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Head Af aster of Bedford Schoel 
Editor qf ' Selections Adapted from Xenofhon ' 


Late Scholar of Trinity College, Oxford 
faint Editor of the 'London Series of English Classics' 



Oxford University Press 

London Edinburgh Glasgow Copenhagen 
New York Toronto Melbourne Cape Town 

Bombay Calcutta Madras Shanghai 
Humphrey Milford Publisher to the UNIVERSITY 

Printed in England 


THE object of such adapted Selections as these has some- 
times been misunderstood. It has been supposed that the aim 
is to save boys' thought ; the real aim is the reverse. It is to 
get boys to think and to use their minds on the language at 
a stage when otherwise they would either have had their 
attention confined to Grammar or Delectus- work, or have 
had to struggle at translating authors whose style is really 
beyond them. Such a struggle does not, I believe, educate the 
boy or make him think. He is simply baffled and bewildered 
by having too many difficulties thrust on him at once, and 
either buys a word for word translation, or simply looks out 
the words without trying to connect them and discover a 
meaning. The essence of good teaching seems to me to lie 
in presenting to boys an infinite succession of problems 
carefully graduated according to the exact stage of their 
progress. Power is what we-'want ; and the feeling of getting 
on, the feeling of doing something with one's knowledge, the 
pleasure of following a connected story all this awakens 
interest, makes brain and heart work with eye and ear, in- 
telligence with memory, and gives in fact that sense of power 
which is one of the chief sources of power itself. 

These ' Easy Selections ' are adapted for boys who are only 
just beginning Greek. They are somewhat graduated, so 
that the beginning is made still easier than the rest ; in the 
first hundred lines there are no augmented tenses, in the first 
three hundred none which are not specially explained in the 
notes. All through, the words are, as far as possible, put in 
the order in which they should be taken ; the sentences are 
very short, and there is a Vocabulary containing not only all 
the words, but all the more difficult forms of words used. 

The whole is intended as a Preliminary Part to ' Selections 


Adapted from Xenophon 1 ,' which has now reached a third 
edition. Since those ' Selections ' were published I have been 
so much engaged with other work that I should never have 
been able to complete this Preliminary Part without the 
welcome assistance of Mr. Jerram, who I found had already 
prepared an edition of the Anabasis on his own account. 
At my suggestion he kindly gave up this for an ' Adapted ' 
edition, to act as a First Greek Construing-book. Besides 
his knowledge of the Anabasis, he brought to the work the 
freshest acquaintance with the actual wants of boys beginning 
Greek, from his experience in directing the classical teaching 
of a large preparatory school. Though I am responsible for 
the plan of the book, the main burden of the work has fallen 
on his shoulders, and if these ' Easy Selections ' should in any 
way meet the wants of teachers, I hope the credit will be 
given where it is due. We owe thanks to Mr. Beuttler for 
preparing the first draught of the Vocabulary. 


Jan. 1877. 


THE principal change in the Second Edition is that the 
First Chapter has been made still easier than before. This 
improvement has been effected, not by altering the text 
(which might have caused inconvenience in schools where 
the former Edition was already in use), but by additions 
to the notes. The verb-forms are the great stumbling- 
block to beginners, and throughout the first 300 lines every 
such form likely to cause any difficulty has been 'parsed.' 
The aim of these Easy Selections is to enable a boy to 

1 If variety is desired, the 'Stories of Rhampsinitus and Marathon' 
(Rivington, 2nd ed. 1877) may be used as a bridge between the two. 


begin construing at once, without the intervention of any 
Greek Reader or Delectus. At the request of the boys 
themselves the book was introduced into a form, where many 
had begun their Greek Grammar but two or three weeks 
previously ; and the experiment was found thoroughly suc- 
cessful. Should it^be thought that a reading-book is out 
of place at so early a stage, it must be remembered that 
by the time boys begin Greek, the chief difficulties of trans- 
lation from a foreign language have been already mastered 
in Latin, if not in French as well. With Grammar and 
Vocabulary a boy can begin construing almost as soon as 
he knows the alphabet. The need of constant reference to 
the Accidence to help him in this task makes an intelligent 
boy look upon his Grammar as a friend rather than as a 
foe ; whereas, if he learns paradigms alone for several weeks 
or months, he soon loses the interest of novelty in disgust 
at the dryness of the method. The standard of accuracy 
need not be lowered, but the required amount of accuracy 
may be achieved as completely with a more ready coopera- 
tion on the part of the learner. After all, we educate non 
scholae sect vitae; and if, as we profess, our chief aim is to 
develope intelligence, we cannot afford to dispense with the 
exercise of it at any stage. 

The First Edition was not stereotyped, on purpose to leave 
room for alterations. Several minor additions are now intro- 
duced, and the whole has been most carefully revised and 
corrected. Should any errata still have escaped detection, 
the Editors will be greatly obliged to any one who will send 
a line to either of them. 


July, 1878. 



SECT. I. The March towards Babylon .... i 

Notes 107 

II. The Battle of Cunaxa and its Results . . 14 

Notes 118 

,. III. Beginning of the Retreat 20 

Notes 121 

IV. The March to Kurdistan 29 

Notes 126 

V. The March through Armenia 44 

Notes . .' 136 

VI. Trapezus and Sinope 57 

Notes 145 

VII. Sinope to Chrysopolis 7> 

Notes 155 

VIII. Concluding Scenes of the Retreat ... 84 

Notes 164 

Vocabulary 179 

Grammatical Register . c ajj 

Map shewing the route of the Greeks. 



Cyrus the Great founds the Persian Empire . . . 559 
Subdues Croesus and Asiatic Greeks, and takes Babylon 546-538 

Cambyses his son succeeds . . . . . . . 529 

Darius I (Hystaspes) . . . . . . . 521 

Ionian towns revolt from Persia ..... 500 

Sardis burnt by the Athenians 499 

First Persian Invasion of Greece. Marathon . . . 490 

Xerxes succeeds to the throne 485 

Second Persian Invasion. Salamis 480 

[Athenian Ascendancy 480-430] 

Artaxerxes I succeeds ....... 465 

Peloponnesian "War begins 431 

Darius II (Nothus) succeeds . . . . . 424 

Tissaphernes made Satrap of Asia Minor . . . 413 

Tissaphernes makes treaty with Sparta . . . . 411 

Cyrus the Younger, son of Darius, supersedes Tissaphernes 407 

Artaxerxes II (Mnemon) succeeds to the throne . . 405 

Peloponnesian "War ends. Athens taken by Lysander . 404 

Cyrus rebels against his brother Artaxerxes . 401 


Departure from Sardis .... March 6th 401 

Arrival at the Maeander .... ,, 9th ,. 

Celaenae 2oth 

Caystri Pedion .... May ist 

Tyriaeum 8th ,, 

Tarsus June 6th 

Issus ...... 28th 

Myriandrus .... July 6th 

Through the Arabian Desert . . . Aug. 8th I3th 

Butt] ft of Cunaxa ..... Sept. 7th 




The Greeks begin their Retreat . . Sept. 8th 401 

Truce made with the king .... loth 

Arrival at Sittace Oct. nth 

Murder of the five generals .... 29th 

They cross the mountains into Kurdistan . Nov. 2oth 

Enter Armenia 29th 

First fall of snow Dec. 6th 

In the Armenian villages .... ,, i8th 2ist 

Arrive at the Harpasus .... Jan. I9th 400 

First view of the sea Feb. ist 

Arrive at Trapezus ..... 1 3th ,, 

Cotyora April I3th 

Sinope June 24th 

Ileraclea July ist 

Chrysopolis Aug. Jth 

The Greeks take service with Seuthes . . Dec. 5th 

They join Thibron,. the Spartan geueral March 5th 309 


A gesilaus is made king of Sparta ..... 898 

He defeats Tissaphemes at Sardis ..... 395 

Battle of Coronea 394 

Peace of A utalcidas 387 

Philip becomes King of Macedon 359 

Philip prepares Greek expedition against Darius III 
(Codomannus) King of Persia, but dies. Alexander 

succeeds Philip 330 

Battle of the Granlcus 334 

Defeat of Darius at Issus 833 

Final defeat at Arbela. Alexander takes Babylon . . 88O 

Death of Darius 331 

Persian Empire completely subjugated . . . 828 


HOPLITES ARMING (from an Attic Vase 

Painting) frontispiece 

ITTTTCIS AND To^o-n/s (from an Attic Vase Painting) p. x 

THE BATTLE OF Issus (from a Mosaic at 

Pompeii) to face p. 14 


CHARIOT AND SATRAP (from a Sidon Sarco- 
phagus) ,,35 

COINS WITH Zeus SwT^p (Agrigentum). COINS 

WITH 2^>v8ov^r^s (Aspendus) ... ,,41 

poi (from the Parthenon Frieze) . ,, 48 

(from the Parthenon Frieze) . . 59 

a (from a Sidon Sarcophagus) . ,,72 

PERSIANS IN BATTLE (from a Sidon Sarco- 
phagus) go 

E. s. 

!,- AND Toon/J 



The two brothers. Their father dies. Artaxerxes succeeds. 

Aapet'ou KOI napwanbos ylyvovrai TraiSes bvo, KO! 
Trpeo-pvTfpos \iiv eoriv 'ApTaepq?, vcvrfpos bf Kupos. 
Aapeu)? 6e dcrfleixSy, KCU ijbr] jueAXcoy davetv, /SovAerai 
ap.(j)OTep(a rw TrcuSf Trap-eii/at. 6 fxey oSy Ttpefffivrepos 
i. Aapeios 6e KeAevct rov Kvpoi> ava-fiaii'tiv 5 
? ^ (7T ' o-aT-paTTJ]?. o 6' ovv Kvpos 
rpiaKOcriovs OTrAtVas raiy ' 

ei Tiffaafytpvriv crvv 

0i'Aoy. dra-jSas 6 KCpos In eortv ey rots 
ore 6 fxev Aapeios reAeura 'Apra^f'p^s 8e yiyrerai 10 

M disgraced. He courts popularity, intending revolt. 

uTo-a^e'pyrjs 8ia-j3aAAet TOV Kvpor, (pavKatv 
rc5 'Apraep|r; on o Kvpos e7Tt-j3ovAevi avr<S. o 8^ 
'Aprae'p]s Trei'^erai re Kal (rv\-\afj.ftavei Kvpov KOI 



15 /3ovAerat jj.\v a-rro-KTflvai. avrov, rj e juTjr?]p e^- 

O.VTOV aTTo-Tre'/xirei TrdAiy em T?/I> apx^y. o ^e Kvpos OTT- 
e'pxfrai, KOI "fir] fjMTfl TOV abeXfyov, KOL /3of/\ewerai OTTO)? 
(3acrL\fv(Tfi. avr' e/cetVou. KCU Ilapvfrarts re ?; M^rrjp $tAet 
roy KCpoy /xaA\oi> f; TOV (3a<n\evovTa 'Apra^fp^v KOI 

200 Kpos airos \ap[^Tai rols Flepcrat?, ocrot afy-iKVovvrai 
Trapa ^aaiAe'coj Trpo? avrbv, cocrre Kat ovrot yiyf oj/rat juaAAov 
eaura) ^>tAoi 17 /3a<nAei. j(apt^TOt 8e xai TO?? /3ap/3apuis 
rot9 Trap' eavra), t^a aJaty ewrof Kai e7rt-/ieAeirat ai/raiy, tW 
e,UTretptay ro?) TroAefxety *at aOpoifa orpancoTas 

Cyrus collects officers and troops secretly. 

SvA-Ae'yet 5e orpdrev/ia ei^ XeppoyTjcro) <58e. KAe'ap^os 
CTTI <f)vya<i AaxeSat/xoVios' 6 8e Kvpos, yevd/xeros (pi'Aos 
TOUTW TW KAedpxw, irap-f^a avrw TroAAa \pi']^ara. 6 be 
Aa/3a)i> ra XPW aTa cruA-Ae'yei arpdrev/ua, xat cruA-Ae'^as 

3 TToAe/jtei TO?? 0pat ftoi]6u>v TCUS Tro'Aecri rwy 'EAA^&jy. 
avrat oe at Tro'Aeis itap-txovaiv aijra) ^pr/nara i? r?/y rpo- 
<^T)V TWi' OTpari(rc5y. TOUTO 6e TO crrpdrei/ia rpe'0erai 
T(S Kvpw \dOpa. eTretra 6 KCpos iceAeyei rTpo'^evov TOV 
Botwrioj; KOI dAAovs dvA-Ae'yeti' orpartcora?, (pdcrK<av on 

35 ySovAerai <rTpareve(T0ai ets Dio-tSas' ovroi yap 
r eaurou &. xal ovroi TIOIOVCTIV 

Cyrus begins his march, lissaphernes warns the king. 

Kvpos 8e 7/8/7 /3ouAd/xeros ava-fiaivtw aOpoifci TO 
fiapfiapiKov KOI TO 'EAArjfiKoj; orpdYev/ua. cai 
TOV Te KAe'apxoj; KOI TOVV aAAovj, Aa/SoVra? Ta e 
40 crTpOTcv/iaTa, Trap-eirai awrw eis SdpSfty. OVTOI 


a(f>-iKvovvT<u. "TKra-a^pvrjs Se aKOvcras ravra, Kat tyofiov- 
TO ir\ijQo'i TTJS irapaaKfVTJs, iropeveTat Trpos /3ao"tAea 
fVTaKoa-iovs tTrWas. Kai /3a<rtAev9 /xei> 8rj, 
Trapa Tio-cra^epz'ous on 6 Kupo? afa-/3au>ei, xat 
d^rt-7rapa-o-/cei;a^e7ai. Kw/aos 8e e^wy roCro ro 45 

va-fiaivei. airb 2dp^ewf, /cat 
AvSt'a? em ro^ Matavbpov -n 

Menon and Clearchus join. A halt. A review. 

TOVTOV 8e TOV Trorajiou TO fvpos eari fivo itXiQpa.' 
6e 7r-eo-rt rw TTOTOJUO) eTn-Keijuanj TrAotots 7rra. Kat 8ia- 
/3as roi' Tiorajuof e^-eAawei 8ta $>pvyas ets KoAo<r(rds. 50 
/cai evTCLvOa jueVfi ^jue'pa? eTrrd' (cat MeVcou 6 erraAos irdp- 
)(i\iovs oTrAtra? xat Tre^ra/com'ous TTeArao-rds. 
6 KOpos e^-eAawet ets KeAatra?, Tro'Aty T^S 
t'as. (vravOd eort /3ao-i'Aeta Kvpw Kai 7Tapa8ei<ros 
/jtf yas 7rA?/pi;$ aypiwv Orjpiutv, a avros dijpevei CLTTO iwiroVj 55 
(3uv\r]Ta.i kavrov re /cat TOI/S IT 

Kpo? /xeVet rptd/coi'ra ^p.epas* /cat 
6 AoKeSat/xoVtos cpuyas Trdp-eo-rtf, e';(Ctu> oTiAtras x^ 1 ' 01 * 5 
xat TreAraoras Kat roo'ray. /cat kvravOa KCpo? Troiet 
l^ratrtv xat apidnov rS>v 'EAArjywy ei/ rai 7rapa8eta<o. 60 
(cat ytycoirat oTrAtrat /xef juv/)toi KOI x i/ ^oi, TreAraorat 8e 

Arrival of Cilician Queen. Another review, 

'Ei'Tfvdfv e^-eAaui'et ets Kepa/icoy ayopav, KOI fVTevOfv 
ets KancrTpoi; TreStor, Kat jueVet 7/juepa? Tre'/'re. (vravOa 
'ETrvafa // yuyjj TOV KiAtKow /3aatAe'a>s dc/)-tKrerrai Trapa 65 
KCpof Kat 8t8co(Tt Kvpco \pr]fj.aTa TroAAd. cvrfvOfv f- 
\avvfi eis Tuptatoy. Kat e^TaiJ^a 77 Kt'Atcro-a Setrai 
B 2 


Kvpov e7ri-8etai TO or/sdrev/xa ayri)' 6 8e audis troieirai 

r /cat TO 

70 AfXewei Se rovs "EXXj/yas ra^^rai ourcoj, a>? flu>da.(ri 
Ta,TT(r6ai. as nid^jjy. rdrro^rai ovv em TfTTapW KCU 
TO b(iov Ke'pas, KXe'ap^os 5e TO evwry- 
', ot 5' aAXoi orparTjyot exoutri TO 

Review. Manoeuvres, Orders to charge. 

'O 5e KSpos fleoopet -np&Tov ^(v TOUS fiapfidpovs' ol 
75 Se Trap-eXawovo-i TCTayp.e'roi *caTa Tacts' eiTa 8e 6(a>pti 
TOWS "EXXTjras, avToy irap-eXayz^cov f<^> ap/xaTO?, /cat ?/ 
KiXtaaa e^)' ap/xa/ia;s. -Trd^Tes 5e ex oucrt ifpavf) \a\Ka 
/cat 17 "^^^? coti'iKious /cat K^jutSas Kat TOS ao-Trt'Sa? e/c- 

80 TO ap/xa irpo T^S ^)dXayyos, we/jiTrci TOI> eppirjve'a irapa 
Toi;y cTTpaTT^you? Ttoy ( EA\i}l>a>l>. Kat /ceXcuet aurov? Trpo- 
/3aX(T0at ra o~Xa /cat oXrjy T?)I> <^aXayya e^-teVat. ol 
8e Xe'youat Tawa TOI? <TTpaTtwTats* /cat 7/5rj ?/ 

ol 5e 7rpo-/3aXXo'juerot Ta orrXa e7r-cp\oj/Tat. 

7/v mock-charge terrifies the barbarians. 

85 'Ec 8e TOVTOU ot aTpaTtomu, Trpo-tdrre? 

Kpavyfj, xcopovai Spo'/xa) (TTI Tas cntrjvds' iro\vs Sc ^>o'/3os 
TOIS /3ap/3dpois. KOI 17 Te KtXio-<ra (bfvyfi (K Tijf 
s, cai ol e/c TTJS dyopas c/>evyov<ri /caTa-Xtirdrrcs Ta 
covta* ol 6e*EXXijvey <ri/i> ye'Xwrt ep^ovTat e::! TOS a/cr/pas. 
90 ?; 8c Ki'Xtoro-a t5ou<ra Tr)f Xa/^TTpoTrjTa KOI TTJV Taiv roO 
ei. Kvpos 5c ?/5Tat tfiwv TOWS "EX- 

TaO^ovs iroXXoi5 ety Tapaous TJJS KtXt/cta;, 


The army refuses to proceed. Clcarchus holds a meeting 
<u>ith bis men. 

ol orpanamH OVK (6t\ov<nv ttvai TrpoVaT 7/877 95 
yap vop.L^ov(n rov aroXov tirat firl /3acnAea. Trpa/ros 8e 
KAe'ap^oy /Sta^erai TOTJS eavroO arpartcoTas uvai* 01 8e 
/3aAAoTj<ru; CLVTOV Allots, ooare OTJ Swarai Trpo-tc'i'cu. 6 8 

ol 8 
re /cai crtcoTiaimi'. eTra 8e Aeyei 

Speech of Clearchus. \. ' I'ow compel me to choose between 
betraying the cause of Cyrus and deserting you! 

oTpariarai, /XT av/xcTe on 
rots Ttap-oiaL Tipdy/xam. Kvpos yap eyeVero 
xat Irtfujtr^ ^e (pewyot-ra e*c r^s 7rarpi8oy, *cat 
noAAa \pri\j.aia. eyw 8e Aa/3wy raCra eSaTrd/'coy OVK eis 105 
ffj.avToi> dAA' ew v/ias. xat Trpwroi' 
roi/j 0pa<cas, xai a></>e'Aouj> TOVS "EAAr/vas 
fTTfibi] 8e Kupos CKaAet /-te, ro're Aa/3a>y v/xa? 
tya &(f)f\oir)V avrbv dirt ra)y Trpos 
8e v/xeis viJy ov fiovXfaOf (rvfj.-nop(v((r6ai fjiot, avaynr] p.oi no 
eoriv 17 7rpo-8oVn vjuas \pijcrOai. ry Kvpov </>tAt'a, f; 
8oVri avrov aTT-uVat /xe^' VfJi&v. 


ii. ' / choose the former alternative! 

u Et /Liey 87^ 8t/caia Trouycroo, OWK ol8a* 

OVTWV, atp77<ro/ J tai OTJ KiSpoi; dAA' v/jtas* /cat, 
OTJ fle'Aere 7recr^at e/iot, eyco ttyo/icu o-vy Tjju,t2;. iis 
yap v/xas e?i/ai //oi KOI Trarpi'Sa xai cpi\ovs KOI 
KCU (Tvi' TJ/XII; juev oio/Aat cu> ei^at rtjuios, OTTOU 


av u/ ai'fv bf vp-wv OVK av bvvai^v ovre wfrcXfjaai </>iAot>, 
ovTf a\eacr6ai f^Opov. tore ovv e/ue toVra, OTTOI av /cat 
20 j'/ms t?/r." raura et7;ei>' ol bf orpanamu aKovcr 
eTT-7/recray amov' irapa 6e "Etviov Kal 

7) 8ts-xt'Atot A.a/3oWes ra o?rAa 

Clearcbus pretends to break with Cyrus. Second address to 
the soldiers. \. ' Cyrus is justly angry with us a/L' 

'Eii'Tavda Kvpos /ler-eW/xTrero TOV KAe'a^xo^' <^ Se OJ/K 

125 f]0e\(v Uvai, TTffj.T[u>v 8e ai/rw ayyeAov eAeye tifpl 

TOVTMV' fKt\(ve 8e roy KCpoy |ueTa-7T/^77e<r0ai avrov 

bfVTfpov' Kvpov 5e /xera-Trejux^a/jteVov, TraAif ou/c ?/0eAft/ 

iVrai. /uera 5e raura (rvr-ayaywr TOUS crrpaTKoras e 

Tota8e* " Nu^ ovi>, ar8pes (Trpartwrat, oi!re 

130 etr/uey o-rpartwrat row KV/JOU, OUTC e/cetvos en 

c<mi> ^/xiy. ou 8e vopifa tavrov abiKflrrOat i>if) fjf 
olio.' wore oufc e^eAco eA^e?^ Trap' avrbv, Kaiitfp 
TTffj.Ti6iJ.fv6v jue. al(T^vvo\j.aL re yap ort ex/feuoyxai avrbv, 

KOI bfbotKO. fJLT] blO. TOVTO flTl-Ofl fXOt biK1]V, On VOjJ.lfl 

'35 r}8iK7](r^ai tiir' e'/ 

ii. ' /ff a therefore in an awkward position. What is 
to be done?' 

'E/jtol ouj; OOK? OVK tT^ai Katpbv i][ KaO-fvbav, aAAa 
(3ov\fVf<r0at, o TI XP^ Troieir j/8j/. xat ews re 

xa e ?; 

ao-<pa\e'(Trara air-fonfv, Kal OTTCOS f^wfjifv ra eTTir7/8eia' 
yap TOVTMV ovre (rrparTjyos oi/re t8twr?;s ato's ea-rtf 
6 8e Kuos )Tfrl M OJ / ue ' i; *" ri </>''Aos row- 


rots, ot ay (ptAos 77, 

bs 17' e^ei yap bvvafj.i.v Kal 7re?/i> Kai iTTTTi/c^f KOI 

7/y mures r^els opw/LttV re /cat eTriarap-ffla' M5 
ware Kaipo's cart Ae'yeti' o TI rts rop.<'ei apicnov elvai.' 

The army send to Cyrus to ask his intentions. His answer. 

Mera ravra avfj.-flov\fV(TdiJ.fVoi Tifp-irovaiv avbpas arvv 
w, ot ?}pajrcoy Kvpov o TI ^SowAoiro Troteii'. 6 6e 
" 'Axovco 'A/3poKo'/uat', fyOpbv ai'bpa, eti'at 

iorafiu)- /3ovA8juai ovv eA0eu> Trpos 150 
y 77 eKi, rt/jtcop?j(rofi6^a avrbv, Zav 8e 
vXfvcro^Oa ri XP'J iroieiy e* roi/rcor." 
(cat 06 /^tev TrfjijUpfleVres af-ayyeAAoucri zawra TOIS arpa- 
rtaJracs' ot 8e VTr-wTTrevoi 1 ju,ef on 6 KCpos ayot ai)roi;s 

^SatrtAe'a, o/xcos 8e eSo'xet tirea^at avrw. dAA ov8e 155 
6 Kvpos ^arepws etTTty on ayot TO 

March into Cilicia. Cbeirisophus joins. Two captains desert. 

'EvrevOev e-eAawei ts "lo-crovs ea-^aTJ/f TTO'AIJ; TTJS 
KiAtKtas' xat evravda e&jKovTa vfjes ex IleXoTrorwjCTOU 
Tiap-T/aai; Kvpw. Tiap-ijv 5e xat Xetptao^os AaKcSat/xoVtov 160 
CTU TCOV yewi', e^coi; eTjrafcoai'ovs OTrAtVas. at 8e r?;es ajp/xow 
Trapa TTJ^ Kupou (rnr]in]v. 'A/3poKo'|uas 8e, CTTCI ijKovaf Kvpov 
WTO. ey KtAt/cia, d^a-o-Tpex/^aj CK c&ou'tfcqs a7r-?/Aawe Trapd 
/Sao-tAe'a' eT^e 8e, ws eAe'yero, rpiaKovra //vptd8as. er- 

Kfpo? e^-eAawet 8ta 2uptas ets Mnpta^Spoy, Tio'Ati; 165 

vub QoiviKtov fTil rfj 0aAarr?/' xat evravda 
6 'Apxas, (7Tpar?jyos, xat Flaatcoy 6 Meyapevs 
ets TrAotov a 


Generosity of Cyrus. 

(pxovro, Trdvres eAeyov <m Kvpos 

avrovs rpo/pfcri. 6 8e (rvy-KaAeWs row? arpanjyovs 
tiTTfi'' " Eem'as Kat ITa<nW a7ro-AeAoi7rafriz> 7;/uas. dA.X' 
OVK atro-btbpa.Ka<nv (o78a yap oirr] ot^orrat), ovoe arro- 
fx * y^P rpiT/pei?, (oarf 8wao-0ai eAeu> TO 
irAotoj'). aAA' oi>/c eycoye Stw^w avrovs, ov8e 
175 KCIKWS TTonyaca TOVJ (^lAouj, o*t ay ^ovAwyrai 
aAA a tr&xrav ol avOp^not, etSo'res ort KO.KIOVS ciat 
?//^a?, ^ ^e?9 e<rp.v Trept eKeiVouj." ^at 6 f>ty Kvpos 
ravra* ol 8e < 'EAA?/^es, aKOvoi^res r^y Kvpou a 
o-vy-C7ropevoi'ro avrw TrpoOvpoTtpov CK rovrov. 

Cyrus declares the real object of the expedition. 

180 M<ra ravra Kvpos f^-eAavyei k~n\ TOV Ev^pdrr/v 
Kol evravOa /ixfra-7rep.\^dju.eyos rovs orpaTi/yovs 
'E\\^vd)V eAcyev on ?; ooos laotro irpos /SaatAea 
eis Ba/3vA<St>a' Kat efce'Aevo'ei' avrovs Aeycty ravra 
rots orpartwrais, icai -neidftv avrovs CTrccr^ai. ol e 
85 orpanwrai f\a\f-rraivov rois orparTjyois Kai OVK ?/0eAoi> 
Ze't-ai, ei /UT) Kvpos 80117 avroty TrAetco x/ 3T /l uaTa - & 
8e arparryyot aTT-r/yyeAAoy ravra Kvpa>' 6 8' V7r-e 
Sovvai. 01 p.ev 8^ TrAeroroi raif 'EAATjpcoy ovrcos CT 

cross the Euphrates, and enter Arabia. Description of 
the desert. Hunting wild animals. 

190 Aia-/3dz>res 8e TOV Ev0pdr;i/ irora/xof iropfvovrai 8ia 
rovrw 8e ra5 roTrw 


et> ovoi ayptot, iroAAot 8e arpovOol 
oi //eydAof Tycraz; 5e Kat a>Tt'8es KOI 8op/caSes. ot 8e iTTTreT? 

fbiu>Kov TO.VTO. TO. 6r]pia. KCU oi /xev ot'ot, ewei 195 
8iw/cot avrovs, 77po-8pa/>ioWes eoratrav* erpe^or yap 

TU)V LTTTTCDV' KOL TTaXu>, TTfl ol 17T7TOI TT\r)rnd- 

vTov' KO.I ov pqbiov i]V Xofiflv TOVS 
orovs* ra 6e Kpea rwy O.\LUKO^VWV ovuv o'/xcua ?}y TOIS 

Kpe'acrt, cbraAwrepa 8e. 2 

Ostriches. Bustards. Scarcity of food. 


oi yap vrpovdol e-e'<euyof TrpoVco, 
juey Trocrt Tjpos TO Spa/.ieii;, raw 8e irrtpvfyv atpo/xe- 
s, (oa-Trep lom'ois. ras 8e wriSas Si^aroy j^y Xafj.(3dveiv, 
rts raxv ay-tarat?; avras' Tre'royrai yap /3pa\v, coawep 205 
s, KOI ra\v a77o-Ka/zi>owi ^evyovaai. ra 8e Kpe'a 
7j8tora f/y. *cai ey ravrr/ r^ fp^jjuw iroAAa Twy 
aTT-wAero WTTO Ai/xov' ov yap TJI> x '/ 97 " 05 ' Ka ' 
o o-tros 7r-e'Ai7rez; avro TO (TTpaTef/jta, Kat ov/c eSv^afTo 
npiacrdai. 2l 

Forced marches. Energy of Cyrus 1 staff. 

FIoAAaKtj 8e 6 Kvpos 7/Aavi-e Tois a-radfj-ovs Tfdvv /xa- 
/cpous, oTTOTe /SovAotTo aty-LKtaOat. rj 7rp6s vStop rj irpos xtAoy. 
al a/xa^at OVK eSvt'ayTo 77po-j((opeti' 8ta T^y 
TC at T0i irri\ov. 6 ovv KCpos e7rt-o-Tas fri/f 
TO?S wept avrov dptcrTot? eKc'Aeuae TOWS lauTov (TTpaTtcoTas 215 
0uv-fK-(BLf3detv TO.S a/xa^as. eTrct 8e e8o'KOiy OVTO) o"X" 
Aai'co? Troterf TOUTO, eKe'Aev(re TOI;? KpaTtrrrovs TW^ Ilepacliy 
o-w-tTri-oTrewai TOS ctjua^as. eV^a 8^ tSoi av Tt? /ue'pos 
Tt TT/S evTa^ta? avTcof piv^a^Tes yap TOS TropQvpas x^ a * 


p.u'5as Zcmevbov Spa/xoyres Kara TOV Xorpov, ov ZTV\OV 
tan/Ko'res. el)(ov 8e ccat TroAvrcAets x iT <*> t>as Ka ' TOlKlXos 
draupt'8as" eytoi 8e axoy xat orpeTrrovs Trept rots rpa- 
X>/Aois KOI \j/\ia jrept rats \epaiv' o/iws 8e criy rowrois 
s ts roy TTI\OI> c-fKOfj.iaai> ras 

Traces of the king's troops, treachery of Orontes. 

Tioptvop.troi'i avTos 

at KOTrpoy 6 5e art/Sos eiKa^ero elrat 
i'7r7ra)f. ovroi TTpo-iorres eKaiof KOI \iAoj; Kat ra aAAa V 
rf; x^/'? XP 7 / flrl M a ' 'OpoVr7S 8e a/'j;p Oepa-jj?, orvyycvqs 
coy /SamAe?, ewi-/3ovAtuct Kwpw* ouros 5e etTrey on, fi 
30 Kvpos doi'fj atrip iTTTrt'as )(tAtot;9j KwAyo-fiev ay roj>> rwy 
TioAe/xuoy iTTTitas row Kaiew roy x 1 ^ ' 17 - TaOra 8e e5oKi 
rai Kupa) eti'ai a)(/)A(jua, at eKtAevaey avroy Aa/m/3ayty 
Trap' tKaorou ra)y ?;y/xo'rcoy. 6 5e 'Opo'yrr;s ypa(/>ei 

irapa /3a<riAa, Ae'ycoy on 
235 ' 

Orontes is discovered and arrested* 

Tawrrjy r^y cTrurroATjy didaxrt ircorw dy5pt, ws wero. 

6 5e KPpos dya-yyovy TT)J 
cal avy-KaAci fts r?/y 
eaurov o-K?jyjjy eTrra TOI/S dptaroi/s raiy Ilep(rd)i'. /cat 
240 exeAeuire rois roiy 'EAATjyajy (rrporrjyovs dyayeiy oTrAtras, 
e tVeAevcre QiaQo.1 TO. oir\a irepi TT)y eavroi) 
oi 8e e7roi;a-ay TaOra, dyayoyres a>s Tpis-x'Ai'ofy 
oTrAtra?. Trap-CKaAetre 8e Kal KAe'apxoy (rv^ovAoy' 6 
0y, c-r/yyfiAf rots </n'Aots TTjy (cpt'aiy row 
eye'yro. c</>; 8 


Cyrus conducts the trial. 'Twice already has O routes turned 
traitor to me.' 

(< flap-eKaAeo-a tyzas, avbpes 0t'Aot, OTTCOS 
criiv VIJ.LV 7rpda) o TL 5i/caioV eon Trept 'OpoWov TOUTOIH. 
ikv yap 6 e/xos irarrip eSco/ce roCroy inrrjuoov flvai 
fTiel 6e KeAeua0is ^TTO TOV ffj.ov dSeA^ou ovros 250 

e/ioi, eya> Trpos-TroAe/xaiy avrw eTrotJjaa Traw- 
cracrOai TOV -TroAf^iou, KCU e\af3ov beiav Kal e8a>Ka." 
" Mera rarra/ 3 ec/)r;, " 3> 'OpoWa, ri 7}5u?jad ae ; " 6 8e 
a7r-K/jt;'aro on Kvpos o^Sey r/5ur](re. TraAt^ 5e 6 KCpos 
?}/KoTa, " Ot'/coCi> vcrrepov dTro-oras eis Muaoi/s KOKWS 255 
CTroiets r?jy e/urji 1 \topav;" f(f)r) 6 'OpoWrjs TreTrou/KtWi 
ruura. " OVKOVI;," e^r; 6 KW/JOS, f ' varepov e\0(>)V eifl TOV 
TIJS 'Apre'/xt8os (3(t)fj.ov TraAty ca>Kas /uoi Tiicrra, Kat 
Aa/3es raura Trap' e/xou ; " 6 8e 'O/'o^r?;s a>/xoAoyei cat 
rouro. 260 

1 This is now the third time. What shall we do with him ? ' 

"*Ap* ovi>" f(f)r] 6 KCpos, " d8iKTj^eis UJT' ejuou yOi/ TO 
ri-^3oi;Acveis e/xot;" 6 8e 'OpoVrrjs etTrev ort ov8e^ 
j)8iKr/^. itrai>0a o KCpoy ^/wr^<rei; OVTOV " 'O/uoAoyeis 
ovi^ yeyev^cr^at a8txos mpt f/xe;" " 'O/^oAoyw," (/; 6 
'OpozTT/s. TrdAty 6 Kupos 7/pwrrjirei' avroV " BovAet ow 265 
en yefeV^at TO> f/ey ejuuS d8fA(/)ai TioAe'f/tos, e//oi.8e ^>(Aos 
at TTIOTOS j" 6 8e aTT-e/cptVaro, " O^8e ei ye^ot/XTjy <TOI 
0iAos, 5) Ki^pe, (rot y' d,y Trore Sofai/txt elyat." Trpos raCra 
Kvpos twe TOIS Trap-oixru;, " 'O /xei> di'?;p A'yet rotaOra 1 
ail 5e JT/WTOSj w KAt'ap^e, a7ro-07]i;at ryl> (reauroi) yvu>[j.j]i> 270 
rrept TOUTOV." 


Orontes disappears from the scene. 

KAf'apxoj 5e et^e rd6V "'Eya> 
TOVTOV rov ai'&pa &>s ra^tora, u 
rorroz', dAA ua o~xoA?/ j) I]\JA 

275 ol 5e aAAot eAeyoj; raurd. /xera ravra a^airrey dra- 
(TrotTCs eAa,;3or TT)J C ( ^' 1? ?^ ro ^ Opovrov CTTI ^ardra)' *ra 
ol Trpos ToCro reray/^teVoi (^-fr/ov avrov. fTrei 5e 6 
-rjre'x^'7 as TJ;V 'ApraTrdrov o-xrji'j/r, rou 
oii' KV/JOU o r KTj7iroyx a) f> /^cra rcara ovSeis 
280 TrwTTOTe ftSey amov ovTf (s>iTa ovre Te^rr/Ko'ra' rci^os 6e 
oidec? avrov etpani mar, ore. 

Ne<ws from the kings army. Cyrus encourages bis Greek 

Kvpos (-fXavi'd 8id TT/S 
vs rpeis. TT/ 5e CTT-IOVO-?; ^p-fpa avrd/ioA.01 

/3a(TiAe'a>s a7r-7/yyeAAov Kt}pa> Trepi TJJS 

285 j3a(riAe'a)S CTTparias. Kv/ios 5e o-vy-KoAe'tras roi/s arpa- 
TT/yov? >cai Ao^ayovs rcSi' EAA7jva)i/ (Odpo-vvev CLVTOVS, 
Aeycov Totd5e. <<T H aV6"pes "EAXrjres, ov 8ia TOUTO v/xa? 
dya), on d^opai avOpdnnav /3ap/3dp&>i', aAA' on vop.C(i) 
v/uas etrai dpctfOfas TroAAaii' fiapfidptav. yivtqfle ovv 

290 dr5ps d^ioi T>/S eAevflcpi'as 7/5 ex er6> c ^ VP tare, on 
/cat a?)r6s eAoi'ju 7 ?^ " T ^V' c^fvdfpiav aiTi Tidi'Twv 3>v <l\<a. 
cyat 5f, eu eiScoj eis olov dyaira fp^eo-^e, 5i5da> v/xds. 
ol f*ey yap iroAf/xioi laoiTai TroAAot, icat cn-iWt TroAAf/ 
Kpavyfi' cav 5e dfd-(rx';o-^e raCra, ovSef dAAo <f)o(3tpov 

*95 carat" <cal yap aio-^vro^iai 6?) Aeya>i> a>s 5ei/\oi uVir ot V 
TT} X */ 5 ? av0p<i>iioi. eav Se V/LICIS dvSpes ytv^rrOf KO.I 
tvroA/jtoi, eyw iroiTjaw TOVJ fzei/ /3ovAo/Vous d7r- 


ou<a8e j^Acorous rois otKOf otojucu 5e TroAAoi/s vju<2i' alp//- 
irap' f^ol /xe'rar." 

^ objector silenced. Fresh promises. 

'EvravOa FavAtTTjs ris 7rap-a)i> dire TW Kup&>* " Km JLUJV, 300 
a> Kpe, Ae'youcri rivey on ^i;y VTr-ta 
Tra/3-oVra lih&wov' eav 6e ri u yeVijrat, ov 
ae (f)a(nv' ertot 8e Aeyovcrty ort oS' ei (3ov\oto, bvvaio 
av a7ro-8om'ai oaa iw-lrj(l.'i. o 6e Kvpos ati-iKpivaro' 

tori fxt^ iVf^, 2> ai-Spe?, ?; ap^'/ *; Trarpwa, Trpos 305 

iav /xe'xpt ov 5ta xaCjua avOpooiroi ov bvuavrat 
ot/cea', wpos Se apuTov ^e'xpt oS 5ta ^ifj.&va ov bvvavrai 
OLKefv' ol 8e TOU e/^iov d8eA<^oi/ <^i'Aoi ap^ovcri Tracrjjs r^s 
cf jueVa) \atpas. fav 8e yiKTjo-w^e/^ Sei ^as jroi^a'ai 
rows ?;/xTpovs 0iAov5 ap^ovras TOVTMV. SWTCO 8e Kat 310 

TU>V 'EAArj^cov (TTf(f>ai'ov 
rai/ra avroi re ?)o-av jroAv 
v rai5ra rots aAAois. 

Doubt (whether the king ivill fght. Numbers on both sides. 

'EvTavda KA'apx? 7 )pf'0 ror KCpov " Otei, ai Kvpe, 
Toy d8eA(|)oy fjia^flndaC trot; "Nat, l^)?/ 6 Kvpos, 315 
" etTrep ye epio'? eorty dSeA^o?, OVK arev /A^X'? 5 ^X'' 1 
A?j^o//,at Tavrrjv Trjv ap^rfv." evravOa o?) dpi^/xos 
eyeWro, raiy /iey 'EAAjjvcov o'TrATrai fjivpioi Kal rerpa- 

//era Kvpov /3ap/3up&>y 5eKa /xuptd8es eye'rot'ro. TaJy oe 320 
TToAe/ziW eAtyo^ro etrai e/caroj; KOI etico<ri /muptdSes" KOI 
Trapa TOVTOVS ?j(raf e^OKis-xiAioi 1777:^19, wf 'ApTayep<r?js 
KSpos ef-eAam'ei araQiwv fi>a Ttavrl 


raj orpareiJ/ian vvi -reray/^tVa)' a>ero yap /3a(riXea 
325 fjia^flaOaL raur?/ r?) iy/jiepa. CTret 8e /SaaiXevs OVK 
e/xuxero Sia 7roXAa>i> jy/uiepwy, oi "EAArjrcs (oofro avrbv 
OVK fOtXeiv fjid^faOaC uxrre TTJ vvrfpaia Kupov CTTO- 


T>{v ^/'w^ coming ! Preparations for the battle. 

Tf; Se rpt'rT; ?;//f'pa 6 Kupoj f-nopfVfTO *ca<?-jj//froj eut 
roi; apjizaro?, xat ex 601 " oAt'yovs e^ raei Trpo eauroC. cat 
7y8rj o aradfjios, evOa e/xeAXey dz'a-Traweo-^ai, TrXrjcriov i]V. 
TOTC br) OarTjyua?, an/p riep(77js, ?rpo-(/)aa'erat eXawcov 
5 aua Kpdros* Kai ev^vs (/3oa, Xe'ycov ort /3ao-tXei/j Trpos- 
<rvv (rrparfv^an TroXXaJ, Trap-eo-Keuaa/xc'ros' ws as 
fi*'da> 8^ 7ro\i/s rdpaxoy eyerero. Kvpos 8e *rara- 
OTTO roC apfiaros ef-t'8v roi> dtopana, KOI dra-/3as 
CTTI roi> iTTTroy eAo/3e ra TraXra eis ras x e ^P as ' 7retTa 5e 
10 eKcXeuo-e xal TOUS aXXovs e-07rXie<r#cu re cai /ca^- 
iara(T0ai ets rd^ci-'. ol 5e ev^v? Kafl-iorarro. Kai 
ro Se^toi; xepas Trpos r<S Ev^pdrr; 
8e juera Tourov* MeVtov 8e t<rxe TO 
cvu>vvfj.ov jfepas ra>y V^XX^wj;. KCpos 8e co"xe ro ptaov 
15 KOI unreis 7j(raf (ryy avrw eaKoVioi, (LirXKr/xefoi 0<apa.i 
' KOpos 


Near approach of the enemy. Their array. 

Kat >/8?7 re i\v /xe'<roi> ?/ju,epas, Kal ot TtoAe/xtot OVTTO) 
7/rt/ca 8e oei'Ajj eyiyyero, tfyavr] Kortopros 
V<f>lht]' vaTfpov oe coaTiep /ue'Aatfd Tts 
tfya.ivc.TO eV ra> ireSt'a) Trpo'crco. ore 8e 01 iroAe/xtoi 20 

eyy^repoi", ra^a 8^ /ecu )(aAKo's ns eAa/XTre, KOI 
at Ao'y)(at *cai at ra^ets Kar-e^atVotro. Kat 170-01; iTTTTeT? 
fxey \evKo-6u>pa.Kcs em roC eucow/xov raiy TroAejuiW, 
8e rowrwi' yeppo^o'pof e^o'/jtei'ot 8e Tjtray oTrAtrat 

cnriGLv. irpo 8e a^r<Sj; ap//ara ^r, iroAv 25 
OTT' dAA?;Aa)i' > raCra 8e ra ap/xara eTx.^ Spe'iraya 
K T<I> d^o'f cor, ajare 8ta-/co7ireiv rds raets 

Tactics of Cyrus frustrated by Clearchus. 

Ot 8e /3dp/3apot Trpos-^ecraz; aty^ xat /3pa8e'a)?. /cat ey 
vro) Ki/pos, Tjap-iXavvwv <rvv rw ep/xij^ei /cat aAAots 30 
rpwlv rj TtTTopau', e/ce'Aeue ror KAt'ap^ov ayety ro 
orpdYev/xa Kara TO jj.f<rov T&V 7roAe/xuoj>, 6Vt /SacrtAevs 
etj e/ce? "'Edy yap roCro," e^>?j, " f tKco/xey, Tiavro. 
TreTTOtrjKa/jier." 6 8e KAe'cp^os OVK ijOeXev cnro-a-ndaai 
TO beiov Ke'pas aTio roi; TTOTOJUOU, <po(3oviJ,evos p.T) KVK\<I)- 35 
0ei'?7 eKaTf'pco^ez;* aTr-eKpa'aro 8e r<5 Kvpco, " 'Ejuoi," 
co Kupe, <f /xeA?j(ret OTTCOS ravra KaAcos ex/." Kat evTavda 
o Kvpos en irap-\avv<i>v Kar-e^earo TO o-TpaTeu/xa, 0770- 
ets TC TOVS TroAe/xtous Kat et's TOVS 

First appearance of Xenophon. Prosperous omens. 

Zfvoty&v 8e 'A^fji'aros, t8a>y avTov OLTTO TOV 'EXXrjinKov 40 
o-Tparei;/xaros KOI 7rpo$-eA0u>r airw, ?/peTo ei Tt Trap- 


ayye'AAoi. 6 Sc KCpo? (KeXevcrev avrov Xeyeiv Ttaanv on 
TO, lepa /caAa tJ/. Aeycoy be ravra, fjKovfft dopvftov 
toi'Tos Sta T<J> rae&>f, /cat 7/pero ri's o dopv(3o<} etrj. 6 5e 
45 zevo<j)>v eiTTev on <n;y(??j/xa Tiap-lpyjETai btvrepov 
"fir], /cat 6 KCpos ?;pcro o ri etr; TO <rvvdr]fjia' 6 8^ 
ait-fKplvaTO, ZET2 2&THP KAI NIKH. 6 5e KSpos 
etTTf, " Ae'xo/xat rof oicorov, KOI rovro eara)." 
Tawra a7r-7/\aui'cy eis TO fj.e(rov Trpos T^y eauToC 

Victorious onset of the Grecian right wing. 

50 Kcu avTiKa ol /uey "EAATjre? eTratdft^by, Kal irpo- 
rip\oiTo O.VTIOI TOIS TToAe/^tiots. oi 8e fidpfiapoi (frofiov- 

fJLCl'Ot K-K\LVOV<n Kttt <f)VyOV(TI,. KO.I fVTO.v9a br] 01 

btuKov (JLCV Kara /cpdroj, tfiowv 8e d\A?;Aois 
8po'/ji<>, dAAa eirfcrdai fv Ta^et. ra 8e ap/xara 
55 17877 r^v Kera rjvio^(av, KCU ol ITTTTOI (fapov CLVTO. bid re 
TU>V TroXe/xicof KOI 8ia TW^ 'EAA^ycoi'. ot 8e "EAAryyes, 
C7r irpo-t'Soiey Ta ap^ara, 8i-i0Tafro. dAiyot 8e /cat 
Ka.T-tKr\fydr)(iav e/c-TrAayeVrfS* dAAa ov8e OUTOI HiraOov 
ovbfv, ovbe aAAos oiSeis ru>v ' E,\\r)i'a)v (TraOfv ovbei' ti> 
60 ravTTj rr\ p.d^r)' eAe'yero 8e TIS 

Cyrus defeats the king's guard of six thousand. 
Kupo? b% 6pS>v TOVS 

into r>v ap-tyl avrbv, o/xco? owe auros ovi;- 
65 fdMMCCy" dAAa eyj&v TOU? <ri/^ cavroi efafcoo-t'ovs Ivr^eas 
CO-KO'TTCI o TI /SacrtAevs irotTjo-ot. /cat yap 17861 on f/ceu-os 
l)(0t TO /xe'ffoy TOU Ilep<nKo{5 aTpaTev/^.aTos. >cat 
8r/ TOTe, e^ajv TO nicruv TT}S lauTou (TToaTias, o/ia)9 



tyevcro TOV ciHavvpov Keparos TOV Kvpov. eVet b* 
ovo'eis TUIV 'EAAr/z'ooy e/xa^TO avrw, fn-fKajj-TTTCV a>s 70 
<vK\w<T(i>v TOWS "EAA7;z>as. eVfla 8?) KCpos eXavvei cu'rioy, 
Kai jn/ca rows (^aKLS-^iXiovs rovs ^po /SatriXe'cos reTay- 
(j.4vovs' KOI &ir-fKTivfV 'AprayepcrT/j; ror up^ovra ain&v 


Cyrus pays the penalty o/ rashness. 

rowra) ot Kvpov eaKoViot, opiJ.i]<TavTs eis ro 75 
t-eo-7TetpoiTo' 7rA7jy Trai'v &/vlya>i>, 01 <car- 
fX.fL(f)drj(rav a^l aiirov. fvravfla <!/?j o KSpos KaO-opa. 
/SacrtAea /cat ro djm^t fKetvov <TTI(|)OS' at ew^i/s ftTrwy, "Toy 
ai'bpa 6p>," eAawet em CLVTOV, KOL Traiet Kara TO crrepvov, 

Kttl 8ta TOU 6ti>pO.KOS. (V bf TOUT(i) CLKOVT^fi TtS 80 

rw WTTO TOI> 6(f>OaXfj.6v' KOL K?pos re avros 
,. KCU o/crw ot apto-roi rwv Trepi avTov eiceu'TO CTT' 
6 /Liev ouy KOpos ovrtos creAevTTjtre^' ot 8e 
/3ap/3apoi aTT-erajuot 1 njy KetyaXyv avrov KOL r?)y X e *P a ^J" 
beidv. 85 

Artaxerxes plunders the camp of Cyrus. He returns to the 
attack, and is defeated. 

BcunAei/s 8e *at ot avy avrw 8t<oKoz;re 
ets TO Kvpou (rrparoTreSoi'. KOI ot tv T&> 
/^era 'Aptatou, TOU Kwpou VTrdpxov, <pevyou(ri 8ta 
roO laurwi; ffrparoTre'Sou ets roy o-ra^oy, <-v9fV <5p- 
fj.r]vro' /3acrtAei/5 8e <cat ot (rui- 1 awrw o"t-ap7rabv(ri ro 90 
(TTparoTTeSof. Iwetra 8e ot /txey "EAAjjycs r\crQovTO on 
j3acriAei)s etr; o-w r<5 crrpare^juart ey rots eavraiy 
<|)opots, jSacrtAevs 8e J7Kouo~ey ort ot EAA?jycs yiKw 

r? eyayrtovs. fVTavda brj ^SacrtAeus rj6poi.( TOVS 


95 tavTov, no! avv-era.TT(To. is 5e ol "EAATjves tlbov TOVS 
TTO\[J.[OVS tyyvs re oWas Kat 7rapa-TTayp.e'rovs, e7r-Jjra 
CTT' ai>TOi;s. ol 8e /3ap/3apot ecpevyov* Kat ol "EAAjjres 
K& ''M 7 7 S TU>OS. eiraC^a 6e ol "EA- 
yap r^ 
too ol /3aatA(os li 

The Greeks, ignorant of the fate of Cyrus, return to their camp. 

e ol v EAAj7i>es h'TavOa f.\(apovv, ol iTTTrets Aa- 
Toy Ao'</)0i/. 6 oe KAe'apx ? W^fMTCt ayyt'Aous cirt 
roy \6<f)OV, /cat KeAfvet avrovs d--ayyetAai ra VTiep TO{! 
Xu(f}ov ytyro'/ue^a. ol 6t aTr-ayyeAAovfny ort ol TroAf'/xiot 
'5 favyovcriv ava Kparos' Kat cy rovro) TyAtos Syero. ef- 
6e ol "EAA?^cs eo-Tr/aa^ KOI dj-'-eTravoiTo' KOI 
on Kt'pos oySa/AOU ^atVotro* ov yap r/5ecra^ 
CLVTUV Te.Qvr]K.6ra. cSofev oSj' avrois aTT-ieVaf /cat d$-iK- 
CTTI ra? aKrjvds. Kara-Aa/jt/3dVoucri 8e ra TrAetora 
\pr]iLaTU>v bi-rjpiracriJLtva' KOI ct Tt airiov i] TIOTOV 
ill', TOVTO ol aw /SacrtAer 8t-7/p7rao-ay. wore ol Tr 
TWf 'EAA?^^^ aSetTrrot T/crav Tyrrav 8e Kat dya 
7Tpu> yap TO aTpciTi///a 

Greets learn the death of Cyrus, and offer to make 
Ariaeus king. 


H50TI KCpo? OI/TTCO fyaivoiTO' <ibo(v ovv airots Trpo-ieVai 
6is TO Tipoffdfv, /cat orv/i-jui'^ai TO) 
IIpOKA^s KOI FAoCs cA(?oWcs eAeyov OTI KCpoj /xev 
KOt, 'Apiatbs 8e TTf(/)vya)s ej; TOJ ffTafytcp et?;, 0^61; w 

TT) TipoTfpata. KAeap^o? 8f a/coi5o"as TaCra ctT 
t Ki^pos Ttdi'ijKd', aTT-ayyt'AAer* 'Aptat'y, OTI, etu 


fA0//, 7T(w/<rop;ci> avrbv /3ao-iXea." TO.VTO. etTrc TOWS dyye'Xouy, CLVTUS Se 

Jlrtaxerxes calls upon the Greeks to surrender their arms 
They refuse. 

Mera ravra KijpVKis ep^ovrai Ttapa ^aatAews' ?]z/ oe 
avT&v <I>aXu;os 'EXX^y. oSrot 8e irpoj-eA^o^rfs 

on /SatfiAfi/s KeAewei TOVS EAAi/^a? Trapa-SiSoVat 125 
ra oTrAa. 01 8e "EAArjfes /5apf'cus juei 
u/zco? Se, KeAewrraj'ros rou 

o n 8tot ano-Kpivacrdai /3ao-tXet. o 8e ctTrey 
u Ei /xej' /xt'a rts (<TTIV eXTrts ijua? <r(adijvai TroXejuioSiraj 130 
/3a<riAet, eya> avii-fiovXcva) i/jias /^ir; Trapa-bibovat TO. 

i, OTTTJ JJLOVOI' bvvarov eort." KXeap^os 6c 
traro' " 'A77-dyye\Xe Trap' ijfj.u>v raSe' ort, eaj> 
xer 8e'rj 7//xay cptXovs eiVai /3ao-iXei, TrXet'oi'os a^toi etro- 135 
ra oTrXa, 77 napa-8ot.'Tes tiXXw* eay 8e 807 
oXep:?/rTO/xey ex oz;Tes T " oiXa, ?} aXAa> 

' Shall it be fence or it-nr ?' Clear chus gives a guarded ansiuer. 

'() 8e ( I>aXu'os et/ie" " Tafira /jtey 8?) a7r-ayyeXoi5/xi'' 
dAAu ^3amAevs tK(\fVcrev ?//jias etTrerv v/xt^ Kat rd8e' on, i^o 
ta^ fiet' p.(v>]T (vQdfe, ff-novbal HcrovTat, fav 8e cnr-ujre r} 
Trpo-tTjre, 77oAfp.os IcTTat. curare ovr Kat ?rept TOVTOV avep 
vpilv 8oKt." KAe'apxos 8e eAe^cf " 'ATT-dyyeAAe TOIVVV 
on TO.VTU 8oKi 7)p.ti>, aTiep KOI /3a<nAei 8oct." " Tt ovy 
can ravra j " f <pq o ^aXtvos. o 8e KAeapxos air-fKpt- 1^5 
C 2 


varo' " 'Ear p.ev fteVco/xfr, (movbal errorrat, (uv 
i 1 i) 7I/JO-ICO/X6J 1 , Tjo'Ae/jio? carat. o 8e 
TrjGC' " SirorSaj ?} 77o'Ae//oy aTT- 
e cm-(Kpii>a.TO' " Sirovbal fjifv fjiu 
cnr-ioOtriiJ ?; TT/JO-iioCcrti;." o ri o irou/aoi 

Ar metis advises the Greeks to retreat, and offers to conduct them. 

(v / Kai ot avv avrut M^OVTO. na 
01 TTf^^e'i'Tej Trpos ' Apiatov Tia\iv iJKoV IWTOI Se 
V </;cri TroAAous tlvai ITe'paas 

155 TOW, 01 OJ;K ea<roucrtv CLVTOV f3a<TL\tveiV ei 

77a/)-U>ai > 

, aiiros <JH]<JIV air-i^vat evOvs." o b' 
ovv KAt'ap^os }yctTo rols aAAoi?, ol 6e ciVoj/ro airoj' 
KOI a<l>- IKVOVVTO napa 'ApLcuov afj.<pl /ae''ms iruKTas. Kai 
160 ot r ' EAA^i'ey KCU o 'A/nates &JJ.O<JQV aAA?/Aois (rt'/ajua^oi 
t<T(cr6ai' ol bf fidpfiapot 7rpos-cu/iO(raj> ij-yrjcrfaOm TOIS 


Greets approach the king's troops, <who retreat in fear. 
t 5e ?//mepa tyevero, (iropevovTO, expires TOV ij\iov 

iv 8cta' KOI a/xa f/Ata) SWOVTI d(/)-uoiro eis Koj 


Tivas rfjs Ba/3uAoWa? x^P as - evTwQa t&ofay opav TTO- 
\t[uovs CTTTieas' ol 6e 77po-7re/^$0eW CTKOTTOI ~na\iv 
r*/coi', Aeyorres on ov^ iTTTms tier, dA/V inrovyia ye/^ojuera. S 
xai eu0is Trdyre? Hyvuxrav on /3ant/\ei;s eyyvs TTOV (.arpa- 
ro7re5et'ero' xai yap KCLTTVOS ec/jatVero ei> KW//CIS ou 
TTp6(ru>. rfi 8e vrrrepaLq ovrf virofuytoi; oi/6e^, oure 
KnTTr'os, ovre crrparoTreSoz' (j>avr]. jSaatAevs- 8e, w w5 eoixe, 
(<lw(3r)di] rfi Z(p6bu> TOV o-Tparewjuaros' eSy/Aaxre 6e TOTO 10 
TJ/ v(TT(paiq f a/j,a yap Try r;/xepa e7re/x\//e KT/ 

T/Sr >f/g- proposes a truce, and offers guides to help them to 
get pro-visions. 'Ihe Greeks accept both. 

*O 8e KAe'apxos dou(ras T 
" 'ATr-ayye'AAere /Sao-tAet OT6 5 
ov yap e^o/xey apiarov' oi5e ToA/xrycret rts Ae'yeiv rots 15 
"EAArjcri Trept o-TTo^Swy, ay /XT) irp&Tov TropiV?] airors 
apurrov" ol 8e ayyeAoi a7r-?/Aauj'oi', /cat TraAiy f//coi> 
v. eAeyoi' 8e ort iJKOifV <-\OVTC$ ^yejuoVa?, ot 
O.VTOVS eKeicre, o^ey Aa/3otev ra einri/Seta. 6 5e 

&WffCV avrov? ?/yet(r^at Trpos rd 7rtTr^8eta. 20 
i ol /uer r/yoCi/ro* KAe'apxos 8e ewopevero, ex<o^ TO 
e^ Ta^et, (cat avros oTna-do- 

Crossing the trenches. Activity of Clearchus. The Greeks eat 
the fruit of the date-palm. 

Kat evpoy Tar/)povs TiAr/pets vSaros, ofo OVK cSyt 
bia-fiaii'tiv eTioiovvTO ovv 8ta/3dcreis ex Twy 
ot 7/<ray er T/J yj&pa. Kol Iv TOVTUI TW epyp o KAeap^os 2s 

rots a-rpartcorats, ei' fxcy TT) dpttrTepa x et P' 
TO 8o'pu, /; 6e TTJ 5t^ia /3a/crrjptaf. cat et Tts 


ii] aurw /SAa/cei/eir, eiraie TOV /SAaiceovirra' *at 
CLVTOS eitovei (rw airois e/ji-ySau'coy eis rw TrrjAoV a>(rre 
TrdWas at<rx i ' l ' ea $ at fuj crv-(n;oubdei.v aura). *ai -np&Tov 
p.h> ol re&jtepot erd^Orf^av npbs TOVTO TO ZpyoV fird be 
TOV KXeap^ov crKovba^ovTa, /ecu ol 
a^(/3ayoi'. Tropero'/xet'ot 6e afp-inovTO els Kw/ 
ey at? TrtfXvs (Ttros -?/y /cai otros (ftoii'iKW ouros 8e ?/f 
35 ?/6us jj.ev Triveiv, Ke0aAa\y?/s 6e. evTavda ol orpari&irai 
npwrov e<pa.yov TOV ey/ce'(aA.oi> roi) (ftoiviKOS' cai oi 
i eOavfj.a<Tav TO re et8os KCU r?/y f)bovi]v O.VTOV. i]v 

TitsapberxtJ returns with a message from the king. Reply 
of Clear chui. 

e/uietraz; ?//>ie'pas rpeis' xai TKracupepvrjs T]K.U>V 

40 Trapa picyaAou /Sao-iAe'oos lAfye roiaSf, " 'Ey^ S arSpcj 
"EAA?;fes, yeiVcof oiK<S r?/ 'EAAdSi' >cai <77Ci ciSoj; v/uas 
etj TroAAa Kaxa 7re7;ra)foras, T/TOU/ITJV /SacrtAe'a SoCrai c/ziu 
aTro-awfrai v/xas ei? T7/y EAAa6a, oiop-ai yap ai i'/xas xai 
77<irras rovs "EAAr/ras e^fif ptot \dpiv 8ia rai/ra. xat 

45 Trept yikv TOVTOH' /3acriAei/s vTr-ecr^fTO pot 
ejct'Aevo-f 5e /xe eptvOai v/^ias 5ia TI e 
avroz'." Trpo? raOra KAeap^oy aTr-e/cpiVaro* "' 
oure crvv-ri^dop.ev ws 7roA6p:?/<r(HTe9 j3a<riAet, cure TTO- 
pevofjifda (irl /3a(riAea* aAAa Kfpoy a^-7;yayef ?;/ias 

50 ei'0a5c. <Vel 6e eoopaifiey avrw ez' d^opois orra, rivyvv- 
Oij^LfV irpo-bovvai avrov. vvv be, enel Kvpos redvrjK^v 
cure /3oi>Ao/i0a /ca*cws Troiciv n/y /SauiAtais x<apav, ovrf 
aiio-KTfirai avrov' iropevoif^eda 8' aj> oixaSe, <i rts JXT) 
AuTrot'r; T/^ias* ^dv 8e ris 

.5 ap-ircMtfcu O.VTOV" 


Tissaphernes engages to conduct the Greeks home in safety. 

'O Se Ti<j<ra<l)pvr]$ dfcowas enre' " TaOra eyo> an- 
ayyfAw (3a<n\el' at 8e cnrovbal [Acvdvrwv, j^e'xpt av TrdAty 
7jKo>." 'O 8' ovv wx ero ' T f/ ^ T pti">l W*P<t t'l^iav eAeye 
rotciSe, " BamAev? juef 8t5coa-i />toi aa>eu; i>juas ei? T^y 
'EAAaSa* t^as 8' a3 8e?j(ret djuoVai fffuv, T) p/y iro- 60 
pevecrOai w? 8ta (/)tAtaj x^P a? ) Aa/xjSayoyraj o-ira Kat 
Trora, oTiorav JMJJ Trap-e'xw/xey ayopdv fav 8e ayopav 
^ wreicT^at ra e7rtT?/8eta." TaCra I6ofe rots 
xat Ttcraa^epy//? w/xoo-e re cai 8eftay !&) 
rots rajy c EAA?/i'(oi' orpanjyot? KCU Ao^ayots. fxera oe 65 
etTre' " Nw ju,ei> 8r) aTT-ei/^t Trpo? 

Aty, Kat aTT-a^co v^ias ets r^y 'EAAaSa." 

'f Greeks begin to mistrust Tissaphernes and Ariaeus. Advice 
of ClearchuSy ' !./ KJ wa^f /^ Af <2/" or situation.' 

Mera raura ot re EAA?jyes Kat 'Aptatos irfpt.-eiJ.tvov 

pj>/7i' j;^te'pas TrAetous ^ etKo<rt^. eiret 8e ov^ 7 
ot o-rpartwrat dx^o'/xeyot, KUI vzr-OTrrevovres roy 
'AptaToy, ju^ ou Trttrroj et>], Trpos-rfecray rw KAetip^w, Kat 
i}iovi> aTT-teyat v^vs. 6 8e a-n-eKpCvaro avrots rotaSe, 
" 'Ey&> ey-^u/xoC/xai jixey raCra Trdyra' eay 8f y{)y OTT- 
t'co/jiey, 8o'o/jiey Trotety -Trapa raj o-7roi-8a?. eirttra ovSets 75 
7;ap-e'^et 7;/xty ayopav, o^Se ^yTJcrerat ?//xty; Kai 'Aptatos 
eii^ii? a7ro-^3?j(rerai, wore owSets (pi'Aos AeAft\/A6rai r//Ary. 
Kat et juey rts KOI aAAos Trora/xos 8ta-/3are'os eorty, OVK 
ot8a* ta/uey 8e ort d8vi'aro'y eart 8ta-/3^yat roy Ev^pcirrjy, 
77oAe/^.ta)y KcoAuo'yrwy. Kai ?)jUfrs /xey o^x \o^.cv tTTTrea?, 80 
rots 8e iroAejutots iTniets etcn TfAeto-rof aiare I'tK&iyres /xey 


ovbtva o.v a-no-K.Te[va,i[j.ev, vuuapevoL be 

a. el fj.ev ovv /3a<nAei/s /3ovAerat 
, TI bel avTov fin-opKrjaai KOL \l/ev(ra(rdai, KOL irotT/rrai 
ra 77tora eavTov aTrtora w EAA)jirt re /cat /3ap/3dpots ; " 

^ Greeks begin their retreat, cross the Tigris, and continue 
their march through Media. 

'El' 8e TGI/TO) ?//ce Ticrcra(f>tpi>ris 
6 8e ?;yetro ro?? *EAA)/( 

ayopaz>. eTropewero 8e KOI Apiatos (rvi> 
roTreSevero crw air<3. ot 8e 
rourovj, x^P' 5 Iwo/jevoiTO* 
a.[j.(f)6Tfpoi be etyvX&TTovTo dAA?/Aous c3<T7rep -TroAc/Atov?. 
ovrw TTopevo^evoL cKp-iKovro f-nl TO MrjSias reives, fat 
nap-f)\.0ov fl(ra) avrov. evrevOev 5' (iropevOijaav eirl TOV 
Tiypjjra iroTa[j.oi> ) Tipo? <o TroAis rjv jueydA?;, ^ 
95 SITTOKT]' Kat fvravOa efjLevov Ti]V VVKTCL. 

rouror toy Trorajuor, fTTopfvOrjrrav 8ta r^s M?j8ias araO- 
TToAAoi/s, exoi'res ror Tt'ypj/ra "nora^ov ev dptorepa. 
be TOV aAArj ^y TTO'AI?, ovop.a Katrat, f 7)5 
01 j8dp/3apot Si-7/yor rots "EAA?;(riy aprous, rvpois, oa-or. 

Increasing mistrust. Clear chus addresses Tissaphernes. i. '5T 
</o wrong in suspecting us, for all our dependence is upon you' 

too Mcra raCra aty-LKVovvTat. errt TO^ ZaTrdray Trora/xor, KOI 
evTavda e^eivav ^/ae'pas rpets* ey 8e ravrais ^jue'paiy 
{/nonfat rjcsav aAA?jAa>i^ Sxritep TO Trpo&Oev. eboev ovt? 
T(J) K\cdpx<) <Tvy-yevecrQai ra> Tiaaafyepvet. 
rj\6ov, 6 KAcap^os Ae'yet rd8e, "'Eya>, 

105 oZ8a fity opKovs yt yevrmtvovs, (J.TI abiKrjcreiv dAAr/Aous. 


e 6p<3 (re (puAarro'/xeyoy 7/ a>s 
upcoyre? raura dyri-</>uAaTTo'//e0a. /3ovAo'ju.eyos ovt> 
ras rotavra? i>7ro\|uas, TJ'KW 8t5aa>y ere ws OVK 
7//ny. ol juey yap 6tG>v op/cot KcoAvofcrty 

TU>V 8e av6<i>Tru'u>v no 

ae eyw i>o^ia> /xeytcrroy ez/ai ey T< irap-wn, 
yap aot Tratra juef 65os t^Tropo's eort, Tras 5e 
8ta-^aro's' arev Se aoi) Tratra fxev ?; 65os 6ta 
ay yeVotro, was 8e Tiorajuos 8va7ropos, Tras 8e 

ox^^ 0o/3epo'j. c/)o/3epcorarrj 5' ay et'/ ep^/xta" ep)?/xoi 115 

yap oVres ey TroAAfj diropta ajua etro'/xe^a. 

y or ^o^f J /5?</ jours are frustrated, should any 
misunderstanding arise between us.' 

Ae'co 8e Kat oo-coy eATTt'8<o^ e/xaurov ay o-repr/ffatjuii, ei 
Tioitiv (re TI KaKoV. eyw yap TO'TC e?r- 
Kvpov <f>{\ov /xcu yeveffQat, vopifav avrov 

eiv ?' au e wy fX ety T7 7 1 ' re I2 
Kupou bvvafj.iv Kat rr)y o-eaurcw apyj]v a/x,a* r) 8e /3acriAe'cos 
8'Jraf>ii9 ; r^ TroAejata r]y ra> Ki^pw, (rot yeyeV?]rat (Tvmj.a\os. 
rts oSy OI/K ay ^3ovAotro <^i'Aos eiyat (rot; e^co 8e /cat 
TroAAas eAvriSas feat ae /3ouA7;<re(r0ai (/>i'Aoz; eu-at 7^/xty. 
aKoww yap jcat Mycrous (cat aAAa e$y?7 iroAAa ey-o^Aely 125 
det, oi/s pa8tco? ay Ttjucopr/cratcr^e, )(pwp.eyot rf; ?/p.erepa 
-rjperrj(rojue'y crot, ov /xo'roy TOJ 
, aAAa Kat TT/S )(aptroSj ?/y (rw^e'yres WTTO (rou 
ay (rot 8tKaicov." KAe'apxos juey ow e?7ie 

8e w8e aTreKptyaro* 130 


Reply of Tusapbernej. ' We could destroy you if ive chose, and 
yet ive refrain. Why then should you distrust us ? ' 

" AAA ?'/'8o/jtat fj.v <roi, cio KAe'apx e > ovrco <|>pozn'/>co0s 
Aeyoyrt* eya> 8e' ere 8t8doo, on ov8' vjuei? SiKaiws az> 
aTrtoTotTjre ovre /3acriAer, ovre e/xot. et yap ffiovXonfOa 
a.7i-oAeVcu v/xa?, f^ofj-fv TroAAovs /zey biTre'aj, Kat TTf^oi;?, 
135 Kat oTiAtVa?, ots bwdtfteQa av fSXcnrTfiv. TroAAa 8e 
Xcopt'a eortv eVtr/joeta, o^ey ~i-Ti9u>[j.da. vfj.iv. roaavra 
lLf.v yap 7re'8ta eany 7/^ty <t'Ata, a v/xeTs cri/y TroAAaJ iroVa) 
fi/y bt,a-iTOpVf(rdc roaaura 8e op?; v/Aif errt TtopfVTta, a 
?//xei$ Trpo-Kara-Aa/So'iTes Trap-e'xot/xef ay v/x?f aitupa' 
140 rotrouroi 6' eio-1 Trora/not, 0115 ov8a/xc3s ay 5ta-/3airjre, ei 
ta-Tropevoi^ey v//as. ei 8e /U7;8ey TOJJT&>y VT;- 
IILUV, aAAa TO ye irup Kpfirrov ecrn roO Kapirov, ov 
KaTa-Kavo-arres bvvaifj-tda av 
ra> e Atjuw, ov8' ei Trd/'f dya^oi 

145 drrt-OTj'/rai. exoyres ouy rocroi;rous 7rpou9 Trpos ro 
TroAf/Lteii' vpiry, TTois ToCroy TW rponov av e^-eAoi^e^a, os 
/uo'ros do-e^Sj/s ecrn /cat aiaxpos ; ?//xe iy, <Ib KAe'apxf, o^x 
oi/rco /uaipot ovre dAoyiVrot ea/xtV." 

TtssapLvrnes invites a conference. A piece of Persian 

Taura eiTrwy e8o^e TW KAedpxw dAj/^fj Ae'yeiy* KOI 6 

150 Ti(T(Ta0e'pi>Tj9 TrdAiy elTrei;' " Ei /3ouAe0-0e 01 Tf arpan/- 

yol *ai cl Aox^yoi eA^ety fioi ei? Tf\v <TKr]VT]v, Ae'^a) v/iu ( 

ra dyo'/xara raiy Aeyo'yTtD^, <a$ <rv ^irt-^3ovAeveis e/xoi re 

Kat TTJ aw e/jtoi (TTparta/' " 'Eya> 8e," e^>?j 6 KAe'apxos, 

" a^ci) TrdtTa?/' TT/ 8' vorepai'a TjA^e rapa Tio-aa^e'ptTjy 

155 ayoop ireWe o-rparr/yous *cai euoo-i \o\ayovy. CTTCI 8e 


eTTt ral? Oupcus rats Tt<T(ra<epj>oi;s, ot /uet> arparrjyot 
Tiap-fK\i]0^irav eicrco, ot 8e Aox^y ' ipfvov firl rats 
(Wpats. ov TToAAw 8e vcrrepoy ot re e^Sor o-w-eAap./3di>oz>ro 
Kal ol efa> KaT-Ko<j)6r)<jav. fiera 6e raura TW^ /3ap- 
/Sdpcoy rifes iTiTre'coyj eAavrorres 8ta rov TreSiou, HKTZLVOV 160 
f/ EAA?/ra9, ots ev- 

Consternation of the Greeks. The foe generals are murdered. 

'E(C rourov 817 ot "EAArjres tdtov k~nl ra onAa, 
{bi'rts rows fiapfidpovs avTiKa i]eiu (irl TO 
ot 8e 7rdi;res juey OVK i]KOov, 'A/)tatos 5e KOI aAAoi, ot 
?)<ray Kvpa) Trto-ro'rarof KCU 6 'Aptaios etTie rd8c, " KAe- 165 
a PX 0? / z ^' ^ arbpes r 'EAA?]f e9, re^fJjKei', eTret eAixre ras 
a7roi'8as /cat Tr-fj3ov\fv<T Tiaffa<t>4pvr 
McVwy, on Kar-?;yyetAai' r^y fTTifiovXr)i> avroi 1 , f 
rijur; fltriv," enl rot/rots ztvotp&v dire' " 
ct eAve ras erTrot'Sa?, e^ft r^v biKr]V evret 5e rjpo'ez;os KOI 170 
MeVcoy eto-ty vp-irepoi /uey ei'epyerat, ^ere/sot 8e 
yot, irefj.\l/aT avrovs bevpo' <i'Aoi yap 
/iovAewoucrt Kat vp.iv Kai ^ ra /3e'Ari0ra." Trpos raura 
ot p,ev /3dp/3apot, 5ia-Aex^ e ' i; ' r fs dAA7]Aots TroAuv x/ 70 ' 1 -' ^ 
a-n-YfXQov ovbev aTio-Kpti'dp.ei'of ot 8e orparjjyot ar- 175 
i]\Qr}<rav Trpos /3aaiAe'a, Kat ai K((jja\al avrwv cbr- 

Character of Clearcbus. His warlike tastes and love of 

TOVTCOV be TWV o-rparqywf 6 /xer KAe'ap)(o$ wju 
vno vavTUiv ytviaQai avrjp KOI 7roAep.iKos Kat p.aAto-ra 
(/)tAo7ro'A6p.os. Kat yap 8?), eW p.e^ 7ro'Atp.os JJi> rots 


iois wpos rovs 'Aflrjyatovs, VTr-riperei rTj eaurou 
Trarpi'Sf eVei 8e flpijvrj eye'yero, Tretcra? rovs Aa*ce8at- 
(jioi'iovs a>9 ot paKes dSticoref rovs "EAAt^as, e^-e'-T 
oj? 7roAeju7/fT6oi' rots 0paiV. eVet Se 01 e(/>opot 
185 a-o-crTp(f)(ii> avrbv f 'Io-0/xou, h'Tavda OVKCT 

a^roi?, aAV aTT-cTiAet ets 'EAX^o-Troi/roy KOI e* TOI/TOV 
VTTO r<Sy ei> STraprr; apxcVraiy. T/fir; 5e cpvya? 
Kvpo^, 6 8e Kvpos 8t8w<Ttp aj;Tai TroAAa 
Xp7/p.ara. 6 8e KAe'ap^o?, Aa/3wi> raSra Kal (ruA-Ae'^as 
190 (rrparev/xa, eTroAe/aet TO?S 0pa^t, /xe'xP 1 K?"pos e8e?/^rj roi; 
(rrparfvjuaro?' Tore 8e a7r-?/A5e ffi/y eKett'w. ourco /jiei' 
ow 6 KAeap^os (ptAoTro'Ae/xos 77^. 

severity of bis discipline secures the obedience ; but not 
the attachment of his soldiers. 

Et? 8e ro ap\eiv rwr ai'0pu>Ti(i)v Uavo? /xey j)y napa- 
rrj orparta ra 67Ttrr;8eta, uavos 8e KOI e/x- 
195 7rot?j(Tat rr)i yvw^riv roi? crrpartwrai?, a>? ireUTTfuV fir] 
roi;ro 8' CTrotei ex row eu>ai aAeTro's* cat 

yap orvyuoj ry opa^ >cat rpa^vs TT (wv' eKoae re et 
i ez'tore opyT/* T^yerro* yap ov8ei> o^eAos elf ai 
orparevjuaros. dAAa KOI eAeyey <w? 8e'oi TOV 

200 (TrpartwrTji' </)o^3ci(T0ai roy ap^oyra /xaAAoy 7) TOI/S 710- 
Ae/xtovs, et /ixe'AAot 7^ ev <j>v\dciv 0iAKas, 7^ ^appaAe'cos 
teVai Trpos roi/s TroAe/^ioi;?. ei; /uei> vi; TOIS Kir'8wois ot 
orpanan-ai 7;^eAov TieiOeo-Oai. avra), KOI OT}K aAAov fjpovvro 
(TTparriyov' ore 8e ye'roifro ev dorcpaAe?, xai e-euj avrois 

^05 aTT-ie'i'ai Trpos aAAovs apxot^ras, TroAAol aTr-e'AetTroi' avro'y 
ou yap txev 7/8i/v rov TpoTrov, dAA' del x a Ae?7os 7]j; /cat 
coco's* cuo-r ol (rrpariairai St-e'/ceuro Trpos airo// 


s, </u\ta 5e KCU 

t vruia oi<5ets Trore ow-eiVero ai/rco. TpioSros /xey 8y 
))V' up^trOai Oe i^o u\Ao)i' eAtyero oi 


Extreme dejection of the Greets. 

Se ot "EAA?jj'es T/aa^ ev TroAA?) Sr) 
Kal adv[j.<i)s eT^oy /vtdAtora* Kat oAtyoi / avrwv eyev- 
aQ2'To OITOU fis r^v faiifpai', oAtyot 8e Trwp di'-eKaixiav 
TroAAot 8e OWK ?]\duv fm TO. oTrAa rairnqv rryv VVK.TO., 
av-eT>a.vovTO 8 OTTOU e/caoros erwy^ai'ef a>y, ov Sura/^ei^ot 5 
<ca^-^8eiy tiTro AwTrrjs xat Ttodov TrorptSwi', yovtutv, 
/waiKum, Tiafoav, ovs kvopi^ov ju?/7rore ert o\//ecr^at. 
uer S?) Sta-Kfi/xerot dv- 

//o<u; Xenophon came to join the expedition. 

"llv 8e rts ev 77] orpana Zfvoty&v 'AOrjvaios, os ovre 
OT/aartjyos ovre Ao^ayos oi/re orpartcorrj? coy crw- jo 
r/KoAow^ef dAAd n/3o'ei>o?, ^e'vos wj; dpxaws, /xer- 
cnt(j.\l/a.To UVTOV olnodcv vTT-ta-^v^TO 8e aura), et 
Trotr/aeiv avrov <i'Aoz> TW Kvpw. 6 8e Hevo^aJy d 
raura cri;|u,-^3ouAej;rat 2a)Kpdri TW 'A^/j^ata) irept 


15 770pftaj. Kat 6 2a)Kp<m;s <ru//,-/3oj;Aej;et rw E 
as AeA0oi/j Kat am-KOi 

o 8e Hero</;tot> \6<i)i> f-n-ijptro rov ' 
$i'ot KOI ei/^oiTo, wore K 

oSur Kat KaAwj Trpd^at. Kat 6 'A77o'AAa)# (n']fj.r]vev avrut 
20 (?eoi)?, ol? eSet Qvf.iv. e/rei 8e TraAtv ^A^cy, lAf^c rj/y 
iav ra> 2coxparei. 6 6e 7/riaro avrov, on ov ir 

TTorepov etrj ai/rai Tropeverr^at T) 
aAA' ort avros (nL-9v^(ra<i teVat ?}pcora OTTO)? ay KaAAi<rra 
iropfvdeLT]. " 'ETTft fJLCVTOi oimo? ?/pov/' l^)?j o 
25 " raura P^/ ~oieti' oo-a o ^609 eKe 

//<" resolves to throw in bis lot with Cyrus. 
'O /xei> Sr/ Hei'cx/xSy, ^(rd/jieyos roi^rots rots 0eot? ot? o 
eAevrrf dufiv, 1^-eirAet r?ys 'EAAd^o?, Kat Kar- 
i> SdpSe^i ripo'^roy Kai Kupo^ jUc'AAovras j/^rj 
at avv-eTayOi] KW/JO)' 6 8e Kpos (KeXev(T(i> 
30 avjov [j-flvai Trap'' eai'ra). elTre 5e ort, eirel Ta^icrTa 57 
arpareta A?/^etey, a7ro-7re'p:v|/oi avrov otKaSe' 6 6e oroAos 
cu'at ctv Dta-t'oas. 6 |uei> 8?j "Eevo^wv fcrrpa- 
vfTo o{5rto9 f^-a7rarr;^ets, ov^ i* 710 ITpof&ov* ovSets yap 

3? /3amAea ftz'at. CTTCI Se yXOov fls KtAtKtav, aatfifs 7/0"?? 
f8o/cei elyat Traa-tr, on o oro'Aos cu; eiri ^3a<riAea. </>o/3ou- 

fJifVOt bf T1]V OOOV K0.i CLKOVTfS, O/XWS Ol TToAAot Toif 

CTrpaTicoraij;, at<rxwo/xw'ot ?/or; TrpoSoDz^ai Kwpov, ovi>- 
rjKo\ovdi](rav avraj* wv cts Kat "E(vo<f)<t)V r/v. 

Xtnophon has a dream. 

ot r/yey v aTropia rrav. 

ri/i> rois aAAois, cat ov* 


vaTfpov Se Xayjuv VTTVOV el$ti> oi-ap. Zbo^ev avrw 
/3poi>riii> [j.V yfVfadai, (TK^TtTov 8e TTfrrf'iv eis TT)V Trarpwai 1 
OLKiar, Kai K TOVTOV Tiavav Aa/.'.7Tca-$ai. (f)Oj3oviJ.evo<i 
8e ew^i/s" av-rjyfpOi], KCU 8ta TOWTO /xey Ixpa'e TO o^ap 45 
ayaOov tlvai, on ei> KtrSwots coy fboev tSeif 
tK Aio's' o/xcos 8e tyofielTO, p.rj ov bvvairo 
ex r?]s x^pa? T^S /3aa-i\ecos, ort TO orap 
UTTO Atos /^acrtAeais, TO 8e TTvp e8oK6t Xa 

/w reflections. Meeting of the officers. Five new commanders 

"ETrao^; 8e ai'-rjyepOr], irp&rov (j.h< tvvoia e/x-TTtirrft 50 

VTTO /3cunAe'cos, 8et ?//jias TtaQovras iravra TO. beivdrara Kal 

' aAAa Kara-Ket//e^a ev^aSe, wa-jrep e^-oy 55 
f]crv\iav ayfiv." fK TOVTOV ai'-urTaTai feat o-yy- 


eKaAov^ rows aAAoi>9 Aoxayois (cat 
Trai'Tes avv-iiKOov, fnaO^ovro' Kal ol avv-tX6uvT(<s 60 
orparrjyot Kat \o\ayol tyivovro a^l efcaroV. av^- 
be et' 

Council of <war and speech of Xenopbon. \. ' T^ ^-o^j <n,'/V/ 
be on our side, for we have kept our oaths' 

'E?ret 8e ol &p\pVTfS fiprjVTO, t8oev avTots crvy-Ka\fii> 
rovs cTTpaTttoras. eirei 8e oi <rTpaTiwTai (rvv-i)\dov, 65 


fj.(i< Xei/n<To</o? dr-eVr?;, KCU fiera TOVTOV KXedi'wp 
7ovru>i> bf fiTiui'Tw, Eero^au; uriararat, 
/cat tAttf* 1 ' ^ 6 ' fl T'/r /yer r<2i; fiapfidpwv iiuopniav T6 
*at aTrurriav t^ets, ot/jiai, e77t(rra<r^e. ei j^tey oS 

r, op&vTas oa o orparr;yoi ?;/a<f apri 


cat KaXat eXTTi'Ses (rcorr/pias. -prov fj.ev yap 
75 efi-TrcSor/iey TOWS raif 0ewi' opKovs, ol bf -xoXt' 
XiXvuacri ras (TTrorSas Trapa roi/s opKOus. ouro> 
eari rouj Ofovs rols (JLCV TroXe/it'oiy cirai eravri'ovs, ?/ 


ii. ' Let uj emulate the valour of our fathers and maintain 

our own.' 

bf ava-p-vijcra) v/xa? ray T&V itpoyovtav ra>j> 
go f)fj.(Ttp(av dperas, tra t5fjre wj irpos-T]K(i etrai 
aya&ns. IXQowriav yap Hfpcruv 7ra/x7rX7j0ei oro'Xa> 7rl 
ray 'A^/Jt'ay, ol 'A0?jt>aun irp&Tov TO\p.r)cravT($ (I'lKr/aav 
avrovs. l-Treira, ore He'p^r/y Zarepov i]\6ev 6m r^y 
'EXXd8a, xat rare ol T/ju'repot Tipoyovoi (vtKutv TOVS 
85 rowrajv Trpoydrou? KOI Kara yijv Kal Kara 
ovrw bf KOI v/i6is avTL-Tadp.fvoi apri rot? 
c/cydrois 6ftKare avrous auv rois ^6ois. xat rdr6 [Mfv 
vpou /3a<riXei'as 7;r6 arSpey ayaOoi' vvv b(, 
?Jy v/A6Tepay awrr/piay 8ei /ad^ea^ai, Trpoy- 
90 f/i vfias etrai iroXu xai ap.tivovas not irpo6vp.oTfpov$. 


ili. ' Our want of cavalry Is no disadvantage, rather a gain. 
Ihe rivers are fordable near their sources? 

Et 8e TIS v\s.S>v adv[j.l on yiuv peit OVK flcrlv 
rolf 8e 7roAep.iois TroAAot iimris Trdp-etortv, fv- 
on ot fj.vptoi tTnrets ov8y aAAo eta-tv rj pvpioi 
ol yap avbpes elvlv ol TioiovvTfs o n av yiyvr]Tai tv TCUS 

Wets S' fr/^iey CTT' dcr^aXea-repon ox^aros rcov 95 
ot /xev yap /cpejixatrai a^)' tTnrwy, (j)0^ovfj.fvoi 
?;/jias /ao'i'Of, aAAa <at TO Kara-Treo-eu' 1 jy/.ietj 8e eTrt 
eorrjKo're? TroAv la-^yporfpov naicronfv rous 
Trpos-t'&xriy ^ju.rv. cw uxoVa) ol iTnrer? Ti 

f)vy>fiv a<T<a\(TTep6v ecrnv avro?s f; ^/xa*. t too 
8^ TOV? TTOTO/XOVS yo/xi^ere eu>at aTro'povs, (TKt\l/a<r6( /cat 
rovro. TraWas yap TOV? irorajixoi'?, et /cat TrpoVa) r<3i/ 
aTTopot etcri, 77po-i'o'rres TTOOS ra? 77?jyas paStcos 

iv. * As a last resource we can settle ourselves in the king's 

Et 8e ^re ol Trora/nol ye^Tjo-oyrai Sta-/3aroi, ^yf/xcoy 105 
re /xrjSets fyaveirai. ^/u,ri>, ov Se^ jy/xas adv^M 8ta TOUTO. 
ot re yap Mucrot Kat aAAa C^^TJ, /3a<TiAea>s a/coiros 
otKoSfrtv ei> rrj /3ao-iAe'a>? X^P a Tro^^a? re Ka i e8aijuoi>as 
Tro'Aets. oiJrco 8e Kal T^mas, ws e/xotye 8o/cet, XP^ Kara- 
cr/ceua^Ecr^at &>s ot/c^o'oi'Tas e^^dSe. ot8a yap on ^SacnAei/s no 
8067 av iroAAovs ^ye/xoyas rots MIKTOIS, /cat ort 770t7J<rtei' 
ay 68ous avrots, ei fiovXoivTo aTr-teWt e/c T^S x^P a?> Ka ' 
ye rpt$-d(r/jiei'09 erroiet av raSra, et twpa ^as Trapa- 
Kara-fxeVeti'. rovro 8e /cat 8e'8ot/ca, /uuj 
a TTJS ot/ca8e 68oC, ecu> pdOtofjifv rjv dpyoi, 1 15 


KOI pLOTfvttv fv afydoviq. coxa oiiv /jot Succuoy etvcu 
tipaaOai. a^-LKi'dcrOai. ets r?)i> *EXXd8a, *ai (iri- 
TOLS "EXA?j<rir, on e-e<rri roiy 

v. ' Above all let us observe the strictest discipline, and help 
each other to maintain it.' 

120 AoiTroy lorijuuu ctTTfiy o/rep KCU fo/X(^u etrai /xe 
upare yap on ot TroAf/^tot oi) npoadei' ero'A/xTjaai 1 

avap\tq /cat arai'a. 5ei ovy TOV? /xe 

raj eTrt/ieXcoTepovs yeveaOai. TWV TtpocrOev apxovTMV, rovs 8e 
apxpulvovs T7o\i> tvTaKTOTfpovs eu'at jnSi; f/ Trpoodtv. fav 
Se nj aTretO?), 8e?}(rci TOJ; dci v/^aii' ey-Tuyxavovra KoXd^ei^ 
avTov avv TO) ap^ovn. aXX' ?/5^ a>/ja eon Vfpalvov TOV 
\6yov i<7a)s ya/> ot TroXe/iioi airiKa irap-fcrovrai, 6Ya> 

130 oyj' raOra 00x6? 

Order of march. The Greeks cross the Zab and are harassed 
by Mitbridates. 

