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VlinBiM, S. W. Easy Les»ons in Cliltiese: ot Progresslw Exercises in laTx* - 



Progressl' 

Jlltiite ihe Slodyiof that laagnaat, eapec. ad^pud lo Uie Canton Dialect 
fiazan 1842. 8. Hfritbd. (21 Sh.) 




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830 Williams (S. Wells) Easy Lessons in Chinese, or Progressive Bxerdsea 

* to facilitate the Stady of that Lanf^aage, especially adapted to the 

Ganton Dialect. Svo, boards, iz, 287 pp., wUh 2 plaUB of Okmm 

characters (I folded). Maccu), 1842. {Bare) ^ ■-'* ^ 

Used copy. 

** ^SKe StudT'o^k^rf ^°"'' •" «''°«-' 0' Progressive Exeroi.^ to 
sr m2 ^ *' I-n««»«e. Specially adapted to the Canton DiSeo" 



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EASY LESSONS IN CHINESE: 



OR 



PROGRESSIVE EXERCISES 



TO FACILITATE THE STUDY OF THAT LANGUAGE, 



ESPECIALLY ADAPTED TO THE CANTON DIALECT. 



my .^ We£ "mMam.. 



MACAO: 

PRINTED A.T THE OFFICE OF THE CHINESE REPOBITORT. 

1842. 



TO 



D. W. C. OLYP^ANT, Esq., 



OF NKW-TOKKt V. S. A. 



THE STEADY AND MUNIFICENT FRIEND 



OF ALL EFFORTS FOR THE GOOD OF CHINA, 



THIS VOLUME IS MOST RESPECTFULLY INSCRIBED- 



N 



\ 



PEEFACE 



■ I I 



Tu^ design qf this volume m to provide a hock suitable to be pui into 
the hands; of persona commeiieiiig the atudy of the Chinese tanguage, 
not Q9iy in China itself but abroail ; to be a work which can be ad- 
vantageo^^ uaed by th^ foreigner in his own country, or on his 
voyage hitherward&i, as weU as after his arrival among the people. It 
is introductory to larger works, 3ret haa somewhat of completeness 
within itself; for while some of the lessons will require no aid from 
other books in order to understand them fully, for those in the two last 
diapters the stodent wilt probably need the h^p of a teacher or a 
dictionary Xq 1^^Q all Ibciir meaning. But if he has learned the pre- 
vious lessons, a^ii thoroughly aa he ought, he will no doubt be gratified 
with tt^ degree cf fecility witk which he can read then, and feel that 
b^ has ma4e^ somc) pro^cesi^ in acquiring the language. 

Xb€^ fi^st four chapters, with the YIth, Vlllth, and IXth, are as 
applicable to the study of any other dialect as to that of the Canton, 
as they conti»in little or nothing local or provincial. The remarks in 
th^ first thcee ehaptefs should be carefoUy read, and it will probably 
be found ^r CiS^rience tha^t the beat way to commence learning cha- 
raclers will be t& begiU) with the radicals, and make them as familiar 
as an. alphabet is madie in other languages; Their universal use in 
the composition of characters, tlieir infkience upon the general mean- 
ing of words, and the use made of tbeos in arranging the imperial 
dictionary eC Kanghi, together with the aid they afibrd in remem- 
becJAg the coi»pon9nt parts of characters, are all strong reasons for 
taking them ^ at fin^ The various points briefly touched upon in 
tdie. second and tliird chapters, regarding the construction of characters, 
and tb^ rules; for veading and; writing Chinese, are it is hoped explain- 
ed with sufficient clearness to serve the purposes of the beginner, and 
enable him profitably to read what other authors have said more at 
large upon the same subjects, Mr. Callery's Systema Phonetieum 
ScriptursD Sinicw, referred to on page 47, contains nearly fourteen 



ii 'preface. 



thousand characters arranged under 1040 primitives. These primi« 
tives are arranged according to the number of their strokes, and those 
consisting of the same number are placed in succession according to 
a kind of alphabetical plan, in which the first stroke on the left hand 
corner is taken as the initial letter. It seems, from a careful exami- 
nation of this system, that to render it useful in learning the charac- 
ters, the meaning, the form, the name, and the collocation of this list 
of primitives ought all to be made very familiar ; since all the cha- 
racters in Part Second of the book (only about one third, however, 
of all in the Chinese language) are arranged under them. It is almost 
unnecessary to observe that the method adopted by the Chinese scho- 
lars who compiled Kdnghi's dictionary has not, by this arrangement, 
been simplified or improved, so far as classifying the characters in the 
language, or facilitating the labor of finding them, is concerned. The 
Systema Phoneticum will, however, furnish the scholar with all that 
has been said upon the primitives, and aid the advanced student very 
much in comparing the meaning of characters in which the same pri- 
mitive is joined to different radicals. 

If the student is learning any other than the Canton dialect, he can 
by the help of his teacher interline the sounds of the characters un- 
derneath the original in those chapters which contain reading lessons. 
If he has not the help of a teacher, he need not pay much attention to 
the sounds, but have more regard to the meaning of the words ; for 
their sounds and tones are to be learned from the living voice, and no 
system of orthography can do much if any more than aid that. As he 
advances in his studies, he will probably find that the meaning and 
the structure of a character are much more closely connected in his 
mind than the sound and the structure ; for if he has forgotten the 
meaning of a character its component parts will be imperfectly remem- 
bered, while the sound of those characters he has read, but whose 
meaning he does not remember, will soon pass out of mind. 

The conversations in chapter V., and the exercises in chapter VII., 
probably cannot be used in other dialects to much advantage without 
some slight alterations, which the student will find to be a good exer- 
cise to make. It seemed desirable to furnish a few sentences to be 
used with a teacher when the student first sets down with him, and 
with servants when occasion requires, both of whom may know nothing 
English; the former ought not to be suffered to talk English even if 
he knows it. 

Almost all grammatical remarks upon the lessons have been omitted, 
for that part of the study of the language belongs to other treatises 
solely devoted to it. The books required for the thorough study of 



■ PKEt'AC'E. iii 

the Chinese language arc numerous ; some of them have not yet been 
commenced, and others have been but imperfectly executed. . The 
simple object of this volume is to furnish a few easy lessons for the 
beginner, so prepared as to lead him on from one step to another ; it 
is desig4ied to form one in the series of works, which, it is to be hoped, 
will erelong be prepared. It is intended to be, as its Chinese title 

indicates, f^ iSS^ ^ B^ ^^^P ^^ Tdi-shmgj Short Steps to Ex- 
cellence, and the degree in which it will aid the scholar to attain that 
excellence in the language he looks forward to, will depend as well on 
the faithful use made of it as on its adaptation to that end. 

These lessons are also tolerably well fitted for teaching the English 
language to Chinese lads who are somewhat advanced in that study ; 
they will at once see the difference between the idioms of the two 
languages, and learn both to translate from their own tongue into 
idiomatic English, or to turn short English sentences into Chinese. 
The Hamiltonian plan of verbal rendering seems to be well fitted to 
assist each party to learn the other's language. Some explanation 
and assistance will however be necessary to enable a native youth to 
use these exercises advantageously. 

It is unnecessary to repeat any of the observations made here and 
there in the course of the work. If any of them deserve to be repeat, 
ed, it is perhaps that upon storing the mind with Chinese sentences, 
and even paragraphs, by committing them to memory. Such an 
exercise, in some measure, reconducts the scholar over the same 
ground he trod when he learned his mother tongue. He need not be 
solicitous about the rules of grammar or the elegancies of style, until he 
has acquired a stock of words and phrases in which, as in examples, 
he can instantly see the application of the former, and relish the nice- 
ties of the latter. It is enough at first to know that such is the way 
the Chinese talk and write, and that they understand what is thus 
said and written. 

In preparing these lessons, some aid has been derived from fellow, 
students, and some extracts have been taken from the Chinese Chres- 
tomathy ; the system of orthography is the same as in that work, 
and the exercises in writing are also the same. The hope is cherished 
that this volume will facilitate the acquisition of the Chinese language, 
and by inducing some to commence the study who have been deterred 
by its forbidding aspect, and disheartened at its reported difficulty, 
thus assist in improving the intercourse between two great portions 
of the human family — those who speak English, and those who can 
understand Chinese, ^he time has come when their intercourse 
must be in some other commodities than those of the shop, and ever^ 



IV FREFACE. 

friend of man will rejoice to see so mighty and so ancient a race as the 
sons of Hin about to be made acquainted with the arts, the improve- 
ments in social life, and the knowledge of the West, together with 
that greatest gift, the fountain-head of all other excellencies, the reli- 
gion and the hopes of the Bible. To the advancement of all t^ese 
objects, and the extension of every measure to promote an honorable 
and Christian intercourse, is this volume contributed. 

s. w. w. 






CONTENTS. 



Chapter I. 
OF THE RADICALS. 

Modes of learning the Chineae language, 1 

Description and uses of the Radicals, • 3 

List of the 214 radicals, with their sound and signification, and 

remarks 4ipon each one,* ••.••••••.••• • ••• 4 

Sentences formed from the radicals,. •.••••• 30 

Chapter II. 
OF THE PRIMITIVES. 

Meaning of the term Primitive, • 32 

Number of the primitives, • • • 32 

Their Classification, • • ••• 33 

Mode of combining the Radicals and Primitives, • • • • • 84 

Examples of combining them,. ••^•••. • 37 

Reriilrks upon the principles followed in combining them, 43 

Chapter III. 
OF READING AND WRITING. 

Mode of reading Chinese, 48 

The four tones explained and illustrated, 49 

Tables of the classes of final sounds, and their tones in the 

•Canton dialect,. • • 52 

Mode of marking the tones, 64 

Marks of punctuation used in'Chinese books, 66 

System of orthography adopted, • 67 

Mode of holding the pencil, 69 

Component parts of the characters, 60 

Copy-plate for an exercise in writing, ; 61 

Chapter IT. 

LESSON IN READING. 

Short miscellaneous sentences, with a literal and free translation, 62 



VI CONTENTS. 

Chapter V. 
EXERCISES IN CONVERSATION. 

Conversation with a Teacher,. . « "79 

Conversation with a Comorador, 85 

Conversation with a Servant, 88 

Chapter VI. 

SELECTIONS FOR READING. 

No. I. — Heroism of an Imperial Concubine, • 97 

[From Lukchau's Female Instructor, Part I., Sec. 10.] 

No. II. — A daughter-in-law's Obedience, 98 

{From Lukchau's Female Instructor, Fart I., Sec. 20.] 

No. III.— Intrepidity of a Widow, 99 

[From Lukchau*s Female Instructor, Part II., Sec. 77.] 

No. IV.— A Mother's Severity, ,.. 101 

[From Lukchau*s Female Instructor, Part III., Sec. 99.] 

No. V. — Confucius and the Boy,* • . . . . r 102 

[From the Miscellanies of the Eastern Garden.] 

No. VI.— A Wife's' Constancy, 112 

[From Lukchau's Female Instructor, Part II., Sec. 65.] * 

No. VII.— The Mother of M^ncius,. ..* 114 

[From Lukchau*8 FjBmala Instructor,. Part III., Sec. 94.] 

No. VIII. — ReraoBStraDce of a MotheF,« • ft w k • 116 

[From Lukchau's Female Instructor, Part IV., Sec. 27.] 

No. IX# — Hardheartedness Punished,* 117 

[From Pastimes of the Study, Vol. I., page 6.] 

No. X.— Grave of Ts«5 Ts'^. .., 120 

[From Pastimes of the Study, V<j. XIII., page 62.] 

No. XL— A Thief Detected, 121 

[From Pastimes of the Study, Vol. XIII., page 63.] 

Chapter VII. 
THE CLASSIFIERS. 

Design of this chapter, ....v» ...' 123 

Explanation of the Classifiers, 124 

Lessons upon the classifiers without the characters, 124 

Lesson upon the classifier ^ kd, T. 124 

Do. . do. "^ chikj ,,, 126 

Do. do. j^ tfii, 1^7 

Do. do. ^ shetmg^ 128 

Do* do. fC pa,. , 129 



CONTENTS. VII 



Lesson upon the classifier S6 chiung^ 130 

Do. do. 4Jl ^^^ ^^^^ 

Do. * do. 1^ fi^ 131 

Do. do. 1^ ^'^ 132 

Do. do. ^tsd, 138 

Do. do. ^ <d, 134 

Do. do. |g>*^ * 134 

Do. do. 1^ cAon, • 135 

Do. do. j^it ^^* 135 

Do. do. f^ ch*6ung^ ^ 136 

Do. do. 1^ tHh ^ kwmj and ^ tdt,... 137 

Do. do. ^ fa, 138 

Do. do. , ^ jfcin, and ^ fdh 139 

Do. do- ^ fang, &nd^ hdng, 140 

Do. do. ^ Jed, ^ Bind ^ id, 141 

; Do. do. B- p«in, and ^ isik, 142 

Do. do. ^ ^^' 1^3 

Lessons upon the classifiers without the sounds, 143 

Chapter VIII. 

EXERCISES IN TRANSLATING. 

No. 1. — Cleverness of Hung Yung,. ••••«.•• 149 

[Frora the History of the Three States, Chapter VI., Sec. 11.} 

No. II. — Scheme of Wong Wan to inveigle Lii Pd, 151 

[From the History of the Three States, Chapter IV., Sec. 8.} 

No. III. — Prescience of the Birds, •••• 157 

[From Pastimes of the Study, Vol. X., page 68.] 

No. IV.-^The Magic Carpet, 160 

[From Pastimes of the Study, Vol. XII., page 67.] 

^o. V. — Courage of a Concubine,. 161 

[Froi^i Pastimes of the Study, Vol. XIV., page 12:] 

No. VI.— The Faithful Dog, : 163 

[From Pastimes of the Study, Vol XIV., page 55.] 

No. VII. — Remarkable Earthqiiake, 164 

[From Pastimes of the Study, Vol. XIV., page 58.] 

No. VIIL — Paraphrase of a Maxim, 16Q 

[From the Sacred ^Commands, Maxim First.] 



■ • • 



VIII roXTENTS. 

No. IX.— Proper Education of Children,. 181 

[From t^e Trimetrical Classic] 

No. X. — Necessity of Instruction, 183 

[From the Trimetrical Classic] 

No. XL— Instance of FiUal Duty,. . . .; 184 

(^rom the Trimetrical Classic] 

No. XII. — Doctrines of Mencius,. • 185 

[From the Four Books, Discourses of Mencius, Part I., Sec 1.] 

Chapter IX. 
EXERCISES IN TRANSLATING INTO CHINESE. 

Short sentences containing adjectives, 191 

Selections from the History of the Three States, 200 

Selections from the Two Cousins,. ^ • 203 

Miscellaneous sentences, 206 

« 

Chapter X. 
LESSONS IN READING AND TRANSLATING. 

(With an English Version.) 

No. I. — Letter from a father to his son at school, 211 

No. II. — A son to his parents from abroad, 212 

. No. III. — A husband to his wife from abroad, 213 

No. [V. — A wife to her husband abroad,. • . . • • t 214 

No. v. — A person to his friend, and the Reply, 215 

No. yi. — Letter to a distant friend, 216 

No. VII. — Note accompanying a present of ink, and the Reply, 217 
No. VIII. — Note of congratulation on becoming a Graduate,. . 218 

No. IX. — Reply to the preceding,. •...•• 219 

No. X, — Request to borrow money, and the Reply,. 220 ' 

No. XL — Edict from the Magistrates of H6ungsh4n district,. . . 221 
No. Xll. — Proclamation and Rules regarding the capture of 

Grasshoppers, ^ • 223 

No. XUI. — Proclamation from Yikshin to the people, 228 

No. XIV. — Memorial from Yikshdn to the Emperor, 231 

No. XV. — Imperial Rescript to the preceding, 238 

No. XVI. — A Petition to the Prefect of Canton, 240 

No. XVll. — ^Reply to a Petition, 241 

No. XVIII. — Letter from Commissioner Lin to the Queen of 

England, 243 

(Without AN English Veesion.) 

No. I. — Miscellaneous extracts from the History of the Three 

States, , 249 



« ' 



CONTENTS. ix 



No. II. — Miscellaneous extracts from the Two Cousins, 252 

No. III. — Short Sentences, 256 

No. IV. — Extracts from the Pastimes of the Study : 

§ 1. The Clever Parrot, ^ 1^ kau kuk, 259^^ 

§2. The Black Beast, ^ ^ ^<<^ ^^ 260-^'" 

§ 3. The Cow whichFlew, J^ ^ ngau fi, 261- 

§4. The Orange Tree, jj^ j^ kwat shu, 261- - 

§ 5. The Brave Rat, ^ |^ i shii, 262- 

§ 6. The Elephant and Lion, ^ tsamg, 263 

§ 7. The Wonderful Tiger, ^ ^ ^ ChiH shing fii,. . . . 264 

§5. The Wild Goose, Jg| hmg, 265 

§ 9. The Shepherd and the Wolf, ^ ^ mvk Shuj..... 266 
No. V. — Extract from the Sayings not ef Confucius : 

No. VI. — Extract from the Two Cousins: 

§ 1. How Su Yaup4k went to Konghau, and met Y6ung 

F6 in the way, «-• • ^^^ 

No. VII. — Extract from the Sacred Commands : 

§ 1. Maxim of Kinghl's to avoid erroneous doctrines, with 

Yungching's commentSi, . • • • • 279 

No. VIIL — Extracts from Good Woods to Admonish the Age : 

§ 1. How all men ought to have the Gospel, 281 

§ 2. On restraining angry passions,. » • 283 

No. IX. — Extracts from the Gospel of Luke : 

§ ] . Parable of the Prodigal son,. • 285 

§2. The Good Samaritan, 286 •. 



^^^^^^W^«/*^^'»>^»»«^^«^^^^ 






W *^ 



EASY LESSENS, &c. 



Ql^l^ajptet: dfivai* 



OF THE RADICALS 



Whisht commenciiig the study of the Chinese language, the scholar 
is liable to become discburaged . at the apparent vastness of the work 
before him. He is perhaps presented with a native book containing 
page after page of complicated characters, which he is told must aU 
be learned; and to not one of which is there the least clue to the 
sound* He attem|>ts to write a few^' and finds the labor of remember- 
ing the shape and arrangement of so many unmeaning strokes very 
irksome ; and if, after a short interval of rest) he should endeavor to 
rewrite them and find himself unable to recall them, he is still mors 
cast down. If too, after hearing them' a few times, he tries to remem. 
ber the sound and sense of the chiajracters he has set himself to learn, 
and they too &re for the most pa!rt m if he^<rLiiever heard them, he is 
almost ready to give tip his enterpriser A series of efforts somewfiat 
like this, where the mind feels that the progress made does not equal 
the labor bestowed, has resulted, there can be no doubt, in more in. 
stances than one, in entire abandonment of the study, either in disgust 
at its insipidity, or from weakness of mind to grapple with so many 
things at once, ensuent upon the discouragement of repeated ill success. 
Now, although the Chinese language is indeed a long and hard lesson 
for a foreigner to learn, there is no need of making it harder than 
necessary by attempting to overcome all its difficulties at once. Let 
the scholar be content to proceed slowly at first, devoting his mind to 
one thing only at once,' and carefully avoiding so long an application 
to that as to weary himself, and his progress will soon alSbrd him 
satisfaction, and he be thereby encouraged to proceed. It is important, 
moreover, that the energy with which he commences the study of 
the language be directed in the most profitable paths, and that the 
satisfaction which is derived from mastering difficulties be one of thfe 
most encouraging reasons for proceeding in the study. 

£A. LE8. I 



2 OF THE RADKALj^* 

The principal labor at the conimenceinent should be applied to learn« 
ing how to write characters^ both because the sense and sound arc more 
easily remembered when the form is known, and because they attach 
themselves, as it were, to the character in the memory. It is 
not meant that the meaning should be entirely neglected^ but 
let the fqrm and artai^gement of the strokes at first be principally 
attended to. There are two or three ways of learning the characters, 
each of which has its advantages. Chinese lads, who have spoken 
the language from infancy, when first sent to school, need only to learn 
the characters, and associate them with sounds that are already fami- 
liar. This is the plan pursued in native schools, and the tyro's daily 
task for the first year or two is to learn to recite and copy memori. 
ter the books he is afterwards to learn the meaning of — a piece of 
drudgery which, whatever disadvantages may attend it, certainly 
fixes the characters very firmly in the memory. To enable the lad to 
acquire a good hand while learning the characters, the books he is to 
commit to memory are often prepared as copy-books, by printing them 
in white letters on a black ground, and both are learned and imitated 
by writing upon them through thin paper. This mode is recommend- 
ed to the student for practice at first, either by having copies 
containing known characters written out in a large size, or by using 
one of these copy -slip books. After the mode of combining the cha- 
racters is pretty well understood, let them be written from observation, 
and then from memory, always endeavoring while thus writing them 
to make a weU proportioned character. 

Another mode of learning words is to become familiar with them 
by constantly reading them^ and seldonf writing them. This is by no 
means a good plan at the beginning,' and if the scholar trusts to mere 
inspection for his knowledge of characters, he will find himself con- 
tinually confouniiing them, or else writing them so erroneously as to 
be unreadable. His knowledge will be more like that of an acquain- ' 
tance than ^at of a friend, and he will Constantly be obliged to turn 
to a dictionary to ascertain how the word he wishes is wr itten. A£ ts^ 

..__^--rr^r-5rTh^tei.'l' "-.A. iWiiw,the mmd will readily 
-awnrrrtTuuiu.-* oi ^""^ . ^ |. Qgg as soon as it 

component parts, and 'f^'"^"*?^"?* 'V ^ „^t appear to be prac 
^?^4f thtctS!^ ty Tim Stc£t chara^?:rs as.a whole. 

t,ced by '*'\\'^"'^f!' easiest way of learning them, the way m fact m 
but It 18 probably the ^"81681 way », , ^^^^^ n may 

Which every f''[«'g"«^,/„7^JekSuSe" and combines something of 
be called the ^jHlf To rel^^e benefits of it, the elements . 
'??V..lEers In^ftemade fam^iliar. and the rules (if there are 
of the characters musi characters, 

any) according to ^h^chjhey are tormea jietionaries according 

Chinese ^er^ {.^Xmctcl^S I?^^^^^^^ that the scholar already 



f 

OF THE RADICALS. 3 

The Luk Shu Txing^ a dictionary, containing the various forms of cha- 
racters ancient and modern, is arranged in the l^rst way, and so also is 
the Fan Wan, a loeal vocabulary used by the people of Cannon. They 
have also employed a number of elements, according to which all fhe 
characters containing that element or radical are placed together 
whatever be their sound or sense. The number of the cleitients 
chosen as keys of groups have not been the same at all times. The 
Shiit Man, a dictionary somewhat like the Luk Shu Tung, containing 
old forms of characters, has the words arranged under 540 heads or 
radicals. The compilers of the Imperial Dictionary of Kdnghl, the 
one now in general use, arranged the language under 214 radicals or 
elements, which gives an average in the whole of little more than 200 
characters under each ; but it will be seen from the figures in the 
list hereto subjoined, that the number under each differs very much. 
It is recommended to the student to learn these radicals in their 
order, so as to be able to write them memoriter, and repeat their 
names and meaning. They need not be learned so as to recollect 
them by their number, but only according to their order^ so as to fa- 
cilitate finding any given character in the dictionary. 

These 214 radicals, keys, clefs, or formatives, as they have been 
called by different authors, are nearly gdl of them words in common 
use, ana the time bestowed upon learning them therefore, is Uy 
no means lost; a familiar acquaintance with them will often materially 
assist in remembering the ttieatiittg of words in which they occur, 
especially in natural groups of which they are the radicah 

The first sum of the figures placed after the meaning of the radical, 
is the number of characters under that radical in. K&pghi's Dictionary, 
including all the old and synonymous forniA, the unusual characters, 
and those in common use. The second sum denotes the number of 
characters under the radical in cdmmon use, according to a ^very 
laborious examination of the ClasSids and History of the Three States, 
made by Mr. Dyer of Malacca. The number under dome radicals 
is of course much smaller than it would have been had other books 
been chosen, but it is probably a pretty fair estimate of the nUinber 
of different characters the scholar will meet in reading Chinese books. 
Thus, if a medical book had been e^araiiied, more characters under 
niJc, disease (No. 104), would have been found; if 'the Pun Tsd, or 
Chinese Herbal, had been looked Qver, the variety under muh a tr^e 
(No. 75), or tsd, herbs (No. 140), or under the zoological radicals, 
would have been doubled. The letter C. placed after some of the 
radicals, indicates that they are seldom if ever used by themselves ; 
when placed before the small characters, it shows that those are 
the contracted forms used in composition. 

It would appear from a general survey of the characters of the 
language that when the compilers of the Imperial Dictionary began to 
arrange them, the problenl they eiideavored to solve was to select such 
characters for keys or indices as should be easily recognized, while 
they also had an eye to somewhat of a natural arrangement in the 
groups ; it was important, too, not to make the system cumbersome by 
halving too many keys. The majority wer^ easily assorted, but theie 



4 OF THE RADICALS, 

would still be many left, that, being too unimportant to elevate to the 
rank of keys, raui^ be arranged by some one of their constituent parts. 
So far as connection in meaning with other virords went; one part might 
as well be taken ^ another; but the most prominent part of the cha- 
racter would natura^y be first chosen, ^hen a radipal, therefore, is 
said to enter into combination^ it means that it forms a constituent 
part of the character^ that it is not added on ; and if taken away will 
either leave a mi^tilated character, or, if perfect^ the remainder will 
have no connection withe ^he meaning of the who^e word. Thus sz* 

Wi. is placed under kiit, I (No. 6), and that radical enters into 

combination with it, for if ^'cen away,^the remainder is not a charac- 
ter; so with others. 

List of the Tsz* Pd, ^ ^4J ob 214 Radicals, 

IVUh their Sounds and Signification^ and contracted forms ; together vnth 
gerieral remarks upon pie characteristics of the wprd$ under eacht and the 
place of the radical. 

.CHAEACTER8 FORMED BY ONE STROKE. 

- Yat. One^ the same^ siniilar; to tn^,)^e a^ one, to reduce to 

"""■^ ' one state. 44. — 16. 

Nq unifonpity qf signification can be traced in the characters com- 
prised under this radic^, npr is its position uniform ; this is also the 
case with the next seven groups. A9 is the case under some other 
radicals, such words appear to have been collected together here, as 
could not well be'lreffirreid elsewhere; most of them are primitives. 

Kwar^, C. To descei|4 perpendicularly, straight ; sign of the 
jrepetition qf ^ (^p^c^ding word. 22. — 2. 

Kioan passes throuffh the middle of the other strokes in most of the 
characters placed under it. 

3 \ Chif, C. A point, a fiame ; a lord, headman, chief. 11. — 2. 

Chu is placed in some prominent part of the character, in'the mid- 
dle, or on the top. 

4 J PU. C. A left stroke, curved to the left. 24,-8. 

The radical is usually placed at the top, but is so combined with 
the other strokes as to form a component part of the character; all the 
common ones are primitives. * 

Ut. C. Curved, to mark with a crooked line ; tp supply ; a 
horary character. 42. — 8. 

This radical is placed on the right s^de, ,xeiy much straightened, so 
as to appear like a Hook ; in a few characters jt is in the middle. 

'6 J Kiit. C. A barb .; to draw or hook up. 20. — 3. 

Ki^t usually passes through tl^e middle. 



I 



6 



FpRMKD BY TWO STROKES. 

F . Two, second, both, repetition; to divide. 31. — 9. 

The two strokes of the radical inclose the others in many instances ; 
it is also fpund on the lop, bottom and left side. 

g Tom. C. Undefined, though some say it means the edge 

...^ of a thing or place. 39. — 10. 

Tau is always placed at top, and no single radical is found below it, 
by which the words under it will be recognized ; most of them are pri- 
mitives, or old forms, and the part was selected, and made into a 
radical, it is said, for the purpose of groupmgthem. 

9 TV" C. A Fan. Man, a man, a male, mankind. 800. — 141. 

This group, with the exception of % few primitives, is a pretty 
natural dne; the actions, social relations, names, positions, powers, 
d^., of naan, being the leading ideas. It is usually placed on the lefk in 
the contracted form, but in some is written astride : it is called, when 

describing it as a radical, ^j^ f^ 2^ ki yan pin. 

iA It ^^^* ^' ^^"t angian walking; the same as the preceding. 
*VL 52.— 14. 

This radical is always placed underneath ; it is distinguished from 
M^ a stool (No. 16), by the separation of the two strokes, but charac- 
ters placed here are not readily recognized, the upper part being some- 
times another radical, or else yan combines with it. 

1 1 y^ Yctp, To enter, to pass in, to commence ; entering^ 29.— 5. 

Ycm is distinguished from ymi, a man, by the right stroke overlap, 
ping the left ; it is usually placed on the top, but in a few common ones, 
in the middle. There is no similarity of meaning among the cha- 
racters under it. 

12 yT Pat, Eight, back to back, to separate. 45. — 12. 

R6X is placed above or below, and looks like two diverging dots. 
Some practice is required tp reco^ize the words. 

18 1 I Kwang. C. Desert, a distant boundary. 51. — 5. 

Many of the characters under this radical are written with B 
mb on the top, which renders them 4ifficult to be distinguished from 
yaU day (No. 72) ; &s^ chau and ^ lib ; ^ shing and ^ shing, 

Mit. C. To cover or overspread* to cover, as with ^ 
"'"^ napkin. 31.— 2. 

Mit liays upon the other strokes, without inclosing them as ktvang 
does. There is a little uniformity of meaning among tbn chf^racters, 
but hardly enough to render the group natural. 



OF THK RADTCALS. 



15 / Ping, C. An icicle, water freezing. 55. — 16. 

Ping is written on the left in almost all cases ; as a radical it is 

called l6uhg tim shui, |^ ^k -M double dotted water, and several 

words are interchanged with that radical ; the characters all refer to ice, 
cold, wintry, freezing, severe, &c. 

16 17 Ku C. A bench, a stool, a stand ; steady, tranquil. 40. 

In about half, hi incloses the other strokes ; in the remainder, it is 
placed on the right or beneath. Most of the words are old forms. 

j H6m. C. A hollow receiver, a cavern, a receptacle. 
*^ j_j 24.-3. 

. Here the radical incloses and supports the other strokes, in this 
respect being opposite to No. 13; it, however, conveys little or no- 
thing of its own meaning to them. 

-jj-|-| p II Td. A sword, a knife, a cutting or dividing in- 
yj " strument ; to cut. . 378,-33. 

This radical, in its contracted form, occurs on the right side, and 
the characters have some reference in their senses to cutting, severity, 
scraping, dividing, &c. 

19 'fj Lik.. Strength, sinewy, firm; to use force. 163. — 19. 

l*his is also placed dn the right side, but without any contraction; 
ideas of laboring, exa »i ining, fatiguing, robust, &fe., are general features 
of the group. ^^ 

h ^ pdu. C. A bundle. • -To envelop, to roll or pack up ; 
20A^ to bundle, . §^L~4, 

This radic^ either cdijapTetely incloses the right side and all the 
top of the character, or else only half of the top, thuis enveloping it. 
There is a slight allusion to it in the meaning of many of the words. 

21 [^ Pi. C. A ladle, a spoon ; to arrange spoons. 20. — 2. 

The fbw characters grouped under pi have it placed in all parts of 
the word, and their meanings are as diverse as its position. 

22 I ' F6ng. C. A square receiving vessel, a chest. ^.—4. 



j \ F6ng, 



23 



The radical incloses the strokes a» if opening like a sliding chest or 
drawer, into which things can b» shoved, whi^h appears to be its 
prime tneaning. The upper stroke is detached, which distinguisheii 
it frpm the succeeding. 

1 ' Hai. C. A concealing place., a retreat. 18.— 3. 

Didtinguished from the preceding by the longer top stroke, and like 
it containing all the strokes* as if concealing tl^m, to which idea there 
is sprae allusion in most of the characters. 



OP THE RADICALS. 



24-+- Shap, Ten, perfect, superlative. 66. — 11. 

This group is very heterogenous both in the situation of the radical, 
i^nd in the meanings of the characters ; it contains many ancient forms. 

^. I Puk. To divine by the lines on a tortoise ; to conjecture, 
. I to guess. 46.-4. 

The meaning of the radical, in this group, modifies many of the cfaa- 
racters under it more or less ; it is usually placed on the top much 

shortened, airin ^ yau, but it also occurs on the right side. 



ft C. Tj TsU. A seal, ancient seal; to seal or stamp. 39. — 7. 
Here, the radical is sometimes written so as closely to resemble k( 



26 



F' (No. 49); as in ^& /cftn ; it is usually placed on the right side ; 
in a few it is on the bottom. 

27 1 H6n. C. An overhanging hill, a shelter. 128. — 8. 

Somewhat of the idea of overhanging, protecting, or sheltering, runs 
through many of the characters under this radical ; its position is 
uniformly on the left side, covering all the other strokes ; it is often 
interchanged with im (No. 53). 

f Mau. C. Perverse, base ; to seduce ; a certain one, such a 
28^ one. 41.— 2. 

For the most part, the radical is found at top of the few characters 
here grouped, and in many of them it is repeated three t^es. 

29^7 Yau. Again, further, also; the right hand. 92. — 12. 

Yau occurs on the right side or underneath ; some one of the mean- 
ings of the radical enters into most of the characters, but not enough to 
^ form a natural group. 



FORMED BY THREE STftOKES. 



80 



OHau. The mouth, an opening, speech, utterance ; an em- 
bouchure. 1047.-128. 

This radical is usually placed on the left side, but there are many 
exceptions*^ The group is for the most part a natural one, voice, 
clamor, words, names, &«., or some action of the mouth, being the 
idea in most of the characters; many of them are attempts to express 
the sense of words by imitating thenr sounds. This radical is placed 
on the side of characters to denote that their sound merely is to be 
taken, irrespective of their signification, as when writing the sounds of 
a word from another language, euphonic particles, &c. 

«. I I ITu C. An inclosure, a boundary surrounding ; to encircle, 
LJ to protect. 119.— 16. 

Here the radical incloses all the other strokes, a circumstance 
which will always point out the characters under it ; this arrangement 
also gives a shade of meaning to the words, that uf surrounding, inclo- 
sing, &c. 



. l-i 



84 



Sf5 



8 or TllL HAplCAl>. 

32 "T" Td, Eafth* grouiul, soil; one ul' ilu- 5 elemental. 579. — 56. 

Td is placed on the left or underneath, and nearly all the characters 
have a reference to the earth, to dykes, foundation, ooundary, stability, 
&c ; some of them are interchanged with/au, a mound (No. 170), and 
with kuk a valley (No. IftO). 

33— f—' Sz\ A sclioiar, philosopher ; ofiteers of government. 25. — 4. 

S%* is distinguished from td by the lon^g upper stroke, and in the 
characters it is usually placed on top ; the words under it, as well as 
the three next, are few and miscellaneous. 

OC Chi, C. To follow, to walk slowly and steadily. 12. — 1. 

The radical is usually placed astride on top of the other strokes ; it 
is distinguished from the following by the transverse line commence 
ing within the left hand one. x 

j/^ ShuL C. To walk slowly. 24.-2. 

The radical is placed underneath the other strokes ; it is known 
from the preceding by the long transverse line, as well as by its 
position. 

isAj^ Sik. The evening, the setting nioon ; inclined. 36. — 6. 

in this group the radical is placed without uniformity ; it is dou- 
bled in most ofthe words, giving a! sense of td^ many, to those into 
which it enters. 
I Tdi. Large, great» (ilnmp, extensive, much; to enlarge, to 
3" "/<^ make much of. 133—23. 

This is a very miiusellaDeobs collection of characters ; the radical is 
placed astride of the strdkes,' or underneath, or it is combined. 

1^ Nu. Woman, a female; a daughter, a virgin ; to marry out. 
\>\ 690.— ei. 

Here a marked reference is perceived in the characters to the 
Chinese ideas contained in the radical ; they refer to women, delicate, 
subtle, mean, jealous, intriguing, lewd, vicious, &c. it is usually 
placed oif ihe left, sometimes in combination. 

-7^^ T8z\ A mWe child, a son, progeny, children; a philosopher, 
J * sage, worthy ; a word of respect. 87. — 17. 

'tsz* is usually placed on the bottom ; the characters under it have 
a reference to children, childbirth, nursing, &c.; or else to scholars. 

i ^ Min, C. Covering, shelter, roof of a house, a cavern. 
40r-^ 249.-52. 

This radical is called lam pung Um in Canton ; it covers all the other 
strokes, but it is difficult in some cases to tell whether the character 
in question is found in the dictionary under the upper or the lower radi- 
cal ; most of those under min have some reference in their meaning 
to a house, shelter, protector, &c. 






39 



OF THE RADICALS. 9 

41 ""^1 l^sdn. Tenth of a ckik or cubit; lawsj measures. 41.— 11. 

Here the radical is placed underneath or on the right side ; the 
group is a very miscellaneous one. 

4^2 A^ SM. Small, little) pretty ; petty, contracted, mean. 32.— -4. 

There are but few words in this group that are common in books ; 
the radical is frequently combined in the character, or fbufid attached 

to it as part of sh(ii, /I/ a few. 

^_ 1^ ri Ji. -w ^.^ W6ng. Lame, hunchbacked, dwarfish, crook- 
^^7Q /t 7L Ai ed legs. 67.-2. 

The radical supports the other strokes in most of the characters ; in 
many of them there is some reference to walking lamely or awkward- 
ly, to disease of the legs, &.c. The first of the three contracted forms 
is read tfau^ with the sense of diflfering from, still more. 

rShi. C. A corpse, an effigy, lying as dead; to lay out or 
set in order. 149.— 20. 

ShU A few old words excepted, is uniformly placed over all the other 
strokes on the left side ; the characters are easily recognized, and 
most of them have, some reference to the body, more especially to 
wh^ is offensive about it. 

I 

45 yl^ Chit* C. A sprout, a plant just rooting. 39. — 1. 

There are but two or three qharacters under this radical in use ; it 
IB xboeX^ placed at top. 

46 111 Shdn. A hilI,'mett'Atain; wtklf undoknestieated. 637.**>17. 

Thi9 is a na,tural groiip, mo^t i^Uiem having some reference to shape, 
sspecti name, or p^rts of hills iind oiountains. The radical is placed 
in all paifts of the. charaeters^ tt lisometiBies intera^ged with td^ 
: earth (No, 82), w4 Wc, a vafj^i^^ ^50), 

*HVV^' V VV ;ll streanis. 27.^4. 

Many of thie characters placed herfS^Lce i^rimitiv^ chun coipbining 
with other strokes to* form them, and their meanings consequently 
▼ayy much. 

_. Kung. Art, work, workmamship, workman; skilled in work; 
^ _l , an officer of government. 18.— 5. 

Many of the Words placed here are not readily recognized, &r the 
radical enters ii^tp t^o til^HQM^r, ^ 9- x^mpo^ient part ; ^ley are but 
i^w, however, ^d a Mtt^ tftl^ntiol) will enapljs the /^hoWr to jcemem- 
ber them. 

eKi. Self^ selfish, private f to record; a horary character. 
21.^5. 

fC( Usually occurs underneath the 6^he/ strokes ^ the group is small 
and heterogenous; hi ^, ^ j^^, and sz' P^ mu^t not be con- 
founded. 

KA. LEb. 2 



10 OF THE RADICALS. 

50|| I Kan. A napkin, kerchief^ cap. 295.— 19. 

CoDsfclerabie similarity of meaning is apparent among these cha- 
racters, viz., that of doth, sash, flag* Kild* &c.; the radical is on the 
lefl side, except in a few primitives found under it. 

e|Tl^ K6n. A shield; to oppose, to ward off; to seek; a boundary. 
^*"| 18.— 6. 

K6n enters into combination with many of the words placed under 
it, which are few in number. 

52 vV l^u. C. Slender, young, small, delicate, fine. 21. — 4. 

The radical is found doubled in nearly ail the characters placed 
under it. ♦ 



53 



j Fm. C. A shed, portico, covering or shelter. 287. — 29. 

The characters placed here form a pretty natural group, having 
reference to sheltering, to buildings, protection, storiner, iic. It is 
found covering the other strokes ; this group and the 27tb are similar, 
and many of their characters are synonymous. 

54 ^ Yan. C. Continued' walking ; a long journey. 10. — 5. 

This . radical and the 1624 are often used interchangeably, but 
erroneously bo, as ui ^ for 8^; ching j^ for 2^, &c. 



Kung. C Two band3 united or held up, as when bowing 



^^yy d la Chmnse. 61.— 2.. 



KuT^ is uniformly i^aced ^derneath the other strokes; it is in 
many of the characters eha&ged into t6.i 4^ great, making several 
words under these two raidictkihintisrchangeable. The group contains 
several' primitives, and many old forms. 



g^ 1^ Yik. C. A dart, an arrow-head ; to dart ; to possess one's .:self 

^^**^ of. le^.— «. 



Yik is placed on the right side, covering the other strokes ; the 
group is small. .rffar^ 

57^^ Rung. A bow, to sHdot bbws; a land measure. 166. — 15. 

Most of the words under ku$^^ except a few primitives, have some 
reference to the bow, either directly or figuratively ; it is placed on 
the left. 



58 —^ C. 3^ Kai. A hog's head ; a eort, genus. 26. — 2. 



This group is small, primitives being the onlv characters belonging 
to it in common use ; the radical is placed on the top, and is liable to 
be overlooked, without aomc attention. 



X 



OF THE RADICALS. U 

PQ -^ Sham. C. Long feathers, adorning integuments of? hair 
^ ^"^^ or feathers. 53.-7. ' : 



60 



Sh&m is placed in all parts of the characters ; the usual meaning is 
that of adorning or variqe^ation, pendants, marks, &o. 

>^ Ckik. C. To walk, tostiep short; a short step. 227.1—26. 

This is placed on the left side, and to most of the character^ con- 
veys an idea of advancement, especially in man, motion, fi&c. It is 

called slUung M yon pin, "^ ^ J^ jA^ referring to the apparent 

doubling of the radical yan, and is sometimes interchanfi[ed wjth it ; 
and with ckSvk, (No. 162) to walk, characters being found uAder 
both, which are identical in meanhig. . \ 

FORMED BY FOUR STROKES. 

g2 X^ Q jIvi Ak Sam, The heart, middle; affections, feelings ; 
^U^ ' I I motive, origin. 1077. — 142. 

The contracted form of this, called chu 'sam pin ^^ i|j^^' 

is always used when placed on the left side, and the ftiU fi>rm at the 
bottom or elsewhere. The group is tolerably natural, coQtainin£f 
such words as express the feelings of the heart, powers of the mind, 
&c. 

62- J^- Kw6p A spear, lance or halberd ; weapons. 111.— =-15. 

Kw6 occurs on the right side, often covering the other strokes, or 
combined with them by lengthening the horizontal line; the-group 
contains characters somewhat ^analagous to the raw&lv expressing 
the names of weapons, fighting, arsenals, prohibitions, &c. '\ 

pj V\ An inner door, one leaved door ; s hol^ orifice ; a family, 
F^ a household or its maBter; to stop. 45. — 5. • 

The radical covers the otbor strokes; most of the characters have 
some reference in their meaning to the use or parts of a door. 

^.^C p Jl Shau. The amoi^ore-ton, the hand; to handle. 

The contracted form is placed on the left, in nearly all the charac- 
ters, and the full form elsewhere; it is described as -tI-* =E^ ^A ^^^ 

shau pin ; ability, beating, skill, taking, motions of the hand of all 
kinds, &c., are characteristics of the words in this group. 

A- -{-- ChU A branch ; to branch ofi^ to diverger a^ posterity - to 
J(^ pay. 27.-2. v^ y^ 

This radical is never contracted, and thereby it is distinguished 
from the succeeding one ; there are, however, erroneous ibrms of the 
two following found under it. * v \ 

66 ^^k C. ^ Pfh. To touch; a slight stjroke. 296.— 21. 

Those characters under this radical which are in most common use 

have the contracted form (called |^ ^ \^ ng6ng wan pin,) on^ 

tneright ; the others (about one half of all) have the regular form. 
The group contains many Bynqnynts* 



12 OF THE RADICALS. 

«JL» p JL^ Man. Literature, letters, corn{>!Qsit ion, to write linos, 

P^ ^ *° P^^^^ ' ^^^"* *" ^^^- 23.-2. 

Thfe contftcted fbrm iiS'Seid^m used ; Ibere is a shade of similarity 
in the mean^g of tfae wordb, of slr^iiu, nixed colon, variegated, &c. 

^ *^| Tau, A dry measure ; i^ame of the constellation Uisa Major. 
^^ ^^ 33.-5. 



a- 



^ 



The idea of measuringt calculating, or fNnirihg out, lading out, runs 
through inpst of the few characters placed Ivsre ; the nidieal standi 
on the right. 

69 J^ Kan. An ip^ ; a oatty cfr thte Chinese pound. 56. 

To cleave, to chop, to divide, &c., is a prominent idea in most of 
the characters under this radical ; it is placed on the right, and the 
left half 16 nev^r (with one exception) another vafit^l. 

vl^ F6ng> Square, a place, the earth, a region, points of com? 
jU pa9s ; two bofttb joined ; a prescri{rtipn. 83. — 9. 

^he wprdsjil^cied under this tliilica], for the ^OM *|>art have sonie 
reference to nh^, blihners, dreamers, &c. It is fotmd on the left, 

-and in most of the characters is a contraction of fn, j^ a flag* waving 

as a flag, as in W j^^ «*w ;jbfe^ &c., having no reference \J0f6ng ; 

the other characters found here have no similarity of meaning to 
(Ihose W)fitten in this mannehr, and are few in number. 

"^^jtl ^' ijfe *^^* ^^stitrite pf, ftot, wanting. 18.-*-2. 

The few words under this radical have no uniformity of meaning. 

72 y Yat. The sun, da^y, a day, daily. 455. — 51. 

This^group is a natiiF^'iliiay comprising suoh characlets as refer to 
the sun, light, clear, tin^ 4^. |;the radical, when. placed on the top is 
often written like the foilowing^ and such words also very mUch lie- 
semble a &w under the 18th and 14th radicals. Its correct shape is 
fieatiy aqdare, but in ecndpositipn it may be lelther flaMened 6r length, 
ened. 

73 |-^| tit. ^o speak, to say, to call, to desi^ate. 3iB. — 13. 

This radjcal is [placed reij iiri^gularly, and someti^nies combined 
with other strokes ; a few characters found here evidently belong to 
the preceding. 

74 J3 ih. The Ti|6dn, igi mbrifh. tt>.— 11. 

« 

^me-reference to the moon, or to time, peryade^'the'me^liWQf 
ihahY of the characters uiider't|iis radical. Itis'sometin^es plw^an 
the r^ght side, which >wi]il ^istinguisfai fU jsuch^^haracter^ irom those 
under yttX:, flesh (No. 130) ; nothii^ff,^owever/but an acquaintance 
wi^ iSie WorSs, can 4Miable the Ifttiai^ttt' to distinguish betvimen tbe 
A^o in such wdrds as have the radical on thb lefl; those Under n^ 
we few in number. 



OF THE KADICALS. 13 



75 'jtC Muk, Wood, a tree ; one of the five elements. 1 358. — 17. 



tK 



Naioes of treeB, fruits, woods, posts, things made of wood, condi- 
tions of wood, f>r Bfxne uses of wood, cbar^terize most of the words 
under this radical. ]it is usually placed on the left side or at bottom, 
rarely in combination. 

„g, A^ Him. To owe, to be dispirited, to gape ; insufficiency, want. 
y^ 236.— 18. 

Him is placed on the right, and n^ust be distinguished from the 
contractied form of puk (No. 66), which it resembles. Most of the 
chovaatotB luive ^ reference to the breath, sounds from the mouth, 
something piioceediiig from the mouth, ^Sic. ; this radical and hau 
(No. 90) are therefore interchangeably used in a few instances. 

■!-• ^*' "^^ 9^opf be still, cease, impede ; to stop in an affair or 
""jll nt a place. 91.— 9. 

This vadical is placed in ail parts of the character, and where it is 
a half, usually imparts something of its meaning to the whole. 

78yB G. ^ Tdi, Perverse, vicious, rebellious. 282. — 12. 

Wfaatei^r is putrid, offensive, murderous, dead, spoiled, >^., is 
expressed by most of the words found here ; the radical is some- 
times interchanged with nik, (No. 104); it is usually placed on the 
left, and very seldom contracted. 

K^iG^ Mii. C. To kill, to strike ; a spear handle. M. 

Something of the meaning of the iwiiqal da 'fisiitd in full one 
half of the words placed under it ; the otl»sr half are heterogenous, 
many of them iuiving it in ooi^Wwtt^n. it is written on the. Tight, 
the other half very seldom being aiadical. There are many^oommon 

charactOfi if^hieh appear to bejvader flnsaidical, ^a j^ ^^^L ^^* 

tS^ kauj &c., but which ar0'j|Hina'inifier the left hand lower p^rt, 

ffUiat 18 a radical, the remamc[ff%f the character ^ or ^t Jeukt 

being regarded as a primitiye. ^. s, 

qaJH. ^^* "^^^^ without, a prohibitory -particle; an iirterrog^tive 
TM* particle. 17. — 5. 

The tadical is placed underneath the otheKr stookes. 

w- Ll^ ^*« To compar-e, classifir ; to provide, prepare.; equal, e^en ; 
W^ contiguous. 92«-r-l. 

The radical is almost .^ only character in common use |n this 
group; it is often placed in tl^< middle, i|.n() in other parts ^ tiw 
character except the left. . \ 

Mb. Hair or dxmn oft the body of an^fnais, for, 'liap^ pubes. 
cence^ gtasa^ 5212.- 




Md ppnveys something of its own meiming to almost every cha- 
racter unjder it, of hair, feathers, things jnade of hair, &€.; itisplaeed 
on the left, supporting all the other strokes, or else much contracteij 
on the right side r 



1 4 OF THE RADICALS. 



8.S 



Pa* Shu SurnaiiM} of females ; a famiiy» 15. — H. 

The characters placed here have sh( in combination; none of 
them have any reference to it in meaning. 



84*^==? Hi. C. Vapor, air, breath. 18. — 1. 

This small group is natural ; At covers the other strokes. 

1^ V Shui. Water, tide, the tide; one of the five ele- 

®^^J^ ^- / ments ; stream. 1586.— 148. 

Some reference, directly or figuratively, to water, its properties and 
uses, collections of water, &c., characterizes nearly all the words un- 
der this radical ; it is, except in a very few caftes, plaK^ecl on the left 
side in the contracted form, which is commonly called s&m tim shui 

--• 9Ra "M. three dotted water. ' . . 

o/» A 1/ n ^^' ^'^®» flame, heat ; one of the five elements. 

y\. ^^^^ 639.-43. 

This, like the preceding, is a pretty natural group ; burning, ardent, 
modes of cooking, vapor, &c., being the leading ideas of most of the 
characters. It is usually placed on the lefl, but also underneath, either 
contracted or in full. 

o-r rtf n tt^ Chdu, Talons, nails, claws ; to scratch, to tear to 
VJV ^^ pieces. 37.-7. 

' <^it u placed on the top in its contracted form in about one half 
of the characters ; the others have it in full on the left. It is easily 
distinguished frou Iw6 (No. 97). 

^^"^t ^^- A father, a tidtf'ff respect. 1 1.-2. 

This radical is placed above, and all the characters refer to a fa- 
ther, and the diflferent appidlftfipns he bears. r 

Ngdu> C. Tp WillN^'to blend, to lay across ; to comply ; 
one of the pai^ iboa. 17.-3. 

This radicQil h^ IN^ few characters, and their meanings have no 
reference to it. 

^ ChSng. C. Somethii^i to lean against, a couch. 50. — 2. 

Some of the 'characters aade^ this radical have some reference- to 
its meaning ; but they are not un&rm ; it is placed on the left. 

Pin. A slice, splinter, slip, fragment, petal of a flower ; to 
snap in two. 78.- 



89 



It 



90 



"^ 



These chan^sters are distinguished from the preceding by the ra- 
dical opening to the right, while that is to the lefb ; some allusion to a 
plank, board, partition, ^c, is founj'in most of them. -.J 

92-^t- Ngd. Tooth, lusk> eye-tooth. 9. — 2. 

The rqi^ical is the only character of this group usually met with' 



OF TIIK RADICALS. 15 

M-* /i iL ^gou. Horned cattie^ an ox ; large victims. 
93X11^ C. §jr 233.— 12. 



}\^c.$^ 



in this collect iont almost every character has some reference to the 
different sorts* purposes, ages^ &c.) of bovine animals. 

A dog; ravenous beasts, ferine animals. 



Q , |v r yi ^^^' A dog; ra 
VV ^ ^ 445.-28. 



Characters under this radical have h^'n on the left in the contracted 
form, (vulgarly called Idi kau pin, or dog lookinj; over his shoulder,) 
and most of them denote species, actions, &c., ofcarniverous animals, 
with several figurative significations of fierce, crafly, lying, 6lc. This 
radical is interchangeable with the 153d in many common characters. 



FORMED BY FiVfi STROKES. 



^*ff -Jr- Un. Sombre, color of heaven, dark, deep ; to rule, control. 
^^^ 7.-2. 

This group has the radical in combination in rJE stU, 

-f-^ p, -|- Yuk. Gems, precious stones; precious, beautiful, 
IEa i^ valuable, rich (as food). 473—25. 

This radical is read yukj when placed on the bottom, with the dot ; 
and w6ng when on the side without the dot ; characters under it are 

described by ^tt^ t/^^ng* p(n j^ ^^ ^J, and for the most part in- 
clude the names of gems, precious things, musical instruments, ^. 
In many cases, this radical and s^t^, astone, (No. 112), are interchan- 
geable. 

97 nX Ktffd. Cucurbitaceous plants, a melon, cucumber. 56. — 2. 

This group describes varieties i8ill|»«to of melons; -it is distinguish- 
ed from chaUf claws, (No. 87)i by the, point added to the middle 
stroke, and is placed on the leflluBd not on ^ top. 

98~tt Ngd. Tiles, brick, pottery^, earthen- ware vessels. 173. — 2. 

Tiles, pottery, jars, and things made of earth, are found under this 
radical ;^ it is placed on the right or nnderneath the other strokes ; 
it is .sometimes interchanged withmtrigf, .^i^b^ (No. 108), td, earth 
(No. 32), and shih, stone (No. 112). 

n II- K6m. Sweet, pleasant, willing, delightsome, voluntary. 
^ ^ 23.-2. 

Sweetness, metaphorically or actually, is a part of the meaning of 
the few characters under th^ radical. 

inn #^ Shang. To bear, to bring forth, produce ; life, living; un- 
lUU^ j.jp^ 23.-2. 

The radical conveys its meaning to all the characters under it, only 
tWo 6t three of which are in common use. 



II I Yung* To use ; use, useful ; by, with ; necessary expenses. 



ffi 



This group has no bond of connection ; the radical combines with 
other parts of characters, forming primitives. 



16 OF tHK RADICALS. 

|-|-| Tin, A fields arable land ; to cultivate, to plough. 
^^^pq 193.— 26. 

Characters under this mdical for the most part refbr to land and its 
divisions, cultivationv and changes made in land by tillage, &c.; a few 
are interchanged \yith td; the earth, (No. 32)« It is placed on the left 
or underneath ; in the latter case, the character is usually a primitive. 

•pry PaU A numeral of pieces of cloth, the foot. Read sM^ to 
/t record, sufficient. 16*— 5. 



This group mostly consists of primitives, h&ving the radical in 
combination. 

104^r Nik: C. Debility, ailment, sickness. 627. — 25. 

This group contains the names of diseases, wounds, sores, &c. 
The radical uniformly covers all the other strokes ; it is known wider 

the name of tsat ping iau !£ jp^ ^^^ i. e. the disease (radical 

which is j on top. 

iOby\ Piit. C. To push aside wtth the feet, to stride. 16.— 3. 

Characters under this radical have little connection with each other ; 
it is placed astride, covering the other strokes. 

tofl^^ PaA;. White, uniform, freely, clear, pure, plain, apparent ; 
JUJ to explain or make manifest. 109. — 8. 

This i^roup is tolerably natural ; p6h is placed on the left, and is 
easily <&tinguished' both froh) muk the eye (No. 109) and tsz\ self 
(No. IdSQj in some of the words it is interchanged with yat^ the sun 
(No, 72). , , 

^^^ fv P^' Skio^ teili».^iMtor covering, wrapper. 95.---1. 

Parts, disease^ ai(^ 1IM lofjthe skin, are the most prominent of the 
words under thi# gioUp^ the ra;dical is placed on both sideaof the 
characters; . ,•; 

108 JUJ Mmg. i)isbQ8» tNtKng uteinisftk of crockery. 129. — 16. 

tSome direct or indiirect reference to the radical is found ii^ almost 
aHI of these charadt^rs. It is placed at the bottom; this. and 7itt<, 
blood (No. 143^^), are easily distinguished by the stroke at top of the 
li^tten 

1 no d ^^' '^® ®y®» *® "^J ^^ designate ; index, direction. 

Uses, fohns, diseases, ana Tidbrances to the eye, are leading ideas 
in these characters. The raduad bet usually placed on the left^ when 
placed beneath it is written square or nearly so, renderi^^it very 
siinilar to i/al day, or tsz' self; in two or three common characiers (as 

king M, yi^ ^ &c.,) it is written like iMngt a net (Nq. 122). 

1 lO^r^p* Mdu, A long barbed weapon, a halberd. 66. — 3. 

Reference to, or names of spears, lances, awls, &c, are the meanings 
of most of the characters under this radical ; it is placed oil the left, 
and must be distinguished from w6i grain (No. 115)« 



OK THE RADICALS*. 17 

111 jfai Shi, An arrow, a dart ; tme to the mark, swift. 65. — 8. 

This radical is placed on the lef^ in most of the characters, and con- 
veys somewhat of its meaning to them* either directly or figuratively. 

112 K[ Shik, Stone, rocks ; hard, firm. 489.-23. 

This group is a pretty natural one, most of the characters meaning 
hard, stony, instruments or the uses of stone ; some of them are inter- 
changed with to, jground (No. 82), ng&y tiles (No. 98), and yvk^ a 
gem (No. 96). The radical is usually placed on the left. 

1 1 ^"rrt^ P -i '^^' ^ ^S" ^^^^ heaven, a declaration of heaven's 
/IT ^^ ^^^ ' *" ®^^^* ♦ *^ declare, to instruct. 214.— 25. 

This radical is placed on the left, and in writing is often contract, 
ed ; it is distinguished from ( (No. 145), by having one dot on the 

right, while ( has two, and is called lai ( p(n /A ^^ Ift in aUusion 

to this similarity. The characters refer to sacrifices, to gods, ances- 
tors, d&c., omens, blessings, cursings, and such words as are of a re- 
ligious import. 

114|g| FaM. C. Print of a brar's foot. f3V— 2. 

These few characters have yau underneath, sometimes in combina- 
tion, as in kam ^^, and sometimes separated ; their meanings bear 
no resemblance to the radical. 

1 1 uJf^ ^0. Grain, growing rice ; paddy ; agreement, happy. 
V|^ 433.— 31. 

Appearance, age, uses, measures, &c., of grain, (especially rice,) 
taxes, &c., are leading ideas in these words ; the radical is placed on 
the left. A few characters undei' this and ski (No. 113) are inter- 
changeable, apparently from the use made of grain in sacrifices. 

iif^i^b* H^^' A cave, den, hole, orifice in the ground; to dig 

y'V ^^*®s J «^""s ^^^^^ ^^y- 300.— 18. 

This radical covers the others strokes, and it is not always easy to 
tell whether the character is found under the upper or lower radical ; 
some knowledge of the meaning will, however, often decide. Hollow, 
ness, natural or artificial, emptmess, 6lc', are the most prominent and 
leading ideas. 

i*T^*A^ Lap. Erect; to erect, establish, set up, perfect, arrange. 
*^^jJL 102.— 7. 

Characters into which lap enters are not much used ; there are 
sonbe primitives under it; it ir usually on the left, but also occurs at 
top and bottom. 

FORMED BY glX STROKES. 

llsXA** C ^A" ^^^' Bamboo, a reed ; a thin slip of wOod for 
|%| ^ writing on. 954. — 45. 

Chuk, in the contracted form, called chuk fd tau ^ ^j[fr ^, ik 

always placed at top ; and all the commoii ch9.t«:ciViet^ Wn^ ^\aa 



18 OF TUK KAUICAL^. 

reference to the bamboo, its uses and appearance) utensils ui&de of it| 
&.C ; a few also refer to writings as books were ancicatly carved on 
bamboo. 

119:^1^ Mai. Rice, rice in the husk. ;J2l.— 16. 



■>H: 



Characters under this radical refer to the uses of rice after it ia 
reaped, in cooking, &c. ; many are interchangeable with to6 (No. 
115). 

I t2n -^ C ^ '^^^' ^^^^^ silken threads, llofc?s ; small, fine. Also 
tR * m read mitj meaning the .same. 821. — ^71. 

Words placed here usually denote some kind of silk, mode and 
things used in raising and weaving it, and thence figures are drawn 
from the uses to which it is put. The radical is usually placed on 

the left, but is also found elsewhere ; it is called kiii sz* pin, jMf 

121p ATm Fau. Crockery ; large earthenware vases. 78 — 2. 

Names of vessels, or conditions, fractures, 6lc.<, of jars, are the lead- 
ing ideas in the few common characters placed here ; some are inter- 
changed with mukf wood, and others with ngd (No. 98), pottery. 

Mong, A net, confounded, entangled^ 
122 1^ ^* im ^^ P^ impeded; to impose upon, to 

Vr4 ^ accuse falsely. 164. — 15. 

This radical is oflen recognized with difficulty ; in some characters, 
as in m6vg 1^, it covers all the other strokes as kwang (No. 13) 
does; in others, as h6n ^Si it is written so as to resemble mit (No. 
14) ; but it is most frequently contracted to resemble sz\ the figure 
four, as in ts&i 9B, which is one name the contracted form bears. 



The characters have some reference, either directly or figuratively, 
to nets and their uses. 

1233E Yiung. A sheep, goat, ovine animals. 157. — 9. 

This radical is written in a few cases in the ancient form jp 

which renders such words liable to be looked for under tsd (No. 140) ; 

the upright stroke is shortened in many characters, as in kd 3=1, or 

else combined with other parts of the character. Sheep, their ages, 
kinds, uses, ^., goats and antelopes, and figures drawn from them 
are charac^ristic ideas of the group. Some of the words are inter- 
changed with ink (No. 198), a deer. 

124^^ Yii. Wings, feathers of the wings. 210.— 9. 

Ftt is placed in all parts of the character^ ond coaveytj somewhat 
< of its meaning to most of the words placed under it. 



•^Ti 



OF THE RADirALS. 19 

^^y Ld, Old, aged, venerable, respected ; a term of respect. 
y^ 23.-5. 

This radical is sometitdes contracted, as in hdu pg*, chs ^ 
tit ^k , and others, so as not to be immediately recognized ; age, 
and -terms for certain ages, are meanings found under it. 

in/jTET /'. The soft hair on the side of the chc^eks; as, and, but, 



fi 



yet. 23.-3. 



This is a heterogenous group, and many words now found under 
it, which are formed of this and another radical, should, according to 
the usual rule of arrangement, have been placed under the other. 



127 ^1^ * LuL A plough handle, a crooked sliare. 85—3. 




An additional horizontal stroke distinguishes this radical from w6^ 
grain (No. 115); the characters denote the kinds and uses of ploughs, 
hoes, 6lc, 

loftTBT ^' The ear, ear of jars, an ear-shaped handle; an 
l^H J::|^ euphonic particle. 172.— 16. 

— The ear and its uses, and figurative significations drawn therefrom, 
are the prominent ideas of this group. In a few it enters into combi- 
nation, and its plapy^then is usually on the left or top. It is often 
erroneously interchanged with muk the eye, from its resemblance to 

one mode of writing muk; as in ]^ shut. 

lOQ-^Nr* ^^^* ^* ^ pencil, a style, or writing utensil; an initial 
129=jJ?] particle, forthwith, than. 20. — 2. 

The few characters under this radical have very little connection 
with it in meaning ; it is combined in suk ^m . 



130^ C.J^ Yuk. Flesh, meat, fat, soft ; fleshy, dull. 675 56. 

The contracted form of yuk cannot be distinguished*from tti, the 
moon, when the latter is placed on the left. This group is tolerably 
natural, including parts of the body, uses of flesh, &c. There are a 
considerable number of characters, written with yvk on the left, which 
do not belong to this group, but to the radical on the riffht : amons 

rt/l-* n4^ n/t» o * 6 

them are sUng |^, tang ^, tang ^ and others, which are found 
under lik^ m&j sz\ &.c. 

1^1 P^ Shan. Servant of a prince, a statesman, a minister; to 
Pr*^ be subject to. 17. — 4. 

Shan is usually placed on the left ; it has little or no connection 
with the characters under it. 

132^3 Tsz\ Self, myself ; from, originating; to use. 35. — 2. 

Most of these characters have some idea of putridity attached to 
them; the radical is sometimes erroneously \vritten for pdkf white 
(No. 100); it is placed very irregularly. 



20 OF THE RAIMCALS. 

Chi. To, to arrive at; the limit, utmost; exc«eclii)giy. 




133 _ij ^gj^y . ^g jQ 25.-3. 

There is no bond of union among, these characters, most of the 
common one^ being primitives ; the radical Is often pla^cQd underneath. 

134^3 Kau. A mortar to hull grain in. 72. — 1. 

This radical must be distinguished from pfLhy white (No. 106); it is 
often contracted in composition, as in si ^ff to write for ^a • strokes 
are sometimes drawn through it or in it, as in ft ^.^ htng Si*f ^ 
H» and others. The chaitcters have no similarity of m,e^ning* 

135-^tr* Shit. The tongue, taste; tongue of a bell. 35. — 6. 

Suckingi talking, licking, &c., are the leading ideas in those charac- 
ters with which this radical is joined ; there are a few others under it, 

in which shi ^' acts as the radical, which have no reference to it. 

iqrAiI* Chiin. C Uncertainty, error, wandering; to opposey to 
Idb^fip turn the back upon. 11.— 3. 

This small group has no uniformity of construction, or similarity of 
meaning. 

iQ-rJil. ^^'' ^ ^^^^ bark, or vessel; to transport, to boat. 
JW 198.-3. 

Boats, vessels, and things and parts of them, alb the meanings of 
most of these words ; the radical is in some characters interchanged 
with muk, wood, and shui^ water, and in a few, erroneously- with yuk, 

fleshi as shing W^ for |^« from the resemblance of the two. It is 
placed on the left. 
i^rS /C^w. C. Opposition, fixed; read /K5n, to pull, to drag. 

In these, the radical is placed on the right. 
199^01 Shilc. Color, quality, complexion ; vice, lust. 22. — 2. 



Ti 



lik is placed on the right ; almost all the characters refer to con- 
ditions of color. 

140|||||| C. 4/- Tsd. Plants, herbage, grass. 1902—95. 

This group includes the names of small plants, flowers, grasses, 

&c.; the contracted form, ciiled tsd fd tauW^ vv ^[, is fbqnd at 

top in nearly all cases, forming a collection of words pretty uniform 
in meaning and construction. 



hrf-# J^W' C. A tiger or its skin; variegated, slreaked. 
141 »^ 115.— 9. 



^ 



The radical covers the other strokes ; figures drawn from the na- 
ture and powers of a tiger, its kinds, age, ^c, are meanings of most 
of the words under it. 



OF THi: KADICALS. 21 

142^^1 Chung* Insects, worms, reptiles, frogs. 1067.-^22. 

Names of insects, snakes, reptiles, and their difiercnt parts and 
appearanceS) are included under chung ; the radical when single is on 
the left, but when doubled it is placed underneath ; this r^uplica- 
tion makes a great number pf synonyn^es. 

143 Jm^ Hut. Blood, sacrificial blood. 61. — 3. 

This radical must be distinguished from mtng, dishes (No. IQS). 
It is an unimportant, though pretty natural group ; vomiting, bleed- 
ing, bloody, &c., being the leading ideas. 

^^^^ Hang* To walk, to do, act ; a column, a series, a 
144^-f* line of, a path. Read Aong, a factory, comi 

• J house. 54. — 8.- 

The radical always incloses the other strokes, so that the right side 
of the character must be exatpined to distinguish it from those under 
cWi^ a step (No. 60). The leading ideas are of going, moving, &c. 

^ 1 * .^ \ f.' Clothes, upper garments; a rind or shell of 

The type of this group, viz, clpthes, and their parts, to dress &c., 
conveys somewhat of its meaning tp nearly all the characters in it; 
the radical is always cpntracted when placed on the left, and oflen 
divided, containing the other strokes underneath its upper line, as in 

ckuT^ y^ ' 9hui j^ &c.; in some, as fiH yn^> it is combined, 

and in others placed below. 

146 rth Hd. C. To overshadow, to invert. 30.— 3. 



row, a 
mmercial 



This radical is at top, and fron) the common form, ^ sai^ the 

west, being the most common word under it, and also the way the 
radical itself is almost always written, it is usually called sai tsi* pd» 



FORMED BY SEVEN STROKES. 



H JTin. To see, to noticerto appear ; seeing, finding that ; 
yTi aspect ; to disclose, manifest. 162. — 14; 

Uses of the eye, and figuratively of the mind, to express ernqtiqus, 
are the principal ideas of this group ; sonrie of the characters in- 
terchange with muk (Np. 1(|9). It is placed on either §ide. 

±^ Jj!16h* A horn, corner, jutting out, prqtrusion of a hilt; 
148^ tuft of hair. 159.— 5. 

Horns of animals, their uses, age, and appearance, are the mean^ 
ings of these words. 

jsaLi Tn. Words, sentence, discourse; to §peak, to express, to 
g deliberate. 861.-105. 

