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An ecclesiastical 


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AN 



ECCLESIASTICAL BIOGEAPHY, 

' CONTAINIXa THE 

i.ibcs of ^ttctettt ^ati^ers mttr iPlotian Bihim^, 

INTERSPERSEB WITH NOTICES OF 

HERETICS AND SCHISMATICS, 

FORMING 
A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE CHURCH IN EVERY AGE. 

BY 

WALTER FARQUHAR HOOK, D.D., 

VICAR OF LEEDS. 

VOL. V. 

LONDON : 

F. AND J. EIVINGTON ; 

PARKER, OXFORD ; J. AND J. DEIGHTON, CAMBRIDGE ; 

T. HARRISON, LEEDS. 

1849. 



PREFACE. 



There are two or three names wbicli might be 
expected, but which are not to be found, in the 
present volume of the Ecclesiastical Biography. 
We are so accustomed to regard Grotius as a 
divine, from the celebrity of his theological writ- 
ings, that some persons are apt to forget that he 
was a statesman, not an ecclesiastic. It w^as ne- 
cessary to draw the line somewhere, and it would 
be difficult, if not impossible to make the selection,, 
were not the rule adhered to, of inserting the names- 
of those only who were connected with the ministry,, 
either orthodox or heretical, or who w^ere the found- 
ers of sects. 

Again, the venerated names of Hobart and Jebb, 
both of them, and especially the latter, very dear to 
the author, do not appear, because it has been 
thought advisable to exclude the names of those 
Divines who flourished in the present century. In 



the earlier parts there has been an occasional devia- 
tion from this course, but it was accidental and had 
reference to names not much distinguished. In 
modern biographies there is a minuteness of detail 
which would render such abbreviation as the present 
work would require, extremely difficult. It is pro- 
posed, therefore, to publish such lives, together with 
those of laymen who have been engaged in theologi- 
cal discussions, in a Supplementary Volume. 

The reader is indebted for the Life of Fox the 
Martyrologist, to the Eev. S. K. Maitland, F.E.S. 
and F.S.A., Librarian to the late Archbishop of 
Canterbury. 

W. F. H. 



Jan. 1849. 



ECCLESIASTICAL BIOGRAPHY, 



ERIGENA, JOHN SCOTUS. 



It is doubtful whether this distinguished man was a 
native of Scotland or of Ireland. He was born in the 
early part of the ninth century. Wliether he travelled 
into the East is a matter of dispute, but it is beyond all 
doubt that he was deeply versed in both the language 
and philosophy of the Greek empire. With the writings 
of Aristotle and Plato he was certainly acquainted, and 
on the works of these philosophers he lectured in the 
Schola Palatii of Charles the Bald. Of his intimacy with 
Charles the Bald, we have an instance given in a repartee 
recorded by William of Malmesbury. They were sitting 
opposite to one another at table, when, the cup having 
passed freely round, Erigena said something which of- 
fended the king's dignity, upon which his majesty ex- 
claimed, Quid distat inter sottuA et Scotum ? what is 
there between sot and Scot. The breadth of the table, 
was the reply. While Erigena resided at the court of 
France, he composed a variety of works, which procured 
him admirers, and also many enemies. Several of the 



2 ERIGENA. 

clergy, in particular, accused him of a departure from 
the prevalent theology of the age, especially on the sub- 
ject of predestination. This treatise may be seen in the 
VindicisB Prsedestinationis et Gratise, 2 vols, 4to, 1650. 
It was addressed to Hincmar, Archbishop of Rheims, 
and to Pardulus, Bishop of Laon ; it was written against 
Gotteschalcus. He understands that predestination to 
happiness is the consequence of God's foreseeing the 
good which men would voluntarily do ; the torments of 
hell are the being deprived of the enjoyments of heaven, 
there being no such thing as material fire there to punish; 
and he enters upon various speculations concerning a 
future state, which have neither reason nor much proba- 
bility to support them. 

Erigena had the high honour of being among the first 
to oppose the doctrine of transubstantiation, which, having 
lingered some time as a superstition, had lately been 
brought prominently forward by Paschasius Radbert. 
This novelty he resisted, and the treatise he wrote against 
Paschasius Radbert, instead of being referred to in order 
to convince modern Romanists that they have no ground 
in antiquity for this dogma, was burnt at Rome in 1059. 
At the request of the emperor Louis the Pious, who 
could not read Greek, Erigena translated into Latin the 
treatises of Dionysius the Areopagite, (supposed to have 
been the first Christian teacher, or apostle, in France,) 
On the Celestial Monarchy ; On the Ecclesiastical Hier- 
archy; On Divine Names; and On Mystic Theology. 
This translation was received with great eagerness by 
the western churches ; but as it was made without the 
licence of the Pope, and contained many things con- 
trary to the received faith of the Church of Rome, the 
Pope, Nicholas L, w^ highly displeased, and wrote a 
threatening letter to the French king, commanding that 
Erigena should be banished from the university of Paris, 
and sent to Rome. Charles, however, had too great a 
regard for our author to comply with the Pope's order; 



ERIGENA. 3 

but Erigena thought it advisable to withdraw from Paris, 
and, according to some writers, took refuge in England. 
To this translation of the treatises of the pretended 
Dionysius, is to be attributed the revival of the knowledge 
of the Alexandrian Platonism in the West, and the 
foundation of the mystical system of theology, which 
afterwards so generally and mischievously prevailed. The 
principal work of Erigena was his treatise On the Divi- 
sion of Nature, or the Natures of Things, which was first 
published at Oxford, in 1681, by Dr. Thomas Gale, 
under the title of Joannis Scoti Erigena de Divisions 
Naturae Libri quinque, diu desiderati. This work is an 
object of literary curiosity, as furnishing us with an ex- 
traordinary example of metaphysical subtlety and acute- 
ness, for the age in which the author lived, which he 
acquired by studying the writings of the Greek philoso- 
phers. According to Cave and Tanner, Erigena took 
refuge in England in 877, and was employed by king 
Alfred in the restoration of learning at the university of 
Oxford. Tanner asserts, that he was appointed professor 
of mathematics and astronomy in that university in 
the year 879. After continuing to teach there for three 
years, some differences took place in the university, 
which occasioned him to quit his situation, and retire to 
the abbey of Malmsbury, in Wiltshire, where he opened 
a school. In this place, according to the accounts of the 
generality of English writers, he was murdered by his 
scholars, in 883, Other writers suppose that the Eng- 
lish historians have confounded John Scotus Erigena 
with another John Scot, who was an Englishman, con- 
temporary with Alfred, and who taught at Oxford. Mac- 
kenzie, in the first volume of his Scotch writers, asserts 
that he retired to England in the year 864, and died 
there about the year 874. Dr. Henry, in the second 
volume of his History of England, gives it as the most 
probable opinion that he died in France. Tennemann, 
speaking of him as a philosopher, says of him, " His 



4 ERIGENA. 

acquaintance with Latin and Greek, (to which some 
assert he added the Arabic ;) his love for the philosophy 
of Aristotle and of Plato ; his translation, (exceedingly' 
esteemed throughout the West,) of Dionysius the Areo- 
pagite ; his liberal and enlightened views (which the dis- 
putes of the day called upon him to express,) respecting 
predestination and the eucharist, — all these entitle him 
to be considered a phenomenon for the times in which 
he lived. Add to this, that he regarded philosophy as 
the science of the principles of all things, and as insepa- 
rable from religion ; and that he adopted a philosophical 
system, (a revived Neoplatonism,) of which the founda- 
tion was the maxim : That God is the essence of all 
things ; that from the plenitude of His nature they are 
all derived, and to Him ultimately return ; {Primordiales 
causa — natura naturata). His labours, enlightened by 
so much learning and suggested by so much talent, might 
have accomplished more if they had not been bhghted 
by the imputation of heresy." 

During a long time he had a place in the list of saints 
of the Church of Rome ; but at length, on account of its 
being discovered that he was orthodox with regard to the 
doctrine of transubstantiation, Baronius struck his name 
out of the calendar. A catalogue of his works may be 
seen in Cave. Bale has added to the number, but pro- 
bably without sufficient reason. The following are all 
that have been printed : — 1. De Divisione Naturse, Oxon. 
by Gale, 1681, fol. 2. De Praedestinatione Dei, contra 
Goteschalcum, edited by Gilb. Maguin in his Vindiciae 
Praedestinationis et Gratise, vol. i. p. 103. 3. Excerpta 
de Differentiis et Societatibus Grseci Latinique Verbi, in 
Macrobius's works. 4. De Corpore et Sanguine Domini, 
1558, 1560, 1653 ; Lond. 1686, 8vo. 5. Ambigua S. 
Maximi, seu Scholia ejus in difficiles Locos S. Gregorii 
Nazienzeni, Latine versa, along with the Divisio Naturae, 
Oxford, 1681, fol. 6. Opera S. Dionysii quatuor in La- 
, tinam Linguam conversa, in the edition of Dionysius, 
Colon. 1536 — Cave. Baronius. Henry. Tennemann. 



ESTIUS. 



ERSKINE, JOHN. 



John Erskine, baron of Dun, was born near Montrose 
in 1508. At an early period he embraced the protestant 
religion, wliich he promoted with great zeal, and became 
a preacher, after having been a warrior. He was one of 
the ecclesiastical superintendants appointed by the Scotch 
parliament, and in that capacity assisted in compiling 
the book of discipline, or model of church-government. 
He died in 1591. His life is only of interest from the 
part he bore in the presbyterian reformation. The reader 
is referred to the life of Knox. — Gen. Diet. 



ESCOBAR Y MENDOZA, 

Anthony Escobar y mendoza, a Spanish Jesuit, and 
Eomish casuist, was born at Valladolid in 1589. He wrote 
several theological works, in which he professes to smooth 
the way to salvation. His principles of morality have 
been turned into ridicule by Pascal. The most known 
of his books are, 1. Moral Theology, Lyons, 1663, 7 vols, 
fol. ; and 2. Commentaries on the Holy Scriptures, Lyons, 
1667, 9 vols, ioL—Moreri. 



ESTIUS, WILLIAM. 

William Estius, or William Hessels van Est, was 
born at Gorcum in 1542. He studied at the universi- 
ties of Utrecht and Louvain, and was afterwards pro- 
fessor of theology and chancellor of the university of 
Douay, where he died in 1613. His works are, 1. Mar- 
tyrium Edmundi Campiani, societatis Jesu, translated 
from the French; Louvain, 1582, 8vo. 2. Historia 
martyrum Gorcomensium majori numero fratrum mino- 
rum, Douay, 1603, 8vo. 3. Orationes Theologicse, 
Douay, 1614, 8vo. 4. Commentarii in quatuor libros 
a2 



6 EUCHERIUS 

Sententiarum, Douay, 1615, 4 vols, fol. reprinted at 
Paris, 1638, 3 vols, fol. Dupin says that in this, his 
work on the Master of the Sentences, he follows exactly 
his author, without deviating into foreign questions, 
and that it is one of the best theological works the 
Roman Church can boast, and recommends it to students 
in divinit}'. 5. Annotationes in pr^ecipua difficiliora S. 
Scripturse loca, Antwerp, 1621, fol., a work on which a 
high value appears to have been placed, as it passed 
through several editions. It resulted from the conferen- 
ces he held in the seminary of Douay, but, according to 
Dupin, his observations are rather practical than critical. 
6. In omnes B. Pauli et aliorum apostolorum epistolas 
Commentaria, Douay, 1614, 2 vols, fol. Dupin praises 
this as one of the best works of the kind, but it appears 
that Estius was prevented by death from proceeding 
farther than 1 John v. and that the rest of the commen- 
tary was supplied by Earth, de la Pierre. He wrote also 
some Latin verses and an essay, " Contra avaritiam 
scientiae," censuring the selfishness of learned men who 
keep their improvements and discoveries to themselves. 
This is inserted in a work by Francis Vianen of Brussels, 
entitled " Tractatus triplex de ordine amoris," Louvain, 
1685, 8vo. — Dupin. Moreri. 



EUCHERIUS. 

EucHERius was Archbishop of Lyons in the fifth 
century. He was married, but on his wife's death, re- 
tired with his sons, Salonius and Veranius, to the monas- 
tery of the Isle of Lerins, which he left to continue a 
solitaiy life in the Isle of Lero, now called St. Marguerite. 
He was called from his ascetic life to the see of Lyons 
about 434 ; was present at the first council of Orange in 
441 ; and died about 454. He wrote a book in praise of 
the desert, addressed to St. Hilary ; a tract on the Con- 



EUDOXIUS. 7 

tempt of the World ; on Spiritual Formularies ; and a 
History of the Martyrs of the Thebaic Legion. His 
works were printed at Rome in 1564, and are contained 
in the Bibliotheca Patrum. — Cave. Dupin. Moreri. 



EUDOXIUS. 

EuDoxius, the founder of a sect of heretics in the 
fourth century^ was a native of Arabissus in Armenia 
Minor. We first hear of him as Bishop of Germanicia, 
but in 356 he obtained by artifice the Patriarchate of 
Antioch, where he soon came forward as a patron of the 
Aetians. Sozomen says that, "When Eudoxius found 
himself in possession of the Church of Antioch, he ven- 
tured to uphold the Aetian heresy openly. He assembled 
in Antioch all those who held the same opinions as him- 
self, among whom were Acacius, Bishop of Csesarea 
in Palestine, and Uranius, Bishop of Tyre, and rejected 
the terms ' of like substance' and - ' con- substantial,' 
under the pretext that they had been denounced by the 
Western bishops. Hosius had certainly, with the view 
of arresting the contention excited by Valens, Ursacius, 
and Germanius, consented, though by compulsion, with 
some other bishops at Sirmium, to refrain from the use of 
the terms 'con-substantial' and 'of like substance,' because 
such terms do not occur in the Holy Scriptures, and are 
beyond the understanding of men. Eudoxius wrote to 
the Bishops as if they all upheld what Hosius had ad- 
mitted, and congratulated Yalens, and Ursacius, and 
Germanius, for having been instrumental in the intro- 
duction of orthodox doctrines into the V/est." 

Although he was depo#d at the synod of Seleucia, yet 
he does not appear to have ever vacated his see, and "on 
Macedonius being ejected from the see of Constantinople," 
says Socrates, " Eudoxius, who now despised that of 
Antioch, was promoted to the vacant bishopric ; being 



8 EUDOXIUS. 

consecrated by the Acacians, who in tliis instance cared 
not to consider that it was inconsistent with their former 
proceedings. For they who had deposed Dracontius be- 
cause of his translation from Galatia to Pergamos, were 
clearly acting in contrariety to their own principles and 
decisions, in ordaining Eudoxius, who then made a 
second remove. After this they sent their own exposition 
of the faith, in its corrected and supplementary form, to 
Eimini, ordering that all those who refused to sign it 
should be exiled, on the authority of the emperors 
edict. They also informed such other prelates in the 
East as coincided with them in opinion, of what they had 
done ; and more especially Patrophilus, Bishop of Scy- 
thopolis, who on leaving Seleucia, had proceeded directly 
to his own city. Eudoxius having been constituted 
Bishop of the imperial city, the great church named 
Sophia was at that time consecrated, in the tenth consu- 
late of Constantius, and the third of Julian Caesar, on 
the 15th of February. It was while Eudoxius occupied 
this see, that he first uttered that sentence which is still 
everywhere current, ' The Father is impious, the So7i is 
pious.' When the people seemed startled by this expres- 
sion, and a disturbance began to be made, ' Be not trou- 
bled,' said he, ' on account of what I have just said : 
for the Father is impious because He worships no person: 
but the Son is pious, because He worships the Father.' 
With this sort of badinage he appeased the tumult, and 
great laughter was excited in the church : and this saying 
of his continues to be a jest, even in the present day. 
The heresiarchs indeed frequently devised such subtile 
phrases as these, and by them rent the Church asunder. 
Thus was the synod at Constantinople terminated." 

He obtained the see of Consrantinople in 359, and re- 
tained it till his death in 370. Of his works no remains 
are extant, except some fragments of a treatise, " De 
Incarnatione Dei Verbi ; to which Cave has referred. — 
K)Ocrates. Sozomen. Theodoret. 



EUNOMIUS. 



EUGENIUS. 



EuGENius, Bishop of Carthage at the close of the fifth 
century, was distinguished by his resistance of the Arians. 
In the year 483, Hunneric ordered all the Catholic 
Bishops to hold a conference with the Arians, at Carthage, 
w^hich took place, and terminated in the expulsion of the 
CathoUcs, and establishment of the Arians, by Hunneric. 
After suffering other persecutions, he retired to Langue- 
doc, and died at Vienne in 505. He wrote a Confession 
of Faith, which he presented to Hunneric, and so suc- 
cessfully refuted the Arian heresy, as to reduce his ad- 
versaries to silence. — Cave. Biblioth. Patr. 



EUGENIUS. 

EuGENius, Archbishop of Toledo in the seventh cen- 
tury, and called the Younger, to distinguish him from 
his immediate predecessor of the same name, was at first 
clerk of the Church of Toledo, and when chosen Arch- 
bishop on the death of the elder Eugenius, retired to 
Saragossa with a view to spend his days in the seclusion 
of a monastery. Being however discovered, he was 
brought back to Toledo by order of his sovereign, and 
appointed Archbishop in 646, an ofiice which he filled 
for nine j^ears. He presided at the councils held at 
Toledo in 653, 655, and 656. He was the author of a 
treatise on the Trinity, two books of miscellanies, and one 
in prose and verse, which were published by father Sir- 
mond at Paris in 1619, 8vo. There is a continuation of 
the work of Dracontius on the Creation, which he edited 
and amended. He died in 657. — Cave. Diipin. 

EUNOMIUS. 

EuNOMius, an Arian of the fourth century, and founder 
of a sect who bore his name, was born at Dacora, in 



10 EUNOMIUS. 

Cappadocia, whence he went to Alexandria, where he 
became the disciple and secretary of Aetius. Under 
his instruction Eunomius perfected himself in all dialec- 
tic subtleties, and by his recommendation was ordained 
deacon by Eudoxius, Bishop of Antioch, whom he after- 
wards defended at Constantinople against the Semi-Arian 
Basil of Ancyra. About 3G0, Eunomius was consecrated 
Bishop of Cyzicum, by Eudoxius, but was afterwards de- 
posed by him. Theodoret says, that " Eunomius in his 
writings, highly extolled Aetius, styled him the man of 
God, and bestowed many encomiums on him ; still he 
did not refrain from intimacy with those who had con- 
demned him ; and he even received ordination from them, 
being raised by them to the episcopal dignity. The par- 
tisans of Eudoxius and of Acacius, who had approved of 
the formulary compiled at Nice in Thrace, of which 
mention has already been made, ordained two Bishops 
in the room of Basil and Eleusius, whom they had de- 
posed. As I think it would be superfluous to enter into 
particulars respecting the other Bishops, I shall only 
relate what concerns Eunomius. The government of the 
Church of Cyzicum being seized by Eunomius while 
Eleusius was still living, Eudoxius, who perceived the 
attachment of the people to sound doctrine, and who 
was also aware that the emperor had expressed indigna- 
tion against those w4io said that the only begotten Son of 
God had been created, counselled Eunomius to conceal 
his sentiments, and not to let them be known to those 
who were earnestly seeking an opportunity for framing 
accusations against him. ' At some future period,' said 
he, ' we will preach that which we now conceal, we will 
instruct the ignorant, and will silence our opponents 
either by arguments, by force, or by vengeance.' Euno- 
mius, in accordance with this advice, concealed his im- 
piety by involving his doctrines in obscure phraseology. 
But those who were well instructed in the holy Scriptures 
perceived the fraud, and felt it deeply ; but they con- 



EUNOMIUS. 11 

ceived that the manifestation of any opposition would be 
more rash than prudent. Under the pretence of having 
imbibed heretical opinions, they went to his house, and 
besought him to expound to them the truth which he 
maintained, that they might not be driven hither and 
thither by contrary doctrines. He was led to place confi- 
dence in them, and disclosed to them the doctrines w4iich 
he had till then concealed. They then told him that it 
would be exceedingly unjust and impious if he did not 
communicate the truth to all men. Eunomius was de- 
ceived by these and other similar arguments, and accord- 
ingly divulged his blasphemous opinions in the public 
assemblies of the Church. They then, transported with 
zeal, hastened to Constantinople, and laid their accusa- 
tion against Eunomius, in the first place, before Eudoxius ; 
but as he would not receive it, they repaired to the em- 
peror to complain to him of the injury committed by 
Eunomius, whom they accused of advancing doctrines 
more impious than the blasphemies of Arius. The em- 
peror was much incensed on receiving this information ; 
and he commanded Eudoxius to send for Eunomius, and 
upon his conviction to deprive him of the sacerdotal 
office. Finding that Eudoxius persisted in delay, not- 
withstanding their numerous solicitations, the accusers 
again repaired to the emperor, and declared that Eudoxius 
had disobeyed the command imposed on him, and that 
he suffered so great a city to be abandoned to the blas- 
phemies of Eunomius, Constantius then menaced Eu- 
doxius with banishment unless he would bring him for- 
ward to judgment, and inflict upon him the penalties of 
the law, should he be convicted of the crimes laid to his 
charge. Eudoxius, terrified by these menaces, wrote to 
Eunomius, desiring him to flee from Cyzicum, and to 
impute all the blame to himself for not having followed 
the advice which had been given him. Eunomius was 
fearful for his own safety, and therefore retreated. He 
accused Eudoxius of treachery and injustice towards him 



V2 EUSEBIUS. 

and towards iVetius. From that time he began to form 
a sect of his own. xUl those who had previously held 
the same sentiments as himself went over to him, and 
inveighed against the treachery of Eudoxius. They were 
called Eunomians after their leader, which name they 
have retained to this day. Eunomius being thus placed 
at the head of a faction, gave still greater weight by his 
impiety to the blasphemy of Arius. The facts themselves 
clearly prove, that in making himself the head,of a party 
he was solely impelled by ambition and the love of glo^)^ 
Thus, when Aetius was condemned and banished, he 
would not accompany him into exile, although he had 
previously declared him to be a man of God ; but he 
continued on terms of friendship with Eudoxius. When 
his impiety had been visited by a just sentence of depo- 
sition, he would not submit to the decision of the council, 
but continued to ordain bishops and presbyters, although 
he had himself been divested of the episcopal office." 

He died in 394. St. Basil and the two Gregories wrote 
against him, and his followers were proscribed even 
among the Arians. Tillemont gives a long and minute 
account of this heresiarch. — Theodoret. Tillemont. 



EUSEBIUS, PAMPHTLUS. 

EusEBius Pamphilus, was born in Palestine about the 
year 267. Of his parents we know nothing, but upon his 
own authority we can state that he was educated in Pales- 
tine, and that he then, while yet a youth, saw Constantine, 
at that time forming one of the senate of Diocletian. He 
was admitted into orders by Agapius, Bishop of C^sarea, 
and with Pamphilus, one of the most distinguished pres- 
byters of that Church, he entered into a friendship. 
Pamphilus, having formed a library, attached it to a 
school which he instituted at Csesarea, of which Eusebius 
seems to have been the first master. From that time 



EUSEBIUS. 13 

Eusebius lived on terms of the closest intimacy with 
Pamphilus, and from that circumstance he acquired the 
surname of Pamphilus. 

In the Diocletian persecution Pamphilus was thrown 
into prison, where he was affectionately waited upon by 
Eusebius, and they wrote, together, five books in defence 
of Origen, Eusebius adding another after the martyrdom 
of Pamphilus. He was an eye witness of several glorious 
martyrdoms, and seems himself to have remained at his 
post, although Potamon, Bishop of Heraclea, insinuated 
on one occasion, that to save his life he did, during this 
persecution, offer incense to idols. Although Baronius 
has repeated as a fact what w^as only thrown out as a 
suspicion, Valesius and Cave both shew the great impro- 
bability of such a circumstance. It was not likely that a 
person guilty of such an offence should ever be elected 
to the see of Antioch. Eusebius was time-serving, and, 
like a man of literature, willing to sacrifice truth for 
peace, yet he was not a coward. 

Although the precise date of Eusebius 's consecration 
is not known, he was certainly Bishop of Csesarea in 3'20. 
And he soon became involved in the Arian controversy. 
As there is some difficulty in understanding the part 
taken by Eusebius in this contest, the reader shall be 
presented with the account of the affair which is given 
in the life of Eusebius, prefixed to the valuable edition 
of his Ecclesiastical History published by Valesius. 

Of his share in the Arian controversy, Valesius writes 
thus : — " Arius, a presbyter of the city of Alexandria, 
publicly advanced some new and impious tenets relative 
to the Son of God, and persisting in this, notwithstanding 
repeated admonition by Alexander the Bishop, he and 
his associates in this heresy, were at length expelled. 
Highly resenting this, Arius sent letters with a statement 
of his own faith to all the bishops of the neighbouring 
cities, in which he complained, that though he asserted 
the same doctrines w^hich the rest of the Eastern prelates 

VOL. v. B 



14 EUSEBIUS. 

maintained, he had been unjustly deposed by Alexander. 
Many bishops, imposed on by these artifices, and power- 
fully excited by Eusebius of Nicomedia, who openly 
favoured the Arian party, wrote letters in defence of 
Arius to Alexander, Bishop of Alexandria, entreating 
him to restore Arius to his former rank in the Church. 
Our Eusebius was one of their number, whose letter 
written to Alexander, is extant in the acts of the 
(Ecumenical Synod. The example of Eusebius of Cae- 
sarea, was soon followed by Theodotius and Pauhnus, 
the one Bishop of Laodicea, the other of Tyre, who 
interceded with Alexander for Arius's restoration. Since 
Arius boasted on every occasion of this letter, and 
by the authority of such eminent men, drew many 
into the participation of his heresy, Alexander was 
compelled to write to the other Eastern bishops, shewing 
the justice of the expulsion of Arius. Two letters of 
Alexander's are yet extant ; the one to Alexander, Bishop 
of Constantinople, in which the former complains of 
three Syrian bishops, who, agreeing with Arius, had 
more than ever inflamed that contest, which they ought 
rather to have suppressed. These three, as may be 
learned from Arius's letter to Eusebius, Bishop of Nico- 
media, are Eusebius, Theodotius, and Paulinus. The 
other letter of Alexander's, written to all the bishops 
throughout the world, Socrates records in his first book. 
To these letters of Alexander's, almost all the Eastern 
bishops subscribed, amongst whom the most eminent 
were Philogonius, Bishop of Antioch, Eustathius of 
Bersea, and Macarius of Jerusalem. 

"The bishops who favoured the Arian party, especially 
Eusebius of Nicomedia, imagining themselves to be 
severely treated in Alexander's letters, became much 
more vehement in their defence of Arius. For our 
Eusebius of Csesarea, together with Patrophilus, Pauli- 
nus, and other Syrian bishops, merely voted that it should 
be lawful for Arius, as a presbyter, to hold assemblies in 



EUSEBIUS. 15 

his clmrch ; at the same time, that he should be subject 
to Alexander, and seek from him reconciliation and com- 
munion. The bishops disagreeing thus amongst them- 
selves, some favouring the party of Alexander, and others 
that of Arius, the contest became singularly aggravated. 
To remedy this, Constantine, from all parts of the Roman 
world, summoned to Nicsea, a city of Bithynia, a general 
synod of bishops, such as no age before had seen. In 
this greatest and most celebrated council, our Eusebius 
was far from an unimportant person. For he both had 
the first seat on the right hand, and in the name of the 
whole synod addressed the emperor Constantine, who sat 
on a golden chair, between the two rows of the opposite 
parties. This is affirmed by Eusebius himself in his 
Life of Constantine, and by Sozomen in his Ecclesi- 
astical History. Afterwards, when there was a considera- 
ble contest amongst the bishops, relative to a creed or 
form of faith, our Eusebius proposed a formula, at once 
simple and orthodox, which received the general com- 
mendation both of the bishops and of the emperor him- 
self. Something, notwithstanding, seeming to be wanting 
in the creed, to confute the impiety of the new opinion, 
the fathers of the Nicene council determined that these 
words, ' Very God of very God, begotten not made, 

BEING OF one SUBSTANCE WITH THE FaTHER,' should be 

added. They also annexed anathemas against those who 
should assert that the Son of God was made of things 
not existing, and that there was a time when He was not. 
At first, indeed, our Eusebius refused to admit the term 
' consubstantial,' but when the import of that word was 
explained to him by the other bishops, he consented, and 
as he himself relates in his letter to his diocese at 
Ciesarea, subscribed to the creed. Some affirm*' fhat it 
was the necessity of circumstances, or the fear of the 
emperor, and not the conviction of his own mind, that 
induced Eusebius to subscribe to the Nicene council. 
Of some, present at the synod, this might be believed, 



16 EUSEBIUS. 

but this we cannot think of Eusebius, Bishop of Csesarea, 
After the Nicene council, too, Eusebius always condemned 
those who asserted that the Son of God was made of 
things not existing. Athanasius likewise affirms the 
same concerning him, who, though he frequently men- 
tions that Eusebius subscribed to the Nicene council, 
nowhere intimates that he did it insincerely. Had 
Eusebius subscribed to that council, not according to his 
own mind, but fraudulently and in pretence, why did he 
afterwards send the letter we have mentioned to his 
diocese at Csesarea, and therein ingenuously profess that 
he had embraced that faith which had been published in 
the Nicene council ?" 

About the year 330 he was present at the council of 
Antioch, in which Eustathius, Bishop of that city, was 
deposed : but though he consented to his deposition, and 
was elected to the see of Antioch in his room, he abso- 
lutely refused it ; and when the bishops wrote to Con- 
stantino to desire him to oblige Eusebius to consent to 
the election, he wrote also to the emperor, to request him 
that he would not urge him to accept of it : which Con- 
stantino readily granted, and at the same time com- 
mended his moderation. Eusebius assisted at the council 
of Tyre held in 335 against Athanasius ; and it was then 
that the charge made byPotamon against him, and alluded 
to before, was made. From the words already quoted 
from Epiphanius, it would seem that at this council 
Eusebius presided. After that council, all the bishops 
who had assembled at Tyre, repaired, by the emperor's 
orders, to Jerusalem, to celebrate the consecration of the 
great church, which Constantino in honour of Christ had 
erected in that place. There Eusebius graced the 
solemnity, by the several sermons that he delivered. And 
when the emperor, by very strict letters, had summoned 
the bishops to his own court, that in his presence they 
might give an account of their fraudulent and litigious 
conduct towards Athanasius, Eusebius, with five others, 
went to Constantinople, and furnished that prince 



EUSEBIUS. It 

with a statement of the whole transaction. Here also, 
in the palace, he delivered his tricennalian oration, which 
the emperor heard with the utmost joy, not so much on 
account of any praises to himself, as on account of the 
praises of God, celebrated by Eusebius throughout the 
whole of that oration. This oration was the second 
delivered by Eusebius in that palace. For he had be- 
fore made an oration there, concerning the sepulchre of 
our Lord, which the emperor heard standing ; nor could 
he, although repeatedly entreated by Eusebius, be per- 
suaded to sit in the chair placed for him, alleging that it 
was fit that discourses concerning God should be heard 
in that posture. 

How dear and acceptable Eusebius w^as to Con- 
stantine, may be known both from the facts we have 
narrated, as well as from many other circumstances. For 
he both received many letters from him, as may be seen 
in the books already mentioned, and was not unfre- 
quently sent for to the palace, where he was entertained 
at table, and honoured with familiar conversation. 
Constantino, moreover, related to Eusebius, the vision 
of the cross seen by him when on his expedition 
against Maxentius ; and showed to him, as Eusebius 
informs us, the labamm that he had ordered to be made 
to represent the likeness of that cross. Constantine also 
committed to Eusebius, since he knew him to be most 
skilful in Biblical knowledge, the care and superinten- 
dency of transcribing copies of the Scriptures, which he 
wanted for the accommodation of the churches he had 
built at Constantinople. Lastly, the book concerning 
the Feast of Easter, dedicated to him by Eusebius, 
was a present to Constantine, so acceptable, that he 
ordered its immediate translation into Latin ; and by 
letter entreated Eusebius, that he would communicate, 
as soon as possible, works of this nature, with which he 
was engaged, to those concerned in the study of sacred 
literature. 
b2 



18 EUSEBIUS. 

About the same time, Eusebius dedicated a small book 
to the emperor Constantine, in which was comprised his 
description of the Jerusalem church, and of the gifts that 
had been consecrated there, — which book, together with 
his tricennalian oration, he placed at the close of his 
Life of Constantine. This book is not now extant. 
At the same time, Eusebius wrote five books against 
Marcellus ; of which the three last, " De Ecclesiastica 
Theologia," he dedicated to Flaccillus, Bishop of Antioch. 
Flaccillus entered on that bishopric a little before the 
synod of Tyre, which was convened in the consulate of 
Constantius and Albinus, a. d. 335. It is certain that 
Eusebius, in his First Book writes in express words, tbat 
Marcellus had been deservedly condemned by the Church. 
Kow Marcellus was first condemned in the synod held at 
Constantinople, by those very bishops that had conse- 
crated Constantino's church at Jerusalem, in the year of 
Christ 335, or, according to Baronius, 336. Socrates, 
indeed, acknowledges only three books written by Euse- 
bius against Marcellus, namely, those entitled, " De 
Ecclesiastica Theologia;" but the whole work by Euse- 
bius, against Marcellus, comprised Five Books. The 
last books written by Eusebius, seem to be the four on 
the life of Constantine ; for they were written after the 
death of that emperor, whom Eusebius did not long sur- 
vive. He died about the beginning of the reign of Con- 
stantius Augustus, a little before the death of Constantine 
the Younger, which happened, according to the testimony 
of Socrates' Second Book, when Acindynus and Proculus 
were consuls, a. d. 340. 

Eusebius is said to have had the faults and the virtues 
of a mere man of letters : strongly excited neither to 
good nor to evil, and careless at once of the cause of 
truth and of the prizes of secular greatness, in comparison 
of the comforts and decencies of literary ease. He left 
a vast number of works, displaying great learning and 
ability. Of those which are preserved, the principal 



EUSEBIUS. 19 

are : — 1. The Apology for Origen. 2. A Treatise against 
Hierocles. 3. Fifteen books of the Evangelical Repara- 
tion, and twenty of the Demonstration. 4. A Chronicle 
from the earliest times to the twentieth year of Constan- 
tino. 5. His Ecclesiastical History, which embraces the 
period from the beginning of the Church to the death of 
Licinius the Elder, being 324 years. 6. Five books on 
the Incarnation. 7. Six, of Commentaries on Isaiah ; and 
thirty against Porphyry. 8. A Topography of Palestine 
and the Temple. 9. A Life of Pamphilus. Of all these, 
the Church History and the Life of Constantino are 
perhaps the most important. — Valesius. Life prefixed to 
Eusehiuss Eccles. Hist. 



EUSEBIUS. 

EusEBius of Nicomedia is one of the most unpopular 
characters of ecclesiastical history, and was the real organ- 
izer of the Arian faction of the fourth century. The 
reader is requested to refer to the lives of Arius and of 
St. Athanasius, in order to enter fully into the contro- 
versy with which Eusebius w^as connected. Of his early 
history little is known : he appears before us first as 
Bishop of Berytus in Phenicia, to which he was preferred, 
as it was said, in a manner contrary to the canons, and 
which gave some reason for doubting whether he had 
ever received valid consecration. At an early period he 
exhibited sentiments not very favourable to the divinity 
of our Saviour ; but he kept them to himself, for fear of 
their being an hindrance to his ambition, that aspired to 
every thing, and to which he made impiety and religion 
indifferently subservient, according as they seemed most 
useful to his purpose, and most likely to produce the end 
proposed. He had found means to gain the good opinion 
of Constantia, sister to Constantino the great, and wife 
to Licinius ; and this princess, won by his ingenuity 



20 EUSEBIUS. 

and agreeable behaviour, had taken care of his fortune, 
and introduced him at court, which was what he very 
passionately wished for; and there soon offered a very 
favourable opportunity for one who, when his interest 
was concerned, had no regard to conscience. Constantia 
then usually resided at Nicomedia, a very pleasant city 
of Bithynia, where Diocletian had built a magnifi- 
cent palace, and which Licinius, who, at that time, pos- 
sessed the empire of the East, had chosen for the place 
of his residence. Eustolius, Bishop of this city, dying 
whilst the court was there, Eusebius luckily happened 
to be then attending upon Constantia, who would always 
have him near her person ; and he easily prevailed with 
her to use her interest and power to procure him to be 
elected, in the room of the deceased ; for he thought 
nothing could be more advantageous to his fortune, than 
that dignity, which afforded him an opportunity of being 
admitted into a greater intimacy with the emperor. Con- 
stantia seized with joy so favourable an opportunity of 
advancing her favourite ; she laboured for him very 
earnestly, and found it not very difficult to succeed ; for 
nobody could then refuse her anything, who was sister to 
one of the masters of the world, and wife to the other. 
Eusebius, as we have said, was at that time Bishop of 
Berytus ; Berytus was a small town of Phenicia, by no 
means convenient for the great designs his ambition 
made him propose to himself. The canons allowed not 
of such sort of translations from one bishopric to another, 
without the authority of the Church, by the approbation 
and common consent of a number of bishops. But Euse- 
bius, without stopping at such troublesome scruples as 
might have hindered the success of his affairs, made no 
difficulty of leaving his first Church, and insolently taking 
possession, by his own private authority, of that of Nico- 
media, by virtue of an election not authorized by lawful 
powers. Nay, he did much more ; for in order to secure 
his fortune, he made no scruple of sacrificing his honour 



EUSEBIUS. 21 

and conscience to satisfy his ambition, by favouring 
secretly the party of Licinius against the Christians 
themselves, whom that tyrant persecuted, and against 
Constantino too, with whom Licinius, some time after, 
having made war, therein lost both the empire and his 
life. x\nd as a crime that is attended with success and 
impunity, often acquires strength and boldness to proceed 
farther, upon account of its imaginary good fortune, 
Eusebius, finding that the favour of his protectress re- 
moved all obstacles to his usurpation, and prevented the 
punishment that was due to it, thought (as Alexander 
reproaches him in his circular letter) that he might dis- 
pose of every thing at his pleasure, without being opposed 
by any one : in fine, by his ow^n cunning, and the favour 
of Constantia, he became so considerable at court, and 
even with Constantino after the defeat of Licinius, that 
there was hardly anything he could undertake, which he 
might not hope to succeed in. 

It being thus with Eusebius at court, Arius, — either 
perceiving him to entertain already some sentiments 
agreeable to his own, or hoping easily to prevail wdth him 
to receive his notions, in opposition to the Patriarch of 
Alexandria, for whom, it was well known, he had no affec- 
tion, because he. could not bear a superior, or that Euse- 
bius having secretly given him notice to address himself 
to him, or whatever were the motives, — wrote to him, 
earnestly begging his protection against the persecution 
that was raised against him, because he defended the 
perfect unity of God, whose substance was indivisible, 
and a trinity of persons, which, he said, some were for 
confounding in the same essence. Eusebius having so 
proper an occasion of publishing his sentiments, and of 
putting himself at the head of a powerful party, which 
would blindly pursue his interest, willingly undertook to 
protect Arius. He sent him word to continue resolute 
in defence of his opinions, telling him that he would 
find those who would support him in so just an under- 



22 EUSEBIUS. 

taking; and that he would write in his favour to the 
Bishops of Palestine, where he had abundance of ac- 
quaintance; especially with Eusebius of Csesarea, who 
had already begun a very particular friendship with him. 

Eusebius now forced Arius upon the patronage of the 
bishops of Palestine, offered him an asylum in his own 
house, and wrote urgently, though at the present time 
respectfully, in his favour, to Alexander the Patriarch of 
Alexandria. 

In the meantime, Constantino having made himself 
sole master of the empire, after many victories which 
he obtained by the assistance of heaven, under the ban- 
ner of the cross, used his utmost endeavours at Nicome- 
dia to make the Christian religion flourish, by the edicts 
and laws which he published in its favour. And he 
was even going personally to visit the cities of the East, 
and repair in person the disorders which were occasioned 
by the tyrants in their persecution of the worship of the 
true God, when he heard, with concern, the sad news of 
the disorders which hindered his designs, and prevented 
the infidels, who were scandalized at the civil war that 
was amongst the Christians, from embracing their faith. 
Eusebius, who was so much concerned in this matter, 
and who had a great share in the emperor's esteem, 
thought it best to be beforehand with the patriarch, and 
throw all the blame of these great disorders upon him. 
To this purpose, he with a great deal of cunning, insin- 
uated to him, "That Arius was, indeed, to blame for 
having, with so much noise, maintained his opinion, 
which he might better have kept to himself, without 
engaging so many considerable men in his defence ; but 
that Alexander was at the same time infinitely more 
blame-worthy, because he was the first occasion of that 
great confusion, by having first proposed to his clergy 
certain questions, which served rather to employ the wits 
of philosophers, than to instruct Christians ; and that it 
was better to pass them by with humility, than presump- 



EUSEBIUS. 23 

tuously to endeavour to explain them, at the hazard of 
our peace, and even of our holy religion itself : — That 
what had been debated between Arius and the Patriarch, 
was nothing but vain subtleties, which no ways concerned 
any essential point of the Christian religion ; that they 
agreed in the main ; and that these sort of disputes, 
which went beyond what was necessary, only caused 
confusion, and raised scruples in people's minds, who 
were not always capable of making such difficult and 
confused enquiries. That therefore, the best expedient 
was to enjoin both parties to silence, and oblige them to 
become friends, and say no more for the future upon the 
subject of that dangerous and unnecessary dispute." 

Constantino, who had a great value for Eusebius, and 
who besides was very glad to hear that the question in 
this dispute did not concern the faith, without difficulty 
became of the same opinion too, because we easily believe 
what we desire ; and therefore he wrote a letter agreeable 
to the wrong information which he had received. This 
letter was addressed alike to both parties, and blamed 
both the one and the other, but the patriarch much more 
than Arius, ordering them to be reconciled, without con- 
tending any farther upon this point, which had caused 
so much confusion in the Church. 

The emperor soon perceived that he had been misled, 
and that the dispute referred to something more vital in 
our religion than he had at first supposed. This led to 
the convention of the council of Nice. (See Atlianasius, 
Arius, and the preceding article of Eusebius of Ccesarea.J 
This great council, convened, not by the Pope of Rome, 
but by the emperor, was assembled, not to discuss a doc- 
trine, but that testimony might be borne from all parts 
of the world as to the truth received by the Churches 
from the holy apostles. Eusebius of Nicomedia of course 
was there, and he and his followers, seeing plainly that 
there was no remedy left for them, if in the emperor's 
presence they did not gain some advantage by disputing, 



24 EUSEBIUS. 

used their utmost endeavours to carry it for their opinion, 
or, at least, to hinder a definitive sentence, by the diffi- 
culties which they started. On the other side, the ortho- 
dox, continuing resolute in defence of the truth, and 
becoming more bold by the presence of a prince, who had 
so much zeal and piety and such good intentions, op- 
posed, with more force than ever, the false subtleties of 
these heretics, by the great truths of the Scripture, and 
the ancient belief of the Church, from the Apostles down 
to that time ; so that each party being heated, nothing 
was ever disputed with more violence than upon this 
occasion. 

Constantino, who had a mind to bring them to a union 
imperceptibly and by fair means, heard both sides wdth 
extraordinary patience ; commended one, restrained the 
heat and violence of another ; caused those who ran from 
the point in hand, to return to it; softened whatever 
expressions were harsh, and prevented the breaking in 
upon order, speaking familiarly in Greek to all, inviting 
them to agree, and bringing over the greatest part of 
those, who, through a desire of vanquishing, or shame of 
yielding, continued still obstinate in their particular 
opinion. In short, he forgot nothing that an excellent 
moderator could do, to preserve order and keep them 
within bounds, and put an end, so happily as he did, to 
the dispute that was in this council. 

For as soon as, by the emperor's order, they came to 
vote, above three hundred bishops unanimously declared 
for the catholic verity, which they had all along so reso- 
lutely defended in the course of the dispute ; and the 
Son of God, to the great joy of Constantino, was declared 
to be consubstantial with His Father, and entirely equal 
to Him in all His divine perfections, according to the form 
of faith drawn up by Hosius, one of the presidents of the 
council ; and they published the condemnation of the 
detestable doctrine of Arius; which, being reduced to 
several propositions, w^as anathematized, together with all 
those who were maintainors of it. 



EUSEBIUS. 25 

Eusebius of Nicomedia, with sixteen bishops of his 
party, willing to use their utmost endeavours, opposed 
the decree, and rejected with scorn the word coyisuhstan- 
tial : but Constantine forthwith declared, that he would 
have what had been determined inviolably observed ; and 
that if any one refused to submit to it, he would send 
him into banishment, and exclude him from the society 
of men, as a wicked and impious wretch, who rebelled 
against the decrees of God Himself. For which reason, 
the greatest part of them, who were unwilling to incur 
the emperor's displeasure and the loss of their bishoprics, 
soon resolved to suit themselves to the times, and to sign 
whatever they should be required. 

Eusebius of Nicomedia, surprised at seeing himself 
deserted by the greatest part of his creatures, began to 
consult with the few bishops that he had left, how they 
might appease the storm that threatened them, without 
being obliged to subscribe to the orthodox confession of 
faith ; and after all, they agreed that there was but one 
remedy, and that was to present another confession, 
couched in teims less disagreeable, which the council 
might receive for the sake of peace, and they themselves 
afterwards interpret after their own way, and in the 
sense which they kept concealed, in order to publish 
it at a fitter opportunity. Having then composed such 
confession of faith, they presented it to the council, 
as containing the same doctrine that had been estab- 
lished, and differing in nothing but a few expressions, 
which (said they) ought not to hinder their uniting 
all together in the same opinion. But as soon as they 
saw that the term consuhstantial, and the condemnation 
of the doctrine of Arius, who had been anathematized, 
because he still persisted in his heresy, was not in it; 
then the whole assembly began to cry, with one voica, 
that that confession was a mere cheat and delusion, 
which only concealed their error under equivocal terms, 
VOL. v. c 



26 EUSEBIUS. 

to prevent its being justly condemned ; and this was 
carried on with so much heat, that they caused it to 
be torn immediately in the presence of those bishops 
who had presented it, and whom they openly styled 
rebels against God, and traitors to religion. This so 
confounded those who came with Eusebius, that Meno- 
phantus of Ephesus, Patrophilus of Scythopolis, Narcis- 
sus of Neronias, and Maris of Chalcedon, who were the 
chief of his friends, quitted him, and went at that instant 
and subscribed the council's confession of faith ; so that 
Eusebius had nobody now left with him but Theognis of 
Nice, Theonas of Marmorica, and Secundus of Ptolemais. 
Eusebius however would not yield yet ; for what will 
not an head of a party do, especially in religion, to 
maintain his ground, and preserve the authority he has 
gained over those of his sect ? For this purpose he de- 
vised a subtlety, of which he was the first inventor, and 
which he thought would be very proper to defend him 
from the thunder-claps which he expected on the part of 
the council, by being deposed ; and from the emperor, 
by being banished. There were two parts in the form 
drawn up by Hosius ; one was that confession of faith 
which we daily make in the Nicene Creed, where the 
word consuhstantial was made use of; the other, the con- 
demnation of certain propositions taken from Arius's 
books and discourses. The first contained only the jus- 
tice of the cause, being a plain exposition of the catholic 
faith ; in the second, both the matter of fact and right 
were joined together in a condemnation of the doctrine 
of Arius, included in those propositions. Eusebius, after 
having well considered the confession of faith, concluded 
with himself, that the only way to pei'plex the Fathers, 
and preserve his own party in following the doctrine of 
Arius, was to make a distinction between the matter of 
fact and the matter of right. He therefore represented 
to the council, in very respectful terms, " That he sub^ 



EUSEBIUS. 27 

mitted to their determinations concerning tlie faith, and 
consented to subscribe to it, even admitting the word 
consubstantial, according to the genuine signification of it, 
and consequently that he held no erroneous opinion ; 
but that as for the condemnation of Arius, he could not 
subscribe to it ; not that he had a mind to reject the 
points of faith which they had decided, but because he 
did not think that he, whom they accused, was in the 
error that they laid to his charge : that, on the contrary, 
he was entirely persuaded, by the letters which he re- 
ceived from him, and by the conferences which he had 
had with him, that he was a man whose sentiments were 
entirely different from those for which he was con- 
demned." It is hard to conceive a greater piece of impu- 
dence, supported by less good sense and judgment, than 
that of this bishop upon this occasion : for they had by 
them the writings of Arius, which had been just read 
and examined in the council. He had been often heard 
to explain his meaning in the dispute ; and yet his pro- 
tector durst assert, in opposition to the whole assembly 
of fathers, that they did not rightly take nor understand 
the sense of his words, and that it was a matter of fact 
which was not to be questioned. So tme is it, that after 
passion has once seduced the mind, it is actuated after- 
wards only by the will, which is blind, and hinders us 
at length from seeing anything as it is, and makes us 
imagine we see that which is not. But the council was 
so enraged at this way of proceeding, that perceiving him 
to continue still inflexible in this obstinate resolution 
which he had taken, not to subscribe to the condemnation 
of Arius, under pretence that it concerned a matter of 
fact, which he might judge of by his ears and eyes, they 
condemned those four bishops as heretics, and deprived 
them of their sees. They even chose two others to put 
in the place of Eusebius and Theognis, namely, Amphion 
for Nicomedia, and Chrestus for Nice ; being well 



28 EUSEBIUS. 

assured, that Constantine would not fail to support their 
sentence. 

Constantine, by a strong stretch of the Regale, com- 
manded Eusebius and the other bishops who refused to 
subscribe to the condemnation of Arius, after they had 
been condemned and deprived by the council, to be 
carried into banishment. This just severity of Constan- 
tine, and his unshaken constancy, even against him, 
who, by the favour of the empress Constantia, was 
thought to have great interest at court, brought these 
rebels to themselves, abated their pride, and made them, 
in appearance at least, to do whatever they were required. 
For, in the first place, Arius, and his two chief disciples 
Euzoius and Achillas, pretended to return to the faith, 
and to be perfectly undeceived, begging pardon of the 
council, and humbly intreating the fathers to admit them 
into their presence, protesting that they were very ready 
to satisfy them, and to submit to them in every thing, 
without exception. The council, imitating the goodness of 
Him Whom they represented, and Who desireth not the 
death of a sinner, but rather that he should be converted 
and live, received their request graciously, and caused 
them to be called into the assembly, where, after having 
given satisfaction in every thing that was asked them, 
and publicly abjured their heresy, they were re-established 
in the exercise of their ministerial office, upon condition 
nevertheless, not to return any more to Alexandria, where 
they had been the occasion of so much disorder. The 
two African bishops, Theonas of Marmorica, and Secundus 
of Ptolemais, who blindly followed Arius, and were the 
first that were seduced by him. followed his example, 
and received the like favour. 

This last stroke quite confounded Eusebius : he found 
himself reduced to the last extremity, being left almost 
alone, and forsaken by every body, except only one 
bishop, who was Theognis of Nice, who always followed 



EUSEBIUS. «9 

his fortune. He knew very well that Constantine's order 
was going to be put in execution against him ; and since 
he could not bring himself to a resolution of quitting the 
court, which he was passionately fond of, nor of losing so 
good a bishopric, which he had purchased by more than 
one crime ; he at length chose rather to debase and 
humble himself for the present, in order to preserve him- 
self in his post, where he might easily find an opportu- 
nity of rising again. For this purpose, he employed 
the most powerful friends he had at court to intercede 
for him with the emperor ; and at the same time he, 
with Theognis of Nice, presented a petition to the coun- 
cil, expressed in the most humble and respectful terms. 
They therein represented, that indeed they had before 
been unwilling to subscribe to Arius's condemnation, be- 
cause they had thought that he was not in reality a man 
of such sentiments as were attributed to him ; but that 
now they were resolved to submit their opinion to the 
holy council, in that matter, and do whatever they 
appointed : that, however, they did not do this out of any 
fear of banishment, to which they were condemned, but 
only that they might not be accounted heretics, by per- 
sisting in their refusal : that since Arius himself, who 
was the cause of the mischief, and more criminal than 
any, had been received into favour ; it was not just that 
they who had only erred through following him, should 
become more guilty by their silence, or be refused the 
same favour when they desired it : that they most hum- 
bly intreated the fathers to use their good offices for them 
with the emperor ; and in the mean time, to enjoin them 
whatever they, in their wisdom, should think requisite. 
All the fathers, who ardently desired to have all the 
members of the council re-united together, with open 
arms received these bishops who returned last to their 
duty, and seemed to be affected with a sincere repent- 
ance, which they expressed by their humiliation. What 
c -2 



30 EUSEBIUS. 

was most extraordinary at this juncture, was, that at the 
same time that the fathers went to intercede for the 
bishops with the emperor, that prince, prevailed upon bj 
the humble intreaties of Eusebius's friends, was also 
about to desire the council to be merciful to them, and 
restore them again if they submitted : so that both the 
one and the other, finding in themselves the same 
favourable disposition towards them, they were restored 
by the council, and the emperor reversed the sentence 
which he had given against them. 

The heat of Arianism seemed now to be utterly ex- 
tinguished, as well by the unanimous consent with 
which it was condemned by the bishops assembled in 
the council of Nice, as by the solemn abjuration which 
Arius himself and his followers had made of their doc- 
trine : but it soon appeared that the fire only lay con- 
cealed, that it might afterwards do the more mischief. 
Let us now see by what artifices and secret contrivances 
they were able, not only to keep on foot, but to make 
more powerful, a party that was looked upon as entirely 
ruined, and which durst not declare themselves. 

Eusebius of Nicomedia, who knew that the greatest 
part of his friends, especially Arius, had, as well as 
himself, only signed the Nicene confession out of com- 
plaisance or fear, having assembled them together, found 
no difficulty to bring them to their former disposition, 
and make them resolve never to quit their enterprize. 
All that remained, was to consider by what means they 
should accomplish it ; so that after having well considered 
the matter, they resolved upon these four things : — 1. 
That it was necessary to dissemble with Constantine, 
whose unshaken steadiness in the faith they were not 
unacquainted with ; and that in expectation of a more 
favourable opportunity, they should always declare that 
they stuck to the decisions of the council. 2. That they 
should make it their business to strengthen their party, 



EUSEBIUS. 31 

by gaining under-hand as many as the}' could, especially 
at court. 3. That they should endeavour to niin those 
who opposed their designs ; but especially Athanasius, 
who defended Alexander the patriarch, their enemy, and 
who was the most powerful adversary that had opposed 
them in the council. 4. That they should set all their 
engines at work to re-establish Arius in Alexandria, that 
he might recover the credit and interest which he had 
there before his condemnation, which by that very means 
would appear to be unjust. 

These things being thus determined, every one began 
to apply himself to the particular part which he was to 
act ; but above all, Eusebius, who was, as it were, the 
soul of the party. As he was a great courtier, and upon 
all occasions supported by the favour of the empress 
Constantia, he easily recovered the emperor's esteem ; 
who, besides, was very well satisfied with his having sub- 
mitted to the council, thinking he had done it heartily 
and sincerely. He afterwards found it no diiEhcult mat- 
ter to gain several at court, whom he drew over to him 
by all manner of artifices, they expecting to reap great 
advantages from his favour : so that having gotten a 
great number of dependants, in whom he could confide, 
he thought himself in a condition to put his design of 
ruining Athanasius in execution, and re-establishing 
Arius at the first opportunity, which then offered as 
favourable as could be desired. 

But Eusebius overshot the mark, for having leagued 
with the Meletians, and with them brought false accusa- 
tions against St. Athanasius, now patriarch of Alexandria, 
he disgusted Constantine, who put into execution the 
dormant decree of the council of Nice against him, and 
sent him into exile. While these things happened at 
Nicomedia, where Constantine still continued, he caused 
his city. New Rome, to be magnificently built at Byzan- 
tium, which name he changed to that of Constantinople. 



32 EUSEBIUS. 

It was finished in two years, and he removed thither the 
seat of his empire. He solemnly dedicated it to God, in 
memory of the blessed Virgin Mary, mother of our Lord : 
and it being the twentieth year of his reign, and the fifth 
since Constantino's being created Caesar, when, according 
to custom, great rejoicings were to be made, he took the 
opportunity of making the dedication of that city the 
most magnificent that could possibly be. It was at this 
time that Constantia, who was impatient both at the dis- 
grace and absence of Eusebius of Nicomedia, procured 
him to be recalled from banishment. She even got her 
nephew Constantius, whose good opinion Eusebius had 
found such means to gain, that he possessed it entirely 
afterwards, to join with her to this purpose ; and they 
both together made such intercession with Constantine, 
that the emperor, who could not easily have refused his 
sister and his son anything they asked during that fes- 
tival, and w^ho, besides, still esteemed Eusebius, whom 
he had formerly had an affection for ; was very willing 
to be at last persuaded that those two bishops, whom he 
had banished, always kept to the Nicene faith, and were 
not answerable for what the Egyptians had deposed 
against their patriarch : and therefore he caused them to 
be recalled, and let them return again to their churches. 
Eusebius, instead of amending by his banishment, be- 
came thereby still more incensed against St. Athanasius, 
and was more resolute than ever to ruin him ; but kept 
himself a little upon his guard, in order to take such 
precautions as might secure him from the emperor's dis- 
pleasure : to which purpose he was very careful to make 
every body believe that he was closely attached to the 
determinations of the council of Nice ; for he was then 
persuaded that the emperor would never suffer any at- 
tempt to be made against it; and that it was by that, most 
assuredly, he would always judge whether people were or- 
thodox in their opinions. Moreover, though he earnestly 



EUSEBIUS. 33 

desired to have Arius return, that he might settle him again 
in Alexandria, according to his first design, yet he took 
a great deal of care not to mention it at that time, for 
fear of making himself suspected. However, he again 
began to enter into measures with the Meletians, for 
loading St. Athanasius with new calumnies ; but he took 
them somewhat more cautiously and secretly than before, 
staying purposely at Nicomedia, and absenting himself 
from the court, which was at Constantinople, that he 
might be thought to mind nothing but the government 
of his Church. 

To the influence of Eusebius, however, are to be traced 
all the persecutions which that eminent saint of the 
Church, the illustrious Athanasius had to undergo. And 
when Constantius succeeded to the empire, Eusebius 
pulled off his disguise, and began to act in concert with 
the courtiers, who entirely won Constantius to the Arian 
side, for the complete establishment of his faction. 
When the see of Constantinople was vacant, the Catho- 
lics elected Paul, a virtuous and very learned man, to be 
their bishop, but Constantius set aside the election, and 
caused Eusebius to be again translated. Eusebius, now 
Bishop of Constantinople, became more violent than 
ever, and one of his first actions was to persecute Eusta- 
thius, Bishop of Antioch. (See his Life.) His persecu- 
tion of Athanasius continued, and his triumph was 
complete in the council of Antioch in 341. This council 
was held on occasion of the dedication of the " Golden" 
Church at Antioch. The emperor Constantino commen- 
ced this work in a style of magnificence worthy of his 
piety, and Constantius had just completed it ; and as 
Eusebius of Nicomedia lost no opportunity of advancing 
his schemes, he so managed matters, that under the 
pretext of dedicating the new church, he assembled a 
council, of which the real object was to condemn belief 
in the consubstantiality of the Son. Ninety-seven bishops, 



34 EUSTATHIUS. 

of whom forty, at least, were acknowledged Arians, were 
present. They came chiefly from the following provinces : 
Syria, Phenicia, Palestine, Arabia, Mesopotamia, Cilicia, 
Isauria, Cappadocia, Bithynia, and Thrace. The prin- 
cipal men amongst them were, Eusebius, who had usurp- 
ed the see of Constantinople, Th^odorus of Heraclea, 
Narcissus of Neroniadis, Macedonius of Mopsuestia, Masis 
of Macedonia, Acacius of Cesarea, Eudoxius, afterwards 
of Constantinople, George of Laodicea, and Theophronius 
of Tyana, in Cappadocia. Maximus, Bishop of Jerusalem, 
refused to attend, not forgetting how he had been, upon 
a former occasion, (in the synod of Tyre,) surprised into 
subscribing to the condemnation of Athanasius. 

No bishop from the west was present at the council. 
The emperor Constantius, however, who saw only with 
the eyes of the Arians, attended in person. The sole 
object of the Eusebians was to crush Athanasius, and 
accordingly they brought fonvard again the accusations 
which had been urged against him in the council of Tyre, 
and had been repeatedly refuted. Moreover, they alleged 
against him, on the f)i'esent occasion, certain murders 
which had been committed, and which they pretended 
were caused by his return to Alexandria. In the end he 
was condemned without a hearing ; and they proceeded 
to draw up three creeds or formularies. 

The object of these formularies was to give a triumph 
to the party of Eusebius, by an insinuation that the dis- 
pute between him and those who held the Homo-ousian 
was a mere dispute about words. 

Eusebius did not long survive his triumph, for in the 
following year he died. — Maimhourg. Tillemont. Socrates. 
Theodoret. 

EUSTATHIUS. 

EusTATHius was born at Lida, in Pamphylia, was 
Bishop of Berea, and afterwards of Antioch. He was 



EUSTATHIUS. 35 

strongly opposed to Arius, and distinguished himself by 
his zeal at the council of Nice. He is referred to in the 
preceding article : Eusebius of Nicomedia having usurped 
the see of Constantinople, resolved to rid himself of Eus- 
tathius, as the most jDowerful of all those who opposed 
the establishment of his heresy. To bring this design 
about, he suborned people to tell Constantius, that be 
was an enemy to him, and had spoken insolently and 
abusively of the memory of the empress his mother. 
This accusation relating to a very tender point, the em- 
peror, who was extremely exasperated against him, with- 
out difficulty resolved his destruction, and abandoned 
him to Eusebius, who undertook to ruin him under some 
other pretence, and procure him to be condemned for 
other crimes, without mentioning this, or so much as 
there being any appearance of it. For this purpose he 
feigned a journey to Jerusalem to visit the holy places, 
from whence he returned back to Antioch, to give orders 
about what was necessary for celebrating the dedication 
of the great temple, which Constantino had begun to 
build there, and Constantius had finished. He set out 
from Constantinople with Theognis of Nice, the most 
faithful of all his friends ; and as they passed by Antioch, 
they w^ere received there with all manner of respect and 
civility by Eustathius, to whom they likewise gave all 
possible instances of a sincere friendship, the better to 
conceal the treacherous designs which they were contriv- 
ing against him. As soon as Eusebius arrived at Jeru- 
salem, all the bishops of his faction, who were then in 
the neighbouring provinces, came to him ; his old friend 
Pacrophilus of Scythopolis, Actius of Lydda, Theodore 
of Laodicea, several others of Syria and Palestine ; and 
above all, Eusebius of Caesarea. He imparted to them 
the real cause of his journey, and the design which he 
had undertaken, in concert with the emperor, of driving 
Eustathius from his see without violence, for fear of rais- 



36 EUSTATHIUS. 

ing a commotion, because he was mightily beloved, shew- 
ing them the means that were necessary to bring it about. 
He found them all ready to do whatever he desired, and 
especially Eusebius of Csesarea, who besides the common 
interest of his party, imagined he had a more particular 
reason not to love Eustathius, as being his rival in learn- 
ing and eloquence, as well as in dignity, having had the 
l^reference of him when chosen into the bishopric of 
Antioch, at the death of Paulinus. 

After having well considered what was to be done, 
Eusebius took again the road to Antioch, accompanied 
by all those bishops, who pretended to come thither, 
only to attend the new Bishop of the imperial city, out 
of respect. Eustathius, who had no suspicion of what 
they were plotting against him, and being one of a great 
spirit, did his utmost to give a good reception to such 
good company; for he had ah'eady with him other bishops, 
who came a great way off, on account of the dedication 
which was about to be performed. But one day, as they 
were all assembled in the form of a synod, to consider 
upon some ecclesiastical aiTair, the holy patriarch was 
very much suprised at the sight of a woman holding a 
child in her arms, who came in to them, and throwing 
down the child at their feet, told them, with lamentable 
cries, that Eustathius, after having seduced her, had 
left her with that child, of which he was the father, and 
which he most cruelly refused to maintain. At this, 
Eusebius, who had suborned this woman, and all the 
bishops of his party, said, that as this was a crime so 
shameful and scandalous to the Church, he was under a 
necessity of justifying himself. The good bishop thought 
that would be no difficult matter, because, being well 
assured of his own innocence, he was no less confident 
of this impudent woman's not being able to support her 
accusation by any sort of proof. He demanded, there- 
fore, that she might be obliged to produce some evidence 



EUSTATHIUS. 3T 

of the crime she accused him of: she, who had her 
instructions, answered him, that indeed she had none, 
because he had been cunning enough to take such pre- 
cautions, that nobody could ever depose against him ; 
but that she was ready to swear, as accordingly she did, 
that Eustathius was the father of the child, meaning by 
that a certain artificer by whom she really had it, as she 
afterwards confessed before several bishops, to whom, 
finding herself sick and at the last extremity, she con- 
fessed this horrible piece of villany invented by Eusebius. 
All laws, both human and divine, in such cases, forbid 
any :person, and especially a priest, to be condemned 
without some farther proof than this ; and the rest of the 
bishops, who were at that assembly, would not have had 
any regard paid to such weak testimony in so improbable 
a case 

But the Eusebians, who desired nothing more, began 
to cry out with one consent, that the crime was but too 
well testified by the accomplice of it herself, who averred 
it to his face, and confirmed what she alleged by an oath. 
Whereupon Eusebius of CsBsarea, between whom and 
Eustathius there had been great differences, because in 
one of his books he had accused him of corrupting the 
doctrine of the council of Nice ; rising from his seat, 
acted the part of an accuser, and said, that although he 
should not be convicted of that adultery, as he really was, 
he ought nevertheless to be deposed, because, that under 
pretence of adhering to the faith of the council, which 
he did not do, he maintained the errors of Sabellius, 
which Eusebius pretended to prove by false conclusions, 
which he drew from his principles. And hereupon, not- 
withstanding all that the great bishop could urge to the 
contrary, the Eusebians pronounced sentence of deposi- 
tion against him, and without hearing the rest of the 
bishops, who protested against this horrible injustice, 
they went to meet the emperor, who, they knew, was not 
far from Antioch, whither he was coming, and so con- 

VOL. V. D 



38 EUTYCHES. 

trived it, that at his arrival, that prince, who had already 
made himself the minister of their passions, and was 
greatly exasperated against Eustathius, banished him to 
Trajanopolis in Thrace, where he finished, at length, by 
this sort of martyrdom, a life which he had rendered 
worthy of admiration, both by the purity of his doctrine 
and manners, and the glorious combats which he had 
undergone, in defence of the divinity of Jesus Christ. 
— Maimbourg. Tillemont. 

EUTYCHES. 

EuTYCHEs was a monk of the fifth century, and was 
elected abbot or archimandrite of a convent near Con- 
stantinople. He was at first honourably distinguished 
by his opposition to the Nestorian heresy, although he 
himself afterwards acquired a bad fame by establishing 
the heresy which goes by his name. 

As this portion of history is not in general well known, 
and as the controversy is one of importance, having 
occasioned the convocation of the fourth general council, 
that of Chalcedon, we shall enter at some length into the 
history of this heretic. 

But we must premise the extreme importance of re- 
jecting the heresy alluded to. The Monophysites, or 
those heretics who have Eutyches for their founder, ac- 
knowledge only one nature in Christ, compounded of the 
divinity and humanity, yet without conversion, confusion, 
or mixture. And it is evident that such a doctrine 
shakes the main pillars of the Christian's hope, for in 
attributing to our blessed Saviour a sort of third nature, 
compounded of the divine and human, it threatens to 
render His suffering for us imperfect, and incapable of 
obtaining salvation for men ; for unless Christ had been 
very and perfect man to suffer, and very God to confer 
an infinite value on His sufferings. His death would have 
been inadequate to the accom23lishment of so great a 
work. 



EUTYCHES. n 

Eutyches was first accused of heresy in a council 
assembled at Constantinople in 448. He refused to 
attend the summons at first, urging the plea of age and 
ill health. But at the seventh session he was present ; 
when Flavian, Bishop of Constantinople, addressed him 
saying : — You have heard what your accuser says ; de- 
clare, therefore, if you confess the union of two natures. 
Eutyches answered, Y'es ; of two natures I do. Euse- 
bius said, Do you confess two natures after the incarna- 
tion, Lord Archimandrite, and that Jesus Christ is con- 
substantial with us according to the flesh, or not ? 
Eutyches, addressing his discourse to Flavian, answered, 
I am not come here to dispute, but to declare to your 
holiness my thoughts; they are written in this paper, order 
it to be read : Flavian said, Piead it yourself. Eutyches 
told him that he could not. Why? said Flavian, 
this exposition, is it yours, or any other person's? 
if it is yours, read it yourself. It is mine, replied 
Eutyches, and conformable to that of the holy fathers. 
Flavian asked. What Fathers ? Declare it yourself ; w^liat 
occasion have you for a paper? Eutj^ches said, My 
belief is this ; I adore the Father with the Son, and the 
Son with the Father, and the Holy Ghost with the 
Father and the Son. I confess His taking upon Him the 
flesh from the holy Virgin, and that He was made per- 
fect man for our salvation. This I confess too in the 
presence of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy 
Ghost, and your holiness. 

Flavian asked him, Do you confess that the same 
Jesus Christ, only Son of God, is consubstantial with 
His Father, according to the divinity, and consubstantial 
with his Mother, according to the Humanity ? Eutyches 
replied, I have declared my opinion, why do you ask me 
any more ? Flavian said. Do you now confess that He is 
of two natures ? Eutyches replied. As I acknowledge 
Him for my God, and Lord of heaven and earth, till this 
time I have not suflered myself to reason of His nature ; 



40 EUTYCHES. 

but that He is consubstantial with ns, till this time 
I have not said it; I confess it. Flavian asked him, Do 
not you say that the same is consubstantial with the 
Father according to the divinity, and with us according 
to the humanity ? Eutyches made answer, Till this day, 
I have not said that the body of the Lord our God is 
consubstantial with us ; but I confess that the holy 
Virgin is of the same substance with us, and that our 
God has taken His flesh from her. 

Basil, Bishop of Seleucia, said. If His Mother is con- 
substantial with us. He is likewise ; for He has been 
called the Son of Man. Eutyches answered. Since you 
now affirm it, I consent to every thing. Florentius the 
patrician said. The Mother being consubstantial with us, 
the Son is certainly consubstantial with us too. Euty- 
ches said, I have not said so hitherto ; for as I maintain 
that His body is the body of a God, do you understand 
me ? I do not say, that the body of God is the body of 
a man, but a human body, and that the Lord is incarnate 
of the Virgin. But if I must add that He is consubstan- 
tial with us, I say that likewise ; I have not declared it 
before ; but now, since your holiness has said it, I agree 
to it. Flavian replied. It is then by necessity, and not 
according to your opinion, that you confess the faith. 
Eutyches said, It is my present opinion ; till this hour 
I feared to say it ; and knowing that the Lord is our 
God, I did not suffer myself to reason upon His nature ; 
but since your holiness allows and teaches me, I con- 
sent. Flavian said, We innovate nothing, we only 
follow the faith of our fathers. Florentius the patrician 
said, Tell us whether the Lord is of two natures after 
the incarnation, or not? Eutyches replied, I confess that 
he was of two natures before the union, but after the 
union I confess but one. 

The council said, You must make a clear confession, 
and anathematize whatever is contrary to the doctrine 
which has been just now read to you. Eutyches said, I 



EUTYCHES. 41 

have told you that I have not said it before now ; since 
I am taught it by you, I agree to it, and follow my 
fathers. But it has not appeared plainly to me in the 
Scriptures, and the fathers have not all said it; if I 
pronounce this anathema, woe be to me, for I anathema- 
tize my fathers. All the council arose, and cried aloud, 
saying. Let him be anathematized. Flavian said, Let 
the council declare what this man deseiTes, who will 
neither clearly confess the true faith, nor submit to the 
opinion of the council. Seleucus, Bishop of Amasea, 
said, Ke deserves to be deposed, but you may be indul- 
gent to him. Flavian answered. If he confesses his 
fault, and anathematizes his error, we may pardon him. 
Florentius asked him, Do you say that there are two 
natures, and that Jesus Christ is consubstantial with us ? 
speak. Eutyches replied, I have read in St. Cyril and 
St. Athanasius, that He is of two natures before the 
union ; but after the union and incarnation, they say no 
more two natures, but one. Florentius said, Do you 
confess two natures after the union ? speak. Eutyches 
answered, if you please to order St. Athanasius to be 
read, you will find no such thing there. Basil of Seleu- 
cia said. If you do not say two natures after the union, 
you admit a mixture and confusion. Florentius said, 
He that says not, of tsvo natures, and two natures, does 
not think right. The whole council arose, and cried 
aloud. The faith is not forced : many years to the em- 
perors, many years. Our faith is always victorious. He 
does not submit, why do you exhort him. 

Flavian pronounced sentence in these terms : Eutyches, 
formerly priest and Archimandrite, being fully convicted, 
as well by his past actions as his present declarations, of 
maintaining the error of Valentinus and Apollinarius, 
and of following obstinately their blasphemies ; and so 
much the more as he has not regarded our advice and 
instractions, by receiving the holy doctrine : it is for this 
reason that, with tears and groans for his total loss, we 
d2 



42 EUTYCHES. 

declare, on the part of Jesus Christ, Whom he has blas- 
phemed, that he is deprived of all sacerdotal rank, of our 
communion, and of the government of his monastery ; 
informing all those who shall discourse, or converse with 
him for the future, that they shall themselves be subject 
to excommunication. This sentence was subscribed by 
thirty-two bishops and twenty-three abbots, eighteen of 
which were priests, one deacon, and four laymen. The 
most eminent are Andrew, Faustus, (who seems to be the 
son of St. Dalmatius) Martin, Job, Manuel, Abraham, 
Marcellus, abbot of the Acemets. The most considerable 
bishops were Flavian of Constantinople, Saturnius of 
Marcianopolis, Basil of Seleucia, Seleucus of Amasea, 
Ethericus of Smyrna, and Julian of Coos, deputed by 
St. Leo. 

The controversy raged for a considerable time, until 
Eutyches at last, through the influence of a friend at 
court, the eunuch Chrysaphius, persuaded the emperor 
to convoke a council at Ephesus, which assembled in 
August 449. It consisted of 130 bishops, and is called 
in ecclesiastical history the Latrocinium of Ephesus, 
the convention of robbers. In this synod Eutyches was 
absolved from the censure of the synod of Constantino- 
ple ; and Flavian, who had pronounced sentence against 
him, was deposed and treated with such violence, that on 
this account, together with its other irregular proceedings, 
the synod received the title just mentioned. Flavian 
was committed to prison and then banished, but he died 
in a few days at Hypaea in Lydia, of the kicks he received 
from Barsumas and his monks Dioscorus the president, 
excommunicated Leo, the Pope of Rome. 

A council was held every year at Rome, and the council 
now held there, of course condemned the Latrocinium of 
Ephesus. Through the exertions of Leo the great, Bishop 
of Rome, among others, the emperor Marcian, Theo- 
dosius being now dead, consented to call a council at 
Chalcedon, which council is the fourth of the general 



EUTYCHES. 43 

councils. This was done to secure the final decision of 
the Church universal, and so to settle the disputes which 
had arisen or might arise in provincial councils. 

The council assembled in the church of St. Euphemia 
the martyr, situated on the outside of the city, about two 
hundred and fifty paces from the Bosphorus, with a 
magnificent prospect before it, including a view of Con^ 
stantinople. The Basilica was spacious, supported by 
magnificent pillars. And it is mentioned that there was 
a gallery running round it for the people to pray in and 
to hear the office. 

The council assembled, by command, not of the Pope of 
Eome, but of the emperor Marcian, on the 8th of October, 
451. The council was attended by nineteen chief officers 
of the empire, and 630 bishops. The order of their sit- 
ting was this : the magistrates were placed in the mid- 
dle, before the balustrade surrounding the altar ; on the 
left sat the legates of the Bishop of Rome, and of Auato- 
lius. Bishop of Constantinople, and other bishops of the 
Eastern dioceses, Antioch, Caesarea, Ephesus, Pontus, 
Asia, Thrace ; on the right were Dioscorus of Alexandria, 
with the bishops of Jerusalem and Corinth, the legates of 
Anastasius, Bishop of Thessalonica, and the rest of the 
bishops of the dioceses of Eg}^t and Illyricum. The 
gospel was placed in the midst of the assembly. It may 
be remarked here, that from what occurred in the eleventh 
and twelfth sessions, the majority of the Asiatic bishops 
were married men. 

This synod published a confession or definition of 
faith, in which the doctrine and creed of the three pre- 
ceding councils of Nice, Constantinople, and Ephesus 
were confirmed, and the epistles of St. Cyril of Alexan- 
dria, and that of Leo, the Bishop of Rome, were approved. 
The orthodox doctrine of the existence of two perfect and 
distinct natures, the divine and human, in the unity of 
the Person of our Lord Jesus Christ was clearly defined. 

Eutyches was in this council anathematized as well as 



44 EUTYCHES. 

Dioscorus, Bishop of Alexandria. They maintained, as 
will be remembered, that there was only one nature in our 
Lord Jesus Christ after the incarnation, or the union of 
the divinity and the humanity. The decree of the Latro- 
cinium was annulled, and though a few bishops of Egypt 
and Palestine, of the party of Dioscoms, opposed the 
orthodox doctrine and founded the Monophysite sect, 
the infinite majority of the Catholic Church throughout 
the world received the doctrine of the (Ecumenical 
synod. The doctrine taught by this synod is as follows : 
" We confess and with one accord teach, one and the 
same Son, our Lord Jesus Christ ; perfect in divinity, 
perfect in humanity ; truly God, truly man ; consisting 
of a reasonable soul and body ; consubstantial with the 
Father according to the Godhead, and consubstantial 
with us according to the manhood ; in all things like to 
us without sin ; Who was begotten of the Father, before 
all ages, according to the Godhead ; and in the last days, 
the same born according to the manhood, of Mary the 
Virgin, Mother of God, for us and our salvation, Who is 
to be acknowledged one and the same Christ, the Son, 
the Lord, the only begotten, in two natures, without 
mixture, change, division, or separation ; the difference 
of natures not being removed by their union, but rather 
the propriety of each nature being preserved and con- 
curring in one aspect and person. So that He is not 
separate or divided into two persons, but is one and the 
same only Son, God the Word, our Lord Jesus Christ." 

After the reading of the definition, all the bishops cried 
out, this is the faith of the fathers ; let the metropolitans 
subscribe in the presence of the magistrates ; what has 
been defined admits of no delay ; this is the faith of the 
apostles, we all follow it. The magistrates said, what 
the Fathers have decreed, and with which every body is 
satisfied, shall be related to the emperor. 

At the sixth session the emperor Marcian came in 
person to the council. He made a speech, which he 



EUTYCHES. 45 

delivered in Latin, being the language of the empire, 
and which was intei-preted in Greek. He therein shewed 
the intention he had in convening the council, to pre- 
serve the purity of the faith, w^hich had been sometime 
changed by the avarice and passion of particular persons ; 
(meaning, without doubt, Chrysaphius.) He said, that 
no other belief concerning the mysteiy of the incarnation 
should be entertained, than what had been taught by the 
fathers of Nice, and Leo, in his letter to Flavian. 
He declares that after the example of Constantino, his 
desire of assisting at the council, was only to establish 
the faith, not to shew his power, and exhorts the fathers 
sincerely to explain the faith, agreeable to what they had 
received by tradition. All the bishops cried out. Long 
life to the emperor, long life to the empress ; long life to 
the catholic princes. The archdeacon Aetius afterwards 
said, that he had in his hands the definition of faith 
made by the council, and read it by the emperor's order. 
It was that of the preceding day, which was subscribed 
by all the bishops, to the number of 356, beginning with 
the legates. Diogenes, metropolitan of Cyzicus, sub- 
scribed for himself and six of his suffragan bishops, who 
were absent : as also did Theodore of Tarsus, and twelve 
other metropolitans. 

The emperor asked if all the council agreed to this 
confession of faith. All the bishops cried out. We all 
agree to this : we have all voluntarily subscribed : we are 
all orthodox. To this they added several other acclama- 
tions of praises and wishes for the emperor and empress ; 
calling him the new Constantine, and her the new 
Helen. 

The emperor said : The catholic faith having been 
declared, we think it just and expedient to take away all 
pretence of division for the future. Whosoever, therefore, 
shall raise a disturbance in public, (speaking of the faith) 
if he is a private person he shall be expelled the imperial 
city ; if an officer, discharged ; if he be a clerk, he shall 



46 EUTYCHES. 

be deposed, and subject to other punisbments. All tbe 
bishops cried aloud, Long live the emperor, long live the 
pious prince : you have reformed the churches, you have 
established the faith : long live the empress. God pre- 
serve your empire; you have driven out the heretics. 
Anathema to Nestorius, Eutyches, and Dioscorus. 

The emperor said : There are some articles which we 
have in respect to you reserved, thinking it more proper 
to have them canonically ordained in the council, rather 
than commanded by our laws. The secretary Beronician 
read them by the emperor's order. There were three of 
them, the first of which was expressed in these terms : 
We pay honour, as they deserve, to all those who sin- 
cerely embrace a monastic life ; but because some persons 
under that pretence disturb the Church and State, it is 
ordained, that nobody shall build a monastery, without 
the consent of the bishop of the city, and the proprietor 
of the land ; and that the monks, as well in the city as 
the country, be subject to the bishop, and live in quiet ; 
applying themselves only to fasting and prayer, without 
engaging in ecclesiastical or secular affairs, unless they 
are in case of necessity employed by their bishop : neither 
shall they receive slaves into their monasteries, without 
consent of their masters. 

The second article imports : That because some clerks 
and monks, out of avarice, are engaged in secular affairs, 
the council has ordained, that no clerk shall farm any 
land, or enter upon the office of steward, unless em- 
ployed by his bishop in the care of the church lands. If 
contrary to this prohibition, any one shall dare to become 
farmer himself, or by any other, he shall be subject to an 
ecclesiastical punishment ; and if he obstinately persists, 
he shall be deprived of his dignity. The third imports, 
that the clerks who are in the service of one church, shall 
not be appointed to the church of another city ; but that 
they ougbt to be contented with that to which they were 
first appointed ; except those who, being driven out of 



EUTYCHES. 47 

their own countiy, have, through necessity, entered into 
the service of another Church. If any one, contrary to 
this decree, receive a clerk who belongs to another bishop, 
both the bishop receiving him, and the clerk so received, 
shall be excommunicated, till such time as the clerk 
returns to his church. These three articles having been 
read, the emperor gave them to the Bishop Anatolius, and 
after some acclamations, he said : — 

In honour of St. Euphemia and your holiness, we 
order that the city of Chalcedon, in which the holy coun- 
cil has been assembled, have the privileges of a metro- 
polis ; but in name only, without prejudice to the dignity 
of the metropolis of Nicomedia. The council, by their 
acclamations, gave approbations of it, adding at the end ; 
we beseech you to dismiss us. The emperor replied, I 
know you are fatigued with so long a stay; however, 
have patience for three or four days, and prosecute the 
affairs you think proper, in presence of the magistrates, 
being assured of having all necessary assistance ; and 
let nobody depart till the whole be finished. Thus ended 
the sixth session. 

The last words of the bishops, who desired to be dis- 
missed, shew that they thought the council was ended, 
because they were convened for the definition of faith, 
which they had authorized by their subscriptions. They 
had likewise approved the three canons which were pro- 
posed by the emperor : they therefore thought they had 
nothing more to do for the general interest of the Church. 
It likewise appears by the emperor's answer, that he did 
not retain them at Chalcedon, but for particular affairs. 
It is for this reason, that the ancients made a great dis- 
tinction between the first six sessions and the following, 
wherein the faith was no longer considered. 

What became of Eutyches after the council of Chal- 
cedon is uncertain. — Evagrius Scholasticus. Definitio 
Fidei, apiid Bouth opuscula. Fleury. Palmers Treatise 
on the Church. 



48 FABRIOIUS. 

FABEE, BASIL. 

Basil Faber, an eminent Lutheran divine, was born 
in 1520, at Sorau, in Lower Lusatia. He studied at Wit- 
temberg, and successively became a teacher in the schools 
at Nordhausen, Tennstadt, and Quedlinburg, and rector 
of the Augustinian college of Erfurt. He translated 
into German the notes of Luther on Genesis, and the 
Chronicle of Krantzius. He published also observations 
on Cicero, and other learned works, and was concerned 
in the Magdeburgh Centuries ; but his best known work 
is his Thesaurus Eruditionis Scholasticae, first published 
in 1571. After his death it was augmented and im- 
proved by Buchner, Thomasius, Christopher Cellarius, 
and the elder and younger Graevius. The edition pub- 
lished at the Hague, 1735, in two vols, fol. is excelled by 
that by John Henry Leich, Frankfort, 1749, two vols, fol. 
Faber died in 1576. — Gen. Diet. 

FABER, JOHN. 

John Faber, called Malleus Hereticorum, " the 
Hammer of Heretics," was born in Suabia in 1479. He 
became Archbishop of Vienna, and died in 1542. His 
works were printed in three vols, fol. at Cologne in 
1537-41. On his advancement to the episcopacy, Eras- 
mus said, " Though Luther is poor himself, he makes 
his enemies rich." In a dispute with the Zuinglians, 
this zealous Romanist is reported to have exclaimed, 
when hard pressed by his opponents' continued appeal 
to the Gospel, " that the world might very well live in 
peace without the Gospel." — Moreri. Dupin. 

FABRICIUS, FRANCIS. 

Francis Fabricius was born at Amsterdam in 1663. 
He studied the Oriental languages at Ley den, where he 



FAGIUS. 4» 

was chosen to the pastoral ofifice, and the divinity pro- 
fessorship ; to which was afterwards added that of elo- 
quence. He died in 1738. His works are, — 1. Christus 
unicum ac perpetuum Fundamentum Ecclesiae, Leyden, 
1717, 4to. 2. De Sacerdotio Christi juxta Ordinem 
Melchizedeci, ib. 1720, 4to. 3. Christologia Noachica et 
Abrahamica, ib. 1727, 4to. 4. De Fide Christiana Pa- 
triarcharum et Prophetarum, ib. 4to. 5. Orator Sacer, 
ib. ] 733, 4to. This contains the substance of his lectures 
on preaching. — Moreri. 



FABRICIUS, ANDREW. 

Andrew Fabricius, a Romish divine, was bom in 1520, 
at Hodege, in the district of Liege. He studied philoso- 
phy and divinity at Ingolstadt, and taught those sciences 
at Louvain. Cardinal Otho Truchses, Bishop of Augs- 
burgh, engaged him in his service, and sent him to 
Rome, where he remained as his agent for about six 
years under the pontificate of Pius IV. On his return 
he was promoted to be councillor to the Duke of Bavaria, 
and was advanced to the provostship of Ottingen, in 
Suabia, where he died in 1581. His principal work was 
Harmonia Confessionis Augustinianae, Cologne, 1573 and 
1587, fol. He wrote also a Catechismus Romanus ex 
Decreto Concilii Tiidentini, with notes and illustrations, 
1570 and 1574, 8vo ; and three Latin tragedies, — 
1. Jeroboam Rebellens, Ingolstadt, 1565. 2. Religio 
Patiens, Cologne, 1566. 3. Samson, ib., 1569. — Moreri. 



FAGIUS. 

Paul Fagius, or Phagius, was born at Rheinzabern in 
Germany, in the year 1504. His German name was 
Buchlein. His father was a schoolmaster, and by him 

VOL. V. E 



50 FAGIUS. 

he was educated until he was sent to Heidelberg at eleven 
years of age. From Heidelberg he was removed to Stras- 
burg at the age of fifteen. Under the instruction of 
Elias Levita, a learned Jew, he became a good Hebrew 
scholar. In 1527 he married and kept a school at Isne, 
and afterwards became a protestant preacher distinguished 
for his zeal. He proved the earnestness and the sincerity 
of his faith, by remaining at his post at Isne during the 
plague in 1541. He attended the sick and dying, and 
remonstrated with his protestant brethren, who fled from 
the city without making provision for the poor. He was 
soon after called by the senate at Strasburg to succeed 
Wolfgang Capito in the preachership there, but he did 
not stay there long, being appointed to a professorship 
at Heidelberg. 

On the publication of the celebrated Interim by the 
emperor, Fagius thought it unsafe to remain in Germany, 
and therefore, in 1 548, he accepted the invitation of Dr. 
Cranmer, Archbishop of Canterbury, and came to 
England. He was nominated by the Archbishop to the 
professorship of Hebrew in the university of Cambridge. 
Before he went to Cambridge, he resided with the arch- 
bishop at Lambeth, where he was associated with Bucer. 
His labours while there, in addition to the preparation 
necessary for his professional ofiice, are thus described 
by Strype : *' As it has been a great while the arch- 
bishop's desire that the Holy Bible should come abroad 
in the greatest exactness, and true agreement with the 
original text: so he laid this work upon these two learned 
men, viz. Fagius and Bucer. First, that they should give 
a clear, plain, and succinct interpretation of the Scripture, 
according to the propriety of the language . And, secondly, 
illustrate difficult and obscure places, and reconcile those 
that seemed repugnant to one another. And it was his 
will and his advice, that to this end and purpose their 
public readings should tend. This pious and good work, 
by the archbishop assigned to them, they most gladly 



FAGIUS. 51 

and readily undertook. For their more regular carrying 
on this business, they allotted to each other, by consent, 
their distinct tasks. Fagius, because his talent lay in 
the Hebrew learning, was to undertake the Old Testa- 
ment ; and Bucer the New. The leisure they now 
enjoyed with the Archbishop, they spent in preparing 
their respective lectures. Fagius entered upon the evan- 
gelical Prophet Esaias, and Bucer upon the Gospel of 
the Evangelist John: and some chapters in each book 
were dispatched by them. But it was not long, but both 
of them fell sick : which gave a very unhappy stop to 
their studies." 

Notwithstanding his illness, Fagius, who was a con- 
scientious man, was determined to go to Cambridge. 
We can easily imagine the consternation which his arrival 
in the university would exite. Bbt whatever may have 
been their fears, they were soon dissipated by the death 
of Fagius. He died Nov. 12th, 1550. The archbishop 
provided for his widow. His body, with that of Bucer, 
was dug up in the reign of Mary and burnt; a disgrace- 
ful act of the Romish party, whose conduct throughout 
that reign was atrocious. 

Fagius wrote numerous works, both in German and 
Latin. Among them we find, Metaphrasis et Enarratio 
perpetua Epistolae D. Pauli ad Romanes, Strasburg, 
1536, fol. Pirskoavol; seu Sententiae veterum sapientum 
Hebraeorum, quas Apophthegmata Patrum nominant, 
Isne, 1541, 4to. Expositio literalis in IV. priora Capita 
Geneseos, cui accessit Textus Hebra'ici et Paraphraseos 
Chalda'icse collatio, ibid. 4to ; reprinted in the Critici 
Sacri. Precationes Hebraicae, ex libello Hebraico ex- 
cerptae cui Nomen, Liber Fidei, ibid. 1542, 8vo. Tobias 
Hebraicus in Latinam translatus, ibid. 1542, 4to. Ben 
Syrae Sententiae Morales, cum succincto Commentario, 
ibid. 1542, 4to. Isagoge in Linguam Hebraicam, Con- 
stance, 1543, 4to. Breves Annotationes in Targum, seu 
Paraphrasis Chaldaica Onkeli in Pentateucham, Isne 



52 FAREL. 

1546, fol., reprinted in the Critici Sacri. Opusculum 
Hebraicum Thisbites inscriptum ab Elia Levita elabora- 
tum, Latinitate donatum, ibid. 1541, 4to. Translationum 
praecipuamm Veteris Testamenti inter se variantium 
collatio, reprinted in the Critici Sacri. Fagius's Com- 
mentaries on the Targum are held in high estimation. 
— Melchior Adam. Strype. Soames. 



FAEEL, WILLIAM. 

William Farel, who is described by D'Aubigny as 
" the most impetuous" of the foreign and early reformers, 
and of whom Erasmus says, that he never saw a man 
" more false, more virulent, or more seditious," was 
the son of a gentleman of Dauphine, and was born at 
Gap in the year 1489. He studied at Paris with much 
success. Here he recommended himself to the notice of 
James le Fevre, of Staples, who was one of its greatest 
ornaments, by whose interest he obtained the appoint- 
ment of tutor in the college of cardinal le Moine. In 
1621 he was invited by William Bri9onet, Bishop of 
Meaux, who was inclined to the principles of the refor- 
mation, to preach in that city, where he boldly propa- 
gated the new opinions. In 1523, however, a persecu- 
tion was commenced at Meaux by the Franciscans, which 
obliged Farel to provide for his safety by retiring to 
Strasburg, where he was received by Bucer and Capito, 
as he was afterwards by Zuinglius at Zurich, by Haller at 
Berne, and by (Ecolampadius at Basle, where, in 1524, 
he publicly defended theses in opposition to the doctrines 
and usages of the Papists ; but he was soon afterwards 
obliged to quit that city. He next undertook the reforma- 
tion of Montbeliard, under the protection of the Duke of 
Wirtemberg, the lord of that place. He pursued the 
design with an intemperate warmth, and an imprudence 
of conduct that cannot be defended. Once, upon a pro- 



FAREL. 53 

cession day, he wrested from the hands of a priest the 
image of St. Anthony, and threw it from the bridge into 
the river, which so exasperated the mob, that it was a 
wonder he was not torn to pieces. Such, indeed, was his 
violence, that OEcolampadius remonstrated with him : 
" Men may be led," said he, in his correspondence with 
him, " but will not be driven by force. Give me leave 
as a friend, and as a brother to a brother, to say, you do 
not seem in eveiy respect to remember your duty. You 
were sent to preach, and not to rail. I excuse, nay I 
commend your zeal, so that it be not without meekness. 
Endeavour, my brother, that this advice may have its 
desired effect, and I have reason to rejoice that T gave 
it. Pour on wine and oil in due season, and demean 
yourself as an evangelist, and not as a tyrannical legis- 
lator." 

In 1528 Farel proved successful in propagating the 
principles of the Reformation at Aigle, and in the 
bailiwic of Morat. Here, according to D'Aubigny, his 
national energy was by external circumstances for some 
time quelled : " Believing that he was following the 
example of the Apostles, he sought," says D'Aubigny, 
" in the words of (Ecolampadius, ' by pious frauds to 
circumvent the old serpent that was hissing around him.' " 
It is sometimes said that pious frauds are confined to 
the Romish communion. In the following year he went 
to Neufchatel, where he combated the Roman Catholic 
party with such earnestness and efficacy, that in Novem- 
ber 1530, the reformed religion was established in that 
city. Some time after this he was sent deputy to the 
synod of the Vaudois, in the valley of Angrogne. Thence 
he went to Geneva, where he openly disputed against the 
tenets of popery ; but he was obliged to retire from that 
city in consequence of the violent opposition that was 
excited against him by the grand-vicar, and the other 
ecclesiastics. But when, in 1534, the inhabitants ex- 
pressed a disposition to renounce the Romish religion, 



54 FAREL. 

he was recalled, and proved the principal instrument of 
effecting its suppression. In 1538 he was banished from 
Geneva, together with Calvin, for refusing to submit to 
some ecclesiastical regulations decreed by the synod of 
Berne. He now retired to Basle, and afterwards to Neuf- 
chatel, where he exercised his ministerial functions till 
1542. In the same year he went to Metz, where he 
gained numerous proselytes, but was obliged by the 
popish party to take refuge in the abbey of Gorze, where 
the Count of Furstenberg took him and his companions 
under his protection. Their enemies, however, besieged 
them in their asylum, and obliged them to surrender upon 
a capitulation. Farel, however, contrived to escape, and 
returned to his former flock at Neufchatel, to whose 
service, excepting while he paid short visits to other 
churches, he devoted his future labours. In 1553 he 
was forced to appear at Geneva, in consequence of a 
prosecution that had been commenced against him for a 
capital offence, of which he had been unjustly accused. 
It was while Farel was at Geneva on this business, that 
he brought indelible disgrace on his own character, by 
assisting at the execution of Servetus. (See the life of 
Calvin.) In 1558 he took to himself a wife, by whom 
he had a son, who did not long survive him. 

His marriage at so late a period of his life, astonished 
his contemporaries. Some, according to Ancillon, sup- 
posing that miraculous inspirations were sometimes 
vouchsafed to reformers, asserted that he was urged to 
marry by some secret inspiration; others affirm that 
he did so to prove to the Romanists that celibacy is 
neither meritorious nor satisfactory ; but why it should be 
so important for Farel to marry, that there should be 
a miraculous interference necessary to persuade him to 
the course, is not apparent, and if he was influenced by 
principle, it is curious that he should not have acted 
upon it till his 70th year. But the difficulty vanishes 
when we learn that he was married before, a fact of which 



FAREL. 65 

Ancillon was ignorant, but which is asserted by Florimond 
de Remond ; he married late in life, as he had done in 
his youth, to please himself, although perhaps he was 
also influenced by the principle before alluded to, for he 
was very urgent with monks and nuns to break their 
vows. It is but seldom that we can quote satisfactorily 
from Bayle, but the following remarks are just. 

"It must be considered, that the celibacy of priests had 
been for many ages an unexhausted source of scandalous 
impurities which dishonoured the Christian name. It 
was therefore necessary to put the axe to the root of the 
tree, and to drain that source by the abolition of vows. 
It was necessary manfully to censure that pernicious 
tenet, that a whoring priest committed a less sin than a 
priest that married. That tenet is a necessary conse- 
quence of the laws of celibacy : for, according to the prin- 
ciples of the Fiomanists, a clerk who marries after the 
vows of continence, engages himself by oath to violate all 
his life-time an inviolable law ; and therefore he is more 
guilty than if he should fall sometimes into the sin of 
fornication. This transient fall does not hinder him 
from acknowledging his fault, and repenting it, or from 
returning to the observation of his vow ; but if he marries, 
he runs himself into the necessity of violating it without 
remorse, and without repentance. It was therefore neces- 
sary vigorously to preach up the honesty and dignity of 
marriage, and against the audaciousness of those who 
disparaged it so far as to prefer fornication to it. Besides, 
it was to be feared, that if the priests and monks who 
renounced Popery should abstain from marriage, the 
same impurities might soon creep into the reformed 
Church, which had exposed the Romish clergy to the 
detestation and contempt of honest men. In order there- 
fore, to prevent that disorder, it was necessary to encour- 
age those gentlemen to marr}% in case they wanted en- 
couragement ; and so the most eminent men were obliged 
to shew them the way. We must do the great men of 



56 FAREL. 

the primitive Church the justice to own, that they were 
led by fair motives to recommend celibacy ; for nothing 
is more proper to make the gospel spread and fructify, 
than the belief, that those who preach it have mortified 
their flesh, and debar themselves even of those pleasures 
which worldly men may enjoy without sin. They con- 
ceived that marriage was attended with a thousand 
earthly and sensual cares, which made too great a diver- 
sion from the priestly exercises; and, in short, being 
dazzled by the fair outsides of celibacy, they went so far, 
at last, as to turn it into a law. But it may be said, 
that the promoters of such a law had not sufficiently 
studied human nature ; for if they had been thoroughly 
acquainted with it, they would never have imposed so 
heavy a yoke on the necks of the ministers of the altar. 
Every one of them ought to have said to the other. We 
go no deeper than the bark; the shining superficies casts 
us into illusion : 

Maxima pars vatum, pater et juvenes patre digni, 
Decipimur specie recti. 

If they had foreseen the consequences of that law, they 
would, in all probability, have looked upon their fine 
notions as a snare of the devil." 

In 1564 Farel went again to Geneva, to take his leave 
of Calvin, who was dangerously ill ; and in the following 
year took a journey to Metz, at the invitation of his old 
flock. A few months after his return from this journe}'-, 
he died at Neufchatel, in 1565, in the seventy-sixth year 
of his age. The writings which he left behind him were 
very few, consisting of some Theses, published at Basle, 
in the Latin and German languages ; Disputatio Bernse 
Habita, 1528; Substance and brief Declaration necessary 
for all Christians, 1552 ; a Treatise of the Blessed Sacra- 
ment of the Lord, and of His Testament, 1553; and a 
book levelled against libertines, entitled the Sword of 
the Spirit, 1550. — Bayle. Ancillon. Clarke's Medulla. 



FARINGDON. 5T 



FARINGDON, ANTHONY. 



Anthony Faeingdon was born at Sunning in the 
county of Berks, in the year 1596. He was admitted 
scholar of Trinity college in Oxford, in 1612, and was 
elected fellow in 1617. Three years after he took his 
M.A. degree ; and entering into holy orders, he became a 
celebrated preacher in those parts, an eminent tutor in 
the college, and, as Mr. Wood says, an example fit to be 
followed by all. In the year 1634, being then B.D., he 
was called to the vicarage of Bray, near Maidenhead in 
Berks, and soon was made divinity-reader in the king's 
chapel at Windsor. He continued at the first of these 
places, though not without some trouble, till after the 
civil commotions broke out ; and then he was ejected by 
the presbyterian dissenters, for the sin of conformity to 
the Church of England, and was reduced with his wife 
and family to such extremities, as to be very near starving. 
At length Sir John Robinson, alderman of the city of 
London, and kinsman to Archbishop Laud, and some of 
the good parishioners of Milk street in London, invited 
him to be pastor of St. Mary Magdalen there; which 
invitation he gladly accepted, and preached to the great 
liking of the royal party. In the year 1657, he published 
a folio volume of these sermons, and dedicated them to 
his kind patron Robinson, " as a witness or manifesto," 
says he to him, " of my deep apprehension of your many 
noble favours, and great charity to me and mine, when 
the sharpness of the weather, and the roughness of 
the times, had blown all from us, and well nigh left us 
naked." 

After his death, which happened at his house in Milk- 
street, in September, 1658, his executors published in 
1663, a second folio volume of his sermons, containing 
forty, and a third in 1673, containing fifty. He also 
left behind in manuscript, several memorials of the life 

VOL V F 



58 FARNEWORTH. 

of the famous John Hales of Eton, his most intimate 
friend and fellow- siiffere r : but these memorials have 
never come to light. His sermons were admired and 
recommended by the late Archbishop Jebb. — Wood. 
Hareivood's Alumni Etonenses. 



FARMER, HUGH. 

Hugh Farmer, a dissenting teacher, was born near 
Shrewsbury in 1714. He completed his academical 
studies under Dr. Doddridge, at Northampton, after which 
he became chaplain in the family of Mr. Coward at Wal- 
thamstow in Essex, where he also officiated to a small 
congregation, almost to the time of his death, which hap- 
pened in 1787. His works are — 1. Enquiry into 
Christ's Temptation in the Wilderness, 8vo. 2. A Dis- 
sertation on Miracles, 8vo. 3. Essay on the Demoniacs 
of the New Testament, 8vo. This being attacked by 
Dr. Worthington, occasioned a reply in a series of letters, 
which were answered by the doctor. 4. The general 
prevalence of the Worship of Human Spirits, in the 
ancient heathen nations, 8vo. On this work, Mr. John 
Fell published remarks, which provoked Mr. Farmer to 
retort in a very unbecoming manner. — Biog. Brit. 

FARNEWORTH, ELLTS. 

Ellis Farneworth was born at Bonteshall in Derby- 
shire, where his father was rector. He was bred first at 
Chesterfield school, and afterwards at Eton, whence he 
was removed to Jesus college, Cambridge. In 176',^ he 
was presented to the rectoiy of Carsington in Derbyshire. 
He died in 1763. His publications were, 1. The Life of 
Pope Sixtus V. translated from the Italian of Gregorio 
Leti, with a preface, prolegomena, notes, and appendix, 
1754, folio. 2. Davila's History of Franco, 1757, 3 vols. 



FEATLEY. 59; 

4to. 3. A translation of the works of Maclnavel, illus- 
trated with annotations, dissertations, and several new 
plans on the art of war, 1761, 2 vols, 4to ; reprinted in 
1775, 4 vols, 8vo. This work now fetches a very high 
price. — Nichols's Boivyer. 



FAUSTINUS. 

Faustinus was a priest of the sect of the Luciferians, 
who flourished about the year 383. He wrote a treatise 
concerning the faith, against the Arians ; and a petition 
addressed to the emperors Valentinian, Theodosius, and 
Arcadius. — Cave. 



FAUSTUS. 

Faustus, an English monk of the fifth centur}% was 
bom in Britain about the year 390. He was created 
abbot of a monastery in the Lerin islands in 433, and 
afterwards bishop of Eeiz, in Provence, in 466. Taking 
part in the great controversy of his time, and writing 
against the views entertained by some of the followers of 
St. Augustine respecting predestination and reprobation, 
he was accused, but apparently without justice, of being 
a Semi-pelagian. His works are all inserted in the 
eighth volume of the Bibliotheca Patrum, and the princi- 
pal of them are analyzed by Dupin. The date of hi-s 
death is not known. — Dupiri. 



FEATLEY, DAKIEL. 

Daniel Featley was born at Chalton-upon-Otmore 
near Oxford, on the 15th of March, 1582, his father 
being cook to Dr. Lawrence Humphrey, president of 
Magdalen college school, and where he greatly distin- 



60 FEATLEY. 

giiished himself, and in 1564 was admitted scholar of 
Corpus Christi college. His father was cook in this 
college as well as in Magdalen. In 1602 he became 
fellow of his college. In 1610 and the following years 
he acted as chaplain to Sir Thomas Edmonds, ambas- 
sador from James I. to the court of France, where he 
distinguished himself as a controversialist against the 
Papists, 

Upon his return to England in 1613, he repaired to 
his college, and took the degree of B.D., and was soon 
after presented by W. Ezekiel Ascot, who had been his 
pupil, to the rectory of Northill in Cornwall. He was 
next appointed domestic chaplain to Dr. Abbot, Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, who in a short time presented him 
to the rectory of Lambeth. In 1617 he took his degree 
of D.D. In 1625, being then married, he quitted the 
archbishop's residence, and retired to a house belonging 
to his wife at Kennington, near Lambeth. In June 1623 
was held a conference at Sir Humphrey Lynde's, between 
Dr. Wilson, dean of Carlisle, and Dr. Featley, with the 
Jesuits Fisher and Sweet, and the result of it being 
published in 1624, by Archbishop Abbot's command, 
under the title of The Komish Fisher caught and held 
in his own Net, was dedicated to the archbishop by Feat- 
ley. It was during the raging of the plague in 1625, or 
1626, when the churches were deserted, that he wrote his 
Ancilla Pietatis, or Hand-maid to Private Devotion, 
which became very popular, and before 1676 had passed 
through eight editions. 

His conduct at the breaking out of the rebellion was 
weak, if not wicked. He was one of the witnesses 
against Archbishop Laud, accusing his grace of intro- 
ducing novelties in Lambeth. He had resisted the 
injunctions of his diocesan, and refused to place the 
communion table altar-wise. 

In 1642 he was appointed by the parliament one of 
the assembly of divines,J on account of his Calvinistie 



FEATLEY. 61 

principles. He is said to have continued longer with 
them than any other member of the Church. That he 
was not, however, acceptable to the ruling party, or that 
he disappointed them, appears from his becoming in the 
same year a victim to their revenge. In November the 
soldiers sacked his church at Acton, and at Lambeth 
would have murdered him, had he not made his escape. 
These outrages were followed, September 30, 1643, by 
his imprisonment in Peter-house in Aldersgate-street, 
the seizure of his library and goods, and the sequestra- 
tion of his estate. Charges were preferred against him 
of the most absurd and contradictory kind, which it was 
to little purpose to answer. He w^as voted out of his 
living. Among his pretended offences, it was alleged 
that he refused to assent to every clause in the Solemn 
League and Covenant, and that he corresponded with 
Archbishop Usher, who was with the king at Oxford. 
During his imprisonment he wrot© his celebrated treatise, 
entitled The Dippers dipt, or the Anabaptists ducked 
and plunged over head and ears, at a disputation in 
Southwark. He at that time also published a challenge, 
in which he offered to maintain, against any opponents, 
in disputation or writing, the orthodoxy of the articles 
of the Church of England, the apostolic constitution of 
its hierarchical government and discipline, and the 
unrivalled excellence, and, with some explanations and 
revisions, perfection of the Book of Common Prayer. 
His health, however, began now rapidly to decline ; and 
after he had, by repeated supplication to parliament, 
obtained leave to be removed to Chelsea college, for 
change of air, he died there on the 17tli of April, 1644, 
in the sixty- fifth year of his age, and was buried in the 
chancel of Lambeth church. Wood has given a long list 
of his controversial works, most of w^hich are now little 
known. Among his other writings may be mentioned, 
1. The Lives of Jewell (prefixed to his works), and of 
Reinolds, Dr. Robert Abbot, &c. which are in Fuller's 
F J2 



62 FECKENHAM. 

Abel Redivivus. 2. The Sum of saving Knowledge, 
London, 1626. 3. CI avis Mystica, a Key opening divers 
difficult and mysterious Texts of Holy Scripture, in 
se«venty Sermons, ibid. 1636. fol. 4. Hexatexiura, or six 
Cordials to strengthen the Heart of every faithful Chris- 
tian against the terrors of Death, ibid. 1637, fol. 5. 
Several Funeral Sermons, one preached at the funeral of 
Sir Humphrey Lynd, ibid. 1640, fol. 6. Dr. Daniel 
Featley revived, proving that the Protestant Church (and 
not the Romish) is the only Catholic and true Church, 
ibid. 1660, 12mo. To this is prefixed an account of his 
life by his nephew, John Featley, from which this article 
is abridged. 



FECKENHAM, JOHN DE. 

John de Feckenham, so called, because he was bom 
of poor parents, in a cottage near the forest of Fecken- 
ham in Worcestershire, his right name being Howman, 
was the last abbot of Westminster. As he evinced in his 
youth good parts, and a strong inclination to learning, 
the priest of the parish took him under his care, in- 
stinicted him for some years, and then obtained him 
admittance into Evesham monasteiy. At eighteen years 
of age, he was sent by his abbot to Gloucester-college, in 
Oxford; from whence, when he had sufficiently improved 
himself in academical learning, he was recalled to his 
abbey; which being dissolved in November, 1535, he 
had a yearly pension of about twenty-three pounds, for 
life. Upon this, he returned to Gloucester-college, where 
he pursued his studies some years ; and in 1539, took 
the degree of bachelor of divinity, being the chaplain to 
Bell, Bishop of Worcester. That prelate resigning his 
see in November, 1543, he became chaplain to Bonner, 
Bishop of London ; (see his life,) but Bonner being de- 
prived of his bishopric in 1549, by the Reformers, Feck- 



FECKENHAM. 63 

enham was committed to the tower of London, because, 
as some say, he refused to administer the sacraments 
according to the reformed prayer-book. Soon after, he 
was taken from thence, to dispute on the chief points 
controverted between the Protestants and Papists ; and 
he disputed several times in public before, and with some 
great personages. 