TOUTOV oj aTra^rcs av~fT(ii'av TO? 

eTropcvoiro TroiTjcrapiti-oi vhafffWV (K T&V OTT- 
j', lx oj;r$ T ^ V770^uyia xat Toy o^Xoi; ev /xeVw. icai 
ju,f yyeiTO, bvo 8c roSv Trpffr/SuraTwy aTpcm;- 
'35 y^ v eV-e/ifXouyTo TWV TrXeupaif cKaTepcur, s,fvo$>u>v be 
Kal Tijutaauoz/ &)7ri<T^o-</)uXaKOuy. KaTa-/cauda^res 8e ras 
a/Kias Kat ras o-*CTjras bi-((3i](rav TOV Za-ndrav irora/io'v 
Kai rovrou Mt0pi8aT7js ciri-c^a^rerai, ex^y iTrireas KCU 
rofo'ras cai a</)ez'8on/Tas. 7Tt 8 yyis eyeVero, oi /ley 


CLVT&V (To(vov' ol S tcrfavbovwv /cat eTiTpcocncov rows 140 

A force of cavalrv and slingers is hastily organized. 

'Ex TOVTOV eSo/cet 5,evo(f>>VTi. Sico/creou u>ai roi/s TTO- 
Ae/ztous' SiwKOjres Se /car-eAd|u/3arot> oiibeva' ovre -yap 
rots "EAXrjo-ij;, ovre ol we^ot eSv^afTo xara- 
TOV? K(Li'a)i> Tre^byj. cv^a 8?) TidAiy adv^ia 145 
6e rots or/aaTTjyois <cara-crKud^eii; o- 
a>? rd)(t(TTa. axowaiTes 8e PoStovs 
TO) orparcv/xan emorajueVous o^cvfiovSv, TOVTOVS TC 
f-eXtavTO Ko.1 aXAouy, oinres IdAotCV rdrreo-^ai irpos 
rouro TO Ipyor, is 8ta*coo-iovs. /car-eo-/cevacray 8e c^s 150 
Imre'as ITTTTOVS (TKvo<i>opovvTa i i ws jrevrTjKoirra* /cat IJT- 
7r-ecrTQ^(7 avrot? AUKIOS ' 

Tusaphernes attacks the Greeks, but is forced to retreat. 
Mera raCra a$-iK.QVTo eiri roy Tiypjjra TroTap.6v. 

<cai cr0i;8oi ) ?;Ttts KOI Too'ra9. eTici o' eyyi/j fyevero, 155 
e/>z-/3aAeu> /^ev OVK eroA/iTjo-ez;, o-^trSoj-'Si 1 8e Trap-^yyeiAe 
TOUS eavrou /cat roeueu>. CTret 8e 01 'Po'Stoi e(T(pevbovr)<Tav 
/cat ot ro^oVai ero'^ewcrar, 6 Tt<ro-a0ep t ''? ? dir-e^wpet e^co 
/3eA<2r, /cat at aAAat rd^etj aTT-ex^P 7 ? " ''' <at TO AotTrof 
r^s f)fj.epas ol ptv firopevovTo ol 6' et~oyro' /cat ol 160 
f3dp(3apoi ov/ceri taivovro rows "EXArj^as* ol yap 'Po'Stoi 
(crfavbovtov /xa/cporepoy raJy Ofprroit;. T^ 8e vorepat'a ol 
"EAAr/res (Ttopfvovro Sid roG ireSt'ov, KOI 

D 2 


Disadvantages of marching in a square. 

165 "Ev9a bi] oT'EAArjyes tyvu>aav on TrAaunoy laoi 

Trovrjpa rais dr] TOIS into TroAe/xitof SicoKojua'ois' di'dy/o; 
yap eon TOI/S oTiAiras e/c-0At/3ea0ai /cat Tropevecrdai 
, eay ra Ke'para TOV TrAatcriou (rvy-KVTTTp, 77 68ou 
ovarj?, 17 ope'cov dj'ayKa^oyTa)!; 17 ye^i/pas* wcrrc 
1 70 8u<rxp/<JTovs Z^ai, drctKTOus o/'ray. oray 8' ay rd xepara 
8id-(7^7/, avayKt] earl TOVS Tore 6\i(Bofj.evovs 8ta-o-7ra- 
aOai, Kal TO fjLfcrov Tooy /ceparwi; Ktvov yiyvtaQai, nal 
TOU? rawra -7rd<Txoyras aOvpfli', TroAejixicoi' k-no^i'<av. KOI 

'75 e/caoros tcnrcwSf, (3ov\6(j.(i-o<i bia-ftijvai. irp&ros' Kal 
raC0a pqbiov ijv rots TroAf/xtots (m-Ti 

Improved order of march. 

^ ol orparTjyot eyi'tovav raura, eTrotr/o-ay 
>a (KCLTOV df8pa9, cat 

avrots, Kal aAAous TievriiKovTijpas Kal aAAous e 

180 dp^as. ovYft) 8e Tropeuo'/iffoi, OTTOTC y^icy ra Kf'para 

(Tvy-KVTtrot, ol Ao^ayot -v-n-iptvov vcrrtpov, cuore Ta 

/cepara /UT) Tapdrrea-^ai* Tore 8 Tiap-riyov e(D0v T&V 

Kfpdrtav. OTT oVe 8e ai TrAevpat rou TrAato-iow 8id-crxoifv, 

ourot dz'-f^-eTTi/UTrAaaav TO ^e'tro^, <o(TT TO /bieaov dei 

185 fK-ir\((av flvat. ei 8e <cat Se'oi 

r^ yttyvpav, OUK crapaTTOi'TO, aAAd ol 
(V T<S fJLfpfi. rovT(a T(5 rpoTiy (tiOptvdt}crai TioAAas 


the enemy occupy a mountain pass. The Greeks prepare to 
dislodge them. 

Mia 8e r&v ?;//ep<3v ol /3dp/3apoi 
ioy ri v\lsr]\bv inrep avrrjs TTJS oSou, $ ol "EAAqres 
iia.p-i.svai. (vravOa Sero^wp opcou rrjy KOpvipyv 
TOV opovs ovcrav vTtfp TOV tavT&v orparev/xaroy, KOI OTJO 

' oSaay CTTI Toy Ao^oy, tv^a ol 
, Ae'yei TW Xeipiao'^xi)' " Kpariaroi; effriy, a> 
(T0(/>e, ^/xiv lea^ai ws rdxiora TH ro axpov' cay yap 195 
roi/To Aa/3co/xey, ol vvrep T^S 68o{! TroAe'juioi ov 8uf?y(royrai 
IMtveiv. av be, ei /3ovAci, /xeW CTTI rw orpaTev/xan, eyw 
8' efc'Aco Tropevea^at." KOI 6 Xetpioxxpo?, tT 
Tre/xTrei TOUS Trap* taimo oiras 
KOI aAAov9 rpiaKOJious (rw-sW(T0ot l o$s aoo 
7TtAe'(crovs avbpas. 

Race for the summit. 

f-rropevovTo ws ifivvavro ra^iora. 01 SC'CTTI 
rou \6(pov TToAe/xioi, ws eVo'rjcray avrovs TropevojueVous CTTI 
TO axpov, fvOvs Kal avrol u>pfj,r]o-av firl TO a/cpoy. /cat 

^ juey Kpav/i] r\v T>V 'EAA^cor 8ia- 205 
TOIS 4avT(Sy, TroAA^ 8e Kpauy^ T<WI> ap,</>i 
urwy 8ia-KeAei/op.e'i>a>i>. sfvo(f)Sn> 8e 
TOU ITTTTOU Tiap-eKcAeweTo 1 ""At'8pcs, t-Oy 
Tt T^y 'EAAaSa ajuiAAao-^e, rw TTpos TOUS TraiSay xai Tas 

aiKas" fuy o\iyov iro^o-ayrej d/viaxet Tropevo-oVe&i T^y aio 
ITTJJI; 68o'y. n 


A grumbler silenced, Ihe Greeks <win the summit. 

2coT7jpt8^s oe ns eiTref " QVK * laov, o> Eero 
('' crv /xei> yap GX ' *<j> nnrov, eya> 5e j(aA 
tapi'd) (ptpwv ri]V acnriba." 6 5e "Eevo<pu>u d*ovcras recur a, 
Kara-TT^Sf/cras OTTO rot) ITTTTOV, co^eirat roy 2o)rjjpi8?;j; CK 

e /cat 

du>paKa rov iirTriKoV cuore eTru^ero. at Tra 
rots /xey (fj.TTpo(r6(v V7i-ayeir, rot's 5e oiricrdev Tiap-t4vai. 
no ol 5' aAAot arpartwrat iTratoy feat eAoi8o'pouy rov ^wr?;- 
e<rre TJ/'tiyKaaa^ avrov Kaftovra TTJV affiriba nopcu- 
i. 6 5e Hero(/)a)y ara-/3as, ecos /xei> ra x^p' a ^o-ffifjLa 
raJ tTTTTw, ?)yfy 7rt rov ITTTIOU' CTTCI 8e a/Sara ryr, 

roz; l-mrov to-7ri5e Tre^T/. *at ol 
rovs TroAe/^tous ytro'juei'oi CTTI r<5 aK/>a>. 

^ serious dilemma. Proposal of a Rhodian soldier. 

'Evda bi] ol juey fidpfiapoi <rrpa0rres tyewyov, ol bk 
etxov ro anpov. CTTCI 6e Kar-e'^aay ts TO 
ioy, fvravda TroAAr) anopia r}v. iivdev yikv yap TJV 
opt] i>T!fp-v\lfi]\a, evOev 8e Trora/jios ou 8ta-^3aro's. *cat cv 
230 rovrw drr/p rts'Po'Sto? 7r/)os-eA^a>i' (lircv " 'Eya) de\<a, S) 
avbpes, 8ia-/3i/3aVai v/^as Kara rrpaKts-x^iois oTrAtras, 
iav TToptffrjTf e/xot raCra cDy 8eo'/xai, KOI cTrt-Swrc /ioi 
rdAarrov p.iadov." epwrw^ieros oe oroy Se'otro, " 'Ao-KWf," 
e0;, " 8ts-x l ^i' a) ' / 8eT/fro//af opS> 5e TroAAa "npoftara Kat 
35 atyas KOI /3ous, &v ra 8e'/)/xara (f)vo-r]d(vra paStws av 7ra/>- 
e'xoi T)V 5ta^3aoii;. 8er/<To^ai 5e KOI rwy beafj.>v, ots 
\j)ijcrOf Tiepi, ra vTro^vyta' rourots ^y^as roi/s 


Trpos dAA;/Aovs, /cat op/xiVas fKacrrov At0ots, uxrirep 
dy/cupats, bi]<no TOVS dcr/covs dp,(pOTepco0ei> rou TrorajMOU' 
/cat e7ri-/3aAa> i'Ar/i' rot? dolors, /cat yjjv e?ri TTJ vAi/. 240 
TOVTOIS 8e eTrt-^dzres ov /caTa-ouo-eo-fc- TTO? yap 
ot(Tfi bvo avbpas' fj 5e v'A?j Kai f) yrj KcoAvcroucri 

They decide to march over the mountains into Kurdistan. 

Tois 8e orpOTJ/yois aKowatri rai;ra TO [ ei'^y^jua 

\apUv ttvcu, TO b 3 epyoy ddwaroV i](rav yap ntpav 245 
rou -norafj-ov TroAAoi tTTTrers rwy TroAe/xtajy, 01 OVK ay eir- 
tTptTTOv rot's r 'EA\T7<n TTOiety Tai;Ta. /cat 8ta Tai;Ta eSo'Kei 
Tots (rrpaTtiyois avaynaiov eii'at e/^i-^aAe?y 8ta TW^ ope'coi* 
eis KapSou^ovs, KOI hTv0ev Ot-eA^eif ets 'Ap/xei'iar, 

iJ.fyaA.rjv Kal evbatjJjova, ?/s Opo'yT?;? ?/p^f. ev- 250 
a^-iKovro <iv9a 6 /xey Ttypjjs Trora/jtos TraiTdTrao-if 
T)/', TidpoSos 8e ov/c T]*.'* aAAa Ta KapSov^coy op?7 
virep avrov TOV -norafj-ov c/cp///aro. tvravOa 8o'/Ct TOIS 
(TTpaTTjyors TTopevr6ai 5ia TW^ dpewy* /cat Tropewo'/xerot 
T^S i-'v/CTOs d<^-iKyoCyrai ajua r) ?'/p-epa irpos TO opoy. 255 

Order of march. Attacks from the Kurds. 

"EvOa bij Xetpt'tTo^os |tzei> j;yiTo TOU (TTpaTeup-aTos, 
s,d'0()><av 8e ftTreTO oTrivOcHpvXaKwv. Kal OVTW irap- 
tyevovro ets Tas /cwp:as T<Sz> Kap8oyxwi'. a-^a 8^ ot /uep 
Kap5oi>xot e^-eAtTTOf Tas ot/ctas, /cat e<pevyov CTTI Ta op/, 
eXi'7"fs Ka ' yu^ai/cas /cat 7rat8as' ot 8e "EAA?^es eAd/x- 260 
flavov TroAAa e7rtT7/8eia e/c TWV Ku>p.u>i'. eTret 8e ot TC- 
AeuTaibi TW^ 'EAA?/z'a)i' Kar-fflaii'ov ets Tas /cw/zas, ToVe 
5^ (Ti/A-AeyeVrcs rt^ey Toiy Kap8ovx a) y (ir-fTi0evTo aiirols' 


KGLI aTT-fKTfLvdv rivets Koi aAAovs cTpcocrav. KOI 
265 fjifv TT]v iWKTd j]v\L(rdr]crav tv rats KWJUCUS' a/jia 8e rfj J/jue' 

Forced rapidity of march. * Is there no other road? 1 

Kai TO.VTIJV pev rqv 7//xe'pay ourcos Ttopev6i]<rav' rg 
8e vartpaiq yiyvtrai \(L[j.(t)V TioXvs, avayK.OA.ov 5' 7/y 
nopevevdai.' ov yap Tjv luava ra eTTtnjSeta, Kat ot fxey 
270 TroAe'^ioi id^fpcos eTT-ert^eiro avror?. 6 8t Xf ipicro^os ovx 
, aAA.' ?)ye raxecos, ojarf ^ iropcta eytyrero 6/xot'a 
v0o(pv\ai.. kvravOa o s,tvo<pu>v (\0(i)V 
iipbs TOV Xtipiaotyov Tjrtaro avrov on o^x VTT-(}J.IVV' 6 
8e ct7ro-fcpti/o'/*evo9, *' BXe^roi'," ^T;, " Trpo? ra opr/, KOI 
275 i5e is Tiavra eort a/3ara' jut'a 8e avrrj eoriy 080?, 771* 
opqs, opQia' KOI eiri ravTrj avOparnoi KaO-ijvTai TroAAot, 
TJ^ (.Kfiaaw ol 8' r/ye]uoVes, ovs exo/xey, ou 
tlvai a\\rjv 68oy." 6 8e Sfi'ocp&v ttuzv U 'AAA' 
8vo avbpas, ovs eAa/3oy 
280 r/pirr TT^S 68o!." 

refractory prisoner. Another road discovered, Volunteer 
party formed. evOvs dyayo'fres rows avOpu>Ttovs riputTuv awroi/j ct 
aAAr;^ 6801;, 17 r^y fyavtpav. 6 /uey oSy erpo? 
aAAr/y riva eiSeVai' eTret. 8e eAeyev ov8ey 
opwfTos ToC (Tfpov Kar-6(T0ayjj. 6 8e AOITTOS 
185 lAe^ey on ovros ov 0atr; ei8eWt, on eir/ avrw Ovydrrjp 
e/cei (K-b(bofj.fVri Trap avbpi' airo? 8' l(/>r/ fiyfoevdai TW 
cpcorco/iei/os 8e et CIT/ ri cy rr^ 68ai 8us- 
fay, <pr] ctvai atipov ft 8e /XT) -npo-Kara- 




TOVTO, dSiWroy cffeaOai. 7rap-eA0ety. fvravOa 
ol orpaTJjyoi <7t>y-KaAeaayTes Aoxayovs rS>v re TreATacrrcSy 29 
Kat T<5y oTrAtrwy, i7pwTcoy atiTovs ei us etr?, ocms efle'Aoi 
ay yeyeV$at dyr/p ayaOos, Kat ^Tro- 
cat v<j[-oTai>rai 8?) ws S 

Preconcerted arrangement. The start. 

Kat ^y /t>iev 8etA?; 7/8;, ot 8e orpar/jyoi fKfXfvov TOWS 
e^eAoyras -nopevfcrOai. /cat 8?jrraj/Tes Toy ^ye//,o'ra irapa- 295 
6l8odcrtV avrors. cat avv-TiOtVTai rrjv fjitv VVKTO. 

TO \u>piov, tav \a[3<t)(TL TO a/cpor, a/xa 8e TT) ?}j 

TT) o-aATTtyyf Kat TOVS /xey a^co o^Tas le'yat eirt 
rous TroAe/xi'ovs TOV? KaT-e')(oyTas TT)I; (pavfpav K/3a<riv. 

<rvfji-(3ori6r](reLV (K-fiaiVOVTes, <ws 300 

Kat v8a)/) TroAv f}y e ovpavov. He 
8e, e}((oy TOVS oincrdotyvkaKas r/yetro 77/30$ TTjy tyavipav 
Kj8a(rty, OTTO)? ot TroAe'jutot TTpos-fx.oi.ev rov vovv ravrp T|) 
68&), Kat OTTCOS ot 77ept-to'yT$ juaAtcrra Ad^otey awovs. 305 

Night attacks. The Greeks surprise a guard of the enemy. 

'Eire! 8e ot dmo-^o^AaKes r](ray CTTI ^apabpa, r}y e'8et 
TTpoYepoy 8ta-/3r;yat, ToVe ol /Sap^apot eKvAtySovy At^ous 
Kat juet^ovs Kat eAaYrov?, ot (pepo'jueyot Trpos Tas TreVpas 
TrratoyTes 8t-eo-<pey8oycoyTo - Kat TrayTaTraaty oi 8vyaToy ?jy 
TreAdo-at TT) etcro'8a>. CTTCI 8e CTKOTOS eye'yeTO, Kat WOPTO 310 
A?7(reiy TOVS TroAe/itovs a77-to'yTe?, TOTC a-n-ij\6ov CTTI TO 
ot 8e 7roAe'jw,tot ovSey CTrava-ayTO 81' oATjs TT^S 
rovs At^ous. ot 8e lx o ' ;TC? rot> 


315 T&V TToAe/xtooi' d/jic/H -nvp KaO-rjfjLfVovs' Kal TOWS fJLfV Kara- 
KTfivavTfs, TOJJS Se naTa-biw^avrfs aiirol t^tvov tvravOa, 
o)i Kar-e^o^re? TO aKpov. ol 8e ou Kar-eixo;-' avTo, aAAa 
Aocpos ?}y VTrep avTwy, Trap' oz> 7/y ?; crTey^ avrrf obbs, e(/>' 
7^ ol (^jJActKes tK.aOi}VTo. e</)o5os (LteVrot avrodev r/y CTTI 

320 TOUS TroAe/xtovs, 0*1 (udOtivro CTTI T^ (fravfpq 68(3. 

enemy are dislodged from their Jirst position. 

6e ?y/x,e'pa fyeVero, cTropevorro 
CTTI TOUS TioAfjutous' /cat yap 

325 [gyro tTTi TOI/S cu'0/>w7royj. ol 8e ovx e^e 

aAAa AtTrorTey T/y oooi' !$evyW oAtyot 8' aTT-t 
(ijfavoi yap T/aay. ol 5' aync/H Xeipunxjbov, aKovr 
TJ/S aaATriyyos, ev^i/s U'fTo arco /caTa T^y <bavtpav bbov. 
aAAoi oe Twy O-T partly S)v f-noptvovTo KCLTO. dTpt/3eis 0801)?, 

330 / CKaaTOt tTvyjov ovTfs, Kal ava-fiavrts <ws fbvvavro av- 
d\Kov dAA?jAous TOW So'pacrt. 
rots 7rpo-KaTa-Aa/3ou(H TO 

A second and a third eminence captured. 

T) OUT?) 66a), 

335 e 

TaJy TroAe/xtcor, xai 7rpo?-/3aAAou<n irpos TOV \6(poi>. ol 8e 
/3ap/3apot tro^tvov /cat e/3aAAov, eyyv? 8' ou Trpos-te^To, 
aAAa </>vyf/ eAet-nroi; ro \<ap(oi'. Kal ol "EAA^ves, Trap- 
cATjAv^oVes TOVTOV TOV Ao(/>or, opuxnv cTepov \6<pov e/x- 

340 TtpOffOfV, KaT-tXOfJ.VOV VTiO TWf TToAf/^tW* KCt 


oTro) alpovai KOI TOVTOV. In 8t rptVos Ao'</>os 77^ iroAi; 
opfltcoraros' eVet Se ol "EAAqyes eyyvs tytvovro, ol fidp- 
fiapoi eAemw TOVTOV djua^et'. Kai Zfvo(f)>v fJ-ev wv 
TOIS I'ecorarots av-tfiaivev km TO OLKQOV, rovs be aAAovs 

cr^ai )3pa8e'&>?. /cat ey rovrw ayycAos JjA^c 345 
wy, KOI eAe^ev 009 ol / r<5 Trpcorw Ao'0a) XtifyOtv- 
res aii-rjh.dOrja'av, nai on TroAAot air-tdavov. 

A tract concluded. Treachery~of the Kurds. Final success 
of the Greeks. 

by ol /3dp/3apot, rj\0ov CTTI Ivai'Tiov TWO. 
6 Hcyo0<Sy 8i-eAe'yero avTots Trepi <T7rov8wv, 
at aii-fiTti TOVS vtKpovs. ol 8' ec/>ao-ay a7ro-8a)(reiy CTTI 35 
rovrw OJOTC ;u^ dStKC^ ras K&jjixas* Kai 6 Zfvo^otv o~vv- 
renrra. er w 5e 8t-eAeyoyro rara, Tiai'res 01 
K TOI^TOI; TOU TO'TTOJ; (rur-T/A^o/'. et'Taw^a ol 
t'orarro* xat eTre: ol afj.<j)l Hevocpwyra ?/parro 
/cara-/3atVetj; euro rov \6(f>ov Trpos roi)s aAAov9, ItVro 8?j 355 
ol TroAe/xiot 77oAA(j) TrA^et Kat 0opv/3(p. feat 7it eyeVoiro 
tTTi T^S Kopvfyrjs TOV \6(f)ov } d^)' ov Etvoc/xSi' KaT-e(3aivev, 
Trerpas' Kat 4ro? /jtey Kar-e'a^ay ro a/ceAos, 
8e 6 VTrao-Trior^s 

8e oTrAi'rrj? irpos-e.bpaiJiev avraJ, *cai 
y lavrov do-7rt'8a Trpo a^olv e^wptc /cai ol 
aAAot (Tvv-^i^av rots ?/8r; aw- 

Rest in good quarters. The Greeks reach the borders of 

E/c 8e TOWTOU Tray TO 'EAA7jj;tKoy 6/^ou eyeWro, /cai 

tv TroAAats KOI KaAais OIKUHS Kai 


eTrmjSeuoi;' KOI yap euros woAvs 171', bv tl\ov ev AOKKOIS 
Koriarois. sZtvoty&v 8e KCU Xeipuroc^os Aa/3jVres TOWS 
TOI> ?/ye/zoVa, KCU e~oh](rav TOIS ciTro- 
TO vo^.i^ofjifi'a, a>s eSyravro. T^ 8e 
varepata eTropevorro areu ijyfuovos' KOI a0-iKo/ieroi CTTI 
37 roy Ke^TptTTji; Trora/xor, os 6pi' TJ/V 'Ap/^efiav *cai TT/V 
TWI; Kap8ovx wi; X ( ^P av i fvravda av-fifavcravTo ev ry 
OUTCOS d~-/jAA.a/^e'i'oi navratv rol ' 


Stoppage at the Centritet, Xenopbon's dream. 

TT; 8' varepata 01 "EAXr/ves opSxriv iTTTrc'as rcSv 

-Trepan roi; irora/noO c^-wrrAioTuVou?, coy 
aurovs 8ia-/3atVeif 6/ 
fitVof? CTTI raty o^ai? ava) TOW iTnre'coy. 7rci 8e twpcov 
5 Toy ^v TTOTO.IJ.OV bvo~TtOpov ozTa, Tovj 8e Kap8ovj(ovs 
ev TOIS 077X015, a>s CTri-KfiffO/xeVovs avrois 
8^ TroAA^ T/I> aOv[j.ia rots "EAArjcri. 
TJ; t'iKri Hci'o^wi; eiSev oi>ap' 8o^f ei WSat? 
i, at/rai 8e (boav avro'/xarai avru) TTfpi-ppwjvai, 
10 toore Ai/0^rai avroy KCU bia-Baivfiv OTTOV /3ovAero. eiret 
5e opOpos ^i', Ipxerai wpos rov Xipt(ro</)oy, KCU Ae'yet 
on A.Tu'8as fl " ir - l ' Ta 


vrif TO ovap. 6 8e ^f8ero, Kal o>s Ta^iora Tiavres ol 
l IQvovro' Kal rd lepd caAd 77 y. 

yf ford discovered. 

Kal d^-iwres d~o T&V lepSiv ol oTpaTtjyol KOI Ao^a- 15 
yot ira/>-?;yyeAAoy TT] orpana dpio-TOTroteio-^ai. *cai dpt- 

T(S ZfVO(f)ti>VTI. blJO VfaVltTKW TTf)0$-Tp(XOV KOI 

roidSe, " 'Ervxo/^ey (rvA-Aeyoires typvyava, KOL 
fv ra) Ttlpav TOU -jrora/jou yipovTa re <cai yuraiKas 
OfiJ-tvovs SxJiTfp /zapcTtTTOvs ijuaTicoy ey Titrpq av- ao 
coSet. iSo'yres 8e evo/xt^b/xef do-^aAe? eu-at bta-jB^vai. 
rov Trora/xoV ravrrj yap TOVS T>V TroAe/itcoi' urTre'a? OVK 

, cos i 

pe^at. TOVS fxrjpovs* xai 8ta-/3dfTes Kai Aa/3o'ires 25 

The first detachment under Cbeirisophus crosses the river. 

'A/cowras rai/ra 6 Eefo</>ooi> eenreySf, KOI eKcAeue TOVS 
oT/jarioijras evx co "^ ai T0 ^ ^eo?s. orTreiVas 8' v0us ?jye 
rois veai'WKOVs' napa. TOV Xeipi<ro^)oy 01 8e 8i-rjyo{5iTo 
avra) ravrd. aKovcras 8^ icat 6 Xeip/ao^os o-TrovSds 30 
cTrotei. /cat Soc rots orparjjyors XeiptVo^ov juey ^yet- 
(i^at, KOI bia-j3aivcLV TOV TioTayibv \OVTO. TO T/fiiau TOU 
(TTpa.Tfvp,a.Tos' TO 8e rj^icrv ITI vno-p,Vfi.v crvv Hero^wi/ri, 
TO 8e vTTo^vyia icai TOJ; o^Aci; Sia-(3aiveiv tv //eaa) 
TouTtoi'. i>Ta0a 8?) fTiopevovTO' ol 8e vtavlaKOi yyovvTo 35 
f\ovTfs TOV TfOTanbv tv apio-Tepq. Kal Xcipicro^os /xev 
TiputTov ev-efiaivcv eis TOV TTorajuov xat ol oa/v avTw* ol 
8e TroAe'/xtoi bp&VTes awovs 8ia-/3aiVovras favyovcriv ava 
icpaTOS Trpos ro opos. 


The Carduchi advance to attack the rear. Xenophon prepare! 
to receive them. 

40 AVKIOS 8e (%<i)V rows tinre'as Kat Atcr^^f/s fytov TOVS 
TreAraoras etTim'ro. Xetpurocpos 8e, eTret St-e'/Sr/ rof TTO- 
rajuo^ rovs p.ei> tTTTre'as OVK lotwKfV, (vOvs 8e f-f(3(uvfv 
cm TOVS TroXe/xtovs TOU? ey rots aKpois reray/zeVous. ol 
8e opaj^res raSra eK-AenroiKri ra a/cpa. Hefoc^cov 8e, 

45 eTret ecapa row? d/x0i Xet/no-ocjW Tttpav 7/8/7 
aTT-ex^P t <*>? r()(tgTO irpos TO viJ^ 8ta-/3au>oi> 
xat yap 01 Kap8o{i)(oi cpavepol 7/8r; 
et? TO TreSior, w^ fi:i-dr]cr6pLfi'oi rots TfAeuratots. /cat 
Xetpt(ro0o? /xey Kar-e?xf r tt axpa, ATJKIOS 8e o-iy dAtyots 

50 e7ri-8i(oas rows TroAejutovs eAa/3e ra vTro-AetTro'juefa r&iy 
(TKCvo(p6pu>v t Kat juera rovrcoy ecr^r^ra re KaA^ xat fK- 
TTw/xara. Kat ez> rovra) ra jue^ <TKvo(p6pa T&V 'E\\^ixav 
KOI 6 o)(Aos 8t-e')Satve, Eevcxpatv 8e orpe\^as irpos roi/s 
KapSo^ous e^ero d^rta avrots ra oirXa, KOI Trap-TjyyetAe 

55 rots Aoxayots 7rot7jo-aa-^ai rois Ao'xovs, Kat leWt 77pos 
rwy KapBovx 0011 ' ovpayois 8e eKeAeucre Kara-^rTjcrao-^ai 
irpos roi; Trora/uoi;. ol 8e KapSov^ot, ws cwpcoi; roi/s 
oAtyous 7/87; -ycvo^vovs, darrov br) tn- 
wSds rtias a 

Arrangements for the passage of the rear-guard. A ruse. 

60 'O 8e Xetpt(TO(/)os Tre'/xTiet Trapa tzfvocp&vra TOVS TreA- 
raoras KOI (TfavSovrJTas K<U rofora?, Kat KeAevet avrois 
Trotcty o rt &v fKca-os Trap-ayye'AA?/. 6 8e stvoty&v 
avrovs 7/877 8ta-/3atVoyras, 7r^/x\^as ayyeAov KeAev 
fxer^at ?rt rou 7rora/Lto?3 KOI /XT S / bia-fiafofiv orav 8e oi 

65 Trap' eavr<3 ap^covrat 8ta-/3ati/tz', rore f^-ftaCvav a>s 8ta- 


8e TOT; TioTa\j.ov /JTJ Trpo-fiaivciv. rots 
6"e Trap' eaimji Trap-T/yyaAey, e7rei8^ crfpevbovr) f-iKVolro 
irpos avrovs Kal awls \^o0(u, eis TOVS TroAejiuovs' 
fTTfl 8e ol -noXf/JLLOL ava-arptyfiav, KCU 6 craAmy/cr?)s 

TO iroAejuiKov K TOW irora/iou, Tore -navTas 7 

/cat bia-jBaLVfiv a>s Ta^tcrTa, 7y e(caoro9 et^c 
TT/V Ta^tf lAeye 8e OTI ovros etrotTO O/JKTTOS, ocrrts 
7r/)wros ei> TO) irepav 

The ruse succeeds. All cross safely. 

Ot 8e Kap5oi)xotj opwi/TCS roi/s Aonrovs oXtyou? 7/rj 

8?j eTT-exetfTO ^pacrews /cat rip\ovro atyev- 75 
ot 8e "EAATjz'es Trata^tcrai/res u>pfj.i](rav 
ot 8e OVK (beavTO. ev TOUTW 6 o-a\- 
Kal ol fj^v TroAe/xioi Ufavyov iroXv ITI 
OO.TTOV' ol 8e "EAAryyes ava-(TTpe\(/avTfs e</>euyoy 8ia ToO 

cos Ta^iora. TcSy 8e TroAe/uiajy ot /xey Ttves 80 
ravra TtdXiv fbpajj.ov eirl TOV irorafJibv Kal rofv- 
OVT(S Irpoocrai; oAtyov? T&U 'EAA^ycoy ot 8e TroAAot 
avr&v ert (pavepol tfcrav (pevyovres' ol 8e ^TTO Xftptao'- 
(/>ou Tjporepov Tre/x^^efTes uapa zevofp&VTa TTpo-ijtcrav cts 
TOI> 7roTa/i6j TrpocrajTe'po) 17 eSet, Kat vcrrepov r&v juera 85 
Het'o(/jcoi>Tos 8t-e^3rjffay TraAtv TOVT&V 8e 
<rav VTIO T> 

Greeks enter Armenia. Great fall of snow. 

fTropfvOrjaav 8ta TTys 'Ap/uertas CTTI Toy T?j- 
Xffioav TrorajUoV. 7rapxos 8' ?/v TawTijs T^9 x^P a ? Ttpt- 
^a^oj, os Kat fiaaiXcl ^)t'Aos eyeVeTO. OVTOS elTrey on 90 
a"nti<ra(T0at TOIS "EAArjov Kal ravra tSo^e Tots 


orpa? qycus, KOI tcmtlaavTO. oTpaTOTreoevojueWi' 5' avTu>i> 
(V T?) x (< V )( ? y'^yv^.ro.1 rr)s VVKTOS \t<>>v TroXX?/, wore aTT- 
fKpv\l/t /cat ra oVXa KOI TOVS avdpwirovs Kara-K^ip-fVovs' 
95 KCU ?/ x 1 ^' cn;y-e7ro8io-e ra v-notyyia. KOI 7roXi/s ocro9 ^v 
av-iffraaOai.' eTret 8e He^o^wv eroA/i7](r6v av-LaTaadai KOI 
cr^i^iv v\a, ra^a u^a-oras ns xat aXXos d^-cXoVfi'os 

(KCLVOV TO. u\a (T)(l(V. fK TOWTOU KOI 01 aXXoi 

cwa-orapres TrS 

March continued. Effects of long fasting. 

Mera raCra eSoxei Sia-crKr/j/fJo-ai ets ore'yas Kara ras 
8r) ol crrpartaiTai (rly TroXX^ jfiovfj fifaav errt 
ras areyas KOI ra e7riT?;8eta' Kai evravOa 8i-rjyayoi> T?/J; 
rwKra. T^ 8' wrepcua eTroptvovro 8ia x t( >ros TroXX^j eiri 
rof E,v<ppa.Tr)v TTora/xoi', xat 8i-e'/3ati>oj> awrov* al 8^ 
105 TTTjyai avrov eXtyotro ov Trpocrw elzxu. evrei^^cy Se 
fjfjiepav oXrjv 8ta ^'o^os, cai TroXXoi raw 
/3ovXtfitairav. Hero^wy 8e 7/yyo'ei o rt TO 
t?j. etTre 8e ris avrw art ol avQpw-noi. fiov\i[J.iev, 
KOI OTI (^ayorres ri dya-or^a-otfro. 6 8e "Eevo^wv 
no aKovcras ravra Ticpi-i]t<. -nepl TO. VTro^vyia, KOI ei TTOU TI 


They reach an Armenian village, but some are left behind. 


115 Ko'pas vbpofpopovffas irpos T t ^ Kp?']Vfl epTrpoffOev TOV 
e/w/xaros. iJpcoTcoy avrou? rtVes fief. 6 8^ 
(pp.r)i<vs e^Tre Repo-ior! ort iropfvoivro Trapa 


rrpos TOV o-arpd-TT/jy. at 8e air-eicpivavTO ort OVK etrj 

fvravOa, a\\' a7r-e')(0t oaov Trapaadyyrjy. ot 8e, firet 

d^e r]y, a-wy-ets-ep^o^rat Trpos roy K.w^.ap\r]v ets ro epv/xa 120 

(ruy rais vfipo'popois. Xetptcro^os /xey ow, KOI oaot rcov 

(TTpaTL&TUtv (bvvr]0ri(Ta.v, fvravOa fc 

r&v 8e dAAcoy ot JUT) Siwd/zeyoi d0-iKfeta^at 

fi>VKTepev(rav datrot Kat d^w Trypo's' Kai eyrai 

raiy aTpartcoraJy aTT-wAoiro. ' 2 5 

Sufferings in the snow. 
'EAenroi>ro 8e Kat ru'es, ot /^f bi-ttpOapplvot rovs 

{TTTO TOV \|/v^ous. ?jy 8e rots (Jitv 
d(j)da\}j.OLS eniKOupiip.a rrjy ^LOVOS, et TIS /xt'Aay rt Ix* ^ 
Trpo TU>I> d(p0a\iJ.<i)i> Tropevotro, rots 8e iroa-iy, el rts Ktvorro 130 
/cat /i?]8e77OTe e^ot riwyJLav, Kat et ^Tro-Avotro ra ^TroSr;- 
/xara rr)y rv/cra. t 8e rt^es fKOip.S>vTo vTro-bebe^vot, ol 
ets-ewoi>ro ets rous TroSas, Kat TO inrobrJuaTa 
' Kat yap, C7rei8r) ra dp^ata V7ro8^juara eTT- 
airois, e?Totrjcray Kap/3artVas c/c rwy fco8apTajv 135 

&<r j/r^ refuse to proceed. The enemy follow in pursuit, but 
are put to flight. 

Ata raura ovv vTT-eAetTro^ro rives T&V crrpartwrcSz;' KOI 
rt yupiov etKa^by rTJy x.'oi'a avrodi rerrj- 
Vaf Kat ercr?;Ket 8ta OepfjLTjv TWO. Kprfvrjv, fj -n^rjaiov r/v 

rj. (vravda ovv eKadrjvTO, Kal OVK 140 

6 8e "Efvoty&v ebeiro avr&v p.rj 
, Aeycoy ort TroAAoi TroAejutot eTroiyro* re'Aos 


be KOI fyaXfTraivcv. ol Se fK\evov KTfii'civ' ov yap 
fyaaav bvracrdai 7ropei>0j/rai. fvravda to"oe Kparicnov 
145 eu-at (po/3?}(rat roi>$ e-ofteVous iroA.tyiiov?, t-a>s /xi) eir- 
toiei.' rots na[j.i'ovcn. nal fjv fj.(v CTKOTOS J/5/;, 01 8e 
7?o\([j.toi. 7Tpos-j](Tav roAAai Oopvftto. Zvda 6?; 01 OTTKT^O- 
-araorarre? ( ets TOVS T7oAe/itovs' ol 8e 
di'a-KpayoVrcs ocrov 8yratTO, Unpovvav ras 
150 aa-TTi'Saj 77/)os TO So'para. ol Se 77oAe'/iiot SeiVaiTe? 7/ai' 
eauroi/s Kara TJ/f x to ' ros ^ s T n v vditiji', nal ovSets trt 

Cbeirisopbus conducts the sick to the villages. All Jind 

Kat Hero<pa>y \ikv /cat ol avv aur<j> firopfvovro' rrj 8 

155 roi/s vaTa.Tovs eiceAeuev drayfcd^ti' avroi/5 Trpo-icVai, 
Xipt(To0os 8e TtffjLTTfi rifds e/c TJJ? KW/IJJS (rut^oiitvovi 
TTWJ ol rtAeurauK looter, ol 8c wap-&<xrap /ucy roi/roty 
out'Ceti' eTTt TO orpaTo'ircSor' avTot 8c 

KOI 7/or eis r;j 
160 T]v\ifTO. KOI Xeipi(ro</)os ficy avrou e/xcrey, ol 5e uAAoi 
arpaTrjyol 8i-e'Aaxoi> dA\7/Aois ray KW/IUJ, 
c)(oyTf5 row? cairraJv arfipas. 

Armenian bouses. Barley-<wine and manner of drinking. 

'Ev bf Tai/rats rats /cco/iatj at oixtat r/o-ai; Kard-yeioi, 
Xovffai TO fiev ord/ia axrirfp <^pearos, xdra) 8e cvptlai' 
165 Kat TOIS /icy vjrovyi'oi5 at tiaoooi dpvxrai 7/o-av, ol 8 
i Kar-tfiaivov firl icAifiaro?. ^y 8^ rats oiKiats 
atyes, oiey, /3o'cs, opi'idfs, KCU ra (icyova TOVTW 


ra e KTi]vr] ma eov epecpeTO X 1 - ] ff Q-V e cai 
TTiipot /cat Kptdal Kai ocnrpta KOI otros KpiOwos fv KpaTrjp(ni>' 
fi> ots /cat airat at ttpiQai (V-ijaav. Kai KaAa/u.ot Iv-tRflVTQ 
aurors, ol juev fjLfi^ovS) ol 8e fXarrovs* TOVTOUS 8e \ 
ets TO trTOfj.a fj.v^ov } Kai o olvos ?]v navv UKparos, ct 
rts 7ri-)(eoi iJScop' CTTCI 8e TIS avv-fdicrOeir) avra), 

Arrival at the Phash. Ihe enemy occupy the heights. 

'EvTavOa f-fjLeivav ?;/^/?as iroAAas* fiera 8e TOUTO CTTO- 175 
piiO^(Tav Ttapa TOV ( I ) acrii' Trora/^oy. cm 8e rrj eis TO 
TreStoy virepftoXT] uTT-rjvTriaav avroT? XaAv^es xat Taoj(oi 
Kai tycunavoL XetptVo^os 8t, CTTCI Kar-et8e TOVS iroAe- 
pitovs em TT; vnpj3o\f}, (irava-aTo Tropeuo/nei-os* Kat <rvy- 
Ka\tcras TOI/S rrrparriyovs Kai Xoxayoiis eAe^e^ w8e' " Oi 180 
/xey -TToAe/xtoi, ws opare, KaT-e'xou<n Tas v^ep/SoAas TOU 
opous' cp.ot juey ouy Soxel Trap-ayyerAat TO!S arpa- 
Tiwrais dptoro>Toiero-^at, r/p.aj 8e flovXtvfcrdai fire TT;- 
fj.(poi> ctre avpiov 8oKe? vir(p-(3d\\iv TO opos." " 'E/iot 
8e ye," e<p?j 6 KAetircop, " 8o/cet a)? TaxiTTa te'vai ewt 185 
rous a^8pas. ei yap &ta-rptyojuKl> T?ji;8e TTJV i)[j.epai>, 01 
TC rCv ?/ opwvres iroAe'/xtoi Hvovrai ^appaAecoTepoi, Kat 
aAAot TrAetous TOUTWJ; 

' Z,rf KJ j/ra/ a u'^ry o-v^r //>f mountain.' 

MeTa Toi^TOi; Hevo^xSj; etTrey " 'Eyw 8e OVTCO yt- 
ywocr/ca>. ct /xey dyayjcij eori fj-dxeaOai, Set Toi)ro irapa- 190 
ff/ceuao-ao-flai, OTTCOS ws KpaTurra ^a\ov^6a' ft 8e /3ou- 
\6fJLfOa ws p'aora VTrep-^aAAeiv TO opoy, TOUTO Set 

E 2 


TIO\V ovv KpeiTTov P.OL boKel TTfipcuTOai. KAo/rat n TOV 
'95 (pr/fJiov opovs Aa0oWay, rj fj.d^fffOai. npbs to^vpa x&)pi'a 
Kal avbpas TTap-f<TKevacr[j.6i>ov$. /cat K\e\l/ai 5e OVK abv- 
VQ.TQV fjioi, 8oKi elvai, evret l^-eorti' i^uv Uvai VVKTOS, 
/JIT; upatrOai. V 

Mutual banter between Cheirisopbus and Xenophon. 
" 'Ara/3 rt eya> a-v/A-/3aAAo/xat Aoyovs TTfpl K\OTTT]S ; 
200 eycoyf yap, a> Xe(ptTO(/)e, OKOVCO v/xas rovs Aa/ce5at//ojn'ois 
ev^i;? /c TratScoy /jteAcrai' /cAeTrret^ <cat OVK altr^pov tlvai 
tv i>fuv } dAAa KaAoy /cAe'7rreu> oaa v6y.o<$ /x?/ KcoAvei. 
ws Kpartora /cAeTTTTjrf, yo'jixi/xof toriy v/^ juaort- 
, eav A^^^f/rc KAeTrrovrfj. fi;y ouy Katpo? (rot 
205 eorty eTrt-Set^arr^at rr/v TratSetay, *cat (f)V\aa<jOat jj.^ 
KKlvrovris TL TOV opovs, OTTWS ^ TrATjyas Aa- 
u 'AAAa fj-furoi.," tyri 6 Xa/)uro(/K>?, " /cat eyw 
u/xas rovs 'A^^atous 8eivoi>s etyat (cAeTrreiy ra 8/j/xo- 
<ria' ware copa orl (cat aot TTi-be{KVU(rOai ri]v iraibfiav." 

'The enemy must be dislodged. Volunteert for the work. 1 

JIG " 'Eyw /^iey Totnv" I0ry o "Ewoty&v, " erotjuo'y ei/^ti, 
Toi/5 oTTt(r^o0vAaKas, icVat /cara-Ajj^o/jiei'os TO opos. 
8e Kal ?;yep;ovas* rovrwv 8e Tivi'ddvofUU on TO 
opos OVK a/3aroV eort. l\Tr(a) be TOVS TroAe^iovs ovjceri 
fMtvelv, 7T6t8av ificoo-u; ^juas eiri rwy aKpcov ouS^ yap i>ui> 
215 tO(\ov<n KaTa-fiaCvftv els TO laov f)iuv." 6 be 

" Kat r 8ei ere leVat *cat AtTreiV rryy 
; dAAa TTf^ov aAAous, eay ^ rtyes 

t." CK TOVTOV eOfXovTcu efyatvovro iioXXoL' K.O! 
vvdiiiJia, OTTOTC H\OKV TO. aKpa, Ttvpa KO.UIV 


Greeks gain the heights. Comfortable quarters. 

eyerero, o 

Kal Kar-eXafiov TO opos' ol 8e aAAoi di>-eTraiWro. ajua 
5e Tfl fintpq Xeipicro(/>os /^a> 7/ye Kara Trji 68oy, ol 8e 
KaTa-\a/36i'Tts TO opos eir-ifievav Kara Ta aicpa. *cal 
ovrot (TviJi-fjuyvvacn /ue'pet raiy 7roXe/xi&)^, KOI 01 "EAX^^es 335 
avroi/s. ei> rovru) ol p,tv TreATaarai 
e/c TOU ire8tou Trpos TOU? 7ra/)a-rTay- 
6e e(/)-ei7rTO aw rois OTrAtrats, 01 5e 
oy, e7ret8r; kwpmv rovrovs j/rrca/xeVovs, 
01 5e r 'EAA]i>e5, Qixravrt.* KOA. aTi](ra^voi Tpo- 230 
, Kar-f^rjcrav naKiv ets TO TifSiof, Kat i\\dov ets 
/^cecrras TroAAwy & 

Mountain fortresses of the Taochi. 


r?)8eta eTT-e'AtTTfi'* ol yap Taoxoi &KOVV yu>pia 
is a dy-eKo/xiVairo Tiavra ra e7rtr?y5eta. ciret 8e a<p-iKovTO 235 
jupiov Tt, ^v (j> xat ar5pes ^<rai; Kat yui>auces >cat 
iroAAa, XetpiVo^os Ae'yet rw Hero^w^n' " Touro 
ro \u>piov alpereoy eorti' 57/^1^* TT) yap orparta OVK eart 
ra e7TiT?/8eta, et /m^ \r;\|/o'//^a TO \<optov. n fvravda brj 

Kal TOV Hero^wiros epcoTw^Tos Tt KcoAvoi 240 

;, 6 XapiVo(oj eiTiey " AVTIJ /ut'a ear! 
TrapoSoj, ^y opas' oTay 5e TIS TretpaTai TavTp -nap-itvai, 
ol iroAe/xtot /cuAii/SoOo-i At^ovs VTrep TOUTT/? T?Js TreVpas, 
cat crvv-Tptpovoi Kal (TKeArj Kai irAeupas TcSy orpaTice- 
Twr." 245 


Preparations for storming the fort. 

" 'AAAa/' f(pi] 6 Eez>o<<Sz>, " TO yjapiov, 6 8ei r/juas 
&)(tbbv rpia T/jouVAeflpd tori' TOVTOV 8e oaov 
8aav eari TiLrvvi //eyciAai?, v<f> als lorrjjcores 
8ej> ay 7rdcrxoiez> VTTO T>V KV\ivbovjj,fi'(t)V \i6u>v. 
350 TO 8e AoiTroy -^capiov yiyvtrai a>s ij^Lir^fOpov, 6 5ei Ttapa- 
bpa.iJ.elit, orav ol TroAe'^iot A7/y(oo^t /3aAAoi>Tes TOWS At^ou?. 
ouy fVTavOa, <-v0ei> 8e^o- ?;ju?j; 
ov TI, fcal pabiov ecTTai aTr-eA^eu', ear /3ouAw;u^a." 
ciropevovTo Xetpt(TO</)os Kat Hefo^wy Kat KaAAt- 
2 55 /xa^os Aoxayo's' KOI /ICTO TOVTO avdputTToi air-f]\0ov imo 
TO. bcvbpa w? fj38o^>coirra, ov aOpoot, dAAa Ka^' t'a, 

Stratagem of Callimachus. The fort taken. A dreadful scene. 

"Evda 8r) KaXAi/zaxos fii}X<waroi u. Trpo-erpf^f bvo rj 
rpia /3///xaTa aTro TOU bevbpov, v</>' a> OVTOS ^v' e7rei87j 8e 

260 ot Ai^oi <pepoiVTO, av-fx<api cvTreTws" CTTCI 8e TTpo-bpdp.oi, 
TrAeoy r) Sexa a/ia^ai TtfTp&v (Kaarorf av-ri\icrKOvro. o 
8e 'Ayacrtaj, 8et<ras JU,T) ov TTp&ros avrbs Ttapa-bpa\j.oi cis 
TO \topiov, 6pp.a.Tai fj.6vos, Kai Trap-fp\CTai "navras TOVS 
traipovs. 6 8e KaAAt/jiaxos, opwy auTor 7ra/)-ioVra, 7ri- 

265 Aa///3afTai avrou TT/S ITUOS' ey 8e TOVTO) 'ApioTtoWfzos 
napa-Tpiyjti avrovs, KOI fj.era TOVTOV Evpv\oxos' nal 
ovT(as alpovffi TO yj&piov. fvravOa 8^ Seivoy T/V deapa. 
al yap yuyaues tppmrov TO, re waiSia Kai cauTas KOTO 
Twy itfTp&v, Kal ol avbpes (TToCovv TOVTO.. IvQa. 8?) 

270 Aoxayo's TIS lbd>v nva rS>v TroAe/xtwy naTa-pptyovra 
ov, o-ToAy/v f^ovra KoA;r, eTK-Aa/u/Sa^erai avT^j* 6 


e fTn-airarai TOV Xo^ayov' Kal d/ixcpoYepoi co^orro Kara 
TMV ii(TpS>i> ('oi, Kal aTt-eOavov. evrevdev avQpowoi 
fjifi' ndvv oAtyoi tXr\fydi](Tav, /So'es 8e Kai ovoi TroAAoi Kai 

a. 375 

Arrival at Gymntas. 'The sen, the sea!' 

zv9r)(rav 8ta Xa\v/3a)/', Kal acp 
erri "Apiraaov -nora^ov' evrtvOtv 8e i]\6ov Trpos 
//yaAr;t', ?'} eKaAeiro Ff/xz/ta?. e/c TavrTys T?}S Tro'Af cos 
o rjjs ^copas ap^(ai> 7if{j.~fi T/ye/xoVa rois EIAX^criv* e\0tav 
8e exei'i'os elTrey ort atu avroi/s TreWe i](j,fpS>v ets yjupiov 280 
o^ey o\\roivro OaXa.TT<3.v. 6 8e rjyelTO avrois' KOI dc/>- 
tKi'ouvrai eTTt ro tTpos TI) Tre/xTTTTj rji^fpa' ofo/xa 8e r<5 opei 
?]y 0?/)(f/?. eirei 8e ol Trpwroi eyeVorro ewi TOV opovs 
Kai Kar-eI8oy rrjy tfaAarrav, Kpavyrj -noXXr] cyeVcro. 6 
8e "Ed'cxp&v Kal ol oTrtcr^o^vAaKes aKOvcraires wr/OrifTav 285 

a6ai. rois e/XTrpocr^ey. e7rc(8f/ 8e /3o?/ 
, xat ol det CTT-tbVres e^eoy Spo'/ixw ewl 
rois del (3oG>i>Tas, eSoVet 8?) TW Eero0<3iTi juei^of rt 
t ava-@as e<p' iTTTroy /cat dya-Aa/3a)f rows iTTTre'a? 
^eu Kai rd^a 8?/ aKOvofo't rwy orpartcoTaiy 290 
" ^dAarra, ^aAarra," Kai Trapa-KeAevojueVcoi; 

Joy o/" /^e Greets. A guide <weH rewarded. 

"EvOa br) -navrfs Zdeov, Kal ra vtio^uyia KOI 01 ITTTTOI 
TjAaworro. 7rei 8e Trdyres a<p-iKovTo CTTI TO aKpov, 
fvravOa 8^ 7repi-e'/3aAAoz; dAA^Aous Kai aTpaTrjyovs Kai 295 
vs SaKpvofTes* Kai ew^us ol ffTpariwTai ^epouai 
Kai TTOIOWI KoAcoror /u,eyay. /^CTa TaCra ol "EAA?;- 


Kal (f>id\r]v dpyvpav Kal 07cevi)i> HepaiKrjv Kal xp?;//ara' 

300 6 8e 8eias avror$ Kcop.qi', oil e8ei crK.rjvf'iv, Kal TIJV obov 

rjv TiopevaoivTo fts Md/cpcoyas, w^ero TT 

Colchians bar the ivciy. A pithy address to the soldiers. 

ol "EAX?;i'es eTiopevoiTo 6ta MaKpvvW oi 
8e McLKpwvts Ttap-riyayov avrovs ev Tpunv 7//bte'pais f-nl 
TO. K.6\\<t>v opia. (.vravOa r\v opo<s ptya, Kal CTTI TOVTOV 
35 ot Ko'A)( ot Trapa-rerayjueVot rjvai'. Kal TO ^fv irp&rov ol 
ap-tra^ai'To 0aAayya eTretra 8e 5oe rots 
TrotTJcrai opOlovs TOI/S Ao'^oi 1 ?. Hero^wr 8e 
dir-twy CTTI TO evwwuov OTTO TOV 8etoG eAeye rots crrpa- 
ncorat?' " "Avbpfs, ouroc ovs oparc /uoVot Tt 
310 ///jias TO fj.1) y'lbi] (U'at, er^a TraAcu etrTrey 
eay mos ovvtop-eOa, 5ei /cat w/xoi/s- 

Rout of the enemy. Effects of poisonous honey. 

cyeorro e^ rais x&)/>cus, cai 
dp^tovs TOUS Ao^ovs, ol orpaTT/yoi 7ra/)-j;yyeiAay 
rots Otols. evdfj.evoi 5e KCU Tiaiavifravrfs (vo- 
315 pfvovro. ol 8e TroAe'juiot, ws ciSoi' avrovs Spo/xw Oeovras, 
Zfavyov. ol 8e "EAA^res virep-fldvTes TO opos earpaTo- 
s TroAAais KCU /xeorai? tTH.Trjbfi<ar. 
iroAAa 7/y avro'^i' Kat ocrot rG>v (TTpaTitoTwv 
Kr/picav, TrdfTcs tyiyvovro a^pore?, xai ow8ets 
320 e'8v^aTo to-Tarr^ai opdos. o{/rw 8e TroAAot 

yeyeznj/xeVrj?, *cat iroAAry TJV adv^ia' Trj 
/^er atr-tOavc, d/x(pt 8e TT/V avT//f a>paf av-e(f>p6vovv' 
Tpinj 8e xai TtTdpTy T//W.CP? av-iaravTo, uxrirtp <pdp/xacoj; 


Arrival at Trapezus. Festival games. 

6e ij\0ov eiu Ba^arrav ets TpaTre^owra, 325 
'EAA?7/n8a ey TT/ Ko'A^ 
ciy<3i'a yv^VLK.ov fv rw opt, 
5e ApaKoVrtoy ^Traprcar/jj; Ka^-torai'at roy aywra, feat 
aiirbv 8et^at OTTOV 8t'ot rpe'xetf. 6 8e 8ei^a? TOP 
V a) i(Tr?/Ke(Tay, etTref " Oro>s 6 Ad(^o? KaA- 330 
Ataros eorat rw dywrt. " FIcos oSi'," tc/jafraf, " 5ur?j- 
TtaXaUiv V \(opa oi'rco crKATypa Kat bacreiq ;" 6 8e 
^, " 'O Kara-7T(r&)y /uaAAov ri di-'tao-erat." KCU TratSe? 
vroAAot rwi' cuxjuaAcdrajy Tjywyt^bi'ro, Kp?JTe? 8e 
17 t^i/Koi'ra tQtov TraAr/ 8e TJV KOI wvyp,^ Kat 335 

e^eoy 8e Kai tTTTrof KCU e8et avrovs eAa- 
crairas Kara TOU Ao'^ov ava-arptyai. (V ^r^ OaXdrrrf KOL 
~a\iv avut f\0iv Trpos Toy /3oj/xdr. /cat ot p.ey 7ioA\oi 
eKvAtySoOyro Karw, ol 8e LTTKOI jixo'Ats enopevovTo Trpos TO 
opQiov' cv6a TroAA^ jcpawy?) Kat ye'Acos Kat TrapaKt'Aeuats 340 


TAf Greeks vote for going home by sea. Cheirisophus goes to 
Byzantium for ships. 

MeTa TaiiTa ot"EAATjres (fiovXevovro nepl TTJS 
* ' - KOI 


' "Eycoye, oo avbpes, a-no-KafjiVd) r/5q fiabifav KCU rpi 

Kal (pfpwv TO. oVAa KOI (pv\aTT<av 0uAa/cas /cat //a^ojuei'os 1 

5 CTret 8e vvv f\> daXarrav, e77t-$i;//,<3 7rAeu> TO Xonrov 

T?]? TTopcias, Kal oiirco? d(/)-t/cecr^ai ets T?/V 'EAAaSa." ol 

5e crrparuorat aKowarres raCra av-edopvfirjfrav ws ev 

Aeyoi, (cat Traires 01 irap-o^res eAtyof ravra. eTretra 5 

Xi/it(ro(/)os dw-OTJ] KOI eiTrey wc* " 4>tAo? 

10 avbpts, 'Ara^toy 6 ei> 

ear' af eyw \6u>." aKovcravrfs raura 01 
ijcrOrjrrav re /cat (^(pivavTo avrbv TrAety ws 

Foraging. Attack on a fortress of the Drilae. 

15 'Ey <j> 5e av-fyfvov rbv XetptVo^o^, ot "EAAr/^e? e^- 
CTTI AetW* Sero^wf 8e, Aa/3wy ^yt/ixovas TOW 
bufTtcoi;, f^-7Jye ro rj^iav TOV frrparev/xaros ets 
A/)tAas, ro 8e TJ'jutrru Kar-e'AiTre <|)uAarrety TO or/mTo'Tre- 
8oy. e?ret 8c ot "EAA?7j;es ^(ray e^ rr] az'a> \(opa, ol ApiAat 
20 f/J-TTLirpavTcs TToAAa Twy %u>pMV aTT-ytcrav. $v Se 7/y 
fjLrjTpoTToXis avrStv' ets TOVTO Tra^Tes <rvv-fp- 
. -nepl 8e TOVTO ^y yjapabpa Ivyvptos fiadfla, Kal 
TTpocroboi )(aAc7rat TT/JOS TO \u>piov. ot 5e TreATaorai 5ta- 
fidi'TCs Ti]V \apdbpav Trpoj-e^aAAoy irpos TO yjupiov' 
25 TroAAot 5e xat bopv(f>dpoi avv-fiirovTo avTots, (So-T ol 8ta- 

awkward predicament. Xenophon to the rescue t 

Aa/3eif TO 


irpbs KevcHp&vra' 6 8e ?/yeiro TOIS 
KOI 6 Eeyo(p<Sy, irpos-ayayur TOVS ojrAiYas 30 
Trpos TT)I> xapaSpay, eWAeutrer avrovs dtaQai ra oVAa' 
airos 5e 8ta-/3as o-vz; TOIS Aoxayois ecrKOTmro ro ^(apiov. 
KOI TOVS> Aoxayous eTre/^Tre TraAtf, OTTCOS 8ia-/3i/3acmay 
rouj OTrAtras' avros 5e e/xevty at-a-)(wpta-as awa^ras TOVS 
TreAraaras, KCU ov/c eta auroyy aKpo(3o\Cf(T9ai. CTTCI 5e 35 
ot oTrAtrat ^KOIJ, eKe'Aeucrei' eKaorof rwf Ao^aywi; TrotTjcrai 

Vigorous assault. Temporary repulse of the enemy. 

Kat ol faoiavv raura' 6 8e Sc^o^w 
rous TreAracrras uWt Si-^yxvAco/xeyous, Kat TOUJ 
teWi eTn-^e/SA^/zeVous em rai? vevpcur eKe'Aeucre 8e KOI 40 
TOVS yv^vrJTas ^X lv Tas ^i-^fpas pteo-Tas XiQ&v. eTrel 5e 
navra Trap-eo-xevaoTo, *cat 17 o-aA7riy e(/>#e'yaTO, ol 
oTrAtrai Traiafio-avTes e^eoy Spo'^w' Kal Ta /ye'A?/ 6/zoS 
e<pe'peTO, Ao'y^at, To^ev/xaTa, o-(pef8o'j;at, TrAetaToi 8e e/c 
TWJ; xeipwv XiQov ycrav 8e ot Kai Trwp irpos-efpepov. VTIO 45 
8e TOV TrA^ovs TV /3eAwy 01 iroAe'/xioi f\nrov TO. re 
crravp(afj.ara nal ras Tvpo-eis* COO-TC 'Ayao-tas Kat <f>iAo'feros, 
KaTa-^e'^efOt Ta OTrAa, ey x 1 1 ' 1 IJ-ovov df-e'ySrjaai', Kai 
aAAoi jxeTa TOVTOVS* Kat TO yapiov fjXwKfi, ws e8o'a. 

7/&e Greeks begin to plunder, but are forced to beat a retreat. 

Kat ol /nev TreATaoral Kat ol \/uAoi eis-SpajuoVre? 50 
rjpira^ov o TI exaaros e8waTO* 6 8e ztvofpwv crras KOTO 
Tas Trv'Aas KaT-eKwAvae TOVS OTrAtVas e^w TroAe'/xtoi yap 
aAAot (<paivovTo eir' aKpots Tiaty io-)(upors. /ueTa 8e 
yjpovov upavyri Tf tyevero evbov, KOI ol "EA\j;res 


55 efavyov, 01 n(v ex VTfS a e\aftov, ol be Kal 

Kal TroAus 77 1> &>0ioyios dfi(/H TO Ovperpa. Kal ol ex- 

eAyor on a*pd re etr; eV8or, *ai TroAAoi Tr 
tTTj, 01 e/c-8eSpap.r;Ko'rfs Traioief rows 

Attack upon the inner fort, at first unsuccessful. 

E,vravOa eKeAeuo'c roi/ K?/puKa d^-ciTrerr, TOUJ / 
60 rovs TI Aa/M/3areu> teVat eio-co. al TroAAot et5-/ecray, ai 
Kar-exAeKTay TOV? TroAf/iiovs 77aAiy cty r?/y attpav. xai 
ra /lei; e^co TT)S aKpas Trarra bi-rjpirdaOri, KOI ot'EAAr/res 
f-KOfj.L<Tai'To ri]i> Xelav' ol 8e OTrAirat l^erro ra oTrAa, 
ot /uey a/z(/>i rd oraupw/xara, ol 5e Kara rrji' 656y TT/V 
65 <f>tpov<rav cirl rrjv axpav. 6 8e Hero</)5f KOI 01 Aoxayoi 
fffKOJiovv fl bwaTov fi/ Aa/3eiv r^y anpav' 8oc 8' au- 
rots TO yjuplov ov \rjTTrlov ett'cu. (vravOa ol "EAA?;i'es 
a7ro-xc)/>eti' i \u>povvT(av 8' avT&v TroAAot rwv 

70 ai'-t{3aivoir em ras oiKi'as, xai eif-eppntTov v\a 
aviaQev, ajore xaAfTroj; Jjv tat pfveiv Kal a 

Greeks set fire to the bouses. Tlx fortress taken. 

<j) 8c fn f j.\ovTo KOI i}-nopovvro, QeStv ris 
p.rj\ai'TjV rairr;ptas. e^airivrjs yap ointa TIS c 

75 8eta otKtwf. a>j 8e 6 Hero^oiy efjiade roCro, 
ev-aTrreii; xai ray er apivrepq oiKia?, at ^crar 
eoore cot Ta\u CKaioiTo. ol 8' oyv 770\e'^iioi efyevyov Kal 
aito rovTOiv T&V OLKMV. evravOa eKe\ev<re (pepeiv v\a 
is TO (jLfvov eavrStv Kal rS>v TroAe/iiwi'. CTTCI be v\a 

80 txard TJI/, fv-fi^rav Kal oi/ra) /xdAi; a7j-j/A0oi> aTro rou 


XO>/HOI>, iroirja^fvoi Tfp tv /xtu) OVTV Ka TV 
7:oAe/xiW. Kal Ttacra 57 TroAts KaT-eKavOrj, Kal al OIKUU 
Kal al rvpfftis Kal TO. (TTavptouara KOI TO. dAAa "n 
Ka,T-f.Kavdr)(rav t TrA?)*.' ai'rijs r?)s ctKpas. 

No ne<ws of Cheirisophui. The Greeks leave Trafezus for 

T^ 8e vcrTfpaiq ol "EXXrjves aTT-fffcrav exoyres ra 85 
. eTret 5e oure Xet/nVo(/>os ?^ey, ovr 
, ovre Irt ?jy Aa/x/Sdyfiv Ta C7rir?j8eta, e8o 
airotj aTT-treoy dlvai TTJS TpaTre^oi/i'roj. Kai eis /xey ra 
TrAota cv-fftL/BacTaif TOVS re aatfevowras Kat roi/? v;rep 
rcrrapd/coyra erTj, Kai TraiSas /cat ywauca9, Kat rSi' 9 
or/ccuaiy ocra pi] avaynr] rjv f\iv' ol 8e aAAot (TTOpevovro 
Kara yrjv. Kal a(p-iKVovi>To Tropeuo/xerot eis KepacroS^ra, 
Tro'Aty 'EAAiji'iSa em OaXarrrj kv ri] KoA)(t8i XP a - 
(vravda e/ixetyay ^/xe'pas Se'fca* xat e^e'raai? eyiy^ero Kal 
os r?}s o-rparias' Kai eyeVopro oKraKts-x'Atot Kat 95 

Among the Mossynoeci, Their barbarous manners. 

'Ex Kepao-ou^ros 8e Tropevovrat CTTI ra Mo<r<ri;iw6ca>i> 
opta, Kai atpowi yjupiov rt v\l/r]\bv fv rfj eKetWy 
ra Se TrAeio-ra rovrcov rwy \(ap((av roidfie ^y. al 

OTT dAAijAwv OCTOV oySo^Koyra ardSia* ava- 100 
8e aAA?jAa)y (nif-TjKouov eK r% ere'pas TroAecos 
ets r?)y krtpav' ovrajs v\l/r]\ri re Kat 

8e ol "EAAjj^es eZ8oi> 

aireurou?, re^pa/zjue'yovs Kapwots ftpOois, air- 
aAow Kat (r<j)6bpa ACUKOI;?, iroiKiAous 5e ra i/aira Kat 105 


TO. e/u,7rpO(T0ev TIO.VTO. eoriy/Ae'rovs. v&VTCS 8e ol oVSpes 
KOI at yufauces T/rrar \evjcot. rovrous ol orparei'o'a/jtfi'oi 
tAeyoy /3ap/3apamiTous etvat 7rdVra)/>, ovs 8i-eA0otey. ef 
re yap oxAw o^res ^ffofow airep avOpMiroi ev epjj/xta ay 
1 10 TToaya-etai', juo'rot re oi>res eTrparrof airep /xer' 

pa^eiay a^' 8i-eAeyorro re eavrois, xai eye' 
eavrois, /cat 

Cotyora. Embassy from Sinope. The Greeks enquire about 
their route. 

Ata ra^TJjs r?js \u>pas ol "EAAjy^'e? knopfiidr](Tav OKTO> 
115 orafytoi;?, xat afy-iKvovvrai ets XaAv/3a9. evrevOev a0- 
et? Tt/SapTj^oiis, <cat ^iera raSra Tropevo/xei'ot Syo 
CL^-LKOVTO ets Korvwpa Tro'Atj; 'EAA;vt8a. e^raP^a 
f/j.ii>av 7y/u,e'pas rerrapaKO^ra ireVre. eV 8e ravrats 
lip&Tov fjitv <!6v(Tav rots 0eots, *at firoirja-av Tro/xTras Kat 
1 20 ayaii>as yvnvLKOvs. ra 8 ^Trtr/8eta eAa/x/3az>oj> ra /xy ex 
riys rTa</)Aayoytas, ra 8e e/c rair \(apMV ru>v KorucoptrcSf. 
ex 2trwTr?js irpeVySets, irpo->jyo'pei 8e 
8etvos oaf Ae'yeu 1 . ovrot 8e eiTroi; on 
OVK rJKoifV iroiTjao'/xei'oi TroAffioy, aAAa e7H-8ei'oz>re? on 
<^)iAoi e7ev. rourou 01 re Korwcopirat CTre/XTrov ^e'z'ta, 
xai ol arparr/yoi raii; 'EAATjrcoy (ei>i.(flv TOWS rwy 
SuxoTreW TipeV/Sets* *cai eTrwi'^ai'o^ro aurwz; TTfpt T^J 
\oi7r//s TTopetas, <i Kara y?}i> i) <cara ^aAarra/. 1 Se'oi 


Answer of Hecatonymns. ' A land journey is impossible ; you 
must go by sea to Heraclea.' 

*O Se 'E/carco/'u/xo? aya-crra? fltifV " OtSa /ier on 130 
^/Aas eojj.v TroAu irAa'co Trpdy/xara, eav /cara 0dAarrav 
KO[j.l^]ffOc SeTjaet yap r//xas iropifciv ra TrAoia' eaf 8e 
Kara y?]i> Trope^crfle, t>p,a? 8e?/cret tu'at roi/s ^a^on^vovs. 
o/xwj oe 8e? Aeyeiy a yiyrwo-Kco* e/XTretpoj yap ei/xt TTJS 

8e xat TreSt'a KaAAtora '35 

no\jj.uov, ot>8e 01 Trdyres avQpwTioi bvvaiVTO av bi-e 
ei 8e /cat bvva.L(r6 v-nep-p^vai ra. oprj, KOL KparijtraL rutv 
kv rai TCC&I'O, ^ere CTTI TOVS 7rorap:oi;y, 
yikv Toy &(pjj.(abovTa, bevrepov 8e 'Iptr, rpirov 8e 140 
"AAw, aiy ovbeva av bvvaurOc bia-flijvai avev TtXoiatV rt's 
5e Tiap-{(t iiiuv TO. TrAota ; eav 8e 8ta-/3^ 

CTrt TOV flapO^vtov, os a/3aro's eoriv w 
v o5v vofJ.i(a TTJV Kara yTjy "noptiav ei^ai < aa.VT&- 
abvvarov' cay 8^ TrAeJjre, fi'dfi'be /xey Trapa- 145 

cts ^ivwTrrjr, e* 2iyw7rrjs 8e eis ' 
woAAa 8e TiAoid earii^ ev 'Hpa/cAeia/' 01 8e 

ravra, tyt}$t<TainQ Ui'ai Kara QaXarrav, 

Xenophon's grand project. Silanus creates an alarm. 

'Ev 8e rovrw TO> \pov<a e8d/cet Hero^airn naXbv elvai 

ar-oiKiVai y TO) ndi>Ta>, /cat OVT&> irpos-KT^aandai 150 
Kal bvvafj.iv ry 'EAAdot. KOI fm rowrois eGvero 
XaOpa rutv crTparnarSti'^ 7rapa-/caAeo-as ^.iXavov, rov Kvpov 
fjMVTtv yfvofjLfvov. 6 8e 2tAayos, 88i(bs p.^ ravra yeVoiro 
Kai ^ orparia Kara-p.fiVLV (ffiovXero yap <Ls rdxtora 

eis TJ)J> c EAAd8a), eAeye Trpos TO orpdVeufia 155 


on Ee^oc/jaif fiovXoiTo oltiivai iioXiv avrdOi, KOI TTOU;- 
(TaarOai ovo^o. KCU bvvaptv eourw. roTs Se TroAAcns T&V 
orpaTicorcoi;, 7ret ^Kovtrav ravra, eSoxei /3e'ArioToz> 
/m?7 Kara-/mi>ai fV TW 
160 f(b6fli]crav e/xiro'pous rtms Trap-otras rwy 'HpaKAewraii' /cat 
v, \eyovTes on KiySuyoj CIT^ TroAvy, ci rocravrr) 
fj.(iveiev (V TW 

Timaston offers to settle the Greeks in Troas. 
Ol 8e e/XTTOpoi aKowai'Tts raCra a7r-?jyyeA.Aoi> 

165 TovTinacriutva, /cat KcAevovaty avrbv iTfideiv ri)v crTpanav 
e^-eXOtlv eic TOV HOVTOV. 6 8e cruA-Ae'^a? TOUS orpa- 
nwray Aeyet ra8e - " Ov bti ^ ey^dSe /xe'/'ety, cu'Spf s, 
dAAa ws ra^tora a-n-itvai CTTI rrjf 'EAAdSa. a/cowo 5^ 
nyas Ovtadai (itl royro) \dOpa I/IJL&V. {m-KT^yovyLai 8e 

170 ii/ztV, ^af eK-TrAtrjre, Trap-tet.v v^w [ucrdoV KCU a^ft) v//a9 
is T?/y TpwaSa, e^^ev et/xt (pvyas, KOI rj /j,r) TTO\LS VTT- 
ap. I>IMV ?}y?/(ro/xat 8e Vjuas /cat 

Xenopborii defence, i. *M)/ o/y oA/Vr/ is your welfare ; if 
Silanus says otherwise, be speaks falsely.' 

*O 8e Eero(/><5j; ev TOVTW /aev eatya' vorepop 8e d^a- 
175 (TTas etTTe TaSe' "'Eyw /uey, S dj'8pej, Ovo/jiai /cat vucp 
KOI virep fp.avTov, OTTOHS Tavra Ae'^a) Kat voTycra) /cai 
), & eorai KclAAiora vj^rv T xal ffJioL /cat vCv 
6pLr]v Trepl CLVTOV rovrou, ci a^fivov flrj Ae'yeiy f^s 
ra> e^w irpdrreiy, ^ .navranaai. aiyav Ttepl 
^ 6 /udiris a7r-e/cptWrd ^iot ra /xev 


a etmt KaAa' eAee Se on v TO?S tepots QatvoiTO rt? 
Oo'Ao? Kat Tn(3ov\i] e/xot* eytyyaxnce yap on avros eV- 
fftovXeve 8ta-/3aAAeti> /^ie Trpos i/nas, Aeywy w? eyw 8ta- 
voot[j.riv Ttparrtiv ravra XdOpa v\j.G>v" 

ii. ' / wow j'/'Ui? up my project ; let us return to Greece* 

"'Eya> Se, et /xey ewpwy ^as aTropovfras raiy eTTtrrj- 185 

ovv av rowro, OTTWS ip-els Aa/3oVres 
rtz/a aTTO-TrAe^o-atre 7)817, e ' fSovXoicrOt' ei 8^ jtx^ 
Aotcr^e aTr-teWt, ea-KOTtovv OTTCOS er0a8e jueVo^r 

CTret 8e opw 'MpaKAecora? K 

/xr^ TrAora, /cat a^8pas rti'aj vir-ta^yov/xefoi/s 190 
jj.ia6ov, KaAoV /xoi Sofce? cTrai ^/xas 
aTTO-TrAfri'' KOI airo's re Trawojuai eKeiV?js T 
TOVS aAAovj xjirjvai </>?^t navtaOai, oaoi avv e/xot 8t- 
cfooCyro raura. yiyz>co<TKGO yap ori GJUOU /xey ovres 
iroAAot, ajffTTfp fwy lore, Kat I^Tt//ot eaeo-^e /cat e^ere ra 195 
f7rtT?/8eta > ear 8e Sta-cnraaflijre Kat oAtyot ye'j^o-^e, owre 
8i>i>?jo-e<T0e Xafj-Pdveiv rpo^rjv, ovre KaAws aTto-yjuptlv, 
Tavra ovv 8oKft f/^iot cbrep v//u^, eK-7ropevecr^at ts TT)J> 
'EAAa8a' Kat edy rts diro-Xforj) //jua?, Trptv Trav TO arpd- 
rev/xa etrat ei &cr<^aAe7, rouroi' KpivtcrQai a>s a8i<com'ra." 200 

Silanus foiled in his object. Neiv project of Timasion 
and Thorax, 

TU Tovrots airafres av-trfivav ras 
2iAay6s e/Qoa, Ae'yaJf ws 8tKatov ei?j ati-itvai rov jSouAo- 
fjLevov. ol 8e orpariwrat ?}7retAowv avrw on, ei A?jv^otfro 
a7To-8t8pao-Koyra, KoAdaetai' avrov. fvrtvOtv ol 'Hpa- 

ra p.e^ TrAota wfjntov<ri } ra 8e xP r ]^ aTa ) ^ 7r ~ 205 
Ti/xaaicort cat wpaja, OVK tyacray 


(vravda Sfj Tt/xacraoy ical 0a5pa, 7rapa-Aa/3oWes 
uAAous orpanjyovs, 7rA?jy Neau'os rov 'Aatfotbv, ep^oyrat 
, /cat \*yov<Flv on boK.fl avrols ijbi] 
7;Aeu> ts 'I'ao-iy, /cat /cara-o-^tij; T7/f 
\utpai'. Zfvoty&v 8t cnr-CKpivaTO on OUK ay 
et770t rawra ets r/jy aTpanav " v^cis be" e^, " <ryA- 
TOUS arpartcoraj, ct 

Dissatisfaction of the army. Xenophon calls a meeting' 

O! 8e or/jaTtwrat evrv^orro raura>a.' KCU o 
21 5 NW cAeyey a)i" Hey(K/)wy Sta-rootro ayety TOVS <rr/iartw- 
ras TraAiv ei? <l j acrty. < uKowrrat'res oe ol oT/iariairai 
e</>epoy ravra* xai crwAAoyot eytyt'orro avrwr 
CTret 5e Hero^aiy 7/o-^(iyeTO, 
rw-ayayU> rou? or/sancoras, 
eacrai auroi/s o-t/A-AeyJ/z'cu avro/uarous* cat exe- 
TOV xr/pv/ca avA-Ae'yeiy erKA^a-iay. ot 8f, eiret 

TOU Kr/pVK09, (Tvi'-lbpa^ov fj.u.\a. eroi 
o Hero^aiy eAe^fy cS8e* 

Xenophon's second defence. \. ' The reports against me are 
false ; I could not deceive you if I ivoitld? 

8ia-/3aAAety e/ue, w uy5p<s, ws eya> e^- 
225 aTranJ<Tas i/^ta? jueAAoo ayety ei? ( l>aa-iy. d/<oi;(raT oyy 
Aeyoyros' jcat ear /iey fya> </;aiy&)/xai d8t/ceu', eirt- 
y 5e ol 6//e 8ta-/3aAAoyres ^>atWyrat 
eir, ourw xpifrrOe avrols, axntfp aidv eori. 
5e, o?/xat, lore 6'0ey ?;Aios dy-tV^ft, Kat OTTOU dvcrat* 
230 Kai on fay \t.iv ns eis TJ)y 'EAAdoa /ieAA?j u'yat, wpos 
bfl TTOp(v(crOai, eai> b^ ris /3ovArjTat tet-ai iy 


rovs ftapfidpovs, 6Vt Set nopfveaOai -Trpos eo). 

8e Kat rouro, on /3opeas /zef <pepet eo> rou FIoWou ets 

r?)z> 'EAAdSa, VO'TOS 8e (/>epet et<To> eis <I>a<ny Kat Ae'yere, 

orai; /3ope'as TT^ e'?/, a>$ xaAoi 77X01 eto-ti" ety rr/i' 'EAAd8a. 235 

rt's oSy ooi^aiTo ay e-a7Tar?}a-(H v/xas ?/ 


i\. 'Neither could I force you to accompany me. These 
calumnies proceed from pure jealousy.' 

" 'AAAa Kat eay e/^-/3t/3d(ra) ^//as, orav yaA?yr>j ?], eyw 
fzey ev fi irAota) TrAewo/xat, v^els 8e e*> ejcaToV. TTWS 

fttvovs ; >cai 8^ eay e-a7rar?j<ras dyco eis ^acrtr, 
/cat aTro-jSaiW/xel' ets TT)I \u>pav, yz>c6<recr0e OTI ov/c eore 
er TT; 'EAAdStj Kat eyw /xey eo-o/xat ets, vjueTs 8e 

(oires oTrAa. aAAa ourot etaty ol Ao'yot ai 
oi fyOoi'ovaLV f\j.oi } ort eya> rt/^ico^at v0' v/xwy. 245 
Katrot ov StKatcos ye af /xoi (f>0ovoiv' eya> yap K<wAi;a> 
ov&va auT&v r] Aeyety irept TOU Kot/'ou dya^ov / fj.d- 
X(rOai i'Titp v^S>v re Kat eawoO. dAAa raCra /.cey dpKet 
e^xot, a et/))/Ka Trept TOVTMV' et 8e rt^t vju,wy uAAo ri SoKet^ 
Ae^dra)." 250 

Xenophon accused of harsh dealing. A (witness examined. 

'EK TOVTOV Trdires dy-tordp:eyot eAeyoy TOWS roy Hero- 
8ta-/3aAdi,ras Sowat biKi)V e8o^e 8e KOI roi/s 

wy ey r< 
eVcoi'. fVTavda brj KaT-rjyoprjcrdv rives Heyo- 

, (f)d(TKOVT<i TTCLLfaOai VII OVTOV (V TTj TTOpeta. 255 

sat 6 Hei>o</>a)i> eK^Aeuae toy Trp&rov Ae'^arra eiTretv TTOIJ 
F 2 


icat e7r\?;y/7. 6 8e' ""Oirov a77-a)XX7Jp.e0a ra> 
/n'yet, Kal %iu>v 7rXeioT7j 7/f." 6 8e ECPO^WP el-jre^' 
" 'AXXa p.7ii>, a eV Toiovra) ncnp<p vfipi(ov, 6/AoXoy<S 
260 v/3pt0To'repos etVat 7<Sz> oj/cof o/xcus 8e *at Xtov, 8ta 
ri cTrX?/"/?^' TroTfpov fl-row ri ae, KCU fTrato'r (re, 

(Ttfl 8e 6 avijp ei-e^ ov8cv cirai TOTJTCOV, 6 Hero^wy 

(Tr-rjpfTO CLVTOV ft 6ir\LTfvoi. OVK </7 6 dzn/p. ir(iXtv 

265 *ip(TO avTov 6i ireXra^bt. oii8e rouro c^)f/, dAXa e\avi 

Barbarity of a soldier to<warJs his comrade. Xenofbon 
amply justified. 

'Ej>rav0a 8?; 6 Bei>o(Tj<2i> av-eyiyvwcrKev av 
" *H (TV 7 6 TOV (cd/iyof ra dyaycor ; " " Nal," 0rj 6 
" av yap ?}rdyKa^*s /ie TOVTO voujffat' 8i-cppi\^a5 8e ra 

270 re3i> e/xwi* <7uo-/c7;i;a)y (TKCVT;." " ""AXXd 77 /xe 

$77 6 Het'o^aJi', f{ aJ8e ircos eye'rero* 8t-'8a)ca Ta 
dXXots dyeiv, xat /ce'Xe?j(ra aTr-ayaycty aOra Trpoy e^te' 
<cai diro-XajSuiy a7r-e'8a>K<i aoi aTtavra (Twa, cireiSJ) cai av 
a7r-e8eias c/ioi TOV di-bpa. v/xcts 8e dfcoTJo-are oTov TO^ 

375 TTpayfj-a tyevero. di'7)p /car-eXeiTrero 8ia TO fXTjKeVi 8v- 
pao-flat TiopV(rdai' KOI ey&) TjfdyKafrd (re ayeiv avrbv, 
OTTO)? ^ aTT-oXoiTO' xai yap TroXc/xioi ^)-ct7rotTo ^u/. 
eTrei 8e efceXevad ere vpo-t&ai, vcrrepov KaT-eXaySov <re 
opvTTovra (360pov, a>s Kar-opv^ovra TOV &vdpu>irov. eiret 

280 8e, wap-eorrjKOTcoi' ruiCtv, 6 a.vr\p <riy-e*ca/xv^e TO 
ol Trap-oVres (rvi'-tupayov OTI fa)??* oa> 8e eiTres, ' Eire 
etTe Tf.Ovi]Ktv, eycoye OVK aco auToV.' tf 
<r* eSofas yap fxoi ei8e'rai on 6 dt^p ef/j." "Ti'oui>;' : 

fad i<a aot 


avToV;" " Kai yap ly/ms," ecpq 6 Hefo^wf, <f 7rcu>TS OTTO- 285 
Oai'ov^fda' TOVTOV ovi> eVeKa 8a ///las {"<Sf ras K 
vcu. ;" ej'Tai>0a Traires av-tKpayov a>s 6 "EtvofyGtv Trat 
avrov oAtyas TrAjjyay. 

Xenophon continues his defence, i. ' Af^ seeming harshness was 
justified by circumstances, 1 

'O 8e Hero</)wy c/ceAever aAAovs Aeyeiy Sta T^ eKao-ro? 
7rA?/y^. eTTtt 8e o^Sets d^-tVraro, avros e Aeyei>* " ''Eyw, 290 
co ct/;5/3ey, ojuoAoyw Tiarcrai 5?) dfSpas eiuore, oirot AtTroWes 
ras rci^ets /cat Trpo-fle'oyres f]6e\ov ap-na&iv re Kat 
eKreiy ^/xwy. ei Se -jrayTes eTrotoC/xej; rovro, 
ay aTr-coAo'/xe^a. e7iai(ra 5e Ka^ riz/as ava-navo^vovs 
Kat ov/c e^eAorras av-wravOai, xal e/3ta(ra/x7jy TOIO^JTOUS 295 
KOI yap ev TW layvpu yjEiij.G>vi \a\cnov i]v 

/cat e/jiavTw, Ka^-e{"o/x,eVto 7roAi;y \povov, ai>a-<rTrjvai Kat 
ra o-Ke'Ary. 8ta TOUTO oSv, OTTOTC t5ot/xt aAAoi; 
rJiJ.CVOV KCU jSAaKevovra, r/Aawoy airoV TO |y,ey 

yap KU'eta^at Trap-et^e depfiaffiaff nva KCU vypJrjjTa, VTCO 300 

5e rou K.o.Q-rj(fdai TO re at/xa CTrrjyyvro xat o! Sci/cruAot TWI; 

77080)^ aTT-eo'TjTroi'To' cnrep iroAAot KOI v/^wy fTiaOov. 

aAAous 8e ye tcrcos aTTO-Aenro/xeVows ey rfj 68<5 Kat KW- 

Awo^ras TO arpar^v^a -nopevt&Oai eTratcra TTI>, OTTWS /x? v ; 

Tratoti'TO Tats TWJ; TroAe/xtcoy Aoy)(aty. 305 

ii. ' A^o^y /^<7/ <ii;f are oa/ o/" danger, I am no longer severe? 
iii. ' / demand justice at your hands.' 

" Kat a fxey kiil dya^w eKo'Aatrci Ttva, d^t&i 
bovvai 8tKjjy, otar Kat yovtis bibovcnv viols Kat 
Trai<rt. et 8e yo/xt^Te /xe TavTa TTpdrTdv v^Spe 
OijTf OTI yCy eya) dparrvTfpos t/xt ?/ TO'TC, Kat TTU'CD TrAetco 


310 oli'ov, Q.AA' o;*<i>s 7raio> ov8eW' 6p5> yap oWas ev 
tvbiq. orav 8e ^fifjL<av 77, tore on KCU pLKpov fVfxev 
ana.pTiifj.aTos 6 irpwpfvs \a\eiraivei ro?s cv irptapq, 
6 Se KvfiepirfTrjs \a\tTiaiveL rots ey Ttpvfj.vri' cv yap TW 
T06oyrw xaipw /cat /xupa d/xa/)T?y/uara 

315 <rufj.<f)opas. davfj-dfa 8e on, et /xe'y n 

TOVTOV, (I be riva tv CTrotT/o-a ^ (TT-fiv&ra rj 
, ov5ets //.e'/xyjjrai rovrcov. aAAa jurjv /caAoy ye 
tori /cat biKaiov fj.ffj.irij<rOai r&v ayaQStv fj,a\\ov rj rwi 
KaK&i-." fK TOVTOV br] av-[<TTai'To Kal ir-fivovv TOI 

32 Eew>0a)i>ra' Kal iravra Tre/n-eyeVero wore 

Embassy of the Paphlagoniaru. The Greeks entertain the 

Kat ol fj.(v 

v na<f)\ayoviav' ol 8e ITa^AaydVes fKaKovpyovv TOWS 
arrt TOVTW. KopvXas 5^ 6 ITa(/)Aayorias 
TrpecrySeis irapa TOI/S "EAArjyay, Ae'yovras 
on KopvAas eroijuos t?j <f)t\os (Ivai TOLS "EAAr/o-t^, wore 
^i^re dSiKeli; /x^re a8iKeur0ai. ol 8e crrparrjyot aTr-eKpi- 
vavTo on irept /xer TOVTMV (3ov\v<rourro avv r^ orpana, 
(bf^ovTo bf avrous w? *vovs. dvvavTfs b% (3ovs Kal 
aAAa iepeta eSei'ufovy *cai t-nivov (rvv avrois. 

7Zv entertainment begins ivitb a Tkracian pantomime. 

330 'ETTCI 5e (TTrofSai re tyevovTo Kal (iraiavicrav^ irpS>Tov 
fj.ev Qpqufs o.v-t<mt}(rav Kal vpyjivavTo Ttpbs avAov oi/y 
rots oTrAois, cccu TJfAAoin-o KOV^WS, at expwpro rots 
fxaxai/>ais. re'Aos 8^ 6 erepos eTiaio-e TW erepoy, /cat 
ira<Ttv (boKfi rov avbpa TfOvrjK^vaL' 6 b% e7re<r 


7TC09, KOI ol Oa^Xayofes av-tKpayov feat 6 \ikv Aa/3a>t' 335 
TO OTrAa TOV erepov f-'/t acoi> TOV SiraAfcaf* aAAoi 
be rG>v QpqK&v e-e'(/>epoy TOV trepov a>s Te6vi]KoTa' 

Tfo ' Carpaian ' //<7Wff described. 

Mera roCro aAAoi o.v-i(TTr]<Jo.v, KCH w 

t'ay op^rjcnv tv rots oi:\ots' 6 5e rpoTros TJ]S 340 

. 6 /xei' 7rapa-0e//eros ra OTrAa 
r, TroAAa/cis or pe<d|uez>os ws (^oftov 
erepos 5e ws A?/or^s Trpos-epxerai. 6 Se t5coy ror 
XyffTTjv apTtafa TO. OTrAa, KOI /iaxeTctt ^ep TOV fevyovs' 
jcat re'Aos 6 ATJOTT)? yj(ras TW avbpa cnr-ayei avrov re 345 
Kut TO e{!yo?. CVIOTC be KCU 6 ^evyTjAciTr/s I'txa Toy 
\yarijv flra 8770-05 oTTtVa) TOJ x e 'P e OTT-eAawei avroV. 

y^ Mys'tan performance. War dances. The Pyrrhic dance. 
Mera TOUTO Mvaos (h-ijXOfv (\wv Tit^rrfv ev tKarepa * 

vTai, Tore 8e e^p^To Taw ir'Arais ws irpoy tva, TO'TC 8e 350 
KOI t-(Kvfii(TTa. tyjuv Tas Tre'ATas* Kal o\l/is xaA?) 
Te'Aos 8e wpxerro TO Hcpo'tKOi', Kpov&v 
Tas TreATO?, >cai wxAafe KOI ^-avio~raro' KOL f-noiei 
ravra Ttdvra (V pu^/xw Trpos Toy avAov. cVTaiifla ets- 

ol MarTirers KCU aAAoi rives T&V 'ApKaScof e- 355 
i, rjeaay Te eV pv9p.<$, KOI eTtaidvivav Kal 
ol 8e Oa^Aayoye? opwyres fOavjj.a^ov 
Trdtras TOS opx^creis eTvai ei> oirAoi?. 6 8e Murros opG>v 
aiTois ^au/xa^bfras eis-ayi op^rjarpiba, o-Kevacras 
aurrji' ws eSut'aro KaAAtcrra, xal bovs ai>Tfl aaiiiba 360 


Kovfyiji'. ?/ be <j)[)yji< 
pws. et-raO^a Kpo'ros 1 7/t> TroAus' KOI rorro TO re'Aos 
vnj TT/ j'l'Kri eye'rero. 

