at low 
tide, and on the other side is the mainland, but with a 
reefy coast. We lay here with four cables and four anchors 
out, in 10 fathoms on a sand bottom, about a musket shot 
from the streamlet where the fresh water came running 
down. We might indeed have lain without danger in the 
streamlet itself ; where we did lie we could not allow her 
to swing on account of its being very narrow there. We 
got under sail in the afternoon and ran first to the west- 

At noon on June 14th our latitude was 13° 15', the wind 
east, and we proceeded northwards. From the 14th to the 
30th we made good progress, when on the ist of July we 
saw three small islands, whence two canoes immediately 
came and made signs that their king lived on the other 
islands, whither we sailed, but went past them by reason 


of their inconvenient position. These people were like the 
other natives in everything except that they carried bows 
and arrows as weapons. On the 4th we proceeded on our 
course north by west until we reached Nova Guinea on 
July 25th, whence we called one island Het groene Eylant^ 
and the other S. Jans Eylant,^ because we had discovered 
it on St. John's Day. About noon we came near the main- 
land and continued to sail along the coast with an east- 
south-east wind, but could find no anchorage. We sent 
our shallop out to take soundings ; on leaving the vessel 
it proceeded along the shore, but on approaching some- 
what nearer to the land two or three prows or canoes filled 
with very black people came towards it. They were quite 
naked, wearing nothing over their privy parts, and pelted at 
our men very fiercely with slings, but as soon as our people 
began to fire upon them they immediately took to flight. 
The shallop returned to the ship without having found any 
bottom, and the men said that these people spoke quite 
another language than the former ones. We continued to 
sail along the coast, which was high and green, very 
pleasant to behold ; we saw a deal of land looking as if it 
had been tilled. In the evening we got round the corner 
into a bay where we anchored in 45 fathoms on a bad and 
uneven bottom. The same evening two prows came near 
the vessel and accosted us, but we could not understand 
them. The whole of the night they kept a watch upon us 
with fires all along the coast. We lay about a gun-shot 
from the shore, near a falling stream ; at night it was fine 
calm weather with a bright moon. There was a light 
breeze from the land, so some prows came close under the 
gallery of the ship, where we threw a few beads to them 
and showed them every kindness. We made signs for 
them to bring us coker-nuts, pigs, oxen or goats if they 

1 Green Island. ^ st. John's Island. 



[May, l6i6 

had them, but they remained around the vessel the g^reater 
part of the night shouting and yelling according to their 
wont ; they were savage blacks, uncivilized folk. This 
land lay, according to our reckoning, about 1,840 miles 
from the spot we had left on the coast of Peru. 

On the morning of the 26th eight prows came around 
our vessel, amonst them being one carrying eleven men, 
the others having four, five, six or seven. They kept 
moving round our ship and were in their fashion well 
provided with arms, to wit, with assagays, stones, clubs, 
wooden swords and slings : we showed them every kindness, 
gave them beads and other trifles and made signs for them 
to proceed ashore and fetch us pigs, fowls, coker-nuts and 
other fruit such as they had, but we perceived that they 
had something quite different in mind, for they all began 
to pelt at us with slings, and assagays, thinking to over- 
power us. We, however, being on our guard, fired muskets 
and big guns amongst the band, so that some ten or twelve 
were killed, the big prow and three others abandoned, 
while their occupants sprang overboard and swam shore- 
wards. We launched our row-boat, in which some of our 
men set out amongst the swimming natives, killing a few 
more. They also brought three prisoners on board, who 
were badly wounded, and four prows, which were broken 
up for galley fuel. The wounded were bandaged and one 
of them died. 

In the afternoon our shallop with the two prisoners 
proceeded to row all along the shore, the prisoners con- 
stantly calling out to the natives to bring pigs, bananas 
and coker-nuts, whereupon a canoe came alongside bring- 
ing a small pig and a bunch of bananas. We set a ransom 
of ten pigs upon the one man, the other, who was badly 
wounded, we set ashore, having little hope that he would 
live. These people had holes pierced in both sides of 
their nostrils wherein they wore two rings, one on each 


side, a very strange thing to behold. We saw another 
island here, north of and separated from the large island. 

On the 27th we filled our empty casks with water, and 
got that day one pig ; we also saw here certain birds 
entirely red. 

On the morning of the 30th, as we were drifting along 
in a calm, many canoes came alongside filled with blacks, 
who, as they approached us, broke their asagays in pieces 
upon their heads, in token of peace, but not one of them 
brought us anything, although they wanted everything. 
They appeared to be better and more civilized folk than 
the last, for they covered their privy parts with small 
leaves and had a handsomer kind of canoe, adorned fore 
and aft with a little carved work. They are very proud 
of their beards, which they powder with chalk as well 
as the hair of their head. Upon the three or four islands 
from which these canoes came there were many coker-nut 
trees. Not one of them brought us anything, although 
we made them signs that we were in want of food ; 
they remained near us until the evening, when they re- 
turned ashore. 


On the morning of the ist of July we lay between an island 
2 miles long and the main land of Guinea, having during 
the night drifted about 2 miles with the current in a calm. 
After breakfast about twenty-five prows, well equipped and 
with big crews, came from the island ; they were the same 
people who had on the previous day broken the asagays 
on their heads and had given us signs of friendship, but it 
had been done to deceive us as now appeared, for whilst 
we lay becalmed they thought to make themselves masters 
of the vessel. Two anchors were hanging down from the 
bows, a little out of the water ; upon these they came and 
sat, a man upon each anchor holding in his hand a pingay 

2i8 Jacob Le maire's [July, 1616 

or oar, wherewith they propel their canoes or prows, and 
in this way they thought to row the ship to the shore. 
The others kept hovering around the vessel, but we were 
fully on our guard. At last they began to pelt us at close 
quarters lustily with asagays and slings, so that they 
wounded one of our men, the first of our voyage. When 
they were now thoroughly at work and imagined they had 
already won the game we fired amongst them with our deck 
guns and with muskets ; so that twelve or thirteen were 
killed and many wounded. As they were fleeing our men 
rowed after them in the shallop, which was well equipped, 
and captured a canoe in which were three men, one of whom, 
being dead, they cast overboard, whilst the other two 
sprang into the water, but when one of these was shot dead 
by our people the other immediately gave himself up ; he 
was a young man of eighteen whom we called Moyses, 
after our wounded man. These people ate bread which 
they made of the roots of trees. In the evening we con- 
tinued to sail along the shore, with a fine breeze, in a west- 
nor'-westerly and north-west by westerly direction. 

On the 2nd our latitude was 3° 12'. That same day we 
saw on the larboard side low land as well as a high 
mountain, and on in front a low island. We continued in 
a west-nor'-westerly direction, progressing but slowly with 
a bad sea and an east-nor'-easterly wind. 

On the 3rd we again saw high land on our west, about 
14 miles distant from the other island, in latitude 2° 40'. 

On the 4th, whilst we were occupied in passing the 
aforesaid four islands, we saw some twenty-two or twenty- 
three others, both large and small, high and low, leaving 
them on the starboard side, with the exception of two or 
three to larboard. They lay all close together, in lati- 
tude 2° 25' and 2° 30', more or less, some separated by a 
mile or a mile and a-half, others only by a distance of a 
gun-shot. We thought we should find an anchorage by the 

July, 1616] AUSTRALIAN NAVlC^ATIOJ^S. ±i^ 

evening, but had to heave to at night because darkness 
overtook us. In the evening we saw off one of these 
islands a sail approaching us, but as night fell upon us it 
did not come alongside, and in the morning we were 
obliged to leave it on account of contrary wind, notwith- 
standing that we had already been close to it. 

On the 5th and 6th we had sometimes strong wind and 
sometimes calm with rain, thunder and lightning. In the 
forenoon we saw a very high mountain lying south-west of 
us, whither we steered. Our skipper was half inclined to 
think it might be Banda, on account of its great similarity 
to the mountain of Goemenapi^ in Banda, being, too, of very 
nearly the same height^ but on coming somewhat closer we 
saw some three or four similar mountains more lying quite 
6 or 7 miles north of the first, whereby he immediately 
knew that it was not so. Behind the mountain we also 
saw very much land east and west, extending so far that 
no end could be seen on either side ; in parts it was high 
and in other parts low, and * extended east-south-east, 
whereby we presumed it was Nova Guinea, and as night 
overtook us we hove to. 

Before daybreak on the morning of the 7th we turned 
her head again towards the high mountain ; it was a 
burning island, emitting flames and smoke from the sum- 
mit, wherefore we gave it the name of Vulcanus.^ The 
island was well populated and full of coker-nut trees. The 
inhabitants came in some prows near our vessel but were 
sore afraid ; they kept shouting to us, but we could not 
understand them, neither could Moyses, our black. They 
were also quite naked, only their privy parts being covered ; 
some had short and some had long hair. We could not 

^ Gounong Api, an active volcano on an island of the same name 
forming one of the Banda Group. 

'-* Vulcan I., 4,500 ft. ; now part of the German territory, kaiser 

^i6 Jacob le maire's [July, 1616 

find any bottom here, so that we could not anchor. To 
the north and north-west of us we saw some more islands 
and proceeded north-west by west towards a low promon- 
tory we saw in front of us, near which we came in the 
evening ; then we took our sails in and let her drift for the 
night. We got different colours of water here, such as 
green, white and yellow, which we presumed to be the out- 
pourings of rivers, for it was much sweeter than sea-water. 
Here, too, many trees, branches and leaves were floating 
about, sometimes with birds and crabs on them. 

On the 8th we anchored in 70 fathoms, about a gun-shot 
distant from the shore. Some canoes came alongside there 
with a funny kind of people, who were all Papoos,^ having 
short hair, which was curled, and wearing rings through 
their noses and ears, with certain small feathers on their 
head and arms, and hog's tusks around their neck and on 
their chest as ornaments. They also ate betel-nuts and were 
afflicted with various deformities ; one squinted, another 
had swollen legs, a third swollen arms, and so forth, whereby 
it is to be presumed that this must be an unhealthy 
country, especially as their huts stand upon piles about 
eight or nine feet from the ground. 

On the morning of the 9th, whilst we lay at anchor, our 
shallop rowed out to look about for a convenient place for 
our vessel to lie in, and returning, the men said they had 
found a good bay, whither we proceeded, anchoring in 
26 fathoms on a good bottom of sand mixed with clay. 
Close by were two small villages, whence many canoes came 
alongside of us, bringing a few coker-nuts, but they were 
very dear with them, demanding for four nuts one fathom 
of linen, after which they were very eager. They also had 
a few pigs, which they likewise held in great value, and 
although we repeatedly made signs for them to bring us 
some to supply our needs they would not do so. 

^ Le, natives of Papua, 


That day the following rations were dealt out to the 
crew : five pounds of bread and a quartern and a-half of 
oil per week for each man, with a quartern and a-half of 
Spanish wine and a glassful of brandy per day. All our 
pottage, such as peas, beans and barley, and all our meat, 
bacon and fish were gone, and we did not know where we 

On the loth some twenty canoes again came alongside, 
filled with men, women and children ; they were all quite 
naked, their privy parts only being covered, but they 
brought nothing of any value. 

On the morning of the nth we again set sail, proceeding 
north-west by west and west-nor'-west, keeping constantly 
along the coast and always in sight of land, at a distance 
of not more than 3, 2, i J or even i mile from the shore, 
and passing at noon a high promontory. This land 
was Nova Guinea ; it extends mostly north-west by west, 
sometimes a little more westerly, sometimes again some- 
what more northerly. 

On the 1 2th, 13th, and 14th we sailed along the same 

On the 15th the wind and course were along the coast 
as before, with good weather. In the afternoon we came 
to two low inhabited islands, which lay about half a mile 
from the land and were full of coker-nut trees. We ran 
towards them and found good anchorage in 40, 30, 25, and 
even in 6 and 5 fathoms, anchoring in 13 fathoms on a 
good bottom. The skipper rowed to land with the skiff 
and the shallop, well equipped, intending to fetch a number 
of coker-nuts which grew in great quantities on these 
islands, but when they reached the shore the blacks lay in 
the wood near to where we were, being terribly on their 
guard, and pelted us very fiercely with darts so that some 
sixteen of our men were severely wounded, one being shot 
right through his arm, another through his leg, a third in 
his neck, hands, or other parts. 

222 JACOB LE MAIRE'S [July, 1616 

In return for this our men fired amongst them with 
muskets and swivel-guns, but had nevertheless to retreat 
in the end on account of the heavy volleys of the Indians. 
Our latitude here was 1° 56'. 

In the morning of the i6th we sailed our vessel in 
between these two islands and anchored in 9 fathoms in a 
very good spot. In the afternoon our shallop and boat 
proceeded to the smallest island to fetch some coker-nuts, 
our men setting fire to two or three of the negroes' huts, 
whereat the blacks on the other island shouted and raved 
terrifically ; but they durst not come near us, for we fired 
with some big guns along the beach and into the bush, so 
that the balls sped through the bush with a great din, 
making the blacks to fly and afraid even to look out again. 
Towards the evening our men came aboard again and 
brought so many coker-nuts that each man in the ship 
received three as his share. In the evening a man came on 
board and begged for peace, bringing with him a hat 
which one of our sailors had let fall overboard in the 
previous skirmish. These people go quite naked, even 
with their privy parts bare. 

On the morning of the 17th two or three canoes full of 
blacks came alongside, threw some coker-nuts into the 
water above stream and made signs for us to fetch them 
out, whereby they sought our friendship. We made signs 
to them that they should come on board. At length they 
grew somewhat bolder, came near the ship and brought us 
as many nuts and bananas as we desired, all of which we 
hauled out of their canoes by lines from the gallery, giving 
them in exchange old nails, rusty knives and beads. They 
also brought us a little green ginger and some small yellow 
roots which are used instead of saffron. They also gave 
us in exchange some of their bows and arrows so that in 
the end we were great friends with them. 

On the 1 3th we continued to barter for bananas and 


coker-nuts, as well as for a little cassavy and papede, which 
is also obtained in the East Indies. We saw some herbs 
here which we thought must have come from the Spaniards. 
Nor were these people very curious concerning the ships, 
as the preceding ones had been, for they were able to speak 
about the firing of big guns and gave the island upon 
which they lived, and which was the most easterly, the 
name of Moa ; the other, lying opposite, they called Insou, 
and the farthest, which was rather a high island, lying some 
5 or 6 miles from Nova Guinea, that they called Arimoa. 

On the 19th our men proceeded to the biggest island to 
fish. The blacks showed them much amity, helping them 
to haul up the nets and giving them as many coker-nuts as 
they desired. We saw many prows (amongst which were 
some fairly large ones) coming towards us out of the east, 
from other islands situated more easterly, wherefore wc 
called our fishermen on board. These blacks made signs 
for us to fire upon those strange prows, but our men 
made them understand that we should do that if they 
attacked us first. They came peaceably on board and 
brought us as many coker-nuts and bananas as we desired, 
so that each man received fifty nuts and two bunches of 
bananas. These people used cassavi for their bread, but it 
is not to be compared with that in the West Indies ; they, 
too, bake it in round cakes. 

On the morning of the 20th we set sail, after having 
already bartered for many edible wares. They made signs 
for us to continue lying at anchor, promising to fetch us 
some more. 

On the 2 1st and 22nd we continued sailing along the 

On the 23rd we had good weather and a fine breeze ; 
when we were a short distance from the land we were 
followed by some six big canoes (although we had per- 
ceived no people on the shore) bringing dried fish, which 

i24 JACOB LE maire's [July, 1616 

we took to be gilt-heads,^ coker-nuts, bananas, tobacco, and 
a small fruit like plums. There also came some blacks 
from another island who brought us some food supplies ; 
they also had a specimen of Chinese porcelain, of which 
we got two saucers by barter, so that we presumed that 
Christian vessels had been here, especially as they were not 
so curious about our ship. They were a different kind of 
people from the last, yellower in complexion and taller in 
stature ; some had long hair, some short, and they also 
used bows and arrows. They were very eager after beads 
and iron-work and wore sticking in their ears rings of 
green, blue and white glass, which we presumed they had 
got from the Spaniards. 

On the 24th our latitude was half a degree. With a 
slight breeze we sailed north-west, also west and south- 
west along a fine large island, very green and pleasant to 
behold, which we called Willem Schouten Island,^ after our 
skipper, and the western corner^ we called C. van Goede 

On the 25th we saw on the larboard side a deal of land 
on our sou'-sou'-west, some of it very high, and some very 

On the 26th we saw some three islands more, the coast 
still extending to the north-west and north-west by west. 

On the 27th our latitude was 22 minutes south of the 
line ; we still saw a deal of land. 

On the 28th and 29th we had changeable weather and 

1 A kind of bream. 

2 Now also known as Mysory. 

3 i.e.^ of course, of the island, as the wording here and a careful 
examination of the chart (Plate 23) show; but— as was already pointed 
out by Burney {Chronological History^ Pt. II, p. 432)— Tasman, and 
after him Dampier, applied this name to a cape of the mainland of 
Papua situated west of Schouten's I., a mistake which seems to have 
been occasioned by an ambiguous disposition of the written name in 
the above chart. This error has been continued to the present time, 

* Cape of Good Hope, 


in the intervening night we had an earthquake, so that our 
men all came out of their bunks in amazement ; sometimes 
it seemed as if our vessel bumped. We frequently cast the 
lead, but found no bottom. 

On the 30th we sailed into a great bight so that we 
seemed to be surrounded by land ; we did our best to find 
an opening somewhere, but found none, and therefore pro- 
ceeded northwards again. We had that day such terrific 
thunder and lightning that our vessel trembled and shook 
and seemed at times to be all aflame, whereat we were not 
a little terrified and amazed ; subsequently there came 
such heavy rain that we had never in our life seen the 
like of it. 

On the 31st we found that we had sailed into a cul-de-sac ; 
we saw the land to be all continuous and therefore pro- 
ceeded northwards, passing the equinoctial line that evening 
for the second time, and at night, being close to the shore, 
we anchored in 12 fathoms on a good bottom, about a gun- 
shot distant from an island that lay close to the mainland, 
but we could see no human beings nor any growth. 

A ugust. 

On the 1st of August we weighed anchor with great 
difficulty, for it had got fast under a rock and we broke 
half its arm in winding. Our latitude was 15 minutes north 
of the line. In the evening the strong current drove us 
close to the shore, where we anchored on account of the 
calm. W^e weighed anchor and continued on our previous 
course. At noon on the 3rd we found a bank so far out 
at sea that we could scarcely see the land, there being a 
sand bottom in some places in 40, at others in 20, 1 5 and 
12 fathoms. We anchored in 12 fathoms. On the same 
day we found our latitude to be 45 minutes north of the 
line. We also saw a few whales and turtles, and we divined 
by our latitude that we had now come to the end of the 


226 JACOB LE MAIRE'S [Aug., 1616 

land of Nova Guinea, having sailed along the coast for 
280 miles. We saw that day two other islands to the 
west of us. 

On the 4th we saw some seven or eight islands, so we 
thought, wherefore we hove to at night, in order not to run 
upon their shore. 

On the 5th we proceeded towards the land which we had 
on the previous day taken to be islands, but on coming 
near it we found no bottom, wherefore we launched our 
shallop to take soundings, and found an anchorage in 
45 fathoms close to the land. We saw three prows set out 
from the shore and proceed towards our shallop ; on 
approaching the latter they hoisted a flag of peace and our 
men did the same, returning to the ship. The prows fol- 
lowed them, and also came alongside. They brought us 
nought but a sample of Indian beans and peas, together 
with some rice, tobacco, and two birds of Paradise, one of 
which, coloured white and yellow, we got by barter. We 
could understand these people fairly well, for they spoke 
a few words of Ternatan, and there was one who spoke 
Malay well, with which language the supercargo of the 
yacht, Aris Claesz., was well acquainted. There were some 
who also spoke a few words of Spanish, and amongst other 
things they also had a hat of Spanish felt. Their clothing 
consisted of certain bright-coloured cloths around their 
waist and a few wore silk breeches of various colours ; 
some, too, had turbans on their heads, and these, they said, 
were Turks or Moors. Some wore gold and silver rings 
on their fingers and all had jet black hair. They exchanged 
their wares with us for small beads and were shy and 
afraid of us. We asked them what their country was 
called, but they would not tell us, for which reason partly 
and also from other circumstances we opined and believed 
that we were at the eastern end of Gilolo on the central 
branch of the land (for Gilolo extends eastwards in three 


branches) and that they were natives of Tidor, friends of 
the Spaniards, as indeed we found to be so. After these 
Indians had brought various other provisions we weighed 
anchor and passed the equinoctial line for the third time. 
From the 6th until the i8th we made every effort to get 
round the north-east corner of Gilolo. At about noon on 
the 1 8th two prows bearing a peace-flag came alongside of 
us from a village named Soppy ; the occupants were 
Ternatans, so that we could easily speak with them ; a 
few were also from Gammacanor^ and told us that a yacht 
from Amsterdam, named De Pauw, had lain there quite 
three months, taking in a full cargo of rice, and that about 
a month or two ago an English ship had also been there. 
Then were we very glad that by God's mercy we had thus 
got into the right course and that we still had eighty-five 
healthy men on board. The next day we anchored off 
Soppy, where we got some things by bartering and chaffer- 
ing. There came a correcor^ from Ternaten, the occupants 
of which told us that there were fully twenty Dutch ships 
cruising in that sea among the Molucques and that eight 
vessels had sailed to the Maniljes ; we remained here until 
September 5th. On the 5th, as we were lying at anchor 
off the coast of Gilolo, our men went out fishing, and as 
they stood hauling the nets up four Ternatans, each armed 
with a sword and shield, rushed forth from the bush to 
slay our men, but by great good fortune the barber 
shouted "Oran Hollanda,"^ whereupon they immediately 
desisted and sprinkled water upon their heads, saying they 
thought our men were Castilians. Our men brought them 
on board, when they said they had come from Gamma- 

1 Gamakora. 

2 This word, signifying a small boat or canoe, though of Gaelic 
origin, is found in a great variety of forms throughout the East 
and West Indies. 

^ Literally, in the Malay tongue, " men of Holland." 


228 JACOB LE MAIRE'S [Sept., 1616 

canor, from which, according to them, we were still about 
5 or 6 miles distant. 

On the 6th and 7th we were pretty frequently becalmed 
and often tacked. 

On the 8th our supercargo and the factor of the yacht 
proceeded to Gammacanor in a well-equipped shallop, 
intending to procure some provisions there. The coast 
from Soppy to Gammacanor stretches south-west and 
north-east with many bights and bays. 

On the 9th and loth we remained where we were on 
account of contrary winds, as well as on the nth, when 
our shallop returned without having been to Gammacanor, 
as that place was too far and they were not equipped for 
such a voyage ; but they had been in a village called 
Loloda,^ lying about 10 miles from our vessel, where they 
had only obtained some bananas. The inhabitants had 
told them that the Dutch^ and Ternatans had captured an 
island named Siauw,^ lying on the way to the Manillas, 
and that thirteen ships were lying at Ternata. 

On the 1 2th our skipper and Aris Claesz. proceeded with 
eighteen well-armed men to Ternata, from which, according 
to our calculations, we were still 25 miles distant, and we 
remained lying becalmed with the vessel. 

At midday on the 14th we set sail with a fair breeze, but 
the wind soon fell again, so that we made only about 
3J miles that day. 

On the 15th it blew a bit now and then, so that we made 
4 miles progress that day. 

^ Laloda on some maps, Lolada on others. 

- " De Duytschen." One of the rare cases where the Dutch, speak- 
ing of their own nation, use the adjective by which the English nearly 
always designate them, though when speaking of their language the 
Dutch mostly say "nederduitsch." Here the adjective was evidently 
directly quoted from natives who had employed the English designa- 
tion. To-day " Duytschen " or " Duitschen" would simply mean 
" Germans." 

' Siao, between Celebes and the Philippines. 


On the 1 6th we got near Gammacanor and saw Ternate 
and Tidor lying close together. 

On the 17th we did our best to reach Ternate and at 
daybreak saw a sail to windward of us, also making for 
Ternate. She was the Morgensterre, of Rotterdam, and 
thence came our shallop which had been with her for three 
nights, having found her in the bight of Sabou. Admiral 
Verhaghen was aboard of her and she was one of Admiral 
Speilbergen's vessels, from whose men we learnt that 
the said Speilbergen had passed through the Strait of 
Magellanes and various other details, as may be read above. 
The same evening we anchored off Maleya in Ternate, 
our supercargo and skipper going ashore and being well 
received by the General, Gerhardt Reynst,^ as well as by 
the Admiral, Steven Verhagen, Jaspar Jansz., the Governor 
of Ambon,^ and the whole Council of India. 

On the 1 8th our supercargo and skipper went ashore and 
sold both our shallops, four small metal guns belonging to 
the yacht and a deal of lead ; also two big cables, nine 
anchors and other small articles, for which they received in 
all 1,350 reals of eight. 

On the 19th, 20th, 2 1 St, 22nd, and 23rd we remained 
lying at the above-mentioned place. 

On the 24th eleven men and four boys came to 
the supercargo and skipper begging to be discharged, 

^ The diarist expected to find Reynst there, especially as Jacob le 
Maire had with him a letter of introduction from his father to that 
Governor ; but the latter had died 27th December, 161 5, and Laurens 
Reael was acting as his successor. Vide Van der Aa, Biographisch 
IVoordenboek, Deel 16, p. 295 ; also Bakhuizen van den Brink's article 
on Isaac le Maire in De Gids for 1865, pp. 53, 54. 

'^ Amboina, one of the Moluccas lying south of Ceram and east of 
Booro (see also p. 155). " Bien qu'une des plus petites du groupe, 
elle est au premier rang par son importance economique et politique. 
C'est Ik que fut autrefois concentree par les Hollandais la riche culture 
des arbres k epices, et ils firent de cette petite ile le centre de leurs 
possessions orientales du grand archipel Asiatique." — Vivien de Saint- 
Martin, Nouveau Dictionnaire de Gdographie^ torn. I, p. 115. 

230 JACOB LE maire's [Sept., 1616 

as they wished to serve the Company, and this was 

On the 26th we took our departure. The General, 
Laurens Reael, accompanied our skipper and supercargo 
as far as the vessel with pennant flying, and two ships set 
sail with us, one of them being the aforesaid Morgensterre^ 
which was bound for Motir,^ but we for Bantam. At the 
request of the General himself we took with us to Bantam 
the supercargo of the Sterre and one of the General's 

On the 27th we passed Tidor and the Morgensterre took 
leave of us, going to Motir, On the 28th we passed Motir 
and Makian^ and on the 29th Cajou^ and Backian,* crossing 
the equinoctial line that day for the fourth time. 


On October 2nd we sailed past Loga Combella^ and 
Manipa^ in Zeira, and on the 3rd past Burro.'^ 

On the 6th we passed Botton^ and Cabessecabinco,^ and 
on the 7th Cabona.^^ 

On the 8th we passed through the narrows of Burgarones,^^ 
between the southern corner of Celebes and Desolaso.^^ 

^ Mortier I. ; vide p. 135. 2 Vide '^'^. 135, 136. 

3 Kajao ; vide y^. 136. * Fz'rt'i? pp. 136, 137. 

* This is marked on the map (PI. 23) as Loege Cambello in Zeram 
(Ceram). Cf. also Plate 19. 

^ Manipa is not in Ceram, alluded to above as Zeira, but is an island 
near it, on the west. 

^ Booro I. ^ Booton I. 

*"* This must be Pangassani, lying between Booton I. and Cambyna. 

^^ The island of Cambyna. 

^^ Cf. the map on Plate 19, where this word is spelt Bogurones, and 
appears to apply to two or three islands to the south-west of Booton. 
The narrows are there called Streto de Celebes, and to-day Salayer 

^ The island is now known as Salayer, but the southern corner of 
Celebes is still called Lassoa Point. 


Towards the evening on the 13th we came in sight of 
the island of Madura,^ and on the morning of the 15th we 
saw Java and sailed that day past Tuban.^ 

At midday on the i6th we arrived off Japara, where we 
anchored in the roadstead, finding there the Hollandia, of 
Amsterdam, which was taking in a cargo of rice in order to 
carry it to Ternate. At Japara all edible wares and food 
supplies are abundant and cheap. We bought a good deal 
of rice, arack, meat, fish and other victuals here, wherewith 
we intended to sail home. 

On the 23rd we set sail from thence and arrived on the 
28th^ off Jacatra, where we anchored outside the islands. 
There we found three Dutch ships, to wit, the Hoorn, the 
Arent and the Trou^ with three English vessels. In the 
following night one of our crew died, the first to die of all 
those who had set out in the big ship Eendracht. Besides 
him, two others had died, to wit, Jan Cornelisz. Schouten, 
near Honden Island in the South Sea, and one near the 
coast of Portugal, so that down to that time not more than 
three men had died on the two vessels, and we still had 
eighty-four men alive and in fair health. 

On the 31st there also arrived off Jacatra the Bantam, 
having on board the President at Bantam of the East India 
Company, Jan Pietersz. Koenen,^ of Hoorn. 


On the 1st of November the President, Jan Pietersz. 
Koenen, invited our skipper and supercargoes to come 
ashore to him. On their arrival he signified to them, in 
the presence of his council, convoked by him, and in the 
name and on behalf of the Directors of the East India 

^ Off the N. coast of Java. 

2 On the northern shore of the mainland of Java. 

3 Speilbergen gives the date of arrival as the 20th. See p. 
* See pp. 151, 152. 


Company, that they must give up and hand over to him 
their vessel and all their goods, as was done. Two skippers 
were immediately appointed by the President and two 
supercargoes by the Merchants' Guild, to whom our skipper 
and supercargo delivered up everything by inventory, This 
took place on Monday, November ist, according to our 
reckoning, but on Tuesday, the 2nd, according to the 
reckoning of our countr3^men there. The reason of this 
discrepancy in the time was this : whereas we sailed west- 
wards from our country and had once circumnavigated the 
earth with the sun we had therefore had one night or 
sunset less than they, and they, who had gone from the 
west to the east, had thereby had one day or sunset more 
than we, which makes a difference of twenty-four hours.^ 
So our ship remained here and our supercargo [and^] 
Jacob le Maire, Willem Cornelisz. Schouten^ and ten men 
more returned home with the Admiral, Joris Spilberghen, 
the rest remaining in India in the service of the Directors. 
How we further reached home Your Honours will read at 
the end of S^- Spilbergen's Journal. Be ye herewith 
commended to the Lord. 


^ Speilbergen had really followed the sun's course in the same way 
as le Maire, but had evidently rectified his date on arrival at Ternate 
(see his entry of March 29th, 1616, on p. 128, relating to the matter) ; 
hence arose the discrepancy, and not from the cause wrongly given 

'^ This word seems redundant, as a good many others certainly are. 
The supercargo of the Eendracht was Jacob le Maire, but this may be 
the diarist's way of referring both to him and to the supercargo ot the 

^ Bakhuizen van den Brink, in his article on Isaac le Maire in De 
Gids for 1865, states, I know not on what authority, that Schouten 
remained behind. 



I. — Editions of Speilbergen's First Journal, a R^sum^ 

OF which is given on Pages xxxvi-xli of the 


t' Historiael Journael, van tghene ghepasseert is van weghen dry Schepen 
ghenaemt den Ram, Schaep ende het Lam, ghevaren uyt Zeelandt vander 
Stadt Camp-Vere naer d' Oost-Indien, onder t' beleyt van Joris van 
Spilberghen, Generael, Anno i6oi. [With portraits of the King of Kandy 
and of Speilbergen.] pp.69. \_Floris Balthazar : Delff, \(iOa,.^ obl./^. 
[Not in the British Museum Catalogue. — Tiele.] 

Het Journael van Joris van Speilberghen. Dese afbeeldinge is vande grootte 
vanden grooten Carbonckel oft Rubyn, by Spielberghen made uyt Celon 
ghebracht. Sonet. Want vremde, &c. — Dese journale met 14 platen oft 
afbeeldingen welgesneden heeft geordineert en t'zijnen costen doen 
drucken Floris Balthazar, inde Nobel inde Choor-straet tot Delffy alwaer- 
nen de selve te coope vint. pp. 69, 1605. obi. 4°. [Epistle dedicatory 
to the Stales General, dated March 3, 1605]. [1858. a. i. (3.)] 

[Another edition.] pp. 71. [With the addition of 2 " Liedeken, 

printed in 3 columns, signed " Waerom ghequelt."] [Floris Batlhazar : 
Delj^, 1605.] obi. 4°. [Tiele.— Not in the British Museum Catalogue.] 

t' Historiael Journael van t'ghene ghepasseert is van weghen drie Schepen 
ghenaemt den Ram, Schaep ende het Lam, ghevaren uyt Zeelandt vander 
Stadt Camp-Vere naer d' Oost-Indien onder t' beleyt van loris van 
Speilberghen, Generael Anno i6or, den 5 Mey tot in t' Eylant Celon, 
vervatende veel sclioone gheschiedenissen die by haer op dese reyse 
gheschiedt zijn in den tijdt van twee Jaer elff maenden neghenthien 
daghen. Dese Historic is verciert met seventhien welghesneden platen, 
daer in ghefigureert zijn Eylanden, Steden, Kusten Havens, ghevechten 
op verscheyden plaetsen, met meer ander afbeeldinghen, als mede een 
heerlijcke beschryvinghe van ander landen, seer profytelijck voor de 
Zeevarende man. Dese Journalen met alle de platen heeft doen snijden 
ende drucken t'zijnen Kosten Floris Balthasars Plaet snijder woonende 
inde Choor-straet tot Delff, Anno 1605. obi. 4°. 72 pp.— [" Fol. 17. 
Hier salmen stellen de plaet van Saffala," which plate, however, does not 
seem to have been inserted in this edition. On page 67 is a plan of 
Middelburg, with the return of the ships.] 

[Tiele. — Not in the British Museum Catalogue.] 

— [Another edition.] Ghecorrigeert, verbetert ende vermeerdert. ff. 42. 
[13 plates.] By Michiel Colyn, Boeck-vercooper opt Water, int Huys- 
boeck aende Cooren- Marct : f Amsterdam, 161 7. obi. fol. [566. f. 22.] 

— [Another edition.] In " Oost-Indische ende West-Indische voyagien," 
etc. Michiel Qolyn : Amsterdam, \6i(). obi. fol, 
[566. f. 14. (4.) Not in Tiele.] 


't Historiael Journael, van de Voyagie ghedaen met drie Schepen, ghenaemt 
den Ram, Schaep, ende het Lam, ghevaren uyt Zeelandt, van der Stadt 
Camp-Vere, naer d' Oost-Indien, onder 't beleyt van den Heer Admirael 
Joris van Spilbergen, gedaen in de Jaren 1601, 1602, 1603, ende 1604, 
pp. 62. Part 10 in Deel i of Isaak Commelin's " Begin ende Voort- 
gangh," ^/f. {Amsterdam,^ 1646, ohl. fol. [566. f. 17.] 

Historis Journael Nan de Voyage Gedaen met 3 Schepen uyt Zeelant naer 
d' Oost-Indien onder het beleyt van den Commandeur Joris van Spilber- 
gen, sijn eerste Reyse. In den Jare 1601, 1602, 1603, 1604. Als meede 
Beschryvinge vande Tweede Voyage ghedaen met 12 Schepen na d' Oost- 
Indien onder den Admirael Steven van der Hagen. pp. 96. Voor Joost 
Hartgers, Boeck-verkooper inde Gast-huvssteegh bezijden het Stadt-hitys : 
/' Amsterdam, 1648. 4° Part 5 of the 1648 edition of Isaak Commelin's 
Begin ende Voortgangh, etc. [566. g. 9. (5.)] 

Historis Journael Van de Voyagie Gedaen met 3 Schepen uyt Zeelandt Naer 
d' Oost-Indien, onder 't beleydt van den Commandeur Joris van Spil- 
berghen, sijn eerste Reyse. Inde Jaren 1601, 1602, 1603, 1604. Hier 
is achter by gevoeght de Beschrijvinge van het Eylandt Java. pp. 62. 
Voor Joost Hart^ers, Boeck-verkooper op den Dam, bezijden het Stadt- 
hiiys : ^t Amsterdam, 1652. 4°. 

[Tiele. — Not in the British Museum Catalogue.] 

Journael van de Voyagie gedaen met drie Schepen, uyt Zeelandt, naer Oost- 
Indien onder het beleydt van den Commandeur Joris van Spilbergen, Zijn 
eerste Reyse uyt ghevaren in den Jare 1601, 1602, 1603, en 1604. pp. 56. 
Gedruckl by Gillis Joosten Saeghman, in de Nieuw::-straet, Ordinaris 
Drucker van de Journalen ter Zee en de Landt-Reysm : t' Amsterdam, 
[1663.] 4°. Tract 7 in G. J. Saeghman's " Verscheyde Oost-Indische 
Voyagien." 1663-68. [10057. dd. 50. (7).] 

II. — Editions of the Spiegel. 

Oost ende West-Indische Spiegel der nieuvve Navigatien, Daer in vertoont 
werdt de leste reysen ghedaen door Joris van Speilbergen, Admirael van 
dese Vloote ; in wat manieren hy de Wereldt rontsom gheseylt heeft. 
25 plates, pp. 192. By Nicolaes Geelkercken : tot Leyden, Anno i6i(). 
obi. 4°. [Tiele. — Not in the British Museum Catalogue.] 