He was afterwards remanded to the tower, where he con- 
tinued till queen Mary's accession to the crown, in 1 553 : 
but was then released, and made chaplain to the queen. 
He became also again chaplain to Bonner, prebendary of 
St. Paul's, then dean of St. Paul's, then rector of Finch- 
ley in Middlesex, which he held only a few months, and 
the rector of Greenford in the said county. In April, 
1554, he was one of the disputants at Oxford against 
Cranmer, Ridley, and Latimer, before they suffered mar- 
tyrdom ; but he said very little against them. During 
queen Mary's reign, he was constantly employed in doing 
good offices to the afflicted Protestants from the highest 
to the lowest. Francis Russel, Earl of Bedford, Ambrose 
and Robert Dudley, afterwards Earls of Warwick and 
Leicester, were benefitted by his kindness : as was also 
Sir John Cheke. Nay, he interceded with queen Mary 
for lady Elizabeth's enlargement out of prison, and that 
so earnestly, that the queen was actually displeased with 
him for some time. In May, 1556, he was complimented 
by the university of Oxford with the degree of D.D., out 
of respect for his learning, piety, and charity. In Sep- 
tember following he was made abbot of the monastic foun- 
dation of Westminster, which was then restored by queen 
Mary ; and fourteen Benedictine monks were placed there 
under his government, with episcopal power. Upon the 
death of Mary, in 1558, Elizabeth, mindful of her obliga- 
tions to Feckenham, sent for him before her coronation, to 
consult and reward him ; and offered him the archbishopric 
of Canterbury, provided he would confonn to the laws ; 
but this he refused. He appeared, however, in her first 



64 FECKENHAM. 

parliament, taking the lowest place on the bishops' bench, 
being the last mitred abbot who sat in the house of lords. 
During his attendance there he spoke and protested 
against every thing tending towards the reformation ; and 
the strong opposition which he made occasioned his 
commitment to the tower in 1660. After nearly three 
years' confinement there, he was committed to the custody 
of Horn, Bishop of Winchester. Instead of burning 
those who adhered to the Romish errors, queen Elizabeth, 
finding it necessary to restrain them, was accustomed to 
commit them to the houses and custody of the Bishops. 
Both Horn and Eeckenhara seem to have been too dis- 
putatious to make their intercourse agreeable. Fecken- 
ham lived quite as one of the bishop's family, and they 
frequently disputed. But Bishop Horn had reason to 
complain that in his absence Feckenham endeavoured to 
pervert the members of his household, and he had occa- 
sionally to interfere to prevent the disputes between him 
and others from proceeding to extremities. A discourse 
one day arose between the bishop and Feckenham, con- 
cerning venial and mortal sins. A cross that came from 
the Jesuits gave the occasion of this communication. The 
bishop proved, that no sin was so venial, as it could be 
remitted by any ceremony. And that there was no sin 
but of itself was mortal, yet venial, so as to be purged 
by the merits of Christ only: and that all sins, were 
they never so much mortal, were venial nevertheless, ex- 
cept the sin against the Holy Ghost, that was irremissible. 
For this his saying, and other points which he con- 
demned, Feckenham fell into such a rage, that he not 
only railed against Jewel, bishop of Salisbury, saying 
that he was utterly unlearned, and that he should never 
be able to answer Mr. Harding's book ; but also called 
the bishop, almost in plain terms, heretic; and said, his 
doctrine which he preached, (though he would never hear 
it,) was erroneous, filthy, and blasphemous. Whereupon 
the bishop, to stay him, said, these were unmannerly 



FECKENHAM. 65 

words to be spoken at his table ; and therefore would as 
then say no more openly unto him there, but told him, 
that after dinner he would shew him more of his mind 
between them two. 

And so after dinner he came up to him, and there 
called him into the gallery adjoining to his chamber. He 
put him in remembrance of that which he had before 
oftentimes admonished him, \dz. his outrageous talk in 
his absence used at his table, whereof he had sundry 
times given him warning; for that the same might breed 
peril to himself, blame to the bishop, and offence to 
others. And because he found still the continuance of 
that his misorder, therefore he willed him thenceforth to 
abstain from conferring with any man at all ; adding, 
that he should have to his chamber all things necessary, 
and what meat he should competently appoint for his own 
diet. Which he had accordingly. But though he did 
restrain him from coming to his table, or to go much at 
large, as he had done, yet had he no other keeper than 
he had before, which was his own man. He had a 
gallery adjoining to his chamber, opening to the park ; 
his servant a chamber by himself near to his. He had 
leads fair and large, on which he might walk, and have 
prospect over the parks, gardens, and orchards. And 
thrice in the week at least, while the bishop lay at Wal- 
tham, with one, by the bishop appointed, he walked 
abroad in those parks and gardens. The bishop Horn 
wrote in his answer to Feckenham's Declaration, wherein 
he had called this restraint close imprisonment. 

The connexion between Horn and Feckenham becom- 
ing mutually irksome, the latter was again committed to 
the tower, but not to close confinement, his charges 
being borne by some of his friends, and sent to him 
weekly by his servant. While he was in the tower, 
secretary Cecil heard of certain writings which had 
passed between him and Bishop Horn, touching the oath 
of the queen's supremacy, and he intimated to the lieu- 



66 FECKENHAM. 

tenant of the tower, that he should acquaint Feckenham 
that he, the secretary, desired to have them sent unto 
him to peruse : which, in the month of March, Fecken- 
ham accordingly did, together with a letter to him. 
" And herein he humbly heseeched his honour, that 
while he read them he would observe how slenderly the 
bishop had satisfied his expectation ; w^ho, in requesting 
of his lordship to be resolved by the authority of the 
scriptures, doctors, general councils, and by the example 
of like government in some one part and church of all 
Christendom, his lordship in no one part of his resolu- 
tions had alleged any testimony out of any of them ; but 
only had used the authority of his own bare words, 
naked talk, and sentences ; which in so great and weighty 
a matter of conscience, he said, he esteemed and weighed 
as nothing. And that if his lordship should at any 
time hereafter (and especially at his honour's request) be 
able to bring forth any better matter, he, the said Feck- 
enham, should be at the sight thereof, at all times, in 
readiness to receive the said oath, and to perform his 
promise before made in the writings. But that if the 
bishop should be found (notwithstanding his honour's 
request) to have no better matter in store, he should, ' for 
his duty sake towards the queen's majesty, considering 
the degree and state her highness hath placed him in, 
abstain from that plain speech which he might justly 
use, (his lordship first beginning the complaint,) yet that 
notwithstanding, his honour must give him leave to 
think, that his lordship had not all the divine scriptures, 
doctors, general councils, and all other kind of learning, 
so much at his commandment, as he said, he had often- 
times heard him boast, and speak of. 

"And thus much to write of his own secret thought, 
either against him or yet an}^ other, it was very' much 
contrary to the inclination of his nature. For he, as he 
proceeded in his letter, being a poor man in trouble, was 
now, like as at all other times, very loath to touch him, 



FECKENHAM. 6T 

or any man else. But that whenever it should please 
his honour by his wisdom to weigh the matter indiffer- 
ently betwixt them, he should be sure to have this short 
end and conclusion thereof, that either upon his lord- 
ships pithier and more learned resolutions, his honour 
should be well assured that he would receive the oath ; 
or else for lack of learned resolution, his honour should 
have certain and sure knowledge, that the stay so long 
time on his part in not receiving of the same oath, was 
of conscience, and not of will stubbornly set ; but only of 
dread and fear to commit peijury, thereby to procure and 
purchase to himself God His wrath and indignation ; 
finally to inherit perpetual death and torment of hell 
fire ; and that remediless by a separation-making of 
himself from God, and the unity of the Catholic Church ; 
being always after unsure, how, or by what means he 
might be united and knit thereunto again. That the 
upright and due consideration of this his lamentable 
estate was all that he did seek at his honour's hands, as 
knoweth our Lord God, &c. From the Tower the 14th 
of this present March. 

Subscribed, by your poor orator, 

John Feckenham, Priest." 
And so indeed Feckenham reported in his Declaration 
before mentioned, that he should join that issue with his 
lordship ; that when he, the bishop, should be able either 
by such order of government as our Saviour Christ left 
behind Him in His gospel and New Testament; either by 
the writing of such learned doctors, both old and new, 
which had from age to age witnessed the order of eccle- 
siastical government in Christ's Church ; either by the 
general councils, wherein the right order of ecclesiastical 
government in Christ's Church had been most faithfully 
declared, and shewed from time to time ; or else by the 
common practice of the like ecclesiastical government, in 
some one Church or part of all Christendom ; that when 
he should be able by any of those four means to make 



68 FECKENHAM. 

proof that any emperor, empress, king, or queen, might 
claim or take upon them any such government in spiri- 
tual and ecclesiastical causes ; then he should herein 
yield, &c. And in his letter above to the secretary, he 
tells him in effect tliat the bishop was not able to resolve 
him by any one of these proofs. 

But on the other hand, let us hear the bishop in his 
answer to Feckenham, who there asserts, that he had 
often and many times proved the same that he required, 
and by the self-same means in such sort unto him, that 
he had nothing to say to the contrary. But notwith- 
standing, the bishop added, he would once again prove 
the same after his desire, as it were by putting him in 
remembrance of those things, which by occasion in con- 
ference he had often before reported unto him. And 
then he proceeded at large upon all those four heads. 
The bishop withal reminded him, how he well knew, 
acknowledged, and confessed this supreme authority in 
causes ecclesiastical to be in king Henry VIII. and his 
heirs, when he surrendered his abbey of Evesham into 
his hands ; and so taught and preached during that 
king s reign. And that the same knowledge remained 
in him at the time of king Edward. 

Afterwards he was removed to the Marshalsea, and 
then to a private house in Holborn. In 3 571 he attend- 
ed Dr. John Storie before his execution. In 1578 we 
find him in free custody with Cox, Bishop of Ely, whom 
the queen had requested to use his endeavours to induce 
Feckenham to acknowledge her supremacy in ecclesias- 
tical matters. With this prelate Feckenham seems to 
have been on good terms, being admitted to his table, and 
engaging in conversation without restraint. How far the 
bishop succeeded in persuading him to submit to the 
queen is shewn in a letter from his lordship, addressed 
to the lord treasurer ; the bishop describes Feckenham 
as a gentle person, but in popish religion too, obdu- 
rate. And that he had often conference with him. And 



FECKENHAM. 69 

other learned men at his request had conferred with 
him also; touching going to church, and touching 
taking the oath to the queen's majesty. The bishop 
added, that he had examined him, whether the pope were 
not an heretic : alleging to him the saying of Christ, 
Reges gentium clominantur ; [i. e. The kings of the gentiles 
exercise lordship over them.] Vos autem non sic ; [i. e. But 
it shall not he so among you.] That the people in all his 
government did contrary to this. And that they did 
maintain it by all means, by fire and sword, &c. That 
his answer was. That that was the sorest place in all 
scripture against him." And further added, " That when 
he was in some hope of his conformity, he [the abbot] 
said unto him. All these things that be laid against me, 
with leisure I could answer them. And further said, 
That he was fully persuaded in his religion, which he 
will stand to. When I heard this, said the bishop, I 
gave him over ; and received him no more to my table." 
And in some zeal subjoining, " Whether it be meet that 
the enemies of God and the queen should be fostered in 
our houses, and not used according to the laws of the 
realm, I leave to the judgment of others. What my poor 
judgment is, I will express, being commanded. I think 
my house the worse, being pestered with such a guest. 
Yet for obedience sake I have tried him thus long. 

" And finally, he wished that he and the rest of his 
company were examined and tried in open conference in 
the universities : but not as good Cranmer, good Latimer, 
good Ridley, and others more; from disputations to the 
fire. In the mean season, this my guest might have 
some imprisonment in the university, where learned men 
might have access unto him." This letter the bishop 
dated from Ely, styling it, that unsavoury isle with turves 
and dried up loads, the 29th of August, 1578. 

Dr. Perne, dean of Ely, was one of those the said 
bishop desired to have some discourse with the said Feck- 
enham ; which he undertook some months before. And 

VOL V. G 



70 FECKENHAM. 

what success he had, take from his own account thereof, 
given to the said lord treasurer; viz. "That he had divers 
conferences with Mr. Feckenham, sometime abbot of 
Westminster, (and that in the presence of divers learned 
men,) at the request of the Bishop of Ely, unto whose 
custody he was then committed. And this, he said, he 
the rather wrote to his lordship, for that in his opinion 
it was very good and expedient to have those things 
known unto his honour and unto others, which the said 
Feckenham had in his said conferences confessed and 
granted unto him and others, before Mr. Nicholls, his 
honour's chaplain, and before Mr. Stanton, chaplain to 
the Bishop of Ely. And at another time he had granted 
and acknowledged unto him, in the presence of Mr. Holt, 
a preacher, and of one Mr. Crowe, reader of the divinity 
lecture in the cathedral church of Ely. 

" First, He did confess, that he did acknowledge the 
supremacy of the queen's majesty in causes ecclesiastical, 
in such manner as it is set forth and declared in her 
majesty's injunctions, set forth by her clergy, for the 
true understanding of the words of the act of parliament 
made for the same. Which injunction I did read unto 
him, being printed. But that, as Dr. Perne added, he 
did mislike these words in the act of parliament, that 
she should be supreme governor, as well in causes eccle- 
siastical as civil. Whereby, he said, she had authority 
to preach and minister sacraments, and consecrate 
bishops, &c. Which was otherwise declared in her ma- 
jesty's said Injunctions. The which he did very well 
allow. 

" Secondarily, He did very well allow to have the com- 
mon service in the church to be read in the vulgar tongue 
to all the people that should hear the same. And he did 
profess unto me, saith Dr. Perne, in his conscience and 
before God, that he did take the fourteenth chapter of 
the first epistle to the Corinthians to be as truly meant 
of public prayer in the congregation, to the edifying of 



FECKENHAM. 71 

the people, as of public preaching, or prophesying. But 
he would have this allowed by the authority of the Bishop 
of Rome. 

" Thirdly, Where he, the said dean of Ely, had made 
a discourse, and a comparison between the Book and 
Order of Common Prayer used in the Church of England 
this day, with the book and order of service used in the 
Church in the time of popeiy, he saying, that he [Feck- 
enham] could find no fault with the Book of Common 
Service which was now, except he must condemn that 
which he used in the yortas and mass-book ; for that we 
have those Psalms, the Epistles and the Gospels, those 
Collects and other Prayers, which be either taken out of 
the word of God, or consonant to the same, and were 
taken out and chosen by godly, learned men, out of those 
ordinaiy prayers that were used in the time of ignorance 
and superstition : leaving out all other things brought in 
by the inventions of men, into the said portas and mass- 
book, which had no warrant of the word of God, or were 
repugnant to the same : -he did answer, that he did find 
no fault with those things which were in the book ; but 
he wished there should be more things and prayers added 
to the same. And that as he liked well of prayers therein 
that were made to Almighty God in the name of His Son 
Jesus Christ; so he would also have added the invocation 
of our blessed lady, and other saints, and the prayers for 
the dead." 

All which his, the said Mr. Feckenham's, confession, 
the dean tells the lord treasurer, that he had declared 
unto my lord of Ely ; desiring him that he would make 
the same known unto her majesty, or unto his honour. 
The bishop, upon this confession, had earnestly requested 
him, [the dean,] that he would get his hand and sub- 
scription to the same. For that the said Mr. Feckenham, 
after the reasoning that had been with him, said to the 
said bishop, when he, the dean, was gone, that if he 
had leisure, he would answer to all those authorities and 



72 FECKENHAM. 

reasons that were brought out against him in these 
articles and others. Which thing when the dean de- 
manded of him, and he refused to set his hartd to it, he 
urged him as vehemently as he could ; signifying, how 
great good he might do by the same, in the reducing of 
many from blind and obstinate superstition, wherein they 
were led, rather by his and others' example, than by 
any reason : reducing also both them and others thereby 
from wilful extremities to some better order and godly 
conformity, and some pacification. 

The dean said moreover, that he needed not be afraid 
to subscribe to that, which, in his conscience and before 
God, he did confess to be true. He did also move him, 
that if he would not give my lord of Ely his hand for 
these matters, that he would write his letter unto the 
queen's majesty, or to his honour, [the lord treasurer,] 
acknowledging the same. The which thing the dean 
further told him, that if he would do, he might procure 
imto himself great favour, both at her majesty's hands, 
and also at his honour's. 

To all which arguments used by the dean, he made 
this answer : " That he was persuaded of a singular good- 
will, he said, both that her majesty and his honour bore 
unto him, if he should shew himself any thing conform- 
able. That he thought verily, that if it were not for her 
majesty and his honour, that it would have been worse 
with him and others of his sect than it was at that day. 
For the which, he said, that he did daily, and was bound 
to pray, for the long preservation of her majesty, and 
also for his lordship's honourable estate. But yet to sub- 
scribe he did refuse ; saying. That if he should subscribe 
and yield in one thing, he had as good to yield in all." 
" The which, the dean then told him, was not well said, 
except he were well persuaded in all. For to yield to 
that, which he confessed plainly in his conscience before 
God to be true, was the duty of every Christian man- 
But to confess that which he was not so persuaded of, he 
would not enforce him [to do] against his conscience." 



FECKENHAM. 73 

. The dean lent him a Bible of the annotations of Va- 
tablus and Maiiorate upon Genesis. Which were very 
good books; and he did greatly commend them. Of this 
particular he thought fit to acquaint the lord treasurer in 
his letter. Concluding, that Mr. Nicolls, his lordship's 
chaplain, attending upon him at the present, could more 
at large declare what he had writ. And thus referring 
the whole matter unto his lordship's best consideration, 
he humbly took his leave. From Cambridge, the 11th 
of May, 1578. Subscribing, 

His honour's daily orator always to command, 

Andkew Perne. 

Soon after, the restless spirit of some Roman Catho- 
lics, and their frequent attempts upon the queen's life, 
obliged her to imprison the most considerable among 
them ; upon which Feckenham was sent to Wisbeach 
castle, in the Isle of Ely, where he continued till his 
death, in 1583. 

Wood has given us the following catalogue of his 
works: 1. A Conference Dialogue-wise held between 
the Lady Jane Dudley, and Mr. John Feckenham, four 
days before her death, touching her faith and belief of 
the Sacrament and her religion. Lond. 1554. On the 
10th of April, 1554, he was sent by the queen to this 
lady to commune with her, and to reduce her from the 
doctrine of Christ to queen Mar}^"s religion, as Mr. Fox 
expresses it. The substance of this conference may be 
seen also in Fox's Acts and Monuments of Martyrs. 
2. Speech in the House of Lords, 1553. 3. Two Homilies 
on the first, second, and third articles of the Creed. 4. 
Oratio Funebris in exequiis Ducissse Parmae, &c. that is, 
a Funeral Oration on the death of the Duchess of Parma, 
daughter of Charles V. and governess of the Netherlands. 
5. Sermon at the Exequies of Joan, Queen of Spain. 
Lond. 1555. 6. The declaration of such scruples and 
stays of conscience, touching the Oath of Supremacy, 
delivered by writing to Dr. Horn, Bishop of Winchester. 
g2 



74 FELL. 

Lond. 1566, 7. Objections or Assertions made against 
Mr. John Gough's Sermon, preached in the Tower of 
London, Jan. L5th, 1570. 8. Caveat Emptor: which 
seems to have been a caution against buying abbey lands. 
He had also written, Commentaries on the Psalms, and 
a Treatise on the Eucharist, which were lost among other 
things. Another author mentions, 9. A Sermon on the 
Funeral of Queen Mary, on Ecclesiastes iv. 2. — Wood. 
Strype. Dod. Burnet. 



FELL, JOHN. 

John Fell was son of the dean mentioned in the fol- 
lowing article, and was born at Longworth in Berkshire, 
on the 23rd of June, 1625. He was educated mostly at 
the free-school of Thame in Oxfordshire; and, in 1636, 
when he was only eleven years of age, was admitted stu- 
dent of Christ Church in Oxford. In October, 1640, he 
took the degree of bachelor of arts, and that of master 
in June 1643 ; about which time he was in arms for king 
Charles I. within the garrison of Oxford, and afterwards 
became an ensign. In 1648, the dissenters and rebels 
having now obtained power, he was deprived of his 
studentship by the parliamentarian visitors, being then 
in holy orders ; and from that time till the restoration of 
Charles II. lived in a retired and studious condition, 
partly in the lodgings of the famous physician Willis, 
who was his brother-in-law, and partly in his own house 
over against Merton College, wherein he and others kept 
up the devotions and discipline of the Church of Eng- 
land. 

After the Restoration he was made prebendary of Chi- 
chester, and canon of Christ Church, into which last he was 
installed on the 27th of July, 1660 ; and on the 30th of 
November following, he was made dean of the said church, 
being then doctor of divinity, and one of his majesty's 



FELL. 75 

chaplains in ordinary. As soon as he was fixed in that 
eminent station, he earnestly applied himself to purge 
the college of all remains of hypocrisy and nonsense, 
which had every where prevailed in the late times of 
confusion, and to improve it in all sorts of learning as 
well as true religion : laying those foundations, that have 
rendered it so famous to posterity, and will, we trust, con- 
tinue to make it ever flourish. Nor was he more diligent in 
restoring its discipline, than in adorning it with magni- 
ficent buildings, towards which he contributed very great 
sums. He built the north side of the great quadrangle. 
It was begun to be built in a manner suitable to the rest 
of the quadrangle, by his father, Dr. Samuel Fell ; and 
was by him, the college, and several benefactors, carried 
on to the top, and had all the frame of timber belonging 
thereunto laid. But before the inside could be finished, 
and the top covered with lead, the civil wars began : so 
it continued exposed to the weather, till the Presbyterians 
became masters of the university ; who, minding their 
own private concerns more than the public good, took the 
timber away, and employed it for their own use. But 
after the Restoration, Dr. Fell, by his own benefaction, 
and those of the then canons, and many generous per- 
sons that had been formerly members of the college, and 
of others, quite finished that building, for the use of two 
canons ; together with the part between the then imper- 
fect building on the north side of the great gate, and the 
north-west comer of that quadrangle. Towards this 
building, Dr. J. Fell gave no less than five hundred and 
fifty pounds. He next rebuilt part of the lodgings of the 
canon of the second stall and the east side of the chap- 
lain's quadrangle, both of which were finished in 1672, 
and the handsome range of buildings facing Christ 
Church meadow, which still go by the name of Fell's 
buildings. The lodging belonging to the third stall, 
near the passage leading from the great quadrangle into 
Peckwater, and usually called Kill-canon corner, was 



76 FELL. 

next erected by him ; to whom not only Christ Church 
but the whole university are indebted, for the long walk 
in the meadow. 

Amongst other things, he built the stately tower over 
the principal gate of the college ; into which, in 1683, 
he caused to be removed out of the steeple in the cathe- 
dral, the bell, called " Great Tom of Christ Church," 
said to have been brought thither w^ith the other bells 
from Oseney abbey. He took care to have it recast with 
additional metal, so that it is now by far the largest bell 
in England ; unless the Great Tom at Lincoln, or the 
new bell in York minster, may be supposed to exceed it 
in their dimensions. Dr. Fell, like the celebrated Dean 
Jackson, was a benefactor to the world, by doing with all 
his might what his hand found to do. Being dean of 
Christ Church, he devoted ever}" energy of his mind to 
his college duties ; every other care and study yielded to 
this. This was his office, and to discharge it properly 
was his chief concern in life. He only is a happy and 
a useful man who pursues such a course. 

In the years 1666, 1667, 1668, and 1669, Dr. Fell was 
vice-chancellor of the university : during which time he 
used every possible means to restore the discipline and 
credit of the university ; and such was his indefatigable 
spirit that he succeeded to a miracle. In 1675-6, he was 
advanced to the bishopric of Oxford, with leave at the same 
time to hold his deanery of Christ Church in commen- 
dam, that he might continue his services to his college 
and the university : and he was no sooner settled in his 
see. but he set about re-building the episcopal palace of 
Cuddesden in Oxfordshire. In a word, he devoted his 
whole substance to works of piety and charity. Among 
his other benefactions to his college, it must not be for- 
gotten, that the best rectories belonging to it were bought 
with his money : and as he had been so bountiful a 
patron to it while he lived, and a second founder as it 
were, so he left to it at his death an estate, for ten or more 



FELL. 77 

exhibitions forever. It is said, that he brought his body 
to an ill habit, and wasted his spirits, by too much zeal 
for the public, and by forming too many noble designs ; 
and that all these things, together with the unhappy turn 
of religion, which he dreaded under king James IL con- 
tributed to shorten his life. Be this as it may, he died 
on the 10th of July, 1686, to the great loss of learning, 
of the whole university, and of the Church of England. 
He was buried in Christ Church cathedral ; and over his 
tomb, which is a plain marble one, is an elegant inscrip- 
tion, composed by Aldrich, his successor. He wrote the 
Life of the most reverend, learned, and pious Dr. Henry 
Hammond, 1660, reprinted afterwards with additions at 
the head of Hammond's works. Alcinoi in Platonicam 
Philosophiam Introductio, 1667. In Laudem Mu sices 
Carmen Sapphicum. The vanity of Scoffing ; in a letter to 
a gentleman, 1 674, 4to. St. Clement's two Epistles to the 
Corinthians, in Greek and Latin, with notes at the end, 
1677. Account of Dr. Richard Allestree's life, being the 
preface to the doctor's sermons, published by Dr. Fell. Of 
the Unity of the Church, translated from the original of St. 
Cyprian, 1681. St. Cyprian's Works, revised and illus- 
trated with notes, 168 '-i. Several Sermons. ArtisLogicse 
Compendium. The Paraphrase of St. Paul's Epistles. 
An edition of the New Testament, which gave birth to 

Mill's, and was entitled, Trjg icaivrjg dia9T]Kr]g uTravra, Novi 

TestamentiLibriomnes — accesserunt Parallela Scriptures 
Loca, necnon variantes Lectiones, ex plus 100 MSS. 
Codicibus et Antiquis Versionibus collectae, 1675, Svo. 
This edition was twice reprinted at Leipsic, in 1697 and 
1702, and at Oxford in splendid foho, by John Gregory, 
in 1703. Fabricius says, in his Bibl. Graeca, that the ex- 
cellent edition of Aratus, Oxford, 1672, Svo, was publish- 
ed by Dr. Fell. It is much to be wished that a history 
of the life and times of Bishop Fell should be undertaken 
by some student of Christ Church, who like the compiler 
of this article, has profited by his benefactions. — Bio(/. 
Brit. Wood. 



78 FENELON. 



FELL, SAMUEL. 



Samuel Fell was born iu London, in 1594. He was 
elected from Westminster school, student of Christ Church, 
Oxford, in 1601 ; and in 1615 he became rector of Fresh- 
water in the Isle of Wight. In 1 61 9 he was installed canon 
of Christ Church; and in 1626 appointed Margaret pro- 
fessor of divinity. He was made dean of Lichfield in 
1637, and the year following dean of Christ Church. He 
served the office of vice-chancellor in 1645 ; and again in 
1647, but was ejected the same year by the parliamen- 
tary visitors. He died of grief on hearing of the murder 
of Charles I. Feb. 1st, 1648-9. He wrote, Primitise ; sive 
Oratio habita Oxonias in Schola Theologite, 9 Nov. 1626, 
and Concio Latina ad Baccalaureos Die Cinerum in 
Coloss. ii. 8. They were both printed at Oxford in 1627. 
—Wood. 



FENELON, FEANCIS DE SALTGNAC DE LA MOTTE. 

Feancts DE Salignac DE LA MoTTE Fenelon was bom 
of noble parentage, August 6th, J 651. He was sent first 
to the university of Cahors, and afterwards finished his 
studies at Paris. At twenty-four years of age he was 
ordained priest in the seminary of St. Sulpice, and pas- 
sed the three following years in absolute retirement ; after 
which, by desire of the cure of the parish of St. Sulpice, 
he delivered on Sundays and Festivals, a course of 
familiar explanations of the Old and New Testament, by 
which he first became known to the public. 

In ] 685 the edict of Nantes was revoked. By that 
edict Henry IV. had granted to the Huguenots the free 
exercise of their religion, and placed them nearly on an 
equality of civil rights with his other subjects. It is said 
that by revoking this edict, Louis XIV. drove out of 



FENELON. 79 

France two hundred thousand families. Those that were 
left he sought to convert, compelling them to attend mass 
at the point of the sword. As the soldiers employed in 
assisting the missionary priests were taken from dragoon 
companies, their unholy employment was called the 
dragonade. In 1686 Fenelon was named as the head of 
those missionaries who were sent along the coast of 
Santogne and Pais de Aunis, to convert the Protestants 
or Huguenots ; but he absolutely refused to be assisted 
by the soldiers, and uttered some tnily Christian senti- 
ments on the subject. His principle of acting is laid 
down in the following extract from a letter he wrote to 
the mareshal of Noailles, who had consulted him on the 
line of conduct he should pursue in respect to the Hu- 
guenot soldiers under his command. 

Fenelon says, ",That tormenting and teazing heretic 
soldiers into conversion will answer no end ; it will not 
succeed ; it will only produce hypocrites ; the converts 
made by them will desert in crowds. If an officer, or 
any other person can insinuate the truth into their hearts, 
or excite in them a desire of instruction, it is well ; but 
there should be no constraint, no indirect officiousness. 
When they are ill, a catholic officer may visit them, pro- 
cure them assistance, and drop on them a few salutary 
words. If that produce no good, and the sickness con- 
tinue, one may go a little further, but softly, and without 
constraint. One may hint, that the ancient is the best 
Church, and derived to us immediately from the apostles. 
If the sick person be unable to enter into this, you should 
be satisfied with leading him to make some acts of sor- 
row for his sins, and some acts of faith and charity, add- 
ing words like these, my God ! I submit to whatever 
the true Church teaches. In whatever place she resides, 
I acknowledge her for my mother." 

The chevalier Ramsay relates, that Fenelon recom- 
mended to prince Charles, the grandson of our James 
the second, never to use compulsion in matters of religion. 



80 FENELON. 

" No human power," he said, " can force the impenetra- 
ble retrenchments of the freedom of the mind. Com- 
pulsion never persuades, it only makes hypocrites. When 
kings interfere in matters of religion, they don't protect 
it, they enslave it. Give civil liberty to all, not by ap- 
proving all religions, as indifferent, but by permitting in 
patience what God permits, and by endeavouring to bring 
persons to what is right by mildness and persuasion." 

His conduct during his mission was such as to recom- 
mend him to the favour of the king, but he lived for two 
years without going to court, during which time he pub- 
lished his treatises on the Mission of the Clergy, and 
Female Education. In 1609 he was appointed preceptor 
to the Duke of Burgundy, the Duke of Anjou, and the 
Duke of Berri, the grandsons of Louis XlVth. Although 
no pecuniary income was attached to his office, and his 
private income was so small that he found great difficulty 
in supporting his very moderate establishment, he made 
a rule of never asking a favour of the court for himself 
or his friends, and he received no favour till his nomina- 
tion to the abbey of St. Valery, at the end of several years. 

In the Duke of Burgundy, he had to deal with a proud, 
passionate, self-willed youth, and his success in the man- 
agement of him was remarkable. He always made the 
3^oung prince understand that his preceptor pos^tessed 
over him full and ample authority, and that so far from 
regarding his situation as an honour, he only held it in 
obedience to the king's command, and would resign it 
immediately if not obeyed. Successful in a wonderful 
manner as a preceptor, especially as regarded the Duke of 
Burgundy, honoured by all, and beloved by the good, Fene- 
lon was first appointed to the abbey of St. Valery, and in 
a few months after to the Archbishopric of Cambray. 
Increase of honours did not bring with it increase of 
happiness. Happy indeed the pious Fenelon must have 
been at all times, but cares and anxieties now awaited 
liirn, to which he had hitherto been a stranger. 



FENELON. 81 

He was implicated before his consecration with the 
Quietists. 

Quietism had been at this time revived in France, by 
the friend of Fenelon, Madame du Guyon, of whom her 
adversaries are compelled to confess, that in every part of 
her life her morals were irreproachable. Her sin in the 
sight of the worldly, consisted in the power with which 
she descanted on the love of God. But her words found 
a response in the pious heart of Fenelon : and through- 
out Paris and the provinces there were many who were 
prepared to adopt her system of Quietism. By several 
of the clergy of the established Church of France, how- 
ever, the system was condemned as an innovation. Fen- 
elon denied that the consequences they deduced from 
her theoiy w^ere justly to be derived from it, and the late 
Mr. John Wesley, the founder of Methodism, translated 
her autobiography into English, and says, "As to Ma- 
dame de Guyon herself, I believe she is not only a good 
woman, but good in an eminent degree ; deeply devoted 
to God, and often favoured with uncommon communion 
of His Spirit." 

The celebrated Bossuet took part against Madame de 
Guyon, and conducted the controversy with his usual 
sldll, — a skill which sometimes looked like craft. He, 
together with the Bishop of Chartres and M. Tronson, 
were appointed by the king commissioners to enquire 
into the orthodoxy or heterodoxy of the doctrines ad- 
vanced by Madame Guyon : a board of heresy, we should 
now style them. Unlike the easy manner in which a 
deep point of doctrine would in these days be discussed 
by doctors of the Church of England, these divines of 
the Church of France carried on their conferences be- 
tween themselves and the party accused for six months, 
examined the authorities, and weighed the references 
with great deliberation. Bossuet alw^ays admitted that, 
before these disputes, he was little conversant with mys- 
tical theology, and at his request Fenelon provided him 

VOL V. H 



83 FENELON. 

with extracts from the chief of the mystical writers, 
Francis of Sales and John of the Cross. 

The commissioners assembled at Issy, a retired coun- 
try house, belonging to the congregation of St. Sulpice. 
They drew up thirty articles, in which certain alterations 
were made by Fenelon, by whom four were added. There 
was no mention in them of Madame de Guyon or her 
doctrines, but they were supposed to express the doctrines 
of the established Church of France, on the principal 
subjects in dispute. The commissioners evidently per- 
ceived that they had a difficult duty to discharge, and 
for discharging which, from what has been just said of 
Bossuet, they must have felt their incompetence : on the 
one hand they were not to condemn Francis of Sales, 
called by Romanists a saint, and other spiritualists, and 
on the other a faction called out for a censure on Madame 
de Guyon. Their conclusion amounts to little more than 
this, that spiritualism, or an aim at the very highest 
devotional feeling and communion with God, is not 
necessary to all, and is liable to abuse. Certain it is 
that their conclusions were such that Madame de Guyon 
immediately expressed her acquiescence in the doctrine 
contained in the articles of Issy. The whole question 
seemed now to be set at rest. Fenelon, having been 
nominated before these transactions to the Archbishopric 
of Cambray, was duly consecrated, Bossuet, Bishop of 
Meaux, officiating, at his own earnest request. Bossuet 
and Fenelon had been formerly intimate as friends. 

But Quietism continued to gain ground, and to stop 
its progress Bossuet published his " Instruction sur les 
etats de I'oraison," for which he sought the approbation 
of the new archbishop ; but he withheld it, on the grounds 
that it contained an absolute and unqualified denial of 
the possibility of a pure disinterested love of God, and 
that its censures of Madame de Guyon were too general 
and too severe. 

This was the commencement of that long and bitter con- 



FENELON. 83 

troversy between these two distinguished prelates, which 
for a long time disturbed the peace of the Church of 
France. Fenelon published his celebrated " Explication 
des maximes des saints sur la vie interieuse," but not be- 
fore it was carefully examined by the Cardinal de Noailles 
and M. Tronson, two of the committee at Issy, and by 
M. Pirot, a theologian of eminence attached to Bossuet. 
These pronounced the Maximes des Saints to be a golden 
work. But no sooner was it published, than an uproar 
was raised against it, by the whole of that party in the 
French Church, who, with great pretensions to spiritu- 
ality, were ignorant of its real nature. With these, the 
worldly and the careless, as is ever the case, took part ; 
they are always on the side of those who take the lowest 
views of religion. In this controversy Louis XlVth and 
Madame de Maintenon ventured to take part, and sided, 
of course, against Fenelon. 

Bossuet had the support of the court, and most violently 
did he conduct himself, introducing the vilest insinuations 
and the most gross personalities in his writings against 
Fenelon. The real character of Bossuet is to be seen 
rather in this controversy with a bishop of the same 
Church as himself, than in his dispute with protestants. 
Fenelon defended himself with spirit, and the writings 
of both the controversialists are, as pieces of literature, 
highly praised by the French critics. 

An appeal was made to Kome. Bossuet artfully brought 
his influence with Louis to bear upon the court of Rome: 
and had the audacity to insinuate that Fenelon was, 
in his own diocese, considered an heretic ; and that as 
soon as Rome should speak, Cambray, and all the Low 
Countries, would rise against him. This w^ould seem 
to imply a belief on his part that the pope and his ad- 
visers might be influenced by other considerations than 
those which depended upon the justice of the case. But 
notwithstanding the remonstrances of Louis, the pope 
proceeded cautiously, and delayed his decision. In the 



84 FENELON. 

mean time the friends of Fenelon were persecuted by the 
court, and he himself was suspended from his office of 
preceptor to the royal dukes ; but never, amidst all the 
indignities he suffered, did Fenelon lose the pious sere- 
nity of his mind. " Yet but a little while," he says in one 
of his letters, " and the deceitful dream of this life will 
be over. We shall meet in the kingdom of truth, where 
there is no error, no division, no scandal ; we shall 
breathe the pure love of God ; He will communicate to 
us His everlasting peace. In the meanwhile let us suffer; 
let us be trodden under foot ; let us not refuse disgrace ; 
Jesus Christ was disgraced for us ; may our disgrace tend 
to His glory." 

At length the pope appointed a congregation of cardi- 
nals, who met twelve times without coming to any resolu- 
tion ; he then appointed a new congregation of cardinals, 
who met fifty-two times, who extracted from Fenelon's 
work several propositions, which they reported to the 
pope as censurable, after which they had thirty-seven 
meetings to settle the form of censure. Meantime Louis 
XlVth was urging the pope to condemn Fenelon, al- 
though the pope himself was unwilling to come to a 
final decision. It was difficult to censure Fenelon with- 
out censuring some catholic writer of acknowledged 
orthodoxy. Holy too as Fenelon was, it was considered 
that to submit to a decision against him was an act of 
such heroic humility, that it could scarcely be expected, 
and that a schism might be caused equal to that which 
was the result of Pope Pius's indiscretion, at the time of 
the Pteformation. The pope was aware that after all, the 
dispute was one chiefly about words. The pope inclined 
to issue a brief, stating the doctrine of the Church, and 
calling upon each party to abstain from future discus- 
sions. But even a pope, like a more humble divine, may 
stand in awe of worldly consequences. The profligate 
monarch of France, urged on by Bossuet, insisted upon 
the archbishop's condemnation, and the pope at last 



FENELON. 85 

issued a brief, by which twenty- three propositions were 
extracted from Fenelon's work and condemned, though 
the expressions used in the condemnation of them were 
so gentle, that it is evident that if the pope had feared 
God as much as he feared the French king, Fenelon 
would have escaped all censure. By this course, the 
friends of Fenelon were soothed and his adversaries 
mortified ; and their mortification was increased by an 
expression of the pope, which was soon in every one's 
mouth, that Fenelon was in fault for too great love of 
God ; his enemies equally in fault, for too little love of 
their neighbour. Beautiful is the letter which was 
written on the occasion by the Abbe de Chanterac to the 
archbishop, so beautiful that long as this article is, it 
shall be given : — 

*' Now is the time arrived," wrote the good Abbe de 
Chanterac to the archbishop, " to put in practice what- 
ever religion has taught you to be most holy, in a perfect 
conformity to the will of God. You, and all attached to 
you, must be obedient to Jesus Christ, to death, even to 
the death of the cross. You will want all your piety, all 
the submission which you have so often promised the 
pope in your letters, to possess your soul in patience, 
when you read the brief, which he has just published 
against your book. — It was intimated to me, that I ought 
to wait upon him, to assure him of your submission. — 
All of us together cannot be so much affected, as he 
appears to be, for what may be painful to you in his 
brief; most pious, most holy, most learned ; — were epi- 
thets he often applied to you. All your friends here 
think you should receive this brief with the most perfect 
submission ; and that the more simple your submission 
shall be, the more acceptable it will be to God and 
man. Jesus Christ agonized on the cross, exposed to the 
judgments of men, appears to me the true model which 
religion now holds out for your imitation, and to which 
the Holy Ghost wishes you to conform. It is chiefly in 
h2 



80 FENELON. 

situations like that, in which providence has now placed 
you, that the just man lives by faith, and that we ought 
to be founded and rooted in the charity of Jesus Christ. 
Who shall separate us from it ? Never was I so intimately 
united to you for eternity." 

Fenelon was just about to ascend the pulpit in his 
cathedral, when information was brought to him of the 
pope's brief. The news circulated through the congrega- 
tion, at the same time. The archbishop paused. He 
changed the subject of his sermon. He preached on the 
duty of obedience to the Church. The calmness of the 
meek and mild prelate, the pledge which all felt he was 
now giving, to act up to his principles, plunged the whole 
congregation in tears. With their beloved pastor they 
sympathized. 

The noble archbishop immediately addressed a pastoral 
letter to the faithful in his diocese, in which he stated : 
" Our holy father has condemned my book, entitled 
' Maxims of Saints,' and has condemed in a particular 
manner twenty-three propositions extracted from it. We 
adhere to his brief, and condemn the book and the 
propositions, simply, absolutely, and without a shadow of 
reserve." It was observed that the Archbishop of Cam- 
bray fought like a lion in defence of his book while there 
was a chance of victory, but submitted in an instant, like 
the lowliest of his flock, when the decision of the autho- 
rity to which through ignorance, he deferred, was against 
him. From that time he dismissed the thought of the 
controversy from his mind. Such conduct rendered 
powerless the attempts of the king and Bossuet, to excite 
against him the feelings of the Church of France. He 
lost no friends, notwithstanding the displeasure of the 
court, and no one possessed friends more devoted and 
attached, including his pupil, the Duke of Burgundy. 

It was during these disputes that Telemachus was 
surreptitiously published by the person to whom Fenelon 
had committed the manuscript to be copied. It was con- 



FENELON. 87 

sidered a libel upon the court, and suppressed, though 
Fenelon denied any intentional allusion to Louis or his 
courtiers. It was published in the next reign, and has 
obtained an European fame. 

Of Fenelon's conduct in his diocese, it is agreed by 
all persons that it is impossible to speak too highly. 

In the disputes on the subject of Jansenism, Fenelon 
appeared several times in print against Jansenius : but 
though he combated their errors, he left them in quiet. 
He expressed himself strongly, though charitably, against 
both Quesnel and Pascal. His gentleness and forbear- 
ance seem often remarkable : a cure one day complained 
to him that after the evening service on the Sunday, his 
parishioners, true Frenchmen, would dance. The arch- 
bishop replied, " My good friend ; neither you nor I 
should dance, but let us leave these poor people to dance 
as they please, their hours of happiness are not too 
numerous." What the poor require is sympathy, and 
this they found in Fenelon ; when the people hear their 
pastors declaim against their few amusements, while they 
see the said pastors returning from such declamations 
to a comfortable fire-side and a good dinner, they are apt 
to think scorn of their instructions. Men must be 
ascetic themselves, ere they preach asceticism to others. 
Let the self-indulgent be lenient in their judgments. 

Such was the esteem in which Fenelon was held, that 
when we conquered the French in the reign of queen 
Anne, our illustrious commander, the Duke of Marl- 
borough, directed the lands of Fenelon to be spared. 
He died in 1715, leaving behind him neither debt nor 
money. 

The principal works of Fenelon, besides those already 
mentioned, are Dialogues of the Dead, 2 vols, IJimo. 
These have more solid sense and a more elevated morality 
than those of Fontenelle, to which La Harpe has pre- 
ferred them. Dialogues on Eloquence in general, and 
on that of the pulpit in particular, with a Letter on 



88 FENN. 

Rhetoric and Poetry, 12mo ; tlie letter is addressed to 
the French Academy, of which he became a member in 
1693 ; Philosophical Works, or Demonstration of the 
Existence of a God by Natural Proofs, 12mo ; Letters 
on different Religious and Metaphysical Subjects, 12mo ; 
Spiritual Works, 4 vols, 12mo; Sermons, 12mo; several 
pieces in favour of the bull Unigenitus and the Formu- 
lary. An edition of his works was published at Paris by 
Didot, in 1787-92, in 9 vols, 4to ; another was published 
at Toulous€, in 1809-11, in 19 vols, 12mo. — Life hij 
Butler. Ramsaij. M. de Bausset. 



FENN, JOHN. 

John Fenn, was born at Montacute^ in Somersetshire, 
and educated at Winchester school, from whence he re- 
moved to New College, Oxford, where he obtained a 
fellovv'ship. In the reign of queen Mary he became mas- 
ter of the free-school at St. Edmundsbury in Suffolk; 
but when Elizabeth came to the throne he went to Flan- 
ders, and afterwards to Rome, where he was admitted 
into the English college, studied theology for four years, 
and took orders. Returning afterwards to Flanders, he 
became confessor to the English nuns at Louvain. He 
died in 1615. He wrote, Vitas quorundam Martyrum in 
Anglia; which is inserted in Bridgwater's Concertatio 
Ecclesise Catholicae in Anglia; several of Bishop Fisher's 
English works, translated into Latin; Catechismus Tri- 
dentinus, translated into English ; Osorius's treatise 
against Walter Haddon, translated into English, Lou- 
vain, 1568, 8vo ; The Life of St. Catharine of Sienna, 
from the ItaUan, 1609, 8vo; A Treatise on Tribulation, 
from the Italian of Caccia Guerra ; Mysteries of the 
Rosary, from Gaspar Loartes. — Wood. 



FERNE. 89 



FERNE, HENRY. 



Henrt Ferne was born at York, in 1602, and educated 
at the free-school of Uppingham, in Rutlandshire, whence 
he was removed to St. Mary Hall, Oxford, and thence, 
but after two years' residence, to Trinity college, Cam- 
bridge, of which he became fellow. He was next domestic 
chaplain to Morton, Bishop of Durham; and was succes- 
sively presented to the living of Masham in Yorkshire, 
to that of Medborn in Leicestershire, and to the arch- 
deaconry of Leicester. In 1642 he took his doctor's 
degree, and kept the act at the commencement. He 
then went into Leicestershire, where he had an oppor- 
tunity of waiting on Charles L, and preached before 
him as he was going to Nottingham to set up his stand- 
ard. The king, with whom he was in great favour, made 
him his chaplain. In 1642 he j)ublished his Case of 
Conscience touching Rebellion, and is said to have been 
the first that wrote openly in defence of the royal cause. 
He was next appointed chaplain to one of the lords 
commissioners at the treaty of Uxbridge, where, at the 
request of some of them, he stated the case between 
episcopacy and presbytery. He attended the king at 
Oxford until he had taken Leicester, and was present 
at the unfortunate battle of Naseby ; after which he went 
to Newark, and continued preaching until the king 
ordered the garrison to surrender. His next retreat was 
to Yorkshire, where he remained with his relations, until 
Charles called him to the Isle of Wight. During the 
usurpation he lived in privacy, having been cruelly 
deprived of his living, and reduced to poverty, by the 
triumphant dissenters. They would not permit him to 
preach, but he maintained the cause of the Church by 
controversies with the Romanists. And his powerful 
unanswerable discourse on the case as it stands between 
the Church of England and of Rome, has lately been 



90 FERNE. 

republished by Mr. Brogden, in his excellent and well 
timed work entitled, " Catholic Safeguards." We shall 
make one short extract; "The Church of England, 
standing thus between the Church of Rome on the one 
hand, and the aforesaid sects, whi-ch have divided from it 
on the other hand, is challenged, and assaulted by both, 
put now to defend itself against both. Which brings to 
mind the device of some Romanist, who to make himself 
merry, has pictured an English Protestant standing be- 
tween a Papist and an Independent, borrowing arguments 
and reasons from the one, to oppose or answer the other : 
against the Papists he must plead, as do all sectaries, 
invisibility of the Church, Scripture alone, liberty of pri- 
vate judgment : against other sects he must help himself 
by urging, as do the Papists, the visible condition of the 
Church, the authority of it, Catholic tradition and prac- 
tice, and the succession of bishops and pastors. Well, 
the Romanists may thus seemingly please themselves, 
but indeed this of all other reformed Churches has been, 
and is, by reason of its most regular Reformation, their 
great eye-sore and heart-sorrow. And the English Pro- 
testant, or obedient son of the Church of England, as he 
is well set between a Papist and Sectary, as between two 
extremes, so he only is able to stand against the opposi- 
tions or pretensions of both ; for if we examine the false 
grounds and deceiving principles of both, as to this point 
of the constitution, government, and communion of the 
Church : we shall clearly see the truth lies in the midst 
between both, and the Church of England holds and 
maintains it." 

On the restoration, Charles II. gave him the master- 
ship of Trinity College, Cambridge, which he kept a year 
and a half, and was twice chosen vice-chancellor. He 
was also promoted to the deanery of Ely; and upon 
Dr. Walton's death, in 1660, he was made Bishop of 
Chester. He died in the following year, 1661, and was 
buried in Westminster Abbey. He is said to have assist- 



FEREAR. 91 

ed Dr. Walton in his Polyglott, He published, The 
Resolving of Conscience, &c. on the question of taking up 
arms against the king, Cambridge, 1642, and Oxford, 
1643; and two other tracts in answer to his opponents, 
on the same subject; Episcopacy and Presbyteiy con- 
sidered, London, 1647; Certain Considerations of pre- 
sent Concernment touching the Reformed Church of 
England, against Ant. Champney, Doctor of the Sor- 
bonne, ibid. 1653 ; On the Case as it stands between the 
Church of England and of Rome on the one hand, and 
those Congregations which have divided from it on the 
other, ibid. 1655 ; On the Division between the English 
and Romish Church upon the Reformation, ibid. 1655 ; 
Answer to Mr. Spencer's book, entitled Scripture mis- 
taken, 1660. He also published several sermons. — Wood. 
Walker. 



FEKEAK, KOBEET, 

Robert Feerar was born at Halifax in Yorkshire. He 
studied at Oxford and Cambridge, and became a canon 
regular of the order of St. Augustine, and was chosen 
prior of the monasteiy of St. Oswald, which dignity he 
surrendered on the dissolution, in 1540, and received a 
pension of £100 per annum. Early embracing the prin- 
ciples of the Reformation, he was made Bishop of St. 
David's by Edward VI. In consequence of incautiously 
issuing out his commission to his chancellor to visit his 
chapter, and inspect into some dilapidations, in an ex- 
ploded form, not sufficiently admissive of the king's 
supremacy, his enemies found occasion to accuse him of 
a prcBmunire, and so great were the expences of the prose- 
cution, that he became unable to pay his first fruits and 
tenths, and was imprisoned for the same as a debtor to 
the crown. 

He remained in prison till the accession of Mary, and 



92 FERRAR. 

certainly the treatment he received from the reformers 
was sufficient to have influenced him to join the Popish 
party now in power, if he had not been under the influ 
ence of religious impressions and principles. Although 
implicit reliance cannot always be placed on the state- 
ments of Fox, the account of the bishop's last trials may 
be given in the words of that author. He informs us 
that articles to the number of fifty-six, were preferred 
against him, in which he was charged with many negli- 
gences and contumacies of Church government. These 
he answered and denied. But so many and so bitter 
were his enemies, that they prevailed, and he was in 
consequence thrown into prison. He was prosecuted on 
different heads, but chiefly as related to doctrine ; and 
he had been called up in company with the martyrs, 
Hooper, Rogers, Bradford, and Saunders, on the 4th of 
February, and with them would have been condemned ; 
but through want of leisure or some such cause among 
his judges, he was remanded back to prison, where he 
remained till the 14th of the same month. The sub- 
stance of the examination we here present to our readers. 
At his first coming and kneeling before the lord chan- 
cellor, the bishops of Durham and Worcester sat at the 
table, and Mr. Rochester, Mr. Southwel, Mr. Bourne, 
and others, stood at the table's end. The lord chan- 
cellor first addressed him in such questions as these — 
" Well, sir, have you heard how the world goeth here ? 
Do you not know things abroad, notwithstanding you 
are a prisoner ? Have you not heard of the coming in of 
the lord cardinal Pole? The queen's majesty and the 
parliament hath restored religion to the same state it was 
in at the beginning of the reign of our king Henry the 
VIIT. You are in the queen's debt, and her majesty 
will be good unto you, if you will return to the Catholic 
Church." To this Ferrar said, " In what state I am con- 
cerning my debts to the queen's majesty, in the court of 
exchequer, my lord treasurer knoweth: and the last 



FERRAR. 93 

time that I was before your honour, and the first time 
also, I shewed you that I had made an oath never to 
consent nor agree, that the Bishop of Rome should have 
any power or jurisdiction within this realm : and further, 
I need not rehearse to your lordship, you know it well 
enough." 

Instead of proceeding with one examination, the chan- 
cellor and the bishops allowed the lay inferiors to insult 
Dr. Ferrar with several questions and charges as imper- 
tinent as they were false and groundless. Among the 
accusations, he was charged with supplanting a patron 
whom he had actually defended from the danger of being 
supplanted by another. They accused him of defrauding 
the queen of divers sums of money, and of violating an 
oath of chastity — not celibacy — by taking to himself a 
wife ! To these false allegations Ferrar answered with 
remarkable decision, which put not only the subordinate 
but also the superior and the supreme members of this 
iniquitous court to perfect shame and silence. The fol- 
lowing are samples of his firm resistance of untruth, as 
well as his noble advocacy of the rights of conscience and 
the purity of the gospel. Rising from the kneeling pos- 
ture in which for some time he had continued, and stand- 
ing up unbidden as well as undaunted before his power- 
ful foes, he said — "My lord, I never defrauded king or 
queen of one penny in my life ; I am a tme man, I thank 
God for it. I was born under king Henry VITL, have 
lived under king Edward VI. truly, and have served the 
queen's majesty that now is, with my heart and word : 
more I could not do, and I was never false, nor shall be 
by the grace of God. I have made an oath to God, and 
to king Henry VIII., and also to king Edward, and to 
the queen's majesty, the which I can never break while 
I live, if I die for it. I never made a profession to live 
without a wife. I made a profession to live chastely; 
but not without a wife. I am as it pleaseth you to call 
me ; but I cannot break an oath which your lordship 

VOL V. I 



94 FERRAR. 

yourself made before me, and gave an example, the which 
confirmed my conscience. I can never break that oath 
whilst I live to die for it. I pray God to save the king 
and queen's majesties long to continue in honour to God's 
glory and their comfort, and the comfort of the whole 
realm ; and I pray God save all your honours." 

After this examination Bishop Ferrar remained in 
prison uncondemned, till the 14th day of February, and 
then was sent down into Wales, there to receive sentence 
of condemnation. Upon the 26th of February, in the 
church of Carmarthen, being brought by Griffith Leyson, 
Esq., sheriff of the county of Carmarthen, he was there 
personally presented before the new Bishop of St. David's 
and Constantine the public notary : who did there and 
then discharge the said sheriff, and receive him into their 
own custody, further committing him to the keeping of 
Owen Jones, and thereupon declared unto Mr. Ferrar the 
great mercy and clemency that the king and queen's 
highness' pleasure was to be offered unto him, which they 
there did offer ; that if he would submit himself to the 
laws of the realm, and conform himself to the unity of 
the Catholic Church, he should be received and pardoned. 
Seeing that Dr. Ferrar gave no answer to the premises, 
the bishop ministered unto him these articles following — 
evidently the main questions on which it was purposed 
to sentence and put him to death. 

Whether he believed the marriage of priests lawful by 
the laws of God, and his holy Church, or not? and whe- 
ther he believed that in the blessed sacrament of l^e 
altar, after the words of consecration duly pronounced by 
the priest, the very body and blood of Christ is really and 
substantially contained, without the substance of bread 
and wine ? Upon the bishop requiring Dr. Ferrar to 
answer upon his allegiance, the latter, doubting the 
bishop's authority said, he would answer when he saw a 
lawful commission, and would make no further answer 
at that time. Whereupon the bishop, taking no advantage 



FERRAR. 95 

upon the answer, committed him to prison until a new 
monition ; in the mean time to deliberate with himself 
for his further answer to the premises. 

It has been intimated that a new bishop was placed at 
St. David's : this was one Henr}^ Morgan, a furious papist, 
who now became the chief judge of his persecuted prede- 
cessor. This Morgan, sitting as judge, ministered unto 
Bishop Ferrar certain articles and interrogatories in 
writing; which being openly read unto him a second 
time, Ferrar still refused to answer, till he might see his 
lawful commission and authority. Whereupon Morgan 
pronounced him as contumax, and for the punishment of 
this his contumacy to be counted ^;ro confesso, and so did 
pronounce him in writing. This done, he committed 
him to the custody of Owen Jones, until the 4th of 
March, then to be brought again into the same place, 
between one and two. 

The day and place appointed, the bishop appeared 
again before his haughty successor, submitted himself as 
ready to answer to the articles and positions above men- 
tioned, gently required a copy of the articles, and a com- 
petent term to be assigned unto him, to answer for him- 
self. This being granted, and the Thursday next being 
assigned to him between one and three to answer pre- 
cisely and fully, he was committed again to custody. On 
the appointed day he again appeared and exhibited a 
bill in w^riting, containing in it his answer to the articles 
objected and ministered unto him before. Then Morgan 
offered him again the articles in this brief form — that 
he willed him being a priest to renounce matrimony — to 
grant the natural presence of Christ in the sacrament, 
under the forms of bread and wine — to confess and 
allow that the mass is a propitiatory sacrifice for the 
quick and the dead — that general councils lawfully con- 
gregated never did, and never can err — that men are not 
justified before God by faith only, but that hope and 
charity are also necessarily required to justification — and 



96 FERRAR. 

that the Catholic Church only hath authority to expound 
scripture and to define controversies of religion, and to 
ordain things appertaining to public discipline. 

To these articles he still refused to subscribe, affirming 
that they were invented by man, and pertain notliing to 
the catholic faith. After this Morgan delivered unto him 
the copy of the articles, assigning him Monday following, 
to answer and subscribe to them either affirmatively or 
negatively. The day came, and he exhibited in a written 
paper his mind and answer to the articles, adding these 
words, tenens se de (Equitate et justicia esse episcopum Mene- 
vensem. The bishop assigned the next Wednesday, in 
the forenoon, to hear his final and definitive sentence. 
On that day, Morgan demanded of him whether he 
would renounce and recant his heresies, schisms, and 
errors, which hitherto he had maintained, and if he 
would subscribe to the catholic articles otherwise than he 
had done before. 

Upon this Ferrar did exhibit a certain schedule written 
in English, and remaining in the acts, appealing from 
the bishop, as from an incompetent judge, to Cardinal 
Pole and other the highest authorities. This, how- 
ever, did not avail him. Morgan proceeding in his rage, 
pronounced the definitive sentence against him : by 
which sentence he pronounced him as a heretic excom- 
municate, and to be given up forthwith to the secular 
power, namely, to the sheriff of the town of Carmarthen, 
Mr. Leyson. After which his degradation followed of 
course. 

Thus was this godly bishop condemned and degraded, 
and committed to the secular power, and not long after 
was brought to execution in the town of Carmarthen, 
where in the market-place on the south side of the cross, 
on the 30th of March, being Saturday before Passion- 
Sunday, he most constantly sustained the torments of 
the fire. Among the incidents of his martyrdom worthy 
of mention is the following : one Richard Jones, a young 



FERRAR. 97 

gentleman, and son of a knight, coming to Dr. Ferrar a 
little before his death, seemed to lament the painfulness 
of what he had to suffer: unto whom the bishop answered, 
that if he saw him once to stir in the pains of his burn- 
ing, he should then give no credit to his doctrine. And 
as he said, so he performed ; for so patiently he stood, 
that he never moved, till one Richard Gravell, with a 
staff, struck him down, that he fell amidst the flames, and 
expired, or rather rose to heaven to live for ever. 

A monument has lately been erected to his memory in 
Halifax church, by the exertions of a parishioner distin- 
guished by his zeal for the Church of England. — Strype. 
Fox. 



FERRAR, NICHOLAS. 

Nicholas Ferrar was born in 1592, in the parish of 
St. Mary Stayning, in Mark-lane, London. His father 
traded very extensively to the East and West Indies, 
and lived in high repute in the city, where he joined in 
commercial matters with Sir Thomas and Sir Hugh Mid- 
dleton, and Mr. Bateman. He was a man of liberal 
hospitality, and frequently received persons of the great- 
est eminence. Sir John Hawkins, Sir Francis Drake, 
Sir Walter Raleigh, and others with whom he was an 
adventurer; and in all their expeditions he was ever 
zealous to establish the Church ; nor was he less zealous 
when in his own country. The parish church and chan- 
cel of St. Bennet Sherhog in London, Mr. Ferrar rej^aired 
and decently seated at his own expence ; and as there 
was not any morning preacher there, he brought from 
the country Mr. Francis White, and made him their first 
lecturer. Mr. White was afterwards advanced to the see 
of Ely. 

When a stranger preached, Mr. Ferrar always invited 
him to dinner, and if it was discovered that he was in 
i2 



98 FERRAR. 

any necessity, he never departed without a handsome 
present. In truth they never were without a clergyman 
as a companion in their house, or even on their journeys, 
as they always accustomed themselves to morning and 
evening prayer. 

Nicholas was sent to school at four years of age, and 
at five he could accurately repeat a chapter in the Bible, 
which the parents made the daily exercise of their chil- 
dren. He received his earlier education at Euborn, 
near Newbery, in Berkshire, whence, in his fourteenth 
year, he was removed to Clare Hall, Cambridge. In 
1610 he took his degree of B.A. At this time he was 
appointed to make the speech on the king's coronation 
day in the college hall ; and the same year he was elected 
fellow. The delicacy of his health made it necessaiy for 
him to travel, and in 1613 he attended in the retinue of 
the lady Elizabeth, to conduct her to the Palatinate with 
the Palsgrave her husband, and accompanied her to Hol- 
land. He then visited most of the German universities, 
and returned home in 1618. Soon after his return, he 
was introduced to Sir Edwyn Sandys, who made him 
known to the Earl of Southampton, and the other prin- 
cipal members of the Virginia company, to which he was 
appointed secretary ; and after the company was dissolved, 
he was, in 16*24, chosen member of parliament. He 
must, however, have sat a very short time, as he began 
soon to put in execution his scheme of retiring from the 
world, and leading a monastic life on the principles of 
the Church of England. For this purpose, in the last- 
mentioned year, he purchased the lordship of Little Gid- 
ding, in the county of Huntingdon, where his mother, 
his sister, with all her family, and other relations to the 
number of forty persons, came to reside as soon as it 
could be prepared for their reception. The better to carry 
on this plan, by his personal assistance, Mr. Ferrar ap- 
plied to Dr. Laud, then Bishop of St. David's, and was 
ordained deacon. He would not proceed to the higher 



FERRAK. 91* 

order of a priest, and refused the many offers of high 
preferment which his great friends were not slow to make 
when they understood that he was ordained. It now 
comes, says his biographer, Dr. Peckard, to speak of the 
established economy of the house and church of Little 
Gidding, which will be presented to the reader in the 
doctor's narrative, a little abbreviated. In these days, 
when there seems to be a desire on the part of some to 
establish similar communities, the example of Little 
Gidding is indeed peculiarly interesting. In the seven- 
teenth century whatever w-as done by our divines was 
done, not in imitation of the Papists, but on principles 
laid down at the English Reformation ; primitive prece- 
dent was followed, and good old English feeling predomi- 
nated ; w^hat w^as Romish was avoided, although by the 
wicked among the Puritans, and among their weak fol- 
lowers, all who aimed at Christian excellence were mis- 
represented as Papists at heart. 

Many workmen having been employed for nearly two 
years at Little Gidding, both the house and the church 
were in tolerable repair, yet with respect to the church 
Mrs. Ferrar was not well satisfied. She therefore new- 
floored and wainscotted it throughout. She provided 
also two new suits of furniture for the reading-desk, pul- 
pit, and communion-table : one for the week days, and 
the other for Sundays and other festivals. The furniture 
for week days was of green cloth, with suitable cushions 
and carpets. That for festivals was of rich blue cloth, 
with cushions of the same, decorated with lace, and fringe 
of silver. The pulpit was fixed on the north, and the 
reading-desk over against it, on the south side of the 
church, and both on the same level : it being thought 
improper that a higher place should be appointed for 
preaching than that which was allotted for prayer. A 
new font was also provided, the leg, laver, and cover all 
of brass, handsomely and expensively wrought and carved; 
with a large brass lectern, or pillar and eagle of brass for 



100 FERRAR. 

the Bible. The font was placed by the pulpit, and the 
lectern by the reading-desk. 

The half-pace, or elevated floor, on which the commu- 
nion table stood at the end of the chancel, with the stalls 
on each side, w^as covered with blue taffety, and cushions 
of the finest tapestry and blue silk. The space behind 
the communion-table, under the east window, was ele- 
gantly wainscotted, and adorned with the Ten Command- 
ments, the Lord's Prayer, and the Apostles' Creed, en- 
graved on four beautiful tablets of brass, gilt. 

The communion-table itself was furnished with a silver 
paten, a silver chalice, and silver candle-sticks, with large 
wax candles in them. Many other candles of the same 
sort were set up in every part of the church, and on all 
the pillars of the stalls. And these were not for the pur- 
poses of superstition, but for real use ; which for great 
part of the year the fixed hours for prayer made neces^ 
sary both for morning and evening semce. Mrs. Ferrar 
also taking great delight in church music, built a gallery 
at the bottom of the church for the organ. Thus was 
the church decently furnished, and ever after kept ele- 
gantly neat and clean. 

All matters preparatory to order and discipline being 
arranged and settled, about the year 1G31, Dr. Williams, 
the Bishop of Lincoln, came privately to Gidding, to pay 
a visit to his old friend Mr. N. Ferrar, with whom he had 
contracted a friendship at the Virginia board, and for 
whom he ever held the highest and most affectionate 
esteem. 

By this visit he had an opportunity to view the church, 
and the house, and to examine into their way of serving 
God, which had been much spoken against; to know 
also the soundness of the doctrine they maintained : to 
read the rules which Mr. N. Ferrar had drawn up for 
watching, fasting, and praying, for singing psalms and 
hymns, for their exercises in readings, and repetitions ; 
for their distributions of alms, their care of the sick, and 



FERRAR. 101 

wounded ; and all other regularities of their institution. 
All which the bishop highly approved, and bade them in 
God's name to proceed. 

In 1633 Mrs. Ferrar came to a resolution to restore the 
glebe lands and tithes to the church, which some four- 
score years before had been taken away, and in lieu 
thereof only £20 a year paid to the minister. She had 
from the first been so resolved, but had been put off by 
unexpected delays. She found great difficuUy in making 
out the glebe lands : but at length by the industry of 
Mr. N. Ferrar, she overcame it. She then sent her sons 
John and Nicholas with a letter to the bishop informing 
him of her determination, and desiring it might be con- 
firmed by his authority. This authority from the bishop 
was farther strengthened by a decree in chancery under 
Lord Coventry. 

In the spring of 1634, the bishop, to make some ac- 
knowledgment of this generosity, gave notice, that he 
would again pay a visit to the family and give them a 
sermon. And it being known that he was a lover of 
Church music, application was made to Dr. Towers, dean 
of Peterborough, who sent his whole choir to Gidding 
on the occasion. Divine service was performed through- 
out in the cathedral manner with great solemnity. The 
bishop preached a sermon adapted to the occasion, and 
in the afternoon gave confinnation to all of the neigh- 
bourhood who desired it. 

Every thing relative to the church being now complete- 
ly settled, Mr. Ferrar next turned his attention to the 
disposition of the mansion. The house being vei-y large, 
and containing many apartments, he allotted one great 
room for their family devotions, which he called the 
oratory, and adjoining to this, two other convenient 
rooms, one a night oratory for the men, the other a night 
oratory for the women : he also set out a separate cham- 
ber and closet for each of his nephews and nieces ; three 
more he reserved for the school-masters ; and his own 



102 FERRAR 

lodgings were so contrived that he could conveniently see 
that every thing vras conducted with decency and order : 
without doors he laid out the gardens in a beautiful man- 
ner, and formed them in many fair w^alks. 

Another circumstance that engaged his attention was, 
that the parish had for many years been turned into 
pasture grounds ; that as there was a veiy large dovecote, 
and a great number of pigeons upon these premises, 
these pigeons must consequently feed upon his neigh- 
bours' corn ; and this he thought injustice. He there- 
fore converted this building into a school-house, which 
being larger than was wanted for the young people of the 
family, permission was given to as many of the neigh- 
bouring towns as desired it, to send their children thither, 
where they were instructed without expense, in reading, 
writing, arithmetic, and the principles of the Christian 
religion. 

For this and other purposes, he provided three masters 
to be constantly resident in the house with him. The 
first was to teach English to strangers, and English and 
Latin to the children of the family : the second, good 
writing in all its hands, and arithmetic in all its branches : 
the third, to instruct them in the theoiy and practice of 
music, in singing, and performing upon the organ, viol, 
and lute ; on the last instrument his sister Collet was a 
distinguished performer. 

For all these things the children had their stated times 
and hours. So that though they were always in action, 
and always learning something, yet the great variety of 
things they were taught prevented all weariness, and 
made every thing be received with pleasure. And he was 
used to say that he who could attain to the the well- 
timing things, had gained an important point, and found 
the surest way to accomplish great designs with ease. 

On Thursdays, and Saturdays, in the afternoons, the 
youths were permitted to recreate themselves with bows 
and arrows, with running, leaping, and vaulting, and 



FERRAR. 103 

what other manly exercises they themselves liked best. 
With respect to the younger part of the females, the 
general mode of education was similar to that of the 
boys, except where the difference of sex made a ditierent 
employment or recreation proper. When the powers of 
reason and judgment became in some degree matured, 
they were all at proper times taken under the immediate 
instruction of Mr. Ferrar himself, who bestowed several 
hours every day in that important employment. Accord- 
ing to the capacity of each he gave them passages of 
scripture to get by heart, and particularly the whole book 
of psalms. He selected proper portions, of which he 
gave a clear explanation, and a judicious comment. But 
above all things he was anxiously attentive to daily 
catechetical lectures, according to the doctrine of the 
Church of England. And in order to make his pious 
labours extensively beneficial, he invited the children of 
all the surrounding parishes, to get the book of psalms 
by heart. To encourage them to this performance, each 
was presented with a psalter : all were to repair to G id- 
ding every Sunday morning, and each was to repeat his 
psalm, till they could all repeat the whole book. These 
psalm-children, as they were called, more than a hundred 
in number, received every Sunday, according to the pro- 
ficiency of each, a small pecuniary reward and a dinner, 
which was conducted with great regularity. For, when 
they returned from church, long trestles were placed in 
the middle of the great hall, round which the children 
stood in great order. Mrs. Ferrar, and her family then 
came in to see them served. The servants brought in 
baked puddings and meat : which was the only repast 
provided on Sundays for the whole family, that all might 
have an opportunity of attending divine service at 
church. She then set on the first dish herself, to give 
an example of humility. Grace was said, and then the 
bell rang for the family, who thereupon repaired to the 
great dining roon^, and stood in order round the table. 



104 FERRAR. 

Whilst the dinner was sendng, they sang a hymn to the 
organ : then grace was said by the minister of the parish, 
and they sat down. During dinner one of the younger 
people, whose turn it was, read a chapter in the Bible, 
and when that was finished, another recited some chosen 
story out of the book of martyrs, or Mr. Ferrar's short 
histories. When the dinner was finished throughout the 
family, at two o'clock the bell summoned them to church 
to evening service, whither they went in a regular form 
of procession, Mr. N. Ferrar sometimes leading his 
mother, sometimes going last in the train : and having 
all returned from church in the same form, thus ended 
the jjyhlic employment of every Sunday. 

Immediately after church the family all went into the 
oratory, where select portions of the psalms were repeated, 
and then all were at liberty till five o'clock : at which 
hour in summer, and six in the winter, the bell called 
them to supper : where all the ceremonial was repeated 
exactly the same as at dinner. After supper they were 
again at liberty till eight, when the bell summoned them 
all into the oratory, where they sang a hymn to the organ, 
and went to prayers ; when the children asked blessing 
of their parents, and then all the family retired to their 
respective apartments ; and thus ended the private obser- 
vation of the sabbath. 

On the first Sunday of every month they always had a 
communion, which was administered by the clergyman 
of the adjoining parish ; Mr. N. Ferrar assisting as dea- 
con. All the servants who then received the communion, 
when dinner was brought up, remained in the room, and 
on that day dined at the same table with Mrs. Ferrar, 
and the rest of the family. 

That I may not be thought to conceal any thing which 
brought censure upon them, and led to their persecution, 
I will here insert the particular mode of their proces- 
sions, and other circumstances which were condemned 
])y some as being superstitious. I shall not pass any 



FERRAR. 105 

judgment myself on these ceremonials, relating mere 
matter of fact, and observing only that where there was 
error, it was error on the side of virtue and goodness. 

When their early devotions in the oratoi7 were finished 
they proceeded to church in the following order : 

First, the three school-masters, in black gowns and 
Monmouth caps. 

Then, Mrs. Ferrar's grandsons, clad in the same man- 
ner, two and two. 

Then her son, Mr. J. Ferrar, and her son-in-law, Mr. 
Collet, in the same dress. 

Then, Mr. N. Ferrar, in sui-plice, hood, and square 
cap, sometimes leading his mother. 

Then, Mrs. Collet, and all her daughters, two and two. 

Then, all the servants, two and two. The dress of all 
was uniform. 

Then, on Sundays, all the psalm-children, two and 
two. 

As they came into the church, every person made a low 
obeisance, and all took their appointed places. The 
masters, and gentlemen in the chancel : the youths knelt 
on the upper step of the half-pace ; Mrs. Ferrar, her 
daughters, and all her grand-daughters in a fair island- 
seat. Mr, N. Ferrar at coming in made alow obeisance; 
a few paces farther, a lower: and at the half-pace, a lower 
still ; then went into the reading-desk, and read matins 
according to the book of common prayer. This service 
over, they returned in the same order, and with the same 
solemnity. This ceremonial was regularly observed every 
Sunday, and that on every common day was nearly the 
same. They rose at four ; at five went to the oratory to 
prayers ; at six, said the psalms of the hour ; for every 
hour had its appointed psalms, with some portion of the 

VOL V. K 



106 FERRAR. 

gospel, till Mr. Ferrar had finished his Concordance, 
when a chapter of that work was substituted in place of 
the portion of the gospel. Then they sang a short hymn, 
repeated some passages of scripture, and at half-past six 
went to church to matins. At seven said the psalms of 
the hour, sang the short hymn, and went to breakfast. 
Then the young people repaired to their respective places 
of instruction. At ten, to church to the litany. At 
eleven to dinner. At which seasons were regular read- 
ings in rotation, from the scripture, from the book of 
martyrs, and from short histories drawn up by Mr. Ferrar, 
and adapted to the purpose of moral instruction. Recrea- 
tion was permitted till one ; instruction was continued 
till three. Church at four, for evensong ; supper at five, 
or sometimes six. Diversions till eight. Then prayers 
in the oratory : and afterwards all retired to their respec- 
tive apartments. To preserve regularity in point of time, 
Mr. Ferrar invented dials in painted glass in every room : 
he had also sun-dials, elegantly painted with proper 
mottos, on every side of the church : and he provided an 
excellent clock to a sonorous bell. 

The holy course of life thus pursued at Gidding, the 
strictness of their rules, their prayers, literally without 
ceasing, their abstinence, mortifications, nightly watch- 
ings, and various other peculiarities, gave birth to censure 
in some, and inflamed the malevolence of others, but 
excited the wonder and curiosity of all. So that they 
were frequently visited with different views by persons of 
all denominations, and of opposite opinions. They re- 
ceived all who came with courteous civility ; and from 
those who were inquisitive they concealed nothing, as 
indeed there was not any thing either in their opinions, 
or their practice, in the least degree necessary to be con- 
cealed. Notwithstanding this, they were by some abused 
as Papists, by others as Puritans. Mr. Ferrar himself, 



FERRAR. 107 

though possessed of uncommon patience and resignation, 
yet in anguish of spirit complained to his friends, that 
the perpetual obloquy he endured was a sort of unceas- 
ing martyrdom. Added to all this, violent invectives 
and inflammatory pamphlets were published against 
them. Amongst others, not long after Mr. Ferrar's 
death, a treatise was addressed to the parliament, enti 
tied, *' The Arminian Nunnery, or a brief description 
and relation of the late erected monastical place, called 
the Arminian Nunnery at Little Gidding in Huntingdon- 
shire : humbly addressed to the wise consideration of the 
present parliament. The foundation is by a company 
of Ferrars at Gidding;" printed by Thomas Underbill, 
J641. 

Among other articles of instruction and amusement 
in this monastery, Mr. Ferrar engaged a bookbinder who 
taught his art to the whole family, females as well as 
males, and what they called pasting-printing, by the use 
of the rolling-press. By this assistance he composed a 
full harmony or concordance of the evangelists, adorned 
with many beautiful pictures, which required more than 
a year for the composition, and was divided into 150 
heads or chapters. This book was so neatly done by 
pieces pasted together from different copies of the same 
type, as to have the appearance of having been printed in 
the ordinary way. 

King Charles the martyr twice visited Gidding, and 
his pious mind took much interest in the proceedings. 
A copy of the Harmony, splendidly bound, was presented 
to his majesty. 

Old Mrs. Ferrar died in 1635, and Nicholas in 1637. 
The third day before his death, he ordered a place to be 
marked out for his grave, and being told that the place 
was accordingly marked, he requested his brother, before 
all the family, to take out of his study three large ham- 



108. FERRAR. 

pers full of books, which had been there locked up many 
years ; and said, " they are comedies, tragedies, heroic 
poems, and romances ; let them be immediately burnt 
upon the place marked out for my grave, and when 
you shall have so done, come back and infonn me." 
When information was brought him that they were all 
consumed, he desired that this act might be considered 
as the testimony of his disapprobation of all such pro- 
ductions, as tending to corrupt the mind of man, and 
improper for the perusal of every good and sincere Chris- 
tian. 

Soon after his death, certain soldiers of the parliament 
resolved to plunder the house at Gidding. The family 
being informed of their hasty approach, thought it pru- 
dent to fly ; while these military zealots, in the rage of 
what they called reformation, ransacked both the church 
and the house ; in doing which, they expressed a par- 
ticular spite against the organ. This they broke in 
pieces, of which they made a large fire, and at it roasted 
several of Mr. Ferrar's sheep, which they had killed in 
his grounds. This done, they seized all the plate, furni- 
ture, and provision, which they could conveniently carry- 
away. And in this general devastation perished the 
works which Mr. Ferrar had compiled for the use of his 
household, in the way we have already described, con- 
sisting chiefly of harmonies of the Old and New Testa- 
ment. 

The only publication by Mr. Ferrar, but without his 
name, was a translation from Valdesso, entitled, The Hun- 
dred and Ten Considerations, &c., written in Spanish, 
brought out of Italy by Vergerius, and first set forth in 
Italian, at Basil, by Cselius Secundus Curio, 1550. 
Whereunto is added a preface of the author's to his Com- 
mentary on the Romans, Oxford, printed by Litchfield, 
1638. — Peckard. Wordstvorth. 



FEYDEAU. 109 



FEYDEAU, MATTHEW. 



Matthew Feydeau was born at Paris in 1616, and 
studied at the Sorbonne, In 1646 he accepted the vicar- 
age of Belleville, attached to the cure of St. Merry, at 
Paris, where he was prevailed upon to assist with his 
advice several young students in philosophy and theology, 
at the university of Paris. For their use he composed 
his Meditations on the Principal Duties of a Christian, 
taken from the Sacred Scriptures, the Councils, and the 
Fathers, which was published in 1649, 12mo, and has 
undergone numerous impressions. From the vicarage of 
Belleville he was transferred to that of St. Merry ; and 
in that parish, conjointly with some other ecclesiastics, 
he established the Conferences, which became so cele- 
brated in the ecclesiastical history of the times. In 1650 
he published A Catechism on Grace, which he had drawn 
up at the request of M. Francis le Fevre de Caumartin, 
Bishop of Amiens, and which was soon afterwards re- 
printed under the title of Illustrations of certain Diffi- 
culties respecting Grace. This work was condemned, in 
the same year, by a decree of the Inquisition at Rome, 
which M. Fouquet, attorney-general of the parliament of 
Paris, would not permit to be promulgated in that city. 
Several pieces appeared from the press, however, in 
opposition to the Catechism, which were answered by the 
celebrated Arnauld, in his Reflections on a Decree of the 
Inquisition at Rome, Paris, 1661. In 1656 M. Feydeau 
was one of the seventy-two doctors who were expelled by 
the faculty of the Sorbonne, for refusing to subscribe to 
the condemnation of Arnauld ; on which account he was 
also obliged to relinquish his vicarage of St. Merry. In 
1657 a lettre de cachet exiled him to Cahors. For several 
years aftei-wards he lived chiefly in retirement, where he 
produced his Reflections on the History and Harmony of 
the Gospels, 2 vols, 12mo, which has been often reprinted 

VOL V. L 



no FIDDES. 

both in France and Flanders. In 1665 the Bishop of Aleth 
gave him a prebend in his diocese, which he resigned 
three years afterwards to undertake the cure of Vitri le 
Francais, in Champagne. The Bishop of Beauvais soon 
afterwards appointed him to a prebend in his church ; 
but a second lettre de cachet, in 1677, procured his ban- 
ishment to Bourges, whence, nine years after, a third 
lettre de cachet banished him to Annonay, in the Vivares, 
where he died in 1694. — Moreri. 

FIDDES, RICHAED. 

Richard Fiddes was born at Hunmanby in Yorkshire, 
in 1671. He became a student of Corpus Christi, and next 
of University College, Oxford, where he took his bachelor's 
degree in 1693. Soon afterwards he was presented to 
the rectory of Halsham in Yorkshire ; but the air being 
bad in that marshy place, he contracted an illness, which 
affected his speech, and deprived him of the power of 
preaching. He then removed to London, and subsisted 
chiefly by writing, though he was appointed chaplain to 
Lord Oxford, and to the garrison of Hull. In 1713 the 
degree of bachelor in divinity was conferred on him by 
the university of Oxford, and that of doctor in 1718. He 
died at Putney in 1725. His works are — 1. An epistle 
concerning Remarks to be published on Homer's Iliad, 
12mo. S. Theologia Speculativa et Practica, or a Body 
of Divinity, 2 vols, folio. 3. Fifty-two Practical Dis- 
courses, folio. 4. The Life of Cardinal Wolsey, folio, 
1724. This is a very able work, but because the author 
stated facts as he found them, without distorting them 
for party purposes, he was reviled by certain ultra-pro- 
testants as a papist. 5. A treatise of Morality, 8vo. 
6. A Preparative to the Lord's Supper. 7. Vindication 
of the Duke of Buckingham's Epitaph. In this he 
committed a great error. He also wrote the lives of Sir 
Thomas More and Bishop Fisher ; but the manuscripts 
were lost. — Birch in the Gen. Diet. 



FIELD. Ill 



FIELD, KICHARD. 



Richard Field was born at Hempsted, in Hertford- 
shire, in 15 01. He received his earlier education at the 
free-school of Berkhampstead, whence he was removed to 
Magdalen College, Oxford, and thence to Magdalen Hall. 
After taking his degree of M.A., he, for about seven 
years, delivered lectures in logic and philosophy, and on 
Sundays catechetical lectures, in Magdalen Hall, which 
were attended by many members of the university. At 
this time he was esteemed one of the ablest disputants in 
Oxford. He was also famed for his acquaintance with 
school divinity, and for his talents as a preacher. After- 
wards he became divinity reader for a time in the cathe- 
dral church at Winchester; and in 1594 he was chosen 
divinity reader to the society of Lincoln's-inn, a member 
of which presented him to the living of Burghclear, in 
Hampshire. He soon after declined the living of St. 
Andrew's, Holborn. In 1598, being then doctor of divi- 
nity, he was made chaplain in ordinary to queen Eliza- 
beth, and soon afterwards prebendary of Windsor. About 
this time he maintained a friendly intercourse with the 
judicious Hooker. Soon after the accession of James I. 
Dr. Field was appointed chaplain in ordinary to his 
majesty, and was included in special commissions that 
were issued for ecclesiastical causes, and the exercise of 
spiritual jurisdiction within the diocese of Winchester. 
In 1604 he was made canon of Windsor ; and in the 
following year, when the king was to be entertained at 
Oxford, he was sent for to take a part in the divinity act, 
and on that occasion he greatly distinguished himself. 
In 1606 he published, in London, his great work. Of 
the Church, four books, folio; to which, in 1610, he 
added a fifth, with an appendix, containing A defence of 
such passages of the former books that have been excepted 
against, or wrested to the maintenance of the Romish 



112 FIELD. 

errors. They were afterwards reprinted at Oxford in 
1628. In this work he says, "Much contention there 
hath heen about traditions, some arguing the necessity of 
them, others rejecting them. For the clearing whereof 
we must observe, that though we reject the uncertain and 
vain traditions of the Papists, yet we reject not all : for 
first, we receive the number and names of the authors of 
books divine and canonical, as delivered by tradition. 
This tradition we admit, for that, though the books of 
scripture have not their authority from the approbation 
of the Church, but win credit of themselves, and yield 
sufficient satisfaction to all men, of their divine truth, 
whence we judge the Church that receiveth them, to be 
led by the spirit of God; yet the number, authors, and 
integrity of the parts of these books, we receive as de- 
livered by tradition. 

" The second kind of tradition which we admit, is that 
summary comprehension, of the chief heads of Christian 
doctrine, contained in the Creed of the Apostles, which 
was delivered to the Church, as a rule of her faith. For 
though every part thereof be contained in the scripture, 
yet the orderly connexion and distinct explication of these 
principal articles gathered into an epitome, wherein are 
implied, and whence are inferred all conclusions theolo- 
gical, is rightly named a tradition. The third, is that 
form of Christian doctrine, and explication of the several 
parts thereof, which the first Christians receiving of the 
same Apostles that delivered to them the scriptures, 
commended to posterities. This may rightly be named 
a tradition, not as if we were to believe anything without 
the warrant and authority of the scripture, but for that 
we need a plain and distinct explication of many things, 
which are somewhat obscurely contained in the Scripture : 
which being explicated, the scriptures we should not so 
easily have understood, yield us satisfaction that they are 
so indeed, as the Church delivereth them unto us. 

" The fourth kind of tradition, is the continued prac- 



FIELD. 113 

tice of such things, as neither are contained in the scrip- 
ture expressly, nor the examples of such practice expressly 
there delivered, though the grounds, reasons, and causes 
of the necessity of such practice, be there contained, and 
the benefit, or good that followeth of it; of this sort is 
the baptism of infants, which is therefore named a tradi- 
tion, because it is not expressly delivered in scripture 
that the Apostles did baptize infants, nor any express 
precept there found that they should so do. Yet is not 
this so received by bare and naked tradition, but that we 
find the scripture to deliver unto us the grounds of it. 
The fifth kind of tradition, comprehendeth such observa- 
tions, as in particular, are not commanded in scripture, 
nor the necessity of them from thence concluded, though 
in general without limitation of times, and other circum- 
stances, such things be there commanded. Of this sort, 
many think, the observation of the Lent fast to be, the 
fast of the fourth and sixth days of the week, and some 
other. . . . 

" Thus having set down the kinds and sorts of tradi- 
tions, it remaineth to examine, by what means we may 
come to discern, and by what rules we may judge, which 
are true and indubitate traditions. The first rule is 
delivered by Augustine; quod universa tenet ecclesia, 
nee conciliis institutum, sed semper retentum est, non 
nisi auctoritate Apostolica traditum, rectissime creditur. 
Whatsoever the whole Church holdeth, not being decreed 
by the authority of councils, but having been ever holden, 
may rightly be thought to have proceeded from apostolic 
authority. The second rule is, whatsoever all, or the 
most famous and renowned in all ages, or at the least in 
diverse ages, have constantly delivered, as received from 
them that went before them, no man contradicting or 
doubting of it, may be thought to be an apostolical tradi- 
tion. The third rule, is the constant testimony of the 
pastors of an apostolic Church, successively delivered : to 
which some add the present testimony of an apostolic 



114 FIELD. 

Church, whose decliniugs when they began, we cannot 
precisely tell. But none of the fathers admit this rule. 
For when they urge the authority and testimony of apos- 
tolic churches, for the proof, or reproof of true or pre- 
tended traditions, they stand upon the consenting voice, 
or silence, of the pastors of such churches, successively 
in diverse ages concerning such things. Some add the 
testimony of the present Church : but we inquire after 
the rule, whereby the present Church may know true 
traditions from false ; and besides, though the whole 
multitude of believers, at one time in the world, cannot 
err pertinaciously, and damnably, in embracing false 
traditions instead of true ; yet they that most sway things 
in the Church may, yea even the greater part of a general 
council ; so that this can be no sure rule for men to judge of 
traditions by. And therefore Canus reasoneth foolishly, 
that whatsoever the Church of Rome practiseth, which 
she may not do without special warrant from God, and 
yet hath no warrant in Scripture so to do, the same 
things and the practice of them she hath received by 
tradition. He giveth example in the present practice of 
the Romish Church, in dispensing wdth, and remitting 
vows and oaths, and in dissolving marriages, (not con- 
summated by carnal knowledge,) by admitting men into 
orders of religion. But this practice of the Romish 
Church, we condemn, as wdcked and antichristian." 

The republication of this deeply learned work of Field 
would in these days be very advantageous. He clearly 
distinguishes between the doctrines of the modern 
Church of Rome and the primitive Church, and shews 
how the Church of England accords with the other. On 
one point he is peculiarly powerful : he shews that the 
peculiar doctrines of Romanism before the council of 
Trent, were chiefly floating opinions in the Church, but 
not authoritatively asserted in the sense in which they 
are now received. If a convocation in England were to 
establish the dogmas of Calvin, a writer might maintain 



FIELD. 115 

that Calvinism up to that period had not been estabhshed 
in our Church, although he might admit that a majority 
of the clergy and people held those heresies. Thus Field 
argues, and shews, that although Romanizing feelings 
existed, Romanism was not established in the Church of 
Rome before the council of Trent. One of the distin- 
guishing characteristics of this great divine is, that in 
refuting error, he always takes care to state with preci- 
sion the opposite truth. Take for example the sacrifice 
in the eucharist : having shewed the error of the modern 
Church of Rome, he says : " This is the present doctrine 
of the Roman Church : but this was not the doctrine of 
the Church at the time of Luther's appearing : for the 
best and principal men then living, taught peremptorily 
that Christ is not newly offered any otherwise, than that 
He is offered to the view of God ; nor any otherwise 
sacrificed, than in that His sacrifice on the cross is com- 
memorated and represented. * The things that are offered 
in the sacrament are two, (saith the author of the Enchi- 
ridion of Christian Religion, published in the provincial 
council of Cologne,) the tiTie Body of Christ with all His 
merits, and His mystical Body, with all the gifts which 
it hath received of God. In that, therefore, the Church 
doth offer the true Body and Blood of Christ to God the 
Father, it is merely a representative sacrifice, and all that 
is done is but the commemorating and representing of 
that sacrifice which was once offered on the cross. But 
in that it dedicateth itself, which is the mystical body of 
Christ unto God, it is a true, but a spiritual sacrifice, 
that is, an eucharistical sacrifice of praise, thanksgiving, 
and of obedience due unto God. Christ, therefore, is 
offered and sacrificed on the altar, but sacramentally and 
mystically ; in that in the sacrament there is a comme- 
moration and remembrance of that which was once 
done. . . .' The most reverend canons of the metropoli- 
tan Church of Cologne agree with the author of the En- 
chiridion. ... In the book proposed by Charles V., 



116 FIELD. 

written by certain learned and godly men, much com- 
mended to him by men worthy to be credited, as opening 
a way for the composing of the controversies in rehgion, 
we shall find the same explication of this point, touching 
the sacrifice that I have already delivered out of the 
former authors. , . . Hosius was of the same opinion 
with those before recited : . . . Michael, Bishop of Wers- 
purge, a man learned, godly, and truly catholic . . . and 
with him agreeth another learned Bishop (Thomas Wat- 
son,) sometime Bishop of Lincoln, in his Sermons upon 
the Seven Sacraments. . . . With these Gregorius Wice- 
lius, a man much honoured by the emperors Ferdinand 
and Maximilian, fully agreeth, defining the mass to be a 
sacrifice rememorative, and of praise and thanksgiving : 
and in another place he saith, the mass is a commemora- 
tion of the passion of Christ celebrated in the public 
assembly of Christians, where many give thanks for the 
price of redemption. With these agreeth the Interim, 
published by Charles V. in the assembly of the states of 
the empire, at Augusta, March 15th, 1548, and there 
accepted by the same states. But some man happily 
will say, here are many authorities alleged, to prove that 
sundry worthy divines in the Roman Church, in Luther's 
time, denied the new real offering or sacrificing of Christ, 
and made the sacrifice of the altar to be only representa- 
tive and commemorative, but before his time there were 
none found so to teach. Wherefore I will show the con- 
sent of the Church to have been clear for us, touching 
this point, before his time, and against the Tridentine 

doctrine now prevailing Wherefore that which 

Bellarmine hath, that Aquinas and the other schoolmen, 
for the most part, do no otherwise say that the sacrifice 
of the mass is an immolation of Christ, but in that it is 
a representation of Christ's immolation on the cross, or 
because it hath like effect with that true and real sacri- 
ficing of Christ that implied his death, is most true ; his 
evasion is found too silly, and it is made clear and 



FIELD. 117 

evident that the best and worthiest amongst the guides 
of God's Church, before Luther's time, taught as we do, 
that the sacrifice of the altar is only the sacrifice of praise 
and thanksgiving, and a mere representation and com- 
memoration of the sacrifice once offered on the cross, 
and, consequently, are all put under the curse, and ana- 
thematized by the Tridentine council. . . . 

"Wherefore, to conclude this point, it appeareth by that 
which hath been said, that neither the canon of the mass, 
rightly understood, includeth in it any such points of 
Romish religion, as some imagine, but in sundiy, yea, in 
all the capital differences, between us and them of the 
Romish faction, witnesseth for us, and against them ; 
and that the prelates and guides of the Church formerly 
made no such construction of it, as now is made. . . . 
For the canon of the mass, rightly understood, is found 
to contain nothing in it contrary to the rule of faith, and 
the profession of the protestant Churches; . . and the 
construction that they now make of the word sacrifice, 
so often used in it, appeareth to be a mere perverting of 
the meaning of the canon to a sinister sense, never in- 
tended by the authors of it, nor ever allowed by the best 
men in the Church. This canon, notwithstanding, is 
found to have some passages, that, in the judgment of men 
rightly learned, cannot well have any true meaning, unless 
the old custom of offering bread and wine on the Lord's 
table, out of which the sacrament may be consecrated, 
be restored ; so that those parts, that custom being dis- 
continued, may well be omitted. Some other parts are 
obscure, and need explication, which being added or 
inserted, it will differ little or nothing from those forms 
of consecration of those holy mysteries, that now are in 
use in the reformed churches of England, and some other 
places, therefore brought in because in later ages many 
things were added to the canon anciently in use, which 
the best and gravest in the Church thought fit to be 
taken away, and a new form of divine service to be com- 
VOL v. M 



118 FIELD. 

posed. So that the Church that formerly was having no 
different judgment touching matters dogmatical, no liking 
of those abuses in practice, which some had brought in, 
and wishing things to be brought to such a course as 
protestants now have brought them, it may well be said 
to have been a protestant Church, in such sort as I have 
formerly shewed." 

Speaking of this sacrifice, he says in another place : 
" Touching the canon of the mass, it is true that therein 
there is often mention of sacrifice and oblation : but Lu- 
ther professeth, that the words may be understood in 
such a sense, as is not to be disliked. . . That the form 
of words used in the canon are obscure in sundry parts 
of it, and hard to be understood even by the learned, 
Cassander confesseth. , . . The obscurity that is in it 
groweth, as he rightly observeth, partly out of the disuse 
and discontinuing of certain old observations, to which 
the words of the canon, composed long since, have a 
reference, and partly from the using of the word sacri- 
fice in divers and different senses, though all connected : 
and the sudden passing from the using of it in one sense, 
to the using of it in another. It is not unknown to 
them that are learned, that in the primitive Church the 
people were wont to offer bread and wine, and that out 
of that which they offered, a part was consecrated, to 
become unto them the sacrament of the Lord's Body and 
Blood, and other parts converted to other good and holy 
uses. Respectively to this ancient custom are those 
prayers concerned, that are named Secreta; ; and the first 
part of the canon, wherein we desire that God will accept 
those gifts, presents, offerings, and sacrifices which we 
bring unto Him, and that He will make them to become 
unto us the Body and Blood of His Son Christ, which 
only are that sacrifice that procureth the remission of our 
sins, and our reconciliation and acceptation with God. 
So that to take away this obscurity, and that the words 
mav have a true sense, the ancient custom must be 



FIELD. 119 

brought back again, or at least it must be conceived that 
the elements of bread and wine, that are set upon the 
mystical table and are to be consecrated, are brought 
thither and offered in the name of the people, and that, 
as being their presents, they are symbols of that inward 
sacrifice, whereby they dedicate and give themselves and 
all that they have unto God. Touching the second 
cause of the obscurity of the words of the canon, which 
is the using of the word sacrifice, and offering, in so 
manifold and different senses, and the sudden passing 
from the one of them to the other ; we must observe, 
that by the name of sacrifice, gift, or present, first, the 
oblation of the people is meant, that consisteth in bread 
and wine, brought and set upon the Lord's table. In 
which, again, two things are to be considered, the outward 
action, and that which is signified thereby, to wit, the 
people dedicating of themselves, and all that they have, 
to God by faith and devotion, and offering to Him the 
sacrifice of praise. In this sense is the word sacrifice 
used, in the former part of the canon, as I have already 
showed. In respect of this is that prayer poured out to 
God, that He will be mindful of His servants, that do 
offer unto Him this sacrifice of praise, that is, these out- 
ward things, in acknowledgment that all is of Him, that 
they had perished if He had not sent His Son to redeem 
them ; that unless they eat the flesh and drink the blood 
of Christ, they have no life ; that He hath instituted holy 
sacraments of His Body and Blood, under the forms of 
bread and wine, in which He will not only represent, but 
exhibit the same unto all such as hunger and thirst after 
righteousness ; and, therefore, they desire Him so to 
accept and sanctify these their oblations, of bread and 
wine, which in this sort they offer unto Him, that they 
may become unto them the Body and Blood of Christ, 
that so, partaking in them, they may be made partakers 
of Christ, and all the benefits of redemption and salva- 
tion, that He hath wrought. Secondly, by the name of 
sacrifice is understood, the sacrifice of Christ's Body ; 



120 FIELD. 

wherein we must first consider the thing offered, and, 
secondly, the manner of offering. The thing that is 
offered is the Body of Christ, which is an eternal and 
perpetual propitiatory sacrifice, in that it was once offered 
by death upon the cross, and hath an everlasting, never- 
failing force and efficacy. Touching the manner of offer- 
ing Christ's Body and Blood, we must consider that there 
is a double offering of a thing to God. First, so as men 
are wont to do that give something to God out of that 
they possess, professing that they will no longer be owners 
of it, but that it shall be His, and serve for such uses 
and employments as He shall convert it to. Secondly, a 
man may be said to offer a thing unto God, in that he 
bringeth it to His presence, setteth it before His eyes, 
and offereth it to His view, to incline Him to do some- 
thing by the sight of it, and respect had to it. In this 
sort Christ offereth Himself and His Body once crucified 
daily in heaven : Who intercedeth for us, not as giving 
it in the nature of a gift, or present, for He gave Himself 
to God once, to be holy unto Him for ever ; not in the 
nature of a sacrifice, for He died once for sin, and rose 
again, never to die any more ; but in that He setteth it 
before the eyes of God His Father, representing it unto 
Him, and so offering it to His view, to obtain grace and 
mercy for us. And in this sort we also offer Him daily 
on the altar, in that, commemorating His death, and 
lively representing His bitter passion, endured in His 
body upon the cross, we offer Him that was once crucified, 
and sacrificed for us on the cross, and all His sufferings, 
to the view and gracious consideration of the Almighty, 
earnestly desiring, and assuredly hoping, that He will 
incline to pity us, and shew mercy unto us, for this His 
dearest Son's sake. Who, in our nature for us, to satisfy 
His displeasure, and to procure us acceptation, endured 
such and so grievous things. This kind of offering, or 
sacrificing Christ commemoratively, is twofold, inward 
and outward. Outward, as the taking, breaking, and 



FIELD. 121 

distributing this mystical bread, and pouring out the cup 
of blessing, which is the communion of the blood of Christ. 
The inward consisteth in the faith and devotion of the 
Church and people of God, so commemorating the death 
and passion of Christ, their crucified Saviour, and repre- 
senting and setting it before the eyes of the Almighty, 
that they fly unto it as their only stay and refuge, and 
beseech Him to be merciful unto them for His sake that 
endured all these things, to satisfy His wrath, and work 
their peace and good. And in this sense, and answerable 
hereunto that is, which we find in the canon, where the 
Church desireth Almighty God to accept those oblations 
of bread and wine which she presenteth unto Him ; and 
to make them to become unto the faithful communicants 
the Body and Blood of Christ, Who the night before He 
w^as betrayed took bread, &c. . . .And then proceedeth 
and speaketh unto Almighty God in this sort : Where- 
fore, Lord, we Thy servants, and Thy holy people, 
mindful of that most blessed passion of the same Christ 
Thy Son our Lord, as also of His resurrection from the 
dead : and His glorious ascension into heaven, do offer to 
Thy divine Majesty, out of Thine own gifts consecrated, 
and by mystical blessing made unto us the Body and 
Blood of Thy Son Christ, a pure sacrifice, a holy sacrifice, 
and an undefiled sacrifice ; the holy bread of eternal life, 
and the cup of everlasting salvation ; that is, we offer to 
Thy view, and set before Thine eyes, the crucified body 
of Christ Thy Son, which is here present in mystery and 
sacrament, and the blood which He once shed for our 
sakes, which we know to be that pure, holy, undefiled, 
and eternal sacrifice, wherewith only Thou art pleased ; 
desiring Thee to be merciful unto us for the merit and 
worthiness thereof, and so to look upon the same sacri- 
fice, which representatively we offer to Thy view, as to 
accept it for a full discharge of us from our sins, and a 
perfect propitiation ; that so Thou mayest behold us with 
a pleased, cheerful, and gracious countenance." 
M 2 



]22 FIRMILIAN. 

As the present publication is intended for those who 
have not many theological books at hand, and as the 
object is to inculcate right princij^les as well as to state 
facts correctly, no apology is necessar}^ for these copious 
extracts from a work, once very popular, for we quote 
from the third folio edition, but now little known. About 
the year 1610 James I. bestowed uj^on him the deanery 
of Gloucester. The Bishopric of Oxford was intended for 
him, but he died of apoplexy before the appointment was 
conferred in form, 21st of November, 1616, aged fifty-five. 
— Field on the Church. Le Neves Jjife. 



FIRMILIAN, SAINT. 

Saint Firmilian, Bishop of Caesarea, in Cappadocia, 
in the third century, is justly celebrated for a long epistle, 
which is published among St. Cyprian's works, having 
been translated into Latin by that father; he took St. 
Cyprian's side in the controversy concerning the re-bap- 
tizing of heretics, and is justly severe upon Stephen, 
Bishop of Rome. The epistle is most valuable, as indeed 
are all the works of St. Cyprian, [see his Life) as shewing 
that the Bishop of Rome had no more weight and author- 
ity than any other bishop of an important see ; that his 
opinions and decisions were freely censured, and that any 
other bishop had as much right to pronounce sentence 
on the Bishop of Rome as the Bishop of Rome upon him. 
He is one of the witnesses out of many, to prove that the 
claims of the modern papacy are without support in 
primitive Christianity, as they are undoubtedly without 
support in holy Scripture. 

Firmilian was of noble birth and was born in Cappa- 
docia. He was a disciple of Origen ; and when he be- 
came Bishop of Cesarea, was, according to Eusebius, so 
favourably disposed towards him, *' that he called him to 
the regions where he dwelt, to benefit the churches : at 



FIRMILIAN. 123 

another time he went to visit him in Jiulea for the sake 
of improvement in divine things." He was the friend of 
(jrregory Thaumatnrgns, who first confided to him his 
purpose to abandon secular philosophy, and give his life 
and his thoughts wholly to God. Gregory Nyssen calls 
him an ornament of the Church of Caesarea. St. Diony- 
sius the Great counts him among the most illustrious 
bishops of his time ; Eusebius, as (with St. Greg. Thaum. 
and six others) one of the most eminent of the very large 
council of Antioch, which condemned Paul of Samosata. 
He is quoted by St. Basil, (from his then extant writ- 
ings,) as an authority in doctrine. Theodoret calls him 
" an illustrious person, and possessed both of secular and 
divine knowledge." He seems to state that he himself 
had with many others been present at the council of 
Iconium, where the practice of baptizing heretics was 
confirmed ; and if so, it must have been at the very 
beginning of his episcopate. He with Helenus and 
Theoctistus urged St. Dionysius to " come to the synod 
of Antioch, where some were trying to establish the 
heresy of Novatian," and he is mentioned as one of those 
who joyed exceedingly at the restored peace of the 
Church, which had been distracted by it. He was pre- 
sent at two synods of Antioch, in which he condemned 
the heresy of Paul of Samosata, at the second of which 
he seems to have presided, since he is related to have 
deferred the sentence against Paul, trusting in his pro- 
mise to recant. He departed this life at Tarsus on his 
way to the great council of Antioch, where Paul was 
condemned, and which was awaiting his coming, and by 
whom he was at once, with Dionysius, entitled " of bles- 
sed memory." 

Pope Stephen had the hardihood to reject his commu- 
nion and that of the bishops of the neighbouring pro- 
vinces, as well as that of another great father and saint, 
St. Cyprian ; the Eastern Churches, caring nothing for 
the Pope of Rome, regarded him as a saint, and still 



124 FISHER. 

commemorate him on the 28th of October. Euinart 
conjectures that he may have been the author of the Acta 
Cyrilli pueri. — Cyprians Works, Edit. Oxon. Eusebius. 

FISHER, JOHN. 

John Fisher, prelate, was born at Beverley, in York- 
shire, in 1459. His father, a merchant, left him an orphan 
very young ; but, by the care of his mother, he was 
taught classical learning at Beverley, and was afterwards 
admitted in Cambridge, of Michael House, since incor- 
porated into Trinity College, of which he successively 
became fellow, proctor, and master. He took holy orders, 
and the fame of his learning and worth reaching the ears 
of Margaret, Countess of Richmond, mother of Henry 
VII., she chose him for her chaplain and confessor. It 
was by his counsel that she undertook those magnificent 
foundations of St. John's and Christ's Colleges at Cam- 
bridge ; established the divinity-professorships in both 
universities ; and did a thousand other acts of generosity, 
for the propagation of learning and piety. 

In 1501, he took the degree of doctor of divinity, and 
the same year was chosen chancellor of the university : 
during the exercise of which office, he encouraged learn- 
ing and good manners, and is said by some to have had 
prince Henry, afterwards king Henry VIII. under his 
tuition in that university. In 1502, he was appointed by 
charter the lady Margaret's first divinity-professor in 
Cambridge ; and in 1504, was made Bishop of Rochester, 
at the recommendation of Fox, Bishop of Winchester. 
It is remarkable, that he never would exchange this 
bishopric, though then the least in England, for a better: 
for he called his church his wife, and was wont to say, 
" He would not change his little old wife, to whom he 
had been so long wedded, for a wealthier." In 1505, he 
accepted the headship of Queen's College, in Cambridge, 
which he held for little more than three years. The 



FISHER. 125 

foundation of Christ's College was perfected, under his 
care and superintendence, in the year 1506 ; and himself 
was appointed by the statutes, visitor for life, after the 
death of the munificent foundress. The king s licence 
for founding St. John's was obtained soon after : but 
before it was passed in due form, the king died, April the 
1st, 1509, as did the lady Margaret herself the 29th of 
June following. The care of the new foundation now 
devolved upon her executors, of whom the most faithful 
and most active, nay, the sole and principal agent, was 
Bishop Fisher: and he carried it on with the utmost 
vigour. 

In 1512 he was appointed to go to the council of 
Lateran at Piome, but he did not go, though it is certain 
that at one time he fully intended to do so, as the univer- 
sity had recommended its affairs to him, and as he had 
drawn up and sealed procuratorial powers to William 
Fresel, Prior of Leeds, (of Kirkstall Abbey probably, in 
the parish of Leeds,) during his absence; but, he says 
Jiimself that he was stopt. 

St. John's College being finished, in 1516 he went to 
Cambridge, and opened it with due solemnity. He was 
also commissioned to make the statutes for the same, and 
became one of its benefactors. 

The great question of the Reformation of the Church 
was now in agitation. The calm and sedate mind of 
Bishop Fisher refused to go with the movement, and he 
was zealous in endeavouring to prevent the propagation of 
Lutheranism, preaching against it, and using his influ- 
ence in the university of which he was chancellor. Henry 
VIII. published a book, entitled An Assertion of the 
Seven Sacraments against Martin Luther, which has been 
thought by some to have been the production of Bishop 
Fisher, though there appears to be no ground for the 
supposition. But on the publication of Luther's answer, 
Bishop Fisher certainly entered into the lists, and pub- 
lished a " Defence of the king of England's Assertion of 



126 FISHER. 

the Catholic Faith against M. Luther's Book of the Cap- 
tivity of Babylon." He also published a Defence of the 
Order of Priesthood against Martin Luther, and other 
pieces. 