Words under this radical express operations of the mind as well a^ 
ideas pertaining to letters, conversation, words, &c. It Is usually 
placed on the lefl, and interchanged with hau^ mouth, in a jfew ch^« 
jracters. 



22 or TflK RADrCALS. 

y^ Kuk. A vallev, a ravine; an aqueduct, water between 
-^^ liilk- '55.-2. .... 

This unimportant radical has several synonymous forms under it ; 
the kinds and appearance of vallies are the meanings of the grou p. 
It will easily be distinguished from shiU a tongue. 

^^ Tau, Leguminous plants; an ancient sacrificial vessel. 
^^^. 69.-5. 

Those words which have iau in combination uniformly refer to 
some kind of pulse, bnt there are many characters found under this 

radicar which are in fact contractions of k{i rf{> a drum (No. 207), 

the right half of that radical being omitted ; as in tin ^m tung gffl^ 

&c. The position of iau is not regular, but is usually on th^ 1^. 

Ib^^f^ CM. C. Hog, swine ; a pig. 50.-3. 



This radical is placed on the left, sometimes with the addition of a 
stroke as in chuk ^^; the characters mostly refer to the bog and ele- 
phant, ; this and han the 94th radical are sometimes interchanged. 

153>^ CM, C. Worms, insects without feet ; reptiles. 141. — 5. 

This and hiln the 94th radical are also often interchanged ; the cha- 
racters in this group denote wild beasts of some sort, or figures 
drawn from them, and have little connection with the radical. 

pH PuL A pearl shell ; a cowrie, formely used as a coin ; 
\^^ precious, valuable. 278. — 46. Vk 

There are many primitives under this radical, which makes the 
group somewhat irregular ; the prevailing ideas are of property and 
trade, disposal of value, or honors derived from it. Pdi occurs on the 

side or bottom, and is otherwise called fcfl p^i p(n J^ H 2A. 

,J^ Chik. Red, carnation, color of raw cotton, naked; to 
155^^ tally. 32.-2. 

Chik ia placed on the left, and most of the characters convey some 
idea of redness. 

156-^& Tsau. Towalk,tbrun, to go swiftly, to escape. 286.^ — 11. 

Tsau supports all the other strokes, and conveys somewhat of its 
meaning to the characters of which it forms a part. 

---a p « Tsuk. The human foot, full, competent, com- 

/£ ^ P*®*®* 581.-30. 

i 

This group much resembles the preceding, and many characters are 
interchanged ; but this differs from that, in referring to the form, dis- 
tortion, position, &c., or uses of the foot, while that has reference 
p:) running, moving, &c. 



OF Tlifci KAlilCALi?- 2J 

-* ^^ Shan. The body, the (>crsou; trunk of a treC) hull of a 
^ gjjip^ 98.-4. 

This radical is interchanged with yvki flesh (No. 130), U the ear 
(128), tsz\ one's self (No. 132), kwat^ bones (No. 188), and others. 
It is placed on the lefl. 

cfc ^''^* ^ wheel. Read kii, a wheeled carriage ; a cart, a 
^^^fflL vehicle. .162.-22. 



Uses, parts, kinds, &c , of carriages are almost the only meanings 
of characters found under chi. 



« - 



►^ 



jgir^ Scm. Acrid, bitter, grievous, distressing, pungent; a 
loOOJLT horary character. 37.-7. 



San is doubled in many words, the other strokes being between the 
two ; the group is heterogenous in meaning, and the characters are 
irregular in construction. 

lAi fF*- ^^^' '^^ excite motion; time, hours; the heavenly 
aPC bodies; a horary character. 16. — 3. 

Shan, somstimes found as a radical and sometimes in combination, 
is generally placed above or below. It must not be confounded with 

Mung, M long (No. 168). 

lAo^S r ^ Chevk, Motion, swiftly going and then stopping. 
VQU "^^ 382.-39. 

This radical and tsau (No. 156), are similar in their leading ideas, 
and the two groups have many characters in common ; it is also inter- 
changed with chiki ^ (No. 60). it is almost always used m the 
(Tontracted form, supporting the other strokes, and called ch6.ng $h^n 
pint is ^2f j^ * poling a boat,' from some fancied resemblance 
between its shape and that action. 

i/>oJ5L r^ tt ^^P* ^ ^^^Y' ^ royal city, an inclosure. 
163 p^ C. 1^ 351.— 27. 



Yap is placed on the right in its contracted form, whielf alone 
distinguishes the characters under it from those under fan (No. 170) ; 
with a few exceptions, they refer to land, ideas of territory, names of 
places, inclosures, cities, &c. 

1 aA "Htn* Yau. Must, new wine; a horary character;, matured, 
pzl finished. 291.— 20. 

The meaning of characters under this radical generally refers to 
wine, spirits, pickles, &c., and to tastes, and flavor of liquids. 




165'-j|r» Pin, C. To separate, to distinguish. 14. — 2*. 



This small group is as miscellaneous in its meanings as it is irre- 
gular in its construction ; the radicial is very often confounded with' 

tsoi, ^ variegated, the most common character under it. 



24 t)l* THE UAblcAl.S. 



166 




Li A Chinese kftile; anei^hborhood of rive families, a 
court or laue in a village; a village. 14.— 5. 

There is no bond of union among the few chaiictert arranged 

under this ; some of them are primitives, as ehung ^^ and some are 

old forms. 

FORMKD BV fikOHT STROKES. 

1^^>®^ KamC Gokl, metal» elegant^ gilded ; firm, hard. 803. — 46. 




Kinds of metal, things made of metal, and figures derived from 
metals, licre ideas which characterize all the words under this radical, 
forming a tolerably natural group ; this radical is sometimes inter* 
changed both with s/ii/c, a stone, and muk^ wood. 

fe^ r* P CMung, Long; old, senior, aged; to grow up or 
l^S^-ro^ "^ grow great ; remote. 56. — 2. 

This group contains many characters whose meanings have some 
reference to length, hut they are not in common use ; the contracted 
form 18 always used in composition. 

gg Mun. A door, a gate, passage into, an entrance; a class, 
169J^»-j a profession. 249.-^27. 

The radical covers the other strokes, forming a very symmetrical 
collection of characters, which have also some ideas in common, re- 
ferring to doors, gates, entrances, &c. 

'i^(\ i& r tZ ^^"' ^ mound or hill of earth ; large, great, 
*^".i^ ^' |) numerous. 347.-38. 

This is always placed on the left, by which it is distinguished from 

ydpt a city ; to designate it still further it is called^ tau p(n m^ jL* 

^tp referring to a water bucket. The characters have a great 

diversity of meaning, though still referring to names of places, hills, 
elevations, motinds, stairs, &c. 

TJlr '^^' ^' '^^ reach to^ until; to approach from behind. 
^^ 13.— 1. 

These few characters have no common idea ,' the radical is placed 
on the right. 

ChuL C. Gallinaceous birds, and sparrows ; birds with 
short tails. 234. — 17. 



172/^ 



The greater portion of these characters are interchangeably used 
with ndit a bird (No. 196); a few common ones placed under this 

radical have figurative meanings drawn feom birds. Ckui and kai jU^ 
must not be confounded. P- 

173J5fg if. Rain, to rain. 298.— 18. 



This group is a meteorological one, and, with the exception of some 
havinff figurative meanings, tolerably natural ; the radical is always 
placed at top, and words having it at top arc almost always found here. 



OF TME RADICALS. 2o 

l^A^^ jTsifi^. Azure^ the light blue of the sky; and the light 
PI green of plants; pure» clean^ clear. 18. — 3. 

This radical) joined to characters) gives them a shade of its mean, 
ing ; it is placed on the left. 

^|-» Fi» Not so, unpermis&able ; vicious, shameful; false, 
I'^^p wrong. 26—3. 

This radical imparts its name to nearly all the characters under it, 
but there is no similarity of meaning among them. 

PORMEOBYNINESTROKE8. 

TTTj Min. The human face ; the surface, top, fronting to, op- 
iHj posite, towards. 67.— 1. 

The face, and the form, beauty, and aspect of the countenance, are 
leading ideas of these characters ; the radical is usually at top. 

1 -y-r "H^ ^^* Untanned hide without the )iair ; to reject, to degrade 
177 Vft from office. 307.— 5. 




The radical is placed on the left ; most of the characters refer to 
leather, its uses, and things made from it. 

,--o,sl** Wau C. Dressed leather, thongs ; that which can bind. 
^^^^ 101.-2.. 

This group does not differ much in its genera] features from the 
preceding ; some of their characters aire interchangeable, aiid nearly 
all of them are unusual ones. 




179^^ Kau. Leeks, alliaceous plants. 21. — 1. 



This group is incongruous, and irregular both in meaning and form, 
though the majority of the words refer to the radical. 



180^J,V Yam. Sound, tone, musical tone, news. 43. — 3. 




Yam imparts somewhat of its meaning to nearly all the characters 
placed under it. 

Hip* The . human head ; numeral of a fold, a page. 
373.— 30. 




181 

Forms, parts, motions, 'and expression of the head and 0ite, are 
leading ideas of this group ; the radical is almost always qn the right. 

1QO Hf f'^^^ Wind, air; manner, feeling, temper; haste; to blow, 
/ffiVi to^atter, 183.— 3. 

Qualities and operations qf the wind are the prominent significa- 
tions of the words in this group. 

18331^ Ff , To fly with wings ; to hasten. 13.— 1. 

The radical is the only woird in cominon use. 

IQA^^^ SJuk, To eat; read tsz^^ to fjeed, to be nouri^h&d by 

^^ food ; eclipse ; to retract ; to be fool. 695. — 38. 

'. ' ' ' . ' 

Eating^ cooked viands, and times for eating, appetite, <k^, aire ideas' 

which characterize this group; shik is placed on the leflb. 



2G OK THE KAD1CAL>5. 

^Q..\^ Shau, The head^ first, a leader; to go foremost, most 
Q prominent; the beginnings origin of. 20.-^1.' 

This radical differs from hip (No. 181), in meaning the headmost, 
the chief, &c. ; the words under it are few and unusual. 



18Q>^^ Htung, Fragrance, sweet smell of incense, 3d.— 1. 

Agreeable smells, fragrances, &c., are the leading ideas of the 
characters under hiung, 

y^ FORMED BY TEN STROKES. 

187 1^1 JWd. A horse ; anger, rage, martial. 473. — 28. 

The different ages, colors, kinds, and uses of the horse, with figures 
drawn from its temper and habits, are the meanings of these cha. 
racters. 

1 QQ J^»^^ Kwai. Bones, bones of bodies, fibres or hard parts of 
l»«l^ plants. 186.— 4. 

Names of the bones of the body are found here; some of the cha- 
' racters are interchanged with Wp (No. 181), and some with ydr, flesh 
(No. 130). 

189 JBL JKd. High, exalted, eminent, noble, loud. 35. — 1. 

The radical is the only character of this group in common use. 
There are two distinct groups of characters under this radical, one of 
them has ^b for the radical, and the other has kw6}i ^5 waste land 
outside of cities, (which is an original form of kmtk SR and a contrac- 
tion of ^) as in iin, ^ a low wall, now written j& 6n. Kb is, 
in composition, sometimes coutracted, as in ting t^ a porch, king 
1=1 a capital, &c. 

190 JB^ Piu. Hair disheveled, mane, long hair. 245. — 7. 

Piu is placed at top, and almost all the characters under it mean 
something connected with hair, mane, its condition, appearance, &c. 

loiB^ Tflw. Two soldiers opposed to each other; to fight, 
|J quarrel, scuffle. 24.— 1. 

t This radical will easily be distinguished from man, a door (No. 100), 

by the inner strokes ; the few characters have all some reference to 
quarreling. 

1Q2^I ^^^^"^' ^* ^ fragrant plant used with black millet to 
T^ ferment a liquid used for sacrificial wine. 9, — 1. 

Wat ^^ is the only character of this group usually met with. 

193 ^S Lik. C. A temple vase, a tripod with crooked feet. 74. — 7. 

Cooked liquids, and things to cook in, are the meanings of the 
words under this riadical ; only one or two of them are in common 
use ; /i^ is usually placed below. 



OF THE RADICALS. 27 

iQ>i &I Ktoai, Devils^ ghosts, demons; spirits of the dead. 
^®*JS, 142.-4. 

Some reference to the leading idea of the radical is found in nearly 
all of these words; it is placed on the left, supporting the other, strokes. 

FORMED BY ELEVEN STROKES. 

195^ Yii. A fish, the finny tribes. 572.^10. 

This group also includes some reptUes, but generally speaking, it 
is natural ; some of the characters are injterchanged with Chungs an 
insect (No. 110), and others with min, a toad (No. 205). 



196 &| Nia. A bird, the feathered tribes. 761 21. , 

This is also a natural group ; many of the words, especially the 
names of gallinaceous fowls, are interchanged with chuij birds (No. 
a80) ; it is :placed on the right. 

^97 1^3 L(t. C. Salt land ; unrefined salt, brine. 45. — 1. 



Salt, and ideas pertaining to it, constitute the leading ideas of these 
words, but, as might be supposed irom such a type, very few are in 
use. 



198 RR Luk. A deer; cervine animals. 106. — 9. 




Some of the characters under luk are interchanged with ySung^ a 
Bheep (No. 120); they mostly refer to deer. 



1997^ Mak. Wheat, bearded grain. 132.— 1. 




The leading idea of the type is pretty well adhered to in these cha- 
racters, very few of which are in use ; kinds of wheat, uses, things 
made of it, &c., are the common meanings. 

0^ Md. Hemp, hempen; name of a musical Instrument. 

Many characters, with md placed at top, are found under other 
radicals, and more of these might also have been distributed elsewhere ; 
part of the present group refer to hemp, and part to the other moiety 
of the word. 

FORMED BY TWELVE STROKES. 

201 " gy Wdng. Yellow, clay color, color of the earth. 43. — 1. 

Yellow, and its shades are denoted by these characters. ' 

202^& Shii. Millet, grand millet, Sorghum. 47.-2. 

The kinds, uses, and things made of millet are here denoted ; the 
radical is divided in lai ^^ so that, without attention, that charac- 
ter will be sought for under wj<5, ^in (Np. 121), 



28 OF TIJE RADICALS. 



^^^.3& Hale. Black, foul, dark, wicked. 173.— 4 





Ldtexal and figurative ideas of darkoeas. vileaeis, Aa, are charac- 
teristic of this group ; where hak is placed underneath as in tfing 
the character will appear as if belonging tp/(, fire. 

204^jEi Chu C. Embroidered work, to embroider ; yariegatejl. Q. 



Not even the radical, nor any of the characters of this grpqp ^re in 
common use ; they reibr to embroidery. 



205 ag Min. C. A frog or toad. 41.— 2. 



Many of the characters under this radical are interchanged with 
kuoai^ tortoise (No. 212), chung, an insect (No. 140), and with ytt, a 
fish; it is placed underneath; the words refer to reptiles* spiders, 
tortoises, &c. 

FORMED BY THIRTEEN STROKES. 

206 IHJ ^^^* ^. *"P^» steady, firm ; to establish or set up (as a 

kingdom). 15. — I. 

The radical is the only word in common use. 
Ku. A drum ; to drum. 47. — 1. 





Ka. is usually placed on top of the other strokes, and this will pre- 
vent characters of which it forms a part being confounded with pdik 
(No. 62); words prc^erly belonging to this group, but having the right 
half of /^ omitted, are found under tau (No. 111). 

^08 n7 Shii* A mouse, a rat ; rodent animals. 103. — ^ 



Names of mice, squirrels, moles, weasels, &c., are placed here ; a 
few words are interchanged with chung, insects (No. lll},hlittiie 
group is tolerably natural. 

FORMED BV FOURTEEN STROKES. 



209 i^S Pi, The nose, origin of; to bore the nose. 50. — 1. 




Words referring to the nose, and its uses and forms, are comprised 
in this group. 

otQ^gBgr Tsau Even, regular; to even, to smooth, to adjust or 
^t=^ arrange, to make uniform. 19.— 8. 

All the words placed here derive their sound fVom the radicnH, ti^hich 
here acts the part of a primitive, and their meaning from" tbe other 
half, which is placed within the lower strokes. Many similarly formed 
words, having <5(Zt at top, are distributed among the other radicals. 
The two horizontal strokes below are sometimes omitted, wlien thei|: 
place is supplied by aiiother character. 



OF THE UADK'ALS. 1>1) 

FORMED B V F I F T K K N STROKES. 

Chi. Teeth, upper teeth, the fore teeth ; age; to arrange, 
'^^^toH to class. 163.— 3. 




Porms, uses, kinds, diseases, &c., of tt^e teeth ^nd gums, are the 
meaning of words under this radical ; the group is natural, but the 
characters are not much used. 

FORMEP BY SIXTEEN STROKES. 

212-56 Lung,, A dragon, lizard ; lacertine reptiles. 25.-:— 2. 

This group has three or four wor^s in use ; the others are old forms. 

213^1 KiSai. The tortoise. 25.— 1. 



Mpst of tlje words in this group have some reference to the tortoise, 
though none are in common use ; some of them are interchanged with 
min (No. 201). 



FORMED BY SEVENTEEN STROKES. 



nt A .^?-iw Yittk» A musical instrument of reed, a certain measure. 
214>@B^ 20.-1. 



This small group refers to the sounds qf musical instruments. 



The sum total of characters contained in the first series of numbers 
in the foregoing list of radicals is 44,449 ; in the second series, the 
amount is 3232. The number of characters given by R^musat, whp 
has followed the Tsz^ WaU is 30,000, which is probably very near the 
actual number of different characters in the language, excluding the 
synonymous forms. For instance, there are 118 characters under 
the radical md, a horse, which are duplicate forms, leaving 293 dis- 
tinct words; of the 204 characters under n^aw, an ox, 39 are synony- 
mous forms ; hiin^ a dog, contains 421 characters, 65 of which are 
duplicates. 

The characters, as they are grouped under one radical, are uni? 
formly arranged according to the nuniber of their strokes, exclusive of 
the radical. In Kanghi's Dictionary, great care has been taken to 
aid the scholar in finding a word, by marking the number of strokes 
in the characters in figures on the mv^xgin of every page. ^Hius, if 

the scholar meets with the character ^ in reading, he takes the 

volume containing the radical ^ kani^ and turnj^ over the pageS| 

until he comes to the margin that is marked 19 strokes, whefe he finds 
that the chalracter he seeks is called is6k, meaning a chisseL 

The following sentences have been formed from the radiceds, for 
the purpose of aiding the scholar in remembering their meanings. Iq 
some of the, sentences, other words, not radicals, are added to complete 
the sense, the sounds of which are given in brackets. 



'^2 OF THE PRIMiriVKS. 



an^ajptet Sbetonli. 



OF THE PRIMITIVES. 



By the term primitive is meant that j>art of characters, which is 
joined to the radical, to form a new one. For instance, in the 

words tun^ j|p[, lau, j^9 '^ ^j &c., the part of the charac- 

ter on the right, viz, Ip}^ ^ » ^°^ ^> is the primitive. The 

meaning of the term is also extended so as to include these characters, 
even when standing alone, or when they are spoken of as filling this 
office ;— and the word is used in this sense in the preceding chapters. 
This part might also be called the phonetic or vocal part, inasmuch as 
it gives its own sound to a very great proportion of the characters; 
but as this rule has a multitude of exceptions, primitive appears to be 
6n the whole the best term. It is not applied thus, however, on ac- 
count of its original use, or for priority of any sort, but merely as a 
6onvenient term to express that part of a character which is not the ra- 
dical ; it is primitive solely because it was formed prior to the compound 
6haracters in which it is found. The term derivative has been used 
tfy Marshman to express the compound characters formed by the union 
6f a radical and a primitive, and when speaking of them in this con- 
Aection, may be used to avoid a periphrasis. 

Tthe number of primitives in the language,— that is the number of 
different characters, exclusive of the 214 radicals, which combine with 
a radical to form derivatives, — is 3867, according to Dr. Marshman 
from whose Clavis the following estimates are derived. They are 
hot, however, all equally prolific in their philological progeny. More 
Hian seventeen hundred of them combine only once with a radical to 
form a third character ; and as they are themselves for the most part 
6ompounds of radicals joined to simpler primitives (i. e. such as 
l^long to class v.), they hardly deserve that name. For instance, one 

6f the derivatives of Iting be is chung ^, formed by joining that 
primitive to the radical min 1^. this compound character joins 
once with yaw yy, to form chung 1§|^ which according to King- 
lif s Dictionary means deflected, and which probably would not be 
met with once in a hiitidred volumes. For all practical purposes, 
t*herefore, these may be excluded from the list of primitives. There 
are also 452 others, formed, generally speaking, in the same manner, 
each of which produces only two philological shoots, and these may 
also be discarded, and for the same reason. These two sums, making 
^178 characters, which, as they are the parents of only 2630 deriva- 
tives, and are themselves mostly included and defined under simpler 
forms, can have little or no influence on the great mass' of characters^ 



OF THIi PKIMITIVKS. 33 

and may be considered, to borrow a term from natural history, as 
aberrant forms of their own primitive. There are then left 1689 
primitives, out of which, by the addition of radicals, are formed about 
five sixths of all the characters in the language. The number of deri- 
vatives from any one of these primitives varies from three up to seven- 
ty -four, which is the highest, but the average is scarcely fifteen to 
each. To this, number, the 214 radicals must be added, (for the ma- 
jority of them also act as primitives in a greater or less degree,) making 
a total of 1903 primitives, from which, by the addition of 214 of their 
own number, at least seven eighths of all the characters in the Chinese 
language are formed: — a proportion, that for all practical purposes, is 
fully equivalent to the whole. 

The primitives may, for convenience, be arranged into five classes, 
according to the relation they bear to the radicals. These are ; 

I. The 214 radicals themselves, when used as primitives. 

IL Primitives formed from a radical by an addition that of itself 
is unmeaning. 

III. Primitives formed from two radicals, or those which can be 
separated into two complete radicals. 

IV. Primitives formed of three or four radicals. 

V. Primitives formed from a derivative by the addition of another 
radical, or by. the combination of two derivatives. 

I. The extent to which the radicals act as primitives is very small 
compared to their more common use. When two combine side by 
side to form a character, that one which gives the sound is, generally 

speaking, the primitive; as md [ffi^ fong j^^ kin ^S shi S3^ 

fdk i|^, <&c. Biit when they are placed in an unusual manner, 

one above another, or different from the mass of characters under the 
radical, the probability is that the word is itself a primitive ; as hang 

^J> iiw @ , chiung S^ tap *^^ mang ^^ li ^p <S&c. Incases 
of this kind, there will be a little difficulty at first in determining un- 
der which of the two radicals to look for the word in the Dictionary, 
but a few trials will fix its place in the memory. For neither of 
these two classes of characters, however, are these remarks of such 
^ general application as to entitle them to the nam'e of rules; thus, out of 
117 characters under shui (water), wliich are made by combining 
that radical with some other one,* 59 follow the first remark ; the other 
58 are of the second sort, or follow neither. In 115 similar charac- 
ters under muk (wood), 72 follow the first remark, and about 20 of the 
others are primitives. Out of 101 under tsd (herbs), 78 retain the 
sound of the primitive jradical. Out of the 333 characters of this sort 

found under these three radicals, only one (niuk jjM) has the sound of 

the radical, and that one is wrongly placed, for it means a species of 
bird, and muk is the primitive. The compilers of the Dictionary 
themselves appear to have had a little perplexity in deciding how 
such characters should be assorted, and in some instances have, ac- 
cording to the principles which usually guided them, placed them 

erroneously. For instance, thoy have placed fi 2s, fine hair, undet 



£A, LEiy, 5 



34 OF THE IMUM!TIVi:S. 

fi instead of md; ngoi -S* is found both under hau and muk; lung 
^ is also repeated. No rule of uniform application can therefore 
be laid down with regard to finding them. Some of the characters 
now used as radicals, when analyzf^d, appear to be composed of two 
simpler radicals, in the same manner as those just spoken of; thus pHi 

J^ is made up of -^ and ^ ^ and its signification ^f long hair, 
together with its mode of combination, seem to bear out the inference, 
which the Shiil Man also corroborates, that it is thus formed ; but in 
h^ung 3^, md w^ and yam ^^^ the present senses of the words 
and the cornposition of the characters, do not all correspond. And on 
turning to the same work, it appears that hhungjs compounded of 
shii ^ and k6m "y ; md is from pa jm^ and vk J^ contracted ; 
and yam is derived from joining in "g* and hau fj ^ placing a line 

in the latter to represent sound. The scholar is very liable to err, there- 
fore, if he attempts to analyze compound characters of this sort from 
their present forms • but compared to the derivatives from them, there 
is no doubt that they are, together with the radicals, among the most 
anciently formed characters in the language. They usually signify 
common things and actions, — they are extensively emplpyed as prim {• 
tives in forming derivatives (see class III.), to which they usually 
impart their own sound, — and their pronunciation has no resemUance. 
to either of the two parts which form them. 

II. The second class of primitives, those which are formed from 
a radical by an addition that of itself is unmeaning, are, as well as 
the radicals, for the most part contracted and modern forms of the 
ancient characters of the language. The compilers of the Diction- 
ary were obliged to refer them to some one of the radicals by ana- 
lyzing their component strokes, for as they are seldom or never joined 
with other primitives to form new characters, so they could not be 
classed among the radicals. It is by their radicals, also, that they are 
placed here, and the so called unmeaning part which remains when 
the radical has been taken away, is in fact an integral part of the 
original character, and cannot be dissevered. They are none of them, 
so far as their present construction is concerned, formed by the union 
of two distinct or simpler radicals ; for if separated, the two parts con- 
vey no meaning. Thus/a< jh not, is inK4nghi's Dictionary placed 
under the radical B which if removed leaves merely two upright 

, heavy, is found under Jg, the addition at top 
having no meaning of itself, nor adding any idea to Zf, which conveys 
the sense of heavy. Characters of this sort, then, are among the ele- 
mentary words of the language. The word i y\ one of the moat 
common in the language, is found under ft yan in K^nghl, but it 

is difficult to assign any other reason for placing it there, than that 
its left hand stroke resembles yan more than any other radical, and it 
must go somewhere; it forms about ten derivatives. The several 



OK 'mis: PKiMiTivKH. :ii} 

words, yau m from, shan ffl to stretch out, and kdp H3 ^M^ales, all 
appear lo^ave been formed from ffl by varionsly lengthening its 

middle stroke ; but ik^p is said by Chinese philologists to be intended 
as an imitation of a scale or bud, aud shan to represent the back of a 
man; each of these three form between tliirty or forty derivatives. Ch^ 

Jf|^ moreover, yik jj|j^ also, tai ^ a younger brother^ ku ^ great, 

p^vk ^ weak, wai j^ to be, tiii J^ opposite, in d^ truly, tai i^ 

an emperor, and many others, as well as the preceding, all therefore 
come into this class. It is estimated by JVtarshnian to contain about 
one fourth of the 1689 primitives. 

III. Primitives under this class, when analyzed, are found to con- 
sist of two complete radicals, although one of the two compoiient parts, 
in some cases, is merely a stroke, as in pit mj, must, ting J a sting 
or nail, tsin^ ^X^ a thousand, yam Jp according to, &c., and others. 
Characters of this form, Uke those spoken of in class II, are among 
the primary words of the language. The majority of this class, 1m>w. 
ever, are readily divisible into two radicals ; ns s^ung m mutual, a 
Im as, AdA; ;&ik each, tm i^ instead of, mt J^ a tail,'ia< "^ hap- 
pioeasy and numerous others. They are easily bisected, and, according 
to Chinese writers on the language, were originally formed from these 
two or from other simpler elements, now a little contracted ; thus, P 
is contracted to /^ in some words. It is however, quite sufficient 

for the present purpose, that they are at present thus combined, and it 
will greatly facilitate the remembering of them as primitives, to re- 
member their two parts. Most of the primitives of this class occur in 

books as among the most common words of the language. Yan RI 

cause, kwan ^ compressed, kwan ^ a round granary, ming 

yj^ name, th^ ^|| at, chuk ^ to domesticate, all belong to this 

class. Some of them are composed of a radical repeated, as lam 

jaS^ a forest, pathg BH a friend, t6 ^ many, kmai ^ a badge of of- 

lice, foin or todn ^^ to rob, im M^ ascending flame, dec; — the three 

last do not often occur as sejmrate words. 

IV. Primitives formed of three or more radicals are few in num- 
ber compared with those in the other classes. Such characters are 
placed here as do not, when the radical is removed, leave a complete 
character, but which are still further divisible into two radicals ; as 

king (j^ a capita], wdk ^^ to paint, shing S^ sacred, chat @ sub- 

stance, I6k ^ pleasure, Jidp ^ to join, tsd dfr to sit, hi ^JK 

to come, kdp fk to double, &c. A few of them are characters, 

where a radical is tripled ; as sd ^^ suspicion, nip ^g to whisper, 

tsui i^ down of fur, lui jS^ a field laid out, d^c; but these are for 

the most partiised in composition* 



36 OF TIIK PKIMITIVES- 

V. This class is composed of derivatives, which become primitives 
by being again joined to radicals. One half of the character will 
therefore be found in one of the preceding classes. Thus, fat ^^ 
suddenly, y^ S^ to change, and yiung J|L to expand, are all found 
under the primitive mat ^ not, and are themselves all joined again 
to several radicals as primitives. Shiung int still, is another in- 
stance ; it combines as a primitive jn tSng ^ a palace, t6ng *g* 

a village, chtung *& to taste, chang *^ to border, 
to bestow, chiung ftjT open or plain, cMung ^^ usual, 
and chiung ^t p^^^ of the hand, all of which combine several tioies 
with radicals to form new derivatives. Derivatives of kSk ^X each, 
as link ^^ a schedule, Zu^ a road, I6k Jj^ glare, and hdk ^ 
a guest, are also primitives. H6p ^ to join, among its seventy, 
four derivatives, has tap ^q> to answer, tap "& to sustain, yap '^n 
to raise, and in ^^ to screen from, all of which again unite more or 
less to . form new derivatives. A few of this class are formed by re- 
peating a derivative ; as k6 ^ an elder brother, king &? cautious, 
king ^^ violent, kik ^ thorns, and tsd -$ a date. Precisely simi. 
lar to this description of words excepting that they do not again com- 
bine with radicals to form new derivatives, are several, which are 
formed by the combination of two primitives ; of this sort are im 
^g beautiful, kwan Sjg round, pi ^^ great, hiung p5 over against 
(same as [pi h6ung)j yik fig a sort of mouse, dec, but they, are 
almost all of them, very uncommon. 

It is principally in derivatives from this class, in which are found 
characters which combine the meanings of the two component parts, 
and which seem to have been put together with that intention. Wdi^ 

^g distorted, ^is, so far as any deductions can be drawn, evidently 
formed by the combination o£ pat /f^ and ching 7F to express this 

sense, but in swne of the other derivatives from ckitigy it is difficult 
to trace any shade of its own meaning of right, correct, &c. Great 
caution is necessary in deducing the meaning of a character from its 
component parts, for a pei^on is as likely to go wrong as right, and 

perhaps more so : for instance, cAi j^ is made up of \^ to walk 
and J^ a rhinoceros, but one would be quite as likely from these two 

parts to say the word nieant to tranrip or walk heavily, as to ipfei its 
true meaning, that of slowness or walking slowly. 

It may be remarked here that in this clarification of the primitives, 
regard has been had only to the present rqode of writing the charac- 
ters, without any ^reference to their ancient form» or to tTieir compo- 
sition as described by Chinese philologists, which in many cases, is 
much more coniplicatfMl, than it is now. As has already been ohserv- 



OF THl-: PUIMITIVKS. 



37 



and 



ed in the radicals, so it is in the primitives — many are interchange- 
able, without altering the sense or sound of the word. Thus tap ES 
««j 0^ tQ tread, are synonyms, just as (oi {& and ^ a bag, are; 

A. * _A xl. 'i.* * 1 ■! 1 • 



in the first instance the primitive is changed, and in the second the 

radical. Pan ^^ and ^ to drag or pull, are alike ; and so are 

'*w^ ^> an^ 1^ a^^ 'j^ ^^ suspend ; in these the apparent reason 

for changing the primitive is that the latter h^s fewer strokes, Num- 
erous instances of this sort might be adduced. This interchanging 
of the primitive, however, is, in the great majority of cases referribl^ 
to a mere identity of sound, without the least reference to the meant 
ing. Such changes are, to borrow a term from alphabetical languages, 
different modes of spelling the characters, rather than synonyms, as 
that word is usually understood. 

In order to show the mode of combining the radicals and primitives, 
to form derivatives, and see what degree of influence they have upon 
the meaning of th^ compound character, two or three examples kre 
given in full, 

Hd "pT may, can, might ; to have liberty or power to do, compe- 
tent, able, admissable. It is formed, says the Shiil Man^ by adding 
hau p a mouth, to hdu 7^ which imparts the s6und. Jt unites with 
forty-one radicals as follows : 



Pi 



H6, Which, what, where, 
who ; an interrogation, quali- 
fied by its context. 

H6, Angry sounds, repre- 
hending one ; to ask. H6 hS, 

ppf PpJ sound of laughter. 

H6, Uneven, rugged, pro- 
gressing. 

Ki, Strange, odd, remarka- 
ble, unusual ; odd, an over- 
plus, a remainder ; one, a sin- 
gle one. 

(T. (Tndj^^ SL beautiful 

appearance. 
H6, Ho lam -w S name 

of a hill in Shdnsi. 

H6, Same as the preceding. 

Hd. To carry on the shoul- 
der, to order persons to go to 
their places; to screw the 
fingers. Read nd or nik, to 
lift up. 




Pi 



(/. A stake to fasten the 
painter of a boat to, that it 
float not. 

H6, To strike ; to grasp hold 

of and raise up. 
0\ An ax-helve ; name of a 

tree. 
H6. To laugh, a loud laugh ; 

noise of laughter. 

H6. Same as h6 gpf, to rcr 

prebend, to rail. 
K6. Appearance of dying or 

death. 
Hd. A river, the yellow ri*- 

ver, par excellence; tin h6j 

^ VpT the milky way. 

H6. Five. 

K6. An incorrect form of k6^ 
tJoT a stake; some say, the 

name of a place. 
K6. A stake to fasten a boat 



to; same as pfb q 




38 



OF TIIK PRIMITIVES. 



._^ O, A gem intcri<H' to jade, 
JP| wiiite ; an ornamental shell. 
.^ O. Disease, sickness; read 
J^ kd^ disease or convulsions of 
children. 

L6. Appearance of a multi. 

^^ tude of small stones piled up ; 

name of a river; same as 

SS H6, To sacrifice. 

]te[ Kdi. A short, pigmy person. 
dgfc K6. Shaft of an arrow. 

6. White silk. 

(X. Same as 6 "g^ the knee- 
pan. 

4bS (y. A boat, a large vessel. 

H6, Troublesome, ' minute, 
vexatious ; circumstantial ; to 
trouble, to reprehend ; quick. 

l|pf H6. Name of an insect. 

H6, A sleeve, same as h6, 
ijS- read kwdy trowsers, a 
shirt next the skin. 

O. Appearance of garments. 

1^ 6. Same as the preceding. 

H6. Some as ho PRj to re- 
prebend, to blame, to speak 



ap. 






t 



¥i 





angrily, to scold, 
jPj Kd. PA ka JE ^ 



. 6. Place where tlie wlieei 
^1^ joins the nave; a carriage 

dragging heavily ; Jtdm 6 ^| 
^[|, impeded, obstructs. 

--^ (/. Bank of stream ; to lean 
pP) a^inst; a pillar; crooked. 
Who, which ; a euphonic par- 
ticle, used before names, and 
at the end of a dubitative 
assertion. 

Kd, Bitter spirit. 

O. A small boiler. 



m 
m 



Pronunciation not known. A 
kind of bat or cudgel. 

H6. To screw the neck in 
order to pry or look imperii- 
nently. 

Sp| O. The knee-pan. 
23 H6. A sort of percli. 

a& Kd, A sort of goose. 

Kd. To gnaw, to bite; read 
kd, appearance, of the teeth. 



m 




K6. Sound ; same as 

to sing; d W, an elder 

brother, a title of respect 

to a stranger. 

O. Able, can, possible; read 

kSf female ornaments. These 

two are instances of two 

derivatives uniting to form 

new characters. 



pearance of walking. 

. In these forty -six derivatives, there is a remarkable uniformity of 
sound, but no similarity of signification can be traced running through 
the characters, neither when regarded as an independent group, nor 

when referred to their primitive. Of the whole number, hd <fer h6 

i^9 ^ P^ ^^ m ' ^"^ ^^ i^combine the most numerously with other 
radicgils to form new characters. 



OF TIIK PRIMlTtVKM. 



39 



jKi, 'S' strange, curious, (sometimes written SJ ), one of these 

derivatives of A<5, and therefore coming under class V., combines with 
fifty -one difierent radicals, as follows : 




ilil 




jj^ F,' According to, to lean a- 

^f gainst, to depend on. 

J. I K{. A crooked sword ; a 

^ crooked chissel pr gouge. 

t^ Kt Head of a winding 

^^ shore. 

jLjc Ki. An extraordinary uxrnian ; 

m good. 

MKL A hobbling, leaping, 
walk; to hop on one foot. 

Also read hU Same as J^ 

Ki. To lodge, as in a tavern ; 
to be under the protection of 
another; to send or forward 
by another. 

KU A mountain path that is 

uneven; same as j^ ki, 

Ai. Appearance of leaning 
or sitting at ease. A store- 
house for old people. 

Ki. A stone bridge ; same as 
^fS" ku To stand up; to 
cross a bridge. 

Ki, Parsimonious, economi- 
cal, sparing ; dissatii^fied, 
uneasy. 
ju^ Ki. To entrap or drag along 
^^ by one foot; to issue or 
educe ; to bring out. 

Ki. To take up with two 
sticks, to nip up. Kam ki 

^b OT ^^ uneven appear- 

ance. 

Ki. Same as ^ ki. 

r. A chair, a couch; the 
name of a tree. 

±JL r. ^ y^ \ ^ anexcla- 
^ mation of admiration and 
surprise. 
Ki, To reject, to cast off'; tdi 



n 



it 



Ki. A distorted tiger's tooth. 
Depraved. 

Ki. and /'. Same as the 
following* Name of a sort 
of cow. 

i. An exclamation ; same as 
^ i. Long, extended; to 
lean against; weak; to be 
near each other, as horses 
when pulling. A tege dog. 

Ti, I I an exclamfttion 
at seeing beautiful foliageT. 

Ki. A precious stone; large 
appearance. Ki wai 1 
a completed utensil of 




It 







^ 



gem. 

Ki. A tabued field belonging 
to the emperor. , A remain- 
der in numbers. Extraoidi.- 
nary. 

r. Same as ki G^ to ridef 



m 




»»* 



an exclama'^ 




^ 



ki ^ ^ ^0 die, death. 



same -as i 

^ Hon. 

L Weak, diseased, delicate ;' 

bedridden ; to bury ; as use-- 

less as if dead. 

Bi Ki, One eyed. 

Ki. A stone bridge. 1^ 
crooked bank or shore ; a 
long coast. 

1\ A short appearance ; same 



« 



S as i ^ 







Ki. Good. 

F. A plenteous growth of 

grain. 
Ki. Variegated, striped ; silk 

used in winter, satin. 

Ki. To apply the car to 
listen. 



40 



OF THE i^ruMiTivi:s. 



MKi. 'I'o lay out, or to set in 
order the flesh for sacrifices* 
lOy Ki» A kind of cicada; a 
S^ spider with very long legs. 
x^ /. Appearance of hcing well 
T*J dressed ; good. 
^^ Ki, Horns on a cow, one 
j^ elevated and one depressed. 

To obtain ; single. 
»^ Ku To laugh or ridicule 
p^ each other ; read Af, irregular, 

Jincohcrent talk. 
Av i* ^ large fierce dog; same 
W a^^i. 

ij^ ki. To bind the leg. To 
5^ lean on one side ; to stretch 
out the leg. 

Ki. Same as ^ fcU the ap* 

pearanfce of walking; of a 
monkey climbing a tree. 
J. /. Side of a vehicle ; place 
Pq in a chariot where soldiers 

piant their spear§. 
A^ Ki. One body alone ; single, 
5^ unassociated. 
^^. I. A kind of division ^ or 
piW ba,nk between fields. I kil 

1 P^ discontented, uneasy. 






«Ki or i. A boiler to dress 
food ; a stand for weapons ; 
a stand or rack for bows; a 
surname* 

AU Ki. Same as hi ^, a fa. 
^ bulous bird. 

Ki. An ancient form of 
ki. 

t. Good. 



/. Fragrant, odoriferous. 

Ki. To stride, to ride on 
the back of an animal; to 
ride horseback. 

Ki. Small bones. 

Ki. Ghost of a child ; same 
as WSi ki. Also garments 






n 





cut out of paper and burned. 



Ki. A .fabulous bird with 
three heads and six tails. 

r. To bite, to gnaw. 



Ifhree out of this groUp again combine to form still more compound 
Characters. Ki -^ to send by one, is the parent of 

•^ Ki. To take up anything with 
Y^ nippers, to use a pair of 

sticks to nip up an object ; 

to contain in. 



>^ Ki. To cross or ford a creek 
^ by stepping stones; this is 

icienticai with ki |nf in sense 
and sound. 



Ki Jj^ long, extended, an exclamation, di.c., also gives rise to two; 

y^» T. The ripple or curl of a ^j^ /'• Luxuriant grain, or graib 
■Jj^ wave ; the dashing of waves, j^ growing plentcously. 

^i |B sfe" it is commonly used, is itself a contraction of one of its 
6wn derivatives. 

mj Ki. An inn for the reception of 

^^ travelers; a sojourner, a! 

wayfarer. I 



Ki.'A bridle or halter; tore- 
strain; tuft of hair on the 
head. 




OP tMli t>RlMlTIVE^. 



41 



l^rom a careful examination of this and the preceding group of cha- 
racters, the scholar will immediately perceive how tnuch more in. 
fluence the radical has upon the meaning of the word than the primi- 
tive ; and he will also observe how lafge a proportion of the characters 
have the same sound as the primitives. If these sounds had been 
written out in the court dialect, still more resemblance to the primitive 
would be manifest. In the first group, all^ except six, have the same 
sound as the primitive, with simply a dialectical variation in the ini- 
tial consonant, from hd to <$ or kd-^-as it is sounded soft or hard. In the 
second group, with one exception, all the characters are either A^ or i, 
both of which sounds are applied to the primitive. If an attempt is 
made to trace any similarity other than sound between the characters, 
or to run a thread of meaning through the whole, which, in each cha- 
racter, shall be modified by the radiceJ, it will instantly be evident, that 
such could hardly have been the idea when first the characters were" 
made. In the second group, the fourth word might, perhaps, be 
brought forward as an exception, and the conclusion drawn that it 
was formed by joining exlraordinary to vxmian^ to give the sense of 
good, or a good woman. Some one of the other significations of A;i, as 
odd, alone, &c., may also be traced in the meanings of a few others of 
its derivatives, but in nearly allj the meaning of the primitive, either 
cannot be traced at all, or else only very remotely, — so remotely 
that it is difficult to suppose that any very great number of characters 
were formed on such principles. 

In addition to these two examples, lung op a dragon, will illus- 
trate the use of a character both as a radical and a primitive. Many 
of the characters found in K^nghi under this, and the three words, ft 

^fe, tsai Tmi and tsing "S*, are homophonous with the radical, hav- 
ing another radical which gives the sense ; perhaps one reason for this 
change was the few characters that would otherwise come under these 
radicals. The first part of this list contains such words as are found 
under other radicals ; the remainder comprises those grouped under 
lung in KdnghU 

Lung, Lung sung | ^^ 

appearance of a lofly hill. 

Lung. To walk in a distort- 
ed manner; hmg Mmg 

^1^ to walk straight ahead 

Lung. Lung tsung j IB 
precipitate, hurried. 

LuTig. Embarrassed, grieved, 

distressed. 
LUng. To grasp« to seize, to 

plunder. 

Lung. Tung lung j|| |^ 
the sun rising. 





Hi 



Hi 







» 



Lung. Lung tung ing lip 
rude, unfinished, imperfect, 
Incomplete. 

Lung. The throat ; hau lung 

|)^ 1^ the gullet, throat, 

esophagus. 

Lung. A great noise ; a 
sound. 

Lung. A barrow in a field, 
a mound. 

Lung. Same as the preced- 
ing. 

Chung. Affection, regard for, 
love, 1)6 ne vole ncc ; gay. 

KA^ LES. (y 









42 

H 



OF THE PRIMITIVES. 




m 




a 







B 








Mil 
nit 




Lung. A house with large 

oi>en windows, or windows 

far apart. 
Lung. A railing to restrain 

animals. 
Lung. Appearance of a driz- 

zling rain ; name of stream. 

Lung. Fire. 

Lung. A precious stone used 
in worship; same as ||| 
lung. Ling lung ^ j^J^'^' 
gling of stones, bright; com- 
plete, perfect in its in kind, 
paragon. 

Lung. To rub, grind ; same as 

^B lung. 

Lung. To rub, to grind; to 
sharpen by grinding. 

Lung. Grain corrupted, 

rotten. 
Lung. A den, a cavern, an 

aperture. 

Lung. A cage, an open work- 
ked basket to hold earth, 
birds, &c.; a quiver. 

Chung. Heavy, added to. 

Lung.y A cage, a basket for 
carrying pigs ; same as ^g 

lung. 
Lung. Same as the preced. 

ing. 
Lung. Deaf, hard of hear- 

ing. 

Lung. Fat, corpulent. 

Lung. A small boat, with a 
cover. 

Lung. A fabulous quadruped. 



Ifi 




m 













Lung. The two thighs of a 

pair of trowsera. 
7!iip« Doubled garments ; to 

receive^ succeed to, heradi* 

tary; because; to enter; to 

invade ; confused, suddenly* 
Chip. Hurried enunciation 

as when panting, or terrified ; 

fear; Read Tdp^ incessant 

talking. 
Lung. Poor, impoverished ; 

appearance of a dragon. 

Lung. Lung tang ^ Jg 

appearance of a child walk* 
ing. 

Lung. Lung tsung 1 xB 
appearance of walking. 

Lung. End of an axle. 

Lung. Lung tung |^ j|^ 

a deformed body. 
Lung. A dyke between fields; 

name of a district; a sur* 

name. 

Chung. Straight, correct. 

Lung. Sound of thunder; 
same as ^S ling. 

Pung. Pung pung 1 1 

appearance of fullness and 
plenty, as a granary; same 

9ap6ng WS, Also read 2^11;^, 

in the same sense. 
Lung. A wild horse. Read 

chdng in chdng luk | 

a good horse. 

Lung. The appearance of a 

broad drum. Also readpdn^ 

in the same sense. 

Lung. To paste up scrolls. 




The couplets, analagous to dissyllables in alphabetic languages, which 
occur in this list, Chinese grammarians call hin h6k tsz\ or clam-shell 
words ; they are numerous in writing, but still more common in con- 
versation, and would probably have become undivisible dissyllables, had 
it not been for the impracticable nature of the written characters. 



OF THE PRIMITIVES. 



43 



||£ flung. An imperfectly seen 
W dragon. 

Rung. Same as the following. 






Kung. To ascend. 

P(^> A lofty house. A 
confused appearance. 

|§ Lung, Name of an animal. 

H6m. Another form of h6nh 
a shrine. 







Lung. Another form of lung, 
^& a wicker-cage or baskets 

rm. A^ high, bright appear. 

ance. 
Lung, Blasted, mildewed 

grain. 

Jjll Lung, Carnation color. 
Lung, Same as lung 













Ling, Same as ling ^ 

Lung. And, with; a cage,' 
to drag, to draw. 

Lung, Same as the preceding. 









Kin. Backbone of a dragon. 
Also read ngity beard of a dra- 
gon. 

Kin. Same as the preceding. 

Kung, To give, to present, 
to supply with ; respectful ; a 
surname. 

Lung, A sort of gem with a 
dragon delineated; used in 
court, and in supplicating for 

rain. Same as lung ^, 

Hdm, To receive; many, 
repeated ; sound, noise ; to 
conquer ; a shrine for Budha ; 
a niche in houses where idols 
or tablets are placed. 

Lung. A wizard; a person 
dealing in supernatural arts. 



Lunff. Sound of thunder. 

o 



Tap. Flying dragon. 

Ling. A dragon, a spirit; 
good. 

Tap. Dragons in motion. 



There is about the same proportion of homophonous words in the 
first part of this list, that is found in the two preceding, but still less 
reference to the meaning of the radical is perceptible here than in the 
characters under h6 and H. Six of the characters in the second part 
ought to have been distributed under their other radical; and in how 
many of the remainder, lung gives the meaning, and in how many it 
gives the sound, can easily be seen. 

It is thus apparent, that a great proportion of the characters of the 
Chinese language have been formed by the union of idea and sound, 
being, in fact, partly of an ideographic, and partly of a syllabic nature. 
Although both of these parts, when separate, are independent and 
significant words, yet, when joined as has been shown above, to form 
new characters, one is seen to lose its sound altogether, and the other 
in a great mHJority of cases its sense. If this is the case, it is roam, 
fest why the most common characters were chosen as the phonetic 
part. The invention of symbols as representatives of things signified 
does not appear to have been carried to such an extent as to make 
them available for any very extensive use, the whole amount of all 
kinds, according to Chingtsji\i, being only 2425. It may be sup. 
posed that the plan of procedure at first was as follows. The spoken 



44 OF THE PKIMITIVES. 

language was already weU understood, but wlien Ta'ongkat (or who* 
ever else invented characters) wished to reduce it to writing, he, in. 
stead of making arbitrary marks or letters to represent sound, as has 
been done in other languages, endeavored to depict the thing itself' 
and to this hieroglyphic he applied the well understood name in the 
spoken language, but contrived no clue by which a person ignorant of 
that name could ever ascertain it from the character. But with the 
utmost ingenuity, it would be difficult to make a sufficient number, 
without, on the one hand making them so complicated as to be aknost 
useless as media of communication, or on the other so much alike as to 
be undistinguishable. Hence, the plan was devised of combining exist- 
ing symbols in such a way as to represent sound. This suggestion, 
according to Chinese philologists, arose from the imperfection of the 
Symbolical system, ^to which,' say they, * there are limits, bat to the 
syUabic system, there are no limits.' From this remark, together 
with the examination of the lists just given, it is plainly inferred that 
pronunciation bears a prominent part in the Chinese written language.' 
It has just been shown that many characters change their form 
without changing their sense or sound, but probably not a single 
character can be found which does not take another meaning if thie 

sound or tone is changed. Thus hd i^ with one tone, means good; 
with another, it means to love ; 6k Si, means wicked, but u " 



means to hate. 

The mode of combining the ideographic and phonetic symbols in 
the formation of new words, appears to have been to select some 
common character of precisely the same sound as that by which the 
object in view was known, and join to it a symbol expressive of its 
most prominent feature. Thus, in the colloquial language, md-nd sig« 
nified a cornelian or agate. To form a hieroglyphic symbol for this 
mineral was impossible ; no accuracy of delineation, consistent with 
its use as a word, could distinguish it from any other stone, or prevent 
it from becoming a mere arbitrary collection of strokes. Recourse 
was therefore had to the syllabic system. The well understood sym- 
bol for gem or stone^ joined to two symbols of exactly the same sound, 

forming either j^ J^ or ^|l If^^ produced characters sufficiently- 
definite, and which briefly expressed the md-nd gem or stone. In 
Canton, where from intercourse with foreigners, many previously 
unknown articles and terms have been introduced, the number of 
modern characters formed on this principle is considerable; some of 
them, from long use, have become pretty well fixed 5 in others, they 

are changeable. Examples of this sort are mt-sz^ ^ "Jt ^or Mr.j 
kd'fi ^ rife for coffee ; p6ng $^ for pound, &c. ; Hung p6 ^ |^ 
for ginger beer is partly descriptive and partly phonetic. The same 
plan is adopted to express the sounds of many local words, both in this 
and in other provincial dialects, for which no authorized charactc^rs 
are found. It only requires, general use, and an introduction into 
standard works to make such characters as authorized as any others 
ii^ the language. In this way, therefore, a great majority of the Chi, , 



OF THH PKIMITIVES. 



45 



nese characters have originated. It has been shown that the sound 
in many cases is only similar to the phonetic primitive, so that only 
a gjse^t degree of probability can be attained regarding the sound of 
the characters by mere inspection, but this probability is so great as to 
prove very useful in ascertaining the sound, after that of the primitive 
is known. 

The derivatives of ting exhibit a few characters in which that 
sound is used as if imitating the sense of the word, showing an 
analogy in Chinese to what is found in almost every language — a 

similarity between the sense and sound of words. THng HT is an 

ancient hieroglyphic for a sting, or a nail; its former use is lost, and it 
now means, a nail, bolt, pin ; to nail, to fasten ; a person, a member of 

a profession, or one of a calling; as ping ting £l HT a soldier; nung 
ting ^ "T* a husbandman, <S^c. 

X^ Chang, A threshold, same as 
ytM ehdng. Also read ting^ 

sound of felling timber. 
yj" Ting. Sandy bank by a river 
* J side ; a level shore. 
rfnr Ting. A strong vehement 

/N firo 



* Ting, /A portico, a wayside 
* stile or porch to rest under; 
a high house ; a dome resting 
on pillars ; even, straight. 
Formed of Ad high, and ting, 
which gives sound, 

Jhr Ting. Alone, walking alone ; 

ling ting j^ fj solitary. 

/T JHng. Icy, appearance of ice. 

PJ Ting. Ting ning p J P^ to 
enjoin repeatedly, to charge 
upon. 

T^ng. Even, level ; footsteps 
in a field. 

Ting. A woman's name. Also 
read tin, a beautiful appear, 
a nee. 

Chii. Space between th6 gate 
and screen in the palace 
where ministers waited. 

>|j Ting. Alone; ling ting ^ 
;^T walkjj^g alone, same as 

^^S "fy ^"^ I^T ^^"^* 
tr Ting. Indignant ; ting ruing 

1 t^ perturbed or moved, 
because not successful, 

Td. To strike, to beat, thump, 
fight ; an auxiliary implying 
a doing. 






T 



tr 



'^ * ulcer 



fire. 
JH Ting. Bricks. 

J J Ting. Sound of gems jirlgling. 

nrr Ting, A path trodden in a 
^* field, a dyke used for a foot- 
path. "" 

A venereal sore, an 
leer that has a head or hard 
core. 

^y Ting. Ballast for boats. 

g-p C Jiang. To look straight a- 

^^ head, to gaze. 

t^ Chang. A small protuberance, 

~T" a small jutting out. 

AM THng. A bamboo case or 

■' drawer. 

J&TT Ting. Rice placed on the 

laDie. 

j^-j- Ch4ng. Appearance of silk 

^rJ or «nrH ntinkinir iinriD'ht. 



m$ 



or cord sticking upright. 

ring. Ting ling ™ ^ a 

very small net. 
±-r Ting. A piece of wood at the* 
^* ' bottom of Q hand plough, 



46 



OF THK PRIMITIVES. 



yrj Ting. Ting ning ] ^ ear | JjJ 
wax, or matter from the ear. 

OT Ting. Food placed for orna- afrp 

ment ; same as ting €T, 

"Tp Ting. A plant resembling tea. j ghf 
JuL 



Chang. A sort of dragon-fly 
or libellula. 






TVng'. To settle the breath. 

Hang. Same as hang ||, 

long horns. 

Ting. To criticise, to exam- 
ine ; to settle, compare, col- 
late, edit ; criticism. 

T^ng. Appearanceof pigs and 
hogs. 

Ching. A carnation color. 

Also written ]nr ching. 

Ting. Walking alone. 
Read change walking slowly. 
Read ching, walking crook- 
edly. 

Ting. A carriage stopping. 






ij 



Ting. Name of a district; the 
name of a porch. 

Ting. To get drunk; ming 

ting ^ ^J drunk, inebnat- 
ed. 

Ting. A nail, bolt, pin; to 
nail, to make nails ; to work 
metal ; to bind books ; to fieo- 
ten. 

Mdn. Same as ^^ tnun. 

Ting. Name of a mound. 

Chang. Rain. 

THng. To mend the soles of 
shoes. 

Ting. The top, tip, summit, 
vertex, crown; summit of 
a hill ; knob of cap ; to cany 
on the head. 

IHng. Food placed on a table. 
Ting. Same as ting XS, 



'^ j Ting. Bone of the leg. 



In the old and unused character ling ^T , to strike, ting acts the 
part of a radical. 

Thirty-six out of the forty-seven characters in this list have the 
same sound as the primitive. A few of thepn, appear, from their 
meanings, to have been formed by the union of the two ideas in the 
radical and primitive ; ting, an ulcer or a sore that comes to a hard 
head, might be adduced as an instance; ting, to criticise, was perhaps 
formed by a reference to the duties of a critic or editor, that of nailing 
or settling the text; the composition of ting, a dragon-fly, might also 
have been suggested by its nail-like body; and so opting, to mend 
shoes, and perhaps one or two others. But in the greater part, the pri. 
mitive appears to have been joined to the radical because it had the 
same sound as that by which the thing or action was known in the 
colloquial language; for instance, the sounds of the phrase ling ting are 
found under three different radicals, each having the same meaning, 
but no similarity can be discovered between the signification of the 
primitive and of the derivative. Two instances of similarity in the 
of sense and sound— those of ting, the jingling of gems, and ting^ 
the sound of felling timber— -occur in the group. The number of words 
and phrases of this sort in Chinese is not known, but probably the 



OP THE PRlMlTlVEal* 47 

ptopoftion is much the same as in other languages. They are most 
numerous under the radical lutu (a mouth). 

Attempts have heen made by scholars to trace a leading idea run- 
ning through all words containing the same primitive. Dr. Marshman, 
in a chapter on the primitives, in his Clavis (republished in the Chi- 
nese Repository, vol. IX., page 303), has several groups of characters, 
throue;h which he endeavors to trace one leading idea ; his remarks 
are worthy of attention, and have not been overlooked in writing these 
paragraphs. Mr. Lay, in an article in the Chinese Repository (vol. 
VII, page 255), has also several remarks on this subject ; and M . 
Gallery, a French gentleman, has published a dictionary .on this plan. 
These writers have probably said nearly all ttat is worth saying 
on the subject. There can be no doubt that many characters can be 
selected from the body of the language, whose component parts do 
give the idea of the derivative ; several have already been brought for- 
ward. They are worthy of notice because they frequently illustrate 
Chinese notions ; but as they have been often quoted and illustrated 
by writers on the language, they have, perhaps more than any one 
thing else, tended to strengthen an idea current in the west, that the 
Chinese language is a wonderful collection of ideographic symbols, 
which are intelligible to diflferent nations merely by presenting them 
to the eye, while they cannot be understood when spoken; and that 
in some magical way, a Chinese, a Coch inchinese, and a Japanese, 
who had never before seen each other, and could not understand a 
word of each other's conversation, as soon as a phrase in Chinese was 
handed to them, were able to communicate intelligibly. An anecdote 
is told of Scaliger, who, being visited one day by a scholar from 
Edinburgh, and addressed in Latin, begged his pardon, and requested 
an explanation, as he did not understand Gaelic. He would have un- 
derstood, if his visiter had written his salutation, and this is just the 
case with the three Asiatics. The preceding paragraphs will tend to 
explain the manner in which this idea has originated, and show that, 
as there is no integrant sound in the character itself (as there is in 
an alphabetical word) which can be learned by inspection, or by 
observing any rules of pronunciation, its sound must be learned 
traditionally, while its meaning is ascertained from dictionaries, or 
from the context. This peculiarity has, probably been the chief cause 
of the dialects now existing in the empire. 



48 OK KLl.VDLNG \\U V^KITlNCi. 



OF READING AND WRITING 



It has been shown in the preceding chapter^ that one primitive 
when joined to a number of radicals, gives its own sound to a large 
proportion of the characters thus formed. Of course, the soaiidB 
of the langtiage were well understood in conversation, and the tones 
accurately distinguished long before the characters were made to 
which they were applied, but it appears highly probable that after the 
characters came into use, and when those who used them in writing- 
endeavored also to talk in the same style, that some difficulty was 
found in being understood^ Moreover, the words were all monosylla- 
bles, and many very common ones were sounded precisely alike, 
which added to the doubt of the hearer. One mtxie employed to reduce 
the difficulty has been referred to, that of combining two words of the 
"^me meaning, but having different sounds, to express one idea; and 
the great number of these dissyllabic combinations found in the writ- 
ten language, with the still greater number in use in the sppken, show 
how well suited it was found to remove this evil. Still, there were 
many cases in which doubt might arise, and to obviate it, the tones 
of the several characters were carefully distinguished. According to 
Dr. Morrison's Dictionary-, which places all words with and without 
aspirates together, there are in the court dialect, four hundred and 
eleven different monysllables ; in the Fukien dialect there are more 
than double that number; and in the Canton, according to the Fan 
Wan, there are, including aspirated sounds, four hundred and thirty- 
seven. In each of the three, they are increased by the application 
of four tones, which are still further multiplied by dividing each into 
a high and a low tone. 

At the commencement of his studies, if he has the aid of a native 
teacher, the scholar should give his careful attention to the tones; but 
if he is without such assistance^ no satisfactory progress can be made, 
and it is hardly worth his while to spend much time upon them. But 
with a teacher, let him spend an hour or more each day in simply 
reading Chinese, any book he has at hand, for the sole purpose of 
familiarizing himself with the sounds of the language. Let him fol- 
low the teacher's voice as exactly as it is possible for him to do, not 
content with one^ two, nor half a dozen trials, but until he is satisfied 
that his own ear detects no difference between the teacher's enuncia- 
tion and his own. Of course, no one can have anv other standard of 
sound than this, and if this is not accurate, his pronunciation never 
will be. Constant practice at reading this way, (it is the Chinese 
mode,) imitating and following the teacher's voice, with his attention 
also specially directed to the same end, will sooner give the scholar a 



tfF READING AND WRITING. 49 

j^ractii^) knowledge of the tones than any other mode. He will learn 
the tone as an integral part of the sound of the character) and not as 
if it was an addition to it. 

Although it is impossible for a beginner to learn the tone of a charac- 
ter from barely observing any nice distinction of rules or diacritical 
marks, still the tones can be e:i^lained,.and a few marks will material, 
ly aid the scholar who has already obtained an acquaintance with 
them, in recalling and remembering the proper one — just as the notes 
of music aid the singer after he has learned the octave. Several au- 
thors'" have attempted to explain the tones, and from their remarks a 
few paragraphs are brought together in this place, which' will afford a 
brief outline of the subject. 

The four tones in Chinese are the P^ing siting ^ ^ pA even tone, 

the SMung sJung, J^ ^ ascending tone, the Hii shingy ^ mC 

departing tone, and the Yap shtng^ ^ Wt entering tone. The last 

three tones are collectively called tMk shing^ JX ^ or deflected 

tones, but the p^ing shing always retains its own name. Each ia 
divided into an upper and lower tone, according as it is pronounced 
more or less elevated, making in all eight distinct intonations in two 
series of four each. The degree in which these two series vary firom 
each other is not the same in all the tones; the upper and \owerff ing 
sMng being distinctly marked, while there is very little perceptibto dif- 
ference between the upper and lower shtung shing* 

The p^ing shing is precisely the musical monotone, pjfonounced 
without elevation or depression, being the natural unconstrained ex- 
pression of the voice ; the Chinese say, " its even path is neither high 
nor low.*' Thus in the sentences, 

. I am going to town ; 
1 hope it will not rain ; 
You must look and sec ; 

if the last word in each is sounded in somewhat of a dissatisfied or 
commanding tone, higher than the other words, the previous part of 
the sentence will naturally fall in the p^ing shing. In questions, ut. 
tered in a pleasant inviting tone, the words preceding the last natural- 
ly fall in the upper p^ing shing ; as. 

Will you let me see it ? 
Will you come too ] 

The negative answer to such questions (spoken by the same voice), 
would naturally fall into the lower p^ing shing; as. 

When I asked him; * Will yoU let me see it V he said, * No, I'll do no such 
thing.* 

Here the different cadence of the qiiestion and reply illustrate the 
upper and lower pHng shing. Native scholars consider this tone as 
the most im^rtant ; one writer says, respecting it : 'Mn harmonizing the 
tones, the greatest attention should be given to the p^ing shing ; there. 

* Sec the preface to Medhurst's Dictionary of the HokkS^n dialect, Dyer's 
Vocabulary of the Hokk^en dialect, the introduction to the Chinese Chrestomathy, 
preface to Dr. Morrison's Dictionary, Vol. I., and this Chinese Repository, Vol, 
VII., page 57, and Vol. VI., page 579. 



XdA% LiEs^. 



50 OF READING AM) WRITING* 

fore, the firdt enuneiatton makes that tone ; i^ise the voice* and it 
makes the shiung sJnng ; as it passes aWay, the hii shing is made ; the 
four tones completed, the yap sMng is formed." 

The shtung shing is a rising inflection of the voice ending higfaer 
than it began, such as is heard in the direct question, pronounced in 
somewhat of a high, shrill tone ;-^'* it loudly calls, vehement, ardent^ 
strong." It is also heard in exclamatory words, bb ah! Can U he! 
The last word of the preceding sentences are in the eJiiung shing. 

The hu shing is a prolonged tone,- diminishing while it is utteredf 
just as a diminuendo^ or an inverted swell, does in music, and sounded 
somewhat gruffly. The Chinese say that it «« is clear^ distinct, its 
dull, low path is long ;" and they call it the departing tone, because 
it goes away like flowing water never to return. It is the converse cf 
the sMung shing, ending lower than it began. The lower hii shing is 
nearer a monotone, not so gruff as the upper. The drawling tone of 
repressed discontent, as when one calls, but is still afraid of offending 
and ekes out the sound, may perhaps illustrate this tone. 

The yap shing is on the same key as the p^ing shing, and might 
be briefly described as that tone truncated or cut off; in this dialect 
it always ends in k, p, or U The (])hinese, having no orthography* 
cannot distinguish this tone as the foreigner does, by its consonantal 
termination ; they say, " it is short, snatched, abrupt, and quickly tree, 
sured up," which pretty well describes it. It is, as if a man sounding 
the p^mg shing, should be suddenly taken with a hiccup, and stop it 
half way ; if the word lock be sounded, but the last two consonants 
omitted, it gives the yap shing. However, the scholar will always re- 
cognize this tone by its termination. 

The correct application of the tones to every word in speaking or 
reading is the principal difficulty with which the beginner has to 
contend. In English, they are all heard in conversation every day, 
according to the different humors of people, or their peculiar mode 
of enunciation ; but in that language, tunes of voice never affect 
the meaning of the speaker, except so far as they indicate his feel* 
ings; and moreover, they are applied to sentences, rather than to 
isolated words. In Chinese, on the contrary, the tones are applied- to 
every word, and have nothing to do either with accent or emphasis; in 
asking or answering, intreating or refusing, railing or flattering, sooth- 
ing or recriminating, they remain ever the same. The unlettered native 
knows almost nothing of the learned distinctions into four and eight 
tones, but he attends to them closely himself, and detects a mispro- 
nunciation as soon as the learned man, while he is much less likely 
to catch a foreigner's meaning. 

A Chinese schoolmaster usually marks the tone of every character 
in the classical books which he puts into the hand of his pupil, but in 
printed books they are never marked, except in a few cases to prevent 
doubt, where the same character has two different tones and correspon- 
ding different significations. Thus, shik ^^ means to eat; but 
when marked^ -^^ it is read tsz\ and means to nourish or feed, id, . 
in the lower jp^in^ shing means to labor; but Id jm in the lower 




OF READING AND WBITING. 51 

Au tkmg, means to reward labor. WS jEp means mlldnew, peace; 
to6 ^ 18 to harmonize. But even these are much oftener left nn. 
marked than marked, for the intelligerl reader is expected to learn 
their meaning ftom the context, — just as a present and to pretent are 
never accenied in English. The Chinese illustmie the modulation of 
the tones by the following diagram, which also shows their mode cf 
marking them at the four corners of the character. When a Chinese is 
oaked in what tone any given character is, and doubts concerning it, he 
rum it through the four, until his ear catches the true sound, and 
many persons have a habit of aiding their ear in doing this by turning 
down a' finger for each tone. 



i. Sheung $king, 
Rising tone. 



1. P^ing $kingi 
Even tone 




3. Hu thing, 
Receding tone. 



4. Yap thing, 

Km 

Entering tone. 



One character, employed, in connection with this diagram, to re. 
present to the native student the mode of sounding (he tones, is j^, 
which has the whole four. Reiid itm (in the p' irtg ahing), il xcK&tta 
ease; read 'im (in the shtung), it means to dislike ; read fm' (in the 
hit), it means su^icient; and read if, (in the yap shing), it means to 
proitrate or conceal. 

The authority for the tones in this dialect is the Fan Wan ^ |^ 
(or divided sounds), a small Tonic Dictionary in four volumes, in 
which more than seven thousand of the most common characters are 
arranged a(»;ording to their sounds. They are divided, according to 
their termination, into thirty-three orders as shown in the following 
table. The first half of the table contains those characters which are 
considered as the standards of sound ; the characters in the second half 
have been selected from the body of the book to illustrate the lower 
tones, and to aid the scholar in discriminating the two series. It will 
be seen that the initial sounds in the two are (except in one instance) 
unlike, which results from the want of a complete number of character! 
in the lower toties having the same iDitial as thoae in the upper. 



OP READING AM>- WHITINR. 



1. 


1 n- i 1. f i 1 


s 


= 1 -_ -= 1 ti i Hi '1 1 2 = i 


Hi 


.K,ll||il,liifi 


hi 


4|,.,l||||l«1.|3|| 


" ^ 


i: ^-f^-s^*® oi: sa 





««K-HaE<^Effiffl*«^«HHm 




■s*«s?^t«5^if §:^^- ^*»!as 


i 


«^«^sff«^es!i><^i4Jfl.:#jK*5sjis 


i 1 


- . , , O . . . 0. o ^ . , , „ ^ 




« iiiJi i i 


l=i 


ii.liliilllsiaf^ 


I.'' 