Oost ende West-Indische Spiegel Der 2 leste Navigatien, ghedaen in den 
Jaeren 1614, 15, 16, 17, ende 18, daer in vertoont wort, in wat gestalt 
Joris van Speilbergen door de Magellanes de werelt rontom geseylt heeft, 
met eenighe Battalien so te water als te lant, ende 2 Historien de een van 
Oost ende de ander van West-Indien, het ghetal der forten, soldaten, 
schepen, ende gheschut. Met de Australische Navigatien, van Jacob le 
Maire, die int suyden door een nieuwe Straet ghepasseert is, met veel 
wonders so Landen, Volcken, ende Natien, haer ontmoet zijn, in 26 
coperen platen afghebeelt. pp. 192. By Nicolaes van Geelkercken: tot 
Leyden, Anno 1619. obi. fol. 

[10028. df. 17. The title-page only has been altered.] This copy 
has been used in making the translation contained in this volume. 

Speculum Orientalis Occidentalisque Indiae Novigationum ; Quarum una 
Georgij a Spilbergen classis cum potestate Praefecti, altera Jacobi le 
Maire auspicijs imperioque directa, Annis 1614, 15, 16, 17, 18. Exhi- 
bens Novi in mare Australe transitus, incognitarumque hactenus terrarum 
ac gentium inventionem : praelia aliquot terra marique commissa expug- 


nationescj ; urbium : una cum duabus novis utriusque Indiae Historijs, 
Catalogo munitionum Hollandicarum ducum et reliqui bellici apparatus, 
P>etisque quatuor : suis quaeque figuris ac imaginibus illustrata. 26 plates, 
pp. 175. Apud Nicolaum h Geelkercken : Lugduni Batavorum, 
An. ciDiDCXix (1619). obl.fol. [682. b. 14.— 566. f. 34.] 

[Another copy, with a different imprint.] Speculum, etc. Apud 

Nicolaum a Geelkercken : Lugduni Batavorum ; Sumptibus Jtidoci 
Hondii: [Amstelodamt], An. CIDIDCXIX. obl.fol. 
[G. 6909. MS. Notes.] 

Navigationis a Georgio a Spilberghen . . . per fretum Magellanicum et mare 
meridionale ab anno 1614 usque ad annum 1618 inclusive peractse descrip- 
tio . . . auctore G. Arthusio. (Sequunrur vera) . . . regionum . . . et gen- 
tium . . . imagines, etc. ) [20 plates with descriptions. ] In Bry (Theodor 
de) Americse tomi undecimi appendix. 2 pt. Typis /. Hoferi: Fratico- 
furti: 1620. fol. 

[579. k. 16. (4.)-2i5- c. 16. (2)-455. d. 14. (4.)-G. 6630. (2*.)] 

Appendix desz eilfften Theils America), das ist, Warhafftige Beschreibnng der 
wunderbahren Schifffahrt so Georgius von Spielbergen als von der Nider- 
landischen Indianischen Societet bestellter Oberster aber sechs Schiffe 
durch die Magellanische Strasse und in der Suder See vom Jahr 1614 
bisz in das 1618 Jahr verrichtet. In welcher die newc Schifffahrt durch 
die Suder See auch viel unbekante Landschafften Inseln und Volcker 
neben allem was ihm auff derselben Reyse furkommen und zu handen 
gangen ausz oberschicktem Tagregister fleissig verzeichnet mit vielen 
frembden Figuren so vormals nie gesehen gezieret und beschrieben. 
Durch M. Gotthard Arthus von Dantzig. [With 20 plates, with descrip- 
tions. ] 2 pt. Geti-tickt bey Hieronymo Gallern in Vorlegting Johann 
Theodor de Bry : Oppenheim, Anno mdcxx. 
[10003. e. 30. (2)— G. 6626. (4*).] 

Die Siebenzehende Schiffart, das ist, Eigentliche und warhaftige Beschreibung 
der wunderbahre Reiss und Schiffart so durch Herr Georgio von Spilbergen 
(durch die Magellanische Strasse in der Suder Zee) gliicklichen volbracht. 
Beneben Erzehlung was fur Landschafften Insuln, Volcker, und Nationen 
allda gefunden und sich sonsten auff der Reiss denckwiirdiges zugetragen. 
Mit schonen Charten und Kupfferstiicken erkltirt und fiir Augen gestelt. 
pp. 93. Gedruckt zu Franckfurt am Mayn dui chjohan Hofern sumptibus 
Bulsianis, im Jahr mdcxx. 4°. In Levinus Hulsius' Collection of 
Voyages and Travels, edited by L. Hulsius and his successors. (26 Thle. ) 
Thl. 17. 1 598- 1650. 4°. [10028. d. 24.] 

Oost ende West-Indische Spieghel Waer in Beschreven werden de twee 
laetste Navigatien, ghedaen in de Jaeren 1614, 1615, 1616, 1617, ende 
1618. De eene door den vermaerden Zee-Heldt Joris van Spilbergen 
door de Strate van Magellanes, ende soo rondt om den gantschen Aerdt- 
Cloot, met alle de Bataellien soo te water als te Lande gheschiet. Hier 
syn mede by ghevoecht twee Historien, de eene van de Oost ende de 
andere van de West-Indien, met het ghetal der Schepen, Forten, Soldaten 
ende Gheschut. De andere ghedaen bij Jacob le Maire, de welcke in 
't Zuyden de Straet Magellanes, een nieuwe Straet ontdeckt heeft, met 
de Beschrijvinghe aller Landen, Volcken, ende Nation. Alles verciert 
met schoone Caerten ende Figueren hier toe dienstelijck. 26 plates, 
pp. 192. Byjanjanssz.^ Boeckverkooper op '/ Water inde Pas-caert : 
't Amstelreifani, Ao. -Sl-DCXW. (1621.) obl.fol. [566.^35.] 


[Another copy, with a different imprint.] Oost ende West-Indische 

Spieghel, etc. By Andries Janssz, van Aelst, Boeckverkooper : tot Zut- 
phen, Ao. 1621. obl.fol. 

[Not in the British Museum Catalogue. — Tiele.] 

Miroir, Oost & West-Indical, auquel sont descriptes les deux dernieres Navi- 
gations, faictes es Annees 1614, 1615, 1616, 161 7, & 1618, I'une par 
le renomme Guerrier de Mer, George de Spilbergen, par le Destroict de 
Magellan, & ainsi tout autour de toute la terre, avec toutes les Battailles 
donnees tant par terre que par eau. Icy sont aussi adioustees deux 
Histoires, I'une des Indes Orientales, I'autre des Indes Occidentals, avec 
le nombre des Navires, Forts, Soldats, & Artillerie. L'autre faicte par 
Jacob Le Maire, lequel au coste du Zud du Destroict de Magellan a 
descouvert un nouveau Destroict. Avec la description de tous Pays, Gens 
& Nations. Le tout embelli de belles Cartes et Figures a ce servantes. 
[Translated from the Latin edition of 161 9.] pp. 172. Chez Jan Jansz. 
sur PEau, ci la Pas-carte: Amstelredam, I' /in 1621. obi. 4°. 
[436. b. 19. — K. 216 a. 20.— G 6792.] 

The Voyage of George Spilbergen, Generall of a Dutch Fleet of sixe Shippes, 
which passed by the Magellane straits, and South Sea, unto the East 
Indies, and thence (having encompassed the whole Circumference of the 
Earth) home : gathered out of the Latine Journall, beeing the fift Circum- 
Navigation. In Purchas (Samuel) the Elder. Purchas his Pilgrimes, etc. 
Lib. II. Chap. 6. pp. 80-87. London : 1625. fol. 

[679. h. 11-14.— 213. d. 2-5.-984. h. 4-7.— G. 6838-41.] 

Ilistorisch Journael van de Voyagie ghedaen met ses Schepen uytghereed 
zijnde d»'or de vermaarde Heeren Bewinthebberen van de Oost-Indische 
Compaignie uyt de Vereenighde Nederlanden te weten de groote Sonne, 
de groote Mane, den Jager, de Jacht, de Meuuwe van Amsterdam, den 
/Eolus van Zeelandt, de Morgenster van Rotterdam. Omme te varen 
Door de Strate Magallanes naer de Molucques, met Commissie der lioogh 
Mogende Heeren Staten Generael, ende sijne Princelijcke Excellentie. 
Onder 't gebiedt vanden Heere Joris van Spilbergen, als Commandeur 
Generael over de Vlote. Als mede de Australische Navigatie, ontdeckl 
door Jacob le Maire (ende Willem Cornelisz. Schouten) in den Jaere 
1615, 1616, 1617. Part 18 of Deel 2 of Isaak Commelin's "Begin ende 
Voortgangh," etc. pp. 1-118. [Amsterdam,} 1646. obi. fol. 
[566. f. 19.] 

Oost- en West Indische Voyagie, Door de Strate Magallanes Naer de 
Molucques, Met ses Schepen onder den Commandeur Joris Spilbergen. 
Als mede de wonderlijcke Reyse ghedaen door Willem Cornelisz. 
Schouten van Hoorn, en Jacob le Maire, in den Jaere 1615, 1616, 1617. 
Hoe sy bezuyden de S tract van Magallanes een Nieuwe passagie tot in de 
groote Zuydt-Zee ontdeckt voort den gheheelen Aerd-kloot om-ghezeylt 
hebben. Midtsgaders Wat Eylanden vreemde Volckeren en wonderlijcke 
Avontueren hun ontmoet zijn. i plate, pp. 120. I'oor Joost Hartgerts, 
Boeck-verkooper in de Gasthuys-Steegh, bezijden het Stadt-huys, in de 
Boeck-winckel : ^t Amstelredam, 1648. 4°. Part 8 of a later edition of 
Isaak Commelin's " Begin ende Voortgangh," etc. [566. g. 9. (8.) 

Journael van de Voyagie gedaen met ses Scheepen door de Straet Magalanes, 
naer de Molucques, onder het Beleydt van den Heer Admirael Joris van 
Spilbergen, zijn tweede reys, uytgevaren in den Jare 1614, 1615, 1616, en 
161 7. Verhalende de eygenschappen des Landts vreemdicheyt der 
Menschen en verscheyde andere saecken haer op de Reys voorgevallen. 


[With a portrait of Spilbergen.] pp. 64. Gedruckt by Gillis Joosten 
Saeghman, in de Nieuwe-straef, Ordinaris Drucker van de Joiirnalen ter 
Zee en de Landt-Reysen : t'' Amsterdam , [1663.] 4°. [icx)57. dd. 29.] 

Voyage de George Spilberg, Amiral Hollandois, aux Ilea Moluques, par le 
detroit de Magellan. In Renneville (Rene Augustin Constantin de) 
Recueil des Voyages, qui ont servi a I'etablissement et aux progres de la 
Compagnie des Indes Orientales,formee dan les Provinces Unies des Pais- 
bas. Nouvelle edition, revue par I'Auteur, et considerablement aug- 
nientee. Enrichie d'un grand nombre de Figures en Taille-douce. 
(10 torn.) torn 8. pp. 1-113. Jean Baptiste Machuel le jeune : Rouen, 
1725. 12° [1047. a. 15-24.— 688. c. 15-24.— 979. d. i-io.] 

Seconde Edition [of the Recueil des Voyages by de Renneville], revue, 

& augmentee de plusieurs pieces curieuses. (7 torn.) Tom. 4. pt. 2. 
pp. 445-530. Chez Isaac Rey : Amsterdam, 1754. 12°. 
[K. 303. a. 8-19.] 

George Spilberg, En Magellanique, In Brosses (Charles de). Histoire des 
Navigations aux Terres Australes. Paris, 1756. torn. I. pp. 343, et 
seq. [454. a. 17, 18.— 566. h. 5, 6.— 215. a. 15, 16.— G. 7382-3-] 

George Spilberg to Magellanica and Polynesia. In Callander (John). — Terra 
Australis Cognita, or Voyages to the Terra Australis, or Southern Hemi- 
sphere, during the Sixteenth, Seventeenth, and Eighteenth Centuries . . . 
Edinburgh: 1768. Vol.2. Art. III. pp. 191-217. 
[566. c. 1-3.— G. 16065-7.] 

III. — The Letter, of which a Translation is given on 
Pages xlix-lv of the Introduction. 

Copye van een Brief geschreven door Joris van Spelbergh, Conimijs Generael 
en de Capiteyn over de Zeeusche Soldaten ; Onder 't beleydt van den 
Erentfesten ende Manhaftighen Heere Jacob van Heems-kercke, als 
Admirael der E. E. M. Heeren Staten der Vrye Vereenichde Nederlanden 
verordineert : tracterende van 't veroveren der Spaensche Armade . . . 
in dato 9 May, 1607. pp. 4. {Amsterda?n, 1607.] 4°. 
[T. 1713. (12.)] 

IV. — Editions of the Journal narrating the Voyage 


Journal Ofte Beschryvinghe van de wonderlicke reyse, ghedaen door Willem 
Cornelisz Schouten van Hoorn, inde Jaren 1615. 1616. en 1617. Hoe hy 
Bezuyden de Strate van Magellanes een nieuwe Passagie tot inde groote 
Zuyd Zee ondeckt, en voort den gheheelen Aerdkloot omgheseylt, heeft. 
Wat Eylanden, vreemde volcken en wonderlicke avontueren hem ontmoet 
zijn. '/ Amsterdam, by Willem Janzz. op V water inde Sonnewyser, 1618, 
4°. [Tiele.] 

Journael ofte Beschrijvinghe van de wonderlicke reyse, gedaen door Willem 
Cornelisz. Schouten van Hoorn, inde Jaren 1615. 1616. en 1617. Hoe 
hy bezuyden de Strate van Magellanes een nieuwe Passagie tot inde groote 
Zuyd-zee ontdeckt, en voort den gheheelen Aerdt-Kloot om gheseylt heeft. 
Wat Eylanden, vreemde Volcken en wonderlijcke avontueren hem ont- 
moet zijn. Tot Arnhem, By fan Jansz., Boeck-vfrkooper. Anno 1618. 
4°. [Tiele.] 


Journael ofte Beschrijvinghe van de vvonderlicke reyse, gedaen door Willem 
Cornelisz. Schouten, ^/<:. Tot Amstelredam : Voor Jan Jansz., Boeckver- 
kooper inde Paskaert. i6i8. 4°. [Tide.] 

Journal, ou Description de Tadmirable voyage de Guillaume Schouten Hol- 
landois, etc. pp. viii. 88. 9 plates. Guillaume Janson : Amsterdam^ 
[1618.] 4°. [Tiele.] 

Journal, ou Description du merveilleux voyage de Guillaume Schouten, etc. 
pp. viii. 88. 9 plates. Guillaume Janson : Amsterdam, 1618. 4°. 

Journal ou Relation exacte du Voyage de Guill. Schouten dans les Indes, etc. 
pp. 232. 8 plates. Chez M. Gobert, au Palais en la gallerie des prison- 
niers : Et les Cartes , chtz M. Tavernier, Graveut du Roy, demeurant au 
pont Marc hand : Paris, MDCXViii. 8°. [1046. a. 21.] 

Warhaffte Beschreibung der wunderbarlichen Rjiyse und Schiffart, so Wilhelni 
Schout von Horn, ausz Hollandt nach Suden gethan, etc. pp. ii, 34. 
Gedrucktheyjanjansen: zu Arnheim, 161 8. 4°. [Tiele.] 

Australische Navigatien, ontdeckt door Jacob le Maire, inde Jaeren Anno 
1615. 1616. 1617. Daer in vertoont is, in wat gestalt sy, by zuyden de 
Straet Magellanes, eenen nieuwen duerganck ghevonden hebben, sterck- 
ende tot in die Suydt-Zee, met de verklaeringhe vande vreemde Natien, 
Volcken, Landen ende Aventuren, die sy gesien ende haer vvedervaren 
zijn. pp. 143-192 of the " Oost ende West Indische Spiegel . . . Tot 
Leyden, By Nicolaes Geelkercken, Anno 1619." 4°. Vide supra, 
Section II. 

Journael ofte Beschrijvinghe van de wonderlijcke reyse gedaen door Willem 
Cornelisz. Schouten, etc. Tot Amsterdam, By Barmen Jansz. Boeck- 
verkooper, wconende inde Warmoes-straet, inde Meyrminne, Anno 1619. 
4°. [Tiele.] 

Novi Freti, a parte Meridionali Freti Magellanici, in Magnum Mare Australe 
Detectio ; facta laboriosissimo et periculosissimo itinere a Guilielmo 
Cornelij Schoutenio Hornano, Annis 1615, 1616, & 1617, totum orbem 
terrarum circumnavigante. pp. 95. 9 plates. Apud Gulielmum Jan- 
sonium: Amsterodami, 16 19. 4°. [981. a. 8.] 

Diarum vel descriptio laboriosissimi, & Molestissimi Itineris, facti a Guilielmo 
Cornelii Schoutenio, Hornano Annis 1615, 1616, & 1617, etc. [Preface 
signed : Gulielmusjansonius.] pp.71. 6 plates. Apud Petrum Kcerium : 
Amsterdami, A° 1619. 4°. [1045. e. 17. (2.)] 

Diarium vel Descriptio . . . Itineris, facti a Guilielmo Cornelii Schoutenio, 
etc. Preface by Guilielmusjansonius.] pp 71- 3 plates. Apud Petrum 
Kceritim : Amsterdami : K" \b\(^. 4°. [G. 6735.] 

The Relation of a Wonderful! Voiage made by William Cornelison Schouten, 
of Home [1615-1617], shewing how South from the Straights of Magelan, 
in Terra Del-fuogo : he found and discovered a newe passage through the 
great South Sea, and that way sayled round about the world. Describing 
what Islands, Countries, People, and strange Adventures he found in his 
saide Passage. [Translated from the Dutch by W. P., i.e., William 
Phillip.] pp. 82. Imprinted by T. D. for Nathanaell Newbury, and are 
to be sold at the signe of the Starre, under S. Peters in Come- hill, and in 
Pope-head A lley : London, 1619. 4°. 

[K. 303. d. 27. (5.)— B. 670. (3.)-C- 6738.1 


Tournal ou Description du Merveilleux Voyage de Guillaume Schouten, Hol- 
landois, natif de Hoorn, fait es annees, 161 5. 16 16, et 16 17. pp. 88. 
9 plates. Chez Harman Janson, Marchand Libraire, demeurant en la 
Warmoes-straet, a la Sereine : Amstredam : 1619. 4° [G. 6736.] 

Tournal ou Description du Merveilleux Voyage de Guillaume Schouten, Hol- 
landois, natif de Hoorn, fait es annees 1615, 1616. et 1617, etc. pp. 88. 
4 plates. Chez Pierre du Keere, Tailleur de Cartes, demeurant en la 
Calver-straet, a Penseigne du temps incertain : Amstredam, 16 19. 4°. 
[1045. e. 17. (3.)— 980. e. 30.] 

Tournal ou Description de I'admirable voyage de Guillaume Schouten, Hol- 
landois . . . Illustre de belles Cartes et Figures taillez en cuivre. pp. 88. 
3 plates. Imprimi ches Gtiilliamne Janson: h Amsterdam, 16 19. 4°. 
[1045. e. 17. (I).)] 

Die sechtzehende Schiffahrt. Journal oder Beschreibung der wunderbaren 
Reise Wilhelm Schouten ausz Hollandt im Jahr 1615, 16, und 17, etc. 
pp. 90. 9 plates. Gedruckt durch Nicolawn Hoffmann, sumptibus Httl- 
sianis : Franckfurt am Mayn, im Jar mdcxix. 4°. In Levinus Hulsius' 
Collection of Voyages and Travels. (26 Theile.) Thl. 16. 1598-1650. 
4°. [10028. d. 42. — 10028. d. 43.] 

Relacion diaria del viage de Jacobo de Mayre, y Guillelmo Cornelio Schouten, 
en que descubrieron nuevo Estrecho y passage del mar del Norte al mar 
del Sur, a la parte Austral del Estrecho de Magallanes. flf. 26. 2 maps. 
For Bernardino de G^tzman : Madrid, Ano 1619. 4°. [G. 6737.] 

Australische Navigatien, ontdeckt door Jacob le Maire, etc. pp. 143-192 of 
the " Oost- ende West-Indische Spiegel . . . t' Amsterdam, bij Jan Janssz. 
. . . 162 1." 4°. Vide supra. Section II. [566. f. 35.] 

Navigations Australes descouvertes par Jacob Le Maire, es annees 161 5, 16 16, 
161 7, etc. In Joris van Speilbergen's " Miroir Oost & West IJndical," 
etc. Jan fansz : Amstelredam, 1621. obi. 4^. 
[436. b. 19.— K. 216. a. 20.— G. 6792.] 

Spieghel der Australische Navigatie, door den wijt vermaerden ende cloeck- 
moedighen Zee-Heldt Jacob Le Maire, President ende overste over de 
twee Schepen, d' Eendracht ende Hoorn uytghevaren den 14 Junij, 1615. 
[With a portrait of Le Maire.] fol. 72. 5 plates. By Michiel Colijn, 
Boeck-vercooper op 't Water by de Oude Brugh in 't Huys-Boeck : 
t' Amsterdam, Anno 1622. In Antonio de Herrera Tordesillas' " Nieuwe 
Werelt. anders ghenaempt West-Indien." pt. 2. By Michiel Colijn: 
Amsterdam, 1622, 1621. fol [10410. f. 28.] 

Ephemerides, sive Descriptio Navigationis Australis, institutae Anno mdcxv, 
ductu et moderamine fortissimi Viri Jacobi Le Maire, duarum navium, 
quarum uno Concordia, altera Cornu dicta fuit, Praefecti. 7 plates. In 
Antonio de Herrera Tordesillas' " Novus Orbis, sive Descriptio Indiae 
Occidentalis . . . Metaphraste C. Barlaeo," etc. fol. 44-74- ^pttd 
Michaelem Colinium, Bibliopolam, ad insigne Libri Domestici: Amstelo- 
dami. Anno MDCXXii. fol. [G. 7035-— 797- i"- 5-] 

Journael et Miroir de la Navigation Australe du vaillant et bien renomm6 
Seigneur Jaques Le Maire, Chef et Conducteur de deux Navires Concorde 
et Hoorn, qui partirent le 14 de Juin, 1615. 8 plates. In Antonio de 
Herrera Tordesillas' *' Description des Indes Occidentals . . . Trans- 



latee d'Espagnol en Frangois," etc. pp. 104-174. Chez Michel Colin, 
Libraire, demeurant au Livre Domestique: d Amsterdam, Anno mdcxxii. 
fol. [984. f. 21.— 795. 1. 20.] 

Journael ofte Beschrijvinghe van de wonderlicke reyse ghedaen door Willem 
Cornelisz. Schouten van Hoorn, in den Jaren 1615, 1616, en 1617. Hoe 
hy bezuyden de Strate van Magellanes een nieuwe Passagie tot in de 
groote Zuyd-zee ontdeckt, en voort den geheelen Aerd kloot om geseylt 
heeft. Wat Eylanden, vrecmde Volcken en wonderlicke avonturen hem 
ontmoet zijn. 8 plates, pp.56. Voor/anJansz.,Boeck-verkooperinde 
Pas-kaert : Amsterdam^ 1624. 4°. [C. 32. e. 11.] 

The Sixth Circum- Navigation, by William Cornelison Schouten, of Home : 
Who, South-wards from the Straights of Magelan in Terra-Del-fuogo, 
found and discovered a new passage through the great South- Sea, and 
that way sayled round about the World : Describing what Islands, 
Countries, Peoples, and strange Adventures hee found in his said Passage. 
[From Wm. Phillip's translation of 1619.] In Purchas (Samuel) the 
Elder. Purchas his Pilgrimes, etc. Lib. II. Chap. 7. pp. 88-107. 
London, 1625. fol. 

[679. h. 11-14. — 213. d. 2-5.-984. h. 4-7.— G. 6838-41.] 

Journael ofte Beschryvinghe vande wonderlijcke Reyse ghedaen door Willem 
Cornelisz. Schouten, etc. f Amsterdam, By Jan Janssen Boeck-verkooper, 
1632. 4° [Tiele.] 

Journael ofte Beschryvinghe van de . . . Reyse gedaen door Willem Cornelisz. 
Schouten, etc. pp. 53. 9 plates. Ghedruckt by Isaack van Waesberghen, 
Boeck-verkooper op V Steyger aende Marckt inde Fame : tot Rotterdam^ 
1637. 4". [10027. b. 8.] 

Journael ofte Beschryvinghe vande wonderlijcke Reyse gedaen door Willem 
Cornelisz. Schouten, etc. pp. 56. 9 plates. V Amsterdam, By Jan 
/anssen Boeckvercooper. 1644. 4°. [10027 cc. i.] 

Australische navigatien ontdeckt door Jacob Le Maire ende Willem Cornelisz. 
Schouten inde jaeren 1615, 1616, 1617, etc. In Isaac Commelin's "Begin 
ende voortgangh vande . . . Oost Indische Compagnie," etc. Deel 2. 
Pt. 18. pp. 70-118. iAmsterdam\ 1646. 4°. [566. f. 19.] 

Journael, ofte Beschrijvinge vande wonderlijcke Reyse, ghedaen door Willem 
Cornelisz. Schouten van Hoorn. In de Jaren 161 5. 16 16. 161 7. Hoe hy 
bezuyden de Straet Magellanes eenen nieuwen doorganck gevonden heeft, 
streckende tot inde Zuyd-Zee, met de verklaringe vande vreemde Natien, 
Volcken, Landen en Avonturen, die sy gesien, ende haer wedervaren 
zijn. Hier is noch achter by-gevoeght eenighe Zee-Vragen ende Ant- 
woorden, zijnde seer nut ende geheel dienstigh alle Schippers, Stiermans 
ende Zeevarende maets. (pp. 67-120 of " Oost-en West- Indische Voy- 
agie.") V Amstelredam, Voorjost Hartgers, Boeckverkooper in de Gasthuys- 
Steegh, bezijden het Stad-huys, inde Boeck-winckel. 1648. 4°. 
[566. g. 9. (8.)] 

Journael, ofte Beschrijvinghe van de wonderlijcke Reyse gedaen door Willem 
Cornelisz. Schouten van Hoorn . . . Desen laetsten Druck verbetert . . . 
van Aris Claessz. en andere, etc. pp. 56. 9 plates. Ghedruckt by Isaac 
Willemsz. voor Marten Gerbrantsz. Boeckverkooper inde Kerck-straet in V 
A- B. C. : tot Hoorn, Anno 1648. 4°. [1061. g. 45.] 


Journael ofte Beschrijvinghe vande wonderlijcke Reyse gedaen door Willem 
Comelisz. Schouten . . . Desen laetsten Druck verbetert, en uyt eenige 
geschreven Journalen, van Aris Claessz. en andere, gehouden op de 
selfde Reyse, mercklijck vermeerdert. Tot Hoorn, Ghedruckt by Isaac 
Willentsz. voor Mieus Jansz. Appel, Boeckverkooper aende Roo-stem, in de 
Nieuwe Bybel^ KviXio id^^. 4°. [Tiele.] 

Journael ofte Beschrijvinghe vande wonderlijcke Reyse gedaen door Willem 
Comelisz. Schouten, etc. Voor [an Jansz. Deutel, Boeckverkooper op V 
Oostin Biestkens Testament^ Anno 1648. 4°. [Tiele.] 

Diarium vel Descriptio laboriosissimi et Molestissimi Itineris, facti £l Guilielmo 
Comelii Schoutenio, Hornano, Annis 161 5, 1616, et 161 7 . . . Editio 
altera, pp. 71. 6 plates. Sumptibus Ludovici Vlas-bloem: Doccetiy 

1648. 4. [G.6739.] 

Journael ofte Beschrijving vande wonderlijcke Voyagie, ghedaen door Willem 
Comelisz. Schouten, van Iloorn, inden Jaere 161 5, 1616, ende 1617. 
Hoe hy bezuyden de Straete van Magellanes, een nieuwe Passagie ondeckt, 
en de geheele Aerd-cloot om-gezeylt heeft. Tot Dockum. Gedruckt by 
Louis Vlas-bloem^ Boeckdrucker wonende inde Kercstraet int Schrijf-boecky 

1649. 4°. [Tiele.] 

Journael ofte Beschrijving vande wonderlijcke Voyagie, ghedaen door Willem 
Comelisz. Schouten, etc. Dockum, Louis Vlas-bloem^ 165 1. 4°. [Tiele.] 

Journael ofte Beschrijving vande wonderlijcke Voyagie, ghedaen door Willem 
Cornelisz. Schouten, etc. Amsterdam, Louis Vlasbloem, 1655, (4°.) 

Diarium vel Descriptio laboriosissimi et molestissimi Itineris. facti a Guilielmo 
Comelii Schoutenio, Hornano, Annis 1615. 1616, & 1617, etc. pp. 71. 
6 plates. Sumptibus Ludovici Vlas-boom : Amsterdami, i66[o.] 
4°. [1295- b.] 

Journael, ofte Beschrijvinge vande wonderlijcke Reyse gedaen door Willem 
Cornelisz. Schouten . . . Desen laetsten Druck verbetert, en uyt eenige 
geschreven Journalen van Aris Klaessz. en andere, gehouden op de selfde 
Reyse, merckelijck vermeedert. pp. 57. 6 plates. Gedruckt by Jan 
Jacobsz. Bouman, Boeckverkooper op V Water in de Lelyt onder de Doornen : 
f Amsterdam, Anno 1661. 4°. [1424. c. 26.] 

Journael Van de wonderlijcke Reyse, Gedaen door Willem Cornelisz. Schouten 
van Hoorn, Inde Jaren 1615. 1616. en 1617. Verhalende hoe dat hy 
bezuyden de Straet Magalanes, eenen nieuwen Doorganck gevonden 
heeft, streckende tot in de Zuydt-Zee, met de vreemdigheyt der Volckeren, 
Landen en Wonderheeden die men aldaer gesien heeft. t' Amsterdam, 
Gedruckt By Gillis Joosten Saeghman, inde Nieuwe-straet, Ordinaris 
Dnuker vande Journalen ter Zee, ende Landt-Reysen [1663]. 4°. 
[10057. dd. 50. (8.)] 

Journael Vande Wonderlijcke Reyse, Gedaen door Willem Cornelisz. Schouten, 
etc. f Amsterdam, By Michiel de Groot, Boeck-verkooper op de Nieuwen- 
dijck, tusschen beyde de Haarlemmer-sluysen, inde groote Bybel [1664]. 4°. 

Journael Vande Wonderlijcke Reyse, Gedaen door Willem Cornelisz Schouten, 
etc. Amsterdam, Weduw van Michiel de Groot 1i(x)6\. 4°. [Tiele.] 

R 2 


Journael Vande Wonderlijcke Reyse, Gedaen door Willem Cornelisz. Schouten, 
etc. Amsttrdam, Gijsbert de Groot. 1716. 4". [Tiele.] 

Journael Vande Wonderlijcke Reyse, Gedaen door Willem Cornelisz. Schouten, 
etc. By de Weduwe van Gijshert de Groot, BoecJiverkoopster op den 
Nieuwen-dijcky inde Groote Bybel. [1720.] 4°. [Tiele.] 

Navigation Australe faite par Jaques Le Maire, et par Willem Cornelisz. 

Schouten, les Annees 1615, 1616, et 1617, etc. In Rene Augustin Con- 

stantin de Renneville's " Recueil des Voyages," etc. Nouvelle edition. 

tom. 8. pp. 14-229. Jean Baptiste Machuei le jeune : Rouen, 1725. 12°. 

[1047. a. 15-24.— 688. c. 15-24.— 979. d. i-io.] 

[Another edition.] tom. 4. pt. 2. pp. 531-618. 2 maps. Chez Isaac 

Rey : Amsterdam, 1754. 12°. [303. a. 15.] 

Journael Van de Wonderlijke Reyze, Gedaen door Willem Cornelisz. Schouten, 
etc. Tot Amsterdam, By Joannes fCannewet,^ Boeckverkooper in de Nes, 
inde Gekroonde fugte Bybel. 1766. 4°. [Tiele.] 

James Le Maire, and William Schouten, to Magellanica, Ponlyesia \_sic'], and 
Australasia. In John Callander's " Terra Australis Cognita," etc. Vol. 2. 
pp. 217-269. Printed by A. Donaldson: Edinburgh, 1768. 8°. 
[G. 16065-7.— 566- c. 1-3.] 

The Voyage of James Le Mair, and William Schouten, 16 16. In Alexander 
Dalrymple's *' An Historical Collection of the several Voyages and Dis- 
coveries in the South Pacific Ocean. Vol. ii, containing the Dutch 
Voyages." pp. 1-64. Printed for the Author : London, iTji. 4°. 
[566. h. 9. (2.)— 454. h. 5, 6. (i.)-K. 212. d. II.— G. 1781.] 

Decouvertes de Jacques Le Maire et Guillaume Shouten, en 16 16. In Alex- 
ander Dalrymple's "Voyages dans la Mer du sud par les Espagnols et les 
Hollandois. Ouvrage traduit de I'Anglois . . . par M. de Freville." 
pp. 291-323. Chez Saillant et Nyon ; Pis sot : Paris, 1774. 8°. 
[10491. de. 5.] 

The Voyage of William Cornelison Schouten, of Home. In John Hamilton 
Moore's " A New and Complete Collection of Voyages and Travels," etc. 
Vol. I. pp. 49-53. Printed for the Proprietors, and sold by Alexander 
Hogg, at No. 16, Paternoster Row, London, [1780.] fol. [10003. f« 2.] 

D^couverte du. Detroit de Le Maire. Journal ou Description du merveilleux 
voyage de Guillaume Schouten, Hollandais, natif de Horn, fait en les 
annees 1615, 1616, 1617. In " Voyages dans tous les Mondes. Nouvelle 
Bibliotheque historique et litteraire, publiee sous la direction de M. 
Eugene Mullen" pp. 191-235. Ch. Delagrave : Paris, 1888. 8°. 
[10026. aa. I.] 

Relacion diaria del Viaje de Jacobo Le Maire y Guillermo Cornelio Schouten 
. . . Reimpresa [from the 1619 edition] con unanota bibliografica dej. T. 
Medina, pp. vii. 56. Santiago de Chile, 1897. 8^ 
[9771. bb. 33.— 9551. bb. 43.] 


V. — List of Works Quoted in this Volume or Bearing 

ON ITS Subject, with the British Museum 


Aa (Abraham Jacob van der). — Biographisch Woordenboek der Nederlanden, 
bevattende Levensbeschrijvingen van zoodanige Personen, die zich op 
eenigerlei wijze in ons Vaderland hebben vermaard gemaakt. Door A. 
J. van der Aa. Voortgezet door K. J. R. van Harderwijk en Dr. G. D. J. 
Schotel.) 21 Deelen. J.J. van Brederode: Haarlem^ 1852-78. S"". 
[2038. £.—10761. f.] 

Acosta (Joseph de). — Historia natural y moral de las Indias. pp. 535. Juan 
de Leon: SeviUay 1590. 4°. 

[K. 146. a. 3.— G. 6341. Barcelona^ 1591. 8°.— 978. a. 13. 

Madridy 1608. 4°. — 978. k. 6. — 1792 4°. — 9551. f. 3.] 

Historic naturael ende morael van de Westersche Indien . . . Nu 

eerstmael uyt den Spaenschen Overgheset door Jan Huygen van Lin- 
schoten. Enchtiysen, Haarlem [printed], 1598. 8°. 
[10470. a. I.] 

Tweede editie. Amsterdam, 1624. 4°. [981. c. 14.] 

The Naturall and Morall Historie of the East and West Indies. 

Translated into English by E. G. [i.e., Edward Grimstone.] pp. 590. 
Printed by Val. Sims, for Edward Bloutit and William Aspley : London, 
1604. 4°. [978. f. 9. — K. 279. h. 35.— G. 15020.] 

The Natural and Moral History of the Indies. By Father Joseph de 

Acosta. Reprinted from the English translated edition of Edward Grim- 
ston, 1604, and edited, with notes and an introduction, by Clements R. 
Markham, C.B., F.R.S. Vol. i. The Natural History (Books i, 11, 
III, and IV.) pp. xlv, 295. Vol. 2. The Moral History (Books v, vi, 
and VII.) pp. xii, 295-551. Map of Peru. (Series i, vols. 60, 61,) 
Hakluyt Society : London, \%Zo. 8°. [Ac. 6172/54,] 

Asher (George Michael). — Henry Hudson the Navigator, 1607-1613. The 
Original Documents in which his career is recorded. Collected, partly 
translated, and annotated, with an introduction, by George Michael 
Asher, LL.D. pp. ccxviii, 292. 2 Maps. Bibliography. (First Series, 
vol. 27.) Hakluyt Society : London, i860. 8°. [Ac. 6172/25.] 

Bakhuizen van den Brink (Reinier Comelis). — Isaac Le Maire. EeneVoor- 
lezing. In ** De Gids . . . Vierde Serie, Derde Jaargang, 1865. Vierde 
Deel." pp. 1-56. P. N. van Kampen : Amsterdam ^ 1865. 8°. 
[P. P 4S95-] 

Barentsz. (Willem). 

See Veer (Gerrit de). 

Beke (Charles Tilstone). 

See Veer (Gerrit de). 