But although opposed to the Lutheran Reformation, 
and although prejudiced in favour of some of those Romish 
errors then received as a tradition in the Church of Eng- 
land, — errors which were adopted and confirmed by the 
Romish Church in her council of Trent, this excellent 
prelate. Bishop Fisher, was keenly sensible of the cormp- 
tions of the Church, and of the necessity of some kind of 
reformation ; he perceived that a reform was necessary, to 
prevent the revolution which he foresaw to be the conse- 
quence of the prevalence of Lutheranism. A synod hav- 
ing been called by Cardinal Wolsey, who appeared in all 
his pomp and secularity. Bishop Fisher delivered himself 
at it in the following speech. : — 

" May it not sesm displeasing (said Bishop Fisher) to 
your eminence, and the rest of these grave and reverend 
fathers of the Church, that I speak a few words, which 
I hope may not be out of season. I had thought, that 
when so many learned men, as substitutes for the clergy, 
had been drawn into this body, that some good matters 
should have been propounded for the benefit and good of 
the Church : that the scandals that lie so heavy upon her 
men, and the disease which takes such hold on those 
advantages, might have been hereby at once removed, 
and also remedied. Who hath made any the least pro- 
position against the ambition of those men, whose pride 
is so offensive, whilst their profession is humility? or 
against the incontinency of such as have vowed chastity ? 
how are the goods of the Church wasted ? the lands, the 
tithes, and other oblations of the devout ancestors of the 
people (to the great scandal of their posterity) wasted in 
superfluous riotous expences ? How can we exhort our 
flocks to fly the pomps and vanities of this wicked world, 
when we that are bishops set our minds on nothing more 



FISHER. 127 

than that which we forbid ? If we should teach accord- 
ing to our doing, how absurdly would our doctrines sound 
in the ears of those that should hear us ? and if we teach 
one thing, and do another, who believeth our report? 
which would seem to them no otherwise, than as if wo 
should throw down with one hand, what we built with 
the other. We preach humility, sobriety, contempt of 
the world, &c. and the people perceive in the same men 
that preach this doctrine, pride and haughtiness of mind, 
excess in apparel, and a resignation of ourselves to all 
worldly pomps and vanities. And what is this otherwise, 
than to set the people at a stand, whether they shall fol- 
low the sight of their own eyes, or the belief of what they 
hear ? Excuse me, reverend fathers ; seeing herein I 
blame no man more than I do myself : for sundry times, 
when I have settled myself to the care of my flock, to 
visit my diocese, to govern my church, to answer the 
enemies of Christ ; suddenly there hath come a message 
to me from the court, that I must attend such a triumph, 
or receive such an ambassador. What have we to do 
with Princes' courts? If we are in love with majesty, 
is there a greater excellence than Whom we serve ? If we 
are in love with stately buildings, are there higher roofs 
than our cathedrals ? If with apparel, is there a greater 
ornament than that of priesthood ? or is there better 
company than a communion ^rith the saints? Truly, 
most reverend fathers, what this vanity in temporal things 
may work in you, I know not ; but sure I am, that, in 
myself, I find it to be a great impediment to devotion. 
Wherefore I think it necessary (and high time it is) that 
we, that are the heads, should begin to give example to 
the inferior clergy as to these particulars, whereby we 
may all be the better conformable to the image of God. 
For in this trade of life, which we now lead, neither can 
there be likelihood of perpetuity in the same state and 
condition wherein we now stand, or safety to the clergy." 
Bishop Fisher continued in great favour with Henry 



128 FISHER. 

VIII. till the affair of the divorce was set on foot, in 1527. 
But when that business was in agitation, the king, who 
had an high opinion of Fisher's integrity and learning, 
desired his opinion on the subject of his marriage with 
queen Catherine of Arragon. Upon which the Bishop 
declared, " That there was no reason at all to question 
the validity of the marriage, since it was good and lawful 
from the beginning." And from this opinion nothing 
could ever afterwards make him recede, whatever might 
be the consequences, and though great pains were taken 
to bring him over to a contrary opinion. But by this he 
entirely lost the king's favour. 

When the question of the divorce came to be tried before 
the two legates, Campejus and Wolsey, in June, 1529, 
Bishop Fisher was one of the queen's council ; and pre- 
sented a book to the legates, which he had wTitten in 
defence of the marriage : he also at the same time made 
a speech, in which he desired them to take heed what 
they did in so weighty a business : and he greatly exerted 
himself in the queen's behalf. 

On the 3rd of November, in the same year, a parlia- 
ment w^as summoned to meet; in which several bills 
were brought in by the commons against some of the 
abuses of the clergy, particularly against the exactions 
for the probates of wills, the plurality of benefices, and 
non-residence, and churchmen's being farmers of lands. 
In the passing of these bills, many severe reflections were 
made in the house of commons, upon the vices and cor- 
ruptions of the clergy ; which attack upon the ecclesiastics, 
was supposed to be much owing to the favourable recep- 
tion which the Lutheran doctrines had met with in Eng- 
land. When these bills against the clergy were brought 
up to the house of lords, Bishop Fisher made the follow- 
ing speech : — 

" My lords, (said the bishop) here are certain bills 
exhibited against the clergy, wherein there are certain 
complaints made against the viciousness, idleness, rapa- 



FISHER. 129 

city, and cruelty of bishops, abbots, priests, and their 
officials : but, ray lords, are all vicious, all idle, all raven- 
ous, and cruel priests, or bishops ? And for such as are 
so, are there no laws already provided against them? Is 
there any abuse that we do not seek to rectify ? Or can 
there be such a rectification, as that there shall be no 
abuses ? Or are not clergymen to rectify the abuses of the 
clergy ? Or shall men find fault with other men's manners, 
whilst they forget their own? and punish where they 
have no authority to correct? If we be not executive in our 
laws, let each man suffer for his delinquency ; or if we 
have not power, aid us with your assistance, and we shall 
give you thanks. But, my lords, I hear there is a motion 
made, that the small monasteries shall be taken into the 
king's hands, which makes me fear it is not so much the 
good, as the goods of the Church, that is looked after. 
Truly, my lords, how this may sound in your ears, I 
cannot tell ; but to me it appears no otherwise, than as 
if our holy mother the Church were to become a bond- 
maid, and be new-brought into sendlity and thraldom, 
and by little and little to be quite banished out of those 
dwelling-places, which the piety and liberality of our 
forefathers, as most bountiful benefactors, have conferred 
upon her : otherwise, to what tendeth these portentous 
and curious petitions of the commons ? To no other 
intent or purpose, but to bring the clergy into contempt 
with the laity, that they may seize their patrimony. But, 
my lords, beware of yourselves and your country ; beware 
of your holy mother the Catholic Church ; the people 
are subject unto novelties, and Lutheranism spreads 
itself amonst us. Remember Germany and Bohemia, 
what miseries are befallen them already; and let our 
neighbour's houses that are now on fire, teach us to be- 
ware our own disasters : wherefore, my lords, I will tell 
you plainly what I think ; that, except ye resist manfully, 
by your authorities, this violent heap of mischiefs offered 
by the commons, you shall see all obedience first drawn 

VOL V. N 



I'M) FISHER. 

from the clergy, and secondly from yourselves. And, if 
you search into the true causes of all these mischiefs 
which reign among them, you shall find that they all 
arise through want of faith.'' 

This speech was received with great applause hy the 
staunch adherents of the estahlishment as it was, and 
with equal disapprohation hy the advocates for reforma- 
tion. The Puke of Norfolk, addressing himself to the 
bishop, said, *' My lord of Rochester, many of these words 
might have been well spared ; but it is often seen, that 
the greatest clerks arc not always the wisest men." But 
to this the bishop smartly replied, " My lord, I do not 
remember any fools in my time that ever proved great 
clerks." When tlie commons heard of this speech of 
Bishop Fisher's, they were highly intlamed, and sent 
their speaker. Sir Thomas Audley, with thirty of their 
members, to complain against him to the king. They 
represented to Henry, how injuriously the Bishop of 
Rochester had treated them, in saying that their acts 
llowed from the want of faith ; it being, they said, an 
high imputation on the whole nation, to treat the repre- 
sentatives of the commons as if they had been infidels 
and heathens. And upon this the king sent for the 
bishop, and asked him, "Why he spake thus?" To 
which i'isher, we are told, answered, that " being in 
council, he spake his mind in defence of the Church, 
which he saw daily injured, and oppressed by the com- 
mon people, whose office it was not to judge of her 
manners, much less to reform them ; and, therefore, 
he thought himself in conscience bound to defend her in 
all that lay within his power." And upon this the king 
dismissed him, only bidding him '' use his words more 
temperately." 

In 15;^0 he narrowly escaped being poisoned. One 
Rouse, coming into his kitchen, took occasion, in the 
cook's absence, to throw poison into some gmel which 
was prepared for his dinner. Fisher could eat nothing 



FISHER. 131 

that day; but of seventeen persons who ate of it, two 
died, and the rest never perfectly recovered their health. 
Upon this occasion an act was made, declaring poisoning 
to be high treason, and adjudging the offender to be boiled 
to death : which punishment was soon after inflicted 
upon Rouse in Smithfield. In the same year Fisher was 
near meeting his death from a cannon shot, which, being 
discharged from the other side of the Thames, pierced 
through his house at Lambeth-marsh, and came very 
near his study. He thereupon retired to Rochester. 
When the question of giving Henry the title of the su- 
preme head of the Church of England was debated in 
convocation in 1531, Fisher very properly opposed it 
with all his might. Not long aftenvards he still farther 
exposed himself to the resentment of the king, by his 
weakness and credulity in giving some credit to the en- 
thusiastic visions and impostures of Elizabeth Barton, 
the pretended holy maid of Kent. The intention of 
those who carried on the impostures of which she was 
the instrument, was to alienate the affections of the peo 
p1e from king Henry, and to excite insurrections against 
his government. It is but justice to Bishop Fisher, how- 
ever, to acknowledge, that there is no evidence of his being 
at all privy to their criminal designs. He only, like many 
others, too readily accepted what seemed to make for his 
party. His attention was drawn to this impostor in con- 
sequence of her espousing the cause of queen Catharine, 
to whose interests he was warmly attached. No persua 
sions could induce Fisher to make submission, and to 
have recourse to the king's clemency. It seems to have 
been Cromwell's policy to alarm the bishop, and to place 
him under an obligation to the king. The bishop reso- 
lutely maintained that he had only enquired into the 
truth of the case, and seeing that he would often have to 
oppose the king, refused any favour. Cromwell's con- 
duct was insolent and overbearing. In 1534 a bill of 
attainder passed against Elizabeth Barton and her ac- 



132 FISHER 

complices ; and Fisher, as he still refused to make sub- 
mission, was adjudged guilty of misprision of treason, 
and condemned to forfeit his goods and chattels to the 
king, and to be imprisoned during his majesty's pleasure. 
In the same session of parliament an act was made, 
which annulled the king's marriage with Catharine of 
Arragon ; confirmed his marriage with Anne Boleyn ; 
entailed the crown upon her issue ; and enjoined all 
persons whatsoever to maintain the same, under the 
penalty attached to misprision of treason. In pursuance 
of this act, on the day of the prorogation of the parlia- 
ment, an oath of allegiance to the king and his heirs 
was taken by both houses ; but Bishop Fisher, instead 
of joining them, retired to his house at Rochester. Af- 
terwards, upon his refusal to take the oath, he was com- 
mitted to the tower (April 26, 1534,) here no endeavours 
were spared in order to bring him to compliance. As 
Fisher continued resolute in his refusal, he was attainted 
in the parliament which met November 3, 1534, and his 
bishopric was declared void, January 2, 1535. In these 
circumstances he would, probably, have been permitted 
to drag on the short remainder of his life, had not pope 
Paul III., by unseasonably conferring on him, in May, 
1535, the post of cardinal, by the title of cardinal- 
priest of St. Vitalis, precipitated his ruin. When the 
king heard of this circumstance, he issued the strictest 
orders that no person should be permitted to bring the 
hat into his dominions : moreover, he sent Lord Crom- 
well to examine the bishop about this affair, who after 
some conference between them asked him, " My lord of 
Rochester, what would you say, if the pope should send 
you a cardinal's hat ; would you accept of it ?" The 
bishop replied, " Sir, I know myself to be so far un- 
worthy any such dignity, that I think of nothing less ; 
but if any such thing should happen, assure yourself 
that I should improve that favour to the best advantage 
that I could, in assisting the Holy Catholic Church of 



FISHER. ia3 

Christ ; and in that respect I would receive it upon my 
knees." When this answer was brought to the king by 
secretary Cromwell, Henry said in a great passion, " Yea, 
is he yet so lusty ? Well, let the pope send him a hat 
when he will, Mother of God, he shall wear it on his 
shoulders then, for I wdll leave him never a head to set 
it on." The bishop's answer has been differently repre- 
sented by our historians, as if it had been, that " if a 
cardinal's hat was laid at his feet, he would not stoop to 
take it up :" but that was Sir Thomas More's answer to 
his daughter, Mrs. Roper, when she acquainted him that 
the bishop was created a cardinal. 

We cannot but censure the good bishop, in this and 
in other instances, for a want of a conciliating spirit : he 
seemed to dare his enemies, and to provoke them to 
wrath and sin. From this time his ruin was determined; 
but as no legal advantage could be taken against him, 
Richard Rich, solicitor-general, a busy, officious man, 
went to him, and in a fawning, treacherous manner, 
under pretence of consulting him, as from the king, 
about a case of conscience, gradually drew him into a 
discourse about the supremacy, which he declared to be 
" unlawful, and what his majesty could not take upon 
him, without endangering his soul." Thus caught in 
the snare purposely laid for him, a special commission 
was drawn up for trying him, dated June 1, 1535 ; and 
on the 17th, upon a short trial, he w^as found guilty of 
high treason, and condemned to suffer death. June 22, 
at five o'clock in the morning, he was told that he was to 
suffer on that day. He slept soundly for two hours ; and 
then with calmness prepared for death. He was beheaded 
about ten o clock in the forenoon ; and his head was 
fixed over London bridge the next day. He was then in 
his 76th year. 

Bishop Fisher published the following w-orks : — 1. A 
Sermon on Psalm 116, at the funeral of King Henry 
Vllth. 2. His opinion of King Henry Vlllth's mar- 
N 2 



134 FISHER. 

riage, in a letter to T. Wolsey. Printed in the collection 
of records, at the end of Collier's Ecclesiastical History. 
3. A Funeral Sermon at the moneth minde of Margaret, 
Countess of Richmond, printed by Wynkin de Worde ; 
and re-published in 1708, by Thomas Baker, B.D., with 
a learned preface. 4. A Commentaiy on the seven peni- 
tential psalms ; written at the desire of the Countess 
of Richmond. Printed at London in 1509, in 4to; and 
in 1555, in 8vo. 5. A Sermon on the Passion of our 
Saviour. 6. A Sermon concerning the Righteousness of 
the Pharisees and Christians. 7. The method of arriv- 
ing to the highest perfection in religion. These four last 
were translated into Latin by John Fenne. 8. A Sermon 
preached at London, on the day in which the writings of 
M. Luther were publicly burnt ; on John xv. 26, Cam- 
bridge, 1521, translated into Latin by R. Pace. 9. Asser- 
tionum Martini Lutheri Confutatio : that is, A Confuta- 
tion of Martin Luther's Assertions, in forty-one articles. 
10. Defensio Assertionis Henr. VIII. de VII. Sacra- 
mentis contra Lutheri Captivatem Babylonicam : that is, 
A Defence of King Henry the Vlllth's book against 
Luther's, entitled. The Captivity of Babylon. 11. Epis- 
tola responsoria, EpistolsB Lutheri : that is, A Letter in 
answer to Luther's. 12. Sacerdotii Defensio contra Lu- 
therum. A Defence of the Priesthood against Luther. 
13. Pro Damnatione Lutheri : that is, For the Condem- 
nation of Luther. 14. De veritate Corporis et Sanguinis 
Christi in Eucharistia, adversus Johannem GEcolampa- 
dium. Colon. 1527, 4to : that is, Of the reality of the 
Body and Blood of Christ in the Eucharist, against 
(Ecolampadius. In this book he answers CEcolampadius, 
paragraph by paragraph, and gives him many hard 
names. It is, however, esteemed but a very indifferent per- 
formance. 15. De unica Magdalena contra Clichtoveum 
et Jac. Fabrum Stapulensem : that is, that there was only 
one Magdalen, against Clichtoveus, &c. 16. S. Petrum 
Romse fuisse : that is, that St. Peter was at Rome. 



FISHER. 135 

This was written against Ulric Velenus. IT. Several 
other small tracts, viz., on the Benefit of Prayer. The 
Necessity of Prayer. Exposition of the Lord's Prayer. 
Psalms, and Prayers. A Letter on Christian Charity, to 
Herman Lectatius, Dean of Utrecht. A Treatise on 
Purgatory, &c. Most of the forementioned pieces, which 
were printed separately in England, were collected and 
printed together in one volume, folio, at Wurtzburgh, in 
1595, We are told, that there is also in the Norfolk 
library of MSS. belonging to the royal society, an answer 
of Bishop Fisher's to a book printed at London in 1530, 
concerning King Henry's Marriage with Queen Catha- 
rine. — Hall. Dod. Collier. Burnet. 



FISHEE, JOHN. 

John Fisher, an English Jesuit, whose true name was 
Piercy, was born in Yorkshire, and admitted into the 
English college at Rome, whence he removed to Louvain, 
and became a Jesuit in 1594. Afterwards he was sent 
on a mission to England, but was imprisoned and ban- 
ished. He was then made professor of divinity at 
Louvain, and vice-provincial of the EngHsh Jesuits. 
Returning to England, he made a considerable figure in 
the reigns of James I. and Charles I. as a controversialist. 
fSee the life of Laud and the life of White.) His return 
occurred when the situation of the Church of England 
was extremely hazardous. Attacked on the one hand by 
the Papists, and on the other by the Puritans, it re- 
quired the greatest skill in those who regarded the in- 
terests of the Reformation, and the welfare of Church 
and State, to restrain the hostile intentions of those 
factions. No sooner had the parliament been dissolved, 
than the Papists began to exert themselves with the 
greatest activity. The Puritans were chiefly popular 
among the lower classes, who were sufficiently illiterate, 



136 FISHER. 

and were generally treated with contempt by the higher 
orders of the kingdom. The Papists, however, who 
could also reckon a considerable number of adherents 
among the rabble, were more ambitious, and endeavoured 
to secure adherents among the nobility. For this pur- 
pose they laid a most crafty plot, and began first to 
practise on the Duchess of Buckingham, the lady of 
the celebrated court favourite ; not doubting, that if 
they were successful in inducing her to recant, they 
might have some chance of favour for their tenets from 
her husband. Fisher undertook the task of managing the 
lady, and he succeeded so well, that she was begin- 
ning to think favourably of the superstition. But the 
Jesuit's designs were reported to the king, who was him- 
self not wanting in ability to argue the matter, and who 
frequently discoursed to her on the subject. James, 
however, feeling interested in the lady, and resolving to 
silence the Jesuit at once by fair argument, advised the 
duke to appoint a conference between Fisher and a learn- 
ed divine of the Church, on the errors of the Romish 
superstition. The duke agreed, and Dr. Francis White, 
then rector of St. Peter's, Cornhill, afterwards Bishop of 
Ely, was appointed to meet the Jesuit. Three disputes 
were held in the presence of the Duke of Buckingham, 
his mother, his lady, and the Lord Keeper WiUiams, on 
the 24th of May, 1622 ; the last was conducted by Laud. 
The result was as might have been expected : Laud was 
more than a match for the Jesuit in learning, and victory 
was declared on the side of truth. 

It is impossible here to give an abstract of Laud's 
admirable arguments. An account of the conference was 
published in 1624, and a justification of it published by 
the archbishop himself in 1637, in connexion with a 
pamphlet written by Dr. Francis White, entitled, " A 
Reply to Jesuit Fisher's Answer to certain Questions 
propounded by his most gracious Majesty King James." 

He published, A Treatise of Faith, London, 1600, 



FITZ SIMONS. 137 

and St. Omers, 1614. A Challenge to Protestants to 
show the Succession of their Pastors, from Christ down, 
1612. An Answer to Nine Points of Controversy pro- 
posed by King James I., with the Censure of Mr. White's 
Keply, 1625, 4to. — in answer to him were published, The 
Piomish Fisher caught in his own Net, by Dr. Featley, 
London, 1624, 4to. A Conference between Bishop Laud 
and Fisher, ibid. 1639, by Laud. Reply to Fisher's 
Answer to some Questions propounded by King James, 
1624, by Francis White. Orthodox Faith and the Way 
to the Church explained, by the same, 1617. 

The year of his death is not known, but he was alive 
in 1541. — Dod. Lawson. Heylin. 

FITZ SIMONS, HENKY. 

Heney Fitz Simons, {see the Life of Usher,) was born 
at Dublin in 1569. He was educated first in Hart Hall, 
and next at Christ Church, Oxford ; but left the univer- 
sity on embracing popery, and went to Louvain, where 
he entered into the order of Jesuits under Lessius. On 
account of his talents, he was sent by his superiors as a 
missionary to Dublin, where he was imprisoned some 
years, during which James Usher, then a student of nine- 
teen, afterwards archbishop, undertook to dispute with 
him, and continued to do so till the Jesuit thought pro- 
per to decline the contest. On gaining his liberty he 
went into the Low Countries, and from thence to Rome. 
Some years afterwards he was sent again to Ireland, 
where he made many proselytes ; and died miserably, 
during the rebellion, February 1, 1643-4. He wrote — 
1. A Catholic Confutation of Rider's Claim of Antiquities, 
8vo. 2. A Justification and Exposition of the Sacrament 
of the Mass, 4to. 3. Britannomachia ministrorum in 
plerisque et fidei fundamentis et fidei articulis dissiden- 
tium, 4to. 3. A Catalogue of the Irish Saints, 8vo. — 
Wares Ireland. 



138 FLAVIAN. 



FLAVEL, JOHN. 



John Flavel, a Nonconformist, was born in Worces- 
tershire, in 1627, and educated at University College, 
Oxford, where he took the degree of B.A. In 1650 he 
was ordained among the presbjterians at Salisbury ; after 
which he settled at Dartmouth, in Devonshire, but was 
ejected in 1662. He died suddenly at Exeter, in 1691. 
His works, which are held in considerable esteem by 
Calvinists, have been published, in 2 vols, folio, and also 
in 6 vols, 8vo. — Calamy. 



FI, AVIAN. 

Flavian, a patriarch of Antioch, in the fourth century, 
of whom the reader has already had some account in the 
Life of St. Chrysostom, was in all probability a native of 
Antioch, The first notice of him that we possess presents 
him to us as an opponent of the Aetians ; the following 
is the statement of Theodoret, " About this time Aetius, 
who had added new errors to the Arian doctrines, was 
ordained deacon. But Flavianus and Diodorus, who 
had embraced the monastical mode of life, and who pub- 
licly defended the doctrines of the apostles, exposed the 
artifices of Leontius against religion, and showed how he 
had elevated to the rank of deacon a man who had im- 
bibed the most corrupt principles, and who sought to 
render himself conspicuous by his impiety. They even 
threatened to withdraw themselves from ecclesiastical 
communion with him, and to go to the West in order to 
make known his plots. Leontius was terrified at these 
threats, and forbade Aetius from performing the duties 
of the ministry; but in other respects he continued to 
patronize him. Although Flavianus and Diodorus were 
not elevated to the rank of the priesthood, but were merely 



FLAA'IAN. 139 

laymen, yet by night and by day they exhorted all men 
to be zealous in religion. They were the first who divided 
the choir and taught them to sing the psalms of David 
responsively. This custom, which they thus originated 
in Antioch, spread eveiy where, even to the veiy ends of 
the habitable world. These two men used to assemble 
with the people around the tombs of the martyrs, to sing 
throughout the whole night the praises of God. When 
Leontius, then bishop, who was an Arian, became ac- 
quainted with this proceeding he did not dare to prohibit 
it ; for he perceived that these men were held in the 
highest estimation by the multitude on account of their 
virtues. He requested them in a mild and specious 
manner to perform this service in the church. They 
obeyed this injunction, although they perceived his evil 
motives, and willingly assembled in the church with those 
who shared in their love, in order to sing to the praise of 
the Lord." 

His conduct with respect to the Messalians is related 
by the same historian : — " About the same time the her- 
esy of the Messahans sprang up. Those who have ren- 
dered their name into Greek call them Euchites. Besides 
the above, they bear other appellations. They are some- 
times called Enthusiasts, because they regard the agitat- 
ing influences of a demon by whom they are possessed 
as indications of the presence of the Holy Ghost. Those 
who have thoroughly imbibed this heresy shun all man- 
ual labour as a vice ; they abandon themselves to sleep, 
and declare their dreams to be prophecies. The following 
were the leaders of this sect ; Dadoes, Sabbas, Adelphius, 
Hermes, Symeon, and many others. They never seceded 
from communion with the Church, because they believed 
that the holy food there provided was innoxious although 
useless. Whereas Christ the Lord, in allusion to this 
food, says, "Whoso eateth My flesh and drinketh My 
blood shall live for ever." Their great desire of conceal- 
ing their error leads them shamelessly to deny it, even 



140 FLAVIAN. 

when convicted of it, and induces them to condemn in 
others the very sentiments which they hold themselves. 
Letoius, bishop of the Church of Melitene, on finding 
that these errors were entertained in numerous monas- 
teries, which were, in reality, so many caverns of robbers, 
set fire to them all in the plentitude of his zeal, and 
chased the wolves far away from the sheepfold. The 
celebrated Amphilochus was the Bishop of the metropolis 
of Lycaonia, and therefore ruled over the whole province : 
on being apprised of the extension of this heresy, he 
preserved, by his vigilance, the flock committed to his 
care free from the contagion. The renowned Flavian, 
who was afterwards Bishop of Antioch, heariDg that these 
sectarians were at Edessa, and that they disseminated 
their corrupt opinions throughout the neighbourhood, 
sent a body of monks to bring them to Antioch. They 
there denied the fact of their being infected with these 
doctrines, and declared that their accusers calumniated 
them, and bore false witness against them. Flavian 
requested Adelphius, who was an old man, to come to 
him ; and, after desiring him in a kindly manner to sit 
down beside him, said to him, " We, old man, who 
have lived a long time, must be better acquainted with 
human nature and with the inimical machinations of 
demons, and must also have learnt more respecting the 
supply of divine grace, than the other persons of the 
assembly, who, being young, and not having yet acquired 
accurate information, are not capable of understanding 
spiritual discourses. Tell me, then, what you mean by 
saying, that the hostile spirit departs when the Holy 
Spirit comes with grace ?" The old man being gained 
over by these words, disclosed the hidden poison of this 
heresy ; he said, that the holy rite of baptism was of no 
benefit to those who received it, and that perseverance 
in prayer alone could expel the demon which dwells 
within us ; *' because," said he, " every one who is born 
is, by nature, as much the slave of the demons as he is 



FLA.VIAN. 141 

the descendant of the first man. When the demons are 
driven away by the fervency of prayer, the most Holy 
Spirit visits us, and gives sensible and visible signs of 
His own presence, by freeing the body from the perturba- 
tion of passion, and the soul from evil propensities ; so 
that, henceforth, there is no more need of fasting for the 
subjugation of the body, nor of instruction for the res- 
traint and direction of the soul. Whoever has enjoyed 
this visitation is delivered from all inward struggles ; he 
clearly foresees the future, and gazes with his own eyes 
upon the Holy Trinity." Flavian, having thus discovered 
the fetid fountain-head of error, and having detected the 
evil streams which issued from it, said to this wretched 
old man, " You, who have grown old in sin, have con- 
victed yourself by your own mouth, without any inter- 
position on my part. Your own lips have borne witness 
against you." The unsound principles of these sectarians 
having been thus detected, they were expelled from Syria. 
They went to Pamphylia, and propagated their injurious 
heresy throughout the province. 

When Antioch was suffering under persecution from 
Valens, the joint labours of Diodorus and Flavian are 
thus described by Theodoret : — " Flavian and Diodorus 
stationed themselves as bulwarks to restrain the violence 
of the billows of persecution. The pastor of the city 
having been compelled to relinquish his post, they under- 
took the care of the flock during his absence ; and by 
their courage and wisdom defended it from the attacks 
of wolves. After having been driven away from the foot 
of the mountain, they led the flock beside the banks of 
the neighbouring stream. They did not, like the captives 
of Babylon, hang up their harps upon the willows ; for 
they sang praises to their Creator in eveiy part of His 
empire. But the enemy did not long permit these pious 
pastors, who preached the divinity of the Lord Christ, to 
hold assemblies in any place ; and they were soon com- 
pelled to lead the flock to spiritual pasturage in the 

VOL V. 



142 FLAVIAN. 

gymnasium in which the soldiers performed their exer 
cises. The wise and courageous Diodorus resembled a 
large and limpid stream which furnishes plentiful sup- 
plies of water to those who dwell on its banks, and which 
at the same time engulphs adversaries. He despised the 
advantages of high birth, and underwent the severest 
exertions in defence of the faith. Flavian was also of 
illustrious birth, yet he considered that piety alone con- 
stitutes true nobility. At this period Flavian did not 
preach in the public assemblies, but he furnished Dio- 
dorus with the subjects of his discourses, and supplied 
him with Scriptural arguments, thus anointing him, as 
it were, for the conflicts of the spiritual gymnasium. 
They thus jointly attacked the Arian blasphemy. In 
their own private dwellings, as well as in public places, 
they disputed with the Arians, easily confuted their 
sophistical reasoning, and proved its futility." 

The year of his ordination to the priesthood is not 
known, but his election to the episcopate is thus described 
by Theodoret : — " Flavian, who had sustained with Dio- 
dorus so many conflicts in defence of the Saviour's flock, 
was appointed to succeed the great Melitius in the 
Bishopric of Antioch. Paulinus endeavoured to prove 
that he had himself a prior right to this bishopric. But 
tne pnests rejected his pretensions, saying, that as he 
would not receive the counsels of Melitius, he ought not 
to obtain his episcopal chair after his death, but that the 
pastoral office ought to be bestowed upon one who had 
distinguished himself by so many arduous labours, and 
who had so often defended the flock. This contention 
greatly irritated the Romans and the Egyptians against 
the Eastern bishops ; and the consequent feelings of 
animosity did not subside even after the death of 
Paulinus. 

" When they had raised Evagrius to the episcopal 
chair, they still retained their resentment against Flavian, 
although Evagrius had been ordained against the canons 



FLAVIAN. 143 

of the Church ; for Paulinus alone had elected him ; 
thus transgressing many of the ecclesiastical laws. The 
canons of the Church do not permit a bishop, when on 
his death-bed, to ordain his successor, but declare that 
the consent of all the bishops of the province is requisite, 
and that the ceremony of ordination is to be performed 
by three bishops. Although none of these regulations had 
been observed in the ordination of Evagrius, the Romans 
and Egyptians entered into fellowship with him, and 
endeavoured to prejudice the emperor against Flavian. 
Wearied by their importunity, the emperor at length sent 
to Constantinople to summon Flavian to Rome. Flavian 
excused himself on account of its being winter, and 
promised to obey the emperor's command the ensuing 
spring. He then returned to his native country. The 
bishops of Rome, among whom was not only the admi-. 
rable Damasis, but also Siricius, who afterwards succeeded 
him, as well as Anastasius, the successor of Siricius, 
rebuked the pious emperor, and told him, that while he 
repressed the attempts of those who rose up against his 
own authority, he suffered those w^ho insulted the laws of 
Christ to exercise the authority which they had usurped. 
The emperor therefore again sent to compel Flavian to 
repair to Rome. To this mandate the wise bishop replied 
with great boldness of speech, saying, ' If any indivi- 
duals, emperor, should accuse me of heterodoxy, or 
should say that my life is derogatory to the episcopal 
dignity, I would permit my accusers to be my judges, 
and would submit to whatever sentence they might pro- 
nounce. But if it be only my right to my episcopal 
chair and office that they are contesting, I shall not con- 
tend for my claims, but shall relinquish my seat to 
whoever may be appointed to take it. Give, then, O 
emperor, the Bishopric of Antioch to whomsoever you 
please.' 

" The emperor admired his courage and wisdom, and 
sent to command him to resume the government of his 



144 FLAVIAN. 

Church. Some time after the emperor returned to Rome, 
and the bishops again reproached him for not having 
suppressed the tyranny of Flavian. The emperor repHed, 
by asking what species of tyranny had been exercised by 
Flavian, and declared his readiness to prohibit it. The 
bishops repljang, that they could not litigate any point 
against an emperor, he exhorted them to be reconciled 
with each other, and to terminate the foolish contention. 
For Paulinus had died long previously, and Evagrius 
had been illegally ordained. Besides, the Eastern 
churches acknowledged the supremacy of Flavian ; all 
the churches of Asia, of Pontus, and of Thrace, were 
united with him in communion ; and all the churches of 
Illyria looked upon him as the primate of the East. 
The bishops of the West were convinced by these repre- 
sentations, and promised to lay aside their hostility, and 
to receive an embassy from Flavian. On hearing this, 
the holy Flavian sent some exemplary bishops to Rome, 
with some presbyters and deacons of Antioch. The 
principal man among them was Acacius, Bishop of Bercea, 
a city of Syria, whose fame was spread throughout the 
world. On his arrival with the others in Rome, he 
terminated the long-continued hostility which had lasted 
seventeen years, and restored peace to the churches. 
When the Egyptians became acquainted with this pro- 
ceeding, they laid down their animosity and established 
concord. The Church of Rome was at this period 
governed by Innocent, a man of great sagacity and pru- 
dence ; he was the successor of Anastasius. Theophilus, 
of whom mention has been already made, was then the 
Bishop of Alexandria." - 

The name of Flavian is connected with one of the 
most interesting episodes in ecclesiastical histor}'-, of 
which a detailed account has been already given in the 
life of St. Chrysostom, to which the reader is referred. 
We shall only here state that during the course of a 
popular tumult, in consequence of a new tax, various 



FLEETWOOD. 345 

gross outrages had been committed, and the statues of 
the emperor Theodosius and of his empress had been 
overturned. Exemplary vengeance was threatened for 
these acts of sedition ; but the patriarch, by repairing to 
Constantinople, and eloquently interceding with the 
emperor for forgiveness, appeased his anger, and obtained 
the pardon of the offenders. The address that he de- 
livered on that occasion is said to have been composed 
by the celebrated Chrysostom. Flavian died in 404. He 
was the author of some Epistles, noticed in the Codex of 
Photius ; and of some Homilies, of which fragments are 
to be found in the first and second Dialogues of Theo- 
doret on Heretics. — Theodoret. Cave. 



FLEETWOOD, W'lLLIAM. 

William Fleetwood was bom in the tower of London, 
where his father resided, in 1656. He was educated at 
Eton, whence he was elected to King's College, Cam- 
bridge. On entering into orders he became chaplain to 
William and Mary, vice-provost of Eton, fellow of the 
college, canon residentiary of St. Paul's, and rector of 
St. Austin's, London. A little before the death of Wil- 
liam, he was nominated to a canonry of Windsor, on 
which he resigned his city living to reside near Eton. In 
1706 he was made Bishop of St. Asaph, and, in 1714, 
translated to Ely. His preface to his sermons, on the 
deaths of Mary, of the Duke of Gloucester, and of Wil- 
liam, and on the accession of Anne, gave such offence 
to the ministry, that the book was burnt publicly, 12th 
of May, 1712 ; but it was the more universally read, and 
even appeared in the Spectator, No. 384. Besides these, 
Bishop Fleetwood published Inscriptionum Antiquarum 
Sylloge, 8vo, 1691. A translation of Jurieu's Method of 
Devotion, 1692, the 27th edition of which appeared in 
1750. An Essay an Miracles, 8vo, 1701. The Reason- 
2 



U6 FLETCHER 

able Communicant, 1704. Sixteen Practical Discourses 
on the Relative Duties of Parents, &c. 2 vols, 8vo, 1705. 
The Thirteenth of Romans Vindicated, 1710. The 
Judgment of the Church of England in Lay Baptism 
and Dissenters' Baptism, 1712. The Life of St. Wene- 
frede, 1713. Chronicon Preciosum, or Account of Eng- 
lish Money, Price of Corn and other Commodities for 
the last six hundred years, 1707 ; besides smaller works. 
— Biog. Brit, 



FLETCHER, JOHN WILLIAM. 

John William Fletcher was born at Nyon, in the 
Pays de Yaud, of a respectable Bernese family. He was 
educated at Geneva for the ministry, but went into the 
military service in Portugal ; he soon afterwards came to 
England, where he became tutor in the family of Sir 
Richard Hill. He next superintended the institution of 
Lady Huntingdon, at Trevecca, in Wales ; but quitted 
it, and became vicar of Madeley, in Shropshire, where 
he died in 1785. His works are mostly against Calvin- 
ism, and were printed in ten vols, 8vo. — Gen. Diet. 



FLETCHER, RICHARD. 

Richard Fletcher, who is described as a handsome 
Kentish man, was admitted a scholar of Trinity College, 
Cambridge, in 1563, and removed to Corpus Christi 
College in 1569, where he acted as tutor. In 1572 he 
went to Oxford and was incorporated M.A. In Septem- 
ber of that year, he was instituted to the prebend of 
Islington in the church of St. Paul, London, upon the 
presentation of Matthew Parker, gent., sOn of the arch- 
bishop, who probably had the patronage of that turn 
made over to him by Bishop Grindal, in order to carry 



FLETCHER. 147 

on his father's scheme of annexing prebends to the 
fellowships he had founded. Accordingly he held this 
with his fellowship ; and was made president upon Mr. 
Norgate's promotion to the mastership the year following, 
but seems to have left the college soon after, with a testi- 
monial of his learning and good behaviour, as well as of 
his having acquitted himself with credit in the offices of 
the college, in the public schools, and in the pulpit. In 
1581 he proceeded D.D. and became chaplain to the 
queen, to whom he had been recommended by Arch- 
bishop Whitgift for the deanery of Windsor, but she 
chose rather to bestow on him that of Peterborough in 
1583. In 1585, the prebend of Sutton-Longa in the 
church of Lincoln was given to him, and he was likewise 
parson of Alderkirke in that diocese, and was presented 
by Sir Thomas Cecil to the church of Barnack. Soon 
after this, he was appointed to attend upon the execution 
of Mary queen of Scots, at Fotheringhay Castle. 

He is rather unfairly accused of having endeavoured 
at that time to convert the queen to protestantism. His 
address to her is a pious and even eloquent exhortation, 
such as might have been addressed to any one about to 
undergo the extreme sentence of the law. It shocks our 
feelings of delicacy to read of any address at such a time, 
but as the dean had to make it, his allusions to the 
queen's errors are not so marked as the controversial spirit 
of the age would have rendered probable. But in utter- 
ing these words of exhortation, we are told that the queen 
three or four times said unto him, " Master dean, 
trouble not yourself, nor me ; for know, that I am 
settled in the ancient, catholic, Romish religion ; and in 
defence thereof, by God's help, to spend my blood." 
Then said the dean, " Madam, change your opinion, and 
repent of your former sins and wickedness, and settle 
yourself upon this ground, that only in Christ Jesu you 
hope to be saved." Then she answered again and again 
with great earnestness, " Good master dean, trouble no 



148 FLETCHER. 

more yourself about this matter ; for I was born in this 
religion, I have lived in this religion, and I am resolved 
to die in this religion." Then said the earls, when they 
saw how uncomfortable she was in the hearing of master 
dean's good exhortation, " Madam, we will pray for your 
grace with master dean, if it stand wdth God's good will, 
you may have your heart lightened with the true know- 
ledge of God's good will, and His word, and so die herein." 
Then answered the queen, " If you will pray for me, I 
will even from my heart thank you, and think myself 
greatly favoured by you ; but to join in prayer with you, 
my lords, after your manner, who are not of one and 
the self- same religion with me, it were a sin. I will 
not." Camden relates it somewhat differently; that 
when the earls said, they would pray for her, she said 
she would give them thanks, if they would pray with 
her. 

Then the lords called for master Dean again, and bade 
him say on, or speak what he thought good. Where- 
upon the said master Dean, kneeling on the scaffold- 
stairs, began his prayers. 

The dean was in high favour with queen Elizabeth, 
and in 1589 was advanced to the see of Bristol, from 
which, in 1592, he was translated to that of Worcester. 
In 1594, says Strype, " the see of London became void 
also this year in the beginning of June, by the death of 
Aylmer. Fletcher, Bishop of Worcester, affected a trans- 
lation thither ; chiefly because that city he most delighted 
in, where he had his education, most common residence, 
and where he had many agreeable friends, and a con- 
siderable share in the love and esteem of the citizens, 
who desired that he might be their bishop ; and that he 
might be nearer the court, where his presence was accus- 
tomed much to be ; and his influence might be of use to 
serve the court : which reasons he moved to the lord 
treasurer in a letter, dated June 29, as he had solicited 
him before in presence : ' beseeching his honour's 



FLETCHER. 149 

opinion and continuance of that begun favour which 
lately it had pleased his lordship to afford him to her 
majesty. That his education hereabouts, [i. e. London,] 
and long knowledge of the place, continued as well by 
his service in court, as by sundiy other links of friend- 
ship with persons of the city : and that the consideration 
of the absence from that charge which he had, did draw 
him rather to desire the improvement of his poor duty 
and endeavour to the service of God and her majesty in 
this see and city of London, than in any other place of 
the realm. And he doubted not but it would please God 
to bless it withal. That his lordship knew, that it was 
something in that function, where the flock and the 
pastor had desired one another. That in many things, 
beside the main and principal matter of ecclesiastical 
government and oversight therein, his lordship for his 
long experience knew, that there might befall occasions 
concerning the state, where the bishop, being regarded 
and beloved of them, might be a good and ready means 
to give them furtherance and expedition. Besides which, 
the general care and regard of pastoral charge, which he 
trusted it would please God to settle in him for his glory 
there, his lordship should be assured, (if it so pleased 
the same,) that no man, no, not bound with the band of 
nearest duty to his lordship, should be more ready to 
respect his lordship's honourable, either desires or direc- 
tions in that place. And so, humbly beseeching his 
lordship to make him in this occasion both favoured by 
her majesty towards her own servant, and by the rest of 
his honourable lords, beholden to his lordship, as in time 
past he had been, he committed his lordship to the good- 
ness of God.' 

" The solicitation of this bishop (who was courtly, 
well-spoken, and the queen's chaplain) succeeded : but it 
was not before six or seven months after that his election 
was confirmed, viz: January 10, 1594. But his satis- 
faction in his remove was but short : for the very next 



150 FLETCHER. 

month the queen's wonted favour to him was turned 
into great displeasure ; insomuch, that she banished him 
the court ; and by her command he was suspended from 
his bishopric, by the sentence of the archbishop. 

" But to relate this matter a little more at large. No 
sooner was he Bishop of London, but he, being a 
widower, married a fine lady and widow, and (as we are 
told) the sister of Sir George Gifford, one of the queen's 
gentlemen pensioners. And perhaps that was one of the 
secret reasons of the bishop's endeavours to be translated 
to London, to gratify this lady's desire to live near the 
court. This marriage (as the queen liked not marriage 
at all in the clergy) she thought so very undecent in an 
elderly clergyman, and a bishop, that before had been 
married, that he fell under her great displeasure. And 
she gave him either a reprimand by her own mouth, or 
sent a message to him by some other, not to appear in 
her presence, nor to come near the court. The bishop, 
finding himself in this bad condition, applied himself to 
the lord treasurer, by a letter from Chelsea, to declare 
his case, and to use his good office for him to the queen. 
At the delivery whereof, the said lord used some kind 
and honourable words concerning him to the messenger. 
But notwithstanding, a command was soon despatched 
from the queen to the archbishop, to suspend the said 
bishop from the exercise of his episcopal function. And 
on the 23rd of February the censure was executed on 
him by the archbishop's own mouth ; for having then 
sent for the bishop, his grace acquainted him with the 
heavy sentence of her majesty, viz. to cease the exercise 
of his episcopal and ecclesiastical jurisdiction. 

"Which how the good bishop resented, he himself 
expressed to the said lord treasurer, when he certified 
him thereof by his letter ; ' That he confessed it was the 
more grievous and bitter unto him, by the remembrance 
both of her highness' former favour towards him, as also 
for that he was now become unprofitable for the Church 



FLETCHER. 151 

and her highness' service : to both which he had so 
wholly vowed himself, and all his possibility. Professing 
to his lordship, that he could have wished, when he 
heard it, he had also heard (if justice would so have per- 
mitted) to have been sequestered from his life itself. He 
added, that he knew how much his lordship's approba- 
tion and grave mediation might in such cases avail with 
her majesty. Which if it might please him to vouchsafe 
him, [the Bishop,] he should, he was persuaded, with the 
whole ecclesiastical state, be honoured for it ;' [as though 
the case of the bishop touched in a manner all the mar- 
ried clergy ;] ' and give to himself matter of bond to his 
lordship in all Christian devotion and dutiful obser- 
vance.' This letter was dated from Chelsea, February 
the 24th, and subscribed, ' Your lordship's ever in 
Christ, the Bishop of London.' 

" It was not before six months after that the bishop 
Bcems to have been restored, as though the suspension 
had been for that term. For the lord treasurer had, in 
the month of July, 1595, signified to him, that the queen 
was in good measure reconciled to him ; and that she 
■would give instruction and order to the archbishop to 
take off his suspension. And when the said bishop had 
acquainted the archbishop therewith, he shewed himself 
very ready and glad to repair to the court, to wait the 
queen's pleasure to him herein. And to his lordship's 
good news he returned this grateful acknowledgment : 
' That to hear of the least her highness' gracious inclina- 
tion towards him, in her princely clemency, he could not 
sufficiently express to his good lordship, how greatly it 
had recomforted him, having these six months thought 
himself (as the prophet spake) free among the dead, and 
like unto him that is in the grave ; made unprofitable unto 
God's and her majesty's service. That to hear of it also, 
as drawn on and wrought by his lordship's honourable 
intercession, and so kind mediation, it had greatly added 
to his joy and alacrity. I do therefore, as he proceeded, 



15a FLEURY. 

give jour lordship my entirest thanks, beseeching your 
lordship to be persuaded, that among so many to whom 
your lordship hath been magnus thepykTrjq, there shall be 
none found whose duty and devotion shall henceforth 
exceed his, who with his hand and heart giveth your 
lordship this testimony of love and observance. 

" ' My lord of Canterbury will to-morrow be at court, 
and be very mindful of me for a good conclusion. And 
so, with my prayers for your lordship's increase and con- 
tinuance in all God's blessings, I take my leave. From 
Fulham. Your lordship's ever in all duty and Christian 
affection. 

Rich. London.' 

" But though this bishop was thus restored to the dis- 
charge of his office, yet the queen would not permit him 
to come into her presence for a twelvemonth ; (however 
she was humbly moved by his friends of quality in that 
behalf ;) though for twenty years before he commonly was 
one that waited in his place upon her person, with favour. 
This long absence from court the bishop laid much to 
heart ; which caused him, in the month of January 
following, to solicit the lord treasurer, his former friend 
and mediator, to procure that grant from the queen, that 
he might see her face." 

He at last so far regained the queen's favour as to 
have the honour of receiving a visit from her. He died 
suddenly in his chair at his house in London, June 15th, 
K^^Q.—Strype. Camden. Master s Hist, of C. C. C. 



FLEURY, CLAUDE. 

Claude Fleurt was born in Paris, 1640. After 
being at the bar nine years, he took orders, and in 1672 
became preceptor to the Princess of Conti, and in 1680 
to the Count de Vermandois. Under Fenelon he was 
subpreceptor to the dukes of Burgundy, Anjou, and Bern, 



FLORUS. 153 

and for his services he was made abbot of Locdieu, which 
he resigned in 1706, for the lich prioiy of Argenteuil. 
In 1716 he was made confessor to Louis XV. He died 
in 1723, greatly respected for his learning and virtues. 
The chief of his works are, Manners of the Israelites. 
Manners of the Christians. Ecclesiastical History, 13 
vols, 4to. Institution of Ecclesiastical Law. Treatise 
on the Choice and Method of Studies. Duties of Mas- 
ters and Servants. Treatise on Public Law, 2 vols, 12mo. 
Mr. Dowling says of him : — " He was a man of piety 
and sensibility, and his mind was well stored with pro- 
fessional learning. He was already known by his publi- 
cations on ecclesiastical subjects and polite literature. 
In undertaking his great work his views were modest. 
His object was, he tells us, rather to write a popular 
account of his subject, than a work of research and ei*u- 
dition. But he is a writer of no ordinary merit. He 
expressed in an easy and pleasing manner the I'esult of 
the inquiries of the great scholars of his time, and 
advantageously introduced Church-histoiy to the students 
of modern literature. We find in his writings no traces 
of deep reflection or comprehensive views, no important 
discoveries or original investigations ; but he produced 
an instructive and entertaining work. His ' Histoire 
Ecclesiastique ' was edifying, judicious, candid ; and 
favourably exhibited the state of ecclesiastical knowledge 
in the Church of Rome at the beginning of the eighteenth 
century. " — Moreri. Dowling . 



FLORUS, DREPANIUS. 

Drepanius Florus, surnamed the Master, a learned 
deacon of the Church of Lyons, flourished in the ninth 
century. The reputation which he had obtained occasion- 
ed his being selected by the Church of Lyons to answer 
the treatise of John Scotus Erigena, on the subject 

VOL V. p 



154 FLOYD. 

of predestination. This answer was entitled, Liber de 
Prgedestinatione, contra Johannis Scoti erroneas Defini- 
tiones, and was published in 852, in the name of the 
whole Church of Lyons. It is in t]ie eighth volume of 
the Bibliotheca Patrum. He asserts a twofold predesti- 
nation, or rather predestination under a twofold aspect : 
1. A gratuitous predestination of the elect to grace and 
glory, and a predestination of the reprobate to damnation, 
for their sins which they commit by their own free will ; 
and maintains, that though our free will can choose 
that which is good, yet it never would choose, or do it, if 
it were not assisted by the grace of Jesus Christ. And 
to explain this, he makes use of the comparison of a 
sick man, of whom we may say, that he may recover 
his health, although he hath need of physic to restore it ; 
or of a dead man, that he may be raised, but by the 
divine power. In like manner, saith he, the free will 
being distempered, and dead, by the sin of the first man, 
may be revived, but not by its own virtue, but by the 
grace and power of God, Who hath pity on it, which 
Florus understands not only of that grace, which is 
necessary for actions, but of that also which is necessary 
to seek conversion by prayer, and begin to do well. — He 
also wrote, Commentarius in omnes S. Pauli Epistolas, 
falsely ascribed to the venerable Bede, and admitted into 
the collection of his works ; Commentarius seu Expositio 
in Canonem Missse, extant in the fifteenth volume of the 
Bibl. Patr. ; Poemata, which have appeared in different 
collections, and are inserted in the eighth volume of the 
Bibl. Patr. The date of his death is not known. — Cave. 
Dupin. 

FLOYD, JOHN. 

John Floyd, an English Jesuit, was born in Cam- 
bridgeshire. He went abroad, became a Jesuit in 1593, 
and returned to Eni^land as a missionary. Ho vfas after- 



FOGGINI. 155 

wards banished, and was employed by bis superiors to 
teach polite literature and divinity at St. Omer and Lou- 
vain. The time of his death is not known. In his 
written controversies with Chillingworth, Antonius de 
Dorainis, Crashaw, Sir Edward Hobby, and other Pro- 
testants, he assumed the names of Daniel a Jesu, Her- 
mannus Loemelius, and Annosus Fidelis Verimontanus. 
Under these names he wrote, Synopsis Apostasise M. A. 
de Dominis, Antw. 1617, 8vo. Detectio Hypocrisis M. A. 
de Dominis, ibid, 1619, 8vo. The Church Conquerant 
over Human Wit, against Chillingworth, St Omer, 1631, 
4to. The Total Sum, against the same, ibid, 1639, 4to. 
Answer to William Crashaw, ibid, 1612, 4to. A Treatise 
of Purgatory, in answer to Sir Edward Hobby, ibid, 1613. 
Answer to Francis White's Reply concerning Nine Arti- 
cles offered by King James I. to F. John Fisher, ibid, 
J 626. — Alegamhe de Script. Frat. Jesu. Dod. 

FOGGINI, PIEK FRANCISCO. 

Pier Francisco Foggini, was born in 1713, at Flo- 
rence, where, after he had gone through his principal 
courses of study, his superiors appointed him their 
librarian. In 1741 he published a dissertation De 
primis Florentinorum Apostolis, and another against the 
reveries of certain Protestants. His edition of Virgil was 
published at Florence in 1741, 4to. In 1742 Foggini 
accepted an invitation from Bottari, second librarian of 
the Vatican, to come to Piome, where Benedict XIV. gave 
him a place in the pontifical academy of history. He 
now devoted his time to a careful examination of the 
most valuable MSS. The pope next appointed him 
coadjutor to Bottari. In 1750 he printed his Latin 
translation of St. Epiphanius's commentary on the Can- 
ticles. In 1752 he published a collection of passages 
from the fathers, occasioned by a homily of the Arch- 
bishop of Fermo, on the saying of our Lord respecting 



156 FONTENAY. 

the small number of the elect. The following year he 
published the opinions of Cardinal Borromeo, and others 
on the theatre. In 1754 he published the first of eight 
volumes of writings of the fathers on the subject of grace; 
and in 1 758 the Works of St. Prosper, 8vo. These were 
followed by his Treatise on the Clergy of St. John de 
Lateran, and in 1760, by an edition of the works of St. 
Fulgentius. The same year pope Ganganelli made 
him chamberlain of honour. He afterwards published 
Fastorum Anni Romani Verrio Flacco ordinatorum 
Reliqui^, &c., Rome, 1780, fol. In 1777 he pubhshed 
an appendix to the Byzantine history. When Pius VI. 
became pope, he promoted him to the charge of the secret 
chamber, and in 1775 he succeeded Bottari as first 
librarian. He died in 1783. — Dup. Hist. Saxd Onomast. 

FONSECA, PETEE DE. 

Petee de Fonseca was born at Cortisada, in 1528. 
Becoming a Jesuit he was appointed professor of phi- 
losophy in the university of Coimbra, and afterwards was 
made professor of theology in that of Evora. He was 
the first who publicly taught that doctrine relative to the 
divine prescience which was denominated by the school- 
men Scientia media, and, being adopted by the Jesuit 
Louis Molina, became a subject of long and furious con- 
troversy between his followers and the Dominicans and 
Jansenists, who adhered to the doctrine of St. Augustine. 
Fonseca died at Lisbon in 1559. He published. In Isa- 
gogen Porphyrii. Dialectica, Lib. VIII. ; and Comment, 
in Metaphys. &c., 3 vols, fol. — Moreri. 

FONTENAY, PETEE CLAUDE. 

Peter Claude Fontenay, a Jesuit, was born at Paris 
in 1683. He became rector of the college at Orleans, 
from whence he was recalled to continue Longueval's 



FORBES. 157 

History of the Gallican Clmrch, of whicli eight vokimes 
quarto were published. Fontenav wrote three volumes, 
and then died suddenly in 1742.— Moren'. 

FORBES, PATEICK. 

Patrick Forbes was bom of a noble family in Aber- 
deenshire in 1564. He was educated at Aberdeen and 
St. Andrew's. For a good space, says Bishop Keith, he 
refused to enter into holy orders ; but at last, when he 
was forty-eight years old, viz. anno 161*2, he was prevailed 
upon, — a very singular accident having intervened, which 
made him then yield, namely, the earnest obtestation of 
a religious minister in the neighbourhood, who, in a fit 
of melancholy, had stabbed himself, but sui-vived to 
lament his error. He continued pastor of the village of 
Keith in Strathisla, and diocese of Murray, (the same 
place where the above misfortune had fallen out,) until 
the year 1618, March 24, when he was unanimously 
elected Bishop of Aberdeen, with the concurrent voice of 
all ranks, and the recommendation of the king. In this 
office he behaved himself to the applause of all men, and 
died, much regretted, on the 28th March, being Easter- 
even, in the year 16-35, aged 71, and was interred in the 
south aisle of his cathedral. He wrote a Commentary 
upon the Book of Revelations. He was wont to visit his 
diocese in a very singular retinue, scarce any person 
hearing of him until he came into the church on the 
Lord's day ; and according as he perceived the respective 
ministers to behave themselves he gave his instructions 
to them. He wrote a Commentary on the Revelation, 
London, 1613; and a treatise entitled Exercitationes 
de Verbo Dei, et Dissertatio de Versionibus vernaculis. 
He was a great benefactor to Aberdeen imiversity, of 
which he was chancellor, and he revived the professor- 
ships of law, physic, and divinity. He died in 1635. — 
Keith. Burnet. 
p 2 



158 FOKBES. 



FORBES, WILLIAM. 

The following account is given of this prelate by Bishop 
Keith in his " Historical Catalogue." He was the son 
of Thomas Forbes, of the family of Corsindae, by a sister 
of the famous Mr. James C argil 1, doctor of medicine at 
Aberdeen, in which city likewise this worthy person was 
born, and bred at school and the university. About the 
age of twenty years he went abroad for his improvement, 
visiting the several places most noted for learning in 
England, Germany, and Holland. He returned home 
after five years, and became minister first at Alford and 
next at Monimusk, both in the shire of Aberdeen. He 
was afterwards one of the ministers of Aberdeen, and 
principal of the Marischal college in that city ; and, last 
of all, he was for some time a minister in Edinburgh. 
When king Charles I. was in Scotland, anno J 633, and 
hearing this great man preach before him, he had such 
a due regard for his excellent parts and talents that Way, 
and for his knowledge in all matters theological, that 
when his majesty erected the episcopal see of Edinburgh, 
and consultation was held concerning a fit person to be 
promoted to this see, the king was pleased to say, he had 
found a man who deserved to have a see erected for him, 
meaning Mr. Forbes. His patent from the king, to be 
the first Bishop of Edinburgh, bears date the 26th of 
January, 1 634, and he died that same year on the first 
day of April following. A person he was endued 
most eminently with all Christian virtues, insomuch, 
that a very worthy man, Eobert Burnet, Lord Crimond, 
a judge of the session, said of our prelate, that he never 
saw him but he thought his heart was in heaven ; and 
that he was never alone with him but he felt within him- 
self a commentary on these words of the apostle : " Did 
not our hearts burn within us, while he yet talked with 
us, and opened to us the Scriptures ?" During the time 



FORD. 159 

he was principal at Aberdeen, he had interspersed several 
things among his academical prelections, tending to 
create peace among the contending parties of Christianity, 
some notes whereof were published above twenty years 
after his death, under the title of " Considerationes mo- 
destae et pacificae," &c. This prelate had written elabo- 
rate animadversions on the four volumes of Bellarmine 
which were then published at Paris ; but these having 
fallen to the care of Dr. Robert Baron, our prelate's 
fellow presbyter, while at Aberdeen, were lost with other 
books of this other great man, when he was forced, by 
the then prevailing faction, to fly out of this kingdom 
into England. Bishop Forbes had been twenty years in 
the exercise of the holy ministry before he was put into 
the see of Edinburgh, where he only appeared long 
enough to be known, but not long enough to do what 
might have been expected. — Keith. 



FORD, SIMON. 

Simon Ford, a divine, was born at East Ogwell, in 
Devonshire, in 1619. He was educated at Dorchester 
School; and in 1636 admitted of Magdalen Hall, Oxford. 
In 1641 he was in London acting with the rebels, and 
fighting against his Church, his king, and his countiy. 
His reward was a studentship of Christ Church, Oxford, 
into which he was intruded by the parliamentary visitors, 
when the dissenters, having gained the upper hand, de- 
prived the clergy of the Church of England of their places 
and property. But they went too far for Ford, who would 
only side with the Presbyterians, and for preaching at 
St. Maiy's against the oath of the Independents, called 
the Engagement, he was expelled from the studentship 
into which he had been unjustly intruded by the Presby- 
terians. He next became lecturer of Newington Green, 
and in 1651, vicar of St. Lawrences, Reading. In 1659 



lOU FOREIRO. 

he was chosen by the corporation of Northampton vicar 
of All Saints; and in 1665 he took the degree of D.D. 
and was appointed chaplain to Charles 11. In 1670 he 
removed to London, and became minister of Bridewell 
chapel, and rector of St. Mary x\ldermanbury ; but finding 
his health impaired by the air of London, he accepted, 
in 1677, the rectory of Old Swinford, near Stourbridge, 
in Worcestershire, where he died in 1699. His works 
are, x\mbitio sacra. Conciones duaB Latino habitae ad 
Academicos, Oxon. 1650, 4to. Poemata Londinensia, 
&c.. Carmen funebre, ex occasione Northamptonae con- 
flagratse. Lend. 1676, 4to. Christ's Innocency pleaded 
against the Cry of the Chief Priests, Lond. 1656, 4to. 
The Spirit of Bondage. — Wood. NasJis Worcestershire. 



FOEDYCE, JAMES. 

James Fordyce was born in 1720, at Aberdeen, and 
educated there. He was minister of Brechin, and after- 
wards of Alloa, near Stirling, and in 1762 he removed to 
Monkwell Street, London, where he was assistant, and 
then successor, to Dr. Lawrence. He afterwards settled 
in Hampshire, and died at Bath, in 179G. He wrote. 
Sermons to Young Women, 2 vols. Address to Young 
Men, 2 vols. Addresses to the Deity. A Sermon on the 
Eloquence of the Pulpit. Sermon on the Folly, Misery, 
and Infamy of Unlawful Pleasure. Poems. Single Ser- 
mons. A Discourse on Pain. — Gen. Biog. Diet. 



FOREIRO, OR FORERIU!^, FRANCIS. 

Francis Foreiro, or Forerius, a learned Portuguese 
Dominican monk, born at Lisbon, in 1523. He was 
sent by John III. to study theology in the university of 
Paris. On his return to Lisbon the king appointed him 



FORSTER. 161 

his preacher, and prince Louis at the same time entrusted 
to him the education of his son. Of all the divines sent 
by king Sebastian to the council of Trent in 1561, Foreiro 
held the first place. He offered to preach before the 
council in any language they might think proper. In 
consideration of his vast erudition he was appointed a 
member of that council, February 26, 1562. He was 
also appointed secretary to the committee for examining 
and condemning such publications as they thought unfit 
to be disseminated. The fathers of the council afterwards 
sent him on a mission to Pius IV., who conferred upon 
him the place of confessor to his nephew, the cardinal 
Charles Borromeo. At Rome he was also employed to 
reform the Breviary and the Roman Missal, and to com- 
pose the Roman Catechism. On his return to Portugal 
he was chosen prior of the Dominican convent at Lisbon 
in 1568. He built the convent of St. Paul in the village 
of Almada, opposite Lisbon, and there he died in 1581. 
His principal work is, Isaiae Prophetse vetus et nova ex 
Hebraico Versio, cum Commentario, &c. Venice, 1568, 
fol. This able work is inseited in the fifth volume of 
the Critici Sacri.— 3/o?-m. 



FOESTEK, NATHANIEL. 

Nathaniel Forster was born in 1717, at Stadscombe, 
in the parish of Plimstock, Devonshire. He received his 
earlier education at the grammar school at Plymouth, 
whence he was removed to Eton, and thence to Corpus 
Christi, Oxford. In 1729 he became fellow. In 1739 
he took orders, and in 1749 he obtained the rectory of 
Hethe, in Oxfordshire. In 1750 he became domestic 
chaplain to the illustrious Bishop Butler. (See his Life.) 
The bishop died in his arms at Bath, and appointed him 
his executor. In 1752 he was appointed chaplain to 
Dr. Herring, Archbishop of Canterbury : in 1754 he was 



J 02 FOSTER. 

promoted to a prebendal stall in the church of Bristol ; 
and in the autumn of the same year the Archbishop of 
Canterbury gave him the valuable vicarage of Rochdale, 
in Lancashire. He was admitted fellow of the Royal 
Society in 1755. In 1756 he was sworn one of the chap- 
lains to George II., and in 1757, he was appointed 
preacher at the Rolls chapel. He died in the same year 
in Westminster, in the forty- first year of his age. He 
had great critical acumen, and possessed a knowledge of 
the Greek, Latin, and Hebrew languages, not exceeded 
by any man of his time. He published. Reflections on 
the Natural Foundation of the high Antiquity of Govern- 
ment, Arts, and Sciences, in Egypt, Oxford, 1743. Pla- 
tonis Dialogi Quinque, ibid. 1745. Appendix Liviana, 
ibid. 1745 ; Popery destructive of the Evidence of Chris- 
tianity. A Sermon before the University of Oxford, No- 
vember 5, 1746, ibid. 1746. A Dissertation upon the 
Account supposed to have been given of Jesus Christ by 
Josephus, being an attempt to show that this celebrated 
passage, some slight corruptions only excepted, may 
reasonably be esteemed genuine, ibid. 1749, (this is highly 
commended by Warburton and Bryant.) Biblia Hebraica, 
sine punctis, ibid. 1750, 2 vols, 4to. Remarks on the 
Rev. Dr. Stebbing's Dissertation on the Power of States 
to deny Civil Protection to the Marriages of Minors, &c. 
Lend. 1755. — Biog. Brit. 



FOSTEE, JAMES. 

James Foster, a dissenting minister, was born at Exe- 
ter in 1697. After officiating to different congregations 
of the independent denomination, he turned baptist; and 
in 1724 succeeded Dr. Gale at the meeting in Barbican 
in London. In 1744 he was chosen minister at Pinners' 
Hall ; and in 1749 received the degree of doctor in divin- 
ity from Aberdeen. He died in 1752. Dr. Foster was 



FOWLER. ]63 

an excellent preacher, and celebrated as such by Pope in 
his Satires. He wrote — 1. A Defence of the Christian 
Eevelation against Tindal, 8vo. 2. Tracts on Heresy. 
3. Four volumes of Sermons. 4. An Account of Lord 
Kilmarnock, whom he attended on the scaffold. 5. Dis- 
courses on Natural Religion and Social Virtue, 2 vols, 
4 to. 6. Funeral discourses. — Universal Blog. Diet. 



FOTHERBY, MARTIN. 

Martin Fotherby was born at Great Grimsby, in 
Lincolnshire, in 1559. He was educated at Trinity 
College, Cambridge, of which he became a fellow. He 
was collated by Archbishop Whitgift in 1592 to the vicar- 
age of Chiflet, and in 1594 to the rectoiy of St. Mary-le- 
Bow, London. In 1596 he was presented by queen 
Elizabeth to the eleventh prebend of the Church of Can- 
terbury, and also to the rectory of Chartham. In 1001 
he was collated by Archbishop Whitgift to the rectory of 
Adisham. He became afterwards chaplain to James L, 
by whom he was made one of the first fellows of Chelsea 
College in 1010, and was preferred to the Bishopric of 
Sarum in March 1618. He died in 1019. He pubhshed 
in 1608, Four Sermons, whereunto is added, an Answere 
unto certaine Objections of one unresolved, as concerning 
the use of the Crosse in Baptism. He was also the 
author of Atheomastix, published in 1622. — Todd's 
Deans of Cariterbunj. 

FOWLER, CHRISTOPHER. 

Christopher Fowler was born at Marlborough in 
1011, and educated at Magdalen College, and Edmund 
Hall, Oxford. He took orders, but in 1641 declared 
himself a Presbyterian, and drew crowds after him by 
the violence of his appeals in the pulpit. He afterwards 



164 FOWLER. 

usurped the vicarage of St. Mary's, Reading, and then 
became fellow of Eton, and an able assistant to the 
Berkshire commissioners in the ejection of what then 
were called " scandalous, ignorant, and insufficient min- 
isters." At the Restoration he was ejected from his pre- 
ferments, and died in 1676. — Calamy. 



FOWLEE, EDWARD. 

Edward Fowler, a learned English prelate, was born 
in 163-2, at Westerleigh, in Gloucestershire, where his 
father was minister. He was educated at the College 
school in Gloucester, and was removed to Corpus Christi 
College, Oxford. Afterwards removing to Cambridge, he 
took his master's degree as a member of Trinity College, 
and returning to Oxford, was incorporated in the same 
degree, July 5, 1656. About the same time he became 
chaplain to Arabella, Countess Dowager of Kent, who 
presented him to the rectory of Northill, in Bedfordshire. 
As he had been brought up among the Puritans, he at 
first objected to conformity with the Church, but became 
afterwards one of its greatest ornaments. He was made 
by the primate Sheldon, rector of Allhallows, Bread 
Street, London, in 1673, and two years after he became 
prebendary at Gloucester, and in 1681 vicar of St. Giles', 
Cripplegate, when he took his degree of D. D. He 
was an able defender of Protestantism, and appears as 
the second of the London clergy who refused to read 
James II. 's Declaration for liberty of conscience, in 1688. 
He was rewarded for his eminent services in the cause of 
religion, and in the promotion of the revolution, by being 
made, in 1691, Bishop of Gloucester. He died at Chelsea 
in ] 714. He wrote sermons and various pieces on divin- 
ity, the most known and useful of which is his Design of 
Christianity, often printed, and defended by the author 
against John Bunyan. — Biog. Brit. 



FOX. 165 



FOX, EDWARD. 



Edward Fox, one of the reformers, was born in the 
16th century, at Dursley, in Gloucestershire, and educated 
at Eton, and at King's College, Cambridge, of which he 
became provost in 1528. His abilities recommended 
him to the notice of Wolsey, by whom he was sent as an 
ambassador to Rome, w^ith Gardiner, to promote the 
divorce of the king from Catharine of Arragon. He was 
afterwards sent on embassies to France and Germany. 
It was in conversation wdth Fox and Gardiner in 1529, 
that Cranmer (see his Life,) suggested his method of set- 
tling the question of the king's divorce, by taking the 
opinion of the most learned men and universities in 
Christendom ; and he it was who made it known to the 
king as Cranmer's suggestion, when Gardiner would have 
taken the credit of it to himself. In the prosecution of 
this plan he was sent with Stephen Gardiner in 1530 to 
obtain the determination of the university of Cambridge. 
The heads of the university, the vice-chancellor, and the 
afterwards notorious Bonner, were on the king's side, but 
the university was divided. It was honourable to the 
university of Cambridge that so strong a resistance was 
offered to the will of a tyrant so powerful ewerj where 
else. There were two great parties there as every where 
else, and at this time only two : the conservatives, who 
feared all change, and who, while admitting the corrup- 
tions of the Church, which no one at that time seemed 
to deny, feared a reformation, lest Lutheranism should 
be introduced ; and the reforming party, who were pre- 
pared to run all risks. The royal authority being at this 
time on the side of reform, the commissioners, Fox and 
Gardiner, the latter being afterwards the great opponent 
of the reformation, at length, though with difficulty, car- 
ried their point, and it was determined that, " the king's 
marriage was contrary to the law of God." 

VOL V. Q 



166 FOX. 

In 1531 Fox became Archdeacon of Leicester, and in 
1533, Archdeacon of Dorset. He was a consummate poli- 
tician, as well as a learned divine, and it was he who 
suggested the method of bringing the clergy of the Church 
of England '^nder the royal power, which has been ever 
since a sore burden, too heavy for them to bear, by ap- 
prizing them of the fact that they had fallen into a praB- 
munire, and by thus, through their fears, inducing them 
to acknowledge the king as head of the Church, while 
they presented him with an hundred thousand pounds. 
In 1535 he had his reward, being preferred to the Bishop- 
ric of Hereford. He is said to have conduced to the 
reformation as much as Dr. Cranmer, being more active, 
and a better politician, while he is styled by Godwin, 
vir egregie doctus. A few months after his consecration, 
he was sent ambassador to the protestant princes in Ger- 
many, then assembled at Smalcald ; whom he exhorted 
to unite, in point of doctrine, with the Church of England. 
He spent the winter at Wirtemberg, and held several 
conferences with some of the German divines, endeavour- 
ing to conclude a treaty w'ith them upon many articles of 
religion : but nothing w^as effected. Bishop Burnet has 
given a particular account of this negotiation, in his 
History of the Reformation. He returned to England in 
1536, and died at London, May the 8th, 1538. He pub- 
lished a book, De vera differentia Regiag Potestatis et 
Ecclesiasticae, et quae sit ipsa veritas et virtus utriusque. 
Lond. 1534, and 1538. It was translated into English 
by Henry Lord Stafford. He also wrote annotations 
upon Mantuan, the i^oet-^Godivin. Fuller. Buiiiet. 
Strype. Dod. 

FOX, GEOEGE. 

This fanatic, who is regarded by Quakers as a saint, 
and who was in their estimation both a prophet and a 
worker of miracles, was born at Drayton, in Leicestershire, 



FOX. 167 

in the month of July, 1624. His parents were members 
of the Church of England. His father was a weaver by 
trade. Young Fox exhibited even in childhood, " a 
gravity and stayedness of mind," which is spoken of as 
marvellous. His godliness was considered to be such that 
his parents were advised by some "to make a priest of 
him." But this advice was not followed, for he was 
apprenticed to a shoemaker, who also dealt in wool and 
cattle. In the latter department of his trade he took 
delight, and it was remarked that while George was with 
his master, his business was peculiarly prosperous. The 
tending of sheep, observes an eminent author, was a 
just emblem of his after ministry and service. 

At nineteen years of age he was much disgusted at the 
conduct in an alehouse of some friends of his who pro- 
fessed to be religious, after the puritan fashion of 
religion. Returning home, he did not go to bed that 
night, but prayed, and cried earnestly to the Lord ; and 
it seemed to him that his supplications were answered 
after this manner : Thou seest how young people go toge- 
ther into vanity, and old people into the earth; therefore 
thou must forsake all, both young and old, and he as a 
stranger to them. This, which he took to be a divine 
admonition, made such a powerful impression on his 
mind, that he resolved to break off all familiar fellowship 
and conversation with young and old, and even to leave 
his relations, and live a separate and retired life. On the 
ninth of September, in the year 1643, he departed to 
Lutterworth, where he stayed some time, and from thence 
went to Northampton, where he also made some stay, 
and then passed to Newport-Pagnel in Buckinghamshire ; 
and after having remained a while there he went to 
Barnet, whither he came in the month of June, in the 
year 1644. 

Whilst he thus led a solitary life he fasted often, and 
read the holy Scriptures diligently, so that some professors 
took notice of him, 'and sought to be acquainted with 



168 FOX. 

him. But he soon perceiving that thej did not possess 
what they professed, grew afraid of them, and shunned 
their company. At this time he fell into a strong temp- 
tation, almost to despair, and was in mighty trouble, 
sometimes keeping himself retired in his chamber, and 
often walking solitary to wait upon the Lord. In this 
state he saw how Christ had been tempted ; but when he 
looked to his own condition, he wondered, and said. Was 
I ever so before. He began to think, also, that he had 
done amiss against his relations, because he had forsaken 
them ; and he called to mind all his former time, to 
consider whether he had wronged any. Thus temptations 
grew more and more ; and when Satan could not effect 
his design upon him that way, he laid snares for him to 
draw him to commit some sin, thereby to bring him to 
despair. He was then about twenty years of age, and 
continued a long while in this condition, and would fain 
have put it from him ; which made him go to many a 
priest to look for comfort, but he did not find it from 
them. In this miserable state he went to London, in 
hopes of finding some relief among the great professors 
of that city. But being come there, he saw them much 
darkened in their understandings. He had an uncle 
there, one Pickering, a Baptist, and those of that persua- 
sion were tender then ; yet he could not resolve to impart 
his mind to them, or join with them, because he saw all, 
young and old, where they were. And though some of 
the best would have had him stay there, yet he was 
fearful, and so returned homewards ; for having under- 
stood that his parents and relations were troubled at his 
absence, he would rather go to them again lest he should 
grieve them. Now when he was come into Leicestershire 
his relations would have had him married ; but he pru- 
dently told them, he was but a lad, and must get wisdom. 
Others would have had him in the auxiliary band among 
the forces of the parliament, which being entered now 
into an intestine war with the king, had, with their 



FOX. 169 

forces this year, beaten not only the king's army under 
Prince Rupert, but also conquered the city of York. But 
to persuade George to enlist himself a soldier, was so 
against his mind, that he refused it, and went to Coven- 
try, where he took a chamber for a while at a professor's 
house, where he stayed some time, there being many 
people in that town who endeavoured to live religiously. 
After some time he went into his own country again, and 
was there about a year, in great sorrows and trouble, walk- 
ing many nights by himself. 

It is said that in 1646 he received divine revelations, to 
the effect, that to be bred at Oxford or Cambridge was not 
enough to make a man a minister of Christ, and that 
God Who made the world did not dwell in temples made 
with hands ; and in the strength of these revelations, 
much to the regret of his friends, he abstained from public 
worship. He went about in a leathern garment ; he 
reduced his strength by extreme fasting, although in 
fasting he was surpassed by a puritan woman whom he 
saw in Lancashire, who is said to have fasted miracu- 
lously for twenty-two days ; in the daytime he would sit 
in the hollow of trees ; in the night he would walk 
mournfully about. His troubles and temptations were 
great, but they were frequently superseded by heavenly 
joys. In 1647 he began to preach, though his first 
preaching consisted chiefly of some few and piercing 
words. In Lancashire, Leicestershire, and Nottingham- 
shire, he gathered disciples, and in the latter county he 
was the more successful, as one Brown had received the 
gift of prophecy and foretold many notable things con- 
cerning him. The people of the neighbourhood believed 
the prophecy. Meantime George Fox by his excessive 
fasting and mortification, " fell into such a condition, 
that he not only looked like a dead body, but unto many 
who came to see him he seemed as if he were really 
dead; and many visited him for about fourteen days 
time, who wondered to see him so much altered in counte 
q2 



170 FOX. 

nance." At length his sorrows and troubles began to wear 
away, "so that he could have wept night and day with 
tears of joy in brokenness of heart." From his own ac- 
count he had at this time a vision similar to the rapture of 
St. Paul : his words are, "I saw into that which was with- 
out end, and things which cannot be uttered ; and of the 
greatness and inhniteness of the love of God, which can- 
not be expressed by words : for I had been brought 
through the very ocean of darkness and death, and through 
and over the power of Satan, by the eternal and glorious 
power of Christ : even through that darkness was I 
brought which covered all the world, and which chained 
down all, and which shut up all in death. And the 
same eternal power of God, which brought me through 
those things, was that which afterwards shook the nation, 
priests, professors, and people. Then could T say, I had 
been in spiritual Babylon, Sodom, Egypt, and the grave ; 
but by the eternal power of God, I was come out of it, 
and was brought over it, and the power of it, into the 
power of Christ. And I saw the harvest white, and the 
seed of God lying thick in the ground, as ever did wheat, 
that was sown outwardly, and none to gather it : and for 
this I mourned with tears." Thus far are George Fox's 
own words, of whom after this a report went abroad, that 
he was a young man that had a discerning spirit : where- 
upon many professors, priests, and people, came to him, 
and his ministry increased, for he having received great 
openings, spoke to them of the things of God, and was 
heard with attention by many, who going away, spread 
the fame thereof. Then came the tempter, and set upon 
him again, charging him that he had sinned against the 
Holy Ghost; but he could not tell in what; and then 
St. Paul's condition came before him, how after he had 
been taken up into the third heavens, and seen things 
not lawful to be uttered, a messenger of Satan was sent 
to buffet him, that he might not exalt himself. Thus 
George Fox got also over that temptation. 



FOX. 171 

His success in converting drunkards and dtliauchees 
v.-as so wonderful that bis followers attributed it to mira- 
culous interference ; and he himself professed to have 
received comfort by a voice from heaven, which came to 
him as he was walking in the fields in 1648, declaring 
" Thy name is written in the Lambs book of life, which 
was before the foundation of the world." About the 
same time, we are informed that " the Lord forbad him 
to put off his hat to any man, high or low, and he was 
required to thou and thee every man without distinction, 
and not to bid people good morrow or good evening : 
neither might he bow or scrape his leg to any one." 
This non-compliance with the customs of the world sub- 
jected him to much petty persecution. 

The first miracle that he is said to have performed 
was at Mansfield- Woodhouse : of this and of some other 
miracles he gives the following account : — " Coming to 
Mansfield- Woodhouse, there was a distracted woman 
under a doctor's hand, with her hair loose all about her 
ears. He was about to let her blood, she being first 
bound, and many people being about her, holding her by 
violence ; but he could get no blood from her. 1 desired 
them to unbind her, and let her alone, for they could not 
touch the spirit in her, by which she was tormented. So 
they did unbind her ; and I was moved to speak to her, 
. and in the name of the Lord to bid her be quiet and 
still ; and she was so. The Lord's power settled her 
mind, and she mended ; and afterwards she received the 
truth, and continued in it to her death. The Lord's 
name was honoured ; to whom the glory of all His works 
belongs. Many great and wonderful things were wrought 
by the heavenly power in those days ; for the Lord made 
bare his omnipotent arm, and manifested His power to 
the astonishment of many, by the healing virtue whereof 
many have been delivered from great infirmities, and the 
devils were made subject through His name ; of which 
particular instances might be given, beyond what this 



17-2 FOX. 

unbelieving age is able to receive or bear. But blessed 
for ever be the name of the Lord, and everlastingly 
honoured, and over all exalted and magnified be the arm 
of His glorious power, by which He hath wrought glo- 
riously ; let the honour and praise of all His works be 
ascribed to Him alone." 

In the same year he came to Twy- Cross, where he spoke 
to the excise-men. " I was moved of the Lord to go to 
them, and warn them to take heed of oppressing the 
poor ; and people were much affected with it. There was 
in that town a great man, that had long lain sick, and was 
given over by the physicians ; and some friends in the 
town desired me to go to see him. I went up to him in his 
chamber, and spoke the word of life to him, and was 
moved to pray by him ; and the Lord w^as entreated, 
and restored him to health. But when I was come down 
the stairs, into a lower room, and was speaking to the 
servants, and to some people that were there, a serving- 
man of his came raving out of another room, with a 
naked rapier in his hand, and set it just to my side. I 
looked steadfastly on him, and said, ' Alack for thee, 
poor creature ! what wilt thou do with thy carnal weapon ! 
it is no more to me than a straw.' The standers-by were 
much troubled, and he went away in a rage, and full of 
wrath. But when the news of it came to his master, he 
turned him out of his service. Thus the Lord's power 
preserved me, and raised up the weak man, who after- 
wards was very loving to Friends ; and when I came to 
that town again, both he and his wife came to see me." 

Until the year 1650 the followers of George Fox were 
called Professors of the Light and Children of the Light, 
but in 1650 they received the name they still bear. Fox 
was at that time imprisoned by the Dissenters then in 
power, and Gervas Bennet, an Independent, one of the 
justices who committed him, hearing that Fox bade him 
and those about him tremble at the word of the Lord, 
with some degree of profaneness, took occasion from the 



FOX. 17H 

saying to style him and his ciisoiples Quakers, The name 
took with the people, and Nvas universally adopted. 
When in prison at this time, Fox was cruelly treated by 
the Puritans, and especially by a Puritan jailer. P>ut 
the jailer had a vision, and saw the day of judgment, 
and George Fox in glory, and in consequence he became 
one of Foxs converts. The following miracle is related 
by himself: *' While I was yet in the house of correction, 
there came unto me a trooper, and said, as he was sitting 
in the steeple-house, hearing the priest, exceeding great 
trouble came upon him ; and the voice of the Lord 
came to him saying, ' Dost thou not know that my 
servant is in prison ? Go to him for direction.' So I 
spoke to his condition, and his understanding was opened. 
I told him, that which showed him his sins, and troubled 
him for them, would show him his salvation ; for He that 
shows a man his sin, is the same that takes it away. 
While I w^as speaking to him, the Lord's power opened 
him, so that he began to have a good understanding in 
the Lord's truth, and to be sensible of God's mercies ; 
and began to speak boldly in his quarters amongst the 
soldiers, and to others, concerning truth, (for the Scrip- 
tures were very much opened to him,) insomuch that he 
said, ' his colonel was as blind as Nebuchadnezzar, to 
cast the servant of the Lord into prison.' Upon this his 
colonel had a spite against him ; and at Worcester fight, 
the year aftei', when the two armies v.ere lying near one 
another, two came out from the king's army, and chal- 
lenged any two of the parliament army to fight with 
them ; his colonel made choice of him and another to 
answer the challenge. And when in the encounter his 
companion was slain, he drove both his enemies within 
musket- shot of the town, v>'ithout firing a pistol at them. 
This, wdien he leturned, he told me with his own 
mouth. But when the fight was over, he saw the 
deceit and hypocrisy of the puritan officers ; and being 
sensible how wonderfully the Lord had preserved him, 



174 FOX. 

and seeing also to the end of fighting, he laid down his 
arms." 

After enduring much persecution from the dissenters 
and the rebels now in power, and after a constant success, 
notwithstanding opposition, we find him in 1652 in Lin- 
colnshire; and coming to Gainsborough, where one of his 
friends had been preaching in the market, he found the 
town and people all in an uproar; the more, because a 
certain man had raised a false accusation, reporting that 
George Fox had said he was Christ. Here, going into 
the house of a friendly man, the people rushed in after 
him, so that the house was soon filled ; and amongst the 
rest was also this false accuser, who said openly before 
all the people, that George Fox said he was Christ ; and 
that he had got witnesses to prove the same. George 
Fox kindled with zeal, stept upon the table, and said to 
the people, that Christ was in them, except they were 
reprobates ; and that it was Christ, the eternal power of 
God, that spoke in him at that time unto them ; not that 
he was Christ. This gave general satisfaction, except to 
the false accuser himself, to whom Fox said, that he was 
a Judas, and that Judas' end should be his ; and that 
that was the word of the Lord through him [Fox] to him. 
The minds of the people coming thus to be quieted, they 
departed peaceably. 

In 1652 Oliver Cromwell dissolved the parliament. 
" But what is most remarkable,'' says Sewell, the his- 
torian of the Quakers, " George Fox, not long before, 
being come to Swarthmore, and hearing judge Fell and 
justice Benson discourse together concerning the parlia- 
m.ent, he told them, that before that day two weeks the 
parliament should be broken up, and the speaker plucked 
out of his chair. And thus it really happened : for 
at the breaking up of the parliament, the speaker being 
unwilling to come out of his chair, said, that he would 
not come down unless he were forced ; which made 
general Harrison say to him, Sir, I will lend you my 



FOX. 175 

hand ; and thereupon taking him by the hand, the 
speaker came down. This agreed with what Fox had 
predicted. And a fortnight after, justice Benson told 
judge Fell, that now he saw George was a true prophet ; 
since Oliver had by that time dissolved the parliament." 
In the same year, being at Ulverstone, he underwent 
great persecution. He was apprehended by the consta- 
bles, when the following miracle occurred. " When they 
had haled me to the common-moss side, a multitude of 
people following, the constables and other officers gave 
me some blows over my back with their willow-rods, and 
so thrust me among the nide multitude, who, having 
furnished themselves, some with staves, some with hedge- 
stakes, and others with holm or holly-bushes, fell upon 
me, and beat me on my head, arms, and shoulders, till 
they had deprived me of sense ; so that I fell down upon 
the wet common. When I recovered again, and saw 
myself lying in a watery common, and the people stand- 
ing about me, I lay still a little while ; and the power of 
the Lord sprang through me, and the eternal refreshings 
refreshed me, so that I stood up again in the strengthen- 
ing power of the eternal God; and stretching out my 
arms amongst them, I said with a loud voice, ' Strike 
again; here are my arms, my head, and my cheeks.' 
There was in the company a mason, a professor, but a 
rude fellow ; he with his walking iiile-staff gave me a 
blow with all his might, just over the back of my hand, 
as it was stretched out ; with which blow my hand was 
so bruised, and my arm so benumbed, that I could not 
draw it unto me again ; so that some of the people cried 
out, ' he hath spoiled his hand for ever having the use of 
it any more.' But I looked at it in the love of God (for 
I was in the love of God to them all that had persecuted 
me) and after a while the Lord's power sprang through 
me again, and through my hand and arm, so that in a 
moment T recovered strength in my hand and arm, in 
the sight of them all. Then they began to fall out 



176 FOX. 

among themselves, and some of them came to me, and 
said, if I would give them money, they would secure me 
from the rest." 

We may here record another miracle which occurred at 
Swarthmore : " About this time I was in a fast for about 
ten days, my spirit being greatly exercised on truth's 
behalf; for James Milner and Richard Myer went out 
into imaginations, and a company followed them. This 
James Milner and some of his company had true open- 
ings at the first ; but getting up into pride and exalta- 
tion of spirit, they ran out from truth. I was sent for to 
them, and was moved of the Lord to go, and show them 
their out-goings : and they were brought to see their 
folly, and condemned it, and came into the way of truth 
again. After some time I went to a meeting at Arn- 
Side, where Pdchard Myer was, who had been long lame 
of one of his arms. I was moved of the Lord to say 
unto him, amongst all the people, ' Stand up upon thy 
legs,' (for he was sitting down :) and he stood up, and 
stretched out his arm that had been lame a long time, 
and said, ' Be it known unto you, all people, that this 
day 1 am healed.' Yet his parents could hardly believe 
it ; but after the meeting was done, they had him aside, 
took off his doublet, and then saw it was true." 

In 1654 he was sent by Captain Drury a prisoner to 
Oliver Cromwell, and made so favourable an impression 
upon the protector's mind, to whom he spake boldly, 
that he was treated with kindness, and dismissed. 
When he quitted the usurper's presence, Captain Drurj 
following, told him, that the protector said, he was at 
liberty, and might go whither he would: yet he was 
brought into a great hall, where the protector's gentlemen 
were to dine ; and he asked. What did they bring him 
thither for? They told him, it was by the protector's 
order, that he might dine with them. But George bid 
them tell the protector, he would not eat a bit of his 
bread, nor drink a sup of his drink. When Cromwell 



FOX. 177 

heard this, he said, now I see, there's a people risen, and 
come up, that I cannot win either with gifts, honours, 
offices, or places ; but of all other sects and people, I can. 
But it was told him again, that the Quakers had forsaken 
their own, and w^ere not likely to look for such things 
from him. 

The character thus given of the Puritans and Dissen- 
ters of his day, by Oliver Cromwell, who was so intimately 
acquainted with them, is not so favourable as we should 
have expected ; and here we may add, that from no class 
of persons did George Fox suffer so much injustice, and 
such cruel treatment, as from the Presbyterians and 
Independents. The persecuting spirit they exhibited 
against the Quakers was almost as violent as that which 
they displayed towards the Church, and if we could enter 
into the details of Fox's life, we should be employed in 
recording a system of intolerance and persecution never 
surpassed in the worst times by the Church of Rome. 
One dreadful instance of persecution, too disgusting to 
be transcribed, is related by Sewell, in his history of the 
people called Quakers, page 128. But in spite of all perse- 
cution. Fox's success in the conversion of thieves, drunk- 
ards and impure persons, was wonderful. His miracles too 
did not cease. When in 1655, he was at Baldock in Hert- 
fordshire, "I asked," he says "if there was nothing in that 
town, no profession ; and it was answered me, there were 
some Baptists and a Baptist woman sick. John Rush of 
Bedfordshire, went along with me to visit her. When 
we came in, there were many tender people about her. 
They told me she was not a woman for this world, but if 
I had any thing to comfort her concerning the world to 
come, I might speak to her. I was moved of the Lord 
God to speak to her ; and the Lord raised her up again 
to the astonishment of the town and country. Her hus- 
band's name was Baldock. This Baptist woman and her 
husband came to be convinced, and many hundreds of 
people have met at their house since. Great meetings 

VOL V. K 



178 FOX. 

and convincements were in those parts afterwards ; many 
received the word of life, and sat down under the teaching 
of Christ, their Saviour." 

He relates another miracle which took place at Chiches- 
ter. "At Chichester," he says, " many professors came 
in, and some jangling they made, but the Lord s power 
was over them. The woman of the house where the 
meeting was, though convinced of truth, yet not keeping 
her mind close to that which convinced her, fell in love 
with a man of the world, who was there that time. When 
I knew it, I took her aside, and was moved to speak to 
her, and to pray for her ; but a light thing got up in her 
mind, and she slighted it. Afterwards she married that 
man, and soon after went distracted ; for the man was 
greatly in debt, and she greatly disappointed. Then was 
I sent for to her, and the Lord was entreated, raised her 
up again, and settled her mind by his power. Afterwards 
her husband died ; and she acknowledged the just judg- 
ments of God were come upon her, for slighting the 
exhortation and counsel I had given her." 

In 1656 he came to London, and when he was near 
Hyde Park, "he saw Oliver Cromwell coming in his 
coach, whereupon he rode up to the coach-side, and some 
of his life-guard would have put him away, but the pro- 
tector forbad them. Then riding by his coach-side, he 
spoke to him about the sufferings of his friends in the 
nation, and shewed him how contrary this persecution 
was to Christ and His apostles, and to Christianity. And 
when they were come to the gate of St. James's Park, 
George Fox left Cromwell, who at parting desired him to 
come to his house. The next day Mary Sanders, after- 
wards Stout, one of Cromwell's wife's maids, came to 
George Fox's lodging, and told him, That her master 
coming home, said, he would tell her some good news : 
and when she asked him what it was, he told her, George 
Fox was come to town. To which she replied, that was 
good news indeed. Not long after, George Fox and 



FOX. 179 

Edward Pyot went to Whitehall, and there spoke to 
Cromwell concerning the sufferings of their friends, and 
directed him to the light of Christ, who had enlightened 
every man that cometh into the world. To which Crom- 
well said, this was a natural light : but they shewed him 
the contrary, saying, that it was divine and spiritual, 
proceeding from Christ, the spiritual and heavenly man. 
Moreover, George Fox bad the protector lay down his 
crown at the feet of Jesus. And as he was standing by 
the table, Cromwell came and sat upon the table's-side 
by him, and said, he would be as high as George Fox 
was. But though he continued to speak in a light man- 
ner, yet afterward he was so serious, that when he came 
to his wife and other company, he said, that he never 
parted so from the Quakers before." 

He afterwards visited Scotland, where his success and 
his persecutions were as usual, great ; as they continued 
to be on his return to England. Although Fox had not 
received a good education, yet the acuteness of his mind 
was prodigious, and was displayed in a remarkable man- 
ner in a discussion which he had with a Jesuit, in 1658, 
and in a letter he addressed, " To the heads and govern- 
ors of this nation, who have put forth a declaration for 
a solemn fasting and humiliation, for the persecution, 
(as you say,) of divers people beyond the seas, professing 
the reformed religion, which, ye say, has been transmitted 
unto them from their ancestors." He exposes the hypo- 
crisy of the Puritans in censuring the Papists for perse- 
cuting, when they were worse persecutors themselves. 

It was not George Fox alone who was grieved with the 
said hypocrisy, but others of his friends also declared 
against it. "A certain woman came once into the parlia- 
ment with a pitcher in her hand, which she breaking 
before them, told them. So should they be broken to 
pieces ; which came to pass not long after. And because, 
when the great sufferings of George Fox's friends were 
laid before Oliver Cromwell, he would not believe it, this 



180 FOX. 

• 
gave occasion to Thomas Aldam and Anthony Pearson, 

to go through all, or most of the jails in England, and 
get copies of their friend's commitment under the jailer's 
hands, to lay the weight of the said sufferings upon Oliver 
Cromwell, which was done; but he, unwilling to give 
order for their release, Thomas Aldam took his cap from 
off his head, and tearing it to pieces, said to him. So shall 
thy government be rent from thee and thy house." 

At the Restoration George Fox writes thus : " Now 
did I see the end of the travail which I had had in my 
sore exercise at Reading ; for the everlasting power of 
the Lord was over all, and His blessed truth, life, and 
light shined over the nation, and great and glorious 
meetings we had, and very quiet ; and many flocked in 
unto the tmth. Richard Hubberthorn had been with 
the king, who said, ' None should molest us, so long as 
we lived peaceably,' and promised this to us upon the 
word of a king, telling him we might make use of his 
promise. Some Friends also were admitted into the 
house of lords, and had liberty to declare their reasons, 
why they could not pay tithes, swear, nor go to the 
steeple-house worship, or join with others in worship, 
and they lieai'd them moderately. And there being 
about seven hundred Friends in prison in the nation, 
who had been committed under Oliver's and Richard's 
government, upon contempts (as they call them,) when 
the king came in, he set them all at liberty. There 
seemed at that time an inclination and intention in the 
government to grant Friends liberty, because they were 
sensible that we had suffered as well as they under the 
former powers. But still, when any thing was going 
forward in order thereunto, some dirty spirits or other, 
that would seem to be for us, threw something in the way 
to stop it. It was said, there was an instrument drawn 
up for confirming our liberty, and that it only wanted 
signing ; when on a sudden that wicked attempt of the 
Fifth-monarchy-people broke out, and put the city and 
nation in an uproar." 



FOX. 181 

His abhorrence, on principle, of bloodshedding, made 
him view with regret the punishment of the regicides, 
but adverting to the Puritans, he remarks that " there 
was a secret hand in bringing this day upon that hypo- 
critical generation of professors, who, being got into 
power, grew proud, haughty, and cruel beyond others, 
and persecuted the people of God without pity. There- 
fore when friends were under ciiiel persecutions and 
sufferings in the Commonwealth's time, I was moved of 
the Lord to write unto Friends to draw up their suffer- 
ings, and lay them before the justices at their sessions ; 
and if they would not do them justice, then to lay them 
before the judges at the assize ; and if they would not 
do them justice, then to lay them before the parliament, 
and before the protector and his council, that they might 
all see what was done under their government ; and if 
they would not do justice, then to lay it before the Lord, 
who would hear the cries of the oppressed, and of the 
widows and fatherless whom they had made so. For 
that which we suffered for, and which our goods were 
spoiled for, was for our obedience to the Lord in His 
power and in His spirit, Who was able to help and to 
succour, and we had no helper in the earth but Him. 
And he heard the cries of his people, and brought an 
overflowing scourge over the heads of all our persecutors, 
which brought a quaking, and a dread, and a fear 
amongst and on them all : so that those who had nick- 
named us (who are the children of light) and in scorn 
called us Quakers, the Lord made to quake ; and many 
of them would have been glad to have hid themselves 
amongst us ; and some of them, through the distress 
that came upon them, did at length come to confess to 
the truth. Oh! the daily reproaches, revilings, and 
beatings we underwent amongst them, even in the high- 
ways, because we could not put off our hats to them, and 
for saying thou and thee to them ! Oh ! the havock and 
spoil the priests made of our goods, because we could not 
k2 



l^U FOX. 

put into their mouths and give them tithes ; besides 
casting into prisons, and besides the great fines laid upon 
us, because we could not swear ! But for all these 
things did the Lord God plead with them. Yet some of 
them were so hardened in their wickedness, that when 
they were turned out of their places and offices, they 
said, ' if they had power, they would do the same again.''' 
In 1669 George Fox was inspired to seek to the holy 
estate of matrimony, chiefly that it might be seen that 
marriage is honourable to all men. He relates the cir- 
cumstance thus : " We came to Bristol, where I met 
with Margaret Fell, who was come to visit her daughter 
Yeomans. I had seen from the Lord a considerable time 
before, that I should take Margaret Fell to be my wife. 
And when I first mentioned it to her, she felt the answer 
of Life from God thereunto. But though the Lord had 
opened this thing to me, yet I had not received a com- 
mand from the Lord for the accomplishing of it then. 
Wherefore I let the thing rest, and went on in the work 
and service of the Lord as before, according as the Lord 
led me; travelling up and down in this nation, and 
through the nation of Ireland. But now being at Bristol, 
and finding Margaret Fell there, it opened in me from 
the Lord, that the thing should be accomplished. After 
we had discoursed the matter together, I told her, * if she 
also was satisfied with the accomplishing of it now, she 
should first send for her children ;' which she did. When 
the rest of her daughters were come, I asked both them 
and her sons-in-law, ' if they had any thing against it, or 
for it ;' and they all severally expressed their satisfaction 
therein. Then I asked Margaret, ' if she had fulfilled and 
performed her husband's will to her children.' She replied, 
' the children knew that.' Whereupon I asked them, 
' whether, if their mother married, they should not lose 
by it ?' And I asked Margaret, ' whether she had done 
any thing in lieu of it, which might answer it to the 
children ?' The children said, ' she had answered it to 



FOX. 183 

them, and desired me to speak no more of it.' I told 
them, ' I was plain, and would have all things done 
plainly ; for I sought not any outward advantage to my- 
self.' So after I had thus acquainted the children with 
it, our intention of marriage was laid before Friends, 
both privately and publicly, to the full satisfaction of 
Friends, many of whom gave testimony thereunto that 
it was of God, Afterwards, a meeting being appointed 
on purpose for the accomplishing thereof, in the public 
meeting-house at Broad-Mead in Bristol, we took each 
other in marriage, the Lord joining us together in the 
honourable marriage, in the everlasting covenant and 
immortal Seed of life. In the sense v,'hereof, living and 
weighty testimonials w^ere borne thereunto by Friends, in 
the movings of the heavenly power which united us 
together. Then was a certificate, relating both the pro- 
ceedings and the marriage, openly read, and signed by 
the relations, and by most of the ancient Friends of 
that city, besides many others from divers parts of the 
nation. 

" We stayed about a week in Bristol, and then went 
together to Oldstone ; where taking leave of each other 
in the Lord, we parted, betaking ourselves to our several 
services, Margaret returning homewards to the North, 
and I passing on in the work of the Lord, as before. I 
travelled through Wiltshire, Berkshire, Oxfordshire, and 
Buckinghamshire, and so to London, visiting Friends ; 
in all which counties I had many large and precious 
meetings." 

Margaret Fell was the widow of judge Fell, who had 
been a protector of Fox. 

In 1671 he went to America, and being in Carolina, 
he met Captain Batts, who had been governor of Roan 
Oak. " He asked me," says Fox, " about a woman in 
Cumberland, who, he said, he was told, had been healed 
by our prayers, and laying on of hands, after she had 
been long sick, and given over by the physicians ; and 



184 FOX. 

he desired to know the certainty of it. I told him we 
did not glory in such things, but many such things had 
been done by the power of Christ." 

His success in America was great, and he wrought a 
miracle upon a woman that lived at Anamessy, " who 
had been many years in trouble of mind, and sometimes 
would sit moping near two months together, and hardly 
speak or mind any thing. When T heard of her, I was 
moved of the Lord to go to her, and tell her, ' that salva- 
tion was come to her house.' After I had spoken the 
word of life to her, and entreated the Lord for her, she 
mended, went up and down with us to meetings, and is 
since well ; blessed be the Lord ! " 

In 1673 he returned to England, and in 1674 was 
much gratified at Newport Pagnel, where, amongst 
others, " came a woman, and brought her daughter, for 
me to see how well she was ; putting me in mind, ' that 
when I was there before, she had brought her to me, 
much troubled with the disease called the king's evil, 
and had then desired me to pray for her ;' which 1 did, 
and she grew well upon it, praised be the Lord !" 

In 1677 he went with Penn, Barclay, and Keith, to 
Holland. It is well known that the Quakers w^ere 
favoured by the Princess Elizabeth, daughter of the 
queen of Bohemia, and aunt of George I. 

There is not much of interest to record of the con- 
cluding years of Fox's life. Notwithstanding the favours 
shown to him and his followers by the king's government 
at first, yet they were often imprisoned for refusing to 
pay tithes, or for declining to take the oath of allegiance. 
In 1 684 he again visited the continent, where he did not 
remain long ; and his health becoming impaired by in- 
cessant toil, imprisonment, and suffering, he lived more 
retired till the year 1691, when, on returning home from 
preaching in Grace-church street, he was taken ill. His 
distemper increasing, and perhaps perceiving that his 
end was at hand, he recommended the spreading of books 



FOX. 185 

(containing the doctrine of truth) to some of his friends, 
that came to him after having being sent for. And to 
some others who came to visit him in his illness, he said, 
All is well, the seed of God reigns over all, and over 
death itself. And though (continued he) I am vs'eak in 
body, yet the power of God is over all, and the seed reigns 
over all disorderly spirits. He used often, even in his 
preaching, Avhen he spoke of Christ, to call Him the 
seed ; wherefore those that w^ere with him, very well 
knew what he meant when he spoke of the seed. Thus 
he lay in a heavenly frame of mind, and his spirit being 
wholly exercised towards the Lord, he grew weaker and 
v.-eaker in body, until on the third day of the week, and 
of his sickness also, he piously departed this life. About 
four or five hours before, being asked how he did, he 
answered, Don't heed, the power of the Lord is above 
all sickness and death ; the seed reigns, blessed be the 
Lord. And thus triumphing over death, he departed 
from hence in peace, and slept sweetly on the loth of 
the month anciently called January, (for being as a 
door of entrance into the new year) about ten o'clock at 
night, in the 67th year of his age. His body was buried 
near Bunhill-fields, on the 16th of the said month, the 
corps being accompanied by great numbers of his friends, 
and of other people also : for though he had had many 
enemies, yet he had made himself also beloved of many. 
Such is the history of the founder of one of the most 
eminent of the protestant orders or denominations. His 
history is given at some length, because there are some 
persons in the present day who profess to believe, or not 
to discredit the miracles of Romish saints, and who 
accuse Protestants of being unable to work similar 
miracles. The miracles of George Fox are as worthy of 
credit as those of Francis of Assisi, with whose life the 
one now given may be compared. — Fox's Journal. SeicelVs 
History of the People called Quakers. 



186 FOX. 



FOX, JOHN. 



Of the personal history of the writer whose name is 
so well known by his " Book of Martyrs," only a very 
imperfect account can be given. The biographies of him 
which have hitherto been written are uniformly grounded 
on a Memoir, which was first published in 1641, more 
than half a century after his death, and put forth as the 
work of his son Samuel, who had also been dead many 
years. This memoir, however, is so clearly spurious, and 
in so many things erroneous, that no dependance can be 
placed on it. The following particulars, though scanty 
and imperfect, are, it is believed, for the most part cor- 
rect ; though some of them must be rather supposed and 
assumed, on grounds which it would be tedious and un- 
seasonable here to state, than considered as facts which 
are certainly and undeniably true. 

John Fox was born at Boston in Lincolnshire, of 
parents not above the middle class, in the year 1516. 
He is said to have lost his father in his childhood, and 
to have been put to school by his step-father, Richard 
Melton. After this, by the patronage of one whose 
daughter he subsequently married, and who seems to 
have borne the name of Randall, Fox was sent to Oxford, 
at about the age of seventeen. The common account, of 
his having been at first, or at any time, a member of 
Brazen-Nose College, appears to be a mistake, arising 
from his having long afterwards thankfully acknowledged 
in a dedication to Mr. Harding, the head of Brazen-Nose 
College, prefixed to one of his works, that it was owing to 
the kind suggestion of that gentleman that he had been 
originally sent to Oxford. It was natural to suppose that 
he had become a member of the college over which his 
patron presided ; but the truth seems to be, that he was 
entered at Magdalen College, in the year 1533. He took 



FOX. 187 

his degree of B.A. in 1538, and of M.A. in 1548, in 
which year he also obtained a fellowship. The same 
popular account relates that he was expelled from this 
fellowship ; but it is justly to be doubted ; for there are 
documents still existing in his own hand writing, which 
shew that though he and some other young men of the 
college, had got into very serious trouble for making a 
jest of the ceremonies then used in the performance of 
divine service in the chapel, yet he expected to stay, and 
had almost staid, at the college, as long as he could be 
allowed to do without taking orders. This he had re- 
solved not to do ; and he seems to have been anxiously 
canvassing among his friends for employment as a tutor 
or schoolmaster ; with what success does not appear. 

According to Wood, Fox resigned his fellowship about 
the 22nd July, 1545 ; and in the destitution thus occa- 
sioned, it is said that during a great part of the time he 
received help from his step-father, and from the father of 
his wife, and that part of the time he was employed as 
tutor in the Lucy family at Charlecote. As to his step- 
father, if he had any, the thing is not impossible ; and 
that he should be assisted by the father of her who after- 
wards became his wife, is highly probable, for reasons 
already stated, though he was not then married. The 
statement too, that he was employed as tutor in the Lucy 
family, (though not all the errors connected with that 
statement in the common biographies of Fox,) receives 
perhaps some colour from the fact that he was married 
to Agnes Rondull (or Randall) at Charlecote, on the 3rd 
of Febmary, 1547, meaning, it may be presumed, what 
in our present mode of dating would be called ] 548. 

This fact is attested by the parish register, and if we 
suppose that he gave up his tutorship on his marriage, 
or married when his services as a tutor were no longer 
required, and came to London, it may help to settle the 
date of the next well authenticated and important, though 
obscure, fact in Fox's history. It is beyond all doubt 



188 FOX. 

that at some time or other he was employed as tutor lo 
the fatherless children of the late Earl of Surrey. That 
unfortunate young nobleman, with his father the Duke 
of Norfolk, had been arrested and imprisoned on a charge 
of high treason, on the 12th of December, 1546. The 
father narrowly escaped, owing to the death of Henry 
VIII. on the 28th of January, the very morning fixed for 
his execution ; but the son's trial being hurried through, 
he had already fallen a victim to the fears and shameless 
zeal of his enemies. 

By what introduction, at what time, to what extent, 
and for what period, the two little sons of the Earl, one 
in his eleventh, the other in his eighth or ninth year, 
at the time of their father's execution, came to be placed 
under Fox's tutorage, does not clearly appear ; but the 
fact is attested by letters written long after, by Thomas 
Duke of Norfolk, (the elder of the two) which are still 
extant, and are not the only proofs which he gave of his 
attachment to his " right loving schoolmaster." 

The children of the unfortunate earl appear to have 
been left with their mother, and under the care of Lord 
Wentworth, until April, 1548 ; and about that time to 
have been transferred to the Duchess of Richmond. Be- 
tween Fox and the former guardians there does not seem 
to have been any connexion ; but we incidentally learn 
from Fox himself, that he was " dwelling in the house of 
the noble lady the Duchess of Richmond," just about 
the time when the children were committed to her care. 
Perhaps he came with them ; but if he was married at 
Charlecote only in the preceding February, it seems most 
natural to suppose that it was not until he was at the 
Duchess of Richmond's that he exercised this tutorship. 