5 1 ^ 1 1 1 1 i II i ^ 1 3 1 > 


S If 


|l^l i ||lllls,§3 1.^ 




m ««**«; to » 


s „ 


3|BKK»f?i(lfeSf€s^«&S;:Sg3<^l8H 


h -« 


«^.%i-W®(!«»aW*S*K4o«»*-« 


o il 


M'<^m^mm^w'mmsum^ms 


-""'"---- = = 22=22 



OF READINKii AND WHITING. 



53 



CI. 

a 



S s 






2 8 5-3 

-•^ \^* .^ I— I 









x3 



*? -o eto 



S 5 - 



S 3 g ;<3 ^ 



c S S 



hn ^= ^= 

g^ s a 



s 



9 

s 



WJ vt 



Wl Wl 






'«l VI 



so 
09 









s 









Wl Wl 



S 3 



^ ^ vet 



be 






W| Wl 



Wl Wl 



x3 

B 



vOJ 






a 



s 

^o 



bo 

c 



bf) 



Wl Wl 

















I* QD 0& O pH W CO 
ii f>H ii Ot Ot (N (N 



:^ »0 QD l^ 
C< (N (N (N 



OD O O «-H 



C9 CO 









^ i2 



a. 



>ed 






G3 
S 

GO 



3 

CO 



nc3 5 "^ 

-« c2 -i<: 



^3 



C 
^3 

J5d 






a 



6 -S 



^ ^ J: -S 



i 5 p s . 

^ 3 I 3 B 

^ fcrf fcrf ^ ** 



3 



'3 «o I J :? ^= 



^^ ^ ■^ 



\3 -fl 



-§ •» ■! 



S 3 -S S 3 



1 i2 5 I :5 I 



.0 -^ 



O Jtf 



6 



# ^"i^^ 



4a 










Tm^' Q\ Qd 




lEl'f'*^' 



<i1^ 













I* 00 Oi o *-^ 
>-< ^ ^ y> CI 



(N GO sif lO QD t* 
01 <N CQ y> g< 01 



00 06 O f-H G9 CO 
W <N 00 CO CO 00 



54 OF READING AND VVRITIIV«. 

This table of. sounds should be learned thoroughly, in their proper 
order together with all the characters of the upper series, and it will be 
a good exercise* for the scholar to read over with his teacher the lists 
of characters which are found in the index (leaves 1 — -13) of the Fan 
Wcoh making him enunciate them very distinctly, and distinguish the 
two series of upper and lower tones, which are there placed together. 
The necessity of accurately learning the tones and the aspirates, 
cannot be too strongly impressed on the beginner. A great part of 
his usefulness will depend on his ability to converse, itnd people 
will hear him with much greater pleasure if he speaks accurately as 
well as fluentl/. 

There are several deviations from the standard in pronouncing the 
words comprised under several of the classes^ which perhaps arises from 
an endeavor to multiply the number of different sounds in conversation. 
For instance, some of the words ending in ai of the 2d order, in au of 
the 5th, in an and at of the 8th, in ang and ap of the 15th, and in am 
and ap of the 17th, have a tendency to run into the long vowel sounds 
of di, duy an and~a^, ang and dk^ and of dm and dp of other orders; in 
some instances the change is complete, in others it is about half way. 
Many of the words ending in ing and ik of the 7th order, are usually 
heard sounded as eng and eA:, while others, which are placed in the 
same order in the Fan Wan^ are by most of the common people 
sounded ang and oA;, differing a very little from the words in the 15th 
order. The termination {t^ in kii of the 12th order, in more than half 
of the words placed in it, is exchanged for d ; an attempt appears to 
have been made by the compilers of the work to discriminate between 
the two; in some words the distinction is well marked between the H 
and the d, while in others, some doubt arises which way the word 
should be written. Further observations on these 33 orders are to be 
found on pages viii — x of the Introduction lo the Chinese Chresto* 
mathy. 

The plan of marking the tones, when writing the sounds of the 
character in Roman letters, is a great assistance to the scholar in re- 
membering them ; he by degrees associates a certain mark with a 
certain tone, and the one aids in recalling the other. In the Fukien 
dialects, there are only seven tones (the upper and lower shimg siting 
being regarded as one), which are thus marked in Medhurst's Dictio- 
nary. 

P^ing shtng. < Shiung shtng, 

\ 5f hoUnf 

Hu shing. j^ Yap shing. 

v)p|| kwun. 

In Dr. Morrison's Dictionary, the tones are not appended to the 
word, being written only once in brackets adjoining each character. 
In the Chrestomathy, Jones' system of speUing is employed, which 
requires accents upon some of the vowels, thus preoccupying the top 




ktoiin* 
kimU. 

kwiit. 



OF READING AIVD WRITING. 55 

of the vowelsi so that iio marks for the tones can be placed without 
confusion. An attempt has been made in that work to imitate the 
Chinese mode«' with an addition of a horizontal line ' underneath in 
order to distinguish betwedii the upper and k)wer series ; thus, 

. ^ cyan* ( |^ ^yan* 

P^ing sJdng. < SMung shing. 



1 






Yap shtng. < 

% y^\* ( yati. 



Hu iking,, •< .. Yap shtng. 



This system of pronunciation, and this niode of marking the toneSi 
are adopted in the following pages. 

JBesides the division of characters by this system of tones, there are 
many which are distinguished from each other by aspirates. This 
has been denoted by the French sinologues by an A, as thang ; other 
writers have expressed it by the common Greek spiritus asper ( < ) 
placed after the initial consonant and before an A; when that mark 
could not be obtained, an inverted comma ( < ) has been employed. 

The aspirate is called p^an hi ps ^f but the Chinese have no mark 

to denote it, leaving the scholar to learn it by the ear alone. It is a 
very important part of pronunciation, as much so in every respect as 
the tones, and should be particularly attended to. The aspirated cha- 
racters are arranged by themselves in the Fan Wan^ and reading them 
over with the teacher several times will aid in remembering them. 
It is marked in this work by the spiritus aisper; as T^U ^dng^ 6^c. It is 
almost wholly confined to words beginning with A:, kwy ch, /, and p. 

In reading Chinese books, the scholar sensibly feels the want of the 
various marks of punctuation, capital letters to distinguish proper 
names, and other grammatical additions to the bare text, which so 
much facilitate the understanding of books in western languages. 
He should therefore request his teacher to accurately punctuate the 
books he reads, and have him mark the names of persons and places, if 
they occur frequently. There are appropriate marks to indicate these, 
but in the most finished pieces of composition, the sentences are so 
franked, that the intelligent reader feels no need of any marks to show 
their division into sentences, and they are therefore in such writings 
usually omitted. The Chinese regard the characters as very elegant 
in themselves, and prefer a severe simplicity, destitute of the least 
addition. The want of a well understood system of punctuation,, 
however, is a cause of many discrepancies in their standard works, 
and a fruitful source of misapprehension in reading. Sometimes, espe- 
cially in school-books, and geographical and historical works; dec, it 
is otherwise. There is an edition of the Four Books, called Sz* Skii^ 

Li ku, tsf'p ch% PQ ^ ^1 >^ ^ ^ or "the Four Books divided 

into sentences, with comments" by Chii futsz', which is carefully punc 
tuated, and on this account, is better for a beginner than any other 
edition. The Kdng Kdm F Chi (or History Made Easy) is also very 



Ob 



OV READING AND WRITLNG. 



carefully punctuatedi According to this work, ^ a complete propotfilioiif 
where the sense also is complete, makes a period (kii ^), and is indi- 
cated by a small round mark placed at the side of the word [where it ter- 
minates]. A complete proposition, where the sense is not complete, 

makes a clause (tau ^), fltncf is indicated by a small round mark 

placed between the words." The former of these answers to the period 
in English, the latter to the comma ; the first is frequently met with in 
common books, but the last is mfore seldom used. 

Paragraphs are indicated by a large circle (^ placed between two 

sentences in the column, and called tdi hthi, but neither is this mark 
much used. There is a mode of emphasizing certain passages, analo- 
gous to the use of italics and capitals in English, frequently employedt 
which coriisists in mfarking a row of points or circles down the column, 
one or ni'ore opposite each character. This plan has been refined upon 
by the compilers of the Kdng Kdm^ who have, by a row of white open 
circles given praise to the subject matter of the passage, and by a row of 
black circles, passed censure upon it. Names of places are sometimes 
designated by double lines drawn down the side of the characters, while 
names of persons are marked by a single line drawn in the same man- 
ner-^both of which are shown in the following sentence, taken, from 
the Sdm Kwdk Chi, Names of books are, in K4nght, in the P^ 
TV'd, and in some other works,' quoted by being inclosed in lines drawn 
around them. 



« 


A 


n 


• 


E 


^ 


^• 


S 


Sc. 


f. 


M 


m 


ru 


0* 


^> 


Kl- 


^ 


ti 


7- 


« 


^k. 



n m 

««Tan^ said,^/ also have a plan;^ then entering and seeing Liipd 
he said, <^Chiichow will be attacked on all sides, and Ts5 will stre- 
nUdusly fight.' " 

There is another way of marking respect, somewhat analagous to 
Capitalizing or spacing a word in English, common in public docu- 
ments, prefaces, &c., which. is done by placing the word or name at 
the top of a neW column. The rule appears to be to place the name 
of the reigning emperor's &ther or ancestors four characters above 
the other columns; the name or titles of tlie emperor himself, three 
characters above the rest; the palace, the laws, the capital, or what. 



OF RBADING ATft) WRITtNO. 57 

ch&taetera above the rest; the palace, the capital, th9 laws, or what* 
ever emanates from his majesty, are elevated two characters ;. the 
Tribunalsy high officers, dsc, are placed one character above the other 
columns. Emphatic words, honorable epithets, dec, begin a new 
column, but at the same elevation. When there is not 8;)ace for a 
new column for high officers or honorable appellations, it is considered 
as indicating the same respect to write the same in the column, only 
leaving a blank space before the first word equivalent to one character. 
The mode of marking these various grades is not, however, always 
the same; — ^for instance, when an inferior mtigistrate issues an edict 
that has been received from his sa{)eriors, he elevates the latter's names 
or titles two or three characters above the other columns, according 
to their rank. The words to express the reigning emperor or dynasty, 
however, are always placed the highest in all official papers or books 
in which they are mentioned. There is also a mode, the opposite of 
ibis, of expressing one's^self by a kind of degradation in the position 
of the character, which is indicated by writing it in a smaller size 
to the right of the column. The most usual mode, however, is to 
avoid writing the name by using some well understood periphrasis'. 

Some further explanation of the system of pronunciation adopted 
will conclude the remarks on reading. The system proposed by- sir 
William Jones, afterwards recomniended by Mr. Pickering, and now 
i^dopted, with some variations, throughout almost all India, in the is. 
lands of the Pacific, and among the native tribes of North America, 
seems better fitted than any other to express the sounds of the Chi. 
nese language. And with very few exceptions and alterations, it is 
followed in this work. The system is too well-known to need here any 
explanations, and too generally approved to need any defense. The 
changes made in it are such as the peculiarities of the Chinese lan- 
guage necessarily require. In defining the letters, no attempt has 
been made to distinguish the double vowels from the true diphthongs, 
nor to separate the consonants into difierent classes. This list con- 
tains only those that are found in this dialect. 

VOWELS AND DIPHTHONGS. 

ia pronounced as in quotay America^ agreeablej and like short u 
in tun, pun-^e, g. j^ kauy m hang. 
a pronounced as in calm, balm,father--e, g. £l4| jfcJm, i^ icdng* 
e pronounced as in men, hen, which is heard in many words 

2. I under the 7th order, — e. g. >^ shek, .¥S teng. 
i pronounced a§ a in nuxy, lay, and as ei in neigh-'^, g. W«^. 
i pronounced short as in put, sin — e. g. flj sing, 

3, J i pronounced long as in machine, marine^ pdice — e. g. =P ftii 
^ min. 

-4, ■ - 6 pronounced as in lord, as aw in awftd, and as a in aU, tall-^ 
c. g. ^ kd, ^ hdn. 
6. b pronounced as in no, so ; or as ow in snow, floWf glovh"^, g; 

SA. LES, 8 



GO OF BEADING AND WRITING. 

racters, sign.boards, dtc., with ample directiona for each. Id « 
tii« Chinese begin with the upper or horizontal atroltes, then ttA . 
tbo upright vtiBs, aflerwarda thuse on the left aide, and tiiiw|^M| 
word on the riglit. All the elementary strokes are considered a" *- 
coqibined tn the character Wing, eternal. 




The component strokes of Ibis character are thus named in bodni 

but the common lerm^--, which form ihe lower line of words, are dit- 
ferent ; both or them are inserted in the middle of the strokes in tbia ' 
diagram, and their niimes run as follows : ., - 

A— M X7 y -vv 

W i) ^ ® n ^ « « ■; 

ctiak. lak, ^na yeuk^ ch'ak. l^ukt teuk> chaki.,' 
, 'Urn tVKLng shff it'aw CW p'it, /a/. n&t, :.,. 
( dot. hohzonUl. perpendicular, hook. ipike, sweep. daih. atrake. . 
Each of these is varied a liltle, which gives rise, according to Wxing^' 
to 82 diSerent forms; all of them are found in bis work, with illuatra^ 
tive examples under each. In order to aid the memory, eacii one of 
the varieties has a apecitic name, some of them very fanciful, bnt 
iUustratiog the minuteness with which the Chinese have studied ^w . 



jm 






^l^i^^ 

















v.. 



1p- •'"■^* .,ftv 




Jf 






i *. .»> 



«■ - J 







^L. 



OF READING AND WRITING. 61 

characters of their language. It is unnecessary, however, for the 
foreign student to attend much to these minutise, further perhaps than 
to read them over. He will more readily learn the proper form of cha- 
racters by copying them, in any or all the ways that Clunese scholars 
employ. The accompanying table contains four characters under 
each of all the varieties given by Shiu Wing, another author on calli- 
graphy, in his copy-slip book. This book is one of those previously 
described, printed in white letters on a black ground, and the student 
cannot do better in order to learn to write well proportioned characters 
than to copy them until he can write them by the eye. It may, 
however, be considered an unnecessary outlay of time in trying to 
learn to write an elegant hand, for native copyists can probably al- 
ways be procured when necessary. With regard to this, the scholar 
must determine for himself how far he will carry his lessons in 
writing, according to the use he intends to put his skill to. Further 
particulars, with a translation of Shlu Wing's directions for every 
variety of character, will be found in the Chinese Chrestomathy/ 
pages 19-^41. >- 

The mode of counting the number of strokes in a character ought 
to be noticed. The Chinese, when searching for a word in the die 
tionary, always write it with their finger, counting the strokes aa-^ey 
write. But this is a slow way, and the scholar should learn to'tscer- 
tain the number of strokes by inspection, that is, by learning to add 
up the number of strokes by looking at the constituent parts o^ the 

character. For instance, ^^ is composed of four parts, severally 

formed of 3, 5, 3, and 4 strokes, which together make 15 strokes. A 
little practice will make this very easy, and in the end save nrnch 
time. 

, yTbe scholar^ while practicing with the pencil, will do well to at- 
tend also to the running-hand form of the characters ; one variety is 

called Juing tsz^ >fT* ^! or hang shii ^Hr g^« and the other U^b 

tsz* ^ f^^ or plant character. Both these forms of characters are 

employed in common transactions of life, and to many people are 
more familiar than the correct and full form found in books. They 
occupy nearly the same place in Chinese as common writing does in 
English, though not so essential, since many persons always write in 
the full form. There are certain rules for contracting the different 
parts of characters, particularly in the hang tsz\ which can be learned 
from copies written by the teacher. Chinese lods learn it by practice, 

or from copy-slip books. The Chik Ts'd TsHn Tsz' Man ^^ ^ 

^ ^C ^^ Thousand Character Classic in the Correct and Running 

Hand, is one of the books used to teach running-hand. The text is 
written in both forms in parallel columns and copied by placing a 
sheet of thin paper upon the page. 



V 



*■ r? 



62 LESSONS IN READING. 



tffiaptrr iFourtl^. 



LESSONS IN READING 



The following sentences are all selected from good Chinese writings* 
such as the S6m Kw6k Chi^ Lid Chdh dtc. Each one of them forms a 
complete period, and is read from left to right for convenience in 
printing the sound, and the signification underneath. The literal trans- 
lation of each word is placed underneath its sound, and the free idio- 
matic translation at the foot of the page. To derive all the benefit pos- 
sible from the lessons, the sound and sonse of every character as it here 
stands should be committed to memory ; so that if the Chinese line 
be covered, every character can be written by seeing its sound ; if 
the sounds be covered, the line of Chinese can be read off fluently ; or 
if the line of English be exposed, the Chinese characters and sound 
will immediately recur to the mind. 



^Lu Pb^ iTnd t* ichi iyan^ pati ^hS sun* ^yd. 
LO P6 no principle 's man, not can believe truly. 

2 IB # ^ ^ ia# % ^r^ ^n^ 

Watt tshan 'shau fan^ H tai^ d^in iShU paU ^hS ^u mUi^* 
Succumb myself keeping place by waiting heaven's time, not can with fattt 

tchang^ya, 
quarrel. 

^^m^9c M ^ n ik ^1 1^ MiH: 

^'Ng <M Fung^ isin itnb kunki, Ji6 kd' ^yan tping cM* Wx\ 
I with Fungflin without altercation^ what reason load troops to this-pUce-? 

iKung ^tang <kdi tuki ^shu tchi syan; ih6 pott tdti Hi ? 
Sirs all read . books *b men ; how not understand reason 7 



1. Lii P5, a man of no principle^ cannot be trusted. 

2. By succumbing and keeping my place, I shall await heaven's 
time ; I cannot contend with fate. 

3. I have no dispute with Fungsln, and why therefore should I 
lead troops here ? 

4. You, gentlemen, are all scholars; how is it then that you do not 
understand what is right? 



^Ni itkn thiung^ things mi^ ^hd iwai tdi^ ts^ung* . 
Your yean Btill few, noUyet able to be grreat captain. 

^H6 sUcif itdng yati *f6paty tdi^,pat> its^ang ^sMii ^sx* ^ni chi* kwdkt 

How sad ! that day fire not powerful, not yet bumod dead you that state 

m 

rebeL 

7-^0 i^ u ft T>jT- #i& H ik 

tKung ti<2, ^u isam shvti pati ching* Cng kiP hV ^ii, 
Kong said, * Your heart's designs not upright, I therefore discarded you.' 

B^ '^ :^ ± n ^ m n 

JJRd^if&ngtchishiung^^ihd fdi* itnd Jlai? 
Ancestral court 's within, how greatly destitute of propriety ? 

^m ^ n ± 7^m M m 

iHi Jewan ^mdng sTiiung^, ^ndi iWai imb ^lai. "^ 

Deceiving prince, despising superiors, is to be destitute-of propriety. 

io:5t ^ im * ^ # - ^ tIc ^ « t, 

tSinishang Wz^ hff^ tfin kdh yati ifdng, mi^ ichi tsiung Hi^"^ 
Sir this departure, heaven each one place, not know mutual meeting 

1^6uky ku M yali. 

will-be in what day. 

iK^i syan tshan ^ch^iung t^aty ch^iki min^ itodng^ %tsingMik> tying 
This man's body length seven cubits, face yellow, pupil reddish, form 

^yung ^ha. kwdi\ 
appearance odd wild. 

5. You, still young in years, are not able to act as a high general. 

6. How sad, that on that day the fire was not powerful enough to 
have burned you to death, — ^5'ou that rebel against the state ! 

7. Kung said, * your designs were not upright, and I therefore cast 
you off.' 

8. In the court of ancestors, how can you be so utterly devoid of 
propriety ? 

9. He, who deceives his prince and despises his superiors, is one 
who is without propriety. 

10. After this departure, sir, each of us will haye his own sky; we 
know not the day when we shall meet again. 

11. This man was seven cubits tall, his face yellow, his pupil red- 
dish, and his whole appearance very remarkable. 



64 LESSONS IN ftEADlNG. 

i.Hing ^chiung paii ^?Uf hu\ ^Lii Pd^ pity ^yau i* cfom* 
Elder brother not can go, LQ P6 certainly has speciouB intention*. 

CUtvky J^iTig ipiii man^ iifj, ds^ing tchfim ^ki JiS? 
Ch'^uk, raising glass, asked, saying, * Green springs many how? 

Shiki Jean ^sh6 chvk^y pott ^h6 ^yau ^ng^. 
Just while what ordered, not can be unfulfilled. 

isjlfc ft ^ ff T^^ 3i ^ 

^Ts^z' kai* ch^uh Jumgy paty ^h6 iChH ^ng^. 
This plan quickly accomplished, not can tardily miss. 

tKl '^Tsz' king* tsiung Hs^ing^ ^ngd imingyati pin^ JLoi fd^ in*. 
Already Tsz'king has invited, I to-morrow then come to femat. 

Pati pU> ltd iin, iloi yati tb'* ^f(i ha} ^kung H. 
Not needed much talking, coming day come-to office down publicly coniiilt. 

le^-ASrtj m w, ^ t^ ^m n 

Kin* yaty iyan tkwdn <kan Td- fuki^ tsb^ tsoi^ ishwiifati^^ndt 

Saw a man, silken cap, Taou dress, sitting on vessel's head, it-wu 

t. m ^ 

^Hungiming ^yd, 

Hungming indeed. 

Hiung* mb^ c.nn tshang its^oi taky mi^ taky pdi" ^ng^y tkam hang^ 
Long esteemed your talents virtue, not-yet obtained respect meet, now happy 

^ m 

<s6ung id}, 
mutual meeting. 

12. My brother must not go, for Lii Pd certainly has some specious 
designs. 

13. Ch'6uk raising his glass, asked, * How old are you V 

14. That which I have just ordered you to do, must not fail to be 

fulfilled. 

15. This scheme must be quickly acted upon und not lost by delay. 

16. Tsz'king has already invited me, and to-morrow I shall con^e 
to the feast. 

17. We do not want so much talking ; to-morrow come down to the 
office for a public consultation. 

18. He saw a man sitting on the vessel's bow, dressed in a silken 
cap, and garb of the Taou sect, who was Hungming. 

19. For a long time, I have admired your talents and virtues, but 



LESSONS IN READING « , 65 

20 a ^ 1 ^. um ^ iLmrm ± 

Kin* iCMung iFij nd^ muki itodng iinatiy lapi ^md<u tk^iii shiungK 
Saw Cheung Fi, menacing eyes, rested spear, standing horse on bridge top. 

21^ B^ ^ ;^ m ^ - E 

^Hung iTning <^n tsoi^? un^ Jt^au yali kln\ 
Hungming where is?I.wish to seek an interview. 

iln tai^ kin' kw& ^Ng Jmv^ k^iuky Joi tsii^ war. 
Worthy brother seen have *Ng*8 prince, then coming converse words. 

23itir ♦ ^ i6 « '^ m li 

iH6 sz^- tsoi- isarrij Warn shiki J^u fai* ? 
What affair in heart, sleeping eating both gone ^ 

^Liung kwdki ^siung ^chang^ paU ^chdm Jxri sz^\ 
Two states together contending, not kill coming messenger. 

25^ % i^ n ^ B n ^ 

^Tsz^ king" <yau man\ J,oi yat, pin^ ldn\ 
Tsz*king cease asking, coming day then see. 

26JiJ ¥ t #. JH^ W 

iU vti ikioan ^chung imd hV iin. 
U said, army midst have.no idle words. 

27 1 ^ 1 P A^ ^ m^- w s:^+ 

iTs^b tTs^b ^md pd^ 'shui <kwany6uk, ^yau yaty pdk% ^'ngsTuzpi 
Ts*o Ts'6*8 cavalry, infantry, marine troops, about were one hundred fifty 



iii md'n}, 
more myriads. 



hitherto have had no opportunity of paying ray respects ; now I have 
the pleasure of meeting you. 

20. He saw Cheung Fl, with menacing eyes and rested speanr, staad- 
ing his horse on the bridge. 

21. Where is Hungming? I wish to seek an interview. 

22. When you, worthy sir^ have seen the prince of 'Ng, then return 
to me to. talk over the matter. 

2&. ^What is? there on your mind that your sleep and appetite have 
both failed? 

2A. When two states are at 'war, public messengers are not killed. 

25. Tsz'king cease to ask, for to-morrow you will know about it. 

26. U said, * we have no idle talk in the army.' 

27. Tb*6 Ts^Vs cavalry, infantry, and marines, were in all about 

one million five hundred thousand* 

' I. 

r 

KA. LES. 1) 



•^^* h M ^ If i^ ^ 

JT fai} tkinffj Jau hSn- *mfin pi\ 
H 'much alarmed, flowed perspiration filled arms. 

*-^« ^ ffl 47 1 JS ^ f: 1 

Vour excolluiicv, do-nut Hpcak, lest tiier€-bc leak eoze. 

JJ71 ytU, pat, 'ng' <kwan s.ngdi}y Ji6 ,k^i kwaP 't^ai pat^ tM 

Successive dayH not seen your face, why now your body not well? 

Tdi*' md- iinai 7/m/i, jn'tki piY- ^ehi ngoi'j ^yan yiki paly km*. 
Thick fog concealed covered hundred step 's beyond, man even not visible. 

cT?/ m6ng^ ^shdn Mvig 'shui sau\ 'king rhV /* ishiung. 

Distant seeing hills distinct, water picturesque, prospect fine unlike usuaI. 

33 ^ ^ 4» f t bI :^ t i^ ^P iftf 

i'Ng Isz'- yau? shuk, tuk, ^ping ^.^hiij <sham ichi xkoM 
I from youth thorouglily read military works, fully know dccqrtMm 

ngai- cchi /SV. 
stratojjv 's rules. 

tK^i cshiin yai- %i -niun cfdn ^siting shunr <fung hii* 'fiii. 
His vessel hoisted raised full sail, improved favorable wind weot away* 

35 511 f; e 7k it ^^J ^ 

<Ku i* H k^ lit, tstn ishang mail s'* 

Our determination already fixed, sir do-not doubt. 

28. U was so much alarmed that the flowing perspiration covered 
his arms. 

29. Let not your excellency (i. e. the prime minister) speak al^KMit 
it, lest Ihe affair become divulged. 

30. For several davs I have not seen you ; why now are you so 
ill? .•:"..., 

; 81. The. thick fog concealed things, so that at the distance of 
more than a hundred paces even a man was not visible. 

32. Looking at a distance the hills were distinct, aud tke .ivjater 
picturesque, — the prospect was unusually fine. . '] . 

, . >J3» From my youth, I have thoronghly read military authors, aiSd 
fuily knOiw.the.ruIe^ of deception andi strategy. 

34. The sails beii>g hoisted to their full extent, he took advantage 
of the fair wind, and departed. 

35. Mv roval dclerminalion is ahead v lixcdy and vou sir, need not 
duubt. 



LESSONS tN RRADllVG. 67 

3«# ^^ ^ t f^ f t t I* ^ 

Tak, <kung 'cM 'shiung, M kai' kwai' Uin^ ^u ! 

Obtaining meritorious persons reward, whj reckon honorable mean eh ? 

37it PI i: i^ #' ^ -ir B# 

kSU itsH' M fe miii^ Mn' d^g ^shi. 
Poetry, songs, ballads, lays, excellent preeminent that day. 

38W hF ^ ^ Jilo -b ^ llfc ^:ft # 

iTs^d 'Tsz' kin' \shi ^shing ts^aty pdS shai' 'hdn J^% ^ckaw 
T8*6 Tsz'kin stanza completed seven paces, ago rare his class. 

39 1 i {!*, - 1 ^ t ft H ^ 

Td^ sz'^ ch'ut, yaU ^u Jy, pdU JcH saky imb 
Taou priest brought-out a gourd, drc\y its stopper, without 

m ^ % ^ '^ 

lum^ ijyfng ^md shaU ch^iUy. 
limit war horses furiously issued. 

Mvi^ if dug chung^ ti\ kani' 'chi "Jim ^wd. 
Temple hall important place, prohibit stop boisterous talk. 

^Hung iining yik, ipan^ % ishan Ji6 waV "^pi ttsoi ? 
Hungming but man indeed, I why fear him eh ? 

42^ ± ^^ ^ ± m m ^^\- >^ 

iKdi sMungi tdi^ d6 <.kw6ng kwan\ kSu iu' ^siu csam. 
Street in great many sharpers, must need careful attention. 

43ii 'Ik A ^ ^ f}j m ^ 

^Fi ifd fdi" its, cfai if 6 fig ^Istn naii*-. 
Vagabonds great many, take care cut pursCs. 



^ . . . . 

36. In rewarding the meritorious, why bring into account their 

honoraUe or low rank ? 

37. For poetry, songs, ballads, and lays, he was preeminent in his 
time. 

38. Ts*6 Tsz'kin could complete a stanza while taking seven 
paces ; the age had few such men. 

39. The Taou priest, producing a gourd, drew the stopper, when 
innumerable war horses furiously issued. 

40. In the temple's venerated spot, all boisterous talk is strictly 
prohibited. 

41. Hungming is nothing hut a man, why I should dread 
him? 

42. In the streets are numerous sharpers, it is necessary to take 
great care. 

43. The vagabonds are very numerous, take care lest your purse be 
cut. 



68 



LESSONS IN READING. 



44 5L 4^ # ffi 



iHing 
Brother 

( Tsitmg 

Gtjner&l 

46 IP 

Ching^ 

Ching 



<kam ifdn Muty 
this occaaion go-out 

^ ^y ^ 

tsai^ ngoi^ Kkuxm 
is abroad, prince 

)i file 

i,H6ng ishing hd^ 

Hongshing loved 



^ fpf iJC ilD llfc ^t 1 

rectify, what reason such this bustUng haste? 

^ ^ 0r ^ 1^ 



comiiiands are 



'sh6 
what 



not obey. 




# >^ # i# ft 

hdh do it^ai shi^ ^ (&*fi 
study esteemed talents, waiting maids aU 






ifung iTnd <shi, 
thorough-in Ode poetry. 



47 fP 





t 




^Sang iYau shW wdki^ ishiung tcdki yat% 
Sang Yau expert drawer; had drawn one 

€ ^ ^ ^ 15: 

tsivky kdpy pati ^k6m kan^. 
sparrows doves not dare approach. 

48 2^ ,& 111 # * 0^ 

-Li <Sz^ fan^ shin} wdki ishdn 
Li Sz*fan expert drawing land 

m ^ Wi :^ ^ 

tdi^j IfSng iinan ^shui ishing, 
form, almost 



M ^ 




<ytng 

hawk 



cU 

on 



waD, 



^skuiy 
water, 




kiki ih^ung J^i 
extremely like their 



hear water dash. 



Hau^ ^chu 
Hauchti 



^yau 
had 



4- 



painted ox 



yaty 
one 



chw} 

sheet 




R'l 



; chau^ isaky 
; day then 



ate 





grass 



ildn 
fence 



^1* ft 

ngoi^y yi^ 
beyond, night 



W\ If. W 

tsaky ikwai ng6^ 
then returned sleep 




^ 



Jan ichung. 
fence within. 



44. Why, sir, on this occasion of going out to restore order is 
there such bustle ? 

45. When a general is abroad there are at times orders from the 
prince which he does not receive. 

46. Ching Hongshing so loved study and esteemed talents that 
his waiting-raaids were ail well versed in the Book of Odes. 

47. Sang Yau was skillful at drawing ; he once drew a hnwk on 
the wall, which the sparrows and doves did not dare to npproach. 

48. LI Sz'fan cleverly drew landscapes, so extremely like their a{K 
pearance, that one could almost hear the dashing of the water. 

49. Hauchii had a painting of an ox, which by day cropped grass 
])cyond the fence, and bv night rotiirncd to sleep withig it. 



LESSONS IN READINC:. 



69 



50>fe .^. 


u 


^ 


^ ^ 


it f& - 


^ 


*T86 iT^z' 


chak. 


ipiii 


Jwng ichung 


fa' ishing yaty 


i>dA;2 


T86 T8*z' 


tossed 


cup 


sky in metamorphosed into one hundred 


H M 


1^ 


jfij 


n 






^kauj Ha 


iHn} 


ii 


tfu 






pigeons, encircled 


[ palace 


and 


flew. 






51 A '^ 


*0 


E 


^ ^ 


K ^ 




^Kau paly 


tsiung 


kin\ 


ikam Jcu 


iAo ch'ii'? 




Long not 


each-other seen, 


now live 


what place ? 




52 1" #. 


n. 


ft 


m ife 


1^ ft 




iHang' taJci 


Vz 


ihang 


dstung yuki 


s^<^ ^wSng' ? 




Miingtak • 


this 


walk 


about wishing 


r where go ? 




53^ ^ 


m 


^ 


It M 


3E ^ P 


^. 


^Mau ikam 


thing 


tping 


Vd <«*aA:> chine' wai^ kwSh, 


Jed 


I now 


raise 


troops destroy rebel, 1 


:ruly for country's 


house 


]^» W 


^ 










,c^«fi Aoi^ 


H. 










drive^ff trouble. 













54M* i^^ Bfl fc j^ #: ^ A^ 

CAt* y^^ tsham tUi iming^^Wan ch^dkychiun^^ pd^ yapt hdu^ iiin. 
At night late moon light, Wan taking cane walking entered rear garden. 



55iH: f ?f li 


/h 


A M j£ a ^ 


'Ts'z' 'tang luky luky 


siii 


iyan, sM isuky kwd' 'Mi? 


This sort so so 


small 


men, what worth hang-on teeth ? 


56^ m m ^ 




fH - H A 


'Chun fwfC Mri, ^ii 


fat. 


/d* yaiy -mi ^yan, 


Turning gazing whilst, fox 


suddenly 


metamorphosed a beautiful person. 


^ Sft # B 






tkwdng im^ tiJUi muk,. 






bright lustrous fixed eyes. 







50. Tso Ts*z', tossing the cup into the air, it was metamorphosed 
into a hundred pigeons, which flew around the palace. 

51. We have not seen each other for a long time, where do you 
now live ? 

52. Where does Mangtak intend going in this walk ? 

53. I am now raising troops to destroy this rejiel, simply for the 
purpose of averting harm from the imperial family. 

54. Late at night, when it was moonlight. Wan, taking a^ane, 
walked into the rear garden. 

55. Why longer speak about such a contemptible set of fellows ? 

56. In the twinkling of an eye, the fox was metamorphosed into a 
beautiful person — her bright splendor fixed the gaze. 



70 LESSOiXS L\ HKADIAG. 

57/^ t^ ijS t H ^* « ^ A ^ 

^U imd dim hin- its^dn yuki hoi^ *Ad tyan gj/i. 
You without cause offer accusations wishing injure .good man eh! 

iTs^z^ iUi, ^ng6 shiY sJuq)i ^nin pafy shiki ^i pai> 
Ts'z' said, I several tens years not eat and not 

P;*- ^ =F- ^ />*-> t^ ^ 

ifbng; yati shiki ds^in sytung ylki iUang tsun-. 
matter ; day eat thousand sheep and can finish. 

,Ku H he 'wfh Po' t/M^ pV- ,u Vd tk6tig 
Carriage already gone far, P6 slacked bridle on earthy hillock 

<chi shiung-, -ngdn mdng^ <few ich^an fdn^ siki fimg^ lumK 
I 's top, eyes behpld carriage's dust, sighing grieved pained exceedingly. 

60^ t ^ ^ lit ^ ftt ^ ^ 

Pd' iiti, i'ng yuki shot, 't^z' 'Id ts'akiy noi^ sM^ 
Pd said, I wish kill this old rebel, only is 

X T- ;t -i ^ #. ^1 A m t 

fu- 'tsz' <chi iUHng^ 'hung 'y^ hau- i,yan H lun^. 
father son 's relations, fear induce after men reflect remark. 

6i;flT ;^ ® 7J M ^ ^ M n, f 

Pd' pat^ idi' db ts'z'' pV ch^tiU hiity ^wai shai^. 
P6 dreyf belt sword pricked arm drew blood for oath. 

62#- A S^ ^ ^ ^ - H ^ 

Ch^iuh tdi'- 'hi uti^ ^ng yt' mung^ yat^ jiung chdu* 
Ch*6uk much pleased said, I night dreamed one dragon covered 

<shan, ikam yati 'kind tah Wz* 'hi sun\ 

me, to day truly obtained the joyful verily. 

57. Do you thus needlessly bring in accusations, desiring to injure 
a good man ! 

58. Ts*z' replied, ♦ If I should not eat for several tens of year^ it 
would be of no consequence, while, in one day, 1 could consume. a 
thousand sheep.' 

59. The carriage was akeady distant, when Pd, slacking his bridle 
on the top of *a hillock, and following with his eyes the dust, sighed 
most deeply. 

60« Pd said, 'X wish to kill this old rascal, but, on account of our 
relation of [adopted] father and son, I fear lest it will induce the . 
criticism of future ages. 

61. P5, drawing his belt sword, pricked blood from his arm to de- 
clare his oath. 

(32. C^li'euk, nuicli ploasod, said, * In tiio night, I droaniod that a 



63^ nj i^ ± 0- -^ m ^ ^ m 

Ch^iuh cUuU *rr \<iheung Jc'u ; sjts^in <cM hau^ opting, mSng^ 
Ch*6tik leaving U' ascended chariot ; before guarded behind protected towards 

■t ^ * ^f Tv m H + M Fr 

iCh^eutig iSn Joi ; Jiang paiy td* csdm shapi ^/« ^shd 
Ch'^ungon went; gone not to thirty /f that 

*. ;^ ^ .'^» *T - -It 

' iBhing tchi <ku fat* ch\U yaty Jun. 
■ rodiB-in *8 carriage suddt^nly broke a wheel. 

e^^ m m ^ ^ ^f( Wi M, m w 

Ck^iuki man^ Suki ?//,, ^kii rhu dun^ ^md Hun pf , 
Ch*6uk asking Suk said, chariot broke wheel, horse spHt bridle, 

% 1^ ^ ^ 

ik^i chth' ytuk. Mf 

these omens how what ? 

65t ^ h ^ u M m m m n 

Suk^ at I, hmi fdi* ^sz' ying' chv? H6n* ishiniy hi* 
Suk repUed, arc great officer responding call H6n throne, discard 

m^^ n m ^ ^ ^ s ;t ^ m 

A«K* t««'- <san, dstung ashing yvki ^lin tkam <6n ^chi chtu'- ^yd. 
old change new, about mounting gemineous chariot golden saddle 's omens indeed.- 

66 :e ft ^ n- m K M m m ^ 

iW&ng 'Wan (dV- ^fii tUi, 'fan ts'aki chi' Wz\ ^md 
W6ng Wan loud calling said, lawless rebel to this, military 

sz*^ ih6 tsoi^ ? ^Liutig ipdng 'cMn ckUity pdh iU ^yan 
officers where are ? Both sides sallied out hundred more * men 



' dragon covered me, and to-day, behold, I obtain the joyful verifica- 
.tion.' 

63. Ch*6uk, going out of 11% got into his carriage, guarded in front 
and protected in rear; setting his face towards Ch*6ung6n, he had not 
proceeded thirty Z/, when a wheel of the carriage in which he rode 
suddenly broke. 

64. Ch*^fik, asking Suk, sriid,* What do the omens of break, 
ing the carriage wheel, and snapping the horse's bridle, prognos. 

alcafeT';'-:' ■•' 

6'5.' Sok replied, «They foreshow that a great statesman is respond- 
•*irtg to the call from the throne of Han, who, discarding the old and 
changing it for new, will shortly occupy the imperial chariot and 
royal saddle.' 

66. Wong Wan exclaimed aloud, ' The rebellious outlaw has comes 
where are the officers?' From both sides, armed with halberds and 
niiicos, more than a hundred mm nushed out and attacked him ; 



72 



LESSONS IN KEADlNd. 




try 

kifn* » 
sword. 






^ 



I although not 



shop tiding 



^chH kiky Hing shdky U^z"" tchi; Ch^iuky 'kw6 kdpy pal, 
grasping halberds holding maces wounded him ; Ch*6uk*s inner armor, not 

A « ^ a. ^ 

yapii isMung pi' chiii^ ^ku. 
pierce woimded arm fell'out chariot. 

67^ @ lf» t fj ft ]i ifc 

iNg hdpi ichung^ *pb kirn* iSan iindy ^u 
My armory in valuable sword newly groimd, you 

± ^ W ^ m ^ ^ H 

<chi, ik^i iin paii rfung pin- Wing shV 
it, your words not intelligible then request trv 

68* 5t :^ i- M * ^ ¥ + 

its^ol un} hu' man*' ikwan tchung^ Wu 
clever wish go myriad troops among get« 

^ If IR ?K IK ^ ijH 

Jc^i ^shau k^apy Joi hin* ishing s6ung\ 
his head skull bring present prime minister. 

egilf 1^ # H +1 //> pg 

iYung kdn* <Ts^d iiU, <Yetmg ikung sz*' 

Yung remonstrating Ts'6, said, Y6ung lord four generations unsullied 

teA;>, ^hi ''ho <yan iUn ski- ^i tsui^ ^chi ^ii,! 
virtue, how can because Un family also criminate him eh? 

7oS4? fi s m. #0 ^ Wi ^ m. 

iMau sz^- sCMing Yuh shui* ^Ts^d iiti, ikam iming Jcang <wai 
Counselor Ch'ing Yuk addressing Ts'6 said, now distinguished lord's awful 

iming yaii shingly Ji6 pat> ^shing Hs^z^ ishi Jumg iW&ngpd' <cMsz^^? 
reputation daily increases, why not improve this time to do ruler tyrant 's afiair ? 

Ch*6uk's hauberk could not be pierced, but wounded in the arms, ho 
fell from his carriage. 

67. In my armory is a valuable sword just sharpened ; you can try- 
to speak about it (the business), but if your words are not straight- 
forward then I shall beg to use the sword. 

68. Although I am not clever, yet I wish to go into the midst of the 
multitude of troops, and get his head to present to your excellency. 

69. Yung, remonstrating with Ts*5, said, lord Y6ung is a man 
whose family for four generations has maintained an unsullied virtue; 
why do you criminate him on account of the Messrs. Un? 

70. Counselor Ching Yuk, speaking to Ts*d, said. Your honor's 
reputation is now daily increasing in dignity ; why do you not take 
advantage of this opportunity to become the ruling prince ? 



LESriONS IN READlxNG. 75 



Tap atij cham} <kam yuki hdtC titdng shukt shi^ lipy 
Emperor said, we now wish see imperial uncle shoot archer-like. 

^ m n "^ ± m ^. ^ ^ m ^ 

iUn tak> ^ling ming^ ^sMung ^md^ fati Wd tchung ^kdn *Ai 
Untak obeying order mounted horse, suddenly grass midst drove up 

-^±W, ^t.-'^jE ^ m % 

yaty fd^; iUn tak^ sM^ i.chi yaty tsin" ching^ chung* ^nd fd\ 
one hare; Untak shooting it one shot directly hit the hare. 

KM ifiing, i* jfiin, ««'* iUi^ mdng^ yati^ taV u^ ^Wan Tak> 
Kfmiing, 2d year, 4th month, Idth day, emperor visiting Mild Virtue 

^^i^j^ 1^^ fa. M. m tst P. w. 

fW, tfSng cshing ts6^, tin^ kdki Jcw6ng ifung chdu^ *AI, chaty kin* 
ptlace, justfMcended throne palace comer furious blast suddenly arose, only saw 

- n k n ^ ^ ^.i:^5|?FT* 

ytdy tfiii tdi^ d^ing isM iU^ung Jhiiig shtung^ tfi tUiung hS^ sloi 
mm fHBgle great green serpent from ridge above glided directly down coming 

i§ =f ^ ± ^ n n ^ ^ t m 

^pAn <if %sh6ung^; tai* <king ^d, ^ts6 yau^ kapy kau* 
woimd about throne on ; emperor afirighted fell, left right quick^ caught.up 

At Wtm#iii(ift4fe^m 

jfjopi tlamg; pdky <hiin ih^u <pan pi^. ^Sii gii sjsM pai* kin* 
entered ap^irtment; the officers all hastily fled. Instantly serpent not obsenr- 

Hi& faty iin tdi^ Jm tdi^ ^ii <kd H tping puki I6ki 
ed, suddenly loud thunder great rain, added to-which icy Kail fell 

n^^u ± ^ ^ B m ^ ^ 

td* p(LiC yi} \f6ng ^chU wdi^ k^6uky ifdng tiky jwd sh^\ 

till mid night then stopped, ruin ed buildings dwellings without number. 



71. The emperor said, 'We now wish to see our uncle draw the 
bow in ajiarcber4ike manner.' Untak obeyed the order, and mount, 
ed bis horse; when suddenly from among tlie grass- a hare was started 
up, which was directly shot through with an arrow thrown by him. 

72. In the 15th day of the 4th month, 2d year of Kinning's reign, 
the emperor was visiting the palace of Mild Virtue, and had just 
ascended the throne, when at the comer of the house a furious blast 
suddenly arose, and a large green serpent was seen gliding down from 
the ridge, which wound itself around the throne; the affi'ighted em- 
peror fell to the ground, and his attendants instantly taking him up 
(iarried him into his apartment, and all the officers fled in terror. In a 
moment, the serpent vanished, and suddenly there was loud thunder 

KA. LES. 10' 



74 LESSONS IN READING. 

<Z7 sW *kdn *«u« diung hnd itning tying itun' *toi 
There upon selected chose {rentle horses famous falcons 9pt dogs 

Jcung 'chH; tlffu pi\ c«fn tei? t^^ng ishing ngm\ <T^b 
bows arrows; all prepared, first coUectingr troops city without, Ti*d 

A « ^ ^ B^ ffi 

yapi t^ing tfin Hsz^ ifin lipi. 
entering invited heaven's son field hunt. 



74^ HI m :g « J^m 1^ 1^ ^ ^ 

Pin^ tsung" ^md i^ipy chin' ; 'Tin ^WaiUuki chin* shb' hSpi 
Then giving.reins horse joined fight ; Tin Wai briefly fought several times, 

ii [ei 1 ^ »t ± n ^ M 15 fe * 

pfnV iui ^md Hsauj chdng^ sz'^ chaty kit* mSng^ lUFin Ic&n Joi^ 
then turning horse fled, brave man only intently looking before pursuing after, 

pat> itai sf&ng Jiin iyem tdi' ^md tid ISki <u hdm} <hdng tchi tm^. 
not caring guarding both man and horse all fell into trap pit *s within. 

T5ii tfc T »i wt m ¥ ± t » 

tTs^d iinSng hd} chtung* ch^iky fM tkwan sz\ d^an ledi 
Ts*6 hastily descending.from tent, hooted reture army officers, himself looted 

;^ ^ # ^ * * ;^ # ^ P»1 ^ » 



iJ^i fSky, kapy Wu ci I* <c^l, ming^ is6^ man^ J^i JUtmg 

his bonds quickly taking clothes clothed him, ordering sit asked his vlllagie 

% m ^ 

kM sing' itning. 
native surname name. 



and heavy rain, together with hail, which, falling till tnidnight, stop- 
ped, having ruined innumerable dwellings. 

73. He thereupon selected gentle horses, famous falcons, and ex- 
cellent dogs, with bows and arrows; when all things were in readiness^ 
Ts'd, having first marshaled his troops without the city- walls, entered 
and invited his majesty to take a hunt. 

74. Then giving reins to his horse, he joined in battle, but Tin 
Wai, after engaging in a few rencontres, turned his horse and fled ; 
the brave man, only looking straight before him, pursued after him, 
but not heeding his steps, both he and his horse tumbled into a pit. 

75. Tsf d, hastily coming out of his tent, shouted to the officers of the 
army to retire, and, unloosing his bonds with his own hands, quickly 
disrobed himself and clothed him, bidding him to be seated, and ask- 
ing his native village, his surname and name. 



LESSONS m READING. 75 

76i^ Si ^ M j$ ^F ^ ^.^ ^ mm w 

Robbers drove oxen to U' without, oxen all quickly ran turn back, by 

t ^ ^ ^r.^m n n wft# 

my two hands grasped two oxen tails backwards dragged hundred more paces* 

<T«*d man^ uti ih6 kit" kin* ts^z^* ? iShing iitiy <yan nim- 
Tb*6 asking said, what cause has conferred ? Shing replied, because remembering 

% mBm^^^z^ tk ^^m 

Httou kat^yati <Sai <td kau* kd" xchi Jcung^ hu^ ^yau Wz' ts^z^\ 
my former day Sait6 saved car 's merit, therefore have this reward 

Tsftfe ;^ A iJu 1i * t ^ t ^ m 

<T^d itoai iyan ich^amtsing^ ^kwdyuki pcUt <fdm ifning li^, 
He was man very quiet few desires not coveting reputation profit, 

* T il $ # « If iS i 1^ 

,'ldn . cti &fung syingy tdn^ H tski Hsau tsz^^ jti. 
Jieedlets in meeting receiving, but for poetry wine ^self delighted. 

wH 6 ;k t 1* X j^ C X t Tf- 

CW Pdki fdi^ isMung thdn yau^ <W, <kd yau^ fii\ its^oi 
This Tik superior constant office also high, family also rich, talent 

m Ik m X A ^ » ^ ' 

hdki ehing* mdng^t yau^ tdi^ ^yau tshing ifning. 
learning government conspicuous, besides great has fame reputation. 

80^ % ^ n M. n ^ tf^] n ^ 

tTsun tt* tsoi^ ihd ch*u^ ? sMung^ mt^ its^angtd* pdi^ hau^. 

Sir live in what place ? still not yet come respect wait-on. 

76. The. robbers had driven the oxen to the outskirts of U', when 
they all turned to run back, but with my two hands grasping two of 
them by their tails, I dragged them backwards more than a hundred 
paces. 

77. Ts*5 asking said, * Why has he conferred them upon you?' Shing 
replied, » Because, remembering my meritorious action on a former 
day when I saved his majesty at Sait5, he in consequence has be- < 
stowed this.' 

78. He was a man very fond of quiet, with few desires, not covet- 
ing reputation or gain, and careless about th^etiquette of society, but 
delighting in poetry and wine. 

79. This president (of the Sacrificial Court) P4k fills a high office, 
his family is rich,^ his talents and learning are conspicuous in the go- 
vernment, and besides his reputation is also very high. 

80. Where, sir, do you reside ? I have not yet called to pay my 
respects. 



76 



LESSONS IN READING. 



81 a ^ 

iLivng ishan 





^ 



P. M Ik ii M l# 

Letsure time beautiful prospect only ouglit quaff wine indite poetry* if 




right. 

iU tchi ikduj tsiky <Uitmg i' <«M 
moment 's interval, immediately taking two |»06tic 

full flowery card, both 



Ji « T m * i^ ^ ^ T> 

9W <fd ha} itdm iChHu ching\ ^^6 kbk* pat* 
are flowers beneath convene court government, rather consider not 

82|i K^^ 
tSu ^Yau pdki <su 
Sa Yaup&k 



if ah tsau^ fun^ ihang pun^ 
themes, then half running half 



text wrote 



bandi 



m ^ M 

passed to 




sd' 



rnso. 




m m n 



^ 






6 m* 



83 /h jta 

'Sm ts6 <dS ,Kmg 'Wat tsz'^ ,fan, hak, fttki ,ndn im, 
Young My said. King W»i certainly dittinguiab, hbck white haid datda^ 

^ w^ m m T> '^ ^ ^^ m ^ ^ 

,i6 ytuki ich^i si petty k^uly, M pat, ts^ij^ i^ tsh/tmg 
pa if delaying suspeet not decide, .why not collect two youths 

- t: 1% @ # n.i^mm.^ m 

yaij ifdng, ming^ sfai 'hdu ski^ ; paty tuhi ishui M s^km 
one hall, order theme examine try; not only which handapme whksli 



pa 
in 




ichH 



ugly, can by-this settle aelection, another day dimissing go, taking take Ihey 

:f^ ± ^. ^ ^ 

yiki sjnb nrC -yd. 



also without 



un 
ill-will. 



81. Whan at leisure and enjoying a fine prospect, it is best to' do 
nothing but quaff wine and write poetry; while we are among, the 
flowers, it is, in my opinion, not exactly proper to converse about th6 
court and government. 

82. Su Yaupdk, aflter a moment's interval, took the two tliemes for 
poetry, and half in a running hand, half in a text hand, wrote the 
flowered card paper full, and with both hands gave it to Tnsd. 

83. The young lady replied, ' The rivers King and Wai can b© dis- 
tinguished, black and white are not easily blended; if papa cannot 
rcrhove his doubts by delaying, why not bting the two young inen 
together, in one hall and give them a theme for trial ? It will not on- 
j\ decide who is fiaudsome and who is ugly, hut we can in this way 



LESSONS IN READING. 77 



84^ « i^ ^ m m 1 B ^ ^ n 

iNg H&n^ ilam kin' ehuti fuV HiH ^Su ^Yau pdki it^in 
*Ng pencil forest had cast back already SCi Yanpik fore 

; j^ i^ ffl T - ^ :t t. ^ >L» T 4 

iiciil^ingy %8uich^ut> ^liii^ yal> ishi tchi hi\ ^in ^sam hd' ^yd 
ftrnd^ although issu ed, one occasion 's anger, still heart in also 

^ H ^ ;^ li S 

^l^oy <8em tfan pat> kw6' i\ 
Imii three part» not pass thoughts. 

ssHe B^ £ # - ^ J^ ^ ^ -^ 

^Ng6 ts6ki yati kin' tfd ycAx iShi wi* Hd ik^i ichiung, 
I yesterday saw him one time not aware his capability, 

*mm. bd} sJwm} shi^ ^ii sf, idn^ sW shi' ds^an ^shu Joi 
mod in very is turning doubt, but is mean relative's- letter come, 

T- M ^ ik ^ ^ n M ^ - U 

paty *hd mdn^ ifd; ku' Jcam yati dii d^d yaiy tsuK ' 
not well neglect him ; wherefore to day invited him an intAnriew 

m^ ^ f^ M =^ ^ n i^ t^ ^ 

PflUfc Jsmg man} td\ t^ <hing Jcai tsdky sts^ang gun ^fimf 
F4k- Mr. asking said, two brothers fine writings yet done or.no'? 

PAki thing tb^ higd ^x ^ng6 Jcam yati hSn' iChitmg <S^ 
T4ik Mr. said, my child, I to day saw Chiang SO 

i* sycf* Jutng king\ ^k^u tdi^ ^yau '7id j, <ki id pi^ 
two men ^c^^^ done, they much have can suspect, many chances by 

% m 'A 

tfd ijnun kw6'. 
them deceiv ed. 



settle our choice ; afterwards, the one who is dismissed will go, and 
the one who is chosen will be taken, and there will, moreover, be no 
dissatisfaction.' 

84. Doctor 'Ng had degraded Su Yaupdk from promotion; not- 
withstanding this single ebullition of anger, he still had some com- 
passion for him. 

85. I saw him yesterday, but at one opportunity I could not fully 
observe his ability, and I had many doubts concerning him ; but since 
he brought my relative's letter, it would not be well to neglect him, 
and I have therefore invited him to-day to an interview. 

86. Mr. P4k asking said, * Have you gentlemen yet finished your 
elegant composition ?' 

87. Mr. P^k replied, ' To-day, my child, I saw the performances 



7B LESSONS IN READING. 

I 'Niiirntf-i? 

88 & ^ f r^ 1^ A ft 1 f5i «i 

Pdki tkung Ul* U^z'^ yati kiu^ iyan pi^ Hsau Ux"^ hta^. 
P^k Mr. on next day called men prepare wine attend wait 

89^^;^^^^^::^. A^ ^ 

Paki fkung tsoi^ Mn htau^ ikvfai kin* i^ iyan iying ch^ig^ 
Pik Mr. in library behind furtively saw two men form aqieet; 

c> T X t X f X j3^ ^ ^P ^ ;?; 

tsam ha} yav} hi* yau^ ^nd ; yau^ %b si(t\k^6tiky yau^ jNtfi 
mind in partly surprised partly angry ; now laughable and now not 

/Ad shapi tfan isau yuki if a imdn, 
well ten parts shame disgrace them. 

cSin ishang Hdng pcU} iim Hi tsukif hndn tshang toiib> tt69^ 
First^ born should not displease poor vulgar, late bom then oqghit 

Ain* sid*. 

present ridicii^ous. ■ ]• . 

^iMk n ft n ^ nm t ^ ^ m 

xT^d pdi* ^Hu ^Chu ivmi db wa'^ y ^shiung Ib^ sham} hay^. 
Ts'6 bowed-in Ho Chtl to-be^ge^eral soother, rewarded toils very liberally. 

. 1 — -j 

of these two men Cheung and Su, and there is great cause to suspect 
that .we have been deceived by both of then!.' 

88. Mr. P4k, on the following day, called his servants to set out 
wine, andVait to attend them. 

89. Mr. Pdkj'from ^behind the library, secretly saw the actions of 
the two men, and was both surprised and angry ; they were very 
laughable,fbi|it|jStill he^did not think it well to disgrace them. 

90. Sir, should you not disdain my vulgar performance, then I 
must offer you that which is ridiculous. 

91. T^b conferred the office of general soother upon Hii Chii, and 
liberally rewarded^him for his toils. 



i^ 



UXERCISE8 IN CONVERSATION. 



79 



iRtmpttV dFiftJb* 



EXERCISES IN CONVERSATION. 



These exercises are designed principally as guides in the construction 
of simple sentences ; from them, the scholar can learn the colloquial 
idiom of this dialect, and by comparison with the preceding lessons 
in reading, also mark the principal features of difference between the 
two. He should learn the sentences so thoroughly as to speak them 
with perfect freedom, for it will require no small degree of careful 
attention to avoid speaking in an English idiom ; which is, to a Chi- 
nese ear as barbarous and uncouth as the English spoken at Canton 
by the Chinese according to their idiom is to a newly arrived English- 
man. ' Although the spoken language is more diffuse than the written, 
its idioms have the same general characteristics, which are both so 
unlike western languages as to prove one of the greatest difficulties in 
acquiring the Chinese tongue. In learning to converse, it will be 
found to be a good plan to request the teacher to write down a few 
of the first conversations as they are spoken, that they may be read 
and reread until made fscmiliar. 

The following conversation contains such phrases and requests as 
the beginner will be most likely to need. The grammatical terms 
contained in the lesson comprise only a part of those found in writings 
on .the language, but they are all that will be useful at first. The 
Knglish translation is given in a parallel column, and the literal one 
omitted; but the corresponding words in both languages can, however^ 
easily be ascertained. 

Conversation with a Teacher. 



1. Please to be seated. 
'Ttl^ing U6K 

Please sit. 
^Ts^ing ts6'. 

2. What is your surname ? 
,Kd sing' a'? 

Thank you, my meHn surname is O. 
*/fd «?dS tsin} sing* <0. 

3. I trust you are very well. 
Shati ^shau.ikung ^hi Jd? 

Thank you, having seen you, sir. 
*H6 wd\ ^ai kd' kcM. . 

4. Bring some tea {to a servant). 
Please take some tea. 

Kuh ich^d Jai. 'TsHng ich^d. 



pB 



1 



m^ 




i*# 




»m^mn 


st*# 


m 


Bwmm 


jM 


^ IK If IS 


^ 



80 



EXEIUISKS JiN C'OAVERSATION. 



Please to drink. 
'Wing ,ch^d. 

5. I am now thinking of studying 
the provincial dialect of Canton ; what 
is the shortesit mode, sir, you would 
recommend to teach me? 

^r ikd ^ng6 ^siung h,6ki 'Kw6ng dung 
'shdng ishing isuki wd^- ; isin ishang 
^kdn ^pin tiki tstti king* kdu^ ^ngd <nf ? 

First learn to speak the sounds ac- 
curately, and afterwards learn to read 
and write. 

^Sin W hdki 'kong ching* k6* tiki ^yarriy 
iin hau^ hSki tuki ^shily "^si i^z'^. 

6. If it is so, it will be best for you 
first to speak, when I will follow. 
^K6m wd^j f.stn i.shang <sin Jwi 'hauy 
Hang ^ng6 Jean chy} ti. 

You must hear acciu-ately, and closely 
follow me. 
*JVJI W ding icJian Jean 'kan ^ngd ching" 

'hbd\ 

7. If that is the way, please distin. 
guish the four sounds by marking them. 
^K6m tod^i Wing cfan sz^^ asking 
than d6* 

The p^ing, sMmg, hii and yap [shing'\ 
are here all marked. 
^Ni cJi^a^ spring 'sMung hii^ yapi 
db Jtun I6h, 

8. Please also distinguish the upper 
and lower tones, with the aspirates. 
Tsoi^ Wing if an 'shiung hd^ <shing 
¥api p^an^ hi^ td. 

Very well. 
Tsb^ taki. 

9. I would further riequest you to 
plainly mark the sentences and periods. 
Chung^ iu^ Wing ^ni' %m fining ku^ 

tau^ td.' 

With' much pleasure; besides this, 

names of persons have a single stroke 

and names of places a doaUe stroke, 

both which you peed in order to 

remember them easily •^ 

cA' 'hb; yiki ^yau syan itning yung^ 

ddn ^ki ti^ imirig ytmg^ isUung 'ki, 

s/it db iu' ki* 'kan $a. 



M ^ ^ S ^ ft 
« f *^ fS^ |g 3fe 















>6j If If 




£X£aclfl£a.m CONVEHSATION. 



81 



10. What character is this? 
K& ^ Am' maty isz'^ Mi? 

It IB the character shiL 
Hot' t$h&Ut*K 

11. What tone has it? 
Hoi* mati <s?ung ttii? 

It has the skSung f^ing. 
Htti^ fihtung^ if^ing. 

12. What is. this word shu called in 
English? 

<Ni kS* <9A6 toz'> < Ymg wa} 1d<i' mat. 

It is called hook in English, 
i Ymg wa} kiu* Ud^ puk>. 

13. What does that character hang 
mean? 

KiP ih^. Jmg* tsz'' Him 'kdi? 

Not likely to obtain and yet obtai nin^, 
not able to avoid ahd yet avoiding, are 
both called hang. 

Pati itdng tdky li tak^y ^u paty 'ho ^min 
si hnUtf tkdi iUi hang^. 

14. Please, sir, examine the dictio- 
nary, and see what that character 
nneans. 

K6^ k& tsz'^ Wing <*m tshang ,rh'd 

M" til* f^ 'hd Him 'kdi. 

» 

15. What radical is that cliiiracter 
U^ung under? how many strokes lias it? 
JC6* W* sf^ung tsz^^ yapi maU pd^ / 
^ki U6 waki iUi ? 

It is found under the radical yauy 
ind has sixteen strokes. 
Ya^i ^aur> tez'* pdS* sJiapi hiki waki 
I6ki. 

16. Is there another character having 
the same meaning as this word kwdi? 
K(P kwdV te2'» ^yau pity i^ tsz'* ifung 
^kdi 'md <ni? 

. [n the phrase ch^ut k^U the character 
Xe^i is of the same meaning. 
Ktmg^ Muty Ji^i, k6* ikH tsz'^ yaty 
yeung^ 'kdi, 

17. What is the sound of that cha- 
racter in the court dialect? In this (Can- 
ton) dialect? In the Fukien dialect? 
Kd* k6* tsz - Mn ^ifid hai^ mafy <yam ; 
paki 'wd hat- matt i.yam ; f wA> kin^ hai- 
maty cyam ttn / 



eii«K-b.^!te 


«s* 


fl^ -^ dl OS 


«±^ 


p|g li 1 4^ i>$ lg 


i^-feS^mg 


^ ts 4 ftfe h 


^t'^^mm 


^'^#ifri#^ 


^ -J * ilD * w 


0# 


pM^m^£ 


^^Mmvr^m 


f^ 


ilf® 1 1^ A-ii 


i^P * # * m-. 


AXtSfit/^ 


^^ 


n^^^^^- 


t i^^irue 


^ tH # ^ # ^ 


-mm -' 


<@ 10 ^ 1 1* i^. 


tW^IS^ \l 


i^ II % \% 1 1 


% 



KA. LKS. 



II 



82 



£XEBCIIi»£S IJM COxNVEKtiATlON* 



^ fl J. j^:^ n 



-£ach place has its own local pronun- 
ciation, all places are not alike, but the 
court dialect is universally current. 
Kdky ^yau kdki ^d hod, di^u* Mi^ ^m 
ifung; tdff^ Mfi.^^wd iftin^ Jumg tik>. \ :g >|=p ^ ' ; 

18. Please explain} to ihe from that > rt. |gy'. A ^ ^ il] 
character j^an to this character yd. ■^ l»-J /^ "T -i* Hi 

sJTau M, sydn tsi'^ chi' ^yd tsz\ Wing 
^kdi ^ngd ihhi, ' 

Do you yet nndehitand it by thisi 
explanation?' 



'Kdmr )ytuHg^ %ti; 'Mil tak, s'm dii^ang • 'd' f|R 



19. What does that sentence mean^H^Vm Jh% ^ mk ^ 



JfiCo* Aitt* ydM^ '<fffi 'kdi? 

20.'. 'My memory is not good; please 
explain it as^ain. | 

^^g6'im 'W A?i* sin^i Wing ^i too? i 
^6ng. I 

21. I do not yet understand this , 
sentence, please employ an illustration, 
ahd expla^ it clearly while I hear. 
'Tt^z^'ku'^ngdrnV- 'hiu, Wing'ni 'shm 
j/i' mV 'k6ng iining h^6 tUng. 

22. I must trouble you to write an 
explanation of this sentence. 

iT6 ^dn *m chv^ 'kdi lui kii\ 



23. Wai hdk che, pit yau M 6 ; please, 
these sir, write two sentences a in plain 
sentence tn the colloquial dialect, so 
that I can easily understand the mean- 
ing. 

iWai h6ki ^che^ piti ^yau <ch^6; i* kii^ 
Wing <stn\tshang 'si yaty kU^ iinmg 
pdki kt^ tsuki 'wd tang ^ng6 i- 'hiH ia. 
Being learning 's . man, certainly 
must have a, single beginning commen- 
cemeiit first putting liand eh. 
i Wai hdki k6* ^yan, pU> ting^ ^yau yaty 
k^ 'cUi ^cU6 <^?i s^mdi ^shau Idki, 

24. If you do not understand the 
simple text, then you should examine 
the commentary. 

^Ni iin 'hlu pdki ^man^ tsau^ Jwi *f^ai 
chW </d. 



iH: ^ ^ * * t 

^ f « ^ ® # 





EX^ERCIflK$. IIV. OONVRRSATIOW.: 



83: 



25. 'Please str write several large 
characters for me. 

^Ts^ing tsin isJumg ioi^ ^ng6 ^s6 'ki k6^ 
tdi^ k(P ke t8z\ 

' I n(iu8t troubkf you to bring me a pen- 
cil, ink, and storte, for me to write with. 
<Td (fdn ^ni <ning pott maki'Mjai. 
higd ^si dd. 

^ 26. 1 must again request you. -to 
teach me to write. 
Tk(n^:Wityi^nikdu' '\ig6 'sd tsz'K 

Let-me wHte siome'large characters for 
you t^ copy by laying paper upon them. 
M\mg: hig6 'si %i k& ; Idi^^- tfiz'' 'ni 

..^7,..|t 18 n'eces^pry 'first to rule 
b(ack\Iines to copy that edibt. 
tff ifHn kdn' k^ kiky tcUdu kj& 
<Mimg kb) sW. 

Do you: wish me to write the text 
liiMid^fXir the, running hand, or the plapt 
eliambter? 
{JVi li^*. ^ng6 *gt ikdi ishii, yiki wdkr 



» ■ 



• tlS/ iNow in .copying this sheet, yon 
must , tyike care and not copy . it errone^ 
ously. ' " L ■ i • '1.: 

^r ihitch^du ifii ichitmg^ iiV ytmg^ tsam 

. 29. Please, sir, read the 33 orders of 
sQuncU in l;h^ Tonic Dictionary while 
I follow closely to learn them. . < • 
^Tf^it^ <«in tshang -tuki iFan Wan} 
tfdtn shapi <8dm <yam^ 'tang ^ng6 Jean 
ehfi'hdki. ' \ . ' . . 

. . 30. Please look in theTonie Dictio- 
mLiy and see where- this eiiaracter is to 
be found. 

<Ni kd' tsz'^ tsoi^ <Fan T^ik^ ipinch'ii\ 
'Wing hit sch^d yati ich^d, 

31. In which (class of ) sounds is it 
Tsoi^ iw} 'ki lyam? 

32. This sheet is a rough draft of 
iny first composition, I will trouble you 
to correct it. 

<Ni trh^ung hai- ^ng6 ich^d hok^ fs6ky 
tik, 'is'd 'kb, ito Jdn hii 'kol 'lui. 



5H 



"• \ 



* * t? * 
1^ t « 





■ ' ■ • '1 f ■ 



/ • ■ « 



». 




15 % %% i% 

# f (1 






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u 
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+ ^ tf" ^ iij 

mt m w 







is us H 



84 



BXBRCISE8 IN CONVERSATION. 



33. Written ih this way» is it accord. 
ing to the rules of grammar ? 
^K&m. y$fmg^ tafky hdpi gnum fdty mi^ 
tni? ' ■ 

Yes, it &, but the idea b not perspi- 
cuous. 
Yiki Mpi Uky; tdn^ iU^z* fcAytaii V 

84. How are suhitantiTes divided? 
Shall Uz^^ Him yiufig^ \f<m ^ni'l 

Into verbs and nouns. ' • 
* Ycai ati tsz^^f ^yau ^sz^ tS7^, 

■35; How are particles divided? 
iH'ut9z'^ %m if cm mi? 