Terms of peace concluded. The Greeks sail to Sinope. 

Tjy 5e varepcua ol orpaT>;yoi 7rpos-?/yov TOI/J 7J7V/3eis 
5 eis ro orparev/jia' A.CU e8oe rots or/iaTKorais /^J/re citKU> 
fIa(/)Aayo't'as /jti/te ddiKei(r^at VTT* avrcGv. jutra TO^TO 
ol xef 77pt'<Tets W^OVTO' ol 6e "EAAijres, e7Tt5)/ TrAoia 
)-eti'at, ara-/3ar7es en\eov ijfjifpav KCU 
fcaAw. KOI a0-uo'/jirot eiy SU'WT 
370 hjpfjLiarai'To iy * ApiirfVijlff At/xe'm T/}S Sti'wTrrjy 

77615 6 TTt/iTTOUCTl ^fZ'lU TOW "EAATJCTl^, ttA0lTtt KOI 


Cbeirisopbus returns. Xenopbon is offered the sole command. 
Kat ev ravrp T>) 'ApurjVfl ol "E\\r}Vfs ffj.cwav ij^fp 

/p?;. 01 8f orpaTiairai, w? eSo'xow ?/8rj yiyviaOai 
is TT)S 'EA\a5os, fii-fOvfjiovv fj.a\\ov r) -npoarOtv cup- 
5 uto-flai oiKaSe. efio^ev ouy curois ekeaOat Zva apxpvra, 
KOI rpa-Tro'/xcfot Vt TOJ; H evo<p<avra Hittidov amov 5e- 
^f apxyv. 6 8e e/SouAero /xcv ap^ftv, vopifav 

* 2 



rtfxr)y 4auro> ^eifco oimws ay yevfffOai* oTrore 5' au ey- 
GVHOITO on TO jueAAoy a8rjAo'y tan Trawl dyflpcoTrw, KOI 
ore 8ta roiiro Kt'ySwos euj //?/ a770-/3aAoi Kat r?/y ?rpo- 10 
etpyaoyze'yjjy o'ay, TjTropetro. 

Xenopbon interprets the omens, and refuses the command. 

eVw oe avrw I8o^e Kpariorop el^at ara- 
TOIS Otots' Kat e^ytro ra) Att r<5 /SacrtAei, ort 
rourov TOV 0eo3 (v6fj.ifi> ecopa/ceVat ro 6Vap, o 

ore Trpwroy yptOr] apyjuv rrjs orpartas. feat ore 15 
wp/xaro c^ 'E^errou o-y/^-juaxov/xeros Kvpw, ay- 

e* at ori 6 /xa^rts ro'rc eAeye /txe'yay /^ej; Toy ol<avov 
i, tniiiovov fj-evroi, TO. yap op^ea Ic^r/ /^idAto-ra CTTI- 

rQ> derw KaO-rj/xeVo)' rov Se olwvov OVK cu'at 20 
\pri{j.aTL(TTLKoi>, TOV yap deroy TI^TO^VQV nzdA.tora Aa^t- 
TO. C7rir75eta. o{!ra) 8 yi/v 6 

Cheirisophus is elected. Voyage to Heraclea. 

et 8e 6 Hfroc^aif ov/c cSe^aro r?yy ap^ijv, ol crrpa- 
rtwrai ei'Aovro XeipiVo^ov. 6 8e Trap-cA^cby eiTref 25 
" 'AAAa, ai ai>8pes, roCro /xey To-fe, on OVK ay eycoye 
ecrra(Tta{"oy, et aAAoy et'Aeo-^e' 7ret 8e e/x^ eiXecrfle, KOI 
cya) Tretpdo-o/xat vrotety v/^ias o n ay Swto^iai dyaflor. 
Kat v/xer? ovrco Trapa-aKeuaCecr^e eis avpiov, ws TrAeu- 
aoiJLfvoi. 6 8e 7rAoi5s etrrat ets 'HpaKAeiay* eTrctSay 8e 30 
tX6(i)fj.v eKeure, ^ouAevcro'jue^a Trept rwy aAAcoy.' ey- 
TtvOfv Trapa-TrAcwcrayres d(/)-txoyro ets 'HpaKAeiay KOI 
ol 'HpaKAeairat 7rep.7rovcrt e'yia rots "EAA?jo-ty, aA0ira 
Kat oTyoy Kat ^3ous etKoo-t KOI ots e 


Ungracious conduct of some of the Greeks. The Heracleant 
menace <war. 

35 Ol 8e orpariwrai ai/A-AeyeWes e/3ou/\evofro ittpl TTys 
AOITTT;? 770pe/'a?, irorepov Kara y7jy 17 /cara 0aAarray 
a/? e*c rov Ylovrov. AVKMV 5e ' 
) //ey, a> ar8pey, on ol (rrpar?7 
///xty xP^ara' raura yap ra 
40 aerai criria rpicoy i]^pS>v TTJ orparta. e/iot 
atrely rows 'Hpa/cXewras ju,^ eAarroy 

KOI Tre/iTreir 7rpe'(r/3eis Trpoy r^v TroAty irept 
vrcvOev Trffj-irovcn A.VK(OVCL KOI 
KOI 'Ayao-iW* ouroi eA^oyres eAeyov ra 
45 01 6e 'Hpa/cAewrai aKouo-at'Tes raOra ffpaaav 
creaOai, KOI tvdvs crvi'-fjyov ra XPW 07 " ^* T ^ 
>cai a! TTvAai eKexAetrro xat 6VAa ((aivero f.m rS>v 

Threefold partition of the army. Numbers in each division. 

'E TOVTOV ol 'Apa8s /cai ol 'Amatol o-uy 

5 eAcyov, w? alcr^pov CITJ era 'A^^faiof ap\civ 

vij(rL(t)v KOI AaKfbaifj,ovi(v. r\v 5e rp a\r)0ei 

TOV oAov orparcv/^iaros 'ApKaSes Kai 'A^aiot. ovroi ovv 

(\cyov ws 5eoi eAeV^ai kavrS>v o-rpar^yous, /cai KO^' eav- 

TOVS 7roiei(T0at r^j; -noptiav. raura e8oe' /cat ol ' 

55 *ai 'Axatot, aTro-Anro/'Tfs XetpiVoc/joy cat z 

avv-tarria-av, Kal eiAorro rrrpar?;yous cavraii; 6e*ca. e/c 
rovrou ro o-rparev/ia yiyverat rpi^Tj, 'ApxaSey /^ey xat 
l TiAetous ^ rtrpa/cts-)(iAioi, oTrAtrai Tra/^res' Xet- 
6e 7}(rai/ oTiAirai /xei' rerpaKocrioi icai %(\ini, 
60 TreAratrrai 8e inroM^itot' sZevotyuvri 5^ 7]<rai' oTrAtrai 


eTiTaKoVioi, TreAraarat 8e rptaKoVtof ovros Se 
tTTTrtKov, d/ji(pt rerrapaKO^ra " 

The Arcadians attack the natives, and are defeated fyr them. 

Kat ol fj.V 'ApKaSes Trpwrot TrAe'owt, KOI ci7ro-/3ai- 
voviriv cis KdAmjs XijueVa, Kara fxeVov T^S ey 'Acrta 
0/)(iKrjs. ez/reu^ef tTTopcvovro eis ray -rrpwras Kw/xas* 65 
Kai eTrt-Treo-o'yres TCHS 0pa^i r?) vorepaia eAa/3oy TroAAvjv 
ol 8e 0paKc? ol 8ia-(/>uyoVres r]9poiovTo' KCU 
fxey eTri-Tt^eyrat TW 2/xiKp?jros Aox^, ei>6s rwy 
y arpaTriywv, Kat a.7ro-KretVoncrty avroy re roy 

Kat rovs aAAous Trd^ras. aAAou 8e Aoxou, 70 
of 'Hyr/(ray8pos e?X ei; > oKrw /xorovs Kar-eAtTrof ^cS^ras' 
xat avros 'HyTjo-afSpos ecrco^jj. Kat ol /ney aAAot Ao)(ayot 
rrvv-riXQov' ol 8e 0pa<ces o-w-eAeyovro r^? VVKTOS TroAAot. 
Kat a/xa fjfJ-epq eYarroj>ro KVKAa) vrept roi' \6(j)ov, tvOa ol 
"EAAjj^es ecrrparoireSevoyro, KOI 7rpos-e'/3aAAov Trpos rows 75 
TWZ; 'EAA?jz>a)i> ovrAtras, Kat ertrpaxTKOv iroAAovs' re'Aos 8e 
ol 0paKes et/jyoi; avroi/s KOI d:ro rou vSaro?. ciret 8e 
aTropta ?]y, 8t-eAe'yo^ro irept o-7roz;8oi>y. ITTCI 8e ol "EAAryres 
IJTOVV 6p.r;povs, ol paKes OUK ci'5o(rav. ol fxey 8^ 

Xenophon marches to their relief. 

Xetpto-o(pos 8, 7re{^ Tropeuojixevoj 8ta r^s 
^dAarrar, d^-tK^etrai ets KdA77?js At/xeVa* sevofp&v 8e, 
Aa/3wy irAota, a7ro-^3ai^ei cut ra opta r^s paKr;? Kat 
r?)s 'HpaKAewrtSo?. epreufley Tropevo/jif^os 8ta rfj? ju(ro- 
yai'a? ey-ruyxd^et 7rpe'cr/3ea-t Tropeuo/xcVots TTOI' Kat ^pcora 85 
avrovj, ci TTOV ata^otrro aAAov o-rparev/xaros 'EAA?ji'iKoiJ. 


ol 8e eAeyoy on ol 'ApKa8es noXiopKolvTO eirl \6(pov } ol 
8e 0pa*es Trarres t7pL-KKVK\<afj.evot. etev avTovs. tv- 
ravOa e8oei> avTui rots d^Spci'Tif eVe/x^e 8e 
90 Tt/jiCKnau'a cri/v TOIS brTrevVi (TK07reu> TO e/ 
^rj5ey Aa^oi avrovs. 7ra/)-e7Tf/i^c 8e xai 

as eis ra cifcpa, e/ce'Xeue 6e xatetr airavra, o<ra 6pS>tv 
. ol 8e t-noiovv ravra' cocrTe Tiatra ?/ x^ a ^So/ 
t, xal ro orpdreujua eli/at 

A r o tiding} of either army. All meet again at Cafpe. 

95 "Afj.a 8e ry i)fJ.fpa (rvv-ra^a^voi. ws ets l*-ayj] 

OITO ?} eSvfayro Ta^iora. Ti/xacricoy 6e Kat ol lintels 
irpo-(\avvovTfs a<J)-iKovTo em ror Xofyov, ZvOa ol "K\\rj- 


TroXe'/xtov orpdrcv/ia. ca4 TO fxey Trpwroy e^av/xa^by TI 
100 eoj ro yryfvrmevov' euetra 5e titwOavovto ori ol /xey 
paxes aTT-Tjeo-aj; TT/S eaTre'pas, ol 8e "EAArjyes a/xa T^ 
' OTTOI 8e oiotiro ou5ets /8ei. ol 8e d/u<)t Hero- 


x-juttfai rot's aAAois eis KaATrrjs At/^e'ra. *cat 
105 Tropeudpievoi tu>pu>v TOV trri(3ov rwy 'Ap/cdSwy /cat ' 

Kara r^y 68of. CTTCI 8e o-vv-^A^oy, aap.fvo.1 re 8 

dAA?jAovs cat ?)cr7rd^bi'To 

rrfv f}fj.epav rjvAt'foirro CTTI TOV aiytaXou Trpos TO> At/ueVt 

Description of the harbour of Calpe. 

'O 5e KaATrrjs Ai^y KetTat ey /Lte'tra) 
no BufavTiou* effTi 8e ef TT; ^aAaTTjj tipo-KtiiJ.tvov 

TO fxev OVTOV eis TTJ^ 0aAaTTaz> KaO-ijKov TitVpa effTt 
a.Ttopp<a' 6 8c avxyv TOV \<t>piov, 6 ets T^ 


TTTapa>v it\tdpu>v eorl TO evpOS' TO b% evTos 
TOV av^evos yjApiov fcrrlv IK.O.VOV /xvptots avOptamiis 
oi/cT/rrat. XifJL^v be Ketrai virb avrfj Trj TrcVpa, e%wv JI 5 
aiytaXcu' irpbs ecnrepav. Kpi]vr) be fjbeos vbaros pet fifl 
avrrjv Ti]v 6a\aTrav viib rr) em/cpata'a TOV \(apiov. 
^yAa 8e ecrrt TroXXa Kat caAa vavTTTjy^cnjixa cm avrfj 
r?) OaXaTTr). TO 6e o)oos ct? /xeo-o'yaiay ^er av-rJKei 
CTTI et/coai oraStoi/s, cai rovro eort yewSes /cai aXi^oi^' 120 
Trapa be Oa.Ka.TTav irap-^Ket nKeov r] em eiKoai. oraSious, 
KOI baav COTI TroXXoTs Kat jueyaXots ^vXots. ^ 8e aXX?; 
X^pa KaX^ eort, >cai K&^.aC elviv cv avTrj TroXXat <cat 
ei> oiKovpevai' fj yap yi] </>e'pei KOI KpiOas KOI iivpovs Kal 
otTTrpta /cat }j.e\ivas KOI OTjo-ajua icat (rCxa KOI ap.7re\ovs 125 
/cat ra aXXa Trdvra, TtX.r)V eXatwy. ^ /lev X^/ 30 tf v rotavrrj' 
oi 8e "EXXiji'es t(TK.i}vovv ev T<5 atytaXw Trpos TT) 

Resolution passed not to divide the army again. Want 
of pro-visions. Sacrifices unfavourable. 

'EvravOa f]fj.epas bvo' TT/ 8e rptrjj ^epa ot 
(rrpartwrai TrdVres (rvv-rj\6ov, /cat eTrotrjcratTO boy^a, et 
TIS vvTepov fj.vr)(rde[ri bi^a noie'iv TO orparen/xa, (T?M I " 130 
U.VTOV davaTto. KOL Xetpt(ro(/)os /j,e/> ?/8rj ere- 
/cef Necoy S 'AerwaTos irap-e'Xa^Se T7)y eneivov 
Jjf. //era rawra ot orpar^yot edvovro eirl TT) Tropeia' 
Ta 5e tepa ov/c eyiyvero KaXa. e/c TOIJTOU ol (TTpaTioiTat 
T^X^OI'T'O' /cai yap ra CTrtTT/Seta eir-e\nrev avTots, xat 135 
dyopa ov8e/xta iiap-rjv. <rvv-e\66i>Tu>v be avT&v 6 EeJ>o- 
^)wy eTnei'' K 'il ar8pes, em pen Ty Ttopeiq, is opare, 
TO lepa OTJTTO) ytyrcTat /caXa, opw 8e t5/xa? beoptvovs 
T&V CTriTTjSe^of So/cei oSi; juot dmy/cTj eTvat 6vev6ai wept 


140 TOVTOV." Kttl Ttd\lV t0VfTO CIS TptS, KO.I TO. IcpO. OVK fyiy- 

vfTo KaXd, 6 5e "Etvofy&v OVK (/)jj e-ayayeu> ay TOWS 
orpana/ras, ei fx?) yiyvoiro TO. icpa KaAa. nal -nd 
r?} vvrepaiq (OuovTo, fcai o-xeSoy iratra ?} orparta 
AoCro Trept ra lepd' Kai 7rpo/3ara ftev oi/ceVt ?}y, 
145 p-ef'oi 8e /3oOs (OuovTo' uAA' oi/5e oilrw ra upa 

Unsuccessful expedition cf Neon to procure provisions. 


e/3ouAfro \api(ff6ai aurots* Kai eipwy 
IpaicAewTT;^, o? e^)jj Kw/xas eii^at fyyuj, 
150 Aa/3oiei/ ra 
levai tm ra 

i. CTTCI Se Tjo-ar er rals xca/xais >cat St-ctnref- 

ro a/i/ry, o 
aurois, KOI aTro-Kreii'ovdiv ou fxetov / 

155 Koatous' ol 8e Aoi-^oi av-ttfivyov CTTI TO opos. e/c 

aTT-ayye'AAei rts raura TO) Hero^aiyn* 6 5e /3oGi> <r</>a- 
yiao-a/^ero? (fioi'jOei, /cat o-i/v avTw 7riAc/cToi at'5pc$' 
ol Se aira-Xafiovrcs TOUS ire^evyoTa? afp-iKvowrai ets 
TO orpaToTreSov. KOI J/8/j /zej> a/x^)t ?;Aiou Sutr/xas 7/y* 

160 Kat e^aTriV/js Tajf Bi^t/i'wv Tires fTn-Ti6efjiCvoi TOIS Trpo- 
0vAafi TOVS /xev /caT-exreiyay, Toi/s 
TOV (TTpaTOTre'Sou. Kat ol ' EAArji-es 8pap.oy eis Ta oT 
KOI 8ia>eii' p.ey TOUS iroAfpuous WKTOS OVK arrc^aAes e8o'Kf t 
eu>ar ^v 8e TOIS oirAoij Si-?;yayoi> TJ) 

165 fxci'ot 


The Greeks fortify their position. An excursion determined upon. 
Neon is left to guard the camp. 

oe TI) r/jue'pa ol oTpctT^yoi i]yovvro eis TO 
ioi>' ol 8e ftltovro dra-Aa/3oVres ra oVAa Kai ra 
Trplv Se dpiorou u>pav eiWu, aTT-crd^pfvcrav 
TI]V euroooy eis TO \(ap[ov, Kai aTr-fcrTavpwcrav airav, 
Kara-AiTroVres rpcls TrvAas. Kat TrAoroy rJKfv e^ 'Ilpa- 170 
tas uyoy aA^nra Kat le/oera KOI ou>oi>. 8ia-/3avre? 


avv rots oVAots, Toy 8t oxXoy *ai 
TU ai'bpairoSa Kara-^evetf awoi. ot juty 8^ aAAoi 

f-?'e<7az', Ne'coi' oe ov/c -$1' tooKet yap /cdA- 1/5 
eti'at KaTa-Aixreu.' TOVTOV ())V\aKa rutv & Toi 
e'Sa). Kai OVTOI /mev (fj.d'ov, ol 8e aAAoi eiro- 

The Greeks hesitate about crossing a ravine. Xenophon exhorts 
them to proceed. 

8e 7/0/7 *<*> T&V Kco/xwy tXa^fiavov Ta 
Kai laitt.VTj$ o/>aifrt TOUS iroAcjutous virep- 180 
KaTa Aoc/)0i/j Ttj'a? eK TOV fvavriov, iT 
Te iroAAovs Kai 7rebvs. CTrei 8e ol TroAe/xtot 
TOUS "EAArji'as, taTrjtrav' ol 5e "EAArj/'es TT 
(nel oe ol riyov^voi eyeVo^ro CTTI fdTrei /ueydAa) Kat 
oiyffTro'pw, Iffrrfffav, ayvoovvTfs ei TO I'aTros bia-fiaTtov 185 
(fy. Kai TTap-fyyvSxri roi/s (TTpaTTjyovs KOI Ao)(ayoi/s 
Trap-teVat cZs TO irpoadev. Kai o Hcro^wy, 0a?j//d<ras 
o rt icrxot T?)f -jropeiav, eAav^et ws Taxto-Ta, eTrei 8e ol 
A^or, eAefe ToidSe* " NiJy IO-TC, a> 
OTI a/xaxci M^ v ^ K corrij; tvOevtie air-e\0fiv' 190 


cay yap fj.r] fjfj.t'is u)p.ev eTrt TOVS TroXe/novs, OVTOL 

Kal TO fjifv cur-teVai euro iroXe 
eon, TO oe ty-tTttcrOai 
Odppos Kal TOIS ncaK^ocri. 6av[j.d^(a be ei ns vo/jtt 
195 roDro TO raTros /laXAoy (frofifpov elvai. TU>V 

Ta tepa 
ou Set 

n/rrcu OTTOV a 

Preparations for the attack, the watchword. 
Victorious charge. 

aoo TatSra enrobe T/yetro, Trap-ayyei'Xas bia-(Baiveiv TO 
fcnros rj e/caoros Tvy\avtv &v. CTTCI bf navres bi- 

;, evropevorTO CTTI TOVS 

7rap-?7yye'XXeTo 8e TO /uey bopara *X iv ^^ l T0 ^ 
205 ai/jiou, e'cos arifjiaivot TTJ (rdXTTtyyi' eVeiTa 8e Ka^' 
avTa ei? 7rpo/3oX?)y eTreo-^at ^dSrjy, 
e/c TOVTOU <rvV%ia irap-7J ZET^ SliTHP, 'HPAKAH2 
'HTEMflN. ol 8e 7roXe//tot ba-tfjievov TOVS "EXXr/ras 
Trpos-ioi'Tas, 7rci 8e TrX7jo'iay)i', 01 irtXTacrTat aXa- 
210 Xaai>Tes tOeov citl TOVS TroXfpttous* ol 8e TroXe/xioi 
di/riot, Kat eTpeTTOVTO TOI/S TreXTacrTas. dXXa 
17 $dXay Ttot oTrXtTwz; vTr-rjirta^is Taxi* 

*ai a/xa naQ-Uvav TO. bopara, evravOa ol TroXe'/xiot OVKC'T 
'5 fbeavro avTovs, dXXa e^evyov. Kat 
TOVS liTTreas ((b-ffafTo* Kal aTt-fKTfivav T>V 

vii. SINOPE TO crmrsoroLis. 81 

Complete rout of the enemy. The Greeks raise a trophy. 

Twy 8e voX.fjJ.LUiV TO p.(i> evd>vvp.ov evOvs bi-e(mdpr], 
TO be b(iov avv-enrrr] em X6(j>ov. evel be ot "EXXiji'es 
eloov O.VTOVS UTro-jzeyoi'Tas, eboKei paorov etvai. levai. ?/8rj 220 
eV avTovs. Traiaimraj'Tes ovv evdvs eTT-eKeirro avrois' 
ol o ov)( inr-f^fLvav. Kdl VTavda ot TreXTaarat fbiuxov 
Kal 8i-e'<nreipay TO Se^toy avrajii' oAtyoi 8e ait-edavov' 
ol yap iTnrets raiy TroAffuooi', TroXXot oyres, <f)6[Bov Tiap- 

eTzet 8e ot "E\X?ji'es ctSoz; TO' TC ^apya/Sa^oy 225 
ITI o-uy-eTrrjKoy, Kat TOUS Bt0vz>oi)s iTrireas 7/8r; 
(Tvv-a6poto[j.vovs em Xotyov Tiros, eSoxei avTots teVat 
/cat em TOVTOWJ, a>? ^t^ Tf^appTjKoVes ai>a-irav(TaivTO. 
(Tvv-TaaiJ.voi bi) nopfvovTai.. h'TcvOev ot TroAe'fiiot ITT- 
TTf ts (frevyovai Kara TOV Xo(/)ov, axnrfp Sico/cojuerot VTTO 230 
tTTTrecoy VUT70? yap vTr-eSe'^eTO OVTOI/?, o ot "EXXrjres 
OWK ijbeaav. ol 8e e7r-ar-eX0oVres Kat o-Tr/o-ajuei'ot Tpo- 
a77-?]e<rav eTTt ^aXuTTar ircpi ?yXiou 

Oleander arrives from Byzantium. Dispute about the spoil. 

Ol be "EXXij^e? ci^raC^a e/ueyoy KXt'arSpoi' Toy ev Bv- 
{aj'Ttw ap[JLO<TTi]V, Kat TOS rptr/pets Kat Ta TrXoIa. Kat ews 235 
/mev TO ffTpcirevp-a KO.Ta-fj.evot ava.-iravoiJ.fvov, (-rjv TO?S 
ffTpari(oTats teVat CTTI Xetav, feat ot i-t6vr& eXa/x/Sayof 
aurryy' oTTOTe 8^ Tray TO CTTpaTew/xa e-i'ot, et Tt? x<wpts aTr- 
eX0wi> Xa/3ot TI, tbo^cv flvat brnj.6o-tov. Kat cy TOVTW 6 
KAeWSpos a^-tKi'erTat H^wv bvo Tptr/pet?, irXolov be ovbev. 240 
TO be crTpdrevfJia eTvyyjavev e(t> ov, ore oxp-uceTO' KOI 
uXXot Ttfes (pxovTo \topls eni \etav, oi elXrjtyevav TroXXa 
npdfiaTa' <^o/3ov/xei'0t 8e f/j) crrepridelfv TOVTM, Xeyovvt 



Aft7777<o 70) AczKcoi'i TO lipcr/fAdy Kal KcXcuovcnv ai>Tov 
? 2ia-cra>(rai 01)70?^ ra -po'^ara, *cai ra /xey eauroi Aa/3eu ! , 
ru e rriaiv a7ro-5omu. 

Sfrici/J disturbance in the army. Cleander threatens 
extreme measures. 

EvOvs 8e 6 Ae't-77os aTr-eAayrei roi/s 

Kat At'yoj'ra? OTI raira flrj bi][j.6aia' KOI \eyei rut 

KAfapx&), on ot urpariajrai 67:i-)(etpoi!(Tii; apTrd^cu'. 

6 6e KfAeyft ayetv Trpo? eauroj/ TOV ap-dbi;ra. Kai 

6 /utev Ae'^t--o? Xafitav ?/ye nra' 'Ayacrta? 6e d(/>- 

atpftrai airor. ol 5e aAAoi orpanairai e/ri-)(etpoGai 
TOV Ae'i7T770i.'' 77oAAot 8e xat Tody rptripiT^v 
tyvyov eis TJJV flaAarraz. 1 ' avros 5e 6 KAe- 
*55 arSpos Htpcv/f, Kal ai>o--Xf.i>(TaQa(. ((pr/, KOI 

Hi)b(fj.Lav Tro'Air Se'^ecr^ai airoi/s, w? OVTO.S T 

(01 6e AaKcSaipioriot TO'TC T/PXO^ 7rdi'Ta>i> 

(1'To.vda ol "EAAf/yes eSe'oiTo airrou /^IT) Trouly raCra. 

6 6c OVK !(/)?; yfi'taOai ay dAAtoj, et /^T) tK-bolcv rov 
*f> ap^dfjievov fiaXXdv rov AfTiTTTrof /cat Toy 

TUI' urbpa. 

Agastas offers, to surrender himself. 

Kal (irrevOev ol a.p%oi-T(s crvv~t]yayov TO 
>cai 'Aytwias dra-o-ray ciTrev " 'Tfzeij n^v, S> avbpts, 
IJLII tK-b&Tf /it' eya> 5c irapa-o-x'/<ra> ([J.avTov KAtdrS/uo, 
265 ^oi^<rai o TI av /SoyATjrai." fzera TaDra (ifopcuoitTo 
Trpos KAar5por Ayacriay xat ol drpaT;yot Kal 6 dt^p 
6 d</>-aipe0els VTTO 'Ayaaiou. /cat 6 'Ayacrias et 
"'Eyw ft/oil, S KAf'ai>8pe, 6 d(/)-eAd/jieros TOU 
TOUTOV Tor urbpa. TOVTOV pcv yap olba ai'bpa OVTQ, 


~ov 6e ot5a SeiAoV re orra K.a.1 ifovrjpoi'. 270 
yap virb TTJS orparta? ap^iv Tif.vri]K.ovr6pov, ?/s 

fiTrj(rdfJida napa TpaTre^bufTtajj', 6 Ae'^tTTTios a7r-e'5pa, 


oyro?, a(^)-L\ofJLT]V rov avbpa. et 8e au a77-f/ycs avrov, 
?/ uAXos TIS Twy ?rapa aoiS, OVK ay eTrotTjaa ovSey TOW- 275 
roof. eaz> 8e i>Sv d^o-Kreii'jjs ep.e, aTro-Kre/'ets ai'8pa 
6t' ai'fia 8eiAoi re KOI 

cause pleaded. Cleander reserves h'n decision. 

rairra 6 KXe'ar5pos etTrci/' " Eya> fxei> OVK 
roi;, i 7re7rot/j/ce raura' oi< \itvroi. \pi) 
CLVTOV 7;aa)((iv /3ta/', dAAa KpirfaOai. rvv ovv ctTT-ire 280 
Kara-AtTToVres roV8e roy ai>bpa' orav fie eya> /ceAeyaco, 
Trdp-eore Tipo? rr/y Kpiaiv. atrtw/xat 8e ovre n)i> <rrpa- 
rtai' oiJre dAAor ot'5e'ra, e77 ovros o/xoAoyet avros d(|>- 
rov df8pa." o 6e cup-aipeOds (IndV " 'Eyw, 
KAe'arSpe, ovre tTratoy ovbeva ovre 1/SaAAoi', aAA' 285 
on ra Trpo'jSara eir; STjjudfria' 171; yap So'y/za rwy 
iwrajy, edf TIS iSt'a ATji^Tjrai, OTTOTCLV r] <rrpana 
e-ir], i] Aeta eo~rai 8rjp.ocrta. raCra elTro/ 1 ' ex roy- 
rou ouros \af3utv /xe vyey, ira Aa/3o>y ro eavrou /uep09 
6ia-oxi>o'fie rols Aj/arais ra XP 7 //- 107 " 01 ^apa ro So'yjua. 290 
Trpos rawra 6 KAeWSpos etTiei;' ft 'Ewet rotwv 7re7roir//caj 
rawra, Kard-//et'e, u>a (cat Trept (r 

Successful intervention of Xenophon, 

Mera rairra 6 Hei'o^oiy eA^coy wpos roy KXtavbpov 
Ae'yei' " v E)(eis M^'^ ^ KAe'arSpe, roi/s d^Spas, xal e- 
ecrri aoi -Troi^rrai ir^pt TOVTMV o rt /3ouAet* in;j; 8e ol 295 

G a 


(TTpaTi&Tai aiTow'Tai ere Sovran (rtyim. ro> ai'bpf, nal 
IJLIJ aito-KTfivfiv. KCU \m-i.ayyovvTa.i aoi avr\ TOVTUV, fav 
POV\T] fjyelo-Oai avruu', iiu-bei^eiv trot *at cos Kocr/uot 
eurt Kat caj OeXoviTL TTfiOeaOai TO) ap^ovTi. aicomras 
300 raDra o KAeayO/Jos ei7rei>* " 'AAXa KOI a7ro-5iSw)ui rw 
ti^S/ie icui auTos Trap-eVo/xai v/nj>' xai, cay ol 
/3ov\wrrai } fjyiic 

Cleander departs. T/x army reach Cbrysopolis. 

'Ex Tourou 6 KAe'ai'Spoj (Ovfro (irl rf} liopfiq, not 
(|>iAoj tye'rero "EtvofyGnrri. (ntl Se ew/>a roi/s arpa- 

305 rtciras eiruKroi;? UVTO.S, Kat fxaAAoi' (7^ 

jiy(fj.ii)v avT&v. eVet /xeWoi OvofJLtvtp awrw ra Upa 
cyiyi'TO KaAa, auy-KoAecras TOV? orpanjyoi/s 
" 'E/xot /xer ra tepa ow ytyi/erat, (Sore f-ayfiz> v/ 
i^cis 2e /ZT) aOvp.e'iTC TOVTOV (VfKa, aAAa 

310 jy/jiet? Se bf^o^fOa v/jtas > Bi/^ai'Tia), wy av 

/caAAiora. o 8 oSf KAe'a^Spos dir-^nAet' ol 8c arpa- 
ncSrat f-fitopevovTO bia T>V ]$idvi'>v' Kat atp-iKOVTO ets 



/v Greeks cross to Byxantiton t and are disappointed by 
Anaxibius. Xenopbon confers with Cleander. 

'Ex TOVTOV 4>apvafta^os, <pof3ov[j.i'os /IT) ol 

fTTt Tip (dVTov apx^ 1 '* fSetto ' Avaij3iov 



8ia-/3t/3a<rat TO oTpaYet>p;a CK TTJS 'Acrtas. /cat 6 'Avaft- 
flios /^er-e7re'/,i\/raro rovs arpar?jyovs Kai Ao^a/ow?, KCU 5 
VTr-KT^vetro avro??, ei bia-j3ui(v eis Bv^airioy, iMLvObv 
(arecrOat. rols or/jartwrats. ex 8e TOVTOU Travres ot arpa- 
rtwrai bta-j3au>ov<nv et? Bu^arrtoy. KOI 6 'Avai(Bios 
OVK fbibov avrols fjitvObv, e/ceAfuae 8e TOVS orpariwras 

ex T?/S Tro'Aecos, <us aTro-7re/x\^a)i' atrovs otKa5c. 10 
ot arpancorai ?/^^oz;ro, on OVK et^of apyvpiov 
eo-^at ets T7/f Tropetay* 6 8e Zeuocpwv 
y T<5 dp/xooTTj etTrey aircj) ort /xe'AAoi aTro-T 
?/S?;' 6 8e KAe'ai'Spos Ae'yet airw' " Mr) 7rotr/(TJ/s 
dAAa e^-eA0e /^ei> ws (ru^-TTopeufroV-e^os rots 15 

8e TO 0-TpaTfVfj.a yeV?jrai ea), TO'TC 
aTr-aAAciTrov." evTaC^a 6 Het'o^wy Kai 6 

y eAeyoy aiiT(3 Tairra. 
ourco Trotety, cai e^-teVat 
T(3 aTpa.TfviJ.aTi. 

Discontent of the army. Tumult at the gates. 
ot TC aTpaTTjyot Kal ot aAAot ef-Tje 
Kat iratTe?, TrA^y oAtyooy, e^co ?)(raf 6 8e 
s cruy-KaAtVas TOI/S orpaTr/yous Kat Tois 
yous eAeye' " Ta /xev e7itTj;8eta Aa///3ayeTe ec 
&pqKt(ov KCOJU.WI;' Aa/3oVres 8e Tropeyea^e ts \eppovr]- 25 
ow, e\-et 8e Kui^tcrKos 8co<m vp;Ty pMrQov" aKovrravTts 8e 
Tires T<Sy arpaTUtirStv 8t-ayyeAAou(ri TaTa TW orpaTeu- 
/^ari. Kat ot orpaTtairai dy-apTrao-atTes Ta OTrAa dtovai. 
8po'juw Trpo? TOS TivAas, ws TraAtf ets-toWes ets T?/y TioAt^. 

8e AaKeSat/jtortos Kat ot o~w avT(5 (ruy-xAet- 30 
TOS TTvAas* ol 8e aTpaTtwrai Aeyovcrtv airot KOTU- 


<r)(urai> ras TrwAas, ei JUT) ol TroXTrai eKoWes av-oi^ovaiv. 
uAAoi Se e0oi> CTTI flaAarray, at VTiep-j3aii'ov(Ti -napa 
Ti]v yji^i}v TOV Tet'xovs cis rr)i> Tro'Aif. _ aAAoi 8e T<Sv 
35 0rpaTta;rd>;', ot eryy>(ai'0f tvbov oyres, Sta-KOTTTO^res ra 
K\tWpa rats a^tVat? dya-Trerai'i'vovm ras TivAas, ol 8< 
e^a) orres ets-TuVroufrii' cts 77)2; 

General panic. AnaxlbiUi sends for reinforcements. 

'O 5e E(vo(f)<ai>, is et6e ra yiyz'o'/xtra, SeiVas fxrj TO 
arparev/Lxa T/iciTrotTo e^ 1 ap7rayj/y, truy-cts-TriiTTet a~vv TW 

40 o\A(o etrrco T<3i> TrvAwc. 01 8e Bu^drrtoi favyovviv CK 
TT/S dyopa?, ol ^(v cts Ta TrAota, ol 8e ot/caSf oo-ot 8e 
f Tiiyyjzvov oires cf ToTs otKOts ZOfov f^co. ol 8e xa^-tAKOi' 
ras T/3t?ypets, ws (rco^otiro cy Tats Tpn'ipetrC Trd^res 8e 
loovro ri]u Tro'Aiy ?}A60Ke'i'at. 6 Se 'EreoVtKos a7 

45 fts T^fy aKpav. 6 8e 'Ava^t)3tos /cara-8paju.a)i' eVi ^a 

' o yap e*> T 
uTol etyat U-arol e/c-^SaAetf TOUS "EAArjvas. 

Xcnophorfs device to restore order. 

Ol 8e orpartwrat, cos ciooy zfvotyiavTa, 
50 awTu) Kal Ae'youffi* " Ni;v aoi e-faTiv, 

, e\cis aySpas Toa-ouTovs. I'Sr, i ^SoyAoto, 01; 
TC af drj/aais ^as, xat ?//xf is ay Trou/o-ai/uev ae ptyav." 
6 8e dTT-6fcptVaTo* " 'AA,Aa eu TC AeyeTe, jcai 
55 TaC'Ta* ei 7Ti-0u/ierre TOUT&H', BiaQe. TO. owAa e 
&)$ Ta)(i<TTa." TauTa 8e (tire, /SouAo'/xeyos K 
auroi/s' Kai e/ce'Aevtrt TOVS Aoxayoi/s Trap-ayyeAAeiy 


rot? orpartcdTcus. ot 8e fvOvs erdrroyro' eVel Se ra oTrAa 
e/cetro, 6 Eerofpaiy crvy-Ka\tl TTJV arpariav feat Ae'yet 
rdSe' 60 

His advice to the army. ' Z,f/ ?/j not ruin our cause 
by our own rashness? 

"On fj.V opyi&aQe, Z> avbpes orparujrai, ov 

e^a rovs 

s, /cai 8t-ap7ra(ra)/>iei' ravTYjv rr/y 
(L>-dv(j.tlfr9( a earai evrtvOev. TroAe/xtoi jixey f 
rois re AaKeSat/ixoiHots xat rots avrCtv (ruju/xd^ots' rots 65 
8e AaKeSatjuo^tots ol 'Axatot VTi-apyjavai^oi, 'A9rj- 
vaioi 8e 7Tpos-yeye'i'7;i'rat fKetyots' ovroi 8e -naures eo-ov- 
rai TToAe/xtot ?//juy. Ttfr(7a0e'pi'r;s 8e /cat aAAot /3ap/3apoi 
vroAAot 7ioAep,tot 7)877 1(112; ^r^, aijros 8e 6 ]8a(7(Aei/s 

- 7 

avrov, e 

|U7 V /, Trpos ^ewi', ovrw /ixcuwo/xefla, /ix,7;8e 
aTT-oAco/xe^a, TroAe'jutot ovres KOI TOLS TrarptVt 
/cat rots f]fJ.eTepois 0TAots re xat ot/cetots. Travres yap 
ot (^t'Aot etatf ey rats TroAeo-ty, at aTparevcrovTaL e0' 75 
7/fxas* Kat 8uai'a>s ro?jro 7rot7/(70)j(Tiz;, et e^-aAaTrd^op.ei' 
7ro'Aty 'EAAfj/'t'Sa, et? 77^ TT-pwrTjp ?/A0o|uey. ep:ot TOLVVV 
8o/cet etTrety 'Ayai/3t<i>, on Trap-eAiiAy^a/xey ets rT^y 
Tro'Aiv 7rot7i(Toz'res oiiSey /3t'atoy, dAAa 7retpw//et'ot rvy- 
)(di f ety rwy StKatcoy* eay 8e JUT) rTJ^cojixey, 877Awfrop,ey 80 
avra) on OVK e-a7rarcop.eyot, dAAa 7re:0d/ievoi, e^- 


Order restored. Xcnuphon takes leave of the army. 
Many soldiers desert. 

TavTa e'8oe, /cat 7rejU770tmz> dyye'Aovs TOO 'Ayat/3to) 
u Tovrojr. 6 5e aTT-e/cptVaro, on ov /^era-/meAr/croi 
85 avrots TT(i6op.Voi^ dAA' on /cat airos /SovAeycrotro Tiept 
o TI Syj-atTo ayaQov. K TOVTOV ot 

KAe'a/'Spor, e/ce'Aevey avrbv OLa-Trpa^arrOai, Joi 
awroy TraAty tts-e'A^ot ets TT)I> Tro'Aty xat aTro-TrAeJo-eif; 1 
90 CK Bu^arriov. f\du>v 5e 6 KAe'arSpo? ?7re* " MdAa 
jwdAts 8ta-7rpao'/^ei'os I'/KCO. Ae'yet yap 'Ayaft'/^to?, on 
ov/c . cTrtri/Oeto'i' eart rows //ey orpancoras TrAi/m'oi' etfat 
^wrra 5e eubov ri/9 TroAecos* o/xws 8 
t, et jut'AAft? e/c-TrAeiy o-i/y avrw." 6 
95 p-fy Si/ "E(vo(j)0)i> dvr-i/et etaco rou ret^ous avv KAed/'Spw. 

Nf'wt 1 8e Kat dAAot orpurijyot ^n-i^vov CTTI ri) crrpana' 
/cat ot (Trpari/yot St-et/^'po^ro dAAi/Aots TTfpt ri/s AOITTT/S 
oD 8e \povov 8ta-Tpt^3op.eVou, TioAAot rwy 
a7ro-8t5o'p;ej>oi rd owAa a7r-e7rAeoy ws (bv- 
ot 8e bi-wneLpovTo /card ray TroAets. 

raura 1 To^rioy yd/) 

Arrival of Aristarchus. Xenofhon rejoins the army. 

Avaifii<a 5e diro-TrXeovri CK Bv^ainr^ov crvv-avrq 

ApCarap\oy t 8id8oxos KAedrSpw Bi^ayn'ou dpjuorrn/y. 

105 KOI AvafcifilOf eTrt-ore'AAei rul 'Aptordp^a) a7ro-8o'(/^at 

TcSf Kvpou orpantoTcoj/ oTroVovs ay evpj; e 

6 8e, CTret r]A(?ef is Bu^dyrtoy, a7r-e'8oro OVK cAd 


rerpaKocricoz.' e/c TOVTOV 'Ayai/3tos, Trapa-TrAewcras eis 
riaptoj.', KeAevet Eewx^aura TrAeCfrai eni TO arparev/^a 
ws Ta^tcrra, Kat ffvv-a0poifiv TOVS Si-etTTrap/Aeyoiis r<Sy 

ets ri]v 'Aaiav. Kal 6 pev Eez'0(/>&H> 8ta-7rAw(ras els 
HtpivOov dc/>-tK/>etTat CTTI TO oTpdYevjua' ot 8e orpariw- 
rat eoe^ai'To O.VTOV ^8ecos, Kat ev^vs ctTroyro avTai 
acrjuei'oi, cos 8ia-/3^iTo'^fvot CK TJ;S 0paK?jy ets T?/f 115 

Arlstarchus forbids the Greeks to cross into Asia. 
Xenophon goes to Seuthes. 

6 &pq, Tre/xx^as M>;8o<Ta8f;z; Trpos 
avrov ayety Tj;y orpaTtav Trpos 
Kat vTT-tTyi'ovufj'os TroAAa OVK 


/s, t\9<i)i> e-Trt TO aTpftTeu/xa, etTie TOI^V 
fx?j TifpaLovaOai ts T//y 'Acriay. o 8e E^o 
art *Avalj3ios fKe'Afucrey avTovs 5ta-7rAeii(rai. 6 8' 
'AptWapxos eAeyev f< 'Az'a^t'iStos /^.e/; OVKCTI vavapxo's 
errTt, eyw 8e eyTav^cz et/xi ap/jtoar?/?* et 8e Tira v/xw^ 125 
A?/\// ef T?} 0aAaTT?;, KaTa-8vcrco avTo'y." 
y (pxero '? r ^ y woAty. 6 oi> Hei'or^ 
^eots, eTTft Ta tepa eyeVeTo Ka\a, TTap-e'Aa/3e IIoAu- 
TOV 'Adiivaiov \o^aybv KOI aAAou?, *cat 4>X TO 
TJ/S VVKTOS (Tfl TO 2ev^ou OTpaTeup-a. e?7et 8e ?/<ray 130 
eyyv? avTou, Trpo-Tre/xTret eppj^e'a, Kat KeAevet etT 
ort Het-'or/xSj; Trap-earl /3ouAo'/izei>os 


Conference ivith Seutbes. 

'O 8e Sfvtfrjj aKovrras eKe'Afurre "Efvo^Stfra ets-eA0eu', 
'35 (\ovra 8vo dj>5paj, os /3ovAoi70. fTret 8e eis-TJA^oi*, 
np&Tov zevoip&v eTT-T/pero 2ev#rjz; o TI fiovXono \prjrr9at. 
77} orparta. 6 8e flnev w8f " Mat(ra87js /xey 6 e/jios 
7/pX 6 wwr re /cat aAAojf rwy yetroVwy. orao-ta- 
8e rciiy ^ 

/SarrtAei. eret 8e f 
iji' cbr' aAAorptas 
Kal LKfTfVov CLVTOV bovvai /lot OTTOCTOVS Syratro 

'45 /cat /ji) 1 ?'/ 

KVCDV (K TOVTOV 5lCO(Tt p.01 TOVS avftpd? KOU TOV? 

\jfffrdf. Kal v\iv eyci) <3 rovrous fx wv i ^ r ? t Co~ 
e/xaurov Tiarpuav \<apav. d Se v/xer? T>apa- 
t /uot, oco/^iat p'a5tcos ay a 
150 dpx^- raCrd ^orii; a 

Setithej states his terms, and makes liberal promises. 

" Ti our," efpTj 6 Hf2'O(/)wi', " au a/> Svi^ato, ei f\doifj.fif, 
TT) 7e (TTpaTia Kal rols Aoxayoi? cai TOIS (T7pa7/- 

yois;" 6 8' i/77-'r^ero airots /uta^of, Kat 

'55 l*tvov. are, e<^r; eroc/xSy, " fi ia 

Taura troi, dAAa TIS ^>o'/3as 77 aTio AaKeSat/xoi'icor, apa 
<ri/ 8e'ei ?/juas eis r^y aeaurov x^P ^ o* 7 " 01 /SovAw/jtc^a 
Trapd (re;" 6 8' eiTre' ""Eorai raura* uat 


av bvvb)^(.Qa uraadai. trot Se, 3> EeycKpou', Swcra) rr]v 160 
Ovyarepa, Kal ct ri's aoi eort Ov/dr^p, (oznjtro/^at avTi]V 
paKUd vo'juw, Kai 8co(Ta) <TCH Bio-di^y oueiv, OTrep KaA- 
Ataro'r earty e/jtot roii' CTII 6a\a.TTr] 

Xenophon' l s address to the army. ' Let us jirst get provisions, 
and then settle what to do.' 

'AKOWCHTS raura a,Tt-i]h.avvov' Kal eA0o'/.Tes CTTI ro 

aTT-^yyetAay Trdrra rots rrrpartwraty. KOI 165 
dra-aras cnre rdSe' ""Ai'Spes, 8ta-7rAetr /ley 
'^o /3ouAo'/xe^a, ov 8i;yaro'f ecrrty, 'Apurrap^oj 
yap KcoAvet r;/ 2ev'6fys 8e ^criv eS Troujo-ety vjuaj, edv 
tr;re Trpos avrov. vvv ovv (TKtycxrOf, Tiortpov Z'0d8e 
jueYorres /3ou/\eweo-0e, T) i-n-av-(.\06vr^s ets rd 7Ttr?/8ta. 170 
e/xot jixej; ow Soxet e7r-ar-eA0et^ ets rd? /cco/xas, o^y 
rd firm/Seta* exet 8e lx OI ' rf? T d 
o^Oa 6 n av SOKT) KpaTKrrov etrat. 
'(p?j, " ravra 8o/cei, dra-retfdra) TT)I> ^tpa. 
airaires. " 'Aw-iorres TOIVVV," l(/)?j, " trv- 175 
Kat eTretSaf 7rap-ayye'AA?j rts, luecr^e roi 

Seuthes repeats bis proposals and promises to the army, 
Mrd rayra Hero^wy /uy ?/yerro, ol 8 

i'\vrrj(jv avTois' Kal eiTre rotdSe* " 'Eyw, S dz'Spes, 180 
(TTpaTevfaOai avv ejuot, Kat VTr-to-^t'oC/xat 
fjuadov' criTa Se Kat Trord, cocrTrep KOI *>{)*>, 
\i'l\l/e(r6e K r^? \(apas. oTnxra 8' ay a\CcrKr]Tat avros 
e'^co, tfa 8ta-rt^eju,eyos raura 'ttopifta vp,lv rov 


185 6 8e He^o^wf eTr-rjpero avrov' " Flocroi' be airo 0aAdrr?7s 
aets TO orparei'/Ma ;" 6 8e aTT-e/cpiV 
eTjra r/fzepwv, TroAAaxr) 8e meww." em TOVTOLS 
Tracrt o- 

Seutbei entertains the Greeks. Heraclides gives Xenophan 
sage counsel. 

Mtra ravra ol y^ef aAAot faKijinjvav Kara ra^tts, arpa- 
190 T?/yovs e cat Aoxayow 2ev^/;s e/caAea-ey ewt SeiTr^ot 1 . 
el 6e ?}(raf em Oupais, ws Trap-to^res eirt 8et77i>oi>, ^v 
'IIpa/cAei8js Map<yiTr;s' ovros Trpos-eA^wy rw Sero- 
eAeye* " 2)u /cat Tro'Aecos /xeyiarTj? et, xal irapa 
TO o-oy 01'ofj.d errTi ptyurTov. aior ouy <roi C 
195 /ze'yiara Ti/x^rrat Stvdqv, 8ovs avrw o TI ay exj? 
atof. evrous 5e aot wv irap-au'<2 TOI^TO* ev yap 
OTI OCTw af fj.dov 8cup^(T7/ Tovrw, TOO-OVTO) juei^o) aya^a 
Trei^ei VTTO rowrou. aKoi;coy TauTa Hct'ocpwy 7)71 o'pei" oi 
yap eixe^ ot>y, TrA?/^ ^ p.iKpov TI 

T^f banquet begins. Thracian manners. A great eater. 

200 'ETT<I 8e eis-7jA0ov em TO SetTTfoy, fKa 

5e TpuroSes eis->/ye'x^/<Tay -nacriv' OVTOI 5' 
ixav, KOI aproi /^eyaAoi 
Trpos TO?? Kpe'aat. Kat 
TOIS cavTai Trapa-Ket/xeVou 
5 e'xAa <caTa ii.LK.pov, K.OL cppiTiTe rot's 5ei7rroOo-i, KOI Ta /cpta 
axravTcoy. Kat ol aAAot, Trap' ols ot Tpt7ro6es 
. Apxa? 5e Tty, 'Apy(TTas ovojj.a t 
Aa/3cay 81 ets T?/y 
apTor oo-ov Tpt-xotVtKOf, Kat depevos Kpe'a 7it TO yoVara 


-jrepi-e<pepoi> be Kepara otvov, KCU -navTzs eSe- 210 
XOVTO' 6 bf 'Apvoray, eTrei 6 olvo\6o$ tt/jepe Trap' avrov 
TO K^pas, Ibtov rov Eejw/xSi'ra ouKeYi 8ei7rz>owra elTre' 
<f Aus eKeti'O) TOP oi^oy eyw yap OUTT&) cr)/oXa^co." aK- 
$i]s rr)i <l>(i>in}v ?)'p<ura roy OU'OXO'GV ri Aeyot. 
otro^o'os erTrey avr(j> o rt Aeyot* r/7rt'crraro yap eAA7j- 215 
V. Ivravda p.(i> bi) ye'Aa>s eyeWro. 

Xenophon extricates himself from a dilemma. The banquet 

K e TOVTOV ei9-e 
KOI Aa^3cby xe'pas ftecrroy oti'ou elTrf " ITpo-Tru'a) rrot, 
d) ^e^ry, KOI 5to)p.i <roi roCroy TOI; "TJITOV, e<p' ou KOI 
bi.u>Ku>v alprja-eis TOV 7ro/\e'p;io^, Kat a.itf>-\uif>G>v paStco? 220 
uiTo-(f)fv^(L. aAAo? TraiSa ct5-ayaya)y eSajpr/craro, KOI 
aAAos i/xarta r?) yvvoMcl. 6 5e "Etvo^&v ?}7TOpeiro o rt 
Troto? fKadtjTo yap, wj ri/mco/xei'os, ev r<5 7rA?/ffiatrar(j) 
8u/>p<o StvOij' 6 8e oa'c^oos evravOa Tipos-i'ii'fyKfv ai/rw 
ro Kt'pas. o 8e HefO(/)(3y &v-fOTH ^appaAecos, 8ea/iei'o? 225 
ro /ce'pas, KOI eiTrev' u 'Eyw 6e (rot, a> 
rov xat TOV? ep:oi;s rovrov? eraipous, (fuAov? etfat 
Kai vw Trpos-airoCo-i' ere ovSef, dAAa e^eAoucri xai -novtiv 
vitfp aov Kai irpo-KtvbwftieiV KCU juera TOVTU>V rr\v 
TTarpway ^(apav airo-A?j\//ei, 7roAA7jy 5e aAArjv Krjjtrei* 230 
TToAAous 8e ITTTTOVS, TroAAovs 8e ar8pa9 /cat yv/'aTKas KOTO- 
KTTjo-et, ot avrot 7rap-e'(ro^rat </)e'poircs Trpo's ae 8wpa." 
a^a-o-ras 6 2ev^>js avv-ZTti*. rw Heroc/jwirf Kat p.era 
raCra ds-i)\0ov rtvcs a^Aovvrts /cepaa-t re /cat <raA7nyt. 
/cat avros 2ei;^?;s ai/-e'(cpaye' re TroAe/xtKor, KOI ef-?/Aaro 2 3S 
juaAa (\a(f)p>s. ds-fifaav b( KOI yeAwroTrotot. 


Seutbes proposes to strike a sudden /j/o-iu. He goes to 
reconnoitre the enemy. 

'fls ce 7/Atos eSJerOj 6 2eu0>;s dm-oras et/re Trpos roi/s 
Tajy 'EAA?}i>Ci>if aTpdTrjyovs' "*Ii di'Spes, ot 77oAe// 
oi>/c taacrt TTCO T?)I' ?//xere'pai> av^a^iav' kav ovv 
240 CTT' avroi/j 7rpa ( (fwXd^a'rOat, p-aAiora ay Aa/Sot/iei 1 Kat 
ar^pcoTTODS KOI xp?;/jtara." 01 6e arpaTr/yol avv-tTi-fivovv 
raCra (cm 6/ce'Aeuoy OLVTOV iiyftnOai. 6 5e etTre' <( FTapa- 


245 'Hi't/ca 5' 7yj> a/i^)t fifcray vvxras, Se^/j? -napT]v 
iirireas <cat TreAraoras /cat oTrAtraj. KOI ol /aey j^ 
ot Se TreATaff-rat etTro^ro, ot 8' tTTTrers w7rt(T^of/)i;Aa/coi;y. 
fVet 8e ry/jte'pa T/V, 6 2ev^?;s exeAevae TOVS "EAArjyas Tr 
Uti'dv /cat cu'a-Trawecr&H' ai;ros 5' 

250 <TK(\l/ap.fro$ be T/KC TrdAtv /cat eAfyey 1 

f orat, ea^ ^eos Ot\y \i'](rofj.(v yap roi/s TroAe/itous eTrt- 
7r<ToVTes. dAA' eya> /ii' ?/yj/o-op:at rots I-TJVHS' ii/xers 5e 
tirfvde. inrep-fiavTes 5e ra op>; r/^o/jiey cts TroAAa? 
re /cat eCSai'/ 

TZv enemy are taken by surprise. Seuthes burns their villages. 

55 'Hvi'jca 8' 17^ a/i(/H ptaov ?}/xe'pas, 6 2ev^?j? /8r; T}V ciri 
rot? a/cpots* <cat Kar-t8a)V ras Kw/^tas Tyxev cAay^oav wpos 
roi>5 oirAtVas icat H\tycv " 'A<p-7/aa) ?y8?j rovs /xcv tTTTrt'as 
KaTa-^ety ts TO irtbiov, roi/s 8e weAracrras CTTI Tas /cco/xas' 
t'fXftj 8 ZitvO( <Ls Ta^tora. /xera raDra w^ero, /cat ol 

26o"EAA>ji'es fiirovTO. 7rct 8e T/crav ^v rats K<^MU9 
X^v TpiaKovra iTTTreas, Trpos-cAdo-as etTre TW E 
" Ol fit avOpwiToi fyovTai tv rats /cco/xats, dAA' ov 


dAuiKoyraf 01 ydp tTTTrei? ofyovrai StcoKorres, *at 8e- 
botKa p.1) ol TroAe'/jitot ari-orrdyres KCU yfvofjifvoi aOpooi 
fpydcrooyrat ;pids KCLKOV TL. et o5y rims ?;//coy Kara- 265 
/ze'yety ey ra? Karats, /ue'orat yap etcriy dr^pcoTrcoy." 
" 'AAA' eya) /xef," e'(^j o Heyo^wy, " Kara-A?]\//Ojixai ra 
a/cpa' crw 8e Ke'Aeue KAedfopa Trapa-rea-ai r?)y 0dAayya 
6ia rou TreSt'ou Trapa rd? Kw/xas. ' ro're /jiev 8?y T]\)\l(rQr](Tav 
O.VTOV' rfi 5' vaTfpaia 6 SfvOtis, /cara-Kavaa? ras Kw/aas, 270 
a77-?/a TrdAiy. 

Encampment in the plain. Intense cold. 
'EK roi;rov 2ei50)/? uTT-eTTf/axl/ej; 'llpaKXfibr]^ et? Ile- 
piv&ov aTTo-^ocrOaL ri]i> Aetap, OTTCOS fj.i<T0o$ yeWtro rou 
arpartwrats' aCros 6e xat ot "EAAfji'ts eirrparoTreSeuorro 
e/.' rep ui'w^ 7re8to). ot 8e 0wot eK-AtTroVrcs ras KW/XOS 275 
ecfcevyov ets ra op?;. ?)y Se ^tw^ TroAA?/ /cat 
ror, (ware ro {!5wp, o tyfpovTO 7rt 6tirrov, 7 
o otfos 6 eV TCHS dyyetots' Kat rcoy EAA?^a)y TroAAaiy Kai 
ptres Kat cora ctTr-eKaiWro. eo^e 8e 
avroC, ?^a ot CTTI roS opovs /x?j r' 
KOI awros fxey eo-K?/ret ey raj TreStw' o 8e H 

, errKrjyet y r?/ ^wrra) KCO/XTJ VTTO ro 
* 01 8e dAAot " 

y^ // attach from the Thracians. 

Ets 8e r?/y eTr-towcray yyra ot yyot eA^oVres fK roD 285 
opovs tTTt-rt'tfeyrai ro?s "EAArjcri. CTTCI 5' eye'yorro Kara 
ras 0ypas iKacrrov row otKrjjixaros, ot n\v ets-rjK-o'yrt^by, ot 
8e fv-fTTLfjiTTpcKTav ras oiKtas' Kat KaAowres Hey 

t eKe'Aeuoy aiirov ef-to'yra a7TO-^y?/(T/ceiy. Kat 


290 re TTi/p ((j>a(vTO 8ta TOV op6(f)ov, KOL ol Ttfpl TOV Eei'o- 
(fr&VTa i}vav ti'bov. fVTavda 5?/ SiAai'o? MaKtVrtos o">;/xat- 
ret TT) (ra\Tnyyi' Kal eiiOvs TraWe? oi"EAA?7J>es eK-7T?jSa>o-ti> 
(K T<J; olKiiiJ.aT(iii> crTrcio-aiTes Ta ^nj. ot 8e 0/ja/ce? e^eu- 
yov KOI 01 /uet> avraiy t\ij<f)6iicrav, ot 8e /cat aTi-tOuvov' 
95 ot 8e "EAA?7i;9 eStcoxoy roiis Aoi7roi)s ^co r?/s KU>IJLJ]S. T>V 
oe ui/w/; Ttres, V7ro-or/)a(/jeWes ev rw O-KO'TCI trpcocray 
'EAA?jra>i; CLKOVTIOI.S' ovSetj oe avrutv a-n-e 
?*(ce 0-1/2' Iwra iTTTrcCo-i KCU 6/3o?/^et Tot 
ji; TO^ Qpatuov. 

The Ihracmn tribes mbnut to Senthes. Generous conduct 
df Xenophon, 

300 "118); oe o 2ejy^/js et^f fat TpnrXaafav bvva^iv' iroAAot 
yap T&V 'Qbpvcr&v, CLKOVOVTZS TO. TTfTrpay^va, crvv-eo-Tpa- 
Tfvovro avrw. ot 8e urot, eVei etbov anb TOV opovs 
TioAAovs nfi> oTrAtra? iroAAous 8e TreAraoras TroAAoy? 
oe iTTTre'aj, Kara-^d^res i/ctYeuoy aiieicraadcu. o 5e 

305 2ey0q?, KaAeVas TOV He;^o<pa)i'ra, eTT-eSeiKyyey & Ae'yoier, 
Kai OVK e^/ o"jmo-ao-#at, et Hevo(/>a>v /3ovAoiro Ti/zcop?/- 
aaaOai avTov?. 6 8e etTrev " 'AAA' eycoye voyiifa avrov-i 
KCL\ vvv tyfiv tKavrjv biKqv, ei SouAoi (.(TOVTOU avrl e\fv- 
deptov. o-v/Lt-/3ouAeyco oSf (toi \afj.f3ai>eiv o^njpous rows 

310 Su^arcordrovs cacoy TI Troiety, eay 8e TOUJ ye'pozras 
ot/coi nfVftv." Trdires ouy ei> TO.VTT) rjj 

T/?^ Greeks are not paid in full. Xenopbon unfairly treated. 

Mera rai/ra 6 'HpaxAeiST/? irap-ijv etc Ylepivdov, excoy 
T7/i> Tinyv rijs Aetaj, ^s aTT-e'Soro. Sev^jjs 8^ O7r-e8i8ou 


TOV fjucrdov r<5 orparev/xan etKotrt juoVoy r)fj.(p>V 6 yap 315 
c IIpaKAei7js i-Xeyfv on OVK ep>iroA?/(rete irXtlov T?}S Aa'as. 
o oSv He/'Of/xSy a^^e<r^ets cure' " AoKet? juot, oo Ilpa- 
K\eu5?7, ou K>/ea0at Se^ov a>? Se? t yap 
av <ptp<av ir\ripr) TOV fjuaOdv KOL ft jot?) aAAcos fOw 

TOVTOV, Kat a7r-e'8ou ay TO. creavrov tjixdTia.' 320 
6 'Hpa/cAei'S^s eSeio-e /XT) e/c-/3A^^ei?j e/c r% 
i'as* Kat ano raw?]? Tr^? r}/iepas 8i-e/3aAAe 
Trpos 2ei/6?jy o n eSvi'aro. ol /iev 8?) orpa- 
nwrat ey-eKaAour Hfyo^wirt, on OVK ei^of T ^ niadov' 
SevOijs 8e ?/x#ero avr<5, on evroi'cov a7r-?/rei TOI> fuodbv 325 
rots orpartwroisfj Kat ovKen (^tAtKws Si-eVetro airw, a>(r- 
?rep TO 

Sparta wants the army. Seuthes entertains the envoys. 

'Ei> Tovrw ro) \povto a.(f)-iKvovvTai, Xapiuvds re 6 
Kat OoAwtKO? Trapa t^Spcoyos, Kat Aeyoutrty on 01 AaKe- 
oaijudVtoi /jieAXoDcrt crrpareve^at CTTI Tt(ro~a(/)epy^y, KOI 330 
on 6 Qifiptav SftTat ravrjjs r?js orpartas' Kat vTr-icr^- 
VOVVTOLI picrOoi'. eTret 8e ot AaKeSatjuo'ytot T^A^oi', ev^i/s 
o 'HpaxXe&i)S Ayt TW SevtJrj' " Touro yeytVTjTai KaA- 
A.IOTOV* ot juev yap AaKeoai/xoVtot SeWrat TOU orpare?;- 
JUOTOS, <n oe OVKCTI 8e?j' eai> 8c d-Tro-StSws ro orpareujua 335 
ai/ro??, ot o-rpancorat OTJK^TJ aTT-atrT/aovo-t (re roy fMicrdov, 
a\\' aTT-aAAafoiTat eK TTJS ^wpas." aKowcras ravra 6 
KeAevct ?7ap-ayeiv TOTJS dyye'Aovj, Kat eAcyez; on 
trj ro Toly AaKeSai/xoiuots, Kat *tvitv 
CLVTOVS /xeyaAoTrpeirais. Hevo^ajira 8e OVK CKaAei eTri 340 



Xenopbon's character, as drawn by Seuthes and Htradides. 

v 7:0105 ns 

Eez'ocpajz^ 6 2,ev0i]$ dTT-expiYaro, on ra fj.ei> aAAa eaj 
ov Kafco?, (iAooTpartam;s 5e" at ota TCUTO x e V oi; c "? 

345 avru). ot 8e etTrof " 'AXA.' ?) S^/xayo^yei 6 aj/?/p TOU? 
aropas;" xal 6 'HpaxXetSj;?, " Haw [jikv ovv," tyr]. 
" A pa ovi', ' <pacrav, " OVK (vai'TiwafTai i]\iv Tttpi TT}S 
aTraycoy^s T?Js orpaTtas ;" " 'AAA' eai> v/^ers," !(/>?; o 
'Hpa/cAet'Sr;?, " crvA-Ae'^arres 1 roi/s o-rpartcoraj vTro-a^rrdf 

350 awro?? roy /iicr^or, CKorres aTro-Spa/^oCirat cri/i; {//xtr. 

*cat avpiov a^o/xey i/xa? Trpo? avrovs' KCU oTSa on, cTrctSai/ 

iScocrti; v/xay, acr/ifi-oi cruy-S/JCyxouiTat" avrr] ?/ 


TZv Spartam make tbelr proposals to the army, and promise 
pay. Xenopbon accused of unfair dealing. 

Tif 6 vcTTepaiq 2ev^?/s re KOI 'MpcuAeiS^s ayouo-i 
355 rows AftKtoras ~: TO o-rpdren/xa' ra> 
ro?? AaKeoatpiovtois 

Tf rov iyj&pov Koi A?j\//cr^e rov jui<r0dV." ol 8e arpa- 
Tiairai aoyiefoi T/xoucraj; ravra* /cat ew^us dv-to-rarai rts 

360 rwy 'Ap/cd8cui/, Kar-rjyopTja-wj; rot! Hero^airros, cai Xt' 
c58e' " 'H/ieis /xer, a> AaxeSaifioVtoi, cat TraAai 
Trap' VIMV, (I pr) 'E.tvofy&v aTT-T/yayev ^/xas Seupo* oiv 
rovro> 8e orpareno'/^croi KOI VVKTCL KOI fj^epav ovbev TTC- 
7rav/i(0a' KOI TOJ> /ier 7/fie'repoy piadov auros ex ei > 7 /M" s 

365 6e aTro-orfpei." /zero rouroy uAAos dv-eoTj o/xota>s Kai 
aAAos. 5c TOI/TOU "EevoQ&v (\*(v &OC 


Xenophon's defence, i. ' In all that I have done I have sought 
your welfare, and tried to carry out your wishes.' 

" 'AAAd -navra p.fv e/Maurw KaKa Set Trpos-SoKoV, e 
ye vvv ifi VJJL&V curias ex<o Trept TOVTW, (V ots Trap ye j)8/; wpjujj/^eVos ota8e, aK<wcoi> v/xas eij/at ef OTTO- 370 
pot?, at /3ouAo'/zei>os <i^)eA7/(rat v/uas, ei TI bvi'atpjv. 
fj.Ta Se raOra 2ei;^?js eTre^e Trpos e/xe TroAAows ayye'Aov?, 
/cat VTT-tcr^etro' /lot TioAAa, ei TretVat/it v/xa? e\0e'iv TTpos 
OLVTQV' dAAa Touro /ief OVK t-n-i\tipr}<ja TIOK'IV, ws en/rot 

fTriaTaa-df, e^SovAo'^rjz; 5e cos ra^tora 8ta-/3t^aaat 375 
ets r?/y 'Acrtaf. raiJra yap Kat &t6p.i(pv /Se'Artora 
Kat jySeuj v/xaj jSovAo/ieVous. eirel Se 'Apt- 
(tiv avv rpt?/pe<7ty e/cwAue^ ^/uas 8ta-7rAety, ec 
roi;rou (Tvv-\ea v/xas, OTTWS ^SovAeno-at/ae^a o n Se'ot 
7Toteu. fi'TavOa br] Trayres ev^rj^tcrao-^e ieVat ai/i^ 'S.fvOrj. 380 
rt ouy eyw evravda ?}St/c;/ca, dyaywy ijuas ez ( <?a eSo 

ii. ' Seitthes has cheated me, as we/I as you.' ill. ' Whatever good 
we have got by entering his service has been of my procuring.' 

<( Flept 8e TOV [MicrOov, bv e/xe Ae'yere aTr-eorepjjKeVai 

, a ot 385 

aAAot orparrjyot e\a/3oi>, //rjSe orra e^tot TOW 
tiv 8?/, ei iiro 7roAep,tov ye 
Se oWi ato-^to'j; jixoi eu-at SoKet e-a7ra- 
raf ^ e-a77aTaa^at. 'Aya-p-MJa^r/Te Se rrpos rowrots ev 
Trota cnropt'a ?jre, ore eya> df-rjyayof v/xay Trpos Sev^y. 39 
II 2 


* v o AaKfo'atfJoVios OVK aa 
is T?/I> flepiudov, intai&pioi 8e ea> eorparoir 

TO, 8e e7rir?/8eia ?}i> o-7rai>ia, cat 
eti> ayo'pdTroSa T) 7rpo'/3ara' OL> 
395 V"/ 3 ^\ojj.fv ovTf iTTTret? owre TreAraora?, ware Aa/Sea? 
ravra. fTrei Se eyw i7pos-e'Aa/3oi> ii/xty 2ew^J/v aii^a^pv, 
e^oyra KCU iTTTreas *cai TTfAraora?, raCra Tratra irpos- 
eytyrero T)p.ry Kai yap ey rats Kw/iats evpitrKo/viey OTTOI* 
u<l>Ooi'(t>Tpoi', KOL ovKtri ewpcSftef -noXeiJiiov oiibtva. 6 
^oo yap 2ev0fjs Tiap-et^e ravTriv TIJV atr^aAeiaf i/xiv ovrw$ 
aiiOpoCfff Kat rw tt /.t?/ TTaj'i; TroAw 7rpos-e8i'8ou 17111' 
fj.Lffdoi> } TL e5ei ax^fr^ai irepi roi/rou ; T) rt 8ia rovro 
(fj.e aurua aTro ; 

iv. */ ArtT'ir sacrificed all for you; is this your gratitude f * 
" Kai ra /xv o/) v/xe'repa irpay/xard OTI roiaura' 
405 aycre 8^ 8?;, KUI ra 6/j.a <r/ce'\|/a(r0 Trapa raura. eya> 
yap, ore /xey Trporepoy wppiw^j/v oixaSe, er^of /i 
Tipos vfj.u>i>, fl^oif 8e 8Y v/xas Kai VTTO rwy 
>K\fiav. C7rioreuop;y 8e VTTO AaKfSatf 
aXAco? yap OVK av pte ir(p.T>ov TidAtf Trpos i/xas. i-Sf 8e 
410 d?:-epX M ai 8*"j8j8\i;/aA>os ^ei' irpos AaKe8aijuovioy5 v<^>' 
u/ioii',<i 8e SfvOy v-ep vn&v vp-df 8e, 
a>y y<) raDra TroAAa Tratr^a), roiai/nji' ex ere y v ^'l v 
6/ioD. tai; Se Troir^rjjre Trept e/ue a Ae'yere, Tore 
uvbpa cnro-KTevelTf TioAAa /uey yap VTrep v/xa>i; xai 
415 v/iiv eTro'fjjTa /cat exifSi/i'fuo'a, xat tcsTricsa^v avv 
TioAAa /3ap/3cipwj; rpoTiaia* ^TT(ipaa-dp.r]v 8?j Troteij/ 
ayadov Tipos v/xa?, O(TOV eyci) 7}8uraf>i>jv. 1H5// yap 
t-ectTi TtopfVfffOai OTTOI ar ftov\rjrrd KOI xara y7 v jv /cat 
KOTO 0aAaTraV up' ov^ vvv 8rj Kaipos VfAiv SOKCI eu>at 


e/xe eos ra^iora; ov ^.i]v, ore ye lv TCHS 420 

ey TOLOVTO eAe'yere* dAAa ai Trare'pa 
fp.e e/caAeire, KOI vTr-icr^rero-^e act jizi;?/<recr0ai e/xou, cos 
ou jueWoi otrcu eicrtv dyrw/ J ioi'e?, 01 p{5y 
v/xas* o^8e, cos eyw oio/ixai, rovrois So/cetre 
rotouroi oir^s irept e/xe." 425 

Spartans take Xenopbon's part. HeracliJes sboivs his 
sagacity. Xenophon leaves Seuthes. 

TO.VTO. eiTTcW f-rravaaro. Xapulvos 8e 6 AaK5at/xoVios 
dra-oras eTTrey* " 'AAA' Ijixoi /txeWot ou 6tKata>s 8o/cerre 
TW d^Spt TOWTW' eyco yap xat avros fj.apTV- 
airou. r]^5>v yap epcriTcoiTcoy wept Hez'o^wy- 
TOS, Trow? Tts dwyp etr/, Sev^rjs aTT-e^ptVaro ort ou KOKOS 43 
fxey etrj, ayav 8e ^tAocrTpaTtcdTTjs/' dya-trras CTTI rovra) 
'A^i^aro? etTrej;* " 'Op<3, ai ai>5pe?, KOI 
eVravfla Trap-oVra, os -7rap-e'Aa/5e ra XP 7 ?" 
, a i7/xets eKT](ra//e^a* KCU aTro-So'p.ei'os raura ovre 

ovre r//x?f aTr-e'Scoxe T^y TI^V, dAAa ai/ros e/cAex/^e. 435 
"ear oj> o-(ti(f)poi'u>fjiv, (Tv\-\i]\lf6iJ.eOa aiirov' ov yap 8j; 
ovro'y ye paf ecrrtf, dAA' ff EAA?ji; a>v "EAA^z/as a 
'Axowas ravra, 6 'MpaKAeiSrjs irpos-eA^wf TW 
Ae'yef " 'H/uwtf, eay crax^poi'iS/^ey, a7r-i/xev evrevOfv cos 
rax 10 " 7 " -" Ka ' d^a-/3di;res 7rt rovs I'TTTTOUS (Z^ovTo et? 440 
TO eavrcoy o-TparoTreSoy. cai efreu^ey 2ev0?js 
ayyeAoy irpos He^o^wira, Kai KeAevei avroy 
Trap' eavreo, exoira x 1 ^ 1 ' 0115 oTrAiras* Kat 
avru d7ro-6o5o-eiy rci re yjupia ra ewt ^aAdrrr; KOI Ta 
dAAa a VTr-eVxero. 6 8e "EtvofyGtv e^yero TCO Att 445 
r<j> ^SaaiAet, -rrorepa efy /xeVeiv Trapa 2ei;%, ^ 


crvv TW orpaTev/xaTl' 6 8e eo^jbujfev avra) 

Medosades complains of the Greeks. Xenophon refers ' him 
to the Spartans. Their answer. 

'Ex TOVTOV 2ev0?;s fj.(v etrpaTo-eSewaro Tro'ppco T<Si> 

450 ' E\\i]V(av' ol 8e e(TKi]i>r](Tav tv KW.UCUS o0ez> Xityoivro 
TO. e7nr?7ta. at/rat 8e al K<S/xai 8e8o/zeVai Tjcrav M?/- 
8ocrd87j VTTO Sey^ou. o oS^ MrjSoaaSrjs epx erai 7J"pos 
Eez>o$<3i>ra >cai Xe'yft* " 'AStKetre , S sevoffi&v, Tiop- 
OovvTfs ras ^jUfTe'pas /cw/^tas*> ovv v^lu 

455 aTT-ieVat e T^S xwpas." 6 5e z,i>o<pu>v etntv " Ti 
Trpos e/^te Ae'yets raCra ; ow yap eywye n ap\u>, dAAa 
AaKeSat/JtoViot, ots v/;.ets 7iap-e8o)Kare ro oTpdref/xa, oi/re 
f/xe Trapa-KaAeW/'Tf?, ovre Taif aAAwv trrparjjywi' ou- 
SeVa." 6 8e M?;8oa-dS)j9 c/ce'Aeue Toy Hei'o^wvra xaXe'crat 

460 Toy Xapfuvov KOL noXvviKov. 6 8e Trpos-eA^ajy avrois 
Aeycy, on M7j8ofrd8?js Trpo-eiTroi ro^s "EAArjo-iz; aTT-ieVai 
TTJS )(wpa5. ol -5e AaKooyes cv(?u? TfA^ov irpos M>;8o- 
adSTjy ai lAe^av* ' f 'H/xe?? roivvv air-ioinfv av, OTTOTC 
ouroi e\oiev rov \j.wQ6v ei 8e /XT;, ftot]0i](ro[j.fv TOVTOIS 

465 K 

Xenophon goes to Seuthes, and obtains pay for the army, 

*O 6^ M/jSofraSrjs ^KeAeuf Tre'joiTrety Het'o^wira Trapa 
SeiJflqi' irepi TOU \ucrQov' cSeiro 8 fx?/ KaUiv ray Kco/xa?. 
Ivrivdtv -nfp.TTov(Ti "Effo^SiVTa Kcii aAAous cri/y avraJ. 6 
8^ f\6(i>v Trapa TOI> 2u^i/y eAcye re TroAAa ainwpieyoj, 
47 KOI fSctTo avrou a7ro-8i8oVai TOJ orpare^an roy fj.i(r06i>. 
6 8e Scv^/js air-fKpivaTO' " 'Eya> /uey oure bi-fvorjdrjv 
liw'OTf aTTO-orfp^crai v/uas TOV fucrObi; diro-Swcrw re* 


apyvpiov 8e OVK l^w, irAT)i> y fj-tupov -ri, KOI TOVTO <TOI 
rdAai>roi>' /Sou? 8e laKOoioi>s Kat 7rpo/3ara T- 
s-xi'Ata fcai drSpaTroSa etKocrt KOI eicaroV. TO.VTO. 475 
Aa/3coi> a7r-t0t." rr) Se wrepcua a7r-eo'ci)Kei> CUTO?? ^ VTT- 
e'aXeTo' 6 8e Heyo0wy, 7rei e!8e ^ap\uvov re KOI OoAv- 
VLKOV, tl TaDra," CC^TJ, <c (T^crworai St 1 v/xa? TT} orparia, 
/cat eyw 77apa-8t8co/xi atra i//ry i5/xets 8e 8t({-8ore T^ 
frrpana." ot /^ey oSy Trapa-Aa/SofTes kiKa\ovv t KOL 8t- 480 
e8t'8oui> rots orrpartwrais' Hero^wy Se Trap-eo-Keva^ero ws 
aTT-twy oua8e. 7rpos-eA0oVre9 8e avrw ot orpartwrat e8e- 
oz/ro p.^ cm-eXOelv, Ttplv air-aydyoi TO orpciTei'/xa Kai 
Trapa-Sotry ra> ( 

Xenophon sacrifices to Zeuj 'the Gracious.' 
ev Si-eTrAeuaaf ets Aa/xx^aKov Kat kvravQa Ev- 485 
s, \j.avTi<i ^Atacrto?, air-avrq T(5 He^o^wyri. ovros 
ro TO) z,evo(f)ti>vTi. OTL ecrefTcoaTO, xat ripcara avrbif 
xpvcriov e^ot. 6 8e ftTrev ZcreaOai /ixr]8e ffpobiov 
IK.O.VOV cSare ait-Ltvai, et JM^ a7ro'-8oiro roy ITTTTOV Kat a 

DTo'y. 6 8e Ei/xAetSTj? OVK falcrrfvev avrw* 490 
ei 8e Aa/x\^aKrjvoi eTre^ay ^e'yia rw Hero^wi/Ti KOI 
7(3 'ATToAA&m, EvKAet'Srjs i8wy ra iepeia enrer, on 
?/8?7 Tiet^oiro airw jixrj excty \pr]fj.aTa. " 'AAA' ot8a/' 
e</)77, " on Kat eay pte'AAjjs irore e^ety, eorat n f^Tiobiov 
crof KOI on eat' ijufiev dAAo ?) f^irobiov, av (raurw eo-fi 495 
6^7ro'8tos. wy 8e 6 Zei/s 6 MetAt^tos ecrri CTOI e/i7ro'8ios." 
KOI eTT-Tjpero avrbv ei ?/S?j ^ycrete TOVTW ra> ^ew. 6 8e 
OVK f(pr] Tt6vKvai. rw Att T<5 MetAi)(ta) e^- orov aTT- 
e57]p,?j(rei>. 6 oSv EvKAet'Srjs crvy-e/3ovAev(rey carco ^ve- 
ff^at. T^ 8e vorepai'a Gevo(pG>v e^vero, K06 TO Upa eyiyvero 500 
xaAa. Kol rawrjj T 


Ttve.s buxrovTfs xpj/p.ara TW (TTparev/xari' KOI 6 Hei'ot/xSv 

etHii O.VTOVS. ol 8e air-tbocrav avru> TOV 'iimov, ov 

aTT-e'Soro (V Aa/x\//aK(o, vop.ioVTCS avrov TreTrpaKeVat 6t' 

55 tvbeiav' Kai OVK ijOt\ov avo-Xafitiv TIJV 

The Greeks attack Asidates, but are stoutly resisted. 

E,VTv8ev tTtofKiiovTo bia rij<i TpcodSos is " 

eira Tropeuo'/xct'oi Trapa Qa.Xa.TTav a(f>-i,KvovvTo cis 
S Mvcriay. 

6?j Efi'o<f)>v ^evi&rai Ttapa rfj ToyyvXov 
510 yvrai/ci. av'r/j 8e lAeyei' aurw* "'AfrtSarrjs ris eortr ef 
ai'TJp Fle'/xTr;?' roCroy, ct eAOots T?Js 
/cat yuraua Kai TratSas >cat Ta 
6e avru) TroAAa." 6 ovv Ec^oc/jai 
Aa/3a>i; TOWS Aoxayovs TOVS /uaAtcrra (/nAous xat TTIOTOVS 
5'5 eauTo), OTTCOS tv 7roi?/(T6iey aurouj. CTTCI 8e a<f)-iKOVTo Trepi 
ue'craj vuKTas, ra /xey av8pa7ro5a Kal ^pjjjixara TO TrAaora 
(twy a7ro-5parai, OTTO)? Aa/3oiey amov TOV 'A<Tiba.TT]V /cat 
ra tKfivov. CTrel 8e OWK eSvyavro Aa/3eiv r^y rvpmv Kara 
Kparo?, CTr-exeipTjaav 8t-opvTTii' ro TCI'^O?. a/xa 5e TT) 
520 J?M e V? &i-copwpuKTo' ol 8e evbovijcrOovTo. KOI fvOvs eTraraf e 
TIS tvboOev o/3eAi(TK(j) 8ia/u.7repS TOI; wpov TOV eyyirraYco' 
tTreira 8e ^ro'^fi/ov xal /3aAAoi>, a><TTe /i^ da^aAes eZ^at 
ert nap-iivai. clAAoi 8 K-fior]0ov<Ti TrapnroAAoi, Kai ITT- 
oTrAirat cat TTeArao-rat ex TWV tt\T}criov 

Reinforcements arrive. Asidates taken. The army banded 
over to Thibron. 

525 'Ej>rav$a 87) oi "EAArjres ^(TKOTroKz; TTWS 

KOI Aa/3oire9 ocroi T/rrai' /3oes Kai irpo'/Sara Kat d 
8^ Foyyy'Aoj cwpa TOVS 


oXiyovs oVras, TOVS be eTri-Ket/^eVow avrots iroXXovs, eg- 
fp%erai KCU OVTOS, t\u>v rr)v eavrov bvi'afjuv' <rvv-e(3orid(i. 
oe KOI UpoKXijs e ' AXurapvris. ot 8e Trepi Hei/ot/xSt'ra, 530 
CTrei Tiavv ?/5fj ^me^blTO VTTO rwy To^tv/jiaTwv Kat afav- 
lovStv, juo'Ats 8ta-/3aiWxn roy Kai/coy Trora^oV TTO\\OI 
8e avrwy tTp&B^nav. ovrco 8ta-(rw(b^rat, exoires avbpa- 
7ro8a w? 8taKO(ria KCU 7rpo/3ara TioAAa. T^ 8e vorcpata 
o He/'0(/>(3y e^-dyet T^? VVKTOS TTCLV TO crrpdreu/xa' 6 8e 535 
vAi^erai V Kw/xais Tio-ty ov Ttpocra) 
ot ?7fpt He^o^w^ra ey-Tt>yx ( " ;oi ' (ni; 

feat Xanffavovviv avrov KCU yvvaiKa KCU Tialbas Kal TOVS 
ITTTTOVS Kal TtavTa ra xP>/M ara ' ^Tretra TrdAtv aty-iKvovvrai 
ets [7^/>yaju0ir. e^raC^a 01 Adxco^es xai ol Ao^ayoi Kat 54 
ot aAAot (TTparrj-yol KCU ol orpartwrai fbibovv rw He^o- 
caipcra TT/S Aeta?, ITTTTOV? /cat ^evyrj xat ra aAAa. 
roJrw 01/3/ooM Trapa-yero'piet'os 7rap-e'Aa/3e ro orpa- 
' xat a^/x-^t^as avro rw aAAa) 'EAA/ji^tK(S eiroAe'/xet 

ov. 645 



[N.B. In the first loo lines no augmented tenses are used. There is a note 
on every augmented tense throughout the first chapter. After Chapter 7 there 
are notes on such augmented tenses only as present any peculiar difficulty.] 

Line i. yiY VOVTal > the present instead of the past t-ytvovro. Tenses 
are of two kinds, past or dead, and present or living. History, telling 
of the past, should only use past or dead tenses, but it often uses present 
or living tenses, to make the story more lively; as if the historian 
were looking on at the time the thing happened. Hence the present 
tense, when thus used, is called the historical present. 

iraiSes S\JQ, instead of naiSt 5vo, because no stress is laid on the fact 
that there were only two of them. But further on in 1. 4, where there is 
such a stress, we find afifyorfpca rui natSt. Cp. IV. 279 note. 

1. 2. Though Artaxerxes was the elder son, he was born before his 
father became king. Cyrus was born after Darius had succeeded to the 
throne, and this, according to Persian customs, gave him at least some 
claim. Darius I had chosen Xerxes to succeed him on the same ground. 
Cyrus was not thus chosen by his father ; but he was the favourite of 
Parysatis (1. 18), and the queen-mother was powerful in Persia. 

1. 3. dcrOsvwv, pres. past nom. masc. sing, of dcrfocecu, contracted 
from aaOtvtoav. 

Oavetv, 2 aor. infin. of Ovrjcr/coi (stem 0av-). 

1. 4. irap-tivat, pres. infin. of irap-fipt, ' I am present." 

1. 6. opx^s, 'province.' A satrap was a viceroy under the king of 
Persia. The satrapy of Cyrus consisted of Lydia, Phrygia, and Cappa- 
docia; the Ionian towns, or Greek colonies, had been under Tissaphernes, 
but about this time all of them, except Miletus, revolted to Cyrus. 

oOv, ' Well then,' continuing the story. [Ovv is probably = bv, the neut. 
part, of flfil, ' this being so,' like our ' in fact. 1 ] 

108 NOTES. 

1. 7. dva-pami, ' goes up,' i. e. inland or up from the coast. [Hence 
the expedition of Cyrus is called 'Ava-paats or the March inland. The 
retreat of the 10,000 Greeks should properly be called K.a.Ta.-@a<ns, or 
the March doiun to the sea] . 

1. 9. dva-pds, 2 aor. part. nom. masc. sing, of dra-/3aiVw (stem Pa-). 

paaiXeiois, 'palace,' sc. Sw/juiffi. Distinguish rd. Paai\<t&., neut. pi. 
of @a<jt\fios, from 7) /3a<j(Aeia, 'queen,' and this again from i) fiaaiKtia, 

1. 10. TXvra, 3 sing. pres. ind. of rt\( vrnoi, contracted for r\(vra(i. 

1. 12. 8ia-pdXXi, 'accuses.' Ba\\(iv is ' to throw,' Sid, 'indifferent 
directions;' hence Sia-0a\\fiv, 'to pull to pieces' a person's character, 
i.e. 'slander* or 'accuse.' Thus in the New Test. 6 Aid/3oA.os is a 
title of Satan, 'the Accuser,' who tempts us to sin, and then accuses us 
before God. 

1. 15. diro-KTtivai, 1 aor. infin. act. of a-no-K-rtiv ca. 

f| jff|TTjp, 'his mother,' lit. 'the mother' (of him whom we are talking 
about). The Greek article is used for the possessive pronoun (' my,' 
' thy,' ' his,' etc.) when the sense makes the reference clear. 

-<HTT)cra}i.VT), I aor. part. mid. nom. fem. sing, of (-aiT(cu. 

1. 20. d4>-iKvoi)vT(u, 3 pi. pres. ind of d^-iwto/xat contracted from 


1. 21. KCU ovroi. Kai means (i) 'and,' joining two words or clauses 
together, (2) 'also' or 'even,' laying a stress on some particular word. 
Notliing makes greater nonsense of a Greek sentence than to confound 
these tiw) meanings of KOI. Think which makes sense here. 

1. 22. pacnXet, 'the king.' Ba<7tA.vs without the article commonly 
means ' the great king' or ' the king of Persia,' being used like a proper 
name. Sometimes fityas is added, as in 1. 182 of this chapter. 

rots Pappdpois TOIS Trap' lavroi. i. e. the Asiatics who were in his 
own service, as distinguished from the Persian envoys above mentioned, 
who ' came from the king' (1. 20). 

1. 23. i<rvv, 3 pi. pres subj. of tltf, I am.' The v is added to wert 
because the next word begins with a vowel. 

1. 24. TOV iroX(Atv, Lat. bellandi. The article TO is used to make a 
declinable noun substantive of the so-called infinitive, so that it can be 
declined like the Latin gerund. The usage makes it clear that the 
infinitive really is, what it ought to be called, viz. a verb-noun. 

1. 25. XApfl, 3 sing. 2 aor. subj. of Xa^avu (stem Xap>). 

1. 26. XppovT|<7<$>. The name x ( PP~ VT l ffos ( or X / )ff "- | "? ' os ) ' s fr m 
\ipoot, ' land,' and rfco*, ' island,' and means ' a peninsula.' It was used 
as a sort of proper name for the strip of land which forms part of Thrace, 
and runs out along the north side of the Hellespont. 

1. 27. Yv6nvos, 2 aor. part, of 77'o>u (stem 


1. 29. Xapuv, 2 aor. part, of \ap&avca (stem 

crvX-Xe'as, i aor. part. nom. masc. sing, of ffv\-\fy(a. 

1. 30. Tais iroXeo-i TU>V 'E\X-qva)v, the Greek colonies in Thrace on the 
Propontis, such as Byzantium and Perinthus. 

1. 35. The Pisidians were a race of mountaineers, inhabiting the high- 
lands above Pamphylia, and were very troublesome to the satrapy of 

1. 37. dva-paiveiv. Cp. 1. 7 n - 

1. 39. Xaj36vras, 2 aor. part. ace. masc. pi. of Ka^nvai (stem 

1. 40. imp-tvai els SapSeis. As -nap tifit 'I am come,' it can be 
used with a preposition signifying motion lo a place. Sardis was the 
capital of Lydia, and Lydia had been made a Persian satrapy by Cyrus 
the Great, when he conquered its king Croesus, B.C. 546. 