Bennet (R. G.) and Wijk (Jacob van). — Verhandeling over de Nederlandsche 
Ontdekkingen in Amerika, Australie de Indien en de Poollanden, en de 
namen welke weleer aan dezelve door Nederlanders zijn gegeven. Door 
R. G. Bennet en J. van Wijk, Roeldz. Uitgegeven door het Provinciaal 
Utrechtsche Genootschap. (Nieuwe Verhandelingen, Zesde Deel.) pp. 6. 
215. Appendix, yok. Althter : te Utrecht^ 1830. 8°. 
[Ac. 970.— Plates. Tab. 750.] 

Beynen (Koolemans). 

See Veer (Gerrit de). 

Both (Pieter). 

See Caerden (Paulus van). 

Brosses (Charles de). — Histoire des Navigations aux Terres Australes. 
Vide supra. Section II. 

Brouck (Pieter van den). — Historische ende Tournaelsche aenteyckeningh. 
In Isaak Commelin's " Begin ende Voortgangh," etc. Deel 2. l^Am- 
sterdam\ 1646. obi. fol. [566. f. 16-19.] 

Buder (Christian Gottlieb). 

See Struve (Burcard Gotlhelff). 

Burney (James). — A Chronological History of the Discoveries in the South 
Sea, or Pacific Ocean. 5 vol. G. and W. Nicol : London, 1803- 181 7. 
4°. [455. b. 17-21.— G. 7231-2.] 

Caerden (Paulus van). — Kort Verhael ofte Journael van de reyse gedaen naer 
de Oost Indien met 4 schepen . . . onder den Admirael Pieter Both van 
Amesfort ... in den Jaren 1599, 1600 ende 1601. Gehouden by Capi- 
teyn Paulus van Caerden. In Isaak Commelin's *' Begin ende Voort- 
gangh," etc., Deel I, pt. 6. [Amsterdam'], 1646. od/. fol. 
[566. f. 16-19.] 

Callander (John). — Terra Australis Cognita. 3 vol. 
Vide sttpra. Section II. 

Camus (Armand Gaston). — Memoire sur la Collection des Grands et Petits 
Voyages [the former by Theodor de Bry, and the latter by Johann 
Theodor and Johann Israel de Bry], et sur la Collection des Voyages de 
Melchisedech Thevenot. pp. 401. Baudouin : Paris, Frimaire, An XI. 
(1802.) 4°. [BB. I. e. 17.— 434. c. 18.— K. 213. a. i.— G. 6619.] 

Commelin (Isaak). — Begin ende Voortgangh van de Vereenighde Neder- 
landtsche Geoctroyeerde Oost-Indische Compagnie. Vervatend de voor- 
naemste Reysen, by de Inwoonderen der selver Provintien derwaerts 
gedaen. Alles nevens de Beschryvingen der Rycken, Eylanden, Havenen, 
Revieren, Stroomen, Reeden, Winden, Diepten en Ondiepten ; mits- 
gaders Religien, Manieren, Aerdt, Politic, en Regeeringe der Volkeren ; 
cock mede haerder speceryen, Droogen, Geld en andere Koopmanschap- 
pen met vele Discoursen verrijckt : Nevens eenige Kopere Platen verciert. 
Nut en dienstigh alle curieuse, en andere Zeevarende Liebhebbers. Met 
drie besondere Tafels ofte Registers in twee Deelen verdeelt : Waer van 
't eerste begrijpt Veerthien Voyagien den meeren-deelen voor desen noyt 
in 't licht geweest. [Edited by Isaak Commelin.] 2 Deelen in 21 pts. 
[Amsterdam,] Gedruckt in denjaere 1646. obi. -^ol. [566. f. 16-19.] 


[Another edition.] Oost-Indische Voyagien Door dien Begin en Voort- 

gangh, etc. 13 Stucke. Voor Joost hartgerts, Boeck-verkooper in de 
Gasthuys-Steegh bezyden het Stadt-huys in de Boeck-Winckel : V Amstel- 
redam, 1648. 4°. This edition is not entered under the author's name 
in the B. M. Catalogue. [566. g. 9.] 
Vide also supra, Section II. 

Conway {Sir William Martin), Z'.^.^.— Early Dutch and English Voyages 
to Spitsbergen in the seventeenth century, including Hessel Gerritsz. 
" Histoire du Pays nomme Spitsberghe," 1613, translated into English, 
for the first time, by Basil H. Soulsby, F.S.A.. of the British Museum : 
and Jacob Segersz. van der Brugge, "Journael of Dagh Register," 
Amsterdam, 1634; translated into English, for the first time, by J. A. J. 
de Villiers, of the British Museum. Edited, with introduction and notes, 
by Sir W. Martin Conway, F.S.A. pp. xvi, 191. 6 illustrations and 
maps. Bibliography. (Second Series, vol. xi.) Hakhiyt Society: London, 
1904. 8°. [Ac. 6172/86.] 

Crawfurd (John), F.S.A.-— A Descriptive Dictionary of the Indian Islands 
and adjacent Countries, pp. 459. Bradbury ^ Evans : London, 1856. 
8° [2059. b.] 

Drake [Sir Francis). — The Second Circum-Navigation of the Earth : or the 
Renowned Voyage of Sir Francis Drake . . . begun in . . . 1577. In 
Samuel Purchas's "Purchashis Pilgrimes." Pt. i, pp. 54, etc, London, 
1625. fol. [679. h. 11-14.— 213. d. 2-5.-984. h. 4-7.— G. 6838-41.] 

Foreman (John), F.R.G.S. — The Philippine Islands. A historical, geogra- 
phical, ethnographical, social and commercial sketch of the Philippine 
Archipelago and its political dependencies. By John Foreman, F.R.G.S. 
. . . With map and frontispiece, pp. xiii, 495. Sampson Low 6^ Co. : 
L^ondon ; Kelly dr^ Walsh: Hongkong, &c., 1890. 8°. 
[2 copies. — 10055. df. 21, 26.] 

Grimstone (Edward). 

See Acosta (Joseph de). 

Guerrero Vergara (Ramon). — Los Descubridores del Estrecho de Magel- 
lanes i sus Primeros Esploradores, Examen de las relaciones autenticas 
de sus viajes, concordadas con los conocimientos modernos, per Ramon 
Guerrero Vergara. Segunda parte: 1553 a 1584. pp. 140. Imprenta 
Nacional: Santiago de Chile, 1880. 8° [10481. ff. 18.] 

Harmansen (Wolfhart). 
Vide Hiirmensz. 

Harmensz. (Wolphert).— Journael ofte dachregister vande Vogagie ghedaen 
onder Admirael Wolfhart Harmansen . . . 1601, 1602 ende 1603. In 
Isaak Commelin's " Begin ende Voortgangh, etc. Deel I, pt. 9. 
, {_Amsterdam,'\\(iA6. obi. fol. [566. f. 16-19.] 

Heemskerck (Jacob van).— Journaal gehouden door den Vice- Admirael Jacob 
van Heemskerk, 1598- 1600. In J. K. J. de Jonge's " Opkomst van het 
Nederlandsch Gezag in Oost-Indic." Deel I, pp. 385-454- '•» Graven- 
hage, 1862-65. 8°. [9056. gg.] 


Schip-vaerdL by de Hollanders ghedaen naer Oost-Indien, onder 't 

beleydt van den Admirael Jacob Heemskerck, in den Jare 1601. 
Ghetogen uyt het Journael, ghehouden by Reyer Cornelisz. In Isaak 
Commelin's *' Begin ende Voortgangh," etc. Deel i, pt. 8. [Amslerdam,] 
1646. obi foL [566. f. 16-19.] 

Hudson (Henry), the Navigator. 

See Asher (George Michael). 

Jonge (Johan Karel Jakob de). — De Opkomst van het Nederlandsch Gezag in 
Oost-Indie ( 1 595-1610). Verzameling van onuitgegeven Stukken uii het 
Oud-Koloniaal Archief. Uitgegeven en bewerkt door Jhr. Mr. J. K. J. de 
Jonge. 3 Din. Martinus Nijhoff: 'x Gravenhage ; Frcderik Midler : 
Amsterdajn, 1862-65. 8°. [9056. gg.] 

Le Maire (Isaac). 

See Bakhuizen van den Brink (Reinier Cornelis). 

Linschoten (Jan Huygen van). — Voyagie, ofte schip-vaert, van Jan Huyghen 
van Linschoten, van by Noorden om langes Noorwegen de Noordcaep, 
Laplandt, Vinlant, Ruslandt, . . . door de Strate ofte Engte van Nassau 
tot voorby de Revier Oby . . . Met de afbeeldtsels van alle de Custen, 
Hoecken, Landen . . . Anno 1594 en 1595. fol. 38. Ghedruct by 
Gerard Ketel: Franeker, 1601. fol. [10025 f. 12.] 

Twee Journalen van twee verscheyde Voyagien, gedaen door Jan Huy- 

gen van Linschooten van by Noorden om langhs Noorwegen, de Noordt- 
Caep . . . door ,de Strate ofte Enghte van Nassouw tot voor by de 
Reviere Oby na Vay-gats, gedaen in de Jaren 1594, en 1595, itc. pp. 40. 
Gedruckt by Gillis Joosten Saeghman, in de Nieuwe-straet, Ordinaris 
Drucker van de Journalen ter Zee en de Reysen te Lande : Amsterdam^ 
[1663.] 4°. [10460. bbb. 12.] 

Linschoten (Jan Huygen van). 

See also Acosta (Joseph de). 

Major (Richard Henry). — Early Voyages to Terra Australis, now called 
Australia. A collection of documents, and extracts from early MS. Maps, 
illustrative of the history of discovery on the coasts of that vast Island, 
from the beginning of the Sixteenth Century to the time of Captain Cook. 
Edited, with an introduction, by Richard Henry Major, F.S.A. pp. cxix. 
200. 13. 5 maps. (First Series, vol 25.) Hakluyt Society: London^ 
1859. 8°. [Ac. 6172/23.] 

Markham {Sir Clements Robert) K.C.B.—A History of Peru. (Latin- 
American Republics.) [With illustrations and maps.] pp. xvi, 556. 
C. H Sergei^ Co.: Chicago, 1892. 8°. [2398. d. 11.] 

Markham {Sir Clements Robert), A'.G.B. 
See also Acosta (Joseph de). 
See also Sarmiento de Gamb6a (Pedro). 

Matelief (Cornells). — Breeder verhael . . . van tghene den Admirael Cor- 
nells Matelief de Jonge in de Oost-Indien voor de Stadt Malacca, ende 
int belegh der zelver wedervaren is ; als 00c den . . . strijdt ter zee 
tusschen den Admirael . . . en de Portugijsen . . . Overgheschreven by 
eenen der Commisen in de vlote. Byjanjanssz. : Rotterdam, 1608. 4°. 
[1295. b. 21.] 


— Historiale ende ware Beschrijvinge vande Reyse des Admiraels Cor- 
nells Matelief . . . naer de Oost-Indien ; uylghetrocken in Mayo 1605. 
Mitsgaders de belagheringhe voor Malacca, etc. Byjanjansz. : Rotter- 
dam, 1608. 5°. [T. 1713. (23.)] 

Historische Verhael vande treffelijcke Reyse, gedaen naer de Oost- 

Indien ende China, met elf Schepen, door den Manhaften Admirael 
Cornelis Matelief de Jonge, in den Jaren 1605, 1606, 1607, ende 1608. 
In Isaak Commelin's " Begin ende Voortgangh, etc. Deel 2. pt. 13. 
pp.191. \^Amsterdam,'\\(>^. obl.fol. [566. f. 16-19.] 

An historicall and true discourse, of a voyage made by the Admirall 

Cornelis Matelief the younger, into the East Indies, who departed out of 
Holland, in May, 1605 ; with the besieging of Malacca and . . . with 
other discourses. Translated out of the Dutch according to the coppie 
printed at Rotterdam, pp. 25. Imprinted at London for William Barret, 
and are to be sold at his shop in Paules Church-yard, at the signe of the 
Greene Dragon, 1608. 4°. [582. e. 35.— B. 671. (3.)]. 

Meusel (Johann Georg.) 

See Struve (Burcard Gotthelf). 

Middleton (David). — The Voyage of Mr. David Middleton in the Consent . . 
which set forth ... on the twelfth of March, 1606. *' In Purchas His 
Pilgrimes, Pt. I. pp. 226, 227. London, 1625. fol. 
[679. h. 11-14.— 213. d. 2-5.-984. h. 4-7.— G. 6838-41.] 

Middleton {Sir Henry). — The sixth Voyage, set forth by tbe East-Indian 
Company in three Shippes . . . written by Sir H. Middleton. In 
" Purchas His Pilgrimes," Pt. I, pp. 247-274. London, 1625. fol. 
[679. h. 11-14.— 213. d. 2-5. — 984. h. 4-7.— G. 6838-41.] 

Noort (Olivier van). — Beschrijving van de Voyagie om den geheelen Wereldt 
Cloot, ghedaen door Olivier van Noort . . . om te zeylen door de Strata 
Magellanes, ( 1 598- 1 60 1 , ) etc. Rotterdam, 1 602. obi. 4°. 
[1858. a. I. (2.)] 

Beschrijvinge van de Schipvaerd by de Hollanders ghedaen onder 

't beleydt ende Generaelschap van Olivier van Noort, etc. In Isaak Com- 
melin's '* Begin ende Voortgangh," etc. Deel i. pt. 5. pp. $6. \_Am- 
sterdam,'\ 1646. obl.fol. [655./. 16-19.] 

Journael van de wonderlijcke Vooyagie door de Straet Magalanes, ende 

voorts den gantschen Kloot des Aerdtbodems om, gedaen met vier 
Scheepen onder het beleydt van Olivier van Noordt, uytgevaren in 't Jaer 
1598, etc. pp. 48. Gedruckt by Gillis /oosten Saeghman, in de Nieuwe- 
straet, Ordinaris Drue ker van dejournalen tet Zee ende Landt-Reysen : f 
Amsterdam, [1663.] 4°. [10057. de. 50. (5.)]. 

The Voyage of Oliver Noort round about the Globe, beeing the fourth 

Circum-Nauigation of the same, extracted out of the Latine Diarie. In 
" Purchas His Pilgrimes." Pt. I. pp. 71-78. London, 1625. 
[984. h. 4-7-] 

Pelliza (Mariano A.)— La Cuestion del Estrecho de Magallanes. Cuadros 
historicos por M. A. Pelliza. pp. 385. C Casavale : Buenos Aires, 
1881. 8^ [8180. h, 15.] 

250 bibLiographV. 

Phillip (William). 

See Veer (Gerrit de). 

Purchas (Samuel), the Elder. — Purchas his Pilgrimes. In five bookes. The 
first contayning the voyages . . . made by ancient kings . . . and 
others, to and thorow the remoter parts of the knowne world, etc. [Part i 
has also an engraved title-page, containing a portrait of Purchas, as 
follows : " Hakluytus Posthumus, or Purchas his Pilgrimes." To this 
Collection is usually added, as a fifth volume, the fourth edition of the 
" Pilgrimage," 1626.] 4 pt. W. Stanshy, for H. Fether stone : London^ 
1625. fol. [679. h. 11-14..— 213. d. 2-5.-984. h. 4-7.— G. 6838-41.] 

' [A reprint, with numerous illustrations.] Hakluytus Posthumus, or 

Purchas his Pilgrimes. With an Index. 20 vol. James MacLehose and 
Sons : Glasgow, igo^-igoy. 8°. [010026. k.] 
Vide also supra. Section II. 

Renneville (R. A. C. de) — Recueil des Voyages, etc. 
Vide supra. Section II. 

Sarmiento de Gamb6a (Pedro). — Narratives of the Voyages of Pedro 
Sarmiento de Gamboa to the Straits of Magellan. Translated and edited, 
with notes and an Introduction, by Clements R. Markham, C.B., F.R.S. 
pp. XXX. 401. I map. (First Series, vol. 91.) Hakluyt Society : London, 
1895. 8vo. [Ac. 6172/72.] 

Schrijver (Pieter). — Gedichten van Petrus Scriverius. Benevens een Uyt- 
voerige Beschryving van het Leeven des Dichters. Verrykt met deszelfs 
Aibeeldingen, en Lofdichten, zo van Oude, als Hedendaagsche Poeeten. 
pp. 153. By Jan Hartig : te Amsieldam, 1738. 4°. [11555. cc. 26.] 

Struve (Burcard Gotthelff). — Bibliotheca Historica. Instructa a Burcardo 
Gotthelf Struvio, aucta a Christi. Gottlieb Budero, nunc vero a Joanne 
Georgio Meuselio ita digesta, amplificata et emendata, ut paene novum 
opus videri possit. 11 vol. Lipsiae, 1782- 1802. 

[270. g. 24-34.-963. h. 7-16.— 01 1908. e. 15.— G. 389-99.] 

Tide (Pieter Anton). — Memoire bibliographique sur les journaux des naviga- 
teurs neerlandais r^imprimes dans les collections de De Bry et Hulsius . . . 
et sur les anciennes Editions hollandaises des journaux de navigateurs 
etrangers, etc. [With a preface by Frederik Muller.] pp. xii. 372. 
Amsterdam) 1867. 8°. [BB. I. d. 6.— L.P. 11907, g. 11.] 

Veer (Gerrit de). A True Description of Three Voyages by the North-East 
towards Cathay and China, undertaken by the Dutch in the years 1594, 
1595, and 1596, by Gerrit de Veer. Published at Amsterdam in the year 
1598, and in 1609 translated into English by William Phillip. Edited by 
Charles T. Beke, Phil. D., F.S.A. pp. cxlii. 291. 4 maps. 12 illustra- 
tions. (First Series, vol. 13.) Hakluyt Society : London, 1853. 8°. 
[Ac. 6172/12.] 

The Three Voyages of William Barents to the Arctic Regions, in 1 594, 

1595* ^'^'^ 15965 by Gerrit de Veer. Edited, with an introduction, by 
Lieut. Koolemans , Bcynen, of the Royal Netherlands Navy. Second 
edition, pp. clxxiv. 289. 2 maps. 12 illustrations. (First Series, 
vol.54.) Hakluyt Society : London, i^^^y. 8°. [Ac. 6172/48.] 

filteLlOGkAPMY. ^51 

Vivien de Saint Martin (Louis).— Nouveau Dictionnaire de Geographic 
Universelle, etc. (Tom. 3, 4. Par M. Vivien de Saint Martin . . . 
avec la collaboration de M. Louis Rousselet. Tom 5-9. Continue par 
M. L. Rousselet.) 9 torn. Hachette et Cie. : Paris, 1879- 1900. 4°- 
[2056. g.] 

Vlamingh (Willem de). — Some Particulars relating to the Voyage of Willem 
de Vlamingh to New Holland in 1696. Extracted from MS. Documents 
at the Hague. In " Early Voyages to Terra Australis, edited by R. H. 
Major." Hakl. Soc. Pub. Ser. I, vol. 25, pp. 112- 119. London, 
1859. 8°. [Ac. 6172/73-] 

Weert (Sebald de). — Kort ende waerachtigh Verhael van 't gheene seeckere 
vijf Schepen, van Rotterdam in t' jaer 1598, den 27 Junij nae de Straet 
Magaljanes varende, over-ghekomen is, tot den 21 Januarij 1600, toe, 
op welcken dagh Capiteyn Sebald de Weert, met 't Schip, 't Gheloove 
ghenoemt, . . . bedwonghen werd weder naer buys te keeren, etc. 
In Isaak Commelin's ',' Begin ende Voortgangh," etc. Deel i. pt. 4. 
pp. 31. [Amsterdam,] 1646. odl. fol. [566. f. 16-19.] 

Journael van 't geene vijf Schepen van Rotterdam in 't Jaer 1598 den 

27 Juny na de Straet Magalanes varende, over gekomen is, tot den 
21 January 1600, toe, op welcken Dagh Capiteyn Sebald de Weert, mit 
het Schip 't Geloove genaemt de selve Straet verlatende gedwonghen 
wiert weder naer Huys te keeren, etc. pp. 32. Gedricckt by Gillis 
Joosten Saeghman, in de Nicuwe-straet, Ordinaris Drucker van dejour- 
nalen ter Zee en de Landt-Reysen: f Amsterdam, [1663.] 4°. 
[10057. dd. 50. (6.)]. 

Of Sebald de Wert his Voyage to the South Sea, and miserie in the 

Straights nine Moneths, etc. In " Purchas His Pilgrimes. " Pt. I, pp. 78-79. 
London, 1625. fol. [904. h. 4-7.] 

Wijk (Jacob van). 

6"^^ Bennet (R. G.) 



The Variations of Proper Na7nes (often i?zcorrect^ sometimes obsolete) 
are given in parenthesis as they appear in the Text. See also the 
Note on p. Ixi, 

Aa, Abraham Jacob van der, Biogra- 
phisch Woordenboek (1852-78), xiv, 
xxxii, Ix, 127, 135, 152 

Abraham's River, named after 
Abraham Pieterssen, 48 

Abroles. See Abrolhos. 

Abrolhos, Shoals of the (Abroles), 15, 

Aburco, 98 

Acapul. See Acapulco. 

Acapulco, Mexico, seaport (Aqua- 
polco), 4, 7, (Aquapolque), 106 ; 
plan of, Plate 14 ; Spaniards of, 
III ; Speilbergen at (Acapul), 152 

Acca, native name of chica, 91 

Acheen, xxxix, 153, (Aschien) 157 

Acosta, Joseph de, Historia natural 
y moral de las Indias (1590), 46. 
See also Bibliography. 

[Natural and Moral History of 

the Indies (1880), 91. See also 

Adamsz., Lambrecht, called Lanck- 
haer. Captain, 129 

Admiral-General at Sea. See Mau- 
rice, Prince of Orange. 

Admirant, Spanish Vice- Admiral, 73, 
et seq, 

Aeohts, of Vlissingen, one of Speil- 
bergen's six ships, ii, 12, 48, et 
^^'I' ; 59> 74> 765 82, 128 ; Plates 
9, II, 13, 16 ; 161 

Africa, lands beyond, 3 

Speilbergen's voyage to, 

xxxvii, et seq. 

Aix-la-Chapelle, Captain Lam- 
brecht Adamsz., of, 130 

Albaca. See Albay. 

Albay, volcano, (Albaca) 118 

Albedien. See St. Lowys Albedin. 

Albedin. See St. Lowys Albedin. 

Albert, Archduke of Austria, defeat- 
ed by Prince Maurice at Nieuport, 

Albuquerque, Aflfonso de, 152 

Alcaldes, 87, 96, 145 ; de corte, 64 

Alkayer, 172 

Alvares, Pedro, Sergeant-Major, 107 

Alvares, Pedro, skipper, 31 

Alvares de Pigar, Pedro. See Al- 
vares de Pilgar. 

Alvares de Pilgar, Pedro, Vice- 
Admiral, 70, Plate 9. 

Alveris d'Avila, Don Juan, li. 

Alwaldas. See Alcaldes. 

Amazon, mouth of the, discovered 
by Vicente Yanez Pinzon (1499), 14 

Amboina, Laurens Reael, Governor 
of, 128 ; ships arrive from, 132 ; 
Portuguese in, 146 ; troops and 
forts in, 155 ; map of, Plate 21. 

Amboyna. See Amboina. 

America, North, J. C. May on coasts 

of, XXX 

Am eric (B To mi UnJecimi, Appendix ^ 

1620. See Bry (Johan Israel). 
Amersfoort, Pieter Both, of, xxxii 
Amesfort. See Amersfoort, 
Amsterdam, Groote Sonne, ship, of. 

See Groote Sonne. 

, Isbrant Cornelissen, of, 130 

and Zeeland, two vessels of, 

Amsterdafji, ship, xxxii, 153 
Andes, growth of coca in the, 91 
Anian, Straits of. See Behring Straits. 
Anssen, Willem van. Captain, 17, 

20, 24, (Anssing) 155. 
Anssing, Willem van. See Anssen. 
Anthropophagus, Jan Comelisz. 

May, xxiv 
Antilopy 177 
Antwerp, de Schotsen, a family of, 

26; Pieter Backer, of, 130, 154; 

Barth. van Speilbergen, of, 155 ; 

Hans de Hase, of, 1 56 
Apala, Don Mingo de, Commander, 




Aquapolco. See Acapulco. 
Aquapolque. See Acapulco. 
Aquilamo, 144 
Araquipa. See Arequipa. 
Arauco, (Auroca) 61 ; description of, 

(Auraco) 100, loi 
Arbatal, Don Fray Augustijn de, 

Bishop of Ayacucho, 97 
Arent, yacht, 128, 157, 161, 231 
Arequipa, (Aripica) 68, (Araquipa) 

96, (Ariquipa) 98 
Arica, Chile, seaport, 4, 58, (Aric- 

qua)65, 66,91, 94, 98 
Aricqua. See Arica. 
Arimoa Island, 223 
Aripica. See Arequipa. 
Ariquipa. See Arequipa. 
Armada, of Lima. See Lima. 

, of Pannama. See Panama. 

Armes of Amsterdam, ship. See 

Wapen van A}?tsterdam. 
Aroba, Spanish weight of 25 lbs., 92, 

Arthus, Gothard, of, Dantzig, xv 
Ascension, island, 164 

, Martin Vaz Islands, 180 

Aschien. See Acheen. 

Asher, George Michael, Henry 

Hudson the Navigator, i860, xxiv, 

Asia, lands beyond, 3 
Astorga, li 
Audiencia, Councillors of the, Peru, 

86, 87 ; of Sucre, 94 
Auditoria, university classes, 90 
Auroco. See Arauco. 
Auroca. See Arauco. 
Australian Company, The, 167 
Axgen. See Coca. 
Axicoca. See Coca. 
Axij. See Coca. 
Ayacucho, 95 ; description of, 97 
Azores, xxix, 170 

Bachian. See Batjan. 

Bacjan. See Batjan. 

Backer, Pieter, Captain, of Antwerp, 

130* 154 
Backian. See Batjan. 
Baerels. See Cabreras,. 
Baerle, Kaspar van, 1584- 1648, Iviii 
Baie de Cordes. See Cordes Bay. 
Baie Verte, 43 
Baixos of S. Anna. See Shoals of 

Saint Ann. 
Bakhuizen van den Brink, Reinier 

Cornells, Isaac Le Maire, 1 865, 

xlii, xliv, xlvi, etc., 232 
Balay. See Belay. 

Baldavia. See Valdivia. 

Balsem, Plate 13 

Balthazar, Floris, publisher, of Delft, 

Ban, Claes Jansz., under-factor, 174, 

194, 208, etc., 211 
Banana Island, 173, 176 
Banca, Island, 151 
Banda, xxxiv, 150, 162; Portuguese 

in, 146; Schot's Letter to Governor 

of (16 10), lix ; troops and forts in, 

155 ; Vyanen at, 128 
Banda Islands, Plate 21 
Bantam, Java, xxix, xxxii, xl, lix, 

150, 156, 159; Dutch fleet at, 162; 

Speilbergen proceeds to, 132 
Barachelos. See Barrachelos. 
Barefooted Friars, Lima, Monastery 

of the, 89 
Barentsz., Willem, xxxiv 
Barlaeus, Casparus. See Baerle, 

Kaspar van. 
Barnevelt, Johan van Olden. See 

Barnevelt, Fort, Batjan, Plate 20; 

Bamevelt's Island, xliv, 189 
Barrachelos, 145 
Barranca, 99 
Basilan Island, 5, 126, (Taguima) 

Bastiaensz., Cornells. See Sebas- 

Batavia, xl, 149 ; foundation of, 


Batiai. See Batjan. 

Batjan, Island, Iviii, (Bacjan) 134, 
(Batiai) 136, 137, 155, 230; map 
of, Plate 20 

Batsian. See Batjan. 

Batticaloa, harbour of, xxxviii 

Baxios. See Baixos. 

Beguins, Lima, Monastery of the, 89 

Behring Straits, xxx 

Beke, Charles Tilstone, A True De- 
scription of Three Voyages^ 1853, 
xxv, etc. 

Belay, The King's, Plate 25, 207 

Belgica, Fort, Neira, Plate 21, 155 

Bennet, R. G., Verhandeling {1^27), 

Bergel, Hendrick van. Governor of 
Banda (1610), lix 

Bergen-op-Zoom, Captain Goossen 
van Mammeren, of, 154 ; Speil- 
bergen dies at, (Jan. 31, 1620), xli 

Bernevelt. See Barnevelt. 

Beschrijving van de Voyagie om den 
geheelen Werelt Cloot, 1602, See 
Noort, Olivier van. 



Betel Nuts, 220 

Beverlin, Henrick. See Beverlingh, 

Beverlingh, Hendrick, of Ter-Goude, 

Captain, 130, 155 
Bibliotheca Historica, 1782-1802. See 

Struve, Burcard Gotthelf. 
Biographisch Woordenboek. See 

Aa, Abraham Jacob van der. 
Birds of Paradise, New Guinea, 

Biscayan Captain, at Arauco, 100, 


Block-Marssens, Adriaen, 155 
Blood Flag of the Dutch East India 

Company, 19 
Bogurones, Islands, Plate 19 ; 230 
Booro Island, 230 
Booton Island, xvi, xvii, xxiii, 

xxviii, etc., xxxiii, lix, 121 ; Chart 

of, Plate 19;, 132, 157, 230 
Borneo, trade in precious stones, 158 
Bot, Peter. See Both, Pieter. 
Both, Pieter, Admiral, of Amersfoort, 

biography of, xxxii ; Kort verhael 

(1599-1601), xxxii 
Bottomless Island. See Eylant 

sonder Gront. 
Botton, Isle de. See Booton Island. 
Bourbon, lie de. See Reunion. 
Brandaris. See Hollandia. 
Bras, of Hoorn, Captain (1607), 1 
Braseil. See Brazil. 
Brasilia. See Brazil. 
Brava or Sao Joao, 13 
Brave, He de. See Brava. 
Brazil, Coast of, xxxi, 4, 14, 15, 64 ; 

Vicente Yanez Pinzon sails along 

(1499). 14 

Broad Council, 13, 14, 17, etc., 34, 
44, 52, 82, 106, 113, etc. 

Brosses, Charles de (i709-i777)> 
Hist aire des Navigations aux Ter- 
res Australes^ 1756, xiii, xviii, xix, 

Brouck, Pieter van den, arrives at 
Bantam (1616), 153; his Histo- 
rische ende Jotirnaelsche aenteycke- 
ningh, ib. 

Brou'wer, Pieter Clementsz., of 
Hoorn, 166 

Bry, Johann Israel de, xiii, etc. 

Bry, Johann Theodor de, xiii, etc. 

Buder, Christian Gottlieb, Editor, 
Bibliotheca Historical xxii 

Buers, Pieter, a merchant, 37 

Burgarones. See Bogurones. 

Burney, James, Captain, A Chrono- 
logical History {i^oz-il), xii, xix, 
XX, xlv, 43, 69, 70, 82, 224. 

. See also Bibliography. 

Burro. See Booro. 

Buton Island. See Booton I. 

Caarden, Paulus van. See Caerden. 
Cabayne. S^^ Cambyna. 
Cabessecabinco. See Pangassani. 
Cabildo, assembly, 94, 96, 98 
Cabitta. See Cavite. 
Cabo de la Vapii, Chile, Plate 1; 
Cabo de las Virgenes (Cape Ver- 
gine), 4, (Cape Virignie) 33, (Cape 
Virginia), 36 
Cabo Verde. See Cape Verde. 
Cabona. See Cambyna. 
Cabreras, Azores, 170 
Cadera. See Cape la Caldera. 
Cadipes. See Kadoepan. 
Cadiz, xlix, liv, Iv 
Caerden, Paulus van (fl. 1599-1611), 
Iviii ; biography of, 135 ; his two 
voyages to the East Indies, ib., 147 
Cailiou. See Callao. 
Cajou. See Kajao. 
Caldera, Cape la. See Cape la Cal- 

Caldron, Caspar, Captain, of the 

Santa Anna, 70, 84, 85 
Caliau de Lima. See Callao. 
Californes. See California. 
California, Speilbergen's Voyage 
along coasts of, 2, 152 ; called an 
island, 4; Lower, 113 
Californis. See California. 
Caliou de Lima. See Callao. 
Caljou de Lima. See Callao. 
Calis. See Cadiz. 
Callander, John, Terr is Australis 

Cognita (1766-68), xix, xxiii 
Callao, Peru, seaport, 4, 9, 68, etc., 
78, etc., 84, 86, 92 ; plan of, 
Plate 1 1 
Callao, valleys, 96 
Cambyna, Island, xxviii. 230 
Camotes, potatoes, 88 
Camus, Armand Gaston (1740- 1804), 
Memoire (1802), xiii, xv, xix, xx, 
Canaria. See Canary Islands. 
Canarie Islands, See Canary 

Canary Islands, 4, 13, 170 
Cancer, Tropic of. See Tropic. 
Candijs, Mr. See Cavendish. 
Candis, Thomas. See Cavendish. 
Candy. See Kandy. 
Caiieta, Peru,^town, 4, 98, 99 
Canjette. See Cafieta. 
Cannetto. See Cafieta. 




Canoy, a kind of skiff", i8, 26, 28, 

Cape Corentien. See Cape Corrien- 

Cape Corrientes, 113 
Cape de Bonne Esperance. See 

Cape of Good Hope. 
Cape de Buona Esperance. See 

Cape of Good Hope. 
Cape de Cadera. See Cape La 

Cape de Spirito Santo. See Cape 

Espiritu Santo. 
Cape Desirado, 50 
Cape des Manilles, 116 
Cape Espiritu Santo, Philippine 

Islands. 4, 116 
Cape Frio, 14, 16 
Cape Horn, xliv, 189 
Cape la Caldera, 5, 125, 152 
Cape Maurity, 49 
Cape of Good Hope, Speilber- 

gen's account of the, xxxvii, etc. ; 

xl, 37, 163- 

New Guinea, 224 

Cape of Hoorn. Sec Cape Horn. 

Cape of Santa Helena, 102 

Cape Saint Lucas, Lower Califor- 
nia, 113 

Cape Saint Vincent, Brazil, xlix, 
liv, Iv; Plate 2 

Cape Santhome, Brazil, 15 

Cape Spirite Santos. See Cape 
Espiritu Santo. 

Cape van Goede Hoop, See Cape 
of Good Hope. 

Cape Verde, 171 

Cape Verde Islands, 4, 164, 172; 
wrongly marked by Vicente Yanez 
Pinzon, 14 

Cape Vergine. See Cabo de las 

Cape Vianen, 40 

Cape Virginia. See Cabo de las 

Cape Virignie. See Cabo de las 

Capitanes del Ca?npo, 145 

Capricorn, Tropic of. See Tropic. 

Capul, Island, 5, 7, 116, 118 

Caribbean Sea, 66 

Caridade, La, Hospital of, Lima, 89 

Carnie?', Spanish galleon, 71 

Carolus, Joris, pilot, xxx 

Casaubon, Isaac (i 559-1614), xiv 

Casma, 86, 99 

Casmala. See Casma. 

Cassave, 223 

Casselton, Mr, See Castleton, Cap- 

Castile, Wine of, 94 

Castilians, 133, 143 

Castilio, Captain, 107 

Castleton, Captain, at the Moluccas, 

Castro Vireyna, 95 

Cavendish, Thomas (1555 - 1592), 
discovered Port Desire, named 
after his own ship (Dec. 17, 1586), 
37 ; at Quintero, 65 

Cavite, Plate 18 

Cayoa. See Kajoa. 

Celebes, Plate 19, text; 132, 157, 

Ceram, Plate 21, text ; 230 

Cercado, Peru, 88 

Ceuta, Ixiii 

Ceydores. See Oydores. 

Ceylon, xxxvi, xxxviii, etc. 

Chancay, 98 

Charcas, Audiencia of, 87 

Charlas. See Charcas. 

Charles I., of England, knights 
Laurens Reael (1626), 126, etc. 

Chaucay. See Chancay. 

Chi<a, or acca. See Acca. 

Chica Abia, 98 

Chile, Audiencia of kingdom of, 87 ; 
Don Alonso de la Ribera, Gover- 
nor of (161 5), %'] ; six captains from, 
71 ; Speilbergen's voyage along 
coasts of (161 5), 2, 4, 51 ; Vice- 
roy of, 69, 86, etc. 

Kini;do'n of, and its Circum- 
stances. See Dirickszoon, Jacob, of 

Chileans, 53, 61, 65 

Chilean Sea, 42, 46 

Chilenoises. See Chileans. 

Chili. See Chile. 

Chilli. See Chile. 

Chilue, 1 01 

China, ships from, 120; junks, 123 ; 
Dutch trade with, 149 ; Emperor 
of, grants Macao to Portugal (1586), 

Chinese, in Ternate, 142 

Chinese Sailors, 122 

Chocoloichora. See Corocoro. 

Chronological History, 1803-17. See 
Burney (James). 

Chuquisacas. See Sucre. 

Chusco See Cusco. 

Chuspa, coca bag, 91 

Ciudad de los Reyes. See Lima. 

Civita dos de los {sic) Reyos. See 

Claesz., Aris, supercargo, xxxii, 167, 
174, etc., 194, 207, etc., 226 

Clawson, Aris. See Claesz. 