There are initials, conjunctives, dis- 
iuQctives, posse/sslves, collectives, inter- 
j^tMions, and finals. 
^Yau 'hi ^u ,t^z\ tsipy ^u iU^^\ 'chiin 
'u iU'z\ Man' *M sJl^z\ ch*uk> *fl it^z\ 
fan' ^ii its'z\ hU> 'ii its^z\ 

36. How is poetry [arranged]? 
tShihm^ Himyhm^ie mi? 

Th^re is the penfametrical stanza 6f 
four lines which has four lines of five 
words each, and the stam^ of the same 
metre' of eight lines; there is the hep^ 
tameter stanza of' four lines, having 
four lines of seven words each, and the 
stanza of the same metre of eight lines. 
ThetJouble stanza has sixteen lines. 
^Yctuyngisuti hai^ ^^ng iinsz^' hff^ ^^ng 
hOi ^'ng M po4> hu'iW^at^ Uuti ts^aty M 
sz^' kii', ts^aii luU ts^aU tin pdU ku\ 
tPdiiuti t^aky shap'iluki ku" Idku 

37. I have made an attempt [to 
speak] ; taking ^ meaning of the sen- 
tence I have spoken, please, sir, write a 
sentence having the same signification. 
^Ng6 shi' yati shi\ ttsiung ^ng6 i* w'* 
^k6r^ "yat^ kii' Hod Hs^mg <sin ishang 
ydu^ chm' ^ngd i' w'* *«^ yaiy kW id. 

Do you wish it written in the court 
dialect or in the provincial? 
'Si Mn wd^ ting^ 'st pdki *wd m ? 

38. I purchased a set of the Four 
Books yesterday ; please tnark them. 
Txoki yat, 'mai yal, fd' Sz'' oShii, 
'taking ^nthb^. 



* 










A 




m 



4\U* 



% 




1^ 



lies 

* # It « s 

II # » 



EXERCISES m CONVERSATION. 



85 



I niust trouble you to give me the 
marking bbards, which will make it 
much easier to mark them.' 
.Ji £/&n %i ^i k6* kdpy 'pan Hang 

39. How itoany volume^ ha$ this set ? 

40. Are j/^u able to spefak English 7 

*M Hd 'kSng < Ying wd} Cm %i ? 

I h«Ve studied it six m<$nths, and un- 
derstand it only a very little. 
^Ng6 Uhi kw(P hiki ko' m^ Uuk^ Uuki 
*^k^ tak> Hki <cM. 











H ft ^ 
» ^ « 



1^ # ii 5^ if ^ 



>C0NVXR8JkTt0N WITH A CoMPRADO»i 



!)ri¥hat is your naipe? 
*jM Ma* Ui^ maiy iming ? 

tt is Alai. 
*I>^6,kid' I' 'hi. 

^ 2. How old dfe ybu now ? 
^McXmi ittin 'U tdi} &'? 
* ^'nVeity^four years^ 
/* shapi s%^ sui\ 

.3. Have you a father and modier? 

Yes>. ai^d also one elder and two 
ydun|^ l^hers. -' u» 
^YaUf.ikim 'you yaty k6^ (C (InS ^Utmg. 
k^ 8^'ld ^m. 

4. Where does your father. liv:e? 

I 

*iVi nb Hsz' chii^ tsoi' <pin ch'u' ? 

1 

In the country, near Caza Branca. 

5. How far distaqt? 
^Yau 'ki ^un Id^ d" ? 

About thirty [Chinesel miles. 
tSdm ifdng san^^ kdm* sMung^ Ad*. 

6. Are you married ? ' 

Ye$ sir. 
ts'u'Uk., 



# * X # * '^ 

1 1 % - n^ 




^STiSUl w 



' i\ . . 



>.\ 






86 



EXEKPISES IN CONyERSATIQN, 



;jy. If I Wre yoii, how much wages 
dcT^you wish to have each month ? 



J - J ^ • 



yaU uti id' 'ki d6 tkung iftgan iUt? 

\ at a .... • 



Five doilats a month. 
VNg M iflgan iV^in yaty^. 

8. .In what gentleman's house have 
you already lived? 

^Ni <sin yaii ts<n} i.'pin wai^ iyan hdh 

in M?r. PS hong a long-time. 

... ^ 

Tsoi^ ^Mi sz'^ <Pi ihdng 'kb noi^ loh. 

9. What did you attend to there? 
*M tsoi^ k& chf^ pm^ inky ^yt sz'^ 

,wi ? r"^ 

I assisted) the comprador to manage 
his affiiirs. . . .' 
Tsoi^ ^dipdn^[€^*v^. tp6n§ pdn^. 

10. I think of employing you to act 
as my acompyador^ who will stand surety 

^Ngd ^siung. ymg^ Vii Ub} ^mdi panS 
maiy ishui ddm''pd ^ni <ni, 

. Myjtepusiii, who ^^ts.as compradot* 
to Mr. ^ * *'; I think' yoti*know him; 
isitso? .1 
^Ngd ^ii thing tsoi* ^Mi sz^- ^mau ^mau 
eUe Mb^[hndi f^n} ;^ni db shiky 'k'H' 

' JLl* fix hiivfe Bfeard^^his^ name, but T 
have n<^t maBe His aVs^iuaihtance ; if, he 
has leisure ask him to come and see 
me. 

^Ng6 %lb iVkn taky ^Vt2 iming I6k\y tan^ 
mi^ shih ^k^u min^, skdn ishi Wing 
%^u iJw^ ^ngd, ycity kin' t6. 

:Terywell. "■'[■ ':\\ 
^AUb^'iaky. * ' "'' 

12. I will take >^u; \<^ne or two 
months, oh triaras tompVddor ; when 
will you bring your things? 





^Pj^^f * ft 

i^ »' fife 
a s ^ ^l" k 

t ^ « # t:^ 

li^ ii ^ il i: jft 

^ ^ ffl Ji; * «c 

- M « ^ W I* 



fiXfiRClSES IN CONVERSATION. 



87^ 



^Ng6 shi^ yung^ ^ni tsin tsd^ yaty Heimg Pj^ ^ lAi 'Sk J& 
k6rm^ 'mdi pdn','ni 'ki ,$hi tdi' ip'd M^ tK M^ W M 







I will now go back, and imhiediately 
bring jthem here. 

sF -ikd if an ha^y tsau^ intra Jm ^td tak> 
ickjk, 

13. How many men are necessary 
t6 .empjoy in thiR iestablishment ? 
^Piin ihdng W ^ki d6 syon ^shai ini ? . 

• ■ • . i ' . i 

Two coolies, one cook, one door- 
keeper, and four personal servants, are 
enough. 

^Liungkd^ ^kun tim\ yaU k& icUu Hsz\ 
yaly id* thdn imun, sz'^ kd* sz^^ 'tsai^ 
ted> tak> l6h. 

14. All that these men are to be em- 
bJoye^ in doing is your concernment, 
tM for whatever they may do you will 
be. accountable. . 

*8hd yung^ kd* tiky iyan ycU> di chb hai^ 
<ku)aw hti W^ p6* ; tdn^ ^yctu maty ^ye 
sz^* ltd iWai ^ni shi- man^ ^hai Ib^ . 




M ^ # ^ Ifc tA 
7l^ f T 1- « ^ A 

: Oertainly; I know the dispositions | |^ ^/^ pm ^ py* ^h 
of every one of them very well. ^ '»•* -^ *^ *^ 

IP 1^ # € P^P. tt 

i©Biie little* 




T«r'^ iin <li; yat» di.^ngd db shik> tak> 
^Ifia "p^ sing' ke My. 

.15^1 want you to have breakfast 
ready every morning at eight o*clock. 
*r««d ich'd 'mm <chta ie pdty Him 
€Chun0pin^ W. 

• ' ^Very welK; when do you^ want dinner 
and tea ready? 
*^Hb W ; tdi^ its^dn, hndn ^eUd <wi ? 

. 16. Dinner at four! o'clock, tea 
at such time as it is ready« 

Tdi^ ds^dn sz'' Him^ -man ^cUd kd" 
^hi pm- kd' ishi 'yam 'hdi Jd, 





88 



EXERCISES IN COXVEUSAtlON/ 



Hour manv gentlemen sit at table 
in this hong f 

'Pun ih&ng 'Id ltd mu} ^iftm hdky kung^ 
imdi shiki & 1 

17. Usually four persons. 
iShiung ishi sz*^ h6* iyan. 

18. You must alwayiir tell the cook 
to sweeo bi^ kitchen clean ; it is very 
imporllim to have it done. 
'Ni ishi isMMe k6' ^cUu Hsz' Hi sb' 
Je&n tsing^ kd" iCUu if&ngy chV tsd^ 
taky 6\ 

Yes, I know about that. 
Hai^ Idkyj ^ng6 <chi taky Idky. 



1^^ 






Cor^VERSATION WITH A SERVANT. 



1. What are you doing that you 
come up so tardily? After this, when 
you hear my bell rii^, come up stairs 
immediately. 

Tsd* mati *ni ^shiuri^ Jmk&m^ ichH; 
Htf^vc'lhSau^ 'ni ^fing kin' 'ng6 mgd 

Ithung'y'^ni tsau^ *sMung Jau ld\ 

'■' * .1 

Because I was eating at the time. 
tYan wai^ ^ngd kd^ ehan^ shikifdn^, 

2. This morning take all my clotlies, 
and sorting them out, write a list of 
them; - . ^ 

*M ikam tchiu liskung 'rtgd kdky d fuki 

lit I yaJty tchiung %idn cd. 

... ■ ' . 

1 

I have done so; th^jre are altogether 
B8 pieces. i i 

^Si Idh, kung^ pdty sliapi jmt* kin\ 

'3. Select o\ft such clothels, a^ are 
ragged, and take 4hem to be mended. 
'Kan Kvm kif a Juki hai^ Idn^ kt\ 
tnim hff *pb <a. 

I have taken several pieces to be 
mended ; besides them there are sunie 



1 1 lit ± i|j: m 





m^^m^i^ 




ft 

1 #* « « 




KXERCISB9 l\ ( ONVKRSATIOIV. 



- > 



89 



very much worn out that cannot be 

mended. 

<Ning 'ki kin^ hii^ 'pd l6k> ; ling^ ngoi' 

^yau *ki kin} shati ^shau Idn^^ ^m *pd 

takt he Uh. 

4. In that basket there are some 
dirty Clothes ; take them to be washed, 
and write a list and give it to me. 
K(P kd* lapy ^yau tiki ai itsb d fuk^ 
tuim h€^ ^8(d, ^s6 if an st^iu dan kw6* 

I will now read the list for vou to 
hear : six shirts, three pair of pantaloons, 
three pair of stockings, five Jackets, one 
vest, two handkerchiefs, one pair of 
gloves, two sheets, one pillow. case, one 
suit of sleeping clothes, one towel, one 
neckcloth; in all twenty-seven pieces. 
iT Jid tuki k6* itHu itdn ^ni d^in^W : 
kAi ilh^ h6n} tfshdm^ ^sdm J^id fu\ 
i96^ %\iii! mkii^ ^*ng kin^ ichung tshdm, 
yaty l^i^ pUV isarrit ^leung sfiiii ^shau 
tkem^ yati tuV ^shau lap^^ Hiung tchetmg 
*j/i c^fi, yati kd" ^cham toi^, yafy fiC 
ihui^ cf, yati ifiu min^ dearth yati d^iu 
*Idng\kan ; kiing^ ya} ts^aii kW. 



5. How much does the washerman 
want per hundred for washing ? 

%F fuki *lb iw* ^ki d6 iUgan yati pdki 
kin^ <ni? 

He wants one taei per hundred. 

^JCii W yati Heung sVgan yati pdki^ 

6. You tell the washerman that he 
need not starch the sleeping-dress. 

^Ni tfan fiV kd' a fuki 'Id ,'m 'shai 
^tsiung kd* tiki shtii^ <shdm, 

I told him vesterdav. 
Vs6ki yati v)a} Hc^u tchi Idki. 

7. Change that bowl, and bring 
some clean water to wash my face. 
rr«^ kwo* ip^im ikoti tnng- "^shui Jai 

EA. LES. 12 



^ ^h t ^ ft » 


^m^mn^^ 


^ 


mm^M^^ 


it ^ M tt * ijfe 


%^^ W-^^ 


m^mmi^^ 


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Wi £.n ^r>- 


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JtJ - ft f 5^ m 


5i^p-<ift 


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f|3 * ft -b fr 


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il- Wit9& 


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qt 0B€ll3 5& 


^^A^^tx.^^ 


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90 



EXEKCISES IN CONVERSATION. 



r li is changed ; do you want some hot 
water for shaving? 

8. No; brush that coat clean, that 
will be enough. 

i*M ^shai Idki, ts^dU tsing^ kd^ kln^ tdi^ 
ishdmpd^ d6. 

The barber has just come, have you 
time to have him cut your hair? 
sf tkd i^ai^ if an %b ^lai Idky, -ni laky 

9. Call him up; and at the same^ 
time call the coolie to sweep the floor. 

Kilt* ^k*u ^shiung Jai di; yaty ^hi kid^ 
^kitn tifiC sd^ Jau <Z^. 

The coolie is busy doing something 
else; he'll come directly. 
^KUn tinC ^kdn tsb^ pity tiky ^z'S tsau^ 
sfaildky, 

10. What are you doing now? 
^Ni it M tsb^ maty ^yt ? 

I am brushing your room, and arrang- 
ing your bed. 

iU ikam ^td sd^ ^ni tkdn ^fdng, <kim 
^p*d ^hd ^ni ko" <chiung ^cUdng, 

11. Which do you want? 
Wi(n» ipinkd'? 
. I want the broadest. 
'Ngd aP chi' fdty ke . 

12. What do you want? 
'Niiu' maty 'yi? 

There is a Chinese below who calls 
you. 

^Yau kd" iT^Sng iyan ^hai ^lau Jid^ 
kW ^ni, 

13. What business has he? 
Maty 'yi $z'' kdti' a'? 

I do'nt know, but I think he has 
come to call on you. 
iMi^chi ^nU doi tdrtC ^ni kwd\ 

14. Request him to cone u^). 
'TsU?ig ^shiung Jai Jd. 



^^ifs^^^^ 


mm^W: 


^\^"^^^m 


ftA^li^. 


ifn * I'J M ^ « 


^if-^mmm 


^m 


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jfeptt;*#» 


m 


t JSSt gij6^ 


^$tm^ 


1^. 1 * 1 1. ^ 


^^p ^nBi^m 


BmmMi^m 


m^ 


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T i4 f4^ 


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# 


^h±mm . 



EXERCISES IN CONVERSATION. 



91 



15. What is contained in this hox? 

* 

iNi k6* <s6ung tsoi^ mah ^yS a* / 
Crockery- ware is packed in it. 

16. How was this plate broken? 
*7\ot yiung^ Idn^ taky twi chiky tvpi ? 

The coolie inadvertently let a knife 
drop which hroke it. 
^Kun tim* /m k6k> tiU ^pd Ud l6ki 
he Hd Idn} ki^ . 

17: TeH the .comprador to go to the 
shop and buy a new one in his «tead, to 
replace this. 

KW himipdn'hu' fd' it^au toi^ 'k'ii 
hf&i kw6* chiki tsan kt^ ipiu <fdn kwd' 
^ng6 xld. 

This sort is a foreign one, and I fear 
the Chinese shops haye none for saie. 

<Ni k6' yiung'- hav' M Id' ke' p6' ; 
iJ^dfig iyan p*^* $/*aw p*d* ^md taky 

18. This tumbler is cracked and 
leaks; bring another. 

<iVt chiky ^shui tpui lUi Id' lav} ^shui 
ki* I6hy; <nim kw6^ tai' i' chiky Jai 
pa' da. 

There are none. 
mb Uky. 

19. Is that table done yet? 

Tsd' ^hi kd* ich6ung sfoi j'?w it^ang dl 

It will certainly be finished in a few 
days. 
Kw& ^k% ya$i pity ting' tso' %i Uky, 

Wf He promised to have it complet- 
ed to-day ; does he again put me off se- 
veral days more ! 

*X*ti ^ying ishing Jcam yaii tsd' ^hi, 
yau^ ifui ^ki yati d^im* 

He. says his workmen have all gone 







t^ 







4 Ml* 

^ M m 











f^ * K 

AH 

# SB S^ 













EXEKClSl!:^ IN COaVERSATlUN. 



92 

to see the play, and there is nubody lo 
asBiBt him. 

'fffi tod' 'f6 fa'' ftii' Vai fti', 'mi niat. 
lyon >pAi^ '«A<ni ted'. 

21. Why did you not come before? 

TVd* m(tf> ^i .jfn ,sAi /m (lai .nf ? 

Because the rain, having made (he 
foad slippery, it was difficult to walk. 
. yim wot' i()A, 'fi, /a* icd£„ lii. ihmg. 

22. What are you looking for? 
'iVf i/«'om nw(/> 'ye? 

Yesterday I did nol see the penknife, 
and am raw looking for it. I 

7Vs4, yaii I'm */«■ "pA dl 'Itai, t* <jtd 
■twn 'Ad <cA£. I 

23. Perhi^js it is in my .vest pocket. 

Wak, 'chi Isui' 'ng6 pii? aam toi' Jai. ] 

■ Ho» I have looked everywhere, and I 
cannot find it. 

^Md, 'ngi ch'W cA'u" 'wan kvi' J<> t'm 
km\ ' 

24. You muaj have looked very care- I 
jfisply, for here it is under this ink-rag. ; 
^i« cmd <mA- HI J^<m 'Ad, 'hai Wk,, ! 
'hai k6' fdf 'iiti pa(. fb' tat Jai .ni. 

Well, I thought it was on the writ- 
ing-desk atter all. 

A'! 'ngS 'kit pat, 'king 'liai 's& Is:'' 
teoi Jai ,U. 

25. Bring me a light, to seal tilts 
letter, quick ! 

ciVim kit' 'f6 Jai tang ^ng6 .fung ,ni 
,fun£ san\fdi' tik,! 

Where is it to be sent? 
KP hu' .pfaicVu' d'? 

26. Send it to Mr. T.'s hong, and 
bid the coolie make haste, for I fear it 
will be too late. Do you know where 
be lives? 

Ki' hit' 'Mi s»'' Ti' Mng, kiH' 'kun 
Hm* fdP ming Aii' ^ng6 di jfd' tdi' 
,cA'i I6k>; 'm skik, tali, k6' tyau 'hai 
■pin ch'u' cAi*' I'm a' ? 



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mrnnm^ it 


sft 


»«-tSf 


B^ H i« a te 7j 


ffiinS^iT* 


^f-^ttti 


^m 


flfeg ts® 


ips« 


f* i« !W si * up 


-as 1* "i « m sa 


«ffi;s^« 


!i«<i!f*S« 


i*j$««ii 


s ii ;ic ® ? a 


*t ?« *t ffi tt « 


f * 1 1 » 


^ A ^ i- « 4? 


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a g 1± "it Pi} 



KXEKCISKS |j\ «;oi\VKKSATION. 



9^ 



Yes sir, 1 know the houses No. 8 
Danuili hong. 

27. Put this table to rights, the 
inkstand, pens, stamps,, paper folder, 
paper, weights, ruler, bell, lead pencils, 
wax, wafers, paper, put them all in 
order. 

Ping* ^hd tni tchiung ifoi; k6^ tiki 
maki *8kui <dng, pat^^ ^"6 ts^aU yan^ , 
^cM <£d, *^chi dty,kat' ch^ikyy^chung ^tsai, 
tfmpaiyj yb U^aty, ^shui t^cUy, ^chif yati 
Hsung, ping^ ^hd ^¥ u Jd. 

■ Please show me how you wish it 
doney then I shall know. 

*Tf^iag ^ni 'ching *Ad ^ng6 ^^aikw6\ 
Hang hig6 hau^ Joi ^chi taky <a. 

28. In this manner, and I wish you 
to do it in this way every morning. 
*JS^imyiung^ ^ngd iu* ^ni ^mui kcMu 
M(&* yhmg^ ^chvng ^kd, 

' 29. Spread out those books to air, 
%mi aUterwards brush them clean of all 
dirt and insects. 

*P4i A» ftp tik> ishii tfvng tchUii ^hd, 
^In Jum^ t^dty tsing^ k& tiky 'km ishu 
gUan tfih^ung. 

Which book-casr? 
^Pin k& ,9ku kwai' ? 

30. That one in the hall on the side 
ci the fire-place, having glaas windows. 

2Twn* tdi^ ilau ^fd Jd tsaky ijnn tp^d iU 
s8i6n, kd^ M <ni. 

I have never vet done this, and do 
not understand how to do it. 

^Ngd tsin fShi i*«^ its^ang tsd^ kw6\ j'm 
Villi */i»i y.tmg^ Usb^ p& . 

31. Who broke this window? 

Mca.y iyan ^chimg Idn} k6^ tb^ <p*d Ji 
ich^tvmg itnun d' ? 






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w fii mi) ^m 

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iS IVJ ^ « a !fe 

It A ^ ^ 1 ii 

ft ^R» Pitt 

5i pg ^ S « ft 




m 



KXERCfSEP IN rONVKKSATlOX. 



45. Tell them, that when the lady 
wants them to put the chair down, to 
take it up, to go slow or fast, to go 
through this street, or stop at that house, 
/Or whatever she bids them to do, they 
must obey her. 

toA* iw' l6ki ^kiii, wdki iu^ ^shiung ^kiu, 
wq} ihang mdn^ tiky, wdkifdi^ tikr^ lod^ 
iu* eking kw6* ^mau Jcdi ^mau uky Idki 
'kiu,Uau^ ie ifing^k^u tfanfii* ld\ 



It is not necessary to tell them^ for 
-their business is to carry chairs, and 
they know all these things. 
K6^ tiki iTn ^shai <fanfff ^k^iiti^, <yan 
wai' 'k*u hoi' ^foi kiin' 'ki^ ki\ kS' 
tiki sz*^ k6iC ^¥u shuki shiki k^ Idky, 



46. Ask the comprador what he is 
gmng to get for dinner to-daV ; there 
«»e fdur guests- coming here to dine. 

Man^ ^mdi pdn^ *s6ung hu^ ^mdi mat, 
^yi tsd^ ikam yati tdi^ ds^dn; ^yau 52'* 
w<$i^ \yan kdky Jm ttii ch^ii* UHm, 

He says he has provided crab soup, 
boiled garoupa, shell-fish, a roast pig, 
cutlet chicken, mutton chop, baked 
^potatoes, greens and eggs, hashed 
turnips, onions with beefsteak, sweet 
potatoes, orange tarts, suet puddin^r, 
custards, chees^^ biscuit, fruit of two 
or three kinds, wines and beer. 

*fC*u wd^ 6* ting* tsd^ ^hdi tfong, shdpi 
shiki t(pdn giij kuki ikd^ <sMu <chu ^tsai^ 
katy iUi Jcah s,ytung ^pdi kwctiy^ ktiki 
ishii Hsaiftdn^ ^'ot*, Jd^paki faih tHU 
iP^d ds^ung iTfigdu yuki, Jmng gshiiy 
ich^dng tdti^ iUgau hoati ^sui pd^ din, 
tun^ kati iSliU ^ngau ^ndi ^p^ing^ ^p^ing 
tkdn, ^l&mg csdm y^ng^ ^kw6 ' Hsz\ 
^tsau, (p^ Hsau, 

47. Tell him those will be enough. 
Wd^ ^k'ii ichi 'kdrti hnC l6k,. 








It ^ n 



\^ +1 ^ 
#1& 









P^ I « ii * M 

t* ff t ^ B ;k 
^ P9tfe A ^ 




1^ vi 





















JEL 







^l^# 

Ml* i@ 



SELECTIONS EOtt READING. 97 

These l^o conversations with a comprador and a servant, as will have 
already been seen, are not continuous dialogues, but are made up for 
the most part of such leading questions as are most likely to be need- 
ed by persons employing such domestics, and also to a great degree 
ia intercourse vfiih all classes. They will, it is hoped, if learned as 
recommended in the paragraph at the beginning of the chapter, be 
sufficient to guide the learner in the formation of other sentences as 
his wants may suggest. Those who are learning the language where 
they hear it used every day, should attend closely to the people as 
they talk among themselves, try to catch the sounds and intonation 
of the words and sentences as they fall from the lips of the speakers, 
olbserv^ their phrasesi, and endeavor to preserve them in his memory. 
Similar conversations with tradesmen, teachers, and other classes of 
society on different subjects, all written in the colloquial style, are also 
contained in the Chinese Chrestomathy, to which the student is referred. 



tfTfiaptet ^ixttf. 



SELECTIONS FOR READING. 



Tbbsb selections are longer thab the sentences in the fourth chapter, 
amfl those from the writings of Lukchau exhibit a more condensed 
style of writing than the preceding extracts from the History of the 
Three States. Like them they should be learned thoroughly. 

Wo.- 1. — Heroism of an Imperial Concubine. - '■-J 



#-i ■• 



HMfiUn tai^ hang^ fa ihiin, tau\shau^ ; fati ^yau shung yaii 
Hon, Un eiii|)eror w'ent tiger incloeure, fight beast; suddenly was bear bolting 

Muly tfdn latk* yuki ^sh^ung. <Ktmg iyan <kdi pi^ niki ; iFung hsa^ 
oat clambered fence trying to-ascend. Palace people all fled hid ; Fung ■■ 

The emperor Un of the Hon dynasty once went to the Tiger menagerie 
ti^'Mee the wild beasts fight. Suddenly, a bear bursting out clambered up on 
the failing, and tried to escape. The inmates of the palace all fled and hid 
theftnehres ; Fung, a lady of the bedchamber, alone rushing out directly oppos- 
ed the bear, and kept standing until the attendants dispatched hiin with 

EA. LES. l;^ 






98 SELECTIOMS FOR READING. 



^Ja.JL 



xckw t( ^fing iin chiki siskin d6ng ihuiig ii lapi^ ^op^ H§6 
refulgent rule rushed alone straight before oppo«cd bear and stood till left 

yau^ kdky shaiy Jitmg. TdC man} cckiii iU iHd tuki pd* 
right cudgeled killed bear. Emperor asked refulgent rule, Why alone ikH 

I iN- QiA ^ m ^ AlfD Jfc{^ 

:ui? Tilt' idi, ^u ^mafig shmi' tak ,yan ,i 'cM;\g*ipy 
terrified? Answering said, now furious beast obtain person then stop; concubms 

?S ^E # miik M ^ Zl^^ «fc 

*hung fdn^ u^ ts6\ ' kii' ,shan ,tdng tcM. Ta^ H H^z\ 
fearing desecrate imperial seat, therefore I.personallydpposed it. Emperor for thia 

^ iTfi % m. m 

^iii ikd king^ chvng^ ^in, 

redoubled added respect esteem truly. 

No. II. — A Daughter-in-law's Obedience. 

i^M "k^. M- ^-- + f) 
IS l^-^i ^ ^1^ M * -& f ^tk 

^Lai tsau *ch^ iCh^ng sW ^nu Chiv} ^Sung ti^ai ^yd. <Kik 
Laisau one, Cheung family female ChiCi Sung's vrife. Mother-in-law 

huki 6ky iTTid td^ : ' ii^ tcMpat> H ^Ud. ^ tSau 

hardhearted wicked without luinciple ; meeting her not with propriety. Saa 

^ m & t\w m '^{X n ^ ±}ia 

tck^ung jmd wan* shiki ; k^api <A wv// itiin^ fit- ^md man} tcAi, <d»* 
ever without passion color; when home visited father mother asked her, only 

•?f ^T^ 1 1 M ^ ^ If I IE ^ 

^yan kau* pat> tdK \ iKu tsuty ^kSm 'ng^ • kang" iU^z^ 

introduced faults, not speak. Mb.-in-law subsequently moved aroused very kind 

t;^!^ K *B 1)11 0t^if ^ t.iii 

01* tchi. • tHlung syan csiung fan* ii/?, tsdh y% pati d6ng iSi 
loved her. Village men each-other taught, saying, Act wife not ought like 

cudgeld. The emperor asked her, "Why were you alone not terrified 1" She 
repuedi "If the furious beast could get a person he would then stop; U fear- 
ing he would desecrate the imperial seat, therefore threw myself before him." 
The emperor, for this action, redoubled his respect and esteem for her. 

Laisau, a female of the family of Ch^ng, was the wife of Chiti Smig^. 
Her mother-in-law was' inhumanly wicked and unreasonable, and whenever 
she met her could not act towards her with decorum. Sau never manifested 
the least discomposure, and when visiting at home and her parents asked her, 
she only introduced her own delinquencies, and never mentioned [her mother- 
in-law's] . She, ;5ubsequ€ntly wrought upou and aroused [by 'this conduct], 



SKLKCTIOiNS FOR ftKAUlNG. 99 

Ckif Pdk. M 'fu ,u 1 'Sz' 6k. ,ku ccAt pin* 'h6 

Chi(i Pikkd's wife i. Causing wicked inother.iii-law know change cftn 

11 m &p 

called Wives' Instructor. 




No. I I J. Tv T R E P I D I T Y OK A W I D O W. 

(Ji iW -^ ^ ^ - ^ -b + -b #) 

s w/6ng ^Fa tkufai tchixt^ai^ shin^ shuki ^tuanf iUang Hs^b tshii^^ 
Wong F(ikw'ai 's wile, clever compiling writings, able ninning-hand write- 

^ ^ ; « ^ M « s ! ^ w « m 

t Kvfni tsiUii * 'Fung Ch^ tuk, s^man i^ i sWi f/i^, p* «?^* *i t*z' «piwg 
Kw*ai dead, Tung Ch-^uk hearing her fame, espoused with chariots curricles 

j«iJI(;> shing\* ^md V shap, p*«/S, jTid ^pi iUHn pdki, tch*ung 
hundred carnages, horses twenty animals, slaves maids, money silk, filled 

IdK iTf^ai 'ndi Mngfidci ' ngaV^ Ch^iuky ,nmi, kwai^ tsz'' iChfan 
road. She in light dress repaired- to Ch'^uk's door, kneeling herself stated 

*1 if * ^ %l ^- ^ ^Wi 7J. .::.!.:.': 

^ feelings, speaking very bitterly affecting. Ch'^uk, ordering slaves draw swords 

swat tchij ii wai^ idi^ ^Ku ichi twai kau\ yuki ling^ sz^^ *Aot 
surround her, and speaking said. My *s awe law about. to order four seas, 

tfung ' *fni, *Ai ^yau paU shang tu yai. ^fd id? tTs^ai tchi 
mflniBiice submit, how have not act on one women eh ? She knowing 

became very afibolionate and loving to her. Tho villagers taught each othek*. ^ 

■aying, •* Ought not every wife to act as ChlO ^^^ kk6^g wife J For knowing -^ 

how to change a wicked mother-in-law, she can Tie called the instructor of 
WivcB." y^... _- » '^ /^ 

The wife of iW&ng Fdpw'ai waa v(»ry clever in compiling litprary works, (<^r(s JK 
and was able te'Wf tt« ffie runuitig.hand. After hor husband's death, Tung 
Ch^uk, hearing of her fame, sent a marriage present to her consistingr 
of a hundred baggage and light wagons, twenty horses, with slaves and 
maid-servants, money and silk, filling the road with them all. She, in a sorry 
drt^flSj went to Ch»^uk*s gate, and kneeling, stated her own feelings,' 
Bpeaking in an exceedingly touching and moving maimer. Ch'euk, ordering 
his slaves to draw their swords and wurrouiid her, then called to her, saying, 
'^ My awe and my commands are about to rule the empire, and all will submit 



102 SRLKCilOiNS FOR READING. 



m ^ ^ ^z # 1^ n A Ml 

ctHng ; \^z* ishui iUin <chi *wid, ih&m isau ympi «*; 
government; causing descending years *8 mother, covered shame enter earth; 

151 n%'ik ^ A # &:fe«g^^ 

M H kin' ^u ^shi ^yan 1 Ming^ Hsd yau^ 'chH J^i «f, 

how can see your before men? Commanding left right fitrip his clothea, 

tau ik^i piii' ; tsiung* ts6' ikdi wai^ <chi Wing pdit ^ch^6 
whipped his back ; officers assistants all for him requested, bowed moreover 

it ^ vj n z w ^ f^^ %^ ^ 

yapy ; ^kau ^ndi shiki tchL tKwan .<chung syou shi\ sut^ ■ <dn. 
wept ; long then loosed him. ^rmy in from this, accordingly quieted. 

No. IV. — Confucius and the Boy. 

*Hung ^tsz^ iining cYaih ts^^^ Ckung^iM; ch^Uy kdu'. «& ^ ^Lii 
Confucius nan^ed Yau, styled Chungni; set-up to-teaeh in L6 



kw^y tchi tsau Yat, yati^ shuty acUu tai^ ^Jtsz\ ii^ ^kii cUuty 
state 's west. One day, followed all disciples, isitting cairiage went 

m%^^^ n. m m ^ m-% 

syau; W ^ungshb' si <M hi'; <chung ^yau yaty ^i 

rambling ; road met several children chil4ishly playing ; among was one lid 

r^ n ^i 1- ji ^ ^ f^ B n ik 

paly ht\ 'Hung Hsz' ^ndi chu\ tkih nuxn} uti^ tuki *fi 
not plo^y* Confucius then stopping carriage, asking said, only yoo 

tn )i^ 1^ ^tt 'N a #0 fim ^. ^ 

pati hi\ ihd ^yd? 'Siii ji tdpy iiti^ if an hi' itnd ytifc>, 
not play, why eh? Small boy replying said, all play without advantage, 

^^^^■^— ■ ■■■■ ■■ ■■ ■ ■■■ ■ ■■■■■■■■ ■■■■■ .1 i»»i— I i» ^ mt^^^am^mnm^m^tmmm^m^ 

penalties of the empire. How then can you, at your own pleasure, illegally 
kill an innocent man ? Ten thousand to one that this does jiot disturb the 
peace of this region : how can you alone oppose the emperor and despise his 
governiQent, jEind bring your poor old mother, covered with shame, down to 
the grave ! How can I then meet your ancestors V* She then ordered the 
attendants to strip oflT his clothes and beat him on the back, till the officers 
^nd assistants jail intreated her for him, bowing and weeping. After a lon^ 
time she let him off, and the army by this was quieted. 

The name of Confucius was Yau, and his style Chungni ; he establish- 
ed himself as an instructor in the' western part of the kingdom of Ld, One 
day, followed by all his disciples, riding in a carriage, he went out to ram. 
ble, and on the road, came across several children at their sports ; among 
them was one who did not join them. Confucius, stopping his carriage, ask- 
ed him, spying, " Why is it that youi alone do not play ]*' The lad replied, 



- SELECTIONS FOR KEADINU. 



103 




m m m ± 

jp*& sTidn ifufig; shiung^ yuki 
torn difficult mend; above disgrace 

^9i M m ^ ^ 

, pUi ^yau iau^ tchang ; dd 
irtainly have fis^hting quarrelingr ; labor 

m 

pati hV * 

not piS'.y- 



X ^ T ^ n 

f\i} ^mb^ ha} l^api ifnun 
father mother, below even-to door 




tk n ^ 



w'* 7 ku* ^iidi 
^usinesfi ? therefore is 



tsdky ishing. 
made city. 



m u ^ ^ M,^ 

ii ifnb thing; ^hi noai 

and without gain, how is 

'^ ^ m n % 

Then hanging head with tile 



^ 




t. B 



\mg Hsz' chak) tchiy uti, 

mfucfus reprimanding him said, 




pi' 



f^ ^^ 1 * "f- fh 

ih6 paty pi^ tkil iu? ''Sid 
why not turn-out carriage eh ? Little 

tdpi tUi^ Tsz^^ ^ku h^apy <kam, iWai <t6ng ikii 
r replying said, From antiquity till now, is proper carriage turnout 

■ m T^ t M 5i T * n ^'Vj 

tshingi pafy itSng Ishing pt^ <u ikii, ^Hung Hsz^ ^ndi ' 
city, not proper city turn-out for carriage. Confucius then 

f ^ m M, r^ m m n ik ^ 

i- tifcti, iuh^ </)-. Ha} .Jcu $t man^ iin, ^ii iUin 
iAn carriage, discourse reason. Leaving car and asked so, your years 

r in ^ ^ n f ^h 5a 1^ A 

lung^yau\ Jid d6 chd* iu? ^Siu ^i tdp> utn^^Yan 

iU young, why much quickness eh ? Little boy replying said, l^an 

t H a ^ Sf^ ^ ^ ^ H B 

ang iSdm sw} \fan pUi fiO^ ^ma^; fb^ ishang ^sdm yati 
n three years distinguishes parents; hare born three days 



Jl play is without any profit : one's clothes get torn, anid they are not easi- 
nended; above me, I disgrace my father and mother ; below me, even td 
lowest, there is fighting and altercation : so much toil and no reward, bow 
I it be a good business ? It is for these reasons, that I do not play." Then 
pping his head, he began making a city out of pieces of tile, 
ikvifafcius, reproving him, said, " Why do you not tuwF out for tfee car- 
j^l" The boy repUed, "From ancient, times till now, it has always been' 
t^dered proper for a carriage to turn out for a city, and not for a city t<r 
n out for a carriage." Confucius then stopped his carriage, in order to difi- 
irse of reason, lie got out of the carriage, and asked him, " You are still 
ing in years, how is it you aro so quick T* The boy replied, saying, »* A 
uan being, at the age of three ycara, discriminates between his &ther and 
ther; a hare, three days after it is born, runs over the ground and furrowt* '' 



104 SKLKCTIONS FOR READIIVG. 






Hsauti^ ^im ^mau; iU tshang ^sdn^yati^ ipau <tt tk&ng sfi; dfin 

runs earth ridges fields ; fish bom three days, wander in riven Ukw; heavi 

produces just so, how called brisk eh 7 

^Hwig Hsz* ati^ ^ii ikii Jid ^h^ng, Jid Hi, jid *tng* 

Confucius replied, You reside what village, what neighboriiood, what i 

^ ^ n ^ .^h ^ ^B^ ^n 

what name, what style? Lad replying said, I reside poor vi 

tsin^ ti^ ; sing" Hdng-, sTning T^dh ; mi- ^yau tsz^^ ^yd. 
mean land ; surname Hong, name T'6k ; not have style. 

'Hung 'tsz' Mining yukikung^^u if tmg ^yau; *« V ha} gu Jii 
Coniiicius said, I wish with you together ramble ; your thought as how 

;h ^ § * % Ji X M -i- * ;t 

*5il« ii tdp> iiti, ^Kd ^yau iim fu^, <su ^t&ng sz'^ ^chi; 
Lad answering said, Home have stern father, very proper serve him; hom 

^yau ste*2' ^md, ^sii d6ng y^ung^ tchi; ^kd ^yau iin Jimg^ 
have indulgent mother, very proper cherish her; home have worthy eld..broth< 

i,su xt6ng shun} <chi; ikd ^yau yiuki tai^ ^su d&ng kdu^ 

very proper obey him; home have weak younger-brolher, very pix^r teads 

z ^^ ^n m m t m zi^ m 

tchi; tkd ^yau sming i.sz\ isii ddng h6ki <chi: M hd^ 
him; home have intelligent teacher, very proper Icaiti-of him: what leisure 

a/^ung <yim ^ycfl 

together ramble? 





Af ttite fields; fifth, three days after birth, wahder in rivers and lakes, whst 
heaVen thus prodhces nftturaily.how can it be called brisk ?" 

€onfuciuid added, "'iVi what village and neighborhood do you reside, what 
is your sumkhie and* name, and what yo<ir style?" The boy answered, **I 
Hye in a mfean village and in a' poor land ;• my surname is H6ng, my name is 
T*6k, and- 1^ have yeft no style." 

Confucius rejoined, ** I wish to have you come and ramble with me ; what 
do you think of it?" The youth replied, " A stern father is at home, whom I 
am bound to serve ; an affectionate mother is (here, whom it is my duly to 
cherish; a worthy elder brother is at home whom it is proper for me to 



SELECTIONS FOR READING. 105 

•^Hung Hgz^ tUii ifig tku <ckimg ^yau tsdm shapi i- J^i 
Confucius said, my carriage within have thi'ee tens two chess 

^ ^ i* ^ »^ t T l(n M '!> ^ ^ 

men, with you play game; you think down as how? Lad answering 

itfi, <finHsz' W p6ky, sz'' 'hoi pat, %;^chujwu hd* pdky, 
said, heaven's son love playing, four seas not ruled; all nobles love playing, 

^yauifong ching' 'ki; sz''- ,u W p6h, hdk^ man^ fa^ 'chi; 
have disorder government; scholars love pla3ring, learning lost discarded; 

'h A if 11 f^ ^p t ft fei^ itf n 

*si^ iyan hd' p6ky <shu k^uky <kd kai' ; ^nd ^pi hd' p6h 
lower classes love j^aying, lose quite family support; domestics love playing, 

€^ ^ m M^ M ^ n n ^ m ^ 

pity shau'' <pln p6ky ; inung </w hd' pdh tkdng chung' sJurty 
must get whip cudgel ; husbarfdmen love playing, ploiighing sowing lose 

^ ^ i^ ^imi 

ssM; shi- ka^ patypSh ^yd* 
time; is reason not play. 

^Himg Hsz' iiti, sug yuh 'ii ^n ^p'ing keuh ,fin hd'- ; 'ii i' hd' ]■. 
Confucius said, I wish with you equalize truly empire; you think down • 

^ ^ /h 5a ^ B XT r- '^ "^ ^ ^ 

iU ihd? 'Siu ii tdpy uti, if in hd- paU 'ho ^pHiig ^yd. Wdk> ^ 
ms how? Lad replying said, empire not can equalize. Perhaps ' , 

^'M \UM^1J:m n ^ 3i C^ ^ 

*3lBW ikd <shdn, wdki ^yau ^kdng gd ; todh ^yau iWdng Jmu^ waki ^yau 
are high hills, or are rivers lakes; perhaps are princes nobles, or are 

obey, with a tender younger brother whom 1 must teach ; and at home is an 
intelligent teacher from whom I am required to learn : where have I any 
leisure to go a rambling with you?** 

Confucius said, " I have in my carriage thirty -two chess-men ; what do " ■ 
you say to having a game together 1" The lad ariswerM, "If the emperor ^ 
loves gaming, the empire will not be governed; if the nobles love play* the j^- 
government will be impeded; if scholars love it, learning and investigation 
will be lost and thrown by ; if the lower classes are fond of gambling, they 
will utterly lose the support for their families ; if servants and slaves love to 
game, they will get a cudgeling ; if farmers love it, they will miss the time 
ror ploughing and sowing : for these reasons 1 shall not play with you." 

Confucius rejoined, " 1 wish to have you go with me and fully equalize the 
empire ; what do you think of this 1*' The lad replied, " The empire cannot 
be equalized : here are high hills ; there are lakes and rivers ; cither there are 

BA. LES. 14 



lOG SELECTIONS FOR READING. 

iR ^ ^ ^ M \U§^W(.M ft«# 

<nd ^pi ; ijfing lUuk> Jed ishdn^ ^niH slum* ^b ci; ^kikiuk* 
maidi servants; level . ed high hills, birds beasts without resort; fiD • ed 

tk&ng s^9 lU piti imd %hMi; ich^ukivkitwdngjutttfitnan d6 
rivers lakes, fishes turtles without home; remove king nobles, peopto manj 

sW ifi; UxiU kJuky tnd ^, Jciean "tez' ^shai isJmi? <T^in hd} tdng^ 
right wrong ; discard servants, prince employ whom ? Empirs vast 

^ :^ -sr T f- 

t&ng^, 'hi 'h6 ^pHng idl 
vast, how can equalize eh? 

?L^0 1^ ^\s Jir- m ^K % m ^ 

'Hung Hsz' vti, ^u tchi tfin hd^ M 'fd itnd tin? tH6 
Confucius rejoined, You know sky under what fire without smoko, What 

7\i % ^. i^\u m ^ f^ ^ ^ )^ 

*shui imb iU? iHdtsfidn stud shiki? iHd shu^ imd <M? 
water has-no fish? What hill without stones? What tree has.no branches? 

^ K % B ^ ± % ^H^^J» 

gHd iyan ^md ^fu? sHd ^nu itnd ifu? iH6 tfigau s!md tuki^ 
What man has-no wife, What woman without husband? What cow no oalf 

H' m ^. m i^ m m m i^ m m 

iH6 ^md iind <kau? ^Hd Jiung ^md dsx'? iHd dsz^ ^ 
What horse has.no colt? What cock without hen. What hen ha«.n» 

1$. ^ t, t =^ n % *V K ^ 

ghung? iHd iWai <kwan Hsz" 1 iHd iVxn **iii iyan? sHd 
cock ? What constitutes excellent men ? What constitutes inferior men ? What 

iWai paty tsuky? iH6 iWai ^yau iU? iHd ishing ^md 
is-there not eaough, What is-there having overplus? What city haSiAo 

rli isr A ^ ^ 

^shi? iHd iyan itrib tsz^^? 
market. What man has.no style ? 



princes and nobles, or there are slaves and servants. If the high hills be 
leveled, the birds and beasts will have no resort ; if the rivers and Kikes be 
filled up, the fishes and turtles will have nowhere to go ; do away with kings 
and nobles, and the common people will have much dispute about right und 1 
Wrong ; obliterate slaves and servants, and who will there be to serve the 
prince ? If the empire be so vast and unsettled, how can it be equalized?" 
Confticius again asked, " Can you tell, under the whole sky, what fire^ias 
no smoke, what water no fish ; what hill has no stones, what tree no bHmch- 
68 ; what man has no wife, what woman no husband ; what cow has no calf, 
what mare no colt ; what cock has no hen, what hon no cock ; what consti- 



SELECTIONS FOR READING. 



107 



nit 



*0 # tK IR 



/h ^ ^ EI t ^ 

^Sii(i> ii tdpy uti, tying f6 itnd cin, Hiing ^shui itnd 
Lad answering said, glowworm's nre without smoke, well water has-no 

^ ± m . |ffi ;^ tt m 42 +i fiij A # 

fi; Yd ishdn iind shiki, ifcu shu^ ^md ichi <m iyan ^md 
fiah; earthy hills have-no stones, rotten trees have.no branches ; genii without 




1/^ 

wives, 



± + il 





ii> 



l^rses 
worth 



:*: 



^ -k U ^ 

ywAjj ^nii iind cfu; ^fd iUgau jmd tukiy muki 

gem girls without husbands; earthen cows have-no calves, wooden 

m^ ¥< m ^ ^ ^ i$ m n 

gfnd ikau ; <kii Jiung itab ds^z\ tkH its^z* itrib ikung; 
no colts ; orphan cocks without hens, orphan hens without cocks ; 

^. IB 1- B. ^ f\^ A ^ B :^ 

iWai tkwan ^tsz\ iU gtoai ^siii iyan ; dung yati paU 
makes excellent men, folly makes inferior men; winter's day no^ 




hd' 



0^1^ 



^yau 
has 



yati 
enough, summer's day 

A ^ ^ 

syan ioid tsz^^. 
folks no style. 

IL ^ P«1 H iic 

^JSung i^z* man} iUi, ^u 

Confucius asking said, You 

^ Z i^ i^ 

sprung ichi ich^ung ^Mi ? 
^wer s* ending beginning? 

^phi, Ji6 iWai Hi ? sHS 
outside, what is inside? Who 



^ m m t 

iU ; iWdng iShing jwd ^shi, 
overplus; imperial city has.no market, little 



'siu 



^i % m t. m ^m 

tchi if in ti^ ichi ikSng *A:i, tyam 
know heaven earth 's controlling union, dual 

iHd iWai ts6^^ Ji6 i,wai yau^ ? ^Hd iWai 

What is left, what is right, What ia 

iWai fii^, Ji6 iWai ^md ? iH6 iWai tfdy 
is father, who is mother. Who is husbandt 



tales an excellent man, and what an inferior man ; what is that which has not 
enooffh, and what that has an overplus ; what city is without a market, ^nd 
who 18 the man without a style 1" 

The boy replied, "A glowworm's fire has no smoke, and well-water no fish : 
a moand of earth has no stones, and a rotten tree no branches ; gonii have :•<« 
wives, and fairies no husbands; earthen cows have no calves, nor woodri; 
mares any colts; lonely cocks have no hens, and solitary hens no cocks ; / e 
who is worthy is an excellent man, and a fool is an inferior man ; a winte*' ^ 
day is not long enough, and a summer's day is too long ; the imperial C. v 
has no marked and little folks have no style." 

Coofbcius inquiring said, «* Do you know what are the connecting he > 
between heaven and earth, and what is the beginning and ending of the c .:.. 
powers? What is left, and what is right ; what is out, and what in ; wh : j 
mher, and who is mother; who is husband and who is wife] [Do 7::. 




108 SELECTIONS FOR READIIVG. 

ihd iWai fd?iFungits!^ung Jid Jhi^ ^u its^ung Jtd chi* ? iWari 
who is wife? Wind from what comes, rain from what reaches? CIcnmIb 

m n ^ m i^n n. ji^ ^ ^ m 

iU^ung ihd ch^id^y mb- iU^ung Ji6 %i? tT^in ti^ <s^ng hu* ^ki 
from what proceed, dew from what arise? Sky earth together go how-many 

T H M 

itsHn man- Hi? 
thousand myriad miles ? 

^Siu ii ^ tdpy lUif ^kau ^kau iWdn Jcwai pdU shapi yat> shi^ <fin ti^ 
Lad replying said, nine nine multiplied eighty . one is heaven earth 

zm siie A/L-b t^^ It ^;t j^ 

tchi tkdng ^ki ; pdU ^kau ts^at> shapi i^ shi^ syanii, yiung <cht tch^ung 

's controlling record ; eight nines seventy-two is dual power s* endmg 

^cht. <T^in cwal fiV-, ti- iwai -md ; yat^ ^wai jfu^ vti iwai 
beginning. Heaven is father, earth is mother; sun is husband, moon is 

M M^^ ^^,^ ^y ^ * J^ i, « 

^fd; dungiwai Hs6, isai ^wai yau- ; ngoi^ <,wai ^piu, noi^ iWai Hu; 
wife; east is left, west is right ; outside is without, inside is within; 

m '^ -^ ^m'^ % t m '^ \^ 



tfung iU^ung <T.s^6ng i*7ig, Hi uts^ung ikdu ^shi; iwanti^ung ^skdn 

wind issues-from Ts'&ng-'ng, rain from waste places ; clouds from hilla 

lu % '^ ^ ^ % ^ ia * ^ ^ =F 

ch^vt>y md^ its^ung ti^ %i ; dHn ti- tstung hu" ^yauds^inds^m 
proceed, dew from ground arises; sky earth together go have thousands 

I ^ ^ m ^ ® f Mb t ^- 1 :^ 

mdn^ mdn^ iU Hi ; dung isai s.'^dm paky Mi ^yau ki^ H, 
. myriads more l(; east west south north each have locality. 

know] where the wind comes from, and from whence the rainl From 
whence the clouds issue, and the dew arises 1 And for how many ^ns of 
thousands of miles the sky and earth go parallel V* 

The youth answering said, **• Nine multiplied nine times makes eighty-one, 
which is the controlling bond of heaven and earth ; eight multiplied into nin^ 
makes seventy-two, the beginning and end of the dual powers. Uej^vep is 
father, and earth is mother ; the sun is husband, and the moon wife ; east is 
left, and west is right ; without is out, and inside is in ; the winds come from 
Ts*6ng-'ng, and the rains proceed from wastes and wilds ; the clouds issue 
from the hills, and the dew rises from the ground. Sky and earth go parallel 
for ten thousand times ten thousand miles, and the four points of compass 
have each their stations." 



/■ 



.SRLECTIONS FOR RKAOING. 109 

Confttchis inquiring said, You say father mother JIare near, husband wife are 

near ? Boy replying said, father mother are near, husband wife not near 

^Hvng Hsz^ iifi, if it fu ishangtsaki ^^ung ik^aniy ^sz^ tsaki &i*ung 
Confucius replied, husband wife alive then same coverlet, dead then same 

'K ¥i%%^fV9^f B K ^ m m 

iUi; ih6 takifaUd^an? "^SHi d tdp^ vti, ^yan ^shang ^md ^w, 
grrave; how be not near? Boy rejoining said, man alive without wife 

iD ^ fe ^ t^ t flh 5t ^h n * 

S Jtu iTno ilun; ^md Jun tsoz* te'dS pity taky J^t 

like carriage without wheels; have-no wheels again make, must obtain his 

tscm; /w *5z' kang" sdky, yau^ taky J^i tmrt. J'w Jed ichi 
new; wife dead again seeks also obtains a new. Worthy family 's 

■k ^%- m ^ ^ i- fB\± mm n 

*iiii, jpiti pui^ kwai' <fu ; shapi Mn ^chi shaty^ tsii taky 

daughter must match honorable husband ; ten room 's house, must possess 

tung^ il^ung^isdmich^^ungluky ^yau paty ^u yaty ii} ^chi Jcw6ng ; 
plate ridge; three windows six sky-lights not equal one door 's light; 

% ^ Wi PI ^^p ^t n m m X 

iskung" tsing Hdng H&ng paty ^u <kii iity tuki, <ming. FH^ 
all stars sparkling brilliance, not equal solitary moon single splendor. Father 

n z ^ '^ '^■^^ 

^mb tchi <yan^ ihai 'ft6 shaty ^yd ! 
jQDther 's affection, how can lose ! 

Confucius asking, said, " Which do you say is the nearest relation, father 
and mother, or husband and wife 1" The boy responded, " One's parents are 
near ; husband and wife are not [so] near." 

Confucius rejoined, ** While husband and wife are alive, they sleep under 
the same coverlet; when they are dead, they lie in the same grave. How 
then can you say they are not near?" The boy replied, "A man without a 
wife is like a carriage without a wheel : if there be no wheel, another one is 
made, for he can doubtless get a new one : so, if one's wife die, he seeks 
again, for he also can obtain a ne\y one. The daughter of a worthy family 
muBt certainly marry an honorable husband : a house having ten rooms 
always has a plate and a ridge-pole : three windows and six lattices do not 
give the light of a single door : the whole host of stars with all their sparkling 
brilliance do not equal the splendor of the solitary moon : the affection of a 
fkther and mother— alas, if it be once lost !" 





110 SELECTIONS FOR READING. 

'Hung Hsz' f&n' ttf„ iin dsoi! M tsoi! 'SvUl ^i mai» 'Hung *te» 
Confucius, sighing, said, clever how! clever how! Lad asking Confinaiia 

EI 1^ FpI * ^ --.:^ ;t ^ ^ 

iWi, shiky iloi man^ T^ 6k>, T^ 6k> yati yati tdp^ ichi; 'Pdk* JeOm 
goid, just now asked T'ok, T*6k one one answered them; T'6k 9ow 

m ^ ^ ^=^ - t m nm 

yuki Jcau kdu\ ifu Hsz' yat> iin^ ifning *i fH.^ 

wishes seek instruction, teacher one sentence, plainness employ instmet 

=^ # m '!> ^ 9 ^ m fiVX^ 



'P 6ky ; ?iang^ Wing mcUi hi\ 'Sid ii vtiy ifH dp> Jid H ittang 
T'ok ; pleased request not reject. Lad said, mallards ducks what by aUe 

j^ m m in nn"^ m ^^^ +6 ^ yj. 

ifau? iHung ngdn^ M H tnang iming? iTs^ung pah M H 
swim? Wild-geese cranes what by able sing? Firs pines what by 

^ # a ^^01 ^m vf ^^ a 

itung listing ? 'Hung Hsz* tdpy m<j, if it dp> tnang ifau^ Jcdi c^OH 
winter green? Confucius replied, mallards ducks can swim all becaiU9 

J£ ;^ ^ m ^fe p.! t ® f I ^ Vh 

tsuki ifSng ; Jmng ngdn^ ^nang iining Mi <yan 'king ichtung; iU^tmg 
feet broad ; wild-geese cranes can sing, all because neeks long ; fin 

t ^ # f* ^ >i^^ ^ ^b ^ ^ ^ 

pdky dung ds^ing^ Mi lyan tsam Jcvn. 'Siii ^i tdpy uti, pat^ 
pines winter green, all because heart strong. Lad answering said, not 

^ f > .1 i^ w ^ ^,^ :^ m m m 

iin; iii pity gnang ifau, 'hi (kditsuh tfdngl M ^md sXumg 
so; fishes turtles can swim, how all feet broad? frcgs toads can 

Rl ^ S -i H it ^ # ^ H 

ming^ <M sycm, 'king ichiung? luki chuky dung d^ing^ 'hi lyan 
sing, how because necks long? green bamboo winter green, how because 



tsam ikin 7 
heart strong ? 



Confucius sighing, said, " How clever ! how worthy !" The boy asking 
the sage said, " You have just now been giving me questions, which I have 
answered one by one ; I now wish to seek instruction ; will the teacher in 
one sentence, afford me some plain instruction 1 I shall be much gratified, 
if my request be not rejected.'* He then said, »»Why is it that maU 
lards and ducks are able to swim ; how is it that wild geese and cranes oao 
sing ; and why are firs and pines g:reen through the winter ]" Confucius re* 
plied, " Mallards and ducks can swim because their feet are broad ; wild geese 
and cranes can sing because they have long necks ; firs and pines remain 



SELECTIONS FOR READING. Ill 

tSiu ii yau^ man^ ttfj, dHnehiung^iling iUng^ycm ^ki tsingl 
Lad again asking said, sky above all-together have how-many stars ^ 

^ ^ ^ B m ^f^ ^ isf ,^ ^ % 

^Hung Hsz' tdp^ tUi, shiky Jm man^ t{\ Ji6 pit, J^dm tfin? 
Confucius replying said, just now ask earth, how certain converse sky ? 

/|^ J^ bl ^ T 5f *| ^- ^ M ^ ^ 

^Siii ji lifi, tt^ hd^ lukr luk, ^yau ^ki uit, ? ^Hung Hsz' 
Boy rejoined, earth below every - one have how-many houses f Confucius 

Ban m B^ ;^ ♦ i>jl .j)L> m ^ 

ati^ .'ch^i lun^ ^ngdn Min ^chi sz'^, Ji6 pity ifdm uHn 
•aid, still converse eyes before 's things, how certain converse sky 

shuty ti^? 'Sm ii utij ykukilun^ ^ngdn itsHn tcM sz'^, ^mi 
discourse-of earth ? Lad answered, if speak eyes before »8 things eye 

^ t W ^ *j^ 

imd tchung ^yau ^ki tcki? 
brows among have how-many hairs? 

IL^^ff^T^ § mm itf7^f3 

*Hung Hsz^ siu\ a paty tdpy, hti" wcd^ tchu tai^ Hsz* wfj, 
Confucius smiled but not answering, turned calling all disciples said 

^ !k^ ^ % "f^ % ^Z T-i\^ '^^ 

hau^ tshang ^hS wai^ ; dn ^chi Joi ^ch^ ^chi paty ^ii tkam ^yd 
after born can fear ; truly know future person he not as now 

*^Ji ^ $ ifa * 

«U shi^ dang Jcu li hu\ 
On that ascended carriage and departed. 



green througrhout the winter because th?y have strong hearts." The youth 
rejoined, »»Not so; fivshes and turtles can swim, is it because they all have 
broad feet 1 Frogs and toads can sing, is it because their necks are longi 
The green bamboo keeps fresh in winter, is it on account of its strong 
heart 1" 

Again interrogating, he said, *» How many stars are there altogether in the 
sky?" Confucius replied, " At this time inquire about the earth; how can 
we converse about the sky with certainty 7" The boy said, " Then how 
many houses in all are there on the earth ?" The sage answered, " Come 
liow, speak about something that's before our eyes ; why must you converse 
about heaven and earth " The lad resumed, " Well, speak about what's before 
our eyes— how many ha'.rs are there in your eyebrows 1" 

Confucius smiled, but did not answer, and turning to his disciples called 
them and said, " This boy is to be feared ; for it is easy to see that the subse- 
quent man will not be like the child." He then got into his carriage, and 
rode off. 



112 SELECTIONS FOR READING. 

i#0^ifc ^ ^- mm T 

Ode says : Do-not despise yean young, intelligent bright lad ; 

« % ^ :4- % m A 

^lCw6ng ^yau tying if^oii cM hw& i.yan; 
Extensive had great talents, wisdom beyond men ; 

m. iffl -t P^ H PR ♦ 

iT^dm lun} shai^ <kdn^ ^md hdn^ sz*^ ; 
Converee discourse world in, without limit affairs ; 

^ m -^ ^ M ^ $t 

tFan' ifning ^ku shing^, in- JcH tshan. , 
Perceive clearly ancient sage, expose his body. 




N o. VI. — A W I F E*s Constancy. 

(Jiiffl -k^ #^ ^ + E$) 
m ifl ?- ^ * S * ffij f T P^ 

^Lu^T^aUilT Hsz' W^u' ds^ai,^"ng yai^ hff, ii <kun <u iCh^an 
L6 Ts'au U' tsz* marrying wife, five days left, and governed in Ch'mn 

^^ng iuin ^ndi ikwau tTstungchi^ ikd, kin' Hs^oi ts6ng ^fd^ 
five years then returned. About at house, saw picking mulberry woman, 

ji Ui <chh M} tkii ^u ^u. ^Fu iyan Hs^oi tsdng paty 
and fancying her, left carriage with speak. Woman picking mulberries not 

m m^fBfj fflT^ii0 1 t ^ » 

tTs^au ilT Hsz* vti^ lik^ if in paty jti sfungtfung inin; Woi 
Ts'au U' tsz* said, work fields not as had fertile year; pick 

isdng paU iii kin' kwdky thing ; s'ng ^yau <kam un^ H ^u c/ii syan. 
mulberries not as see state minister ; I have gold wish with give lady. 




ke. 

regard. 




The ode says, 
Do not despise a youth, A bright intelligent lad; 
Whose talents are discursive and great. In wisdom surpassing men ; 
While discoursing about things in general, Of affairs without a limit, 
it is evident that an ancient sage, Has manifested himself in the body. 

T8*au U' tsz' of LO married a wife, and five days afterwards, went to fill an 
ofiicein [the state of] Ch»an. At the end of fiwQ years, on his return home, 
as he drew near his house, he saw a woman picking mulberry leaves, and 
being pleased with her looks descended from his carriage to converse with 
her, but the lady went on picking the leaves without stopping to look at him. 
T8*au said, " You labor in the fields as if we had not had a year of plenty ; 
you pick the mulberry as if you would not look upon a lord of the land. 1 
have gold which 1 wish to give to you, my noble lady." 



SKLICCTIONS FOR RKADIKG. 113 





^Fd syan fi/i, tHi! ^ng paly iin^ if/an tchi^kam! iTs^aUiV 'tsz' sui^ 
Woman replied, Out! I not wish man 's gold! Ts'au U' tBZ» then 

S -ir ^ ^ ^5t # # ^ ^^ 

chi\ hu^ Mj fung' t/cam itoai ^md. ^Md ming^ ifu tts*ai; 
reached going home, offered gold gave mother. Mother ordered call wife ; 

« tn 75 * f^ m^ ^i^n^fik ^ 

'.U^aichuU^nai ^sdng Mn ^fu ^yd. tTs* an iU^ HszUdi^ its^dm. 
wife out was mulbemes among woman. Ts*au U' tsz* greatly chagrined. 

tTs*ai chaki ^chi ii/z, kin^ shiky hV tkam <i im6ng ikH ^md : 
Wife reproving him said, saw beauty discarded gold and forgot your mother : 

A ^ # -ffi- * fl :Ti * a>J ♦ -g ^ 

tai^ paly hmC ^yd. Sz'^ ds^an paii hdu^ tsaki sz*- Jcwan pat* 
greatly not dutiful. Serving parents not dutiful, then serve prince not 

tchung:ld^ <kd paJty i-, tsaky cW ikun pafy ^li; hntC i* 
faithful: rule house not right, then rule office not proper: duty justice 

J£ t:: ipjgl T^ 1 ^ ^ t ^'1 ^ ^ ift 

ping^ ifndng, w6^ paiy ^iin H. Yam- tkwan pvti t8*u\ T«4p> ifau 
togrethei lost, misfortune not far-off. May sir another marry. She plunged 

H tk fi^ ^ >^. # i# ^ 1 Mn $ 

Jid ^skui ti ^sz\ ^Ndi tsdky <shi ii/,, iLdng tyan ipi p6ki, ts^ipy 
river water and died. But made verse said. Lord's affection leafs thinness, my 

th in ^5 1^ t ^ ^ T> ri ^ ^ f^ 

tping ds^ing; iLbng ^u iWdngckam^ts^ipy pafi eying ; Yeuki^^sz* ^tigau 
icy pure; Lord with yellow gold, I not consent; If make pair 

iin tfung yaJty ^u; PurC isJiang ishui surC ^shau tku itang? 
sudden exchange a word ; Half life who faithfully guarded lonely lamp ? 

The woman replied, " away with you ! I do not wish a man's gold." IVau 
leaving her, then went on to his home, and gave the money as a present to his 
mother. She ordered his wife to be called ; but his wife had gone out, and was 
that woman [he saw! among the mulberries. Ts*au was very much ashamed. 
His wife upbraiding nim, said, ** You saw a pretty face and threw away your 
gold, the while entirely forgetting your mother; this was very undutiful. If 
you do not honor your parents, you cannot bis faithful to your prince; order- 
ing in your family improperly, you will rule in your office unjustly, and when 
filial duty and justice arc both neglected, trouble is not far on. You may 
marry another wife." She then threw herself into the river, and was drown- 
ed, bnt lefl behind her a verse, as follows : 
.»« My lord's affection was thin as a leaf. But [my virtue] was unsullied as ice ; 

»* My lord wished to give me yellow gold, But I would not consent ! 

•• Now he comes suddenly upon mr, And wishes to join in loose converse: 

«* For half hor life who h.is faithfully trimmed the lonely lamp?" 



116 SELECTIONS FOR READING. 

No. VIII. — Remonstrance of a Mother. 

(Ii iffl jc ^ ^ ra - -f- -t ^) 



i'Ng <fii lyan 'ch^^cSiintKin ,U^ai, ,Sm Ch'dh 'md ^yd. Ch'dL H Jcung 
'Ng lady the, San Kin's wife, SUn Ch'&k's mother. Ch*6k by merit 

t" H ^ t^ £ f: )!!' IS ;^^7«c A 

ite«d Ngai^iTang ^'ng 'ki i\ ds^ung shdly tchi, iNg tfik syan 

clerk Ngai T'ang opposed ^- his wishes, about killing him, *Ng lady 

# ^ ^ m ±}^lk ^ 3^^^ 

H idi^ Hsingy wai^ tchi vti^ ^ii tsan ts^d^ iKdngindm^ 

reclinmg great well, telling him said, you lately established K6ngnliiii, 

*• * * j^ ir. ii t n db 

ik^i sz'^ mi^ tsofpi; <fdng d6ng lyau iin, ^lai sz*^j 
its affairs not-yet quieted ; then ought indulge worthies, respect scholan, 

^ m m ^ m ^ ^ ^ ^ m 

^sM kw6\ luhi Jcung. Ngai^ ts^d^ tsoi'- Jmng tsun} tku^ai; 
overlook offenses, reward merit. Ngai officer iii public altogether regular; 

ik^ n ^ z w\ m n A ^^^ ik 

^ii tkam isz*- 8hdt> tchiy tsah itning yati ^yan Jcdi pi^n' ^u. 
you now yourself kill him, then brightened day men all desert yoii. 

f ^ ^> ^ ii ± 23t t%^^^ ^ 

i^NgpeUi ^yan kin^ w6^ ichi h^apiy ^tdng ^stn sfauHs^z^ ^ingichuhg^ 
I not bear see evil *s descent, shall first jump this well into 

m A 1 P ;t 

Ch^dh tdi^ tkingy shiky tcM. 
Ch'&k much alarmed, released him. 



The lady *^g was the wife of SOn Kin, and the mother of Son Ch*4k. 
Ch*dk, havms been opposed in his wishes by an Under-Secretary Ngai T^ng, 
was about to Kill him, when the lady ^l^g reclining upon the ffreat well, called 
bini and said, ** You have only recently established yourself in K6ngn6m, 
and its afiairs are not yet in a settled state ; yoil ought therefore to act 
liberally towards worthy persons* and respectfully towards literary peidplet 
overlooking offenses and rewarding merit. The officer Ngai has always act- 
ed properly in his public duties, but if you now kilt him yourself, ta-mommraM 
men will desert you. I cannot bear to see evil come upon you, and shall ^nl 
jump into this well." Ch*fik was much al^nned, and released bixn. *«• « 



SELECTIONS FOR READING. 117 

JN O . I X . II A R D H K A R T K D N E S S P U N I S H E D . 

(It # ~ %-^^ 1) 

^niungiyan f& Ji <m ^shU Yd Mm <f6ng, kd' ifang 

t village man peddled pluma in market, rather sweet fragrant, price rise 

^M± m in ^^ ^ i\ ^ -^ 

>.^YauTd^ sz\ y'& ,kan ^sii <i, k*oi' tu M it^in. 
lyi ' Was Taou priest, ragged garments mean dress, begged at wagon before. 

dlage man scolded him, but not going, village man irritated, added 

^ H cUlk, ma}. Td^ sz'^ uti, yat, M shd' pah 
Vrith opprobrious railing. Taou priest said, one wagon several hundreds 

m M % ±-n ^-M ^ tt^# if :^ 

Vis Hd ndpi ^chi l^oV ik^iyaty; tii tkii sz^^ yiki ^md tdi^ 
iruh, old priest only beg their one ; ' for respected sir indeed no great 

m \^u m a ^ 1 g ^; ^ — 

*^siStn; ihd nd^ noai? <Kun ^che kiin* chi^ Ivl^ ^chi yalt 
loes; what anger cause? Looking those advised give poor one single 

sintity ling^ hii^ . tH6ut% syon chapy paiy ^hang. 
fruit, order go. Village man held not willing. 