1. 41. oKOiicras, I aor. part. nom. masc. sing, of O.KOV<D. 

4>opoiJ|ivcs, pres. part. mid. of tyopiaj, contracted from c/xj/Jfo/ucos. 

1. 44. KOU. aurds. Think whether KOI here means ' and ' or ' also.' 
Cp. 1. 21 n. 

1. 49. ciri-icci|ivT], part. nom. fern. sing, of M'Kttfiat. 

8ia-pds, 2 aor. part. nom. masc. sing, of Sta-ftaivca (stem Pa-). 

1. 50. KoXooxrds. Colossae was formerly one of the most populous 
towns of Phrygia. Its inhabitants were the Colossians, to whom St. 
Paul addressed his epistle. . 

1. 54. pao-iXeia. Cp. 1. 9 n. Besides this palace of Cyrus at 
Cclaenae there was another belonging to the King of Persia, said to have 
been built by Xerxes, during his retreat from Greece after the battle of 
Sal amis. 

1. 56. Y v ( AV( i orai i aor. infin. act. of yvfivafa. 

1. 61. y'Y VOVT<u > I't. ' there become,' i. e. ' there turn out' or ' are found 
to be.' 

1.64. KauoTpov ireStov, 'the Plain of Cayster' or ' Caystrum.' It 
has nothing to do with the river Cayster, which is a long way to the 
south-west of this place. See Vocabulary. 

1. 65. o<j>-tKViTai, 3 sing. pres. ind. of d<p-iKVfoiMt, contracted from 


1. 67. SSITCU, 3 sing. pres. ind. of Stofuu, contracted from Stfrcu. 
1. 68. tm-Silgat., i aor. infin. act. of tirj-Se/Ki/v/M. 
1. 70. TaxO^vai, I aor. infin. pass, of T&TTIU. 
cuddaa-i, 3 pi. of ficaOa. (See in Vocabulary.) 

1. 71. iri TtTTdpwv, ' four deep,' lit. 'on a base of four.' So tm (Mas, 
' in single file.' 

1. 75. Terayiitvot, perf. part. pass. nom. pi. masc. of TO.TTCJ. 
1. 78. K-KKaXvp.|Avas, perf. part. pass. ace. pi. fern, of tK-Ka\virT<u. 

no NOTES. 

It means 'unpacked' from the cases in which the dffiriSts, or large 
shields, were always carried on the march. 

1. 79. o-TT|oras, i aor. part. act. nom. sing. masc. ofiffTypi (stem OTO-) 
' having placed,' or ' placing.' Cp. 1. 205 n. 

1. 82. irpo-fjaXecHJat TO. oirXa, ' to advance their arms.' i. e. hold their 
shields in front of them, at the same time couching their lances, in 
readiness for a charge. Tlpo-fiaXtaQcu is the 2 aor. infin. mid. of 
irpo-(3d\\aj (stem |3a\-). 

TT-itvai, pres. infin. of eir-fj/ii, ' I advance." 

1. 85. K TOVJ-OV, sc. XP" VOV < I' 1 - ' from this time,' i.e. ' after this," Lat. 
hide. So i ov, ' from which (time),' ' since,' Lat. ex quo ; tv g>, ' during 
which (time),' ' while.' 

irpo-iovTts, pres. part. nom. masc. pi. of irp6-tt/.u, ' I go forward.' 

I. 88. ol (K TTJS oYopds <j>vYovcn, is short for 01 iv T?I dyopd (fxvyovcriv t 
aurfjs, ' those who were in the market flee out of it? We cannot translate 
' they flee from the market,' because the article o* makes ol-itt-rrjs-dyopds 
all one word. Cp. 1. 109 n. 

KaTa-XiirovTts, 2 aor. part. nom. masc. pi. of nara-\( i-ata (stem Xlir-). 

II. 90, 91. ISovcra, ISiiv, part. nom. sing. fern, and masc. of tlSov, 
the 2 aor. with pres. vpaoj. 

1. 92. <j>opfj<rai, i aor. infin. act. of </>o/3'<w. 

1. 95. U'vcu, pres infin. of (l/.u, ' I go.' 

1. 96. paaiXta. Cp. 1. 21 n. % 

1. 100. opuivTts, pres. part. nom. pi. masc. of opduu, contracted 
from updovTu. 

1. lor. <rico7rujcriv, 3 pi. pres. ind. of atcoirdco contracted from auuirdovaiv, 
For the added v cp. 1. 23 n. 

1. 103. TTop-ovo-t, dat. pi. masc. of irap-wv, pres. part, of ndp-api 

t-Yt'v-ero, 2nd aor. of yiyvonat, (stem Y V -)- 

1. 104. -TijiT)-r, ist aor. of Ti^a-ta, future rifjaj aca. 

-8<o-K, ist aor. of SlSca-fjii (stem So-), future Sw-ff<u, but ist aor. t-Sa-Ka. 
[So rl-Orj-fju, ist aor. i-Orj-iea, "i-rj-fju, 1st aor. %-na]. 

1. 105. i-Bairiv-wv, imperf. of Sairavd-u, contracted from f-8airdva-ov. 

1. 106. t-iroX^(XT)-<ra, 1st aor. of iro\f/j.(-<u, future iro\(fj.-f)-aw. 

1. 107. Bp^Kas, i. e. the Thracians upon the Hellespont and the 
Propontis. Cp. 1. 30. 

b>4><X-ow, imperf. of &<p(\i-(u, contracted from uxf>(\(-ov. 

1. 108. -KoX-i, imperf. of Ka\(-ca, contracted from -/ca\e-t. 

-iropv6-nrjv, imperf. of iroptvo-pai, the middle of noptv-ca. 

1. 109. w<^Xoti)v, pres. opt. of <></>A.'ft>, cp. III. 133 n. 

Twv-irpos-cp.i-cucpYriwv. All that comes between the article and 
its noun (as irput-inl here comes between rSiv and tvtpftaiSiv) is 


equivalent to an epithet of the noun (cp. 1. 88 n.). There may be only 
one word between, as u TOT* TroAe^uos, 'the war at that time,' lit. 'the 
then war" (cp. IV. 124 n.); or there may be two or more words, as here. 
A Greek could say o-Tuv-'AOrjvaiajv-irpus-Tovs-fi.a/ctSatnoviovs-fi'-IIf^oTTOv- 
vr)ffw-Tr6\((ios, ' the war of the Athenians with the Lacedaemonians in 
the Peloponnesus,' where all that conies between o and iro\/xos serves 
as a description of the war. 

1. ill. irpo-Sovn, dat. sing. masc. of irpoSoiis, 2nd aor. part. act. 
of irpo-8ici>m (stem So-). 

1. 115. fireuOcu fjAol, 'follow me (as your leader),' but <i|/op,ai avv 
tija.iv, ' follow on an equality with you.' 

1. 117. &v civai, ' that I am likely to be.' The direct I'ITJV &/, 'I should 
be,' is expressed after olofMi by the infinitive av fivai. 

1. 118. ux^eX-qcrai, ist aor. infin. act. of d>./>6A'. 

1. 119. dXfac70ai., ist aor. infin. mid. of a\tta. 

icrre lovra. A participle is used after verbs of knowing or perceiving, 
to express a fact ; thus otto, avrw WTO. means, ' I know that he is,' 
but olSa tivai would mean, ' I know how to be." [If the participle 
refers to the subject of the verb, it is put in the nom., as olda ui>, ' I 
know that / am.'] 

1. 1 20. ciir-ev, 2nd aor. from stem !-. The present is supplied by 
<prj(*t. There is a letter lost before fir- which *=fir-, hence the aug- 
ment does not turn this into r/ir-, but into iftw- = tlir-. So tnofjuu, 'to 
follow,' imperf. t'nrofj.i]v. 

1. 121. Tr-TJvtrav, 1st aor. of tir-aive-ca, future -taai. The augmented 
11 stands for + ai, the e combining with a to make TJ, and the i being 
written underneath or ' subscript.' 

For Xenias and Pasion cp. 1. 165 and following lines. 

1. 122. t-o-Tpa.TOTrt8ev-aa.vTO, ist aor. mid. of arpaTontSfii-u. 

1. 124. fiT-e-irnTr-To, imperf. mid. of /j.(ra-n(fiTf-ca. 

1. 125. Tj0\-ev, imperf. of iOf\-<u. The augmented rj is here + e. 

l-Xey*, imperf. of \fy-ea. 

1. 126. -K\eu-, imperf. of K(\ev-<o. 

1. 127. oviK-r^OeXcv, to be taken as one word = ' refused.' 

1. 128. Distinguish nerd raOra, 'after these things,' from fura TOVTU>V, 
' with these.' 

ervv-a-yciYtov, 2nd aor. part. act. of aw-aya). 

e-X|-, ist aor. of \ey-ca, future \t-ca. 

1. 133. t-v|vcr-}jiai ( perf. pass., with an active meaning, of ^tuS-w, 
future mid. if/fv-ao/tat, perf. pass, (-(f/fvff-^at ( = e-^<u5-^a<). 

1. 134. m-0TJ p.oi SiKTjv, 'may punish me,' lit. 'place a penalty on me.' 
Lat. imponere poenas. @rj, is the subj. of stem Qt-, reduplicated into 

112 NOTES. 

1. 135. ^8iKTJ-o-0ai, perf. pass, infin. of d-Sine-u, future -rfffoa, perf. 
fj-8iKT]-Ka, perf. pass. %-8tm)-fuu. Here the augmented tj = t + a. This 
is formed from the adjective a5<os ; verbs formed from compound 
nouns generally end in -a>. 

1. 141. cure . . . ouSevos. Two or more negatives in Greek do not make 
an affirmative, as in modern English, but a stronger negative. Cp. II. 59 n. 
Compare the early or more natural English, which is now vulgar, e.g. 
'I don't know nothing;' so this does not mean 'not none' but 'not 

1. 147. (jura raOra. Cp. 1. 128 n. 

1. 148. TIPWT-WV, imperf. of ipcarn-co, contracted from fipura-of. The 
augmented T) here = + e. 

1. 149. air-icpivaTO, ist aor. mid. of diro-npiv<v, future diro-KpTv-w, 1st 
aor. air t-tcpTv-a. 

1. 151. Tt[xu;pT)o-op.0a, ' we will punish.' Distinguish the active with 
the dative n^wplaj aoi, 'I take vengeance for you," i.e. 'defend you,' 
from the middle with the accusative rifuapfonai at, 'I avenge myself 
upon you,' i. e. 'punish you.' Cp. d^tvvaaOat, III. 55 n. 

1. 153. irp.<|>0vTs, ist aor. pass. part. nom. pi. of trffiiru. 

1. 154. viiT-ioirrcu-ov, imperf. of vir-oirrfv-a}, (<o = + o). 

1. 155. t-8oK-i, imperf. of Sotet-oj, contracted from -8o*-. 

1. 156. iirv. Cp 1. laon. 

1. 158. i<r\6LTi\v, ' last,' i. e. 'furthermost.' Lat. extremus. Issi was 
close to the boundary between Cilicia and Syria. 

1. 159. uap-tjaav, 3rd pi. of trap fjv, imperf. of vap-fi^i. Lat. ad-sum. 

\. 161. wpp.-ow, imperf. of oput-ca, contracted from wppf-ov. Dis- 
tinguish upnt-<o, ' I anchor,' from dpftd-u, ' I start,' of which the imperf. 
is wppa-ov contracted wpp-cav. 

\. 162. TJKOV-O-*, ist aor. of UKOV-M, future azov-aw, (rj = + a). 

1. 163. air-TiXaw*, imj~>erf. of dir-f\avv-<u, (tj = + ). 

1. 164. iX-, imperf. of X' W ' F r tne augmented form, cp. il*ov, 
\. 1 20 n. 

i \ty TO, imperf. pass, of \(y-tu. See 1. 125 n. 

I. 168. air-t'irXv-<rav, 1st aor. of dwo-irkt-ca, future drro-ir\fv-aofMi. 
Here again the v is the letter lost in the present, for v\t-<u = jrA^-w, 
i.e. 'plevo' or ' ple/-o.' 

1. 169. ^X-OVTO, and aor. of oix-o/xeu, (tp = + oi). Distinguish 
y^^rjv 2nd aor. of oi\, ' I am gone,' from O?K ow imperf. of oitciw, 
I dwell.* 

1. 172. airo-85pdiea<riv, perf. of &vo-Si-Spa-aie<u, ' run away* (stem 8pa-). 

airo-ir<|>VY a<rlv > 2n< ^ perf. of d.iro-<ptvy-<u. 'A.iro-8i5pdaKiv means 'to 
get away,' so as not to be found, dvo-tytvyav, 'to get away,' so as not to 
be caught. You cannot get hold of either, but you may know where 


the one man is, and you don't know where the other is. Hence the one 
is used specially of enemies who escape to their own country, the other 
of slaves who keep in hiding. . 

1. 175. of dv, 'whoever.' *Av added to the relative makes the sense 
general and indefinite, so that 6s av= lav ns or OOTIS. As av cannot go 
with the subjunctive, it must be considered to belong to the pronoun, not 
to the verb. *\v adds the force 'in any case,' expressed by 'ever' 
in ' whoever,' etc. 

1. 176. tiSores, nom. pi. of tiSws, part, of oi5a. 

1. 179. crw-e-iropv-ovro, imperf. of avfi-iropev-o/jtat. The v of avv, 
which was changed to \L before the it of the present, to make it easier 
to pronounce, is replaced before the augment . 

K TOUTOU, ' after this,' lit. ' out of this." 'En properly denotes the 
result or consequence which proceeds out of or follows an action. 

1. I So. fierd. rara. Cp. 1. 128 n. 

1. 182. fcroiTO, jrd sing. fut. opt. of tl/ii (sum). 

1. 183. Here firyav is added to &acn\ea. Cp. 1. 22 n. 

'-KtXtu-o-, I aor. act. of Kt\fv-at. 

1. 185. t-xaXtiraiv-ov, imperf. of x *-* vaiv-w. 

oviK-fjdeXov, ' refused,' as in 1. 127. 

1. 187. VITT-CO-X-6TO, 2nd aor. of inr-iax~ v ^~f lal - 'I^X" 40 is another form 
of tx~ w (originally at\-ta, whence t-ax-ov, axfi-aca, etc.). The syllable 
-ve- is added to the present, making -iffx-ff-ofiat, which is only used in 
compounds, as \iit-ia\-vt-oiMi. [Presents with v, av, ve, are called 
nasalized presents, because the present is distinguished from the stem 
by having v added to it, i. e. "being more or less pronounced through 
the nose], 

1. 189. -imo-0t]-<rav, 1st aor. pass, from -jrdd-o), future ird-acu (for 
ndO-aui), ist aor. pass, l-vtiff-tojv (for l-weiO-0i)v). 

1. 195. f-8iu)K-ov, imperf. of Siwtc-ca. 

1. 196. trpo-8pa[i6vTs, part. mase. pi. of Trpo-tSpanov, and aor. with 
pres. Ttpo-T(>i\<a. 

I-crra-o-av, pluperf. of 'i-arrj-m, shortened form from the stem crra-. 
Distinguish taraaav from t(m\aav, which may be the ist or 2nd aor., 
according as the meaning is transitive or intransitive. Cp. 1. 204 n. 

-Tpex-ov, imperf. of Tpix" *- 

1. 198. t'-iroi-ovv, imperf. of irot(-<o, contracted from i-iroie-ov, 'they 
used to do,' or ' would do.' 

ravrrov, neut. of o aiiros (compressed into avrbs), 'the same.' Though 
the. neut. of avros is avru, ravrijv is a far commoner form than ravro. 

1. 201. Xap-v, 2nd aor. of Aa-/x-y3-dj/-<u, of which the stem is XdfJ-, 
but the letter u. and the syllable -av- are inserted in the present, 
which is thus doubly 'nasalized.' Cp. 1. 187 n. 


114 NOTES. 

1. 202. i-t$tvy-ov, impcrf. of t/f-^tiry-cu, the I* passing into < before 
the augment, because it is easier to pronounce. 

1. 203. cupofu'vais, 'raised,' pass. part. pres. from a"p-ca, agreeing with 
xTfpvfyv. Distinguish aip-u, 'I lift up,' future ap-Sj, ist aor. fipa, perf. 
%p-K(t, from cup-G>, ' I take,' future alpr)-aa). perf. ^prf-Ka. 

1. 205. dv-io-TaCi], 'put up' or 'start' them. In 'arrjfn the pres., 
imperf., fut. and ist aor. are transitive tenses, meaning to 'place' or 
'make to stand ;' the rest are intransitive, meaning to ' stand.' 

1. 208. aTr-io\-TO, 2nd aor. mid. of u\-\vfu (stern 6X-). 

I. 209. 7r-'-Xnr-v, 2nd aor. of iiii-\ftw-<u (stem XITT-). 

avro TO <rTpaTvp.a, 'the army itself? Lat. ipse exercitus. To avro 
aTpdrfvpa would mean ' the same army,' Lat. idem exercitus. 

t-Suva-vro, imperf. of Swa-fMi (stem 8wa-). 

1. 211. TJXaw-. Cp. 1. 163 n. 

1. 213. tea! STJ iroTt, 'on one occasion indeed.' The 5^ emphasises this 
as a remarkable instance of Cyrus' hurry to get on. 

1. 214. tm-crrds, 2 aor. part. act. of (tp-iaTrj/ju. 

1. 215. -KXv-cr: cp. 1. 183 n. 

1. 216. c-8oK-oviv, imperf. of 8oiet-a>, contracted from l-fi&Kt-ov. 

1. 218. 1801, 3 sing. opt. of dSov, 2 aor. with pres. 6pda>. 

(Jifpos TV, ' a specimen.' Lit. ' a portion ' of anything chosen as a 

1. 219. Tf,s vra|ias. Observe the force of the article, 'their usual 
good order." 

1. 220. !-o"7TtviS-ov, imperf. of anfv5-ca. 

8pap.6vrcs. Cp. 1. 196 n. 

-TVX-OV, 2nd aor. of Tv-y-x-av-< (stem TUX-)- In the pres. the letter Y 
(for v before x) and the syllable -ov are inserted ; in fact the present is 
doubly nasalized. Cp. 1. 187 n. 

1. 221. <rrr)KOTs. nom. pi. of the perf. part. act. of tarrjfii. 

ix-ov. Cp. 1. 164 n. 

1. 224. t--KO|ju-o-av, ist aor. act. of K-/K>/'-CJ, fut. iic-KOfu-ooj (contr. 
Kofuw). The in becomes If before the vowel . 

1. 225. -<|>afv-TO, imperf. mid. of <paiv-o). 

1. 226. [Kaf-To, imperf. mid. of dit&-fa. E< sometimes takes the 
augmented form 17 (as T^af-ov), but generally does not change. 

1. 227. J-KO.V-OV, imperf. of Kai-u. 

1. 229. iir-v. Cp. 1. I2on. 

1. 230. KuXvacicv, 3rd sing, ist aor. opt. of K<V\VCU. 

1. 231. TOW xaiciv, 'from burning.' For the article with the infin. 
cp. 1. 24 n. 

-8oK-fi. Cp. 1. 155 n. 

1. 2J2. -K&V-<TV. Cp. 1. 183 D. 


1. 234. T](H, 3rd sing. fut. opt. of ij/foa. 

1. 23^). w-tro, imperf. of oi-onai. (<p = + oi.) 

1. 241. 0'<r0ai TO. oirXa, lit. 'place tlieir arms' (on the ground) i.e. 
' to stand under arms.' Whenever Greek soldiers halted, they rested 
their heavy shields and spears on the ground ; hence OeaOat oirXa means 
not only ' to lay down arms for the night,' but often simply ' to ground 
arms,' ' to halt/ or ' to stand ready.' 

1. 242. t-iro-T]crav, 1st aor. of Trot-tta, fut. iroi-ricriu. 

1. 243. Trap--KoXcrf, 1st aor. of irapa-Ka\f-03, fut. -fffco. 

1. 244. t-fjX0v, 2nd aor. from the stem -eX0-, the pres. being supplied 
by -f'pX'Of" 11 - [So in English the pres. 'go' has its past 'went' 
supplied from 'to wend.'] 

it--r\yyti\-, ist aor. of -ayyeA\-, fut. t-ayyf\->, 1st aor. (-rjyy(i\-a, 
the t being lengthened into a. [The stem is <Lyyt\-, as in ayy(\-os, ' a 
messenger,' whence our ' angel.'] 

1. 245. -Yv-TO. Cp. 1. 103 n. 

-4>Tj, imperf. of ^y-^ (stem 4> a -)- [Lat. 'fari,' whence fatnm and 

1. 247. irap-KaXo-a. Cp 1 243 n. 

1. 248. TOUTOV-I. This final i is called the demonstrative iota ; it 
serves to point out a person more distinctly. Cp. Lat. ' hie-*.*,' French 
'celui-c/.' The nom. is ovToa-l. 

1. 249. !-8<o-K. Cp. 1. 104 n. 

1. 251. -7roX [iT]-o-ev. Cp. 1. 106 n. 

iroiT]cra. Cp. I. 243 n. 

I. 252. e-Xap-ov. Cp. I. 201 n. 

I. 253. JASTO. TatiTa. Cp. I- 128 n. 

TjSiKTj-o-a, ist aor. of a-SiK(-u, fut. aSucy-aa). (TJ = + a.) 

1. 254. air-Kpiv-a.To. Cp. 1. 149 n. 

riSiKT]a. Lit. 'injured him,' but in English ' had injured him.' 
Where one past tense depends on another past tense, in English we 
mark it as doubly past by using 'had,' the pluperfect. In Greek this is 
left to the intelligence of the reader. Here Orontes would say to 
Cyrus, ' You did me no wrong,' and Clearchus, reporting his words, 
leaves the tense unaltered. Cp. II. 118 n. 

1. 255. T|pi>T-a. Cp. 1. 148 n. 

airo-oTTcLs, 2nd aor. part, of 

1. 256. -iro-eis. Cp. 1. 198 n. 

!-4>Ti. Cp. 1. 245 n. 

7r-iroiTj-K(vai, perf. inf. act. 

1. 259. J)|xoXoY-s imperf. of t>no\oy-(w, contracted from 
(w = c + o.) 

1. 261. d8iKTj0is, lit. ' having been injured,' here ' [through] being 
I 2 


injured,' 1. e. ' was it because you were injured," etc. A Greek participle, 
without the article, must often be translated by a conjunction, such as 
'when,' 'if,' ' because,' etc., with the indie, mood of the verb; so this 
-on ifOiKr/6i)s. What conjunction has to be supplied from the participle 
must depend on the sense of the passage. 

1. 262. ouStv. The accus. of respect after i]5iKT]Or), ' was injured in 
nothing,' i.e. 'was not at all injured.' 

1. 263. T|8tKi]-6-r), ist aor. pass, of u-Sut-f<a. Cf. 1. 254 n. on fjS'iKtj-at. 

i*]pu>TY]-crv, 1st aor. of ipoiT-aca, ftit. ipajTTj-fraj. () = + .) 

1. 264. Y-Y V 'l" <r ^ al ' P er ^- P ass - infin. of yi-yv-opai (stem y* v- ) f ut - 

11. 266, 267. ytvia-Qai, ytvoip.r\v, 2nd aor. infin. and opt. 

1. 268. 8daifu. ist aor. opt. act. of 8ont<u. 

1. 269. irap-ovo-iv. Cp. 1. 103 n. 

1. 270. airo-^Tjv-at, ist aor. mid. imper. of airo-<j>aiv-a), fut. avo-tyav-to, 
ist aor. dir-f-<f>r)i>-a. [Distinguish by the accent (l) uTr6-<f>r]>>-ai, 1st aor. 
mid. imper., (2) airo-(j>TJvai, 1st aor. act. I'M/?;*.] 

1. 272. d<t>avljtiv, ' put out of the way," lit. ' cause to disappear' (from 
a, ' not,' and <j>av- root of (fjaiv-eoOai, ' to appear'). Hence a milder way 
of saying 'to kill.' 

1. 273. St'fl, subjunctive of the impersonal verb S(1. Verbs in -lea of 
two syllables only contract the syllables + and + ci, as irXif , ir\i, 
ir\(ti, TT\I: but ir\f<u, irKtovcri, rrA'j?, etc., remain uncontracted. 

<j>v\aTTo-0ai, act. ' to guard,' mid. ' to guard against ' or ' ward off 
[from ourselves],' i.e. 'be on our guard against.' Cp. III. 91 n. 

1. 275. Distinguish rav-rd for ra aiircL, from o avrus, ' the same things,' 
from Toura, ncut. pi. of OVTOS, ' these tilings.' 

1. 176. IXapov TTJS EivT]s, 'took hold of the girdle,' (wvtjt being the 
gen. of the part laid hold of. 'E\a(Jo>> rfjv ^WVTJV would be ' took ' or 
' received the girdle.' 

m Oavaro), lit. ' with a view to, or "as a sign of" death.' Taking 
hold of a man's girdle was a sign that he was doomed to death. 

1. 277. TtTa-yn^voi. Cp. 1. 75 n. 

i|-T)Y- v . iniperf. of if-ay-u. Distinguish Tjy-ov, the imperf. from 
f)y ay-ov, the 2nd aor. of ayo>. (TJ = + a.) 

1. 278. is-T)vtx-9i), JS * aor> pass, from the stem -VK-, to which 
(tJ)-/^/xu supplies the present. 

1. 279. o&ms OWTC. For the multiplied negatives in Greek cp. 1. 141, 
II. 59 n. 

1. 280. ciS-tv, 2nd aor. from stem 15-, i. e. fiS-. Cp. Lat. vtVAeo, 
Eng. 'to wit' The augment ct marks the lost letter f (since <rs = 
?fS); t'fia-cu supplies the present, meaning the continuous process of 
seeing or ' watching ' a thing ; the aorist implying the momentary act 


of seeing, in the sense of ' to catch sight of,' ' espy,' ' see at a 

T-0vT)KOTa, perf. part. ace. sing. masc. of OvrjOKta. 

1. 281. -<j>av-Tj, 2nd aor. pass, of (f>a.iv-ca (stem <j>av-). 

I. 284. p-e-yaXou Paai\i>s. Cp. 11. 182 and 22 n.\yyi\\-oy, imperf. of air-ayff\\-ca (stem aYY\-). (T] = + a.) 

I. 286. l-0dp<rw-v, imperf. of Oapavv-u. 

II. 289, 296. -ycvcaOE, -ytvYjcrOc, 2nd pi. imperat. and subj. of the 2nd 
aor. of yiyvofjiai. 

1. 290. TJS, instead of fjv t XT. What is a relative sentence ? It is 
simply a long adjective. As adjectives agree in case with their sub- 
stantives, the Greeks make the relative do the same. The relative then 
is said to be ' attracted ' into the case of its antecedent, i. e. is made to 
agree with its antecedent in case, as well as in gender, number, and 
person. To avoid confusion, this is only done when the relative would 
otherwise have been in the accusative. Cp. avrl wavTwv S>v ex w m the 
next line, and the English ' instead of what I have.' 

1. 293. eir-iao-t, 'will advance.' Remember that tlm, though present 
in form, has a future meaning, ' I will go.' [The u of the stem appears 
also in Lat. i-re.~\ 

1. 294. ava-o'X'qo'Se (2nd aor. subj. mid. of av-txu\ 'endure;' lit. 
' hold yourselves up against.' Lat. smtinere. 

1. 295. BT| emphasises alaxvvopjai, ' I am quite ashamed.' 

alo-xwofiai Xrytov, ' I am quite ashamed when I tell you ;' [alaxyvofjiai 
\-yiv would mean ' I am ashamed to tell you,' and there/ore do not tell 
you, or in other words, 'shame prevents me from telling you.'] Cp. note 
on aSiKijQtls 1. 261. 

1. 298. oiKot, 'at home' (Lat. domi) ; the old locative or 'place-at- 
which ' case, answering to the question where ? [Distinguish ot/coi, ' at 
home,' from o7oi, ' houses,' nom. pi. of o?/>.] 

1 300. sure. Cp. 1. 156 n. 

Ko.1 \t.-i\v, 'certainly.' Kal nty is literally 'and indeed:' it generally 
introduces something new, and means ' moreover ' or ' yet.' Here it 
introduces a new speaker, who has an objection to make. 

1. 302. (A-jjtvf|-crcrOat, the panlo-post fut. or fut. perf. of m-funj-aKto 
(stem f*.va-), but as the perf. pass, nf-nvrj-fun has a present meaning, ' I 
remember' (lit. 'I have called to mind'), futp/rfao^ai is used as a simple 
future. In Latin also the perf. memini and the fut. meminero are used 
in the same way. 

1. 303. Svvaio, 2nd sing. pres. opt. of ovva^ai. 

1. 304. a/ir-Kpiv-aTO. Cp. 1. 149 n. 

! 3I3- -T|YYM- ov . Cp. 1. 284 n. 

1. 314. T|P-TO, 2nd aor. of ip-o^at, 'I ask' (instead of which (p 

I 1 8 NOTES. 

is used). Distinguish yp-tro, 2nd aor. of fpoftat, 'ask; 1 rfptro, imperf. 
mid. of atpw, 'lift up;' and yptiro, imperf. mid. of aipfco, 'take.' 

1. 315. n.axi(T0cu. What tense of naxofMi is this? See in Voca- 

t-<f>Tj. Cp. 1. 245 n. 

1. 318. --y* v ' TO - Cp. 1. 103 n. 

1. 319. Twv-|ATd-Kvpov (Jappdpwv. The article ruv makes an adjective 
of the words between it and its noun [iapflapuv. Cp. 1. 109 n. 

1. 321. e-Xt-y-vTO. Cp. 1. 164 n. 

1. 322. irapd TOVTOVS, ' besides these.' HapaL with the accus. signifies 
getting beside a thing, or passing by it, and hence ' going beyond it." 
Hence napcL ravra means ' besides this,' ' moreover,' Lat. fraeterea. 

1. 323. TJpx-v, imperf. of apx-, 'I rule' or 'command.' (TJ = + O.) 

1. 324. <ruY-TTa,>. Cp. 1. 75 n. 

were. Cp. 1. 236 n. 

1. 326. t-jidx-tTO, imperf. of n&x-ofuu. 

8ia iroXXuv -fnispoiv, ' during several days.' Aid signifies division into 
parts, hence an interval of time. 

1. 337. viorspauj. The feminine ending shows that fj^tpa is under- 
stood. So TTJ irpoTfpaia, ' the day before.' 

-iropev-TO. Cp. 1. 1 08 n. 


(The name Cunaxa is given by Plutarch, not by Xenophon. It was 
on the Euphrates, about forty miles north-west of Babylon.) 

1. 5. dvd KpciTos, ' at full speed,' lit. ' according to one's full strength.' 

on (3aoru\vis irpos-'pxT<u, 'that the king was coming.' But the 
Greeks use on before a direct speech, though we use our corresponding 
word ' that * only before an indirect. "On (o n) is really a relative, so 
that \ty<av on, etc. means ' saying that which follows,' viz. ' the king is 

1. 13. nerd TO{/TOV, ' after him' or next to him.' Distinguish this 
from fitrcL TOVTOV, which would mean ' with him.' 

1. 21. x a ^ K os TIS Xa|iir, lit. 'some brass was shining,' i.e. 'there 
was a gleaming of brass.' Note the foice of the imperfects 
and KaT-e<t>aivovro, 'began to come' and 'began to be visible.' 


1. 24. x! A6V01 '. 'next to these,' lit. 'holding on to." *Ex<w is ' I have ' 
or 'hold,' Ix /* ' (with gen.) intrans. 'I hold on to' a thing, i.e. 'I 
follow ' or ' am next to.' 

1. 27., perf. pass. part, from airo-Tfivca. The v of the 
stem rtv- is dropped, and the e changed to a, as in e-airap-Ka, f-airap-fiai. 
Thus we get Tt-ra-xa, rt-ra-fMi. [Eng. ' ten-slon' 'ten-don.'] 

1. 34. TTTroiT|Ka|ji.v, the perf. instead of the fut., speaking as if the 
thing were already done, 'if we beat the centre, we have won the 

OUK TjOeXsv, etc. The Greeks were always afraid of leaving then 
right or unshielded side without protection. Here this over-caution on 
the part of Clearchus lost the battle. 

1. 41. TJpTO, 2nd aor. from epojucu (pres. fpuTaaj). Cp. I. 314 n. 

1. 43. OopvfJov, the gen. of the source from which the sound proceeds. 
When d/foveiv has a double object, it takes the accus. of the thing heard, 
and the gen. of the person from whom you hear it ; as a.Kov<a ravra ffov, 
' I hear these things from you.' 

1. 46. OTV irap-epxTai. See note on ort 7rpos-tpx*Tai, 1- 5- 

1. 48. Se'xo|j.ui TOV ol(ov6v, Lat. omen accipio, Cyrus accepts the 
words ' Preserver ' and ' Victory ' as an omen of success. 

1. 50. irpo-T|pxovTO, imperf. of irpo-fpxofjiai. 'HpxofJ-rjv inform might 
also be the imperf. of apxcpai, ' I begin;' the sense decides. 

1. 53. Kara. Kpdros, ' at full speed,' lit. ' according to one's (full) 
strength,' the same as avci teparos, 1. 5. [Though avcL and Kara have 
originally opposite meanings, tip and down, they come to the same 
thing, when the idea is simply that of motion along a given line and 
towards a given point ; if this point is not local, they both come to mean 
'in the way of or 'through.'] 

1. 54. 0iv Sp6|xco, ' to run fast,' lit. 'at a run.' The addition of a word 
of similar meaning adds force to the verb ; thus <p60ov <po@(iffQat, ' to be 
sore afraid.' Cp. the Lat. cnrsim currere. 

1. 59. ou8 ovSels oti8v. Two or more negatives in Greek do not 
make an affirmative, as in English, but a stronger negative. Thus ovot 
ovSfls is 'no/ even a single one.' Cp. I. 141, 279 n. In older English 
negatives used to be multiplied thus, as in Chaucer's Prologue 251 
' There nas (was not) no man nowhere so virtuous.' 

1. 70. us KviK\oScra>v, ' with intent to enclose,' lit. ' as about to enclose.' 
'Cls with the fut. part, denotes a purpose. 

1. 77. KaT-eXei^Orjo-av. Distinguish i\il<pOT)v, 1st aor. pass, of \tin<a, 
Irom t\r t (l>0r]v, 1st aor. pass, of Kap-fiavai. 

1. 79. Notice the historical presents i\avvti, itaiei, riTpuffna, marking 
the rapidity with which all this was done. With this rash act of Cyrus 
compare the conduct of Pelopidas at the battle of Cynoscephalae, B. c. 

i2o NOTES. 

364. when, enraged at the sight of his hated enemy, Alexander of Pherae, 
he rushed upon him, and thus met his death (Plutarch, Life of Pelo- 

1. 83. b p.v ovv Kvpos, ' Cyrus, as we have said.' The contrasts 
Kvpos with 01 5t pdpfiapot following, the ovv, ' then ' or ' in fact,' (cp. 1. 
6 n.) refers back to what has been just related. Mtv may often be 
translated ' while ' or ' whereas.' 

1. 91. jjcrOovro. Distinguish ya06fjir)v, 2nd aor. of alaOavo/Mt, ' I per- 
ceive," from TjaGrjv, 1st aor. pass, of qoofwi, ' I am pleased.' 

1. 99. m]crav, 3rd pi. of tar-qv, intrans., and therefore the 2nd aor. 
of tarrjui. The same word might also be the 3rd pi. of torijaa, the 
ist aor. of tori;//!, and would then mean 'they placed." In tffn;/ the 
2nd aor. and the perf. with the pluperf. are intransitive, the other tenses 
are transitive. 

X6<j>os, probably an artificial mound, as there are no natural hills on 
the Babylonian plain. 

1. 105. dvd Kpiros. See note on 1. 5. 

tv TOVTCO, sc. xpvvy. Cp. note on t TOVTOV, I. 85. 

1. 108. TtOvTjKora, ' that he was dead.' The Greeks used the participle 
after verbs of knowing, feeling, perceiving, and the like, to express the 
fact known or felt. In Latin it would be nesciebant eum mortuum esse 
(accus. and infin.). [OfSct with the iiifin. means ' I know how to,' as 
olSa ("ijf , ' I know how to live.'] 

1. 1 1 8. wp(jiT)o-ovTO, ' had started.' The Greek aorist in a minor 
sentence must often be rendered by the English pluperfect. Here Glus 
and Procles would say, ' Ariaeus is at the station, whence we started 
yesterday;' the Greek historian, reporting their words, keeps the 
aorist ' started," where we should alter it to ' had started,' Cp. I. 
254 n. 

1.125. tirrov OTV KeXcuci, 'that the king commanded.' For on 
introducing a direct speech, see note on on Pa<n\tvs irpos-tpxerat, 


1. 128. Tjpero. Cp. I. 314 n. 

1. 133. o-wJcaOai, middle voice, ' to save yourselves. 

1. 135. irXeiovos aioi, 'more valuable,' lit. 'worth more,' v\tiovos 
(comparative of iruXAou) being the gen. of price. The phrase vo\\ov 
of tot may generally be translated by one word, ' valuable,' ' serviceable,' 
or ' useful." 

1. 142. tiirare, the imperative of erira, ist aor. The and aor. tixov is 
more commonly used. 

1. 144. TOUTO. Si-ntp, ' the same as,' Lat. eadem qttae, Cp. I. 275 n. 
for the difference between ravra and ravra. 

1. 149. Remember that ^ivou<nv may be another part of the verb. 


besides the 3rd pi. pres. indie. So also an-iovai and irpo-iovffiv in the 
next line. 

1. 158. i-irovTo, imperf. of tir-o/, ' I follow.' The augment ei marks 
a lost letter, which reappears in Lat. ' seq-uor.' Distinguish this from 
tlir-ov, 2nd aor. from stem eir- (pres. (prjpl), 'I say." 


I. il. KTjpvxas ircpl airovSujv, sc. \ffttv (I. 15). Thus we say, 'I 
came about so and so,' i. e. ' to talk about it.' 

1. 13. KTJPVKIOV. The gen. of the person after atfovoas, ' after hearing 
[their statements from] the heralds.' Cp. II. 43 n. 

1. 15. apio-TOV. This might be (i) apiarov, 'breakfast,' (2) apiarov 
neut. of a/wcTTos, ' best." The sense decides. 

1. 22. 6mcr6o-<|>uAa,Kfaiv, pres. part, of bma8o-<pv\aKt<a. Compounds 
not made with prepositions are formed from nouns already compounded, 
and generally end in -e'w. Thus 6mado-<f>v\a.K((a comes from the noun 
omaOo-(f)v\a^, vav-paxtoa from va.v-fi.axos, etc. Prepositions usually form 
compounds with the simple verbs, as KaTa-fpvhdaaw, npos-ndxofMii. 

1. 26. circoTaTci. This is formed from the noun (niffrarrjs, which is 
already compounded ; so being formed from a noun it ends in -ecu (see 
the last note). 'E<p-lffTTj/ju is the compound of tirl and foTjj/xj. 

1. 28. fn-cue, imperf. 'he would strike him,' i.e. as often as there was 
occasion to do so. 

1. 32. Ktti, 'also' (as well as the younger men). Beware of translating 
HOI by ' and,' when it does not couple words or sentences. If so translated 
here it would couple rrpos-e\a.fil3avov with tojpcav, and make it governed 
by firfl, thus leaving the sentence without any principal verb, which 
would make nonsense. Cp. I. 21 n. 

1. 36. Y K '4 >a ^ ov the part [within the Kpa\r] or ' head '], i. e. the 
' cabbage ' (as it is called) of the palm-tree ; a sort of bud at the top of 
the tree, containing the rudiments of its future leaves, enclosed in the 
foot-stalks of the actual leaves. This part was edible as well as the 
fruit or date. 

1. 41. ytCrwy, ' a neighbour ,* as satrap of the west coast of Asia 

122 NOTES. 

1. 42. fj-rovipiv, imperf. mid. of alrtta. [Observe that alrfu is ' I ask 
for a thing," tpoiraca, ' I ask a question.'] 

1. 44. ?iv p.ot x^P lv 'will thank me.' 'EX*'"' X^P IV > ' * have' or 
' feel gratitude.' Lat. habere graliam. 

I. 50. tv diropois, neut. plur. adj. used substantively, ' in difficul- 

1. 55. QHUVSIV in the active is 'to ward off a thing, as apvvttv KO.KUV 
TIVL. The middle anvvtaffat is ' to ward off an enemy from oneself,' so 
generally to 'punish ' an enemy, with ace. of person, as here. 

1. 57. nv6vr<ov might be (_i) gen. plur. of participle, (2) jrd person 
plur. imperative. The sense decides. 

1. 60. -?j (XY|v, ' in very truth,' used before the words of a solemn 

1. 67. tTm8dv = 7r87> &v, 'as soon as.' Compounds of av (as orav, 
tirtibav, fdv, etc.) take the subjunctive ; with the aorist they have the 
force of ' shall have.' 

1. 72. |iT| ou mcrros eiT), ' lest he should be faithless.' The ov belongs 
to iriaros, OU-TTKTTOS being equivalent to arrunos. 

1. 75. 86op.ev, ' we shall be thought,' lit. ' we shall seem.' The per- 
sonal verb Soxtta means (i) ' I think,' (2) ' I seem,' i. e. ' I ant thought.' 

rrapd. Tas arrovSds, ' contrary to the truce." Tlapd, ' by the side of,' 
often with ace., means ' passing by,' ' going beside the mark,' ' neglect- 
ing ' or ' transgressing,' hence ' contrary to." 

tiTiTa, ' then ' or ' after this.' Distinguish from iirel, ' when.' 

1. 77. XcXfiij'tTai, 'will have been left," i.e. 'we shall have no friend 
left.' The paulo-post future, or future-perfect, implies that the action or 
event will be completed at a future time. Here the idea is, when that 
time comes, we shall find ourselves without friends. 

1. 85. iroifjaai rd mard amora, lit. ' to make his faithful things 
faithless,' i. e. ' falsify his pledges.' 

1.91. t^^AaTTovro dXXr]Xovs, 'kept on their guard against each 
other.' The act. # vXar-rtiv is ' to guard ' or ' protect ' anyone (l^at. 
cavere alicui), the mid. <f>v\a.TTfffOai is ' to guard oneself against* anyone 
(Lat. cavere aliqnein). 

1. 92. TO MrjSias TIX<>S, ' the wall of Media,' so called because it was 
built to keep the Medes out of Babylonia (so the ' Picts" Wall ' was to 
prevent incursions of the Picts) : see opposite page. The wall of Media 
was situated about 100 miles N.W. of Babylon, and must originally have 
extended from the Tigris to the Euphrates ; but at this time there was 
a considerable gap in the wall at the western or Euphrates end. 
Tissaphemes must therefore have first led the Greeks some sixty miles 
in a homeward (or north-westerly) direction, through this gap to the 
north side of the wall, then have brought them back through the wall 



into Babylonia again (eio-w rov Ttixovs), and lastly led them about 
twenty-four miles eastward to Sittace on the Tigris l . 

1. 98. ovojxo, ' by name,' the accus. of respect. Caenae would be on 
the right or west bank of the Tigris, since it was the opposite side to 
the Greeks, who were marching northwards, with the river on their 

1. loo. Zairdrav (or Zapa.Tav') TrOTa(xov, now the Great Zab, or Upper 
Zab, one of the chief tributaries of the Tigris on the east. 

1. 105. H,T| aSiK-fjorciv depends on opxovs, 'oaths not to injure,' i. e 
' oaths that we will not injure.' 

1. 1 06. 4>vXaTTonvov, ' guarding against.' See note on line 91. 

1. 108. SiStigcov, the fut. part, denoting purpose, ' to show you.' 
1. 1 10. tv TC irapovri [xp""9>]i ' at the present time.' 
1. 112. Tracra 686s, 'every road,' iracra -q 6865, (next line), 'all the 
road," i. e. ' our whole line of march.' 

1 This identifies Mr/Sias rtixos with the Wall of Nimroiid, said to have 
been originally built by Nimrod, against the Ninevite invaders from the 
north. Another view is that the ' Wall of Media ' was a long way south of 
this, between Cunaxa and Babylon, and that Sittace was much lower down 
the Tigris than it is placed in the above map. In this case, the Greeks 
would have passed only once through the wall, from the north, so as to get 
'inside,' i.e. on the south side, of it. 

1 24 NOTES, 

1. 113. Sid mtoTous, 'through darkness,* i.e. 'uncertain,' as we say 
' to be in the dark' about a thing. [2/fJros in Xenophon is generally 
declined like re^os with genitive axuTovs. It is also declined like \6yos 
with gen. <TKUTOV.~\ 

I. 1 18. TOT, ' I then' (i. e. at the time when I joined Cyrus, see I. 26) 
' desired that . . .' 

II. 123,4. The first KO.I may be translated 'even,' implying many 
reasons to hope ; the second KCU is ' also,' i. e. ' that you also will wish 
to be our friend' [as we wish to be yours]. See note on 1. 32. 

1. 128. TTJS x<*P lT s fy tX 01 ^^- Xdpjf fx fiv nieans 'feel gratitude/ 
See note on 1. 44. 

1. 129. Here as in 1. 83 the p.v emphasises the subject Clearchus as 
opposed to Tissaphemes, the cn)v refers back to what has been related 
before. ' So while Clearchus . . .' 

1. 131. uX\u, ' well.' The idea is 'though I am glad to hear you talk 
thus, yet 1 will show you that you have no reason to distrust us.' 

TJ8o(uu takes the dative, hence we have ' I am pleased with you 
speaking,' i. e. ' that you speak.' 

1. 132. oiiSt, ' not even,' i. e. ' you no more than we.* 

1. 133. airuTTOiTjT*, the opt. in -o'njv of contracted verbs is a 
peculiar Attic form. It is very common in the singular (cp. So/con/, 
\vnoiT), 11. 28, 54 above), but it is not so often used in the 1st and 2nd 
persons plural. 

1. 135. ols, 'with which." Observe that the Greek dative supplies the 
Latin ablative of instrument, while the genitive supplies the Latin 
ablative meaning ' from.' 

1. 139. dv, 'could render.' 

1. 141. 8ia.-Tropcuoin.ev, ' put you across.' Tloptvca in the act, is 'to 
provide a passage' (rropos) for any one, i. e. ' cause to pass ;' in the mid. 
' to provide oneself with a passage," i. e. intrans. ' to pass,' ' march,' etc. 

1. 144. ouSJ t rravv cVyaOoi, ' not even if ever so brave." 

1. 145. iropovs rrpos, ' means for,' i. e. ' ways of.* 

1. 151. (xoi, not 'to me,' which would be npos fyii, but (literally) 'for 
me,' i. e. ' to oblige me.' This is called the ethical dative. 

1. 152. is depends on TWO Af-ydpTdu', ' those who say that.' 

1. 153. rfj cruv *[io! arpari^i. Cp. I. 109 n. 

1. 159. \Lfra. Tatira. Cp. I. 128 n. 

1. 164. ot 8 irovTS, etc. Here iravrts is an apposition with ol, which 
is not the article but a pronoun, ' they did not all come." 

1. 1 70. x l Ti n v SIKTJV, ' has his just punishment,' lit. ' the punishment 
[which he deserves].' The article in Greek is often used for a posses- 
sive pronoun. Cp. I. 15 n. Observe the wary form of Xenophon's 
answer. He really means ' even supposing Clearchus deserved his death, 


yet, according to your own showing, Proxenus and Menon should come 

1. 175. av-i\x9i](Tav, 'were taken up,' i.e. to the king's court. Cp. 
I. 7 n. 

1. 1 80. KO.I yap St), ' for in fact' or ' in proof of this.' The 8?) shows 
that what is going to be said confirms the previous assertion that 
Clearchus was ' very fond of war.' 

1. iSr. tPTTT]pTi (imperfect), ' continued to serve.' 

1. 183. 0paK, i. e. on the Hellespont. Cp. 1. 30. 

1. 185. 'Ia0(AoO, i. e. the isthmus of Corinth. lie probably had to 
touch there to take up some of the allies of Sparta. 

I. 187. t'OavaTwOr), ' was condemned to death.' QavaTow usually means 
' I put to death,' lit. 'I cause death' to anyone. [Verbs in -oca derived 
from the stems of nouns mean to cause or make something, as bov\-6ca 
(from SoGAos), 'I make anyone a slave,' iro\f^-uca (noXtpos, 'I cause to 
be at war,' i. e. ' make hostile."] 

II. 188-191. See the account in I. 25-30. 

1. 191. oimo nv ovv, 'thus as we have said' The /Jtfv prepares for 
the St which follows, 'not only fond of war but a good commander.' 

1. 193. ts, ' with reference to," or ' as regards.' 

apxiv with gen. of person, ' to rule.' 

1. 195. tfA-iroi-fjcrat., etc. 'to instil into the minds of the soldiers,' lit. 
1 to produce in them the opinion that,' etc. 

ws depends on rty yvaifjirjv. 

1. 196. oc rot) eivcu, ' from the fact that he was . . .' Cp. I. 24 n. 

1. 197. o-ruyvos opav, just as we say 'stern to look upon,' i.e. 'of 
stern countenance.' ['Opav in Latin would be ' aspectn tristis" (not 
aspicere\ but the Greek infinitive far more nearly resembles the English 
in its uses than the Latin does.] 

1. 198. TjyeiTo. 'HyttaGcu, like Lat. ducere, may mean either 'to lead' 
or ' to think.' When it means ' to lead,' it takes a dative of the person 
led, when it means ' to think,' it takes accus. and infin. 

1. 201. Distinguish by the accent tyvXcucas, ace. pi. fern, of </>t>A.aT7, 
'act of watching,' or 'watch' (Lat. vigilias), from </>i/Aa/is, ace. pi. 
masc. of <f>v\a, ' watchers ' (Lat. vigiles). The word guard in English 
is ambiguous, having both meanings. 

1. 206. T)8tv TOV rpo-iTov, 'a pleasant manner/ lit. 'his manner a 
pleasant (one),' i. e. the manner [which] he had [was] not a pleasant 
one. The article coming between the adj. and the noun makes the adj. 
a predicate in apposition to the noun. If it were TOV fj^vv rpoirov, the 
ijSi/j' would be merely an epithet of rpuirov. Cp. IV. 269 n. 

1. 207. 8i-Kivro, etc., 'were to him in the position of,' etc. AiaKttaOai 
acts as the passive of Sia-nOtvai, ' to put into a certain state or condition." 

126 NOTES. 

1. 209. 4>i\ia, dative of cause, ' through friendship.* 

I. 210. 8t| sums up the whole description, ' such as I have stated.' The 

5 in next line contrasts with the ptv, i. e. 'though he was so strict as a 

commander, yet he was unwilling to obey others." 


1. i. iroXX-Q 8t|. Here 81) emphasises iro\\y, 'in the greatest possible 

1. 2. dOuntos Ixv. "Exftv is often used intransitively with an ad- 
verb, like the Lat. se habere, Fr. se tronver, so that dBv^cas d^ov implies 
the state of being aOvpot, i. e. ' they were in a desponding state of mind.' 
So tv (X (tv > "aituis ex*"' ' to be well off,' ' to be badly off.' 

1. 3. els TT|V Itnrcpav, ' for the evening," i. e. ' throughout the whole 

1. 4. irl rd oirXa, ' to their quarters." The heavy arms (oirAa) were 
piled in camp in front of the men's quarters, hence rci ov\a meant 
' the place where the arms were piled." 

1. 5. tTvyxavcv wv, lit. ' happened being," i. e. 'happened to be' ' was at 
the time.' 

1. 6. -iroOow irarpCSwv, objective genitive, ' regret for their fatherlands." 

1. 7. H.T|ITOT, ' that they would never." 

1. 8. p.v 8-f). Cp. III. 210 n. The 5^ sums up the paragraph, while 
the fiiv contrasts with ?jv Si ns in the next section. 

ovrrcd 8ia-Kt^voi, ' in this state." Cp. III. 207 n. 

1. 1 2. l X6oi, ' if he came." The optative here equals the past sub- 
junctive, and the aorist gives the sense of ' have ;' so in Latin it would 
be ' pollicitus est, si venisset, se facturum ;' etc. 

1. 14. Distinguish the middle <rvjji-pov\vTai, 'takes counsel with,' 
from the active <rv(i-pov\Ui (next line), ' gives counsel to." 

Xenophon had been a disciple of Socrates from his youth ; Socrates 
himself wrote nothing, so we are indebted to his two pupils Xenophon 
and Plato for what we know of him. Xenophon's Memorabilia 
(Reminiscences), or notes of Socrates' sayings, show the teacher's 
practical good sense. Plato had a real grasp of philosophy and had 
imagination as well, and in his dialogues or ' imaginary conversations' 
he depicts Socrates as -a most subtle and humorous arguer on the 
deepest questions of philosophy. 


1. 17. tir--f)pTO. Cp. II. 41 n. 

Distinguish TIVU, 'to whom?" from nvl, 'to anyone.' 

1. 1 8. fi.v 0i)oi, the optative with ay makes a conditional mood, 'to 
whom he should.' 

1. 19. KfiXd-s Trpdjjai.. Observe that irparrtiv with an adverb means 
' to fare ;' TO aAov npaTTetv would mean ' to do what is honorable.' 

1. 21. TJTKJTO, imperf. of cuTta-o/u, 'to blame.' Do not confound this 
with any part of the verb ah-tai, ' I ask.' 

1. 24. ovmus, ' in this way.' 

rjpov from j]p6^T]v, ' I asked.' ppou would be imperfect mid. of atpu, 
' I lift up.' 

1. 28. tv 2<ip8cri. Sardis was the place appointed for the rendez-vons 
(I. 40). 

1. 30. ire! raxiarra, ' as soon as ever.' 

1. 31. \T||eiv. Distinguish A.ij7co, 'I cease,' from \f~fu, 'I say,' and 
from Aax<x> 2nd aor. subj. of \ay\nvo3, ' I get by lot.' 

1. 32. IltaiSas. Cp. I. 35 and note. 

1. 37. aitovTs. Distinguish aicoiv, 'unwilling,' from atcovojv, 'hearing.' 

ojjiu)S, 'yet' (Lat. tamen). Distinguish this word from upo'icas, ' like- 

1. 38. atiTxvvoftevoi with infin. ' ashamed to betray,* and therefore 
not betraying. With a participle it would be ' ashamed at betraying,' 
yet doing it. 

1. 39. tis, ' one.' Distinguish from ti's, ' into. 

1. 42. \axwv\jirvov, 'having got some sleep.' "firvov is the partitive 
gen., \ayx av(iv means properly ' to obtain by lot,' hence generally, 
' to obtain' or ' to get a share of.' 

1. 44. irdcrav [rtfy oluiav], ' all the house.' 

1. 45. 8id TOVTO jAt'v is answered by ojjitos 8 in 1. 47, ' for this reason 
on the one hand . . . still on the other hand,' etc. The good point of the 
dream was a light sent by Zeus to shine upon him in his distress, 
the bad points were (i) that the dream came from Zeus as King, which 
seemed to imply mischief from the king of Persia, (2) that the flames 
appeared to encircle the house (Ka^TrtaOai KVK\U>), which implied the 
impossibility of escape from the king's power. For op.cos cp. 1. 37 n. 

1. 47. JIT) ou SVPVCUTO. Ou goes with Suvairo, ' lest he should be nn- 
able.' Cp. ov-iriffTos, III. 72 and n. 

1. 52. \T)4>0u)(iv, from Xapfiavta, ' to catch ;' \ttcpd>nfv would be from 
Kd-nca, ' to leave." 

1. 53. rd SeivoTdTa are the actual tortures, vj3pifon'vovs refers to the 
mockery of their sufferings by the enemy. 

1. 54. oirws awa6jji0a, ' how we shall be in safety.' 'Oirens with the 
fut. ind. follows words of ' caring ' and ' effecting.' 

128 NOTES. 

1. 55. uicrrrfp t'-6v, ' as if it were possible : fov is the accus. (not the 
nom.) neuter participle of the impersonal verb t-(an, lit. ' it being 
possible.' [The accus. implies ' time during which,' hence the use of 
these neuter participles expressing what happens at the same time with 
something else, as (-uv, nap-uy; 'while it is possible,' &>av (I aor. part. 
of SOK(I), 'when it had seemed good' (Lat. yuum visiim esset).~\ 

1. 60. tKaOt'fovTo. As the compounds Ka9-iof*ai and icdO-ijuai were much 
more commonly used than the uncompounded verbs tfrfMi and fjnat, they 
ceased to be regarded as compounds at all. Hence the augment t was 
placed before the preposition Kara, instead of between the Kara and 
the tfrfuu. 

1. 61. *YVOVTO, ' became,' i. e. ' amounted to." 

1. 64. -QPTJVTO, plup. pass, of alptta, ' I take,' but in settft the passive of 
alpiofiai (mid.), ' I choose.' So yptOrjv means ' I was chosen' not ' I was 
taken.' The passive of alptta, ' I take," is supplied by tenses of a\iaico- 
fiat, as idXojv, ' I was taken," tdXeu/ra, ' I have been taken.' 

1. 66. (jura TOUTOV, 'after him.' Cp. II. 13 n. 

1. 69. irio-Taa0. Distinguish (maTajMu, ' I know,' from tip-iffTTjui, 
I place upon.' Cp. 1. 148 n. 

1. 72. ovv TOIS orrXois, alluding to the demand made by the king that 
the Greeks should surrender their arms, which demand they had refused 

III "5-135)- 

1. 73. TO Xoiirov, 'during the future,' 'for the future:' accus. of 
duration of time. 

1. 76. irapd rotis opicovs. Ilapa, 'contrary to.' Cp. III. 75 n. 

1. 79. dva-fxijivrjo-KO) takes two accusatives, ' remind you of ..." 

1. 80. i5f,T from o75a : T5?/r< would be from fTSov. 

1. Si. dyaOois, ' it becomes you to be brave;' ayaOois being the dative 
in apposition with vfuv, which is governed by vpos-rjKti, since tlvat 
takes the same case after it as before. Cp. Horace, Sat. i. i. 19 'licet 
[iis] esse beatis,' ' they may be happy.' So after a verb governing the 
genitive we might say, cSo/Hjv avrov tlvai ayaQov, ' I besought him to 
be brave.' But see line 90. 

11.81-85. ITp<r<I>v . . -irpuiTov . . Indira OT Ept]s. The two events 
here alluded to are (i) the invasion of Greece in the time of Darius 
llystaspes, ending in the defeat of the Persians at Marathon, B.C. 490, 
(2) the expedition led by Xerxes, who was defeated at the battle of 
Salamis, B.C. 480. 

1. 84. icat, 'also,' not 'and;' iyitctuv being the principal verb in the 
sentence. Cp. III. 32 n. 

1. 85. K<U . . icai, here ' both . . . and.' 

1. 86.* fiprt, 'just now,' i. e. at the battle of Cunaxa, which had been 
fought nearly two months previously. See Chap. II. 


1. 90. irpoer-riKti, here with ace. and infin. 'It is fitting that you 
should be,' cp. 1. 81. 

1.92. v-0virf|0t]T, imperative; iv-fOvurjdrjTf would be indicative. 
1. 93. ol (AxJpioi. lirireis, ' their ten thousand horse,' lit. ' the ten thou- 
sand horse' which we know they have. 

1. 94. ol iroioOvTfs, ' those who do.' The article with a participle = a 
relative pronoun and verb. Cp. VIII. 356 n. 
yiyviTrai, ' is done.' 

1. 97. TO Kara-irecmv, ace. after <pofiov p.tvoi. Xenophon's is the kind 
of humorous argument by which one might make a child laugh 
through its tears. Really the Persians were good riders (Cyropaedia, 
II. 2) who would not 'be afraid of tumbling off,' and the Greeks soon 
found they could not get on without cavalry, see 1. 150. What was 
really reassuring was the fact that Xenophon evidently did not despair, 
as he could make a joke of their fears. 

1. 98. ,l<mjKOTs. "EffTtjKo. means ' I am standing.' Cp. II. 99 n. 
1. 99. Ivl jtovco, ' in one point alone," like Lat. abl. of measure. 
1. 100. T|(AWV, gen. after the irpo in npo-l^ovaiv, 'are before us," 
' superior to us.' 

1. 101. o-Kci|;a<r0, distinguish from fOKtyaffde : cp. 1. 92. 
pacriAccos UKOVTOS, ' against the king's will ;' Lat. invito rege. 
1. Iio. ws, 'with the intention of.' Cp. II. 70 n. 

1. 113. Tpis-dcrp.vos, to be taken adverbially with (irotet. 'Thrice- 
gladly' = ' very, gladly.' [So rpts-d9\ios, 'very wretched,' Tpts-naKap, 
'very blest,' or, as we sometimes say, 'thrice blest.' Cp. the Latin 
terfelix, etc.] 

tiroiti dv.., ti liopa, 'would have done this, if he had seen,' or 
more accurately, ' would have been (now) doing this, if he were seeing.' 
The four forms of a conditional sentence are (i) ' if it is, it is,' (2) ' if 
(ever) it be, it will be,' (3) ' if it were to be, it would be,' (4) ' if it had 
been, it would have been' [but it is not]. This is the 4th form, and 
implies 'but the king does not see us preparing to settle:' just above 
we had the 3rd form 8011) &v . . , l POV\OIVTO, ' he would give, etc., 
if they were to consent," etc. 

1. 119. evOciSe belongs to Ko/iitra/iti/ois, ' having come here.' 
1. 121. irp6cr0v must be omitted in translation, as irpiv follows in 
the next clause. We say (for instance), ' I will not do it, before you 
come,' the Greeks often said, ' I will not first (irpoaO(v) do it, before 
(irpiv} you come.' 

1. 123. dir-oXe'crStti dv, 'that we should be mined;' the &v, 'in that 

case,' always implies an if, so that 'if they took' is implied in \ap6vTts. 

1. 124. TOVS vv dpxovTOS, ' our present commanders.' Any word or 

words coming between the article and its noun stand as an epithet of the 


1$0 NOTES. 

noun (cp. I. 109); hence such phrases as of vvv, ol irpuaOev, etc., are con- 
veniently used instead of a longer expression. [So we sometimes say 
' the then king.' Cp. ist Ep. to Timothy v. 23 ' thine often infirmities.'] 

1. 125. ytvto-Oai, 'prove themselves,' lit. 'become.' Never translate 
ytvtffOat as if it were merely the same as flvai, ' to be.' 

1. 126. ToJv-irp6cr0v-apx6vTCi)v, gen. of comparison, 'than,' etc. vOv 
r\ irpoo-Otv, being without the article, are real adverbs qualifying im$o- 
jxtvous : TJ means ' than.' 

av TIS anting, ScY)TCi, this is the 2nd form of conditional sentences : 
cp. 1. 113 n. 'If (ever) anyone should disobey.' 

1. 127. dei, 'at the time,' or 'from the lime.' Cp. V. 287. 

v(xiov is the partitive gen. after TOV, ' the man (anyone) of your 
number who comes across [the offender] in each case.* 

1. 128. o-uv, ' with the help of.' 

1. 130. dva-reivaTO), 'let him raise.' The subject is understood in 
OTU, ' whoever.' 

1. 133. ir\aio-tov, 'a square.' The object of the square was that it 
had four fronts, and so could fight on any side if an enemy attacked 
them. Each face of the square had a separate commander. 

1/134. 8uo . . ir-|A\ovvTo, not iir-tn(\tiaOi]v, because there is no 
stress laid on the fact of there being two only. Cp. I. \ n. 

1. 137. 8i-J3t]o-av. Remember this is the 2 aor. 

ZairdTav, 'the Zab.' Cp. III. 100 n. 

1. 140. eV6vov . . tV$v8ovuv .. tTirpucTKov. Observe the force of 
the imperfects. 

1. 142. 8uoKTlov. Verbal adjectives in -rtos imply that something 
must or ought to be done, as </>JA.JJ-T'OS (Lat. amandus), ' he must be 
loved.* These have two constructions, (i) like the Latin gerundive, as 
o? iro\(fuoi SuvKTtoi tlffi : (2) as here, like the Latin gerund, as SiuKriov 
tarl rovs vo\tiuovt, ' we must pursue the enemy.' [f>iA.j;Tos is not the 
same as <pi\i)Ttos, but is simply like Lat. amabUis, loveable.'] 

1. 148. imo-Tantvovs. Do not confound tirurra/taf, ' I understand,' 
(i) with (tp-iffTanai mid. of ((p-ivrrjfjii, 'I place upon,' or (2) with ITJCTT- 
(vta, ' I believe,' or with any word derived from vlar-ts, ' faith.' 

cr4>ev8ova.v, infin. after iirtaranivovs, ' knowing how to sling.' [Verbs 
in -aca only contract into a and u, and always contract into o when 
no o is present ; -dv is the contraction of the infinitive.] 

1. 158. |w pXuiv, 'out of shot' (as we say). B'\ot is lit. 'out of 
[range of] missiles.* 

1. 160. 01 jicv, i. e. the Greeks, ot 8t, the enemy. 

For iirovro from tirofuu cp. II. 158 n. 

1. 162. iiatcpoTcgov, 'longer,' i.e. 'further than . . .' 

1. 165. irXataiov, 'square,' U76ir\vpov, 'equal-sided,' i.e. an exact 


'square.' A square is a good form in which to resist a charge of 
cavalry, but a very clumsy form to march in. 

1. 167. K-0Xipor0ai., 'to be forced out of their rank,' lit. 'squeezed 
out.' [Hence in Latin Prosody Ecthlipsis is the 'squeezing out' of 
final m when the next word begins with a vowel, as multu(m) ille.] 

1. 168. TO. Kepa/ra crvy-KviirTT), 'the outer flanks close in,' lit. 'bend 
together,' i. e. ' contract by bending.' The opposite, viz. ' to get 
separated,' is expressed by Sia-ffxy, below 1. 171. 

1. 170. 8us-xpT)CTTous. The subject is TOVS 6ir\lras from 1. 167. 

1. 171. TOWS TOT* 0Xipo[juvovs, ' those who were squeezed together in 
the former case,' i. e. when the wings (Ktpara) had to close in. 

1. 172. TO (ju'aov Tuiv Kpa.Tiov, etc., ' the space between the wings be- 
came empty of men,' i. e. when there was a gap. Probably it means 
here a gap where the flanks of the square joined the front or rear of it. 

1. 173. TOVS ravra iracrxovTas, ' those who suffered this,' i. e. found a 
gap near them. 

1. 174. dXXrjv Tivd Siipaaiv, i.e. 'any other crossing-place' except a 
bridge, such as a ford, etc. 

1. 175. to-irevBe (imperf.), 'would hurry on.' Cp. III. 28 n. 

1. 178. Xoxovis dvd. ItcaTov avSpas, 'six companies of 100 men 
each.' This is the distributive force of dvd. Kara is similarly used. Cp. 
231 n. Distinguish , 'six,' from ef, 'out of.' The aspirate in 
represents the s in Lat. sex. 

eir-c'o-TTjaav is here the i aor. because it is transitive. Cp. II. 99 n. 

1. 1 79- irevTTjKovTrjpas, ' leaders of fifty,' i. e. leaders of half-companies, 
or ' lieutenants.' A half-company contained fifty men, and two of them 
made a \6xos or company. Each half-company was again subdivided 
into two sections, these were called Enomotiae (iva/tunai, lit. ' a band of 
men sworn in,' from ey-o/mi/ut), and their leaders were called tvujioT- 
apxai, ' section-commanders," ' sublieutenants,' or ' ensigns.' The whole 
number amounted to about 10,000 (I. 318) ; these six companies were 
only a small division, which could be shifted so as to give elasticity to 
the whole. Probably three marched in front, one in the centre of the 
front line, and one where each flank joined the front ; and the other 
three in the same position^ in the rear. 

1. 1 8 1. avY-KviTTOi. Cp. I. 1 68 n. 

ol XoxdYo! vir-|jitvov {5<7Tpov, ' the captains used to wait behind,' 
i.e. made their companies drop out to the rear and give room for the 

1. 182. irap-TJYov, 'used to pass outside the wings,' i.e. into line at 
the extremities of the wings. 

1. 184. TO \it<rov does not mean the inside of the square, but the centrt 
of the troops in front and rear. 

K 2 

132 NOTES. 

1. 185. Sidpao-iv. Cp. 1. 174 n. 

1. 190. Distinguish aurfjs TTJS 68ov, ' the road itself,' i. e. ' right over 
the road," from (i) TJJS OVTJJS uSov, ' the same road,' and (2) ravrrji TTJS 
Joov, ' this road.' 

1. 192. opwv ov<rav, 'seeing that it was.' Cp. II. 108 n. 

1. 196. ol-virfp-Tfjs-68o\)-Tro\'fUOi. Cp. I. 109 n. 

1. 199. Tots- / irap'-!avT<j>-ovTas-iTXTa<rTas. Cp. I. 109 n. 

1. 200. tmXtKTOvs, ' as [a reserve of] picked troops.' 

1. 202. ot-tm-roi)-\64)ov-iToXt(J.ioi. Cp. I. 109 n. 

1. 204. copjrrjcrav must be from opuaoj, ' I hasten.' 'O/>/*e<, ' I anchor, 
has no ist aor., and would not make sense. 

1. 205. 8ia.-KtXev3p.wov, ' cheering their own troops.' 

1. 209. ini marks the object for which they were striving, i. e. their 
return to Greece. So we find twi ri; ' for what purpose?' 'Itvai iiri n, 
' to go in ques-t of anything.' 

1. 213. 6xt might be ' he carries,' or 'you are carried." The context 

1. 215. io0iTai. The present makes it graphic, 'shoves out of his 
place," then tiroptvtro, the imperf., ' went on marching.' 

1. 217. 8J icaC. AJ couples the sentences, eu means ' also.' 

Tvyx av ?X WV ' had at the time,' lit. ' happened having.' Cp. 1. 5 n. 

1. 218. Ocopaica TOV lirmK6v. The cuirass or breast-plate of a cavalry 
officer was much heavier than that of a foot-soldier, and Xenophon had 
the infantry-soldier's shield to carry as well. 

1. ii<). vrn-aYi.v, 'march slowly' 'Tni, 'under,' hence 'underhand,' 
then little by little/ 

1. 221. ta-rt T|va.YKa<rav, 'till (as a matter of fact) they forced him.' 
With the opt. it would mean ' till such time as they should force him.' 

1. 222. dva-pds, sc. TOV "ivirov, ' having mounted' again. 

1. 225. fyQavowi . . Yv6|ivoi, lit. 'anticipate the enemy having 
arrived,' i.e. 'arrived before the enemy.' 

1. 228. evOtv .. vOv, ' on one side and on the other.' 

1. 229. opt) tnrp-v4>T)Xa, the great mountain range, which commands 
the principal pass of the Tigris, near Jezireh. 

1.231. Kara TfrpoKis-xiXiovs, '4000 at a time.' Kcrni is here 
distributive. Cp. drd 1. 1 78 n. 

1. 232. m-8u>T, 'give me besides,' i. e. as a present. 

1. 333. STOV, ' what,' not ' whatever.' "OffTit is used in an indirect 
question like rl$ in a direct. 

1. 234. <J>v<rt)0vra, ' if blown up.' The ' if is implied by the &v 
which follows. 

1. 236. Si&0a<nv, here 'the means of crossing,' not as in 11. 174, 186, 
'tiieplact to be crossed.' [Verbal nouns in -ait properly mean the act 


of doing a thing, as irotrj-ait, ' a producing ; ' those in -pa signify the 
thing done, as noirj-^a, ' a production ' (thing produced).'] 

1. 242. KwXwovcTi (.itj oXurOdveiv, Lat. ' prohibebunt quominns labantur.' 
Where the main verb has a 'not' the Greeks put a 'not* with the 
dependent verb as well; so here the /) merely emphasises the 'not' 
already contained in Ku\v<a, and therefore must not be translated in 

1. 246. OUK av ir-rpirov, ' would not have let the Greeks do 
this,' i.e. 'if they saw them trying it." The clause to be supplied 
would run tl iwpwv avroiis TWpw^eVot/j. For av with the imperf. cp. 
1. 113 n. 

1. 249. KapB-ovxovs. The root of this word is still preserved in the 
modern Kurd, Kurdistan. 

1. 250. TJPXV, ' was satrap over,' from apx?i, ' province.' Cp. I. 6 n. 

1. 252. irapoSos, ' passage by the side of it,' i. e. between the river and 
the cliffs. 

1. 253. vnrJp OUTO{) TOV irorajiov, ' right over the river.' For the 
distinction between avr&s & and o avros cp. 1. 190 n. 

1. 255. TTJS VVKTOS, ' during the night.' The gen. of time is really a 
partitive gen. denoting a period within which something takes place, as 
finipas, ' by day,' VVKTOS, ' by night." So in older English ' he did it> 
o' nights.' Observe also that VVKTOS means generally ' by night,' TTJS 
VVKTOS, ' during this particular night.' 

1. 257. uirero, ' was following." Cp. II. 158 n. 

1. 260. X OVTS - The part. tx 03v ma y often be translated ' with,' as 
ri\9tv Zx <av r v vlov, ' he came with his son.' 

1. 263. 8r) emphasises Tore, ' at that moment,' Lat. turn detnum. 

1. 267. oii-rws, 'in this order;' Cheirisophus leading and Xenophon 
bringing up the rear (cp. 1. 256). 

1. 269. iKavo. TO, in.TT|Seia, ' the provisions (which they had) were not 
sufficient.' The position of the article between the adjective and noun 
makes lieava the predicate of the sentence. Cp. III. 206 n. 

1. 272. TOIS 6ma0o(j>v\ai. depends on (yi^vcro, ' for the rear-guard.' 

1. 273. Distinguish gTiaro, imperf. of ama-o/xai, 'I blame,' from 
rJTtiTO, imperf. mid. of aire-cu, ' I ask.' 

1. 278. o\> <}>acriv civai, ' say that there is not,' Lat. negant esse. 
Ou-QrjiM is to be taken as one word, ' I deny,' not ' I do not say.' 

1. 279. 8vio civSpas, not dvSpf, because no stress is laid on the fact of 
there being only two. Cp. I. i, V. 17 n. 

1. 282. l8iev, 3rd plur. opt. of olSa, ' whether they knew.' The opt. 
here answers to imperf. subj. of indirect question after past time. 

TJ TT|V (j>avr]pcLv, ' than (i. e. besides) the apparent one.' See above 
1. 275 /xta iffrlv 6So, ^v opds. 

134 NOTES. 

1. 283. OUK ?4>T]. Cp. 1. 278 n. Also for ou (j>aCr) 1. 285. 

1. 284. optovros TOV tTtpov, the gen. absolute, ' the other seeing,' i. e. 
' before the eyes of the other.' Cp. fiaviXfajs O.KOVTOS 1. 107 and n. 

1. 286. irap' dvSpi, properly ' in her husband's house.' Lat. ' apitd 
virum.' 'E/c-S/Sw/xi, 'I give in marriage,' usually takes the simple dative. 

auTos <(>T| T]-yir)crecr9ai, ' said that he would guide.' The avros is 
the nom. before the infin. When the subject of the infinitive is the 
same as that of the principal verb, the Greeks put it in the nominative, 
not in the accusative as in Latin. In Latin this would be ' dixit se 
ducturum csse,' but (<f>rj avruv Tj-ffjafaOai would mean that some other 
man would guide them. 

1. 289. T-po-KaTa \T)4/oivTO. The////, opt. is used in a reported speech, 
wherever the speaker himself would have used ih.efnt.ind. Here he 
would have said d /.irj npo-vara X-iyfyea-Qt TOVTO, dovvarov carat, etc. 

1. 291. oo-ris 0t\oi av, ' who would be willing.' Cp. 1. 233 n. 

1. 292. tiTrocrTds, 'having undertaken (the work).' Take iropeua0ai 
after iOt\oi av understood. 

1. 293. <I>s, ' as it were," i. e. ' about." 

1. 298. Totis avu ovras, ' that those who were above,' i.e. the 2000 
volunteers, who are supposed to have gained the summit. 

1. 299. 4>avpav tKpacriv, the same as <l>av(pa.v odijv 1. 282, where see 
note. But Xenophon here calls it an e/r/Jaais, or ' egress,' because it was 
a way of getting out of their difficulty. 

1. 300. auroi, 'themselves, 1 i.e. the rest of the army, who were to 
remain below till the volunteers had secured the summit. 

1. 305. ol irtpi iovres, the 2000, who were taking a circuitous route to 
the summit. 

1. 309. <{>po|i.tvoi. .. 8i-<T<J>v8ovu>vTO, 'falling against the rocks were 
hurled about in fragments,' like stones from a sling (atyfvSwr)). Ai 
signifies division into parts. [So Euripides (Phoenissae, 1190) says of 
a man struck by lightning, <r4>vSovS.To \upls a\\rj\caf /t<Xj, ' his limbs 
were shot far from one another," as if from a sling.] 

1. 311. XTJO-CIV, fut. of \avOavw, which with air-i6vr(t means 'get away 
unnoticed by the enemy.' 

1. 313. ol 8t tx VT *s, etc. Cp. 11. 295, 305. 

1. 31 7. cLs, ' as if,' i. e. ' thinking that," etc. 

1. 318. irap'ov, ' leading to which.' napd. with acciis. signifies motion 
to get alongside of a thing, hence simply motion to it. 

1. 320. 4>avtp 68a>. Cp. 11. 282 n, 299 n. 

1. 327. 5-{a>voi, lit. ' well-girt,'. or 'girt up for action,' hence 'active.' 
Cp. Lat. accinctus. 

1. 328. rfj o-AXm-yyos. The trumpet was the signal to let the otheri 
know that the 2000 had gained the height. Cp. 1. 298. 


1. 330. {| KaorToi trv^ov ovTS, ' where each party were at the time,' 
lit. * chanced being.' Cp. 1. 5 n. [For this use of the participle compare 
the English ' I cease speaking' irauo/icu \tywv, ' I begin speaking,' dpxofuit 
Xt-yuv, etc.] 

1. 333. Ttj av-rji 685, 'the same road;' [aurfj rf? 655 would be 'the 
road itself' or ' the very road.' Cp. 1. 190 n.] So rw avrca rpoiry 1. 340, 
' in the same way.' 

1. 346. TW irpumo X6<j)Cj>, ' the first of the three crests ' which 
Xcnophon's men had taken, mentioned in 1. 335 as ' overhanging the 
road." Some men had been left to guard this, while Xenophon with 
the rest of the army went on to attack the next position (1. 340). It 
must not be confounded with the first position of all, which the 
volunteers took. 

\i<j)0tvTs, ' left,' from Xeurw ; distinguish from \rj(f>9fvres, ' taken,' 
from \anfiavco. 

1. 350. dir-ijTei, imperf. of air-airi<a, 'to ask back.' Distinguish from 
alnao^ai, 'I blame.' Cp. 1. 273 n. 

ui TOVTCO coo-re [AT) d8iKiv, ' on condition of their not injuring ; ' 
lit. ' on this (condition) so as not to injure.' 'Em meaning 'upon,' and 
the dative implying ' rest at ; ' M with dat. means ' resting on a certain 
basis,' hence ' on certain terms ' or ' conditions.' 

1. 355. 8-r), 'at once,' marking the precise moment at which the thing 
was done. 

1. 356. t-yevovTO, ' tne Y gt-' Cp. y(v6jt(vx, 1. 225. 
1. 358. KaT-f'ajjav, 1st aor. of KaT-d-yvv|ju. Distinguish the tenses oi 
ay-pv/tt, ' I break," from those of dy-ca, ' I lead.' Both verbs have the 
fut. a<u, but the ist aor. of ayvvm is e'aa, that of 0170; (not often used) is 
^fa. Also dyca makes its perf. ^x a > while the 2nd perf. of ayvvfu 
is e'aya, and means, ' I am broken.' 

1. 359. tnTao-irio-rfis, ' armour-bearer,' lit. ' shield-supporter.' The 
dams, or large shield, was a great encumbrance when not in actual 

1. 360. irpo-pa\X6|X6vos, ' putting forward ' as a defence. 
1. 362. TOIS i]8Tj crwTTaY|Avois, ' those already posted there.' These 
were the men whom Xenophon had ordered to march on (1. 345) while 
he ascended the hill with a chosen band. They had halted under arms, 
and were waiting for Xenophon in the road below. 

1. 365. XUKKOI.S KovMvrots, ' plastered cisterns," made by digging holes 
in the ground, and plastering the inside with lime (Kovia). Many of 
these cisterns have been found in Syria and Kurdistan of the present 
day. [Aawcos is the same word as the Latin lacus.~] 

1. 368. iravra TO, vo|j.i6p.cva, ' all (the funeral rites) which are con- 
sidered customary,' i. e. all the regular funeral rites. 

136 KOTES. 


1. 2. is KwXvo-ovras, ' as if they meant to hinder them.' So us 
intKtioontvovs 1. 6 below. Cp. II. 70 n. 

1. 6. <rw-iXYH-<vovs, ' collected.' At'-yoi, ' I gather,' has perf. Aox<i, 
perf. pass. iAt-y/taj, but only in compounds; A.'-ya>, 'I speak,' has no 
perf. act. in use, but perf. pass. \(\tyijat. 

1. 9. avrdp-ciToi., ' of their own accord.' Avrtftaros is literally ' self- 
moving ' or ' self-acting,' from aiiros, ' self,' and the stem jjia, ' to move,' 
found in the old 2nd perf. ju'-jia-a. Hence it means ' acting of one's 
own will,' without any external force ; and we call a self-acting machine 
an automaton. 

irpi-ppVT]vai, 2nd aor. pass, infin. of ittpi-pptoi, fut. f>tv-aonai, perf. 
fppv-T]Ka, 2nd aor. pass, kppv-rjv (with active meaning). In verbs begin- 
ning with p, the p is doubled (i) after the augment, as tp-peov, (a) after 
a preposition ending in a vowel, as -ntpi-ppiia. 

avru is the dativus comtnodi, lit. ' slipped round for him,' i.e. 'slipped 
off him.' 

1. 10. Bia-Paivtiv, ' he went free,' lit. ' with the legs apart (5m).' 
[Usually Sia-Paiydv is ' to go through' or ' go across,' as in 11. 21, 23, 24, 
25, etc.] 

1. 1 7. Why 8uo vcavicrKw (dual) here, but rovs vtaviaKovs and ol 
vtaviaKoi (plural) in 11. 29, 35 below? Because on theirs/ mention 
of the young men one's attention is directed to the fact of there being 
two of them, whereas afterwards they are merely alluded to as ' the 
young men," without any stress being laid upon this fact. But even in 
the former case it was not thought necessary to put the verb in the dual; 
so we have irpos-irpfxov, not irpos-iTptxinjv. Cp. I. i n. 

1. 20. Sxrittp fiapo-iirovs, ' what seemed like bags,' lit. ' as it were 
bags ; ' Lat. quasi or lanquam. 

1. 22. ravTfl, sc. X"W> ' at tm?s point.' So i), 'in which place ' = 
' where." Lat. qua. Cp. 1. 71. 

1. 23. 8i-|Jaivop.v, imperf., ' tried to cross,' or ' began to cross.' But 
8i-^T)(, 2nd aor. in next line, ' we (actually) did cross.' 

1. 24. is vv<r6p.voi. 'fl with fut. part, denotes a purpose. Cp. II. 
70 n. 

For irpoerOtv followed by irpiv in the next clause cp. IV. lain. 

L 30. Distinguish ravrd from rovro, Cp. I. 275 m 


1. 34. v p.rcp TOVTWV, ' between them.' Mfffos means (i) the middle 
o/a thing, as p.lar) fjpipa or piaov jj/xt'pas (II. 17) ; (2) a space midway 
between, with the gen., as here. 

1. 38. dvd KpaTos. Cp. II. 5 n. 

1. 40. tire! SI-^PTJ, ' when he had crossed.' The aor. in a minor 
sentence must often be translated by the pluperfect. Cp. I. 254, II. 

, 1. 43. TOVIS iroXejxiovs, etc., the Armenian infantry, who had been 
drawn up on the higher ground behind the cavalry. Cp. 1. 4. 

1. 48, us t'm-0T)cr6|j,evoi, ' in order to attack.' Cp. II. 7 n - 

1. 51. <TKvo<j>6pu>v, neuter, as is shown by ra vno-\enr6n(va. Ta 
OKtv6<popa are the same as vwo&yia, 'baggage animals;' ot axtvcxpopot 
are the sutlers or camp-followers, who helped to carry the baggage. 
These are also called 6 oxAos (1. 53). 

Distinguish fxerd, TOVTWV (gen.), ' with these,' or ' among these/ from 
UtrcL ravra, ' after these things.' Cp. I. 128 n. 

1. 54. 4'0To dvTia avrois TO. oirXa, ' drew up (his men) opposite 
them.' &to9ai oir\a means 'to pile arms/ or 'halt under arms' (cp. 
I. 241 n.) : hence, with avria added, ' to take up a position under arms 
over against the enemy." 

1. 55. -n-offiaacrOai TOVS Xoxovs, ' to form their companies* into divi- 
sions of so many men each. Here the divisions were of twenty-five 
each, called ivoi^onai. Cp. IV. 1 79 n. 

1. 56. irpos TWV KapSovxwv, 'towards the Carduchi.' Ilpds roiis 
KapSovxovs would mean ' to the Carduchi.' 

oupayovs, 'leaders of the rear," from ovpcL, 'rear' (lit. 'a tail'), and 
fjy-eo/jiai, ' I lead.' [The Greeks spoke of an army metaphorically as a 
wild beast ; hence crr^a, ' mouth/ i. e. ' front ; ' Ktpas, ' horn/ i. e. 
' wing ;' ir\fvpai, ' flanks ;' ovpa, ' tail ' or ' rear/] 

1. 59. <{>8as rtvas <j8ovTs ; so Tacitus describes the ancient Germans 
as singing while they advanced to battle. 

1. 62. CKCIVOS (Lat. ille), referring to Xenophon, who is not the subject 
of the sentence. If there were no pronoun it would be doubtful whether 
he or Cheirisophus was meant. 

1. 65. Ls Sia-pTjcroiitvovs. Cp. II. 70 n. 

1. 66. irpoo-a) TOW TTOTajiov, ' far into the river/ lit. ' to a further 
point of the river/ the partitive genitive. 

1. 67. o-<|>ev86vnf], here 'a stone from a sling," though properly it means 
the sling itself. Hence enfiS^ atptvSovi) t-iKvotTo ' as soon as they 
got within a sling's cast.' Cp. 1. 261 n. 

1. 68. dams tj'o^oi, ' a shield should ring/ i. e. with the missiles from 
the slings of the enemy striking on it. 

1. 70. TO iroXejxiKov, sc. <jrjp.fiov, ' the signal for battle ;' i. e. what was 

138 NOTES. 

the usual signal for battle, and what the enemy would understand 
as such, though the Greeks had orders to take it the contrary way 
on this occasion. 

1. 71. T}, sc. xfy>? = ' where,' Lat. qua. Cp. 1. 22 n. 
1. 72. ri\v TO.|;IV, ' his station.' The article in Greek often = a posses- 
sive pronoun. Cp. I. 15 n. 

1. 75. TJPXOVTO, imperf. of dpxofim, ' I begin.' Cp. II. 50 n. [But 
the imperf. of tpxapai does not seem to be used except in compounds, as 
npor]px"l- >r l v < etc.] 

1. 76. iopn.T)<rav. Cp. IV. 204 n. 

1. 78. ert]|Aaut.. The signal agreed upon to mislead the enemy. 
Cp. 1. 70 n. 

1. 82. ol iroXXol, 'the greater part." The article with vo\vs gives the 
force of a superlative, hence ol iroAAoi = TrAtforoi. 

1. 83. ol two Xipi(r64>ov, etc. Cp. 1. 60. 

1. 85. T\ 8ei, ' than they ought to have done,' according to the instruc- 
tions given above in 1. 66. 

1. 88. TijXepoav iroTajiov, now the Kara Su, which flows into the 
Eastern branch of the Euphrates. The Greeks were now ascending 
into the plain which lies below the still higher elevation of Erzroum. 
The cold of this district, especially at Erzroum itself, is unusually 
severe in winter ; and this was in the beginning of December. See 
Table of Dates, p. vii. 

1. 93. Tfjs VVKTOS, gen. of time. Cp. IV. 255 n. 

wore air-tKp\M|/, ' so that it covered ' (stating a fact) ; WOT* diro 
KpvvJ/ai (infin.) would mean ' with the intention of covering.' 

1. 97. TIS Kal dXXos. What does /rat mean here? Cp. Lain. 

1. 98. <rx i fv (imperf.), 'began to cleave them,' or 'would cleave them.* 

K TOVTOV. Cp. I. 85 n. 

1. 100. 8ia-<ricT]VTJ<r<u, ' to take up separate quarters.' Atd is connected 
with 5i and 8vo, and denotes separation or distribution into parts. Cp. 
IV. 309 n. 

1. 107. povXi(i,la(rav, ' suffered from bulimia' or ' became faint from 
fasting." Bov-XijxCa is literally ' ravenous hunger,' the prefix ov- (from 
/3oOi, ' an ox,') denoting anything large or excessive. [Thus /3oi>-irais 
means ' an overgrown lout of a boy.' We use the prefix horse in the 
same way, as in 'Aors-chestnut/ ' Aors-laugh.'] 

1. 108. irdOos, ' complaint,' from iraO- the stem of 7raerx, ( = v&9-fffc<u), 
'I suffer.' [From the corresponding Latin word patior we get ' patient,' 
meaning one who is ill, lit. ' a sufferer. 1 ] 

1. 109. <J>aYovTs = tl (fta-foidf, ' (/"they ate.' Cp. I. 261 n. 

1. 116. Distinguish avrai, nom. pi. fern, of QVTOI, 'this,' from aural, 
nom. pi. fern, of aiirut, ' self.' 


rtvs titv, ' who they were' the opt. in an indirect question. Cp. IV. 
282 n. 

1. 1 20. Kcajxapx^v, ' head man,' a sort of chief magistrate or bailiff of 
the village, responsible of course to the Persian government. 

1. 123. ol H.TJ 8wdp,6voi, ' whoever were unable/ = ti rivts IJ.TJ Svi'cuvro, 
Lat. ' si qni nequirent.' 

1. 126. 8i-4>0apjjivoi TOVIS 6<}>0aX(xoiJs, 'having their eyesight de- 
stroyed,' lit. 'destroyed in respect of their eyes.' So in next line dno- 
aiai]tr<jTfs roiis SOKTV\OVS. 

1. 129. rijs x^vos, ' from the snow/ lit. 'as regards the snow,' gen. of 

1. 132. -inro-SeSsntvoi, ' with their shoes on.' These were sandals, 
consisting of a mere sole fastened by straps going round the feet. 
Hence viro-btoj (lit. 'I tie below') means 'I put on sandals,' and wrro- 
Stdtptvoi, in a middle rather than a passive sense, is ' having their 
sandals on their feet.' 

1. 134. -yap explains the reason why they suffered in the manner 
described, i.e. because their new shoes were made of undressed leather. 

1. 140. tKaO-rjvTo, pluperf. of KaO-tjuai, with meaning of imperf. because 
KaO-rjfjiai is used as a present. Why is the augment placed before the 
preposition in (-KaO-rjutjv ? Cp. IV. 60 n. 

1. 141. OUK ?<|>acrav. Cp. IV. 278 n. It was here that the inci- 
dent occurred which Xenophon relates in chap. VI. 275, of a soldier 
attempting to bury a sick comrade, to save the trouble of carrying 
him. . 

1. 145. <|>op-?j<rai. Distinguish tpvfiiiv, 'to frighten,' Lat. terrere, from 
<po&(?o&m, ' to fear,' Lat. timere, 

1. 150. fJKo.v, ist aor. of ir)i*i. *E0j;/i, JjKa, and toa/co. are the three 
ist aorists which end in -o. Do not confuse Tj/cav with ^ov, imperf. 
of 7?/ca>, ' I am come. 1 

1. 156. o-Kexj/ojitvovs, fut. part, 'to see,' Lat. visuros. 