Cleyn Hollandia, Het, ship, at Ma- 

leye, 161 
Clipcouses, mussels, 45, 47 
Clive, Robert, Baron Clive (1725- 

1774), 152 
Cloave. See Clove. 
Clove, one of Castleton's fleet, 129 
Cloves, 129; trade in, 145 
Coca, erythoxylon coca, described by 

Sir Clements Markham, 88, 91 
Cocos Island, 102, 103, 200 ; Plate 

Coen, Jan Pieterszoon, Governor- 
General of the Dutch East Indies, 
xl ; 126, 160, 231 ; his harsh treat- 
ment of Jacob Le Maire, xliv, etc.; 
biography of, 151, etc. 

Coenen, Jan Pieterssen. See Coen, 
Jan Pieterszoon. 

Coigfnet, Lieutenant, 22 

Columbus, Christopher, assisted by 
Vicente Yanez Pinzon, 14 

Commelin, Isaak (1598- 1676), Begin 
ende Voort^angh van de Vereenighde 
Nederlandtsche Geoctroyerde Oost- 
Indische Conipagnie (1646), xv, 
xxix, xxxii, Ivi, etc., 135, 153, 186 

Concepcion, La, 4, 62 ; description 
of, loi ; map of, Plate 6 

, Bay of, 58 

, La, Beguin Monastery of, 

Lima, 89 

Conception. See Concepcion, La 

Concord, one of Castleton's ships, 129 

Condador. See Contador. 

Coninckx Island, Plate 22 ; 182 

Conseption. See Concepcion, La. 

Contador, 92, 145 

Contatoor. See Contador. 

Contractation. See Contratacion. 

Contratacion, house of, Lima, 92 

Conway, Sir William Martin, Early 
Dutch and English Voyages (igo^), 


Copper, at Coquimbo, 100 
Coques Island See Cocos Island. 
Coquimbo, 100 
Coqunibo. See Coquimbo. 
Corcobado, 191 
Cordes, Simon de, Ivii, 43 
Cordes Bay, 20, 43. 
Cordus Bay. See Cordes Bay. 
Corea, Strait of, 158 
Cormandel. See Coromandel. 
Cornelio, Josephi, Spanish prisoner, 

Cornelissen, Isbrant, of Amsterdam, 

Captain, 130 
, Job, skipper of the ^olus, 


Cornelissen, Sybrant, supercargo, 

death of, 114 
Comeliszoon, Cornelis. See Nai. 
Corocoro, 95 

Coromandel, 156, 161, etc. 
Correcor, 227 
Corregidor, 94, 96 
Corregidor, Island, (Maribela), 120 

Plate 18 
Corregimentos, 86 

Corrigimentos. See Corregimentos. 
Corrigidor. See Corregidor. 
Coste, Josephus de. See Acosta 

(Joseph de). 
Coubella, Amlx)ina, 155 
Councillors of the Audiencia, 86, 87 
Couteel, Mathijs, of Bantam (16 13), 

Cow, The. See Cowes, Isle of 

Cowes, Isle of Wight, 12 
Crawfurd, John, A Descriptive Dic- 
tionary of the Indian Islands 

(1856), 151, etc. 
Crevecoeur, Quintero, 65 ; Plate 8 
Crevecuer. See Crevecoeur. 
Crimen Icesce majestatisy 19 
Crocodiles, 16, 175 
Cruyck, Maerten Pieterssen, skipper 

of the Morgenster (1614), 27, 33, 

44, 47, 49, 62 
Cruyck's Island, 40 
Cusco, description of, 96, etc. 
Cyna. See China. 

Dabildo. See Cabildo. 

Dampier, 224 

Defence, one of Castleton's ships, 129 

Delft, Den Engel, ship, of, 160 

Description of the Goverytment of 

Peru. See Madriga, Pedro de. 
Descriptive Dictionary of the Indian 

Islands, \%^6. iV^ Crawfurd, John. 
Desirado, Cape, 50 
Desire, ship of Thomas Cavendish 

1586), 37 
Desire, Port, discovered by Thomas 

Cavendish (Dec. 17, 1586), 37, 181, 

etc. ; chart of, Plate 22 
Desolaso.' See Salayer. 
Diamonds, in Borneo. 
Diccionario Historico-Biographico del 

Peru, 1874-90. See Mendiburu, 

Manuel de. 
Dierasno. See Durasno. 
Dirickszoon, Jacob, of Purmerlant, 

The Kingdom of Chili and its Cir- 
cumstances, bibliographical note, 

Ixvii : text, 100, etc. 

S 2 



Discourse, A. See Schotte, Apollo- 

Djakatra. See Jacatra. 
Doessens, Steven, arrives at Bantam 

(1616), 153 
Doeveren. See Dover. 
Dort, Holland, 35 
Dover, Kent, 169 
Downs, The, 12, 169 
Draeck, Fran§ois. See Drake, Sir 

Drake, Sir Francis, Seeond Circum- 

Navigation {1577), I33 
Druyff, Frederick, of Enkhuizen, 

Du Chesne, Franchoys, Lieutenant, 

18; a prisoner at Rio de Janeiro, 

(1614), 27 
Dungeness, Shingles, 12, 169 
Dunkirk, 169 

Durasno {dierasno), nectarines, 96 
Dussen, Adriaen van der. Captain, 

I30> 156 

Dutch, naval victory over Spain at 
Gibraltar (1607), xlix, etc. 

Dutch East India Company, founded 
March 20, 1602, xxxix ; blood flag, 
19 ; description of their forts and 
troops, Ix, 154-160; sailing mono- 
poly of, 165, etc. 

, Directors of, send out Speil- 

bergen, 4, it ; their resolution of 
May 15, 1619, on the Spiegel, xxi, 

Dutch Fleet in the East Indies 
(1616), description of, 160, etc. 

Dutch Navigators, activity of, 3 

Duynkerchen. See Dunkirk. 

Early Dutch and English Voyages, 
1904. See Conway, Sir William 

Early Voyages to Terra Australis, 
1856. See Major, Richard Henry. 

East Indian Islands, chart of, xxiii; 
Plate 19 

East Indies, xxxi, 37 

, Spielbergen's second voyage 

to (1614-17), 4 

Eendracht, ship, of Hoorn, 151 ; 
fitted out for Jacob le Maire, 167 ; 
confiscated, 151, 231 

Eendracht Bay, Hoorn Island, 
Plate 25 ; 214 

Eetvelt, Willem, Captain, of Brus- 
sels, 154 

Embden. See Emden. 

Embocadero, 116 

Emden, East Friesland, li, liii 

Enckhuysen. See Enkhuizen. 

En a no, Island, 161. 

Eftgel, Den, ship, of Delft, 160 

Engelsman, Govert den, of Rotter- 
dam, lii 

English Channel, 50 

English Ship, captured in the 
Pacific Ocean, by Pedro Alvares 
de Pilgar, 70 ; at Gamakora, 227 

Enkhuizen, Frederick Druyff, of, 
159 ; Jan Hendricksen, of, 20 

Equinoctial Line, 4, 230 

Erythoxylon coca. See Coca. 

Espiritu Santo, Cape, Philippines. 4 

Essen, Jan Otten, of, 114 

Esturges. See Astorga. 

Europe, lands beyond, 3 

Evertsz., Pieter, 82 

Eylant sonder Gront, 195 

Fenega, 90 

Ficos. See Tiku. 

Firando, island. Strait of Corea, 
description of, 158, etc. 

Firato. See Firando, 

Fiscal, the, of Speilbergen's fleet, 19, 
20, 28, 40, 54, 108 

, of Sucre, 94 

Five Ships of Rotterdam, Expedi- 
tion of (1598), Ivii, 43, 186 

Flags, Blood Flag of the Dutch East 
India Company, 19 ; flag of the 
House of Orange, 16; white ensign, 
17, etc. 

Flamengo. See Fleming. 

Flanders, 22 

Fleming (Flamengo), 28 

Flies, Island of. 5'^^Vliegen Island. 

Flushing. See Vlissingen. 

Fogo. 6'ee Fogue, He de. 

Fogue (Fogo), Isle de, 13 

Foreman, John, The Philippine 
Islands {i8Sg), 120 

Fort Barnevelt, Batjan, Plate 20 ; 

Fort Belgica, Neira, Plate 21 ; 155 
Fort Maria, 131 
Fort Mauritius, Macjan, 129 
Fort Molucco, or Hollandia, Ter- 

nate, 134 
Fort Nassau, Neira, Plate 21 ; 155 
Fort San Pedro and Paulo, Ter- 

nate, 142 
Fort Tacome, or Willem- stadt, Ter- 

nate, 135 
Fort Taroula, Tidor, 142 
French Ship, 27 ; at Sierra Leone 

(1615), 176 
French Wine, 14 
Friesland, 35 
Frio, Cape, 14 



Galan, port, 43 

Galao, harbour of. See Callao. 

Galeges, Rio. See Gallegos. 

Galileo, 127 

Gallant, port, 43 

Gallegos, Rio, 32 

Gamakora, (Gamme-duorre) 137, 
(Gamconorre) 143, (Gammacanor) 

Gamconorre. See Gamakora. 

Gammacanor. See Gamakora. 

Gamme-duorro. See Gamakora. 

Gammelamme, 131 

Gane, Gilolo, 135 

Gannets, 180, 188 

Gedichten van Petnis Scrivcrius 
(1738). See Schrijver, PieLer. 

Geelkercken, Nicolaes van, pub- 
lisher, of Leyden, xiii, Ixiii 

Gemmalanor, Gilolo, fortress, 157 

General Council, 102 

Gerensycque. See Teneriffe. 

Germany, Don Jan de Nagena, 
native of, 71 

V Gheloove, Sebald de Weert's ship 
(1598-1600), 186 

Giant's Island, 40 

Gibraltar, Bay of, xxxiv, xlix 

Gids, De (1865), xlii, 229, 232 

Gilolo, Island, 134, etc., 144, 154, 
157, 226 

Gilt-heads, 191, 224 

Goede Hooope, De, yacht, 147 

Goede Reede. See Goeree. 

Goemenapi. See Gounong Api. 

Goeree, 43, 172 

Gold Mines, of Chile, 100 

Goldseekers, The, 167 

Gonsales, Jan Baptista. See Gonzalez. 

Gonzalez, Juan Baptista, Spanish 
skipper, 68, 81 

Goree, 172. See also Goeree. 

Gosdey, Henrick, Captain, 129 

Gouda, Captain Hendrick Bever- 
lingh, of, 130, 155 

Gouden LeeuWy Den, ship, of Rotter- 
dam, 161 

Gounong Api, Plate 21 ; 219 

Govert den Engelsman, of Rotter- 
dam, lii 

Graef, Petrus. See Schrijver, Pieter. 

Grande, He, Brazil, 14 

Grande, Rio, 98 

Grandes, lies, 16 

's Gravenhaghe, Captain Abraham 
Hailing, of, 130 ; Capt. Frederick 
Hamel, of, 154 

Great Canaries. See Canary Islands. 

Great Macaran, 159 

Great Shore Island, 40 

Green Island. See Groene Eylant. 
Gresei. See Gressik. 
Gressik, Java, 157 
Groene Eylant, het, 215 
Gronovius, Joannes Fridericus,( 161 1- 

167 1 ) Iviii 
Groot, Hugo de, (1583-1645) xiv, 

Iviii, 127 
Groote Mane, of Amsterdam, one of 

Speilbergen's six ships, 11, 18, 22, 

25» 49, 59, no, 153; Plates 10, 11, 

13, 16 
Groote Sonne, of Amsterdam, one of 

Speilbergen's six ships, 11, 15, 25, 

59, 72, 108, 153; Plates 13, 16 
Grotius, Hugo. See Groot, Hugo de. 
Guamanga. See Ayacucho. 
Guanckaco. See Huanchaco. 
Guara. See Huaura. 
Guarme. See Huarmey. 
Guarmey. See Huarmey. 
Guayaquyl, loi 
Guerme. See Huarmey. 
Guerrero, Don Bertholome Lobo. 

See Lobo Guerrero, Bartolome. 
Guiarme, See Huarmey. 
Guinea, coast of, 173 
Gull, black - backed, at Coninckx 

Island, 183 
Gwarme. See Huarmey. 

Hailing, Abraham, of 's Gravenhage, 

Captain, 130 
Halve Maen. See Groote Mane. 
Halve Maene, De, ship at Maleye, i6l 
Hamburch. See Hamburg. 
Hamburg, Hieronimus Hendricksen, 

of, 20 
Hamel, Frederick, Captain, of 's 

Gravenhaghe, 127, 154 
Harderwijck, Dirck Voet, of, 115 
Harmansen, Wolfhart. See Har- 

Harmensz., Wolphert, Admiral, 

Journael, (i 601 -1603) xxix 
Harnando, Don Melchior, cousin of 

the Viceroy of Mexico, 108 
Hase, Hans de, of Antwerp, 156 
Heemskerck, Jacob van, (1598) 

xxviii, xxxiii, etc., xl ; (1607) xlix 
Heinsius, Daniel (1580-1655) Iviii 
Hendricksen, Hieronimus, of Ham- 
burg, mutineer, executed (1614), 

Hendricksen, Jan, of Enckhuysen, 

mutineer, executed (1614), 20 
Hendricxsz., Jan, Boatswain of the 

Groote Mane, 22, 1 10 
Hendricksz., Lambert, of Rotterdam, 

Captain, (1607), 1 



Herentals, Henrick van, 130 

JJerico, a king, 212 

Hert, Het, yacht, 162 

*s Hertogen-bossche, Captain Roe- 

lant Philipsen, of, 154 
Hirando. See Firando. 
Hirato. See Firando. 
Histoire des Navigations aux Terres 

Australes, 1756. See Brosses, 

Charles de. 
Historia natural y moral de las Indias, 

1590. See Acosta, Joseph de. 
Historical . . . discourse of a voyage^ 

1608. See Matelief, Cornells. 
Historic naturael ende niorael van de 

Wester sche Indien, 1598. See 

Acosta, Joseph de. 
Historische ende Journaelsche aen- 

teyckeninghy 1606-30. See Brouck, 

Pieter van den. 
History of Peru, 1892. See Markham, 

Sir Clements Robert, K.G.B. 
History of the East Indies ^ 1604. See 

Acosta, Joseph de. 
Hittou, Amboina, 155 
Hoen, Simon Jansz., 135, 137 
Holland, Dunes in, 41 
Hollandia, Fort, Ternate, 135 
Hollandia, or Brandaris, ship, at 

Japara, 161 
Honden Island, 195, etc., 231 
Hooft, Pieter (1581-1647), Iviii, 127 
Hooge Raad, xlvi 
HoopCy Dcy ship, at Maleye, 160 
Hoorn, Captain Bras, of, 1 
, Jan Pieterszoon Coen, born at, 

151, 160 

, Eendracht, ship, of, 151, 167 

, Jan Clemen tsz. Kies, of, 166 

, West Vriesen, of, 150 

Hoorn^ yacht, 161, 167, 231 

Hoorn Island, map of, Plate 25 ; 

Horses, wild, 64 

Houdtwercken (handtwercken), 158 
Houtman, Cornells, (1550 - 1617), 

XXXV, xl 

Hovelingh, den, Vice - Admiral, 

Plate 9 
Huancavelica, 95 ; description of, 

Huanchaco, 99 
Huarmey, Peru, 4, 9, 76, 78, 99 ; 

description of, 81, plan of; Plate 12 
Huarochiri, 98 
Huaura, 99 
Hudson^ Henry y the Navigator ^ i860. 

See Asher, George Michael. 
HuUu, Dr. J. de, of the Rljks Ar- 

chief, The Hague, xxi 

laffougho, 144 

lambe, Sumatra, 153, 158 

Iambi. See lambe. 

Iambic. See lambe. 

lea (Yea), 93, 95, 98 

He de Brave (Brava, or Sao Joao), 13 

He de Fogue (Fogo), 13 

He Grande, Brazil, 14, 16, 20, 47 

He Lamochie (La Mocha), 20 

lies Grandes. See He Grande. 

Ho Grande. See He Grande. 

Incarnation, La, Beguin Monastery 

of, Lima, 82 
Indians, of Chile and Peru, 54, 62, 

67, 76, 83, etc. ; of Corocoro, 95 ; 

of Lima, 20, etc. ; of Potosi, 93 
Indies, 71 
Indigo, 162 
Inganfe. See Engano. 
Inquisition, Tribunal of the, at Lima, 

Insou, Island, 223 

Instituta, La, University of Lima, 90 
Intendentes, 145 
Intretandos See Intendentes. 
lolo, Moro, 144 
Isiau, Moro, 144 
Islas de Las Velas. See Ladrone 

Isle of Wight, 12 
Islos de Velos. See Ladrone 


Jacatra, Java, xl, xll, xliv, xlvl, Ix, 
231 ; name changed to Batavia, 
1 62 1, 149 ; description of, 156 ; 
Dutch ships at, 162 

Jacobsz., William, of Ter-vere, Cap- 
tain, 129 

Jacrata. See Jacatra. 

Jager, of Amsterdam, one of Spell- 
bergen's six ships, 11, 13, 14, 17, 
etc., 44, 49, 53, etc., 60, 63, 
78, 82, etc. ; Plates ii, 12, 13, 15, 

Jagher. See Jage r. 

Jan Baptista. See Gonzalez, Jan 

Jan Martin, College of, Lima. See 
San Martin. 

Jan Mayen Island, xxx 

Jan Sebastiaen, Church of, Lima. 
See San Sebastian. 

Jansz. , Claes. See Ban, Claes Jansz. 

Janssz., Jan, bookseller, Amster- 
dam (1621), Ixvil 

Jansz., Jaspar, Governor of Am- 
boina, 229 

Jansz., J oris, of Medembllk, death 
of, 114 



Jansz., Thomas, provost, death of, 

Japan, 150 ; Dutch trade in, 158 

Japanese Sailors, 122, 129 

Japara, Java, 149, 159, 161, 231 

Japarre. See Japara. 

Japatra. See Japara. 

Japon. See Japan. 

Jauja, 97, 98 

Java, 5, 8, 149, 156 

Jesti Maria, Spanish galleon, 70; 
Plate 9 

Jesuits, Society of the, 29 ; in Firan- 
do, 158 ; in Lima, 89 

John, Don, of Austria, li 

Johore, King of, 157 

Jonge, Johan Karel Jacob de, Op- 
komst van het Nederlandsch Gezag 
in Oost-Indie (1862-65), xxi, xxvi, 
etc., xxxiv, etc., Iviii, etc., 137 

Joor. See Johore. 

Journael vande Nassatcsche Vloot 
(1643), etc. See L'Hermite, Jac- 

Juamabeluca. See Iluancavelica 

Juamanga. See Ayacucho. 

Juancabelica. See Huancavelica. 

Juan Evangheliste, Church of Don, 
Lima, 88 

Juan Fernando Islands, 190 

Jubaltar. See Gibraltar. 

[ties. Rector of University of Lima, 90 

Junks, Chinese, 123 

Kadoepan, xxviii 

Kaiser Wilhelm Land, 219 

Kajao, Island, 136, 230 

Kandy, Ceylon, Maharajah of, re- 
ceives Speilbergen, xxxvi, xxxviii, 

Kava, Plate 25 ; 211 

Kies,, Jan Clementsz., of Hoorn, 166 

Kingdom of Chili, and its Circum- 
stances. See Dirickszoon, Jacob, of 

King's House, Lima, 92 

King's Town (Lima), 87 

Kiu-shiu, west coast of, 158 

Koenen, Jan Pietersz. See Coen, 
Jan Pieterszoon. 

Kort Verhael, 1599-1601. See Both, 

Krijn, Jean. See Krijnen, Jan. 

Krijnen, Jan, xviii ; Plate 19, text. 

Labona. See Laboua. 
Laboua, 136 
Ladrillero, Captain, 46 

Ladrone Islands, Pacific Ocean, 
5, 7, 113, 114, 152 ; chart of, Plate 
16; discovery of (1519), 115 

Ladrones, 116 

Laloda, village, 228 

Lam, ship (i^l), xxxvii 

Lam, Jan Dirkszoon, of Hoorn, 
Admiral, xxxii, 129 

Lam, John Dirickeson. See Lam, 
Jan Dirkszoon. 

La Mocha, Chile, island, 4, 20, 51 ; 
map of, Plate 4 

La Moche. See La Mocha. 

Lamochie. ^'ee La Mocha. 

La Nasca. See Nasca. 

Lanckhaer. See Adamsz., Lam- 

Lapis bezoar. See Lapis lazuli. 

Lapis lazuli, in Borneo, 158 

Lassoa Point, Celebes, 230 

Last, equal to two tons, 27, 153 

Latou, 202 

Laurens, of Bergen, a trumpeter, 


Leeuwen Island, Plate 22; 185 

Le Maire, Daniel, 208 

Le Maire, Isaac, of Egmont, xlii, 
etc., 165 ; Isaac Le Maire, by 
R. C. Bakhuizen van den Brink, 
1865, xlii, xliv, xlvi, etc., 232 

Le Maire, Jacob, (1585-1616) pre- 
liminaries of his expedition, 165- 
167 ; appointed supercargo and 
commander, 167 ; secret and de- 
tailed instructions, xliv ; leaves 
Texel (14th June, 161 5), 169 ; loses 
his yacht, 184 ; discovery of le 
Maire Straits (Jan. 24, 1616), 187; 
names Cape Horn, 189 ; discovers 
and names Willem Schouten I., 
224 ; reaches Ternate (Sept. 17, 
1616), 229; arrives at Jacatra( Oct., 
1616), 151, 231 ; Eendracht con- 
fiscated, 151, 231 ; Speilbergen's 
scepticism, 152, his change of feel- 
ing, xli ; transferred to Speilber- 
gen's ship, 152, 232 ; his death, 
xlvi, 162 ; its cause, xlvi ; eulogy 
by Speilbergen, 163 ; Captain Bur- 
ney on his treatment, xlv ; his 
rights of discovery recognised, xlvi ; 
his portrait, opposite 165 ; Austral- 
ische Navigatien, editions of, xxxi ; 
reason for including them in the 
Spiegel, 164 ; authorship of, xlvii, 
xlviii ; Chart of his itinerary, Plate 

Le Maire Straits, Chart of, Plate 
23 ; discovery of, '(Jan. 24, 1616) 
xliv, 187 



Lenimens, Franchoys, secretary to 
Laurens Read, 127 

L'Hermite, Jaques. See L'Hermite, 

L'Hermite, Jaques, d. 1623, Jonr- 
nacl vande Nassausche Vloot^ 1643, 
etc., Ivi, etc. 

Lima, Peru, xxxi, 4, 58, 78, 97 ; 
Archbishop of, Bartolome Lobo 
Guerrero, (1609- 1622) 88 ; Armada 
of, 80 ; Audiencia of, 87 ; called 
Ciudad de los Reyes, %"] ; churches, 
hospitals, monasteries of, 88, etc. ; 
colleges of, 89, etc. ; description of, 
by Pedro de Madriga, 87, etc. ; 
University of, 90 

Pedro de Madriga, native of, 


Speilbergen's movements 

known in, (1615) 66 

Lima de Caliau. See Lima. 

Lindschoten, Jan Huyghens van. 
See Linschoten. 

Linschoten, Jan Pluyghen van. Voy- 
age oft e schipvaert, {1601) xxv 

Translator of J. de Acosta's 

Historia statural, (1598) 46 

Lisbon, xlix, 27 
Loach, lobo, 82 
Lobo, loach, 82 
Lobo, sea-wolf, 82 

Lobo Guerrero, Bartolonic, Arch- 
• bishop of Lima, (1609-1622) 88 
Lobos de Afuera, 82 
Lobos de Tierra, 82 
Lobos Islands, 82, 85 ; Plate 13 
Loege Cambello, Ceram, 230 
Loga Combella. See Loege Cam- 
Lolada. See Laloda. 
Loloda. See Laloda. 
Loretto, Church of, Lima, 89 
Lotibes (iobos), loaches, 82, 85 
Loubes Island. See Lobos Islands. 
Lou'W, Fort, Amboina, 155 
Lucon. See Luzon. 
Luzon, 118 

Mabrabomba. See Banana Island. 

Mabrobomba. See Banana Island. 

Macao, granted to Portuguese, ( 1 586) 

Macaran, the Great, 159 

Macassar, Celebes, 157 

Mace, 129 

Macian. See Mackian. 

Mackian, Island of, Iviii, 134, 230 ; 
account of, 135, etc., 155; Map of, 
Plate 20 ; Speilbergen at, 129, 131 

Macoro. See Macao. 

Madeira, 13, 170 

Madera. See Madeira. 

Madre de Dies, galleon, liv 

Madriga, Pedro de, of Lima, author 
of the Description of the Govern- 
tfient of Peru, 86, etc. ; biblio- 
graphy of, Ivi, etc. 

Madura, coast of, xxxiv, 231 

Maen. See Groote Mane. 

Magalhaens, Femam, discovers 
Ladrone Islands, (1519) 115, 116 

Magelanes. See Magellan, Straits 

Magellan, Ferdinand. See Magal- 
haens, Femam. 

Magellan, Straits of. Chart of, Plate 
3 ; xxiii, 45 ; importance of, xliii, 
etc. ; land south of, 189 ; Speilber- 
gen's Voyage through, 2, 4, 6, 8, 
20, 21, 33, 37, 46, 50 

Magellanes, Ferdinandes. 6'^<? Magal- 
haens, Fernam. 

Mahu, Jacob, Ivii 

Maize, 91 

Major, Richard Henry, Early Voy- 
ages to Terra Australis, 1 859, xliii 

Makian. See Mackian. 

Malacca, xxxix, 145, etc., 150 

Siege of, 134 ; Straits of, 153 

Malacke. See Malacca. 

Maley. See Maleye. 

Maleya. See Maleye. 

Maleya, fort. See Oranien. 

Maleye, in Ternate, xxxii, 5, 8, 127, 
134 ; Dutch troops and forts in, 154 

Mammeren, Goossen van, Captain, 
of Berghen-op-zoom, 154 

Mane. See Groote Mane. 

Maneljos Straits. See Manila, Straits 

Manila, Bay of. Chart of, Plate 18 

Straits of, xxxi, 4, 5, 8 ; Chart 

of, Plate 17 

Town of, 5, 113, 118, etc.; 

Plate 18 ; ships from, take in 
stores at Acapulco, 109 ; Speilber- 
gen's Voyage to, 2, 80, 115 

Manilja. See Manila. 

Manilles. See Manila. 

Manillies. See Manila. 

Manipa, island, 230 

Manzanillo, Mexico, town, 4 ; 
Plate 15 

Mariannas, Pacific Ocean. See La- 
drone Islands. 

Maribela. See Corregidor. 

Maribella, Island. See Corregidor. 

Marico, Tidor, 143, 154 

Marieco. See Marico. 

Mariveles, village, 120 



Markham, Sir Clements Robert, 
K.C.B., editor of Jos. de Acosta's 
Natural and Moral History of the 
Indies, 2 vols., 1880, 46, 91. See 
also the Bibliography. 

, History oj Fern (1892), 86, 

Marmosets, 174 
Martialis Redivivus, Pieter Schrij- 

ver, xiv 
Martin Vaz Islands, iSo 
Mascarenhas, Pero de, discoverer of 

Reunion Island {1507), 163 
Massarius. See Reunion. 
Massepatan. See Masulipatam. 
Maastricht, Heyndrick Mayer, of, 


Masulipatam, 156 

Matelief, Comelis, Admiral, 134 ; 
biography of, ib. ', An Historicall 
. . . Discourse of a Foyag-e {1608), 

Maurice, Prince of Orange, (1567- 
1625), Dedication of the Spiegel to, 
I ; his titles, I ; his victory at 
Nieuport, xxxxiii ; his portrait 
given by Speilbergen to Maharajah 
of Kandy, xxxix 

Mauritius, Fort. See Fort Mauritius. 

Mauritius, Island, xxix, xxxii, Speil- 
bergen at, 163 

Mauritius de Nassauw Land, 187, 

Maurity, Cape, 49 

May, Jan Cornelisz., erroneously 
stated to be author of Speilbergen's 
Journal, xiii, xvi, etc, xxiii, etc. ; 
biography of, xxvii, etc. ; expedi- 
tion to Spitsbergen and Novaya 
Zemlya, xxx ; his important note, 
Ixi, 128 ; Plate 19 

, Jan Jacobsz., skipper, dis- 
covers Jan Mayen Island, xxx 

Maye, Jean Cornelitz. See May, 
Jan CorneHsz. 

Mayer, Heyndrick, of Maastricht, 

Maystro de Sala, Captain of the 
Guard, 87 

Medemblik, 170 

, Joris Jansz., of, 114 

Medenblik. See Medemblik. 

Medoor, 92 

Meeuwe, of Amsterdam, one of Speil- 
bergen's six ships, II, 13, 14, 16, 
22 ; mutiny on the, 18. 19, 33, etc. 

Melocotones, peaches, 96 

Memoire bibliographique sur lei four- 
naux des Navigatcurs Nierlandais^ 
1867. See Tiele, Pieter Anton. 

Mimoire sur la Collection des Grands 

et Petits Voyages, (1802.) See 

Camus, Armand Gaston. 
Mendiburu, Manuel de, Diccivt.ario 

Historico- Biografico a el Peru (1874- 

90), 86 
Mendo^a, Andrea Furtado de, xxix 
Mendosa, Rodrigo de. See Men- 

Mendosa and Lima, Don Joan de. 

See Mendoza y Luna, Juan de. 
Mendoza, Don Gaua (Garcia), Go- 
vernor of Chili, 46 
, Don Rodrigo de, encounters 

Speilbergen. 4, 7, 63, 69, etc., 

Plate 9; 81, 108 
Mendoza y Luna, Juan de. Marquis 

de Montesclaros, Viceroy of Peru 

(1607-1615), 69, 86 
Mendozza, Don Rodrigo de. See 

Mendura. See Mindoro. 
Mendura pana. See Mindoro ; 

Menendus, Francisco, Ensign, 107 
Mensch-eter (Jan CorneUsz. May), 


Mestis, 18, 24 

Meuscheater (j/V), John Cornelison 

(J. C. May), xxxi, etc. 
Meusel, Johann Georg, Editor, Bib- 

liotheca Historica (1782- 1802), xxii, 

Mexico, Armada of, Iv 
, Speilbergen's Voyage along 

coasts of, xxxi, 2, 4, 103 ; Viceroy 

of (1615), 108 
Middelburch. See Middelburg. 
Middelburg, Apollonius Schot, of, 

Iviii, etc., 133 ; Abraham Pieteisen, 

of, 48 
Middelburg, ship, of Zeeland, xxxii, 

153, 162 
Middleton, David (d. 1615), 133 
Middleton, Sir Henry (1573- 16 13), 

Mindanao, Island, 5, 8, 125, etc. 
Mindenao. See Mindanao. 
Mindoro, 4, 5 

Mines, Indian labour in the, 90, 97 
Minores, Lima, Monastery of the, 89 
Moa, Island, 223 
Moca, 153 
Mocha, La, Chile, island, 4, 20, 51 ; 

map of, Plate 4 
Molenwerf, Jan Jansz., of Hoorn, 

Molucca Islands, Dutch seat of 

government moved from, (1618) 

151 ; Dinch troops and forts in, 



154, etc. ; iNIap of, xvii, Plate 19; 

Spanish Armada at the, 122, etc. ; 

Speilbergen's Voyage to, 2, 5, 11, 

127, etc. ; trade of the, 133, etc., 

150, 200 
Molucco, Fort, Ternate, 134 
Molucken, Islands of. See Molucca 

Molucques. See Molucca Islands. 
Monasteries, Lima, 89 
Monte Castro, Marquis de. See 

Mendoza y Luna, Juan de, Marquis 

de Montesclaros. 
Montes Claros, Marquis de. See 

Mendoza y Luna, Juan de. 
Mootish Religion, 138 
Aforgenster, of Rotterdam, one of 

Speilbergen's six ships, (i6i4)xxxi, 

II, 18, 24, 40, 59, 74, ^^, 82; 

Plates 9, 10, II, 13, 16; pp. 114, 

131, 157, 160, 229; Maerten Pieter- 

ssen Cruyck, skipper of the, 27, 33, 

44, 47, 49, 62 
AJorghen-iterre. See Alorgenster. 
Morning Starve, ship. See Morgeu- 

Moro, coast of, 144 
Mortier, Island, description of, 134, 

etc., 155, 230 
Moscovia, xxv 
Mossel Bay, 42 
Mothir. See Mortier. 
Motir. See Mortier. 
Mottir. See Mortier. 
Moucheron, Balthazar de, xxiv, 

Mount Canapus. See Gounong Api. 
Moy, Jan Cornelisz. See May. 
Moyses, a native, 218, etc. 
Mussels, 45, 47 
Mutir. See Mortier. 
Mysory, or Willem Schouten Island, 


Nacha, La. See Nasca. 

Nagena, Don Jan de. Captain, a 

German, 71 
Nahaca, 129 

Nai, Cornelis Corneliszoon, xxiv, etc. 
Nasca (La Nacha), 93, 98 
Nassau, Maurice, Prince of Orange, 

Count of, I 
Nassau, Fort, Neira, Plate 21 ; 155 
Nassau, ship, arrives at Bantam, 153, 

Nassau Bay, Tierra del Fuego, xliv 
Nassausche Vloot. See L'Hermite, 

Natividaet. See Navidad. 
Natividat. See Navidad. 

Naturall and Morall Historie of the 

East and West Indies, 1604. See 

Acosta, Joseph de. 
Navidad, Mexico, Puerto de, 9 ; 

Chart of, Plate 15 ; 112 
Nay, Cornelis Cornelisz. See Nai. 
Neck, Jacob van. Admiral, (1598) 

xxviii, XXXV 
Negapata. See Negapatam. 
Negapatam, 156, 161 
Negues, Church of Signora de, 26 
Neira, Island, Plate 21 ; 155 
Neptunus, Den, ship, at Maleye, 161 
Nera. See Neira. 
Netherlands, Old Colonial Archives, 

States- General of the United 

Provinces of the. Dedication of the 

Spiegel to, i 
Neustra Signora del Rosario {sic). 

See Nuestra Seiiora. 
New Guinea, 205, 215, 217, 221, 

Nieuport, Flanders, battle of, xxxviii 
Nieiiw Vrieslandt, ship, of Hoorn, 

Niejiw Zee/ant, 7, ship, 162 
Nieuwe Maene, De, ship, at Maleye, 

Nieuwe Sonne, De, ship, at Maleye, 

Noffaca, Mackian, 155 
Noffagina, fort, Mackian, 135 
Noort, Olivier van, 37 ; biography 

of, 181 ; Beschrijvitig van de Voy- 

agie om den geheelen Werelt-Cloot, 

(1602) 181, etc. 
Nostra Montecorate, Church of, 

Lima, 89 
Nostra Prado, Church of, Lima, 89 
Nostra Signora de la Conceptione {sic), 

galleon, liv 
Nostra Signora de la 0. {sic), galleon, 

Nostra Signora de la Regla {sic), gal- 
leon, liv 
Nostra Signora de los Dolor os {sic), 

galleon, liv 
Nostra Signora del Vega, galleon, liv 
Nostra Signora de Rosaros {sic), gal- 
leon, liv 
Nouveau Dictionnaiie de Geographie 

Universe lie, 1 87 7- 1 900. See Vivien 

de Saint Martin, Louis. 
Nova Guinea. See New Guinea. 
Nova Hispania. See Mexico. 
Nova Spania. See Mexico. 
Novaya Zemlya, xxi, xxx 
Nuestra de las Marsedes {sic), 

Lima, Monastery of, 89 



Nuestra Senora del Rosario, 142 
Nuremberg Knives, 177 
Nutmegs, 129 

Obas roots, 200, etc. 

Obes. See Obas. 

Oldenbarnevelt, Johan van, (1547- 

16 19) attacks Dutch East India 

Company, xlii 
Oliver. See Noort, Olivier van. 
Opkoinst van het Neierlandsch Ge- 

zag in Cost- Indie (1862-65). See 

Jonge, J. K. J. de. 
Orun Hollanda, 227 
Orange, Flag of the House of, 19, 24 

Maurice, Prince of, i 

Oranien, fortress, Ternate, 134 

Or dor OS {Oydores), 94 

Orphan Hospital, Lima, 89 

Oruro, Mines of, 95 

Ostriches, at Coninckx Island, 184 ; 

at Porto Desire, Plate 22; in Tierra 

del Fuego, 40 
Otten, Jan, of Essen, death of, 114 
Oude Maene, De, ship, at Maleye, 

Oude Sonne, De, at Maleye, 160 
Our Dear Lady of Guadelupe, 

Monastery of, Lima, 19 
Oydores, judges, 87, 94 

Pachacama, 98 

Pacific Ocean (Southern Sea), 4, 6, 

20, 46, 49, 60, 64,130, etc., Plate 

23 ; James Burney, Chronological 

History {\%oy\']), 43 
Pagadoor. See Pagador. 
Paiiador, 145 
Palataque. See Pulicat. 
Paleacate, See Pulicat, 
Palmites, 174, 177, 195 
Pana (Panay), 5 
Panama, 58, 66, 99 ; Armada of, 

79, 83, 84 ; Audiencia of, 87 
Panay, Island, 5, 124 
Paney. See Panay. 
Pangassani, Plate 19, text ; 230 
Pangoran, The, 159 
Pannama. See Panama. 
Pannanra. See Panama. 
Papaugos. See Papuans. 
Papede, 223 
Papoos. See Papuans. 
Papua, 220, 224 
Papuans, 142, 220 
Parrots, 42 
Parsley, 45 
Pas-Caert, sign of the, op 't Water, 

Amsterdam (1621), Ixvii 
Patache, ship's tender, 57, 60, 64 

Patagones, or Giant's Island, 40 

Palates, potatoes, 88 

Paton, ascends Albay (1858), 118 

Paul IV, Pope, founder of Order of 
Theatins, 98 

Paula, Dona, wife cf the Commander 
of Payta, 84 

Pauw, De, yacht, of Amsterdam, at 
Gamakora, 227 

Peyta, Peru, seaport, xxxi, 4, 76, 78, 
82, 84, loi ; plan of, Plate 13 

Peerle. See Perel. 