«+« # # ^ m m j^ m 

Sx^ ichung syung *pd "^ch^ kin^ tipi kuti paty Mm, 
Market in, hired assistants those seeing noise clamor not endure* 

stjo} ch*uty itsHn 'shi yaty ^mHi fu^ Td^ sz'^ Td^ sz'^ pdi* 
then gave cash bought one fruit gave Taou priest. Taou priest bowing 

Once there was a villager selling plums in the market, which were rather 
sweet and fragrant, and the price was high ; and there was a Taou priest, 
with ragged garments and a coarse cotton dress, begging before his wagon. 
The viuJEiger scolded him, but he would not go off; whereupon, becoming 
angry, he reviled and hooted at him. The Taou priest said, ** The wagon 
contains several hundreds of fruit, and 1 have only begged one of them, 
which for you, respected sir, would certainly be no great Toss ; what cause is 
thi&te for so much anger ? " The lookers on recommended to give him a single 
poor plumi and send him away, but the villager held on to them and would not 
consent. 

The workmen in the market seeing there was a great noise and clamor* 
which they would not endure, then f\irnished cash, and buying a plum 
gave it to the Taou priest. He bowing thanked them, and spca£ng to the 
crowd said, **I do not practice a niggard economy, and now having a delicious 
plum, 1 request you my friends to partake of it.** pne of them said, 



>L&.PUt^ . 



1)8 SELECTIONS FOR READING. 





ts^^ imp chung' uti^ chUUy M iyan paty ^kdi /im* 9ik> ; 

thanked, speaking crowd said, leave family man not practice ni|[g»rd CMn ; 

^ 'g t » m m ^ $ ^ ft ^ 

^ngd^yau <kai ilUWingch^utukunghdky.Wdki fil^, ifci? "ym 
I have delicious plnm, please give feed friends. One said, already have 

tc/ii, sh6 paty l3z^^ shiki ? Utiy ^ng taki <su Hs^z' hull ts^y Unhung. 
it, why not yourself eat? Replied, I only need this stone make plaaU 

n^ ^ nk m a m ^ ^^ ^ 

tU shi^ kuky Ji tdi^ tdm} ; '•ch^t tsun^^ ^pd hati <fi *9hau% 
Upon that taking plum large munch ; when finished, taking stone in handt 

m ^ ± m^ ^ i."^ %L -^ m 

^kdi Mn sh^ng^ ^t^dm^h&m tt* sMung^ isham shd^ t^un\ndpi 
removing shoulder on spade dug ground i:^>on deep several inches, inserted 

±M m yx ± ^ 1^ A ^ s i?c 

<chi A fuky *i Vd. H^ung* ^shi iyan sdky i(^6ng yvik^ 
it and covered with earth. Tuming-to market people got broth fertilfaged 

m ^ ^ ^ f^^ % ^ m ^m 

h&n. Hb^ sz'^ 'eM lU dam Id^ VmC s6ky tah> f&i^ 
watered. Desired affair persons at near road shops brought got boilk]^ 

1 n ± ^ if jc it ^u m m 

'sham, Td^ sz'^ ts^ijh tsam' 'h6m rA«ti'. Mdn^muki iis^un sW 
dregt, Taou priest reciving poured dug place. All eyes around looking 

*:in* ^yau Jcau iining ch^ufy, tsim} ^ tdi^ ; ing6 iShing shU^^ 
saw was hooked sprout issuing, gradualljnncrcased ; presently formed tree, ) 

tchi ipi ifd ishdy shuky 4 tfd^ shuky A shatiyshiki tdi^ 
branches leaves abundant, presently and fiowers, soon and fruit, large vei^ 

if&ng fuky ilui Jui ^mun shu^* Td^ iyan ^ndt tsiki 9h0 
firagrattt odoriferouB heaped.up filled tree. Taoa man then approaching tr^e 



'-t-m- 



" You have one already, why do you not cat it yourself 1" He replied, «♦ AH 
i want is this stone in order to plant it." Thereupon taking the platn itf his 
band» he eat it up by large moutbfuls, and when finished, niolding the stone 
in his hand, took a spade from off his shoulder, and dug a hole iti the gr^mid 
several inches deep, into which he put it, and covered it up with earthf. 
Then turning to the market people, he procured some broth with which he 
watered and fertilized lU \ Some persons, who wished to see what would 
come of this, i^lso obtained boiling dregs from the shops near the roadside, 
which the priest receiving poured upon the spot just dug. The eyes of^ every 
one around being intently fixed, they saw a crooked sprout issuing forth, which 



SELECTIONS FOR READING. 119 



m M m u Mm MM # £ /5^ 

tfiau chaki te'z'* ikun 'chi ; ^¥ing hdk> A tsun\ 'ki ^ndi 
trunk plucked gave behold - ere; moment's while and consumed, he then 

n m ^ ^ T T m !K rj m w 

H ii^ dm fall shu^ ; ding ding Mung ^kau hidi HUta^ tdt" 
with spade felled tree ; chop chop good while then severed, carried 

^^ m m ^ ^ if^ -^ m ^ 

ipi h6^ ikin ifau^tsungiyungich^u pd^ si hu\ 
foliage placed shoulder head, easjr gait leisure steps and departed. 

M ^t H # ^ B# A 7/r. n ^ 

UCh^d Td* sz'^ tsdky fdU iShU Mung syan yiki tsdpi chung* 
Txtsi Taou priest did magic when, village man also crowd multitude 

^ ^\ m i^n n ^> t: m m 

ichmg ^yan Hing chu^ muki ^Mng ^mdng JcH ipi. Td^ 
amongst stretching neek fixed eyes completely forgot his business. Taou 

± m * U\ m j^ ^ M m ^ ^^ 

8z^^ ik hu\ ^cUi k(C iku ichung^tsaky J,i H Jmng H. 
priest having gone, began looking wagon in, then plums were empty. 

■n ^ ^ 0r ^ f^ t a#» ^a % 

cFdng ^ng^ shiky ^shd piu^ sdn\ Mi ^ki mati ^yd. Yau^ 
. fiien perceived just what distributed given, all his goods. Moreover 

,t» m ^ ± - ^ -t ^^m m^ 

fcwfc* shi^ ikii sheung^y yaty . pd* imSng^shi^.iSantsdki Hun *chi, 
. ekeely looking wagon upon, one dash-board lost, was lately chiseled cut it. 

.& A t m t i^' ;t $1 3i m 

iS€un tdi^ fan^ han^, kapy tsiky xchi^ *chun kw6* its^ung 
Mind much excited angered, hastily followed him, turning passed wall 

m uiia ^t m M T ik ^ m ^^ 

iU, UakyHvn pd^ M dn hd^ ; 'chH ,chi 'sh6 fati Ji 
comer, then cut board thrown wall below ; firet knew what felled plum 

gradually increasing presently became a tree, with branches .and leaves; 
soon after there were flowerp, and then fruit, large and very fragrant, which 
covered the tree. The priest then approached the tree, plucked and sb.v^ to 

, the beholders ; in a little while all were consumed, and he then felled the tree 
with the coulter : — the sound chop, chop was heard a good while, but at last 

. being cut, he shouldered the foliage with an easy gait, and very leisurely 

. •walked off. - - . 
. When first the Taou priest began to perforin his magic arts, the villager 
was also among the crowd, and with outstretphed neck and fixed eyes, com- 
pleteljr Ibrsot his own - business. When the priiest had gone, he began to 
look into His wagon, and lo ! it was empty of plums. He then perceived 
that what had just been distributed were all his goods. Moreover looking 
narrowly about his wagon, he saw that the dash-board was gone, having just 
been cut off with a chisel. Much excited and very angry, he hastily pursu- 



.^ 



120 SELECTIONS FOR READING. 

^ ^ ^^ ^ M ± X^ ^ Pfr iB - 

muki, isiky sW mail ^yd. Td' tz'^ pai, tchi ^shd isoi^ ; yat, 

tree, just was thin^r. Taou priest not know where was; wbole 

t m B 

market laughed truly. ' 







No. X. Grave of Ts'o Ts*6. 

# + H '1^ >^ + z: 1) 

Up ^ ^I' ^ i^ ic i^ 1 S a ^ 

^Hu ishingngoi^ ^yau Jtd shui ^chung ^yung;kan^ ingaitsham ^dm. 
side was river water rapid rushing; near bank deep dark. 

B# ^ A A W ^^ ^,^W 7J 

Shing- hd^ iShi ^yau tyan yapi yuki^ fat^ iin yiuki pi^ dd 
Full summer time, was man entered bathe, suddenly as-if by sword 

n r n w^^ ^ - A#i(P± m 

*f& tshi Him ^fau clfui^. Hau^ yat> iyan yiki iU ccAi, *chUn 
Z7C, corpse cut' floated out. Afterward another person also like him, tommg 

m M ^ g ¥ m z%^ km 

ts4ung thing kwd^ . Yap* Hsoi iman ccAi, ^htn d6 iyan ch&pi 
mutual alarmed terrified. Cit^ magistrate hearing it, sent many men bank 

erji iJjE m% -^^^ m '^ ^m m 

Hun shiung^ ilau ; Mh Ji^i ^shui, kih^ ingai hd-^ ^yau <sham fimg\ 
stop above flowing ; dried the water, saw precipice below, was deep hoUow, 

tchung chi^ *chun Jun, shiung- ^pdi IP yan^ iU tseung, Hik* 
in fixed revolving wheel, upon spread sharp blades as hoar-frost. Removed 

m xjc A ^ 'h «f ^ '^i :* 

Jun thing yapi ^yau ^siu ^pi ; fsz^- Mi H&fC sun^ ; 
wheel, daring enter was sn^U tablet; characters all Hon seaLcharacters 



cd him, and as he turned the corner of the wall, there was the board thrown 
down beneath the hed^ ; he then learned that that with which the plum-tree 
had been felted was this thing. Nobody knew where the Taou priest was, 
and the whole market laughed heartily at it. 

Beyond the city of HQ, there was a rapid flowing river, and near by a deep V 
dark overhanging bank, [n the midst of summer, a man entered thereto 
bathe, when suddenly a corpse, looking as if it had been cut with a knife, 
floated out. Afterwards, another person met with the same ; and the thing 
becoming noised abroad, people were alarmed at so strange an event. The i 
magistrate of the city sent men to bank up the stream above from flowing, <^ 
and having dried the water, they saw a deep hollow under the bank, in which 
was placed a revolving wheel, on which were spread blades sharp as hoar- '< 
frost. Having taken away the wheel, and got courage to enter, they mcTa 



**■ 



A: '. ^«'> )» -.fi 



SELECTIONS FOH READING. 121 



m m zm^^ e.^i!i* ^- ft 

«»* shi^ ichU tsaky sT**d Mang^ tak^ mb^ ^yd. P^6' tkHn sdn* 
canfally examined thorn, then Ts'd Man^tak's grave. Broke coffin dispened 

kwati, ^shd tsun Jcam *pd tsxm} Wu ^cM. 
bones, what buried gold gems all seized them. 





No. XI. A Thief Detected. 

m ^ /> T - m^ 






^ m ^ 'M '^. ^' ^ ^ 

Yapusai Pdki <kd tchSng^ ikii i,man ^mau^ fd^ Jun 
City west, White family hamlet lived commoner certain, stole neighbor's 

m ± z^ ^ ^ j^ M X mmt. 

a/;>, <p^angicht. Chi^ y^^ kdky tfu ^yeung, ^fin i^mingshi^ tchi^ 
dack, cooked it. At night perceived skin itching, sky bright saw it, 

# ^ Ti ^ m z m « A ji 

syung ishemg dp^ iind. Ckuh tchi tsah <* ung* ; tdi^ ki^^ 
thick growth duck's feathers. Irritating it, then painful; much alarmed, 

itnd skiUi ^hd <i. Yi^ mung- yaU tyan kb^ tchi 

without remedy could cure. Night dreaming a man informed him 

lk ^ Vi li 1 il # 3^c ^ 

ti^i, ^u ping- ^ndi ^fin fati; c5u tak^ shatt ^chi 

■ajnng. Your disease is heaven's judgment ; miist get losing person's 

m -^ Jb, ^i ^ m m t * 

md^i ifnb hidi ^hd Uky, iT Jun ^yung sb* 

reprimand, feathers then can fall-ofF. But neighboring gentleman uniformly 

^ 1: ^ ¥ :^ il * t # # « S 

*ngdJ6ung^^ tshang ip^ing sheets mati, mi^ icheung iching ^H ishing shiki. 
refined liberal, life whole lost things, never exhibited proof in voice color. 



Bmall tablet, graveti with seal cTiaracters of tho H6n dynasty, and closely 
examining found it was the grave of Ts^d Mangtak (or Ts*6 Ts*6). They 
broke up the coffin, scattered the bones, and seized sill the gold and geras- 
interred with it. 

On the west of the city, in the hamlet of the White family, lived a certain 
commouer, who stole his neighbor's duck and cooked it. At night, he felt his 
skin to itch, and on looking at it in the morning, saw a thick growth of duck's 
feathers, which, if irritated weris painful. He was much alarmed, for he had 
no remedy to cure it with. At night dreaming, a man informed him, saying, 
•* Yom* disease is a judgment from heaven ; you must get the loser to re- 
primand you, and tli6 feathers will fall off." Now this gentleman, who was 

£A. LES. 1^ 



122 



SELECTJK>JSa FOR RSAOlNti. 



^Mau ^kwai kd* tyung iUu dp> ^ndiHnau kAf% ^sh6 ^dS ^ 
He craftily told frentleman saying, duck waa certain man jwho alole, he 



m 




^ f> ^ » 511 * 

isJumi toa'P md^; m6} 'tcki yiki *h6 ^kmg dsiung JtoL' 
much dreads reprimand ; reprimand him truly can warn about come. 



A 





c Yung sW vtu iShui ^yau Jidn Ai* md} 6ky iyan f 
Gentleman laughing said, who has leisure spirits reprimand wicked man 7 

^ ^ ^ ^ ^ 

Ts\ii^ paty md}. ^Mau yih 
Steadtastly not reprimand. Man exceedingly 

^ ^ * ^ ^ n. _ 

jfed* ilun ^yung ; cyiing ^ndi ma}y Ji^ijp^ing^ Jiung 'I. 

inform neighboring gentleman ; gentlematf 'then reprimanded, his disease well. 



m 

ihwan^ <yan shati 

embarrassed, beoanae tm^ 

*^ me. 



his neighbor, was always libera] and refined, nor during his whole lifp, whmii* 
ever he lost anytliing, had he even manifested any displeasure in his coun- 
tenance. The man craflily told this gentleman, "The fellow who stole your 
duck is exceedingly afraid of a reprimand, but reprove him and he wilt no doubt 
then fear in future/' The gentleman laughing replied, " Who has the tkue 
and disposition to scold at wicked men," and he altogether refused to do it. 
The man being hardly bestead, was obliged tO'tisU him the truth ; upon which 
the gentleman reprimanded him, and his disorder was removed. 

The lessons in this and the fourth chapter can be advantageously 
employed in teaching English to Chinese lads afte? they have already 
made some progress in it. Let the boy be first taught to read the 
sounds in Roman letters as they are written under the characters ; 
and then let the instructor read with him the literal English until he 
can easily read it himself. He should then' be made to con both the 
Chinese and English, and exercised in translating either line with ths 
opposite ^one exposed : so that he can recollect the Chinese when be 
sees only the English, and vice versd. When the text has been made 
famiUa,r, let him copy the free translation at the foot of the page, and 
write each Chinese original word under its corresponding English 
ivord ; this exercise will show him the idiom of the English, and 
aid in teaching him how to express himself properly. 



I » 



TUF CLASSIFIERS, 125 



Ct^Ptrr S^tt>tntfi* 



THE CLASSIFIERS. 



If the student has made himself quite familiar with the preceding 
lessons, do that he can readily remember and >^rite all the characters 
in them, he will have learned a good proportion of the most common 
characters used in books. He will find that by making himself per^ 
feet master of a few lessons, so that he can easily read them, write 
.every character in them, and give its meaning from memory, and 
by becoming to a good degree familiar with the construction of the 
sentences, he will sulvance the most rapidly to a thorough knowledge of 
Chinese. In the last three chapters, he will also have seen something 
pf the peculiarities of the style and grammar of common sentences, 
and wherein the idioms of the Chinese language differ from his native 
tongaei and from other languages with which he may be acquainted. 
This clmpter is designed to exercise him in his knowledge of cbarac- 
Aers, by giving their sounds and tones, and the signification of the 
eentence, and then requiring him to write the characters out in full. 

The chapter is also intended to make him acquainted with th)e use of 
i^ class of words holding an important place in Chinese writing and 
conversation, by giving him such sentences as contain examples of 
them, and arranging them into sections. This class of words has been 
denominated numerals, but this term confounds them with the proper 
numerals, with which they have no connection ; and it is otherwise 
inapplicaible ; for it is somewhat catachrestic to say, as Dr. Morrison 
lloes, that >>the numeral has an allusion to some quality or circum- 
stance of the noun." It is better to select another word than to define 
.ene well known in such an unusual manner. Tho term Classitwe or 
JClassyier expresses tolerably well the office which this class of words 
fA\»; for each one is used to define ^nd designate a certain class of 
ol^ects, the members of which are supposed to have some quality or 
circumstance in common, as size, use, material, form, &c. They 
are used both in reckoning a large number, and in speaking of in- 
dividuals, but express the sort of thinigr spoken of, and not the number 
of them. They are similar to the English words piece, sail, member, 
gust^ sheets <Skc., but are applied much more extensively than those 
words are, being used whenever the sense requires any individuality. 
They are m6t with more frequently in spoken than in written lan- 
guage, and are best learned by studying phrases in which they occur. 
Their proper application is a point which requires particular attention, 
for it will sound as incongruous to a Chinese to hear the phrase 

'^ f^ h. y^ ^^^ 3/^^> ^^ — ' Mi. iy y^^ '"^v ^^''^» ^ i^ would 

to an Englishman to hear a person talk of a gust of horses, a sheet of 



/ 



124 THE. CLASSIFIERS, 

wind, or a herd of ships. Some of them are interchangeably usedy as pH 
^^ and sMung jSk ; k6 ^j^ and chik ^, find others ; and the same 
object, when in cufTerent positions or uses, sometimes requires two dif- 
ferent classifiers; for '\ns\vir\ce^yalcM'ungiilifb^ — 1^ ;bfc ^P ^ 
expresses a map in a loose sheet, and yat fuk ti li ^*d, — * |(jS -bh ffl 
^^ denotes the same mounted and suspended on a wall. Yat c^ik 
mun^ — '^ P^ means the leaf of a door, and yat td mun^ — 1^ BH 
means a gateway or door, the passage. 

This class of words is applied only to nouns, and this use of them 
arose probably from the necessity of removing the liability of con- 
f junding homophonous words. To avoid confusion in verbs and 
adjectives, whenever there is danger of being misunderstood, two 
synonymous and dissonant words are frequently joined together in a 
compound phrase, analogous to a dissyllable ; as cha chat ^ ^ 
to examine ; kdk tHi ^^ jg^ to de£;rade : in some cases, the aamm 
word is repeated. For the great majority of nouns or names of things^ 
there are of course no synonymes, while the inconvenience arising 
from a misapprehension might sometimes be very great. To remedy 
this, certain words have been selected to prefix to certain notins, and 
they are so uniformly applied, and have become so distinctive, as t6 
obviate all danger of not being understood ; and if this view of their 
origin be correct, it shows the necessity of becoming familiar with 
their application. Each of the words has other significations as well 
as this, and in most cases, their use as classifiers can be seen to be 
derived from an application of their meaning in an adjective sense to 
the nouns ranged under them. 

The student must not lightly pass over the following exercises in 
writing characters, for he will derive benefit from the labor of looking 
out new words, and refreshing his memory with rewriting old ones, 
and fixing them all in his mind in a new connection in these common 
phrases. He ought to make sure that he can write every character, 
and give its meaning. Those words which do not occur in the preced-. 
ing pages, he must get his teacher to write for him, or he can find 
them in a dictionary : the index to the Chinese Chrestomathy will 
prove a guide to nearly or quite all of them. 



1. iC^^ ^ (also written '^ and ^) is applied to human beings, 
and inanimate things, and to objects when spoken of individually. It 
corresponds to the word thing or indimdual; in the phrases chi kS 

^ ^ this, nd k6 gj^ fljj that, pit k6 g|) jg another, ajjd a few 

others. This very common use must not be confounded with its 
application as a classifier, which is more extensive than that of any 
other one ; it is applied to periods of time, to portions of land, and to^ 
?uch things as are somewhat roundish or compact, as boxes j as .wellas 
to many other things made by men. [t is also used interchangeably 
with No. 2, in denoting many things mudfe \)y vuV. 



THF CLASSIFIERS. 12.> 

Three- jars for one dollar is quite <S,im ko* c^ng yat> k6' sngan 

enough. sts^in <t5 kau' l6k>. 

Gave hini an inkstone. Sung* <1'4 vat, ko* mak> in^ 

A servant girl has handed up a box. 'Yau ko* mui* *.sai *fung yat, 

k6' hop,. 

Will you sell this bureau? cNl ko* kwai* mdi* ^'m mA?l 

Pierce a hole. *Ching <chMin yat> ko* Jung. 

I have four fish-ponds. *Ng6 ^yau sz'* ko* iii st*6ng. 

One catty contains eight oranges. Yat> <kan kung* H'au pit> ko' 

jclj*^ng. 

There is a bird's nest on the mul- <S6ng sh ii* *yau yat, ko* ts^uk, 

berry tree. . jch'du. 

I say you have several hearts (or ^Ngo wk^ *nl ^yau *ki ko* <sam. 

plans). 

There are several hundred bamboo iShiin *ml *yau *klp dk, ko* 

baskets on the ship's stern. chuk, J^m. 

Roll a ball into the water. Luk, yat, ko* jk*au lok, *shui. 

There are ten and more bells in Miu* noi' ^yau shap, *ki k6* 

the temple. <chung. 

There are several muscles on the iT*in ^pin *yau *kl ko* ^p'ong. 

side of the field. 

One hill opposite. Tui* mln* yat, ko* tshdn. 

Not worth a single cash. Yat, k6* its' in ct5 j'm chik2. 

Made a furnace. *Tk kwo* vat, ko* ts6*. 

The thieves stole two boilers. Ts'akj ct*au ^leung ko* wokj. 

Dees this watch go well or not? <N1 yat> ko* <plu ^hang tak> 

*chun I'm 'chun ? 

See there is a sun at the bottom *Shui *tai yik, 'yau yat, ko* yatj ! 

of the water ! 

Put up five awnings on the parade *K^u jch'eungt^p, ^'ng ko* iP*ang. 

ground. 

He promised to come back within ^K* ii eying ^shing <s4m ko* iit^ 

three months. noi^ cfin ^loi. 

Fetch one mat bag here to put some Tl ko* tsikj tpdu Jai <ch6ng *hi 

rice in. tik, *mai. 

Buy several basket-trays to dry the ^Mdi *ki ko* tWo i\km tf^n jlai 

laichis. shdi* lai' cchi. 

Go to the shop and buy ten or Hii* p*6* jl'au ^mii shap, *kl k6' 

more muskmelons. ch6ung <kwd. 

These three characters are written <N1 <s^m ko* tsz*^ ^6 tak, *ki 

very well. *h5. 

There is a man's head exposed on *Hai *hoi cpln ^yau ko* ^yan st*au 

the beach to all people. shi* chung*. 

Men have two nostrils. ^Yan ^yau Meung k6* pi^ cko 

^lung. 

The jackets of foreigners have two Ngoi^ kw^j syan <chung (Shdm 
pockets. ^yau *16ung ko* toi^ 



12 



Notes, — Fung j^ means to hand up respectfuHy in both hands as to, 
a superior. — Ching ch'un » 2? expresses i^Tesexxl «k^V\o\i>^^ ^^i^^^ 



12Q THE CLASSIFIERS. 



2. Cfdk ^ (frequently but incorrectly written P^) is applied to 
almost if hot quite all kinds of animals, birds, and insects, to single 
ones of such things as occur in pairs, or in sets, in a fixed number, 
as members of the body, plates, chess-men, and to many other things.' 

There are ten or more sparrows *Ngi pui* *yau ahapi *ki chikf 

on the tiled roof. tseuk>. 

A fly has dt-owned in that cup of K6* 'tin chuk> ^ch'am W yal> 

congoe. chikj ^ying 

A pilferer has stolen a shoe. 'Yau ko' *siu *shau <l*au yat, 

chikj jh^i. 

Draw an ear on the wall to hear Wdkj yat, chik> ^f *hai (ts^ung 

your words. tt*ing *ni ^kong di. 

How heavy is a single crab? Yat> chik> *hdi ^yau *ki 'chung 

cnl? 

Broken five cups. *T^ Mn^ *'ng chik> *un. 

Newly made several finger-ritigs. tSan Hd *ki chik> kdi' *chi. 

Pushed^down one leaf of a door. cT^ui t'it> yat, chik, ^mun. 

Searched for a lamp cup but there 'Wan yat, chik, <tang *ch*4n <t5 

is none. ^md. 

Where did you buy these combs? ^Nl kb' *kf chik, tsho <pin ch'ii* 

^mAitik,? 

Mark the name on those baskets. H5^ ko* *ki chik, ^lo. 

I do not find a stocking. Pat, kin* yat, chik, ra4t,. 

Make another silver spoon. *T4 cfin yat, chik, ^ngan jshi. 

Pressed upon and broke six jars. A't, Idn^ luk^ chik, jch'ing. 

There is still another che*ss-man. Sh^ung* *yau yat, chik, ik'i *t8z*. 

One hundred cash for ten hen's Yat, pdk, ^ts'in shapj chik> ckai 

eggs. t^n*. 



rate a hole.— CA*dM m denotes a nest in a tree above the ground; 
iv6 Sf a nest on the ground. — Luk j^ has a local significationy 
t^at of rolling a thing over or along. — Chun 3p 'is employed in this 
sentence in a Jpcal sense to mean exact, correct. — Yik jrfjv is -here 
employed in an . exclamatory manner, meaning indeed, truly. — Kdu 
ch^iung ^^ J^ is an arena or parade ground, where stated reviews 
are held, an,d trials of skill in archery. — P^ang iBD is an awning 
woven of broad bamboo splints. — Tsik pdu P^ pi is an open mat bag, 
used to pack rice or other articles in. — Shi chung 'j^ ^ * expose to 
the populace ' is a terrh used with reference to the exposure of the 
heads of criminals in cages as a warning. 

Noteg.-^SM show /\^ ^ * small hand' is a term applied to pilferers, 
pickpockets, and light fingered gentry.— 17/1 ij^ a cup, takes the 

classifier chik; so also do plates, cups, tumblers, &c., and whatever of 
dishes are found in sets; other articles of crockery, as tureens, bottles^ 



THE CLAS9SIFIKK8. 



127 



Thif tingle hog with those three 
hens — how many catlies do 
they together weigh? 

At present there is a steamer here. 

The pictures on this tea-cup are 

drawn beautifully. 
That man in deficient one eye. 

That hawk's foot is wanting one 

claw. 
This dog has shaggy hair. 
Bring a fan here to flirt this 

butterfly. 
He is going to kill a cow this 

evening. 



cNl yat> chik> ichii (t^ung <ni4i 

ko' <sam chik> ckai, Hs'ung 

kung^ cch'ing tak> *ki (to 

(kan a' ? 
jU <kam <ni cli*ii* ^yau yat, chik> 

*f6 ilun ssliiin. 
cNl chik, ,ch<4 cpui tik, w4» 's6 

tak> 'ttiing chf. 
Ko* ko* syaii a4n *k<lm yat> 

chik> ^ngdn. 
Ko' chik) eying k6uk> hii* 'kam 

yat> chik> 'chiu. 
<Ni chik> *kau hai^ csung jmb k6*. 
Nlm *p4 shin' ^lai p6k> Hd <nl 

chik) iU tlp2. 
(Kam *m^n *k*ii Hs^ung (t*6ng 

yat) chik) ^ngau. 



3. Tdi d|r is applied to such things as are found in pairs, as hands, 

eyes, shoes, bacelets, <&;c. Its proper meaning is opposite or to oppose, 
to correspond, a pair, <&;c., and hence its application to classify such 
things as occur in couplets. 



Light a pair of candles. 
A pair of hands, or two hands 
both ways can be said. 



Tim ch^ukj yat) tui' lap^ chuk). 

Yat) tui' *shau, M6ung chik) 

*shau — Meung y^ung^ <td 

^k6ng tak). 

Hang up two pair of scrolls on the ^Ts^ung sh^ung* kw4* -16ung tui* 



wall. 



*tui. 



&€., take the term k6. — Tang chdn t^ ^g is a small shallow cup 
containing oil, in winch are placed several wicks made of the pith of 
a grass. — Hd S^ means to mark a name on anything. — Ch^ing "tij 
is the name of a kind of spherical water jar, in very common use, hat. 
ving a small mouth. — T^ung hung ^pI ^t is an expression denot. 
ing the whole, or altogether. — Tsing cki ti ^^ is a common term 
for whatever is elegant, beautiful, fine, 6lc. — Tan kam IS. 1j^ toge^ 
ther denote ' one lost,' a single one alone. — Suns ^k is a word of ex^ 
tensive application, meaning loose, open, easy, to make easy, to relax 

or open. — P6k "Mk is a sudden short motion, and is applied to motions 
with a fan. 

Notes, — Chdu i-fe means to exchange money, or that which is as 

valuable as money, and here denotes that the article t>ought is weight 

{<3f weight nearly as valuable as the coin paid. — Tang lung f§i ^$ 

here teter to large translucent globular Ian terns^ hung up at edcli side 
of< doorwa^fi^ on which are written the name of \.Yv%^\vo^> >Jc«i ««OiCwaxs» 




128 THE CLASSIFIERS. 

Bought eiglit pairs of gein brace. 'Ch^u 'll(j p&t> tui* yuk^ 4k>. 

lets. 

On the top of the bamboo, stand a Chuk>shu^ *mf %• i yat> tiii* hoka. 

pair of cranes. 

This dragon-fly has two pair of cNichikxtsing st*ing*yau *16uiig 

wings. tui* yiki. 

There is a pair of mandarin ducks fCh'i <pin *yau yat> tui* ciin 

near the pond. cy6ung. 

Suspend a pair of lanterns in the sMun ^hau kw^' yat> tui' <taiig 

gateway. Jung. 

In all seven pair of stockings. Yat, kung^ tg5at> tui' mkU. 

He conceals a pair of knives about ^K'ii cshan ft* 6 yat> tui* <t6. 

him. 

In the doorway are several tens of jMun *hau ^yau *kl shapj tiii* 

pairs of flag-staffs. ^kM <k6n. 

The soles of that pair of shoes are Ko* tui* ^hdi *tai t'ai* hau*. 

too thick. 

4. SlUung ^ is used synonymously with tut in same phrases, and 

in others it cannot be interchanged. The dlflerence in the meaning 
and uses of the two words can be best learned by observation. 

Bring a pair of chopsticks here. cNlm yat> csheung fdi' *tsz' slai. 

A pair of swallows flying hither Yat> <sheung In' *tsz' <fi floi Si 

and thither. hii*. 

•A certain officer wearing a double ^Mau t^i* *16 jv^ tii' csh^ong 

eyed peacock's feather. ^ng^n <f6, iUng. 

Put down that pair of leg^. Fong* l6k> ko* <sh^.ung keuk>. 

Raise up that pair of hands. *Kii *hi ko* <sh^ung *shau. 

There are a couple of pots of the ^Yau *leung ip'un <sh6uiig t'6k> 

double jasmine. mutj li^. 

Tw^ persons playing chess. ^L6ung ^yan *td csh^ung kikj. 

.His parents have been dead a long ^K*ii csheung tls'an kwo* shai' 

, time. *h5 noi^ 

of the inhabitant, or some other inscription according to the owner's 
fancy. — Yat tai td, — • ^^ Tl refers to a kind of large knife, the 

blades and hilts of which ure made flat on one side, so that the two lie 
close together^ and' are always put into one scabbard ; to conceal a 

pair of such knives in the dress is called f6 Sjt- These h^i k6n jfe^ jjyf^ 

are a kind of stafl* used in processions to suspend small banners to, and 
are always carried in couples. 

Ncftes, — Swallows, in tsz\ d^ -7- often build their nests in Chi- 
nese dwellings^ under the roof, and their domestics habits caused 
them to be often referred to in pairs. — Tdi Id yi ^^ yg* ;§§' is apw 
plied only to ofliicers of a certain rank. — To wear things on the head, 
fi^caJM, spectacles, iS^c, is denoted by the term tai ^. — 'Ddk mid Zt, 
^E ^ ^ '^ * ' receptacle of a jasmme'*, \\>aRi^ VVia \^<5.^^^^V^ coa. 



THE..CLASSIF1EHS. 129 

5. pa Jf^ means to seize, to grasp or lift up with one hand, and as 
d ckuisifier is for the most part applied to many things held in the 
hatnd by a handle when used. 

'^^liirelvecash for a bundle of straw. Shap^ P jts'in yat> *p4 *k6n. 

Liglit ?i couple of torches and go Tim *16ung *p4 *f6 cchiM* takj 

; there. t6\ 

cine state umbrella went before. Yat, *p4 ^16 s4n* csin shang. 

Each one has concealed a girdle *Miii ko' jt'6 yat> *p4 <iu <t5. 

knife. 

tie has given an umbrella to *K* ii sung* yat> *p4 <ch6 ^ii *ng6. 

rae. 

tind a rule. -^ *Wan yat, *p4 ch*ik, Jai. 

(darry a steelyards in the left *Ts6 *shau *w4n yat, "pdch'ing*. 
' ' hand. 

Thia pair of shears is not sharp. <N1 *pd kiu' ^tsln j'm IP. 

Snapped open a lock. *N4u chit, yat, *pd *s6. 

Jli? beard is very long. *K* ii ko* yat, *p4 csd shap^ <fan 

sch'6ung. 

Lost a pair of tongs. Shat, Miu yat, *p4 *f6 sk*im. 

iBuy again several brooms. *M4i cf4n *kl *p4'sd* *p4. 

"My place possesses two punkas. *Ng6 ch'u* *yau ^I^ong *pA cfung 

shin*. 

Lii P5, with one gripe, stopped ^Lii P5* yat, *pa *ch*6 chii*. 

him. 

Splice four ladders, still they will P6k, sz'* *pd <t*ai w4ng* ct5 mi^ 

not reach. . tak, t6*. 

The basket contains a handful of jL4m ^yau yat, 'p4 ts'oi*. 

greens. 

He holds a kniffe and is Scraping ^K'ii *chi yat, *p4 <t5 kw4t> 

* a'bdw.' Ttan yat, *p4 ckung. 

His whiskers look well. ' . ^K'ii 'p4 ^u is5 *h5 H<ai. 

Papa holds'a'rake' to scratch th^ «Pi <p4 *pi *p4 ^p^d sp*6, ti-. 

ground. • 



talus! two flowers, it is called shSung f6k; when three, it is called ^dffi 
fdh, &c. — Shiung luk ^^ |^ is the term given a complicated game 

o^.chess played with 360 men. 

*■ *-* ■. i . - _^ 

.5. Nate$^T^K6n ^^traw, is used by the poor as a substitute for wood 
in cK>ekiQg.^*^Wan ;w means to cariy slung on> the arm or hung by 
the finger. — Ndu chit jfl m^ is to hold in the hands and snap 
mH^nd#r» or tobre^k a thing in the middle, which joins or is&xed at the 
tm^^Pfli fWing )^ J^ is a common ladder.r-Jffifldas kan ^|| ^ 
fi^pi^sseis. present time, be is scraping. — P^d p^d ffig J|to is a sentence 
^Jj^r^^th^. pame, character is used in one place. as a verbr&nd ib ibo 
other^^^a noun. >, x v . vv 

^-^ EA, LES. IT 



130 'fUE CLASSIFIERS. 



6. CkSung C& means to spread out, to extend, dus.* and is joined 

tosueh things as are extended, whose thickness bears a very maomll 
proportion to their surfaces ; also to advertisements, edicts, dz^., wkich 
are to be proclaimed ^broad. 

Give me three sheets 'of paper. *PI <Rim <ch6ung, *cbl Icwo' Hi&bn 

tn the hall are spread ten mats. Tdi^ ^lau cp^dshap^ cch^ung tsnc^i 

l^un those two carpets. Shii' ko' *16ung (ch^ang W 

. , . ' cchin. 

Lost a quilt. Shat> liii* yat> <ch6ung *p*i. 

Hang up again a door^screen. Kw4' cfin yat> cch6ung itaun 

Jim. 

Copied nine naaps. «Ch'4u *hi *kau <ch6ung ti* *M^t*d. 

To one man one rain cloke, Yat> ko* <kung yat> <ch6ung ^86 cf • 

Go to the hronnionger's, and buy a HU* t*it> p*d' 'm4i yat> <ch^u]ig 

fish cluavor. iii <t5. 

Standing upon it he snapped the ^K*i chlt> yat> cch6ung tang\ 

bench. 

He has lately received a newspa- *K'ii kan* yat> <shau yat> <ch6ung 

per. csan ^man *chl. 

This moraiqg was newly issued cKam <chiu (San cb*ut> yat> 

an edict. ^ <ch6ung k5' shi*. 

A literary advertisement is pasted *K'u jmun *hau t*fp> yatj <ch6uiig 

up at his door. p5' ^tMu. 

7. Chi jLjk means a branch, a sprig, a twig, <fec., and for the most 

«j)art distinguishes things made of wood, and which like a branch, are 
round and slender. It is also employed in a metaphorical sense. 

Wear a flower on the head. sT'au t4i' yat> <chl <f4. 

Carry a bamboo in the hand. *Shau cntm yat> cchl chuk>. 

Spoiled a hundred pencils this year cKam ^nin *s6 Idn* yat> p4k> cchi 

in writing. pat>. 

Grasping a spear in the hand. *Shau tt*ai yat> <chi.kik>. 

As quick as an arrow. Yat, tchi tsin' kom* fti* . 

In the box are four tooth-brushes. Hop^ noi^ *yau sz'* <chf ^ngft 

.. ts«4t,. 
Looking afar I see two large flags. <Un mong^ kin* M6uiig <6hi Ui^ 

tuki. 



6. Notes. — Ch^duhi^j^ expresses the perfect tense.-— JiCtfii^ J^ 
ineanS49i person^ a laborer.— ?d fi^ ^& 6S^ is-f paper <;oBtainiiiglhe 
naraeaAd degree €(f a graduate, with all necessaiy paFtiealai% and n 
p^ted: \^ near his door. 

7. Nates. — ^The word nkn Jdb means to carry along, to carry and pwH 
to ; the; word fai jj^ is to hold, to grasp, for n.ction.-^Tdi iuk -fr jfc 
BJte large flags suspended at an angle by means of a pole, and having in.' . 
scriptioiiB on them.-^T^m ^ is a hair-pin made of metal or colored 
glass, used to restrain the tulTof hair on a woman's head. — T^ai ifl| 



/ 
<• 



THF CLASSIFIERS. 



131 



Dropped a hair-pin. Tit, Miu yat, <chi ttaini. 

Behind the ridge of the hill a lino cShdn pui* hau^ *chiin ch«ut, ya(. 

of horsemen issued out. <chf cping *m4. . 

Bring two branches of corol here. iNlai M6ung ichl <shin ju ^lai. 

Taking it on a fork pass it to him. Tai* yat, cchi ct5 «ch*4 •pi *k«ii. 

I see there is an opium-pipe on his Kin* *yau yat, <chi <in <ts<6ung^ 

bed, *hai%«uscl]*6ngch'u*. 

The study seat has two lamps. <Shii wai* *yau M6ungtchl ctang. 

On the Lapa there is a lucky T(ji* min* <shdn *yau yat, cchi 

pagoda. jman pat,. 

That Slip, meeting a gale, broke K6* chik, jshiin ctsd <fung ^tk 

one mast. chit, yat, <chl jwai. 

\tthe stern of the vessel is a wind iSiiiin *ml 'yau yat, cclil tfung 

vane. sun' sk'i. 

The branch that man belongs to ^K'ii ti' ko* yat, tchl jyan ttft 

divided off from the same an- hai* it'ung *ng6 tl* i*di* *tsd 

cestor as mine. cfan ch'ut, k6*. 

8. 'Piu ^^ properly means a branch like chi^ but it is applied 
lucre extensively to such things as are long, without n^gard to their 
form or material; it is also employed to denote divisions. 
Seen at a distance it looks like a ^Un H*ai *ta*z' yat, jt'lu tsh6. 

snake. 
It is exceedingly hke a tail. Tsuk, ^ts'z' yat> jt'iu *ml *k6m 

y^ung^ 
That man's cue is spliced with a K6* ko* lyan ko* jt'iu <pln ctsam 

false one. ' cpln ^p^i. 

.Open another drain. <Hoi c^o yat, jt'iu jk'ii. 

Before us one river. Min^ tts'ttt yat, st*i» jho. 

A worm is in the flower. <Fa csam *yau yat, jt'iu jch*ung. 

I found a watch-chain this morn- cKam cchlu chapx yat, ^t^iii <piu 

ing. lin^ 

, . .11,. 

means to take up and pass along anything to another person.— -Tn 
U^iungif^ SS ^^ ^ slang term for an opium-pipe, nor is it an unapt 
term for so suicidal an implement. — Man pat "liT ^^ denotes the 

forked top on the roof of some pagodas, which are supposed to have 
grtat influence on the fortunes of the surrounding country. — 7\iH min 

9hdn Wt Ijfj (Jj or opposite hills, is the Chinese name of the island 

to the westward of Macao. — Tsd ^ means to meet what is unfortu. 

nate^ and a j£ what is fortunate. 

8. Notes, — Tstik ts*z^ J^ |m means fully like, exceedingly similar 
to. — K6m yiung pti* 1^ is literally *so f^ishion.' — Tuam pin pdi 
oS. Wf life false cue joined or spliced ; this is very frequently doqe by 
such pers6ns as are solicitous about their appearance. — K^ii iR is a 
sewer or drain, either covered or uncovered. — Fa sam /O^ i^ meaiu^ 
ttie centre of the coroL — CIuip ^t means to y>\c\ V\^, Vo >^w\. >\v\w^ 



132 



THE CLASSIFIERS. 



Both iroads are passable. 
I cannot find that girdle. 

Last evening in the east there was 

a rainbow. 
Six bil}s have come from the 

tavern. 
In one raft how many pine-logs? 
Saw him carrying a single stick. 
Lately made a pair of trowsers. 
Seventy dollars for a petticoat. 



Give that horsewhip to me. 



»• 



As light as a feather's down. 
Bought eight handkerchiefs. 
That theme is extremely hard to 

write upon. 
Caught one garoupa. 
His tongue is furred. 



'Uung stMu 15^ <.t6 hxL' tak>. . 
sTs^am I'm ch^uk^ ko' yat> stMii 

tai\ 
Tsok) 'm4n <tung pin^ ^yau 3rat« 

jt«iu shung. r 

(Kd Jau ^yau lukz ii*i^ <i6ii pii*^ 

iloi. 
Yat, ip4i ^yau^^kl ii'iu ch^dm*? 
Kin' ^k'u ttkm yat, ft<iu kwan\ 
cSan ts«5* yat, jt'iu fu'. 
.Ts*at, shapi ko' ^ngan its^fn yat, 

jl'iu ikw*an. 
Ti ko* yat> jt'iu *m4 cpin kwc/ 

*ng6. 
Yat> tl*iu ^md <sz' kom' <hing. 
^M4i «liu pdt, il'iu *shau ckan. 
K6' it'lu ti'ai mukj shapj (fan 

^nin ts6k>. 
Tfu' tak, yat>il*iushik2<p&n jii. 
^K«u ,tMu shltj *yau jw6ngtt5oi; 



9. Kan KJ, when a noun, means a crevice, an interval of spu/Qi^ 
or time, the midst; when used as a verb, it commonly means to sepa- 
rate, to make a space between : its use as a classifier is restricted to 
buildings and parts of buildings, in which its application seems to refer 
to the space covered by them. 

K6' ch'ii* 'yau Meung *kdn <kung 

*sh6. 
Yat, <ts*iin kunc* kai' ^yaushapi 

<s4m <k4n csnii *kuii. 
'Mui ck4n jh6ng *yau ts*dt, tipii 



In that place are two council 

chambers. 
It is reckoned the village contains 

thirteen school -houses. 
Each factory has seVen divisions. 



within, and here denotes finding a chain and picking it up. — Ts*am *m 
chiuh'^, ifS- ^ seeking not get or receive; the last two words ip 
a common expression for not accomplishing what the preceding verb 
shows had been undertaken. — Pin jS side, quarter, is joine.d. to.th^ 
points of compass. — Pdi hi ^^ ^ distributed sent ; bills are sent-to 
the parties receiving entertainment at eating-houses. — lCti;im;w laa 
stick or log, large or small. — Kvfan j^ is the petticoat, the f<^ds^ 
which appear below the frock, and sometimes gaily embroidered. — M^ sz^ 
3^ j|fe hair-floss, are the minute feathers on quills.— T*ai muk ^S S 
is the term for themes given at examination. — Shik pan u yR -ftL '^ 
is the name of the garoupa, so called on account of its marbled skiHi-f^ 
Wtug foi pH fjn is a common term for this state of the tongue- . 

9. Notes, "—Kung shS ^ ]^ 'public place,' is the name given to cer- 
tain public buildings where different tradespeople meet for consnltatioo^ 



TIIK ('LASSIFIKRS. 133 

There are only two eating-houses O* jmun tukj 'leung ckan *tsau 

in Macao. Jan. 

There are several inns on the road. L6^ sheung^ ^yau 'ki ckin hdk> 

tim\ - 

How many shops are there on the jNam <win 'yau *k! <kAn p'5* 

Praya Grande ? <ni ? 

Two storehouses in Honam. ^L^ung ck^n chdn* sf6ng *hai 

cHo ^n^m. 

There is a military station half- Pun* 15* ^yau yat> ck^n jying 

way. sun* . 

The next door is an opium smok- Kik> ^H yat, ckdn ca p'in* <ln 

ing shop. 'kun. 

Obtained only one room. Tukj tak> yat> ck^n J6ng. 

A lookout lodge is there to watch Ko* ch*ii* ^yau yat> ckdn ^mau 

the vegetables. slfu chon «kwi t&'oi*. 

Several tens of gambling-honses. *K1 shap^ <k^n <f;^n <t4n *kun. 

10. Tsd J^ is a seat, a structure built up, a throne, a foundation 

or base on which something is placed ; it is applied like the preceding 
to houses and stories, but its uses in denoting other things is different ; 
it denotes a structure that is high and large. 

One row has several dwellings. Yat> jp*ai *ki tso* uk>. 

One story in front. /Fs'in min* yat> tso* ^lau. 

Many marriage sedans have passed <Kam yat^ ^yau *ki ts6* <f4 ktu* 

to-day. eking kwo*. 

The garden contains two arbors. cFi jiin ^yau M6ung tso* string. '■ 

A pagoda has been lately raised. iSun *hl yat> tso* t^^p>. 

or for other purposes connected with their fraternity. — When the ^'T 
kdng is formed of a number of small roofs one succeeding the other, 
each of these roofs or divisions is called a tap ^. — Nam wdn m S^f 
or the southern beach, .Ls the Chinese designation for the Praya vat 
Macao.— CJ^ny<^7|g ^^ ^ is the name usually given to workshopsi 
and packing-houses connected with the shop or store where the goods^ 
9,re sold. — Ying.stm 'Ig ijl ^^ ^ station or guard-house, placed at 
d^rent intervals, where several soldiers live and maintain a look-f 
oat^^r-Mauliu ^ ^S is a triangular shaped thatch erected upon the 
ground in fields, where a person remains, to watch the ripenipg fruitisJ 
P^ntdn ^ glp is the name of a,. game of chance eonsisting in 
quadrating ^n unknown .number of cash, and &on^ iti frequency hai| 
given its own term to gan)bling-hou^es. . :. i 

10. Notes, — Tixefd ki^ ^{1'*^^ ^ g^y ^^^ orname|ited s^dan ysed 
in marriage processions.-^ ^'infl'^^. is a high arbor or ^ummer-house 
ereeted to affora accommodations for enjoying the breeze. — Ts^ai (t^ 
is a term rapF^ed to the construction of the artificial limeatoBe 



134 THE CLASSIFIERS. 

1 think of making a rockwork *S^ung t«^ai' yat> tso^ shiki cshin. 

hill. 

A screen inside the door. {Mun noi^ ya(> t86^ cP^i»g cfung'. 

One city quite overflowed by the Yat, tso' sshing ctd pf %hui 

water. tsam' 'Wu 

11. Td W^ denotes a rule, a measure, that hy which anything ia 
measured or marked off. Its application as a classifier, however, is 
derived from td ^^ to pass over, to cross over or through a paaaage, 
for which it is often erroneously used. 

Went by five passf»s. cKing kw6* ^*ng t6' <kw4n. 

Broken down that bamboo screen. Ch'4k> ^liu ko* t5* chuk> pik>. 

Nine windows open toward the Heung* ctung *kau td* iCb*6uBg. 

east. 

Locked both the barred gates. 'L6ung t5* ch^p^ M *s6 *liu. 

Raised two bridges in addition. *Hf <16 ^16ung t5* ^kMu. 

Open that door. Tm «hoi ko' yat) tb^ ^roun. 

12. Fuk ||^ is a long piece or roll of cloth,- silk, or paper, the two 

ends of which are mounted on rollers like a map ; it is applied to such 
things as roll up or are stretched out, 6z;c., as maps, pictures, inscrip- 
tions. 

Hang up several landscapes. Kw4' 'ki fuk> csh&n *shui w4*. 

Have you pasted the four papers *Piu *hi sz*' fuk, jl'au mi* ? 

yet? 

This rdl of cloth is just enough to <Ni fuk> p5* *kan *h6 tsb* tak, 

make one coat. ' yat> kin' <sh4m. 

A wall has fallen down next door. Kak> ^li tit, Mf u yat, fuk, ^t^^ung. 



Fockwork, the shik shdn ^ jxj or stone hill — so much esteemed 
by the Chinese. — Ping fung j^ J^ is the name of the large 
screen standing before docwways. — Pi jW[ means by, done by, caused 

by ; — the city was overflowed by the water, i. e. the water overflowed 
the city ; the first is the Chinese construction. 

11. N<aes. — Kwdn SM is a pass or gateway where toll is collected on 
passengers and goods. — Chuk pik A^ ^^ is a thick bamboo screen 
hung in a doorway instead of a more expei^ive. wooden door. — Chdp 
Jm is a kind of gate made of posts in a fVame, and placed across streets, 
wnere watchmen are stationed to open and shut them at certain hours. 
ttn hoi )l» 1^ is to open a door with the hand as one passes 
through it ; im mdi ;& jX is to close it with the hand. 

12. Notes. — Shdn shut w&xU 7K ^ is the general term for land, 
scape paintings. — Pvu. 4^ originally meant a neckerchief, but its most 
common signification at present is to paste pictures or inscriptions on 
or paper, and fit them to a roller. — Sz' fuk fau M ||fi ^ is the 



THE CLASSIFIERS. 135 

13. Chan fm& means to arrange, to spread out, as soldiers, a case 

or ap argument, and is applied to such things as quickly pass away* 
6B a speU of time, a gust of wind, 6z;c. 

A puff of wind blew down that Yat> chan* cfung cch^ui titt ko* 

sheet of paper. cch6ung *chi. 

A" shower of rain fell just now. Shik> jloi loka yat> chan^ *u. 

As large as a cloud of dust. Yat> chan' ^ch^an kom' t4i'. 

A sudden breath of floral perfume. Fat> ^tn yat) ch^n^ cf4 ch6ung. 

A sudden stroke of vertigo. S^p> jshi yat> chan* cwan jmai. 

AH at QttCe I have forgotten his Ya() chan* mong^ ki' Vu kiu* 

name. mat> ^ming. 

Just before a gleam of light darted Tsan^ csin ch*ut> yat> chan' yat^ 

out. ii^au. 

Like a cloud of smoke. Yat > chan^ <f n *k6m yeung*. 

Puff after puff of hot air ascended Yat> chan^ chan^ itj hi' cshing 

up. *sh6ung flai. 

A cloud darkened the moon. Yat, chan^ jwan cch6 chii* k6* 

iiti. 

To-day we have a clear sky. cKam yat^ *hd tak> yat> chan' 

<t«in. 

In ain instant he wrote it off. Yat> chan^ <k4n tsau^ 's6 %1 16k>. 

14. Nap ^j[ a kernel of rice, is applied to almost ail small and 

roundish things, of whatever kind or material they may be, as but- 
tons, small weights, seed, pockmarks, 6lc. 

As much as cme bean. Yat> nap> tau^ kom' <t6. 

As high as a dice. Yat> nap, shik> kom' <kd. 

Some more pieces of silver in your jHo <piu chung* *yau *k! nap, 

. fob. ^ngan. 

A gram of ^sand fell into the eye. Yat, nap, <sh4 tit, yap> ^ng&n. 

term for a uniform set of inscriptions consisting of four rolls, often 

hung up. in sittjng-rooms. A set of them is called a, fd ]§|]. — Kem 

h6 tsd ^g "pT mr « barely can do,' means that the roll is just enoughf 

there is nothing over and nothing short. — Kdk It Rg ^ mean^ 

adjoining, next door ; it is also sometimes applied to dwellings two 
pr three -removes, to one's neighbors, &c. 

13. Notes. — Sap sM ^9^ is a local phrase of much the same 
import as fat m. — YcU chan — • w means one instant, one mor 
ment's passage of time, in an instant ; in this sentence and in the 9th^ 
it is not used as a classifier. — Tsau sin OT y^ means just before^ 
directly before. — Shing shiung ^ J^. ^ ^^^^ ^^ English phrase 
ascended up. 

14. Notes, — The first expression is sometimes used in jest when 
ridiculing anything as being very small ; the second is used when 
speaking contcniptuously of a person, he is aij high as — yai nap shU^ 



L^i 



136 THE CLASSIFIERS. 

This orange has twenty seeds. cNi ko' ck6m ^yau i^ shap^ naps 

hati. 



A pimple has come on his hand. ^Shau cshang yat) nap» tedU 

Like a grain of fish spawn. Yat> nap> sii cch*iin.k6iii* y^ting^. 

llierel ' are two spots on the ear. ^F cpin ^yau M6ung 'nap> mak^. 

Several- pearls hanging fVom the Ng^kz sheung^ tKi' *ki' Dap> 

forehead. cchan <chu. 

Fasten on a button. cTing <f4n yat> nap> *nau. 

15. CUtung T& is an arpna, a parade-groundy a thraahing.flopr, a 

piece of ground laid out and appropriated to some particcrkur object'; 
its application as a classifier intimates more duratiop or extent than 

chain te> No. 13. 

A heavy rain fell before. cSin jshi lok^ yat> sch*6ung t4i^ 

Several years before a fire burned «Sin *ki ^nin ko* ^ch^^ung cfo 

many shops. *shlu *hd cto p*d*. 

Year before last a freshet rose to jTaMn ^nin ko* ^ch^^ung *shui 

. the gateway. ^sham t5* ^mun 'hau. 

A storm of wind blowing threw *Kwan yat> ich*6ungkii* H4 lokj 

down all the pears. sdi' ko* tik> csh4 sli. 

Obtained nothing but a spell of joy. Chin* tak> yat> ^ch'^ung cfun *h!. 

Did it all for nothing. Ts5- tak> yBt> iCh*6ung chung. 

I think you have a fit of vexation. *Ng6 *ku *ni *yau yat> sch^eung 

sf^n ^n5. 

1 knew there would be an alterca- *Ts5 cchi *yau yat> cch*6uiig 

tion. 'ch*iu n4u^ 

I think I was very lucky. <T5 siin* yat, jch*6ung *tS*oi. 



^"* JpL © ^ ^*^®* — :-^^ ^ ^ kernel, is sometimes also read toot. — 

TsU Uai jifi ff ^^ ^ pimple or pustule coming on* the skin, arising 

irpm' impure blood. — CUun ^^ spawn or eggs is a general term for 

fee ova of fish, frogs, &c. — McJc ^ compounded of ink and disease^ 

is a Vulgar and local character, and appears as if intended to describe 
the thing it signifies, a black spot on the skin. 

' 15. Notes, — Shamf^ is here a verb, to deepen, — the freshet 

deepened to the gateway. — Ktoan ^ means to bubble, to boil up, and 

is applied to the ku w^ or storm in allusion to the turmoil it causes. — 

iS6i jrft is a provincial word for tlie whole. — Chdn Rft means toget 

prdfit ; « profited only one ebullition of joy ' is a phrase used when a 
pnan's Itraiding speculations bring him only a prospect of pleasing profit 

a;nd:ho ^aln. — Hung ^ means empty ; < done got one spell of emp. 
tiness ' is the literal rendering of the whole sentence. — Fan n6 jS H]^ 
^vexatious annoyance, what discomposes a man's equanimity. — Tsd 

cM -^ ^ ^ly knew is equivalent to I knew beforehand. 

t>h^du hdu i^ BS is an altercation, a row.^—rdiiuAr ^ ^ altoge- 



THE CLASiHFlEUs?. 1^7 

16. Tai ^BSt strictly means a hundred men formed into a company ; 
also a collection of people, a group, a party. It is never applied to 
inanimate things. 

Several parties of men going to *Yau *kl tui* syan hii' H'ai hi\ 

see the play. 

A bevy of ladies in the garden. «Fi iiin yat> tui* ^nii ^yan. 

A flock of wild geese on the beach. S\\k <tin yat> tui^ ng4n^ 

A school of fishes leaped out. Yat> tui* jii syau *hi. 

17. Kttan ^^ means a herd or flock, and differs but little from the 
preceding, and in most cases the two can be used interchangeably ; it 
however applies rather to collections containing a large number of in- 
dividuals of the same kind, while iiii refers to a smaller group. 

A flock of sheep at the foot of the tShdn keuk> yat> ^kwan jy^ung. 

bin. 

A flock of wild ducks flew past. Yat, skwan *y6 4p> ^fi kw6*. 

A great entertainment of all the T4i* in* skwan ^shan. 

ministers. 

Three companies and five parties iShi jshi <s4m ^kwan *'ng tui* hii' 

always go a hunting. H4 lipz. 

18. T&t ^ in the Canton dialect means a bamboo screen hung 

before a doorTwoven coarser than the chuk pik ^ ^^ or the bamboo 

lirall ; its signification in the Imperial Dictionary diflers from this local 
use. As a classifier it is applied to irregular pieces or spots. 

iThe sleeve of the coat has an <Shdm tsau^ *yau yat> tdt, yau* 

indelible spot. tslk>. 

A Bpot of rust has come on that Kb* 'pd klm* cshang yat> t4t> 

sword. sail'. 



thef calculate, taking all things into account. — T^oi ^^ here is much 
the same as the word chance, luck. The phrase is used when a man 
escapes a great danger in getting a less injury; for instance, when his 
hand is broke instead of his neck. 

16. Notes. — Shd tan •j/^ ^ is often applied to stony beaches 
where the tide- water runs over the shingle rapidly ; tan alone means a 

rapid in a river.— Faw ^t ^^ J^ applied to fish, refers to their gam- 
boling and leaping out of the water. 

17. Notes.— The term yi dp ^ ff§^ is closely translated by wild 
duck.— Tdi in -^ 1^ means litera ly 'great entertained,' in which 
tdi refers to a noun in understood ; the sentence in full would read « with 
a great entertainment entertained all the officers.'— SAi shi Q|p H^ is 
a common word for continually, habitually ; td lip ij M simply means 
to hunt, td denoting action. 

18. Noles.'^Yan tsik f|] ^^ seal's traces^ is applied to almost any 

EA. LES. 18 



1 



138 THE CLASSIFIERS. 

The stone steps hav« produced a t'Pln <k4i cshang yat> t4t> <tii*ing 

patch of green mold. ^t'oi. 

(n the south arises a black cloud. {N&m pf n^ *hl yat» t&t> cu twan. 

The bottom of the vessel has a tShiin 'tai 'yau yat> t&t» sham^ 

leak, and the water runs in. 'shui yap2 Jai. 

Tiiis mat has a rent. tNi <ch6ung tsikj ^yau yat> t4S 

l^n^ ke. 

This jar certainly has a leaky tNl ko' <dng pit> *yau yat> tit> 

crack. lau^ 14\ 

The Hesh of his hand is broken. ^K*ii %hau ^yau yat> t4t> \kn^ 
_ yuki. 

19. Fu S|] means a secondary, an assistant, and frequently occurs 

in official titles; it is employed. to denote a set of things, all of which 
are used for one purpose, as tools, plates. 

Lately purchased a set of ebony <Sun chf yat, fu* <siin <chl st*oi 

tables and chairs. ^i. 

Presented a set of kendm beads to Sung* yat> fu* ik6 ^n^m ccbii kwo* 

him. ^k*u. 

Spread out a set of writing appara- <Shii waiV *pii yat> fu* ^man sfdng 

tus on the study table. sz'* *p5. 

Hung up two sets of musical in. Tai^ jlau kwd* *16ung fu* ^in 

struments in the hall. s6k>. 

His whole disposition is bad. ^KMi ko* fu* <samsch*6ung s'm *hd^ 

That lad is incomparably clever. Ko* kb* sai* <man *tsai yat> fu* 

.rrju <^*in <ts*ung. 

He at least has an excellent me- ^K'ii *h5 ts^oi* *yau yat> fu' ki* 

mory. sing*. 



kind of foul and indelible spot, such as grease, or ink, on clothes 
on paint, dec. — Shang ^ in the second and third sentences is an 
active verb,— 'that sword bears a spot of rust.' — T^in kdi ^ J® ig 
the name given to the stone steps in a courtyard. — T^oi "^ is a gene- 
ral term for minute cryptogamous plants. — STiam ^ is usually a verb, 
and means to leak, but here refers to the leaky plank or place. — K6 
Uij is used in this sentence as a sign of the genitive, having cA'ti ^ 
place, or some such word understood. — La ^j^ or lau Id is the pro, 
vincial word for a crack. 

19. Notes, — Chi W strictly means to purchase something valua- 
ble, or an acticle which is intended to be durable, or to be kept perma- 
nently. — Siin chi H^ %b is a heavy black wood used in makifig 
fine furniture. — ^The k6 ndm it j^ is a porous fragrant wood used 
to make dress beads. — The man fdng sz^ pd "^ ^ DQ ^ or four 
precious things of the library, are the pencil, stone, ink, and water 
cup. — Fn s6k *g ^St is a term for stringed instruments of music, 
as the lute, pfpd, rebeck, &c. — SamcUtung |]^\ H& heart and bowels 



THE CLASSIFIERS. 159 

Lend him that set of cups and Kung^ ^k*u is€^ ko^ yat> fu' '(in 
plates for a while. tip^ *shai chii*. 

One half of this set of instruments <Ni fu* hi* kii^ yat> pun* s'm 
is useles. *shai tak> k^*. 

20. Kin 'fit means to distinguish things individually, to denote a 

particular subject, affair, or article. It is used in connection with 
articles of dress, items of business, food, goods, and many other nouns 
that other>yise have nothing in common. 

Have you sewed that robe yet? Ko* kin^ ip*5 jliin hi* ml* jts'angt 
There has happened a truly remar- ^Yau yat> kin* sz'^ cchan ching' 

kable affair. ^ ch*ut, jkM. 

Eat ten and more cakes at tiffin. An* chau* shik^ ^Hu shap^ *ki kin' 

Him csam. 
To each man was distributed eight ^Mui jyan pdi* pdt> kin' cchii 

bits of pork. yukj . 

This sort of goods is indeed diffi- tNl yat> kin* fo* k6k> hai- 6k> 

cult of sale; m^i*. 

I do not want that thing. ^'M lu* ko* kin* ctung csai. 

21. Fdi jB^ is a clod, a segment, a piece, or portion of a larger 

thing having no definite or regular shape, and is applied to small pieces 
of such articles as are often cut or divided, as earth, paper, wood, utone, 
cloth, &c. 

As thin as a piece of paper. Yat) f^i* *chl kom* pok^. 

Boiled three slices of beef. Slidp^ Mlu csdm fkV ^ngau yuki. 

This piece of floss is the best. cNl yat> fii* $yung chl* *hd. 



denote the heart of a man, his disposition. — T^in ts^ung Tr Bj& is 
heavenly cleverness; yat fu i^in tsung is the whole assortment of hea- 
ven-conferred talents. — Hd ts^oi vA^ ^ is a good part, a good quality, 
and is here used in connection with something which has gone before. 
Shai chu '{pp ^ is to use for a short time until he can get a set for 
himself. — Hi ku ^ ^ denotes implements of any kind, mechani- 
cal, surgical, or others. 

20. Notes. — jR*d iQ is a long robe of ceremony used by official 
persons. — Lun B|| is to make up a dress from fresh materials. — Chan 
chmg *^ If is a dissyllabic and common phrase for truly, 
really. — Tim sam 5B5 ^i^^ *add heart' is the general name given to 
small cakes eaten at luncheon. — Pdi ^m in this sentence has its no- 
minative understood. — K6k i^ is an adverb somewhat like chan 
ching in its signification. — Tung sai ^ j^ is a common term nearly 
equivalent to mat kin 4Aii Ah or thing. . 

21. Nates. -—Yat kin dm yuk — ' 'i^ ^ [^ »n the preceding 
paragraph, is a bit of pork, such as a host would help his guest to at 



140 THE CLASSIFIERS. 

Sweep away that clod of dirt. So' ko' yat> fii' iiiaihii'. 

Just like a leaf. Tsuki imb yaU fii* ip». 

Several tiles are broken on the Uk, pui' 'kl fii' 'ng& lit, Miu. 

roof. 
The herdboy has broken a grave- Mukj strung 'ta lin^ yat> fti' 

stone. m5^ <pl. 

22. T^&ng J& is a large cord or rope, and is applied to nets, ladders, 

sails, d£C. It is a word very seldom met with, apd its use in clasaifyuig 
the few nouns to which it is applied is a provincial one ; other cha- 
racters of the same sound are sometimes used instead of this one. 

There is a net on the deck. ^Shiin rain* *yau yat> ^t'ong 

'mong. 

Altogether ten lifting-nets on the Td* ^t^au kung^ shap^ st*6ng ctsang 

jetty for catching fish. ^u ^ii. 

A pass9ge-boat sails with three Yat> chik> td* ^hai <s4m strong 'li. 

suit of sails. 

He has two suits of musketoe cur- ^K^ii ^yau ^l^ung il*6ng <man 

tains. ch6ung^ 

A sun screen. Yat> ^t'ong itz cch6. 

Four ladders. Sz** strong <t*ai wang*. 

23. H&ng /^^ jis a row, a line, a regular series, and is in most c^ses 

closely rendered by a row, as a row of men, of characters, of 
flowers, &c. 

That row of willows will soon K6' shong *lau <ts6ung kan* choi 

flower. tf4. 

The seats are arranged into rows. *Tsz' ip4ng k4n* <hoi yat> shong 

shong. 

table; yatfdi ngau yuk — J^ H^ ra is such a slice of beef as he 
would buy at market. — Yung i^ is floss, or the silk used in embroi- 
dery. — Tstik md ffi !S complete [to the] pattern, is like the phrase 
isuk U^z^ on a preceding page. — Muk lung Mr w is a general name 

for herdboys, whatever animals they may watch. — Mb pi ^, iftfi. is a 
gravestone. 

22. Notes.-^Td fau ^ j^ (also sometimes erroneously called pd 
fau /p* h5) is a stone landing-place or jetty running out into the 
water a few feet, used either as a ferry, or for the convenience of the 

private owner ; the term wid <*aM ^ jS often applied to them, origi- 
nally denoted that horses and vehicles were ferried. — Td ^[^ is to pass 

across, through, or over, and is here used as a noun by metonymy, to 
denote that by which the passage is made, viz., the passage-boat. — S?ud 

JCT means to sail. — Ft ch4 ^&t jjfe is a movable screen made of cloth, 
placed on dwelling-houses above the windows. 

23. Notes, — Tft^vng kan jrap j^^ is always applied to time, 'about 



THr: CLASSIFIKRS. 141 

A line of war boats is anchored Hoi tpin p6k) yrAy shong cliiu* 

near the beach. ishiin. 

Among the clouds are several lines $ Wan <kdn sh5* Ji6ng ngan* tsz'^ 

of geese in flocks. 

24. Kd ^^ is a wooden frame, a stand on which things are placed, 
a shelf or rack for holding articles; it is applied to only a few nouns. 

Eight fire-engines went to put out PtU kd* *shui cch*^ hii* kau* %. 

the fire. 

In the doorway is hung a variegat- sMun 'hau kw4* yat> k^' Hs'oi 

ed tablet. ^mun. 

A lute is placed on the table. Ch6uk>sh6ung2fbng'yat>ka*k*am. 

1 have read ^ the books in these cNi *ki ki* cshii ^ngo <td tuki 

stands. kwo' . 

Those two pair of scales do not K6* M6ung ki' ct*fn spMng tui* 

weigh alike. kwo* «t5 j'm jt*ung. 

25. Td ^ is a pendent branch, a twig of a cluster of flowers ; it is 
applied to only a few nouns. 

In that nosegay of flowers, one K6' yat, chdt, <f4 ^yau yat, ^chf 
branch has seven flowers, and ts'at, *t6, sz'* <chi csdra *t6. 

four branches have three [eachl. 

On the hill-top [rests] a red cloud. tShan *ting yat, Ho shung jwan. 

Bearing,' i. e. soon. — Tsz* pang 31 Jflfl is the name given to the 
seats, at a theatre. — Yat hdng^ hdng — ' ^y ^"jf is a row of 
rows, or many rows. — The Chinese very often begin a sentence with 
an adjunct governed by a preposition understood, as in this phrase* 
where the reader is left to supply the proper one: hoi pin igt ^^'^ 
means simply the beach, but the writer concludes that no one need be 
told that it is near the beach, where the chin shiin ^ |lg- or war- 
vessels, are anchored. — Ngdn tsz' fffi i^p geese character, alludes to 

the well-known wedge form of the flock adopted by these birds in their 
migrations. 