It is worth while to mention the qircumstance, by means 
of which the date of Fox's dwelling at the Duchess of 
Richmond's is fixed ; because it is one which undoubtedly 
exercised a great influence over his future life. He then 
and there became acquainted with one of the fiercest and 



FOX. 189 

foulest spirits of the age, who boasted, after an inten^al of 
ten years, that during all that time John Fox had been 
his "Achates"; and who had, no doubt, all that while 
cherished in his weaker brother that bitterness of spirit, 
and that habit of filthy talking and profane jesting 
unrivalled in his own productions, and too conspicuous 
in the works of both. Fox tells us that while he was 
dwelling at the house of the duchess, John Bale was also 
there, " recognizing his Centuries." Now Bale's Cen- 
turies were " completed and printed" by the end of July, 
1548. It is worth while to add Fox's testimony that 
Bale was " recognizing" his work by a book borrowed of 
Master John Cheke, because it helps to shew that by this 
time, the future martyrologist was among those who were 
among the most active and forward in what they repre- 
sented as the work of reformation. This is further evi- 
denced by the fact that he appears to have been ordained 
deacon by Bishop Pddley, on the 24th of June, 1550. 

It seems clear, however, that by the time when Fox 
was ordained, he was no longer domesticated with the 
Duchess of Richmond, for he is described in the bishop's 
register as, " Mr. John Fox, M. A., living with the 
Duchess of Suffolk, born at Boston." 

From this time we lose sight of Fox until after the 
accession of Queen Mary, when he, like many more, found 
it expedient to quit the country. The common account, 
that Bishop Gardiner was watching for him, and that 
the Duke of Norfolk, the most powerful subject in the 
kingdom, and the man who had the most influence with 
Gardiner, could not protect him, is too absurd to require 
any particular confutation. The fact that his friend 
Cheke, by whose patronage he had probably been em- 
ployed as tutor, had been, to the veiy end of her brief 
reign, the clerk of the Lady Jane Grey's council — that 
Bishop Ridley, who had ordained him, was the person 
singled out to preach at Paul's Cross, on the first of the 
two Sundays which occurred in that period, and that the 

VOL V. s 



100 FOX. 

Duchess of Suffolk, under fear of being called to account 
by Bishop Gardiner, was obliged to fly the country with 
imminent peril of her life, would warrant a suspicion 
that Fox, who seems to have been one of her household, 
might have been mixed up in some such political matters, 
(for as yet persecution for religion had not begun,) as 
might involve him in risk, and include his name in 
some writs or warrants issued by the lord chancellor or 
the council. Still more probable it is that he might be 
in some way implicated in the sedition of Sir Thomas 
Wyatt, his admiration of whom Fox is at no pains to 
conceal. And if it were so, it is not improbable that 
the Duke of Norfolk might connive at, or assist his 
escape, in consideration of past services to his grand- 
children. In fact, it may be doubted whether the queen, 
or the chancellor, or the duke, or any body else, took any 
very strict and active measures to keep those who wished 
to go. 

Fox however, for some reason or other, certainly did 
go ; and, as far as appears, he went in the spring of the 
year 1554. The first landmark of his progress on which 
we can at all rely, is in the preface to his Chronicon 
Ecclesise, (a small octavo volume, the germ of his Bcok 
of Martyrs,) which is dated at Strasburgh, 31st August, 
1554, and contains language which seems to indi(-ate 
that he had then been there at least two months. This 
is perhaps the only evidence that exists of his having 
been at Strasburgh at all. How long he remained tliere 
does not appear ; but by the 3rd of December in the 
same year he had joined those English fugitives who had 
settled at Frankfort on the Mayne. With them he re- 
mained until the 31st August, 1555, when, adhering to 
the more violent party, in the schism which took place at 
that time, he seceded with it ; or to borrow the words 
used by the author of " The Troubles of Frankfort," in 
recording the fact, " the oppressed Church departed from 
Frankfort to Basil and Geneva, some staying at Basil, as 
Maistcr Fox with other." 



FOX. 191 

At Basil he seems to have been employed in correcting 
the press for a learned printer named Herbst, or as he 
chose to call himself, in compliance with the puerile 
fancy of the times, Oporinus ; and in making collections 
for a greatly enlarged reprint of the work which he had 
published at Strasburgh. This, however, was not finished 
when Queen Mary died and her sister succeeded to the 
throne. Of his family circumstances during this time 
little is recorded, and perhaps, if John Knox had not 
said in one of his letters to him, " Salute your wief 
and dowghter hartlie in my name," we should not have 
known that he ever had a daughter, or any child but the 
two sons who were as yet unborn. 

Fox therefore remained at Basil after most of the Eng- 
lish exiles had returned, in order to complete his book ; 
and in the meantime he published a tract entitled " Ger- 
manise ad Angliam Gratulatio," which is dated at Basil, 
20th January, 1559. To this tract he annexed a letter 
to the Duke of Norfolk, (his late pupil, who had been 
restored in blood, and had succeeded his grandfather in 
title and estate,) giving him a great deal of good advice, 
which was probably much wanted, and quite thrown 
away. 

The new work, however, which was a good sized folio, 
bears the date of August, 1559, and it seems probable that 
shortly after that time Fox arrived in England. He was 
kindly received and assisted by the Duke of Norfolk ; and 
on the 25th of January, 1560, he received priest's orders 
from Grindal, Bishop of London. After this he seems 
to have retired into Norfolk, where, at the end of that 
year, his eldest son Samuel was born. Perhaps his home 
was there, while he spent much of his time in London, 
superintending the printing of his great work, the " Actes 
and Monuments of the Church," or as it is more com- 
monly called, the " Book of Martyrs," in English, It 
was published in the year 1563, and has been frequently 
reprinted since. It is due to Fox to state that he seems 



192 FOX. 

to have been employed in making the book rather as a 
compiler, or editor, than as an historian ; and that of the 
facts which he published, whether belonging to private 
or public history, he obviously and avowedly had little 
personal knowledge. He seems to have placed implicit 
faith in those who supplied him with materials, and that 
he was sometimes ill informed and misled is certain. 
Nor is this to be wondered at, when it is considered that 
so many of the documents with which he was furnished 
were ex parte statements of persons who had suffered, 
either in their own persons, or in those of their relations 
or friends. 

This is not the place, however, to enter into a criticism 
of this, the only work by which Fox is now known ; or 
to reckon up the various productions of his pen, which 
have been long forgotten. With regard to his personal 
history, it is remarkable that so little can be added of the 
long period which elapsed after the publication and im- 
mediate fame of his great work, in 1563. For more 
than twenty years after that time he appears to have lived 
in London, and he was probably much engaged in the 
revision and the republications of his Martyrology, which 
was three times reprinted in his life-time. Though, as 
has been already stated, he received priest's orders from 
Bishop Grindal, it does not seem certain that he ever 
held any cure of souls. He appears to have obtained a 
prebend in the Church of Salisbury in the year 1563, 
and it is said that when called on by Archbishop Parker 
to subscribe, he produced a Greek Testament, saying, 
" To this will I subscribe," adding that he held nothing 
but this prebend at Salisbury, which if they thought 
proper to take it from him, he hoped would do them 
much good. Perhaps we may be allowed to believe that 
there is not sufficient evidence of this, for it must have 
been either very inconvenient jesting, or else an attempt 
at evasion, by offering to do what Papists and Socinians 
would have done as readilv as himself. He is said, how- 



FOX. 193 

ever, after this to have accepted a stall at Durham in the 
year 1572 ; and to have resigned after holding it twelve 
months. 

As to his public ministry, perhaps all that is known is 
to be gathered from two discourses which are printed. 
One by his friend John Day, in 1570, is intitled "A 
Sermon of Christ Crucified, preached at Paul's Crosse 
the Friday before Easter, commonly called Good Friday. 
Written and dedicated to all such as labour and be heavy 
laden in conscience, to be read for their spiritual com- 
fort." The other is a Sermon preached at AUhallows, 
Lombard Street, at the christening of a Jew named 
Nathanael, on the 1st of April, 1578. Whether Fox 
exercised any thing like a public ministry among his 
nonconforming friends during this period does not clearly 
appear, but numerous anecdotes, traditions, and docu- 
ments, attest that he lived amid a circle who considered 
him as little, if at all, less than an inspired, or super- 
naturally gifted teacher. He seems to have been fre- 
quently applied to for advice, consolation, and exorcism ; 
and after his death, which took place on the 1 8th of 
April, 1587, his son Samuel set up a monument in the 
church of St. Giles, Cripplegate, not only " martyrologo 
fidelissimo," but " thaumaturgo admirabili," whatever 
that may mean. 

On the whole, he seems to have been a man of kind 
disposition, very charitable to the poor, a comforter of 
the afflicted, a great lover of peace, when he could have 
it in his own w^ay, and perhaps in his elder years glad to 
have it in any way that it might be had with a safe con- 
science. He would perhaps have been unknown to fame, 
but that, simple, credulous, industrious, and prone to 
write, he was a fit instrument for a party to whose opini- 
ons he was warmly and sincerely attached. They made 
him their drudge, and were content to profit by labours 
which they had not the justice to reward, or the courage 
to partake. 



194 FOX. 



FOX, KICHARD. 



Richard Fox was of humble origin, and born at 
E-opesley, near Grantham, in Lincolnshire, about the 
latter end of the reign of king Henry VL He was 
educated at Magdalen College, in Oxford, where he greatly 
distinguished himself; but the plague obliging him to 
retire from thence, he removed to Pembroke Hall in 
Cambridge. And when he had staid a competent time 
there, he went for further improvement to Paris, where 
he studied divinity and the canon law. In this place he 
became acquainted with Morton, Bishop of Ely, who had 
fled thither during the usurpation of Richard III. And 
Fox was introduced, probably by Bishop Morton, to 
Henry, Earl of Richmond, who was then meditating a 
descent upon England, in order to dethrone the Usurper ; 
and, with the rest of the English who were at Paris, 
he bound himself by oath to take the Earl's part. 
Richmond accordingly received Dr. Fox into secret 
familiarity ; and having applied to the French king, 
Charles VIII. for assistance in his intended expedition, 
but being called away before he could obtain his desire, 
he left the farther prosecution of this matter to Dr. Fox, 
whom he thought the fittest man to manage so important 
an affair. Nor was he deceived in him ; for he acted 
with such industry and pn,idence, that he soon obtained 
men and money from the court of France. And after 
Henry had gained the battle of Bosworth, and in conse- 
quence ascended the throne of England, he appointed 
Dr. Fox to be one of his privy counsellors. About the 
same time Fox was collated to the prebend of Bishopston, 
in the Church of Sarum ; and in 1486, to the prebend 
of South Grantham, in the same Church. 

In 1487 Dr. Fox was raised to the Bishopric of Exeter, 
and appointed keeper of the privy seal. He was also 
made principal secretary of state, and master of St. 



FOX. 195 

Crosse, near Winchester. And the king continually em- 
ployed him, either in matters of state at home, or in 
embassies of importance abroad. In 1492 he was trans- 
lated from Exeter to the Bishopric of Bath and Wells ; 
and in 1494, he was removed to the see of Durham. He 
was afterwards chosen chancellor of the university of 
Cambridge, which office he held till 1502 ; and in 1500 
he was translated to the see of Winchester. 

Bishop Fox continued to have great weight and influ- 
ence in all public affairs, during the whole reign of Henry 
VIL, who appointed him in his will one of his executors 
and particularly recommended him to his son and suc- 
cessor, Henry VIII. Lord Bacon observes, that Bishop 
Fox was " a wise man, and one that could see through 
the present to the future." And he also says, that Car- 
dinal Morton and Bishop Fox were " vigilant men and 
secret, and such as kept watch wdth the king, (Henry 
VIL) almost upon all men else. They had been both 
versed in his affairs before he came to the crown, and 
were partakers of his adverse fortune." But upon the 
accession of Henry VIII., Bishop Fox's credit greatly 
declined at court, though he was instrumental in pro- 
moting the rise of Wolsey, in opposition to the Earl of 
Surrey. However, in 1510, he was sent ambassador to 
France, in conjunction with the Earl of Surrey and the 
Bishop of Durham, who concluded a treaty of alliance 
with Lewis XII. About the same time a sharp dispute 
arose between him and Archbishop Warham, concerning 
the extent of the jurisdiction of the prerogative court. 
The dispute at length grew so high, that an appeal was 
made to the pope : but it being referred back to the 
king, he determined it amicably in 1513. This summer 
he attended the king in his expedition into France, with 
a large retinue, and was at the taking of Terouenne. 
And shortly after, in conjunction with Thomas Grey, 
Marquis of Dorset, he concluded a new treaty with the 
emperor Maximilian against France. But in 1515, being 



196 FOX. 

no longer able to bear the repeated mortifications he 
received from Cardinal Wolsey, to whose rise he had 
greatly contributed, he withdrew in discontent to his own 
diocese. 

In 1522, Bishop Fox founded a free-school at Taun- 
ton, in Somersetshire, where he had a fine manor as 
Bishop of Winchester, and he built a convenient house 
for the master. He did also the same at Grantham, 
near the place of his nativity. He had the misfortune 
to lose his sight about ten years before his decease. 
However, he attended the parliament in 1523. But 
Cardinal Wolsey, taking advantage of his infirmities, 
would fain have persuaded him to resign his Bishopric 
to him, and to be content with a pension. The old 
bishop, however, stoutly rejected the advances and in- 
sinuations of the cardinal for this purpose. For he 
directed the messenger, who came from Wolsey with this 
proposal, to tell his master, " That though, by reason of 
his blindness he was not able to distinguish white from 
black, yet he could discern between true and false, right 
and wrong ; and plainly enough saw, without eyes, the 
malice of that ungrateful man, which he did not see 
before. That it behoved the cardinal to take care, not to 
be so blinded with ambition, as not to foresee his own 
end. He needed not trouble himself with the Bishopric 
of Winchester, but rather should mind the king's affairs." 

He devoted his declining years to works of charity 
and munificence. At Winchester he covered the choir 
of the cathedral, the presbytery, and the aisles adjoining, 
with a vaulted roof, and he new glazed all the windows 
in that part of the church. He likewise built a handsome 
wall round the presbytery, on the top of which he placed 
in leaden coffins the bones of several West Saxon princes 
and prelates, which had been buried in different parts of 
the church. These bones were disturbed by the dissenters 
in the civil wars, but were collected again as well as 
circumstances would permit, in 1661. His great work, 



FRANCIS OF ASSISI. 197 

however, was his noble foundation of C(jrpus Christi 
College, Oxford. His first design was, to erect in Oxford 
a college or seminary for eight monks, members of St. 
Swithen's priory in Winchester, and professed of the 
same, with a few secular scholars ; for which he obtained 
a licence in mortmain, dated March 12th, 1512-13. But 
he altered his design, chiefly, as it is said, through the 
persuasions of Hugh Oldham, Bishop of Exeter, who 
thus represented to him. "What, my lord, shall we 
build houses, and provide livelihoods for a company of 
buzzing monks, whose end and fall we ourselves may live 
to see ? No, no, it is more meet a great deal that we 
should have care to provide for the increase of learning, 
and for such as by their learning shall do good in the 
Church and commonwealth." To this Bishop Fox rea- 
dily yielded, accepting of Bishop Oldham's kind assist- 
ance, who contributed no less than 6000 marks towards 
the building of this college. Having therefore purchased 
three tenements, called Corner Hall, Nevills Inn, and 
Nunhall, with some parcels of land adjoining ; and hav- 
ing obtained a new licence in mortmain, dated November 
20th, 1516 ; he went on with his new foundation, the 
charter of which bore date the first of March following. 
His last days were spent in prayer and meditation, 
which at length became almost uninterrupted day or 
night. He died 14th September, 1528, and was buried 
in the beautiful chantry he had erected for that purpose 
in Winchester cathedral. — Gough. ]Vood. Godwin. 



FKANCIS OF ASSISI. 

This fanatic, who is worshipped by the Church of 
Rome as a saint, was born at Assisi, in Umbria, in the 
Ecclesiastical State, in the year 1182. Assisi reckoned 
amongst its most opulent merchants Peter Bernadone, 



198 FRANCIS OF ASSISI. 

his father ; and in early Hfe Francis made his father's 
heart proud, by his uniting with a gay disposition, which 
made him foremost in every feat of arms, a devoted 
attention to business. But he was doomed to be dis- 
appointed. In a combat with the citizens of Perugia, 
Francis _ was taken prisoner; and after a captivity of 
twelve months, was released, only to encounter a disease, 
which in the dawn of manhood brought him within view 
of the gates of death. The dread realities of a future 
state were forced upon his attention, and he determined 
to renounce the world, that he might devote himself to 
the one thing needful. His alms became lavish, his 
devotions enthusiastic. On one occasion he exchanged 
dresses with a tattered mendicant, and pressed to his 
bosom a wretch rendered loathsome by leprosy. There 
was, on his recovery, an apparent relapse. He for a 
short time resumed his duties as a soldier, and Francis 
was seen once more the graceful leader of the civic revels. 
But amid the revels he was suddenly conscience-stricken, 
and vowed to live a life of poverty. He declared that he 
took poverty for his wedded wife, and always spake of 
himself as the husband of poverty, regarding the whole 
Franciscan order as their offspring. 

But his folly was soon reproved. Worshipping in a 
country church consecrated to the memory of St. Da- 
mian, he seemed to hear a voice saying, " Francis, go 
and prepare my house, which thou seest falling into 
ruins." What was the man pledged to poverty to do ? 
He quietly went home, stole a horse from his father's 
stable, then went to his father's warehouse, and stole 
from thence silks and embroideries, with which he laded 
the purloined horse, and sold both horse and goods at 
the neighbouring town of Foligno. Romish casuists 
admit that this action was only justifiable by the sim- 
plicity of his heart ; but the system must have been bad 
which had not instructed him in the ten commandments. 



FRANCIS OF ASSISI. 199 

He offered the money to the officiating priest at St. Da- 
mian, who cautiously refused to take it. Francis cast 
the money into the mire, but vowed that the building 
should be his home until the Divine behest had been 
fulfilled. His father found him out, and though Francis 
was twenty- five years old, gave him a sound whipping, 
and put him into prison in his own house. Francis was 
set at liberty by his mother during his father's absence 
from home. Francis returned to St. Damian's, and his 
father following him thither, insisted that he should 
either return home, or renounce before the bishop all his 
share in his inheritance, and all manner of expectations 
from his family. The son accepted the latter condition 
with joy, gave his father whatever he had in his pockets, 
told him he was ready to undergo more blows and chains 
for the love of Jesus Christ, Whose disciple he desired to 
be, and cheerfully went with his father before the Bishop 
of Assisi, to make a legal renunciation of his inheritance 
in form. Being come into his presence, Francis, im- 
patient of delays, while the instniment was drawing up, 
made the renunciation by the following extravagant ac- 
tion. He stripped himself of his clothes, and gave them 
to his father, saying cheerfully and meekly : " Hitherto, 
I have called you father on earth : but, now, I say with 
more confidence, Our Father Who art in heaven, in Whom 
I place all my hope and treasure." By the world, and it 
would seem, by his father himself, he was regarded as a 
madman, but the bishop viewed the enthusiasm of the 
youth with due allowance, and treated him with kind- 
ness, causing him to be clothed. 

He soon after renewed his vow of poverty, imagin- 
ing himself warned to do so by God. He begged for 
and laboured at the restoration of the Church of St. 
Damian, and when that was put in good repair, he acted 
in the same manner for the restoration of the neigh- 
bouring church of St. Peter; and afterwards for the 



200 FRANCIS OF ASSISI. 

Portiuncula. At this time, like George Fox, (^ee his life, ) 
he pretended to the gifts of prophecy and miracles. His 
Romish biographer says that " when he was begging 
alms to repair the church of St. Damian, he used to say, 
' Assist me to finish this building ; here will one day be 
a monastery of holy virgins, by whose good fame our 
Lord will be glorified over the whole Church.' This was 
verified in St. Clare, five years after, who inserted this 
prophecy in her last will and testament. Before this, a 
man in the Duchy of Spoletto, was afflicted with a 
horrible running cancer, which had gnawn both his 
mouth and cheeks in a hideous manner ; having, without 
receiving any benefit, had recourse to all remedies that 
could be suggested, and made several pilgrimages to 
Rome for the recovery of his health, he came to Francis, 
and would have thrown himself at his feet, but the saint 
prevented him, and kissed his ulcerous sore, which was 
instantly healed. ' I know^ not,' says Bonaventure, 
' which I ought most to admire, such a kiss, or such a 
cure.' " Francis devoted himself, with a benevolence 
which cannot be sufficiently admired, to lepers, the leprosy 
having been introduced by the crusaders into all the 
countries bordering on the Mediterranean. 

He soon attracted followers, and associating with him- 
self Bernard of Quintavalle, and Peter of Catania, on 
the 16th of August, 1209, laid the first foundation of the 
Franciscan order. To these was soon added another 
fanatic "named Egidius. These first joined Francis in 
his cell at the Portiuncula. The number of his adher- 
ents soon increased, and he drew up, in twenty chapters, 
a rule for his order. He carried his rule to Rome, there 
to obtain for it the sanction of the pope. The reigning 
pope was the celebrated politician, Innocent III. He 
regarded Francis at first as a fanatic and a madman, but 
on reflection he saw how well fitted for his pui-poses such 
a man might be, and how useful such an order, under 



FRANCIS OF ASSISI. 201 

the existing state of affairs, might become to the papal 
interests, and, pretending that he had a dream which 
decided him upon the subject, he in the year 1210, 
ordained Francis a deacon, and gave his approbation to 
the iiile which he had drawn up. The crafty pontilT, 
however, unwilling to commit himself to the experiment, 
only gave a verbal approbation, which, however, was 
sufficient for Francis, who was now^ received as a saint, 
and returned home in triumph. But here, among his 
triumphs, w^e must record his conversion of Clara, or St. 
Clare. Born to rank and fortune, St. Clare, according 
to the fanaticism prevalent in that age, had recourse from 
her early years to ascetic practices. She heard of Francis, 
and was captivated by the lustre of his piety, and he 
heard of her, conferred with her, and assisted by him 
she eloped from her friends. Although a saint, Francis 
was still deficient in the moral sense. They fled to the 
Portiuncula, a church ^fhich the Benedictines had now- 
given to the Franciscans. He was in his thirtieth, she 
in her nineteenth year She was welcomed by the monks 
and attended by her spiritual guide, and took sanctuary 
in the neighbouring church of St. Paul, until arrange- 
ments could be made for her reception in a convent. 
Francis, regardless of filial duty and parental authority, 
induced her two sisters, Agnes and Beatrice, notwith- 
standing the agony and anger of her father, to follow her 
in her flight, and to partake of her seclusion. The 
church of St. Damian became the convent of the order 
of poor sisters thus established. 

It was at first the design of Francis and his associates 
to study how they might die to the world, living in 
poverty and solitude, and having no communion with 
God. But now^ that he had reached a summit of renown 
and influence, he imagined that he had a further com- 
mission to preach penance by word and deed. He con- 



20-2 FRANCIS OF ASSIST. 

suited Silvester and Clara, who declared that it was 
revealed to them that the founder of their order should 
go, forth to preach. And the Franciscans became a 
preaching order, though the founder was as illiterate as 
the founder of Quakerism. 

He persevered most consistently in his devotion to 
poverty, though many of his followers soon shewed an 
inclination to appropriate to themselves some of the com- 
forts of life. He would not permit even his churches to 
be richly decorated : they were to be low and unadorned. 
He was continually devising new methods of afflicting 
and mortifying his body. If any part of his rough habit 
seemed too soft he sewed it with pack-thread. Unless 
he was sick he rarely eat anything that was dressed with 
fire, and when he did he usually put ashes or water upon 
it. He fasted rigorously eight lents in the year. In the 
beginning of his conversion, finding himself assailed 
with violent temptation of concupiscence, he often cast 
himself into ditches full of snow ; once, under a more 
grievous assault than ordinary, he presently began to 
discipline himself sharply, then, with great fervour of 
spirit, he went out of his cell, and rolled himself in the 
snow ; after this, having made seven great heaps of snow, 
he said to himself: "Imagine these were thy wife and 
children ready to die of cold, thou must then take great 
pains to maintain them ;" whereupon he set himself 
again to labour in the cold. By the rigour and fervour 
wdth which he, on that occasion, subdued his domestic 
enemy, he obtained so complete a victory, that he never 
felt any more assaults ; yet he continued always most 
wary in shunning every occasion of danger, and in treat- 
ing with women, kept so strict a watch over his eyes, that 
he scarce knew any woman by sight. It was a usual 
saying with him, that, " by occasions the strong become 
weak." To converse too frequently with women and not 
suffer by it, is as hard as to take fire into one's bosom 



FRANCIS OF ASSISI, 203 

and not be burnt : " what has a religious man to do," 
says he, " to treat with women, unless it be to hear their 
confessions, or give them necessary spiritual instructions? 
He that thinks himself secure, is undone ; the devil 
finding somewhat to take hold on, though it be but a 
hair, raises a dreadful war." 

It will be unnecessary to record the miracles he was 
said to have performed. They were of a character 
similar to those we have described in the preceding life 
of Fox ; but Francis added to the worship of Christ our 
God, the worship of the Virgin Mary. In Romish 
phrase, he had a singular devotion to her whom he chose 
for the patroness of his order, and in whose honour he 
fasted from the feast of St. Peter and St. Paul to that of 
the Romish festival of the assumption. After this fes- 
tival he fasted forty days and prayed much, out of devo- 
tion to the angels, especially the archangel Michael ; 
at All Saints he fasted other forty days. By the Romish 
writers we are informed that he was endowed with an 
extraordinary gift of tears ; his eyes seemed two foun- 
tains of tears, which were almost continually falling from 
them, insomuch that at length he almost lost his sight ; 
when physicians advised him to repress his tears, for 
otherwise he would be quite blind, Francis answered : 
" Brother physician, the spirit hath not received the 
benefit of light for the flesh, but the flesh for the spirit ; 
we ought not for love of that sight which is common to 
us and flies, to put an impediment to spiritual sight and 
celestial comfort." When the physician prescribed that, 
in order to drain off the humours by an issue, he should 
be burnt with a hot iron, Francis was very well pleased, 
because it was a painful operation and a wholesome 
remedy ; when the surgeon was about to apply the sear- 
ing iron, Francis spoke to the fire, saying : " Brother 
fire, I beseech thee, burn me gently, that I may be able 
to endure thee :" he was seared very deep from the ear 
to the eye-brow, but seemed to feel no pain at all. 



204 FRANCIS OF ASSIST. 

At length, finding Europe insufficient for his zeal for 
the conversion of sinners, he resolved to preach to the 
Mahometans. With this view he embarked, in the sixth 
year after his conversion, for Syria, but straightway there 
arose a tempest, which drove him upon the coast of Dal- 
matia, and finding no convenience to pass on farther, he 
was forced to return back again to Ancona. Afterward, 
in 1214, he set out for Morocco, to j^reach to the famous 
Mahometan king, Miramolin, and went on his way with 
so great fervour and desire of martyrdom, that though 
he was very weak and much spent, his companion was 
not able to hold pace with him. But in Spain he was 
detained by a grievous fit of sickness, and afterwards by 
important business of his order, and various accidents, 
so that he could not possibly go into Mauritania. But 
he wrought several pretended miracles in Spain, and 
founded there some convents, after which he returned 
through Languedoc into Italy. 

Ten years after the first institution of the order in 
1219, Francis held near the Portiuncula, the famous 
general chapter called the matts, because it was assembled 
in booths in the fields. Five thousand friars met on 
the occasion. The growing ambition of the order showed 
itself in their praying Francis to obtain from the pope 
a license to preach everywhere, without the leave of the 
bishops of each diocese. Francis rebuked them, and 
would not accede to the proposal, but employed the more 
ambitious spirits by sending them on foreign missions. 
He reserved for himself the mission to Syria and Egypt, 
in hopes of obtaining the crown of martyrdom ; but the 
affairs of his order obliged him to defer his departure 
for some time. 

Innocent III., as we have seen, had approved of his 
order by word of mouth. Honorius III., who had suc- 
ceeded him in 1219, had appointed Cardinal Ugolino 
to the post of protector of the minorite brethren, and 
approved of their missions. Francis set sail with lUumi- 



FRANCIS OF ASSISI. 205 

natus of Reate and other companions from Ancona, and 
having touched at Cyprus, landed at Aeon or Ptolemais 
in Palestine. The Christian army in the sixth crusade 
lay at that time before Damiata in Egypt, and the Soldan 
of Damascus or Syria led a numerous army to the assist- 
ance of Meledin, Soldan of Eg^-pt or Babylon ; for so he 
was more commonly called, because he resided at Babylon 
in Egypt, a city on the Nile, opposite the mins of Mem- 
phis ; Grand Cairo rose out of the ruins of this Babylon. 
Francis, with brother llluminatus, hastened to the Chris- 
tian army, and upon his arrival endeavoured to dissuade 
them from giving the enemy battle, foretelling their 
defeat. He was not heard, and the Christians were 
driven back into their trenches with the loss of 6000 
men. However, they continued the siege, and took the 
city on the 5th of November the same year. In the 
meantime Francis, burning with zeal for the conversion 
of the Saracens, desired to pass to their camp, fearing 
no dangers for Christ ; he was seized by the scouts of 
the infidels, to whom he cried out, " I am a Christian, 
conduct me to your master." Being brought before the 
Soldan and asked by him his errand, he said with won- 
derful intrepidity and fervour, " I am sent not by men, 
but by the most high God, to shew you and your people 
the way of salvation, by announcing to you the tiTith of 
the gospel." The Soldan treated him with the respect 
which the Asiatics are accustomed to shew to the in- 
sane, and invited him to stay with him. Francis 
replied, " if you and your people will listen to the word 
of God, I will with joy stay with you ; if yet you waver 
between Christ and Mahomet, cause a great fire to be 
kindled, and T will go into it with your Imans, (or priests) 
that you may see which is the true faith." The Soldan 
answered with a smile, that he did not believe any 
of his priests would be willing to go into the fire, or to 

t2 



206 FRANCIS OF ASSISI. 

suffer torments for their religion, and that he could not 
accept his condition for fear of a sedition. He offered 
him many presents, which Francis refused. After some 
days the Soldan, apprehending lest some should be con- 
verted by his discourse, and desert to the Christians, 
sent him, escorted by a strong guard, to their camp before 
Damiata, saying to him privately, " Pray for me, that 
God may make known to me the true religion, and con- 
duct me to it." 

Francis returned by Palestine into Italy, where he 
heard with joy that the five missionaries whom he had 
sent to preach to the Moors, had been crowned with 
martyrdom in Morocco. But he had the affliction to 
find that Elias, whom he had left vicar-general of his 
order, had introduced several novelties and mitigations, 
and wore himself a habit of finer stuff than the rest, 
with a longer capuche or hood, and longer sleeves. 
Francis called such innovators bastard children of his 
order, and deposed Elias from his office. Resigning the 
generalship that year, 1220, he caused the virtuous Peter 
of Cortona, to be chosen minister-general, and after his 
death, in 1221, Elias to be restored. But Peter, and 
after him Elias^ out of respect for Francis, were only 
styled vicars- general till his death. He by the sole 
weight of his authority continued always to direct the 
government of his order while he lived. In fact, this 
was only one way in which to conceal from himself his 
ambition and love of power. 

Francis having revised his rule and presented it to 
Honorius III., it was confirmed by a bull dated the 29th 
of November, 1223. 

In the year 1215, Count Orlando of Cortona bestowed 
on Francis a secluded and agreeable residence in Mount 
Alberno, a part of the Apennines, not very far from 
Capraldoli and Val Umbosa, and built a church there 
for the friars. The solitude of the valley of Fabriano 



FRANCIS OF ASSTSl. Ji07 

pleased Francis so much that he frequently hid himself 
there. Bonaventuia, and other legendary writers of his 
life, assert that he was frequently raised from the ground 
in prayer. 

The ecstatic teniiination of the career of Francis is thus 
described by Bonaventura : — " Francis, the servant and 
truly faithful minister of Christ Jesus, being in prayer 
on Monte Laverna, lifting himself to God by the seraphic 
fervour of his desires, and transforming himself by the 
movements of a tender and affectionate sympathy for 
Him Who, in the excess of his love, was willing to be 
crucified for us, saw, as it were, a seraph, having six 
shining wings of fire, descend from heaven. This ser- 
aph came with a very rapid flight towards Francis ; and 
then he beheld among the wings the figure of a man 
crucified, who had his hands and feet extended and 
attached to a cross. Two of the wings covered the head, 
two were extended for flight, and two veiled the body. 
Francis seeing this was greatly surprised, and a joy min- 
gled with sadness and^rief filled his soul. The presence 
of Christ, Who showed Himself under the figure of a 
seraph, in a manner so marvellous, so familiar, caused him 
an excess of pleasure, but at the grievous spectacle of His 
crucifixion, his soul was pierced with grief as by a sword. 
He profoundly wondered that the infirmity of suffering 
should have appeared under the figure of a seraph, 
knowing well that it agreed not with his condition of 
immortality ; and he could not comprehend this vision 
until God made him understand interiorly, that it had 
been presented to his eyes, to let him know that it was 
not by the martyrdom of the flesh, but by the quickening 
of the soul, that he could be entirely transformed into 
the perfect image and resemblance of Christ crucified. 
The vision disappearing, left in his soul a seraphic 
ardour, and marked his body with a figure conformed to 
that of the crucified, as if his bodv, like wax, had 



208 FRANCIS OF ASSIST. 

received the impression of a seal; for soon the marks 
of the nails began to appear in his hands and feet, 
such as he had seen in the image of the God-man 
crucified. His hands and feet were pierced with nails 
in the middle : the heads of the nails, round and black 
were on the.jjalms of the hands and fore part of the feet. 
The points of the nails, which were a little long, ayid ivhich 
appeared on the other side, ivere hent backwards on the wound 
which they made. He also had on his right side a red 
tvoiind, as if he had been pierced irith a lance, which often 
shed sacred blood on his tunic.'" 

Francis is said to have done all he could to conceal 
this singular favour of heaven from the eyes of men, and 
for this puqDose he ever after covered his hands with his 
habit, and wore shoes and stockings. That he, a fanatic, 
though a holy one, imagined that he had these marks is 
indubitable, but it can only have been from his assurance 
that his disciples could know the fact, for they could not 
see what he so carefully concealed. One of the first 
propagators of the story was Elias, an ambitious and not 
trust-worthy vicar-general of the order to whom allusion 
has already been made. The story was early repudiated 
by the venerable Bishop of Olmutz, who justly considered 
the miracle derogatory to the Christian religion, irrational, 
and unnecessary. He was silenced by a papal bull in 
1255, the infallible pope asserting that the miracle was 
a real one. In spite of papal threats, however, the 
Dominicans represented the whole affair as an impos- 
ture, the invention of the new order of Franciscans to 
raise their credit ; but it is now generally believed in the 
Romish Church ; and if Ultra-protestants (see the life of 
George Fox, J on the one hand, lay claim to miraculous 
powers, we can hardly refuse the same power to Roman- 
ists on the other, and we must concede to the la-tter that 
they surround their wonder-workers w^ith more of poetic 
circumstance than the former. 



FRANCIS OF AS8ISI. 200 

Francis did not long survive this extraordinary miracle; 
it was probably not an imposture, but the effect of a dis- 
ordered imagination on his part. He may have fancied 
that the circumstances just narrated occurred to him, 
and by such an imagination, his frame, already exhausted 
by vigils, fastings, and fatigues, would be seriously 
affected. By the narration of these wonderful events he 
probably astonished the credulous, while there were not 
wanting others, as for example, Pope Alexander the IV th, 
who, in the spirit of an impostor, would encourage the 
credulity of the weak and sustain a profitable falsehood. 
There are persons, not only credulous, but who actually 
encourage themselves in their credulity, thinking it 
sinful even to seek to ascertain the truth ; among Ultra- 
protestants we find persons believing the miracles of 
George Fox and others, because they were " holy beings ;" 
and even among members of the Church of England, 
persons whose religion is rather of the imagination 
than the heart, try very hard to believe the Romish 
legends. 

Worn out, at all events, Francis was at this time, and 
he retired to Assisi. At the convent of St. Damian he 
found a temporary repose under Clara and her poor 
sisters. For twelve months he was incapacitated for 
exertion, but in the autumn he began again to act as an 
itinerant preacher throughout Umbria; and it was during 
this time that a woman of Bagnarea brought an infant 
to him that it might be healed. Francis laid his hands 
on the child and it recovered : that child grew to be a 
man, and that man Bonaventura, who proved his grati- 
tude by becoming the biographer of Francis, carefully 
recording all the wonderful circumstances of his life, and 
working them up into a beautiful fiction. 

As death approached Francis was filled with horror : 
but the dread of death vanished by degrees, under his 
habitual affiance in the Divine love, and under his no 



210 FRANCIS OF ASSISI. 

less habitual affection for those in whom he recognized 
the image of the Divine nature. Among these was the 
Lady Jacoba di Settesoli. To her he dictated a letter, 
earnestly requesting her immediate attendance with a 
winding-sheet for his body, with tapers for his funeral, 
and with the cakes which she had been accustomed to 
provide for him during an illness at Rome. The letter 
was no sooner written than it was torn ; as he expressed 
his conviction that Jacoba would of her own accord 
come to him. She did so. The lady Jacoba came and 
comforted the friend from whom she had received com- 
fort so often herself. But their friendship had been so 
confidential, that it appears she was unknown to the 
attendants of Francis, who regarded his words relating 
to her coming as a prophecy, and looked upon the whole 
affair with the vague and apprehensive sense of some 
awful mystery. As an eloquent writer observes : " With 
no failure of the reverence due to so great a man, it may 
be reasonably conjectured that he had found in Jacoba 
that intense and perfect sympathy to which the difference 
of sex is essential, and which none but the pure in 
heart have ever entertained." 

Francis gave his blessing to his attendants, and be- 
queathed to Bernard the government of the Franciscan 
society. He then dictated his last will, in which the 
rules he had already promulgated were explained and 
enforced. He recommends his religious brethren always 
to honour the priests and pastors of the Church as their 
masters, faithfully to observe their rule, and to work with 
their hands, not out of desire of gain, but for the sake of 
example, and to avoid idleness. "If we receive nothing 
for our work," says he, "let us have recourse to the 
table of the Lord, the begging of alms from door to door." 
He ordered that they who knew not how to work should 
learn some trade. But as even saints may err. Pope 
Nicholas III. declared that this precept of manual labour 



FRANCIS DE BORGIA. yil 

does not regard those who are in holy orders and are em- 
ployed in preaching. 

Francis died in ] 226. He was canonized by Gregory 
IX. in the year 1230. His order soon rose to great 
splendour, and by the zeal of its members, and the ac- 
tivity with which they employed themselves in discover- 
ing and extirpating heretics, and their incessant labours 
to enforce implicit obedience to the Roman pontiffs, did 
great service at one time to the Romish cause, although 
they also damaged that cause by their corruptions at a 
later period. 

Francis was the author of Sermones breves, Colla- 
tiones Monasticse, Testamentum Fratrum Mionorum, 
Oantica Spiritualia, Admonitiones, Epistola) Benedic- 
tiones, which were collected and published at Paris in 
1641, by John de la Haye, in one volume, folio. — Bona- 
ventura. De Malan. L' Alcoran des Cordeliers. Edinburgh 
Review. 



BOKGIA, FRANCIS DE. 

Feancis de Borgia, Grandee of Spain, Duke of Gan- 
dia, and third general of the Jesuits, was born at Gandia, 
a town in the kingdom of Valencia, in 1510, of an illus- 
trious family. His Father was John de Borgia, Duke of 
Gandia. One of his family had become pope under the 
name of Calixtus III. ; and he was descended, on the 
mother's side, from Ferdinand V. His mother, Johanna 
of Arragon, took great care to give him a religious educa- 
tion ; and, when he was old enough, had him instructed 
in the first elements of the sciences. He was only ten 
years old when she died, and two years after, his father, 
being obliged to quit Gandia on account of the troubles 
which were then beginning in Spain, took him to Sarra- 
gossa, and placed hira under the care of his uncle, Don 



212 FRANCIS DE BORGIA. 

John of Avragon, who was archbishop of that place. This 
prelate undertook to continue the education of his nephew, 
which he conducted with the greatest cave, Francis made 
rapid progress in secular learning, was very successful in 
all the exercises suitable to his birth, and, what is more 
rare, never neglected those pious duties to which he had 
always been trained. When he was fifteen, his father 
placed him at court as page to the Infanta Catherine, 
sister to Charles V. 

But when this princess left Spain in 1526, on her 
marriage with the king of Portugal, the Duke of Gandia, 
who had higher views for his son, sent him back to his 
uncle, in order that he might complete his education. 
The young Don Francis had a strong inclination for the 
monastic life ; but as this was contrary to the views of 
his friends, he was sent to the court of Charles V. in 
1528. Although only eighteen, Don Francis shewed 
such great qualities, conducted himself with so much 
wisdom, prudence, and modesty, and knew so well how 
to unite his duties as a courtier with those which he 
owed to God, that the emperor and his wife Isabella 
esteemed him highly. 

The Empress Isabella, a woman of great merit, to 
testify her admiration of his conduct, caused him to 
marry Eleanor de Castro, a lady of high birth, whom 
she had brought with her from Portugal, and to whom 
she was much attached. The emperor also bestowed 
on him several marks of his favour ; he made him master 
of the horse to the empress, and created him Mar- 
quis of Lombay. But his heart was not coriiipted by 
this worldly greatness, he knew how to appreciate it. 
The death of Maria Henriquery, his grandmother, and 
of his friend Don Garcilasso de la Vega, (a celebrated 
Spanish poet, who was killed suddenly in the flower of 
his age, during an expedition into Provence,) and his 
own ill health, convinced him more than ever of the 



FRANCIS DE BORGIA. 2lS 

instability of human life ; the death of the Empress 
Isabella, and the part he had to take at her funeral, also 
affected him greatly. This princess died during the sit- 
ting of the states of Castille, in 1539. Don Francis, as 
the master of horse, and the marchioness his wife, were 
ordered to attend the body to Grenada, the place of 
burial. It was the custom, that at the moment of inhu- 
mation, the person who had accompanied the royal corpse, 
after having opened, and looked into the coffin, should 
swear that it contained the remains committed to his 
care. The dreadful state of corruption and putrefaction 
of the countenance, which, but a short time before, had 
shone with beauty and majesty, but which now was 
hardly to be recognized, made a deep impression on Don 
Francis, and shewed in the strongest colours the nothing- 
ness of our nature. He swore that it was the corpse of 
Isabella, but he swore at the same time to leave the 
service of an earthly master, and devote himself to One 
Who is eternal and can never change. It was then that 
he determined to enter a convent whenever his wife died. 
But before he accomplished this design he received ano- 
ther mark of the emperor's favour. He was nominated 
viceroy of Catalonia, and a knight of St. James. His 
new rank increased his opportunities of doing good, and 
he availed himself of them. He expelled the brigands 
who infested the country, saw justice more equally dis- 
pensed, founded new schools, and reformed the old ones, 
and by these means, as well as by his good example, 
contributed, as much as lay in his power, to the growth 
of religion and morality among his people. 

It was during the time of his residence at Barcelona, 
as viceroy, that he first became acquainted with father 
Araos, one of the first of the Jesuits, who came there to 
preach. He commenced a correspondence with Ignatius, 
whose letters confirmed him in the good opinion he had 
formed of that order. His father dying about this time, 

VOL V, U 



214 FRANCIS DE BORGIA. 

he became Duke of Gandia ; he begged the emperor s 
permission to retire from court, which was readily grant- 
ed, but on condition of his returning. 

The emperor wished to make Don Francis controller 
of the household to the Infanta Maria of Portugal, who 
was going to marry his son Philip, and the Duchess 
Eleanor was to have been one of her ladies. But the 
infanta dying, Don Francis was again at liberty, and he 
returned to Gandia in 1545. The esteem which he had 
for the Jesuits induced him to found in this place (the 
chief town in his duchy,) a college for them, which after- 
wards became a university, and was the first in which 
they taught. About this time his wife died, leaving eight 
children. He felt his loss very deeply, and it determined 
him to accomplish his vow of becoming a monk. As he 
had decided upon the order of Jesuits, he wrote to Igna- 
tius and obtained his consent. He was then only thirty- 
six. He immediately began to put his affairs in order, 
and provide for his children, occupying himself at the 
same time with studies suitable to the state into which 
he was about to enter. As these occupations seemed 
likely to detain him longer than he wished, Ignatius 
obtained from the pope two bulls, which authorized Don 
Francis to remain in the world four years after his pro- 
fession : accordingly he took the vows. But he did not 
wait the time fixed by the pope ; he went to Rome in 
1550. Julius III., who then filled the papal throne, 
received him with so much kindness, and showed so much 
esteem for him, that, fearful of being made a cardinal, 
Borgia hastened back to Spain, and retired to a hermi- 
tage, near the little town of Onata, in Biscay. Here he 
received priest's orders and devoted himself to preaching. 
But an order from Ignatius brought him into a larger 
sphere of action ; he was sent to preach in the principal 
towns of Spain and Portugal. This Don Francis did 
with such zeal that the fruits of his preaching appeared 



FRANCIS DE BORGIA. 215 

in all the places he visited. He also went to the different 
establishments of his order, in the provinces of Spain, 
in the quality of vicar-general. 

When Ignatius died, in 1556, father Francis excused 
himself from going to Rome for the election of the new 
general. He was afraid of being himself elected to that 
office ; and even if that were not done, it was highly 
probable that the pope would force him to accept a car- 
dinal's hat, or some other ecclesiastical dignity. 

Charles V. had lately retired to the monastery of St. 
Just, and he now sent for father Francis, asked his 
advice on many points, and gave him various commis- 
sions. The emperor was much, and justly, prejudiced 
against the Jesuits, and even tried to persuade Borgia to 
quit the society. But he was unsuccessful, and Francis 
destroyed these impressions. When Charles died he 
nominated him one of his executors, and Borgia pro- 
nounced the funeral oration over that great prince. 
Meanwhile father Lainey had been elected general of the 
Jesuits, but at the same time he was ordered by the pope 
to accompany Cardinal Ferrara in his legation to France. 
Salmeron, his vicar, was also obliged to attend the council 
of Trent, and Francis was called to take his place. 

On the death of Lainey, in 1565, Borgia was elected 
general, in spite of his dislike of so high an office. 

The Jesuits were much advanced under his rule ; he 
founded a noviciate at Rome, multiplied and directed the 
missions, paid much attention to the method of preach- 
ing and teaching, upheld the institutions, and strength- 
ened them by new rules, and put the finishing stroke to 
this system of administration ; while at the same time 
he contributed greatly to the advancement of science and 
letters. 

Such exertions greatly tried his health, which was 
very feeble; but, at the desire of the pope, Pius V., he 
accompanied Cardinal Alexandria on his legation in 



316 FRANCIS DE PAULA. 

France, Spain, and Portugal, to implore the assistance 
of Christian princes to stop the progress of the Turks. 
On his return, Borgia became dangerously ill at Ferrara, 
and was obliged to continue his journey in a litter. 

Borgia would have been elevated to the pontificate on 
the death of Pius V., had not the state of his health 
prevented it. Cardinal Buon Compagno was elected, 
and took the name of Gregory XIII. 

Father Francis arrived at Rome, but never recovered 
his health. He expired the night of the 30th Sept., ] 574, 
and was buried by the side of Ignatius and Lainey. His 
body was exhumed in 1617, and conveyed, by order of 
his grandson. Cardinal Duke of Lerma, prime minister 
of Philip III. of Spain, to the church of the Jesuits in 
Madrid, where it became an object of adoration to the 
superstitious and ignorant. 

Borgia was canonized by Clement IX., in 1671. He 
wrote several works in Spanish, which have been tran- 
slated into Latin by Alphonso Deza. — Lecuy. Biog. 
Univei sells . 



FEANCIS DE PAULA. 

Francts DE Paula, founder of the order of Minims, 
was so named after a town in Calabria, where he was 
born, the ;i7th of May, 1416. 

According to the author of the Chronicles of the Min- 
ims, his family was illustrious, but much reduced by 
misfortunes ; but the general opinion is, that his parents 
were of humble origin, and more illustrious by their piety 
than by their birth. 

His father's name was James Martotille, or Martorelle, 
and his mother's, Vienna of Fuscaldo. They had been 
married several years without having children ; at length, 



FRANCIS DE PAULA. 217 

a son was born, and as they falsely imagined that their 
prayers had been heard through the intercession of Fran- 
cis of Assisi, they not only named their child after that 
dead man, but determined he should enter the Franciscan 
order. 

The child did not oppose their wishes as he grew up ; 
on the contrary, he manifested from his earliest years a 
preference for a life of solitude and self-deniaL In order 
to acquit themselves of their vow, Francis' parents took 
him, when he was twelve years old, to the convent of 
Cordeliers of St. Mark. He remained there a year, 
wearing the dress of the Franciscans, and astonishing 
even the monks by his piety. From that time he re- 
nounced the use of linen and meat, and led as mortified 
a life as the most rigid ascetic. When his parents came 
to take him from this convent, he desired to be permitted 
to perform pilgrimages to different shrines, particularly 
to that of Francis of Assisi, and to the chapel of St. 
Marie des Anges. They conducted him to these places, 
and afterwards took him with them to Rome, to the 
tombs of the apostles. They returned by Spoletta, and 
visited Mont-Cassin. What he saw of the lives of the 
monks who lived there, still further inclined him to a 
solitary life. 

When Francis returned to Paula he renounced all that 
would have been his inheritance, and went to live in a 
lonely place which belonged to his family. But he found 
even this too public, for he was frequently disturbed by 
people, who came from the town, carious to see so youth- 
ful an hermit. He therefore chose an habitation near 
the sea side ; he made a sort of grotto in the rock, and 
there he gave himself up to his devotions. He slept on 
the bare rock, and lived on herbs, which he gathered 
himself, or some coarse food which was occasionally 
given him by the charitable. When he was only twenty 
years of age, several persons, touched by his extraordinary 



'MS FRANCIS DE PAULA. 

piety, came and put themselves under his direction. He 
did not think it right to oppose their designs, and they 
therefore constructed small cells near his grotto, and an 
oratory, where a neighbouring priest said mass. But as 
the number of penitents increased, Francis obtained 
permission from the Archbishop of Cosence, to build a 
monastery and church. 

The whole neighbourhood had been so much edified 
by their piety, that every one was eager to assist, and the 
ladies not only contributed money, but even worked with 
their own hands. The building was, consequently, soon 
completed, and in 1436 was capable of containing a large 
number of persons. This was the commencement of the 
new order established by Francis, under the title of 
" Hermits of St. Francis." The founder wished humility 
to be the basis of this new establishment, and adopted 
the word charity as a devise for it. He added to the 
three vows common to all monastic institutions a fourth, 
that of a perpetual lent throughout the year ; that is to 
say, those who took this vow abstained, (except in case of 
illness,) not only from meat, but also from eggs and milk. 
Francis imposed still severer rules on himself. He slept 
on the ground, did not taste food till after sunset, ate no 
fish, frequently had nothing but bread and water, and 
that only every other day. Notwithstanding the severity 
of the rules, many more convents were founded on this 
plan. There w^as one at Paterno, and another at Spe- 
zano ; and others, not only in Calabria, but in Naples 
and Sicily. 

The wonders which were told of him, and the mir- 
acles and predictions which were attributed to him, 
reached the ears of the pope, Paul II., who sent one 
of his chamberlains to examine into the truth of the 
reports. 

It was not, however, till after the death of Paul, that 
Sextus IV. confirmed the statutes of the new order bv a 



FRANCIS DE PAULA. 219 

bull, and named Francis superior general in the year 
1474. At the same time he granted permission to found 
as many colonies as were necessary, and confirmed the 
exemption allowed by the Archbishop of Cosence to the 
convents situated in his diocese. The statutes, with a 
few alterations, were also confirmed by bulls of Innocent 
YIIL, Alexander VI., and Julius II. Alexander changed 
the name of the order from Hermits of St. Francis to that 
of Minims, which appeared to him to express better the 
humility these men professed. Louis XI. of France, who 
was then dangerously ill, hearing of the extraordinary 
cures attributed to Francis, thought he might recover his 
health by his intercession. He sent to beg Francis to 
come to him, promising great advantages to him and 
his order. Francis did not judge it necessary to attend 
to a desire which appeared to him to be dictated by 
love of life, rather than by a desire of salvation. Louis 
had recourse to the mediation of the King of Naples, 
but he was not more successful ; when, however, he 
appealed to Sextus IV., and that pope issued two 
briefs inviting Francis to satisfy the King of France, 
he thought he was no longer justified in refusing. He 
set off, accompanied by his nephew, Andrew dAlesso, 
and several of his monks. His fame preceded him and 
procured for him extraordinary honours. In passing 
through Naples, " he was," says Commines, " visited 
by the king and his children ; at Kome by all the car- 
dinals, and had three private audiences of the pope, 
being seated by him in a fine chair, for three or four 
hours each time ; from thence he went to the king, 
honoured as though he were pope." That prince, who 
was very fond of life, awaited his arrival with im- 
patience. He sent the dauphin and the greatest lords 
of his court to Amboise to meet him. When Francis 
arrived at Plessis-lcs-Tours, where Louis lived, that 
prince threw himself at his feet, beseeching him to pro^ 



220 FRANCIS DE PAULA. 

long his days. " The pious hermit," continues Com- 
mines, " replied as a wise man ought, and refused the 
magnificent presents the king offered him." But though 
he could not lengthen his life, he could teach him how 
to die. Francis had no less favour in the courts of 
Louis' successors, Charles VIII. and Louis XII. These 
princes retained him and his monks in France. Charles 
VIII. consulted him on all affairs of importance, and 
wished him to be sponsor to his son ; he had a monastery- 
built for him at Plessis-les-Tours, and another at Amboise, 
and loaded him with honour and respect. Other princes 
showed great favour to the Minims ; Anne of Bretagne 
gave them her castle of Nigeon near Chaillot, for a 
monastery. The emperor and the king of Spain were 
also anxious to have some of this order in their domini- 
ons ; in Spain they were called Brothers of Victory, in 
memory of the taking of Malaga from the Moors, which 
event Francis, as it is pretended, had predicted. At Paris 
they went by the name of Bons-Hommes, either because 
the courtiers treated Francis de bon homme, or because 
the Minims had succeeded, at Vincenne, some Gram- 
montains, who went by that name. However that might 
be, Francis had the pleasure of seeing, before his death, 
his order spread over Europe. He lived to a great age, 
in spite of the severities he exercised on himself. He 
was nearly ninety-two when he fell ill at Plessis-les- 
Tours, in 1507 ; he died the 2nd of April, which was 
Good-Friday that year. He was canonized twelve years 
after his death by Leo X. The Roman Catholic Church 
celebrates his feast on the 2nd of April. In 1562 the 
Huguenots exhumed his body, and after subjecting it to 
all manner of indignities, burnt it with a large crucifix. 
It is pretended that some of his bones were saved and 
given to different churches. The Minims have convents 
for women ; there are two in France, one at Abbeville, 
and one at Soisson. — Lecvy. Biog. Universelle. 



' FRANCIS DE SALES. '221 



FRA^'CIS DE SALES. 

Francis de Sales, Bishop of Geneva, son of Francis 
Comte de Sales, and of Frances de Sionas, was born in 
the castle of Sales, (commune of Thoreus,) in Savoy, 
April 21st, 1567. His feeble and sickly constitution was 
gradually strengthened by his mother's care ; and having, 
contrary to the expectation of every one, survived the 
dangers of childhood, he grew tall and healthy. Great 
pains were bestowed on his education ; and the qualities 
of his mind and heart were carefully cultivated ; the 
examples of virtue set him by his parents tended much 
to nourish the good seed which they had sown in his 
heart. All the histories of Francis of Sales are full of 
traits of character, which shew a tender and sensitive 
mind. At the age of six he was sent to the college of 
La Roche, and afterwards to that of Anneci. He did 
not there lose any of the religious feeling with which 
his mother had inspired him ; he also showed so great 
an aptitude for secular learning, that his father conceived 
the hope that he would rise to great distinction, and 
therefore sent him to Paris to complete his studies. Be- 
fore quitting his own country, Francis received ecclesias- 
tical tonsure. He arrived at Paris in 1578, under the 
care of a prudent and clever priest, and entered a Jesuit 
college, where he studied rhetoric with great success. 
When he had completed his course of philosophy, he 
learnt horsemanship, fencing, dancing, and other accom- 
plishments suitable to his rank ; but as he only applied 
to these exercises to please his parents, he studied at the 
same time Hebrew, Greek, and positive theology, under 
Genebrard and Maldonat, professors of great reputation. 
The great piety which he professed brought him into a 
great temptation, which would doubtless have been fatal 
to him, had he not been delivered by his trust in the 
mercy of God. He was only sixteen when he had com- 

VOL V. X 



222 FEANCIS DE SALES. 

pleted his studies ; his father, the Count de Sales, de- 
sired him to visit the principal provinces in France, and 
then to return to the paternal roof. His journey was 
shortened by the civil war, which was then desolating the 
country. He arrived, in 1584, at the chateau de Sales, 
but he again left it to study the law at Padua. The first 
care of the young Francis was to choose a confessor, and 
he fixed upon Antoine Possevin, a Jesuit, who seemed to 
have a presentiment of the future fame of his charge. 

One day, when the young student was telling him of 
his love of theology, the venerable monk earnestly en- 
treated him to cultivate this taste, " because," he said, 
" God had destined him to preach His word to His 
rebellious people, and to become the support of the faith 
in his country ; and he therefore ought to endeavour to 
render himself fit for so sublime a mission, for science 
without virtue would be insufficient, or virtue without 
science." He added, that he knew by experience, in 
voyages that he had undertaken by order of the pope 
into the reformed states, that the ignorance of the clergy 
had greatly contributed to the increase of what he called 
heresy, among a people fond of liberty. From this time 
father Possevin directed the studies of Francis de Sales. 
He explained to him the works of Aquinas, and the 
controversial writings of Bellarmine, which were then 
new works. He also gave him lessons in eloquence, in 
which science he was a great proficient ; but he applied 
himself most diligently to strengthen his pupil's love of 
virtue. 

In the meantime, the fellow-students of Francis de 
Sales, jealous of the preference which the professors 
showed for him, put his courage and principles to proof 
by frequent attacks, but he knew how to repulse them, 
without disguise. After these victories, he applied him- 
self, with redoubled ardour, to prayer and self-denial, in 
order to fortify himself for any future attacks. His 
anxiety and exertion were so great that they brought 



FRANCIS DE SALES. 22-5 

on a violent fever, followed by a dysentery, which was 
nearly fatal ; but he recovered by degrees and resumed 
his studies. He took the degree of doctor of civil and 
canon law very soon after. 

In 1591 he began, by his father's order, the tour of 
Italy. He visited Ferrara and Rome, where he paid less 
attention to the monuments of the departed greatness of 
the former masters of the world, than to the churches 
and catacombs, which may be considered to have been 
the cradle of the Western Church. The sight of the 
spot rendered sacred by the blood of martyrs, excited 
his feelings, and caused him to make a resolution to shed 
the last drop of his blood in defence of his faith, and in 
the extirpation of error. 

From Rome he went to Lorretto and Ancona. During 
his stay at Venice he had the happiness of bringing back 
a young friend of his to the paths of virtue, who pos- 
sessed, in spite of his former bad habits, many brilliant 
talents and virtues. 

Francis was only six-and-twenty when he returned to 
his family, preceded by his fame, and many means of 
increasing it. As soon as he had recovered from the 
fatigue of his journey he visited Claude de Granier, 
Bishop of Geneva, a wise man, and a great friend of his 
father. This prelate, much embarrassed by difficult 
circumstances, consulted Francis de Sales, and the young 
man replied with so much wisdom, moderation and 
eloquence, that the bishop, by a kind of presentiment, 
considered him, from that time, as his successor, and did 
all he could to realize his hopes. The Count de Sales 
wished his son to become a senator of Chamberi, and 
therefore sent him to that town, in order to be there 
received as a lawyer. He was received with great eclat, 
and it was thought that, after such a commencement, he 
would rise to the highest dignities ; vain hopes ! Francis 
de Sales only obtained the friendship of Antoine Favre, 
afterwards president of the senate, and this considered 



2U FRANCIS DE SALES, 

a great deal. When he returned to his parents he 
informed his tutor, who never left him, of his design of 
leaving the world and taking orders, and he brought him 
over to his interests. The Count de Sales wished him 
to marry a demoiselle de Vergy, of one of the most 
illustrious families of the province. Francis, without 
declaring his intention, shewed so much dislike to this 
plan, that his father was displeased with him. In- 
stead, however, of yielding to the wishes of his parents, 
he employed the mediation of his cousin, Louis de Sales, 
monk of Geneva, whose piety was well known. He asked 
for time to speak to the Count de Sales. In the mean 
time the office of provost of the cathedral became vacant, 
and Louis obtained this dignity from the pope, for his 
cousin ; he went to the Count de Sales with the bulls of 
collation, and informed him of his son's determination. 

This unexpected announcement greatly afflicted both 
his parents ; but after some days of reflection their piety 
prevailed, and they consented to the most painful sacri- 
fice that could have been demanded of them. Francis 
undertook the office to which he had been appointed, to 
the satisfaction of the chapter, and above all, to the 
bishop, who soon admitted him into the inferior orders, 
the subdiaconate and the diaconate, in spite of the oppo- 
sition of Francis himself, who did not wish to be raised 
so soon, alleging his unworthiness. While he was a 
deacon he preached several times to a numerous audience, 
and his sermons made a strong impression, even on the 
protestants who were present. 

He was elevated to the priesthood in 1593, after care- 
ful preparation, and became, to the town of Anneci and 
the neighbourhood, an example of piety, meekness, and 
charity. He instituted about this time, the Brotherhood 
of the Cross, designed to assist in instructing the poor, 
comforting and helping the indigent, visiting the prison- 
ers, banishing lawsuits, and other good works, under the 
superintendence of the clergy. The same year the Duke 



FEANCIS DE SALES. 226 

of Savoy (Charles Emmanuel I.) who had already wished 
to nominate him to the senate, renewed his offers ; his 
parents joined their entreaties ; but to no purpose. 
Francis persisted in his refusal. In 1594 the Duke of 
Savoy, wishing to reconcile Chablais and the districts of 
Gaillard, Ternice, and Gex, to the Romish Church, wrote 
to the Bishop of Geneva, begging him to send mission- 
aries there. The bishop proposed this entei-prise in an 
assembly of his clergy ; but Francis and Louis de Sales 
would alone undertake it. 

They set off in spite of the representations of their 
friends and relations, and arrived at the fortress of 
Alinges, where they were well received by the governor, 
the Baron d'Hermanea. This wise soldier gave them 
valuable information concerning the manners of the peo- 
ple of Chablais, and advised to behave towards them 
with discretion, gentleness and condescension ; not to 
tease them with what was not essential; to avoid all 
singularity, and all that is inspired by zeal ungoverned 
by prudence. Francis followed this advice the more rea- 
dily as it was quite agreeable to his character. He was 
accustomed to say that " he ought not to be obstinately 
attached to things indifferent, if his brother regarded 
them as important." The mission was commenced at 
Thouon, the capital of the province, after many difficulties 
thrown in their way by the protestants, and in spite of 
their menaces, by two priests, assisted by a few Capu- 
chins, and without other arms than the word of God. 
For a long time no one would listen to Francis ; never- 
theless, he went every day to Thouon, through the worst 
weather and innumerable dangers. The protestants in 
the garrison of Alinges were less firm. They listened 
to the w^ords of the missionaries, and were nearly all 
persuaded to join the Romish Church, their example 
being influential upon others. This success in making 
converts to the Church of Rome was such, as to bring in 
congratulations from all sides. The Duke of Savoy wrote, 
VOL v. Y 



226 FRANCIS DE SALES. 

and the pope addressed a brief to him, in 1596. Clement 
VIII., who thought that every thing must yield to Francis 
de Sales' gentleness and talents, desired him to restore 
Theodore de Beza to the unity of the Church, at any 
price. Francis felt the importance of this work; but 
the Duke of Savoy ordered him to go to Turin, and he 
obeyed. The audiences he had of this prince respecting 
the re-establishment of public worship at Chablais, pro- 
cured him his affection and esteem. On his return to 
Thouon he took possession, by virtue of the duke's letters 
patent, of the church of St. Hyppolite, which he had 
restored, and celebrated mass there on Christmas-day. 

The account of his conduct, which he transmitted to 
the court, was highly approved of, while relations of the 
Syndics, who had opposed him, only obtained reproaches. 
When the first excitement caused by the inauguration of 
the Roman Catholic religion, had subsided, he went 
several times to Geneva to see Theodore Beza ; but he 
did not find him alone till Easter Tuesday, 1597. 
This interview did not give him much hope, as may be 
seen by his letter to Clement VIII., and the answer of 
that pontiff. It is said that he saw Beza again three 
times, but was unable to convert him. 

The plague breaking out at Annecy that same year, 
Francis de Sales, though only just recovering from an 
illness, did not hesitate to devote himself to the care of 
the sick, but the Bishop of Geneva ordered him to return 
to Chablais and resume his functions there. 

In 1599 Francis obtained from the Duke of Savoy a 
sort of revocation of the treaty of Nyon, and the expul- 
sion of the Protestant ministers was the consequence. 
Thus Calvinism was banished from Chablais and the 
three districts, and the Roman Catholic became by the 
will of the prince the established religion. Claude de 
Granier, Bishop of Geneva, to shew his gratitude to 
Francis de Sales, made him his coadjutor. His friends 
had great difticulty in [)er.suading him to accept thif> 



FRANCIS DE SALES. 227 

dignity ; but they at length overcame his humility, and 
he set off for Rome, accompanied by the bishop's nephew. 
The pope received him with great kindness, and granted 
him bulls for the coadjutorship of Geneva, with the title 
of Bishop of Nicopolis, 

As soon as he had fulfilled his mission, and obtained 
for the clergy in the diocese of Geneva a discharge from 
those services toward their bishop, which savoured more 
of Paganism than Christian liberty, he went to Turin, 
where he was much annoyed by the orders of St. Lazarus 
and St. Maurice, who, in spite of the pope's briefs and 
the Duke of Savoy's vows, would not give up some 
Roman Catholic property in Chablais, which had been 
granted to them by Gregory III., while that province was 
filled with Calvinists. The restitution of this property 
gained him all hearts, and did much for the Roman 
Catholic religion. 

He had no sooner entered his own country than he 
was obliged to employ his talents for negociation. Henry 
IV. had invaded Savoy, and the Swiss and Genevan 
soldiers in his pay were eager to revenge themselves on 
the Romanists by ravaging the Chablais. Francis pre- 
sented a petition, to implore the protection of the king 
for the Romanists, and it was granted. The Marquis 
de Vitri even offered to present him to that great mon- 
arch, but Francis refused to salute the conqueror of his 
sovereign. He nevertheless profited by the good will 
which was shown toward him, to make the visitation of 
the diocese of Geneva and establish thirty-five parishes. 
He preached. Lent 1601 , at Annecy, when his father died. 
A short time after he was deputed by the clergy of 
Geneva to the court of France, for the spiritual interests 
of the district of Gex, which had just been united to 
that kingdom by the treaty of Lyons. He was honour- 
ably received and appointed to preach in the chapel of 
the Louvre during Lent. His discourses affected several 
distinguished Calvinists, and he completed in conversa- 



228 FRANCIS DE SALES. 

tion what he had, as it were, sketched in the pulpit. 

The cardinal Duperron, a good judge in such matters, 
said, " There is no heretic whom I cannot convince ; 
but God has given the talent of converting to M. de 
Geneve." After Lent, Henry wished him to preach before 
him. The coadjutor of Geneva acquitted himself so 
well, that he was pressed to pronounce the funeral oration 
of the Duke de Mercseur, in the metroi)olitan Church. 
" He was invited to all religious meetings," says one of 
his historians, " no project of devotion was uncommu- 
nicated to him, nor any affair for the glor}" of God under- 
taken without consulting him." 

The king often opened his mind to him, and afterwards 
said that Francis had never flattered him. 

In spite of the purity of his conduct and the upright- 
ness of his heart, some people were wicked enough 
to accuse him before Henry of wishing to renew the 
conspiracy of Biron ; but Henry refused to believe such 
an accusation, and would not even allow Francis to 
justify himself. To avoid further imputations, the coad- 
jutor of Geneva resolved to remove from court. He was 
but a few days journey from Paris when he received 
intelligence of the death of Claude de Granier. He 
hastened onwards to the castle of Sales, where he pre- 
pared for his episcopal consecration, which he received 
in the church of Thoreus, the 8th of December, 1602. 
What was most required in the diocese of Geneva, was 
to bring the canons into action. He made regulations 
which bore the impress of great wisdom. At his first 
ordination he informed his candidates that he would 
willingly pardon some faults ; but that ignorance would 
always cause exclusion from holy orders. He visited the 
Duke of Savoy and the Bishop of Saluces ; and some 
time after he went to Gex, for the re-establishment of the 
Roman Catholic religion. 

The Calvinists are accused of having poisoned the 
bishop. Happily the physicians perceived it in time 



FRANCIS DE SALES. '229 

and gave him an antidote ; his health was restored, 
but his constitution was greatly enfeebled. In ] 603 he 
reformed the abbey of Siz, the monks of which were in 
sad disorder. While he was occupied in this good work 
he removed to the canton of Frucighi, which had been 
almost oversvhelmed by landslips and avalanches ; after 
having ascertained the extent of the damage, he solicited 
and obtained from the Duke of Savoy proportionable 
indemnities. In the Lent of 1604 he preached at Dijon. 
It was at this time that he formed his friendship w^th 
the Baroness de Chantal. 

On his return to his diocese he was offered, by Henry 
IV., a rich abbey, and even a cardinal's hat, if he would 
reside in France. Francis replied that " God had not 
made him for high rank." 

It was about this time that the senate of Savoy 
sequestered his worldly goods, because he had opposed 
the publication of monitories for purely civil affairs. He 
patiently supported this vexation, only saying that what 
had happened was most fortunate, as it reminded him 
that a bishop ought to be entirely spiritual. The 
magistrates were soon ashamed of their intolerance, 
and the sequestration was taken off. Francis, who 
preached during Lent at Chamberry, (1605) had no sooner 
finished his course than he went to Annecy, which was 
besieged by the Duke de Nemours, and shut himself up 
in the city in spite of the prayers of his flock. The 
Prince of Piedmont arrived soon after and raised the 
siege. He commenced, toward the end of the year, his 
pastoral visitation, preceded by his fame, and "signalizing 
every step by holiness and good works." He corrected 
vice with firmness ; but he used to say that he would 
rather err from over-kindness than from over-severity. 
He continued his visitation the next year, on foot without 
baggage, contented with coarse food and sleeping on straw. 
In 1606 he, with the president Favre, founded at Annecy 
an academy for philosophy, theology, jurisprudence, and 
Y 2 



230 FEANCIS DE SALES. 

the belles lettres, which did much good. The pope, Paul 
v., consulted Francis about the subjects which were dis- 
cussed in the congregation at Auxilius. The Bishop of 
Geneva replied. " That it was much better to apply 
oneself to making a good use of grace, than raise con- 
troversies which have always disturbed the peace of the 
Church." It is well known that he highly disapproved of 
that party spirit, which so often leads from hatred of 
opinions to hatred of persons. 

In 1608 a monk accused him before the pope of not 
being sufficiently strict in forbidding the use of heretical 
books in his diocese. The prelate had little difficulty in 
proving that he did all in his pow^r to prevent the circu- 
lation of bad works ; and that the monk did more harm 
than good to the Church by his excessive zeal. The 
pope paid so little attention to this accusation that he 
addressed two breves to Francis, authorizing him to 
reform the nunnery of Priets d'Orbe, and appointing 
him, together with the Bishop of Basle, to decide the 
difference which had long existed between the courts of 
Burgogne and the clergy of Franche Comte, concerning 
some salt-pits. 

Francis had greater difficulty in reforming the mo- 
nastery of St. Catherine and the abbey de Taloire ; but 
he at length succeeded. In 1609, he went to consecrate 
the Bishop of Belley, Jean Pierre Camus, who became 
his great friend. Being sent for to Gex, to confer with 
the Baron de Luy, governor of Burgogne, he found the 
Rhone had so much overflowed its banks, that it was 
impossible to cross it any where except at Geneva ; and 
this was a very dangerous road for Francis, on account 
of the hatred of the Genevese towards him, but he took 
it nevertheless. The officers on guard asked his name 
at the gate of the city, Francis replied, "the Bishop of 
the Diocese.'" They allowed him to pass without re- 
flection, but when at last they discovered that they might 
have made this dangerous enemy prisoner, they wrote in 



FRANCIS DE SALES. -231 

their impotent rage against his name in the register these 
words, " Qu il y revienne." This journey, which pro- 
cured such advantages for the Roman Catholic reHgion, 
appeared to the Duke of Savoy to be a plan concerted 
between Francis and the king of France, to give the 
Bishop the sovereignty of Geneva. It required all the 
prelate's prudence to dissipate these suspicions ; and they 
were constantly returning in the mistmstful mind of 
Charles Emmanuel. The feelings of Francis de Sales 
received a severe shock by the death of his mother and 
the assassination of Henry IV. This event afflicted him 
much ; he wrote to his friend Deshayes, the 27th May, 
" Europe could not witness a more lamentable death 
than that of the great Henry IV. Who will not ac- 
knowledge with you the instability and vanity of human 
greatness ? This Prince, so great in courage, victories, 
and triumphs ; so great in happiness ; in a word, great 
in every sense ! Who would not have thought greatness 
was, as it were, fastened and attached to him, and that 
having sworn inviolable fidelity, she would have termi- 
nated his life by a glorious death, and that such a bril- 
liant life could not end but with the ruin of the East, 
and destruction of heresy and Mahometanism." 

On the 6th of June he instituted the Order of the 
Annunciation of St. Mary, which was approved of by the 
pope, and which spread every where with great rapidity. 
His old friend, Anthony Favre, became president of the 
Senate of Chamberry, and Francis had the happiness of 
saving the lives of two gentlemen, accused of having 
assassinated the Duke of Nemours' secretary ; and he 
put the college of Annecy into the hands of the Barna- 
bites. He also established a monastery at Thouon, and 
gave the Jesuits the colleges of La Roche, Rumile, and 
Gex. 

In 1614 he was earnestly praying for the success of 
the Christian arms against the Mahometans, and he 
regretted not having assisted the emperor with money as 



23-2 FRANCIS DE SALES. 

well as prayers. At this epoch Francis had nearly lost, 
in the public opinion, the fruits of a life of virtue, by a 
hcjrrible calumny. But at the end of three years the 
author of it took effectual steps to destroy it. Although 
the number of conversions to Popery, brought about by 
the Bishop of Geneva, is reckoned by some at 72,000, 
which must be a monstrous exaggeration, and though 
there were many distinguished persons among those 
converted, yet that of the Constable Lesdiguieres maybe, 
perhaps, regarded as the most important and the most 
honourable ; it cost Francis three years of anxiety, and 
he was obliged to preach at Grenoble during two Lents, 
with this object. In 1618 he obtained leave from the 
pope to have his brother, John Francis de Sales, conse- 
crated Bishop of Chalcedon, and Coadjutor of Geneva. 
From that time he gave up the honours of the episcopacy 
to him, being himself contented with sharing the most 
laborious and painful duties. Obliged soon afterwards 
to accompany the Cardinal of Savoy to the court of France, 
whither he went in order to arrange a marriage between 
the Princess Christina and the Prince of Piedmont, he 
received everywhere a most flattering reception, with a 
sweetness and humility which heightened his virtues ; 
he preached in several churches to large congregations, 
refused the coadjutorship of Paris, which was offered him 
by Cardinal Retz, and only accepted the office of high- 
almoner to the Princess of Piedmont, on conditions 
which proved his disinterestedness. 

On his return to Annecy he presided at a chapter of 
the Feuillants, and persuaded them to elect a wise and 
virtuous general, who restored among- them the concord 
which had been banished by turbulent spirits. He also 
established a reform of the Bernadine monks in 1621. 
During a visit to Turin, he persuaded the duke to recall 
a lord, who had only been banished by court intrigue. 

The Princess of Piedmont having presented him with 
a very fine diamond, Francis only accepted it to give to 



FRASSEN. 233 

the poor ; he was indeed, as a gentleman of that place 
said, " more bishop to the indigent of Annecy, than to 
Geneva." A kind of presentiment of his approaching 
end made him redouble his good works ; at this time, 
he only lived for the poor and with the poor. His only 
relaxation was in instructing a poor deaf mute, to whom 
he succeeded in teaching the great truths of religion, and 
who, by his care, showed extraordinary intelligence. 
After Louis XIII. had subdued the Calvinists of Lan- 
guedoc, he made a voyage to Avignon. The Cardinal of 
Savoy was sent by his father, the duke, to pay his res- 
pects to the king. The Bishop of Geneva was ordered 
to accompany him. Francis made his will, preached for 
the last time in his cathedral, and set off for Avignon. 
Returning to his diocese, he fell ill at Lyons, and died 
there, the 26th of December, 1622. 

He was the author of several works, which are collected 
in two volumes folio. Of these, the best known are, his 
Introduction to a Devout Life, and Philo, or a Treatise 
on the Love of God. — Labouderie. MarsolUer. 

FRANCIS DE XAViER. — (See Xcivier. ) 

FRANTZIUS, WOLFGANG. 

Wolfgang Frantzius was born at Plawen, in Voight- 
land, in 1564. He was professor of divinity at Wittem- 
berg, w^here he died in 1620. He wrote, Animalium 
Historia Sacra; Tractatus de Interpretatione Sacrarum 
Scripturarum, 4to; Schola Sacrificiorum Patriarch. Sa- 
cra; Commentar. in Leviticum. &c. ; and other works. — 
Moreri. 

FRA- PAOLO. — (See Sarpi.J 

FRASSEN, CLAUDE. 

Claude Frassen, a French monk, was born at Pe- 



•234 FRITH. 

ronne, in Picardj, in 16*20. He was doctor of the Sor- 
bonne, theological professor at Paris, and superior of the 
Franciscan convent there. He wrote, Dissertationes 
Biblicae, 2 vols, 4to ; S3^stem of Philosophy, 2 vols, 4to. 
He died in 1711. — Moreri. 



FREWEN, ACCEPTED. 

Accepted Frewen was born in Kent in 1 589, and edu- 
<3ated at Magdalen College, Oxford, of which he became 
fellow and president. He was chaplain to Charles I. in 
1631, was made Dean of Gloucester, and in 1643, Bishop 
of Lichfield and Coventry. He was translated to York 
at the Ptestoration, and died in 1664. — Wood. 



FRITH, OR FRTTH, JOHN. 

John Frith, or Fryth, was born at Seven-oaks in 
Kent, where his father kept an inn, and was educated 
at King's College, Cambridge, where he so greatly dis- 
tinguished himself, that when Cardinal Wolsey had 
formed his new college at Oxford, he was appointed one 
of the first members of that establishment. About the 
year 1525 he became acquainted with Tyndale, and by 
him was won over to Lutheran principles. The little 
body of learned men at Oxford who began to be aware of 
the necessity of reformation in the Church, was regarded 
with no friendly eye by the heads of the university. 
Frith and others, therefore, found it necessary to retire 
from the university, and he took refuge upon the Con- 
tinent in 1528. On his return to England at the end of 
two years, he was in such a state of destitution, that on 
his attempting to pass through Reading, he was appre- 
hended and put into the stocks as a vagabond. From 
this disgraceful situation he was rescued by the school- 



FRITH. 235 

master of the town, to whom he made his case known in 
such elegant Latin as to prove himself what he professed 
to be, a scholar. From Eeading he proceeded to London, 
and here he was engaged in controversy with the cele- 
brated Sir Thomas More. Simon Fish had attacked the 
doctrine of purgatory in a work entitled the " Supplica- 
tion of Beggars," which purported to be an address to 
the king from certain impotent mendicants, who com- 
plained that what the benevolent were induced to give 
in alms was diverted from the proper object, such as 
themselves, by the friars, who were able to work, but 
preferred the easier task of begging. Sir Thomas pub- 
lished, in answer to this tract, " The Supplication of the 
poor silly souls puling out of Purgatoiy;" and to this 
work of the Chancellor's, Frith published a reply. On 
another occasion also, when Frith, at the request of a 
friend, had placed on paper his arguments against tran- 
substantiation, he found an opponent in Sir Thomas 
More, who undertook their refutation. 

Frith 's honesty and zeal in expressing his opinions, led 
at last to his apprehension. While he was in the tower 
upon this charge, he was examined by the king's command, 
before Archbishop Cranmer ; Brandon, Duke of Suffolk ; 
Boleyn, Earl of Wiltshire ; Stokesley, Bishop of London ; 
Gardner, Bishop of Winchester : and the Chancellor 
Dudley. The prisoner maintained that the dogma of tran- 
substantiation was not de fide ; at the same time he did 
not condemn those who held the doctrine of a corporeal 
presence, he only reprobated the prevalent notions res- 
pecting propitiatory masses and the w^orshipping of ihe 
sacramental elements. He denied also the Romish fig- 
ment of purgatory. At length he was brought before an 
episcopal commission at St. Paul's cathedral, where he 
was once more, and publicly, interrogated on the subjects 
of transubstantiation and purgatory, and many efforts 
were made to persuade, or intimidate him to recant. 
When he was found, however, to remain unmoved by 



286 FRUMENTIUS. 

arguments or threatenings, and to persist in a declaration 
that he could not be induced to believe that these were 
articles of Christian faith, the Bishop of London pro- 
nounced sentence of condemnation upon him, as an 
obstinate heretic, and he was delivered over to the secular 
power. In pursuance of this sentence a writ was issued 
for his execution, and he was burnt at Smithfield on the 
4th of July, 1^33, in the prime of life, not many days 
after his condemnation, maintaining his fortitude to the 
last, and charitably extending his forgiveness to a bigoted 
popish priest, who endeavoured to persuade the people 
that they ought no more to pray for him than for a dog. 

He was an eminent scholar, and well acquainted with 
the learned languages. His works are. Treatise of Pur- 
gatory. Antithesis between Christ and the Pope. Let- 
ters unto the faithful Followers of Christ's Gospel, writ- 
ten in the Tower, 1532. Mirror, or Glass to know thyself, 
written in the Tower, 1532. Mirror, or Looking-glass, 
wherein you may behold the Sacrament of Baptism. 
Articles, for which he died, written in Newgate prison, 
June 23rd, 1533. Answer to Sir Thomas More's Dia- 
logues concerning Heresies. Answer to John Fisher, 
Bishop of Piochester, &c., all which treatises were re- 
printed at London, 1573, in folio, with the works of 
Tyndale and Barnes. He also wrote some translations. — 
Burnet. Collier. Soames. 



FRUMENTJUS. 

Frumentius, commonly called the Apostle of Ethiopia, 
was a native of Tyre, whose history is thus narrated by 
Socrates : — 

" Meropius, a Tynan philosopher, determined to visit 
the country of the Indians, being stimulated to this by 
the example of the philosopher Metrodorus, who had 
previously travelled through that region, flaving taken 



FRUMENTIUS. 237 

with him therefore two youths to whom he was related, 
who were by no means ignorant of the Greek languages, 
Meropius arrived at that country by ship ; and when he 
had inspected whatever he wished, he touched at a cer- 
tain i:>lace which had a safe harbour, for the purpose of 
procuring some necessaries. It so happened that the 
treaty between the Romans and Indians had been violated 
a little before his arrival. The Indians therefore having 
seized the philosopher and those who sailed with him, 
killed them all except his two young kinsmen; but 
sparing them from compassion for their tender age, they 
sent them as a gift to the king of the Indians. He being 
pleased ^nth the personal appearance of the youths, con- 
stituted one of them, whose name was Edesius, cup- 
bearer at his table ; to the other, named Frumentius, he 
entmsted the care of the royal records. The king dying 
soon after, left them free, the government devolving on 
his wife and infant son ; and the queen seeing her son 
thus left in his minority, begged the young men to under- 
take the charge of him, until he should become of adult 
age. They therefore accepted this commission, and en- 
tered on the administration of the kingdom ; but the 
chief authority was in the hands of Frumentius, who 
began anxiously to enquire whether among the Roman 
merchants trafficking with that country, there were any 
Christians to be found : and having discovered some, he 
informed them who he was, and exhorted them to select 
some appropriate places for the celebration of Christian 
worship. In the course of a little while he built a house 
of prayer ; and having instructed some of the Indians in 
the principles of Christianity, they were admitted to 
participation in the worship. On the young king's 
reaching maturity, Frumentius resigned to him the 
administration of public affairs, in the management of 
which he had honourably acquitted himself, and besought 
permission to return to his own country. Both the king 
and his mother entreated him to remain ; but he being 
VOL. V. z 



238 FULGENTIUS. 

desirous of revisiting his native place, could not be pre- 
vailed on, and consequently they both departed. Edesius 
hastened to Tyre to see his parents and kindred : but 
Frumentius arriving at Alexandria, related his whole 
story to Athanasius the bishop, who had but recently 
been invested with that dignity; and acquainting him 
with the particulars of his residence abroad, expressed a 
hope that measures would be taken to convert the Indians 
to Christianity. He also begged him to send a bishop 
and clergy there, and by no means to neglect those who 
might thus be brought to the knowledge of salvation. 
Athanasius having considered how this could be most pro- 
fitably effected, requested Frumentius himself to accept 
the bishopric, declaring that he could appoint no one more 
suitable than he. He was accordingly ordained, and 
again returning to India with episcopal authority, became 
there a preacher of the gospel, and built several Oratories : 
being aided also by divine grace, he performed various 
miracles, healing diseases both of the souls and bodies 
of many. Rufinus assures us that he heard these facts 
from Edesius, who was afterwards inducted into the 
sacred office at Tyre.^'— Socrates. 



FULGENTIUS. 

FuLGENTius was bom at Telepta, about the year 464. 
Gordianus, a senator of Carthage, being forced to fly 
into Italy for safety, during the persecution of Genser- 
icus, king of the Vandals, had two children, who returned 
into Africa : and they, being forced away from Carthage, 
settled at Telepta, a city in the province of Byzacena. 
One of them was Claudus, the father of St. Fulgentius, 
who dying unexpectedly, left his young son to the care of 
his widow. He was properly educated, and became well 
skilled in the Greek tongue. As soon as he was capable 
of an employment, he was made procurator or receiver of 



FULGENTIUS. S39 

the revenues of his province. But this employment dis- 
pleased him, because of the rigour he was forced to use, 
for levying the taxes upon the people : and therefore, 
notwithstanding the tears and dissuasives of his mother, 
he left the world, and betook himself to a religious life. 
The incursions of the Moors soon scattered the religious 
of the monastery where he was ; upon which he retired 
into the country of Sicca, thinking to find there a place 
of refuge : but he was mistaken ; for he met with nothing 
but stripes and imprisonment. Aftenvards he resolved 
to go into Egypt ; but was restrained from that voyage, 
by Eulalias, Bishop of Syracuse, because the monks of 
the East had separated from the Catholic Church. He 
consulted also a bishop of Africa, who had retired into 
Sicily ; and this bishop advised him to return to his own 
country, after he had made a journey to Rome. King 
Theodoric was then in the city, when he arrived there, 
which was in the year 500. After he had paid a visit 
to the sepulchres of the apostles, he returned to his own 
country, where he built a monastery. 

Africa was then under the dominion of Thrasimond, 
king of the Vandals, an Arian, and a cruel enemy to the 
Catholics. He had forbidden to ordain Catholic bishops 
in the room of those that died : nevertheless, the bishops 
of Africa were determined to neglect his orders in that 
particular. Fulgentius knowing this, and fearing lest he 
should be ordained, hid himself until he understood the 
consecrations to be over : but when he appeared, the see 
of Ruspa was vacant, and he was ordained bishop of it, 
though much against his will, in the year 504. Though 
become a bishop, he did not change either his habit or 
manner of living, but used the same austerities and 
abstinence as before. He still loved the monks, and 
delighted to retire into a monastery, as often as the busi- 
ness of his episcopal function allowed him time. After- 
wards he had the same fate with all the Catholic bishops 
of Africa, whom king Thrasimond banished into the 



•240 FULKE. 

Isle of Sardinia. Though he was not the eldest 
among them, yet they considered him as their head, and 
made use of his pen and wit upon all occasions. So 
great was his reputation, that Thrasimond had the 
curiosity to see and hear him ; and having sent for him 
to Carthage, he proposed to him many difficulties, which 
Fulgentius solved to his satisfaction : but because he 
confirmed the Catholics, and converted many Arians, 
their bishop at Carthage prayed the king to send him 
back to Sardinia. Thrasimond dying in the year 523, 
his son Hilderic recalled the Catholic bishops, whereof 
Fulgentius was one. He returned, to the great joy of 
his diocese, led a most exemplary life, governed his clergy 
well, and performed all the offices of a good bishop. He 
died the last day of the year 529, according to some, or 
533, according to others. 

This account of Fulgentius is taken from Dupin ; a 
longer and very interesting history is given of him in 
Fleury, books 30 and 31. Dupin analyses his works; 
and an account of them is given also by Fleury ; some 
of them are still of value to the practical divine. The 
best edition of his collected works is that of Paris, 
4to, 1684. — Dupin. 



FEREANDUS, FULGENTIUS. 

Fulgentius Fereandus, a disciple of the preceding, 
with whom he is frequently confounded, lived in the 
beginning of the sixth century. He was the author of 
an Abridgment of the Canons. 



FULKE, WILLIAM. 

William Fut-ke was born in London, and educated at 
St. John's College. Cambridge, of which he became fellow 



FULKE. 241 

in 1564. He spent six years at Clifford's Inn, but pre- 
ferred the study of literature to that of the law. He 
took orders, but being suspected of Puritanism, he was 
expelled from college. The Earl of Leicester, however, 
presented him in 1571 to the living of Warley, in Essex, 
and two years after to Kedington, in Suffolk. He after- 
wards took his degree of D.D. at Cambridge, and, as 
chaplain, accompanied the Earl of Lincoln when he went 
as ambassador to France, and on his return he was made 
master of Pembroke Hall, and Margaret Professor. He 
died in 1589. 

His works are very numerous ; written in Latin and 
English ; levelled chiefly against the papists ; and dedi- 
cated several of them to Queen Elizabeth and the Earl 
of Leicester. The most considerable of them is, his Com- 
ment upon the Rhemish Testament, printed in 1580, and 
reprinted in 1601 with this title : " The Text of the New 
Testament of Jesus Christ, translated out of the vulgar 
Latin by the Papists of the traitorous Seminarie at 
Rhemes. With arguments of books, chapters, and anno- 
tations, pretending to discover the corruptions of divers 
translations, and to clear the controversies of these days. 
Whereunto is added the translation out of the original 
Greek, commonly used in the Church of England : with 
a confutation of all such arguments, glosses, and anno- 
tations, as contain manifest impiety of heresy, treason, 
and slander against the Catholic Church of God, and 
the true teachers thereof, or the translations used in the 
Church of England. The whole work, perused and en- 
larged in divers places by the author's own hand before 
his death, with sundry quotations and authorities out of 
Holy Scriptures, councils, fathers, and history. More 
amply than in the former edition." This work was pub- 
lished again in 1617, and 1633, in folio, as it was before. 

Mr. James Harvey says of this work : " If the young 
student would be taught to discover the very sinews of 
z 2 



Q42 FULLER. 

Popeiy, and be enabled to give an effectual blow to that 
complication of errors, I know not a treatise more calcu- 
lated for the purpose." — Fuller. Wood. Brook. Stri/pe. 



FULLER, THOMAS. 

Thomas Fuller, a divine, was born in 1608, at Ald- 
wincle, in Northamptonshire, where his father was rector. 
He was sent to Queen's College, Cambridge, where his 
maternal uncle, Davenant, afterwards Bishop of Salis- 
bury, was master. He then removed to Sydney College, 
of which he was chosen fellow in 1631. That year he 
obtained a prebend at Salisbury, and was afterwards 
presented to the living of Broad Windsor, in Dorsetshire, 
where he married. Upon the loss of his wife, about 
1641, he removed to London, and became minister of 
the Savoy. In 1640 he published his " History of the 
Holy War :" it was printed at Cambridge in folio. On 
the 14th of April, 1640, a parliament was called, and 
then also a convocation sat at Westminster, in King 
Henry the Vllth's chapel, of which Fuller was a mem- 
ber. He continued at the Savoy to the great satisfaction 
of his people, and the neighbouring nobility and gentry, 
labouring all the while in private and in public, to serve 
the king's interest. To this end, on the anniversary of 
his majesty's inauguration on the 27th of March, 1 642, 
he preached at Westminster Abbey, on this text, 2 Sam. 
xix. 30 : " Yea, let him take all, so that my Lord the 
King return in peace:" which sermon being printed, 
gave great offence to those, who were engaged in the 
opposition to his majesty, and brought the preacher into 
no small danger. He soon found that he was to expect 
nothing less than to be silenced and ejected by the dis- 
senters, now in the ascendant, as others had been ; yet 
he did not desist from proceeding in the same course, 
till he either was, or thought himself unsettled. This 



FULLER. 243 

appears from what he says in the preface to his " Holy 
State," which was printed in foHo that same year at 
Cambridge. 

In April 1643, he joined the king at Oxford, who re- 
ceived him gladly. As his majesty had heard of his 
extraordinary abilities in the pulpit, he w^as now desirous 
of hearing them from it: and accordingly Mr. Fuller 
preached before his majesty at St. Marj^'s Church. His 
fortune upon this occasion was very singular. He had 
before preached and published a sermon in London, upon 
the revolutionary proceedings of those who pretended 
zeal for the reformation of the Church, and he was cen- 
sured as too hot a royalist ; and, now from his sermon 
at Oxford, he was thought to be too lukewarm : which 
can only be accounted for from that inflexible principle 
of moderation in himself, which he would sincerely have 
inculcated in each party, as the only means of reconciling 
both. Nevertheless, he resolved to prove his stedfast 
adherence to the royal cause, by openly trying his fortune 
under the royal army : and therefore, being recommended 
to Sir Ralph Hopton in 1643, he was appointed by him 
to be his chaplain. He was quite at liberty for this, 
being deprived of all, and having no church to preach in. 
And now attending the army in its march from place to 
place, he constantly exercised his duty as chaplain ; yet 
found proper intervals for his beloved studies, which he 
employed chiefly in making historical collections, and 
especially in gathering materials for his "Worthies of 
England." 

After the loss of the battle of Cheriton Down, in 1644, 
he went with his patron, then Lord Hopton, to Basing- 
House, where he was left with the garrison, and con- 
tinued there during the siege which followed; and he 
contributed not a little, by his example and exhortations, 
to the gallant and successful defence of the fortress. He 
then retired to Exeter and resumed his studies; and 
during his residence there he was appointed chaplain to 



244 FULLER. 

the infant princess, Henrietta Maria, born in that city in 
1643. After the surrender of Exeter, in 1646, he was 
permitted, by Sir T. Fairfax, the parliament-general, to 
go to London, where he was chosen lecturer of St. Cle- 
ment's Church, near Lombard Street, and afterwards of 
St. Bride's, Fleet Street. 

About the year 1648, he was presented to the rectory 
of Waltham Abbey in Essex, by the Earl of Carlisle, 
whose chaplain he had just before been made. He spent 
that and the following year betwixt London and Waltham, 
employing some engravers to adorn with sculptures, his 
copious prospect or view of the Holy Land, as from 
Mount Pisgah; therefore called his " Pisgah-sight of 
Palestine and the confines thereof, with the history of the 
Old and New Testament acted thereon," which he pub- 
lished in 1650. It is a handsome folio, embellished with 
a frontispiece and many other copper-plates, and divided 
into five books. As for his " Worthies of England," upon 
which he had expended so much labour, by the death of 
the king he was disheartened in the further prosecution 
of it ; it seemed indeed as if the proceedings of the parlia- 
ment had proved a contradiction to the title of it: "for 
what shall I write, says he, of the Worthies of England, 
when this horrid act will bring such an infamy upon the 
whole nation, as will ever cloud and darken all its former, 
and suppress its future rising glories ?" Therefore he was 
busy till the year last mentioned, in getting out that 
book and others ; and the next year he rather employed 
himself in publishing some particular lives of religious 
reformers, martyrs, confessors, bishops, doctors, and other 
learned divines, foreign and domestic, than in augment- 
ing his said book of English Worthies in general. To 
this collection, which was done by several hands, as he 
tells us in the preface, he gave the title of Abel Redi- 
vivus, and published it at London in 4to, 1651. 

And now, having lived about twelve years a widower, 
and being recommended by his noble friends to an adr 



FULLER. 245 

vantageous match, he married a sister of the Viscount 
Baltinglasse, about the year ] 654 ; and the next year 
she brought him a son, who, with his half-brother, sur- 
vived his father. In 1656, he published at London, in 
folio, "The Church History of Britain, from the birth 
of Jesus Christ to the year 1648:" to which work are 
subjoined. The History of the University of Cambridge 
since the Conquest, and The History of Waltham Abbey 
in Essex, founded by King Harold. His Church History 
was animadverted upon by Dr. Heylin in his Examen 
Historicum, and this drew from Fuller a reply, entitled, 
An Appeal of Injured Innocence, in w^hich he defended 
himself with so much moderation that the two antago- 
nists were entirely reconciled. 

The character of his Church History has been often 
assailed, and the author accused of inaccuracy and parti- 
ality ; from these charges he is vindicated by the able 
editor of the edition of the work lately printed at the 
university press of Oxford. 

In 1658 the living of Cranford, in Middlesex, was 
bestowed on him, and he removed thither. The Restora- 
tion taking place in 1660, he was reinstated in his pre- 
bend of Salisbury; and was soon after created D.D. at 
Cambridge, by royal mandate; appointed chaplain extra- 
ordinary to his majesty, and destined for the episcopal 
bench. This last preferment was prevented by his death, 
which took place August J 5th, 1661. The year after his 
death was published his principal literary work, The 
Worthies of England, folio ; a production valuable alike 
for the solid information it affords relative to the provin- 
cial history of the country, and for the profusion of 
biographical anecdote and acute observation on men and 
manners. The great fault of this, as well as of the 
former compositions of Dr. Fuller, is an elaborate dis- 
play of quaint conceit, owing perhaps more to the natural 
disposition of the author than to the taste of the age in 
which he wrote, when however that species of wit was 
much admired. 



246 GAGE. 

Besides the works mentioned in the course of this 
memoir, he was the author of several works of a smaller 
nature : as, 1. Good Thoughts in bad times. 2. Good 
Thoughts in worse times ; these two pieces printed 
separately, the former in 1645, the latter in 1647, were 
published together in 1652. He afterwards published 
in 1660, 3. Mixt Contemplation in better times. 4. An- 
dronicus ; or the Unfortunate Politician ; London, 1649, 
8vo. 5. The Triple Keconciler stating three controver- 
sies, viz. " Whether ministers have an exclusive power 
of barring communicants from the sacrament : whether 
any person unordained may lawfully preach : and whe* 
ther the Lord's Prayer ought not to be used by all Chris- 
tians." 1654, 8vo. 6. The Speech of Birds, also of 
Flowers, partly moral, partly mystical, 1660, 8vo. He 
published also a great many sermons, separately and in 
volumes. — Life by T. Fuller. Biog. Brit. Peck's Desi- 
derata, 



GAGE, THOMAS. 

Thomas Gage was born at Haling, in Surrey. He 
entered into the Domican order in Spain ; after which 
he was sent as a missionary to the Philippine Islands, 
but instead of going thither, he settled in Mexico, from 
whence he came to England in 1637, after an absence 
of twenty-four years, during which he had forgotten his 
native language. On examining into his domestic affairs, 
he found himself unnoticed in his father's will, forgotten 
by some of his relations, and with difficulty acknowledged 
by others. After a little time, not being satisfied with 
respect to some religious doubts which had entered his 
mind while abroad, and disgusted with the great power 
of the Papists, he resolved to take another journey to 
Italy, to " try what better satisfaction he could find for 
his conscience at Rome in that religion." At Loretto his 



GALE. 247 

conversion from Popery was fixed by proving the fallacy 
of the miracles attributed to the picture of our Lady 
there ; on which he immediately returned home once 
more, and preached his recantation sermon at St. Paul's, 
by order of the Bishop of London. He continued above 
a year in London, but soon deserted the Church of Eng- 
land, and joining the rebels, he received a living from 
them, probably that of Deal, in Kent, in the register of 
which church is an entry of the burials of Mary, daughter, 
and Mary the wife of " Thomas Gage, parson of Deale, 
March 21, 1652;" and in the title of his work he is 
styled, " Preacher of the word of God at Deal." He 
died a little before the Restoration. 

He published his recantation sermon in 1642 ; a piece 
entitled, A Duel fought between a Jesuit and a Domini- 
can, 4to. ; and, Survey of the West Indies, folio, 1655, 
translated into French by order of Colbert, 1676. 



GALE, JOHN. 

John Gale, a dissenting minister, was born in Lon- 
don in 1680. He studied at Leyden, where, in his 
nineteenth year, he obtained the degrees of master of 
arts and doctor of philosophy ; on which occasion he 
published his Thesis. From Leyden he went to Amster- 
dam, where he studied under Limborch, and contracted 
an acqaintance with Le Clerc. On the publication of 
Mr. Wall's History of Infant Baptism, he attempted an 
answer to it, which, while it evinced the presumption of 
a young man of twenty-seven, displayed some learning 
and considerable talents. He was afterwards chosen one 
of the ministers of the Baptist congregation in Barbican. 
Dr. Gale died in 1721 ; and after his death, four volumes 
of his sermons were printed. — Funeral Sermon by Bur- 
roughes. 



248 GANGANELLI. 



GALE, THEOPHILUS. 

Theophilus Gale, a Nonconformist, was born in 
1628, at King's Teignton in Devonshire, where his father 
was vicar. He became a commoner of Magdalen Col- 
lege, Oxford, where he took his degrees in arts, and was 
elected to a fellowship. He apostatized from the Church 
of England and was chosen minister at Winchester ; 
but lost that situation and his fellowship at the Res- 
toration for not complying with the terms of subscrip- 
tion. He then became tutor to the sons of Lord Whar- 
ton, and went with them to Caen, and while there con- 
tracted a friendship with Bochart. In 1665 he returned 
to England, and officiated as assistant to Mr. John Rowe, 
who had a congregation in Holborn. He also conducted 
a seminary at Newington, where he died in 1677. He 
published — 1. The true idea of Jansenism, 12mo. 2. 
Theophilus, or a discourse of the saints' amity with God 
in Christ, 8vo. 3. The Anatomy of Infidelity, 8vo. 4. 
Idea Theologiag tarn contemplativae quam activse, 12mo. 
5. Philosophia generalis, 8vo. " The court of the Gen- 
tiles," in four parts, 4to, in which he traces all the my- 
thology, philosophy, and philology of the pagans to 
revelation. — Calamy. 



GANGANELLI. 

John Vincent Anthony Ganganelli, immortalized as 
Pope Clement XIV. for the suppression of the Jesuits, 
was the son of a physician at St. Archangelo, near Rimini, 
and was born in 1705. He received his early education 
at Rimini, and at the age of eighteen entered into the 
order of minor conventual Franciscans at Urbino. He 
studied philosophy and theology at Pezaro, Recanti, Fano, 
and Rame ; and becoming at length a teacher, he gave 



GANGANELLL 249 

lectures in various colleges of his order, and at the age 
of thirty-five was called by his superiors to be theological 
professor in the college of St. Bonaventure at Rome. He 
attracted the notice of Pope Benedict XIV., who made 
him counsellor, or consultor, of the holy office. 

The confidence that every one had in the superior 
knowledge of Ganganelli, obliged him to apply himself 
to studies, which had no connexion with bis employments. 
He had thoroughly to examine the questions treated of 
in the different congregations, those of the council of 
Trent, of the Index, of Rites, of the Government of the 
Church, of the Examination of Bishops : " And not to 
decide at random," used he to say, " I am so apprehen- 
sive of committing a mistake, that I spend three days 
about what would require one only, whenever my advice 
is asked on any business of importance." — More than 
once did the morning surprise him with bis pen in his 
hand, when he thought it was only midnight ; and espe- 
cially while busied in the correction of the oriental books. 

His Roman Catholic biographer, Caraccioli, remarks, 
that Father Ganganelli, giving himself up to such pro- 
found studies, had no taste for the direction of souls. 
He gives proof of this in a letter he wrote to some nuns, 
who teased him to undertake the care of their consciences. 
There might possibly be something of vanity in the step 
they took. More than once have people consulted less 
their wants, than their self-love, in order to attach to 
themselves a director, whose name was famous. People 
are weak enough to imagine, that the reputation of a man 
of talents is reflected back on those he directs ; and to 
persuade themselves, that by discovering to him their 
defects, they partake of his virtues. 

The refusal of Ganganelli was expressed in these terms: 
" Ladies and reverend mothers, I have none of the quali- 
fications requisite for being your director. Always lively 
— sometimes blunt — often absent — perpetually employed, 
I shall neither have time nor patience to hear you. De- 

VOL. V. '2 A. 



250 GANGANELLI. 

tach therefore yourselves from ine, I beseech you ; or I 
will conclude with making a general confession of all my 
imperfections, which will convince you, that I am not the 
guide you stand in need of. The cardinal-vicar is ac- 
quainted with some heavenly souls, who will have the 
patience to weigh seriously your slightest faults, and it is 
to him you ought to address yourselves. If you love God 
alone, you will think your rule your best director; and 
your piety will never be pure, till it be divested of all 
sensible affections. — A truly religious soul belongs neither 
to Cephas, nor Apollos, but to Jesus Christ alone." 

Sometime after this letter, he wrote to the Bishop of 
Perugia, his friend, and concludes thus : " The nuns 
have at length desisted from troubling me, after sending 
me perhaps twenty letters. They never would have 
thought of disturbing my repose, had they known how 
much I am in love with my cell, my books, and my 
labour. If ever I quit these I shall be unhappy. I have 
made a sufficient estimate of the good things of this 
world, to know that there is none greater, than to dwell 
with God and with one's self. You ask me what T am 
doing ? I think, and consider the thoughts which I have 
hatched, as a little family of my own, which keeps me 
company, A man is never alone, but when he withdraws 
from himself, to run into company. I like neither noise 
nor misanthropy. I would rather laugh alone than be 
sad." 

In 1759 he was raised to the cardinalate by Clement 
XIII., whom he succeeded, in May 1769, under the 
name of Clement XIV., through the influence of the 
house of Bourbon, managed by the Cardinal de Bernis. 
Never were the affairs of the Roman see in a more 
critical state. Portugal was on the eve of choosing a 
patriarch ; France, Spain, and Naples, were all medita- 
ting attacks on the papal authority. Venice was pro- 
posing to reform its religious communities ; and Poland 
thought of curtailing the privileges of the pope's nuncio. 



GANGANELLT. 251 

Ganganelli began with conciliatory measures, but void of 
meanness, towards the discontented powers ; and he dis- 
continued the public reading of the bull in Coena Do- 
mini, which was considered offensive to them. 

But urged as he was to suppress the Jesuits, he took 
four years to deliberate on the measure, and the mode of 
its accomplishment. Clement XIV. was sensible, as he 
often said himself, " that the religious orders had degen- 
erated, because it is impossible that fervour should always 
be kept up to the same degree — that no reformation 
lasts above a hundred years ; — and that even then, 
according to the remark of a famous writer, there are 
seventy years for God, and thirty for the world — that 
studies were on the decline in cloisters, as well as else- 
where — in a word, that there were too many convents of 
religious communities, especially in country-places, where 
dissipation brings with it a multitude of abuses. He 
however said, he was at the same time convinced, that the 
total suppression of all the religious orders could not but 
be prejudicial both to religion and to the state — that 
monasteries were bulwarks against ignorance and infidel- 
ity — and that they had supplied mankind with able 
writers, when scarce any body else could read." 

It seems probable from this that he contemplated a 
reformation of the Jesuits, until he found this to be im- 
practicable. After four years of deliberation, the brief 
for suppressing that order was signed. "This brief," 
says his Roman Catholic biographer, "is not one of 
those publications calculated only for a day, and which, 
when our curiosity is satisfied with reading them once 
over, are forgotten; but it is a monument which will 
subsist throughout generations to come, and hath been 
seen in different hghts, only because men judge of it as 
they are affected. We identify ourselves, without per- 
ceiving it, with the principles we have imbibed in our 
youth — with the opinions of those whose company we 
keep — with the ideas of the bodies, whose institute we 



252 GANGANELLI. 

embrace — for fear of losing our credit, or of appearing 
singular: and truth is no more than a chimera, of which 
we make a jest with impunity. ' In public,' said a cer- 
tain man in place, ' I speak in favour of the Jesuits ; but 
I am not interiorly a partisan of theirs.' 

" Notwithstanding all the precautions the pope had 
taken not to be deceived, he still distrusted himself: 
and in order to avoid all reproach, he communicated his 
brief to some of the most learned among the theologians 
and cardinals. He carried his attention still farther, and 
secretly sent it to the potentates interested in the quarrel 
with the Jesuits ; and even to those, who were indifferent 
with respect to that dispute, to take their advice, and not 
to expose his own authority to be called in question. A 
wise precaution, which would have saved Kome a deal of 
vexation and trouble, had she always followed the same 
method, before she published her decrees ! 

"When he had received the answers of the princes, who 
approved of his resolutions, and promised to have them 
executed according to their form and tenor, he waited 
still some time longer : not that he was intimidated by 
papers posted up, even in his own palace, ' recommending 
the holy father to the prayers of the public, as being soon 
to die,' but because a thousand different objects presented 
themselves to his mind. 

*' He saw that he was going to extinguish an order 
fruitful in great men, and which had produced, in every 
climate, literati, missionaries, preachers, men of learning 
and sanctity — that he was going to cause an immense 
chasm both in the pulpits and colleges, which it would 
be very difficult to fill again. Lastly, that he was going 
to render himself odious to a multitude of people in 
power, who were prejudiced in favour of the Jesuits, and 
even to some pious souls, who knowing nothing of them, 
but their edifying exterior, judged them deserving of a 
better fate. 

" He saw at the same time, that their existence ' had 



GANGANELLI. Q53 

caused disturbances almost from the very beginning.' — 
' That the complaints and accusations brought against 
the society increased more and more every day.' — ' That 
the kings of France, Spain, Portugal, and the two Sicilies 
had found themselves absolutely obliged to drive them 
out of their territories, and demand their abolition.' 
— ' That a great number of bishops and others, distin- 
guished for their dignity, learning, and religion, had 
solicited their suppression.' — ' That they could no longer 
produce those excellent and abundant fmits, which were 
the design and end of their institution.' 

" These are the very words of the brief, without any 
addition. 