Penguin Islands, Ixi, 35, 40, 182 

Penguins, 41, 182, 187 

Pepper, trade in Sumatra, 158 

Pepper Bay, 43 

Peraca, Jeronimo, Field-Marshal, 71 

Perel, ship, 122 

Peru, Description of the Government 
of. See Madriga, Pedro de. 

, Grand Council of (1615), 68, 

69 ; History of. Sir Clements R. 
Markham (1892), 21; Mines of, 
90 ; Speilbergen's voyage along the 
coasts of, 2 ; trade with, 78 ; Vice- 
roy of, Juan de Mendoza y Luna, 
Marquis de Montesclaros (1607- 
1615), 69, ?,6, loi 

Pesos Ensaiados, 86, 87, 95 

Peterson, Claus, pilot, xxxii 

Peyta. See Payta, 

Philipinas, See Philippines. 

Philippine Islands. See Foreman, 

Philippines, 4, 145, 148 ; Governor- 
General of, 146 

Philippus, Spanish town, ruins of, 41 

Philipsen, Roelanf, Captain, of 's 
Hertoghen-bossche, 18, 154 

Pieterssen, Abraham, of Middel- 
burch, death of, 48 

Pieterssen, Maerten. See Cruyck, 

Pigar, Pedro Alvares de. See Pilgar. 

Piguine Islands. See Penguin 

Pilgar, Pedro Alvares de, Vice- 
Admiral, 70 

Pingay, oar, 217 

Pinguins Islands. See Penguin 

Pinguijns Islands. See Penguin 

Pinzon, Vincent Yanez (Captain 
Vincent), (1470 -i 1530) wrongly 
marks Cape Verde Islands in \f, 
14 ; biographical note on, 14 

Pisco, 23, 95, 98 

Pleydmuyen. See Plymouth. 

Pleymuyen. See Plymouth. 



Plymouth, ii, 170 

Point de Galle, Ceylon, xxxviii. 

Poleway. See Pulo Way. 

Porreo, Don Gregorio de, Governor 

of Acapulco (1615); 109 
Port Desire, discovered by Thomas 

Cavendish (Dec. 17, 1586), 37 ; 

178 ; chart of, Plate 22 
Port Galan, or Gallant, 43 
Porto Vela. See Porto Bello. 
Porto Bello, Panama, 66 
Port Desirado. See Port Desire. 
Porto Royal. Set Puerto Real. 
Porto Santo, 170 
Portug^uese, in Brazil (1614), 18, 22, 

etc, 65 ; in Ceylon, xxxviii ; in the 

Moluccas, 133, 136 
Potesia. See Potosi. 
Potosi, 66, 69 ; description of, 93, 

etc. ; mines of, 93 
Priaman, Sumatra, 153, 158 
Provinciaal Utrechtsche Genoot- 

schap, xxvi 
Ptolemaeus, Claudius, countries un- 
known to, 3 
Ptolemy. See Ptolemaeus, Claudius. 
Puerto Real, Iv 
Puguine Islands. Set Penguin 

Pulicat, Coromandel, Dutch castle 

at, 156 
Pulo Nera. See Neira. 
Pulo Way, the Water Island, 129, 

Punta Lavapie, Chile, Plate 5 
Puorto Dale, xxxvii 
Purchas, Samuel, the Elder, Pure has 

his Pilgrimes (1625), xv, 129, 133, 

etc., 153, 156, 182 

Quicksilver, 93 ; in Huancavelica, 

Quintera. See Quintero. 
Quintero, Chile, seaport, 4, 63, 64, 

65 ; chart of bay, Plate 8 
Quinquina, Island, 62 ; Plate 6 
Quiri-quyna. See Quiriquina. 
Quito, Audiencia of Province of, 87 
Quorogerij. See Huarochiri. 

Rabbits, 41 

Ram, ship, (1601) xxxvii 

Reader, The, 19 

Reael, Laurens, (i 583-1637) xxxii, 

xliv, 8; biography of, 126, etc.; 

appointed Governor of the Dutch 

East Indies, 132, 229, etc. 
Real, Laurence. See Reael, Laurens. 
Kecueil des Voyages, 1725. SeeV^^n- 

neville, Rene Augustin Constantin 


Red Sea, 153 

Reform ados, 145 
Refresco, bay of, 172 
Refrisco, xxxvii 

Relation of a Wonderful! Voiage, 
1619. 0)<?(f Schouten, Willem.' 

Renneville, Rene Augustin Constan- 
tin de, (1650-1723) Rccueil des 
Voyages y (1725) xii, xiii, xvi, etc., 
xxiii, Ivi, etc. ; 43, 135, 153. See 
also the Bibliography. 

Resoliitie van de Vergadering van 
XVIf (15 May, 1619) xxi, xxii 

Retormados. See Refoi inados. 

Reunion, or Bourbon, island, 163 

Revenge, Port, Pulo Way, 155, etc. 

Reyers, Hendrick, Boatswain's- mate, 

Reyes, Los, town of, (Lima), 91 
Reynierssoon, Adriaen Paeuw,( 1619) 

xxi, xxii 
Reynst, Gerhardt, Governor-General 

of the Dutch East Indies, 126, 229 
Ribera, Alonso de la, Governor of 

Chile, (1615)87 
Riemlande, Comelis., xxxii 
Rijks Archief, The Hague, xxi, xxx, 

Rio de Janeiro, 16, 27, 64 
Rio de Javero. See Rio de Janeiro. 
Rio de Plata, 22, 31 
Rio de Plate, 31. Set Rio de Plata. 
Rio Fresco, 172 
Rio Galeges (Gallegos), 32 
Rio Gevera. See Rio de Janeiro. 
Rio Javero. See Rio de Janeiro. 
Rocca Partida, 113 
Rodrigo, Don. See Mendoza, Rod- 

rigo de. 
Rosario, Le, Spanish Galleon, (161 5) 

Rotterdam, Expedition of five ships 

of, (1598). ^^^ Five Ships. 
Ruffijn, Lieutenant, 24 
Rufisque, 172 
Russia (Moscovia), xxv 

Sabongo. See Sabougo. 

Sabou, creek, xxxi, 229 

Sabougo, 137, 143 

Sago, 136, 144, 158 

Saint Ann. See Shoals of Saint Ann. 

Saint Clara, Brazil, 15 

Saint Helena, Island, 163, etc. 

Saint Jago. See Santiago. 

Saint John's Island, 215 

Saint Lucas, Bay of. See Cape 

Saint Lucas. 
Saint Maria. See Santa Maria. 
Saint Thomas, Bengal, xxxix 



St. Vincent (San Vicente), Brazil, 

4, 65 ; map of, Plate 2 
Salagua, Mexico, Bay of, 4, no; 

chart of, Plate 15 
Salayer, Island, 230 
Salayer Straits, 230 
Salor. See Solor. 

Salt Isles. See Cape Verde Islands. 
Salt Ships, Dutch, 169 
Salvages, 170 

Sampans, Indian, 120; Plate 18 
Sail Ajidries {sic), Spanish galleon, 

(1615), 71 
San Andries {sic). Hospital of, Lima, 

San Augustin, Lima, Monastery of, 

S. Augustine (j/V), galleon, li 
San Benedicito, Island, 113 
San Bernardino Passage, 116 
Sail Christoffel (sic), galleon, liv 
San Diego, Lima, 88 
San Diego, Spanish galleon, {161 5) 

San Domingo, Lima, Monastery of, 

San Francisco, Lima, Monastery 

of, 89 
San Francisco, Spanish galleon, 

(1615)71, 75 
San Josepho, Beguin Monastery of, 

Lima, 89 
San Lasaro, Hospital of, Lima, 89 
San Lucar, xlix, liv, Ixi 
San Lucas. See San Lucar. 
San Marcello, Lima, Church of, 88 
San Martin, College of, Lima, 90 
San Michiel {sic), 84 
San Nicolas, galleon, liv 
San Pedro, galleon, liv 
San Pedro, Hospital of, Lima, 89 
San Sebastian, Church of, Lima, 88 
San Thome, Cape, Brazil, 15 
San Torinio, College of, Lima, 90 
San Vicente, near Santos, Brazil, 

4, 20, 23, 65 : map of, Plate 2 
Sancta Helena. See Saint Helena. 
Sancta Maria, Chile. See Santa 

Sanctus, town of, Brazil. See Santos. 
Sangir Island, 5, 127 
Sangnijn, See Sangir Island. 
Sanguine. See Sangir Island. 
Santa, 99 
Santa Anna, Baixos of, 173 

, Church of, Lima, 88 

, Hospital of, Lima, 89 

, Spanish galleon, liv, 70; 

Plate 9 
Santa Clara, Beguin Monastery, of, 


Santa Crusada, Tribunal of, Lima, 

Santa Maria, Chile, Island, 4, 53, 
etc, 57, 63, 65 ; map of, Plate 5 

Santa Maria de Negue, Church of, 
Brazil, Plate 2 

Santhome, Cape. See San Thome. 

Santiago, Chile, 4, 63, 64 ; descrip- 
tion of, Plate 7 

, Bay of, Mexico, Plate 15 

Santissima Trinedada {sic)^ Beguin 
Monastery of, Lima, 89 

Santos, Brazil, 9, 23, etc. ; Plate 2 

Sao Joao (Brava), 13 

Sato de los Cavalles, El, Lima, 88 

Sceuta. See Ceuta. 

Schaep, ship (1601), xxxvii 

Schily. See Chile. 

Schot, Apollonius. See Scholte. 

Schotsen, de, family of Antwerp, 26 

Schotte, Apoll(jnius, of Antwerp 
(1 579- 1639), biography of, Iviii, 
etc., 26; his Discourse, 133, etc., 
160 ; his letter to Governor of 
Banda (1610), Hx 

Schouten, Jan Cornelisz., brother of, 
Willem Schouten, death of, 192, 

Schouten, Willem Cornelisz., Jour- 
nael, xi, xxiv, xxxi, xliii, etc., xlvii; 
names Willem Schouten Island, 
xliv ; sent home by Coen, xliv 

, Relation of a Wonderfttll 

Voiage (16 19), xxxi 

Schouts, Cornelis, cabin-boy, 207 

Schrijver, Pieter (1576- 1660), Dedi- 
cation oi Spiegel io, xiv ; biography 
of, xiv 

Scilly Islands, 50 

Scotte, Apollonius. See Schotte. 

Scriverius, Petrus. See Schrijver, 

Scurvy, 21 

Sea-calves, 82 

Sea-lions, 182, 185 

Sea-wolf, loho, 82 

Seals, 187 

Sebald's Islands, 186 

Sebastiaensz. , Cornelis, in Tidor, 143 

Segertsz., Cornelis, of Hoorn, 166 

Selages. See Salagua. 

Selagues. See Salagua. 

Selebes. See Celebes. 

Seylmaker, Ley, of Flushing, 1 

Shingles, Dungeness, 12, 169 

Ships, list of Dutch, in the East 
Indies (16 16), 160, etc. 

Shoals of Saint Ann, 173 

Siao, Island, near Celebes, 228 

Siauw. See Siao. 

Sierra Leone, 173 



Sierra Liona. See Sierra Leone. 

Sig^nora de Negues {sic), Church 
of, 26 

Silbe. See Sileda. 

Silean Sea. See Chilean Sea. 

Sileda, Sumatra, 158 

Silva, Don Geronimo de, Governor 
of the Mohiccas, 145, etc. 

Silva, Don Juan de, 122, etc., 140, 
143, etc. ; 147 ; his death, 150 

Silver Mines, Potosi, 93 

Singels. See Shingles. 

Sint Maria, See Santa Maria. 

SintO Marcello. See San Marcello. 

Skeletons, 10 feet long, Plate 22, 

Skull, as drinking- cup, lOO 

Smelts, 182 

Snoeck, Regnier Symonsz., 207 

Snow, Terra del Fuego, 42, 189 

Socorro, Island, 113 

Solis, Esteban, ascends Albay (1592), 

Solor, lix ; map of, Plate 21 ; 157 

Somerdam. See Somerdick. 

Somerdick, Henrick Steur, of, Cap- 
tain, 129, 155 

Soti. S e Groote Sonne. 

Sonne. See Groote Sonne. 

Soppy, village, 227 

Sorlinges, Pacific Ocean, 50 

Sorlinges (Scilly Islands), 50 

Sorlingues (Scilly Islands), 50 

South Pole, xliii 

Southern Sea. See Pacific Ocean. 

Spain, 8, 52, 54, 55, 61 ; King of, 29, 
68, 86 ; naval engagement with 
Dutch (1607), xlix, etc. ; list of 
.ships lost, liv ; silver shipped from 
Arica to, 66 ; Armada of Lima 
attacks Speilbergen (161 5), 68, etc.; 
Armada of Panama, 79 

Spanish Wine, 15, 24, 44 

Speck, Jacob, in Japan, 158 

Speelberghen, Barthelomeus van, 
Governor of Batjan, 155 

Speilbergen, Joris van, his expedition 
of 1 60 1, xxxvii ; names Table 
Bay, ib. ; arrives off Point de Galle, 
1602. xxxviii ; proceeds to Kandy, 
ib. ; friendly relations with the 
Maharajah, xxxix ; returns home, 
1604, xl ; his First Journal (Delft, 
1604, 1605), xxxvi, et seq. ; present 
as Commissary-General at the bat- 
tle off Gibraltar (1607), xli ; his 
letter to the States-General, xlix, et 
seq. ; appointed Commander- Gen- 
eral of 1 6 14 expedition, 2 ; passes 
through Straits of Magellan (April- 
May, 1615), 38-50; orders and re- 

gulations for his fleet, 56-61 ; deteats 
a Spanish fleet (July, 1615), 72-77; 
bombards Payta, 82 ; reaches the 
Ladrone Islands (January, 1616), 
114; passes through Straits of 
Manila (February, 1616), 117; 
reaches Ternate (March, 1616), 
127 ; receives Jacob le Maire on 
board, 152 ; prepares to sail home- 
wards (Dectmber, 1616), 153; 
arrival in Zeeland (July i, 1617), 
164. Original edition of his Jour- 
nal, xiii ; other editions, xiv xvii ; 
its authorship erroneously attribu- 
buted to May, xii, et seq. ; its Dedi- 
cation, xiv ; East India Company 
endeavours to stop its publication, 
xvii. A native of Zeeland, xl ; his 
eulogy by Captain Burney, xii ; his 
arms, xxxvi ; form of name, xxxv, 
xxxvi; died at Bergen -op -Zoom, 
1620, xl 

Spelbergh, Joris van. See Speilber- 

Spice Islands. See Molucca Islands. 

Spierincx. See Spieringh. 

Spiering, smelt, 182. 

Spieringh Bay, Plate 22 ; 182, 185 

Spilbergen, Joris van. See Speil- 

Spilberghen, Joris van. See Speil- 

Spilberghen Bay, 47 

Spirito Santo, Cape de. See Cape 
Espiritu Santo. 

Spirito Santo, El, Hospital of, Lima, 

Spirito Santo, River, xxxi 

Spitsbergen, Early Dutch and En- 
glish Voyages to Spitsbergen, 1904, 

Spitsbergen, Expedition of J. C. 
May to (1611-12), xxi, xxx 

Stadholder, or Lieutenant, 86 

Staten Land, xliv, 187 

States-General. See Netherlands. 

Sterre. See Morgensfer. 

Steur, Henrick, of Somerdick, 129, 


Stevens, Balten, of Vlissinghen, 22 

Stewart, ascends Albay, (1858) 118 

St. Jans Eylant, 215 

St. LovTys Albedin, Captain, 71, 
(St. Lovis Albedien) 72 

St. Lovis Albedien. See St. Lowys 

Strabis, Don Diego de, Field- 
Marshal, 71 

Strabo, Greek historian and geo- 
grapher, (63 B.C. -24 A.D.) countries 
unknown to, 3 



Straits of Tagima, 5 

Streto de Celebes. See Salayer 

Struve, Burcard Gotthelf, Bibliotheca 

Historica, 1 782- 1 802, xxii 
Stulinck, Christiaen, the Fiscal, 19 
Sucre, description of, 94 ; President 

of, ib, 
Sumatra, xxxix, 153, 158 
Surij, Andries, of lambe, 158 
Swart, Anthoni, Captain, loi 
Swarten Beer, Den, ship, 162 
Swarten Leeuw, Den, ship, sails for 

Japan, 161 
Sylves, Don Jan de. See Silva, Don 

Juan de. 
Synese. See Chinese. 

Tabalole. See Tabelole. 
Tabelale. See Tabelole. 
Tabelole, Mackian, 129, 136, 155 
Table Bay, xxxvii 
Tacome, Ternate, 135, 154 
Tafasor. See Tafifasor. 
Taffasoho. See Taffasor. 
Taffasor, Mackian, Iviii, 129, 135, 

Tagima. See Taguima. 
Tagima Sanguine, Straits of. See 

Basilan I. and Sangir I. 
Tagimo. See Taguima. 
Taguima. See Basilan Island. 
Talcahuano Bay, Plate 6 
Taloveque, Ternate, 154 
Tambos, inns, 96 
Tanger. See Tangier. 
Tangeran, River, 151 
Tangier, 1 

Tarnata. See Ternate. 
Taroula, Fort, Tidor, 142 
Tasman, Abel, (1600- 1659) xliii, 

Tchica, chica, or acca, 91 
Teatinos, Theatins, 89 
Telting, Dr. A., of the Rijks 

Archief, The Hague, xxi 
Tenerifa. See Teneriffe. 
Teneriffe, 13, 170 
Tergoes, ship, 162 
Ter-Goude, See Gouda. 
Tergouw. See Gouda. 
Ternata. See Ternate. 
Ternate, xvii, xxxi, etc., xliv, 5, 

152, 227; description of, 133, etc.. 

King of, viii, 133 ; Speilbergen 

sails for, 123 
Terra Ferma, Kingdom of, 86 
Terra Australis Cognita, 1766-68. See 

Callander, John. 

Terre del Fogue (Tierra del Fuego), 

33, 37, 32 
Ter-vere. See Veere. 
Tessel. See Texel. 
Tetuan, Morocco, Bay of, liii 
Texel, Le Maire at, 167, 169 ; 

Speilbergen sails from, (August 8, 

1614) II 
Teydoor. See Tidor. 
Theatins, Order of, 89 
Thevenot, Melchisedech, (1620- 

1692) xiii 
Thiel, See Tiel. 

Thomas, one of Castleton's ships, 129 
Tidor, Island, 129, etc., 134, etc.; 

description of, 142, etc. ; 154, etc. ; 

Tiel, Gelderland, Jan Verhoeven, of, 

.130, 156 
Tiele, Pieter Anton. Mimoire biblio- 

graphique snr les Journmix des 

Navi^ateurs NSerlandaia, 1867, 

xix, XX, xxii, xxiii, xxxi, xlviii, Ivii, 

Tierra del Fuego, Ixiii, 33, 37, 39 
Tiku, Sumatra, 158 
Timor, Hx, 157 
Tomba, Rio de. See Tumbez. 
Traitors' Island. See Verraders 

Tropic of Cancer, 171 

Capricorn, 4, 192 

Trouw, Dutch ship, at Bantam, 161, 

Trouwe, ship, at Chilue, loi 
True Description of Three Voyages, 

1853. See Veer, Gerrit de. 
Trujillo, 99 
Truxillo. See Trujillo. 
Tuban, 231 
Tumbez, Rio, 102 
Turkish Ducats, 153 
Turtles, 175, 225 
Tutuan, i^ay of. See Tetuan. 
Tymor, See Timor. 

United Provinces of the Nether- 
lands. See Netherlands. 
Utrecht, Gysbrecht van Vyanen, of, 

129, 155 
Utrecht, Provinciaal Utrechtsche 
Genootschap, 1827, xxvi 

Vaeck, Hendrick, 158 

Valck, Den, ship, sails for Acheen, 

Valdivia, 64 ; description of, 100 
Valla Imperiael {sic). La, Potosi, 93 
Valle de Xaura. See Jauja. 



Valparaiso, Chile, sea-port, Ivii, 4, 
58, 62, 63, 64 ; plan of, Plate 7 

VaJparesa. See Valparaiso. 

Val-Parijse, Val-Parijsi. See Val- 

Valparisa. See Valparaiso. 

Val Parysa. See Valparaiso. 

Varancas. See Barranca. 
Veer, Der, ship, lix 

Veere, Speilbergen sails from (1601), 

, Captain William Jacohsz., 

of, 129 

Velos, Islos de (Ladrone Islands), 4 

Veer, Gerrit de, A True Description 
of Three Voyages, 1853, xxv, etc. 

Velos. See Ladrone Islands. 

Venice, East Indian trade of, 133 
Ventas, inns, 96 

Vergine, Cape. See Cabo de las 

Verhagen, Steven, Admiral, xxxi, 

Verhoeven, Jan, of Tiel, Captain, 
130. 156 

Verhoeven, Pieter Willemsz. , y^«;-- 
nae/ (1607- i6og), lix, Ix 

Verraders Eylandt, map of, Plate 
24 ; 204 

Vianen, Cape, 40 

Vianen, Cornells van, merchant, 20, 
40, 128 

Vianen, Gysbrecht van, of Utrecht, 
129, 155 

Viceroy of Peru and Chilli (Chile), 
69, lOI 

Vincent, Captain. See Pinzon, Vi- 
cente Yanez. 

Visscher, Roemer, 127 

Vivien de Saint Martin, Louis, 
Noiiveau Dictionnaire de Geo^ra- 
phie Universelle ( 1 877- 1 900), xl, 220 

Vlamingh, Willem de {1696), xliii 

Vliegen Island, 196 

Vlissingen, xxix 

, yEolus, of, one of Speilber- 

gen's six ships, 11, 12 

, Balten Stevens, of, 22 ; Speil- 
bergen returns to (March 24, 1604), 

Vlissingken, De, ship, at Maleye, 160 

Voedt, Dirck. See Voet. 

Voet, Dirck, ensign, 24 ; death of, 

Vogels Island, Plate 22 
Vondel, Joost van den (1587- 1679), 
xiv, 127 

Vorstius, AeHus Everardus (1568- 

1624), Ivii 
Vossius, 127 
Voyage ofte Schipvaert, 1601. See 

Linschoten, Jan Huyghen van. 
Vrieslaftd, ship, of Enkhuizen, xxvii, 

etc., 162 
Vulcan Island, 219 
Vyanen, van. See Vianen, van. 
Vyvere, Pieter de, goldsmith, 131 

Waldavia. See Valdivia. 

Wapen van Amsterdam, ship, xxxii, 

153' 162 
Warnaert, of Friesland, a mutineer, 

Wanvijck, Wijbrand van, (1598), 

Watercress, 45 
Waterlant Island, 196 
Weert, Sebaldt de, Ivii, 43, 186 ; 

A Short and True Account, ih. 
West Vriesen, ship, of Hoorn, 150 
Whales, 179, 187, 225 
White Ensign, 17 
Wicht. See Wight, Isle of. 
Wight, Isle of, 12, 170 
Wijk, Jacob van, Verhandeling, 

(1827) xxvi 
Willem, Blauwen, skipper, 35 
Willem Schouten Island, xliv, 224 
Willemsen, Job, Provost- General, 

death of, 116 
Willem-Stadt, Temate, 135 
Willemsz., Pieter, Captain, (1607) 

Wit, Jan de. Captain, 79, 82, 83, 103 
Witsen, Gerrit Jacob, (16 19) xxi, 

Wittert, Admiral, 135, 147, etc. 

Xaura. See Jauja. 

Yea. See lea. 
Ycho, herb, 93 
Yla. See lea. 

Zabou, Gilolo, 154 

Zeeland, Dunes of, 39 ; Groote 
Maane, ship, of, 153 ; Speilbergen 
a native of, xl ; two captains from, 
130; two vessels of Zeeland and 
Amsterdam, 132 

Zeeland, ship, xxviii, xxxii, 153 

Zeira. See Ceram. 

Zeram. See Ceram. 

Zingels (Shingles), Dungeness, 12 


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l-The Observations of Sir Richard Hawkins, Knt., 
In his Voyage into the South Sea in 1593. Reprinted from the edition 
of 1622, and edited by Admiral Charles Ramsay Drinkwater 
Bethune, C.B. pp. xvi. 246. Index. 

(First Edition out of print. See No. 57. j Issued for 1847. 

2— Select Letters of Christopher Columbus, 

With Original Documents relating to the Discovery of the New World. Trans- 
lated and Edited by Richard Henry Major," F.S.A., Keeper of Maps, 
British Museum, Sec. R.G. S. pp. xc. 240. Index. 

{First Edition out of pHnt. See No. 43. Two copies only were printed on 
vellum, one of which is in the British Museum, C. 29. k. 14.) 

Issued for 1847. 

3— The Discovery of the Large, Rich, & Beautiful Empire of Guiana, 

With a relation of the great and golden City of Manoa (which the Spaniards 
call El Dorado), &c., performed in the year 1595 by Sir Walter Ralegh, 
Knt. . . . Reprinted from the edition of 1596. With some unpublished 
Documents relative to that country. Edited with copious explanatory Notes 
and a biographical Memoir by Sir Robert Hermann Schomburgk, Ph. D. 
pp. Ixxv. XV. I Map. Index. 

i^Out of print. Second Edition in preparation.) Issued for i^^^. 

4-Sir Francis Drake his Voyage, 1696, 

By Thomas Maynarde, together with the Spanish Account of Drake's 
attack on Puerto Rico. Edited from the original MSS. by William 
Desborough Cooley. pp. viii. 65. [Out 0/ print.) Issued for \^/^%. 

6— Narratives of Voyages towards the North- West, 
In search of a Passage to Cathay «& India, 1496 to 163 1. With selections 
from the early Records of . . . the East India Company and from MSS. 
in the British Museum. Edited by Thomas Rundall. pp. xx. 259. 2 Maps. 

( Out of print. ) Issued for 1 849. 

6— The Historie of Travaile into Virginia Britannia, 

Expressing the Cosmographie and Commodities of the Country, together with 
the manners and customs of the people, gathered and observed as well by those 
who went first thither as collected by William Strachey, Gent, the 
first Secretary of the Colony. Now first edited from the original MS. in the 
British Museum by Richard Henry Major, F.S.A., Keeper of Maps, British 
Museum, Sec. R.G.S. pp. xxxvi. 203. i Map. 6 Illus. Glossary. Index. 

( Out of print. ) Issued for 1 849. 

7-Divers Voyages touching the Discovery of America 

And the Islands adjacent, collected and published by Richard Hakluyt, 
Prebendary of Bristol, in the year 1582. Edited, with notes & an introduction 
by John Winter Jones, Principal Librarian of the British Museum, 
pp. xci. 171. 6. 2 Maps, i Illus. Index. ( Out of print. J Issued for 1850. 

8— Memorials of the Empipe of Japon 

In the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries. (The Kingdome of Japonia. 
Harl. MSS. 6249.— The Letters of Wm. Adams, 161 1 to 1617.) With a 
Commentary by Thomas Rundall. pp. xxxviii. 186. i Map. 5 lUus. 

( Out of print. ) Issued for 1 850. 

9— The Discovery and Conquest of Terra Florida, 
By Don Ferdinando de Soto, & six hundred Spaniards his followers. Written 
by a Gentleman of Elvas, employed in all the action, and translated out of 
Portuguese by Richard Hakluyt. Reprinted from the edition of 161 1. 
Edited with Notes & an Introduction, & a Translation of a Narrative of the 
Expedition by Luis Hernandez de Biedma, Factor to the same, by William 
Brenchley Rye, Keeper of Printed Books, British Museum, pp. Ixvii. 200. 
V. I Map. Index. (Out of print.) Issued for 1851. 

10— Notes upon Russia, 

Being a Translation from the Earliest Account of that Country, entitled Rerum 
Muscoviticarum Commentarii, by the Baron Sigismund von Herberstein, 
Ambassador from the Court of Germany to the Grand Prince Vasiley Ivanovich» 
in the years 1517 and 1526. Translated and Edited with Notes & an 
Introduction, by Richard Henry Major, F.S.A., Keeper of Maps, British 
Museum, Sec. R.G.S. Vol. i. pp. clxii. 116. 2 Illus. 

(Vol. 2 = No. 12.) (Out of print.) Issued for iS$i. 

11— The Geography of Hudson's Bay, 

Being the Remarks of Captain W. Coats, in many Voyages to that locality, 
between the years 1727 and 1751. With an Appendix containing Extracts 
from the Log of Captain Middleton on his yoyage for the Discovery of the 
North-west Passage, in H.M.S. *'Furnace," in 1741-3. Edited by JoAn 
Barrow, F.R.S., F.S.A. pp. x. 147. Index. Issued for 18^2. 

12— Notes upon Russia. 
(Vol. I. =No. 10.) Vol. 2. pp. iv. 266. 2 Maps, i Illus. Index. 

{Out of print.) Issued for iB$2, 

13 -A True Description of Three Voyages by the North-East, 

Towards Cathay and China, undertaken by the Dutch in the years 1594, 1595 
and 1596, with their Discovery of Spitzbergen, their residence often months in 
Novaya Zemlya, and their safe return in two open boats. By Gerrit de 
Veer. Published at Amsterdam in 1598, & in 1609 translated into English 
by William Philip. Edited by Charles Tilstone Beke, Ph.D., 
F.S.A. pp. cxlii. 291. 4 Maps. 12 Illus. Index. 

(Out of print. See also No. 54.^ Issued for 1 853. 

14>15_The History of the Great and Mighty Kingdom of China and 
the Situation Thereof. 
Compiled by the Padre Juan Gonzalez de Mendoza, & now reprinted from 
the Early Translation of R. Parke. Edited by SiR Gkorge Thomas 
Staunton, Bart., M.P., F.R.S. With an Introduction by Richard 
Henry Major, F.S.A., Keeper of Maps, British Museum, Sec R.G.S., 
2 vols. Index. {Vol. m\, out of print.) Issued for 1854. 

16— The World Encompassed by Sir Francis Dralce. 

Being his next Voyage to that to Nombre de Dios. [By SiR Francis 
Drake, the Younger.] Collated with an unpublished Manuscript of Francis 
Fletcher, Chaplain to the Expedition. With Appendices illustrative oi 
the same Voyage, and Introduction, by William Sandys Wrighi 
Vaux, F.R.S., Keeper of Coins, British Museum, pp. xl. 295. i Map. 
Index. Issued for 18SS' 

17— The History of the Two Tartar Conquerors of China, 

Including the two Journeys into Tartary of Father Ferdinand Verbiest, in the 
suite of the Emperor Kang-Hi. P>om the French of Pere Pierre Joseph 
d'Ori.eans, of the Company of Jesus, 1688. To which is added Father 
Pereira's Journey into Tartary in the suite of the same Emperor. From the 
Dutch of Nicolaas Witsen. Translated and Edited by the Earl of 
Ellesmerk. With an Introduction by Richard Henry Major, F.S.A., 
Keeper of Maps, British Museum, Sec. R.G.S. pp. xv. vi. 153. Index. 

Issued for 1855. 

18— A Collection of Documents on Spitzbergen and Greenland, 

Comprising a Translation from F. Martens' Voyage to Spitzbergen, 167 1 ; a 
Translation from Isaac de La Peyrere's Histoire du Groenland, 1663, and God's 
Power and Providence in the Preservation of Eight Men in Greenland Nine 
Moneths and Twelve Dayes. 1630. Edited by Adam White, of the British 
Museum, pp. xvi. 288. 2 Maps. Index. Issued for 1856. 

19— The Voyage of Sir Henry Middleton to Bantam and the Maluco Islands, 
Being the Second Voyage set forth by the Governor and Company of 
Merchants of London trading into the East Indies. From the (rare) Edition 
of 1606. Annotated and Edited by Holton Corney. M.R.S.L. pp. xi. 83. 
52. viii. 3 Maps. 3 Illus. Bibliography. Index. 

( Out of print). Issued for 1856. 

20— Russia at the Close of the Sixteenth Century. 

Comprising the Treatise, "The Russe Commonwealth" by Dr. Giles 
Fletcher, and the Travels of Sir Jerome Horsey, Knt., now for the first 
time printed entire from his own MS. Edited by Sir Edward Augustus 
Bond, K.C.B., Principal Librarian of the British Museum, pp. cxxxiv. 392. 
Index. Issued for 1857. 

21— History of the New World, By Girolamo Benzoni, of Milan. 

Showing his Travels in America, froin a.d. 1541 to 1556, with sorhe 
particulars of the Island of Canary. Now first Translated and Edited by 
Admiral William Henry Smyth, K.S.F., F.R.S., D.C.L. pp. iv. 280. 
19 Illus. Index. Issued Jor 1857. 

22— India in the Fifteenth Century. 

Being a Collection of Nai'ratives of Voyages to India m the century pieceding 
the Portuguese discovery of the Cape of Good Hope ; from Latin, Persian, 
Russian, and Italian Sources. Now first Translated into English. Edited 
with an Introduction bv Richard Henry Major, F.S.A., Keeper of 
Maps, British Museum, pp. xc. 49. 39. 32. 10. Index. 

{Out of print.) Issued for 1858. 

23— Narrative of a Voyage to the West Indies and Mexico, 

In the years 1599-1602, with 4 Maps and 5 Illustrations. By Samuel 
Champlain. Translated from the original and unpublished Manuscript, 
with a Biographical Notice and Notes by Alice Wilmere. Edited by 
Norton Shaw. pp. xcix. 48. Issued for 1858. 

24— Expeditions into the Valley of the Amazons, 1539, 1540, 1639, 
Containing the Journey of Gonzalo Pizarro, from the Royal Commen- 
taries of Garcilasso Inca de la Vega ; the Voyage of Francisco de Orellana, 
from the General History of Herrera ; and the Voyage of Cristoval de Acufia. 
Translated and Edited by SiR Clements K. Markham, K.C.B., F.R.S., 
ex-Pres. R.G.S. pp. Ixiv. 190. i Map. List of Tribes in the Valley of the 
Amazons. Issued for 1859. 

25— Early Voyages to Terra Australls, 

Now called Australia. A Collection of documents, and extracts from early 
MS. Maps, illustrative of the history of discovery on the coasts of that vast 
Island, from the beginning of the Sixteenth Century to the time of Captain 
Cook. Edited with an Introduction by Richard Henry Major, F.S.A., 
Keeper of Maps, British Museum, Sec. R.G.S. pp. cxix. 200. 13. 5 Maps, 
^"^ex. ( Out of print. ) Issued for 1 859. 

26— Narrative of the Embassy of Ruy Gonzalez de Clavijo to the Court 
of Timour, at Samarcand, A.D., 1403-6. 

Translated for the first time with Notes, a Preface, & an introductory Life of 
Tmiour Beg, by Sir Clements R. Markham, K.C B., F.R.S., ex-Pres. 
R.G.S. pp. Ivi. 200. I Map. Issued for i860. 

27— Henry Hudson the Navigator, 1607-13. 

The Original Documents in which his career is recorded. Collected, partly 
Translated, & annotated with an Introduction by George Michael 
ASHER, LL.D. pp. ccxviii. 292. 2 Maps. Bibliography. Index. 

Issued for i860. 

28— The Expedition of Pedro de Ursua and Lope de Aguirre, 

In search of El Dorado and Omagua, in 1560-61. Translated from Fray 
Pedro Simon's " Sixth Historical Notice of the Conquest of Tierra Firme,^' 
1627, by William Bollaert, F.R.G.S. With an Introduction by Sir 
Clements R. Markham, K.C.B., F.R.S., ex-Pres. R.G.8. pp. lii. 237. 
I Map. Issued for 1S6 1. 

29— The Life and Acts of Don Alonzo Enriquez de Guzman, 

A Knight of Seville, of the Order of Santiago, A.d. 1518 to 1543. Translated 
from an original & inedited MS. in the National Library at Madrid. With 
Notes and an Introduction by Sir Clements R. Markham, K.C.B., 
F.R.S., ex-Pres. R.G.S. pp. xxxv. 168. i lUus. Issued for 1862. 

30— The Discoveries of the World 

From their first original unto the year of our Lord 1555. By Antonio 
Galvano, Governor of Ternate. [Edited by F. de Sousa Tavares.] 
Corrected, quoted, & published in England by Richard Hakluyt, 1601. 
Now reprinted, with ihe original Portuguese text (1563), and edited by 
Admiral Charles Ramsay Dri nkwater Bethune, C. B. pp. iv. viiii. 242. 

Issued for 1862. 

31— Mirabilia Descripta. The Wonders of the East. 

By Friar Jordan us, of the Order of Preachers & Bishop of Columbum in 
India the Greater, ctrca 1330. Translated from the Latin Original, as published 
at Paris in 1839, in the Reaieil de Voyages et de Mimoires, of the Society de 
Geographic. With the addition of a Commentary, by Col. Sir Henry 
Yule, K.C.S.L, R.E., C.B. pp. iv. xviii. 68. Index. Issued for 1863. 