24. Notes, — Kaufd ^^ ij^ prevent the fire, or cause it cease, is 
the terra for extinguishing a conflagration. — The ts^oi mUn ^ P'^ is*^ 

a kind of triangular frame, now usually painted red, but anciently made / / 

of variegated silk, which is hung at the top of the doors of all govern- j / 
mental offices, and of private houses during marriage festivities, for J * 
the sake of ornament. ( It will be seen that this sentence begins 
with an adjunct having the preposition governing it understood, and 

lewd Jg* is in the passive voice. — K^am ^. a lute, and other stringed 
instruments of music are classified by kd<t and also by k6 |Rj; wind and 
other instruments by the latter alone. — Tiii 4^ means to weigh. 

25. Notes, — Chat jA is a bunch, a sheaf. — Ting TS is4he apex 
the top, the crown. — In the second sentence, the substantive verb is 






. 



142 THE CLASSIFlKRf?* 

This tire is gone out. sNl Ho ^io sik> Miu. 

I saw a large musliroom this mor- <Kam cchiu kin' yat> 'to tdi' 
ning. %w*an. 

26. r^in i=p is a slice, a piece, a slip, a shred, and is used in these 

senses as well as figuratively. 

When eating fish, it is necessary Shik^ jii pit, iu* lok^ *kf p*in* 

to take some slices of ^ginger. ckenng. 

What he says is all a lie. ^KUi *k6ng <ts'an ctd hai* yat> 

pMn» tai' wa* ke. 
That which you told me was all ^Ni wa^ ko' tiin^ sz'* yat> p'in* 

false. 'kk ke . 

He gives it to you from his heart. ^K'ii yat> p'in' csam sz'* sung* 

*pi ^ni. 

27. Tsik Jfi7 is a table spread, a repast or feast; it is also used to 
denote a few words, a conversation or discourse. 

He has spread a banquet and in- Pan^ yat, tsik^ *tsau *ts*ing ^yan 

vi ted guests. h^k>. 

During that conversation, Ts'5 Kb* yat> tsikj wd* shut> tak>, 

Ts5, with closed mouth, said jTb'() cTs5 *4 *hau sind ^in. 

nothing. 

The priest has spread several cour- T4i* tsz' pdn^ *ki tsik^ (ch&i 

ses of vegetables and sent them sung* ^lai. 

as a present. 

The geomancer says that in a cer- cFung *shui <sin cshang w4* 'mau 

tain place is a plat of lucky ch'ii' ^yau yat> tsiki *h5 

ground. <sh^n tl^ 

emitted, (which is very frequently the case when it follows an initial 
clause governed by a preposition,) and is here better translated in 

English by some word more explicit. — Yattd/d"-^ ^^ n^ is a roll 

of bamboo paper used by the Chinese as a match. — Kw^an ^y is a 

general name for large agarics. 

26. Notes. — K6ng ts^an ^ to^ is a local phrase for a whole 
narrative or relation, which is — yat p^in tdi wd — ' M" ^ =^ ^^^ 
piece great talk— all a lie — Yat pHn sam sz' — !i| ilj^ i ^'^^ 
slice heart's act, means with honest intentions, with the whole heart ; 
the gift itself may be contemptible, but the motive was respectful. 

27. Notes. — Pan ^^m means to regulate, put in order or get a feast 
ready in all respects for the guests.— JL' hau p^ Q is dumbing his 
mouth. — Tdi sz' -J^ pjjjj is a respectful term for a Budhist priest. — 
Chdi jK is a term for all vegetable food, the tenets of this sect 
prohibiting all flesh and fish.— The fungshui sin shang ^ tJC;^/^ 
is a class of people who are always consulted in fixing the position of 
graves, so that the resting-place of deceased friends may be in a for., 
tunate spot. 



Till!: CLASSIFIERS. 143 

26. T*tiit ^ is a conglomerated mass, an united harmonious body. 
It is applied to only a few nouns. 

Buy a roll of ink for me. Kung' ^ngo 'm4i yat> ^t^Un raakj 

Like a lump of dough. Yat> jt'iin mln* *k6m y^ung^ 

A harmonious spirit. Yat> ^tUin ^wo hi*. 

A fighting couple on the ground. *Td jmii yat> jl*iin. 

In order to make the list of clasjsifiers more complete, several are 
here placed together which are of very limited use, being employed to 
denote only two or three kinds of things, the principal of which are 
placed under, them ; the classifier, or the n6un classified, is put in italics 
in the translation. The number of nouns being so few, the charac- 
ters are placed in the opposite column instead of their sounds, conse- 
quently very few notes are necessary to explain the sentences. 



29. When changing the dress 4fc ^ ^jB CT JKL -rg 

for the season, you must buy a '"'^ "^ ^^ -^ ^"^^ i^ 

new cap. ^ ^% ^ 





Call a sedan-chair for me. it ^ p^ _^ Tgr 

- =f Ji 1i - ^ j^ 



30. For a thousand cash to hire 
a carriage to ramble over the hills. 



Ask him for how many cash he M'f^"* + ffiH&3£ 
will let a *eAwi to go twenty Zi? I n J ft:. — I ^±1. m -JC 







31. On the hill-side is a small ijj ^ '— ^ ITQ 4& il 
four-wheeled carriage. KH TZtr Wi V^ W 'I 




281 Notes. — Kung it is here used in a local sense, meaning the 

same as toi /f^ instead of, for. &c.-Mi» ^ flour, here means un- 

naked or unboiled dough. This phrase is sometimes applied in ridicule 

to excessively corpulent people. — Wd hi Jp ^ is an expression for 

the gopd feeling which should be found between married people or 

partners in trade. — Td mdi yat fun fl* J^ — » W fighting closed 

one heap, is one of those peculiar phrases in Chinese which cannot be 
translated otherwise than by an equivalent phrase. A couple of wres- 
tlers on the ground are supposed to be rolled close enough together to 
be termed a heap or roll. 

Notes, — 29. The phrase Un kwai means changing for the season ; the 
officers of government are notified when they must put on their win- 
ter or summer 'dresses. Yat ting kiu is a large sedan, such as arc 



144 TUB CLASSIFIERS. 



32. How much postage does ^ ^ j^ ^ ^ ^^ — - 
he want for carrying a letter to "^ ^^ -^ '^ '*^ ^ 

Canton. ^ # * f Ijig 

33. I wish you to bind one — Tl^MArffi/lga 
^tre of paper into three books. ^^ ^9t\ 3C « ITJ Tlfif 




infoirtcr"^"'*"'^"'''' 1© t f l?g * « 1ft 

He has a hook in his hand the tg' q j^ /j. •. 

whole day. ^X P m \t — ^fC 



.^S."* ^""'^ ""^^ '" "" 1@ i@ 1& t ^ ^ 

and^'S'oi^" '^ "*'"''"''' "'^ IS - E ^ ^ r P 




36. Okie volume is missing from 
this set of books. 



That friend has lent me a suit am >jl. riti -4- A||. -^ ^-f, 
of ceremonial garments. 119 \xL fp) J^ jg j ^ 

1^» 




37. That swi, of clothes was 



a*, inai cim or' cioines was >|^- at. «„ ^, 

not washed clean. ^ TL 11*1 — J^ ^ flR. jjb 



38. The business of this shop is 



divided into ^^ ^Aare*. ¥1 ^K ^ fp A S9[ ^ 



iiitt 



That e^^aj^ is divided into three ^^j, ^^ _■ ^^^ ^ __^ 

principal heads. ||d| ^ ^ i^ ^ .^ nt 

39. In one game of chess to con- -yi ^ .[^^ ,^^ . 

sume the livelong day. K^ ^^ ^ ^ '/R :^ 

40. Plant a thousand bamboos . ^ri *^i tj:- -*• a.«« ^» 
about the door. I 1 7 P ^ ^ ^ Jt 

41. At early morn reverently -. ^ ^^^^ ^ . 

to arrange a cluster of incense Jpj -^ gjj^ i\jk ^^ ^-* jIt 
sticks. 





used by officers of government, gentlemen, <fec., having a knob or ball 
on the top: 30. — Yat shing A:iti is a small chair, just large enough for 
a person to sit in, usually made very cheaply. — 32. Fung is also ap- 
plied to small packages of coin, sealed and stamped. — 34.— *6'2' p^n hi 
is also usually understood to intimate that the play will last four dayg, 
as well as consist of four acts. — 41. A cluster of inccnae sticks, pat 
chu hSutig, consists of three or five sticks. 



THE CLASSIFIERS. 145 

43. Not worth two ca*h. 1^ H # P^ ^ ^ 

44. Men-of-war have many tens Ms ifciL -i^ «Ml _L, HB- _L. 
of coiwon. ^ fflff W ^ "T n TC 



His jkint! of business is really /c An qb >l. ^Ac iittg M^ 
very difficult to do. IE 10 fl 5E ^. *P 134 




ii caA:e of ink has six sides. 



45. A rasher of pork can also ^,^ l^ JAt. i^fct AU ^r^ 

be termed a *Zice. *^ W F| Hl:» nft — 

:fr ^ % ac M 

46. Vendued ten pieces of red jrt, ^e _i -rr* a^ a_ii 
floss. IX 1^ T /t JF /TOO 

47. The reflection of the moon « gg w .l^v ^ fflS gb 
in the river is like a pearl, /I "»ii /-^ "-* >Ek ^ 



Went straight into the encamp- -^ hl g j- j^g ±|- -s^ i^ 

ment of the robbers, and cut off 11* / V W ^ IT 9 I 

more than ten heads. jaK mn 

#11 

48. I heard a piece of news yes. „ * ,-^ t^*- r»z» ju*- na 
terday. "^ RtPp — IxfTPB 

49. Still there is one job of >i^ .^ it» -^ j- /ir. 
work not yet done, Pi ^ ~* M •# ^ W 

Respectfully spread out several 



jn^9pt:i;iiuiiy apreaa oui several ^^ ^ *j,r »^ aj i^jl 

sorts of trifles for you. ^1 :ft {^ j^ -^ jf^ 

50. A visitor has come to visit ,vt- /jl» a >35^ •»*- Im? /Z.*. 

you. m W- ^ ^M WW 

Lately arose an eflicacious deity, jl^ ^ ijr ^ At 




51. For this kind I owe in all a .ii/ ^-c* Jl- =iju na -c* 

hundred doHar*. ItU ?§ ^ S^ ^R ~ R 




47. The first part of the sentence, iit chiu hong saniy is in opposition 
to the second, yat f6 chii, the verb being omitted ; in this instance, 
the ellipsis would be supplied by ii ^flp, or ts^z' A^, to resemble. Fd 
frequently occurs in books, applied to beads, kernels, fruit, or small 
round things, but is not often heard in conversation. — 48. Tiin is al- 
so applied to a piece of land, to an order given to a servant, and in 
common with the next, to an aflairof business.-^i-40; F |^ cere. 

£A. LES. 19 



146 



TiiK CLASSIFIERS. ^ 



52. He lives in the third story, 

53. When ifonshiping at the 
tombs in the spring, you must 
secnire- several strips of paper on 
the top of the hillock. 

54. I have sent two or three 
messengers one after another to 
hasten him. 

Specially sent down one imperial 
command, 

55. He has a plaster on his 
wrist. 



Received some papers of rouge. At 



56. There are several officers in 
the hall consulting on business. 



57. Out of the window are 
several very brilliant stars. 



58. An old merry -andrew car. 
rying a load of boxes on his shoul- 
der. 

The porter has carried his bag- 
gage to the wrong place. 



59. Passed straight through 
several successive doors, 

60. Each side has a baluster. 

Before the arbor is planted a 
row of olive flowers. 







^ ii P^ H 5i A ^^- 

in IE 





# P^ ir ^ - 



■:1,>r 






ife m ^^ 





M. ^[ i: ^. 



m 




^it 





i* t*i 





t ^ t It ^ 10 # 



^ 




# il % — 





r^ 



Ififfi 



PI 




mony, propriety, is here used by metonymy for that which propriety 
or custom in certain cases requires to be presented to a firiend, and 
which the dopor calls mi {{^ trifling. — 53. Fp is sometimes applied 
to the folds of cloth as they lie one above another. — 57. Tim is also 
applied to the strokes of the clock, drops of water, &c.; stare are also 
classifled by nap (No. 14). — 58. Tdm is a pecul in weight, and being 
a fair load for a man to carry, the word has come to denote a load 



THE CLASSIFIERS. 



147 



61. That child has a string of ^m fti^ tt^ g4 
cash about him. m ^X W 7^ 

62. I have am vahiable sword 
which I will give to your excel- 

•lency. 



P 





63. Send this frame to the me- 
tropolis to glaze a mirror in it. 

To stick a small banner in the 
lookout house on the city wall. 



64. It is spoken of as having 
been a noble act. 



His whole disposition is exces- 
sively bad. 

He has proposals to engage in 
many sorts of business. 

65. Only one fish in the basket. 

66, There are several plays 
acted here every year. 

■ 67. Several tens of processions 
have gone to usher in the spring. 

That monastery has at once 
bought a hundred and more yrame^ 
" of bean curd. 

68. He felled that tree at the 
side of the house. 

In Shingtb are eight hundred 
mulberries. 

69. Holding a pencil in the 
qand. 



t nI1@ ^ * « ^ 
— ® II 
Ut ± tf - IS /h 



^ * illJI - ^ 









€ ^ P^p tt '^ 



M. fI iui« 

€ ^ t .?. ^ ^ 






^1 + ^ 

ti f«i ■# ii 1 1 w 

■1 » ^ # A -urn 



f #^ 



that a man can shoulder at once. — 6Q. Ldt is a local word, for which 
there is no proper character ; it is locally used for a row of things with 
interstices between them, as a row of trees, of boats, of stakes, of 
men, and is frequently interchanged with hdng (No. 23). — 61. Ch^un 
is applied to things run upon a cord, to a line of ants, of men moving, 
&c. — 62. Shing s6ung is the prime minister, and the title is used in 



148 THE CLJL99IFIER8. 

eq Ja?vr "^ '^" ■^"'^ •»««• "°* ije - 1 a n w >5 

^ IB 1© t 

70. On the summit of the hill, iL Tff pT I?) & ;?# ; 

a seat can be erected. "^ '•'^ ' ^^ ^^ '^ 




direct address. — 64. "Sp6ken-of rise coming (afterwards) altogether is 
one affair fine action," is the literal rendering of this sentence. — 67. 
Processions are got up by priests, by corporations, or by governmental 
people ; they are partly of a civic, partly of a religious, and partly of 
a festive character. — 68. A tree is also termed yat p6 sM^ yat fid shuf 
yat h6m shii, and yeU pun ghu. 

The number of words which might be strictly caHed classifiers 
cannot be exactly ascertained, but it is not supposed the preceding 
list contains all of them. A word is sometimes used tQ^ denote the 
individuals of a certain cla»s of objects in one connection, which 
would not be understood if separated from that connection. As an 
instance of this, see No. IX of the lessons in the last chapter, page 
1 17, where fd |^ and mHi IaT are both used instead of the noun It 
£^, as classifying that fruit, in fact, the use oi this class of wcHrds 
appears to be subject to no certain rules, one word being applied to an 
object in one part of the country, and another to the same object else- 
where. It is said that in some parts of this province, chik ^^ i^ nf' 
plied to a man, as well as animals ; chittng Zj^ to vessels; and otheir 
similar discrepancies. For many of the words employed by the peo- 
ple of Canton, (as was observed of idt. No. 18, and l^dngf No. ?2,) 
there are no appropriate characters, and every person uses such as 
^ come the nearest in sound, rln diffuse composition, the use of the clas- 
sifiers is frequently avoided by depending upon the context to particu- 
larize the noun ; in higher or terse writing they seldom occur, nor in 
fact are they required, when the name of the thing itself is presented 
to the eye. To what extent the application of this class of words in 
other dialects of China is the same as in that of Canton, could be rea- 
dily ascertained by writing the sentences out in full, and presenting 
the characters to a person familiar with that dialect ; and if he wa^ 
unused to the colloquial idiom of the sentence, he still could rearrangj^ 
the nouns by such terms as he was in the habit of designating thein. 



EXERCISES IN TRANSLATING. 149 



.1. 



^'^apttv iStgl^tl^. 



EXERCISES IN TRANSLATING. 



The literal version and sounds of the characters of the lessons contain- 
ed in this chapter are only given, as the student is exj)ected hy this 
time to have learned enough of the idiom of the language to be able 
to translate them into good English without much if any assistance. 
In translating from Chinese into English, great care ought to be taken 
to avoid inversions of style from following too closely the Chinese 
idiom, which will often render the style of the version stiff, without 
adding to its perspicuity. Compound or dissyllabic terms are common 
in Chinese writing, and stereotyped phrases that are seldom if ever 
separated, but which contain only one idea; these are in some cases 
properly translated by a single word. Knowledge of the meaning of 
the characters merely is not sufficient to make a person a good tran- 
slator ; he must attend also to the force of the word or phrase in its 
connection in the original so as to select an apt expression by which 
to render it. Some attention should be paid to such peculiar phrases in 
the original as are deserving of being transfused into the version, while 
too close a fidelity will make it inelegant or vapid. Good taste will 
prove the best guide in the choice of words, and teach when to express 
a native phrase in its literal dress, and when to render it by an 
equivalent ; so that while the reader is not offended by barbarisms and 
harsh epithets, he will feel that he is possessed of whatever in the 
original is witty in thought, and elegant in expression. . j. ' ij . j c*. <^- V 

No. I. — Cleverness OF Hung Yung. " i 



i^^m-M ^±^^ ^t-iEi) ^"'" 



:H: ^ IL i* ^ * ^# © ffi 4 A-ft 

Paki *Aot, "^Hung $ Yung^ tsz^^ gMan ^ku, ^Lu kwdky^ Huhfau} iyan ^yd 
Pakhoi, Hung Yung, styled MankU, [was a] lii state, Hukfau mjm 



'^Htmg ^tsz" i- shapi shai^ ^sun. T^di' ^shdn dd wai^^ 

Confucius twentieth generation's descendant. TTiishdn general soother* 

a t ;t ^ i ^> li m ^ t M 

^Hung Chau^ ichi Hsz\ Tsz'* sMu' ds^ung s.mmg; inin shayi su^ 
Hung Chau 's son. From youth clever intelligent; aged ten years 

ifan iyan lUan cchL 
door porter hindered him. 



Hung Chau 's son. From youth clever inte 

Bt: ft IK ~^ 9- ^ M \ 

iShU ^'w6ng ity ^Hd indm ^wan, ^TA cYing; <j 
time, went visit Ilon^m officer, Li Ying; dc 



150 EXERCISES IN TRANSLATING. 




B -^Hf.^ m m ^M Ik A ^' 

iYung ijti^ ^Ngdhai^ ^Li siung' ifung <kd; ¥api yapi kin^ . 

Yung said, I am Li minister allied family; and entering saw. 

m f^ n ik m. u ^w^ ^ ^. 

<Ying man} uti^ ^u Hs6 *fi' iUg Hsd, Jid its^an?^ 
Ying asked saying, Your ancestor and my ancester, what connection f 

m a =t iL T-^ ^ fpi 1 -T ^ ^" 

iYung iiti, Slk, ^Hung 'tsz' its^ang man^ Hat <u ^Ld Hsz*; 
Yung replied, Anciently Confucius already asked propriety of Laoutsze: 

^ n % ^ # 1 Ifc M ^ W A 

iYung ^ii ikwaji: ^hi <fi Hui shai\ t^ung M! tYing tdi^ 
Yung with LI: how not bound generation, allied family! Ying much 

ikH <chu 
surprised-at him. 

^v ki A ^\* k it m ^- m }n t^ 

'SMa '¥ing idi' <chimg fdi^ tfu ^Ch^an 'Wai cM, ,Ying 'chi 
Short space, principal inner great lord Ch'an Wai coming, Ying pointed-to 

# 1% t nil ^ P 'I; B# 11. 

iYung Ml, 'Ts'z' ^kH ifung 'yd. 'Wai ut^, Shiii' ishi ,ts^ung 
Yung said. This remarkable lad. Wai repHed, Young time clever 

m' :k ^^- * !VL^ t« 0^ ift iP 

iTuing, tdi^ ishi mi^ piU its^ung iming. iYung tsiki 
intelligent, old time not certainly clever intelligent. Yung immediately 

m M B ^0 ^ ^J\ t P) W '^ 

ying^ ashing uU, jM Jcwan 'shd sin, yau^ isM pUi 

echoing tone said, Accordiog-to honor what says, young time must 

^1 m ^ '^ ^ 'M. % B ^=f ^ f^ 

ttsUmg iming 'cM, 'Wai 'tang Mi sty} iiti, *Ts«z' V^z' 'cMung isking^ 
intelligent person. Wai others all laughing said. This child older bcccHtie, 

€^ ^ i^ a it ^ ^ n ^n ^ 

piti d6ng ioi- cchi 'wai hi* 'yd. Tsz^^ 'ts^z* tah iming-, 
certainly present age 's renowned individual. From this got reputation. 

. ^ ^0, z MiK, '^- m w % % 

Hau^ iwai Pah 'hoi fdi* shau\ kiki hd^ ^pan haJc^ ; 
Afterwards was Pakhoi head defender, exceedingly loved entertain guests ; 

't m ± ^ t ii 1 ^ ^ 

iShSung uti^ Ts6^ shiung^ hdh ishiung 'mftn, dstm tchung tsau 

usually remarking, Hall in guests always full,' bottle in wine 

/^^ fn pi /C^ h'h' Uii 

pat} Jiung^ iiig <chi iin^ 'yd, 

never empty, my 's wish. 




EXERCISES IN TRANSLATING. 151 

No. II. — ScHKMK OF W6ng W A N T O 1 N V E 1 u l e LO P6. h . / J5 

-^- - >k t H '^ ^ -^- 

^Tung Ch^^ki yaii yati tdi^ wi' pah ikun; Hsau chi* 
Tung Ch*6nk one day greatly entertained all officers; wine reached 

shb' its'un, 'Lu Pd' Mitng' Ch'itih H ,j)in *f/. Ch'iuh 
several bouts, LU P6 turning-to Ch'^nik's ear' side spoke. Ch'cuk 

^ ^ II ± m ^ 1^ r ^ yf-^ 

ming^ iU iin sMung^ dsau ^Chtung ^Wan hd^ if6ng,Pati do 
ordered from feast above carry Cheung Wan below hall. Not much 

B# # 'iit w p^ ^ni iit % i^ m 

ishi shi^ its^ung, its^ung Jiung ip^un fdh < Cheung < Wan ifau^ 
time, waiting follower, taking red waiter bearing Ch6ung Wan's head, 

A u '^ t ^T^ m m 4- % 

yapi hin\ Pali thin iWan paU fii^ ^faL Ch^^h si'ff 
entered handed.up. All officers' souls not left-in body. Ch*6uk laughing 

iiti^ tChii ikiing mafi Jcing; tChhing <.Wan kiU Jin ^Un Shut^ yuki 
said. All sirs no fear ; Cheung Wan leagued joined Un Shut, about 

if^ hoi^ ^ngd ; <yan ^sz* syan ki^ ishii jZoi, is^dky 
scheming to-injure me ; because messenger brought letter here, inadvertently 

T ^ ^ ^i! ^ ^ t *^ Ti/f :t ^ # 

hd} tsoi^ ing ^i Fang^ xsin ch*u\ kt? ^chdrn <chi : tkung Hang 
delivered in my son Fungsin's place, therefore behead him : Sirs all 

iind k(i\paii pUi tking wai\ Chung" ikun ^wai! ^waif a sdn\ 
is-no cause, not need fear dread. All officers [said] Yes ! Yes ! and separated, 

f! 1^ ^ t II f J t t ^ >^> ^ 

<Sz* ifd^iWdng^Wan ikwai id* fuichung ^ts^am cw'; iKam 
Chancellor Wong Wan returning to house in deeply thought: This 

B U ?^ t ^ ^ T^ ^ M M^ '^ 

yati tsiki than ichi w'S ts6^ pat> <6n tsiki. Chi* yi^ isham, 
day feast during *s acts, sitting not easy seat. At night deep 

n m ^ ^^Atii ± ^^ 

uti iTning cUdki cMung^^ pb^ yapi hew} jtin, lapi <« 
moon bright, taking cane, walked into rear garden, standing at 

» # ^ f ) # n m tc ^. f^ t 

sfb i,mi ka} chak>, ^yiung dHn <,shui liii\ fati s^nan ^yau 
small - rose frame side, looking-up heaven falling tears, siiddenly heard was 



152 KXEKCISES IN TRANSLATING. 

iyan ts(n} ^mau ddn ifingpiin\ich*6ungihii Hun fdn^* ^Wan 
person in peo&y arbor's side, long sigha short groans. Wan 

^ ^ ^ ZTi}^ ^mi^mm ^ 

it^im pd^ thecal tchi, ^ndi 'fH ,chung Jc6 W ^TtO, iShin ^ya. 
carefully stepping watched person, was house in singing girl Ti6 Shin. 

iICi ^nii tsz'^ yau' 'sim yap^ 'fu tchung^ kdu^ H Jc6 
This girl from youth brought into house within, taught to nng 

^md; iTiin ifSng i^ pdt>^ shih W ih^u <kai, ^Wan 

dance; age just twice eight, beauty accomplishments both superior. Wan 

Elt * # Z^ ^ it m w ^ 

H ds^an ^nu toi^ i.chi. Shi^ yt^^ '•Wan fing* iUvng ^kau 
as-if own daughter behaved her. In night, Wan listening good while 

n B ^ A ^ t fl ^ ^m i^ 

h6U iJti^ Tsin^ ^yan ttsiung ^yau tsz^ itsHng ^y^? tTiii iShin 
exclaiming, said. Low person about having underhand designs eh ? TiO Shin 

1 1^ ^ II ¥ --^ ^^ ^ 

iking kwai^^ tdp> iiti, Tsin} ts^ipy i6n ^kom ^yau <sz^? 
alarmed kneeled replied saying. Poor handmaid huw dare have treachery 7 

it^ii: U Pit ^ f4 ^ i? M^iH: ^ 

^Wanutij ^u iTud ^sh6 isz\ Ji6 yt^ ^sham . lii Wz\ch^6img 
Wan said, You nothing which-is secret, why night's depth in here long 

It !lf ^ * 1^ B^t, f ^ P 

fnn^? iShin uti, iYung tsHp^ ^shan fai^ \fu i.chi An. ^Wan tU^t 

si^hs ? Shin replied, Permit handmaid express inmost *8 words. Wan said, 

^u mail *yflw nik^^ ddng sliati kb* ^ngS, iShln ti/j, Ts^ip> itnung 
You not hide conceal, must truly tell mc. Shin replied, I grateful 

^ A E # il ^ m *■ ® 

tdi^ iyan <yan ^yiung, fan^ tsdpi tkd *md, <yau 
your honor's khidness care, teaching practice singing dancing, utmost 

jH n 'i^ ^BB t 4 t ^ « 

Hai iSiung tai^ ; tsHpusui yhn kwaii siiP i.shan<t mdki pd* 
propriety towards behave ; I, if powder bones crush body, not recompense 

M - '^ ^ it A m M m m ^- 

mdn^ yaty. Kan^ kin* tdi^ syan ^Uung ^mi ^shau ^sS, plu 
myriad one. Lately seen your honor's two eyebrows anxiety knit, must 

M m ^ A ♦^i^SFpi ^ m X 

^yau kwdky Jed tdi^ sz^^ ; yav} paly ^kdm man^ ; <kam ^mdn yau^ 
have state family great affairs; still not presume ask; tliis evening also 



BXBRC18ES IN TRANSLATING. 153 

tft^ ^^ m ^ -^ ^ ^ ^ 

iw moving sitting not easy. Because this, long sighing ; not thinking 

l:^:Ali W. ^ ^ m ^Z m 

B your honor furtively observing. If have use my *s place, 

^ ^ If 

Lsd deaths not decline. 

Van n cUung^ kiky <iS iiti, iShui 'stung Hdn' ,fin hd\ 
^an with cane striking earth, said, Who thought Hon's dominion, 

M.kit8oi^ ^u 'shau <chung iyf.? iTs^ui ^ng6 tb* wd} k6k> ichung 
-ly in your hands* within ch? Follow mo to picture gallery in 

s m ^ ^ it^m ^ it ^ ^ 

r.- tTiit iShin Jean ^Wan td* kdkuchung, ^Wan tsun^ ch^iky 
ic Ti(i Shin followed Wan to gallery in. Wan entirely ordering 

m ^ ^B Mi^^ ^ mmn 

'•^ \fii ts^ipi, ndpnTiu iShin iU ts6^, iiii ifaupin^ pd^. 
wives concubines, instated Till Shin in chair, turning head then bowed. 

iShhi tkingi fuky <u ti^y vJti^ Tdi^ ^yan Jtd kff 
Shin alarmed, prostrate on ground, said, Your honor what reason 

^ ^ ^ pf V^ ^ X T ^ 

^=-i^z'?^Wan iiti, ^u 'hd s,lin Hdn' ,f^in ha} ,shang 

this? Wan replied. You able compassionate H6n*8 empire's hving 

t "i* E 51 lio ^ M 

T"* i^n katyj lui^ jti its^im ^ywg. 
Kjb, Words finished, tears like fountain's bubbling. 

I « mn ^ s t @ la ^ 

3 iShin iitii Shiky ikdn tsin^ t^ipy ^ts^ang iin^ tdn^ ^yau 
■ Shin rejoined. Just now humble handmaid already said, only have 

ling^i mdn^ ""sz^ paty its^z\ ^Wan kwai^ si an, 
o^ command, myriad deaths not decline. Wan kneeling and speaking, 

'^ ^1^ -^ m mz it M ^. ^ ^ 

•M^dky sing* ^yau Hb iim <chi ingai, <kwan ishan ^yau Hut 

The . people are-in topsy - turvy 's danger, prince lords are-in piled 

tcAi kapy; t/i '-ii paty ^nang kau^ ^yd. T^(jti ishan 
's hazard ; without you not' able save. Treacherous mii^Btar 

35A. LES. 20 



154 



EXEKCISES IN TRANSLATING. 




4 WicS<4^»t'«l« 

x.'7'tiffg Qh^Suh it»6ung ffukg ^shdn wai\ ^cUvuk ichung sunad 'ited 
-.Tung Ch'6uk presently wMies supplant throne, court among civil military 

■ ft It '^MM^'^-m^ 

, itnd kaV 'hd ishu ^Tung Ch^iuky ^yau yat> i* A 
have^no plans available. Tung Ch'euk lias an adopted son, 

j& ^ ^ -^ m n ^ # m 

suruanied LU, named F6, daring brave, unlike usual. 1 . 

'm - A t iff ^ Z m ^ '4i 

ikun i^ iyan tkdi hd* skih <cht ifd, iKam yuki 

have-observed two men both lustful beauty *6 slaves. Now wish 

m mm^ ^ fi^ m n m s*^ 

yung^ Jin iWdn kai^; ^sin dsiung % ^hu kd* ^Lu P^, hau^ 

employ inveigling scheme ; first takiiig you, promise tewed Lfl P6, th^i 

ii»' ^u ^Tung CU tuk^ : ^u <w <chung ^*u pin^ Upi kdn^ 

offer to TungCli'6uk: you in betwixt seize opportunity slander aeT^ 

tfd fv} 'tsz' if an ^vgdn ling^ Pd' s7idt> Ch'iuky^ H 
this father son sunder-faces [disagree], cause P6 kill Ch'6uk, in^rder-to 

ft A-^ ® ft P mn ± pL-^ 

tsuti tdi^ dAj), icUung ifu ^shi tsiky, tsot* lapi ckdng tshim; 

terminate great evil, again *uphold country's, gods, re - establish govemment: 

Mii ^u ichi liki ^yd. Paly tchi ^u V ytuki sAd. 
all your *s courage. Not aware your notions as how. 

i,Tiiii, iShin iiti, TsHpy ^hu tdi^ iyan, mdn^ W paty iU^z\ 
Till Shin replied, I promised your honor, myriad deaths not decline. 

mm ^^^^^^ M ^ m n ft 

M&ng^tsiky kin' i^Hpy *« "phtsHpy tsz'^ ^yau td^ Hi. ^Wm 
Trust when offered me to them, I myself liave proper plans. Wan 

» « i4 lie m m ^ ^ m 

yti, Sz^^ y^uki sity kw}j^ng6 miti f,m(in H. tTtdiShtn 
said, Affair if leaks out, us extcrmmate house truly. Ti(i Shin 

:^ A ^y S ^ ^^ ^ A 

iiti, Tdi^ iyan mail lyau; ts^ipyy^ukipaty pd^ tit* 
rejoined, Your honor necd-not be-anxious; 1 if not requite great 

m ^f- ^ ^z r it n # 

1^ *^' <u mdn^ yan^ ^chi lidK ^Wan pdi^ tse^^ 
liberality, kill, in myriad sword s' under. Wan bowing thanked. 



HKBHCISRS IN TRANST.AT4N0. 155 




^ u m M ^ M m ^ Wi n 

TVz'* yedi^ pin^ ttsiuug Ml M6ng iining «oA« shd^ ^f5, 
Next day, then taking family preserved brilliant peaHs several ones/ 

Img* iUung- ts^ttng^ *'kdm ts^d^ ikam tkiin -yai> Hing ; ^sz^ syan 
ordered skillful workman inlay make golden crown one piece; sent man 

^ m&^ ^i :k # ^m ^ ic 

maii sung* ^Lu Pd\ Pd' tdi' *Ai, its^an td' ^Wdng 'Wan 
iBCcretly gave La Pd. P6 much pleased, himself went-to W6ng Wan's 

^ ^ m t f§ t « i^ ^ ^ 

ch&ki ch? tsSK 'Wan v} pi^ M ^ngdu 'mi chdn^ 
house render thanks. Wan had-prcpared excellent meats delicious viandsi 

t* *Lfi Pd' ch?. 'Wan ch^ut^sTnun iyingngd^f istpy yapihmt^ 
waited LO P6'8 arrival. Wan went out to - meet waited into reaj 

gf&ng, Jin cc/ti sh^ng^ U6K PiY uli, 'Lu Pd' 'ndi s6ung' 'f& 

hall, invited him at-top sit. P6 said, I am premiei's office 

yaiiU^ung* ; i,8z^ sfb shi^ icUiu ifing tdi^ ishan: Ji6- 
a general; your excellency is imperial court high minister: what 

i^ ft ^i t ^ ^ ^ T ^i| 

kit i^dky king"? 'Wan uii, <F6ng ,kam <fin hd^ piti 
came mistaken respect? Wan replied, Just now empire besides 

# ^ ;^ if ^ » ^ :^ ia # % 

sfnd tying Jitmg, iWai 'yau <ts6ung Jcwan 'i, 'Wan tfi king* 
mithont hero, only is you, sir. I do-not reverence 

n. ^^±. m ^ ^^ ^ zt^ 

tUivng tkwan ichi chiky^ king' dseung Jcwan ichi iis^oi 'yd^ 
your honor 's rank, reverence your honor 's talents. 

M k t f^ m M ^i m Q m 

Pd*' tdi^ *Ai. 'Wan ^yan Jc^dn king* Hsau<, ^hau <ch^ing 

P6 excessively pleased. Wan diligent-attentive urged wine, mouth praised 

^Tung fdi^ tsz' ping^ Pd' tcM tak^ paU tsidi. Pd' tdi^ 
Tung high statesman and P6 *s virtues un-ceasingly. P6 loud 

% % Ik .fa Pk m 7^- ^ R '^ 

sid' ch^iung' 'yam, 'Wan chHk, tux' Hs6 yau^, 'chi JLau 
laughter hilariously drank. Wan ordered retire attendants, only detained 

# # m A il ^I ?P M ^ IB" 

»W t^ipy shd' iyan hun' Hsau. 'Tsau chi' piin' Mm, 
waiting maids several persons serve wine. Drank till half merry, 



156 EXERCISES IN TRANSLATING. 



t «^ ?t £ * ^^ »i - # * 

'Wan ttti, Fdn' M si M 'SHU'J^wg, V Ming H 
Wan said, Call young child come. Little while, two green-dreMes 

^\m m % ^ M^ M m n 

'ifon^TM sShin im} tchdng ii ch^utt, Pd* dicing man^ 
led Ti(i ShiQ gorgeously dressed and came-out. P6 surprised asked, 

^ h ft B '\^ -k IB^^^ft n 

iH6 iyan? 'Wan iih, 'Siu 'nii ^TtA iShtn hfd. 'Wan t,mung 
What person ? Wan replied, Little daughter TIQ Shin. I grateful-ior 

ttsiung tkwan ts^dky oi^, pati i^ cAi' d^anj k(i^ ^ng^ 
yoiu" honor's mistaken kindness, not unlike nearest relatives, therefore ordered 

JcH 'ii dsiung <kwantsiung ktn\ Pin^ mmg^ tTiii iSMn 'ii 'Lu 
her with your honor interview. Then bid Ti6 Shin to LQ 

^ ^ M m M ^^ m ^* m t 

Pd* "pa 'chdn. <Tiu Mtn sung* 'tsau 'u Pd\ 'Uvng ha} 
P6 hand goblet. She presenting wine to Po, both parties 

M, ^ Bl ife ^ # m fe ^ 

ifm Joi 'ngdn hiP. 'Wan ^yiung tswP iitij iHoi ji 
eyebrows coming eyes going. Wan feigning drunkenness said, The . child 

A Ik m ^ m ^ ^ ^ ^ - 

Ofiungk^api iU^ung Jcwanfung* ^yam *H <piii; ing yaf> 
requests to your honor strongly to-drink several cups; my single 

^ '± n ^ m % m.M m m^ ^ 

ikd itsiin k^du* ch4akids6ung Jcman dL Pd* Hs^ing ^TUl iShin ts6^^ 
family entirely depend upon your honor. • P6 requested Ti6 Shin to-sit. 

% m r% % '^ A it 1^ 

<Tiu iShin ^kd i' yuh, yapi^ 'Wan iitiy ^Tsiung Jwan 
She feigning wish about to-rctire, Wan observed, The general 

ing ichi chi* 'yauy Jvoi a pw} tsd^: Jio sf&ng? <7\ii 
my 's intimate friend, my - child then be-seated : what apprehension ? I'iii 

# ^ ^, T ^ f I S ^ a T- 1^1 ^ 

iShinpm^ ts6- <w 'Wan chah. 'Lu Pd* muki paty ^chun tiding 

Shin then sat at Wan's side. LU Po's eyes not strayed papil 

6^f X Ik t 3a . 

tiky fi6n* ; yau^ ^yam shd* tpiii, 
*B gaze; also drinking many cups. 

* ^ » Ii ^ S f ^ W Dfc -^- 

'Wan *chi sShin wai^ Pd\ uf-i, iNg yuki ils6ung Hf^z* hi^9unp 
Wan pointing-to Shin spokcto P6, saying, I wish taking this gii) gjfo 




EXERCISES IN TRANSLATING. 157 



*u *tsiung tkwan iwai ts*ipy, ttodn ^hang fidpi ^fau? Pd' 
to your honor to-be concubu[ie, but willing receive or.not? P6 

UJfi? sit 0^# 1(0 iHiftl^^ 

A«trf, tsiki Ut^ uti, Y^ki tak, sii HsFz\ Pd' ddng hdu^ 
leaving table thanked saying, If obtain as this, I will emulate 

■k m z ^K k ^^ ¥ B^^- 

••Aibi *mA ichi pd\ ^Wan tWj, ^sd ^mdn 'sun yat> 
dogs horse *s requital. Wan replied, Immediately selecting a 

% 1 ^ M /f^^ t * /i^ # ^ 

tUtmg isTum sung* chi* ^u tchung, Pd* <yan %i ^md 

fortunate day send-hcr to house in. P6 pleased delighted im- 

hdn\ tfan H muki sW ,Ttu iShin. .Tiii ^SMn yik^ H 
measurably, continually with eyes observed TiO Shin. She also with 

^ v^ ^ It 9 m fS m id B 

df^au ifp6 sung^ itsHng. 'SMu ^k*ing, tsiki sdn\ ^Wan iiti 
ogling • glances exhibited passion. Little while, feast brokcup. Wan said, 

^ ^)c n n- ¥ jh ^ m ^ m M. 

'Piin yvki Jau dstung <kwan ^chi suh, ^hung fdi* cw' k{n* 
I would detain your honor stop sleep, . fear you may.be 

ji. Pd^ tsoP tsdm pdi* ts6^ ji hu\ 

H-pprehcnsivc. P6 again thrice bowing thanked and departed. 



No. Ill . — P RESCIENCE OF THE BiRDS.* 

(EPS ^ ;t + ^t A + A t) 

»t» #1 ni t] m ^ ^ ^ n n 

tCkung <chau 'king ^yau Td^ sz^^ mb^ shiki tlieung Mun. 
fin] Chungchau boriier.-*, was Taou priest begging food country village. 

t cL H ii P.I i^ ± A 1$ 

Shiki % itnan Ji mingy ^yan kd^ 'chu ^yan 'sz* 
\Baten having, heard parrot sing, therefore told head man to-order 



* lAa CMi Htfn W^ or Pastimes of the Study, is a collection of stories 
usually printed in sixteen duodecimo volumes. It was written by P6 Ts'ung- 
^^^ ^m /t£t 1^ ^ distinguished scholar of Shantung province, who 
flourished in the reign of K^nghi ; his preface is dated in 1679. It is regard- 
ed as a highly finished production, and is written in excellent style and pure 
Chinese. 



160 EXERCISES IN TRANSLATING. 

^ A u ± m z^^ n ^ 

ling^ tdi^ nd\ lapi chuld <chi kff. Mi^ 'ki, Img^ 
officer highly incensed, inslantly droTC him off. Not many-dajra, officer 

II w^ gjt ii If life fill /^ ^f^zm 

^kw6 H maki pdi^. iU^ ifu! "^t^z^ tsin iyan ^king kd^ tchi^ ^4 
surely by mark disgraced. Alas! this magician warned him, but, 

m^ It M 1 iu ^ T^ai^ m 

siki iii^ sTigai lai^t tfan tsam ^ch^j paU <chi 'ng^ ^yd, 

sad enough, endangered by-cruelty, dim minded man, not him arouse. 



No. IV . — ^T HE Magic Carpet. 

ifen -t: 1 "f ft 1^ t m ^ n ^ 




iHung s,md kwdky kau- ^hu ^u c Chung Kw6k> <s^ng mau^ yiki* 
Red haired country whilom'pcrmitted in Middle Kingdom mutual conmierce. 

5i^E^A % X- m ^ w 

iPin shu^ kin^ ik^i ^yan chung\ pat> fing* itang ngdn^. 
Frontier admiral seeing these men numerous, not hcar.to coming ashore. 

iHung iTwd iyan kd^ HsHng tan} ts^z^ ycUi i,chin <i* 
Red haired men obstinately besought only to-give a carpet's earth, 

j£ ^ 6^. }^. - u m^'M ^ ^ 

tsuki H, Shui^ tsz* yaU tchin ^shd ^yung ^md *A:i, *^ti 
enough quite. Admiral thinking a carpet what allow not much, consented-to 

Z^ A n K^± ti ^ :: 

ichi. iKH iyan chi^ ,.chin ngdn^ sheung^, ^kan syimg %^ 
them. The men placing a.carpet shore upon, about accommodate two 

K ¥^ z ^pgsAatfca^ 

i,yan; 'ch^t tchi, &yung sz*' ^'ng iyan; 'ch^6 ^ch^i 'ch^6<t€mg9 
men ; pulling it, accommodate four five men ; more pulled more came* 

mM ^ A s^ IT e. m w A ^ 

■ ^Js^ing h(zky tchin tdi^ ^mau ^huy H shd^ pdh iyan H. 
• short time carpet large-as acris over, already several hundred persons. 

^n 36 ^ m ;&^ ^ s m u 

^Tun dd ping^ fdiy^ cUuU di pat^ i\ pi^ l^uki 

Short swords at-oncc drew, ending as not imagine, by-them seize 

\ ^ m m * 

^ shb* Hi ii hu\ 

^ several miles, and departed. 



fiXERClS£S IN TRANSLATING, 161 

No. V . C OUB.AUK OF k CONCUBINK. 

^ ^ m & z "k i^s^t^ 

Yik> ad tsai yi ,chi kwa^ M, ^mau 'ch^, fu' ^yau 
Yikt6*8 western border 's honorable family, certain person rich had 

W ikam. Chunky yat> ts^fpy, . Y6 ^iin lai^j sf 'ohhmg 
much money. Reared a concubine, rather charming handsome, but head 

^ '^ ^ z m m m M ^ 

shati Jing chiU cchi. iPln fdty iwdng tshi^ tsHp> 
wife cruelly beat her. Whipped struck causelessly, concubine 

f^ ^z m m ^ mz 4^ ^ 

fung^ «t'* tchi iWai ^kan. ^Mau ilin ccM, ^todng ^w6ng t«z' 
obediently served her still attentively. He pitying her, again-and^gain privately 

*fi toai* yw. Ts^ipy ishu mi- ishiung ^yau urC iin. 

■pdke to-BOothe comfort. She certainly not having had discontented expression. 

Yaty yt\ shb* shapi iyan u^ its^iung yapi cJidng^ ^k^i uk* [. 
One night, several tens-of men gettihg-over wall entered broke the house's ^ 

t/t <H iDdi^, ^Mau ^u ds^ai iWdng ku^ s6ng^ p^dh^ iiu chin* paty • 
doon nearly open. He and wife fearful irresolute lost courage, trembled not 

^ ^fi u ^mm 1^ ^ ^ Bt 

tchi *sh6 iWai, Ts^ip> ^hi maki imd tshing sih^ 6rn^ 

knowing what to-do. She rising secretly without noise breathing, stealthily 

^m ^ m m 9^ ^ ^ - i^ m 

Tn6ky uki tchung taky if id ^shui muki cMung^ yaty, Pati Jcwdn 
felt house in got carrying water wooden pole one. Drawing bar 

^•Hi * M IL * 1 1 ¥ H 

hu^ eh^utyakw'^an t^aky liin} iti s.pung s,md. Ts*ipy *md 
rushed out, gang-of robbers confused as tangled hemp. She brandishing 

^ fl E Pi 1^ ® ^ BB E A 1h 

chiung^ tung\ ,fung ifning tkau 'hiung, kiky sz'^ ^'ng iyan fd* 
pole about, whirring noise hook sounding, struck four five men flat-on 

ti^, Ts^aky imri^ ^mi ^hm, ng6ki lUn} ^pan, 

ground. Robbers completely disconccrtedi intimidated confusedly fled. 



i- f . V Ai/^^'^- 1 



\ w 



.vC.*^ A^ 



162 £XE&C1I3£S IN TRANftLATlMGL 




tTt^^.ung tkb kctpy paty taky ^sJi^ung^ <l^ing tUy ci %&! ^mdng twan 
Wall hi^h quickly unable t(Mi8cend, headlong fell [cried] alack ! failed hearts 

^ ^ ^ ^^ n^L "R ^ B «: 

sihaty mingKT^ipy^chucUung^iU ti',. kH' *4«** uft, *7y»' 
lost ■pirits. She laying pole on ground^ looking.at laugliing said, Tliese 

Hang mall «z'S pat> chiki hd^ ^skau c¥ dpy Hd taky;yiki hfihi 

sort thing's business, not worth act pierce strike to ; also leani 

i^ ^ ^T^ik%^ n m ^ ^ ^ 

tsdky ts^ak>! ^ngopaty ^u shdty: shdty^ iim ffftki ^ng6. ShiMt 
to-act thief! I not you kill: kill, demean disgrace myself. Strai^t 

mz '^ * » A 1 n ^ ^ 

is^ung^ ichi yati hff. ^Mau tdi^ Mngj mimS . ^Hd tsz*^ 
releasing them hastened away. Man much alarmed, asked, How yourself 

m 1 «'i * ^ tjc # w u m 

ifumg H? Tsah tsHpy fu^ ku* d^iung ^dng ««', te*ip» 
able eh ? For-as concubine's father formerly fencing masiter, she 

tsun^ ich^im tlt^i shvti, ^foi paly MV pdh tyan Wti ^yd» 

fully acquired his art, nearly more-than hundred men oppose.. 

#t m t m th t.^ ^^ tt 

kTs^oI lyau ihai^ sham} fdi} Mung* tchi imat <u mati shSc^ t | 
Wife more alarmed, deeply grieved former *s lusting for camalitje; ^ 

ih m t m fi s ^ " ^"%~m. 

iyau shi^ shin^ itigdn shi^ wipy, T^ip^ tchung ^ntd tU^kn 
henceforth kind aspect regarded her. She to-thclast wiihoHt least 

^ ^ n M m ^ m ^ nkm 

Jib shaty Hai. iLun \fu^ vjdki wai} to*ip>, 'fifd Mk» 

degree, failed re^pect. Neighboring women, certain spoke-to her^ Yeu beat: 

t^cik^ yiukiifun ^hun; kd^ noi^ M ^min ^shau shau^ fdi> 
thieves like hogs-and-dogs ; but cause what submissively receive, castigaljoii 

'ch^6?T^ipy M<2» SWifigfan} H; ifd M ^kdm an! 
pains? She replied, It-ia my lot indeed ; otherwise how presume q>cak! 

^ ^ ^ W ^ 

iMan 'cJU yiky iin tchi. 

Hear - art highly praised her. 



» » 



EXERCISES IN TRANSLATING. 168 




No. VI. — ^Ths Faithful Do a. 

^ ^ ^ X m m M ^ M 

Ld* cdn, *m«M A:ttp> fd^ hdm^ yuki itsiung ^8z\ Sau^f 
[In]Ld-6n, certain person's father lay-in prison ready-to die. Searching 

fe m w ^ -u ^ ^ mj^ m 

Jaity indng ch^uh tak> pah Jcamy dstung higai kwan} ikiDdn 
coDecting bags hoards ^ot hundred taels, taking visit district's office 

Wi n 1 tiJ tt'J ar # 1 :R ffi 

^hUAi. Kvfd^ ilu ch^uti, tsah ^sh6 ^yiung haky %un its^ung 
to^^peak. Mounting ass sallicdfim mediately which had-bred black dog followed 

z n n n it le ^ i'l X ^ 

<cM. <H6 chuki pin^ fiti^ ; kP ^tsau^ tsaky yau^ it^ung 
him. Hooted away straight went.back; it-had ran, then again followed 

t. m %Z^ % 1-^ ^ ^ + M * 

ccfei; tpin chuki paty ^fdn; ii^ung Jiang shb^ shapi ^11. ^Mau 
him ; whipped off, not return-home ; followed going several tens-of miles. Maa 

kd^ J^U <^*M 'd* chaky tsz^ iin. Ki\ 'ndi H shiky tfau 
got4iff riding, hasted road side private. Done, then with stones stoned 

-k -ki^ ^ ^ * i^ It m i^m ^ 

^Ufi: ^h^n *chH <pai hu* ; ^mau ki* Jiangs tsaky ""himhaty M 
dog : dog began to-run away ; man had gone, then dog suddenly 

fitki thiy ngUi Jii ^mi tsuky. ^Mau nb^, ^pin tchi; ^hun 
le - taming, bit ass's tail feet. Man irritated, whipped him; dog 

g,nn/^ fm^ paty % faty yhiki tsoi^ J^in^ ^fan ngat, Ju ^shau^ 
barked onceasingly, suddenly jamping-up ahead, madly snapped-at ass's head, 

fi ^ PI ^^ ^ ^ n ^ Tn » 

HsFi^ yuki ^ch6 ^mau hu^ loK ^Mau, H twai paty its^ iung 
aiif wished to-intercept his going journey. He, rcgarding-it as not lucky, 

^ ^ m n m m ± %i it ^ m 

yik> ndS sHi Ji^i ^Mi chuki ^cht, Shi^ ^hun H *iin, 
highly angered, turning rode swiftly drove-off him. Seeing dog already distant, 



^ndi ftm pi^ tsaty icUi, ^Tai kwan^ H md^ ; T^api tmHn 
then turmng bridle quickly galloped. Reached town was dusk; first foeling-for 



164 EXERCISES IN TRANSLATING. 





M fdkij Jcam iTn6ng J(*i pdn^ ; isJiam isham h6n^ ha}^ iWan jfdk* 
girdlo bag, money lost its half; trick . ling sweat ran-down, spirits 

u ^ m m ^^ ^ ^> it \^ 

all gone; tossing rolling all night. All.at-once remembered dog's barking 

^ n m m ^ m.m m ^^m 

^yau tyan; hau^ Jcwdn ch^uti isMngj saP ^sham Joi sfd. 
was reason ; waited-at gate left town, carefully examined came road. 

% n Vi ^ ^ ^ m ftAiiD 

Ymi^ isz^^ kai" jTidm paky <ch^ung J^u ihang syan iu 

Also himself judged all . parts' a-traveled thoroughfare, travel . ers like 

higai^ iWai tkam^ filing ^yau its^vn Hi? tSun its^un ch? 
ants, lost money, where was preserving honesty ? Looking . about reaching 

T.^ mW. j^^.n-n^ rT W IIP iJfc 

ha} ik^i ^shdfkin* ^hiin pai^ Wd tkdih itrid hdn^ shapy ^ii ^sai ; 
got-ofT riding place, saw dog dead grass midst, hair sweat wet as-if washed; 

^:^ifejjii m # ± m ^ m 

spai *i *Ai shi^^ tsaky ifung tkam Hm ^in. *K6m 
grasping ear lifting to.Iook-at, there-was package money safe quite: Moved-at 

ik^i i\ ^mdi Mn ts&ng^ <chu iYan H ttoai i* 

his fidelity, bought cofiin buried liim. Men regarded-it as faithfiil 

it m "^ 

^hun ^ch^ung iWan, 
dog's grave so. 

No. VII. — REMARKABJ.E EARTHQUAKE. 

ttl&ng ihi ts^aty inin, luki uti, shapi U^aty yati^ suty hakf^ 
Honghi's seventh year, sixth month, seventeentJi day, evening tiin»» 

^^ m^M % n r t m ^ z 

ti^ tdi^ charP . ^ U shiky hdky Tsiky ha}^ \f^^ ^w *p^^ thing 
earth greatly quaked. I then visiting.at Tsikh^, just-was with cousin-german 

^.mt. t\ m Ik ^» w ^ ^ ftp 

^JA Tuk> <cht tui^ chuk% ^yam; faty tman ^yau tshing ^ji 
. Li Tukchl opposite the.candle drinking; suddenly hearing was sound like 



EXERCISES IN TRANSLATING. 165 

m n M ^ i^ (^ mjt * ^ 

ihiif isz'^ dung indm Joi Mung* tsai paky hu*. Chung* 
under, from southeast came towards northwest went. Everybody 

m ^ ^ m % ^ ^ mn.^ 

thoi fS pat, 'kdi JcH ku\ Ng6^ ii H 6n' 
■Tightened terribly, not understanding the reason. Presently then chairs table 

^i p*6*j ^tsau ipiii Jewing fuk^^uk, iUung iiin ^chUi ts^ 6ky chity 
I7~lbrated shook, wine glasses turned over, house's rafters beams posts strangely burst 

^s m m ^ ^ h z 1j^ 

hfou tshing. tSiung ku* shaU shih; ^kdu ichU <fing <cM 
with^ noise. Mutually looking turned pale; whiling it, then aware 

ft m ^ ^ m ^\^ m m b 

ti^ c7ian\ Kdh tsaU <U^u ch^uty^kin^ Jau kdky if6ng 
earthquake. Each-one hastily running out, saw story lofts dwellings 

^ 'fh rfo {I fe i^ M H 1 :t ® 

«^^% fu} ii fuki '^hi, iTs^ Sung ikHng, uky fdpy ichiishingt 

houses, bowing and again rising. Walls falling, houses crashing 's noise* 

m n. ^. ^ ^ t!t $0 f m K 

^a ii ifaU ^nii qhiij <hun iU Hlng fai^» iYan 
mrith children crying, women screaming, the-roar like caldron's bubbling. People 

fe ^ x^ m ± ^ ^ t mM m 

^Hn ttcan paty inang lapi, ts6^- ti^ shiung^, its^ui ti^ 'ckun 
blinded dizzy not able to-stand, sat ground upon, with earth turned 

nil n ti^ m m ^ ^> m ^% -k px 

^^jhaki. iHd ^shui ikHng piity chiung^ ^u, ^Kai iming ^hun fai^^ 
sided. River's water rolled surged rod more. Hens cackling dogs howling 

m ^ ^ ^ - \^ w ib ^ *& m 

-^m&n isMng ichung. IP yaty ishi ^hii ^cUi ^chdu ting^^ shi^ 
filled city in. After . an hour more began little to-set^le, looking 

m ± m ^ :k ^ m ^ * % 

Jtdi sh^img^ tsaky indm ^nu ^16 tsu^ king^ tsivng kd* 
i|tijafit8 in thercwere men women naked collected ainxiously together telling 

talking; all had.forgotten they ^ot^yet dressed. Afterwards heard one 

t'# n fK T- "^ B ^ ^ ^ 

W& Hsing i¥ing chaky paty ^hd k^apy. ^Mau tkd ilau 
place, well inclined leaned un - able draw- water. One family's loft. 

* ^ t. ^ r^i ^m ii4 ^ ^;K 

'ifoi^indm paky yiky heung^ . kTsF ai ihd <shdn lifi ; ^F ^shuf 
tc^rrace, south north changed direction. Ts'aih4 hill riven; V river 



166 EXERCISES IN TRANSLATmC 

Rl 5^ K Ik ^ ^t n4¥ '^ Z "^ 

Mm^ tUi *kw6ng shd^ Hmou. ^Ts^z\chan <fi ssh^tmg tchi s^i 
deepened hole extending several acres. This truly uncomnioa '■ exteaordiiuur 7 

phenomenon* 




No. V II I .—Paraphrase of a Maxim.* 

^ VA m K ^ 




tTun hdu* tai^^ H chung^ syan Jun, 

**Zealously.practice filial fratemal-duties, thereby giving. weight-to human relations.' 

1 ^ t t. .s» ajfc -n m m. f- 

Mdn^ su^ iy6 f sz"" shut, : ^Ngd shing" Hsd $ Yan 
His.imperial.maje8ty*s intentions express: Our sacred ancestor Pious 

_t ^ ^ T/^-h^6^7^T ^ 

iicdng tai* ts6^ Hiu Ivki shapi iUin tiki if in hd}. Tsu^ 
imperial sovereig^n reign . ed six • ty years 's empire. Highly 

king* chung^ tiky Hsd^ dsung; d^an tsz*^ tsd^ iShing Hdt^ 
reverenced regarded ancestors ; personally himself completed Filial-Duty 

m ^ ^ 5i - ^ # Ik # Ji ^ 

,tKing Tn r\ chi' yat, pb^ <shu. ^Mb c/i shi^ iH* 
Memoir's Commentary, this one volume book. Nothing . else . than wish 

^ ^ T A ^ m -^ m^iM m 



'ffb (fin hd' iyan db tsun' A«m' td^ tiky i' sz^. 
whole ompire'B people all perform filial duty 's reqniremente. 

^m n m m ir -^ % m - ^ 

*Sh6 H Shing^ U^ shapi luki i^tH, ifou yaty kin^ 
l^erefore Sacred Commands, sixteen maxims, at-head first on^ 

— t. . « I I Ill I ■ » I ■ ii .. 

* This is the first of the sixteen maxtma of the emperor Kdnghi, which 
were certain pithy sentences that he drew up, containing in his view tfae 
qOintessence of good* morals, and which his son, the emperor Yungchijig', 
commented upon, and one of his ministers, W6ng Yitup^, paraphrased. ^Be 

whole is called the Shing JJ ^ ggi or Sacred Commands and is required 

by law to be publicly read semi-monthly, in the ears of all the people. The 
paraphrase of W6ng Yaup6 is considered as among the best examples of 
writing in the colloquial style, and has been selected on that account; the 
idiom IS that of the Peking or court dialoct, and the attentive scholar will 
easily perceive wherein it difiers from the Canton dial^^ct, and also from the 
other lessons of this chapter. A translation of this extract will be found in Dr. 
lyiilne's Sacred Edict, pages 34— 48,« 



lilXERClSES IN TRAN8LATli\G. 167 



« m m^ ^ ^ ^ n t 

tett^ 9km» k& h&u* taiK ^U tkam man* swp 

^soMeqiteitly diMonriM^n the filial fraternal-duties. When now his imperial 

^ M' ^Iki iMttS ^s^ung chtuki shing* Hsd- kdv^ iyan ttkt 
imajetty 8At.on throne, rcflecting-on aacred ancestor teaching men *8 

^ E # nj §? m ^. t% ^ -^ 

i* 9z'\ Ub^ ch'ui, Shmg" V* 'Kw&ng Fan\ shapi luki 

intenliuns, puUished Sacred Commands Universal Instruction, sixteen 

m * 3fe te m # ^ ^ M m M 

heftds, first taking-up the filial fraternal 's obligations, discoursed 

«^^n JK w ifjF. m 

ifapy ^nl tiniin chung* pdki sing^ tfing. 
to yqu all people to-hear. 

^TMm m6 ahi^ hdu' <ni? Che kd' hdu' shun^ tiky t^ Hi M^ 
What is filial-duty eh ? This filial duty *s obligations great 

^ % ± Wi "K T ffii :i. ff» Tel 6^ 

t^ik^ ^kan. Shiung^ ji <«*wi, hd^ A <iS tchung <kdn tiki 
exceedingly. Above is heaven, beneath is earth, midst *s 

K R ^ -I® Ml m m M m 

^yan^ nuklk h/au yat^ k6' iU Hiii cW k& Hi ttky. 
^nanldnd, not contain one individual relieved.from this obligation. 

t. ® 1^ P>e H * «^ Ji- 16^ 

"Tsam ttnd shitty mi? Chat^ <yan hdu^ shun* shi* yati ^fun tik* 
What 8peak.of eh? Only that filial duty is one whole *8 

fp t. 1^' if ^ itk ^ ji ^ ^ ijD 

^ hi\ ^Ni hdn* <ftn ti* yiuki shi* paty ^tcd, jft . 
harmony. You observe heaven earth, if are inharmonious, then 

ihd tshang ^ylung taky *M itd ^yan mati Muty iloi tni? ^Yan 
bow produce nurture able so many men things forth come eh? Men 

ytuki shi* paty hdu^ shun^^tsau* shah Hid if in ii* tiky iWd^ hi* Hm; 
if are un . dutiful, then lose heaven earth *b harmony; 

^ n 1 ^ ii A "^ 

jlU sM iWdn ishing kd* syan <»i 7 
then how still perfect Uie man eh? 

^0 >: a 1& '< ^ ^ ^^^ f\ ^ 

ill tkam 'ch*^ 'p& fu* hnd $fang oe* *ni i,m^n tiJcy 
Now" therefore taking.up parents ardently loving you 's 



168 BXEHCISKS IN TRANSLATING. 



^^ m m - '^ ^ fi ^ ^ ^ yj 

isam ich^iungy shut> yai% shuti. ^Ni iiniintsfn} svm ^d Uk* 
affection, Lspeak a word. You on bieast fondled '■ 

iShi hau^: ngS^ 'M ^ni? tsz'^ 'In paty 'Hi hati fdn\ ^Lang Hid 
time : hungered eh ? * yourself not able to-eat food. Cold 

eh? yourself not know to-puton clothes. Your father 

ift t « 1^ fi§ t $a 1 t # 6^ 

iuiung h6n* chivki %i tik> Urn} $i, ^fing chiuki *»i tikt 
mother observing your cheeks [face], hearing your 

y ^shing ^yam it; — ^ni siu^ <n%? tsau^ 'hi if tin. *MAttA:> <ni? 

cries ; — you smile eh ! then gladdened pleased. You cry eh 7 

^ S ^ ^> ^ i; PS E ^> ^ U 

tstiu} tyau isham ^Ni Hsau tung^ mi ? tsau^ pb^ pd^ Jean 
. then grieved afflicted. You walk move eh ? then step-by-step attended. 

m i^^^^^ B^A^t ^. m ft 

chiuki> ^Ni y^ki shi^ Uvki Uuki tiki ^yau Him ping^ ji, 
near. You if are very - little *s have touch-of illness, 

tsau^ ishdu iik, Hid paty tdh, iCUd pat> ski^ ^ch^ a : fdn^ paty shi^ 
then griev - ed exceedingly. Tea not as tea: food not as 

m P. ^i^# 1^ $T 5t m ]& TT 

fan} ; chaiy Hang ^ni tshan 'tsz' 'hd, ch^ gts^oi fdng* hd^ Hid 
food: only wait your body well, just then reliev - ed 

i6 % G e 6^1 t ~ ^ A- m ^' 

tsam. ^Ngdn <pd ^pd tiky h6n' ch^h yaty ^niw *5tM, H^ung ^nin 
heart. Eyes constantly seeing one year small, two years 

-k T^^, ^ J ^ 'p ^ ^ m 

edtS paty <chi shav} Hiu <t6 'shiu ^san fd; Mm 

larg'er, un - conscious of - experiencing much little hardships ; of 

7 ^ 9 m ^ 

Hid d6 'sMit tking 'hung. 
receiving rouch little fearful dread. 

# ^ # ^ # i^^ &1 ^ ^ m 

^Yemg uh ^ni, kdu' td^ ^ni, td' taky ^ni ashing 

Nurturing rearing you, teaching counseling you, tUl to you complete 

A ^ -k^i^m # ^ ^ H # m 

^yan-chlung tdi^i tai^ ^m te'fi* its^ai <shang 'tsz\ Mdng^ %£ tuki 
man grown up, for you engage wife to-begct sons. Hopes you wiH-study 



EXERCISES m TRANSLATING. 169 




fil ^ ^ ^ w^ ± n m 

tshu tshing iming; fa^ ^ni ichang tkd, lapi ipi. ^Nd 
books eftablish reputation; [or] for you seek property, settle inheritance. Which 

- ^ ^r^ mx nth iij^m m E, 

yati kin^ si pat* tkwdn fu^ ^md tiky tsam 7 CM* k6^ tyan 
one thing not concern parent 's mind? These kindnesses 

sM^ ]^ taky hun^ ti/cy <m6? ^Ni yiuki sW pat> 'hvd tak* 
are requite able wholly eh? You if do not comprehend 

^x nm ^ p. ^^ ^ ft ^6^ 

*Jrt fa^ hnd tiky <yafh ckaty *pA ^ni im^ ji Hsz* tik* 
jour parent s' aiFection, just to (aec.) you towards your-^ildren 's 

6 m m - m « it# 7 

i^am iClCtmg^ ^siung yaty ^sSung^ tsau^ ^hia taky Hiu. 
affection, [and] think a little, then will . understand. 

1^ A t^ 6^ IF # ^ir 1^ at^: 

*JE4 iyan shuty Uky ^hd: ^Y^mg ii tf&ng tcU /ii* «md 
k^T'-h&ancients expressed it well: " Bring-up children then will-know parents* 

j& ^ ^ ^ ii ^5^-t6<j E7 m 

tyan. Ki* si« «cM tb^ fv} ^mb tiky tyan *ftti, tooi* 
affection.*' Already acquainted-with parent s* affection, is 

^ mi^ * # if #L mmm^m 

^^hm*- ifnd pat> hv^ hdu^ sJam^ tfd ^ni? Cn^ kS hdt^ snun^ 
why unwilling dutifully obey them eh? This filial duty 

^3^ paty *W* tsb^ paty Jm tiky sr^. ^Ch^t iU *ih2 Jm t%k% 
^^*uly not is do not come 's act. Moreover be-as ancient s' 

K^ eb 7i^ 6^.% ill ^ 1^ % m^ 

^.^m^^Yau ngb^ tping tiky^ ^yau kdty *ku tiky; ^yau itndi si 
men: Was slept ice one, was cut thigh one; was buried child^ 

^y. Chi* y^ng^tiki sz\ pin} indn hdki HiUy ^yd paty pity' tvr^ 
one. This sort of acts, is^ hard to.'leam^ still not absolutely 

n mm 'k m ^ # # r ^ 

iii* cht' <md tsb\ jfe^oi kid\ tsd^ hdu\ Chaty W 
'^^scessary that kind do, yet can.be-term6d filial. *" Only require 

*t;v L^ ^^.^1kii:'y^n P[ ± t # 

^«am tsam nW nim^ ttky fdng" tsoi^^ii} ^mi tshan sMimg^ tsaii^ *?td. 
^- heartily remember towards in parents* person^, will suffice. 

jife m ^ ^ ^ % B ^ fiu €, u 

• JVi iimiin ^hjDd iin iiC pd* <yan, fan} tfdn is%^^ ^k% liki 

You real!y wishing rcqiiite affectiott^- only all you* own* strength* 



170 EXERCISES IX TRANSLATING. 

m # w *^ IS m T> M * ^ 

Itung^ U6^ itsiung Joi tik^j and ^shd paly chi* hv^' ff"^^ 
ability doing for-them, whatever can peVform to present 

^ m ^ ^ h ^^"^riie^ 

ishmg^l^ng k& H6 ^yan tkd. iNing 'h6 Uz*^ 'hi ^shvu, 
offer both those old persons of.house. Preferable yourself little 

pt ^> ffl fi^ ^ ^ # p^ ^ X # m 

haly^ ^shvd yung^ iiky, Hstm .f6} ^md baU, Hmn fH^ ^mb yung^^ 
eat, little use, fiilly parents eat, fully parents use, 

ftxi^ \fd Un} ,si dd. Pat> 'h6 hff Hd ds^m^ hat> 
iot them instead lessen toils. Im . proper go gamble money, guzzle 

^T- ^ *^ A=lT ^X- ^Rl 

H8au;paty ^h6 Atf sV^S syan Hd kd* ; paiy *h6 6n^ 

wine; im - proper go join men wrangle fight; im - proper secret 

fi* Hu <sz^ . tsz^^ tsiky ^sdn iUgan Hsz^ iU^iny ifang Uz^^ 
places in privately yourself hoard up silver coin, dote ycnu 

e^* m s ^ -^ mm xn 

^Id tiky *Zd ip^dj ihoi tsz\ paty ke chiukifd^ ^d. 

own 's old woman (wife) little' children, not regard for parents. 