1. 158. irap-cSocrav KO|UCIV. The Greek infin. can be used to ex- 
press a purpose or intention, instead of iva or OJTCOS with the subj. and opt. 
In Latin you could not say 'aegrotos iis tradiderunt portare,' but 'tit 
portarent.' The Greek infin. is much more like the English than the 
Latin. Cp. III. 197 n. 

1. 169. oivos KpiOivos, probably a sort of 'whisky,' as would appear 
from its effects. Cp. 1. 172. 

1. 170. Distinguish aural al KpiOat, 'the grains thenif elves,' from at 
aura! npiOal, ' the same grains.' Cp. IV. 190 n. 

1. 172. aKparos, lit. 'unmixed,' from a, 'not,' and tetpavvvfu (perf. 
-Kpa-a), ' I mix.' Hence (of wine) ' strong,' because the ancients 
generally mixed their wine with water before drinking. 

140 NOTES. 

1. 173. tirtC TIS erw-0i<r0iTj, 'as soon as one got used to it.' The opt 
with tirel implies 'whenever the time might be.' 

1. 1 76. *doriv, not the Colchian Phasis, which flows westward into 
the Euxine, but the Araxes or modern Aras, which flows eastward into 
the Caspian Sea. This latter river also had the name of Phasis, and 
Xenophon seems to have confounded the" two. The district is still 
called Pasin, and the river Pasin Su. 

irapa, not 'to' the river Phasis, but 'along* it. 

Tfj-eis-T6-7T5iov-v7rp{3oXTJ. Cp. I. 109 n. 

1. 182. TOV opovs. Distinguish opos, gen. optos, -ovs, neut. 'a moun- 
tain," from opos, gen. opov, masc. ' a boundary.' 

1. 185. <*>s Taxio-ra, lit. 'as (anyone would do it) most quickly.' 
i.e. 'as quickly as possible.' Lat. qnam celerrime. Cp. us Kpanara 
1. 191, ws pqij-ra. 1. 192, us (\axt(TTOvs 1. 193. 

1. 1 86. The accent on ot does not belong to it, but is thrown back 
from the re following. Therefore ot is the article with troAt^uoj, and 
the intervening words t>w-f)fMs-6put>T(s are taken together as one word 
=an epithet of JTO\/KO. Cp. I. 109 n. 

1. 189. HTCITOVTOV, '// him,' to be distinguished from fifrcLTOvrov, 
'with him.' Cp. /T(i ravra I. 128 and n. 

I. 190. Y L Y vc ' )crKa) j ' I judge* r ' decide,' to be distinguished from oiSa, 
'I know.' YiywaKtiv means 'to get a notion* of a thing, hence 'to 
learn,' 'perceive,' or, 'judge.' [There is much the same difference 
between the French connailre and savoir."] 

II. 191, 192, 193. us KpAno-TO, us ^9<rra, is Xaxicrrovs.. Cp. 
1. 185 n. 

1. 194. K\i)/ai TV TOW opovs, lit. 'to steal a portion of the mountain,' 
i. e. 'steal our way over the mountain.* K\tnr(tv means (i) ' to steal,' 
(a) 'to do anything by stealth,' just as we speak of stealing a march 
upon the The point of the ' banter* in the following extract 
lies in the double meaning of the word. 

1. 196. KCU...SC. When at and 5i come in the same clause, 8 
couples the sentence, teal emphasises the word which follows it. Here 
' and (or but) I think it is not impossible even (fat) to steal our way." 

1. 199. ardp, ' but yet,' marking a sudden change of thought. The 
precise idea is ' but, in consequence of thinking of the matter again,' etc. 

<rvix-f3dXXo|juu \6-yovs, ' I talk,' lit. ' put words together," Lat. conferre 

1. 201. IK -n-aiScov, 'from childhood,' lit. 'from (being) children.' Lat. 
a pueris. 

1. 202. oo-a vofio; p.T| KwXvci, 'whatever the law does not forbid.' Cp. 
1. I23n. 

1. 203. us KpdnoTa. Cp. 1. 185 n. 


1. 2O6. KX*1TTOVTtS Tl TOW OpOVIS. Cp. i. 1 94 H. 

TrXrjYns Xd.p&>n,v literally refers to the punishment inflicted at Sparta 
upon those who were caught stealing. (Cp. 1. 204.) As applied to the 
present circumstances it means being ' beaten ' by the enemy. 

[This law of theft was one of the institutions ascribed to Lycurgus. 
By it the Spartan boys were not encouraged to steal in all cases, but 
only to obtain the necessaries of life; and if caught they were punished, 
not for the theft itself, but for having done the work badly. By thus 
forcing them to depend upon their own exertions for a bare subsistence, 
Lycurgus hoped to make them hardy and effective soldiers.] 

1. 207. dXXd ficvToi, ' well, as for that.' The fjtiv has its usual force 
of 'indeed' or 'certainly;' TOI is perhaps an old form of aoi, and means 
' let me tell you.' 

1.208. Setycvs tcXsirmv, 'clever at stealing.' Afii/o* means (i) 
'terrible,* (2) ' wonderful,' (3) 'clever;' compare our expression 'a 
terrible hand' at anything, i. e. ' very clever' at doing it. 

rd 8i](i6(na, ' the public money' sc. xf r nt MTa - The readiness of all 
public officers to take bribes was a crying evil in the Athenian re- 

1. 209. Kal aoi. What does KOI mean here? Cp. I. 21 n. 

1. 211. KaTa-XrjvJ'ojJievos, fut. part. Cp. 1. 156 n. 

1. 215. tis TO iaov T|}UV, 'to a level with us.* Lat. in aeqvum 

1. 216. KaC here introduces a sudden and impatient objection, and may 
be translated ' but.' [This force of teal is commonly seen in the phrase 
teat TTWS ; ' bill how ? ' or, ' how then ?'] 

1. 217. dXXd, ' nay but.' 

1. 219. 6iroT ?x ovv . the optative depending on the past tense tiroiT|- 
aavro ; ' they made an agreement that as soon as they get possession of 
the heights they should light many fires.' The orders given to the - 
volunteers would be OTTOTCIV i?X' r l T * T( * <*pa, irvpa tenure 7roAA.d. 

1. 221. dirTT|pxovTO, imperf. of dir-fpxo/Mi, not dir-apxoncu. Cp. 
1. 75 n. 

1. 228. t<j>-eiirTo, imperf. of ecp-e'wo/tcu (tvl and IJTO^CU), cp. II. 258, 
IV. 160 n. 

1. 233. Taoxus, probably the district between the modern Kars 
and Erzroum, But this part of the route is extremely uncertain l . 

1 Ainsworth (Travels in the Track of the Ten Thousand) places the 
Taochi a long way northward in Georgia, and carries the Greeks so far out 
of their direct route. But Grote (Hist, of Greece, Appendix to chap. Ixx) 
takes them only to the level of Erzroum, and argues that the time spent ou 
the march is "fully accounted for by the difficulties of the way. 

142 NOTES. 

1. 234. Distinguish OJKOW, imperf. of o?', from <vx6(* r ) v > imperf. of 

ni \/fi lint 

1. 238. aiptTcov, 'must be taken.' Verbal adjectives in -reos imply 
necessity (the Lat. gerundive, as amamlits), those in -TUS imply possibility, 
(Lat. adj. in -bills, as amabilis). Cp. IV. 142 n. 

tern, the />res., not tarai, the future, although tf /x^ \r)i//6nt9a follows. 
The sense is 'we have no provisions now, [/tor shall we get any"] unless 
we take this fort.' 

1. -242. imparai, the subj. (contracted from Trftpaijrai}, not the indie., 
(from irftpafTai.) All compounds of av, as iav, OTO.V, etc. take the sub- 
junctive mood. Cp. III. 67 n. 

1. 246. Here and in 1. 250 xupiov means 'a space of ground;' else- 
where (as in 1. 236) it means 'a fort.' It is properly a diminutive of 
Xcupa, i. e. 'a little place.' 

1. 247. TpCa T)p,i-ir\0pa, about fifty yards. The ir\f0pov was a 
measure of length = 101 English feet. 

1. 252. VTavi0a tvOev, 'to a point whence." 'EvravOa properly means 
'in this place,' answering to the question where 1 but it is often used 
after verbs of motion, answering to the question whither 1 So we com- 
monly say here, there, and where for hither, thither, and whither. 

1. 255. jiTl TOVTO. Cp. 1. 189, I. 128 n. 

1. 260. tirel irpo-Spajxoi, ' every time he ran forward,' Lat. quoties 
procurreret. Conjunctions of time with the opt. often denote repeated 
action, 'whenever.' 

1. 261. a|xag<u, ' waggon-Zoarfs.' *A/jaa is here put for what it con- 
tains, just as in 1. 67 a<f>tvS6vrj meant the stone from a sling and not the 
sling itself. 

1. 262. The ou goes closely with irpuros, ' fearing lest he should not 
be the first to run,' etc., Lat. ' veritus ne non primus percurreret.' 

1. 265. iri-\a(ip(iviTai, ' catches hold of.' \ap.&a.vtiv is ' to take' and 
governs the accus., *.afjfidvea0ai (middle), 'to take hold of,' and governs 
the genitive (TTJS trvot). But the active \an@avftv also takes the gen. 
of ihe part seized, as t\a/3oi' TTJS {UVTJS I. 276. 

I. 266. fird TOVTOV. Cp. I. 189 n. 

1. 269. Distinguish ratrrd, ' the same,' from ravra, ' these things.' Cp. 
I. 275 n. 

1. 270. KaTa-pptvJ/ovra. For the doubling of p in compound verbs 
cp. 1. 9 n. 

1. 271. i iri-XajtpdvTai avrrjs, cp. 1. 265 n. 

1. 273. 4>tp6|icvok 'with a rush,' lit. 'being borne along.' Lat. cum 
impetu delati. 

ivTtvdtv, ' hence,' i. e. ' in consequence of this.* 

1. 277. "Apiracrov. The Harpasus is possibly a north-western tri- 


butary of the Araxes (called Phasis in 1. 1 76.) It has been supposed that 
after crossing the latter river the Greeks had marched nearly too miles 
out of their way to the north east, and were now returning in a 
direction nearly parallel to their former route, through the country 
of the Chalybes. (See foot-note on p. 141.) But it is more likely that 
the Harpasus is the modern Tchorak Sn, which flows into' the Black Sea 
near Batoum. (See Vocabulary.) 

1. 280. orevT Tipuptov, 'in five days.' The genitive implies dose 
connexion, 'a part of,' 'within' a certain period. Cp. TTJS VVKTOS IV. 
255 n. 

1. 282. Distinguish opos, 'a mountain,' from opos, 'a boundary.* Cp. 
1. 182 n. Where this Theches was is uncertain ; but it appears to 
have been off the direct road to Trapezus, into which the Greeks 
returned, after dismissing their guide (1. 300.) 

1. 287. dei, 'from time to time' or 'in succession.' Cp. rov uu 
fv-Tvyxdvovra IV. 127 n. The next dei means 'continually.' 

6ov Spojxcp. Cp. II. 54 n. 

1.288. ni6v TI, 'something very important,' lit. 'greater (than, 

1. 295. irpi-c|3aXXov. Note the force of the imperf., 'they began to 
embrace' or 'fell to embracing.' 

1. 296. <f>f po-ucri. . . iroioficn. The change to the historical pres. from 
the past tenses afp-'tKovro, irfpi-i^aKKov marks the rapidity of the action. 
[There is a good English example of this change of tenses in the 
Pilgrims Progress, in the story of Giant Despair: 'So when he arose, he 
gettelh him a cudgel, and goeth down into the dungeons to them . . . 
Then he falls upon them, and beats them in such sort that they were not 
able to help themselves.'] 

1. 301. TTJS VVKTOS. Cp. 1. 280, IV. 255 n. 

opos |AYa, ' a high mountain-range,' running east and west, parallel 
to the sea-coast. The Colchi occupied the coast of the Euxine from 
Trapezus to the Phasis (beyond Batoum). 

1. 306. dvTt-irap-6Ta|avTO (JxiXaY'ya, ' drew up against them in line? 
The word <t>d\ay does not necessarily mean a compact mass ; it was 
only the Macedonian phalanx that was so, and our use of the term 
comes from this. The proper meaning is ' a line,' Lat. acies, as opposed 
to ' a column.' In the present instance the Greeks first formed a line, but 
finding this inconvenient for marching up the hill, they ' disposed their 
companies in coltimns' (kiroi-fiaavro opQiovs rovs \6xovsl. 313). [Soldiers 
cannot march ' in line' (i. e. standing side by side) unless the ground is 
quite clear, like a parade ground. Going along roads and all ordinary 
marching is done ' in column,' i. e. some four or more abreast, and the 
rest following behind in a string.] 


1. 310. KwVuoucri TO JIT) uvai. The Greeks use what is really the 
natural method of putting a 'not' in each part of the sentence. We say 
' prevent (i.e. 'do not let,') your being.' They say 'prevent your [not] 
being.' [Cp. Kon\vcrovffi /J.T) okiaOaveiv IV. 242, and the multiplied 
negatives in I. 141 n.] 

irdXat crn-ijSop.v, ' we have long been desiring.' The Greeks use 
jraAai thus with a present or imperfect, where we use a perfect, as rro\a 
upSi, ' I have long seen," Lat. ' jamdudum* or ' jampridem video. 1 

1. 311. wjiovs KaTa-4>aYiv, 'eat up alive,' lit. 'eat up raw,' a pro- 
verbial expression for the quick and utter destruction of people you 
hate. [Cp. Homer, Iliad v. 35 ufj.ov fitfipwOois Tlpiapov Tlpianotu rt 
naioas, ' mayst thou devour Priam and his sons alive.'] 
1. 313. opOiovs rotis X6xvs, ' in columns.' Cp. 1. 306 n. 
1. 315. Spojjuo Ot'ovTas, ' running at full speed.' Cp. II. 54 n. 
1. 319. TWV Kijpuov, the partitive genitive, as we say ' to eat of a thing.' 
Thus mvf.iv rov oivov is ' to drink some o/the wine,' but irivav TOV olvov 
would be ' to drink up all the wine.' 

1. 322. TT|V aunr]v topav, i.e. 'the same hour' at which they were 
taken ill the day before. 

dv-c4>p6vovv, ' began to recover their senses.* ["Awl, means ' up again,' 
as in ava-Oapptiv, ' to take heart again,' ava-irvtlv, ' to recover one's 

! 3 2 3- TP^T) Ka ^ TT<pi~rj f||xtpa, 'on the third or fourth day,' lit. 
4 (some) on the third and (others) on the fourth day.' So fit ica! Svo, 
' one or two,' Lat. ' unus ei alter.' 

This poisonous honey seems to have been obtained from the flower of 
a kind of azalea, still common in those parts. 

1. 325. TpawtfoOvra, Trapezus, the modern Trebisond. The name 
is from rpdntfa, ' a table,' because of a hill near the town, level at 
the top and forming a 'table land.' Cp. the 'Table' Mountain near 
the Cape of Good Hope. 

1. 330. l<TTT|K<rav. As the perf. farrjita is intransitive and means 
I am standing,' the plupeif. tlaTijKtiv has the force of an imperf., 
'I was standing.' [The perf., pluperf., and 2nd aor. are intransitive, 
the other tenses are transitive. Cp. II. 99 n.] 

1. 331. TW d/ywyi. Distinguish afwv, -Sivot, 'a contest,' from ay<av t 
-ovros, pres. part, of 070;, ' I lead.' 

1. 336. 5u ourovs, ' they were required ' by the rule of the race ; 
lit. ' it was necessary for them.' 

1. 338. POJJIOV, probably the ' altar' on which the customary sacrifices 
bad been offered before the games, and which now served for a goal. 
[But /3w/td (from stem pa- in Baivoa), ' a step,' may mean any raised place 
to which you go up, Lat. suggestus."] 



1. 4. <j>xiXo.Kas, ' watches," from <f>v\aK?j, not from </>uA.a , ' a guard,' 
which would make ace. pi. c/>i5\a/zs, cp. III. 201 n. 

1. 8. \Y OU ' ' they applauded [saying] that he spoke well,' the opta- 
tive marks an oblique or reported speech after past time. 

Distinguish ravrd, ' the same,' and ravra, ' these things ;' cp. I. 275 n. 

1. 12. may be indie, or imperative. The sense decides. 

ta-r' av, i. e. tare av, ' until.' Compounds of av take the subjunctive. 
Cp. III. 67 n. 

1. 13. TJ<T0T)crav, ist aor. pass, of TJSo^at. Distinguish tfaOrjv from 
TJaOonrjv, 2nd aor. of aladavonai, which has (i) no aspirate, (2) the i 

1. 14. is Taxicrra., ' as quickly as possible.' Cp. V. 185 n. 

1. 15. tv <jj, sc. xpo^y, 'while.' Cp. note on l/f TOVTOV I. 85. 

1. 16. irl Xeiav, ' to get booty.' 'Em with the accus. signifies motion 
towards a thing, hence ' for the purpose of." Cp. IV. 209 n. [In English 
upon was once used in the same sense, and we still speak of going upon 
an errand.] 

I. 21. [ju]Tp6iroXis here means 'chief town' or 'fort,' just as we use 
the word ' metropolis.' But it usually means the ' mother-city' of a 

<ruv-ppvT|Ke(rav ) pluperf. of avp-pto) ( = <rw-/>ew). For the tenses of 
pica cp. V. 9. 

1. 22. ttrxvpus, 'exceedingly,' lit. 'strongly.' So in Latin valde, con- 
tracted from valide, means ' very,' as valde magmis, etc. 

1. 23. irpoaoSoi, 'approaches [were] difficult.' 

1. 25. aw-ei-n-ovTo, imperf. of aw-i-nopai. For the distinction be- 
tween dirufjnjv and tlirov cp. II. 158 n. 

1. 26. irXeiovs, being for ir\fiovts, is the nominative. 

1.31. 8r0a.i Ta oirXa, 'to stand under arms,' or 'to halt.' Cp. 
I. 241 n. 

1. 35. eio, imperf. of taw, contr. for flat, the augment contracting into 
ci instead of t\, because of a lost letter f (the digamma), which came 
between the two 's. Cp. I. 280. 

1. 36. iroifjaai TOV Xoxov, ' to form his company.' Lat. aciem instrvere. 
1. 39. 8i-Tj'yKvXw|ivovs, 'having (their fingers) passed through (8(d) 
the loop (ayub\Ti) of the javelin,' i. e. ready to hurl it. 


146 NOTES. 

1.40. tm-j3pX-qnvovs m rats vsvpais, 'having (their anows) fixed 
on the string," i. e. ready to shoot. 

1.41. 8i4>9pa, ' a hide,' here a ' leathern bag" or ' pouch' for carrying 
stones : it was hung from the slinger's neck. 

1. 42. irap-tcrKcuaoTO, plupf. pass., distinguish from vap-fffxtvaaaTo, 
ist aor. mid. 

1. 44. XoYX al K.T.X. are in apposition to ra &t\T]. 

1. 45. tjcrav ot, 'some,' lit. 'there were (those) who.' Lat. erant qui. 
\Ve have tlalv ot and rjaav ot in the nominative but eorrlv wv for tlalv 
wv in the genitive, and so in the other cases. 

1. 47. ucrTt . . dvtp-rjcrav, ' so that they scaled it,* i. e. in consequence of 
the enemy retiring, Agasius and Philoxenus were enabled to scale the 
fort unarmed. "Clart when it marks that a result actually did occur 
does not affect the mood : when it simply means a probable result, 
it takes the infinitive. Compare the English 'so that he did' and 
so as to do it.' 

1. 48. ficrd TOVPTOVS. For /*rd, 'after,' with the accus. cp. V. 189, 
I. I28n. 

1. 49. tjXuicci, plupf. of aXiaiconai. 

1. 50. The ircXTao-rai, ' targeteers,' were distinguished from the 4-Xoi, 
'light-armed* (also called -yi;/-^ra<) by wearing the small shield 
(ir('A.T7/). They came therefore between the ^iXo< and the 6w\ircu or 
' heavy-armed." Among the ^iAoJ were included the ' slingers* (ffftvSo- 
VTJTOI) and the 'archers' (TOOT<Z<). 

1. 55. & tXoJJov, ' what they had taken.' The aor. in a minor sentence 
must often be rendered by the English pluperf. Cp. I. 254 n., II. 118 n. 

1. 57. K-iriirrovTs, 'driven out.' 'EK-TTIVTIU is used as the passive ot 
in-l3d\\(u, especially in the phrase (K-iritrT(tt> rijs irarpiSos, ' to be banished 
from one's country.' [So xcf/uu = ' I am placed' (pass, of riOnfu), dro- 
Orr)ait<a, ' I am killed' (pass, of diro-/rr<V<u).] 

Distinguish dxpd, fern. sing, 'a citadel,* from dicpd, neut. pi. of 
oKpov, ' heights/ 

L 60. The first infin. Xa^dvctv depends on ^ouXo^tvovs, the second 
infin. Ifvai upon dv-turctv, with TOW 0ov\optvov as the ace. before 
it, ' to proclaim thai those who wished to take anything should go inside.' 

1. 63. ?9vro TO oirXa, ' grounded their shields,' * posted themselves.' 
Cp. 1. 31 n, I. 241 n. 

1. 67. X^m-lov, 'to be taken ;' for force of -riot cp. V. 238 n. 

1. 7 1 . KCU . . Kai, ' either . . or' as we should say ; lit. ' both remaining 
and going away were difficult.' 

1. 72. v iL, 'while.* Cp. 1. 15 n. 

L 76. xa(, ' also,' i. e. as well as those on the right : so 1. 78 *oi <Ui 
rovrcav ruiv otKtwy. 


1. 77. Kai, 'even,' 'quite,' i. e. the houses not merely 'caught fire' but 
did so 'rapidly.' Cp. I. 21 n. 

1. 79. TO p.crov IO.UTWV tea! TWV iroXejuuv, ' the space between them 
and the enemy.' Cp. V. 34 n. 

1. 84. Distinguish aur-f\s T-fjs dicpas from TTJS O.VTTJS diepas, cp. IV. 
190 n. 

1. 88. dir-iTov, Lat. abeundum esse : -rios implies ' must.' Cp. V. 
238 n. 

1. 89. TOVS virtp TSTTapaKOvTO, ITTJ, just as we say ' over forty.' The 
full phrase would be TOVS vnlp mrapaKovra trrj yeyovoras (' born.*) 

1. 91. [rocra-uTa] TWV cnctuuuv ocra (JLTJ. ^Kfvaiv is partitive, offa JJLTJ 
means all which were not required : & ov would mean ' those particular 
ones which.' Cp. ocra vo/ios pf) KU\V(I V. 202 and n. 

1. 92. KepacroOvra, Cerasus or Kerasunt, noted as being the place 
from which cherries were imported into Europe by the Roman general 
Lucullus, B.C. 73 ; hence the Lat. name Cerasus. 

1. 101. d\\T|\v, the gen. after crw-T]Kovov, ' they could hear each other 
shouting.' The imperf. denotes ' whenever they shouted their neighbours 
could hear them.' For aicovetv with the gen. cp. II. 43 n. 

Koi\T), 'hollow,' i. e. 'full of hills and dales.* 

1. 104. TWV eviSaifiovwv, 'the richer sort;' tv-Saifiaw is from tu, 'well,' 
and Saincw, ' fortune,' hence literally ' blest by fortune,' i. e. ' prosperous,' 
1 wealthy.' So in English the notions of weal and wealth, prosperity 
and riches are closely combined. 

crriYp.fvotJS. Herodotus mentions the practice of ' tattooing' as 
prevalent among the Thracians of the upper classes. 

1. 108. ofls 8i-XOoiv. The opt. here is like the imperfect subjunctive 
of a minor sentence in oblique oration. The direct statement would be 
OUTOI (iapPapuTaTOi Tjo-av iravrcav, ovs 8i-T|\0oj*ev. 

1. in. irpA^iav dv, sc. avOpwiroi, from 1. 109, i.e. 'what people in 
general would do.* 

1. 112. 8t-\YVTO lavTois, etc. 'they would talk to themselves and 
laugh at themselves,' i. e. when quit alone. 

oirou fuxpitv. The opt. here adds to orrov the sense of ' wherever.' 
Cp. V. 173 n. 

1. 122. K 2ivwir]s. Sinope was the parent city, of which Cotyora 
was a colony. 

1. 123. Seivos XYtv, 'clever at speaking,' Lat. habilis ad dicendum. 
Cp. V. 208 n. 

1. 125. K TOVTOV. Cp. I. 85 n. 

1. 126. viov, imperf. of (fvifa. Do not mistake this verb for a 
compound with the prep. (. 

1. 127. aurwv, 'from them,' 'of them," gen. after nwOavo^at, 
L 2 

148 NOTES. 

1. 13 r. ?ofjuv irpct-yp.aTa, ' shall have trouble.' Upay^ta is lit. 'a thing 
done,' in pi. irpay/Mra, 'affairs, 1 'business,' hence 'troublesome business.' 

irXeiw, contr. from irXtiova, comp. of iroXvs. 

1. 137,. tivou. TOVS p.axop.tvovs, 'you will have to be the fighters' (and 
we shall have no trouble). 

1. 134. a yi'yvGjcrKu, 'what I think.' For yiyvuffKu, as distinguished 
from ol8a, cp. V. 190 n. 

1. 136. KaT-ex o H* v ' ov > ' '/held,' because of the ap, 'in that case,' which 
follows with b'vvaivTo. Cp. IV. 234 n. 

1. 137. ouSf, 'not even.' 

ol 7rdvTs dvOpoj-iroi, ' all men combined? Of iravrts means ' the whole' 
or 'all collectively? irdvra means 'every' or 'all distributively? 

1. 141. "AXuv, for the Ilalys and the other rivers, see Map at 
the end. 

1. 142. rcL irXoia. Observe the force of the article, 'the transports' 
which you will require. 'Who will give?' is a more lively way of 
saying ' no one will give.' 

Biop^r*, the aorist gives the force of a perf. subj., ' shall once have 

1. 144. \itv oviv. Ovv means 'in fact I think,' 'in consequence q/'what I 
have told you,' the plv really belongs to rrjv-KaTcL-y^v-iruptiav, which is 
opposed to lai/ 8t irXtrjTf. 

1. 146. 'HpaxXtiav. Heraclea (Pontica), situated on the Lycus in 
Bithynia, was a Greek colony from Megara. Its king Lycus was said 
to have treated the Argonauts with kindness. The modern Erekli is 
only a small part of the ancient city, but there are extensive ruins, and 
traces of old walls, to the east and north. 

1. 151. irl TOVTOIS, 'with a view to this,' i.e. to see what was the 
will of the gods in the matter. 

1. 152. XtlOpa orrpanwruiv, Lat. clam militilus; \dOpa with gen.= 
' without the knowledge of.' 

Silanus was an Ambracian prophet, who had foretold to Cyras, before 
the battle of Cunaxa, that the king would not fight within ten days. 
For this prophecy Cyrus gave him ten talents, which he wanted to 
take home safely to Greece (1. 154); hence his opposition to Xeno- 
phon's scheme. 

1. 1 58. rots iroXAois, ' the majority,' lit. ' the many,' the article imply- 
ing a division into two parts, of which the other was smaller ; hence 
iroAXof, ' many,' but ol troXXoi, ' most,' like a superlative. 

1. 160. <}>6|3i](rav. Distinguish between <o/3'a), 'I frighten,' and $0- 
(ifoiMt, ' I am frightened,' i. e. ' I fear.' 

1. 169. Tii Tovrcp, 'with this object.' Cp. note on M TOVTOII 
1. 151- 


1. 172. vir-Apt,, not merely tffrai, but 'shall be with you to start 
with' [and you will get others]. 

1. 1 74. v TOVTOJ, sc. xP^ v Vt ' meanwhile,' ' for the time.' 'Ev marks 
the time within or during which anything takes place. Cp. kv y 11. 


1. 176. OTTWS \*^w. Aew must be i aor. subj. though in form it 
might also be the fut. indie. 

1. 1 78. ittpi aviTO-G TOVTOV el a[Aivov ITJ, ' about this very point, [to 
see] if it were better." AVTOS retains the meaning of ipse not only in 
nom. but in gen., dat., and ace. also, when attached to a noun or a pro- 
noun as here, 

1. 181. ort, <{>aCvoiTO. The opt. shows that this was merely what 
Silanus said, and that it might not be true. So also us tyui 8ia-vooip,Tjv 
below. But it is ort avros lir-tpovXeve (the indicative) in the next line, 
because the ' plotting ' of Silanus was a certain fact. 

I. 183. 8ia-|3dX\iv. See note on I. 12. 

1. 185. et 'topcov .. &v to-Koirouv, 'if I had been observing you, etc., 
... I should have [now] been considering (imperfect).' Aorists would 
mean, ' if I had seen you, I should have considered.' 

1. 191. The stress is on <rcoo[Atvovs, ' that we should sail away in 

\. 194. -yfyvwo-Kw, ' I perceive,' or ' I judge,' lit. ' I get knowledge,' as 
distinguished from olSa, ' I know.' 

ojxoti ovTts, ' if you are together,' = lav j$T. 

1. 195. KCU ?vTip.oi ecreaOe, ' then you will both be held in honour.' 

1. 199. TauTa. Cp. II. 143 n. 

1. 200. cv a<r4>a\i, ' in safety.' Lat. tuto. The adj. is used substan- 
tively. Cp. tv dnopois, etc., III. 50 n. 

KpivccrOai depends on ooxti. 

1. 201. eirl TOVTOIS, lit. ' on these conditions,' i. e. 'for this proposal,' 
signifying their assent to what had been proposed. 

1. 202. TOV povXdjxevov, lit. ' that he who wished,' i.e. 'whoever- wished,' 
= carts povXoiro. 

1. 204. airo-SiSpdo-KovTa, ' trying to run away,' (force of the present"). 
For the meaning of dTro-SiSpdffKoj cp. I. 272 n. 

1. 205. vnr-to-xovTO. Translate by the pluperf., ' had promised,' and 
cp. I. 254, II. 118 n. 

I. 206. OVPK ?<J>ao-av, in one word, = ' refused.' Cp. IV. 278 n. 

I. 210. tls "MoTiv. This is the Colchian Phasis, which rises in 
Mount Caucasus and flows westward into the Euxine. It is not the 
same Phasis as the one mentioned in V. 176, which was properly called 
the Araxes. Cp. V. 176 n. 

L 214. tiTvOovro, 'heard,' 2nd aor. of irv(>')0-o>'-o/xai, 'I learn by 

150 NOTES. 

enquiry.' The pres. is doubly nasalized (like \a(v)Q-dv-<u, etc.) by the 
insertion of v and of the syllable ov. Cp. note on rvy \avaj I. 220. 

1. 215. Sia-vootro, ' was intending,' or 'intended,' not 'would intend;' 
for the opt. after t\f-f(v OTI cp. 1. 184 n. 

1. 218. icvxAoi, ' circles,' i.e. ' groups." 

1. 219. <is Tax<-crra, ' as soon as possible.' Cp. V. 185 n. 

1. -220. avTOfiaTOvs, 'of their own accord" [lit. ' self-moving']. Cp. 
V. 9 n. 

1. 222. TJKovj-av TOV KTjpuKos. For axovtiv with gen. of the person 
cp. II. 43 n. 

1. 224. 8ia-pdXXiv. Cp. 1. 183 above, and I. 12 n. 

is, supply qaaKOVTa to agree with rtva, ' saving that,' etc. 

1. 226. 4>aivttjj.a.i, 'I am shown,' or 'proved;' rather stronger than 
SOKUI, which would mean, 'if I seem in your opinion to be doing wrong;' 
<paii'oj/ aoiKiiv would mean,' ' if I am clearly doing wrong.' 

1. 227. cTTi-Otre p.ov SIKTJV, ' impose a. penalty on me,' i. e. ' punish me.' 
Cp. I. 134 n. 

1. 228. \p-r\o-Qt aiiTois, 'deal with them,' lit. 'use them.' [So the 
common phrase rl xp<"H<u avru ; = '\Vhat am I to do with him?' also 
the Lat. titor, ' treat ' as a friend, etc.] 

1. 229. o*(, ' I suppose,' contr. from oiopat. 

Distinguish o0v, 'from what quarter," from OTTOV, ' in what quarter.' 
[Adverbs in -6tv are local ablatives, denoting motion from a place, as 
TTuOfv, ' whence,' those in -ow are local genitives denoting rest at or in a 
place, as irov, ' where.'] 

1. 232. els TOVS Papfjdpovs, 'into [the country of] the barbarians,* i.e. 
into Asia. The Greeks contemptuously called all foreigners 0dp0apot. 

Distinguish ?&>, accus. of t us, ' the morning,' or ' the east,' from iu>, 
contr. from taw, ' I allow.' Sense and not accent distinguishes tut, 
' until,' from teas, ' morning.' 

1. 234. 4>dcriv. Cp. 1. 210 n. 

1. 235. KaXoi irXoi tlo iv, lit. ' there are fair sailings,' i. e. 'the wind 
is fair for sailing.' [IlAof, contr. from w\6oi, nom. pi. of wAdos, 

1. 240. \LJ\ pov\o|Atvovs, ' if you did not choose,' = tl ^ Pov\otff0t. 
Oil 0ov\ofiivov$ would mean, since [as a matter of fact] you do not 
choose," = ot ov 0ov\tffOt. 

1. 241. Kal 8t| dv, etc., 'and even supposing that by an act of deception 
I should carry you to the Phasis.* 

The *-airaTT|(Tas is contrasted with ^laaai^rjv in the former sentence 
(' if I could not force you to go, I might perhaps deceive you into 
going *). It literally means ' having deceived you,' i. e. ' by deceiving 
you,' like the Latin gerund in -do. Kol BTJ means ' suppose that,' ' put 


the case that,' so HOI Srj TeQvaffi, ' Well suppose they are dead, [what 
then] ? ' (Eur. Medea 386). 

1. 246. Siicaiws Y. ' justly at least,' i. e. ' their jealousy cannot be well 
founded whatever else it may be ; it may be real, or well assumed, but 
not just.' 

1. 252. 8ia-paX6vTas. Cp. I. 12 n. 

Bovvai SIKTJV, ' to give satisfaction] \. e. ' to be punished,' Lat. dare 
foenas ; \afttiv SIKTJV is ' to take satisfaction,' i. e. ' to punish/ Lat. 
sumere foenas. So also firiOftvai Stictjv 1. 227. 

1. 253. {nro-<rxiv BIKTJV, ' submit to [give] an account,' i. e. 'be put on 
their trial.' 

t'v Toi irpdo-fltv xpovw, i. e. since the time when the five new generals 
were chosen in place of those murdered by Tissaphernes. See III. i?5i 
and IV. 62. 

1. 255. irpuTov, neutr. sing, of irptaros, used as an adverb with 

1. 256. iroO, i.e. at what stage of the journey. The KO.I emphasises 
the verb in question, ' Where was it then that,' etc. ? ' Where were you 
so struck ? ' 

1. 257. OITOV air-coXXvfwOa, etc., i. e. during their march through 
Armenia (Chap. V. pp. 48, 49). 

1. 258. dXXd (iT)v, ' well indeed.' Mr)v is a strengthened form of piv, 
' certainly,' often = ' yet.' 

1. 260. vppio-TOTtpos, ' more vicious.' *T0pis is used of all kinds of 
wanton actions, and the ass was proverbial for being wanton even when 

Distinguish ojjius, 'nevertheless,' (i) from o/*oG, 'together,' (2) from 
opo'iais, ' likewise." 

1. 263. ouStv eivai TOUTWV, ' that it [the reason he was beaten] was 
none of these things.' 

1. 264. OUK <j>i), ' denied ' or ' said no.' Cp. 1. 206 n. 

1. 265. ouSt TOVTO l<j>T|, ' said he did not do this either.' OiiSt means 
' not even,' ' nor yet,' or ' not either.' 

1. 267. av--yiY vtoo " Kv ' ' began to recognise,' lit. ' began to perceive 
again [who he was].' Cp. 194 n. for meaning of jiywvaKu. [In I. 237 
ura-fiyvw<rHw had another meaning, ' to read.'] 

1. 268. TJ trv t, 'surely you are [are you not?].' Distinguish ?J. 
surely,' from ^, ' or,' ' than.' 

TOV KO.JJIVOVTO, ' the sick man." Kd/wo;, ' I labour ; ' hence with v6a<u 
understood, ' I labour under a sickness/ i. e. 'I am ill.' Cp. the Lat. 
' morbo laborare.' 

1. 2 70. dXXd. ' well but.' Xenophon admits that he did ' throw the 
things about,' but is going to explain why. 

152 NOTES. 

1. 271. 8i-t8wKa, ' I distributed." Ai means, ' in different directions," 
or (as here) ' to different persons." 

KCU <ru, ' you also,' ' you on your part." 

1. 274. dir-i'8ias, ' you produced.' lie was required to produce the 
man committed to his charge at the end of the day's march, as a con- 
dition of getting back his goods. 

ufxeis. This is said to the assembled soldiers, but Xenophon resumes 
his address to the man in the next sentence (fjvayKaaa tre, etc.). 

1. 275. KOT-eXeiirtTo, imperf., 'was on the point of being left behind.' 

1. 279. us, with the fut. part, signifies a purpose. Cp. II. 70 n. 

1. 281. <^t], opt. pres. of faw. Contracted verbs generally have their 
opt. in -olrjv, -aijv instead of -otfu, -</. Cp. III. 133 n. [Remember 
that {acu and \paonai contract everywhere into i\ instead of a, hence f? 
from C<', ?^7 fr m *C a -] 

1. 284. ivrfi, ' after," Lat. postquam. He means to say that the sick 
man died some time or other, notwithstanding his having been ' pro- 
duced" at the end of that day's march. Cp. 1. 274 n. Xenophon points 
out the difference between dying in the natural course of things, and 
being buried alive. 

1. 285. Kal yip, 'well, for the matter of that,' lit. '[yes] for we 
also,' etc. 

1. 286. TOVTOV ovv VKO, ' for this reason therefore,' i.e. 'Is this any 
reason why?' The ovv connects 8ff with a-no-Oavov^Oa. in the preceding 
sentence, ' Is it therefore necessary ?' 

I. 288. irawreuv oXtyas irXtj-yas, ' gave him [too] few blows,' the 
cognate accus., or the accus. of a noun of kindred meaning with the verb. 
So we say, ' I struck him a blow,'' ' they fought a battle,' etc. 

II. 289, 290. Note the force of the imperfects iiccXcvev, av-CoToro, 
cXY* v > ' proceeded to command,' ' offered to rise,' ' went on to say.' 

1. 291. irauroi STJ, 'that I certainly have struck.' 

1. 293. irXovKTlv, to get the advantage of,' lit. ' to have ' or ' try 
to have more than.' Hence it takes the gen. because of the compara- 
tive iiKiov. 

(I Troiovjiv, (imperf.), 'if we had been doing this (as a 

&v air toX6p.0a, (aorist), 'we should (once for all) have been lost.' 

1. 295. OVIK 49Xovras, 'refusing.' Cp. I. 127 n. Distinguish (6{- 
\ovrai, pres. part, of i0t\a>, from iOf \ovrat, ace. pi. of iOfhovrfy, 'a 
volunteer,' (II. 295. p. 41). 

1. 297. Kal <|xavT(p, 'even for myself." Cp. I. 21 for the different 
senses of xai. 

1. 299. tjXawov, (imperf.) ' I would urge him on," i. e. used to do so 
every time the occasion occurred. 


1. 300. vyportiTa, 'suppleness.' The adj. vypos means (i) 'moist,' 
(2) 'soft/ (3) 'pliant,' especially of the limbs. [So Virgil, Georg. iii. 
76, speaks of the ' mollia crura,' the 'lithely moving' legs of a high- 
stepping colt.] 

1. 301. uiro TOV Ko0fj<r0<u, 'by the [act of] sitting down.' The article 
with the infin. shows that the verb is used as a gerund or substantive. 
Lat. sedendo. 

ol SaKxvXoi . . dir-ecTT|irovTO. See the narrative in Chap. V. 127 
(p. 49). 

1. 303. diro\iiro|itvovs, etc. See the same narrative a little further 
on, 11. I37-144- 

1. 304. ITU!, ' with the fist.' These adverbs in f denote the instru- 
ment, as A.a, ' with the heel,' 68d, ' with the teeth,' and a few others. 
They are probably shortened forms of dative plurals. [For JTU cp. Lat. 
'/w--nus;' Germ, fust; Eng. ' fist.'] 

1. 306. tiri. d-ya0tj>, ' for good.' 'Em with the dative implies purpose. 
Cp. tvl Qararoi I. 276 n. 

1. 307. Sovvat 8iK-nv. Cp. 1. 252 n. The sentence means, 'I am 
content (lit. ' think it right ') to render the same kind of account [to 
you], as parents do to their children, etc. [when they have chastised 
them].' In other words, ' I claim to stand in the position of a parent or 
a master to you." 

1. 308. vj3pfi, ' through wantonness,' ' wantonly,' ' through an over- 
bearing spirit.' Cp. 1. 260 n. 

1. 310. ojiws. Cp. 1. 260, second note. 

1.311. v cvSCa, 'in calm weather,' i.e. 'in prosperity.* All that 
follows down to 1. 315 is a metaphor from a ship at sea. 

1. 314. icol, 'even.* Cp. 1. 297 n. 

'n-irotT|crv, ' will involve,' lit. ' will cause in the matter' 

1. 315. dir-Tjx06(ii]v, 2 aor. of\()a.voiun. Distinguish it from dir- 
nX-6*] v > 1st aor. pass, of dir-ay-iu. 

1. 317. dXAd fi-qv, 'but surely.' Cp. 1. 259 n. 

1. 320. n-pi-Y v TO > * turned out in the end,' ' came round,' as we 

1. 321. tcos means ' while ' or ' as long as,' with a pres. or imperf. as 
here; with an aorist 'until:' that is to say, with the continuous tenses 
" it has the continuous sense of ' while,' with the momentary tense the 
momentary sense of ' until.' 

1. 325. wore, ' on condition that,' Lat. ea condirione ut. 

1. 329. 0vaavTs . . ISetirvovv. The sacrifices were momentary, the 
feasts lasted some time. 

1. 330. ryvovTo, ' had been made ;'. cmudvierav, ' had sung the paean.' 
The Paean (i) a song of victory, as when Apollo killed the dragon 

154 NOTES. 

Python; (2) a battle song; (3) as here, 'a festal hymn* to the gods. 
The aorist in a minor sentence must often be rendered by the pluperf. 
Cp. I. 254, II. 118 n. 

1. 331. upxTicravTO crtiv TO!S oirXots, i. e. the dancers imitated military 
movements by attitudes and gestures. These warlike dances were very 
fashionable among the Greeks and Romans ; they resembled the modem 
ballet in many respects. 

1. 334. Txvncojs irws, 'in a sort of artistic manner,' lit. 'somehow 
artistically." [Distinguish TTOJS, 'somehow,' from irws, 'how?'] 

1. 336. TOV 2iTa\Kav, 'the Sitalcas-song," originally a. song in honour 
of Sitalcas, a Thracian king. 

1. 340. KaprraCav, perhaps the 'wrist-dance,' from Kap-nos, 'a wrist,' 
because the hands of the vanquished man were tied behind him (1. 347). 
[Others say the ' harvest dance ' from Kapiros, ' fruit,' but (i) the farmer 
was sowing and not reaping, and (2) the brigand tried to get the oxen 
and not the corn.] 

1. 342. <riT6ipi Kal fUY 1 A aT ^> i- e - imitates the motions of one sowing 
and driving oxen. The whole performance was in pantomime. [Zevy- 
T)\aT-o is compounded of {tvyos, ' a yoke (of oxen),' and i\ar(T]p) t ' a 
driver," from (\aros, I \avvca, ' I drive.'] 

1. 345. TtXos, 'at last,' lit. 'as regards the end,' accus. of respect, 
used adverbially. 

1. 347. T&) x e *P*j instead of rci x f ip ( - 1 Attic (or Athenian) Greek 
the feminine forms of the dual in -a and -aiv were seldom used. Thus 
we find TW jwatxt, TW tr6\t(, etc. 

1- 35. TOT* \i(v, 'at one time,' . . . TOT St, ' at another time.' 

is, ' as if,' Lat. tanqiiam. 

1. 352. -KvJ3icrTa, imperf. 3rd sing, of (K-Kv^taraoj. The /cvfiiffTrjpft, 
or ' tumblers,' are mentioned both in the Iliad and the Odyssey. Xeno- 
phon elsewhere describes the feats of one of them, who turned somer- 
saults over a circle of upright swords. 

1^353- Tf'Xos. Cp. 1. 345 n. 

TO ITtpcrvKov, sc. ijfxrjfjui, ' the Persian dance.* 

1. 354. uicXa^c, ' kept crouching down.' From the verb uK\a$(iv this 
Persian dance was sometimes called oK\afffM. [Hence, also the adverb 
<kA(i, ' in a crouching posture,' formed like Adf , oSaf, etc.] Cp. 
1. 304 n. 

]. 361. is i'Svvaro KaXXicrra. This is the full form of the expression, 
which commonly appears as els KaXXicna, etc. Cp. V. 185 n. 

1. 362. njv nvppixT)v. This was one of the great military dances. 
It had its origin in Crete and Sparta, and its step was very quick and 
light ; hence in prosody a foot consisting of two short syllables (v/w) was 
called the Pyrrhic foot. The Pyrrhic dance continued till quite a late 


period and was adopted by the Romans. The dance is still kept up and 
called the Romaika ; so Byron says 

' You have the Pyrrhic dance as yet, 
Where is the Pyrrhic phalanx gone?' 

1. 366. H.TJT* d8iKiv, etc. These were the terms which Corylas had 
proposed on behalf of the Paphlagonians, and which the Greeks now 
accepted. Cp. 1. 325. 

fxtTo, TOXJTO. MerA with ace. means ' after ;' cp. I. 128. 

1. 367. eimSt), ' now that.' The 677 defines ewet more precisely as to 
the time. 

1. 369. dva-pdivTcs, ' having embarked,' eis TO. n\ota being understood. 

1. 370. Sivioinjv. The Sinopians were colonists from Miletus (on the 
West coast of Asia Minor), who had settled in Paphlagonia. 


1. 4. yiyvfaQa.1, imperf. infm., ' that they were getting near Greece.' 

1. 5. IXtaOai, 2nd aor. mid. of alptaa. AtpeicrOai in the middle means, 
' to choose.' The passive, ' I am taken/ is expressed by dAtV/ro/xai. 

1. 6. tireiOov, imperf., 'tried to persuade.' 

1. 8. neiio, with 7ve<70cu (making the predicate}, ' would become 
greater,' or ' increase.' 

1. i o. Ka(. Cp. I. 2 1 n. Think what KOI must mean here. 

TT|V iTpo-eipYCKr^vTjv 86av, ' the reputation he had already achieved, 
lit. ' worked out beforehand (by him).' 

L 13. See the account of Xenophon's dream and the way he inter- 
preted it in IV. 43 and following lines. 

1. 15. n'p* 1 !' 'was chosen.' Cp. 1. 5 n. 

1. 16. crv(A-|jiaxovjjivos, the fut. part., ' intending to join Cyrus.' 

1. 19. fxtvTov, 'but,' or 'however,' corresponding to the in the 
previous line \ji\v .. 5 is sometimes piv .. pivToi], 

?4>T|, understand o /Jiavrts. 

1. 20. tm-TiOea&u, 'attack.' 'Envr/fle/icu (middle) is lit. 'I set upon,' 

1. 21. The stress is on ireTojievov, 'gets its food when flying? 

L 25. ciXovTo. Cp. 1. 5 n. 

156 NOTES. 

1. 26. d\Xd, 'well.' Lit. ['I don't refuse it] but for all that.' Cp. 
VI. 270 n. 

IOT. The sense decides whether it is the imperative, ' I wish you 
to know this,' or the indicative, ' ye know this.' 

1. 27. tea! tyo) leads up to KO.I vfttTs. 

1. 28. o i% dv, 'whatever.' *Av adds the force of 'ever.' When 
combined with conjunctions or relative pronouns it is always followed 
by the subjunctive. 

1. 29. For is with fut. part. cp. II. 70 n. 

1. 30. TWV dXXcov, neuter, ' what remains (to be done),' ' all other 
points.' Cp. 1. 35. 

1. 34. ois, the contracted ace. pi. of o?s, gen. olos, ace. olv, Lat. ovis. 
The ace. />/. of nouns of the 3rd declension, whose stem ends in a vowel, 
often becomes, when contracted, the same as the now. sing., as &ovt, ravs, 
ijpw$ for 136-a.s, vi)-as, T^JOMZS. 

1. 37. iropevrtov tirj, ' they ought to travel.' For verbals in -re'os cp. 
VI. 88 n. The optative is the past of the deliberative present subj. iritis 
iropfVTfov rj ; 

1. 40. eriria rpioiv r)|j.pu>v, ' provision for three days,' or, as we say, 
' three days provision.' 

I. 42. Kvfuc-rjvovs. The m^iKT)vos, sc. arar^p, was a gold coin of 
Cyzicus, worth about 20 francs, or a Napoleon, 15$. or i6s. 

II. 46, 47. Notice the force of the tenses here : O-UV-TJYOV, imperf., 
' began to collect.' 

(KitcXiivro, pluperf. ' [had already been shut],' ' were kept shut.* 

<j>aivTO, imperf., ' began to appear.' 

1. 47. oirXa, for oirAfra*, ' armed men.* [So irt\Tal, ' targets,' is some- 
times used for irtKraorai, ' targeteers.'] 

1. 49. 'K TOVTOW, after this.' Cp. I. 85 n. 

1. 50. us alaxpov eitj. The opt. marks that this was what the 
Arcadians and Achaeans said, whether it were true or not. Cp. VI. 
181 n. 

1. 51. Ijv 8f, etc. The subject of fjv is vrrtp-Tiniav, the complement 
'ApicdScs Kal 'Ax<uoi. ' More than half the army consisted of Arcadians 
and Achaeans.' 

1. 53- <5>s 8<> 1 ' For the opt. cp. 1. 50 n, above. 

KaO' lavrovs, ' by themselves,' Lat. seorsutn, lit. ' as regards them- 

1. 55. aw-ttrnjo-av, the 2nd aor. of aw-iffriym, because it is intransi- 
tive, 'stood together,' i.e. 'combined.' [In IOTIJJM the 2nd aor., perf., 
and pluperf. are intransitive, the other tenses are transitive.] Cp. II. 
99 n. 

tlXovro. Cp. L 5 n. 


1. 62. iiririKov, sc. arpartvfia, ' a cavalry force.' 

1. 63. aTTO-paivovorv, ' disembark,' TWV -nXo'toiv understood. 

1. 64. TTJS v 'A<ria 0paKT)s, a portion of Bithynia inhabited by 
Tlvracians, and called ' Asiatic Thrace ' to distinguish it from Thrace in 
1'lu rope, or Thrace proper. [So we speak of Turkey in Europe and 
Turkey in Asia, Russia in Europe and Russia in Asia.] 

1. 68. tm-Ti0VTai, ' attack.' Cp. 1. 20 n. 

1. 69. Distinguish aurov TOV 'SiJ.iKprjra, ' Smicres himself,' from TOV 
auTov S/xitf/Mjra, ' the same Smicres.' [Sometimes the article is omitted 
in the former case, as aurds 'HyricravSpos, 1. 72 below.] 

1. 73. TTJS VUKTOS, ' during the night,' to be distinguished from VVKTOS, 
' by night.' Cp. IV. 255 n. 

The stress is on iroXXoC, ' assembled in great numbers' Ol no\\ol 
Qpaitts would be, ' the numerous Thracians,' or ' most of the Thracians.' 

'! 74> 75- TaTTOvro . . tarparoueSeijovro .. irpos-*paXXov. Observe 
the force of the imperfects. ' [When the day dawned], there they were 
drawing themselves up, etc., . . where the Greeks were being encamped, 
and they began to attack,' etc. 

1. 76. Tt'Xos, ' at last.' Cp. VI. 345 n. 

1. 77- ipY ov . imperf. of tipya), 'I restrain,' 'keep off;' Lat. arceo. 
Distinguish ipy-w from cpY-a^o/wzi, ' I work,' which has perf. pass. ipY- 
acr/iai. [There is no such verb as tpycu or tpyofuu from tp~fov, ' work.'] 

Kai. Think what is the sense of nal here. Cp. I. 21 n. 

1. 80. O-UTWS irpaav, not 'did* but 'fared thus.' Uparrdv with an 
adverb means ' to fare.' [So we say, ' he is doing well,' ' how do you 
do? 'etc.] 

1. 82. irapd. OAXarrav, 'along the coast;' lit. 'alongside of the sea.' 
Ilapd with the ace. signifies motion along a given line, as well as motion 
to gel alongside of a thing. 

1. 83. rfiS 0p<jKT)s, i.e. Asiatic Thrace. Cp. 1. 64 n. 

1. 84. 'HpaK\o)Ti5os, ' the district of Heraclea,' yfjs or x<*>P as under- 
stood. [So 77 Me-fapis, ' the Megarid,' or ' district about Megara,' etc.] 

1. 85. Distinguish iroi, 'to some place' (' some-whither '), from irov, 
in next line, ' in any place ' (' any-where '). IIo is properly a simple 
locative, like otxot, but as wow was used for ' where,' iroi was kept for 
' whither.' 

Tjpwra, imperf., ' proceeded to ask them." 

1. 88. irpi-KKVK\w|juvoi ttev, the perf. pass, in a middle sense, 'had 
got round them in a circle,' i. e. ' had surrounded them.' [So in Latin, 
' circnmfiinduntur hostem Romani,' ' the Romans surround the enemy.'] 

1. 90. o-Koiriv, ' to reconnoitre.' The infin. in Greek, as in English, 
may express a result very nearly resembling a purpose. In Latin it 
would be tit observaret or ad observandum. 

158 NOTES. 

1. 92. oo-a 6pu>v, ' whatever' [lit. 'as many things as'] 'they might 
see.' The opt. marks indefmiteness, i. e. ' at any time, in any place, in 
any way.' We might however use the indicative, ' whatever they 

1. 93. tiroiow, imperf., 'proceeded to do.' Cp. 1. 85 n. 

1.94. aifoaOcu, 'to be on fire' with watchfires. Distinguish from 
alaGtaOcu, to ' perceive.' 

1.95. <I>s els H-^OrrV' 'in preparation for fighting;' lit. 'as if for 

1. 101. rfjs eo-tttpas, 'in the evening,' gen. of time. Cp. 1. 73 n. 

1. 102. TjSti, plwperf. 3rd sing, of otSa, 'I know.' 

1. 104. <ru|A-p.iai, here 'to join.' Note the two seemingly opposite 
meanings of avfi-fufvvfu, (i) ' I join" in a friendly way, as here; (2) ' I 
join battle with an enemy.' 

1. 106. do-jivoi., lit. ' glad,' i.e. 'gladly,' or 'were glad to see;' aaptvoi 
being the real predicate. 

1. 109. tv jitcrw TIpaKXeias Kal Bvfavriov, 'midway between I leraclea 
and Byzantium.' (See the Map.) Literally, in the middle as regards 
I leraclea and Byzantium' (gen. of respect). 

1. no. irpoKi|Avov, 'jutting out,' lit. ' lying forward.' 

1. in. TO aurov, with Ka9--fjKov, 'that portion of it which reaches 
down into the sea.' 

1. 112. diroppw, 'precipitous,' lit. 'broken off;' cp. dir-tpptaya, and 
perf. of A.rro-pprjyvvfu, ' I break off.' *Av-T|Kv, ' reaching upwards,' as 
opposed to Ka9-fJKov, ' reaching downwards.' 

1. 113. jioXierra, ' at most.' 

TO cvipos, ' [in] breadth,' accus. of respect. 

1. 115. oiK-fjcrcu, the infm., as in English, ' to dwell in.' In Latin it 
would be ad habitandum, or ubi habitarent. Cp. 1. 90 n. 

Distinguish avrrj TTJ irTp<y, ' the rock itself, ' from TTJ aiirrj TTtrpq, ' the 
same rock.' Cp. 1. 69 n. 

1. 116. irpos ca-n-tpav, '[looking] towards the west.' 

T)Sios, ' fresh," lit. ' sweet,' as opposed to ' salt,' or ' brackish.' So 
'aquae dulces' in Virgil, Aen. i. 167. 

1. 117. cmicpaTtta, ' under cover of the fort,' i. e. ' commanded by it' 
(ivl and Kparot, ' power.') 

1. 119. dv-T|Ki. Cp. 1. 112 n. 

1. 1 20. ir, ' up to,' i.e. 'as much as.' 

ycwScs, 'earthy,' lit. 'earth like,' contr. from yt-o-dSrjt, from yt], 'earth,' 
and <75o, ' appearance." 

1. 121. irap-T|Kci, 'extends along.' 

1. 122. T| fiXXtj \"P Q . not 'the other district,' but 'the rest of the 
district.' [So in Latin summus mom,, ' the top of a mountain," medius 


amnis, 'the middle of a river,' etc.] Distinguish \&pa, ' a distinct,' from 
Xojpiov (its diminutive"), ' a place,' or military ' position.' 

1. 1 30. [ivT]cr9iT], ' should propose ; ' lit. ' make mention of.' So the 
Latin memorare commonly means net ' to remember,' but ' to tell ' or 
' relate.' 

Sixa -iroutv, lit. ' to make twofold,' and hence ' to divide,' without 
reference to any particular number of parts. The army had actually 
split into three divisions (T/H'X??)- Cp. 1. 57. 

1. 133. irl TTJ iropeia, ' with a view to marching,' i.e. to see whether 
they were to march or not. 

I. 134. eK TOVTOU, 'in consequence of this.' Cp. 1. 49 n. 

1. 135. TJxOovTO. Distinguish rjxd-6ij.r]v, imperf. of axOofiat, 'to be 
grieved,' or 'be in trouble,' from ^X^ 7 ?"* Is ^ a r. pass, of d^ca. It might 
also be the 2nd aor. of ixOavofMi, but that verb is generally used in its 
compound a.n-(\0a.vo^w.i. Cp. VI. 315 n. 

KCU. yap, 'for in fact:' if 'for both" was meant, we should probably 
have TO. re yap. 

1. 140. els TpCs, 'up to thrice,' i.e. 'as many as three times.' [Els 
implies going right into anything, hence with numerals it means ' fully,' 
as (Is x i ^' ovs < 'f"Hy a thousand men.'] 

1. 141. tytyvtTO, sc. KctXd. The phrase ytyvfaOcu rd. Itpa was often 
used with the Ka\a, or ' favourable,' understood. 

OVIK f$i) v Qayaytlv, ' said that he would not lead out,' lit. ' denied 
that he would,' etc. The dv goes with f-ayay(Ti>, and the ovK-ttyt] is to 
be taken together as one word. Cp. IV. 283 n. 

1. 145. ouSJ OVTCO, 'not even so,' i. e. ' not even then' after they had 
tried so many times. 

1. 147. Suvcos txovras, 'in a dreadful state.' 'EX*** with an adverb 
means, ' to be in a certain condition.' Cp. IV. 2 n. 

TJJ t'vSeia, the instrumental dative, ' through their want.' 

1. 150. Take iravras TOTJS PO\)\O(JIVOVS as the subject of Uvai after 
(icrjpvff, ' he proclaimed that all who wished should go.' 

1. 153. tVi TO \ap.|3avuv, 'in order to get (provisions),' lit. ' for the 
getting;' Lat ad rapiendum or rapiendi causa. The article with the 
infin. shows that the verb is used as a gerund or a substantive. Cp. I. 
24 n. 

Phamabazus was the Persian satrap of Bithynia. 

1. 155. TOUTOV. Cp. 11. 49, 134 n. 

1. 16 1. TOVS HSV..TOVS 81, ' some .. the others.' The n\v, 'on the 
one hand ' prepares the reader for a S, ' on the other hand.' 

1. 162. ls TO, oirXa, to the place where their arms were piled in camp. 
Hence rd on-Aa came to mean generally ' the camp,' or ' quarters.' 
Cp. 11. 167, 172 n. 

1 60 NOTES. 

1. 163. wKT6s, ' by night,' gen. of time. [So ' of was formerly used, 
as Hamlet says (Act i. Scene 5) : 

' My custom always of the afternoon.' 
Cp. IV. 255 n. 

1. 1 66. f'pvp.vov, the 'strong' or 'fortified position,' whose natural 
defences were described in 11. 110-114. This the Greeks were about to 
strengthen artificially by making a trench and palisade across the 'neck' 
of land (1. 1 12). 

1. 167. dva-Xap6vrs TO. oirXa, 'having taken up their arms,' or, in 
other words, ' moving their camp.' Cp. 1. 162 n. 

1. 1 68. -irpiv . . elvai, ' before it was.' 

apiorov, ' breakfast,' to be distinguished from apiorov, gen., of 
cipiffTos, 'best.' Cp. III. 15 n. 

uir-tTa<}>pv(rav . . air-ecrTavipwffav. The airo implies the cutting off" 
of the promontory from the mainland by means of the trench and 

1. 172. ?0VTO TO. oirXa, ' piled their arms,' so as to form a campMn 
their newly-fortified position. Cp. 1. 162 n. 

1. 1 74. aurov, ' there,' ' where they were,' gen. of place used as an 

1. 183. fo-rqaav. Think whether this is the transitive 1st aor. or 
intransitive 2nd aor. of iarr]^i. Cp. II. 99 n. 

1. 185. 8ia-|3aTov, 'must be crossed.' Aia-Paruv would mean 'possible 
to cross.' Either would make sense here, but what the soldiers were 
just now doubting was the necessity of crossing the ravine. 

1. 186. irap-cyyvwoT., 'pass the word to.' liap-t-^vav (lit. 'to pass 
on as a trust ') is to pass along the word of command. 'Eyyvij is ' a 
pledge ' (put iv fviy, ' in the hand '). 

1. 1 88. <I>s raxwrra. Cp. V. 185 n. 

1. 189. o-uv-T]\0ov, had assembled.' The aor. in a minor sentence 
must often be rendered by the pluperf. Cp. II. 118 n. 

tort, ' know,' the imperative, as it generally is when used alone like 
this ; in form it might also be the 2nd pi. indicative ; the sense decides. 
Cp. 1. 26 n. 

1. 190. dfxaxcl H.V, etc. The p.Jv is answered ty 8J in 1. 196, 'without 
fighting we cannot get away. . but still let us attack the foe.' (luifntv 8J 
firl rovs avfipat.) 

1. 194. fft-troict Odppos KCU, etc., 'puts courage even into,' etc. For 
senses of *aJ cp. I. 21 n. 

1. 196. wv, instead of a Sia-ircnopfv/jitOa. In Greek the relative is 
often made to agree with its antecedent in case, as well as in gender, 
number, and person. But this is only done when the relative would 
otherwise have been in the accusative. Cp. I. 290 n. 


i. 199. STTOV av, 'wherever.' Cp. 1. 28 n. 

1. 200. irap-aYYiXas. Notice the force of irapa, ' having passed word 
along the line.' 

1. 201. Distinguish ^, ' where ' (Lat. qua), from f/, the fem. article ; i}, 
nom. fem. of os ; 77, ' or ; ' rj, 3rd sing. subj. of tlfu ; and 77, ' surely.' 

TUYX<IVV 5v. Cp. IV. 5 n. 

1. 202. 8i-t'ptjcrav. Remember this is the and aor. 

irl 4>d\<vyyos, ' in line,' as opposed to em Kepcas, ' in column." *dXa-yf 
means ' a rank,' or ' line ' of heavy armed men, not necessarily a compact 
mass, which applies only to the later Macedonian phalanx or line of 
battle. [The word <pa\ay is probably connected with ' pale,' ' pole,' 

1. 204. irap-T]yyi\\eTO, passive impersonal, ' the word was being 
passed along.' Cp. 1. 200. 

1. 205. cojs tTTjfxaivoi, supply o ffa\TrfyKTT)s, 'until the trumpeter gave 
a signal.' "Ecus, ' until,' is generally followed by an aorist, but arntaiva. 
is a regular expression for ' the trumpet sounds.' For the opt. cp. 
1. 92 n. 

1. 206. KaO-itvras ls irpopoX-qv, ' couching (their lances) for the 
charge,' lit. ' setting them down [off the shoulders] for a pushing 
forward.' Cp. our command, ' charge bayonets,' as opposed to ' slope 
arms ' on the shoulder. 

8pofuo, ' fast,' our ' at the double,' lit. ' at a run.' See note on Otiv 
Spuny II- 54- 

I. 207. irap-jfci, 'went,' or 'was passed along the ranks.' Cp. 1. 204 n. 

II. 212-215. Observe the change of tenses in this passage. Tir-ijvTiaf* 
(imperf.), 'began to confront them;' l<j>0Yia.To (aor. after tirt in a 
minor sentence, II. 118 n.), ' had sounded ;' eiraidvijov (imperf.), 'began 
the war-cry;' KaO-Ucrav (imperf.), 'were couching;' tScJavro (aor. in 
principal sentence), ' sustained ; * c<j>evyov (imperf.), ' began to flee.' 

1. 217. 4>-iirTo, imperf. of (<j>-(irofMi, 'I follow after." [Distinguish 
dirofirjv, imperf. of tirofMi, from ttirov, ' I said,' and aor. of <prj/u. Cp. II. 
158 n.] 

1. 220. TjSt), 'at once.' 

1. 221. ir-KivTO, 'attacked.' K/, 'I lie,' with its compounds, is 
used for the passive or middle of TiOrjm and its compounds ; but ciri- 
Ti&taOat also means, ' to attack." Cp. 1. 20 n. 

1. 223. d/7r-0avov, ' were killed.' ' Ano-Orr/aiea} is often used for the 
passive of diro-urdvoj, 'I kill.' 

1. 225. TO 4apvapd{ov lirmicov, sc. ffTpdrtvfM, the same as ol $apva- 
fl6ov IvirfTs 1. 153. 

1. 226. ?TV erw-TTTjKos, 'still unbroken." 

L 328. KOI irl TOVTOVS, ' against these also.* Cp. I. 21. 

I<52 NOTES. 

228. <Ls (irj T0appt]ic6TS dva-TravtraiVTO, 'that they might not tnke 
courage and recover themselves.' Qapptca is to 'rally,' 'feel confidence;' 
avairavofiai, to ' rest,' or ' recover one's strength.' 

1. 229. 8r|, 'so then," 'accordingly.' 

1. 230. Kara (with gen.), ' down/ronz.' 

1. 235. ?<os .. Kara-^tvoi, 'as long as the army remained, 1 or 'might 
remain.' The optative marks that the length of their stay was uncertain 
and variable. 

1. 237. irl Xeav, 'for plunder,' i. e. to get it. 'Em with accus. marks 
the object of their going. Cp. IV. 209 n. 

1. 238. oiroTf, with opt., ' whenever,' or ' as often as,' followed by the 
past tense f8ov, ' it was resolved.' [The actual words of the resolution 
would be oirorav TO arparfvpa. -IT], *av ns \a$r\ n, SOKCI (tvai Srj/j.u- 
fftov, 'whenever the army goes out, if anyone lakes anything, it 's 
resolved that this shall be public property.' Cp. 1. 287.] 

1. 240. ruYX<ivv ov. Cp. IV. 5 n. 

1. 245. TO. nv, 'some,' or 'a part;' rd 8, 'the others,' or 'the 
remainder.' Cp. 1. 161 n. 

1.247. irfpi-60-Twras, 2nd perf. = irept-f ffrrjKoras, the perf. part, of 
irtpi-iaTTjfu. "EffTrjKo. is used as a pres. and means, ' I stand.' [For the 
transitive and intransitive tenses of larrjui cp. II. 99 n.] 

1. 248. Tavra, sc. TO. irpo&ara, 1. 245. 

1. 251. d<f>-aiptiTai, 'rescues,' the middle voice. The passive otatpito 
is supplied by dXtV/cojuat, ' I am taken.' 

1. 254. Distinguish airos 6 KXcavSpos, ' Cleander himself, from o 
avTut KXtavSpot, ' the same Cleander.' Cp. 1. 69 n. 

1. 259. OVK e4>tj 4v ytvto-Ba.1, ' said that it could not be.' Ov-<f>rjnl is 
as one word, ' I say [a thing] is not,' and the &P goes 
Cp. 1. 141 n. 

1. 260. TOV d<j>-cX<$|xcvov, 'the rescuer of the prisoner,' ace. 
This was Agasias, 1. 251. 

1. 265. iroifjcrai, ' to do to me,' i. e. ' that he may do.' The Greeks, 
like ourselves, could express even a purpose by the infinitive mood. In 
Latin it would be ' ut faciat.' Cp. 1. 90 n. 

o n fiv, 'whatever.' Cp. 1. 28 n. 

1. 269. ol8a ovra, ' I know that he is. 1 The Greeks used the participle 
after verbs of knowing, feeling, etc., where the Latin would require the 
accus. and infin., scio hunc esse. OlSa tivai means, ' I know how to be.' 
Cp. II. 108 n. 

1. 271. alpcOcfc, 'having been chosen.' The middle alpfiaOcu means, 
'to choose,' and the perf. and 1st aor. jjprjfjiai and rjpfOrjv, commonly 
have the same meaning in the passive, since a\iaiconcu is used for ' I am 
taken.' Cp. IV. 64 o 


wevnrjicovTopov, etc. While the Greeks were at Trapezus, waiting 
for the return of Cheirisophus (VI. 10), the Trapezuntines lent them a 
fifty-oared galley to collect transports with. Dexippus being put in 
command of the vessel made off with it, and thus placed the Greeks in 
an awkward position with the Trapezuntines. 

TJ for ty, the relative being attracted into the case of its antecedent. 
Cp. 1. 196, I. 290 n. 

1. 273. TOUTOV, 'from him,' governed by the dn-o in a<p ft\u^rjv, in the 
next line. 

1. 274. d-ir-TJY S> imperf., ' if you had been taking him off.' Et airq^a^ts 
(2nd aor.) would mean, 'if you had taken him off. 1 

1. 275. OUK .. ouScv. In Greek two or more negatives make the 
negation stronger. Here OVK av tiro'iijffa avow is, ' I would not have 
done nothing.' Cp. II. 59 n. 

I. 277. Sidl, with accus., 'for the sake of.' With the gen. it is 'by 
means of,' as 5id aov, ' by your means.' 

II. 278, 279. jxv .. (iVTOi = /*i' . . S(, only the 5t is replaced by the 
stronger word fiivroi, ' however.' 

1. 281. K\uroj, the ist aor. subj. not the fut. Compounds of &v (as 
(av, orav, etc.) always take the subj., ' whenever I give the order.' 

1. 282. Distinguish alnwjxav (contr. from amdo/a<), ' I blame,' from 
alrfca, 'I ask.' ^ 

1. 283. auros, the nom. in apposition to OVTOS, the subject of 6no\oyti. 
In Latin it would be the accus. before the infin., ' confitetur se eripuisse.' 
Cp. IV. 286 n. 

1. 285. eiratov . . JfjJaXXov, imperfects, ' I offered to strike,' etc. 

1. 286. ITJ, 'were,' not 'would be.' The opt. is used in Greek after 
on, when the principal verb is in the past tense, but we use the past 
indicative after ' saying that.' 

1. 287. ^dv . . \-]tT|Tai, etc., the actual words of the resolution. Cp. 
1. 238 n. The present tense means, 'engages in plundering.' 

1. 289. TIY*''' imperf., ' was bringing.' 

1. 290. TOIS \T)crrals, i. e. the soldiers who wished to keep the booty 
for themselves, and got Dexippus to help them. See 1. 245. 

wapd, ' contrary to,' lit. 'beside the mark of.' Cp. III. 75 n. 

1. 292. Think before translating KCU here, and cp. I. 21 n. 

1. 293. (ACTO. TaVTO,. Cp. I. 128 n. 

1. 300. d\Xd, 'well.' Cp. VI. 258, 370 n. 

1. 301. irap-cvofiai vijxlv, ' will be present to you,' i. e. ' will help you ;' 
Lat. 'vobis adero.' [Cp. ' a present help in trouble,' Psalm xlvi. i.] 

1. 303. K TOUTOV. Cp. I. 85 n. 

tirl Tfl TToptui, ' with a view to the march,' i. e. to see whether they 
were to march. Cp. 1. 1 33 n. 

M 2 

164 NOTES. 

1. 305. Ka( emphasises jidXXov, even more (than before).* 

1. 308. ou YiY VTal understand icaXa. Cp. 1. 141 n. 

1. 310. cos &v 6vvo>fi.0a KaXXiara, lit. ' as we may be able in the best 
manner,' i. e. ' as well as ever we can.' The Uv adds the meaning of 
'ever' to the us. Cp. 1. 28 n. 

1. 312. t-iropvovro, imperf., ' proceeded in their march;' aj>-iKovTo, 
2nd aor., ' arrived.' 


1. 3. rvxv 5v, ' was at the time' Cp. IV. 5 n. 

1. ro. <>s diro-irljx\|/&)v, 'intending to send away.' 'fls with fut. part 
denotes a purpose. Cp. II. 70 n. 

1. n. tjx^ OVTO - Cp. VII. 135 n. 

1. 13. m-<n.Ti<r0(H. The infinitive expresses the purpose for which 
they wanted money. Lat. ' quo commeatum facerent.' 

1. 13. on (ic'XXoi, 'that he intended,' not 'would intend.' Cp. VII. 

1. 14. TJ8T), 'at once.' Cp. VII. 220 n. 

1. 15. us here means 'as if;' ws avn-Trop(vff6ftd'oi, ' under pretence of 
going with.* 

1. 16. im8Av ( = i7rSj) ft?), 'ai soon as ever.' 'Entity is stronger 
than (7rf, and the &* adds the force of 'ever.' Cp. VII. 28 n. 

ytvTjTai does not simply = 17, 'shall be,' but 'shall have been got 
outside.' Cp. IV. 125 n. 

1. 20. J>s Taxitrro. Cp. V. 185 n. 

1. 29. Qiovtn Sp6|jMp, 'run fast," lit. 'at a run.' Cp. II. 54 n. 

f's-iovrts is the fut. part, (since d/ju = ibo), therefore with us it marks 
a purpose. Cp. I. 10 n. 

1. 30. Eteonlcus had been posted at the gate, with orders to secure 
the bolt as soon as all the soldiers had gone out. 

1. 31. aurot, nom. in apposition with the subject of l\fyov. Cp. VII. 
283 n. Ot (rrpaTiwrai, i. e. the soldiers outside. 

1. 32. dv-o(ov(n, the fut. ind. instead of the opt. in a reported speech. 
The soldiers would say, ' We will smash the gates, unless you will open 
them' (dvo'tffTt), and the Greek historian in repeating their words 


keeps the feme and mood, only changing the person from second to 

1. 35. t*TVYX avov ovres. Cp. IV. 5 n. There had not been time to 
get the whole army out of the town, before those outside began the 

1. 36. dva-TrtTavvvov<ri, 3rd pi. pres. ind. of ava-ittravvvni. Verbs in 
vvfj.1 often form this person as if from a verb in -v<u, instead of making 
it end in -vaari. 

1. 38. TO. y l Y v f Jl6va > imperf. part., 'what was being done.' [Td 
7fo/ifa, 2nd aor., would mean ' what was done.'] 

1. 42. ol 8 KciQeiAxov. O 6e means, 'those who fled to the ships.' 

1. 45. TT^V dicpav, the same as rrjv ajcpi>iro\iv in the next line, the 
' citadel' or ' castle.' 

1. 51. dvSpi d-yaOoi, the dat. in apposition to <rot, which is governed 
by i-(ariv. [So in Latin ' Themistocli licuit esse o//oso.'] 

1. 52. l POV\OIO . . fi,v 6vf|(rais. The opt. means, 'if you were to desire 
it, you would benefit.' Cp. IV. 113 n. for the four forms of conditional 
sentences, of which this is the third. 

1. 54. iXXd, 'well.' Cp. VI. 270, VII. 300 n. 

1. 55. 0a0e TO oirXa, lit. 'ground your shields,' i. e. 'fall in, or 'stand 
ready under arms,' not 'lay down your arms.' Cp. I. 241 n. Xenophon 
knew that his only chance of restoring order was to get them to fall in 
to their proper position in rank. 

1. 56. s Taxurra. Cp. V. 185 n. 

1. 57. irap-aYYXXei.v, 'to pass the word along the line (wapd).' Cp. 
1. 204 n. 

1. 59. ?KTO, used as the passive of riOrjfu (VII. 221 n.), therefore TO. 
oivXa CKCITO means, ' the arms were grounded,' i. e. the soldiers stood 
ready. Cp. 1. 55 n. 

1. 62. fa 0v[xo>, not ' mind,' but ' your passion.' &V/JLOS (from 0vai, 
'I rush'), means the part which feels, and gets excited, i.e. the pas- 
sions and emotions (Lat. animus), vovs being the part which thinks, 
i. e. the intellect (Lat. me/is). 

Tijxti>pirjcrw|A6a, 'punish,' lit. 'avenge ourselves upon.' Cp. I. 151 n. 

1. 64. d torai tvTv0v, lit. ' what will be thence,' i. e. what will be 
the consequences.' 'EvTtv0(v = tK TOVTCOV. 

1. 71. d<j>-aipT]cr6p.voi ) fut. part., 'intending to take away;' Lat. 
adempturi. So diro-KTevoOvres, ' intending to kill ;' Lat. occisuri. 

1. 72. irpos 0wv, lit. ' before,' or ' in presence of the gods ;' hence in 
taking an oath, ' by the gods :' Lat. per deos (vos oro). 

1. 73. rats iraTpio-i, ' to our (respective) fatherlands,' i. e. the several 
states in Greece to which we each belong. 

1. 77. The stress is on r EXXT]vi8a and irpwrqv, ' the first Greek city we 

1 66 NOTES. 

entered,' lit. ' a Greek city into which (as the) first we came,' irpwrrjv 
being in apposition with ffv. [Cotyora is called ' a Greek town' (VI. 
1 17), so also were Trapezus and Heraclea ; but being in Asia and under 
the king of Persia, they are here ranked as ' barbarian' as compared 
with Byzantium.] 

1. 79. iroiY)o-ovTs, ' with the intention of doing.' Cp. 1. 71 n. 

1. 81. ovic i-aira,TW|Avoi, etc. = ' not because we are deceived, but 
because we consent.' A Greek participle must often be translated by a 
conjunction and the indicative of the verb. Cp. I. 261 n. 

1. 85. im^o^c'vots, ' if they obeyed,' lit. ' obeying.' See preceding 
note, and reference to I. 261. 

1. 86. K TOVTOV. Cp. I. 85 n. 

1. 88. 8ia-Trpaacr0ai oircos, etc., lit. ' to manage matters (with 
Anaxibius) so that,' etc., i. e. ' to arrange that,' to get leave from 
Anaxibius. Aia gives the force of ' effecting thoroughly.' 

1. 91. TJKW, 'I am come,' or ' have come,' = the ferf. of t/?xA< a <. 'I 
come,' or ' am coming.' 

1. 97. 8i-4>povTO, ' were disputing,' lit. ' were going different ways' 
(5o). So we say ' to have a difference,' i. e. 'a quarrel.' 

1. 99. diro-8i86pivoi,. Distinguish airo-bidum (act.), ' I give back,' 
from airo-SiSopai (mid.), ' I sell.' 

1. 100. ol 8, ' and others,' besides those who sailed away. 

Kara TOS iroXus, ' in the different towns.' Kara is here distributive. 
Cp. IV. 231 n. 

1. 101. Y 1 Y VO F L V(1>V ' imperf. part., 'if this went on.' Cp. 1. 38 n. ; i.e. 
by getting this done he would please Pharnabazus. 

1. 1 02. x a P^ ^ ai ^apvapdfw, because Pharnabazus, the satrap of 
Bithynia (VII. 153 n.) was afraid of having the Greek army so near his 
province. See 11. i, 2 of this Chapter. 

1. 104. apn.ooTT|S, 'as governor,' in apposition to StaSoxos. 

1. 105. diro-86<ri)ai, ' sell as slaves.' Cp. 1. 99 n. 

1. 107. 'XdTTOvs. What is the uncontracted form of this word? 

1. 108. irapa-irXv<ras, lit. ' having sailed along (the coast),' i. e. 
1 having coasted along.' 

1. 109. For Parium and Perinthus (1. 112), see the Map and 

1. no. ws Taxiora. Cp. V. 185 n. 

TOVS 8i-criTap|x*vovs TWV arparuoTuJv, lit. ' the dispersed (ones) of the 
soldiers,' i. e. 'those of the soldiers who had been dispersed' (1. 100). 
2r panearSiv is the partitive gen. 

1. in. 8ia-pcf}A{iiv. Kemember that Piflafa and its compounds are 
transitive, ' to cause to go.* 

1. 114. U-ITOVTO, to be distinguished from ttvov. Cp. II. 158 n. 


1. 115. <is 8ia-{3tj<r6n.voi, lit. 'as about to cross,' i.e. 'because they 
were going to cross,' or ' at the thought of crossing' (after a.<r\Lfvoi). 

1. 119. vir-icrxvov(jivos, 'though he promised,' the participle, or 
' though promising.' Ka'nrfp is usually added to a participle to mark 
that it means 'although.' Cp. I. 261 n. 

1. 121. itr TOIS crrpa.Titt>Tcus (XTJ irepaiovaOai, ' told the soldiers not 
to cross ;' Lat. ' militibus imperavit ne trajicerent.' [Eur TOVS o-TpaTtw- 
ras o\i -nfpaiovaOat, would be, ' said that the soldiers were not crossing ;' 
Lat. ' dixit milites non trajicere.'] 

1. 1 23. K\V<TV, ' had ordered.' The aor. in a minor sense is 
generally translated by the pluperf. Cp. II. 118 n. 

1. 130. TTJS WKTOS. Cp. IV. 255 n. 

1. 135. Svo dvSpas. A dual adj. may always be put with a plural 
noun (and vice versa), unless particular stress is laid upon the fact that 
two only are meant.' Cp. I. I n. 

1. 136. IT-TIPTO. Distinguish (l) fipofnjv, 2nd aor. of fpo/Mi (pies, 
tpon-dca'), ' I ask,' (2) rjponrjv, imperf. pass, of aipca, ' I raise ;' (3) 
Tjpovfjiijv, imperf. of alpeopai, ' I choose.' 

o TI povXovro xpTJwOai, lit. ' in what he wished to use,' i. e. ' what use 
he wished to make of.' *O rt is the accus. of respect, ' as to what.' 

1. 138. 0wwv. The Thyni originally inhabited the Thracian district 
near Salmydessus on the Euxine ; but were driven into Asia, and 
colonised Bithynia, formerly called Bebrycia. 

1. 1 39. The dominions of Maesades were a dependency of the Odrysian 
kingdom. When the power of the Odrysae declined, the whole kingdom 
was divided, and then Seuthes lost that portion of it which his father 
had ruled. The Odrysae once had a very extensive dominion, on both 
sides .of the Hebrus (now the Maritza river). At one time their power 
extended beyond the Haemus (Balkan) range to the Danube, and as far 
west as the Strymon ; thus including most of the eastern portion of the 
modern Roumelia and Bulgaria. It was now on the decline. 

ttc-iriiTTEi, lit. 'falls out,' i. e. 'is banished.' 'EK-niirr<u is used as the 
passive of (K-@aX\<u, ' I cast out.' 

1. 141. TW vvv paaiXei, 'the present king.' Any word or words 
between the article and its noun = an adjective. Cp. I. 109, IV. 
124 n. 

1. 142. dXXoTpias. 'A\\6rptos is the possessive of aAAos, 'belonging 
to another.' Cp. the Lat. alienus from alius. 

1. 144. Ti}Jiwpoip,Tjv, middle, 'take vengeance on,' i.e. 'punish.' Cp. I. 
151 n. 

1. 145. diro-p\trwv, 'looking* for my daily maintenance, as a dog 
watches for scraps from the table. 'Airo-fl\etrfii> is lit. ' to look away 
from ' everything else towards one object, hence ' to look eagerly.'' 

1 68 ffOTES. 

1. 146. tic TOVTOV, here 'in consequence o/this,' not merely 'after this/ 
as in former instances (I. 85, etc.). 

I. 147. 6\|/co-6c. Observe the tense before translating. 

II. 148, 149. cl . . irapa-Yvoia6e, etc., 'if you were to join me, I think 
I should,' etc. The opt. marks that the event of the Greeks joining 
Seuthes is as yet uncertain, a mere possibility in fact. This is the third 
out of the four forms of conditionals, IV. 1130. 

I. 151. cl cXOoipcv, 'if we were to come.' See the last note. 

II. 155-157. av (XT) Sia-irpd|u>| . . av OE$CI. This is the second 
form of conditional (IV. 113 n.) ; 'if (by any chance) we shall not have 
succeeded in doing this for you, will you receive us,' etc. [When the 
principal verb is in the fut. ind., the ' if clause generally has lav with 
the subj.] 

1. 156. Supply (civ from the former line before ^. 

1. 157. povXtofwOa, n t &ov\t>]VTa.i, because the antecedent to 5<roi is 
YHJ.OS, 'as many of us as desire.' 

1. 160. TT|V OvyaWpa. The article TT)C marks the possessive of the 
same person as the verb owacu. Cp. I. 1 5 n. 

1. 161. Although its has an accent, it means 'any,* not 'who?' The 
accent does not belong to it, but is thrown back from the <roi following; 
' would not have any accent if it had not the accent thrown back 
from TIS. 

1. 162. The custom of buying a wife prevailed in other Eastern 
nations besides Thrace, and anciently in Greece itself. [Hence one 
meaning of the word tdva in Homer is money paid by the suitor to the 
parents of the bride.] For Bisanthe see Map and Vocabulary. 

1. 163. Twv-cVi-0aXaTTn-xwpfo>v. For the article and noun with 
words between, cp. I. 109 n. 

1. 169. The stress is on tvOaBe pt'vovres, 'whether you will stay here 
and consult, or," etc. 

1. 175. dir-i<JvTC,/M/. part., lit. 'about to depart,' i.e. '{or departure.' 

1. 1 76. av-oxcua{ca0e, ' pack up.' "S.v-aKHia.$taOai is ' to collect (and 
pack up) one's baggage (rd. a^cw;).' Lat. vasa colligere. 

1. 178. nerd ravra. Cp. I. 128 n. 

tiiroKTo. Cp. 1. 115, II. 158 n. 

1. 182. u<nrcp Kal vw. Supply the 2nd pi. pres. ind. act. of the verb 
from which Xij|/cr6e comes. 

1. 184. Sia-Ti6l|Atvo, 'disposing of (by sale).' &taTiOt](ii is lit. 'I put 
in different places,' Lat. dispono, whence our ' dispose.' 

iropi(w. Think what mood this must be after iva. 

I. 185. Jir-ijpTO. Cp. 1. 136 n. 

ir<}<rov, 'how much?' i.e. 'how far?' Lat. quantum. 

II. 186, 187. ovSaprj, iroXXaxTJ, properly datives of plact, meaning 


' no-where,* ' in many places,' but here rather implying time, ' on no 
occasion,' ' on many occasions,' i. e. ' often.' [Though these words were 
originally datives, the i subscript was dropped when they came to be used 
simply as adverbs. So iravraxij, d\\axr), etc.] 

1. 187. eir! TOUTOIS, 'on these conditions.' Cp. IV. 350 n. 

1. 1 90. Kaicl T<xci9, lit. ' according to ranks,' i. e. ' in separate ranks.' 
Cp. 1. 100 n. 

1. 191. cos irap-iovres. For is with the/?//, part., cp. II. 70 n. 

1. 195. (itYiora, superl. of fj.fya\us, adv. of /le'-yas. The superlative 
of an adverb is generally only the neut. plur. of the superlative of the 
corresponding adjective. 

o TI v ?xT|5, ' whatewr you have" or ' may have.' Cp. VII. 28 n. 

1. 196. The stress is on evi'ovs, 'it is because I am well-disposed to 
you that," etc. Cp. I. 261 n. 

1. 198. imo-ci. Remember (i) that 7ra<rx<w may mean to 'get good' as 
well as to 'get harm ;' (2) that watrxw being used as passive of iroitoi 
('to treat well' or 'ill') is followed by viro marking the agent. 

1. 201. TpiTroSes, 'three-legged tables.' Each guest had a table to 
himself, and these were brought in and removed at each course. 

1. 204. Trapa-K6i(XVovs, ' which were set near him.' Kftfjuu is used for 
the passive of riQrjiu. Cp. III. 207, VII. 221 n. 

1. 205. KaTo, (UKpov, ' in small pieces.' Kard is distributive. Cp. 
1. 100 n. 

1. 206. ficeivTO. Cp. 1. 204 n. 

1. 207. Distinguish raurd, 'the same things,' from ravra, ' these things.' 
Cp. 1.^27511. 

Scivo; (fxxyeiv, as we say ' a terrible one to eat,' i. e. 'a great cater.' 

1. 210. eSciirvci, imperf. 'went on with his supper." 

1. 214. TI Ae'yoi, 'what he said,' the indirect question after Tjpura. 
But in the next line it is o TI \eyot, ' what," i. e. ' that which he said.' 

1. 216. p.v 8q. The plv leads up to the 5 in the next section, the ST) 
winds up this paragraph. The two = ' so then,' and are used to mark 
the end of one subject and the beginning of another. 

1. 218. irpo-irivu aoi, lit. 'I drink before you,' i.e. 'I drink your 
health.' In asking a man to drink wine with you, the Greek custom 
was to drink first yourself and then pass on the cup. 

1. 2 20. 8tiiicii>v, ' when you pursue,' airo-x<p&v, ' when you retreat.' Cp. 
I. 261 n. Observe icaC . . Kai answering to one another. 

1. 221. airo-ijieu^ei,. Remember that the fut. of tptvyw is ciiojuai, not 
<(>(v<u. 'Awo implies 'get clear off".' 

1. 223. o TI ITOUH, 'what he should do,' the deliberative opt. after 


1. 223. cKa0T|To. Whyistheaugmentbeforethepreposition? Because 


KaO-rjfMi was so much oftener used than the simple verb fjitai, that it 
ceased to be treated as a compound at all. Cp. IV. 60 n. 

1. 2:7. eivai. the infin. in Greek expressing a result or consequence, 
where the Latin would require ut or qni with the subj., (qui simus or 
futures'). Cp. VII. 90 n. 

1. 229. Distinguish (JUTO TOUTOJV, 'with these (men),' from /xra ravra 
(\. 234), 'after these (things).' 

1. 232. auroi, ' of their own accord.' 

1. 234. oxiXovlvTs, 'playing on horns.' Av\fca is lit. 'I play 
the flute,' or ' flageolet,' hence simply ' I play (any instrument).' 

1. 235. iroXcfiiKov, 'a war-cry,' some neuter word, such as fioapa, 
' a shout,' being understood. 

-T|\aTo, ist aor. of ff-oAAo/toi. Seuthes was performing a mimic 
war-dance, like the one described in Chap. VII. 330. 

1. 240. <|>vXdaa0ai, middle, 'are on their guard.' Cp. III. 91 n. 

1. 243. 6-irorav, ' as soon as ever.' Compounds of $LV always take the 
subj. ; av when not attached to a conjunction can never go with the subj. 
Cp. VII. 28 n. 

1. 247. etirovTO. Cp. 11. 114, 1/8 n., also II. 158 n. 

1. 249. avros, the nom. in apposition with the subject of ?<f>T). 
In Latin it would be 'dixit se ipsum speculaturum esse.' Cp. IV. 
286 n. 

1. 251. Xijo-ofjiev .. eiri-ireo-c'vrfs, lit. 'we shall escape notice having 
fallen upon," i. e. ' we shall fall upon unperceived.' AavOavtiv with a 
participle (or a verb with the part, of KayQavoi) may often be translated 
by an adverb 'secretly,* 'unawares,' etc., as \a*0cu><u irotaiv or voiu 
\aOuiv, ' I do it secretly.' 