32— The Travels of Ludovico di Varthema 

In Egypt, Syria, Arabia, Persia, India, & Ethiopia, a.d. 1503 to 1508. 
Translated from the original Italian edition of 15 10, with a Preface, by 
John Winter Jones, F.S. A., Principal Librarian of the British Museum, 
& Edited, with Notes & an Introduction, by the Rev. George Percy 
Badger, pp. cxxi. 321. i Map. Index. Issued for 1863. 


33— The Travels of Pedro de Cieza de Leon, A.D. 1532-50, 

From the Gulf of Darien to the City of La Plata, contained in the first part of 
his Chronicle of Pern (Antwerp, 1554). Translated & Edited, with Notes 
& an Introduction, by SiR Clements R. Markham, K.C.B., F.R.S., 
ex-Pres. R.G.S. pp. xvi. Ivii. 438. Index. 

(Vol. 2 = No. 68.) Issued for 1864. 

34— Narrative of the Proceedings of Pedrarias Davila 

In the Provinces of Tierra Firme or Castilla del Oro, & of the discovery of the 
South Sea and the Coasts of Peru and Nicaragua. Written by the Adelantado 
Pascual de Andagoya. Translated and Edited, with Notes & an Introduc- 
tion, by Sir Clements R. Markham, K.C.B., F.R.S., ex-Pres. R.G.S. 
pp. xxix. 88. I Map. Index. Issued for 1865. 

35— A Description of the Coasts of East Afi»ica and Malabar 

In the beginning of the Sixteenth Century, by Duarte Barbosa, a 
Portuguese. Translated from an early Spanish manuscript in the Barcelona 
Library, with Notes & a Preface, by Lord Stanley of Alderley. 
pp. xi. 336. 2 Illus. Index. Issued for 1865. 

36-37— Cathay and the Way Thither. 

Being a Collection of mediaeval notices of China, previous to the Sixteenth 
Century. Translated and Edited by Colonel Sir Henry Yule, K.C.S.I., 
R.E., C.B. With a preliminary Essay on the intercourse between China & the 
Western Nations previous to the discovery of the Cape Route. 2 vols. 
3 Maps. 2 Illus. Bibliography. Index. 

{Out of print. New Edition in preparation.) Issued for i9)66. 

38— The Three Voyages of Sir Martin Frobisher, 

In search of a Passage to Cathaia & India by the North- West, A.D. 1576-8. 
By George Best. Reprinted from the First Edition of Hakluyt's Voyages. 
With Selections from MS. Documents in the British Museum & State Paper 
Office. Edited by Admiral Sir Richard CoLLiNSON, K. C.B. pp. xxvi. 
376. 2 Maps. I Illus. Index. Issued for 1867. 

39— The Philippine Islands, 
Moluccas, Siam, Cambodia, Japan, and China, at the close of the i6th Century. 
By Antonio de Morga, 1609. Translated from the Spanish, with Notes & 
a Preface, and a Letter from Luis Vaez de Torres, describing his Voyage 
through the Torres Straits, by Lord Stanley of Alderley. pp. xxiv. 431. 
2 Illus. Index. Issued for 1868. 

40— The Fifth Letter of Hernan Cortes 
To the Emperor Charles V., containing an Account of his Expedition to 
Honduras in 1525-26. Translated from the original Spanish by Don 
Pascual de Gayangos. pp. xvi. 156. Index. Issued for 1868. 

41— The Royal Commentaries of the Yncas. 

By the Ynca Garcilasso de la Vega. Translated and Edited, with Notes 
& an Introduction, by Sir Clements R. Markham, K.C.B. F.R.S., 
ex-Pres. R.G.S. Vol. i. (Books I. -IV.) pp. xi. 359. i Map. Index. 
(Vol. 2.= No. 45.) Issued for iS6g. 

42— The Three Voyages of Vasco da Gama, 

And his Viceroyalty, from the Lendas da India of Caspar Correa ; accom- 
panied by original documents. Translated from the Portuguese, with Notes 
& an Introduction, by Lord Stanley of Alderley. pp. Ixxvii. 430. 
XXXV. 3 Illus. Index. {Out of print.) Issued for iS>6<). 

43— Select Letters of Christopher Columbus, 

With other Original Documents relating to his Four Voyages to the New 
World. Translated and Edited by Richard Henry Major, F.S.A., 
Keeper of Maps, British Museum, Sec. R.G.S. Second Edition, pp. iv. 142. 
3 Maps. I Illus. Index. 

(First Edition = No. 2.) Issued for 1870. 

44— History of the Im4ms and Seyyids of 'Om&n, 
By Salil-Ibn-Razik, from a.d. 661-1856. Translated from the original 
Arabic, and Edited, with a continuation of the History down to 1870, by the 
Rev. George Percy Badger, F.R.G.S. pp. cxxviii. 435. i Map. Biblio- 
graphy. Index. Issued for \%1o. 

45— The Royal Commentaries of the Yncas. 

By the Ynca Garcilasso de la Vega. Translated & Edited with Notes, 
an Introduction, & an Analytical Index, by SiR Clements R. Makkham, 
K.C.B., F.R.S., ex-Pres. R.G.S. Vol. II. (Books V.-IX.) pp. 553. 
(Vol. i.=No. 41.) Issued Jor 1871. 

46— The Canarian, 

Or Book of the Conquest and Conversion of the Canarians in the year 1402, 
by Messire Jean de Bethencourt, Kt. Composed by Pierre Boutier and 
Jean le Verrier. Translated and Edited by Richard Henry Major, F.S.A., 
Keeper of Maps, British Museum, Sec. R.G.S. pp. Iv. 229. i Map. 2 Illus. 
Index. Issued fur 1871. 

47— Reports on the Discovery of Peru. 
I. Report of Francisco de Xeres, Secretary to Francisco Pizarro. II. Report 
of Miguel de Astete on the Expedition to Pachacamac. III. Letter of 
Hernando Pizarro to the Royal Audience of Santo Domingo. IV. Report of 
Pedro Sancho on the Partition of the Ransom of Atahuallpa. Tran>lated and 
Edited, with Notes & an Introduction, by SiR Clemen is R. Makkham, 
K.C.B., F.R.S., ex-Pres. R.G.S. pp. xxii. 143. i Map. Issued for 1872. 

48— Narratives of the Rites and Laws of the Yncas. 

Tianslated from the original Spanish MSS., & Edited, with Notes and an 
Introduction, by SiR Clements R. Markham, K.C.B., F.R.S., ex-Pres. 
R.G.S. pp. XX. 220. Index. Issued for 1872. 

49 -Travels to Tana and Persia, 
By JosAFA Barbaro and Ambrogio Contarini. Translated from the 
Italian by William Thomas, Clerk of the Council to Edward VI., and by 
S. A. Roy, and Edited, with an Introduction, by Lord Stanley of 
Alderley. pp. xi. 175. Index. A Narrative of Italian Travels in Persia, 
in the Fifteenth and Sixteenth centuries. Translated and Edited by 
Charles Grey. pp. xvii. 231. Index. • Issued jor 1873. 

60— The Voyages of the Venetian Brothers, Nicolo & Antonio Zeno, 

To the Northern Seas in the Fourteenth century. Comprising the latest 
known accounts of the Lost Colony of Greenland, & of the Northmen in 
America before Columbus. Translated & Edited, with Notes and Introduc- 
tion, by Richard Henry Major, F.S.A., Keeper of Maps, British 
Museum, Sec. R.G.S. pp. ciii. 64. 2 Maps. Index. Issued Jor 1873. 

51 -The Captivity of Hans Stade of Hesse in 1547-55, 

Amont? the Wild Tribes of Eastern Brazil. Translated by Albert Tootal, 
of Rio de Janiero, and annotated by Sir Richard Francis Burton 
K.C.M.G. pp. xcvi. 169. Bibliography. Issued for xZ-j^ 

52-The First Voyage Round the World by Magellan. 1518-1521. 

Translated from the Accounts of Pigafetta and other contemporary writers. 
Accompanied by original Documents, with Notes & an Introduction, by Lord 
Stanley of Alderley. pp. Ix. 257. xx. 2 Maps. 5 Illus. Index. 

Issued for 1874. 

53 -The Commentaries of the Great Afonso Dalboquerque, 

Second Viceroy of India. Translated from the Pt»rtuguese Edition of 1774, 
and Edited by Walter de Gray Birch, F.K.S.L., of the British Museum. 
Vol. I. pp. Ix. 256. 2 Maps. I Illus. (Index in No. 69.) 
(Vol. 2 = No. 55. Vol. 3 = No. 62. Vol. 4 = No. 69.) Issued for 1875. 

54— The Three Voyages of William Barents to the Arctic Regions, in 1594, 

1595, & 1595. 
By Gerrit de Veer. Edited, with an Introduction, by Lieut. Koolemans 
Beynen, of the Royal Netherlands Navy. Second Edition, pp. clxxiv. 289. 
2 Maps. 12 Illus. Issued for 1876. 

( First Edition = No, 13.) 

55— The Commentaries of the Great Afonso Dalboquerque, 

Second Viceroy of India. Translated from the Portuguese Edition of 1774, 
with Notes and an Introduction, by Walter de Gray Birch, F.R.S.L., of 
the British Museum. Vol. 2. pp. cxxxiv. 242. 2 Maps. 2 Illus. (Index in 
No. 69. ) Issued for 1875. 

(Vol. i=:No. 53. Vol. 3 -No. 62. Vol. 4 = No. 69.) 

56— The Voyages of Sir James Lancaster, Knt., to the East Indies, 

With Abstracts of Journals of Voyages to the East Indies, during the Seven- 
teenth century, preserved in the India Office, & the Voyage of Captain John 
Knight, 1606, to seek the North- West Passage. Edited by Sir Clements 
R. Markham, K.C.B., F.R.S., ex-Pres. R.G.S. pp. xxii. 314. Index. 

Issued for 1877. 

57— The Hawkins' Voyages 

During the reigns of Henry VIII, Queen Elizabeth, and James I. [Second 
edition of No. i.] Edited by Sir Clements R. Markham, K C.B., F.R.S., 
Pres. R.G.S. pp. lii. 453. i Illus. Index. Issued for 1877. 

(First Edition = No. i). 

58 -The Bondage and Travels of Johann Schiltberger, a Native of Bavaria, 
in Europe, Asia, & Afl?ica. 

From his capture at the battle of Nicopolis in 1396 to his escape and return 
to Europe in 1427. Translated from the Heidelberg MS-, Edited in 1859 by 
Professor Karl Fr. Neumann, by Commander John Buchan Telfek, 
R.N.; F.S.A. Wiih Note> hy Professor B. Bruun, & a Preface, Introduction, 
& Notes by the Translator & Editor. pp. xxxii. 263. i Map. Bibliography. 
Index. Issued for 1878. 

69— The Voyages and Works of John Davis the Navigator. 
Edited by Admiral Sir Albert Hastings Markham, K.C.B. 
pp. xcv. 392. 2 Maps. 15 Illus. Bibliography. Index. Issued for \%'j%. 

The Map ot the World, A.D. 1600. 
Called by Shakspere •* The New Map, with the Augmentation of the Indies." 
To illustrate the Voyages of John Davis. Issued for 1878. 


60-61 -The Natural & Moral History of the Indies. 
By Father Joseph de Acosta. Reprinted from the English Translated Ediiion 
of Edward Grimston, 1604; and Edited by Sir Clements R. Markham, 
K.C.B., F.R.S., ex-Pres. R.G.S. Vol. i, The Natural History B^oks I.-IV. 
pp. xlv. 295. Vol. 2, The Moral History Books, V.-VH. pp. xiii. 295-551. 
Index. Jsswdfor 1^79. 

Map of Peru. 
To Illustrate Nos. 33, 41, 45, 60, and 61. Issued for 1879. 

62— The Commentaries of the Great Afonso Dalboquerque, 

Second Viceroy of India. Translated from the Portuguese Edition of 1774, 
with Notes & an Introduction, by Walter de Gray Birch, F.S.A., of 
the British Museum. Vol. 3. pp. xliv. 308. 3 Maps. 3 Illus. (Index m 
No. 69. ) Issued for 1 880. 

63-The Voyages of William Baffin, 1612-1622. 

Edited, with Notes & an Introduction, by Sir Clements R. Markham, 
K.C.B., F.K.S., ex-Pres. R.G.S. pp. lix. 192. 8 Maps, i Illus. Index. 

Issued for 1 880. 

64— Narrative of the Portuguese Embassy to Abyssinia 
During the years 1520- 1527. By Father Francisco Alvarez. Translated 
from the Portuguese & Edited, with Notes & an Introduction, by Lord 
Stanley of Alderley. pp. xxvii. 416. Index. Issued for 1881. 

66— The History of the Bermudas or Summer Islands. 
Attributed to Captain Nathaniel Butler. Edited from a MS. in the 
Sloane Collection, British Museum, by General Sir John Henry Lefroy, 
R.A., K.C.M.G., C.B., F.R.S. pp. xii. 327. i Map. 3 Illus. Glossary. 
Index. Issue:/ for 1881. 

66-67— The Diary of Richard Cocks, 
Cape-Merchant in the English Factory in Japan, 1615-1622, with Corres- 
pondence (Add. MSS. 31,300-1, British Museum). Edited by SiR Edward 
Maunde Thompson, K.C.B,, Director of the British Museum. Vol. r. 
pp. liv. 349. Vol. 2, pp. 368. Index. Issued Jor 1882. 

68— The Second Part of the Chronicle of Peru, 1532-1550 
By Pedro de Cieza de Leon. 1554. Translated and Edited, with Notes 
& an Introduction, by Sir Clkmknts R. Markham, K.C.B., F.R.S., 
ex-Pres. R.G.S. pp. Ix. 247. Index. Issued for 1883. 

(Vol. i = No. 33.) 

69— The Commentaries of the Great Afonso Dalboquerque. 

Second Viceroy of India. Translated from the Portuguese Edition 01 1774, 
with Notes & an Introduction, by Walter de Gray Birch, F.S.A., of the 
British Museum. Vol. 4. pp. xxxv. 324. 2 Maps. 2 Illus. Index to the 
4 vols. Jssuedfor 1 883. 

(Vol. i=No. 53. Vol. 2 = No. 55. Vol. 3 = No. 62.) 

70-71— The Voyage of John Huyghen van Linschoten to the East Indies. 

From the Old English Translation of 1598. The First Book, containing his 
Description of t:ie East. In Two Volumes, Edited, the First Volume, by 
the late Arthur Coke Burneli, Ph.D., C.I.E., Madras C. S. ; the 
Second Volume, by Pieter Anton Tiele, of Utrecht. . Vol i. pp. Hi. 307. 
Vol, 2. pp. XV. 341. Index. Issued for 1884. 


72-73— Early Voyages and Travels to Russia and Persia, 

By Anthony Jenkinson and other Englishmen, with some account of the 
first Intercourse of the English M-ith Russia and Central Asia by way of the 
Caspian Sea. Edited by Edward Delmar Morgan, and Charlfs Henby 
GooTE, of the British Museum. Vol. i. pp. clxii. 176. 2 Maps. 2 lUus. 
Vol. 2. pp. 177-496. 2 Maps. I Illus. Index. Issued for 1885. 

74-75-The Diary of William Hedges, Esq., 

Afterwards Sir William Hedges, during his Agency m Bengal ; as well as on 
his Voyage out and Return Overland (1681-1687). Transcribed for the Press, 
with Introductory Notes, etc., by R. Barlow, and Illustrated by copious 
Extracts from Unpublished Records, etc., by Col. Sir Henry Yule, 
K.C.S.I., R.E., C.B., LL.D. Vol. i. The Diary, with Index, pp. xii. 265. 
Vol. 2. Notices regarding Sir William Hedges, Documentary Memoirs of Job 
Charnock, and other Biographical & Miscellaneous Illustrations of the time in 
India, pp. ccclx. 287. 18 Illus. Issued for 1886. 

(Vol. 3 = No. 78.) 

76-77— The Voyage of Francois Pyrard, of Laval, to the East Indies, 

The Maldives, the Moluccas and Brazil. Translated mto English from the 
Third French Edition of 1619, and Edited, with Notes, by Albert 
Gray, K.C, assisted by Harky Charles Purvis Bell, Ceylon C. S. 
Vol. I. pp. Iviii. I Map. 11 Illus. Vol. 2. Part I. pp. xlvii. 287. 7 Illus. 
(Vol. 2. Part II.=No. 80.) Issued for 1887. 

78— The Diary of William Hedges, Esq. 

Vol. 3. Documentary Contributions to a Biography of Thomas Pitt, Governor 
of Fort St. George, with Collections on the Early History of the Company's 
Settlement in Bengal, & on Early Charts and Topography of the Pluglf River, 
pp. cclxii. I Map. 8 Illus. Index to Vols. 2, 3. Issued for 1888. 

(Vols. I, 2 = Nos. 74, 75.) 

79— Tractatus de Globis, et eorum usu. 

A Treatise descriptive of the Globes constructed by Emeiy Molyneux, and 
Published in 1592. By Robert Hues. Edited, with annotated Indices & an 
Introduction, by Sir Clements R. Markham, K.C.B., F.R.S., ex-Pres. 
R.G.S. To which is appended, 

Sailing Directions for the Circumnavigation of England, 
And for a Voyage to the Straits of Gibraltar. From a Fifteenth Century 
MS. Edited, with an Account of the MS., by James Gairdner, of the 
Public Record Office ; with a Glossary by Edward Delmar Morgan. 
pp. 1. 229. 37. I Illus. I Map. Issued for 1888. 

80— The Voyage of Frangois Pyrard, of Laval, to the East Indies, the 
Maldives, the Moluccas, and Brazil. 

Translated into English from the Third French Edition of 161 9, and Edited, 
with Notes, by Albert Gray, K.C, assisted by Harry Charles Purvis 
Bell, Ceylon Civil Service. Vol 2. Pt. II. pp. xii. 289-572. 2 Maps. Index. 
(Vol I. Vol. 2. Pt. I. = Nos 76, 77.) Issued for 1889. 

81— The Conquest of La Plata, 1535-1555. 
I. — Voyage of Ulrich Schmidt to the Rivers La Plata and Paraguai, from 
the original German edition, 1567. II. The Commentaries of Alvar Nufiez 
Cabeza de Vaca. From the original Spanish Edition, 1555. Translated, 
with Notes and an Introduction, by H. E. Don Luis L. Dominguez, 
Minister Plenipotentiary of the Argentine Republic, pp. xlvi. 282. i Map 
Bibliography. Index. Issued for 1889. 


82-83- The Voyage of Fpan9ois Leguat, of Bresse, 1690-98. 

To Rodriguez, Mauritius, Java, and the Cape of Good Hope. Transcribed 
from the First English Edition, 1708. Edited and Annotated by Capt. Samuel 
Pasfield Oliver, (late) R.A. Vol i. pp. Ixxxviii. 137. i Illus. 6 Maps. 
Bibliography. Vol. 2. pp. xviii. 433. 5 Illus. 5 Maps. Index. 

Issued for 1890. 

84-85— The Travels of Pietpo della Valle to India. 
From the Old English Translation of 1664, by G. Havers. Edited, with 
a Life of the Author, an Introducion & Notes by Edward Grey, late 
Bengal C. S. Vol. i. pp. Ivi. 192. 2 Maps. 2 Illus. Bibliography. Vol. 2. 
pp. xii. 193-456. Index. Issued fori^i. 

86— The Journal of Christopher Columbus 
During his First Voyage (1492-93), and Documents relating to the Voyages 
of John Cabot and Gaspar Corte Real. Translated, with Notes & an Intro- 
duction, by Sir Clements R. Markham, K.C.B., F.R.S., ex-Pres. R.G.S. 
pp. liv. 259. 3 Maps. I Illus. Index. Issued for 1892. 

87— Early Voyagjes and Travels in the Levant. 
I. — The Diary of Master Thomas Dallam, 1599-1600. II. — Extracts from 
the Diaries of Dr. John Covel, 1670-1679. With some Account of the 
Levant Company of Turkey Merchants. Edited by James Theodore Bent, 
F.S.A., F. R.G.S. pp. xlv. 305. Illus. Index. 

Issued for 1892. 

88-89— The Voyages of Captain Lulce Foxe, of Hull, and Captain Thomas 
James, of Bristol, 

In Search of a N.-W. Passage, 1631-32 ; with Narratives of the Earlier 
North-West Voyages of Frobisher, Davis, Weymouth, Hall, Knight, Hudson, 
Button, Gibbons, Bylot, Baffin, Hawkridge, & others. Edited, with Notes & 
an Introduction, by Robert Miller Christy, F.L.S. Vol. i. pp. ccxxxi. 
259. 2 Maps. 2 Illus. Vol. 2. pp. viii. 261-681. 3 Maps, i Illus. Index. 

Issued for 1893. 

90— The Letters of Amerigo Vespucci 

And other Documents illustrative of his Career. Translated, with Notes & 
an Introduction, by Sir Clements K. Markham, K.C.B., F. R.S., ex-Pres. 
R.G.S. pp. xliv. 121. I Map. Index. 

Issued for 1894. 

91- Narratives of the Voyages of Pedro Sarmiento de Gamboa to the 
Straits ot Magellan. 1579-80. 

Translated and Edited, with Illustrative Documents and Introduction, by 
Sir Clements R. Markham, K.C.B., F.R.S., ex-Pres. R.G.S. pp. xxx. 
401. I Map. Index. 

Issued for 1894. 

92-93-94— The History and Description of Aft>ica, 

And of the Notable Things Therein Contained. Written by Al-Hassan Ibn- 
Mohammed Al-Wezaz Al-Fasi, a Moor, baptized as Giovanni Leone, but 
better known as Leo African us. Done into English in the year 1600 by 
John Pory, and now edited with an Introduction & Notes, by Dr. Robert 
Brown. In 3 Vols. Vol. i. pp. viii. cxi. 224. 4 Maps. Vol. 2. pp. 225-698 
Vol. 3. pp. 699- II 1 9. Index. r ^ ^ „ 

Issued for 1895. 

95— The Chronicle of the Discovery and Conquest of Guinea. 

Written by Gomes Eannes de Azurara. Now first done into English 
and Edited by Charles Raymond Beazley, M.A., F.R.G.S., and Edgar 
Prestage, B.A. Vol. I. (Ch. I.— xl.) With Introduction on the Life & 
Writings of the Chronicler, pp. Ixvii. 127. 3 Maps, i Illus. 

(Vol. 2 = No. 100.) Issued for 1896. 

96-97— Danish Arctic Expeditions, 1605 to 1620. In Two Books. 

Book I. The Danish Expeditions to Greenland, 1605-07; to which is added 
Captain James Hall's Voyage to Greenland in 1612. Edited by Christian 
Carl August Gosch. pp xvi. cxvii. 205. 10 Maps. Index. 

Issued for 1896. 

Book 2. The Expedition of Captain Jens Munk to Hudson's Bay in search 
of a North- West Passage in 1619-20. Edited by Christian Carl August 
Gosch. pp. cxviii. 187. 4 Maps. 2 Illus. Index. Issued for 1897. 

98— The Topographia Christiana of Cosmas Indicopleustes, an 
Egyptian Monk. 

Translated from the Greek and Edited by John Watson McCrindle, LL.D. 
M.R.A.S. pp. xii. xxvii. 398. 4 Illus. Index. Issued for 1897. 

99— A Journal of the First Voyage of Vasco da Gama, 1497-1499. 
By an unknown writer. Translated from the Portuguese, with an Intro- 
duction and Notes, by Ernest George Ravenstein, F.R.G.S. pp. xxxvi. 
250. 8 Maps. 23 Illus. index. Issued for 1898. 

100— The Chronicle of the Discovery and Conquest of Guinea. 

Written by Gomes Eannes de Azurara. Now first done into English and 
Edited by Charles Raymond Beazley, M.A., F.R.G.S., and Edgar 
PRkSTAGE, B.A. Vol. 2. (Ch. xli. — xcvii.) With an Introduction on the 
Early History of African Exploration, Cartography, &c. pp. cl. 362. 3 Maps 
2 Illus. Index. Issued for 1898. 

(Vol. l=No. 95.) 



1899, etc. 

1-2— The Embassy of Sir Thomas Roe to the Court of the Great Mogrul, 

Edited from Contemporary Records by William Foster, B.A., of the 
India Office. 2 vols. Portrait, 2 Maps, & 6 Illus. Index. Issued for 1899. 

3— The Voyage of Sir Robert Dudley to the West Indies and 
Guiana in 1594. 

Edited by George Frederic Warner, Litt.D., F.S.A., Keeper of 
Manuscripts, British Museum, pp. Ixvi. 104. Portrait, Map, & i Illus. 
Index. Issued for 1899. 

4— The Journeys of William of Rubruclc and John of Pian de Carpine 
To Tartary in the 13th century. Translated and Edited by H. E. the Hon. 
Wm. Woodville Rockhill. pp. Ivi. 304. Bibliography. Index. 

Issued for 1900. 
6— The Voyage of Captain John Saris to Japan in 1613. 
Edited by H. E. Sir Ernest Mason Satow, K.C.M.G. pp. Ixxxvii. 242. 
Map, & 5 Illus. Index. Issued for 1900. 

6— The Strange Adventures of Andrew Battell of Leigh in Essex. 

Edited by Ernest George Ravenstein, F.R.G.S. pp. xx. 210.2 Maps. 
Bibliography. Index. Issued for 1900. 

7-8— The Voyage of Mendana to the Solomon Islands in 1568. 

Edited by the Lord Amherst of Hackney and Basil Thomson. 2 vols. 
5 Maps, & 33 Illus. Index. Issued for 1901. 

9- The Journey of Pedro Teixeira from India to Italy by land, 1604-05; 

With his Chronicle of the Kings of Ormus. Translated and Edited by William 
Frederic Sinclair, late Bombay C. S., with additional notes &c., by 
Donald William Ferguson, pp. cvii. 292. Index. Issued for 1901. 

10— The Portuguese Expedition to Abyssinia in 1541, as narrated by 

Castanhoso and Bermudez. Edited by Richard Stephen Whitkway, 
late I.C.S. With a Bibliography, by Basil H. Soulsby, F.S.A., Super- 
intendent of the Map Department, British Museum, pp. cxxxii. 296. Map, & 
i2 Illus. Bibliography. Index. Issued for 1902. 

11— Early Duteh and English Voyages to Spitzbergen in the Seventeenth 


Including Hessel Gerritsz. " Histoire du Pays nomme Spitsljerghe," 1613, 
translated into English, for the first time, by Basil H. Soulsby, F.S.A., of 
the British Museum : and Jacob Segersz. van der Brugge, "Journael of Dagh 
Register," Amsterdam, 1634, translated into English, for the first time, by 
J. A. J. DE Villiers, of the British Museum. Edited, with introductions 
and notes by Sir Martin Conway, pp. xvi. 191. 3 Maps, & 3 Illus. 
Bibliography. Index. Issued for 1902, 

12— The Countries round the Bay of Bengal. 

Edited, from an unpublished MS., 1669-79, by Thomas Bowrey, by Col. Sir 
Richard Carnac Temple, Bart., CLE. pp. hi. 387. 19 Illus. & i Chart. 
Bibliography. Index. Issued for 1903, 


13— Four Narratives of Voyages, undertaken by order of the Viceroy 

of Peru, in tiie Pacific, 

With detailed accounts of Tahiti and Easter Island. 1774. Edited by 

Bolton Glanvill Corney, I.S.O., M.D., Chief Medical Officer, Fiji. 

Vol. I. lUus. Bibliography. Index. To be issued for 1903. 

14, 15— The Voyages of Pedro Fernandez de Quiros, 1595 to 1606. 

Translated and Edited by Sir Clements Markham, K.CB., Pres. R.G.S., 
President of the Hakluyt Society. With a Note on the Cartography of the 
Southern Continent, and a Bibliography, by Basil H. Soulsby, F.S.A., 
Superintendent of the Map Department, British Museum. 2 vols. 3 Maps. 
Bibliography. Index, Issued for 1904. 

16— John Jourdain's Journal of a Voyage to the East Indies, 1608-1617. 
(Sloane MS. 858, British Museum). Edited by William Foster, B.A., 
of the India Office, pp. Ixxxii. 394. With Appendices, A — F, and a Biblio- 
graphy, by Basil H. Soulsby, F.S.A. 4 Maps. Index. Issued for 1905. 

17— The Travels of Peter Mundy in Europe and India, 1628-1634. 

Edited from an unpublished MS. in the Bodleian Library, Oxford, by 
Lieut. -Col. Sir Richard Carnac Temple, Bart., CLE. Illus. Biblio- 
graphy. Index. To be issued for 1905. 

18.- East and West Indian Mirror. 

By JORis VAN Speilbergen. An Account of his Voyage Round the World 
in the years 1614 to 161 8, including the Australian Navigations of Jacob le 
Maire. Translated from the Dutch edition, '* Oost ende West-Indische 
•Spiegel, &c.," Nicolaes van Gcelkercken : Leyden^ 1619, by J. A. J. de 
Villiers, of the British Museum. With a Bibliography & Index by 
Basil H. Soulsby, F.S.A. 26 Illus. & Maps. Index. 

To be issued for 1906. 

19-20— Cathay and the Way Thither. 

Being a Collection of Mediaeval Notices of China, previous to the Sixteenth 
Century. Translated and Edited by the late Colonel Sir Henry Yule, 
K.C.S.L, R.E., C.B. 2 vols. Maps & Illustrations. Bibliography. Index. 
Second Edition of Series L, Vols. 36 & 37. Edited by M. Henri Cordier, 
Professeur a I'Ecole Speciale des Langues Orientales Vivantes, Paris ; 
President de la Societe de Geographie, Paris. To be issued for 1906. 


1-12- The Principal Navigations, Voyages, Traffiques, & Discoveries of the 

English Nation, 
Made by Sea or Over-land to the remote and farthest distant quarters of the 
earth at any time within the compasse of these 1600 yeeres. By Richard 
Hakluyt, Preacher, and sometime Student of Christ Church in Oxford. 
With an Index. 12 vols. James MacLehose & Sons : Glasgow, 1903-5. 

{Out of print.) 

13— The Texts & Versions of John de Piano Carpini and William de 


As printed for the first time by Hakluyt in 1598, together with some shorter 

pieces. Edited by Charles Raymond Beazley, M.A., F.R.G.S. 

|)p. XX. 345. Index. University Press: Cambridge, 1903. (Out of print.) 

14-33— Hakluytus Posthumus or Purchas His Pilgrimes. 

Contayning a History of the World in Sea Voyages and Lande Tra veils by 
Englishmen and others. By Samuel Purchas, B.D. 20 vols. Maps & 
Illus. James MacLehose & Sons : Glasgow, 1905-6. 


1. The History of the Conquest of the Seven Islands of Gran Canada 

Written by the Reverend Father Juan de Ab'reu Galindo, cf 
the Order of the Patriarch Saint Francis, native of the province of 
Andalusia, in the year 1632. Published at Santa Cruz de Tenerife, in 

An Account of the Origin and Miracles of the Holy Image of Our Lady 
of Candelaria, which appeared in the Island of Tenerife, together with 
a description of the said Island. Compiled by Father Alonso de 
ESPINOSA, of the Order of Preachers. Fernando Mexia : Seville, 
1594. Translated, with an introduction and notes by Sir Clements 
R. Markham, K.C.B., F.R.S., President of the Hakluyt Society. 
lUus. Maps. Bibliography. Index. 

2. Four Narratives of Voyages, undertaken by order of the Viceroy of Peru, 

in the Pacific, with detailed accounts of Tahiti and Easter Island, 1774. 
4 vols. Edited by Bolton Glanvill Corney, I.S.O., M.D., Chief 
Medical Officer, Fiji. 

3. The Discovery of the Large, Rich, and Beautiful Empire of Guiana, with 

a relation of the great and golden City of Manoa (which the Spaniards 
call El Dorado), etc., performed in the year 1595 by Sir Walter 
Ralegh, Knt. . . . Reprinted from the edition of 1596. With some 
unpublished Documents relative to that country. Edited (in 1848) 
with copious explanatory Notes and a biographical Memoir by Sir 
Robert Hermann Schomburgk, Ph.D. Second Edition (of Ser. I, 
vol. 3), by H. E. Sir Evekard Ferdinand im Thurn, K.C.M.G., 
C.B., F.R.G.S. 

4. The Voyages of Luigi di Cadamosto, the Venetian, along the West Coast 

of Africa, in the years 1455 and 1456. Translated from the earliest 
Italian text of 1507, in Montalboddo Fracan's Paesi novamente 
ritroyati, and Edited by Henry Yule Oldham, M.A., F.R.G.S. 

5. The True History of the Conquest of Mexico (Historia verdadera de la 

Conquista de la Nueva Espana). Translated from the original MS. in 
Mexico, published by photography in 1904, and edited by Alfred 
Percival Maudslay, F.R.G.S. 

6. The Letters of Pietro Delia Valle from Persia, &c. Translated and 

Edited by H. E. Major Sir Maithew Nathan, K.C.M.G., R.E., 

7. An Abstract of and Index to the First Series, vols, i-ioo, of the 

Hakluyt Society's Publications. By William Foster, B. A., and Basil 
Harrington Soulsby, B.A., F.S.A., F.R.G.S. 



8. An Index and Bibliography to vols. 4, 5, 8, 23, 24, 26, 28, 29, 30, 41, 45, 

47, 49, 51, 54, and 79. By Basil Harrington Soulsby, B.A., 
F.S.A., F.R.G.S. These will be supplied, on publication, to any 
Member, past or present, who sends in his name to the Hon. 

9. Journal of a Voyage in Tibet. By Fra Cassiano Beligatti, from the 

Macerata MS. Translated & Edited by Prof. R. Norton. 



PUBLICATIONS, 1847-1905. 

Abd-er-Razzak, i. 22 
Abyssinia, i. 32, 64 ; ii. 10 
Acosta, Joseph de, i. 60, 61 
Acuna, Cristoval de, i. 24 
Adams, Will., i. 8, 66, 67 ; ii. 5 
Africa, i. 21, 58, 82, 83, 92-94, 95, 100 
Africa, East, i. 32, 35, 64 ; ii. 10 
Aguirre, Lope de, i. 28 
Albuquerque, Affonso de, i. 53, 55, 

62, 69 
Alcock, Thomas, i. 72, 73 
Alessandri, Vincentio d', i. 49 
Al Hassan Ibn Muhammad. See 

Alvarez, Francisco, i. 64 
Alvo, Francisco, i. 52 
Amapaia, i. 3 
Amazon, i. 24 
America, Central, i. 40 
America, North, i. 2, 4, 6, 7, 9, 11, 

18, 21, 23, 43, 50, 65, 96, 97 
America, South, i. 3, 21, 24, 28, 33, 

34, 41, 43, 45, 47, 51, 60, 61, 68, 

76, 77, 80, 81, 91 ; ii. 3 
Amherst of Hackney, Lord, ii. 7, 8 
Andagoya, I'ascual de, i. 34 
Angiolello, Giovanni Maria, i. 49 
Angola, ii. 6 
Aquines, Juan. See Hawkins, Sir 

Arabia, i. 32 ; ii. 16 
Arctic Regions, i. 13, 54, 88, 89, 96, 

Arias, Dr. Juan Luis, i. 25 ; ii. 14, 15 
Arias d'Avila, Pedro, i. 21, 34 
Arromaia, i. 3 

Asher, George Michael, i. 27 
Asia, i. 5, 8, 13-15, 17, 19, 22, 26, 

35-39, 42, 44, 49, 53-55, 58, 62, 66, 

67, 69-78, 80, 82, 83, 87 ; ii. 1, 2, 4, 

5, 12, 16, 17 
Astete, Miguel de, i. 47 
Atahualpa, i. 47, 68 
Australasia, i. 25 ; ii. 7, 8, 14, 15 
Avila, Francisco de, i. 48 

Avila, Pedro Arias d'. See Arias 

d Avila. 
Azov, i. 49 
Azurara, Gomes Eannes de. See 


Badger, George Percy, i. 32, 44 

Baffin, William, i. 5, 63, 88, 89 

Balak, John, i. 13, 54 

Bantam, i. 19 

Barbaro, Giosafat, i. 49 

Barbosa, Duarte, i. 35, 52 

Barcelona MSS., i. 35 

Bardsen, Ivar, i. 50 

Barentsz., William, i. 13, 27, 54 

Barker, Edmund, i. 56 

Barlow, R., i. 74, 75, 78 

Barrow, John, F.R.S., i. 11 

Battell, Andrew, ii. 6 

Beazley, Charles Raymond, i. 95, 100 ; 

Extra Ser. 13 
Beke, Charles Tilstone, i. 13, 54 
Bell, Harry Charles Purvis, i. 76, 77, 

Belmonte y Bermudez, Luis de, ii. 