Ts^ung* iin ng(n} \pin tiky A tsity^ tsd^ dstung pdAy jin, 
Allowing-that the-extemal demeanor, acting to-[them] not effect 

i^^ W ». K M ^(^ « ^ ifi ' 

db paty ifdng sz^^; chaty W <sam Hit <p%n ^shing 
still not injure this-duty ; only necessary heart in . side sincerely 

« € Itf i:^ # B « IB. % ^ 

shat^y pin} 'hd. Tsav} shi^ ^mHi yat^ Hu ds^d i^oi^ tdm} 
honest, then well. Suppose it-is each day in coarse vegetables plain 

IK ^ K ^ 4 f& t^ Ik W # Pt 

fdn" tiky, chaty W Iciii' tfd ,fun tfiin 'hi 'hi . hat^ 
rice, simply need to-cailde them plcasurably gladly to-eat 

# T -^ m P * # )i T *D ^ 

taky hd} hu\' chi^ . tsau^ shi^ hdii* shun} Hid, JJ shi^^ 
it down; this then is filial obedience. Whereupon, 

^d cU^ k6' td^ % <^di <hoi shuty. Tsau} jti 

taking-up this principle, [let us] investigate explain speak. Hence, if 

m *i ±nx^n^ ii je je ft^ ii ^ 

^ku tung^ <chi tkdn^ paty dun dun ching^ ching^ tiky, ch^ tscnt* 

rising moving 's midst, not perfectly-correct dcoaspus, this then 



EXERCISE/S IN TRANSLATING. 171 



ft « « 7 ^ # 6^ 5t it « 

IB diBgimcin|r disestoeming parent aP entailed body; consequently 

iVkdpati hdu* %6. T^ctP iMiii ifing tsd^ m'*, paty 
is qn - dutiful' On.behalf^f government doing business, [if ] not 

^ c^ 1^ ij m §i * i^r^ ^ 

tmn^ isam kUi liki tih tsd^j sz*^ <kwanpati <chimg^ 
UBdivided mind utmost strength *8 acting, [but] serve prince un - faithfully, 

it*» ^^ '< nr- ^- m m 

to«l* iU tai^ fa^ ^md paU *hd, yaU <piin. Tsau} 

then resembles behaving-to parents ill, same thing. This-then 

Ji ^ # T 

40 un • dutifulness* 

T*d* ikfiin tiki^ yiuki shi^ paU *hd, ^yt pdky sing* 
Being ■ a-magistrate, if act im - properly, provoking the - people 

n % m m^ ^ X ^ m n m 

simi^ii sia^ ma}^ chi^ shi^ ^pd fd^ ^mb iWai ^fai Jiing 
to.ridicule revile, this is to (ace.) parents' bestowed body despising 

n T t Jt^T^ # 1 ^ m %-^ 

-mdn^ Hid* Tsau^ shi^ petty hdu^ Htu. Tsoi^ <f^ang ^yau ^is^in 
reproaching. This-thcn is un . dutifulness. In friends* presence 

m IS M *^ t * H J.fe 

Auly wa} Ub^ sz*^ paty cMuky sJiati, pin^ Him 
conversing doing things not according-to honesty, then dishonors 

yuki chiuki fu^ ^mb ; ^yd shi^ paty hdu^ . Yiuki shi^ 
I disgraces parents ; also is un - dutifulness. Supposing it-is 

^ni iinun cping ding iin^/i ^sJUung ch^an^ ch^uti %pvng tiky. 
you soldiers* at . advance army order-out troop s' 

B^ ip >^ t n ^ -# ^ ^ A 

. . ishi tsUy, paty ^hang ^yvng ^maug tchang <stn, kiH^ iyan 

occasion, refuse bravely valiantly fight advance, causing men 

^ u ^^ ^k m m.^ ^ X ^ 

siH^ wa} ^ni ^un y^uki^ cM^ sW ^pd fv^ hnb ' 

to-sneer saying you eifeminate cowardly, this is to (ace.) parent 

^ * fif T 1 7 tii ^ T> # i(P 4^ 

fijfy iwai ^fai , Ad* tsHn} Hiii, ^Yd sW paty hdu. $17 tkam 

s' .conferred body degrade dishonor. Also is undutifulnese. Present 



174 KXERCISES IN TRANSLATING. 

A m ^ ^ ^ ^ ^^ M ^ 

iyan ^lai; waki sh/i} shiUi wd^ ; wdki sM^ ^ts(iu Id^; . 
people cei£moniously ; or is conversing; or is walking-in path; 

or is sitting ; or is standing : in-all must entirely yield-to he-who-is 

^ n m 

tk6 tkd tiki. 
elder - brother. 

1^ i^m A t ^ - ^-#€± 

^Ku iloi iiky syo.fh tscm} shi^ ycUy ihiungyainls^un s,% sJiiung^ 
Olden time 's people, if it. was same village same hamlet in 

^ K #. ^ it ^ :k + t ^ 

tiki iyan; — <<*a, yiuki ^pt ^ngd^ tdi^ shctpi »ui\ ^ngd] 

's person ; — he, if compared-to me, exceeded ten years, I , ,- 

ie ^16# if # ^ Jt n A 

. then honored him to-be eld.-brothcr. He, if compared-to me exceeded 

^ ^ ^ Wt }% m i^t. # # ^vfi 

*'«§• sui\ ^ng6 tsav^ <di Mn il^ui cMukicfdy tsau^. pia* 
five years, I then retiring shoulder followed near him, indeed not 

*k6m ts^im^ Oti i.fd Hiu. Ngcn} iyan ^i ^g6 ^ih ^hi 
presmning little precede him. A-stranger compared. with my age 

A ^sil^il ^ ^ t M % ^ yJL 

tdi^f ^ng6 iWdn Hl* ch£ yiung^ tik> king* chung^ cfd; ih6 f&ngr* .. 
older, I still oughV in-this manner respect defer-to him ; how much^nore 

■ shi^ ^ngd tiki <ta*an Jc6 tk6 mi? 
[ongiit I] to mine own elder brother .eh? 

ChV tit. pb^ Jed Jc6 tikif iii* • ifang oi* chiuki 

■ As to hc-who-is an-elder brother, he-ought affectionately love younger. 

thing tai^. <Hing tai^ ifniin ip^ang <fd <t6 tdi^ inin 'kU 
brothers. Younger-brethren according-to their more [or] greater age, 

^ R fcftfe t tt ^ # It jca^m 

hig6 chati'^pd i.fd t6ng* <wd $i toi^ *Pi sw, ^ng6 tiki 
I only to them ought-as own-children behave. For-instance, my.own 

n. T 7^ Ji ^ «Jc yi- t til # » 

ji Hsz\ y^vki sW paty ishing its^oi, ^ng6 ^yd chMh sJiati 
l^hi^d; • if docs i^ot act the.man I also verily indeed 



fiXERCidlilS IN TRANSLATING. 175 

« t 9 t ir ^ ^1 ^ ^ 

han^ tfd^ tnd^ ti^d^ Hd <tdi ^chun kwo* %m 

«ii0plea8ed^t him, scold him; pmiish him, [then] change regain counte. 

^ fk m^ %m mmn 't ^ ^ 

nance, as before lovo him. But only regarding younger.brothers, 

^ K 1 ^> ^ ^ T^ t If -ft A 

tj^in cJuUi shi^ paty ^hd: (soi^ paiy *hang man} mdn} ti 
bent-on only what-is ill : then un ■ willing deliberately 

m m m ^ - m ^. ^ ^ i 

hun" tfd^ shuti itd; yaty U^ thing tai^ ^yau Hid 
admonish them, converse. with them ; alLat-once observe yomiger.brother has had 

m T> ^ m m #-P)fe*# 

c«^ paiy shi^j tsau} W <chang tau' ^hi Joi. ^Ni 
trifling offense, then straightway wrangling quarrels spring up. Do-you 

m # ^ # £ ^ M^- miki- 

*s^ung ^ni iW6 *nl thing tai^ Ud shi^ yaty k& *Zd *to»' 
reflect you and your younger.brothers all are one single father 

iniung ^yiung tiky ; ^ni y6uky Hd ^ni thing tai^ tsav} 8h%^ 
mother nurtured by ; you if beat your younger-brothers, then is 

tkz^^ Jed Hd tsz^^ tkdi yaty tpun Hid. 
own family beating own family, one . and . the . same. 

M«[ £ 5^ 1^ X T^ ^ i3^ ^ i. W # 

Tsd^ Mng tai^ tiky, yau^ paty tchi ^hd ^tdU Hn* <k6 tkd 
Being younger.brothers, still ignorant-of good evil, seeing elder-brother 

+r ik ^ ^^ M. M^ ^it lip -m 

Hd <f a, ^yd tsau^ ttodn ^hi ^shau Joi. ^Pi iW, yaty k6^ 
beating him, also then return lift hand. For instance, one 

K ^ ^ ^ Wi n ^ ^ fr 1 

iifon tiky ^shau tsuky : ^kd iU shaty ^shau Hd Hiu 

man' s hands feet: suppose inadvertently hand pound . ed 

j^ m m M ^m^ m^T- ^ 

kittky^ indn td^ iwdn ^pd ktuky hu^ fiJcy ^^Tutu pat^ iMn'g! 
foot^ it-cannot.be said forthwith with* foot go.to kick hand not .act! 

«i ^* iiL n -^ '^M'^m #•; 

iU tkam, tai^ thing imdn paty ^wd *<«d shl} wai^ tchang 
At present, brethren dis . agreeing all are from contending.for 

wt ^ a 1^ :i m ^ ^^^ 

dis^oi 'hi kin\ ttb shi^ fing" -Id ip^d tiky wd^. 

property arise, [or], all are from-hearin^ wives *8 words. 



/^ 



176 EXERCISKS IN TRANSLATING. 



These wives 's talk, still not is iiL4tll respects destilnte-ctf 

td* ^1% tiki;ching^ tyan wai^ tfd tiky shut^ tod^y^yd^yau tsi 

reason; truly. because their talk, still has a-little 

^a « r^ ^ r- ^^m m 

Hi ii; pin} pat> ichi paty kSky tiky fing^ tswif 

reason; consequently unconsciously unawares heard entersd 

M. Tsau' d tsd^ 'sd 'tsz' tiky^ Uung" M tkd 
^-in. Suppose one-who-is sister-in-law, towards [the] elder, brother 

m 'K ^ a .t. Jt # m z^m « 

shutyf ^sid shaky a Hsam <m6 yiung^ ^Idth Hs<m.t7nd ySung^ <fd 
says, our-little-uncle [is] so-and-so fashion idle, so-and-so fashion spends 

it^in» ^Ni \8an Ksan ^fu ^fd tiky tchang it^in ^yhmg dti ck^uki 
money. You laboriously painfully obtain money feed support 

i&m m ^ M M m m^m^ 

tfd^swdn shutf ich^tung^ td^ Hun; sndn id^ ^ngd imdn sW 
him, still he-calls this-lon^^ says that-is-short ; cannot say we aie 

%m ^ ^ m f at* m ^ 

<fd tiky it Hsz\ siky [fd, tkoi <t6ng hdt^ shun^ tfd 

his son, [his] daughter-in-law, proper ought dutifully obey kim 

tiky md? 

m ^ A f. ^ if -ffi. t »^ a 16 la 

^Nd kd^ thing tai^ siky ^fd^ ^yd %d hiung* thing tcd^ shuty .• 
That younger-brother's wife, also knows towards him - talk : 

m * W ff ^ # M 1^> -*. ^ ii- 

Tsad*' sii^ M M ^di <chang sfe*tn, hit ^yd ^ckang kwd* 
Let-it be-that elder-brother is-able collect money, you also have-collected 

^in; %i UoH^ Jed Hu yaty tpdn i% tsd^ ich^^ung^isd^ Hun; 
money; you in the-£unily same degree doing long, doing short; 

it ^ nii -t X m>^ WE «-» 

tsdu^ shi^ kd^ kd^ ich*itmg ikung, ^yd mdti ^yau ch6* 4fpdn ild 
'■ if you^were hired one servant, even not have this degree toil 

■^ m %' ^ w^ * a ji i^ ^ 

*/m tiky. cP*fii ifd tiky iwd Hsz^ tsau^ shi^ iwd 'tst* ; 
kbor. Partial-to his own children foithwith are-as children; 



EXERCISES IN TRANSLATING. 177; 

buy this to-eat, buy that ta«at; shaU-I-not say our 

tiki ttoA H9z\ tsau^ <td sW tkoi ^sz* tiky ^md? 
own children, straightway all are ought to-die eh ? 

mmM^mm ^ n ^ ^ m q 

CM' nM^ ^piin tiky shiUyi y>d\ Jcam yati ^yau <8i, iming yati 
Sueh.«s this kind of talk, to - day have a.little, to - morrow 

^yatf <«^, foiy ^yau Ud} tkd ti im6n^t^**^ing* pcsty tsun^ hi^. 
hwre vlittle, not let those husband s' hearing not impress. 

fig Jfc IHC^ Ji 1h 6^ i6 ^ IP ^Jft 

%T^vng Wz^pin} ^Atai^ thing sUfn/An tiky tsamsfih^iung *id ^l&ng tdrn^ 
From this then to (ace.) the . brother s* affections all cool weaken 

T'^T - - 9 6^ « ^ m^n 

ha^ Jfii Hiik; yaty yati yaty yati tiky itsUn U^au\ pin^ cM^ ci- 
piopoad ; each day each da}» *s increase addition, then even to 

Hd hd^ i^' ndu^. n^^ukypaty tchi td- ia^ thing xmiift 
fighting wrangling. Really not reflect brethren 

^•^ - Wi A 

. gfta «Ai^ yaty kd' . tyan. 
ongjaally were one individual. 

m-j^ m ^ m ^ m ^ ^ » 

Tsm^ shi^ ikd tkd ijnd ^mng tse, tsd^ thing tai^ 
Suppose is elder brother without ability somewhat,, being younger brothev 

^ » ?s « %%ji m t ^^ 

^i' i^yiwi^ ati eh^ukitfdj ^yd shi\ <koi ttdng tiky. tHing\^' 
.'. nurturing supporting fam, also is proper ought.- Younger 

^ # 1& !i t *# 6^ m mm 

tail ''■ i'"^ i'nang^ «»^> tsd^ tk6 M tiky ^y^unjgf Uti chaik^ 
brother without ability rather, being elder brotiier nurturing supporting 

texi^ ^* ir ii 6^ it^ -- ^ m^ 

if Of ^yd 9W tkoi ttdng tiky. Pm^ «W* yaty ^hi Jean ^yau 
hinij, -also is- proper ought. If is- any occasion whilst thei^^kto'i 

^ II '1 pa IS p.; ^ |fe#:T 

c5^' thdn iin ^hdn ^ii, ehat% tdn^ «ed ima^ Wi^ \ 

some uiweeming words unbecoming E^ecfaes, only, consider rhinr drtmken 

^ ^ m -» m m h % i m t 

ifdAjj sW ihxAy^ mung^ wd\ pm^ tdi^ ,kd sd^ thai ^Mi 

or.as-if are spoken dreaming telk, then all- QlifcimsQ»tteE.it away ^uite. { 



178 EXERCISES IN TRANSLArrNC. 



m ^ mm ^ t ii^m "^ ^7^ 

Obfltinately.beht to.regardit sincere, compare [you] to two handi; right 

^ m ^^ ^ ^ 1 ^ ^ ^m 

hand extols its ability to-perform, writing characters only is its, 

*r * # ^fe J^iife # ^ # mm m . 

*<d «M«* sip* tin *yd shi^ ^fd, ttid dung tnd tsai tiky M^ 
reckoniiig-on abacus only is its, take that take this 's o^y 

Mitm !t2fe^ ^ ^ 6^ mm 

ski* <fd: ch& ckiky ^AR)^^^ti tsau^ pan^ tiky 'kan: mHii 
is its : this left hand indeed stupid *s exceedingly : iio-Jon<9 

Cli M. A # :^ ¥ * fr &f « 

*yau fmg* kin* iyan tnd yau^ ^shau hff Hd Hsd ^shau tiity 

has heard seen man raising right hand went-about beating left hand. 

Yaly k6^ tkd si Mng tai^^ d^an tU^an tiky ^shau tsuky^ ^u 
An elder brother younger brother, nearly related [as] hands feet, what 

^ ^ -^ Wi m # ^I - *g 

shS xchang ich^^ung lup} Hun? ^Ni ^siung yaty ^s^ng.^ 
reason wranglcabout long talk-about shtnrt ? D6.you reflect one thought. 

^ H^ St ii fs * ±jii* 7 m 

iNgan Hsz^ its^in, shi^ H^Sng Jm tchi mati; hff HiH gtodn 

[As to] silver money, it-is circuitously coming »8 thing ; gone again 

^yau ihi tiky ^Ld ip^S iinun tfd paiy iW6 ^ngd shi^ yaty kS* 
has return. Our-wives they not with us have sanie 

^ ^ ifk # ^ m t j^ 1 « De R 

^^Id Hsz' in^ng, ^d <chi t^ sham^ m6 td^ Hi <nf1 Chaiy 
"father mother, they understand' what proper feelings eh? Only 

«i& £ ffl 7p ^ t "^wm^ 

.k&* tai^ thing' imUm paiy' ^wd; tsd^ ' fH^ ^md tiky^ 

observe brothers disagreeing; those. who-are '■ parents, 

^> « 4. m ^^ K t # ^?^ fT tf- 

pity iin tshang hi\ ^Ni chaty hdn^ ^ni si Hsz* itniin Hd 
undoubtedly excites feeling. You' judt observe your children's fightl ' ' 

m^^ *<i 1 tS ^ W ffr « ftk . # ^ ^ 

kdiy^i isaih Hu *n^ pat^ ^nd? 'Sh6 H ted* hdu* Hsz' tiky • 
ingr yoiur heart in angry not angry? Therefore being dtttiful son 'a 

AS M * T^ ^ %% n. W 

sj/ww, tsoi* rnUti ^yau paiy ^wd ^mi tai^ thing tiky, 
penH>ns, still-more not are dig - cordant brothers. 



EXERCISES IN TRANSLATING. 179 

ffi: mmt^n n s; i # « m i^ 

Tmki ^u shut^ Uk> 'Ad; 'T& ffH iwdn takytU^ an thing tai*; 
ComnKNi proverbs my well : Attacking tiger still obtain own brotheis ; 

± » 1 a ^3^ iF ^ X mm *f 

^Sh^ung chan^ jtwin tsU fii} Hsz^ <P^^' You* ^Aitf* td^: ^Hd 
Advancing battle still require uithers sons* soldiers. Also it-is-said : Good 

^ 7 ^m K^$^^ J ^ n ^ ^ 

shdty 'M sW ,f& iyan;wdi^ shdU Htu shi^ tsz*^ 'H. Yau^ 
'surpassingly [still] is stranger; bad surpassingly [still] is myself. Again 

m M ^ ^T-^ ^ A m p.m 

shuii ^S i.Hvng tai^ paty iWd ip^6ng lyan Jit, Chaty kff 
it48.«aid, Brothers disagreeing by.standcrs despise. Just notice 

^ n # PI tl t % ^^^i^l^m 

*n% itniin ichang Jtdn Ai\ tsau^ ^yau ^yan Joi <ftu is6^ni itniin^ 
your quarreling trifling anger, then arc men come stir.up vilify you, 

tfrtin tau^ ^ni imun tiky shi^ ifi; xodki shi^ tau* 'oil, 
talebearing jrpur rights wrongs ; either arise fightings, 

^^ n t n ^^ ]x ^ m T^^ 

lodki shi^ Hd Jcdn ^sz\ Tsoi* miiti ^yau kd^ paty pdi^ 
or are make lawsuits. Certainly none thcre.are of-these not ruin 

m m ^^ n ^ ^ # «i >^ t p^ 

*kd tiky. ^Ni sXniin yiuki shi^ hdu^ shun^ ^yau d* ^ni? 
the.family. You perhaps are dutifully filial brotherly affectionate ? 

^ R mm^ m ^ m ^ ^ 



Tsd^ iTTum tiky its^oi ski^ J^ng ^man; tsd^ <ping tik% 
Those. who-are people then will.be good people ; those. who-are soldiers 

m M ^^ m ^ 

it^oi «Ai* 'hd Hdn' Hsz\ 
'then will-be brave Chinese. 

Tdn^ shi^ ^ni tping iinan ifnun, ^nd yaty k& pcUy <chi td^ 
But he.i8*of.you soldiers people all, who is-one individual not know 

# m ^ ^ ^^ ^ n ^ ^ ^n 

hdu^ shun^ sM^ ^hd w'S tai^ thing imdn i,w6 *mt shi^ *Ad 
' filial obedience is good thing, brothers harmonizing is good 

#2*' 7. K? iin tchi 16^ shOty 'hd, wai^ sham} ttnd paty At? 
' thing ? ' Already know speaks well, for what not go-about 

M '»1^ * ^ 6^ i: 1^ 'h % f^ L^ 

shati tsam, shati liki tiky tsd^ 6* 1 Pity ting^ tsam tsam 
upright heart hpnest zeal to.do eh ? Indlspensible heartily 



100 



eX^RC^SES IN TRAN8|:.ATING' 





iia» iVL^ iv*^ 
meditate-uppn remember 

elegant external 's 

cA'm* ; 'pai'i iu* *chi 
matters; not need only 

not need previously well, 

Tt. 5I * * fl<J 

ste^ shi^ tchan ichan tiky 
manner is verily of.a 



X n ^ ^ :^ * * 

fA^ ^md thing taiK Pat, i4' Jtuidng 
paeenta brothers. Not ref^iam polity 

t. T-^ ^. nl^ T /I- 

ii itnan; pat* W fat, liuki ^lid *#i& 
gentility ; not need disregard small 

m ^Y A 6^ ^ s 

ifd ng<n} syan tik% Jiu idling; 

plan.for observer s' empty reputation; 



EI It ^ ^ 13^ T m 

H hay,^ yau^ pal, 'hd ^Uu. Che 
subsequently also not well. Tins 

^ =^ % %^i jl^ 

hdu^ Hs2\ tchan tchan tiky ^hd 
filial son, truly of affectionate 



^ it 

tai^ thing* 
brothers. 

# ^ ^ ^ # -^ &^£ifrT- 

*M yiuki shi^ pat, hdu^^ wdki shi^ tai^ thing tmun pat. 
You if are un • dutiful, or are brothers who-cannot 



fP t ^ * fl i^ ^ ^T la 

iVdi tsau^ iu* s,nd fying fdU ^Mu chi^ Hiu; tdn^ 

agree, then necessary to-arrest punish legally in-order tccorrect; but.if 

ti^^uv*;^^ m ^ U^^ Ji ff ^ 

%i tsam Hu pat, ^ming pdki, ^Mu ^ni ^yd lihi^ Hodng tin. 
fovLT heart in not understand, regard you still as-being perverse indeed. 






Mdn' 



sut' 



sye 



i6 « T- ^. 0r la R 

tsam Hii paty ^yan^ ^sh6 H 'f^n 



Ten-thousand years grandfather's heart in cannot bear-it, therefore pigain 



E m m m m m ##ipi t _ 

*fdn fuky fuJcy tiki hun^ kd^ ^ni. ^Ni ifnun ^hcmg fin^ 
again this way that way ' exhorts admonishes you. You willing to-hear 

n M M ^ u A^ §im ^ ^ 

mdn^ sui^ iV^ <*^> v^d^y ^o.i^ <«« ^d- k6\ hdu* *ftMj* 
his imperial majesty *8 words, altog^ether be those obedient children 

' fe 16 T-ia- ^ T^ m ^ k 

tai^ tai^y paty tdn^ yaty t^hang paty fdn^ fijty^ Mau^ 

affectidnate brothers, not only one generation not transgress laws, but-then 

%^^ =^ m "^ % ^ m^ w "f 

^ni tiky it Hsz\ tsun Hsz% ^yd hdh ho' 'hd ytung^ Hsz\ 
▼our own children grandchildren, also learn this good example. 



EXERCISES IN TRANSLATING. 181 

Ttuki Hed shvtytik> ^hd: Hdu^ shun^ gtodnisTiangMu^ shun} 
Commoii proverb says well: The-dutiful obedient also bear dutiful obedient 

**«'; ^*ng yiki jtcdn ^y^ung ^^ng yiki ji. ^Kwd 
ohildxen; undatiful obstinate also bring-up undutiful obstinate children. Undoubted. 

ffH ^ T ^ ^ ^^^ ^ % 

M ^tgz' Hs%' <sun <8un itd shi^ hdu^ tsz^ tea} 
ly-wlien children grandchildren all are filial children affectionate 

tfotS ' ct*tii ha} tsoi^ miUi ^yau paty fdi} ip^ing tiki. 
iMTothers, the^mpire will bj.no. means be not profoundly peaceful. 

i^ ni^ ^ »i^ % n n T^'^ 

^Ni iiniin dd chiuki shati tiky tsd^ ; mdn^ mdn} pat> ^h6 
You all cau8e.it strenuously performed; on.no-account not may 

Ik ^ 't^ ^ % m iaf= 

h6fC ted* isMvng t}d^ ; M fii} shing* Hsb ^Yan 
Tegard.a8 being common needles^; criminally oppose sacred ancestor Pious 

^ ^ - >t ^ 'tl^ P^ 

twimg iai} yaty ^irC shing^ tsam 6\ 
imperial sovereign's single desire overflowing heart. 




No. IX. — Proper Education op Children.* 

(I. B.^n aE 1^ 1 ») 
r^ M^ ^ n m 

'Kau paty kau\ sing* -nai ttsHn: 

If not educate, nature then deteriorates: 

. kdu* 4chi to- J kwai^ H <chun. 

of«ducation 's rules, foremost is application. 

^Y&ung ching^ ccM toai^ Jid? Wai^ ^nang kdu^ ^yd* iYan tfi 
. TraiiL-up coireStly them is.called what ? Is.callcd ability tcteach A-man not 

^ A^ tfe ^ *D # m T- M 

shing* iyan^ *At ifuoig <shang <ch%? tFi ds^an paty yuki, 
a.sage man,, how. - can.he-be naturally wi^e? Without parents not rear. 

, » ■ ■ I ■ ■' ■• ■ ■■• ._ 

* This and the two next extracts are taken from the Sdm Ts%* King or 
Trimetrical Classic, a hornbook in use in Chinese schools, which is put into 
the hands of the lad to commit tp memory as SQon as ho commences his 




182 EXERCISKS IN THANSLATlNO. 

# ik ^ ^ % ^ iiT- t m 

ifi kdtC fati iShing. ^Yau Hsz^ ji paly kdu*, tsak> 
witnoat teaching not perfect. Having a.son but not teaching, this-tlien 

«c^x t^ z ^ w n m 

mai^ i¥t tfin /t/' <chi iUung; piii^ Hi^ is^ung* 

bedims that heaven conferred 's goodness ; [by] transgressing propriety^fcdlowing 

'4k B m T yf- m ^ ft Z 1^ 

yuki yati ds^in <u pa/> shtn^ H, Kdu* <cM Jid 
passionSf daily advances in wickedness truly. Instructing them what 

^ t Mm A ^ m ^T^ m^ 

iu? ^KH ^ch6 ^fu ipan ^yau tshan; ts6^ paty tp^in^ ng6^ 
like? Ancient the females when^were pregnant; sat not awry, slept 

x^ fii ±y^ 8^ n n r^ n. ^ n 

' pati chaky, lapi paty ^6 % Jwng paty lun^ V^j mukx 

nbt on.ride, stood not on-one-Ieg leaning, walked not mincing steps, eyes 

petty sM^ 6ky sTdky, H paty fing* ipam tshing^ paty ch^viy Itrn^ 

not 'See wicked sights, ears not hear jarring sounds, not utter indiscreet 

-n y[> t M * ^ ft .t* * 

iin^ paty shiki its^i miS isMung Jiang ichung hau* ^yau ^ 
words, not eat impure tastied-things, always performed faithful filial friendly 

t m m z m 1^ 'i^ ^ ^ m 

0? its^z^ iliung tchi sz^^: ^tjodng ^w6ng ^shang Hsz^ d^nug 

affectionate merciful good 's actions: constantly bore sons clever 

W t. t W t. M A 1% ^ ^ 

f,ming it^oi chi^ jirt taky kw& syon, *T«*2j'mi^ <8hcmg 
intelligent talented wise good \ virtuous surpassing men. This-wks un -bom 

Z f^ M ^ 

tchi <foi'kdi^ *yd. 
's uterine instruction. 

^Tsz^ iUang shiki, kdu* H yav} ^shau; inang iin, mati ^sz* 
'Son* able ' to-eat, was4aught to-use right haild; able to-talk, disaHty^ed 

m m^ jt ft /^ jg *• ± rm 

Ma ishing; ifiang ihang, W <chi' sz''\ if 6ng sTi&ang^ hd^; spang 
whining tone; able fo-walkj caused to-know fouj' points -^enith nadir ;aSIe 

j , \\\ M t ' ' ' ' — : • : ^ > > ■ ■ ■ I ■ . ■•■" " ' ' . '■■'■■ ^ ■' " 

studies. Like the preceding extract, these consist of a text and commen- 
tary, bat not in so colloquial and familiar a style ; the line at tl^e head is the 
•text, the'sefitences following are the commentary of Wong P^khau, and afford 
<good examples of the style and manner of Chinese scholars in amplifyinjg 
i and explaining their standard w.orks« J. "^ 

1 



K 



EXERCISES IN TRANSLATING. 183 

M^ n n m n t i»: m ^ 

yap>, h&ii^ H Hai ytung^ iUtm Mun. ^Ts^z' <d ^d 
to-bow,. taught td.be polite obliging honoring parents. This- was nurse 

^ l^i:t'« € ^ *^ *f jf j^ 

^md shi^ AiM kdu' ^yd. Chi' tu 'shd sd' ying* 
.woman 's . tutelage. With regard-to sprinkling sweeping responding 

m M M Z M II ^ It ^ 

tA^ tsun' fui* tcht UiU^ ^lai ngoki sM*^ u^ 

repiying entering retiring *8 observances, etiquette music archery charioteering 

ijshu shd* ichi itnan^ ^t^z* fv} tw' ccAt kdu' ^yd. 

writing arithmetic 's accomplishments, these. were father tutor *s instruction. 

iFn kdu' tchi tchi <dS you} kwai^ tsol^ tchun sX 
Truly instructing them *8 principles, verily foremost is-in application and 

^ # II :^ II fl'J ^ 1 ;« t 

imd kwr^ ; l^oi^ paiy <chun tsaky h6ki iUdn ishing tsau^. 
-without weariness ; for-if not ' diligent, then education is-hard to-complete. 

fi :^. m 1- ^ ^ % 4¥ m 

Kvn^ ^ttS tsaky ^isz* yik> fai^ ich*t; tfi kdu* 

Listlessly instructing, then lad still-more loses opportimity, not instruction 

t. # ii -tfe 

ichi shin} td^ ^yd. 
*8 commendable principles. 




No. X. — Necessity of Instruction. 

3i 1^ W T> $ 

Yuki paU teiikyj paty tshing 

Gem not wrought, un - serviceable thing ; 

A ^ ^ % ^ p 

xyan paty hdhy paty xhi t^. 

m^n un - taught, ignorant-of rectitude. 






I'^ [meians] reasonable rectitude. Rites Bbok-of, in-Lea^iing Record^ says. Gem 

r^ n yf f^ ^ a^ m t^-^ m 

paty tiuky^ paty iShing hi' ; iyan paty hdkiy paty tchi to^, 
r un • wrought, unserviceable thing ; man un > taughtj ignorant-of reason. 



184 EXERCISUS IN TRANSLATING. 

81% ^^;?^^^ M ^ A 

Although have beautiftil gem, not cftnred nor groand, in . cmtoyMe 

^ #j S*J * 0r W j§ A »5& § 

utensU thing, then without any use. Likewise a-man, although has 8ii|»eriiMr 

j^:^. m ^ m w]:^ ^ ^ M m 

parte, not diligently learn inquire, then not can k*iow re«8Q«i i«<stitiidB 

M % ^ ^^ii ^Aife 

td^ taky. iChung paty ^hd wcd^ tsUng ifan ^d. 
propriety virtue. To-the-Iast unable to-be-called accompttshed^mair. 



No. XI. — Instance op Filial Duty. 

f jL n ^ ta n 

tHeung 'kau dingy ^Mmg xwdn tsiki; 

H6ung wheB.niHe years, could warm the-mait; 

$ M u m t m 

hdu' tii ds^auy 'sho dong chapy. 

dutifulness to parents what should-be maintained. 



Pdkyhang^ tchi'^shcmf H hck^ itoai <8iih tch^6 hdki cc/ki 
Of.all action s' h«ad regard, filial-duty as. chief, the-beginning to-learn *8 

± ^ ^ T- ^^ "W ^0#^ 

52'S paly ■ ^hb paly tchi ^yd. 8ik>, H6n^ isJii, ^yau 
scholar, not admissable ignorant.of. Anciently, H6n*s tiine, was [in] 

<K6ng hd^jiWdng'iH^ui^r^inin *kau sw^^ tsiky <chi hdu* cu 
K6ngh&, Wong H^ung; aged nine years, eten knew to-be-filial to 

its* an, ^Mui <t6ng ha} yat^y ' spn iU ^chi tshU tsaky 

parents. Whenever i^ummer tipie, e^ccessivelyr hot ■ *s " period, then 

sMri^ fii^ , ^md tchi ^wai cMwn^ ; ^sz' ^cham tsiki dsying J^ungy 
fanned father mother *s bed-curtains '^ ipaking pillows mat fresh cool, 

^ mm m n # m± ^ m 

itnan yiii^ ^un pl\ H to? . it^an kcM i6n ^isanu 

musketbcs gnats away flying, and-thus waited-till parent s* quietly slept. 



EXERCISES IN TRANSLATING. 185 




W lU itung yati iim ihdn^ tsaky H tshan <wan ^niin 
ing to winter day*8 severe cold,^then with body nicely warmed 

\ M z^ m ^ $ yj. ^4 m z 

i <ts^<m ichi tk^am icUau ^cham tsiki^ H toi^ d^an Kchi 

9 parent s* coverlet pillow mat, and- thus waited.till parent s* 

I » i^ M n ^ ^ vc m ^ 

m ngd^ Yau^ ti Jiang hdu^ iii Wz\ tsui itoan 
nly slept. Young and act filially like this, although called 

K '^ ^. A "fZ ^ ^ n 

'in singly an ipan Hsz\chi td^. <Fan ting^ 
^nly disposition, still-is man child 's principles. In-evening wish-repose, 

I ^' ^ A K >» ^H 

han ^sing, dung twan, ha} tsing^, ^lai 

>minginquire-health, in-winter warm,. in-summer cool, [arc] propriety's 

^nsable-requiremcnts. 

No. XII. — Doctrines of Mencius.* 

^ ^ I- % % i 

Man^ 'tsz* kin' ^Leung Wat- swong: 

MeiKjius waited-on L6ung's Wai king: 



^^. ^ m m ^' ^ itR A 

ung Wai^ iWdng, Ngai^ Jiau ,Ying ^yd; db Tdi 
i^s Wai king, [was] Ngai's earl Ying; buiU-court-in Great 

^ f^ ^ i i^ ^ ' ^ PE 

Hmg.ts^W ,chHng iw6ng; shV- vti WaiK 'Sz' Ki\ 

ing, assumed to-be-called a-king ; deceased called Wai. Historical Record 

.€£H+2l^ ^ If jp 

Wai^ iwSng ,sam shap, ''ng ,nin, ,pi ^kii hau" 

78], Wai king's thirty . fifth year, [employed] respectful invitation valuable 

it^ H ,chiu dn 'cM; ,i Mang^ .(T . chi' d^inff. 
jents m-order to-mvite the-worthy ; wherefore Mang 0' went-to L6ung. 

^ This is a single and continuous extract from the commeucement of the 
6ungMang J^ -^ or -First part of th6 Discourses of Mencius ; the 
nmentary of ChO futsz' immediately follows the text, the two being distin. 
shed by a different size of English type. 



186 EXERCISES IN TRANSLATING. 

3E H ^ Jt =f- ■ M iia * 

c W6ng iitiy 'Sau paU 'tin ttsHn Hi a JXn^ 

King said, Honored-sit, not teg&rd-far thousand miles still come, 

^' » ^ n %\ ? @ f 

yik^ ttsSung -yau H If itig kwoh suf 

also presently have that-which will-benefit my country eh? 



Sau [is] respectable old *s appellation. King that-which calls benefit, 

^ ^ ® ^S J^ ^ ^ 

ft*oi* /i!2' ktvdky, il^iung ^ping <cM lui^, 
ii to-enrich country, inspirit soldiery 's sort. 




Mang^ 'tsz* tui' ilUy cWong Jio pit, ilU 

Mencius replied saying, Your-majesty why must speak-of 

m * ^ f- ^ ifn £ ^ 

Z?, yiki ^yau ^yan f- d H H. 

benefit, rather-also have philanthropy justice and stop-there. 

iYan ^chi tsam tchi tak^^ oi^ <chi Hi; f* ich6 

Philanthropy this [is] heart 's virtue, love s' principle; justice this [is] 

iij^ Z M <^ ;^ !i! 4 !«: ri ^ 7^ 

iSam iChi cha^y sz'^ ichi ii ^yd. 'Ts^z' i^ kii' ^ndi 
heart *b regulator, business *8 equity. These two sentences are 

- ^ Z 9t }^ r- IfiV) W -m 

yati ichiung kcM tdi^ ^chi; ha} itnan Hidi iU^^Hg tin 
whole chapter 's leading topics", subsequent text then clearly explains 

z ^ ^ m ^ 

iChi. Hav} iid fdng Hs^z\ 
them. Afterwards many imitate this. 



i. m n m ^ m -k ^ 

. W6ng uU, ,H6 H 19^ ^ng kwok, ? Tdi' .fd, 

rlf]-king says, How can benefit my kingdom? [If ]-high ministers 

B ^ n m ^ ^ i ^ A 

iitij iH6 'I li^ sng MA? Sz^- shiT cyan 

say, How can benefit my family ? [If ]-scholars common people 



( 



KXGRCfSES IN TRANSLATING. 187 

B ^nm ^ ^ ± r ^ u 

Utij <H6 H If' ifig iShan? Sheung' kdr Jiau tching 

say, How can benefit my self? [The]-high low reciprocally strive -for 

m m m £ ^ n m ± m 

It' J ii kw6k, aigai H. Man- shing^ xhi kw6k,y 

benefit, and the-country endangered. Myriad chariots 's kingdom, 

^ t: n ^^ »sb ^ m 

$h¥ ckH Awan 'che^ pity dsHn shing^ 

conspire-against its prince person, certainly.wilUbe thousand chariot 

z w^ ^ m z m H ^ ^ 

tchi Jia; dsHn shing- xhi kw6k,, shV Jc^i Jcwan 

a^ head; thousand chariot s' state, conspire-against its ru- 

^chiy pity pdky shing- xhi <kd. Man- 'ts^U 

ler, certainly-will-be hundred chariot s' head. In-myriad to-get 

dsHn iiny ds^in 'ts^ii pdky My paU iWai paty <t6 

a-thousand, in-thousand to-get a-hundred, not is inconsiderable 

^^^ ^ m m ± ^ 

H. Kau swai kau- i\ ^i sin If-j 

indeed. If regard secondarily right, and primarily advantage, 

pat^ tiiti paty im\ 

not seized [will-be] not satiated. 

^ % A ¥^ z m n ^"^ }L 

*T«*2j' ixn Jc^au W tchi hoi^^ H iining shiung^ 

This speaks-of seeking advantage *8 injury, in-order-to explain preceding 

■^ ^ ^ B M Zt. ^ 'i£ M ^ 

stnan, iH6 pity vh li^ <cht i* ^yd, <Ching Hs^u ^yd, 

text, "Why must [you] speak-ofbencfil'-' 's meaning. CAin^ [means] obtain. 

.t mf T T M ^ ± tk ^ 

SMung^ 'ts'ii iU MS W Vu ^ii sMung\ kti^ iiti 
Superiora get from inferiors, inferiors get from superiors, therefore terme'H 

^ 'iiE m ^ m ^ ^ u ^ 

tkdu iching. Kwbky itigai wai^ ds^ung^yau shv" tMi 
reciprocal striving. State endangered speaks-of about having conspiring seizing 

zm ^ f- ^ ^ n ^ zm^ 

iCM w6^> Shing* M shd' ^yd. Man} shing^ tchi Jtwdky 'ch^^ 
>g eyil. Shing chariot classifier. IVCyriad chariot s* ttato a, 



188 EXERCISES IN TRANSLATING. 

^ ^ S ^ ^ ^ ^ M '|i5 * 

dHn Hsz' <k% rm\ ti^ ,f6ng ^ dsHn . ^li\ eh'ut, kJcu 
emperor's dominions in, land squares . thousand miles, furnish chariots 

m m ^ m:t m^ ^"^ ±^ m 

mdn^ shing^, tTs^in shing^ tchi tied ^cM, <fin Hsz* <cki Jcung Jiing^ 
myriad ones. Thousand chariot s* family a, emperor *8 lordly minister 

f: ^ ^ w m ^^ $ ^ il ifi. 

gpranted land squares hundred miles, furnishes chariots thousand ones. 

<Ts^in shing^ ichi kwdh^ <chu Jiau ichi kw6h: pdh sMng- cchi 
Thousand chariot s* state, [is] nobleman *s coimtry : hundred chaciot s' 

* ^ m z ^^^^ T ^ 

tkd, ccAu_ ihau <chi tdi^ ifu ^yd» Shi* ha} shcUy 

family, [is] nobleman *8 chief man. Sk{ [means] inferior killing 

±. ^m ^ ^B ^ z^ ^ ^ 

sh^ng^ ^yd; im' tsuh ^yd. iTn ^shan <.chi cii ikwari, ^mui 

superior ; im [means] enough. Speaks-of minister *s from prince, every 

+ ^ M ^ ^ -^ ^ # e ^ ^ . 

shapi ifun ^i Wii ikH ycUy tfun, yiki H - d6 *i, 
tenth part and obtains his single part, also already-has much indeed. • 

^ % n -s %, \k m n %^\ m 

Y^uki yau^ H i* iV)ai hau^j si H Ji^ iwai 

If [he] still regards right as secondary, and regards advantage as 

jt m r- ^^ ^ ^ m m m 

csin, tsaky paU sh%* ik^i <kwan si tsun^ tuti 

primary, then not conspire-against his prince and completely subvert 

Zt:'0^ t ^^ ^ j£ til 

ichh il^i tsammi^ ^hang H ^wai tsuky ^yd» 
him, his heart unwilling to be satisfied. 



^ % t: ffii 1 * ^ 

Mi' ^yau tyan^ a cwai JcH ds^an 

Never was-there a-philanthropist, and discarded his parents 

ti^# W pit ^t #ife 

^M -yd: rni' -yau ? S haur Jc^i Jcwan -che -ya. 

person : never was-there a-just, and neglected his prince p<erspn. 



^ n <- 1 * t T> m )hK 

Ts^z^ , iin syan i^ mi- ^sh^ng pat> /i'-, H 

This speakf^-of philanthropy rectitude neyer without advantage, in-ordfer 



EXERCISES IN TRANSLATING. 189 

m ± X t- ^ c ® ffij e 

sfning sh^ung^- iinan yiki ^yati syan i^ ^i H 

tOL«xplain precedin|^ text "also possess philanthropy rectitude and enough** 

z % ^ ^ m ^ ^ ^ ^Tic-m 

ccAi t' *ytt. iWai iyan hu^ ^yd, Hau^ pdU kap> ^yd. 
'8 meaning. . Wai samcas discard. Hau [moans] not hasty. 

m p ^ .^^ t R n m^'h % 

It-means philanthropist will love his parents, just man will diHpatch-for 

* f i!ijc A ft ^ ^t f- ^ rfij 

sk^i <kwan, hi* gyan <kiaan ikung Juing syan V, ^i 

his prince, therefore thcprince himself act benevolently justly, and 

fe ^ n -Z. .U^ H'JJt -f ^ 

^vib Jc^au li^ ichi <sam, Uaky ^l^i hd^ fd* 

not.having seek.for advantage *s disposition, then his inferiors are-trana. 

z n %% n.ikt. ^ 

ichi. Tsz""- tts^an tm* lii ^ki ^yd. 

fonned.by him. From parents [they] go-on to themselves. 



tWdngyiki uU ofan i- J -i H: 

[If]-king alsospeaks-of philanthropy rectitude and stop-there: 

cA(J pity iity I?- ? 

why * must [you] speak -of advantage? 





t Z &. ^ ±. % 

iCUung iin <cht H kity shiung- iman ^liuvg Utty 

Again speaks-of them in-order.to connect preceding text's two sentences 

± f: ^ t t ^ S #<;^ Aiti^ 

^chi f . *Ts*«' <ch6wig iin i,yan i^ Jean tw syan isam 

*8 meaning. This section speaks-of philanthropy right, rooted in human heart 

±.0 M n m z^ '^ m i6 

<cAi hd* -you, <fin> ^li tchi ^kung ^yd. Li^ iSam^ 

's fixed possessions, [are] heavenly reason *s justness. Covetous desires, 

^ f^^^Z ^ f^ A '4k ZM^ 

tshang <M 7nati ^ngd i,chi ^s^ung « iying, ^yan yuki <ch{ tsz^ 

springing from things my *s mutual attraction, [are] human desire s' selfish- 

^ m "K m wir^ ^ *ij m g 

syd. iTs^un t^in ^U, tsaky paly sJ^au li-, ^i tsz*^ 

ness. Following heavenly reason then not seeking advantage, still himself 




190 EXERCISES IN TRANSLATING, 

* ^ *lMi A ^ III /It ^ * 

iind pati U^ : its^un syan yuki<, tsaki i¥au W mi^ tak%i 
withoat disad^rantage : following human desires j^then seeking advantage not obtain, 

ffijW£li;^Rfr li % M Z, 

i% hoi^ H ii^ui ichi; ^sh6 toai^ Jid ill tchi 

still injury already follow it ; is-what may-be-called hair-breadth *8 

m "f !i ± m ^ ^ ^Z 

tts'z' its' in m ,chi mduK 'Ts'z' Mang^ Hsz' tcM 

difference [causing] thousand mile s* mistake. These Menciu iP 

m ^ y:x '^ m ^t i^ z 

ishu, 'shd H tsd^ dun fdk, tchH ^cM 

writings, [are] what whereby form thcprincipal educe thcbeginning tf 

tsham f * ; hdki ^ch^ ^ah6 ^i dsing' ch'dt> «» fining 

deep meaning; learner what ought intelligently examine and oleariy 

m ^ 

pin} ^yd. 

discriminate. 

These lessons will exhibit to some extent the idioms and the gramv* 
Tnatical construction of sentences in the language, and if learned 
thoroughly will not fail to prove of material assistance in reading 
Chinese generally. It will be found to be a good practice for the 
beginner to make a literal rendering of such papers or exercises as 
are to be translated, somewhat in the manner of these lesaonst un^il 
he has acquired very great facility in expressing the sense of the 
original in an English dress : this plan will show better than almost 
any other the force of every word in it. It will perhaps seem like 
slow progress to the scholar, who is impatient to advance, and to rea^ 
many books ; but he does not here require to be told that the quickest 
progress is really that which is the surest, which leaves nothing behind 
half learned and half understood, acquirements which are soon half 
forgotten, and almost wholly useless for all practical purposes of reading 
or writing. The practice of committing the original to memory has 
already been suggested (page 62), and it is attended with so many ad- 
vantages, that it is deserving of trial. Pr^mare goes so far as to recom- 
mend the student to commit to memory the whole of the Four Books, 
and his attainments in Chinese give to his opinion of its advantages 
no small weight. 



EXERCISES IN TRANSLATING INTO GUINESK. 191 

e'^&9UV Nintlft. 

EXERCISES IN TRANSLATING. 

INTO CHINESE. 



-The design of this volume does not include many exercises in trans- 
lating English into Chinese, for that part of the student's education, 
requires particular rules and examples, not only under the different parts 
of speech, but also for individual characters. It should not, however, 
be omitted altogether, but attempts should be made, as soon as a mo- 
derate number of characters has been learned, to form them into sen- 
tences. In this exercise, the natural way, or that in which children 
learn to talk^ will perhaps soonest give facility to the foreigner iti 
expressing his tlioughts in Chinese ; let him imitate those about him 
as closely as he can, copy their modes of expression, at first writing his 
sentences just as he would utter them ; and he will soon be able to mold 
his thoughts to some extent in their style when he wishes to put them 
on paper. This practice of imitation, however, from various obstacles, 
p&rtly resulting from his already -fixed habit of thinking, and partly 
from his imperfect freedom and intimacy with the people themselves, 
ivill be but slowly acquired. But let him not be discouraged because 
his first attempts at speaking and writing are awkward, nor displeased 
because the people have so little manners and sympathy as to laugh 
at his ill expressed sentences : perseverance and patience will smooth 
the road, and those who laughed at his rudeness will soon begin to 
praise his proficiency in thr most fulsome manner. They will not, 
however, often take the trouble to correct an erroneous expression, and 
hence the more need of the closest attention to the people when talking 
among themselves. In preserving and remembering such expressions 
and phrases as he may notice, the student had better follow his own 
plan, and choose that which previous habits has already made most easy. 

This series of sentences is to be translated into Chinese, and care 
has been taken to make them all very simple, by avoiding all peculiar 
phrases. The two Chinese characters under a single number are in 
every instance antithetical, and the word in italics in the opposite 
English column is to be rendered by the Chinese character on its left. 

1. High, ^^ ikd. A high house. A lofty tree. 



Low, 5^ *ai. A low fence. A short woman. 

2. Right, ^ ycai^. My right hand is weak. Tme doctrines. 

Left, jSs ^ts6. That on the left side is the best. 

3. Unluckv, v^ thung. An unlucky omen. A had year. 

Lucky, PI kali. Choose a lucky day. A fortunaie event. 



192 



EXERCISKS IN TRANSLATING 



4. Good, 



i=* 



shin^. 



Bad, -SS 6ku 
up! 
5. Black, -^ hah. 

White, 1^ pdA:i. 

6. Poor, ^^ ip^an. 

Rich, '^/m'. 

7. Cheap, '^ iP^ingi 

Dear, J^ kwai\ 




8. Beautiful,^ *mt. 

9. Straight, l@^ c^zAjj. 
Crooked, pB^ huh. 

10. True, t]^ <c^n. 

False, i^ 'kd. 
il. New, Tgf <san. 
Old, "W Aatt^ 



12. Near, ^5! A;an*. 
Far, 3^ ^wn. 

13. Long, "^ icKiung. 

Short, >fe5 '^un. 
14. Tall, ^ <A:d. 
Low,-10C ttoi. 
15. Top, JL sh^ung^. 
Bottom, 1^ hdK 
16. Hard, ^^ iUdn. 



Easy, 




i^ 



17. Clear, B/J s,ming. 
Obscure, f^ dm\ 



A good man. A ^0(x2 disposition. 

A had heart. To/^ec^ clothes. 

A black hog. A dark night. 

While paper. Cfear daylight. 

A jpoor family. Poor but not covetous. 

He is very rich. Rich and not proud. 

This pair of shoes is poor and cheap. 

This garment is very dear. Your hono- 
rdble country. 

A heaiUiful girl. An elegant scholar. 

An ugly countenance. A vicious heart. 

A straight line. He came direct* 

A crooked bow. A curved handle. 

He speaks true words. Honest goods and 
fair prices. 

This is a false pearl. A lying speech. 

That cap is new. A lately arrived person. 

An old coat. Do it the same way as 
before. 

He lives near. He died lately. 

Four miles distant. Yery far. 

This door is too long. A good length 
of time. 

This shoe is rather short. A short life. 

He is much taller than L 

A low sound. A low price. 

Put it on top. To be above the people. 

Nail it on the bottom. A vulgar man. 

Chinese is hard to learn. A diffictdi 
affair. 

With a firm determination it will soon 
be easy. 

This piece of crystal is not clear. 

An obscure valley. This lamp burns 
dimly. 



\ 



INTO CHINESE. 



193 



18. Dirty, ^ ekuki. The water of the liver is dirisg. 

Glean* 7^ tU^mg^ My purse is detuu His heart is pure 
^ as water. 

19. Disobedient, j|m piki. DimMlient persons will have dtsobe- 

dient children* 

Hl^ shun^* A filial obedient son. He acts according 

to my wishes. 

Lewchew is a weak country. 



Obedient, 



20. Weak, ^ yiukt. 

Strong, ^^ iV^ung. He is a gtrong man. 
21. Brittle, |^ Ul^ui^ Glass is very hriMe. 



Tough, ^ ii^an*. 
22. Thick, M ;iati*. 

Thin, 5W l^*i* 
23. Large, :/fC tdiK 
Small, /]\ '*iti. 
24, Fine, ^ yau". 
Coarse, :PL te*d*. 
25. Deep, ^ c«&<wfi. 
Shallow, ]^ Hsin. 

26. Hot, ^ t<2- 
Cold, i^ *^««S:- 
27. Hungry, |^ t^- 
Satiated, ffe "V^^- 
28. Dull, Ife <«»*. 
Sharp, ^Ij W* 
29. Fresb^l^ tdm^' " 
Salt, ^ Mm. 
30. Old, ^ *to. 
Young, ^ yau\ 
31. (5reen, £t tshang. 
Ripe, ^ ^Adki. 

32. Public, ^ ,A;M„g. 

Privnto, ^ »«;'. 
EA. LISS. 25 



Deer's sinews are tough. 
This is thicker than that. 
As tAm as a leaf. 
A Iwge potato. A gr^ man. 

t 

A itnaU cottage. A sel/ish fellow. 

Fineeloth. Fzne thread. 

Coarse work. He is heedless. 

The water Is deep there. A deep blue. 

A shaUaw fish-pond. A light red. 

This tea is too hei to drink. Hoi weather. 

This room is cold. A heartless laugh. 

I am very hungry and thirsty. 

He has eaten enough. He is'toeS read. 

This penknife is duU. 

Take the other, that is sJuxrp. 

This is a fresh water fish. 

It is unpleasant to 'eat if too sak. 

Respect old men. He is old ^nd deaf. 

He is young anrd beauiifiil. 

This is a green orange. \strUhge fk<5e. 

He sells ripe plunks. I know him very 
intimately. 

This shop belongs to e. public company. 

A private affair. A selfish heart. 



194 



EXERCISES IN TRANSLATING 



33. Full, ' ^ imUn. 
. JEropty, ^ ikung, 

34. Proud, ^ ngdK 
Humble,^ Jiim^ 
35. Light, ^ Jiing. 
Heavy, aE chung^. 



This cup isfMoi water. 

Strike it and see if it is empty* His 
purse is empty. 

He is too proud to speak to me. 

A humble man will go a thousand miles. 

As light as a feather's down. 

1 cannot lift so heavy a box. 



36. Stiff, ^ ngdngK As stiff ns iron. 
Limber, -^ ^un. 
37. Square, ^ 'f^ng. 
Round, Igl iiin. 



38. In, j^ 
Out, ^f 



not*. 



n^ot 



:2 



tsm. 



As limber as flour. . A tender heart. 

This table is square, 

Ciit it exactly round. As round as the 
moon. 

He is not tcithin. The interior of China. 

Tell him to leave that out. Outside 
barbarians. 

Please walk before. Do this first. 

He stands behind me; 

I got lip earZy this morning. 



39. Before, ^ 

After, ^^ hauK 
.' 40. Early, -^ *i*d. 

Late, fll^ ^mdn. He repented of it too late. 
• 41 . HuHful, ^^ *^zln. To tn/tire anothep and benefit one's self. 

Strengthening, ^ ytky. This medicine is^beneficial and strength^ 



49. Laughable, 




enwg. 



siu\ Hovf laughable f We were talking a 
pZeo^an^ matter together. 

Crying, 5s ^wA;>. The sound of crying shows his heart 

sorrow. 



s 



43. Strong, ^^ jnw^g. 
Weak, ^ tdfnK 
44. Tight, 1^ 'itan. 
Loose, 7p^ isung. 
4^. Fat, IS ,/i. 



Lcmn, 




shau\ 



46. Narrow, -^ choky > 



Biohdf 




futu 



This tea is too strong for me. 

This wine is weak^ try a glass. 

This lock is very tight. 

Plane it a little more to make it loose. 

He is fat as a pig. A* large and gross 
man. 

He is lean as a monkey. Why are you 
so lean! 

This board is very narrow. 
Make it five feet broad. 



IIHTO CHINESE. 



•i • 



I9S 



47. Spacious, ^ ^hodng. This house is spacious, }\e has a liberal 

mind. ,■'. 

Confined, ^ hdpi. This boat is long and narrow. 

48. Lazy, j{|[ 'Zan. Don't be ^2^ and waste the day. An 

idle woman. 

Industrious, ||{/ ik*an. So industrious as to forget to eat. 

49. Quick, jT^/ai'. Make Tiaste, and open the door. Run 



Slow, j§ mdn'. 
• 60. Sweet, jSfr it'im, 

Bitter, ^ 'fa. 
52. Rotten, >jij /ti. 
Sound, 1^ Mn. 



63. Damp, ^ jj^ap,. 



64. Smooth, fff waii. 

Rough, 7^ siki. 
65. Right, J^ shiK 
Wrong, ^^ </i. 
56. Good,|tf *^. 



Bad, ^ 



<ijt- 



Idi. 



57. LoYing, i(? ii^*. 



u\ 



Hating, io 
.58. First, '^ 'shau. 




'mt. 



Last, 

59. Fair, HH *^n^ 
Foul, M yiki. 



quick and catch him. 
Do it slowly y and not be too hasty. 

As sweet as honey. He uses sv)^ 
words and polite talk to deceive. 

The soflt part of mustard is hitter. 
Rotten bones are found in graves. 

This timber is sound and solid. A hale 
hearty old man. - • 

This go-down is very damp^ and must 
be floored. 

Put this in the sun to dry. Wet* -it a 
little, it is too dry. 

Plane it smooth. A slippery road is 
difficult to travel. 

Rough is called. jMi (^ in Canton.. 
If it is rigJUj say so. 
If it is wrongy say so. 

It is hard to act the good hian. This 
is a good book. 

Bad is called ^ch^au ^ and also vxdi' j^ 
in Canton. 

He is fond of rowing. He loves to eat 

fruit. 

1 hate him. How detestably he acts! 

What does the first page say? 'The 
chief of all actions. 

To the lasty these goods are alike. 

With a fair wind, we shall soon reach. 

With a foul wind and head current, we 
must anchor. 



196 EXERCISES IN TRANSTLATUVG 

60. Male, HJL ^mau. Male is called tihcf^ ^ in Gantoo. 

Female, (fi^ fan. tkmdle is called ^n& Q in Canton. 

61. Cock, jE^ ihnng^ < Flat haired ' are called cock and hen. 

Hen, IQi cfo*z\ Bm birds are not as handsdme as cocks. 

62. Text, 3C itnan. Meneius wrote this text. 

J, Commentary, ^ c}v£ Chu futsz' made this eammentary. 

63. Glad, ^ 2^i(r|. When I saw you, my heart was glad. 

' Sorry, ^ tyau. I am tarry because, of my parents' age. 

64. Superior, Jtl sh^rnng*. This |Hece of Wcolen is very tiuperwr. 

Inferior, "p h6}. This is inferior in quality. 

65. Opened, ^ Jwi. Open the window to look at the moon. 

Shut, ^ pa^. Shut the door and cbn^defyour faults. 

66. Bought, ^ ^mdi. Bought a horse yesterday for ond hun. 

dred dollars. 



Sold, ^ mdi^. Rice is «o^ in the market by the pecul. 

. 67*. Add, }^ c^iiTt.. A<^ a little milk. Please ^m a little 

higher price. 

Diminish, ^ ^kdm. Take ^ a. little. If you do not iimm-' 

tsA, we cannot settle it 

68; Ascended, ^ iMug* He suddenly ascended three degrees of 

rank. 

Descended, }^ ^^ • He descended the steps to meet the guest. 

; . 69, J(^ceived, Jlx «^^^^>U* Please receive this money into your aafe 

keeping. 

Gave out, fi)k f^^* Go»e out money on interest. Idheraied 

the thieves. 

J 70* Extended, y^ tshan. Stretch off your &!tigue. The snail 

stretches out its eyes to see th^ road. 

Prew in, lp^ shuku . Seeing men coming it draws in its eyes. 

71* Rose, v^ ^{fh^ung. The water of the ri^er rose fivo feet, 

DecrcaBed, */^ \siii. Take some medicine and relieve your 

< . illness. . ^ ' 

• ■ • - 

. ?!'«.' Beginning, }Cp VjA^i. The 5^nmn^. of the hook is in Chinese. 

'J,. , Ending, ^ tohung. Ui^i lif^ is ready to *^^. . The eiw? of 

the book is gone. 



-^:> 



INTO CIlliSRSE. 197 

78. Having, ^ ^yau. He has a heart to learn the Bihie. 

Without, ^^ t^« He ie toithout a cash. He has no desire 

to seek good. 

74. He, that, ^ *pl. His heart is not satisfied. That rich 

man is not proud. 

This, lUl W»'. TAw day we «iust be diligent This 

disease is hard to cure. 



76. Misery, |||4 w6^* If a man does ill, heaven will recom- 

pense him with misery. 

Happiness, j|i§ fuky. He is a ha'ppy man. Happiness does 

not come a second time. 

76. Good omen, H^ its^^ung.On him who does urell heaven will 

confer vasiny felicities. 

Bad omen, 9^ ^yiung. He who does ill, heaven will visit him 

with many Uls, 

77. Preserve, 4? «&*««. Eighty out of a hundred troops saned 

their live^. 

Lost, LI tfn&ng. If the emperor be without reason, the 

country will certainly be lost. 

78. Eternal, 5]^ ^voing. The wicked man will abide etemaUy 

in hell. 



Transitory, ^ tsdm^. For a little time, rest from reading. 

79. Tired, ^g^ kiin^. Teach men not i^ly. 1 am very tired 

Vigorous, ^ ^h6ng. I am in good spirits and very vigorous, 

80. Brilliant, |fx» ling*. Rub this table till it shines. 

Dull, * Qc *tt« The silk of this piece is not good, and 

therefore the color is dtdl. 

81. Right, ^f chiuk^. Everybody says this business is right. 

fife, - 

B U^6*. If you do it wrong^l fear all willtaugh. 

82. Cool, <^ jl^hmg. The weather ia cod to-day, and you 

will not want an umbrella* 

Wann, V^ ^niin* The evening is toartn, throw off your 

cloak. 

83. Joined, 'o h6pi. These two boards do not join. Agreeing 

in disposition. 

Separated, ^ JlL This ^^non \b separated, Tliat town 

is. 5 miles distant. 



198 



EXERCISKS IN TRANSLATING 



84. Conquered, ^ tying. 

Beaten, ^ ^shu. 

85. Victorious, ^ shing* 
Discomfited, {(j^ pdi^. 



86. Awake, 



Sleep, 




^sing. 



shui^. 



87. Born, fib <sliang. 
Dead, ^ ^*«'. 
88. Love, ^ oi*. 
Hate, *|p itsang. 

m 

89. Upright, Jt cAi/i^' 
Vicious, >j|) jte*^. 
. Ancient, p *A;m. 
Modern, ^ xkam. 



90 



91, True, jE ching\ 
Awry,jE <^ai. 
92. Inflexible, ^IJ Mng, 
Yielding, 5K s^^w- 
93. Many, ^ <<<^. 
Few, ^ *«Ai«i. 
94. Without, ^ "piU. 
Within, iffi.%. 
95. Going, '(x *M^<5ng. 
Coming, ^ ihn. 

96. Gone out, p^ ch^uU. 
Enter in, y^ yapj. 



The first conquered the second. His 
work excels mine a hundred fold. 

His quail was beaten because it had 
eaten too much. 

y 

. Victorious, he is a king. 

Discomfited, he is a bandit. Complete- 
ly routed. 

As soon as I awoke, 1 forgot the dream 
of last night. 

To sleep is vulgarly called /an^ ^|| in 
this provincial city. 

He was horn on new year's day. 

He has been dead ten years. 

Affectionate mothers love their children. 

That man certainly begs men's haie^ 
I do not think of seeing him. 

An uprigJU man — bis eyes will not look 
at vice. 

Vicious sort of folks fear lest men will 
ktiow their failings. 

Ancient men respected and esteemed the 
honest. 

The present age first regards the silken 
dress, then respects the man. 

Put that table true. 

This wall is a little awry. 

He is inflexible and will not bend. 

A mild woman. A sufpple pettifogger. 

Too many men have come. 

A few will be enough. 

WUjkovt and within are alike. 

The inside is the same. 

Once gofie it will not return. 

I can know that which is gone and 
that whic^ has not yet come. 

The robber has just escaped his t>rison. 
Please enter in and take a seat. 



INTO CHINESE. 199 

97. Confer, ^ ^sh^ung. Better bestow on him a slap of the hand. 
Forfeit, py fati. Forfeit to you a glass of wine. 

98. Clear, B^ iVning. Open the window to get a clear light. 

Obscure, ^ <iww. The sky is obscure and the earth dark. 

99. Capital, 7^ ^dn. The thief's is a business without a 

capitcd. 

Profit, ^Ij ftJ. Everybody wishes to get profit. 

The student can multiply exercises similar to these to any extent 
he deems expedient, and he will find the practice of writing such short 
and easy sentences of very great utility. A good plan, which may 
-here be mentioned, is for him to provide himself with a slate, and 
write a number of sentences, and then let the teacher write the cor- 
rected idiomatic sentences in parallel columns, that the difference 
between the two may be seen. He will see that the modes of expres- 
sion, the mold in which the native casts his thought, are so unlike his 
own, that close attention and long practice will be necessary before 
anything like ease or aptitude can be attained. He will in these 
attempts, feel the great advantage that is derived from committing to 
memory portions of Chinese. And in Chinese composition, he ought 
to propose to himself no inferior mark, to be satisfied with nothing 
less than being able unaided to write Chinese so that he is sure it 
will be intelligible to the native reader. Perhaps he may never be 
able to write so that an educated* native could not alter his composition 
for the better, but he ought to strive to attain such a knowledge of 
the language as to know that what he writes is understood just as he 
wrote it, and meajit it to be understood. In submitting his composi- 
tions to his teacher, let him almost compel him to change the^xpres- ' 
sions till they are perfectly according to Chinese idioms, and not have 
any attachment to what he himself may deem a good sentence, lest the 
teacher, partly out of respect to him, and still more from mental 
indolence, allows him to form bad habits, and declares sentences to be 
well written which are far from being so. It is not, among the 
Chinese themselves, regarded as polite to criticise another's composition, ^ 
and some little address on the part of the foreigner will be required to 
obtain the unbiassed corrections and criticisms of his teacher. The 
practice of requesting the teacher to put the same meaning into as 
many different forms of expression as possible, will also be useful in 
learning'synonimous terms and modes of expression. Every care should 
1)3 taken not to get into the habit of writing English idioms ioa 
Chinese dress. 



200 EXERCISKS IN TKANSLATING 

SELECTIONS 

fIioM the history of the THRSE STATB8. 

These are successive extracts to be retranslated iilto Chineae, and 
the reference to the original is given at the end of each sentence, by 
which the place can be fouad. The editioj^ is the common duod^imo 
one, having twenty-two cohimns on a leaf; they are num bered from 
the first column on the right side. 



1. <«0n that day^ he having been disre&^)ectful to Untak ("^ ^^,)9 
Cheung Ff (S£. ^Bji) of a hasty temperament, straightway wish^ to 
kill him." — (15 characters.) — section 2d, leaf 11, last column. 

2. '*Fi said, If I do not kill that fellow, then it will be necessary, 
being in his clan, to obey his commands : this, indeed, would not be 
pleasant." — (19 char.) — Ihid.^ leaf 12, column Ist. 

3. «* Thereupon, the three men by night and d£^y, led their troops 
to Chii Tsun (^ ^) ; Tsun acted towards them very friendly.*'— 
(17 char*) — Ibid,, col. 4th. 

4. "Ch6iing P5 (^ ^) ordered colonel K5 Shing (^ ^ 
]^ S.) to sally out on horseback, and provoke a combat." — (11 
char,) — Ihid.^t col. 7th, 

5. "Untak sent Cheung Fi to fight him; Fi giving reins to his 
horse and grasping his spear, joined battle with Shing; after a few 
onsets he pierced Shing, who fell off his horse." — (23 char.) — i&uf., 
col. 8th. 

6. "C'i6ung P5, then on horseback, disheveling his hair and bran- 
dishing his sword, performed his magical arts ; there was only to be 
seen a great wind and thunder, and a mass of black vapor descending 
from the sky; within this bluck vapor what resembled innumerable 
horsemen furiously sallied forth." — (38 char.) — Ibid,, col. 9th. 

7. "Untak, hearing the orders, directed Lord Kw^n (||1 f^^ and 
Cii6ang Fi each to lead a detachment of a thousand, and hide behind 
the hills on a high eminence." — (22 char,) — Ibid., col. 13th. 

8. "Cheung P5, seeing his arts all fail, hastily endeavored to with- 
draw his tioops ; but on the left Lord Kwan, on the right Cheung Ff, 
both detachments sallied out, and in (he rear tfntak and Chii Tsun 
simultaneously coming up, the rebel soldiers were completely routed.'*^ — 
(34 char,) — Ibid,, col. 19th. 

9. "tfntak, seeing afar the banner of general Lord of Earth (;bft 

^ 9^ ^) wite flying horse pursued after ;Ch6ung P5 entered the 

wilds and fled, and Untak, letting fly an arrow, hit his left arm." — (28 
char>) — Ibid,, col. 20th. 



V. 