1. 255. tjBTj, 'already,' Lat jam, in 1. 357 'at once,' Lat. jam or 

1. 258. Kara Ouv. Remember this has nothing to do with /cora-fltiVai. 

1. 259. us Taxicrra. Cp. V. 185 n. 

1. 267. aXXa, 'well' Cp. VI. 270. 'E-yw p.v answers to av 8 in 
next line. 

1. 268. irapa-rttvai TT|V tfxxXa-yYa, 'to extend his line along." 4>a\a-y( 
in Xenophon does not mean a compact body of men, but 'a line of battle.* 
Cp. VII. 202 n. 

1. 270. avrov. Cp. VII. 174 n. 

1. 273. diro-SoaOot, the Greek infin. marking design. Lat. ul venderet. 
Cp. 1. 227, VII. 90 n. 

1. 277. 8 c<|>povTo, imperf., 'which they were carrying' i.e. 'while 
they were carrying it.' 

1. 278. & olvos, etc. So Ovid, writing from his dreary place of exile 
at Tomi, near the mouths of the Danube, says (Tristia, L lo. 23) 


' Udaque consistunt formam servantia testae 

Vina, nee hausta meri, sed data frusta bibunt." 

' Liquid wine grows solid, keeping the shape of its jar, and they drink 
not draughts of wine, but pieces of it.' 

1. 279. dir-titatovTa, lit. 'were burnt off," i.e. 'were frost-bitten.' The 
imperfect implies the frequency of the occurrence. The expression 
'burning' is sometimes used of intense cold, as well as of intense heat. 
[So Virgil uses adurere of the north-wind, and Milton in Par. Lost, 
ii. 294, says, 

' The parching air 
Burns frore ( = frozen) and cold performs the effect of fire.'] 

1. 280. avroi). Cp. 1. 270 above. 

1. 282. dveoraToj, adverb, superl. of avca. Comp. dvoarfpca. Coming 
between the article rfj and its noun /fcw/ij? it has the force of an adjective. 
Cp. I. 109 n. 

1. 286. tm-Ti9VTai. Cp. VII. 20 n. 

1. 289. tjj-iovra duo-OvT|o-Kiv, ' to come out and be killed.' 'Airo- 
Ofrjaicoj is used for the passive of a-rro-Hrdi CD, ' I kill.' 

1. 290. ol irepl TOV Hcvo<f>uvTa, lit. ' those about Xenophon (including 
himself),' i. e. ' Xenophon and his friends.' 

1. 291. 2i\av6s MaKio-rios, a neighbour of Xenophon. This is why 
Xenophon mentions him here particularly. (See Vocabulary.) 

1. 294. ot |iv, 'some.' ol 8t, 'others.' Cp. VII. 161 n. 

1. 297. dir-tOave. See note on 1. 284 above. 

1. 300. Kot. Think before translating. Cp. I. 21 n. 

rpiirXaaCav, i.e. 'three times as much' as he had before the Greeks 
joined him. 

1. 304. a Xtyoitv, 'what they said,' not 'might say;' the opt. is used 
in Greek in a reported speech after a principal verb in the past tense 
(tiT-eStiKvvev), where we should use the indicative. 

1. 306. OVK-|<}>H, as one word, 'refused.' Cp. IV. 278, 283 n. 

aOai, ' to avenge himself upon,' i. e. ' to punish.' Cp. 1. 

1. 308. x l - v BIKTJV, lit. ' have penalty,' i. e. ' are punished.' 

l TOVT<U, ' if (as is the case) they will be,' or ' since they will be.' 
Cp. VI. 11311. 

1. 309. o|XT|povs, ' as hostages,' in apposition to TOVS BwaTwrd- 

1. 310. KO.KOV TI iroitiv depends on SvvmorraTOVs. 

Distinguish tdv, infin. of acu, ' I allow,' from lav, ' if;' also OIKOI, ' at 
home,' from otvoi, ' houses.' Cp. I. 298 n. 

1. 314. $js, instead of ty, after air tSoro. The relative is 'attracted' 
into the case of its antecedent \tlas. Cp. I. 290 n. 

172 NOTES. 

1.314. dn-8oTo, ' had sold,' being in a minor sentence. Cp. I. 

Distinguish dno-oiSojfii, 'I give back,' ' render/ from dno-SiSonai (mid.), 
' I sell.' Cp. 1. 99 n. 

1. 316. ir\iov rfjs Xtias, 'more of the spoil* than had produced the 
pay for twenty days. 

1.319. TrX-ripr) TOV |xur66v, 'the pay in full, 1 irkripj), i.e. 'the pay 
which you brought would have been in full, 1 being the predicate to ruv 
moQuv. Cp. note on TJOVV TOV rpuirov III. 206. 

tSvvw, 2nd sing, imperf. of 5iVa/xai, shortened from 5t5nj(a)o. 
EC jit] t'Svva), ' if you had not been able.' 

1. 320. TOVTOV, sc. TOV fiiaOov. 

Kttl dirt'Sou dv, 'you would even have sold.' This is the last of the 
four conditional forms given in the note on IV. 113. 

1. 322. 8i-/3aXX. Cp. I. 12 n. 

! 323. o rt, the accus. of respect, ' in whatever respect,' i. e. ' as much 
as.' on in the next line is ' that.' 

1- 3 2 5- *JX0 T <>' From what verb does this come? Cp. VII. 135 n. 

1. 326. 8i-KiTO, 'was disposed.' Cp. III. 207 n. 

1. 329. irapd ippiovos. The Ionian cities of Asia Minor had sought 
Spartan protection from Tissaphemes, who was now avenging himself 
upon those who had supported Cyrus in his rebellion (see beginning of 
Chap. I.). The Spartans sent out Thibron (or Thimbron) with a large 
force to oppose Tissaphemes. 

! 335- diro-8i8uis, (active voice"*. Cp. 1. 3-14 n. 

1. 336. d-n--aiTT|(rov<Ti takes two accusatives, like a factitive verb. 

1. 339. diro-8i8oit), was ready to give up.' Cp. 1. 304 n. 

t|a{v, imperf. of tvifa. Do not mistake this word for a compound 
with the prep, if . 

1. 342. eii), ' was,' not ' might be,' the indirect question of past tense 
with irofos after ipajTuvTcuv. Cp. 1. 2140. 

1- 344- X ^P OV "| awry. Understand OTI from the former clause, 
' (that) it was worse for him,' i. e. ' against his interests.' Like tir) in 
1. 342, it is opt. of past indirect statement after dirtxpivaro on. 

1. 345. Distinguish fj, 'really?' Lat. numl), from fj, 'or,' 'than.' Cp. 
VII. 201 n. 

1. 346. iraw jiv ovv, 'nay, very much (so).' Mtv ovv in answer to a 
question states the case more precisely and emphatically, 'nay, rather.' 

1. 348. dXXd, 'well, but," i. e. 'well (he may oppose it), but if,' etc. 

1. 351. timSdv iSwcriv, ' as soon as ever they have seen us.' Cp. VII. 
28 n. 

1. 355. TOVS AaKwvos, i. e. Charminus and Polynicus (1. 328). As no 
stress is laid upon their number, they are spoken of in the plural (cp. 


I. i n.) ; but in the next clause, where they form the subject of the verb, 
it is T<O AaKwve. This gives a sort of picture of ' the two Laconians' 
getting up to speak. 

1. 356. TU> o8iKT|<ravTi., ' who has injured.' The article with a participle 
= a relative pronoun and verb. 'ASi/njcrai'Tj alone would mean, ' having 
injured,' i.e. 'since he has injured.' Cp. I. 261 n. 

1. 357. Tifjuop-fjcrco-ee. Cp. 1. 306 above, I. 1510. 

1. 358. TC . . KO.I. Kat is stronger than ft, 'both., and what is more,' 
1 not only . . but more than this.' 

1. 360. KaT-T)Ypfy r(dv > /"' part. ' to accuse.' Lat. accusatnrus. Cp. 
1. 71 n. 

1. 361. Kat irdXcu, ' even long ago, 1 ' ever so long ago.' Cp. I. 21 n. 

1. 363. KO.I vuKTCt KCU -f]fxpav. The stress is on VVKTO., ' night as well 
as day." 

1. 364. otiSv, ace. of respect, lit. ' in nothing,' i.e. 'not at all,' 'we 
have had no rest at all.' 

1. 365. Distinguish \irra, ToOi-ov, 'after him,' from /rd TOVTOV, 'with 

u\Xos Kal aXXos, i. e. ' one after another.' 

dv-fcmj OJAOUOS, ' stood up (and spoke) to the same effect.' 

1. 366. tic TOVTOV. Cp. I. 85 n. 

1. 367. d\Xd .. (itv, 'well indeed,' or ' nay indeed.' Here the (xv is 
not followed by a SJ, because it is connected with dAAd, ' but in truth.' 
Its position emphasises iravra, ' I may well expect any sort of ill- treat- 
ment,' etc. 

irpos-8oicdv. A compound not of 8o/', ' I seem,' but of an unused 
pres. SOK&CO, ' I watch for.' Aovw is the simple verb in use. 

1. 368. alrias ?xo, ' I have (receive) blame,' i. e. 'I am blamed ;' 
hence followed by gen. of agent with viro. As alnao^tai, 'I blame,'. is 
itself the middle voice, it can have no pres. pass. 

1. 370. The |xv is answered by 81 in /terd S ravra in 1. 372. 

y, ' at all events I turned back [if I did not show zeal in any other 

Take f\Si\ with J)p|A>i(ivos (perf. pass. part, of opjM<u) t ' though I had 
already started.' 

1. 373. ! TTSLcraifAi, 'in case I should persuade,' or ' on condition of 
my persuading.' 

1. 374. OUTOI. Think what this means in the nominative with /?. 

1. 375. ws Taxio-Ta. Cp. V. 185 n. Xenophon had intended to take 
the army across from Perinthus into Asia at the bidding of Anaxibius, 
but was prevented by Aristarchus the new governor of Byzantium. See 
above, 11. no, 120. 

1. 377. wjxds povXojxvovs, ' that you were wishing it* The Greeks 

174 NOTES. 

used the participle after verbs of knowing, etc., to express the fact 
known, etc. Cp. II. 108 n. 

1. 379. o TI Se'oi, 'what was or might be necessary,' the deliberative opt. 
after ^ov\tvaai^.fOa, the past of the delib. subj. @ov\tv6nt6a o n Sty. 
Cp. 1. 223 n. 

1. 380. 8-f| emphasises tvravGa, ' then in fine,' ' then, and not till then.' 
Lat. turn demnm. 

I. 381. Vrav9a, ' herein,' ' in this,' = 11* rovrca. 

II. 383, 384. "Ov and v|xds are both governed by air-taTfprjKti'ai. 
Verbs of depriving in Greek take (i) a double accus., as diro-arfpui at TOI> 
HiaOuv, 'I deprive you (o/") your pay;' (2) ace. and gen., as diro-oT(f>u>. 
at TOV /j.toduv. Cp. 1. 472. 

1. 384. (ATjSc x lv > ' that I have no! even.' The /<7?8e in this and next 
sentence should go directly before a. 

1. 387. TJcr)(iiv6fAT]v &v 8t|, 'I should (now) certainly (8?)) have been 
feeling ashamed,' cl if--j\tra.Tr\QT]v, ' if I had been deceived.' See the four 
forms of conditional sentences, IV. 1 1 3 n. 

Tro\fii'ou Y - Notice the emphasis, 'if it had been Ity an enemy 

1. 388. OVTI, lit. ' to me being,' i. e. ' if I am, 1 ' in a case where I 

1. 389. irpos TOVTOIS, ' besides this ;' Lat. praeterea, to be distinguished 
from Tipus ravra, ' therefore ; ' Lat. propterea. 

1. 391. OUK sia, (hnperf. of taw), not merely ' would not allow,' but 
' was preventing." 

1. 394. OUK rjv fjp.iv, it was not (possible) for us.' 

1. 398. irpos-Yty vTO T\V* V < imperf., lit. ' were being added to us,' i. e. 
' we found ourselves acquiring.' 

1. 399. OUKCTV . . otiBtva, ' no longer . . a single enemy.' Two or more 
negatives in Greek do not make an affirmative, but a stronger negation. 
Cp. II. 59 n. 

1. 401. Remember that diropouo-i may be another part of the verb 
besides the 3rd pi. pres. ind. Cp. II. 149 n. 

cl (jurj . . ax6c<r6<u, ' if he was not giving you so very much pay besides 
(irpos), what need was there for you to be distressed ?' i. e. ' even putting 
aside the question of pay, you had got many advantages from the 
alliance with Seuthes.' 

1. 405. ayr 8t|, ' come now !' Lat. agedum. 

KCU; ' also,' not a conjunction joining aytrt with aittyaaOt. 

Ttapd ravra, ' in comparison with these,' or, as we say, ' by the side 
of these.' [In comparing two things together, you put one beside 
the other. Hence wapa-/3oA.^, ' a parable? or ' comparison,' in the New 


1. 406. (Lp[i(6)XT]v, imperf., ' was starting.' Cp. wp^rj/^fvos I. 370 n. 

1. 407. KO.I. For the meanings of KOI cp. I. 21 n. 

1. 409. OVK dv (i Tr|AiTOv, ' they would not have been sending me,' the 
fourth conditional form, IV. 113 n. 

The o\\<i>5, ' otherwise,' = tl /XT) tiriaTtvdp.r]v, ' if I had not been 

1. 410. 8ia-pej3\T]n.vos. Cp. I. 12 n. 

1. 413. irepl f\ii, lit. 'about me,' i.e. 'in my case,' or ' to me.' Cp. 

1. 414. tnrsp vifiuv KO.I <rvv vifAiv, etc. Observe Xenophon's tact in his 
constant repetition of void's, vpSiv, etc., throughout this speech. He 
wished to insist strongly upon the fact that he had been a. fellow-labourer 
with them in all their past achievements. [His language in the latter 
part of the speech much resembles that of St. Paul to the Corinthians, 
in his second Epistle, chap, xii.] 

1. 418. OTTOI &v po\iXi](r0, 'wherever you [may] choose ;' lit. ' whither- 
soever." Compounds of &v have the force of ' ever,' Lat. -cunque, and 
always take the subj. Cp. VII. 28 n. 

1. 419. STJ emphasises vvv, 'Do you think the present is a fit time?' 
etc. Distinguish Kcupos, ' a particular time,' ' occasion," from \p6vos, 
' time ' in general. 

1.420. ov IATJI', 'certainly not,' goes with t\ty(Tt : ox/'Stv, 'anything 
at all.' Cp. 1. 399, II. 59 n. 

1. 422. viir-ttrxveia-Ge, the imperf., because it is joined by ical to ticdXei. 
Inform it might also be the pres. 

1. 423. ol vvv TJKovres t^' v^ds, i. c. the Lacedaemonians, Charminus 
and Polymcus, who wanted the army. Cp. 1. 331. '</>' v/wis means 
' after you,' i.e. ' to fetch you.' Cp. VI. 16 n. 

1.425. pfArioves, 'any the better' for your treatment of me, by 
showing yourselves so ungrateful. 

irtpl ep.e. Cp. 1. 413 n. 

I. 427. d\X' t|xol [xtv-roi, lit. ' well to me however,' i.e. ' in my opinion, 
whatever others may think.' 

II. 429, 430. For the conversation here "referred to see the section 
beginning at 1. 342, p. gS. 

1. 430. eirj, opt., indirect que&tion, where we use the past ind. Cp. 
1. 342 n. 

I. 431. eiij, opt., indirect statement, see 1. 344 n. 

II. 434, 435. diro-86jxvos, dir-8wKe. Cp. 1. 99 n. 

1. 439. cdv o-ioipovcojjLev. Polycrates had said, ' If we are wise, we 
shall apprehend Heraclides ' (1. 436). Heraclides, purposely repeating 
his words, says to Seuthes, ' If we are wise, we shall get away as fast as 
we can.' 

176 NOTES. 

I. 440. TOWS IITTTOVS, the article is possessive, ' their.' Cp. I. 15 n. 

1. 445. \iir-ta-\fro, ' had promised.' The aor. in a minor sentence 
must often be rendered by the pluperf. Cp. II. 118 n. For the 
promises of Seuthes sec above, 11. 154-163. 

1. 446. iroTspa, ' [to see] whether,' this being implied in iOvero. 

irapd StvOfl. nnpa with dat. = Fr. chez, ' at house of,' ' with,' lit. 
' beside.' 

I. 449. TOVTOV. Cp. I. 85 n. 

TToppo), or Trpotrw, lit. ' further ;' hence ' far from." 

II. 453, 454. d8iKeiT . . vjxiv. Since Medosades is addressing Xeno- 
phon as the representative of the army, he uses the plural instead of 
uSitfffs and aoi. 

1. 458. ov Trapa-KaXto-avTs. Seuthes had not invited Xenophon to 
the conference with the Spartan envoys. Cp. 1. 340. 

1. 461. irpo-tmoi, opt., in a reported speech, after t\fy(v on, where 
we use the indie. Cp. 1. 304 n. 

1. 463. uTT-ioijjuv &v . . ?xouv, lit. ' we would go away, as soon as 
these men should have,' i. e. ' we will go away, as soon as these men 
have.' The Greeks often employed the opt. with &v as a milder way of 
saying ' I iw7/,' as \tyoint ar for Aeo>, ' I will speak.' [So also the 
2nd pers. of the opt. for the imperative mood, as \(-foi$ iv for \tft, 
' speak.'J 

1.465. Distinguish the act. n/j.up(ca from the mid. rtftoopfOfMU, 'I 
punish.' Cp. I. 151 n. 

1. 467. Distinguish eBeiro, imperf. of 5o/tai, ' I ask,' from <8, imperf. 
of the impers. verb 5f, ' it is necessary.' 

1. 469. amwjxevos. Distinguish alriaofiat, ' I accuse,' from alrtca, ' 1 

1. 472. airo-orcp'TJo-ai up,as TOV jiiaOov. For the construction of verbs 
of depriving cp. 1. 383 n. 

1. 476. a wir-to-xTo. Cp. 1. 445 n. 

1. 478. 8.' vjias, 'because of you.' A(' ln&v would be ' by your means? 
which would also have been true in the present instance, though Xeno- 
phon does not exactly say sd. 

1.481. us diT-iiiv, 'with intent to depart.' 'Cls with the/;//, part, 
denotes a purpose. Cp. II. 70 n. 

1. 484. dir-ayayot . . irapa-SoiT], ' they begged him not to depart before 
he should have led away the army and delivered it up to Thibron.' 
nplv with opt. is used after negative sentences of past time (answering 
to irp\v ta> with subj. of present time). The opt. implies it was quite 
uncertain when this could be done. 

1. 485. Adp-vJ/aKov. See Vocabulary. 

1. 486. Distinguish dir-avrqi from airavra (i) by the breathing and 


accent, (2) by the i svbscriptum, (3) by the hyphen showing that ait-avra 
is a compound of dir6. 

1. 488. ?x oi ' had,' not ' might have.' Cp. 1. 342 n. 

ccrecrOai p.T)Sc, ' that there would not even be.' 

1. 489. IKO.VOV WOT* dir-itvai, lit. 'sufficient so as to depart,' 1 i.e. 'suf- 
ficient to enable him to get away.' 

ei.Tr6-8oi.To, middle voice. Cp. 1. 99 n. 

1. 491. J?Trm|;av, aorist after lircf, ' had sent' (II. 118 n.). But ?0vs 
(next line), imperf., 'was sacrificing.' 

1. 492. I8(ov TO. Upcia, i.e. when Euclides ' inspected the entrails,' he 
found unfavourable signs. 

1. 493. |AT| X* IV > 'that he had not,' after irtlffoiro. 

1. 494. OTI joins oiSo, to tcrrai, ' I know that there will be.' The 
clause with tav depends on tcrrai, 'there will be, etc., if you intend,' etc. 

1. 497. l TJSrj 6v<7i, ' if he had ever sacrificed.' "H8^, Lat. jam, 
' already,' ' before now.' 

1. 498. ovK-?<j)T], as one word, 'denied,' 'said that he had not.' Cp. 
IV. 270, 283 n. 

Ail TO> MeiXixitp, ' to Zeus the Gracious.' Though Xenophon had of 
course often sacrificed to Zeus, he had never sacrificed to him under 
this particular title, and the various attributes of one god were often 
personified into separate deities. Thus the dream related in Chap. IV. 
42, etc., is said to have come from Zei>s {3acriAetJS, i.e. Zeus under his 
title of King. 

t OTOU, lit. 'from whatever (time),' i.e. 'ever since.' 

I. 499. avv-epoijAevio-ev, ' advised.' Distinguish the act. trv/ji-fiov- 
\(vftv, ' to advise,' from the mid. avn-!3ov\tvfff0at, ' to consult.' Cp. 
IV. 14 n. 

II. 503, 504. diT-8orav, act. dir-tSoTO, mid. Cp. 1. 99 n. 
1. 508. ITtp-yanov. See Vocabulary. 

1. 510. Thought-Is has an accent, it means 'a certain one,' not 'who?' 
The accent does not belong to it, but is thrown back from O-TVV. Cp. 
1. 161 n. 

1.511. cl c\0ois . . Xd{3ois av, ' if you were to come, you might take,' 
the third of the four conditional forms given in IV. 1 1 3 n. 

1. 515. v iroiT|(Tiv. Eu iTOKiv is to ' treat well,' so to ' benefit.' 

1. 517. aurov TOV 'Aai8aiT)v, ' Asidates himself;'' distinguish this from 
TW avTov 'A.<rioaTT)v, 'the same Asidates.* Cp. IV. 190 n. 

1. 518. KCLTO. Kpdros, here, ' by storm,' lit. 'according to force.' It 
usually means ' at full speed.' Cp. II. 53 n. 

1. 520. Si-wpoipvKTo, plup. pass, of Si-opvTT<u, ' the breach was com- 
pleted.' Distinguish -[lo-OoiAijv, 2nd aor. of alaOdvofuii, from ijaOrjv, ist 
aor. pass, of 7j8o/ta. Cp. II. 910. 


178 NOTES. 

1. 521. TOW t'YYvraTw, sc. ovros, as iyyiis is an adverb. The form of 
comparison in -Ttpai and -rarca properly belongs to adverbs ending in 
-, as dvu, K&rca (cp. avcararca, 1. 277), but it was used with a few others 
besides, as iyyvs, irtpa (irfpairtptu, -Tarca). 

1. 522. cocrr IAT| . . ivai, ' so as not to be safe,' i. e. ' so as to make it 
unsafe. 1 "Clare OVK ?jv (indie.) would be, ' so that (as a matter of fact) 
it was not,' or ' therefore it was not.' Cp. VI. 47 n. 

1. 523. irdji-iroXXoi, after (K-0or]6ovffi and in apposition with oXXo*, 
' come to the rescue in great force.' 

1. 524. TI-XTIO-IOV, an adverb, but standing between the article and its 
noun, it is equivalent to an adjective. Cp. I. 109 ri". 

1. 525. diro-xwpoiev, ' should get away,' the deliberative opt. after 
ffffccnrovv. Cp. 1. 379 n. The direct deliberative would be ITWS dirox<o~ 
pu>fj.(v (subj.), ' how are we to get away ?' 

1. 526. Pots, irpopara, dvSpdiroSa, nominatives by attraction into the 
relative clause introduced by ocroi, instead of accusatives after Kapuvrts, 
= \afi6vTfs POVS etc., offoi ^aav. 

1. 528. m-Keijivovs = <7ri-Ti0e/Voi/s. Cp. VII. 20, 221 n. 

1. 530. npoxX-fj?. This Procles has been mentioned in Chap. II. 117 
as having announced the death of Cyrus after the battle of Cunaxa. 
He was governor of Teuthrania, a district of Mysia, and was descended 
from the Spartan Demaratus, who had been driven out by the joint-king 
Cleomenes, and had taken refuge at the court of Darius nearly 100 years 
before the date of this expedition. 

. 534. us (with numerals), lit. 'as it were,' i.e. 'about.' 

535- ""1 s VVKTOS, gen. of time. Cp. IV. 255 n. 

. 542. f-aipcra, 'select portions,' from the mid. al/w'o/xai, 'I choose,' 
no from the act. alpica, ' I take." 

543- 6ipp"v. For Thibron (or Thimbron) cp. 1. 329 n. 

. 544. "EXXijviKep, sc. ffTpaTfvftaTt, So TO lirtriK&v, ru Tr(\TaffTtK&y, ri 
fltpaiitov, etc. 

1. 545. iiroXffxci, imperf., ' proceeded to make war." 


[N.B. Hyphens are used, not on strictly philological principles, but only to draw 
attention to different elements in the stem of a word, and to show more 
clearly the meaning of the compound.] 

For lenses of compound verbs not inserted, see the simple verb. 


5-po.TOS, -of, impassable, (of a river) 
not to be forded, (a, not, andjScuos, 
verbal adj. of fta-ivta, I go.) 

'AppoKop-as, -ov, m. Abrocomas, satrap 
of Phoenicia, head of Persian troops 
between the Mediterranean and Eu- 
phrates (I. 149). 

ofycryciv, ayayuv, 2 aor. infin. and 
part, of dyw. 

ayaOos, -/], -6v, good, brave ; TO, 
d-yafld', goods, wealth ; comp. d/te/- 
vaiv, f$t\Ti<tiv : superl. apiaros, @f\- 

'AYdO-ias, -ov, m. Agasias, a brave 
captain from Stymphalus in Arcadia 
(VII. 251). 

Ayytlov, ~ ov > n - a vessel, pail. 

d-yY^Xo>, I announce, report; fut. 
u, I aor. ijyy(i\a, perf. pass. 

ayyeXos, -ov, m. a messenger. 
d-ytipu, I collect, assemble; i aor. 

fjyapa, I aor. pass. tjfipQijV. 
d^K-upa, -as, f. an anchor. @a\\(tv 

aytcvpav, to cast anchor. 
a-yvoa>, / am ignorant; fut. ayvo- 

f]ff<a. (a, not, and yvo; root of 

fi-yvw-aKW, I learn.) 
a-Yvo)(Ji(uv, -ov, senseless, foolish, (a, 

not, and yv&fjir], sense.) 
iyopa., -as, f. a market-place, pro- 

visions; a meeting, (aytipu.) 
frypios, -fa, -tov, living in the fields, 

wild, (d^po*, afield.) 


uYpos, -ov, m. a field, land; the 

country. (Lat. ager.) 
aywi I lead, bring; fut. aca, perf. 

pass, fjyuat, i aor. pass. Tjx^Vt f ut - 

pass. dxOriffoiMi, 2 aor. qyayov. 
ywatica dytif, to marry (of the 
man). (Lat. uxorem ducere.) 
ayt, well I come on I 
fiiov dyeiv, to lead a life, live. 
(Lat. vitam agere.) 

&v, -wvos, a contest; an assembly. 
ai, / contend, rrtpi nvos, for 

anything, (ayfav, a contest.) 
d-8nrvos, -ov, dinnerless or supperless. 

(d, not, and oiimov, dinner or 


aSeXtf 6s, -ov, m. a brother. 
d-8T|\os, -ov, not clear, uncertain. 

(a, not, and Sfj\os, clear.) 
d-5iKcci>, I do wrong, harm, injure' 

with ace., fut. d5(ij<ro>, I aor. 

TjoiKTjaa, perf. pass. ijS?;/n, I aor. 

pass. fjSiKrjdrjv. 

d-StKia, -as, f. injustice, wrong, injury. 
a-SiKo;, -ov, unjust, unfair, (a, not, 

and Slier), justice.) 
d-8iKa>s, unjustly, wrongly, (adv. of 


d-SoXuS) adv. without fraud. 
d-StivaTOs, -ov, unable to do a thing. 

(d, not, and ovvarbt, verb. adj. of 

Svva/j.a.1, I am able.) 
a-Suvorov, impossible; (neut. of dSv- 

a'Sco, I sing (contracted from 

fut. av 



oft, (adv.) always, continually ; from 
time to lime. 

dTos, -ov, m. an eagle. 

'AO-qvui, -uiv, (. Athens, the capital of 

'AOijvato;, -a., -ov, Athenian. 

3.0Xov, -OK, n. a prize. 

u0potu, 7 collect, assemble, fut. dO- 
ftoiata. (dOpuos.) 

alphas, -or, collected, in crowds. 

uOdjicu, 7 a?H without courage, I de- 
spond ; fut. dOv/tTjffO}. (a, HO/, and 
Ovfuus, courage.) 

u-OiJfua. -a*, f. ican/ o/ courage, de- 

a-8up.os, -o>', desponding, (a, o/, and 
Ovpos, courage.) 

u-0fjp.u>s, despondingly, (adv. of a0D- 

aiYiuXds, -oD, m. /Ae sea-shore, beach. 

u'l'Ocj, 7 (>/>;<, kindle, (only used in 
pres. and imperf. yOov.) (Mid.) 
<u0ou,ai, 7 am on fire. 

aip.a. -arc*, n. blood. 

ai, aly6s, m. and f. a ^oaf. 

alpe0fis, chosen, I aor. participle pass, 
from alpeofiai. 

aipcTt'os, !/ t taken, (verb. adj. 
from alp(<u). 

alpcu, 7 /n/t?, (Mid.) aipt'oiiai, 7 
choose; fut. alprfau, perf. yprjica, 
perf. pass. rjptjfMi, I aor. pass. TJptOtfv, 

2 aor. rAoi>. 

aipu), 7 rn/s#, //// /; fut. dpw, I aor. 
^pa, perf. ^/)a, perf. pass, fjpftat., 7 perceive, feel, under- 
stand; fut. alaOr)ffO(Mt, perf. yaOrjiMi, 

3 aor. rjaOoiirjv. 

Aio-x^s, -on, m. Aeschines, an Acar- 
nanian (V. 40). 

QicrxCwv, aio'xio'TOS, comp. and superl. 
of alaxpot. 

aiaxpos, -&, -6v, base, disgraceful, 
shameful, (alffxoi, shame.) 

aiaxvvr), -ijs, f. shame, disgrace, re- 
proach, (dlaxo*, shame.) 

O'ICTX^VOJ, (Act.) I put to shame, (Pass.) 
cuoxwofxai, 7 am ashamed, with 
accus. of the thing: so with infin. 

iroifTv, I am ashamed to do it (and 

therefore do not do it) ; but with 

part, irotui', 7 am ashamed at doing 

it (but yet do it). 
aire'co, 7 ask, request; fut. alr^au, 

perf. yrijica, perf. pass. rfrTjfiai. 
alxia, -as, f. a canae, a fault, blame; 

oir/ai/ ex**'' TIVUS, to be accused of 

a thing. 
aiTiao(, 7 blame, accuse: fut. a?nd- (with ace. of person and gen. 

of thing). 
airios, -a, -ov, causing harm, guilty ; 

TO ainov, the cause; 6 a'nut, the 

accused. (Lat. reus.) 
QiXC-ciXojTos. -ov, taken in war, 

captive. (al\p:f), a spear, and 

d\a>T<5s, verbal adj. of dX/ovro/JOi, 

7 am taken.) 
d-K(5XaoTos, -or, lit. undisciplined, 

unpunished* (a, o/, and o\a{<w, 

7 punish.) 
aKovTi<i>, 7 /i/r/ a javelin at one; 

I aor. j/KuvTiaa. 
CIKOVTIOV, -ou, n. a javelin (dim. of 

amuy, a rfar/). 
UKOVOJ, 7 hear ; diroww cffai, 7 Afar a 

report that it is ; d/eovea &v, ovra, 1 

hear a report that it (or he) cer- 

tainly is; fut. a.KOvaopM.1, I aor. 

iJKOvaa, perf. pass. rjKovfffuu. 
aKpa, -as, f. a />o//, a /ifa/t-, a citadel. 
a-Kparos, -ov, unmixed, strong (of 

wine), (a, not, and xtpavvvfu,! mix ) 
uKpo-poXitojitti. 7 throw from afar, 

I skirmish, (dicpos, outermost, and 

^dAXoi, 7 throw.) 
dxpo-iroXis, -tois, f. /A upper city, 

citadel, castle. 

, -a, -ov, highest, topmost, TO 

aKp6rarov, the highest point, TO, 

OKpa, the heights. 

, -ou<ra, -ov, unwitting. (&, not, 

and iiewv, willing.) 

difa), 7 ra/s* the war cry; fut 

aXfo>, 7 warrf q^j (with dative) 7 
defend; fut. d\fij<rw, I aor. mid. 



a-\T|0ia, -as, f. truth ; rrj d\r]6(ia, in 

truth, in fact. (d\.t)0i)s, trite.) 
a-\T)OT)s, -ts, true, (lit. un-concealed, 

a, not, and \av Odvta, I escape notice.) 
a-Xiflos, -oy, without stones, (a, not, 

and \tOvs, a stone.) 
'AXio-dpvT), -TJS, f. Halisarne, a town 

in the Troad. 
dXio-Kou;at, 7 am taken (used as the 

passive^ of a'tpftu) ; fut. dAicro^cu, 

perf. laAcu/m or ffKwita, 2 aor. ta\oiv 

or ij\uv. 
dXXd, (conjunction), but, well; d\\d 

yap, but really ; dAAd ft, but 
^ still. 
a\\T), (adv. really dat. fem. of aKXos, 

understand 6oS>) in another way. 

d\\p Knl O.\\TI, here and there. 
o.X\T|\ovs, one another, each other 

(wants nom. and sing.). 
aXXoflev, (adv.) from another place. 

aXXopai, / leap; imperf. f)\\6nr)v, 

I aor. %\a/j.r)v, 2 aor. f/Ko^riv. 
aXXos, -t], -o, another, different. (Lat. 

alius.) d\\ot, some others ; oi 

aA.Ao, the rest; so rd aAAa, in all 

other respects. 
oXXoae, (adv.) to another place. 

dXXoTpius, -a, -ov, belonging to 

another, foreign, strange. (a\\ns.) 
aXXtos, (adv.) (i) in another way, 

otherwise : (2) at random. 
a.-Koyia'Tos, -ov, unreasoning, (a, 

not, and \oyifaiuu, I reason.) 
"AXvs, -vos, m. the Halys, the chief 

river of Asia Minor (vi. 141). 
aX<j>t/rov, -ov, n. barley (generally in 

plural a\(f>iTa). 
a(i,a, (adv.) at the same time, at once, 

together. (Lat. simul.) 

ct/ta rj7 fi^ipa, at day-break. 
afxa^a, -775, f. a waggon. 
djiaprdva), 7 err, do wrong: with 

gen. 7 miss (a mark) ; fut. dfMpTT]- 

<ro/, perf. f)n<zpT7]tca, 2 aor. ^/xa/>- 

rov, I aor. pass. -^naprrjOrjv. 

, -arc*, n. a fault, mistake. 

d-(', (adv.) without fighting, (a, 
not, and fM\r), fight.) 

ajxcivov, adv. of dfntivasv. 

dfmvcov, better, braver, used as comp. 
of dyados. 

d-|X\crT<pov, comp. of d/j.t\G>s, more 
carelessly, somewhat carelessly. 

d-jieXdjs, (adv.) carelessly, (d, not, 
and /iAf, it is a care.) 

d|iiXXdo|xai, 7 contend, struggle: fut. 
d/j.i\\rjaofMt. (cifM\\a, a contest.) 

elfiireXos, -ov, f. a vine. 

d|xi)va), 7 ward off, defend, with dat. 
In middle dp.vvojxai, with accus. 
7 ward off from myself, punish ; 
fut. dfMJvca, I aor. TJ/J.VVO.. 

dfjKJH, (with gen. and ace., never with 
dat. in Attic prose), lit. ' on both 
sides' (dfjt<po>, Lat. ambo, 'both,' sc 
Lat. amb- in amb-ire.) I. with 
gen. about, as dia.-(p(p(a0ai d/^u 
TWOS, to quarrel about a thing. 
IF. with ace. (i.) around, near, with, 
especially of persons, as of du(pl 
Kvpov, Cyrus and his attendants 
(lit. ' those around Cyrus') ; (ii.) of 
things, about, concerning; (ill.) of 
time, about, as d/i</>i jj.taas vvKrat, 
about midnight; (iv.) of numbers, 
as uf.i<l>l rovs Stff-^i\lovs, about 
2000. In Composition dfjupl mostly 
means, on both sides, around, about. 

du.4>6Tpos, -a, -ov, both. (Lat. ambo.) 

d(i<j><m'p9v, (adv.) on both sides. 

uiicjju), -oiv, both. 

dv, conditional particle, lit. 'in that 
case:' I. with opt. AWJ di*, 'he 
would loose'' (if something were to 
happen). II. with aor. indie. tXvatv 
dV, he would have loosed (if some- 
thing had happened). III. when 
compounded with relatives or rela- 
tive particles, as 8s &V, whoever, 
or-av, whenever, (dv (for fl b.v), 
if ever. Compounds of dv can only 
go with the subj. 

uvd, (with accus. only), lit. up (cp. 
dvoj, 'upwards'): I. of place, along, 
throughout, on; dvd TT)V n6^iv, 


through the city : II. of manner, at 
the rate of; dvd itpdrot, up to one's 
strength, i.e. at full speed: III. of 
numbers, at the rate of; dvd (narov, 
100 each. In Composition, up, 
again, back. 

dva-f3a(vu>, 7 go up, ascend, mount, 
go on board ; fut. -&ijo'op.a.i, perf. 
-/StflrjKa, 2 aor. dv-ffirjv. 

dvd-/3a(n.s, -ecus, f. a going up, an 
expedition into the interior. 

dva-^odu, 7 cry aloud, shout; fut. 

av-a.YYXAw, 7 bring back news, re- 
port ; fut. -ayytXcD, I aor. -r)yyti\a. 

dva-YiY vt " ) ' Kw . I understand, recog- 
nise; read; 2 aor. dv-tyvcuv. 

dvaYKd(i>, I force, compel ; fut. 0^07- 
Kafftu, I aor. pass. Qvay/caaOTjv. 

dvayKaios, -ov, necessary, needful. 

dvaYKT), -ijs, f. necessity, need. 

dva-Yvovs, 2 aor. participle of dva- 

dv-a-Yu), 7 lead up, bring tip; 2 aor. 
dvrjyayov, i a'or. pass. -Tixfy"- (Mid.), 7 put to sea. (dva,, up, 
and dyoj, I lead.) 

dva-Oopvpe'cj, 7 cry o/ loudly, ap- 
plaud, (di'd, up, i. e. aloud, and 
66pv@as, noise.) 

dva-Ka((o, 7 kindle; fut. dva-ffauo'a;. 

dva KOIVOCO, I communicate (something 
to another) ; fut. dva-xoivdiaca. 

uva-Koptf u), 7 carry /^, s/ore ; I aor. 

, 7 cry aloud; fut. apa- 
, 2 aor. dv-^Kpayor. 
va), 7 /n& t//>, recover; fut. 
^ai, perf. dv-tiXT/cfa, a aor. 

dva-Xd|iiro>, 7 Woze w/, tote /fre; 

fut. (ii'fi-Aii^i/'cu. 
dv-aXCo-Kw, 7 spend, squander; fut. 

op-aAaVo/jat, perf. dV-^XaiKa. 
dva-jivw, 7 wait for; fut. dfa-iicva;, I 

aor. dv-ifjuiva. 
ava-|xi|ivT|(rK(i>, (Act.) I remind, (Mid.), I remember; fut. 

'Ava|i^i,os, -ov, m. Anaxibius, * 

Spartan admiral, 
dvo|vptScs, trousers, (probably a 

Persian word). 
dva-iravw, (Act.) 7 make to cease, 

stop, (Mid.) dva-TraxJo(, 7 cense, 

dva-ireTavwp.1, 7 spread out, open ; 

fut. dva-irtrdcrca. 
dv-dpioTos, -ov, without breakfast. 

(a, not, and apiarov, breakfast?) 
dv-apudjo), 7 snatch up, plunder; 

fut. dv-apirdftu, or dv-a/JTrdcrcu. 
dv-apxii. *, f- /a/ of government, 

lawlessness. (a, not, and dpx^i 

dva-rrp<j)to, 7 /; upside down, re- 

turn, (of an army) rally; fut. dya- 

OTptyu, 2 aor. pass, av-fffrpdfprjv. 
dva-Tiv&>, 7 stretch upwards, extend ; 

fut. ara-Tf P, perf. dva-Ttraxa, perf. 

pass. dva-Ttraftai. 
dva-Ti0T|p.i, 7 /ny j//>, se/ i//>, deposit ; 

fut. dca-0)7<ra>, I aor. dv-tOrjica. 
dva-<|>6VY(>>> I escape; fut. dva-<ptv- 

o[, 2 aor. dv-t<f>vyov. 
dva-cfipovcci), 7 recover my senses ; fut. 

o, 7 retire, retreat, withdraw; 

fut. d 
<iva-x<jjpiu>, 7 cflwse /o retire, draw 

off; I aor. av-tx.<jopiaa.. 
dvSpd-rroSov, -ov, i\. a slave taken in 

war. (Lat. mancipium.) 
a.v-tyilpd>, I wake up, rouse ; fut. 

dv-tyfpSj, i aor. act. dv-riyttpa, 

1 aor. pass. dv-rjyfpO-qv. 
dv-iiriv, to proclaim, (dpd, (iirtiv 

2 aor. infin., <prjfu.) 
uv-eK-irip.irXT|p.i, I Jill up again; fut. 

av-cKpaYOV, 2 aor. indie, from dva- 


avtv, (prep.) without. (Lat. sine.) 
dv-x<<>, / AoW up, put up with, en- 

dure; fut. dv-la) or 

2 aor. 



dv-T|KW, 7 come up to, extend up- 


dvT|p, dvopos, m. a man, (Lat. vir.) 
dvfjp, man, opposed to woman. 
dvOpcvTros, human being, opposed 

to beast. 

u.v--f\\fa]v, I aor - P as$ - of dr-d-yw. 
dv0-io-nrjjti, (Act.) 7 se/ against, 

(Mid.) dv6-i(rra|xai, 7 oppose; fut. 

di/Tt-ffTijtrcy, perf. av&-(ffT7]Ka, 2 aor. 

avr-iarrjv, (avrl, against, and 

'iffTTjfii, I set up.) 
dvOptoTTivos, -ov, (adj.) human (avOpca- 

dvOpumos, -ov, m. a man. (Lat.Aomo). 

See dvf|p. 
dvido), 7 grieve, hurt; fut. d^-jaaa;, 

I aor. pass. TjvtaOijv. (dvta, grief.) 
dv-iT)|, 7 send up, let go; fut. d>- 

rja<a, I aor. dy-i}tfa, perf. av-tuca. 
dv-icrrr](u, (Act.) 7 se/ up, (Mid.) 

dv-Urra|uu, 7 rise up, stand up. 

So also 2 aor. act. &y-ion\Tf t and 

perf. and pluperf. act. are intransitive. 
dv-iaxw = av-fxca, intrans. 7 rise (as 

the sun). 
dv-ovyii), or dv-oiYWju, 7 open ; fut. 

'AvravSpos, -ov, f. Antandrus, a city 

in the Troad (VIII. 506). 
dvTi,( with gen. only), I. over against, 

opposite ; II. z' return for, instead 

of. In Composition, against, ex- 

change. (dvrl, against, must be 

distinguished from Lat. ante, before; 

dvrl probably meant originally, 

' before the face of.') 
'AvTi\e'o)v,-oj'Tos, m. Antileon, a soldier 

from the Greek colony of Thurii in 

Italy (VI. 2). 
dvrios, -a, -ov, opposite; often with 

itVui, f\avvtiv, etc. ; ' to go, ride, 

etc., against the enemy.' 
dvTi-irapa-<TKvd5o(i.oi ) 7 prepare my- 

self in turn; fut. -dero/xat, perf, 

avTi-irapa-rciTTw, 7 draw up op- 
posite, I range in battle against; 
fut. -T<iw, perf. -Tc 

dvTi-4>vXaTTU), (Act.) 7 watch in turn, 

(Mid.) 7 am on my guard against 

one; fut. -tpv\dca. 
dvTp-a>8T)s, -es, cavern-like, full of 

caves, (avrpov, a cave, and tiSos, 

dvw, (adv.) upwards. Comp. dva>- 

Tfpoi, superl. dvcardro). Sometimes 

as a prep, with gen. above. 
dvutOev, (adv.) from above, from the 

interior (of a country). 
dia, -as, f. worth, value. 
d^ivT], -?;s, f. an axe. (dyvv^it, I break.) 
uios, -a, -ov, worth, worthy ( with 

gen.) ; aftov fffri (Lat. operae 

pretium est), it is worth while; 

iro\\ov agios, valuable. 
dioo>, 7 think it right, claim, ask, 

with gen. of person, (agios, worthy.) 
dcov, -ovos, m. an axle. 
dir-a-yY^M*** I bring back word, 

announce, report; fut. dir-ayy^u, 

1 aor. dir-r)yy(i\a. 

dir-aYw, / lead away, bring back; 

2 aor. dir-rj-yayov. 

dir-a'YfoY | ]> -^s, f. a leading away, 

aTf-airew, 7 demand back : i aor. dtr- 

dir-aXXaTTW, 7 get rid of: (intrans.) 

7 get off: (Mid.) 7 depart; fut. 

-a\\d(a, perf. pass. -i^AAa-y/wu. 
diraXos, -77, -6v, soft to the touch, 

tender, (amoral, I touch.) 
aTr-avrdw, (with dat.) 7 come to meet, 

encounter; fut. 6.v-avrr]<jtu, I aor. 


aira|, (adv.) once. (Lat. semel.) 
d-iropdaKevos, -ov, unprepared, (a, 

not, and irapaaxfv^, preparation.) 
a-iras, -aaa, -av, all together, (dfia, 

together, and was, all.) 
dir-t8pav, 2 aor. of diro-SiSpdfffcea. 
d-ireiOeo), I disobey, (a, not, and irtiffo- 

(Mt, I obey.) 
direvXtw, 7 threaten; fut. d7riXi7<T<u, 

I aor. fiirti\T]ffa. 
aTT-eip.i, 7 g-o aw a^, depart, (airo, and 


1 84 


uir-eiju, 7 am away, am distant, (dir6 

and ?/*2, 7 am.) 

iTr-eKpivdiJiTjv, I aor. of dno-HpivofMi. 
d-Tr-cXa-uvw. 7 drive away; (jntrans.) 

7 inarch away, ride away, 
dir-tpxK.<n, 7 go away, depart; for 

the fut. air-tipi, 2 aor. aTr-tjAfloi'. 
dir-exOdvojxat., 7 am hated, become 

odious; fut. dir-f)(0-f}ao^tai, 3 aor. 

o.TT-rjx^ofj.rjv, perf. a-n-ri\Or) 
dir-X<>, (with gen.) 7 foe/> o^, (of a 

place) am distant front ; 2 aor. 

UTT-TI \Xcvy p.<u, perf. pass, of air- 

dir-T|VTT]aa, I aor. 

d-irierria), 7 disbelieve, din/rust, (a, 

not, and marts, belief.) 
d-mcma, -as, f. disbelief, faithlessness. 
d-irioros, -os, -ov, untrustworthy, un- 

faithful. (a, not, and iriaros, trust- 

dir-tTt'ov, oe must go away (verbal 

adjective from dn-dfu). 
a.ir6, (prep, with gen. only); (Lat. ab): 

I. of place, off from, away from. 

II. of time, from, after, since: III. 
of origin and cause, proceeding from, 
as dir6 iro\/W <pofio$, fear caused 
by the enemy. Before an aspirated 
vowel ano becomes d<j>', as dtp? 
fairov, on horseback, lit. ' from his 
horse.' In Composition, from, off, 

a7ro-(3aCva>, (i) 7 away, go off: (2) 
dismount (iirirov): (3) disembark 
(i'(ua) ; 1 aor. drr-iflijv, fut. d>ro- 

diTo-piXXo, 7 throw away, lose; 

fut. dao-{ia\>, 2 aor. dir-t(ia\ov. 
diro-pXirw, 7 look eagerly. 
airo-Se'SpaKo, perf. act. of dwo-5i5/?d- 

iiro-8tiKW(iv, 7 point out, declare, 

appoint; fut. diro-o(i<a. 
airo-SxH' at > I accept; fut. diro-5- 

^w, 7 am abroad, go abroad. 
(dito, away, and Sfj^os, home.) 

diro-8i5pao-Kw, 7 run away, escapt 

(so as not to be found) ; fut. 

-Spdffo/, perf. -SfSpaxa, a aor. 

diro-8i8u>(jii, (Act.) 7 give back, 

restore, (Mid.) I sell, fut. -owaai, perf. 

-otouHa, 2 aor. mid. dit-toofjiriv. 
diro-Spdvai, 2 aor. infiu. of diro-ot- 

diro-0vT|crK<i), 7 die, I am put to death ; 

fut. -Oavovpat, perf. -rtOvrjiea, 2 aor. 

dir-iQavov. It is used instead of 

the passive of diro-KTtivco, I kill. 
aTr-oiKOs, -ov, away from home, (dirb, 

and ofos home) ; hence a colonist. 
diro-Katw, 7 burn off; dir-fKaiovTO at 

ptvts, their noses were being frozen 

off (or frost-bitten) ; fut. -tcavoca. 
diro-Ka(A.v(i>, I grow quite weary, faint; 

fut. -Kafiovpat, perf. -KfKfirjKa, 2 

d,iro-Kpivop,ai, 7 answer, reply; fut. 

-Kpivovpai, I aor. -fKpivaftrjv, perf. 

diro-KptiirTa), (Act.) 7 A/rfe /rom 
(Mid.) I conceal; fut. -K/JI/I/W, I aor 

diro-KTtivw, 7 />/ /o death, kill; fut. 

-/fTtvcu, i aor. aTr-e'/rreii'a, a aor. 

air-fKravov. [For the Pass, diro- 

6vqaK<a is used.] 
diro-Xa|xpdvu, 7 /a^< fcaet, receive 

back, recover; fut. -\^if/ofuii. perf. 

dn-(i\rj<pa, a aor. a.-n-i\a$ov. 
diro-Xi-irw, 7 /esve behind, desert, 

abandon ; fut. -\tl\fxu, perf. -Xe'A.ojira, 

2 aor. aTr-^AtTroK. 
dir-6XXv|ii, (Act.) 7 destroy, kill, 

(Mid.) I perish; fut. dtr-oAd), I aor. 

dir-oAtffa, a aor. mid. dir-oa\6fii]v, 

2 perf. dw-(5Xtu\a, 7 am undone. 
'AiroXXwv, -<ovot, ace. 'A7r<5A.Ao>, m. 

the god Apollo. 
airo-TTpir<i>, 7 send off, discharge; 

fut. -ntfjif/u. 
airo-irXtw, 7 sa// away; fut. -jrAtCxro- 

/(. I aor. air fn\(Vfra. 
d-Tropo>, 7 am without resources, am 

in difficulties (a-nopot). 



i-iropCa, -as, f. difficulty, distress. 

(rpofpfjs diropta, want of food.) 
d-Tropos, -or, (i) without resources; 

(2) of rivers, etc., impassable; 

iv diropois tlvai, to be in difficul- 

dno-ppib|, -ujyos, broken off, steep, 

rugged. (OTTO, off, and p'qyvvfu, 

I break). 
diro-(r]iro(Jiat, 7 rot off, am frost- 

bitten ; 2 perf. diro-ffttnjna. 
onro-tnraco, / draw away, draw off"; 

fut. atraacu, perf. a-n-iaiiaKa, perf. 

pass, -eairaa /mi. 
aTro-crTavpou), 7 fence off with a 

palisade; fut. -aravpuffa}. (aravpos, 

a palisade,) 
diro-CTTX\w, 7 send away, despatch ; 

fut. -ffTt\w, i aor. a7r-o"Te\a. 
diro-aTepeco, 7 ro&, deprive of; (with 

ace. and gen. or with double ace.) ; 

perf. air-tare prjKa. 
d/iro-crTp'4>w, 7 turn back, recall; fut. 

-ffTptif/aj, perf. dn-fffTpofpa. 
diro-awjluj, 7 sflve or restore again, 

bring back safe. 
diro-Ta<}>pevco, 7 fence off with a 

ditch, (racppos, a ditch.) 
airo-reCvco, I stretch out, extend; fut. 

-revw, I aor. dir-tTttva, perf. pass. 

diro-Te'fiVw, 7 cw/ q^V fut. -Tf/ia), perf. 

-TeT/i?;a, I or. pass. dn-eT/j.T]Or)v, 

2 aor. dir-fTa/j.ov. 
diro-Tpirco, 7 /z^r 6aci, / 

perf. -Tirpo(pa, perf. pass, -re 

airo-TpX u ^ fun off, run away; 

fut. -opapoviMiif a aor. 

diro-(j)avo). I show, display; fut. -tpavw, 
I aor. aTT-e'^Tji'o. (Mid.), 7 declare 

cLtro-fyevyia, I escape ; fut. -<pevonai, 

2 aor. dn-t<pvyov. 
dir6-<J>T^vai, I aor. imp. middle of diro- 


tw, / depart from, retire, 

air-toy, -Svrot, distant; pres. part, of 
dir-eifu II. 

apa, (particle), so, therefore, then. 
(Lat. igitur.) 

apa, = Lat. HW, in asking a question, 
as opd IOTJ, zs iV so f 

'ApapCa, -as, f. Arabia, used of all 
countries inhabited by nomad Arabs, 
so even of the south of Mesopota- 
mia, still called Irak-al-Arabi. 

d-p-yos, -ov, idle, lazy, (d, not, and 
ipybv, work.) 

dp-yos, -17, -of, white, bright. 

dpyvpcos, -a, -ov, made of silver. 

dpyupvov, -ov (dim. of dpyvpos), silver, 
money. [Cp. the French argent.~\ 

, -ov, m. silver. 
Tj, -rjs, f. virtue, excellence, bravery. 

'Apialos, -on, in. Ariaeus, who com- 
manded under Cyrus, but went over 
to the Persians after Cyrus' death. 

dpiOfJios, -oO, m. number (of an army), 
a muster. 

'Apurrapxos, -ov, m. Aristarchus, the 
Spartan ' harmost ' or governor of 
Byzantium (Constantinople). 

dpio-Tato, 7 breakfast, lunch ; fut. dpi- 
GTr\<j<a. (Lat. prandeo.) 

dpi0Tpos, -d, -6v, the left. (iv 
dpiffrtpa, on the left hand.) 

apiorov, ov, n. the morning or mid- 
day meal, breakfast, lunch. 

dpi(TTO-irouo>, (Act.) I prepare break- 
fast or lunch, (Mid.) 7 breakfast, 
lunch ; fut. -Trotr/aca. 

apio-Tos, best, used as superlative of 

'Apio-Tiivujios, -ov, m. Aristonymus, 
a brave Arcadian captain (V. 265). 

"ApKas, -d5os, an Arcadian. 

dpKb>, 7 am sufficient, avail; fut. 

dpKTOS, -ov, m. and f. a bear, the 
constellation ' Ursa Major," or the 
Great Bear, hence the north. 

upjia, -arcs, n, a chariot. 

dp|x-il^a^a, -rjs, f. a covered carriage, 

'Ap(j.tviu, -as, f. Armenia, the cold 



mountainous country near the 
sources of the Euphrates. 

'App.T)VT|, -775, f. Harmene, harbour of 
Sinope (VI. 371). 

apjioo-njs, -oO, m. an officer sent by 
the Spartans to govern their depen- 
dencies, a governor, ' harmost.' (dp- 
pofa, I put in order.) 

apTfa-yf], -rjs, f. plunder, booty. 

dpirdfu), I seize, plunder, carry off; 
fut. ap-naau, perf. pass. TJpnaffnat. 

'Apirucros, -ov, m. the river Harpasus, 
perhaps a branch of the Armenian 
Araxes, now the Arpa-Chai. Or 
the Tchoruk-Su, flowing north- 
westward into the Euxine near the 
modern town of Batouni. (See 
note to V. 277). 

'ApraYtpo-qs, -ov, m. Artagerses, a 
general of the Persian cavalry whom 
Cyrus killed (II. 73). 

'ApTa^t'p^Tjs, -ov, m. Artaxerxes II, 
Mnemon, the son of Darius II, 
Nothus : king of Persia 405-360, 
B.C. (Artaxerxes I, Longimanus, 
preceded Darius II.) 

"ApTairaTijs, -ov, m. Artapa/es, one of 
Cyrus' attendants (I. 278). 

"ApTtjus, -c5os, f . : (i) the Greek 
Artemis, Roman Diana, sister of 
Apollo, armed with arrows : (2) 
the Ephesian Artemis, an Asiatic 

dp-TV, (adv.) just now, lately. 

dpros, ov, m. bread, a loaf. 

"Apvoras, ov, m. Arystas, an Arca- 
dian (VIII. 207). 

dpx<uos, -a, -ov, old, ancient; b 
apxaios, the elder; TO a.p\<uov, 
formerly, (dpx*)> beginning,) 

dp XT, -?s, f- (l) beginning; (2) rule, 
dominion, government, province. 

dpx<, (Act.) I command, (Mid.) 7 
begin ; ol dpxovrft, the rulers; fut. 
apfa, perf. %>x- 

d-o-pijs, -it, ungodly, impious, (a, 
not, and fft&o/ja.i, I worship.) 

d-crOtvt'u), 7 am weak, am sick, am ill. 
(a, not, and aOtvita, I am strong.) 

'Ao-id, -as, f. Asia, or rather the 
western part of Asia then known, 
divided bv the river Halvs. 

'AoT.8cmr]s, -ov, m. Asidales, a Persian 
noble (VIII. 510). 

'Aowaios, -a, ov, Asinean, or be- 
longing to Asine, a town in Laco- 
nia near Taenarus. 

d-criTOS, -ov, without food, (d, not, 
and airos,food.) 

do-Kos, -ov, m. a leather-bag, a bottle. 

dcrjievos, -77, -ov, pleased, glad, joyful. 

do*trdo|, I welcome, embrace, bid 
farewell; fut. doTrdao/MU. 

do-rrCs, -j'Sos, f. a large shield, covering 
the whole body. (Lat. clypeus.) 

d-cr4>a\ict, -as, safely (d-ovpaXjjs). 

a-o-4>a\T|S, -is, safe, lit. ' not liable to 
trip.' (d, not, and o~<f>d\\oa, I trip 

d-cr<f>aAws, safely, (adv. of aff<pa\rii.) 

O-TOKTOS , -ov, undisciplined, in disor- 
der, (d, not, and rarroi, I arrange.) 

d-ro|ia, -as, f. want of discipline, 

drdp, but, however, (conj.) introducing 
a correction of what has been said 
before. (Lat. at.) 

d.T(j.i5a), 7 steam or smoke, (ar^ot, 

a-rpv{3T|S, -ft, untrodden, lit. 'not 
rubbed.* (d, not, and Tpi0cu, I rub.) 

ov, (adv.) again; on the contrary; 

ovidts, (adv.) again. 

ou\c(i>, 7 play on the flute. (av\o, 
a flute.) 

a\j\io|Aai, 7 am in the courtyard or 
the open air, I bivouac. (avAT), a 
courtyard); fut. avAiao/iai, pert 
fiv\iff(uu, I aor. pass. rju\'iaOrjv. 

aOXds, -ov, m. a flute, flageolet. 
(nrjfu, I blow.) 

audvci>, 7 increase; fat. av 170*0/401, 
perf. ijvfaica. (Lat. augeo, in trans- 
itive sense.) 

avpiov, (adv.) to-morrow. 

auruco, (adv.) immediately; avrina 
/toAa, instantly. 


i8 7 

avr60v, (adv.) from the spot. 
auToOi, (adv.) on the spot. 
auTO-jiaros, -77, -ov, acting of oneself, 

of one's own account, spontaneous ; 

in TOV avro-fidrov, naturally. 
auTo-p-oXo?, -ov, m. a deserter. 

(O.VTOS, of oneself and no\tiv, 2 aor. 

Of 0\<i>aKQ}, I gO.) 

O.UTOS, -17, -6, (reflex, pron.) self; 

6 avros (atros), the same, neut. TO 

avrb, contr. raurov. 
atrrov, (adv.) there. 
auxV> ~* vos > m - neck, also a neck of 

land, isthmus. 
a4>-cupsa>. (Act.) 7 lake away, (Mid ) 

1 rescue ; fut. -aiprjau, perf. -rjprjKa, 

2 aor. d<-(Aoi'. 

d-4>avifco. / en?/se to disappear, put 
out of the way. (d, not, and <paivoj, 

1 show.) 

a.4>-\ccr0ai, d<|>-eX6|j.vos, 2 aor. mid. 

infin. and part, of a<p-aipiia. 
d(J>-T|cru>, fut. act. of a<p-ir)fju. 
d-4>9ovia, -as, f. abundance, plenty. 

a-4>0ovos, -ov, ungrudging, plentiful. 

(a, not, and <f>86vos, grudge.) 
d4>- (TJ fit, 7 senrf away, dismiss, let go. 

(O.TTO, away, and HJ/M, / send) ; fut. 

d(p-^aa>, I aor. dxf>-rJKa, perf. d^>- 

ffAfa, perf. pass. d<p-(?fMi. 
d(j>, 7 come to, arrive, reach ; 

fut. a<-<'o;MZ, perf. pass, d^-f-y^aj, 

2 aor. axp-iKOfjajv. 

d<j>-icrTqfii, (Act.) 7 />w< away, set 
aside; fut. aTro-OTTjuoi, I aor. OTT- 
tffrrjaa, Mid. and intrans. tenses of 
Act. 7 s/a/rf q^", revolt, 2 aor. dw- 
fffrrjv, perf. a<f>-(<TTi)Ka. 

d-4>po)v, -o^, without sense, silly, (d, 
o/, and </>p/i', sense.) 

'Axavos, -d, -w, Achaean, a na'ive of 
the north coast of Peloponnesus. 

uxOojiai, 7 am displeased, am vexed ; 
fut. dx0effo/.iat, perf. ijxOrjuat, I aor. 
pass. f)x.6t<jOijv. 


Ba.pv\(iv, -wi/os, f. Babylon, on the 

Euphrates, the capital of the Persian 

Baj3vXcovia, -a, f. Babylonia, the 

flat country between the Tigris and 

Euphrates in their lower course. 
BapuXiovtos, -a, -ov, Babylonian. 
Pd8r)v, (adv.) slou'ly. (Qaivca, I go.) 
(3aSico, 7 walk slowly (opposed to 

rpe'xw, 7 run). 
Pa6vs, -da, -v, deep. 
Paivco, 7 go, depart; fut. $JJ<TO/U, 

perf. 0e@rjKa, 2 aor. I/SJJK. 
paKTrjpCa, -as, f. a staff". 
pdXXco, 7 throw, hit (with stones) ; 

fut. /JaAcD, perf. )3e)3Xj;*a, perf. pass. 

I3f^\, 2 aor. e0a\ov. 
pap{3apiKos, -17, -oJ', barbarian (ap- 
plied to all who did not speak 

Pappapos, -ov, strange, barbarian, 

foreigner (not Greek). 
Paptcos, (adv.) heavily; fiaptcustyiptiv 

TI, to be annoyed at, to take a thing 

ill. /3. dKoixiv, to be annoyed at 


Pds, 2 aor. part, of fiaivoi. 
pacriXeia, -as, f. a queen. 
pacriXcia, -as, f. kingly power, 

kingdom, sovereignty. 

, -ov, of or belonging to a 

king, royal (@aai\tvs) ; (3acrtXaov 

(5o>/xa), a palace, gen. in plural, 
vs, -ecus, m. a king. 
va), 7 am king, I reign ; fut. 


pdcri|Aos, -ov, passable, (fta-ivo), I go.) 
pepXT), perf. pass, of /SdAAcy. 
pf'Xos, -ovs, n. a missile, dart, arrow. 

(/3dA\w, 7 throw.) 
PXTWTTOS, best, used as superl. of 

dyaOus ; comp. PXTIU>V, better. 
Pf||xa, -arcs, n. a step, pace ( = 30 


PTJVO.I, 2 aor. infin. act. from paivca. 
PIO., -as, f. force, violence; /3ia, by 




{3ido|xai, I force, compel; fut. /Stdao- 

(Mi ; perf. /3j3/aa><ai. 
piaios, -ov, and -a, -ov, forcible, 

violent. (j3/a,/orce.) 
Bv9woi, -Siv, in. /Ae Bithynians, Thra- 

cian colonists in Asia Minor, East of 

the Bosporus (VIII. 162). 
PIOS, -ov, m. life. 

PiOTtuu. / live, pet a living. 
^ T *o o ^ 

Bio-av&T), -r/s, f. Bisanthe, a town in 
Thrace on the Propontis, after- 
wards called Rhaedestus, whence its 
modern name Rodosto. It is one 
of the best harbours on the northern 
coast of the Sea of Marmora. 

pXaKcucu, 7 am slack, am lazy. 

pXdirTW, 7 hurt, injure; fut. /SAa^cu, 
perf. pass. /3'/3Aa^/u, I aor. pass. 

v, 2 aor. pass, t/SAdySi/f. 
o, 7 see, look, behold; fut. 

P\i]6iT|v, I aor. pass. opt. of /SdAAcu. 
Podu>, 7 shout; fut. fioriaofiai, I aor. 


POT), -i}, f. a shout, battle cry. 
P<>T]0t(<>, 7 rw to Me rescue, assist; 

fut. f3oT)6riau. 
Boiumos, -a, -of, Boeotian, or inhabi- 

tant of Boeotia. 
pdOpos. -ov, in. a <#/eA, trench. 
povXevw, (Act.) 7 devise a plan, 

(Mid.) 7 ta&e counsel, deliberate, 

resolve; fut. ()ov\fvaa). (/3o/A^, 

Pov-Xi^iiato, 7 suffer from ravenous 

hunger; fut. /3ow-Ai^id(ra>. (0oCs, 

a o*, Ai/xus, hunger.) 
povXofxai, 7 //sA, desire ; fut. /3oi/Aij- 

oo^tai, perf. /3(/3ovAij/M((. 
POVS, /Sods, m. and f. an ox, cow. 
ppu6tojs, slowly, adv. from (ifxiovs, 

Ppax^s, -<ra, -{/, short. Comp. /3/>a- 

\vrtpot, super). ftpaxvraTos. 
pptX^, 7 we/; perf. pass, 

I aor. pass. it3pf\0i)i>. 
Ppovrfj, -^*, f. thunder. 
PpiDTOS, -17, -of, eatable; TO 
/ooci (verb adj. of j8pwcr*w, 

BvavTiov, -ot;, n. Byzantium on the 
Bosporus (the modern Constantino- 
ple), so called after its founder, Byzas 
of Megara. 

P<S, 2 aor. subj. from patvaj. 

P<op.6s, -ov, m. a raised place, an 


YctXTJvTj, -T]S, f. a calm. 

yap, /or = 76 apa, never at the be- 
ginning of a sentence, like Lat. 
enim ; KCU yap, for also, for even. 

ravXiTrjs, -ov, m. Gaulites, an exile 
from the island of Samos (I. 300). 

y, at least, indeed, in truth. 

ytyivT]\>.a.i, perf. from yiyvofuu. 

YEITWV, -ofos, m. and f. a neighbour. 

YeXdio, 7 laugh ; fut. ytAdo'o/iaj, 1 
aor. t"yAa(ra. 

YfXus, -euros, laughter. (yt\a<u, 1 

y*Xa>ro-iroi6s, -of , producing laughter, 
a buffoon. (yt\cas, laughter, and 
rroieoj, 7 make.) 

yvos, -ovj, n. 6/r/A, race, descent, 
offspring, (yiyvoftat, I am born.) 

yppov, of, n. a wicker shield (covered 
with oxhide). 

ytptuv, -ofros, m. an old man. 

yvw, (Act.) 7 give to taste; (Mid.) 
7 taste; fut. ytvaopcu. 

yifyvpa., -at, f. n bridge. 

YW&T|S, '*! earth-like, earthy, (yij, 
earth, and tlbos, form.) 

YT, 7^s, f. //ie earth, land, country. 

YtY vo l Jlal > ^ come n/o being, am born, 
become; fut. yfvrjffOfMt, perf. -yt- 
ytvTjpai, 2 aor. iy(vo^r]v, 2 perf. 
yiyova. yfVfaOat, to prove one- 
self by act (to be distinguished from 
**fa, to be). 

YIYVWCTKW, 7 get a knowledge of, learn, 
judge ; fut. yvuffoftat, perf. tyvcuKa, 
3 aor. eyi'cov. 

FXoOs, -oD, m. G/K5, the son of 
Tamos : he accompanied Cyrus, and 
then joined Artaxerxes (II. 117). 
us, 2 aor. part, of yiyt>MOK<v. 



yvAu,t|, -rjs, {.judgment, sense, opinion, 

yvobcrofiai, future of yiyvojOKta. 

FoYY^Xos, -ov, m. Gongylus, a Eu- 
boean from Eretria, who had been 
presented with Pergamus by Xerxes 
(VIII. 509). 

yoveus, -teas, a father. In plural ot 
yovtis, parents. 

Ypa<j>o>, I write; fut. ypwf/<a, perf. 
ytypatya, perf. pass. itypaftficu. 

Yvfivaoj, / train, exercise, practise; 
fut. yv^vaata. 

Yup.vT|s, -T?TOS, m. a light-armed foot- 

rtijivias, Gymnias, the chief city of 
the Scythini, probably between the 
mountains west of the Taochi (V. 

YvjxviKos, -rj, -ov, gymnastic. 

Yvp.vos, -'?. -ov, naked, lightly dad. 

YWTJ, ywaiieus, f. a woman, wife ; 
voc. yvvat, dat. pi. ~fwcul. 


8aKpvcL>, 7 weep ; fut. SaKpvaai. (oaicpv, 
a tear.) 

SaKTvXos, -ov, m. a finger.. SaKrv\ot 
TOV TroSos, a toe. 

8arravua>, / spend, waste ; fut. Satra- 
ff)(j(i). (ScuTari), expense.) 

SapeiKos, -ov, m. a Doric, i.e. a 
Persian gold coin first coined by 
Darius, in value about i6s. Coins 
are often called after rulers, as 
' Napoleon,' ' Louis d'or,' ' sove- 

Aapclcs, -ON, 6, Darius II, Nothus, 
king of Persia 423-405, B.C. 
(Darius I, Hystaspes, preceded 
Xerxes, and sent the expedition to 
Marathon. Darius III, Codomannus, 
was defeated by Alexander the 

Baoijs, -tia, -rf, thick, hairy, rough, 

8, but (answering to ply) ; and (con- 
necting two clauses), now (con- 
tinuing a narrative). 

St'SfjAQi, pert. pass, of Sfa, I bind. 
SeSiws, 2 perf. part, of SeiSca. 
Se'SoYfiai, perf. pass, of SoKfca. 
ScSoiica, perf. act. of SdSca. 
8e', perf. pass, of SiSufit. 
SSpd|XT|Ka, perf. act. with pres. 

8T[j, subjunctive of Sd. 

8*1, (impers.) it is necessary, (with 

gen.) there is need of; fut. 8yfffi. 

(TO Sfov, necessity.) 
SciSu, I fear; fut. oflffoftai, i aor. 

tSfiffa, perf. 5e'8oia, 2 perf. Se5ta. 

StSotKo, HT), I fear he will, SiSoiica 

H^l ov, I fear he won't. 
SiKW|xi, 7 show, explain; fut. 5fioa t 

perf. pass. StSd-yfuu. 
SeCXij, -jys, f. the hottest part of the day, 

the afternoon. 
SeiXos, -^, -6y, fearful, cowardly. 

(0(0$, fear.) 
8ivos, -^, ~6, inspiring fear, terrible, 

dreadful. Stivos \tytiv, clever at 

speaking, a clever speaker. 
SeiviLs, adv. of Sttvus, terribly. StivSis 

ixfiv, to be in straits. (8os, fear.) 
Sicu. i aor. infin. act. from SftKvvfu. 
Seiirveu, 7 lake dinner or supper ; fut. 

8etirvov, -ov, n. dinner, supper (the 

chief meal of the day). 
StKa, ten (indecl.). (Lat. decent.) 
AfX(j>oi, -<uv, m. Delphi in Phocis, 

celebrated for its oracle (IV. 16). 
ScvSpov, -ov, n. a tree. 
Sei6s, -a, -ov, on the right hand (Lat. 

dexter). 17 SfficL (x/>), the right 

hand. Sffiav Sovvai or \aii(ti>, to 

give or take pledges. 
Aliinros, -ov, m. Dexippus, a Spartan, 

who got the Greeks into trouble 

with Cleander (VII. 244). 
8toi, opt. of dti. 
Sco|iai, 7 need, want, ask; fut. 8e^ro- 

ftai (with gen.). 
Scpp.a, -oros, n. a skin, hide. (Sipta 

Scopes, -ov, m. a bond, fetttr. (Sta 

I bind.) 



8Gpo, (adv.) hither. 

Seurepos, -a, *ov, second. (Svo, two.) 

8t'xo[Aai, 7 receive, accept ; fut. 5*' o- 
/iai, perf. 

8ta>, 7 bind, fallen ; fut. Srjaca, perf. 
3tSa, perf. pass. St'Se/wzi, I aor. 
pass. tStOijv. 

Stu, 7 wet/, WON/, request ; fut. Scfjffu. 
(Cp. 5f and Seo/xai.) 

8f|, /r///y, assuredly ; ri ST), ti'Tiy /fow T 
Often emphasises a word, as i/rat/fla 
8t|, a/ //us moment, (Lat. /wm 

ST)\OS, -;, -ov, c/^nr, certain, evident. 

8T]\6a>, 7 maJ-e clear, show, point out, 
declare ; fut. SijAeuTw, perf. SeSjj- 
AcuKa. (SijAos, clear.) 

8T](jLaY<<>Y ' t0 ' f l ec "i the people, am 
popular with (with accus.). (Hfj^os, 
the people, and 0701, 7 lead.) 

S-rjiiocnos, , -ov, belonging to the 
people, public, rd Srj/jioaia, public 

8-qTrov, (adv.) of course, doubtless. 

Bid, prep, with gen. and ace. I. with 
gea. i. of place, through ; ii. of 
time, through, during, as Sia VVKTOS, 
during night; iii. of the instru- 
ment, by means of. II. with accus. 
because of, on account of, as StcL ri, 
itihyt lit. 'on account of what?' 
[Obs. Sid ffov, ' by your means,' SicL 
<jj, ' for your sn&e.'] In Composition, 
through, thoroughly, separately (Lat. 
dis-) as Sta-TiOrjfii, ' I place separ- 
ately,' i.e. '</'spose' (Lat. dis-pono); 
across, as in Oia-fiaivo). 

Sia-f3aiv<>>, 7 go through, cross ; walk 
about ; fut. -j8i7<ro/Mu, perf. -/Je'/Sq/fa, 
2 aor. 8t-t@T)v. 

8ia-0aAAu, lit. 7 Mrow or carry over; 
(metaphorically) 7 tear in pieces a 
man's character, i. e. slander. 

8iu-pao-is, -to$, f. a going over, 
paf$age,ford (of a river). 

Sia-|3aT<os, that must be crossed. 
oia-f)a.Ttoi> tarl, we must cross. 

8ia-paT(5s, -if, -6v, that can be crossed, 
passable (verbal adj. of 8ia-/3cuVa;). 

caa-|3ipau, 7 carry over, carry across ; 

fut. -ftifSaffca. 
8i-aYY^ w > I &e > l d a message, inform; 

fut. 5-a77Aw, perf. 5t-^yy(\Ka, 

I aor. 5-7777f<Aa. 
8i-aYKvXdw, 7 hold the javelin by the 

thong ready to shoot. (Sid, and 

aficvty, the thong of a javelin.) 
Si.-a.yta, (i) 7 carry across ; (2)7 pass, 

sf>end (my life) ; fut. Si-au, perf. 

pass. -777/wu. 
Sia-SiSufu, 7 7ve from hand to hand, 

distribute ; fut. -Swcrw. 
8td-8oxos, -o, m. and f. taking 

another's place, a successor. (8<d, 

and StxofMi, receive.) 
Sid-Kcip-ai, 7 am in a certain state, am 

disposed. <f>i\mS>s 5jatfff<r0aj, to be 

friendly disposed (=pass. of Sia- 
, I dispose). 

7 exhort, encourage, 

cheer on ; fut. -K(\evffO(Mt. 
Sia-xXdu, / break in pieces ; imperf. 

-'*AaiJ', I aor. -t/cAa<ro. 
Sia-KoirTw, 7 cut through ; fut. -n6ifta. 
Sia-Koaioi, -0,1, -a, two hundred. 
8ia-XaYX> vu > I divide by lot; fut. 

-\T]o(tat, 2 aor. St-t'Aoxoi'. 
Bia-Xryw (Act.), 7 pick out, (Mid.) 

/ discourse, converse (with dat.); 

fut. -\(fOfUU. 

8i-a|x-ircpcs, (adv.) through and 
through, right through. (Sid, avd, 
and itdpo), I pierce.) 

8va-voco|xai, 7 think over, intend, pur- 
pose ; fut. -i/oi7<7o/xa, perf. -vtv6i]/jiai, 
I aor. pass. Si tvoijOrjv. (Sid, and 
vovs, the mind.) 

Bid-voia, -a*, f. thought, purpose, in- 

8ia-irXo, 7 sail over, sail across ; fut. 
-ir\tvao(Mi, perf. pass. -ir(ir\tv- 
9 fat, 

Bio-iropeviw,* (Act.) 7 carry ct/*r, 
(Mid.) I pass across, march through. 

8ia-irpd.TT&>, (Act.) / accomplish, 
(Mid.) 7 stipulate, manage, nego- 
tiate; fut. -irpaa>, perf. pass, -irt- 



Si-apiraju, 7 tear in pieces, spoil, 

plunder; fut. -apirdffoj, perf. pass. 


8ia-ppiTTT<o, 7 throw about, scatter. 
Sid-ppu|;is, -ecus, f. a scattering about, 
8ia-<TT]|iaCv(i>, 7 point out, indicate; 

fut. -ar)/j.avj, 1 nor. Si-tff^fj.rjva. 
Sia-(TK7]vc(i), (trans.) 7 place in se- 

parate tents, (intrans.) 7 encamp 

8ia-o-rrd&), 7 tear asunder, scatter; 

fut. -ffnaffOftai. 
8ia-oriTipa>, 7 scatter about, disperse ; 

fut. -ffirfpta, 2 aor. pass, di-tairaprjv. 
8ia-cr<j>v8ovao), (Act.) 7 scatter as by 

a sling, (Pass.) 7 fly in pieces, as if 

burled from a sling. (a<ptvo6vr), a 


8id-ax l | u > 2 aor - P*' from Si-ex 1 "- 
Sid-crx* ) 2 aor - s "bj. from oi-t\ca. 
Sia-o-ti>co, 7 preserve to the end. (Sid, 

throughout, and <Twa>, I preserve.) 
8ia-ri0T]jxi, (Act.) 7 place separately, 

arrange in order; (Mid.) I dispose 

of; fut. -Orjffca. 
8ia-rpip<i), 7 w/ear away, spend, waste 

[XP^vov], (Lat. tempus terere) ; 

delay; fut. -rptycu, 2 aor. pass. 8<e- 

8ia-4>avu>s, (adv.) manifestly, plainly. 
(5jd, through, and <paivca, I show.) 

Sia-<j>pu, (i) 7 carry over; (2) intrans. 
7 dj^er from, excel ; (impers.) 
Sta<f>(p(t, there is a difference; 
(Mid.) 7 quarrel about (afupi 
TJI/OS) ; fut. Si-oiaai, 2 aor. Si-^t-y- 


8ia-4>x>Y<i>, 7_/?ee through, escape safe 

away ; fut. -<p(vonat. 
Sia-<t>0ipci>, 7 destroy, kill; fut. 

-<t>0fpu>, perf. pass. 5t-(<p6apiMu. 
SiSd^u, fut. act. of Si5daK<a. 
SiSdo-KoXos, -ov, m. a teacher, mas~ 

SiSda-Kca, 7 teach, inform, show ; fut. 

5t5acu, perf. SeStSa^a, I aor. pass. 

8tS6vai. pres. infin. from StSufU. 
5iSwp,i, 7 give, offer ; fut. ouuu, perf. 

OfSoiKa, perf. pass. SfSo/^at, I aor. 
tScaKO, (2 aor. in plural, tSopfv, 
fSore, tSoaav), 2 aor. mid. <5o- 


8i-K\wv, imperf. indie, of 5ia-K\a(u. 
8i-\aijvw, 7 drive through, charge 

through ; fut. -f\daea or -cAfl., 7 g~o or /ass through ; 

2 aor. 8i-^X5o'. 

8i-4>, perf. pass, of Sia-tpOtipca. 
8i-xw> 7 divide ; (intrans.) 7 aw 

separated, am distant ; fut. S*-c<w or 

5<a-<Txi77a>, 2 aor. 8<-<rxov. 
8i.-T|Yco|jiai, 7 go through a story, 

narrate ; fut. -rjyrjffofMi. 
f>\.-t\yKv\u>\i.ivos, perf. part, of 5t- 

8i-ianjjju., (Act.) 7 divide, (Mid. and 
intransitive tenses of Act.) 7 stand 
apart; fut. Sia-arrjaoi, 2 aor. 5t- 

G.'KULOS, -a, -ov, just, fair. 

SIKO.ICOS, (adv.) justly, fairly, rightly. 

SIKTJ, -Jjs, f. justice, right, also penalty. 
O'IKTJV \a.ptiv, or tTrtOeiVai. /o inflict 
punishment, (Lat. poenas sumere ;) 
OIHIJV Sovvai, or x "'> ' s^*f 
punishment (Lat. poenas dare). 

Sivew, 7 u/A/r/ round, (oivrj, a whirl.) 

8i-op\>TT, 7 rfjg 1 through, break 
through ; fut. -opuw, perf. pass. 
-opupvyiMt, plupf. -ojpcupv'Yurjv. 

Sis, (adv.) /f/c. (Lat. bis.) 

8is-xtXioi, -ai, -a, /M/O thousand. 

8i<t>6tpa, -as, f. a prepared hide, 
leather bag, wallet. 

8i<j>pos, -ov, m. properly the footboard 
of a war-chariot, hence a chariot, 
seat of a chariot, and generally a 

, (adv.) in two parts, apart ; TIOKIV 
a, to divide. 
), 7 pursue ; fut. 5i ww. 
, -OTOS, n. a resolution, decree. 

8oiT)v, 2 aor. opt. act. of StScu/u. 

SOKCU, 7 /Ai'nA ; (intrans.) 7 seem, 
(impers.) 8or ^xoi, V seems good to 
me; TO. StSuyufva, resolutions; 



(Safe ravra, these things were de- 
cided ; fut. 5o, i aor. 8oa, perf. 

86X09, -ov, in. craft, trick, deceit. (Lit. 

SOU.EVOS, 2 aor. mid. participle of 

86|a, -77$, f. (i) opinion ; (2) renown, 

flory (fioKtoj). 
: j>, future of SoKtca. 
BopKas, -a5o5, f. a gazelle, so called 

from its bright eyes, from StpKOfuu, 


Sopv, -arot, n. a spear, lance. 
Scpv-<{>6pos, -ov, m. a spear-man ; 

plur. body-gttards. (Sopv, a spear, 

and <f>tpa>, I bear.) 
86s. 2 aor. imperative of oiSuf.u. 
56<r9ai, 2 aor. intln. mid. of SiSaifu. 
SoCXos, -ov, m. a slave. 
8ov<u, 2 aor. infin. act. of 
Sous, 2 aor. partia'ple of 
ApaKovnos, ~ov, m. Dracontitis, a 

Spartan, president of the games at 

Trapezus (V. 328). 
Spau.civ, Spauxdv, 2 aor. inf. and part. 

with pres. rpt\<a. 
Spa|, fut. with pres. rpi\o). 
8piravov, -ov, n. a scythe. (Spfiru, 

I pluck.) 
ApiXai, -Sir, m. the Drilae, a people 

in Pontus, near Trapezus. 
5p6(jLos, -ov, m. a race, running ; quick 

pace, as in opupw Ottv, to run fast. 

(t-8pau.-oK a aor. with pres. rp(- 

XOi, I run.), 7 have power, am able, can 

fut. SKI jjcrofiai, imperf. iow&pirjv, 

(a pers. tovvto,) also -ifivvup.r)v. 
Su'vafiis, -(cat, f. (i) power, means; (a) 

a force, i.e. troops. (Lat. copiae.) 
Suvcrros, -17, -OK, powerful. (SvKa/xcu, 

7 am n6/#.) 

8wr), fut. of Svvafiai. 
Svvco, 7 s/t, set (of the tun); fut. 

Svaofiat, 2 aor. coW. 
Silo, SVOIK, two. (Lat. <fi/o.) 
SwfiT), -ij, f. a sinking, sttting. 

(Si/Kw, 7 sc/.) 

Svcr-irap-iTOs, -ov, Aarrf /o ^ass. (Si- 

AarJ, and -nap-fifii, f pass.) 
Bucr-iropos, -ov, Aard /o />ass. (Si's-, 

Aarf/, and vopat, a passing.) 
8ur-xpT|<rros, -OK, Aard /o ws, MS<* 

/ess, unserviceable. (5vt-, hard, and 

Xpaoftat, I use.) 
8txo, 7 caM5 /o enter; fut. SiJaw; 

(Mid. and intrans. tenses) 7 s/ni, 

se/; 2 aor. tow. 
Su), 2 aor. subj. act. of 67S<u/u. 
SuSfKa, twelve. 
8b>, 7 present with', fut. 

aoftcu. (Suipov, a gift.) 
Su>pov, -OK, n. a ^y*/, present. 

I give.) 
Sucru, future of 5'iootfu. 


f, gen. ov, dat. of, (Lat. se, svi, sib!) 

himself, but used as personal pronoun, 

dv, (J, &v) iy etf, y (always takes 


dv, pres. inf. of <J<. 
avr6v, -^f, -<5, himself, herself, itself. 
caw, 7 /^/, permit, leave alone; fut. 

iaffca, I aor. fiacra. 
t-^aXov. 2 aor. of &<i\\u. 

, seventy. 

, 2 aor. of paivca. 
t P\T|6r)v, i aor. pass, of /3<iXXo>. 
t-/3ovXip.Cacra, I aor. act. of /3ot/Xi- 


t'-fjocov, impf. ind. of /Soaoj. 
YYWS, (adv.) <ir, nearly ; compar. 

iyyvTpov and iyfvTtpa) ; super). 

lyyirroro and 
J-YXwv, impf. ind. of 
-Yvop.Tjv, a aor. 
c'y KaXcoi, 7 ca// n ; (with dat.) 6n'n 

a charge against; fut. -xaXtcrcu. 

(tK, and KaXfca, I call.) 
*Y-Kct.ftav. 7 //< i, am placed in; 

fut. -KtiffOfUU. 

Y-K<4> a ^ o S, -OK, within the head, tc. 
ftvf\6$, the pith of the palm. 
, a aor. of 


cyco, pers. pron. 7. Whenever inserted, 
it is emphatic, 7 myself (as opposed 
to some one else) ; epov, tfiol, (fit 
are also emphatic : ftov, fj.oi, p.t, are 
the usual or non-emphatic forms. 

e-yajy*, I for my part. 

-8airdvuv, impf. act. of Sairavaea. 

c-8T|0T]v, i aor. pass, of oto^at, I want. 

-8ei, impf. of 8i. 

t-Seijja, I aor. of ot'tKvvni. 

c-Sciora, I aor. of otiSu. 

t-Srjcra, I aor. of 5e'o>, / bind. 

-8iSow, for toiScav, impf. of SiSw/u. 

iSo|xai, fut. with pres. taOica. 

-8<5|rr)V, 2 aor. mid. of diScufii. 

-8oa, i aor. of SoKtca. 

-Sotrav, 3 pi. 2 aor. of Si'5cu/x (tSaiKa 
is used in the sing.). 

f-Spajjiov, i aor. with pres. rptx<u. 

(-Svvto, 2 sing. impf. of 8iW/*ai. 

t-ScoKa, I aor. of SiScufu. 

?-Jt]v, 2 aor. of aa>. 

l-9avov, 2 aor. of Ov^crKOj. 

tOeXov-rris, -ov, m. a volunteer. 

cG<Xo>, 7 wish, am willing; fut. 16 t- 
\riffca, I aor. TjfleA^ffa. 

t-OeiojMjv, impf. ind. of 

-0eupow, impf. ind. of Otoiptca. 

tOvos, -ows, n. a nation, tribe. 

cl, (conj.) z/(with ind. and opt., never 
with the subj.) : after verbs of 
deliberating (as Pov\tv(ff9ai), whe- 
ther; tl fir), unless. 

el8i7]v, opt. of olSa. 

eiBtvai, infinitive of olSa. 

t8ov, 2 aor. with pres. opao). 

cISos, -ov, n. an appearance, form 
(lotTv used as 2 aor. of opdcu). 

iSb>, subj. of olSa. 

clSws, participle of olSa. 

iK(i Jco, 7 maie //fc, conjecture, guess ; 
fut. fiKacro}. 

CIKOS, ('IKOTOS, n. likely, reasonable 
(neuter of the participle of eoiKa, 
shortened from tombs) ; us finds, 
as is probable. 

ciKoai, twenty. 

* tiKco, see touca. 

ci-\T]|X|xat, perf. pass, of \a/j.0t'ivoa. 

ti-\i\^a, perf. act. of \afif}av<o. 

I\KOV, impf. act. of X*cu. 

ct\6(XT|v, 7 chose ; 2 aor. mid. with 

pres. alpfca. 

cIXov, 2 aor. act. with pres. alptai. 
ti\ii, 7 am ; fut. taofiai, impf. r\v ; tari 

fj.oi, I have; OVK tan, it is impossible. 
tijju, 7 shall go (Lat. ibo) ; imperf. 

rjttv, imperat. Wi, infin. Itvat, verb. 

adj. IT toy, one must go. 
Iira, I aor. with pres. 0i?A". 
eiir6(Wfiv, impf. of ciro/jcu. 
lirov, 2 aor. with pres. ^VA 1 '' 
ei'pYacr| perf. pass, of ipyafrnai. 
tlpyov, imperf. ind. of eipyu. 
cipyca, 7 $/// out, exclude ; fut. i/><w. 
tiptjKa, / Aat/e sazW, perf. with pres. 

<l>ijlJ.i ; pf- pass, ttprinai, I aor. pass. 

ciptjvt), -jjs, f. peace. 

fls, prep, with accus. only, I. of place, 
into, /o ; II. of time, as <f* tairtpav, 
towards evening ; tls rtjv vartpaiav, 
for the next day ; III. with numerals, 
as tls titaTOV, up to a hundred, i. e. 
as much as a hundred; IV. of pur- 
pose, for, with regard to, as (Is -r6ot, 
for this purpose. In Composition, 
into, to. 

els, jxia, tv ; gen. ti'us, fuds, tvos, 

els aycj, 7 /earf tn/o, introduce; fut. 
-a^w, 2 aor. -1770701'. 

ts-aKovTitd, 7 throw javelins into. 
(O.KOVTIOV, a javelin.) 

ls-8vo|jiai, 7 enter into ; fut. -SvaofMi, 
2 aor. tts-tSw. 

<is-cip.i, 7 go into, enter., 7 cowze f'/o, enter; fut. 
tktvaonai, 2 aor. -jjAfloi'. 

eis-oSos, -ov, f. an entrance. (tl, 
/o, and <58(5, way.) 

eLs-iTT|8du), 7 leap into; fut. -tnjSiJo'iw. 

tls-irCirTw, 7 /a// t'n/o; /a// w/>o/i, 
attack; fut. -Mffovpai, 3 aor. 

tcrTTiKiv, 7 was standing ; pluperf. of 
IffTtjfiu, but intrans. and used as the 
imperf. of (arrjKa, I stand. 