14, 15 
Bengal, i. 74, 75, 78 ; ii. 12 
Bent, James Theodore, i. 87 
Benzoni, Girolamo, i. 21 
Bermudas, i. 65, 86 
Bermudez, Joao, ii. 10 
Beste, George, i. 38 
B^thencourt, Jean de, i. 46 
Bethune, Charles Ramsay Drinkwater, 

i. 1, 30 
Beynen, Koolemans, i. 54 
Biedma, Luis Hernandez de, i. 9 
Bilot, Robert, i. 88, 89 
Birch, Walter de Gray, i. 53, 65, 62, 

Bollaert, William, i. 28 
Bond, Sir Edward Augustus, K.C.P,, 

i. 20 
Boty, Iver, i. 13 
Boutier, Pierre, i. 46 


Bowrey, Thomas, ii. 12 

Bracciolini, Poggio, i. 22 

Brazil, i. 51, 76, 77, 80 

British Museum MSS., i. 2, 4, 5, 6, 8, 

16, 20, 25, 38, 52, 53, 55, 62, 65-67, 

Brown, Dr. Robert, i. 92-94 
Bruun, Philip, i. 58 
Burnell, Arthur Coke, C.T.E., i. 70, 

Barre, Walter, i. 19 
Burrough, Christopher,' i. 72, 73 
Burrough, William, i. 72, 73 
Burton, Sir Richard Francis, 

K.C.M.G.,i. 51 
Butler, Nathaniel, i. 65, 86 
Button, Sir Thomas, i. 5, 88, 89 
Bylot, Robert, i. 5, 63, 88, 89 

Cabe9a de Vaca, Alvar Nunez. See 

Nunez Cabe9a de Vaca. 
Cabot, John, i. 86 
Cabot, Sebastian, i. 5, 12 
Cambodia, i. 39 
Canarian, The, i. 46 
Canary Islands, i. 21, 46 
Cape of Good Hope, i. 82. 83 
Carpino, Joannes, de Piano. See 

Caspian Sea, i. 72, 73 
Ca.ssano, Ussan, i. 49 
Castanhoso, Miguel de, ii. 10 
Castilla, del Oro, i. 34 
Cathay, i. 5, 13, 36-38, 54 
Champlain, Samuel, i. 23 
Chanca, Dr., i. 2, 43 
Charles V., Emperor, i. 40 
Charmick, Job, i. 74, 75, 78 

Cheinie, Richard, i. 72, 73 
China, i. 5, 13-15, 36, 37, 39, 54 

Christy, Robert Miller, i. 88, 89 

Cieza de Leon, Pedro de, i. 33, 68 

Cinnamon, Land of, i. 24 

Clavigo, Rny Gonz.alez de. See Gon- 
zalez de Clavigo. 

Cliffe, Edward, i. 16 

Clifford, George, i. 59 

Colts, William, i. 11 

Cocks, Richard, i. 8, 66, 67 

Cogswell, Joseph G., i. 27 

Collinson, Sir Richard, K.C.B., i. 38 

Columbus, Christopher : 
Journal, i. 86 
Letters, i. 2, 43 

Congo, ii. 6 

Contarini, Ambrogio, i. 49 . 

€onti, Nicolo, i. 22 

Conway, Sir William Martin, ii. 11 

Cooley, William Desborongh, i. % 

Coote, Charles Henry, i. 72, 73 

Corney, Bolton, i. 19 

Corney, Bolton Glanvill, LS.O.,M.n., 

ii. 13 
Correa, Gaspar, i. 42 
Corte Real, G.ispar, i. 86 
Cortes. Hernando, i. , 21, 40 
Cosmas Indicopleu.stes, i. 98 
Covel, John. i. 87 
Crosse, Ralph, i. 56 
Cumberland, Earl of, i. 59 
Cuzco, i. 47 

Dalboquerqiie, Afonso. See Albu- 

Dallam, Thomas, i. 87 

Dalrymple, Alexander, i. 25 ; ii. 14, 15 

Dampier, William, i. 25 

Danish Arctic Expeditions, i. 96, 97 

Dati, Giuliano, i. 2, 43 

Davila, Pedrarias. See Aria.s d'Avila. 

Davis, John, i. 5, 59, 88, 89 

De Villiers, John Abraham Jacob, 
ii. 11, 18 

Digges, Sir Dudley, i. 63 

Dominguez, Don Luis L., i. 81 

Donck, Adrian vander, i. 27 

Doughty, Thomas, i. 16 

Downton, Nicholas, i. 56 

Drake, Sir Francis, i. 4, 16 

Drake, Sir Francis, the Younger, i. 16 

Dryandri, Joh., i. 51 

Ducket, Jeffrey, i. 72, 73 

Dudley, Sir Robert, ii. 3 

Dutch Voyages, i. 13 ; ii. 11 

East India Company, i. 5, 19 
East Indie.s. See India. 
Easter Island, ii. 13 
Eannes, Gomes, de Zurara, i. 95, 100 
El Dorado, i. 3, 28 
Eden, Richard, i. 12 
Edwards, Arthur, i. 72, 73 
Egypt, i. 32 
Ellesmere, Earl of, i. 1 7 
Elvas, Gentleman of, i, 9 
Emeria, i. 3 
Engronelanda, i. 50 
Enriquez de Guzman, Alonzo, i. 29 
Eslanda, i. 50 
Estotilanda, i 50 
Ethiopia. See Abyssinia. 
Europe, i. 10, 12, 13. 18, 20. 49, 54 
58,64,72,73,79; ii. 9, 11,17 

Ferguson, Donald William, ii. 9 ' 
Figueroa, Christoval Suarez de. See 

Suarez de Figueroa. 
Fletcher, Francis, i. 16 
Fletcher, Giles, i. 20 
Florida, i. 7, 9 ' 


Fort St. George, i. 74, 76, 78 

Foster, William, B.A., ii. 1, 2, 16 

Fotherby, Robert, i. 63 

Fox, Luke, i. 5, 88, 89 

Foxe, Luke. See Fox. 

Frisian da, i. 50 

Frobisher, Sir Martin, i. 5, 38, 88, 89 

Furnace, H.M.S., i. 11 

Gairdner, James, i. 79 

Galvao, Antonio, i. 30 

Gama, Christovao da, ii. 10 

Gama, Vasco da, i. 42, 99 

Gamboa, Pedro Sarmiento de. See 

Sarmiento de Gamboa. 
Gastaldi, Jacopo, i. 12 
Gatonbe, John, i. 63 
Gayangos, Pascual de, i. 40 
Gerritsz., Hessel, i. 27, 54 ; ii. 11 
Gibbons, William, i. 5, 88, 89 
Gibraltar, Straits of, i. 79 
Globes, i. 79 

Ood's Power <k Providence, i. 18 
Gonzalez de Clavijo, Ruy, i. 26 
Gosch, Christian Carl August, i. ^Q, 97 
Gray, Albert, i. 76, 77, 80 
Great Mogul, ii. 1, 2 
Greenland, i. 18, 50, 96, 97 
Grey, Charles, i. 49 
Grey, Edward, i. 84, 85 
Grimston, Edward. See Grimstone. 
Grimstone, Edward, i. 60, 61 
Guiana, i. 3 ; ii. 3 
Guinea, i. 95, 100; ii. 6 

Hackit, Thomas, i. 7 
Hakluyt, Richard : 

Divers Voyages, i. 7 

Galvano, i. 30 

Principall Navigations, i. 16, 20, 
38, 59 ; Extra Ser. 1-12 

Terra Florida, i. 9 

Will of, i. 7 
Hall, James, i. 5, 88, 89, 96, 97 
Hasan Ibn Muhammad, al Wazzan, al 

Fasi, i. 92-94 
Havers, George, i. 84, 85 
Hawkins, Sir John, i. 4, 57 
Hawkins, Sir Richard, i. 1. 57 
Hawkins, William, i. 57 
Hawkridge, William, i. 88, 89 
Hedges, Sir William, i. 74, 75. 78 
Heidelberg MS., i. 58 
Herbet stein. Sigismund von, i. 10, 12 
Hernandez de Biednia, Luis, i. 9 
Herrera, Antonio de, i. 24 
Honduras, i. 40 
Horsey, Sir Jerome, i. 20 
Houtman's Abrolhos. i. 25 
Hudson, Henry, i. 13, 27, 88, 89 

Hudson's Bay, i. 11, 96, 97 
Hues, Robert, i. 79 
Hugh River, i. 78 

Icaria, i. 50 

Imftms and Seyyids of 'Omdn i. 44 

India, i. 5, 22, 32, 38, 42, 53, 55, 56, 

69, 62, 70. 71, 74-78, 80, 84, 85 ; u. 

1, 2, 12, 16, 17 
India Office MSS., i. 5, 56, 66, 67 
Indian Language, Dictionarie of the, 

i. 6 
Indies, West, i. 4, 23 ; ii. 3 

James I., i. 19 

James, Thomas, i. 5, 88, 89 

Janes, John, i. 59 

Japan, i. 8, 39, 66, 67 ; ii. 5 

Java, i. 82,83 

Jeannin, P., i. 27 

Jenkinson, Anthony, i. 72, 73 

Joannes, de Piano Carpino, ii. 4 ; 

Extra Ser. 13 
Jones, John Winter, i. 7, 22, 32 
Jordanus [Catalani], i. 31 
Jourdain, John, ii 16 
Jovius, Paulus, i. 12 
Juet, Robert, i. 27 

Keeling, William, i. 56 
Knight, John, i. 5, 56, 88, 89 

Lambrechtsen, i. 27 

Lancaster, Sir James, i. 56 

La Peyr^re, Isaac de, i. 18 

La Plata, River, i. 81 

Lasso de La Vega, Garcia, El Inea, 

i. 24, 41, 45 
Lefroy, Sir John Henry, K.C.M.G., 

i. 65, 86 
Leguat, Franyois, i. 82, 83 
Le Maire, Jacob, ii. 18 
Lendas da India, i. 42 
Leo Africanus, i. 92-94 
Leone, Giovanni, i. 92-94 
Leupe, P. A., i. 25 
Levant, i. 87 
Le Verrier, Jean, i. 46 
Leza, Gaspar Gonzalez de, i. 39 ; ii. 

14, 15 
Linschoten, Jan Huyghen van, i. 70, 


McCrindle, John Watson, i. 89 
Madras, i. 74. 75, 78 
Madrid MSS., i. 29 
Magellan, Ferdinand, i. 52 
Magellan, Straits of, i. 91 
Major, Richard Henry, i. 2, 6, 10, 12, 
14, 15, 17, 22, 25, 43, 46, 60 


Malay Archipelago, ii. 16 

Malabar, i. 35 

Maldive Islands, i. 76, 77, 80 

Maluco Islands. See Molucca Islands. 

Manoa, i. 3 

Markham, Sir Albert Hastings, K.C.B., 

i. 59 
Markham, Sir Clements Robert, K.C.B., 

i. 24, 26, 28, 29, 33, 34, 41, 56, 57, 

60, 61, 63, 68, 79, 86, 90, 91 ; ii. 14 

Martens, Friedrich, i. 18 
Mauritius, i. 82, 83 
Maynarde, Thomas, i. 4 
Mendafia de Neyra, Alvaro, i. 25, 39 ; 

ii. 7, 8, 14, 15 
Mendoza, Juan Gonzalez de, i. 14, 15 
Mexico, i. 23 

Middleton, Christopher, i. 11 
Middleton, Sir Henry, i. 1 9, oQ 
Mirahilia Descripta, i. 31 
Mogul, The Great, ii. 1, 2 
Molucca Islands, i. 19,39, 52, 76, 77, 80 
Molyneux, Emery, i. 79 
Montezuma, i. 61 

Morga, Antonio de, i. 39 ; ii. 14, 15 
Morgan, Henry, i, 59 
Morgan, Edward Delmar, i. 72, 73, 

79, 83, 86 
Mundy, Peter, il 17 
Munk, Jens, i. 96, 97 
Miinster, Sebastian, i. 12 
Muscovy Company, i. 7, 63 ; ii. 11 

Neumann, Karl Friedrich, i. 58 

New Hebrides, ii. 14, 15 

New World, i. 2, 43 

Nicaragua, i. 34 

Nikitiu, Athanasius, i. 22 

Nombre de Dios, i. 16 

Norsemen in America, i. 50 

North- East Voyages, i. 13 

North- West Passage, i. 5, 11, 38, 56, 

88, 89, 96, 97 
Northern Seas, i. 50 
Nova Zembla, i. 13, 54 
Nunez Cabe9a de Vaca, Alvar, i. 81 

Oliver, Samuel Pasfield, i. 82, 83 
Omagua, i. 28 
'Oman, i. 44 

Ondegardo, Polo de, i. 48 
Orellana, Francisco de, i. 24 
Orleans, Pierre Joseph d', i. 17 

Pachacamac, i. 47 
Pacific Ocean, ii. 13 
Paraguay, River, i. 81 
Parke, Robert, i. 14, 15 
Pelsart, Francis, i. 25 

Pellham, Edward, i. 18 

Pereira, Thomas, i. 17 

Persia, i. 32, 49, 72, 73 

Peru, i. 33, 34, 41, 45, 47, 60, 61, 68 

Peru, Chronicle of, i. 33, 68 

Philip, William, i. 13, 54 

Philippine Islands, i. 39 

Pigafetta, Antonio, i. 52 

Pitt Diamond, i. 78 

Pitt, Thomas, i. 74, 75, 78 

Pizarro, Francisco, i. 21 

Pizarro, Gonzalo, i. 21, 24 

Pizarro, Hernando, i. 47 

Pochahontas, i. 6 

Pool, Gerrit Thomasz., i. 25 

Portugal, i. 64 ; ii. 10 

Pory, John,i. 92-94 

Powhatan, i. 6 

Prado y Tovar, Don Diego de, 

ii. 14, 15 
Prestage, Edgar, i. 95, 100 
Prester John, i. 64 ; ii. 10 
Pricket Abacuk, i, 27 
Public Record Office MSS., i. 38 
Puerto Rico, i. 4 
Purchas, Samuel, i. 13, 56, 63 ; Extra 

Ser. 14-33 
Pyrard, Fran9oi8, i. 76, 77, 80 

Quatrem^re, i. 22 

Quiros, Pedro Fernandez de, i. 25, 
39 ; ii. 14, 15 

Raleigh, Sir Walter, i. 3 
Ramusio, Giovanni Battista, i. 49, 52 
Ravenstein, Ernest George, i. 99 ; ii. 6 
Recueil de Voyages, i. 31 
Ribault, John, i. 7 
Rockhill, William Woodville, ii. 4 
Rodriguez, Island, i. 82, 83 
Roe, Sir Thomas, ii. 1, 2 
Roy, Eugene Armand, i 49 
Rubruquis, Gulielraus de, ii. 4 ; Ex- 
tra Ser. 13 
Rundall, Thomas, i. 5, 8 
Russe Commonwealth, i. 20 
Russia, i. 10, 12, 20, 72, 73 
Rye, William Brenchley, i. 9 

Salil-Ibn-Ruzaik, i. 44 
Samarcand, i. 26 
Sanclio, Pedro, i. 47 
Santo-Stefano, Hieronimo di, i. 22 
Saris, John, i. 8 ; ii. 5 
Sarmiento de Gamboa, Pedro, i. 91 
Schiltberger, Johann, i. 58 
Schmidel, Ulrich, i. 81 
Schmidt, Ulrich. See Sohmide. 
Schomburgk, Sir Robert Hermann, i. 3 
Seaman's Secrets, i. 59 


Segersz., Jacob, ii. 11 

Sellman, Edward, i. 38 

Shakspere's "New Map," i, 59 

Sharpeigh, Alexander, i. 56 

Shaw, Norton, i. 23 

Siam, i. 39 

Simon, Pedro, i. 28 

Sinclair, W. Frederic, ii. 9 

SloaneMSS.. i. 25. 65 

Smith, Capt. John, i. 65, 86 

Smith, Sir Thomas, i. 19, 63, 65 

Smyth, William Henry, i. 21 

Solomon Islands, ii. 7, 8 

Somers, Sir George, i. 65 

Soto, Ferdinando de, i. 9 

Soulsby, Basil Harrington, ii. 10, 11, 

Sousa Tavares, Francisco de, i. 30 
South Sea i. 1, 57 
Spanish MSS.,i. 29,48 
Speilbergen, Joris van, ii. 18 
Spitsbergen, i. 13, 18, 54 ; ii. 11. 
Staden, Johann von, i. 51 
Stanley of Alderley, Lord, i. 35, 39, 

42, 52 
Staunton, Sir George Thomas, Bart., 

i. 14,15 
Stere, William, i. 13 
Strachey, William, i. 6 
Suarez de Figueroa, Christoval, i. 57 ; 

ii. 14, 15 
Summer Islands, i. 65, 86 
Syria, i. 32 

Tahiti, ii. 13 

Tamerlane, The Great, i. 26 

Tana (Azov), i. 49 

Tartary,i. 17 ; ii. 4 

Tavares, F. de Sousa. See Sousa 

Tavares, F. de. 
Teixeira, Pedro, ii. 9 
Telfer, John Buchan, i. 58 
Temple, Sir Richard Carnac, Bart., 

ii. 12, 17 
Terra Florida, i. 9 
Thomas, William, i. 49 
Thompson, Sir Edward Maunde, 

K.C.B.,i. 66,67 
Thomson, Basil Home. ii. 7, 8 
Thome, Robert, i. 7 
Tiele, Pieter Anton, i. 70, 71 
Tierra Firme, i. 28, 34 
Timour, Great Khan, i. 26 
Tootal, Albert, i. 51 
Topographia Christmna, i. 98 

Torquem&da, Fray Juan de, ii. 14, 15 
Torres, Luis Vaez de, i. 25, 39 ; ii. 14, 

Toscanelli, Paolo, i. 86 
Towerson, Gabriel, i. 19 
Tractatus de Globis, i. 79 
Trausylvanus, Maximilianus, L 52 
Turbervile, George, i. 10 
Turkey Merchants, i. 87 

Ursua, Pedro de, i. 28 

Valle, Pietro della, i. 84, 85 
Varthema, Ludovico di, i. 19, 32 
Vaux, William Sandys Wright i, 16 
Vaz, Lopez, i. 16 
Veer, Gerrit de, i. 13, 54 
Verarzanus, John, i. 7, 27 
Verbiest, Ferdinand, i. 17 
Vespucci, Amerigo, i. 90 
Virginia Britannia, i. 6 
Vivero y Velasco, Kodrigo de i. 8 
Vlamingh, Willem de, i. 25 
Volkersen, Samuel, i. 25 

Warner, George Frederic, Litt.D., 

ii. 3 
Weigates, Straits of, i. 13, 54 
West Indies. See Indies, West. 
Weymouth, George, i. 5, 88, 89 
White, Adam, i. 18 
Whiteway, Richard Stephen, ii. 10 
Wielhorsky, i. 22 
William of Rubruck. See Rubruqui.-s 

Gulielmus de 
Wilmere, Alice, i. 23 
Winter, John, i. 16 
Witsen, Nicolaas, i. 17, 25 
Wolstenholme, Sir John, i. 63, 88, 

Worlde's Hydrographical Description^ 

Wright, Edward, i. 59 

Xeres, Francisco de, i. 47 

Yncas, Rites and Laws, i. 48 
Yucas, Royal Commentaries, i. 41, 45 
Yule, Sir Henrv, K.C.S.I., i. 31, 36, 
37,74,75, 78 

Zeno, Antonio, i. 50 
Zeno, Caterino, i. 49 
Zeno, Nicolo, i. 50 
Zychman, 1, 51 



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1847 Bagram, John Ernest, Esq., 3, Hastings Street, Calcutta. 
1900 Baldwin, Alfred, Esq., M.P., F.R.G.S., Wilden House, near Stourport. 

1899 Ball, John B., Esq., F.R.G.S., Ashburton Cottage, Putney Heath, S.W. 

1893 Barclay, Hugh Gurney. Esq., F.R.G.S., Colney Hall, Norwich. 

1900 Basset, M. Rene, Directenr de I'EcoIe Superieure des Lettres d' Alger, L'Agha 

77, rue Michelet, Alger- Mustapha, Algiers. 

1898 Bastos, Senhur Jose (Antiga Casa Bertrand), 73, Rua Garrett, Lisbon. 

1894 Baxter, James Phinney, Esq., 61, Deering Street, Portland. Maine, U.S.A. 

1896 Beaumont, Admiral Sir Lewis Anthony, K.C.B., K.C.M.G., F.R.G.S., 

Admiralty House, Devon])()rt. 
1894 Beazley, Charles Raymond, Esq., M.A., F.R.G.S., 27, Norham Road and 

Merton College, Oxford. 
1904 Beetem, Charles Gilbert, Esq., 110, South Hanover Street, Carlisle, Pa., U.S.A. 

1899 Belfast Library and Society for Promoting Knowledge, Douegall Square 

North, Belfast (Geo. Maxwell Esq., Librarian). 
1896 Belhaven and Stenton, Col. The Right Hon. the Lord, R.E., F.R.G.S., 41, 
Lennox Gardens, S.W. 
Berlin Geographical Society (Gesellschaft fiir I<]rdkunde), Wilhelmstrasse 23, 
Berlin, S.W.,48 (Hauptmann a. D. Georg Kollm, Secretary). 
1847 Berlin, the Royal Library of, Opernplatz, Berlin, W. (Wirkl. Geh. Ober- 
Reg. Rat. Prof. Aug. Wilmanns, Director). 
Berlin University, Geographical Institute of, Georgeustrasse 34-36, Berlin 

N.W. 7 (Baron von Kichthofen. Director). 
Birch, Dr. Walter de Gray, F.S.A., 19, Bloomsbury Square, W.C. 


Birmingham Central Free Library, Ratclifi Place, Birmingham (A. Capel Shaw 

Esq., Chief Librarian). 
Birmingham Old Library, The, Margaret Street, Birmingham (Charles E. 

Scarse Esq., Librarian). 
Board of Education, South Kensington, S.W. 
Bodleian Library, Oxford, [copies presented.] 
1894 Bonaparte, H. H. Prince Roland Napoleon. Avenue d'Jena 10, Paris. 
1847 Boston Athenaeum Library, lOJ, Beacon Street, Boston, Mass., U.S.A. 
(Charles Knowles Bolton Esq., Librarian). 
Boston Public Library, Copley Square, Boston, Mass., U.S.A. (James 

Lynam Whitney Esq., Librarian). 
Bowdoin College, Brunswick, Maine, U.S.A. (George T. Little Esq.. Librarian). 
1894 Bower, Lt.-Col. Hamilton, 17th Bengal Lancers, Legation Guard, Peking. 
1896 Bowring, Thomas B., Esq., F.R.G.S., 7, Palace Gate, Kensington, W. 
1894 Brewster, Charles 0., Esq., 133 East 65th Street, New York City, U.S.A. 

1893 Brighton Public Library, Royal Pavilion, Church Street, Brighton (John 

Minto Esq., Librarian). 
British Guiana Royal Agricultural and Commercial Society, Georgetown, 

1847 British Museum, Department of British and Mediaeval Antiquities (C. H. 

Read Esq., Keeper). 
1847 British Museum, Department of Printed Books (G. K. Fortescue Esq., Keeper). 

[copies presented.] 
British Museum (Natural History), Cromwell Road, S.W. (B. B. Woodward 

Esq., Librarian). 
1896 Brock, Robert C. H., Esq., 1612, Walnut Street, Philadelphia, Pa., U.S.A. 
Brooke, Sir Thomas, Bart., F.S.A., Armitage Bridge, Huddersfield. 
Brookline Public Library, Boston, Mass., U.S.A. (Miss Louisa M. Hooper, 

Brooklyn Mercantile Library, 197, Montague Street, Brooklyn, N.Y., U.S.A. 

(Willis A. Bardwell Esq., Librarian). 
Brown, Arthur William Whateley, Esq., F.R.G.S., 62, Carlisle Mansions, 

Carlisle Place, Victoria Street, S.W. 
Brown, General John Marshall, 218, Middle Street, Portland, Maine, U.S.A. 

1898 Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island, U.S.A., P.O. Box 109 (Harry 

Lyman Koopman Esq., Librarian). 

1899 Bruce, A. M., Esq., Hong-Kong and Shanghai Bank, Bangkok, Siam. 
1903 Buckle, Admiral Claude Edward. The Red House, Raithby, Spilsby. 

1896 Buda-Pesth, The Geographical Institute of the University of, Hungary (Prof. 

Loczy Lajos, Librarian). 
Bunting, W. L., Esq., M.A., F.R.G.S., Royal Naval College, Osborne, Isle of 

1899 Burdekin, Benjamin Thomas, Esq., The Terrace, Eyam, Sheffield. 

1894 Burgess, James, Esq., CLE., LL.D., F.R.G.S., 22, Seton Place, Edinburgh. 
Burns, Capt. John William, Kilmahew, Cardross, Dumbartonshire. 

1903 California, University of, Berkeley, Cal., U.S.A. (Joseph Cummings Rowell 

Esq., liibrarian). 
1899 Cambray & Co.. Messrs. R., 6, Hastings Street, Calcutta. 

Cambridge University Library, Cambridge (Francis John Henry Jenkinson 

Esq., Librarian). 
Canada, The Parliament Library, Ottawa (Alfred Duclos De Celles Esq. 
1896 Cardiff Public Library, Trinity Street, Cardiff (J. Ballinger Esq., Librarian). 
1899 Carles, William Richard, Esq., C.M.G., F.R.G.S., Silwood, The Park, 
Carlisle, The Rt. Hon. the Earl of, Naworth Castle. Bamptou, Cumberland. 
Carlton Club Library, Pall Mall, S.W. (Henry T. Cox Esq., Librarian). 
1899 Carnegie Library, Pittsburgh, Pa., U.S.A. (E. H. Anderson Esq., Librarian). 


1901 Cator, Ralph Bertie Peter, Esq., (Judge of H.B.M. Supreme Court, Con- 

stantinople), Wateringbury, Kent, 
1894 Chamberlain, Right Hon. Joseph, M.P., F.R.S., 40, Princes Gardens, S.W. 
1 899 Chambers, Commander Bertram Mordaunt, R.N.,F. K.G.S., H.M. S." Resolution," 
River Med way. 
Chetham's Library, Hunt's Bank, Manchester (Walter F. Browne Esq., 

Chicago Public Library. Chicago, III, U.S.A. (Fred. H. Hild Esq., Librarian). 
1899 Chicago University Library, Chicago, 111., U.S.A. (Mrs. Zella Allen Dixson, 

1896 Christ Church, Oxford (F. Haverfield Esq., Librarian). 

Christiania University Library, Christiania, Norway (Dr. A. C. Drolsum, 

1894 Church, Col. George Earl, F.R.G.S., 216, Cromwell Road, S.W. 
Cincinnati Public Library, Ohio. LT.S.A. (N. D. C. Hodges Esq , Librarian). 
Clark, John Willis, Esq., F.S.A., Scroope House, Trumpington Street, 

1903 Clay, John, Esq., University Press, and 3, Harvey Road, Cambridge. 

1895 Colgan, Nathaniel, Esq., 15, Breffin Terrace, Sandycove, co. Dublin. 
Colonial Office, The, Downing Street, S.W. (C. Atchley Esq., I.S.O , Librarian). 

1899 Columbia University, Library of, New York, U.S.A. (James H. Canfield Esq., 

1899 Constable, Archibald, Esq., 14, St. Paul's Road, Camden Town, N. W. 

1896 Conwav, Sir William Martin, M.A., F.S.A., The Red House, Homton 

Street, W. 

1903 Cooke, William Charles, Esq., Vailima, Bishopstown, Cork. 

Copenhagen Royal Library (Det Store Kongelige Bibliothek) Copenhagen 

(Dr. H. O. Lange, Chief Librarian). 
1894 Cora, Professor Guido, M.A., Via Goito, 2, Rome. 

Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, U.S.A. (Geo. Wm. Harris Esq., 


1904 Corney, Bolton Glanvill, Esq,, I.S.O,, M.D., Suva, Fiji. 

Cornin^' H k' Erl^'/^ Messrs. Bickers & Son, 1, Leicester Square, W. 
1894 Cortissoz, Royal Esq., Editorial Room, New York Tribune, 154, Nassau Street, 

New York City, U.S.A. 
1893 Cow, John, Esq., Elfinsward, Hayward's Heath Sussex. 

1902 Cox, Alexander G., Esq., Imperial Railways of North China, Tientsin. 

1904 Croydon Public Libraries, Central Library, Town Hall, Croydon (L. Stanley 

Jast Esq., Chief Librarian). 
Curtis, Benjamin Bobbins, Esq., 63, Wall Street, New York City, U.S.A. 
1893 Curzon of Kedleston, The Right Hon. Lord, G.M.S I., G.M.I.E., F.R.G.S. 

1, Carlton House Terrace, S.W. 

Dalton, Rev. Canon John Neale, C.M.G., C.V.O., F.S.A., 4, The Cloisters, 
1899 Dampier, Gerald Robert, Esq., I.C.S., Dehra Dun, N.W.P., India. 

Danish Royal Naval Library (Det Kongelige Danske S^kaart Archiv), Copen- 
hagen (Dr. G. I. Colm, Librarian). 
Davis, Hon. Nicholas Darnell, C.M.G., Georgetown, Demerara, British 
1894 De Bertodano, Baldomero Hyacinth, Esq., Cowbridge House, Malmesbury, 
Derby, The Right Hon. the Earl of, K.G., c/o Rev. J. Richardson, Knowsley, 

Prescot. , 

Detroit Public Library, Michigan, U.S.A. (Henry M. Utley Esq., Librarian). 
1893 Dijon University Library, Rue Monge, Dijon, Cote d'Or, France (M. Balland, 


D'Oleire, Herr (Triibner's Buchhandlung), Am Miinster-platz, Strassburg, 

Doubleday, Henry Arthur, Esq., F.R.G.S., 2, Whitehall Gardens, S.W. 
Dresden Geographical Society (Verein fiir Erdkunde), Kleine Briidergasse 

2111, Dresden— A. 1. (Herr Otto Mortzsch, Bibliothekar). 
. 1902 Dublin, Trinity College Library (Rev. T. K. Abbott, D.D., Librarian). 

Ducie, The Right Hon. the Earl of, F.R.S., F.R.G.S., Tortworth Court, Falfield. 

1903 Fames, James Bromley, Esq., M.A.,B. C. L , lO.King's Bench Walk, Temple,E.C. 
1899 Ecole Frangaise d'Extreme Orient, Saigon, Indo-Chine Frangaise. 

: 1892 Edinburgh Public Library, George IV. Bridge, Edinburgh (Hew Morrison 
Esq., Librarian). 
Edinburgh University Library, Edinburgh (Alex. Anderson Esq., Librarian). 

1904 Edmonds, The Rev. Canon Walter John, B.D., The Close, Exeter. 
Edwards, Francis, Esq., 83, High Street, Marylebone, W. 

Faber, Reginald Stanley, Esq., M.A., F.S.A., 90, Regent's Park Road, N.W. 

Fellowes Athenaeum, 46, Millmont Street, Boston, Mass., U.S.A. 
.1899 Ferguson, David, Esq., M.I.M.E., F.R.G.S., 140, Hyndland Drive, Kelvinside, 

1899 Ferguson, Donald William, Esq., Samanala, 20, Beech House Road, Croydon. 
1894 Fisher, Arthur, Esq., F.R.G.S., St. Aubyn's, Tiverton, Devon. 

1896 Fitzgerald, Captain Edward Arthur, 5th Dragoon Guards. 

1904 Flanagin, Hugh William, Esq., B.E., B.A., Yorkville, Summer Hill, Cork. 
Ford, John Walker, Esq., D.L., FS.A , EnBeld Old Park, Winchmore Hill, K 
Foreign Office, The, Downing Street, S.W. (Richard William Brant Esq., 

Foreign Office of Germany (Auswartiges Amt), Wilhelmstrasse, Berlin, W. 
1893 Forrest, George William, Esq., CLE., F.R.G.S., Rose Bank, Iffley, Oxford. 

1902 Foster, F. Apthorp, Esq., 24, Milk Street. Boston, Mass., U.S A. 

1893 Foster, William, Esq., B.A., F.R.G.S., Registry and Record Department, India 

Office, S.W. 
1899 Fothergill, M. B., Esq., c/o Imperial Bank of Persia, Bushire, Persian Gulf, 

via Bombay. 

George, Charles William, Esq., 51, Hampton Road, Bristol. 
Gill, Joseph Withers, Esq., F.R.G.S.,.66, West Hill, St. Leonards-on-Sea. 
1901 Gill, W. Harrison, Esq., c/o Messrs. C. A. & H. Nichols, Peninsular House, 

Monument Street, E.G. 
Gladstone Library, National Liberal Club, Whitehall Place, S.W. 
Glasgow Universitv Library, Glasgow (James Lymburn Esq., Librarian). 
Godman, Frederick Du Cane, Esq., D.C.L., F.R.S., F.S.A., F.R.G.S , 

10, Chandos Street, Cavendish Square, W. 

1905 Goldie, The Right. Hon. Sir George Taubman, K.C.M.G., F.R.S., President 

R.G.S., Naval & Military Club, Piccadilly, W. 

1906 Goodrich, Professor Joseph K., Imperial Government College, Kyoto, Japan. 

1897 Gosch, Christian Carl August, Esq., 21, Stanhope Gardens, S.W. 

1899 Gosling, F. Goodwin, Esq., Hamilton, Bermuda. 

1893 Gosset, General Mathew William Edward, C.B., F.R.G.S., Westgate House, 

Dedham, Essex. 
Gottingen University Library, Gottingen, Germany (Prof. Dr. Richard 
Pietschmann, Director). 

1900 Graham, Michael, Esq., Glasgow Herald, 69, Buchanan Street, Glasgow. 
Gray, Albert, Esq., K.C., F.R.G.S., Catherine Lodge, Trafalgar Square, 

Chelsea, S.W. 

1894 Gray, Matthew Hamilton, Esq., F.R.G.S., Lessness Park, Abbey Wood, Kent. 

1903 Greenlee, William B., Esq., 95, Buena Avenue, CJiicago, 111., U.S.A. 


1898 Greever, C. 0., Esq., 1345, East Ninth Street. Des Moines, Iowa, U.S.A. 

1899 Griffiths, John G. ,Esq., 21, Palace Court, Kensington Gardens, W. 
Grosvenor Library, Buffalo, N.Y., U.S.A. (E. P. Van Duzell Esq., Librarian) 

1899 Gruzevski, C. L., Esq., 107, College Street, San Antonio, Texas, U.S.A. 

Guildhall Library, E.G. (Charles Welch Esq., F.S.A., Librarian). 
1894 Guillemard, Arthur George, Esq., 96, High Street, Eltham, Kent. 

Guillemard, Francis Henry Hill, Esq., M.A., M.D., F.R.G.S., The Old Mill* 
House, Truinpington, Cambridge. 

Hamburg Coramerz-Bibliothek, Hamburg, Germany (Dr. Baasch, Librarian). 
1901 Hammersmith Public Libraries, Carnegie (Central) Library, Hammersmith, 

W. (Samuel Martin Esq., Chief Librarian). 
lOlX) Hamilton, Wm. Pierson, Esq., 32, East 36th Street, New York City, U.S.A. 

1898 Hannen, The Hon. Henry Arthur, The Hall, West Farleigh, Kent. 

1905 Harrison, William P., Esq., 192, West Division Street, Chicago, 111., U.S.A. 

Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass., U.S.A. (Wm. Coolidge Lane Esq., 
Chief Librarian). 

1899 Harvie-Brown, John Alexander, Esq., F.R.G.S., Dunipace, Larbert, Stirlingshire. 
1899 Haswell, George Handel, Esq., Ashleigh, Hamstead Road, Handsworth, 

Heawood, Edward, Esq., M.A., F.R.G.S. 
1899 Heidelberg L'niversity Library, Heidelberg ( Prof. Karl Zh ngenieister. Librarian). 
1904 Henderson, George, Esq., c/o Messrs. Octavius Steel and Co., 5, Fenchurch 
Street, E.G. 

1903 Henderson, Turner, Esq., F.R.G.S., Studley Priory, Oxford. 

Hervey, Dudley Francis Amelius, Esq.,C. M.G.,F.R.G.S.,Westfields, Aldeburgh, 

Hiersemann, Herr Karl Wilhelm, Konigsstrasse, 3, Leipzig. 
1902 Hippislev, Alfred Edward, Esq., F.R.G.S., I.M. Customs, Shanghai, China. 

1893 Hobhou^e. Charles Edward Henry, Esq., M.P., The Ridge, Cor.sliam. Wilts. 

1904 Holdich. Colonel Sir Thomas Hungerlord, K.C.M.G., K.C.I.E., C.B., R.E., 

F.R.G.S., 41, Courtfield Road, S.W. 
1899 Hoover, Herbert C, Esq., 39, Hyde Park Gate, S.W. 

Horner, John Francis Fortescue, Esq., Mells Park, Frome, Somerset. 
Hoyt Public Library, East Saginaw, Mich., U.S.A. (Miss Ames, Librarian). 
1896 Hubbard, Hon. Gardiner G., 1328, Connecticut Avenue", Wiishington, D.C.,U.SA. 
1899 Hiigel, Baron Anatole A. A. von, F.R.G.S., Curator, Museum of Archaeology 
and Ethnology, Cambridge. 