"He saw lastly, that they themselves had consented to 
their own annihilation, when they declared, without any 
ambiguity, by the mouth of their general, that they rather 
chose to subsist no longer, as a body, than to undergo 
any reformation. 

" This rash answer was the more surprising, as they 
knew that the Church itself may be reformed in matters 
regarding discipline ; and they ought to have remembered 
what Benedict XIV. had said in express terms to their 
general, Centurioni : ' It is an article of faith that I shall 
have a successor, but it is not so that you will have one-' 

" So true it is, that men of the greatest sense are easily 
blinded in their own concerns. The credit and reputa- 
tion which the Jesuits had so long enjoyed, had dazzled 
their eyes. ' Their misfortune was, that they thought 
themselves necessary,' said Cardinal Stoppani. 

" At last Clement XIV. after having maturely weighed 
the motives which determined him, with his eyes raised 
up to heaven, signed the famous brief, which suppresses 
for ever the Company of Jesus. It bears date the 21st 
of July, 1773 ; a day which most certainly will never be 
forgotten in history. And indeed the title of the brief is : 
For an everlasting Memorial." 

The suppression of the Jesuits was succeeded by an 
2 a2 



254 GARDINER. 

immediate reconciliation with the discontented courts. 
But the suppressor of the Jesuits had counted the cost, 
and did not expect long to survive. As his end approach- 
ed, the fervour of his piety increased, and he sought 
consolation in the formularies and ordinances of his 
Church. His last moments are thus described by Car- 
accioli : "In the presence of the sacred college, the ex- 
treme-unction was administered to him, and he ceased 
not, to the moment of his death (which happened on the 
22nd of September, 1774, at seven o'clock in the morning,) 
to testify his confidence in the divine mercy, and the 
most perfect resignation to the will of the Almighty. 
The generals of the Augustins, the Dominicans, the 
Conventual and Observatin friars recited, according to 
custom, the prayers for persons in their agony, and 
Father Marzoni received his last breath. 

" Scarce had he expired, when his body turned black, 
and appeared in a state of putrefaction ; and, according 
to the report of eye-witnesses, upon taking out his bow- 
els, marks of a cruel poison w^ere thought to be discovered. 

" Some will not fail to say, that the Jesuits hastened 
his death ; others, that this stroke came from the hand of 
some grandees, whose glory was eclipsed by the pontifi- 
cate of Ganganelli ; while judicious and disinterested 
people will accuse nobody, but leave this event under the 
dark cloud with which it is at present enveloped, till time 
hath cleared it up." — Caraccioli. 



GARDINER. STEPHEN. 

Stephen Gardiner was born at Bury St. Edmunds, 
in 1483. Of his origin nothing certain is known. The 
man who passed for his father, occupied a menial situa- 
tion in the household of Lionel Woodville, Bishop of 
Salisbury, the brother of Edward the IVth's queen. It 
was, however, commonly believed that the bishop himself 



GARDINER. 255 

was young Gardiner's father. These frequent transgres- 
sions on the part of ecclesiastical dignitaries, while the 
law of clerical celibacy was enforced in our Church, 
ought to be noted by those who would again impose this 
burden upon us, and by those who look with too partial 
an eye upon the state of our Church before the Reforma- 
tion. 

He was educated at Trinity Hall, Cambridge, and in 
1520 took the degree of L.L.D., having diligently ap- 
plied himself to the study of the civil and canon law. 
He soon after became secretary to Cardinal Wolsey. 
While Gardiner was in this employment, the draught of 
a treaty of more than common ability, prepared by him, 
was submitted by Wolsey to the king, w^ho, struck by its 
masterly character, enquired by whom it was drawn up. 
Gardiner thus became known to his sovereign, and in 
1528 he was sent by his majesty to Rome, to negociate the 
affairs of his divorce. Dr. Gardiner had become the master 
of Trinity Hall, and with him was associated Dr. Fox, of 
King's College, in the same university of Cambridge. 
How far these heads of houses were persuaded of the 
justice of the cause in w^hich they were retained, it is 
impossible to ascertain ; but the way to higher preferment 
was open before them, and in that broad way they trod. 
Dr. Gardiner conducted the business with great boldness 
and success. He obtained a commission determining the 
matter of the divorce, directed to the Cardinals Wolsey 
and Campegus, and for a reward he received the thanks 
of the king and cardinal, as well as an autograph letter 
from the heartless Anne Boleyn, who contemplated with 
rapture the ruin of her royal mistress, and her own ele- 
vation to the tyrant's bed and throne. Dr. Gardiner was 
now recalled by the king, who wished to employ him in 
the Legantine court. On his return, he was made Arch- 
deacon of Norfolk, his patron being Nyx, the Bishop of 
Norwich, and soon after he was made secretary of state. 
The attention of Henry, and consequently of his ministers, 



^56 GARDINER. 

was chiefly devoted to the subject of his passion for Anne 
Boleyn, and his divorce from his pious queen ; and Gar- 
diner and Fox having met with Dr. Cranmer at Waltham 
Cross, and having been struck with his view of the sub- 
ject, they introduced that celebrated man to the king, 
and by him they were soon supplanted in the royal favour. 

The disgrace of Wolsey soon followed. Secretary Gar- 
diner was intreated by the cardinal to interfere in his 
favour with the king ; and he did so with success, as the 
cardinal received a sum of money, and was restored to 
the Archbishopric of York. Some writers accuse Dr. 
Gardiner of having been remiss on the occasion; it is 
propable that an ambitious man of the world, for such 
Gardiner was, an aspiring statesman, would not risk his 
own favour with the king for his former benefactor, but 
the result shews that he did exert himself in the cause of 
the cardinal. He seems to have been at least as bold as 
his rival, Dr. Cranmer, on a similar occasion, when the 
like service was required of him by Cromwell. 

x\s the head of a house in Cambridge, Gardiner was 
appointed to procure a declaration from the university in 
favour of the divorce. It was a difficult task. As an 
indirect attack upon the papal supremacy, the king's 
cause was supported by that little body of learned men 
who desired a reformation in the Church. To these the 
heads of houses generally, and the majority of church- 
men, were strongly opposed. But it is customary for 
heads of houses in either university, to set an example of 
obedience to the higher powers ; and Gardiner succeeded, 
but not without a great struggle. It will be interesting 
to many of our readers, to learn how these matters were 
conducted at Cambridge at this time. 

Fehruary, 1530. from Cambridge. 

To the King's Highness. 

" Pleaseth it your highness to be advertised, that 
arriving here at Cambridge upon Saturday last past at 



OARDINER. 257 

noon, that same night and Sunday in the morning, we 
devised with the vice-chancellor, and such other as favour- 
eth your grace's cause, how, and in what sort to compass 
and obtain your grace's purpose and intent, wherein we 
assure your grace, we found much towardness, good-will, 
and diligence in the vice-chancellor, and Dr. Edmunds ; 
being as studious to serve your grace as we could wish or 
desire : nevertheless, there was not so much care, labour, 
study, and diligence employed on our party by them, 
ourself, and other, for attaining your grace's purpose, but 
there was as much done by others, for the let and im- 
peachment of the same ; and as we assembled, they 
assembled ; as we made friends, they made friends, to 
let that nothing should pass as in the university's name, 
v.herein the first day they were superiors ; for they had 
put in the ears of them, by whose voices such things do 
pass, multas Jahulas, too tedious to write unto your grace. 

" Upon Sunday at afternoon were assembled, after the 
manner of the university, all the doctors, bachelors of 
divinity, and masters of art, being in number almost two 
hundred : in that congregation we delivered your grace's 
letters, which were read openly by the vice-chancellor. 
And for answer to be made unto them first, the vice- 
chancellor calling apart the doctors, asked their advice 
and opinion ; whereunto they answered severally as their 
affections led them, et res erat in multa confusione. 

''Tandem they were content. Answer should be made 
to the question by indifferent men : but then they came 
to exceptions against the Abbot of St. Benet's, who seem- 
ed to come for that purpose ; and likewise against Dr. 
Reppes and Dr. Crome, and also generally against all 
such as had allowed Dr. Cranmer's book ; inasmuch as 
they had already declared their opinion ; we said there- 
unto, that by that reason they might except against all ; 
for it was lightly, that in a question so notable as this is, 
every man learned hath said to his friend, as he thinketh 
in it for the time, but we ought not to judge of any man, 



258 GARDINER. 

that he setteth more to defend that which he hath once 
said, than truth afterward known. Finally — the vice- 
chancellor, because the day was much spent in those al- 
tercations, commanding every man to resort to his seat 
apart, as the manner is in those assemblies, willed every 
man's mind to be known secretly, whether they would be 
content with such an order, as he had conceived for 
answer, to be made by the university to your grace's 
letters, whereunto that night they would in no wise agree. 
And forasmuch as it was then dark night, the vice-chan- 
cellor continued the congregation till the next day at one 
of the clock ; at which time the vice-chancellor proponed 
a grace, after the form herein enclosed, and it was first 
denied : when it was asked again, it was even on both 
parties, to be denied or granted ; and at the last, by 
the labour of friends, to cause some to depart the house, 
which were against it, it was obtained in such form, as 
the schedule herein enclosed purporteth, wherein be two 
points which we would have left out ; but considering, by 
putting in of them, we allured many, and that indeed 
they shall not hurt the determination for your grace's 
part, we were finally content therewith. 

" The one point is that where it was first, the qiiicquid 
major pars, of them that be named, decreverit, should be 
taken for the determination of the university. Now^ it 
referred, ad duas partes, wherein we suppose shall be no 
difficulty. The other point is, that your grace's question 
shall be openly disputed, which we think to be very hon- 
ourable ; and it is agreed amongst us, that in that dispu- 
tation, shall answer the Abbot of St. Benet's, Dr. Reppes, 
and I, Mr. Fox, to all such as will object any thing, or 
reason against the conclusion to be sustained for your 
grace's part. And because Mr. Doctor Clyss hath said, 
that he hath somewhat to say concerning the canon law, 
I, your secretary, shall be adjoined unto them for answer 
to be made therein. 

^' In the schedule, which we send unto your grace here- 



GARDINER. '26Q>' 

with, containing the names of those who shall determine 
your grace's question, all marked with the letter (a), be 
already of your grace's opinion, by which we trust, and 
with other good means, to induce and obtain a great part 
of the rest. Thus we beseech Almighty God to preserve 
your most noble and royal estate. 

Your highness' 
Most humble subjects and servants, 

Stephen Gardiner, 
Edward Fox." 

The labours of the master of Trinity Hall, in the ser- 
vice, not of God, but of the king, were rewarded by 
several pieces of preferment, and he was consecrated 
Bishop of Winchester in the year 1531. 

In 1533 he sat with Dr. Cranmer, now Archbishop of 
Canterbury, in the court which pronounced the sentence 
by which Queen Catherine's marriage was pronounced 
null and void. The same year also he went as ambas- 
sador to the French king at Marseilles, where he was 
soon followed by the notorious Dr. Bonner. He was 
sent to watch the interview between the King of France 
and the pope, for it was suspected that the latter designed 
some mischief against England. Archbishop Cranmer 
too, had at this juncture a secret intimation that it was 
intended to excommunicate him, and to lay his kingdom 
under an interdict, and therefore Gardiner and Bonner 
were commissioned both by the king and the archbishop 
to appeal from the pope to the next general council. 
Bonner and Gardiner appear not to have been on the 
best of terms, and there exists a letter in Fox's Acts and 
Monuments, which describes the conduct of the latter as 
very bad. But if the letter is genuine, from our know- 
ledge of Bonner's infamous character, and from the style 
in which it is written, we cannot but suspect that it is an 
invention of that very wicked man. It is not probable 



260 GARDINER. 

that the Bishop of Winchester would use the language 
which Bonner puts into his mouth, if indeed by Bonner 
the letter in Fox was written. 

Gardiner was not won to Popery by his interview with 
the pope, for on his return to England, he not only with 
the other bishops acknowledged the royal supremacy, 
but defended the Reformation so far in his book, De 
Vera Obedientia. To this piece Bonner supplied a preface, 
and the fact that he thus freely co-operated with Gar- 
diner throws suspicion on the letter just alluded to. The 
preface is coarse and sycophantic, the pope is loaded with 
abuse, while the king and the Bishop of Winchester are 
immeasurably extolled. As Gardiner was more of a 
politician than a divine, the value of the work is not 
great. 

Hitherto Gardiner had proceeded with the reforming 
party ; but he was not a man to act a second part, and 
being led by personal feelings to oppose the archbishop, 
he was soon at the head of a party against him. In 1535 
the archbishop began a provincial visitation, and sent a 
monition to the Bishop of Winchester that he intended 
to visit his diocese. The Bishop of Winchester was not 
willing to yield canonical obedience to his grace, and 
betrayed the spirit of a lawyer rather than a divine, in 
endeavouring to excite the odium of the king against the 
archbishop for retaining his ancient title Totius Anglics 
Primas. He pretended to think that this detracted from 
the royal supremacy. In the following year we find him 
opposing the archbishop in convocation, and particularly 
in his attempt to obtain an authorised English version 
of Scripture. 

He was sent again on an embassy to France, where he 
procured the removal of Reginald Pole, then Dean of 
Exeter, from the French dominions. In 1538 he went 
in the same capacity to the German diet at Ratisbon, 
where, his politics having undergone a change, he was 
suspected of holding a secret correspondence with the 
pope. 



GARDINER. ^61 

On his return to England he was engaged with Cran- 
mer in prosecuting Lambert for the ZuingHan heresy. 
But there is no reason to suppose that in this he acted 
more cruelly than Cranmer, though as a courtier and a 
statesman he suggested to the king, already willing, to 
conduct the examination himself. 

It was by the influence of the Bishop of "Winchester, 
now at the head of a party supporting the royal supre- 
macy and the independence of the Church of England, 
but opposed to further innovations, that the act of the 
six articles, commonly called the bloody statute, was 
passed ; of this statute an account is given in the life of 
Cranmer. This was a great triumph to the conservative 
party, and a sad affliction to the reformers. 

Soon after this the Bishop of Winchester incurred 
the censure of protest ants by the following circumstance. 
The bishop had preached at St. Paul's Cross in Lent, 
and led by the gospel of the day, he descanted upon our 
Lord's temptation: "The devil," he said, -'upon that 
mysterious occasion, quoting the psalmist's words, insti- 
gated Jesus to cast himself down forwards : now the great 
enemy of souls, though still citing Scripture, incites men 
to cast themselves backwards : he say?. Go back from 
fasting, go back from praying, go back from confession, 
go back from penance. Formerly the devil, envying man 
the felicity of good works, contrived to have pardons 
brought from Rome, a kind of merchandise which was 
retailed by his agents the friars. But now that these 
traffickers and their trumpery are all clean got rid 
of, he hath raised up the new teachers, who tell you that 
there is no need of works ; only believe, and live as 
merrily as you list, you ^vill come to heaven at last." 

On the third Sunday in Lent, Dr. Barnes attacked the 
bishop in the most indecorous manner, and with that 
vulgar buffoonery for which Exeter Hall is still distin- 
guished. The bishop very naturally and properly com- 
plained to the king of the treatment he had received, 

VOL. V. 2 B 



•^62 GARDINER. 

After a conference between Barnes and the king, and a 
discussion between liim and the Bishop of Winchester, 
the king commanded Dr. Barnes to preach one of the 
Spital sermons, and to renounce such of his opinions as 
were deemed to be erroneous. The same injunction was 
laid upon two other popular preachers, Garret and Je- 
rome ; the first, an Oxford man, having a cure in the 
city, the latter vicar of Stepney. Instead of renouncing 
what the rulers of the Church of England at that time 
deemed the errors of the reforming party, they reiterated 
their assertions, and in the event they were condemned 
to the stake, to which they were drawn with certain other 
persons who had erred in the opposite extreme : Roman- 
ists who had opposed the royal supremacy, and were on 
that account hanged, drawn, and quartered. Dr. Barnes 
suffered with great constancy, and prayed for those who 
had caused his death, whoever they might be ; a prayer 
in which he included Bishop Gardiner. " And Dr. Ste- 
phen, Bishop of Winchester that now is, if he has sought 
and wrought this my death, either by word or deed, I 
pray God forgive him." Whether ultra-protestant histori- 
ans go not too far in inferring from this that the bishop 
was more concerned than other members of what would 
now perhaps be styled a board of heresy, the reader will 
decide. It is certainly a proof that the bishop had con- 
siderable influence with the king, since none were safe 
but those who clearly trod the via media, in which Bishop 
Gardiiier supposed that he had hit the golden mean ; — 
Protestants were condemned, as we have seen, for false 
doctrine, Papists for denying the supremacy of the king, 
Gardiner, who avoided either extreme, supposed himself 
most probably a true Catholic, though we know that such 
he was not. 

That the Bishop of Winchester was not unpopular 
with the churchmen of his day, may be gathered from 
the fact of his being elected chancellor of Cambridge, in 
1540. It was thought perhaps that such a man was 



GARDINER. 268 

most calculated to put a stop to the excesses to which 
some of the learned men of the university, who desired 
a reformation, were hurrying ; while it was known that if 
attached to Romish doctrines he was equally zealous for 
the royal supremacy, and so no Papist. He soon was 
involved in a controversy with Sir John Cheke on the 
proper method of pronouncing Greek, and though Sir 
John was in the right, he compelled him to he silent, by 
that exercise of irresponsible power, with which the heads 
of our universities are properly invested, but which, as in 
this case, is not always exercised with discretion and 
justice. 

Bishop Gardiner, with other prelates, including Arch- 
bishop Cranmer, took a disgraceful part in furthering 
the wishes of the king for disannulling his marriage with 
Ann of Cleves. The pre-contract between her and the 
Duke of Lorrain was alleged by the Bishop of Winchester. 

But Gardiner's craft as a statesman is perhaps more 
conspicuous in his endeavour to supersede the English 
translation of the bible in convocation, by proposing the 
retention of a certain number of Latin words. His object 
was clearly that of evasion, and to keep the people in 
ignorance. The design of Gardiner was to check the 
Reformation. But in his present attempt he failed. But 
though he failed in convocation, he succeeded in joarlia- 
ment, where he obtained an act by which the English 
bible was permitted only to persons of certain prescribed 
ranks. 

The Bishop of Winchester was now the head of the 
anti-reformation party, and the decided opponent of what 
was called the new learning — a strict conservative. He 
strongly enforced the six articles, under which statute he 
prosecuted several persons, and at last designed the ruin 
of the Archbishop of Canterbury, Cranmer himself. But 
in all his attempts to ruin Cranmer he failed. He cer- 
tainly seems to have resorted to the most base artifices 
in plotting against the archbishop, and he employed one 



264 GARDINER. 

Dr. Loudon in this iniquitous affair, a man who was 
afterwards convicted of perjury. By means of intercepted 
letters, some from Gardiner, and others from this man, 
Loudon, the scheme was discovered ; and the king being 
thoroughly convinced of its malevolence, it was crushed. 
And as to the Bishop of Winchester, from this time he 
lost much of that favour with the king, which he had 
before enjoyed. 

In 1544 he was involved in some danger through his 
secretary, German Gardiner. This young man, who 
enjoyed the prelate's confidence, was condemned and 
executed for denying the royal supremacy. The Bishop 
of Winchester was suspected by the king, whose suspicions 
w^ere encouraged by the reforming party, of entertaining 
opinions similar to those of his secretary, and he only 
saved himself by the most abject submission. 

In 1545, while the Bishop of Winchester was employed 
in Flanders, in soliciting a league between the emperor, 
the French king, and the king of England, the Archbishop 
of Canterbury and the reformers, endeavoured to procure 
the abolition of certain superstitions ; but the Bishop of 
Winchester was too watchful a minister to be circum- 
vented, and he persuaded the king that the success of 
his mission depended upon there being no innovations 
in religion. 

On his return from Flanders, the Bishop of Winchester, 
now the chief minister of the crown, set on foot various 
prosecutions under the bloody statute, or the statute of 
six articles ; one of these prosecutions was conducted in 
a manner peculiarly infamous ; Ann Askew, a lady of 
family, and of unblemished life, was tortured on the 
rack, — Lord Chancellor Wriothesley actually drawing the 
rack himself. As this anecdote is barely related by the 
historians it is scarcely credible; it is therefore necessary 
to remark that Ann Askew was a friend of the queen, 
and Catharine Parr was known to be unfriendly to the 
ministry. It was hoped, therefore, to compel Ann Askew 



GARDINER. 265 

to implicate her mistress. The heroic woman remained 
firm to the last, and was burnt for heresy. It is impossi- 
ble to acquit the Bishop of Winchester of an awful share 
in this great crime, even if we admit that the cruelty of 
Wriothesley urged him on beyond the intentions of the 
other ministers. Bishop Gardiner always expressed, 
and seems to have had a great respect for the law, in 
which he was deeply read, and he knew that having 
recourse to the rack was contrary to the law. But to 
what courses will not the ambition of statesmen lead 
them ! The continuation of a conservative ministry 
seemed to depend upon the queen's removal, who was a 
decided reformer, and whose influence over the aged 
king was increasing. By her hasty marriage after the 
king's death she was evidently not a woman of a high 
tone of mind, but she took up the opinions of the new 
school ; and with some pretensions to learning, she was 
accustomed to maintain them, as we gather, from what she 
afterwards stated herself, half in sport before the king. 
Availing himself of an occasional indiscretion on her part, 
and some irritation against her on the part of the king, 
the Bishop of Winchester had almost effected her ruin. 
But the queen, who discovered the plot, was so alarmed 
as to bring on a violent and dangerous illness, which so 
affected the king, that with a little pnidence on the 
queen's part, who was not ambitious of martyrdom, a 
reconciliation ensued. From this time the king took a 
great dislike to his conservative ministers, and especially 
to their chief, the Bishop of Winchester, although he had 
not energy left to replace them. 

Hence the Bishop of Winchester, when the king's will 
was again drawn out, was no longer mentioned as one of 
the executors, and consequently, when in January, 1547, 
king Henry died, the power of the Bishop of Winchester 
ceased. 

The reformers obtained, with the accession of Edward' 
the administration of affairs; and Archbishop Cranmer 
2b2 



266 GARDINER. 

endeavoured, but in vain, to bring the Bishop of Win* 
Chester to a concurrence, or at least an acquiescence in 
their measures. But the bishop remained firm to his 
principles. Viewing the subject rather as a politician 
than a divine, he dreaded the movement, lest it should 
involve the country in trouble ; and we may fairly suppose 
that as a conservative, he dreaded yet more the avarice of 
the lay reformers, and even we may say of some among 
the more pious of the clergy, since Cranmer enriched his 
family by the spoils of the Church. He saw the institu- 
tions of the country to be in danger, and the very exist- 
ence of the established Church to be in peril, and he 
expressed himself resolutely against all innovation, pro- 
testing against all change during the king's minority. 
However great were the offences of the Bishop of Win- 
chester, and however bad his character as a divine, he 
at this time stood forth as a bold, courageous, and con- 
sistent conservative. 

The Bishop of Winchester perceived that his whole 
influence would depend on his placing himself at the 
head of that large party, who on religious grounds were 
opposed to the movement, and he seized the first oppor- 
tunity which occurred of declaring his sentiments. On 
Ash- Wednesday, the celebrated Dr. Ridley preached 
against the use of images, as instruments of devotion, 
and of holy water, as a means of repelling devils. To 
this sermon the Bishop of Winchester replied in a letter, 
such as might be expected from a man of his distinguished 
powers of mind, but with insufficient arguments, as the 
badness of the cause implies. 

The popular feeling was now beginning in many places 
to show itself in favour of the Reformation, and Bishop 
Gardiner, a staunch conservative of the time, foresaw, if 
we may adapt to the circumstances modern phrases, 
whiggery passing into radicalism. He was in his own 
diocese annoyed by the populace, who destroyed the 
images, and he wrote a very powerful letter on the sub- 



GARDINER. 267 

ject to the protector Somerset. He justly complained of 
popular rhymes, in which he was himself lampooned, 
and the feast of Lent decried. His remonstrances were 
not attended to, and he did not perhaps expect it to be 
otherwise. 

In 1547, a royal \isitation was appointed by the re- 
forming government ; the powers of the visitors were very 
extensive, and the jurisdiction of the bishops was inhi- 
bited. The act, in itself tyrannical, and contrary to the 
canons of the Church of England, was rendered still more 
irregular, because the visitors before whom the bishops 
were cited, w^ere most of them laymen. Certain injunc- 
tions were delivered by the visitors, to which, in them- 
selves, there is but little to object. None were allowed 
to preach but those who had a royal license, and the royal 
license was extended to those only who held the opini- 
ons of the reformers ; a proceeding which w^ould not in 
these days be considered liberal, especially in a party con- 
tending for liberty. The last part of the bidding prayer, 
differing from what is at present used, runs thus : " You 
shall pray for them that are departed out of this world in 
the faith of Christ, that they with us, and we with them, 
at the day of judgment, may rest both in body and soul." 

To the visitation, the Bishop of Winchester objected, 
as unnecessary and inexpedient; to the injunctions he 
was opposed on other grounds ; and he also found fault 
with the doctrine of some of the homilies, lately published 
under the auspices of the archbishop. It was a great 
object with the government to secure, at least, the silence 
of such a man as the Bishop of Winchester; and Sir John 
God salve, one of the visitors, and a personal friend of his 
lordship, ventured to urge him to be discreet, lest he 
should ruin himself and lose his bishopric. To this the 
prelate returned a noble answer, one of the most striking 
letters in our language, to which even Burnet, the most 
bitter of historians, when speaking of parties differing 
from him in sentiment, accords the meed of his praise. 



^68 GARDINER. 

This was indeed the golden period of Dr. Gardiner's life. 
He maintained his principles with firmness and dignity. 
He asked for and obtained permission to detail his objec- 
tions to the proposed measures before the council, but he 
did not leave the country before he had given orders for 
the respectful reception of the visitors ; and to the clergy 
who consulted him, he counselled obedience to the in- 
junctions likely to be imposed. After arguing before the 
council, he was required to state his intentions respecting 
the injunctions, and when he said that he would receive 
them so far as the laws of God and the king should bind 
him, the answer was represented as evasive. He then 
offered to spend the three weeks which would elapse 
before the visitation of his own diocese at Oxford, and 
after a disputation there on the points at issue, to abide 
by its result. When this offer was refused, he requested 
leave to remain at his town house, and there to discuss 
with some divines of eminence the doctrines upon which 
he differed with the council. But the reforming party 
would come to no compromise; they insisted on his re- 
ceiving the injunctions without qualification, or being 
committed to custody. Necessity, so often the plea of 
men in power, w^as doubtless the plea urged by the 
reformers on the present occasion. The Bishop of Win- 
chester had conducted himself throughout the proceedings 
with dignity and composure. He professed to be open 
to conviction, but readily admitted that he had uttered to 
others the opinions he expressed to the board. He re- 
marked on the hardship of committing a man to prison 
for talking of the manner he intended to act upon an 
occasion not yet arrived ; but as the council had decreed 
otherwise, he submitted with magnanimity, and was 
committed to the Fleet. 

Never was the Bishop of Winchester in so proud a 
situation as that which he now occupied ; a confessor for 
what he deemed to be the cause of truth, and the perse- 
cuted leader of a party which, though rapidly sinking in 



GARDINER. 269 

political influence, was still dear to a majority of the 
people. If Gardiner had died at this time, he would 
have been handed down in the page of history as a great 
man. 

The bishop continued in prison until the 8th of Janu- 
ary, when parliament had broken up. that is to say, the 
government kept in prison the leader of the opposition 
until they had carried all their measures. x\s Gardiner 
was a politician, and not a person under the strong 
impulses of religion, he was not likely to be hurried into 
excesses, and on being liberated, he conducted himself 
with great discretion : he professed his willingness to be 
guided by the conduct of his episcopal brethren, and as 
to the homilies, though he still objected to the one on 
justification, he admitted the general soundness of their 
doctrine. He returned to his diocese, and though still 
at the head of the Romish party in our Church, both by 
his precept and example, induced the clergy to acquiesce 
in those changes which were now enjoined, and which 
he knew infringed not any principle of the Church. 

But although this is admitted by all the histoiians, a 
report, whether true or not, in 1548 reached the council, 
of his having armed his servants, and conducted himself 
in other respects contumaciously, and before the council 
he was summoned again. On this occasion, the Bishop 
of Winchester, the head of the Romish party in the 
Church of England, and consequently a man of immense 
influence, still conducted himself with dignity, and in a 
conciliatory temper. Having clearly vindicated himself 
from the charges brought against him, he was at last 
directed to preach a written sermon before the king, ac- 
cording to the tenour of two papers which were produced 
by Cecil. Gardiner expressed his readiness to preach, 
and also to comment upon most of the subjects recom- 
mended to him, but he refused to write his sermon, or 
hand it over to previous inspection. The government 
seems to have felt intense anxiety as to this sermon, and 



270 GARDINER. 

many were the messages sent to the bishop, who seems to 
have been determined to offer as it were the ultimatum of 
the Romish party in our Church, to offer certain compro- 
mises, but to make a principle by which they were deter- 
mined to abide. The sermon was delivered on the feast of 
St. Peter and St. Paul, the ^Oth of June : he admitted that 
the papal supremacy was justly abolished ; that monaste- 
ries and chantries were properly suppressed ; that the 
king's proceedings had hitherto been unexceptionable ; 
that, all things considered, it was as well to remove 
images, though with proper caution they might be re- 
tained ; that masses satisfactory, having become so very 
numerous, were better put down ; that the new commu- 
nion service was worthy of commendation ; that the 
admission of the laity to the sacramental cup was a 
proper measure ; but transubstantiation he would not 
give up ; on the contrary, he defended it at considerable 
length; and what gave more offence to the political 
reformers, as to the authority vested in a minor king the 
sermon was silent. The sermon was listened to with 
intense interest, the reforming party cheering at the con- 
cessions, the Romish party sending counter cheers when 
he brought forward the doctrine of transubstantiation, 
which was used ever afterwards as the test of Romanism. 
For this sermon the bishop was committed to the 
Tower ! And he remained in prison during the whole of 
this reign. In 1550 he published an answer to Arch- 
bishop Cranmer's " Defence of the True and Catholic 
Doctrine of the Sacrament of the Body and Blood of our 
Saviour Christ." But the early studies of the Bishop of 
Winchester had been directed to law rather than divinity, 
and thus his work was a failure. He was well employed 
during his imprisonment in composing a variety of Latin 
poems, and by translating into verse several passages 
in the books of Ecclesiastes, Wisdom, Job, and other 
parts of the Old Testament. In the same year he was 
most unjustly and iniquitously deprived of his bishopric 



GARDINER. 271 

by a commission, over which Cranmer presided. Although 
Dr. Poynet was appointed his successor, he was only 
allowed a pension of two thousand marks, the estates of 
the see being seized by the greedy reformers of the court. 
The disgraceful rapacity of the reformers has cast a shade 
over the motives of most of the laymen who promoted 
the Reformation, and in this instance a thirst for the 
spoil may have rendered the courtiers the more eager 
for his condemnation. 

By the death of Edward, and the accession of Mary, 
Bishop Gardiner was restored to his episcopal rights, and 
to political power. And now the most disgraceful part 
of his career commences. He was created chancellor, and 
was the chief minister of the crown. He had hitherto 
been willing to make concessions, but the reforming prin- 
ciples had run to such an extreme, that he was now anxious 
to retrace some of the steps that had been taken, — a very 
serious proceeding, such as seldom succeeds. The bishop 
wished to proceed with greater caution in retracing past 
steps, than the more honest zeal of the queen would 
allow. Both parliament and convocation, the latter of 
which is said to have been packed, were quite prepared ; 
the former to repeal the religious statutes of the last reign, 
and the latter to assert the doctrine of transubstantiation. 
The Romish party was once again, and for the last time, 
in the ascendant in our Church. The Bishop of Win- 
chester acceded now to the papal supremacy. Cardinal 
Pole became Archbishop of Canterbury, and reconciled 
England to the see of Rome. And under Gardiner's 
administration the laws were put in force against all who 
did not conform to the prevailing Romanism. And as 
chancellor, many of the visitors were brought before him ; 
and it must be confessed that on these occasions he lost 
that dignity of character which he maintained under the 
pressure of adversity ; he frequently betrayed a malicious 
and revengeful spirit. But while the chancellor was 
engaged in upholding the politic interests of the queen, 



;^7a GASTRELL. 

and prosecuting the Protestants, bis physical strength 
began to faib His mortal seizure is said by some to 
have been suppression of urine ; by others a violent attack 
of the gout. His bodily sufferings were great, his mental 
anguish greater. To religion the mind of Gardiner had 
been turned, although throughout his life religion was 
regarded by him with the eye of the politician ; he now 
began to see the nothingness of every thing except religion. 
The indignation of his Protestant contemporaries, has 
certainly exaggerated his moral defects, but still he had 
been merely a politician, and this was an awful thought 
to an ecclesiastic just passing into eternity. "Alas !" he 
said, " like Peter I have erred, but I have not like Peter 
gone out and wept bitterly." He died at Westminster, 
on the 12th of November, 1555. — Strype. Burnet. Col- 
lier. Soames. Heylin. Dod. 

GASTEELL, FRANCIS. 

Francis Gastrell was born at Slapton, in Northamp- 
tonshire, about 166'2, and educated at Westminster 
School, and Christ Church, Oxford. He was preacher 
at Lincoln's Inn, and Boyle's lecturer, and distinguished 
himself not only by his eloquence in the pulpit, but by 
his writings in defence of the Christian religion. In 
1700 he took his degree of D.D., and became chaplain to 
Harley, speaker of the house of commons, and in 1702 
he was appointed canon of Christ Church, Oxford. In 
1711 he was chaplain to the queen, and in 1714 he was 
raised to the see of Chester, with permission to retain 
his canonry; but he resigned his preachership at Lin- 
coln's Inn. 

He was strongly opposed to the tyrannical proceedings 
of the whig ministry of George I., and warmly vindicated 
the university of Oxford, when it was attacked for a 
pretended riot on the birth day of the Prince of Wales, 
in 1717. 



GASTRELL. 373 

As Bishop of Chester he was involved in a very remark- 
able contest with the Archbishop of Canterbuiy, about 
the force and quality of the degrees granted in virtue of 
his metropolitical power. The occasion was this. The 
presentation to the place of warden of the collegiate- 
church of Manchester in Lancashire pertaining to the 
crown, George I. nominated thereto Mr. Samuel Peploe, 
vicar of Preston in the same county. But that gentleman, 
being then only master of arts, found himself obliged by 
the charter of the college, to take the degree of bachelor 
of divinity, as a necessary qualification to hold the war- 
denship. To that end having been bred at Oxford, where 
he had taken his former degrees, he went thither in order 
to obtain this, and had actually prepared the best part of 
his exercise for that purpose, when he was called to Lam- 
beth, and there created bachelor of divinity, by the arch- 
bishop, who, under the influence of party spirit, thought 
the university ought, in respect to the royal nomination, 
to dispense with the usual exercise. With this title, he 
applied to Dr. Gastrel, in whose diocese the church of 
Manchester then lay, for institution. But the bishop 
being persuaded, that his degree was not a sufficient 
qualification in this case, refused to admit him ; and 
observed to him, that being in all respects qualified 
to take his degree regularly in the university, he might 
proceed that way without any danger of being denied, 
and that, if he desired any favour usually shown to 
other persons, he would endeavour to obtain it for him, 
and did not doubt but the university would grant it. 
On the other hand, Mr. Peploe insisted on his qualifica- 
tion by the archbishop, and had recourse to the court of 
king's bench, where sentence was given in his favour. 
Hereupon, Dr. Gastrel, in his own vindication, published 
" The Bishop of Chester's case, with relation to the war- 
denship of Manchester. In which is shown, that no 
other degrees, but such as are taken in the university, 
can be deemed legal qualifications for any ecclesiastical 
VOL. V. 2 c 



274 GASTRELL. 

preferment in England." This was printed at Oxford, 
and that university, March 22, 1720, decreed in a full 
convocation, that solemn thanks should be returned to 
the bishop, for his having so fully asserted the rights, 
privileges, and dignities, belonging to the university de- 
grees in this book. The dispute was carried on with 
great warmth, and among other things, there passed 
some letters between the bishop and Dr. Gibson, after- 
wards Bishop of London, who threatened our author 
with being called to an account for his conduct by the 
archbishop ; but in answer thereto, he declared that he 
feared nothing that could happen to him in this world, 
and as to the account which was to be made in the next, 
he believed he stood as good a chance as his adversaries. 

This affair was scarcely concluded, when the prosecu- 
tion commenced against Dr. Francis Atterbury, Bishop of 
Rochester. Our author never liked the haughty temper 
of that prelate, and had always opposed his arbitrary at- 
tempts while dean of Christ Church. Yet being satis- 
lied in his conscience, that the proceedings in parliament 
against him were conducted in a tyrannical temper, and 
with too much violence, he opposed them with great 
resolution, and when the bill for inflicting pains and 
penalties upon his old schoolfellow and collegian was 
before the house of lords, he spoke against it with all the 
earnestness and warmth that was natural to his temper, 
not sparing to censure the rest of his brethren on the 
bishops' bench, who all concurred with the bill. 

The whigs, indeed, had resorted to their usual course ; 
hating the Church, but not daring to attack it, they 
sought to undermine it, by preferring persons unworthy 
of the office, and who had no moral influence with the 
other clergy. Good bishops there were on the bench, 
but the majority had been prefen-ed because of their 
being suspected of holding heretical tenets, and because 
of their supposed readiness to aid the ministry in their 
endeavours to ruin the Church. 



GATAKER. 275 

He survived the Bishop of Rochester's banishment but 
a few years. The gout, with which he had been much 
afflicted in the latter part of his Ufe, put a period to it, 
November 24, 1725, in the 62nd or 63rd year of his age. 
He died at his canon's lodgings, in Christ Church, and 
was buried in that cathedral. 

Among the most celebrated of his writings are — 1. A 
Treatise on the Moral Proof of a Future State, and 
another, entitled Christian Institutes. A series of Boyle's 
Lectures, afterwards arranged as a continuous discourse 
against Deism. And pamphlets against Dr. Samuel 
Clarke and Mr. Collins, on the question of the Trinity. 
This last treatise was written early in 1714, and mainly 
contributed to his advancement to the episcopal dignity 
in the reign of Queen Anne. — Biog. Brit. Nichols' Atter 
bury and Bowyer. 



GATAKEE, THOMAS. 

Thomas Gataker was born in London in 1574; was 
sent to St. John's College, Cambridge, in 1590; and on 
the foundation of Sidney College, in 1596, he was ap- 
pointed one of the fellows. Having been ordained, he 
commenced preaching at the parish church of Everton, 
near Cambridge, and soon after removed to London, and 
became preacher to the society of Lincoln's Inn. In 
1603 he went down to Cambridge to take his degree of 
bachelor of divinity ; and it so fell out, that he preached 
at St. Mary's on the very day that the news came of the 
death of Queen Elizabeth, when, by the direction of the 
vice-chancellor, he prayed for the present supreme gover- 
nor, it being thought unsafe to name King James, till 
they received advice of his accession by authority. About 
this time an alteration was made as to the hour of the 
lecture on the Lord's day at Lincoln's Inn, occasioned 
chiefly by Mr. Gataker's taking notice in one of his ser- 



276 . GATAKER. 

mons, that it was as lawful for the husbandman to follow 
his tillage, as for counsellors to confer with their clients 
and give advice upon that day. This admonition was 
well received, and, instead of preaching at seven in the 
morning, as the practice had always been, he was desired 
to preach at the usual hour of morning service. The 
Wednesday's lecture was also transferred to Sunday in 
the afternoon; and this provision was made, that the 
spare hours in which the clients came to their lawyer's 
chambers, should be better employed. 

In 1611 he was presented to the rectory of Rotherhithe 
in Surrey ; and while resident there, published the sub- 
stance of a course of sermons, under the title of " The 
nature and use of Lots ; a Treatise, historical and theo- 
logical," 1619, 4to. In the next year he made a tour 
through the Netherlands, and after his return home in 
1623, he published a Defence of his Treatise on Lots, 
against the animadversions of a Mr. Balmford. In ] 637 
appeared a more extended defence of his opinions, under 
the title of *' Thomae Gatakeri Londinatis Antithesis 
partim Gulielmi Amesii, partim Gisberti Voetii de Sorte 
Thesibus reposita," 4to. In 1642 he was chosen by the 
rebels one of the assembly of divines at Westminster ; 
but in the discussions which took place, he opposed the 
introduction of the Covenant, and declared in favour of 
episcopacy, that is to say, of a nominal episcopacy, in 
whicji bishops would be regarded as the same in order as 
presbyters. Although he in general complied with the 
authority of the parliament, yet he remonstrated strongly 
against the trial of King Charles I. In 1648 he pub- 
lished " Thomas Gatakeri de Novi Testamenti Stylo 
Dissertatio," 4to, in which he vindicated the purity of 
the language of the sacred writers against the objections 
of Sebastian Pfochenius. This was followed by his "Ad- 
versaria miscellanea Animadversionum variorum, lib. vi. 
comprehensa," 1651, 4to. The following year he pub- 
lished an edition of the meditations of the emperor 



GATAKER. ^77 

Marcus Antoninus. He died in 1654 ; and in 1659 bis 
son, Charles Gataker, published " Adversaria Miscellanea 
Posthuma, folio," forming the sequel to the former work. 
He was the author of several other theological productions. 
His Opera Critica were printed at Utrecht, 1693, folio. — 
Biog. Brit. 



GATAKER, CHAELES. 

Charles Gataker, son of the preceding, was born at 
Rotherhithe, about 1614, and educated at St. Paul's 
School, and at Sidney College, Cambridge, whence, after 
he had taken the degree of bachelor of arts, he went to 
Pembroke College, Oxford. About that time he became 
acquainted with Lucius Lord Viscount Falkland, who 
made him his chaplain. Afterwards, through the influ- 
ence of the Earl of Caernarvon, he became rector of 
Hoggeston, in Buckinghamshire, about 1647, and con- 
tinued there till his death in 1680. He wrote several 
treatises upon Calvinistical principles, of which the fol- 
lowing are the principal : 1. The Way of Tiiith and 
Peace, or a Reconciliation of the holy Apostles, St. Paul 
and St. James, concerning Justification, &c. 1669. 2. An 
Answer to five captious Questions propounded by a 
Factor for the Papacy, by parallel questions and positive 
resolutions, London 1673, 4to. 3. The Papists' Bait, or 
their usual Method of gaining Proselytes answered, 
London, 1674, 4to. 4. Ichnographia Doctrinse de Justifi- 
catione secundum Typum in Monte, London, 1681, 4to. 

Gataker derives his chief notoriety from his having 
been noticed by Bishop Bull. He wrote animadversions 
on Bull's Harmonia Apostolica, which, concealing his 
name, he communicated to several bishops, stirring them 
up by letter to make use of their authority against the 
doctrines maintained by Bishop Bull, as pernicious and 
heretical, and contrary to the decrees of the Church of 
2c2 



278 ^ GAUDEN. 

England, and of all other reformed Churches. These 
"Animadversions," which are commonly cited by Bishop 
Bull under the name of Censura, were communicated to 
him in 1670 by Dr. Nicholson, Bishop of Gloucester; 
and in 1671 they were discovered to Bishop Bull to have 
been written by Mr. Charles Gataker, who in these 
" Animadversions," endeavours to reconcile St. Paul with 
St. James by the distinction of a twofold justification, as 
respecting a twofold accusation, according to the different 
conditions of the covenant of works, and the covenant of 
grace. For he maintains, that we are accused before 
God, either as sinners or as unbelievers ; and that we are 
justified against the first accusation by faith alone, laying 
hold on the grace and righteousness of Christ; and 
against the second by works, and not by faith only, as 
these are the signs and evidences of our being true be- 
lievers. Mr. Nelson observes, that Mr. Gataker "appears 
to have been a person of great violence in his temper, 
but one well-intentioned, and a very zealous protestant ; 
and had he had but more coolness of thought, and had 
he withal read more of the ancients, and fewer of the 
moderns, he would have made no inconsiderable writer." 
Bishop Bull wrote an answer to these " Animadversions," 
which he entitled " Examen Censurae," in which he re- 
flects severely on Mr. Charles Gataker for publishing his 
father's posthumous tract above-mentioned, since he had 
not thereby consulted the reputation of a parent, who by 
his great critical knowledge, and other learning, had made 
himself more considerable, than to deserve that such 
crudities should be published under his name, at least 
by a son. — Chalmers. 



GAUDEN, JOHN. 

John Gauden was born in 1605, atMayfield, in Essex, 
where his father was vicar. He was educated at Bury 



GAUDEN. 279 

St. Edmund's School, and at St. John's College, Cam- 
bridge. In 1630 he obtained the ^'icarage of Chippenham, 
in Cambridgeshire, and afterwards the rectory of Bright- 
well, in Berkshire. He was chaplain to Lord Warwick, 
and preached before the house of commons with such 
acceptation, that the parliament presented him in the 
following year to the rich deanery of Bocking. in Essex, 
for the regular possession of which he obtained the colla- 
tion of Laud, then a prisoner in the tower. He sub- 
mitted to the regulations of the parliament upon the 
abolition of the hierarchy, and he was one of the assembly 
of divines who met at Westminster ; but his name was 
struck off the list, and that of Thomas Godwin was sub- 
stituted for it. When preparations were made to try the 
king, he was one of those divines who boldly petitioned 
against it; and after the king's death he published a 
Just Invective against those who murdered King Charles 
I., &G. 

At this period he published the work, by his connexion 
with which, his name is rescued from the oblivion to 
which it would otherwise have been long since consigned. 
Having obtained possession of the Meditations of Charles 
L, he took a copy of the manuscript, and immediately 
resolving to print it with all speed, he prevailed with 
Mr. Royston, the king's printer, to undertake the work. 
But when it was about half printed, a discovery of it was 
made by the rebels, and all the sheets then wrought off 
were destroyed. This did not, however, damp Dr. Gau- 
den's spirit. He attempted, notwithstanding, to print it 
again, but could by no possible means get it finished, 
till some few days after his majesty's destruction, when 
it came out under the title of Ei/cwv "BamXiKri, or, " The 
portraiture of his sacred majesty in his solitude and suf- 
ferings." Upon its first appearance, the dissenters now 
at the head of affairs, were immediately sensible how 
dangerous a book it was to their cause, and therefore set 
all their engines at work to discover the publisher ; and 



280 GAUDENTIUS. 

having seized the manuscript which had been sent to the 
king, they appointed a committee to examine into the 
business. Dr. Gauden having notice of this proceeding, 
withdrew privately in the night from his own house to 
Sir John Wentworth's, near Yarmouth, with a design to 
convey himself beyond sea. But, Mr. Symonds, his ma- 
jesty's chaplain, who had communicated the manuscript 
to the doctor, and had been taken up in a disguise, hap- 
pening to die before his intended examination, the com- 
mittee were not able to find out any thing, by any means 
whatsoever ; hereupon, the doctor changed his resolution, 
and stayed in England ; where he directed his conduct 
with so much policy, as to keep his preferments during 
the several periods of the usurpation, notwithstanding, 
he published several treatises in vindication of the Church 
of England and its ministers, as may be seen below. 

This unprincipled man, to further the purposes of his 
ambition, asserted that he was himself the author of the 
book, and not merely its editor and publisher. To this 
very day the subject is under controversy, the truth pro- 
bably being, that Gauden had the king's own book for 
the foundation, making such additions and alterations as 
fitted it for publication. 

Soon after the restoration he became Bishop of Exeter, 
and having made a fortune there by the renewal of leases, 
was translated to Worcester, much disappointed at miss- 
ing the lucrative see of Winchester. He died unregretted, 
in 1662. — Biog. Brit. Wordsworth. 



GAUDENTIUS. 

Of the elrly life of St. Gaudentius we know nothing. 
It is supposed that he was educated under St. Philas- 
trius. Bishop of Brescia, whom he styles his father. 
He obtained a high reputation early in life, and fearful 
of encouraging vanity, he travelled to Jerusalem. During 



GEDDES. 281 

his absence St. Philastrius died, and the clergy and 
people of Brescia, who had been accustomed to receive 
from him solid instructions, and in his person to see at 
their head a perfect model of Christian virtue, pitched 
upon him for their bishop, and fearing obstacles from his 
humility, bound themselves by oath to receive no other 
for their pastor. The bishops of the province met, and 
with St. Ambrose, their metropolitan, confirmed the 
election. Letters were dispatched to St. Gaudentius, who 
was then in Cappadocia, to press his speedy return : but 
he only yielded to the threat of an excommunication, if 
he refused to obey. He was ordained by St. Ambrose, 
with other bishops of the province about the year 387. 
He was one of the deputation sent to Constantinople, 
in the year 404 or 405, by the emperor Honorius and 
the Western bishops, to appease the resentment of the 
emperor Arcadius, against St. Chrysostom, and to inter- 
cede for his peaceable re-establishment in his see. The 
time of his death is fixed by some, in the year 410, and 
and by others, in 427. He is supposed to have been the 
author of the Life of Philastrius, which is to be found 
in Surius under the 18th of July. There are fifteen 
discourses, and other treatises on different subjects, 
addressed to Benevolus, a person of consequence in 
Brescia, letters, and other pieces, which are inserted in 
the fifteenth volume of the Bibleotheca Patrum. The 
most complete edition of his works is that published 
at Brescia in 1738, by Paul Galearoli.' — Cave. Dupin. 
Butler. 



GEDDES, MICHAEL. 

Michael Geddes was born in Scotland, and educated 
at Edinburgh. In 1678, he was appointed chaplain to 
the English factory at Lisbon, and remained in that 
office for ten years. But in 1686 he was summoned to 



282 GEDDES. 

appear before the court of the Inquisition. When he 
came into the presence of the judges, they received him at 
first with great affectation of civility and courtesy, desir- 
ing him to sit down and to be covered, before they pro- 
ceeded to examine him. After this ceremony was over, 
they sternly asked him how he dared to preach or exercise 
his function, in that city? He answered, that he enjoyed 
that liberty by virtue of an article in the treaty between 
the crowns of Portugal and England; that it was a 
privilege which had never been called in question ; and 
that he had resided at Lisbon for eight years, during 
which time he had served the English factory in the 
capacity of chaplain, as many others had done before him. 
To these declarations they replied, not without being 
guilty of the grossest falsehood, that they were entirely 
ignorant till lately that any such liberty had been assum- 
ed by him or others, and that if they had known it they 
would never have suffered it. They then strictly forbade 
him to minister any more to his congregation; and, after 
threatening him with their vengeance if he should 
venture to disobey them, gave him his dismission. It 
is said, and not without probability, that they were 
encouraged to take this step by the catholic party in 
England, where active measures were now pursuing for 
the re-establishment of the popish religion. Upon this 
interdiction, letters of complaint were addressed by the 
factory to the Bishop of London ; but as they did not 
reach England before the suspension of his lordship, all 
hopes of speedy redress were lost. Until the arrival of 
Mr. Scarborough, the English envoy, the English pro- 
testants in Lisbon were wholly debarred the exercise of 
their religion ; and they were then obliged, for a time, to 
shelter themselves under the privileges of his character 
as a public minister. In this state of things Mr. Geddes 
thought it adviseable to return to his native country, 
which he did in the beginning of the year 1688. 

On his return to England he obtained an L.L.D. de- 



GEDDES. 283 

gree from the university of Oxford, and was made chan- 
cellor of Samm, by Bishop Burnet. He wrote, a History 
of the Church of Malabar ; the Church History of Ethio- 
pia ; Miscellaneous Tracts against Popery, 3 vols, 8vo ; 
and the Council of Trent no Free Assembly. He died 
in 1715. — Birclis life of Tillotson. Aikin. 



GEDDES, ALEXANDER. 

Alexander Geddes, a Socinian in principle, if not 
something worse, though by profession a Romish priest, 
was born at Ruthven, in the shire of Bamff, in 1737. 
He was educated in the Scotch College at Paris, after 
which he officiated as a priest in his native country some 
years, where he published a translation of the satires of 
Horace, and obtained the degree of doctor of laws. In 
1780 he removed to London, and officiated some time 
in the Roman catholic chapels ; but, in 1782, he relin- 
quished the priestly function altogether. He now entered 
upon the great work of translating the bible, and issued 
proposals for the undertaking, which met with encourage- 
ment ; and Lord Petre allowed him a pension to carry it 
into effect. The first volume appeared in 1792, and the 
second in 1797 ; but much to the disappointment of those 
who had formed great expectations from it. In 1800 he 
published " Critical Remarks on the Hebrew Scriptures ;" 
in which he vilified Moses as a writer and a legislator to 
such a degree, that even Priestley doubted whether Ged- 
des could be a christian. 

On the day anterior to his decease he was visited as 
usual by his friend, M. St. Martin, professor of theology, 
and a doctor of the Sorbonne, who officially attended him 
as his priest. On entering the room, says Mr. Mason 
Good, M. St. Martin found the doctor extremely comatose, 
and believed him to be in the utmost danger: he en- 
deavoured to rouse him from his lethargy, and proposed 



284 GELASIUS. 

to him to receive absolution. Dr. Geddes observed that, 
in such case, it was necessary he should first make his 
confession. M. St. Martin was sensible that he had 
neither strength nor wakefulness enough for such an 
exertion, and replied that in extremis this was not neces- 
sary : that he had only to examine the state of his own 
mind, and to make a sign when he was prepared. M. St. 
Martin was a gentleman of much liberality of sentiment, 
but strenuously attached to what are denominated the 
orthodox tenets of the catholic church : he had long beheld, 
with great grief of heart, what he conceived to be the 
aberrations of his learned friend ; and had flattered him- 
self, that in the course of this last illness he should be 
the happy instrument of recalling him to a full belief of 
every doctrine he had rejected ; and with this view he 
was actually prepared upon the present occasion with a 
written list of questions, in the hope of obtaining from 
the doctor an accurate and satisfactoiy reply. He found 
however, from the lethargic state of Dr. Geddes, that 
this regular process was impracticable. He could not 
avoid, nevertheless, examining the state of his mind as to 
several of the more important points upon which they 
differed. " You fully," said he, " believe in the scrip- 
tures?" He roused himself from his sleep, and said, 
"Certainly." — "In the doctrine of the trinity?" — "Cer- 
tainly, but not in the manner you mean." — " In the 
mediation of Jesus Christ?" — "No, no, no — not as you 
mean : in Jesus Christ as our Saviour — but not in the 
atonement." He died Feb. 26th, 1802. — Mason Good. 



GELA.SIUS. 

Gelasitjs, the elder, was nephew of Cyril, Bishop of 
Jerusalem, by whom he was consecrated Bishop of 
Caesarea in 380. Of his works, there are extant only 
some fragments, explanatory of the Apostles' Creed, and 
of the Traditions of the Church. He died in 394. 



GELDENHAUR. 285 

GELASIUS. 

Gelasius, of Cyzicus, who is supposed by some to have 
been Bishop of Cassarea, although the fact is disputed by 
others, flourished about the year 476. He compiled a 
history of the Nicene Council, in three books, partly from 
an old manuscript of Dahnatius, Archbishop of Cyzicus, 
and from other authorities. It is a work of little value. 
It was published at Paris, in Greek and Latin, 1559. — 
Fabricius. Cave. Dupin. 



GELDENKAUR, GERARD. 

Gerard Geldenhacr, commonly called Gerard of 
Nimeguen, an eminent German v^riter, was born in 1482, 
at Nimeguen, and educated at De venter, (where he had 
for his instructor i^lexander Hegius, the preceptor of 
of Erasmus) and at Louvain. In 1517 his skill in Latin 
versification obtained for him the laurel crown from the 
emperor Maximilian I. He afterwards became chaplain 
and secretary to PhiUp of Burgundy, Bishop of Utrecht, 
and natural son of Philip the Good. 

He was sent to Wittemberg in 1526 to visit the schools 
and church. He ingenuously related what he observed 
there, and declared that he could not oppose a doctrine 
so consonant with that of the prophets and apostles, 
which he heard among the Lutherans. He renounced 
popery, and retired towards the Upper PJiine, where, at 
Worms, he married, and became a schoolmaster. After- 
wards he was called to Augsburg, and eventually became 
a professor, first of history, and then of theology, at Mas- 
purg. Erasmus, who at one time was his friend, attacked 
him violently on his secession to Lutheranism, in a letter 
in PseudevaDgelicos ; he changed the name of Gelden- 
haur, in this letter, to Vulturius. He died of the plagu« 
VOL T. 2d 



2S6 GENEBRARD. 

in 1542. He wrote, Historia Batavica ; Historise suae 
yEtatis, lib. vii. ; Descriptio Insulse Batavorum ; Catalo- 
gus Episcoporum Ultrajectinomm ; Epistolae Zelandise ; 
De Yiris illiistribus Inferioris (jermaniae ; and several 
controversial pieces. — Melchior Adam. Bayle. 



GENEBRARD, GILBERT. 

Gilbert Genebrard was born at Rioni, in Auvergne, 
in .1.537. Having entered into the Benedictine order at 
the Abbey of Maiissac, he studied at Paris, where he 
learned Greek under Turnebius, philosophy under Car- 
pentier, and theology under Claude de Saintes. In 1563 
he was admitted to the degree of doctor of divinity by 
the college of Navarre, and was afterwards appointed 
regius-professor of the Hebrew language. This post he 
filled for thirteen years with distinguished reputation, 
and had, among other eminent disciples, the celebrated 
Francis de Sales. He was also preferred to the priory 
of St. Denys de la Chartre, at Paris, and to the priory 
of Semur in Burgundy. In 1576, being disappointed in 
his expectations of obtaining the Bishopric of Lavaur, by 
the intrigues of the president De Pibrac, he became hos- 
tile to the court, and joined the party of the league. The 
waitings which he published against those who supported 
the measures of the court and the reformed religion were 
violent. They were so congenial, however, with the spirit 
of the league, that the Duke de Mayenne, the head of 
that body, nominated him to the Archbishopric of Aix, 
to which he was consecrated in 1598. Here he still con- 
tinued his hostility to the court, and declaimed in his 
sermons against the king, even when the cause of his 
own party had become hopeless. When the league was 
finally broken, and the whole kingdom had submitted to 
Henry IV., Genebrard retired to Avignon, where he pub- 
lished his celebrated and important treatise De Sacrarum 



GENNADIUS. 2^7 

Electionum Jure, ad Ecclesise Romaiiis Redintegration- 
em ; in which he maintained that the elections of bishops 
belong of right to the clergy and people, and argued 
acutely against the nominations of kings and princes, 
pointing out in strong language the misfortunes resulting 
to the church from this practice. For publishing this 
book he was prosecuted before the parliament of Aix, 
who in 1596 decreed that it should be burnt by the hands 
of the common executioner, and, after depriving the 
author of his see, condemned him to banishment from 
the kingdom, prohibiting his return to it on pain of 
death. So tyrannical is the civil government found in all 
ages when the Church asserts her rights and privileges 
in opposition to worldly interests. He was afterwards 
permitted to return to his priory at Lemner, where he died 
in 1597. 

He w^rote, besides the work above mentioned, and others 
of which a list is given in Dupin, A Sacred Chronology, 
8vo ; Notes upon the Scripture ; A Commentary upon 
the Psalms, 8vo , in which he particularly applies him- 
self to reconcile the Hebrew text with the vulgar Latin ; 
A Translation of the Canticles into Iambic Verse ; An 
Introduction to the Reading of Hebrew and other East- 
ern Languages without Points ; Notes upon the Hebrew 
Grammar. He published an edition of Origen's Works, 
with a Latin version, 1578 ; and a translation into French 
of the Works of Josephus, in 2 vols, 8vo. — Dupin. Moreri. 



GENNADIUS. 

Gennadius, Bishop and Patriarch of Constantinople, 
succeeded Anatolius in these dignities, and was elected 
in the year 458. He had naturally a quick penetrating 
genius, which he had strengthened by study ; he spoke 
wdth great facility, and had a profound knowledge of the 
holy Scriptures, and passed for an eloquent man. He 



'^88 GKNNADJUS. 

iKild ill 459 a synofl composed of 78 bishops, besides 
legates from tlie lioly see, to settle tlie disputes that 
divided the Eastern Church on the subject of the council 
of Chalccdon. New rules of discipline were agreed on 
in this assembly; it was also decided that no one should 
be ordained priest, without knowing the psalter by heart, 
and measures were taken to prevent simony. Gennadius 
reformed the abuses which had crept in among his clergy, 
and governed with great wisdom, lie died in the reign 
of the emperor Leo, in 471. It has been said that he 
was warned of his death by a spectre, who at the same 
time, predicted the troubles which his Church expcrien- 
ed after his death. Gennadius of Marseilles, his con- 
temporary, has appropriated an article to him in his 
treatise of ecclesiastical writers, and mentions among the 
various works of which he was the author: 1. A Com- 
mentary on Daniel. 2. Some Homilies. 3, A Synodic 
letter against Simoniacs ; which was doubtless composed 
in the council which he held. Of all his other works 
there remain but fragments ; one mentioned by Eacun- 
dus, in which Gennadius complains with bitterness and 
anger of St Cyril, on the occasion of the dispute of this 
father with the Eastern Church ; another drawn from 
the second book to Parthenius, noticed by Leontius, in 
the "Lieux communs do I'origine de lame." The 
Greeks mention Gennadius as a holy bishop, and com- 
memorate him on Ihe 2r)th of August. — Lecuy. Bioy. 
LkiiverH. 

r,F,NNA[>R;S. 

Gennadius of Marseilles, a (iaul by birth, flourished 
at the end of the fifth century, in the reign of Anastasius. 
Although the modern writers assert that he was a bishop, 
some say of Marseilles, others of Toledo, it is certain 
that lie was only a priest, and he takes no other title in 
his works. Jle was well versed in the Greek and Latin 



GENNADIUS. '^.sy 

languages, had studied the Scriptures and the l^'athers, 
and was not a stranger to profane literature ; he was also 
very well read, and was a laborious writer, but displaying 
more learning than taste or solidity. There are different 
opinions respecting his orthodoxy, and it has been thought 
that he was involved in the errors of Senii-pelagianisui ; 
and in the sixth century the Church at Lyons thought 
they discovered in his writings symptoms of the same 
error, though in them he had attacked Pelagius. Vossiiis. 
in his History of Pelagianism, defends him against this 
imputation, and the Pope Adrian I., in a letter to Charle- 
magne, speaks of him as a very holy person. It is ditli- 
cult however to justify him on this subject. It cannot be 
denied that in his treatise of Ecclesiastical Dogmas some 
errors are found, and in his book " De viris illustribus," 
called also, " De scriptoribus ecclesiasticis, " conlinns 
this idea. In them he protests against the doctrines of 
St. Augustine, and gives this father only equivocal praise ; 
he extols the merit of Evagrus, whom St. Jerome accuses 
of being an Originist, and of Ilufmus, who shares the 
same error : he highly commends Faustus de Riez, well 
known as a Semi-pelagian. He praises the Eulogies of 
Pelagius, which St. Jerome taxes with heresy, and dis- 
approves of the book of St. Prosper, against Cassian, 
which St. Jerome highly esteemed. Gennadius of Mar- 
seilles wrote many books ; besides his original works, he 
translated from the Greek and Latin many of those of 
the ancient fathers. He gives the list of his writings at 
the end of his treatise on ecclesiastical writers, tie there 
mentions : — Against Heresies, 8 books ; against Nesto- 
rius, 6 books ; Against Pelagius, 3 ; A Treatise on the 
Millennium and the Apocalypse ; the Ecclesiastical Writ- 
ers ; and a Profession of Faith, sent to the Pope Gelasius. 
Of all these works only two have descended to us, namely, 
the book of Ecclesiastical Writers, and his Treatise; (ju 
Dogmas. Some think that the former of these was writ- 
ten in the Pontificate of Gelasius ; others that it may 
2 D 2 



^90 GKNNADIUS. 

have been begun as eai-ly as the year 477, although it 
was not finished until much later. This catalogue is 
considered as a sequel to that of St. Jerome, to which it 
is usually joined ; the custom of uniting these two works 
is very ancient. Traces of it are found in the sixth cen- 
tury, in the time of Capiodorus, and they are joined in a 
manuscript by Corbie, which is more than 900 years old. 
The book of Gennadius is written with great simplicity, 
but with conciseness, and a kind of elegance. In it the 
author has preserved many historical facts, and alludes 
to many works which are no longer in existence. This 
book is composed of a hundred articles, from the year 
330 to 490. There have been many editions of it, besides 
that which is inserted in the works of St. Jerome. Don 
Martinay, in 1706, has put it at the head of the fifth 
volume of St. Jerome ; and the learned Fabricius has 
entered it in his " Bibliotheca Ecclesiastica," Hamburgh, 
1718, in folio. The Treatise on Ecclesiastical Dogmas, 
another work written by Gennadius, has passed for St. 
Augustine's, and has been inserted in his works, although 
the sentiments contained in it are very opposite to those 
of that father : others have attributed it to different 
authors, but the most common opinion gives it to Geima- 
dius. Since the eighth century, this treatise has been 
found under his name, in the library of St. Vandrille, 
near Rouen. It appears also, and this is the opinion of 
Bellarmine, that it is the same with the profession of faith 
sent by Gennadius to the Pope Gelasius. 

The critics have remarked of this treatise that it dis- 
plays more erudition than judgment, that simple opinions 
are given as dogmatical truths, and that some Catholic doc- 
trines were condemned. The author appears evidently to 
be opposed to St. Augustine, and agrees with Faustus of 
Reiz, on grace, free-will, and the corporiety of souls ; on 
other points he expresses himself in a (^;atholic manner. 
There have been two editions of the Treatise on Eccle- 
siastical Dogmas, published at Hamburgh, one in 1504. 



GENTILIS, 291 

the other in i6J4. in quarto A manuscript of St. Vic- 
tor attributes to Gennadius, the addition of four new 
heresies, to the list of those, on which St. Augustine had 
written treatises. — Lecuy. Biog. Univers. 



GENTILIS, JOHN VALENTINE. 

John Valentine Gentilts, a victim to the persecuting 
spirit of the Calvinists, in the sixteenth century, was 
born at Cosenza in Calabria. Having become a convert 
to the principles of the Preformation, he was obliged to 
fly from his native country towards the middle of the 
sixteenth century, and to take refuge at Geneva, where 
several Italian families had already formed a congrega- 
tion. In the course of his enquiries he became dissatis- 
fied with the orthodox doctrine of the Trinity, and together 
with the celebrated George Blandrata, John Paul Alciati, 
a Milanese, and an advocate named Matthew Grimbaldi, 
formed a private society, in which the sense of the pas- 
sages of Scripture produced in support of that doctrine 
was discussed, both in conversation and writing. The 
result of their discussions was a private judgment, that 
the terms co-essential, co-equal, and co-existent, were 
improperly applied to the Son and Spirit, and that they 
were subordinate in nature and dignity to the Father. 
But however privately their meetings were held, such 
information was conveyed to the Italian consistory as led 
them to suspect that the associates had departed from the 
orthodox creed ; upon which, in conformity to the inquisi- 
torial system which Calvin had established against her- 
esy, they drew up articles of faith, subscription to which 
was demanded from all the members of their communion. 
These articles consisted of Calvin's confession of faith, 
which had been lately approved of by the ministers, 
syndics, councils, and general assembly of the people; 
to which a promise was annexed, never to do any 



um GENTILIS. 

thing directly or indirectly, that should controvert the 
doctrine of the Trinity as therein defined, (xentilis is 
said at first to have refused signing these articles ; but 
afterwards he was prevailed upon to comply, influen- 
ced, not improbably, by his recollection of the late tragi- 
cal fate of Servetus, (sec life of Calvin,) and not finding 
himself sufficiently courageous to hazard the like bar- 
barous treatment. In private, however, he still avowed 
and maintained his change of sentiment ; which com- 
ing to the ears of the Calvinistic magistrates, they 
committed him to prison. The charge preferred against 
him was, that he had violated his subscription : and 
when ho endeavoured to excuse himself by urging that 
he had only obeyed the suggestions of his conscience, 
those very men who had no other plea to offer in defence 
of their revolt from the yoke of Rome, would not permit 
it to have any weight on behalf of a supposed erring 
brother. From his prison he addressed several writings 
to the magistrates, endeavouring to shew the inoffensive- 
iiess of his opinions, and at length, to pacify Calvin, 
declared his readiness to abjure whatever should be pro- 
nounced erroneous. Upon this he was sentenced to make 
the amende Iwnorahle, to throw his writings into the 
fire, and to take an oath not to go out of Geneva without 
the leave of the magistrates. Being now at liberty, and 
fearful of the effects of the jealous and vindictive spirit 
which prevailed in Geneva against persons who had 
aiforded any ground of suspicion concerning their ortho- 
doxy, he satisfied himself that he was justifiable in break- 
ing an oath which had been extorted from him by terror, 
and withdrew into the country of Gex, where he joined 
his friend Matthew Grimbaldi ; thus proving himself 
to have, with much obstinacy, very little true religion. 
The ancient martyrs courted death for their principles. 
Afterwards he went to Lyons, and then wandered from 
place to place in Dauphine and Savoy ; but finding that 
he was safe nowhere, returned again to Gex. As soon as 



GENTILIS. S93 

he was known there, he was sent to prison ; hut was liher- 
ated within a few days, when, npon the baihff's demand- 
ing from him a confession of faith, that he might cause 
it to be examined by some ministers, and sent to Bern, 
GentiHs printed the same, with a dedication to the baihff. 
This step the latter resented, as it was taken without his 
}"»ermission, and occasioned his being suspected at Bern 
(^f favouring the principles in the confession ; on which 
account, he afterwards became the instrument of subject- 
ing Gentilis to the iniquitous proceedings to which he 
fell a sacrifice. From Gex, Gentilis went again to Lyons, 
w^iere he was imprisoned for his opinions ; but he was 
not long before he obtained his liberty, having had the 
address to shew, if we are to credit the accounts which are 
given of him, that he had only opposed Calvin, and not 
the doctrine of the Trinity. Afterwards he went to Poland, 
where he joined Blandrata and Alciati, who were very 
successful in propagating their opinions, until in the year 
] 5CG the king of Poland, at the instigation of the Calvin- 
ists as well as the Catholics, published an edict, by which 
all strangers who taught doctrines inconsistent with the 
ortliodox notion concerning the Trinity, were ordered to 
quit the kingdom. From Poland, Gentilis withdrew 
into Moravia, whence he went to Vienna, and then re- 
solved to return to Savoy, where he hoped still to find 
his friend Grimbaldi, and flattered himself that he might 
be suffered to remain unmolested, as Calvin, his most 
dreaded and implacable adversary and persecutor, was 
no more. But the spirit of Calvin remained. It was 
either after his return to Savoy, or on his journey thither, 
that he went to Gex, where his zeal for the propagation 
of his principles led him to apply to the bailiff to permit 
a public disputation to be held, in which he offered to 
defend his notions against any persons who might be 
deputed by the ministers and consistories in the neigh- 
bourhood. The bailiff, who was the same person whom 
Gentilis had offended by dedicatincf his confession to 



'294 GEOFFREY. 

him, no sooner found that the obnoxious person was 
within his reach, than he ordered him to he seized and 
imprisoned. He then deUvered him to the magistrates 
of Bern, to which canton the county of Gex at that time 
belonged ; by whom Gentilis underwent a tedious trial, 
and being convicted of obstinately impugning the mystery 
of the Trinity, was sentenced to lose his head. To the 
indelible disgrace of those Calvinistic magistrates, and 
the clergy who prompted them, this sentence was carried 
into execution ; when Gentilis triumphed over his ene- 
mies by the fortitude with which he met it ; rejoicing, as 
he said, that he suffered for asserting and vindicating 
the supremacy and glory of the Father. His hypothesis 
concerning the person of Christ was that of the Arian 
school. His history affords a striking evidence that the 
first reformers, when they renounced the communion of 
Rome, entertained but imperfect and contracted notions 
of Christian freedom and toleration ; and it exhibits per- 
secution for religious opinions in a peculiarly odious light, 
because practised by men who professed a more strict 
adherence than others to the genuine spirit of the gospel, 
and yet glaringly violated its most distinguishing and 
fundamental obligations. — Aikin. Bayle. Moreri. 



GEOFFKEY. 

Geoffrey, of Monmouth, flourished about the year 
1150, and was first Archdeacon of Monmouth, and then 
Bishop of St. Asaph. He quitted his diocese on account 
of some disturbances in Wales, and repairing to the court 
of Henry II,, was presented by that monarch to the 
abbey of Abingdon, which he held in commendam : but of 
this abbey he was afterwards deprived. He died in 1 154. 
He was the author of Chronicon sive Historia Brito- 
num, which is supposed by some persons to be a trans- 
lation from the Welsh language brought from Brittany. 



GEORGE. -^95 

It is a useful work fur those who study the legendary 
history of England. The earliest edition of Geoffrey's 
History is in 4to, Paris, 1508 ; reprinted. 4to, 1517. It 
was also printed by Commeline at Heidelberg, in fol. 
1587. A translation of it into English, by Aaron Thomp- 
son, of Queen's College, Oxford, was published in London, 
1718, 8 vo. —Nicholson. 



GEORGE. 

George the Fuller, or of Cappadocia, an intruder 
placed in the choir of Alexandria, was called by the first 
name from the occupation of his father, and by the 
second, because he was an inhabitant of that province. 
Ammianus Marcellinus says that he was of Epiphania in 
Cilicia ; but his opinion cannot be held against that of 
St. Athanasius, who must have known George well,, and 
who makes him a Cappadocian ; neither can it stand 
against St. Gregory Nazianzen, himself of Cappadocia, 
who recognizes George as a fellow countr3'm an. The 
character, the opinions, and the conduct of George, 
corresponded with the lowness of his origin. Few hav(? 
been more corrupt and more despicable. He began life 
in the debasing situation of parasite. Afterwards he was 
provided with a subaltern office in the commissariat de- 
partment of the army, and he there embezzled the money 
entrusted to him, and was obliged to fly. He then became 
a vagabond. To so many bad qualities he added pro- 
found ignorance ; he had no knowledge of letters, and 
still less of the holy Scriptures and theology. 

Notwithstanding these disadvantages, this man, " bold 
without modesty," and " without bounds," appeared to 
the Arians a fit instrument to work their will. They 
brought the emperor Constans into their views ; he was 
their protector and their support. 

At Antioch, in the year 356, there was an assembly of 



295 GEORGE. 

thirty Arian bishops ; it was in this assembly that the 
respectable George was ordained, and received the mission 
to go and govern the Church, of which St. Athanasius 
was the true bishop. George entered Alexandria, accom- 
panied, by the order of Constaas, by soldiers under the 
command of Sebastian, Duke of Egypt, and a Mani- 
chean ; — worthy escort of such an intruder I His arrival 
was the signal of persecution to tlie Catholics. Under 
pretext of searching for St. Athanasius, they intruded 
themselves in every part of the city ; they violated the 
most sacred places ; the virgins were taken to prison ; the 
bishops were bound and dragged about by soldiers ; 
houses were pillaged, and Christians were carried away 
during the night; there was no kind of irregularity which 
they did not commit. The Catholics were not the only 
object of George's violence ; idolaters, and even Arians 
were not exempt, so that he made himself odious to all 
parties. Such was his conduct in Alexandria until 362. 
The ^Alexandrians rose against him, and obliged him to 
fly. But supported by Constans, he returned more 
powerful than ever. There is no doubt but that another 
revolt would have taken place, were it not that men's 
minds were kept in check from the fear of Arthemius, then 
Duke of Egypt, a friend of George's. Julian, when raised to 
the empire, caused the head of this duke to be cut off, 
and the Pagans, whose temples George had pillaged, rose 
in revolt, — threw themselves upon George, — and over- 
whelmed him with abuse and with blows. The next day 
they paraded him through the town upon a camel, and 
having lighted a pile, they threw him and the animal on 
which he was mounted upon it ; after which, they threw 
his ashes to the winds, and plundered his house and his 
treasures. Julian, on learning this outrage, was much 
irritated, or pretended to be so ; he wrote a severe letter 
to the insurgents, but pursued them no further. As a 
lover of books, he endeavoured to recover the library of 
George, which was veiT numerous, and with which he 



GERARD. 207 

was well acquaintud. On lliis subjocl ha wrote two letters, 
one to Ecdicius, the governor, the other to Porphyry, the 
treasurer general of Egyjit. 

It is not easy to reconeile the extreme', ignoi-aiic.e of 
George of Cappadocia, with the great pains he took to 
collect a valuable and numerous library, even before hf; 
went to Alexandria. Julian, in his letter to Ecdiciui^, 
relates that when he was in Capj)adocia, before the year 
o51, George had lent him several books, with a view to 
liis getting them copied, and that he had never returned 
them. — Lerv)/ in Jliotp-ojJiic Thiivfirsall/'. 



Gerard, Tiiom, or 'L'ung, or Ti<:nqui<i, the founder and 
first grand-master of the order of 8t. John of Jerusalem, 
was. a native of the isle of Martigues, on the coast of 
Provence. While Jerusalem was in the hands of the 
Saracens, some merchants of Amalfi, a town in the 
Neapolitan territory, obtained permission from the sultan 
of Egypt and Syria, in the year 1050, to erect a Bene- 
dictine monastery near the holy sepulchre, for the con- 
venience of the numerous pilgrims who came to visit it. 
it was called Sainte Marie la Latine, because the Latin 
otHces were celebrated the most, and to distinguish it 
from the Greek Church. Among others, Gerard arrived 
to pay his devotions in the holy city, where he acquired a 
high character with the Christians for his pi(!ty and pru- 
dence. The dtnotion of the people occasioning the num- 
ber of pilgrims to increase every year, by which means 
the treasury of the monastery rec(nved considerable sup- 
plies; the abbot was (enabled, in the year 1 080, to build 
a hospital for th(! reception of the poorer pilgrims, and 
with accommodations for the relief of the sick, the man- 
agement of which he gave to Gerard. 'J'he chapel of that 
liospital was consecrated to St. John, because of a tra- 
VOL. v. '^ K 



vMl.S (ilsKAi;.!) 

(lilHUj aiiMiii!.', (he inluibitauls of .liMiisaidiii. Iliiil /(U'luinjiH, 
(lie I'tUluM- (»l" St. ,)(>hu. hiul IInmhI on tlio spot wlmro it was 
Imill. Art(M- tlic coiKHH^sl, of ,lt>nisaltMii by llio (.'liriHtiaiis, 
undiM- ( iotllVt'v (>r Houillon. (un'Mrd projtn'ltMl tlio roimda- 
lion ol' 11 wrw iclij^ioiis ordiM*. in wliicli llic occlosiastioal 
nnd nnlilary rliMnicliM's wcw) to ho Uoudvd. This tlcHifrii 
ln' liri'iui (o cmTv into (^\(MMition in tlu> yvtiv I 100. whvn 
nuniluM's of ptM'sons jissjciiitt'd willi liim nndcr tin* (\o- 
noniiniition ol" " I lospilidcrs of St. .lohn o[' .IcrusnhMM," 
who, bosidos the lln-rc vows of clinslilv, |)ov(>rlv, and 
obodioncc, took a particnlnr vow to d(^vol«> tluMns«>lv(>s to 
tbi^ rclirf o\' idl Cbristiims in dislross. 'I'liis ordor, and 
tli(> Miles diMwn nj) for ils !;-ov(MniU(Mil. wci'i* !i]>|>roV(>d 
and roniiiinod l>v I'opi^ Pasclial II.. who. by a bnll winch 
ho issninl. jti'Mntinl it. vari(»ns considt^rablo inivili^ni^a. and 
rooognist'd (Jorard as ilio lirst, jj;rand nnistor. (Jiward 
d'wd in lb(> voar I I'.M). Siu'h was tlio connutMUMMniMit of 
lliat order whicli in sntvoodillg tinvos bocanio so ci^lo- 
braUnl in history, when its iniMobtMs wcn^ oonnnouly 
known by the nanio of Knijifhtsof Kiuxb^s, and afterwards 
bv tliat of KniLjlits of Malta. - ."l/<';v;7. 



(ii-'.K.VKO. oiioor. 

(iKit.\Ki>. (iuoor, Ol- tlu> ( ir«Mit, witli wlioni ori'jtinatoii 
th(> ('("lobralcd foundation oi' oaimns regular of Windos- 
luMU. was born at Oovt^itiM- in llMlK Ho connnoiu'ed 
his studios at the university of l^uis. and at the iv^o of 
oightO(Mi was appointed to teaeb philosophy and theology 
at Cologne. wlu'n> he soon acipiired. by his knowledge 
and oh)(puMie(\ the appellation of the (Jn^at. lliMibtained 
sov«n-al eeelesiastieal IxMielit'i s. whieh \\o reliiapiislu^d. in 
order b> einitraoi" the monasiie lilV. 1 1 is seriuons at 
nev(Miter. /.\ni>11. .Vmsteiilaui. I.eyden. and other towns 
in Holland, were atiiMided by erowiis, aaid produo*M,i a 
groat S(Misaliou. lie tliligenlly eollecied llie best jviui 



(;i<:i{hAis. '!'.)fl 

uiosl, aiicionl. MSS. of tin- Scriptures aiid of Llic I'mI.Iiith, 
jiiul (!ini)l()ye(l tlin loarncd ukiiiImth of bin oidcr in copy- 
irj{^' l,li(»s(! MSS., and in inula n<,' ex tract h from tlic writings 
(»r tlic Katlntrs. Il<; dird at JJ(3V(int(!r, of tli(i fdagiK;, in 
IMHI, ill I Ik; rorty-lourtli y<;ar of liis jl^c. 'l"ho MSS. 
wliicli issiird from liis inHtitntion wore diHlinguishod for 
t,li(; hoauty of the hand-writing, an woll as for tlicir 
<;orr(!ctn(!SH, MJid won; long held in liigli cstirrnition by the 
l«'fi rruul . — iiioff. IhiivcrH. 



OKItAlU), AI.KXANDKa. 

Ai,kxAn[)I<;ii (h<:ii\\i\) was born at (v}iap(;l-Oariocli, in' 
Aberd(!(!riHhire, in 17'2H. He was educated at the school 
of Aberd(3(!n, and next at iVlarischal College; from 
whene(\ on taking his masU^r's dcgre*!, he went to Mdin- 
burgh. In 175'.^ ho bccanH! professor of mornl jdiilosophy 
in Miirischal (Jollogc', in th(! room of Mr. David Foidyee, 
to whom he had been assistant, in 1750 he was ap- 
pointed prof(;ssor of divinity, about which time he look 
his doctor's degree. In 1771 he removed to the theolo- 
gical professorship, in King's College, which place he 
held toliis death, in 17!I5. JTis works are — 1. An Essay 
on Taste, Hvo. Ji. Dissertations on the Geniiis and 
Evidences of Christianity, Hvo. '\. An Essay on Genius, 
8vo. 4. Sermons, "Z vols, Hvo. in 1790, his son and 
successor, Dr. Gilbert Gerard, publislK^d his father's work 
on the Pastond dare. — Sii/q>. to ICncyrl. Jirit. 



GERHAIS, .lOUN. 

.louN GlORBAis, doctor of the Sorbonne, professor of 
rhetoric at the royal college of Paris, and principal of the 
college of Kheims, died in that eily in lOOO. Jle was 
commissioned by the J<'r(^nch flergy to piddish the Deci- 



300 GERBEKT. 

sions touchant les Reguliers, (decreed in the assembly of 
1645,) with Hallier's notes. He wrote — 1. De Causis 
Majoribus, 1079, 4to, in which he ably supports the 
liberties of the Gallican Church, and maintains that 
episcopal causes ought to be first judged by the metro- 
politan, and the bishops in his province ; Innocent XI. 
condemned this work in 1680. 2. A Treatise on the 
authority of Kings over Marriages, 1690, 4to. 3. Letters 
touchant le Pecule des Religieux, 1698, J2mo. 4. A 
translation of the Treatise by Panormus on the Council 
of Basle, 8vo. 5. Lettre sur la Comedie, 12mo. 6. Let- 
tre sur les Dorures et le Luxe des Habits des Femmes. — 
Dupin. Moreri. 



GEKBEBON, GABRIEL. 

Gabriel Gerberon, was born at St. Calais, in the 
province of Maine, in 1628. He became a Benedictine 
and Priest of the oratory. He was ordered to be arrested 
in 1682 by Louis XIV. for the freedom of his opinions 
on the Jansenist controversy, but he escaped to Holland, 
and in 1703 was seized by the Bishop of Mechlin, and 
imprisoned at Amiens, and afterwards at Vincennes. He 
died at the prison of the abbey of St. Denis in 1711. 
His chief work is the General History of Jansenism, 
3 vols, 12mo. 



gerbert, martin. 

Martin Gerbert was born at Horb, on the Necker, 
in 1720, and became prince abbot of the Benedictine 
convent of St. Blaise, in the Black Forest. He travelled 
in various countries, to collect materials for his history of 
church music. This work appeared in 1774, in 2 vols., 
4to, with numerous engravings, and is entitled De Cantu 



GEKHAKD. 301 

el Musica Sacra a prima Ecclesiae ^tate usque ad pre- 
sens Tempus. Gerbert divided his history of church 
music into three parts : the first finishes at the pontificate 
of St. Gregory; the second goes as far as the fifteenth 
century; and the third to his own time. In 1784 he 
pubUshed a work of more importance, under the title of 
Scriptores Ecclesiastici de Musica Sacra, potissimum ex 
variis ItaU^e, Gallite, et Germanic Codicibus collecti, 
3 vols, 4to. This is a collection of all the ancient authors 
-who have written on music, from the third century to the 
invention of printing, and whose works had remained in 
manuscript. It is now very rare. Forkel has given an 
analysis of it in his Histoire de la Musique. Gerbert 
kept up a constant correspondence with Gluck. After his 
death was published a work of his, entitled De Sublimi in 
Evangelio Christi juxta divinam Verbi incarnati CEcono- 
miam. He died in 1793. — Biog. Diet, of Mies. 



GERBILLON, JOHN FRANCIS. 

John Francis Gerbillon was born in 1654. He be- 
came a Jesuit and was sent as a missionary to China. He 
wrote " Observations on Great Tartary ;" and an Account 
of his Travels is inserted in Du Halde"s History of China. 
He was in great favour with the emperor, for whom he 
composed the Elements of Geometry, which were printed 
in the Chinese and Tartar languages. He died at Pekin 
in 1707. — Moreri. 



GERHARD, JOHN. 

John Gerhard was bora at Quedlinburg, in Saxony, 
in 1582. In 1605 he was appointed to a church in Fran- 
coma,and professor of divinity in the Casimirian-CoUege 
of Cobourg, which place he quitted for the theological 

2 E ':i 



■MiU GERMANUS. 

chair at Jena; whore he conUnued till his death, in 1768. 
His works are numerous; and one, entitled "Medita- 
tions," has been translated into most European lan- 
gua<(es, and (wen into Greek. His eldest son, John 
hrnest fr&rhanL was horn at Jena in 1021. He became 
professor of history at Jena, and died in 1688. Among 
his works are — 1. " Harmonia Linguarum Orientalium." 
U. Disputationum Theologicarum Fasciculus. 3.'De 
Ecclesiii' Coptic* ortu, progressn, et doctrina. — Moreri. 

OERMANTTg, 

Geumanus of Auxerre, was born in that town, of illus- 
trious parents, several years before the end of the eighth 
century. He was placed in the best schools of Gaul, to 
receive instruction in science and literature, and having 
finished his early education, he went to Home, to pursue 
a course of civil law, and study eloquence ; he then began 
to plead with great success before the judges of the pre- 
fecture, in important cases. His merit, and his marriage 
with a lady of high rank, brought him into notice at the 
court of the emperor Honorius, and procured for him, 
besides the government of Auxurre, the office of duke or 
general of the troops of several provinces. Although he 
was a christian, he followed, during his youth, the tastes 
and pursuits usual among persons of his age, especially 
hunting, in which he excelled ; he took pride in displaying 
proofs of his skill, and was in the habit of hanging on a 
large tree, in one of the public squares, the heads of the 
animals he had killed. This custom bearing some re- 
semblance to pagan superstitions, St. Amatorius, Bishop 
of Auxerre, represented to him, that it became a christian 
to abstain from it. Germanus paid no attention to him, 
l^ut the bishop one day, when the duke was absent, 
caused the tree to be cut down, and the monuments of 
his vanity to be removed. Germanus suffered this cor- 
rection with impatience!, and threatened to be revenged, 



GERMANUS. 303 

but God ordered it otherwise. Amatorius was advanced 
in years ; whether he had been warned of his approaching 
death by a secret inspiration, which had also revealed to 
him the person who should succeed him, as some authors 
assert, or whether he had discovered in Germanus such 
qualities as were calculated to make a great bishop, he 
convoked in his church an assembly of the faithful, and 
Germanus being present, he seized on him, and compelled 
him to assume the ecclesiastical habit, without giving 
him time to reflect, and informed him that he was to be 
liis successor. In fact, on the death of Amatorius, the 
1st of May, 418, Germanus was elected bishop, by the 
clergy and people ; from that time he was completely 
changed, he separated himself from his wife, treating her 
only as a sister. He subjected himself to severe penances, 
and practised his episcopal duties to their fullest extent 
The christians of Great Britain, frightened at the pro- 
gress of Pelagianism in their island, had applied to Pope 
Celestine, and the Bishop of Gaul, to obtain aid against 
this error, and they, in an assembly held in 428-9, sent 
them Germanus, with whom they joined St. Loupus of 
Troyes, Both set off instantly. It was in this journey 
that, passing by Nanterre, Germanus saw the young 
Genevieve, and blessed her, foreseeing her future cele- 
brity. This mission had the success which might have 
been expected from the zeal of these two holy bishops ; 
their knowledge, their virtues, and even their miracles, 
as related by the historians of the time, triumphed over 
heresy, and they returned with the consolation of having 
delivered the country from this scourge. It reappeared 
seventeen or eighteen years aftei^wards, and Germanus 
went again with Severus, Bishop of Troyes, and this 
time entirely extirpated the Pelagian heresy. To prevent 
its return, Germanus established schools in Britain, 
which afterwards became celebrated. He had scarcely 
arrived again at Auxerre, when the Armoricans entreated 
him to mediate for them with Evaricus, who had been 



304 GERSON. 

sent by Aetius, to cliastise them for an imputed reLellion, 
Germanus set out immediately, saw the prince of the 
barbarians, and succeeding in arresting his march. As 
this affair could not end without the consent of the em- 
peror, Germanus went to Ravenna, where the court was 
then held : he w;;s received with great honour by Plaudia, 
mother of Valentinian III. This work of charity was 
the last which the holy bishop undertook. He died in 
Ravenna, on the 31st of July, 448, after having been 
thirty years Bishop of Auxerre. The priest Constantius 
wrote his life, at the solicitation of St. Patientius, Bishop 
of Lyons ; and Eric, a monk of Auxerre, put in verse 
this same life, at the request of his abbot. It is found 
in Surius, at the 31st of July. Father Sabbius has 
inserted it in his library of manuscripts, and Arnauld 
d' Audilly has given us a translation of it. It is impro- 
bable that a bishop, so learned as was St. Germanus, 
should have died without leaving some writings, but 
none have come down to us. Yet the Benedictines, who 
have published an edition of the works of St. Ambrose, 
have thought proper to attribute to the Bishop of Auxerre, 
a work entitled, "Liber sancti Ambrosei in laude, sanc- 
torum compositus," preserved in the library of St. Gall ; 
the manuscripts would now have been more than 1100 
years old. Don Mabellan had procured a copy to insert 
in his edition of St. Ambrose, but the learned editors 
soon discovered that it could not have been written by 
this father ; the mention of a journey to England, bearing 
A striking resemblance to that of St. Germanus of Aux- 
erre, probably caused the mistake. 

The mass which was formerly said, according to the 
Gallican liturgy, on the feast of St, Germanus, is still 
extant. — Lecuy. 

GEESON, JOHN CHARLIER DE. 

JoHw Charlier T)e Gerson, chancellor of the univer- 



GERSON. 305 

sity of Paris, said to have been the most pious doctor, 
and the brightest luminary of France and of the Church, 
in the fifteenth century. He was named Gerson from a 
village of that name, near Rhetal in the diocese of 
Rheims, where he was bom on the 14th of December, 
1363. He was sent, at the age of fourteen, to the col- 
lege of Navarre, where he studied for ten years, passing 
through all the degrees : and had for friend and pro- 
fessor, the grand-master Pierre d'Ailly, whom he suc- 
ceeded as chancellor of the university, and prebendary of 
Notre Dame. The troubles of the Church and state, 
made it very difficult to fulfil the duties attached to the 
former of these dignities. But his love for truth always 
bore down every other consideration. 

Gerson was under great obligations to the Duke of 
Burgundy, who had made him dean of the Church of 
Bruges, and he had incurred the resentment of the Duke 
of Orleans, by having disapproved of his political con- 
duct in a discourse preached before Charles VI., and 
beginning with these words, " Vivat Rex." Notwith- 
standing this circumstance, Gerson, after the assassina- 
tion of the latter prince, pronounced his funeral oration 
in the church of St. Jean en Greve, exclaiming loudly 
against this crime. In a popular commotion, his house 
was pillaged by the rioters, and he escaped only by 
hiding himself in the vaults of Notre Dame, where he 
remained, some say several days, others as many months, 
quite alone and left to his own meditations. The perse- 
cution of which he had so nearly been the victim, did 
not in the least check his zeal. Restored to his duties, 
he opposed, before the Church at Paris and the Univer- 
sity, the doctrine of Jean Petit ; a poor apologist for the 
crime committed against the Duke of Orleans. It was 
not Gerson's fault that the writings of this courtier, were 
not afterwards condemned by the council of Constance, 
which, in order to conciliate a powerful party, contented 
itself with a general censure of a doctrine which tended 



^^06 GERSON. 

to justify minder under the name of Tyrannicide. Ger- 
son was more than once deputed to the popes, during the 
schism which so long divided the Church at the time of 
the double elections made at Rome and at Avignon. After 
having refuted in a memoir, " De unitate ecclesiastica," 
all that was alleged against the council of Pisa, he pre- 
sented himself with great credit, and conducted himself 
in a firm though prudent manner, when they proceeded 
to depose Gregory XII. and Benedict XIII. and to elect 
Alexander V. It was during the sitting of this council, 
that he published his famous treatise, " De auferibilitate 
Papae," not, as some have imagined, to acknowledge the 
power of the Church to suppress Papacy, but to prove 
that there are cases, in which the assembled Church may 
command two rivals to desist from their strife, and has 
a right to depose them if they refuse, for the sake of 
peace and unity. The council of Constance opened a 
new field for his talent and zeal ; he took a place there 
as ambassador from King Charles VI., from the Church 
of France, and from the university of Paris, and he 
directed all the measures which were adopted respecting 
John XXII I., who had succeeded Alexander V., and 
whose irregular conduct, and opposition to the views of 
the council, had tended rather to increase than to allay 
ihe schism. 

The discourses which Gerson on various occasions pro- 
nounced, and the treatises which he published, were in- 
tended principally, to show that the Church may reform 
itself, as well in its governors as in its members, when 
its power is divided ; and that it has the power of assem- 
bling, without the consent of the Pope, when he refuses 
to convoke it ; to prove the necessity of holding councils, 
as well general as special ; to prescribe the payment of 
first fruits, and to extirpate simony, which had become 
very common. He had established as the basis of the 
decrees of the council, the doctrine of the supremacy of 
the Church, in all which concerns faith and morals, and 



GERSON. mr 

on this subject^ a discourse on the immaculate conception 
has been ascribed to him, but which was in fact, pro- 
nounced at the council of Basle, after his death, 

The piety of Gerson, though strong and zealous, was 
neither superstitious nor credulous ; he denounced in his 
treatise " Contra sectam Flagellantium," the abuse 
these sectaries made of Flagellation, of which Vincent 
Ferrier was the advocate ; and Gerson addressed some 
friendly remonstrances to him. He composed a book, 
" De probatione spirituum," in which he gave rules for 
distinguishing false revelations from true ones. It may 
be supposed that he was far from being favourable to the 
visions of St. Bridget, which would have been con- 
demned at his instigation, had they not found an apolo- 
gist, in the Cardinal Torquemada . and it will be believed 
that he had no share in the theories of Hebertin, Casal, 
or John Rosbroeck, of the passive union of the soul in 
the Deity, which is similar to the pure love of the Quie- 
tists ; nor in those of the Doctor Pierre d'Ailly, on judi- 
cial astrology, which was then in high repute among the 
princes of Europe, and which he combated with great 
success, even in his old age, against the physicians of 
Lyons and Montpellier. 

Before that time his treatise on this subject, " De 
astrologia reformata," had procured for him the assenta- 
tion of the learned Bishop of Cambray. In another 
treatise, " De erroribus circa artem magicam," he attacks 
the superstitious errors of magic, and the prejudices of 
the empirics. But the obstinate piejudice in favour of 
these inveterate errors, could yield only to the progress 
of reason and public opinion. Humane, though severe, 
Gerson wished only to attack the self-esteem of the sec- 
tarians, by overthrowing their doctrine ; he forcibly re- 
futed the opposition maintained against the authority of 
the Church, and of its chief, by John Huss, who refused 
to retract. But he succeeded in obliging Matthew Gra- 
bon, a Dominican mendicant, to abjure his doctrine 



S08 GERSON. 

against those useful communities established in Flanders 
and Germany, for education and Christian instruction, 
which subsisted by the produce of their common labour. 
He had contributed by his writings to the revocation of 
a bull of x^lexander V., in favour of the preaching friars, 
against the privileges of the clergy, and of the universi- 
ties. Whatever was the spirit of wisdom and peace, with 
which Gerson was animated, so much sincerity and zeal 
raised against him many enemies. Above all, the fol- 
lowers of Jean Petit, who obliged him to enter on the 
defence of some opinions advanced in his sermons and 
in his writings ; he confounded his adversaries, but the 
fear of the dangers to which he would be exposed from 
the Burgundian faction, induced him to take refuge in 
Germany, disguised as a pilgrim, about the time of the 
last sittings of the council. In a letter mentioned by 
Edmund Pdcher, under the date of 1416 or 17, he ad- 
dresses his defence to the monk John, his brother, whose 
dress and character he assumed, and informs him of 
his journey. 

Gerson stopped first in the mountains of Bavaria, 
where, in imitation of Boethius, he composed his book, 
" De Consolatione Theologise," a mixture of prose and 
verse, which was an apology for his conduct at the coun- 
cil- of Constance. Soon after he retired into Austria, 
where the duke offered him an asylum. There have 
been found in the abbey of Mselek many books written 
by him during his exile, and especially the Treatise of 
Consolatione Theologise, which is followed by that on the 
Imitation of Jesus Christ, in a collection transcribed in 
the year 1421. This book offered to all, in this time of 
trouble, consolations of another kind, which its author 
had probably experienced in the midst of persecutions 
and misfortunes. After remaining many years in a 
foreign land, Gerson returned, and took up his abode at 
the monastery of the Celestines at Lyons, of which his 
brother was prior. Here this great man, whom Cardinal 



GERVAISE. 309 

Zarbarella had proclaimed in the council of Constance, 
the most excellent doctor of the Church, whose writiDgs 
decided the most enlighterecl theologians, and who had 
been raised by divine providence above others by talents, 
to combat the errors of the age, now humbly exercised 
the office of schoolmaster or catechiser of children, whom 
he collected every day in the church of St. Paul, and of 
whom he required no other reward than this simple prayer, 
which they repeated till the eve of his death: "Lord 
have mercy on thy poor servant, Gerson." He died at 
the age of sixty-six years, the 12th of July, 1429. 

The first complete edition of his works appeared at 
Cologne, in 1483, in 4 vols, folio. Charles VIII. caused 
a chapel to be erected to Gerson's memory in the parish 
of St. Paul's, where he had been buried. — Lecuy. Biog. 
Univers. 



GERVAISE, AEMAND FRANCIS. 

Aemand Francis Geevaise was born at Paris in 1660. 
Having studied under the Jesuits, he then entered 
among the bare-footed Carmelites ; but, not finding this 
reform sufficiently austere to satisfy his love of asceti- 
cism, he took the habit of La Trappe in 1695, and 
insinuated himself so much into the favour of the cele- 
brated abbe de Ranee, that he was appointed abbot 
of La Trappe on the death of Zozimus Foisel, in 
1696. The abbe, however, soon repented of his choice; 
for the new abbot began by his austerity and intrigue- 
ing spirit to foment divisions among the monks, and 
to undo all that De Ranee had d(>ne. He soon re- 
signed, and on leaving La Trappe he drew up a long 
Apology. When the first volume of his Histoire generale 
de Citeaux, 4to, appeared, the Bernardines, who w^ere 
violenty attacked in it, obtained an order from the court 
against him, and he was arrested at Paris, and conducted 

VOL. V. 2 F 



310 GIB. 

to the abbey of Notre Dame de Reclus, where he died in 
1755. He wrote, La Vie de St. Cyprien; La Vie d'Abail- 
lard et d'Heloise ; La Vie de St. Irenee ; La Vie de Rufin, 
2 vols, 12mo; La Vie de I'Apotre St. Paul, 3 vols, ]2mo; 
La Vie de St. Epiphane, 4to. 

His brother Nicholas was eminent as a missionary, 
and being consecrated Bishop of Horren at Rome, em- 
barked for the place of his mission ; and was with all 
his clergy murdered by the Caribbees, on their arrival, 
November 20, 1729. — Moreri. 



GESNER, SOLOMON. 

Solomon Gesner was born at Boleslau, in Silesia, in 
1559, and was educated a Lutheran. He became pro- 
fessor of theology at Wittemberg, where also he filled the 
important offices of dean and rector of the university, 
assessor in the ecclesiastical consistory, and first preacher 
in the church. He died in 1605. 

He published, The Prophecy of Hosea, with the Latin 
Version of St. Jerome, from the Hebrew, and of B. A. 
Montanus from the Chaldee Paraphrase of Jonathan, 
illustrated by the Commentary of St. Jerome, and addi- 
tional Notes; A General Disquisition on the Psalter, 
treating of the dignity, the use, the argument, and the 
connexion of the Psalms; Polemical Dissertations on the 
Book of Genesis; The Orthodox Doctrine concerning the 
Person and Office of Jesus Christ; a collection of Ser- 
mons on the Sufferings of Christ ; De Conciliis, Lib. IV. 
• — Niceron. Melchior Adam. 



GIB, ADAM. 

Adam Gib was born in Perthshire, in 1713 ; and was 
educated at Edinburgh. He is chiefly distinguished as a 



GIBSON. 311 

fanatical Presbyterian, who a(ted consistently on the 
principle of that religion, and became the founder of the 
Secession Church. The disputes concerning the law of 
patronage commenced in 1730. Mr. Gib was among 
the keenest opponents of private church patronage, and 
in 1733 was with three others dismissed from his pastor- 
al charge. These afterwards formed congregations of 
their own, to one of which, at Edinburgh, Mr. Gib was 
ordained in 1741. This congregation gradually increased, 
and, wdth others of the same kind, was in a flourishing 
state, when in 1746 a schism took place among them 
respecting the swearing of the oaths of burgesses, and 
from this time the secession church was divided into 
parties, called Burghers and Antiburghers, and Mr. Gib 
was considered as the ablest advocate for the latter. In 
1744 he published, a Display of the Secession Testimony, 
2 vols, 8vo ; and in 1786 his Sacred Contemplations, at 
the end of which is an Essay on Liberty and Necessity, 
in answer to Lord Karnes's Essay on that subject. He 
died in 1 788. — Gen. Biog. Diet. 



GIBSON, EDMUND. 

Edmund Gibson was born at Bampton, in Westmore- 
land, in 1669, and received his primary education at the 
free-school in that town. He thence proceeded to Queen's 
College, Oxford, a college which presents many advan- 
tages to a native of Westmoreland. As the study of the 
northern languages was then much cultivated at that 
university, he applied early to this branch of literature, 
and with the assistance of Dr. Hickes, made a consider- 
able and rapid proficiency in it. In 1691 he oflered to 
the public the first fruits of his studies, in a new edition 
of William Drummond's Polemo-Middiana, and James 
V. of Scotland's Cantilena Rustica, 4to, illustrated with 
notes, and interspersed with lively and witty remarks. 



ai^ GIBSON. 

In 1692 he published a Latin translation, together with 
the original, of The Chronicon Saxonicum, in 4to, with 
notes. In the same year he pablished, in 4to, Libromm 
Manuscriptorum in duabus insignibus Bibliothecis, altera 
Tenisoniana Londini, altera Dugdaliana Oxonii, Cata- 
logus, with a dedication to Dr. Tenison, then Bishop of 
Lincoln, and afterwards Archbishop of Canterbury. His 
next publication was a valuable edition of Quintilian, 
which was followed, in 1694, by a new edition of Somner s 
Treatise on the Roman Ports and Forts in Kent, and 
the same author's Julii Caesaris Portus Iccius illustratus, 
8vo. In February of the same year he took his M.A. 
degree, and soon after w^as ordained, although the precise 
time of his ordination has not been ascertained ; he 
became also a fellow of his college. In 1695 he published 
an English translation of Camden's Britannia, fol. In 
1696 he was appointed librarian at Lambeth, by Dr. 
Tenison, at that time Archbishop of Canterbury ; and in 
the following year he was appointed morning preacher at 
Lambeth church, and produced Vita Thomae Bodleii, 
Equitis Aurati, together with Historia Bibliothecse Bod- 
leianse, both prefixed to the Catalogi Librorum Manu- 
scriptorum, in Anglia et Hibernia, in unum collecti, in 
2 vols, fol. In 1698 he published, Reliquae Spelman- 
nianae, together with the Life of the Author, fol. He 
was now made domestic chaplain to the archbishop, 
through whose means he obtained about the same time 
the lectureship of St. Martin's-in-the-Fields, and in 1700 
he was presented to the rectory of Stisted, in Essex, a 
rectory still the seat of learning. In 1703 he was made 
rector of Lambeth, and residentiary- of the cathedral of 
Chichester. He was soon after appointed master of the 
hospital of St. Mary; and in 1710 he was promoted to 
the Archdeaconry of Surrey. 

While he was chaplain to Archbishop Tenison, he 
engaged in the controversy between the two houses of 
convocation, of which a detached account has alreadv 



GIBSON. 318 

been given in the life of Atterbui7. Gibson was con- 
nected with the whigs, but was in heart a good christian 
and churchman, and in this controversy he was enabled 
to serve his party, and the cause of truth, at the same 
time, in vindicating the rights of the archbishop, as 
president of the synod. The bishops, the majority of 
whom were nominees of a whig ministry hostile to reli- 
gion, were persons in whom the clergy could place no 
confidence ; the object of the lower house, therefore, was 
to deprive them of the power of doing mischief. The 
bishops, while thinking chiefly of their own power, vin- 
dicated incidentally the episcopal authority as a divine 
institution from the attacks of the lower house, which 
consisting of good churchmen, with reference to the 
majority, were led by party views to act contrary to the 
principles they possessed. Gibson's connection wdth the 
archbishop led him to enlist in the cause of the upper 
house, and in maintaining that cause he was enabled to 
maintain his Church principles with consistency : his 
feelings and his principles were in accordance. He pub- 
lished ten pamphlets on the subject in three years, to 
which he added another in 1707. And to the interest 
he took in this controversy, we may trace the origin of 
his great work. Codex Juris Ecclesiastici Anglicani, or 
the Statutes, Constitution, Canons, Ptubrics, and Articles 
of the Church of England, methodically digested under 
their proper heads, &c. fol. 1713. It was printed at Ox- 
ford, in 1761. 

It was during this controversy, in June, 1702, that the 
degree of D.D. was conferred upon him, by the Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury; by accepting which he gave great 
offence to his university. The university of Oxford was 
strongly opposed to the Latitudinarian bishops, whose 
cause, in asserting the rights of the upper house of con- 
vocation, Gibson had defended; and he was evidently 
afraid to present himself for his degree to the university 
of Oxford, lest he should be rejected. This was not a 
2fU 



314 GIBSON. 

solitary instance of an exertion of power by this arch- 
bishop in opposition to the privileges of the university ; 
the archbishop has authority to confer degrees, but it is 
given, not for the purpose of controlling the universities, 
but that learned men, who have not had the advantage 
of a university education, may not be excluded on that 
account from holding high offices in the Church. 

Upon the death of Archbishop Tenison in 1715, and 
the translation of Dr. Wake to Canterbury from the see 
of Lincoln, Dr. Gibson, in consequence of the recommen- 
dation of the new metropolitan, was nominated his suc- 
cessor, and consecrated towards the beginning of the fol- 
lowing year. In 1721 he was appointed dean of the 
chapel royal, and in 1723, upon the death of bishop 
Eobinson, he was translated to the see of London. Soon 
after his translation he procured an endow^ment from the 
crown for a regular course of sermons on Sundays, to be 
preached in the royal chapel at Whitehall by twelve 
clergymen of the universities of Oxford and Cambridge, 
selected in equal numbers from each university, and ap- 
pointed by the Bishop of London for the time being. 
This arrangement has been altered by the distinguished 
prelate, who, with so much honour to himself and advan- 
tage to the Church, presides over the diocese of London, 
so as to secure for the congregation a more regular course 
of teaching. 

His talent for business, more than his noble exer- 
tions in the cause of Christianity, recommended him to 
the notice of Sir Robert Walpole, and Bishop Gibson was 
for some years his chief adviser in ecclesiastical affairs, 
especially when the powers of Archbishop Wake, mental 
as well as bodily, began to fail. Bishop Gibson was sup- 
posed to be heir-apparent to the metropolitan see; but he 
nobly forfeited the favour of the minister and of the 
profligate king, by maintaining in opposition to them 
what he believed to be the cause of the Church and of 
true religion. He constantly guarded against the repeated 



GIBSON. 315 

attempts of some persons to procure the repeal of the 
Corporation and Test Acts, and likewise frustrated the 
dishonest attempts of the Quakers to deprive the clergy 
of their legal maintenance by tithes. These measures 
brought an outcry against the bishop, on the part of those 
who had formerly praised his liberality. The whig law- 
yers began now to attack his codex, and the malevolent 
feelings of Latitudinarians were excited against him, be- 
cause he boldly resisted the promotion to a bishopric of a 
Dr. Piundle, a friend of the lord chancellor and an 
amiable man, but one suspected of heresy. Bishop Gib- 
son prevented his obtaining an English Diocese, but a 
profligate ministry forced him upon the Church of Ire- 
land, the Church of which country, has been grossly 
insulted by shameful appointments to the highest ecclesi- 
astical offices, as the country itself has been mis- 
governed. 