IMO CIIINKSE. 



201 



Id. "Opening Ch6ung Kok's {^f^) coffin^ he cut his corpse 
in pieces, cut off his head, and sent it to the capital; the rest of the 
troop all submitted."— (17 char.y^Ibid., leaf 13th, col. 14th. 

11. "tfntak, following in the rear assaulted and killed them ; the 
robbers were routed and fled into the citadel of Un. {yQ) (15 char.) 
Ibid, J col. 14th. 

12. "tfntak said, Anciently, K6ts5's ("j^ jjfH) obtaining of the 
empire was because he was able to invite submissions and receive 
tbeir fealty ;— why do you, sir, repel Hon Chung? (^ ^) — (20 
char.) — Ibid., col. 16th. 

13. *• tfntak said. Not to permit the rebels to submit is correct. 
Now they are hemmed in on all sides like an iron tube, and the rebels 
beg to submit ; if they cannot, they will assuredly fight to the last." — 
(2b char. )^1 bid,, col. 20th. 

14. "Kin (^) speaking to his father said, * Those robbers should 
be seized.' Then, rousing his energy and grasping his sword, he 
ascended the bank, lifting up a loud voice, calling and pointing to the 
east and west as if ordering men ; the robbers, supposing them to be 
soldiers of government coming, all left the property and hastily fled. 
Kin rushing forward killed one robber." — (46 char.) — Ibid., leaf 14th, 
col. 7th. 

15. "After he had occupied his office, he ate at the same table 
and slept in the same bed, with Kwun and Ch6ung ; whenever Untak 
sat in the midst of a crowd of people, Kwdn and Ch6ung stood behind 
him the whole day without being fatigued." — (31 cJiar.) — Ibid., leaf 
15th, col. 9th. 

16. "The clerk said, Tuk Yau ('^ ffljj) is acting pompously ; it 
is nothing he wants but a douceur." — (12 char.) — Ibid., col. 19th. 

17. "Untak replied, I have not committed the least illegality with 
the people ; where shall I get a bonus to give him?" — (16 char.) — Ibid., 
col. 19th. 

18. "Cheung Fi, in great anger, roUing his eyes and grinding hi^ 
teeth firmly, vaulted down from his horse, and straight entered the. post- 
house, thrust aside the door-keeper, who there was opposing his way, and 
rushed directly into the back hall, where he saw Tuk Yau just sitting 
up in the hall, while the district clerk was lying bound on the ground. 
Fl cried out, * Villainous oppressor of the people ! Do you know who 
I am?' Tuk Yau did not have time to say a word, before his hair was 
firmly grasped by Ch6ung Fi, and he dragged out of the post-house 
straight to a horse-post before the magistrate's, and fast tied^ up to 
it."— (84 char.)—Ibid., leaf lO^h, col. 2d. 

EA. LES. 26 



302 EXERCISSK m TKAN8LATI1HG 

19. *' Palling down a branch of a willow, upon Tuk Yau'« two 
thighs, with all his strength, he whipped him. Each time he struck, 
he snapped ten and more twigs of the willow." — (23 char.) — Ibid., 
col. 6th. 

20. ^Fi said, Such a rascally oppressor of the people, for what 
shall I wait before beating him to death? Tuk Yau calling said. 
Lord Untak save my life. "--(23 char.) — Ibid.f col. 10th. 

21. *^T5 ([^) said, On all sides, thieves and robbers simultaneous- 
ly rise up, devastating and robbing the country ; these evils all spring 
from the ten eunuchs selling offices and oppressing the pe<^le ; they 
despise their prince and contemn their superiors, and all upright 
men have left thie court ; evil is before your eyes." — (38 char.) — Ibid,^ 
leaf 17th, col. 4th. 

22. "The ten eunuchs all took off their caps, and knelt prostrate 
before the emperor, saying, « The high minister not agreeing with us, 
we cannot live ; we wish to beg our lives, return to our fields and 
villages, and employ all our possessions to aid the expenses of the araiy.' 
Their words ended, they wept bitterly." — (42 char.) — Ibid,^ col. 6th. 

23. " Lau T6 (^|J (J|^) cried out, My death is unimportant i 
how sad that the house and empire of Hon, [enduring] four hundred 
years and more to this time, as in one night, should be extinct." — (24 
c/iar.) — Ibid., col. 9th. 

24. «*T4m (]|jt) said, The people of the empire wish to eat the 
flesh of the ten eunuchs ; your majesty respects them like a father 
and mother; their body has not one inch of merit, and all have been 
created noble earls." — (29 char,) — Ibid., col. 12th. 

25. «* Lau U (^jl |S) privately memorializing regarding Lau 
Pi's (J^l ^) great merit, the court pardoned his offense in whip- 
ping Tuk Yau."— (12 char.)— Ibid., col. 22d. 

26. " The emperor Ling (^) being dangerously sick, called the 

high general Ho Tsun (^ J^) into the inner palace to consult 
upon subsequent business."— (16 char.) — Ibid., leaf 18th, col. 3d. 

27. "Now, the high general hearing Un Shifi's (^ j^) words, 
wishes to exterminate all the ministers ; we beg your ladyship to pity 
us."— (19 char.)— Ibid., leaf 19th, col. 6th. 

28. **Un Shlu said. If you do not cut off the plant and extirpate 
the root, it certainly will become a tree to kill us." — (15 char.) — Ihid., 
col. 11th. 

29. ** The empress Tung (JJ) summoning Cheung Yeung (^ 
^) and the others into the inner palace to consult, said. Ho Tsun's 
sister, from the first I have promoted her ; now her son sits on the 



INTO CHINEBK. 203 

throQA as tmp^rori and all the ministers within and without are her 
bosom friends, her dignity and power is very great : what shall I do ?" 
—(47 char.) — Ihid.f col. 13th. 




SELBCT10N8 FROM THE YUK K i (l Li. 

1. *< Within this village, although there were a thousand and more 
dwellings of the residents, if you should number the rich and honorable 
families, you would select that of the councillor Rak (q -ic '^) as 
the first." — (25 c^r.)— Chapter 1st, leaf 1, col. 16th. 

2. " He only regretted that he was past forty, and still without a 
son and heir." — (11 char,) — Ihid»<t col. 18th. 

3. " Mr. Pdk (Q ^) sighed, and regarding it as his fate, did not 
thereafter again buy concubines." — ( 15 cAar.) — Ih'id.y col. 20th. 

4. '* On the day that she was born, Mr. Pak dreamed that a divine 
personage bestowed upon him a single beautiful gem, the color ruddy 
as the sun ; therefore in choosing her milk name he called her Red* 
^e»i."— (30 char.) — Ihid,y col. 22d. 

5. " By eight or nine years, she had learned female work and 
needlework, in every branch surpassing ordinary people." — (15 char,) 
— Ihid,^ leaf 2, col. Sd. 

6. " By the time she was fourteen or fifteen, she was acquainted 
with authors and could compose, till at last she became an accomplish- 
ed female ^scholar." — (19 char,) — Ihid,,G6\. 7th. 

7. " He only wished to choose a proper son-in-law, talented and 
handsome, to match her." — (15 char,) — Ibid,, col. 11th. 

8. »* He supposed that in this single village and town the men of 
talents were limited." — (10 char,) — Ibid,, col. 17th. 

9. " Every day, when public business was over, he did nothing but 
quaff wine and compose verses." — (13 char,) — Ibid,, leaf 3, col. 3d. 

10. " Mr. Pik, seeing that one of his clerks had given him twelve 
jars of chrysanthemums, arranged them at the foot of the library 
stairs." — (19 char,) — Ibid., col. 5th. 

11. Whenever, in the leisure from governmental duties, you are 
seeking for me, then I also am inquiring for you." — (17 cJiar.) — Ibid., 

col. 13th. 

12- "Yesterday, I was indeed coming to visit [the flowers], but 
unexpectedly, just as I got out of the door, 1 ran against old Y^ung 
(Jl&) (the loathed thing) holding a longevity address, whch he wished 
me to stop and correct that he might give it to general Shik (/FT 



204 EXEiicrsEs ln translating 

jjS^ ^^), congratulating him on his age ; this let me in for a day'd 
work." — (42 char.) — Ihid., col. 17th. 

13. " The censor Su (fSk |fi[j| §h ) said, For several days I have 
wished to conic, but because there was so much business in the office, 
I could hot help declining the pleasure of the sight." — (24 char.) — 
Ibid.<f col. 21st. 

14. "The three men speaking passed on into the hall, and having 
interchanged civilities, and thrown oflf their dress and tea being hand- 
ed about, he then invited them into the library to see the chrysan- 
themimis." — (26 char,) — Ibld.^ col. 22;1. 

15. " Having drank several Clip?, doctor 'Ng (.^- JM JjijfC) there- 
upon remarked, These flowers are neat but not gaudy, beautiful without 
being gairish ; and altho'ugh the red, yellow, carnation, and white 
colors are all of them fresh and lustrous, still there is so much of what 
is elegant and diversified in their appearance, that one is led to delight 
in and admire them," — (48 char.) — Ibid., leaf 4, col. 5th. 

16. " Every day, he busies himself in paying court to the powerful 
and great, only in hopes to get himself into office: he is one whom 
the flowers would ridicule." — {19 char.) — Ibid,, col. 7th. 

17. "The censor Su replied, the capital is \indoubtedly the theatre 
for reputation and profit ; and their striving for reputation and trying 
to get gnin, truly is their right." — (2Schar.) — Ibid., col. 11th. 

18. " It is that I am only one « adviser of the path ' (i. e. a censor)^ 
and in these times, if I wish to open my mouth, I cannot do it, or if 
I wish to keep silence I also cannot do it : truly it is difficult to act." 
— (33 char.) — Ibid., col. 17th. 

1 9. " Mr. Pik then bade the domestics bring out pencils and 
ink-stone, and with doctor 'Ng and the censor Su they immediately 
there selected a rhythm for n.aking an ode on the chrysanthemums.'* 
— (26 char.) — Ibid., leaf 5th, col. 1st. 

20. "The three persons were thus wielding their pencils, when 
suddenly a chairman coming in announced that the censor Y6ung had 
come. The three men hearing this were all of them not at all pleased. 
Mr. Pak immediately scolded the chairman, saying, You scoundrel, 
knowing that I and the gentlemen 'Ns: and Su were drinking wine, you 
ought to»have replied to him, not at home.'*'' — (52 c^ar.) — Ibid., col. 3d. 

21. "The chairman stating said, I had already gone out of the 
gate to how ofl* the visitor, when Y6'ing's chairmen said, Mr. Y6 \*\g 
was in Mr. Su's office asking for him, and was told that he was here 
taking wine, and he has consequently come here seeking him. More- 
over, they saw the two gentlemen's chairs and horses at the door* 
wherefore this reply could not be made." — (57 char.) — Ihid., col. 5th. 



INTO CHINESE. 205 

22. •* Y6ung the censor was a man, whose words and conversation 
were coarse and vulgar ; externally he loved to be extensively acquaint. 
ed, but internally he was covetous and time-serving." — (17 cJiar.) — 
Ibid.j col. 11th. 

23. ** Mr. P^k said, I was about to invite you,* sir, to view the 
chrysanthemums, but was fearful the duties of your office were so 
great that you could not find time to attend to such trifling business." 
—(29 ckar.)-^Ibid. col. 16th. 

24. " When yesterday, I engaged the high attainments of you, 
sir, to improve the style, it mi<j;lit be termed touching iron and chan- 
ging it to gold. This morning I gave it to general Shik, who was 
exceedingly delighted, and more than before he added his respects and 
thanks." — (33 char.) — Ibid., leaf 6, col. 1st. 

25. " Mr. Pak bade the attendants put on more cups and chopsticks, 
and bowed to the three men to sit down and drink wine." — (16 char.) 
— Ibid., col. 7th. 

26. "Recently I have learned, that distant from the city twenty 
li^ there is an exceedingly fertile and rich piece of land, which, being ex- 
ceedingly desirous of, he did nothing less than send one of his domestics 
and seize it." — (27 char. )-^I bid., col. 19th. 

27. " Whenever I spoke to him good words, he as often refused to 
listen."— (14 char.)^Ibid., col. 19th. 

28. "The censor Sii hearing, his mind was discomposed to a con- 
siderable degree." — (12 char.) — Ibid., col. 22. 

29. " The censor Y6ung, seeing the censor Su's words and coun- 
tenance disagreeing, then sat silently without sp'bakiug." — (16 char.) — 
Ilnd»i leaf 7, col. 3d. 

30. " Mr. P4k therefore smiling said, I only supposed, that my 
Trlend Y6ung simply came to delight in the flowers, but from the first 
he has been talking about Wong T»un's {^^ ^) aflairs ; you will not 
therefore regard it as strange that I have not yet invited you to come in 
^nd see, the flovers." — (41 char.) — Ibid. col. 4th. 

31. " Dr. 'Ng also laaghing observed. On happy days and fine pros- 
pects, we ought only to quaflTwine and compose verses ; but if under the 
flowers, we converse about governmental affairs, I think it is a little 
bizarre. Our friend Y6ung ought to be mulcted a large goblet, in order 
1o atone for his outrage upen the goddess of the fl,owers." — (44 char.) — 
Ibid. col. 6th. 

32. " The censor Y^ang taking the wine said, I consequently here 
receive the forfeit ; and after this he who talks about politics, I truly 
will not excuse him." — (29 char.) — Ibid., col. 12th. 



206 EXERCISES IN TRANSLATING 

38. *< The censor Y6ang drank off the wine, and becauss he aaw 
on the table pencils and ink-stone, he said, You three gentlemen have 
already been here with high entertainment making verses ; why have 
I not been instructed ?" — (31 c?iar,) — Ibid., col. I4th. 

34. " Dr. 'Ng replied. We have just now thought of it, and have 
not yet put our pencils to paper." — (12 cJiar.) — Ibid., col. 16th. 

35. "The censor Y6ung said. If you have not yet begun to write, 
do not let me interrupt your pleasurable pursuits, but please to give 
utterance to your thoughts. I will accompany you with glasses of 
wine; how will this do? "-^(33 char.) — Ibid., col. 16th. 

36. " Mr. Pak observed. If you wish me to forfeit wine lam quite 
willing, but if you wish me to make verses, 1 cannot do thom at all.** 
— (18 char.) — Ibid., leaf 9, col. 15th. 



SHORT SENTENCES TO BE TRANSLATED. 

Here follow a few miscellaneous sent<»nces, selected for the most 
part from the Sam Kwok Clil, intended to exercise the student in 
translating. The benefit of this practice will by no means be lost if 
he does not express the idea of a sentence in exactly the same words 
as its original ; for the search after new words, the mental labor of 
endeavoring to cast the idea in a Chinese form, and the several trials 
of writing the sentence in this or that way, will all prove highly bene- 
ficial, and combine to give him that readiness in writing in Chinese 
which is the main object of these lessons. It is intended that these 
short sentences should be translated after the preceding continuous 
extracts; for in writing them, reference should be made to the original 
in order to compare the two. 

1. Goods are dear this year because but few ships have come. 

2. What is the price of tea lately ? 

3. Send this letter to the provincial city this evening, and on no 
account forget it. 

4. We can converse as we go together, and the way will not 
seem long. 

5. As the sky is dark now and there is no sun, I fear in the eve- 
ning there will be a foul wind. 

6. Let us bring out the chess-board and spend the livelong day. 

7. To-day gain a little, to-morrow gain a little, you will presently 
collect a good deal. 

8. I do not fear that the way is far, but I must go there to be 
satisfied. 



INTO CHlAESt:. 207 

0. He i* 80 stingy that a cwih seems as big as a tray basket. 

10. Explain it to him clearly one thing at a time, and no doubt 
he will believe. 

11. Tou must be very careful of your purses, when walkino; abroad 
at the end of the year or near new-year* 

12. Having already unsuccessfully searched, you need not go again. 

13. If he works for you with all his heart and strength, it is not 
right to call him lazy. 

14. Better to eat congee with a pleasant face than rice with 
wrinkled eyebrows. 

, 15. Nobody would have thought that he would have stolen ; truly 
it Nurpasses people's thoughts. 

16. What news is there lately? I will trouble you to tell me. 

17. For these several successive cold days I have not seen any 
snow fall. 

18. After rain has fallen, the street is slippery and difficult to walk. 

19. The lantern is dim, probably there is no oil. 

20. A day has twelve hours — if it is so long, no fear it will not 
be finished. 

21. If a man be good, heaven will certainly recompense him. 

22. The poor cannot contend with the rich, ihe rich cannot strive 
with the magistrates. 

23. A natural disposition is hard to change, hills and stones are 
hard to move. 

24. Let each family sweep away the snow before its own door, 
and not remark upon the hoarfrost on their neighbor's roof. 

25. He feared and retreated — why did you not pursue him ? 

26. If you do not help, for what business have you come here? 

27. Sir, with such words, will not all the world laugh at you. 

28. If I rely upon faithfulness and uprightness, and still die, how 
will it cause the world to laugh ? 

29. Tsun (im) exclaiming said, You set of fellows ! How can you 
know the great affairs of government? 

30. To shade your eyes and seize a swallow, is to ridicule yourself. 

31. Tung Ch*6uk wjis a man of benignant face and wicked heart. 

32. He who has many doubts is not equal to planning great affairs. 

33. A good bird selects a tree and nestles in it ; a virtuous states- 
man selects a master and serves him. 

34. Ts5, leading his horse out of the minister's office, laid on the 
whip, and looking to the southwest, went away. 

85. Tsd said. How can a swallow or sparrow know of the inten- 
tions of a swan or stork ? 



208 EXERCISES m TRANSLATING 

36. Sir, in the government, whom do you regard as the hero of 
the age? 

37. Lii P6 is a hero unequalled by any man. 

38. This man speaks immodest words — why not kill him? 

39. Wanch6Lmg ( ^ -&) is an upright man ; he certainly will 
not forfeit his word. 

40. I have begotten five sons, but the youngest pleases me noioet. 

41. You are a villain, who scoffs at his prince and despises his 
superiors ; everybody wishes to kill you. 

42. tJntak said, I have already promised the man, and dare not 
forfeit mv word. 

43. Untak said, This affair, I certainly cannot presume to promise 
you. 

44. Sir, your appearance is quite fat, what regimen have you 
been adopting to become so? 

45. Lii Pb is at bottom an unprincipled man ; what fear if we do 
kill him? 

46. His power is gone, and he has come to join me^ if I kill him 
it will be dishonorable. 

47. I have been away from my village many years, and we have, 
not yet become acquainted. , 

48. When fellow villagers meet, how is it possible they will ik.. 
talk of old affairs ? \ 

49. I have some private business ; it is not easy yet to speal 
fully. 

50. He saw on the thatched cottage a youth cowering ovei^i: ^i 
furnace, holding his knees and singing. 

51. Your words have cleared up my misapprehension. 

52. Kiin (^^) drew his side sword and cutting one corner of ■»" i 
office table before him said. Whoever of all the officers again speak^^ass 
submitting to Ts*5 shall be made, like this table. 

53. How can you presume to speak so much and disarrange ^^vn] 
rules ? 

' 54. I have long heard your great reputation — nowwhydo^Ott 

privately dwell in this place? 

• 55. Sir, do not so extravagantly extol me, still I hope to have yo«r 

"instruction. 

56. I have received the emperor's orders to punish faithless ministers. 

57. If you plunder the blackhaired race, azure heaven will not 
protect you. 

58. The marines arc much diseased, we must employ a skillful 
physician to heal them. 



INTO CHINESE. 209 

59. Are not my troops and officers rather brave and courageous? 

60. Tung (^) said, I am neither rich nor honorable but I wish 
to save the peopk. 

61. Towards evening, the moon rose above the eastern hills with 
great splendor like the clear day : the whole length of the river was 
like a band of clear white* 

' 62. Wong Tsd's ^^ fS3\ disposition was overbearing, and he 
was unable to use men : therefore this misfortune was caused. 

63. To employ one very malevolent to punish one very benevolent 
—how will he not fail ? 

64y Your words exactly coincide with my ideas. 

65. A heavy mist conceals the river, and that army suddenly 
approaching, you must be concealed, you ought not inconsiderately 
to move. 

66. L6ung (^) has very insignificant inferior talents; how can 
he have an admirable scheme? 

67. Kiin, observing that Untak's deportment and bearing were not 
those of the Commonalty, in his heart arose thoughts of fear and dread. 

68. M4 (,1^) traded in flour for an occupation; his family was 
poor, and he had no wife to be miserable with his mother. 

,. 69. I abstract people's property in order to teach my son; how 
call I myself regard such a heart as pure?^ 

70. Whenever Ming (^) was full of rage, no one dared to 
admonish him; but he served his mother very d4itifully, and when she 
came then he stopped. 

71. There was a stranger from Chungchau (h' ttl) ^^ging at 
the Sh6 Fat (4^ 4&^ monastery. The priests of the monastery 
every evening dined on delicious meat and soup, and every piece was 
round like a fowl's neck. Doubting, he asked the priest how many 
fowls he killed to get so many necks. - The priest said. These are bits 
of snakes. 

72. After drinking wine, 1 speak at random, but do not, sir, repri- 
niaod me. 

78. ■ It was a. year of great dearth, and the common people ate dates 
mod greens. 

' Any number of sentences similar to these might be given, but the pre- 
ceiding extracts will be sufficient for examples in' this exercise of 
retranslating. The student will find it advantageous in writing sen- 
tenees, to commence wKh such as are plain narrative,' or with short 
phrases of conmiand, (which are the siiht)lest forms of speech,)/ and 
then proceed to more complicated sentences. The books which are used 
in schools for teaching the rudiments of the English language will 
afford abundance of easy narrative reading lessons,- well fitted for ren« 

BA% LES. 27 



212 LESSONS IN READINjG AND 



No. II. — A RON TO 1118 PARENTS FROM ABROAD. 



« 15 3g H * iL « ilL *> 




A writing requesting the two diutinguished persons to be acquainted 
with it. Yesterday, I received and read the command from your 
hands, and learned that your honored persons were well and happy, 
and that the family were all in tranquil health, every one being blessed 
by azure heaven. Your son, himself, separated f^'om his paj^ents, 
dwells abroad ; I have yet but a little gain, for good^ although it may 
be said they are easily sold, still the accounts are al} collected ^iU^ 
difficulty, and for these reasons 1 have long had thpuglitspf rehurniog- 

mdy 

., « . ^ , . ^ .- _ nay 

parents to have all the support and pase of heavenly peace, and to add 
still more to the number of your days, I live away in a foreign land, 
and my heart is also glad and happy. While I am away in peace, it 
is unnecessary for you to be anxious about me. Respectfully [writing] 
this, prostrate I wish you golden enjoyment. 
Your son Ayung lespectfully states. 



TRANSLATING 



I • 



213 



No. III. — A HUSBAND Tp HIS WIFE PROM ABROAD. 



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While away from ~my worthy wife, suddenly has passed away half a year. 

Every time I think of those in my family, my heart is like that of a drunken 

man; every night my spirit in dreams goes thousands of miles, and in the morning 

my thoughts afflict and grieve me. My aged parents in the l^all, my tender chil' 

dren at thef breast, all depend upon n^y worthy wife to look after and cherish 

them, thus causing that my aged parents dg not repine for my unfilial conduct; 

nor my children lose my rules of careful instruction. Great is my worthy wife's 

kindness and merit. I am a stranger abroad, [ej^posed] to t)ie weather on account 

of the numerous necessities of my family, doing business and seeking gain solely 

on account of those two particulars — hunger and cold ; my oircumstahces allow 

no other course. How could I willingly on tl^e one han4 leave father %nd mother, 

and on the other separate frqm wife and children, dwelling abroad iQ a strange 

land ! When I have obtained according to my ^wishes, I shall inunediately return, 

by no means remaining long in another land. Now, a certain person returning 

home, I have engaged him to carry home a sum of njoney for the household ex- 

' penscs. I cannot write all my words, cannot speak all my thoughts. This is 

sent to Mrs. Wong my worthy wife, in her own apartment. 

Your humble husband Yeung Fungch'un's attentive letter. 



214 



LESSONS m RKADmO AND 



No. IV. — A WIFE TO hkr husband abroad 



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Since my honored husband's departure, the Hibiscus l^aa twice qiened itself. 
The multiplied words and innumerable injunctions you gave when you left, your 
handmaid has remembered with the greatest care, not presuming to oontrayenio 
them. Those in the high hall have been nourished, I myself waiting on them ; 
the tender daughters and youthful sons, I have myself taken care of; ererything 
in the house I have myself looked after. Do not make yourself anxioas about 
those at a distance, but while my honored husband is [sufiforing] the weather 
abroad, we who are at home do all ardently remember him. If yon procure a little 
overplus of gain, then you ought straightway to bring yourself back, respectfully 
to wait upon your parents, and carefuUy to teach your children. Your Jundied 
will then all collect together, and laughing converse [fill] the hall. Then will 
thdBe venerable parents not have the longing of those who lean at the village 
gate, nor your humble handmaid have the sighing of a grayhaired person. The 
house is near, but its lord is far; — my little heart [flies] a thousand miles. Bot 
my wishes are that you take good care of yourself, and rojrard your own comfort 
This is to inform Suiting my honored husband, placed on the right of his seat 

Your handmaid Wong respectfully states. 



TRANSLATINU. 



215 



N O . v.— A PKA80N TO HIS FEIEND ANI> THE REPLY 



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' I woold respectfully state. With regard to what you before stated about going 
to the capita], I did not ascertain whether yon was going soon, or had not fixed on 
a timet' I have decided to leave on the third day following, and I am much 
inclined to jnvite you sir to get ready quickly to accompany me. Thus tbaH I be 
able to engaeo your dear instruction, which will be exceedingly pleasant. For 
this I write, iSso wishing you present hapiness in no small degiee. 
To-Biantoi, worthy and. respected sir, as if present. 

Your stupid younger brother Chan Tatkwai 
(Reply,} writes with compliments. 

. I lwv» received yvnr commands (egatding accompanying yon to the capital, 
to be yoor. traveling attendant {lit. whip-holder), for which I am very deeply 
grateftu. Bat my uttle affiurs are exceedingly hurried and troublesome, and at 
onoe I eaanot arrange them so as to pact; tq^t and be ott, and feai I cannot 
■fast with, jou on the appointed day. Will you, respected sir, please to precede 
wiUi your equipage, ana when my afl&irs allow me leisure, I will immediate^ 
follow after you as fiist as possible. I respectfully reti\rn this answer, and wish y<ra 
much present peace, without ceremonious trouble. 
To Yatkwlu, worthy and rcspcctcd'sir, on the left of his seat. 

His stupid younger brother Lciuig Mantoi- 

respectfully rephes. 



216 LESSONS IN HEADING AND 

No. VI.— LbTTKR to a DlStANT FRIEND. 



iA«*> 




lifc >^ A P^ H ^ 

- ■ ' ■ . ■ , ■ ■ ■ . ■ I . . I 

I would respectfully state. From the time when I left you, honored 
^r, imperceptibly the time has slipped away ; twice has the plum 
flower blossomed. I constantly remember that we have \teen already 
far separated, for a long time, there is not a day in which my heart 
does not glance to your place. The other day, just while I was think- 
ing of you, your valued favor suddenly came to me,— *I am most 
deeply indebted for your gracious favor. Truly the affairs of life iire 
like the moves of chess : — My heart has for a long time been like 
Wishes, or as th<e rdpt h^ad of a drum ; How can ttb^ remedied by m<edi. 
cinef ^ou, worthy sir^ have condescended to susk ajfter me, but indeed 
I have iib inclination to look after any serious business; I respectfully 
send this answer to inform you, and also wish you present good in 
fevery particular. 

To Sdmwai my worthy and respected brother at his feet. 

His junior Lam Yingtsii 
writes with compliments* 



INTO ClllNKSE. 



217 



No. VII. — Note accompanying a Present of Ink, ani> the Rmy. 



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Several cakes from the noble fir, [produced by] the sombre smoke floating about, 
or which might also be called ' dragon-guests ;' — are herewith respectfully presented 
on the right of your seat, that they may aid a little in wielding Yaukwan's sprink. 
ling [pencil]. Elegant and tasteful composition, and characters like the cloudy 
smoke, will of course from them proceed. I beg you will place this trifle by you, 
and I shall be highly favored. Respectfully sending this, I wish you full success 
in all your studies. 

To Heungttn, the second brother, respected sir on the right of his table, 

( Reply,) ^^® unworthy junior Li Wanying, humbly compHments. 

I have received your valued gift of the black gemmeous cakes ; although when 
they come on the pool thcv are of great value, still I am by no means skillful at 
composing, and cannot ofF-hand complete an essay, to illuminate (i. e. equal) your 
bounteous gift. But with drops of dew to rub on the stone, characters likie cloudy 
smoke in curling wreaths wilPfrom the pool arise. Your respected present, [which 
is placed] in a pard-skin bag, I thankfully accept, and if you will excuse me for a 
short time, I will come and thank you for it ; at the same time wishing you pleasant 
days in all respects. 

Xo Wanying, respected sir, on his writing-table, 

Ills unworthy jimior Chan Ileungun rcepcctfuily replies* 

EA. LES. 28 



218 LESSONS IJN READIiVG AND 

No. VIII. — Note of Cngratulation on becoming a Graduate (kAyan). 



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My friend has been competing on the arena for literary honors, and with honor 
receiving high advancement ; but you will not only have the happiness of ^being 
entered in the graduate rdl, for I also believe the water dragon will not long b« 
found in the pool (i. e. he will go on to higher honors). Therefore I conjecture 
that on the coming year you will, at the regular presentation [of Hanlin], be. the 
first one called out, thus phicking a sprig of the fragrant Olea from the palace of 
the moon, and then how much distinction will I not borrow ! Respectfully present, 
ing you with an insignificant trifle, to assist you somewhat in draining the golden 
goblet, I carefully send this, humbly wishing you all literary success. 

To T'intak, learned and respected sir, at the right of his seat. ^ 

His young schoolmate, Luk Kwoklung humbly bows. 
(OtUside address.) 

The inclosed letter I will trouble you, sir, to take to the {>rovincial 
city outside of the Great Peace gate near the Thirteen Factories, to the 
foreign merchandize shop T'inwo, and present it to Mr. Lai, surnam- 
T*lntak, with high respect. Luk Kwoklung of Shdmi's compliments. 

On the letter reaching, you will receive for postage 30 cash. 

Carefully . ^2" ^^' ^""^ ? ^ritten) scaled, 

•^ [or happily, or detensivelyj 



TRANSLATING. 



219 



No. -IX.—RtFI.Y TO Tilt FRECIDING. 




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I, who possess the poorest and shallowest talents, always disgraced the seat of 
learmng when in it ; my wings arc not yet full grown, and how can I presume to 
hope of rising to the clouds. 1 merely followed in the common order, for it is. 
only once in three years that we can answer to our names, when unexpectedly I 
jnM lucky enough to enter into the autumn gate (i. e. become a graduate). 
Although my early antic ipaticms are realized, I am deeply ashamed at seeing my 
name in the list, — how will you, my worthy friend, be able to cleanse my shameless 
face! I am exceedingly obliged for your valued gift, and do now respectfully 
thank you for your goodness, and if you will excuse me a little while, I will 
come in person and thank you. I humbly send this, at the same time wishing you, 
rising or sitting, abundant delights. 

To Kwoklung, honored and respected sir, at the left of his table. 

His junior schoolmate Lai T'intak respectfully replies, 

(^Outside address,) 

I beg you to take this letter to Liinhing street in the provincial city, 
to the shop Shingll, and in my stead give it Mr. Luk Kwoklung, <Sj^c., 
to be quietly opened. T* intak, from Wingt* ong street, seals and sends it. 



222 



LESSONS IN READING AND 



Conclusion of the same. 




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kfjte, already petitioned and obtitined the permission of the high authorities, 
to quickly urge it in all directions that food be freely furnished. Moreover 
all kinds of provisions are permitted to be bought and sold without any let 
or hindrance, nor as was the case before, should there be on any articles 
deficiency or want. But we have ascertained that in Macao and other places 
the prices of articles are not yet cheapened, and moreover that some are 
hoarding it up to sell, which is indeed obstructing the food of the people, 
and which we do again by this command prohibit. 

Wherefore this command is issued, that all the shopkeepers and inhabitants 
of Macao, and the adjacent villages and hamlets, may be fully acquainted 
with it. You may all traffic with the peaceable inhabitants, with the Portu- 
guese and all other foreigners in rice, flour, &c. It should be according 
to the current price, both buying cheap and selling cheap, and do not on 
account of the demand raise the price, in order to benefit yourselves at the 
expense of others ; if any one presume not to regard this, that shop shall be 
straightway sealed up, and the shopkeeper seized, and strictly examined 
without leniency. Let every one reverently obey, without opposition. A 
special edict. 

f^wmulgated on the 19th year, 7th month, and 19th day of T6kw6ng. 



TKANSLATINt;. 



223 



No. XII. — Proclamation and rules hkcjAruing the C-apture of Grasshoppers. 



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T«tt and W&ng, by special appointment magistrates of the districts of 
Nlimhoi and Pfinyli, raised ten steps and recorded ten times, Hereby dis- 
tinctly publish important rules for the capture of grasshoppers, that it may 
be known how to guard against them, in order to ward off injury and calami- 
ty. On the 7th day of the 8th month in the 13th year of T6kw6ng (Sept. 
20th, 1833), we received a communication from the prefect of this [depart- 
ment of ICw6ngchau], transmitting a dispatch from their excellencies the 
governor and lieut.-govemor, as follows : 

" During the fifth month of the present year, flights of grasshoppers ap- 
peared in the limits of Kwdngsai, in [the departments of] Li6, Ts'am, Kwai, 
and 'Ng, and their vicinage; which have already, according to report, 
been clean destroyed and driven off. We have heard that in the department 
of Kdchau and its neighborhood, conterminous to Kwongsai, grasshoppers 
have appeared which multiply with extreme rapidity. At this time, the 
second crop is in the blade, (which if destroyed will endamage the people,) 
and it is proper therefore immediately wherever they are found to capture 
and drive them ofl^, marshaling the troops to advance and wholly exterminate 
them. But Kw6ngtung heretofore has never experienced this calamity, and 
we apprehend the officers and people doytmderstand ' the mode of capture, \^ 
wherefore we now exhibit in order the niost important rules for catching / 
grasshoppers; Let the governor's combined forces be immediately instructed 






LESSONS IIN HEADING AND 



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to capture them secundum artem^ at the same time let orders be issued Tor 
the villagers and farmers at, once to assemble and take them, and for the 
magistrates to establish storehouses for their reception and purchase, thus 
without fail sweeping them clean away. If you do not exert yourselves to 
catch the grasshoppers, your guilt will be very great; let it be done carefully, 
not clandestinely delaying, thus causing this misfortune to come upon your- 
selves, transgressing the laws, and causing us again according to the etxi- 
gencics of the case to promulge general orders, and make thorough examina- 
tions, A-c, A-c. Appended hereto are copies of these rules for catching 
grasshoppers, which from the lieut. -governor must be sent to the treasurer, 
who will enjoin it upon the magistrates of the departments, and be again 
enjoin it upon the district magistrates." 

Having received the preceding, besides respectfully transmitting it to the 
colonel of the department to be straightway forwarded to all the troops uoder 
his authority, and also to all the district justices, that they all with unitoi 
.purpose bend their energies to observe at tl^ proper time, that whenever the 
grasshoppers become numerous they join thejr forces and extirpate theno, tfauB 
jremoving calamity from the people, we also enjoin upon whoever receives this 
that they catch the grasshoppers according^ to these several directions, whicb 
are therefore here arranged in order as follows : 

1. When the grasshoppers first issue forth, they are to be seen on the 
borders ot'lurgi: morasses, from whence VUcv <\uicklv multiply and fill lw|« 

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truta of. lu)d ; tbe; produce tbcir young in little hillocks of black earth, 
luin^ the tail -to kore into the ground, not quite itn inch in depth, which 

stiU remain as open holes, the whole somewhnt reaemhljiig & bee's neat. One 
grasshopper drops ten or more pellatE, in form like a pea, each one contaiaing 
a hundred or more young. Qg the young grasshoppers fly and eat in ewarma, . 
an^ this laying of their young la done aU at ohce and in the Game spot ; tbe 
place resembles ahive of bees,andtheTerofe.it ia very easily sought and found, 
ff. When the grasshoppers are in the fields of wheat and tender rice and 
the thick zraf s, every day at early daivn they all alight on the leaves of the 
-graeaj and thuir bodiPS "being covered with dew are heavy and they cannot 
py or hop; at noon, they begin to assemble fo^ fiight,'and at eveniqg they 
collect in one spot. Thus each day tbfire are three periods when tiiey can 
be caught, and the people aiid gSutry will also have a short respite. The 
modeof catching them is to dig a trench before them, the broader and longer 
tlt^ better, on each side placing boOt'ds,' of doors, screens and suchlrkethings; 
o^esfretched on after another, ind sprfcading open each side, Thte wTiole muU 
Utudethen must cry aloud, and hoi ding boards in their hands, drive them all into 
the trench; m,eainvhtluil(ose.on thooj^Hjsjte srdc, proficttil with t^iUmA and 



LESSONS IN READING AND 



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Takettj on seeing any leaping'orcWwVin'gOut.'BrtiMAH'eleAiherTi back ; then 
covering them with dry gmas, burn ttietn bU up. Let ihttfirtf be^fir^' kindled 
In Ui» trench, ant then drive themmtoiti l^r if -they i^',ion|7 buried up, 
(hen BmnyoTthem will crawl out of the openings xhd so eaCiipe. 

' '?. When the swarina of grasslioppcrs see a row of Irees, or a close line 
of flags ami slreamers, they usually hovor over nndec'tllc;' and (lie farmers 
frequenlly suspeinl red and white clolhes and [lelticoats on lono; polos, or inajie 
i^d and green p8i)er flags, but they do not atWiiys lietLle with great rapidity, 
Moredver, llicy dread the dOise of gongs, mBtchlockg, and guns, hearing which 
they fly away. Jf they come ho as to obscure the htavens, yoa must lei off 
the gnns and Clang the gongs, or lire Die crackers ; jt Will strike the front 
hints with dread, and flymg away, the real will follow them and depart. 

''4. , W|ien Llie wiugs and legs of the grasslioppers ace taken pIT andXt^eir 
bodies] dried in the spo, the tuete ^ie Tike dried prawn^ and moreover they 
can tie kept a longtime without spoiling, {^ucka.can aisa>^ reared. upon (A? 
jlried'graBslioppen^, BndeDOobccoiii(^la|rgCBnd fa(,, Moreo^, the liill peoplu 
^tch tli'em to fucd pigs: ihcEe pigai weighiiig at Rrst onluweiily catti^ 



TRA!!<SLATING.. 



227 



Conclusion op thk samr. 



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or so, in ten da^s' time grow to weigh more than fifty catties ; and in rearing 
all dodnestjc aniinalsi they are of use. Let all farmers exert themselves, and 
6a£ch them alive, giving rice or money according to the number taken. In 
qrder.to rempve this calamity from your grain, what fear is there that you 
will not perform this 1 Let all these rules for catching the grasshoppers be 
^ilige^dy c&Tried into full effect. 

Wherefore these commands are transcribed that all you soldiers and people 
may be folly acquainted with them. Do you all then immediately in obedi- 
ence to them, when you see the proper time has come, sound tho^ng ; and 
wiienycm^see the grasshoppers and their young increasing, straightway get 
ready, on the one hand seizing them, and on the other announcing to the 
officers that they collect the troops, that with united strength you may at once 
catch them, without fail making an utter extermination of them, by which 
calamity will be removed from the people. We will also then confer rewards 
upon those of Uie farmers and people who first announce to the magistrates 
theif apprpach. i^et every one implicitly obey. A special command.- 

Pcon^ulgHted Tokwong, 13th year, 8th month, and 15th day. 

(Sept. 26th, 1834.) 



I I 



228 



LESSONS IN READING AND 



No. XIII. — Proclamation prom Yikshan to the People 







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Yik, by imperial commission the rebel-quelling general, high minister in th^ im- 
perial presence, char^efd with the command of the palace body guard, a prin. 
cipal general in the Red [Mantchou] standard division, and irithe Chinese army, 

■ and- one of the imperial kindred; . . . ;. . s . 

Y6ung, art iniperiai councillor and great minister, major-general of the fdrces in 
U'kw6ng, and a marquis of distinguished bravery ; • «... 

Ts'ai, an imperial councillor and great minister, and maj6r-gerte)>al bf the ftirces'in 
Sz'ch'On; 

Ki, secondary guardian of tljie heir.apparent, president of the' Board of War, and 

*_ ■•• Alia 'W^ « « " 



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duly appointed .governor of the two Kwong; and 
i, vice-president of the Board of Vyar, and 1/eii^nai^tjgayeinQr pf.Kw,6ngl]ang; 
Hereby, in obedience to the imperial will, issue a plain proclamation. 

Whereas, our dynasty, widiely ruling over all countries, soothes an^ tranqjiillizeg 
both at home ai^d abcoad with deep benevolence ;sind large povinty, and for ^wo 
hundred years even to this time has sw;"aycd over those from afar, who pot regard, 
ing many myriads of nliles as distant have still come to engage in commerce 
and reciprocal barter; and for those who have sped their pray here from other 
lands, their ships following one another in succession, there have been stated re- 
galationa at di^jrent times established, so tViai %V\ nvIvo tvoAoe ^^oor went away rici^ 
through .Qur abun^^-n^ favor and compassvoiv-. iVu^ \^ vjVvaA. ^ncx^ v».^ct^ w^>:v4'<^ 



TRANSLATING. 



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and fbreign, have all heard and seen. Now, it appears that from the time the 
Eni^ligh first came to this market, there was mutual quiet for a long time ; but by 
reason of trtiitorous natives inciting and deluding them, at last war has arisen. 
Our august empeh>r, fondly thinking on the people dependent upon him, and ' 
moreover compassionating the merchants from other lands whose trade has beeii 
stopped, has specially commissioned us to lead on troops, and according to circum. 
stances to exterminate or to make peace". On the day, when I the" general had 
audience of leave, the most urgent of his majesty's comniands was not to rashly 
kill — whoever has blood and breath (i. e. all men) will with united voice express their 
grateful feelings, and reverently look up to his imperial majesty's benevolence. 

But reflecting that for several days there had been fignting upon the waHs of 
the city, and that the cannonading having been very sharp, the hes^s of people 
were terrified ; and also, banditti improving the pppprtunity, set fire to ^welUng. 
hoasee, so that the people within the city tumultuously come and be^ugfat me to 
quiet the troops; I, the general, and my colleagues have been exccedin^y afifepted 
with all these circumstances and appearances, and afraid of opposing his sabred 
tliBJesty^ kind feelings, have again pitied the unhappiness of the people in fleeifig 
^nd leaving their homos ; and 3iave therefore unitedly besought the favor, ana 
llliTe now received 'the imperial commands perm\tt\T\g;>i^vf\l\vte^e;i^Tv\.c^^v&Ti^^ 
to the former fixed regulsLtiona to carry on trade w\lV\ l\\c I&tx^wYv «» \j«v3n\, veA ^X. 
^ Btnfe time to make fall investigations as to a\\ those NvYvoae ^v^e\\vxv^'s^\v%.Nt\««^ 



232 



LESSONS IN HEADING AND 



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(in the Macao, passage), quite through to Whampoa, and thence on to the Bocca 
Tigris, where the outlets of the river to sea divide into branches, and the side 
passages are exceedingly numerous, and the shallows and sands level and ezpan- 
sive, there are in all of these places no important positions which we can defend. 
Moreover,' the embankments of the fields near the hills are narrow, so that we 
cannot pitch a camp or intrench the troops ; and from all the hills on the north, 
pnej ban look down into the city ; where foreigners have been at All times secretly 
goUng. about, spying, and examining, fur it has been no easy matter to prevent them. 
^ ']iVh^n, on llie formei* occasion, we had completely prepared all our matierials for an 
attadk by fire at a ^ place called Naishing, (distant from the city fifteen IQ employ, 
ing rafts and paddy' straw,, which had l^n sent on from KYf6ng8ai by way of the 
town of Sdmshui, and had' placed them in the. country opposite: the moni^stery at 
Kamsh^n and' be}owi appointing ^ head deputy to have tt^m all m readiness ; the 
said'^eb^ls. havingVttde i^quine^^f^d ascertained that both kinds of our. rafts were 
d[tK>ht ready^ on' the first d9.y of the ,n^on and af^^rwards opened the attack. They 
8ck>A secfetly'sei^t tlieu: sHips* boats to sound the depth of the water, but the troops 
wno were then' on the loofiqul gqarding opened upon them a fire of cannon and 
musketry, and compcllea tliem to retire. However, on the fifth of the moon, 
'thirty.eight sail of foreign vessels sailed into the river to attack th^ city, and others 



TRANSLATING. 233 

Continuation op the same. 






[of the enemy] on board of steamers went up to Naishingr and attacked it by wa- 
ter ; while Chinese traitors, dressed as sailors, in a body got into our vessels filled 
wiUi straw, and set fire to them in all directions, so that the greater part of the 
faggots and straw stored in the rear of the army was quite destroyed. These Chi- 
nese traitors, then taking to the water like ducks went ashore, and taking a circuit 
by land came upon our force in the rear, which was thus attacked on three sides, 
«nd Naishing could no longer be maintained. 

At this time the communications by water were quite stopped, and it was also 
difficult to report by letter ; those who were hastening to direct implements of 
attack, on the one hand could not ?et there quickly to oversee them, and on the 
other could not expeditiously forward them to the city. Moreover, although there 
were provisions for the troops in store which could at any time be ground, still the 
food of the people all comes in from the villages ; and if we had at this time made 
a stoat defence of the city, then no supply of rice could have been brought to the 
trader, — and still worse, food for the people would have been hard to procure. 
Added to this, the cannonading was unintermitting, and the inhabitants of the 
New city moved in a mass into the Old city. Now, in the event of a long struggle, 
there would undoubtedly be a serious impediment from want of provisions, and 
he wrath of the people would be aroused, wbieh we could not think of being able 
sustain. And the j^nuvincial city is a most' important spot, being of the greatest 

BA. LES. 30 



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LESSOISS |xN B3i^ADlNG AND 



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consequence Iq the whole province, and if it is lost by any remissnesSf marauding 
banditti will take advantage thereof, and in every department, district, and town, 
rise up like wasps. Moreover, the grand army is now assembled, and wo are 
under continual apprehension for them while here ; but if we should lead the troops 
into the open country, we could there select numerous localities into which to 
entice [the enemy] and give them battle ; but there is not the least reason why the 
provincial capital should be abandoned. If it is saved and we with it, the respon. 
sibility wholly rests with us, your slaves ; but to lose botli it and us, truly does not 
by any means seem to be the plan for preserving the country ; — we your 8lav<» 
have most anxiously reflected upon the matter for days and nights, and in truth 
there is no other plan.- 

When we examined • the northern side of the city on arriving, the forts which 
were there originally, were made exceedingly contracted and small, insufficient to 
contain large garrisons, and we could only select the bravest of our troops fcN* the 
northern city, a^nd place guns there to maintain it strictly. Thus it was, when 
the foreigners, on landing from their ships at Naishing came straight to the 4 

northern .city, the cannon on the walls opened a thundering fire, and killed ten or -: 
more of the rebels, and more than a hundred native traitors. The foreigners then m 
retired to maintain themselves u^the hills, they having already taken possession .m. 
of the forts there ; and it being now dark, our officers and troops for the time drew ^-^ 



TRANSLATING. 



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6ff and retired within the city. Further, on the seventh of the moon, the inhabit 
l^nts ^ the city came in great numbers and presented a petition begging the favor 
that we would save the lives of all the citizens. Also the soldiers stationed to 
^iiard the embrasures, verbally announced that the foreigners without the city 
^cre beckoning towards the walls as if they had somewhat to say ; whereupon I 
immediately dispatched colonel Hung Suishing to mount the wall and reconnoitre. 
He saw several foreign eyes (leaders) pointing to the heaven, and then to the 
earth, but he (Hung Suiching) not understanding what they said, thereupon 
called' a linguist to ask them what they wanted. It appears that tliey said, *we 
wish to request the high general [to come out], as we have some grievances to 
state to him.' Major-general TUn Wingfuk angrily replied, 'Tliis high general of 
the celestial dynasty, how can he come and see you ! He lias come here by order, 
and knows only to fight you.* Tliese foreign leaders ujion this took off their hats 
and made a bow, sent away their attendants, laid down their arms upon the 
ground, and performed an obeisance towards the wall. 

Tfln Wingfuk, having requested and obtained permission of us, your slaves, 
then sent a linguist down from the walls to ask ♦ why they so rebelliously re- 
sisted the [forces of the] Ocntral-flowery land, and had been unruly and con- 
tnrq^cions so frequently, and what it was that oppressed them !' It appears that 
they replied, * The English foreign(;rs are not allowed to trade, and cannot dis- 
their goods; their capital is altocrpther wasted, ai\d vW^ Vys^n^ wANxvcv'^ 



tney re] 
pofve of 



236 



LESSONS IN READING AND 



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to pay their debts ; that because the cannonading on the side of the New city 
was so terrible they were unable to communicate, and had come this side to 
intreat the high general to beg the mighty emperor to compassionate them, and 
condescend to permit them to carry on their commerce: Uiey would then im- 
mediately withdraw out of the Bocca Tigris, restore all the forts, and not pre. 
sume to make any more such disturbance, &^., &c.* At the same time, the whole 
body of hong-merchants stated, saying, *That all the said foreign merchants 
had begged of them to get the trade carried on as before, and also to have 
the debts due them for many years cleared off^ when they wotUd immediately 
withdraw all their men-of-war outside of the Bocca Tigris, &.C., &^.' 

Your slaves, having considered all the circumstances of the case, that the 
defences of the Bocca Tigris are already lost, and that neither within nor without 
was there a place which could be depended upon ; — also considering the hun. 
dreds of thousands of living souls within the city, and that we could not success, 
fully contend with the foreigners, there was no better plg,n than to accede to 
the request of the people, by which we should preserve the city from danger, 
and reanimate the drooping spirits of the people. On carefully estimating the 
duties and revenues of this province of Kwongtung, they do not fall un^ 
two millions of taels; and if we can only quite clear off these foreign claiiqs, 
after a few years the resources [of the province] will recover ; whpreas, if w^ 
Jon^ maintain the contest, perhaps it will give rise to sonie unforeseen ^y9i 



TRANSLATING. 



237 



Conclusion of 


THE 8AMB. 


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which not only will be exceedingly difficult to remedy or recover from, but 
also the common people, who are the support and foundation of the state, if they 
should experience so grievous a calamity, the consequences would be veiy serious. 
Therefore, having publicly deliberated together, we concluded specially to depute 
Yfl Pdshun, the prefect of Kwongchau f(i, to investigate and temporarily allow 
them to trade alike with all countries — it being of the nrst importance to reanimate 
the people. These said rebels regard a mutual trade as their very life blood. 
And when the foreign ships have withdrawn, and the native traitors are all dis. 
persed, then, beginning from the river at the city down to the Bocca Tigris, we 
will at every important pass block up the channel with stones, and build new forts, 
at the same time casting cannon for the embrasures. Thus when the door of 
entrance is firmly secured, and our means of defence such as can be depended 
upon, we shall, as it were, have our gripe on their throat. Then, if they again 
presume to act outrageously, yfe can instantly cut off their trade, so that we have 
the means in our hands of ii^anaging them. 

All these true particulars which have taken place in this recent attack on and 
defence of the city, together with the causes of the temporary expedients we have 
ad(^ted, being carefully brought together and arranged in their minutest points-, 
we do humbly beg his n^ajesty's holy glance upon, |md that we may be instructed 
thereupon t>y edict. A careful memorial, 



238 LESSONS IN READING AND 

No. XV.— Impebial Rescript to the Preceding. 



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Oq the 29th day of the 4th moon, in the 21st year of T6kw6n^, wc received 
[th^ fiDllowing] high mandate: The memorial of Yiksh^n arid his colleagues re- 
^pecting the attack of the ships of the English foreigners upon the provincial capi. 
tal, aj(xd that marshaling the troops they have preserved it without loss, and of the 
temporary expedients they have adopt(^d, has been examined and .its contents fullv 
ascertained. Since the time our troops attacked and twice drove out the Elnglish 
fbreignenf, their schemes being exhausted and their strength reduced, Ihey hav^' 
joined, their forces and [again] entered to join battle; their disposition resembles 
tl^tt of the dog or sheep, with whom it is not worth while to enter into arrange. 
mjBnts. Moreover, they have already been reprimanded, by which was mani- 
fested the terror of our arms. It seems that the inhabitants of the city both 
within and without tumultunusly came presenting a petition ; and alsQ it appears 
frum-the.memorial that the said barbarians taking off their hats made' obefsauce, 
and requested that a memorial might be prepared begging favor on their behalf. 
We sincerely believe that they could not but thus give utterance to the griefs of 
their besirts, and we permit that you give them liberty to trade. It was exceeding, 
ly proper that the said general and his colleagues should most peremptorily in- 
struct the afotesaid leaders of the foreigners instantly to withdraw all thcir,troops 
yjid. Bl)ip0 U> the outer ocean, and render back all the forts. It is necessary too 
tJi^at they do, as before, tremblingly obey the fortner fixed' regulations ; thby caij 



TKAKSLAXIiVG. 



239 



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; only trade ^ of old, nor is. i^allowable kr oppose the prohibitions, and. clandestinely 

.bring. i;i the smoking earth (opium). If they dare again to rebel, they can oi^ 119 

account be forgiven. We at the same time require the general and his colleagues 

in CQunection with the governor and lieut-govemor to deliberate, with their vmbl.e 

hearts, and carefully settle the regulations. The disposition of the foreigners fs 

hard to calculate upon, and consequently it is necessary closely to guard ags^inst 

their wiles, not permittiriff the least remissness 6r oversight. After the ships, of 

' the said foreigners have retired, let all the forts and such important 'passe? ais ^re 

'to be guarded, be straightway carefully repaired and built up in a strong and 

-firm maniicr; and then if the English foreigners exhibit their obstinate overbearL 

! in^- disposition, let the troops be marshaled as before, and they at once ezterminaited^ 

It may not be, that, because favor has already been granted them, that all their 

avaricious demands- should therefore be complied wi&. v." 

-J With reference to the other memorial respecting the dwellings of ..the. i^lt- 

• bitants wjthin and without the city having many of them been burned by jthe fire, 

let.Ki...Kung and I16ung immediately send a deputy to exan^ine fully regarding 

what is proper to be donc; to re-assure and h^lp them. And with reference to the 

.2,800,000 tacls of silver borrowed from the treasury, let [the same officeirs'] iipmedf- 

ately instruct the' said merchants to return it in a given number of years ; hot the 

least remissness or delay can be allowed". Whatever else there is let it Be manSLgcd 

according to the established mode, tct (his be hastened at the rate. of <IQQ Xi ^ 

day, and commsind ihcin to be made acquaiuled mV\\ \\., IS^^w^^X. >Js»Si» 



240 



LESSONS IN READING AND 



No. XVI.— A Pbtition to the Prbfbct op Canton. 



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A duly prepared petition of the American merchants X. X.» Y. Y, and 
others. They petition, that whereas .the channel of the river bein^ seriously ob. 
structed, they beg that deliberation may beheld respectii^cleanng it out, and 
removing the danger to merchantmen entering the port. Since we have come 
to Canton to trade» the merchantmen which have entered the port have not 
bpen few, and heretofore there has been no risk of encountering any damage 
within the river ; but it happened ip the middle decade of the tenth moitth 
of this year that [the Eos, captain] Turner's ship, not being carefully sailed 
into the inner anchorage, the bottom of the vessel was stove in by the stones; 
and at present she cannot be saved or got off, while one half of the cotton 
in her hold is already wet. Although she had a pilot, yet this happened 
wholly from the narrowness of the channel, the sand and stones stopping 
it up, and causing a very serious impediment that made it difficult to pass. 
This is to the deep mjury of the foreign merchants, and we take the Hbert^ 
of reauesting a consultation as to opening [the channel], and making if 
passable, for which we will be exceedingly obliged. 
A respectful petition presented to V\\a eiiQ^^eiivc^ \}ca ^h^^^^V tsiQ^esting 
Jiim to examine and decide upon, \l and siaxiX >aA X^coa i^^^x. 
TokwoDg, 20tb year, llth mouth, ^ Cia^ . 



TRANSLATING. 



241 



^o. XVII. — Reply to a Petition 



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Ts^ung, 8ub.prefect of Macao in the department of Kwongchau, attached to the 
ic^lestid dynasty, commands the Amcilcan foreign merchants Sz*,'lAi, and PS, 
to become folly acquainted with the following. On the sixth of the jjnSBsiTit ^tiionth, 

- it appears that the said foreign merchants petitioned, [in substance] sayinjgr :' <*Thct 
the English superintendent £lliot has promul^ted an order that afterthe (eiiUi ,i^y 
of this month, the merchantmen of all countries shall not be allov^^d to^iit)6^ the 
port, &c., &c. : but since we merchants are only engaged abotit matters bf triid^, 
we cannot think of opposing him, and shall coiisider oi^elves fdrtunate in sooh 
avbidhig his machinations. Now the merchantmen of our country which ^ill 

'presently arrive are numerous, and we think that if, on their arrival, they' ailB 
required to be examined at Macao, and then take a pilot to go up th& 'riy^i*, 
th3re Will be a delay of some days, which will retard those shipd jUist a^ivinfg : and 
nioreoyeri the ii^urv accruing from overpasging the 'iimiited Untie by riem^hiing alt 
anchor outside, will not be trifling. Therefore, on this, account, we request that 

'<he dtiips may be allowed to proceed directly to the 6bb6a llgris and .fthcliir 
within the chain, there to be examined, and then get a pilot to '^o up thi^ river, 

' &«., &ic.*' From this it appears that the English superintendent l^Hiot; pehrei'sefy 
unruly in all possible ways, and selling the la\y3 at defiance, now wished agkin to 
exercise authority over the merchanlmtn of all coahVtiea wv^ 'ipw\v^Hl'>5a.^\!t ^oNsx- 

JBA* LES, 31 



242 



LESSONS IN READING AND 



Conclusion of Reply to a Petition. 





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)i^ t^e port/ which Js still moce, audaoiou? ; and these ■ foreign merchants, iia. 
jiviliipg to aid or side withihinii have petitioned i hat the mercbantinen about to 
'arrive may; hp allowed tp sail directly to the Bocca Tigris "and there anchor; and 
•^ter waiting to be. examined^; take a pilot and sail up the river. ■ » 

. This coming before me, although it will be against the fixed regulations, yet on 
account. of the present difficulties with the English foreigners, a little indulf^eat 
,fiavoif.may.b|C ^own, in oi;der to compassionate those peaceable foreigners of other 
- countries who. carry on a legal- trade. While, therefore, I now lay all these 
circumstances, before their excellencies (the governor and lieut .-governor), and 
, petition* for auvanswer to be s^at down regarding- it, I also issue these commands. 
'When they reach the said foreign merchants, they are, according the tenor there- 
of, pcrniitted to -c^iLrry such merchantmen as shall soon arrive directly up to the 
, ^occa Tigris, and after examination then to take a pilot and proceed up the river. 
^jEfoyrever,. let, t|iis mode be acted on only till affairs with the English are brought 
^tp.p, conclusion, when they are commanded, as is the regular custom, to petition 
•. to .^e examined' at Macao, and there take in a pilot. Hasteii, hasten! A 8pecia\ 
. command.- 

Tokvipng, 10th year, 8th month, aud 7vh d«i^. (,«evU I4lh, 1839.) 



T-8AlliISLATmG. 



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No. XVI n.— Letter from Commirstoner Lin to the Queen of England. 








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Lam, high imperial commissioner, a president of the Board . of War, and 

governor of the t^o U ; . 

Tang, a president of the Board of War, and govemor of the two Kw6ng; 

. i, a vice-president of the Board of War, and lieutrgovfirnor of Kw6ngtung,-r- 
- c(>|\jaintly. address this communication to die soverejign of the English nation, for 
'; tke purpose o£ requiring the interdiction of opium. 
J.. WhiireaSf ti^e ways of heaveiH are without partiality^ and no sanction is alloweid 

ta injure others in order to bevefit one's self, and tltat men's natural feelings are 
..not very diverse; (for where is he who does not abhor death and love life?) — there. 
; lore yo9r honorable nation, though beyond the wide ocean, at a distance of twenty 

thousand miles, also acknowledges the same ways of heaven, the same human 

nature, and has the like perception of the distinctions between life and. death, 

benefit and injury. Our heavenly court has for its family all that is within the fopr 
. saae ; and as to the great emperor's heaven-like benevolence — there is none whom 

it does not overshadow ; even regions remote, desert, and disconnected, have a 
-.part in. hia general care of life and wellbeing. 

In .IJ^wongtung, since the removal of the interdicts upon maptime communic^. 

tion, there has been a constantly flowing stream of commercial intercourse. The 
..people, of the land, and those who come from abro^jd in fom^ c»Vvv^,\v^n^\€^^<«^\ 

tpgeit^er in the enjoy meni pf its advantages, for lena ot ^eax% ^^fvC, Qse^xw \>^nj\^Cq^ 



244 



LESSON!^ IN READING AND 



Continuation op Commtssione r Lin'b Lett 



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time. And as regards the rhubftrb, teas, raw silk, and Bimilar rich and Valuable 
products of China,, should foreign nations be deprived of them, they woiild be 
without the mcansbf ciorttihuinff life. So that the heavenly court, by ^ranthtgr, in 
the universality of its common oenevolence, permission fol* th^iif sale and ekp^Uu ' 
' tion, without the least stiiit or grudge, has indeed extended its favon to the Mlno^ 
. circuit [of the nations], makincr its heart one with that of heaven and earth. BQt. 
there is a tribe of dep^ved and barbarous people^ wl^o, having manufacttired opiuiv^ 
fear ^mo)dng, surreptitiously bring it hither for sale, seducVg l^n^ leading astray iki.^ 
sitiikple folk, in order to destroy their bodies and draip their resoprces. Former^T^ 
the smokers thereof were few; but of late, from each to other the (iraotice Iksas 
' i(|]ircad. its contagion, apd daily do its baneful efiects more (deeply pertade the (»^- 
trtd source— its rich, fruitful, and flourishing pop.ulation. It is not to be denrnjE*/! 
ihat the simple folk, inasmuch as they indulge their appetite at the expense 4ii 




'l](i^tier8 shoiild be correct. How can it be borne that the living ^oul8 who Awe\^ 
yOhin thc0e seas, should be left at will to take a deadly poison? Hence it if, 

' th^t those who deal in opinm, or who" \\\\\^V. Ws^wmt^, "NXVVkti \Vv\& Vvld^ are atf 
^ kfike' novtr to be subjiEicted toaeyerett pnnw^tcveivl, wv^ \>mX "a. ^t^\>as\*v^«^ 

h to be placed on ihis prevailing ptacVVcc* 



TRANSLAtrNG. 

CoNTTNUAtlON or €.0 M A IS 8 I ON B R Lin's LEtTBR. 



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We have t«fleeted^ thM this poi66n(>us odmmodity i« the clftndestHM itiatvufkotere 
oif mahcibtts sieffMmei^ ak^d (lepraTcd people of various tribefd tmder the ddmiftkm 
6? ybifir hdhoiiible nation ; fat it canhot be, that yOQ^ the hdnorabfe MVere)^ of 
thitt ' nation; have oommattdtiid the manufacture a^d dale of it. But amjd the 
V^rio^' ftatioMs there are a fe# only that make thifi article : It is by n^ uieaiiB the 
-ciiflfe thkt all the nations sjre heirein alike, ^nd we have also heard that in y^xit 
'hMomMe natid^, the people are not pem^itted to inhale the dmg, and that off&n. 
=ddrt \iei this particular expose themselves to ^ure puiiishment. It is clearly from & 
%riowl6dge of its injurious ei^ts oi^ man, tliat you have directed this sev6i« 
Y»r6h!hhi6n against it. But what is prohibiting its Use, in comparison >*trith prohi- 
1>iting its sale, or its manufacture,— as a means of thoroughly pufifjnnir the source ? 
"T^lidUgh not m&king "use of it one's self, to venture nevertheless \o mannAicftii^ 
^HhA sell it, and with it to 'Seduce the simple folk of this land, is to seek one's Own 
'Hvelihnod by exposing others to deiath — to pursue one's own advantage by other 
ifo^'ii injury.' Now all such acts are bitterly abhorrent to the nature of man, and 
\ittt6ify o|iposcd to the ways of heaven. To the vigorous sway exercised by thb 
celesiiii cmrt over both the civilized and the barbaroiw, what difliculty can them 
be to hinder itttmediately taking their lives? But as we contemplate and give 
inibstantial being to the fullness and vastness of the sacTed \wl&\\\^€!fvci«, \\.\Mb^v%\x^ 
to ttfiopt Brat the conree of a^n^Qnition. MoTeovet, ^a >Ne Yiv^^ tvoX -^^V %»(^\ ^x^ 



246 LESSONS IN READING AND 

Continuation of Commissioner Lin's Letter. 






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public communication to your majesty, — should thepe severe interdicts be all at 

<)nce enforced, . you might say, in excuse, that you had no previous knowledge of 

them. We would now^ then, concert with your majesty means to biing to a pec 

petual end this opium, so hurtful to mankind : we m this land forbidding the use qf 

it, aojd you, in the nations under your dominion, forbidding its manuf|U!;tur^ As 

regards what has already been made, we would have your honorable mition imme. 

diataly issue a mandate for it$ entire collection, that the whole may be cast into 

-the depths of the sea. We would thus prevent the longer existence between heaven 

■and earth of any portion of the baneful thing. Not only then will the people of 

this IsMud be. relieved from its pernicious influence; but the people of your honora. 

'ble nation too (for as they make, how know we that they do not also smoke it?) 

will, when the manufacture is indeed forbidden, be, likewise relieved from the 

.danger of its use. Will npt each then enjoy the happiness of a general peace, for 

•ygiur honorable nation's sense of duty being thus devout shows a clear apprehension 

:pf celestial principles, and the supreme heavens will ward off from ypu all cal^. 

mities. It is also in perfect accordance with human nature, and mustjmrelj 

meet the approbation of s^iges. , 

Furtberraore, the opium is now so severely prohibited in this land that none will 
be found , to smoke it ; slu>uld yOur nation continue its manufacture, it wiUlie dis. 
.CQyrere4 after all that no place will afford opportunity f^jr spjling i(, and^ tljat qo 



'rKANSl■ATI^G. 



247 



Conclusion oV Commissioner Lin*s Letter. 



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. piofiM .uiQ. attain&ble. .Is it not far ^tter to turn and seek other occupations, 
than vainly to labor in.the. pursuit of a losing employment ? And again, whatever 
opitim can be discovered in this land is entirely committed to the flames^ to be 
'OoiMwne4M If any be 9^gain privily introduced in foreign vessels, it too must be 
■ subjected to a like process of destruction. It may well be feared, lest other com- 
nibditles im^rted in such vessels should meet a common fate — the gem and the 
p€»k|lli not, being distinguished. Thus it will be, that gain being no longer acqiii- 
rabte, , while, hurt has assumed a visible form, sucii as desire to injure others will 
find t&ai th'ey thernsclves are the first to be injured. The iilstrumentality whereby 
the celestial court holds in subjection all nations is truly divine and awe-inspiring 
beyond the power of computation. Let it not be said that early warning of this 
has not been given. 

When your m^jesty receives this document, let a speedy reply be returned 
[informing] us of the measures you adopt for entirely eradicating it from every 
seaport. Do not, on any account, by false embellishments evade or procrastinate. 
Earne stly reflect hereon. Earnestly observe these things. 

Lwong, lilth year, 2d fnonlh,— — day. Communication sent to the sovereign 
of the English anlion. 



. A/i^^, ^^:y. 



248 LESSONS IN HEAPING AND 



The preceding specimens of state pe^iprs, ,all of wjtiich) witb onp 
exception, are genuine, exhibit the most common forms of those *doci^- 
ments ; and although they do not, by any mea^s, contff^ui idl the. tech- 
nical terms and phrases which the student will meet with in this kin^ 
of writing, they will show him their general structure, Bui ^ssis^ 
I him in a measure to translate others. Notwithstanding the genersil 
uniformity of the legal style among the Chinese, it still allows great 
scope \n wliich to exhibit, the talen.ts and learning of the writer, an<l 
soine of thq vproclamations and memorials of high officers are finished 
, pieces of comppsitiop. In translating a document pf this nature, 
, care must >be- taken to express whatever commands from a superior 
; to an ififerior officer are contained in it, or the injunction of the officer 
who i!«ues it to those to whom it is directed, in the imperative form 
\by K let it be 80i or Id them do thus and thusj drc»; the form do you do 
is not according to the spirit of an order from a Chinese magistrate. 
Xhis is especially the caaiB in all imperial rescripts and comipands, his 
i niajesty.very rarely employing pj^raseology that approaql^es in the. least 
I to: let personal address to Jits liodiDisters. It jnay lijare be mkled also, 
; that as in translating -from Chinese into English, cases wijl) . constant* 
jly occur in which one, two, or more words must be adden to convey 
jthe full meaning of the original, it is well/to distingiilsh them froip 
jany explanatory parenthetical clauses the translator may wish to add, 
j by placing j them Jbetween braiqkets and pot parenth<^9^. 

The excrci scs-whieh^&How-afe-exfaraets irom-good authoFS, <^onsist- 
•ing of Abort and es^ sentenees, and are to be -translated; into Eng- 
,fob ; which, the loarner, by this tjlme pan no dpubt pei;form i^i^iide^ 
without much difficulty,' if he has thoroughly learned' tlie characters 
; Jn the , preceding chapters. T|ie columns are priptcjd ^o ,as to refi|d 
-from left to right, and not from right to left, as they are in the letters 
;.and .edicts. The independent extracts are separated ,by a Is^rge circle. 



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