1894 Hull Publio Libraries, Baker Street, Hull (W. F. Lawton Esq., Librarian). 
1847 Hull Subscription Library, Albion Street. Hull (William Andrews Esq., 


1899 Im Thurn, H. E. Sir Everard Ferdinand. Esq., K.C.M.G., C.B., Government 

House, Suva, Fiji, and 1, East India Avenue, E.G. 
1847 India Office, Downing Street, S.W. (Frederick W. Thomas Esq., M.A., 

Librarian). [20 COPIES.] 
1899 Ingle, William Bruncker, Esq., 4, Orchard Road, Blackheath, S.E. 
1892 Inner Temple, Hon. Society of the, Temple, E.G. (J. E. L. Pickering Esq., 

1899 Ireland, Prof. Alleyne, St. Botolph Club, 2, Newbury Street, Boston 

Ma^s. U.S.A. 
1903 Irvine, William, Esq., Holliscroft, 49, Castelnau, Barnes, S.W. 

1899 Jackson, Stewart Douglas, Esq., 61, St. Vincent Street, Glasgow. 
1898 James, Arthur Curtis.s, Esq., 92 Park Avenue, New York City. U.S.A. 
1896 James, Walter B., Esq., M.D., 17, West 54th Street, New York City, L'.S.A. 
1847 .John Carter Brown Library, 357, Benefit Street, Providence, Rhode Island, 
U.S.A. (George Parker Winship, E.sq., Librarian) 

John Rylands Library, Deansgate, Manchester (H. Guppy Esq., Librarian). 

Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md., U.S.A. (N. Murray Esq., Liliaiian) 


Johnson, General Sir Allen Bayard, K.C.R., 60, Lexham Gardens, Cromwell 
Road, S.W. 
1899 Johnson, Rev. Samuel Jenkins, F.R.A.S., Melplash Vicarage, Bridport. 
1399 Johnson, W. Morton, Esq., Woodleigh, Altrincham. 

1903 Kansas University Library, Lawrence, Kans., U.S.A. (Miss Carrie M. Watson, 
Keltie, John Scott, Esq., LL.D., Secretary R.G.S., 1, Savile Row, Burlington 

Gardens, W. 
Kelvin, The Rt. Hon. Lord, F.R.S., LL.D., Netherhall, Largs, Ayrshire. 
1899 Kiel, Royal University of, Kiel, Schleswig-Holstein (Geh. Reg. Rath., Emil 
Steffenhagen, Director). 
Kimberley Public Library, Kimberley, Cape Colony (Bertram L. Dyer Esq., 

1898 Kinder, Claude William Esq., C.M.G., Imperial Chinese Railways, Tientsin, 

North China. 
King's Inns, The Hon. Society of the, Henrietta Street, Dublin (Joseph J. 
Carton Esq., Librarian). 

1899 Kitching, John, Esq., F.R.G.S., Oaklands, Queen's Road, Kingston Hill, S.W. 
Klincksieck, M. Charles, 11, Rue de Lille, Paris. 

1900 Langtou, J. J. P., Esq., 802, Spruce Street, St. Louis, Mo., U.S.A. 

1900 Larchmont Yacht Club, Larchmont, N.Y., U.S.A. (F. D. Shaw Esq. 
Chairman of Library Committee). 

1898 Leechman, Carey B., Esq., 10, Earl's Court Gardens, South Kensington, S.W. 
Leeds Library, 18, Commercial Street, Leeds (D. A. Cruse Esq., Librarian). 
Lehigh University, South Bethlehem, Pa., U.S.A. (W. H. Chandler Esq., 

1893 Leipzig, Library of the University of, Leipzig (Prof. Oskar Leop. v. Gebhardt, 

1899 Levy, Judah, Esq., 17, Greville Place, N.W. 

1905 Lincoln, Arthur, Esq., 29, Wall Street, New York City, U.S.A. 
1902 Linnev, Albert G., Esq., Bootham School, 51, Bootham, York. 

Liverpool, The Right Hon. the Earl of, F.S.A., F.R.G.S., 2, Carlton House 

Terrace, S.W. 
Liverpool Free Public Library, William Brown Street, Liverpool (Peter 
Co well Esq , Librarian). 
1896 Liverpool Geographical Society 14, Hargreaves Buildings, Chapel Street, 
Liverpool (Capt. E. C. D. Phillips, R.N., Secretary). 
Loescher, Messrs. J., and Co., Corso Umberto 1°, 307, Rome. 
Logan, William, Esq., Heatheryhaugh, Moffat, Damfriesshire. 
1847 London Institution, 11, Finsbury Circus, E.C. (R. W. Frazer Esq., LL.B., 

1847 London Library, 12, St. James's Square, S.W. (C. T. H. Wright Esq., Librarian). 
1895 Long Island Historical Society, Pierrepont Street, Brooklyn, N.Y., U.S.A. 

(Miss Emma Toedteberg, Librarian). 
1899 Los Angeles Public Library, Los Angeles, Cal., U.S.A. (Miss Mary L. Jone.s, 
1899 Librarian). 

Lowrey, Joseph, Esq., F.R.G.S., The Hermitage, Loughton, Essex. 
1899 Lubetsky, S. A. S. le Prince Droutskoy, 89, Rue Miromesnil, Paris. 

Lucas, Charles Prestwood, Esq., C.B., Colonial Office, Downing Street, S.W. 
1895 Lucas, Frederic Wm., Esq., S.Swithin's, 169, Trinity Road, Upper Tooting. S.W. 
1905 Luquer, The Rev. Lea, St. Matthew's Rectory, Bedford, N.Y., U.S.A. 

1898 Lydenberg, H. M. , Esq., New York Public Library, 40, Lafayette Place, New 

York City, U.S.A. 
Lyons University Library, Lyon, France (M. le Professeur Dreyfus, Chief 

1899 LyttletonAnnesley, Lieut. -General Sir Arthur Lyttelton, K.C.V.O., F.R.G.S. 

Templemere, Oatlands Park, Weybridge. 


1899 MacLehose, James John, Esq., M.A., F.S.A., 7, University Gardens, Glasgow. 

Macmillan and Bowes, Messrs., 1, Trinity Street, Cambridge. 
1899 Macrae, Charles Colin, Esq., F.R.G.S., 93, Onslow Gardens, S.W. 

1904 Malvern Public Library, Graham Road, Great Malvern (Miss M. Lucy, 

Manchester Public Free Libraries, King Street, Manchester (C. W. Sutton 

Esq., Librarian). 
Manierre, George, Esq., 184, La Salle Street, Chicago. 111., U.S.A. 
Markham, Admiral Sir Albert Hastings, K.C.B., F.R.G.S., 12, Petersham 

Terrace, South Kensington, S.W. 
1852 Markham, Sir Clements Robert, K.C.B., F.R.S., F.S.A., 21, Eccleston Square, 


1892 Marquand, Henry, Esq., Whitegates Farm, Bedford, New York, U.S.A. 

1905 Marsden, T. lil., Esq., Norbury, Prestbury, near Macclesfield. 

1899 Martelli, Ernest Wynne, Esq., F.R.G.S,, 4, New Square, Lincoln's Inn, W.C. 
Massachusetts Historical Society, 1154, Boylston Street, Boston, Mass., U.S.A. 

(Samuel A. Green Esq., LL.D., Librarian). 
1899 Massie, Major Roger Henry, R.A., D.A.QM.G., Army Head Quarters 

Pretoria, South Africa. 

1898 Mathers, Edward Peter, Esq., F.R.G.S., 6, Queen's Gate Terrace, S.W. 
Maudslay, Alfred Percival, E'aq., F.R.G.S., 32, Montpelier Square, Knights- 
bridge, S.W., and St. James's Club, Piccadilly, W. 

McClurg, Messrs. A. C , & Co.. 215-221, Wabash Avenue, Chicago, 111., U.S.A. 
1905 McKay, J. Albert, Esq. 421, Wood Street, Pittsburgh, Pa., U S.A. 

1899 McKerrow, Ronald Brunlees, Esq., 30, Manchester Street, W. 

1896 Mecredy, Jas., Esq., M.A., B.L., F.R.G.S., Wynberg, Blackrock, co, Dublin. 

1901 Merriman, J. A., Esq., c/o Standard Bank of South Africa, Ltd., Durban, Natal. 
1899 Michell, Sir Lewis L., c/o The British South Africa Company, 2, London Wall 

Buildings, E.C. 

1893 Michigan, University of, Ann Arbor, Mich., U.S.A. (Raymond C. Davis Esq., 

1899 Middletown, Conn., Wesleyan University Library, U.S.A. (William J. James 

Esq., Librarian). [U.S.A. 

1904 Mikkelsen, Michael A., Esq., 54, Grove Street, Tarrytowu, New York City, 
1896 Milwaukee Public Library, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, U.S.A. (Dr. George W. 

Peckham, Librarian). 

1895 Minneapolis Athenaeum, Minneapolis, Minn., U.S.A. (Miss Jessie McMillan, 

1899 Minnesota Historical Society, St. Paul, Minnesota, U.S.A. 

Mitchell Library, 21, Miller Street, Glasgow (Francis T. Barrett Esq , 

1898 Mitchell, Alfred, Esq. , New London, Conn., U.S.A. 

Mitchell, Wm., Esq., c/o Union Bank of Scotland, Holburn Branch, Aberdeen. 

1902 Mombasa Club, Mombasa, East Africa. 

1899 Monson, The Right Hon. Lord, C.V.O., Burton Hall, Lincoln. 

1901 Moreno, Dr. Francisco J.,La Plata Museum, La Plata, Argentine Republic. 

Morgan, Edward Delmar, Esq., 15, Roland Gardens, South Kensington, S.W. 
1893 Morris, Henry Cecil Low, Esq., M.D., F.R.G.S., Gothic Cottage, Bognor, Sussex. 

1896 Morris, Mowbray, Esq., 59a, Brook Street, Grosvenor Square, W. 

1900 Morrison, George Ernest, Esq., M.D., F.R.G.S., Times Correspondent, 

c/o H.B.M. Legation, Peking. 
1899 Morrisson, James W., Esq., 200-206, Randolph Street, Chicago, 111., U.S.A. 
1906 Morse, Chas. J , Esq., 1825, Asbury Avenue, P^vanston, Illinois, U.S.A. 
1895 Moxon, Alfred Edward, Esq., F.R.G.S., c/o Mrs. Gough, The Lodge, Souldern, 

near Banbury. 
1899 Mukhopadhyay, The Hon. Dr. Asutosh, M.A., LL.D., 77, Russa Road North, 

Bhowanipore, Calcutta. 
Munich Royal Library (Kgl. Hof-u. Staats-Bibliothek), Munich, Germany 

(Konigl. Geheimrath Dr. von Laubmann, Director). 

1901 Murray, Hon. Charles Gideon, Brooks's, St. James's Stieet, S.W. 


Nathan, H. E.Major Sir Matthew, K.C.M.G., R.E., F.R.G.S., 11, Pembridge 

Square, W., and Government House, Hong Kong. 
1894 Naval and Military Club, 94, Piccadilly, W. 

Netherlands, Royal Geogra])hical Society of the (Koninklijk Nederlandsch 

Aardrijkskuudig Geuootschap), Singel 421, Amsterdam (J. Yzermann Esq., 

Newberry Library, The, Chicago, 111., U.S.A. (John Vance Cheney, Esq., 

1847 Newcastle-upon-Tyne Literary and Philosophical Society, Westgate Road, 

Newcastle on-Tyne. 
Newcastle-upon-Tyne Public Library, New Bridge Street, Newcastle-on-Tyne 

(Basil Anderton Esq., B.A., Chief Librarian). 

1894 New London Public Library, Conn., U.S.A. 

New South Wales, Public Library of, Sydney, N.S.W. (Henry C. L. 
Anderson, M.A., Principal Librarian). 
1899 New York Athletic Club, Central Park, South, New York City, U.S.A. 
(John C. Gulick Esq., chairman of Library Committee). 

1895 New York Public Library, 40, Lafayette Place, New York City, U.S.A. (Dr. 

John S. Billings, Director). 
New York State Library, Albany, New York, U.S.A. (Melvil Dewey Esq., 
1894 New York Yacht Club (Library Committee), 67, Madison Avenue, New York 
City, U.S.A. 

1897 New Zealand, The High Commissioner for (Hon. William Pember Reeves), 13, 

Victoria Street, S.W. 
1905 Nijhoff, M. Martinus, Nobelstrat, 18, The Hague. 
1905 Nichols, George L., Esq., 66 East 56th Street, New York City, U.S.A. 

1896 North Adams Public Library, Massachusetts, U.S.A. 

1893 Northcliffe, The Right Hon. Lord. F.R.G.S., Elmwood, St. Peter's, Thanet. 

Northumberland, His Grace the Duke of, K.G., F.S.A., F.R.G.S., c/o J. C. 

Hodgson Esq., Alnwick Castle. 
1899 Nottingham Public Library, Sherwood Street, Nottingham (J. P. Briscoe Esq., 


1898 Omaha Public Library, 19th and Harney Streets, Omaha, Nebraska, U.S.A. 

(Miss Edith Tobitt, Librarian). 
Oriental Club, Hanover Square, W. 
1902 Otani, Kozui, Esq., F.R.G.S., Nishi Honganji, Horikawa, Kyoto, Japan. 
Oxford Union Society, Oxford (The Chief Librarian). 

1902 Palmella, His Grace the Duke of, Lisbon. 

Paris, Bibliotheque Nationale, Rue de Richelieu, Paris (M. Marchal, 

Paris, Institut de France, Quai de Conti 23, Paris (M. R^beliiau, Librarian). 

1899 Parish, Frank, Esq., 5, Gloucester Square, Hyde Park, W. 

1900 Parlett, Harold George, Esq., British Legation, Tokio, Japan. 

1902 Parry, Captain John Franklin, R.N., H.M.S. "Egeria," Esquimalt, British 

Peabody Institute, Baltimore, Md., U.S.A. (Philip Reese Uhler Esq., Librarian). 

Peckover, Alexander, Esq., F.S.A., F.R.G.S., Bank House, Wisbech. 
1896 Peech, W. H., Esq., St. Stephen's Club, Westmin.ster, S.W. 
1893 Peek, Sir Wilfred, Bart., c/o Mr. Grover, Rousdon, Lyme Regis. 
1904 Peirce, Harold, Esq., 222, Drexel Building, Philadelphia, Pa., U.S.A. 
1899 Peixoto, Dr. J. Rodrigues, 8, Rue Alrate. Comandar^, Rio de Janeiro. 
1899 Pequot Library, Southport, Conn., U.S.A. (W. H. Holman Esq., Chief 

1902 Percival, H. M., Esq., 14, Park Street, Calcutta. 
1001 Perthes, Herr Justus, Geographische Anstalt, Gotha, Germany, [copies 



Pethenck, Edward Augustus, Esq., F.R.G.S., 85, Hopton Road, Streatham 

1895 Philadelphia Free Library, Pa., U.S.A. (John Thomson Esq., Librarian). 
Philadelphia, Library Company of, corner Juniper & Locust Streets, 

Philadelphia, Pa., U.S.A. (James G. Barnwell Esq., Librarian). 
1899 Philadelphia, Union League Club, Broad Street, PhUadelphia, Pa., U.S.A. 

(Alfred Lee Esq., Librarian). 
1899 Philadelphia, University Club, 1510 Walnut Street, Philadelphia, Pa., U.S.A. 

(Ewing Jordan Esq., M.D., Librarian). 
1899 Plymouth Proprietary and Cottonian Library, Cornwall Street, Plymouth 

(John L. C. Woodley Esq., Chief Librarian). 
Poor, Henry William, Esq., 1, Lexington Avenue, New York City, U.S.A. 
Portico Library, 57, Mosley Street, Manchester (Ernest Marriott Esq., 

1904 Pratt, John Thomas, Esq., H.B.M. Consulate, Ningpo, China. 
1894 Pretoria Government Library, Pretoria, Transvaal, South Africa. 

1894 Quaritch, Bernard Alfred, Esq., F.R.G.S., 15, Piccadilly, W. (12 copies). 

1890 Raffles Library and Museum, Singapore (Dr. Richard Hanitsch, Director). 

Ravenstein, Ernest George, Esq., F.R.G.S., 2, York Mansions, Battersea Park 
1906 Rees, Hugh, Esq., 119, Pall Mall, S.W. 

Reform Club, Pall Mall, S.W. 
1899 Reggio, Andre C, Esq., 43, Tremont Street, Boston, Mass., U.S.A. 
lS9o Rhodes, Josiah, Esq., The Elms, Lytham, Lancashire. 
1902 Rice, A. Hamilton, Esq., M.D., 389, Beacon Street, Boston, Mass., U.S.A. 

Richards, Admiral of the Fleet Sir Frederick William, G.C.B., F.R.G.S. 
/ 34, Hurlingham Court, S.W. 

/ Riggs, E. F., Esq., 1311, Mass. Avenue, Washington, D.C., U.S.A. 

1896 Riugwalt, John S., Jun., Esq., Lock Box 147, Mt. Vernon, Knox County, Ohio, 


1892 Rittenhouse Club, 1811, Walnut Street, Philadelphia, Pa., U.S.A. (Carroll 

Smythe Esq., Secretary, Library Committee). • 
Rockhill, H.E. the Hon. William Woodville, United States Minister, Peking, 
1899 Rodd, H.E. Sir James Rennell, G.C.V.O., K.C.M.G., C.B., F.R.G.S., British 
Embassy, Stockholm. 

1898 Rohrscheid and Ebbecke, Herrn, Strauss'sche Buchhandlung, Bonn, Germany. 

1893 Royal Artillery Institution, Woolwich. 

Royal Colonial Institute, Northumberland Avenue, W.C. (James R. Boos^ 
Esq., Librarian). 

1896 Royal Cruising Club, 40, Chancery Lane, W.C. 
Royal Engineers' Institute, Chatham. 

1847 Royal Geographical Society, 1, Savile Row, Burlington Gardens, W. 
(Edward Heawood Esq., Librarian), [copies presented.] 
Royal Scottish Geographical Society, Queen Street, Edinburgh (Jas. 
Burgess Esq., LL.D., CLE., Librarian). 

1897 Royal Societies Club, 63, St. James's Street, S.W. (D. Lewis-Poole Esq., Hon. 

Royal United Service Institution, Whitehall, S.W. 

1899 Runciman, Walter, Jr., Esq., M.P., West Denton Hall, Scotswood-on-Tyne. 
1904 Ruxton, Captain Upton Fitz Herbert, F.R.G.S., Worcestershire Regiment, 

The Residency, Sokoto, Northern Nigeria. 

1900 Ryley, John Horton, Esq., \ Melrose, 22, Woodwarde Road, East Dulwich, 
1900 Ryley, Mrs. Florence, LL.A., J S.E. 

St. Andrews University, St. Andrews (Jas. Maitland Anderson Esq., Librarian). 
1899 St. Deiniol's Library, Ha warden (Rev. G. C. Joyce, Librarian). 



1893 St. John's, New Brunswick, Free Public Library (J. R. Ruel, Esq. Chairman) 
St. Louis Mercantile Library, St. Louis, Mo., U.S.A. (William L. R. Gifford 

Esq., Librarian). 
St. Martin's-in-the-Fields Free Public Library, 115, St. Martin's Lane, W.C. 
St. Petersburg University Library, St. Petersburg (Dr. Alex. Roman. Kreis- 

berg, Librarian). 

1894 St. Wladimir University, Kiew, Russia (Dr. Venjamin Aleks. Kordt, 

1902 Sanborn, George P., Esq., 29, Wall Street, Drexel Building, New York City, 

1899 Sanford, Charles Henry, Esq., F.R.G.S., 102, Eaton Square, S.W. 

1900 San Francisco Public Library, San Francisco, Cal., U.S.A. (G. T. Clark Esq. 

Satow, H. E. Sir Ernest Mason, K.C.M.G., F.R.G.S., British Legation, Peking. 
1896 Saunders, Howard, Esq., F.R.G.S., 7, Radnor Place, Hyde Park, W. 
1899 Sclater, Dr. William Lutley, South African Museum, Cape Town, S. Africa. 
1899 Seattle Public Library, Seattle, Washington, U.S.A. (C. Wesley Smith Esq., 

1894 Seymour, Admiral of the Fleet Sir Edward Hobart, G.C.B., O.M., F.R.G.S., 

Queen Anne's Mansions, St. James's Park, S.W. 

1898 Sheffield Free Public Libraries, Surrey Street, Sheffield (Samuel Smith Esq., 


1899 Shields, Cuthbert, Esq., Corpus Christi College, Oxford. 

Signet Library, 11, Parliament Square, Edinburgh (A. G. Main Esq., 

Sinclair, Mrs. William Frederic, 102, Cheyne Walk, Chelsea, S.W. 
1899 Smith, Frederick Alexander, Esq., 10, Cumberland Mansions, Bryanston 

Square, W. 
1904 Smith, John Langford, Esq., H. B. M. Consular Service, China, c/o Messrs. 

Henry S. King & Co., 9, Pall Mall, S.W. 
1906 Smith, J. de Berniere, Esq., 4, Gloucester Terrace, Regent's Park, N.W. 
1896 Smithers, F. Oldershaw, Esq., F.R.G.S., Dashwood House, 9, New Broad 

Street, E.C. 
1899 Sneddon, George T., Esq., 8, Merry Street, Motherwell, Lanarkshire. 
1899 Society Geografica Italiana, Via del Plebiscite 102, Rome. 

Socidt^ de Gdographie, Boulevard St. Germain, 184, Paris (M. le Baron Hulot, 

Secretaire G^n^ral). 
1899 Soulsby, Basil Harrington, Esq., B.A., F.S.A., F.R.G.S., Map Department, 

British Museum, W.C, and 3, Spring Gardens, S.W. 
1899 South African Public Library, Cape Town, South Africa. 
1899 Southam, Herbert Robert Henry, Esq., F.S.A., Innellan, Sutton Road, 

1904 Speight, Ernest Edwin, Esq., B.A., F.R.G.S., The Green, Shaldon, Teignmouth, 

1894 Stairs, James W., Esq., c/o Messrs. Stairs, Son and Morrow, Halifax, Nova Scotia. 

1904 Stanton, John, Esq., High Street, Chorley, Lancashire. 

1894 Stephens, Henry Charles, Esq., F.R.G.S., Cholderton Lodge, Cholderton, 

1847 Stevens, Son, and Stiles, Messrs. Henry, 39, Great Russell Street, W.C. 
1906 Stock, C. A., Esq., Odell Gazette and Reporter, Odell, Illinois, U.S.A. 

Stockholm, Royal Library of (Kongl. Biblioteket), Sweden (Dr. Erik Wilhelm 

Dahlgren Librarian). 

1895 Stockton Public Library, Stockton, Cal., U.S.A. (W. F. Clowdsley Esq., 


1905 Storer, Albert H., Esq., Ridgefield, Ct., U.S.A. 
Strachey, Lady, 69, Lancaster-gate, Hyde Park, W. 

1894 Stringer, George Alfred, Esq,, 248, Georgia Street, Buffalo, N.Y., U.S.A. 

Stubbs, Captain Edward, R.N., 13, Greenfield Road, Stoney croft, Liverpool. 
1904 Suarez, Colonel Don Pedro (Bolivian Legation), Santa Cruz, 74, Compayne 
Gardens, N.W, 


1905 Sullivan, John Cotter, Esq., 301, West Commerce Street, San Antonio, 

Texas, U.S.A. 
1899 Sykes, Major Percy Molesworth, C.M.G.,F.R.G.S., Queen's Bay8,H.M.'8 Consul 

Kerman, Persia, vid Teheran. 

1900 Tangye, Richard Trevithick Gilbertstone, Esq., LL.B., 1, King's Bench Walk, 

Temple, E.G., and 16, Tite Street, Chelsea, S.W. 
1897 Tate, George Passman, Esq., F.R.G.S., Survey of India Department, Bombay. 
1894 Taylor, Captain William Robert, F.R.G.S., 1, Daysbrook Road, Streatham 
Hill, S.W. 
Temple, Lieut.-Col. Sir Richard Camac, Bart., C.I.E., F.R.G.S., The Naah, 
Worcester, and Naval and Military Club, S.W. 
1894 Thomson, Basil Home, Esq., Governor's House, H.M.'s Prison, Princetown, 

S. Devon. 
1896 Tighe, Walter Stuart, Esq., Coolmoney, Stratford-on-Slauey, Co. Wicklow. 
1904 Todd, Commander George James, R.N., H.M.S. " Coquette," Me<literranean. 
1896 Toronto Public Library, Toronto, Ont., Canada (James Bain Esq., Librarian). 
Toronto University, Toronto, Ont., Canada (H. H. Langton Esq., Librarian). 
Travellers' Club, 106, Pall Mall, S.W. 
1900 Triuder, Arnold, Esq., F.R.G.S., The Hollies, Rydens Road, Walton-on- 
Trinder, Henry William, Esq., F.R.G.S., Northbrook House, Bishops Waltham, 

Trinder, Oliver Jones, Esq., Cedar Grange, Caterham Valley, Surrey. 
Trinity College, Cambridge. 

Trinity House, The Hon. Corporation of. Tower Hill, E.C. (H. S. Liesching 
Esq., Librarian). 
1894 Troop, W. H., Esq., c/o Messrs. Black Bros, and Co., Halifax, Nova Scotia. 

Turnbull, Alexander H., Esq., F.R.G.S., Elibank, Wellington, New Zealand, 
and c/o Messrs. A. L. Elder and Co., Ltd., 7, St. Helen's Place, E.C. 
1902 Tweedy, Arthur H., Esq., Widmore Lodge, Widmore, Bromley, Kent. 

1847 United States Congress, Library of, Washington, D.C., U.S.A. (Herbert 

Putnam Esq., Librarian). 
1899 United States National Museum (Library of), Washington, D.C. U.S.A. (Cyrus 
Adler Esq., Librarian). 
United States Naval Academy Library, Annapolis, Md., U.S.A.. (Prof. 

Arthur Newton Brown, Librarian). 
University of London, Imperial Institute, S.W. 
Upsala University Library, Upsala, Sweden (Dr. Claes Annerstedt, Librarian). 

1905 Van Norden, Theodore Langdon, Esq., Van Norden Trust Company, 786, 
Fifth Avenue, New York City, U.S.A. 

1905 Van Norden, Warner M., Esq., Van Norden Trust Company, 786, Fifth 

Avenue, New York, U.S.A. 

1896 Van Raalte, Charles, Esq., Brownsea Island, Poole, Dorset. 

1900 Vernon, Roland Venables, Esq., B.A., Colonial Office, Downing Street, S.W. 
Victoria, Public Library, Museums, and National Gallery of, Melbourne, 
Australia (E. La T. Armstrong Esq., Chief Librarian), c/o the Agent- 
General for Victoria, 142, Queen Victoria Street, E.C. 

1847 Vienna Imperial Library (K. K. Hof-Bibliothek), Vienna (Dr. Hofrath Josef 
Karabacek, Chief Librarian). 

1906 Vienna, K. K. Geographische Gesellschaft, Wollzeile 33, Vienna (Dr. Leo 

Bouchal, Chief Librarian). 
Vignaud, Henry, Esq., Ambassade des Etats Unis, 18, Avenue Kleber, Paris. 


1904 Wagner, Herrn H., and E. Debes, Geographische Anstalt, Briiderstrasse 23, 

1902 War Office, Mobilisation and Intelligence Library, Winchester House, St. 

James's Square, S.W. (F, J. Hudleston Esq., Librarian). 
1894 Warren, William R., Esq., 68, William Street, New York City, U.S.A. 

Washington, Department of State, D.C., U.S.A. (Andrew Hussey Allen Esq., 

Chief of Bureau of Rolls). 
Washington, Library of Navy Department, Washington, D.C., U.S.A. 

(Superintendent of Naval War Records). 
1899 Watanabe, Chiharu, Esq., 4, Shimotakanawamachi, Shibaku, Tokyo, Japan, 

& c/o the Rev. A. Tanner, St. Anne's Vicarage, Highgate Rise, N. 
Watkinson Library, Hartford, Connecticut, U.S.A. (Frank B. Gay Esq., 


1892 Webster, Sir Augustus Frederick Walpole Edward, Bart., Battle Abbey, 

1899 Weld, Rev. George Francis, Hingham, Mass., U.S.A. 

1903 Wells, Professor David Collins, Dartmouth College, Hanover, N. H., U.S.A. 
1899 Wesleyan University, Library of, (W. J. James, Esq., Librarian), Tabor, New 

Jersey, U.S.A. 

1899 Westaway, Engineer Commander Albert Ernest Luscombe, H.M.S. 

" Bulwark," Mediterranean Fleet. 

1898 Westminster School (Rev. G. H. Nail, M.A., Librarian) Dean's Yard, S.W. 

1904 Whall, William B., Esq., Board of Trade, 11, Linkfield, .Alusselburgh. 

1900 White, Dr. Henry, F.R.G.S., English Mission Hospital, Yezd, Persia, via 


1893 Whiteway, Richard Stephen, Esq. , Brownscombe, Shottermill, Surrey. 

1896 Wildy, Augustus George, Esq., F.R.G.S., 1, Raymond Buildings, Gray's Inn, 

1899 Williams, 0. W., Esq., Fort Stockton, Texas, U.S.A. 

1899 Wilmanns, Frederick M., Esq., 89, Oneida Street, Milwaukee, Wise, U.S.A. 
1895 Wisconsin, State Historical Society of, Madison, Wise, U.S.A. (Isaac S. 

Bradley Esq., Librarian). 

1900 Woodford, Charles Morris, Esq., F.R.G.S., Government Residence, Tulagi, 

British Solomon Islands. 
Worcester, Massachusetts, Free Library, Worcester, Mass., U.S.A. (Samuel 
S. Green Esq., Librarian). 
1899 Wyndham, The Right Hon. George, M.P., 35, Park Lane, W. 

Yale University, New Haven, Conn., U.S.A. (Addison Van Name Esq., 

1894 Young, Alfales, Esq., Salt Lake City, Utah, U.S.A. 

Young, Sir Allen William, C.V.O., C.B., F.R.G.S., 18, Grafton Street, Bond 
Street, W. 
1894 Young & Sons, Messrs. Henry, 12, South Castle Street, Liverpool. 

Ziirich, Stadtbibliothek, Ziirich, Switzerland (Dr. Hermann Escher, Chief 



Agents are requested to inform the Hon. Secretary of any 
Errors in this List. 

Messrs. Edward G. Allen and Son, Ltd., 28, Henrietta Street, Covent 
Garden, W.C. 

Brooklyn Mercantile Library. 
Canada, The Parliament Library, Ottawa. 
Cornell University Library. 
Johns Hopkins University Library. 
Peabody Institute, Baltimore. 
Philadelphia, Library Company of. 
United States, Congress Library. 
Yale University Library. 

Messrs. A. Asher and Co., 13, Bedford Street, Covent Garden, W.C, and 
13, Unter den Linden, Berlin, W. 
Berlin, The Royal Library. 
Foreign Ofl&ce of Germany. 
Kiel Royal University Library. 
Gottingen University Library. 
Munich Royal Library. 
Vienna Imperial Library. 

Mr. James Bain, 14, Charles Street, Haymarket, S.W. 
Captain Edward Arthur Fitzgerald. 
John Walker Ford Esq. 
John Francis Fortescue Horner Esq. 

Messrs. Thos. Bennett and Sons, Carl Johans-Gade 35, Christiania, c/o Messrs. 
Cassell and Co., Ltd., La Belle Sauvage, Ludgate Hill, E.C. 
Christiania University Library. 

Messrs. Bickers and Son, 1, Leicester Square, W. 
C. R. Corning Esq. 
H. K. Corning Esq. 

Messrs. Black Bros, and Co. , Halifax, Nova Scotia. 
W. H. Troop Esq. 

The British South Africa Company, 2, London Wall Buildings, E.C. 
Sir Lewis E. Michell. 

Mr. H. W. Bryant, Librarian, Portland, Maine, U.S.A. 
James Phinney Baxter Esq. 

Messrs. C. D. Cazenove and Son, 26, Henrietta Street, Covent Garden, W.C. 
Messrs. A. C. McClurg and Co. 
Toronto Public Library. 
Toronto University Library. 

Messrs. Dulau and Co., 37, Soho Square, W. 
British Museum (Natural History). 


Mr. Francis Edwards, 83, High Street, Marylebone, W. 
Copenhagen Royal Library. 
Mr. Francis Edwards. 

Messrs. A. L. Elder and Co., Ltd., 7, St. Helen's Place E.C. 
Alexander H. Turnbull Esq. 

Monsieur Henri Georg, 36-38, Passage de I'Hotel-Dieu Lyon, Rhone, France. 
Lyons University Library. 

Messrs. Henry Grevel and Co., 33, King Street, Covent Garden, W.C. 
Los Angeles Public Library. 

Messrs. Grindlay and Co., 54, Parliament Street, S.W. 

Lieut- Col. Hamilton Bower, 17th Bengal Lancers. 
Gerald Robert Dampier Esq., I.C.S. 
William Logan Esq. 

Messrs. Jones and Evans, Ltd., 77, Queen Street, Cheapside, E.C. 
Raffles Library and Museum. 

Messrs. Kegan Paul, Trench, Triibner and Co., Ltd., Dryden House, 
43, Gerrard Street, Soho, W. 
Adelaide Public Library. 
Boston Athenaeum Library. 
Boston Public Library. 
Bowdoin College Library. 
Herr D'OMire. 
Fell owes Athenaeum. 
Heidelberg University Library. 
M. Charles Klincksieck. 
Paris, Biblioth^que Nationale. 
Paris, Institut de France. 
St. Petersburg University Library. 
Worcester (Mass.) Free Library. 

Herr W. H. Ktihl, Jagerstrasse 73, Berlin, W., c/o Mr. David Nutt, 57-59, 
Long Acre, W.C, 

Berlin Geographical Society (Gesellschaft fiir Erdkunde). 
Berlin University Geographical Institute. 

Herr C. J. Lundstrom, Akademische Buchhandlung, Upsala, Sweden. 
Upsala University Library. 

Messrs. James MacLehose and Sons, 61, St. Vincent Street. Glasgow. 
Glasgow University Library. 

Messrs. Melville and Mullen, 12, Ludgate Square E.C. 

Victoria Public Library, Museums, and National Gallery. 

Mudie's Select Library, Ltd., 30 to 34, New Oxford Street, W.C. 
Pretoria Government Library. 

Mr. David Nutt, 57, Long Acre, W.C. 
M. Martinus NijhofiF. 

Mr. Young Johnstone Pentland, 38, West Smithfield, E.C. 
Herr Karl Wilhelm Hiersemann. 


Mr. Bernard Quaritch, 15, Piccadilly, W. 
Robert C H. Brock, Esq. 
F. Goodwin Gosling Esq. 
Larchmont Yacht Club. 
Lehigh University Library. 
Minnesota Historical Society. 
H. M. Percival Esq. 
Pequot Library. 

Mr. Bernard Quaritch. [12 copies.] 
Watkinson Library. 

Messrs. Henry Sotheran and Co. , 37, Piccadilly, W., and 140, Strand, W.C. 

Hoyt Public Library. 

Kimberley Public Library. 

Michigan University Library. 

New Zealand, The High Commissioner for. 

St. Wladimir University Library. 

Seattle Public Library. 

Stockton Public Library, Cal., U.S.A. 
Standard Bank of South Africa, Ltd. Durban, Natal. 

J. A. Merriman Esq. 
Mr. G. E. Stechert, 2, Star Yard, Carey Street, W.C. (New York : 9, East 
16th Street ; Paris : 76, Rue de Rennes ; Leipzig : Hospitalstrasse 10.) 

Carnegie Library, Pittsburgh. 

Columbia University Library. 

Kansas University Library. 

Milwaukee Public Library. 

Minneapolis Athenaeum. 

New York State Library. 

Philadelphia Free Library, 

St. Louis Mercantile Library. 

San Francisco Public Library. 

Prof. Daniel Collins Wells. 
Messrs. B. F. Stevens and Brown, 4, Trafalgar Square, W.C. 

California, University of. 

Chicago Public Library. 

Chicago University Library. 

George Manierre Esq. 

Newberry Library, Chicago. 

New York Public Library. 

H.E. the Hon. W. W. Rockhill. 

United States Naval Academy Library. 

Washington, Department of State Library. 

Washington, Navy Department Library. 
Mr. James Thin, 54 and 55, South Bridge, Edinburgh. 

Edinburgh University Library. 
Messrs. Tiffany and Co., 221, Regent Street, W. (New York : Union Square ; 
Paris : 36 bis. Avenue de 1' Opera.) 

Alfred Mitchell Esq. 
Messrs. Truslove and Hanson, Ltd., 153, Oxford Street, W. 

Public Library of New South Wales. 
Union Bank of Scotland, Ltd., Holburn Branch, Aberdeen. 

William Mitchell Esq. 
Monsieur H. Welter, 4, Rue Bernard Palissy, Paris. (Leipzig : Salomon- 
strasse 16.) c/o Mr. Quaritch, 15, Piccadilly, W. 

Dijon University Library. 


Messrs. William Wesley and Son, 28, Essex Street, Strand, W.C. 

Leipzig University Library, c/o Herrn Otto Harrassowitz, Leipzig. 
United States National Museum Library. 

Messrs. Wyman and Sons, Ltd., 109 Fetter Lane, E.G., and 32, Abingdon 
Street, S.W. 

Admiralty Library. [2 copies.] 

Foreign Office Library. 

War Office, Intelligence Division, Library. 


The following Members desire their Publications to be Registered 

C. L. Gruzevski, Esq. 
John C. Sullivan, Esq. 


G Spilbergen, Joris van 

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