The enmity of the king was excited against the bishop 
because he denounced the amusement of masquerades, 
which were the occasion of all kinds of iniquity, but were 
patronized by George II. Bishop Gibson procured an ad- 
dress to the king from several bishops, praying for the entire 
suppression of such amusements. But although the bishop 
had lost his influence at court, he persevered in that 
diligent exercise of the duties of his pastoral office, which 
appeared to him most likely to promote the best interests 
of religion and virtue. He wrote and printed several Pas- 
toral Letters, addressed to the clergy and laity, intended 
to oppose the growth of infidelity and enthusiasm; as 
well as visitation charges, occasional sermons, and small 
tracts against the prevailing vices of the age. He also 
printed a collection of Discourses published by Mr. Ad- 
dison, and others of the laity, against atheism and infi- 
delity, and in defence of the Christian religion ; which 
he introduced with a well-written preface, exhibiting a 
concise view of the sentiments of Mr. Boyle, Mr. Locke, 
and Sir Isaac Newton, concerning Christianity. Pie like- 



316 GILL. 

wise made a collection of the best pieces that were written 
against popery during the reign of king James II., and 
published them with a preface in 1738, in 3 vols, fol. 
He died at Bath in 1748. — Biog. Brit. Cones Life of 
Walpole. Bundles Memoirs. 



GILD AS. 

GiLDAS, surnamed the Wise. Mr. Stevenson in his 
preface to the works of Gildas, says, " We are unable to 
speak with certainty to his parentage, his country or 
even his name, the period when he lived, or the works of 
which he was the author;" we may repeat the words of 
Dr. Gibs, his learned translator: " Such a statement is 
surely sufficient to excuse us at present for saying more 
on the subject, than that he is supposed to have lived and 
to have written what remains under his name, during 
some part of the sixth century." He is said to have been 
an ecclesiastic. 



GILL, JOHN. 

John Gill was born at Kettering, in Northampton- 
shire, in 1697. His education was limited, owing to 
the contracted circumstances of his parents ; but, by 
application, he became a good classical and oriental 
scholar. In 1718 he officiated to a congregation at High- 
am Ferrers, from whence he removed to a congregation 
at Horsely Down, in Southwark. In 1728 he published 
his " Exposition of the Song of Solomon," in folio. In 
1735 appeared his " Cause of God and Truth," 4 vols. 
8vo., in which he defended Calvinism upon Supralap- 
sarian principles. But his chief work was a Commentary 
on the Scriptures, in 9 vols. fol. ; for which he was com- 
plimented with the degree of D. D. by the university of 



GILPIN. 317 

Aberdeen. A new edition of this exposition has subse- 
quently appeared, in 10 vols. 4to. In 1767 Dr. Gill 
printed " A Dissertation on the Antiquities of the Hebrew 
Language." His last work was a body of doctrinal and 
practical divinity, 3 vols, 4to. He died Oct. 14, 1771. 
— Universal Biography. 



GILPIN, BEENAED. 

" Beenaed Gilpin, called the Apostle of the North, was 
born of a respectable family, at Kentmire, in Westmor- 
land, in 151 7. He early evinced a contemplative serious- 
ness of disposition, which led his parents to educate him 
iorthe Church, and they accordingly placed him at a gram- 
1 lar-school, whence, at the age of sixteen, he was sent 
to Queen's College, Oxford, where he applied himself 
with eagerness to the perusal of the works of Erasmus. 
He now made the Scriptures his chief study, and ear- 
nestly set about acquiring a thorough knowledge of the 
Greek and Hebrew languages. In 1539 he took his 
degree of B.A.; and in 1541 that of M.A., and about 
the same time was elected fellow of his college, and 
admitted into holy orders. His reputation for learning 
soon after led to his being solicited by Cardinal Wolsey s 
agents to accept an establishment in his new foundation 
at Christ's Church, hither he removed from Queen's 
College. The university was divided between those 
who asserted the necessity of a Reformation, and those 
who resisted it. Gilpin was for some time opposed to 
the reformers, maintaining the Romish side in a dis- 
pute with Hooper afterwards bishop of Worcester. But his 
mind was open to conversion, and in preparing himself 
for this dispute, he began to suspect that the peculiarities 
of Romanism, were not supported by Scripture or by the 
Fathers. This truth was still further forced upon him 
when on the accession of Edward VI. Peter Martyr was 



318 GILPIN. 

sent to Oxford, and Bernard Gilpin was selected as 
one of the champions on the Komanizing side to oppose 
him. Bishop Carleton quaintly remarks : 

•* While he pryed into the popish religion, he was en- 
forced to acknowledge that very many errors were crept 
into the Church which hinder and obscure the matter of 
our salvation, insomuch that they are no small offence to 
as many as hunger and thirst after righteousness and 
the knowledge of the truth. He discovered many cor- 
ruptions and changes of sound doctrine ; he found not 
so much as a word touching seven sacraments before 
Peter Lumbard; and that the use of the supper was 
delivered under one kinde onely, contrary to expresse 
scriptures : that transubstantiation was a devise of the 
school-men : that the doctrine of the worke wrought 
called Ojjus operatum, was newly risen : that the masse 
was turned from a sacrament to a sacrifice : that in the 
Church, wherein all things were ordeined for the edifica- 
tion of the people, all things were now done to the non- 
edification of them : that the adoration of images was 
instituted against the expresse commandment of God. 
Demurring for a while, as distracted with these thoughts, 
behold the rule of faith lately changed in the councel of 
Trent, utterly astonished him. For he had observed out 
of the ancient writers as well as out of the later ones, 
Lumbard, Scotus, Aquinas, and the rest, that the rule 
of faith was to be drawne onely from the holy Scriptures, 
but in the councel of Trent he beheld humane traditions 
made equall with the Scriptures." 

In this temper he applied for further instruction to 
Cuthbert Tonstal, Bishop of Durham, who was his mo- 
ther's uncle. That prelate told him that in the matter 
of transubstantiation, Pope Innocent III. had done un- 
advisedly in making it an article of faith, and confessed 
that the pope had also committed a great fault in taking 
no better care than he had done in the business of indul- 
gences and other things. After this, Mr. Gilpin conferred 



GILPIN. 319 

with Dr. Redman, of whose virtue and learning he had a 
great opinion ; and this friend affirmed ttiat the book of 
common prayer was a holy book, and agreeable to the 
gospel ; these things threw him into many distracting 
thoughts. Afterwards one of the fellows of Queen's Col- 
lege, Oxford, told him that he had heard Dr. Chedsey, one 
of his old acquaintances, say among his friends, " The 
protestants and we must compound the matter, they must 
grant us the real presence, and we must give way to them 
in the point of transubstantiation." Dr. Weston also, 
another of his fellow students, made a long oration to 
shew that the eucharist should be administered in both 
kinds, and Mr. Morgan, a third brother Oxonian, told 
him that Dr. Ware, a man most famous for life and learn- 
ing, had affirmed to him, that the principal sacrifice of 
the church of God was the sacrifice of thanksgiving. 
Mr. Gilpin further observed, that the most learned bishops 
at that time confuted the primacy of the pope both in 
words and writing. And to conclude, one Harding, being 
newly returned home out of Italy, in a long and famous 
oration, so plainly set out to the life the friars and unlearn- 
ed bishops, who had met at the counsel of Trent in their 
green gowns, that it abated in him as well as in very 
many others, a great deal of that opinion and confidence, 
which they had reposed in general councils. 

Whilst he was going on in this course, having taken 
holy orders from the Bishop of Oxford, he was overruled 
by the persuasions of his friends, to accept, against his 
will, the vicarage of Norton, in the diocese of Durham. 
This was in 1552, and being a grant from King Edward 
VI. before he went to reside he was appointed to preach 
before his majesty, who was then at Greenwich. His 
sermon was greatly approved, and recommended him to 
the notice of many persons of the first rank, particularly 
to Sir Francis Russel and Sir Robert Dudley, afterwards 
Earls of Bedford and Leicester, and to secretary Cecil, 
afterwards lord treasurer Burleigh, who obtained for him 



320 GILPIN. 

the king's licence for a general preacher during his 
majesty's life, which however happened to be not much 
above the space of half a year after. Thus honoured he 
repaired to his parish, entered upon the duties of it, and, 
as occasion required, made use of the king's licence in 
other parts of the country. But here he soon grew un- 
easy : however, resolved as he was against popery, he was 
scarcely settled in -some of his religious opinions; he 
found the country overspread with popish doctrines, the 
errors of which he was unable to oppose. In this un- 
happy state he applied to Bishop Tonstall (then in the 
tower.) That prelate advised him to provide a trusty 
curate for his parish, and spend a year or two abroad in 
conversing with some of the most eminent professors on 
both sides the question. The proposal was just Mr. 
Gilpin's own wish with regard to travelling abroad, which 
he therefore resolved upon, but, at the same time, deter- 
mined to resign his living, as he accordingly did, to a 
person very deserving of it. This done, he set out for 
London to receive the bishop's last orders, and embark. 

His resignation gave his lordship much concern, it 
was done out of a scruple of conscience very uncommon, 
and which the bishop could see no foundation for, since 
he could have procured him a dispensation. However, 
after some words of advice to look better to his interest, 
he was reconciled, promised to sujDport him abroad, and 
at parting, put into his hands a treatise upon the Euchar- 
ist, which the times not suiting to be printed here, he 
desired might be done under his inspection at Paris. 
With this charge he embarked for Holland, and upon 
landing, went immediately to Malines, to visit his brother 
George, who was then a student there. But after a few 
weeks he went to Louvain, which he selected for his 
residence. 

He returned to England in 1550. '-Returning to 
England," says Bishop Carleton, " in the days of 



GILPIN. 831 

Queen Mary, he beheld to his great grief the Church 
oppressed with blood and fire; and being placed by Bishop 
Tonstal in the rectory of Essingdon, he began to preach 
the word of God, and sharply to tax some vices which 
then reigned in the Church. He propounded the doctrine 
of salvation plainly and soundly, which thing procured 
him many back friends, especially among the clergy, 
whose faults he had touched to the quick. 

" There was at that time among the clergy of the Bish- 
opric of Durham, one Dunstall, parson of a church in that 
Diocese. This man was very hot against Gilpin, and 
accused him often to the Bishoj), as an heretic, and one 
that deserved to be burnt as other heretics were. But 
the bishop could not endure to shed blood, and therefore 
dealt mildly with him, and preserved him from the projects 
of his enemies. I have heard Anthony Carleton relate, 
(and he at that time lived in the bishop's house) that the 
bishop's chaplains at a certain time had some discourse 
with Gilpin about Luther; and that one of them had asked 
him what he thought of Luther, and his writings. Gilpin 
confessed that he had not read the writings of Luther. ' I 
propounded unto myself,' (said he) 'this course; first of 
all to search the Scriptures diligently, and to be acquaint- 
with the exposition of the fathers upon them. As for the 
writings of the Neoterics, I have only looked upon them ; 
howbeit I refuse them not, when and where they agree 
with the ancients.' One of them commended Mr. Gil- 
pin's resolution, and said, ' it would be w^ell with the 
Church, if all men would duly respect the writings of 
the fathers ; for then the upstart opinions of late writers 
w^ould not so much disturb the Church, such as are of 
these of Luther.' But Gilpin answered, ' if Neoterics 
and late writers produce the opinions of the ancient 
fathers, the novelty of the men is not to be disdained, 
but the antiquity of the doctrines is to be reverenced.' 

"They hereupon subtilly draw on Gilpin into a disputa- 
tion concerning the sacrament of the altar ; propounding 

VOL. V. 3 G 



332 GILPIN. 

therein two questions, the one concerning the real presence, 
the other concerning transubstantiation. Touching the 
real presence, Gilpin confessed that he had no very strong 
argument, wherewith in his judgment he might oppose 
the real presence ; ' For I suppose,' (saith he) * that 
therein lieth hid a great mystery, such a one as is above 
my capacity ; rather to be adored, than disputed upon.' 
They asked then, ' what he thought of transubstantia- 
tion ?' He answ^ered, ' that there was no necessity why 
we should believe those things which have no solid 
foundation in the word of God.' ' Do you not then 
believe,' (said they) ' as the Church believes ?' Gilpin 
replied that the Church had not always held that as an 
article of faith : ' I am (saith he) of the Catholic faith, 
and the Catholic faith changeth not. But in this point I 
see alteration, such as the Catholic faith is not capable of.' 
They demanded what alterations in faith he had observed 
touching the sacrament of the altar. He replieth : ' I do 
not find that in the Church in former ages, there w as any 
thing spoken or w^ritten about transubstantiation. Peter 
Lumbard was either the first, or at least one of the first, 
that brought in the alteration of the ancient faith. And 
what do you yourselves think ; is the bread of transub- 
stantiation converted into the flesh and blood of Christ ?' 
They answer, that they believe so absolutely. ' But,' 
saith Gilpin, ' Peter Lumbard, who was the first man 
that made an alteration of the faith of our forefathers in 
this point, himself did not believe as you do. For in his 
fourth book, the eleventh distinction, F. thus he hath it; 
there is no transubstantiation but of bread into flesh, 
and wine into blood. And if that be true, then doubtless 
it follows consequently, that in the transubstantiation of 
the bread there is no blood. And now, saith he, how 
will you reconcile these things ?' They stood at a stand, 
as having nothing to answer, because the w^ords of Lum- 
bard plainly deny that in the transubstantiated bread can 
bo any blood, or in the wine his flesh. Whom when 



GILPIN. 523 

Gilpin had observed to stagger in this point, ' Take 
notice now, .saith he, of the immutability of the Catholic 
faith : we see the alteration of transubstantiation. For 
when Lumbard had broached this doctrine, that there 
was a kind of change, he would have it none othenvise 
understood than thus : that the bread only should be 
changed into flesh, and the wine only into blood. Nor 
did men at that time dream of any other conversion in 
the sacrament of the altar, until the fiction of concomi- 
tancy was broached by Thomas Aquinas. He was a man 
that understood well the difficulty of this point, and 
therefore he underpropped it with concomitancy ; that 
forsooth by reason of concomitancy there is both flesh 
and blood in the transubstantiated bread. But these are 
the inventions of later men, whereas the Catholic religion 
abhorreth invented alterations in matters of faith.' 
While they were holding this disputation without speak- 
ing aloud, because they were close at the bishop's back, 
who at that time sat before the fire, for it was in the 
winter season; the bishop leaned his chair somewhat 
backwards, and hearkened what they said. And when 
they had done speaking, the bishop turning to his chap- 
lains, used these words, * Fathers soul, let him alone, 
for he hath more learning than you all.' " 

" The living of Essingdon was attached to the Arch- 
deaconry of Durham, and Gilpin, finding the two offices 
of parish priest and archdeacon, to be too onerous, re- 
quested permission to resign one; the bishop refused, 
however, to separate the preferments, and Gilpin resigned, 
but was afterwards presented to the valuable rectory of 
Houghton-le- Spring. He now lived retired, and gave no 
immediate offence to the clergy ; the experience he had of 
their temper, made him more cautious not to provoke 
them. Indeed, he was more cautious than he could after- 
wards approve, for in his future life he would often tax his 
behaviour at this time with weakness and cowardice. But 
all his caution availed nothing. He was soon formally 



'sU GILPIN. 

accused to the bishop a second time, and was again 
protected by his lordship ; who, however, thought proper, 
perhaps in the view of his own safety, to shew his dishke 
of his nephew's conduct, by striking him out of his will, 
of which he had before made him the executor. This 
loss gave Mr. Gilpin no concern ; he was at a great dis- 
tance from all worldly-mindedness ; it was not less than 
he expected, nor more than he was well provided for. 
His enemies were not thus silenced : enraged at this 
second defeat, they delated him to Dr. Bonner, Bishop of 
London ; here they went the right way to work. Bonner 
was just the reverse of Tunstal, and immediately gave 
orders to apprehend him. Mr. Gilpin had no sooner 
notice of it, but, being no stranger to this prelate's buen- 
ING zeal, he prepared for martyrdom, and commanding 
his house-steward to provide him a long garment, that 
he might go the more comely to the stake, he set out for 
London. It is said, that he happened to break his leg 
in the journey, which delayed him ; however that be, it 
is certain, that the news of Queen Mary's death met him 
on the road, which proved his delivery. 

Upon his return to Houghton, he was received by his 
parishioners with the sincerest joy, and though he soon 
after lost his patron. Bishop Tunstal, yet he quickly 
experienced, that worth like his could never be left friend- 
less. When the popish bishops were deprived, the Earl 
of Bedford recommended him to the queen for the Bishop- 
ric of Carlisle, and took care that a conge d' elire, should 
be sent down to the dean and chapter for that purpose. 
But Mr. Gilpin declined this promotion, on account of 
the particular inconvenience of it to himself, as having so 
many friends and acquaintances in that diocese, of whom 
he had not the best opinion, that he must either connive 
at many irregularities, or draw upon himself so much 
hatred, that he should be less able to do good there than 
any body else. 

In 1561 the provostship of Queen's College was offered 



GLANVTL. 325 

to him, and refused. The account given of his conduct 
as a parish priest, and the regulation of his family, by 
Bishop Carleton, is so deeply interesting, that the reader 
is referred to the memoir reprinted by Dr. Wordsworth. 
He was exemplaiy in eveiy department of life, and was 
especially zealous in the cause of education. He died on 
the 4th of March, 16S^.— Carleton. Gilpin. 



GERALDUS, CAMBRENSis. (See Barri. ) 



GLANVIL, BARTHOLOMEW. 

Bartholomew Glanvil was an English Minorite or 
Franciscan, of the family of the Earls of Suffolk, in the 
fourteenth century. He is said to have studied at Oxford, 
Paris, and Rome. He wrote a work entitled " De pro- 
prietatibus rerum," and also sermons printed by Wynkyn 
de Worde. — Dibdin's Typog. Antiquities. 



GLANATiL, JOSEPH. 

Joseph Glanvil was born at Plymouth, in 1636. He 
was sent to Exeter College, Oxford, in 1652, and in 1656 
he removed to Lincoln College, where he took his degree 
of M.A. in 1658. Although a friend of Eichard Baxter, 
at the restoration he conformed to the Church ; he also 
became a convert to the principles of the Baconian philo- 
sophy ; and when he had just entered his twenty-fifth year, 
he wrote a treatise in defence of them, under the title of 
The Vanity of Dogmatizing, or Confidence in Opinions, 
manifested in a Discourse on the Shortness and Uncer- 
tainty of our Knowledge, and its Causes, with some 
Picflections on Peripateticism, and an Apology for Phil- 
osophy, 12mo, 1661. About this time he entered into 
2 G 2 



336 GLANVIL. 

orders, and was presented to the rectory of Wimbish, in 
the county of Essex, and to the vicarage of Frome-Sel- 
wood, in Somersetshire. In 1662 he published Lux 
Orientalis; or, An Enquiry into the Opin4on of the 
Eastern Sages, concerning the Pre-existence of Souls; 
being a Key to unlock the Grand Mysteries of Providence, 
in Relation to Man's Sin and Misery, 12mo. In 1665 
he published Scepsis Scientifica; or, Confessed Ignor- 
ance the Way to Science ; in an Essay on the Vanity of 
Dogmatizing and Confident Opinion, 4to. Of this trea- 
tise his first publication formed the groundwork. It was 
'dedicated to the Royal Society, of which he was now 
chosen a member. The credit which he had acquired 
by his writings encouraged him, in 1666, to deliver his 
sentiments upon the subject of witchcraft, the existence 
of which he endeavoured to defend. His treatise was 
originally entitled. Some Philosophical Considerations 
touching the Being of Witches and Witchcraft, 4to, but 
it underwent frequent alterations in subsequent editions. 
About this time he was presented to the rectory of the 
Abbey Church at Bath. In 1668 he published an enter- 
taining and instructive account of modern improvements, 
in an elegant little treatise, entitled Plus Ultra ; or. The 
Progress and Advancement of Knowledge since the days 
of Aristotle ; in an Account of some of the most remark- 
able late Improvements of practical useful Learning to 
encourage philosophical endeavours; occasioned by a 
Conference with one of the Notional Way, 4to. In 1670 
he published a Visitation Sermon, which met with gen- 
eral approbation, and was repeatedly reprinted; it was 
entitled AOPOY ©PH^KEIA ; or, A seasonable Recom- 
mendation and Defence of Reason in the Affairs of Re- 
ligion, against Infidelity, Scepticism, and Fanaticism of 
all sorts, 4to. This was followed by a piece entitled, 
Philosophia Pia; or, A Discourse of the Religious Tem- 
per and Tendency of the Experimental Philosophy which 
is professed by the Royal Society, 1671, 8vo. He also 



GLASS. 327 

wrote some observations on the Mines in the Mendip 
hills, and on the natural history and springs of Bath, 
which were inserted in the Philosophical Transactions. 
In 167-2 he exchanged his rectory at Frome for that of 
Streat, in the same county, with the chapel of Walton 
annexed ; and about the same time he was made chaplain 
in ordinar}^ to the king. His next publication was a 
volume of Essays on several important subjects in Phil- 
osophy and Religion, 1676, 4to, and a treatise called 
Antifanatic Theology and free Philosophy ; which is a 
kind of supplement to the philosophical romance of Lord 
Bacon. In 1678 he published. An Essay concerning 
Preaching, written for the Direction of a Young Divine, 
&c., with a seasonable Defence of Preaching, and the 
plain way of it, 12mo. His last work was entitled. The 
zealous and impartial Protestant, showing some great 
but less heeded Dangers of Popeiy, &c., 1680, 4to. He 
was immediately after seized with a fever, which proved 
fatal to him in the same year, when he was about the 
age of forty-four. Soon after his death, Dr. Anthony 
Horneck published several of his Sermons, and other 
pieces, with the title of, Some Discourses, Sermons, and 
Remains, &c. 1681, 4to. — Gen. Diet. Biog. Brit. 

GLASS, JOHN. 

John Glass, the founder of a sect, was born at Dundee, 
in 1698. He was educated at St. Andrew's, after which 
he became minister of a country parish; but in 1727 he 
published a book, to prove that the civil establishment of 
religion is inconsistent with the gospel, for which he was 
deposed by the general assembly. He now gathered 
followers, who were called by his name in Scotland ; but 
in England they were denominated Sandemanians, from 
another leader. Glass died at Dundee, in 1773. His 
works were published at Edinburgh, in 4 vols, 8vo. — 
Gen. Biog. Diet. 



328 GODEAU. 



GLASSIUS, SOLOMON, 

Solomon Glassius was born at Sondershausen in 
Thuringia, in 1593. He became professor of theology at 
Jena; and also superintendant of tlie churches and 
schools in Saxe Gotha. He died in 1656. His works 
are — 1. Philologia Sacra, 4to. 2. Onomatologia Messise 
Prophetica. 3. Christologia. 4. Disputationes in Au- 
gustanam Confessionem. 5. Exegesis Evangeliorum et 
Epistolarum. — Moreri. 



GOAR, JAMES. 

James Goar, a learned Dominican monk, was born at 
Paris, in 1601. He entered into the order of preaching 
friars in 1 619, and was sent on a mission into the Levant, 
where he made the doctrines and ceremonies of the Greek 
Church the subjects of his investigation ; and in 1647 he 
published at Paris, in Greek and Latin, his Eucologion, 
sive Rituale Grsecorum, foL, reprinted at Venice, in 1730. 
He also translated into Latin some of the Byzantine his- 
torians, which form the curious collection printed at 
the Louvre. — Moreri. 



GODEAU, ANTHONY. 

Anthony Godeau was born at Dreux, in 1605. He 
frequented the hotel of Julie dAngennes, Mademoiselle 
de Rambouillet, and was one of those learned men who 
met at the house of M. Conrart, to discuss subjects of 
science and philosophy ; and to their zeal in the cause of 
literature the French Academy owes its origin; and 
Godeau became one of its first and brightest ornaments. 
In 1636, he was raised by Pdchelieu to the Bishop- 



GODWIN. 3^9 

ric of Grasse, which he relinquished for that of Vence. 
He was an active prelate, attentive to the duties of his 
station, and exemplary in every part of his conduct. He 
died in 167-2. The most important of his productions 
is, The History of the Church, from the Commencement 
of the World to the end of the ninth century, 5 vols, fol. 
He had laboured on a continuation of this work ; but as 
his MSS. were left in a very unfinished state, they have 
not been committed to the press. This is the first eccle- 
siastical history written in the French language ; and 
the following character of the work is given by Mr. Dow- 
ling : — " Though he adhered pretty closely to the method 
of Baronius, and was no doubt chiefly indebted to him 
for his materials, his conception of his subject was in 
some degree original, and his work was distinguished by 
some important peculiarities It bore the impress of the 
author's mind, and was accordingly religious, moderate, 
and candid. Though written to exhibit a popular view 
of the subject, and excluding therefore inquiries interest- 
ing only to scholars, it probably exercised considerable in- 
fluence on the future cultivation of Church history. It 
seems to possess the merit of having introduced to the 
Roman Catholics a peculiarity which the Centuriators 
had long before made familiar to Protestants, and first 
shown them how greatly the history of God's dealings 
with His Church is calculated to minister to the personal 
edification of the believer." 

It is said that the fidelity of the first volume exposed 
the author to a charge of heresy ; and that the intelligi- 
ble threats of a powerful ecclesiastic induced him to write 
the rest of his work with less impartiality. — Diqnn. 
Niceron. Dowling. 

GODWIN, FRA-NCIS. 

Francis Godwin, was born at Havington, in Nor- 
thamptonshire, in 1561, and educated at Christ Church, 



330 GODWIN. 

Oxford, of wliicli house he became a student in 1578. 
He was rector of Samford Orcais, in Somersetshire, pre- 
bendary of Wilts, and subdean of Exeter. Similarity 
of j)ursuits made him acquainted with Camden, whom 
he accompanied in an excursion into Wales in search of 
antiquities; but while he left his friend to record the 
features of the country, he turned his thoughts to the 
history of some of the inhabitants, and published, in 
1601, a catalogue of the bishops of England, since the 
first planting of Christianity in the island, with an history 
of their lives and memorable actions, 4to. This valuable 
work, to which reference has been frequently made in 
these pages, gained him the friendship of Lord Buck- 
hurst, and the patronage of Elizabeth, who made him 
Bishop of Llandaff. In 1615 he published a second 
edition of his work, which, however, was so erroneously 
printed, from his distance from the press, that he gave 
another edition in Latin, dedicated to James L, who was 
so pleased with it, that he translated Godwin to the 
see of Hereford, in 1617. He died in 1683. After his 
death was published, in 1638, the Man in the Moon, 
by Domingo Gonsales, 8vo ; an entertaining piece on a 
philosophical subject, which he had written in 1583. 
He wrote also. Annals of the reigns of Henry VIIL, 
Edward YI. and Mary, in Latin, the third edition of 
which was published in 1630, with an English transla- 
tion by his son Morgan ; also a computation of the value 
of the Attic talent and Roman Sesterce; and Nunciatus 
Inanimatus, or the Inanimate Messenger. — Biog. Brit. 



GODWIN, THOMAS. 

Thomas Godwin was born at Ockingham in Berkshire, 
in 1517, and educated at Magdalen College, Oxford, of 
which he became fellow in 1544. In the controversies 
of the day, he sided with the reformers, and when he 



GOMAR. 331 

quitted Oxford, became master of the grammar-school 
at Brackley, in Northamptonshire, where he lived in 
comfortable independence in the reign of Edward VI. 
At the accession of Mary, he was exposed to persecution, 
and leaving his school he began to practice phjsic, and 
took his bachelor's degree at Oxford in 1555. On Eliza- 
beth's accession he took orders, and by the friendship of 
BuUingham, Bishop of Lincoln, he was introduced to the 
queen, who admired his eloquence in the pulpit, and re- 
warded him with the deanery of Christ Church, in 1565, 
and that of Canterbury the next year. In 1584 he was 
made Bishop of Bath and Wells, being succeeded at Can- 
terbury by Dr. Richard Rogers, Suffragan Bishop of 
Dover. Bishop Godwin soon after fell under the queen's 
displeasure, for taking a second wife. He died in 1590. 
Godwin. Strype. Fuller. 

GODWIN, THOMAS. 

Thomas Godwin was born in Somersetshire in 1587, 
and educated at Magdalen Hall, Oxford, where he took 
the degree of M.A. in 1609, and that year he was elected 
master of Royse's free school, in Abingdon. He wrote 
for the use of his school, RomanaB Historioe Anthologia, 
1613, 4to; and in 1616 published at Oxford his Synop- 
sis Antiquitatum Hebraicarum, &c., dedicated to his 
patron Montague, Bishop of Bath and Wells. In 1661 
he obtained from his patron the rectoiy of Brightwell, in 
Berkshire, and resigned his school. In 1637 he pub- 
lished his Moses and Aaron. He died in the spring of 
1643. He was, on account of his book called Three 
Arguments to prove Election upon Foresight, by Faith, 
engaged in a controversy with Dr. Twisse of Newbury. — 
Biog. Brit. 

GOMAR, FEAXCIS. 

It will not be necessary to enter into a detailed account 



33'2 GOMAR. 

of this polemic, as the history of the x\rminian contro- 
versy has already been given under the articles of Armin- 
ius and Episcopius. He was born in 1563 at Bruges, 
and educated at Strasburg under the celebrated John 
Sturmius, and at Neustadt, where the professors of Hei- 
delberg found a refuge when Lewis, the elector pala- 
tine, had banished them. In 1582 he came to England, 
and attended at Oxford the divinity lectures of Dr. John 
Rainolds, and at Cambridge those of Dr. William Whit- 
taker, and at this latter university he was admitted to the 
degree of B.D. in ]584. The elector Lewis dying in 
1583, Prince Casimir, his brother, restored the professors 
of Heidelberg, to which place Goraar returned from Cam- 
bridge, and spent two years there. In 1587 he became 
pastor of the Flemish church at Frankfort, and exercised 
the functions of that office until 1593, and in the follow- 
ing year he was appointed professor of divinity at Leyden. 
Here he remained quietly until 1603, when he became 
the zealous opponent of his colleague Arminius. 

Arminius, as is well known, opposed, and Gomar 
defended the heresies and peculiarities of Calvin, and as 
is usual with Calvinists, though it is difficult to assign a 
reason why it should be so, Gomar displayed a most vio- 
lent, virulent, and intolerant spirit. It is difficult to 
understand why the private judgment of Gomar should 
be infallibly right, and that of Arminius wrong, but 
Gomar endeavoured by various publications to excite the 
indignation of the states of Holland against his rival. 

The combatants disputed before the states in 1608, 
(see Arminius.) On one of these occasions, Barnevelt, in 
a short address to them, declared that he thanked God 
their contentions did not affect the fundamental articles 
of the Christian religion; Gomar replied, that " he would 
not appear before the throne of God with Arminius's 
errors," by which protestation he virtually assumed his 
own infallibility. 

On the death of Arminius, Vorstius having succeeded 



GOODMAN. 33S 

him, and holding the same tenets, Gomar in 1609 retired 
to Middleburg, whence he was invited by the university 
of Saumur to be professor of divinity, and four years 
after he exchanged this office for the professorship of 
divinity and Hebrew at Groningen. He attended the 
synod of Dort in 1618, where he took an active part in 
procuring the unjust and persecuting decrees by which that 
assembly of Calvinists procured the condemnation of the 
Arminians. He visited Leyden in 1633, to revise the 
translation of the Old Testament. He died at Groningen 
in 1641. His works were published at Amsterdam in 
1645, fol. — Bayle. Moreri. Mosheim. 



GOODMAN, CHEISTOPHEE. 

Christopher Goodman was born at Chester about 
1520, and educated at Brazennose College, Oxford. In 
1547 he was constituted one of the senior students of 
Christ Church, of the foundation of Henry VIII. About 
the end of the reign of king Edward VI., he was admitted 
to the reading of the sentences, and chosen divinity lec- 
turer of the university. On the accession of Queen Mary 
he retired to Frankfort, where he became involved in dis- 
putes with those of the English exiles who adhered to 
the model of the Church of England, as set forth in the 
book of Common Prayer, (see life of Knox.) He thus 
became one of the chief founders of the Puritan heresy. 
He united with Knox in contending that " a lady woman 
cannot be by God a governor in a christian realm." They 
also maintained, that it is lawful for any private person 
to kill his sovereign, if he think him a tyrant in his con- 
science. From Frankfort he went to Geneva, where he 
and John Knox were chosen pastors of the English Church, 
and remained there until the death of Queen Mary. He 
assisted Knox in compiling The Book of Common Order, 

VOL V. 3 H 



334 GOODMAN. 

which was used as a directory of worship, and he is said 
to have taken a part in the Genevan translation of the 
Bible. On the accession of queen Elizabeth, he went to 
Scotland, where, "in 1500, he was appointed minister of 
St. Andrew's. About 1565 he removed to England, and 
accompanied Sir Henry Sidney in his expedition against 
the rebels in Ireland. In 1571 he was cited before Arch- 
bishop Parker, for having published, during his exile, a 
book answering the question. How far superior powers 
ought to be obeyed of their subjects, and wherein they 
may be lawfully, by God's word, obeyed and resisted ? 
This had been written against the tyrannical proceedings 
of Mary ; but he consented to a recantation, and an 
avowal of his loyalty to Elizabeth. He afterwards be- 
came preacher at Chester, where he died in 1601, or 
1602. He wrote A Commentary on Amos. 



GOODMAN, GODFREY. 

Godfrey Goodman was born at Ruthven in Denbigh- 
shire, and educated at Westminster School, and at Trinity 
College, Cambridge. In 1607 he got the living of Staple- 
ford Abbots, in Essex; in 1617 a canonry of Windsor ; 
in 1620 the deanery of Rochester; and in 1625 the 
Bishopric of Gloucester. 

On the fifth Sunday in Lent he preached a sermon 
before King Charles I., of which the following account 
is taken from Lawson's Life of Laud. 

" The sermon made an uproar at court, especially 
among the Puritan zealots, because it was conceived to 
teach covertly the doctrine of the real presence in the 
communion, or at least something which had a leaning 
that way. It excited a dispute in the convocation, with- 
out calling forth any decision. The king took the matter 
into consideration, and commanded Archbishop Abbot, 



GOODMAN. 335 

the Bishops of Durham and Winchester, and Bishop 
Laud, to meet and consult about the matter. The decision 
was, (and it ought to be recollected that Abbot was one of 
the commission,) 'that some things were spoken less 
cautiously, but nothing falsely : that nothing was inno- 
vated by the preacher against the doctrine of the Church 
of England ; and that the best way to remove any im- 
pression was, that the sermon should be again preached, 
and Bishop Goodman would then shew in what particu- 
lars he was misunderstood by his audience.' This was 
accordingly done ; and here the matter terminated. 

" It is a well known fact, that at this period there existed 
much error among the Puritans respecting the holy com- 
munion, and they had unhappily adopted the same 
opinions as many of the modern dissenters, of reducing 
both it and the holy sacrament of baptism into mere rites 
or symbols. For, though the real corporeal presence of 
Christ in the communion is an error of the Papists to be 
rejected, inasmuch as it is contrary to the general sense 
of Scripture, and renders the one great atonement of 
Christ inefficacious, yet even in the missal, the construc- 
tion, not the language, is objectionable. It is there 
stated, that the bread and wine may be to us, the body 
and blood of our Lord Jesus Christ, which language 
justly implies a worthy communicating: and hence, in 
opposition to the received Popish doctrine, and the irre- 
verent notions of dissenters, those elements are not mere 
signs, but holy mysteries, which, to those who worthily 
and reverently receive them, become by faith the body 
and blood of Christ, (not, however, transubstantiated,) 
as St. Paul himself teaches, 1 Cor. x. ; and hence, more- 
over, in the language of the Church, we ' feed on Christ 
by faith,' and we receive as ' spiritual food the body and 
blood of Christ.' It is indeed a modern tenet, that the 
sacrament is a bare sign, taken in remembrance of Christ's 
passion ; but this tenet is lamentable and dangerous, and 



836 GOODRICH. 

tends to undermine that reverence with which those holy 
mysteries ought to be received." 

Bishop Goodman was however an extreme man, and a 
Komanizer, as will appear from the following anecdote. 
In 1640, the new Canons were set forth, which he refused 
to subscribe, " and it appeared afterwards," says Fuller, 
" that he scrapled about some passages on the corporeal 
presence, but whether upon Popish or Lutheran principles 
he best knoweth." Laud, then Archbishop, after the 
clergy had subscribed, advised him " to avoid obstinacy 
and irregularity therein, but he refused." It was in 
Henry VII. 's Chapel, and being greatly offended, Laud 
said to him, " My Lord of Gloucester, I admonish you to 
subscribe." Goodman remained silent, and Laud again 
said, " My Lord of Gloucester, I do admonish you a second 
time to subscribe," and immediately after, "I do admonish 
you a third time to subscribe." Goodman "pleaded con- 
science" and was in consequence suspended. He was 
committed to the Gatehouse, "where," says Fuller, "he 
got by this restraint what he could never have got by his 
liberty, namely, of one reputed a Papist, to become for a 
short time popular, as the only consequent suffering for 
not subscribing to the new canons." 

After this, and during the rebellion, he lived privately 
in Westminster, and spent much of his time in researches 
in the Cottonian Library. He died January 19th, 1665, 
as it is said, in open profession of popery. He wrote 
1. The fall of Man, and Corruption of Nature, proved by 
Reason. 2. Arguments and Animadversions on Dr. George 
Hakewil's apology for Divine Providence. 3. The two 
Mysteries of the Christian Religion, viz. the Trinity and 
the Incarnation Explicated. 4. An Account of His Suf- 
ferings. 5. The Court of King James, by Sir Anthony 
Weldon, reviewed, a MS. in the Bodleian. Fuller. Lawson. 

GOODEICH, THOMAS. 

Thomas Goodkich was the second son of Edward 



GOODRICH. 337 

Goodrich, of East Kirkby, in Lincolnshire. He was 
admitted pensioner of Bene't College, Cambridge, soon 
after 1500, became fellow of Jesus College in 1510, com- 
menced M. A. in 1514, and the following year was proc- 
tor of the university. Being of a studious turn, he made 
great proficiency in several branches of learning, particu- 
larly in the civil and canon laws. In 1529, he was 
appointed one of the syndics to return an answer from 
the university of Cambridge, concerning the lawfulness 
of King Henry VIII. 's marriage with Queen Catherine : 
and from his readiness to obhge the king in that business, 
was recommended to his royal favour. He was presented 
to the rectory of St. Peter's Cheap, in London, by Car- 
dinal Wolsey, at that time commendatory of the monas- 
tery of St. Alban's ; and soon after was made canon of 
St. Stephen's, Westminster, and chaplain to the king. 
On the death of Dr. West, Bishop of Ely, his nephew 
and godson. Dr. Nicholas Hawkins, Archdeacon of Ely, 
at that time the king's ambassador in foreign parts, was 
designed to succeed him ; but he dying before his conse- 
cration could be effected, the king granted his licence to 
to the prior and convent, dated March 6th, 1534, to 
choose themselves a bishop ; who immediately elected in 
their chapter-house the 17th of the same month, Thomas 
Goodrich, S.T.P., which was confirmed by the archbishop, 
April 13th following, in the parish church of Croydon. 

Being a zealous promoter of the reformation, soon after 
his arrival he visited the prior and convent of Ely ; and 
next year sent a mandate to all the clergy of his diocese, 
dated at Somersham, June 27th, 1535, with orders to 
erase the name of the pope out of all their books, and to 
publish in their churches that the pope had no further 
authority in this kingdom. This mandate is printed in 
Bentham's "History of Ely Cathedral," together with 
his injunctions, dated from Ely, Oct. 21st, 1541, to the 
clergy," to see that all images, relics, table-monuments 
2h2 



33B GOODRICH. 

of miracles, shrines, &c., be so totally demolished and 
obliterated, with all speed and diligence, that no remains 
or memory might be found of them for the future." 
These injunctions were so completely executed in his 
cathedral, and other churches in the diocese of Ely, that 
no traces remain of many famous shrines and altars, 
which formerly were the objects of frequent resort, nor 
any signs at all that they had ever existed. 

In 1540 he was appointed by the convocation to be 
one of the revisers of the translation of the New Testa- 
ment, and St. John's gospel was allotted to his share. 
He was also named one of the commissioners for reform- 
ing the ecclesiastical laws, both by Henry VIII. and 
Edward VI., as well as by the university of Cambridge; 
and had a hand in compiling the " Common Prayer 
Book" of the Church of England, 1548; and likewise, 
•' The Institution of a Christian Man," which was called 
the Bishop's Book, as being composed by Archbishop 
Cranmer, and the Bishops Stokesly, Gardiner, Sampson, 
Repps, Goodrich, Latimer, Shaxton, Fox, Barlow, &c. 
Besides this, he was of the privy council to King Henry 
VIII. and Edward VI., and employed by them in several 
embassies, and other business of the state. 

After the death of King Henry, he was sworn of the 
privy council, and in 1551 was made lord chancellor of 
England. Downes observes, that on this occasion he 
was much abused by Dr. Burnet, who, not content with 
a large invective against him for accepting a post, so in- 
consistent with the function and duty of a clergyman, as 
he pretends, goes on to load his memory with a heavy 
accusation of inconstancy in religion, turning with every 
tide, and resolving not to suffer for the reformation in 
queen Mary's reign. But this is a most malicious and 
groundless charge, a base and unworthy slander on a 
person to whom our reformed Church is so much indebted. 
And had Dr. Burnet been but as free from those crimes 



GOODWIN. 339 

as the worthy prelate, whom he so scurrilously reflects 
on, he had left a much fairer character behind him, and 
been in greater repute with impartial posterity than he 
is now ever likely to be. 

But to return to Bishop Goodrich, While chancellor 
he was admired by all for his impartial distribution of 
justice; he had the blessings and prayers of the poor, 
and the favour and esteem of the rich : his greatest ene- 
mies could not but acknowledge him gentle, just, and 
gracious ; and his most intimate friends, when they 
brought a bad cause before him, found him inflexible, 
severe, and unprejudiced. Having a great esteem for 
Bishop Day s learning, he laboured earnestly to reduce 
him from his prejudices, and dispose him to a favourable 
opinion of the Reformation ; but could do no good on a 
man so wilful and obstinate. He was one of those, who 
drew up that excellent book, the Reformation of Ecclesiasti- 
cal Laws. At the request of King Edward, he put the 
great seal to the Instrument for the succession of the Lady 
Jane Grey. This was the reason, why upon the fall of 
that lady, the great seal was taken from him within two 
days after Queen Mary came to London. And though it 
was thought fit, for the present, to let him enjoy the 
benefit of the general pardon ; yet there is no question to 
be made, but that he would, amongst the rest of the mar- 
tyrs, have been brought to the stake for his religion, had 
it not pleased God to prevent it, by taking him to himself, 
on the 10th of May, 1554. He died at Somersham, of the 
stone, and lies buried in the middle of the Presbytery. 
Dowries. Strype. 



GOODWIN, JOHN. 

John Goodwin, a sectary, was born in 1593, and edu- 
cated at Queen's College, Cambridge. In 1633 he became 



340 GOTTESCHALCHUS. 

vicar of St. Stephen's, Coleman-street, London, from which 
he was ejected in 1 645, for refusing to administer baptism 
and the Lord's supper promiscuously. Though a zealous 
Arminian he justified the murder of Charles I. ; for 
which, at the Restoration, he was exempted from pardon ; 
but no measures were taken against him, and he died in 
1665. The principal of his works is entitled, " Redemp- 
tion redeemed." folio. — Gen. Diet. 



GOODWIN, THOMAS. 

Thomas Goodwin, a nonconformist of the independent 
persuasion, was brother of the preceding, and born at 
Rolesby, in Norfolk, in 1600. He was of Christ College, 
Cambridge, and afterwards of Catherine Hall, where he 
obtained a fellowship ; but, in 1634, he went to Holland, 
and became master of the independent congregation at 
Arnheim. When parliament put down the Church, he 
returned, was made a member of the Westminster assem- 
bly, and president of Magdalen College, Oxford. He was 
a great favourite with Cromwell, whom he attended in 
his last moments. At the commencement of Cromwell's 
illness, Goodwin was heard to express himself with pre- 
sumptuous confidence on the traitor's recovery ; and when 
the event proved him mistaken, he did not think it blas- 
phemy to exclaim, in a prayer to God, " Thou hast de- 
ceived us, and we are deceived." 

At the Restoration he was deprived of his place at 
Oxford, on which he removed to London, and died in 
1675. His works, which are rigidly Calvinistic, were 
printed in 5 vols, folio. — Gen. Diet. 



GOTTESCHALCHUS. 



GoTTESCHALCHus, othcrwisc named Fulgentius, was 



GOTTESCHALCHUS. 341 

born about 806, in that part of Germany which had 
been annexed to France, by the arms of Charlemagne. 
He went at an early age to Paris, in order to study; 
he entered a Benedictine convent at Arbais, in the dio- 
cese of Soissons. Gifted with a brilliant imagination, 
a strong wall, and ambition without bound, he was 
soon distinguished in the cloister for his paradoxes, his 
love of novelty, his zeal for science, his bold opinions, 
and above all, for the warmth with which he supported 
them. 

At this period, St. Augustine was the father most con- 
sulted; his doctrine, often sublime, and sometimes ob- 
scure, offered the most subjects of admiration to the 
learned, and the greatest quantity of matter for contro- 
versy. His works were the favourite study of all eccle- 
siastics ; the learned young men occupied their time in 
copying them out, the professors in expounding, and the 
old men in recommending them. Gotteschalchus passed 
his life in endeavouring to understand them, and losing 
himself in the mysterious questions which are too often 
to be found in them. He wished to explain, understand, 
and penetrate every thing. This extreme thirst for know- 
ledge argues more curiosity than sense, and is as contrary 
to a truly scientific mind, as to the humility recommend- 
ed by religion. He one day consulted Loupus, Abbot 
of Ferriere, on the question, w^hether " after the resur- 
rection, the blessed wdll behold God with their corporeal 
eyes ?" " Wherefore do you fatigue your mind with these 
idle questions ?" said the abbot, " the time you employ 
in studying them, only serves to increase the natural 
restlessness of your spirit, without adding to your instruc- 
tion." Gotteschalchus did not profit by this salutary 
advice, he did not fear increasing his natural restlessness 
by plunging deeper and deeper into the mysteries of pre- 
destination, which he believed to be the doctrine of St. 
Augustine, his guide and model. 



'M2 rxOTTESCHALCHUS. 

When he was satisfied with his discoveries, and believed 
himself sufficiently learned in what will be ever hidden 
from the eyes of men, he set out on a journey : he visited 
Piome, Cesarea, Alexandria, and Constantinople, every 
where sowing his opinions, and only reaping disappoint- 
ment. On his return to Italy, in 847, he had several 
conferences with Nothingus, Bishop of Verona, on the 
subject of his doctrines ; and this prelate, unreasonably 
alarmed at the novelty of the principles put before him, 
thought it his duty to combat them with the arms of 
religion, and after having vainly endeavoured to convince 
him of his danger, he referred him to Raban, Archbishop 
of Mayence. He judged, as Nothingus had done, that 
Gotteschalchus taught a dangerous and fatal predestin- 
arianism, that is to say, the doctrine that God had, from 
all eternity, predestinated men to their salvation or dam- 
nation ; which doctrine takes away man's liberty, destroys 
all idea of good and evil, and reduces the human will to 
a kind of automaton. Such a doctrine would have been 
highly dangerous, but it is doubtful whether Gotteschal- 
chus held it. It is probable, on the contrary, that what 
he wished to say was not understood, and that the 
danger of his principles was exaggerated, in order to 
sanction his punishment. It is also very likely that, in 
the heat of debate, both parties overstated their system, 
and at length grew more bitter as they understood each 
other less. It was the same when, towards the end of 
the seventeenth century, similar questions were revived, 
and similar animosities and controversies presented a 
spectacle humiliating to the human mind, of a deadly 
combat between two bodies, celebrated for their learning, 
and debased by their passions. 

Gotteschalchus hearing that Raban had declared against 
him, went to Mayence in order to see him, in the hope 
of being able to undeceive or convert him ; but he was 
unsuccessful. After several useless conferences, they 



GOTTESCHALCHUS. 34S 

wrote against each other; and in one of his writings, 
Gotteschalchus, drawn on by his subject, accuses his 
adversary of Semi-pelagianism. The bishop, offended by 
this recrimination, assembled a council, to which he cited 
Gotteschalchus ; and forgetful that, as a party concerned 
in the affair, he could not act as judge, condemned him 
as a heretic, and sent him for justice to the Archbishop 
of Rheims, Hincmar, his proper judge, and to whom he 
w^rote a synodal letter, very animated, and consequently 
not very charitable tow-ards the accused. The letter con- 
cluded with these words, " We send to you this vagabond 
monk, in order that you may shut him up in his convent, 
and prevent him from propagating his false, heretical, 
and scandalous doctrine." Hincmar was one of tlie most 
learned men of his time, but he w^as also the vainest of 
his knowledge, and the most fiery. He was delighted to 
have an occasion for showing his talent for controversy, 
and his zeal for the Church. Having ordered Gottes- 
chalchus to appear before him, he questioned him, and 
found him to be firm to his principles ; from that time 
he became his irreconcilable enemy. He assembled a 
council of thirteen bishops at the Castle of Quiercy, in 
Picardy, to which he invited Charles-le-Chanoe, and had 
the doctrine of Gotteschalchus examined before that 
prince. This latter, condemned already by his judges, 
who were all prejudiced against him, was not allowed to 
defend himself, or his reasons were not listened to ; he 
w^as condemned as a heretic, suspended from the sacerdotal 
office, declared incapable of teaching, and unworthy of 
liberty, cruelly flogged before the king and bishops, and 
shut up for the remainder of his life in the Abbey of 
Hautvillers. Such barbarous treatment, far from restor- 
ing Gotteschalchus to the Church, only revolted his proud 
and independent spirit, and confirmed him in his opin- 
ions, w^hether good or bad. He would not listen to any 
agreement with such prejudiced men. He bore his sen- 



Ui GOTTESCHALCHUS. 

tence with courage, and preferred death to a huEQiliating 
concession. 

He died in prison in 808. When he was at the point 
of death, the monks who had the care of him, gave notice 
of it to Hincmar, and asked him how they w^ere to treat 
him. Hincmar had the cruelty to send to Gotteschal- 
chus a formulary of faith, with an order to sign it, on 
pain of being deprived of the last sacraments, and of 
ecclesiastical burial. Gotteschalchus rejected it with in- 
dignation, and Hincmar s order was executed in all its 
rigour: nevertheless the treatment he had undergone 
was censured by a large portion of the clergy of France. 
Loupus, Abbot of Ferriere, St. Fulgentius, Bishop of 
Troys, St. Remi, Bishop of Lyons, highly disapproved of 
it. St. Remi among others said, and repeated many 
times, that heretics had formerly been censured, not by 
blows, but by reasoning. Rabican, a monk of Corby, 
published an apology for Gotteschalchus, and proved, as 
far as it could be proved, that the doctrine he had pro- 
fessed was that of St. Augustine, and had always been 
that of the Catholic Church. Hincmar, on his i)art, did 
not fail to answer ; he justified his opinion by passages 
from the fathers, susceptible of various interpretations, 
and his conduct by his devotion to the holy see. In one 
of the memorials which be published on this subject, he 
accuses Gotteschalchus of having been all his life a ms- 
tic, a restless monk, and a paradoxical scholar, and he as- 
serts that this was his character in his cloister. Yet if we 
may believe some of his most illustrious contemporaries, 
this unfortunate heretic had much wit and learning, but 
these qualities were spoiled by his great self-love, and his 
invincible obstinacy. Archbishop Usher published a life 
of Gotteschalchus, Dublin, 1631, in quarto, and this has 
been said to be the first Latin book printed in Ireland. 
It was reprinted at Hanau, in 1G62, 8vo. — Gallais. Biog. 
Univevb. 



GRABE. 345 



GKABE, JOHN ERNEST. 

John Ernest Grabe was born at KoDigsberg in 
Prussia, in the university of which place his father was 
professor of divinity and history. There Grabe received 
his education. After graduating in arts he devoted him- 
self with great zeal to theological studies, in which, after 
Scripture, the early fathers engaged his chief attention. 
Hence he became deeply imbued with reverence for the 
primitive government of the Church, and saw the neces- 
sity of the Apostolical succession. The Church he conceiv- 
ed to be the mystical body of Christ, in union with its 
divine Head, the one Mediator between God and man : 
union with the Church he thought to be effected by the 
due reception of the sacraments ; the sacraments he per- 
ceived could only be duly administered by those who had 
authority from the Lord Christ ; and it is only by the 
Apostolical succession, as he believed, that such authority 
could be proved. This he did not find among the Luther- 
ans, and the want of it he regarded as a fatal imperfec- 
tion, and one which forfeited on their part all claim to 
catholicity. This conviction so powerfully pressed upon 
his mind that at length he thought himself obliged, in 
conscience, to quit Lutheranism, the religion in which he 
had been bred, and enter the Roman Church, where that 
succession was preserved. Accordingly he gave in to the 
electoral college at Sambia, in Prussia, a memorial, con- 
taining the reasons for his change, in 1695, and there- 
upon he left Konigsberg. While he was on the road to 
Erfurt, there were presented to him three treatises in 
answer to his memorial, written respectively by Philip 
James Spener, Bernard van Sanden, and John William 
Baier, three Lutheran divines, whom the elector of Bran- 
denburg had commanded to reply to Grabe's memorial. 
Staggered by the arguments contained in these treatises, 
Grabe immediately sought a personal interview with 
VOL. v. 2 I 



346 GRABE. 

Spener, who, having failed in his attempts to remove his 
scruples respecting the Lutheran communion, sought to 
prevail upon him at least to relinquish his design of 
going among the Papists. " In England," saj's this 
friend, "you will meet with the outward and uninter- 
rupted succession which you require; take your route 
thither : this step will give much less dissatisfaction to 
your friends, and at the same time equally satisfy your 
conscience." Moved by Spener s recommendation, he 
came to England, where he w^as well received by William 
III., who settled upon him a pension of £100 a-year. 
In 1700 he was ordained a deacon, and was presented to 
a chaplaincy of Christ Church, Oxford, which was the 
only ecclesiastical appointment he ever held. Upon the 
accession of Queen Anne his pension was continued ; 
and in 1706 the university of Oxford conferred upon him 
the degree of D.D. 

Of his numerous works the most celebrated is his 
edition of the Septuagint, the text of which is founded 
upon the Alexandrine MS. then in St. James's library, 
but now in the British Museum. The first volume, 
printed at Oxford in 1707, contains the Pentateuch and 
the three following books. The second volume was to 
contain all the historical books of the Old Testament, 
whether canonical or apocryphal ; the third, all the pro- 
phetical books ; and the fourth, the Psalms, the three 
books of Solomon, &c. But after Grabe had begun to 
print the second volume, he was induced to postpone the 
appearance of that, and also of the third volume, by the 
expectation of being furnished v/ith important MSS. and 
other materials, which would enable him to render them 
more complete. That no time might be lost, however, 
in expediting the whole work, he published in 1709, the 
fourth volume, Continens Psalmorum, Jobi, ac tres Sala- 
monis Libros, cum Apocrypha ejusdem, necnon Siracidae 
Sapientia, in fol. and 8vo. In the following year he 
published a Latin dissertation, giving a particular ac- 



GRABE. 347 

count of the reasons why he had departed from his 
original order of publication, and of the materials which 
he expected to receive in order to perfect his plan. These 
were, a Syriac MS. of the original books of the Old Tes- 
tament, with Origen's remarks upon them ; and two 
MSS., one belonging to Cardinal Chigi, and the other to 
the college of Louis XIV. Afterwards he received these 
MSS. and made collations from them ; in the mean while 
he had prepared a volume of annotations upon the whole 
work, and also collected the materials for the Prolego- 
mena. It required, however, so much time to digest the 
whole into proper method, that the second and third 
volumes were not published until after his death ; the 
former in 1T19, and the latter in 1720. 

He also published Spicilegium SS. Patrum ; Justini 
x\pologia Prima ; Irenaei adversus Hcereses Libri V. ; 
Epistola ad Millium ; to show that the Alexandrian 
MS. of the Septuagint contains the best version of the 
Book of Judges, and that the version of the Vatican 
MS. is almost a new one, made in the third century ; 
An Essay upon two Arabic MSS. of the Bodleian Library, 
and the Book called the Doctrine of the Apostles ; De 
Forma Consecrationis Eucharistise, hoc est, Defensio 
Ecclesiae Grsecae contra Romanam. He had also pub- 
lished in 1705 a beautiful edition of Bishop Bull's 
works, in folio, with notes, for which he received the 
author's thanks ; and he was likewise concerned in pre- 
paring for the press Archdeacon Gregory's edition of the 
New Testament in Greek, which was printed at Oxford. 

In the meantime he met with the misfortune of having 
his reputation injured by the brightness of his own 
splendour. The notorious William Whiston had not 
only in private discourses, in order to support his own 
cause by the strength of Dr. Grabe's character, but also 
in public writings, plainly intimated, " that the doctor 
was nearly of his mind about the Constitutions of the 
Apostles, ascribed, though incorrectly, to Clemens Roma- 



348 GRABE. 

nus, " and that he owned in general the genuine truth 
and apostolical antiquity of that collection." This 
calumny, considering Mr. Whiston's custom of treating 
others in the same manner, which only injured himself, 
was neglected by Grabe for some time, until he understood 
that the story gained credit, and was actually believed by 
several persons who were acquainted with him. For that 
reason he thought it necessary to let the world know, by 
a public writing of his own, that his opinion of the Apos- 
tolical Constitutions was quite different, if not opposite, 
to Mr. Whiston's sentiments about them, as he did in 
" An Essay upon two Arabic Manuscripts in the Bodleian 
libraiy, and that ancient book called the Doctrine of the 
Apostles, which is said to be extant in them, wherein 
Mr. Whiston's mistakes about both are plainly proved." 
This piece was printed at Oxford, 171 J, 8vo. In the 
dedication, he observes, that it was the first piece which he 
had published in the English tongue, for the service of the 
Church, and it proved in the event to be the last, being 
prevented from publishing many others which he had 
designed, by his death, wdiich happened on the 13th of 
November the next year, in the vigour of his age. 

He was interred in Westminster Abbey, where a 
marble monument, with his effigy at full length, in a 
sitting posture, and a suitable inscription underneath, 
w^as erected at the expence of the lord treasurer, Harley, 
Earl of Oxford. He was attended in his last illness by 
Bishop Smallridge, and gave him an ample testimony of 
his sincere piety and religion. He desired, upon his 
death-bed, that something might be made public, to 
declare his dying in the faith and communion of the 
Church of England, which he thought a pure and sound 
part of the Catholic Church, notwithstanding some de- 
fects, as he apprehended, in the Reformation ; and his 
most hearty wishes for the union of all Christians, ac- 
cording to the primitive and perfect model. 

He declared with much satisfaction, that ever since 



GRABE. 849 

his coming into England, it had pleased God to grant 
him an opportunity of receiving the holy communion 
according to his heart's desire, in its most ancient purity 
and perfection ; receiving it according to the rites of the 
reformed Church of England, for the authority of whose 
bishops and priests against the Church of Rome he con- 
tended to the very last. 

Notwithstanding his indefatigable application to his 
studies, he was regular in his attendance daily at the 
public prayers of the Church. 

Grabe had so great a zeal for promoting the ancient 
government and discipline of the Church, among those 
who had separated themselves from the corruptions and 
superstitions of the Church of Rome, that he formed a 
plan, and made some advances in it, for restoring the 
episcopal order and office in the territories of the king of 
Prussia, his sovereign; and he proposed, moreover, to 
introduce a liturgy, much after the model of the English 
service, into that king's dominions. 

Dr. Grabe, although thus sincerely attached to the re- 
formed Church of England, nevertheless agreed with the 
non-jurors, in a wish that some ceremonies undoubtedly 
primitive might be restored, such as baptism by immer- 
sion, and the mixing of water with the wine in the Eu- 
charist. Neither did he hesitate to express his opinion 
concerning the oblation of the bread and wine, and the 
prayer of invocation to God the Father, in the consecra- 
tion, for the illapse of the Holy Ghost upon them, that 
they might be unto the communicants, in the mystical 
sense, the body and blood of His Son Jesus Christ, not 
in substance, but in grace and virtue, as in the ancient 
liturgies, for the remission of their sins ; for their con- 
firmation in godliness, for the benefit of their souls and 
bodies ; for the communication of the Holy Ghost ; for 
sure trust and confidence in God ; and for the resurrec- 
tion unto eternal life. For the same reason he was never 
afraid to declare his mind freely for the practice of church 
2i2 



350 GEABE. 

confirmation ; for anointing the sick with oil ; for confes- 
sion and sacerdotal absolution, as judicial ; for prayers 
for the souls of the dead, who died in the faith and fear 
of God ; for the ancient commemoration of saints in the 
holy Eucharist. And as he used to speak of the want of 
these things, as defects in the reformed Churches, so it 
was not without sorrow and some indignation, that he 
used to lament the corruption and depravation of them 
in the Church of Kome. 

He left a great number of MSS. behind him, which he 
bequeathed to Dr. Hickes for his life, and after his de- 
cease, to Dr. George Smallridge. The former of the 
divines, carefully performed his request of making it 
known, that he had died in the faith and communion of 
the Church of England, in an account of his life which 
he prefixed to a tract of Dr. Grabe's, which he published 
with the following title : " Some instances of the Defect 
and Omissions, in Mr. Whiston's Collections of Testimo- 
nies from the Scriptures and the Fathers, against the 
true Deity of the Holy Ghost, and of misapplying and 
misinterpreting divers of them," by Dr. Grabe. " To 
which is premised, a Discourse, wherein some account is 
given of the learned Doctor, and his MSS. and of this 
short Treatise found among his English MSS." by George 
Hickes, D.D., London, 1712, 8vo. There came out af- 
terwards, two more of our author's posthumous pieces. 
1. — "Liturgia GrsBca Johannis Ernesti Grabii," i.e. 
*' The Greek Liturgy of John Ernest Grabe." This 
liturgy was drawn up by Dr. Grabe for his own private 
use, and was published by Christopher Matthew Pfaff, 
at the end of " Irenaei Fragmenta Anecdota," printed at 
the Hague, 1715, 8vo. 2. " De forma Consecrationis 
Eucharistise, hoc est, Defensio Ecclesise Grsecae, &c." 
i. e. "A Discourse concerning the Form of Consecration 
of the Eucharist, or a Defence of the Greek Church 
against that of Kome, in the Article of Consecrating the 
Eucharistical Elements," written in Latin, by John Er- 



GKEEN. 351 

nest Grabe, and now first published with an English ver- 
sion. To which is added, from the same author's MSS. 
some notes concerning the oblation of the body and blood 
of Christ, with the form and effect of the eucharistical 
consecration, and two fragments of a preface designed for a 
new edition of the first liturgy of king Edward VI., with 
a preface of the editor, shewing what is the opinion of 
the Church of England, concerning the use of the fathers, 
and of its principal members, in regard to the matter 
defended by Dr. Grabe in this treatise, Lond. 1721, 8vo. 
— Hickes. Biog. Brit. 



GREEN, JOHN. 

John Green was born in 1706, at Beverley, in York- 
shire, and admitted a sizar of St. John's College, Cam- 
bridge, of which he became fellow. In 1744 he was ap- 
pointed chaplain to the Duke of Somerset, who gave him 
the living of Borough-green, near Newmarket. In 174S he 
was appointed regius professor of divinity ; and two years 
after, master of Bene't College. In 1756 he became dean 
of Lincoln, and afterwards bishop of that see. In 1771 
he obtained the deanery of St. Paul's. He died in 1779. 
He was one of the writers of the Athenian letters ; besides 
which he published some sermons, and a tract on enthu- 
siasm. — Gent. Man. 



green, WILLIAM. 

William Green was educated at Clare Hall, Cambridge, 
of which he became fellow. He was afterwards presented 
to the living of Hardingham, in Norfolk. He published 
the song of Deborah, reduced to metre, with a translation 
and commentary; a Translation of the Prayer of Ha- 
bakkuk; the Prayer of Moses; and the 139th Psalm, 



ySS GREENE. 

with a Commentary; a new Translation of the Psalms, 
with Notes ; a new Translation of Isaiah, from the se- 
venth to the fifty-third chapter, with Notes ; and Poetical 
Parts of the Old Testament, translated from the Hebrew, 
with Notes. He died in 1794. — Europ. Mag. 



GREENE, THOMAS. 

Thomas Grei^ne was born at Norwich, in 3 658, and 
educated in the free-school of that city, and at Bene't 
College, Cambridge, of which he obtained a scholarship, 
and in 1680 a fellowship, and became tutor. In 1695 
he was presented by Archbishop Tenison to the vicarage 
of Minster, in the Isle of Thanet, to a prebend in the 
cathedral of Canterbury, to the rectory of Adisham-cum- 
Staple in Kent, and to the archdeaconry of Canterbury, 
into which he was installed in November, 1708, having 
been chosen before one of the proctors of the clergy in 
convocation for that diocese. Upon these preferments 
he quitted the vicarage of Minster, as he did the rectory 
of Adisham upon his institution (in February, 1716) to 
the vicarage of St. Martin's-in-the-Fields, Westminster. 
This he held in commendam with the Bishopric of Nor- 
wich, to which he was consecrated October 8, 1721, but 
was thence translated to Ely, September 24, 1723. He 
had been elected May 26, 1698, master of Bene't College, 
upon the recommendation of Archbishop Tenison, In 
1699 and in 1713 he served the office of vice-chancellor. 
George I., soon after his accession, appointed him one of 
his domestic chaplains. He resigned the mastership of 
his college in 1716. He died in 1738. He wrote— 1. 
The Sacrament of the Lord's Supper explained to the 
meanest capacities, London, 1710, 12mo. in a familiar 
dialogue between a minister and parishioner. 2. The 
Principles of Religion explained for the Instruction of 
the Weak, ibid. 1726, 12mo. 3. Four Discourses on the 



GREGORY NAZIANZEN. 353 

Four Last Things, viz. Death, Judgment, Heaven, and 
Hell, ibid. 12mo; and several Occasional Sermons. — 
Masters. 



GREGORY NAZIANZEN. 

The reader is requested to refer to the Life of Basil 
the Great, whose history is closely connected with this 
great and amiable father, who, on account of his profound 
knowledge of Scripture, is known in history by the title 
of The Divine. He was born in 328, at Arianzum, an 
obscure village near Nazianzum, in Cappadocia. His 
father, who was a man of rank and property, originally 
belonged to a sect called Hypsistarians, whose religion 
was a mixture of Judaism and Paganism; but having 
married a Christian, named Nonna, he was by his wife's 
persuasion, and that of some pious clergy to whom she 
introduced him, converted to the Christian faith, and 
was at length elected Bishop of Nazianzum, w^here he 
had officiated as pastor for forty-five years. 

To his father, Gregory Nazianzen pays a tribute of 
filial respect in a narrative of his own life, written in 
Iambic verse, composed in his old age, and addressed to 
the people of his church. After an affectionate exordium 
to his people, he says : "I had a father singularly ad- 
mirable for his probity : an old man, simple in his man- 
ners, — he was a second Abraham. Very different from 
the hypocrites of our days, he was less anxious to appear 
virtuous than to be really so. Involved at first in error, 
he afterwards became a faithful and zealous Christian, 
and subsequently a pastor, and an example to pastors. 

" My mother, to sum up her praises in few words, fell 
short in nothing of her worthy husband ; born of pious 
parents, and still more pious than they, she was feminine 
only by her sex, in mind she was superior to men. She 
and her husband shared the admiration of the public. 



354 GREGORY NAZIANZEN. 

" But what proofs shall I give of the facts that I ad- 
vance ? To whom shall I appeal as my witnesses ? — To 
my mother? Her lips were those of truth itself; but 
she would rather conceal even the good that was known 
of her, than publish that which, being unknown, might 
have done her honour. The fear of the Lord was her 
guide, — who can have a greater Teacher ? 

" Longing for a son, — a longing so natural to a mother, 
— she entreated the Lord for one, and incessantly be- 
sought Him to listen to her prayer : the impatience of 
her desires even went further, — she devoted to God, in 
anticipation, the infant she asked of him, and consecrated 
to Him the precious gift. 

" Her prayers were not put up in vain. She had a 
happy presage of it in her sleep : she saw in a dream the 
object so tenderly wished for; she distinguished exactly 
its features ; she heard my name ; and this vision of the 
night proved to her a happ}^ reality. 

"I came into existence, and my birth must indeed have 
been a blessing from heaven to my parents, if I have 
proved, even in a small degree, deserving of their prayers : 
if, on the contrary, I have been unv.'orthy, the fault can 
only rest with myself, not with them." 

He mentions indeed a remarkable dream which hap- 
pened to himself when yet a child. " While I was 
asleep," he says in one of his poems, which runs thus in 
prose, " a dream came to me, which drew^ me readily to 
the desire of incorruptness. Two virgin forms, in white 
garments, seemed to shine close to me. Both were fair 
and of one age, and their ornament lay in their want of 
ornament, which is a woman's beauty. No gold adorned 
their neck, nor hyacinth ; nor had they the delicate spin- 
ning of the silkworm. Their fair robe was bound wdth""a 
girdle, and it reached down to their ankles. Their head 
and face were concealed by a veil, and their eyes were fixed 
on the ground. The fair glow of modesty was on both of 
them, as far as could be seen under their thick covering. 



GREGORY Nx\ZIANZEX. 355 

Their lips were closed in silence, as the rose in its dewy 
leaves. When I saw them, I rejoiced much ; for I said 
that they were far more than mortals. And they in turn 
kept kissing me, who drew delight from their lips, fond- 
ling me as a dear son. And when I asked who and 
whence the women were, the one answered, ' Purity,' 
the other, 'Continence'; ' We stand by Christ, the King, 
and delight in the beauty of the celestial virgins. Come, 
then, child, unite thy mind to our mind, thy light to our 
light ; so shall we carry thee aloft in all brightness 
through the air, and place thee by the radiance of the 
immortal Trinity.' " 

Gregory was first sent for his education to Caesarea in 
Cappadocia, whence he afterwards removed to Caesarea 
in Palestine ; thence to Alexandria, and afterwards to 
Athens. "At Athens" he says, "there is a passion for 
the sophists, which is carried to a pitch of delirium. The 
greater part of those who frequent their schools, not only 
young men of the lowest condition, but also those of the 
best families, become infected with it. All are mixed up 
together in one mass, without distinction or restraint. 
You might fancy yourself in the noise and uproar of the 
circus, where crowds of spectators are all eagerness for 
the race. Y^ou see them waving backwards and forwards, 
clouds of dust rising above their heads ; they rend the 
air with their shouts, they follow the motion of the riders 
with straining eyes, tracing their course with their fingers, 
which they agitate as if they were spurring the flanks of 
the racers, although they are far from them ; they dis- 
mount one after another, change at their pleasure the 
officers, and the bounds, and the heats, and the stewards 
of the list; and who are they, may we ask, that do all 
this ? — An idle rabble, that have not the means of living 
from one day to another. This is an exact picture of the 
students of Athens, and of the manner in which they 
conduct themselves towards their masters, and those 
whom they imagine to be their rivals. Eager, whatever 



356 GREGORY NAZIANZEN. 

school they themseh^es adopt, to aggrandise the renown 
of that one above all others, they endeavour to swell the 
number of its disciples, and increase the income of its 
professors, by stratagems opposed to all order and decency. 
For this purpose, they lie in wait at gates and avenues, 
in the fields and solitary places ; in distant provinces, 
indeed, in all parts of the country, to intercept every one 
they can find, and enlist them in their own factions and 
cabals. No sooner does a young man set his foot in 
Attica, than, immediately, whether he will or not, he 
sees himself at the mercy of whoever may be the first to 
lay hands upon him. The scene now becomes half 
serious, half ludicrous. It begins by his being taken 
to some one of the party who want to make him their 
prey, or to some of his friends, or relations, or country- 
men ; or, perhaps, to the house of the sophist, whose 
purveyors they may be, and who reckons on their success 
for his remunerations. Then it is who shall throw out 
the most taunts at the new comer, with the design, as it 
should seem, of lowering his pretensions, if he have any, 
or to make him feel his dependance upon them. In this 
attack, each displays, more or less happily, the resources 
of his mind and his character, according to the education 
he has received. Those who are unacquainted with this 
custom are alarmed, and take offence at it ; those, on the 
contrary, who are aware of it, make a joke of it ; for in 
all this preamble there is more of threat than of any 
thing serious. After that, he is conducted with great 
pomp to the bath, through the market-place. The troop 
who compose the escort march, two and two, at equal 
distances. Arrived within sight of the bath, all at once, 
as if transported with a sudden fury, they set up a great 
shout. At this signal, which is heard far and near, every 
body stops; then, as if they were refused admittance, 
they knock violently at the gates, to intimidate the 
novice ; at last, when they are opened, he is permitted to 
enter, and is left at liberty : when he comes out, he is 



GREGORY XAZIANZEN. 357 

considered as one of the initiated, and takes liis rank 
among his comrades." 

He vrent to Athens about the year 851. Here he 
became acquainted with Juhan, doomed afterwards to 
fame as The x\postate, but at that time professing Chris- 
tianity, and here the acquaintance he had formerly formed 
with Basil, at Cappadocia, ripened into friendship, a 
friendship of the most enthusiastic nature on the part of 
the generous and impulsive Gregory ; — (See the Life of 
Basil.) '• That Basil," says Gregory, when recording his 
virtues in his funeral oration, " who has rendered such 
important services to his times. I shared his lodgings, 
his studies, his meditations ; and, I may venture to say, 
we afiorded an example which reflected honour upon 
Greece. Everything was in common between us. It 
seemed as if our bodies were animated but v/ith one 
soul ; yet, what above all things cemented the union 
between us was, our devotion to God, and our love of 
moral excellence. - ^" - It is in conformity of sen- 
timent that the true association of hearts consists. 

" The period, however, drew near when we were to 
return to our respective homes, and decide upon our 
professions : we had sacrificed much time to our studies. 
I was then nearly in my thirtieth year ; I was aware of 
the attachment of our fellow-students, and of the advanta- 
geous opinion they had formed of us. At last the day 
fixed for our departure arrived ; it was a day of grief and 
conflicting sentiments. Imagine to yourself our embraces, 
our conversations mingled with tears; our last adieus, 
wherein our mutual regard seemed to increase at the 
moment of parting! Our companions would scarcely 
consent to Basil's leaving them; but when it came to 
me, I cannot, even at this distance of time, recal that 
moment without tears. I saw myself surrounded with 
friends, comrades, masters, strangers, who, all uniting 
their entreaties and lamentations, proceeded even to lay 
hands upon me, for friendship allows itself such pi'ivi- 

V0I-. v. ^ K 



358 GREGORY NAZIANZEN. 

leges, and holding me fast in their arms, protested that 
they would not let me go away. * * '^ My heart, 
however, yearned towards my native country, and the 
hope of being able to devote myself entirely to Christian 
philosophy. I thought, also, of the old age of my parents, 
bending under the burden of their long-continued la- 
bours : this determined me, and I quitted Athens secretly, 
but not without difficulty. 

" Once more at home, the first object of my philosophy 
was to make a sacrifice to God, along with many other 
tastes, of my study of eloquence, and my passionate 
attachment to its fascinations. In the same cause, how 
many have not hesitated to abandon their flocks in the 
fields, and cast their gold into the unfathomable depths 
of the ocean ! 

" I found myself in a terrible perplexity when I had 
to decide respecting my choice of a profession. ^' -^ -- 
I had frequently remarked, that those who delight in 
active life are useful to others, but useless to themselves ; 
that they involve their peace in a thousand troubles, and 
that the calm of their repose is disturbed by continual 
agitations. 1 saw, also, that those who withdraw them- 
selves entirely from society are, as it must be confessed, 
more tranquil ; and that their minds, unfettered by 
worldly cares, are in a fitter state for contemplation ; but 
that, at the same time, they are good only for thelnselves, 
that their benevolence is narrowed, and that their lives 
are equally gloomy and austere. T took the middle 
course, between those who fly the world altogether, and 
those who devote themselves to it too eagerly ; resolving to 
share the meditations of the one, and emulate the activity 
of the other. I was determined so to do by motives yet 
more pressing ; piety requires that, after God, our first 
duty should be paid to our parents ; as it is to the exist- 
ence we derive from them that we owe the happiness of 
becoming acquainted with Him. Mjne found from me, 
in their advancing years, all the succour and support they 



GREGORY NAZIANZP^N. 359 

had a right to expect in a son. Ta taking care of their old 
age, I endeavoured to merit that my own also should have 
care taken of it, when need might require : we can only 
expect to reap what we may have sown. I exercised my 
philosophy principally in concealing my predilection for a 
solitary life, and in endeavouring to become a servant of 
God, rather than to appear such. I felt the greatest 
reverence for those who, having embraced the public 
functions of the Church, invest themselves also with a 
holiness of character, and govern the people, in teaching 
the sacred mysteries of religion : yet, though I lived 
among men, my earnest longings after solitude seemed 
to consume my heart. I respected the dignity of the 
episcopacy; but, whilst I gazed on it with veneration 
from afar, T shrunk from the thought of its nearer con- 
templation ; as weak eyes turn away from the rays 
of the sun. Little did I think, then, that any circum- 
stances could ever have the power to conduct me into its 
inmost sanctuary." 

To render him the more publicly useful, his father 
prevailed with him by earnest solicitations, though con- 
trary to his own inclination, to enter into holy orders, 
and constituted him a presbyter, to which he the more 
patiently submitted because of the necessities of the 
Church, it being then much infested with heretics, as he 
tells St. Basil in a letter to him on that occasion. Of 
their crafty artifices he had mournful experience in the 
deception of his own father by them. For the Arians, in 
the convention at Constantinople, in the latter end of the 
year 359, had with all possible subtilty refined the ex- 
pressions of their doctrine, pretending, in reverence to 
the divine oracles, they could not use the word con sub- 
stantial, as being an unscriptural term; and therefore, 
laying that word aside, they expressed the article thus : 
That the Son was in all things like the Father, according 
to the Scripture. By this specious pretence they deluded 
several of the Eastern bishops, and among the rest, Gre- 



300 GREGORY NAZIANZEN. 

gory of Nazianzum, who subscribed their confession, and 
admitted them to communion. Upon this many refused 
to communicate with him, and a great breach was made 
in his Church, which had become wider, had not this 
his son put a stop thereunto. He first made his father 
sensible of his mistake, which he readily acknowledged, 
and thereupon the oftended party was soon brought to a 
reconciliation, for confirming which our Nazianzen then 
made his first oration concerning peace. 

Julian being now advanced to the imperial seat, was 
heartily vexed to see how his heathenish party was every 
where run down, and that particularly Basil and Nazian- 
zen vanquished them with their own weapons, which 
therefore he resolved to wrest out of their hands, by es- 
tablishing a law which not only forbad Christians to 
teach school, but also prohibited their being taught the 
learning of the Gentiles. But herein the device of this 
crafty enemy was disappointed, for God hereupon stirred 
up such as abundantly compensated the want of those 
profane authors by their excellent writings. The most 
noted writers of this kind, were Apollinarius and his 
son. The former, being an ingenious poet and gram- 
marian, composed the Jewish antiquities to the time of 
King Saul, in heroic verse, in imitation of Homer, which 
he divided into twenty-four books, and he denominated 
each after the letters of the Greek alphabet. He also 
represented the rest of the history of the Old Testa- 
ment in other kinds of verse, in imitation of Euripides, 
Sophocles, and Pindar ; and indeed he comprehend- 
ed the whole system of the liberal sciences in divers 
sorts of poetry, taking his Argument from the Scrip- 
tures. 

About the same time the younger Apollinarius, son 
of the former, reduced the Gospels, and St. Paul's 
Epistles, into the form of dialogues, like those of 
Plato, and in his style. This he did with such accura- 
cy, that he was esteemed not to come behind the most 



GREGORY XAZIANZEN. 361 

celebrated of the ancients in their compositions. He 
also wrote a book entitled, Concerning the Truth, which 
he dedicated to the emperor, wherein he ably main- 
tained the cause of Christianity. We have also still extant 
an exact and noble metrical version of the Psahns, com- 
posed by the same person. By these means the Christian 
youth were sufficiently supplied, notwithstanding their 
being withheld from the profane learning of the Grecians, 
This excellent writer is indeed said afterwards to have 
fallen into some errors concerning the mystery of the 
incarnation, and to have given rise' thereby to a sect of 
heretics called Apollinarians, who aiBBirmed that Christ 
had a human body, but not a reasonable soul or mind, 
His divine nature being instead thereof. 

Julian not only assaulted the Christians by such crafty 
methods, but also by open force : particularly he sent a 
party of soldiers with an officer to Nazianzum, demand- 
ing the church lately built by the elder Gregory, to be 
surrendered to him, which the good old man courage- 
ously refused ; and the people were so affected therewith, 
that the officer was forced quietly to return. Soon 
after this Julian was slain, upon which Nazianzen pub- 
lished his Invective Oration against him, wherein he 
severely exposes his vanity, in endeavouring to hinder 
the Christians from useful learning, severely inveighs 
against his great impiety, and discovers how the ven- 
geance of God shone forth in his miserable death. And 
then he concludes with admiring the wisdom of the 
divine providence, which hereby relieved the Christian 
Churc;li, and confounded the designs of the Pagans. 

Sometime after this Nazianzen retired into the wilder- 
ness, having been earnestly invited by his dear friend 
Basil to come thither to him : for though he was in holy 
orders, he looked upon his being brought thereinto as a 
kind of force put upon him, and therefore took liberty to 
dispense with the obligation laid on him thereby. In 
this retirement he arrived to a higher degree of contemn- 
2 K 2 



362 GREGORY NAZTANZEN. 

ing the world, correcting the exorbitances of nature, 
bridling his affections, and subduing his lo\Yer appetites 
to the conduct of reason. Here the earth was his bed, 
the most ordinary diet his fare, and the coarsest garments 
his clothing. He spent his days in watching, weeping, 
fasting, and labour, and a great part of his nights in 
hymns and meditations, not suffering the allurements of 
pleasure to have any entertainment in his mind. He 
here also improved his knowledge in the holy Scriptures, 
with which the more he conversed the better he liked 
them ; and in a little time despised those profane authors 
which had been formerly his delight. 

But here he was not to remain long; his father's grow- 
ing weakness, and great age, together with the Arians' 
vigorous opposition to the Church, loudly calling for his 
presence at home. His father had often solicited his 
return to assist him in these difficulties, and had used 
his friends' intercession, as well as his own application 
to attain it, which at length effectually prevailed on him. 
After his return he published a large apology for his 
absence, therein shewing, that he retired not through 
fear of danger, nor because he slighted an ecclesiastical 
function, or was offended that no higher preferment was 
offered him, but that it proceeded from his afi"ection to a 
solitary life, as likewise from a sense of the importance 
of the ministerial work, and of his unfitness for the dis- 
charge of it. He farther declares, that he was induced 
to return in compliance with the desires of the Church at 
Nazianzum, and from a reverence to his father's com- 
mands, which he could no longer withstand in refusing 
to come to his assistance. 

Thus he became coadjutor to his fath€r, supporting 
his age by unwearied diligence, in preaching the truth, 
convincing opposers, and helping him in all parts of his 
office ; though some that had importuned his presence 
now manifested an indifference towards his ministry, as 
he complains in a discourse on that occasion. J3efore 



GREGORY XAZIANZEN, 3G3 

he had been long thus engaged, the family was greatly 
afflicted by the loss of his brother Csesarius, who was a 
person for parts, learning, and virtue, excelling most 
of his time. As he was eminent in other parts of learn- 
ing, so he w^as most peculiarly eminent in the knowledge 
of medicine, and was therefore invited, by the emperor's 
order, and upon most honourable terms, to remain 
at Constantinople, which he then refused. But at 
length, to the great trouble of his friends, he return- 
ed thither, and was chief physician, and afterwards 
also treasurer to Julian the emperor, who had a value 
for any man of learning, and bore a very peculiar 
kindness towards him. This was a great grief to his 
parents, and the greater, because some were not wanting 
to reproach them with it, that he, the son of a Christian 
bishop, should dwell in the family of an apostate em- 
peror, who openly defied Christianity; alleging, that 
bishops would not be likely to prevent others from being 
corrupted, or keep themselves from infection, if they 
could not first prevail on their own children. 

These considerations Nazianzen had laid before Ca^sa- 
rius in a letter, entreating him to quit his offices, and 
retire, both to preserve himself from pollution, and to re- 
lieve the minds of his aged parents, being unable longer 
to support themselves under this burden. He put him 
in mind, that if his arguments prevailed not, he must 
either be unequally associated with the impious, while 
he himself remained a sincere christian, or else, which 
would be infinitely worse, be vanquished by their tempta- 
tions, and become like tliem. This counsel produced its 
desired effect, and Ciiesarius resolved to part with all, 
rather than make shipwreck of a good conscience. Julian 
had endeavoured both by threats and allurements to bring 
him over to Paganism, as likewise to convince him by dint 
of argument ; but Ciiesarius was conqueror in all, and 
positively told him he w^as a Christian, and determined 
to continue so. And thereupon ho took the opportunity 



364 GREGORY NAZIANZEN. 

of the emperor's going into Persia, and returned home, 
to the great satisfaction of his relations. 

But after about two years he went again to court, when 
Valens, who was not yet tainted with Arian heresy, gov- 
erned the Eastern part of the empire, who advanced him 
to his former dignities, and designed his advancement 
to greater. He was in Bithynia in the discharge of his 
office, when that dreadful earthquake happened which 
made great desolations in several places, and particularly 
ruined the famous city of Nice ; nor was Caesarius himself 
preserved without a very peculiar Providence. This Na- 
zianzen soon improved, to excite him to greater seriousness 
in religion, and withal signified his hearty wishes for the 
enjoyment of his company, and that they might together 
praise God for so eminent a deliverance. Caesarius 
apprehended his meaning, and in compliance with his 
desires returned home, but soon after fell sick and died, 
to their unspeakable sorrow. 

Nazianzen made a funeral oration at his interment, 
commending him for his ingenuous temper, his sobriety, 
and circumspect life, for his care in preserving himself 
from pollution in the midst of temptations, and keeping 
himself clear from the vices with which courtiers are 
usually infected. He also declares his stedfastness in 
religion, and his incomparable charity to the indigent, 
whom he had made the sole heirs of his plentiful estate, 
comprising all in these few remarkable words. My will is 
that all I have be given to the poor. Yet no sooner was 
he dead, but some greedy officers laid hold of his estate, 
pretending a right to it, which caused much trouble to 
Nazianzen, who w^as trusted with the disposition? of it^ and 
created a contest which continued long, and occasioned 
him to write once and again to Sophronius, the governor, 
about it. 

Nazianzen's brother being thus dead, he remained with 
his parents, expressing all dutiful respects to them, until 
at length a new trouble arose, which he often laments as 



GREGORY NAZIANZEN. 365 

the greatest that ever befel him. The emperor Yalens 
had hxtely divided Cappadocia into two proyinces, making 
Tyana the metropoUs of that which was hereupon called 
the second Cappadocia; by which means, Anthimus, 
bishop of that place, claimed the government of the 
Churches within that province, ^vhich had been formerly 
subject to Basil, as Archbishop of Csesarea. Basil here- 
upon erected new bishoprics, and among the rest he 
juade Sasima one, a town situate on the borders of that 
new-made province ; and that he might have a trusty 
friend in it, he desired our St. Gregory to accept thereof 
as his charge. But Nazianzen rejected it with contempt, 
as contrary to his beloved retirement, and also resented 
it as a great affront that he should offer him so mean a 
place, and in all respects so inconvenient for him. Basil 
being vexed at such a refusal, treated him ^ith an over- 
great sharpness, charging him with clownishness, and 
not understanding his interest, or how to oblige his 
friends. The other replied with no less acrimony, telling 
him, he could not imagine how he had deserved such 
usage, that it was unreasonable for a man to be affronted, 
and then blamed for complaining of it; that abating his 
episcopal dignity, he knew not wherein he was inferior 
to him, as he himself had been ready to acknowledge at 
other times. He told him, that people generally cried 
out against him for this attempt, and that their most 
gentle reflections were, that it agreed not with the rules 
of true friendship, as being an instance of disrespect 
towards him, who had been serviceable to him upon so 
many occasions. He added, that he had been made use 
of by him only as a scaffold, which, when the building is 
erected, men take down and throw aside as no further 
useful ; and therefore begged him no longer to hinder 
his repose, concluding that he had no mind to a bishop- 
ric, though others were eager in the pursuit of that 
dignity. Into such heats and unbecoming reflections, 
these two so intimate friends brake forth on this occasion. 



366 GREGORY NAZIANZEN. 

Notwithstanding all this, Basil would not relinquish 
his attempt, but applied himself to Nazianzen's father, 
by whose influence and paternal commands he was at 
length prevailed with to consent, and so submitted him- 
self to be ordained bishop of that province. At the same 
time he made an apologetic oration, and therein especially 
directed his discourse to his father and St. Basil, signify- 
ing the reasons why he was so averse from accepting that 
charge, and also telling them, that since he was now in 
it, he expected their guidance and direction in performing 
the duties thereof. But he could not forbear still reflect- 
ing on the unkindness of his friend Basil, in putting 
such difficulties upon him, though he now did it with 
much more modesty and gentleness than before. The 
next day being a festival for commemorating the martyrs, 
came Gregory Nyssen, Basil's brother, whom Nazianzen 
entertained with an oration, wherein he pressed to an imi- 
tation of the piety, jDurity, zeal, and constancy, of those 
who had by martyrdom borne a testimony for religion; 
and further shewed, that we in conformity to them 
should offer up ourselves as a living and reasonable 
sacrifice to God ; and that this was the only way to hon- 
our the martyrs, and be accepted with Christ, and not by 
meeting to eat and drink, and to indulge our appetites, 
which is more suitable to an heathen festival than a 
Christian solemnity, Anthimus, of Tyana, soon endea- 
voured to bring Nazianzen over to his party, and to own 
him for his metropolitan, but he continued stedfast to 
the interest of Basil ; whereupon Sasina was seized, and 
to his great satisfaction he was hindered from entering 
upon the government of it, nor indeed was there any 
thing to invite him thereto, it being a very mean, dirty, 
and unwholesome place. 

Upon this Nazianzen retired to a solitary hospital, 
and there past his time in the exercises of devotion and 
a mortified life, but was soon disturbed in his retirement 
by his father's commands and intreaties, to take on him 



GREGORY NAZIAXZEN. 367 

the charge of Nazianzura : his own great age and infir- 
mities having disabled him from bearing the burden 
thereof himself. He knew his son's averseness to it, 
and therefore applied himself with all endearing insinu- 
ations. " Son," said he, " your aged father is become a 
petitioner to you his youthful son. I ask not riches nor 
honour from you, but only that, like Aaron and Samuel, 
you would minister before the Lord. Reject not his 
desires who w^as the instrument of your being ; and, 
though the request were not so reasonable as it is, re- 
member that it is your father that makes it. Comply 
with me in this, or else I protest some other shall close 
my eyes, and take care of my funeral ; this T will inflict 
as a punishment upon you. Assist me the little time I 
have to live, and then I shall leave you to follow the 
counsels of your own mind." To this melting address, 
Nazianzen replied : " Sir, how grievous soever your com- 
mands are, yet for your sake I submit; but upon this 
condition, that when it shall please God to remove you 
to heaven, I may be wholly free from any further care of 
this province." Upon these terms they agreed, and so he 
became his father's substitute, and thereupon made an 
oration to his people, signifying wdth what difficulty he 
was brought thereto, and that his compliance was mefely 
}n reverence to his father, and from a desire of promoting 
the public good, and therefore desired the utmost assist- 
ance which they were able to render him therein. 
He further told them, that when he could be no longer 
assistant to his father in his office, none should compel 
him to continue in it, contrary to his inclination ; seeing 
all that undertake the episcopal work should do it with 
a freedom of mind, and not have any force put upon 
them therein. 

It was soon after his coming into this station, as is 
probable, that we find him employed in appeasing the 
governor, who was offended with the people of Nazianzum, 
for tumults lately made, either upon the account of their 



368 GREGORY NAZIANZEN. 

burdensome taxes, or upon some other occasion. It is 
thought by some of the ancients that this governor, ^Yho 
now threatened them with severitv, was one Juhan, 
formerly Nazianzen s schoolfellov>^ and intimate acquaint- 
ance. To appease him, Xazianzen got up into the pul- 
pit, and made an oration, first applying himself to the 
people, to encourage them against despondency under 
their apprehended danger; and also to caution them 
against insolency, reminding them of the obedience that 
is due to magistrates, according to the rules of Christian- 
ity. Then he addressed himself to the governor, admon- 
ishing him of his religious education, his baptism and 
profession of Christianity, exciting him by several pow- 
erful arguments to exercise his authority with merc}^ and 
gentleness, and to improve the same for Christ, from 
whom he had received it. 

Shortly after he was the mournful orator who preached 
at the funeral of his sister Gorgonia, v\^ho had been wife 
to Vitalian, a gentleman of those parts, by whom she 
had several children. In his oration he gives this char- 
acter of her, That she was a woman of great virtue, piety, 
and charity, her doors being open to all that were in 
want and necessity, and of singular prudence in her 
relative capacities. That she vvas of a grave and even 
demeanour, between merriment and moroseness, a great 
enemy to all artificial beautifyings, very modest in her 
dress, and temperate in her diet, and frecpaently spent 
whole nights in reading the Scriptures, and divine medi- 
tations, in praising God or praying to him, through her 
frequency in which her knees were grown hard like those 
of camels. She would not, through bashfulness, as he 
further tells us, suffer any physician to come near her in 
her greatest sickness, and being once seized with a malig- 
nant fever, which was deemed mortal, she ventured on 
the following strange method of cure. Finding Some 
intervals between her fits, she got up in a stormy night, 
and went to the church, and kneeling at the commuuion- 



GREGORY NAZIANZEN. 369 

table, earnestly requested her recovery, resolving she 
would not go thence until she was restored to her health, 
which she at length obtained. But still she retained 
her desires of departing, and of being with Christ, the 
particular day of which was represented to her in a vision, 
as he further relates. In her last sickness, she called 
her husband, children, and friends about her, and after 
suitable discourses with them, she was heard with a very 
low voice to repeat those words of the psalmist, "I will 
lay me down in peace and rest," and so expired. 

Not long after her death followed that of her father, 
when he had been Bishop of Nazianzum forty-five 3^ears, 
and was one hundred years of age. His eminent virtues 
were well known before he became a Christian, as he was 
afterwards a serious professor, and a most excellent 
bishop, making up his want of those advantages of edu- 
cation, which some'possessed, by his unwearied industry, 
through which he attained to a great understanding in 
the Scriptures, and the doctrines of religion. He was a 
zealous defender of the Catholic faith, and recovered his 
see from great corruptions, both in principles and prac- 
tice, with which he found it overspread. He observed a 
due medium both in his food and raiment, between sor- 
didness and curiosity. He was courteous and affable in 
his conversation, and though naturally passionate, he never 
gave way to it, unless where zeal for religion required 
the exercise of a just anger. He was eminently charita- 
ble to the poor, and in a word, a true Nathaniel in whom 
there was no guile. This is a breviate of the character 
that Nazianzen, his son, gives of him in his funeral 
oration, at the conclusion of which, he addressed himself 
to his mother, Nonna, to comfort her under so great a loss, 
saying, "We ought not to envy the happiness of our 
godly friends, for our own convenience ;*' and supported 
her with the consideration, that she must quickly follow 
him to the same felicity. 

VOL. v. '2 L 



;{70 (JUJ'UiOUY NAZiAN/EN. 

These consolulions were vei'y seasonable, lor slie being 
unich about tlio same age with her liusbantl, and being 
now deprived of him wlio was tlio chief prop of her life, 
(lied, as it is very probable;, about the same time. Na- 
/ianzen dcscrib(3S her in the following manner: "She was 
a woman of extraordinary ])iety, which she received as it 
were by inlieritarujc from her ancestors, and imparted 
the same to her husbiuid and children, Using a faithful 
wife, and an excellent nioth<3r. She; slighled the bravery 
which other women admired, accounting the divine imago 
the truest beauty, and virtue the greatest nobility. She 
reverenced tlu; ministers of Christianity as the ambassa- 
dors of heaven, and spent her time in fastings, watchings, 
prayers, and singing of i)salms, djiy and night. She. 
slumned conversing with her nearest relations, if hea- 
thens ; nor would she eat or luive nny familiarity with 
such as defiled themselves by pagan worship. She was 
of an even temper under all troubles, and praised God 
under all calamities, though at the same time none was 
more compassionate to others in their distress." 

Sorrows thus following one anolluM-, suflicienliy weaned 
Na/ianzen from home, ; and now, looking on himself as 
fully released from his cliarge, he rcsolvc^l to retire, having 
lirst endeavoured, though in vain, to jM'ocure one fit to 
svu^ceed his father at May,ian/um. Yet he continued 
not long in his solitude, but returned from it about the 
time of St. Basils death, whom, to Ins great trouble, 
he could not attend in his last hours, being hindered by 
liis own sickness : yet he shewed a due respect to his 
friend s nu^mory, by an eloepient encomium upon him. 
About this time his presence was desired in a synod held 
at Antioch, to heal the divisions that had been long, in 
the Eastern Chunjhes, caused by the Arian party. He 
was here selected, in consideration of his great learning 
and abilities, to go to Constantinople, the chief refuge of 
those heretics, and there assist the orthodox in defending 
the Catholic faith. 



( ) PJ^^.G ( ) la' N A Z 1 A N / i^:n ;n 1 

It was now about forty ycary since tin; (Jliunli of (j<»n- 
stantinoplo enjoyod the blessing of orthodox t.oacliing 
Jind vvorsliij). Tanl, who had been ch'ctod bislioj) at tho 
bcj^nnning of this poriod, liad boon visitod witli lour 
successive banishments from the 7\rian ]»arty, iiiid at 
h^ngth with martyrdom. Jle liad bc^en sup(!rseded, lirsl, 
by Kusebius, tlie leader of the Arians; then by Macc- 
donins, the head of the sect which denied the divinity of 
the Holy Si)irit; and then by J'judoxius, the Arianizer of 
the Gothic tribes. On the death of tho last mentioned, 
A. n. 'AH), the remnant of tlu; orthoilox elected for th(!ir 
bishop, Evagrius, who was immediately banished by tlni 
(nnperor Valens ; and, when they petitioned him to 
reverse his decision, eighty of their (icchisiastics, who wen; 
the bearers of tlKiir compl.-iints, were Hul)j(!elod to a 
srmtonco severer even than our colobratctd jmrniidiirr, 
being burned jit sea in the ship in which they weie em- 
bari<(!d. In tho year 379, the orthodox Theodosius 
succeeded to the empire of the East; but this event did 
not at once alter the fortunes of tho Church in his metro- 
polis. The body of the people, nay, th(5 populace itself, 
and, what is sti'anger, numbers of the female ])o])ul;ition, 
were eagerly attached to Aiianism, and menaced violence 
to au}'^ who was bold (iuougb tx) preach the true doeti'ine. 
Such was the calamitous state of the Church itself; in 
addition to which, must bo added the attitude of its 
external enemies: — the Novatians, who, orthodox them- 
selves in doctrine, yet possessed a schismatical episcopacy, 
and a number of places of worship in the city; — the 
Eunomians, prof(^ssors of tho Arian Imrcsy in its most 
Miidisguis(!d blasphemy, who also had est;iblished a bishop 
th<;ro ; — and the Semi-Arians and Apollinarists, to whose 
lieretical sentiments we need not here allude. This was 
i]]c condition of Constantinople when the orthodox mem- 
b(!rs of its Church, under the sanction and with the 
co-operation of the neighbouring bishops, invited (ire- 
gory, whose gifts, niligious and intellectual, were well 



372 GREGORY NAZIANZEN. 

known to them, to preside over it, instead of the here- 
tical Demophilus, whom Valens, three years before, had 
placed there. 

Gregory consented. A place of w^orship was prepared 
for him by the kindness of a relative, and Gregory soon 
became the object of the public admiration ; his thorough 
acquaintance wdth the sacred writings, his close and strong 
reasoning, his lively and fruitful imagination, the clear- 
ness of his expressions, and the beauty of his style, 
charmed all that attended his sermons. The Catholics 
flocked to him with eagerness and joy, to hear the doc- 
trine of the blessed Trinity, of which they had been so 
long deprived. The heretics, and even the very pagans, 
crowded to his sermons, and were pleased with the elo- 
quence of this great doctor. He was frequently inter- 
rupted in the pulpit, and obliged to be silent, while his 
audience expressed their approbation by clapping hands, 
or loud acclamations. Several thought their time well 
spent in writing down his sermons ; and those, who had 
good memories, were fond of shewing them by repeating 
his discourses. 

One of the greatest abuses Gregory found in the Church 
of Constantinople, and which called aloud for redress, 
was an unhappy itch for disputing about religion. The 
Catholics were not entirely free from this restless humour; 
but the heretics were quite mad with it. Gregory could 
not bear to see Divinity handled so familiarly by all sorts 
of people, and degenerate into mere sophistry, and the 
art of wrangling, In opposition to this abuse, he made 
five discourses ; in w^hich he shews that treating on 
religious subjects is not every man's business, but reserved 
to those who have a pure heart, or are serious in their 
endeavours to cleanse it, and have made some progress 
in meditating on holy things : that those sacred questions 
are to be handled only when we are calm and free from 
such passions as cloud and disturb our reason ; and 
never to be discussed before such as are so entirely ad- 



GREGORY NAZIANZEN. 373 

dieted to their pleasures that they have no sense of 
religion. This is the subject of the first discourse, and 
is followed by four more, which treat of the being, and 
attributes of God, and the doctrine of the holy Trinity. 
Gregory is generally supposed to have taken the appella- 
tion of The Divine from those pieces ; a title which is 
given him by the ancients ; the Greeks especially made 
use of it to distinguish him from other fathers of the 
same name; and it was never allow^ed to any but him 
since St. John the Evangelist. 

The first news of the wonderful success of Gregory's 
endeavours for the reformation and instruction of the 
people of Constantinople was so agreeable to the orthodox 
prelates, that they began to look on him as the pastor of 
that great and populous city. Peter, who had succeeded 
the famous Athanasius in the government of the Church 
of Alexandria, wrote to him in the most respectful and 
handsome terms, and such as seemed to own him Bishop 
of Constantinople, and confirm him in that dignity ; and 
he declared to his colleagues that he received him in that 
quality. Gregory's great reputation drew several persons 
to Constantinople, distinguished by their ^drtue and 
erudition, who resorted thither to enjoy the advantage 
of such a master. St. Jerome was one of that number, 
w^io studied the holy Scriptures under him. But Gre- 
gory was not so happy in all his scholars ; at least Max- 
imus, the cynic, proved an exception. He was a native 
of Alexandria, and, although a Christian, made public 
profession of the philosophy from which he received 
his surname. He wore the habit peculiar to that sect, 
had long hair, carried a staft', and was endowed with all 
the impudence, and snarling humours, of those pre- 
tended philosophers. After he had run through several 
provinces, and given proofs of a vicious and disorderly 
inclination wherever he came, at last he settled at Con- 
stantinople. He was so great a master of the art of 
Q L 2 



374 GREGORY NAZIANZEN. 

hypocrisy, that he imposed on Gregory, and passed for a 
confessor, and one who had suffered for rehgion all those 
punishments his extravagancies had met with in his 
travels. This impostor recommended himself further to 
the consideration of Gregory, and the good opinion of 
the people, hy applauding his sermons, declaiming stren- 
uously against the heretics, and wearing the appearance 
of strict piety and extraordinary zeal. Gregory was so 
far deceived in him, that he took him into his house, 
admitted him to his table, unbosomed himself to him 
with the utmost ingenuousness and confidence ; and, as 
if he could never appear too sensible of his supposed 
merit, made a set discourse to the people in commenda- 
tion of him. This is what we now have under the title 
of the Eulogium of the Philosopher Hero ; for St. Jerome 
assures us that piece was designed for a commendation 
of Maximus. 

The cynic, having thus insinuated himself into the 
favour of Gregory, formed a design of supplanting him, 
and placing himself in the see of Constantinople. The 
first person to whom he communicated his intentions, 
and brought into his measures, was a priest of that 
Church, who from a jealousy of Gregory's eloquence, had 
contracted an aversion to his person. Their united en- 
deavours prevailed with Peter of Alexandria, to favour 
the ambitious philosophers pretensions, the very man 
who had been so warm the year before for Gregory. 
That patriarch in every other particular was a person of 
a spotless character ; and it was never known what could 
make so surprising a change in his sentiments and con- 
duct ; but it is most certain that he espoused his cause 
so heartily, that he sent seven bishops of his province to 
Constantinople, to consecrate Maximus ; who found 
means to borrow a considerable sum of money, which 
was employed in purchasing the good will of some, who 
had expressed a particular affection for Gregory. Having 
thus formed a strong party, who were ready to declare 



GREGORY NAZIANZEN. 375 

for tlieir benefactor upon the first motion, the conspira- 
tors, who were all Egyptians but one, took their advantage 
of Gregory's being confined to his bed by sickness, entered 
the church in the night, and began the ceremony of 
Maximus's consecration ; but the day came upon them 
too fast, and would not give them leave to finish their 
stolen solemnity. Such of the clergy as lived near the 
church, and could not but perceive what they were at, 
alarmed the town immediately ; upon which the Egypt- 
ians were forced to quit the place, and take shelter in a 
private house, where they made an end of their schisma- 
tical consecration. 

The whole body of the clergy, and all the faithful of 
Constantinople, resented this unwarrantable enterprize ; 
Maximus's true character was published, and that infa- 
mous person driven from the city disgracefully. Gregory 
was most sensibly afflicted at this tumultuous proceeding, 
and resolved to retire to avoid being the least instrumen- 
tal in disturbing the peace of a Church he had so happily 
recovered. Full of this resolution, he went up into the 
pulpit to take his leave of his flock. As soon as they 
heard him express himself on that subject, the whole 
congregation rose up, declared him their bishop, and 
conjured him to take that title, and not abandon them in 
their distress. But he made a vigorous resistance, and 
seemed resolved not to continue in possession of the 
episcopal see, without being placed in it canonically by 
an assembly of bishops. They grew so clamorous in 
their demands, that for some time he remained silent, 
being neither able to make them give over their pressing 
instances, nor prevail with himself to comply with them. 
This contest lasted thus until the evening, and then they 
protested he should never quit the church until he had 
granted their request. Finding them thus resolute, he 
promised to stay with them until the arrival of some 
prelates, who were expected there shortly; but would 
not give them this assurance upon oath, as they seemed 



376 GREGORY NAZIANZEX. 

to require. Thus Maximus's attempt only enhanced the 
affections of the people for Gregory, and the heretics 
were disappointed of their hopes of dividing the Catholics 
by this dispute. 

That unhappy person, though loaded with the curses 
of the people, and driven out of the city, had the as- 
surance to make a journey to Thessalonica, in company 
with the Egyptian bishops, who had ordained him, where 
his business was to beg the emperor's protection, and en- 
gage him to support him in the see of Constantinople. 
Theodosius repulsed him, upon which he was obliged to 
retire to Egypt. Gregory had now no disturbance, and 
therefore pursued his apostolical employments with his 
usual fervour and assiduity until Theodosius came to 
Constantinople, which was on the 24th of November, 380. 
That prince had not been three days in the city, when 
he drove the Arians out of all the churches there, and 
restored them to the Catholics, after they had been alien- 
ated forty years. Gregory desired to retire, for he was 
humble enough to believe his absence might contribute 
to the peace of the Church. But the emperor, who from 
the first moment of his arrival had treated him with great 
respect, and spoken very advantageously of his conduct, not 
only pressed his stay, but would have the satisfaction of 
putting him in possession of the great church, which he 
performed with much solemnity. The Catholics desired 
Theodosius to make their joy complete, by obliging the 
Saint to accept of the title of Bishop of Constantinople. 
Gregory refused the profferred dignity the first day, but 
was obliged to submit the next, and was placed in the 
episcopal chair by force. He could scarce pardon his 
friends this act of violence, and looked on his instalment 
as irregular. For, though he was possessed of no other 
bishopric, and the see of Constantinople was vacant, he 
knew a canon of the council of Antioch, forbidding the 
making such a step without the authority of a lawful 
council. 



GEEGORY NAZIANZEN. 377 

Theodosius, having restored the churches to the Catho- 
lics, under the direction of Gregory, put him in posses- 
sion of the episcopal palace too, and the whole revenues 
of the diocese, which were grown very considerable. As 
they had suffered much from the irregular conduct and 
extravagance of the Arian prelates ; some of his friends 
would have had him inquire into and punish the mal- ad- 
ministration of such as had wasted or destroyed what the 
liberality of princes and the nobility had granted to the 
Church of Constantinople ; but he would not listen to the 
proposal ; being assured that he was accountable to God 
only for what he had received. Gregory was so great a 
stranger to contention, that he treated his professed 
enemies with an engaging sweetness ; and, although the 
emperor was always ready to employ his authority for 
reducing the heretics, Gregory never had recourse to his 
assistance, but chose to overcome them by acts of charity 
and generosity. But they w-ere not to be gained, nor 
prevailed with to pardon him the disgrace of their party. 
After several repeated insults, which he bore with a 
patience truly Christian, they made an attempt on his 
life, as the only expedient left for delivering themselves 
from so formidable an adversary. When he was installed 
by the emperor, the crowd and fatigue of that cere- 
mony obliged him to retire into his chamber, to repose 
himself. Several persons came to make him their 
compliments on that occasion, and after a short stay left 
him. Gregory perceived one of the company remain 
behind ; he was pale, wore long hair, and had in every 
particular the appearance of a person in distress. Alarm- 
ed at his figure, he was going to arise, when the 
young man threw himself at his feet; and fear and 
grief seemed to have deprived him of the use of speech. 
Gregory asked him who he was, whence he came, and 
what was his business there; but could get no other 
answer from him than tears, sighs, and such postures 
as were expressive of a deep sorrow. Several endeavours 



378 GREGORY NAZIANZEN. 

were used to oblige him to quit the house, which 
nothing but downright force could do. One of those 
that helped to carry him off, told the bishop that the 
afflicted person was an assassin, who would have mur- 
dered him, had not a singular providence interposed ; 
but that, touched with remorse for the villanous design, 
he was come to accuse himself, Gregory, moved at this 
account, and the countenance of the criminal, dismissed 
him with the following words : " Go in peace," said he, 
" God preserve you, since my life is secure. It is but 
reasonable I should treat you with the same tenderness 
providence has shown in my favour. As your fault has 
made you mine, take care to become worthy of God and 
me." This action made a great noise in the town, and 
gained the bishop the affections of several, who until 
then had looked on him with contempt or coldness. 