S-TPX U > I fun into ; a aor. fla- 

cls-4>fpo>, 7 bring into, bring in ; fut. 
-oiffa), i aor. -i^f-y/fa, i aor. pass. 


tffw, (adv.) within, (di, info.) 
ira, (adv.) afterwards, next, then. 
i-T, whether (followed by a second 

(i-rt, or, Lat. sive . . sive). 
TXOV, imperf. of (x u - 
io>9a, I am wont (perfect with present 

meaning, from *t6ca). 
ciuv,, imperf. of idea (contracted from 


K ( before a vowel), prep, with gen. 
only, I. of place or origin, out of, 
from ; II. of time,/ro/, after, since, 
as ** rovrov, after this; III. of 
result or accordance, in consequence 
of, according to, as IK TWV mrovS^iv, 
according to the truce. In Com- 
position, out of, from. 
*-Ka0T|fiT|v, imperf. odeaOijtuu (plnperf. 
in form, but tcaOrjfMi is used as a 
pres., 7 sit down}. 

CKCUTTOS, -17, -ov, each. (Lat. qulsque.) 
sKacrroTt, (adv.) each time. 
eKcvrtpos, -a, -ov, each of two. (Lat. 

v, (adv.)/rom fro/A sj't/es, o 

CKO.TOV, a hundred, indeclinable. 
'EKaruwfios, -ov, m. Hecatonymus, 

an envoy from Sinope (VI. 1 23). 
t KavStjv, i aor. pass, of Kaica. 
l-Kavaa, I aor. act. of Kaica. 
K-paivco, 7 ^o ow/, disembark ; fut. 

/3^ffo/4<u, 2 aor. if-lfiqv. 
cK-pdXXu, 7 <fr/t/ ow/, expel; fat. 

-Ba\S>, i aor. jf-e/faAox, I aor. pass. 

l-(B\Tj9r]v. ((Kiriirraj is used for 

the Pass.) 
"K-paCTVs, -taw, f. a going out, egress, 

a pass, (in, and flairta, I go.) 
tK-poY)0o, 7 march out to the rescue ; 

fut. -@or/0riaaj. 
ln-yovot, -ov, born of, sprung from. 

(tit, and ftfvofMi, I am born.) TCI 

tieyora, the offspring, the young. 

i, 7 ^/W M/I, ^/ve a daughter 

' marriage. 
(K-Suco, 7 s/r//> (^(clothing) ; fut. <c- 

Svffw, I aor. ((-tSvaa. 
Ki, (adv.) /Awe, yonder. (Lat. 

Kct0v, (adv.) thence. (Lat. i 

c-K((|iT]v, imperf. of Kti^uu. 

CKCIVOS, -77, -o, yonder man, that man. 

(Lat. 7k.) 

io-, (adv.) thither. (Lat. t'7/ue.) 
c-KCK\ci(iT]v, pluperf. pass, of K\ti<a. 
(K-9<o), 7 rw ow/, sa//y /or/A, imperf. 

i^u, I push out, squeeze out. 
K-KaXvnT<i), 7 uncover, unpack; fut. 

-^a>, pf. pass. -/t/MU. 
K-K\Tjcria, -as, f. a assembly, meeting. 

(in, and xaXfiu, I call.) 
K-K\IV<O, 7 6d aside; intrans. (of 

soldiers) bend out of line, give way ; 

fut. -K\W>. 
<K-KO}u<i>, 7 carry out, fetch out; 

I aor. ff-tKofUffa. 
(K-Kvpio-rdo), 7 throw a somersault; 

imperf. ((-(KvftiffTaiv. 
K-XYw, 7 />/<: OM/, select; fut. *- 

X^w, perf. pass. i[-ti\ffpcu, i aor. 

K-Xiirw, trans. 7 /eave OK/, forsake ; 

intrans. fail. (Hence Eng. ec-lipse.) 
i-KX-i\(rt\v, I aor. pass, of aXf<w. 
tK-ir((XTro>, 7 sJ ow/, send away ; fut. 

-^oi, I aor. ff-tnfiafla. 
K-IT(/U)V, z aor. participle of c- 


K-irr|Sao), 7 /#a/> ou/, waZ-tf a sally; 

fut. vrj&riaouai. 
ttt-irtwTco, 7 /a// OM/, /a// away, rush 

out; am driven out, am banished; 

fut. -vurovfuu, 3 aor. if-tirfaov 

(used as pass, of fr-/3dAAo>). 

, 2 aor. pass, participle of 

cK-irXlci>, 7 .-<!// o/, sniV au/oy ; fut. 

-TT\(i'ffon<u, I aor. f(-tir\fvoa. 
(K-irXcws, -av, ywV* /w//, complete. 

(fK, utterly, and v\fOt,full.) 
K-TTXTJTTW, (Act.) / strike out (of 



one's senses), astonish, (Pass.) 7 am 

astonished, scared; 2 aor. pass. t- 

(ir\dyr)v., 7 go out, set out (on a 

march) ; fut. -iropcvaofuu. 
cK-iropifco, 7 contrive, provide, furnish ; 

1 aor. (^-(TTopiffa. 

?K- mop-a, -aros, n. a drinking cup: 

(irivu, perf. rrftruKa, 7 drink.) 
e-Kpejj.d[]v, impf. of ffpejua/iai (used 

as pass, of Kptftavvvfu). 
t-Kpivdp.T|v, I aor. mid. of Kp'ivu. 
?-KTCIVOV, 2 aor. act. of KTtivoj. 
f-KTiva, I aor. act. of KTtivoj. 
<K-TIVU>, (Act.) 7 stretch out, (Mid.) 

extend the line of an army ; fut. IK- 

Ttvui, i aor. f-fTftva, perf. pass. 

fK-rerafjuii, i aor. pass. If-tra^p. 
-KTT]<To,jiT|v, T aor. of KTaopai, 
(K-Tp<|>to, 7 rear, 6rm^ w/> (a child) ; 

fut. -Optyca, 2 aor. pass, l-Tpd- 

K-Tpx w , 7 run out, make a sally; 

2 aor. ff-fSpa/jiov. 
-KiiXiv8ow, imperf. of Kv\tvSta. 
IKCOV, -ovoa, -6v, of one's own accord, 


i-AafJov, 2 aor. of \apfiava). 
t-Xoflov, 2 aor. of \avOdvai. 
cXaia, -as, f. the olive. 
eXdcras, I aor. part, of IXavVcu. 
fXaTTOvs, nom. or ace. pi. of i\a.Tr<av, 

contr. from (\CLTTOV(S, or tXdr- 

Xa7T<ov, formed from (\a\vs, used as 

comparative of /uxpos. 
cXavvo), 7 drive, ride, march; fut. 

eXaffa; or IXa), I aor. ^Xacra, perf. 

<XJjXaa, I aor. pass. ^\a.6r]v. 
tXd<|>i.os, -ov, belonging to a stag. 

((\a<pos, a stag;) eAci</>eia Kpia, 

deer's flefh, venison. 
t'Xac^pos. -a, -6v, light, active, nimble. 
(Xa<j>puJs, (adv.) lightly, nimbly. 
<-Xaxov, 2 aor. of Xa'/X"''*'- 
tXiv, 2 aor. infin. with pres. alpita. 
-Xi<j)$Tjv, I aor. pass, of Xiro>. 
IXcr6ai, 2 aor. infin. mid. with pres. 


c'XcvOcpia, -a, {.freedom, liberty. 

cXcvOcpo;, -a, -ov,free. 

t\-T|Xv)0a, perf. with pres. tp\o/Mi. 

-Xr|(j>Oqv, I aor. pass, of \ap.^av(a. 

tXOelv, 2 aor. infin. with pres. fpxo^ai. 

tXOwv, 2 aor. part, with pres. tpxopat. 

J-Xiirov, 2 aor. of \eiiru. 

'EXXas, -d5os, f. Hellas, the name for 
Greece amongst the Greeks, who 
called themselves Hellenes. 

"EXXrjv, -tjvos, m. a Greek. 

TEXXtiviKos, -17, -6v, (adj.) Greek. 

4XAT|vio>, / speak Greek. 

'EXXT|vCs, -*5os, f. a Greek woman. As 
an adj. with fern, nouns, Greek. 

r EXXT|cnrovTOS, -ov, m. ('EXXj;s ir&v- 
ros, the sea of Helle), the Hellespont, 
now the Dardanelles. 

Xo((XTjv, 2 aor. opt. mid. with pres, 

IX6|Xvos, 2 aor. part. mid. with pres. 

e'Xmu>, 7 hope or expect (used either 
of hope or fear). 

tXiris, -iSos, f. hope. 

IXtov, 2 aor. act. part, with pres. alpto) 

l-|Aa0ov, 2 aor. of pavBavw. 

<p.avT6v, -ty, myself (reflexive pro- 
noun) ; pi. ry/jus avrovt. 

i\L-fiaivta, 7 go in, go on board, em- 
bark, (tji- for tv- before p and ir. ) 

ep.-pa.XXo), trans. 7 throw in ; inflict ; 
intrans. rush in, invade. 

e'p.-pipcifa>, 7 cause to enter, cause to 
embark, put on board (transitive of 

?-(A6iva. I aor. of fifvw. 

t-jAVT|crOT)V, I aor. pass, of /w/U'iytmu. 

p.6s, -17, -({', my, mine ; poss. adj. of 7cu. 

('p.-ir86o), 7 maie firm, abide firmly 
by (opxovs, oaths) ; fut. l/i-ircSwcroo. 

cp.-ircipia, -at, f. skill, experience. 

((i-impos, -ov, experienced, practised, 
(tv, and iriTpa, experience.) 

cix-TTiirpas, pres. part, of ip-mirprjui. 

f p,-7riirpT||xi, 7 6Mrn, set on fire ; fut, 
fH-nprjffca, I aor. tv-eirprjaa. (tv, 
and mfnrprj/ju, of which p. is dropped 
where e/^- precedes.) 

O 2 



, I fall iipnn, attack; fut. 

-TTfaovfMt, 2 aor. iv-iirtaov. 
tfi-TToBios, -ov, in the way, a hin- 

drance. (iv, and 11011$, afoot.) 
(ji-iroi0), I make in, cause ; instil into 

the mind. fut. -rfatu. 
(|x-iroX(io>, 7 gain by traffic, sell. 

((fj.iro\i), traffic.) 

<p,-Trcpos, -ov, in. a merchant, trader. 
tjx-irpocrOtv, (adv.) before, in front; 

TO, tftirpoaOev, the fore-parts. 
iv, prep., with dat. only : I. of place, 

in, on, among; II. of time, in, 

during, as iv roirrca, during this 

(time), i.e. meanwhile; III. in the 

power of (Lat. penes'), as iv 1/ioJ, 

in my power; IV. of condition, as 

iv <f>6p<i>, in (a stale of) fear. In 

Composition, in, at, upon. 
tv-avTtos, -a, -ov, opposite, opposed to, 

hostile; IK rov ivavriov, opposite 

(of place). 
v avrtoojioi, 7 set myself against, 

oppose; fut. ivavrtdiaofuu. 
tv-dirrw, 7 kindle, set on fire; fut. 

-cuf/tu, perf. -ijnnat (lit. I fasten on, 

from iv, and airrca, I fix). 
v-8tta, -at, f. want, deficiency. 
tvSoOtv, (adv.)/rom the inside (of mo- 

tion from within). 

fvBov, (adv.) inside (of rest in a place). 
iv-8ua), trans. I put on (some one else), 

2 aor. intrans. iv-iovv, I put on 

iv-/pT)v, 2 aor. 
tv ptpacra, I aor. of 
tv- tip.i, 7 am tn ; imperf. IV-TJV. 
tvcica, prep, with gen., on account oj, 

for the sake of. 

v-aAow, imperf. of if-Ka\(oa. 
'v-Tri|jLirpao-av, imperf. 3 pi. of ip- 

fvtKtv, the same as tvtrta, but used 

before a vowel. 
v-TJ|/a, I aor. of iv-avru. 
v0a, (adv.) (of place) here, there ; (of 

time) thereupon, then, also as relative 

adv., where, when ; ivOa KOI iv6a, 

here and there. 

(v0ci.Sc, (adv.) thither, there, here. 
fv9airp. where (stronger form of tvOa). 
cv0v, thence, hence. 
v-0u(Ji0|xai, have in mind, consider; 

fut. -yaofMi, I aor. iv-(6\>iJa]6rjv. 

(iv, and 0iytos, mind.) 
V-0up.rjp.a, -arcs, n. a thought (lit. 

something in the mind, from iv and 

1-vtKcov, imperf. of viKaca. 

VM>I, -0.1, -a, some, = tvi ot, i. e. iv- 

ftaiv ot, lit. there are who. 
more, sometimes, = Ivi art, i.e. tv- 

fanv ort, lit. there is a time 

fv-voia, -a, f. thought, design. (Iv, 

and vovt, the mind.) 
t-votjcra, I aor. of votai. 
f.v-o\Xf<a, I give trouble, annoy ; fut. 

cvrav9a, (adv.) (i) of place, there, here; 

(2) of time, thereupon, then, now. 
tvTv6v, (adv.) (i) of place, thence, 

hence; (2) of time, henceforth, thence- 

forth; (3) therefore. 
tv-Tip.os, -ov, held in honour, valuable. 

(rifif), honour.) 
tv-Tovws, earnestly (lit. ' with an effort,* 

from iv, and rtivu, I stretch ot 

tvros, (adv.) inside, within (of place 01 

time) with gen. (If). 
tv-TVYX*vo>, 7 light upon, meet with ; 

fut. -T<t5fo/xai, 2 aor. iv-irvxov. 
l-WKTcpcvcra, I aor. of wtertptvo). 
v-<i)|jioTdpxT|S, -ov, m. a commander 

0/25 men; lit. 'a commander of* 

band of sworn soldiers,' (from iv, 

and onvvfju, I swear.) 
f { for I* before vowels. See IK. 
I|, six. 

<0 > I report; fut. lf-a-yyfA.3, 

I aor. -jyyytiAa. 
i-iyw, I lead out; fut. -afu, 2 aor. 

l-atptTOS, -ov, taken out, chosen (If 

and atpfTus, verbal adj. of atptca). 

l|aCpcra, choice portions. 
'-aipu, (Act.) / take out, i aor. 


I 9 7 

ti\ov: (Mid.) / choose, 2 aor. 

||-aiT<>, (Act.) / demand from (any- 

body), (Mid.) I beg off; fut. -ijffw, 

I aor. -yrijffa. 

t(-aKis-x^ lol i ' a *i *> six-thousand. 
laKooTOi, -a, -a, six-hundred. 
^-a\airiJo),-7 sac&, plunder ; fut. -fey. 
e-dXXo|iai, 7 /eap o?^ ; (of a horse) 

rear; fut. -aXoC/xai, I aor. -^\a- 

/7i'. (aXXo^cu is Lat. salio.) 
t|-av-Co-TT||U, trans. 7 zae to r/se 

(in pres., imperf., fut., I aor.) ; fut. 

-dva-ar^ffca ; intrans. I stand up (2 

aor., perf., plupf.), 2 aor. -av-farrjv. 
t'^-airaTaw, 7 deceive entirely ; fut. 

-arraTiJtra;, I aor. pass. -rj-na 
lamvT)S, ( = tai<f>i>r)s), suddenly. 
t, 7 Zeal/* my quarters, 

bivouac out of doors. (aiXtj, 

resting place for night.) 
'-8ov, imperf. of eK-0tca. 
t|-eiT|, opt. of. -f(m. 
^-i|Xi, I go out, sally forth, (tf, and 

(?fu, ibo.) Used as fut. of <- 

t'|-Kop.icra. (-CKO|xurap.Tjv, I aor. act. 

and mid. of KOfjufa. 
t-Kvpi<rra, imperf. 3rd sing, of t/c- 

t-Xawa), (trans.) 7 rfr/i/e out, (in- 

trans.) nWe o?//, march out; fut. 

-fXacrw or -fAw. 
^-\iirov, 2 aor. of Ix-Aclm*. 
e-^vijov, imperf. of evica. 
c-cp)(o|tai, 7 ^o ow/, conze OK/; for 

the fut. |-CI/M, 2 aor. tf-^A.Ooi'. 
fj-(rri, (impers.) /'/ is allowed, or 

possible; part t^w, V being possible. 
i^-Tacris, -CDS, f. au examination, 

review (of troops), (troiea' tfiratrtv, 

to hold a review?) 

t^-Tpacj)T|v, 2 aor. pass, of (K-Tpf<pw. 
t^T|Kovra, sixty. 
-ijv, imperf. of t^-tan. 
|-iKVfO|xai, 7 arrive at, reach (with 

gen.) ; fut. -igojiai, 2 aor. -iKofirjv. 
e{--6v, neut. pres. part, from e-<m. 
t crrXiJw, 7 arm, (Mid.) / arm 

myself, go forth armed. (oirAa, 


?ci>, fut. of lx<M. 
f^w, (adv.) without, outside ; also as 

prep, with gen. outside of. 
?o>0ev, (adv.) from without. 
i'oiKd, 2 perf. (formed from * (tK<a, 

which is not used). 7 seem likely, 

it is probable that I (neut. part. 

f IKOS, probable] . 
f-iraOov, 2 aor. of iraa^o). 
eir-aivtu, I praise; fut. -t'era; or -tffopai, 

I aor. -rjvtffa. 
firaivos, -of, m. praise. 
-Traiov, imperf. of iraioj. 
t r-av-tpxo}Aai, 7 come or go back, 

return, 2 aor. -^A.^o*'. 
mtTaa, I aor. in use with the pres. 

iri, (conj.) when, since. [Distinguish 

from liretTa.] 
t j iri8dv = l7T(6^ av, whenever, always 

.with the subjunctive. 
timBi], strengthened form of iird. 
Tr-ip.i, 7 come upon, advance, attack; 

quipa. imovffa, the following day. 

(?/, Lat. ibo.) 
?ir-ti|u, 7 am upon, am over (a river). 

(ti/, Lat. sum.) 
[tiripo}i<u], 7 ask besides, ask; fut. 

-fpriffonai, i aor. -rjponijv, inf. 

-fpfffOat. (Pres. not used in Attic. 

See t pojjiai and cpcdrdw.) 
7reiTa, (adv.) then, afterwards, there- 

upon. [Distinguish from tird.'] 
ir-(jtXoiL(XT)V, imperf. of (irt-n(\fOf^at. 
-ir-ir6v0eiv, pluperf. of Trao'x*'. P er f- 

to vtTTOvOa, 
ir-pxo|xav, 7 come upon, come to, 

proceed; 2 aor. -jjA.^oi'. For the 

fut. ew-|M is used. 
f-ireo-ov, 2 aor. of iri-rrrca. 
CTT-ecrraTovv, imperf. of em-ffTareo). 
l-inf)YVVjiTjv, imperf. of irfiyvvfju. 
tir-gveera, I aor. of tir-aivi<a. 
tiri, prep, with gen., dat., and accus., 

I. With gen. of place, on, upon, 

after verbs of motion towards, lit. 

'on the line of,' as itKilv trl 2a 



ftov, to sail towards Samos; ii. 
of time, as IJTI Kvpov, in the time 
of Cyrus; iii. with numerals, as CTTI 
TfTTapcav, four deep, lit. on a basis 
of four. II. With dat. i. of 
place, on, upon, at ; ii. of time, at, 
on, in ; iii. of purpose, for, with a 
view to ; iv. of condition, as Ini 
Tovrots, on these conditions, also 
'besides this.' III. With accus. i. 
of motion, on to, against; ii. of time, 
for, during, up to ; iii. of purpose, 
for, as firlri; 'for what (purpose) ? ' 
firl Sffirvov, for supper. In Com- 
position, upon, at, by, besides. Before 
an aspirated vowel im becomes t<j>', 
as !</>' iiTirov, on horseback. 

cir-tam, 3rd pi. pres. of tir-fiiu. 

m-paivco, / go to, go upon; mount. 
1 aor. (ir-(0t]v. 

eiri-pdXXo>, 7 throw upon ; fut. -/JaA.5, 
perf. -l3t{}\r]Ka. iiri-fittftyntvoi 
To6rai, archers with arrows on iJie 
string. Lit. ' having put [arrows] 
on their [strings].' 

ttri-pov\uw, / plan or plot against ; 
fut. ~tvoa>. 

iitifiov\-i\, -rjs, (. a plot, treachery. 

<m-StiKW|U, / show, display; fut. 
-$ticu, I aor. (ir-iofia. 

iir-i8tlv, 2 aor. inf. of iir-iISov (pres. 

tm-88oj(jLi, / give besides; fut. kiti- 
Siixrai, i aor. iir -tbcaica. 

tm-Si<i>K<i>, 7 pursue after; fut. 

i-mJ6|AT]V, imperf. mid. of TTU'^W. 

iri-0v|io), 7 desire, covet, with gen. 
(f 77i and Ovftvt). 

Tri-KaptiTTw, 7 6erf , (of troops) 
wheel round ; fut. -a/i^cu., (i) 7 7/e /w, nm placed 
upon; (2) I assault, attack (used as 
pass, of im-TiOrjiu). 

(Tn-Koi'ip^p.a, -UTOS, n. Ae//>, pro- 

tTri-Kpareia, -at, f. cover, protection 
(lit. power over, from cni, and /xi- 
TO, power). 

, (Act. and Mid.) 7 /o> 

AoW o/ sz, with gen. 
TTi-\ (or tm-XriOofjieu), 7 

forget; fut. eirj-X^ffo/wt, 2 aor. 

iir-e\a&6nr]v, perf. iiri-\t\i)(r(Mi. 
tTri-Xciirco, (trans.) 7 /eave behind, 

(intrans.) I fail, am wanting, 2 aor. 

, -oi', chosen, picked, (iirl, 

and A.TOS, verbal adj. of \fyoa, I 

<, 7 lake charge of, look 

after; fut. -^eA^cro/iai. 
tin.-p.Xi]S, -c's, careful, anxious. 

Comp. -fffTfpos. 

tiri-fAmo, 7 remain, wait ; fut. -fifvui. 
1-iTiov, 2 aor. of wtVw. 
tiri-opKco, 7 swear falsely, perjure 

myself; fut. -opKrjffu. 
tm-opiaa, -as, f. a false oath, perjury. 

(opxos, an oath, inl, over (beyond) 

the truth.) 
cm-iriirrw, 7 fall upon, attack (with 

dat.) ; 2 aor. fir-tirtaov. 
eiri-irovos, -ov, laborious, troublesome, 

portending trouble. (I Tit, and jnSvot, 

tiri-ppiiTTco, 7 throw upon; I aor. 

eTTi-criTi5o(jiai., 7 procure provisions; 

I aor. iir-taiTia'diJTjv. (airos,corn.) 

tm-o"iraco, 7 /ra^ or />// after; fut. 


i, 7 know, understand; im- 

to), 7 s/a<f oi/er, Aave com- 
mand over. (tirtaTdrjjs, one who 
is set over.) 

, 7 send to, send tidings to ; 
command; fut. -0reA.w, i aor. tw- 

TTioToX'fj, -TJs, f. a letter, injunction. 

(7riTT|8ios, -a, -ov, suitable, necessary. 

rci (irir^Sfta, provisions, lit. the 

necessariet (of life). 
ciri-T(Or)|ii, (Act.) 7 put on, (Mid.) 7 

se/ />o, attack ; (iiri-KfifJUu is used 

for the passive) ; fut. -ffrjuoi. 


1 99 

m-Tprw, 7 entrust to, command, 

permit; I aor. kir-trpt\l/a. 
ciri-^aCvopai, I appear (near the 

spot), make my appearance; fut. 


*m-x<4>*w, I put my hand to, attempt; 

(liri, and x*'P> a hand) ; fut. -r]ffoj. 
tirt-xipijw, the same as (m\fiffoi ; 

fut. -xtipivoJ. 

tu, I pour on or /. 
, i aor. of wAso;. 
v, 2 aor. pass, of nXr)TT(, 
t-iro\t\Lovv, imperf. of iro\e/*e'o>. 
eiro|Aai, I follow, pursue; fut. tyo/tat, 

imperf. eiTrdjti^i', 2 aor. effirofirjv. 
-ircvovv, imperf. of novfca. 
turd, seven. (Lat. septem.) 
liTTaKocrtoi, -at, -a, seven hundred. 
'Einja|a, -17$, f. Epyaxa, queen of 

Cilicia, wife of Syennesis (I. 64). 
e-irxi0o|XT|v, 2 aor. of irvvOdvoftai. 
t'p YU Jofxai, 7 K/or, do ; fut. (pyaffofjat, 

perf. fipyaa/Mi. (tpyov, work.) 
tp-yov, -ou, "n. M/or&, action. tp"f<y, 

in deed, in fact. 
epeiv, fut. inf. with pres. tyijpi. 
tpT|iua, -as, f. a desert, solitude. (?/?- 

pas, lonely.) 
tpT||xos, -ov, and -77, -ov, lonely, 

desolate (with gen.) ; [hence Eng. 

'eremite,' or 'hermit.'] 
epjjtT]Vus, -fas, m. an interpreter. 

('Epjjffjs, Mercury.) 
[tpojxai], I ask (a question) ; fut. 

(pi](fOfnai, 2 aor. ^pofjirjv. (iporraoj 

is used instead of present.) 
<ppti|/a, I aor. of /Surrey. 
t'pti[ia, -arcs, n. a defence, fortification. 
pvp.v6s, -17, -oj', fortified, strong. 
i', 7 conze, g'o: fut. '/< (I\i5- 

aofjMi), perf. \i7\u0a, 2 aor. ?^A.0op. 
cpoiToLco, 7 as&; fut. -ijao), I aor. 

-o--o-(off(Jit)V, pluperf. pass, 
c-<rf||i.T)va, T aor. of ffTjfMwcu. 

-^TOS, f. dress, (fi/vvfu, I put 

on). (Lat. vestis.) 

-Ouo, 7 eat; fut. iSofuu, perf. 5^- 

5oa, 2 aor. ttpayov. 

l-o-Cvcov, imperf. of ffiyaot. 

-<nw7r<ov, imperf. of fficuiracu., perf. pass, 

I-O-KOTTOWV, imperf. 'of ffKoirtco., fut. of (Ipl. (Lat. sum.) 

t-o"jTopT|v, 2 aor. pass, of ffireipot. 

e-o-irap(iai, perf. pass, of aiteifxa. 

J-o-rratra, I aor. act. of anaw. 

-<rira<r0T)v, I aor. pass, of ffirata. 

-<nmpa, I aor. act. of airtipco. 

t-cr-jTticra, I aor. act. of atiivoca. 

Icrircpa, -as, f. evening, (irpos eo~irf- 
pav, towards the west.) 

-o-Td0i]v, i aor. pass, ofiarrjfjti. 

<TTa<rav, 3 pi. pluperf. of iffrijfu (in- 

tore, (conj.) until, (ear' tar, so long 

1-o-TeuXo, I aor. act. of ffTf\\oj. 

?<TTT|Ka, perf. act. of foTjy/xi. (Perf. 
intrans. 7 stand.) 

I-CTTTJV, 2 aor. act. of iffrrjfu (intrans.). 

f-orqo-a, I aor. act. of iffrrjfj.1 

t-<TTiY(xai, perf. pass, of ari^a. 

|-<rrpa<j>T|v, 2 aor. pass, of aTpf<pca. 

-oTpij;a, I aor. act. of arpf<pco. 

?<rro>, 3 sing. pres. imperat. of el/u. 

l<rTws, perf. participle of iffrrjfu. 

t-o-<J)ayr]v, 2 aor. pass, of ffipafa. 

t-o-<j)v86vwv, imperf. of fffyivoovav. 

IcrxaTos, -ov, last, extreme. 

!-crx ( V T l v ' 2 aor - m '^r f X (W ' 

?-aXov, 2 aor. act. of ^x 03 - 

t-o-uOrjv, I aor. pass, of aufa. 

cratpog, -ov, m. a companion, com- 

l-rafxov, 2 aor. act. of Tfpxa. 

t-rdxOTjv, I aor. pass, of rdrroa. 

l-reiva, i aor. act. of rfivo). 

TErcoviKos, -ov, m. Eteonicus, a Lace- 
daemonian general at Byzantium 

^ (VIII. 30). 

trtpos, -a, -ov, the other, one of two. 

t-T-TT|Ki.v ( pluperf. act. of TTJKCU. 

?TI, (adv.) still, any longer, 
no longer.) 

t-T '\ki\9i\v, I aor. pass, of rt/jivca. 

tToip.os, -T), -ov, ready, prepared. 



JTOI^WS, readily (adv. of IroTfiot). 

TOS, -ov, n. a year, (inaarov trovs, 
every year.) 

t-rpairov, 2 aor. act. of rpfnat. 

t'-TpuOijv, I aor. pass, of rnpwaKa). 

l-rpoxra, I aor. act. of TirpuiaKO). 

J-TVXOV, 2 aor. act. of Tvy\av<a. 

tv, (adv.) well, prosperously. 

u-Sai|ib>v, -ov, happy, prosperous, 
wealthy. (y, well, and Saificav, 

v-8ia, -as, f. fair-weather, a calm. 

u-tpYcria, -at, f. good service, kind- 

u-pYrijs, -ov, m. a benefactor. 

{i-<ovos, -ov. well girded; hence 
active, (tv, well, and <VVTJ, a 

twcus, directly, immediately (adv. of 

tuOvs, (adj. used as adv.) straightway, 

v-K\ia, -at, f. good fame, glory, 
((v, well, and K\tos, glory.) 

EvcAti5T)S, -ov, m. Eu elides, a seer ' 
from Phlius, in the north of Pelopon- 
nesus (VIII. 485). 

cv-voia, -a*, f. good-will, kindness, 

tu-voos, -OK, contr. tvi-vovs, kind, well- 
disposed, (tv, well, and vovt, 

ev-eivos, -ov, hospitable ; ndcrot 
Evfivos, the Euxine or Black Sea. 

cu-ircTws, (adv.) easily. 

tv-ircpos, -ov, easy to pass. 

ctipioKO), 7 find, discover; a aor. 
tvpov, fut. (vpfjffu, perf. tvprjKa, 
pass, fvprjfiai, ] aor. pass. tvptOrjv. 

cvpos, -ovt, n. width, breadth, (tii/ws, 

EupvXoxos, -ov, m. Eurylochus, a 
hoplite from Lusi, a town in Ar- 
cadia (IV. 360). 

c upvs, -fo, -u, wide, broad. 

V-TO.ICTOS, -ov, well arranged, in good 
order. (v, well, and TOTTW, 7 or- 

fv-ra|ia, -of, f. ^oo<f order, disciplint. 

u-roX|ios, -ov, daring, courageous. 

, -ov, m. the river Euphrates. 
The Eastern and Western branches 
join in Armenia ; it then flows 
west of the Tigris, passes through 
Babylon, and joins the Tigris before 
it falls into the Persian Gulf. 

c\*XO|xai, 7 pray, vow ; fut. tvofjai. 

eu-a>w|xos, -ov, lit. ' of good name,' 
lucky, the left ; especially TO tvwvv- 
pov \jctpat\, the left wing of an 
army. (5, WO/ML, of good name ; 
really an euphemism for the utt- 
lucky side, i, e. the left, which it was 
unlucky to mention.) 

t-^gyov, 1 aor. with pres. iaQica. 

-<avT]v, 2 aor. pass, of <paivca. 

'<j>-ciTojxat, 7 pursue ; fut. i<p-fyo{MU, 
imperf. k<f>-(iir6firjv. 

"E4>j-os, -ov, f. Ephesus in Lydia, on 
the west coast of Asia Minor. 

?-<|>T]v, 3 aor. of (ftrjiii. 

-<J>r)vd(jfrjv, i aor. mid. of <paivu. 

-4>0Y|d|xtjv, I aor. of ipOfyyofMit. 

<4>06s, -77, -6v, boiled (verbal adj. of 
?t/>o>, 7 boil). 

(J>-i(rnjni, (trans.) 7 make to stop ; set 
over; fut. tiri-arrivm ; (intrans.) 7 
stand by, halt ; 2 aor. itt-tffnjv. 

c<f>-oSiov, , ov> n . travelling expenses or 
supplies, (iirl, and 6Sos, a road). 

<4>-oSos, -ov, f. an approach. 

<j>-opos, -ov, in. an overseer ; ol *E</>o- 
poi, the Ephors, or Council of Five at 
Sparta. (i<p-opdcu, I oversee.) 

?-4>vyov, a aor. of <p(vya), 

t'xOpos, -&, -ov, hostile; an enemy. 
(i\0ot, hatred.) 

t-XPy. iniperf. of XP^7- 

-XpTJTO, 3 sing, imperf. of xpao/wu. 

iXw, I have, hold, possess^ keep; fut. 
<a or axfjaca, perf. ffX7* a > imperf. 
tlxpv, 2 aor. iaxpv. Impers. xaAws 
X*'i '' M veil ; (Pass.) ol dvOpca- 
iroi t\ovrai, the inhabitants are kept 
prisoners, (Mid.) 7 hold on to, so txo- 
futvot, next in order. 

<f-\{/cv<r|jUU, perf. pass, of ifxvfot. 

1-upaKa, perf. act. of updoi. 

t-iipwv, imperf. act. of opav. 



?o>9, ace. ea>, f. morning; irpos fw, to- 

wards the east. 
us, (conj.) as long as, until, while. 


Zairaros, -ov, m. the river Zab in 

Assyria, flowing from the East into 

the Tigris (III. too). 
fdu, 7 live; fut. C'? ' '. imperf. e^r, 

infin. fty. 
^uYTjXartw, 7 aV/w a yoke of oxen. 

(tvyot and (\avvcu.) 
fVYvv>|Ai, 7 ^ofo, join, attach ; fut. 

Cevfa), perf. tfevy/xeu, 2 aor. ((vyrjv. 

etJY os > M > n - a ^* e f oxen - (Lat. 

jugum, Eng. .yoe.) 
Zevs, Aio's, m. Zffws (Roman Jupiter), 

voc. Zeu, ace. Ato. 
frjXcoTos, -Tj, -ov, enviable. 

I rival.) 

t]|uou, 7 punish ; fut. 
ffjv, pres. infin. of aw. 
cpi)v, pres. opt. of (Jaw. 
JWVTJ, -rjs, f. a girdle, 

gird on.) 


TJ, (conj.) or, than ; r) . . j, either . . or. 
TJ, (adv.) truly, verily. 
n, 3 sing. subj. of tlfii. (Lat. sum.) 
i (adv.) where, properly dat. sing. 
fem. of os, ^, o. 

aor - "7 W - 
J aor - f a77e'AA.w. 
-" V > -ovos, m. a leader, guide. 
f|Y<o|xai, (i) 7 /earf the way; (2) 7 
suppose ; fut. fjffiaonat. [Lat> afwco 
has also both meanings.] 

r|vP 1 l v ' r aor - P ass - ^ 7*'/ w - 
'H - y i n o ' av J>ps, -ow, m. Hegesander, a 

Greek captain (VII. 71). 
TJyvoow, imperf. of d-yvoe'w. 
TJY OV > imperf. of a-ycu. 
V|8iv, 7 in^w ; pluperf. of oiSa, used 

as imperf. olSa having a present 

T|8tws, (adv.) gladly, with pleasure. 

Comp. ffiov ; superl. ijoiira. 

<j&ij, (adv.) ow, already, by this time. 
q8iKT|0Y]v, i aor. pass, of dSiKiai. 
TjSiKTjKa, T|SiKT)p;at, perf. act. and 

pass, of aSiKtca. 
f,, 7 am pleased; fut. TjaOriffopai, 

i aor. TjaOr/v. 

i]86}jiT|v, imperf. of jj8o/iai. 
f|8ovT|, -^s, f. sweetness, pleasure. 
T|8wdjJU]v, iniperf. of 5iVa^a. 
fjSvis, -f fa, -u, /ee/, pleasant, delicious. 

Comp. fi^'uav, superl. rjOiaros. 
Qiv, 3 pi. r\tcro.v, imperf. of e7/u. 

(Lat. ibo.) 

TJ0\ov, imperf. of iffiXv. 
4]0poicra, I aor. act. of aJOpoifa. 
^K, may be 3 sing, imperf. of ijxw or 

I aor. ofirj/ju. 
TJKOV, imperf. of ^w. 
f|K6vTiov, imperf. of aKovrlfa. 
f|Kovcra, I aor. of aKovta. 
TJKW, 7 am come, arrive ; used as perf. 

of tpxofiai, fut. ?iu. 
f|XA(h]v, I aor. pass, of \\avvw. 
TiXdjxrjv, I aor. mid. of aXXo/*a. 
fj\a<ra, I aor. act. of \\avvca. 
TJXOov, 2 aor. with pres. (p 
T|XC9tos, -a, -ov, foolish, silly. 
fjXios, -ov, m. the sun. 
f)XX6|iT)V, imperf. of aAXo^ai. 
fjXoJKa, T|XuKiv, perf. and pluperf. of 

I'lfxt'pa, -a*, f. a day; afia TJ) ^fifpa, 

at day-break. 

T]ftTepos, -a, -ov, poss. adj. our. 
i||o.iovos, -ov, m. a mule. ($1*1-, half, 

and ovos, an ass.) 
Tjp.iiTX0pov, -ov, n. ^a//" a pletkron, 

i. e. 50 feet. 
TJfuavs, -<ia, -v, ^a//. 
i]v, for idv, if. 

nv, imperf. of tlfu. (Lat. sum.) 
qvaYKaera, I aor. act. of ava-fKafa. 
f\vi\9T\v, I aor. pass, with pres. tptpw. 
fjvCKa, (conj.) when. 
qvioxos, -ov, m. a charioteer, drivet 

(from fjvia, reins and X W I hold). 
vjiow, iniperf. of d^toco. 

TJ^W, fut. of 1JKU. 

, imperf. of u.i 



, (adv.) where, properly dat. sing. 

fem. of os-irtp. 

rjmordnTjv, imperf. of (niffra^tu. 
T|-n-opovv, imperf. of anoptco. 
'HpaxXeia, -as, f. Heraclea, a city in 

Bithynia, on the Euxine. 
"HpaicXi8T)s, -ov, m. Heraclides, an 

agent of the Thracian prince Seuthes. 
"HpaKXecorrjs, -ov, m. a Heraclean or 

inhabitant of Heraclea. 
"HpciKtaums, -tSos, f. (sc. 777), the 

district of Heraclea. 
TIpaKXfjs, -eons, m. Heracles (Roman 

Hercules), son of Zeus and Alo 


TJp0T]v, i aor. pass, of alptco. 
ypT)|xai, perf. pass, of alpica. 
Y|pd|XT]V, I aor. mid. of apx w - 
t|p6|iT)v, 2 aor. of ipo/juu ; (pres. 


TJpircwra, I aor. act. of apnafa, 
T)piracr[iai, perf. pass, of d/)irdfco. 
TJpx6(iT)v, imperf. (i) of dp^o^ai : 

(2) of tpxofMi. 
TJpXov, imperf. of d/>x<w. 
fipiirrjo-o, I aor. of ifxardo}. 
qpwTUV, imperf. of (pairdta. 
rj(70T]v, I aor. pass, of rjSofuu. 
lja06p.Tjv, 2 aor. of alaQavoiuu. 
f]O-ux"*i -as, f. quietness; aytiv 1j<jv- 

\iav, to keep quiet. 
ri<rxvv(Hiv, i aor. pass, of ala-xyvai. 
Tg-njord|XTjv, I aor. mid. of aiTtoa. 
nTM)(XTr]v, imperf. of alTi&oftai. 

v, imperf. mid. of airioi. 
, imperf. of alreoj. 
flTrdojiai, / am less than, i. e. am 

conquered; fut. ^TTijao/xat, perf. 

rJTTTjfMU. (JJTT01V, ItSS.) 

JJTTOV, (adv.) less. 
TJTTWV, -ov, less, inferior, weaker. 
TjuXiaOTjv, i aor. pass, of auA/^w: 
i\\9iaQt\v t I aor. pass, of a 
HX^lv. l aor- pass, of d-yw. 
, imperf. 


OoXaTTO, -rjs, f. the sea., -ov, m. death., / condemn to death; fut. 

OavovjJiai, fut. of 

Odirrw, I bury; fut. Odtf/ca, 2 aor. 

pass. (Tcuprjv. 
OappaXf'os, -a, -ov, bold. (Bdppos, 

courage.) Comp. -wrtpos. 
dappaXcw;, (adv.) boldly. 
dappcu), I am of good courage. 
Odppos, -ous, n. boldness, courage. 
0apavva>, 7 make bold, encourage; 

I aor. kOdpowa. 
OaTTov, comp. of TOX^WS, more 

0avp.a.a>, 7 wonder, marvel; fut. 

Oavfjaffca, perf. r(Oav/MKa. (Oavpa, 


0a, -as, f. a view, a sight. 
0ed, -as, f. a goddess. 
0tajj.a, -CTOS, n. a s/g'A/, spectacle. 
doitat, I see.) 
i, 0i9, 2 aor. act. infin. and part. 

6<\b>, 7 iw'sA ; fut. Of \riffu. 
6<p.cvos, 2 aor. mid. part, of riOrjfu. 
06s, -oO, m. a god; avv rots Otoit, 

with the gods' help. 
Oepfxacria, -as, f. warmth. (Qipo), 1 


0ep|xos, -77, -(Jj/, warm. 
OtpjAcoBcuv, -OI/TOS, m. /Ae Thermodon, 

a river of Pontus, flowing inlo the 

Euxine Sea (VI. 140). It still keeps 

its name as Thirmah Su. 
0tr0ai, 2 aor. mid. infin. of riOrjfu. 
0*TToX6s, -17, -ov, Thessalian, or 

inhabitant of Thessaly in Northern 


0fw, 7 run ; fut. 0vaofMi. 
0i>pc<i>, 7 view,inspect,review (troops), 

fut. -JJ(T<W. 

0^pcvo>, 7 hunt, chase. (Ofo, a wild 

0Tjpiov, -ov, n. a w/W teas/, (tf^, 




OTJCTU, fut, 

rjxTjs, -ov, m. Theches, a mountain 
near Trapezus, whence the Greeks 
got their first sight of the sea (V. 


0i{Jpwv, -twos, m. Thibron, a. Spartan 
commander, sent out to oppose 
Tissaphernes (VIII. 543). 

OvqcrKto, 7 die; fut., perf. 
TtOvrjKa, 1 aor. iQavov. 

66pv|3os, -ov t m. noise, confusion, 

Qpa.Ki],-T]s, f. Thrace, now forming the 
eastern half of the Turkish province 
Rumelia, and containing the capital 
Constantinople. Also a district of 
Bithynia in Asia Minor, (rpaxvs, 

pcjKios, -a, -ov, Thracian, or be- 
longing to Thrace. 

0pa, -a/cos, m. a Thracian. 

Opacre'iog, (adv.) boldly. 

Opacrus, -tta, -v, bold, venturesome. 

0vyaTT]p, -rpos, f. a daughter. 

0vvoi, -lav, m. the Thyni, a people in 
Thrace ; they colonised Bithynia 
(VIII. 138). 

Ovpa, -as, f. a door. (Lat. /ores.) 

OvptTpo, -wv, (neut. plur.) doors. 

Ovaia, -as, f. a sacrifice. 

0vto, I sacrifice; (Mid.) I sacrifice 
for myself, i. e. take the auspices ; fut. 
Oiiffcu, perf. TeOvxa. 

0u>pa, -O.KOS, m. a breastplate, cors- 
let, cuirass. 

0wpa, O.KOS, m. Thorax, a Boeotian 
general, jealous of Xenophon (VI. 


I8elv, 2 aor. infiii. of dSov, pres. opdca. 
iSia, (adv.) privately, on one's own 

account (dat. fem. of tSjos). 
iSios, -a, -ov, private, one's own. 
IStw-rrjs, -ov, m. a private person. 
iSoi|ju, I8tov, 2 aor. act. opt. and part. 

of clSov, prcs. iifiaca. 
Ujxtjv, imperf. mid. of irjfu. 
icvai, pres. infin. of tlfu. (Lat. ibo.) 

Icpctov, -of, n. a victim. 

Upos, -d, -6v, holy, sacred: rci It pa 

Ka\a ? t v, the sacred ' (entrails') were 

favourable, i. e. the sacrifice showed 

good omens. 
iT]Ht, (Act.) 7 throw, shoot, send; 

(Mid.) 7 rush, fut. ffffw, I aor. fjna, 

perf. flica. 

i0i, pres. imperat. of ilpi. (Lat. ibo ) 
iicavos, -17, -ov, Jit, suitable, sufficient, 

able; comp. -urtpos, superl. -ajraros. 
iKavtos, (adv.) sufficiently. 
iKerevw, 7 supplicate, entreat; fut. 

-fvcru. (iK(TT]s, a suppliant.) 
tp,ds, -O.VTOS, m. a strap, thong. 
lp.o.Tiov, -ov, n. a cloak. 
iva, (i) (adv.) where; (2) (conj.) 

in order that. 
urirapxos, -ov, m. a commander of 

cavalry. (ITTTTOS, and apxca, I rule.) 
iirire-us, -((as, m. a horseman ; pi. 

tTTTTf?*, cavalry. 
ITTWIKOS, -17, -ov, belonging to a horse; 

TO iiririKov, the cavalry; Owpa lum- 

KOS, a cavalry breastplate. 
iiriros, -ov, m. a horse; t<p' 'iirvov, on 


r<ra<ri, 3 pi. from o75a. 
itrOi, imperat. of ofSa. 
TcrOjxos, -oO, m. thelsthmus of Corinth, 

joining the Peloponnesus to Nor- 
thern Greece (III. 185). 
icrjiev, I pi. from ol8a. 
Icr6-ir\vpos, -ov, equal-sided, (taos, 

and w\evpcl, a side.) 
i<ros, -t], -ov, equal; (Is TO "ffov, to 

an equality; l iffov, on equal 

'lo-o-oC, -5>v, m. Issi. or Issus, a town 

in Cilicia, in the N. E. corner of the 

Levant (I. 158). Seventy years 

afterwards it became famous for 

Alexander's victory over the Persians, 

BC. 333. 

icrr*, 2 pi. from ofSa, or imperat. 
from iaOi. 

icmriiu, (trans.) 7 make to stand, stop, 
set up ; fut. ffTTifftu, 1 aor. tffTijffa : 
(intrans.) / stand, halt; perf. 'to- 



rr]Ka, (part, tarwi,) a aor. iarrjv, 

I aor. pass. icrraOrjV. 
lerriov, ov, n. a sail. 
Icrxvpos, -a, -ov, strong. 
io-xupa>s, (adv.) strongly ; hence very, 


urx *' ( a form of Ix*"') ^ s '/ ) ' 


icroos, (adv.) perhaps, (lit. equally.) 
ITOV, verb. adj. from 7/, one / 


ITVS, -vos, f. the rim of a shield. 
iTtocrav, 3 pi. imperat. of 7/. (Lat. 

IXVIDV, -ov, n. a trace, track, (fjpros, 

a track.) 
ia>, iu>v, pres. subj. and part, of fi/u. 

(Lat. 6o.) 


KaO-e^o^.ai., / sit down, rest, halt; 

impf. tKaO-t6fjii)v. 
Ka6-cis, 2 aor. part, of KO.O-irjfu. 
Kd6-f\Kw, I draw down; fut. -t\a>. 

impf. KaO-ffaicov. 

Kd9-cu5u>, / sleep ; imperf. ixaOtvSoy. 
tcaO-TjKw, 7 reach down ; TO KO.O-T)KOV, 

the fart reaching down. 
Kd0-T), / sit down, encamp. 
Kd6-rr]|u, 7 send down, let fall ; fut. 

-rjaoj, impf. -/iji'. ts irpofio\r)v rti 

SJpara KaO-iivTd, couching their 

spears, lit. ' letting down their spears 

for attack.' 
KoO-tarrjui, (trans.) 7 set in order, 

settle, appoint; fut. Kara- arrjaca; (iu- 

trans.) / am placed: perf. KaO-iarij- 

Ka, 1 aor. itar-fffTrjv. 
KaO-opdu, 7 7oo& down upon, behold ; 

fut. Knr-oiffO^ai, 2 aor. /car-frSuv. 
KOI, (couj.) (l) arf; (2) a/.vo, / ; 

ai . . . teal, both . . . and. 
KdiKos, -ov, in. the Calcus, a river in 

Mysia, flowing by Pergainus (VIII. 


Kaivai, -on-, f. Caenae, a town in 
Mesopotamia on the Tigris (HI. 
98) ; perhaps the ancient Assyrian 
Calah, mentioned in Genesis, x. n. 

KaCircp, although, (with participle.) 
Kaipos, -or, in. a Jit lime, season, 

KaiToi, and yet. 
Kaiw, 7 burn, kindle; fut. Kavffai, I 

aor. (Kavaa, perf. pass. Ktieavfiat. 
KdKiovs, nom. pi. of KCLKIOW, contr. 

for Kaitiovts. 
KaKoq, -jj, -6v, bad, wicked, cowardly ; 

comp. Kaic'icav, superl. Kaici<rTO$ : 

n. pi. teaKa, evils, misfortunes. 
KdKovpYb>, 7 do evil ; with ace. 7 in- 

jure; fut. -i7<r<u. (/co/fox, tpyov.) 
KaXdjJios, -ov, m. a reed. (Lat. co/a- 

KdXtu, 7 ca//, summon, invite; fut. 

-taw, perf. KtK\i]iea, perf. pass. 

KaX\i|xaxos, -ov, m. Callimachus, an 
Arcadian captain (V. 258). 

KdXds, -77, -<$', beautiful, fair, noble, 
good; comp. KaX\i<av, superl. AtoA.- 

KaXus, (adv.) fairly, nobly, well, 
na\ws tx ftv > to be well (lit. ' in a 
good condition ') ; superl. KdX- 


KdXirr], -?;$, f. Calpe, a river and town 

in Bithynia : its ruins are marked 

by two harbours called Kerpeh. 
KaXxiSovta, -as, f. Calchedonia, the 

district round Calchedon. 
KdXxT]8wv, -ofos, f. Calchedon, a 

town in Bithynia. 
Kojivw, 7 labour, am weary, am sick; 

fut. Kaftovfuii, perf. /ctK/ujjra, 2 aor. 

tKafMV. Oi Kafwovrts, the sick. 
Kd-rrvos, -ov, m. smoke. 
KdppdiTivdi, -uiv, f. pi. dioes (of un- 

dressed leather), brogues. 
Kap8ouxoi. m. the Carduchians, a 

hill tribe in Armenia, now the 

Kurds, or Kurdistan. 
Kapirdia, -as, f. the Carpaian, a mimic 

dance among the Thcssaluns. 
Kdpiros, -ov, m. fruit. 
Kdpvov, -ov, a nut, chestnut. 
Kara, prep, with gen. and ace. (root 

meaning down). I. with gen. L 



down from, down in : ii. down upon, 
against. II. with ace. i. of place, 
down along, along, among, about; 
Kara ~ff\v teal KaraL 6d\arrav, by 
land and sea : ii. of time, as ard 
rovrov rbv xpvvov, at this time : iii. 
(especially) according to, as regards; 
Kara Kpdros, by force or at full 
speed (see ava Kparos), Kara \6\ovs, 
by companies. In Composition, down, 
downright or utterly, against. Be- 
fore an aspirated vowel Kara becomei 
KO.Q', as tcaO' fmipav, daily. 

KaTa-j3aivw, / come down, descend, 
go down to the sea ; fut. -flrjffoiMt, 
2 aor. Kartfinv. 

Ka.T-aYYXA<i>, I denounce, disclose; 
fut. -ay-ff\S>, -7777<i\a. 

KaT<x-Y.os, -oi', underground, subter- 
ranean. (Kara, beneath, and 777, the 

Ka.T-a,YW|u, I break ; fut. -aoi, 2 perf. 

Ka.T-a.YG>, I bring down, bring home, 
restore; fut. -aa>. 

Ka/ra-oiuKU), / pursue close ; fut. -Siw- 

Kara-Svco, (intrans. and Mid.) I sink 
down; perf. -SfSvKa, 2 aor . Kar-tSw : 
(trans.) in fut. Kara-Svffca, and I aor. 
Ka.T-(8vffa, I cause to sink, sink., / look down upon, 
watch, observe; fut. -6(dao(Mi. 

Kara-Ocu, 7 run down; fut. -OfvffOfMU. 

Kara-Kaito, 7 burn down ; fut. -Kavatu. 

KaTa-Ktijiai, 7 lie down; fut. -Ktiffo- 


K<iTa-K\uu>, I shut in, enclose; fnt. 

Kara-Koirrw, 7 cut down, cut tip ; fut. 


KaTa-KTaojxai, 7 get or gain for my- 
self; fut. -ter-fiao/jiai. 

Kara-Kxtivw, I kill; {ut.-KTtvw, I aor. 
Kar-tKTtiva, 2 aor. -ticravov. 

Kara-KuXvio), 7 keep back ; fut. -KcuAv- 
ffoo. (iti\v(a, I prevent.) 

KaTa-Xap.j3d.vio, 7 seize upon, catch, 
overtake, find ; fut. -Xtyopai, perf. 

Kar-(i\rj(f>a., I aor. pa^s. Ka 
i aor. Kar-t\afiov. 

KaTa-\iirw, 7 /eafff behind; fut. 
-\etya), 2 aor. nar-i\nrov. 

tvw, 7 s/ay behind; fut. -[itvSi, 
I aor. tcar-efttiva. 
Ta-injSdw, 7 /a/> down; fut. 

7 /aW </ow ; fut. -we- 
aov/MJt, perf. -irtirrwua, 2 aor. jfar- 


Ta-ppiiTTto, 7 Awr/ down, throw 

down, scatter ; I aor. tcar-tppuf/a, 
-ffKsvdJo), I prepare, furnish; fut. 

-ffKfvaaea. Kara, downright.) 
KaTa-aKT)vo), -aw, or -ow, 7 />//cA W2> 

/en/, encamp. (Kara, down on the 

ground, and fficfjin], tent.) 
KaTa-cr<j)dJa), 7 kill, slaughter, 1 aor. 

pass. KaT-tff<pdyr]v. 
Ka.ra-a")(il<a, I cleave asunder, burst 

open (ras irv\as) ; fut. -<j-)(iaa). 
KaTa-T(0T)(xi., 7 lay down, establish, 

deposit; fut. -Orjffcu, I aor. *ar- 

KaTa-Tplxw, 7 rw rfown ; fut., 2 aor. Kar-eSpaiiov. 
KaTa-c^ayttv, i aor. infin. with pres. 

KaTO-<j>aivo), (Act-) / show, exhibit ; 

(Mid.) 7 appear; fut. -(pavu. 
Ka,T-taa, I aor. of Kar-ayvvfj.1. 
KaT-eiSov, 2 aor. with pres. Kaff- 

KaT-O-0io>, 7 a/ /, devour; fut., 2 aor. -ifpayov. 
KaT-x w > -^ AoW, maintain ; reach, 

compel; fut. Ka6-tca and aTa- 

ffxqcra!, 2 aor. Kar-iexov. (Kard = 

Kar-riY ?***" -^ s#i against, accuse 

(with gen.) ; fut. -rjyop-fjffu. 
KaT-T)p6p.t5a), 7 ca/m, appease ; i aor . 

KaT-cxi5oj, 7 found (a city) ; fut. 

-oiKiau, I aor. -tpKiaa.. 
KaT-opvTTW, 7 6f/ry ; fut. -opvv, perf. 

-op&pvx<*, perf. pass, -op&pvynat. 
, (adv.) down, downwards, below. 



Ka/Gfxa, -droj, n. heat. 

Kauai|ios, -ov, fit for burning, con- 

Kavarpos, -on, m. Cayster, a river in 
the little known interior of Phrygia: 
not to be confounded with the 
well-known Cayster, which flows 
into the sea at Ephesus. 

Kavorpov TrtSt&v, the plain of Cay- 
ster, an important town in the 
interior of Phrygia : not to be con- 
founded with the Cayster-plains near 
Ephesus. The northern road from 
Byzantium, and the western from 
Sardis, joined here on the route to 
Iconium and Syria (I. 63)., I lie; fut. Kflffo/jai. Used as 
pass, of ri&rnu, = 7 am placed. 

KeXaival, -wi>, f. Celaenae, a town in 
Phrygia, east of Colossae (I. 53). 

xcXcvib), 7 order, bid, command; fut. 
nt\tva<>), I aor. tKt\evffa. 

KCVOS, -T), -6v, empty, void. 

KtvTpiTtjs, -on, m. the Centrites, an 
eastern tributary of the Tigris di- 
viding Armenia from the country 
of the Carduchi (IV. 370). 

Kcpajiciiv 'Ayopa, -as, f. Ceramorum 
Agora, a town on the frontiers of 
Mysia (I. 63). 

Ktpas, Ktpaii (Kfp5.rot), n. a horn ; 
the wing of an army, titl Ktpas 
ayfiv, to lead in column ; lit. ' to 
lead towards the wing," f. e. all 
facing to the right (or left), instead 
of marching with a broad front. 

Kcpacrovs, -ovvrot, f. Cerasus, a town 
in Pontus (VI. pa). 

K)>aX-aXYqs, -ft, cawing headache. 
(tff(/xiAr), head, and oXyo*, pain.) 

K4>a\T), ijt, {. the head. 

KT}, 7 care for (with gen.). 

KT)piov, -ov, n. a honey-comb. 

Kfjpvi{, iiicof, m. a herald. 

KT)pVTTw, 7 proclaim, announce; fut. 
Kijpvfta, perf. pass. Kderipvyfiat. 

KiXiKia, -as, f. Cilicia, the S. E. 
coiner of Asia Minor. 

KCXio-tra, -rjs, f. a Cilictan woman ; % 
Kl\iaaa, the Cilician Queen, Epy- 
axa (I. 67). 

Kiv8uvvco, 7 incur danger, run a risk; 
= there is a risk that 7 ... (with 
infin ; fut. KivSwfvou. (nlvovvos, 

KI; 8iJvos, -on, m. danger, risk. 

Kivt'o), 7 move ; fut. Ktvrjffw. 

KXcavSpos, -ov, m. Oleander, a Lace- 
daemonian ' harmost ' or governor in 

KXcdvcop, -opot, m. Cleanor, an Arca- 
dian general (IV. 66). 

KXcapxos, -ov, m. Clearchus, chief of 
the Greek generals in Cyrus' army: 
a Spartan commander in the Pelo- 
ponnesian war, afterwards condemn- 
ed to death for disobedience. He 
joined Cyrus, and was killed by 
treachery of Tissaphernes. 

KXctOpov, -ov, n. a bolt, bar, (K\('KU, 
I shut.) 

K\tio>, 7 shut; fut. *Xff<r, perf. 
K(K\dKa, perf. pass. &f\</M and 

, 7 steal; fut. tc\tycu, perf. 

K(K\o<pa, perf. pass. K(ii\(/ 
icXi|xa, -&KOS, f. a ladder. 
K\OTTT|, -TJS, f. theft, (XJTTW.) 
Kvc<)>as, -ao, and -ovs, n. darkness, 

twilight. (Cp. ff(pot, a cloud. ) 
Kvi]|xCs, -iSos, (., in pi. leg armour, 

greaves. (KvtjfiTi, the shin-bone.) 
KoiXo?, -rj, -ov, hollow. 
Koip.da>, (Act.) 7 put to sleep ; (Mid.) 

I fall asleep ; fut. Koif^ffea. 
icoivos, -17, -6v, common. TO Kotvbv, 

the community : euro KOIVOV, at the 

public cost. 
KOIVUVOS, -ov, m. a sharer, partner. 

(KOIVOS, common.) 
KoXd^u, 7 punish ; fut. ico\aff<u, perf. 

pass. K(Ku\a<T/jai. 
KoXoo-o-ai, -Siv, f. Colossae, a town 

in Phrygia (I. 50). 
KoX\iS, -/5os, f. Colchis, a country at 

the eastern extremity of the Black 




K6\xoi, -an>, m. the Colchians or the 

people of Colchis. 
KoXcovo?, -ov, m. a mound. 
Kop.iu, (Act.) I fetch, bring; (Mid.) 

I return ; i aor. (Koffiaa. 
KOVIO.TOS, -(], -6v, plastered. (itovta, 

KoviopTos, -ov, m. a cloud of dust. 

(KOVIS, dust, and opvvfu, I raise.) 
Koirpos, -ov, m. dung. 
KOITTW, I cut down, knock ; fut. Kojf/<a. 
KopvXas, -a, m. Corylas, ruler of 

Paphlagonia, and aiming at inde- 
pendence from Persia (VI. 323). 
Kopv4>T|, -T}S, f. top, summit., -ov, orderly, under good 

KoTuciipa, -eav, n. Cotyora, a town 

in Pontus. 

Kov4>os, -17, -ov, light, nimble. 
Kovcjxds, (adv.) lightly, nimbly. 
Kpdvos, -ovs, n. a helmet. 
KpuTcu, (with gen.) 7 rule, conquer, 

get possession of, (with ace.) hold, 

keep; fut. Kpar-fjaea. (tcparos, 

KpaTTjp, -fjpos, m. a goblet, (ntpav- 

vv^u, I mix.) 
KpaTMrra, adv. of Kpanffrot, most 

bravely, best. 
KpaTvoros, -rj, -ov, strongest, best, 

noblest; used as superl. of a-yaOus. 
Kporos, -ovs, n. strength; Kara tcparos, 

dvci Kpdros, with all one's might, 

i.e. at full speed. 
Kpa-vyf], -fjs, f. a shout, (xpafa, I 

Kpcas, aros, n. flesh, meat. Generally 

in pi. TO. Kpia. 

KptiTTwv, -ov, stronger, better, supe- 
rior; from Kparvs, but used as 

compar. of a/ya06s. 

i, 7 hang (used as Mid. of 

fiavvvfii) ; fut. i:pt/.ir;ao/ 

), -T)S, f. a fountain, spring. 

-q, -^s, f. barley (often in pi.). 

KpiOivos, -rj, -ov, made of barley. 

olvos KpiOivos, lit. ' barley wine,' i. e. 

beer or whisky. 

Kpivci), 7 judge, distinguish, consider ; 

fut. KptvSi, perf. Kticptita, perf. pass. 

KeKptfjuii, I aor. pass. tKpiOrjv. 
Kpieris, -us, f. a trial, (Kpivca, I 

Kporos, -ov, m. a noise (produced by 

striking), clapping of hands. 
Kpovco, 7 strike, clash ; fut. upovaos. 
Kpvirrw, 7 A/rfe, conceal ; fut. Kpfyo), 

perf. KtKpvtya, perf. pass. Kt/cpvpnai, 

I aor. pass. ixpv(p0r]v. 
KTaopai, 7 acquire, gain, possess; fut. 

KTi7<ro/i(, perf. Kticrrjfiai. 
KTcCvu, 7 iti//, s/fly, />w/ /o </z/& ; fut. 

KrevSi, i aor. ticTtiva. For the 

passive BvrjffKOi), 7 die, is used. 
KTTJVOS, -ovs, n. property; (plural) 

cattle, beasts of burden. (KTOO/MU, 

7 acquire.) 

KTr|, fut. of KTao/jat. 
KvppW|Tr)S, -ou, m. a steersman, pilot, 

(Lat. gubernator.) 
KvfiKT]v6s, -^, oi', o/ or /rowi Cyzicus, 

a town in the Propontis. 
KvJiKTjvos, sc. ffrarrjp, a Cyzicene, or 

gold coin of Cyzicus, worth about a 

Napoleon, i6s. 
KiJ^iKog, -ov, f. Cyzicus, a peninsula 

and town on the Propontis or Sea of 

KiJicXos, -ov, m. a circle, ring ; KVK\O>, 

all round, lit- in a circle. 
KVK\6o>, 7 encircle, surround; fut. 

KvXiv8o, 7 roll. 
KWIO-KOS, -ov, m. Cyniscus, a Spartan 

governor in the Chersonese. 
Kvpos, -ov, m. Cyrus the younger, the 

second of the two sons of Darius 

Nothus; killed at Cunaxa, 8.0.401. 

(Cyrus the Great founded the Persian 

monarchy, took Babylon, and re- 
leased the Jews, 538 B.C.) 
KViiiv, KVVOS, m. and f. a dog. (Lat. 

canis, Eng. hound.) 
KCO\VO>, 7 hinder, prevent ; fut 

KcLjiT), -qs, f. a village. 




Aaj3Tv, Xafjaov, 2 aor. infin. and part. 

of \afj.pdvai. 

AaYXavu, / obtain by lot, obtain, get ; 
ft t. \rjo/juii, perf. (i\r]\a, perf. pass. 
(t\rjypai, 2 aor. f\a^ov. 
Ad6pa, secretly, (with gen.) without 

the knowledge of. 

AaKtSaipdvios, -a, -ov, Lacedaemo- 
nian, or inhabitant of Lacedaemon 
or Sparta, in Peloponnesus. The 
nobles were called Spartans. All 
Spartans were Lacedaemonians, but 
all Lacedaemonians were not Spar- 

XCIKKOS, -ov, m. a hole, pit. (Lat. 

Adxcov, -uvos, m. a Laconian, a free 
citizen of the country near Sparta. 

Xap.fjdvu>, 1 take, seize, receive, (with 
gen. take hold of): fut. 
perf. tt\rj<pa, perf. pass. t"t 
2 aor. i\a$ov. 

AafxirpoTTjs, -rrros, f. brightness, 
splendour ( pot. bright).<i>, I shine, gleam; fut. Kantyw. 

Aa|ii|/aKT]v6$, -ov, m. a Lampsacene, 
or inhabitant of Lampsacus. 

AduvJ/aKos, -ov, f. Lampfacns, a town 
in the north of Mysia on the 
Hellespont, now Lamsaki, nearly 
opposite Gallipoli (VIII. 485). 

Xav6dv<i>, (Act.) I lie hid, escape 
notice, (with ace.) escape notice of, 
hence with part. (I do a thing) 
unawares; (Mid.) 7 forget; fut. 
\$aa), perf. \4\rj0a, perf. pass. 
\i\rjafjuii, 2 aor. (\aOov. 

Aax<ov, 2 aor. part, of \ayx av >- 

XY U I I say, speak ; fut. A^o>, i aor. 
Ata, perf. pass. 

Xcia, -as, f. booty, spoil. 

Xciiroi, 7 leave, forsake, abandon; fut. 
Afloat, perf. \t\oina, 2 aor. cAdror. 

XcXcivj/Ofjiai, paulo-post fut. of \(iirca. 

XtXonra, perf. of \(imu. 

XcvKo-0upa|, -a/to, m.' and f. wearing 
a white breastplati. 

XCUKOS, -17, -(5v, white. 

XTIY^I I cease, leave off'; fut. A^w. 

Xi]i$o|jiav, 7 plunder, ravage. (Ana, 

ATJITTOS, -a, -W, wws/ 6e /n^, verbal 

adj. of Aa/i/Sdfo;. 

-ou, m. a robber. (Aej'a, 

XTJO-W, fut. 

XT)t|/o(xai, fut. of Aa/x/Sdcw. 

XiOos, -ov, m. a stone. 

XIJATJV, -vos, m. a harbour, haven. 

Xtjios, -oC, in. hunger, famine. 

Xoyos, -ov, m. a word, speech, report; 

in pi. a conference. (A7<u, 7 speak.) 
\6f\T], -rjs, f. a spear-head, lance. 
XoiSopcw, 7 rail at, abuse; fut. Aoi- 

Xoiiros, -^, -(5i', remaining, left; TO 

\oiitov, (l) (subst.) the remaining 

part, (a) (adv.) henceforward; ol 

\oiirol, the rest. (Lat. reliqui.) 
X64>os, -ov, m. a hill, eminence. 
Xoxayos, -oO, a captain, (\6xos, a 

company, and ^yiofMt, I lead.) 
Xoxos, "Ov, m. a company (generally 

of a hundred men). 
AvBia, -as, f. Lydia, in Asia Minor. 
AVKIOS, -ov, m. Lycius, an Athenian 

cavalry officer (IV. 152). 
AVKUV, -twos, m. Lycon, an Achaean ; 

one of the deputies sent to Heraclea 

(VII. 43). 

XVTTCOI, I grieve, pain, distress, (\vinj, 

Xvmrj, -ijt, f. grief, sorrow. 

\v<a, I loose, release, (of oaths and 
treaties) 7 break; (Mid.) 7 redeem, 
ransom; fut. Aww, perf. \f\vKa, 
perf. pass. AcAv/MU, i aor. pass. 


MaiavSpos, -ov, m. the Maeander, a 
river between Lydia and Caria (I. 


ai, 7 am maJ; perf. nt'/^ra 
(with pres. meaning), 2 aor. pass. 



Maio-do'T]s, -ov, in. Maesades, king of 
Thrace, father of Seuthes (VIII. 


MaKicrrtos, -ov, m. a Macistian, or 
inhabitant of Macistus, a town of 
Elis in the N. W. of Peloponnesus. 

p.aKp6s, -a, -ov, long, great, large; 
comp. (MKpuTfpos, super!. fJUiKpo- 
TO.TOS (also ftaaatuv, /j.rjKtffros). 

(laKpo-repov, comp. adv. further. 

MaKpcoves, -oui/, m. the Macrones, a 
tribe of Pontus, bordering on the 

p.dXa, much, very; comp. p.a\Xov, 
more, superl. |A<iXioTa, most, especi- 
ally. With numerals, at most, i. e. 

(j.av0dvoj, 7 learn, understand; fut. 
fjLa6ri<TOnat, perf. ne^dOrjaa, i aor. 


jxavreia, -as, f. a prediction, oracle. 

MavTivtis, -uiv, m. Mantineans, or 
natives of Mantinea, in Arcadia. 

p,dvns, -(us, m. a prophet, sooth- 

(Aapcrnros, -ov, m. a fcflj'. 

(jtaprvplo), 7 a/n a witness, testify, 
(pdprvs, a witness.) [Eng. martyr.] 

MapwveCTrjS, -ov, m. a Maronean, or 
native of Maronea, in Thrace. 

liaaTi-yow, 7 scourge, flog; fut. /taa- 
Tiyuffw, (i*daTi, a scourge.) 

\na\aipa, -as, f. scimetar, sabre. 
), -i;s, f. a fight, battle. 

7 ./Jg'fa (with dat.) ; fut. 
ai, perf. /te^d^/iai. 
rpcirus, magnificently; comp. 
-tarfpov, superl. -fOTara. (Adv. 
of (ntyaXo-irpcntfS, from (jit-yas, 
great, and irpiirfi, it is conspicu- 

cYdpcv;, -tais, m. n Megarean, or 
native of Megara on the Isthmus, 
north of Corinth. 

uyas, fJ,tya\r), fj.tfa, great, large, 
important, (of sound) /ow<f ; comp. 
fiti^uv, superl. niyioros. 

icOvco, I am drunk; fut. -vow. (i*(0v, 
pure wine, Lat. mervm.) 

|xeij[(i)v, comparative of (ttyas (for 

, -a, -OK, m/W, gracious, a 

title of Zeus. 

p.ivcu, I aor. infin. of /wViw. 
(j.eicov, -cw, -ov, smaller, less, inferior. 

(Comp. of (impos.) 
MeXavBiTcu, m. the Melandltae, or 

inhabitants of Melandia in Thrace, 

N. W. of Byzantium. 
p.t\as, fj.f \atva, /xXaf, black; comp. 

ft(\dvrtpos, superl. /ieXdi/raTO*. 
|xc\ci, (impers.) it concerns, is a care to, 

(with dat.) as pf\et poi, it is a care 

to me, i. e. 7 care ; fut. /uXijfffj. 
[xeXfrdcj, 7 practise ; fut. fi(\er^au. 
(AcXivrj, -TJS, f. millet, a kind of corn 

smaller than maize. 

, 7 am about to do, intend, 

delay ; fut. /\A.^<r<u : TO fjifKXov, 

the future. 

i, 7 remember ; perf. pass, of 
, in middle sense, fut. 

p,tv, lit. ' /Ae _/frs/ place, on the one 
hand (answered by 8) ; often 
rendered by a stress on the pre- 
ceding word. "O uiv, the one . . . & 
8, the other, of uiv, some . . . ol 
5J, others. 

JJUVTOI, however; certainly. 

|xcv(o, 7 remain, (trans.) wait for; fut. 
Itti/o), perf. 

Mcvcov, -twos, m. Menon, one of the 

Greek generals, a Thessalian (I. 

p.pos, -of s, n. a part, share ; division 

(of army) ; specimen. 
p.o-r]p.ppLa, -as, f. mid-day. (Lat. 

(jLecro-Yaios, -a, -oi*, midland, the in- 

terior. (ntffos, middle, and 717, 

l-u'cros, -;, -ov, middle, midst, (Lat. 

medius) ; rb ptaov, the centre (of 

an army), fJ-fffrj fj^tpa, or fifffov 

f)H(pas, mid-day. 

, -)J, -6v,full (with gen.) 



)i(T&, prep, with gen. and ace. [root 
meaning, 'in the middle' (/<ros).] 

I. with gen. with, in company with. 

II. with ace. next to, after. Obs. 
pera. ravra, after these things, but 
ptra, TOVTCUV, with these (men). 
In Composition, i. sharing with ; ii. 
after (with verbs of motion), as 
p( ra-Tffpiropai ; iii. change, as ptra- 
ftyvuffKO), I change my mind. 

|xcra-}xtXci, impers. it repents (with 
dat.) ; fut. -p\riffd. 

n-irw, generally in Mid. \itra- 
irc|xiro|i<u, / send for, summon ; 

fut. -TTf^'Of^at. 

l . prep. %vith gen., up to, as far 
as ; also conjunction, until. 

HT|, not, the dependent negative 
answering roughly to Lat. ne; i. 
not, with other particles, as el pi), 
if not, unless; 'iva. pi), di* pi), oirais 
pi), that not, or lest ; ii. that not, or 
not to with infin. as opvvpi pi) fX tlv < 
I swear that I have not, Ai5o> pi) 
iroKiv, I bid you not to do it; iii. 
with participle, if not, as pi) iroiSrv, 
if he does not do = tl pi) iroift; iv. 
that, or lest, after verbs of fearing, 
as oiootm pi) iroii7<rjjs, 7 fear that 
or lest you may do ; so =from after 
verbs of hindering, as muAva> at pi) 
wottiv, I hinder you from doing ; v. 
in directly forbidding, with pres. 
imper. or aor. subj. as pi) void, do 
not do it (as a habit), pi) -noways, 
d? not do it (now). 

*T)5, (conj). neither, nor, not even. 

iTjStts, -fpla, -iv, no one, (lit. pij&i 
(It, not even one.) 

p.T)8(iroTt, (adv.) never (lit. not even 

M-qSia, -as, f. Media, south of the 
Caspian, west of the Tigris. 

M-qSoKos, -ov, m.Meddcus, king of the 
Odrysians in Thrace (VIII. 141). 

Mi)8o<ra8T)s, -ov, m. Medosddes, a 
Thracian, envoy of Scathes (VIII. 

JITJKCTV, (adv.) no longer. 

p.T|v, truly indeed. (Lat. vero) ; teal 

pr)v, moreover. 
p.T|v, pt)v6t, a month. 
jiT|7roT, (adv.) never, (pi) and TTOT^.) 
[XT]pds. -ov, m. the thigh. 
(iTjre, (prj, T(), nor; prjrf . . . pjrf, 

neither . . . nor ; p'qrt . . . Tt, not 

only not . . . but. 
[XT|r]p, -rput, {. a mother. 
p.TjTpo-iroXis, -tews, f. the mother-city ; 

(iT]xavao(jLo.i, 7 contrive, plan, devise; 

fut. -rjaopai, perf. ptpj) \dvrj pat. 

(pr)\avi), a device.) 
(rrjxavT|, -7)s, f. means, device, con- 

trivance. (Lat. machina.) 
jita, fern, of fls, one. 
Mi6pi8drr|S, -ov, m. Mithridates, a 

Persian satrap of Cappadocia (IV. 

, -<i, -ov, small, little. Comp. 

pueportpos, (\arTOJV and pticov : 

sup. pitcporaros and t\dxtffros, 

pixp6v n, some little (money). 

Kara, ptiepov, in small portions. 
|U|xvT|o-K<i>, (Act.) 7 remind, (Mid.) 7 

remember, mention, fut. pvf]cropat, 

perf.pepvnpat, with present meaning. 
|uo-f(i>, 7 hate; fut. -j'jatu. (picrot, 

(xt<T0o-86Trjs, 'Ov, m. a pay-master. 

\ptff6os, pay, and oiSupt, I give). 
Hi(r96s, -oC, m. pay, reward. 
p.vrioro(iai, fut. of piptrfiffKO}. 
p.6\is, (adv.) with difficulty. 
jiovov, (adv.) only (properly neot. o/ 


fiovos, -T), -ov, alone, only. 
MocrcrvvoiKoi, -<w, m. the Mossynoeci, 

a people in Asia Minor, on the Black 

Sea, west of Trapezus (p6<raw f 

wooden tower, OIK tea, I dwell). 
pv<i>, 7 suck in, lit. 'drink in with 

closed lips.' (pv, mute.) 
MvpiavSpos, -ov, f. Myriandrus, a 

town between Issus and Antioch 

(I. 165). 
pvpicis, -dSoi, f. ten thousand in num- 

ber, a myriad. 


[0,-upioi, -at, -a, ten thousand; [vupCoi, 
countless, numberless. (Distinguish 
by accents.) 

Mvaia, -as, f. Mysia, the N. W. 
province of Asia Minor. 

jjio)p6s, -d, '6v, foolish. 


vat, (adv.) yes. 

vain], -77*, f. a woody dell, glen. 

vdiros, -ovs, n. = vaiTT). 

vaiJ-ap^os, ov, ni. the commander of 
a fleet, an admiral, (vavs, a ship, 
and ap\ca, I command.) 

vav-irr)Y 1 1 <n | lo S> ' ov > ustfi'l for ship- 
building, (vavs, and wfjyvvfu, I 

va(3s, v(dis, pi. vrjts, f. a ship. 

vaviriKos, -17, -6v, naval, (vavs, ship.) 

vsavicTKo?, -ov, m. a young man, a 

vcxpos, -ov, m. a dead body, corpse. 

vt|A, (i) / distribute, (2) divide as 

. pasture, hence Pass. v(/j.fffQai, to be 

grazed on ; npia v(Vfftr)/j.tva, meat 

divided, i.e. slices of meat, fut. vtyaa, 

perf. vtvifajKa, I aor. tvet/jia. 

veo-Bapros, -ov, newly flayed, (veos, 
new, and Septa, I flay.) 

vcos, -a, -ov, fresh, young. Comp. 
vewrtpos; super), vcairaros. 

vcupa, -as, f. a sinew, cord for a sling, 

vevcrojjuu, fut. of vlo>. 

v(j>\T|, -r)s, f. a cloud, mist. 

V(o, I swim, fut. vtvaopai. 

Nwv, -cavos, m. Neon, an Asinaean, 
successor of Cheirisophus, and op- 
ponent of Xenophon. 

VIKO.W, 7 conquer, overcome, prevail; 

fut. VlK-fjOO). 

viKi], -rjs, f. victory, conquest. 

void), / perceive, observe ; fut. voiycrw, 

I aor. Ivorjffa. (yoos, mind.) 
vojAifw, 7 consider, think; I aor. 

fv6i*!cra, perf. pass. vtv6ijuafmt. 

ra vomtfutva, rites of burial, lit. 

' the things considered usual.' 

v6|Ufios, ~q, -ov, customary, usual 

vojxos, -ov, ni. custom, law. 

vdos, -ov, m. contr. voOs, vov, etc 

mind, thought, intention. 
v6<ros, -ov, f. disease, sickness. 
VOTOS, -ov, m. the south wind. (Lat. 

WKTcpevia, I pass the night, bivouac ; 

fut. -f5o"o. (vv .) 
vvv, (adv.) now. (Lat. nunc.) o vvv 

Xpovos, the present time. 
vvj, VVKTOS, f. night; VVKTOS, by night, 

rfjv vvKTa, all night long. 
VWTOV, -ov, n. the back. 


SevCas, -ov, m. Xenias, a general from 
Arcadia, who deserted Cyrus (I. 

EV(CO, 7 entertain, I aor. ((viffa. 
(evos, a guest-friend.) 

|vu>s, -a, -ov, hospitable ; neut. pi, 
tvia, friendly gifts, presents. 

vos, -ov, m. a guest-friend, stranger. 

Hevo4>uiV, -3>VTOS, m. Xenophon, an 
Athenian, born B.C. 444, a pupil of 
Socrates, who carried him out of 
the battle of Delium (B.C. 424) 
on his shoulders. Xenophon was 
strongly opposed to the popular 
government at Athens, and an ad- 
mirer of the Spartan oligarchy ; he 
was therefore glad to leave Athens 
in 401 and join Cyrus, on the in- 
vitation of his friend Proxenus, a 
Theban, whose acquaintance he had 
made when he was a prisoner at 
Thebes. After the murder of 
Clearchus he was made commander 
of the army. In the spring of 399 
he gave over the army to Thibron 
the Spartan and returned to Athens, 
Socrates had been put to death, and 
Xenophon was banished for having 
joined Cyrus, an ally of the Spartans. 
He then fought in Asia under the 
Spartan king Agesilaus, and on the 

P I 



return of the latter to Greece he 
even fought on hit side against his 
own countrymen at Coronea, B.C. 
394, for which the Spartans rewarded 
him with a gift of land near Olym- 
pia. He lived there till 371, and 
then went to Corinth, where he 
died, probably about 355. Besides 
the Anabasis, his chief works are 

(1) the Hellenica, a Greek history 
for forty-eight years, ending with 
the battle of Mantinea, B.C. 362 ; 

(2) Memorabilia, or memoirs of So- 
crates'conversations ; ($)Cyropaedia, 
or the education of the elder Cyrus, 
founder of the Persian monarchy. 
In the Hellenica he attributes the 
authorship of the Anabasis to one 
Themistogenes of Syracuse, pro- 
bably a nom de plume for him- 

Hpr]S, -ov, m. Xerxes, king of Persia, 
son of Darius I (Hystaspes) ; he in- 
vaded Greece, and was defeated at 
Salamis, B.C. 480. 

i<}>os, -ovs, n. a sword. 

v\tvos, -rj, -or, wooden. (fvXov.) 

v\ov, -ov, n. wood. 


i >), T<5, (i) the def. art. the ; (2) pro- 
noun he, she, as o 8t tlntv, and he 

6|3XCcrKos, -ov, m. a little spit or spear. 

6ySoT)KovTa, eighty. 

58, %$(, r6S(, this, properly, this one 
here. It often refers to what is 
coming, as Z\(t raSt , he spoke as 

o86s, -ov, f. a way, road, journey, ex- 

'O8pv<n)S, -ow, m. an Odrysian, or one 
of the Odry&ae, a Thracian tribe 

(viii. 139)- 

50v, (adv.) whence; from whom or 

from which. 
oitca8, (adv.) homewards. (oticot, 


olSa, 7 know, perf. used as pres., from 

fTSov (2 aor. with pres. opatu). 

Plural tffptv, larf, taaffi, imperat. 

oiKelos, -a, -ov, domestic; ot olxfTot, 

one's family, lit. ' those at home.' 
O'IKCCO, 7 dwell, live, (trans.) inhabit ; 

fut. oiicfiffu, perf. pass. < 
oiKT|(ia, -O.TOS, n. a dwelling, house. 
oliaa, -as, f. a house. 
OIK if a> 7 found, settle ; I aor. ytciaa, 

perf. wKiajj.a.1. 
oiKoOev, (adv.) /rowi AOJH*. (of/fos, 

OIKOI, (adv.) a/ Aom. Properly a 

locative case of ottos. 
ottcos, -ov, m. a house, home. (Lat 


oT|xai. See oio^iai. 
olvos, -ov, m. wine. (Lat. vtnum.) 
oivoxoos, -ov, m. a cup-bearer. (oTvot, 

and X* 4 *! I pour.), contr. otfiai, / think, suppose ; 

fut. olrjaofuu, I aor. yrjOrjv, imperf. 

olos, -a, -oj', U//U2/ 5or/ p/, (swcA) as. 
(Lat. qualis.) ol6s ri tipi, 7 am 
able ; ol6v ri tan, it is possible. 

OLS, oi'ds, f. sheep (Lat. oir/s) ; ace. pi. 

oixopcu, 7 am gone, I depart; fut. 

ouovos, -ov, m. (i) a large bird, bird 

of prey : hence (2) an omen. 
6xXa<o, 7 bend the knee, crouch down; 

OKVOS, -ov, m. a shrinking, reluctance, 


oKxaicis-xtAioi, -at, -a, eight thousand. 
OKTU, eight. (Lat. octo.) 
oXtcrai, I aor. iuilii. act. of oXAv/u. 
6X1705, -17, -ov, few, small; 0X170$ 

rA.77d na.itiv, to strike too few 

oXurOdvu, 7 slip; fut. oKiaOrfaca, a 

aor. wXtaOov. 

oXos, -i), -ov, whole, entire. 
6(ia\6s, -^, -(Ji', even, level, smooth. 
5(iT)po$, ov, m. a hostage. 



6p.ixXi], ->;, f. a mist, fog. 

o(Avv(jn, 7 swear; i aor. uftoffa, perf. 

6p.tijjj.oKa, perf. pass. oiiwpoaiuu. 
o(j.oios, -a, -ov, //'fo. 
6|j.oicos, (adv.) likewise, equally. 
opoXoyoj, / acknowledge, confess, 

agree ; fut. -7j<r<w. 

op-OCTcu, I aor. infin. act. of opwfu. 
6|xoO, (adv.) together. 
o|Xb>s, (adv.) ye/, nevertheless. 
dvap, n. a dream ; pi. ovtipara (only 

in nom. and ace.). 
6vf|crci>, fut. of OVIVTJ/JU. 
6vivT]pa, 7 iewe/?/ ; fut. oj^ffw, I aor. 

uvrjffa, I aor. pass. uvrj0T)v. 
ovo|xa, -arcs, n. a name. 
ovoiiaori, (adv.) by name, (ovop.a.) 
ovos, -ov, in. and f. an ass. 
oirrj, (adv.) (I) where ; (a) in what 

way, as. 

6mo-(Uv, (adv.) behind. 
6mo-9o-4>vXaKo, / guard the rear ; 

fut. -rjffco. (uiriaOtv, and <pv\aaaaj, 

I guard.) 
6iricr0o-4>vXaida, -as, f. the command 

of the rear-guard. 
6ma6o-<|>vXci, -a/cos, m. commander 

of the rear-guard, pi. 6ma0o- 

4>xiXais, the rear-guard. 
OTcicra), (adv.) back. 
6irXiu>, / arm; 1 aor. Snr\iaa, perf. 

pass. &TT\io~nat. (oirKa, arms.) 
oTfXiTvtt, fut. -(vatu, I serve as a 

hoplite or heavy-armed soldier. 
oirXiTtjs, -ot, in. a hoplite, or heavy- 
armed soldier. (oirXa, arms.) 
oirXov, -ov, n. a heavy shield; mostly 

pi. bir\a, (heavy) arms, tv rofs 

on\ois, under arms ; (Is TO, on\a, 

to the arms, i. e. the place where the 

arms were piled in camp. 
oiroi, (adv.) whither, where. 
OTTOtos, -a, -ov, what sort cf. (Lat. 

OTroeros, -77, -ov, how great; in pi. 

oTTOffoi, how many, as many as. Neut. 

oiroow, as much as, as far as. 
otTorav, whenever, with subj. (pnort, 


*, whenever, with opt. 
o-irou, (adv.) where, wherever. 
OTTOJS, (i) how: (a) in order that, that. 
opdco, 7 see : fut. Sif/ofMi, imperf. iw- 

poiv, perf. fwpaiea, perf. pass. v///cu, 

I aor. pass. w<f>6r)v, fut. pass. 6<pOr]- 

aofiat, 2 aor. tloov. 
opyr\, -fjs, f. anger, passion. 
6p-yio|, 7 am enraged; perf. upyia- 

fiai, I aor. dipyiaOrjv. 
opeivos, -fi, -6v, mountainous, hilly ; 

opttvol Qpanfs, the Hill Thracians. 

(opos, a mountain.) 
opOios, -a, -ov, upright, steep; TO 

opfftov, the slope; opOwi \o\oi, 

companies in column, as opposed to 

</>aA.a"y (troops in line). 
6p96s, -17, -6v, straight, upright. 
6'pOpos, -ov, m. the dawn. 
opOcos, (adv.) rightly. (opQos.) 
opijco, 7 bound, limit, define; I aor 

uptffa, perf. pass. eupt<r/KU. 
opiov, -ov, n. a boundary, frontier. 
opKOS, -ov, m. an oath. (Lat. Orcus 

' the lower world/ by which they 

6p|xoLo>, (Act.) (i) (trans.) I incite; (2) 

(intrans.) rush; (Mid.) 7 set out; 

fut. op/xijaeo, perf. SipnqKa, perf. pass. 

up ny (MI. (oputl, an impulse.) 
6p|xcw, 7 lie at anchor ; fut. opurjaca, 

imperf. wppow, aorist supplied by 

opiu^ca. (op/jiot, a harbour.) 
opp-T], -175, f. impulse, movement ; iv 

6pt*.rj, on the start. 
6p|xio>, (Act.) 7 bring to anchor, 

moor ; I aor. &p(uaa, (Mid.) 7 lie 

at anchor, (oppos, a harbour.) 
opveov, -ov, n. a bird. 
op vis, Wos, m. and f. a bird, fowl. 
'OpovTt]S, -ov, m. Orontes. (i) a 

Persian put to death by Cyrus for 

treachery (I. 228). (2) a satrap ol 

Armenia (IV. 250). 
opos, -ous, n. a mountain. 
opo<|>os, -ov, m. thatch, roof. 
6pVTTW, 7 dig ; fut. opvca, perf. opca- ' 

pv\a, perf. pass. opwpvyfMt, vert>. 

adj. o 



5p4>av6s. -TI, -ov, an orphan. 
>pX<, I dance ; fut. b 
opxT|(ns, -ecus, f. a dance. 
6pxi]OTpis, -iSos, f. a dancing girl. 
'Opxofitvios, -a, -ov, Orchomenian, 

or an inhabitant of Orchomenus, a 

town in Arcadia, 
os, i], o, (rel. pronoun) who, which ; 

often with the antecedent omitted, 

he who, that which ; iv $ (sc. 

Xpovqi), during which (time), i.e. 

oo-os, -??, -ov, how great (Lat. quantus), 

(pi.) 00-01, how many, as many as, 

(Lat. quot). 
oo-os-irtp, oatj-vtp, oaov-irtp, as great 

as ; in pi. as many as. 
os-iip, ij-iT(p, o-Titp, who, which, just 

the one who. 
6<rirpiov, -ov, n. pulse, 
OS-TVS, ij-Tis, o rt, who, which, who- 
ever; gen. OTOV for OV-TIVOS, dat. 

OTW for UTIVI. if OTOV (sc. \po- 

vov), since. 
OTOV, (conj.) whenever (always with 


OT, (conj.) when (with ind. and opt.). 
OTV, (conj.) (i) that; (2) because. 
o TI, neuter of corn. 6 n is used 

like Lat. quam with superl., as o TI 

w\tf(TTo, as may as possible. 
OTtp. See OS-TIS. 
ov, RO/, no (Lat. non) ; before a vowel 

OVK ; before an aspirate ovx- 
ov, dat. of, ace. I, (pers. pron.) of him- 

*elf. f 
ov8a}XT|, (adv.) nowhere, in no way, 

on no occasion., no-how, by no means. 
ovSc, (adv.) (i) but not, nor; ovrt . . 

ov$t, neither . . nor, (2) yet, not even. 
ou8is, ovotftia., ovoiv, no one, none ; 

ovSiv, (adverbially), in no way, not 

at all. (ou5t fit, not even one.) 
OUK. See ov. 
OVKTV, (adv.) no longer. 
otitcow, not therefore, surely not. 