Gregory continued the same zeal and simplicity in the 
government of the faithful of Constantinople ; for neither 
his present situation, nor the protection and presence of 
the emperor made any alteration in his heart or actions. 
While other prelates appeared frequently at court, and 
solicited the favour of such as were in power, Gregory 
led a most retired and private life from all that was 
great and considerable in the world. Nothing but charity 
and a desire of relieving the miserable could prevail with 
him to make visits to great men ; and, although he was 
sometimes obliged to dine with the emperor, he never 
did it without committing violence on his inclinations. 

Gregory, who still considered himself only as a person 
lent to the Church of Constantinople, was always desir- 
ous of returning to bis solitude. He flattered him- 
self with the prospect of being master of his wish in the 
general council held at Constantinople in 381, but was 
disappointed. The ordination of Maximus was declared 
null by a canon made on purpose, which is the fourth of 
that council. This decision was followed by a speech 
made by Theodosius in commendation of Gregory's great 



GREGORY NAZLAlNZEN. 379 

virtue and capacity, which ended in a desire of having 
him regularly established in the see of Constantinople. 
Gregory opposed the motion, and employed both prayers 
and tears upon this occasion ; but the authority of that 
venerable assembly, seconding the prince's good disposi- 
tions in favour of the Church, overcame all the resistance 
he could make ; and what induced him to yield with less 
difficulty was, as he assures us, because he hoped his 
situation in that see would promote his desire of uniting 
the Eastern and Western Churches, which had been long 
divided by the schism of Antioch. He was solemnly 
received and established bishop of Constantinople by the 
prelates there present, and placed on the episcopal throne 
by Meletius, who presided in that council. 

That prelate died soon after this ceremony ; and those 
who had been sensibly afflicted at the division at Antioch, 
hoped the breach would now be closed by Paulinus re- 
maining in sole possession of that see, according to an 
agreement which had been made. But that was super- 
seded, and the council debated about a successor in the 
Church of Antioch. Gregory, perceiving that this proceed- 
ing broke all the measures that had been taken for bring- 
ing affairs to a happy conclusion, and defeated those com- 
fortable hopes which had been so effectual in engaging 
him to accept the bishopric, opposed the election with 
a becoming resolution. Since the decease of Meletius, 
Gregory was at.the head of the council of Constantinople, 
and used all the authority of his situation to dissuade 
the prelates from an act that might perpetuate the un- 
happy schism. He observed to them, that, even if 
both the contending parties were angels, it would not be 
reasonable that their disputes should be allowed to dis- 
turb the peace of the Church ; and, to convince them 
that what he said proceeded from a sincere desire of 
seeing union restored, and that self-interest had no share 
in his present opposition, he begged they would allow 
him to resign his bishopric, and spend the rcmaindoi' of 



380 GEEGOKY NAZIANZEN. 

his days at a distance, both from the honour and danger 
that attended his post in the Church. The younger 
part of the bishops urged the choosing a Bishop of An- 
tioch, brought over the others, and chose Flavian. Gre- 
gory was not disposed to change his opinion on the affair 
in question ; and although he had no objection against 
the personal character of Flavian, could not be prevailed 
on to approve of the election, although the importunities 
of his friends were added to the authority of the council ; 
and from that moment he was more and more confirmed 
in his resolution of quitting his bishopric. Seeing the 
emperor's intentions for restoring the peace of the Church 
by convening this council likely to be defeated by this 
act, and the meetings of the bishops full of confusion 
and disorder, he appeared now but seldom among them, 
and his want of health passed for the reason of his ab- 
sence ; he changed his habitation, to be at a distance 
from the council, that his appearance there might not be 
insisted on. The most considerable persons in the town, 
perceiving by his conduct that he was in earnest in his 
design of leaving his see, went to him with tears in their 
eyes, and conjured him not to abandon the good work, 
he had so happily begun. Such solemn and pressing 
invitations could not but affect him, although they were 
not strong enough to engage his promise of devoting the 
remainder of his days to the Church of Constantinople. 

In the meantime the bishops of Egypt came to the 
council, with Timothy of Alexandria at their head. That 
prelate was brother and successor to Peter, already men- 
tioned. They were joined by the Macedonian bishops; 
and were all alike in the interest of Paulinus, the sur- 
viving Bishop of Antioch. One would imagine a simili- 
tude of sentiments in that important affair must have 
united them to Gregory, who was so much displeased 
at the election of Flavian, On the contrary, however, 
those prelates complained that Gregory's election to the 
see of Constantinople was uncanonica], because he had 



GREGORY NAZIANZEN. 381 

before been placed in another : but they either did not 
know, or were not disposed to take notice that Gregory 
never was actually possessed of the Bishopric of Sasima, 
nor ever took the title of Bishop of Nazianzum. But the 
truth was, this complaint proceeded more from a resolu- 
tion of opposing the Eastern bishops, who had inthroni- 
zed him, than from any aversion to Gregory, as they 
made no scruple of telUng him in private. Gregory 
was glad of this favourable opportunity of recovering 
his liberty, which had so long been his only wish. 
Soon after this debate arose he went to the council, and 
declared he desired nothing so much as peace and union 
in the Church, to which he was ready to contribute his 
best endeavours : assured them that, if his holding the 
see of Constantinople gave any disturbance, he was wil- 
ling to be thrown over board, like Jonas, to appease the 
storm, although he had not raised it: observed that if 
others would follow his example, the Church would soon 
be blest with repose: added, that indeed it was high 
time for him to retire from a charge to which his infir- 
mities made him unequal ; and wished his place might 
be supplied by one of such zeal and capacity as the pre- 
sent state of the Church required. 

The fathers of the council seemed at first amazed at 
his speech, but were weak enough to accept of this act 
of resignation with a facility that was blamed by all that 
wished the good of the Church. When Gregory had 
thus delivered his mind, he went to the emperoi -^^^d in 
the presence of several persons told him, " He was come 
to court on the same errand which usually brought his 
majesty's subjects thither, which was to beg a favour. 
But," says he, "I am not undertaking to petition for 
ornaments for the church, or places for my relations; 
all I ask is, your royal leave to remove an object of envy. 
I am become odious to several, some of whom are other- 
wise my friends, only because I prefer pleasing God to 
all other considerations. Your majesty must remember 
VOL. V. 2 m 



382 GREGORY NAZIANZEN. 

how unwilling I was to accept of this charge even when 
pressed by your hand, and it is in your power to make 
my flock consent to my leaving them." Theodosius was 
charmed with Gregory's speech and behaviour, which 
gained the applause of all present ; and the prince, out 
of affection for the holy prelate, granted his request. 

The reasons the bishops gave for consenting so easily 
to his quitting his see, were the disturbance his presence 
caused in that Church, and his bodily infirmities ; but 
there were some grounds for suspecting they were not 
entirely free from jealousy at his reputation, and looked 
on the sobriety and gravity of our prelate as a tacit re- 
flection on their pride and luxury. The corruption, 
however, was not universal, for several could not bear to 
see him thus abandoned ; but as soon as they perceived 
the greatest part of their colleagues sit down contented 
under the loss of so valuable a person, they left the as- 
sembly, and were resolved not to be witnesses of the 
promotion of another to the see of Constantinople, while 
Gregory was alive. For their comfort, and that of his 
clergy and people, he made a farewell discourse to them 
in the great church ; in which he gives them an account 
of his own conduct, describes the deplorable condition 
in which he found the Church of Constantinople, and 
the flourishing state in which he left it : repeats the 
doctrine he had taught among them; protests he has 
been candid, impartial, and disinterested in the govern- 
ment of his flock ; complains of his misfortune in not 
pleasing them, and then takes a formal and pathetical 
leave of his Church, the clergy, the people, the emperor, 
and the whole world, which he renounced most heartily, 
and started for Cappadocia. While he was there he 
made his will, or at least renewed one drawn up at Con- 
stantinople, before^ Jie came to the resolution of leaving 
that city. It is dated on the thirty-first of December, 
381, and signed by seven bishops. This piece is drawn 
up in all the forms of Roman law ; but is not of the 
same consequence to the devout or learned reader, a^ 



GREGORY NAZIANZEN. 383 

his other works; because it contains onlj^ the disposal 
of his fortune, and the regulation of his domestic affairs. 

Upon the retreat of Gregory, Timothy, Patriarch of 
Alexandria, presided in the council of Constantinople, 
and Nectarius, recommended by the emperor, was raised 
to the vacant see. One of the first employments Gregory 
engaged in after his return to Nazianzum, was to wipe 
off the aspersions his enemies had cast on his character. 
As the best way of performing this was to write an exact 
and impartial history of his own conduct, he has given 
us the particulars of his life from his birth to his leaving 
Constantinople in a poem. He was in his retreat at Ari- 
anzum, the j)lace of his birth, which descended to him from 
his father, when Theodosius solicited him to appear at a 
second council to be held at Constantinople, in 382, or 
rather the same continued; for it is to this assembly 
that we owe the famous creed, which is always said to 
be made in the first council of Constantinople ; but he 
could not be dragged from the repose he then enjoyed 
and forced into disputes, to which he ever had an utter 
aversion. Instead of that, he went to Cesarea in Cappa- 
docia, and there expressed his veneration for the memory 
of his worthy friend St. Basil, by a panegyric he spoke 
before the whole Church of that city. When he had 
discharged that debt, he returned to Arianzum, where 
he led a very penitential life, although his infirmities 
would scarce allow him that satisfaction. He spent a 
whole Lent here without speaking, and during that time 
wrote a poem by way of apology for his long silence, 
which was followed by another at Easter, in which he 
professes he enters again^upon the use of his speech only 
to give praise to Jesus Christ at that great festival. 

Nothing but the miserable condition in which he found 
the Church of Nazianzum at his return, could disturb 
the pleasure he enjoyed in his lovely retreat. It had 
been wretchedly neglected ever since he left it, and was 
now overrun with the errors of Apollinarius. At first he 



384 GREGORY NAZIANZEN. 

thought it best to attempt the cure by soft and gentle 
means; but, finding those heretics, not only active in 
propagating their false doctrine, but taking advantage 
of his patience and forbearance to boast of his being of 
the same sentiments, he thought he was now obliged to 
declare himself, and undeceive the world in that point. 
He wrote to Cledonius, to whom he had left the chief 
care of that Church in his absence, and wiped off the 
aspersion, by confuting the tenets of those heretics at large. 

About the year 383, Gregory, most sensibly afflicted 
to see the Church of Nazianzum suffer so many inconve- 
niences for want of a chief pastor, after repeated importu- 
nities, prevailed with the prelates of that province to 
grant the much-wanted blessing ; and Eulalius was made 
bishop. 

The remainder of St. Gregory's life was passed in the 
retirement of his country house, where he solaced himself 
by the pursuits of poetry and literature, and by the cul- 
tivation of his garden. Here he received visits, not only 
from his friends but from strangers also, whose merit 
claimed his consideration. He died in 390. 

Gregoi7 Nazianzen appears before us in an amiable 
character. Although, according to the religious practice 
of the age, he was in some respects an ascetic, yet, in 
his love of literary ease he was self-indulgent : declining 
or retreating from posts of duty to enjoy the delights of 
literary retirement. His writings have been highly 
praised ; but they appear to the present writer to be rather 
the efforts of a man of literature, than the gushings out 
of a soul fervent with devotion. He is too rhetorical, 
and is one of the fathers whose rhetorical expressions 
have sometimes been quoted by Romanists to justify 
their peculiarities. Gregory is said to have written no 
fewer than 30,000 lines of poetiy. Part of his poems 
were published in the edition of his works by the Abbe 
de Billy, Paris, 1609-11, which contains also his orations 
and epistles ; twenty more poems, under the title of 



GREGORY OF NYSSA. 385 

Carmina Cygnea, were afterwards published by J. Tollius, 
in his Insignia Itinerarii Italici, 4to, Utrecht, 1696 ; and 
Muratori discovered, and published in his Anecdota 
GrEEca, Padua, 1709, a number of Gregory's epigrams. 

His works consist of fifty-five discourses, — poems and 
epistles. Several parts of his works have been edited 
both in England and on the Continent. The following 
are the complete editions of his works : — 

Gregorii Nazianzeni Opera, a Wolfgango Musula, Gr. 
fol. Basil, 1550. 

Second edition. Jacob Bilii, a Fred. Mor- 

ellio, Gr. et Lat., fol. Paris, 1609-11. 2 vols. 

Third edition. Billii et Morellii, Gr. et 

Lat., fol. Paris, 1680. 2 vols. Edit. O^t— Gregorii Opera. 
Cave. Church of the Fathers. Book of the Fathers. Fleury. 

GEEGORT OF NYSSA. 

Geegory of Nyssa, one of the fathers of the Church, 
was born in Cappadocia about 333. He was a younger 
brother of St. Basil, and enjoyed the advantages of a 
liberal education under able masters, and distinguished 
himself by his proficiency in literature and science. He 
excelled in rhetoric, and preached as a professor and 
pleader with great success. He married a woman of 
virtue and piety, named Theosebia, of whom Gregory 
Nazianzen has spoken in the highest terms of com- 
mendation. He appears to have officiated as a reader 
in a church, and to have been originally intended 
for the ecclesiastical life, but his passion for rhetoric, 
to the study of which he had devoted his youth, 
haunted him so incessantly, that, unable to withstand 
its continual allurements, he, for a time, forsook his 
clerical duties, and gave lessons to youth in this his 
favourite art. 

St. Gregory Nazianzen heard with grief of this dere- 
liction in the brother of his friend. His own passion 
S m2 



386 GREGORY OF NYSSA. 

for rhetoric was not less ardent, yet he had had the reso- 
lution, when at Athens, to refuse a professorship in that 
dazzling branch of human learning, offered to him in the 
hope of retaining him in that city, and of withdrawing 
his attention from sacred studies : he therefore conceived 
himself every way authorised, both by experience and 
friendship, to address him on the subject, which he ac- 
cordingly did with equal sincerity and affection. " Na- 
ture," says he, in his letter to him, *' has gifted me with 
good common sense : will you pardon me for speaking 
with so much confidence of myself? This disposition of 
mind makes me spare neither my friends nor myself, 
the moment that I see any thing amiss, either in the 
one or the other. There exists between all those who 
live under the law of God, and march under the 
banner of the same Gospel, a holy association, which 
unites them closely to each other. Thus, when an inju- 
rious report concerning yourself is circulating in the dark, 
can you be displeased if I have the frankness to apprize 
you of it V It is said, then, and not to your credit, that 
the daemon of ambition, as the Greek poet expresses it, 
is leading you, without any attempt at oj^position on your 
part, into an evil path. What change has been wrought 
in you ? In what do you find yourself less perfect, that 
you now abandon our sacred volumes, which you have 
been in the habit of reading to the people, for profane 
authors, and determine upon embracing the profession 
of a rhetorician, rather than that of a Christian ? As for 
myself, I have done exactly the reverse, and I thank 
God for it. Do not persist, I conjure you, in your de- 
sign : return to what you were before, — the most excel- 
lent of men. Do not say to me, ' Does it then follow 
that I have renounced the Christian life ?' God forbid ! 
Not entirely, perhaps, have you renounced it, but in part, 
at any rate, you have ; — even if there were no objection 
but the ground or pretext for scandal that you give, that 
motive alone ought to turn you from your undertaking. 
What good can result from giving rise to malignant 



GREGORY OF NYSSA. 387 

remarks? We are not placed in the world solely for 
ourselves, but for others, and it is not enough to retain 
our own esteem : we ought to endeavour to merit that of 
others also. I have given you my advice ; you will ex- 
cuse my frankness, for the sake of the friendship I bear 
you, the grief I feel, and the zeal by w4iich I am animated 
towards yourself, the sacerdotal office, and Christians in 
general. Must I pray with you, or for you ? I implore 
in your behalf the aid of that God who can call even the 
dead to life." 

This letter recalled Gregory to a sense of the all- abso- 
lute claims his clerical duties had upon his time and 
talents, and he accordingly resumed them with a humility 
which showed his sincerity. His good resolutions were, 
no doubt, strengthened by a visit he paid, immediately 
after his return to the altar, to Macrina, that affectionate 
and zealous sister, who, after devoting the bloom of her 
youth to the care of her brothers, had employed her ad- 
vancing years in the guiding a small company of holy 
women in the paths of heavenly life, on the banks of the 
Irus, amid the seclusion of the forests of Pontus, already 
consecrated to devotion by the labours of her brother Basil. 

No sooner was St. Basil elevated to the episcopal chair 
of Cesarea, in 370, than he summoned his brother Gre- 
gory to assist him in the duties of his new diocese ; but 
the Bishopric of Nyssa, a city of Cappadocia, near Les- 
ser Armenia, becoming vacant the following year, Basil 
gave up the pleasure of his brother's aid and society, and 
consecrated him to it, in 372, anxious rather to place 
him in a situation where he could be still more exten- 
sively useful, than to retain him near himself. 

In this see he signalized his zeal in defence of the Ca- 
tholic faith, and in opposition to the Arians ; in conse- 
quence of which he drew upon himself the vengeance of 
that party, and was banished from his see by the emperor 
Valens about 374. On the death of Valens in 378, he 
was recalled by Gratian, and restored to the possession 
of his episcopal see. 



388 GREGORY OF NYSSA. 

A council, probably that of Aritioch, had ordered St. 
Gregory of Nyssa to reform the Church of Arabia ; and, 
Palestine bordering upon it, he visited Jerusalem and the 
holy places, as well to perform a vow, as to settle peace 
and tranquility among them who governed the Church of 
Jerusalem. For his greater convenience in this journey 
the emperor allowed him the use of the public carriages ; 
so that having a waggon at his own disposal, it served 
him and those who accompanied him both as a church 
and a monastery ; they sang psalms, and observed their 
fasts therein as they travelled. He visited Bethlehem, 
Mount Calvary, the holy Sepulchre, and the Mount of 
Olives ; however, he was not much edified by the inhabi- 
tants of the country, who, he says, were very corrupt 
in their manners, and notoriously guilty of all sorts of 
crimes, especially murder. Therefore, being afterwards 
consulted by a Monk of Cappadocia, concerning the pil- 
grimage to Jerusalem, he declares " that he does not think 
it proper for such as have renounced the world, and have 
resolved to arrive at Christian perfection, to undertake 
these journeys ; first, because they are no way obliged to 
it, our Lord having ordained nothing concerning them 
in the gospel. In the next place, because it is dangerous 
to those who propose to lead a perfect life ; solitude and 
retirement from the world being necessary for such, that 
they may not fall into impurity, and that they may avoid 
meeting with persons of a contrary sex. And these things 
cannot be observed in travelling. A woman, says he, 
cannot go a journey without a man to attend her, to help 
her to get upon, and light off her horse, and hold her up 
where the way is bad ; whether he be a friend, or one 
hired for this purpose, it is still inconvenient. Besides, 
in the inns and cities of the East, people have great 
liberty to commit sin ; and they meet with such objects 
as may pollute the eyes and the ears, and consequently 
the heart. If purity of manners is a sign that God is 
present, we ought to believe that he resides in Cappado- 



GREGORY, THEODORUS. 389 

cia, rather than any other place : and I know not whether 
we can find, in the whole world besides, so many altars 
erected to his honour. Advise your brethren, therefore, 
rather to leave the body to go to the Lord, than to leave 
Cappadocia to go to Palestine." This was the opinion of 
St. Gregory of Nyssa concerning pilgrimages. 

In 381 and the subsequent years, Gregory assisted at 
the council of Constantinople, and was one of the bishops 
chosen to form a centre of Catholic communion in the 
East. In this city he pronounced the funeral oration of 
his sister Macrina, whose last moments he had the com- 
fort of attending, warned of her illness in a dream, after 
a separation of eight years, and whose remains he carried 
himself to the grave, assisted by the most eminent of 
the clergy in the place. 

Three years afterwards, Gregory was deprived, by death, 
of his wife, a woman of many virtues, who, in her later 
years, devoted herself to religious duties, and has been 
supposed by some to have become a deaconess. His own 
death took place in the beginning of the year 400. 

The editions of his works are as follows : — 

Gregorii Xysseni Opera cura Frontonis Duccei. Paris, 
1605, 2 vols.*^ 

Studio Fred. Morelli. Paris, 1615, 

2 vols, cum Not. Duccei. 

Cura Jac. Gretseri, fol. Paris, 1618. 

Opera Integra cum Not. Johan. Leun- 

clavii, Johan. Gulonii, Front. Duccei. 3 vols, fol. Paris, 
1638, ^gid. Morell. — Gregorii Opera. Bupin. Cave. 
Book of the Fathers. 

GEEGORY, THEODORUS, 

Theodohus Gregory, surnamed Thaumaturgus, was 
born, in the third century, of rich and noble parents, at 
Neo-Cesarea, in Pontus. He w^as educated very care- 
fully in the learning and religion of Paganism by his 
father, who was a warm zealot ; but losing this parent at 



390 GREGORY, THEODORUS. 

fourteen years of age, his inclinations led him to Christi- 
anity. Having studied the law for some time, he went first 
to Alexandria, then become famous by the Platonic school 
lately erected there. Returning home, he staid for a 
short time at Athens, and then applied himself once 
more to the study of the law, but growing weary of it, he 
turned to philosophy. The fame of Origen, who at that 
time had opened a school at Cesarea in Palestine, soon 
reached his ears. To that city therefore he betook him- 
self, and placed himself under that celebrated master, 
who endeavoured to settle him in the full belief of Chris- 
tianity. About 239 he took leave of Origen, after deliv- 
ering before a numerous audience a noble oration in his 
praise, and returned to Neo-Cesarea, and was ordained. 

His ordination was very remarkable, if not singular. 
Phedimus, Bishop of Amasea, knowing the worth of this 
young man, and being grieved that a person of such ac- 
complishments should live useless in the world, was 
desirous to consecrate him to God and his church. On 
the other hand, Gregory was afraid of such a charge, and 
industriously concealed himself from the Bishop of Ama- 
sea, whose design he was aware of. At length Phedimus, 
tired of his fruitless attempts to meet Gregory, looking 
up to God, to whom they were both present, instead of 
laying his hands upon Gregory, addressed a discourse to 
him, and consecrated him to God, though bodily absent; 
assigning him also a city, which till that time was so 
addicted to idolatry, that in it, and in all the country 
round about, there were not above seventeen believers. 

Gregory was then at the distance of three days' jour- 
ney. Nyssen does not inform us how Gregory came to 
the knowledge of what had been done : however, he says, 
that now Gregory thought himself obliged to acquiesce ; 
and that afterwards he was consecrated with the usual 
ceremonies. 

Here he continued till sbout 350, when he fled from the 
Decian persecution ; but, as soon as the storm was over, 
he returned to his charge, and in a general visitation of 



GREGORY, THEODORUS. 391 

his diocese established in every place anniversary festivals 
and solemnities in honour of the martyrs who had suffered 
in the late persecution. Not long aftenvards (264) he 
attended at the synod at Antioch, where Paul of Samo- 
sata, bishop of the place, made a feigned recantation of 
his heretical opinions. He died most probably in the 
following year. With respect to the miracles ascribed to 
him, they do not rest upon the authority of his con- 
temporaries, and are more numerous and extraordinary 
than will now be readily credited. We are chiefly in- 
debted for an account of them to Gregory of Nyssa, who 
flourished about a hundred years after Thaumaturgus, 
who wrote a panegyric of him, rather than a life, and who 
evidently recorded every wonder of which he received a 
report without examination. Lardner, however, says, 
that he will not assert that Gregory worked no miracles. 
The age of miracles was not entirely concluded, and had 
there been no foundation in truth, the wonderful stories 
relating to Gregory would not have been believed. Doubt, 
however, must rest upon every story of this sort, and 
therefore, we have not occupied our space by narrating 
them. 

The creed of Gregory is very important, as shewing us 
how clearly defined was at this time the faith of the or- 
thodox : its authenticity has been disputed, but it is 
received as genuine by Bishop Bull and Dr. Waterland : 
it is as follows : — 

"There is one God, Father of the living Word, the 
substantial Wisdom and Power and eternal express image : 
perfect Parent of One perfect, Father of the only begotten 
Son. There is One Lord, One of One, God of God, the 
express character and image of the Godhead, the effective 
Word, the Wisdom that grasps the system of the universe, 
and the Power that made every creature, true Son of 
the true Father, invisible of invisible, incorruptible of 
incorruptible, immortal of immortal, and eternal of eter- 
nal. And there is one Holy Ghost, having His subsist- 
ence from God, and shining forth by the Son [viz. to 



39-^ GREGORY, THEODORUS. 

mankind,] perfect image of the perfect Son, life causal of 
all living, the holy fountain, essential sanctity, author of 
all sanctification : in Whom God the Father is manifest- 
ed, Who is above all and in all, and God the Son Who is 
through all. A perfect Trinity undivided, unseparated 
in glory, eternity and dominion. There is therefore 
nothing created or servile in this Trinity, nothing adven- 
titious that once was not, and came in after : for the 
Father was never without the Son, nor the Son without 
the Spirit, but this Trinity abides the same unchangeable 
and invariable for ever." This, says Dr. Waterland, is 
the much celebrated creed of which some stories have 
been told more than we are bound to believe, by Gregory 
Nyssen ; but misreport in circumstances does not inva- 
lidate the main thing. 

Gregory's works, so far as we know anything of them, 
are these : — 

1. A Panegyrical Oration, in praise of Origen, pro- 
nounced in 239, still extant, and unquestionably his. 
Dupin says of it, " that it is very eloquent, and that it 
may be reckoned one of the finest pieces of rhetoric in all 
antiquity." It is the more admirable, because perhaps 
it is the first thing of the kind among Christians, 

2. A Paraphrase of the Book of Ecclesiastes, mentioned 
by Jerome in his catalogue, and quoted by him in his 
Commentary upon that book, and still extant. 

3. Jerome afterwards adds in his catalogue, that Gre- 
gory v/rote several epistles ; of which, however, we have 
now only one remaining, called a Canonical Epistle to 
an anonymous bishop, written in 258 or 262 ; consist- 
ing, as we now have it, of eleven canons, all allowed to 
be genuine, except the last, which is doubted of, or 
plainly rejected, as no part of the original epistle, but 
since added to it. 

His works were printed in Greek and Latin, 1626, 
foL, and in the library of the fathers. Gerard Vossius 
also printed an edition at Mentz, in 1604, 4to. — Gregory 
Nyssen. B,asU. Eusebius. Dupin. Cave. Lardner. 



GREGORY, THE GREAT. 393 



GEEGORY, THE GREAT. 

Gregory, commonly called Gregory the Great, Bishop 
of Rome, was born at Rome, of a noble family, about 
544 ; and having received an education suitable to his 
rank, he became a member of the senate, and filled other 
employm.ents in the state. Italy was then subject to the 
emperors of the East, and Justin 11. appointed him to 
the important post of prefect or governor of Rome. 
This otFice he quitted soon after the death of his father, 
when he came into the possession of immense wealth, the 
greater part of which he devoted to the establishment of 
monasteries, six of which he founded in Sicily, and one at 
Rome, dedicated to St. Andrew, into which he retired him- 
self, and was soon after ordained a deacon. It was about 
this time that, seeing one day in the slave-market some 
Anglo-Saxon children exposed for sale, and struck with 
their comely appearance, he is said to have exclaimed, 
" They would be indeed not amjli, but cuujeli (angels), if 
they were Christians." And from that moment he resolved 
to use his iufluence in causing missionaries to be sent 
to England. On the elevation of Pelagius II. to the 
see of Rome, Gregory was sent in 579 by that prelate, 
on a mission to Constantinople. He could not have 
chosen a man better qualified than Gregory, for so deli- 
cate a negociation ; the particulars of it, however, are not 
known. In the meantime, he was not wanting in exert* 
ing his zeal for religion. While he was in this metropolis 
he opposed Eutychius the patriarch, who had advanced 
an opinion bordering on Origenism, and maintaining 
that, after the resurrection, the body is not palpable, but 
more subtile than air. In executing the business of his 
embassy, he contracted a friendship with some great men, 
and gained the esteem of the whole court, by the sweet- 
ness of his behaviour, insomuch, that the emperor Mau- 
ritius chose him for a godfather to a son of his, born in 

VOL. V. 2 N 



394 GREGORY, THE GREAT. 

the year 583. Soon after this he was recalled to Rome, 
and was made secretary to Pelagius ; but after some time 
obtained leave to retire again into his monastery, of which 
he had been chosen abbot. 

Pelagius died 590, and Gregory, contrary to his own 
earnest wishes and remonstrances, was chosen his suc- 
cessor by the joint suffrages of the senate, clergy, and 
people of Rome. His first step on entering upon the 
duties of the episcopate, was to satisfy the bishops of the 
chief sees as to the orthodoxy of his faith. For this 
purpose he wrote to the patriarchs of Constantinople, 
Alexandria, Antioch, and Jerusalem, declaring that he 
received the first four councils ; that he reverenced the 
fifth; and that he condemned the three chapters. On 
his accession to the papal chair, a general relaxation of 
discipline, as well as of piety and morals, prevailed in 
the clerical orders. He therefore set about the correction 
of these evils with the utmost diligence and persever- 
ance. 

He was particularly careful to regulate his house and 
person according to St. Paul's direction to Timothy, 
(1 Tim. iii. 5.) Even in performing divine worship, he 
used ornaments of but a moderate price, and his common 
garments were still more simple. Nothing was more 
decent than the furniture of his house, and he retained 
none but clerks and religious persons in his service. 
By this means his palace became a kind of monastery, 
in which there were no useless people, every thing in his 
house had the appearance of an angelic life, and his 
charity surpassed all description. He employed the 
revenues of the church entirely for the relief of the poor ; 
he was a constant and indefatigable preacher, and devoted 
all his talents for the instruction of his flock. 

In the meantime, he extended his care to the other 
Churches under his jurisdiction, and especially those of 
Sicily, for whom he had a particular respect ; he put an 
end to the schism in the Church of Iberia the same year : 



GREGORY, THE GREAT. 395 

this was effected by the gentle methods of persuasion, to 
which, however, he had not recourse, until after he had 
been hindered from using violence. Upon this account 
he is censured as intolerant, and it is certain, his max- 
ims on that head were a little inconsistent. He did 
not, for instance, approve of forcing the Jews to receive 
baptism, and yet he approved of compelling heretics to 
return to the Church. In some of his letters too, he 
exclaims against violence in the method of making con- 
verts by compulsion and necessity, and at the same time 
he was for laying heavier taxes on such as would not be 
converted by persuasive means ; and in 593, he sent a 
nuncio to Constantinople, and wrote a letter the same 
year to the emperor Mauritius, declaring his humility 
and submission to that sovereign; he also shewed the 
same respect to the kings of Italy, even though they 
were heretics. 

In 594, he assisted Theudelinda, queen of the Lom- 
bards, in converting that people to the Catholic faith, and 
about the same time he was engaged in a controversy 
with the Patriarch of Constantinople, which is of such 
deep interest to us, as members of the reformed Church, 
that it shall be given at some length. The Bishop of 
Constantinople was at this time distinguished in the East 
by the title of oecumenical or universal patriarch ; and 
Gregory found that he had so styled himself over and 
over again, in a judgment which he had lately given 
against a presbyter arraigned of heresy, and which, at 
the request of Gregory, he had transmitted to Rome. 
At this Gregory took the alarm, and forgetting all other 
cares, as if the Church, the faith, the christian religion, 
were in imminent danger, he dispatched, in great haste, 
a messenger, with letters to Sabinianus, his nuncio at 
Constantinople, charging him, as he tendered the liberty 
wherewith Christ has made us free, to use his utmost 
endeavours with the emperor, with the empress, and 
above all with the bishop himself, his beloved brother, to 



S9e> GREGORY, THE GREAT. 

divert him from ever more using the proud, the profane, 
the antichristian title of universal bishop, which lie had 
assumed, in the pride of his heart, to the great debase- 
ment of the whole episcopal order. The nuncio, in 
compliance with his orders, left nothing unattempted, 
which he thought could make any impression on the 
patriarch, assuring him that, unless he relinquished the 
odious title, which had given so great offence to Gregory, 
he would find in him a formidable antagonist, not to say 
an irreconcilable enemy. But the patriarch was not a 
man to be easily frightened ; and therefore told the nuncio, 
that indeed he was sorry his most holy brother of Rome 
should have taken any umbrage at so inoffensive a title, 
since he could have no just reason to take any ; but as it 
had been bestowed, and bestowed by so great a council, 
not on him alone, but on him and his successors, it was 
not in his power to resign it, nor would his successors 
stand to his resignation, if he should. As for the emperor 
and the empress, they declared, that they would be in no 
way concerned in that affair. However the emperor wrote, 
on this occasion, to Gregoiy ; but it was only to exhort 
him to live in peace with the bishop of the imperial city, 
lest a misunderstanding between them in particular 
should be attended with a general misunderstanding 
between the East and the West. 

Gregory received, at the same time, the emperor's 
letter, and an answer from his nuncio, informing him, 
that he had by no means been able to prevail on the 
patriarch to quit his new title, and that he seemed 
disposed to maintain it at all events. Gregory was 
greatly concerned at the obstinacy of the patriarch, as 
he styled it ; but more to find, that the emperor had at 
all interfered in the quarrel. He therefore wrote again, 
without loss of time, to his nuncio, ordering him to renew 
his remonstrances with the patriarch, and, if he still 
found him inflexible, to separate himself from his com- 
munion, that the see of St. Peter might not seem to con- 



GREGORY, THE GREAT. 397 

nive at his pride and ambition. As to his living in peace 
with his most holy brother and colleague, agreeable to the 
desire of the emperor, he declares, that he has nothing 
more at heart ; and that would his most serene lord only 
oblige his beloved brother, as in justice he ought, to 
renounce his new title, he would have thereby the merit 
of establishing a lasting peace between the two sees, and 
preventing the evils which he seemed to apprehend from 
their disagreement. He closes his letter with the follow- 
ing remarkable words : " It is very hard, that, after we 
have parted with our silver, our gold, our slaves, and even 
our garments, for the public welfare, we should be obliged 
to part with our faith too ; for to agree to that impious 
title is parting with our faith ;" so that the title of univer- 
sal bishop was, according to Gregory, heretical in itself ; 
and, in his opinion, none could either assume it, or 
acknowledge it in another, without apostatizing from the 
faith. Sabinianus, the pope's nuncio, communicated to the 
patriarch the contents of this letter, as soon as he received 
it. But the patriarch was so far from yielding, that on 
the contrary, he loudly complained of Gregory for thus 
opposing, with so much warmth, a title which none but 
himself thought, or could think, in the least derogatory to 
the authority of any other bishop or patriarch. Here- 
upon the nuncio, pursuant to the express order of Gre- 
gory, renounced his communion. 

Gregory, finding that all the endeavours of his nuncio 
proved unsuccessful, resolved to write no more to him, but 
immediately to the patriarch himself; which, he said, he 
had hitherto declined, lest he should be obliged to find 
fault with a man, of whose sanctity and virtue he had 
ever entertained the highest opinion. He wrote to him 
accordingly, a long letter, loading the title of universal 
patriarch or bishop with all the names of reproach and 
ignominy he could think of ; calling it vain, ambitious, 
profane, impious, execrable, antichristian, blasphemous, 
infernal, diabolical ; and applying to him that assumed it, 
2 n2 



398 GREGORY, THE GREAT. 

what was said by the prophet Isaiah of Lucifer, "Whom 
do you imitate," says he, "in assuming that arrogant 
title ? Whom but him, who, swelled with pride, exalted 
himself above so many legions of angels, his equals, that 
he might be subject to none, and all might be subject to 
him ?" It was then, in the opinion of Gregory, imitating 
Lucifer, for any bishop to exalt himself above his brethren, 
and to pretend that all other bishops were subject to him, 
himself being subject to none. And has not this been, for 
many ages, the avowed pretension and claim of the popes? 
"We declare, say, define, and pronounce it to be of neces- 
sity to salvation, for every human creature to be subject 
to the Roman pontift'," is a decree issued by Boniface 
VIII., four hundred and fifty years ago. " The apostle 
Peter," continues Gregory, "was the first member of the 
universal Church. As for Paul, Andrew, and John, they 
were only the heads of particular congregations ; but all 
were members of the Church unde^' one head, and none 
would ever be called universal." The meaning of Gregory 
is obvious ; viz. That the apostles themselves, though 
heads of particular congregations or churches, were never- 
theless members of the Church universal, and none of 
them ever pretended to be the head of the whole Church, 
or to have power and authority over the whole Church, 
that being peculiar to Christ alone. This agrees with 
what he had said before, addressing himself to the patri- 
arch ; viz. " If none of the apostles would be called 
universal, what wdll you answer on the last day to Christ, 
the head of the Church universal? You, who, by 
arrogating that name, strive to subject all his members 
to yourself?" For it was not the bare title of universal 
bishop, that thus alarmed Gregory, but the universal 
power and authority, which he apprehended his rival 
aimed at in assuming that title. Gregoiy adds: "But 
this is the time which Christ Himself foretold ; the earth 
is now laid waste and destroyed with the plague, and 
the sword : all things that have been predicted, are now 



GREGORY, THE GREAT. 399 

accomplished ; the king of pride, that is antichrist, is at 
hand ; and what I dread to say, an army of priests is 
ready to receive him ; for they who were chosen to point 
out to others the way of humility and meekness, are 
themselves now become the slaves of pride and ambition." 
Here Gregory treats the Bishop of Constantinople, as 
the fore-runner of antichrist, for taking upon him the 
title of universal bishop, which he pretends to have been 
rejected by one of his predecessors, though offered to him, 
and in him to all the bishops of the apostolic see, by no 
less a council than that of Chalcedon. But he was there- 
in certainly mistaken. 

Gregory wrote, at the same time, to the emperor, and 
the empress Constantina, inveighing, throughout both 
letters, against his most holy brother (for so he styled 
him,) as one who strove, by a most wicked attempt, to 
enthral the whole Church, as one equal in pride to 
Lucifer himself, as the forerunner of antichrist, &c. repeat- 
ing here what he had written to the patriarch himself. 
He begs the emperor, in the name of St. Peter, to control 
by his authority, the unbounded ambition of a man, who, 
not satisfied with being bishop, affected to be called the 
sole bishop of the Catholic Church. It was therefore, ac- 
cording to Gregory s way of reasoning, the same thing to 
be called universal bishop, and sole bishop. He alleges 
several reasons to convince the emperor, that, in the 
Church, there can be no universal bishop ; and the fol 
lowing among the rest : " If there were an universal bishop, 
and he should err, the universal Church would err with 
him :" which was evidently supposing every bishop, even 
an universal bishop, to be capable of erring. From his 
letter to the empress, it appears but too plainly, that, in 
thus opposing, with so much warmth, the title of univer- 
sal bishop, in his brother of Constantinople, and inveigh- 
ing against that prelate, in the manner we have seen, 
for assuming it, he was actuated by jealousy as well as by 
zeal. For, in that letter, after declaiming, in the sharp- 



400 GREGORY, THE GREAT. 

est and most poignant terms, against the title, as quite 
antichristian, against the patriarch, as a disturber of the 
peace, and the good order established by Christ in the 
Church, against all who in any way countenanced, encour- 
aged, or upheld him, in so impious and detestable an 
attempt, he addresses the empress thus : *• Though Gre- 
gory is guilty of many great sins, for which he well 
desers''es thus to be punished, Peter is himself guilty of 
no sins, nor ought he to suffer for mine. I therefore, 
over and over again, beg, intreat, and conjure you, by 
the Almighty, not to forsake the virtuous steps of your 
ancestors, but, treading in them, to court and secure to 
yourself the protection and favour of that apostle, who is 
not to be robbed of the honour that is due to his merit, 
for the sins of one who has no merit, and who so unwor- 
thily serves him." Here Gregory plainly shews, that, 
after all, the honour and dignity of St. Peter, and his 
see, were at the bottom of the whole opposition. 

The remonstrances of Gregory made no more impres- 
sion on the emperor, or the empress, than they had made 
on the patriarch himself; nay, Mauritius rather favoure'^ • 
the patriarch, though he declined openly espousing,, i 
cause, thinking the title of universal bishop well sui,. -i 
to the rank and dignity of the bishop of the imperii ^ 
city. Of this, Gregory was well apprised ; but yet, no 
despairing of success, and determined to leave nothing" 
unattempted, which he thought could be attended with 
any, he wrote to the two other patriarchs, Eulogius of 
Alexandria, and Anastasius of Antioch, striving to alarm 
them, and persuade them to join, as in a common cause, 
against the Bishop of Constantinople, who, he said, 
giving the reins to his unbounded ambition, had nothing 
less in his view than to degrade them, and engross to 
himself all ecclesiastical power and authority. But the 
two patriarchs were not alarmed ; the Bishop of Constan- 
tinople was already raised above them ; and they were 
not so jealous of the power that was left them, as to be 



GREGORY, THE GREAT. 401 

under any apprehension of its being usurped or invaded 
by their brother of Constantinople, at least in virtue of 
his new title. Besides, both patriarchs had signed and 
approved the decree, entailing the disputed title on John 
and his successors ; and that they are not improbably 
supposed to have done, that the Bishop of Constantinople 
might be thereby encouraged to protect them, as well as 
his other brethren in the East, against the growing power 
and daily encroachments of the Bishop of Rome, backed 
and supported by his brethren in the West. Anastasius 
of Antioch, even took the liberty to express no small 
sui^prise at Gregory's being alarmed, to such an extraor- 
dinary degree, at a thing which, as it appeared to him, 
was of very little m.oment, and not at all worthy of the 
trouble which the Bishop of Rome gave himself about it. 
In 596, Gregory turned his attention once more to the 
conversion of the Anglo-Saxons, for an account of which, 
the reader is referred to the life of Augustine. Several 
circumstances concurred at this time to favour his design. 
Ethelbert, king of Kent, and the most considerable of 
the Anglo-Saxon monarchs in Britain, had married Ber- 
tha, daughter of Cherebert, king of Paris, who embraced 
Christianity, and was allowed the free exercise of her re- 
ligion This princess, partly by her own influence, and 
partly by the efforts of the clergy who had followed her 
into Britain, gradually formed in the mind of Ethelbert 
an inclination to the Christian religion. While the king 
was in this disposition, Gregory sent Augustine, prior of 
the monastery of St. Andrew, accompanied by forty 
monks, into this island, in order to bring to perfection 
what the queen had begun. In the meantime, John, 
patriarch of Constantinople, who first assumed the title 
of universal patriarch, had died, and was succeeded by 
Cyriacus, who soon after manifested his determination to 
defend his right to the same title which had produced 
the variance between his predecessor and Gregory. He 
desired, however, to pacify Gregory, and despatched a 



402 GREGORY, THE GREAT. 

nuncio or apocrisarius to Rome to try to reconcile Gre- 
gory to his retention of the offensive title. Gregory 
received the apocrisarius in a most obliging manner, and 
even admitted him to his communion ; but, at the same 
time, let him know, that he could not, and never would, 
approve of, or connive at, so scandalous, so profane, so 
blasphemous a title; that there could be no peace (for 
Cyriacus had, in his letter, exhorted him to peace and 
concord) between him and his beloved brother, till the 
cause of their discord was removed ; and that if he could 
only prevail upon himself to part with the badge of pride, 
typwm superhicB, which his predecessor had wickedly as- 
sumed, he would thereby establish an everlasting har- 
mony between the two sees. What he said to the apo- 
crisarius he repeated in a letter which he wrote soon after 
to the patriarch himself, and sent by the deacon Ana- 
tolius, appointed, at this time, to succeed Sabinianus in 
the office of nuncio, at the imperial court. In that let- 
ter he positively affirms that, " Whoever calls himself 
universal bishop, or desires to be so called, in the pride 
of his heart, is the forerunner of Antichrist ; Ego fidenter 
dico, quod quisquis se universalem sacerdotem vocat, vel 
vocari desiderat, et elatione sua Anticliristum prcBcurrit,'' 
are Gregory's own words ; though Baronius has not 
thought fit to quote them, being well apprised, that they 
utterly overturn the system of the present controversy, 
as stated by him. 

Gregory answered, by the same deacon Anatolius, a 
letter he had received from Eulogius of Alexandria, 
which had given him great satisfaction. It has not 
reached our times ; but, from the pope's answer, it ap- 
pears to have been filled with the most fulsome flattery. 
Gregory, however, was pleased with it so far as it extolled 
and magnified the dignity and prerogatives of the see of 
Rome. For he tells the patriarch, that the praises 
which he has been pleased to bestow on the see of St. 
Peter, have been the more acceptable, as they came from 



GREGORY, THE GREAT. 403 

one who held the same see, and who consequently could 
not pay the honour that was due to the see of Rome, 
without paying, at the same time, the honour that was 
due to his own. Ought not his praises on that score to 
have been rather suspected? "Who does not know," con- 
tinues Gregory, "that the Church was built and establish- 
ed on the firmness of the prince of the apostles, by whose 
very name is imported a rock, Petriis a Petra vocatur ? 
Who does not know, that to him it was said, ' I will give 
unto thee the keys,' &c., ' Feed my sheep,' &c. Hence, 
though there were several apostles, yet there is but one 
apostolic see, the see of the prince of the apostles, that 
has acquired great authority ; and that see is in three 
places : in Rome, where he died ; in Alexandria, where 
it was founded by his disciple St. Mark ; and in Antioch, 
where he resided himself seven years. These three 
therefore are but one see, and on that one see sit three 
bishops, who are but one in Him, Who said, ' I am in 
my Father, and you in me, and I in you.' " Here 
Gregory manifestly equalized the sees of Alexandria 
and Antioch with that of Rome. But of them he enter- 
tained no jealousy, and the point he had in view was to 
humble his great rival the Bishop of Constantinople ; 
which he was sensible he could do by no other means 
more effectually, than by engaging the two other patri- 
archs in a quarrel. He therefore very artfully made 
their sees and his but one see, them and himself but one 
bishop ; that, looking upon the injury done by the Bishop 
of Constantinople to him and his see, as done to them 
and their sees, they might join him as in a common 
cause against a common rival. 

Eulogius wrote, about this time, another no less flat- 
tering letter to Gregory, wherein he even styled him 
universal bishop ; probably with a design to try whether 
he might not put an end to the quarrel between the two 
bishops, by giving to both the title, about wbich they 
quarrelled. This was no bad expedient, but the reasons 



404 GREGOEY, THE GREAT. 

alleged by Gregoiy to prove it was wicked, heretical, 
blasphemous, antichristian, diabolical, in the Bishop of 
Constantinople, equally proved it was wicked, heretical, 
and the like, in himself. He therefore rejected it with 
great indignation, remonstrated against its being given 
to him, with as much warmth as he had ever remonstrated 
against its being given to the Bishop of Constantinople, 
nay, and thought it an affront that it had ever been offered 
him. "If you give more to me," says Gregory, in his 
answer to Eulogius, "than is due to me, you rob yourself 
of what is due to you. I choose to be distinguished by 
my manners, and not by titles. Nothing can redound 
to my honour that redounds to the dishonour of my 
brethren. I place my honour in maintaining them in 
theirs. If you call me universal bishop, you thereby own 
yourself to be no pope. Let no such titles therefore be 
mentioned, or ever heard among us. Your holiness says, 
in your letter, that I commanded you. I commanded 
you ! I know who you are, who I am. In rank you are 
my brother, by your manners my father. I therefore 
did not command; and beg you will henceforth ever 
forbear that word. I only pointed out to you what I 
thought it was right you should know." The whole 
drift of this letter was, as the reader must have observed, 
to draw, and in a mxanner to soothe the patriarch of 
Alexandria into the present dispute. But neither he 
nor any other bishop joined him, at least in the East ; 
nay, as they had given the patriarch of Constantinople 
that title, they all, but the Bishop of Alexandria, who 
would not concern himself in the quarrel, thought them- 
selves bound to maintain and defend it. 

Gregory therefore, being now at a loss whom next to 
recur to, for the emperor and the empress both favoured 
the patriarch, bethought himself of a new kind of oppo- 
sition, which was to oppose to the lofty and proud title 
of universal bishop the meanest he could think of, flat- 
tering himself that his rival might be thus brought to 



GREGORY, THE GREAT. 405 

quit that title, or at least be ashamed ever to use it. 
With this view he took to himself the humble title of 
the seiTant of the servants of God, which his successors 
have all retained, and use to this day. 

In 599, he wrote a letter to Serenus, Bishop of Mar- 
seilles, in Gaul, commending his zeal, in breaking in 
pieces some images, which the people had been observed 
to worship, and throwing them out of the church : and 
the same year he wrote a circular letter to the principal 
bishops of Gaul, condemning simoniacal ordinations, 
and the promotion of laymen to bishoprics ; he likewise 
forbad clerks in holy orders, to live with women, except 
such as are allowed by the canons ; and recommended 
the frequent holding assemblies to regulate the affairs of 
the Church. 

He had already this year reformed the offices of the 
Church, which is one of his most remarkable actions. 

Besides other less important ceremonies, added to the 
public forms of prayer, he made it his chief care to reform 
the psalmody, being excessively fond of sacred music. 
Of this kind he composed the Antiphone, and such 
tunes as best suited the psalms, the hymns, the 
prayers, the verses, the canticles, the lessons, the epistles, 
the gospels, the prefaces, and the Lord's prayer. He 
likewise instituted an academy for chanters, for all 
the clerks, as far as the deacons exclusively ; he gave 
them lessons himself, and the bed in which he continued 
to chant in the midst of his last illness, was preserved 
with great veneration in the palace of St. John Lateran 
for a long time, together with the whip, with which he 
used to threaten the young clerks and singing boys, when 
they sang out of tune. 

It is to Gregory that we owe the invention, of ex- 
pressing musical sounds by the seven first letters of 
the alphabet. Indeed the Greeks made use of the let- 
ters of their alphabet to the like purpose ; but in their 
scale they wanted more signs, or marks, than there were 

VOL. V. 2 



406 GREGOKY, THE GREAT. 

letters, which were supplied out of the same alphabet, 
by making the same letter express different notes, as it 
was placed upright, or reversed, or otherwise put out of 
the common position, also making them imperfect by 
cutting off something, or by doubling some strokes. They 
who are skilled in music, need not be told what a task 
the scholar had in this method to learn. In Boethius's 
time the Romans eased themselves of this difficulty as 
unnecessary, by making use only of the first fifteen letters 
of their alphabet. But afterwards, Gregory the Great, 
considering that the octave was the same in effect with 
the first note, and that the order of degrees was the same 
in the ujDper and lower octave of the diagram, introduced 
the use of seven letters, wdiich were repeated in a differ- 
ent character. Dr. Burney says on this subject : " Eccle- 
siastical writers seem unanimous in allowing that it was 
the learned and active pope Gregory the Great, who col- 
lected the musical fragments of such ancient hymns and 
psalms as the first fathers of the Church had approved, 
and recommended to the primitive Christians ; and that 
he selected, methodized, and arranged them in the order 
which w^as long continued at Rome, and soon adopted by 
the chief part of the Western Church." The anonymous 
author of his life, published by Canisius, speaks of this 
transaction in the following words : " This pontiff com- 
posed, arranged, and constituted the Antiplionarium and 
chants used in the morning and evening service." Fleury, 
in his Hist. Eccl. tom. VII. p. 150, gives a circumstantial 
account of the Scola Cayitormn, instituted by Gregory. 
It existed 300 years after the death of that pontiff, 
which happened in the year 604, as we ai'e informed by 
John Diaconus, author of his life. Two colleges were 
appropriated to these studies ; one near the church of St. 
Peter, and one near that of St. John Lateran ; both of 
which were endowed with lands. 

It has been imagined that Gregory was rather a 
compiler than a composer of ecclesiastical chants, as 



GREGORY, THE GREAT. 407 

music had been established in the Church long before his 
pontificate ; and John Diaconus, in his life, calls his 
collection " Antiphonarium Centonem," the ground work 
of which was the ancient Greek chant, upon the principles 
of which it was formed. This is the opinion of the Abbe 
Lebceuf, and of many others. The derivation is respecta- 
ble ; but if the Romans in the time of St. Ambrose had 
o.mj music, it must have been composed upon the Greek 
system : all the arts at Rome, during the time of the 
emperors, were Greek, and chiefly cultivated by Greek 
artists ; and we hear of no musical system in use among 
the Romans, or at least none is mentioned by their 
writers on the art, but that of the Greeks. 

It is not to be denied, that some superstitious and 
even false doctrines are to be traced to Gregory, and 
especially the introduction in the offices of the Roman 
Church of an allusion to the unscriptural doctrine of 
purgatory, the cause of so much that is still evil in the 
Romish Church. 

At this time, as well as the next year, 600, he was con- 
fined to his bed by the gout in his feet, which lasted for 
three years, yet he celebrated divine service on holydays, 
with much pain all the time. This brought on a painful 
burning heat all over his body, which tormented him in 
601. His behaviour in this sickness was very exemplary. 
It made him feel for others, whom he compassionated, 
exhorting them to make the right use of their infirmities, 
both for advancing in virtue and forsaking vice. He was 
always extremely watchful over his flock, and careful to 
preserve discipline, and while he allowed that the mis- 
fortunes of the times obliged the bishops to interfere in 
worldly matters, as he himself did, he constantly exhorted 
them not to be too intent on temporal affairs. This year 
he held a council at Rome, which made the monks quite 
independent by the dangerous privileges which he granted 
them. Gregory forbad the bishops to diminish in any 
shape the goods, lands, and revenues, or titles of monas 



408 GREGORY, THE GREAT. 

teries, and took from them the jurisdiction they ought 
naturally to have over the converts in their dioceses. 
But many of his letters shew that though he favoured 
the monks in some reepects, he nevertheless knew how 
how to subject them to all the severity of their rules, by 
w^hich means he prevented those scandalous disorders 
which now disgrace the monastic state. 

In 601, at the request of Augustine, he sent other 
missionaries to England, with further advice to that 
archbishop who sought it, for an account of which the 
reader is referred to the Life of Augustine. 

Gregory died in March, 604. His works are numerous. 
His letters amount to 840 ; and besides them, he wrote 
a Comment on the Book of Job, comprised in thirty-six 
books ; a Pastoral, or a Treatise on the Duties of a Pastor, 
consisting of four parts, and, as it were, of four different 
treatises ; twenty-two Homilies on the prophet Ezekiel ; 
forty Homilies on the Gospels ; and four Books of Dia- 
logues. The Comment on the Book of Job is commonly 
styled Gregory's Morals on Job, being rather a collection 
of moral principles, than an exposition of the text. That 
work, and the Pastoral, were anciently, and still are 
reckoned among the best writings of the later fathers. 
The Pastoral, in particular, was held in such esteem by 
the Galilean church, that all bishops were obliged, by the 
canons of that church, to be thoroughly acquainted with 
it, and punctually to observe the rules it contained; 
nay, to remind them of that obligation, it was delivered 
into their hands at the time of their ordination. As for 
the dialogues, they are filled with alleged miracles and 
stories so grossly absurd and fabulous, that it would be a 
reflection on the understanding and good sense of this 
great pope to think, that he really believed them ; the 
rather, as for many of them he had no better vouchers 
than old, doating, and ignorant people. He was the first 
who discovered purgatory, and it was by means of the 
apparitions and visions, which he relates in his dialogues. 



(JUl':(;()ltY, .lolIN. 409 

tlial ho firHl, discovered it: ho lliat tlio (Jhurch ol' Home 
in \)r()\>;i})\y iridehted to some old man or old woman for 
one of the most lucrative articles of her whole creed. In 
this woik Oref,'ory observes, that greatf^r discoveries were 
jiiarlc in iiis time, concerning the state of departed souls, 
than in id I the pnjceding ages together, hecause the end 
of this world was at hand, and the nearer we came to 
tiie oi}ir;r, ilie more wf; discovered it. 

'J'lie best edition of his works is that published at 
Paris in 1705, in A vols, fob, by Denis de St. Martha 
and William liessiu, of thf; congregation of St. Maur. — 
Grefforii I'Jjmlolai. JJade. Cave. Jiower. 



oin.aohY V\[. — fSf'-o IHLdebrand.) 



OUIXiOIiV, JOffN. 

.Tons GrtEoonv was born at Amersliam, in Tiucking- 
liamsliire, in 1007. He early discovered a strong incli- 
nation for le;i.rning ; but the circumstances of his parrmts 
were too narrow to enable them U) give him a liberal 
education. They were so much respected, however, for 
t,heir piety and lionesty, that some of their wealthier 
neighbours were indiic,(,'d to intr;rest thems<;lves in liis 
behalf, anrl to Wi\\(\ him in the capacity of servitor to 
Christ Church, OxforrI, in I(i:.i4, whr;re he was placed 
under the tuition oi" \)\\ CtCdn^c. Morl<;y, afterwards 
Jiishop of Winchester. Having heen adtnitterl into orders, 
}if; was ap[)ointed one of the chaplains of iiis colb;ge by 
the dean, iJr. jirian iJuppa. In Hj-'M he published a 
second (;dition, in quarto, of Sir Thomas ilidley's View 
of th<; Civil and Ecclesiastical fiaw, witli Notes; by 
which \ut acquired much reputation, on Mccourjt of tlie 
(;ivil, liistorical, ecclesiastical, and riluul learning, and the 
sUill in ancient and modern lancfufjc^es, Oriental as well 
as European, dinplayed irj it Wh<;rj. in the y(;ar l(iU8, 
U o U 



410 GREGORY, JOHN. 

Dr. Duppa was promoted to the see of Chichester, he 
appointed Gregoiy his domestic chaplain, collated him 
to a prebend in that church, and, upon his translation to- 
the bishopric of Salisbury, in 1641, appointed him a pre- 
bendary of his new see : but he did not long enjoy the 
benefit of these preferments ; for he was deprived of both 
by the tyranny of the usurping powers. Through the 
Presbyterians and Dissenters, now triumphant, he was 
reduced to the greatest misery. In these circumstances 
he was taken into the house of a person named Seilter, 
to whose son he had been tutor ; this was an obscure ale- 
house on Kidlington Green, near Oxford, where he lived 
in great privacy. In 1646 he published, Notes and 
Observations on some Passages of Scripture, 4to, which 
were reprinted at different periods, and afterwards trans- 
lated into Latin, and inserted in the Critici Sacri. For 
many years he had been the victim of an hereditary gout, 
which, in the year last mentioned, attacked him in the 
stomach, and proved fatal to him, in the thirty-ninth 
year of his age. His posthumous works (Gregorii Pos- 
thuma) were published in 1650, 1664, 1671, and 1683, 
4to. This volume contains, A Discourse of the LXX 
Interpreters. The Place and Manner of their Interpreta- 
tion. A Discourse declaring what time the Nicene Creed 
began to be sung in the Church. A Sermon upon the 
resurrection, from 1 Cor. xv. verse 20. Kaivav Sewepos, 
or, a Disproof of him in the third of St. Luke, verse 36. 
Episcopus Puerorum in die Innocentium. De ^Eris et 
Epochis, showing the several accounts of time in all 
nations, from the creation to the present age. The 
Assyrian Monarchy, being a description of its rise and 
fall. The Description and Use of the Terrestrial Globe. 
Besides these he wrote a tract entitled, Alkibla, in which 
he endeavoured to vindicate the antiquity of worshipping 
towards the East. There is a manuscript of his entitled, 
Observationes in Loca quredam excerpta ex Johannis 
Malclte Chronographia, in the public library at Oxford ; 



GREY, RICHARD. 411 

and he intended to publish a Latin translation of that 
author, with annotations. He translated likewise from 
Greek into Latin, L Palladius de Gentibus Indiae et 
Brachrnanibus ; which translations came after his death 
into the hands of Edmund Chilmead, chaplain of Christ 
Church, Oxford, and then into those of Edward Byshe, 
Avho published them in his own name, London, 1665, 
4 to. — Life prefiQ:ed to his works. Fuller. 



GREY, RICHARD. 

Richard Grey, was born at Newcastle upon Tyne, in 
1694, and educated at Lincoln College, Oxford, where he 
took his M.A. degree in 1718. He obtained the rectory 
of Kilncote, in Leicestershire, and aftenvards he was 
appointed to the rectory of Hinton, in Northamptonshire, 
and to a prebend in the cathedral church of St. Paul, 
In 1780 he published his Memoria Technica ; and A 
System of English Ecclesiastical Law, extracted from the 
Codex Juris Ecclesiastic! Anglican! of the Right Rev. the 
Lord Bishop of London, for the Use of young Students 
in the universities who are designed for Holy Orders, 8vo. 
For this work the university of Oxford presented him, 
in 1731, with the degree of D.D. by diploma. He also 
published. The miserable and distracted state of Religion 
in England, upon the Downfall of the Church establish- 
ed ; A new and easy Method of learning Hebrew without 
Points ; Liber Job! in Versiculos Metrice divisus, cum 
Versione Latina Albert! Schultens, Motisque ex ejus 
Commentario excerptis, accedit Canticum Moysis, Deut. 
xxxii. cum Notis variorum ; The Last Words of David, 
divided according to the Metre, with Notes critical and 
explanatory ; an English translation of Hawkins Browne's 
poem, De Animse Immortalitate ; and Sermons. He 
died in 1771. — Nichols. Aiken. 



412 GRINDAL. 



GEEY, ZACHARY. 

Zachary Grey, was born of a Yorkshire family in 
1687, and educated at Jesus College, Cambridge. He 
afterwards removed to Trinity Hall, where he took the 
degree of L.L.D. in 1720. He was rector of Houghton 
Conquest, Bedfordshire, and vicar of St. Giles's and St. 
Peter's in Cambridge, and died in ]766. He was author 
of nearly 30 publications, the best known of which is his 
edition of Hudibras, with annotations, and a preface, 
1744, 2 vols, 8vo ; to this he published a supplement in 
1752, Svo. And "An impartial examination of Neal's 
History of the Puritans," 3 vols. Svo. This is a really 
valuable work, and should always be referred to by those 
who consult Neal. He contributed likewise to Peck's 
Desiderata, and ably assisted Whalley in his edition of 
Shakspeare. His abilities are highly spoken of by Dr. 
Johnson. — Nichols. 



GEINDAL, EDMUND. 

Edmund Geindal was born in 1519 at Hinsinghara, 
in the parish of St. Bees, in the county of Cumberland. 
He was educated at Magdalen College, Cambridge, and 
there so distinguished himself, that in 1550 he was 
selected by Bidley, then BishojD of London, to be his 
chaplain. 

In 1553 he fled from the Marian persecution and 
settled at Strasburg ; and in the unhappy disputes at 
Frankfort, where, under Knox, dissent had its birth, he 
acted an honourable part ; and being sent from Strasburg, 
vindicated the English Prayer Book. He was a man of 
gentle temper, and even here he admitted that he would 
not insist upon all the ceremonies. But like most men 



GRINDAL. 413 

who make half concessions, he was met with rudeness, if 
not contempt, by Knox and Whittingham, who declared 
that the J would only admit what they could " prove to 
stand with God's Word." While he was abroad he 
assisted Fox in his Martyrology, and perhaps it would 
have been well for Fox if he had always possessed so 
conscientious an adviser. 

On the death of Queen Mary he returned to England, 
and was much consulted by the friends of the Reformation. 
He evinced a firm and undaunted spirit, and was pre- 
pared to assert the independence of the Church, much 
more strongly than most of the divines of the age who 
sided with the Reformation When Dr. Edwin Sandys 
presented to the committee appointed to consider what 
things required reform in the Church, a paper, in which 
it was suggested, that the queen should be petitioned no 
longer to permit private baptism to be administered by 
women, which had been for many hundred years the 
practice of the Church of England, Grindal wrote his 
judgment in the margin, Potest Jieri in synoda : it may be 
done in the synods. He clearly saw the Erastian princi- 
ple in the proposition, which suggested, that that should 
be done by the royal authority, which pertained only to 
the authority of the Church. He desired that the clergy 
should be distinguished by their apparel from the laity, 
but judged that it might not be altogether as it was in 
the popish times. 

The English service was used on the 12th of May, 
1559, in the Queen's Chapel, and on the 15th in St. 
Paul's Cathedral, when Grindal was appointed to preach, 
the chief ministers of state being present, and all dining 
afterwards with the lord mayor. 

Grindal succeeded Bonner, who was deposed, in the 
Bishopric of London, in the year 1559. But at this 
time the mischief resulting from his intercourse with 
foreign Protestants became apparent. He was not a 
thoroughly sound churchman, and had scruples of con- 



414 GRTNDAL. 

science about the episcopal dress, and certain of the 
ceremonies. On this point he consulted Peter Martyr, 
at that time professor of divinity in Zurich. To the 
habiliments used by the English clergy in common with 
all catholics, BuUinger had objected because they carried 
an appearance of the Mass, and were merely the remnants 
of Popery. The question was not as to the preaching in 
the surplice, but as to the use of the catholic dress at all. 
Peter Martyr was equally against the use of catholic 
ornaments of any sort ; but advised Grindal to comply 
rather than lose his preferment, because the catholic 
ornaments might after a time be laid aside, and because 
if Grindal did not conform, some one else might, who 
would conscientiously defend the use of them. This is 
certainly the argument rather of a man of the world than 
a christian. Strype, to whom we are indebted for the ex- 
tract from Peter Martyr's letter, observes, that ''in general 
he advised him to do nothing against his conscience ! " 
Another query of Grindal's, related to the queen's con- 
duct in taking away their lands from the bishops, and 
giving them in exchange tithes and impropriations. By 
this conduct the Church was not only robbed but seriously 
injured, for the tithes could not be restored to the parishes 
without ruin to the bishops. Peter Martyr, however, 
treated this very properly as a subject not worthy of 
consideration. In another letter Grindal enquired whether 
the sacramental bread should be unleavened, i. e., a wafer, 
as was then used in the reformed Church of England, 
and Peter Martyr replied, that the reformed communi- 
ties abroad had no contention on the subject — nay, that 
they every where used it. In another letter to the same 
foreigner, Grindal, referring to the crucifix which the 
queen retained in her chapel, enquired whether this was 
a thing indifferent, and Peter Martyr replied, that he 
would advise him not to distribute the holy sacrament 
with that rite. The Lutherans still retained, and to this 
day retain the crucifix : not so the Calvinists. Peter 



GRIXDAL. 415 

Martyr seems to have feared that the English would 
adopt the Augsburg confession and become Lutherans. 

Grindal was consecrated as before stated, and wore the 
episcopal dress. In 1560 he was appointed one of the 
committee for the changing of the lessons and the making 
of a new calendar in the Prayer-book, and for taking 
some good orders for the keeping clean and adorning 
of the chancels, w^hich were in those times very much 
neglected and profaned ; and likewise for prescribing 
some good order for the collegiate churches which had 
permission to use the Common Prayer in Latin, that 
this liberty might not be corrupted and abused. 

In 1561 St. Paul's was almost destroyed by fire : for 
the rebuilding of it the clergy of London were required 
to give a twentieth part of their promotions, and each of 
the unbeneficed clergy at least 2s. 6d. 

Before the Reformation, St. Paul's cathedral was the 
usual resort of the common people, for walking, talking, 
hearing and telling of news, and the transaction of 
business ; tumults and quarrels often ensued, to the 
profanation of the place. Grindal desired much to 
remedy this abuse, but was unable, and therefore he at 
length obtained a proclamation from the queen, for the 
reverend uses of all churches and churchyards, which 
was published in October. 

The plague having appeared in England, Bishop 
Grindal drew up a form of prayer to be used with fast- 
ing on Mondays and Wednesdays, and as there would 
thus be considerable quantities of provision spared, he 
advised that a large portion of it should be daily distri- 
buted in the back lanes and alleys of London. Bishop 
Grindal pressed much the religious exercise of fasting, 
for the neglect of which he severely blamed the Protest- 
ants, observing that it laid them open to the just re- 
proaches of the Papists. He said, "Surely my opinion 
hath been, that in no one thing hath the adversary more 
advantage over us than in the matter of fast ; which we 
utterly neglect ; they have the shadow." 



410 GRINDAL. 

From this time the life of Bishop Grindal was one of 
great trouble. He had taken a false step, and was thus 
led into perplexity and error. He had, by the adrice 
given by the foreign reformers, accepted high office in the 
Church of England, not because he was a devoted mem- 
ber of that Church, but in order that he might keep out 
those whose notions were less ultra-protestant than his 
own. This led him into those inconsistencies which 
have procured for him the character of a weak and vacil- 
lating prelate, whereas few men in reality possessed 
greater firmness of character, or more determination in 
that which he considered to be the public duty ; nor for 
the step he took is he to be severely judged. The prin- 
ciples, though acted upon by those wicked persons who 
subscribe to the society for promoting christian knowledge, 
and take part in its proceedings, for the express purpose 
of revolutionizing the society, is an evil principle ; but 
in Grindal's case it is to be remembered that the Church 
of England was in a transition state ; for several hundred 
years she had been under the Roman obedience, and if 
she had not acknowledged, had certainly submitted to 
the papal supremacy. She had only of late asserted her 
independence and reformed her formularies. Grindal 
might, therefore, fairly consider that the Church of Eng 
land had only commenced the movement which he desired 
to hurry on to that entire and ultra-protestantism which 
he had learned to admire so much when he was on the 
Continent. He acted in common with many other pre- 
lates, but their endeavours were providentially overruled, 
and the Church, instead of becoming Puritan, ejected 
the conscientious Puritans from her bosom. 

When there is a great struggle going on between two 
parties, on great questions, the immediate battle is often 
fought on points apparently the most trivial. In politics, 
the great question of parliamentary reform may be before 
the country, while the immediate contest in any district 
may relate to the election of one of two persons, each 



GRINDAL. 417 

admitted to be a fool, but from the circumstances of 
wealth or family influence, considered to be the best 
persons to represent the several principles. The great 
contest throughout Queen Elizabeth's reign, was, whether 
the Church of England should remain catholic, or whe- 
ther it should be converted, under the pretext of reform, 
into a mere protestant sect, such as Calvin had established 
in Geneva. But the immediate' dispute related to the 
habits, or ecclesiastical dress of the clergy, together with 
the ceremonies. The Catholics in our Church desired, as 
a proof of their Catholicism, to retain all the old habili- 
ments, as well as the old rites, although they had thrown 
off the papal usurpation, translated the liturgy, and re- 
nounced the superstitions of Romanism : against all these, 
the ultra-protestants on the same grounds stood arrayed ; 
they desired to abolish eveiy feature of Catholicism in 
our Church, and retaining the Church property as a gift 
of the state, to render it conformable to the much cher- 
ished model of Geneva. If the reader will bear in mind 
in the study of this portion of our history, what has here 
been stated, he wall find the contest about the ecclesias- 
tical habits and ceremonies more important than it 
appears to be to superficial minds. 

Bishop Giindal, like most men in a false position, was 
led unconsciously into acts of injustice : for instance, we 
find him excommunicating a minor canon of St. Paul's, 
for not attending the holy communion ; the supposed 
reason being, that he was in heart a Romanist : and yet 
he tolerated those in his diocese who neglected to conform 
to the orders of the Church, because they were known to 
be ultra-protestants. So lax had the bishop become, that 
he received a reprimand from the government, which 
required uniformity in the habits and ceremonies. Nor 
in this instance did the state exceed its powers ; for the 
civil authority is justified in marking any deviation from 
duty on the part of the ecclesiastical authorities, and in 
giving warning that if the neglect of duty continue, a 

VOL. V. 2 P 



418 GRIND AL. 

prosecution will take place in the courts spiritual. From 
the time of Constantino this kind of interference on the 
part of the state has been tolerated by the Church. 

When uniformity was pressed upon the London clergy, 
the more conscientious of the ultra-protestants refusing 
to submit, were deprived ; but the measure was a just 
one and cut both wajs ; if the ultra-protestants remained 
in the Church and neglected the ceremonies, those who 
were papistically inclined had a right to act on a similar 
principle, and they remained, observing the ceremonies 
which our Church has abolished : when uniformity was 
required many of the latter left the Church and went 
beyond sea. 

In 1564 we find the Bishop of London assisting at the 
celebration of the funeral of the emperor Ferdinand at 
St. Paul's. This had been customary, and the custom 
was retained. Our funeral office was solemnly performed 
as if the corpse had been present. Bishop Grindal 
preached. A splendid hearse was erected for the purpose 
in the choir. As Ferdinand was a member of a foreign 
Church, which Church was in communion with Rome, it 
was evidently not considered at that time, that because 
we had protested against Romish errors, we were cut 
off from communion with all other churches. 

Grind al was now claimed as their patron by the Puri- 
tans : but men in office are inclined to view things differ- 
ently from those who are never likely to rise, even when 
their principles are nearly the same. The ordinary 
Puritans, wishing for more reform, or rather, being 
desirous of revolutionizing the Church, were indignant at 
the retention of the ceremonies and ecclesiastical orna- 
ments still to be found in our Prayer Book and our 
churches, and especially of the Catholic vestments, all 
which they regarded as the remains and rags of Popery : 
in all this Grindal agreed with them ; but when they 
desired the immediate abolition of these things, Grindal 
differed with them, and thought that to gain the great 



GEINDAL. 419 

end of establishing ultra-protestantism, a conformity in 
these particulars might, for a time at all events, be 
tolerated. And he sought to support his view of the case 
by an appeal to the foreign reformers, of whose hatred of 
the Church of England in the state in which it then 
existed, — in which state it still continues to exist, — there 
could be no doubt. It is amusing to find an English 
prelate writing to a foreign reformer, as if that reformer s 
opinion could be of any superior weight ; and it is 
equally amusing to see the cool manner in which that 
reformer assumes a superiority, and ventures to speak of 
the Church of England in a condescending tone and 
with a patronizing air. We doubt whether the present 
excellent Bishop of London would think of consulting 
Calvin's representative, if he have one, at Geneva, on 
any matter relating to the present controversies in the 
Church of England ; and the most ultra-protestant of 
our prelates would regard as an insult such letters as 
Grindal and others received from foreigners. The follow- 
ing extract from a letter written by Bullinger to Bishops 
Grindal and Horn is here given, as shewing that the 
ultra-protestant system of misrepresentation had already 
commenced : 

" We have now heard, though we hope the report is 
false, that it is required of ministers either to subscribe 
to some new articles, or to relinquish their office. And 
the articles are said to be of this kind ; that the measured 
chanting in churches is to be retained, and in a foreign 
language, together with the sound of organs ; and that 
in cases of necessity women may and ought to baptize 
infants in private houses ; that the minister also ought 
to ask the infant presented for baptism the questions 
that were formerly proposed to the catechumens : that 
the ministers too, who perform the office of baptism, 
must use breathings, exorcisms, the sign of the cross, 
oil, spittle, clay, lighted tapers, and other things of this 
kind : that ministers are to teach, that in the receiving 



420 GRINDAL. 

of the Lord's supper kneeling is necessary, (which has 
an appearance of adoration,) and that the bread is not 
to be broken in common, but that a small morsel is to 
be placed by the minister in the mouth of every commu- 
nicant ; and that the mode of spiritual feeding, and of 
the presence of the body of Christ in the holy supper, 
is not to be explained, but to be left undetermined. It 
is stated moreover, that as formerly all things were to be 
had at Eome for money, so now there are the same things 
for sale in the court of the metropolitan ; namely, plu- 
ralities of livings, licences for non-residence, for eating 
meat on days forbidden and during Lent, and the like, 
for which no permission is granted without being paid 
for : that the wives too of the clergy are removed apart 
from their husbands, (as if the living together of man 
and wife were a thing impure.) just as was formerly the 
practice among the priests of antichrist. They say more- 
over, that no one is allowed to speak against any of these 
things either in public or private ; and what is more, 
that ministers, if they wish to continue the exercise of 
their ministry in the churches, are under the necessity 
of remaining silent under these grievances : so that all 
the power of Church government or authority rests solely 
with the bishops, and no pastor is allowed to deliver his 
opinion in ecclesiastical affairs of this kind. 

" If these things are true, they will indeed occasion 
exceeding grief not only to us, but to all godly persons. 
And we pray the Lord to efface these blemishes from the 
holy Church of Christ which is in England, and to pre- 
vent any of the bishops from dismissing from his office 
any pastor who shall refuse either his assent to, or 
approval of, articles of this kind. And although we 
entertain the most entire persuasion concerning your 
piety and sincerity, that, if any of these things are now 
in use, (for we can scarcely believe that things so gross 
exist among you,) you are only tolerating and conniving 
at them until the opportune assembling of the great 



GRINDAL. 421 

council of the realm, when fit and prudent measures 
may be taken for the abolishing of superstition ; and if 
there be any who pervert that letter of ours for the pur- 
pose of confirming any abuses, yet you yourselves are 
not of the number of such persons ; nevertheless we 
exhort your reverences by the Lord Jesus, that, if 
the case be as it is reported, you will consult with your 
episcopal brethren and other holy and prudent men 
touching the amendment and purification of these and 
similar superstitions, and faithfully vindicate us from 
the injustice inflicted upon us by others. For we have 
never approved those articles, as they have been reported 
to us. We moreover entreat you of your courtesy to 
receive in a spirit of kindness these remarks of ours, who 
are not only most anxious for your concord and for the 
purity of religion in the realm of England, but also most 
affectionately attached to you in Christ." 

We also add Grindal's view of the case, as stated some 
years later to Zanchius. The statement is of course a 
party one, but it fully shews that there was a strong 
Anglo-Catholic body in the Church, a body of men whom 
the state was determined not to drive to Rome : he said, 
" In that form of religion set up by Iving Edward, there 
were some commands concerning the habits of ministers, 
and some other things, which some good men desired 
might be abolished, or mended. But the authority of 
the law hindered them from doing any thing that way : 
yet the law allowed the queen, with the counsel of some 
of the bishops, to alter some things. But indeed nothing 
was either altered or diminished. That there was not a 
bishop, as he knew of, but obeyed the rules prescribed, 
and gave example to others to do the same : and as the 
bishops did, so did the other ministers of the Church, 
learned and unlearned. And all seemed not unwillingly 
to yield and comply in the same opinion. But that after- 
wards, when there was a good and fast agreement in 
doctrine, all the controversy arose from the discipline. 
2 p2 



4Q2 CxRINDAL. 

Ministers were required to wear commonly a long gown, 
a square cap, and a tippet coming over their necks, and 
hanging down ahuost to their heels. In the public pray- 
ers, and in every holy administration, they were to use a 
linen garment, called a surplice : that when some alleged, 
that by these, as by certain tokens, the Eomish priests 
were distinguished from those that ministered the light 
of the Gospel ; and said, that it was not lawful by such 
obedience to approve the hypocrisy of idolaters, or to 
defile their ministry ; a more moderate sort, though they 
would not be compelled to obey the prescribed rites, yet 
would not blame others that yielded obedience, nor 
esteemed the use of these things to be ungodly. But 
so7ne there were that so defended that pecidiar 7nanner of 
clothing, that ivithout it, they contetided that all holy things 
were in effect profaned, and that the ministry was deprived 
of a great ornament, and the people of good instruction : 
yet that the greatest part of the ecclesiastical order 
seemed to persist in this opinion, that however they 
thought these might be abolished, and very many desired 
it, yet when they placed more blame in leaving their 
stations, than in taking the garments, they thought it 
better (as of two evils the less) to obey the command than 
to go out of their places. 

"Divers things were objected against the administra- 
tion of baptism and the Lord's supper, and ecclesiastical 
orders, and the various officers of the Church. They 
contended for a presbytery to be set up in every church 
by the prescript of the Apostles ; and that the discipline 
of the Church was in all respects lame and corrupt ; so 
that they seemed darkly to disperse such doubts of the 
Church, as though it were no Church at all : for where 
no discipline was, they said no Church was : but that 
when it came to this pass, it was cautioned by ecclesiasti- 
cal authority, that none should take upon him the minis- 
try of the gospel, or retain it, who would not allow of the 
things before mentioned, and others comprehended in a 



GRIXDAL. 423 

certain book ; and that nothing was contained in that 
book which was against the word of God ; and to profess 
this under his hand subscribed." 

In the letter given above from Heniy BuUinger, allu- 
sion was made to certain misrepresentations of the Church 
of England which had reached his ears, and which drew 
forth from him that epistle, written with papal arrogance. 
The bishops Grindal and Horn in great humility vindi- 
cated themselves, and their joint letter is important, 
as shewing how these reformers entirely accorded with 
what would now be called the principles of dissenters, 
and how far they were from thinking the state of the 
Church at the time of the Reformation, so pure as to 
need no further improvement. 

*' The sum of our controversy is this. We hold that 
the ministers of the Church of England may adopt 
without impiety the distinction of habits now prescribed 
by public authority, both in the administration of divine 
worship, and for common use ; especially when it is pro- 
posed to them as a matter of indifference, and when the 
use of the habits is enjoined only for the sake of order 
and due obedience to the laws. And all feeling of super- 
stitious worship, and of the necessity [of these habits] 
as far as making it a matter of conscience, may be re- 
moved, rejected and utterly condemned, both by the 
terms of the laws themselves, and the diligent preaching 
of purer doctrine. They contend on the other hand, 
that these habits are not on any account now to be reck- 
oned among things indifferent, but that they are impious, 
papistical, and idolatrous ; and therefore that all pious 
persons ought rather with one consent to retire from the 
ministry, than to serve the Church with these rags of 
popery, as they call them ; even though we have the most 
entire liberty of preaching the most pure doctrine, and 
likewise of exposing, laying open, and condemning, by 
means of sound instruction, errors and abuses of every 
kind, whether as to ceremonies, or doctrine, or the sacra 



424 GRINDAL. 

ments, or moral duties. We cannot accept this crude 
advice of theirs, as neither ought we to be passive under 
the violent appeals by which they are unceasingly in the 
pulpit disturbing the peace of the Church, and bringing 
the whole of our religion into danger. For by their 
outcries of this kind, we have, alas ! too severely experi- 
enced that the mind of the queen, otherwise inclined to 
favour religion, has been much irritated ; and we know 
for a certain fact, that the minds of some of the nobility, 
to say nothing of others, diseased, weak, and vacillating, 
have been wounded, debilitated, and alienated by them. 
And who will venture to doubt, but that the Papists will 
lay hold of this opportunity to send forth and vomit their 
most pestilent poison against the gospel of Jesus Christ 
and all who profess it, encouraged by the hope that an 
opportunity is now afforded them of recovering the Helen 
that has been stolen from them ? But if we were to 
acquiesce in the inconsiderate advice of our brethren, 
and all unite our strength illegally to attack the habits 
by law established, to destroy and abolish them altogether, 
or else all lay down our offices at once ; verily we should 
have a papistical, or at least a Lutherano-papistical minis- 
try, or none at all. But, honoured brethren in Christ, we 
call Almighty God to witness, that this dissension has not 
been occasioned by any fault of ours, nor is it owing to us 
that vestments of this kind have not been altogether done 
away with : so far from it, that we most solemnly make oath 
that we have hitherto laboured with all earnestness, fidelity, 
and diligence, to effect what our brethren require, and what 
we ourselves wish. But now we are brought into such 
straits, what is to be done, (we leave you to conjecture, 
who are prudent, and sagacious in foreseeing the impend- 
ing dangers of the churches,) but that since we cannot 
do what we would, we should do in the Lord what we 
can? 

" We have hitherto then explained the matter in dis- 
pute, and which occasions so much disagreement among 



GRINDAL. 425 

us, according to the real state of the case. Hear now 
what we have yet further to communicate. That report, 
if indeed it may be called such, (for we know and com- 
mend your prudence and moderation,) respecting the 
acceptance, subscription, and approbation of these new 
articles which you enumerate, is altogether a falsehood. 
Nor are those parties more to be depended upon, who 
either in their written letters, or verbally in your pre- 
sence, have under this pretext endeavoured to blind your 
eyes, and to brand us with a calumnious accusation. For 
almost all these articles are falsely imputed to us ; very 
few indeed are acknowledged by us ; and not one of them 
is obtruded upon the brethren for their subscription. 
We do not assert that the chanting in churches, together 
with the organ, is to be retained ; but we disapprove of 
it, as we ought to do. The Church of England, too, has 
entirely given up the use of [prayers in] a foreign tongue, 
breathings, exorcisms, oil, spittle, clay, lighted tapers, 
and other things of that kind, which, by the act of par- 
liament, are never to be restored. We entirely agree 
that women neither can nor ought to baptize infants, 
upon any account whatever. In the receiving of the 
Lord's supper, the laws require, custom sanctions, and 
our Anglo-Louvaine calumniators in their reckless writ- 
ings bear us witness, that we break the bread in common 
to every communicant, not putting it into his mouth, 
but placing it in the hand : they testify also to our expla- 
nation of the manner of the spiritual feeding and pre- 
sence of the body of Christ in the holy supper. The wives 
of the clergy are not separated from their husbands ; they 
live together, and their marriage is esteemed honourable 
by all (the Papists always excepted.) Lastly, that railing 
accusation of theirs is equally false, that the whole 
management of Church government is in the hands of 
the bishops ; although we do not deny but that a prece- 
dence is allowed them. For ecclesiastical matters of this 
sort are usually deliberated upon in the convocation, 



4-26 GRINDAL. 

which is called together by royal edict, at the same time 
as the parliament, as they call it, of the whole kingdom 
is held. The bishops are present, and also certain of 
the more learned of the clergy of the whole province, 
whose number is three times as great as that of the 
bishops. These deliberate by themselves upon ecclesi- 
astical affairs apart from the bishops, and nothing is 
determined or decided in convocation without the com- 
mon consent and approbation of both parties, or at least 
of a majority. So far are we from not allowing the 
clergy to give their opinion in ecclesiastical matters of 
this kind. We receive, it is true, or rather tolerate, 
until the Lord shall give us better times, the interroga- 
tions to infants, and the sign of the cross in baptism, 
and kneeling at the Lord's supper ; also the royal court 
of faculties, or, as they call it, of the metropolitan. We 
publicly profess, and diligently teach, that questions of 
this kind are not very suitable to be proposed to infants, 
notwithstanding they seem to be borrowed from Augustine. 
" We do not defend the signing with the sign of the 
cross the forehead of the infant already baptized, although 
the minister declares in set terms that the child is signed 
with the [sign of] the cross, only " in token that here- 
after he shall not be ashamed of the faith of Christ 
crucified;" and though it seems to have been borrowed 
from the primitive Church. We allow of kneeling at the 
receiving of the Lord's supper, because it is so appointed 
by law ; the same explanation however, or rather caution, 
that the very authors of the kneeling, most holy men 
and constant martyrs of Jesus Christ, adopted, being 
most diligently declared, published and impressed upon 
the people. It is in these terms : ' Whereas, it is or- 
dained in the book of prayers, that the communicants 
should receive the holy communion kneeling ; yet we 
declare, that this ought not so to be understood, as if 
any adoration is or ought to be done, either unto the 
sacramental bread and wine, or to any real and essential 



GRINDAL. 407 

presence of Christ's natural flesh and blood there ex- 
isting. For the sacramental bread and wine remain still 
in their very natural substances, and therefore may not 
be adored, for that were horrible idolatry, to be abhorred 
of all Christians ; and as to the natural body and blood 
of our Saviour Christ, they are in heaven, and not here ; 
it being against the truth of the true natural body of 
Christ, to be at one and the same time in more places 
than one.' " 

The compromising system adopted by Bishop Grindal 
and others did as little good as compromises generally 
do : the Puritans became divided ; some remained in 
communion with the Church, though refusing to use the 
habits or to subscribe to the ceremonies enjoined ; as 
kneeling at the eucharist, the cross in baptism, and the 
ring in marriage. But others going further, accused the 
Church of Popery, and declared it, as such, to be anti- 
christian. These formed private meetings, rejected 
wholly the Book of Common Prayer, and used a form of 
prayer framed at Geneva for the congregation of English 
exiles which had lately been there. This book had been 
sanctioned by Calvin. In an age when toleration was 
not understood by any parties, the government determined 
to put down these assemblies ; and Bishop Grindal, who 
could sympathize with their difficulties, though he wished 
to persuade them to conform, on the principle of obeying 
the 'powers that be, was told, in reply to an address he 
delivered to them, by Smith, one of their leaders, that 
they could not attend the holy sacrament when adminis- 
tered with " idolatrous gear," (the surplice) and that he 
had as lief go to mass as to some churches ; and such 
was the parish church where he dwelt, where he who 
officiated was a very Papist." This language is remark- 
able, as shewing the same feelings to have existed then 
as prevail now, and as establishing the fact referred to 
in a letter given before, that a large body of Anglo- 
Catholics remained in the Church, and had then as 



428 GRINDAL. 

now, to bear the accusation of being Papists. But 
such an accusation brought by Puritans is not of much 
account. 

Nevertheless, in their conferences with Grind al and the 
queen's commission, the Puritans had often the best of the 
argument, as they were generally met by the assertion 
of Erastian principles, and desired to yield to the mere 
■will of the prince. Their conduct, however, was violent 
and insulting, and when they complained of the use of 
surplices and copes as superstitious and idolatrous, and 
the bishop desired them to regard these things as among 
the things indifferent, they, wMth their usual want of logic, 
still prevalent with their successors, demanded of him 
to prove that to be indifferent which was abominable. A 
more quiet petitio inmcipii we can scarcely imagine. 
One of the things they complained of was the use of 
wafer-bread at the communion, and Grindal's reply is 
remarkable ; he shewed to them that wafer-bread was 
used at Geneva. "When one of them told Grindal that 
he himself went as a mass-j^riest still, the bishop said 
that he certainly wore a cojje and a surplice in St. Paul's, 
but that he had rather minister without these things, 
which he observed only in obedience to the queen. Upon 
which they, of course, declared the more strongly against 
them, calling them " conjuring garments of Popertj, 
and garments that were accursed.'" One of the party 
compared the present bishops to the Popish ones. 

The outlines of the whole conference may be seen in 
Strype, Book I, chapter xii., w-here the reader will see 
how the Puritans were under the influence of the most 
bitter anti-christian spirit, and how truly gentle the 
bishop was. At the same time the Puritans had the 
best of the argument, seeing that Grindal conceded 
because he admitted all their premises : with them it was 
a question of principle, with him of expediency, whether 
men were to conform or not. They separated, Grindal 
offended by their pride and perverseness, and the Puritans 



GRINDAL. 429 

more proud and perverse from finding their conduct on 
the admitted principles to be unimpeachable. 

It is not to the credit of Bishop Grindal, that while 
he endeavoured to screen the Puritans as much as he 
could from the penalties of the law, he caused the library 
of the celebrated antiquarian Stow, to be seized because 
it contained many popish books, as if an antiquarian at 
that period could possess any other books than those 
which the Puritans would have held to be popish. This 
kind of injustice did great injury to the Church of 
England. 

We may interrupt the course of graver subjects to note 
here that the vines were so excellent in the bishop's 
garden at Fulham, that he was accustomed each year to 
send the first fruits of his grapes to the queen. These 
little trifling incidents are worth preserving, as they 
seem to throw light on the customs of the age. Whether 
the vines were cultivated in the open air does not appear. 

In 1568 Bishop Grindal was engaged in some tyranni- 
cal proceedings in the university of Oxford- The queen, 
by a statute of her prerogative, had appointed as presi- 
dent of Coipus an ultra-protestant named Cole : the 
college, maintaining their privileges, refused to admit 
him, and elected a person named Harrison, who had at 
one period left the college from scruples of conscience, 
which led him to communicate with Ptome. This elec- 
tion brought that college under suspicion of being po- 
pishly affected, and similar charges were laid against 
New College in Oxford, and its nursery, St. Mary's 
Winton College, near Winchester, a school in which some 
of the first men in this country have been educated, and 
w^iich has always been celebrated for its orthodoxy. The 
Bishop of Winchester, himself puritanically inclined, 
instituted a visitation of these colleges, and by main 
force placed Cole in the presidentship, breaking open 
the gates of the house, which the fellows had closed 

VOL V. -2 Q 



430 GRIND AL. 

against him. But the bishop was so strongly opposed 
that he had recourse to a power still more tyrannical 
than that which he assumed and applied to the ecclesi- 
astical commission. The archbishop sent the Bishop of 
Winchester's letter to Bishop Grindal, and to the dis- 
grace of the latter he Avrote at the bottom the following 
words : " My lords, I like this letter very well, and think 
as the writer, that if by some extraordinary means that 
house and school be not purged, those godly foundations 
shall be but a nurseiy of adder's brood to poison the 
Church." Even supposing the charges to be true, he 
who was lenient towards the one extreme ought not, as a 
just ruler, to have been so violent against another ex- 
treme. But it is possible, that though accused of Popery, 
the fellows of these colleges were only maintaining that 
Catholicism to which they owed their '* godly foundation," 
and from which Grindal wished an entire divorce. But 
this observation is made on the state of the case as given 
in Strype, and in ignorance whether any specific charges 
were brought against the colleges. It is not to be sup- 
posed that the heads of houses would have risked the 
favour of government by their non-interference, — if there 
had been real grounds for the charge. 

At this very time Grindal was using his influence 
with government to obtain the liberation of certain 
Puritans, who had been thrown into prison for holding 
conventicles. In doing this he was indeed to be praised, 
for these poor men only differed from Grindal in being 
more consistent ; — they regarded as Popery certain cere- 
monies of the Prayer Book, because observed in common 
with foreign Catholics, and used in our Church before its 
Keformation, and Grindal was of the same opinion : they 
merely acted upon the principle which he admitted : he 
tolerated for a time what he thought to be wrong that he 
might conduce to its removal. But we again find him 
unjustly interfering with the rights of others. The inns 
of court were suspected of Popery, and we find Grindal 



GPtlNDAL. 431 

urging secretary Cecil to command the benchers in 
calling men to the bench or bar, to reject all who were 
not only notoriously known, but even vehemently sus- 
pected to be adversaries of " true religion." Who w^as 
to judge what true religion is, is not stated. At the 
same time vigilance was necessary, as the Papists 
were certainly moving ; there were many of them as- 
sembled at Bath under pretence of taking the waters, 
and the state of the Church being unsettled, it seemed 
natural for them, while the Puritans were urging still 
further reforms, to desire to see a return to those obser- 
vances which had of late years been discontinued in our 
Church, and to which they, by an honourable, though 
mistaken sentiment, were attached. Thus was a prophecy 
circulated among them, that the queen would not reign 
above tw^elve years, and such indeed w^as the influence of 
the Piomanizing member of the Church of England, 
that, according to Neale, in Lancashire the Common 
Prayer Book was laid aside and the mass openly said. 
The queen sent dow^n commissioners of enquiry, but it is 
said that all they could do was to bind some of the 
country gentlemen to good behaviour in recognizances of 
100 marks. In the meantime Grindal's foreign predilec- 
tions led him to an act of injustice, and he was threatened 
wdth a 2>^'^niumre by his clergy, for having levied a con- 
tribution upon them for the protestants abroad without 
the queen's license. 

That he should be desirous of quitting the diocese 
of London, was only natural, and Archbishop Parker 
seconded his work, since he desired to have in London a 
more consistent character. Accordingly, in 1570 he was 
translated to York. On the 9th of June, 1570, he was 
confirmed at Canterbury, where Archbishop Parker was 
resident ; and the Puritan notion of turning the Lord's 
day into a Sabbath, a feast into a fast, not at that time 
existing, the Archbishop of Canterbury gave a most 



432 ^ GRINDAL. 

splendid dinner party on Trinity Sunday ; at that feast, 
says Strype, two archbishops and three bishops were 
present. In Yorkshire he found the gentry disposed to 
the Reformation, but the commonalty still adhered to 
the observance of fasts and holy days now abrogated ; they 
offered money, eggs, &c. at funerals ; they prayed with 
beads ; and he gives Yorkshiremen a bad character, ob- 
serving in them " great ignorance, much dulness to con- 
ceive better instruction, and great stiffness to retain their 
wonted errors." Perhaps his grace would have done 
better to wait till he knew more of Yorkshiremen before 
he thus wrote of them to secretary Cecil. Richard Barne, 
suffragan Bishop of Nottingham, was confirmed by our 
archbishop Bishop of Carlisle. 

Being here under less restraint than in London, the 
archbishop began to push his ultra-protestant notions 
further than before. In 1571 and 1572 he held a provin- 
cial visitation, making determined war upon many of the 
then existing practices of the Church of England, such as 
putting the communion bread into the mouth instead of 
delivering it into the hand of the people ; using various 
rites, gestures, and ceremonies, not enjoined by the 
Prayer Book, though not condemned by it, and therefore 
observed as a matter of course, no new Church having 
been established in England ; crossing and lifting up the 
sacramental bread ; using oil, chrism, tapers, and spittle 
at baptisms ; making the sign of the cross at eating, in 
the church, &c. These were all customs observed in the 
Church of England at that time, and, as has been said, 
not prohibited by the Prayer Book as it existed ; — but 
the archbishop now enjoined the non-observance of them, 
on the ground that they were not enjoined. In forming 
a new sect nothing is to be observed but what is com- 
manded ; in reforming an old Church, all things remain 
as before, unless there be an express direction to the 
contrary. 



GRINDAL. 433 

In 1571, the archbishop confirmed John SaUsbury, 
Suffragan Bishop of Thetford, as Bishop of Sodor and 
Man. 

In 1574, a report reached York that the queen would 
visit that city, and Archbishop Grindal conferred \vith 
x\rchbishop Parker on the best mode of receiving her. As 
we live in days of royal progresses, Archbishop Parker's 
account of his own reception of her majesty will be interest- 
ing to the reader. The outciy would be great indeed in 
these days, if the clergy of a cathedral town were to meet 
the queen clad in their vestments, saying psalms and pray- 
ers, and actually kneeling down to do so. But it was differ- 
ent at the period of the Pieformation. The following is 
from Stiype : — " Then the Archbishop of Canterbury 
proceeded to relate how he received her, (the queen) ; that 
he met her as she was coming to Dover, upon Folkstone 
Down; which he did with all his men, and left her at 
Dover. At Canterbury he received her, together with 
the Bishops of Lincoln, Rochester, and his suffragan 
of Dover, at the west door of the cathedral church; 
where, after the grammarian had made his oration to 
her on horseback, she alighted ; and the archbishop and 
the rest with him kneeled down and said the psalm, 
Deus misereatur, in English, with certain other collects, 
briefly ; and that in their chimers and rochets. Then 
the archbishop related all the other ceremonies, viz., of 
conducting her under a canopy into the choir unto a 
traverse, where she sat while the even-song was said ; 
and how they afterwards waited upon her to St. Augus- 
tine's, where she lodged ; the noble supper he gave her 
courtiers and attendants the same night ; and the din- 
ner he gave her majesty the next day, when she went 
to the great church to hear a sermon ; and his most 
magnificent feasting her the day after in his great hall, 
together with her privy council, the French ambassadors, 
ladies, gentlemen, and the mayor of the town and his 
brethren." 

2 Q 2 



434 GEINDAL. 

On the 26th of February, about five at night, hap- 
pened an earthquake in Yorkshire, Nottingham, and some 
other northern counties. It did no great harm, but the 
concussion much terrified the people, fearing that some 
pubUc calamity might follow. This our archbishop spake 
of, and remembered thei'e was such an earthquake in 
Croyden, in Archbishop Cranmer's time ; not long after 
which, as he supposed, King Edward died. This he 
esteemed of such moment, that he wrote to the Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury about it, and wished the certain 
time of that earthquake might be learned, as though 
he were jealous it might import the death of the queen. 
To which the other archbishop made only this pious 
reply, that as to that prognostic, It is the Lord, let 
Him do what is good in His eyes. 

Archbishop Grindal was translated to Canterbury in 
1575, and presided at the Convocation held that year. 
This convocation proceeded with the work of reforming 
our Church, The following is a digest of its pro- 
ceedings : — 

They imported, " That those that were to be made 
ministers must bring testimonials, and give account of 
their faith in Latin, and subscribe the Articles of Reli- 
gion made in the Synod anno 1562. Deacons to be 
twenty-three years of age, and priests twenty-four. That 
bishops celebrate not orders but on Sundays or holidays. 
That they give orders to none, but of their own diocese, 
unless dimitted under the hands and seals of the bishops 
in whose dioceses they were. That unlearned ministers 
formerly ordained be not admitted to any cure. Diligent 
inquisition to be made for such as forged letters of orders. 
That bishops certify one another of counterfeit ministers. 
None to be admitted to orders, unless he shew to the 
bishop a true presentation of himself to a benefice. 
The qualification of such as were to be admitted to any 
dignity or benefice. All licences for preaching bearing 



GRINDAL. 435 

date before the 8th of February, 1575, to be void : but 
such as were thought meet for that office to be admitted 
again without difficulty or charge. Bishops to take care 
for able preachers. None to be admitted a preacher, 
unless he be at least a deacon first. That the catechism 
allowed be diligently taught, and the homilies duly read, 
where there be no sermons. Every parson, vicar, and 
curate, being no Master of Arts nor preacher, to have the 
New Testament both in Latin and English, or Welsh : 
and to confer daily one chapter of the same. And 
archdeacons, commissaries, and officials, to appoint them 
some certain task of the New Testament to be conned 
without book ; or to be otherwise travailed in, as should 
be by them thought convenient : and to exact a re- 
hearsal of the same, and how they have profited in the 
study thereof. No commutation of penance, unless upon 
great and urgent causes. Private baptism to be only 
administered by lawful ministers in case of necessity, and 
by none other. That archdeacons, and others having 
ordinary jurisdiction, do call before them such as be 
detected of any ecclesiastical crime ; and convince and 
punish them. That bishops take order that it be pub-= 
lislied, that marriage be solemnized at all times of the 
year ; so that the banns be first lawfully published, and 
none impediment objected." But this last, and that 
other about private baptism, are omitted in the printed 
articles. 

Archbishop Grindal was appointed to the primacy 
when the Church was violently assailed by the two ex- 
treme parties; on the one hand the Puritans, and on 
the other the seminary priests of Rome were making an 
attack ; and it is generally admitted that, as a governor, 
he was too remiss and too partial ; inclining to screen 
Puritans even when censured by their diocesan, though 
ever ready to proceed against Papists. In his zeal 
for ultra-protestants he sometimes acted illegally as well 



436 GRINDAL. 

as unjustly. But he was an earnest and a pious man. 
In 1580, there was a terrible earthquake, and the arch- 
bishop's exhortation to the clergy stands in favourable 
contrast with the formal manner in which of late years 
fasts have been enjoined. By his grace's order, Ked- 
man, his archdeacon, addressed the following letter to 
the clergy of the diocese : — 

** After my hearty commendations premised ; my Lord, 
his grace's pleasure is, that with all convenient speed 
you shall give order to every parson, vicar, and curate 
of the peculiar jurisdiction of the deanery of the arches 
in London, that they exhort their parishioners to resort 
devoutly to their churches upon Wednesdays and Fri- 
days, to hear some short exhortations to repentance, 
either by preaching or homilies, with other services of 
the day. And that they do of their own accord, without 
constraint of law, spare those days one meal, converting 
the same, or some part thereof, to the relief of the poor. 
Calling also their households together at night, to make 
hearty prayer to God, to shew mercy to us who have 
deserved His anger. And that with the litany they join 
such psalms and prayers as they shall choose, or devise, 
fit for that purpose. And thus I bid you heartily well 
to fare. London, April 12, 1580." The like order he 
gave forth for his whole diocese. 

The last years of the archbishop were ennobled by 
a firmness of character which has done him immortal 
honour, as they w^ere embittered by the loss of the 
queen's favour. This was occasioned by the favour 
which he shewed towards the exercise of prophesying, 
of which exercise, an account shall be given in Grin- 
dal's own words, in his letter on the subject to the 
queen :— 

'• The authors of this exercise are the bishops of the 
dioceses where the same is used ; who both by the law 
of God, and by the canons and constitutions of the 



GRINDAL. 437 

Churcli now in force, have authority to appoint exer- 
cises to their inferior ministers, for increase of learning 
and knowledge in the Scriptures, as to them seemetli 
most expedient : for that pertaineth ad disciplinam Cleri 
calern, i. e. ' to the discipline of ministers.' The time 
appointed for the assembly is once a month, or once in 
twelve or jBfteen days, at the discretion of the ordinary. 
The time of the exercise is two hours: the place, the 
church of the town appointed for the assembly. The 
matter entreated of is as followeth. Some text of Scrip- 
ture, before appointed to be spoken of, is inter2:)reted in 
this order ; First, the occasion of the place is shewed. 
Secondly — the end. Thirdly — the proper sense of the 
place. Fourthly — the propriety of the words : and those 
that be learned in the tongues, shewing the diversities 
of interpretations. Fifthly — where the like phrases are 
used in the Scriptures. Sixthly — places in the Scrip- 
tures seeming to repunge, are reconciled. Seventhly — 
the arguments of the text are opened. Eighthly — it is 
also declared, what virtues and what vices are there 
touched ; and to which of the commandments they per- 
tain. Ninthly — how the text hath been wrested by the 
adversaries, if occasion so require. Tenthly, and last 
of all — what doctrine of faith or manners the text doth 
contain. The conclusion is, with the prayer for your 
majesty, and all estates, as is appointed by the Book 
of Common Prayer, and a psalm. 

" These orders following are also observed in the 
said exercise : First, two or three of the gravest and 
best learned pastors are appointed of the bishop, to 
moderate in every assembly. No man may speak unless 
he be first allowed by the bishop, with this proviso, that 
no layman be suffered to speak at any time. No con- 
troversy of this present time and state shall be moved 
or dealt withal. If any attempt the contrary, he is put 
to silence by the moderator. None is suffered to glance 



438 GRiNDAL. 

openly or covertly at persons public or private ; neither 
yet any one to confute another. If any man utter a 
wrong sense of the Scripture, he is privately admonished 
thereof, and better instructed by the moderators, and 
other his fellow-ministers. If any man use immodest 
speech, or irreverend gesture or behaviour, or otherwise 
be suspected in life, he is likewise admonished as be- 
fore. If any wilfully do break these orders, he is pre- 
sented to the bishop, to be by him corrected." 

The archbishop viewed the question as a divine, and, 
among divines it is an open question how far such meet- 
ings are or are not expedient ; the queen looked upon it 
as a politician. The Church of England was in a very 
anxious position, — the Romanizers, whether conforming 
or not, disliked the Reformation as having gone too" far, 
while the Puritans naturally felt that since we had gone 
80 far, they had only to agitate and we should go further. 
And any thing like discussion had a tendency to excite 
this feeling of discontent for things as they were. At a 
revolutionary era it is always sound policy, in the opinion 
of statesmen, to prevent discussion as much as possible, 
and for this reason, because men's minds are unsettled. 
There is a dislike in politicians to entertain the question 
of a convocation at the present time. A convocation the 
queen could not prevent, but of further discussion she 
saw the danger. Archbishop Grindal, on the other hand, 
was willing to carry the Reformation further, and he 
would admire the prophesyings as tending to this point, 
while he considered the subject as one of a purely ecclesi- 
astical character, in which he would not permit the queen 
to interfere. To the proud despotic daughter of the house 
of Tudor he spoke with the boldness of a primitive 
bishop, and, as it turned out, at peril if not of life yet of 
property. Few in these days would venture in like 
manner to defy a committee of the two houses of parlia- 
ment, or an ecclesiastical commission, the despotic powers 



GRINDAL. 439 

of our land. " Bear ^'ith me, I beseech you, madam," 
said the aged and venerable prelate, " if T choose rather 
to offend your earthly majesty, than to offend the hea- 
venly majesty of God. And now being sorry, that I 
have been so long and tedious to your majesty, I will 
draw to an end, most humbly praying the same, well 
to consider these two short petitions following. 

" The first is, that you would refer all these ecclesi- 
astical matters which touch religion, or the doctrine and 
discipline of the Church, unto the bishops and divines 
of your realm ; according to the example of all godly 
Christian emperors, and princes of all ages. For in- 
deed they are things to be judged, (as an ancient Father 
writeth), in ecclesid, sen syuoclo, von in 2'>(il(ttio, i. e. ' in 
the church, or a synod, not in a palace,' When your 
majesty hath questions of the laws of your realm, you 
do not decide the same in your court, but send them 
to your judges to be determined. Likewise for doubts 
in matters of doctrine or discipline of the Chureh, the 
ordinary way is to refer the decision of the same to the 
bishops, and other head ministers of the Church. 

" Ambrose to Theodosius useth these words, Si de 
causis pecuniariis comites tuos consul is, quanto magis in 
causa religionis sacerdotes Domini, aquum est consulas ? 
i. e. ' If in matters of money, you consult with your 
earls, how much more is it fit you consult with the 
Lord's priests in the cause of religion ? ' And likewise 
the same father to the good Emperor Yalentinianus, — 
Si de fide conferendum est, Sacerdotum debet esse ista 
collatio ; sicut factum est sub Constantino augustce me- 
moricc iwincipe ; qui nuUas leges ante i^rcBmisit, qudm 
liberum dedit judicium Sacerdotibus : i. e, 'If we confer 
about faith, the conference ought to be left to the 
priests ; as it was done under Constantino, a prince of 
most honourable memory ; who set forth no laws, before 
he had left them to the free judgment of the priests.' 



440 GRINDAL. 

And in the same place the same father saith, that Con- 
stantius the emperor, son to the said Constantine the 
Great, began well, by reason he followed his father's 
steps at the first : but ended ill, because he took upon 
him de fide intra palatium judicare, i. e. ' To judge of 
faith within the palace,' (for so be the words of Ambrose,) 
and thereby fell into Arianism : a terrible example. 

" The said Ambrose, so much commended in all his- 
tories for a godly bishop, goeth yet farther, and writeth 
to the same emperor in this form, — Si docendus est 
Episcopus a laico, quid sequatur ? Laicus ergo disputet, 
et Episcopus audiat ; Ep)iscop)US discat a laico. At certe, 
si vel Scripturarum seriem divinarum, vet Vetera tempora 
retractemus, quis est qui abnuat, in causa fidei, in causa, 
inquam, fidei, Episcopos solere de Imjwratoribus Chns- 
tianis, non Imjyeratores de Episcopis judicare ? i. e. ' If a 
bishop be to be taught by a layman, what follows ? Let 
the layman then dispute, and the bishop hear : let the 
bishop learn of the layman. But certainly, if we have 
recourse either to the order of the holy Scriptures, or to 
ancient times, who is there that can deny, that in the 
cause of faith, I say, in the cause of faith, bishops 
were wont to judge concerning Christian emperors, not 
emperors of bishops ?' Would to God your majesty 
would follow this ordinary course, you should procure 
to yourself much quietness of mind, better please God, 
avoid many offences, and the Church should be more 
quietly and peaceably governed, much to your comfort, 
and the commodity of your realm. 

" The second petition I have to make to your majesty 
is this ; that, when you deal in matters of faith and re- 
ligion, or matters that touch the Church of Christ, which 
is His spouse, bought with so dear a price, you would 
not use to pronounce too resolutely and peremptorily, 
quasi ex authoritate, as ye may do in civil and extern 
matters : but always remember that in God's causes, 



GRtNDAL. 441 

the will of God (and not the will of any earthly crea- 
ture) is to take place. It is the antichristian voice of 
the pope, Sic volo, sic jubeo ; stet pro ratione voluntas ; 
I. e. * So I will have it; so I command: let my will 
stand for a reason.' In God's matters, all princes ought 
to bow their sceptres to the Son of God, and to ask 
counsel at His mouth, what they ought to do. David 
exhorteth all kings and rulers to serve God with fear and 
trembling, 

*' Remember, madam, that you are a mortal creature. 
' Look not only (as was said to Theodosius) upon the 
purple and princely array, wherewith ye are apparelled, 
but consider withal, w^hat is that that is covered there- 
. with. Is it not flesh and blood ? Is it not dust and 
ashes ? Is it not a corruptible body, which must return 
to his earth again, God knows how soon ? ' Must 
not you also one day appear ante tremendwn tribunal 
crucifixi, ut recijnas ibi, jjivut gesseris in corpore, sive 
bonuni sive malum ? i. e. ' before the fearful judgment- 
seat of the crucified [Jesus,] to receive there according 
as you have done in the body, w^hether it be good or 
evil ? ' 

'* And although ye are a mighty prince, yet remem- 
ber that He AVhich dwelleth in heaven is mightier. 
He is, as the Psalmist saith, terribilis, et is qui anfert 
.sptiritum principum, terribilis super omnes reges terrcB ; 
i.e.* terrible, and He Who taketh away the spirit of 
princes, and is terrible above all the kings of the 
earth.' 

"■ Wherefore I do beseech you, madam, in viscenbus 
Christi, when you deal in these religious causes, set the 
majesty of God before your eyes, laying all earthly ma- 
jesty aside ; determine with yourself to obey His voice, 
and with all humility say unto Him, Non mea, sed tua 

VOL. V. 2 R 



443 GRIND AL. 

voluntas fiat; i. e. 'Not mine, but Thy will be done/ 
God hath blessed you with great felicity in your reign, 
now many years ; beware you do not impute the same to 
your own deserts or policy, but give God the glory. And 
as to instruments and means, impute your said felicity, 
first, to the goodness of the cause which ye have set 
forth ; I mean, Christ's true religion ; and, secondly, to 
the sighs and groanings of the godly in their fervent 
prayer to God for you. Which have hitherto, as it were, 
tied and bound the hands of God, that He could not 
pour out His plagues upon you and your people, most 
justly deserved. 

"Take heed, that ye never once think of declining from 
God, lest that be verified of you, which is written of 
Ozeas, [Joasli,] who continued a prince of good and 
godly government for many years together; and after- 
wards, cum roboratus esset, (saith the text,) elevatum est 
cor ejus in interitum suum, et negleodt Dominmn , i. e. 
' when he was strengthened, his heart w^as lifted 
up to his destruction, and he regarded not the Lord.' 
Ye have done many things well, but except ye per- 
severe to the end, ye cannot be blessed. For if ye 
turn from God, then God will turn away His merciful 
countenance from you. And what remaineth then to 
be looked for, but only a terrible expectation of God's 
judgments, and an heaping up wrath, against the day of 
wrath ! 

"But I trust in God, your majesty will always humble 
yourself under His mighty hand, and go forward in the 
zealous setting forth of God's true religion, always 
yielding due obedience and reverence to the word of God, 
the only rule of faith and religion. And if ye so do, 
although God hath just cause many ways to be angry 
with you and us for our unfaithfulness, yet I doubt 
nothing, but that for His own name's sake, and for Hig 



GRINDAL. 443 

own glory sake, He will still hold His merciful hand 
over us, shield and protect us under the shadow of His 
wings, as He hath done hitherto. 

'* I beseech God our heavenly Father plentifully to 
pour His jwincipal spirit upon you, and always to direct 
your heart in His holy fear. Amen." 

This remonstrance is dated December 20th, 1576. 
The queen gave him time to consider his resolution, but 
finding him unalterable, she caused him to be sequestered 
from his office, and by an order from the court of star- 
chamber, he was confined to his house. In vain did the 
lord treasurer, his long-tried friend, urge him to submis- 
sion; and so exasperated did the court become, that 
thoughts were entertained of deposing him, though that 
design was laid aside. 

It is difficult to ascertain the precise nature of his 
sequestration, as we find that during this time he conse- 
crated the Bishops of Exeter, Winchester, and Lichfield 
and Coventry : and when, in 1580, a convocation was hol- 
den, though he did not appear, he had a principal share in 
its transactions. He drew up an expedient for presei'ving 
the authority of the spiritual courts on the point of ex- 
communications, and he laid before them a new form of 
penance, better calculated than the one which had 
hitherto been used to bring the offender to amendment. 
The convocation partook of the archbishop's spirit, and 
though the motion was negatived which proposed that no 
business should be done, nor any subsidy granted, until 
the archbishop was restored, the queen was petitioned 
in his favour. 

But no favour did the archbishop receive, till at 
length become blind, a victim also to the strangury 
and the colic, he thought himself at liberty to listen 
to the proposal of the court that he should resign. He 
retired to Croyden, having shewn that those of his 



444 GRYNiEUS. 

predecessors in the see of Canterbury who had resigned, 
had always one of the episcopal houses assigned to 
them, and the amount of his pension was fixed, but 
ere his resignation was completed he died, in 1583, 
Archbishop of Canterbury. He seems to have been a 
most amiable and kind-hearted man, who was un- 
fortunately placed under circumstances not the most 
propitious for the development of his character. — 
Stryjpe. Le Neve. Zurich Letters, puhlished by the 
Parker Society. Soames. Collier. Neales History of 
the Puritans. 



GRYNiSUS, JOHN JAMES. 



John James Gryn.eus was born at Berne in 1540, 
and educated at Basle. He took his degree of doctor 
in divinity, and succeeded his father as pastor at 
Rotelen. He was at first a Lutheran, but afterwards 
became a Zuinglian, and died infirm and blind at Basle, 
in 1617. 

He was the author of numerous illustrative notes to 
the works ofEusebius, Origen, andlrenaeus; An Epitome 
of the Bible ; Outlines of Theology ; Expositions of some 
of the Psalms, and of the Prophecies of Haggai, Jonah, 
Habakkuk, Obadiah, and the first five chapters of Daniel; 
A Commentary on the first Ten Chapters of the Gospel 
of St. Matthew; Critical Remarks on the Epistles 
to the Romans, Colossians, and Hebrews, and on the 
first and second Epistles of St. John ; An Ecclesiastical 
History ; A Chronology of the Evangelic History ; 
Theological Problems, Theses, and Disputations. — Mel- 
chior Adam. 



GROSSETESTE. 445 



GROSSETESTE, ROBERT. 



Robert Grosseteste, Grosthead, or Greathead, was 
born of poor parents at Shadbrook, in Suffolk, about the 
year 1175. His history illustrates the miserable condi- 
tion of the Medieval Church, and will therefore be given 
at some length. The state of the Church in that age 
cannot be given better than in the words of Dr. Inet. 
" The patronage of the crown," says he, " was lost with 
the right of investitures ; the power to convene national 
synods was swallowed up by that of the papal legates ; the 
supremacy in causes ecclesiastical w^as carried to Rome 
by the concession which yielded up the right of appeals ; 
the authority over the persons and the estates of the 
clergy and religious was given away by that grant which 
discharged the clergy from the secular power ; and the 
Church was thereby rendered a body separate and in- 
dependent on the state, their interests distinguished, 
and set at such a distance from one another, that the 
privileges and liberties of the Church w^ere numbered 
from the sjDoils of the civil government, and then only 
thought bright and shining, when they cast a shade 
upon the monarchy." 

Robert, who received the cognomen of Grosseteste, 
(surnames at that time not being generally in use,) 
either from the size of his head, or his intellectual 
powers, was educated at Oxford and at Paris. At an 
early period of life he entered into the service of William 
de Yere, Bishop of Hereford, upon whose death he re- 
turned to Oxford, where he established a high character 
by his lectures in philosophy and theology. His learn- 
ing recommended him to the notice of Hugh de "Welles, 
Bishop of Lincoln, who presented him to a prebend in 
his cathedral church. In 1210 he was nominated to 
the Archdeacomy of Chester, which he exchanged in 
1220 for that of Wilts. In 1224 he took his doctor's 
VOL v. 2 s 



446 GROSSETESTE. 

degree, soon after which he was presented to the rectory 
of Ashley, in Northamptonshire. He was Archdeacon 
of Leicester in 1232, at which time he also held the 
prebend of Empingham, in the diocese of Lincoln. It 
appears from a passage in the register of Oliver Sutton, 
Bishop of Lincoln, cited by Mr. Wood, that Robert had 
been chancellor of that university by the title of Magister 
Scholar ium vel Scholarum. The time of his filling this 
high literary post is not precisely known, but it seems to 
have been just before his elevation to the see of Lincoln. 
And as he was nominated to the office by his constant 
friend Bishop de Welles, it must have been before 
February 1234, when the bishop died. 

The king was at Oxford in June, 1234, and issued a 
remarkable mandate to the mayor and bailiffs for the 
expulsion of prostitutes, and the concubines of clerks, 
who were to be ordered to leave the village in eight days. 
And if any should either remain there after the time 
limited, or any fresh woman should enter the place, that 
they should be seized by order of the chancellor, or of 
Mr. Robert Grosseteste, or friar Robert Bacon, and de- 
tained till the king's further pleasure should be known. 
This shews that Grosseteste was not chancellor at the 
time, but only a leading personage in the university. 

This statement does not speak favourably of clerical 
morality in the middle ages, and it shews the natural 
effect of the constrained celibacy of the clergy. 

Upon the death of Hugh de Welles in 1 234, the chap- 
ter of Lincoln unanimously elected Grosseteste as his 
successor. He w^as consecrated at Reading, by Arch- 
bishop Edmund, in the abbey church. It was not usual 
at this time for the suffragan bishops of the province of 
Canterbury to be consecrated any where but in the me- 
tropolitical church, and the convent of Canterbury inter- 
posed their claim accordingly upon this occasion; but 
consented at last to lot the ceremony proceed, lest the 
labour and charges of the attendance should be lost, and 



GROSSETESTE. 447 

upon condition that this case should not be drawn 
into a precedent ; as likewise under a protestation, that 
they would never agree to any such irregularity in future. 

Soon after his consecration he visited his diocese, and 
by reference to his articles of enquiry we may obtain a 
further insight into the morals of the Medieval Church. 
The celibacy of the clergy, projected before, was publicly 
and universally enjoined by a decree of Archbishop 
Anselm, in 1102, and was enforced afterwards by 
canon after canon; and even now, as late as 1236, the 
non-conformity of the clergy, who were always extremely 
loath to be driven into this hard and unnatural measure, 
is made a subject of enquiry. So that it seems the 
celibacy of the clergy was not yet fully established, not- 
withstanding all the violent efforts which had been made 
in its favour for more than a century. But this we need 
not wonder at, since it was indeed the boldest and most 
desperate attack that ever was made upon the natural 
rights of mankind. We speak here of the nature of the 
attempt; that a groundless and mere arbitrary injunc- 
tion should be expected to over-rule and annihilate men's 
innate affections, and that the clergy, so large a body as 
they now were, were universally to be brought to receive 
it with tameness and submission. The drift and ten- 
dency of the proceeding, no doubt, was to draw all the 
wealth of the clergy from their relations and connexions 
into the Church. But behold now the fatal consequence 
of depriving the clergy of their Christian liberty in this 
vigorous and compulsory manner. 

The Church was overmn with a deluge of incontinence, 
fornication, and adultery ; and, what was then deemed a 
most aggravated crime, the clergy even frequented and 
attempted the nunneries. 

Many vicarages had been already made by the late 
bishop Hugh de Welles, and Bishop Grosseteste estab- 
lished many more. 

He was always a patron of the vicars. The monks 



448 GROSSETESTE. 

obtaining the advowson of livings, were accustomed at 
first to appropriate to the use of their monasteries the 
whole of the revenue, serving the cures carelessly by 
sending some of their own body to officiate. The bishops 
after a time succeeded in compelling the monks to 
appoint a regular pastor, and to assign to him a fixed 
income : that income proceeding generally from the 
small tithes, while the monastery retained the great 
tithes and rectorial rights. The monks were continually 
endeavouring to evade this regulation, and much hostility 
they shewed to Bishop Grosseteste for vigorously enforc- 
ing it. 

The student of ecclesiastical history will not fail to 
observe how gradually and craftily the popish authority 
was established in the Church of England; an appeal to 
Rome being made sometimes by the civil power and 
sometimes by ecclesiastics, the pope assumed powers by 
the concession of the appellants to which he had no legal 
right. To a disgraceful act, shewing the low state of 
morals in the Church, the mission of a legate is at this 
time to be traced. William Marshal, Earl of Pembroke, 
being dead in Ireland, the king gave his sister Eleanor, 
the earl's widow, in marriage to Simon Montfort, after- 
wards Earl of Leicester : this lady, either through a real 
intention of entering into religion, or some other specious 
design, conceived a vow of chastity upon her husband's 
demise, though she had not taken the veil. Upon this 
ground, Edmund, Archbishop of Canterbury, resolving 
to oblige her to the performance of her vow, opposed the 
lady's re-marriage vrith Montfort all he could, and even 
sharply reproved the king for encouraging Montfort, by 
consenting to the match, to break the established rules 
of the Church ; but, alas ! there was a necessity for it, 
as Eleanor was with child by Montfort. This opposition 
given by the archbishop to the king, who was absolutely 
determined to permit the marriage, entirely alienated his 
majesty's affections from him. ; and. being highly en- 



GROSSETESTE. 449 

raged, he privately treated with pope Gregory IX. to 
send him a stout and able legate into England; one 
that might control the archbishop, and all others that 
should dare to \Yithstand and oppose his will. Thus 
this light matter proved in the event a most serious 
affair, laying not only the foundation of all the mischiefs 
brought upon the kingdom by the intromission of Otho 
the legate, but even occasioned at last the exile of the 
archbishop. 

With the legate, Bishop Grosseteste was frequently 
brought into collision ; the former endeavouring to force 
into some of the best preferments of Lincoln incompetent 
persons and non-resident foreigners. To one transac- 
tion, as illustrative of the times, we shall more fully 
refer. The university of Oxford was comprehended 
within the limits of the immense diocese of Lincoln, 
and the prelates of that see had naturally great power 
and authority there. If they did not nominate the 
chancellor, they enjoyed the privilege of cqyproving the 
election; but, as we take it, they absolutely appointed 
him. In the year 1238, Bishop Grosseteste made a 
noble stand in favour of that body, to which he was 
always a true friend and patron, and did it a very sin- 
gular service. Otho the legate, who had been invited 
into England by the king, as related above, and was now 
much caressed by him and held in especial esteem, went 
to Oxford, April 23rd, 1238, in order to examine into 
and to correct abuses there, where the number of students 
was very numerous. The legate, who was much hated 
by the whole nation, was lodged in the monastery of 
Osney, not far off, where the university accommodated 
him immediately with all necessaries, and afterwards 
waited upon him with their compliments on St. George's 
day. The crowd was great at the door of the stranger's 
hall, as may be presumed, when a person of his rank 
and character was to be entertained ; and the porter, 
being a foreigner, was ruder to the scholars than was 



450 GROSSETESTE. 

consistent with good manners, (especially after such 
ample presents had been made to his master) and refused 
them admittance in a high and haughty tone. The 
students, thus offended, began to employ force, and to 
beat the cardinal's servants ; whilst these, on their part, 
endeavoured to resist and oj^pose them. A poor Irish 
half-starved chaplain was, at the instant, asking for 
something to eat at the kitchen door ; but the master of 
the cooks, who was the cardinal's brother, displeased 
with his importunity, took some scalding water and 
threw it in his face. A Welsh student happened to see 
it, and enraged at such usage, exclaimed aloud. Shall we 
bear this ? and then bending his bow, shot the master of 
the cooks, and killed him on the spot. The whole mon- 
astery was instantly in an uproar ; and the legate, hear- 
ing of his brother's death, thought it high time to take 
care of himself, wherefore, catching up his canonical 
cope, he ran to the tower of the abbey-church, and shut 
the door after him. The students flocked round this 
fastness, crying, "Come out, thou slave, thou fleecer of the 
land, and gulf of Roman avarice!" At night, Otho put 
off his vestments, and mounting his horse, was conducted 
through bye-ways, and over a ford not very safe, to the king, 
who was then at Abingdon, to seek his protection ; for the 
scholars, being very outrageous, kept searching for him, 
crying out, "Where is that usurer, that simoniac, that 
plunderer of rents, that gaper for money, who abuses the 
king's goodness, subverts the kingdom, and enriches 
foreigners with our spoils ! " At Abingdon, the legate 
related to his majesty, with sighs and tears, the w^hole of 
his ill usage ; and the king, compassionating his case, 
immediately dispatched his messengers with letters to 
the mayor and burgesses of Oxford, charging them to 
enquire into this outrage, and to inform his delegates 
thereof. On this, an inquisition was begun, and by the 
assistance of twelve jurats, appointed for this purpose, 
for the keeping of the peace, together with an armed 



GROSSETESTE. 45] 

force sent by the king, under the command of Earl 
Warren, thirty scholars, without respect of persons, were 
committed to prison; besides Odo de Kilkenny, preben- 
dary of Lincoln, and a canonist, who appeared to have 
been one of the ringleaders in this riot. Some others 
fled to Wallingford, but were seized and put in prison 
there and elsewhere. 

In a few days, Peter de Rupibus, Bishop of Winches- 
ter, and Ralph Nevil, Bishop of Chichester, and lord 
chancellor, came to Oxford, and with the abbots of Eve- 
sham and Abingdon, assembled in St. Frideswide's 
church, suspended the university by an interdict, both as 
to lectures, &c., and all acts of religion. Otho, at the 
same time, convening the neighbouring prelates, thun- 
dered out a like interdict by his legatine authority, ex- 
communicating all in general that were concerned in the 
late tumult. And in this censure not only the under- 
graduates, but the masters, the beneficed clerks, and 
even the doctors and the chancellor, were involved. When 
this sentence was notified at Oxford, many academics, 
that were but in the least conscious of guilt, withdrew 
from the university, under a pretence of liberty, as not 
knowing where these matters would end. But as soon as 
this was told the king, he by his proclamation forbad 
any one to depart the place without his leave, which 
several, having urgent business, afterwards obtained. 

Many of the masters and beneficed clergy were bailed 
soon after this ; and Roger Niger, the worthy Bishop of 
London, and Bishop Grosseteste, gave bail for such 
clerks and laymen as were imprisoned in the tower ; and 
by that means master Odo de Kilkenny, master Simon 
de Crauford, John de Lewes, William de Staresburg, 
Gregory de Fertekyroth, Thomas de Lychefield, Robert 
de Leycester, John de Brideport, William de Blundun, 
Richard Grostest, Peter de Oxon, and Adam de Oxon 
or Exon, were all set at liberty. And, to omit further 
particulars, many others were delivered out of prison by 



452 GROSSETESTE. 

Bishop Grosseteste's giving security for their appearance. 
But, whereas many students had fled and would not 
return, the king sent his letters to the chancellor and 
archdeacon of Oxford, to declare they might safely come 
back to the university, and there wait for their absolu- 
tion in form. 

The legate had thoughts of making a progress into 
the northern parts of the realm, but came first to Lon- 
don, and took up his lodging in Durham house ; the 
king directing that the lord mayor and the citizens should 
furnish him with a guard. Thither he convened, by his 
legatine authority, the Archbishop of York, and all the 
English bishops, to consult about the affairs of the 
Church, and the injury and insult he had received at 
Osney. The bishops defended the university in the best 
manner they could; and it is particularly recorded, to 
the honour of Bishop Grosseteste, that he strenuously 
exerted himself on the occasion, and with a noble spirit, 
becoming the greatness of his soul, interdicted, in the 
presence of the king and legate, every person that had 
offered to lay violent hands on the Oxonians. The 
bishops insisted, that, next to the university of Paris, 
this of Oxford was deservedly esteemed the most eminent 
for piety and sound learning ; and that, if, after imprison- 
ing the persons of the students, and despoiling them of 
their effects, any thing more rigid should be inflicted, 
they should have reason to fear the scholars would be 
driven from Oxford never more to return; that, if the 
legate would but be so cool and candid as to attend to 
truth, he might recollect, that the fault committed was 
rather to be imputed to his own servants, who had so far 
provoked the academicians by their contumelies, that it 
was little to be wondered such disturbances, great as 
they were, had happened to his reverence. The legate, 
upon this, took time to consider, and so dismissed the 
assembly. 

At length, in the following year, after some letters had 



GROSSETESTE. 453 

passed betwixt liim and the pope, and some of the car- 
dinals at Rome, he terminated the matter in this man- 
ner. He wrote to the chancellor, exhorting the Oxonians 
(who now for a year and more, being prohibited their 
lectures and exercises at Oxford, had retired many of 
them to Northampton and Salisbury, for the prosecution 
of their studies) to repentance, and giving them full 
leave to return to Oxford, provided they would submit 
to the following penance, that the clerks should go on 
foot from St. Paul's to Durham House, about a mile 
distant, the bishops accompanying them as far as Car- 
lisle House, now called Worcester House : that thence 
the academics should proceed barefooted, without their 
hoods and gowns, and humbly ask pardon of the legate 
for their fault. Thus ended this unfortunate affair, 
which nevertheless proved very hurtful to this famous 
university, as we do not find, after this dispersion, it 
was ever frequented hj the like full complement of 
students. 

In the grand quarrel between the emperor and the 
pope, the citizens of Rome were strongly disposed to 
favour the emperor, who was now approaching that city. 
Many of the cardinals, seeing Gregory more governed by 
his own perverse will, than by the rules of right reason, 
had deserted him, scarcely any continuing with him but 
Robert de Somercote, an Englishman. Gregory, in 
short, was plunged in deep distress, and it behoved him 
instantly to think of some expedient to extricate himself, 
and to attach the citizens to his party. He fixed upon 
a most diabolical one, which was, to gain them by pro- 
mising them, for their sons and relations, all the vacant 
benefices in England; those especially which belonged 
to the religious houses. And the conditions, on the part 
of the citizens, were, that they should universally com- 
mence hostilities against the emperor, and do all in 
their power to dethrone him. In pursuance of this 
agreement, Gregory soon after despatched his bulls to 
VOL V. 2 T 



454 GROSSETESTE. 

Edmund, Archbishop of Canterbury, Robert Grosseteste, 
Bishop of Lincoln, and Robert de Bingham, Bishop of 
Salisbury, to provide three hundred Romans with the 
first benefices which should become vacant ; and all the 
three were inhibited from collating to any benefices till 
the Romans were seized. And when Mumelinus, one of 
Otto's clerks, returned about All Saints day from Italy, 
whither he had been to carry money to his holiness, he 
brought with him twenty-four Romans, who were all to 
be preferred here. And M. Paris reports in one place, 
that Otto, whilst he was in England, had disposed of 
above three hundred prebends, rectories, and other pre- 
ferments, either by the direction of his holiness, or by 
his own arbitrary will. 

The promotion of foreigners, principally Italians, to 
the English benefices, had been a grievance of some 
standing, and had been long complained of. In the 
year 1231 an insurrection was raised here upon this very 
account ; and in the issue the lay-patrons got themselves 
secured from the like attempts upon their churches for 
the future, so that the hardship fell afterwards chiefly 
upon those of the bishops and the monasteries. 

The part our bishop took in this controversy is not 
known, except generally that from his avowed hostility 
to the preferment of foreigners in the Church of England, 
we may be sure that he sided against the cardinal. 

The cardinal was anxious not to suppress pluralities, 
but to prevent their being held without a dispensation 
from Rome ; and to secure the purchase of dispensations 
he appeared as an opponent of pluralities. The conduct 
of Walter de Cantilupe, Bishop of Winchester, throws 
light upon medieval feeling in this respect. Walter, son 
of Lord Cantilupe, was a nobleman of great spirit, and 
had been an agent of the king. The twenty-ninth canon 
of the Lateran council, in 1216, was levelled against 
pluralities without dispensation; and when Otto, the 
legate, in 1237, had prepared a constitution to enforce 



GROSSETESTE. 455 

the canon, and offered it to the council at St. Paul's, 
London, Walter put off his mitre, and spoke thus to the 
legate : " Holy father, since many noblemen, that have 
such blood as mine running in their veins, hold plurali- 
ties without dispensation, some of whom are old, and 
have lived magnificently, it would be too hard to reduce 
them to a disgraceful poverty by deprivation. Some of 
them are young and bold, and would run the last risk 
rather than be confined to one benefice. T know this by 
myself, for before I was advanced to this dignity, I re- 
solved with myself, that, if by virtue of such a constitu- 
tion I must lose one benefice, I would lose all. It is to 
be feared there are many of this mind ; therefore, we 
beseech your paternity to consult our lord the pope on 
this point." This speech caused Otto to drop his con- 
stitution, and, as Mr. Johnson thinks, to insert only a 
few lines instead of it. 

Bishop Grosseteste was so honest and undisguised in his 
opposition to ecclesiastical abuses, that he was frequently 
involved in disputes, not only with the authorities in 
Rome, but with the monasteries and chapters of his own 
country. On one occasion he was actually excommuni- 
cated by the convent of Canterbury, with bell, book, 
and candle, as an in grate and rebel to that Church, of 
which he was a suffragan. 

The bishop, with his party, when he received the 
letters importing this, threw them on the ground and 
trod upon them, to the vast astonishment of the behold- 
ers, on account of the effigies of St. Thomas impressed 
upon the seal. And moreover he flew into so great a 
passion, that he said, in the hearing of all that were 
present, "he did not desire the monks should otherwise 
pray for his soul as long as the world endured ;" and 
withal gave orders that the messenger, whom he loaded 
with reproach should be arrested. And when the officers, 
in regard to his priesthood, (for he was a priest,) were 
afraid of doing it, he ordered the priest to be driven 



i56 GKOSSETESTE. 

from his palace, as a vile slave, or a robber, at wliich 
those prudent and learned men, who were then in the 
palace, were still more astonished ; since, if there were 
no other reason, the priest might very justly accuse the 
bishoj) of laying violent hands on him. As for the sen- 
tence, his lordship so little regarded it, that he never 
forbore officiating, dedicating churches, and performing 
all other acts incidental to the episcopal function. 

It appears that in the middle ages the episcopal 
authority was not rated very high, when a bishop could 
be excommunicated by a convention of priests. They 
professed to be exercising the authority of the metro- 
politan see. An appeal was made to Rome, and a com- 
promise was effected, on which the convent withdrew 
the excommunication. The see of Rome never upholds 
the episcopate. 

In 1244 we again find the bishop issuing a circular to 
his archdeacons, stimulating them to be very strict in 
their enquiries concerning certain irregularities ; priests 
either omitting the canonical hours, or saying them 
erroneously, very indevoutly, and at times very incom- 
modious to their parishioners. Their keeping concubines 
or wives, which, though they were concealed from him in 
his visitations, ought not to escape the notice of the 
archdeacons. Clerks acting miracles, and other plays, 
called the induction of May and Autumn ; laymen having 
scot ales ; rectors, vicars, and other priests, neglecting to 
hear the friars preach, and even hindering the people 
from attending, and confessing to them ; their suffering 
some to preach for the purpose of raising money, who 
only treat such subjects as will draw most money from 
the people; whereas he licensed none such to preach, 
but only gave leave for the parish ministers to open 
and explain the service in few words ; and, lastly, Chris- 
tians living as inmates with Jews. 

We may trace the origin of domestic chaplains to this 
age, as we are informed that it was not unfrequent for 



GROSSETESTE. 457 

private persons to enjoy private domestic chapels ; these 
were not consecrated, nor endowed ; and care was always 
taken in the grants to provide for the rights of the mother 
Church, and that no prejudice should accrue to them, by 
enjoining the grantees to have recourse to their parish 
church on the greater festivals, there to make their offer- 
ings, and receive the sacrament. Thus Roger Brito, 
knight, of Walton, in the parish of Chesterfield, co. 
Derby, was empowered to have a chantry in his chapel 
for one month after Easter (this term was afterwards 
enlarged,) and was to find a competent chaplain, at his 
own expence, to celebrate mass only to himself, his wife, 
and his visitors, promising, " Die autem parasceves et 
in die pasch' cum oblationibus et aliis pertinentibus 
matricem ecclesiam nostram de Cestrefield visitabimus, 
et confessiones et sacramenta ecclesiag de capellanis de 
Cestrefield recipiemus. Dictus et capellanus de Waleton 
inspectis sacrosanctis coram cajDellanis et parochianis de 
Cestrefield jurabit quod de omnibus obventionibus et 
oblationibus quae fiunt interim apud Waleton per quem- 
cunque et undecunque evenerit dictis capellanis omni 
cavillatione remota respondebit, &c." 

Roger obtained this privilege from the dean of Lin- 
coln, William de Tournay, rector of Chesterfield, 1224, 
without fee or reward; but in the year 1242 he pro- 
cured the privileges of his chapel to be enlarged, both 
as to the duties therein to be performed, and the time, 
which was to be unlimited, and for those extraordinary 
advantages he gave an acre of land to the church of 
Chesterfield, and confirmed the donations of his ancestors 
to the said church, amounting to many acres. 

In 1247, two Franciscans, commissioned by the pope, 
and furnished with regular credentials, were sent into 
England to extort money. They demanded of Grosse- 
teste 6000 merks, as the quota for the see of Lincoln. 
He at once refused compliance with the insolent demand, 
and told his visitors, though agents of the Vatican, that 
2 T 2 



458 GROSSETESTE. 

it was as dishonourable to require such a sum as it was 
impracticable to levy it. 

The bishop did not affect the monks, and, in conse- 
quence of the powers obtained from the pope in 1'248, 
he summoned all the religious of his diocese to assemble 
at Leicester, January 14tli, in order to hear and receive 
his holiness's injunctions. His lordship's intention was, 
as appears from the j)Owers above-mentioned, to lay hold 
of all the appropriate rectories and rents of the religious, 
in case they had not obtained the assent of the dean and 
chapter of Lincoln, with proper instruments thereupon, 
and to take them into his own hand. But this matter 
was not easily ended ; for, the religious appealed to the 
pope, which obliged the bishop, old as he was, together 
with Robert de Marisco, Archdeacon of Oxford, and 
Almeric de Buggeden, Archdeacon of Bedford, and some 
other clerks, to make a journey to Lyons. The appel- 
lants were, the exempts, templars, hospitallers, and many 
others, who, by means of money, (for money could do 
every thing at that sordid and venal court,) succeeded 
with his holiness. 

When the bishop, who had been at much labour and 
expence, understood this, he was much dejected, and 
said to the pope, " I relied upon your letters and pro- 
mises, but am entirely frustrated in my hopes, since 
those whom I thought to have humbled, will now to my 
shame return exempt and free." The pope answered 
sternly, " What is that to you ? You have done your 
part, and we are disposed to favour them : is your eye 
evil, because I am good ?" And when the bishop, in a 
low tone, but so as to be heard by his holiness, said, 
'• O money! money! how prevalent art thou, especially 
in the court of Rome!" The pope answered tartly, 
" You English are the most miserable of all people, 
always striving to grind and empoverish one another. 
How many religious men, already subject unto thee, 
thine own sheep as it were, thy friends and domestics, 



GROSSETESTE. 459 

men addicted to prayer and hospitality, art thou striving 
to depress, that with their effects thou mayest sacrifice 
to thine own tyranny and avidity, for the enriching of 
others, ' and perhaps aliens.'" We make no doubt but the 
latter part of the imputation had no foundation in truth. 
And, in respect of the pope s duplicity in the case, one 
cannot help remarking, how grossly scandalous it was, 
for Innocent to grant the bishop a j^ower to visit, 
and then not to support him in the exercise of it, 
but on the contrary to desert him, and even to take an 
opposite part. The usage was undoubtedly provoking to 
the last degree (though the matter was not of such con- 
sequence as to cause his lordship to break entirely with 
his holiness); and, therefore, one cannot wonder that 
the indignity should be very grating to a man of his 
spirit and temper. The bishop, however, it is said, 
withdrew with some confusion in regard to himself, and 
did escape the censure of others ; and, that he might 
not seem, adds the historian, to have taken this long 
journey for nothing, he betook himself to the transacting 
of some other affairs. 

What a dreadful picture is this of medieval Christian- 
ity ; and the following depicts the character of the age 
in even worse characters still I 

"The bishop was always jealous of the loose conduct of 
the monks and nuns. And he began a personal visita- 
tion this year, of the religious houses in his diocese, 
which were very numerous, with great strictness and 
severity. At Ramsey he went himself into the dormitory, 
attended by his officers, and examined the beds ; he 
then went through the whole house, and, if he found 
any place shut up and fastened, caused it to be 
opened ; and if, in rummaging the repositories, he saw 
any cups with feet or circles round the edges, he broke 
them and trod upon them, whereas it might have been 
more prudent, says my author, to have given them to the 
poor. At the nunneries, he caused the breasts of the 



4G0 GROSSETESTE. 

nuns to be pressed, to try if there were any milk in them 
He denounced withal heavy sentences and curses, in the 
words of Moses, against such of the religious as should 
break their statutes, accumulating the blessings of that 
prophet upon those who should exactly observe them. 
The monkish historian, however, acknowledges that the 
bishop did all this with the best intentions ; and indeed 
the proceeding was consonant to his general character." 

We come now to the celebrated controversy of Grosse- 
teste with pope Innocent IV. In January, 1253, Inno- 
cent ordered his nephew, an Italian youth, to be invested 
with a canonry of Lincoln. His name was Frederic de 
Lavania, and hy provision, for this was the term, he was 
to be accommodated with a prebend in that church, and 
the pope had written to Bishop Grosseteste to give him 
the first that should fall, declaring, that any other dis- 
posal of such prebend should be null and void, and 
excommunicating all those who should obstruct or oppose 
him in that measure. He then wrote to the Archdeacon 
of Canterbury, who by the way was an Italian, and to 
one Mr. Innocent, another Italian, his agent here, to see 
this business completed, with a clause of non obstante; 
and to cite all contraveners to appear before him without 
any manner of plea or excuse, and under another clause 
of 71071 obstante, in two months tim.e. 

Bishop Grosseteste wrote immediately to the pope 
upon the receipt of his holiness's letter, or at least to the 
above-mentioned delegates, in the most resolute and 
spirited terms, almost retorting, excommunication for ex- 
communication. This epistle, of which we have many 
copies now extant, both in manuscript and printed, is 
a most celebrated performance, and has both immor- 
talized the bishop's memory, and endeared it to all 
generations. The bishop insists, that the papal man- 
dates ought not to be repugnant to the doctrine of 
Christ and His apostles, and that, therefore, the tenor 
of his holiness's epistles was not consonant to the sanctity 



GROSSETESTE. 461 

of the holy see, on account of the accumulated clauses of 
non obstante. Then, that no sin can be more adverse to 
the doctrine of the apostles, more abominable to Jesus 
Christ, or more hurtful to mankind, than to defraud and 
rob those souls which ought to be the objects of the pas- 
toral care, of that instruction v.hich by the Scriptures 
they have a right to, &c. Hence he infers, that the holy 
see, destined to edify and not to destroy, cannot possibly 
incur a sin of this kind ; and that no one, that is not an 
excommunicate, ought to obey any such absurd mandate, 
though an angel from heaven should command him, but 
rather to revolt and oppose them ; wherefore, says he, 
" I, for my part, Jilialiter et ohedlenter non ohedio, sed 
contradico et rehello,'' insisting, that this his proceeding, 
nee contradictio est nee rehellio, in respect to his holiness, 
sedfilialis divino rnandato dehita patri et matri honoratio. 
So he concludes, that, as the holy see can enjoin nothing 
but what tends to edification, these provisions were not 
of that salutary, but of a destructive, nature, springing 
from fleshly lusts, and not from our Father Which is in 
heaven. 

The pope, on receiving this flat denial, which he little 
expected, and this biting remonstrance, which implied 
much more than was expressed, fell into a most serious 
passion, exclaiming, with a stern countenance, and with all 
the pride of Lucifer, " Who is that old dotard, deaf, and 
absurd, that thus rashly presumes to judge of my actions ? 
By Peter and Paul, if the goodness of my own heart did 
not restrain me, I should so chastise him, as to make him 
an example and a spectacle to all the world. Is not the 
king' of England my vassal, my slave, and, for a word 
speaking, would throw him in prison, and load him with 
infamy and disgrace ?" And when the cardinals inter- 
posed, they had much to do to mollify him, by telling him, 
" It was little for his interest to think of animadverting 
on the bishop, since, as they all must own, what he said 
was true, and that they could not condemn or blame 



46y GROSSETESTE. 

him, &c.," giving the bishop at the same time a most 
noble testimony in respect of his piety j his learning, and 
his general character, as acknowledged by all the world ; 
in all which, they confessed frankly, they were none of 
them to be compared to him. The pope, however, ex- 
communicated the bishop, and even named a successor 
to his see. The bishop, on his part, appealed from the 
sentence to the tribunal of Christ, after which he troubled 
himself no more about it, but died composedly in his bed. 
It was towards the latter end of the summer, in 1253, 
he fell desperately sick at his palace of Buckden, and 
sent for friar John de St. Giles, who was both a physician 
and a divine, in both which capacities he wanted his 
assistance, as he foresaw, to the great uneasiness of his 
mind, the troubles that would shortly befal the Church. 
He then gave orders to the clergy of his diocese to renew 
the sentence of excommunication upon all who should 
infringe the Magna Charta concerning the liberties of 
the kingdom, which made the incumbents very obnox- 
ious to many of the courtiers. Talking one day with 
De St. Giles, and mentioning the proceedings of the 
pope, he much blamed his brethren the Dominicans, and 
did not spare the Franciscans ; because, as their institu- 
tions were founded so wisely in voluntary poverty, namely, 
poverty of spirit, that so they might with more freedom 
reprove the vices of the great, and even chastise them, 
and yet he, and his Dominican brethren, did not speak 
out so boldly as they ought to do, in detecting and cen- 
suring the enormities of the nobles, they were no better 
than heretics. For what is heresy? says he to John; 
define it ; and when John hesitated, he himself explained 
that Greek word in Latin, " Hseresis est sententia hu- 
mane sensu electa, scripturae sacrae contraria, palam 
edocta, pertinaciter defensa : haeresis Greece, electio La- 
tine." And then he proceeded to reprehend the prelates, 
especially the Roman ones, for committing the care of 
souls to their relations, men of no worth, and deficient 



GROSSETESTE. 463 

both in age and learning ; and very formally proved the 
pope to be an heretic by the above definition. To give, 
says he, the care of souls to a child, " Sententia est ali- 
cujus praelati humano seiisu electa, from an earthly and 
fleshly view ; and it is contmria scripturce sanctcT, which 
admits of none to be pastors but such as are capable of 
driving away the wolves ; and it is j^M/m/i edocta, because 
a sealed paper, or bull, is openly produced ; and it is 
pertinaciter defensa, because if any one should dare to 
oppose it, he is sure to be suspended, excommunicated, 
and to have a ci-usade proclaimed against him. He, 
then, who corresponds with the definition of heretic, is 
one. Every good Christian is obliged to oppose an her- 
etic to the utmost of his power, and he who can do that 
and yet omits it, sins, and is a favourer of him, accord- 
ing to that of St. Gregory, Non caret scrupulo societatis 
occulta, qui manifesto facinori desinit obviare ; but now 
the friars, both the jy^'eachers and the minors, are particu- 
larly bound to oppose such an one, as they are by pro- 
fession preachers, and are more at liberty to do it by 
their vow of poverty ; they do not only sin, if they do 
not oppose him, but they become encouragers of him, as 
the apostle says unto the Romans, Non solum qui talia 
agunt, sed qui consentiunt, digni sunt morte. I therefore 
conclude, that both the pope, unless he amends his 
error, and the friars, except they will endeavour to re- 
strain him, must be deservedly subject to everlasting 
death. And even the decretal says, * that upon this 
head, namely for heresy, the pope both may and ought 
to be accused and condemned.' " 

On another occasion he remarked : " The pope orders 
the friars to enquire after dying people, to go to them 
and persuade them to make their wills for the benefit of 
the crusades, and even to take the cross, that when they 
recover they may come in for something, or if they die, 
may receive it, or perhaps force it, from their executors. 
Nay, the pope sells the croisees to laymen, just as for- 



464 GROSSETESTE. 

merly sheep and oxen were sold in the temple ; and I 
have seen an instrument of his, wherein it was inserted, 
that those, who in their wills devised money for the use 
of the crusades, or took the cross, should receive indul- 
gence in proportion to the sum they gave. 

" The pope again has often commanded the prelates 
to provide such an one, an alien, an absent person, and 
absolutely unqualified, as being both illiterate, and ignor- 
ant of the language of the parishioners, so as to be able 
to preach or hear confessions ; as also to keep residence 
for the relief of the poor and the maintenance of hospi- 
tality, with some ecclesiastical benefice, and such as the 
party should choose to accept. I know too, that he 
actually wrote to the abbot of St. Alban's, to furnish one 
John de Camezana, an entire stranger to him, with a 
competent benefice. Soon after he presented him to a 
rectory of forty marks a year or more ; but John, not 
being contented, complained to the pope, and he ordered 
the abbot to provide better for him, retaining at the 
same time the presentation to the first living. Not long 
after that, two despicable creatures came to the abbey, 
and shewed his holiness's letters, commanding, that the 
abbot should give them at sight ten marks for their ex- 
igences ; and the men threatened him so, that he was 
forced to make the matter up with them as well as he 
could. 

" Those learned and holy men who have left the world 
and entered into some perpetual order, for the better 
serving and imitating God, the pope converts into tax- 
gatherers, the more artfully to extort money, and they 
are obliged to undertake the service, though unwilling, 
lest they should be thought disobedient. Thus they be- 
came more secular than ever, belieing the habit they 
wear, whilst a spirit of pride and exaltation dwells under 
their frocks. 

" And because a legate is not to come into the kingdom, 
unless the king desire it, the pope nevertheless sends 



GROSSETESTE. 465 

many legates in effect, and though not rohed in purple, 
yet invested with the highest powers ; and so frequently 
do these concealed emissaries come, and so numerous 
are they, that it would be tedious to mention their names. 
But, what is more strange, the pope, for some worldly 
view, will permit a person to enjoy a bishopric, without 
ever being a bishop, but only an elect, from year to year, 
giving him the milk and wool of the sheep, without 
driving away the wolves, and permitting him to enjoy 
all his formior preferments." 

And when he had expressed his detestation of these 
practices, together with many other enormities, every 
species of avarice, usury, simony, and rapine, of the lust 
and luxury, and the superb dresses, of the court of Rome, 
of which it may be truly pronounced, — 

Ejus avaritise non totus sufficit orbis, 
Ejus luxurige meretrix nou suflficit omuis ; 

he proceeded to shew, that this court, as if the river 
Jordan was to flow into its mouth, was now gaping for 
the effects of intestates, and dubious legacies ; and, the 
more easily to obtain them, the king had been associated 
and made partaker of the spoil. And then he added, — 
" The Church can never be delivered from this Egyptian 
bondage but by the edge of the sword : these things are 
trifles, but in a short time, even in three years, heavier 
things will come upon us." And at the end of this pro- 
phetical speech, which he was scarcely able to utter for 
sighs and tears — his breath and his voice failed him. 

These extracts, from M. Paris, it must be acknow- 
ledged, are very long, but yet they are absolutely ne- 
cessary to our purpose, as they so fully discover to us 
the bishop's real sentiments on the depraved and corrupt 
state of the papacy at the time, the very particulars, or 
articles, on which he grounded his charge, and his per- 
fect and most justifiable abhorrence of all its iniquitous 
and horrible proceedings. 

VOL v. 2 u 



466 GUALTERUS. 

He died at Buckden, 9th of October, 1253, and his 
corpse was canned to Lincoln, where it was met by 
Archbishop Boniface, who, having finished his visitation 
of the diocese of Lincoln, was arrived at Newark upon 
Trent, and there heard of Bishop Grosseteste's death; 
whereupon he returned to Lincoln and attended the 
funeral, along with the bishops of London and Wor- 
cester, many abbots and priors, and an infinity of clergy 
and people, the 13th of October, notwithstanding his 
lordship died under a sentence of excommunication. 
He was interred in the upper south transept, but at such 
a distance from the south wall, that Adam de Marisco 
was laid between him and the wall. The tomb was 
raised altar-wise, within three niches on one side: the 
effigies and arms were gone in 1641, but there seemed 
to have been some brass inlaid on it, and we are told 
there had been an effigy in brass. 

Besides a knowledge of the Hebrew, Greek, Latin, and 
French languages, and that acquaintance with theology 
and philosophy to which he was led by his professional 
studies, he was no mean proficient in civil and canon 
law, criticism, history, chronology, astronomy, and the 
other branches of literature and science then known. 
He left behind him numerous treatises on theological, 
philosophical, and miscellaneous subjects. Among these 
are, Opuscula Varia ; Compendium Sphaerse Mundi ; 
Commentarius in Lib. poster. Aristotelis; Discourses, 
in which he freely exposed the vices and disorders of the 
clergy ; and numerous Letters. — Pegge. Inet. Collier. 



GUALTERUS, OR GWALTHER, RODOLPHUS. 

RoDOLPHUS GuALTERus, or GwALTHER, was bom at 
Zurich in 1519, and educated there, and at Lausanne 
and Marburg. He married the daughter of Zuinglius, 
and became a preacher at Zurich from 1542 to 1575, 



GUILD. 467 

when he was chosen to succeed Bullinger, as first min- 
ister of the Protestant Church there. He died in 1586. 
In the early part of Elizabeth s reign he corresponded 
with the English divines who had been exiles during the 
Marian persecution, and who had brought back with 
them an attachment to the forms of the Genevan Church, 
which Ehzabeth wished to discourage. The correspond- 
ence only shews how little he sympathized with the 
principles of the English Reformation, His works con- 
sist of Latin Poems ; Sermons on Antichrist ; Commen- 
taries on the Psalms, Isaiah, the twelve minor Prophets, 
the Gospels of Matthew, Mark, and Luke, the Acts of 
the Apostles, and the Epistle to the Romans ; besides 
works on grammar and history, and some translations. — 
Melchior Adam. 



GUILD, WILLIAM. 

William Guild was born at Aberdeen in 1586, and 
educated at Marischal College, then recently founded, with 
a view to holy orders. Before he entered the ministry, 
however, he published a treatise, entitled, The New 
Sacrifice of Christian Incense; and The only Way to 
Salvation. He was very soon after called to the pastoral 
charge of the parish of King Edward in the presbytery 
of Turrift; and synod of Aberdeen. In 1617, when 
James I. visited Scotland, with a view to establish epis- 
copacy, and brought Bishop Andrewes, of Ely, with him, 
to assist in the management of that afiair, the latter paid 
great regard to Guild; and the following year, when 
Andrewes was promoted to the see of Winchester, Guild 
dedicated to him his Moses Unveiled, pointing out those 
figures in the Old Testament which allude to the Mes- 
siah. Not long after, the degree of D.D. was conferred 
upon him, and he was ranked, while yet a young man, 
among the ablest divines in the Church of Scotland. 



468 GUNNING. 

In 1625 and 1626 he published the Ignis Fatuus, 
against the doctrine of purgatory ; and, Popish Glorying 
in Antiquity turned to their Shame ; both printed in 
London. His next publication was, A Compend of the 
Controversies of Religion. In 1631 he was made one of 
.the ministers of Aberdeen. When the commotions took 
place in consequence of the endeavours of Charles I. to 
establish episcopacy in Scotland, the Perth Articles, as 
they were called, were opposed by the Scotch covenant, 
which Guild was permitted to subscribe under such limi- 
tations as he thought proper to specify, which implied a 
loyal adherence to the king, but no condemnation of the 
articles of Perth, or of episcopal government. He was 
afterwards one of the commissioners in the general as- 
sembly of Scotland which met in 1638, and abolished 
the hierarchy ; and after his return from Glasgow, where 
this assembly met, officiated, as formerly, at Aberdeen in 
the pastoral function, and, with a view to heal the ani- 
mosities then prevailing between the episcopal and 
presbyterian party, published, A friendly and faithful 
Advice to the Nobility, Gentry, and others. In 1640 he 
was elected principal of King's College, Aberdeen. His 
attachment to the royal cause, however, soon involved 
him in the sentence passed on all who held his senti- 
ments, and in 1651 he was deposed by five commissioners 
of general Monk's army. From this time he appears to 
have resided in a private station at Aberdeen, where he 
wrote, An Explication of the Song of Solomon ; The 
Sealed Book opened, or an Explanation of the Revelation 
of St. John; and. The Novelty of Popery discovered. 
He died in 1657. — Gen. Diet. 



GUNNING, PETEB. 

Peter Gunning was born at Hoo in Kent, in the year 
1613, and was educated at Canterbury School, and at 



GUNNING. 469 

Clare Hall, Cambridge. He became fellow and tutor of 
his college, and distinguished himself as a preacher ; but 
he exposed himself to persecution from the parliament, 
on account of his zeal for the king's service ; and, when 
ejected, he returned to Oxford, where he was made 
chaplain of New College, and afterwards he became tutor 
to Lord Hatton, and Sir Francis Compton, and chaplain 
to Sir Robert Shirley, at whose death he obtained the 
chapel at Exeter House, Strand. At the Restoration his 
services and sufferings were rewarded ; he was created 
D.D. by the king's mandate. He was one of the coad- 
jutors selected by the bishops to maintain the cause of 
the Church at the Savoy conference in 1661. He was 
the principal disputant with Baxter, and Bishop San- 
derson declared, that in the disputes, Gunning had by 
far the better of the argument. Gunning was a very 
learned divine, deeply read in the Fathers, and thoroughly 
Anglican in his views. He maintained, indeed, the 
lawfulness of praying for the dead, but he carefully 
avoided the Romish doctrine of purgatory; he desired 
also the restoration of some of the primitive ceremonies 
omitted at the Reformation, but he did so because they 
were primitive, not because they were medieval or 
Romish. The Prayer for all Conditions of men in 
the Prayer Book, which is ascribed by some to Bishop 
Sanderson, is given by others to Gunning. This Prayer 
was certainly added after the last review of the Prayer 
Book. We have already mentioned that Gunning had 
his D.D. degree conferred upon him at the Restoration. 
He was also advanced to a prebend of Canterbury, and 
successively to the headships of Corpus Christi and St. 
John's College, Cambridge, and to the Regius and Lady 
Margaret's professorships of divinity. In 1669 he was 
made Bishop of Chichester, and in 1674 he was trans- 
lated to Ely, where he died in 1684. 

He wrote, A Contention for Truth, in two public dis- 
putations upon Infant Baptism, between him and Mr. 
2 u2 



470 HAAK. 

Henry Denne, in the Church of St. Clement-Danes; 
Schism Unmasked, or a late Conference between him 
and Mr. John Pierson, minister, on the one part, and 
two disputants of the Romish persuasion on the other, 
in May, 1657; A View and Correction of the Common 
Prayer, 1662 ; the Paschal or Lent Fast, Apostolical and 
Perpetual ; a remarkable work, lately reprinted in the 
Anglo- Catholic Library. — Wood. Barwick. Masters. 
Walker. 

HAAK, THEODORE. 

Theodoee Haak, a German theologian, was born in 
1605, at Newhausen, near Worms, and educated at home, 
and at Oxford and Cambridge. He then visited some of 
the universities abroad, but returned to Oxford in 1629, 
and became a commoner of Gloucester Hall, now Wor- 
cester College. He was ordained a deacon by Dr. Joseph 
Hall, Bishop of Exeter. When the rebellion broke out, 
he appears to have favoured the interests of parliament. 
In 1657 he published, in two vols, folio, the Dutch An- 
notations upon the whole Bible, which is a translation of 
the Dutch Bible, ordered by the synod of Dort, and first 
published in 1637. He had been employed in making 
this translation by the Westminster assembly of divines. 
He also translated into Dutch several English books of 
practical divinity, and a part of Milton's Paradise Lost. 
He left nearly ready for the press, a translation of Ger- 
man proverbs, but it does not appear that this was pub- 
lished. He was in 1645 one of the several ingenious 
men who agreed to meet once a week to discourse upon 
subjects connected with the mathematics and natural 
philosophy, and thus originated the Royal Society. He 
appears to have been the friend and correspondent of the 
most learned men of his time, and some of his observa- 
tions and letters were published in the philosophical col- 
lections in 1682. — Ath. Ox. Preface to his Dutch Anno- 
tations. 



HACKET. 471 



HACKET, JOHN. 

John Hacket was born in London in 1592, and edu- 
cated at Westminster School, and at Trinity College, 
Cambridge, of which he was chosen fellow. After com- 
mencing M.A. in 1615, he undertook the office of tutor; 
and with one of his pupils, afterwards Lord Byron, he 
retired into Nottinghamshire, where he composed a Latin 
comedy, entitled Loyola ; which was twice acted before 
James I. In 1618 he was admitted into holy orders, 
and soon attracted the notice of King, Bishop of London, 
aud Andrewes, Bishop of Winchester ; but his principal 
patron was Williams, dean of Westminster and Bishop of 
Lincoln, who, in 1621, on being appointed lord keeper, 
chose Hacket for his chaplain. 

Two years he spent in the keeper's service before his 
time was come to commence bachelor in divinity, but then 
begged leave to go down to Cambridge to keep the public 
act in 1623, upon the two following questions : Judicio 
Romanae Ecclesiae in Sanctis canonizandis non est stan- 
dum. Vota Monasticae perfectionis (quae dicuntur) sunt 
illicita. 

The former question was given very seasonably ; for 
the year before, 1 622, Pope Gregory XV. had canonized 
Ignatius Loyola, the father of the Jesuits ; Franciscus 
Xavier, the Indian apostle ; Philip Nereus, the general 
of the Jesuits ; and Madame Teresia, a Spanish virtuosa, 
who had built twenty-five monasteries for men and seven- 
teen for women. 

He cast his position into three parts: 1. Because the 
holy Scripture saith, " The memory of the just shall be 
blessed," that all canonization of saints is not to be 
accounted superstitious, but by canonization he meant 
only a public testimony of the Christian Church, of 
any eximious member's sanctity and glory after death. 
2. That this testimony ought to be given by general or 



472 HACKET. 

provincial councils at least of their own members. 3. By 
no means to be left to the breast of the Roman pontiff 
and college of cardinals. 1. Because they especially 
attended to false qualifications, which they made un- 
doubted signs of saintship, which were not such. 2. Con- 
sequently had already canonized unworthy persons, not 
beatified in heaven, but rather damned in hell. 3. For 
perverse and impious ends, which they ever thought to 
establish by their canonization. In all these respects the 
Pope of Rome, (who is their virtual Church,) was appa- 
rently a most partial and unmeet judge, very apt to be 
imposed upon himself, and likewise to impose upon 
others. 

In 1623 he was nominated chaplain to James I., and 
collated to a prebend in the cathedral of Lincoln. In 
the following year he was presented to the rectory of St. 
Andrew's, Holborn, and to that of Cheam, in Surrey, 
The former of these preferments the lord-keeper, (through 
whose influence he obtained them) informed him he in- 
tended " for wealth," the latter " for health." 

In 1628 he commenced doctor of divinity, when he 
preached the morning sermon upon Herod's not giving 
glory to God, and being struck by an angel, and eaten 
up of worms ; and performed all other exercises to the 
admiration of Dr. Collins and all other professors, who 
dismissed him to London again, with an / decus I 
nostrum ! At his return to Holborn, his fame increased 
exceedingly, where, by indefatigable study, constant 
preaching, exemplary conversation, and wise government, 
he reduced that great parish to a more perfect conformity, 
than ever they were in before. His church was not only 
crowded at sermons, but well attended upon all occasions 
of weekly prayer, and sacraments celebrated monthly, 
besides other times, at which, especially upon the Church's 
festivals, not only the whole body of the church, but the 
galleries, would also be full of communicants ; and all 
things were done in decoro sanctitatis, in the beauty of 



RACKET. 473 

holiness ; few or none would break the public order and 
decent customs of the church, but the whole congregation 
generally rose and sat, fell down or kneeled, and were 
uncovered together. He liked ceremony no where so well 
as in God's house, as little as you would in your own, (was 
his phrase) but could by no means endure to see in this 
complimental age, men ruder with God than with man, 
bow lowly and often to one another, but never kneel to 
God. He thought superstition a less sin than irreverence 
and profaneness, and held the want of reverence in reli- 
gious assemblies amongst the greatest sins of England, 
and would prove it from many histories, that a careless 
and profane discharge of God's worship was a most sure 
prognostic of God's anger, and that people's ruin. 

When a stranger preached for him upon a Sunday, he 
would often read the prayers himself, and with that re- 
verence and devotion that was very moving to all his 
auditors. And upon Wednesdays and Fridays he would 
frequently do the like, and thereby engaged many to re- 
sort better to them, always assuring them, God would 
soonest hear our prayers in the communion of saints. 
Sometimes, when he had occasion to go into the city, and 
saw slender congregations at prayer, he would much won- 
der at his countrymen, that had so little love to holy 
prayer ; but when he heard of any that would not go to 
church to prayer, unless it were accompanied with a ser- 
mon, he would not scruple to say, he scarce thought them 
Christians : and never deemed any divine to be really 
famous and successful in his preaching, who could not 
prevail with his people to come frequently to sacrament 
and prayers. 

While he lived in this parish, he would give God 
thanks, he got a good temporal estate ; parishioners of 
all sorts were very kind and free to him ; divers lords 
and gentlemen, several judges and lawyers of eminent 
quality, were his constant auditors, whom he found like 
Zenas, honest lawyers, conscientious to God, and lovers 



474 HACKET. 

of the Church of England, and very friendly and boun- 
tiful to their minister. Sir Julius Csesar never heard 
him preach, but he would send him a broad piece ; and 
he did the like to others ; and he would often send a 
dean or a bishop a pair of gloves, because he would not 
hear God's word gratis. Judge Jones never went to the 
bench at the beginning of a term, but he fasted and 
prayed the day before, and oftentimes got Dr. Hacket to 
come and pray with him. 

In 1631, the Bishop of Lincoln made him Arch- 
deacon of Bedford, whither he ever after went once a 
year, commonly the week after Easter, and made the 
clergy a speech upon some controversial head, seasonable 
to those times, exhorting them to keep strictly to the 
orders of the Church, to all regular conformity to the 
doctrine and discipline by law established, without under 
or over-doing, asserting in his opinion, that Puritanism 
lay on both sides ; whosoever did more than the Church 
commanded, as well as less, were guilty of it. And that 
he only was a true son of the Church, that broke not the 
bounds of it either way. 

We must not forget to mention, first, his charity to 
the poor, of whom he held himself bound by his calling 
to have an especial care, and be no less than a continual 
overseer. Besides his spiritual alms and counsel upon 
all occasions freely administered, he gave freely also out 
of his own estate, all upon holy-days, and prayer-days, 
and would often engage the parish officers so to distri- 
bute their collections as might best bring the poor to 
prayers, to catechising, and to reap other benefit to their 
soul at the same time that they received a boon for the 
body. 

In all public meetings (which were many in that great 
parish) this worthy man would never so much as eat 
and drink (as the custom had been) upon the parish 
stock, but always bore his own expences, though he met 
upon the parish account, so that by his prudence and 



HACKET. 475 

industry, and frugality for them, the revenues of the 
poor were in his time very much increased above what 
they were formerly. 

But his main concern for that place is yet behind, 
(Church and poor commonly go together, and he had an 
equal care of both) the church edifice was fallen into 
great decay; the church-yard too small to bury their 
dead, and the church itself too little to contain the 
living, so that he had a great desire to build them a new 
church from the ground, for which purpose he had 
obtained the promise of the patron, the most religious 
and noble Earl of Southampton, to confer all the timber 
for the roof, and very large subscriptions he had pro- 
cured from the nobility and gentry, and from many other 
well-affected parishioners for the finishing of the rest; 
for these he had been soliciting from the time of his first 
coming; scarce any of quality dying, but according to 
ancient piety, at his request left a legacy to that purpose 
which was laid up in the church chest. The good doctor 
often told them, how mournful a sight it was to him 
to see any place excel the church in beauty and magnifi- 
cence, and that it was not the fashion in the best times 
of religion, for any man to dwell better than God, and 
that the fabric of churches ought not only to be suited 
to the bare convention of people, but likewise to the 
riches and wealth of the parish or nation, from which 
God expected a suitable proportion to the setting forth 
of His glory. And therefore, as much as King Solomon's 
temple exceeded Moses's tabernacle, so much did he 
conceive ought our churches now to exceed the pov- 
erty and plainness of those of our forefathers ; and he 
would often bewail to see the contraiy, that our forefathers 
were sumptuous in God's house, and poor at home ; but 
we, who are far richer, have built our own houses rich and 
new, Vv'hile God's house lies waste. To remedy this, he 
was not willing to permit that any rich men's bones 
should lie sumptuously buried in his church, who never 



476 HACKET. 

bestowed so much upon God's house in their life, as the 
vakie of their tomb amounted to, saying, Such did not 
adorn, but trouble the Church. 

By his persuasions many gave very liberally ; in par- 
ticular, I remember the pleasantness of Sir Henry 
Martin, who at his first speaking, bade his man pay him 
thirty pounds ; when he received it, because he gave 
him humble thanks, he bade his man count him five 
pounds more for his humble thanks. 

About 1639, having many thousands in stock and 
in subscription, he went to my lord's grace of Canterbury, 
to ask his lordship's leave, that what workmen were 
willing might indifferently be entertained by him, with- 
out being thought prejudicial to the repair of St. Paul's ; 
but our troubles came on, and the long parliament seized 
the money gathered for the repair of both churches, to 
carry on their war both against king and Church. 

In 1641, he was one of the sub-committee, selected to 
prepare matters for the discussion of the committee of 
accommodation, appointed by the house of lords to examine 
into the innovations in doctrine, and discipline intro- 
duced into the Church since the Reformation, and to 
consider of such amendments in the Liturgy, &c., as 
might obviate the principal objections of the Puritans. 
This committee, however, was broken up, in consequence 
of the jealousy and opposition of the bishops. In 1642 
he was presented to a prebend and residentiaryship in 
St. Paul's. 

When the civil war was begun, and all things were in 
confusion, the orthodox and loyal clergy were every where 
articled against, and ejected, committed to prisons with- 
out accommodations, but upon unreasonable payments, 
such as they were unable to make. In the city of Lon- 
don, and parishes adjacent, one hundred and fifteen 
parochial ministers were turned out, besides many hun- 
dreds in all counties, more than ever had been in all 
Queen Mary's, Queen Elizabeth's, and King James's, or 



HACKET. 477 

King Charles's reigns, by the bishops of all sorts. Some 
few factious parishioners articled against him at the 
committee of plunderers, and he was advised by Mr. 
Selden, that it was in vain to make defences, they would 
never permit him to preach in that pubUc theatre, but 
he must retire to Cheam, and he would endeavour to 
keep him quiet there ; but thither also the stoiTQ fol- 
lowed him, for the Earl of Essex, his army being upon 
their march against the king, took him prisoner away 
with them, till after some time he was brought before 
Essex himself, and others, who knew him, and had often 
heard him preach at Whitehall, who made him great 
offers, if he would turn to their side, which he dis- 
dained to accept : they kept on their march, and, as he 
would say, at length the princes of the people let him 
go free. 

From that time he lay hid in his little villa, as Gre- 
gory the Great, in his little Sazimus, which he would 
pleasantly call, Senectutis sikt niduhun. There he con- 
stantly preached evers^ Sunday morning, expounded the 
Church Catechism every afternoon, read the Common 
Prayer all Sundays and holydays, continued his wonted 
charity to all poor people that resorted to it upon the 
week days in money, besides other relief out of his 
kitchen, till the committee of Surrey enjoined him to 
forbear the use of it, by order of parliament, at any 
time, and his catechising out of it upon Sunday, in the 
afternoon. Yet after this order, he ever still kept up 
the use of it in most parts, never omitting the Creed, 
Lord's Prayer, and Ten Commandments, Confession, 
Absolution, and many other particular collects, and always 
as soon as the Church service was done, absolved the 
rest at home, with most earnest prayers for the good 
success of his majesty's armies, of which he was ever in 
great hope, till the tidings came of the most unfortunate 
battle at Nazeby. He was that morning at an especial 
friend s house, ready to sit down to dinner, but when the 

VOL V. 2 X 



478 HACKET. 

news came, he desired leave to retire, went to his cham- 
ber, and would not dine, but fasted and prayed all that 
day, and then was afraid that excellent king and cause 
were lost; using to say of Cromwell, as the historian of 
Marius, "He led the army, and ambition led him;" and 
therefore looked for nothing but the ruin that came. 

At the Restoration he recovered all his preferments, 
and was offered the Bishopric of Gloucester, which he 
refused ; but he soon afterwards accepted that of Lich- 
field and Coventry. When he took possession of his 
see, he found the cathedral in ruins, owing to the effect 
of cannon-shot and bombs that had been discharged 
against it by the Puritan party ; but in the course of 
eight years he entirely restored it, at the expense of 
£20,000, a considerable part of which was contributed 
by himself. 

The cathedral being so well finished, upon Christ 
mas Eve, 1G69, his lordship dedicated it to Christ's 
honour and service, with all fitting solemnity that he 
could pick out of ancient ritual, in the manner following : 
His lordship being arrayed in his episcopal habiliments, 
and attended upon by several prebends and officers in 
the Church, and also accompanied with many knights 
and gentlemen, as likewise with the bailiffs and alder- 
men of the city of Lichfield, with a great multitude of 
other people, entered at the west door of the church, 
Humphry Persehouse, gent., his lordship's apparitor- 
general going foremost, after whom followed the singing 
boys and choristers, and all others belonging to the choir 
of the said church, who first marched up to the south 
aisle, on the right hand of the said church, where my 
lord bishop with a loud voice repeated the first verse of 
the 24th Psalm, and afterwards the choir alternately 
sang the whole Psalm to the organ. Then in the same 
order they marched to the north aisle of the said church, 
where the bishop in like manner began the first verse of 
the lOOtli Psalm, which was afterwards also sung out by 



HACKSPAN. 479 

the company. Then all marched to the upper part of 
the body of the church, where the bishop in like manner 
began the 102nd Psalm, which likewise the choir fin- 
ished. Then my lord bishop commanded the doors of 
the choir to be opened, and in like manner first encom- 
passed it upon the south side, where the bishop also first 
began to sing the first verse of the 122nd Psalm, the 
company finishing the rest ; and with the like ceremony 
passing to the north side thereof, sang the 1 32nd 
Psalm in like manner. 

This procession being ended the reverend bishop came 
to the fald-stool in the middle of the choir, and having 
first upon his knees prayed privately to himself, he after- 
wards, with a loud voice in the English tongue, called 
upon the people to kneel down and pray after him. 

He then proceeded with a dedication service drawn 
up by himself. He died at Lichfield, in 1670, and was 
buried in the cathedral, under a handsome tomb erected 
by his eldest son, Sir Andrew Hacket, a master in chan- 
cery. He published only the comedy of Loyola above 
mentioned, and A Sermon preached before the king, 
March 22nd, 1660. But, after his decease, A Century 
of Sermons upon several remarkable subjects, was pub- 
lished by Thomas Plume, D.D., in 1675, fol., with the 
bishop's Life. In 1693 appeared his Life of Archbishop 
Williams, fol., of which an abridgment was published 
in 1700, 8vo., by Ambrose Philips. He intended to 
write the Life of James I., and for that purpose the 
lord-keeper Williams had given him Camden's MS. 
notes or annals of that king's reign ; but these were lost 
in the confusion of the times. — Life by Plume. 



HACKSPAN, THEODORE. 

Theodore Hackspan, a Lutheran theologian, was born 
in 1607, at Weimar. He was educated at Jena and 



480 HALES. 

Altdorf, where he applied to the oriental languages ; 
after which be went to Helmstadt to complete his theo- 
logical studies, and then returned to Altdorf, at which 
university he became professor of divinity in 1654. He 
died in 1659. He was the author of Tractatus de usu 
Librorum Rabbinicorum ; Sylloge Disputationum theo- 
logicarum et philologicarum ; Interpres Errabundus ; 
hoc est, brevis Disquisitio de Causis errandi Interpretum 
et Commentatorum Sacrse Scripturae, omniumque adeo 
qui circa Sacras utriusque Foederis occupantur Litteras ; 
which is annexed to a treatise entitled Lucubrationes 
Franktallenses ; sive, Specimen aliquod Interpretationum 
et Expositionum, quas plurimas in difficillima quaeque 
utriusque Testamenti Loca meditatus est Bonaventura 
Cornelius Bertramus, Picto Thoarsensis, &c. ; Miscella- 
neorum Sacrorum Libri duo ; Notas Philologico-theolo- 
gicae in varia et difficiliora Veteris et Novi Testamenti 
Loca ; Observationes Arabico-Syriacae in quasdam Loca 
Veteris et Novi Testamenti ; Specimen Theologiae Tal- 
mudicse ; Fides et Leges Muhammedis, ex Alcorano. — 
Moreri. Le Long. 



HALES, JOHN. 

John Hales, usually distinguished by the appellation 
of the ever-memorable, was born at Bath, in 1584, and 
educated at Mells and Killmaston, in Somersetshire, 
and at Corpus Christi College, Oxford. His knowledge 
of the Greek language recommended him to tbe notice 
of Sir Henry Savile, then warden of Merton College, 
through whose influence he was elected a fellow of that 
institution in 1606. Of his assistance Sir Henry availed 
himself, as w^ell as that of other able scholars, abroad 
and at home, in preparing for the press his fine edition 
of the works of St. Chry^sostom. Hales s skill in Greek 
also led to his being appointed Greek lecturer in his 



HALES. 481 

college, and, in 161 '2, professor of that language to the 
university. In 1613, upon the death of Sir Thomas 
Bodley, he was selected by the university to pronounce 
his funeral oration, and in the same year he was admit- 
ted fellow of Eton College, being then in orders. Five 
years afterwards he accompanied Sir Dudley Carleton, 
ambassador to the Hague, as his chaplain; by which 
means he had the opportunity of procuring admission to 
the synod of Dort, at the open sessions of which he was 
constantly present ; and he was also introduced to Boger- 
man, president of the synod, and to other leading men. 
The effect of these proceedings upon his own mind was, 
that he became a convert to Arminianism. This appears 
from a letter written by his friend, Anthony Farindon, 
prefixed to Hales's Golden Eemains, in which that 
gentleman says, " that in his younger days he was a 
Calvinist, and even then when he was employed in that 
synod; and at the well-pressing of St. John iii. 16. by 
Episcopius there, / bid John Calvin good night, as he 
has often told me." 

There is an anecdote also related by Dr. Walker, in 
the General Dictionary, that a friend of Hales, finding 
him one day perusing Calvin's Institutes, asked him, 
"If he was not yet past that book?" to which Hales 
answered, " In my younger days I read it to inform 
myself, now I read it to reform Calvin." It is not 
unlikely that he meditated a reply to that performance 
of Calvin, which the Puritans received with as much 
reverence as they did the Holy Gospels. We find Hales, 
in various places, expressing his opinions on predes- 
tination, particularly in his sermon on Rom. xiv. 1, 
printed in his " Golden Remains," where he advises 
his hearers " to think that these things which, with 
some shew of probability, we adduce from Scripture, are 
at the best but our opinions, for that this peremptory 
manner of setting down our own conclusions under the 
high commanding form of necessary truths, is generally 
2x2 



483 HALES. 

one of the greatest causes which keep the Christian 
Church this day so far asunder; whereas a gracious 
receiving of each other by mutual forbearance in this 
kind might perad venture bring them nearer together." 
His open disposition was well known, and Bishop Pear- 
son informs us tliat " his chamber was a church, and 
his chair a pulpit." It was about this time that he 
became infected with Socinianism, or, at least, he was a 
Latitudiiiiirian, probably because he had not thoroughly 
divested himself of his former tenets, as appears from 
his tract on Schism, which he wrote for his friend 
Chillingworth about the year lO.'U). Being informed 
that Archbishoji Laud was displeased with it, he wrote 
a vindication of himself, and sent it to the primate as 
a letter. In 1638, his grace sent for him to Lambeth, 
where he had a conference with him for several hours. 
Dr. Heylin was present at this conference, and we there- 
fore lay his account of it before the reader. " There had 
been published," says that learned writer, " a discourse 
called Disqnmtio Brevis, in which some of the principal 
Socinian tenets were cunningly inserted, pretending that 
they were the best expedients to appease some contro- 
versies between us and Home : the book was commonly 
ascribed to Hales of Eton, a man of extensive reading 
and great ingenuity, free in discourse, and as communi- 
cative of his knowledge as the celestial bodies of their 
light and influence. There was circulated also a discourse 
on Schism, not printed, but transmitted from hand to 
hand in written copies, like the Bishop of Lincoln's 
Letter to the Vicar of Grantham, intended chiefly for the 
encouragement of some of our great masters of wit and 
reason, to despise the authority of the Church, which 
being dispersed about this time (1038,) gave the arch- 
bishop occasion to send for him to Lambeth, in the hope 
that he might gain the man, witli whose abilities he was 
well acquainted when he lived at Oxford, — an excellent 
Grecian in those days, and one whom Savile made great 



HALES. 4S.S 

use of m his (iivok (ulilioii of St. C'lirvsustom's uovks. 
AboiiL iiino in tlio morning. Jliilos I'luno to l<iuulu>th to 
know his gmcos plcasuiv, who took liini along with him 
into the garden, commanding that none of tht^ servants 
should intorriipt him on any account. Tlu'rc tlu>v con- 
tinued till the hell rang for prayers, after prayers were 
ended, till tho dinner was ready, and after that too, till 
the arrival of Lord Conway, and somti other persons of 
distinction, uuide it necessary thiit soni(> of the servants 
should inform his grace tiial tlu^ time had ])nss(>(l away. 
So they came in, high coloured, and almost panting for 
breath, enough to shew that th(>r(! had been some heats 
between them, not then fully cooled. It was my chanct^ 
to be at the palacii thai day, (>ilher to know his grace's 
l)leasure, or to render an account of some former com- 
nnuids, I r(>m(Muber not at pri>sent which, and I found 
Tlales glad to s(>e me, as he was a strang(>r, and uu 
known to all. lie t()ld me afterwaids tluit \\o found the 
archbishop, whom he knew before to bo a nind)le (bspu 
taiif, \o ho as well versed in books as in business: — 
tlial he had been ferret(>d by him from one hole to ano- 
ther, till ther(> was uowc U-ft to allbrd him slieher any 
where — tliat lus was now resolved to Uo orthodox, and lo 
declare himself a true son of the Church, both for doe- 
trine and <liscipline, — that to this end hi' had obtained 
leave to call himself his grace's chaplain, liecause by 
naming his lord and patron in his |)ul»lic pray(M's, the 
greater noti(ui nnght be taken of the alteration." 

From the narrative of this interesting (went, in whicji 
two gi'eat and noble minds werc! brought into collision, 
we see the infaUible characteristics of sucli minds, 
namely, a disdain of all dogmatism and subterfuge, a 
willingness to learn and receive instruction, and a candid 
confession of error, a yielding to the force of truth, so 
ably drawn forth by Laud's vigorous genius; a. <h'ter 
mimiticm to k)ve and nwere that ti'uth, a,nd the Chuicli 
in which it was imiintained 'I'he archbishop olVered 



484 HALES. 

PI ales any preferment he pleased, and had this great 
prelate done nothing more, this was a victory of no 
common order, worthy of the governor of the Church 
of England, worthy of the primate of that Church which 
has been, and which every one will fervently pray, ever 
may be, the great bulwark of the Protestant Reformation, 
the strength and the protection, under heaven, of every 
reformed Church in Christendom. But Hale's conver- 
sion has been impugned by malice, and the memory of 
him who was justly called the " Ever Memorable,"' has 
been branded by false reproaches : he has been charged 
with having respect to the lucre of the w^orld, and an 
eye to high preferment. It has been asserted, that he 
was gained by such motives. " This," says a learned 
writer, in the Scottish Episcopal Magazine, " would 
indeed render the acquisition of little value. The dis- 
senters are, notwithstanding, eager to claim him as 
their own, and as he certainly was theirs in principle, 
previous to his conference with Laud, did we suspect 
the slightest ground for the insinuation, which we have 
mentioned, their's he should remain, in full property, 
with our most cordial consent. But the accusation is 
utterly groundless, for he suffered, not long after, the 
severest privations, and he suffered as a willing confesspr 
for the cause of that Church which at one period he 
despised and disregarded." 

In 1639, Archbishop Laud made him a canon of 
Windsor, of which, however, he was deprived at the 
commencement of the civil wars in 1642. About the 
beginning of 1645 he retired from his rooms in the 
college to private lodgings at Eton, where he remained 
for three months in close seclusion, and, it is said, 
living only upon bread and beer. He was permitted, 
however, to retain his fellowship for some time, though 
he refused to subscribe to the covenant ; but upon his 
refusal to take the engagement, or oath to be faithful to 
the commonwealth of England, as then established, 



HALES. 485 

without a king or house of lords, he \Yas ejected. From 
this time he underwent hardships and difficulties, which 
he sustained with fortitude and cheerfulness. He soon 
afterwards accepted an offer made him by a lady- 
named Salter, in the neighbourhood of Eton, to reside 
at her house, and receive a small salary for acting as 
tutor to her son. In this situation he also officiated 
as chaplain, performing the service according to the 
liturgy of the Church of England ; but upon the issuing 
of a proclamation by the government, in which all per- 
sons were forbidden to harbour malignants, (as the 
royalists who would not take the engagement were 
called,) he withdrew to private lodgings at Eton, where 
he was treated with great attention during the remainder 
of his life. His finances, however, soon became ex- 
hausted, so that he was obliged, in order to procure 
the means of support, to sell the greatest part of his 
valuable library. 

Nothing shews the unfortunate condition he was 
in, better, than the conversation he had one day with 
Mr. Farindon, his intimate friend. This worthy person 
coming to see Mr, Hales some few months before his 
death, found him at very mean lodgings at Eton, 
but in a temper gravely cheerful, and well becoming 
a good man under such circumstances. After a very 
slight and homely dinner suitable to their lodgings, 
some discourse passed between them concerning their 
old friends, and the black and dismal aspect of the 
times ; and at last, Mr. Hales asked Mr. Farindon to 
walk out with him into the church-yard. There this 
unhappy man's necessities pressed him to tell his friend, 
that he had been forced to sell his whole library, save a 
few books, which he had given away, and six or eight 
little books of devotion, which lay in his chamber ; and 
that for money he had no more than what he then 
shewed him, which was about seven or eight shillings, 
and "besides," said he, "I doubt I am indebted for 



486 HALL. 

my lodging." Mr. Farindon, it seems, did not imagine 
that it had been so very low with him as this came to, 
and therefore was much surprized to hear it ; but said, 
that " he had at present money to command, and to- 
morrow would pay him fifty pounds, in part of the many 
sums he and his wife had received of him in their great 
necessities, and would pay him more as he should want 
it" But Mr. Hales replied, "No, you dont owe me a 
penny, or if you do I here forgive you ; for you shall 
never pay me a penny. I know you and your's will 
have occasion for much more than what you have lately 
gotten : but if you know any other friend that hath too 
full a purse, and will spare me some of it, I will not 
refuse that." To this Mr. Hales added, "When I die, 
which I hope is not far off, for I am weary of this 
uncharitable world, I desire you to see me buried in 
that place of the church-yard," pointing to the place. 
" But why not in the church," said Mr. Farindon, "with 
the provost, (Sir Henry Savile,) Sir Henry Wotton, and 
the rest of your friends and predecessors?" " Because," 
says he, " I am neither the founder of it, nor have I 
been a benefactor to it, nor shall I ever now be able to 
be so, I am satisfied." Mr. Hales died upon the 19th 
of May, 1656, being aged 73 years; and the day after 
was buried, according to his own desire, in Eton College 
church yard. — Des Maiseaux. Heylin. Lawsons Life 
of Laud. 



HALL, JOSEPH. 

Joseph Hall was born July 1st, 1574, at Ashby-de-la- 
Zouch, and going to Cambridge, obtained a fellowship 
at Emanuel College in 1595. The following year he 
took his master's degree, and in 1597 he published his 
Virgidemarium, or Gathering of Rods, in six books. 
By this publication, at twenty-three years of age, he estab 



HALL. 487 

lished his fame as a satirist and poet, and his character 
as such stands deservedly high. On entering into orders, 
he had the offer of the mastership of the school, founded 
by Peter Blundel, at Tiverton ; a school which has 
always held a high place among the schools of the 
West of England. But he declined the appointment 
on being offered the living of Halsted, in Suffolk. 

He was distinguished by an earnest meditative mind, 
which was accustomed to trace each occurrence of his 
life to a special providence, and this practical application 
of a ti-ue doctrine, renders his writings so delightful to 
the pious mind. Of his mode of applying the doctrine 
of a special providence to the circumstances of his life, we 
have a very curious instance, when in his " Specialties" 
he refers to what occurred to him when resident at 
Halsted. 

"Having then fixed my foot at Halsted, I found there a 
dangerous opposite to the success of my ministry, a witty 
and bold atheist, one Mr. Lilly, who by reason of his 
travels, and abilities of discourse and behaviour, had so 
deeply insinuated himself into my patron, Sir Robert 
Drury, that there was small hopes (during his entireness) 
for me to work any good upon that noble patron of 
mine; who by the suggestion of this wicked detractor 
was set off from me before he knew me. Hereupon 
(I confess) finding the obduredness and hopeless con- 
dition of that man, I bent my prayers against him, 
beseeching God daily, that he would be pleased to 
remove by some means or other, that apparent hindrance 
of my faithful labours ; who gave me an answer accord- 
ingly. For this malicious man going hastily up to 
London, to exasperate my patron against me, was then, 
and there swept away by the pestilence, and never 
returned to do any farther mischief." 

We cannot read this passage without regretting that 
there is not one word of sorrow at this man's being cut 
off in the midst of his impenitence. But it must be 



488 HALL. 

remembered that Hall had been trained in the Puritan 
school, and puritanism clave to him, in the earlier part 
of his career. With reference also to what we have said 
of Hall's mode of referring every thing to a special 
providence, we may point out how easy it is, in regard- 
ing circumstances as providential, to interpret them 
according to our wishes, and though we cannot accustom 
ourselves too much to this practice, still great caution 
is necessary, and the best rule is to decide contrary to 
our wishes. The following is Hall's narrative of what 
took place when he refused Tiverton and accepted 
Halsted. 

" And now I did but wait where and how it would 
please my God to employ me. There was at that time 
a famous school erected at Tiverton in Devon, and 
endow^ed with a very large pension, whose goodly fabric 
was answerable to the reported maintenance ; the care 
whereof, was by the rich and bountiful founder Mr. 
Blundel, cast principally upon the then lord chief justice 
Popham. That faithful observer having great interest 
in the master of our home. Dr. Chaderton, moved him 
earnestly to commend some able, learned, and discreet 
governor to that weighty charge, whose action should 
not need to be so much as his oversight. It pleased 
our master out of his good opinion to tender this con- 
dition unto me, assuring me of no small advantages, 
and no great toil, since it was intended the main load 
of the work should lie upon other shoulders. I appre- 
hended the motion worth the entertaining. In that 
severe society our times were stinted, neither was it 
wise or safe to refuse good offers. Doctor Chaderton 
carried me to London, and there presented me to the 
lord chief justice with much testimony of approbation. 
The judge seemed well apaid with the choice. I pro- 
mised acceptance, he the strength of his favour. No 
sooner had I parted from the judge, than in the street 
a messenger presented me with a letter, from the right 



HALL. 489 

virtuous aud worthy lady (of dear and happy memory) 
the lady Driiry of Suffolk, tendering the rectory of her 
Halsted then newly void, and very earnestly desiring me 
to accept of it. Dr. Chaderton observing in me some 
change of countenance, asked me what the matter might 
be. I told him the errand, and delivered him the letter, 
beseeching his advice ; which when we had read, ' Sir,' 
(quoth I) ' methinks God pulls me by the sleeve, and 
tells me it is His will I should -rather go to the east than 
to the west.' ' Nay,' he answered, ' I should rather think 
that God would have you go westward, for that He hath 
contrived your engagement before the tender of this 
letter, which therefore coming too late may receive a 
fair and easy answer.' To this I besought him to pardon 
ray dissent, adding, that T well knew that divinity was 
the end whereto I was destined by my parents, which I 
had so constantly proposed to myself, that I never meant 
other than to pass through this western school to it ; but 
I saw that God Who found me ready to go the farther 
way about, now called me the nearest and the directest 
way to that sacred end. The good man could no further 
oppose, but only pleaded the distaste which would here- 
upon be justly taken by the lord chief justice, whom I 
undertook fully to satisfy ; which I did with no great 
difficulty, commending to his lordship in my room, my 
old friend and chamber-fellow, Mr. Cholmley, who finding 
an answerable acceptance disposed himself to the place; 
so as we two, who came together to the university, now 
must leave it at once. 

Hall was really a good and earnest man, or one would 
regard this as a puritanical, rather than a christian pas- 
sage, a seeming to be of what really was not. The fact 
was. Hall had determined to be a parish priest, and not 
a schoolmaster ; — he felt more of a call to the one office 
than to the other, and it would have been better to have 
said so at once, instead of using the irreverent allusion 
to his being pulled by the sleeve. At Halsted, he mar- 

VOL V, 3 Y 



490 HALL. 

lied, and the circumstances under which he married are 
narrated in the same untrue style. For many years after 
the reformation there lingered a feeling against the mar- 
riage of the clergy : it was thought, that those who were 
to go on to higher degrees of perfection would still remain 
single. From Parker to Tillotson, none of tlie arch- 
bishops were married. And there seems to have been a 
feeling in Hall's mind, that some apology was necessary 
for his marriage ; he thus, therefore, relates the circum- 
stances : — 

" Now, the coast was clear before me, and I gained 
eYery day of the good opinion and favourable respects 
of that honourable gentleman and my worthy neigh- 
bours. Being now, therefoie, settled in that sweet and 
civil country of Suffolk, near to St. Edmund's-Bury, my 
first work was to build up my house which was then ex- 
tremely ruinous ; which done, the uncouth solitariness of 
my life, and the extreme incommodity of that single 
house-keeping, drew my thoughts after two years to con 
descend to the necessity of a married state, which God 
no less strangely provided for me. For walking from 
the church, on Monday in Whit sun- week, with a grave 
and reverend minister, Mr. Grandidge, I saw a comely 
modest gentlewoman standing at the door of that 
house where we were invited to a wedding-dinner, and 
enquiring of that worthy friend whether he knew her, 
' Yes,' (quoth he) ' I know her well, and have bespoken 
her for your wife.' When I further demanded an account 
of that answer, he told me, she w^as the daughter of a 
gentleman whom he much respected, Mr. G eorge Winniff 
of Bretenham ; that out of an opinion had of the fitness 
of that match for me, he had already treated with her 
father about it, whom he found very apt to entertain it, 
advising me not to neglect the opportunity ; and not con- 
cealing the just praises of the modesty, piety, good dis- 
position, and other virtues that were lodged in that 
seemly presence, I listened to the motion as sent from 



HALL. 491 

God, and at last upon due prosecution happily prevailed, 
enjoying the comfortable society of that meet help for the 
space of forty-nine years." 

It would have been more straightforward to have said, 
he now determined to marry ; but he wished to represent 
it to himself as if he had been in a manner constrained, 
and so had condescended to that which he regarded as, in 
fact, a less holy condition than that of celibacy. Thus 
did the unreality of puritanism still cling to this good 
man. 

There was one duty which he diligently discharged, 
and which is mentioned, because it is so little thought of 
in the present age; he had regular recourse to meditation, 
and as he observed, " when we think evil, it is from our- 
selves, and when good, from God;" he proposed that 
prayer should immediately precede meditation. This 
may be a good rule to many, yet some persons find their 
minds better prepared for prayer by previous meditation, 
and if their meditations are good, they may surely regard 
them as coming from God. 

In 1605 he visited the continent with Sir Edmund 
Bacon. He afterwards became chaplain to Henry, prince 
of Wales, and prebendary of the collegiate church of 
Wolverhampton. In the latter place, he shewed his dis- 
interestedness — he retained his prebend until, with much 
labour and expense he recovered the revenues of which 
it had been scandalously and fraudulently deprived, and 
he then resigned it *' to a worthy preacher, Mr. Lee, who 
should constantly reside there and peacefully instruct 
that great and long-neglected people." His talents for 
business in this case were very conspicuous, and his 
disinterestedness shews how he had been gradually 
emancipating himself from the trammels of Puritanism. 
During the twenty-two years he was incumbent of Wal- 
tham, he was thrice employed by the king in public 
missions. He attended Lord Doncaster in an embassy to 
France : he waited on the king when he went to Sect- 



492 HALL. 

land. In the meantime he had, in 012, taken his 
Doctor's degree, and in 1616 had been made Dean of 
Worcester. At Halstead and Waltham he preached 
three times a-week, but never dared " climb into the 
pulpit, to preach any sermon whereof he had not before 
in his own poor and plain fashion, perused every word 
in the same order in which he hoped to deliver it, al- 
though in the expression he listed not to be a slave of 
syllables." Besides his epistles, he published various 
important works. 

Such were his Contemplations, the greater part of 
which were written at this time ; Meditations and Vows, 
and Holy Observations, consisting chiefly of brief reflec- 
tions, divided into hundreds, and hence called centuries, 
which show much religi(Ous experience, thought, and ac- 
quaintance with the heart, and with the will and ways of 
God ; Heaven upon Earth, or, of true Peace and Tran- 
quillity of Mind ; a Treatise on the Art of Divine Medi- 
tation, with examples ; Characters of Virtues and Vices, 
being a series of descriptive portraits ; Solomon's Divine 
Arts of Ethics, Politics, Economics, which is an arrange- 
ment of the books of Proverbs and Ecclesiastes under 
various heads, for the regulation of personal behaviour, 
civil government, and relative duties. To these publi- 
cations must be added some occasional Sermons, and a 
specimen of a proposed new metrical Version of the 
Psalms. It appears that he had been requested by many 
of his friends to undertake a work to which they thought 
his talents adapted ; and as he had no disinclination to 
resume acquaintance with the muses, if allowed to choose 
a sacred strain, he commenced by rendering ten of those 
heavenly songs into verse, as " a taste of the rest." 

It was in 1618 that he went to the assembly commonly 
called the synod of Dort. — (See Life of Ejnscojjiiis ) This 
was called to settle certain religious differences in Hol- 
land, and the meddling spirit of king James induced 
him to send over to it, certain of the court divines. It 



HALL. 493 

was merely a civil mission, the Cliurch of England 
having nothing to do with the transaction. We shall 
state to the reader a brief account of the synod, and of 
Dr. Hall's connexion with it, as given in his life of our 
divine, by Mr. Hughes. 

In the year 1618, the religious differences in Hol- 
land, between the Arminians and Calvinists, or as they 
were called, the Remonstrants and Anti-remonstrants, 
were reduced to five points, included in what is com- 
monly termed the Quinqu articular Controversy^ These 
were, 1. Predestination, or the eternal decrees of God 
concerning election and reprobation : 2. Free-will : 3. 
Effectual grace and conversion : 4. The extent of Christ's 
redemption : 5. The perseverance of the saints. Disputes 
on these intricate and puzzling questions became so 
fierce, and the animosities engendered by them so in- 
veterate, that wily politicians soon discovered a way of 
turning them to their own advantage, and permitted, or 
rather encouraged the contending parties to convoke a 
general assembly. 

The synod, which consisted of thirty-six ministers, 
five professors, and twenty elders of the United States, 
together with tv/enty eight coadjutors, sat from the be- 
ginning of November, 1618, to the end of April, 1619. 
Our English divines, having received the instructions of 
their royal master, embarked at Gravesend in a small 
vessel, and arrived at Middleburgh on the 16th of Octo- 
ber, having accidentally missed a man-of-war, which the 
government of the States General had sent for their 
honourable and safe conveyance. At the Hague they 
were introduced by the British ambassador to the as- 
sembly of the States, w^ho received them with high marks 
of distinction, and allowed them the extraordinary sum 
of £10 daily for their maintenance, in consideration of 
their own worth and the greatness of their sovereign. 
' But these English divines,' says Fuller, ' knowing them- 
selves sent over not to gain wealth to themselves, but 

O Y 2 



494 HALL. 

glory to God, and reputation to their sovereign, freely 
gave what they had freely received, keeping a table 
general, where any fashionable foreigner was courteously 
and plentifully entertained.' 

When all the members of the synod were assembled, 
and the president, moderators, assistants, and scribes 
chosen, each standing in his place, and laying his hand 
on his heart, took a solemn oath, calling the great God 
of heaven to witness, that he would not only proceed 
impartially in this controversy respecting the well-known 
five points, and every other matter of doctrine committed 
to his judgment, but that he would decide according to 
the word of God, the only sure and infallible rule of 
faith. Nevertheles, John Goodwin, in his " Redemption 
Redeemed," fixed upon the Anti-Remonstrants, the crimi- 
nal charge of taking a previous oath to condemn their 
opponents ; and Fuller, the historian, scandalized by 
such an accusation against so grave a body of divines, 
wrote to the aged and venerable Bishop of Norwich, in 
1651, to refute it by his authority. The bishop's answer 
is full of honest indignation against what he calls, and 
attempts to prove, a slanderous imputation ; and he con- 
cludes his letter with the following emphatic sentence : — 
" Sir, since I have lived to see so foul an aspersion cast 
on the memory of those worthy and eminent divines, I 
bless God that I yet live to vindicate them by this my 
knowing, clear, and assured attestation; which T am 
ready to second with the solemnest oath, if I shall be 
thereto required." Whereupon Fuller requests the reader 
to " weigh in the balance of his judgment how this purga- 
tion of the synod of Dort is positive and punctual, from 
one, an ear and eye-witness thereof, being such an one 
as Dr. Hall, the aged ; so that his testimonium herein 
may seem a testamentum ; his ivitness his ivill, and the 
truth therein delivered, a legacy by him bequeathed to 
posterity." 

Notwithstanding this, it is manifest that our excellent 



HALL. 495 

historian jumps too suddenly to a conclusion. Bishop 
Hall's purgation of the synod goes no further than to a 
purgation of himself and his English colleagues. If the 
other divines took such an oath, it is not probable that 
they would inform Hall of it ; and if they had done so, 
no one can doubt for a moment that he would have re- 
ceived such a communication with unfeigned horror. 
But in point of fact, it requires not the supposition of a 
previous oath to account for the conduct of this famous 
assembly, bad as it appears to have beent' Political more 
than religious motives were concerned in its organization, 
as well as in its deliberations. The overthrow of the 
Arminian party was a matter of extreme importance, 
inasmuch as it contained many excellent patriots, political 
opponents of prince Maurice, whose influence and power 
seemed scarcely compatible with a free constitution. 
Among them was the grand pensionary Barneveldt, and 
others, whose destruction had been already attempted, but 
in vain. The religious disputes therefore which now agi- 
tated the states were eagerly seized on, as ready means 
of compassing the objects of ambition. Though liberal 
sentiments in religion were generally found united with 
liberal notions of policy, yet the great majority of the 
clergy, and the mass under their influence, adhered to 
the close and rigid system of Calvinism ; and when the 
bigotry of these religionists led them to reject all pro- 
posals for mutual toleration, and to demand the settle- 
ment of their disputes by a national assembly, in which 
they felt confident of a majority on their side, prince 
Maurice strenuously supported their suit, and the synod 
of Dort was convoked, That such a council would have 
been allowed to sit, unless the stadtholder had been 
morally certain what its sentence would be, cannot for a 
moment be credited: but without an oath from the 
members to give him that confidence, he might have 
relied on the expressed assurance of some, the private 
interests of others, and the inveterate prejudices of the 
greater part. 



496 HALL. 

That the rninds of these delegates were made ap to 
give judgment without regard to justice, seems probable 
from their conduct on the very opening of the session ; 
when they showed themselves afraid of conviction by 
rejecting the proposal of Episcopius, for a conference and 
comparison of opinions, and by excluding from the 
assembly that party of which he was a leading advocate. 
Nor can any imputation be considered too severe against 
a body of Christian divines, who, after sitting in solemn 
judgment on doctrines connected so intimately with the 
eternal interests of man and the atonement of a crucified 
Saviour, violated both His precepts and example, in the 
vindictive nature of that sentence, which, in the end, 
brought Barneveldt to the scaffold, sent Grotius to a 
dungeon, deprived multitudes of their employments, and 
drove more into voluntary exile for the purpose of 
escaping imprisonment or exorbitant and ruinous fines. 

From the reproaches of posterity, on this head, Hall 
is free. In the whole intercourse of this amiable man 
with the synod, his watch- words w'ere equity and peace ; 
to which his sermon preaclied before his colleagues, at 
their eighteenth session, bears ample testimony : more- 
over, the assembly was not honoured by his presence for 
a longer space than two months. The noise and bustle 
of a garrisoned town, preventing his rest by night, 
operated so far on a weak habit of body, that he was soon 
disabled from attending the council ; and he retired, 
first to the house of the English ambassador at the 
Hague, and soon afterwards to his native country, after 
he had procured his recall from his sovereign. So im- 
pressed were the States with an opinion of his talents 
and virtues, that they consented not to his departure 
without great reluctance : but yielding to necessity, they 
honourably dismissed him with a well-deserved compli- 
ment conveyed through the celebrated Heinsius ; whilst 
the president and assistants of the synod waited on him 
with a " rer^pectful and gracious valediction.' Hall ?iim- 



HALL. 497 

self took leave of the assembly in a very elegant and 
impressive Latin speech, and received from the States, 
after his return to England, the rich gold medal that 
was struck in commemoration of this grand convention. 

He had not resided many years on his native soil 
before we find him complaining that our own Church 
had begun to sicken of the " Belgic disease," as he desig- 
nates the Calvinistic and Arminian controversy ; " sides 
being taken, and pulpits every where ringing of these 
opinions." Hall himself was strongly inclined to peace, 
and endeavoured to promote it by writing his tractate 
entitled Via Media, wherein he laid down " five Articles of 
accord," gathered from the tenets of that eminent divine, 
Bp. Overall, on the one side, and those of the English 
deputies at the Synod of Dort, advocates of moderate 
Calvinism, on the other. But if we take the trouble of 
analysing this work, written as it was with the purest and 
best intentions, we shall find that its principles, in some 
parts combine together like oil and water ; and every 
well wisher to the Church of England may rejoice at her 
escape from such a state of peace as would have been 
more lastingly injurious to her interests, through the 
perversion of her doctrines, than that desperate conflict 
which ended in her temporary overthrow. 

Whoever has well considered the strict integrity, 
active benevolence, and fervent piety of Bishop Hall, will 
never doubt but that he would vrillingly have joined in a 
wish expressed by the amiable Dr. Hen. More, that all the 
quinqu articular points were reduced to this one, *' that 
none should be saved without obedience." His natural 
good sense and deep knowledge of Scripture taught hirii 
that the gracious offer of salvation through Christ must 
be universal : his own excellent disposition and princi- 
ples of justice kept him from supposing it possible " that 
God should actually damn or appoint any soul to damna- 
tion, without the consideration and respect of sin ;" but 
still the bias of his early education inclined him to 



498 HALL. 

believe and to lay clown a doctrine of " particular election," 
not at all founded on foreseen faith and obedience, but 
absolutely, unchangeably, arbitrarily, and from all eternity 
decreed, without any respect to the merit of individuals : 
neither did early prejudices suffer his acute mind to 
perceive, that if God rewards men without respect to their 
obedience, there can be no reason why Pie should not 
also punish them without respect to their demerits. 

Hall's conciliatory treatise was presented to the king 
by Dr. Young, Dean of Winchester ; but we find that, 
although he expected much peace from what he calls 
" that weak and jwor enterprise, the confused noise of the 
misconstructions of those who never saw the work, crying 
it down for the very name's sake, meeting with the royal 
edict of a general inhibition, buried it in a secure silence." 
This result was naturally to be expected. The Via 
Media, though it ai)ounds in excellent and truly Christian 
precepts, was exactly of a nature to disgust the Calvinists, 
alarm the orthodox, and excite, even by its conciliatory 
title the clamour of a multitude intent on spoliation. 
The king himself too, though inclined to Calvinistic 
doctrines, was heartly disgusted with the angry spirit and 
interminable disputes orignated by their supporters ; he 
had penetration enough to see through their designs ; and 
was much better reconciled to the Arminian party, whose 
political opinions accorded more with the notions of prero- 
gative ; and this will perhaps account for Hall's expres- 
sion, " that he was scorched a little with this flame, which 
he desired to quench." *' Yet," he goes on to say, "this 
could not stay my hand from thrusting itself into a hotter 
fire;" by which he alludes to his subsequent controversies 
with the Papists, whose monstrous ordinances and super- 
stitious doctrines were often exposed to the holy indigna- 
tion and satirical invective of this strenuous defender of 
the Protestant faiih. 

In I ()21 he refused the see of Gloucester, but three 
months after ho accepted that of Exeter. Here he was 



HALL. 499 

accused of Popery, an accusation which is always brought 
by iiltra-protcstants against the mombers of the Church 
of England who know what a Church is. Hooker him- 
self was called a Papist by Travcrs, and for the same 
reason that the charge was brought against Hall : Hall, 
like Hooker, and all sound divines, had admitted the 
Church of Piome to be a true visible Church : hence the 
anger of the ultra-protestants. His own vic\v of the 
Church is admirably stated in his Letter Parajnetical to 
a worthy knight, and is as follows : 

*' It is a killing word with those Romish Impostors., 
'Where was your Church before Luther?' than which 
there was never any plea more idle, more frivolous, when 
it falls under a wise and judicious discussion. For con- 
sider I beseech you, did we go about to lay the found a 
dation of a new church, the challenge were most just, 
Primum verum [the fust is the true,] was the old and 
sure rule of Tertullian, We abhor new churches and 
new truths ; find ours to be, or to be pretended such, and 
forsake us. But when all our claim, all our endeavour, 
is only the reforming and repairing of an old Church, 
faulty in some mouldered stones, and mis-daubed with 
some untempercd and lately-laid mortar ; what a frenzy 
is this, to ask where that church was which we show 
them sensibly thus repaired ! Had it not been before, 
how could it have been capable of this amendment ? and 
if it be but reformed by us, it was formed before ; and 
having been since deformed by their errors, is only re- 
stored by us to the former beauty. As sure as there is 
any Church, any truth in the world, this is the true and 
only state of this controversy, the misprision whereof hath 
been guilty of the loss of many thousand souls. 

" To speak plainly, it is only the gross abuses and 
palpable innovations of the Church of Home which we 
have parted from. Set these aside, they and wc are 

and will be one Church When these men, 

therefore, shall ask where our Church was, answer them 
boldly, 'Where it is.'" 



500 HALL. 

At the same time he took the most decided measures 
for preventing the increase of Romanism, by recom- 
mending to his clergy the practice of catechizing. 

" It was the observation of the learnedest king that 
ever sat hitherto on the English throne, that the cause 
of the miscarriage of our people into Popery and other 
errors was their ungroundedness in the points of cate- 
chism. How should those souls but be carried about 
with every wind of doctrine, that are not well ballasted 
with solid information ? Whence it was, that his said 
late majesty, of happy memory, gave public order for 
bestowing the latter part of God's day in familiar cate- 
chising ; than which, nothing could be devised more 
necessary and behoveful to the souls of men. It was the 
ignorance and ill-disposedness of some cavillers, that 
taxed this course as prejudicial to preaching; since, 
in truth, the most useful of all preaching is catechetical. 
This lays the ground ; the other raiseth the walls and 
roof. This informs the judgment, that stirs up the 
affections. What good use is there of those affections 
that run before the judgment ? or of those walls that 
want a foundation ? For my part, I have spent the 
greater half of my life in this station of our holy service ; 
I thank God, not unpainfully, not unprofitably ; but, 
there is no one thing whereof I repent so much, as not 
to have bestowed more hours in this public exercise of 
catechism ; in regard whereof I could quarrel with my 
very sermons, and wish that a great part of them had 
been exchanged for this preaching conference. Those 
other divine discourses enrich the brain and the tongue ; 
this settles the heart. Those other are but the descants 
to this plain song. Contemn it not, my brethren, for 
the easy and noted homeliness. The most excellent 
and beneficial things are most familiar. What can be 
more obvious, than light, air, fire, water? Let him 
that can live without these, despise their commonness: 
rather, as we make so much use of the Divine bounty, 



HALL. 501 

in these ordinary benefits, so let us the more gladly im- 
prove these ready and facik helps, to the salvation of 
many souls; the neglect whereof breeds instability of 
judgment, misprision of necessary truths, fashionable- 
ness of profession, frothiness of discourse, obnoxiousness 
to all error and seduction. And, if any of our people 
loath this manna, because they may gather it from under 
their feet, let not their jialates be humoured in this wan- 
ton nauseation. They are worthy to fast, they are weary 
of the bread of angels. And if herein we be curious to 
satisfy their roving appetite, our favour shall be no better 
than injurious. So we have seen an undiscreet school- 
master, while he affects the thanks of an overweening 
parent, mar the progress of a forward child, by raising 
him to a higher form and author, ere he have well learned 
his first rules : whence follows an empty ostentation and 
a late disappointment. Our fidelity and care of profit 
must teach us to drive at the most sure and universal 
good ; which shall undoubtedly be best attained by these 
safe and needful groundworks. 

" From these tender pastures, let me lead you, (and 
you, others,) to the still waters. Zeal in the soul is as 
natural heat in the body. There is no life of religion 
without it. But, as the kindliest heat, if it be not tem- 
pered with a due equality of moisture, wastes itself and 
the body, so doth zeal, if it be not moderated with dis- 
cretion, and charitable care of the common good. It is 
hard to be too vehement, in contending for main and 
evident truths ; but litigious and immaterial verities may 
soon be over-striven for. In the prosecution whereof, I 
have oft lamented to see how heedless too many have 
been of the public welfare ; while in seeking for one 
scruple of truth, they have not cared to spend a whole 
pound weight of precious peace. 

" The Church of England, in whose motherhood we 
have all just cause to pride ourselves, hath in much 
wisdom and piety delivered her judgment concerning all 
VOL V. 2 z 



502 HALL. 

necessary points of religion, in so complete a body of divi- 
nity as all hearts may rest in. These we read ; these 
we write under ; as professing, not their truth only, but 
their sufficiency also. The voice of God our Father, in 
His Scriptures, and out of these the voice of the Church 
our mother, in her articles, is that which must guide 
and settle our resolutions. Whatsoever is besides these, 
is but either private, or unnecessary and uncertain. Oh, 
that while we sweat and bleed for the maintenance of 
these oracular truths, we could be persuaded to remit 
of our heat in the pursuit of opinions ! These, these 
are they, that distract the Church, violate our peace, 
scandalize the weak, advantage our enemies Fire upon 
the hearth warms the body ; but, if it be misplaced, 
burns the house. My brethren, let us be zealous for 
our God ; every hearty Christian will pour oil, and not 
water, upon this holy flame. But let us take heed, lest 
a blind self-love, stiff prejudice, and factious partiality, 
impose upon us, instead of the causes of God. Let us 
be suspicious of all new verities, and careless of all 
unprofitable. And let us hate to think ourselves 
either wiser than the Church, or better than our supe- 
riors. And if any man think that he sees further than 
his fellows in these theological prospects, let his tongue 
keep the counsel of his eyes, lest, while he affects the 
fame of deeper learning, he embroil the Church, and 
raise his glory upon the public ruins." 

Perhaps Bishop Hall, in order to avoid the obnoxious 
charge, became, after this, too lax in his discipline ; for 
we find him soon after accused of an opposite and equally 
bad fault, Puritanism. But whether this was the case 
or not, the conduct of the Puritans in making use of 
liim to carry their own points, and of their insulting him, 
opaned his eyes to the iniquity of their principles, and 
certainly the Archbishop of Canterbury could not have 
believed the report, for when the assembly of the Scottish 
Church passed their act for the abjuration of episcopacy, 



Hall. 503 

he fixed upon Hall as the fittest mau to defend their 
order, and this gave rise to his admirable work, " Epis- 
copacy by divine right asserted." 

The first sketch of the work w^as transmitted to the 
archbishop at Lambeth, in October, 1639. In this 
original draught, which Hall sent to the primate in 
manuscript, he laid down two propositions, 1. That 
episcopacy is a lawful, most ancient, holy, and divine 
institution, and, therefore, where it hath obtained, it 
cannot be violated without a manifest contempt of God's 
ordinance. And, 2. That Presbyterianism hath no 
authority in Scripture, or from the practice of the 
Church for 1500 years, though it be disguised with the 
fallacious names of Christ's kingdom and ordinance ; 
and though it may be useful in some cities and countries 
vv'herein episcopal government, through the iniquity of 
the times, cannot be had, yet to obtrude it upon a 
Church otherwise settled, is utterly incongruous and 
unjustifiable. In the illustration of these propositions, 
he laid down fifteen postulata, to the following effect : — 
that apostolical institution must be divine — that the 
government recommended by the apostles must be apos- 
tolical — that if the apostles w^ere inspired, what they 
instituted must be designed for continuance — that the 
universal practice of the Church in the ages succeeding 
the apostles, is the best comment on the practice of the 
apostles and their successors — that the opinion is most 
irreverent which induces us to believe, that the Saints 
and Fathers would immediately establish a polity of 
their own, in opposition to that of the apostles — that 
had they done so, still, in the very nature of things, 
it could not have been universal — that the writings of 
the first Fathers