Distinguish by accent from 
OVIKOVV, therefore, then. (Probably 

orig. = OVKOW ; interrogative now 

distinguished by accent.) 
ovv, therefore, then (Lat. igitvr). 
ovirort, never. 
ouirci), not yet. 
oupayos, -ov, m. the leader of the 

rear-guard, (ovpti, tail.) 
oupaYos, -ov, m. heaven, sky. votop ( 

ovpavov = rain. 
ovs, wros, n. the ear. 
OWTC, neither, nor. 
OVTOS, avTTj, TOVTO, (dem. pronoun), 

OUTOS-I, avrrj-i, TOVTI, this here (Lat. 


OUTW, before a vowel ovrus, so, thus. 
o\r%. See oi. 
o<}>\os, benefit, service, use, (only 

used in nom. and ace.). 
64>0oAp.6s, -ov, m. the eye. (fyo/Mi, 

I shall see; fut. with pres. opaoj.) 
6x">, (Act.) 7 carry, (Mid.) 7 ride; 

fut. o^ffcw. 

6xT|[Aa, -O.TOS, n. a vehicle, support. 
c>X^T]> -ns, f. a bank (of a river). 
OX^DS, -ov, m. crowd, people, (Lat. 

vulgus); camp followers of an army, 

o^Ao? iraptxWt to g'* e trouble. 
6\|/^, (adv.) late. 
6v|;ios, -a, -ov, in the evening, (oif/ia, 

sc. w/w, the evening.) 
o4>is, -tow, f. appearance, sight, 

spectacle, (oi^o/xai.) 

i, fut. with pres. op&ta. 


v, -ov, n. the pancratium, 

a contest in wrestling and boxing. 

(iray, and Kparos, strength.) 
irolOo?, -ovt, n. suffering; (vaffxoi, I 

suffer.) o, rt TO itdOot tin, what 

was the matter. 
Tra0u>v, -ovaa, -ov, 3 aor. part, of 

traiavijo), 7 raise the paean, (war 
cry or song of victory.) (irotdi', 
the paean.) 

iraiScia, -a*, f. education, training. 



iroiSiov, -ot, n. a child; (dim. of 

irals, wa<5os, m. and f, a child, (boy or 

ircuu, 7 strike; fut. naiffoa, I aor. 

irdXcu, (adv.) long ago. (ird\at 6pS>, 
I have long been seeing, and so with 
other verbs, like Lat. jamdudum 

miX.aiw, 7 wrestle, fut. -aiata. 

jrdXr], -77$, f. wrestling. (ird\\o>, I 

iraXiv, (adv.) back, again. 

jraXrov, -ov, n. a spear, javelin. 
(ird\\(u, I shake.) 

tranTrXT)0T|s, -'s, very numerous. 

n-djnroXvs, --no\\i], -iro\v, very many. 

iravTaircKTi^v), (adv.) altogether, 
wholly, entirely. 

iravToios, -a, -ov, of all sorts, (was.) 

irdvv, (adv.) altogether, very, fully. 

Trapd, prep, with gen., dat., and 
ace. (root meaning beside). I. 
with gen. from, especially of persons, 
as ol Trapd /3a<r<Xa>s, the (messen- 
gers) from the king, [lit. ' from 
beside']. II. with dat. at, near, 
with, especially, at the house of, 
[lit. ' at the side ']. III. with ace. 
i. of motion to a point, to; ii. of 
motion along a line, along, on the 
side of, as napa, 0d\arrav, along 
the sea (coast) ; nap' damSa, on the 
shield side, i.e. on the left; iii. of 
time, during; iv. (metaphorically) 
compared with, as napa ravra, 
because of, besides ; hence beside the 
mark, i. e. contrary to, as napa rovs 
vofjiovs, against the laws. In Com- 
position, i. beside, or near, as irdp- 
(tfj.1, 'I am near,' or 'present;' ii. 
beyond, or ' beside the mark,' as 
trapa-fla'tvo}, I transgress. 

rmpu [3oT)0fo>, I come to help; fut.-^croj. 

wap-<ryyA\a), I command, give orders ; 
(lit. 'pass the word of command along 
d) the line ; ') I aor. -ij77iXa. 

i, I come up, am pre- 
sent ; fut. -7V77<ro/^ai, a aor. irap- 

irap-d.Y &> > 7 bring along, especially 

lead from column into line; fut. 

-da>, 2 aor. -rjfayov. 
irapdSsio-os, -ov, m. a park. (Persian 

word, hence Eng. paradise.) 
irapa-BiSwfu, 7 hand over, give up, 

surrender; fut. -S&ffcu, I aor. irap- 

towKa, I aor. pass. -tooQrjv. 
irap-aivco), 7 recommend, exhort, ad- 

dress ; fut. -atvfffo). 
irapa-Ka\ti>, 7 send for, summon, 

exhort; fut. -na\ecr<u. 
irapd-Ki(Jiai, 7 lie beside, or near; 

fut. -Kficronai. (Used as the passive 

of ira/>a-T(0?;/xt.) 
irapa-KeXcvofxcu, I exhort, encourage; 

fut. -Kf\(VffOfMLl. 

irapa-KtXeuo-is, gen. -ecus, f. a cheering 

on, encouraging. 
jrapa-Xa|Apdv, 7 take over, receive, 

take to myself; fut. -Xj^o/xcu, perf. 

trap-fi\rj(f>a, 2 aor. -cXa/Soi/. 
Trapa-TT(jnrw, 7 send along, escort; 

fut. -iref^if/ea. 
irapa-irXcw, 7 sail past, sail along; 

flit. -TT\(VffOfiai. 

irapaaaYYIS, -ov, m. a parasang, or 

Persian measured distance = 30 

stadia, or 3! miles. 
Trapa-<rKud<i>, 7 gel ready, prepare ; 

so Mid. prepare for (my own) use; 

fut. -aietvdffaj, perf. pass. irap-faKfva- 


irapa-oxevfi, -JJs, f. preparation. 
irapa-TaTTu, 7 <fraw> up, arrange 

(irapd, sz'efe 6y side, i. e. m order of 

battle) ; fut. -Taa;, perf. pass. -T- 


irapa-Tttvw, 7 stretch out, extend 
(<pd\a.'Yya) ; fut. ^rfvu, I aor. 

irapa-Ti0Ti|jii, 7 /ay down beside; fut. 

-Oriffca, 2 aor. mid. -(OtjJirjt'. 
irapa-Tpexu, 7 r// 6y, rww />as/ : 

fut. -S^a/*oi5/iai, 2 aor. irap-tSpa- 




irap-t yYvdu, ^ /' 7SS (the word) /row 

Afl/jd /o /tawrf, command. 
irdp-eiu.i, 7 cm present, arrive: fut. 

-iaonat, impf. irap-^v. (tv T ira- 

povn, at the present time.) 
irdp-eip.1, / pass by, pass on ; impf. 

n-ap-tXaww, 7 march past, ride 

past, i aor. -jjAatra., 7 ^o />as/, pass along, 

pass through ; 2 aor. -fi\6ov. 
irap-X<>. 7 furnish, supply ; render, 

produce (<p6ftov), (with kavrov, 

give myself over to ; irpay/j.aTa 

irap-t'xtiv, to give trouble); 2 aor. 

-tff\ov, impf. -cfxov. 
irap-Tjicio, I reach, extend along ; 

fut. -ijfcy. 
ITapOvios, -ov, m. the Parthenius, a 

river dividing Paphlagonia from 

Ildpiov, -ov, n. Parium, a town in 

Mysia (VIII. 109). 
irap-icmjfJU, (trans.) 7 place by, set 

near; (intrans. 2 aor. and perf.) 

I stand by ; fut. irapa-ffrrjaaj, I aor. 

irap-fffTi]ffa, 2 aor. trap-fffTrjv. 
irdp-o8os, -ov, f. a passage, (vapd, 

alongside, and 6So, a road.) 
Tlapvo-QTis, -<8o, f. Parysdtis, mother 

of Artaxerxes Mnemon, and Cyrus 

the younger, 
was, iraaa, nav, all, every. (rii 

itavra, (i) the whole, everything; 

(2) adv. completely.) 
ITaauov, -euros, in. Pasion, a general 

from Megara, who deserted Cyrus 

(I. 167). 
naaxw, 7 suffer, suffer misfortune; 

fut. wtiffoftai, 2 perf. vtnoi/Oa, 2 

aor. iiraOov. (tv, or KCIKUH vaaxtiv, 

to be well or ill treated.) 
Trardo-o-w, 7 strike; fut. irara^eu, 

t aor. iirdra^a. See irXtp-rw. 
IlaTi]YW*. *>", rn. Pategyas, a 

Persian, in the army of Cyrus (II. 4). 
ira-rrip, varpos, m. a father. 
irarpts, -loot, f. native country, father- 
land. (Lat patria.) 

trorpyos, -o, -ov, hereditary, ancestral. 
iravKo, (Act.) 7 cause to cease, put a 

stop to; (Mid.) 7 cease, stop; fnt. 

iravffoi, perf. irtiravKa, perf. pass. 

ITa<|>XaYovia, -as, f. Paphlagonia, a 
district of Asia Minor, on the south 
coast of the Euxine, between Bithy- 
nia and Pontus. It was famous for 
its cavalry. 

na4>Xa*yuv, -6vos, m. a Paphlago- 

n-cSr], -rjs, f. a chain for the feet, 
fetter, (jrovs, gen. iro5os, afoot.) 

irsSiov, -ov, n. a level surface, plain. 

irejf), (adv.) OH foot, by land, (prop, 
dat. of TTtos, with 6oy under- 

ire6s, -17, -ov, on foot (Lat. pedestris). 
(iff fa oi'i'a/.tts, infantry force). 

iTCiOw, (Act.) 7 persuade (with ace.) ; 
(Mid.) 7 obey, believe (with dat.) ; 
fut. irtioa), I aor. (irttaa, perf. pass. 
irtirftfffjiai, 2 perf. irtiroiOa, I trust. 

7rcipdo|xai, 7 try, attempt, with infin., 
also with onus and subj. ; with 
genitive, I make trial of; fut. ittipd- 

i. fut. of vaaxoi. 
tov, one must persuade or obey, 
verb adj. of irtiOca or TrfiGoftai. 
dfw, 7 approach ; fut. jreA.a<ro;. 

island of Pelops), the Peloponnesus, 

peninsula of Southern Greece, now 

the Morea. 
TreXrdJw, 7 serve as a peltast, i. e. 

with a light shield (JTC'ATJ;). 
irtXraoTTis. -ov, m. a peltast, targe- 

teer, (because armed with the 

TTXTT), -rjt, (. a light shield covered 
with leather. The large shield was 
called davit. 

ir'u.irro$, -17, -ov, fifth. (irivrf, 

irc'|iirci>, 7 send; fut. vifaf/ta, perf. 
-rri-nofitpa, I aor. pass. tni^Ojji'. 

iTvop,ai, 7 am poor, (irt'fijs, poor.) 



i, -eu, -a, five-hundred. 

JTVT, five. 

TTevTT)Kovra, fifty. 

irVTT)Kovnf|p, -rjpos, m. a commander 
of fifty men, or a half company. 

nevi-qKovTOpos, -ov, f. (sc. vavs) a 
fifty-oared galley, with one bank 
of 25 oars on each side. 

TT-iTOv0a, perf. of Traa\ca. 

ir-irpa-Ka, perf. of irnrpaaKQ). 

u--irTa>Ka, perf. of iriirrca. 

n^-truica, perf. of vivo). 

irepaivco, I finish, accomplish ; fut. 
TTtpiivw, perf. pass, ntntpa.ff/j.a.1, I aor. 
pass. kttfpavOrjv. 

TTspcuoio, (Act.) / convey across ; 
(Mid.) I cross ; fut. nfpaiwffca. 

ntpav, (adv.) across, on the other 
side. (TO irtpav, the opposite 

HfpYcijxos, -ov, f. Pergamus, a town 
in Mysia, near the river Caicus (VIII. 
508) ; afterwards the head of an 
important kingdom under Eumenes 
II, and in the second century B.C. 
the capital of the Roman province 
of Asia. It was celebrated for its 
library and school of literature, as 
well as for the invention of parch- 
ment, which derives its name (through 
the French parchemin) from ' Per- 
gamena Charta.' Pergamus was 
an early seat of Christianity, and 
one of the Seven Churches of Asia 
(Rev. ii. 12). [The name means 
'citadel.' Cp. the Pergamus or 
' citadel ' of Troy ; Greek irvpyos 
('castle'), Eng. burgh.~\ 

Tp8i., -IKOS, m. and f. a partridge. 
(Lat. perdix.) 

irepi, prep, with gen., dat., and ace. ; 
around, about, 'round the ends of 
(cf. vipa, beyond, irfpas, an end). 
I. with gen. i. about, concerning, 
for, like Lat. de; ii. (rarely), above 
in old sense of beyond, as irtpl 
iravros noittffOai, to consider it 
above all, i. e. all-important ; irtpl 
vo\\ov f above much, i. e. very 

much. II. with dat., around, es- 
pecially of parts of the body, as 
irfpi rots Tpax^ots, round their 
necks. III. with ace., i. around 
about, as of irtpl avrov, those about 
him, i.e. he and his men; ii. of 
time, about; iii. about, concerning, 
with regard to. In Composition, 
i. around, about ; ii. above, i. e. 
very much, like Lat. per- in per- 

irpi-j3a.XXw, 7 throw around, sur- 
round, embrace ; fut. -/3aA.cD, 2 aor. 

irpi-YiYvo(xai, (i) 7 am superior to, 
excel; (2) 7 turn out to be; fut. 
-yevfiffofjiai, 2 aor. -tytvoiajv. 

TrepL-eip.1, 7 go round. ((/, ibo.) 

irpi-torTTjn.i, (trans.) 7 place round; 
(intrans.) 2 aor. and perf. 7 stand 
round; fut. -OTtjaa), 2 aor. -iaTijv. 

irf pi-KVK\db>, 7 encircle ; fut. -cuercu. 

7Tpi-nvw t 7 wait for; fut. -fitvw, 
l aor. -(fHfiva.. 

IIcpivOios, -a, -ov, Perinthian, or 
inhabitant of Perinthus. 

ITcpivOos, -ov, (. Perinthus, a town in 
Thrace on the Propontis, after- 
wards called Heraclea, whence its 
modern name Erekli. 

irpi-TTT|-yvv(u, 7 fix around (Pass.) 
7 am frozen around. 

ir*pi-irX<o, 7 sail round; fut. -ir\tv- 

tttpi-pptca, (i) I flow around; (2) 7 
slip from around, slip off"; 2 aor. 
pass, itfpt-tppvriv. 

irepi-ppinjvai, 2 aor. fnfin. pass, of 

irtpi-<j>f pw, 7 carry round ; fut. -oioca, 
I aor. -jj'7o. 

npaT)S, -ov, m. a Persian, pi. ot 
Ilt'pam. The Persian empire in- 
cluded Asia Minor, and extended 
from it to the North of India, 
comprising the modern Persia and 
Asiatic Turkey. It was divided 
into twenty satrapies or provinces. 
, -77, -ov, Persian. 



Hepo-iorC, (adv.) in the Persian 
language, in Persian. 

irecrtiv, 2 aor. infin. of TTJTTTW. 

ireaoCfiai, fut. of iriiiTca. 

Trcacov, 2 aor. part, of TTJ'TTTW. 

irTO|i(H, 7^?y; 2 aor. tirTonyv, 

irirpa, -as, f. a rock. 

7r'4>evya, 2 perf. of <fxvya>. 

Tr-qYT, -Jjs, f. a fountain, spring, 
source (of a river). 

irr\yw\.i, f fix* freeze, (of blood) 
curdle ; 1 aor. tirr)a, i perf. 
irtirrjya, I am fixed, 2 aor. pass. 

mrjXos, -ou, m. clay, mud. 

iruf o>, 7 />ress, squeeze ; distress. 

trivoj, / drink ; fut. Trio/xai, 2 aor. 
(irtov, perf. ntircuica. 

mTTpu.o-K&>, / se/^,- perf. nlirpaKa, I 
aor. pass. kirpaOrjv. Usual pres. 
jrcuXe'cii, for the fut. and 2 aor. aTro- 
Saiao/xat and aTT-ttiofATjv are used. 

n-iTTTO), 7 /a// ; fut. 7re(roC/xa(, 2 aor. 
errfffov, perf. irfnTCUKa. 

nuriSTjs, -ov, in., pi. ol ITtaiScu. the 
Pisidians, warlike mountaineers of 
the Taurus range, between Lycia 
and Cilicia, where the robber-tribes 
of the Caramanians now live. 

mo-Tcvw, 7 trust; fut. -tvao), i aor. 
iniaTfVffa (with dat.). 

moris, -tcui , {. trust, fidelity, confi- 

m(TT6s, -17, -6v, faithful, trustworthy, 
rci mffT&, pledges. 

JUTWS, -vot, f. a pine-tree. 

TrXa(<rvov, -ov, n. an oblong. 

rrAfOpov, -ov, n. a plethrum about 
34 English yards. 

TrXciovs, for vKtiovt* and rrAet'oi/ai, 
noin. and ace. pi. of irXeiW, comp. 
of iroA.v(. 

irXtaros, -17, -ov, superl. of iroKvt. 

TrXcCw, for ir\tlovo., ace. masc. sing, or 
iieut. pi. of irA.<W. 

TrXcCojv, -ov, comp. of ttoKvt. 

irXOv-KTw, 7 have or gain an ad- 
vantage. (ir\fov, more, and x w > 
7 havt.) 

irXevpd, -S, f. /Ae side ; flank (of an 


irXtvtroiJUu, fut. of rr\((ia. 
irXw, 7 sa//; fut. 7rA.i5ffo/ii, I aor. 

n-XTjy^, -fjs, f. a blow. (TTXIJTTW, I 

strike. ) 

irX-fjOos, -ovs, n. a large number, mul- 
titude ; extent. (TTO\VS, many.) 
irXriv, (adv. as prep, with gen.) except. 

Also irXt^v T|, except. 
-rrXT|pT)S, -es,full (with gen.). 
TrXTjcridJo), 7 draw near, approach. 

(irXrjaiov, near.) 
TrXTjcriov, (adv.) near; (superl. TrX?;- 

aiairaros, nearest, next (with gen.). 
irXT|TTw, 7 strike; fut. jrAij<w, perf. 

pass. irfirXrjffjiat, 2 aor. pass, tir- 

\Tjyrjv. For the I aor. act. twarafa 

is used. 

irXoiov, -ov, n. a boat, transport, mer- 
chant vessel, ship. (jrXt'a), 7 sa7.) 
irXovs, -oO, m. a sailing, voyage. 

(ir\((a, I sail.) 
TrXovrifw, 7 make rich ; (Mid.) 7 

get rich. (TT\OVTOS, wealth.) 
trvtvpa., -aros, n. breath, wind, breeze. 

(irvfu, I breathe.) 
nvto), 7 blow, breathe ; imperf. tnvtov, 

fut. ircetxrojuai. 
iroOev, (adv.) whence? irofov, from 


troOos, -ot;, m. a longing, desire, regret. 
iroi, (adv.) whither 1 iroi,to someplace, 

TTOitw, 7 make, do, cause ; fut. -ij<ra>, 

perf. rrciroirjKa. ffciraaiv, to 

hold a review, tv or naicus iroitiv, 

to treat well or ///. (Mid.) (i ) 7 make 

for myself; (2)7 make to myself, i. e. 


TioiKiXos, -77, -ov, variegated, tattooed. 
TTOIOS, -a, -ov, (interrog.) of what sort? 

Lat. qualis. iroi6$ T ; what sort of 

man 1 
iroXc(j.c(i>, 7 make war upon, with dat. 

or prep, irpot. (it6\t^ot, war.) 
-rroXtfiiKos. -TI, -ov, warlike. iro\(fj.i- 

KUV, a war-cry ; TO vo\fiunov, the 



signal for battle ; rcL vo\(piica t war, 
military service. 

TroXejuos, -a, -ov, and -os, -ov, hostile, 
a (public} enemy (Lat. hostis), as 
distinguished from exfyos, a private 
enemy (Lat. inimicus). 

ir6Xp.os, -ov, m. war. 

jroXiopKtw, 7 besiege, blockade ; fut. 

TroXis, -ecus, f. a city, slate = Lat. 
citiitas, .whereas aarv = Lat. urbs. 

ifoXXdicis, (adv.) q/?e. (TroXvs.) 

TToXA.ox'fj, (adv.) /' ma/y places, on 
many occasions, often. (iro\vs.) 

IToXvKpdTTjs, -eos, ace. -rj or -TJV, m. 
Polycrates, an Athenian captain 
(VIII. 432). 

IToXimicos, -ov, m. Polynlcus, a La- 
cedaemonian, sent by Thibron to ask 
for the services of the Greek army 
against Tissaphernes (VIII. 329). 

woXvs, TroA.A.17, iroKv, much, many ; 
also large, long, ol iro\\ol, the 
most, the majority. Conipar. v\tiuv, 
superl. TrAffoTo*. iroXv, as adv. 
much, by far. 

TroXv-TeX-qs, -ts, expensive, (iro\vs, 
much, and Tt\os, expense.) 

Trop.irT|, -77$, f. a procession. (irtfiiru, 
I send.) 

irovtto, 7 work, labour; perf. irtirovrjica, 
(TTOVOS, labour.) 

irovT)p6s, -o, -ov, bad, worthless., wick- 
ed; unsuitable; dangerous, hostile. 
irovr)pto9, with difficulty. 

troves, -ov, m. work, labour, toil; also 
result of labour. 

WOVTOS, -ov, m. the (deep) sea (especi- 
ally the Euxine) ; also the district 
of Pontus. 

rropeia, -as, f. a march, journey. 

tropevrcos, verb. adj. of wopevo/tcu, 
one must march. 

iropevw, (Act.) / convey; (Mid.) 7 
march; fut. -tvaofMi. 

Trop6cu>, I destroy, sack; fut. -lycrw. 

iropi<i>, 7 furnish, provide, supply ; 
perf. pass. wtiro/M 07*01, I aor. pass. 

iropos, -ov, m. a passage; hence 

means, opportunity. 
iropptd, (adv.) far from (with gen.). 
irop4>ijpeos, -a, -ov, contr. -povs, -pa, 

-povv, purple, scarlet. 
iroaos, -rj, -ov,howmuchJ how great? 

iroaov, how far f 
TrOTajJios, -ov, m. a river. 
ITOT, once upon a time ; iroT, when f 

iroTt, if ever. 
iroTtpov and iroTepo, whether; fol- 

lowed by jj, or. Lat. utrum an. 
TTOTOV, -ov, n. drink. (KOTOS, verb. 

adj. of irtvca, I drink.) 
iroO, (adv.) where, irov, (i) some- 

where, (a) somehow, especially per- 

haps, I suppose, no doubt. 
irovis, iro5o, m. afoot. 
irpa-yna, -OTOS, n. a deed, action, 

affair, matter ; irpdy^nara itap- 

(X f f< to give trouble. (trparTW, 1 

irpaTTW, 7 do, act ; fut. irpa(a, perf. 

pass. irfirpay/Mi, I aor. pass. w- 

paxOrfV. tv or KCIKUS irpdrrtiv, to 

fare well or ill. 
irptcrpvs, -vo, or -ecus, m. an old 

man; pi. irpecrpc-tc, ambassadors, 

comp. irpapvrpos. 
irpiao-0ai, to buy; from 2 aor. JTT- 

pianqv : uvlofMi supplies the other 

irpiv, (conj.) before. (l) with infin., 

as irpiv t\6 (iv, before coming; (2) 

with indie., as irpiv ?i\6e, before he 

came ; (3) after negatives, as irpiv av 

IA0J7, and irpiv t\6oi. 
irpo, prep, with gen. only. I. of place, 

before, in front of; hence of fight- 

ing/or, in defence of. II. of time 

before. III. instead of, in preference 

to. In Composition, before, forward, 

beforehand, in preference to. (Cp. 

Lat. pro, prae.) 
Trpo-ayia, I lead forward; fut. -da>, 

irpo-paivo), 7 go forward, advance; 

fut. -/S^ao^cu. 
irpo-pdXXco, (i) 7 throw forward, ad- 



vance (rcL oirXa). (a) 7 put for- 
ward, propose; fut. -/3oAw, 2 aor. 

wp6-{3a.Tov, -ov, n. a sheep (properly 
any animal that walks, from wpo- 
/JaiVoj) . 

n-popo\Y|, -77$, f. a putting forward ; 
Oopara fit irpnBoXty naditrai, to 
' couch ' their lances. (irpo-&d\\o).} 

trpo-yovos, -ov, m. a forefather, an- 

Trpo-8t8cop.i, I give tip, betray ; fut. 


irpo-i8ov, 2 aor. with pres. irpo-opdca. 
irp6-ip.i, / go forward, advance. 


irpo eiirov, 2 aor. with fut. npo-tpoi, 

pres. -ipTjiJU. See irpo-X^Yw. 
irpo-cXauvw, 7 rfrive forward, ride 
forward, sc. fmrov. 

irpo-tpYiiJojiov, / work beforehand; 
perf. pass, -(ipyaffftai. fj irpo- 
(ipyaafjiti'T) 8oa, /A gfory before 

* rpo-pi>, contr. -npo-tpSi, I say before- 
hand or publicly, order, as fut. of 
vpo-tiirov, perf. -tlprjica., 7 march on, advance ; 

1 aor. -f/Atfoi'. 

irpo-fxW) 7 cee/, surpass; fut. -^o>, 

2 aor. -*<TXO?. 

Trpo-T)Yopu), I speak in behalf of {with 

Trpo-flw, I run forward; fut. -6(vao- 

TtpoQvpia., -a*, f. readiness, eagerness, 

irpoOvp-os. -OK, ready, eager, zealous, 
(irpo, forward, and Ou^os, spirit.) 

npoOvjuos, (adv.) eagerly, readily. 

Trpo-KaTa-XajA^avw, 7 s'z< before- 
hand, preoccupy; i aor. -i\aflov, 
fut. -A^o/u, perf. -t&rjtpa. 

trp6-Ktt(xai, 7 //> before, extend for- 
ward ; fut. -Ktiffo/MU. 

TTpo-KivSwtvw, 7 ncr danger before- 

npotcXTJs, -<o, m. Procles, governor 
of Teuthrania, a district of Mysia. 

irpo-XYW, 7 tell publicly, give warn- 
ing ; fut. -\tcu, for 2 aor. irpo- 

npo|vos, -ov, m. Proxenus,* Theban, 
friend of Cyrus and Xenophon, who 
induced Xenophon to join the ex- 
pedition (IV. n). 

n-po-opdo), 7 see before me; fut. 
*>>[/o[Mt, 2 aor. -fioov.<i), 7 ss/jj forward, escort, 
accompany ; fut. -ittfj^xa. 

irpo-irivw, 7 rfr'i ay owe's health ; 
fut. -iriofMi, 2 aor. -iitiov. 

npos, prep, with gen., dat., and ace. 
Root meaning to the front (from 
npo, cp. irpos-Ofr) ; hence near. 
I. with gen. i. from, from near ; 
hence ii. on the part of, by ; iii. in 
the presence of, before, as irpos Of Hav, 
before the godf, i. e. by the gods, in 
swearing. II. with dat. i. st, near; 
ii. besides, as vpos rovroi*, besides 
this, moreover, Lat. praelerea. III. 
with ace. i. to, towards, sometimes 
against ; ii. with regard to, accord- 
ing to, as wpuj ravra, therefore. Til 
wp^* it6\tfwv, what concerns war, 
irpos fliav, by force, vpus ^Sovfjv, 
for pleasure, etc. In Composition, 
i. to or towards ; ii. besides ; iii. near. 

Trpos-dyu, 7 /earf OH, lead forward; 
fut. -ofta, 2 aor. -^ya'yor. 

irpos-aiTi>. 7 as/t besides, ask more ; 
fut. -aiTTjuu. 

irpos-poivci), 7 ^o <o, approach, ad- 
vance ; fut. -BriffOfMi, 2 aor. -e&r)v. 

irpos-pdXXw, 7 attack, charge up ; fut. 
-/3oXcD, 2 aor. -(&a\ov. 

T|, -^$, f. an attack, assault. 

' ^ coff " ^o fl"> added 
to ; 2 aor. -fyfyofiijv. 

trpos-8i5u)p.i, 7 ^/t e besides, add ; fut. 
-5oi<70), I aor. -tScuica. 

Trpos-SoKau, 7 expect; fut. -So/tqcrai, 
I aor. -(60x17(70. 

irpos-i|ii., 7 ^o /o, approach, comt 
up. ((Tfu, Lat. /6o.) 

irpos-cXaww, 7 rfri've /o, ritif u/ 
), marcA ^. 



irpos-tpxnai, 1 come up, approach; 

2 aor. -fj\0ov, 
irpos-x w . I bring to, apply; (yovv 

Trpos-t'xw, I turn my mind to, 

attend to ;) imperf. -(i-)(ov, 2 aor. 

irpos-T|K6j, I extend to, reach. Impers. 

irpos-riKti, it becomes, it is fitting. 
irpdaOsv, (adv.) (l) of place, in front 

of, before. (2) of time, before, 

formerly. TO, irp6a0i>, the van of 

an army, 6 irpoffdev \povos, the 

former time. TO irpocrfcv, for- 

jrpos-iTjfH, (Act.) 7 let come to, admit, 

(Mid.) admit (to oneself), approve ; 

fut. -riffaj, I aor. -i)Ka. 
irpos-KTao(iai, 7 gain besides, gain 

for; fut. -KTjjao/iou, i aor. -fttTrj- 

irpos-Kvvco), 7 kiss the earth before 

any one, i. e. do obeisance, worship, 

salute; fut. -avvqaca, I aor. -exvvrjffa. 
trpos-XajA.p<ivw, 7 receive besides ; with 

gen. take part in, kelp ; fut. -\rji{>o- 

ftai, 2 aor. -f\a@ov. 
irpds-oSos, -ov, f. a going to, approach, 

irpos-dp.vv(u, 7 swear besides; fut. 

-Ofj.ovfjuii, I aor. -upoaa. 
irpos-iriTpovT]|Avos, perf. pass. part. 

from irpos-irfpovdu. 
irpos-irspovdu, I fasten with a skewer. 

(wtpovrj, a skewer.) 
irpo$-iro\cfjkc(i>, 7 make war against ; 

fut. -ij(r<w. 
irpos-Tplx". I run U P 'o ; fut. -Spa- 

Hovftai, 2 aor. -45pa/j.ov. 
<irpos-<t>(pb>, (Act.) 7 bring to, conduct, 

(Mid.) 7 bear myself towards, i. e. 

conduct myself. 
irpoaco, (adv.) (i) forwards, (2) with 

gen. far off. Comp. irpoaoirtpu, 


irp6cr(oirov, -ow, n.face, countenance. 
irportpaios, -a, -oj/, adj.. as )J nporf' 

pala (^6/w), /^e Joy before. 
irpoTtpo?, -a, -ov, earlier, former, 

first of two (Lat./r/or) ; irpircpov, 

ri irp6rtpov, (adv.) previously, on 

a former occasion ; comp. of jr/>o, 

superl. irpwros. 

w, 7 run forward ; fut. -8/)a- 

fJLovfMi, 2 aor. -fSpapov. 
trpo-<j>aiv(o, (Act.) 7 s^ow forth, 

(Mid.) appear, become visible. 
irpo<|>vXaJ, -O.KOS, m. o advanced 

guard, outpost. 
irpo-xwpeco, 7 ^o o, proceed favour- 


irpiifjivo, -jjs, f. /Ae s/er of a ship. 
irpupa, -a*, f. the prow or bows of a 

TrpcopciJs, -^cut, m. the man at the 

prow, who gave the signal to the 

steersman, the look-out man. 
irpwros, -77, -ot>, (superl. of irpo) first. 

ol irpSnoi, the vanguard. (Adv. 

irpwrov, TO irpSiTov, at firs.!, in the 

first place.) 
irraiw, 7 strike, dash; I aor. lir- 


, -vyos, f. a wing. 
-n,, -^s, f. a boxing match 
iru\T), -i;s, f. a gate, opening ; pass. 
irvvOdvofjuu, (i) 7 as*, (2) 7 hear (on 
enquiry), learn ; fut. irtvffofMt, perf. 
TTtnw/xat 2 aor. 

iru^, (adv.) tf//A the fist. 

nvp, irwp<$s, n. _/?. In pi. irup&, 


irvpos, -ov, m. wheat, mostly in pi. 
nvppCxt), -rjs, f. (sc. opxqais), the 

Pyrrhic dance, a military dance in 

irw, (adv.) yet. With negatives, as 

ovirca, not yet. 
rr<oXi>, 7 se//; fut. v<a\-fja<. Other 

tenses are supplied from other verbs, 

as fut. diro-Saiffo/jiai, 2 aor. dir- 

tSofjirji' ; perf. vfirpajta (from m- 

ir<iiroT, (adv.) at any time, ever, ov 

iT&iroTf, never. 
iru>s, (interrogative) howl but TTWS, 

somehow, ti was, in any way, if at 





pa'Sics, -a, -of, easy; conjp. paw, 

superl. petards. 
paSiujs, (adv.) easily; comp. f>aov, 

superl. poTora. 
ptu', / flow; fut. ptiiffopcu, 3 aor. 


ptyos, -ovs, n. cold. 
piuTOj, 7 throw, fling, cast, throw off; 

fut. p/i/'W, I aor. tppt^a. 
>is, pipe's, f. <Ae nose. 
T68ios, -a, -ov, Rhodian, or inhabi- 

tant of Rhodes, an island in the 

Levant, off the S. W. coast of Asia 

Minor. The Rhodians were famed 

as slingers. 
pv8(ios, -ov, m.measure,(m\as\c<L\)time. 

o-aXiriY KTl 1 s ' -ov, m. a trumpeter. 

^, -ifyos, f. a trumpet. 
s, -tow, pi. f. Sardis, capital of 

Lydia ; the starting-point of the 

expedition (I. 46). 
0-a.TpaiTTjs, -ov, m. satrap, viceroy, 

governor of a province of the 

Persian Empire. 

O-OVTOV, contracted from atavrov. 
cra4>T|s, -, clear, manifest. (Adv. 

aaijxis, clearly.) 
acavro'v, (reflexive pronoun) thyself, 

yourself; gen. aeavrov (oavrov), 

your own. 
Ztv0T)S, -ov, m. Seuthes, a Thracian 

prince. His father had been driven 

out of his territory on the Propontis, 

and Seuthes recovered this with the 

help of Xenophon's army. 
onrju-cuvw, 7 signify, give a sign, give 

the signal (in battle) ; fut. arjfiavw, 

I aor. iffrinTjva. 
OTj^ciov, -ov. n. a sign, signal. 
o-T]crap.ov, -ov, n. sesame, a short plant 

with a single flower, from the seeds 

of which oil cake was made. 
criy aw, 7 am silent; fut. 

aor. iffiyr/aa. 

crr-yT), -rjs, f. silence; dat. <nYD> in 

silence, silently. 

SiXavo;, -oD, m. Silanus, (i) an Am- 
bracian prophet (VI. 180), (2) a 
native of Macistus, a town of Elis 
on the Peloponnesus (VIII. 291). 

crivofxai, 7 injure, harass. 

vs, -teas, m. a Sinopian ; pi. 01 

SIVUTTTJ, -T;S, f. Sinope, a Greek colony 
in Paphlagonia on a peninsula run- 
ning out into the Black Sea. It 
is the finest anchorage for ships 
on the north coast of Asia Minor ; 
a Turkish fleet was destroyed there 
by the Russians just before the 
breaking out of the Crimean War, 
in 1853. 

5iTa\Kas, -ov, m. Sitalcas, king of the 
Odrysae in Thrace. 

6 2iTa\Kas, the Sitalcas-song, or song 
in honour of one of the kings of 
that name. 

O-ITVTOS, -i\, -6v, fed up, fatted. 
(Verb. adj. of ffirtva), from airos, 

eriTiov, -ov, n. food, provisions. (oTro*, 

2iTTo.KY], -r;s, f. Siltace, a town in 
Babylonia on the Tigris. 

oicoirdo), 7 am silent, keep silence; 
fut. -i'iffo/j.ii. (cncoTTT), silence.) - 

crKtXos, -ovf , n. the leg. 

[<TKlirTO|iai], see oxoircw. 

afa, f prepare, equip, dress ; fut. 
-daw, perf. pass, 

<rKirfj, -J?s, f. dress. 

o-Ktvos, -ovs, n. a vessel; pi. 

baggage. (Lat. impedimenta.) 
(TKCvo-^opcw, 7 carry baggage. 

(oitfvos, and fyfpu, I carry.) 
<rKcuo-<{>6pof, -ov, carrying baggage. 

TO, ffKtvo<f>opa (sc. KT^VIJ), the beasts 

of burden in the train of an army, 

baggage train. 
<7Ki|/aa9ai,, see CTKOTT'U>. 
(TKT|vd(i> and CTKTJVC'O), 7 live in tents, 

I am quartered, fut. -fou. 



(TKTjvT), -i}s, f. a tent. 

O-KTJTTTOS, -ov, m. a thunderbolt. 

o-icr)iTTOvx o s, -ov, ni. the sceptre- 
bearer (an attendant on the king). 

o-K\T)p6s, -d, -6v, dry, hard. 

CTKOirtto, I keep a look out for, watch, 
observe,, reconnoitre ; imperf. fffKo- 
TTOW, (Mid.) consider, with tenses 
from fftceirTOfjuu, fut. 
aor. i<TK\l/dnr)v, perf. pass. 


O-KOITOS, -ov, m. a spy, scout. 

O-KOTOS, -ovs, n. darkness. 

<r\i.f(vos, -ovs, n. a swarm of bees. 

iiiiKpT)?, -rjros, m. Smicres, an Arca- 
dian general (VII. 68). 

tros, ffi7, crov. (poss. adj.) thy, thine. 

crcxJHd, -as, t. wisdom. (<ro(p6s.) 

cro<j>6s, -T], -ov, wise, clever. 

<Tirdvios, -a, -of, scarce, rare. 

SirdpTt], -rj$, f. Sparta, or Lacedae- 
mon, capital of Laconia. 

SirapTidTTjs, a Spartan, i. e. one of 
the Dorian immigrants. They 
looked down upon the Perioeci, or 
natives, as the Normans did upon 
the Saxons in England. 

<nrdci>, 7 draw, drag, pull; fut. 
arraffca, I aor. tairacra. 

crimpw, 7 scatter, sow seed; fut. 
aitfpGi, i aor. eairtipa, perf. ta- 

o"irci(ro|iai, fut. mid. of airivSta. 

trirv8o>, 7 pour a libation; (Mid.) 
lit. ' pour libations one with another,' 
i. e. make a truce ; fut. ffvdffof/uu, 
i aor. effir(iaa,pr)v. 

o-n-fviSa), 7 urge on, make haste; fut. 

<rTrov8T|, -^s, f. (sing.) a libation, (pi.) 
a treaty, (ffirfvocu.) 

o-trovSdJto, 7 make Jiaste, am busy, 
am in earnest; fut. avovSaaca. 

airovS'fj, -^s, f. haste. 

o-rdStov, -ov, n. a stade, a furlong, 
rather more than of an English 
mile. In counting roughly every 
IO stades may be taken as an 
English mile. 

oraOfioS, -ov, m. a station, halting- 
place, (hence) a day's march. 
orrairjv, 2 aor. opt. ofiffrrjfu. 
crrds, 2 aor. part, of 'iarrjfu. 
crratnafw, 7 rebel, revolt, raise a 

faction, (ffrdais, faction.) 
crravpcau.^ -aros, n. a palisade. 
o-Teyifj, -^s, f. a roof, tls trreyas, lit. 

into roofs,' i.e. under cover. 
o-TtXAu, 7 send, equip, (Mid.) 7 

march ; fut. are\Si, I aor. tartiXa, 

2 aor. pass. taraXrjv. 
(TTtvos, -17, -6v, narrow; comp. 

-orfpos, super!, -uraroi (from old 

form ffTHv6i), 

(TTevo-xupia, -as, f. a narrow pas- 
<rreptu>, 7 deprive ; (Pass.) artptofMi 

or artpofiai, I am deprived of; fut. 

ffT(frf)aa), perf. pass, (ffrfpr/nat. 
(TTCpvov, -ov, n. the breast. 
(TT<j>avos, -ov, m. a wreath, crown, 


orfjvai, 2 aor. inf. ofiffrijfu. 
o-rtpos, -ov, m. a track, lit. ' trodden 

path,' (from areifiaj, I tread.) 
crTiJw, 7 prick; perf. pass. {oTfy/iOf, 

part. (ffTiyufvos, tattooed. 
O-T!<|)OS, -ous, n. a close body of men. 
OToXrj, -rjs, f. a robe, dress. 
OTO\OS, -ov, (i) a march, (2) array, 

0-Top.a, -arot, n. mouth, opening; 

hence front of an army. 
(TTparcta, -at, f. tin expedition. 

(arparos, army.) 

crTpu.TV)Aa, -arcs, n. an army, com- 
pany, division. 
<rTpa,Tva>, (Act.) 7 march, (Mid.) 

7 serve as a soldier, fut. -tvffca. 
orrpaTTjY^s, -ov, m. a general. 

(ffTparos, army, and jjyfoiMi, 1 


crrpaTid, -as, f. an army. 
o~TpaTi<I)TT]s, -ov, m. a soldier. * 
<rrpa,Toir8iJw, 7 encamp; fut. -evaca. 

(arparoirfooi', a camp.) 
irrpaToireSov, -ov, n. a camp, (ar partis, 

an army, and -nitiov, a plain.) 



CTTparos, -ov, m. an army. 
CTTpfirTos, -ov, m. a chain, necklace. 

Properly verb. adj. of arpi<p<, 1 

CTTp4>u, 7 turn, tu>iit, (Mid.) wheel 

about; fut. arptycu, I aor. tarpafa, 

pf. pass. (GTpaftfMai, 2 aor. pass. 

o~rpov06s, -oC, m. and f. a sparrow, 

but |xryas arpovOos, a>J ostrich. 
(TTvyvos. -17, -ov, disagreeable, gloomy. 

(aTVffa}, 7 hale.) 
o-rw, 2 aor. subj. of Iffrrjfu. 
(ru, pers. pron. /Aow. 
criry-YvT|q, -t, related, a kinsman. 

(ovv, with, and yi~(vofwi, 7 aw bom.) 
<rvy-yiyvo\ia\., ^ awl f'fA, Aav<? inter- 

course with, associate with, fut. 

, 1 aor. -tftvvnijv. 
, 7 ca// together ; fut. -a- 

\iaa>, i aor. {rvr-cx&Ucra. 
crwy-Kajiirrw, 7 6iJ together, bend up; 

fut. -Ka^oi, I aor. ffuv-ficafuffa. 
tnry-icXcio, 7 sAw/ c/ose ; fut. -Xf (Vw. 
<nry-Kpd<i>, 7 cry aloud; 2 aor. ow- 

, 7 6i<f together, bend in- 
wards ; fut. -Kv\l>a>, I aor. ov*'- 


(ruY'X w P* u ^ >iW, (lit. ' come to- 
gether to terms,') agree ; fut. -yaw, 
I aor. aw-t\upriaa. 

cruicov, -ou, n. a_/f^". 

crvX-Xap.p<ivu), 7 seize, lay hold of, 
arrest; fut. -X^o/wu, 3 aor. <rw- 

cruX-XY<<>, 7 collect, gather, assemble ; 
fut. -\({a>. I aor. avv-t\fa, pf. 

ru\ Xoyos. -ow, m. a assembly, meet- 

crvu,-po\Xci>, (Act.) 7 throw together; 
(Mid.) 7 ar upon. av/j.-ttd\\o- 
/zai Ao^ott, 7 converse, talk ; 2 aor. 

(ruji-poT|6u), I join in aiding, come to 

the rescue ; fut. -f)ff<a. 
crv}jL-f3ouXrvw t (Act.) 7 give advice, 

advise, counsel ; (Mid.) get advice, 

consult; fut. -fvaa>, I aor. arvy* 

-ov, m. a counsellor, 


CTvu.-u,dxia, -as, f. alliance., 7 yfg'A/ along with, 

help as an ally ; imperf. a 

ovu.-p.axos, -ov, m. an ally. 

CTVU.-U.IYVWU* (trans.) 7 mix together, 
(intrans.) (i) unite with, (2) join in 
battle; I aor. aw-ffua, infin. avp- 

>, 7 send along with ; fut 

CTVu.-mvo>, 7 Jr/wi with ; fut. -in'o/uu, 
2 aor. flw-ts'iov. 

CTVu,-Tro8i{&>, 7 entangle, hamper, lit. 
' tie the feet together," i aor. <rw- 

<, 7 march together, 
accompany on a march ; fut. -woptv- 

crvjj.-4>pco, 7 bring together, collect. 
Impers. avu.-4>fpci, it is profitable, 
or advantageous. 

CTVp.-<|>opd, -a*, f. lit 'a bringing 
together,' hence an event, e$p. a 

orvv, prep, with dat. only ; the same 
word as Lat. cum [(o")vv, vv, aw], 
I. together with, with, as ol avv 
/3affiAef, those with the king, i. e. 
his attendants. So of things, avv 
Tofs ov\ois, furnished with their 
arms, i. e. in arms. II. with the 
help of, as o\n> rois 6(oT*. In Com- 
position, with, together. 

<rw-o.yta, 7 bring together, gather, 
assemble ; fut. -afa>, 2 aor. -^7070^. 

aw-aOpoifoi, 7 collect, or assemble to- 
gether ; fut.. -aOpoiaot, I aor. 

CTW-aKoXovO<<o, I follow along with, 
follow as a volunteer. 

OTW-OKOVU, 7 hear, hear one another. 

/ t (with 

o-uv-avrdw, I fall in with, 
dat); fut. 



jruv-air- iju, 7 go away with, imperf. 


oicb), I join in pursuit ', fut. 

aw-6ijo, (Act.) 7 accustom, (Pass.) 
become used to, I aor. opt. avv- 

i, perf. pass, of av\-\.('y(a. 
o-Dv-is-tpx|A<ii, 7 witer wiVA; a 

aor. -fjKOov. 
<rwv-is-iriirr<o, 7 rwsA together into ; 

fut. -vtaovfMt, 2 aor. -tirtaov. 
o~uv-cKa|Av|/a, I aor. act. of avy- 

o-vv-K-pipd{w, 7 //> wi bringing out, 

lit. 'join in making come out.' 
onv-tKpaYOv, 2 aor. of ovy-xpafa. 
<rw cXf'-yjv, a aor. pass, of <rvX- 


<rvv-\Y ov . imperf. act. of <rvX-Xyw. 
<rw-'Xta, I aor. act. of <rvA.-A.7<u 
crvv-fiia. I aor. act. of avu-^ifW^t. 
<rw-iraivt, 7 consent, agree to ; fut. 

-ftraivfau, I aor. -tirr/vtaa. 
o-uv-tin, O"n-v8w. 7 M/ to force on- 

wards; I aor. -lairtvoa. 
orvv-Tr66icra, i aor. act. of av/<- 

<r\)v-iro|xov, 7 follow along with 

(with dat.) ; fut. -tyopat. 
<rw-ir-o(A,vv|Ai, 7 swear besides. 
ow-tppvqMiv, pluperf. ind. of trvp- 

<ruv-fpx<>nai-, 7 comi together, meet ; 

a aor. -rjkOov. 
(rw-Yi8o(iai, 7 rejoice with one, con- 

aOr-0T]n.a, -aroi, n. an agreement; a 

aw-(on)p.i, (trans.) 7 p/<jw with, in- 

troduce; fut. av-OTT)ffai, i aor. <7i;v- 

fVrjjffa, (intrans.) stand together, 

make a stand, 3 aor. -iart\v t perf. 

aw-o|AoXoy&>, 7 a^rM /o (with ace. 

of thing), 7 aT#< with (with dat. 

of person) ; imperf. -wno\6yow. 
ow-TaTTw, 7 draw up in battle array ; 

fut. -Taa>, i aor. aw-irafa. 

<rw-Ti0T)(u, (Act.) 7 ^/ together, 
(Mid.) make an agreement; fut. 

<rw-Tpx, 7 n/ together; 3 aor. 

ow-Tpipft*, 7 crt/sA ; fut. -rpfyv. 

2vpia. -as, f. iSyr/'a, on the Levant, or 
east end of the Mediterranean. In 
Xenophon's time it included the 
country east of the Euphrates, which 
was not called Mesopotamia till 
after the conquests of Alexander. 

crv-ppcb), 7 flfiw or flock together ; 

fut. -ffVffUIMH, pf. ffVV-tppVTjKa, 3 

aor. pass, aw-tppvijv. 
crv-crK6vdi{a>, 7 pack up baggage ; fut. 

-aav, perf. pass. aw-faKtvaafiai. 
crv-crttTjvos, -ov, dwelling in the same 

tent, a tea -mate, (aitrjvy, a tent.) 
av-crirov8dju>, 7 vnitt in zeal with, 

(lit. 'make haste together with,') 

share in one's zeal. 
<ru-o~rpaTcvo(iai, 7 serve in the army 

with, join in an expedition ; fut. 

av-<rrpoTOTTf8c\)ojwLi. 7 encamp along 

with, imperf. ovv-taTpaToitfotv6pr)v, 
i, 7 sacrifice; fut. ff<j>a- 

, -ov, n. a victim, (ptpa^ea, 

7 slay.) 
cr4><i{a), and CT^ITTW, I sacrifice; fjut. 

a$a(<u, pf pass, iafya-fium, i aor. 

pass. ka<pa-)(6riv. 

<r4>cvSovd<i>. 7 .s/j'ng 1 ; fut -rjao). 
cr<|)iv86vn, -;$, f. a sling, also a stone 

from a sling. 

o-4>v8ovT]TY|S, -ov, m. a slinger. 
a4>68pa, (adv.) very, exceedingly, 
ffX86v, (adv.) almost, nearly. 
<rxf iv, a aor. infin. of ?x w - 
o'X'n '**' fwt- act - f tX**- 

jw, 7 cleave ; fut. ffx^ "' P^- P 3SI - 

leisure; fut. 

, (adv.) leisurely, slowly. 
rjt, f. leisure; (dat. 
a/ leisure, leisurely, or slowly.) 

<rxo\i((i>, 7 



crx<I>, ^x^v, 3 aor. subj. and part, of 


aw<o, 7 .<<7W, */> safe, preserve, 
(Pass.) I return safely; fut. aojaoi, \ 
aor. tauaa, perf. pass, atacaa^iai, I 
aor. pass, iaaj&rjv : au/fiv fit, to 
bring safely to a place. 

2dJKpciTT)s. -OKI, ni. Socrates, the 
philosopher, who taught Xenophou 
and Plato: he lived through all the 
flourishing time of Athens, from 
B.C. 469 to 399, when he was un- 
justly condemned to drink hemlock. 

(rwp.a, -arot, n. a body. 

tru/os. (contr. aon, cuiv), safe, *n~ 

<ra>TT|p, ripo*, m. a saviour, preserver. 
(oaifa, I <ave.) 

owrqpia, -a, f. safety, preservation. 

2<oTt)pi&()S, -ov, m. Sotf rides, a native 
of Sicyon, near Corinth. 

<ru>4>pov'u). I am of sound mind, am 
wist ; behave well, am obedient. 


ToXavrov, -ov, n. lit. a balance,' 
hence a talent of gold, about 
^50. A talent contained sixty 
minae (4) ; each mina contained 
100 drachmae. 

TO|. -), f. order, battle array, al 
rdfnt. tht ranks. (Tarro). 1 ar- 

Taoxoi, -w, m. tht Tnochi, a hill- 
iribe to the north of Armenia, 
now Georgia. 

Tapdrrw, I throw into disorder, dis- 
turb; fut. rapdfu, perf. past. Trd- 

v, m. confusion, disorder. 
Tap<ro(, nDv, Tarsi, or Tarsus, the 
capital of Cilicia, on a rich plain 
by the river Cydnui (1. 93). Here 
ShalmantK-r, King of Assyria, it 
said to have established himself, after 
his conquests in Atia Minor. Tarsus 
is best known as the birthplace of 
St. Paul, who claimed the freedom 

granted to the city by Augustus. 
It was an important seat of 
philosophy and learning from the 
second century B.C. downwards. 
TOITTW, 7 arrange, draw up in line, 
order; fut. TOCU, I aor. trafa, 
perf. pass. rtraffMi, I aor. pass. 

ravra, n. pi. of OVTO, these things. 
Tavrro, for ra aura, the same things. 
Taurov (instead of Tauri) = To awT<5, 

the same. 
Ta4>os, -ov, m. a tomb, (dairrai, 7 

Ta'4>pos, -ov, f. a ditch, trench. 

Tax<w*i (adv.) quickly, soon ; comp. 

Odaaov. super), rdxiffra. 
Taxi's, -ra, -v, quick, swift; comp. 

6daaon>, si:p. raxKffot. 
ra\v, quickly, (dit rd\iara as quickly 

as possible ; inti rd\iara, as soon 


T. and. (r< . . xai, both . . and.) 
TC 0appT]Ka, perf. act. of ffappiu. 
Tf'OvrjKa, perf. act. of Orr/aicoa. 
T(dpap.(iai, perf. pass, of Tpi<po}. 
Ttivj, 7 stretch, extend; fut. rtvu>, 

perf. rtrajta, perf. pass. TTd/xoi 
THxiJw, 7 build a wall, fortify. 

TIXOS, -ov, n. a wall, fortress. 
TXvraio$, -a, -ov, last. (rc'Aai, an 

TXvraw, 7 end, finish, (sc. Qiov, I 

dit) ; lit. ' end my life. 1 
Tc'Xos, -out, n. an tnd. (rAo*. accus., 

at last.) 
T<(XVO>, 7 cut ; fut. "rtftSi, perf. r< 

Tftrjita, a aor. jrapov. 
T'Tayjiai, perf. pass, of rdrrca. 
Tra|xat, ptrf. pass, of TiVw. 
rirapTOs, "?. -ov, fourth. 
TTpais-xiXioi, -ai, -a, four-thou- 


TTpaKoo-ioi, -at. -a, four-hundred. 
TTpk}icu. perf. pass of nrpw 
TtrrapQicovTa, forty. 



T ^X VT 1> ''? 

^ ar ' contrivance. 

(adv.) artfully, skilfully. 


TTjKO), 7 wze// ; I aor. TT;<Z, perf. 
(intrans.) TtrrjKa, I am melted. 

T-rj\p6as, -ov, m. the Teleboas, a river 
of Armenia (V. 88). 

TT||i.pov, (adv.) to-day. 

Ti.papT)voC, -lav. m. Me Tibareni, a 
people in Pontus, west of the 

TiYpujS, -rjros, m. the Tigres or Tigris, 
one of the great rivers of Assyria, 
east of the Euphrates. Within the 
last 700 years it has changed its 
course near its mouth, and joined 
the Euphrates. 

Ti0T)(Ai, 7 put, set, place; fut. 0r]ffca, 
perf. TtOfiKa, I aor. tOrjKa, plur. 
from 2 aor. tOfptv, etc. (ridiaOai 
TO. oir\a, to ground arms, i. e. halt, 
or .take up a position.) 

Tijiaaiajv, -owos, m. Timasion, a 
native of Dardanus, and an officer 
in the Greek army (VI. 159). 

Tip.5.0), I honour, esteem, value; fut. 
Tiixrjaoj. (7"i/7, honour?) 

TijjiT|, -TJS, f. honour, price, estimation. 

Ti|xu>s, -a, -ov, valuable. (TI,UT], 

Ti[.iwpo, (Act.) 7 avenge, with dat. 
of person; (Mid.) 7 avenge myself 
on, punish, with ace., fut. -TJOYW. 

Tiptpajos, -on, m. Tiribazus, a satrap 
of Western Armenia (V. 89). 

TIS, TI, gen. TIVOS, (indef. pron.) 
one, a certain one, some, (et TIS, if 
anyone ; voios TIS ; what sort of 
person f TI, at all : lit. ' in any- 

TIS, TI, (interrog. pron.) who? what? 
(TI, why f lit. for what ' ?) 

Tio-<ra4>pvt]s, -ovs, m. Tissaphernes, 
the wiliest of the Persians. He 
was at first satrap of Lydia, Ionia, 
and Caria, but had to give over 
the Ionian towns to Cyrus ; hence 
he was a bitter enemy of Cyrus 
and his army. The king gave 


him his daughter in marriage as 
a reward for his services, but he 
was eventually executed through 
the influence of Parysatis, the queen- 
mother, in revenge for the death of 
Cyrus, her favourite son (B.C. 395.) 

TiTpwaKw, 7 wound ; fut. rpwcrca, 
perf. pass. T(, i aor. pass. 

TOI, in truth, verily, assuredly. 

TOIVW, therefore, then. 

Totoo-8, rotaSf, T0i6v8f, of such kind, 


(strengthened form of TOIOS, and not 

compounded with OVTOS). 
To\, 7 dare venture, have the 

courage ; fut. -TJCTW, perf. TtTohprjKa. 

(r6\(iT], daring.) 
Toevp.a, an arrow, lit. ' that which is 

shot from a bow.' (TO(VOJ.) 
TOIJ, 7 shoot with a bow. (TOOV, 

a bow.) 
To6rr)S, -ov, m. a bowman, archer. 

(roov, a bow.) 
TOTTOS, -ov, m. a place, spot, locality. 


great, of such a size. rocrovrai, 

with comparative, by so much ; 

(lengthened form of T<5<ros, not 

compounded with OVTOS). 
TOT, (adv.) then, at that time, (rare 

fifv . . ror\ St, at one time . . at 


rpdirtja, -77$, f. a table. 
TpaTreJovs, -owros, m. and f. 

Trapezus, a town in Pontus, on the 

Euxine, now Trebisond. 
, -ov, m. the neck. 
-fia, -v, rough, rugged; 


Tpfis, rpta, three. (Lat. (res.) 
Tpeiro), 7 turn, put to flight, rout; fut. 

rptifxu, I aor. erpttf/a, perf. pass. 

Tfrpanfiai, I aor. pass. (TptfjtGyv, 

2 aor. pass. fTpcnrrjv. 
Tp<j>(o, 7 nourish, rear, support; fut. 

Opiiptu, perf. pass. T(8pa/J.(, i aor 

pass. trpcupTjv. 



Tp<x u t I riln fut- fipaftovnai, 2 aor. 
Zopafiov, perf. otopafirjica. 

rpiciKovTa. thirty. 

TpiaKocrioi, -ai, -a, three-hundred. 

TpiT|ptjs, -otiy, f. (sc. vaCs) a trireme ; 
lit. a ship with three banks of oars. 

TpitjpiTTjs, -ov, m. a trireme-man, 

rpiirXacrios, -a, -ov, thrice as much. 

rpiirovs, -irow, (gen. -iroSos) having 
three feet, a three-legged table (sc. 

TpU, (adv.) three times, thrice. 

Tpis-dap-tvos = rpls aapevos, very 
glad ; lit. ' thrice-pleased.' 

Tpis-x^ l l > - a 'i "flj three-thousand. 

Tp(ros, -T), -ov, third. (TO rpirov, 
for the third time.) 

TpiX"i] (adv.) in three divisions, three- 

rpi-xotvlKOS, -ovt containing three 
choenices, or quarts. A quart of 
flour, or quartern loaf, was a man's 
daily allowance. 

rpiiravov, -ot, n. a trophy. 

Tpoirf), -?}, f. a rout, defeat ; lit. ' a 
turning to flight.' (See Tpeirw.) 

rpoiros, -ov, m. means, manner; dis- 
position, character. (j6vSf rov 
rp6vov, in this way.) 

Tpo<f>T|, -4]*, f. nourishment, food, 
support. (rpi<pca, I nourish.) 

Tp<pds, -doos, f. Troas, or the Troad, 
the district round Troy in Mysia. 

rvyxivw, f hit, get, obtain (with 
gen.) ; fut. rtvfofuu, perf. T(TV- 
X l l lta t 3 a r- tTv\ov ; (with part.) 
7 happen, am at the time (doing), as 
Tvyx&voi wv, I happen to be. 

Tvpuuov, -ov, n. Tyriaeum, a town 
in Phrygia (I. 66). 

Tvp<5s, -ov, m. cheese. 

ripen.?, -ton, f. a tower. (Lat. turns.) 

Tvyp\, -i)t, f.fortunt chance. 


dppi^b), 7 act insolently, or brutally; 
I aor. vfipiffa, perf. pass, v 
(\>Pptt, insolence.) 

s, -17, -6v, brutal, insolent, 

vicious, (vfipts, insolence.) 
v>YpoTT]S, -TJJTOS, f. suppleness. (vyp6s, 

moist, hence supple.) 
vi8po-4>opeoj, 7 carry water. 
vtipo-4>6pos, -ov, m. and f. a water- 
carrier, (vooip, water, <f>tpa>, 1 


vScop, vSuros, n. water. 
mos, -ov, m. a sort. 
vX-rj, -rjs, (. a wood, forest. (Lat. 

vjitrtpos, -a, ov, yowr, yours, (poss. 

adj. from u^fTs.) 
VIT-AY W > -^ ^ ea ^ n slowly ; fut. -o^cw, 

2 aor. -1770701', perf. pass, -rj-fftai. 
vrr-ai0pios, -OK, and -a, -ov, in 

the open air. (VITU, beneath, alOrjp, 


vir-avTiAJw, 7 come, or o /o meet. 
vir-apxos, -ov, m. one commanding 

under another ; i. e. a lieutenant 

vir-dpxco, (i) 7 am at the beginning, 

am to start with. (2) with dat. 

7 am on the side of. (TO iiir* 

apxovra, one's means.) 
vir-ao-irt<rrr|s, -oC, m. a shield-bearer. 

(vir6, and derm's, lit. ' under a 

VJTP, prep., with gen. and ace. (root 

meaning over, Lat. super). I. with 

gen. i. over, above, beyond; ii. 

in behalf of, for, in the name of. 

II. with ace. i. of motion, over, or 

beyond; ii. of numbers, beyond, 

more than. In Composition, over, 


vco, 7 cross over; fut. -/Sijcro- 
i, i aor. -iftijv. 

, (intrans.) 7 or pass 

over ; fut. -/SoXcD, 2 aor. -i&aAov. 
virtp-po\ i f|, -, f. a crossing, pass. 

(vvip, /SoAAo;.) 
v>irtp-T||AWVS, >, fl&ow Afl//", mori 

than half. 
vircp-ii4'T]Xos, -ov, exceeding high. 

(See virp in Composition.) 
tnr-<rx6(jitjv, 2 aor. 



vnr-ex (l) . 1 undergo, submit to ; fut. v<p- 
tca, or viro-axn ffea ' 2 aor - vir-taxov. 

vnr-i^KOos, -ov, obedient, subject; lit. 
' giving ear to ' (from viro, and 

{iir-T)peTw, 7 assist (with dat.). (yirrj- 
ptrrjs, an assistant ; lit. ' an uuder- 
rower," from (pirrjs, a rower.) 

urr-io~xveo(xai, I promise, undertake; 
fut. v-no-ax^aofMi, perf. vir-iaxn- 
H<u, 2 aor. vir-tax<>itriv. 

VPWVOS, -ov, m. sfcep. 

viro, prep, with gen., dat., and ace. 
(same word as Lat. sub). I. with 
gen. i. under, hence ii. by, of the 
agent after passive verbs; so of 
things, by reason of, from, as viro 
<p6/3ov, from fear. II. with dat., 
under, hence subject to, as IITTO 
#ao"Af. III. with ace. i. of motion, 
under, close to ; ii. of time, 
towards, as viro vvKra, towards 
night, at nightfall. (Lat. subnoctem.) 
In Composition, under, also secretly, 

vnro-8xo|iav, I receive, welcome ; fut. 

\>Tro-8o, 7 bind or tie under. (viro- 
86e/Vo(, ti<A /Ar sAoes o, lit. 
' having their [shoes] bound under 
[their feet].') 

tnro-Srjjjia, -arcs, n. a sandal, lit. 
' something bound under [the feet].' 

urro-fvY lov i -ov, n. lit. 'under the 
yoke,' i.e. a beast of bur den, bag gage- 

xiTTO-Xtitra), (Act.) 7 leave behind, 
(Mid.) llagbehind; 2 aor. vir-i\nroi'. 

uiro-Xvti), 7 loosen, unfasten ; fut. 

viro-v.fvt, 7 stay behind; fut. -/va>. 

viir-owTfuo), 7 suspect, Lat. suspicio. 
(vvo, and o^is, sight.) 

v7ro-crTp<j)co, 7 <wr 6ac^, return; 
fut. -arptyca, 2 aor. pass, inr- 

viir-oij/io, -et, f. suspicion. (i/ir6, and 
o^is, sight.) 

-a, -of, ^ rfay a//er. rp 

vffTfpaia, sc. i7/ip?> " '^ e w ^-* 

cfcry. (i/oTfpos.) 

varepos, -a, -or, /a/er, after, behind. 
va-rtpov, (adv.) afterwards. 
v4>-i(ju|v, imperf. mid. of v<p-irjni. 
vcj>-tT)(xi, (Act.) 7 send or put under, 

(Mid.) 7 grant, yield, submit; fut. 

iKp-riffa), perf. pass. -]utu. 
t<j)-i(rTrjfti, (trans.) 7 place under 

(intrans.) 2 aor. vtrfiTTTjv and pass 

7 undertake, withstand, face thi 

enemy, stand my ground. 
vv|;Tj\6s, -77, -w, high, lofty. 
vxj/os, -oi/$, n. height. 


j>aYiv, 2 aor. with pres. taOiu. 
4>aiv<i), (Act.) I show; (Mid.) 7 a/>- 

pear ; fut. <pavS>, I aor. l^ra^perf. 

pass, irttpaff^at, 2 aor. pass. t<pdvrjv. 

(fxuvfrai tlvai, he seems to be; but 

0euVT<u wi', Ae clearly is. 
$a.\a.y, -ayyot, f. a phalanx, line of 

battle, (as opp. to column). 
aXtvos, -ov, m. Phalinus, a Greek 

from Zacynthus, now Zante, one of 

the Ionian islands. 
4>avcpos, -&, -ov, manifest, visible, 

clear. (<paivca.) 

4>avfp<x>s, (adv.) clearly, evidently. 
((xxpfjuucov, -ov, n. medicine, drug, 

hence poison. 
fapvapafos, -ov, m. Pharnabazus, 

satrap of Phrygia and Bithynia 

(VIII. I). 
*a<riavoi, -5iv, pi. m. the Phasiani. 

(i) an Armenian tribe dwelling on 

the Araxes, which Xenophon calls 

the Phasis (V. 178). (2) a tribe 

dwelling on the Colchian Phasis 

(VI. 211). 

4>aai, 3 pi. pres. ind. of <pr]fd. 
4>ao-is, -180$, m. the Phasis. (i) a 

river in Armenia, flowing into the 

Caspian Sea, properly called the 

Araxes (V. 176). (2) a river in 

Colchis, flowing westwards into the 

Euxine (VI. 210). 


JxicrKa), I say, assert, only used in 
part. <t>aa/c(av and imperf. e<paaKov : 
see </"7/. 

t>cp<i>, 7 6rar, bring, carry; lead {of a 
road) ; fut. ofooa, perf. evf)vo\a, 
peif. pass, fvrjvtyftat, 1 aor. Tjvtytca, 
2 aor. (in I pers. 'ing.) fivtfKov. 
(\a\crrws tpfpca, I take it ill, am 

4>ev>Y<o, / flee ; am banished, hence 
& (ptvyoiv, an exile; fut. <f>tvonai, 
perf. irf<p(vya, 2 aor. etpvyov. 

4>7]|ii, / say ; fut. (prjffca, 2 aor. ecprjv 
and tr^w, perf. ttprjica, perf. pass. 
ttprjIMi, I aor. pass. (pprjOrjv. The 
part, is often <paffKcuv, and the 
imperf. t<paat(ov. See (paaica). (ov 
<pr)/j.i, I say no, i.e. 7 Jewy, re- 

4>0ava>, 7 "/ before, anticipate, over- 
take ; fut. (pQrjoofjuii, I aor. ((pQaaa. 

4>0YYI JI(U > I utter a word, shout, cry, 
sound (of a trumpet) ; fut. tpOtyfo-, I aor. ((pOtyfafirjv. 

4>9ovfw, 7 e/ti/y, grudge, (with dat.), 
fut. -77(70;. 

<j>io.\T], -?;s, f. a cup, goblet, (hence 

(juXcco, 7 /ove ; fut. <pi\rioca. (<p&ot, 

cfiiXia, -a, f. friendship. (^)j'Aos, 

4>i\iKos, -17, -6v, friendly. 

4>iXiKuis, (adv.) on friendly tern*. 

4>iXios, -a, -ov, friendly. 

fciXoftvos, -on, m. Philoxenus, a brave 
Greek from Pellene in Achaia. 

(}>iXo TroXejxos, -oi', /oJ q/" war. 
(<f>i\os, and 7roXt/<o, M/nr.) 

4>iAos, -77, -ov, dear, beloved, hence 
4>iXos, -ov, m. a friend. 

4>iXo-cTTpaTiwTT)s, -ov, m. a soldiers' 
friend. (<pi\os, and ffrpanwrrjt, a 

$Xia<rios, -a, -ov, Phliasian, or 
inhabitant of Phlius, a town in 

4>oppos, -a, -ov, fearful, dreadful. 

<t>opw, (Act.) I frighten; (Mid.) 7 
/ear; fut. <po@qff<u. 

4>6pos, -ov, m. fear, alarm, fright. 

c froiviKT], -171, f. Phoenicia, the coast of 
Syria from the river Orontes on the 
north to Mount Carmel in the south. 
Its two chief towns were Tyre and 
Sidon, (lit. ' the palm-country,' from 
(/>otVjf , a palm-tree.) 

4>oiviKios, -a, -ov, red, purple. (<{>oivt, 

<|>oivi|, -IKOS, m. the palm-tree, (also 

$ow., -IKOS, a Phoenician (I. 66). 

4>pda>, 7 say, tell; fut. <f>paaca, perf. 

<(>pap, -arcs, n. a well. 

cj>povt|xojs, (adv.) prudently, sensibly, 
(adv. of 4>povi.|Jios, prudent). 

4>povpos, -ov, m. a guard. 

fypvy&vov, -ov, n. a faggot, in pi. 

^pvyia, -as, f. Phrygia, originally the 
whole interior of the western half 
of Asia Minor, but extending on 
the North-west to the Hellespont 
and Propontis. In Xenophon's time 
this latter district was known as 
Phrygia Minor, or Phrygia on the 
Hellespont, while the interior pro- 
vince was called Phrygia Major, 
or simply Phrygia. 

4>VYas, -35os, m. an exile, (c^tvyca, 

4>uyf|' -T}, (.flight, banishment. 

4>viX&KY|, -77*, f. watch, guard. (ipv\a- 
K&S <pv\a,TT(tv, to keep watch.) 

<|>jXa|, -OKOS, m. a guard, sentinel. 

(J>V\ATTW, fut. 0vAd:ai, perf. pass. 
irt<p'v\aytMi, (Act.) I guard; (Mid.) 
7 am on my guard, am ware of. 

4>VT<i&>, 7 blow up, inflate; fut. 
(pvff-qow, I aor. pass. i<pvarj0i)v. 

<J>vw, 7 produce, beget; fut. <pvaw, 
(intrans.) pf. irtyvica, ^ aor. i<pw, 
I am born, am by nature. 

4>covn, -171, f. a voice, speech. 

(jiws, 9cuTot, n. (contr. from <pnot), 




co, 7 rejoice, am glad; fut. \ai- 
, perf. x f 'P 7 ? /fa ' 2 aor - pass. 

XaXeiraivco, 7 am angry, am provoked, 

(with dat.) 
XaXt-n-os, -TI, -uv, hard, difficult, (of 

character) harsh. 
XaXemos, (adv.) with difficulty. (x<*- 

\cnuis <f>(pfiv, to take it ill.) 
XO.XKOS, -a, -of, (contr.) x a ^ KO ^S, 

-77, -ovv, made of bronze or copper. 

XO.XKOS, -oO, m. copper, bronze. . 

XdXv|3es, -tav, pi. m. the Chalybcs, 
a people in Pontus, north of Ar- 
menia, famed for their iron mines 

(V. 177). 

XapdBpa, -as, f. a gully, ravine. 
Xapieis, -ecrcra, -tv, graceful, neat, 

clever, (x^pis, grace.), 7 gratify, favour, oblige ; 

I aor. (\apiff a. fj.T]V, perf. x a ~ 

s, -tros, f. favour, thanks, grati- 

tude. diro8(5(W( XP IV > to return 

a favour; tx fiv X^PLV, to feel 

Xapp.ivos, -on, m. Charmimis, a 

Lacedaemonian envoy (VII. 328). 
Xi[Awv, -cufos, m. (i) winter. (2) 

wintry weather, a storm. (Lat. 


Xtp, X 6 'P^ S > f- a hand ; dat. pi. x f P a>l - 
Xipi(7o4>os, -ov, m. Cheirisophus, a 

Spartan general under Cyrus. 
Xeipwv, -or, used as comp. of KaK6s, 

worse, inferior. (x e <P <w for xfipova, 

ace. sing, or neut. pi., x f ' l p vs f r 

X^'pofes or x f 'P vas -) 
Xeppovnrjo-os, or Xfpo'oV^o'os, f. the 

Chersonese, in Thrace (I. 26, note) 
XT|\T|, -ijs, f. a pier, breakwater, 

(shaped like a claw). 
XiXtoi. -at, -a, a thousand. 
XiXos, -oO, m. fodder, grass. 
XITWV, -euros, m. an under garment, 

shirt, tunic. (Lat. tunica.) 

Xuov, -ovos, f. snow. 
xXajjivs, -voos, f. a cloak. 
Xc'pros, -ov, m. grass, provender. 
Xpdo(xai, 7 use, employ, treat, deal 

w'th, (with dat.); fut. x/"7"' /" 1 '! 

perf. Ktxprifjiai, I aor. fxp'jffafj.tjv. 
XP>J, (impers.) it is necessary, one 

must, one ought ; fut. xpfa^t lm ~ 

perf. (XPH V - 
XptifAa, -arcs, n. lit. ' that which may 

be used;' generally in plural Xp~f]- 

[xara, property, money, (x/xio/xat, 7 

XpT)|AaTumKos, -17, -of, (of an omen) 

par/ending gain. (xpr)i-i.ara, money} 
~-"~i, infin. of XP 1 ?- 

i, pres. infin. of xp^^ at - 
5, -of, useful, serviceable, 

(, I use.) 
Xpovos, -ov, m. time; iro\vv xpovov, 

for a long fane. 
Xpvcreos, -a, -of, (contr.) xp vtrol OS' 

-77, -ov*', golden, (xpvffos.) 
Xpvaiov, -ov, n. gold-money, (dimin. 

XpveroiroXis, -ecus, f. Chrysopolis, a 
city of Bithynia on the Bosporus, 
now Scutari. (Lit. 'the golden 

Xpvo-os, -ov, m. gold. 

Xupa, -as, f. a country, district, terri- 
tory; also place, position. 

Xtopcw, 7 go, march, proceed; fut. 

X&>pov, -ov, n. a place, especially 
fortified place, fort, position; also 
space of ground, (dimin. of 
Cs, (adv.) apart, separately. 

\|/<Xiov, -ov, n. a bracelet. 

\|/v5co, (Act.) I deceive; (Mid.) 7 lie, 

play any one false; fut. ifxvaca, 

perf. pass. tiftvfffMt, I aor. pass. 

\|/r|<|>io|xai, I vole; I aor. (i//T)<piaaftr)v. 

(\f/rj<pot, a pebble for voting. 
\l/iX6s, -T], -6v, bare ; light-armed. 


4/o<t>(o), 7 make a noise, clash (of a 

shield). (ifrotyos, noise.) 
4>vX r l ">7 S > f- 'A so;//, ///(?. 
4/vxos, -oi/t, n. cold. 


u>, sign ot the vocative. 

iSe, (adv.) thus, as follows (introduc- 
ing a speech). 

aJS-q, -775, f. a song, (contr. from 
aotor], from atiSaj, a5oj, I sing.) 

ojT|OTjv, I aor. pass, of OIO/MU. 

hidtw, I push; fut. wffca, perf. toiHa, 
I aor. tojffa. 

uj0io-p.6s, -oO, m. a pushing, jostling. 

cpKovv, imperf. of oiKta. 

uSXf era, I aor. act. of o\\Vfj.i. 

ciXXvpiTjv, imperf. mid. of oAAt>j. 

iX6p.Tr]v, 2 aor. mid. of o\\vfj.i. 

J>|x6s, -17, -OK, raw/; (of character) 
savage, cruel. 

iLjios, -ou, m. /Ae shoulder. (Lat. 

up.oaa, I aor. act. of o^ivvfu. 

u)V0(iai, 7 6wji; fut. uiv^trofjuii, 1 aor. 
twpia(j.T)v. (See irpiaadai.) 

uvios, -a, -or, /or safe. T<i c 

<p6|AT|V, imperf. of oiofuu. 

topa, -as, f. a season, hour, time. (Lat. 

cop[j.T]Qro, I aor. act. of op^dca. 

upp.i]|jiai, perf. pass, of oppa<a. 

wpp,ovv, imperf. act. of o/)/'aj. 

J>p)juo|XT]v, imperf. mid. of dp/taw. 

b>p(pvY)JtT]v, pluperf. pass, of opvrroi. 

u>S, (conj.) (i) AOK/, fls, as j/"; with 
infin. so as to. (2) Ma/, t orrfer 
/Aa/. (3) s/wcf, because. With 
numerals, about, as els c^aroc, about 
a hundred. With superlatives, as 
ws Ta^'ora. as quickly as possible. 

uxravTws, (adv.) in lite manner. 

&o"irtp,just as if, just as. 

wcrre, (with Ind.) so that, (with Infin.) 
so as to. 

tiris, -tSo$, f. a bustard. 

WTOS, gen. of ov*. 

u(}>eX(o>, 7 aia*, help, benefit; imperf. 
wtpfKovv, fut. -Tjffu. (Distinguish 
from &<pt\ov, 2 aor, of 6<p(i\o>.) 

ui}>fXi}jios, -;, -or, profitable, useful. 

, imperf. o 


The references are in all cases to the Notes; the more important are distinguished 
by a difference of type. 


Article distinguishing subject from 

predicate, iii. 206; iv. 269; 
viii. 319. 

possessive use of, i. 15 ; iii. 1 70 ; 

iv. 93 ; viii. 160. 

separated from its noun by inter- 

vening words, i. 109 ; iv. 1 24 ; 
viii. 141, 163. 

with infinitive, see Mood. 

with participle, iv. 94; vi. 133, 

202 ; viii. 356. 

with was, iii. 112; vi. 137. 

with jroXis, v. 82 ; vj. 158. 


avrrj and avrr), v. 1 1 6. 

avros o ?.nd 6 OVTOS, i. 209 ; iv. 190 ; 

vii. 69, 254. 
tlaiv 01, vi. 45. 

(KtlVOS, V. 62. 

17, 77, ?f and fi, %, -g, vi. 268 ; vii. 201. 
vans in indirect questions, iv. 233. 
oirroffl, i. 248. 
ravra and ravrd, i. 275. 
ravrtiv, \. 198. 

ri$ with accent thrown back from fol- 
lowing word, viii. 161, 510. 


Declension of ols, @ovs, etc., vii. 34. 
Distinguish between : 

SptffTov, apiarov, iii. 15 ; vii. 168. 

Paffi\(ia t }affi\(ia, i. 9. 

(0t\ovTas, i0f\ovTas, vi.395- 

otitot, OIKOI, i. 298. 

opos, opos, v. 182. 

<pv\ands t <f>v\aicas, vi. 4. 
Meanings of: 

otr\a = t>n\i'Tai, vii. 47. 

TO. oir\a, ' quarters,' iv. 4; vii. 162. 

ntXraffrai and tf>i\oi, vi. 50. 

TrpojSoA^, vii. 206. 

<pa\ay(, v. 306 ; vii. 202 ; viii. 


Verbal nouns in -ffts and in -fia, iv. 


Attraction of relative, i. 290; vii. 
196; viii. 314. 

of nominative into relative clause, 

viii. 526. 
Nominative with infinitive, iv. 286 ; 

vii. 283 ; vii. 31, 249. 
Accusative, cognate, vi. 288. 

double, viii. 383. 

of respect, i. 262; iii. 98; v. 126; 

vi. 345: viii - I 3 6 > 3 6 4- 

of time, iv. 73. 
Genitive, absolute, iv. IOI. 

of respect, v. 129. 

of time, iv. 255 ; v. 280 ; vii. 

101, 163. 

partitive, iv. 127 ; v. 66, 319; viii. 


Dative, as complement in apposition, 
iv. 8l ; viii. 51. 

commodi, v. 9. 

instrumental, iii. 135; vii. 147. 
Tavry, p, as local adverbs, v. 22, 71. 




Dual for emphasis, v. 17 ; viii. 355. 
Dual subject with plural verb, iv. 134; 

v. 17. 
Dual adjective with plural noun, i. 1 ; 

iv. 279; viii. 135. 

TW as feminine dual, vi. 347. 

aAXos, vii. 122. 
avTuparos, v. 9. 
Stivos, v. 208 ; viii. 207. 
fifaos, iv. 172 ; v. 34. 
TroAAoC agios, ii. 135. 
rj7 vffrtpaiq, etc., with noun omttted, 
i. 327.' 

av&, distributive, iv. 1 78. 

in composition, i. 7; v. 322. 
avci Kparos, ii. 5. 

iwo, in composition, vii. 273; viii. 

145, 221. 
8i, in composition, iv. 309 ; v. 10, 

loo ; vi. 271 ; viii. 88, 184. 

with gen. versus ace., vii. 277 J 

viii. 478. 

ds, with numerals, vii. 140. 
ftc, of time or consequence, i. 85, 1 79 ; 

viii. 146, 498. 

' pregnant' use of, i. 88. 
IK naifiuv, iv. 2OI. 

iv, of time, vi. 15, 72, 174. 

firi, with gen. 'on a base of,' i. 71. 

with dative : 

purpose, i. 276 ; vi. 15 ; vii. 133, 


condition, iv. 350; vi. 2OI. 

with ace. : 

extent, vii. 130. 

object or aim, iv. 209 ; vi. 16 ; 

v. 153' *37| viii. 423. 

in composition, iv. 232. 
KO.T&, with gen., vii. 230. 

with ace. (distributive force), IT. 

231 ; viii. loo.*, ii. 53 ; viii. 518. 

, with ace. versus gen., i. ia8j 
viii. 229. 
Trapd, with dat., iv. 286. 

with ace. : 

' beside,' i. 322 ; motion to, iv. 

318 ; 'along,' vii. 82. 

comparison, viii. 405. 

' contrary to,' iii. 75 ; iv. 76 ; vii 


in composition, vii. 200, 207 ; viii. 

1 08. 
iTtfii, with ace., of behaviour ' to,' viii. 


ol TTfpl, with ace., viii. 290. 
trpos, with gen., v. 56. 
irpos Oftav, viii. 72. 

with dat. versus ace., viii. 389. 
ffiiv, iv. 128. 

iiiro, in comp., iv. 219. 

Compound verbs in -o>, iii. 33 ; in 

-6ca, iii. 187. 
Transitive and Intransitive : 

X<*>, iv. 2 ; vii. 1 47. 

iffTrint, i. 205 ; ii. 99 ; v. 330. 

rtp&TT(a, iv. 19 ; vii. 80. 
Passive supplied by other verbs : 

atptw, a\iffKonai, vii. 5. 271. 

airoKTiivca, duoQvijaicca, vii. 223; 
viii. 284. 

&aj9<jSd<v, 8ta/3aiV<u, viii. III. 

(K@a\\aj, (KiriirTcv, vi. 57 ; viii. 139 

7ra<rxa>, iroitca, viii. 198. 

TiOrjfit, fitiiMi (and compounds), iii 

207 ; vii. 221 ; viii. 59. 
Peculiar meanings : 

dvayi'yi'&ffKOJ, i. 237 ; vi 267* 

dito@\eTTa}, viii. 145. 

ota0&\\(a, i. 1 2. 

tuxptpopai, viii. 97. 

oincfo>, iii. 75. 

itriTiOffuu, vii. 20. 

if nioi, viii. 274. 

K&pvu, vi. 268. 

irappfyyvaw, vii. 186. 

irpoirivca, viii. 2 1 8. 

ffvffieevAfrncu, viii. 176. 

vndf>x<u, vi. 172. 



Phrases : ixtiv alnav, viii. 368 ; 
X<" / irpayfMra, vi. 131; KKTJV 
Sovvai, vi. 252 ; S'mrjv iiriQtlvii, 
\. 134; Sint]v t\tiv, viii. 308. 
Of iv bpopy, ii. 54 ; vii. 206. 
0t<r6ai o-n\a, i. 242 ; v. 54 ; vi. 

63; vii. 172; viii. 55. 
noitiv \6\ov, vi. 36. 
irpo@a\tffdat rci on\a, i. 83. 
Construction of OKOVU, with gen., ii. 

43 ; iii. 13; vi. loi. 
XpdofMt, with dat., vi. 338. 
Distinguish between : 

ayvvfii, ay<u (in certain tenses), iv. 

, 35 - 
at pa, alpeeu, i. 203. 

aiTica, alriaofMU, iv. 21, 273. 

alrfoj. (pwTao), iii. 43. 

dnodiSpdffKU, dirofpfvya), i. 172. 

SoKta), (paivofucu. vi. 226. 

/*i, fiyvofMi, iv. 125 ; viii. 16. 

tltrov, tlrrofirjv, ii. 158. 

ftpyai, Ipydfanai, vii. 77. 

imara^OLL, (<picrrr]^i, iv. 69, 148. 

ftrr&aav, iarrjaav. i. 196. 

^a, ^*oi, v. 150. 

fj/t>, fpxonai, viii. 91. 

1lpopr)v, rjpovfjtTjv, i. 314 ; IT. 34 ; 

viii. 136. 
tfaOijv, jjaffoni]!', ii. 01 ; vi. 13. 

^X^ 7 ?". ^X^W". v - ' 35- 
Xt'^o), A.177W, iv. 31. 
ofSa, yiyvwoKca, v. 190 ; vi. 194. 
dv, bpulta, i. 161 ; iv. 204. 
xot**) v < ' J 69; v. 334. 


Active and Middle (difference of) : 
alpf<u, iv. 64; vii. 251. 371. 
iluwaj. iii. 55. 
diro5('5cu/u, viii 99. 
Xajuj3di/o>, v. 265. 
iropfvdj iii. 141. 
ovn@ov\<vsa, iv. 145 viii. 499. 
Tf/j<i>pa>, i. 151; viii. 306. 
(pofttio, v. 145. 
</>vAaTTW, i. 373; iii. QI. 
Peri", passive in middle sense, v. 1321 
*> 39. 4 1 vi>- 88 


Indicative for Optative in reported 

speech, ii. 5, 125 ; viii. 32. 
Subjunctive after compounds of av, iii. 

67; v. 243; vii. 38, 310; viii. 

243, 418. 
Optative in reported speech, vi. 8 ; 

viii. 304, 461. 

= past subjunctive, iv. 13; vi. 108. 

deliberative, viii. 22J, 379, 525. 

in indefinite or uncertain state- 

ment, vi. 181 ; vii. 92, 235. 

indirect question, iv. 282; viii. 

214, 343. 
statement, viii. 344. 

for fut. indicative, viii. 463. 

Fut. Opt. in reported speech, iv. 289. 
Forms in -oirjv, -<pr)v, iii. 133 ; vi. 

Infinitive with article, i. 24 ; iii. 196 ; 

iv. 97; vi. 301 ; vii. 153. 

with av, i. 117. 

of purpose, v. 158 ; vii. 90, 115, 

265 ; viii. 227. 
Participle with alaxvyofMi, i. 215; iv. 

XavGdvea, viii. 251. 

Tvyx vu > ^ v - *> 330. 
ofta. etc., i. 119 ; ii. 108 ; vii. 269 ; 
viii. 377. 

= conjunction and verb, i. 261; 

viii. 81. 

Imperfect, viii. 38, 101 ; Future, 

vii. 16; viii. 71, 79, 360. 
l(6v, iv. 55 ; (xonffot, ii. 24 ?x <uv 

iv. 260; <pfp6fjuvot, v. 273. 
Verbal adjective, iv. 142 ; v. 238 ; vii. 



Present historical, i. 1; ii. 79; v. 

nasalised, i. 187; vi. 314. 

with wd\ai, v. 310. 

Imperfect, general force, iii. 38 ; iv. 
17.5; * 98; vi. 389; vii. 5,74; 
viii. 310, 273, 545. 

wrsMS Aoriit, vii. 21 3, 374, 313 


Aorist rendered by pluperfect, i. 254; 

ii. 118; v. 40. 
Paulo-post Future, iii. 77- 
Tenses of \tyca = ' speak,' and 'gather,' 

v. 6. 
Augment in (ica&t^ofirjv, etc., iv. 60 ; 

v. 141 ; viii. 223. 


Combined with civ, see Subjunctive, 
ft, tav (forms 'of conditional sentence), 

iv.113; viii. 52, 148, 155, 409. 
Inti, v. 173; ivttSr), vi. 367; viii. 

1 6. 

tart, iv. 221. 
i'a.'s, with pres. and a or., vi. 321 ; vii. 


iva, viii. 184. 
iinort, with opt., v. 219. 
onus, iv. 54. 
npiv, with opt., viii. 484. 

in sentence with vpuaOtv, iv. 121. 
t!/, with fut. part., ii. 70 j v. 2 ; viii. 


with superlative, v. 185 ; vi. 361. 

with numerals, iv. 293; viii. 534. 

= ' as if,' viii. 15. 
<rirtp, v. 20. 

wart, with indie., v. 93; vi. 47; with 
ir.fin., viii. 522. 


Atl, iv. 127 ; v. 287. 

avrov, vii. 174. 

lyyvi, comparison of, viii. 21. 

$fy, viii. 355, 497. 

oiifapfi, oAAax}, etc., viii. 186. 

irXyniov, i. 109; viii. 524. 

Distinguish between : 

o^aa, &(*oiwt, iv. 37. 

irot, TTUV, vii. 85. 

Adverbs in -Btv, vi. 229; in '(, vi. 
3>4. 354- 

dAXi, iii. 131 ; v. 217 ; vi. 258, 270 , 

vii. 300. 

d\\d UTIV, vi. 258, 31 7. 
dAAa . . . futv, viii. 367. 
dv, with relative pron., i. 175. 

. , ... ) See forms of con- 
-with past indie./ ditionalscm 

-optatwe. J . v 113 

with infin., iv. 1 23 ; vii. 141. 
drop, v. 199 

yt, vi. 246; viii. 372, 387. 

817, iii. 210; iv. 8, 263, 355; vfl. 

229 ; viii. 419. 
i$ HTJV, iii. 60. 
Ka't, senses of, i. 21 ; iii. 32 ; iv. 84 ; 

vii. 305 ; viii. 320. 

='or,' v. 223; vi. 71. 
KO.I 9ap, vi. 285 ; vii. 135. 
Hal . . . 8, iv. 2 1 7 ; v. 1 96. 
Hal Srj, iii. 180; vi. 241. 
KOI wv, i. 3CX3. 

nal ITUIS, v. 2 1 6. 

piv . . . 8(, iv. 45; vii. 161, igoj 

viii. 294. 
H\v 817, iv. 8. 
ptv ovv, ii. 83; iii. 129; vi. 144; 

viii. 346. 
t, v. 207 ; vii. 19. 271 ; viii. 

oSv, i. 6. 
T . . . *eu, viii 358. 


H%, after verbs of hindering, etc., iv, 
242 ; v. 310. 

with participle, v. 123. 

^77 versus ov, v. 202 ; vi. 91, 240; 

viii. 121. 

oi'5, vi. 265 ; vii. 145. 
ov ^r)v, viii. 420. 
oi'K-iOi\u, i. 127. 
ov-<pr)iu. iv. 278 ; vii. 141. 
Multiplied negatives, 1141; ii. 59. 

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